(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Chicago's accomplishments and leaders"

cmcAGtfs 

accomplishments 




//iG/n o ria c 



AAA^A MT^r \9<K^ 



AccQssxon No -29753 



lagar 



11=3^ 



LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 

IN MEMORY OF 

STEWART S. HOWE 

JOURNALISM CLASS OF 1928 

STEWART S. HOWE FOUNDATION 

917.731 
B622C 
cop. 4 



I.HoS 





/ 



r 



-km: 

7un28 

Jul 2- 



-M4 



/' ^^ 



"■■ ' ^ ^ -w 



CHICAGO^S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 
and LEADERS 



CHICAGOS 

accomplishments 

-and 

LEADERS 






''<>' 



Compiled and published by- 
Glenn A. Bishop 
in collaboration with 
Paul T. Gilbert , cc 



Drawings on biographical pages by 
Raymond E. Craig 



BISHOP PUBLISHING COMPANY 

308 West Washington Street 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



'<^^? 



2975i; 

^ Copyright, 1932, by 

Bishop Puhlishiucr Co., Chicago, 111. 



FIRST EDITION 



Printed in U. S. A., by Republic Printing Co., Chicago. 



9/7, 73/ 



FOREWORD 

Chicago, A City Predestined to Greatness 

T ONG before the Stone Age man was building his mounds in 
-*— ' Illinois, long before the Indian roamed the prairie or the French 
explorers came in their canoes, Chicago's destiny was written in 
the stars. 

The groundwork of the city's greatness was laid far back in the 
dawn of geological time, when all the central plain from the Ap' 
palachians to the Rocky Mountains was fathoms deep beneath an 
ancient sea. The limestones of that prehistoric sea bottom, with 
their veins of 2;inc and lead, the sandstones and clay, the silt which 
mellowed into rich alluvial soil, were to become the source of un^ 
told wealth. 

The carboniferous age slowly converted the primeval forests 
into coal. The Illinois coal deposits alone have been estimated at 
45,000,000,000 tons — enough to last, at the present rate of con^ 
sumption, for 750 years, by which time new sources of energy 
doubtless will have been found. 

It was the great ice sheet, leaving other rich mineral deposits, 
which gouged out the Great Lakes basin, without which Chicago 
could not have come into being. 

To the advantages of location must be added the advantages of 
climate. The Chicago area lies directly in the path of the cyclonic 
storms which sweep the country, gathering up the moisture from 
the Gulf of Mexico and precipitating it as rain, thus counteracting 
the effect of arid winds from the Southwest, irrigating the vast corn 
and wheat belts, and watering the northern forests. Nor could such 
weather conditions fail to produce a vigorous and energetic race of 
men and women. 

Chicago, therefore, lies in the very heart of a territory blessed 
beyond all others in the bounty of its natural resources. From 
plains and farms, from mines and forests, Chicago draws the live' 
stock, the grain, the minerals, and the timber which, converted 
into finished products, supply the needs of all the world. 



Chicago's commanding position on the Great Lakes alone would 
have given her commercial domination, for while the city owes 
much to the railroads, if it were not for the Great Lakes, giving 
her a continual choice of two routes to the East, she would never 
have enjoyed the advantage of preferred freight rates. 

Again, it is the contour of the lakes which forces east and west 
land traffic around far to the south, so that Chicago's location at the 
southern end of Lake Michigan is directly on the main route. Chi' 
cago IS the terminus of 27 trunk lines, the natural transfer station, 
the natural gateway to the West. As a rail center, Chicago has a 
tremendous advantage over New York. The city is approachable 
on three sides. The railroads do not have to blast their way through 
rocks or tunnel under rivers. 

But Chicago is as yet only on the threshold of her career. Just 
as she could not have helped growing in the past, so she cannot help 
growing in the future. To her pioneers and leaders who raised up 
a city out of a swamp, rebuilt it when it was in ashes, founded the 
stockyards, the universities, the banks, and the big commercial 
houses, built the railroads, turned a river backward, and laid the 
foundations for the city's material and cultural development, the 
present generation owes a debt of gratitude. 

Most of these men have passed from the scene. Another and a 
larger group today directs Chicago's destinies. They have trans- 
formed the water front into a thing of beauty, have surrounded 
the city with forests, have reclaimed a principality from Lake Mich- 
igan, and have etched in a new and ever-changing skyline. 

Chicago is to be congratulated on the type of leadership that 
has brought such miracles about, and that can always be counted 
on whenever a new civic enterprise or community effort needs sup- 
port. It is to these men and women who are chiefly responsible for 
Chicago's later achievements that this volume is dedicated. 

The even-numbered pages are devoted to a record of accom- 
plishments, the subjects being treated by those best prepared to 
write of their respective fields. On most of the odd-numbered pages 
are presented brief biographical sketches of many leading Chi- 
cagoans. The pictorial treatment makes visualization easy. 



CHICAGO^S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

Include 

MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY 

Dramatizing the Story of Man's Work upon the Earth 13 

\V. Rn|tts Abbott, Chairman, Board of Trustees 

HULL HOUSE 

Chicago's Melting Pot at Work 20 

FURNITURE MART 

The American Furniture Mart, World Headquarters for Home Furnishings 26 
V. L. Alward, President, American Furniture Mart Building Corporation 
MAIL ORDER 

Mail Order Houses that Serve Half the Population of America 32 

SUNDAY EVENING CLUB 

A Religious Service that Goes Out to All the Nation 40 

Arthur Andersen, Trustee 
CONVENTION HEADQUARTERS 

Chicago, the Preferred Convention City 44 

MUSIC 

Men and Institutions which have Contributed to Chicago's Musical Prestige 50 
Arthur Bissell, President, Bissell-Weisert Piano Company 
STEEL 

A Quarter of a Century of Progress in Chicago's Steel Industry 56 

L. E. Bloc\, Chairman, Board of Directors, Inland Steel Company 
ORIENTAL INSTITUTE 

Ancient Cultures Brought to Light by Oriental Institute Archaeologists 62 
ATHLETICS AND RECREATIONS 

Chicago as an All-Year-Round Resort 68 

Avery Brundage, President, American Olympic Association and 
Amateur Athletic Union of United States 

PRINTING, PUBLISHING AND ADVERTISING 

Chicago's Growing Leadership in Printing, Publishing and Advertising.... 76 
Ernest T. Cundlach 
MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL CENTER 

Chicago as a Medical Center — Chicago as a Pharmaceutical Center 81 

Dr. Edward H. Ochsner 
REGIONAL PLAN 

Looking Forward to 1950 88 

Daniel H. Burnham, President, Chicago Regional Planning Association 
FOREIGN TRADE 

Chicago and Its Far Flung International Trade 98 

ZOOLOGICAL PARK 

The Chicago Zoological Park and Its Ambitions Plans 102 

Edwin H. Clar\, Architect 
LIBRARIES 

Chicago's Libraries and Their Vast Resources 108 

Carl B. Roden, Librarian, Chicago Public Library 

SHEDD AQUARIUM 

Chicago's Marine Wonder House 116 

WEST PARKS 

The West Parks as a Socialising Influence 122 

ELEVATED AND ELECTRIC LINES 

Arteries of Steel that Lace the MetropoHtan Area 126 

INLAND WATERWAYS 

Chicago — The Center of Inland Waterways 132 

Lorenzo Dana Cornish, Chief Engineer, Division of V^aterways, State of Illinois 



ARMOUR INSTITUTE 

The Development Plan of the Armour Institute of Technology 138 

WHOLESALE TRADE 

Chicago, the Great Wholesale Market 140 

Fran}{ S. Cunningham. President, Butler Brothers 
1933 WORLD'S FAIR 

A Century of Progress Exposition, Herald of a New Age 146 

Paul T. Gilbert 
CHURCHES 

Chicago's Churches Minister to Almost Every Creed 164 

Walter R. Mee, Executive Secretary, Chicago Church Federation 
GASTRONOMICS 

Dining "Around the World" in Chicago 172 

John Drury, author of "Dining in Chicago" and "Chicago in Seven Days' 
RAILROADS 

Chicago as the Nation's Railroad Center 184 

Samue] O. Dunn. Editor. Railway Age 
SOUTH PARKS 

The South Parks and Their Contributions to Chicago's Health, 

Education and Entertainment -. 190 

FIELD MUSEUM 

Story of All Lands and All Ages in Chicago's Wonder House 198 

Stephen C. Simms, Director 
ADLER PLANETARIUM 

Dramatizing the Pageant of the Skies 208 

OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS IN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY 

Where Industry Approaches Mysticism 214 

William Caertner, President, Gaertner Scientific Corporation 
CRIME DETECTION 

The Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory 218 

Calvin Goddard, Director, and Professor of Police Science, 
^Northwestern University 
BOARD OF TRADE 

The Nerve Center of America's Agricultural Industry 222 

Peter B. Carey, Fifty-ninth President 
TELEPHONE 

How the Telephone has made Possible the Greater Chicago 232 

F. O. Hale, President, Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
STOCK EXCHANGE 

The Chicago Stock Exchange and Its Place in the City's Financial Life 238 

INDUSTRY 

Chicago as a National Manufacturing Center 244 

RADIO 

Broadcasting in Chicago and Its Amazing Growth 248 

Charles }. Gilchrest, Radio Editor, The Chicago Daily T^ews 
SCULPTURE 

Masterpieces of the Sculptor's Art that Glorify Chicago 254 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

A Review of Forty Years of Educational Achievement 264 

Robert Maynard Hutchins, President 
AVIATION 

The Municipal Airport, Where Winged Cruisers Come and Go 276 

Walter Wright, Suf)erinte7ideiit of Parkas. Recreation and Aviation 
SUBWAYS 

Views of Proposed State Street Subway 280 

R. F. Kel\er, Jr., Chief Engineer, Bureau of Subways 

LOYOLA UNIVERSITY 

A Modern School Preserving Ancient Traditions 282 

Rev. Robert M. Kelley, S. ]., President 



FOREST PRESERVES 

A People's Paradise of Fifty-one Square Miles of Woodland 288 

Charles G. Sauers, General Superintendent, Coo}{ County Forest Preserve District 

ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

Chicago's Oldest Natural Science Institution 292 

Alfred M. Bailey, Director 
MEAT PACKING 

Chicago's Fundamental Industry 298 

ART INSTITUTE 

The Art Institute of Chicago and Its Spirit of Service 304 

Robert B. Harshe, Director 
SAFETY 

Combating the Rising Tide of Public Accidents 314 

C. L. Rice, President, Chicago Safety Council 
FARM MACHINERY 

American Farm Implements and Machines, 1833-1933 322 

Herbert A. Kellar 
BOATING 

Chicago as a Yachtsman's Paradise 330 

Malcolm D. Vail 
LITERATURE 

Chicago and Its Place in Literature 336 

John Drury. Editor of "The Literary Tatler' in The Chicago Daily T^ews 
GAS 

How Natural Gas was Brought to Chicago 346 

MORTON ARBORETUM 

An Outdoor Laboratory for the Study of Trees, Shrubs and 'Vines 352 

SCIENTIFIC CONTROL 

How Scientific Control Safeguards the Lives of Chicagoans 358 

Charles B. 'hlolte. President, Robert W. Hunt Co., Engineers 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Dramatizing the History of Chicago and the Old Northwest Territory 372 

Charles B. Pi\e, President 
BUS TRANSPORTATION 

Seeing Chicago from the Bus Tops --. 380 

Garrett T. Seeley, Vice-president, Chicago Motor Coach Company 
THE DANCE 

Chicago as a Center of The Dance 386 

Mar^ Turhyfill, author, and Dance Critic, The Chicagoan 
HAWTHORNE 

A City Within a City 392 

C. L. Rice. Vice- president, V^estern Electric Company 
SURFACE LINES 

From Horse Car and Cable Car to Modern Street Car and Trackless Trolley 396 
Guy A. Richardson, President, Chicago Surface Lines 
HUMAN WELFARE 

The Vast Machinery of Social Service in Chicago 404 

Edward L. Ryerson, ]r. 
ART 

Chicago — An Art Center 410 

C. /. Buihet, Art Critic, The Chicago Daily T^ews, author of "Robert Mantell's 
Romance," "Apples and Madonnas, ' "The Courtezan Olympia,^' 
"Firebrands of Art" 

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 

Its Ideals, Traditions, and Record of Public Service 418 

Walter Dill Scott, President 
PETROLEUM 

Chicago's Leadership in Oil Refining 432 

Keith Fanshier, Petroleum Editor, Chicago Journal of Commerce 



CHICAGO PLAN 

Chicago Completes Great Civic Improvements 436 

James Simpson, Chairman, Chicago Plan Commission 
SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

Traditions of Theodore Thomas Preserved in Chicago Symphony Orchestra 442 
Henry E. Voegeli, Manager 
STADIUM 

The Chicago Stadium — The World's Greatest Indoor Arena 448 

ARCHITECTURE 

Chicago's Architecture — Is It Beautiful? - 454 

Thomas E. Tallmadge. M.A., F.A.I. A., audior of "The Story of 
Architecture in America" 
FOODS 

The Chicago Mercantile Exchange and Its Vast Operations 466 

POLICE 

Chicago's Everyday Heroes, the Bluecoats... 474 

John I. Howe. Detective, Chicago Police Department 
UNDERGROUND TRANSPORTATION 

Chicago's Vast Underground Transportation System 482 

RETAIL TRADE 

Chicago, Its Bazaar Streets and Department Stores 492 

LUMBERING 

Treatment and Preservation of Wood Conserving America's 

Great Timber Resources 498 

HARDWARE 

A Study in Evolution 502 

GREAT LAKES 

Where Corn'fed Boys are Transformed into Sailors 510 

WAREHOUSING 

Banks where Merchandise, Instead of Money, is Deposited 516 

LINCOLN PARK 

Chicago's Most Popular Playground 522 

SUPERHIGHWAYS 

Chicago Needs Superhighways 532 

Hugh E. Toung, Chief Engineer, Chicago Plan Commission 
REAL ESTATE 

Chicago's Accomplishments, Chicago's Leaders, Chicago's Real Estate — 

A Trinity Inseparable 540 

C. L. Per\ins, Editor of the magazine, Real Estate 



CHICAGO^S LEADERS 



Include 



Abbott, W. Rufus, 15 

Adams, Robert McCormick, 17 

Addams, Jane, 21 

Adgate, Fred W., 23 

Alward, V. L., 25 

Andersen, Arthur, 33 

Avery, Sewell L., 35 

Bard, Francis N., 37 
Barnard, Harrison B., 39 
Barnes, Clifford W., 41 
Barnes, William H., 43 
Bartclme, Mary M., 45 
Bendix, Vincent, 49 
Bissel, Arthur, 51 



Black, Walter Lauriston, 55 
Block, L. E., 57 
Bobb, Dwight S., 59 
Boyd, Darrell S., 61 
Breasted, James Henry, 63 
Breuer, Adam A., 65 
Brown, Charles A., 67 
Brown, Scott, 69 
Brundage, Avery, 71 
Buck, Glen, 75 
Buckley, Homer J., 77 
Bullock, Edward J., 79 
Burdick, Dr. Alfred S., 87 
Burnham, Daniel H., 89 
Burnham, Hubert, 91 



Burton, Oliver M., 93 
Butler, Paul, 95 

Carnahan, Charles Calvin, 99 
Carpenter, John Alden, 101 
Carr, Robert F., 103 
Carter, Donald M., 105 
Cermak, A. J., 107 
Channon, Vesta M. Westover, 1 1 1 
Chapline, Jesse Grant, 1 1 3 
Chritton, George A., 115 
Chute, Walter H., 117 
Clarke, Philip R., 121 
Clow, William E., 123 
Compton, Arthur Holly, 125 
Compton, Frank E., 127 
Condon, James G., 129 
Cooke, George A., 131 
Cornish, Lorenzo Dana, 133 
Correll, Charles J. (Andy), 31 
Crane, Jacob, 135 
Crawford, Perry O., 137 
Cunningham, Frank S., 141 
Cunningham, James D., 139 
Curtis, Kenneth, 143 

Dalton, Ernest E., 145 
Dawes, Charles G., 147 
Dawes, Henry M., 149 
Dawes, Rufus C, 151 
De Leuw, Charles E., 153 
Denoyer, L. Philip, 157 
D'Esposito, Joshua, 159 
DiUing, Albert W., 163 
Dixon, George W., 167 
Dougherty, Kathryn, 169 
(Mrs. John S. Tuomey) 
Douglas, William C, 173 
Doyle, Edward J., 175 
Drake, John B., 177 
Drake, Tracy C, 179 
Drury, John, 181 
Dunn, Samuel O., 185 
Dyche, William A., 183 

Eddy, George A., 189 
Erickson, Hubbard H., 191 
Essington, Thurlow G., 193 
Ewing, Charles Hull, 195 

Farr, Newton C, 197 
Field, Stanley, 199 
Fox, PhiUp, 209 

Gaertner, William, 2 1 3 
Gaw, George D., 215 
Goddard, Calvin, 217 



Gore, Edward E., 219 
Gorham, Sidney S., 221 
Gorman, James E., 223 
Gosden, Freeman F. (Amos), 30 
Greeley, Samuel A., 225 
Griffenhagen, Edwin O., 227 
Grimes, J. Frank, 229 
Grunsfeld, Ernest A., Jr., 231 

Hale, Floyd O., 233 
Hamilton, Isaac Miller, 237 
Hanna, Phil S., 239 
Harbison, Leslie C, 241 
Hartz, W. Homer, 243 
Hastings, Samuel M., 245 
Hawxhurst, Ralph R., 247 
Hay, Bill, 249 
Haynes, Hasbrouck, 253 
Hedges, William S., 251 
Holabird, John A., 255 
Hopkins, Albert L., 257 
Horner, Henry, 259 
Hoskins, William, 261 
Hughes, George A., 263 
Hunziker, Otto F., 265 
Hurley, Edward N., 267 
Hutchins, Robert Maynard, 269 

Icely, Lawrence B., 271 

Jacobs, J. Louis, 273 
Johnson, Philip G., 277 
Johnston, Frank H., 275 

Kelker, R. F., Jr., 281 

Kelley, Rev. Robert Michael, S. J.,283 

Knox, Frank, 287 

Kohn, Rev. William C, 289 

Kraft, James L., 291 

Kropf, Oscar A., 293 

Lane, Wallace R., 295 
Langworthy, Benjamin Franklin, 296 
Langworthy, Mary Lewis, 297 
Lee, T. G., 299 
Levinson, Salmon O., 303 
Llewellyn, John T., 305 
Loesch, Frank J., 307 
Logan, Frank G., 309 

MacChesney, Nathan William, 311 
Maher, Philip B., 313 
Mann, Rabbi Louis L., 315 
Marriott, A. R., 317 
Mather, Alonzo C, 321 
Maxwell, Lloyd, 323 
McCormick, Cyrus H., 325 



McCormick, Robert R., 327 
McDougall, Edward G., 331 
Mcjunkin, William D., 333 
McKinlay, John, 335 
McKinsey, James O., 337 
McLennan, Hugh, 339 
Merriam, Charles E., 341 
Miller, John S., 343 
Mitchell, George F., 347 
Monroe, Harriet, 345 
Morton, Joy, 353 
Morton, Sterling, 357 
Mullaney, Bernard J., 351 

Newcomet, Horace Edgar, 359 
Nolte, Charles B., 361 
Norton, John, 363 
Norton, R. H., 365 

O'Brien, John J., 367 
Olsen, Leif E., 369 

Paepcke, Walter P., 371 
Pike, Charles B., 375 
Pixley, Albert J., 377 
Poppenhusen, Conrad H., 379 
Putnam, Rufus W., 381 

Randolph, Robert Isham, 383 
Rapport, David M., 385 
Rawson, Frederick H., 389 
Reed, Frank C, 391 
Rice, C. L., 395 
Richardson, Guy A., 397 
Ritchie, John A., 401 
Rogers, Walter A., 403 
Rossetter, George W., 405 
Rummler, Eugene A., 407 
Ryerson, Edward L., Jr., 409 
Ryerson, Joseph T., 411 

Sargent, Fred W., 413 

Schuhe, Paul, 415 

Scott, Walter Dill, 419 

Seubert, Edward G., 433 

Sexton, Sherman J., 421 

Sheridan, Leo J., 417 

Simpson, James, 437 

Smith, William Jones, 423 

Solomon, Harry W., 425 

Sprague, Albert A., 427 

Squires, Dr. Benjamin M., 429 

Stagg, Amos Alonzo, 435 

Stevens, Eugene M., 431 

Stewart, Rt. Rev. George Craig, 439 

Stock, Frederick A., 443 



Stone, Rev. John Timothy, 441 
Strawn, Silas H., 447 
Strotz, Sidney N., 449 
Studebaker, Clement, Jr., 451 
Sutheriand, William J., 453 
Swett, Arthur H., 455 
Swift, Gustavus Franklin, 445 
Symonds, Nathaniel G., 457 
Szymczak, M. S., 459 

Taft, Lorado, 461 
Tallmadge, Thomas E., 463 
Taylor, Orville J., 465 
Tenny, Lloyd S., 467 
Thomason, Samuel E., 469 
Thompson, Rev. John, 473 
Thompson, John R., Jr., 471 
Thompson, Orvill W., 475 
Thomson, Charles M., 477 
Torrence, George PauU, 479 
Tracy, Howard Van Sinderen, 481 
Tracy, Sherman W., 483 
Traylor, Melvin A., 485 

Urbain, Jules, Jr., 487 

Vail, Malcolm D., 489 
Valentine, Louis L., 491 
Varney, William P., 493 
Voorhees, Henry B., 495 

Walcott, Russell S., 497 
Walgreen, Charles R., 501 
Watkins, William T., 499 
Watson, William U., 503 
Wentworth, John, 505 
Whipple, Charles J., 507 
White, Harold F., 509 
Wilder, John E., 5 1 1 
Wilson, Kenneth L., 513 
Wilson, Percy, 517 
Wilson, Thomas E., 515 
Wood, John Heath, 519 
Woods, Henry C, 521 
Woodworth, Philip B., 523 
Wray, James Glendenning, 527 
Wright, Clark Chittenden, 529 
Wright, Frank Lloyd, 531 
Wright, Warren, 525 
Wrigley, WiUiam, Jr., 5 33 

Yager, William A., 535 
Young, Hugh E., 537 

Zander, Henry G., 539 



Chicago's accomplishments 13 

DRAMATIZING THE STORY OF UAKS WORK 

UPON THE EARTH 

How the Museum of Science and Industry Interprets 

Modem Progress 

BY W. RUFUS ABBOTT 
Chairman, Board of Trustees, Museum of Science and Industry 

IN Jackson Park a temple of fine arts has been transformed into a theater 
upon whose stage the pageant of civihzation passes in review. 
Within those classic walls, the visitor may, by walking through ten miles 
of Exhibits, retrace the path that has taken mankind many centuries to 
travel. From the age of the Pyramid builders he may step into the age of 
electricity and mass production. 

He sees the machine not as an intricate piece of mechanism, but as the 
result of a long process of evolution, brought about by social and economic 
pressure, based on the achievements of great minds of the past. He sees 
power in relation to human life, titanic power, released by the turning of a 
switch, the pressure of a button, replacing the oppressed slaves and the 
beasts of burden of the ancients. 

Thus, in this great hall of histories is the record of man's work upon 
the earth condensed and dramatized. 

The Museum of Science and Industry, the only institution of its kind 
in America, was made possible by a gift of $3,000,000 from Julius Rosen' 




(Chicago Architectural Photv^raphing Company) 
The restored Fine Arts Building of the Columbian Exposition of 1893 — now the 
MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY, founded by the late Julius Rosenwald. 



14 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



wald. Mr. Rosenwald had been impressed by similar museums in Europe, 
and was convinced that Chicago would profit immensely from an educational 
exhibit of this type. 

A site was available in Jackson Park. The old Fine Arts building, a relic 
of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, which for many years after 
the Fair had housed the Field Museum, was slowly crumbling to dust. Ap 
chitects, however, were loath to see it go. Although designed for temporary 
use, and built of perishable materials, it was the purest example of classic 
architecture outside Rome or Athens. In its colonnade, the glories of the 
Parthenon lived again. 

The South Park Commissioners were persuaded to restore it. Accord' 
ingly, a bond issue of $5,000,000 was floated, and today the building, in 
all its original charm, stands rehabilitated in steel and stone and marble, its 
Ionic pillars reflected in the blue waters of the lagoon. Many exhibits have 
been offered without cost. In its completed form the Museum represents an 
investment of approximately $30,000,000. 

Here countless wheels revolve, gears mesh, valves seat and unseat them' 
selves. The visitor himself may set much of the machinery in motion. He 
may take a ride in an 18th century "travehng machine." He may see for 
himself the plight of an English mining town in the days before the steam 
pump. He may trace the evolution of street illumination from the link boy 
to the electric light. He may see how the electric car, the automobile, the 
telephone, the elevator, and the steel "birdcage"" have contributed to the 
development of our cities. 

The primary purpose of the Museum is the simplifying and explaining 
of machines. When we consider that the student of engineering must read 
voluminous textbooks and study complicated diagrams before he can form 
a mental picture of a piece of mechanism, we realize just how complete must 
be the details of an industrial exhibit. 

This great Museum of the machine age has divided pure science and its 
applications in the fields of basic industry and engineering into six major divi' 
sions, as follows: 

(1) The fundamental sciences of physics, chemistry, and astronomy; 
(2) geology, mining, and metallurgy; (3) agriculture and forestry; (4) 








From alchemy to chemistry. 



The glass room. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



15 




gjpif 



W. RUFUS ABBOTT 



While W. Rufus Abbott, chairman of the board of the Ilhnois Bell Telephone Com- 
pany, is associated in the public mind with the development of the telephone in Chicago 
and the middle west, he has found time thoughout his busy career to give generously 
of his services to many other business and civic activities. Mr. Abbott, son of William 
McKee and Hester (Beggs) Abbott, was born in New York, N. Y., September 18, 1869. 
He started his telephone work in 1889 in the offices of the Westchester Telephone 
Company in New York. He came to Chicago in 1893, the year of the first World's 
Fair. For eleven years he was superintendent of the telephone company's Suburban 
Division. Then he became successively general commercial superintendent, general man' 
ager, vice-president, and in 1922 president. He gave up the presidency in 1930 to 
become chairman of the board. 

Mr. Abbott is a director of the First National Bank of Chicago, the Chicago and 
North Western Railway Company, and the Omnibus Corporation. He is chairman of 
the board of trustees of the Museum of Science and Industry, founded by the late 
Julius Rosenwald. He has been prominent for many years in the councils of the Chicago 
Association of Commerce, having been a director and chairman of the executive com- 
mittee. He is a past president of the Commercial Club of Chicago, the Industrial Club 
of Chicago, and the Chicago Athletic Association. He was one of the founders of the 
Chicago Crime Commission and for five years its secretary. He was also one of the 
founders of the First State Industrial Wage Loan Society. He is a past vice-president for 
the North Central Division for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, and a 
member of the Chicago Plan Commission. He was appointed (1931) by President 
Herbert Hoover to serve on the Advisory Committee of the National Committee on Un' 
employment Relief, which was headed by Walter S. Gifford. He is a member of the 
Chicago, Mid-Day, Glenview, and Delavan Country clubs. 

Mr. Abbott married Mabel Rosalie Harland of Chicago, June 1, 1892. They have 
two children, Hester (Mrs. Louis E. Tilden), and William Rufus, Jr. 



16 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



motive power and transportation: (5) civil engineering and public works; 
(6) printing and the graphic arts. 

Just as the beginner in any new language must first learn its alphabet, 
so in the Museum the visitor begins first by learning the fundamental alpha- 
bet of all science — the unchanging principles of physics and chemistry that 
have served as the tools with which to build the fabric of the material world 
in which we live. He sees levers moving masses of matter, gravity pulling 
matter toward the center of the earth; he learns that the invisible air which 
we are breathing is composed of very definite and fixed quantities of gases; 
he sees matter torn apart, turned inside out and reduced to simplest terms. 
Here he can look in on the laboratory of Michael Faraday, and live over 
again the hours this greatest of experimenters spent in the tests that led up 
to his discovery of electrical induction. 

In chemistry the visitor obtains some idea of what takes place in the 
research laboratories that are today an integral part of great industries. He 
sees, for example, how an objectionable substance such as coal-tar is, through 
chemical changes, fashioned into perfumes, dyes, photographic developers, 
patent medicines, anesthetics and lacquers, and how cellulose, the basic ele- 
ment of wood-pulp, is treated to become artificial silk. 

In the section devoted to geology, mining and metallurgy the visitor is 
placed in a mine-skip and taken down into a replica of a real coal mine. He 
feels the dampness beneath his feet and sees veins of real coal, upon which 
the miners are working. Here are the old and new machines that aid the 
miner, stripped of their shells, with their mechanism laid bare and explained. 
Step by step the story of mining is unfolded and, whenever circumstances 
and safety permit, the visitor is permitted to operate the machines. Upon 
leaving the mine, a metallurgist is ready to show the visitor each step in the 
evolution of metal from the time it was formed by nature up to the finished 
product. 

Agriculture is the oldest industry of man and in this division of the 
Museum are to be found tools of all ages — from the primitive bent stick of 
the ancients to the sharp, power-driven multiple disc steel implement, ma- 




Shipbuilding section. Water Transportation Division. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



17 










^AW I 



(From Drawing by F. Enid Stoddaid) 



ROBERT McCORMICK ADAMS 



Mr. Adams, member of the law firm of Gordon, Adams, Pierce and Edmonds, was 
bom in Webster Groves, Missouri, June 17, 1890, son of Robert McCormick and 
Virginia (Claiborne) Adams. He received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at 
Princeton University in 1913 and his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at North' 
western University in 1916. He was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1916 and was 
associated in practice with Scott, Bancroft, Martin 6? Stephens from 1919 to 1920. 
He was a member of the law firm of Ross, Adams and King from 1920 until 1924, 
senior member of Adams and King from 1924 until 1928, and has been a member 
of Gordon, Adams, Pierce and Edmonds since 1928. 

He enlisted in the United States Navy as a seaman in 1917, ensign, 1918 to 1919, 
and served as executive ofiicer of United States mine-sweeper. Price. Mr. Adams is 
interested in political and civic affairs. He was secretary of the Young Men's Lowden 
League in 1920, Republican candidate for Cook County Commissioner (Chicago) in 
1923, and Acting Ward Committeeman of the Harmony Republican groups in the 
42d ward during 1923, 1924 and 1925. He was secretary of the People's ticket against 
coalition for Circuit and Superior Judges of Cook County in 1929, and was executive 
chairman of the Business Men's Republican Organization, Inc., which sponsored a com- 
plete list of independent dvic candidates for the Board of Cook County Commissioners 
in the April elections of 1930. Mr. Adams is a member of the American, Illinois 
State, and Chicago Bar Associations, the Law Club of Chicago, Legal Club of Chicago, 
American Legion, Northwestern Alumni Association (director), and Phi Delta Phi 
Fraternity. His clubs are: University, Princeton, City (director), Onwentsia, Barring- 
ton Hills Country, Army and Navy (director), and Chicago Yacht. His favorite 
pastime is golf. 

On May 3, 1924, he married Janet Lawrence of Chicago, and they have three 
children, Kyle, Robert McCormick, Jr., and Mervyn Winston. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



chined to comply with exact measurements and curves. Here are shown and 
explained plant processes and structures, farm implements and tools, fencing, 
drainage, crops, dry farming, irrigation, economic entomology, Hvestock, 
foods, milling, packing, textiles and textile machinery, and forestry. 

The section on motive power discloses to the visitor the development 
of the steam engine. He is shown, among other things, the earliest efforts 
and results obtained by Newcomen, Savery and Watt. He sees the steam 
engine supplying power in transportation and production and is made to 
reali2;e that the steam engine, more than any other factor, was the influence 
that brought about what historians have called the first industrial revolution. 





Evolution of the sailing ship. 



Hall of timekeeping. 



The story of transportation starts with the travois and sled of primitive 
man and proceeds step by step down to the monsters of rail and air of today. 
Here may be found Stephenson's "Rocket'' of 1829, the historic wood' 
burning "Mississippi" of 1836, a model of Robert Fulton's "Clermont," an 
old horse car, a cable car, the first electric car to run in Chicago and a modern 
trolley car operatable by the visitor. Nor has air travel been neglected. Air- 
planes and dirigibles hang from the roof trusses. Propellers spin and model 
wind tunnels enable the visitor to test velocities, wind resistance and the 
stream-line possibilities of various shapes and structures. 

The story of communication has been dramati2,ed by taking the visitor 
back to the earliest forms of communication used by man. First is shown 
how a message had to be physically transported from one place to another 
and then how man learned to signal with fire, smoke, sound, and semaphores. 
The history of communication was changed by the introduction of electricity 
and in the Museum the visitor traces the evolution of the telephone, tele- 
graph, radio and wireless and televisor. Not only are historic replicas of 
these instruments shown, but wherever possible they are put into actual 
operation so that the visitor, for example, standing in one room, may have 
his face squee2,ed through a wire and registered on a screen in another room 
and thus learn exactly what happens when an image is televised. 

The division of civil engineering and public works illustrates such sub- 
jects as city planning, road construction, the building of canals and bridges. 
Here is shown in miniature a modern city, with skyscrapers piled against 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



19 



each other, cities within cities, each housing thousands of people. Means of 
conveying these people to their homes is demonstrated by the transportation 
engineer. To point out the evolution of the road, a single length of roadway 
of about fifty feet shows the primitive footpath of the savage, the Via Appia 
of ancient Rome, the muddy, bumpy road of the middle ages and the modern 
smooth hard road of concrete or macadam. A part of the modern avenue 
is cut away to reveal the myriad conduits, the sewer system and the subways 
that run beneath it. Models of all types of bridges show how they are tested 
to determine the stress they can stand. 

In the section devoted to printing and the graphic arts in general are 
displayed primitive writing instruments and the means of recording thought 
and speech that man has used since the beginning of time. The invention 
of printing, models of the crude machine that ushered in the era of the 
printed word, movable type, typesetting machines and modern presses that 
print, count, cut, fold and deliver books, newspapers and maga2;ines to wait' 
ing trucks are all explained and dramatized. Paper making and inking, 
lithography, blueprinting, photostating and many other processes also are 
illustrated. Here, as in all of the other divisions, the visitor is invited to 
operate the machines himself. 

In addition to its wealth of equipment, the museum contains a lecture 
hall and a well'selected library of scientific works. 




Hall of agricultural machmer> 



20 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S MELTING POT AT WORK 
Hull House, Where New American Citiz^ens Are Made 

THE triangle bounded by Polk and Halsted streets and Blue Island avenue 
is a meeting place of many nations. The first great wave of European 
immigration brought the Germans and the Irish, and the few surviving 
families of these pioneers now make up the aristocracy of the district. 

Following them, came the Russian Jews; then the Italians and Sicilians. 
Finally, the Greeks, and their tenure just now is being challenged by the 
Mexicans. 

At one corner of this triangle, at Polk and Halsted streets, in the heart 
of a city more cosmopolitan than any you will find in Europe, stands Hull 
House, a symbol of Americanism and the Promised Land. Stepping from 
the reek and roar of Halsted street into the calm and peace of the Hull 
House courtyard is like stepping into another world. 

Perhaps no institution in Chicago is more widely and more favorably 
known than Hull House. Distinguished visitors from the old world seldom 
miss an opportunity of seeing it. 

Drop in some night when a score or more of the clubs and classes are in 
session; when a play is going on in the theater, and a basket'ball game in 
the gymnasium; when the shops are humming and the sewing rooms are 
bu2,2;ing; when the boys'" band is rehearsing; when boys and girls of a do2,en 
different nations are busy with their English, their typing, their folk danc 
ing, their debating, their singing, or their freehand drawing, and you will 
see the melting pot at work, turning out young American citizens. 

Hull House was established more than forty years ago — in 1889 — by 
Jane Addams and her former schoolmate, Ellen Gates Starr, in recognition 
of the fact that the mere foothold of a house, easily accessible, ample in 
space, hospitable and tolerant in spirit, situated in the midst of the large 
foreign colonies which so easily isolate themselves, would be in itself a serv- 
iceable thing for the city. 

Miss Addams' sympathies for the "submerged tenth" were aroused 
while, as a young woman, she was visiting London. As a member of a 
slumming party, she found herself one Saturday night in the East End, 
where the weekly sale of decaying vegetables and fruits was in progress. 

'At the end of a dingy street, lighted only by occasional flares of gas, 
we saw two masses of ill'clad people clamoring around two hucksters' carts. 
They were bidding their farthings and ha' pennies for a vegetable hung up 
by the auctioneer, which he at last scornfully flung, with a gibe for its cheap- 
ness, at the successful bidder. . . . One man detached himself from the 
groups. He had bidden in a cabbage, and when it struck his hand, he in- 
stantly sat down on the curb, tore it with his teeth, and hastily devoured it, 
uncooked and unwashed as it was . . . Yet the final impression was not of 
ragged, tawdry clothing, nor of pinched and sallow faces, but of myriads 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



21 



HULL 

HOUSE 




(Fernand de Cuddre Photo) 

JANE ADDAMS 

Miss Addams, settlement worker and author, was born in Cedarville, Illinois, September 
6, 1860, daughter of the Hon. John H. and Sarah (Weber) Addams. She received her 
A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree from Rockford College in 1881, studied in Europe from 
1883 to 1885, and at the Women's Medical College in Philadelphia, in 1888. Honorary 
degrees conferred on her are LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) by the University of Wisconsin, 
1904, Smith College, Tufts, 1923, Northwestern and University of Chicago, 1929; 
and A. M. (Master of Arts) by Yale, in 1910. With Ellen Gates Starr she founded the 
Social Settlement of Hull House in Chicago, in 1889, and has been head resident ever 
since. For three years she served as inspector of streets and alleys in the neighborhood 
of Hull House. She was president of the National Conference of Charities and Correc 
tions, in 1909; president of the Woman's International League for Peace, presiding over 
the conventions at the Hague in 1915, Zurich in 1919, Vienna in 1921, The Hague 
in 1922, Washington in 1924, Dublin in 1926, and Prague in 1929. She was active in 
the movements for women suffrage and took a prominent part in the formation of the 
progressive party in 1912. 

Miss Addams has been awarded the Gold Medal of Military Merit (Greece); received 
the Bryn Mawr achievement award of $5,000, in 1931; and shared the Nobel peace 
prize with Nicholas Murray Butler, in 1931. She is the author of Democracy and Social 
Ethics, 1920; Newer Ideals of Peace, 1907; The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets; 
Twenty Years at Hull House, 1910; A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil, 1911; 
The Long Road of Women's Memory, 1916; Peace and Bread in Time of War, 1922; 
and The Second Twenty Years at Hull House, 1930. She is also a writer and lecturer 
on social and political reform. 



22 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



of hands, empty, pathetic, nerveless and workworn . . . clutching forward 
for food which was already unfit to eat." 

Returning to America, Miss Addams found an ideal place for her ex' 
periment in the old brick residence of one of Chicago's pioneer settlers, 
Charles J. Hull. The building was in ill repair, and was being used as a 
factory. It stood between an undertaker's shop and a saloon. It was said 
even to be haunted by a ghost. 

Miss Addams and her co'worker rehabilitated the property and 
"settled" there, to Hve among the poor. Mothers and children came, at 
first by ones and twos, drawn by curiosity; then by hundreds — the men, 
too. Today, Hull House occupies almost an entire city block. It houses 
the Mary Crane Nursery, the Pre-School branch of the lUinois Institute for 
Juvenile Research, an Infant Welfare station, the offices of the Juvenile 
Protective Association and of the Immigrants' Protective League. The 
Visiting Nurse Association has an office there. There is a branch of the 
Chicago Public Library. The Boys' Club alone occupies a five^story build' 
ing. Hull House has a public cafeteria and a large private dining room for 
the residents. The residents, numbering about sixtyfive, mostly university 
graduates, occupy the dormitories (men's and women's) and the Hull House 
apartments, some of which are beautifully furnished. They give their leisure 
time to social work, and live together as in a cooperative club. The Hull 
House Labor Museum is an institution in itself. The Jane Club, a coopera' 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
WACKER DRIVE, LOOKING EAST. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



23 









•,''''m»jr^^-^:v.^ 









(Daguerre Studio Photo) 



FRED W. ADGATE 



Mr. Adgate, consulting engineer and Chicago manager of The Foundati9n Company of 
New York, son of George and Martha (Whitney) Adgate, was born in Keeseville, New 
York, on June 5, 1868. He is a descendant of Francis White, who settled in Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, about 1621. He is vice-president of Chariton Fur Corporation; a direc- 
tor of the Money Corporation, Glasgow' Hotel Company, Gary-Wheaton Bank, and 
Chariton Fur Corporation, and is known throughout the country for his engineering 
achievements. Was engineer and superintendent for various construction projects until 
1902, when he joined the newly organized Foundation Company, as an engineer. Later 
became superintendent, assistant Western manager, and in 1909 was made manager. 

He has built numerous large bridges, power plants, mining shafts, foundations, etc. 
Some of the most outstanding are: Omaha Bridge for Illinois Central Railroad, East 
Omaha, Nebraska; Foundations, Chicago 6? Northwestern Station, Chicago, Illinois; 
Clinton Bridge for Chicago 6? Northwestern Railroad, CHnton, Iowa; U. S. Govern- 
ment Dams Nos. 12 and 19, Ohio river; McClure Dam, Upper Peninsula of Michigan; 
250 K. W. Power Station below Cincinnati; 150 K. W. Power Station at Cincinnati; 
100 K. W. Power Station at Pekin, 111. He has developed a system of sinking mining 
shafts through quicksand which has been very successful. He was in charge of ship 
building and dry dock during the World War. He is a member of American Society of 
Civil Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and Western Society of 
Engineers. Clubs: Union League; Medinah Country; Michigan North Woods; Wawohin 
Golf, Ishpheming, Michigan; Cincinnati Club, Cincinnati, Ohio. Next to his interest in 
engineering, his hobby is golf. 

On June 21, 1904, Mr. Adgate married Dolly May Triplett, of St. Marys, West 
Virginia. They have two children, George and Dorothy. 



24 Chicago's accomplishments 

tive club for working girls, was established in 1891, and has been self- 
governing ever since. 

The Hull House Players, organized by the late Laura Dainty Pelham, 
famous soubrette of a past generation, has its own well-equipped theater, 
where it has presented not only some notable first performances, but many 
significant revivals. The theater is also constantly used by other dramatic 
clubs of young people and many foreign groups present plays in their own 
languages. 

More than 6,000 people, mostly from the immediate neighborhood, visit 
Hull House every week. They come to attend the clubs and classes and the 
entertainments. English classes meeting twice a week draw their members 
from ten different nationahties. Classes in citizenship were established in 
1906, and were helpful in securing the passage of the Illinois Adult Educa- 
tion Law. The most popular classes for adults are those in literature, Ian- 
guages, history, mathematics, drawing, and painting. The Hull House Art 
School holds classes both for adults and children, and the annual exhibits 
are a revelation. 

In connection with the Labor Museum, classes in spinning and weaving 
are conducted, and special courses for the blind have been established. 
Identified with the same institution are the classes in pottery, metal work, 
batik, and wood carving. The products of the Hull House Kilns, an out- 
growth of the pottery classes, are distributed through a wholesale dealer 
with show rooms in Chicago and New York. The Hull House Music 
School, from whose classes have been graduated many professional musi- 
cians, offers courses in piano, violin, organ, theory, and singing. Its annual 
Christmas concerts, accompanied by tableaux, staged by the art department, 
never fail to draw appreciative audiences. 

The Hull House Woman's Club, one of the pioneer organizations of its 
kind, comes into its own with its New Year's Day reception to old settlers 
and its annual children's May party. 

In addition to its kindergarten, Hull House supports more than sixty 
clubs for boys and girls, and a score of social clubs for various national 
groups, including ten for girls. 

You will find no gangs in the neighborhood of Hull House. The Boys' 
Club, with its gymnasium, bowhng alleys, pool and game rooms, library, 
band room, class and study rooms, and shops, is infinitely preferable to any- 
thing the gang or the corner pool room has to offer. The Boys' Club has 
its own printing plant, and publishes its official paper. It has its savings 
bank and its Boy Scout troop. Intramural athletic contests, which draw 
their galleries of more than 3,000 a month, have produced amateur boxing 
and wrestling champions, and champions in field events. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



25 




/' 



■\. 



i^:; 



'1 






(Moffet-Russell Pho:o) 

V. L. ALWARD 

Mr. Alward, president of the American Furniture Mart Building Corporation, was born 
in New Brunswick, Canada, November 10, 1873, the son of Fred H. Alward and Sara 
(Mullin) Alward. He was educated at the New Brunswick Normal School, received the 
principal's certificate and began teaching at the age of eighteen years . When just twenty 
years of age he became principal of the Fairville Schools in Saint John, New Brunswick. 
Teaching, however, failed to hold his interest as a vocation. In 1897 Mr. Alward began 
his business career at Kenosha, Wisconsin, with the Simmons Company. He was made 
vice-president in 1917. Mr. Alward is credited with an appreciable share in the develop' 
ment of the Simmons Company's business from a volume of less than $1,000,000 annu' 
ally to one of approximately $3 5,000,000 in his last year with the organization, 1923. 

While the Furniture Mart was in course of construction, he accepted the offer of the 
presidency of the American Furniture Mart Building Corporation, in 1924. Mr. Alward 
has also served as vice-president of the Chicago Association of Commerce. He is a 
member of the Chicago Athletic Association, Lake Geneva Country Club, and the Lake 
Shore Athletic Club (serving as president 1930, 1931 and 1932). His favorite diver- 
sions are hunting and fishing. 

Mr. Alward was married at Chicago, Illinois, June 5, 1905, to Winifred Nightingale, 
daughter of the late Dr. Augustus F. Nightingale. They have three children, Winifred- 
Lee, Vincent and Betsy Jane. 



26 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE AMERICAN FURNITURE MART, WORLD 
HEADQUARTERS FOR HOME FURNISHINGS 

Style Shows Which Attract Thousands of Buyers 

BY V. L. ALWARD, 
President, American Furniture Mart Building Corporation 

IMAGINE a ba2;aar street twenty blocks long, lined on each side with 
furniture stores, each 100 feet in depth. Picture in these shops hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars worth of home furnishings — period furniture, 
reproductions of Sheraton, Chippendale, and Hepplewhite; gay sun room 
and garden furniture; modernistic furniture in chaste geometric designs; 
dignified swivel chairs and glass'topped desks and directors' tables; "Mother 
Goose" furniture for the nursery. Imagine these displays behind plate glass 
windows fronting on five miles of corridors, and you will have a concep- 
tion of the interior of the American Furniture Mart at 666 Lake Shore 
Drive. 

The exterior of this beautiful building, the largest in the world devoted 
to a single industry, and the world's third largest commercial building, its 
seventeen stories surmounted by a 474-foot tower, is familiar to all. The 
interior, however, is seldom viewed by the public. Admission is by pass, 
and, as a rule, only members of the trade are admitted. 

The Mart was built in 1924, and the tower was added three years later. 
In ground area 500 by 200 feet in dimensions, it occupies an entire city 
block in the heart of the Gold Coast, overlooking Lake Michigan. It rep- 
resents an investment of more than $15,000,000, and its 2,000,000 square 
feet of floor space are given over to displays of furniture from the leading 
manufacturing houses of the United States. 

Chicago is the central market place for the output of furniture makers 
in such strongholds of the industry as Grand Rapids, Rockford, Sheboygan, 
and Evansville. Furnishings shown in the Mart are made in factories 
of 235 cities distributed among thirty states, including Illinois, Indiana, 
Ohio, North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan, and 
New York. If all this merchandise were not concentrated in Chicago, it 
would take a furniture buyer eight months to visit the factories represented, 
allowing him only one day in each city. There are approximately 700 ex- 
hibitors. The furniture exhibited at the Mart represents seventy-five per 
cent of all such merchandise sold at wholesale in the United States. 

The Mart is open every business day of the year, but attendance reaches 
a peak twice yearly, in July and January, when the semi-annual furniture 
style shows are held. To these great fairs, which last two weeks, come 
buyers — more than 6,000 of them, from every important city in the coun- 
try, and from Canada and Europe, to study the new designs, compare styles 
and values, and to lay in stocks. During the year approximately 25,000 
buyers visit the Mart. 

Within the Mart are samples of practically every type of period fur- 



Chicago's accomplishments 



27 



nishings: Georgian, Early American, Early English, French Empire and 
French Provincial; Federal American, Contemporary, Biedermeier, Queen 
Anne, Directoire, each telling its story of human vanities and fluctuations 
of tastes and manners as dictated by monarchs, foreign trade, and other 
influences. 




(Shigeta-'Wright Photo) 
The AMERICAN FURNITURE MART, located at 666 Lake Shore drive. This is the 
largest building in the world devoted exclusively to a single industry. 
Nimmons, Carr 6? Wright and N. Max Dunning, associate architects. 

The most popular period style, authorities at the Furniture Mart agree, 
is Georgian. Reproductions of the masterpieces of the eighteenth century 
designers seem to have found general acceptance in the American home. 



28 Chicago's accomplishments 

Contemporary furniture, although greatly subdued as compared with the 
"modernistic" which began to attain prominence in 1928 and 1929, is 
still too individual to appeal to the volume market, its sale being restricted 
mostly to the metropolitan centers such as Chicago, New York, and Los 
Angeles. 

The exhibits are as complete in regard to types of furnishings as they 
are to styles. There are beds, chairs, tables, buffets, china cabinets, dres' 
sers, vanities, chiffoniers, radios, lamps, stoves, refrigerators, washing ma' 
chines, springs, mattresses, pillows, baby carriages, bedding chests, nursery 
furniture, pictures, clocks, china and pottery, davenports, garden and beach 
umbrellas, fireplace equipment, desks, rugs and linoleums, metal furniture, 
sun room furniture, wrought iron products, and toys in endless variety. 

On the seventeenth floor are the elaborately appointed club rooms of 
the Furniture Club of America, the walls of which are decorated with rich 
tapestries and costly paintings. The club provides for visiting merchants, 
manufacturers, and buyers a common meeting ground and a Chicago home 
complete in every respect except for sleeping quarters. The walnut-paneled 
Club restaurant is patroni2;ed by 250,000 furniture men during the year. 
The Mart also is the headquarters of the National Retail Furniture 
Association and the National Association of Furniture Manufacturers, and 
is the home of Radio Station W C F L, Chicago. 

With sales averaging more than $100,000,000 a year — and these sales 
do not include those of the department stores — the retail furniture business 
ranks fifth among Chicago's retail trades. There are about 1,200 
retail furniture estabHshments with combined inventories of $20,000,000. 




Facing east in Whiting Hall — main entrance 
to the American Furniture Mart. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



29 




{Underwood and Underwood Photo) 

World's largest light — the gigantic two billion-beam candle power LINDBERGH 
BEACON atop the Palmolive Building, which guides aviators to Chicago. 
* Holabird 6? Root, architects. 



30 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 




AMOS 



(Miiunce Seymour Photo) 

"AMOS^— FREEMAN F. GOSDEN 

Mr. Gosden, well-known to millions of radio listeners as "Amos," was born 
in Richmond, Virginia, on May 5, 1899. He began as a traveling tobacco 
salesman for the American Tobacco Company. He met Charles J. Correll 
and associated with him in the promotion of amateur theatricals. The 
partners, under title of "Sam and Henry," broadcasted from radio station 
WON for two years. On March 19, 1928, the characters of "Amos 'n' 
Andy" were created when Correll and Gosden joined the Chicago Daily News 
Radio Station W M A Q. So popular did they become that other radio 
stations began to demand their episodes. To supply this demand the two 
began making electrical transcriptions of their broadcast, and thirty-five 
other stations were supplied by the Chicago Daily News with records of 
these transcriptions. "Amos 'n' Andy" were the first team to make transcrip- 
tions exclusively for radio. Their audience continued to grow to such an 
extent that the Pepsodent Company of Chicago signed a long-term contract 
for their services and now they are heard in person five days a week over the 
National Broadcasting System. 

The preparation of their episodes is a fifty-fifty proposition, but it is no 
over-worked "Amos" who sits down at the typewriter to write the next 
story; it is "Andy" who does this, while "Amos" paces back and forth trying 
hnes and dictating. It is difficult to say which of them is responsible for any 
one line or situation. 

On June 13, 1927, Mr. Gosden married Lcta Marie Schreiber. They have 
two children. Freeman F., Jr., and Virginia Mane. 



2975^ 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



31 




ANDV 




(Maurice Seymour Photo) 

"ANDY"- CHARLES J. CORRELL 

Mr. Correll, also well known to the same millions of radio listeners as 
'"Andy," was born in Peoria, Illinois, February 3, 1890. On January 27, 
1927, he married Marie Janes. He began as a newsboy, learned the brick' 
laying trade under his father, played the piano in moving picture theaters, 
later developing into a producer of amateur theatricals. He spent six years 
on the road with Freeman F. Gosden and has since been associated with 
him, first representing ''Henry" in the dialogues of "Sam and Henry" at 
Radio Station W G N. Since March 19, 1928, he has been the lordly, over- 
bearing "Andy" of the famous team of "Amos 'n' Andy." Mr. Correll and 
Mr. Gosden write every line they speak and take the parts of all the charac- 
ters presented in each episode. The program is usually written two or three 
days before it goes on the air. They have an ofiice in one of Chicago's 
largest skyscrapers and spend many hours every day writing the continuity 
and discussing the future adventures of their famous characters. 

In their broadcasting Amos and Andy demand absolute privacy. This 
is because they throw themselves so wholeheartedly into their characters. 
The world they have created around the "Fresh Air Taxicab Company, In- 
corpolated" and their many other enterprises is so real to them that they 
must guard against any outside influence that might spoil that illusion. With- 
out question, Amos and Andy have created and maintained the largest 
hstening audience in the history of radio broadcasting. The musical com- 
position that introduces each of their episodes is "The Perfect Song." 



32 Chicago's accomplishments 

MAIL ORDER HOUSES THAT SERVE HALF THE 

POPULATION OF AMERICA 

An Idea That Revolutionized Merchandising Methods 

Chicago, the birthplace of the mail order business, is the mail order cen- 
ter of the entire world. 

Its two leading mail order houses, Montgomery Ward ^ Co. and Sears, 
Roebuck 6? Co., serve half the population of the United States. Their 
elaborate catalogues, read from cover to cover almost religiously by millions 
of people, have carried the name and fame of Chicago into every village 
and hamlet in the land, and into the far corners of the earth. 

Merchandise ranging from a collar button to a completely set-up house, 
finds its way not only into every part of the United States, but into twenty- 
seven foreign countries. Regular customers of Montgomery Ward will 
be found in China, Japan, the Philippines, India, Central and South 
America. 

These two big houses operate on a truly imperial scale. Montgomery 
Ward maintains branch houses in Kansas City, St. Paul, Baltimore, Port- 
land, Oregon, Oakland, Fort Worth, Denver, and Albany. It has in opera- 
tion more than 500 retail stores, including a number of large city depart- 
ment stores. Its customer families number 12,000,000. 

Sears has ten branch houses, each an institution in itself, and has a chain 
of 250 retail establishments, one of the latest of which is its new State street 
department store in Chicago. 

Buying offices are maintained by both these firms in the chief marketing 
centers of the world, and large staffs of buyers devote their time to traveling 
and collecting merchandise. Designers located in such fashion capitals as 
London, Paris, and New York, enable their concerns to keep abreast the 
ever-changing trends of style. 

Immense stocks are necessary to supply orders running into millions of 
dollars, and each firm owns outright or controls the output of many factories 
of many kinds. 

To visit the Chicago headquarters of Montgomery Ward or Sears, Roe- 
buck is to visit an exposition. One can wander through mile after mile of 
goods. 

Yet, vast as this business is today, it had absurdly small beginnings. 
A. Montgomery Ward, the originator of the mail order idea, came to Chi- 
cago from Niles, Michigan, in 1865, with some experience as a small town 
merchant. After making and severing several connections, he became the 
traveling representative of a St. Louis firm, and was thereby given an oppor- 
tunity to study at first hand the problems that confronted the farmer and 
the resident of the rural community. 

He found them virtually at the mercy of the local merchant, whose stock 
was unattractive and inadequate, and whose prices were unchecked by 
competition. These Main Street tradesmen, blind to the opportunities for 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



33 



NORTHWEStERN 
UNIVERSITY 




(Blanf^ a Stoikr. Inc. Photo) 



ARTHUR ANDERSEN 



Mr. Andersen, founder and senior partner of Arthur Andersen ^ Co., certified public 
accountants, was the first alumnus to be elected to the office of president of the board of 
trustees of Northwestern University, from which office he recently resigned. He was 
born at Piano, lUinois, on May 30, 1885, and is the son of John WiUiam and Mary 
(Aabye) Andersen. In 1917 he was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Business Admin- 
istration by Northwestern University. He also received the degree of Certified Public 
Accountant from the University of Illinois. Mr. Andersen's own firm was organized in 
Chicago in 1913 and now the firm has offices in eight principal cities in the United States 
and also has foreign representation. After organizing the accounting department of the 
School of Commerce of Northwestern University, Mr. Andersen served as professor of 
accounting for many years. In 1927 he was elected a trustee of the University to succeed 
the late Judge Elbert H. Gary. In October, 1930, he was elected president of the board. 

Mr. Andersen is a director of the State Bank and Trust Company of Evanston. 
He is a trustee of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (193 3) World's Fair and is a 
member of the Board of Governors of Northwestern University Foundation. He is a 
member of the Chicago, Chicago Athletic, University, Attic, Mid-Day, Sky Line, Com- 
mercial, Industrial, Commonwealth, Economic, University of Evanston, Glen View Golf, 
Bob-O-Link, Milwaukee of Milwaukee, and Broad Street of New York clubs, and Wis- 
consin Society of Chicago. He also is a member of American Institute of Accountants 
(member executive committee and council), Illinois Society of Certified Public Account- 
ants, Society of Industrial Engineers, American Economic Association, and United States 
Chamber of Commerce. He is a trustee and director of the Chicago Sunday Evening 
Club, director of the United Charities of Chicago, and member of Chicago Red Cross 
Citizens' Committee for Disaster Relief. Mr. Andersen takes an active interest in civic, 
industrial and educational affairs. 

On August 8, 1906, Mr. Andersen married Emma Arnold of Chicago. They have 
three children. Ethyl Bernice (Mrs. Vilas Johnson), Arthur Arnold, and Dorothy Emma. 



34 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



building up good will and reputation for fair dealing, were rapidly advanc- 
ing the day of the chain store and the mail order concern. Some progress 
had been made in the development of the Farmers' Granges, whose secre- 
taries served as purchasing agents in a cooperative way for the members 
of the local chapters. 

In a fourth story room of what is now 825 North Clark street, Mr. 
Ward started, in 1872, with one clerk, a capital of $2,400, and an idea, 
to build up a business which was to revolutionise merchandising methods. 
He proposed to make the United States Postoffice Department his salesman. 
Associated with him in the enterprise was his friend George H. Thome. 

Wiseacres laughed his plans to scorn. The notion that goods could be 
sold "sight unseen" and through the printed word alone, they pointed out, 
was visionary and impractical. Time was to prove how wholly wrong they 



were. 



Montgomery Ward's first catalogue was a modest affair of eight pages, 
printed on a foot-power press. The firm issues today a 700-page catalogue, 
sumptuously illustrated in black-and-white and color, in which 40,000 items 
are not only accurately described, but described so attractively as to make 
unusually fascinating reading. Catalogue making, in fact, has come to be 
an art — a profession in itself, calling for the same painstaking efforts and 
technical skill as dictionary or encyclopedia making. 

It was quite natural that in launching his enterprise, Mr. Ward should 
bid first for the patronage of the Grange secretaries, and he was so successful 
in his efforts that for many years the firm carried the slogan, 'The Original 
Grange Supply House." But he soon discovered that if he should serve the 
Granges, he could just as easily serve the members direct. By dealing with 
his house, the out-of-town customer could save money by the elimination 
of the middleman. 

It was not long before the Montgomery Ward catalogue became to 
thousands of people throughout the Middle West the very symbol of Chi- 




MONTGOMERY WARD 6? COMPANY, CHICAGO 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



35 




{Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



SEWELL L. AVERY 

Mr. Avery, president of the U. S. Gypsum Company and Montgomery Ward and 
Company, was born in Saginaw, Michigan, November 4, 1874, son of Waldo A. and 
Ellen (Lee) Avery. He graduated from the Michigan Military Academy and received 
his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree from the University of Michigan in 1894. In this 
same year he became an officer in the Alabaster Company, which merged with other 
gypsum companies, in 1901, to make the present U. S. Gypsum Company, of which he 
has been president since 1905. Mr. Avery has been president of Montgomery Ward & 
Company since January, 1932. He is a director of Armour & Company, Chicago, Chi- 
cago Daily News, Chicago Great Western Railroad, Northern Trust Company, State Bank 
i^ Trust Company of Evanston, U. S. Steel Corporation, Container Corporation of 
America, Continental Illinois National Bank 6? Trust Company, and the Illinois Manufac- 
turers" Association. 

Mr. Avery is a trustee of the University of Chicago, the Museum of Science and 
Industry, and Hull House. He is chairman of the Banking and Industrial Committee of 
the Seventh Federal Reserve District; and vice-president of the United Charities of 
Chicago and the Chicago Crime Commission. He is a member of Delta Tau Delta Fra- 
ternity. His clubs are. Casino, Chicago, City, Commercial, Mid-Day, Old Elm, Racquet, 
University, Attic, Chicago Riding, Chicago Yacht, Evanston Country, Glenview, Les 
Cheneaux, Wild Wing, and Grand Island Lodge. 

He married Hortense Lenore Wisner, of Pontiac, Michigan, October 11, 1899. The 
children are Sewell Lee (deceased), Aria, Lenore (deceased), and Nancy. 



36 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



cage. It was to most of them their only contact with the city. In countless 
Mississippi Valley homes the name of Montgomery Ward became a house- 
hold word, and the annual catalogues, invested as they were, somehow, 
with the spirit of fair play and good will, were eagerly awaited and carefully 
treasured. To the country and village folk of the early '70's, this mail order 
service was almost indispensible, for the automobile was as yet undreamed 
of, the roads were often seas of mud in Winter, and the "general store" 
was fossilized. And as confidence in the firm increased, the business grew. 

Success in any hne invariably invites competition. Many small mail 
order concerns sprang up, some to survive only a few months or years. 
One, however, sur\'ived permanently and became a leader. This was the 
firm of Sears, Roebuck 6? Co. Its success under the able management of 
the late JuHus Rosenwald is among the miracles of Chicago achievement. 

Inauguration of the Parcels Post System in 1912, coupled with the 
spread of rural free delivery, imparted a new impetus to the mail order 
business. So great today is the volume of mail and parcel post that both 
Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck maintain in connection with their 
plants complete postoffices. 

By means of tests conducted over many years it is possible, simply by 
weighing the incoming mail, to determine with a fair degree of accuracy 
the amount of checks and money orders received in any given delivery. 

An interesting department of the big mail order houses is the laboratory 
in which goods of all kinds are subjected to grueling tests for strength and 
durability and other qualities. Here a fountain pen or a machine may be 
required to do a lifetime's work in a few hours. 







CHICAGO S LEADERS 



37 



BARCO 




FRANCIS N. BARD 



Mr. Bard, president of the Barco Manufacturing Company of Chicago, was born in 
Cleveland, Ohio, on April 25, 1882, son of George M. and Helen N. (Norwood) Bard. 
He received his early education at military school; spent two years at the University of 
Chicago in an academic course; and graduated from Cornell University in 1904 with 
the degree of Mechanical Engineer. 

He has been actively connected with the Barco Manufacturing Company since 1908; 
first as Vice-president and then as president. The Barco Manufacturing Company is 
known as a railway supply company and Mr. Bard has always been very active in railway 
supply circles. Part of the products of his company, however, is used in every major 
industry in this country and in many foreign countries. He has taken out many patents, 
most of them applying to the products of his company. Mr. Bard is an officer and 
director of a number of companies. He is a member of the Union League Club, Univer- 
sity Club, Chicago Athletic Association, Exmoor Country Club, Duquesne Club of Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, Illinois Chamber of Commerce, and Illinois Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation. He is a member of the board of Railway Business Association and the National 
Association of Manufacturers. His favorite hobbies are big game hunting and deep-sea 
fishing. 

He married Edith M. Decker of Chicago and Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, April 8, 
1909. They have two daughters, Dorothy and Marion. 



38 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



A sketch of this kind would be incomplete without at least brief refer' 
ence to the public service records of the two men whose names have been 
most closely identified with the mail order business in Chicago; Mr. Ward, 
quiet and retiring outside his own institution; Mr. Rosenwald, the genial 
humanitarian, with an acquaintance seldom equaled among modern indus' 
trialists. 

Each had his distinct place in the Chicago of his day. Of Mr. Rosen- 
wald's vast and endless charitable projects, his Negro and Jewish welfare 
work, the whole world knows. 

Mr. Ward's signal service to Chicago was in his guardianship of the 
lake front. Designated in mockery "the watch dog of the lake front,"" for 
many years he fought a battle singlchanded against the encroachment of 
public buildings in Grant Park. At the time, he was treated harshly by the 
public and the press, but he lived to see the day when his efforts were 
appreciated and acknowledged. It was he, and he alone, who preserved 
for Chicago the beauty of Grant Park. 




{LJyiderwood and Underwood Photo) 
An unusual photographic effect — cloud formations above the buildings along Michigan avenue. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



39 








..•■"*^' 










HARRISON B. BARNARD 



Mr. Barnard, building contractor and president of the Builders and Manu' 
facturers Mutual Casualty Company of Chicago, was born in Seville, Ohio, 
May 11, 1872, son of William Edwin and Emily (Nye) Barnard. He received 
his preparatory education at Wooster (Ohio) University and in 1895 re- 
ceived his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at the University of Chicago. 
He is a member of the Society of Mayflower Descendants, Society of Colo' 
nial Wars, Sons of the American Revolution, and the Order of Founders 
and Patriots of America. His ancestors were among those who came to 
America on the Mayflower. 

Mr. Barnard has been a builder and contractor in Chicago on his own 
account since 1892 and has built some of the finest buildings in Chicago and 
other cities. He has been a trustee of the University of Chicago since 1927. 
His clubs are the Union League (of which he was president in 1927-1928), 
Architects, South Shore Country, and Beverly Country. He belongs to 
Delta Tau Delta Fraternity. 

On June 30, 1917, Mr. Barnard married EH2;abeth Tidholm, of Chicago; 
the children are, Harrison Blake, William Robert, Marshall Nye, Barton 
Wayne, and John Brewster. 



40 Chicago's accomplishments 

A RELIGIOUS SERVICE THAT GOES OUT TO 
ALL THE NATION 

How the Sunday Evening Club Ministers to Town and Country 

BY ARTHUR ANDERSEN 
Trustee, Chicago Sunday Evening Club 

IT is Sunday night. In a prairie farm house in Nebraska, an elderly couple 
sit before the radio. It would be lonesome there without the radio. The 
sons and daughters have grown up and scattered. The last to go, the young' 
est daughter, is a stenographer in Chicago. Though far away, she is united^ — 
for tonight — with the old folks. All three are listening to the same religious 
service, broadcast from the Sunday Evening Club, Orchestra Hall, Chicago. 
Daughter is in the audience. Father and mother tune in on the radio. All 
three are brought together in a community of spirit. In her next letter, 
daughter will ask the old folks how they liked the "meeting." 

In a tiny crossroads church in Alabama, a small congregation has gath' 
ered. But they have come to hear no provincial preacher expound the Gos' 
pel. They have come to hear no village choir or country organist. Over 
the ether waves float the strains of the great Orchestra Hall organ, with a 
master organist at the console. . . . The hundred trained voices of the chorus 
are lifted in song. Occupying the pulpit, perhaps, is Rabbi Abba Hillel 
Silver of Cleveland, or it may be Henry van Dyke or Hugh Black. 

Multiply these scenes by a thousand ... by ten thousand, by hundreds 
of thousands, and you will have a faint idea of the widespread influence 
exerted by Chicago's unique institution, the Sunday Evening Club. 

Organizied in 1907 by a group of influential business men, of which 
Clifford W. Barnes was the leading spirit, the Chicago Sunday Evening 
Club was intended as a strangers' church. 

Here, in accordance with the purposes of its founders, the traveling 
man marooned over Sunday in Chicago, the newcomer, the art student, 
the young man or woman just entering business, would be sure to find a 
welcome. 

The Sunday Evening Club was to be a place of common worship for 
people of all denominations. Its object was "to maintain a service of Chris- 
tian inspiration and fellowship in the business center of Chicago, and to 
provide for the moral and religious welfare of the city." 

Its success as a nonsectarian religious movement was instantaneous. 
While the audience at the first meeting numbered only 800, attendance 
rapidly increased, until today, the seating capacity of the hall, which ac- 
commodates close to 3,000, is sometimes inadequate. 

Out-of-town arrivals at Chicago's hotels would find in their rooms an 
invitation to attend the Sunday night service. Those who availed themselves 
of the privilege were not disappointed. What would otherwise have been 
a lonesome evening had been made a profitable one. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



41 




^. ^ i 



s^;/::''^. 









(Maryland Studio, Pasadena, CiiUjornia, Photo) 

CLIFFORD W. BARNES 

Mr. Barnes, president and founder of the Chicago Sunday Evening Club, was born in 
Corry, Pennsylvania, son of Joseph and Anna (Webster) Barnes, and is a direct des- 
cendant of Daniel Webster. He received his A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree from Yale 
in 1889, his B.D. (Bachelor of Divinity) in 1892, his A.M. (Master of Arts) from the 
University of Chicago in 1893. The honorary degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) was 
conferred on him by Lake Forest University in 1913 and Illinois College, 1925. Mr. 
Barnes came to Chicago in 1892 with President Harper and a group of Yale men, in- 
terested in the establishment of the new University in Chicago. He served in the De- 
partment of History during the first year, and at the same time entered into settlement 
life at Hull House, organizing the Nineteenth Ward Men's Club which administered 
the first defeat to "Johnny" Powers and his ring. 

He was called to be president of Illinois College, and after his return to Chicago five 
years later, he began the organization of the Sunday Evening Club, in 1908, and other 
welfare agencies, which have gained national and international reputation. Mr. Barnes 
was president of the Legislative Voters League for fifteen years, founder of the Com- 
mittee of Fifteen and president for eight years, and has been chairman of the Chicago 
Community Trust since its organization in 1915. He has been vice-president of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce in charge of civic affairs, and is a member of its 
executive committee and board of directors. He is chairman of the Chicago World Court 
Committee, vice-president of the World Alliance for International Friendship, and is 
active in various other national and international organizations. For war service, as 
Major, he received from Greece the Medal of Military Merit with silver palm, and was 
created Knight of the order of the Golden Cross. 

Mr. Barnes married Ahce Reid of Lake Forest, lUinois, May 5, 1898. They have one 
daughter, Lilace Reid. 



42 Chicago's accomplishments 

As the years went on, the Sunday Evening Club became an institution. 
It was advertised everywhere by commercial travelers who, during their 
stay in Chicago had enjoyed the Club's speakers and music. On Pullman 
coaches, in club cars, on steamships, in hotel lobbies, when the conversation 
turned to Chicago, reference to the Sunday Evening Club was inevitable. 

During the first fifteen years of its existence, however, its sphere of in' 
fluence was local. It was adopted as their church by the hotel guests and 
the boarding house colonies. The radio was as yet undreamed of. 

But in 1922, with the development of broadcasting, the Sunday Eve- 
ning Club went on the air, one of the first religious services to be broadcast. 
Since then, its message has been sent out weekly to uncounted homes in 
cities, towns, and hamlets everywhere. Its program has become known as 
the "Sunday evening service of the nation." In the invisible audience are 
not only lonesome fathers and mothers, small'town church goers, and family 
groups, but sailors on the seas, lumberjacks in isolated camps, trappers, 
forest rangers, prospectors, many on the "Gold Coast." The program 
reaches countless hotel rooms. It is picked up by the speeding motorist. 

But perhaps where it does the most good is in the hospitals, the asylums, 
the old people's homes, where it reaches the shut-ins, bringing comfort to 
the aged, hope to those on beds of sickness. It sheds its light even in the jails. 

The Club is liberal, and has introduced from its platform leaders of 
every faith and creed — Roman Catholics and Jews, as well as Protestants, 
leaders in many professions, and renowned statesmen of other lands. 

Among the famous men who have addressed the Club's Sunday night 
audiences were former Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes, William 
Howard Taft, then President, and Lyman Abbott. William Jennings Bryan 
was another. Marshal Joffre, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, and Henry 
Wickham Steed have been Sunday Evening Club speakers. 

Most of the famous American churchmen of the past twenty years have 
been on the Club's roster. Recent speakers include Harry Emerson Fosdick, 
Robert E. Speer, Bishop George Craig Stewart, Bishop William F. Mc- 
Dowell, Bishop Edwin H. Hughes, Robert Freeman, and Henry Howard. 
Among church dignitaries from abroad were the Lord Bishop of London, 
the Lord Bishop of Scotland, the Archbishop of York, and the Rev. Geof- 
frey A. Studdert-Kennedy, of London. 

Mr. Barnes serves as president of the organization. Directing the 
club as trustees are some of Chicago's most prominent and pubUc-spirited 
leaders. 

The officers and the board of trustees are looking forward to the time 
when perpetuity of the Club's work for Chicago and the nation will be as- 
sured by adequate endowment to supplement the normal support of annual 
subscribers. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



43 




(GaboT Eder Photo, Hew York) 



WILLIAM H. BARNES 



Mr. Barnes, organ architect and business executive, was born in Chicago, November 10, 
1892, son of Charles Osborne and Nettie Ann (Shedd) Barnes. He attended the 
Evanston High School and received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Harvard 
University in 1914. He was granted the honorary degree of Doctor of Music from 
Park College in 1931. At the age of ten he began his piano studies and two years 
later he added organ study, which became his chief interest in life. He studied the organ 
with the Dean of the New England Conservatory, Wallace Goodrich, and Clarence 
Dickinson of New York. By the time he was fifteen he had completed the building 
of an organ of usual church size in his father's home, which is today part of the large 
instrument in his own home in Evanston. At the age of seventeen he was organist for 
the Church of the Ascension, Chicago. He has gradually acquired, by study and prac- 
tice, a thorough knowledge of organ building, especially concentrating on acoustics and 
tonal effects. Mr. Barnes is considered one of the world's foremost authorities on organ 
construction. He has planned a large number of organs for churches, schools, and 
colleges throughout the United States. 

Mr. Barnes was secretary and treasurer of A. R. Barnes 6? Company, railroad and 
commercial printers, from 1916 to 1922, and has been vice-president and treasurer since 
1922. During the World War, he served as associate of the Committee on Classification 
of Personnel in the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D. C. He has been 
organist in various churches since 1909 and has been choirmaster and organist of the 
First Baptist Church, Evanston, Illinois, since 1928. He has been president of North- 
western University Settlement since 1928 and is a member of the committee of manage- 
ment, Y. M. C. A. Hotel. He was formerly state president of the National Association 
of Organists; and is a member of the American Guild of Organists, Pro Musica, Chicago 
Artists Association (ex-president) and Phi Mu Alpha Fraternity. He is author of two 
books entitled. The Contemporary American Organ. 1930, and The Odyssey of an 
Organ Enthusiast, 1932. He is also associate editor of The American Organist. His clubs 
are Cliff Dwellers, University, Bohemians (Chicago), University (Evanston), and Har- 
vard (New York). 

He married Edith McMillan, of St. Paul, Minnesota, October 22, 1927. 



44 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO, THE PREFERRED CONVENTION CITY 

Where History in Presidential Nominations Has Been Written 

ONE of the great crystalizing forces in America is the convention. There 
is hardly a trade or industry, a branch of science, or a religious move' 
ment but that is organized and holds its national or sectional conventions 
annually or at more frequent intervals. The social influence of all these con- 
claves, their influence on business ethics, on educational or scientific tech- 
nique, on the direction of philanthropic enterprise or political policy, cannot 
be estimated. It is overwhelming. 

Whenever a convention meets, several cities usually are nominated as 
the place of the next meeting. Despite the keener competition of the last 
few years, Chicago almost invariably wins. Many associations return again 
and again to Chicago for their meetings. 

Chicago is a convention city par excellence. 

In June, 1932, Chicago entertained the National Conventions of both 
major political parties. Even this experience was not unique, for in 1884, 
both the Republicans and Democrats chose Chicago as the place to nomi- 
nate their respective standard-bearers, Blaine and Cleveland. 

Since Abraham Lincoln was named in the old Wigwam in 1860 to 
lead the Republican party to victory at the polls, sixteen Presidential candi- 
dates have been nominated in Chicago. 

Of these nominees, seven were sent to the White House, while two 
Vice-Presidents nominated in Chicago, Chester A. Arthur and Calvin 
Coolidge, later became President. 

Here Grant, Garfield, Blaine, Harrison, Roosevelt, Taft, Hughes, Hard- 
ing, and Hoover were nominated on the Republican ticket, Taft being re- 
nominated in 1912. Here George B. McClellan was nominated by the 
Democrats, and Grover Cleveland was twice nominated. Here William 
Jennings Bryan delivered his famous Cross of Gold speech that made him 
his party's choice in 1896. Here in 1912 convened the short-lived "Bull 
Moose" party which placed Roosevelt again in nomination for the Presi- 
dency. 

The old brick Wigwam, where Lincoln was named, and the Stadium, 
where both parties convened in 1932, present contrasting pictures, both 
typical of the Chicago of their periods. The Stadium, today the last word 
in convention halls, is only one of a number of reasons why Chicago is 
America's preferred meeting ground. 

Stroll into a hotel lobby almost any day and you will see men and 
women wearing badges identifying themselves as delegates to some con- 
vention. 

More than 800 associations and societies hold their annual conclaves 
in Chicago every year, bringing to the city altogether about 1 ,000,000 dele- 
gates and guests. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



45 




MARY M. BARTELME 



Judge Bartelme, of the Juvenile Court of Cook County, was born in Chicago, 
daughter of Balthasar and Jeanette (Hoff) Bartelme. She attended the Chicago 
public schools and received her LL. B. (Bachelor or Laws) degree from North- 
western University Law School in 1894. On March 3, 1913, she was ap' 
pointed by Judge Pinckney, of the Juvenile Court, as his assistant and to try 
the cases of dehnquent girls. She was public guardian of Cook County for 
sixteen years, having been appointed by each governor of Illinois during that 
period. She was elected Judge of the Circuit Court, November 6, 1923, 
was assigned to the Juvenile Court and was reelected in 1927 for the term 
of 1927 to 1933. 

Judge Bartelme is a member of the American, IlHnois State, and Chicago 
bar associations, and the League of Women Voters. Her clubs are Chicago 
Woman's, Woman's City, and Cordon. 



46 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



These conventions are of every kind and description. Scientists, phil' 
osophers, contract bridge teachers, shoe manufacturers, canners, confec 
tioners, educators, missionary workers, insurance men, newspaper pubHsh- 
ers, farmers, representatives, in fact, of almost every industry and profession 
and endeavor meet here to discuss their various problems. 

When a convention comes to Chicago, it comes to America's center. A 
circle with a radius of 500 miles described around Chicago would reach 
from Lincoln, Nebraska, to Buffalo, and from Little Rock, Arkansas, to the 
northern shores of Lake Superior. It would include wholly or in part, the 
States of Minnesota, South Dakota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, 
Indiana, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Ten' 
nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, Virginia, 
North Carolina and the Canadian Province of Ontario. 

All roads — transcontinental highways, airways, railroads, lead to Chi- 
cago, as well as several steamship routes. From almost any part of the coun' 
try, with the exception of the Far West, the distance is less than five hours 
by air. 

Here commerce, industry, education, and amusement unite to consti- 
tute a life which attracts visitors from all parts of the world. A successful 




The "WIGWAM," rambling frame convention hall in which Abraham Lincoln was nominated 
for the presidency in Chicago in 1860, reproduced on the grounds of A Century of Progress 

Exposition. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



47 



convention city must have five essential things — transportation, hotels, halls 
and exhibit spaces, market facilities, and amusements. Chicago has them all. 

Chicago can be reached by thirty-eight railroads. Sixty million people 
live within a night's ride of the city. 

One may have the choice of a centrally located hotel in the Loop, or 
one on the lake front, either near the heart of the city, or out among the 
treetops of the parks. 

At the time of the World's Fair of 1893, Chicago had only about fifty 
hotels. A few of these old hostelries have disappeared, among them the 
Grand Pacific, the Briggs House, the Stratford, the Wellington, the Vic- 
toria, and the Virginia. But replacing them, the new Sherman, the new 
Palmer House, the new Bismarck, the La Salle, the Blackstone, the Fort 
Dearborn, the new Morrison, the new Brevoort, the Atlantic, and the 
Stevens have added more than 10,000 rooms to the downtown area alone. 



"■-■■; :M 


^9^^^^^ : .^l^^^i^ '■*".■■*. -.^ ,^.**iipi »'>»»' *«*»^ ' ..^^ 


■^''f..' .-V:? ' :^ .'^r^ 


• ...„ ^T .•■■.'... ■ ■'*>7TyiK'-C 


14. ■'5 ■ ^'.H-V 





(© Kaufman ii Fabry) 

Interior of the Chicago Stadium, where thousands attended the RepubHcan and Democratic 

conventions of 1932. 

North of the river, the Drake, the Edgewater Beach, the Ambassador, 
the Sovereign, the Belmont, the Lake Shore Drive, the Pearson, the Knicker- 
bocker, the Parkway, the Sheridan Pla2;a, the Surf, the Webster, and others 
provide approximately 20,000 rooms. 

On the South Side, the Chicago Beach, the Windermeer, the Cooper- 
Carlton, the Shoreland, the Flamingo, the East End Park, the Hayes, and 
the Southmoor have some 15,000 rooms. These outlying hotels while they 
are patroni2,ed chiefly by permanent guests and tourists, are available also 
to transients, and the convention guest is always welcome. 

The larger hotels have banquet halls which seat hundreds. They have 
accommodations also for pretentious trade shows. The Chicago Stadium 



48 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



seats 25,000 people, and can be used either as an auditorium or as an ex' 
position hall. The Coliseum provides space ample enough for a cross sec 
tion of any industry. Navy Pier and the Merchandise Mart are available 
for exposition purposes. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

Looking north on Michigan avenue. On the right is the Tribune Tower, Medinah Athletic 
Club, AUerton Hotel, and in the distance the PalmoHve Building. On the left in the fore' 

ground are the Wrigley buildings. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



49 







(Portrait by Fernand de Cueldrc) 



VINCENT BENDIX 



Mr. Bendix, president of the Bendix Aviation Corporation and donor of the famous 
World's Fair Golden Pavilion of Jehol, was born in Moline, Illinois, August 12, 1881. 
son of John and Alma M. Bendix. His father was born in Smoland, Sweden, and his 
mother's birthplace was Ostergotland, Sweden. They emigrated from their native land 
about sixty'five years ago and settled in Moline, where Vincent Bendix attended the 
public schools. At the age of sixteen he obtained his first position, in New York City, 
as an elevator operator in a Manhattan hospital and studied to become a lawyer, but 
his interest was in the invention and production of mechanical devices. In 1907 he 
returned to Chicago and became sales manager for the Holsman Automobile Company, 
and the following year he produced an automobile bearing his own name. The manu- 
facturers of these pioneer motor vehicles realized that something must be done to 
eliminate the hand crank starting systems to assure the future success of the horseless 
carriage. Mr. Bendix started to work on this problem and produced the first connecting 
"link" between a starting motor and the fly-wheel of the motor car's engine. It is called 
the Bendix Drive. More than 35,000,000 of these starter-drives have been produced. 

Mr. Bendix next perfected the four-wheel braking principle and through acquisitions 
and affihations he now manufactures mechanical, air, hydraulic, and vacuum brakes, 
brake boosters, and brake testers for automobiles and double-disc landing wheels and 
brakes for airplanes. Next Mr. Bendix interested himself in equipment that would keep 
these vehicles going, so his organisation acquired the Stromberg Motor Devices Com- 
pany, now the Bendix-Stromberg Carburetor Company. Subsequently other prominent 
automotive and aviation accessory concerns were acquired. Today Bendix Aviation 
Corporation is recognized as one of the foremost manufacturers of automotive and 
aviation equipment in the world, with fifteen plants in this country and abroad. Com- 
panies now controlled by the Bendix Aviation Corporation include: Bendix Brake Com- 
pany, South Bend, Indiana; Hydraulic Brake Company, Detroit, Michigan; Bragg- 
KJiesrath Corporation, South Bend, Indiana; Eclipse Machine Company, Elmira, New 

Continued on page 545 



50 Chicago's accomplishments 

MEN AND INSTITUTIONS WHICH HAVE CON- 
TRIBUTED TO CHICAGO^S MUSICAL PRESTIGE 
Cultural Assets of the Orchestra, the Civic Opera, Ravinia, 
the Apollo Club, and Others 

BY ARTHUR BISSELL 
President, Bissell-Wiesert Piano Company 

THE early struggles of Chicago's pioneers to establish music as a cultural 
asset were carried on amidst seemingly hopeless surroundings and all 
possible discouragements. We who now enjoy the priceless opportunity of 
listening to the world's greatest music little realize what it cost in self' 
sacrificing effort to establish and make permanent these opportunities. 

Can a more hopeless environment for musical culture than Chicago 
must have presented in the '40's and '50's be imagined — a squalid town, 
just emerging from the aspects of a frontier settlement, digging itself out of 
the mud as it were, a glorified swamp. Yet there were those among its 
inhabitants who were imbued with pioneer z^al, who foresaw the future, 
who planned comprehensively and laid the foundation for a musical life 
that now ranks with that of the world's leading capitals. 

It is a significant fact that while other older and longer established com' 
munities were lying dormant as far as music was concerned, Chicago was 
active in the foundation of musical societies that later became the corner' 
stone of our present position in the musical world. 

In this article little more than a brief chronological account of the 
musical development of Chicago is possible. From the best available records 
it would seem that Chicago's musical activities began about 1850. In that 
year Julius Dyhrenfurth established the Philharmonic Society and was its 
conductor, until 1856. Then Theodore Thomas first appeared in Chicago 
as first violinist in a concert troupe in 1854. A second visit was made in 
1858. On these occasions Mr. Thomas acted as ticket taker at the door 
until time to appear on the platform. 

In 1857 the Mendelssohn Singing Society was formed by George P. 
Upton under the leadership of Adolph W. Dohn. This organi2,ation later 
became the Apollo Musical Club of which Charles D. Hamill, later presi' 
dent of the Orchestral Association, was president, and whose son, Charles 
H. Hamill, is now president. 

In 1860 a new Philharmonic Society was established under the direc 
tion of Hans Balatka, who continued as its conductor until 1869. 

Theodore Thomas' third visit to Chicago in 1 869 marked an important 
epoch in the city's musical history, for he came as the conductor of an 
orchestra of forty pieces. He returned in 1870, and on October 9, 1871, 
the first concert of his third season was announced, but never given because 
the great Chicago fire on that day destroyed the old Crosby Opera House 
in which the concert was to have been held. During the next twenty years 
he came to Chicago frequently with his orchestra, and during that period 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



51 












BJSSELL-WHISERT 



(Fernand de Gueidre Photo) 

ARTHUR BISSELL 

Mr. Bissell, president of Bissell-Weisert Piano Company, was born in Chi- 
cago, January 1, 1870, son of George Francis and Jerusha (Woodbridge) 
Bissell. He received his education in the Chicago pubUc schools, Chicago 
Manual Training School, Lake Forest Academy, and Lake Forest University. 
During his entire business career, Mr. Bissell has been associated with the 
musical world. For five years he was with the Weber Piano Company, and 
then for five years with Lyon, Potter 6? Company. From 1898 to 1907 he 
was secretary of the Clayton F. Summy Company, piano and music dealers; 
from 1907 to 1910 he was president of the Bissell-Cowan Piano Company; 
and was resident manager of the Aeolian Company of New York City from 
1910 to 1913. In 1913 he organi2;ed Bissell-Weisert Piano Company, of which 
he was president until 1928 when this company merged with Lyon 6? Healy, 
of which he became vice-president. In June, 1931, Mr. Bissell resumed busi- 
ness as the Bissell-Weisert Piano Company and opened a piano salon in the 
Diana Court Building, 540 North Michigan avenue, where they represent the 
Bechstein, the most famous piano in the world, and Wm. Knabe 6? Co., 
celebrated American piano manufacturers, and the Ampico, the reproducing 
piano of international fame. 

Mr. Bissell was formerly president of the Chicago Musical Art Society, 
and is chairman of the executive committee and vice-president of the Inter- 
national Society for Contemporary Music. He is a member of the Racquet, 
Arts, Cliff Dwellers (secretary). Tavern, and Onwentsia clubs, and his chief 
recreations are golf and music. 

He married Emily Greeley Tredway, St. Louis, Missouri, December 1, 
1897, and their children are Emily Greeley Tredway, and Arthur Dwight. 



52 Chicago's accomplishments 

between 1877 and 1891 inaugurated the famous summer night concerts 
in the old Exposition Building, where the Art Institute now stands. In 1891 
he came to Chicago to stay and gave series of concerts yearly in the Audi' 
torium up to the season of 19044905. 

Prior to the establishment of the Orchestra on a permanent basis, the 
Apollo Musical Club was organized and is still in existence in its 55th 
season. Its first conductor, Mr. Dohn, was succeeded in 1875 by W. L. 
Tomlins. 

In 1882 a brilliant musical festival was given in the old Exposition Build- 
ing with Thomas directing an orchestra of 174 pieces, and Tomlins con- 
ducting a chorus of 900. The soloists were Anna Louise Cary, Companini 
the great tenor, George Henschel and Myron Whitney. Two years later a 
second festival was given enHsting the services of Materna, Christine Nillsen, 
and Enna Juch, with Thomas conducting the orchestra of 170 instruments 
and Tomlins the chorus of 900 voices. 

A most important and impressive occasion was the dedication, in 1889, 
of the Auditorium, with President Benjamin Harrison as guest of honor, 
and Adelina Patti as soloist. The famous Auditorium is still standing and 
may yet continue as a home of opera, concert, and drama. 

Between 1901 and 1904 a public fund was raised to house the Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra in its own home in Orchestra Hall. The sum of $650,- 
000 was subscribed by citi2;ens, and $200,000 borrowed. The first concert 
was given during the season of 1904 and 1905. Thomas conducted the first 
two concerts on December 14 and 23, 1904, which were his last, as he died 
on January 4, 1905. A great memorial concert was held on January 6 and 
his funeral services were conducted at St. James Church on the same day. 
His passing marked the close of a great musical career which influenced the 
history of American music more than any other single factor. He was 
succeeded by the present director, Frederick Stock, one of the world's most 
gifted conductors, and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra now ranks as one 
of the half do2;en leading ensembles of the world. 

Now let us turn to the history of opera in Chicago. From the best avail- 
able records it would seem that the first performance of opera was given 
in the "New Theatre" on Monday, July 29, 1850. The offering was La 
Somnambula, and the admission prices were 25 and 50 cents. The seating 
capacity was three hundred. This theater was burned a year later and re- 
placed by a larger one which was dedicated in 1851, and in 1853 Lucia was 
presented, followed by Norma, with seats as high as $2.00. In 1858 Mc- 
Vickers Theater was dedicated, and a season of opera began on September 
27 of that year. During the following year no less than three opera com- 
panies visited Chicago. Later Theodore Thomas conducted the American 
Opera Company at this theater, and the first season of German opera was 
presented about 1887 or 1888, with Anton Seidl wielding the baton and 
with Max Albory as the leading tenor. About this period a grand opera 
festival was presented at the old Exposition Building with Mesdames Cary, 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



53 



Nevada, Scalchi and Fursch'madi as the prima donnas. This led to the 
building of the Auditorium of which Ferd. W. Peck was the guiding 
spirit, and in 1891 the first real bona fide season of opera in Chicago was 
inaugurated, with Eames, Lehman, Scalchi, Jean and Edouard De Reszke, 
Plancon, and other old time notables of the operatic world. Opera con' 
tinued to be given in the Auditorium under various auspices up to 1910, 
when Chicago's very own Opera Company started operations and continued 
under many vicissitudes until the season of 19314932. In 1929, largely 
through the efforts of Samuel Insull, the New Civic Opera House on 
Wacker Drive, was opened and the activities of the Opera Company trans- 
ferred there, where two seasons of opera were given. 

Before concluding this short resume of opera in Chicago, brief mention 
must be made of the several seasons of opera at Ravinia Park, under the 
auspices of Louis Eckstein, which enlisted the services of the Chicago Sym- 
phony Orchestra and the world's leading singers from both the Metropolitan 
and Chicago Opera forces. Here opera was heard under ideal conditions, 
and the fame of Ravinia has spread throughout the musical world. 

Space limitations preclude mention of the thousands of important con- 
certs and recitals which have added to the musical prestige of Chicago. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

Michigan avenue, looking north from Adams street. This boulevard is considered one of the 

most beautiful in the world. 



54 Chicago's accomplishments 

Mention must be made, however, of the series of Music Festivals given in 
Evanston each spring. Inaugurated in 1908, and still continuing, they have 
presented to their audiences the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the most 
distinguished contemporary artists. Peter C. Lutkin, Dean of the North' 
western University School of Music, was the original sponsor of the Festi' 
vals, and for many years directed them in conjunction with Mr. Stock. 

In concluding this article a brief reference to the history of the music 
trades should be made, for this history is indissolubly interwoven with the 
development of music as an art in Chicago. 

One can hardly do more than list the pioneer music firms that established 
themselves in Chicago's early days. In 1857 W. W. Kimball came to Chi' 
cago and started business as a piano dealer. The company bearing his name 
later became one of the largest manufacturers of pianos in the world. In 
1 864 the firm of Lyon & Healy was established under the protection of the 
parent house of Oliver Ditson Company of Boston. Under the guidance of 
Patrick J. Healy this house has achieved world wide reputation as a manu' 
facturer and retailer of musical merchandise. William Henry Bush landed 
in Chicago in 1854 and made a fortune in the lumber business. In 1886 he 
embarked in the manufacture of pianos with his son, W. L. Bush, and John 
Gert2; under the firm name of Bush 6? Gertz,. In 1857 the firm of Julius 
Bauer was established, and continued the manufacture of pianos until a few 
years ago. In 1868 the firm of Story 6? Camp was organi2;ed and became 
one of the leaders in the piano and organ trade of the West. From this con' 
cern later grew the firm of Esty and Camp which was for many years one 
of Chicago's largest retail piano houses. Mathias Schulz; started a cabinet 
making shop in Chicago in 1869. Shortly afterward he began the manu' 
facture of organs. In 1889, incorporated as M. Schulz; Company, he con' 
tinued in the manufacture of both pianos and organs, and the firm is still in 
business. In 1880 H. D. Cable formed a partnership with F. R. Wolfinger, 
organizing the Wolfinger Organ Company, later to become the Western 
Cottage Organ Company, then the Chicago Cottage Organ Company. 

In later years such large manufacturers as the Gulbransen 6? Dickinson 
Company, The Cable Company, The Melville Clark Piano House, whose 
founder, Melville Clark, was responsible for many important inventions in 
connection with the pneumatic player piano, the Story 5? Clark Company, 
the Smith, Barnes & Strobher Company, the Cable Nelson Company, Adam 
Schaaf, the Steger Piano Company, Price 6? Teeple, Bush & Lane, the 
Schiller Piano Company, and the Haddorf Piano Company, all combined 
to make Chicago one of the leading piano manufacturing centers of the 
world. 

Among the more prominent houses now retailing pianos are Lyon 6? 
Healy, the Cable Company, the Baldwin Company, the W. W. Kimball 
Company, and the Bissell'Weisert Piano Company. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



55 




(Blank <i"d StoUer, Inc., Photo) 

WALTER LAURISTON BLACK 

Mr. Black, president of Central States Service Company and Central States Edison Com' 
pany, which now control public utility subsidiaries in Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Indiana, and Alabama, was born in Stockton Springs, 
Maine, September 9, 1887, son of Alfred G. and Mary E. (Smith) Black. He was edu- 
cated at the Everett, Massachusetts, High School and University of Maine. The utility 
subsidiaries are: Gasconade Power Company, North Kansas Power & Light Company, 
Beatrice Power Company, Collinsville Gas Company, Natural Gas Utilities Company, 
The Skiatook Service Company, Northern Wisconsin Power Company, Grand Marais 
Light &? Power Company, Riviera Utihties Corporation, Madison Utilities Corporation, 
Gulf Ice 6? Cold Storage Company, and The Sedan Gas Company. He handles all 
engineering problems of construction and is in complete charge of the operations of these 
properties which supply variously electric, water, gas, and ice services in more than 60 
cities and towns. 

Mr. Black was formerly associated with the Bangor Railway and Electric Company 
and Boston Elevated Railway Company during the period 1908-1911; assistant super- 
intendent of the Porto Rico Light &? Power Company during 1911 and 1912; general 
manager of the Panama Tramways Company during construction and early operation 
(1913-1914) of first electric street railway on the Isthmus of Panama. During the 
period 1914-1925 (except two years in the United States Army during the World 
War) he was associated with Robert M. Feustel, consulting engineer. Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, in consulting engineering on puHic utihty operation and investigations for 
franchises, rates, etc. Enlisted in Field Artillery, U. S. A., in 1917, but was trans- 
ferred to Engineering Corps and shortly afterward commissioned and placed in com- 
mand of 63d Engineers for organization, training and service overseas. During the 
latter part of 1925 and early 1926 Mr. Black assisted Kelker, De Leuw and Company 
in a special survey and report on traffic conditions in the City of Baltimore. From 
1926-1928 he was associated with Day 6? Zimmermann, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 
He was elected to his present position in 1928. He is a member of the Midland Club, 
Riverside Golf Club, and Tredyffrin Country Club at Paoli, Pennsylvania. His principal 
hobbies are engineering and golf. 

On January 17, 1925, Mr. Black married AHce L. M. Tubbs of Baltimore, Maryland. 
They have two daughters, Julia Lee, and Anne Lauriston. 



56 Chicago's accomplishments 

A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF PROGRESS IN 

CHICAGO^S STEEL INDUSTRY 
Miles of Sandy Wastes Transformed Into Belching Furnaces 

BY L. E. BLOCK 

Chairman, Board of Directors, Inland Steel Company 

ENTERING Chicago from the south, one passes literally through the jaws 
of a fiery furnace. Spectacular indeed are the lurid tongues of flame 
leaping from a myriad of funnels. Magic cities of steel have sprung up on 
the dunes at the foot of Lake Michigan. Here, in an inferno of roaring 
furnaces and white'hot metal, armies of men labor like Titans. On the 
result of their labors rests the very foundation of our civilization. 

This is the Steel Age. Outstanding in its history is the record of the 
last quarter century. Nothing short of phenomenal has been the expansion 
during this period of the steel industry in the Chicago area. 

True it is that the industry's progress locally has, in many respects, fol' 
lowed the general trend, but it is noteworthy that the rate of expansion 
here has far surpassed that of the country as a whole. 

In 1905 the output of steel in the Chicago metropolitan district was 
only about 9 per cent of the total produced in the United States. In 1929, 



^>-^ 







INLAND STEEL COMPANY'S INDIANA HARBOR, INDIANA, WORKS 
At the start of the present century this site was marked merely by a railroad tower house — 
elsewhere only sand and water. Today, with ore unloading facilities, blast furnaces, coke 
ovens, open hearth steel furnaces and a large number of finishing mills, it serves a great and 

comprehensive steel plant. 

the industry's banner year, the tonnage in this area was 23 per cent of the 
country's total. While national steel production had been augmented 150 
per cent during this period, the local increase amounted to 350 per cent. 
Two factors contributed to this ama2;ing growth^ — an inadequate pre 
ducing capacity and the selection by this district generally as a point of 
distribution. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



57 










^/ /''■* 



? "^ f 1 






{From Drawing by John Doctorojj) 

L. E. BLOCK 

Mr. Block, chairman of the board of directors of the Inland Steel Company, 
Chicago, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, January 13, 1869, son of Joseph and 
Rose (Cohn) Block. He received a public school education. A pioneer in the 
steel business of the Central West, Mr. Block was among the founders of 
Inland Steel Company and has been prominent in the management of that 
company for thirty-six years. Through the efforts of Mr. Block, his brothers, 
and other associates, the company has risen from insignificance to become 
the largest independent steel company in the Central West and the sixth 
largest producer in the United States. He has been a director of the American 
Iron and Steel Institute for sixteen years and is considered one of the leaders 
in the industry. 

Mr. Block is active as a director of the Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, 
and is a member of the Mid-Day, Standard, Lake Shore Country, and other 
clubs. His favorite sport is golf. 

On June 20, 1900, he married Cora B. Bloom, of Chicago, and they have 
four children, Joseph, Leigh, Babette, and Eleanor. 



58 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



In the early days of the twentieth century, the steel production of the 
Chicago territory was by no means equal to the demand for steel products, 
and many thousands of tons were shipped in annually from the eastt-rn 
mills. It was, therefore, in accord with the oldest of our economic laws 
that a building program was projected which should furnish a source of 
supply more capable of meeting the demand. Men of vision, recogni2;ing 
the needs of the district, by their energy and appHcation gave the impetus, 
which now seems like a magic touch, to the transforming of miles of sandy 
wastes into a Tartarus of belching furnaces and whirling mills, veritable 
dynamos of activity. 

During these years, the center of population had moved westward. 
Manufacturers in every field, eager for a central distributing point, and 
influenced in no small measure by the admirable railroad and water shipping 
facilities, located plants here at a far greater rate than in other parts of the 
country. New users of steel and western branches of eastern consumers 
have sprung up all about us. This increase of local demand had the obvious 
result of further stimulating the development of additional means of supply. 

Many transformations have taken place in the methods of steel pro- 
duction. Power plants as well as furnaces and mills of twentyfive years ago 
have, to a very large degree, become obsolete. Steam driven units have been 
abandoned for electrical drives; furnaces and mills have been replaced by 
modern units designed for much greater and more economical output. 

These changes, together with many refinements, involved almost in- 
credible capital expenditures, but happily resulted in reduction of costs 
which has made possible an increase of more than 250 per cent in the mini' 
mum wage rate, with an advance of only 40 per cent in the average realiz;- 
ing price of steel. 

Improved methods of manufacture, in which electricity has played an 
important part, have made for more stable and healthful conditions for the 
working man. In former days, the "man in the mills" "puddled" the iron 
in the furnace or fed the red-hot steel to the mills with his tongs. Today 
he stands at electric controls. Hugh cranes of uncanny power handle the 
molten metal. 

Thousands of workers in the steel plants today hold stock in their re- 
spective companies which they were granted the privilege of acquiring on 




ACME STEEL COMPANY ROLLING MILLS AT RIVERDALE, ILLINOIS 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



59 




(Kellogg Photo) 

DWIGHT S. BOBB 








Mr. Bobb, lawyer, son of Daniel Bingham and Arminda Frost (St. John) Bobb, was 
bom at Dakota, IHinois, July 19, 1876. His first maternal ancestor in America came 
with Marquis LaFayette. He entered Northwestern University, graduating in 1899 
with an A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree. Then he entered Harvard University, obtain- 
ing his A. M. (Master of Arts) degree in 1900 and his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) 
degree in 1903. He was assistant in history at Harvard and Radcliffe College in 1900 
and 1901; and from 1901 to 1902, assistant in economics at Harvard. Mr. Bobb was 
admitted to the bar at Boston, Mass., in 1903. From 1904 to 1909 he was lecturer on 
public service corporations at Northwestern University Law School. In 1909 Mr. Bobb 
became a member of the law firm of Adams, Bobb and Adams, now Sanders, Childs, 
Bobb and Westcott, with offices in Chicago and Washington, D. C, engaged chiefly 
in corporation, public utility, banking, and insurance law. 

Mr. Bobb is a director of the Commercial Trust .and Savings Bank, American 
Mutual Underwriting Corporation, Evanston Bond and Mortgage Company, Interna- 
tional Bond and Share Securities Corporation, Englewood Investment Company, Inland 
Metal Products Corporation, King Pneumatic Tool Company, and various other cor- 
porations. He is chairman of the Committee on Character and Fitness for examina- 
tion of applicants for admission to the bar. He is a member of the American, Illinois 
State, and Chicago Bar Associations; American Economic Association; Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Commerce; Art Institute of Chicago; Sons of the American Revolution 
(president of Evanston chapter); Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Kappa Phi fraternities 
and a director of the Chicago Boys' Clubs, Inc. His clubs are University, Mid-Day, 
Union League, Electric, Exmoor Country, Harvard, Evanston, and University of Evans- 
ton. His hobbies are golf, farming, and horseback riding. 

On July 5, 1927, he married Sonia A. Erler of Odessa, Russia. 



60 Chicago's accomplishments 

unusually favorable terms. This is a development which has given the work- 
ing man added interest in his firm as well as increased income, and has pro' 
moted harmonious relations between employers and employees. 

Great strides have been made in the improvement of the quality of steel 
products during the last twenty-five years. In this development the metal' 
lurgists of the steel companies have cooperated to the fullest extent with 
the consumers. Specifications have been worked out to meet exacting re- 
quirements for various grades of steel, for heat treating, forging, deep draw 
ing, and welding. Much progress also has been made in the alloying of steel 
with other metals to impart added strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, 
and other desirable qualities. 

Most interesting is the question of distribution of steel products. Where 
did all the steel go at the start of the century? Where does it go today? 

In earlier days, the principal consumers were the railroads. This chan- 
nel of distribution far exceeded all others. When the railroads purchased, 
the steel industry flourished; when they ceased to buy, the mills remained 
comparatively inactive. In 1905, 20 per cent of the steel produced in the 
United States went into rails alone, and the aggregate consumption by the 
railroads amounted to more than 40 per cent of the total steel production. 

In recent years the automotive industry has used more steel than the 
railroads, while the building and construction industry has required almost 
as much. Among other large consumers are the oil, gas, water, and mining 
interests, agricultural, and machine tool interests. About five per cent of 
the total steel output is exported. 

The pre-eminence of the automobile as the ranking customer of the mills 
is not difficult to understand when we reflect that this industry, which pro- 
duced only 22,000 cars in 1905, turned out more than 4,000,000 in 1929, 
a year when its production reached the peak. 

While the automotive and building industries and the railroads are the 
leaders in steel consumption, they have been by no means the only sources 
of outlet. On the farm, in the home, at the office, in the factory, every 
where, we find steel entering into our lives. Products formerly made of 
other materials, or which were non-existent at the beginning of the century, 
are now made of steel. 

Any forecast of the steel industry's future must be to a certain extent 
conjecture. It is probable that the production of steel will continue to in- 
crease as population increases. In this connection it is interesting to note 
that, whereas the consumption of rolled steel products amounted to about 
300 pounds per capita in 1905, this figure had risen in 1929 to more than 
600 pounds per capita. Research and invention are daily finding new uses 
for steel products, and the per capita consumption seems destined for a 
steady climb. 

The mid-western production still seems inadequate in periods of 
extreme activity. The federal waterways program, now under way, 
undoubtedly will stimulate activity in the Chicago district. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



61 




{Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



DARRELL S. BOYD 



Mr. Boyd, lawyer, is a New Yorker by birth, a Chicagoan by choice. He 
was born at North Tonawanda, New York, November 12, 1889, son of 
George A. and Anna F. (Wagstaff) Boyd. Shortly after that event the 
family moved to Rochester, New York, where he received his elementary and 
high school education. He then attended and graduated with honors from 
Wesleyan University. He enrolled and completed one year at Columbia 
University Law School, then moved to Chicago transferring to the North- 
western University Law School from which he graduated in 1913. 

Immediately after graduation he took up the practice of his profession in 
Chicago with the then firm of Matz, Fisher and Boyden. He later became a 
member of the firm and has continued his association through its subsequent 
reorganizations into the firm of Fisher, Boyden, Bell, Boyd and Marshall, 
specializing in corporation, banking and securities law. For several years 
prior to its consolidation into Central Republic Bank and Trust Company, 
he was general counsel and a director of Central Trust Company of lUinois. 
He is a director of Sullivan Machinery Company, Globe American Company 
and Central Republic Trust Company. Mr. Boyd is a member of University, 
Attic, and Indian Hill Country clubs. When he finds time for recreation, 
he can usually be found playing a round of golf at Indian Hill. 

Mr. Boyd married Emily F. Matz, of Winnetka, Illinois, June 25, 1921, 
and is the father of three children, Charlotte D., Denman H., and Darrell H. 



62 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ANCIENT CULTURES BROUGHT TO LIGHT BY 
ORIENTAL INSTITUTE ARCHAEOLOGISTS 

A Unique University of Chicago Organization and Its Work 

DEDICATED to "the unfolding life of man," the Oriental Institute of the 
University of Chicago is the largest archaeological organi2;ation in the 
world, a research institution devoted to tracing the course of human develop' 
ment from archaic savagery to social idealism. The Oriental Institute has set 
for itself the dual task of salvaging by scientific processes the evidence of this 
evolution, and of drawing from the evidence, through constructive interpre' 
tation and correlation, the epic story of the origins of modern civili2,ation. 

The existence in the city of Chicago of so significant an institution as the 
Oriental Institute is the result of the vision and scholarship of Dr. James 
Henry Breasted, its director. Forty years ago Dr. Breasted conceived the 
plan of organizing in comprehensive fashion the investigation of early human 
development, and his hopes were completely realized with the dedication, 
in December, 1931, of the new building of the Institute on the University 
quadrangles. 

The Institute had its origin in 1919 in a gift by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., 
and its subsequent expansion has been due not only to Mr. Rockefeller's 
generosity but to substantial appropriations by the General Education Board 
and the International Education Board, and the individual gifts of Julius 
Rosenwald, Theodore W. Robinson, Robert P. Lamont, Henry J. Patten, 
and others. 

Today there is no doubt that the cradle of civilization was the ancient 
Near East, the region folded like a horseshoe around the eastern end of the 
Mediterranean. Into that area the Oriental Institute has despatched thir- 




Entrance of the new Oriental 
Institute Building at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. The sculpture 
over the door suggests the grad- 
ual transition of civiHzation from 
the east to the west. Mayers, 
Murray and Phillips, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



63 




m- 



-:.- \- W- 





JAMES HENRY BREASTED 

Dr. Breasted, Orientalist and historian, was born in Rockford, Illinois, August 27, 1865, 
son of Charles and Harriet N. (Garrison) Breasted. He received his A. B. (Bachelor 
of Arts) degree from North Central College, in 1888; studied at the Chicago Theological 
Seminary (particularly Hebrew), from 1888 to 1890; received his A. M. (Master of 
Arts) degree from Yale University, in 1891; received his A. M. and his Ph. D. (Doctor 
of Philosophy) from the University of Berlin, in 1894. Honorary degrees have been 
conferred on him by the Chicago Theological Seminary, B. D. (Bachelor of Divinity), 
in 1898; University of California, LL. D. (Doctor of Laws), in 1918; Princeton Uni- 
versity, LL.D., 1929; and by Oxford University, D. Litt. (Doctor of Literature), in 
1922. From 1894 to 1925 Dr. Breasted was, respectively, assistant in Egyptology, in- 
structor of Egyptology and Semitic languages, assistant, associate and then professor of 
Egyptology and Oriental history (latter since 1905) at the University of Chicago. He 
has been assistant director, director, and is now chairman of the department of Oriental 
languages (since 1915) and director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. 
He was reHeved of all responsibihty for instruction in the University of Chicago after 
August, 1925, in order to take full charge of the work of the Oriental Institute in the 
Near East and related research projects. 

Dr. Breasted collected for the University of Chicago in Egypt, during 1894 and 
1895; was Thomas lecturer, Richmond (Virginia) College, in 1898; appointed (1900) 
on mission to the museums of Europe by commission of the Royal Academies of Ger- 
many (Berlin, Leipzig, Munich, Gottingen), to copy and arrange the Egyptian inscrip- 
tions in those museums for an Egyptian dictionary. He directed the Egyptian Ex- 
pedition of the University of Chicago, 1905-1907; director of the Oriental Institute of 
Chicago University, since 1919; and was in charge of the archaeological survey in Meso- 
potamia for the Institute, in 1920. He served as Morse lecturer at the Union Theological 
Seminary, 1912; Earl lecturer, Pacific School of Religion and University of Cahfornia, 
1918; Hale Foundation lecturer. National Academy of Science, Washington, D. C, 
1919; Haskell lecturer, Oberlin College, 1922; Messenger lecturer, Cornell University, 
1925; and Mary Flexner lecturer, Bryn Mawr College, 1929. He is associate editor of 
the American Journal of Semitic Languages; was a member of the advisory council of 
the League of Nations Association, in 1930; is a member of the advisory board of the 

Continued on page 545 



64 Chicago's accomplishments 

teen expeditions, and is still maintaining twelve, to carry on a series of re' 
la ted research projects. The new Oriental Institute building is the head- 
quarters for these expeditions which range along a 3,500'mile front from 
Persia on the east through Iraq, where the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian 
empires flourished, along the bend of the ''Fertile Crescent," past Syria and 
Anatolia, into Palestine and Egypt. Here were the great cities of the past, 
such as Persepolis, Babylon, Baghdad, Nineveh, Aleppo, Megiddo, Jerusa- 
lem, Memphis, and Thebes, whose names have persisted through the cen- 
turies and to which the Institute's labors are bringing the spark of reality. 

The Institute has begun its story of man with his first appearance as a 
thinking creature. The Prehistoric Survey, under Dr. Kenneth S. Sandford, 
has made the first detailed investigation of the geological history of the 
Nile Valley, and has found the oldest human artifacts yet discovered in the 
Near East; flint implements produced in lower Pleistocene time, while Europe 
was under a great ice sheet. The Prehistoric Survey has also established, in 
tracing the history in the Faiyum Lake depressions, that the dessication 
which created the Sahara Desert began in the middle of the Old Stone Age. 

During the last seven years the Epigraphic and Architectural Survey of 
the Institute has been copying and preserving the fast disappearing inscrip- 
tions of the Temple of Medinet Habu, built by Ramses III, of 1200 B. C, 
at ancient Thebes, which is opposite modern Luxor. These inscribed and 
sculptured records are of fundamental importance because they disclose 
Europe for the first time entering the arena of oriental history and reveal 
something of the migratory movements which carried the Etruscans from 
Asia Minor to Italy. The Epigraphic Survey is under the field direction of 
Professor Harold H. Nelson, and has already issued two of a series of ten or 
twelve folios which will preserve the records of the temple for all future 
scholars. The temple also is in such a state of preservation as to reveal much 
of the architecture of the Theban palaces, and an Institute project directed 
by Professor Uvo Holscher has been concerned with this aspect. At Abydos, 
similar epigraphic work is being done at the temple of Seti I, the colored 
reliefs of which are among the finest works of art surviving from ancient 
times. This effort is being made in association with the Egypt Exploration 
Society and under the editorship of Dr. Alan H. Gardiner. 

Another Institute group, with Associate Professor Prentice Duell as 
field director, is engaged in the production of five folio volumes in color and 
in black and white, recording the magnificent wall-reliefs of masonry tombs 
at Sakkara, the cemetery of ancient Memphis. At Cairo, Dr. Gardiner and 
Dr. A. DeBuck have completed the task of copying the texts, written 
with pen and ink on the inner surface of the wooden coffins, which 
disclose as early as the 23rd century B. C. the dawnings of the belief that 
happiness beyond the grave is dependent upon the ethical qualities of man's 
earthly Hfe. A somewhat analogous project is the copying in color of the 
ancient paintings on the walls of tombs in the great Theban cemetery, like- 
wise directed by Dr. Gardiner, and executed by Mrs. Nina de Garis Davies. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



65 




\if^^S£^' '^-^^yJ^'^R'Ntf 







(Blank d'nd Stoller, Inc., Photo) 



ADAM A. BREUER 



Mr. Breuer, president of Breuer Electric Manufacturing Company, Inc., 
manufacturers of electric equipment for industry, was born in Chicago, Sep- 
tember 11, 1883, son of Adam and Caroline (Fallscher) Breuer. He attended 
the pubHc schools and business college in Chicago, and started in the sales 
department of the American Steel and Wire Company in 1899, where he 
remained for four years. The next six years he worked in the sales depart- 
ment of the International Harvester Company and the following two years 
with the Duntley Manufacturing Company, from which place he resigned to 
assist in organizing the Clements Manufacturing Company of Chicago, manu- 
facturers of electric vacuum cleaners. He became vice-president and secre- 
tary of this organization. He was vice-president of the Jewel Vacuum 
Cleaner Company until March, 1927, when he resigned to organize the Breuer 
Electric Manufacturing Company, Inc., of which he is now president. This 
company manufactures portable electric blowers for cleaning motors and 
machinery, vacuum cleaners for cleaning automobiles and furnaces, heat 
blowers for melting grease in differentials and transmissions of automobiles, 
trucks, etc., and sprayers for use with insecticides and disinfectants. 

Mr. Breuer is a member of the IlHnois Manufacturers' Association, the 
Illinois Chamber of Commerce, and the Germania Club. He has always 
taken an active part in politics and is an advocate for good government. He 
is interested in all athletics. On March 16, 1918, he married Beulah Rich' 
ardson, Chicago; their children are Grant WiUiam, Beulah, and Adam A., Jr. 



66 Chicago's accomplishments^ 

In Western Asia, about thirtyone miles northeast of Baghdad, the Iraq 
expedition, directed by Dr. Henri Frankfort, is engaged in excavating the 
ancient Babylonian cities at Tell Asmar and Khafaji. A third division of 
the Iraq expedition has been uncovering the ruins of Assyrian civilization. 

Two years ago (1930) Professor Edward Chiera, then in charge of the 
Iraq expedition and now directing the work on the Assyrian dictionary, 
discovered a temple of Sennacherib near Khorsabad, and excavated the pal' 
ace of Sargon II, at which he found the winged bull, a colossal stone sculp' 
ture which is now in the Oriental Institute museum. 

In eastern Anatolia, Dr. H. H. von der Osten has surveyed the country 
of the Hittites, and has carried on extensive excavations at the site of one 
of their cities at Alishar, uncovering twentythree culture levels. 

Early in 1931 the French government gave permission for excavations in 
North Syria, and the Institute's explorations have tentatively identified a site 
about halfway between Aleppo and Alexandretta as that of the ancient city 
of Calneh, founded by the Hittites, and referred to by the Hebrew prophets 
Amos and Isaiah as one of the powerful western enemies of Assyria. 

On the western end of the "Fertile Crescent," P. L. O. Guy is in charge 
of an expedition that is excavating the mound of Armageddon, or Megiddo, 
in Palestine, commanding the most famous battlefield of the ancient world. 
The Institute has control of the entire site of the historic city, an area of 
over thirteen acres, and is now stripping off the stratified series of cities built 
one upon the other. Here were found, in 1927, the Stables of Solomon, 
and in 19304931 there was revealed a water system dating back to the 
Canaanite kings of pre'Hebrew days. Most recent of the expeditions is that 
in Persia, at Persepolis, capital of the great Persian emperors, Darius and 
Xerxes. Here the noted German specialist in Persian archaeology, Dr. Ernst 
E. Herzfeld, housed in Darius' palace, is now excavating the city. 

The first floor of the new building of the Institute, at Fiftyeighth street 
and University avenue, houses one of the world's finest museums of ancient 
Near Eastern civili2;ation, the exhibits affording a revelation of the rising 
course of mankind. In the Babylonian halls the transformation of the work 
of man into more highly developed forms of human organization, commercial 
and social relations, is illustrated by masses of business documents which 
date back nearly to 3,000 B. C. There are records of Babylonian astro' 
nomical observations surpassing in continuity those of modern times, and 
furnishing the basis for all later astronomical science. 

The Egyptian exhibits show much of the complex social organization 
of the pyramid builders, and point further to the first glimpses of moral 
vision, the evidence of the transition from the age of materialism to the age 
of conscience and character, constituting one of the most vivid of the dis' 
plays. In addition to the Egyptian and Assyro'Babylonian, there are halls 
devoted to the civilization of Persia and Islam, Palestine, and the Hittites, 
all contributing to an understanding of the process by which the Institute 
is creating what Dr. Breasted terms the "New Past." 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



67 







CHARLES A. BROWN 



Mr. Brown, patent lawyer and senior member of the firm of Brown, Jackson, Boettcher 
and Dienner, was born in Manchester, New York, August 25, 1858, son of Thomas A. 
and Emily A. Brown. He is descended from Scottish Covenanters who came to this 
country in 1685 and whose posterity fought in the American Revolution. He attended 
the University of Rochester and received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1879 
and his A. M. (Master of Arts) degree in 1889. In 1890 he received his LL.B. (Bachelor 
of Laws) degree at Lake Forest University and in 1891 his LL.M. (Master of Laws). In 
1879 Mr. Brown entered the employ of the Western Electric Manufacturing Company 
and became manager of its successor, the Western Electric Company. He resigned in 
1891 to practice patent law and is now the senior member of the patent law firm of 
Brown, Jackson, Boettcher and Dienner. 

Mr. Brown has been president of the Hinsdale Cemetery Association since 1910. 
He is a member of the Patent Bar Association, American, Illinois State, and Chicago Bar 
Associations, and Phi Beta Kappa Fraternity, and trustee of the University of Rochester. 
His clubs are Union League, Law and University. 

On July 27, 1892, he married Caroline Cotton of Chicago and they have seven chil' 
dren, Kenneth, Malcolm (died in World War), Meredith (Mrs. Ralph Fisher Skelton), 
Winifred (Mrs. D. G. Christ), Barbara (Mrs. Frederick P. Bowes), Marian (Mrs. Eliot 
F. Porter), and Gordon. 



68 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AS AN ALL-YEAR-ROUND RESORT 

World's Premier Vacation City Offers Recreation and 
Amusement for Every Age Span, Mood and Taste 

BY AVERY BRUNDAGE 
President, American Olympic Association, and Amateur Athletic Union of United States 

WITH its twentyfive miles of lake front, its yacht harbors and bathing 
beaches, its fifteen large and 193 small parks, its 130 miles of boule' 
vards, its 200 golf courses, its amusement parks, ballrooms, and show places, 
and its 35,000 acres of forest preserv^e, Chicago is a vacation city par ex' 
cellence. 

To Chicagoans themselves, who prefer to spend their vacations at home, 
as well as to the thousands of visitors, who regard Chicago as a playground, 
the city offers unrivaled faciHties for recreation and amusement. 




(H. Alhrecht Photo) 

Lincoln Park, looking south from Field House, showing tennis courts, bird sanctuary, and 

Belmont Harbor. 

Golfer, yachtsman, baseball fan, racing enthusiast, sun bather, theater' 
goer, ski jumper, motorist, equestrian, nature lover, trap shooter, fisherman, 
hiker — every red'blooded person, in fact, who goes in for sport and outdoor 
life, will find here something to his taste. 

Chicago's hotels, with a capacity of more than 100,000 rooms, are uu' 
surpassed. They offer everything in the way of luxury, and their cuisine, 
whether of the lunchroom, the table d'hote, or the palatial dining room, is 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



69 




(Kaiden-Kcystone Studios Photo) 



SCOTT BROWN 



Mr. Brown, lawyer, born in 1875; graduated from the University of Chicago 
in 1897 and from Northwestern Law School in 1899. Shortly after, he became 
managing director of Chautauqua Institution of which he is now a trustee. 
In 1905 he was elected an oflScer of Studebaker Bros. Mfg. Co., and, upon its 
organization, became secretary and general counsel of The Studebaker Cor- 
poration. In 1915 he was one of the original organizers and owners of the 
North American Light &? Power Company and was vice-president, secretary, 
and director of that company and allied and subsidiary operating utility com- 
panies, including Illinois Power and Light Corporation and Illinois Traction 
Company. In 1926 he and the other owners of these utilities disposed of their 
interests and he again went back to the law. 

Mr. Brown is a former president of the Illinois Chamber of Commerce and 
interested in various industrial enterprises. He is actively associated with various 
civic, educational, and charitable organizations, being a director of United 
Charities of Chicago and an Associate of California Institute of Technology 
in Pasadena, California. He is a member of the Chicago, Union League, Uni- 
versity, Quadrangle and Glen View Clubs of Chicago; Lotos (New York) 
and Annandale and Midwick (Cahfornia). 



70 



CHICAGO 8 ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



all the hon vivant could wish. Some of the outlying hotels, with their roof 
gardens, tennis courts, private bathing beaches, swimming pools, and open' 
air ballrooms, are summer resorts in themselves, resorts where outdoor 
recreation may be enjoyed amid all the refinements of the city. To vaca- 
tionists who like bath tubs, personal service, and French chefs with their 
holidays, these lakeside hotels make a strong appeal. 

The Art Institute, with its many special exhibitions; Field Museum, 
the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium, the Lincoln Park Zoo and 
Aquarium, the magic city of the Century of Progress Exposition grounds, 
the Historical Society's new museum; Hull House, where the melting pot 
is seen at work; the Board of Trade and its famous wheat pit; the Merchan- 
dise Mart and the National Broadcasting Company's super studios; Navy 
Pier, home of the lake bree2,es; the University of Chicago campus, with its 
mile and a quarter facade of Tudor Gothic; Northwestern University's 
Evanston and McKinlock campus; Buckingham Memorial Fountain, the 
Union Stockyards, the steel plants at Gary, the industrial town of Pullman, 
the Riding Club, home of Chicago's famous Black Horse Troop; the Tribune 
Tower, the North Shore suburbs. Fort Sheridan, and the Naval Training 
Academy at Great Lakes are among the '"'"sights" no visitor can afford 
to miss. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
State street, one of the world's greatest shopping thoroughfares. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



71 



AMEIklCAN 

OlYMPIC 

ASSOCIATION 




(Munllo Vhoto, St. Louis, Missouri) 

AVERY BRUNDAGE 

Mr. Brundage, president, Avery Brundage Company, general contractor, was born in 
Detroit, Michigan, September 28, 1887, the son of Charles and Amelia (Lloyd) Brundage 
When he was very young, his parents moved to Chicago; he attended primary school here, 
graduated from Chicago English High School, and entered the University of IHinois as a 
student in civil engineering. He completed his technical course, graduating in 1909. While 
at the University, he was a star track athlete. In 1915, after having spent six years as a 
superintendent and builder with various Chicago architects and contractors, he started in 
business for himself and in a short time became one of Chicago's leading contractors. 
Among the many buildings credited to Avery Brundage Company are the Shoreland 
Hotel, Ford Motor Company Chicago Plant, 3800 Sheridan Road apartment building, 
Canada Dry Ginger Ale Plant, lUinois Life Insurance Company and Pubhc Life Insurance 
Company office buildings, James S. Kirk Soap Works, 1448 Lake Shore Drive, and 1540 
Lake Shore Drive apartment buildings, Chicago Yacht Club, Garrett Bibhcal Institute, 
Sheridan-Brompton Apartments. River Forest (IHinois) Community House. 

Mr. Brundage continued his participation in athletics as a member of the Chicago 
Athletic Association track team and was a member of the Olympic team at the Games 
in Stockholm in 1912. As a member of the Cherry Circle team he won the amateur all- 
round championship in 1914, 1916, and 1918. After giving up track athletics, his interest 
turned to handball and he became one of the outstanding players of the United States. 
Following his days as a competing athlete he became interested in the administrative side 
and was elected vice-president of the Amateur Athletic Union, of the United States. He 
has been president since November, 1928. In November, 1930, he was elected president 
of the American Olympic Association, the highest office in amateur athletics in the United 
States. Mr. Brundage is also Vice-president of the International Amateur Athletic 
Federation and is chairman of the managing committee on sports for A Century of 
Progress, Chicago's (193 3) World's Fair, where it is expected the major sport events of 
the year 1933 will be conducted. He is a member of Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity, 
and among his club affiliations are Chicago Athletic, Illinois Athletic, Chicago Engineers, 
Knolhvood, and Chicago Yacht. 

On December 22, 1927, Mr. Brundage married Ehzabeth Dunlap, of Chicago. 



72 Chicago's accomplishments 

State street and Michigan avenue take rank among the world's greatest 
bazaar streets. 

A trip to Chinatown (preferably at night), to Little Italy, or to the 
Ghetto, with its picturesque Maxwell street market, will reveal colorful 
Oriental or Old'World pictures. 

From Navy Pier or from the other docks along the river, one may take 
an excursion boat to Milwaukee, Michigan City, South Haven, Grand 
Haven, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, or Holland. Smaller boats ply along 
the lake shore to Lincoln and Jackson Parks, or take parties out on the lake 
for moonlight dancing. 

At the Municipal Airport, Curtiss Field, or Sky Harbor, airplanes are 
available for sky tours of Chicago and its environs, and a dirigible is now 
making trips over the city and the Exposition grounds. 

Chicago is the home of two major league baseball clubs. During the 
summer, the pennant-winning Cubs may be seen in action at Wrigley field, 
or the White Sox at Cominsky Park on the South Side. 

Those who like to invest in the speed of horses will find four splendid 
racetracks in the Chicago area; Washington Park, where the American 
Derby, one of the classics of the turf, with its $50,000 purse, is run annually; 
Hawthorne, Lincoln Fields, at Crete, and Arlington Park, a few miles north' 
west of the city, where some of the most famous thoroughbreds in America 
run during the season. 

Soldier Field, its classic stadium seating more than 100,000 people, is the 
scene of many spectacles, athletic contests, and pageants, among them the 
British' American Track Meet, and the Post'Olympic Games. Here the great 
Eucharistic Congress was held in 1926. Here the ArmyNavy football game 
was played in the fall of the same year; here Notre Dame's warriors have 
battled the best Conference teams. Here Gene Tunney wrested from Jack 
Dempsey the world's heavyweight championship. At Soldier Field are held 
the annual Chicagoland Music Festivals and the spectacular Army Show. 

The best football in America is on view at Dyche Stadium in Evanston, 
the home of Northwestern's "Wildcats," and at Stagg Field, named in honor 
of the "Grand Old Man," coach of the University of Chicago's Maroons 
for forty years. 

An August attraction that lures many visitors, including Chicagoans, is 
the Cook County Fair, at the Fair Grounds at North avenue and River road. 
The Aurora Fair is another popular fall attraction. 

The International Livestock Show and Horse Show at Dexter Pavilion, 
with its marvelous displays of fat hogs, sheep, and cattle, and its dashing ex' 
hibitions of horsemanship, attracts thousands of spectators and fanciers. 

A season of old'fashioned revivahsm, with chicken dinners thrown in for 
good measure, is offered by the annual Methodist campmeeting at Desplaines. 

For winter sports, Chicago offers ice hockey and skating at the Stadium, 
and ski jumping at Gary, Illinois. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



73 



For all'yearTound amusements, such as opera, the theater, and dancing, 
Chicago is exceptionally well equipped. Some of the most gorgeous voices 
in the world are heard on the stage of the Chicago Civic Opera House and 
at the "Opera House in the Woods" at Ravinia. Orchestra Hall is the 
home of the famous Chicago Symphony Orchestra, whose concerts, under 
the baton of Frederick Stock, provide Chicago with the best in music. At 
Orchestra Hall and the Auditorium during the fall and winter season, as 
well as at the Goodman Theater and other smaller halls, concerts are given 
every Sunday by world-famous singers and virtuosos. Next to Broadway, 
Chicago's Rialto is the brightest in America. The public ballrooms are pala- 
tial; some of them as luxurious as the Petit Trianon at Versailles. Dinner 
dancing to the music of orchestras of nation-wide fame at the hotel cafes or 
night clubs is another popular diversion. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
Olympia Fields Country Club. Nimmons, Carr 6? Wright, architects. 

During the summer, the amusement parks, with their miles of scenic and 
"thrill" rides, their dance halls and outdoor vaudeville, their whirHgigs and 
chutes and sideshows attract merrymakers by the thousand. 

Of recent years Chicago has become water conscious. On a sultry day, 
its fifteen public bathing beaches, its sixty street-end beaches, and its chil- 
dren's wading pools are thronged with swimmers, splashers, and sun wor- 
shipers. 

The recreational facilities of Lincoln Park alone are ama2;ing. Here the 
fly-caster can test his skill, the trap shooter can bang away at clay pigeons, 
the archer can send his shafts speeding toward the target. In the lagoon, 



74 Chicago's accomplishments 

oarsmen, singly or in crews, train for the regatta in their racing shells. Chil- 
dren race their model yachts. Rowboats can be rented by the hour. There 
is a pony track for boys and girls, and there are bridle paths for more expert 
equestrians. There are diamonds for baseball; courts for croquet and tennis. 
One of the city's sportiest golf courses recently has been opened near the 
Waveland avenue entrance of the park. Diversey Beach offers an oppor- 
tunity to enjoy the swimming. One could easily, and without being bored, 
spend an entire two weeks', or even a longer, vacation in the park, exploring 
its miles of inviting paths, visiting the Academy of Science, the Historical 
Society's Museum, the zoo, the bird house, the conservatory, the aquarium; 
rowing, playing golf or tennis. 

Belmont Harbor shelters a fleet of motor boats and white-winged yachts, 
which on a fair day may be seen dancing far out on the sparkling waters of 
Chicago's inland sea. There are other yacht harbors in Jackson Park and 
Grant Park, and off Wilmette. 

Jackson Park invites the visitor to enjoy beach parties at the bathing 
beach or picnics on its rustic Wooded Isle, where the squirrels are so tame 
that they will climb on your shoulder and eat out of your hand. There is 
boating, and — in season — fishing in the lagoon. Golfers will find a nine and 
an eighteen hole course. Tennis players are accommodated on 100 clay 
and grass courts. The children's playground is equipped with everything 
the little folk could desire. Garfield, Humboldt, and Douglas Parks also 
offer many recreational facilities. 

While yachting has always been a popular sport in Chicago, and the 
many regattas have developed fine seamanship among its followers, outboard 
motorboat racing has of late attained a considerable vogue, the Burnham 
Park lagoon, off the Century of Progress Exposition grounds being a favorite 
course for the short'distance events. Longer races are held over a course 
from Milwaukee to Chicago. 

Including private clubs, public fee courses, and public courses in the 
parks and forest preserves, Chicago has more than 200 golf grounds. Those 
owned by the public are to be found in Lincoln, Jackson, Garfield, Columbus, 
and Marquette Parks, and in five of the forest preserve tracts — the Turnbull 
Woods tract, Glencoe; Harms Woods, Edgebrook, Palos, and Burnham. 

Chicago's miles of well'paved boulevards constitute a motorist's paradise. 
A drive of less than an hour will carry one out to the picturesque Dunelands, 
to the forest preserves girding the city, or along the beautiful North Shore, 
past the Northwestern University campus, the Marshall studio, the Baha'i 
temple. No Man's Land, a Coney Island in miniature; through the seques' 
tered suburbs of Kennilworth, Winnetka, Glencoe, and Highland Park, 
through deep ravines and glens, past golf courses and country clubs and 
private estates, to Fort Sheridan, Great Lakes, and Lake Forest. 

In the forest preserves, golf courses, swimming holes, baseball diamonds, 
picnic grounds, and camping sites will be found amid sylvan surroundings, 
along winding paths, and winding waterways. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



75 



1 >!•. 1'^ V 







(]. D. Toloff Photo, Evanston, III.) 



GLEN BUCK 



Mr. Buck, president of The Glen Buck Company, advertising agency, was born in Cedar 
Springs, Michigan, November 4, 1876, son of Judge Curtis Buck and Ehzabeth (McRae) 
Buck. He attended pubHc and high schools and later was a student at Lawrence Uni' 
versity and at Northwestern University from 1893 to 1897. He received the honorary 
degree of D. B. A. (Doctor of Business Administration) from Lawrence University in 
1929. In 1906 he married Anne E. Flaherty, of Chicago, and they have one daughter, 
P^ggy (Mrs. Albert Rixon Hansen). Mr. Buck became the owner and editor of 
the Park River (N. D.) News in 1898, and Gogebic Daily Journal, Ironwood, Mich- 
igan, in 1900; was with the Chicago Record, 1901; was advertising manager for Olds 
Motor Works during 1902; and was with Butler Brothers, Chicago, from 1903 to 1909. 
He established the present advertising firm of The Glen Buck Company in 1909 and 
is now its president. He has handled some of the largest advertising campaigns in 
America, particularly for the Ford, Lincoln, Packard, and Stutz automobiles, the Mimeo' 
graph, Sheatfer pens. Phoenix hosiery. He wrote the first electric refrigeration and 
air'craft advertising appearing in national publications, and was one of the first regular 
advertising managers employed in the automobile field. During the World War he was 
employed by the United States Government as a writer of propaganda and general 
publicity. 

Mr. Buck is a trustee of the Evanston Public Library and a life member of the 
Audubon Society and American Game Protective Association. His clubs arc Cliff 
Dwellers, Union League (Chicago), Evanston, and Glenview Golf. His recreations arc 
ornithology and book'collecting. He lectures on business subjects and is the author of 
"Trademark Power" (1916), "This American Ascendency" (1927), "The Cost of Con- 
fusion" (1929), also many other books. 



76 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO^S GROWING LEADERSHIP IN PRINTING, 
PUBLISHING AND ADVERTISING 

A One-third Billion Dollar Industry that Ranks First in Chicago 

in Number of Employees 

BY ERNEST T. GUNDLACH 

AT the beginning of the present century, Chicago ranked a modest third 
or fourth in the field of printing, publishing, and advertising. Chi' 
cago's daily newspapers were published in editions of ten or twelve, some' 
times eight pages; when a sixteen'page issue ran oif the press, it was a red 
letter day. 

New York was, of course, America's printing and publishing center. 
The greatest dailies, the largest number of magazines, the big printing es' 
tablishments, and, with two exceptions, the leading advertising agencies, 
were concentrated in that city. Philadelphia ranked second; it was the home 
of several of the best daily newspapers in America; of the Ladies' Home 
Journal, then already the leader in its field, and of the N. W. Ayer Agency, 
at that time by far the largest advertising agency in America, and still today, 
in 1932, one of the three outstanding leaders. Boston was then a conspicu' 
ous factor in the publication of school books and in various types of printing. 

All three of these cities have grown greatly in publishing, printing, and 
advertising, during the past thirty years. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

Chicago's new POSTOFFICE — world's largest postal building contains every convenience and 

detail for the handling of mail that it is possible for human ingenuity to provide. 

Graham, Anderson, Probst 62? White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



77 



BUCKLEY. 
DEMENT 
' G- CO. • 

'J) i red Mad 
^thieri i s in o 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo, J^ew forX) 

HOMER J. BUCKLEY 

Mr. Buckley, president, Buckley, Dement &' Company, was born in Rock Island County, 
Illinois, March 16, 1879, son of John A. and Mary (Sullivan) Buckley. He attended St. 
Ignatius College and Bryant &? Stratton Business College, Chicago. He began as a 
messenger at Marshall Field & Company in 1891, working there until 1905 as cash boy, 
shipping clerk and finally as manager of circular advertising and the foUoW'up system, 
under H. Gordon Selfridge. In 1905 he organized Buckley, Dement 6? Company, of 
which he is now president. This organization, one of the largest direct mail houses in 
the country, does business for advertisers in all parts of the United States and Canada. 
It employs 400 people and occupies its own six-story building. 

Mr. Buckley is a pioneer in organized advertising, being one of the charter members 
of the Advertising Club of Chicago and a member of the organization committee for the 
first convention of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World. He is the founder of 
the Direct Mail Advertising Association, of which organization he is now an honorary 
vice-president; is president of the National Council of Business Mail Users; and former 
chairman of the Advertising Council of Chicago. He is chairman of the committee on 
public information and trustee of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair. 
He is a director of the Illinois Manufacturers' Association and a director of the Fidelity 
Investment Association (Wheeling, West Virginia). Mr. Buckley is on the staff of the 
following schools: Cleveland Advertising School, New York Advertising School, Y. M. 
C. A. School of Commerce, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, and Notre 
Dame University. He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce (executive 
committee) and belongs to the following clubs: Union League, Irish Fellowship, Chicago 
Athletic Association, and Butterfield Country (director). He is the author of Science of 
Marketing by Mail, 1924. 

Mr. Buckley married Lucile Kathleen Wallace of New York City, September 23, 
1908. They have one daughter, Marihelyn. 



78 Chicago's accomplishments 

But it was shortly after the beginning of the century that Chicago put 
on seven'league boots. 

In that time, the printing business made the greatest strides of any 
Chicago industry. From an annual volume of $40,000,000 to $50,000,000, 
the total value of products had expanded by 1929 to nearly one-third bil' 
lion dollars. This refers exclusively to printing, publishing, and advertising 
without allied industries. Think of it! Nearly 333 million dollars in one 
year within the limits of the Chicago area. Accurate figures since the last 
census are not as yet available. There has been, of course, a large reduction 
in volume, though not in the same ratio as in various other industries. In 
number of employees in Chicago, printing and publishing still ranks first. 

Today Chicago has the largest printing plants in the country; it has 
the greatest linotype plants, the most completely equipped binderies, the 
largest composing rooms, and the largest plants for map printing. 

In the last few years, one by one, magadnes edited in New York have 
come here for their printing work. Many a periodical, bearing a New York 
address, comes to you from a Chicago printing plant. Catalogs and booklets 
of the great mail order houses, having an annual circulation of more than 
120,000,000 a year, together with innumerable special circulars, are prod- 
ucts of Chicago presses. 

There are more presses for color printing here than in any other city 
in the United States. Unique edition bookwork has been growing extens- 
ively. And in general, there is a larger number of highly speciali2;ed print- 
ing plants in this city than in any other in the world. 

Furthermore, Chicago stands at, or near, the top in the manufacture 
of printing presses and of other printing machinery. Newspapers from New 
England to California and in Europe use Chicago-made presses. 

In the field of publishing, Chicago is one of the leading cities, though 
not the leader. Two of Chicago's dailies have been known for a generation 
as being among America's most consistent successes, The Chicago Tri- 
bune and the Chicago Daily News. The Chicago American is said to rank 
near the top in the long list of Hearst papers as a profit-maker. The Herald 
6? Examiner and the Tribune have Sunday circulations of about a million 
each. The Illustrated Times came up within one and one-half years to over 
160,000 circulation. There is also the Chicago Journal of Commerce, 
which is read by business executives not only in Chicago but throughout 
the country. In addition, there are about forty foreign language news- 
papers. 

Several good monthlies are published and printed in Chicago; also many 
of the leading trade journals, both monthlies and weeklies. There are more 
than two hundred of these technical publications. The Agricultural Pub- 
lishers' Association, embracing the farm papers from coast to coast, main- 
tains its headquarters in Chicago. Some of the largest book publishing 
organizations in the country are located here. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



79 







EDWARD J. BULLOCK 

Mr. Bullock, vice-president and director of the Standard Oil Company 
(Indiana) since 1922, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, September 16, 1873, 
and is the son of John and Eiiziabeth (Davis) Bullock. He attended the 
public schools of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and started earning his living in 
the Milwaukee office of the Standard Oil Company (Indiana). In 1904 he 
was transferred to the Chicago office of the company, where a few years 
later he was promoted to the position of manager of all sales for the Chicago 
Division. Today, in addition to other duties, he supervises all purchases, 
which run into millions of dollars annually. 

Mr. Bullock has held office of president of the Oak Park Club. He is 
a member of the Union League, Oak Park, Oak Park Country, River Forest 
Country, and River Forest Tennis clubs, Ohio Society of Chicago, and of 
many fraternal organizations and civic enterprises. He is interested in golf 
and all other outdoor sports. 

On July 12, 1904, he married Cora Ardelia Wells, of Portage, Wisconsin, 
(deceased), and is the father of four children, John, Miriam, Elizabeth, 
and Grace. 



80 Chicago's accomplishments 

In the field of advertising, Chicago ranks second to New York. It is 
significant that the majority of the associations working for the good of 
advertising were originated in this city. The Agate Club of Chicago is said 
to be the first advertising club in the world. It was organi2,ed in 1893. A 
few years later, the National Advertising Association was formed here. 
Out of this grew the Associated Advertising Clubs of the world. Their 
first convention was held in this city. 

The American Association of Advertising Agencies had its germ in 
Chicago. The plan was initiated by the late Stanley Clague in 1912. The 
Association has developed into a strong organi2,ation advocating higher 
ethics in publicity. 

The Audit Bureau of Circulation was founded in Chicago in 1914; and 
it was again Mr. Clague who originated the idea. This Audit Bureau has 
been of inestimable value to the advertising business. In fact, it has revolu' 
tionized our attitude toward ''space buying." The Bureau has established 
faith in circulation statements and in exact values, also to a large degree, 
as to equality of rates to all advertisers. 

The Financial Advertisers' Association maintains its central office in 
Chicago. There are various other organi2,ations and affiliated associations 
with headquarters in this Central Western City. 

There are about 160 partly and fully recognized general agencies in 
Chicago and their total volume ranks second among the cities of this coun' 
try. The leading eastern agencies all maintain branches in Chicago, some 
of them with large forces. 

The general offices and the main plant of the greatest outdoor adver' 
tising concern in the world are located in Chicago. The making of outdoor 
and window displays in various processes has become a large industry. There 
are a great number of oil paint, lithograph, offset, and rotogravure plants 
here. Street car advertising in Chicago represents a monthly circulation of 
approximately 125,000,000 car riders. 

The manufacturers of advertising specialties in Chicago are said to have 
an annual output in excess of $30,000,000. The Advertising Specialty As' 
sociation maintains its headquarters in this city. Some of the largest direct 
mail organizations are also located here. Outstanding among them is Buck' 
ley. Dement 6? Company, the foremost direct advertising organization in 
the world. 

It is not the writer's desire to pile Olympus on Parnassus, but the im' 
pression of hugeness grows when we delve into statistics on the electric 
sign business, on specialty manufacture for point'of-sale material, and on 
the volume of a variety of industries otherwise allied to publishing, printing, 
and advertising. 



Chicago's accomplishments 81 

CHICAGO AS A MEDICAL CENTER 
How the Health of the People is Safeguarded 

BY DR. EDWARD H. OCHSNER 

MANY factors are involved in the consistent growth and development of 
a great city like Chicago. Natural advantages of location, and adc 
quate transportation facilities are not enough to insure a city's permanence. 
Sanitary provisions and medical supervision in the interests of public health 
are essential if any large community is to endure. For these, the medical 
profession is in large measure responsible. 

Chicago has been fortunate from the start in having capable, farsighted, 
public'spirited physicians who have taken pride in their city and have done 
everything possible to safeguard the health of its inhabitants. 

As was so often the case in frontier settlements, a doctor was one of the 
first white men to locate in the straggling little community that grew into 
Chicago. He was Dr. William C. Smith, and he arrived in 1803 as the first 
post surgeon at Fort Dearborn. He remained five years, looking after the 
health of the garrison and attending to such private practice as offered. He 
was succeeded by Dr. John Cooper, who in turn was succeeded by Dr. Isaac 
Van Voorhees in 1811. 

Dr. Van Voorhees, who was among the victims of the Fort Dearborn 
massacre the following year, is described by one of his contemporaries as ''a 
young man of unusual breadth of vision and loftiness of ideals." That he 
had a prophetic vision is indicated by a letter which he wrote to a friend a 
few months after his arrival here. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
SPIRES OF BUSINESS 



82 Chicago's accomplishments 

'In my solitary walks/' he wrote, "I contemplate what a great, powerful 
republic will arise in this new world. Here, I say, will be the seat of millions 
yet unborn, the asylum of oppressed thousands yet to come.'"" 

In the Indian massacre of August 15, 1812, the entire white population 
was wiped out, the few survivors being scattered, and only three families, 
the Ouilmettes, the Du Pins, and the Beaubiens, were found living in the 
neighborhood when Capt. Hezekiah Bradley, U. S. A., arrived in 1816 with 
two companies of infantry to build a new fort on the ruins of the old. 

The tomahawk and the scalping knife, however, were not the only perils 
the early settlers had to face. Located on marshy ground so shghtly ele- 
vated above the lake level as to provide practically no drainage, the com- 
munity for many years suffered from epidemics of malaria, small-pox, chol- 
era, diphtheria, enteritis, and typhoid fever. 

The settlement was without a physician for some time, but in 1820, 
Dr. Alexander Wolcott was appointed Indian agent here, and combined the 
practice of medicine with his official duties. 

On several occasions, cholera threatened to destroy the entire settlement. 
Severe visitations of this scourge occurred in 1832 and 1833. In 1837, 
shortly after the first municipal election, a board of health was organized, 
consisting of Dr. J. W. Eldredge, D. Cox, and A. N. Fullerton. Dr. Daniel 
Brainard was appointed health officer. One of the first duties of this board 
was to deal with the cholera situation. 

In 1849, after a brief respite, the dread disease, brought to Chicago by 
a traveler from New Orleans, broke out in an unusually virulent form, and 
in that year, out of a population of 23,000, six hundred and seventy-eight 
cholera victims were buried. It was four years before the disease was again 
temporarily stamped out. It recurred, however, in 1856, and again in 1866, 
when it caused 990 deaths. The board of health, which had been disbanded, 
was reorganized, and a successful campaign was waged against the plague. 
Drainage of the swampy areas not only banished cholera, but greatly re- 
duced the death rate from malaria, a disease virtually unknown in the Chi- 
cago region today. Smallpox, which had taken heavy tolls, especially in 
1848 and 1859, was gradually brought under control by vaccination. 

But as the city grew in population, typhoid fever and enteritis became 
more and more prevalent, constituting a serious menace not only to the 
health, well-being, and lives of its citizens, but to the growth and develop- 
ment of the city itself. The wastes of the city, street washings, building 
sewage, refuse from the slaughter houses, distilleries, and rendering plants, 
were turned into the lake, causing the contamination of the source of drink- 
ing water. By 1870, the range of impurity extended a mile out from the 
shore, half way to the crib, and it was evident that remedial measures were 
imperative. 

The Illinois and Michigan Canal was deepened so as to draw the water 
from the lake, but the pumps which kept the water flowing were inadequate, 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



83 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
A BRILLIANT PAGEANT OF LIGHT 

especially in times of flood, when the accumulated sewage would be backed 
up, and the situation would become intolerable. 

In 1891, Chicago, with a population of approximately 1,000,000, lost 
1,997 persons by death from typhoid fever, while some 15,000 were in- 
capacitated for months because of this disease. Enteritis wrought almost as 
much havoc, the majority of its victims being children. 

During the late 'SO's, the medical profession came to the conclusion that 
typhoid and enteritis were largely water-borne diseases, caused by pollution 
of drinking water with sewage. Another serious attempt to overcome these 
scourges took the direction of extending the water tunnels farther out into 
the lake. One tunnel, completed in 1894, extended out five miles from shore. 
This greatly reduced the number of typhoid cases, but the medical profession 
soon realised that even this precautionary measure would not suffice so long 
as the city continued to grow and to pour its ever increasing volume of waste 
into Lake Michigan. 

As the result of agitation started by the medical men, the Sanitary Dis- 
trict was created in 1890, the trustees of which were commissioned to build 
a new canal, and to make the Chicago River flow backwards. This monu- 
mental undertaking — comparable to the construction of the Sue2; Canal — 
was begun in 1892 and completed in 1900 at a cost of approximately $70,- 
000,000. Some 15 miles of the canal were cut through solid rock. With 
the opening of the canal, the death rate in Chicago fell off significantly; 
typhoid and enteritis became almost negHgible. 



84 Chicago's accomplishments 

The longer intake tunnels, together with the Drainage Canal, soon gave 
Chicago the reputation of being one of the healthiest cities of its class in the 
world. While the death rate from typhoid in 1891 was 173.8 per 100,000 
population, it dropped so rapidly after these sanitary improvements had been 
installed, that in 1901 it was only 29.1 per 100,000. It remained at about 
this figure, varying somewhat from year to year, and no further improve' 
ment occurred until it was discovered that certain foods, such as milk and 
green vegetables, sometimes were contaminated, and that the lake was still 
being polluted by sewage poured into it from the suburbs to the north and 
south of Chicago. 

Chlorination at the intakes was now instituted. This, with regular in- 
spection and control of the milk supply, further cut down deaths from en- 
teritis and typhoid until in 1931, the low of 0.4 per 100,000 from the latter 
disease was attained. 

Chlorination of the drinking water is, however, only a makeshift, and 
already the Drainage Canal, despite its extensions, is becoming inadequate 
to carry off all the sewage. The problem now before the medical profession, 
and the authorities, local, state, and national, is how best and most eco- 
nomically to treat sewage not only in Chicago, but in every other center of 
population, and how to keep our inland waters unpolluted. 

In the field of m.edical education, as well as in the field of preventive 
and curative medicine, Chicago's physicians have added to the prestige of 
the city. 

Chicago today has three great medical centers; one on the West Side, in 
the vicinity of the Cook County Hospital; one on the South Side, on the 
University of Chicago campus; one on the North Side, on the McKinlock 
campus of Northwestern University. 

To the vision of Dr. Daniel Brainard Chicago is indebted for its oldest 
and most famous medical school. Largely through his efforts. Rush Medical 
College obtained its charter in 1837. The school was opened in 1843 in 
rented quarters, but a year later moved into its own building, a one-story 
brick and stone structure at Dearborn and Indiana streets (Dearborn street 
and Grand avenue) representing an investment of $3,500. 

Dr. Brainard not only was an outstanding teacher of anatomy and 
surgery, but he had the personality which attracted to him other men of 
high standing. Thus he was able to secure for his faculty such representative 
men as Dr. James V. Z. Blaney, Dr. N. S. Davis, Dr. Austin Flint, Dr. M. L. 
Knapp, and Dr. John McLean. Dr. Blaney occupied the chair of chemistry 
and materia medica; Dr. Knapp taught obstetrics; Dr. McLean, theory and 
practice. Dr. Davis was the organiser of the American Medical Society. 
Dr. Flint was the originator of the Principle of Ethics of the American 
Medical Association. 

It was at Rush Medical College that "laughing gas" was first adminis- 
tered, in 1847, and that chloroform was first used in Chicago as an anesthetic 
in a surgical operation. 



Chicago's accomplishments 85 

Efficient medical teaching and medical service to the public required, 
in addition to capable practitioners, adequate hospitals. Here again, public 
spirited and far'sighted laymen have cooperated with the members of the 
medical profession. 

In 1848, a charter for an "lUinois General Hospital" was taken out by 
a group of Rush Medical College professors, and in 1850, a hospital of 
twelve beds was opened at Rush and North Water streets, the only institU' 
tion of its kind in a city that was far from being a health resort. A year 
later, it was turned over to the Sisters of Mercy, and during the Civil War, 
Mercy Hospital, as it was then known, was the only pubHc hospital in Chi' 
cago. It was located at that time in Wabash avenue near Van Buren street, 
but in 1866 moved to its present site at 26th street and Prairie avenue. 

The County Hospital, a model of its kind, and the largest in the world, 
is an outgrowth of a small hospital established by Dr. McVicker, when he 
was commissioner of health, in 1853. In 1866, during the cholera epidemic 
of that year, it came under its present management. 

This hospital has grown steadily and served thousands of poor. Its 
clinics, presided over by talented and brilliant specialists, have attracted 
students and physicians from all parts of the world. Many of the foremost 
medical men of the United States have received their early training at this 
institution. 

Later years have seen the establishment of many private and semi'private 
hospitals, more than 100 in number — Passavant, Wesley Memorial, the 
Lying'In, the McCormick Children's hospital, St. Luke's are among those 
that come first to mind. All these hospitals are magnificently equipped, and 
have been giving excellent service to thousands of patients annually. 

Chicago has been indeed fortunate in having had and still having so 
many outstanding general practitioners, specialists, research workers, and 
medical teachers. The John B. Murphy Memorial is a monument only to 
one physician who has contributed to the betterment of Chicago. 

Chicago has been fortunate in having had and still having splendid 
medical schools and hospitals. It has every reason to be proud and grateful 
to these men and these institutions for the services they have rendered to 
the community. Without such institutions and without these medical men 
or others of the same professional accomplishments and civic pride, Chicago 
could never have risen to the enviable position which she holds today. The 
past and present bespeak an even more glorious future. 

CHICAGO AS A PHARMACEUTICAL CENTER 

Since the World War, Chicago has come forward rapidly as a manu' 
facturing center for medical chemicals and fine pharmaceutical products, 
used and prescribed by the medical profession. 

During the years 1914 to 1918, when the import supply of medicinal 
chemicals was cut off, the Abbott Laboratories, of Chicago, was requested 
by the Government to enter this field. A research staff was organised at 



86 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



that time under the direction of Dr. Alfred S. Burdick, and a number of 
medicinal chemicals, never before manufactured in this country, were made 
available to the medical profession and to hospitals. Such products included 
the Dakin antiseptics, Chlorazene and DichloramincT, Barbital, Acriflavine, 
Procaine and Cinchophen. 

In 1922, the Dermatological Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, the 
first to manufacture arsenical preparations in this country, was purchased 
by the Abbott Laboratories. Later the Jno. T. MiUiken Company, of St. 
Louis, and the Swan-Myers Company, of Indianapolis, were also acquired. 





ABBOTT LABORATORIES, NORTH CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 

This company now owns twenty-four acres of manufacturing property 
in North Chicago, where its main plant is located. All wholesale and retail 
druggists in the United States now sell the Abbott pharmaceutical products 
and their distribution is world-wide. 

The superior rail and water shipping facilities of Chicago have led other 
pharmaceutical companies to maintain their plants in the Chicago area. 
Notable among these are G. D. Searle 6? Co., Chicago Pharmacal Com- 
pany, Wilson Laboratories, Bauer & Black, and Petrolagar. All leading 
pharmaceutical manufacturers in the United States find it necessary to 
maintain branches and stocks in Chicago. 

The medical schools of the University of Chicago, the University of 
Illinois, and Northwestern University, with their affiliated hospitals, research 
laboratories, and clinics, have done much to put Chicago into the forefront 
of medical and pharmaceutical activity. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



87 





■VsS8*<S>*iV->- _?■■-■ 





-*«.^. 


•#■ 


^ 


^i^ ^ 


* "f*- 




,^C^' 


^M^ 
^^«. 


Ji, 


•...;-.^ 


:f^.. 



(Moffett'Russdl Photo) 

DR. ALFRED S. BURDICK 

Dr. Burdick, president of Abbott Laboratories, manufacturers of pharmaceutical and 
biological specialties of the Abbott, Swan-Myers, and Dermatological Research Labora- 
tories, was born in DeRuyter, New York, February 15, 1867, son of Rev. Stephen and 
Susan (Maxson) Burdick. He received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Alfred 
University in 1886 and his M. D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree at Rush Medical College, 
Chicago, in 1891. He started a general practice of medicine at Dunlap, Illinois, later 
practicing at Tampa, Florida, and Hinsdale, Illinois, and was associate professor in the 
practice of medicine at Illinois Medical College from 1899 to 1904. 

Dr. Burdick became vice-president and assistant general manager of Abbott Labora- 
tories in 1916 and in 1921 became president and general manager, which position he 
now holds. The Abbott Laboratories, with executive offices and main plant at North 
Chicago, Illinois, also controls the Dermatological Research Laboratories at Philadelphia 
and Abbott Laboratories, Limited, of Montreal, Canada. Dr. Burdick was a member of 
the Selective Service Board number 59 in Chicago from 1917 to 1919. He was a 
member of the board of governors, 1922 to 1929, and vice-president, 1923 to 1924, 
of the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers' Association; was president of the 
American Drug Manufacturers' Association from 1923 to 1925. He has been a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel in the Medical Reserve Corps, United States Army, since 1923. He 
wrote Standard Medical Manual in 1904, The Remedy in 1915, and Common Emerg- 
encies in 1915. He was editor of Medical Standard from 1899 to 1904 and American 
Journal of Clinical Medicine from January, 1904 to 1931. He is a member of the 
American, Illinois State, and Chicago medical societies, and American Medical Editors' 
Association. His clubs are City, Chemists of Chicago, and Chemists of New York. 

On July 9, 1891, Dr. Burdick married Ella Grace Brown of West Hallock, Illinois. 



88 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



LOOKING FORWARD TO 1950 
How the Regional Planning Association is Anticipating the Future 

BY DANIEL H. BURNHAM 
President, Chicago Regional Planning Association 

THE automobile, the railway, and the telephone, bringing the delights 
of country life to city workers, have made possible Chicago's wonder 
ful suburban development. Towns and villages once isolated are today a 
part of Greater Chicago. Air transportation, still in its infancy, may spread 
the city out still farther. 

Chicago grew too fast during the 19th century. Like most American 
cities, she grew like Topsy. The most serious problem confronting the city 
in those days was that of drainage, and because of the inadequacy of drain- 
age facilities, Chicago was swept by repeated epidemics of cholera, typhoid, 
and small'pox. Again, nobody could look ahead and forsee the skyscraper 
and the automobile. Had it been possible in the days before steel and con- 
Crete construction and the internal combustion engine to forecast the future, 
and to plan for future needs, Chicago's downtown streets would have been 
much wider. A comprehensive thoroughfare system, such as is materializing 
today, could have been laid out years in advance. 

Chicago keeps on growing, and will continue to grow. She has a future 
that gives one a thrill to contemplate. But far-seeing men are looking for- 
ward to that future and anticipating the needs of the community in the 




7*^ 




{Trowbridge Photo) 
A home in Lake Forest, lUinois. 
Russell Walcott, architect. 



(Trowbridge Photo) 
A home in Lake Forest, Illinois. 
Walcott and Work, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



89 




im ii if'/ it. 



>4 i 

II 



i 5 !»?-. , 










(Loubell Studios Photo) 



DANIEL H. BURNHAM 

Mr. Burnham, vice-president and secretary of A Century of Progress Exposition, Chi- 
cago's (1933) World's Fair and president of the Chicago Regional Planning Association, 
was born in Chicago, February 22, 1886, son of Daniel H., to whose genius not only 
Chicago, but American architecture owes it renaissance, and Margaret S. (Sherman) 
Burnham. He received his education in the Evanston grammar and high schools, and in the 
Middlesex School, Concord, Massachusetts. After completing a special course in archi- 
tecture at Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard University, he became a partner in his 
father's firm, D. H. Burnham and Company, in Chicago. On the death of his father, 
in 1912, Mr. Burnham became a partner in the firm of Graham, Burnham and Company, 
but in 1917, he reestablished the original firm, the name of which was changed later to 
Burnham Brothers, Inc. 

In such structures as the Bankers' Building, the Carbide and Carbon Building, and the 
Burnham Building, Mr. Burnham has given Chicago some excellent examples of Twen- 
tieth Century architecture, while his departures in the Century of Progress buildings 
have been even more daring. It is significant that the son of the chief architect of the 
World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago's first World's Fair, should be largely responsible 
for the architecture and design of the World's Fair of 1933. The Chicago Plan, the 
conception of the senior Burnham, which has resulted in such improvements as Wacker 
Drive, North Michigan avenue, and the reclamation of the Lake front, have gone forward 
in recent years under the Chicago Plan Commission of which Mr. Burnham is a member. 
He is a member of the American Institute of Architects, the Illinois Society of Architects, 
the Western Society of Engineers, the Chicago Commercial, Union League, University, 
Cliff Dwellers, and Commonwealth clubs. 

Mr. Burnham was married, June 21, 1913, to Helen Otis of Chicago. They have two 
children, Daniel H. Ill, and Spencer Ottis. 



90 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



years to come. Thus, it is possible to plan improvements that will mean a 
vast saving of money; to carry out a Zioning program that will conserve real 
estate values and at the same time provide for industrial development; to set 
aside grounds for recreational uses and for rights of way before land prices 
have gone skyrocketing, and above all, to provide for arterial highways radi' 
ating from the Loop. The object of planning such improvements far in ad- 
vance is to avoid, so far as possible, the mistakes of the past — costly mistakes, 
such as granting to the Illinois Central railroad the right of way along 
Chicago's lake front, which fortunately, though at a tremendous cost, has 
been reclaimed by the extension of the shore line. 




A home in Winnetka, Illinois. 



(Trowbridge Photo) 
Russell Walcott, architect. 



Place the point of a giant compass at State and Madison streets and de- 
scribe a circle with a 50'mile radius. You will have a fan-like land area 
reaching out into the adjacent states of Indiana and Wisconsin, and embrac 
ing not only all of Cook county, but fifteen counties, three in Indiana, three 
in Wisconsin, and nine in lUinois. 

This is the metropolitan area, and it is filling up with residents at the rate 
of more than a million every decade. It is evident that the soundness of this 
population growth and the success of the industries within the Chicago area 
are dependent on the proper physical provisions for this increase, and that 
such provisions must look far into the future. 

If the present population trends hold constant, this area, in which 280 
cities and villages are located, will have by 1950 between 7,500,000 and 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



91 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo, T^ew York) 

HUBERT BURNHAM 

Mr. Burnham, architect, son of Daniel Hudson Burnham and Margaret 
(Sherman) Burnham, was born in Chicago, September 7, 1882. He is a 
graduate of the Chicago Manual Training School and the Phillips Academy, 
Andover, Massachusetts. He attended the United States Naval Academy, 
graduating in 1905, and graduated from the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 
France, in 1912. Upon his return to America in 1910 he became a member 
of the firm of D. H. Burnham and Company (founded by his father), of 
Chicago. In 1912 the firm name was changed to Graham, Burnham and 
Company and so remained until 1917 when it was re-established as D. H. 
Burnham and Company to be changed in 1928 to Burnham Brothers, Inc. 
Mr. Burnham served as a Ueutenant in the United States Navy during the 
World War and did aviation construction work in France for fourteen 
months. The Burnham organization has planned and been architects for 
some of Chicago's most beautiful buildings, including the Carbide and 
Carbon Building, Bankers Building, Engineering Building, Burnham Build- 
ing, as well as many other buildings throughout the country. 

Mr. Burnham is a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects, a 
member of the Illinois Society of Architects, Society of Beau.x Arts Archi- 
tects, and Chicago Architectural Club. His clubs are University, Cliff Dwell- 
ers, Chicago, Glenview, and Indian Hill. He is a member of the Architec- 
tural Commission of Chicago's 1933 World's Fair. 

On June 24, 1908, he married Vivian Cameron, of Washington, D. C. 



92 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 






m 


^ arm 



A bank in Evanston, Illinois. 
Childs 6?" Smith, architects. 



A school in Evanston, Illinois. 
Childs 6? Smith, architects. 



8,000,000 inhabitants, more than twice as many as shown by the 1920 
census figures. 

Chicago, it is estimated, will have a population of 4,500,000 and Cook 
county, of 5,300,000. For this tremendous population, and in exact relation 
to it, many facilities must be provided, such as streets and highways, parks, 
forest preserves, sewers, sewage treatment plants, water works, electric 
power, gas, and telephone systems. 

Working quietly in the Chicago area is a rapidly growing force of re' 
gional planners set in motion and supported by public officials and business 
men in every part of the region. This force is fast bringing together and 
coordinating the many local plans for future development, both public and 
private; and out of them it is forming a number of comprehensive programs 
for orderly and systematic growth. 

This body is known as the Chicago Regional Planning Association. Co' 
operating with it are local authorities, public utilities executives, and others 
whose interests are bound up in the future development of Greater Chicago. 
These men are contributing their time and thought not only to the shaping 
of sound policies and definite plans, but also to carrying them out by actual 
construction. 

The problem of sanitation, water supply, and drainage in the Chicago 
area is one which will affect the future population to a greater degree than 
any other factor. Roads can be built, districts can be zoned, parks can be 
laid out; but unless adequate provision is made for supplying the residents 
of this region with clean, pure water, and adequate means for the treatment 
and disposal of sewage, the capacity of the land in this congested segment 
will be definitely Hmited. 

Already there are towns and villages close to the metropolis whose water 
supplies are inadequate, although they are within a few miles of the inex' 
haustible supply provided by Lake Michigan. Engineers, representatives of 
industries, members of city and village councils have in hand the task of 
building the works that will secure satisfactory water for the areas to be 
populated during the coming decades. 

Under the direction of a regional committee on highways, which in- 
cludes federal, state, county, and municipal officials, a comprehensive map 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



93 




(Mof^ett-Russell Photo) 



OLIVER M. BURTON 

Mr. Burton, president and treasurer of the Burton-Dixie Corporation, manu' 
facturers of box springs, mattresses, pillows, automobile seat cushions and 
aUied hnes, is the son of John and EHzabeth Lucy (Long) Burton, and was 
born in Geneva, Illinois, on March 18, 1877. He received his education in 
the Chicago public schools and business colleges. He began his active busi' 
ness career with his father in 1895; became secretary and treasurer of the 
Oliver M. Burton Company in 1899 and has been president and treasurer 
since 1905'. The name of the company is now the Burton-Dixie Corporation. 

He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, IHinois Manu' 
facturers' Association, Chicago Association of Credit Men, and his clubs are 
Chicago Athletic, Racquet, Indian Hill in Chicago, and the Detroit Athletic, 
of which he is a non-resident member. 

Mr. Burton married Ann J. Tatham, of Chicago, on October 20, 1909. 



94 Chicago's accomplishments 

was prepared showing the paved highways and those expected to be paved 
by every state and county in the region. The next step was to plan for the 
connection of existing and proposed paved routes at state and county hnes 
where breaks occurred. The third step was to bring city and village officials 
into touch with state and county executives so that the former might co' 
ordinate their street plans to dovetail with the county and state programs. 

During the few years in which the Regional Planning Association has 
been active, the highway systems of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin have 
been so coordinated as to develop a system of more than 3,000 miles of 
paved road with few hiatuses between one county and another or at the lines 
dividing the states. Much of the existing mileage has been widened from 
eighteen and twenty foot lanes to multiple traffic lanes of forty feet or more. 

Street and highway plans have been made for the future which already 
are materializing in a comprehensive system of boulevards, parkways, and 
forestways. More than 150 miles of boulevard rights of way 200 feet in 
width have been ceded by private property owners in accordance with this 
plan. In Cook county the Forest Preserve Commissioners have been ac 
quiring broad belts of land as connecting links between isolated forest pre 
serves so that the tracts may be extended into a unified system. In these 
new belts will be laid trails, bridle paths, and eventually driveways. On the 
other broad rights of way, pavement is to be laid as needed. Trees will be 
planted along the boulevards wherever possible. As the communities grow, 
the arteries of traffic will have been provided for at far less expense and in 
more favorable locations than would have been the case if they had to be 
widened or opened after the area had been built up. 

Carefully watching the development of the region, the 2,oning authorities 
of the municipalities, as well as the county authorities, have been planning 
sufficient industrial areas for the future, properly located so as to preserve 
adequate and attractive residential districts. Chicago and its environs are 
essentially industrial, and plenty of industrial sites must be set aside in order 
that the region may maintain its supremacy in this respect. 

Essential in 2,oning is the maintenance of some areas for strictly single 
family use, others for apartment buildings, and still others for retail business, 
all being tributary to the industrial areas. A correct balance of such zones 
is the objective of the committee of experts which makes up the zoning de' 
partment of the association. 

The Airways Committee is made up of practical flyers who are familiar 
with the needs of aviation in the region. These men have located approxi' 
mately 200 landing field sites in the fifteen counties. It is obvious that there 
will hardly be a call for that many airports in this territory for many years 
to come, but the sites have been "spotted'' so that the best of them may be 
acquired at minimum expense for future development. Engineers have pre' 
pared detailed maps of each of these potential landing fields so as to expedite 
the development of private airports. Large, well'equipped airports along all 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



95 




(Louhdl Studios, Photo) 



PAUL BUTLER 



Mr. Butler, vice-president of the J. W. Butler Paper Company and of Butler Paper Cor- 
porations, Chicago, was born in Chicago, June 23, 1892, son of Frank O. and Fannie 
(Bremaker) Butler. He was in the class of 1916 at the University of Illinois. Mr. 
Butler is also president of the Butler Paper Company (Denver); Southwestern Paper 
Company (Fort Worth); Pacific Coast Paper Company (San Francisco); and South- 
western Paper Company (Houston). He is a director of the Missouri-Interstate Paper 
Company (Kansas City); Butler Paper Company (Detroit); Southwestern Paper Com- 
pany (Dallas); Standard Paper Company (Milwaukee); Sierra Paper Company (Los An- 
geles); and Butler Brothers Development Company, Butler Company, and Central Waxed 
Paper Company, all of Chicago. He is chairman of the board of directors of McClellan 
Paper Company, Minneapolis. 

Mr. Butler served as a lieutenant in the air service of the United States Army during 
the World War and as civilian aide to the Secretary of War from 1928 to 1932. He is 
Commander of Chicago Black Horse Troop Reserve, Headquarters Troop, 160th Cavalry. 
He is a member of the Art Institute of Chicago, Field Museum, Chicago Historical 
Society, Society of Colonial Wars, and Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. He is a director of 
American Sentinels and American Citizenship Foundation. His clubs are Union League, 
Mid-Day, Army and Navy (vice-president and acting president, 1924-1926), Racquet, 
Chicago Yacht, Chicago Riding, Oak Brook Polo (president, 1924-1930), York Golf 
(president, 1926-1932), Hinsdale (IHinois) Golf, India House (New York), Everglades 
(Palm Beach), and San Mateo-Burlingame Polo (California). He is an expert horseman 
and a well-known polo player. 

In 1924 Mr. Butler married Marjorie Stresenreuter of Chicago. They have three 
children, Paul, Jr., Frank O. II, and Marjorie. 



96 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



the airways radiating from Chicago have already been completed and priv 
ate aviation clubs have been and will be established. 

An interesting division of the plans for the Chicago region is that dc 
voted to the acquisition of city and village park land and playgrounds; of 
township and county parks and forest preserves, and of state parks and wild 
life sanctuaries. Already there are more than 50,000 acres of parks, play 
grounds and forest preserves under public ownership in the region. The 
goal for 1950 is 140,000 acres. Instead of 40,000 acres of state and county 
parks, there must be 65,000 acres; and to supply the needs of the community 
for active recreation the municipalities of the region should have 75,000 
acres of parks and playgrounds, instead of the present 12,000 acres. 

Two Wisconsin counties, three in Illinois and one in Indiana, have ac 
quired their first county parks, while the State of Indiana has acquired and 
developed the 2,400'acre Dunes State Park. 

Cook county, which leads all counties in the United States in the pos' 
session of forest preserve lands, now owns and maintains 33,000 acres of 
woodland, extending in a sweeping belt around the city, and visited by thous' 
ands of Chicagoans. Certain open areas are maintained as playgrounds, 
athletic fields, golf courses, and picnic grounds, while the reforestation of 
the boundaries of these open areas is going on at the rate of 400,000 trees 
per year. 

While the population is spreading outward from Chicago into the sub' 
urban districts, the residents are profiting by the experience of those in the 
more congested areas, and are acquiring their recreation acreages before the 
cost of land becomes prohibitive. With the plans already on foot, and the 
even more ambitious plans for tomorrow, one would not be over-optimistic 
in predicting that Greater Chicago will in time be the best laid-out metro- 
politan area in the world. 




A modern manufacturing plant in Niles Center, Illinois. 



(Hornby ii Freiberg Photo) 
Olsen and Urbain, architects. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



97 




(Hornby 6?* Freiberg Photo) 
A modern factory in Bellwood, Illinois. Olsen and Urbain, architects. 




(Trowbridge Photo) 
A home in River Forest, Illinois. Olsen and Urbain, architects. 



98 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AND ITS FAR FLUNG INTERNATIONAL 

TRADE 
Waterway Projects Which Will Bring the Fleets of All Nations 

to the City's Door 

FOR many years Chicago has dreamed of a waterfront lined with ships 
flying the flags of the great mercantile nations of the world. Nor is the 
day far distant when this dream shall be reali2;ed and Chicago will take her 
place among the nation's seaports. 

Most well'informed Chicagoans are fully cogni2;ant of the city's position 
as the commercial center of the United States. They need not be reminded 
that Chicago supplies one-eighth of the material needs of the nation; that the 
total retail, wholesale, and manufacturing volume of the Chicago Metro- 
politan District is in excess of thirteen billion dollars annually; that the total 
retail trade of Chicago amounts to two and one-half billion dollars a year, 
which in per capita volume is fifty per cent greater than the national average. 

There are many, however, who do not reali2,e the tremendous impor- 
tance of foreign trade in these imposing figures. They would be incredulous 
if told that one Chicago firm alone exports $75,000,0000 worth of its goods 
in a single year; that a widely known Chicago building material house 
exports eighteen per cent of its output through foreign representatives per- 
manently established in every country of recogni2,ed commercial standing. 

A Chicago confectionery manufacturer imports $20,000,000 worth of 
raw material in a year — nuts, flavoring extracts, chocolate, and other ingre- 
dients, from many lands. The annual imports of one Chicago department 
store represent the purchase of $10,000,000 worth of general merchandise. 

These are the leaders. Hundreds of smaller companies, many engaged 
exclusively in international trade, swelled the combined total of the export 
and import volume of foreign trade of the Chicago district to over nine 
hundred million dollars for the last year for which figures are available. 

The introduction of steam power on the Great Lakes early brought 
Chicago into prominence as a port. As far back as 1860, goods were arriving 
from the Orient. Only a few customs officers were needed in those days, 
but the increasing demand for imported luxuries has made the United States 
Custom House a busy place. A staff of several hundred is required for the 
customs service today, and miUions of dollars in duty are paid to the United 
States Treasury from the Port of Chicago. 

Chicago is one of the few ports of entry in America for antique furn- 
iture. From France come the latest creations of the milliner, the coutourier, 
and the perfumer. Rare laces, hand-embroidered handkerchiefs, ItaHan da- 
masks, kid and suede gloves, tapestries, organdie, and georgette are among 
the many importations from Europe. Oriental rugs from Persia, China, and 
other lands of the Far East, also find ready acceptance in the Chicago market. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



99 



-t« 






V%^*'i5r^' 



* ;» 




(Moffett-RusseU Photo) 

CHARLES CALVIN CARNAHAN 

Mr. Carnahan, lawyer, was born at Cochran's Mills, Pennsylvania, April 3, 
1868, son of William H. and Maria L. (McKee) Carnahan. He attended 
the public schools of Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, Hillsdale College in 
Michigan, and the Chicago College of Law. In 1891 Mr. Carnahan came 
to Chicago, was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1892, and has since been en-- 
gaged in general practice with the firm of Carnahan &' Slusser, with offices 
in the Westminster Building, Chicago. Mr. Carnahan is identified with a 
number of corporations. He has always taken an active interest in politics. 
In 1900, he was Republican nominee for Congress, 5th Illinois District, 
and in 1930, Republican nominee for the Superior Court Bench. 

Mr. Carnahan is a member of the American, iHinois State, and Chicago 
bar associations, and the Chicago Law Institute. He is a founder member 
of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair, a member of 
its board of trustees and chairman of its legal committee. The law firm of 
Carnahan 5? Slusser, of which Mr. Carnahan is senior partner, are general 
attorneys for the Fair. He is a Mason (32°), Oriental Consistory. He is 
a member of Phi Delta Theta Fraternity, Civil Legion (life member), Chi' 
cage Athletic Association, Union League Club, Westmoreland Country 
Club, and Men's Club of Wilmette (ex-president). Mr. Carnahan takes 
his recreation on the golf links but prefers an occasional hunting or fish' 
ing trip. 

On June 15, 1894, he married Katherine A. Hawkes of Chicago, and 
they have one daughter, Madeleine R. (Mrs. Donald F. Simmons) . 



100 Chicago's accomplishments 

In these days of drastic economic readjustments much is being said of 
the extent to which international commerce has suffered. In many respects 
commerce has suffered, but it is refreshing to note that in spite of interna' 
tional tariff wars, quota systems, exchange restrictions, and other adverse 
influences, substantial increases were made in the exportation and importa' 
tion of many important articles of commerce during the depression'ridden 
years of 1931 and 1932. 

While fully recogni2;ing the gravity of the current international business 
recession, experienced exporters and importers of Chicago look to the future 
with confidence. Material readjustments are inevitable. Markets that were 
formerly ours will be lost. On the other hand, new and potentially great 
foreign fields will be opened. Competition will continue, on an ascending 
scale, to be intelligent and keen. But the possibiHties of realizing lucrative 
profits will continue to exist for those companies that are alert and aggres' 
sive. Already are appearing unmistakable signs of a desire to cease hostilities 
in the trade wars that have been raging. Trade barriers will come down, and 
international commerce will resume its even flow. 

Chicago, business heart of the greatest industrial nation in the world, 
and already a most important center of international trade activities, will 
receive a tremendous impetus upon the completion of the Lakes'tO'thcGulf 
Waterway. 

This undertaking is expected to be consummated during 1933, 
thereby making available an all'water barge route from Chicago to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The availability of this more economical mode of transportation 
will prove a great boon to Chicago's foreign trade, particularly with Latin 
America. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



101 




(Mofett-Russell Photo) 

JOHN ALDEN CARPENTER 

Mr. Carpenter, composer and business man, was born in Park Ridge, Illinois, February 
28, 1876, son of George B. and Elizabeth Curtis (Greene) Carpenter. He received his 
A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Harvard University in 1897 and his honorary A. M. 
(Master of Arts) degree in 1922. He studied music under Bernard Ziehn and Sir 
Edward Elgar. Mr. Carpenter entered the business of George B. Carpenter and Com- 
pany, mill, railway, and vessel supplies, in 1897 and has been Vice-president since 1909. 
Although Mr. Carpenter has spent his entire career in the business founded by his grand- 
father, he has, at the same time, become one of America's leading composers. 

A few of his most famous compositions are. When Little Boys Sing, 1904, with 
Mrs. Carpenter (Rue Winterbotham) ; Improving Songs for Anxious Children, 1907, 
with wife; Sonata (for violin and piano), 1912; Gitanjali (song offerings), 1913; Adven- 
tures in a Perambulator (suite for orchestra), 1914; Concertino (for orchestra and piano), 
1915; Symphony, performed first at Norfolk Festival, June, 1917; The Birthday of the 
Infanta, a ballet-pantomime produced by Chicago Opera Company, season of 1919-1920; 
Skyscrapers (ballet), produced by Metropolitan Opera Company, New York, 1926, and 
by State Opera, Munich, Germany, 1928; also numerous published songs. In 1932 Mr. 
Carpenter composed his most noteworthy work, A Song of Faith, at the invitation of 
the Washington Bi-Centennial Commission. He is a trustee of A Century of Progress, 
Chicago's (1933) World's Fair, a member of the music committee of the Chicago Expo- 
sition, and has served as director and president of the Illinois Children's Home and Aid 
Society. He is a member of the University, and Saddle and Cycle clubs. He was 
decorated by the Legion of Honor, France, in 1921. 

Mr. Carpenter married Rue Winterbotham, of Chicago, November 20, 1900 (died 
1931). 



102 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE CHICAGO ZOOLOGICAL PARK AND ITS 

AMBITIOUS PLANS 

Where the Fauna of All Lands May Be Studied in Their Natural 

Environment 

BY EDWIN H. CLARK 
Archtect, Chicago Zoological Park. 

ZOOLOGICAL gardens are no longer mere show places or heterogeneous 
collections of animals. They are great outdoor laboratories where the 
student of natural history may make his observations at first hand. To the 
public school children, the 2;oo is an adjunct to the classroom, teaching in' 
valuable lessons in geography. To the artist, it is a studio where living 
models are provided. 

Out in the forest preserve region in Brookfield, near Riverside, within 
easy access of the city, the world's largest zoological gardens are assuming 
form. Unfortunately, the plans have been delayed somewhat by the tax 
muddle in Cook County, but as soon as the requisite funds are available, the 
building program will go forward. 










^r,--f- 



■^mm^^^ 



BEAR DENS 

The Chicago Zoological Park will have accommodations for more than 
5,000 animals and birds. It will conform to the very latest style in zoos in 
that it will be "barless." 

The specimens will be exhibited, so far as possible, in the open, and 
amid natural surroundings, where they can lead safe, healthful, normal 
lives and obey the Biblical injunction to bring forth their kind. They will 
be separated from the public only by moats. 

Visitors to the famous Hagenbeck zoo in Hamburg have been startled 
on finding themselves for the first time face to face with a group of lions 
or tigers or a herd of rhinos. It is as if they had suddenly encountered 
these beasts in their native wilds. A similar experience is in store for visitors 
to the Chicago Zoo. 

Since 1927 the work of landscaping and construction has been in prog' 
ress, and is already about half completed. Exclusive of the land, which was 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



103 




(Moffet-RusseU Photo) 

ROBERT F. CARR 



Mr. Carr, president of the Dearborn Chemical Company, was born at Argenta, Illinois, 
November 21, 1871, son of Dr. Robert F. and Emily A. (Smick) Carr. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Argenta, the Academy at the University of Illinois, and in 
1893 he received his Bachelor of Science degree from the four-year chemical course at 
the University of lUinois; received honorary degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) in 1929. 
He has been connected with the Dearborn Chemical Company since 1894, serving in the 
positions of secretary, vice-president, and in 1907 Mr. Carr was made president of the 
company. He was a director of the Standard Trust and Savings Bank from its organiza- 
tion in 1910 to 1924, when he resigned to become a director of the Continental and 
Commercial National Bank, now the Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Com- 
pany, on which board he still serves. He is also a director of Wilson is' Company. He 
served the last six months of 1918 as Major on the General Staff, Purchase, Storage and 
Traffic Division, under General Goethals, engaged in the work of revising and standard- 
izing specifications for general army commodities. 

Mr. Carr was a member of the board of trustees of the University of Illinois for a 
term of six years beginning in 1915; president of the board in 1919 and 1920. He is 
the donor of a fellowship in chemistry at the University. In 1931 he was appointed a 
member of the Board of Education of Chicago. He has been president of the Home for 
Destitute Crippled Children since 1921. He is a life member of the Chicago Historical 
Society, the Art Institute, and the Field Museum. He is a member of Kappa Sigma Fra- 
ternity and life trustee of the Kappa Sigma Endowment Fund. He is a member of the 
American Chemical and other scientific societies. Mr. Carr's club affiliations are the Uni- 
versity (president, 1924-1925), Chicago, Industrial (president, 1920-1921), Commer- 
cial, Casino, Old Elm, Shoreacres, Onwentsia, Exmoor (president, 1915, 1916), Chicago 
Riding (Chicago), Congressional Country (Washington), Midwick Country (Pasadena), 
and Vermejo (New Mexico). 

Mr. Carr was married in 1906 to Louise Smiley (deceased), of Chicago. There are 
three children, Louise, Florence, and Robert F., Jr. 



104 Chicago's accomplishments 

donated to the people of Chicago and Cook County by the late Mrs. Edith 
Rockefeller McCormick, and additional acreage acquired by the Forest 
Preserve District of Cook County, the Zoo will cost in the neighborhood 
of $4,220,000. Its operation calls for an annual budget of $300,000, and 
a permanent staff of more than 100 superintendents, animal keepers, veten' 
arians, guards, and gardeners will be required. 

There will be 19 exhibition halls, 4 lions' dens, 9 elephant grottos, 9 
bears' dens, and pits for the Siberian tigers, designed so that these animals 
may remain in the open all winter. Six buildings will house the 2,400 birds 
and reptiles, grouped in the following order: perching birds, running birds, 
tropical aquatic birds, upland birds (pheasants and quail), cranes and pea' 
cocks, parrots and macaws. There will be four flight cages for condors, 
eagles, and falcons. The islands of the lagoon will be populated by water 
fowl of all kinds, including rose'hued flamingoes from the Mississippi bayous 
and the Nile. C3ver to the west end of the gardens the visitor will find an 
80'acre forest sanctuary for native birds. There will be five antelope pad' 
docks, huge outdoor tanks for seals and sea lions, and enclosures for tor' 
toises and aUigators. Artificial crags for the mountain goats will be built 
up to a height of 150 feet. 

The hon house, 256 feet in length, is a palace of steel, marble, and tile, 
and contains fifteen cages all of which lead by underground passages to 
outdoor dens. The house for small mammals is gaily decorated in Pom- 
peian reds and yellows, and is equipped with a ventilating plant which can 
furnish a complete change of air every eight minutes. Among other im' 
portant buildings are the $300,000 primate house for monkeys, and the 
pachyderm house for elephants, tapirs, rhinos, and hippos, on which $500,' 
000 has been spent. The architectural scheme follows the Italian farm style. 

The buildings, numbering about sixty in all, together with the open'air 
enclosures, are arranged on either side of two main passageways or malls, 
one beginning at a rise at the east end of the park, where the refectory 
will stand, and extending 2,000 feet to the west, where it is terminated by 
the sea mammal pla2;a which overlooks an eleven'acre lake. The other runs 
from the main entrance in 34th street to the 31st street entrance, inter' 
secting the first mall at a distance of 800 feet from the east boundary. Both 
avenues are flanked with Norway maple. An almost incredible amount of 
work has been done in landscaping, the laying out of esplanades, the crea' 
tion of artificial lakes and lagoons, and the planting of thousands of trees 
and shrubs. 

The bears, lions, tigers and other large cats, the wolves, hyenas, pachy 
derms, buffalo, z^ebras, antelope, deer, elk and hoofed animals in general, 
as well as the monkeys, will be exhibited in the open against scenic back' 
grounds typical of their native haunts. The Zoo will have its own abattoir, 
kitchens, and hospital. 

Especially interesting to the student of 2;oology will be the collection 
of invertebrates, housed in a building of its own. Here will be seen colonies 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



105 




(Mofjett-Russell Photo) 



DONALD M. CARTER 



Mr. Carter, American patent lawyer, was born September 12, 1868, at Collinsville, 
Illinois, the son of Henry T. and Marium (Smith) Carter. The branch of the family 
of which he is a member was estabHshed in America by John Carter, an Englishman, 
who settled in Virginia in 1649. Graduating from the local high school, Mr. Carter at' 
tended Iowa State College, receiving his degree. Bachelor of Mechanical and Electrical 
Engineering, in 1891. Instead of entering the engineering profession, however, he went 
west, and remained there long enough to realize his youthful ambition of becoming a 
cowboy. 

In 1893 he came to Chicago and while working in the law office of Francis W. 
Parker attended the night classes of the Chicago College of Law, taking a post-graduate 
course at Lake Forest University, which conferred upon him three years later the degree 
of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws). Speciahzing in patent law, he became junior partner of the 
firm of Parker and Carter, of which firm he is now senior partner. Among the more 
important suits in which he figured was that against the City of Chicago for infringement 
on patents for bascule bridges involving the Michigan avenue and other spans. Another 
was against the Chicago Tribune and the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany for alleged patent infringements on devices for feeding paper to presses. Both suits, 
which were won by Mr. Carter, attracted wide-spread attention. 

In addition to his law practice Mr. Carter has many other interests. With President 
William Rainey Harper of the University of Chicago, Shailer Mathews, and Francis W. 
Parker, he established the pubhcation The World of Today. As one of the early mem- 
bers of the Rotary Club, he is credited with the introduction of the service idea of that 
organization. He is especially interested in the study of government, philosophy, and 
history. He has also spent much time in boys and citizenship work. Mr. Carter is a 
member of the Chicago Patent Law Association (president 1929-1930), the Chicago Bar 
Association, the Union League, South Shore Country, and City clubs. 



106 Chicago's accomplishments 

of bees and ants, clouds of moths and butterflies, and such other specimens 
as spiders, molluscs, sea anemonies, octopi, and crabs. 

Negotiations have been under way for some time with animal dealers 
for supplies of mammals, reptiles, birds, and amphibians, to be forwarded 
as soon as the Zoo is ready to receive them. As for rare animals, it is ex' 
pected that there will be at least one specimen each of the mountain gorilla, 
the okapi. Grant's eland, and that anomaly of nature, the duck'billed plat' 
ibus of Australia. 

In order that a visit to the Zoo may be more than an outing, but have 
educational value as well, lectures on natural history, recorded on phono- 
graph discs, will be broadcast at frequent intervals in the main exhibition 
halls by means of amplifiers. For Edward Bean, superintendent of the Zoo, 
believes that such an institution can be made an important part of the 
public school system of the city and county. 

"We can show the marvels and the beauties and the goodness and the 
badness of the animal kingdom in a supremely vivid way," he says. ''People 
love action in a 2;oo, and they will get plenty of action here. But in this 
Zoo we intend to go deeper than that. We propose to give a vast survey 
of the wonders of creation from the bridgcbuilding ant to the chimpanzee, 
the most intelligent of all animals below man. And if the visitor doesn't 
go away from here in a more reverent mood than when he came, it will 
be because he hasn't the intelHgence of a chimpanzee." 

The entire enterprise is in the hands of the Chicago Zoological Society, 
of which John T. McCutcheon, famous cartoonist and big game hunter, 
is president. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



107 














A. J. CERMAK 

Mr. Cermak, one of our first citizens and World's Fair Mayor of Chicago, son of Anton 
and Catherine (Frank) Cermak, was born in a two'room cottage in a mining village 
about fifty miles from Prague, Bohemia, on May 9, 1873. Now he rules the pohtical 
destinies of the second largest city in the United States. When Mr. Cermak was elected 
mayor of Chicago on April 7, 1931, every newspaper in the entire world announced 
the fact; the first time anyone from the Middle West received so great an honor. 

He was one year old when he passed the Statue of Liberty and was brought to 
Chicago. After a brief stay at Canal and 15th streets, the family went to the mining 
country at Braidwood, Illinois, where they estabHshed a permanent home. His first 
job, at the age of eleven, paid him $2.00 a week; later he worked in the mines at 
Braidwood as a mule driver and earned $1.10 a day. At the age of sixteen, he arrived 
in Chicago and became a brakeman on the Elgin, JoHet and Eastern Railroad; then 
became a tow boy for the street car company, and every day rode an old white horse 
down Blue Island avenue. He attended business college at night and later studied law. 
When he was nineteen, he started in the teaming business with one team; in time this 
grew to forty. One of the first contracts he obtained in this business he still holds, that 
of hauling waste wood from the International Harvester Company. Although his brother 
carries on this business for him, the contract is still in his name. 

In 1908 he organized the real estate firm of Cermak and Serhant, in which he is 
a partner; is a director of the Lawndale National Bank; president of the Lawndale Build' 
ing and Loan Association since 1907; director of the 26th Street Business Men's Asso- 
ciation; and was a member of the 43d, 44th, 45th, and 46th General Assemblies of 
Illinois. He served as a member of the City Council of Chicago, 1909 to 1912 and 1919 
to 1922; chief baiHff of the Municipal Court, 1913-1918; and was president of the Cook 
County Board from 1922 until April, 1931, when he resigned to become Mayor of 
Chicago. He is chairman of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee, member 
of the nominating committee of same, national committeeman from Illinois, and president 
of the Bohemian Charitable Association. His clubs are Medinah Athletic Club, Steuben 
Club, Lake Shore Athletic, and Midwest Athletic. He is an ardent sportsman, so the 
time he has for recreation he spends with his family and friends at his home on Channel 
Lake. 

Mr. Cermak married Mary Horejs (deceased), of Chicago, December 15, 1894, 
and he is the father of three daughters, Lillian (Mrs. Richey V. Graham), Ella (wife 
of Frank J. Jirka, M. D.), and Helen (Mrs. Floyd M. Kenlay). 



108 CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

CHICAGO^S LIBRARIES AND THEIR VAST 
RESOURCES 

Storehouses of Knowledge Made Available to All 

BY CARL B. RODEN 

Librarian, Chicago Public Library 

PRESERVED as a memorial collection in the Chicago Public Library, and 
kept carefully under lock and key, is a little group of books, which 
alone out of the Library's 1,733,000 volumes is not available to the gen' 
eral reader. 

The collection includes such treasures as Sir Theodore Martin's Life of 
the Prince Consort, with the royal autograph of Queen Victoria on the fly- 
leaf; Lord Macaulay's complete works autographed by Sir Charles and Lady 
Trevelyan, the latter the sister of the great essayist and historian; the works 
of Thomas Hughes, John Bright, Richard Monckton Milnes, and John 
Ruskin. 

These books are all that remain of the 8,000 volumes presented to Chi' 
cago as the nucleus of a free public library by Great Britain's leading 
authors, pubHshing houses, and universities shortly after the great fire of 
1871 as an expression of sympathy from the British people. 

At the time of the fire, the Chicago Library Association, an outgrowth 
of the Young Men's Association, had on its shelves in the old Metropohtan 
Block at Randolph and La Salle streets, a collection of 30,000 books. These, 
together with the Hbraries of the Chicago Historical Society and the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences, were destroyed by the flames. John Robson, an En- 
glishman, who had been in charge of the Association's library, returned to 
England authorized by Mayor Joseph Medill to make an appeal for books to 
replace those that had been lost. He interested in his quest Thomas Hughes, 
author of Tom Brown's School Days, and within a few months the British 
gifts began arriving in Chicago. 

Among those who responded to the appeal were Queen Victoria, the 
Duke of Argyle, the British Museum, the Universities of Oxford and Cam' 
bridge, Thomas Carlyle, Gladstone, Herbert Spencer, Afred Tennyson, 
Lord Churchill, Lord Macaulay, John Ruskin, DisraeH, Robert Browning, 
the Rossettis, Charles Kingsley, Darwin, Huxley, John Stuart Mill, Jean 
Ingelow, Mrs. OHphant, Walter Besant, Lewis Carroll, James Bryce, and 
Francis Turner Palgrave. Supplementing the British gifts were 1,200 vol- 
umes of German literature assembled and presented to the Library by Chi- 
cagoans of Teutonic birth. 

Such was the foundation — by no means modest in those days — of the 
Public Library's now immense collection. And from an institution housed 
in an abandoned water tank, the Library has grown until even the impres- 
sive building on Michigan avenue — opened in 1897 and designed to serve a 
population of 3,000,000 — is no longer adequate. The Chicago Public 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



109 




(Shigeta-Wright Photo) 

Diana Court, the extraordinary atrium of the Michigan Square building. The beautiful statue 

of Diana by Carl Milles, the celebrated Swedish sculptor, glows in a resplendent setting of 

modern architecture. Holabird & Root, architects. 



no 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Library system today includes 44 branch libraries, 13 sub-branches, and 
branches in 400 public and private schools. 

This far'flung system, however, by no means compasses Chicago's 
library resources. The Newberry Library and the John Crerar Library are 
institutions in themselves. Mention is made elsewhere in this book 
of the specialized collections of the Art Institute, the Chicago Historical 
Society, the Chicago Academy of Sciences, the Adler Planetarium, Field 
Museum, the Shedd Aquarium, and the various universities and colleges. 

Information on almost everything under the sun is at one's fingertips, 
or the fingertips of a trained reference room attendant, in Chicago's great 
storehouses of knowledge. As an example of the resources of the city's libra- 
ries, there is the gas appliance salesman, who, after selling a gas range to 
an Italian opera singer for use in the latter's villa at Nalim, Italy, turned to 
the reference books in his company's own library to find out what kind of 
gas was supplied in that particular little town, so that he could adjust the 
valves of the range accordingly. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
Chicago Public Library, located from Randolph street to Washington street at Michigan avenue 

Chicago's libraries are more than repositories of books. They are labor- 
atories for research work of every kind. They are public school and uni- 
versity extensions. The Chicago Public Library lends approximately 
16,000,000 books a year to 700,000 readers. More than 300,000 readers 
make use of its reference room annually. The Library circulates thousands 
of lantern shdes and hundreds of books for the blind. Its work with children 
has come to be of great importance. Classes for instruction in the use of a 
library are conducted in thirty branches. Organi2,ed reading clubs have been 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



111 







AMERICAN 



^.'^ n 



I V i 



: 1'- 



i^». 






}{\ 



UNiV£RS:Ty i 

STRASBOURG 



VESTA M. WESTOVER CHANNON 



Mrs. Channon founded the French Library of the Alliance Francaise of Chicago, in 1903, 
and for years was chairman of the committee. The collection then included nine 
thousand volumes of classical and modern French literature. She also founded the Amef 
ican Library, in honor of Pasteur, at the University of Strasbourg, France, in 1923, and 
is president of the executive board. This collection is housed in three sections (literary 
and historical, general, and medical) at the University. 

Mrs. Channon was born at Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, and as a child was brought to 
Chicago by her parents, George Frederic (lawyer) and Elizabeth Q. (Miller, of New 
York) Westover. She graduated from high school and Grant Collegiate Seminary of 
Chicago. She married Harry Channon of Chicago in London, England; and has one son, 
Henry III, a writer, who was born 1897, in Chicago, and served in the American Red 
Cross with the American Expeditionary Forces during 1917 and 1918 (second lieutenant, 
1918). Mrs. Channon divorced her husband in 1932. During the World War she was 
a member of the AUied Relief Committee of the Council of National Defense, and at' 
tended the convention of Allied Women on War Work in Pans in 1918. She is a life 
member of the New Orient Society of America and is interested in Egypt; she was a 
guest at Tanis, 1930, for the French excavations. 

She is a Daughter of the American Revolution (director of the Chicago chapter, 
1924-1925), and a member of the Colonial Daughters of the XVII Century (New York) 
and the American Society of the French Legion of Honor. She is a member of the 
Neighborhood Church of Pasadena, California. She was decorated as Chevalier de la 
Legion dHonneur, and Officier de Tlnstruction Publique, France. Her clubs are 
Woman's Athletic, Woman's, College, Arts, et cetera (Chicago), Women's Athletic Club 
(Los Angeles), and American Women's (London, Paris). 



112 Chicago's accomplishments 

established. Story hours, attracting the interest of many child welfare lead' 
ers, are conducted in all but four of the branches, in twelve city parks, and 
in the Marks Nathan Orphan Home, the Jahn School for Crippled Children, 
and the Children's Memorial Hospital. Thousands of questions asked by 
children or by more mature students in connection with their school or 
university work are answered by the reference room attendants, who are 
supposed to be humart encyclopedias. Those who find it inconvenient to go 
to the hbrary can find out what they want to know by telephone. Many 
inquiries are answered by mail. 

It is significant to reflect that Chicago's first attempts to establish a public 
library date back to 1834, when the city had a population of only 3,500. A 
group known as the Chicago Lyceum was formed, and a collection of 300 
books was assembled. Out of this, in 1841, grew the Young Men's Associa' 
tion, whose object it was "to establish and maintain a reading room, to pro' 
cure literary and scientific lecturers, and to promote the intellectual improve' 
ment of the members." Walter Loomis Newberry, founder of the magnifi' 
cent library which bears his name, was the Association's first president. Its 
first hbrary and reading room occupied the second floor of John Johnson's 
Building — over the barber shop. Better quarters were found later in the 
Saloon Building, and finally in the Metropolitan Block. Appearing on its 
lecture programs were such celebrities as Emerson, Holmes, Lowell, Sumner, 
Beecher, and Rufus Choate. A lecture in 1861 on Slavery, by Wendel Phil- 
hps, almost caused a riot. The Chicago fire put an end to the Association's 
activities, but not to its influence. In January, 1872, a pubhc meeting was 
called at Plymouth Church to consider the estaHishment of a free Hbrary. 
Among the sponsors of the movement were Marshall Field, Levi 2. Leiter, 
N. K. Fairbank, and Cyrus H. McCormick, Mayor Medill called the meet' 
ing to order, and Thomas Hoyne was made chairman. Legislation was 
passed a few months later providing for a Hbrary tax, and Hoyne was elected 
first president of the Library Board. 

Curious indeed was the Library's first home — the water tank in the rear 
of the old Rookery at La Salle and Adams streets. The tank was fitted up 
with shelves, and the gift books from London were installed. The Library 
was dedicated on New Year's Day, 1873, President Hoyne and Mayor 
Medill being the principal speakers. The audience was made up of the city's 
social and political leaders. 

WilHam Frederick Poole, compiler of the famous Poole's Index, who 
had been librarian of the Boston Atheneum and more recently of the Cin' 
cinnati PubHc Library, was Chicago's first Public Librarian. The first 
book — Tom Brown's School Days — was issued to Mr. Hoyne. An early 
purchase of the Library Board, and one that went far toward filHng the 
empty spaces on the shelves, was the Tauchnit2; edition of British and 
foreign authors in 785 volumes. Mr. Poole, during his fourteen years as 
Hbrarian, buflt up a library whose resources and completeness were equalled 
by few similar institutions in America. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



113 




lA SALLE 
EXTENSION 
UNiVERSlTY 



&UlLDiN6 

OPPORTUNITY 

THROUGH 

ADUIT 
BUSINESS 
TRAJNfNG 




(Continental Photo) 



JESSE GRANT CHAPLINE 



Mr. Chapline, president and founder of La Salle Extension University, was born in 
Waverly, Missouri, January 13, 1870, son of William Purnell and Sallie Ann Chapline. 
He was educated in the public schools and at St. Louis College, St. Louis, Missouri. He 
was manager of John Wanamaker Century Club, Philadelphia; was vice-president of 
Making of America Company, puWishers; and was president of the Associated Publishing 
Company, Chicago. Mr. Chaphne has been a pioneer in adult business training. He 
founded La Salle Extension University in 1908 — when there were few books on com- 
mercial subjects and practically no training courses on business. He evolved and per- 
fected the idea of making available to business men, through home study courses, the best 
experiences of commerce and industry, and enlisted the aid of outstanding business 
leaders in building such experience-training. He was also instrumental in developing the 
modern problem method — the most effective means of business training known to edu- 
cational science. Under his leadership, La Salle has grown until it has resources of 
$7,000,000, a total staff of 1,100, and an enrollment of over 800,000 adults in sixty-five 
different countries. 

Mr. Chapline is president of Marye Safety Nut Corporation; director. Commercial 
Research Corporation; vice-president. National Home Study Council; and member. Asso- 
ciated Advertising Clubs, Association of National Advertisers, International Chamber 
of Commerce, Art Institute of Chicago, et cetera. He is a member of the South Shore 
Country (member, board of governors). Union League, Press, Lake Shore Athletic, 
and Midlothian Country clubs. 

On May 12, 1909, he married Anne J. Johnson, of Chicago. He has two daughters, 
Marjorie Anne and Dorothy Jane. 



114 Chicago's accomplishments 

The $2,000,000 Public Library Building, occupying what was once 
known as Dearborn Park, was, at the time of its dedication, the most im- 
pressive public edifice in Chicago, and is still an ornament to the city. The 
story of the succeeding years has been one of constant growth and increasing 
service. 

Today the Pubhc Library shares with two mighty compeers the domain 
of service to the people of Chicago, which for the first two decades of its life 
it occupied alone. In many departments its collections maintain an almost 
unchallenged supremacy. But the coming of the Newberry Library and, a 
few years later, of the John Crerar Library, presented opportunities for 
special developments, which were recognized at the beginning and have been 
reahzed with wisdom and skill. Thus Chicago has been provided with a 
group of institutions of research, each the complement of the others, that 
together are scarcely surpassed for literary wealth and completeness 
in America. 

Walter Loomis Newberry, it will be remembered, was one of the group 
of ambitious young men active in the library movement of the early MO's. 
Remembering in the days of his prosperity the ideals of his youth, he made 
ample testamentary provision for the foundation and maintenance of a 
great free library on the North Side. His death occurred at sea in 1868, but 
it was not until nearly twenty years later that his trustees were enabled to 
proceed with the execution of his will. Their first act was to call to their 
aid the able librarian, Mr. Poole, under whom the Pubhc Library had grown 
so rapidly. 

John Crerar, merchant and capitalist, died in 1889, and in his will 
directed that a major part of his estate be set aside for the establishment of 
another free library. 

The amount realized from the Newberry estate was in excess of 
$2,600,000, and from the Crerar estate, $2,500,000, both of which funds 
have been materially increased through careful administration. The trustees 
of these two foundations agreed after many conferences on a division of the 
field of service, a unique arrangement which has resulted in the symmetrical 
upbuilding of two great reference libraries, whose commanding position in 
their respective provinces is acknowledged throughout the world of letters. 

The trustees of the John Crerar Library selected as its special field the 
natural, physical, and social sciences and their apphcations, while the New- 
berry Library, on the other hand, resolved to lay special emphasis on Hter- 
ature, history, philosophy, and the fine arts. The latter institution has not, 
however, lost sight of the duty imposed by the will of its founder of pro- 
viding a general reference collection for the studious reader. Furthermore, 
it has built up a museum filled with priceless rarities in manuscripts and 
early printed books. Its collections of Americana, church history, and 
genealogy are outstanding. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



115 



TRADE MARK 
J 



LAW 



S^s^;,'-,"' ■ 




" rjj 

i crtscAoo 



010 PEOPLES 



'(^OU^^^^ 



GEORGE A. CHRITTON 

Mr. Chritton, member of the law firm of Dyrenforth, Lee, Chritton and Wiles, was born 
in Fountain County, Indiana, June 4, 1870, the son of John W. and Sarah Ann (Brown) 
Chritton. He attended the district schools of Fountain County, Indiana, and Sedgwick 
County, Kansas; Wichita (Kansas) Business College; and the State Normal School at 
Emporia, Kansas. He received his LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree from Kent College 
of Law, Chicago, (now Chicago-Kent College of Law) in 1896. He took a post-graduate 
course at Chicago College of Law (Lake Forest University) in 1897. He was in the law 
department of the MetropoUtan Elevated Railroad Company from 1894 to 1904, and since 
1905 has been a member of the law firm of Dyrenforth, Lee, Chritton and Wiles, special- 
izing in patent, trade-mark, copyright, corporation, real estate, and commercial law. He 
is a member of the faculty of John Marshall Law School and secretary of the Fair-Chritton 
Lumber Company, Chritton, Mississippi. 

Mr. Chritton is a member of the American Bar Association, lUinois State Bar Asso- 
ciation (board of governors), Chicago Bar Association (chairman of the legal education 
committee for several years), Chicago Patent Law Association (president 1930), and 
Chicago Law Institute. He was president of the Oak Park School Board from 1910 to 
1918 and was president of the Chicago Baptist Social Union. He is president of Chicago 
Foundhngs Home and the Baptist Old People's Home; vice-president, Chicago Baptist 
Executive Council. His clubs are Union League, Oak Park, Oak Park Country, and River 
Forest Country (president 1927-1929). His recreations are motoring, golf, and book 
collecting. 

He married Laura Fair, of Chicago, February 24, 1897. Their children are Ernest 
Fairfax and George Alvah, Jr. 



116 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO^S MARINE WONDER HOUSE 

THE JOHN G. SHEDD AQUARIUM 

Where Fishes of All Sizes, Shapes, and Hues Delight the Visitor 

CHICAGO, in addition to such show places as the Field Museum, the 
Rosenwald Industrial Museum, the Adler Planetarium, and the Art 
Institute, has two public aquariums, one at Lincoln Park, the other set amid 
ideal surroundings on a point of land jutting out into Lake Michigan at the 
east end of the Roosevelt road extension. 

The latter, the John G. Shedd aquarium, is the largest and most com- 
pletely equipped institution of its kind in the world, and one of the very few 
in America. New York, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Detroit 
have aquariums, but nothing to compare with Chicago's magnificent marble 
home for fish. 




JOHN G. SHEDD AQUARIUM Graham, Anderson, Probst 6? White, architects. 

The aquarium was presented to the city by the late John G. Shedd, 
president of Marshall Field fe? Company for many years, who gave 
$3,000,000 with which to build, stock, and maintain this wonder house. 

It is controlled by the Shedd Aquarium Society, whose trustees are 
prominent business men, and whose president is Melvin A. Traylor, head 
of the First National Bank of Chicago. The upkeep is provided for by a 
small tax levied by the South Park Board. The director, Walter H. Chute, 
was formerly in charge of the Boston aquarium. 

In deciding to present such an institution to Chicago, Mr. Shedd was 
undoubtedly motivated by the knowledge that the Government fisheries 
exhibits at the World's Fair of 1893 and at the St. Louis, Buffalo, and 
Omaha expositions, attracted more visitors than any other exhibit, and that 
one aquarium held, so far as known, the worlds record attendance, having 
at the time an average daily attendance of 5,000 over a period of twelve 
years. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



117 




'■M.** 






r-^"*^ 



..^f 



■•■'>-''^«w. 



(Bloom Photo) 



WALTER H. CHUTE 

Mr. Chute, director of the John G. Shedd Aquarium, was born April 12, 
1891, in Boston, Massachusetts, and was educated in the Boston high schools. 
He first became interested in fish while convalescing from a serious illness. 
He found an old fish bowl in a closet of his home, and from this beginning 
his interest grew until he had a whole room devoted to small aquariums. 

Mr. Chute was one of the organi2,ers of the Boston Aquarium Society in 
1916, and was secretary of that organi:^ation from that time until he left 
Boston, in 1925. He was director of the Boston Aquarium when he left to 
become associate director, and later director, of the Shedd Aquarium. Mr. 
Chute is directly responsible for many of the unique and splendid innovations 
incorporated in the Shedd Aquarium. In company with a representative of 
the architects, he visited all the aquariums in the world, in order to take ad' 
vantage of the lessons learned and the experience gained by them. He worked 
constantly with the architects during the planning and construction, and the 
building is not only different from any other aquarium, but new and revolu' 
tionary methods are being devised and practiced at this institution. 

On April 6, 1913, Mr. Chute married Rosetta Murphy in Boston, Massa' 
chusetts. 



118 Chicago's accomplishments 

This record was broken as soon as the Shedd aquarium opened. By the 
end of October, 1931, its attendance had reached a total of 6,223,323, rep' 
resenting a daily average of 12,300 visitors over the entire seventeen months 
it had been open to the public. Of this total attendance, 5,985,188 were 
admitted free, while 248,135 paid the nominal admission fee charged on 
''pay days." 

Thus it would seem that most people are at heart followers of Isaac 
Walton, while to others, the study and observation of the finny tribes holds 
a certain fascination and adventure. 

Many new ideas were incorporated in the construction and equipment 
of the building. The exterior is of Georgia marble, in the Grecian Ionic 
style of architecture, and it is octagonal in shape. It consists of a main floor, 
a basement, a basement'mezzanine and a central tower which rises to a height 
of 100 feet. Only the ground floor is open to the public, however, the ex- 
hibits being so arranged that they all may be seen without climbing any 
stairs or retracing steps. 

The aquarium proper is 300 feet in diameter, covering 74,614 square 
feet on the main floor, exclusive of the terrace, which is 30 feet in width. A 
spacious marble foyer hall opens into an octagonal rotunda, in the center of 
which is a 40 foot pool, arranged as a semi'tropical swamp. A beautiful 
piece of rockwork in the center is covered with a profusion of plants, where 
snakes, frogs and turtles make their home. 

Radiating from the rotunda are six main exhibition halls, each 30 feet 
wide and 90 feet long. The interior and exterior decorations, from the great 
bronze doors at the front entrance to the tiles that garnish the wainscoting, 
take their artistic motif from forms of aquatic life in endless variety, such as 
fish, turtles, lobsters and reptiles. There is a wealth of interesting aquatic 
and nautical detail in the specially designed appointments, both decorative 
and utilitarian. An example is the beautiful grill work around the entrance, 
which is a lacy formation involving sea horses, snails, lobsters, starfish, sea- 
anemome, turtles, coral, shells of many kinds, rope with weights, and repe- 
titions of Neptune's trident. 

There are specially designed rooms for many purposes. There is a lecture 
hall with fire-proof projection room, photographer's dark-room and labor- 
atory, hatchery, hospital, feed rooms, refrigerating rooms, work shops, and 
many laboratories for various purposes. On one side of the foyer hall are 
the executive offices and lecture hall and on the other side is a "balanced" 
aquarium room. 

Of special interest is this ''balanced" aquarium room. It is decorated in 
colorful Japanese style to represent an open air courtyard, lighted by eight 
large lanterns, each on a bamboo post. It is octagonal in shape with a central 
kiosk in which fancy goldfish are exhibited. An innovation in this room is 
the use of the new "violet ray" glass in all the skylights to insure a proper 
growth of marine plant and animal life, and a more faithful rendition of 
color. The fancy goldfish exhibited here are fine specimens, many of them 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



119 



prize winners costing as much as $75 apiece. The main wall of the room 
contains 65 smaller aquariums, planted with aquatic plant hfe, and in which 
tiny tropical fishes flash like jewels. 





Octagonal hall with fortyfoot semi'tropical 

pool, where snakes, frogs, and turtles make 

their home. 



Portion of "balanced" aquarium room, where 
goldfish and tiny tropical fishes are exhibited. 



Some of these fish are very tiny, measuring not more than one-half inch 
when completely grown. Many of them are beautifully colored, with an 
irridescent sheen of silver or gold, or combinations of brilliant blues, flashing 
reds and splendid yellows that defy description. Here may be seen the re' 
nowned "walking fish" of Africa, which is known in its native habitat to 
walk over dry land, and on occasion even to climb trees. Also from Africa 
is the electric catfish, capable of giving an electric shock. There is a queer 
armored catfish, from South America. Another odd specimen is the hatchet 
fish, so called because of its extremely deep thin body which resembles the 
head of a hatchet. 

For the larger fishes exhibited in the six main galleries there are 132 
permanent exhibition tanks, 95 reserve tanks and a number of portable 
tanks, varying in capacity from 375 gallons to 13,500 gallons. The total 
capacity of all the permanent tanks in the building is about 500,000 gallons. 
Water is supplied from four reservoirs in the basement, the total capacity 
of which is 2,000,000 gallons, half of which is fresh water drawn directly 
from Lake Michigan. The other half is salt water, which was brought 1,600 
miles from the ocean at Key West, Florida, in 160 tank car-loads. The salt 
water probably will last for twenty years. 

^ The water is moved through five entirely distinct and separate systems of 
antimonial lead piping, which material has been found to best resist the in- 
roads of salt water. These systems circulate heated and refrigerated salt 
water, and heated, natural and refrigerated fresh water. Thus the water 
for northern fishes is refrigerated while specimens from the tropics live in 
water heated by coils to the temperature to which they are accustomed. 

The aquarium exhibits not only the common fishes of American fresh 
and salt waters, but also many rare and unusual varieties from different parts 
of the world. There are now in the building over 8,000 fishes, representing 



120 Chicago's accomplishments 

345 species. Fish range in size from one-half inch in length to 585 pounds 
in weight. 

In order to make possible this extensive collection, the aquarium owns 
and operates a special Pullman railroad car, the Nautilus, which is, in effect, 
a traveling aquarium. It is equipped with tanks and receptacles for the living 
fishes, and complete handling apparatus to accommodate all sizes. This car 
makes it possible to transport at the same time all of the five classes of fish; 
the cold salt water, warm salt water, natural, cold and warm fresh water 
fishes. 

Interesting fresh water exhibits include the electric eels from South 
America, the large ugly salamanders from Japan, and the 585 pound sea' 
cow, or manatee, from Florida. Salt water fishes from Florida include the 
spade fishes, striped like convicts' suits, squirrel fishes as delicately pink as 
cameos, with very large brown eyes and spines as sharp as needles. There 
are the sand'colored sawfish, with his dangerous doublcedged toothed saw 
that he carries before him; the large sharks, which an attendant has tamed 
so that they will eat out of his hand, and some baby dog sharks, born in 
the Aquarium June 8, 1930. The blue angel'fish is one of the most beautiful 
specimens in the Aquarium, and one of the most difficult to acquire and 
transport to the aquarium alive. 

Crabs are present in several different varieties. There is the stone and 
the hermit, the green and the blue crab. The beautifully colored and pat' 
terned queen triggerfish, a fantasy in blue and gold from the tropical coral 
reefs, gets its name from the trigger'like arrangement of the spines in the 
dorsal fin. And, of course, there is that very interesting little fish, the sea 
horse, the only fish that has movable vertebrae so that he can bend his head 
and tail. It reminds one very much of the chess figure called Knight. 

Space does not allow mention of the many other interesting fishes to be 
found in this beautiful aquarium, where there is presented to the public the 
opportunity of viewing and studying the most comprehensive collection of 
live aquatic animals ever exhibited. 

The Shedd Aquarium is open every day from 10:00 to 5:00. Admission 
is 25c to adults except on Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays. Children are 
admitted free at all times. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



121 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo, ^iew Torl^) 

PHILIP R. CLARKE 

Mr. Clarke, president of the City National Bank and Trust Company, was born in 
Hinsdale, June 10, 1889, the son of Robert W. and Mary Evelyn (Foster) Clarke. He 
graduated from the Hinsdale High School in 1906 and attended Beloit College (1906- 
1907). He began his business career with Farson, Son Co., bankers. In 1912, at the 
age of twentytvvo, he organized his own investment firm, Clarke and Company, which 
he headed until 1919, when he became president of the Federal Securities Corporation. 
During the years that followed he was a director of many investment and pubHc utilities 
corporations, and in 1930 was elected president of the Central Trust Company, later the 
Central RepubHc Bank and Trust Company. His success in directing the Liberty Loan 
campaign led to his selection in 1930 by Governor Emmerson as leader of a civic move 
ment to raise $5,000,000 for unemployment relief, and the even more impressive sum of 
$74,000,000 to keep the City Government in operation. 

Mr. Clarke has many interests in addition to banking. He is an enthusiastic deep-sea 
fisherman, speed boat pilot and yachtsman. His avocations include tennis, golf, baseball, 
amateur dramatics, and bridge. He has served as president of the Hinsdale Board of 
Education. He is a member of the Union League, Attic, Chicago, Industrial, Commercial, 
Chicago Golf, Hinsdale, and Spring Lake Country clubs; the Old Elm Golf Club; and a 
member of the Recess Club of New York. 

He was married September 17, 1910, to Louise Hildebrand. There are three children, 
Philip Ream, Norman Foster, and David Griffing. 



122 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE WEST PARKS AS A SOCIALIZING INFLUENCE 

What Their Organized Programs of Sports, Work, and Play 

Mean to Their Respective Neighborhoods 

Chicago's West Park System is made up of four large and fifteen small 
parks and 42 miles of boulevards. The large parks, Humboldt, Douglas, 
Garfield, and Columbus, have a combined area of more than 700 acres and 
the remaining 100 acres of the System are distributed among the smaller 
recreation centers, most of which are located in the city's most congested 
districts. 

The sociali2;ing influence of these fifteen small parks is hard to estimate, 
but it is not so intangible as it might appear. With the opening of each 
one of them, juvenile delinquency in the immediate neighborhood has fallen 
off fifty per cent. 

These playgrounds, or social centers, with their gardens, outdoor and 
indoor gymnasiums, branch libraries, and well equipped field houses, are a 
part of Chicago's melting pot. 

Their programs of organized sports, work, and play are participated in 
by young people of more than thirty nationalities — <^hinese, Assyrians, 
Greeks, Italians, Mexicans, Poles, Bohemians are just a few — and while pre 
serving the best of Old-World institutions, are blending them with those of 
the New World. Out of this medley of all nations is issuing a new race, 
strong, vigorous, and clean-cut, a race of young Americans. 

EHiring the course of a year more than 11, 000,000 people visit the West 
Parks, and this number does not include the millions of casual visitors. The 
swimming pools of the small parks have been enjoyed by as many as 45,000 
boys and girls in a single day. The showers of Eckhart Park in the heart 
of the Polish district are used by 1 30,000 people a year. On the 1 52 tennis 
courts of the West Parks a quarter of a million players annually seek exer- 
cise. The golf courses are used by 174,000 people in a single season. Organ- 
ized ball games in the parks draw from 20,000 to 25,000 actual players every 
year. Some 30,000 boys and girls are registered in the various athletic 
organizations. There are annually 642,000 visitors to the Garfield Park 
conservatory. Attendance at the fifteen small parks runs up to 1,000,000 
a year. 

It has been said that the West Parks offer everything from a free bath 
to free education in botany, music, and handicraft. Among their many 
activities are dramatics, dancing, and model yacht and airplane designing. 
Marble tournaments, kite-flying tournaments, harmonica-playing tourna- 
ments, and model yacht races are all included in the program. Ideals of good 
sportsmanship have replaced rowdyism. 

Thus it is that the small parks have leavened entire neighborhoods and 
have wielded an incalculable social influence in their respective communities. 
Not the least of their social service is the circulation by the branch libraries 
of thousands of books to young and adult readers alike. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



123 




WILLIAM E. CLOW 



Mr. Clow, president, James B. Clow 6? Sons, manufacturers of cast'iron pipe, 
plumbing goods, steam, water, and gas specialties, gas steam radiators, and 
fabricated marble, was born in Industry, Pennsylvania, September 23, 1860, 
son of James B. and Matilda (Ross) Clow. He was educated in the public 
schools of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and began his business career with his 
father in Pittsburgh in 1876. In 1878 he started in business in Chicago form' 
ing a partnership with his father under the name of James B. Clow 6? Son. 
On October 23, 1894, the firm was incorporated as James B. Clow 6? Sons, 
and he became vice-president. After his father's death in 1907, he was made 
president. This company is the second largest manufacturer of cast-iron pipe 
in the United States and has general ofiices, a factory, and warehouses in 
Chicago, foundries in Birmingham, Alabama, and Newcomerstown and Co- 
shocton, Ohio, as well as warehouses and branch offices in principal cities. 

Mr. Clow is a member of Chicago, Union League, Commercial, Shore- 
acres, Saddle and Cycle, and Onwentsia clubs. His recreations are hunting, 
fishing, and golf. 

He married Margaret A. Sarver, in Pittsburgh, June 1, 1882. Their chil' 
dren are, William E., Jr., Kent S., and Martha M. (Mrs. Donald B. Douglas). 



124 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
Administration Building, Garfield Park. 

Eckhart Park, opened in 1908, was Chicago's first public playground. 
The second was Stanton Park, which replaced an entire block of dilapidated 
shacks and tenements in the Ghetto, establishing a social center in one of 
the most densely populated districts of the city. 

While the small parks speciali2ie in social service, the four large parks 
speciahz^e in beauty. Their charming landscaped and waterscaped vistas 
have had a decided influence on many of the industrial houses in the neigh- 
borhood, which have improved their grounds with trees and shrubbery, 
fountains and lawns. Columbus Park, the newest of the chain, was originally 
woodland, and many of the patriarchal trees have been preserved. There 
are said to be more than 100 varieties of trees in the West Parks, the 
American elm predominating. Their sixtyseven acres of lagoons are used 
for boating in the Summer and for skating in the Winter. They are stocked 
with sunfish, bass, pickerel, and trout, and fishing is permitted during a 
limited season in the Fall. 

The Garfield Park conservatory, the largest publicowned conservatory 
in the United States, houses a collection of exotic plants which includes 
3,500 species and varieties, and is valued at $1,250,000. There is also an 
orchid collection of 432 varieties, valued at $50,000. The conservatory, 
however, is more than a show house. It is an educational institution, offer- 
ing an organi2,ed course of lectures in horticulture and botany. The rose 
and peony gardens of Humboldt Park are famous for their beauty. 

In addition to such sports as baseball, golf, and tennis, some of the West 
Parks have installed bowling greens. The West Side Bowling Green Asso- 
ciation, with headquarters at Columbus Park, is one of the several clubs 
in the city devoted to the encouragement of this old English game. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



125 



tYirtnei 



\ i' 




•\ 






(Mofjett-Rusicll Photo) 



ARTHUR HOLLY COMPTON 



Dr. Compton, holder of the Charles H. Swift Distinguished Service Professorship of 
Physics at the University of Chicago, was born in Wooster, Ohio, September 10, 1892, 
son of Ehas and Oteha Catherine (Augspurger) Compton. He received his B. S. 
(Bachelor of Science) degree from the College of Wooster, in 1913; his M. A. (Master 
of Arts) from Princeton, in 1914; and his Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy), in 1916. 
He studied at Cambridge University, England, during 1919-1920. The honorary degree 
of Sc. D. (Doctor of Science) has been conferred on him by the College of Wooster, 
1927, Ohio State University, 1929, and Yale, 1929; that of LL. D. (Doctor of Laws) 
was conferred on him by Washington University, in 1928, and University of California, 
1930. 

He was a Porter-Ogden Jacobus fellow at Princeton University, 191?'1916; an in- 
structor in physics at the University of Minnesota, 1916-1917; research physicist with 
Westinghouse Lamp Company, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1917-1919; national re- 
search fellow in physics. Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, 1919-1920; 
professor of physics and head of department at Washington University, 1920-1923; 
professor of physics at the University of Chicago, since 1923; John Simon Guggenheim 
fellow, 1926-1927; special lecturer at Punjab University, Lahore, India, 1926-1927. 
During the war he served as a civilian associated with the United States Signal Corps, 
developing airplane instruments, 1917-1918. He is a fellow of the American Physical 
Society (council, 1926-1930), the American Optical Society, and the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science (vice-president Section B, 1927). He is a 
member of the American Philosophical Society, National Academy of Sciences (1927), 
National Research Council (chairman of committee on X-rays and radioactivity, 1922- 
1925), Solvay International Congress of Physics (1927), Volta International Science 
Congress, Rome (1927, 1931), Alpha Tau Omega, Sigma Xi, Phi Beta Kappa, and 
Gamma Alpha; foreign member of Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Rome, 1925, Prussian 
Academy of Sciences, Berlin, 1932. He was associate editor of the Physical Review, from 
1922 to 1926. He belongs to the Quadrangle and Union League clubs. He is the 

. Continued on page 545 



126 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ARTERIES OF STEEL THAT LACE THE 

METROPOLITAN AREA 

How Rapid Overhead Transit Has Made Possible Chicago's 

Expansion 

JUST as the national network of transportation has aided Chicago's de' 
velopment by bringing the world to its door, so have the local transit 
facilities advanced the growth of the city from within. By increasing the 
ease of travel between business centers and outlying residential areas, the 
local transportation lines have enabled the city to extend its borders into 
sections that otherwise would have been inaccessible. 

To the elevated railways, established several decades ago as separate 
organi2,ations and now operated as a single unified system by the Chicago 
Rapid Transit Company, must go a large share of credit for enabHng the 
city to attain its present dimensions. During the early years the street car — 
advancing successively from horse to cable and finally to trolley opera' 
tion — sufficed as a means of local transit. As the city's population grew in 
density, however, it was necessary to travel longer distances to find suitable 
sites for homes. This called for a speedier means of local transportation. 

It was in 1892 that the first elevated railroad was established in the 
city, the Chicago and South Side Rapid Transit Company starting opera' 
tion on June 6 of that year between Congress and Thirtyninth streets. 
The need for faster transportation at that time is seen in the fact that the 
city had already passed the million mark in population and embraced an 
area of 169 square miles. Travel even within the city had become a matter 
of miles. 




Some four on a Chicagoland golf course. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



127 



^•' ^&*^' 6?V« n\ 

J&' #;>• ^C jJi 
^- pj Kv sK 

m SB 53 ; 



ij.ft.f 




(Moffett-Russell Photo) 



FRANK E. COMPTON 



Mr. Compton was born in Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, August 7, 1874, and 
is the son of Harry Henry and Frances (Shepard) Compton. Mr. Compton is 
president of F. E. Compton &' Company, publishers; director. National As- 
sociation of Book Publishers; director of the Chicago Daily Times; president of 
Subscription Book PubHshers' Association (1921'22); president. National 
Theta Delta Chi Fraternity (1911-13); president, Skokie Country Club 
(1919-20); University of Wisconsin, Class of 1898; and is a pioneer in the 
educational publishing field. A noted proponent of making all knowledge 
interesting and inspiring for growing children, he has created the educa- 
tional or "school" type of encyclopedia, built expressly to supplement school 
work. Starting in Chicago 38 years ago with an ambition and an idea, 
through his efforts Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia has become the stu- 
dent's work of reference in the home, the school, and the hbrary, and the 
largest seUing encyclopedia in the world. Branch ofiices are located in the 
principal cities of the United States; in London, England; and Milan, Italy. 

Mr. Compton was married to Annie Wilson Howe (niece of the late 
President Woodrow Wilson) July 21, 1917. The children are Frank F., 
Edna, and Josephine Wilson. 



128 Chicago's accomplishments 

When the World's Columbian Exposition opened in 1893, the original 
elevated hne had been extended south to the site of the Fair in Jackson 
Park. Steam "dummy" engines furnished the motive power at that time. 
It was during the Fair that a revolutionary feature in operation of elevated 
trains was successfully introduced. The Intra-mural Railway circHng the 
Fair grounds operated trains under electric power for the first time in 
history. 

The success of the Intra'mural Railway led the Metropolitan West Side 
Elevated Railway Company, which followed the Lake street hne as the 
third elevated system in Chicago, to cancel orders for steam "dummy" en' 
gines and start service in 1895 as the first electricallyoperated commercial 
elevated railroad in the world. The other lines soon changed to electric 
operation, extensions were made, and the Union Loop was opened in 1897. 
The Northwestern elevated lines started operation between the Loop and 
Wilson avenue in 1900, making four elevated railroads using the Loop, but 
operating separately and charging separate fares. 

Joint operation of all the lines as the Chicago Elevated Railways came 
about in 1911. Two years later througlvrouting of trains and universal 
transfer privileges were inaugurated for the greater convenience of the 
pubhc. 

Since the elevated system came under the present management, it has 
been extended and developed until today it comprises 230 miles of single 
track, 60 per cent of which is on elevated steel structure. A total of 5,511 
trains are operated daily, service being maintained 24 hours a day under 
all weather conditions. Equipment includes 1,862 passenger coaches, which 
are operated in train units of from two to eight cars. There are 237 stations 
on the Rapid Transit Lines, as the unified system is known today. 

In addition to serving all sections of the city on 1 2 branches extending 
fanhke from the Loop, the Rapid Transit Lines furnish fast and frequent 
service to many suburban communities. These include Evanston, Wilmette 
and Niles Center to the north, and Oak Park, Forest Park, Cicero, Berwyn, 
Maywood, Bellwood and Westchester to the west. Service over the entire 
system converges in the Loop. The importance of the Rapid Transit Lines 
as a transportation medium for downtown workers is seen in the fact that 
190 trains of 1,040 cars enter the Loop within sixty minutes during the 
morning rush period, while 224 trains pass the intersection at Lake and 
Wells streets during the maximum rush hour. 

The life and activities of Chicago are not confined to its corporate limits, 
however. There has developed a large metropohtan area, all sections of 
which are bound by ties of commerce and industry to the city proper. The 
area embraced in greater Chicago is no longer measured in miles, but rather 
in the amount of time it takes to travel from one point to another. The 
metropolitan area is generally considered today as including any community 
that can be reached within one hour after leaving the Loop. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



129 




(Chambers Photo) 

JAMES G. CONDON 

Mr. Condon, member of the law firm of Ryan, Condon and Livingston, was 
born in Bloomington, Illinois, November 28, 1871, son of William and Brigid 
(McNamara) Condon. He graduated from St. Viateur's College, Kankakee, 
Illinois, in 1892 and received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at Illinois 
Wesleyan University, Bloomington, lUinois, in 1894. He was admitted to 
the lUinois bar in 1894 and practiced at Bloomington until 1895, when he 
came to Chicago. He was a member of the law firm of Ryan and Condon 
from 1908 until 1914 when the name was changed to Ryan, Condon and 
Livingston, which it remains. Mr. Condon spends most of his time in con' 
nection with corporation work. 

He is a member of the American, Illinois State, and Chicago Bar Asso- 
ciations (board of managers of the latter, 1924-27), and Lawyers Association 
of New York. His clubs are Iroquois (president, 1910-11), Chicago Athletic 
Association, Mid-Day, Chicago Riding, KnoUwood, Edgewater Golf, and he 
is also actively interested in, as well as a member of, Post and Paddock at 
Arlington Park. Outside of work, his principal interests are golf, horseback 
riding, and motoring. 

Mr. Condon married Lucy Dalton, of Bloomington, June 30, 1895, and 
they have two daughters, Marian (Mrs. Paul Gerhardt), and Jane (Mrs. 
William Truman Brophy III). 



130 Chicago's accomplishments 

An important factor in extending the borders of metropolitan Chicago 
is embraced in the three electrically-operated interurban railroads serving 
the territory to the north, west and east. With the Rapid Transit Lines 
serving as the backbone of local high-speed transportation, these interurban 
lines extend their ribbons of steel to points beyond, making them easily ac- 
cessible to the commuter. Corporate limits of city or county are no longer 
a bar to the Loop worker seeking a home in the suburbs. 

To the north the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad (North 
Shore Line) operates high-speed trains at frequent intervals along the lake 
shore, and through the beautiful Skokie Valley as far as Milwaukee. All- 
steel limiteds carrying parlor-buffet cars cover the distance between 
the hearts of Chicago and Milwaukee in less than two hours, stopping at 
Waukegan, Kenosha, and Racine. Frequent express service is afforded Loop 
commuters from suburban communities as far north as Waukegan on the 
Shore Line Route, and west to Liberty ville and Mundelein over the Skokie 
Valley Route. Trains operate directly to and from the Loop over the tracks 
of the Rapid Transit Lines, with 63 rd and Dorchester on the south side 
as the terminal for limiteds carrying parlor-buffet cars. 

Operating to and from the Loop passenger station at Wells street and 
Jackson boulevard, trains of the Chicago Aurora and Elgin Railroad (Sun- 
set Lines) serve western suburbs and cities throughout the scenic Fox River 
Valley. Fast and frequent service is afforded commuters from Aurora, Elgin, 
St. Charles, Geneva, Batavia and intermediate points in this region. Use 
of the Rapid Transit Lines tracks between the Loop and western city limits 
speeds up this service, while stops at eight stations on the west side and 
in adjoining suburbs add to the convenience of the Sunset Lines. 

Skirting the southern shore of Lake Michigan, and passing through the 
famous Dunes region and the ''Workshop of America" in northern Indiana, 
the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad (South Shore Line) 
connects the Loop with Hammond, East Chicago, Gary, Michigan City 
and South Bend. Direct access to the downtown Chicago business district 
is gained over the tracks of the Illinois Central Railroad, with the terminus 
at Randolph street station, only two blocks east of the Randolph-Wabash 
station of the Rapid Transit Lines. Parlor cars are carried on South Shore 
Line limiteds at convenient hours. 

With this network of Rapid Transit Lines and high-speed interurban 
railroads stretching through the city and its metropolitan area, Chicago is 
afforded the transportation facilities essential for continued expansion and 
development. It is upon these rapid transit arteries that the people of 
metropolitan Chicago must rely for quick and convenient travel, as traffic 
congestion reaches the saturation point with the steady increase in popu- 
lation. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



131 




.-?:-''^v 



^ « ! 1 ^ J t ' ' 



LAW 



fih-'i/. 



.i./: 






(Underwood and UndcTwood Photo) 



GEORGE A. COOKE 

Judge Cooke, member of the law firm of Cooke, Sullivan and Ricks, was 
born at New Athens, Ohio, July 3, 1869, and is a son of Thomas and Van- 
cehne (Downing) Cooke. He attended Knox College, where he was awarded 
his A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) and LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) degrees in 1892 
and 1922. After passing the Illinois bar examination, he practiced law at 
Aledo, Illinois, and from 1896 to 1900 was a partner of Judge Guy C. Scott. 

Judge Cooke served as a member of the Illinois House of Representa' 
tives from 1902 to 1906. In 1909 he was elected judge of the Supreme 
Court to fill the unexpired term of Judge Guy C. Scott and was re-elected 
in 1912. He also served as chief justice from June, 1913, to June, 1914. 
In 1918 he resigned and has been a member of the firm of Cooke, Sullivan 
and Ricks since January 1, 1919. He is a member of the American and 
lUinois State Bar Associations and Beta Theta Pi Fraternity. His clubs are: 
University, Tavern, of Chicago; and Oak View Country, Aledo, Illinois. 

On October 20, 1896, he married Sarah Blee, of Aledo, Illinois, and their 
children are Margerie (Mrs. Robert P. McBride), Martha (Mrs. Claude E. 
Canning), George Blee and Thomas Blee. 



132 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO — THE CENTER OF INLAND WATERWAYS 

BY LORENZO DANA CORNISH 
Chief Engineer, Division of Waterways, State of Illinois 

THE site of Chicago from prehistoric time has been the dividing point 
of the two greatest inland waterway systems in the world. During the 
glacier period the waters of Lake Michigan poured through this area and 
carved out the valley of the DesPlaines and Illinois rivers on their way 
to the southern seas. The forces of nature raised the land, and the waters 
of Lake Michigan found their way to the sea through the Great Lakes and 
the St. Lawrence River. 

The intrepid explorer, Pere Marquette, in his travels to find a water 
outlet to the south in 1673, found such an outlet in the present city limits of 
Chicago. He located a short portage between the Chicago and the Des' 
Plaines rivers, which in times of high water was navigable for canoes. 
He then envisioned a commerccladen river route from the Great Lakes 
to the much sought Indies. 

This divide between the waters was definitely responsible for the loca' 
tion of the settlement which eventually developed into Chicago. The 
settlers of Chicago and the State foresaw that the future development 
of this area could only come through the construction of a commercially 
navigable channel to connect Lake Michigan with the Illinois River so 
that the lumber and manufactured products of the Eastern States could be 
distributed southward and the grain from the prairies of Illinois trans- 
ported to the East. The construction of the Erie Canal gave an eastern 
outlet to Europe through New York. 

Chicagoans were the leaders in promoting a waterway to the Missis' 




{Chicago Aerial Survey Comjpany) 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



133 




(Jixeto Photo) 

LORENZO DANA CORNISH 

Major Cornish, Chief Engineer of the Division of Waterways, State of IHinois, was 
born in Lee Centre, Oneida County, New York, March 30, 1877, son of James Bennett 
and Frances EmeHnc (Ward) Cornish. He received his education in Syracuse, New 
York, and obtained his C. E. (Civil Engineer) degree at Syracuse University in 1902. 
During his engineering career of over thirty years, Major Cornish has been principally 
engaged in the design and construction of waterway transportation facilities and power 
development. From 1902 to 1906 he was Junior United States civil engineer and super' 
intendent of construction at Pittsburgh; engineer assistant to the International Consult' 
ing Board for the Panama Canal during 1906; designing engineer for the Isthmian 
Canal Commission, 1907 to 1913; principal assistant engineer for the American Red 
Cross Board of Engineers in China during 1914; and principal United States engineer 
in the United States Engineering Department, Cincinnati, Ohio, from 1915 to 1917. 
Since 1919 he has used the experience he gained when canalizing the Ohio River and 
building the Panama Canal to bring to fulfillment Marquette's vision — the connecti.>n 
of Lake Michigan with the Mississippi River by a modern navigable waterway, the 
Illinois Waterways. 

A veteran of the Spanish American War and the World War, Major Cornish has 
the unique record of the most rapid construction of track on the Western Front of any 
officer in France who received citation from the Commander-in-Chief — 2.69 mile? of 
track laid by 135 men under traffic in five hours, and one cubic yard of excavation per 
man per hour were among the records of Company C, 1 ?th Engineers. As a member of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers, the Western Society of Engineers, the Missis- 
sippi Valley Association, and the National Rivers and Harbors Congress, Major Cornish 
has been a frequent contributor of articles to their publications. He is a member of the 
Medinah Athletic Club. 

On January 23, 1901, he married Mary Elizabeth Brodhead of Syracuse (died 1911); 
one son, Lorenzo Eugene Brodhead. He married Jeanette Welsh of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
May 18, 1916. 



134 Chicago's accomplishments 

sippi and their efforts were successful with the completion of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal in 1848. From the opening of the canal Chicago grew at 
an enormous rate, soon became the greatest lumber center in the world, 
and quickly followed as the greatest grain center of the United States. The 
development of railroads by 1880 supplanted this waterway as a commer- 
cial carrier of freight. 

Chicagoans never lost sight of the eventful need of a modern commer' 
cial waterway to the South and two hundred and fifty years after its con' 
ception by Pere Marquette the Chicago area had contributed, at a cost 
of a hundred millions of dollars, the most important link of this inland water 
chain — a sanitary and ship canal designed and built as a bulwark against 
sewage contamination of Lake Michigan, the course of its water supply, 
together with a navigation channel through the Continental Divide, with' 
out which the Lakes'to-the'Gulf Waterway would yet be at the Pere Mar- 
quette stage of contemplation. This waterway was opened in 1900 and 
though sufficient waters from Lake Michigan to float modern water carriers 
were diverted into the Mississippi, navigation could not exist owing to 
the rapids of the DesPlaines and Illinois rivers between Lockport and 
Utica. 

Chicagoans were again the leaders in a state'wide movement to com' 
plete what is since known as the Illinois Waterway, and in 1908, by an 
amendment to the State Constitution, provided funds for its construction. 
Not until 1917 could legislative authority and governmental approval be 
secured for the construction of the waterway. Actual work was com' 
menced in 1919 and in spite of unavoidable delay was rapidly nearing com' 
pletion in 1929 when it became evident that the $20,000,000 bond issue 
was insufficient for the task. Chicagoans were again among the leaders in 
cooperating with the Government of the State in an appeal to the Federal 
Government for aid to complete the waterway. Federal aid was finally 
secured to an amount of $7,500,000 and in 1930 Federal engineers took 
over the completion of the channel and navigation structures of the water 
way and the State continued its work by the reconstruction of all highway 
bridges over the waterway. 

In October, 1932, the Federal engineers had completed the essential 
parts of the waterway and operated all five of the locks and passed boats 
from the Illinois River at LaSalle up through three of the locks to a bridge 
on the DesPlaines River near Channahon. All essential bridges will be 
constructed early in 1933 and with the opening of navigation after the 
closed winter season modem commercial navigation will be an actual fact 
between Chicago and all southern points. 

The sight of foreign ships is a common occurrence in Chicago, which 
has long been a seaport in a small way. When the St. Lawrence Waterway 
is completed, large ocean freighters can come to Chicago and Chicago will 
have reached its destiny as the center of transportation between the two 
latest inland waterway systems in the world — the Great Lakes'St. Lawrence 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



135 



'PLANNIT^G' 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 

JACOB CRANE 

Mr. Crane, a consulting plan engineer of international reputation, with pro- 
jects in all parts of this country, in China and in Russia, was born in Ben- 
zonia, Michigan, September 14, 1892, and is the son of Jacob L. and Sarah T. 
(Maley) Crane. He was active in the campaign for Chicago's Zoning Ordi' 
nance, was a leader in the formation of the Chicago Regional Plan, and directed 
the survey of State Planning for Illinois under the auspices of the Illinois 
Chamber of Commerce. He is a consultant on planning and development 
for many of Chicago's suburbs and designer of such suburbs as Woodmar 
and Westchester. 

He says: 'Tm a rank visionary. Most of what I desire for this town and 
this district cannot be had short of fifty or a hundred years of gradually re- 
building the desolate shambles which constitute two-thirds of our built-up 
city and suburban area. I am not alone; five other persons, out of the four 
million, feel as I do. Chicago's present program is meager compared to what 
I would propose for the long-term job. But this latter wouldn't cost so much 
because it would be largely a matter of guiding and controlling the natural 
process of reconstruction, which is going on anyway. Meanwhile, we plan, 
and we do what can be done, and we dream of the magnificent future." 

He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, American 
City Planning Institute, British Town Planning Institute, American Society 
of Landscape Architects. He is a Tau Beta Pi. His clubs are Cliff Dwellers, 
Columbia Yacht, and Chicago Yacht. He wrote a chapter in ''Living Archi- 
tecture," also many articles for magazines. 

Mr. Crane married Ruth F. Fifield, 1910 (died February, 1928), and is 
the father of three children, Sally C, Jacob III, and James Fifield. 



136 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Waterway on the north, with thousands of miles of shore line and indus' 
trial cities, connected with the Mississippi River system, which reaches to 
Minneapolis and St. Paul on the Upper Mississippi, the fertile valleys and 
mines of the Missouri River, the industrial centers of the Ohio River up to 
Pittsburgh, all of which are tributary to the Gulf Seaboard at New Orleans. 
In 1933 the eyes of the world will be centered on Chicago and its 
Century of Progress, and Chicagoans and visitors will go aboard a boat at 
the Municipal Pier, travel through the Chicago River to the Chicago 
Drainage Canal, 160 feet wide, 24 feet deep, about forty miles to Lockport, 
where the boat will enter locks 600 feet long, 110 feet wide, and with the 
gates closed behind them the water will be lowered 41 feet. The boat will 
then travel into the DesPlaines River through Joliet to the locks at 
Brandon Road, where it will again be dropped 3 1 feet, then proceed down 
the river to the Dresden Island Lock just below where the Kankakee joins 
the DesPlaines to form the Illinois River. The boat will be lowered 16 
feet and then proceed through a thirtysix-mile stretch of the river to Mar- 
seilles; thence two miles through a canal to the Marseilles Lock, again to 
drop 21 feet into the pool below; thence thirteen miles to the lock at the 
historic site of Star\'ed Rock, where it will be lowered 17 feet into the 
Illinois River and will have passed through the Continental Divide at Chi- 
cago and over the steep portion of the river, which to the present time 
had formed a barrier to all navigation except canoes and flat bottom boats. 




The Hall of Science of A Century of Prugrc-. This huge structure. 7riU by 400 feet, is 
shaped like a U, and encloses on three sides a court capable of accommodating 80,000 persons. 
At one corner rises a 176'foot tower equipped with a carillon. The building faces a beautiful 
lagoon, an island, and Lake Michigan beyond. At night it has the appearance of a brilliantly 
illuminated metal and glass creation, rising from colored terraces. Paul Cret, architect. 
McLennan Construction Company, builders. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



137 
















(Fernand de Gueldre Photo) 



PERRY O. CRAWFORD 



Mr. Crawford, engineer and public utility operator, was born November 11, 1885, in 
Malvern, Carroll County, Ohio, son of James F. and Mary L. (Cox) Crawford. After 
spending a year at Ohio State University, he entered Stanford University, where he took 
the course in electrical engineering, and was graduated with the class of 1908. He began 
his career as construction engineer for the North Cahfornia Power Company, but in 1912 
he went to Afghanistan as assistant engineer on the Jabl'US'Siraj hydro-electric project 
at Kabul, one of the wildest and most remote outposts of civilization. Returning three 
years later to the United States, he reentered Stanford as a post'graduate student. 

In 1916 he became associated with The California Oregon Power Company as 
engineer, later rising to the position of Vice-president and general manager. In 1929 he 
resigned to become president of the Federal Public Service Corporation of Chicago, a 
company whose subsidiaries supply electric power, gas, water, telephone service, and ice 
to communities in nineteen states. Mr. Crawford is a member of the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, the Adventurers' Club of Chicago, and the Chicago Stanford 
Club, of which he was elected president for 1933. 

He was married in London, England, February 18, 1914, to Irma J. Zschokke, and 
their children are Dora M., Perry O., Jr., and Kenneth Z. 



138 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF THE ARMOUR 
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

Enlisting the Cooperation of Industry in Educational Problems 

THE Armour Institute of Technology Development Plan was formulated 
in the spring of 1931 after several months of careful study, directed by 
the Board of Trustees and a Development Committee. This study included 
a thorough investigation of the methods and practices of engineering educa- 
tion as it is carried on in America today, and an analysis of the educational 
"needs" of the great industries of the Chicago industrial area which ab- 
sorbs more than seventy-five per cent of the graduates of Armour Institute 
of Technology. 

The Development Plan is based upon one broad principle, namely, 
that there are three groups who must always be vitally interested in engi- 
neering education; the college itself, its alumni, and industry and the engi- 
neering professions; and that all of these groups may profit if permanent 
channels of expression are established whereby the voice of each may be- 
come effective in shaping the policies and methods which are employed in 
the college. 

In the past, it has been largely true that educational institutions do not 
look to outside sources for assistance in the solution of any problems of 
curriculum and teaching method, on the assumption that the educator is a 
specialist whose business it is to find the solution to such problems. 

The new attitude at Armour Institute of Technology rejects this 
thought. It embraces the idea that the educator alone can never arrive at a 
satisfactory solution to problems in which industry is as definitely involved 
as it is in engineering education. The educator takes the position of the 
producer in a business enterprise, and he looks to consumer demand' — in 
this case, industry and the engineering professions — to assist him by point- 
ing out ways in which his product, the graduate engineer, might be im- 
proved. 

This new principle is the most important change embodied in the Ar- 
mour Plan. It is interesting to note that already consumer demand has 
expressed itself, that the curricula at Armour Institute are being made less 
specializ^ed in answer to industry's plea for an engineer with a broader, more 
fundamental education. 

There is every indication that industry is more than willing to continue 
to assume some of the responsibility for engineering education, and that 
both industry and the college, and, inevitably, the graduates of the college, 
will benefit thereby. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



139 




JAMES D. CUNNINGHAM 

Mr. Cunningham, president of Republic Flow Meters Company and Autogas Corpora' 
tion, was born in Chicago, lUinois, May 5, 1887, and is a son of William H. and 
Josephine (Dalton) Cunningham. He attended the Chicago schools, graduating from 
the Hyde Park High School in 190?. He began as a clerk with the Armour Glue 
Works; later was a member of the firm of Clyde Machine Works Company; and in 
1911 founded and became president of the Steam Apphance Company, now the Re' 
public Flow Meters Company, manufacturers of industrial instruments with a factory 
in Chicago and branch offices in principal cities. He is also a director of the Dominion 
Flow Meters Company of Toronto, Canada, and the ElectrcFlo Meter Company of 
London, England. 

Mr. Cunningham is also president of the Autogas Corporation, manufacturers of 
Republic Conversion Gas Burners for heating homes, etc., with gas. He is a director 
of the Ilhnois Manufacturers Mutual Casualty Association, vice'president and member of 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and member of Western Society of Engineers. 
He was president of the Illinois Manufacturers' Association during 1928 and 1929. He 
is interested in engineering problems and education, and is chairman of the board of trus' 
tees, as well as chairman of the development committee, of the Armour Institute of Tech' 
nology. The Armour Institute development program is based on a survey of engineering 
educational requirements of the local industrial area and calls for progressive changes and 
enlargements. It includes the estabhshment of not only an advanced engineering college 
but a technical and industrial research institute. He is a member of The Chicago Club 
and the Chicago Engineers Club. 



140 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO, THE GREAT WHOLESALE MARKET 

Complete Stocks, Attractive Prices, Quick Delivery With Low 
Transportation Costs — No Wonder Buyers Favor Chicago! 

BY FRANK S. CUNNINGHAM 
President, Butler Brothers 

A RE you contemplating going into the retail business? Come to Chicago! 
wZjLln at least one Chicago wholesale establishment you can see model 
stores completely stocked. You can see the fixtures which experience 
recommends as most satisfactory. You can see the store arrangement which 
has proved most profitable from a selling standpoint. You will discover 
that retailing is no longer a hit-or-miss business, but a science which has 
been reduced to accurate details. 

Are you in doubt as to the best location for your store? Experts will 
advise you, basing their suggestions on a mass of records from which in' 
escapable facts have been drawn. 




P « «^< «rf .4i iSS J3J 1. <__ " i^^» , 




» nj -331 yj ,Jl11! 11! U 1 ^ J ! 

i iii ^^ IT- j^ 733 ui •{ 1 

)J JSJ -J^i JJ1| 43ya-!>53-i 

" jy 31S iu ni w m ni ..a m .ni m m 



,3,^ CHICAGO pi J 

J 5dTW IV BL'llD IVGSh •< ' 

1 4 ii 






1 q>«3 ji 



m .jj -3^ .. . , . 
id ,iJ iii 1 1 






'1 »? , 



WF £»wi' i^RI ^P 'Wi ^i W^ 








8^ Bit! 

M ^311^ ,3 , ■, -,-. J, 

iff IB BRIf 9 !f Jgjp .^ ;:^ 



BUTLER BROTHERS CHICAGO BUILDINGS 

Are you rather vague in your ideas of the proper merchandise to stock? 
The modern Chicago wholesaler has the information at his fingertips — 
what items, what colors, what si2,es, what prices constitute the kind of stock 
which can be relied upon to turn at a profit! He will gladly furnish you 
with a system of stock control which prevents your running out of wanted 
items, and he will show you how costly such "outs" may be. 

You raise your eyebrows in surprise? What has all this to do with 
selling at wholesale, you ask? Just this — the modern Chicago wholesaler 
knows that his success depends upon his customers' success. He knows 
there are many things about retailing which the average retailer doesn't 
know — facts which, if observed and accepted, would make a vast differ- 
ence in the average retailer's annual business, and annual profits. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



141 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



FRANK S. CUNNINGHAM 



Mr. Cunningham, president of Butler Brothers, was born in Bourbon, 
Indiana, April 16, 1866, son of OHver W. and Bethia Ann (Simpson) 
Cunningham. He received his education at the high school of Goshen, 
Indiana. He started with Butler Brothers, wholesale general merchandise, 
of Chicago, in 1886, and has been president since 1918. Mr. Cunningham 
is one of Chicago's civic leaders and is trustee of the Northwestern Univer' 
sity and Evanston Hospital and president of the Cradle Society of Evanston 
since its inception in 1923. His clubs are the Chicago, University, Union 
League, Commercial, and Glenview. 

On September 14, 1893, Mr. Cunningham married Lucy E. Baty, of 
Chicago, and they had one son, Oliver Baty (captain. United States Army, 
killed in action during World War). 



142 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



So he has made it his business to ascertain those facts and place them 
at the disposal of his customers. Because he reasons, correctly, that the 
merchant who learns modern retaihng through a wholesaler — whose red 
figures turn to black with that wholesaler's help — will turn to that whole- 
saler for the major part of his purchases, other things being equal. 

This is a comparatively new idea in wholesahng. But then, Chicago 
is a comparatively new city, and new ideas thrive here! That may be one 
of the big reasons for Chicago's recent growth as a wholesale center — its 
ever'increasing popularity with buyers, department heads, merchandise 
managers, and store owners, throughout the vast and fertile territory which 
rightfully regards Chicago as its trading center. 



i 

J 


1' 


.It. 




i-p% 


J 


•-'■'■■•' ■-"■*i:-- ■ 


1 

. A 


t 

JL 
1 


r 


It *.. 


-^ 


'V : •. ,«i 


*' m 


• ■! 




.. 


•' 




.J 


i 


'■''^m^mm>..M^ 


ft 


1 1 


-■-*•;■■■ -■■^ 


Hi! 

■ y 


■ rt 


1 


m 


m 


• • 


ml^r- 


f; •• ' 




• 


• "*. * 


^J,!*»gJ 




.1 






J 


mi. 
f , 

f 1 

H 



Chicago's night'time brilliance. In the extreme right foreground is the illuminated spire of 

the Chicago Temple Building. 

According to the latest Federal census, there are some 9,312 wholesale 
houses in metropolitan Chicago, doing an annual business somewhere in 
the neighborhood of five billions of dollars. It is no exaggeration to say 
that whatever any merchant wants can be bought to advantage in Chicago 
— quickly, economically, satisfactorily. 

Among the leaders in Chicago's development as a wholesale market 
must be numbered Marshall Field ^ Co., Carson, Pirie Scott ^ Co., Hib' 
bard, Spencer, Bartlett 6? Co., and Butler Brothers. Each of these establish' 
ments has attained the proportions of an exposition, with stocks of gargan' 
tuan dimensions — vast displays so arranged that they are in themselves a 
liberal education to any merchant. 

Supplementing these outstanding leaders in the dry goods and general 
merchandise field are thousands of smaller firms and specialty houses with' 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



143 




(Moffett-Russell Photo) 



KENNETH CURTIS 



Mr. Curtis, president and chairman of the board of Curtis Lighting, Inc., and president 
of Curtis Lighting Securities Company, Curtis Lighting of New York, Inc., and Curtis 
Lighting of Canada, Ltd., was born in Marinette, Wisconsin, March 1, 1894, son of 
Augustus Darwin and Marette (Hotchkin) Curtis. He received his education at Hyde 
Park High School, of Chicago; Cascadilla School, Ithaca, New York; University of 
Wisconsin, where he received his B. A. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1919; and North' 
western University, where he received his M. B. A. (Master of Business Administration) 
in 1923. He also took post-graduate work in geology at the University of Chicago. 

Curtis Lighting, Inc., of which Mr. Curtis is president and chairman of the board, 
is the largest organization of its kind in the world. It is devoted to the design, manu- 
facture, and installation of engineered lighting equipment which provides the correct 
amount of illumination for proper architectural and hghting effect. This company, with 
representatives in all the world's principal cities, and factories in the United States, 
Canada, and Europe, is developing novel lighting ideas, many of which will first be seen 
at A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair. The company will also have 
an exhibit of its own at the Fair. Mr. Curtis was commissioned First Lieutenant of Infan- 
try at Camp Custer, Michigan, and served with the American Expeditionary Forces on the 
Meuse-Argonne front in France. He is a director of The Electric Association, Chicago, 
and The Chicago Architects Club. He is a member of the Illuminating Engineering 
Society. He is a Sigma Phi and a member of many clubs and fraternal organizations. 
His recreations are hunting, fishing, and horseback riding. 



Mrs. Kenneth Curtis is the former Mary Clair Eastman, of Evanston. 
are Clair and Kenneth Augustus. 



The children 



144 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



out which no market would be complete. There is ample opportunity for 
the out'of'town buyer to shop, to compare values, and to make his purchase 
wherever his judgment indicates he will receive the greatest satisfaction. 

Scores of thousands of retailers are served by Chicago's wholesale 
houses, and the number is growing each year. 

In ready-to-wear clothing, for example, records show a sales increase 
of 233 per cent since 1914. Buyers seeking this class of merchandise find 
a highly diversified market confined in a small area, which makes for desir' 
able economy of time and effort. They can leave home in the evening, com' 
plete their buying in one day, and be back home ready for business the 
following morning — a program hard to duplicate in any other market. 

Infants' and children's wear, accessories, and furniture — millinery — 
men's clothing — gift merchandise — leather goods — furs — Chicago's repu- 
tation in all of these lines is second to that of no other market in the 
country. 

Hardware merchants find unparalleled values in Chicago's wholesale 
houses. The great volume of hardware business clearing through Chicago 
gives tremendous unit purchasing power to the wholesalers who handle 
this business — brings prices farther down — attracts more retailers! 

Toys! The world's largest wholesaler of toys is located in Chicago! 
The annual Chicago Toy Fair attracts manufacturers, jobbers, and buyers 
from the larger stores all over the Middle West. 

And so on, through the whole long category of merchandise classifica' 
tions — whatever any merchant wants can be found in Chicago's wholesale 
houses, easily, quickly, at the right price, and for immediate delivery. 





A CENTURY OF PROGRESS VIEWS 

Night view showing base of tower of the Hall Concealed neon illumination makes the south 

of Science, the walls of which are illuminated view of the Hall of Science a captivating 

by gaseous tubes. scene at night. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



145 




ERNEST E. DALTON 

Mr. Dalton, president of Coe Laboratories, Inc., was born in Brantford, 
Ontario, on November 16, 1889. His parents were Dennis Dalton and 
Kathenne (McKinnon) Dalton. Mr. Dalton attended school there but moved to 
Buffalo, New York, in 1901, where he finished school. At the age of fourteen 
he entered the employ of a dental supply house, this step being the beginning 
of an outstanding career in the dental industry which has never been inter- 
rupted. He was married to Cora Jeffe of Buffalo in 1910 and has one daugh' 
ter, Colette. He moved to Chicago in the latter part of 1910 where he has 
made his home since. Mr. Dalton heads one of the unique institutions in 
Chicago — the Coe Laboratories, Inc. 

While the Coe Laboratories, Inc., is essentially a manufacturer of mate- 
rials for dentists, by far the largest part of its activities is devoted to re- 
search and educational work with the dental profession. Its museum and 
scientific research laboratory and educational rooms are the Mecca of dentists 
and technicians from all over the world. Mr. Dalton organized the Coe 
Laboratories, Inc., in 1924, and, under his guidance and direction, it was an 
immediate success. It has grown and expanded until today it is regarded as 
one of the leading dental institutions in the country. Coe Laboratories, Inc., 
through its association of 140 Certified Laboratories, is able to give the results 
of its research findings to dentists in every corner of the world. Mr. Dalton 
is a national figure in the dental industry, not only because of the products and 
technics his organization has given to dentistry, but also because of his genu' 
inely friendly personality and his adherence to his high principled ideals. 



146 Chicago's accomplishments 

A CENTURY OF PROGRESS EXPOSITION, 

HERALD OF A NEW AGE 

Interpreting Creatively the Spirit of Today 

BY PAUL T. GILBERT 

ON a Strip of land reclaimed from Lake Michigan, extending from 
Twelfth street to 39th street, a distance of nearly three and a half 
miles, and on Northerly Island (also man-made), separated from the shore 
by a narrow lagoon, an Aladdin city has sprung up. 

It is a city unlike anything ever seen on earth before; the kind of a city 
one might expect to see on visiting Mars. It is a futuristic city, foreshadow- 
ing nobody knows exactly what. It vibrates with youth. It reflects the 
spirit of Today — and perhaps more daringly, the spirit of Tomorrow. 




Administration building — headquarters of A Century of Progress — Chicago's 1933 World's 
Fair. This structure is a striking example of the application of modern architectural principles 

to new methods of building. 

A stranger viewing it for the first time will be struck by the oddity, the 
wierdness, the biz^arreness of its architecture. New materials have gone into 
its construction. New engineering principles have been experimented with, 
in its construction. Even the architects and engineers themselves are a bit 
ama2,ed, a bit breathless, over what they've done. The roof of the Agricul- 
tural Building is made of cornstalks, and perhaps no one would be surprised 
if told that it was made of pumpkin pie. Anything is possible in this extra- 
ordinary city. The ''breathing'' dome of the Travel and Transport Build- 
ing — the largest dome in the world — is suspended like a lampshade by cables 
from the skeleton-like steel uprights which surround it. 

Here are architectural conceptions that seem upside down and topsy- 
turvy. Structures with their skeletons on the outside, like insects. Un- 
compromising horizontals and perpendiculars. Box-like rectangularity. Tri- 
angular towers. Surfaces that require tricky illumination rather than plastic 
art for decoration. SimpHcity and usability rather than elegance. No ''ex- 
position art," no gingerbread about Chicago's second World's Fair City. 
No suggestion of the glory that was Greece. Nothing you have ever seen 
before. It is a city that epitomizes the age of steel, chromium, aluminum, 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



147 




(Eugene L. Ray, Evanston, Photo) 



CHARLES G. DAWES 



General Dawes, lawyer, banker, author, composer, and public official, was born in 
Marietta, Ohio, August 27, 186?, son of General Rufus R. and Mary Beman (Gates) 
Dawes. He attended Marietta College and received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree 
in 1884, his A. M. (Master of Arts), in 1887. Working as an engineer on a small 
Ohio railroad, he earned sufficient money to put himself through the Cincinnati Law 
School, from which he graduated with an LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree in 1886. 
He taught himself music, first mastering the flute and then the piano, and his com- 
position, "Melody in A Minor," has been played by distinguished artists throughout the 
world. He was admitted to the bar in 1886; practiced in Lincoln, Nebraska, 1887 to 
1894; moved to Evanston, Illinois, in 1894. 

Mr. Dawes was the executive of the McKinley movement in Illinois that resulted in 
McKinley instructions at the Springfield Convention in 1896; member of the executive 
committee of the Republican National Committee in the campaign of 1896; comptroller 
of the currency from 1897 to 1901. He organized the Central Trust Company of 
Illinois in 1902 and was president until 1921; chairman of the board, 1921 to 1925; 
honorary chairman of the board in 1930-1931, and when reorganized in 1931 as the 
Central Republic Bank 6? Trust Company was honorary chairman of that board. He 
is now chairman of the board of directors of the City National Bank & Trust Company 
organized October 6, 1932. 

He was commissioned major of engineers of the National Army, June, 1917; lieutenant 
colonel in July, 1917; colonel in January, 1918; and brigadier-general in October, 1918. 
He arrived in France as lieutenant colonel of the railway engineers; was appointed to 
administrative staff of commander in chief of the American Expeditionary Forces, Sep- 
tember, 1917; served as chairman of the general purchasing board and as general 
purchasing agent of the American Expeditionary Forces; later, was a member of the 
Mihtary Board of Allied Supply, the Liquidation Commission of the A. E. F., and the 
Liquidation Board of the War Department; resigned from the Army in 1919, returning 
to the United States August, 1919. General Dawes was awarded the Distinguished 

Continued on page 546 



148 Chicago's accomplishments 

electricity. It is the forerunner of amazing changes that will come about in 
America within the next twenty-five years — a pre- view of the future. 

During the administration of the late Mayor William E. Dever, Chi' 
cagoans became conscious of the fact that the Prairie Metropolis was grow 
ing up, that it was approaching its one hundredth birthday. 

Something should be done on a grand scale, they thought, to commem' 
orate such an important event. One outstanding event in the history of the 
nation, the four hundredth anniversary of the landing of Columbus, 
was celebrated by the World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago's first 
World's Fair was a magnificent gesture. During its transitory exist' 
ence it made Chicago the Queen City of the world. No exposition held 
since that time has been able to compare with it either in its ineffable, 
dream'like beauty or in the splendor of its exhibits. It ushered in a 
renaissance of classic architecture. For Chicago it marked the beginning 
of a new and a more gracious era. 

Now, in 1926, Chicago seemed to be standing on the verge of another 
period of expansion. It was soaring cloudward, its restless skyline changing 
almost overnight. Wacker drive was nearing completion. The Michigan 
avenue bridge had provided a new gateway to the Loop. 

Out of the deliberations of a group of leaders grew the conception of a 
second World's Fair, an exposition that would repeat the triumph of 1893 
and dramati2;e the progress, material and spiritual, of Chicago during the 
century of civic life that was drawing to a close. 

This progress has been almost unbelievable. In 1833, when Chicago 
was incorporated as a town, its population was about 150. There were 28 
voters. The settlement consisted of a group of cabins clustered around a 
"tomahawk" fortress. The mournful howl of the prairie wolf could be 
heard at night. Indians loafed around Fort Dearborn or the Kinzie cabin. 
A log foot bridge spanned the river; vehicles were taken across on the ferry. 
The streets were hardly more than cowpaths. It is recalled that a stage 
coach, mired in Clark street between Madison and Randolph, was aban' 
doned. A woman crossing a muddy street lost both her shoes. 

By a happy coincidence the birth of Chicago as a corporate town coin' 
cided with the beginning of a century of undreamed of progress. The rail' 
road, the harvester, the steamship, the telegraph, the telephone, the sewing 
machine, the typewriter, the phonograph, the electric light, the bicycle, the 
automobile, the motion picture, the airplane, the radio were among the 
products of that cycle. 

An Exposition that would present in dynamic form the changes in in' 
dustry and in everyday life wrought by the discoveries and inventions of 
these hundred years would, in the opinion of its sponsors, be justified on 
the occasion of Chicago's centennial celebration. 

An ideal site for such a Fair was available right in Chicago's front yard. 
In fact, the nucleus of a Fair was already provided. Near by stood the 
magnificent Field Museum, one of the world's wonder houses. The new 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



149 




(Kellogg Studio Photo) 

HENRY M. DAWES 

Mr. Dawes is president of the Pure Oil Company, one of the large com' 
pletely integrated companies in the oil industry. He was born in Marietta, 
Ohio, April 22, 1877, son of Rufus R. and Mary Beman (Gates) Dawes, 
and graduated from Marietta College there. In 1907 Mr. Dawes came to 
Chicago to become associated with his brothers, Charles G., Rufus C. and 
Beman G. Dawes, in the public utility business. He was president of the 
Southwestern Gas 6? Electric Company and vice'president of Dawes Brothers, 
Inc. 

Mr. Dawes was appointed Comptroller of the Currency and a member of 
the Federal Reserve Board by the late President Harding on May 1, 1923, 
resigning in December, 1924. He is chairman of the board of the Central 
Illinois Securities Corporation, director of the City National Bank and 
Trust Company of Chicago, Chicago Great Western Railroad, American 
Petroleum Institute, Dawes Brothers, Inc., Union Gas and Electric Company, 
Metropolitan Gas and Electric Company, Personal Loan and Savings Bank 
(Chicago), and Drovers Trust and Savings Bank of Chicago. 

He is a member of the Delta Upsilon Fraternity. His clubs are the 
University, Chicago Club, Cosmos (Washington, D. C), Glenview Golf 
(Chicago), Evanston Country, and Seaview Golf (N. J.). 

On April 5, 1905, he married Helen Curtis of Marietta. Their children 
are Curtis and Mary G. 



150 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



$6,000,000 Stadium — not yet known as Soldier Field — had just been com- 
pleted and dedicated. The Art Institute with its priceless collections, was 
another asset. Plans for the Adler Planetarium and the Shedd Aquarium 
were well under way. And to the south, in Jackson Park, the old Fine Arts 
Building of glorious memories was being remodeled and restored for the 
Museum of Science and Industry founded by Julius Rosenwald. 

A Century of Progress — Chicago's 1933 World's Fair — was organ- 
ized as an Illinois corporation, not for profit, under the trusteeship of eighty 
of Chicago's most influential citiziens, and work was begun with character- 
istic energy on the vast project. 

With the Columbian Exposition as a model, and with the permanent 
buildings in Grant Park of a classic design, it might have been expected that 
the architects of A Century of Progress Exposition would have followed 
the conventional lines. 

On the contrary, they did just the opposite, and in a way which made 
Chicago gasp. The Columbian Exposition of forty years before, reviewing as 
it did the past, was housed appropriately in buildings of the golden age of 
architecture. A Century of Progress Exposition, it was determined, must 
be more than a historic pageant. It must depart from tradition and express 
creatively the spirit of the new age. It must tear away the veil that shrouds 
the future. 

Never before has a World's Fair been planned with such an extra- 
ordinary viewpoint as this. Its very opening was to be in keeping with its 




{Courtesy, Curtis Lighting, Inc.) 

Director's room in the Administration building — a remarkable room, wonderfully effective 

with hghting. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



151 




P « e'l 1 O EH T 

'^4 Century (^ fin f. -tit 

WO»l.D{ FAiX 




" t^S**^*'" 



J 



RUFUS C. DAWES 



Mr. Dawes, president of A Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago's (1933) World's 
Fair, was born in Marietta, Ohio, July 30, 1867, the son of General Rufus R. and Mary 
(Gates) Dawes. It was one of his ancestors who accompanied Paul Revere on his famous 
ride. Mr. Dawes was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Arts from Marietta 
College in the class of 1886, and received his Master's degree in 1889. In 1931 he was 
awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws by Northwestern University. 

His business life has been spent largely in organising and managing public utility 
companies. He is president of Dawes Brothers, Inc., and of the Metropolitan Gas and 
Electric Company, and was formerly president of the Union Gas and Electric Company, 
the Central Indiana Gas Company, the New York and Richmond County Gas Company, 
the Seattle Lighting Company, and many other organizations. In public life Mr. Dawes 
has a distinguished record of service. He was a member of the Illinois State Pension 
Laws Commission in 1918 and 1919; a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention 
of 1920; adviser to the American experts who prepared the Dawes Plan of reparations 
settlement; and assistant to Owen D. Young, first agent of general reparations. Since 
1927 Mr. Dawes has devoted most of his time and energy to the World's Fair, and it is 
under his administration that the Aladdin City on the Lake front has sprung up, a 
miracle of beauty, and the forerunner of a new age. He has served also as president of 
the Board of Education of his home city, Evanston. Mr. Dawes is a member of the 
Chicago, Commercial, University, Glenview Country, and Evanston Country clubs. 

He was married June 3, 1893, to Helen B. Palmer of Washington Court House, 
Ohio. 



152 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



theme. In 1893, the public looked on with amazement as the Columbian 
Exposition was started in motion by President Cleveland, pressing an elec- 
tric button in the White House nearly a thousand miles away — a wonder 
in those days when electricity was only beginning to come into its own. 
A beam of light from the star Arcturus, launched into space forty years 
before, to be caught by a silenium cell, was to start the machinery of A Cen- 
tury of Progress Exposition in motion. A comparison between the two 
methods is in itself significant of how far civilization marched in the four 
decades necessary for that ray of light to reach the world. 

At the beginning of that era, the completion of which the Exposition 
celebrates, man was groping blindly for those laws which would enable him 
to mold the forces of nature to his use and comfort. Today his mastery 
over those forces are evident in new means of transportation, of communi- 
cation, of manufacturing processes, new methods of fighting disease, and 
new products that make our lives more comfortable and safe. Today the 
laboring man can enjoy luxuries that were, a century ago, beyond the con- 
ception of even kings. 





i£««->ik^ 



Air view showing on the left a repHca of Fort Dearborn, one of Chicago's most thrilling 

historical monuments. Near here, in 1812, the brave inhabitants of the Fort were massacred 

by Indians. On the right is the Lincoln group which includes replicas of the historical 

buildings, as well as relics, associated with the martyred President. 

The object of A Century of Progress Exposition is to tell in a vivid 
way the story of the discoveries and inventions, their application, and the 
transformation they have wrought all around us. 

Man himself has set the stage for this great spectacle. Every foot of 
the enchanted garden on which the Aladdin City stands was until very 
recently deep below the surface of Lake Michigan. The site is easily ac- 
cessible. Suburban railways near the entrance can handle 50,000 persons 
an hour, motor buses, 20,000 an hour, while elevated and surface lines 
running within a few blocks of the grounds can carry 1,000,000 passengers 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



153 






K*-**" 






CHARLES E.DELEUW 



Mr. De Leuw, consulting engineer and president of Charles De Leuw and 
Company, was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, July 3, 1891, and is the son of 
Oscar Anthony and Bessie Mary (Tribbey) De Leuw. He received his B. S. 
(Bachelor of Science) degree in 1912 and his C. E. (Civil Engineer) degree 
in 1916 at the University of lUinois. From 1908 to 1916 he was engaged 
on municipal, railroad, and reclamation engineering projects, and later, as a 
member of the engineering firm of Kelker, De Leuw and Company, in various 
civil engineering and transportation projects in New York, Chicago, Los An- 
geles, Baltimore, St. Louis, and other cities. In 1930 the firm name was 
changed to Charles De Leuw and Company, consulting engineers. Since 
August 1, 1930, Mr. De Leuw has been assistant chief engineer of the Bureau 
of Subways for the City of Chicago. 

He served on the Mexican Border in the First lUinois Cavalry in 1916 
and as 1st Lieutenant and Captain of the 4th United States Engineers from 
May, 1917, to January, 1919. He actively participated in three major en' 
gagements in France during the World War and was awarded the Dis' 
tinguished Service Cross and the Belgian Ordre de la Couronne. He is a 
member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, American Society of 
MiUtary Engineers, and other technical societies. 



154 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



a day. Within the grounds, trucks of the semi'trailer type, and a fleet of 
motor coaches offer the visitor the choice of a high'speed arterial route or 
more leisurely sight'seeing tours. 




GENERAL MOTORS BUILDING AT A CENTURY OF PROGRESS 

Here, for the first time, illumination takes the place of paint and bas' 
relief. The lighting engineers have worked to produce marvelous effects. 
First of all, one must understand that most buildings of the 1933 World's 
Fair are windowless. They have no natural light, but are illuminated day 
and night by electricity. The great halls, rotundas, and galleries are em' 
bellished with luminous panels of colored fabric, glass, and reflecting metal, 
in keeping with the modern architecture of these buildings. Many of the 
larger rooms are illuminated from sources entirely concealed. Certain rooms 
are flooded with Hght coming from '"pin-hole" openings in the walls and 
ceilings. Neon illumination has been widely used, but not in the manner 
associated with the ordinary use of neon in shop window signs. No exposed 
tubes are employed; they are concealed behind grills and metallic planes so 
as to afford the rich glow of this type of lighting without the sharp effects 
generally associated with it. In some cases, several overlapping silhouettes 
or grills are used to heighten the illusion of texture and depth. 

Thus, in the large, high'ceilinged, six'sided Communications Hall of 
the Electrical Science Group, hundreds of small metallic jewels have been 
attached to the lower side of the radiating ceiling beams. Concealed behind 
a panel at the hub of this design is a battery of slowly rotating light projec 
tors. The light beams strike these jewels, those near the hub picking up the 
light first, so that there is a constantly expanding or radiating action from 
the hub to the circumference. This design is continued down the walls to 
the floor. At the entrance to the hall is a colored light pattern, embla2;oned 
on the floor, apparently in rainbow-tinted tile, but actually by projection 
from the ceiling above. 

Floodhghting of the exteriors, as commonly conceived, is conspicuous 
by its absence. Practically all exterior illumination is in color, the colors 
being chosen to enrich the pigments used to embellish the buildings in the 
daytime. Another novelty is the shimmering effects on the walls, such as 
is produced by the reflection of the sun's rays on rippling water. Water is 
actually used for these effects, and by its agitation, patterns of various forms 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



155 




Electricity's wizardry is unfolded in this sickle-shaped group of buildings called the Electrical 

Group at A Century of Progress. Embellished with hanging gardens, steel cypress trees, 

electric cascades and fountains, gilded pylons and paved terraces, this structure — 1,200 feet 

long by 300 feet wide — presents the last word in modern architectural phantasy. 

Raymond Hood, architect. 

are produced which, to say the least, are as mysterious as they are be- 
wildering. 

To ama2,e and delight the Exposition visitor and to give him a glimpse 
into the future, the engineers have contrived spectacular Aurora BoreaHs 
and fog effects made possible by cascades of chemical vapor released from 
airplanes at an altitude of 1,000 feet, and illuminated in color as they fall, 
by army 'type searchlights similar to those installed at Niagara Falls. 

As a crowning diadem of light, the Hall of Science tower has been 
studded with "electric jewels," converging in a solid mass at the apex. Ac 
tually, these jewels are small projectors, each throwing a high candlepower 
beam either north, south, east, or west. At a distance of a thousand feet 
or more, these jewels merge in a bla2,e of color which is effective for several 
miles. 

A simple but spectacular and entirely new device is employed on the 
towers and pylons of the General Exhibits Building, which, coated with 
bright, corrugated metal, permit a play of light from hidden sources near 
the ground, so as to create hundreds of bright horizontal color hnes, one 
color alternating with another, and running from top to bottom. 

The sensational flaming arc ladder; a flaming Niagara, cascading down 
the walls of the Electrical Building's great court; electric fountains in rain- 
bow hues, and mysterious serpentine lights creeping along the flower beds 
and among the shrubs are among some of the other unique lighting effects 
which express the spirit of the Fair. 



156 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Appropriately enough, the first completed unit of the Exposition was 
the rephca of old Fort Dearborn, which stands in Leif Ericson drive at 
26th street, almost on the site of the massacre of 1812 in which almost the 
entire garrison of the original fortress perished. 

Time is turned back a century when one steps through the massive log 
gate into the stockaded enclosure. Double rows of log palisades, five and 
ten feet in height are so arranged that the block houses command not only 
the space without the four walls, but also that between the palisades. An 
enemy scaling the outer barrier would only find himself in a cul de sac which 
could be swept at every point by rifle or cannon. 

At the northeast and southwest corners of the inclosure stand block' 
houses, their topmost points of vantage reached by ladders. From slits like 
those let into the walls, soldiers once leveled their guns. To the left of the 
entrance gate are the soldiers' barracks, and at right angles and on opposite 
sides of the parade ground are the officers'" quarters, two stories high with 
shingled roofs. On the east side, just south of the building which housed 
the supplies, are the commanding officer's quarters. Between the supply 
building and the northeast blockhouse is the powder maga2;ine. In the center 
of the grounds the American flag flies from a lofty mast. 

Materials for the original fort were easily obtained. But for the repro' 
duction much study and effort were required. Norway pines were brought 
from Wisconsin to furnish logs for the stockades. Stone that had laid in 
the open for many years until it was thoroughly weathered, was used for 
the fireplaces. Hammered iron hinges were especially blacksmithed for the 
doors and gate. Sheets of glass as full of flaws as possible were chosen to 
give semblance to the crude little window panes of a century ago. The fort 




The LrLiicial Exhibits group, designed by Harvey Wiley Corbctt. Facing the lagoon formed 

by Northerly Island and Lake Michigan, this group comprises a series of pavihons each 

housing exhibits of a separate branch of industry. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



157 




L. PHILIP DENOYER 



Mr. Denoyer, president Denoyer-Geppert Company, publishers of visual instruction aids, 
was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, December 12, 1875, and is the son of William 
and Lucy (Venema) Denoyer. He graduated from the State Teachers College at Osh' 
kosh, Wisconsin, in 1899, received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Lawrence 
College in Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1901, and was a graduate student of the University 
of Chicago, 1908-1909. He was a teacher at the high school in Rock Island, Illinois, 
19044906, was principal of high schools at Washburn, Wisconsin, until 1907, and at 
Urbana, Illinois, until 1908, and was professor of geography and geology at the State 
Teachers College in LaCrosse, Wisconsin, 1909-1913. On June 11, 1903, he married 
Flora Havighurst (died February 24, 1929), of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, and there is one 
daughter, Muriel M. On March 8, 1930, he married Xenia M. Bilhorn of Chicago. 

Mr. Denoyer has been president and managing editor of the Denoyer-Geppert 
Company of Chicago, well-known publishers of maps, charts, globes, atlases, and ana- 
tomical models for schools, colleges, hospitals, homes, etc., since 1916. He is the author 
of Outhne of Commercial Geography (1912), Teacher's Manual for Globes (1929), 
and co-editor of several other teacher's manuals. He is the inventor of a new type of 
blackboard outline maps known as Lecturer's Charts, and has made many improvements 
in map rail, globe mountings, etc. The maps he has assisted in editing comprise history 
maps from the dawn of civilization to the present, including such subjects as changes 
in the distribution of population, immigration, slavery, elections, suffrage, and geography 
maps depicting political divisions, topography, rainfall, population density, and related 
subjects. 

For about fifteen years, Mr. Denoyer has conducted adult Bible classes in various 
churches, mostly with groups of men. He has been president of the Rogers Park Sun- 
day Evening Club, Exhibitors' Association of the National Education Association, 
Lawrence Alumni Club of Chicago, and the Public Welfare League of LaCrosse, Wisconsin. 
He is a life member of the Chicago Geographic Society and of the Art Institute of 
Chicago, a member of the American Geographical Society of New York City, and a 
charter member of the Illinois Academy of Sciences. His principal recreations are 
motoring, travel and golf — a member of Mission Hills Country Club. 



158 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



is furnished with antiques and objects of historical interest, many of which 
have been loaned by the Chicago Historical Society. 

Another reminder of the past, set amid twentieth century surroundings, 
is the Lincoln group, which includes replicas of the log cabin in which the 
martyred President was born; Lincoln's boyhood home in Indiana; the 
Lincoln-Berry general store and the Rutledge Tavern in New Salem, 111., 
and the Chicago Wigwam in which Lincoln was nominated for the presi- 
dency. 



v»i^£w<^ 



e'?wr-!P»» .--<w- 




The "Sky Ride," one of the spectacular features of Chicago's 1933 Worlds Fair — A Century 
of Progress Exposition. Two steel towers, 600 feet high and 2,000 feet apart connected by 
cables at the 200'foot level, carry rocket cars which shoot through the air at high speed. 

Two buildings of outstanding interest are the Mayan Temple, a re- 
production of the famous nunnery at Uxmal, one of the finest examples 
of pre-European culture in America, and the Golden Pavilion of Jehol, a 
reproduction of China's finest Lama temple. The material for the latter 
building — 28,000 pieces of wood — was brought to Chicago for Vincent 
Bendix by the Swedish explorer, Sven Hedin. The Pavilion is colored in 
red lacquer and gold and crowned with a double-decked roof covered with 
copper shingles finished in pure leaf gold. Inside is a priceless collection of 
Chinese and Buddhist treasures. 

The centerpiece of the Exposition's exhibit scheme is the impressive 
Hall of Science on the edge of the lagoon. A spacious interior courtyard, 
picturesque terraces, ramps, pylons, and a lofty tower from which the 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



159 




(Kellogg Photo) 



JOSHUA D'ESPOSITO 

Mr. D'Esposito, consulting engineer, was born in Sorrento, Italy, August 18, 1878, the 
son of Antonio and Luisa Marie (di Pontecorvo) D'Esposito. He was educated at the 
Royal Nautical Institute of his native city, and came to the United States in 1898, work- 
ing as a machine shop apprentice. In 1904 he entered the service of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad as a draughtsman. He became an American citizen in 1907, and by 1913, when 
he came to Chicago to initiate the Union Station project, had advanced to the position 
of assistant to the chief engineer. 

His work on the Union Station was interrupted during the war, when he was sum- 
moned to Washington as assistant manager of the Emergency Fleet Corporation of the 
U. S. Shipping Board. In 1919, however, he returned to Chicago and resumed the 
project, which was completed in 1925. As consulting engineer for the Chicago Daily 
News Building, he was the instigator of air rights exploitation in this city, the Daily News 
building being Chicago's first commercial structure to be erected over a railroad right 
of way. He did the engineering work also on the spectacular Sky Ride, the principal 
amusement enterprise of A Century of Progress Exposition, consisting of two 620-foot 
steel towers, one on Northerly Island, the other on the mainland, between which 
"rocket" cars are operated over cables. Mr. D'Esposito has completed the plans for the 
proposed Consolidated Station, concentrating the freight and passenger terminals of the 
railroads now using the Grand Central, the La Salle street, and the Polk street stations. 
More recently he proposed the electrification of 50,000 miles of trunk lines in the 
United States, to be financed by a $3,000,000,000 Federal bond issue, as a means of 
furnishing employment to thousands of men and leading the country out of the de- 
pression. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American 
Railway Engineering Association, the Western Society of Engineers, the Union League, 
Engineers, and Illinois Golf clubs. 

Mr. D'Esposito was married August 18, 1908, to Katherine Von Olnhausen of 
Pittsburgh. There are three children, Louise, Joshua, and Julian. 



160 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




The Lincoln group, which includes replicas of his birthplace, the Indiana cabin of his 

boyhood, the Lincoln-Berry general store, the Rutledge Tavern in New Salem, lUinois, and 

the Chicago Wigwam, where the Republican Convention of 1860 nominated Abraham 

Lincoln for the presidency of the United States. 

mellow notes of a carillon sound the passing hours, make this building an 
enchanting place for visitors. 

An ornate bridge leads across the lagoon to the Electrical Group, which 
extends nearly a quarter of a mile along Northerly Island and comprises 
the Radio, Communications, and Electrical buildings. Hanging gardens, 
steel trees, and unique lighting and landscaping effects add to the interest 
of this strikingly modern group. 

• The Travel and Transport Building, windowless, and nearly a block 
and a half long, is so lofty and spacious that a cross section of an ocean liner 
may be installed under its roof. Locomotives and multiple-motored trans' 



Corner of the replica of the Golden Pavilion 
of Jehol — finest existing example of Chinese 
Lama architecture — at A Century of Progress. 
The entire paviHon is a marvel of Chinese in- 
genuity, made of more than 20,000 parts 
cunningly joined together by dovetail joints 
and dowels and without the use of a single 
nail. The replica was built by Chinese craftS' 
men under the direction of Dr. Sven Hedin, 
eminent Swedish explorer, and is an exact re- 
production of the famous Golden Pavilion 
which was built in 1767 at Jehol, the summer 
home of the Manchu emperors. Dr. Hedin 
was commissioned by Vincent Bendix to bring 
this elaborately beautiful structure to Chicago 
as a World's Fair exhibit. 




CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



161 




THE "FUNNIES" IN THE MIDWAY, THE AMUSEMENT AREA OF A CENTURY 

OF PROGRESS 




THE HEAD OF "BOZO," ONE OF THE FEATURES OF THE MIDWAY 



162 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



port planes seem dwarfed by its vast proportions. The dome of the Capitol 
at Washington is 135 feet in diameter; that of St. Peter's at Rome, 137 
feet. The dome of the Travel and Transport building, hung by "sky hooks" 
at the height of a twelve-story structure, has a clear interior diameter of 
206 feet. From the tops of twelve steel towers built in a circle, cables run 
like threads of some giant spider web, supporting the roof. 

The Hall of States, partly enclosing a spacious courtyard and sunken 
garden, faces the Federal Building with its 75'foot dome and three triangu- 
lar towers, each 150 feet in height, and representing respectively the ad- 
ministrative, legislative, and executive branches of the Government. 



4> 



% 







THE HALL OF STATES AND THE FEDERAL BUILDING 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



163 








'^:. 



-^■'■;^.^^ 






.. . ., } -. B,;...,....";"B-i?^''- 

S P 1 h ^~' 



(fi ■ 



(Moffett-Russell Photo) 



ALBERT W. BILLING 



Mr. Dilling, consulting engineer and special counsel, was born in Salt Lake City, Utah, 
January 17, 1892, and is the son of William Ferdinand and Kristine (Huseby) Dilling. 
After graduating from the Crane Technical High School in 1909, he completed a 
special threcyear course in civil engineering at Armour Institute of Technology, and 
he received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at the Kent College of Law in 1917. 
He was admitted to the lUinois bar in the same year, after which he took special work 
at the University of Chicago. 

Mr. Dilhng was associated with the engineering department of the Chicago, Mil' 
waukee and St. Paul Railroad (now Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad) 
from 1912 to 1917 and was field engineer for the Universal Portland Cement Company 
from 1917 to 1920; engineering assistant to commissioner of public works. City of 
Chicago, from February to December in 1920, in charge for City of $110,000,000 
Union Station development; also acting engineer of bridges. City of Chicago. He was 
appointed chief engineer of the Sanitary District of Chicago in December, 1920, and 
served for two years, during which time he was in charge of projects costing over 
$100,000,000, including design and construction of new works. He has been in 
private practice in engineering and in special counsel work since 1922. He was also 
supervising engineer for the West Park Commission of Chicago during 1927 and 1928. 
He is a member of the American Association of Port Authorities, American Society 
of Civil Engineers, Western Society of Engineers, American, IlHnois State and Chicago 
Bar associations, and Delta Chi Fraternity. He is a member of the Chicago Athletic 
Association, and his recreations are travel, gardening, and motoring. 

On August 12, 1918, he married Elizabeth Eloise Kirkpatrick, of Chicago. They 
have two children, Kirkpatrick and Elizabeth Jane. 



164 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S CHURCHES MINISTER TO ALMOST 

EVERY CREED 
Places of Worship Number 1800 

BY WALTER R. MEE 
Executive Secretary, Chicago Church Federation 

METROPOLITAN Chicago, as shown by a recent survey made by the Chi- 
cago Church Federation, is 90 per cent church-going. This high per- 
centage is not surpassed by any city of half a million or more population in 
the United States. 

Numerically, the Roman Catholic and combined Protestant groups are 
about equal in strength, with the individual Catholic churches excelling in 
size and membership, while the Protestant churches are the largest in num- 
ber. The Jews also form important religious groups, orthodox and hberal. 
Approximately 1800 churches, synagogues, and temples are to be found in 
the Chicago area. 

In addition to church buildings, hundreds of other buildings are main- 
tained by the various denominations for service. Protestant churches main- 
tain a magnificent system of hospitals, orphanages, old people's homes, col- 
leges, and universities. The Roman Catholics have similar institutions, in 
addition to their many convents and parochial schools. Property values of 
these holdings are doubtless in excess of a quarter of a billion dollars. 

In the establishment of churches in Chicago there is glory enough for 
all. No one denomination can claim all the priorities, though each of the 
"First'' churches has a priority claim in some particulars. 

The year of the town's incorporation, 1833, saw the beginnings of the 
Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, and Baptist churches in Chicago. The 
Methodist Episcopal and Protestant Episcopal churches were established 
here soon afterwards. Ten years later came the Second Baptist, the Second 
Presbyterian, the Canal Street Methodist Episcopal, and the Trinity Protes- 
tant Episcopal churches, the second churches of their respective denomina- 
tions. 

In 1843, which might be described as a year of a "church boom," the 
First Evangelical church and the First German United Evangelical Lutheran 
church, St. Paul's, also were organizicd. The former was located at Polk 
street and what was then Third avenue; the latter at Ohio and La Salle 
streets. 

For the first religious service held in Chicago territory, we shall have to 
go back about 260 years, to the winter of 1674, when Father Jacques Mar- 
quette, a Jesuit missionary priest set up a crude wooden cross outside the 
crude cabin that formed his shelter, and taught the Indians the significance 
of Christianity's symbol. 

Two years later. Father Claude Allouez;, another Jesuit, established him- 
self at a small mission at the mouth of the "River of Wild Onion," but re- 
mained only a short time. In 1699, a more successful mission, the Guardian 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



165 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, WILMETTE, ILLINOIS. 

Childs 6? Smith, architects. 

Angel, was maintained on the north branch of the river by Fathers Francois 
Pinet and Julien Binneteau. Then there is a gap of many years. 

In the modern period, a Baptist minister, the Rev. Mr. McCoy, visiting 
the village, preached the first sermon to the settlers in 1825. There were 
three ministers of the Methodist Episcopal church working in Chicago be- 
fore the arrival as a resident of a minister of any other denomination. The 
Rev. Jesse Walker came in 1828; the Rev. Stephen R. Beggs was regularly 
appointed pastor in Chicago in 1831, and the Rev. William See, a local 
minister who plied his trade while leading Methodist class meetings, was a 
resident here during the same period. 

'Tather'' Walker, as he was called, had a log cabin at Wolf Point, where 
he hved and preached and organizied a union Sunday school. 

Philo Carpenter, a layman, assisted by John Wright and his son, had 
established a Sunday school, and for months had tried to organi2ie a church, 
when, in 1833, the Rev. Jeremiah Porter came to Fort Dearborn as an army 
chaplain. The settlement, including the garrison, numbered at that time 
about 400, and on June 26, 1833, the First Presbyterian church came into 
being with a membership of 26, and was the first church incorporated by 
the state. Services were held in the carpenter shop of the fort, and the first 
sermon was preached from the text: ''Herein is my Father glorified that ye 
bear fruit." 

Congregationalists may well claim a share in this church because its pas' 
tor, Mr. Porter, was a missionary of the Congregational faith. 

It remained for the Baptists to erect the first frame building used in Chi- 
cago as a church. It was a two-story building with a school on one floor and 
a "meeting house" on the other. Dr. J. T. Temple, a physician, was the 
builder. The first Baptist pastor, the Rev. Allen B. Freeman, arrived in 
Chicago, August 16, 1833, and his church, the First Baptist, was formally 
organized on October 19 of the same year. 



166 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Father J. M. St. Cyr, Chicago's first Roman Catholic priest, celebrated 
his first mass, May 5, 1833, in a log cabin in Lake street near Market. The 
Rev. J. W. Hallam, first pastor of St. James Episcopal church, preached his 
first sermon on October 19, 1834. The First Unitarian church was estab- 
lished June 29, 1836. After worshiping for some time in the fort, the Pres' 
byterians built a church at Clark and Lake streets — in the middle of a swamp. 

But it would require much space to trace the beginnings of all the de- 
nominations which are now strong and growing. Chicago today has some 
masterpieces of church architecture which compare favorably even with the 
old-world cathedrals. Outstanding among these are the Gothic chapel on 
the University of Chicago campus; the Chicago Temple at Clark and Wash- 
ington streets; and the Fourth Presbyterian church at Delaware place and 
North Michigan avenue, built at the cost of $750,000. The Oriental school 
of architecture is represented in the unique Baha'i Temple in Wilmette, as 
yet uncompleted, where a sort of universal creed, based on the teachings 
of a Persian philosopher, is expounded. The churches of Christ, Scientist, 
also have impressive buildings. 

Erection by the First Methodist Episcopal congregation of the Temple, 
Chicago's "skyscraper church," was heralded around the world as one of 
the most significant events in the religious life of America. This valuable 
site has been occupied by the congregation since 1838 when the original 
$600 "First church" building was brought on a scow across the North 
branch of the Chicago river and placed there. The Temple, together with 
the ground, is valued at $6,500,000. The steeple, built of translucent ma- 
terial, and illuminated at night, is one of the landmarks of downtown Chi- 
cago, and a striking feature of the 
city's fantastic skyline. One foot 
higher than the Washington monu- 
ment, it soars to a height of 556 feet, 
and the golden cross at its apex was, 
at the time it was placed there, the 
highest point in Chicago. The Temple 
houses the offices of the Chicago 
Church Federation, and the head- 
quarters of several denominations, 
notably the Methodists, the Presby- 
terians, and the Disciples of Christ, 
are located there. 

Two recent events in Chicago's 
ecclesiastical history stand out as of 
world importance. The first of these 
was the elevation of His Eminence, 
George Cardinal Mundelein of the 
Chicago Roman Catholic archdio- ,i,,„,„L°e3"S S"t ^""4*0!. 

Cese. Cardinal Mundelein in his audi- Episcopal Church, Oak Park, Hhnois. 

Tallmadge 6? Watson, architects. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



167 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 

GEORGE W. DIXON 



Mr. Dixon, president of Arthur Dixon Transfer Company, is one of the outstanding 
business and civic leaders of Chicago. He was born in Chicago, September 16, 1866, 
and is the son of Arthur and Annie (Carson) Dixon. He is a member of more than 
twenty clubs and serves on thirty boards of trustees and directorates. Several years 
ago he conceived the idea of a churchly edifice to include a place of worship within a 
large building. This was done and the spire of the Chicago Temple, located at the 
southeast corner of Washington and Clark Streets, may be seen for miles. He is presi- 
dent, Board of Trustees, First Methodist Church and he has been superintendent of the 
Sunday School for more than thirtyseven years. 

Mr. Dixon is a member of the Lincoln Park Board and Chicago Plan Commission; 
a director of the Personal Loan and Savings Bank, Butler Brothers, Grand Trunk Western 
Railway System, Baltimore and Ohio, and Chicago and Connecting Railroad. He was a 
member of the Illinois Senate, First District, 1902-1907; served on Staff of Governor Yates, 
rank of colonel; trustee, Northwestern University, American University, and Illinois 
Wesleyan. 

He is president of Wesley Memorial Hospital, Chicago Home Missionary Society, 
Central Howard Association, and has been president of "Chicago Youth Week Federa- 
tion" for many years. He is a trustee of the Chicago Historical Society; trustee, Chicago 
Zoological Society; trustee of Chicago's (1933) World's Fair and is chairman of Commit- 
tee on Progress Through Rehgion. Member of Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. Among his clubs 
are: Hamilton (president, 1909), Union League (vice-president, 1928), Executives, 
Saddle and Cycle, Casino, Optimist, Rotary, Chicago Athletic, Chicago Yacht, University, 
Glenview, and Chicago. His chief interests are in civic and church affairs. 

Mr. Dixon married Marion E. Martin, of Chicago, March 2, 1903 (died January 
4, 1926). Their children are Marion (Mrs. Stanley Zaring), and George W., Jr. 



168 Chicago's accomplishments 

ence with Pope Pius XI and in all his public utterances has attributed his 
high honor not to his own personal achievements so much as to the benevo' 
lence and achievements of the Roman Catholics of Chicago. It was largely 
through Cardinal Mundelein's efforts that the magnificent seminary, with 
its library of rare Latin books, and its prim ''meeting house, '"" more reminis' 
cent of New England than of Rome, was built at the village of Mundelein. 

Another event, and one which will long be remembered, was the Eu' 
charistic Congress of 1926. Deep indeed was the impression made by the 
thousands who attended the great pageant at Soldier Field by gorgeous vest' 
ments worn by the princes of the church: the inspiring music of the massed 
choirs and the children's choruses: the lovely candlelight service, and the 
subhmity and ardent religious feeling of it all. The pilgrimage to Mundelein 
for the final serv^ices and the procession of the Eucharist was perhaps the 
most significant religious demonstration since the Crusades. 

Chicago has two world-famed religious organizations which have added 
greatly to the prestige of the city — The Sunday Evening Club, and Central 
Church. The former, organized by Clifford W. Barnes, who is still its presi' 
dent and active leader, meets weekly from October to June in Orchestra 
Hall. It is essentially a strangers' church, conducted for the benefit of tran- 
sients. Many of America's distinguished preachers, and not a few from other 
countries, have occupied its platform. Its services are broadcast by radio, 
and its name has been carried by travelers into far corners of the earth. 

Orchestra Hall also is the home of Central Church, where every Sunday 
morning the Rev. Frederick F. Shannon addresses a congregation founded 
by David Swing, and ministered to in succession by Newell Dwight Hillis 
and Frank W. Gunsaulus. 

Notable among Chicago's religious institutions are Lincoln Center, the 
community house on the South side presided over for so long by the patriae 
chal Jenkin Lloyd Jones; Moody Institute, on the north side, the Bible 
school established in 1889 by the evangelist, Dwight L. Moody; Garrett 
Biblical Institute, Chicago Theological Seminary, Western Theological 
Seminary, and the Presbyterian Theological Seminary. 

Chicago is to be congratulated on its truly heroic efforts to maintain 
churches in the downtown business district. It can no longer be said that 
churches have chosen the easier way of following the better residential dis' 
tricts while they have neglected the hotel and boarding house population 
and the thousands of young men and women who have come to the city to 
study or to enter business. 

While many of the older and more substantial members of these congre- 
gations have removed to the suburbs, the churches themselves have refused 
to surrender. Among the churches that are giving excellent and devoted 
service in the transient neighborhoods are the Second Presbyterian, at 20th 
street and South Michigan avenue: Immanuel Baptist, at 23d street and 
South Michigan avenue; St. James Protestant Episcopal, at Cass and Huron 
streets; New England Congregational, at Delaware place and North Dear- 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



169 




PHOTOPLAY 











(Du Bois Studio Photo) 

KATHRYN DOUGHERTY (MRS. JOHN S. TUOMEY) 

Kathryn Dougherty, president and publisher of Photoplay Magazine and 
Opportunity Magazine, and one of the best known women executives in the 
publishing business, was born in Boone, Iowa, daughter of William Edward 
and Elizabeth (Cunningham) Dougherty. She received her education at 
the Academy of Our Lady, Chicago, Illinois. Starting in the business world 
in a clerical capacity, she advanced to the head of the bookkeeping department 
of Sharp and Smith, surgical instruments, Chicago. This position she left to 
enter the publishing field. Here she quickly found opportunities for the devel' 
opment and application of her marked abilities. Within a relatively brief 
period she assumed the administration of three executive offices, secretary, 
treasurer and business manager. On August, 19, 1932, Miss Dougherty was 
appointed to succeed the late James R. Quirk as president and publisher of 
Photoplay Magazine and Opportunity Magazine. 

Miss Dougherty has a brilliant record in business organization, account- 
ing, and finance. Perhaps no other woman in America has ever risen to 
a position of quite similar importance in the pubHshing business. Yet, in 
spite of her business duties, her little daughter, Joan, receives her full share 
of her mother's companionship. Miss Dougherty is also active in society 
and in church and social service. 

On October 25, 1922, she married John Sylvester Tuomey, of Blue Island, 
Illinois. They have one daughter, Joan Kathryn. 



170 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



born avenue; Grace Methodist Episcopal, at Locust and North La Salle 
streets, and the three Roman Catholic churches, one on each side of the city, 
old St. Mary's, at Ninth street and South Wabash avenue; St. Patrick's, at 
Desplaines and Adams streets, and Holy Name Cathedral, at North State 
and East Superior streets. 




CHICAGO THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 
Herbert Hugh Riddle, architect. Harrison B. Barnard, builder. 



The Chicago Church Federation which represents nineteen denomina- 
tions and 850 churches, is one of the achievements in church unity and in 
the administration of the many interests which the churches have in com- 
mon but would be unable to carry out if working as separate isolated units. 
The federation functions through departments and commissions and touches 
every phase of the city's life, civic, institutional, charitable, and social. 

No one can adequately estimate what the churches are doing for Chicago 
unless account is taken of the various agencies which derive their life and 
support from them. Of these we simply name a few: The United Charities, 
hospitals; the religious, educational and social help to reformatory and penal 
institutions such as the Juvenile Court, the Bridewell, the homes at St. 
Charles and Geneva; the Salvation Army and the Volunteers of America, 
the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., summer camps, boy scouts and girl scouts, 
special benefactions at Christmas and Thanksgiving; work for foreigners, 
Chinese, Japanese, Mexicans and others; the Daily Vacation Bible schools, 
open air evangelism, and the far-reaching work of the great universities, 
Chicago and Northwestern, both founded by churches and largely main- 
tained by them and having in connection with them theological seminaries 
for the training of ministers. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



171 





The First Congregational Church, 

Evanston, IHinois. 
Tallmadge 6? Watson, architects. 



The Grace Lutheran Church of River Forest, 

Ilhnois. 

Tallmadge 6? Watson, architects. 




! '_ .-...^^ .-\:\ ...jtural Photographing Company) 
GARRETT BIBLICAL INSTITUTE 
Holabird 6? Roche, architects. Avery Brundage Company, general contractor. 



172 Chicago's accomplishments 

DINING ^^AROUND THE WORLD" IN CHICAGO 

Restaurants Where the Dishes of All Nations Are on the Menu 

BY JOHN DRURY 
Author of "Dining in Chicago" and "Chicago in Seven Days" 

ARE you one of those fortunate persons who regard eating as a fine art? 
Do you get the same esthetic thrill out of a savory dish of houilla^ 
haisse a la Marseilles that you do out of Beethoven's "Moonlight Sonata" 
or a Whistler nocturne? If so, then Chicago, despite the havoc wrought by 
prohibition, still has gustatory delights in store for you. 

It has been maintained by some that dining, under the restrictions of 
the noble experiment, has become a lost art. There are chefs who look 
back with regret on certain game dishes, the preparation of which called 
for a prolonged bath in wine. Bon vivants will tell you that a French or an 
Italian table d'hote is impossible without the grape. 

To be sure, the older generation doubtless fared better than we do 
today. The Grand Pacific — now a memory^ — was famous for its cookery, 
and John B. Drake's game dinners, with their bewildering courses of quail, 
partridge, pheasants, reed birds, buffalo steak, bear steak, and venison, have 
passed into history. 

Kinsley's is gone, and Abson's chop house. Rector's, Voegelsang's, the 
Edelweiss, Stillson's, Mangler's, the Hofbrau, and Old Quincy No. 9 did 
not survive the prohibition era, and the Tip Top Inn with its picturesque 
Dicken's room and "Nursery," and its sunny negro waiters, was the last 
to go. 

But despite the casualties, Chicago is anything but a desert from the 
epicure's point of view. Its elegant hotel dining rooms, its historic res' 
taurants, and its obscure little cafes and coffee houses of the foreign quar- 
ters provide dishes as skillfully cooked, as appeti2,ing, and as varied as can 
be found in any city of the United States — New York, San Francisco, and 
New Orleans included. 

Certain globe-trotters perhaps will be inclined to challenge this state- 
ment, maintaining that it is impossible to dine anywhere but in Paris. But 
what kind of folk are they? Usually the kind who tell you superciliously 
that "they order such things better in Europe," and have never taken the 
trouble to investigate the gastronomical resources of their home town. 
They have never ventured out around the corner in search of interesting 
restaurants and cafes. 

Yes, you can dine in Chicago! Even Brillat-Savarin, that prince of 
epicures, would not be disappointed. He would find everything here to 
satisfy his sensitive palate and to gratify his curiosity for exotic viands. Nor 
would he have to go more than three miles in any direction from the Loop 
to discover the culinary creations of practically every nation in the world — 
and well cooked, too. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



173 



NETWORK 

Central) 

V LINES .^ 




(Blank a StolUr, Inc.. Photo) 

WILLIAM C. DOUGLAS 

Mr. Douglas, assistant general freight traffic manager, New York Central Lines, 
was born in Chicago, February 2, 1880, son of Thomas and Jane (Tolmie) 
Douglas. He attended the Chicago public schools. On October 1, 1895, as a 
boy of fifteen, Mr. Douglas started with the New York Central Lines in Chi' 
cago. He has been in continuous service with this organi2;ation since that date, 
advancing step by step in freight traffic departments at Chicago, Detroit, and 
Grand Rapids, becoming assistant general freight traffic manager, with head- 
quarters in Chicago, on July 1, 1932. The New York Central Lines System in- 
cludes not only the New York Central Railroad, but the Michigan Central, 
Big Four, Pittsburgh and Lake Erie, and the Boston and Albany Railroad. In 
addition there are several affiliated lines. 

Mr. Douglas is a member of the following clubs: Union League, Chicago 
Golf, Mid-Day, Traffic, and Rotary. 

He was married in 1919 to Martha Holtz and has one son, William C, Jr. 



174 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Chefs, maitres d'hotel, and head waiters who have received their early 
training in the establishments of his beloved Paris, or elsewhere on the con' 
tinent, would be his to command. Every dish known to the French and 
German schools of cookery, which, as everyone knows, are the world's 
leading schools, would be ready for his approval. 

Go two miles south of the Loop, 
for example. Here, almost within 
shadow of the great white skyscrapers 
of the machine age, stands a little 
oriental coffee house, a bit of the Near 
East, where sultryeyed Arabs eat 
arische -mahshi or sit about and smoke 
those bubbling Turkish water-pipes. 
Arische mahshi, in case you don't 
know, consists of grape leaves stuffed 
with bits of lamb, and rice. Or go to 
22nd street and Wentworth avenue, 
the heart of Chinatown. Here, num' 
erous dining places, decorated in teak' 
wood, mother-of-pearl, red lacquer, 
and gay with fat lanterns, cluster 
about the pagodas of the Chinese 
"city hair"' and offer all the exotic 
viands of the Far East — chicken bird's 
nest soup, fried shrimps with soy 
sauce, chow mien suhgum, kumquats, 
lichee nuts, almond cakes, and the like. 
Go still farther south, to a charm- 
ing restaurant in the Japanese quarter 
around historic Lake Park avenue, 
near 37th street. Dainty Nipponese 
maids wiU serve you a typical su}{i^ 
ya\i meal — a most appetizing dinner 
of thin slices of fried beef, fresh vege- 
tables and various Japanese sauces. 
What's more, it is cooked right at 
your table, Japanese style. And you 
won't mind the fact that the Japanese 
quarter is located in the great south 
side hlac\ helt, for the negroes also 
have restaurants where Southern 
dishes may be had — fried chicken. 

One of the latest of the super-skyscrapers ,s ^ ^ bisCuitS, barbcCUe SandwicheS, 
the LA SALLE-WACKER building. ^ i i i j j u J ■ 

A. N. Rebon and Hoiab.rd 6? Root, Southem hash and red beans and rice, 

associate architects. East of the black belt, in the white 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



175 




EDWARD J. DOYLE 

Mr. Doyle, president and director of the Commonwealth Edison Company, 
was born in Chicago on August 28, 1879. He entered the employ of the old 
Chicago Edison Company as office boy on March 1, 1896, at the age of 16. 
After entering business Mr. Doyle continued his education and was elected 
assistant secretary and assistant treasurer of Commonwealth Edison Com- 
pany in 1913. In 1914 he was elected secretary and treasurer and in 1924 
he became vice-president in charge of finances, securities and claims. On 
February 25, 1930, he was elected president and director of Commonwealth 
Edison Company. 

Mr. Doyle is a director and officer of numerous companies. He holds 
memberships in various clubs, including the Chicago Club, Chicago Athletic 
Association, the Electric Club, and Evanston Golf Club. 

He married Bertha Katherine StrefF, of Chicago, June 27, 1910, and 
they have three children, Edward J., Jr., Rosemary K., and Elizabeth Jane. 



176 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



section along Lake Park avenue, stands a small French restaurant serving 
the best oysters and soft shell crabs in town. 

Most of Chicago's foreign restaurants, however, are located across the 
river on the near west side, adjoining the tenement areas of South Halsted 
street. Although placed in dingy environments, they are clean and sanitary, 
and the waiters are always courteous to strangers. Delicious lamb chops 
are the specialite de la maison of a quaint Greek cafe a half block north of 
Hull House, on Halsted street. Having an old' world atmosphere unHke any 
other restaurant in town, the cafe is noted for its little summer garden in 
the rear. 

A block southward is a Mexican restaurant, the rende2;vous of consuls 
and consular attaches of Latin' American countries, of Mexican caricature 
artists, Hull House residents, and newspapermen. All 
the native specialties are on the menu: so pa de arroz, 
gallina con molle pohlado, frijoles refritos, tortillas, 
and chocolate y pan. For the dishes of sunny Italy 
you have only to walk two blocks farther south, to 
1 ^ ^ ~'*i ''m>\ the intersection of Halsted and Taylor streets, which 
1 at lifer^ s'iM is the cross'roads of the west side's "Little Italy." 

Italian opera singers and politicians are seen almost 
every night in the many spaghetti restaurants of the 
quarter. These places all serve an excellent cuisine — 
antipasto, ravioli, spaghetti, 7s[dboIitano, roast chicken, 
veal al Marsala, and such items. 

Up and down Roosevelt road, the great highway 




(Kaufman ii Fabry Co. Photo) 
THE DRAKE TOWER AND THE DRAKE HOTEL 
Benjamin H. Marshall, architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



177 




{Lewis-Smith Photo) 

JOHN B. DRAKE 

Mr. Drake, general manager of the Drake Hotel, was born in Chicago, May 19, 1872, 
son of John B. and Josephine C. (Corey) Drake. He received his education at the 
Harvard School, Chicago, St. John's Military Academy, Ossining, New York, and 
Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts. Upon leaving school, he traveled around 
the world, his grand tour being rather a ripening process and giving him a first-hand 
acquaintance with the best of the old-world hotels. Naturally he began his career as 
an employee of the Grand Pacific, which was owned by his illustrious father, John B. 
Drake I, where he remained two years. After leaving the Grand Pacific, he was asso- 
ciated for some time with the Ilhnois Trust and Savings Bank. For several years he was 
associated with his brother, Tracy, in the managment of the family estate. He com- 
bined also with his brother in the building of the Blackstone Hotel and the famous 
theater of the same name, and ten years later that more ambitious enterprise, the 
building of the Drake Hotel, which has served to perpetuate the memory of their 
father. To tourists the world over, both hotels are synonymous with Chicago, the 
Blackstone perhaps being a bit more intimate and on the order of the European guest 
house; the Drake being a rival of the leading metropolitan hotels of the world and 
a rendezvous of Chicago's smart set. 

Mr. Drake is a director of the Presbyterian Hopital, member of the Art Institute 
of Chicago (Hfe), Field Museum of Natural History (life), and Chicago Historical 
Society. He is a member of Onwentsia and the Chicago Riding clubs. He has quite a 
reputation as a duck hunter and as president of the Grand Island Club on the lUinois 
River, he usually gets his limit when shooting the feathered game. 

On June 3, 1897, he married Jessie K., daughter of Samuel McClellan, in Middle- 
town, Ohio. Their children are John B. Ill, William McClellan, Elizabeth, and Katherine. 



178 Chicago's accomplishments 

of the Jewish quarter, you will find the famous kosher restaurants of the 
city, several of them being frequented by such famed theatrical stars as 
George Jessel, Eddie Cantor, and Al Jolson. Others cater to Jewish intellec- 
tuals and writers. Roumanian dining places are located along 14th street, 
in the district known as ''the Valley," while Lithuanian restaurants serve 
their native dishes in the vicinity of 18th and South Halsted streets. For 
true Bohemian dishes, you must go to a place on West 26th street, in "Little 
Pilsen." Plum dumpling, with cottage cheese; roast duck, with sauerkraut; 
Prague salami, with raw onions; liver sausage; and the toothsome Bohemian 
pastries, such as \olac\y and huchty sma\en, are all featured on the menu. 

Northwest of the Loop, along that busy highway, Milwaukee avenue, 
stand the restaurants of the Polish and Russian quarters. Borscht, \asha 
and goluptse and other Muscovite dishes are served in a workers' coopera- 
tive restaurant, operated by the communists. The foods are highly appc 
ti2,ing if a bit heavy; the atmosphere comes up to expectations, and you 
needn't be afraid that anyone will toss a bomb. Around the corner from 
this bit of Russia, you will find a Polish dining room. The Poles are very 
fond of mushrooms, and employ them as a garniture for many, if not most, 
of their main dishes. In this restaurant you may obtain the favorite Polish 
dish, 7jtraz\i po 7^elsons\u — in other words, beef filet a la Nelson. It is 
served with sour cream gravy, mushrooms, and potatoes en casserole. De- 
licious pastries, prepared by expert chefs from Krakow, provide you with 
a wide choice for dessert. 

Any survey of Chicago's worthwhile restaurants will convince you that 
the oldest and most outstanding are of German atmosphere. This is only 
natural, as the Germans were among the city's pioneers, and still make up 
one of the largest racial groups in Chicago. Their restaurants, redolent of 
the grand old days, are located in many parts of the Loop, and also on the 
near north side. One of the most famous dining parlors in the country is 
an unpretentious German place in Wells street, between Madison and 
Washington, its scoured floor, its mahogany bar, its tables and woodwork 
mellowed by time. Here, every Saturday at noon, Chicago's famous authors 
and poets regale themselves with generous helpings of Wiener schnitzel or 
Koenigsherger l^ops, seated at a big round table. Celebrities visiting Chi- 
cago during the World's Fair of 1893 came here to sample the rare wines, 
and practically every man of note in the world of letters who has visited 
the city within the last forty years has been entertained here. 

Tucked away in a little side street just south of the Loop is a famous 
English grill, where, in a typically British atmosphere, one may enjoy his 
Southdown mutton chops, his juicy steaks or roasts. 

Swedish restaurants, with their smorgashords, abound on the North 
Side in the vicinity of Belmont avenue and Clark street. One must be 
careful, however, not to fill up on the delicacies laid out on the central 
table — the salt and smoked fish, the anchovies, and the sardines in oil — 
for these are only skirmishers; there is much more coming. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



179 



n» Ti f 







TRACY C. DRAKE 



Mr. Drake was born in Chicago, September 12, 1864, son of John B. and Josephine C. 
(Corey) Drake. At the age of thirteen he entered the Vermont Episcopal Institute at 
Burlington, Vermont, receiving his preparatory education there. The two years spent 
at this school were followed by a threcyear period at Trinity Military Institute, Tivoli, 
New York, and a four-year collegiate course at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, 
New York, from which college he received his degree of Bachelor of Science. 

Heir to memorable family tradition, estabhshed by his father, John B. Drake (the 
first), it remained for Tracy Drake and his brother, John B., to perpetuate an esteemed 
name by building the famous Blackstone Hotel, the Drake Hotel (one of North 
Michigan avenue's architectural gems), the Blackstone theater, and, in association with 
Benjamin H. Marshall, the Drake Tower, a thirtystory structure adjoining the Drake 
Hotel on Lake Shore Drive, this being a residential structure, connected with, and 
served by, the Drake. Drake University of Des Moines, Iowa, at the fiftieth com- 
mencement and the semi-centennial celebration of the founding of the University, on 
June 8, 1931, conferred, upon Mr. Drake the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. He is 
an enthusiastic sportsman and seldom misses his yearly trip to the Canadian Rockies, 
with his son, Francis, where he hunts grizzlies, mountain sheep, white goats, deer, 
and moose. He is a member of the Interfraternity Club, Chicago Athletic Association, 
Lake Geneva Country Club, and Delta Kappa Epsilon Club of New York. 

On January 12, 1893, he married Annie Daughaday, of St. Louis. Their children 
are Carlos Corey and Francis Augustus. 



180 



Chicago's accomplishments 




(Howe a Arthur Photo) 

THE TWO BLACKSTONES 

The Blackstone Theatre in the foreground, 

the Blackstone Hotel in the background. 

Benjamin H. Marshall, architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



181 







•&0 



OlCff 






"K. 






JOHN DRURY 

John Drury, newspaper man, poet, author of "Chicago In Seven Days," "Dining 
In Chicago" and of the official Century of Progress guidebook to the city, was born in 
Chicago on August 9, 1898, the son of Michael and Mary (SulHvan) Drury. He gradu' 
ated from St. Andrew's Roman Catholic School, where he was known as a talented 
artist. While still young his father, a street car conductor, died. At the age of fourteen 
he became interested in literature and has been writing ever since. After attending 
Nicholas Senn High School for two years, he was forced to leave in order to help sup- 
port his mother and two sisters. He worked in drug stores, factories, bookshops, and 
department stores and continued his education at Lane Technical Night School. 

While working in the book section of Marshall Field 6? Company he wrote book 
reviews for the Chicago Daily News and the Chicago Evening Post. During the World 
War he served on "home guard" duty with the 11th Regiment, Illinois National Guard, 
under the late Brigadier-General James E. Stuart. Later he became an active member of 
the poetry renaissance of the 20's, his verse appearing in the numerous poetry magazines 
of the period. This was later collected in a volume called "Arclight Dusks." After 
knocking about the world as newspaper man and sailor — Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, 
Canada, London, New York and Los Angeles — he settled down in his home town, feel' 
ing that romance can be found at one's door. His guidebooks to Chicago followed. 
He worked on the City News Bureau and then joined the staff of the Chicago Daily 
News. He is a member of the Midland Authors and at one time was Hbrarian of the 
Press Club of Chicago. 

He is married to Marion Neville, daughter of the late James Tilford Neville, veteran 
circuit court judge of Missouri. 



182 Chicago's accomplishments 

For odd, colorful, and sometimes outlandish eating places, as well as 
for many of a foreign atmosphere, one must explore the north side "Latin 
Quarter" in the shadow of "Tower Town." Some of these, of course, are 
cheap and sordid pseudo'Bohemian gathering places, but the majority of 
them are worth a visit, especially those occupying the imposing old Gold 
Coast mansions. 

This district also has a Filipino restaurant, as well as a gay dining 
place speciali2;ing in peppery Creole cookery and presided over by one of 
the Alciatores of New Orleans. 

Notables, society people and the heau monde in general patroni2;e the 
dining rooms of the city's world-famous hotels along Michigan boulevard. 
The foods served here are the best obtainable, and they are prepared by 
chefs who are past masters of Continental cookery. Numerous restaurants 
on the "Boul Mich" also attract discriminating diners. Outside of Chicago, 
along the exclusive north shore, there are many charming tea rooms and 
other dining places. 

But for good, old'fashioned, plain American dishes, of the sort that 
Carl Sandburg, the Chicago poet, and thousands of other Chicagoans with 
him, enjoy most, you are directed to "Toothpick Row," that gay plaisance 
of lunchrooms in Clark street, just south of Madison, in the heart of the 
Loop. To the student of Americana, these places are interesting because 
they serve the dishes of an emerging school of American cookery — ham 
and eggs, Boston baked beans, strawberry shortcake, waffles, watermelon, 
corned beef and cabbage, baked Idaho potatoes. New England boiled dinner, 
Denver sandwich, minced pie. Lake Superior whitefish, and a host of others. 

Such, briefly, is a survey of the gastronomic possibihties of Chicago. 
If you have not yet discovered the fine art of dining; if eating to you is just 
a physical function, then you are missing one of the most pleasurable ex- 
periences of living. Study the different kinds of foods and, above all, experi- 
ment with foreign dishes. In other words, acquire an epicure's interest in 
dining. If you do this then you will find one more hobby to increase the 
joys of living. 

Remember, it was Dr. Samuel Johnson, that famous wit of the Cheshire 
Cheese and stout-hearted devotee of epicureanism, who said: "Some peo- 
ple have a foolish way of not minding, or of pretending not to mind, what 
they eat. For my part I mind my belly very studiously and very carefully 
for I look upon it that he who does not mind his belly will hardly mind 
anything else." 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



183 



s.'-< 


1^ 


1 


tf 




'% 


J- 


"S- 


im 


kC- 




:?**• 




, ^ 


nC 





(Eugene L. Ray. Evanston, Photo) 

WILLIAM A. DYCHE 

Mr. Dyche, business manager of Northwestern University, was born in Monroe, Butler 
County, Ohio, May 25, 1861, son of David R., M. D., and Mary S. (Boyd) Dyche. 
He attended Northwestern University and received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree 
in 1882, his A. M. (Master of Arts), in 1888. He graduated from the Chicago College 
of Pharmacy in 1886. Mr. Dyche has been a trustee of the University since 1894. 
He served as mayor of Evanston from 1895 to 1899; was in the drug business in Chicago 
in 1899; has been business manager of Northwestern since 1903. 

Mr. Dyche is characterized by President Walter Dill Scott of the University as being 
the preserver of the institution just as Dr. John Evans was the founder. The McKinlock 
Memorial Campus in Chicago was his dream and to a great degree his accomplishment. 
The development of the fraternity, sorority, and dormitory system is the result of his 
efforts. Plans for the stadium were formed in his mind. He has been president of the 
State Bank of Evanston since 1909 and vice-president and chairman of the board of the 
State Bank and Trust Company since 1919. He is an associate member of the Chicago 
Real Estate Board. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa Honorary Fraternity. His clubs 
are Union League and University (Chicago); University, Glen View, Evanston, and 
Evanston Country clubs (Evanston). Dyche Stadium was named in his honor by 
Northwestern University in 1926. 

On February 11, 1897, Mr. Dyche married May Louise Bennett, of Evanston, Illinois 
(died 1923). His children are David Bennett, Ruth Caroline, and George Frederick. 



184 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AS THE NATION^S RAILROAD CENTER 

Steel Highways Which Radiate From the World's Greatest Rail 
Center to All Parts of the United States and Canada 

BY SAMUEL O. DUNN 
Editor, Railway Age, Chairman, Simmons'Boardman Publishing Co. 

TRAVELERS fushing through the concourse of the Chicago ^ North 
Western terminal station, or waiting for the arrival or departure of 
trains, often pause for a moment to pay tribute to the "Pioneer," the tiny, 
but Stanch wood'buming locomotive, mounted on a section of "strap" rails. 

The Pioneer, which arrived in Chicago on the Steamship Buffalo in 
October, 1848, and was the first locomotive to pull a train of cars out of 
the city, links the present with the past, and carries one back to the very 
beginnings of railroading in the Middle West. 

In 1836 a charter was granted to the Galena 6^ Chicago Union Rail' 
road, which was to become the great'great grandfather of the North 
Western. Galena, situated in the rich lead mining district of Illinois, was 
at that time a city of considerable importance — of much more importance 
than Chicago. 

A railroad in the '30's was a dubious venture, and so doubtful were the 
directors of the Galena line regarding its success that they were given an 
option under the charter of constructing a turnpike instead, from which 
they could collect toll. 

The panic of 1837 caused a setback to both plans, and for several 
years nothing was done. But in 1846, WiUiam B. Ogden, mayor of Chicago, 
was elected president of the railroad company, and immediately began to 
revive the project. The line was surveyed the following year, but the 
undertaking met with opposition. Local merchants had the idea that the 
railroad would divert trade from the city, and accordingly the city council 
refused to grant it a right of way within the corporate limits of Chicago. 
The company was allowed merely to lay temporary rails from the foot of 
Dearborn street at the river to the terminal at Halsted and Kinzie streets 
for the transfer of the rolHng stock when it should arrive by boat. The 
"permanent" rails, which in 1848 extended only as far as the Desplaines 
River, were of wood on the surface of which were laid "straps" of iron 
threcquarters of an inch thick. Two locomotives, including the Pioneer, 
and six second-hand freight cars had been acquired, and with this equip- 
ment, the Galena ^ Chicago Union Railroad announced its official opening 
on November 20, 1848. 

A party of about one hundred invited guests — newspaper men, execu- 
tives of the road, and "distinguished citizens" embarked in gaily decorated 
cars on the first train trip out of Chicago. Arriving at Desplaines, they 
saw a farmer, city-bound, who was having difficulties trying to cart a wagon- 
load of wheat over the rough road. Rather in the spirit of fun the wheat 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



185 




i-ffi 



fiA<^«^^^^ 



.1 




(Walinger Photo) 

SAMUEL O. DUNN 

Mr. Dunn, editor of Railway Age and chairman of the board of Simmons'Boardman 
Pubhshing Company, was born in Bloomfield, Iowa, March 8, 1877, and is the son of 
Samuel W. and Sarah J. (Hedrick) Dunn. After graduating from the Pratt (Kansas) 
high school in 1894, having previously learned the printer's trade, he pursued a news' 
paper career. In 1895 he was editor of the Quitman, Missouri, Record; from 1896 to 
1900, he was associate editor of the Maryville, Missouri, Tribune; then followed four 
years on the Kansas City Journal as reporter and editorial writer. In 1904 he came 
to Chicago and for three years was railroad editor and editorial writer of the Chicago 
Tribune. In 1907 he became associate and managing editor of Railway Age and since 
1911 has been editor of Railway Age Gazette and its successor Railway Age, which is 
probably the most widely quoted trade magazine in the world, its editorials and articles 
being reprinted in hundreds of newspapers and magazines. In 1911 he was admitted to 
the Illinois bar. Since October, 1931, he has been chairman of the board of the Sim- 
mons'Boardman Publishing Company, publishers of Railway Age, Marine Engineering, 
Railway Mechanical Engineer, Railway Engineering and Maintenance, Railway Signal- 
ing, Railway Electrical Engineer, and the Boiler Maker, and also president of the 
American Builder Publishing Corporation, which publishes American Builder and 
Building Age. 

Mr. Dunn is an author and lecturer on transportation subjects, having written the 
following books: American Transportation Question, 1912; Government Ownership of 
Railways, 1913; Regulation of Railways, 1918; and numerous articles in national maga- 
zines. In 1921 Tufts College conferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. 
He is a member of the Union League Club (second vice-president, 1932), Chicago, 
Traffic, KnoUwood Country, Exmoor Country, and Western Railway. His principal 
recreation is golf. 

On March 29, 1899, he married Carrie E., daughter of Mrs. Fayette Smith of Mary- 
ville, Missouri, and their children are Fayette Smith, EHzabeth, and Samuel O., Jr. 



186 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 
J 





CHICAGO AND NORTH WESTERN 
PASSENGER TERMINAL 



CENTRAL STATION 



was transferred to the train, and thus the first rail shipment of grain into 
Chicago took place. 

Within a week, thirty carloads of wheat were awaiting shipment at 
Desplaines, and the farmers of the surrounding territory were quick to take 
advantage of the new transportation facilities. During its first year of oper' 
ation, the road's gross earnings were $23,763. Gross earnings for the second 
year rose to $104,359. Railroading was on its way towards success. 

Meanwhile, the road was allowed to enter the city. The first depot, 
at Canal and Kin2;ie streets, erected in 1849, was a straggling, one-story 
frame shack, to which were added later a second story and a cupola. From 
this cupola, the president of the railroad, with a spyglass, could watch the 
arrival of the trains, and announce them when they became visible at 
Austin, for it was not until 1855 that a telegraph line was strung along 
the right of way. 





GRAND CENTRAL STATION 



LA SALLE STREET STATION 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



187 



The second passenger station, a pretentious three'Story brick building 
at Kin2,ie and Wells streets, was destroyed by the great fire of 1871, and 
for nine years a wooden shed served the needs of the traveling public. In 
1880, the big, red brick terminal station surmounted by the square clock 
tower, still remembered by many Chicagoans, was erected, but on com' 
pletion of the new $25,000,000 terminal station at Canal and Madison 
streets in 1911, the "Wells street depot" was abandoned, finally to be torn 
down to make way for the palatial Merchandise Mart. 

The Illinois Central had its origin in the wild dreams of the State 
Legislature in the early '30's. These dreams had as their objectives a state' 
owned railroad system consisting of two trunk lines, one running north and 
south, dividing the state in equal parts; the other intersecting it midway 
at right angles. To satisfy the demands of local politicians, construction 
was begun simultaneously at many points, and Illinois seemed to be enter' 
ing upon a railroad age. But alas for the dreams! The bubble burst, and 
the scheme, impractical from the start, was finally abandoned by the State. 
In 1851, however, the Illinois Central was chartered under private auspices, 
and the following year, the first trains were in operation between the 12th 
street terminal and Calumet (now Kensington) station. This right of way 
permitted the Michigan Central to run its first trains into Chicago in 1852. 

Recent electrification of the Illinois Central's suburban lines at a cost 
running up into millions of dollars has provided Chicago with the swiftest 
and most efficient suburban service in the world, eliminating the smoke 
nuisance, and making it possible to run noiseless, smokeless trains between 
Chicago and the South Shore suburbs at a speed of sixty miles an hour. 
Plans are under way for the construction of a splendid new Roosevelt road 



iyi»n„ ^**'0N STATION 




Graham, Anderson, Probst 



(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
UNION STATION 
White, architects. Joshua D'Esposito, consulting engineer. 



188 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



terminal station, harmonizing in architecture with Field Museum and other 
permanent structures in Grant Park. Monopoly of the lake front has been 
surrendered to the city, and a vast area of artificially made land, nearly 
four miles in extent, beautifully landscaped and boulevarded, now reaches 
out beyond the tracks. 

The railroads, largely, have made Chicago the city it is today, and 
Chicago, the world's greatest transportation center, is the terminus of 
almost every railroad entering her gates. For hundreds of thousands of 
travelers Chicago is the journey's end, or the beginning of another journey. 

In all, twenty-two trunk lines, seven belt and switching lines, eight 
industrial railroads, and four electric lines terminate in Chicago. These 
fortyodd railroad companies operate 133,427 miles of line, representing 
more than half the total railroad mileage of the United States. 

It is estimated that under normal business conditions between 1,500 and 
2,000 passenger trains arrive in or depart from Chicago daily — a train a 
minute, with a daily passenger traffic in excess of 375,000. The suburban 
branches alone carry between 150,000 and 200,000 passengers in and out 
of Chicago every working day. 

More than ten per cent of all the freight handled in the United States 
is loaded and unloaded in the Chicago area, and more than 4,000 industries 
are served by private tracks. 

Chicago's $50,000,000 Union Passenger Terminal Station, a monu- 
ment of steel and stone, is one of the most magnificent stations of its kind 
in America, and a fitting gateway to Chicago. 

A new development in passenger traffic is the combination air and rail 
service, by means of which one can travel comfortably by train at night, 
and transfer to an airplane for a day's journey through the clouds. 

Chicago's past development and present growth are due almost entirely 
to its railroads. The future prosperity of Chicago likewise depends on them. 




THE PROPOSED SOUTH CENTR.'\L STATION 
Joshua D'Esposito, consulting engineer. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



189 



& 



Ml 



■*ffs*>* 




P R I N 1 I N G 
PRESS : 



&^:. 



^TtT'^^h^CS 



■:r:^i 



■^'m^:^'^ 



^'..-.1. 






GEORGE A. EDDY 

Mr. Eddy, president of The Goss Printing Press Company, patentees and 
manufacturers of newspaper and maga2,ine printing presses, was born in 
Chicago, May 24, 1874, son of George Day and Mary AdeHne (Charbon- 
neau) Eddy. He attended the grammar and high schools of this city, later 
taking the business and technical course of Chicago Athenaeum. At the start 
of his business career, Mr. Eddy was an apprentice machinist with The Goss 
Printing Press Company for four years and has been with this organization 
for more than forty years, successively as machinist, chief engineer, secretary, 
sales manager, viccpresident, and now president and general manager. The 
press manufactured in Chicago by the Goss Printing Press Company is used 
extensively for the printing of newspapers and magazines. 

Mr. Eddy is also president of the R. M. Eddy Foundry Company and 
vice-president of The Bryant Company, both of Chicago. He is a director 
of the City National Bank and Trust Company of Chicago. He is a member 
of the Chicago Athletic Association, Evanston Golf Club, the Country Club 
of Evanston, Westmoreland Country Club, and the Shawnee Country Club. 
His favorite recreations are golf and bowling. 

He married Ella Benson, June 20, 1906, and their children are Lorraine 
Adehne and George Albert, Jr. 



190 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



THE SOUTH PARKS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO CHICAGO^S HEALTH, EDUCATION 

AND ENTERTAINMENT 

Where Outdoor and Indoor Activities of All Kinds 
Are Encouraged 

CHICAGO may be said to be bounded on all sides by parks. The South 
Park System, when completed, will extend continuously from the 
Chicago River to the Indiana boundary line. The new bascule bridge, 
spanning the river at its mouth, with its stately north and south approaches, 
connecting the South Park and Lincoln Park Systems, will in time give 
the city a 25'mile strip of parkway reaching from the Calumet district to 
Devon avenue. The West Park System, whose three units, Humboldt, 
Garfield, and Douglas Parks, are linked together with splendid boulevards, 
also are connected with the two park systems on the east. 

The South Park chain is made up of five large and eighteen small parks, 
containing in all, 3,500 acres. Within the jurisdiction of this system are 
92 miles of boulevard. The new Outer Drive through Burnham Park, most 
of it built over what was once fifteen feet of water, is one of the longest 
uninterrupted driveways in America. It runs for eight miles without an 
intersection to 57th street, carrying the motorist out to Hyde Park in 
half the time required by other routes. 




PART OF NAVY PIER 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



191 




(Blank a StoWer, Inc. Photo) 

HUBBARD H. ERICKSON 

Mr. Erickson, proprietor of the Motor Boat Mart, Navy Pier, was born in 
Chicago, February 27, 1885, son of Daniel and Mathilda Erickson. He was 
educated at the Alcott Grammar and North Division High schools, the 
English High School, and Manual Training School of Chicago. Mr. Erick' 
son began as an employee of George B. Carpenter and Company, ship chan' 
dlery, in 1905, and was advanced through various positions until he became 
general manager in 1916. He left this company in 1917 to manufacture 
marine accessories under the firm name of Hubbard H. Erickson 5? Company. 
He is the originator and proprietor of the Motor Boat Mart, Navy Pier, which 
includes the largest exhibit of motor boats and accessories in the world. 

He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Credit Men, and the National Association of Engine and Boat 
Manufacturers. His clubs are Rotary, Lake Shore Athletic, Chicago Yacht, 
Columbia Yacht, and Itasca Country. His favorite recreation is boating. 

On November 28, 1915, Mr. Erickson married Edna Marie Laibach, of 
Chicago. Their children are Dorothy May and Hubbard H. 



192 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Under the very shadows of Michigan avenue's skyscrapers are 200 
acres of baseball diamonds, tennis courts, and archery ranges in Grant Park 
alone. There is not another area of its si2,e in all the world that provides 
as much free education and entertainment as Grant Park. Here are located 
the Art Institute, the United States Naval Reserve Armory, Field Museum 
of Natural History, the Shedd Aquarium, the Adler Planetarium, the Buck' 
ingham Memorial Fountain, and Soldier Field. 

The great $6,000,000 Stadium — Soldier Field — its classic columns built 
of reenforced concrete, much of it pre-cast in the form of cut stone, has 
been built, as was the Parthenon, or the Coliseum of Rome, to endure 
through the ages. Perpetuating the memory of Chicago's sons who made 
the supreme sacrifice in the World War, it symbolizes in its classic archi' 
tecture, in its beauty and its strength, the youth and courage and the will 
to win — the spirit of the city's young manhood of 1917. 

The signing of the Armistice, followed by the war exhibits, the home- 
comings, the parades and military reviews of the first post'war months 
brought home to Chicagoans the need not only of erecting a suitable mem- 
orial to the hero dead, but of providing a place for the presentation of 
great spectacles, pageants, and festivals; for athletic events and for the 
national gatherings which the city attracted annually. This memorial is 
a U-shaped structure 300 feet wide and 1,000 feet in length, and the site 
covers approximately 38 acres. The colonnade, which is the distinctive 
feature of the edifice, rises 110 feet above the field. At either side of the 
open north end it terminates in monumental plazas on which are provided 
pedestals for heroic sculptured figures. The south end is crowned with a 




SOLDIER FIELD, on the lake front, where many interesting events take place, including 
Army shows, music festivals, athletic games, and operas. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



193 




QL. 












.4^ 



af 



^4^^ 
^ 



(Kaiden-Keystone Studios Photo) 

THURLOW G. ESSINGTON 

Mr. Essington was bom in Streator, Illinois, May 19, 1886, son of John and Mary 
(Gault) Essington. As a boy in Streator he grew up with the idea that he would be 
a lawyer. In 1903, after his graduation from the Streator Township High School, he 
attended the University of Illinois and received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree 
in 1906. He graduated, cum laude, from the University of Chicago Law School in 1908. 
Immediately he went back to the "home town" to start practicing law. Later he formed 
the partnership of Essington and Heflin, which later became Jones, Essington and 
Heflin. At the age of twenty-nine he was elected City Attorney of Streator. He served 
successively as City Attorney for two years (1915-1917), as Mayor of Streator for two 
years (1917-1919), and as a member of the lUinois Senate for eight years (1919-1927) 
with an outstanding record. In 1923 came the climax of his brilliant pohtical career 
when he was selected as a candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor of 
the State, the youngest man ever to run in Illinois for that office. In 1926 he came to 
Chicago, and, with George B. McKibbin, formed the partnership of Essington and 
McKibbin. 

Mr. Essington is a member of the American Bar Association, the Illinois State 
Bar Association (chairman of the Committee on Legislation), the Chicago Bar Asso- 
ciation (member of the Committee on Amendment of the Law), the La Salle County 
Bar Association, the Chicago Law Club, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Phi Delta Phi, and 
Phi Beta Kappa. He is also a member of the University Club of Chicago, The Electric 
Qub, Union League Club (first vice-president, 1931), Economic Club, and the Floss- 
moor Country Club, and of the Masonic lodges and B. P. O. Elks. While living in 
Streator he was a member of the Presbyterian Church. He is now a member of the 
vestry of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Chicago. In his spare time Mr. Essington 
plays golf, and likes to hunt, fish and ride horseback. He is an enthusiastic philatehst 
(stamp collector), and a collector of Indian reHcs. In addition, he has many civic 
interests. 

On February 26, 1913, Mr. Essington married Davie Hendricks, of MadisonviUe, 
Kentucky. They have one daughter, Elizabeth. 



194 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Greek temple. Permanent seats in the east and west stands accommodate 
75,000 people, while temporary seats increase the capacity to 150,000. 
Soldier Field has been the scene of such spectacular events as the Eucharistic 
Congress, the Dempsey-Tunney fight, football games, the United States 
Army tournaments, the post-Olympic athletic carnival, and the Chicago- 
land music festivals. 

Bumham Park, the site of the Century of Progress Exposition, is only 
a part of a $100,000,000 lake front extension, made possible after many 
years of Htigation. Grant Park had been built up of cinders and refuse 
from the great Chicago fire, but Burnham Park, hke the new Lincoln 
Park extension, encroaches on the dominion of Lake Michigan, and estab- 
lishes a new shore Hne. It is a tract of 1,774 acres, of which 503 acres 
represent enclosed water area. The lagoon thus formed gives Chicago its 
first straightaway course for outboard motorboat racing, furnishing the city 
with an ideal stage for water carnivals. The six-mile strip of reclaimed 
land, of which Burnham Park is a part, will shortly take on the aspects 
of Deauville and the Lido. Three new bathing beaches are to be located 
along the shore. 

Jackson Park, a 553-acre playground, offers facilities for almost every 
kind of outdoor sport. Originally laid out by Frederick Law Olmstead of 
Boston, it had been only slightly improved at the time it was offered as a 
site for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. Today it is described 
as "the most beautiful piece of landscape development in the world." 

Here, in 1902, was opened the first municipal golf course in America. 
The first public baseball diamonds and tennis courts were those of Jackson 
Park. Golfers now have access to one nine-hole and one eighteen-hole 




GENERAL ViLVv ui THE MICHIGAN BOLLEXARD UARDEN APARTMENTS 

Chicago housing project, erected for negroes by the Julius Rosenwald Fund. 

Ernest A. Grunsfeld, Jr., architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



195 







(Eugene Hutchinson Photo) 

CHARLES HULL EWING 

Mr. Ewing, in the real estate and investment business, was born at Randolph, Cattaraugus 
County, New York, July 11, 1868, son of Robert Finley and Aurelia (Culver) Ewing, 
of early Colonial ancestry. In the paternal line were Samuel Finley, his great uncle, 
a president of the College of New Jersey (Princeton University) and Samuel Finley B. 
Morse, inventor of the electric telegraph. Mr. Ewing obtained his academic education 
at Oberlin College and later, at Yale University, where he graduated with an A. B. 
degree in 1893. During another year he studied at the Northwestern University Law 
School, after which he spent two years at Moorhead, Mississippi, as manager of the 
Moorhead Stave Company. For thirty years he was chief assistant to Miss Helen Culver 
in the management of her business interests, and, as such, also manager of the Helen 
Culver Fund of the University of Chicago from 1896 to 1909. 

Since 1903, Mr. Ewing has been engaged in the real estate and investment business, 
controlhng valuable property holdings in Illinois and Florida, and being interested in 
several substantial developments in the latter state. He was one of the organizers and 
for twenty years, from 1906 to 1926, was secretary and treasurer of the Southern 
Gypsum Company, Inc., of North Holston, Virginia, and is now a director of The 
Beaver Products Company of Virginia, Inc., its successor, a subsidiary of Certainteed 
Products Corporation. Mr. Ewing is also a director of the First National Bank of Lake 
Forest, lUinois, and of the First National Company, of Bradenton, Florida. He has been 
a trustee of Hull House Association since 1920, and is a life member of the Geographic 
Society of Chicago, which he served as president for three terms (1924-1926, 1928-1929), 
and during his administration established the society's endowment fund. He is also a hfe 
member of the Art Institute of Chicago, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the 
Press Club of Chicago; a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Delta Phi, and the Elihu Qub 
of Yale; and an honorary member of the Imperial and Royal Geographic Society of 
Persia. He is a member of the Chicago Real Estate Board, the National Association of 
Real Estate Boards, and the Chicago Historical Society. He is a member of the Yale Club 
of Chicago, the University Club, the City Club, the Cliff Dwellers, and the Oberlin Men's 
Club of Chicago, of which he is the founder; also the Onwentsia and KnoUwood Clubs 
of Lake Forest, lUinois. He is also a member of the Sarasota Country, Beach and Sara- 
sota Yacht clubs, in Florida. His favorite recreations are horseback riding, tennis, golf. 

Mr. Ewing was married on October 8, 1906, to Mary, daughter of Dr. Thomas H. 
Everts of Minneapolis, and they have two daughters, Katherine Everts and Helen Culver. 



196 Chicago's accomplishments 

course, while scores of baseball and tennis games are in progress simultane' 
ously every Saturday and Sunday during the Summer. The site of the 
German Building of World's Fair days is occupied by two lawn bowling 
courts. The Jackson Park bathing pavilion overlooks 2,000 feet of sandy 
beach. A snug yacht harbor accommodates the fleet of the Jackson Park 
Yacht Club. The basin in the Midway, the World's Fair street of all nations, 
is flooded during the Winter for skating, hockey, and curling, and is bor 
dered by an equestrian path. 

Jackson Park has recently motorized its lagoons. The old rowboats 
have been replaced by electric launches, with a radio in each. 

While the "White City" lives today only in memory, a few relics of 
its glory still remain. On the Wooded Island may be seen the Japanese 
buildings, rather pathetic and weatherbeaten after forty years of exposure, 
and greatly in need of repair. The Santa Maria, a replica of the Columbus 
flagship, rides at anchor in the harbor, her companions, the Nina and the 
Pinta, having fallen into decay. Daniel French's golden statue, "The Re' 
pubhc," marks the site of the Administration Building. Most important, 
however, is the old Fine Arts Building, one of the most beautiful specimens 
of Ionic architecture in the modern world, now restored in permanent steel, 
stone and brick as the home of the Industrial Museum. 

Of commanding historic interest is the old Cahokia Courthouse trans' 
planted on the Wooded Island from the village of Cahokia in St. Clair 
County, Illinois, where it was built in 1716, and over which the flags of 
France, Great Britain, and the United States have flown. The Parks' most 
beautiful piece of statuary is Lorado Taft's Fountain of Time. 

Washington Park, with its sweeping meadows, is another popular play- 
ground. In addition to baseball diamonds and tennis courts, roquet courts, 
and archery butts, the Park has a cricket field and a green for lawn bowling. 
Here the original Lawn Bowling Club, which has revived the fifteenth cen- 
tury English game of bowls, has its headquarters. The model yacht basin 
at 51st street is the scene of weekly Summer regattas in which these small 
craft compete. The lagoon is available for such sports as fly-casting, fishing, 
skating, and curling, according to the season. The floral displays of the 
Washington Park conservatory and rose garden are admired and enjoyed 
by thousands. The new 124th Field Artillery armory is one of the show 
places of the city. 

Among the more important small parks are Marquette Park of 322 
acres, with its baseball grounds, tennis courts, golf course, skating pond, 
and finely equipped field house, and Calumet Park of 174 acres, with its 
popular bathing beach. 

The eighteen small parks which complete the South Park System are 
highly organized educational and social centers. The field houses, with their 
indoor and outdoor gymnasiums, their dance halls, work shops, and assem- 
bly rooms, provide entertainment and recreation for 14,000,000 boys and 
girls and their parents annually. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



197 




(Blank and StoUcr, Inc., Photo) 

NEWTON C. FARR 



Mr. Farr, realtor and civic leader, was born in Chicago, December 25, 1887, son of 
Marvin A. and Charlotte (Camp) Farr. He attended Harvard School of Chicago, later 
graduating from the Lawrenceville School of New Jersey in 1905. In 1909 he gradu- 
ated from Cornell University, receiving his degree in Civil Engineering, and from that 
year until 1912 was an engineer with the Raymond Concrete Pile Company. In 1912 
he entered the real estate business with his father, the late Marvin A. Farr, and now 
operates under the name of Farr and Company, specializing in the construction and 
financing of business buildings and appraisals. When the United States entered the war 
Mr. Farr enlisted in the Signal Corps, United States Army, in 1917. He was com- 
missioned a second Heutenant in March, 1918. 

Mr. Farr is treasurer of Hughes Oil Company; president and treasurer of Onekema 
Canning Company; chairman of Debenture Bondholders Committee of American Bond 
and Mortgage Company; president of the Chicago Real Estate Board, 1930, (vice- 
president, 1922-1925, general chairman Appraisal Committee, 1929); chairman of 
Real Estate Division, Chicago Association of Commerce, 1929; president of the Better 
Business Bureau, 1931; director of Investors Protective Bureau; and a member of 
Mayor Cermak's Advisory Commission. He is chairman of the Board of Managers of 
Hyde Park Y. M. C. A.; treasurer and trustee, Kenwood Church; trustee, Kenwood 
Plymouth Church Endowment Fund; trustee, Chicago Sunday Evening Club; member, 
Chicago Red Cross Citizens' Committee for Disaster Rehef; trustee, Faulkner School; 
director, Manistee County Agricultural Society; member Executive Committee, Illinois 
Humane Society; member, Board of Governors, Delta Phi fraternity; member of the 
University Club and director of its Banjo Club for more than fifteen years. He is a 
member of the Interfraternity Club, The Tavern Club, the Sunset Ridge Country Club 
(vice-president in 1929), the Chicago Motor Club, Realty Club of Chicago, Cornell 
Club of New York, the American Legion, Indian Hill Country Club, Chicago Historical 
Society, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Field Museum, Civic Music Association, and 
the Isaac Walton League. He was president of the Cornell Club of Chicago in 1922; 
vice-president Cornell Alumni Corporation, 1927; member Cornell Society of Engineers, 
and Cornell University Athletic Association. His principal hobbies are music and golf. 



198 Chicago's accomplishments 

STORY OF ALL LANDS AND ALL AGES IN 

CHICAGO^S WONDER HOUSE 

Educational Opportunities Offered by Field Museum 

of Natural History 

BY STEPHEN C. SIMMS 
Director, Field Museum of Natural History 

CHICAGO possesses, in Field Museum of Natural History, one of the four 
or five leading scientific museums of the world. Treasures and knowl' 
edge gleaned from the most distant parts of the world, covering both modern 
times and long past ages, are brought to the city by this institution. 

Through the doors of the Museum it is possible to step from the heart 
of the city into the atmosphere of the jungles of Africa, the wilds of the 
Americas, the mysterious countries of the Orient and the South Seas, or 
the forbidding lands of perpetual ice and snow. It is possible also to step 
backwards in time to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome, to mystic 
Egypt of old, and yet further even into prehistoric ages, hundreds of mil- 
lions of years ago, when strange forms of life, now long extinct, existed on 
the earth, and man was yet unknown. 

Housed in a beautiful marble temple designed from a classic Greek model, 
Field Museum stands in Grant Park at Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan. 
It is one of the outstanding architectural gems of Chicago. The building 
alone is valued at more than $7,000,000; with the collections it contains 
the Museum represents a value exceeding $50,000,000. 

As an educational institution. Field Museum has reached a high pinnacle. 
It may be called a "people's college'' of the sciences. All classes of people 




(Henry Fuermann &? Sons Photo) 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
Graham, Anderson, Probst 6? White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



199 




FIELD MUieUM 

v::j NATURAL 
■'^ HISTORY : 

.lA ■'■fc; (.■.'. 



;;'<i»««='"»"' 



!aN> 






Ufit'i' 






.■^^„!.. 



STANLEY FIELD 

Mr. Field, president of Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, was born 
of American parents in Manchester, England, May 13, 1875, son of Joseph 
Nash and Katherine (Blackwell) Field. He was educated in Repton School, 
England, and came to the United States in 1893. Since 1906 he has been iden' 
tified with Marshall Field ^ Company and is now a director. 

Since the first part of 1932 he has been chairman of the executive com' 
mittee of the Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company of Chi- 
cago. He is also a director of the Merchandise Bank 6? Trust Company, 
Illinois Central Railroad, The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, Com- 
monwealth Edison Company, Public Service Company of Northern Illinois, 
and The Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. During 1917 and 
1918 he was in charge of all purchases for the American Red Cross in France. 
His clubs are Racquet (New York) ; Chicago (president) , Racquet, Chicago 
Yacht, Saddle and Cycle, Onwentsia, and Old Elm Golf. 

Mr. Field married Sara Carroll Brown of Baltimore, April 17, 1900. Their 
children are Katherine Blackwell, Daphne, and Joseph Nash. 



200 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



are reached by its influence. The serious student of science and the academic 
scholar are aided in their researches by the Museum. The institution con- 
tains a wealth of exhibits and information of an economic character, study 
of which is valuable to business men and industrial leaders in a practical way, 
frequently suggesting to them ideas for use in their commercial activities. 
It is a mine of inspiration and suggestion for workers in the fine arts, and 
also the lesser arts of craftsmanship. The novelist, the illustrator, the scen- 
ario writer, the painter, all can find objects which will aid them in establish- 
ing "local color" in their various works. The sculptor derives new concep- 
tions from the collections of stone, bronze and wood sculptures and carvings 
representing the cultures of other peoples and ages. Textile makers, fashion 
designers, pottery makers, jewelers, goldsmiths, printers — these are but a 
few of the many classes of artisans whom the Museum provides with sug- 
gestive material of value to them in their arts or trades. 




{Courtesy, Field Museum of Jiatural History) 
STANLEY FIELD HALL 
The great central exhibition hall of Field Museum of Natural History. 

To the average man, woman or child, regardless of any practical value 
to be derived from a tour of the Museum, the institution gives a broadening 
cultural influence which, like many courses in universities, like good books, 
good music and great art, while it may have no apparent immediate practical 
value, makes better informed and more tolerant citizens and workers. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



201 



The Museum was founded in 1893 by the late Marshall Field. It is 
open every day of the year. Admission is free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; on other days adults are charged twenty 'five cents. Children are 
always admitted free, as also are students and teachers of any accredited 
school or other educational institution. 

The exhibits in Field Museum of Natural History have been gathered 
by collectors who are specialists in their respective departments of the na' 
tural sciences, and who have been dispatched to many parts of the world for 
the purpose of accumulating exhibition and study material. The exhibits 
are grouped into four departments — anthropology, botany, geology and 
zoology. The collections in each department are arranged systematically 
under their respective divisions, descriptive labels being attached for the in' 
formation of visitors. 

Representative collections of outstanding exhibits from each of the four 
departments are to be found in Stanley Field Hall, the great central exhibi' 
tion hall which occupies the nave of the building. These are intended to 
give a ghmpse of the activities of the institution in general. The visitor 
enters the building via this hall, and thus is introduced to the systematic 
collections. The hall itself is architecturally magnificent and stately, and 
contains, besides its collections, four fine statues, designed by Henry Hering, 




(© Field Museum of T^atural History) 

Lifc'size restoration of a Neanderthal family and cave in which these Western Europeans 

of about 50,000 years ago lived. This group, the work of the sculptor, Frederick A. Blaschke, 

is in the Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History. 



202 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



symbolizing "Natural Science/' "Dissemination of Knowledge," "Research,'' 
and "Record." The hall is dedicated to Stanley Field, the present President 
of the Museum. 

To the left of this hall the visitor finds the anthropological collections, 
and to the right the zoological exhibits. Further exhibits of these depart- 
ments are also found on the ground floor beneath, and certain anthropo' 
logical material in the second floor galleries overlooking Stanley Field Hall. 
The exhibits of the departments of botany and geology occupy series of 
connected halls on the second floor. 




(Courtesy, Field Museum of J^atural History) 

Life-size group representing Philippine iron workers and their forge — Department of 
Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural History. 

Few sciences are of such absorbing interest as anthropology. To trace 
the evolution of man from the dim past, when he was scarcely more than a 
highly developed animal, is tremendously fascinating. The various races 
have not advanced uniformly in culture, but even the most backward chal- 
lenge our admiration by the skill with which they have met and solved the 
problems presented by their environment. Primitive peoples stand out as 
mile posts on the road which we ourselves have traveled. 

The exhibits in the department of anthropology are designed to show 
the achievements in arts and industries, as well as the social and reHgious 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 203 

life, of the world exclusive of modern Europe and America, in both historic 
and prehistoric times. Here there are to be seen life'si2;e groups representing 
Eskimos, American Indians of various tribes, Philippine natives, and other 
such peoples, surrounded by the weapons, implements, utensils, art products 
and other objects representative of their lives. Backgrounds precisely repre- 
senting the environment in which they live are part of many of the exhibits. 
The ancient cultures of Peru, Mexico, and other parts of the American con- 
tinents, and of the South Pacific islands, are all represented by collections 
of artifacts. Etruscan, Greek and Roman antiquities of great variety and 
interest are exhibited; and there is a vast Egyptian archaeological collection, 
including a number of mummies. There are halls devoted to ethnological 
collections from Africa, Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, the Philippines, 
India, Korea, and other far places. Madagascar is represented by a remark- 
able collection unrivalled in any other museum of this country. 

The department contains a highly important collection of treasures from 
the Orient. The Blackstone expedition of 1908-10, with Dr. Berthold 
Laufer, who is now Curator of Anthropology, as leader, penetrated far into 
Tibet and returned laden with collections of gorgeous dresses, grotesque 
masks used in religious dances "to cast out demons," and curious objects 
far too numerous to mention here. There are extensive exhibits of ancient 
Chinese jade, bronze, cast iron, mortuary pottery, clay figures, porcelain, 
wood carving, and unique ancient sculpture. In the Japanese collection the 
examples shown of sword guards, swords, tapestry, and women's costumes 
are particularly notable. This brief account is intended merely to indicate 
the value and interest of the anthropological exhibits. When it is stated 
that the number of objects in this department alone is more than 200,000, 
the extent and scope of the various collections will be readily imagined. 

In the department of botany every effort is made to give a comprehen- 
sive idea of the entire plant kingdom, its large range of plant forms, and its 
relation to human life. Field Museum was the first general natural history 
museum to give to botany space comparable to that devoted to other sci- 
ences. The department maintains a vast herbarium, chiefly of purely scien- 
tific interest, and economic reference collections of considerable extent, in 
addition to the exhibited collections. 

In exhibited botanical material, emphasis is laid on the economic uses 
of plant materials. These are of interest particularly to the student of econo- 
mics and the business man, as well as the student of botany and the casual 
visitor. In the department's Hall of Plant Life is a display of characteristic 
plant forms from the lowest to the highest. Microscopic plants, such as 
bacteria and the minute algae, are represented as they are seen with the aid 
of a microscope. Larger plants can sometimes be preserved for a long time 
by drying or otherwise, but usually give a poor idea of their appearance in 
the living state. For this reason, they are shown at the Museum in the form 
of reproductions which are exact replicas of the living plants. These are 
produced in the Museum in special laboratories maintained through the gen- 



204 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



erosity of President Stanley Field. The original material secured in all parts 
of the world is used variously as models and component parts of these Hfe' 
like reproductions. The reproductions are supplemented in many cases with 
models illustrating on an enlarged scale various significant details of struc 
ture, and characteristic dry plant material, such as fruits, seeds, gums and 
fibers. 

Two halls are devoted almost entirely to plant economics, one of them 
especially to food plants, the other to plant materials used in industry. Two 
halls contain collections of woods, one North American, the other foreign 
types. Sections and trunks of trees, photographs of them in the living state, 
closeups and reproductions of the foliage, maps showing distribution, sam- 
ples of finished lumber, and labels containing essential information about 
their growth and uses accompany them. 



rr; 




{CuuiLcyy. Ihtld hhistum o\ A[atural History) 
The Giant Panda — one of the world's rarest animals. The specimens in the group at Field 
Museum were obtained by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and Kermit Roosevelt while leading 
the William V. KelleyRoosevelts Expedition to Eastern Asia. 

Exhibits in the department of geology classify into two groups, one illus- 
trating the scientific, the other the economic and industrial relations of the 
mineral products of the earth. The scientific series begins with an extensive 
collection showing the various mineral species. About 700 species are illus- 
trated by 20,000 specimens. Supplemental to this is a large collection of 
crystals, presented to the Museum by William J. Chalmers. There is also 
a very large meteorite collection containing representatives of nearly 700 
falls, being in this respect the most complete collection in the world. Rock 
structures and the effects of natural forces, such as glaciation, erosion, 



Chicago's accomplishments 20? 

folding, acting on the materials of which the earth is composed, are shown 
in the section devoted to physical geology. There is also a model of the 
moon, 19 feet in diameter, which so far as is known is the largest and most 
elaborate representation of the moon's surface ever made. 

In the section of paleontology, or historical geology, the development of 
life on the earth from the age of the simplest invertebrates to that of the 
highest forms is illustrated in historic sequence. The largest known land 
animals, the dinosaurs, are represented by a huge mounted partial skeleton, 
12 feet high and 30 feet long. Remains of other huge dinosaurs, including 
a skull of the great horned dinosaur, are also shown. Complete or partial 
skeletons of the extinct mammoths, mastodons, cave bears, ground sloths, 
saber'toothed tigers, and other animals contemporary with early man, as 
well as skeletons and other specimens of still more remote periods going back 
hundreds of millions of years, have been assembled. Recently a series of 
twenty-eight mural paintings showing how these prehistoric creatures are 
believed to have appeared in life, has been installed in the hall. They were 
painted by Charles R. Knight, recognized generally as one of the world's 
leading artists in his specialty — the depiction of paleontological subjects. 
The paintings are a gift to the Museum from Ernest R. Graham. Also pre' 
sented by Mr. Graham are three Hfe-size groups, one a restoration of a 
Neanderthal man, his family and their cave; the other of the mesohippus, a 
species of small three-toed horse which grew to about the size of a collie dog 
and lived in North America some thirty million years ago; and a restoration 
of Titanotheres, huge rhinoceros-like animals of prehistoric times on this 
continent. These are the work of sculptor Frederick A. Blaschke. There is 
also a restoration of a forest of the Coal Age, some 250,000,000 years ago. 

The economic geological collections include among other things speci- 
mens of various ores arranged by countries, states, and mining districts, with 
models of mines, and metal treatment plants of various types; specimens of 
alkalies, salts, and various similar substances; a collection of petroleum and 
oil sands and a model of an oil well; a collection of coals and coal derivatives, 
and collections of clays, soils and other mineral substances which are im- 
portant economically. 

One of the most complete collections of gems and jewels in existence is 
included in the department of geology. It contains nearly every variety of 
gems, and of precious and semi-precious stones in finely cut examples, and 
also as crystals, cleavages and rolled grains. Many of the specimens are of 
historic interest and world-wide reputation, such as the diamond on which 
the bust of William II of Holland was engraved by DeVrees of Amsterdam, 
the work requiring five years. 

The exhibits in the department of zoology consist of three main di- 
visions: a classified series where each important animal can be found in its 
proper place: special exhibits of the animals of various countries illustrating 
their habits and natural surroundings: and preparations of animals or parts 
of animals to illustrate facts, ideas, and theories about them in their relation 



206 Chicago's accomplishments 

to each other and to man. 

Recently groups of rare animals obtained by the James Simpson-Roose- 
velts Asiatic expedition, and the William V. KelleyRoosevelts expedition 
to Eastern Asia, both led by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and Kermit 
Roosevelt, have been placed on exhibition, in addition to groups obtained 
through the efforts of many other important expeditions which have been 
carried on in the past few years. 

Mammals are arranged in two series, one being systematic to show one 
specimen of each of the principal species; the other in habitat groups to 
show the home life, so to speak, of especially interesting or important species. 
In Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall are found the principal masterpieces of 
taxidermy on African mammals of the noted taxidermist, sculptor and 
explorer, after whom the hall is named. 

North American, South American, African, Asiatic, and Austrahan 
mammals are all represented in the Museum collections. Nearly all the 
known species of American birds, and the principal species of foreign birds, 
are on exhibition. In addition to the general bird collections there is a series 
of beautiful habitat groups of various birds with painted backgrounds rep' 
resenting their natural environment. The department also has on exhibition 
noteworthy collections of fishes, reptiles, amphibians, and skeletons of 
vertebrates. 

The Museum has a large general library, and four departmental libraries, 
containing more than 92,000 scientific books and pamphlets. 

Study and reference collections, supplementing the exhibits, are made 
available to students and research workers upon application to the Director. 

Extension of the Museum's work directly to the school children of Chi' 
cago is carried on by two special units of the Museum organization. One 
of these is the Department of the N. W. Harris Pubhc School Extension, 
which circulates traveling exhibits in the schools. More than 1,100 such 
cases are in use, and two are sent to each school every two weeks. The 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for Public School and 
Children's Lectures provides free motion pictures, stereopticon slides, guide' 
lecture tours of the Museum, extension lectures for talks in the schools, and 
other forms of instructive entertainment for young people. The activities 
of these two branches of the Museum reach practically every school child 
in the city. 

Guide'lecturers are available for parties of adults, as well as children, 
upon application to the Director. No charge is made for this service. Regu- 
lar public lecture'tours of the exhibits are conducted daily, except Saturdays 
and Sundays, at 11:00 a. m. and 3:00 p. m., and schedules of the subjects to 
be covered are published every month. Series of free public lectures, illus' 
trated with motion pictures or stereopticon slides, with eminent explorers 
and scientists as speakers, are given in the James Simpson Theater of the 
Museum each Spring and Fall. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



207 



The Museum operates its own large publishing plant, which puts out 
many important scientific works based chiefly on the discoveries made by 
the Museum's many expeditions throughout the world, and the work of 
its scientific staff. In addition, series of leaflets and other instructive works 
written in popular style are produced by Field Museum Press. 




(Chicago Architectural Pliotographing Coynpany) 
This view was taken from the Congress Street entrance to Grant Park. 



208 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



DRAMATIZING THE PAGEANT OF THE SKIES 

The Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum 
A Man-made Universe on a Man-made Isle 

WITHIN the compass of a few hundred yards in Grant Park, one may 
explore the wonders of the earth, the marvels of the deep, and the 
mystery of the starry heavens. 

The Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum is one of a splendid 
trinity of buildings devoted to such universal study. It is a fit companion to 
the Field Museum and the Shedd Aquarium. Its special province is the 
study of the heavens. 

In a man-made universe, the vast dome of the heavens has been reduced 
to the proportions of an inverted bowl sixty-eight feet in diameter, a mini- 
ature cosmos, within which Sun, Moon, planets, and stars revolve in imi- 
tation of the stately procession overhead. 

On this horizon-blue stage, unobstructed by clouds, the celestial bodies 
appear as actors in a majestic pageant, each enacting the role ordained when 
they were sent spinning into space. 

The planets. Sun and Moon, and 9,000 stars make up the cast, mar- 
shaled by the operator of the Zeiss projector. From the powerful lenses of 




^H 






IP . 


* "W» 


"^ 


« 




1 




The Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum, the only institution of its kind in the 
Western Hemisphere. Ernest A. Grunsfeld, Jr., architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



209 




(Eugene L. Ray, Evanston, Photo) 



PHILIP FOX 



Dr. Fox, director of the Adler Planetarium and Astronomical Museum of Chicago, was 
born in Manhattan, Kansas, March 7, 1878, the son of Simeon M. and Esther (Butler) 
Fox. He received his B.S. (Bachelor of Science) degree at the Kansas State College in 
1897, his M.S. (Master of Science) in 1901, a B.S. degree at Dartmouth College in 
1902, and attended the University of Berlin in 1905 and 1906. Dr. Fox was a Com- 
mandant and teacher of mathematics at St. John's Military School, Salina, Kansas, from 
1899 to 1901; Carnegie research assistant at Yerkes Observatory, University of Chicago 
from 1903 to 1905; instructor in astro-physics at the University of Chicago from 1907 
to 1909; professor of astronomy and director at Dearborn Observatory, Northwestern 
University from 1909 to 1929; and has been director of the Adler Planetarium and 
Astronomical Museum in Grant Park, Chicago, since its opening in 1929. 

He served as second lieutenant in the 20th Kansas Infantry, United States Volun- 
teers, in the Philippine Islands in the Spanish-American War; as major in the infantry 
from May 1, 1917, to September 23, 1919; while in France he was assistant chief of staff 
of the 7th Division, and is now a colonel in the Reserve Corps, commanding the 341st 
Infantry. Dr. Fox is an Officier de Tordre du Sauveur (Greece); a Fellow of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the American Astronomical 
Society, Societe Astronomique de la France, Astronomische Gesellschaft, Alpha Delta Phi, 
Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Sigma Xi. He is the author of Annals of the Dear- 
born Observatory (volumes I and II), also several scientific brochures, and contributions 
to astronomical journals, principally on double stars, stellar parallax, and solar physics. In 
1930 he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from Drake University and 
that of Doctor of Science from Kansas State College, in 1931. 

Dr. Fox married Ethel L. Snow, of Chicago, August 28, 1905. Their children are 
Stephen, Bertrand, Gertrude, and Robert Temple. 



210 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



this projector they are thrown upon the screen and directed in their march 
across the sky. 

In this unique theater, where astronomy is dramatized, the illusion is so 
compelling that one loses all sense of enclosure and the limited space seems 
as broad as the sky itself. 

It is possible to speed up the movements of the heavenly bodies so that 
a day, or even the 25,800'year4ong celestial cycle, measured by the preces' 
sion of the equinoxes, can be reproduced within the space of a few minutes. 
Centuries are shortened into seconds as the electric motors drive the mechan- 
ism which controls the artificial heavens. Nor is any of the majesty of the 
celestial movements lost by this acceleration; on the contrary, the speeding 
up aids greatly in an understanding of them. 




i*«i- !«*!|gr«to««w 



■t i ••; 






(© Kaufman ii Fabry) 
THE STARLIT DOME IN THE DARKENED PLANETARIUM CHAMBER 

By Operation of the instrument, different aspects of the skies as viewed 
from various points on the Earth's surface may be presented. Thus, from 
his seat in the domed theater, the spectator may be transported, as if by a 
magic carpet, to the North or the South pole, or to the equator. Constella' 
tions, such as the Southern Cross, not seen in northern latitudes, ascend 
above the horizon; or the pole star can be seen increasing in altitude as one 
travels northward. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 211 

Moreover, such is the wizardry of the projecting apparatus, the heavens 
can be shown as they appeared at any time in the past or as they will appear 
hundreds or thousands of years in the future. One can see them as Hip' 
parchus, discoverer of precession of the equinoxes, saw them; as they ap- 
peared to the Chaldean astronomers, to the Pyramid builders, to Homer, or 
to the ancient shepherds who watched their flocks by night looking to the 
stars for guidance. Or one can project himself into the far-distant future, 
and gaze up at the stars as they will be revealed when Vega will have re- 
placed Polaris as the cynosure, 

Chicago owes its Planetarium — the only one in America — to the gen- 
erosity of Max Adler, who by making possible this institution, sought to 
awaken popular interest in the science of astronomy and the knowledge of 
the heavens. That he has more than realized his hopes is evidenced by the 
eager crowds that visit the Planetarium summer and winter — scientists, 
students, school children, tourists, laymen and philosophers. Attend- 
ance records are comparable with the Planetarium's two sister institutions, 
the Field Museum and the Shedd Aquarium. 

The Planetarium occupies a commanding site at the northern end of 
Northerly Island. The building was dedicated and opened to the public on 
May 12, 1930. Its architect is Ernest A. Grunsfeld, Jr., of Chicago, awarded 
the 1930 Gold Medal of the Chicago chapter of the American Institute 
of Architects for the design of this building. 

The edifice, dodecagonal, or twelve-sided in shape, is 160 feet in diam- 
eter at the foundation, and is built of Minnesota rainbow granite. On each 
of its twelve exterior corners are bronze placques with the signs of the Zodiac 
in bas-relief, the work of Alfonso lannelli. Centrally located within the 
structure is a circular hall surmounted by a copper dome rising eighty-five 
feet above the terrace on which the building stands. V/ithin this hall is the 
Planetarium proper, in which rows of seats, concentric with the circular 
wall, are provided for spectators. On the interior dome is stretched the 
linen screen which serves as the vault of heaven. 

The projection apparatus is a grotesque instrument, with ungainly steel 
stilts and knobs studded with lenses which resemble the highly magnified 
eyes of a fly. The lenses project the stars as brilliant points on the concave 
surface above. Manufactured at the plant of Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany, it 
looks, rather as if it had been made on the planet Mars, being quite unlike 
anything on land or sea, except perhaps, a long-legged, double-headed in- 
sect. The instrument contains 122 separate projectors, of which thirty-two 
are for the stars; eighteen for the nebulae, star clusters, and the dog star, 
Sirius; thirty-two for the constellation names; eighteen for the members of 
the solar system; and nineteen for various reference points and circles. 

The Planetarium is open to visitors daily, and lectures are given at fre- 
quent intervals. Each lecture is like a personally-conducted tour through 
the heavens, during the course of which the traveler, penetrating far be- 
yond the solar system, meets such stars as Canopus, Vega, Arcturus, Betel- 



212 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



geuse, Castor, and Pollux; traces such constellations as Orion, Cassiopeia, 
Scorpio, Draco, Taurus, and the two Bears; and returns, sprinkled, as it 
were, with Stardust from the Pleiades, and the furthermost nebulae and 
galaxies— universes millions of light years beyond our own. 

The halls surrounding the central chamber house the astronomical mu' 
seum. Here are displayed historical instruments and documents relating to 
the science; working models of famous telescopes and observatories; horo' 
logical and nautical instruments, both modern and ancient; machines for 
grinding lenses; and machines uncannily accurate for making computations. 
Spectroscopes may be seen in operation illustrating the various types of 
spectra. To the amateur, as well as the student, the collection of trans' 
parencies showing recent achievements in astronomical photography are 
perhaps the most interesting of the exhibits. 

America has long stood on the frontier of astronomical research, and 
in these studies, Chicago has for more than half a century played a leading 
role. It was just as the country was emerging from the throes of the Civil 
War that the Chicago Astronomical Society was formed and brought to 
the city the largest refracting telescope then in existence, the eighteen and 
one'half inch lens of the Dearborn Observatory. The University of Chicago, 
to escape the smoke and dust and the glare of city lights, has located its 
great Yerkes Observatory at Williams Bay, Wisconsin. What the Adler 
Planetarium has done, however, is to dramati2;e and populari2,e astronomy; 
to stage a pageant of the heavens. 




The doorway to the Adler Planetarium and 

Astronomical Museum where Time becomes 

the slave of Science. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



213 




WILLIAM GAERTNER 



Mr. Gaertner, president of the Gaertner Scientific Corp., makers of precision instru- 
ments for scientific purposes, was born in Merseburg, Germany, October 24, 1864, son 
of Karl and Luise (Pippel) Gaertner. He was educated at the pubhc school and the 
School for Instrument Makers, Berlin, Germany. After starting his business career, at 
the age of sixteen, as an apprentice in an instrument shop at Halle, Germany, he was 
later employed by W. Apel, a manufacturer of chemical and physical apparatus, at 
Goettingen, Germany, and by F. E. Breithaupt and Son, makers of surveying and 
geodetic instruments at Cassel. He also worked at his craft in London and Vienna, and 
came to the United States in 1889 where he became instrument maker for the United 
States Coast and Geodetic Survey at Washington, D. C. As government employees 
must be American citizens, a special ruHng was made in his case by the United States 
Treasury Department waiving the provision of the naturalization law requiring five 
years residence before naturalization. Mr. Gaertner became a citizen of the United States 
after eleven months residence in this country in recognition of his scientific achievements. 

In 1893 he started work with the Smithsonian Institution, where he assisted Prof. 
Samuel P. Langley in his aeronautical experiments. In 1896 Mr. Gaertner opened a small 
shop in Chicago for the manufacture of surveying instruments. This business grew, until 
in 1924 Wilham Gaertner and Company was incorporated as the Gaertner Scientific 
Corp., of which he is president and treasurer. He manufactured the "interferometer" for 
the late Prof. Albert A. Michelson, and in 1910 he made a photographic zenith telescope 
for determining latitude variations for the observatory of the International Geodetic Asso' 
ciation. Mr. Gaertner has made greater progress than anyone else toward the solution 
of the problem of making accurate precision screws for scientific purposes, a problem 
which has baffled instrument makers for many years. He was awarded the Howard N. 
Potts gold medal "for notable achievements as a designer and maker of scientific instru- 
ments," by the Franklin Institute in 1924. 

He is a member of the American Astronomical Society, the Chicago Association 
of Commerce, and the Press Club. He is now active in developing new instruments and 
improving old designs for the U. S. Air Corps. On June 14, 1917, he married Belva 
Eleanora Boosinger of Litchfield, Illinois. 



214 Chicago's accomplishments 

WHERE INDUSTRY APPROACHES MYSTICISM 
The Application of Optical Instruments 

BY WILLIAM GAERTNER 
President, Gaertner Scientific Corporation 

THAT telescopes will reveal the vast depths of space and microscopes 
the tiniest of bacteria, is known to everyone, but the extensive use and 
function of optical instruments in the making and testing of objects that 
enter into our everyday lives is known usually only to those having some 
important part in their fabrication. Even when one observes these instru' 
ments in common use, as when the surv^eyor is seen looking through his 
level, their function is not readily understood, for the telescope on the engi' 
neer's level is more closely related to the sight on a rifle than it is to the 
sailor's spyglass. Indeed it performs both functions, for it not only permits 
seeing clearly the marks on the distant stadia rod but permits bringing the 
telescope barrel in accurate alignment with them. This combination of 
functions can as well be embodied in a microscope for viewing and at the 
same time setting on very fine markings. If a microscope with spider threads 
in its focal plane is mounted so as to move on a very straight guide by means 
of a fine and accurate screw, we have what is called a comparator. 

The comparator finds applications in such diverse ways as studying 
and measuring the setting expansion of Portland cement, determining the 
"creep" of metals when heated in a furnace, gauging the hardness of steel 
by the width of Brinell impressions, studying the effect of heat treatment 
on the arrangement of the very atoms in a sample of metal by measuring 
the distance of the spots produced on a photographic plate when radio' 
graphed by X'rays, determining the chemical composition of a sample of 
unknown material by measurement of the photograph obtained by burning 
less than a millionth of an ounce of it in front of a spectrograph. 

There are some problems in industry where even the microscope, meas- 
uring as it does to about a fifty-thousandth of an inch, is too coarse an 
instrument and one has to resort to an instrument whose great power was 
first shown by Michelson — the interferometer. The surfaces of gauge blocks 
to adhere and measure properly, must be flat to dimensions which cannot 
be seen with a microscope. They are tested for flatness, parallelism and 
length by observing the interference of light waves seen when a piece of 
quartz, polished flat to a millionth of an inch, is pressed in contact with 
them. The preparation of such master flats is a procedure requiring the 
highest skill. 

The interference method has been applied to the study of the thermal 
expansion of ceramic materials which must be very small to avoid their 
cracking. Dental fillings likewise must, on setting and subsequently, main- 
tain their dimensions to an extremely high degree of accuracy, for the 
measurement of which the interference method is also preferred. 

Even the interferometer, measuring to millionths of an inch, does not 
represent the ultimate in fine measurements. It has been found that an 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



215 













f^^ 






^ 1 




JYekomeA Ton 



(Mofett-RtwjeU Photo) 

GEORGE D. GAW 

Col. Gaw, president of Gaw-O'Hara Envelope Company, and of the United States Paper 
Corporation, director of the Du-Plex Envelope Company, and Chicago's official host, was 
born in Owensboro, Kentucky, January 15, 1889, son of Mattison and Louise M. Gaw. 
After attending a parochial school in Owensboro and Owensboro College, he received 
his M. A. (Master of Arts) degree at St. Mary's College, St. Mary, Kentucky. He 
spent several years on the vaudeville stage and for two seasons was leading man in the 
musical comedy called "Little Johnny Jones." Constant travel gave Col. Gaw a chance 
to see nearly all of the cities in America, so when he decided to leave the stage and 
enter the business world, he deliberately chose Chicago. Col. Gaw, with Tom O'Hara, 
started their envelope business with only $500. Now, the Gaw-O'Hara Envelope Com- 
pany, located at the intersection of Sacramento and Franklin Boulevards, is the largest 
direct'to'consumer envelope concern in the world — hence the slogan "P. D. Q., Price, 
Delivery, Quality." 

Col. Gaw reahzes that Chicago has been very kind to him and his co-workers and 
is now trying to repay this debt in every way possible. He now fills a new "payless 
post" which Mayor Cermak created for him, that of Chicago's "Commissioner of Hos- 
pitality." The purpose of this new position is to help sell Chicago's virtues to the out- 
side world, as well as to some of our own citizens, and Col. Gaw meets many of the 
noted visitors and escorts them about the city in the white guest car. People throughout 
the world have erroneously heard so much about the vices in connection with Chicago 
that Col. Gaw beheves that now they should be interested in learning the truth about 
its virtues; that through this procedure many thousands must change their minds about 
Chicago. 

Col. Gaw is a member of the Illinois Athletic Club, Chicago Press, Lincoln Park 
Traps, Chicago Yacht Club, and the Evanston Golf Club. He enjoys motor-boating, 
golfing, hunting, and just meeting people. 

On May 10, 1912, he married Ellen Katherine Hopkins of Rockport, Indiana, and 
they have one daughter, Betty Allen. 



216 Chicago's accomplishments 

apparently homogeneous block of metal such as a steel shaft, in reality con' 
sists of a mass of interwoven microscopic crystals. These individual crystals 
have a regular structure, and the way the atoms are arranged in the crystal 
depends among other things on the heat treatment to which it has been 
subjected, and is closely connected with such characteristics as hardness, 
homogeneity and tensile strength. The atomic distances and their arrange- 
ment is revealed by the way in which the material reflects X-rays through 
the X-ray spectrometer. These reflected X-rays may be photographed and 
measured on a comparator (as mentioned above) or they may be allowed 
to fall in an ionization chamber and the conductivity produced measured 
by an electrometer. 

It is coming to be realized that such minute quantities as .001 per cent, 
present as impurities in alloys, may have a decided influence on their physical 
properties. For such small percentages the usual chemical methods of 
analysis are not well adapted. But here optical science comes to the assist- 
ance of the chemist. For when such material is burned in an arc or spark, 
the elements give out their characteristic radiations with a brilliance which 
is in a general way proportional to the amount of the element present. 
Many of these radiations are in the ultra-violet, to which glass lenses and 
prisms are opaque. Fortunately, however, crystal quartz allows them to 
pass as readily as glass passes visible light. And the photographic plate is 
sensitive to them, even more sensitive than to visible light. A spectrograph 
with lenses and prisms of quartz therefore is the ideal instrument for record- 
ing these radiations. With the help of a comparator the identity of the 
elements producing the various radiations is readily determined, and by a 
study of the amount of blackening they produce on the photographic plate, 
the amount of each present is ascertained. This amount of blackening is 
estimated by some workers visually, by comparison with standards photo- 
graphed on the same plate. It is, however, much facilitated by the use of 
an auxiliary instrument — the microphotometer. This is especially designed 
to measure the amount of blackening on the small area covered by each 
spectrum line. 

Space does not permit giving more than a mere hint of the many appli- 
cations of optics in industry. The field is constantly widening and is virtu- 
ally unlimited. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



217 




CALVIN GODDARD 



Colonel Goddard, professor of police science (Law Faculty) and managing director of 
the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory at Northwestern University, was born in Balti- 
more, Maryland, October 30, 1891, son of Capt. Henry P. and Eliza Whitman (Acheson) 
Goddard. He received his A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1911, cum laude, and his 
M. D. (Doctor of Medicine), 1915, from Johns Hopkins. He was an honor graduate of 
the Army Medical School at Washington, in 1917. In that year he was commissioned 
first heutenant of the Medical Corps; was promoted through grades to major, March 28, 
and is now lieutenant colonel in the Ordnance Reserve. He was assistant director (business 
administration) of Johns Hopkins Hospital, 19214924; administrative director of the Cor- 
nell Clinic, 1924-1925; associate director and director of the Bureau of Forensic Ballistics, 
New York, 1925-1926; director of Major Calvin Goddard and Associates, New York, 
1926-1929. Colonel Goddard is technical adviser (arms and ammunition) for the Penn- 
sylvania State Police. 

He is a member of the Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology, Society of Amer- 
ican Mihtary Engineers, Association of Mihtary Surgeons, Army Ordinance Association, 
American Society of International Law, New York Medico-Legal Society, Chicago Aca- 
demy of Criminology, International Association for Identification (director), New York 
Country (Washington); Indian Landing Boat Club, AnnapoHs, (Maryland); Phi Kappa 
Psi (New York); Army and Navy Adventures (Chicago). Colonel Goddard is a con- 
tributor of articles on firearms identification and general ordinance subjects. 

He married Eliza Cunningham Harrison, of New Kent County, Virginia, August 3, 
1915. Their children are Eliza Cunningham and Mary Wood bridge. 



218 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



THE SCIENTIFIC CRIME DETECTION LABORATORY 

Chicago's Answer to Mass Machine Gun Murder 

BY CALVIN GODDARD, 
Director, Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, Northwestern University 

A SUSPECTED murderer was about to be set free. He had, apparently, an 
air'tight alibi. No evidence directly connecting him with the crime of 
which he was accused could be produced. Then science stepped in. Parts 
of his clothing were subjected to microscopic scrutiny. The powerful lens 
revealed minute bits of algae — seaweed — adhering to his clothing, a species 
of algae found only in the neighborhood where the crime was committed. 
The alibi was shot to pieces, and on the strength of this evidence, produced 
almost as if by magic, the man was convicted. 

The ratiocination process of detectives of the Sherlock Holmes type, 
fascinating as they may be in fiction, have yielded to the still more fascinat- 
ing methods of science. 

Many phases of modern crime detection work have become highly spe- 
ciali2;ed sciences in themselves. There is the science of firearm identification, 
built up on a study of weapons, projectiles, and exploded cartridges. Given 
a mere slug of lead, the expert is enabled to determine exactly the make of 
gun it was discharged from, and in many cases, actually to identify the 
weapon employed. 

The modern criminal may congratulate himself upon his cleverness, and 
indeed, he is far more clever than the 
criminal of other days. But science 
manages to keep a jump or two ahead 
of him, and scientific crime detection, 
while still in its early stages of devel' 
opment, already to the uninitiated 
savors of wi2,ardry and necromancy. 
What criminal, for instance, can per- 
sist in his denials in the face of the 
"Lie-detector" which is positively un- 
canny in its operations? 

The Scientific Crime Detection 
Laboratory, a department of the Law 
School of Northwestern University, 
was established in the Fall of 1929, 
through the munificence of Burt A. 
Massee, who had served as foreman 
of the coroner's jury convened to in- 
vestigate the so-called "Valentine Day 
Massacre" of that year. 

The first institution of its kind in 
the United States, it is patterned l:^'iri:^::;:Z:i!ti'7n i^Tu'i:^, 
partly after the scientific police labc microscope. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



219 




1f5 






INSTITUTE 

ACCOUNTANTS 
1923-24 



7*?* CHICAGO 

ASSOCIATION 

o/COf^M£RC£ 

1922 

9 

CHJCAGO 
CRIME 
COA*\MIJ$iON 
JS^6 -27 



(Mofett-Russell Photo) 

EDWARD E. GORE 

Mr. Gore, certified public accountant and senior member of Edward Gore and Company 
was born in Carlinville, Illinois, December 4, 1866, son of David and Cinderella Davis 
(Keller) Gore. He was educated at Blackburn College, Carlinville, Jacksonville (Illi- 
nois) Business College, and the University of Illinois. He studied law from 1888 to 
1893 and was elected justice of the peace at Carlinville in 1889, serving for four years. 
He was appointed Chief of the Building and Loan Department, State Auditor's Office, 
July 1, 1893. He was appointed Chief of the Banking Department of the same office, 
January 1, 1895, and served in both capacities until January, 1897. 

Mr. Gore has engaged in public accounting practice in Chicago since January 11, 
1897, practicing alone until 1904, when he became a member of the accounting firm of 
Barrow, Wade, Guthrie &? Company. In 1922 he helped to organize the firm of Smart, 
Gore £s? Company with which he continued until 1927, when he became the senior 
member of Edward Gore and Company, the firm of which he is now the head. Mr. 
Gore has been active in the accounting field and was president of the Illinois Society of 
Certified PubHc Accountants in 1907 and has been a member of the council of the 
American Institute of Accountants since its organization in 1916. He was president 
of the American Institute of Accountants in 1923 and was re-elected in 1924. He has 
been active in the Chicago Association of Commerce and was a member of the auditing 
committee in 1906, member of the ways and means committee in 1909, 1910, and 1911, 
chairman of the ways and means committee in 1912, vice-president in 1913 and 1914, 
chairman of the executive committee in 191? and member of the executive committee 
since 1912. He was president of the Association in 1922. Mr. Gore has also been 
active in the Chicago Crime Commission and has been a director and member of the 
executive committee since 1919, president in 1926 and was reelected in 1927. He be- 
longs to the Sons of the American Revolution and to the Union League Club of Chicago. 
His favorite recreation is fishing. 

Mr. Gore married Amanda Jeannette, daughter of William F. Burgdorff, of Carlin' 
ville, Illinois, October 6, 1892. Their children are, Florelle Jeanette (Mrs. Frank W. 
Hawley), Mary Amanda (Mrs. E. B. Wilcox), Virginia Cinderella, and Budd. 



220 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ratories maintained in all the larger cities of Europe, and partly after the 
best foreign medico-legal institutes, its services being available to law- 
enforcing agencies and reputable individuals throughout the United States 
and Canada. 

Staffed with a corps of highly trained persons, it stands ready to examine 
and report upon any bit of physical evidence which may figure in a crime, 
its investigations including studies of blood, bombs, bones, bullets, code 
messages, counterfeits, dust, finger and foot-prints, fingernail scrapings, fire- 
arms, food, hair, handwriting, inks, poisons, stains, tireprints, textiles type- 
writing, and scores of other subjects. Its small permanent staff has available 
the advice of a considerably larger group of consultants, all pre-eminent in 
their several fields, located throughout the United States. 

Aside from actual case studies, the laboratory offers short courses in 
the application of scientific methods to criminal investigation. At the begin- 
ning of 1930, it commenced the publication of "The American Journal of 
Police Science," a bi-monthly periodical, which fused in 1932 with the 
"Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology." The accomplishments of its 
psychology department, presided over by Leonarde Keeler, who has brought 
the "Lie-detector" to its present state of perfection, have elicited the praise 
of jurists throughout America. And finally, no less a body than the Wicker- 
sham Commission on Law Enforcement and Observance, in referring to the 
Laboratory in its report dated June 26, 1931, states that: "Scientific to the 
last degree, it is establishing a precedent for which there is no equal in this 
country at the present time." 




Night view with the Merchandise Mart and the La Salle-Wacker building predominating. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



221 




SIDNEY S. GORHAM 

Mr. Gorham, lawyer, was born in Rutland County, Vermont, November 6, 1874, son 
of Frank E. and Mary J. (Smith) Gorham. He attended the common schools there, 
and received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at Chicago College of Law (now 
Chicago-Kent College of Law) in 1894. He began as an office boy in the law firm of 
Luther Laflin Mills and George C. Ingham (Mills and Ingham) in 1890. After the 
death of Mr. Ingham he continued in the employ of Mr. Mills until 1904, when he 
was admitted to partnership with Mr. Mills and his son, Matthew Mills. Two years 
later, with Mr. Henry W. Wales, he organized the partnership of Gorham and Wales. 
In 1912 Mr. Amos C. Miller became a partner and the firm name was changed to 
Miller, Gorham and Wales. Mr. Gorham is the author of the first statewide motor 
vehicle law of Illinois, which was passed in 1907 and became a law January 1, 1908. 
He represented the Chicago Motor Club in the gas tax Htigation in 1927 and 1928 
and this act was held unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. In 1928 he was appointed 
special assistant corporation counsel for the City of Chicago and assigned to advise the 
Citizens Traction Settlement Committee. In June, 1930, he was appointed special as- 
sistant corporation counsel for the City of Chicago to advise the Committee on Gas, 
Oil and Electric Light in negotiations for a contract ordinance with the Illinois Bell 
Telephone Company. 

He is a member of the Chicago Bar Association and was treasurer during 1925 and 
1926, second vice-president during 1926 and 1927, first vice-president during 1927 and 
1928, and president from 1928 to 1929. He is a member of the Illinois State Bar 
Association, American Bar Association, and the Law Club of the City of Chicago. He 
is chairman of the committee on traffic control of A Century of Progress — Chicago's 
(1933) World's Fair. He is a director of the Terminal National Bank of Chicago, trustee 
and member of the Mid-Day Club, past vice-president of Chicago Athletic Association, 
member and director Chicago Motor Club and American Automobile Association, and 
member of the Glenview Club, La Grange Country Club, Illinois Seniors Golf Asso- 
ciation, and Forty Club. His favorite recreations are golf and horseback riding. He is 
actively interested in civic affairs. 

On July 15, 1896, he married Myrtle G. Willett of Chicago, and their children 
are Lucy M. (deceased), Sidney S., Jr., and Willett N. 



222 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE NERVE CENTER OF AMERICANS 
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY 

Far'Flung Influence of the Chicago Board of Trade 

BY PETER B. CAREY 
Fiftyninth President, Chicago Board of Trade 

BROODING silently over the deep canyon of La Salle street, Ceres, goddess 
of the golden grain, symbolizing the spirit of agriculture, sheds her 
benediction over one of the world's business marts. 

A country goddess transplanted to the heart of a great city, she stands 
silhouetted against the sky on her lofty pedestal atop the Chicago Board 
of Trade tower. 

Even to the most heedless passerby in the street below she brings a 
picture of millions of acres of waving wheat fields, an empire of grain, reach' 
ing out toward the sunset. 

She is the guardian of America's bread basket. Sublimely aloof, de' 
tached from the turmoil of the city streets, she seems indifferent to the con' 
flict going on below. 

On the floor of the exchange, in the famous wheat pit, the battle is 
renewed daily. To the average spectator, the pit is Bedlam; the frantic 
gesticulations and the incessant roar of the traders are meaningless. 

The roar is nothing less than the heart'throb of America's agricultural 
industry. The exchange is the clearing house of the world's grain markets. 
Here some 400 million bushels of grain flow from producer to consumer 
annually. 

Beneath the massive trading floor are the terminals of 2,700 miles of 
wire, tapping all parts of the country, the fibers of a vast nervous system, 
connecting with other nerve centers in the far corners of the earth. 

Quotations from the Chicago market are broadcast by radio six times 
daily by the Board of Trade. Farmers even in the most isolated com- 
munities are thus kept constantly informed of the market, and can act 
accordingly. Other radio stations, including one of the most powerful in 
Europe, relay to the world the price of grain which traders pay at Chicago. 
The widest newspaper and ticker publicity is given the commodity prices 
registered in this common trading place. 

The story of the Chicago Board of Trade begins nearly a century ago, 
when Chicago itself was little more than a pioneer community, a cross' 
roads market. 

In March, 1848, a group of Chicago merchants, eager to provide an 
adequate market for the farmers who were bringing their crops to the city 
by wagon and selling them in a hit'ormiss fashion, held a preliminary meet' 
ing in the office of W. L. Whiting. The second meeting, at which the 
Board of Trade was formally organized, was held in dingy rooms over 
Gage and Haines' flour store. Thomas Dyer was elected the first president. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



223 




JAMES E.GORMAN 

Mr. Gorman, president of the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway Com' 
pany, occupies a position of unusual distinction among those who have con' 
tributed to Chicago's growth and achievements. Born on the West Side, 
December 3, 1863, and having entered railway service as a boy of thirteen, 
his entire business life has been spent in Chicago. Not without some experience 
in commercial life, more than fifty years have been devoted to the railway 
transportation industry, and his progress, step by step, in the freight traffic 
departments of the Burlington, North Western, Illinois Central, Santa Fe and 
Rock Island eminently fitted him for the important part he has played in both 
business and civic affairs. 

Coming from the Santa Fe to the Rock Island as vice-president in charge 
of freight traffic, he was a few years later elected president, in 1917. Serving 
as federal manager during the War period, he resumed the presidency in 1920. 
His remarkably wide personal acquaintance among business men of the Middle 
West and his broad circle of devoted friends have been subjects of frequent 
comment. Despite the burdens incident to his busy life, which include the 
responsibilities of a bank directorship and membership on the Board of Trus' 
ters of A Century of Progress — Chicago's (1933) World's Fair, he has given 
liberally of his time to all important civic enterprises, and has given ready 
ear to those who have been aided by his wise and friendly counsels. 



224 Chicago's accomplishments 

Daily telegraphic market reports were arranged for in 1849, and in the 
following year, the board was granted a charter which gave official sane 
tion to its acts. 




(Hedrich-Blessing Photo) 
View of La Salle street showing the Board of Trade building, with Ceres, goddess of grains, 
silhouetted against the sky. Holabird 6?' Root, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



225 




n*~. 



^■':^^i& 



f,..^' 









Sr-^ 



(Mofjett-Russdl Photo) 



SAMUEL A. GREELEY 



Mr. Greeley, member of Pearse, Greeley and Hansen, hydraulic and sanitary engineers, 
was born in Chicago, Illinois, August 20, 1882, son of Frederick and Florence More 
house (Arnold) Greeley. He belongs to the third generation of engineers within the 
family. His grandfather, Samuel S. Greeley, came to Chicago in 1848 and in 1852 
was city engineer of Chicago. His father, Frederick Greeley, was a well-known surveyor 
in Chicago, Mr. Greeley received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Harvard 
University in 1903; B. S. (Bachelor of Science) degree in sanitary engineering at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1906. He was assistant engineer with the 
firm of Hering and Fuller, New York, from 1904 to 1909; visited England and the 
Continental cities in 1908, 1911, and 1928; was resident engineer in charge of con- 
struction and superintendent in charge of operation at the Milwaukee Refuse 
Disposal Plant, 1909 to 1911; made an investigation and report on water supply and 
sewage treatment for Caracas, Venezuela, during 1911; was engineer with the Sanitary 
District of Chicago, 1912 to 1915; supervising engineer at Camp Custer, Michigan, 
1917 and 1918, and sanitary engineer United States Shipping Board, operations on 
Pacific Coast, Northeast Coast, and Great Lakes. 

Pearse, Greeley and Hansen have done work for New York City; New Bedford, 
Massachusetts; Toledo, Ohio; Dallas, Texas; Louisville, Kentucky; Walla Walla, Wash- 
ington; Los Angeles County, California; The Twin Cities; Highland Park, lUinois; 
and in general throughout the country. Mr. Greeley is a member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, American Water Works Association, American Public Health 
Association, New England Water Works Association, Illinois Society of Engineers, and 
Western Society of Engineers. His clubs are University, Engineers, City, Indian Hill 
Country, and Commonwealth. 

On October 4, 1913, he married Dorothy Cofiin of Winnetka, Illinois, and their 
children are Samuel Sewell, Frederick, Lois, and Dorothy. 



226 Chicago's accomplishments 

From the very first, it set about establishing standards of quality for 
foodstuffs. Inspectors were appointed to see that these standards were lived 
up to. 

With a common meeting ground where buyer and seller might con' 
gregate to make their trades, and a central market place for commodities 
available, growers began to receive a fairer return for their efforts in the 
fields. 

In those days, as today, the Board of Trade never made a single trade. 
It has simply remained an association which provides every trade facility 
for the use of its members. 

These facilities increased simultaneously with the organization of the 
commodity exchange. In 1848, the first shipments by railroad were made 
to Chicago, and the first telegraph messages received. Prices of farm products 
throughout the Middle West began to stabilize for the first time, prices 
being based on what such products were worth in the important trading 
center, Chicago. 

Today, the Board of Trade ranks first among the world's commodity 
exchanges. It occupies a monumental building, a landmark for miles around, 
soaring approximately 600 feet above street level. Its charter membership 
of 82 has grown to one of 1,500. Memberships are held by merchants, 
exporters, bankers, millers, elevator owners, cooperative farm groups, brok' 
ers, insurance companies, and others. Through its operations, 30,000 per' 
sons are directly given employment, while 100,000, directly or indirectly, 
are provided with work. Supplementing the Board's own rigid code of 
ethics — a model of modern business practice — is the Grain Futures Act, 
by virtue of which this and other exchanges are placed under the super' 
vision of the United States Department of Agriculture. All transactions 
come under the constant scrutiny of government experts, with whom the 
officers of the exchange work in close cooperation. 

In a world market of this kind, speed in handling orders is a vital factor. 
Member houses of this exchange have added to their systems of privately 
leased wires until they throw a network over North America and complete 
their connections only when they penetrate to Europe, Asia, Africa, Aus' 
tralia. South and Central America. 

So rapidly do these houses serve their customers that trades in the 
future contract markets frequently are dispatched from another city, re' 
ceived and executed in Chicago, and confirmed at the point of origin within 
thirty seconds. The '■'round trip" on orders from Europe is made well 
within a three'minute period. 

Growth of the Chicago Board of Trade is due to one outstanding fact. 
It markets the farmer's grain at a lower cost than obtains in the marketing 
of any other staple foodstuff. The futures markets of the Board of Trade 
have received wide public attention. These are broad enough to absorb the 
largest hedging — buying and selling against previous purchases or sales to 
offset possible loss — by the actual owner of the grain, and enabling him to 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



227 




EDWIN O. GRIFFENHAGEN 

Mr. Griffenhagen, management engineer and senior partner of Griffenhagen and Asso- 
ciates, consultants in management, was born in Chicago, January 14, 1886, son of Oscar 
Fred and Anna Maria (Kleinhans) Griffenhagen. He received his B. S. (Bachelor of 
Science) degree in Civil Engineering at the Armour Institute of Technology in 1906; 
C. E. (Civil Engineer) in 1909. Starting as a mining engineer in Alaska in 1906, he 
was office engineer in the engineering department of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. 
Paul Railway from 1907 to 1909. During 1909 he was architectural engineer for the 
City of Chicago and was selected to organize the technical work of the City of Chicago 
Efficiency Division during 1910. From 1911 to 1919 he was head of the industrial 
engineering department of Arthur Young 6? Company, Chicago and New York, reor- 
ganizing numerous corporations, utilities, and banks, and many states and cities. With 
his colleagues he took over the business of this department in 1920 and since has prac 
ticed as Griffenhagen 6? Associates, consultants in management to corporations and 
speciahsts in public administration and finance, with offices in Chicago, New York, Hart- 
ford, Washington, D. C, Los Angeles, and Toronto. Mr. Griffenhagen reorganized the 
Canadian Government departments during 1918 to 1921 and in 1920 was chief counselor 
to United States Congressional Commission on Reclassification of Salaries. He has con- 
ducted reorganizations of numerous states and cities as well as many large corporations; 
was directing engineer for Chicago River Bridge Survey. In 1932 he was selected to 
direct the preparation of a plan of reorganization of the government of the Chicago 
metropolitan area for the General Assembly of IlHnois. He is secretary, treasurer, and 
managing director of Kindersley Farms Company. 

Mr. Griffenhagen is president of the Institute of Management; charter member of 
the Association of Consulting Management Engineers; member, International Manage- 
ment Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers, Western Society of Engineers, 
Society of Industrial Engineers, and numerous other technical associations in the fields 
of business, political science, and engineering. He is a member of the Chicago Associa- 
tion of Commerce, Illinois Manufacturers' Association, United States Chamber of Com- 
merce, Art Institute of Chicago, and Tau Beta Pi Fraternity. His clubs are University, 
City, Chicago Athletic Association, Collegiate, Delavan Country, Lake Shore Athletic, 
Rotary, Edgewater Golf, all of Chicago, and Engineers" (New York). 

On January 7, 1909, Mr. Griffenhagen married Christine A. Gloeckler (Smith, 1908) 
of Chicago, and they have two children, Ruth Christine (Smith, 1930) and Elinor Jane. 



228 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



shift the risk of price fluctuations to the futures market. Millers, exporters, 
and processors are thus safeguarded against losses brought about by sud- 
den price changes in a highly speculative medium. As a result, they can 
operate on a narrower margin of profit. 

Futures markets are maintained now on the exchange for wheat, corn, 
oats, rye, barley, provisions, cotton, and stocks and bonds, the cotton and 
securities markets having been added within recent years. In establishing 
the cotton market, the Board entered into a contract with the Department 
of Agriculture providing for delivery at Houston and Galveston of this 
commodity. The volume of business has increased steadily, and many in- 
novations have been introduced which have been adopted by the older 
exchanges. 

The securities market, made possible by the Board's private wire sys- 
tem, opened up a vast field for investment in sparsely settled communities 
unreached by ticker service. 

The importance of the Board's futures markets in grain should not 
overshadow the importance of its cash grain markets. Since 1855, when 
records of grain shipments were first compiled, a market has been pro- 
vided for more than 15,500,000,000 bushels of grain shipped from country 
points to Chicago. 

Shipments of grain from Chicago in the same period are in excess of ten 
billion bushels, firmly fixing this city's prestige as a clearing house of the 
world's grain trade. 

Unequalled shipping facilities, including water as well as Chicago's 
matchless railroad transportation, have 
aided fair and open marketing of 
farm products and in building up such 
a colossal market. 

One department alone of the Board 
of Trade, that of the weighmaster, 
has devoted its activities for years to 
improving the traffic in grain so that 
fairer returns may be cashed in by the 
growers. An untiring effort has been 
made to reduce the extent of grain 
wastage through inadequate shipping 
equipment, and the Board of Trade 
has campaigned ceaselessly to the end 
that accurate weighing facilities be 
available at practically every point of 
shipment. 

Such a program reaches the goal .. , .^ 

that it merits. And today it can be .t, p ?^ ^ i>i , v 

^ \_rici\y;j ruer7ndiin c^ imii i'hoio) 

said safely that farmers in general are Lobby of Board of Trade building, showing 
appreciative of the low cost and effi- modern lighting. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



229 





;-Ji*y "OA STOvces t;: 

f. R O C £ ^ V S-' g i'-? •' J T O K t 










STO R r. 



^F"'* 



^i-W 



J. FRANK GRIMES 

Mr. Grimes, president and founder of I. G. A. (Independent Grocers' Alliance of 
America) and I. D. A. (Independent Druggists' Alliance of America), was born in 
Chicago, December 17, 1881, son of Joseph Lawrence and Mary Ann (Mapes) Grimes. 
Educated in the public grammar and high schools of Chicago, he started in his business 
career in the employ of wholesale grocers in Chicago and Sioux City, Iowa. While in 
Sioux City he conducted a system of departmental analysis showing just where the 
profits in the wholesale grocery business were coming from and the territories that were 
showing the best results. This system was successful and was adopted quite extensively 
by wholesale grocers. Later Mr. Grimes became sales manager of the Baker-Vawter 
Company where he remained for a year and a half after which he became a partner 
in William W. Thompson and Company, certified public accountants, specializing in the 
grocery field. For over fifteen years he directed the operations of this company and 
devised a special cost accounting system that enabled wholesale grocers to conduct their 
business in an up'tO'date manner. By 1926 the Thompson Company had as clients some 
260 of the country's largest and most important wholesale grocers. 

Mr. Grimes, realizing that stores operated by organizations with large buying powers 
were taking a good deal of business from his clients, made extensive investigations and 
surveys which showed that most of the difficulty was occasioned by a lack of organized 
cooperation between wholesale grocers and their retail customers. He and his associates 
then organized the first I. G. A. unit of seventy-five independent retail grocers around 
William T. Reynolds & Company, Inc., of Poughkeepsie, New York, during the sum- 
mer of 1926. The Alliance immediately began an amazing growth which spread into 
other states until there are now, with branches, over one hundred old-established and 
important wholesale houses affiliated with the I. G. A., and there are from one to 250 
I. G. A. stores in each of 3,500 towns and cities in forty-two States, making this the 
largest organization of independent grocers in the world. The I. D. A. (Independent 
Druggists' Alliance of America) was organized for the same purpose — to help the inde- 
pendent store-owner. Mr. Grimes is a firm believer in independent opportunity and 
individual ownership of retail organizations; he is a strong advocate of agricultural 
cooperative movements. In addition to the above organizations, Mr. Grimes is president 

Continued on page 546 



230 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ciency of marketing their surplus crops through a house holding member- 
ship on this exchange. 

There are more than one hundred such houses today with connections 
with country shippers, whose sole source of income is the commission earned 
on grain consigned to them to sell at Chicago. 

These men, and their fathers and grandfathers before them, have built 
up their trade and good will under highly competitive conditions which, in 
the final analysis, insure intelligent handling and the highest prices obtain- 
able for the country shipper. 

These are the men who were heaviest hit, economically, by the govern- 
ment's policy in creating a Farm Board, and subsequent attempt to set up a 
monopoly in the handling of grain, a scheme that failed but which almost 
destroyed established markets by the indiscreet use of taxpayers' money. 





The Dairy Building of A Century of Progress in which exhibits dramatize, in sculpture, 
painting and with projection equipment, the contribution of dairy products to the develop- 
ment of mankind. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



231 




(Koehne Photo) 

ERNEST A. GRUNSFELD, JR. 

Mr. Grunsfeld, architect, was born on August 25, 1897, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. 
As a boy he went to New York and was raised and educated there. Prepared at 
Philhps Exeter Academy, he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology with a degree of Bachelor of Science in architecture in 1917, and was awarded 
the Medal of the American Institute of Architects, the Gold Medal of the French 
Society of Architects, and the Roche Prize. After graduating, he studied, and re- 
ceived a certificate in, naval architecture, and following this was stationed at the 
Charlestown Navy Yard at Boston. He was recommended to become Naval Constructor 
in the United States Navy but resigned to practice architecture. After two years in the 
office of Robert D. Kohn of New York and with Clarence S. Stein, he studied in 
Europe for three years, at the American Academy in Rome and in Paris. After his 
return to New York in 1922, he worked as chief designer for the Brooklyn Public 
Library and later for Andrew Thomas on housing projects, after which he became an 
assistant of Mr. Stein in the office of Kohn, Butler and Stein. Mr. Stein and he were 
consultants on the Fort Sheridan Gardens project, a housing development near Chicago 
containing 700 homes, and due to this commission, he located in Chicago in 1924. 
From 1924 to 1928 he practiced in Chicago with Mr. Eugene H. Klaber and since 
then, for himself. He is a member of the Illinois Housing Commission. 

Some of Mr. Grunsfeld's work in Chicago includes: the Adler Planetarium, which 
was awarded the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects for the year 1931; 
the Jewish People's Institute, a large community center; the 21 -story Whitehall Hotel 
on Delaware place; branch library building for the City of Chicago; the Michigan 
Boulevard Garden Apartments, a housing project erected for negroes by the Julius 
Rosenwald Fund, which contains about 2,000 rooms, covering an entire city block, 
with a garden of over two acres in the center of the building. It is the largest housing 
project in the United States contained within one building. Other work by Mr. Gruns- 
feld includes residences and other buildings in Chicago, Detroit, Rock Island, Savannah, 
Philadelphia, Columbus, Cincinnati, New York, and other cities. 

In 1926 he married Mary-Jane Loeb, and they have two children, Esther and 
Ernest A. III. 



232 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



HOW THE TELEPHONE HAS MADE POSSIBLE 

THE GREATER CHICAGO 

City, Suburbs, and Surrounding Territory Knit Into a Social and 

Commercial Unit 

BY F. O. HALE 
President, Illinois Bell Telephone Company 

CHICAGO has been called the telephone capital of the world. While not 
the headquarters of the telephone industry, Chicago factories have 
produced more telephone equipment than is produced in any other city of 
the world, and during the greater part of the telephone era, Chicago's tele- 
phone system has developed more rapidly than that of any other metro- 
politan center of America or Europe. 

Spread out over an area of hundreds of square miles, with suburbs dot- 
ting the prairie within a radius of iifty miles from the Loop, Chicago could 
never have attained its spectacular growth had not the telephone system 
grown with the city and anticipated future needs. 

Thirty years ago a telephone in a private home was regarded as a luxury. 
Today it is almost indispensable. Thirty years ago business marched to a 
relatively slow tempo. Today an intricate network of wires reaching 
into almost every home, and to almost every desk, counter, and workshop, 
has knit Chicago and the surrounding territory into a single social and com- 
mercial unit. One can call New York without hanging up the receiver. The 
Chicago business man, from his office in the Loop, can talk to London, Paris, 
and Berlin. 




Manually operated switchboard in one of Chicago's large telephone central offices. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



233 




FLOYD O. HALE 



Mr. Hale, president of the Illinois Bell Telephone Company, was born in 
West Windsor, Vermont, April 13, 1882, and is the son of Frank S. and 
Mary J. (Hale) Hale. He is a graduate of Dartmouth College. His entire 
business life has been spent in the telephone organi2;ation. Beginning with 
a clerical position in Pittsburgh, successive promotions took him to New 
York, St. Louis and finally to Chicago, where, in 1921, he became chief 
engineer of the Illinois Bell Telephone Company. He was elected vice- 
president in 1922 and president in 1930. 

Mr. Hale has been called on to give the benefit of his business judgment 
to a number of other important Chicago enterprises. He is a director of 
the Harris Trust and Savings Bank, the Terminal National Bank, and the 
Madison-Kedzie Trust and Savings Bank. He was a vice-president of the 
Union League Club, chairman of the finance committee for 1930-1931, and 
is now a director of the club. He is a member of the Industrial Club, Chi- 
cago Commonwealth Club, Chicago Club, Chicago Association of Commerce, 
Western Society of Engineers, University Club, Electric Club, Chicago Golf 
Club and the LaGrange Country Club. 

In 1905 Mr. Hale married Gail Giddings Perkins of Windsor, Vermont 
(died 1921); the children are EHzabeth Perkins (Mrs. John H. Beardsley), 
and Robert Locke. 



234 



Chicago's accomplishments 



Telephone ser\'ice in Chicago began in 1878, only a year after Alexander 
Graham Bell in his little workshop in Boston had invented his device for 
carrying sound vibrations, and had taken out his first patents. A crude cen- 
tral office, connecting a few instruments of primitive type, was opened in a 
building at La Salle and Madison streets. 

Bernard E. Sunny, for many years president and chairman of the board 
of the present operating company, and still one of its directors and guiding 
spirits, became superintendent of the Chicago exchange in 1879. 

In 1881 the Chicago Telephone Company was incorporated. The en- 
larged scope of its operations dictated, in 1920, a change of name, and the 
organization became known, more appropriately, as the Illinois Bell Tele- 
phone Company. Present directors include, in addition to Mr. Sunny, W. R. 
Abbott, William Butterworth, C. P. Cooper, David A. Crawford, W. S. 
Gilford, F. O. Hale, Charles Piez, Theodore W. Robinson, Fred W. 
Sargent, and A. H. MeUinger. 

While a Boston workshop was the cradle of the telephone industry, it 
remained for a Chicago manufacturing concern to begin the manufacture of 
equipment on a large scale. Production was started in a modest plant in 
Kinzie street by the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, now the 
Western Electric Company. Business expanded so rapidly as the demand 
for telephones and telephone lines increased that the Western Electric is 
now the largest industrial organization in Chicago, with immense plants at 
Hawthorne, other large factories in 
the East, and distributing warehouses 
in thirty-two cities. 

Meanwhile the telephone itself, has 
grown until there are now in the 
United States 19,000,000 instruments 
in service, and calls are registered at 
the rate of 65,000,000 a day. 

Starting with a few lengths of wire 
stretched across the tops of buildings, 
the Chicago telephone system now 
operates more than 5,000,000 miles 
of copper wire, most of it in cables 
underneath the streets. Long distance 
telephone cables, "stepped up" at fre- 
quent intervals, extend to New York, 
Boston, and other cities of the eastern 
seaboard and as far westward as St. 
Louis and Omaha. By means of cable 
and open wire the Chicago telephone 
user has access to 70,000 or more cit- 
ies, towns and villages in every part ^^i^p^one cable sphcer at work beneath a 

of this country, all telephones in Cuba Chicago street. 




CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



235 




and most of those in Canada and Mexico, while over the recently perfected 
transoceanic radio telephone systems, he may reach practically all other 
telephone users in the civili2;ed world. Chicago makes calls to Europe and 
occasional calls to South America, Australia, and Africa. 

It is not alone in mere extent that the telephone in Chicago has grown. 
Its usefulness has been multiplied many fold. Chicagoans have always been 
generous users of telephone service and quick to appreciate the comfort and 
convenience which the telephone affords. There are now in service more 
than 1 ,000,000 telephones in the city and suburbs and from these telephones 
more than 5,000,000 calls are made every day in the year. The trend toward 
better quality has been evident throughout the whole period of existence of 

the telephone in Chicago, not only in 
the basic handling of calls by the com' 
pany but in response to the customer's 
desire to obtain the most satisfactory 
and convenient arrangements on his 
premises. Large business houses use 
private branch exchanges, which, in 
si2;e and capacity, are equal to or 
greater than the entire facilities of 
many a smaller town. The Chicago 
home which once found a single tele' 
phone sufficient now uses two to a 
half do2,en, and some larger homes 
are equipped with complete systems 
giving both out'going and intercommunicating service. 

The adoption of the dial method of operation in the downtown business 
section and some of the congested residential areas has also improved service 
and aided the company in meeting the problem of the vast increase in the 
size of force which would have been necessary under the manual system, 
and has made possible continued improvements which would have been 
difficult, if not impossible, as the human element became a larger and larger 
factor. The growth of the telephone has been so rapid, however, both in 
Chicago and its suburbs, and the remainder of the territory operated by the 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company, that the introduction of the dial method 
in Chicago and in several other population centers of the state has been ac' 
complished without a reduction in the number of operators required in the 
service of the company as a whole. 

For a few years after the opening of the original central office on La Salle 
street one switchboard took care of the telephone needs of Chicago, but soon 
the popularity of the service made it necessary for the company to provide 
additional exchanges with full equipment. This process has gone on until 
every part of the city is now served by a total of 107 operating units, all 
connected by trunk cables with each other and with the very extensive long 
distance switching equipment located in the company's headquarters build' 



"Selector frame," one of the important pieces 
of dial telephone switching apparatus. 



236 Chicago's accomplishments 

ing at 212 West Washington street. This toll operating center includes all 
the latest type of equipment necessary to care for the thousands of suburban 
and intercity calls which are made by Chicago users every day. Calls to 
nearby exchanges are made in the same manner as local calls and on most of 
the calls to any part of the country the connection is set up and the call 
completed while the user holds the receiver. This speedy service has been 
made possible by improvements in methods and the addition of ample facil' 
ities between important cities. 

The company's entire plant and equipment are valued at $285,000,000. 
Land and buildings alone in Chicago represent an investment of more than 
$20,000,000. Chicago employees number about 19,000. Adding to this an 
estimated 10,000 operators employed by subscribers on their private switch- 
boards, and the large number of employees of the Western Electric Com- 
pany, brings the total to more than 50,000 persons regularly employed in 
Chicago in supplying telephone service to the city and to the nation. 

While it would be hazardous to predict the exact forms which improve- 
ments in the art of communication will take in the future, it is certain that 
improvements will be made and the trend toward higher quality will con- 
tinue. In addition to the efforts of the Illinois Bell organization, the com- 
pany has at its disposal the entire facilities of the Bell System of which it is 
a part, and particularly the facilities of the Bell Telephone Laboratories 
whose staff of nearly 6,000 is working continuously for improvement. The 
achievements of this staff in recent years have been so outstanding as to leave 
no doubt of continued success in the future. Some of the progress will, no 
doubt, be reflected in better service, some in better apparatus, and some in 
economies which will tend to offset part of the increasing cost involved in 
developing a complex and rapidly expanding communication network. 

Chicago is destined to continue its rapid progress. The energy and ex- 
perience of its business men and leaders in all lines assure it a future of grow- 
ing importance in national affairs. The telephone will continue to play an 
important part in this development. Growth in the number of telephones 
and in telephone usage is expected to be steady. Extension of plant and 
equipment which will mean the investment of many millions of dollars will 
continue to be planned far enough in advance to meet the requirements of 
the Chicago community as they arise. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



237 




We 




(From Drawing by ]ohn DoctoroS) 

ISAAC MILLER HAMILTON 

Mr. Hamilton, president of the Federal Life Insurance Company, of Chicago, was born 
in Ash Grove, IlHnois, September 6, 1864, son of Ephraim S. and Celia B. (Miller) 
Hamilton. Educated at Grand Prairie Seminary, Onarga, Illinois, and by private tutors, 
he began his business life in general merchandising and live stock, and later entered 
banking. He was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1888, engaged in the general practice of 
law, and was a member of the Illinois State Senate from 1896 to 1900. He has been 
president of the IlHnois League of Republican Clubs, and president of the National Re- 
publican League. 

Mr. Hamilton has been president and a director of the Federal Life Insurance Com- 
pany since he organized it in 1900. This company provides life, accident, and health 
insurance. He is president of The Illinois Canning Company, at Hoopeston, and a direc- 
tor of the Lake Shore Trust and Savings Bank. Mr. Hamilton has been very active and 
prominent in various life and accident and health organizations. He was one of the 
organizers and president of the American Life Convention whose membership includes 
about 250 legal reserve life insurance companies located in practically all States of the 
Union and the Dominion of Canada. He was one of the organizers and chairman of the 
Association of Life Agency Officers which established the Life Insurance Sales Research 
Bureau. He served for two terms as president of the Health 6? Accident Underwriters 
Conference. He is a member of the Illinois Athletic, Chicago Yacht, Hamilton, Union 
League, South Shore Country, Chicago Athletic, Exmoor Country, Bob O' Link Golf, 
and Casualty and Surety clubs; also Rotary Club No. 1, Chicago. 

On June 11, 1907, he married Amanda S. Ernst of Chicago now deceased. There 
is one daughter, Miriam Celia, who graduated from Vassar College with honorable 
mention in 1930 and is now a senior in the Law School of the University of Chicago. 
She is and for some years has been a member of the board of directors of the Federal 
Life Insurance Company. 



238 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



THE CHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE AND ITS PLACE 
IN THE CITY^S FINANCIAL LIFE 

Its Growth from a Local to a National Institution 

AMONG the important markets of Chicago is its securities market, and in 
the rapid growth of the Chicago Stock Exchange is reflected the 
growth of the city as a financial center. The influence of this Exchange is 
felt today throughout the entire country. It is of direct benefit to every 
commercial and industrial enterprise in the Middle West. 

For nearly three quarters of a century there has been some kind of a 
public market for securities in Chicago. The first stock exchange, organized 
in 1865, aided materially during the Civil War in maintaining the prices 
of government issues. 

It was not until 1882, however, that the present Exchange was estab' 
lished, opening on May 1 5 of that year with 134 stocks and bonds listed for 
trading. In its early days the Exchange encountered many vicissitudes, and 
in 1887 its business dropped to such a low ebb that the Western Union 
actually removed its instruments from the Exchange floor. The market was, 
at best, a small and inactive one, and a day's trading was considered good 
when 50,000 shares changed hands. Today transactions run as high as half 
a million shares. 




(From etching by Builph Fletcher Seymour) 
TRADING FLOOR OF THE CHICAGO STOCK EXCHANGE 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



239 



;>^. 



//// 






§■ 
"f - 

Hi! 



'H 




<-j. Sound 



')(iercheni f't '^| •investor 



1 !^v \M 






^h.M f 










OoviTT^odihtS Vrapsjnrlahtn 






PHIL S. HANNA 

Mr. Hanna, editor of The Chicago Journal of Commerce, a native of Aurora, lUinois, 
and a graduate of the University of Illinois, is a writer on business and political subjects. 
He was born March 9, 1887, son of James Carswell and Idella Medora Hanna. His 
father was for many years a merchant in Aurora. Shortly after becoming editor of The 
Chicago Journal of Commerce in October, 1931, Mr. Hanna inaugurated a vigorous 
attack on governmental waste and governmental competition in private business, which 
gained national attention and had largely to do with arousing the voters of the country 
to the high cost of government. His daily column, "Round Table of Business," is 
widely read. 

The Chicago Journal of Commerce was started in October, 1920, and is unlike any 
other daily newspaper published. It is best described as "the business man's daily news- 
paper." It eliminates crime and sensation but covers in a concise manner business, 
financial and trade events. It contains daily more than 29,000 quotations. There are 
thirty-two experts in the Editorial Department, each devoting his entire time to a par- 
ticular trade field. The Chicago Journal of Commerce oil and gasoline prices are the 
authority for a very large proportion of the petroleum industry. Its slogan is "AM the 
■news a busy man has lime to read." He is a member of the Detroit Athletic Club, Chi- 
cago Athletic Association, Phi Kappa Psi. 

Mr. Hanna married Marion Bartlett of Detroit in 1913. There are four children — 
Elizabeth, Barbara, Nancy and Philip, Jr. 



240 CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

During the fifty years of its existence The Chicago Stock Exchange has 
grown from a local to a national institution. It has at present 443 member' 
ships. These members have 619 offices in 207 cities in the United States 
and Canada. The members' private wires leading from Chicago total more 
miles than similar private wires leading from any other financial center in 
the world. This network of wires is supplemented by a quotation ticker 
service extending from coast to coast. 

The nation's press associations carry the daily table of sales of The 
Chicago Stock Exchange transactions to the leading cities of America. 
The securities laws of most of the States of the Union provide that dealers 
in securities may buy or sell stocks listed on the Exchange without further 
qualifications. This widespread recognition is an indication not only of 
national interest in the Chicago securities market, but of confidence in the 
integrity of that market. 

The Chicago Stock Exchange is a market place where stocks and bonds 
are bought, sold and delivered. It is under the direct control of its members. 
A significant feature of the Exchange is that only individuals or partnerships 
may be members, thus protecting the investor by requiring the unlimited 
liability of all members and their partners. No officer, director or employee 
of a corporation dealing with the public in securities may be a member of 
The Chicago Stock Exchange. The organisation has maintained this high 
standard to safeguard the investors who deal through its members. 

Naturally the question arises as to what is the future ahead of The 
Chicago Stock Exchange. The history of every great financial center has 
been that it first develops as an industrial and commercial center. As long 
as it is a borrowing community, requiring more capital than it possesses 
for the development and operation of its business enterprises, it is not of 
great importance as a financial market. However, in the development of 
every major financial market, from Genoa on down through Amsterdam, 
Berlin, London, Boston and New York, history shows that as soon as these 
communities became lending communities — as soon as they reached the 
point where they had more money as communities than they needed for the 
development and operation of their business enterprises — they started on the 
road to financial independence and financial leadership. Eventually these 
financial markets became of equal importance to the other markets of these 
cities. 

Chicago has been slow in developing its financial independence because 
of the great variety of undeveloped resources of the Middle West. As the 
business of the Middle West increased, new fields were opened and for 
years funds had to be borrowed from the outside to take advantage of the 
opportunities that lay ahead. Approximately two decades ago Chicago, as 
a great economic center, passed from the borrowing to the lending stage. 
That is the economic reason for the expansion of The Chicago Stock Ex- 
change in the last few years and why it has been so outstanding. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



241 




LESLIE C. HARBISON 



Mr. Harbison, president of Household Finance Corporation, was born in Batavia, Iowa, 
December 14, 1878, son of Samuel Morrison and Cordelia (Quig) Harbison. He re 
ceived his education in the public schools of Philadelphia and Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 
His first position was that of an outside representative of Frank J. Mackey, Philadelphia, 
in 1897. Later he was transferred to their Cleveland (Ohio) office, where he remained 
from 1900 to 1905; was manager of the Washington (D. C.) office from 1905 to 1908; 
and was in the middle'western branch offices in Chicago from 1908 to 1917. In 1918 
the organization upon which Household Finance Corporation was subsequently built 
came into being and in 1925 it assumed its present corporate form. In that year Mr. 
Harbison was appointed president, and under his leadership Household Finance Cor' 
poration has become the largest organization of its kind in America, with 148 branch 
offices in ninetyone cities of twelve states. This organization makes loans in amounts 
up to three hundred dollars to families unable to obtain bank credit. Loans may be 
repaid any time within a year and eight months, charges being made only for the actual 
length of time money is used. This organization sponsors a household money manage 
ment program to teach famihes how to spend wisely. 

Mr. Harbison is a member of the Illinois Society of the Sons of the American Revo- 
lution. His clubs are Chicago Athletic Association, Medinah Athletic, Bob o'Link, and 
Westmoreland Country. His favorite recreations are golf, hunting, and fishing. 

He married Maude E. Bower, of Boston, Massachusetts, December 31, 1900. Their 
children are Gladys Irene (Mrs. John H. Lawson), David Samuel, Leslie Craig, Dorothy 
Maude, and Elizabeth Helene. 



242 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



If Chicago is to enjoy the same experience as other great trade centers, 
it eventually will have a stock exchange corresponding to the other markets 
of the city. When one realizes that this is the great grain market of the 
world, the great live stock market of the world, the great food distributing 
center of the world, the great railroad center of the world — (one could 
list scores of fields in which Chicago leads) — the people of the Middle West 
may look forward to expecting great things of The Chicago Stock Exchange 
as a market place for securities. 

With fifty years' background of experience, with billions of dollars in 
securities already listed on the Exchange, with a single day's volume of busi- 
ness reaching $100,000,000, with the Exchange developing from a local to 
an international institution, it is fair to look forward to the time when The 
Chicago Stock Exchange will correspond in greatness to the other great 
markets in the city. 




i^MH 



(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

THE TRAVEL AND TRANSPORT BUILDING of A Century of Progress, showing the 

"cable-suspended" dome which represents the first important apphcation of the "suspension 

bridge" principle of support to architecture. 

Edward Bennett, John Holabird, and Hubert Burnham, associated architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



243 




(Moffet'RusseU Photo) 



W. HOMER HARTZ 



Mr. Hartz, president of Morden Frog and Crossing Works, was born in Tarrytown, New 
York, December 11, 1887, son of Irving Thomas and Lillian lone (Terhune) Hartz. 
He graduated from the Chicago Manual Training School in 1903 and received his B.S. 
(Bachelor of Science) degree at Purdue University in 1907. He was with the engineer- 
ing corps of the Chicago Southern and Pennsylvania railways before graduating from 
college and was with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad from 1907 to 1908. He worked 
for the Oliver Iron Mining Company in 1908, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad 
Company in 1909, and the S. B. Chapin &? Company 1909 to 1911. 

In 1911 Mr. Hartz became connected with the Morden Frog and Crossing Works 
as a draftsman and has continued in the same company respectively as chief clerk, sec 
retary, treasurer, assistant manager of sales until 1927, Vice-president from 1927 to 1930, 
and president since 1930. This company manufactures frogs, crossings, switches, switch 
stands, guard rail clamps, tie bars, rail braces, et cetera, for steam, electric and industrial 
railroads. The company celebrated their fiftieth year of existence in 1932, having been 
organized in 1882. Mr. Hartz is a member of the Western Society of Engineers, Indiana 
Society of Chicago, and Delta Upsilon Fraternity. His clubs are Chicago Athletic Asso' 
ciation. Engineers, and Exmoor Country, and his favorite recreation is golf. 

He married Bertha Blanchard Mead of Chicago, April 25, 1917. Their children are 
William Homer, Jr., and Betty Mead. 



244 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO AS A NATIONAL MANUFACTURING 

CENTER 

An Industrial Area That Is Producing More Than Five Billion 
Dollars Worth of Goods a Year 

PRIOR to 1834, meat packing and tanning, both conducted on a back yard 
scale, were Chicago's only industries. The town's first foundry was 
established in 1835, and the first flour mill was erected a year later. 

By 1857, there were in Chicago manufacturers of flour, soap, glue, 
starch, wine, beer, packed beef, and tanned leather, with a combined capi' 
tal of $1,639,000, and 639 employes on the pay roll. 

No women's or men's clothing, no furs, no cosmetics or perfumes, no 
printing materials, no bakery products, no confectionery or ice cream. 
Many articles for everyday use were manufactured in the home. 

Meat packing today still leads Chicago's industries, and its story is 
told elsewhere in this book. Today, the Chicago Metropolitan Area is 



f!^^WW 








LlNUiiNhi^KllNG BUILDING 
Burnham Brothers, Inc., architects. 



CARBIDE AND CARBON BUILDING 
Burnham Brothers, Inc., architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



245 




(Mogett-Russell Photo) 



SAMUEL M. HASTINGS 



Mr. Hastings, chairman of the finance committee of the Dayton Scale Company, was born 
in Rimersburg, Pennsylvania, August 14, 1860, the son of Eli and Rachel Whitehall 
(Kerr) Hastings. He was educated in the Gardner, Illinois, public schools. He began as 
a clerk in a dry goods store in Braidwood, Illinois. In 1879 he established a store of his 
own, which he conducted until 1884. He was also in the dry goods business in Streator, 
Illinois, from 1884 to 1889. Mr. Hastings came to Chicago in 1889, and with several 
associates, organized the Moneyweight Scale Company. After extensive travel in Europe, 
he returned to Chicago in 1903 to become president of the Dayton Scale Company, 
holding this office until 1928, when he was made chairman of the finance committee. 

Mr. Hastings is a director of the International Business Machines Corporation, the 
Addressograph International Corporation, and the Metal Door and Trim Company of 
La Porte, Indiana. He is chairman of the board of the Highland Park State Bank, and 
was Mayor of Highland Park from 1915 to 1928. A member of the Illinois Manufac 
turers' Association, he served that body as treasurer, from 1912 to 1915, as president 
from 1915 to 1917 and again during 1932. He is a founder member of A Century of 
Progress Exposition. In 1916, when it seemed inevitable that the United States would 
be drawn into the World War, Mr. Hastings urged on President Wilson the appointment 
of a commission of from twelve to twenty representative Americans to visit the European 
capitals and commercial centers with a view to bringing about peace. When the United 
States declared war against the Central Powers, he called together the members of the 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association, who pledged themselves and their plants to the service 
of the nation. Mr. Hastings advocated also a permanent commercial and industrial union 
of the allied nations to be based on a two hundred billion dollar bond issue by the United 
States, Great Britain, Italy, and Japan. Mr. Hastings is a member of the Sons of the 
American Revolution, the Mid-Day, Old Elm, and Exmoor Country clubs, the Chicago 
Athletic Association, and a life member of the Press Club. 

He was married September 16, 1881, to Janette Rankin of Braidwood, Illinois, who 
died in November, 1922. He was married again to Miss Nettie Ann Moore of Chicago 
in 1925. He has an adopted son, Rolland Thomas Rankin Hastings. 



246 Chicago's accomplishments 

the fastest growing steel center in the world. Those who regard Chicago 
as too utihtarian might do well to investigate the printing and publishing 
business of the city which in book and job work alone has an annual pro' 
duction in excess of $150,000,000, while that of the newspaper and period- 
ical branch of the business is almost as great. Articles are manufactured 
today in Chicago that were undreamed of at the beginning of the present 
century. 

Chicago is producing goods whose value in the course of a year amounts 
to approximately $4,000,000,000, while the value of the products turned 
out annually in Greater Chicago — an area which includes such industrial 
beehives as Waukegan, Gary, Indiana Harbor, Hammond, Chicago Heights, 
Joliet, Aurora, and Elgin — is $5,588,331,242, according to the last census 
returns, in 1930. 

Illinois ranks third among the States in the value of its manufactured 
goods, but in industrial importance Chicago stands second among Amef 
ican cities. 

Much of Illinois' industrial activity is centered in and around Chicago, 
where 11,774 manufacturing establishments are located. These establish' 
ments employ in normal times more than 550,000 wage earners who draw 
annually nearly $870,000,000 in wages. Salaried officers and ''white collar" 
employees number approximately 113,000 with a combined annual salary 
of $317,000,000. The cost of materials, containers, fuel, and electrical 
energy used in the Chicago Area mounts up to more than $3,000,000,000 
a year in normal times. 

Since the total value of the finished products was $5,588,331,242, the 
value ''added by manufacture'"' was in excess of $2,500,000,000 — two and 
a half billion dollars of created wealth. This value, however, does not rep' 
resent actual profit, as deductions must be made for such items as rent, in' 
terest on investment, depreciation, taxes, insurance, and advertising. 

The Chicago factories alone employ normally more than 400,000 wage 
earners and approximately 86,000 salaried executives and other employees. 
These establishments pay out annually something like $870,000,000 in 
salaries and wages. 

Conditions have been favorable for manufacturing in Illinois for many 
years. The Illinois State Legislature has refrained from passing bills which 
in other States have been so damaging to industry, and if this pohcy is 
continued, and the manufacturers are not overtaxed or harassed in other 
ways, there is abundant reason to believe that Illinois and Chicago plants 
will continue to advance in production until ultimately they will lead those 
of all other States in the value of their output. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



247 








(Mogett-RusseU Photo) 

RALPH R. HAWXHURST 

Mr. Hawxhurst, member of the law firm of White and Hawxhurst, was born 
in Chicago, January 24, 1887, son of Arthur and Marie (Reynaud) Hawx- 
hurst. He received his preparatory education at Lewis Institute and his 
A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Northwestern University in 1905; LL.B. 
(Bachelor of Laws) in 1909. He was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1909 
and has since practiced in Chicago. He is associate professor of law at 
Northwestern University Law School and associate editor of the Illinois 
Law Review. Mr. Hawxhurst is very much interested in civic affairs. For 
four years he was trustee of Kenilworth, lUinois, and for the past seven 
years has been mayor of that suburb, his present term expiring in April, 
1933. During the World War he was a member of the Draft Board and 
a Four Minute Man. He is general counsel for many corporations and is 
Chicago counsel for several large surety companies and is director of many. 

Mr. Hawxhurst is a member of the American, Illinois State, and Chicago 
Bar Associations, Beta Theta Pi, Delta Chi, Sigma Rho, Delta Theta. His 
clubs are Union League, City, The Law Club, Kenilworth, Bob O'Link Golf, 
Exmoor Country, and Illinois Whist. For recreation he enjoys tennis and golf. 

He married Jeannette Leggett, of Chicago, August 23, 1910, and they 
have four children, Stephen, Jacqueline, Suzanne, and Ralph R., Jr. 



248 Chicago's accomplishments 

BROADCASTING IN CHICAGO AND ITS AMAZING 

GROWTH 

Radio Comes Into Its Own 

BY CHARLES J. GILCHREST 
Radio Editor, The Chicago Daily News 

IT was the eve of Armistice Day, 1921. Confusion reigned backstage of 
the Auditorium Theater — the usual hectic scene of last-minute prep- 
aration, for tomorrow the Chicago Grand Opera Company would open its 
season. In the wings, a stage carpenter was hammering a weakened set. 
Nearby, a marimba sounded its musical note. And radio — wireless, as it 
was called then — was born in Chicago. 

Those hammer blows and that marimba note were the first sounds to go 
out on the ether waves from the prairie metropolis. The following night, 
wireless made its official debut with the broadcasting of the opera perform' 
ance. Few in the audience noticed the microphone suspended from the ceil' 
ing, and those who did failed to comprehend its significance; nor would 
they have known what to call it, for the word had just been coined. 

Wireless came to Chicago unheralded and unsung. That first broadcast 
was heard by an invisible audience numbering only a few hundred amateurs 
and engineers who had been following the preliminary tests. They "listened 
in" on erratic little crystal sets with headphones glued to their ears. Some 
of it they got, and some of it they missed, for radio was still in its experi- 
mental stage. 

It was George Foster who persuaded the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company to bring wireless to Chicago. Westinghouse was 
the builder and owner of the pioneer station KDKA, established in Pitts- 
burgh in 1920. The Chicago station was given the call letters KYW, which 
it still uses. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Foster, the microphone — it was not yet known 
as a "Mike" — had been installed in the opera house. An executive of the 
Commonwealth Edison Company, he had become enthused with the new 
thing, called by some a toy. 

The opera management gave its consent with some misgivings. Wire' 
less? How amusing! But it could do no harm to humor him. 

Mary Garden spoke into the microphone that night, and her voice, 
picked up by the little crystal sets, was heard by a handful of radio fans, 
who also heard more or less distinctly Edith Mason in "Madame Butterfly." 

Newspaper editors had been asked to listen in, and receiving equipment 
had been furnished for their use. When the performance was over, wireless 
enthusiasts rushed to the local rooms. "What did you think of it?" they 
asked. "Of what?" returned the editors. "Of the broadcast — the wireless- 
ing of the opera." "Oh. that! We forgot all about it. Didn't hear it." 
First'page stories describing the experiment appeared, however, the follow 
ing morning. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



249 



^i% 









BILL HAY 

Mr. Hay, chief announcer and sales director of Radio Station W M A Q of 
Chicago, is a genuine Scotchman and was born in Dumfries, Scotland, on 
April 18, 1887, the son of William Gibiral and Jessie Keiller (Menzies) 
Hay. He attended school in this ancient town, where Robert Burns lies 
buried, and worked his way through college, studying music in addition as 
he went along. Later he obtained employment in London, England, with 
Thomas Cook and Son, well-known travel agency, and finally, having decided 
he would do some traveling himself, he came to the United States in 1909, 
becoming a naturahzed citizen in 1916. April 21, 1915, he married Elizabeth 
Webster of Chicago. 

It was at Hastings, Nebraska, that he got his start in radio work. Later 
he returned to Chicago, where his voice and Scottish bur-r-r became familiar 
to a larger pubHc through Station WON. Not long afterward he trans' 
ferred his allegiance to W M A Q and became chief of its announcing staff 
and sales director, being in charge of the sale of time and programs to sponsors. 
Mr. Hay announces most of the leading programs over W M A Q, but 
he is probably best known as the announcer for "Amos 'n Andy" and "The 
Goldbergs," two of the most outstanding and popular programs broadcast over 
a coast'tO'Coast network every night except Saturday and Sunday. He is the 
only radio announcer used exclusively by one advertiser on a chain broadcast. 
His "Auld Sandy" program, heard every Sunday night over WMAQ, is a pop- 
ular feature with hundreds of thousands of listeners. He was decorated as a 
Cavaliere of the Order of the Crown of Italy. He is a member of Midland 
and Medinah Athletic clubs and Mission Hills Country Club. His favorite 
recreations are golf and squash racquets. 



250 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The end of the opera season was in sight. Broadcasting had started, and 
was becoming popular. How could it be continued? Then the radio studio 
was conceived. On the eighteenth floor of the Edison Building a single room 
was fitted up. Its walls were hung with burlap. A plain carpet deadened 
the floor. Here the first studio broadcast took place on January 23, 1922. 

The program was given by Richard Czerwonky, violinist, and Frances 
Ingram, contralto, with Sally Menkes at the piano. KYW launched a daily 



When wireless was very young this was its 
home, the studio on the sixteenth floor of the 
Edison Building, installed just a month after 
studio broadcasting had become a fact in Chi- 
cago. Note the embryo microphone, which, on 
occasion when records were to be played 
could be pushed up against the horn of the 
phonograph. Compare with picture below. 





(Wesley Bowman Photo) 
Studio A of the National Broadcasting Company in the Merchandise Mart — the world's 
largest broadcasting studio in the world's largest building. The piano is a nine-foot concert 
grand, the largest model made. The steps of the two-level stage are visible in tlie background. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



251 




(Covington Studio Photo) 

WILLIAM S. HEDGES 

Mr. Hedges, manager of Radio Station W M A Q, Chicago, was born in Elmwood, 
Illinois, June 21, 1895, son of LeRoy Clarke (M. D.) and Ida Erie (Ellis) Hedges. 
He graduated from the Colorado Springs (Colorado) High School in 1913 and was a 
student at the University of Chicago from 1914 to 1917. He joined the editorial staff 
of the Chicago Daily News in 1915, v;hile still a student at the University and established 
the radio department in 1922. On April 1, 1930, when The Daily News founded the 
subsidiary corporation, W M A Q, Inc., to operate its station, one of the first radio 
stations in Chicago, Mr. Hedges was elected president of the new corporation. Now 
that the station is affiliated with the National Broadcasting Company, Inc., Mr. Hedges 
remains the manager of this radio station. He was also secretary of Press Wireless, Inc., 
from 1929 to 1931 and has been in control of experimental work conducted by W9XAP, 
the television station established by The Daily News, August 1, 1930. 

In 1918 he graduated from the School of Military Aeronautics, Austin, Texas, and 
the Artillery School of Fire, Fort Sill, Oklahoma. He became a 2nd lieutenant in the 
Air Service, U. S. A., at Post Field, Oklahoma, and was attached to 311th Air Corps, 
Officers' Reserve Corps, from 1919 to 1924. He is a member of the International Com' 
mittee on Wireless Telegraphy, and president of the National Association of Broad- 
casters from 1928 to 1930 (chairman legislative committee during 1927), chairman 
executive committee, 19304931, and a member of the executive committee, 1931-1932. 
He is a member of the American Legion, La Societe des 40 Hommes et 8 Chevaux, 
and Sigma Nu Fraternity. He belongs to the National Sojourners, Medinah Athletic, 
Shawnee Country, and Wilmette Golf Clubs, and is a 32 degree Mason and Shriner. 
He edited "Credit Craft and The Modern Office" from 1925 to 1931 and contributed 
to "Radio and Its Future," "Education on the Air," in 1930 and "Careers in Adver- 
tising" in 1932. His principal interests, outside of radio and his family, are golf, reading 
and travel. 

On April 21, 1920, he married Margaret Elizabeth Hasenbalg of Chicago. Their 
children are Helen Saxby and Margaret Ann. 



252 Chicago's accomplishments 

studio broadcast from 8 to 9 o'clock in the evening, the artists volunteering 
their services. The sponsored program and the salaried radio star were un- 
dreamed of. But radio had been weaned away from opera, and had moved 
into its own studio. 

As the broadcasting idea grew in popularity, other stations sprang up, 
and the industry developed its own terminology. The radio announcer 
became an important person, even as he is today. At the same time, the 
crystal set, with its headphones was emerging into an elaborate multidialed 
affair which only an engineer — probably two engineers — could operate suc- 
cessfully. But the fact remained that wireless' noises were getting on the air 
with a fair degree of certainty and were being picked up by the ever increas- 
ing multitudes. 

The chain idea came into being January 4, 1923, when telephone lines 
connected WEAF in New York and WNAC in Boston — and another mile- 
stone was passed. The infant had learned to walk, to get from one station 
to another. Of course, he didn't walk very well yet. He couldn't go very 
far, sometimes he'd fall down, and fans would hear nothing at all. He stag- 
gered at times, stumbled. But nevertheless he was walking in his own queer, 
ambling, infantile fashion. 

As time progressed he walked better, farther, and with greater and 
greater assurance. In fact he walked all the way from New York to Chi- 
cago in April, 1927. It was then that Frank Mullen opened an office here 
for the National Broadcasting Company, the first network office in Chicago. 
He had a staff of three people. Today Vice-president Niles Trammell heads 
a staif of 800 NBC workers in Chicago. 

And the boy grew older. Now he lives not in the dinky little room of 
the Edison building but in such sumptuous suites as Studio A of the Na- 
tional Broadcasting company's quarters in the Merchandise Mart. He can 
point proudly to his home, pick out Studio A and say "It's the largest broad- 
casting studio in the world." It floats on springs, being a room within a room 
in the special two-story penthouse NBC occupies on the top of the world's 
largest building. 

Think of that little original studio — then of Studio A. "A" is large 
enough to accomodate 500 visitors and at the same time full size orchestras 
and casts of radio actors such as WMAQ and WENR use for some of their 
more elaborate sponsored shows. It's two-level stage is much larger than is 
ordinarily found in theaters. It is attractively dressed up in two-shade green 
walls with moveable panels instead of the old burlap drapes for accoustic 
purposes. Special sunlight lamps illuminate it. The stage is backed by a 
huge bronze grill. At the other end is a projection booth, as yet unused, 
but there, ready and waiting for television when the child acquires its sight. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



253 




''•V ^y'' ■^ . S7^:L 



'/M^: 



Vi- > « i-J 




HASBROUCK HAYNES 

Mr. Haynes, chairman and president of the Haynes Corporation, inventor of the Manit 
System and the SaHt Plan, was born in Detroit, Michigan, August 21, 1888, son of 
David Oliphant and Helen Dunham (Williams) Haynes. He received his M.E. (Mc 
chanical Engineer) degree at Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point, New Jersey, 
in 1910. Upon graduation Mr. Haynes became a member of the engineering staff of 
Gunn, Richards & Company, production engineers and accountants. New York, and 
was assigned to work with Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Indiana, and Detroit, 
Michigan, during its reorganization and transition from the manufacture of horse-drawn 
vehicles to automobiles. He was later appointed assistant general manager of Studebaker 
Corporation of Canada, Ltd., at Walkerville, Ontario, and subsequently became special 
representative of Packard Motor Car Company, organizing and promoting distribution. 

Mr. Haynes became president of the Haynes Corporation in 1917 and chairman of 
the board in 1928. He is also chairman and president of The Eastern Haynes Corpor- 
ation of New York. These companies, which are engaged in management engineering 
and specializing in the measurement and stimulation of human effort, have served many 
nationally known corporations such as Armour and Company, Quaker Oats Company, 
Anaconda Copper Company, Continental Can Company, Loose-Wiles Biscuit Company, 
and Kraft Cheese Company. 

In 1922 Mr. Haynes originated the Haynes Manit (man'minute) System, which is 
a scientific and intensive plan for increasing labor efficiency. In 1932 Mr. Haynes dc 
veloped the Haynes Salit Plan for accelerating sales and profits by the scientific appli- 
cation of payment to all salesmen on an incentive basis according to the gross profits 
which each one sells. This includes payment of bonuses to sales supervisors. 

Mr. Haynes believes that much of the inertia of a depression is due to the fact 
that business men have been unwilling to progress by discarding outworn and unsound 
ideas, methods, and practices. Mr. Haynes belongs to the American Society of Mechan- 
ical Engineers, Society of Industrial Engineers, Illinois Manufacturers' Association, Chi- 
cago Association of Commerce, and Beta Theta Phi fraternity. His clubs are University, 
Engineers, and Country Club of Evanston. His recreations are golf and horseback riding. 

On October 11, 1923, he married Elizabeth Craig of Chicago. His children are 
Louise Covington and Milton Covington. 



254 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



MASTERPIECES OF THE SCULPTOR^S ART THAT 

GLORIFY CHICAGO 
Charming Statues and Impressive Memorials Along the Boulevards 

and in the Parks 

MUCH of the beauty of such Old- World cities as Paris, Vienna, Dres' 
den, and Brussels rests to a great extent upon their public monu' 
ments and statues, and it is through such specimens of municipal art that 
their fame has become world-wide. 

Of such, too, was the grandeur that 
was Greece, the glory that was Rome. 
Chicago, while still one of the world's 
youngest cities, is beginning to assume 
a definite character and European at- 
mosphere by reason of the many beau- 
tiful works of statuary that have been 
installed along the boulevards and in 
the parks within recent years. 

One of the most exquisite of these 
is Lorado Taft's ''Fountain of Time,'' 
in Washington Park. In this symbolic 
poem, classic art reaches a high level. 
The speeding motorist might well 
pause here to reflect on the message 
Father Time imparts as the ages of 
mankind, fading away into the mists 
of antiquity pass before him in review. 
It is they who pass; he. Time, alone, 
remains. 

Equally beautiful is the Ferguson 
Fountain of the Great Lakes, also the 
work of Lorado Taft, erected by the 
B. F. Ferguson Monument Fund, com- 
pleted in 1913, and located at the 
south terrace of the Art Institute. 
Here, the five Great Lakes, symbol- 
i2,ed by graceful maidens, are seen 
pouring crystal waters into a central 
basin. 

In the McKinlock court of the Art 
Institute is the Fountain of Tritons 
by Carl Milles, brought from the 
sculptor's gardens in Sweden to Chi- ^^'""'y ^"^''"•'^"" ^ Sons Photo) 

cago by a group of public-spirited citi- -^^^ ^"'^'^'"V.ck^r''drfvT ^''^"''^ ^""^ 
2;ens in commemoration of the out- Hoiabird & Root, architects. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



255 







r; *^ J^<MMMf»IF•••^■ 



(Kellogg Photo) 

JOHN A. HOLABIRD 

Mr. Holabird, senior partner in the firm of Holabird and Root, architects, was born in 
Evanston, May 4, 1886, the son of William and Maria (Augur) Holabird. He received 
his preparatory education at the Hill School, Pottstown, Pennsylvania. Graduating in 
1903, he was given an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, 
and was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in 1907. He spent the next two years at 
the Engineers' School at Washington Barracks, and in 1913, enrolled in the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, Paris. After an extensive preparation in architecture and engineering, he 
began his practice in Chicago on his return from Paris in 1913. From 1914 to 1917 he 
was a Captain of the Illinois National Guard, and in August, 1918, he left for overseas 
service as Major in the Field Artillery. Later he received the commission of Lieutenant 
Colonel. He was decorated with the Distinguished Service Medal, and was mustered out 
in March, 1919. 

The firm of Holabird and Root has designed the classic Stadium at Soldier Field, the 
Stevens Hotel, the Palmer House, Chicago's first "skyscraper church," the Methodist 
Temple Building, the Palmolive Building, Board of Trade Building, 333 Building, Daily 
News Building and many others. As a member of the architectural commission of A 
Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair, Mr. Holabird is in a 
good measure responsible for many of the new and revolutionary ideas in design and 
engineering which have been given expression in the buildings of this miracle city. 

Mr. Holabird is a trustee of the Art Institute, a member of the American Institute 
of Architects, and of the University, Union League, Industrial, Chicago,, Saddle and 
Cycle, and Glenview Golf clubs. 

Mr. Holabird was married May 12, 1917, to Dorothy Hackett of Chicago. He has 
two sons, John Augur and Christopher. 



256 Chicago's accomplishments 

standing service rendered to the United States by the Swedish' American 
inventor, John Erisson. 

The memory of Theodore Thomas, father of the Chicago Symphony 
Orchestra, is perpetuated by a magnificent statue, "The Spirit of Music," 
executed by Albin Polasek, and erected in Grant Park, opposite Orchestra 
Hall, between Adams street and Jackson boulevard. 

The memorial tablet reads: "Scarcely any man in any land has done 
so much for the musical education of the people as did Theodore Thomas 
in this country. The nobility of his ideals with the magnitude of his achieve- 
ment will assure him everlasting glory." 

Nor have our national heroes been forgotten. The Saint Gaudens' 
Lincoln, an impressive bronze amid equally impressive settings at the south 
end of Lincoln Park has been the inspiration of thousands of young Amer- 
icans. At the entrance to the Art Institute stands the heroic bronze George 
Washington by Jean Antoine Houdon. 

The spirited equestrian statue of John E. Logan, by Saint Gaudens, 
was erected by the State of Illinois in Grant Park near Park row, and 
completed in 1897. It is at the foot of this monument that every important 
parade has been reviewed for the last thirty-five years. This statue also 
marks the tomb of the famous Civil War general. 

The Alexander Hamilton monument by Bela Pratt at Washington street 
and the Illinois Central parapet has the following inscription on its tablet: 
"Liberty may be endangered by abuses of liberty as well as by abuses of 
power." 

One of the finest equestrians to be found anywhere is that of Phil Sheri- 
dan in Lincoln Park near Belmont avenue. It depicts the general on his 
famous ride, and action is expressed in every line. 

Not so well known as the Lincoln mentioned above, but quite as in- 
teresting is the other Saint Gaudens statue of the Emancipator, a seated 
figure, located east of the Illinois Central right of way near Van Buren 
street, in Grant Park. 

Other national heroes are commemorated by the McKinley statue, the 
work of Charles J. Mulligan, in McKinley Park; the Kosciusko equestrian 
statue by Alexander Choclzinski, in Humboldt Park; the Stephen A. 
Douglas monument on the South Side, and the von Humboldt statue, by 
Felix Garling, unveiled in Humboldt Park in 1892. 

The memory of two tragic events in Chicago history is preserved in 
the Haymarket memorial, now removed from its original site in Haymarket 
Square to Union Park, and dedicated to the memory of the pohcemen who 
fell in the famous West Side riot; and the Fort Dearborn Massacre me- 
morial, which stood for many years at the foot of 26th street, but which 
now occupies a site in the main hall of the Chicago Historical Society's 
new building. 

More peaceful events are commemorated by the Statue of the Republic 
in Jackson Park and the Illinois Centennial Monument in Logan Square. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



257 







llA^^i 



/'.f 






i ^ 






ALBERT L. HOPKINS 

Mr. Hopkins, lawyer and income tax specialist, was born in Hickory, Missis- 
sippi, April 27, 1886, son of Oliver and Helen V. (Tucker) Hopkins. He at- 
tended Millsaps College, Jackson, Mississippi, from 1900 to 1901, the Uni- 
versity of Mississippi during 1901 and 1902. He received his A. B. 
(Bachelor of Arts) degree at the University of Chicago in 1905, J. D. 
(Doctor of Jurisprudence) in 1908, and LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) at Harvard 
in 1909. Mr. Hopkins was admitted to the lUinois bar in 1908 and was 
appointed Assistant United States attorney. Northern District of Illinois, in 
1913, which he remained until 1917, when he was made assistant counsel. 
United States Interstate Commerce Commission at Washington, where he 
served until 1919. In 1919 he was appointed special attorney for the Internal 
Revenue Bureau and he served in this capacity until 1920. 

Later Mr. Hopkins organized the law firm of Hopkins, Starr and Hopkins, 
and in 1931 formed the law firm of Hopkins, Sutter, Halls and De Wolfe. 
He is a member of the University, Union League, Law, Quadrangle, and 
Flossmoor Country clubs. 

On April 19, 1922, he married Florence Odil, and they have three children, 
Nancy Odil, Florence Catherine, and Albert L. Jr. 



258 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The former is a reminder of the World's Columbian Exposition, and stands 
on the site of the old Administration Building. The latter signalizes the 
one'hundredth anniversary of Illinois' statehood. 

The early days of exploration and the American Indian are recalled by 
such statues as the Peace Signal, a mounted Indian in Lincoln Park; the 
Indians on horseback — specimens of modernistic sculptor — at the Congress 
street approach to Grant Park, and the cross erected at South Robey street 
and the river on the site of the landing of Marquette and Johet. 

A children's poet and a children's story teller still live in the charm' 
ing memorial to Eugene Field and the statue of Hans Christian Anderson, 
both in Lincoln Park. In the former, the delicate figure of a fairy brooding 
like a guardian angel over the sleeping children, is most exquisite. 




The i'uuntain uf Time m Wajhingtun Park, facing the Midway. Ti-.> v.. :k, by Lorado 
Taft, shows the human procession passing in review before the great immovable figure of 
Time. The idea was suggested to the sculptor by these lines from a poem, 
"Time goes, you say? Ah, no 
Alas, time stays; we go." 

Among other Lincoln Park sculptures is the conventional Linne statue, 
dedicated to the memory of the famous naturalist; and the heroic, but some- 
what grotesque, statue representing the spirit of Goethe. 

An especially pleasing bit of statuary is the Rosenberg fountain sur- 
mounted by the bronze figure of Hebe. This work was accepted by the 
City of Chicago in October, 1893, and is standing in Grant Park at Mich- 
igan avenue and Park row. 

A bit of ancient Greece is to be found in the graceful peristyle, seen 
to the best advantage by moonlight, in Grant Park at Michigan avenue and 
Randolph street. The semicircular row of classic columns encloses a small, 
but beautiful fountain. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



259 





(From Drawmg by John Doctorojj) 



HENRY HORNER 

Judge Horner, elected Governor of Illinois on the Democratic Ticket, November 8, 1932, 
was born in Chicago November 30, 1878, the son of Solomon and Dilah (Horner) Hor- 
ner. He was educated in the Chicago public schools, the Chicago Manual Training 
School, the University of Michigan, and the University of Chicago. He received his 
degree of Bachelor of Laws from the Kent (now Chicago-Kent) College of Law in 1898, 
and was admitted to the Illinois Bar in 1899. Lincoln Memorial University has conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

When Mayor Harrison called the Charter Convention of 1911 for the purpose of 
adopting a new city charter. Judge Horner, then engaged in private practice, was selected 
as Chairman of the Committee on Plans and Procedure. In 1914 he was elected Judge 
of the Probate Court, and was four times reelected to this office by increasing majorities. 
He has served also in the County Court, dealing with problems involving election 
machinery, tax legislation, and state institutions. Despite his arduous duties on the Bench, 
Judge Horner has found time for many charitable enterprises and for the study of civic 
affairs. He has been the arbitrator in scores of labor disputes in Cook County, and in 
1929, as a member of the Illinois Society for Mental Hygiene, was active in the improve- 
ment of conditions in the State Hospital for the Mentally Defective. 

A recognized authority on Lincoln, he has gathered together a priceless collection of 
manuscripts and documents pertaining to the Great Emancipator. He is a member of the 
American, Illinois, and Chicago Bar Associations, of the Chicago Geographical Society, 
the Art Institute, the Chicago Historical Society, the Lincoln Centennial Association, 
Lincoln Memorial Commission, Lincoln Highway Commission, and the Chicago Asso- 
ciation of Commerce. He has served as a trustee of many charitable homes and 
asylums, and a member of the Chicago Council of Boy Scouts. His club affiliations are 
many, including memberships in the Law, City, Chicago Literary, Mid-Day, Standard, 
Iroquois, Covenant, Collegiate, Illinois Athletic, Wayfarers, Caxton, and Lake Shore 
Country clubs. 



260 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The story of Chicago's early days is told in the virile reliefs on the 
approach to the Michigan avenue bridge, only a short distance from the 
site of Fort Dearborn, marked by a tablet over the entrance of the London 
Guarantee Accident Building across the way. One of these depicts the Fort 
Dearborn massacre; another, entitled ''The Discoverers," shows the arrival 
of Marquette and Joliet; a third, "The Pioneers," has for its subject the 
arrival of John Kinzie and his family, while the fourth, "The Regeneration," 
symbolizes Chicago's recovery from the great fire. 




{Kaufman ^ Fabry Co. Photo) 

In the BUCKINGHAM MEMORIAL FOUNTAIN, the gift of Miss Kate Buckingham, 
Chicago has not merely the largest, but the most beautiful fountain m America. Its pool 
is 300 feet wide, the center column of water rises 110 feet, and when illuminated in color, 
it is a never-to-be-forgotten spectacle. Marcel Loyau of Paris, sculptor of the sea horses. 
Bennett, Parsons &' Frost and Jacques H. Lambert, associated architects. 

At Diversey parkway and Lake View avenue, facing Lincoln Park, 
stands the impressive circular colonnade of the Elks' Memorial, somewhat 
resembling Grant's Tomb in New York, and dedicated to the memory of 
70,000 Elks who served in the World War. 

The modernistic school of sculpture is represented in such statues as 
the colossal Ceres by John Storrs, looking down upon La Salle street from 
the apex of the Board of Trade tower, and the monumental bust of Leif 
Ericsson, by Oscar J. W. Hansen. The head, cast in bronze, measures six 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



261 




^!^ 
^i'^ 











WILLIAM HOSKINS 



Mr. Hoskins, president of Mariner and Hoskins, Inc., consulting research and analytical 
chemists, was born in Covington, Kentucky, July 15, 1862, son of John and Mary Ann 
(Hoskins) Hoskins. He graduated from the Chicago High School in 1879, followed by 
chemical and other instruction. In 1880 Mr. Hoskins joined Prof. G. A. Mariner in 
his analytical chemical laboratory, became partner in the firm of Mariner and Hoskins, 
Inc., in 1885, and was sole proprietor from 1890 until 1930, when the firm was incor- 
porated as Mariner and Hoskins, Inc., and he became president. 

Mr. Hoskins' discoveries number more than one hundred and range from a special 
chalk for billiard cues to the high resistance wire used in electric heating appliances, 
which made electric heat possible. He perfected safety paper, which is now used exten- 
sively in making checks and prevents alterations. One of the world's outstanding 
chemists, Mr. Hoskins has made thousands of experiments that have been of benefit to 
industry. Through chemical research, he has separated the commodities having merit 
from those that were frauds. He was an associate member of the Naval Consulting Board 
in 1917 and was a member of the sub-committee in charge of the Chicago office. He was a 
member of the advisory committee of the United States Bureau of Mines, and a fellow 
in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a member of the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences, Western Society of Engineers, Franklin Institute (Phila- 
delphia), American Academy of Political and Social Science, American Institute of 
Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, American Electrochemical Society, and Illinois 
Academy of Sciences. His clubs are Engineers and City (Chicago). 

On December 8, 1885, Mr. Hoskins married Ada May Mariner of Chicago (de- 
ceased). The children are Minna, Edna (Mrs. Fred Scheele), William, Florence (Mrs. 
Harvey Melcher). 



262 Chicago's accomplishments 

feet from the neck to the tip of the crown. The statue and base stand 
thirty-two feet in height alongside two lOO'foot pylons on the lake front 
near the Century of Progress Exposition grounds. The project, costing 
$250,000, was financed by the Scandinavians of the United States. 

Two exquisite bits of privately owned statuary that deserve mention 
here are the boys and dolphins group in the lobby of the Stevens hotel, 
and the Diana fountain in the Diana Court building, 540 North Michigan 
avenue. 

Grace of line combined with the majesty of falling waters reaches per- 
fection in the Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This fountain, standing in 
the center of a formal garden, its main pool of reinforced concrete faced 
with pink Georgian marble, 300 feet in diameter, is the gift to Chicago of 
Miss Kate Buckingham in memory of her brother, Clarence Buckingham, 
patron of art, and friend of the Art Institute. 

The fountain is like a great jewel, a sparkling diadem set in the midst 
of Grant Park. Here, architecture and engineering have joined hands to 
produce a masterpiece. Patterned after the Latona fountain in the gardens 
of Versailles, the Buckingham Fountain is designed on a more epic scale 
than its model. The central jet rises to a height of 110 feet. The central 
effect is circular in form and 103 feet in diameter, rising in three cascades 
to a central bowl twenty-five feet above the pool level. The central jets are 
surrounded by jets at lower levels in the surrounding bowls, and these by jets 
from eight surrounding fountain groups from which the water is thrown 
in a trajectory more nearly horizontal. Shells, sea horses, and dolphins 
augment the beauty of this monumental work. 

For day displays, a volume of 1,600 gallons a minute is provided, and 
for special occasions, 5,500 gallons. The sheets of water, falling in suc- 
cessive cascades, are illuminated at night by means of concealed projectors 
and incandescent lights, and by the manipulation of switches and dimmers, 
symphonies in color may be played. The effect produced is that of molten 
metal or liquid fire emerging from the jets. The pumping station itself is 
an engineering work of some importance. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



263 




iKoehne Photo) 



GEORGE A. HUGHES 



Mr. Hughes, president of the Edison General Electric Appliance Company, was born 
in Monticello, Jones County, Iowa, April 14, 1871, son of Alexander and Mary E. 
(Higginbotham) Hughes. He attended high school at Bismarck, North Dakota, and 
from 1887 to 1889 was a student at the University of Minnesota. From 1894 to 1895 
he was the city editor of the Bismarck Daily Tribune and from 1896 to 1898 a reporter 
for the St. Paul Dispatch. For many years Mr. Hughes was manager of the Hughes 
Electric Company, operating electric power plants in Eveleth, Minnesota, Fargo, Bis- 
marck and Dickinson, North Dakota, and Glendive. Montana. During this period he 
invented the electric range and formed the Hughes Electric Heating Company to manu- 
facture It. Later this company, with the Hotpoint Company of California, consolidated 
with the heating device department of the General Electric Company, forming, in 1918, 
the Edison Electric Appliance Company (now the Edison General Electric Apphance 
Company of Chicago), manufacturers of electrical appliances for homes and indus- 
tries. Mr. Hughes is a director of the Electric Vacuum Cleaner Company of Cleveland, 
Ohio. He served in the North Dakota National Guard and was state librarian of North 
Dakota for two years. 

Mr. Hughes is president of Chicago Boys' Clubs, Inc., with five clubs in Chicago 
to aid under-privileged boys, and chairman of the Boys' Clubs Foundation. He is a 
member of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and his clubs are the Union 
League, lUinois Athletic, Electric, and Riverside Golf of Chicago, and the New York 
(New York). He is the author of various published addresses, including "Public Utility 
Problems from a Manufacturer's Standpoint," "Present Day Problems," "Government 
in Business," and "Politics in Business." 

On June 24, 1890, he married Meta S. Scharkolf, of Chicago, and they have one 
daughter, Mary (Mrs. Grant Call). 



264 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 
A Review of Forty Years of Educational Achievement 

BY ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS 
President, The University of Chicago 

IN June, 1932, the University of Chicago marked the completion of its 
fortieth year of service. The four decades since 1892 have seen the 
University develop into one of the great educational institutions of the 
world. 

Conceived not as just another university, but as a community of scholars 
working for the advancement of knowledge, it has been a leader in research 
and a pioneer in education, productive of contributions to the progress of 
the world on a scale that is unparalleled. 

In the plans for the organiz^ation of the University there was much of 
the boldly progressive spirit of the Chicago which was intent on achieving 
its destiny as one of the outstanding cities of the world. There had existed, 
from 1857 to 1886, the "old" University of Chicago, which had been con- 
cerned primarily with instruction. Those who worked for the establishment 
of the present university saw the necessity of a center of learning that should 
be part of Chicago and the Middle West. From the first they received the 
cooperation and support of the citizens of Chicago. The initial gift of 
$600,000 made by the founder, John D. Rockefeller, was contingent upon 
the pledging of a further $400,000 by the people of Chicago. Before the 
University had taken form, that initial gift of Mr. Rockefeller's had been 
increased by pledges of an additional two millions, and within ninety days 
the people of Chicago had pledged another million dollars. Mr. Rocke- 
feller's final gift, made in 1910, brought the total of his benefactions to the 
University to $35,000,000, but even this large sum has been exceeded by 
the gifts of others, the contributions of Chicagoans comprising a large 
share of this additional support. 

The University received its charter in 1890, and opened on October 1, 
1892. Its organizer and first president. Dr. WiUiam Rainey Harper, intro- 
duced many ideas new to education, and from the first the University was 
imbued with the experimental attitude. The faculty of 120 included no 
less than nine college and university presidents, enthusiastically enlisted in 
Dr. Harper's ''new and different" university. The entire faculty had been 
selected for its eminence or promise in research; the proof of its ability is 
to be found in the forty-year record of accomplishment. There was a 
student body of 594, alert and eager to participate in the opportunities of 
this new institution. Few of the buildings were ready for use, but the Uni- 
versity already had a site of 24 acres and provisions for ten buildings. 

When the University opened its fortieth year, it had assets in excess 
of $108,000,000, of which $60,000,000 were endowment. It had a cam- 
pus of 1 10 acres, with eighty-five buildings devoted to educational purposes. 
The Midway front of the University extends for almost a mile, with the 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



265 



m. 




(H. A. AtweW Thoto) 

OTTO F. HUNZIKER 



Professor Hunziker, manager of manufacturing and director of research laboratories, 
Blue Valley Creamery Company, is considered one of the world's foremost dairy scien- 
tists. Born in Zurich, Switzerland, December 25, 1873, the son of Carl Otto and 
Louise (Pupikofer) Hunziker, he came to America in 1893 and became a naturalized 
citizen in 1904. He graduated from Bryant and Stratton Business College, Providence, 
Rhode Island, in 1896 and held various positions until 1898 when he entered Cornell 
University, obtaining his B. S. A. (Bachelor of Agricultural Science) degree in 1900 
and his M. S. A. (Master of Agricultural Science) in 1901. He was instructor in dairy 
bacteriology, Cornell University, 1901-1902; milk expert for Scranton Condensed Milk 
Company, 1902-1905; professor of dairying and chief of the dairy department at Purdue 
University and Indiana E.xperiment Station from 1905 until 1916 when he took his 
present position with Blue Valley Creamery Company. At that time this company was 
operating twelve creameries; they are now operating twenty-three creameries and five 
milk plants. 

Professor Hunziker was a delegate from the United States Department of Agriculture 
to the International Dairy Congresses in Stockholm, 1911; London, 1928; and Copen- 
hagen, 1931. He was chairman of the program committee. Industry and Economics, 
for the World's Dairy Congress, in Washington, 1923. He has been a member of the 
Cook County Board of Health, and La Grange Board of Health (president, 1926-1927). 
He is a member of American Dairy Science Association (president, 1911-1913), Purdue 
Research Foundation, National Dairy Council, National Dairy Association, and Dairy- 
men's Country Club. He is a member of the American Society of Agricultural En- 
gineers, and Sigma Xi, Gamma Alpha, and Alpha Zeta fraternities. He was awarded 
the Distinguished Service gold medal by the Swiss Dairy Federation, Berne, Switzerland, 
in 1928. He is author of Condensed Milk and Milk Powder. 1914, 1918, 1920, 1926; 
and The Butter Industry, 1920, 1927. He was awarded a diploma for scientific publi- 
cations by the International Exposition, in Milan, Italy, 1925. In 1927 he was invited 
to Australia and New Zealand for investigations and recommendations as to the dairy 

Continued on page 546 



266 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



towers of the Chicago Lying-in Hospital at the west balanced on the east 
by those of the International House of Chicago. Dominating the Midway 
front, which has been called "the world's most beautiful academic avenue,'"' 
is the great University Chapel. South of the Midway are the new residence 
halls for men. Within the past seven years the University's building pro' 
gram has cost in excess of $30,000,000. 

The faculty today numbers approximately 900, and the student body, 
during an academic year, about 14,500, with an average quarterly registra' 
tion of 5,400. As originally chartered, the University was controlled by the 
Baptist church, but this denominational control has been voluntarily re' 
linquished. There are men and women of 30 denominations in the teaching 
and student bodies, and the University has more Roman Catholic students 




THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO CHAPEL, one of the finest examples of Tudor 
Gothic in the Western world. Bertram G. Goodhue, architect. 

than Baptist. Of the 30 members of the Board of Trustees, three-fifths now 
must be members of a Christian church, and 10 of this group must be Bap- 
tists. The original requirement that the president should be a member of 
the Baptist church also has been removed. 

President Harper and his associates conceived of the University as an 
institution dedicated to the service of the Middle West, with particularly 
close relations with the city of which it was a part. That relationship has 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



267 



,^'~"^ 



'mi 


f, 


"] ii' 


-f^- 


fT||l 




fe 


if| 


-WW, 




'^y ! 


ifiiir 


1m-: 


^fMM: 











'',3? 



V. --^^ 



(Du Bois Studio Photo) 

EDWARD N. HURLEY 

Mr. Hurley, business and civic leader, was born in Galesburg, Illinois, July 31, 1864, the 
son of Jeremiah and Ellen (Nash) Hurley. He received his Doctor of Laws degree from 
the University of Notre Dame; his Doctor of Civil Law degree from Knox College, Gales- 
burg. He started his career in 1888 as a traveling salesman for the United States Metallic 
Packing Company of Philadelphia, of which concern he later became manager. Mr. 
Hurley originated and developed the pneumatic tool industry in the United States and 
Europe. In 1896 he organized and headed the Standard Pneumatic Tool Company, but 
in 1902 sold out his interests to engage in farming and stock raising at Wheaton. Six 
years later he became president of the Hurley Machine Company, manufacturers of home 
labor'saving devices, and is now chairman of the board. In 1913 he was appointed by 
the United States Government as special commissioner to report on the banking and 
credits of the Argentine Republic, Brazil, Chile, and Peru. He was vice-chairman and 
later chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, resigning in 1917 to undertake his war- 
time duties for which General Pershing later awarded him the Distinguished Service 
Medal. He was chairman of the United States Shipping Board and president of the 
Emergency Fleet Corporation during the World War — he "built the bridge to France." 
Mr. Hurley served also as a member of the War Council and the American Red Cross. 
He was a member of the World War Funding Commission of 1924 and of President 
Hoover's Advisory Shipping Committee. 

He is a director of the Chicago Great Western Railroad, the Pierce-Arrow Motor Car 
Company, the Studebaker Corporation, the Illinois Power and Light Corporation, the Illi- 
nois Traction Company, the North American Light and Power Company, Wilson and 
Company, the Chicago and Connecting Railways and the Collateral Trust, the Calumet 
and South Chicago Railroad, the Southern Street Railway Company, and the Hammond, 
Whiting and East Chicago Railroad. He is federal receiver for the Chicago City Railway 
Company, and co-receiver for Middle West Utilities Company. Mr. Hurley is alo a direc- 
tor of the National Foreign Trade Council; past president of the American Manufacturers" 
Export Association; and a member of the Illinois Manufacturers" Association, the Inter- 
Continued on page 547 



268 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



been realized, and the University consistently has been a vital part of the 
Western Empire. In the number of students from the Chicago area it has 
educated the University has had an important influence on the community, 
for 10,000 of its 28,000 degree holders live in the Chicago area. The Uni- 
versity has been the leading institution of the country in the science of 
education, and its production of teachers has been one of its most important 
efi^orts. University improvements in educational techniques have been sig' 
nificant contributions to Chicago and to the rest of the United States. Of 
the 1 50,000 students who have matriculated at the University, some 30,000 
have received degrees. There are 10,000 graduates of the University in the 
Chicago region. 

The basic research of the University in many of its phases has been 
constantly in touch with reality; the experts of its faculty likewise have been 
in touch with the realities of the problems that have faced Chicago and the 
nation. The service of these experts has been constantly available, whether 
the problem were one of governmental consolidation, taxation, or city plan- 
ning. The Social Science Research Committee has made of Chicago a vast 
laboratory and has, through study of more than a hundred individual prob' 
lems, pointed the way toward improving the life of the community. The 
School of Commerce has been intimately concerned with the fundamental 
problems that affect especially the economic welfare of the Middle West. 
The University Clinics, a new development in medical teaching and research, 
constitutes one of the great centers of the world. Its research inures to the 
benefit of all humanity, but Chicago benefits most immediately and directly 
from the facilities the clinics provide. 

Conscious as the University has been of its obligations to its region, that 
particular interest has not acted to limit the reach of its endeavors. The 





CHICAGO S LEADERS 



269 



UNIVERSITY 
o/CHlCAGO 




ROBERT MAYNARD HUTCHINS 



Dr. Hutchins, president of the University of Chicago, was born in Brooklyn, New 
York, January 17, 1899, the son of WiUiam James and Anna Laura (Murch) Hutchins. 
He attended Oberhn College from 1915 to 1917; received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) 
from Yale University in 1921, honorary A. M. (Master of Arts) in 1922, and LL. B. 
(Bachelor of Laws) in 1925. The honorary degree of LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) was 
conferred on him by West Virginia University, Lafayette College, and Oberlin College 
in 1929, and by Williams College and Berea College in 1930. 

Dr. Hutchins did ambulance service in the United States Army, 1917 to 1919, with 
the Itahan Army in 1918 and 1919. He was decorated with the Groce di Guera 
(Italian). He was master in English and History at Lake Placid (New York) School, 
1921'1923; secretary at Yale University, 1923-1927, lecturer in the Yale Law School, 
1925-1927, professor of law, 1927, acting dean, 1927-1928, dean, 1928-1929; president 
of the University of Chicago since 1929. He is an honorary member of the Chicago 
Bar Association and the Tavern and Law clubs. He is a member of the Connecticut 
Bar Association. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, Phi Delta Phi, Alpha Delta Phi, 
Delta Sigma Rho, Torch, Order of the Coif, and Wolf's Head fraternities. His club 
affiliations are Graduate, Elizabethan, Yale (New York); University, Union League, 
Chicago, Quadrangle, Cliff Dwellers, Commercial (Chicago). 

Dr. Hutchins married Maude Phelps McVeigh, of Bay Shore, Long Island, New 
York, September 10, 1921. They have one daughter, Frances Ratdiffe. 



270 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



range of its interests as an institution dedicated to investigation has known 
no limits, and the University today is acknowledged to be one of the world's 
greatest research institutions. Five Americans have won the Nobel prize 
in science; four of them have been University of Chicago faculty members. 
Three of these four are the only American winners of the prize in physics: 
Albert A. Michelson, Robert A. Milliken, and Arthur H. Compton. These 
and other investigators won for Ryerson Physical Laboratory the designa' 
tion of "the most famous physical laboratory in America." Dr. Alexis Car' 
rell was awarded the Nobel prize in medicine for work done on surgery of 
the blood vessels while a member of the Chicago faculty. The spirit of in' 
vestigation which has characterized the University has produced the plane' 
tesimal hypothesis of the origin of the earth; the discovery of a new anes' 
thetic; it has brought about the founding of the modern school of sociology; 




(Hedrich-Blessing Photo) 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO FIELD HOUSE 
Holabird & Root, architects. 

it has developed and implanted new educational techniques through the 
schools of the country. The University of Chicago has in the Oriental In' 
stitute the greatest archaeological organization in the world, with thirteen 
expeditions engaged in the Near East. The most complete collection of ma' 
terial for the study of Chaucer is to be found in the University, which has, 
in photostatic form, all the known manuscripts of his Canterbury Tales. 
These are but isolated examples of the results of the University's experi' 
mental attitude. 

The prestige of the University of Chicago has been attested by indc 
pendent investigations conducted to assemble the most expert and informed 
opinion of educational leaders as to the comparative standings of the leading 
universities. The results justify the international reputation of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago as a notable educational and research center. The famous 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



271 




i Chambers Photo) 

LAWRENCE B. ICELY 

Mr. Icely, president of Wilson-Western Sporting Goods Company, was born in Leaf 
River. Illinois, November 2, 1884, and is the son of Elias and Emma (Harrison) Icely. 
During his entire business career Mr. Icely has been associated with the sporting goods 
industry. He began his career as assistant manager of the Chicago division of Wright & 
Ditson Company in 1905 where he remained until 1909. 1909 to 1915 he was manager 
of the Pacific Coast division of the same company. Later he was made Western sales 
manager. In 1917 he was made general sales manager and vice-president at New York. 

Mr. Icely's executive ability and genius for organization caused the Wilson-Western 
Sporting Goods Company to offer him the presidency of that company in 1918. This 
position he accepted and still holds. His development of the company has been one of 
the outstanding achievements of the industry. Mr. Icely has been a forceful factor in 
the organization of the industry through various manufacturing associations and the 
institution of the Chamber of Commerce of athletic goods manufacturers. Golf Ball 
Manufacturers Association, Golf Club Manufacturers Association, and Golf Bag Manu- 
facturers Association. He is a member of the Chicago Athletic Association, Lake Shore 
Athletic Club, Illinois Golf Club, Rotary Club of Chicago, and the Olympic Club of 
San Francisco. He is naturally interested in sports both as a business man and sportsman. 

On August 3, 1907, he married Kathryn Flynn of Chicago and they have one 
daughter, Kay Doris. 



272 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Miami report, which ranked twenty departments in the universities of 
America, placed eight Chicago departments as first in the entire country: 
ranked four more departments as second best; placed five in third position, 
two in fourth, and one, the lowest of the twenty, as fifth best. The Vischer 
study of 601 American scientists, ranked as most meritorius by their fellow 
scientists, placed Chicago first in two departments; tied for first in two 
others, second in four others, and third in another, the best record made 
by any of the leading American scientific schools. Further, this report 
showed that Chicago has a notable record in the undergraduate training 
of starred scientists. Still another study, made by Robert L. Kelly, executive 
secretary of the Association of American Colleges, determined that Chicago 
was the leading source of teachers of distinction. 

The educational reorgani2,ation which became effective in October, 
1931, is the most recent evidence of the University's leadership. It departs 
completely from the traditional methods of American colleges in organiza' 
tion and in spirit, and its development is being watched as the most distinc 
tive and promising experiment in higher education today. The University is 




Ryerson physical laboratory, with Kent and Jones chemistry laboratories m ihc 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



273 



COOK 
COUNTY 




fjkC *ili r.3 .fist 



I ' ' I i 






I C^^"^^"'"* \ 




J. LOUIS JACOBS 

Mr. Jacobs, consulting management engineer and Cook County Assessor, was born in 
Kiev, Ukraine, December 24, 188?, son of Isaac and Pearl (Tower) Jacobs. He came 
to the United States in 1891, becoming a naturalized citizen in 1908. After graduating 
in 1907 from the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University, he took post'graduate 
work at Yale in economics, mathematics, and law. During 1908 he was engaged in 
financial and real estate reporting and in municipal engineering, and in 1909 he 
investigated railroad construction in the Middle West. From 1910 to 1915 he supervised 
technical investigations of finance, organization, personnel classification and administra' 
tion for the City cf Chicago. Since 1915 as a director of J. L. Jacobs ii Company, 
management engineers and consultants to governments and industries, he has furnished 
professional services and given counsel to governmental, utility, industrial, and civic 
organizations on management, financial, statistical, and personnel problems. During the 
World War he was staff advisor on industrial relations and administrative methods for 
the Emergency Fleet Corporation, United States Shipping Board. He was also a con- 
sultant on labor classification and standardization for the United States War Labor 
Policies Board. 

In the professional services and as consultant, he has made investigations and given 
counsel on employment administration, wages and classification, and management 
problems to the following governmental agencies: the cities of Chicago, Cincinnati, 
Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Oakland, California, and Philadelphia; the Sanitary District 
of Chicago; the Chicago Board of Education; the states of New Jersey, West Virginia, 
and Nebraska; the United States Railroad Labor Board; the counties of Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin, Cook, Illinois, and Hamilton, Ohio; Dominion of Canada employees; 
Federal Public Works. He was formerly a lecturer in economics and business organi- 
zation at Northwestern University School of Commerce. Mr. Jacobs is a member of 
the American Statistical Association, American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, Society of Industrial Engineers, Western Society 
of Engineers, National Municipal League, et cetera. His clubs are City and Harvard- 
Yale-Princeton. 

He married Susanne Myrtle Barker, of Chicago, March 17, 1915. Their children 
are, Esther Louise and Thomas Louis. 



274 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



organized now into the professional schools, The College, and four Divisions: 
the Social Sciences, the Humanities, the Physical Sciences, and the Biolog' 
ical Sciences. The purpose of the College is to provide a general education; 
the four Divisions provide for advanced study. Through this reorganiza' 
tion the University has achieved the unification of related fields of knowl' 
edge, and so eliminated the isolation that prevailed under departmental 
organization. There are no required classes nor required courses; a student 
progresses by demonstrating in comprehensive examinations that he has ac 
quired that proficiency and mastery which the University regards as essen- 
tial to education. Neither are there time limits; a student advances as 
rapidly as his abilities permit. To achieve such a revolutionary program, 
the University reformed not only its organization and redefined its educa- 
tional aims, but reshaped its entire curriculum, developing new courses of 
a radically different type. The University was not alone in its recognition 
of dissatisfaction with the established theories and methods of higher edu' 
cation, but it was the first to effect a thorough going revision designed to 
eliminate that dissatisfaction. 




BOTANY POND 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



275 



ACME 

VISIBLE 
RECORDS 




(Blank C5= StoUer. Inc.. Photo) 

FRANK H. JOHNSTON 

Mr. Johnston, president of Acme Card System Company, was born in Man- 
chester, Iowa, June 7, 1879, son of Charles H. Johnston. Educated in the 
pubhc schools, he has devoted his entire business experiences toward bringing 
system and efficiency to modern business. In the year 1900, he was employed 
in Chicago by a mechanical business equipment company and shortly there- 
after went into the sales division and became well acquainted with the prin- 
cipal retail establishments in the larger cities throughout the United States. 

In 1914, Mr. Johnston founded the Acme Card System Company, which, 
under his leadership, is distributing its product all over the world. Many 
improvements in modern record keeping methods are due to his vision in 
analyzing the requirements of present day business. Although the active head 
of a growing business, Mr. Johnston has had time for outside activities. His 
occasional pronouncements on the trend of business are given publicity by 
leading economists and editors. His recreations are golf and horses. 

On December 25, 1902, he married Maud Miller. 



276 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



THE MUNICIPAL AIRPORT, WHERE WINGED 

CRUISERS COME AND GO 
Chicago As the Hub of the Transcontinental Air Lines 

BY WALTER WRIGHT 
Superintendent of Parks, Recreation and Aviation 

UNCHALLENGED as a railroad center, Chicago has within the last few 
years, and with the development of commercial aviation, which she 
has done much to encourage, become the hub of the transcontinental air 
lines which have spread their amazing network over the United States. 

Air-conscious Chicagoans today regard St. Louis, Minneapolis, Detroit, 
and Cleveland, if not as suburbs, at least as near neighbors, within a few 
hours' hop of their doors. It is nothing at all out of the ordinary to have 
lunch in Chicago and dinner in New York. 

Air lines radiate from Chicago in all directions. Powerful beacons guide 
the mail and passenger planes to the city, and the Lindbergh beacon scour- 
ing with its silver beam a circle with a ^OO-mile radius, nightly beckons the 
winged cruisers to the Nation's air capital. 

To those who have not as yet reali2;ed how rapidly and how completely 
the new form of transportation has captured the public imagination, a visit 
to the new air terminal passenger station at the Municipal Airport will be 




(United Air Lines Photo) 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



277 




PHILIP G. JOHNSON 

Mr. Johnson is president of United Air Lines which maintains general headquarters at 
Chicago for its Transcontinental, Middle West, Intermountain and Pacific Coast Lines, 
which fly more than one million miles per month, mostly with multi-engined passenger 
mail-express planes. The subsidiary companies of which Mr. Johnson is also president 
are National Air Transport (Chicago-New York and Chicago-Dallas), Boeing Air Trans- 
port (Chicago-San Francisco), Varney Air Lines (Salt Lake City-Seattle) and Pacific 
Air Transport (Seattle-San Diego). The various companies of United Air Lines on 
December 1, 1932, completed 50,000,000 miles of flying (nearly half of which was flown 
at night), making United Air Lines the largest air transport system in the world in point 
of mileage flown. 

Mr. Johnson, who is one of the younger type of corporation executives, became 
interested in the aeronautical industry on graduating from the University of Washington 
at Seattle and became a draftsman for Boeing Airplane Company, now one of the 
largest builders of military and commercial airplanes in the United States. Mr. Johnson 
rose through various capacities to the presidency of the Airplane Company and later 
became president of the Air Transport units as well. When these companies became 
subsidiaries of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation, Mr. Johnson was elected a 
vice-president of that large aeronautical corporation and also took over the active direc- 
tion of all the corporation's transport activities. United Air Lines is now serving forty- 
one cities in eighteen states, operating a fleet of more than 100 planes which carry, in 
addition to a larger volume of passenger business, more than all of the nation's air mail 
Mr. Johnson is also a vice-president of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of 
America. He was born November 5, 1894, in Seattle, Washington. 

Mr. and Mrs. Johnson, who, prior to her marriage was Miss Catherine Foley, have 
two children, Philip G., Jr., and Esther. 



278 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



a revelation. At no other station in the world do more regularly scheduled 
mail and passenger planes arrive than at this, and from no other station do 
as many planes depart on scheduled flights. 

The white, monolithic concrete depot, with its modernistic lines and 
comfortable appointments, the busy ticket office, the click of telegraph 
instruments, the attendant redcaps, the announcement of departures by the 
loud speaker, and even the illuminated weather maps, all give one an im' 
pression of progress and make him realize that he is living on the threshold 
of a new age, an age of modern transportation. 



?"T'"f 




(Kaufmann ii Fabry Co. Photo) 
ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, MUNICIPAL AIRPORT 
Paul Gerhardt, architect. 

While waiting for his plane to take off, the passenger may hear the 
drone of motors overhead, while out of the clouds drops a carrier from 
New York or San Francisco. The door is opened, and the new arrivals step 
down, receive their hand baggage, and pass through the gates, while a 
compartment in one of the wings is let down, and the mail is transferred 
to a truck. The landings are made so quietly and with so little bustle and 
confusion that it seems impossible that the planes could have come from 
such distances and without adventure. 

The immense hangars at the Airport not only house the resident planes, 
but also the shops where the planes are daily inspected and kept in perfect 
trim. Here too will be observed the radio and control tower, through 
which the field can talk to flying pilots; and the radio beacon which guides 
ships safely into port no matter what the weather. Everywhere is evident 
the combined official watchfulness of city, state, and federal government, 
which assures the air'traveling public of the highest degree of safety and 
comfort, combined with speed. 

Chicago's Municipal Airport is today the busiest airport in the world. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 279 

It has outstripped even such older and world-famous ports as Croyden, 
Le Bourget, and Templehof, serving respectively London, Paris, and Berlin. 
It has outstripped them in the number of daily scheduled flights as well as 
in the number of passengers and amount of air mail carried. Thus Chicago 
has reached in the air that supremacy it holds in railroad transportation. 

The Airport is under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Parks, Recreation, 
and Aviation, of which Col. A. A. Sprague, Commissioner of Public Works, 
is the director. It occupies an area of approximately one square mile, from 
55th to 63d streets, and from Cicero avenue to Central avenue. It is situated 
nearer the heart of the city it serves than any other airport of its class, and 
lies entirely within the city hmits. It is readily accessible by four main 
traffic arteries, and by two surface hues. By bus or taxicab, it is about a 
half hour's ride from the Loop. The field is splendidly illuminated for night 
flying, with beacons, flood lights, boundary and ha2;ard lights. Its four oiled 
cinder runways, in total length more than two miles, offer a perfect landing 
surface for planes of any si2,e under any load. The new concrete taxi run' 
way, a mile and a quarter long on two sides of the field, makes both clean 
and rapid the arrival and departure of the many ships in and from the 
loading 2,one. 

The immense volume of activity at this airport can be appreciated when 
it is known that there are twelve lines operating forty different routes on 
daily schedule. Eighty planes a day leave or arrive at this port on regular 
schedule, and an average of twenty more independent planes arrive and 
depart each day. The combined total mileage of scheduled flights arriving 
and leaving Chicago totals over 44,000 miles daily. 

Speed has made the great success of air travel — speed with safety and 
comfort. When one can travel from Chicago to Cleveland in approximately 
three hours, spend practically a day there for business and return home in 
the evening, at a cost which is approximately the railroad fare plus lower 
berth, the future can readily be seen. 

With the constant use and further development of radio in connection 
with flying, the safety of the passenger will be assured as in no other mode 
of travel. 

With this swift progress Chicago is keeping step. Scattered about the 
Chicago area in Cook county and two adjacent counties are a score of com- 
mercial and privately owned airports, including a municipal seaplane base 
and a military combination airport and seaplane base. Plans are under way 
for the establishment of a landing field on an island off the lake front within 
five minutes' ride of the Loop. This field, beautifully landscaped to conform 
to the adjacent park area, would accommodate land planes, amphibians, 
and sea planes. Planes arriving at and departing from this field would use 
the present Municipal Airport as a base, where every facility is at hand for 
housing, inspection, and repairs. 

With this prospect in view, Chicago will have ample justification for 
her claim to being the transportation center of America. 



280 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

SUBWAYS 

Views of Proposed State Street Subway 




Model showing development of a three'level street — a trend of modern design in 

subway construction. 




State street, a triple-decked shopping mart. Cut-away drawing disclosing how the 

famous thoroughfare will be transformed. Above is the present street level and 

below that, the concourse extending across the entire width of the street. The 

trains will be operated in the third level. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



281 






'^^^-•'^ 






1 1; \ 

u * " 

ft - • 




. "^^ 








T^ 


'-vi ,_^'- 


-- ^ '" 


•i- '• 


r. 


- ,- -'.C'- 


' ^ ' 


*■ 


-^- - _^/^f- 


:.¥ V- 




<■. ^ 








-«=f -*""~ ' 







y^!£^ 



(Moffett-RusseU Photo) 

R. F. KELKER, JR. 

Major Kelker, noted consulting engineer, was born in Harrisburg, Pennsyl' 
vania, August 5, 1875, son of Luther Reily and Agnes Keyes (Pearsol) 
Kelker. He received his B. S. (Bachelor of Science) degree at Pennsylvania 
State College in 1896, and his degree in electrical engineering in 1897. He 
was engineer with steam and electric railways at Buffalo, Cleveland, and 
New York City from 1897 to 1907; with the Board of Supervising Engineers 
of Chicago in charge of reconstruction of railway tracks from 1907 to 1914; 
engineer of construction. Local Transportation Committee of Chicago, since 
1914. He was a member of the firm of Kelker, De Leuw and Company, engi- 
neers, from 1919 to 1929; member of the Advisory Subway Engineering 
Commission and chief engineer. Bureau of Subways, City of Chicago since 
1930. 

He served as captain, 311th Engineers, 80th Division, U. S. A., camp 
adjutant, Camp Grant, Illinois, and on major staff duty in France during the 
World War. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 
Western Society of Engineers, Illinois Society of Engineers, American Elec- 
tric Railway Association, Chicago Association of Commerce, Pennsylvania 
Society, Sons of the Revolution. His clubs are Mid-Day, City, Westmoreland 
Country, University, and the Missouri Athletic, St. Louis. He is author of 
various reports on trafiic and transportation for New York, Chicago, Los 
Angeles, Baltimore, St. Louis, and many other cities. 

In May, 1911, he married Georgia Moore, of Rochester, New York. 



282 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



LOYOLA UNIVERSITY, A MODERN SCHOOL 

PRESERVING ANCIENT TRADITIONS 

Professional Schools Which Meet the Requirements of the 

New Era 

BY THE REV. ROBERT M. KELLEY, S. J., President 

LOYOLA University, conducted by the Jesuits, is the development of 
St. Ignatius College which was founded on Chicago's great West Side 
in 1869. A new charter was obtained in 1909 in the name of Loyola Uni' 
versity of Chicago. 

From a struggling institution of thirty-seven college students and five 
faculty members, in 1870, it has grown into an urban university with eight 
divisions, six thousand students, and four hundred and eighty faculty mem- 
bers. More than a thousand high school students are affiliated with the 
institution in Loyola Academy and St. Ignatius High School. 

The administrative offices and the College of Arts and Sciences are 
located in Rogers Park on a twentytwo-acre campus fronting on Lake Mich' 
igan. The Graduate School, the Schools of Law, Commerce and Social 




(Chicago Aerial Survey Co. Photo) 
Lake Shore campus, Loyola University, showing College of Arts and Sciences, Loyola 
Academy, EHzabeth M. Cudahy library, gymnasium, and athletic field. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



283 



Loyola 
.University 







REV. ROBERT MICHAEL KELLEY, SJ. 

Father Kelley, president of Loyola University, was born in Manson, Iowa, 
July 24, 1877, son of Michael Bede and Nora M. (Foley) Kelley. He attended 
St. Mary's (Kansas) College from 1894 to 1897, received honorary degree of 
LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) in 1924; joined the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) in 
1897; received his A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree from St. Louis University 
in 1903, A.M. (Master of Arts), in 1904. He studied theology at St. Louis 
University, 1908 to 1912. Father Kelley taught in the preparatory division 
of the University of Detroit, 1904-1908, and in the same division of Creigh- 
ton University, Omaha, Nebraska, 191 3-19 14. He was ordained a priest of 
the Roman Catholic Church in 1911. He held the position of dean of the 
College of Liberal Arts at Creighton University from 1914 to 1920, regent 
of the Institute of Law in 1919-1920. 

From 1920 to 1926 Father Kelley was president of Regis College at Den- 
ver, Colorado, and in 1926-1927 he was assistant to the provincial of the 
Missouri Province of the Society of Jesus. He has been president of Loyola 
University, the second largest Catholic school of higher education in the 
United States, since September 8, 1927. 

Father Kelley is a member of the Union League Club. 



284 Chicago's accomplishments 

Work are in the Downtown College Building at Franklin and Washington 
streets. In this building is also housed a College of Arts and Sciences. The 
Schools of Medicine and Dentistry are on the West Side adjacent to the 
Cook County Hospital. 

As a Jesuit school, Loyola is a very definite kind of school, with a 
character, purpose and procedure fixed for it by the Institute of the Society 
of Jesus, and by some three hundred and fifty years of educational experi' 
ence. A Jesuit school aims at giving a distinctive sort of education, based 
upon an experience which goes much farther back than the history of the 
Jesuits themselves. The Jesuits did not invent that sort of education; they 
inherited it. 

When the Jesuits came into the field of school'education, they found 
three types of education in existence. The first type grew up in Greece, 
in its best period. Its aim was development of the individual. It has been 
called "cultural" education; but no one word will express it. The second 
type of education was Roman. It aimed at equipping the individual for a 
social task, or a small group of social tasks. It may be called "vocational 
education." The third type was developed more particularly in the late 
Middle Ages and the succeeding centuries. It aimed at equipping the few 
specially gifted individuals for the distinctive work of discovering, if they 
might, new facts and truths. It may be called education for research. 

The Jesuits singled out for their particular work the first type of edu' 
cation, that which has been vaguely called the "cultural." They devoted 
by far the greater number of their members to training boys and youths 
in a Catholic, liberal education, which aimed at helping immature minds 
and characters to become mature. 

Within the past thirty years a change has taken place in Jesuit schools. 
Modern impatience to achieve wealth has brought increased demand for 
the second type of school, the vocational. The Jesuits have been influenced 
by that demand, and have developed almost every sort of professional 
school. Loyola University, for instance, has five such schools; of medicine, 
law, dentistry, commerce and finance, and social work. 

Despite the fact that today the professional schools far outstrip the 
basic college of liberal arts and sciences in number of students, the Jesuits 
have not surrendered their traditional aim. They are still primarily devoted 
to the balanced development of boys and youths into men who are cul- 
tured through training in the sciences, the humanities, and the Catholic 
rehgion. Their vocational schools are to a certain extent, concessions to 
immediate demands of the times. 

The story of the founding and growth of Loyola University is closely 
connected with the history of Chicago. The seed for the religious and 
educational development of Chicago was planted by that intrepid Jesuit 
missionaryexplorer, Father Jacques Marquette, S. J., who, in 1674 was the 
first white man to reside on the site of Chicago. After a week's sojourn at 
the mouth of the Chicago River, Father Marquette and his French and In- 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



285 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
ELIZABETH M. CUDAHY MEMORIAL LIBRARY AT LOYOLA UNIVERSITY 
Rebori 6? Wentworth, architects. 

dian companions proceeded up the river to the point where Damen avenue 
now intersects the stream. Here they spent the Winter of 16744675, pop 
taging into the DesPlaines River and down the lUinois to Kaskaskia as soon 
as the river was navigable. 

The next link in the bond between Chicago and Loyola University was 
supplied by Father Arnold Damen, S. J., father of the great Holy Family 
parish and builder of Chicago's West Side. Father Damen became a perma- 



286 Chicago's accomplishments 

nent resident of Chicago on May 4, 1857. He erected a temporary church 
on the south side of Eleventh street between May street and Blue Island 
avenue and held first services there on July 12 of the same year. Simultane' 
ously with the building of the church, Father Damen provided a school 
for the children of the parish by adding wings on each side of the church 
for use as classrooms. 

When Father Damen first organized the parish, almost all that portion 
of the city was still unsettled prairie. The locality was speedily settled by 
a population drawn thither largely by Father Damen and his church. By 
1870, 5,000 children were being educated in the five parochial schools of 
the parish and St. Ignatius College. In 1900 there was attached to Holy 
Family parish a congregation of more than 25,000 persons. 

Father Damen was appointed ViccRector, or the first President, of 
St. Ignatius College when it opened its doors on September 5, 1870, to 
admit thirtyseven students. The first board of trustees was composed of 
the Revs. J. S. Verdin, S. J., J. DeBlieck, S. J., M. Oakley, S. J., and 
J. G. Venneman, S. J. All these men had had the usual course of studies 
prescribed to a member of the Society of Jesus, which was up to the stand' 
ards of a master's degree, although it was not customary at the time to take 
out a degree. 

St. Ignatius College awarded its first degree, master of arts, to Philip J. 
Reilly on June 25, 1873. Registration passed the 300 mark during the 
presidency of the Rev. Joseph G. Zealand, S. J., 18844887, and reached 
496 students during the regime of the Rev. Thomas S. Fit2;gerald, S. J., 
189M894. 

When a new charter was obtained in 1909, the Rev. Alexander J. 
Burrowes, S. J., became the first President of the newly named Loyola 
University of Chicago. A School of Law was established in the downtown 
district in the same year. The School of Sociology, now known as the 
School of Social Work, and extension classes in liberal arts courses were 
organized in the Downtown College Building during the presidency of the 
Rev. John L. Mathery, S. J., 1912 to 1915. 

The School of Medicine was made an integral part of the University 
by the Rev. John B. Furay, S. J., who occupied the President's chair from 
1915 to 192i. Under the guidance of the Rev. William H. Agnew, S. J., 
who was president from 1921 to 1927, the College of Arts and Sciences 
was moved to the Lake Shore Campus; a Home Study division was estab' 
lished; the School of Commerce was opened; and the Chicago College of 
Dental Surgery became Loyola's Dental School. 

Since 1927 the various divisions of the University have been strength' 
ened and consolidated. The erection of the Elizabeth M. Cudahy Me' 
morial Library, a $330,000 gift with an additional endowment of $100,000, 
given by Edward A. Cudahy as a memorial to his wife, and an athletic 
field and stadium are the important physical improvements of the Lake 
Shore Campus of the University. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



287 




FRANK KNOX 



Col. Knox, president and publisher of The Chicago Daily News, has been identified with 
the newspaper business since his cub reporter days on the Grand Rapids Herald in 1898. 
He was born in Boston January 1, 1874, the son of William Edwin and Sarah CoUins 
(Barnard) Knox, and received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Alma College, Alma, 
Michigan. His newspaper career was interrupted by the Spanish-American war, in which 
he served under Theodore Roosevelt in Troop D of the First Volunteer Cavalry, the 
famous Rough Riders. Returning to Grand Rapids, he advanced to the position of city 
editor, and later, of circulation manager of the Herald, and in 1901 became publisher of 
the Sault Ste. Marie News. In 1912 he went to Manchester, New Hampshire, as pub- 
lisher of the Manchester Leader, which newspaper a year later was merged with the 
Manchester Union. Col. Knox is still pubhsher of the Leader-Union. As pubHsher of 
the Boston American and the Boston Advertiser, in 1926, he became regional manager 
for the Hearst newspapers first in New England, then in Northern New York, Penn- 
sylvania, and Washington, D. C, and from 1927 to 1931, was general manager of all 
the Hearst newspapers. 

While in Grand Rapids he was a major on the staff of the Governor of Michigan, 
and in 1913 had a similar commission on the staff of the Governor of Massachusetts. 
Col. Knox enlisted in the World War as a private in the First New Hampshire Infantry, 
but was sent to an officers" training camp, where he was commissioned a cavalry Captain. 
Before he could be assigned to a troop, he was commissioned major in the Field 
Artillery, and saw service overseas with the 78th Division, being mustered out as a 
lieutenant-colonel. He is now a lieutenant-colonel in the 365th Field Artillery, organ- 
ized reserve. He was appointed a member of the Board of Indian Commissioners in 1911 
by President Taft. As chairman of the Michigan Republican State Central Committee 
in 1912, he worked for the nomination of Theodore Roosevelt, and was manager of 
Theodore Roosevelt's pre-convention headquarters in Chicago. At the "Bull Moose" 
convention of that year, he was chairman of the Credentials Committee. In 1920 he re- 
turned to the regular Republican fold, and at the National Convention in Chicago, was 
floor manager for Gen. Leonard Wood. Col. Knox came to Chicago as publisher of The 
Daily News in 1931, and in 1932, as chairman of the National Campaign to Combat 

Continued on page 547 



288 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



A PEOPLE^S PARADISE OF FIFTY-ONE SQUARE MILES 

OF WOODLAND 

The Lure of the Forest Preserves That Gird Chicago 

BY CHARLES G. SAUERS 
General Superintendent, Cook County Forest Preserve District 

WITHIN half an hour of State street is a realm of golden sunsets, of 
towering trees and dappled meadows, of lily ponds and winding 
streams, a sanctuary of birds, squirrels, and rabbits. Here the city is for- 
gotten in the peace of forest glades and mossy banks and shady dells. 

Surrounding Chicago on all sides except the east, which is skirted by 
Lake Michigan, are the Forest Preserves, the playground of 4,000,000 peo- 
ple. This belt of 35,000 acres or fifty-one square miles of woodland is the 
greatest recreational domain in the immediate proximity of any American 
city. The Forest Preserve district is visited by 15,000,000 nature lovers 
yearly. 

With the completion of Forest Way, linking the various tracts by strips 
of land of a minimum width wherever possible of 660 feet, the motorist can 
drive for seventy-five miles through a continuous arcade of trees, and never 
see a single sign board. There are nooks and corners that can be explored 
only on foot, by following winding paths and trails. 

With its seven golf courses, its six bathing places, its facilities for boat- 
ing, camping, picnicking, hiking, horseback riding, motoring, fishing, base- 
ball, skating, it offers ideal opportunities for winter and summer sports. 

The Forest Preserve District has its own fire patrol and police force. 
It employes a staff of 400 foresters, caretakers, life guards, matrons, etc. 

Starting in 1915 with the purchase of a 40-acre tract in Deer Grove, 
Palatine Township, and a 100-acre tract in Palos, the district has expanded 
until it has a belt of woodland about four miles wide around the city. 

It contains nearly 3,000,000 trees, 50,000,000 saplings and seedlings, 
25,000,000 shrubs and bushes. Reforestation of denuded tracts has been 
going on to such an extent that 1,000,000 trees have been planted there 
within the last two years. 






CHICAGO S LEADERS 



289 



'/.t cudeni 

CONCORDIA 

T^EACMEftS 

COttEGe 




(H. A. Ehen Photo) 

REV. WILLIAM C. KOHN 

Dr. Kohn, president of Concordia Teachers College and one of the outstanding Lutheran 
clergyman of the Middle West, was born in Chicago, June 2, 1865, the son of John and 
Dorothy (Reckett) Kohn. He attended St. James school, and was advised by its principal, 
his future father-in-law, to enter the ministry. Accordingly he enrolled at Concordia 
College, Fort Wayne, Indiana, where he studied for six years. Completing his theological 
studies at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, he returned to Chicago as assistant pastor of 
St. James Church, of which he later became pastor. For more than twenty years he was 
engaged in missionary work on the South Side of Chicago. Starting in 1889 with a con- 
gregation of ten families, he built up a powerful church, St. Andrews, with a member- 
ship of more than 3,000. During this time he served his synod as a visiting olHcer, and 
in 1908 became president of the Illinois district of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Mis- 
souri, Ohio, and other States. From 1906 to 1909, during his pastorate at St. Andrews, 
he served as chairman of the Mission Board and of the Church Extension Board of the 
Northern Illinois District. Educated in architecture and in business administration, as well 
as in theology. Dr. Kohn directed the building activities of Concordia Teachers College, 
which was opened in 1913. Concordia Teachers College boasts a group of classic buildings 
set in beautifully landscaped grounds occupying forty acres in River Forest where young 
men of Lutheran faith are trained to teach in the parochial schools. Twice he refused the 
presidency of the institution, but finally accepted it, reluctantly turning over to others 
his work on the South Side. He occupies the chairs of theology, pedagogy, and Bible 
History, teaching both in German and in English. 

Dr. Kohn was married April 26, 1888, to Sophia Bartling of Chicago. Their oldest 
son, William, is a missionary in Canada. Other children are Elsa (the wife of the Rev. 
P. Roehrs), Herbert, Gerard, Gertrude (Mrs. L. Kellerman), Luther, and Paula (Mrs. 
W. Schriefer.) 



290 Chicago's accomplishments 

Further development of this vast property with its unrivaled scenic 
beauty and recreational possibilities has been provided for by a bond issue 
of $2,500,000 passed in 1930. The work will conform to a general plan 
drafted by an advisory committee headed by Gen. Abel Davis and acting 
in cooperation with the Forest Preserve District Board of which Emmett 
Whealan is president. 

The plan calls for large allotments of space to natural forest and its 
maintenance and reforestation as a means for passive recreation; also for 
smaller allotments to grounds for active play. 

To this end, 26,250 acres, or seventy-five per cent of the whole, is to 
be reserved in its natural state as wooded area. Picnic grounds, parking 
spaces, playgrounds, baseball diamonds, and field houses will occupy 4,000 
acres, or fourteen per cent of the total. Existing water areas, including 
rivers and lakes, take up approximately 800 acres, greatly enhancing the 
beauty of the silvan landscape. An additional 950 acres of marsh and low 
land are being cleared and converted into lagoons, available for boating 
and fishing. 

Golf courses 1,400 acres in extent, and the Zoological Park at Riverside 
account for the remaining space. 

Forest Way will consist of two one-way master drives, each forty feet 
wide, flanked by trees separated by a forested strip. Bridle paths, pedestrian 
trails, paved walks, and concrete roads have been provided for as well as 
rustic bridges spanning the many woodland streams. 

The trees most in evidence are hard and soft maple, oak, walnut, linden, 
and elm. Many of the oaks and elms are patriarchal, and had attained a ripe 
age even when the Indians roamed the territory. 

The buildings throughout the Forest Preserve are of a uniform design, 
inclining to the rustic, with huge timbers and blocks of stone predomi- 
nating. The same design prevails from the pretentious headquarters and 
administration building down to the humblest "red hot" stand. It is char- 
acteristic of the architecture of the various lodges, pavilions, bath houses, 
and shelters. The lodges, with their open fireplaces, offer hospitality to all 
who seek the peace and quiet of these woodlands. Three modernly- 
equipped swimming pools, Cermak, Emmett Whealan, and Green Lake are 
equipped with modern machinery to purify the water and keep it in drink- 
ing water clarity. They are also equipped with commodious locker rooms 
and showers. More than 750,000 persons last summer dipped into their 
clear cool waters and played in the sand beaches that surround them. Chil- 
dren may be left safely with the nurses and matrons in attendance. On peak 
days these pools can accommodate as many as 5,000 bathers each. 

It will be interesting to the fisherman to know that the waters of the 
Forest Preserve are kept well-stocked with fingerlings from the city and state 
hatcheries. Fishing, however, is permitted only in certain designated bodies 
of water. At all others fishing is strictly prohibited. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



291 







f « . * . 




" ♦ i 



'\-M: 




JAMES L. KRAFT 

Mr. Kraft, president of the Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation. Chicago, was born 
in Ontario, Canada. He came to Chicago in 1903, from a clerkship in a Buffalo, New 
York, grocery store. With a capital of 100 pounds of cheese, a horse and cheese wagon, 
sixty dollars, and an idea for pasteurizing and packing cheese, Mr. Kraft built the 
largest cheese business in the world in less than tweny-five years. It was his idea for 
pasteurizing and packaging cheese which is accredited with revolutionizing cheese'making 
in this country. Today the business of which Mr. Kraft is president has branches in 
every section of the United States, in almost every state, and in many foreign countries, 
including Canada, England, Australia, Spain, and Germany. 

Mr. Kraft has been a leader in activities of the Baptist denomination since his arrival 
in Chicago. He is treasurer of the International Council of Religious Education and has 
been superintendent of the North Shore Baptist Sunday School for twenty-three years. 
He was formerly vice-president of the Northern Baptist Convention, and has held 
executive positions in many of the working organizations of the Baptist denomination. 
Mr. Kraft is well known to archaeologists, collectors, and historians for his collections 
and studies of prehistoric stone. The Lincoln Park totem pole, one of the three standing 
outside museums in the United States, was a gift to the school children of Chicago from 
Mr. Kraft. His collections of fossil fish, American Indian relics, and uncut jade are 
among the finest private collections in the world. On the 150th anniversary of the 
founding of Sunday Schools, Mr. Kraft presented the city of Toronto with a duplicate 
of the London Statue of Robert Raikes, founder of Sunday Schools. Mr. Kraft is a 
member of the Illinois Athletic, the Lake Shore Athletic, the Mid-Day, and the Hamilton 
clubs, and the Congressional Country Club of Washington, D. C. 

He married Pauline Elizabeth Piatt, of Chicago, June 2, 1909. They have one 
daughter, Edith Lucile. 



292 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S OLDEST NATURAL SCIENCE 
INSTITUTION 

The Academy of Sciences and Its SeventyFive Year Record 

of Service 

BY ALFRED M. BAILEY 
Director, Chicago Academy of Sciences 

FOUNDED in 1857, the Chicago Academy of Sciences is the oldest natural 
science organi2,ation in the city, one of the few links between the Chi' 
cago of today and the Chicago of the days before the great fire. It has its 
home in Lincoln Park, near the Center street entrance, in the fine old build' 
ing presented by Matthew Laflin, pioneer real estate operator, to the people 
of Chicago. Since 1904, the building has been a landmark of the North 
Side. 

The Academy was founded by a group of scientists and nature lovers 
who believed in the value of such an institution. Charter members included 
James V. S. Blaney, Dr. Nathan S. Davis, Sr., James W. Freer, C A. 
Helmuth, Hosmer A. Johnson, Dr. Edmund Andrews, Henry Parker, J. Y. 
Scammon, FrankHn Scammon, Richard K. Swift, Joseph D. Webster, Eli' 
phalet W. Blatchford, and Henry W. Zimmerman. 




MATTHEW LAFLIN MEMORIAL, HOME OF THE CHICAGO ACADEMY 

OF SCIENCES 

Robert Kennicott, the distinguished naturalist, was appointed its first 
director. Unfortunately, he was not permitted to serve long in this ca' 
pacity, for in 1866 he lost his life while exploring a lonely section of Alaska. 

It is interesting to note that the children and grandchildren of the 
founders, as well as the direct descendants of Matthew Laflin, also had 
scientific interests. Among the officers of the Academy today are Dr. 
Nathan S. Davis III, Dr. Edmund Andrews, and Lloyd Allan Laflin. 

The Academy is open to the public every day in the year except Christ' 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



293 




# 



\^- 



X 



H 



CITIZENS 
iSSOCJATlON [ 



FiRST PR£5!D£HT[ 
, GERMAN CVn | 

! CHICAGO I 



f POUR •'n^''T£RMS 
; GhaHD ORATOa I 
'CRfeKi)LOD<iE'yiLl!HOiSf 



n>| 



(VVa/inger Photo) 



OSCAR A. KROPF 

Mr. Kropf was born in Vienna, Austria, March 10, 1872. His parents, Ferdinand Michael 
and Eleonor Johanna Kropf, were German, and the family came to the United States in 
1877. Mr. Kropf graduated from the Washburn Academy at Topeka, Kansas, in 1891. 
He received his B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Washburn College in 1895 and was 
valedictorian of his class; M.A. (Master of Arts) in 1897, and LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) 
in 1925. During 1897 and 1898 he was superintendent of the public schools of Hays 
City, Kansas. In 1901 he received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at North' 
western University Law School and was admitted to the Bar. He has practiced law since 
then continuously in Chicago and has taken an active part in civic affairs. 

Mr. Kropf is chairman of the board of the Howard Avenue Trust and Savings Bank 
of Chicago, director of the Citizens Association and chairman of its committee for A 
Century of Progress. He organized the German Club of Chicago and was its first presi- 
dent. He also was president of the Rogers Park Sunday Evening Club. He is a 33rd 
degree Mason, Past Potentate of Medinah Temple A. A. O. N. M. S., and served four 
terms as Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge A. F. ii A. M. of Illinois. He is a member 
of the American, Illinois State and Chicago bar associations, and of Phi Alpha Delta 
Fraternity. He served as chairman of the Committee on Admission of the Chicago Bar 
Association. His clubs are Union League (former chairman, public affairs committee), 
Ridgemoor Country, Law, and German of Chicago (president, 1914-1915). 

On October 21, 1908, Mr. Kropf married Edith Alfreda Anderson of Chicago. 
Their children are Richard Thomas, who graduated from the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology in 1931, and Eleanor Arietta, who is attending Northwestern University. 



294 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



mas, and admission is free at all times. Its museum of natural history is one 
of the most complete, of a local area, in the country, and the great habitat 
groups with photographic backgrounds are more than eighty feet in length, 
the faunal and floral life which once occurred in the Chicago area, being 
shown in the foreground. Among the large mammals shown are the black 
bear, mountain lion, prairie and timber wolves, Canada lynx, and Virginia 
deer. Birds, insects, plants, and fossils are included in the many exhibits. 
Thousands of students use the collections as a basis for study; about 300,000 
people visit the Academy annually. 

In addition to the exhibits for the public, a free lecture program is given 
Sunday afternoons during the fall and winter months, with illustrated 
talks by some of America's foremost naturalists. 




(Chicago Academy of Sciences Photo) 
BLACK BEAR AND YOUNG 

The pubhcations of the Academy have been important contributions 
to science. The first record of the ornithology of Alaska, after the 
American occupation, was published by the Academy in 1868, and in the 
years that have passed have appeared many other worthwhile works on 
the animal and plant life and the geology of North America. Pepoon's 
splendid work on the plant life of the Chicago locality, under the title "The 
Flora of the Chicago Region," is the most recent publication, but the 
Academy issues quarterly a sixteen'page bulletin recording its activities. 

A great part of the work upon the scientific collections is carried on by 
the Honorary Curators of the different departments and their aids. 

Unlike most museums, the Academy does not receive tax money for 
its support. Its income is derived from endowments and the dues of its 
membership. Its affairs are administered by a board of scientific governors 
of which Dr. Henry C. Cowles is chairman, and a board of trustees of which 
Lewis C. Walker is chairman. Serving on both boards are some of Chi' 
cago's most prominent citiziens. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



295 




(Mofet-Russell Photo) 

WALLACE R. LANE 



Mr. Lane, senior member of the law firm of Parkinson and Lane of Chicago, was born in 
Whateley, Massachusetts, August 12, 1876, son of John William and Mary (Haynes) 
Lane. He received his preparatory education at Hopkins Academy, Hadley, Mass., and 
Williston Academy, Easthampton, Mass. He was a student at Brown University, Provi' 
dence, R. L, from 1895 to 1897, and received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at 
Yale Law School in 1900. He was admitted to the Connecticut bar in 1900 and first 
practiced at Fitchburg, Mass.; then moved to Des Moines, Iowa, where he practiced from 
1901 to 1910 as a member of the law firm of Orwig and Lane; during this period he was 
a professor of law at Highland Park College, lecturer at Drake University, Des Moines, 
and the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, on patent, trade mark, and unfair com- 
petition law. In 1910, Mr. Lane moved to Chicago and became associated with Robert 
H. Parkinson under the firm name of Parkinson and Lane, specializing in patent, cor- 
poration, trade mark and unfair competition law. He is recognized as one of America's 
foremost patent counsels. His firm represents a large number of leading corporations, 
municipalities, and several states. Mr. Lane is a director of several corporations. He is a 
member of the Scarlet Fever Committee, Inc., administering the "Dick Patent" on scarlet 
fever antitoxin for the benefit of the public, and in recognition of his services the Lane 
Fellowship was established in 1930. He was appointed by President Coolidge in 192? 
as a delegate representing the United States to the International Convention for Pro- 
tection of Industrial Property at The Hague, which resulted in the treaty ratified by the 
United States Senate on December 16, 1930. He was vice-chairman of the Lawyers' Na- 
tional Committee during 1925 and 1926 to increase salaries of Federal Judges. 

Mr. Lane is a trustee of Brown University and in 1927 received from this University 
the honorary degree of Master of Arts; is a trustee of Williston Academy and Hopkins 
Academy; was made an honorary member of the Cum Laude Society of Williston 
Academy, 1930, and Phi Beta Kappa (Brown), 1932. He is a member of the American 
Bar Association (chairman, patent section, 1919-20), American Patent Law Association 
(president, 1922-23), Chicago Patent Law Association (president, 1924), Chicago, 

Continued on page 547 



296 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 




^i>. ii, 



I III 



It 









a? 



(Mo/Jc-tt-Russell Photo) 

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN LANGWORTHY 

Mr. Langworthy, senior member of the law firm of Langworthy, Stevens, 
McKeag and McCornack, was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, October 9, 
1871, son of George Irish and Anne Lockhart (Karr) Langworthy. He is 
a descendant of Colonial ancestors, among them James Babcock, who settled 
at Portsmouth, Rhode Island, in 1642, and Col. Joseph Babcock, who was 
born at Westfield, Rhode Island, in 1754. He received his B. S. (Bachelor 
of Science) degree at Alfred University in 1892 and later studied law at 
the Northwestern University Law School. In 1897 he married Mary A. 
Lewis of Plainfield, New Jersey. Their children are Frances Lewis (Mrs. 
Donald Bain Murray) and Marigold Lockhart (Mrs. Dwight Taylor). 

Mr. Langworthy was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1895, and has since 
been engaged in the practice of municipal, real property, and corporation 
law. For many years he was professor of real property law at John Marshall 
Law School and was village attorney of River Forest, Illinois, from 1909 to 
1915. He is a member of the American, Illinois State, and Chicago bar 
associations. He was president of the Chicago Alumni Association of Alfred 
University in 1925. He is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution 
and was president of the Patriotic League of Phil Sheridan Post No. 615, 
G. A. R., of Oak Park, Illinois. His clubs are Union League, City, and 
RoUing Green Golf. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



297 




r-'\. / V i. "■■ 

■/>■ J[?a.^ ■- * vis- 

NATJOHAL 
PARENT 

TEACHERS 







(Fernand de Gueldre Vhoto) 

MARY LEWIS LANGWORTHY 



Mrs. Langworthy, clubwoman and civic leader, a descendant of Abraham 
Lewis of the Revolutionary War period, was born in Alfred, New York, 
March 31, 1872, daughter of Abram Herbert and Augusta Melissa (John- 
son) Lewis. She attended the Alfred public schools, Plainfield (New Jersey) 
Young Ladies' Seminary, and took special studies at Alfred University, 
receiving a teacher's certificate from Delsarte School of Expression, New 
York, in 1894. 

On October 25, 1897, she married Benjamin FrankHn Langworthy, of 
Chicago. Their children are Frances Lewis (Mrs. Donald Bain Murray), 
and Marigold Lockhart (Mrs. Dwight Taylor). 

Mrs. Langworthy is a welbknown writer and director of patriotic and 
educational pageants, among them River Forest Independence Day, for sev- 
eral years, and is director of the drama class of the River Forest Women's 
Club. For two terms she served as trustee of the Village of Winnetka and 
is vice-president of the National Congress of Parents and Teachers, director 
of the Illinois League of Women Voters, vice-president of the Cook County 
School of Nursing, secretary of the Juvenile Protective Association, and mem' 
ber of the Daughters of the American Revolution (George Rogers Clark 
Chapter) . 

Mrs. Langworthy is a director of the Woman's City Club, president 
during 1924 and 1925, and is a member of Chicago Woman's Club, Woman's 
Athletic Club, and Winnetka Woman's Club. Her favorite recreations are 
swimming, walking, motoring, and the theater. 



298 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



MEAT PACKING 



- CHICAGO^S FUNDAMENTAL 
INDUSTRY 



The Union Stock Yards, Where Range and City Merge 

OF recent years the Union Stock Yards as a mecca for tourists has had 
considerable competition. But almost up to the beginning of the 
present century the Stock Yards stood unchallenged as Chicago's big show. 
Not to see the Yards was to miss seeing Chicago, and this square mile of 
industry was included in the itinerary of every visitor to the city. It was 
visited by princes and maharajas. It is still one of the starred attractions of 
Chicago's Baedecker. 

Meat packing is, and has been for three'quarters of a century, Chicago's 
fundamental industry. The city, by its strategic location alone, was destined 
to become the world's most important packing center. Here the railroads 
converging from the Western plains, branched off, leading to the populous 
eastern cities. But if the railroads contributed to Chicago's rise as a world 
meat market, the packing business in itself is largely responsible for the 
city's railroad supremacy. 

Even as long ago as 1882, more than 175,000 carloads of livestock were 
received at the Union Stock Yards yearly. Today the annual receipts reach 
250,000 carloads, and of these, approximately one'third are reshipped to 
other destinations. To visuali2;e a single day's receipts, you have only to 
think of a continuous freight train seven miles in length. 




A SMALL PART OF THE "YARDS" 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



299 




•^h 




-^-^m 



hi 




(Mofett-Russcll Photo) 



T. G. LEE 



Mr. Lee, president of Armour i^ Company, was born on a farm near Carrollton. Ohio, 
February 13, 1878, the son of Erasmus W. and Nancy Isabel (Crabb) Lee. and was 
educated in the public schools. At the age of fifteen he came to Chicago and obtained 
a job in a commission house, but having raised his own pet stock at home, he had his eye 
on Packingtown, and, despite his youthful appearance, he managed to persuade the head 
of Armour's beef department to employ him as a stenographer. His first opportunity 
came when the department manager's stenographer resigned and Mr. Lee applied for the 
job. The manager had his misgivings, but tested the boy out and found that he would 
qualify. 

Mr. Lee proceeded to grow up with the business. He became secretary to the man- 
ager of the beef department and later was placed in charge of this department, where he 
remained until his appointment as sales manager of the Philadelphia territory. In 1920 
he became sales manager of the New York territory with supervision over the company's 
Eastern interests. In 1926 he was summoned from New York, elected to a vice-presi- 
dency, and placed in charge of all branch house sales as well as the operations of the 
beef and small stock (veal and lamb) divisions of the business. Such was his status in 
January, 1931, when he was elected to the directorate, and to the presidency, "because 
of his thirty-five years' experience in all divisions of the business and his success in dis- 
charging the various responsibilities put on him." Mr. Lee is a member of the Union 
League and Exmoor Country clubs. 

He was married, November 8, 1902, to Harriette Jones of Charlottesville, Virginia. 
There are two children, Jane (Mrs. William E. Graham) and Martha. 



300 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



It was in the early '60's that Chicago's pioneer packers began wresting 
the supremacy from other packing centers. In the early days each railroad 
maintained yards for livestock near its terminal, and these yards, together 
with the slaughter houses, were scattered widely over the city. Hogs, sheep, 
and steers were driven through the streets. In 1865 John Sherman and 
a group of his associates purchased a square mile of land several miles south' 
west of what was then the city limits. They arranged for rail connections, 
and opened Chicago's Union Stock Yards. Other yards were abandoned 
and concentrated there. 

A year later, three quarters of a million head of cattle, sheep, and hogs 
found their way to the Chicago killing pens. Thirty years later there were 
fifteen times as many. Every year since 1895 has seen more than 10,000,000 
head slaughtered and dressed — sometimes many more, as when, during the 
World War, the num.ber rose to 15,000,000. 

Tapping the entire prairie empire, Chicago draws its livestock from 
6,000,000 farms distributed among twenty-seven States; from ranches and 
farms extending across the plains to the Rocky Mountains, and southwest 





to the Rio Grande. Most of the cattle and hogs come from Illinois, Iowa, 
Indiana, Missouri and Nebraska. 

The meat dressed and processed in Chicago every year is sufficient to 
feed the twenty-five largest cities in the United States or the entire popula- 
tions of France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden com- 
bined. The packers located in Chicago could furnish, in the course of a year, 
a two month's supply of meat for the entire United States. In other words, 
they produce about one-sixth of the meats consumed by the nation. The 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



301 



daily output is 9,000,000 pounds; the annual output is 2,500,000,000. 

For stock sold in Chicago the farmers and ranchers receive more than 
$400,000,000 a year, and in one year, 1918, they received $900,000,000 
for their steaks and chops on the hoof. What's more, they are paid in cash, 
and a Stock Yards receipt is equivalent to money in the pocket. The Chi- 
cago packers have an annual pay roll in the city alone of $35,000,000, dis- 
tributed among 25,000 employees. Thus vast amounts of currency are kept 
in circulation, adding greatly to the nation's prosperity and buying power. 

Profits from the sale of meats are narrow, averaging in normal times only 
about iVi cents for each dollar invested, or a fraction of a cent a pound. 
This close figuring has been made possible largely through the utilization of 
by-products, formerly regarded as waste and representing fortunes thrown 
away. 

For Chicago's pre-eminence in packing is not one of size alone. The 
packing firms have taken the initiative in the development of new products 
and of new uses for old products. Methods of packing, curing, smoking, 
refrigerating, distributing, and merchandising have undergone revolutionary 
changes within recent years. 

In no other industry has science worked such wonderful transforma- 
tions than in the packing industry, and it can be said truthfully that not a 
hair nor a hoof or an animal goes to waste. Practically every part of an ani- 
mal which winds up its career in the Union Stock Yards, is turned to some 
commercial use. The principal by-products include hides and leather, hair 




LOADING A REFRIGERATOR CAR WITH BEEF 



302 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



and wool, bones and horn, fertilizer, glue, casings, oils and fats, strings for 
musical instruments, and glue. Science has found a use for them too in 
many drugs, including insulin, thus making important contributions to 
human welfare. 

Because of the inclusion of by-products in the value of the meat animal 
when purchased, the packer can and does pay a higher price to the farmer. 
On the other hand, he can sell the meat for much less than he could if 
there were no byproducts to make up the difference. In this way, both 
producer and consumer benefit. 

One of the interesting sights at the packing plants is that of the govern- 
ment inspectors at work. Nothing escapes their eagle eye. The slightest 
taint is immediately spotted, and an entire carcass may be rejected. The 
government stamp on a slab of meat is a guarantee of purity. It is interest- 
ing also to see the bearded Jewish rabbis in the killing pens slaughtering 
the animals for the kosher trade. 

The Institute of American Meat Packers, with headquarters in Chicago, 
is the trade, research, and educational division of the industry. The Institute 
is carrying on an extensive program of scientific and practical research, em- 
ployee training, and waste elimination. It is in the laboratories of the Insti- 
tute that many new uses for by-products have been developed. 

In furtherance of the industry's educational program, an institute of 
meat packing has been established at the University of Chicago, conducted 
jointly by the University and the Institute of American Meat Packers. 
Education and research activities are carried on also by the larger indi- 
vidual companies. 



IFT&COMPA 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



303 





I"' WAR ^ 



'^t- — ,^ y 







(From Draicing by Jofin Doctorofj) 



SALMON O. LEVINSON 



Mr. Levinson, senior member of the law firm of Levinson, Becker, Gilbert, Peebles i^ 
Swiren, and founder of the American Committee for the Outlawry of War, was born in 
Noblesville, Indiana, December 29, 1865, the son of Newman D. and Minnie (Newman) 
Levinson. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Yale University in 1888, his 
Bachelor of Laws degree from Lake Forest University in 1891, and was awarded the 
degree of Doctor of Laws by Grinnell College in 1929 and by DePauw University in 
1930. Admitted to the Illinois Bar in 1891, he has practiced in Chicago since that time, 
specializing in the reorganization of industrials and railroads. He reorganized the 
Westinghouse companies and the personal business affairs of George Westinghouse in 
1908; the St. Louis 6? San Francisco Railroad Company in 1915. 

It is, however, as the instigator of the Outlawry of War movement that he has re- 
ceived world-wide recognition. Having had two sons in the service during the World 
War, the subject of the legal status of war was one which touched him closely. In 1918 
he set forth his views in an article published in the New Republic. His idea — one that 
had never before been expressed — was to dethrone Mars from his legal pedestal, or to 
deprive war of its legal status rather than to try to mitigate the horrors of war. He 
founded and financed the American Committee for the Outlawry of War, enlisting in 
the campaign such workers as Raymond Robins, John Haynes Holmes, Judge Florence 
Allen, Dr. C. C. Morrison, and John Dewey. In 1927 Mr. Levinson went to Europe, 
established an office in London, and interviewed publicists, journalists, statesmen, and 
diplomats in England and France. The ideas thus promulgated were the foundation of 
the Kellogg-Briand peace pact, signed in Paris, August 27, 1928. In recognition of his 
services to humanity Mr. Levinson was awarded the Rosenberger medal by the University 
of Chicago, being one of only three to receive this honor. The other recipients are 
Dr. James Henry Breasted, Orientalist, and Dr. F. G. Banting, discoverer of insulin. 

Continued on page 547 



304 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO AND ITS 
SPIRIT OF SERVICE 

What the World's Most Democratic Art Museum Offers to the 
Student, to the Master and to the Public 

BY ROBERT B. HARSHE 
Director 

THE lordly Stone lions guarding the entrance to the Art Institute in Grant 
Park at the end of Adams Street might well be emblazoned on Chicago's 
coat of arms. They symbolize the cultural aspirations of the city. 

Down the ages, the need of art has been as elemental as the urge for 
food, shelter and clothing. What we know of prehistoric man is compassed 
by the record of his art. Art alone endures as the measure of the slow 
march of mankind out of savagery. 

The pomp of kings and the spiritual power of priests have in turn been 
serv'ed by the handmaiden of art. Their palaces and temples were the world's 
first art museums. Castles and cathedrals, however, were primarily store' 
houses. It is not strange, then, that the idea of the museum as a storehouse, 
to which only the scholar or the esthete hold the key, should persist today. 

Proud of its title, "the world's most democratic art museum," the Art 
Institute of Chicago has from the first used its influence to break down 
these antiquated traditions. 

Open to the public free of charge on Wednesdays, Saturdays, Sundays, 
and holidays, and with a nominal admission fee of 25 cents on other days, 
it is visited yearly by more than 1,000,000 art lovers. Thousands of chib 
dren, viewing the great masterpieces by occidental or oriental artists, in its 
many halls and galleries have received an inspiration that has enriched their 
lives. Its Art School, the largest and most influential in the United States, 
is establishing new standards for American art. Many of America's fore' 
most painters, etchers, sculptors and designers have received their training 
there. 

As early as 1866, Chicago, which up to that time had been concerned 
mainly with growing, began to feel the need of something definitely cub 
tural. In that year the Chicago Academy of Design was founded. It sur 
vived the great Chicago fire of 1871, and shortly afterwards, was reorgau' 
ized as the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. Its purpose, as defined by 
charter, was "the founding and maintenance of a school of art and design, 
the formation and exhibition of collections of objects of art, and the culti' 
vation and extension of the arts of design by any appropriate means." In 
1882, the Academy became known by its present name, the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 

In 1882, after the Institute had outgrown two buildings, one in Van 
Buren Street, the other on Michigan Avenue near Van Buren Street, a site 
for a permanent building was obtained in Grant Park, and the imposing 
Itahan Renaissance structure which now houses its priceless treasures was 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



305 





f IB NS«i 




';'".,, V !' is^'i"";^^' ' --•'■.5-'" 
I'''., «'',?-.,'■'" ,/ 



■*«^ 



(JCoehiie Photo) 

JOHN T. LLEWELLYN 

Mr. Llewellyn, president of the Chicago Malleable Castings Company, Allied 
Steel Castings Company, and the Virginia Hotel Building Corporation, was 
born in Briton Ferry, South Wales, July 7, 1863, son of Henry and Elizabeth 
(Gower) Llewellyn. Immigrated to America from his birthplace, with parents, 
to Chicago during his first year, and six years later moved with family to 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he entered grammar and Bay View High 
schools. At the age of sixteen, entered employ of the Milwaukee Works of 
the North Chicago Rolling Mill Company (now Illinois Steel Company) ad- 
vancing to assistant general sales agent. When the Milwaukee offices were 
removed to Chicago in 1895, Mr. Llewellyn accepted the position as president 
of the Belle City Malleable Iron Company, Racine, Wisconsin, where he re- 
mained for four years, returning to Chicago in 1899 to organize the Chicago 
Malleable Castings Company of which he is now president. 

Trustee, Chicago Orphan Asylum; member. Executive Committee, Railway 
Business Association, American Iron &' Steel Institute, Malleable Iron Re- 
search Institute, Chicago Athletic Association, and the South Shore Country, 
Midlothian Country, and Flossmoor Country clubs, the Wisconsin Society of 
Chicago, and others. 

On June 23, 1886, married Mary Agnes, daughter of James Sheriffs of Mil- 
waukee. They have one son, James Sheriffs Llewellyn, now deceased. 



306 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(Courtesy, The Art Institute oj Chicago) 
THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO 
Shepley, Rutan 6? Coolidge, architects. 

erected. Building and grounds are valued at $20,000,000. The collections 
could not be purchased for $40,000,000. 

Although no object in the Museum has been bought by taxpayer's 
money, and tax receipts pay only a fraction of its upkeep, its wonderful 
collections, formed entirely from the gifts of individuals, and its building, 
paid for by private subscriptions, belong in their entirety to the people of 
Chicago. 

It is perhaps due to this feeling of ownership that the average Chicagoan 
has for this institution a pride verging on affection. However poor he may 
be in worldly goods, these are his treasures, exhibited for his esthetic pleas- 
ure and education. Pride in the Art Institute and appreciation of its ser- 
vices are reflected in the size of its membership, which is larger than that 
of any other museum in the world. Annual and sustaining members, 
numbering some 15,000, contribute each year to its support, and Hfe mem- 
bers, on the payment of $100, enjoy with their families the advantages of 
its lectures and its theater during the subscriber's lifetime. 

The list of benefactors who have made gifts valued at $50,000 or more, 
memorialized by bronze tablets in the entrance hall, is virtually a complete 
roster of the men and women who have notably furthered the educational 
progress of Chicago. 

The Institute's large attendance is due not only to its central location, 
but to the variety and quality of its special exhibitions which greatly out- 
number the exhibitions shown in other museums. Many of these exhibitions 
consist wholly or in part of the work of Chicago artists who are eligible 
for annual prizes of $13,300. 

The departmental organization of the Institute has developed specialized 
public interests which have resulted in the formation of various contributory 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



307 




{Underivood and Underwood Photo) 

FRANK J. LOESCH 

Mr. Loesch, veteran lawyer and senior member of the law firm of Loesch, Scofield, 
Loesch and Burke of Chicago, was born in Buffalo, New York, April 9, 1852, and is 
the son of Frank and Mary (Fisher) Loesch. He enrolled in 1871 at the Old Union 
College of Law, Chicago, graduated in June. 1874, and was admitted to the practice of 
law. Mr. Loesch has been counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad System in Illinois since 
1886; general counsel, Chicago Union Station Company since 1913; special assistant 
state's attorney in prosecution of election frauds, 1908 and 1909; member of the Board 
of Education, 1898 to 1902; president of the Chicago Crime Commission, 1928 to 
1932. He was appointed by President Hoover in May, 1929, as one of the eleven 
members of the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. Some of 
his most notable work was following the April, 1928, primary, when he was named 
chief special assistant attorney general, thus becoming, at the age of seventy-six, the 
head of the column marching against election frauds and crimes. 

Mr. Loesch is a member of the American, Illinois State, and Chicago bar assc 
ciations, serving as president of the latter from 1905 to 1907. He is a trustee and 
vice-president of the Chicago Historical Society; honorary member of the Union League 
Club (president, 1916-1917), and member of the University, Law (president, 1922- 
1923), Saddle and Cycle, Chicago Literary (president, 1928-1929), City, and Casino 
clubs of Chicago, and the Cooperstown, New York, Country Club. 

On October 2, 1873, he married Lydia T. Richards of Chicago (deceased); the 
children are AngeHne L. (wife of Dr. Robert E. Graves), Winifred L. (wife of Fred- 
erick Z. Marx), Richards L., and Joseph B. He married May Browning Bausher, of 
Chicago and Cooperstown, New York, February 7, 1925. 



308 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



societies, such as the Antiquarians, the Friends of American Art, the Orien- 
tals, the Print and Drawing Club, the Needlework and Textile Guild, the 
Subscribers to the Goodman Theatre. 

The Institute maintains no less than three libraries, a Print Reference 
Library in the Department of Prints and Drawings; the Burnham Library 
of Architecture, founded by the late Daniel H. Burnham, and the Ryerson 
Library of books on the fine arts, the foundation of the late Martin A. 
Ryerson. These libraries serve more than 100,000 readers annually. 





(Courtesy, The Art Institute of Chicago) 
VIEWS OF BLACKSTONE HALL, ART INSTITUTE 

The Department of Museum Instruction with a staff of five lecturers 
offers courses in the history and appreciation of art. Lectures given in the 
Institute to members, students and the children, reach annual audiences 
numbering approximately 100,000. Lectures given before clubs, organiza' 
tions and high schools by the Extension Lecturer, Dudley Crafts Watson, 
each year reach over 40,000 listeners. The Scammon Lectures founded by 
Mrs. Maria Sheldon Scammon are given annually and are frequently pub' 
lished in book form. The James Nelson Raymond Lecture Fund for Chil' 
dren, founded by Mrs. Anna Louise Raymond has quickened the interest 
of over 300,000 children in the knowledge and significance of art. 

The Children's Museum endowed by Mr. and Mrs. Charles Worcester 
provides exhibitions of especial interest to boys and girls. Talks are given 
Saturday mornings by its curator to children of members. Plays for children 
and for members of the Art Institute are presented by the students in the 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



309 











V * 



{Paul Stone-Raymor , Ltd., Photo) 



FRANK G. LOGAN 



Two careers in a single lifetime is the unusual achievement of Frank G. Logan, honorary 
vice-president of the Art Institute of Chicago. By pursuing his vocation as founder of 
the well'known firm of Logan and Bryan, he rounded out one career by the time he 
reached his fiftieth year. Since his retirement in 1901, Mr. Logan has made his second 
and most active career in his avocations — the furtherance of art, education and science. 

To the advancement of art, Mr. Logan has given generously of his time, energy 
and resources. In 1916 he established and endowed the Mr. and Mrs. Frank G. Logan 
Medal and Prise Fund, out of the income of which annual awards are made to all 
branches of art displayed in the Institute. He is a trustee of the Municipal Art League, 
and of the Municipal Monument Fund founded by the late B. F. Ferguson, which 
erects statues and monuments to beautify Chicago's public places; a trustee appointed 
by the City of Chicago for the purchase of art for the Municipal Collection out of 
the annual funds appropriated by the City Council; a trustee of the Grand Central 
Galleries of New York, of the Chicago Galleries Association and of numerous other 
art societies and associations. His own love of the beautiful is represented in his private 
collection, one of the finest in Chicago. It consists of Barbizon paintings, modern Dutch, 
Flemish masters (one of which is a self-portrait by Rembrandt painted in 1631), 
English portraits, and works by American artists. A trustee of Beloit College since 
1892, he founded and endowed the Logan Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 
which is renowned. The Museum is decorated with twelve mural paintings by John 
Norton representing the twelve epochs of man's life and houses collections from more 
than two hundred locations covering the world, among which is one of the greatest 
Paliolithic (Old Stone Age) exhibits in this country, including the world-famed Aurig- 
nacian necklace of some 30,000 to 50,000 years ago. The American collection from 
nearly every state in the Union, among others, embraces the largest aggregation of 
American stone axes and a representative assemblage of rare Wisconsin coppers. 

In addition to these gifts, Mr. and Mrs. Logan founded and endowed a chair of 
anthropology and financed five archaeological expeditions to Europe and Africa seeking 

Continued on page 548 



310 



CHICAGO 8 ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Dramatic School of the Kenneth Sawyer Goodman Memorial Theatre 
founded by Mr. and Mrs. William Owen Goodman. 

Educational work for children is concentrated in the Saturday classes 
of the Art School where 500 exceptionally talented young people begin 
early in life to choose some form of art expression as a vocation. 

The Art School of the Institute offers courses in fine and applied arts 
to about 5,000 students. From the General Education Board and the Asso' 
ciation of Arts and Industry it has recently received $360,000 to found a 
school of Industrial Art to develop designers to serve the industries of the 
Middle West. 

The Museum acquires and exhibits examples from the art of the world, 
chosen not for their historical or academic importance, but for high esthetic 
quality alone. These exhibits are not limited to painting and sculpture; they 
include prints, textiles, furniture, ceramics, from America, Europe, and the 
Orient. The collections are beginning to assume a coherent and sequential 
scheme, the most serious gaps being found in Classical and Egyptian, Mc 
dieval and Renaissance art. In American, Spanish, Primitive German and 
French, Impressionistic and modern French painting; in Chinese pottery and 
bronzes it leads all other American art museums. It is strong also in Gothic 
and Persian art, in Japanese Prints, in Continental glass, and in certain 
phases of modern prints. 

The Art Institute contains the official Fine Arts Department of the 
Century of Progress Exhibition which will show in definite sequence the Art 
of the world from Gothic times to the present. It is throughout an exhibi' 
tion of masterpieces such as has never been seen in the United States. 





II 




. 


i 


li 

■* 1 


4 


r 




GOTHIC ROOM, LUCY MAUD 
BUCKINGHAM MEMORIAL 



(Courtesy, The Art Institute of Chicago) 
STAIRWAY, ART INSTITUTE 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



311 




(Arthur Ermates Photo) 



NATHAN WILLIAM MacCHESNEY 



Mr. MacChesney, senior member of the law firm of MacChesney, Whiteford &? Wells, 
was born in Chicago, June 2, 1878, son of Alfred Brunson MacChesney (M. D.) and 
Henrietta (Milsom) MacChesney (M.D.) The MacChesney family came originally 
from Normandy in France, Scotland, and the north of Ireland, settling in America in 
1689. Mr. MacChesney obtained his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at the College 
of the Pacific in 1898, which college conferred on him an honorary LL. D. (Doctor of 
Laws) in 1926. Meantime he pursued special work at Stanford University. He was a 
student instructor in the University of Arizona, 1898-1899, and from 1899 to 1900 he 
attended Northwestern University Law School, which conferred on him the LL. M. 
(Master of Laws) degree in 1922. He graduated from the Law Department of the 
University of Michigan in 1902 with the degree of LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws). His 
general practice has involved largely corporation, banking, probate, and real estate law, 
the National Association of Real Estate Boards, for which he is general counsel, being 
one of his clients. Mr. MacChesney was Special Assistant Attorney General of the 
United States in 1911 and 1912, and has been Special Assistant Attorney General for 
Illinois. 

General MacChesney served in the National Guard of California and of Arizona. 
During the war with Spain he was with the first United States Volunteer Cavalry, later 
known as the "Rough Riders." During the Mexican border trouble he was on duty 
with the Illinois National Guard. General MacChesney was commissioned in the 
United States Army, June, 1917, serving with the 33rd and 86th divisions, with the 
Secretary of War, and as Judge Advocate attached to the staff of General Pershing. 
He was recommended for the Distinguished Service Medal, awarded a citation by 
General Pershing, and has been awarded the Order of the Purple Heart by the War 
Department. He was commissioned Brigadier-General in the National Guard, thanked 
by the Illinois State Council of Defense and presented with a Commemorative Sabre, 
He was also thanked by England, France, Belgium, and Italy for his war services and 
has had conferred upon him by the King of Siam the rank of Commander in the Order 

Continued on page 548 



312 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(Hednch-Blessing Photo) 
1301 ASTOR STREET — Modernism has invaded the smaller building, and its clean lines 
and surfaces seem to have detracted nothing from the homeHke qualities of this residen- 
tial apartment building. Philip B. Maher, architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



313 






i 'I 




(LouheU Studios, Photo) 

PHILIP B. MAKER 

Mr. Maher, architect, was born in Kenilworth, Illinois, October 21, 1894, son of George 
W. (architect) and Ehzabeth (Brooks) Maher. He studied architecture under his father 
and at the University of Michigan and started with the firm of George W. Maher, 
architect, of Chicago in 1914; was a member of the firm of George W. Maher & Son 
from 1921 to 1924. He estaWished the present firm of PhiHp B. Maher, architect, 
in 1924. 

He has designed some of Chicago's most distinguished buildings, his practice cover- 
ing many classes, such as office buildings, fine shops, clubs, cooperative apartments and 
residences. He is best known for the many projects he has designed along North 
Michigan avenue when this district started its rapid development following the opening 
of the Michigan Boulevard Bridge. Among them were the Woman's Athletic Club, 
The Farwell Office Building, The Blackstone Shop, Jacques' Shop and the Decorative 
Arts Building. He also designed and aided in organizing the cooperative apartment 
buildings at 1301 and 1260 Astor Street, which are unique in that all apartments in the 
buildings are of totally different design and layout and are developed as so many indi' 
vidual homes. In addition to the above, he designed the City Hall for the City of Gary, 
Indiana. In many of his late buildings of a modern style he has carried out the interior 
decoration and furnishing complete, designing all furniture so as to carry out the indi' 
vidual style of the buildings. Mr. Maher served as an ensign in the U. S. Navy two 
and one-half years during, and after the World War and was stationed at Great Lakes, 
Ilhnois, where he was engaged in the construction development of the station; later he 
was at Naval Headquarters, London, and after the Armistice, with the Commission to 
Negotiate Peace at Paris. He is a member of the American Institute of Architects. 
His clubs are Arts, Tavern, Saddle and Cycle, and Onwentsia. 

On December 22, 1921, Mr. Maher married Madeleine Michelson of Chicago and 
they have two children, Phihp Brooks, Jr., and Hilary. 



314 Chicago's accomplishments 

COMBATING THE RISING TIDE OF 
PUBLIC ACCIDENTS 

The Chicago Safety Council and Its Important Tasks 

BY C. L. RICE 
President of the Chicago Safety Council 

THE Chicago Safety Council is a monument to the broadmindedness and 
vision of Chicago's industrial leaders. Organized in 1926 as a cc 
operative effort to reduce industrial accidents, it has become today an aggres' 
sive champion in the fight to stem the mounting toll of deaths from public 
accidents within its sphere of influence. 

Until within recent years, the problem of industrial safety had received 
little attention. Accidents in factories and workshops were regarded as in- 
evitable. The safety engineer had not begun his studies. 

A survey of the situation, however, revealed the fact that in most in' 
stances life and limb could have been saved had ordinary precautions been 
taken. 

Two things were necessary if the situation was to be relieved. The work' 
men themselves must be educated and shown how to avoid the most common 




(Chicafio Architectural Photographing Company) 
Wacker Drive, looking west. The river that Hows backward. Steel bascule bridges span 
this stream once arched by wooden structures. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



315 





CHICAGO 
TEMPLE 




(From Druu'iiig by John Doctorojj) 



RABBI LOUIS L. MANN 



Dr. Mann, Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, was born January 25, 1890, in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, the son of David and Frieda (Weiss) Mann. Graduating in 1907 from 
the Male High School in Louisville, he studied at Johns Hopkins University, and later 
at the University of Cincinnati, where he received his Bachelor's degree in 1910, and his 
Master's degree in 1912. Further studies at the Hebrew Union College led to the degrees 
of Bachelor of Hebrew Literature and Rabbi. Yale University conferred upon him the 
Doctor of Laws degree in 1920. Dr. Mann was Rabbi of Mishkan Israel Congregation in 
New Haven from 1914 to 1923, and on the death of Dr. Emil G. Hirsch in 1923, was 
called to Chicago to fill the Sinai Temple pulpit. He was lecturer on Comparative Ethics 
at Yale University, and is now professorial lecturer in the Department of Oriental Lan- 
guages and Literature, University of Chicago. In 1931 he lectured on "The Evolution 
of the Soul" for the W. F. Ayres Foundation. As a preacher Dr. Mann prefers to deal 
with the problems of the day, believing that "nothing human is foreign to religion." 

His civic and philanthropic interests are many. He is an acting National Director of 
the B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation, a member of the Executive Committee of the Eugenics 
Commission of the United States, a member of the executive board of the American 
Committee for the Outlawry of War, vice-president of the Big Brothers and Big Sisters 
Movement of America, chairman of the board of the Religious Education Association of 
America, and a member of the board of trustees of the (Carnegie) Church Peace Union. 
Dr. Mann was appointed by President Hoover as a member of the White House Con- 
ference on Child Health and Protection, and by Governor Emmerson as a member of 
the Commission on Unemployment and of the State Planning Commission. He is 
Chancellor of the Jewish Chautauqua Society of America, editor of the department of 
ethics of the New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia, associate editor of "Unity," and con- 
tributing editor of the Dictionary of American Biography. As a member of the National 
Advisory Council of the American Birth Control League, Dr. Mann has been an out- 
standing advocate of the movement. For scholarly attainments he was decorated in 1931 
by France as an Officer of the Academy. He is a member of Rotary International, the 
Covenant, Standard, and City clubs, and the American Oriental Society. 

Dr. Mann was married June 17, 1915, to Ruth Cohen, daughter of former Senator 
Alfred M. Cohen, of Cincinnati. Their children are Mary Louise and Arthur Horace. 



316 Chicago's accomplishments 

risks. The employers must be persuaded that it was to their own interests 
to install safety devices and to cut down the accident toll which represented 
such an economic waste. Employers, for the most part, were willing to co- 
operate with the Chicago Safety Council, and the initial expense of safe- 
guarding their plants was soon offset by the saving of money paid in work- 
men's compensation. Only a small minority remained obdurate. Among the 
workmen themselves, the spirit of rivalry produced good results. Groups 
vied with each other in accident prevention, and discovered that it paid. 
The traditional carelessness of the factory employee was thus gradually 
overcome. 

With its industrial program well organi2,ed and making headway, the 
Council directed its attention to more general fields. A larger responsibility, 
it was seen, confronted it in the home and highway situation. Realizing that 
much of the experience gained in dealing with industrial accidents could be 
applied to an attack on accidents in the homes and on the streets of the com- 
munity, the Chicago Safety Council has swung into line with municipal 
officers and other agencies in this even greater fight. 

The frequency and number of home accidents, minor and major, present 
an appalling picture. Burns, scalds, cuts, asphyxiations, explosions, electro- 
cutions, poisonings cause thousands of deaths and injuries yearly. And it is 
not an easy matter to educate the housewife. 

Approximately 1,000 deaths are caused annually in Cook county by 
automobiles alone, and with the population, as well as registrations steadily 
increasing, and with roads as yet inadequate for twentieth-century traffic, 
it is with the greatest difficulty that the accident toll is held down even to 
reasonable Hmits. The automobile dawned swiftly on a horse-and-buggy 
world, and road building has not kept pace with the new transportation. 

As yet, the Council is a modern David confronting a formidable Goliath. 
Education of the public is the sling with which it is striving to drop the giant, 
and to this task the Chicago Safety Council is devoting unremitting efforts. 

A survey of highway accidents shows that most of them are preventable. 
Courtesy, consideration of others, and control of speed on the part of the 
motorists; safety education in the homes and schools, and watchfulness on 
the part of pedestrians will do much to improve the automobile accident 
situation. Engineers more and more are building safety into cars and roads. 
Vast sums of money are spent every year to safeguard grade crossings. But 
the personal equation still remains, and a high-powered automobile with an 
incompetent or careless driver at the wheel is still a thing of danger. 

By means of interfleet drivers' contests — an idea borrowed from the 
industrial accident campaign — the Chicago Safety Council has educated 
legions of truck operators. As a group today they are responsible for fewer 
accidents in proportion to the number of vehicles involved than are the 
drivers of the private cars. In dealing with the latter, the Council has had 
recourse to free safety tests, including brake and ignition inspections, to- 
gether with publicity and remedial legislation. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



317 



;%■ «■; 







llUil 




u 5 
i f i. > 


& 




1 .■ 


i - '/ ;• ■ 


, 




(Blank a"d Stoller, Inc., Photo) 



A. R. MARRIOTT 

Mr. Marriott was born on a farm in DuPage county, Illinois, May 26, 1860, son of 
William and Kittie (Gresham) Marriott, and spent his entire business life with the 
Chicago Title and Trust Company and its predecessors. He became president of this 
pioneer Chicago organization on November 14, 1929, and was recognized as one of 
the outstanding authorities on Chicago real estate titles. He attended the public schools 
at Wheaton, Illinois, and the Chicago College of Law. He began as office boy in the 
abstract office of Haddock, Coxe and Company. Sixteen years later he was appointed 
superintendent of Haddock, Valette and Rickcords, and two years later was elected 
vice'president. This company later became the Security Title and Trust Company, 
and in 1901 was reorganized as the Chicago Title and Trust Company, of which Mr. 
Marriott was vice-president from 1901 until November, 1929, when he became presi- 
dent. He remained in that office until his death on May 20, 1931. He is survived by 
his wife, Mrs. Mabel R. Marriott, and seven children, Ida Elizabeth (Mrs. Robert A. 
McClevey), Arthur Cooper, Robert William, Thomas Benton, Rogerson, Ehzabeth Jane, 
and David Francis. 

Mr. Marriott was president of the DuPage Title Company of Wheaton and the 
Allman-Gary Title Company of Gary, Indiana. For twenty-five years he had been a 
member of the executive committee of the Illinois Abstractors' Association. He belonged 
to the Chicago and Cook County Real Estate boards, and the Chicago and Illinois 
State bar associations. He was a member of the Union League, the Oak Park, and 
the Big Foot Country clubs. Mr. Marriott was actively interested in the growth of 
Chicago. 



318 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




{Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
MICHIGAN AVENUE AT NIGHT 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



319 



It is unfortunate that Illinois has no driver's hcense law such as obtains 
in many other States. Such a law, in the belief of the Chicago Safety Coun' 
cil, by eliminating the unfit and the chronically careless driver, would result 
in the saving of hundreds of lives yearly, not only in Chicago and Cook 
County, but throughout the State. A competency law, requiring drivers' 
tests before the issuing of a license would inconvenience and rule out a 
negligible minority — eliminate the "lunatic fringe" responsible for the great 
majority of accidents. It would benefit the others. 

The Chicago Safety Council has actively sponsored a driver's license 
law, and though defeated in its first attempts to have it written in the statute 
books, is pledged to continue the battle with even firmer resolution than 
before. 

While the Council is active in the field of public and home accidents, 
it has not neglected its original program of industrial safety. Reali2,ing that 
eternal vigilance is the price of safety, it carries on an extensive program of 
industrial accident prevention. The Council conducts monthly meetings in 
various sections of the city and thousands of foremen, supervisors and work' 
ers fill the large auditoriums available to hear leaders in the industrial safety 
field discuss their common problems. 

Except for a small executive staff, all activities of the Council are carried 
on by volunteer committees and workers. Several hundred interested indi' 
viduals — the recogni2,ed leaders in the industries they represent — are en' 
gaged in this program. 

Its present leaders feel that the work of the Council has but begun — 
that it is to play an increasingly important role in the community and that 
through its efforts Chicago's industry, Chicago's homes, and Chicago's 
streets can be the safest in the world. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
ELKS' WAR MEMORIAL AT LINCOLN PARK 



320 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




MATHER TOWER, 

a twentieth century senti' 

nel standing on the site of 

old Fort Dearborn. 

Herbert Hugh Riddle, 
architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



321 





(■^ J RtFRIGE«ATO«.i ! ■>. ?3 



i^ 



CJAR 



,V r^" 






(Eugene L. Ray Photo) 

ALONZO C. MATHER 

Mr. Mather, founder and executive head of the Mather Humane Stock Transportation 
Company of Chicago, commonly known as the Mather Stock Car Company, is descended 
from a long line of noteworthy and distinguished ancestors of English origin. Outside 
of his personal worth and accomphshments, there is much of interest attached to his 
genealogy which betokens lines of sterling worth and prominent identification with 
American history for many generations. Although a native of the Empire State, Mr. 
Mather has been a resident of Chicago for more than half a century. He obtained his 
early education in the Fairfield (New York) Preparatory School, of which his grand- 
father. Captain Moses Mather, a soldier in the War of 1812, was one of the founders, 
and of which his father. Dr. William Mather, was president for more than a quarter 
of a century. Mr. Mather first secured employment at Utica, New York, later went to 
Quincy, Illinois, where he remained until 187?, when he came to Chicago and started 
the wholesale mercantile business under the firm name of Alonzo C. Mather and 
Company. In 1881 Mr. Mather's humane impulses led him to investigate the trans- 
portation of live stock over long distances by railroads, and he devised a live stock 
car in which animals are shipped in comfort, fed and watered without unloading, so 
that there is no loss from killed or injured animals, no suffering, and no loss to owners 
from shrinkage due to hunger and thirst. In recognition of this achievement, in 1883 
the American Humane Society awarded him an elaborate gold medal. Later he designed 
a refrigerator in which fresh meats are shipped and kept in perfect condition over a 
long journey. Thousands of Mather cars are being used by railroads in United States 
and Canada. 

Mr. Mather had for many years been interested in and had worked out a plan to 
build a bridge across the Niagara River from Buffalo to Fort Erie, Ontario, including 
the construction of an international harbor at Fort Erie and the harnessing of water 
rushing between the abutments for electric power. He planned to erect the bridge as 
a memorial to the inventors of United States and Canada who were the first to use 
modern methods and steel construction in the nineteenth century. At this time a bill 

Continued on page 548 



322 Chicago's accomplishments 

AMERICAN FARM IMPLEMENTS AND MACHINES 

18334933 

BY HERBERT A. KELLAR 

IN 1833, the year Chicago was incorporated as a city, almost ninety per 
cent of the population of the United States were forced to toil in the 
fields in order to provide bread for themselves and the remainder of the 
population. One hundred years later, less than fifty percent of the people 
not only raised enough food to feed themselves and the residue of the 
population but piled up a surplus for export. The invention, manufacture, 
introduction and use of improved agricultural machinery has been a potent 
factor in bringing about these changed conditions. 

In 1833, the farmer plowed his fields with a cast iron plow; levelled 
them off with a wooden drag harrow with wood or iron points; sowed his 
wheat broadcast by hand; planted his corn with a hoe; cultivated with a 
single or double shovel plow; reaped his grain with a sickle, scythe or 
cradle; and finally threshed it with a flail or tramped it out with animals, 
later removing the chaff with the aid of the wind. 

Succeeding decades witnessed many changes in the methods of pre' 
paring the soil, planting of seeds, cultivating, reaping and threshing. Con' 
sistently throughout the period improved implements and machines have 
displaced laborious hand labor. 

The steel plow succeeded the cast iron plow before the Civil War, and 
a decade later its construction was still further improved by the introduction 
of soft center steel. The sulky or riding plow, as contrasted with the walk' 
ing plow, did not become practical until about 1870, after which date it 
rapidly came into wide use. The basic idea of the gang plow (the use of 
more than one plow at the same time) was not easily applied where plows 
were drawn by animals and early led to experiments in traction by steam 
engine. The English idea of using a stationary engine with a steel cable to 
draw several plows across a field did not prove popular in this country and 
after 1865 a steam traction engine was gradually developed which was 
capable of drawing as many as eighteen plows at one time. Between 1880 
and 1915 gang plowing with the aid of such engines became quite common 
on large farms. The modern internal'combustion tractor, both wheeled and 
crawler types, came into its own during the World War, quickly displacing 
steam traction in plowing and in the last few years machines have steadily 
superseded animal power on the farms. 

Harrows, since 1833, have generally followed three types, the spike 
tooth, disc and spring tooth. The principle changes in the spike tooth har' 
row aside from the shape of the frame and method of attachment have 
been first — to give the teeth a backward slant and then to make them ad' 
justable. The construction has also gradually altered from wood and iron 
to an iron frame and steel teeth. Disc harrows with a gang arrangement 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



323 











.*^ 



(Blanl^ and Stoller, Inc., Vhoto) 

LLOYD MAXWELL 

Mr. Maxwell, first vice-president of Roche, Williams and Cunnyngham, Inc., 
advertising agency, was born in Hicks ville, Ohio, August 3, 1879, son of 
Isaac M. and Celesita A. (Crary) Maxwell. After graduating from high 
school he attended the University of Chicago, and entered the advertising 
field after a successful career in the automotive industry. His first advertising 
connection was with the Associated Sunday Magazine as Eastern manager. 
Subsequently, he was vice-president and partner in Erwin, Wasey 6? Com- 
pany, president of Maxwell-McLaughlin Company, and then associated him- 
self with Williams 6? Cunnyngham (now Roche, Williams and Cunnyng- 
ham, Inc.), of which he is, at the present time, first vice-president, being 
responsible for the advertising of many national accounts. 

Mr. Maxwell is past president of the Midlothian Country Club, the 
Minocqua Heights (Wisconsin) Golf and Country Club, the Iowa State 
Golf Association, the Marshalltown (Iowa) Country Club, and the Western 
Advertising Golfers Association. He is a trustee of the Bendix Foundation, 
and also a member of the Bob OXink Country, Union League, Chicago 
Athletic, Executives, Players Club of New York, Chicago Press Club, and 
the Society of Automotive Engineers. Fraternally, he has been a national 
figure in the Elks for more than twenty years, serving now as Grand Trustee. 
His friends are his "hobby"; golf, his favorite pastime. 

On December 30, 1919, he married Mary Agnes O'Neil, of New York, 
and there is one daughter, Marian. 



324 



Chicago's accomplishments 




were put on the market as early as 
the fifties but it was not until after 
1870 that they were widely used. 
An interesting variation of these 
machines has consisted in placing 
disc furrow openers on seeders. 
The spring tooth harrow, although 
invented in the late sixties did not 
become popular until a device to 
make them adjustable was perfected 
in 1877. In recent years the dis' 
placement of the horse by the trac 
tor has enabled the farmer to great' 
ly extend the number of harrows 
which he can operate at one time. 
Although numerous patents on 
seeders and grain drills were taken 
out in the thirties and forties, it was 
not until after 1850 that they be' 
gan to be practical and not until 
1861 that they came into general 
use. The chief improvements of 
American inventors have been in 
the feed and adjusting devices. An 
early type was the broadcast seeder. As in the case of harrows, three dis' 
tinct types gradually developed; cylinder drills, slide drills and force feed 
drills, each of these offering a different method of depositing the seed. One 
of the most widely used form of the seeder was the shoe drill, so adjusted 
as to adapt itself to obstructions in the ground. This first came into general 
use about 1870. In addition to combinations of drills with harrows, which 
have already been mentioned, fertiliser distributors and grass'seeding at' 
tachments have frequently been added to American grain drills. Here again 
the tractor with its greater pulling power has increased the acreage which 
grain drills can cover in one operation. 

Numerous attempts were made without success to develop a practical 
com planter after 1833 but it was not until 1853 that a successful device 
appeared. Space does not permit taking up the intricate and involved sub' 
sequent development of corn planters. Suffice it to say that the modem 
corn planter, among other features, accurately controls the amount of seed 
to the hill, depth of planting, spacing arrangement of hills and rows, and 
adjustment to ground obstmctions. One of the noticeable developments 
of agricultural machines has been the tendency to produce special devices 
for special purposes. Such an implement is the Lister, a combined plow and 
com planter adaptable to dry regions because it plants the corn at the bot' 
torn of the furrow. The two row corn planter was a standard machine 



CYRUS HALL McCORMICK 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



325 




CYRUS H. McCORMICK 



Cyrus H. McCormick, chairman of the board of directors of the International Harvester 
Company, was born in Washington, May 16, 1859, son of Cyrus Hall and Nettie (Fowler) 
McCormick. He began his career in 1879, leaving Princeton University in that year to 
enter his father's business. In 1884 he succeeded his father as president of the McCormick 
Harvesting Machine Company, where he quickly evidenced his ability in the hand- 
ling of extensive and varied activities under the stress of vigorous competition. When 
the International Harvester Company of today finally emerged, he became its first presi- 
dent (1902-1919). In this capacity he guided and developed a world-wide enterprise 
with constant concern for the welfare of its employees and the farming public which it 
serves. Because of his understanding of economic conditions in foreign countries he was 
appointed a member of the Special Diplomatic Mission of the United States to Russia in 
1917 in which connection he rendered valuable service to his country. 

Mr. McCormick is a patron of music, painting and landscape gardening of the 
"natural school." He has contributed liberally to the Presbyterian Theological Seminary, 
Princeton University, The EHzabeth McCormick Memorial Foundation for Child Welfare, 
the Young Men's Christian Association, and other institutions. 

He married Harriet Bradley Hammond, of Chicago, Illinois, March 5, 1889 (died 
January 17, 1921). The children are Cyrus, Elizabeth (deceased), and Gordon. He 
married Alice M. Hoit, of Chicago, April 22, 1927. 



326 Chicago's accomplishments 

in the days of the horse. The tractor has made it possible to increase the 
number of rows planted simultaneously. 

The single and double shovel plows used for cultivation in 1833 were 
succeeded in the fifties by the straddle row sulky corn cultivator. Various 
improvements were made in this machine such as regulating the depth in 
the soil in which it operated, adjustment to obstructions, and throwing the 
soil at will to or from the plants. In addition various types have been 
developed for special use, such as disc spring tooth and spading cultivators. 
As in the case of other farm implements, the tractor has increased the capa' 
city of the cultivator at each operation. 

The mechanical grain reaper although invented in 1831 did not begin 
to supplant the cradle until the late forties and the fifties. A self rake device 
was added in the sixties and before the end of the decade the hand binding 
harvester foreshadowed the era of automatic binding. The wire binder of 
the seventies, succeeded by the twine binder after 1880, brought an end to 
the reign of the hand binding machines. The twine binder in which one 
man drove a reaper, which cut, bound and discharged the grain in bundles 
all in one continuous operation, exercised a virtual monopoly over grain 
harvesting operations until after the World War. Complementary minor 
machines of some importance developed parallel to the grain reaper, were 
the horse drawn header, the push binder, and the dropper, the latter con' 
taining a reaping attachment added to a mower. The development of the 
tractor immediately proceeding the World War led to a further improve' 
ment upon the binder. The so called tractor binder, in which a gasoline or 
kerosene tractor was substituted for horses increased both the speed and 
capacity of the machine. The same period saw the evolution of the latest 
development in harvesting implements, the "Harvester'Thresher." This 
machine known as the "Combine,'"' also drawn by a tractor, reaps and 
threshes the grain in one operation. 

Attempts to devise a corn binder proceeded simultaineously with the 
evolution of the grain binder but did not meet with success until the early 
nineties. Two types proved successful at that time and are still manufac 
tured, one binding the grain while standing upright and the other while 
lying hori2,ontally. A recent development in corn binding has been the 
introduction of a machine which cuts and binds two rows at the same time. 

The mower, used for cutting grass, first became practical in the fifties 
through attachments added to reapers. It did not become effective as a 
separate machine until the sixties. By the seventies the two wheeled front 
cut type became the standard and beyond improvement in general con' 
struction and the recent substitution of the tractor for horses, it has under' 
gone little change with the years. 

When a man with a scythe could only cut about an acre of grass in a 
day, the hand rake proved adequate to gather the hay. The introduction 
of the mowing machine necessitated the development of machines to handle 
the grass after it was cut. The first practical implement for this purpose 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



327 





m 



pi»P"S;i' 






ROBERT R. McCORMICK 



Col. McCormick, editor and publisher of the Chicago Tribune, was born in Chicago, 
July 30, 1880, the son of Robert Sanderson and Katharine Van Etta (Medill) McCormick. 
His father was American Ambassador to Vienna and St. Petersburg; his grandfather, 
Joseph Medill, was the greatest of the early builders of the Tribune. Col. McCormick 
was graduated from Yale University in 1903 and studied law at Northwestern University. 
In 1907 he was admitted to the lUinois Bar and became a member of the firm of 
Shephard, McCormick and Thomason, now known as Kirkland, Fleming, Green and Mar- 
tin. He entered politics in 1904 when he was elected alderman from the old 21st ward. 
His interest in public affairs led to his appointment as a member of the Chicago Charter 
Convention in 1907. He served also as a member of the Chicago Plan Commission. 
During his term as alderman Col. McCormick was elected president of the Sanitary 
District Board, and it was under his administration that the canal, with its locks and 
works, was completed. In 1910 he was called on to assume the presidency of the 
Tribune Company. 

In the military phase of his career, Col. McCormick has held several important posts. 
During the trouble with Mexico he served on the border as Major of the 1st Illinois 
Cavalry. On America's entry into the World War he was attached to General Pershing's 
staff, but desiring more active participation in the fighting, he joined the 5th Field 
Artillery. Later he became Colonel of the 61st Regiment. While in the front lines he 
was cited by his Brigade Commander for prompt action in battle, and was later decorated 
with the Distinguished Service Medal. Before returning to civil life he served as 
Commandant at Fort Sheridan. He is a member of the Racquet and Tennis Club of 
New York, and of the Chicago, Saddle and Cycle and Onwentsia clubs. 

Col. McCormick was married March 10, 1915, to Amie Irwin Adams. 



328 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



was the horse drawn revolving hay rake of the fifties and sixties. Gradually 
this type was superseded by the spring tooth hay rake. Hand and self dump' 
ing attachments aided the efficiency of these implements and this was further 
increased by the introduction of the side dehvery rake which placed the 
hay in a continuous windrow suitable for loading. The desirabihty of stir' 
ring up the hay so that it would cure better after it had been trampled by 
the horses attached to a mowing machine, led to the invention of the hay 
tedder. Other interesting developments following the Civil War were the 
hay loader designed to gather the hay from the windrow; the several types 
of hay forks and carriers used to stack the hay in bams or in the field; and 
the hay press for baling hay. 

The first important American development in the thresher took place 
in the thirties when the old ground hog or open cyHnder type was com' 
bined with a fanning mill. The machine operated by horse power and was 
portable. Though roughly effective it was not until the vibrator principle 
was introduced in the fifties that all the good grain could be separated from 
the straw and chaff. Horse powers were used with threshers until after 
the Civil War. The portable steam engine then monopoli2,ed the field 
until the recent development of the gasoline engine and the tractor. At' 
tempts to devise a machine to reap and thresh at the same time were made 
as early as the thirties and unwieldy horse'drawn contrivances were actually 




Entrance to Agricultural Group of A Century of Progress, Chicago's 1933 World's Fair. 

Here the entire story of the evolution of agriculture from the past age of cradle and flail 

to the present age of tractor and combine is shown in dramatic form. 



Chicago's accomplishments 329 

developed. These operated fairly well under special conditions. Real suc' 
cess with this type of machine has been attained with the introduction of 
the modern "Harvester'Thresher" or "Combine." 

Other agricultural machines which have been highly developed in the 
last hundred years are corn shellers, straw and feed cutters, grinding mills 
and potatoe diggers. Although used to some extent before the Civil War 
it was not until after that time that they were improved and came into 
general use. More recent machines are corn buskers and shredders, potato 
planters, cotton planters, fertili2;er distributors, stalk cutters, manure 
spreaders, and cream separators and milkers. 

Cyrus Hall McCormick, who invented the first practical reaper in 
1831, was not only a great inventor but also the founder of the agricultural 
machine industry. The establishment of his factory in Chicago in 1847 
marked the beginning of a great industry in America. Chicago as the home 
of the various McCormick companies and the harvester company later 
built up by William Deering, both of which merged in 1902 with other 
leading firms to form the International Harvester Company, has long 
played a leading part in the manufacture of agricultural machines. 

Agricultural manufacturers in the past hundred years have contributed 
much to the modern industry and commerce. Mass production, standard' 
i2,ation of parts, the written guarantee, the free trial, a fixed price, a system 
of agents and dealers, storage warehouses in strategic locations, liberal 
credit, time payments, the testimonial, the field trial, and other procedure 
now common to the world were early practiced by these men, foremost of 
whom was McCormick of Chicago. 

The American genius for the machine has found full scope in agricul' 
ture. If we could for the moment possess the recollections of our agrarian 
ancestors what glories of accomplishment could we recall: McCormick's 
reaper. Wood's mower, Deere's and Oliver's steel plows. Brown's corn 
planter, Pitt's and Case's threshers, Bickford and Huffman's and the Empire 
grain drills, Adams' and Gait's corn shellers, Appleby's twine binding de^ 
vice, and the corn binder! And then today we have the tractor and the 
combine. 

The hundred years between 1833 and 1933 have witnessed many 
changes in agricultural theory and practice. The laborious hand operations 
of olden days, except in a few backward regions, have faded from memory. 
Today the civilized world is machine conscious. McCormick with his first 
crude reaper opened up a new vista for agriculture and civili2;ation. In- 
spired by his vision men have solved the problem of production. In the 
next hundred years may we find the solution to the pressing problems of 
world marketing and distribution. 



330 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AS A YACHTSMAN^S PARADISE 
Lake Michigan, the Scene of Many Regattas and Outboard Events 

BY MALCOLM D. VAIL 

Chicago's yachting season opens unofficially on the first balmy day of 
Spring. The frost is hardly out of the ground when from the store- 
rooms of the shipyards along the north branch of the river the yachts are 
taken out, or stripped of their tarpaulins, and lined up on the runways. Skip- 
pers in reefers, sweaters, and duck trousers fondly overhaul their pets. 
Paint-pots and brushes are produced. Hatches are thrown open. Hulls are 
painted, decks holystoned, and rigging put in shape. A few weeks later, the 
boats will be riding at anchor in the various yacht harbors along the shore 
of Lake Michigan, ready for the first regatta of the season. 

A recent survey made for the Lake Michigan Yachting Association 
reveals the fact that there are more than 600 sail and power yachts in and 
about Chicago, representing a total valuation of $7,500,000. This census 
does not include the hundreds of smaller boats which make Lake Michigan 
their playground during the summer. 

The development of Star class boats has been nothing less than sensa- 
tional. Five fleets, made up of eighty boats of this class in 1921 increased 
during the next decade to more than fifty fleets with some 800 boats. This 
increase in itself is sufficient evidence of the interest that is being taken 
in yachting. 

Hardly a week goes by from May to October without some kind of a 
regatta in which the schooners, yawls, and sloops, the P. Q. and R. boats, 
the Eagles, Stars, and Pups compete. Many of Chicago's speedy seaworthy 
boats have been entered in the Great Lakes Championship Series for their 
classes. 

Along its twenty-five miles of Lake front Chicago has several snug yacht 
harbors, of which Belmont Harbor, where the Chicago Yacht Club has 
its floating home, is the showiest. Other anchorages are off^ the South Shore 
Country Club, the Jackson Park Yacht Club, Grant Park, where the Co- 
lumbia and Chicago Yacht clubs have their headquarters; Navy Pier, and 
Wilmette, home of the enterprising Sheridan Shore Club, which is housed 
in the sumptuous Marshall Studio. The Saddle and Cycle Club, which is 
not exclusively a yacht club, is planning a spacious north side harbor. The 
Lincoln Park lagoon shelters a large argosy of motor boats. Both the Colum- 
bia and the Chicago Yacht Clubs have announced ambitious building plans 
for the downtown lake front, and space is mostly all gone in the new Mont- 
rose Harbor. 

Founded in 1875, the Chicago Yacht Club has been for many years a 
leader in the development of the sport it sponsors. It opens the season 
with the Memorial Day races, and which in addition to its weekly racing 
has in its major events the Virginia Trophy race for Q boats, the Mackinac 
race over a course of 331 miles, cruises to St. Joseph and to Black Lake, 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



5M 





..-. .vw.Jt,-.-*» 













{Koehne Photo) 



EDWARD G. McDOUGALL 



Mr. McDougall, president of Libby, McNeill and Libby, was born in Fargo, Michigan, 
April 6, 1875, son of John D. and Christy Ann (Monroe) McDougall. A few years after 
his graduation from high school the Spanish'American War broke out and he enlisted in 
the army, being commissioned a Lieutenant. Mustered out in 1901, he entered the service 
of Libby, McNeill and Libby and has since been engaged in the interesting and eminently 
useful business of making the finest foods from many regions conveniently available to 
every household. First employed as a clerk, Mr. McDougall progressed steadily and by 
1914 held the position of general sales manager. A short time later he was made vice- 
president of the company and was elevated to his present office in 1922. When Mr. 
McDougall first joined the Libby organization he found it a relatively small concern with 
only one plant producing a few canned meat products. Today Libby, McNeill and Libby 
is one of the largest canning companies in the world, controlling thousands of acres of 
orchards and farms and operating more than sixty manufacturing units extending from 
Hawaii to Delaware. 

Among the company's "100 Famous Foods" are California fruits and vegetables, 
Hawaiian pineapple, pickles and condiments, canned meats, Alaska salmon, and evap- 
orated milk. These products have been advertised extensively for many years and are 
distributed by an international sales organization with 250 branch offices and agencies 
in the principal cities of the world. Always ?.ctive in movements beneficial to the industry 
as a whole, Mr. McDougall has served as a director of the National Canners Association 
and as an officer of numerous other business organizations. In Chicago he is a member 
of the Union League, South Shore Country, and Beverly Country clubs. His favorite 
recreations are horseback riding and golf. 

Mr. McDougall was married, June 28, 1904, to Alice L. Fillmore of Chicago. There 
are three children, Clarice Louise, Chesley Edward, and Lorna Lee. 



332 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Michigan, and to Milwaukee, the Sir Thomas Lipton race for R boats, the 
Sir John Nutting race for Eagle Class, the open race for the Sheldon Clark 
Trophies, and the Gehrmann trophy for the Pups. 

The Columbia Yacht Club stages the annual Michigan City classic, 
held early in June, from the Van Buren street gap in Grant Park to the 
Michigan City basin. The Jackson Park and Sheridan Shore clubs have 
attractive summer programs of week-end regattas and cruises. 

While some of the events, such as the Mackinac and Michigan City 
races call for seamanship of the highest quality, yachting as a sport is attract- 
ing more and more women, and all the Chicago clubs have developed women 
skippers some of whom can give the men plenty of competition. 




{Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

Eastern yachtsmen visiting Chicago are invariably amazed at the facili' 
ties for their favorite sport offered by Lake Michigan. In the downtown 
harbor will be found motor yachts of all kinds, from the tiny speed boat to 
such floating palaces as the Kenkora, the Mizpah, or the Freedom. The 
Kenkora is a 190-foot auxiliary cruiser belonging to Kenneth G. Smith. The 
Freedom, Sterling Morton's 90-foot schooner, is one of the largest racing 
craft on the Great Lakes and was built in a Chicago shipyard last year. 
Another speedy yacht is Philip K. Wrigley's 88-foot Wasp. 

Not only is Chicago gaining prestige as a yachting center, but as the 
center of a rapidly growing ship-building industry. Chicago-built boats are 
seen today in the harbors of Detroit, Cleveland, Milwaukee, New York, 
Boston, and several on the Florida coast, where they are competing success- 
fully with Eastern-built craft. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



333 






DVEBIiSING 


.-. 


'M 
















(Loubeil Studios Photo) 

WILLIAM D. McJUNKIN 

Mr. Mcjunkin, civic leader and advertising man, was born in Franklin, Pennsylvania, 
February 2, 1870, son of Jehu David and Margaret (Campbell) Mcjunkin. He was 
educated in public schools of Butler, Pennsylvania, under private tutors, and at Western 
University of Pennsylvania, now Pittsburgh University. Mr. Mcjunkin served three 
large State street department stores as advertising manager and then, twentyseven years 
ago, formed the Mcjunkin Advertising Company, of which he is president. 

Throughout his career he has been deeply interested in civic movements for Chi' 
cago's progress, despite the demands on his time as a leader in the advertising field 
and as president of many other corporations in which he is financially interested. He 
is a member of the Board of Education of Chicago, Vice-chairman of the committee 
on public information of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (193 3) World's Fair, a 
director in the Travelers' Aid Society and of the Chicago Tuberculosis Institute, and 
actively interested in other charitable institutions. Mr. Mcjunkin helped to organize the 
Chicago Advertising Council. He is vice-president of the National Outdoor Advertising 
Bureau. He is a member of the Electric Club, the Builders Club, the Chicago Athletic 
Association, the Elks, the Medievalists, the Irish Fellowship Club, and the Edgewatcr 
Golf Club. Golf is his favorite sport. 

He married Nell Frances Barker, of Columbus, Ohio, May 30, 189'4, and they 
have a son, William Jonathan, and a daughter, Mrs. F. W. Harvey, Jr. 



334 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Many of Chicago's yachtsmen served with distinction in the World 
War. Not a few qualified as officers at the Naval Training School at Great 
Lakes and at the emergency school conducted at Navy Pier. 

Lack of an adequate course off the lake front has retarded the develop' 
ment of outboard motorboat racing, although the annual Milwaukee-tO' 
Chicago race has for several years attracted the more reckless followers of 
this pastime. But with the completion of the lagoon east of the Century 
of Progress Exposition grounds, outboarding has come into its own. 

There are probably about 10,000 outboard motor boats in and about 
Chicago, but only a small proportion of these, of course, are built for racing. 

Early in 1932, the first of a series of speed trials for these craft was held 
on the new outboard track. This tournament was followed by others, 
and toward the close of the season it was announced that outboard racing 
would supply one of the thrills at the big Exposition. 

With the further development of harbors as provided for by the "Chi' 
cago Plan"; with the completion of the palatial yacht club homes in Chi' 
cago's front yard, and increased interest shown in yacht and outboard 
racing, the future outlook for the sport is most encouraging. 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 

Night view of the Merchandise Mart, this, the world's largest building, is one of 

Chicago's first buildings to be erected on air rights. 

Graham, Anderson, Probst & White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



335 




X 



V^ 



{Mof^ en- Russell Photo) 



JOHN McKINLAY 



Mr. McKinlay, president of Marshall Field and Company, was born in Greenock, Scot' 
land, August 31, 1874, son of James D. and Mary (Wilson) McKinlay. The family 
emigrated to America in 1884 and settled in Chicago. He left school after completing 
the eighth grade and on August 29, 1888, entered the employ of Marshall Field 6? Com- 
pany as a cash boy at $2 a week. It is reported he used his first week's pay to buy a 
pair of long trousers. During the first years of his employment he attended various 
night schools. He took a three-year law course at the Chicago College of Law and was 
admitted to the bar of Illinois in 1900. Mr. McKinlay was promoted steadily in the 
retail organization of Marshall Field 6? Company until he became manager of retail offices. 
Early in 1911 he was transferred to the wholesale offices of the company. In January, 
1916, he was elected treasurer; in November, 1917, he was elected second vice-president; 
first vice-president in January, 1923; and president, February 14, 1930. Mr. McKinlay 
and Mr. Simpson, former president and chairman of the board of directors, were born 
within fifty miles of one another in Scotland but did not know one another until they 
both were employed by Marshall Field £s? Company. 

Mr. McKinlay is a director of the Harris Trust and Savings Bank, N. W. Harris and 
Company, and the First State Pawners Society of Chicago. He is also the director of 
the Washington and James Smith Home. He is a member of the Chicago, Union League, 
Mid-Day, Commercial, Beverly Country, and South Shore Country clubs. 

In November of 1900 Mr. McKinlay married Helen Eddington of Jackson, Michigan. 
They have two children, John and Dorothy (Mrs. John A. Middleton). 



336 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AND ITS PLACE IN LITERATURE 
Authors Who Have Added to the Prestige of the City 

BY JOHN DRURY 
Editor of "The Literary Tatler" in the Chicago Daily News 

MENTION of Chicago as a literary center recalls to the average mind 
Eugene Field, Finley Peter Dunne, George Ade, and perhaps Opie 
Read. Rex Beach, it will be remembered, began his literary career while he 
was a law student in Chicago. Such later writers as Carl Sandburg and 
Sherwood Anderson will be added to the list by way of afterthought. Even 
the native Chicagoan, who prides himself in the achievements of his city, 
has only an inadequate idea of the importance of Chicago in American 
literature. 

It is an ama2;ing fact that Chicago has produced more writers, especially 
those who have molded the new indigenous American literature of today, 
than any other city in the country. 

These writers are not merely popular novelists, of which Chicago has 
its share, but are creators of genuine significance. Their influence is felt 
throughout the nation. 

True, not all of them have drawn on the Chicago scene for inspiration, 
but the prairie metropolis has been their common meeting ground, providing 
them with the stimulation which comes from contact with others as brilliant 
as themselves. 

Writers who have interpreted Chicago life alone have contributed ah 
most half a hundred books, mostly novels, which express the struggles and 
conflicts, the sordid materialism, the melodramatic cHmaxes, or it may be 
the lyrical dreams, of this still youthful, energetic city. The majority of 
these books are of more or less permanent value to our native literature. 
Not a few have helped establish what has come to be known as the new 
American language as distinguished from the Queen's English. In short, 
portraying life in what H. L. Mencken said was "the most thoroughly Amer' 
ican of American cities,'' these works may indeed be taken as cross'sections 
of life in the United States. 

Chicago's position as a producer of significant literature came promi' 
nently before the public in 1920 when Mencken wrote an essay on the town 
in which he called it ''the literary capital of America." He told about the 
vital writers of the city's first Golden Age of letters, which occurred in the 
'90's — Theodore Dreiser, Henry B. Fuller, George Ade and Frank Norris. 
All four wrote about Chicago as they saw it — Dreiser in "Sister Carrie"; 
Fuller in "The Cliff Dwellers"; Ade in "Fables In Slang"; and Norris in 
"The Pit." There were other important writers of this period who also 
wrote about the city — Hamlin Garland in "Rose of Dutcher's Coolly"; 
Finley Peter Dunne in "Mr. Dooley"; Robert Herrick in "The Common 
Lot"; Upton Sinclair in "The Jungle"; and Frank Harris in "The Bomb." 
Opie Read in "The Jucklins" pictured mid'western life. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



3^ 




.-^ 



(Blank a"d StoUer, Inc., Photo) 



JAMES O. McKINSEY 

Mr. McKinsey, senior partner of James O. McKinsey and Company, accountants and 
engineers, was born in Gamma, Missouri, June 4, 1889, son of James Madison and Mary 
Elizabeth (Logan) McKinney. He graduated from the State Teachers College in War- 
rensburg, Missouri, in 1912; received his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree from the 
University of Arkansas in 1913, and his Ph.B. (Bachelor of Philosophy) degree in 1916, 
and his A.M. (Master of Arts) degree in 1919 at the University of Chicago. From 
1912 to 1916 he was a high school teacher in St. Louis, Missouri, and since 1917 has 
been a member of the faculty of the University of Chicago, being professor of business 
administration since 1926. He lectured on accounting at Columbia University from 
1920 to 1921. In 1919 he became a certified public accountant in Illinois, and from that 
year has been engaged in professional work. Since 192? he has been senior partner of 
James O. McKinsey and Company. This company which maintains offices in Chicago 
and New York, specializes in financial and management surveys. Mr. McKinsey spends 
much of his time in serving in an advisory capacity to presidents of organizations. 

Mr. McKinsey is a director of Phoenix Hosiery Company, United States Radio and 
Television Corporation, Selected Shares Corporation, and other well'known corporations. 
He served as private, later as lieutenant, in the Ordnance Department, United States 
Army, from 1917 to 1919. He is a member of the American Institute of Accountants, 
American Management Association, National Association of Cost Accountants, Illinois 
Society of Certified Public Accountants, and Delta Sigma Pi, Phi Kappa Sigma, and 
Delta Theta Phi fraternities. His clubs are Attic, Union League, Quadrangle, South 
Shore Country, and Olympia Fields Country in Chicago, and The Rookery in New York. 
He is author of the following: Bookkeeping and Accounting, 1920; Budgetary Control, 
1922; Managerial Accounting, 1924; Business Administration, 1925^; and Accounting 
Principles, 1929; also several pamphlets published by American Management Association 
and other organizations. 

On June 12, 1920, Mr. McKinsey married Alice Louise Anderson of Sioux City, 
Iowa, and they have two children, Robert and Richard, who are twins. 



338 Chicago's accomplishments 

The city's second Golden Age began in 1912 and ended, if end it did, 
when the United States entered the World War in 1917. It produced a 
very influential crop of writers — Sherwood Anderson, Carl Sandburg, 
Edgar Lee Masters, Ben Hecht, Maxwell Bodenheim, Vachel Lindsay, 
Floyd Dell, Ring Lardner, Francis Hackett and Lew Sarett. It also pro' 
duced two magazines which have left their impress on American literature — 
Harriet Monroe's Poetry and Margaret Anderson's The Little Review. The 
combination of two such productive periods in the city's history caused 
Mencken to write: 

"In Chicago there is the mysterious something that makes for 
individuality, personality, charm; in Chicago a spirit broods upon 
the face of the waters. Find a writer who is indubitably an Amer- 
ican in every pulse-beat, an American who has something new and 
peculiarly American to say and who says it in an unmistakably 
American way, and nine times out of ten you will find that he has 
some sort of connection with the gargantuan abattoir by Lake 
Michigan — that he was bred there, or got his start there or passed 
through there in the days when he was young and tender." 
In 1926, however, Mencken changed his mind. He looked out of his 
Baltimore study and saw no new significant figures rising on the Chicago 
horizion. Samuel Putnam, a local literary critic who had a leaning for all the 
latest European "isms," agreed with him. The result was an article in The 
American Mercury called "Chicago: An Obituary," by Samuel Putnam. 
Mr. Putnam, after reviewing its past achievements, pronounced the town 
dead; said it was "esthetically and creatively, a cactus desert." He then flew 
to his beloved Paris. 

But the town continued to turn out writers of first-rate caliber. Ernest 
Hemingway was a Chicago product and some of his short stories, particu- 
larly "The Killers," reflect the city's hfe. John Dos Passes was born here 
and his novel, ''EveHne Hutchins," published in Pagany magazine, is a 
Windy City story. Edna Ferber, a former Chicagoan, used local material 
in her novel, "So Big." EHz^beth Madox Roberts, Janet Lewis, Glenway 
Wescott, Yvor Winters, and Marjorie Latimer, all now doing significant 
novels and short stories, were stimulated by contact with each other in 
Chicago. Younger writers came along and pictured the city around them — 
Meyer Levin in "Frankie and Johnnie"; James T. Farrell in "Young Loni- 
gan"; McKinley Kantor in "Diversey"; Lester Cohen in "The Great Bear"; 
Robert D. Andrews in "Windfall"; Ruth Russell in "Lake Front"; and John 
Gunther in "The Red Pavilion." 

As for poetry, Chicago has been the nation's Parnassus for many years. 
Miss Monroe's Poetry magazine, as much as the influence of Whitman, was 
responsible for a poetry revival in 1914 which extended throughout the 
Anglo-American world. The work of outstanding figures in this revival is 
represented in "The New Poetry," an anthology compiled by Miss Monroe 
and Alice Corbin Henderson, and it includes such poets of Chicago as Carl 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



339 







>' 



(Mofett-Russeii Photo) 

HUGH McLENNAN 

Mr. McLennan, president of McLennan Construction Company, was born 
in Chicago, and is the son of John A. and GUve A. (Cowan) McLennan. 
He obtained his education at the Chicago Manual Training School and the 
Armour Institute of Technology. He received his LL.B (Bachelor of Laws) 
degree at Lake Forest University in 1899 and has been in the building con- 
struction business in Chicago since 1905. He is president of the McLennan 
Construction Company, Lake Shore Drive Hotel Company, Chicago Produce 
District Trust, 227 and 237 East Delaware Place Building Corporation, and 
vice-president of the 219 Lake Shore Drive Building Corporation. 

McLennan Construction Company has built some of Chicago's noted 
buildings, including the Trustees System Building, South Water Market, 
A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair General Exhibits 
Building, the Allerton Club, and many others. Mr. McLennan is a member of 
Phi Kappa Sigma Fraternity, and his clubs are Chicago Athletic Association, 
Builders, Bob o' Link Golf. 

On May 28, 1921, he married Mrs. Durant Howard of Chicago, who 
had one son by a previous marriage, Durant Howard. 



340 Chicago's accomplishments 

Sandburg, Edgar Lee Masters, Maxwell Bodenheim, Mary Aldis, Alice 
Corbin, Florence Kiper Frank, Hamlin Garland, Harriet Monroe, Helen 
Hoyt, Agnes Lee, Vachel Lindsay, Frances Shaw, Eunice Tietjens, and Edith 
Wyatt. A few years back Charles G. Blanden brought out his "Chicago 
Anthology,'' but the work represented was of no great moment. 

Just how much the city itself inspired local versifiers was revealed re' 
cently when a leading poet of the city, Mark Turbyfill, printed a symposium 
of sixteen Chicago poets in The Chicagoan. Replying to a questionnaire, 
the majority said they were stimulated, either emotionally or intellectually, 
by the Chicago scene, although unable to determine whether the town 
caused them to write "in a manner essentially characteristic of it." Among 
those who replied were Sandburg, Miss Monroe, Jessica North, Mrs. 
Tietjens, Sterling North, Jean Toomer, George Dillon, Samuel Putnam, 
and Pearl Andelson. All critics agree, however, that Sandburg, especially 
in his "Chicago Poems," remains the true poetic voice of the city. 
But the town has many other poets of merit — Mitchell Dawson, Lew Sarett, 
Glenn Ward Dresbach, Polly Chase Boyden, Rev. Irwin St. John Tucker, 
Bertha Ten Eyck James, Marion Strobel, Dorothy Aldis, Douglas Malloch, 
and Vincent Starrett. In the past there have been Sherwood Anderson, 
Keith Preston, Mildred Plew Merryman, Louise Ayers Garnett, Julia Cooley 
Altrocchi, Wilbur D. Nesbit, Emanuel Camevali, John V. A. Weaver, 
William Vaughn Moody, Eugene Field, Ben King, John Vance Cheney, Bert 
Leston Taylor, Franklin P. Adams, and Horace Spencer Fiske. 

Further evidence of Chicago's continued position as a literary center is 
seen in the fact that The Midland magazine is published here. It is rated by 
Mencken and Edward J. O'Brien, of "Best Short Stories" fame, as one of 
the few outstanding literary magazines of America. Each month its editor, 
John T. Frederick, brings forth some new and talented young writer, either 
from Chicago or other parts of the mid-west. There is also The Chicagoan, 
a sort of local Vanity Fair, which has a number of worthwhile contributors. 

Chicago has turned out writers who have paved the way toward what 
there is of an American language. Ade began it in 1902 with his Chicago 
books, "In Babel" and "Fables In Slang." Ring Lardner, a local reporter, 
followed suit with his "You Know Me, Al," as did John V. A. Weaver, with 
his "In American." The Big Shots of the city's second Golden Age — Sand- 
burg, Masters, Anderson, Hecht — all made use of the American language, 
and so did J. P. McEvoy in "The Potters" and Farrell in "Young Lonigan." 
And there were the dialect writers — Dunne, making use of the Irish- Amer- 
ican, and Frank Pixley and Kurt M. Stein, both using the German-American 
idiom. Today, the University of Chicago has officially taken cognizance of 
the American language, having brought over Sir William Craigie, the 
maker of the Oxford dictionary, to compile the first dictionary of our native 
tongue. The University has already put out an American translation of the 
Bible. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



341 




CHARLES E.MERRIAM 

Professor Merriam, chairman of Chicago University's department of poHtical science, 
was born in Hopkinton, Iowa, November 15, 1874, son of Charles Edward and Margaret 
Campbell (Kirkwood) Merriam. He received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at 
Lenox College, in 1893, also from the State University of Iowa, in 1895; his A. M. 
(Master of Arts) from Columbia, in 1897. During 1899-1900 he studied in Berhn and 
Paris; received his Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy) from Columbia, in 1900. Professor 
Merriam occupies a unique position among scholars of government. He is probably 
the foremost advocate of the use of the scientific method in the study of political 
problems. He served as a Chicago alderman for six years (1909-1911 and 1913-1917, 
from the seventh ward), also serving as chairman of the Commission on City Expendi- 
tures; and in 1911 was the Republican nominee for Mayor of Chicago. His connection 
with the University of Chicago began in 1900, after he had won the Ph. D. degree at 
Columbia. Since then he has played a major role in organizing the University's work in the 
field of government upon a research basis. He served as president of the National 
Research Council from 1924 to 1927, and was made president of the American Political 
Science Association in 1924. At present (1932) he is serving as one of the five members 
of President Hoover's commission for the study of social trends in the United States. 

Notable among the eight books published by Dr. Merriam is "the American Party 
System." Among the publications which he has edited is a series of eight recent volumes 
on the training of citizens in various modern nations. Within the past three years six 
semi-public groups, including the Association of City Managers, the Civil Service As- 
sembly and the National Municipal League, have moved their headquarters to the 
vicinity of the University campus, where they cooperate with Professor Merriam's de- 
partment. Mr. Merriam was one of the first men in academic circles to recognize the 
growing importance of police science and to incorporate police work into the curriculum. 
He has maintained considerable influence in local politics and consistently supported 
honest candidates and policies. He has argued especially for the unification of the 
Chicago metropolitan area, the centralization of planning and responsibility, and local 
home rule. He is a member of the Social Science Research Council (president 1924-1927) 
and of the American Political Science Association (president 1924-1925). 

Professor Merriam married Hilda Doyle, of Constableville, New York, August 3, 
1901. Their children are Charles James, John Francis, Elizabeth, and Robert Edward. 



342 Chicago's accomplishments 

An interesting development among local writers since Putnam's "obitu- 
ary" has been the growing enthusiasm for Americana, both contemporary 
and historical. Outstanding in this field has been Sandburg, the poet, with 
his monumental biography of Lincoln; his book of songs, "The American 
Songbag"; and his fanciful "Rootabaga Stories." Second in interest has 
been Lloyd Lewis' "Myths After Lincoln," and, more recently, his "Sher 
man: Fighting Prophet." Prof. William E. Dodd's "Lincoln or Lee" also 
deals with the Civil War period. Other writers in the Americana field have 
been Estelline Bennett, with "Old Deadwood Days"; Walter Noble Burns 
with "The Saga of Billy the Kid"; Franklin Meine with "Tall Tales of the 
Southwest"; Earl H. Reed with "Duneland Sketches"; Prof. Charles E. 
Merriam with "Chicago"; Harry Beardsley with "Joseph Smith: Founder 
of Mormonism"; and Harlan Ware and James Prindle with their "Rag 
Opera." Sarett, the poet and woodsman, and Mrs. Flora Warren Seymour, 
founder of the Bookfellows, write about the American Indian. American 
art is dealt with by C. J. Bulliet in his "Apples and Madonnas" and by J. Z. 
Jacobson in his "Thirtyfive Saints and Emil Armin." 

The city's newspaper life has of late been a fruitful source of inspiration 
to many local writers. It all seemed to begin with Hecht's "1001 Afternoons 
in Chicago," a volume of short stories gleaned by a wandering reporter. 
Other books on the same theme followed in rapid succession — Henry Justin 
Smith's "Deadlines"; Meyer Levin's "Reporter"; Hecht's "Erik Dorn"; and 
the Chicago newspaper dramas, Hecht and MacArthur's "The Front Page"; 
Maurine Watkins' "Chicago"; and Bart Cormack's "The Racket." Some 
what earlier than any of these books, however, is "The Briary Bush," by 
Floyd Dell, which detailed the career of a young reporter in the town. 

Other meritorious novels which portray Chicago life include Margaret 
Ayer Barnes' "Years of Grace" (which won a Pulit2;er prize) ; Janet Fair' 
bank's "The Smiths"; Marion Strobel's "Saturday Afternoon"; Mary 
Synon's "The Good Red Bricks"; Woodward Boyd's "The Love Legend"; 
Clifford Raymond's "Our Very Best People"; Newton Fuessle's "The Flail"; 
Henry Kitchell Webster's "An American Family"; Howard Vincent 
O'Brien's "New Men for Old"; Edwin H. Lewis' "Those About Trench"; 
Donald Richberg's "A Man of Purpose"; Willa Gather's "The Song of the 
Lark"; Susan Glaspell's "The Glory of the Conquered"; Robert Morss 
Lovett's "A Winged Victory"; Clarence Darrow's "An Eye for An Eye"; 
and Isaac K. Friedman's "Poor People." 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



343 




{Blank ^ Stoller, Inc. Photo) 



JOHN S.MILLER 

Mr. Miller, lawyer and member of the firm of Taylor, Miller, Busch and Boyden, was 
born in Chicago, November 8, 1888, son of John Stocker and Ann (Gross) Miller. His 
father was a pioneer lawyer of Chicago. He graduated from the Harvard School here, 
obtained his B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) degree at Harvard College in 1911 and his LL.B. 
(Bachelor of Laws) degree in 1914. He was admitted to the bar in 1914 and started 
the practice of law. He became a member of the firm of Miller, Starr, Brown, Packard & 
Peckham in 191.5, and in 1917 formed, with Orville J. Taylor, the firm of Taylor Ss* 
Miller, which has evolved into the present firm of Taylor, Miller, Busch and Boyden. 
Mr. Miller attended the first Citizens' Military Training Camp at Plattsburg, New York, 
in 1915 and went to the Mexican border with the First Illinois Field Artillery in 1916. 
When the United States entered the World War, he was commissioned a second Heu- 
tenant, then a major, assigned to the EightySixth Division, 161st Artillery Brigade, 
3 3 3rd Field Artillery, and served throughout the war, receiving his honorable discharge 
in January, 1919. 

Mr. Miller is president, treasurer, and director of Site of the Fort Dearborn Building 
Corporation; director and general counsel of Personal Loan 6? Savings Bank; and a 
member of the American, Illinois State, and Chicago Bar Associations and the Asso- 
ciation of the Bar of the City of New York. His clubs are the Law, Legal, Wayfarers, 
Chicago, Attic, Cliff Dwellers, and Commercial. 

On June 29, 1911, he married Judith Drew Barker of Boston, Massachusetts; children, 
Judith D., Portia A., and John S. April 9, 1932, he married Catherine Beacom of Pierre, 
South Dakota. 



344 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
The Colonnade which stretches full length of the 20 North Wacker Drive Building, giving 
an old'world appearance to this busy Chicago street. 
Graham, Anderson, Probst i^ White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



345 




i> h 



1? M4 A^k^'M 







HARRIET MONROE 

Miss Monroe, poet, founder, and for twenty years editor, of "Poetry: a Magazine of 
Verse," was born in Chicago, the daughter of Henry S. and Martha (Mitchell) Monroe. 
She was graduated from the Visitation Academy, Georgetown, D. C, and received her 
Doctor of Letters degree from Baylor University, Waco, Texas. As a young poet, in 
1891, Miss Monroe was selected to compose the dedicatory ode for the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition, and on October 21, 1892, the 400th anniversary of the discovery of 
America, she read her "Columbian Ode"" before a vast assembly, and was crowned with 
laurel. In 1912 she established "Poetry,"" a magazine which was endowed by a large 
group of art patrons. 

From the very start, the magazine became the forum of contemporary poets, publish- 
ing the first and early works of poets now world famous. It was in this magazine that 
Carl Sandburg"s "Chicago Poems"" first appeared, and Joyce Kilmer's "Trees,"" and Vachel 
Lindsay"s "'General William Booth Enters Into Heaven."" As the "fairy godmother" of 
the younger poets, Miss Monroe encouraged such writers as James Joyce, Sherwood 
Anderson, Lew Sarett, T. S. Eliot, and Ernest Hemingway, to mention only a few of her 
proteges. Among the foreign writers who have contributed to her publication were 
Rabindranath Tagore, John Drinkwater, Rupert Brooke, and Padriac Colum. "Poetry,"" 
which goes out monthly to subscribers not only in America, but in England, France, Italy, 
Turkey, China, South Africa, Australia, Haiti, Brazil, and the Philippines, is largely 
responsible for the modern school of verse and for the free verse movement. 

Miss Monroe is the author of several collections of verse, including Valeria and Other 
Poems, 1892; The Passing Show, modern plays in verse, 1903; You and I, 1914; and 
The Difference and Other Poems, 1924. Her twentieth century anthology, "The New 
Poetry,"" is generally considered the best modern collection. It was published in 1917 and 
revised in 1923 and 1932. 



346 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



HOW NATURAL GAS WAS BROUGHT TO CHICAGO 

The Story of a One Thousand-Mile Pipeline and a Unique 

Engineering Project 

AT 4 o'clock on the afternoon of October 16, 1931, two men standing 
at the outskirts of the city, eyes on the watches they held, dropped 
their arms. Two crews of men under them began spinning the control 
wheels of two giant valves — and natural gas from Texas rushed into Chi' 
cago's SjVSS-mile system of gas distribution mains. 

That evening, housewives noticed that the gas flame under the family 
dinner was a deep, rich blue in color. Many of them paid no attention to 
it, but most of them knew that natural gas from great deposits thousands 
of feet beneath the Texas Panhandle, a thousand miles away from Chicago, 
was helping to cook the evening meal. 

Thus ended the story of the construction of the world's largest and long' 
est natural gas pipeline, an engineering feat unique in the annals of private 
industry. Projects of the United States Government have been larger in 
size — the Panama Canal, costing over $400,000,000, was several times larger 
than the pipeline, with its cost of $75,000,000 — but no undertaking has 
better exemplified the courage and vision of private interests. 

Perhaps we should say that the story of the pipeline began when the 
Chicago housewife used it to boil a pot of potatoes. For a generation or 
more in the future the story of this project will go on unfolding itself — 



A^. ' 




Nearing the end of the trail. Behind this pipclaying crew is nearly a thousand miles of 
steel pipe, linking the gas fields of Texas with the great metropolitan center of greater 
Chicago. The line blazed a new trail, straight across farm lands, through miles of swamps 
and under a hundred'odd rivers, in its drive from Texas to Chicago. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



347 




;...iF 




V^' 




rt»^ 



(Mofett-Rus5eii ?hoto) 

GEORGE F. MITCHELL 

Mr. Mitchell, president of The People's Gas Light and Coke Company, was 
born in Chicago, March 20, 1888. He graduated from the George Dewey 
Grammar School in 1902, and, at the age of fourteen years, started working 
for the American Steel Foundries. To continue his education he later entered 
the Armour Scientific Academy, subsequently taking a course in business 
and stenography, maintaining himself meanwhile by evening employment. 
In 1909 he obtained a situation as stenographer with the Commonwealth 
Edison Company, rose from that position to become assistant to the presi- 
dent's secretary, and a little later became secretary to the president. During 
the World War he served as Assistant Secretary of the State Council of 
Defense of Illinois. 

In January, 1919, Mr. Mitchell joined The People's Gas Light and Coke 
Company, a corporation that has given continuous gas service in Chicago 
for the last eighty-three years, and which is one of the largest singly oper- 
ated gas companies in the world. In March, 1919, he was appointed assistant 
to the president of that company; in June, 1921, was made treasurer; and, 
in May, 1924, was elected vice-president in charge of finance. He was elected 
a member of the board of directors in December, 1927, and was made presi- 
dent in February, 1930. He belongs to the Chicago, Attic, Union League, 
South Shore Country, and Olympia Fields Country clubs. His hobbies are 
golf, bridge, and hard work. 



348 Chicago's accomplishments 

the story of a cleaner city, of a busier city, with new industries attracted 
by the prospect of an economical and easily usable clean fuel, of a happier 
city, with many household burdens taken from the shoulders of its men 
and women. 

Whatever benefits the pipeline is now bringing to Chicago, and what' 
ever may be the future advantages it will offer to our citi2;ens and their 
children, are matters for history to record. We are interested now in the 
story of how this 1,000'mile pipeline was planned and completed. 

The greatest gas field in the world had been discovered in Texas. 
Searching for oil, prospectors had drilled nearly a mile into the earth be' 
neath the Texas Panhandle, and they had uncovered, not oil, but gas — 
immense domes of it, larger than any before encountered, and at unusually 
great rock pressure, indicating an enormous reserve. 

In the proper place, these gas reserves could be of great benefit to 
humanity. Industries and homes could use them to solve their fuel and 
heating problems. 

A thousand miles away, in Chicago, was the greatest fuel market in 
the Middle West. But between Texas and Chicago were many rivers, in' 
eluding the Missouri and the Mississippi, ranges of hills, miles of swampy 
lowlands, other miles of rocky ground — obstacle after obstacle in the path 
of the pipeline. 

The present market for fuel in Chicago would not justify the cost of 
the pipeline. A market would have to be developed by aggressive sales 
effort, to take care of the supply of gas after it was brought from Texas. 

All of these factors were carefully considered. And early in 1930, the 
first shovelful of earth was dug from the hard surface of the Texas Pan' 
handle. Before the pipeline reached Chicago, 75,000,000 cubic feet of 
earth had been dug out — and replaced. 

Survey after survey had been made of the country between the gas 
fields and the goal of the pipeline. Soil conditions, drainage conditions, 
the courses of rivers and streams, had been determined from geological 
survey books. 

Agents for the company had interviewed every owner of property 
along the rigjht of way, negotiating over 12,000 leases to clear the way 
for the pipeline. 

Statisticians and financiers had worked for months, considering every 
possible phase of the project, collecting data in support of convictions and 
other data which showed that certain accepted beliefs were not supported 
by fact, writing the complete story of the project — financial, engineering, 
legal, and other aspects of it — for the information of the interests who 
would advance the money for the pipeline's construction. All of this before 
the first shovelful of earth was removed. 

Once started, the work went ahead with great speed on several fronts. 
Ditch'digging machines covered several miles in a single working day . Ten 
thousand freight cars brought 209,000 tons of steel pipe from mills in the 



Chicago's accomplishments 



349 




Sinews of service. Constant labor in maintaining and improving the 

company's facilities for distributon of gas keeps the service to Chicago 

users as nearly perfect as possible. 

Middle West to the scene of operations. Crews of welders joined the 
lengths of pipe together, making a total of 80,000 welds. Other crews 
coupled the pipe together with flexible couplings, to provide for expansion 
and contraction under different temperature conditions. 

Barges were floated across the Mississippi river, carrying pipe-laying 
crews who lowered the pipe to the river bed, after dredges had made a 
place for it in the shifting sands. 

Other crews worked waist-deep in mud and water, digging by hand a 
ditch for the pipe through the treacherous swamp-lands along the river 
bottoms. Other crews of men used dynamite to clear obstructions. 

Month after month the work went on, pushed to completion in the 
midst of widespread industrial stagnation, when fears for the future were 
rampant, when private capital generally was being withdrawn from cir- 
culation. 

Seventy-five million dollars went to the owners of the gas-producing 
land — a half-million acres of it — to the owners of property crossed by the 
pipeline, to the steel mills that fabricated the pipe, to the manufacturers of 



350 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



pipe'laying equipment, and to the thousands of men who worked on the 
project. 

After the pipe had been laid, ten compressor stations, located every 
100 miles along the line, were installed to keep the gas moving on its trip 
to Chicago. The total horsepower of these stations — 100,000 — is a figure 
hard for us to conceive. 

Finally, after nearly 18 months of record-breaking labor, after a scar 
1,000 miles long had been made on the face of the earth, two men stood 
at the outskirts of Chicago and gave the signal which completed the final 
step in the long journey. 

And the pipeline began doing what it was built to do. The gas fields 
of Texas had been brought within the city limits of Chicago. 




PEOPLES GAS BUILDING 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



351 




(Moffat-Russell Photo) 



BERNARD J. MULLANEY 

Mr. Mullaney, vice-president of The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company in charge oi 
pubhc and industrial relations, was born on a farm near Woodhull, New York, son of 
John and Catherine (Leonard) Mullaney. He was educated in the country district and 
village schools of Steuben County, New York. His early life was spent on a farm, in a 
grocery store, and as a school teacher. Later he worked on newspapers in St. Paul, 
Minneapolis, and Chicago as a reporter, copy reader, city editor, traveHng correspondent, 
and political editor. After fifteen years in such work he took advertising positions with 
such Chicago firms as Schlesinger and Mayer, H. G. Selfridge 6? Company, Carson, 
Pirie and Scott, and Armour and Company. Later he served for four years in pubhc 
office as secretary to the mayor and as Commissioner of Public Works of the City of 
Chicago. During the World War he served the State Council of Defense of Ilhnois as 
director of pubhcity. 

Mr. Mullaney is active in the work of the American Gas Association: member of its 
board of directors since 1924; vice-president, 1927-1929; president, 1929-1930. In the 
Chicago Association of Commerce he is chairman of the general publicity committee and 
member of the executive committee and the senior council. He is an active member of 
the Chicago Historical Society, Geographical Society of Chicago, and Art Institute of 
Chicago (life member). His clubs are Chicago Athletic, The Tavern, Edgewater Golf, 
and Economics, of Chicago. 

On December 11, 1895, Mr. Mullaney married Jane King of Chicago (died April 9, 
1927). On September 5, 1932, he was married, in France, to Mrs. Georgia Blackman 
Pratt of Paris. 



352 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



AN OUTDOOR LABORATORY FOR THE STUDY OF 

TREES, SHRUBS AND VINES 

The Morton Arboretum and Its Unique Work 

ON the Joliet road, one mile north of Lisle, Du Page county, Illinois, on 
a fork of the Du Page river, is located a 400'acre paradise of trees and 
birds and flowers. It is known to every nature lover in Chicago, and can 
be reached by a 25'mile drive from the city, west on Roosevelt road, or 
southwest on Ogden avenue, to Joliet road. Train service is provided by the 
Burlington from the Union station to the little town of Lisle, the second 
station west of Downers Grove. 

The Morton Arboretum, established in 1921 through the publicspirited 
and far-sighted efforts of Joy Morton, is visited by thousands of tourists 
annually, especially in the spring, when the arboretum is an epiphany of 
blossoms. Every season of the year, however, in this leafy Arcadia, has its 
individual charm, and every passing mood of nature is revealed from the 
first green shimmer of the willows to the bla2;ing banners of October, and 
the exquisite winter landscapes in their delicate pastel shades. 

Many visitors express surprise on learning that the arboretum is neither 
a nursery nor a private park. The nature and purposes of the establishment 
are unique. It is a vast outdoor laboratory or museum for the study of such 
woody plants as are capable of surviving the northern climate, and is de' 




Early one spring a pair of wild Canadian Geese made their appearance in the Arboretum 
and fortunately decided to remain. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



353 



Sl<;X._ 





.■lf-M^:/:J 


**f 


S'^^i.- . f.' 


, V; 






\7":ii0\: 




j;i,Jii|l 


.' 'i 



»► ,r> "r Jf •«• ■" s 

MORTOH 
UUILOIHO 








(Mofett-RuiseH Photo) 

JOY MORTON 

Mr. Morton, chairman of the board of Morton Salt Company and founder of the Morton 
Arboretum at Lisle, Illinois, was born in Detroit, Michigan, September 27, 1855, son of 
J. Sterling and CaroHne (Joy) Morton. His father, J. Sterling Morton, was for many 
years a national figure and was a descendant of Richard Morton who is of record at 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, as early as 1625. J. Sterling Morton was a Nebraska pioneer 
and served as territorial governor. He was appointed by President Cleveland to serve as 
Secretary of Agriculture in 1893. His home was in Nebraska City and he gave it the 
name of "Arbor Lodge." Governor Morton died in 1902. In 1923 Joy Morton donated 
the old homestead to the State of Nebraska and it is now a state park commemorating his 
father who instituted "Arbor Day." J. Sterling Morton married Caroline Joy, of Detroit, 
a descendant of Thomas Joy, who built the first town house in Boston in 1650. 

Joy Morton spent his boyhood at Nebraska City, Nebraska, and attended Talbot Hall 
there. He moved to Chicago in 1879 and since 1885 has been senior member of Joy 
Morton and Company and is also chairman of the board of Morton Salt Company, which 
is the largest organization in America manufacturing and distributing salt and has numer' 
ous sales offices and plants in Illinois, Michigan, Kansas, Utah, California, Texas and many 
other States. Mr. Morton is president of Standard Office Building Corporation, Morton 
Building Corporation, and Louisiana Furs, Inc., and is interested in many other organiza' 
tions. He is a director of the Alton Railroad Company and of the Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society of the United States (New York). He founded the Morton Arboretum at 
Lisle, Illinois, a unique experimental laboratory for the cultivation and propogation of 
trees, shrubs, vines and grasses. He is a member of the Chicago Historical Society, Art 
Institute of Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago Zoological Society, 
Chicago Plan Commission, and American Forestry Association, Washington, D. C. His 
clubs are Commercial, Chicago, and Caxton, of Chicago, and Lawyers' of New York. 

September 23, 1880, he married Carrie Lake (died 1915), daughter of Judge George 
B. Lake of Omaha. He married Margaret Gray, of Chicago, January 16, 1917. There 
are two children of his first marriage, Jean (Mrs. Joseph M. Cudahy); and Sterling, who 
married Preston Owsley, November 2, 1910, and has a daughter, Suzette Preston, now 
a junior at Vassar College. 



354 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



signed to increase the knowledge of trees and shrubs and bring about an 
improvement in their growth and culture. To test the hardy timber trees 
of the world which might be used for reforestation purposes is another major 
aim. Here, trees from all parts of the temperate zone are assembled and 
tested for their hardiness and their economic and ornamental value. 

The specimens not only are classified botanically, but grouped in land' 
scape paintings and arranged geographically, according to their native 
habitat. 

For sheer beauty, the Morton Arboretum has few equals even among 
the most pretentious private estates of the country. Winding paths, cap 
peted in the Spring with fallen blossoms, or in the Fall with pine needles 
and fallen leaves, entice the visitor from the main driveways. They tunnel 
through thick foliage or skirt still waters, whose glassy surfaces, ruffled only 
by the wings of birds, reflect the overhanging willows. Such byways as 
Joy path. Willow path, or Spruce Hill path, lead to enchanting vistas, often 
with a sparkling bit of lake or river in the distance. 





Luuking eastward across Lake Marmo, a body 
of water frequented by birds of many kinds. 



Lake Marmo is fed by the waters of this lux- 
uriantly bordered brook. 



As the pageant of nature is unfolded, each season brings its own delights. 
Lovely indeed is hawthorn time, with its massed blossoms. In May, the 
wild plum trees, the wild crabs, and the Japanese cherry trees are clothed 
in bridal veils of pink and white. Lilac time is a miracle of mauves and 
lavenders, and October transforms the arboretum into a field of the cloth of 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



355 



gold. And in winter, with purple shadows cast upon the snow, and the 
tracery of branch and twig outlined against a chartreuse sky, a subtle spell 
broods over the preserve. At all times of the year it is a sanctuary of wild 
life, and throughout the summer, its arcades resound with the madrigals 
of birds. 

To the forestry student, the park superintendent, the landscape archi' 
tect, or the owner of a small estate, the arboretum is of inestimable service, 
furnishing as it does, occasional bulletins based on current research. In these 
bulletins, failures as well as successes in the cultivation of exported trees and 
shrubs are chronicled, and suggestions are made for the introduction of new 
and little'known varieties. Lists of shrubs for seasonal planting are sent out, 
together with notes as to the kind of soil and the climatic conditions most 
favorable for the propagation of certain recommended species. Thus, one 
bulletin describes the "red bud" or "the tree with the beautiful rose'pink 
blossoms," known also as the Judas tree, due to its resemblance to an eastern 
red bud which tradition has branded as the tree to which Judas Iscariot 
hanged himself. 



>1 




To see the Arboretum in Hawthorn tune is to see it in one of its most pleasing moods. 
These large thorn trees bordering Joy Path -are particularly handsome specimens. 

Another bulletin will deal with the Japanese cherry trees, such as the 
Haigan sakura, or Spring cherry; the Fuji cherry from the region around 
Mt. Fujiyama; or the Yoshino cherry, grown successfully in Potomac Park, 
Washington, D. C, and in the Morton Arboretum, but supposed to be 
unreliable north of New York City. 



356 Chicago's accomplishments 

Many plants whose hardiness has been considered doubtful have been 
introduced north of the 40th latitude as a result of the experiments made 
in this outdoor laboratory. Conspicuous among these are the trees and 
shrubs of the Balkan group, including the Austrian pine, the Omorika 
spruce, the Balkan maple, the Russian olive, and the European beech. Vari- 
ous native species of pine and spruce have been thoroughly tested with re- 
forestation in view. 

Roadside planting — the improvement of the American landscape by bor- 
dering the paved highways with trees — is another enterprise sponsored by 
the arboretum. A special study has been made of the horse chestnut, an 
excellent tree for street planting or for parks, or where dense shade is re- 
quired. 

Other varieties, such as the fringe tree or "old man's beard" and the 
silver bell or "snow drop tree," introduced from the south, have made them- 
selves at home in the Chicago area. 

Of lilacs, the arboretum has many rare and beautiful varieties, including 
the pinkish mauve Mme. Antoine Buchner, the Lucie Baltet, the Adelaide 
Dunbar, the Edmund Baissier, the President Lincoln, the Princess Clemen' 
tine, and others. 

Set amid flowering shrubs and vase-like elms, stands "Thornhill," the 
Morton residence, in an ample wing of which is housed the arboretum 
library. 

Mr. Morton comes by his love of trees naturally. In 1854, his father, 
J. Sterling Morton, came from Detroit to Nebraska, bringing his young 
bride, Caroline Joy Morton. They selected as a site for their new home 
one of the highest points of land near Nebraska City. Both were nature 
lovers, and it was not long before flowers, shrubs, and vines adorned their 
estate. Orchard trees as well as shade trees and evergreens were set out, and 
Arbor Lodge, as they named their home, became a beauty spot. The elder 
Morton's interest in trees began to gain wide recognition as early as 1872, 
when as president of the State Board of Agriculture, he persuaded Gov. 
Furnas to issue the first Arbor Day proclamation. Later, in 1885, the state 
legislature made Arbor Day a legal holiday in Nebraska, and set aside April 
22, Mr. Morton s birthday, as a day for tree planting. Since that time, the 
Arbor Day idea has spread to almost every State in the Union. 

As a further token of his interest in nature, he deeded to Nebraska City 
in 1888 a 23-acre tract of natural timber to be used as a State park. 

At the death of Mr. Morton in 1902, Arbor Lodge and its fine colonial 
mansion passed into the hands of his son, Joy Morton, who made it his 
summer home for many years. In 1923, however, he deeded the property 
to the State of Nebraska for use as a State park. The old family mansion 
is used as a historical museum. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



357 










(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



STERLING MORTON 



Mr. Morton was born in Chicago, Illinois, August 25, 1885, son of Joy and Carrie 
(Lake) Morton. He was educated in the Chicago Public Schools; Chateau de Lancy, 
Geneva, Switzerland; Princeton'Yale School, Chicago; Lawrenceville School, Lawrence' 
ville, New Jersey; and Princeton University, from which he graduated in 1906, with 
the degree of Litt. B. (Bachelor of Letters). He was editor of the college literary 
magazine. Upon leaving college, he engaged in business with the Morton Salt Com' 
pany of Chicago until 1917, being at that time in charge of manufacturing and sales 
of the Western Division, headquarters at Kansas City. He was elected president of 
Morkrum Company in 1917, which became Morkrum'Kleinschmidt Corporation in 1925 
and Teletype Corporation in 1929. During his term as president, this company, which 
developed and manufactured printing telegraph apparatus, including such well'known 
devices as the Teletype and the high speed stock ticker, became one of the larger elec 
trical manufacturing concerns of Chicago, employing 2,500 persons. In September, 
1930, the Teletype Corporation became a part of the American Telephone 6? Tele- 
graph Company (Bell System). Mr. Morton retired as president but remains as director. 

He is president and director of International Inventions Corporation, vice'president 
and director of Morton Building Corporation, secretary and director of Morton Salt 
Company, director of Teletype Corporation, director of Elgin National Watch Company, 
and a member of the board of trustees of Armour Institute of Technology. He has 
served in various civic organizations and has been a director of the Illinois Manufac- 
turers' Association since 1929. Being physically incapacitated for active service, he 
was a member of local and district draft boards and an officer in the First Regiment 
Illinois Reserve Militia during the World War. Mr. Morton is a member of the 
Chicago, Chicago Yatcht, Industrial, Saddle and Cycle, Harvard'Yale-Princeton, and 
Tavern clubs of Chicago; and, of the Princeton and New York Yacht clubs of New 
York. His principal recreations are horseback riding and saihng. He owns one of 
the largest schooners built in recent years on fresh water. 

He married Preston Owsley, of Chicago, November 2, 1910. Their children are 
Suzette P., Carolyn (died 1921), and Millicent (died 1929). 



358 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



HOW SCIENTIFIC CONTROL SAFEGUARDS THE 
LIVES OF CHICAGOANS 

The Inspection and Testing Engineer and His Important Work 

BY CHARLES B. NOLTE 
President, Robert W. Hunt Co., Engineers 

TO the average layman the term "Scientific contror"' imparts only a vague 
meaning. Fortunately, the American Indian offers us an excellent 
illustration. 

Forty miles from Hadeton, British Columbia, there is a unique suspen- 
sion bridge, a span of about 140 feet, built by the Skeena River Indians 
over the Bulkley river. The cables are made of -wire stolen from the Cana- 
dian Government Yukon Telegraph line. When the bridge was completed, 
the chief of the tribe was reluctant to risk his pack ponies, which were 
worth $8 each. Squaws were 
plentiful, however. So he 
tested the bridge by sending a 
group of sixteen squaws across 
it. 

Such a method of determin- 
ing the safety of a bridge 
would seem barbarous to a 
more enlightened engineer, 
but it at least shows a realiz^a- 
tion on the part of the chief 
of the necessity for some as' 
surance that the bridge would 
stand the strain; that life and 
property could be entrusted to 
it without unreasonable risk. 
He used the method which to 
him seemed best and most 
logical. 

Today, man builds more daring structures than the simple suspension 
bridge of the Skeena River Indians. He builds them not only with much 
greater efficiency, but also with the sure knowledge that they will bear the 
loads intended for them. No squaws are required to risk their lives to assure 
safety to the rest; the modern engineer employs other methods to protect 
his fellow men. To tell of these methods, and their place in the upbuilding 
of Chicago, is the purpose of this brief account. 

We have heard, many times, of the wonders of science; how through 
it the practice of medicine grew from the chantings of a witch doctor to 
the almost certain curing or prevention of practically all human ills; how 
it enables us to survey the heavens, weigh the stars, and tell exactly of what 
each is composed; how it has devised ways to transmit the human voice 




A unique suspension bridge about 140 foot span built 
by the Skeena River Indians over Bulkley River forty 
miles from Hazleton, British Columbia. The cables 
were made of wire stolen from the Canadian Govern' 
ment Yukon Telegraph Line. Before risking his pack 
ponies, which were worth eight dollars each, the Chief 
tested the bridge by sending sixteen Indian squaws 
across it. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



359 




{Foto-Ad Photo) 

HORACE EDGAR NEWCOMET 

Mr. Newcomet, viccpresident of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with headquarters in 
Chicago, started his railroad career here on February 18, 1896. Mr. Newcomet was 
born in Philadelphia, on April 27, 1874, son of Henry W. and Elisabeth K. (Stell) 
Newcomet. He attended the University of Pennsylvania and studied at the University 
of Chicago. Mr. Newcomet left Chicago in 1898, going to Cleveland. He steadily 
advanced in the operating department until September 16, 1926, when he returned 
to Chicago as general manager of the Pennsylvania. He was promoted to vice-president 
on June 16, 1929. His office is in the General Office of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 
the Chicago Union Station, from which he directs the activities of that company in 
the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, and Missouri. 

The Pennsylvania is one of the few railroads which reaches the center of Chicago 
entirely over its own rails. It carries more passengers and handles more freight than 
any other railroad in the United States. In addition to his duties as vice-president of 
the Pennsylvania, Mr. Newcomet is an officer or a director of a number of other trans- 
portation companies. Mr. Newcomet is a member of the Union League Club, Chicago 
Club, Traffic Club and Electric Club of Chicago, the Union Club of Cleveland and 
the Queen City Club of Cincinnati. 

He was married in 1899 to Louise Worthington, and is the father of three children, 
Walborn W., Edith Louise (Mrs. J. Beach Clow), and Marian Florence. 



360 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




General view in chemical and metallurgical 
laboratory. 



thousands of miles through space; how it has given us automobiles, engines, 
electric lights, and all the host of other conveniences which constitute our 
modern civilization. 

But there is one service that science 
performs of which most have never 
heard or know very little. It is that 
part of science which, taking for its 
province all materials, gives to the en' 
gineer the assurance that his "building 
blocks'" will not fail. 

Some, having read this far, will 
wonder, "How can this interest me? 
I am not an engineer, and it is for 
them that this is written." But those 
who reason thus will be wrong. We 
all depend on modern materials for 
our safety. To realize this, consider 
steel and cement only, and enumerate 
the uses you make of structures and 
other objects made of these materials. 
The skyscrapers in which you work 
or shop, the railroad tracks, wheels, 
locomotives, upon which you rely as 
you travel to and from the city, and 
the concrete streets and boulevards 
providing safe paths for speeding cars, 
are but a few of the essentials used 
daily by the residents of a great city. 
Suppose, now, the materials of which 
these were made should fail; a rail 
could split — wrecking a train; a foun- 
dation crumple — causing a building 
to collapse. When materials are con' 
sidered in this light they take on a 
greater importance even to those en' 
tirely unfamihar with the science of 
engineering. Buried deep among the 
basic reasons for "Chicago's Accom' 
plishments," but of vital concern to 
all, at least as far as her material struc 
tures are concerned, is this service 
science renders in the upbuilding and safeguarding of the city. 

The methods used to make sure materials are sound, and therefore safe 
to use, can easily be explained. We may sum them all up in three words — 
inspection, testing and analysis — all of which have been placed on a strictly 




Tensile strength test of steel. 300,000'pound 
capacity Universal testing machine. 




Preparing 
cylinders 



and crushing concrete control 
in an automatic 400,000'pound 
Watson-Stillman machine. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



361 





M ^ 


W t^ ft 


^B ^^H 




If ^^H 


11" IJ^ 


^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^H 




K ,^V 




^^ AH 



'.f%Z^ 



^wum- 






'-f•^?,■-;-''|^! 



(Moffett-RusseU Photo) 

CHARLES B. NOLTE 



Mr. Nolte, president and general manager of Robert W. Hunt Company, Consulting, 
Testing, and Inspecting Engineers, was born in Mattoon, Illinois, December 28, 1885, 
and is the son of Richard Beach and Anna Turner (Miller) Nolte. He graduated from 
the Mattoon, Illinois, High School in 1904, the Mattoon School of Commerce in 1905, 
and received his B. S. (Bachelor of Science) degree in Mechanical Engineering at the 
University of Illinois in 1909. That same year he entered the employ of Robert W. 
Hunt Company as a mechanical engineer; in 1912 he was made a division manager of 
this organization; in 1919 he was made manager and in 1923 became vice-president 
and general manager. In July, 1930, he was appointed president and general manager. 
The Robert W. Hunt Company is the largest analytical inspecting and testing engi- 
neering organization in the world, with offices and chemical, metallurgical, concrete and 
physical testing laboratories in Chicago, New York, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Kansas City, 
Dallas, Birmingham, New Orleans, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland, Mon- 
treal, Toronto, Vancouver, London, England, Brussels and Liege, Belgium, and Essen, 
Germany. Mr. Nolte is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Society for Testing Materials, American 
Railway Engineering Association, Western Society of Engineers, and Pacific Railway 
Club. He is also a member of the Union League Club, University Club of Chicago, 
Chicago Engineers' Club, and South Shore Country Club. Outside of his interest in 
scientific control which is explained more in detail in the article which Mr. Nolte furn- 
ished for this book, his principal interest is in his family, and his chief recreations are 
golf, hunting and fishing. 

On November 8, 1911, he married Maude Ahce Bacon, of Champaign, IHinois. 
Their children are Margaret Alice and Richard Bacon. 



362 Chicago's accomplishments 

scientific basis. For reliable results, however, it is necessary that this inspec- 
tion, testing and analysis be undertaken only by a specialist who makes this 
work a lifelong study. Such a specialist is the Inspection and Testing Engi- 
neer. Having the proper equipment, and armed with the technical knowl- 
edge of materials gained through experience and research, he daily co- 
operates with civil engineers, purchasing agents, and others who buy and 
use materials. The materials which come under his scientific control are 
too numerous to even list here, but because the basic methods of handling 
each are the same, we will discuss only those materials which are most 
widely used — cement, concrete and steel. 

The lines of study science follows in developing the potentialities of ma- 
terials, and of course this includes cement, take into account several con- 
siderations. The first of these is the uses for which the material is intended; 
secondly, defining those properties which specially fit it for these uses; 
thirdly, devising suitable tests to determine the extent to which these proper- 
ties are present; and finally, applying such tests. 

The principal use and purpose of cement is to make concrete. Those 
properties which cement must possess in order to make satisfactory concrete 
may be defined somewhat as follows: (1) it must act as a glue — binding 
the sand and stone into a solid mass, (2) it must stand weathering (alternate 
heat and cold, dryness and moisture), and (3) it must harden and remain 
hard. There are other qualities which may be desirable for cement, but for 
all practical purposes these three will suffice. 

In order to measure these properties, scientists have developed specific 
tests for each. A sample of the cement to be used is taken and subjected to 
the following tests. 

Perhaps the mxost important of all these tests is the tensile-strength test, 
for this measures the binding power of the cement. A small quantity of the 
sample is mixed with three times as much sand and a measured quantity of 
water. The whole mass is thoroughly mixed and then placed in molds where 
it hardens, within twenty-four hours, into miniature blocks of "experimental" 
concrete (sand, but no stone, being used). These blocks (usually six are 
made from one sample) are called briquettes, and are shaped somewhat like 
dumb-bells — the area of the smallest section (corresponding to the handle 
of the dumb-bell) being exactly one square inch. Now, the older cement 
becomes, the harder it gets. It is the general practice, therefore, to wait 
seven days to test half of the briquettes, and twenty-eight days to test the 
remaining half. The test itself consists of putting the briquettes, one by 
one, into a machine, equipped with a pair of jaws. These jaws grasp the 
two knob-like ends of the briquette and pull in opposite directions until it 
breaks — registering automatically in pounds the pull necessary to do this. 
In such a way is the ''sticking capacity" of the cement determined. 

The second test measures the soundness of the cement and, indirectly, 
its ability to withstand weathering. This is made by mixing a sample of 
cement with water and shaping it into what looks like a mud pie. These 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



363 




■**!&^S^ 



(Fernand de Cueldre Photo) 

JOHN NORTON 

Mr. Norton, painter, was born in Lockport, Illinois, March 7, 1876, the son 
of John Lyman and Ada (Gooding) Norton. He attended Harvard, 1895 to 
1897, and the Art Institute of Chicago, 1900 to 1902, from which he received 
the degree of Master of Fine Arts in 1927. 

Mr. Norton has specialized in mural decorations. The principal buildings 
that he has decorated are the Sioux City (Iowa) Court House; Tavern Club, 
Daily News Building, Loyola University Library, Board of Trade Building, 
Chicago Motor Club (all Chicago) ; Beloit (Wisconsin) College Museum of 
Ethnology; Court House at Birmingham, Alabama; and many others. He is 
a representative at the Art Institute of Chicago. He was awarded a gold 
medal by the American Institute of Architects. 

Mr. Norton served with the first United States Volunteer Cavalry of the 
Spanish-American War. He is a member of the Cliff Dwellers, Tavern 
(president), Wayfarers clubs (Chicago); and the Lake Zurich (lUinois) Golf 
Club. 

On September 2, 1903, Mr. Norton married Margaret Francis. Their 
children are Margaret Francis (Mrs. Henry Garrett) , John Francis, and Nancy. 



364 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



"pies" — or pats, as they are called — are first put into a moist'air cabinet and 
left twenty-four hours. They are next put into a boiler and steamed — much 
like a plum pudding is cooked. After twentyfour hours of this steaming, 
the pats are removed and examined for cracks. Sound cement will not be 
affected by such treatment, whereas poor cement will. 

The third and final significant test is to determine fineness. This is 
important because the speed with which the cement develops a high early 
strength is largely governed by the fineness to which its particles have been 
ground. This test is extraordinary in one respect and quite ordinary in 
another. It consists simply of placing a weighed quantity of cement (about 
a heaping tablespoonful) in a sieve and shaking until no more will pass 




Cement laboratory — Tinius Olson Briquette Testing machines to which have been added 
the new type A. S. T. M. clips and disposal chutes. To the right "Hunt" mould 

cleaning machine. 

through the mesh. The remarkable part of this test is the mesh of the sieve. 
Its copper wires are woven so closely that there are forty thousand open- 
ings to the square inch, and even water will be retained. Yet, in spite of 
the minute openings, more than three out of four of the cement particles 
must be small enough to pass through. 

In addition to these tests, there are others of a more special nature, as 
well as a specific system of chemical analysis; but for everyday use these 
three are all that are required. 

Cement is just as inseparably connected with concrete as flour is with 
bread. The Inspection and Testing Engineer, therefore, has not finished 
his job if the scientific control which he exercises stops with cement. Logi- 
cally, it should and does extend to the mixing of cement with sand, stone, 
and water to make concrete. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



365 




{Bianif, and StoUer, I 








At^i STEEL 



R. H. NORTON 



Mr. Norton, president of the Acme Steel Company, makers of hot and cold rolled strip 
steel, cooperage hoop, steel strapping, and other steel reenforcements for shipping, was 
born in Chicago, December 27, 1875, and is the son of Oliver W. and Lucy Coit 
(Fanning) Norton. He attended the Chicago Manual Training School, and the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. Starting with the Acme Steel Company in 1904, he was placed in 
entire charge of production in 1912, made vice-president in 1914, and has been president 
since 1923. Mr. Norton has taken an active part in the development of the company 
from assets of $100,000 to assets of over $11,000,000, practically all of which growth was 
brought about from profits, without the addition of outside capital. 

Mr. Norton has lived in Kenwood for more than forty years and was for many 
years president of the Kenwood Improvement Association; vice-chairman, board of 
trustees of the Chautauqua Institution; trustee, Chicago Orchestral Association; and 
secretary, Chicago Chamber Music Society, governing member of the Art Institute of 
Chicago, and also a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity. Club affiliations are the 
Union League, University, South Shore Country, City Club, and Loyal Legion of the 
United States, of which he is past vice-commander of Illinois Commandery. Collecting 
fine violins and oil paintings are his hobbies. He is now the owner of four noted violins 
- — two Stradivaris and two Guarneris — also about forty paintings by foremost American 
and European artists. 

On May 9, 1908, Mr. Norton married Sallie Ehzabeth Calhoun of Chicago. Their 
children are Beatrice, Patricia, Calhoun, and Christopher. 



366 Chicago's accomplishments 

Ten years ago those who used concrete were in the same position as a 
baker who had no definite recipe for making bread. The making of con- 
crete was largely a hit or miss procedure. Within the last few years, how- 
ever, advances in the science of concrete designing have been sufficient to 
allow the engineer to control the quality of this material with the same 
precision and satisfactory results as has been the case in the manufacture 
of steel. The advances made in concrete control are shovv^n graphically in 
the recent erection of twenty-story buildings — or higher — a feat that a 
decade ago would have been considered impossible or insane. 

The Inspection and Testing Engineer not only assures the proper quality 
of cement, but he makes elaborate tests on the sand, stone, and water that 
is destined to become a part of the concrete. He goes even further: he sup- 
plies, through calculations based upon years of experience and research, 
the correct design (proportions of sand, stone, water and cement) to insure 
concrete of the desired strength. In doing this, he is in the same position as 
one who devises a definite recipe for making bread from flour. 

Not satisfied with merely designing the mix, he has, in addition, devised 
means of checking his own "recipe" through the use of test cylinders. These 
cylinders, which are generally six inches in diameter and twelve inches high, 
are made by taking concrete as it is being poured into the forms and placing 
it in specially prepared molds. After being allowed to harden for a prede- 
termined number of days, weeks or months these cylinders are taken to the 
laboratory where they are crushed in order to measure the strength of the 
sample concrete. 

This phase of the Inspection and Testing Engineer's work is important 
enough to merit more description than is possible here — and interesting 
enough to read like a Jules Verne story. A discussion of steel awaits, 
however. 

When we turn to steel our problem, while basically the same as that of 
cement, becomes more complicated. Steel has thousands of widely varying 
uses, is made to many specifications according to its intended purpose, and 
is a vastly differing material even as from a single mill. Steel, unlike cement, 
is generally used just as it comes. Since there are a great number of uses 
for steel, there must consequently be many different kinds of steel to meet 
each requirement efficiently. It would seem natural to suppose, therefore, 
that the tests which are designed to measure the qualities of steel would be 
equally numerous. Such, however, is not the case. Generally speaking, there 
are just two tests which are always used, and two additional tests which are 
used occasionally. One of the more important is the tensile-strength test, 
which consists of pulling apart a sample of the steel to ascertain its strength 
and elasticity; the other is a bending test — to measure its ductility — which 
consists simply of bending the test piece either until it breaks or to some 
predetermined angle. The two minor tests consist of (1) a "hardness" 
test — which is made by pressing a steel ball into the metal, and from the 
size of the impression and the pressure applied computing the relative hard- 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



367 







M f 




^1 i p 1 yi^ 



(Moffett-Russdl Photo) 

JOHN J. O^BRIEN 

Mr. O'Brien, president of the Standard Gas and Electric Company and H. M. Byllesby 
and Company, was born in Chicago, April 2, 1869. He received his education in public, 
parochial and business schools. His first employment was with the Pullman Company 
when he was eighteen years old. Two years later, in 1889, he became associated with the 
Chicago office of the United Edison Manufacturing Company, predecessor of the com- 
panj' which was merged with the General Electric Company in 1892. He continued in 
charge of accounting, for the Chicago office territory of the General Electric Company, 
until 1902, when he became associated with the late Colonel H. M. Byllesby in the 
formation of the Byllesby organization. He served as treasurer and general auditor until 
the death of Colonel Byllesby in 1924, at which time he was elected president. 

Mr. O'Brien is also officer and director of the Standard Gas and Electric Company, 
H. M. Byllesby and Company, Byllesby Engineering and Management Corporation, 
Standard Power and Light Corporation, Northern States Power Company, Louisville 
Gas and Electric Company, Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company, Philadelphia Company, 
Market Street Railway Company, San Diego Consolidated Gas and Electric Company, 
Southern Colorado Power Company, The California Oregon Power Company, Mountain 
States Power Company, and Deep Rock Oil Corporation. These companies supply 
1,662 communities in twenty states and in Mexico, and serve a population of approx' 
imately six million. He is also a director of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and 
the Harris Trust and Savings Bank. Mr. O'Brien is a member of the Union League, 
Mid-Day, Electric, Butterfield Country, Chicago Golf, and Lake Shore Athletic clubs of 
Chicago; Lawyers, Recess, and Bankers of New York; Pendennis, of Louisville; and 
Duquesne, of Pittsburgh. During the summer of 1929 Mr. O'Brien qualified for mem- 
bership in the "Hole-in-One" clul?. His other chief form of recreation is billiards. 

In 1890 he was married to Miss Julia Hoy (died, 1895), of Chicago. Mr. O'Brien 
has one daughter, Katherine J. (Mrs. H. F. Carbaugh), with whom he makes his home. 



368 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ness; (2) the ''"impact" test — which measures the ability of the steel to with' 
stand sudden shocks. But, in addition to physical tests, chemical analyses and 
inspection are necessary. 

Steel is really iron to which have been added exact quantities of other 
chemical elements to impart special qualities. Such elements as carbon, sul- 
phur, and phosphorous are always present. To these may also be added 
silicon, manganese, magnesium, copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and 
a host of others; one may give greater strength, another may prevent cor- 
rosion, still another may increase its resistance to wear. To determine these 
special qualities, physical tests alone, such as pulling, bending, and twisting, 
are not enough — it is only by taking a sample of the steel apart chemically 
(analysing) and measuring the quantity of each of its component elements 
that quality may be determined. 

Even testing and analyzing is not enough. Steel is rolled, hammered, or 
poured into the shape in which it will be used. If through human error, 
these shapes become cracked, or bent, or contain any defects, it matters little 
how perfect the steel may be otherwise. A close visual inspection, there- 
fore, is necessary before the steel may be used in some skyscraper, or as a 
rail, a wheel, or for any of many other purposes. 

Thus, it is seen how materials in general have been scientifically tested 
in order that they might be used efficiently and safely in the structures, 
pavements, and development of Chicago. 




THE RACQUET CLUB. Reboh ^ Wentworth, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



369 




(DeHaven Photo) 

LEIF E. OLSEN 

Mr. Olsen is a partner of Olsen and Urbain, Inc., architects, and treasurer of 
the Mandell Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of cardboard adver- 
tising displays. He was born in Chicago, lUinois, on July 18, 1892, and is the 
son of Ole and Inga (Abrahamsen) Olsen. He studied architecture in the 
Society of Beaux Arts Architects, and in the office of Otis and Clark. During 
the World War, he served in the Na\y and had charge of the Project Depart- 
ment at Newport, Rhode Island. Following the World War, Mr. Urbain and 
Mr. Olsen organized the firm which bears their names. 

They have designed many hotels, cooperative apartments, homes, estates, 
and industrial plants in and near Chicago. Some of the recent important 
works are the Jefferson Electric Company Plant at Bellwood, lUinois, The 
Petrolagar Plant at Niles Center, Illinois, the William C. Grunow residence 
at River Forest, lUinois, Mr. Grunow's estate at Lake Geneva, the Philip K. 
Wrigley estate at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, the Mandel Lowenstine residence 
at Valparaiso, Indiana and many others. In 1920 Albert E. Mandell, Jules 
Urbain, and Leif E. Olsen, organized the Toymakers Inc., which later was 
reorganized into the Mandell Manufacturing Company. 

On March 4, 1916, Mr. Olsen married Goldie H. Andersen, of Chicago, 
They have two children, Leif E., Jr., and Donal Allan. 



370 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
JACKSON BOULEVARD, LOOKING EAST 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



371 




(Fernand de Cueldre Photo) 

WALTER P. PAEPCKE 

Mr. Paepcke, president, Container Corporation of America and Chicago Mill and Lumber 
Corporation, was born in Chicago, June 29, 1896, son of Hermann and Paula (Wagner) 
Paepcke. He was a student at the University School, Chicago, from 1904 to 1912, 
graduated from the Chicago Latin School in 1913, and received his A. B. (Bachelor of 
Arts) degree at Yale in 1917. Mr. Paepcke began his business career in. 19 17 as assistant 
treasurer of Chicago Mill and Lumber Company (now Chicago Mill and Lumber Cor- 
poration) and has been president since 1921. This organization is one of the largest 
producers of hardwood lumber, wood boxes, crates, veneer, and plywood. The Container 
Corporation of America has become, under Mr. Paepcke's direction, the world's largest 
producers of corrugated and solid fibre shipping containers, folding cartons, and paper- 
board. Among its recent developments is a paperboard insulation material for home con- 
struction, as well as industrial usage. 

Mr. Paepcke is chairman of the board of K. W. Battery Company, and Chicago 
Mill Paper Stock Company; director, McWilliams Dredging Company. He enhsted in 
the United States Naval Reserve Force in May, 1918, and was later commissioned as 
ensign, being honorably discharged in April, 1919. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa 
and Alpha Delta Phi fraternities, and his clubs are Mid-Day, Racquet, Harvard-Yale- 
Princeton, Yale, Onwentsia, and Shoreacres. He enjoys golf, tennis, and squash racquets. 



On April 16, 1922, Mr. Paepcke married Ehzabeth H. Nitze of Chicago, 
children are Walter P., Jr. (died October 4, 1926), Anina H., and Paula A. 



The 



372 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



DRAMATIZING THE HISTORY OF CHICAGO AND 
THE OLD NORTHWEST TERRITORY 

The Chicago Historical Society and Its Important Work 

BY CHARLES B. PIKE 
President, Chicago Historical Society 

YOUNG, as cities go, Chicago has already its legends and traditions. Its 
earliest visitors were men of fame and importance. Marquette, Joliet, 
La Salle and Tonti all tramped its sandy marshes and carried their canoes 
and supplies over the mud flats of the portage that separated the Chicago 
and the Des Plaines rivers. In 1679 La Salle entered the Illinois River and 
named it for the tribes of the surrounding region. The river named the 
territory when it was organized in February, 1809, and later the state when 
it came into existence in 1818. In 1833 Chicago was incorporated as a 
town, and in 1856 its historical society was organi2;ed. 

Dedicated to the preservation and recording of Chicago's history the 
Chicago Historical Society has gradually broadened its province until it 
now dramati2,es the history of the old Northwest, as well as of the entire 
United States. Progressive men leave their imprint on everything they 
touch and on every society with which they become actively associated. The 
Chicago Historical Society has been singularly fortunate in having always 
had as its trustees the foremost men of the city. Its founders were men 
whose names have gone down in history as the great statesmen, merchants, 
and bankers of their time. A hst of the Society's presidents reads like the 
Dictionary of American Biography. It is therefore not surprising that each 




I 



(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
The Chicago Historical Society's building in Lincoln Park, near North Avenue. 
Graham, Anderson, Probst 6? White, architects. 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



373 



of the Society's buildings has been the most modern of its time, embodying 
the new and unusual features of museum construction, new methods for 
handling historical material, and new ways of attacking old historical prob' 
lems. 

Like its predecessors the new building of the Society will no doubt 
mark a step forward in historical museum technique. Standing amid the 
spreading lawns of Lincoln Park, near the Saint'Gaudens' statue of Lincoln, 
this red brick Georgian building with white limestone trim is one of 
Chicago's most beautiful examples of Colonial architecture. This Colonial 




A SHRIKE OF LINCOLN WORSHIPERS 

The Lincoln Parlor, homelike and cheerful, is among the most popular of the Chicago His' 

torical Society exhibits. Here is reproduced, with its original furniture, the front parlor of 

the Lincoln home in Springfield. 

feeling is carried throughout the interior, with thirtyeight period rooms 
dramati2,ing the important epochs of American history from the days of 
Columbus to the present date. Beginning with the Spanish Exploration 
Room the visitor starts out on a tour of American history from the wreck 
of the Santa Maria off the coast of Santo Domingo on Christmas Eve, 
1492, to the signing of the Armistice at the end of the World War. The 
visitor may walk through the important days of American history in an 
hour and a half. In that time he may pause to look in the mullioned win- 
dows of Paul Revere's North Square house in Boston, visit the Mount 



374 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Pleasant country seat of a wealthy Philadelphia gentleman, look into the 
west parlor of Mt. Vernon, trace the trend of the western migrations and 
the construction of the transcontinental railroads. He may gaze at Chicago 
as it looked before the great fire of 1871 and in the days of the World's 
Fair of 1893, pictures which are but two in a series of eight dioramas in the 
Chicago Diorama Gallery. Here the visitor'in'a'hurry can get a bird's'eye 
view of Chicago's history, a fifteen minute drama that he will not soon 
forget. It is not often that one lives to see a whole city going down to de' 
struction in the grip of a great conflagration as he can in the diorama of the 
Chicago Fire, nor can he see an exciting horse race in old Washington Park 
every day merely by turning an electrical switch as he can do at the Chicago 
Historical Society. In a word, the Society has made history come to life — it 
has dramatizied events that have stood as barren skeletons in our minds from 
the days of our childhood when dates in history were learned by rote. 

With the opening of its new building the Chicago Historical Society 
embarks on a new period of usefulness to the teacher and student, as well 
as the man'in-the-street. Its library of 50,000 volumes includes many rare 
and out'of'print books and first editions, and an equal number of manu' 




(Howe and Arthur Photo) 

WHERE RELICS OF THE PIONEERS ARE GATHERED 

The Early Pioneer Room, with its rugged beamed ceihng, was designed especially as a back- 
ground for the Dr. Otto L. Schmidt collection of material associated with the early days of 
Uhnois and the Old Northwest Territory. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



375 




'■'In ■ i 

HiSroaiCAL 

^^vSOCJETV 







■■;, ] 



7 



*5 i/ 1 '£;• . 



(Du Bun Fhotu) 



CHARLES B. PIKE 



Mr. Pike, president of the Chicago Historical Society, was born in Chicago, IHinois, 
June 29, 1871, son of Eugene S. and Mary (Rockwell) Pike. He graduated from Har' 
vard University in 1893 and from Harvard Law School in 1896. He was admitted to 
the Illinois Bar in 1898 and practiced law in Chicago for four years. In 19014902 
he was vice-president of the Western State Bank and was president of the Hamilton 
National Bank and the Merchants Safe Deposit Company from 1903 to 1910. After 
retiring from banking, he assisted his father in the management of his real estate. On 
his father's death in 1916, he became the managing trustee of the Eugene S. Pike Estate 
Land Trust. During the War, Mr. Pike was Civilian Aide to the Adjutant General and 
Chairman of the Central and Western Departments of the Military Training Camps 
Association, the main Civilian Agency of the War Department for recruiting and induct' 
ing specialists into the various technical branches of the Army and the thirteen branches 
of the General Staff and for examining candidates for the Field and Coast Artillery 
Officers' Schools. Since 1922, he has been president of the Military Training Camps 
Association, with headquarters in Chicago, and Chief Civilian Aide to the Secretary of 
War — serving Secretaries John W. Weeks, Dwight F. Davis and Patrick J. Hurley in this 
capacity. 

In 1927, Mr. Pike was elected president of the Chicago Historical Society. He was 
active in securing a site for the Society in Lincoln Park and in financing and supervising 
the building of its new Historical Museum and Library, with its up-to-date equipment, 
and planned to visualize the history not only of Chicago, but of the United States from 
the discovery of America to the immediate present. This educational, civic and patriotic 
project was opened to the general public on November 12, 1932. Mr. Pike sponsored 
the organizing of the Racquet Club of Chicago and was elected its first president in 1924, 
holding this office until his resignation in 1929. Mr. Pike is a member of the Chicago, 
University, Casino, Saddle and Cycle, Old Elm, Shoreacres, Onwentsia, Attic and Har- 
vard clubs of Chicago, the Racquet and Tennis Club of New York and the Bar Harbor 
and Kebo Valley (president) clubs of Bar Harbor, Maine. 

On May 18, 1898, in Washington, D. C, he married Frances Alger of Detroit, 
daughter of General Russell A. Alger, who was then Secretary of War. 



376 Chicago's accomplishments 

scripts. Three thousand newspapers and thousands of maps and prints are 
at the disposal of all who care to visit the library. In the Chicago fire of 
1871 and again in the fire of 1874 great destruction was wrought in the 
book collections and in the valuable group of manuscripts which included 
the original draft of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Many of these 
early books it has never been possible to replace. The Chicago Historical 
Society Library is particularly rich in material dealing with early frontier 
days of the old Northwest. It has a large George Rogers Clark collection, 
hundreds of early French manuscripts, diaries of early travelers, and account 
books of trappers and early storekeepers. In this great storehouse you will 
find letters of La Salle and Tonti, letters from Lincoln to Douglas, surveys 
made by George Washington, reports of pioneer Chicago firms, original 
copies of Indian treaties, and directories and newspapers of all kinds. 

In its new building the Chicago Historical Society will enlarge its 
Educational Department. Not only have children's work rooms been pro- 
vided for, but a large auditorium with motion picture and stereopticon 
equipment will be available for pageants and plays of all kinds. The Society 
expects, moreover to develop a series of lectures for adults on current 
topics, as well as historic events, at the same time continuing its valuable 
work among the school children of Chicago. 

Some years ago the Chicago Historical Society, in conjunction with the 
Board of Education, worked out a series of lectures to be given to school 
children on Saturday mornings. These lectures supplement the work done 
in history in the public, private, and parochial schools of the city. Tests are 
given at the end of each lecture. The children fill in the test sheets and 
take them back to school. In this way, the student fixes in his own mind 
the information just gathered and returns to his class with an accurate 
synopsis of the lecture. 

Another important educational activity of the Chicago Historical So- 
ciety is the Junior Citi2,ens Club which was formed four years ago for the 
purpose of spreading information about the functions of our city, state and 
national governments, as well as the responsibilities of citi2;enship. Its 
growth has been phenomenal. Begun as an educational project with head' 
quarters in the building of the Chicago Historical Society, the Junior Citi- 
2,ens Club has grown into a loosely knit federation of individual American- 
ization clubs under the general supervision of a group of educators and 
business men. 

The principal and teachers of each school in the city pick from the 
children in their charge fifteen to twenty pupils who have good scholar- 
ship averages and who have shown an interest in civic affairs. This 
group of students at their first meeting elect a president, vice-president, 
secretary and treasurer of the club, as well as special administrative, legis- 
lative, educational, publicity and social committees. The Junior Citizens 
Clubs study important events in American institutions of government from 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



377 







(Mofjett' Russell Photo) 

ALBERT J. PIXLEY 

Mr. Pixley, president of Pixley and Ehlers Restaurants, was born in Portage, Wisconsin, 
in 1879, son of Jacob and Augusta (Bachman) Pixley. He received his education in 
the public and high schools of that city. His first job in Chicago was in the restaurant 
of E. W. Rieck. With Mr. Pixley's help, Mr. Rieck built a second restaurant and put 
him in charge, so that at the age of nineteen he became a restaurant manager. A few 
months later, Mr. Rieck decided that the second restaurant was more than he cared to 
handle and urged Mr. Pixley to buy the place. He found he had saved only twenty 
five dollars so he persuaded his good friend, Mr. W. J. Ehlers, to sell his barber shop 
and join him, which he did. A tailor advanced the remaining one hundred dollars, and 
they started in the restaurant business. Some time later Mr. Ehlers was forced to retire 
because of illness and Mr. Pixley became president of the company, which now owns 
fourteen restaurants in Chicago, and, in addition, a bakery on Madison street. 

In the windows of many of the Pixley and Ehlers restaurants tantahzing pies and 
pastries of all sorts are prepared and baked before the bulging eyes of Chicagoans and 
visitors. In 1930, when business conditions became bad, Mr. Pixley said to his 500 
employees: "We will not cut wages, nor lay anybody off (except for cause), nor reduce 
bonus payments." Mr. Pixley does business strictly on a cash basis, all bills being paid 
every week. He is a member of the Chicago Athletic Club, Oak Park Country Club, 
and the Swan Lake Shooting Club, and his favorite recreations are hunting and golf. 

On April 25, 1900, he married Julia L. DeMoney, of Chicago. 



378 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



the earliest days to the present. Pageants and plays are written and pro' 
duced and an attempt is made to reach the parents through the children and 
interest them in the life of their communities. The unusual popularity of 
the Junior Citizens Club proves conclusively that it has a definite place in 
the life of the coming generations. The Chicago Historical Society plans, 
therefore, to extend its activities and to advance the welfare and usefulness 
of the Junior Citizens Club by every means in its power. 

The Chicago Historical Society was organized by its founders to in' 
stitute and encourage historical inquiry, to collect and preserve the ma' 
terials of history and to spread historical information. It is not always easy 
to pick out historical events that will be of far'reaching influence in the 
future, when these take place in everyday hfe. The Chicago Historical 
Society does not attempt to do so except in a very broad way. It collects 
the materials of present-day civilization as they concern the hfe of the city, 
state and nation. Well aware that the cultural, as well as the industrial 
future of this country will be very unlike that of the past, the Chicago 
Historical Society feels, that by the accumulating of valuable materials of 
present-day history, its great collection can serve all who care to consult it, 
as a springboard from the past to the future. 




A Victorian Parlor of the early 1850"s. 
The rosewood furniture, from the Terrace 
Row home of Mrs. Tuthill King, is the 
gift of Mrs. George Henry High. The 
candelabra and the clock, gifts of Mrs. 
Eliphalet W. Cramer, were originally pre- 
sented to James Spencer by the Prince of 
Wales, later Edward VII. The music box 
is from the John B. Drake home, and the 
fireplace from the Mahlon D. Ogden 
home. 

{Howe and Arthur Photo) 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



379 



/ 


v4 


li 


>:^ 




9 






t?\wk-^ 


L 


»= ^' 


% 








■■H 


f>,,- ' 






-A * 






(Mofett-Ruisell Photo) 

CONRAD H. POPPENHUSEN 

Mr. Poppenhusen, attorney, was born at College Point, Long Island, New York, on 
July 21, 1872, son of Herman C. and Caroline S. (Funke) Poppenhusen, and is a 
descendant of Conrad Poppenhusen, who came to the United States from Hamburg, 
Germany, in 1841, and became prominent in railroad activities in New York. Mr. 
Poppenhusen was sent to the Gymnasium at Kiel, Germany, for his early education, 
1880-1889, returning to the United States to complete his studies. He took up the 
study of law and was admitted to practice in 1892. He continued his study of law, 
however, at the old Union College of Law (now Northwestern University Law School), 
graduating in 1894. 

In 1899, after practicing alone for several years, he formed the firm of Gregory, 
Poppenhusen and McNab. In 1914 he entered the firm of Newman, Poppenhusen and 
Stern, and in 1928, following the death of Mr. Newman and Mr. Stern, organized 
the firm of Poppenhusen, Johnston, Thompson and Cole, with offices at 11 South 
La Salle street, of which he is the senior partner. He is a director of the Central Re- 
public Trust Company, Fairbanks Morse 6? Company, Central-Illinois Securities Com- 
pany, Chicago, and the State Bank and Trust Company, Evanston; is a member of the 
American, Illinois State and Chicago bar associations, the Association of the Bar of the 
City of New York, the Law Club, and Phi Delta Phi Fraternity, and is president of the 
board of trustees of the National College of Education, Evanston, Illinois. His clubs are 
the Chicago, Electric, Mid-Day, Old Elm, Glen View, Evanston, Midwick, Chicago 
Athletic, Union League, and Press. He takes an active interest in civic progress and 
public affairs and for diversion plays bridge and golf. 

On June 25, 1895, he married Harriet G. Gunn, of Evanston, Illinois. Their children 
are Conrad H., Jr., and Nancy. 



380 Chicago's accomplishments 

SEEING CHICAGO FROM THE BUS TOPS 

''Open Air to Everywhere" Service Popular With Visitors 

and Townsfolk Alike 

BY GARRETT T. SEELEY 
Vice-President, Chicago Motor Coach Company 

ADDING a metropolitan touch to Chicago within recent years, and im' 
parting a picturesque bit of color to the scene, are the motor coaches, 
plying the boulevards with their groups of sight'seers or their regular daily 
passengers. 

With the coming of the motor coach, Chicago has taken on the aspect of 
New York or London, and there were reasons why this twentieth century 
transportation had to come. 

Completion of the Michigan Boulevard link bridge, together with the 
lake front development of the last decade, has resulted in the development 
of a new retail business district, centering at Wacker drive and Michigan 
avenue. This district is now served by bus. Likewise, the bus lines furnish 
the only direct means of mass transportation to the Art Institute, Field 
Museum, Soldier Field, the Adler Planetarium, the Shedd Aquarium, and 
the Century of Progress exposition grounds. 

The Chicago Motor Coach Company is the second oldest, and also one 
of the largest and most successful organi2,ations of its kind in the United 
States. While it is a definite factor in meeting the transportation require- 
ments of Chicago's vast and growing population, the popularity of its serv 




BOATING IN LINCOLN PARK 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



381 




{Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



RUFUS W. PUTNAM 



Major Putnam, president of the Maritime Engineering Corporation and secretary 
treasurer of the Leathern Smith-Putnam Navigation Company, was born in La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, June 30, 1891, and is the son of William Rice and Jane (Willard) Putnam. 
He received his college education at the United States Military Academy, West Point, 
being an honor graduate of the class of 1913. He was commissioned to Corps of 
Engineers, United States Army, and served in all grades from second-lieutenant to 
that of lieutenant-colonel during his service with the army, which terminated upon his 
resignation in 1926. Major Putnam's military service included various engineering as- 
signments in this country and with the American Expeditionary Forces in France. 

From 1921 to 1926 he was United States District Engineer for the Chicago River 
and Harbor District. Since resigning from the service, he has been engaged in con- 
sulting engineering, specializing in marine operations. He was chief engineer for the 
Commercial Club of Chicago from 1926 to 1928 in connection with the preparation 
of a report on the "Harbor Plan of Chicago." His interests during the past few years 
have been along the lines of developing water transportation; his connection with the 
Leathem Smith-Putnam Navigation Company is evidence of this as this company is a 
pioneer in the field of barge transportation. This company has designed and is oper- 
ating a special type of lake-going barge, carrying about 2,000 tons of sand or gravel, 
and so designed as to go under the Chicago River bridges without requiring them to 
open, which should be of special interest to Chicagoans who must cross one or more 
of our bridges every day. The development of this type of boat has been Major Put- 
nam's hobby for the past few years. He is a member of the Chicago Engineers Club, 
Electric Club, Traffic Club, and Riverside Golf Club; director of Chicago Regional 
Planning Association and the Chicago Regional Port Commission; and a past president 
of the Western Society of Engineers. 

On September 4, 1914, he married Caroline Frances Hough, of Rochester, New 
York. Their children are Persis, Rufus Willard, and Benjamin Olney. 



382 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ice is due largely to the fact that its routes are laid over the city's famed 
boulevard system and through its parks. Thus, to the visitor, a motor coach 
ride is the equivalent of a long sightseeing tour. Most of Chicago's beauty 
spots and show places may be viewed from the top of a bus at the expense 
only of a dime or two. 

Curiously enough, the idea for such a transportation system originated 
from John Hertz, father of the Yellow Cab service. With his genius for 
discerning opportunity, Mr. Hertz; saw that adequate bus service would 
serve a definite need not only to the new and expanding business district, 
but as a civic asset in advertising Chicago's attractions to outsiders and in 
bringing residents in closer touch with the beauties of their city. 




ONE OF CHICAGO'S MANY BATHING BEACHES 

Mr. Hert2,'s first step was to purchase the old Chicago Motorbus Com- 
pany, long a failing enterprise, which operated over a route of about ten 
miles on the North Side. This pioneer concern was taken over in 1922, At 
the same time Mr. Hertz, obtained the services of the one man in the United 
States who was most likely to make a success of the new venture. This man, 
John A. Ritchie, president of the Fifth Avenue Coach Company of New 
York City, was regarded as the most able bus line operator in the country. 

Mr. Ritchie had attracted wide attention because of the manner in 
which he had replaced red ink with black on the ledgers of the New York 
company, which had been anything but a gold mine. In connection with the 
civility campaigns which he inaugurated, he had published a series of pam- 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



383 




{Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



ROBERT ISHAM RANDOLPH 



Col. Randolph, director of operations for A Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago's 
(1933) World's Fair, and president of the Chicago Association of Commerce, 1930 and 
1931, was born in Chicago, April 14, 1883, the son of Isham and Mary Henry (Taylor) 
Randolph. He studied at Cornell University, and in 1904 was appointed assistant engi' 
neer of the Sanitary District of Chicago. From 1908 to 1911 he served as secretary of 
the Internal Improvement Commission of Illinois, and from 1911 to 1913 as secretary 
of the Rivers and Lakes Commission of Illinois. He was secretary of Isham Randolph 
and Company, consulting engineers, from 1913 to 1921, and is now viccpresident of the 
Randolph'Perkins Company, consulting engineers. 

As a private soldier. Col. Randolph served on the Mexican border with Battery C, 
1st Ilhnois field artillery, in 1916. In 1918 he was a major in command of the 535th 
Engineers, American Expeditionary Forces, and later was breveted lieutenant'colonel, 
commanding the 381st Engineers, Officers' Reserve Corps. An enthusiastic advocate 
of inland waterways. Colonel Randolph has been equally active in the cause of crime 
prevention. As head of the Citizens' Committee for the Punishment and Prevention of 
Crime, the famous "Secret Six," he has won international recognition for his ruthless 
prosecution of Chicago's public enemies and for his fearless defense of Chicago's repu' 
tation. Col. Randolph is a director of the Citizens' Association and president (1932) 
of the Mississippi Valley Association. He is a member of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers, the Western Society of Engineers, the University, Engineers, Commercial, and 
Riverside Golf clubs, and the Psi Upsilon Fraternity. 

He was married October 17, 1912, to Martha A. Maclean of Riverside, lUinoii. 



384 Chicago's accomplishments 

phlets on public relations. One of these, "A Har\'est of Thoughts on Civil' 
ity," so rang the bell that the first edition was snapped up overnight, and 
a number of subsequent printings were necessary. The slogan of the Chicago 
Motor Coach Company is ''Service with a smile." 

The company continued to operate at first only over the single North 
Side line. In a short time, however, permission was obtained from the Illi' 
nois Commerce Commission to extend the service to the boulevards of the 
South Side. Later a West Side service was established. 

Under expert management and public understanding the new company 
enjoyed immediate prosperity and popularity. As Mr. Hert^ had dreamed, 
it became a valuable advertisement for the city. Visitors went away from 
Chicago extolling its scenic and architectural beauties. Since the Chicago 
Motor Coach Company was established, it has multiphed its service ap' 
proximately sixteen times. It maintains five garages, and two maintenance 
shops. More than 150 miles of routes are operated with 550 buses, and it is 
the preferred mode of transportation of about sixty million people annually. 

The company has more than 1,200 employees on its payroll. The avep 
age daily mileage is 38,000. 

The company has continually added to and improved its service. One of 
its most important moneysaving policies, from the standpoint of the rider, 
was the inauguration, a few years ago, of a Hberal free transfer system. This 
makes it possible to ride from one end of the city to another — a distance in 
excess of twentyseven miles — for one fare. 

Never, under the present management, have the buses failed in an emep 
gency. Pageants and athletic events at Soldier Field have attracted hundreds 
of thousands of spectators, but the Motor Coach Company has handled the 
crowds competently and with dispatch. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



385 







s«*^~ Yi^ "vf^ "^f^' 



r%W-; 



4S' 



- w,J4 



-^ '"i" 



^1 



(Cordon Studio Photo) 



DAVID M. RAPPORT 

Mr. Rapport, president of Rapid Roller Company, manufacturers of printing press rollers, 
was born in Chicago, March 10, 1885, son of Max and Hannah Rapport. Because of the 
death of his father he was reared in an orphans' home until fourteen years of age. He 
began his business career as a newsboy and later served an apprenticeship of four years 
with one of Chicago's reputable builders of printing machinery, studying drafting nights. 
Mr. Rapport got his technical education at Lewis Institute, Chicago. While working in his 
apprenticeship, he studied the operation of printers' rollers and developed ways of im- 
proving them. In 1913 he invented the first lithographic roller ever made which did 
away with the use of sheepskin and leather and since that time has evolved many other 
types of rollers. Because there was no machinery in existence to carry out his inventions, 
he designed and built new machines for this purpose. 

In 1917 Mr. Rapport organized the Rapid Roller Company and he designed the 
machinery used in his plant. In the Rapid Roller Company plant is a complete chemical 
laboratory, as well as the manufacturing machinery constructed according to Mr. 
Rapport's ideas. Experiments are being conducted at all times to improve rollers. Mr. 
Rapport derived the first word in the name of his company from the first three letters of 
his own name and adopted "Mercury," the name of the winged Roman deity who was 
messenger of the gods, as his trade-mark. Mr. Rapport is a member of the Chicago 
Association of Commerce, Printing Trades Craftsmen, Executives, and Covenant clubs. 
His favorite recreations are handball and swimming. 



He married Freda Savage, of Chicago, December 31, 1917. 
Maxine and Laurence. 



Their children are 



386 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO AS A CENTER OF THE DANCE 
An Art Form That Has Many Local Exponents and Admirers 

BY MARK TURBYFILL 
Author of "The Living Frieze," "A Marriage With Space." Dance critic, The Chicagoan 

IN 1850 Chicago heard its first performance of Grand Opera, which, as the 
program states, "concludes with a Pas de Deux." The small, two'Story, 
wooden building which housed the theater, burned down the following eve' 
ning. In 1928 Harriet Monroe wrote in Foetry of the dancer, ''Adolph 
Bolm leaping to interpret the soaring skyscraper." 

In Oriental countries similarities of form in architecture and dancing 
are evident. But in Chicago, has anyone seen a port de bras inspired by the 
opening and closing of the Michigan Avenue Link bridge; a pirouette set 
spinning by example of the Tribune tower's flying buttresses? 

When civic enthusiasm presses the question, "What is Chicago's in' 
fluence upon the dance?" it is the curious observation of a provocative phil' 
osopher and writer, Mr. G. Gurdjieff, who slyly called himself a "dancing 
teacher," which comes to mind. Visiting Chicago in 1924 with his phc 
nomenal and indefatigable dancers, Mr. Gurdjieff found time to discuss 
various types of energy; and added knowledge to ama2,ement by "revealing" 
the source of Chicago's proud strength: the population, he said, drew energy 
into the very fibers of their being from the sea of blood spilt from thousands 
of hogs and cattle slaughtered daily at the stockyards! 

About the year 1865, in the wind'swept village of Fullersburg, then 
seventeen miles northwest of Chicago, was born Loie Fuller, the dancer. 
"They transformed the bar into a sleeping'room and there it was that I first 
saw hght," she wrote in her Fifteen Tears of a Dancer s Life. With the 
spirit of the Windy City blowing its will through agitated yards of her 
draperies, and with the projection of rainbow lights upon them ("It's a 
butterfly!" "It's an orchid!" thousands who saw her cried) she precipitated 
throughout the world a new idea of manipulating light, form, and move' 
ment upon the stage. 

During three seasons in this age of incandescent hght, the Chicago Allied 
Arts, Inc., raised, and finally lowered (December, 1926) its eloquent curtain 
upon which a suave ballerina came careening over a hori2;on of briUiantly 
illuminated (Chicago) skyscrapers. Newspapers agreed that the ballets pre' 
sented by this organization were "cleverly arranged and admirably danced." 
But when they gave La Farce du Vont T^euf, there were differences of 
opinion. Needless to say, no sounds such as issued from Mme. Herscher' 
Clement's score were ever heard on Chicago bridges. "The music," declared 
one critic, "is the most futile, infantile conglomeration of sounds heard here 
in some time." 

To have done with conglomerations, and to exclaim (in well modulated 
voices) "Welcome to our City!" to a creative synthesis of music, painting, 
and the dance, was precisely the hospitable and ambitious aim of those en' 



Chicago's accomplishments 387 

thusiasts who organi2;ed the Chicago Allied Arts. Music, chosen principally 
from the works of modern composers, among whom were Chicago's own 
John Alden Carpenter and Leo Sowerby, was directed by Eric DeLamarter. 
Charm and wit enlivened the curtains, settings and costumes designed by 
Nicolas Remisoff. The ballets and dances, arranged by Adolph Bolm, be 
came a vivid entity of the synthesis. 

During these performances Chicago had its first opportunity to see the 
dancing of Tamara Karsavina of the Russian Ballet. Ruth Page, Caird 
Leslie, Amata Grassi, Berenice Holmes, Harriet Lundgren, Paul DuPont, 
Vera Mirova, Maria Montero, Edna McRae, Marcia Preble were among 
the many dancers who contributed to the variety and spirit of the produc 
tions. Organi2;ed in 1924, the Chicago AHied Arts, Inc., flowered but three 
brief seasons; yet it has been the only civic institution of significant propor' 
tions dedicated to the art of the dance of which the United States can boast. 

The giant strides of trade which make Chicago the world's leader as a 
production center do not cover the globe merely with packing house prod' 
ucts, common brick, varnish, telephone equipment, mail order merchandise. 
No. "Chicago leads the world in the manufacture and distribution of 
musical instruments and also radio and radio accessories,"" statistics say. 
The already versatile correspondence curriculum adds dance instruction 
from Chicago, and reaches a high point of ingenuity with lessons written 
by Chicagoans, signed with alluring Russian pseudonyms, and sold to the 
world by garrulous full page advertisements. "I can teach you to dance 
like this!" exclaim the captions, referring to accompanying illustrations of 
pretty girls doing "ja^z; toe," Spanish, and quasi-Oriental dances. Thus the 
city incubates and broadcasts over the nations its brood of mail-taught 
coryphees, and ministers to their Terpsichorean urge with music by radio, 
and with musical instruments manufactured in Chicago. 

As for the ja2,2, released from every corner of the globe by these instru' 
ments, everyone knows that it was once "an underground waif," "a low 
noise in a low dive"; but some forget to remember that it was Chicago 
(again!) that made ja^z its protege, gave it a vibrant send-off commanding 
prestige. 

"There is considerable discussion," writes Paul Whiteman, "over exactly 
who did invent the term 'jaz^z, band,' with many authorities giving the honor 
to Bert Kelly of Chicago, who described a group of musicians that he hired 
out to the Boosters' club at the Hotel Morrison as a 'ja^^ band.' The 
Boosters' club promptly raised its prices, alleging that the new-fangled jazz 
came high." 

And so Chicago, moving on the shore of the great ocean of jazz, com- 
municated convulsions to the whole world. Dancers, composers, painters, 
poets, producers, treading European shores, felt the tidal wave of jazz, and 
continued to work in its tempo and rhythm. In the fascinating works of 
Picasso, Picabia, Leger, Cocteau, Stravinsky, Milhaud, Honegger, Ravel, 
Kreutzberg, Massine, Balanchine, Diaghileff, it requires only eyes and ears 



388 Chicago's accomplishments 

to recognize the influence of ja^z;, a highly contagious and characteristic 
product of Chicago. 

Probably the most notable of the ballets produced by the Chicago Opera 
Company were The Birthday of the Infanta and Boudour, both given during 
the season of 1919'20. Music for the Infanta was composed by John Alden 
Carpenter, settings by Robert Edmund Jones, choreography by Adolph 
Bolm, with Ruth Page dancing the role of the Infanta. Felix Borowski com' 
posed the music for Boudour, Norman Bel Geddes designed the decor, the 
late Andreas Pavley, and Serge Oukrainsky arranged the choreography, and 
Anna Ludmila danced the principal feminine role. 

Opera in Chicago has always had the disposition to entrust the direction 
of the ballet to Europeans. Among these have been Luigi Albertieri, Messrs. 
Pavley and Oukrainsky, Adolph Bolm, Vecheslav Swoboda, Laurent 
Novikoff. 

It remained for the Ravina Opera Company to entrust its ballet to an 
American, a Chicagoan. In 1926 when Ruth Page became ballet mistress 
of the Ravina Opera, the dancing was regarded as something of a gratifying 
surprise, perhaps even a sprightly interpolation. Then audiences and critics 
alike began to observe that with the entrance of the ballet there was estab' 
lished a higher degree of visual enjoyment; and that plastic harmonies, de' 
signs for the eye, were as essential as those aimed for the satisfaction of 
the ear. 

Long before the birth of the "great American noise,'' before Chicago 
had made jazz, its protege, dance developments of another character were 
taking place here. These were the experiments of the greatest dance inno- 
vator of the age, Isadora Duncan. That her first productions were not, 
however, completely appreciated, has been vividly suggested by Harriet 
Monroe. 

"The triumph of genius,"" she writes, "seems such an easy thing to the 
applauding world — a victory inevitable, writ in the stars from the beginning! 
But who would have foreseen it on that evening long ago when a lanky 
girl and her brother — ill-nourished, ill-dressed — tried out their dances in a 
Chicago drawing-room generously lent out of pity, and were advised by 
the kindly hostess and her satiric-smiling guests to give up their strange 
Terpsichorean antics."" 

As for schools of the dance in Chicago, they are too numerous to cata- 
logue. Among the many capable teachers of Chicago are Hazel Sharp, 
Merriel Abbott, Edna McRae, Berenice Holmes, Serge Oukrainsky. 

In the concert field and in Chicago's dance consciousness the name of 
Bertha Ochsner is rapidly becoming significant. Miss Ochsner explores the 
mental countries of religious fanatics; the regrets of a princess about to be- 
come a queen. She searches out strange meanings in the movements of 
animals, birds, and fish, and builds a dance of minutely accurate pictures or 
analogies. She dances her storms of feeling, but they are less savage than 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



389 




(G. Dohkin Photo. Atlantic City. X. J.) 



FREDERICK H. RAWSON 



Mr. Rawson, chairman of the board of the First National Bank of Chicago and the First 
Union Trust and Savings Bank, was born in Chicago, May 30, 1872, the son of Stephen 
W. and Emily (Holbrook) Rawson. After his graduation from Yale University in 1895, 
he began his career as entry clerk for the Union Trust Company. He made rapid pro- 
gress and in 1901 was elected a vice-president of the company. In 1925 he was chairman 
of the board, and when the Union Trust Company was merged with the First National 
Bank in 1929, Mr. Rawson was co-chairman of the board of the combined institution. 
He has held his present office of chairman since 1930. 

His wide range of interests is indicated by his directorships in various organizations 
and by his club memberships. He is a director of the Mercantile Trust and Savings 
Bank, the Miehle Printing Press and Manufacturing Company, the Chicago, Burhngton 
and Quincy and the Baltimore and Ohio railroad companies, and of Wilson and Com- 
pany. He is a trustee of Field Museum of Natural History, and a member of the 
Bankers, Chicago, Saddle and Cycle, Mid-Day, Onwentsia, Old Elm, Racquet, and Shore 
Acres clubs, the New York Yacht Club, and the Cocoloba Cay Club of Miami. 

Mr. Rawson was married January 10, 1907, to Edith Kennett of Chicago. The 
children are Frederick Holbrook and Kennett Longley. 



390 



Chicago's accomplishments 



those of Mary Wigman or Angna Enters, with whom she has something 

There are other younger dancers who have banded together to form 
The Chicago Little Theatre of the Dance. Their contributions, up to the 
present have been, however, too few or too sHght to command more than 
mention of their endeavors and enthusiasms. 




20 NORTH WACKER DRIVE BUILDING 
Graham, Anderson, Probst ^ White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



391 




{Mdvin H. Sykes Photo) 



FRANK C. REED 



Mr. Reed, vice-president of the Westinghouse Electric Elevator Company, was born in 
Mercer County, Pennsylvania, January 1, 1879, son of Alexander S. and Loretta (Mc- 
Ewen) Reed. He received his early education at a country school and Grove City 
College, Pennsylvania, graduating with the class of 1900. In 1903 he graduated from 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts, with the degree of 
B. S. (Bachelor of Science). After graduation he entered the employ of the Westing- 
house Electric 6? Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as an appren- 
tice, and has been in its employ continuously since that date. After serving as an appren- 
tice for two years, he became identiiied with the industrial sales department, where he 
remained until January 1, 1921, when he was transferred to the Philadelphia office, as 
branch manager of the Huntington, West Virginia, territory. There he remained until 
June 1, 1927, when he was made sales manager of the Westinghouse Electric Elevator 
Company, in Chicago, and in March, 1931, he was made vice-president. 

The Westinghouse Electric Elevator Company manufactures passenger and freight 
elevators. Its elevators are installed in such buildings as the Merchandise Mart, 20 North 
Wacker Drive, new Post-office, and Stevens Hotel buildings, in Chicago; Carew Tower in 
Cincinnati; the Gulf Oil Corporation building, Koppers building, and Cathedral of Learn- 
ing, in Pittsburgh; the Fisher and First National Bank buildings in Detroit; the R. C. A., 
Daily News, Rockefeller Center, and Bankers' Trust buildings in New York; and in 
many larger government and other outstanding buildings in all sections of the country 
Mr. Reed is a director of the Westinghouse Electric Elevator Company, a veteran of 
the Spanish-American War and a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. 
He is a member of the University Club of Pittsburgh, the Medinah Athletic Club of 
Chicago, and the Hinsdale Golf Club, Hinsdale, lUinois. 

Mr. Reed married Mary Boyd Firth of Mercer, Pennsylvania, on August 30, 1909. 



392 Chicago's accomplishments 

HAWTHORNE— A CITY WITHIN A CITY 

A Manufacturing Plant Which Has Its Own Police and Fire 
Departments, Power House, Gas Works, and Water Supply 

BY C. L. RICE 

Vice-President, Western Electric Company 

FROM a Stretch of prairie to the largest manufacturing plant in Illinois 
in the brief span of a quarter of a century! Such has been the 
growth of that city within a city, the Western Electric Company's great 
Hawthorne plant. 

For more than sixty years Western Electric has been identified with 
Chicago. Its first workshop in Kinzie street employed only a handful of 
men, but the advent of the telephone brought about an era of swift and 
amazing expansion. 

The Hawthorne plant, employing in normal times 30,000 Chicagoans, 
manufactures most of the telephone equipment for America. Its entire out' 
put is consumed by the Bell System. In addition to this huge industrial 
center on the southwest margin of Chicago, the company maintains two 
other large plants in the East, and a chain of distributing houses reaching 
from coast to coast. 

For many of its 18,000 varieties of raw materials Hawthorne is depend' 
ent on the rest of the world. The gold miner of Alaska, the mica digger of 
India, men and women of every land and clime are producing goods which 
enter into the manufacture of telephone equipment. 

Physically, Hawthorne is a modern industrial plant with 86 buildings 
containing over 3,000,000 square feet of available floor space. One never 
suspects in viewing the exterior that behind these buildings is an inner court, 
beautifully landscaped. There are winding streets and sidewalks, and seas 
of green lawns dotted with floral islands. Hawthorne is, in fact, a city in 
itself. It has its own police staff, a fire department, a completely equipped 
hospital, cooperative stores, a laundry, a railroad, a power house, a gas 
works, restaurants, and even its own water supply. Each month enough 
electricity is used to illuminate 450,000 average homes — enough to take 
care of a city the size of Memphis, Tennessee. In the same period gas 
enough to supply a city as large as Dallas, Texas, is generated and con' 
sumed. 

Mechanically, Hawthorne is the wonder workshop of the world. Nc 
where else is such compHcated apparatus built in such large quantities. 
There are 13,000 different pieces of telephone apparatus and 125,000 dif' 
ferent kinds of parts are required in their production. These are made at 
the rate of more than six billion parts in a normal year — and made to such 
accurate dimensions that any part will fit any similarly designed telephone 
anywhere. 

From a human standpoint, Hawthorne typifies America in that it is 
truly a great melting pot of the nations. While 80 per cent of the em' 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



393 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Comjpany) 
A night time view of Randolph street, one of Chicago's many amusement centers. 



394 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



ployees are native born, the other 20 per cent represent close to 60 different 
nationalities. An employees' club, the Hawthorne Club, carries on an ex' 
tensive social, athletic, educational and mutual welfare program that gives 
this widely diversified family a common meeting ground. 




Airplane view of Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company, "the world's 

telephone workshop." 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



395 



Wesum 
Efectrk 




(Photo by Loubell Studios) 

C. L. RICE 

Mr. Rice, as vice-president of the Western Electric Company in charge of its Haw 
thorne Works, heads the largest single manufacturing unit in lUinois, an institution 
which has a normal working force of 30,000 and a weekly payroll of approximately 
$1,000,000. He was born in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, August 5, 1879, and is the son 
of Robert Addison and Corinthia (Dunham) Rice. Mr. Rice is president of the Chicago 
Safety Council, and since 1929 has led this organization in its extensive campaign to 
reduce accidents in the industries, homes, and on the streets of the city. 

His position in Illinois' largest manufacturing industry has made him an active 
worker in the Illinois Manufacturers' Association. He is a member of the board 
of directors and the executive committee, and chairman of the civic affairs committee 
of the Chicago Association of Commerce. He is a member of the Public Affairs Com- 
mittee of the Union League Club, a member of the Electric Club, a member of the 
Western Society of Engineers, the La Grange Country Club, and a number of fraternal 
organizations including Alpha Sigma Phi. He is vice-president of the First National 
Bank of La Grange, a director of the Cicero State Bank, and president of the La 
Grange Park District Commission. Mr. Rice holds degrees from Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College and Boston University. Being one of the outstanding authorities on 
telephone manufacture, he has been in charge of telephone plants both here and in 
Europe during thirty years of association with the Western Electric Company. 

He married Adelaide Crist, of New York City, June 10, 1903, and they have five 
children, Adelaide (Mrs. Vaughn L. Johannessen), Carolyn, Barbara, Winifred, and 
Charles L., Jr. 



396 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



FROM HORSE CAR AND CABLE CAR TO MODERN 
STREET CAR AND TRACKLESS TROLLEY 
Coming Decade to Witness Vast Expansion Program 

BY GUY A. RICHARDSON 
President, Chicago Surface Lines 

IT was not until well into the twentieth century that the horse car faded 
from the Chicago scene. Its last survivor was an owl car which went 
tinkling along Wells street, carrying night workers home. 

Nor does one have to look far back into Chicago's yesterdays to see 
the clanking cable car, oil lighted and stove heated, the "gripman" bundled 
in a fur coat against the icy blasts of winter, a few hardy passengers occupy 
ing the open wooden seats of the "grip" car, preferring the fresh if frosty 
air to the questionable comforts of the trailer. 

Back in 1856, in the days of the omnibus, Chicago had a population of 
86,000 scattered over eighteen square miles within the city limits, and a 
few thousand more living in the suburbs. The town was still only a few 
feet above the lake level, and the roads, with the exception of a few blocks 
of cobblestone or plank, were unpaved and often muddy. In that year a 
franchise was granted to Charles B. Philips and Roswel B. Mason for the 
construction and operation of a horse car line. 

Financial depression delayed the project, and in 1858 another franchise 
was issued to Frank Parmelee, Liberty Bigelow, and Henry Fuller who 
were to operate a car line, provided that work were commenced by No' 
vember 1 of that year, and tracks laid 
on the three projected lines by Jan' 
uary 6, 1859. The first spadeful of 
earth was turned on the former date 
by Lieut. Gov. William Bross at State 
and Randolph streets. 

The line, however, met with public 
opposition. In order to retain their 
franchise, the concessionaires laid 
tracks in State street between Ran' 
dolph and Madison, imported two old 
cars from Troy, N. Y., and ran them 
back and forth over the two'block 
right of way. 

The Chicago City Railway Com' 
pany was incorporated in February, 
1859, and the first unit of the system 
was built on the South Side. The 
"bob'tail" cars were mounted on a 
single truck. The crew consisted only 

of the driver. The passenger entered the bankers building 

from the rear platform and deposited 




Burnham Brothers, Inc., architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



397 



f:l> 





a. 






rM 



«3 



(J. D. Tolof} Photo, Evanston. III.) 

GUY A. RICHARDSON 

Mr. Richardson, president of the Chicago Surface Lines, was born in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, May 28, 1882, son of Charles Edgar and Edwina Marston (Russell) Richard- 
son. He attended elementary schools and Mechanic Arts High School at Boston. From 
1901 to 1904 he was with the Boston Elevated Railway. In 1905 he became identified 
with Stone 6? Webster at Calumet, Michigan, and in Seattle, Washington, and for 
several years did expert work on railways in Chicago, Philadelphia, Rochester, New 
York, and Brooklyn. During the World War period he was drafted by the United 
States Shipping Board to assist in the laying out of a transportation system to serve 
the Hog Island ship yard near Philadelphia. From 1919 to 1923 Mr. Richardson was 
vice-president, director, and member of the executive committee of the Philadelphia 
Rapid Transit Company. From 1921 to 1923 he also was a director and member of the 
executive committee of the International Railway Company of Buffalo, New York. 

Mr. Richardson came to Chicago in 1923 as vice-president, general manager, and 
member of the board of operations of the Chicago Surface Lines, of which he became 
president in February, 1932. He is a director of the First National Bank and First Union 
Trust and Savings Bank. He was president of the Union League Club during 1931, 
and is a member of the Mid-Day, Industrial, Chicago, and Economics clubs. He is 
president of the American Electric Railway Association; member and past president, 
Illinois Electric Railways Association; member, Western Society of Engineers, American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers, and Chicago Association of Commerce; executive com- 
mittee. Civic Federation of Chicago; and chairman of the committee on surface trans- 
portation, A Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago's (193 3) World's Fair. 

On November 4, 1908, Mr. Richardson married Frances L. Putnam of Mount 
Sterling, Illinois, and they have two children, Martha and Robert Winsor. 



398 Chicago's accomplishments 

his fare in an inclined slot, which conveyed the coin into a glass-covered 
box where, falling in, it rang a bell. For the sake of warmth, the floors 
were strewn with straw. The North Chicago City Railway Company 
was incorporated in the same year. 

In 1861, another company, the Chicago West Division Railway, was 
chartered to serve the West Side. It began operating two years later, run- 
ning cars in Madison and Randolph streets from State street to Union Park. 

With the North, South, and West sides connected with the business 
district by rail, steam dummies were used to convey passengers from the 
south limits at 39th street to 55th street, and on the North Side, from 
Diversey to Graceland Cemetery along Evanston avenue (Broadway) . 

During the early '60's, the street railways, without intending to, de- 
veloped into banks of issue. Small coins were scarce, and passengers began 
paying their fares in postage stamps. But as this medium of exchange 
proved unsatisfactory, the operating company issued commutation tickets 
for ten rides, to be punched by the conductor. Chicagoans eagerly siezed 
upon these to take the place of currency in other transactions. The tickets, 
punched or unpunched, found their way into the contribution box at 
church, or were tendered in liquidation of small debts. Such was their 
popularity that they were even counterfeited. 

The cable car came in the 'SCs. It had been invented by a San Fran- 
Cisco engineer faced with the problem of getting horse cars up the steep 
inclines. The cable car speeded up transportation to a maximum of four- 
teen miles an hour, but it was not until the advent of the trolley that Chi- 
cago had anything like an adequate street railway system. Traction history 
of this period is closely identified with the colorful career of Charles T. 
Yerkes, Chicago's first real "traction magnate." 

Today Chicago street cars transport about 79 per cent of the passengers 
carried by the three main local transportation systems. The Chicago Sur- 
face Lines, one of the largest and best equipped systems in America, com- 
prises 1,107 miles of track and 56 miles of bus routes, and operates 3,864 
cars and buses. It has the largest installation of trolley buses in the world. 

While the lines are owned by four separate companies, they have been 
operated as a unit since the "unification" ordinance of 1914 went into effect. 
The lines carry more than 700,000,000 revenue passengers a year, repre- 
senting, with transfers , nearly 1,300,000,000 rides. Some 16,000 em- 
ployees are carried on a pay-roll amounting to $30,000,000 annually. 

The average ride for each fare paid is in excess of four miles, and, 
owing to a liberal transfer system, it is possible to ride 37 miles for a 
single fare. 

In 1930, taking advantage of legislation enacted by the General As- 
sembly, the city council adopted an ordinance providing for the consolida- 
tion of the surface and rapid transit systems under one operating company. 

The ordinance provides also for the construction of subways in the 
central business district by the city and their use by the new operating 



Chicago's accomplishment 



399 




Augustus Saint'Gaudens- statue of Abraham Lincoln, at the south 



entrance of Lincoln Park. 



400 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



corporation. Provision is made further for extensions and improvements 
amounting within ten years to approximately $200,000,000. 

Together with the $100,000,000 which will be spent by the city for 
subway construction, this will result in the investment of more money for 
transportation improvement in the coming decade than has been spent here' 
tofore on all local transportation properties. 



1 




{Trowhridge Photo) 

BURNHAM BUILDING 
Burnham Brothers, Inc. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



401 




JOHN A. RITCHIE 



Mr. Ritchie, president of the Chicago Motor Coach Company, president of the Omnibus 
Corporation, and chairman of the board of directors of the Fifth Avenue Coach Com' 
pany of New York, was born in Freeport, Illinois, October 8, 1878, and received his 
education there. His first position was that of clerk in the office of the local freight 
agent of the Illinois Central. Later he became a clerk to the superintendent of this 
railroad at Fort Dodge, Iowa. After coming to Chicago, he became chief statistician 
of the Ilhnois Central Railroad. He attracted the attention of the late Theodore P. 
Shonts, who at that time was chairman of the board of directors of the Inter-borough 
Rapid Transit Company of New York and had holdings in a great many railroads. 
Mr. Shonts made him his personal statistician and in 1918, Mr. Ritchie, then forty 
years old, was elected president of the Fifth Avenue Coach Company. The company 
had been a failure from the first, but in four years under Mr. Ritchie's management, 
riding increased from 22,000,000 to 60,000,000 passengers a year. An important factor 
in his success was his puHic relations policy of unfaihng "courtesy and service." A 
civility campaign inaugurated by him attracted wide attention throughout the nation. 

Mr. Ritchie came to Chicago in 1922 at the invitation of John Hertz, then president 
of the Yellow Cab Company. Mr. Hertz had long dreamed of establishing a great 
motorbus system which should operate over the city's world-famous boulevards. "I'd 
have started it before," he exclaimed, "but in order to make it the success I dreamed I 
wanted to get the services of the best motorbus man in the country. He was John A. 
Ritchie, who had made such a success in New York." 



402 




The new forty-two-stury FIELD BUILDING, Chicago's largest office structure. It is the 
first office structure in Chicago to be air-conditioned, the basements and the first four 
floors being so equipped. It also is the first local office building to have concealed radiation, 
and to be equipped with truscon aluminum windows. A modern drinking water system 
provides a fountain unit for each office, and for the first time in the Loop alternating 
electric current is provided. 

Looking forward to the time of the subway, the Marshall Field Estate, owner of the 
building, has made provisions to permit an entrance from the subway trains to the basement 
on the Clark street side. Graham, Anderson, Probst fij* White, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



403 




WALTER A. ROGERS 

Mr. Rogers, president of Bates and Rogers Construction Company, Chicago, 
was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, January 19, 1868, son of Alexander H. 
and Martha (Ross) Rogers. He received his degree in Civil Engineering at 
the University of Wisconsin in 1888 with special honors in mathematics. 
Mr. Rogers entered railway service in the engineering department of the 
Wisconsin Central, where he remained from 1890 to 1891; until 1892 he 
was in the engineering department of the Northern Pacific, and until 1901, 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul (now Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul &' 
Pacific Railroad Company). In 1901 he assisted in forming Bates and Rogers 
Construction Company, of which he has been president since 1904. Bates 
and Rogers Construction Company, civil engineers and contractors, is a 
nation-wide institution, serving railroads, public utilities, industrial concerns, 
governments, cities, et cetera. 

Mr. Rogers is a member and past president of the American Railway 
Bridge ^ Building Association, member and past president of the Associated 
General Contractors of America (president, 1920), member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, Western Society of Engineers, and associate mem- 
ber of American Railway Engineering Association. His clubs are the Union 
League, University, Engineers, Glen Oak Country, Congregational of Chi- 
cago, Chicago Golf and University Club, of Madison, Wisconsin. 

On July 1, 1891, he married Julia Gushing, of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, 
and they have six children, Lester C, Margaret G., Ross W., Carl R., 
Walter C, and John W. 



404 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE VAST MACHINERY OF SOCIAL SERVICE 

IN CHICAGO 
Where the NeighborHness of Pioneer Days Still Survives 

BY EDWARD L. RYERSON, JR. 

IN 1832 an early resident wrote from Chicago to a relative in the East, "I 
already know the complexion of this country. It is a bilious country, 
with no trees to break the lightning, no hills to soften the thunder, and a 
wind to blow the hair off your head." 

Chicago was built on a malarial swamp, by men and women who knew 
hardship and adversity. Social service, in those pioneer days, was as simple 
as it was sincere; a neighborly impulse of help to those in trouble. There 
was poverty, then as now, but there was no visiting nurse or country doctor 
to help the first Chicagoans through their many ailments, from the prairie 
itch to a cholera epidemic. There were no prenatal clinics and Infant Wei' 
fare Societies, no children's homes or child'placing organizations. Orphans — 
and there were many — were taken in by friends or sent back to relatives in 
the East. Every neighbor was a visiting nurse, and every mother was a 
midwife. 

It is a far cry from those pioneer days to the present complicated social 
service machinery of Chicago. Two quaHties, however, that characterized 
the men and women of that young and struggling city have grown with 
the years and are the underlying motives of all that is being done in social 
work today: a warm'hearted answer to the cry of helplessness and need, and 
a tough'hearted defiance of adversity. 

As the city grew, periods of growth alternated with periods of calamity. 
In good times we made great strides in education, building, and individual 
prosperity. In bad times, the old neighborly impulse of help to the unfor 
tunate reasserted itself, and we perfected our social services. The friendly 
offices that were at first performed by neighbors for each other were gradu- 
ally taken over by religious or non-sectarian groups. Relief societies, orphan- 
ages, homes for the aged, social settlements and family welfare societies 
came into existence. 

Still the city grew and as the lives of its people became more complex, 
the cooperative trend in social service gained strength. Each new step was 
taken as an answer to some calamity. During the panic of 1857, a few scat- 
tered relief organizations banded together to form the old Chicago Relief 
and Aid Society. During the Civil War, that association combined with the 
Christian Union, the Citizens' Relief Society and the relief branch of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. The Chicago Fire of 1871 brought 
$5,000,000 into the city to be distributed by our swiftly growing social 
agencies. During the panic of 1883 the Charity Organization Society was 
formed. The black winter of 1895 gave birth to the Bureau of Associated 
Charities. With the hard times of 1907-8, all these forces joined hands to 
form the United Charities of Chicago. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



405 







\ \*\ I ?i **ji fji!.' I 

CHICAGO 



-.;€4i* 






(Mo^ett-Russell Photo) 

GEORGE W. ROSSETTER 



Mr. Rossetter, president of the Chicago Association of Commerce (1932) and senior 
member of the firm of George W. Rossetter and Company, certified public accountants, 
was born in Gilman, IlHnois, January 31, 1879, the son of George W. and Mary A. 
(Flood) Rossetter. Mr. Rossetter represents the tenth generation of his family in 
America, the family having been established here by Edward Rossetter who came to 
America from England in 1630 and settled in Windsor, Connecticut. Mr. Rossetter's 
grandfather, Asher Rossetter, who came to Chicago in the early '40's, was the proprietor 
of the American House, one of the city's early hotels. Mr. Rossetter began his career 
as a public accountant here in 1902, and prior to establishing his own company was a 
partner in the firm of Haskins and Sells. 

After attending the second officers' training camp at Fort Sheridan in 1918, he was 
commissioned as first lieutenant, and went overseas with the 326th machine gun battalion 
of the 84th division and later transferred to the 144th machine gun battalion of the 36th 
(Texas and Oklahoma National Guard) division. He is a director of the Chicago Crime 
Commission, chairman of the National Organization to Reduce Public Expenditures, a 
director of the Citizens' Association, trustee of Armour Institute of Technology, and a 
member of the National Economic League. He is also a member of the Sons of the 
American Revolution, the American Legion, the Forty and Eight, the Veterans' Corps 
of the 131st Infantry, 33d division, the American Institute of Accountants, the American, 
Illinois, and Minnesota societies of certified accountants, the Accountants Club of America, 
the Union League, Economic, Knollwood, Forty, and Exmoor Country clubs, India House, 
New York, and Beta Alpha Psi. He is an enthusiastic trout fisherman and horseman, 
and takes a lively interest in government and politics. 

Mr. Rossetter was married October 16, 1913, to Marjorie Aylesworth Mihills. The 
children are George M., William A., and Thomas B. 



406 Chicago's accomplishments 

All this time the cooperative idea had been growing. Catholic and 
Jewish charities developed centralized leadership. Day nurseries and set- 
tlements formed federations. Another idea, too, was taking root in the 
minds of thoughtful people. Our intricate modern life demanded that neigh' 
borliness be trained and informed to answer the needs of a complex age. 
The young profession of social service was crystaliz,ing standards of edu' 
cation and technique. Schools of social work developed either separately 
or in connection with our leading universities, and our philosophy of phil' 
anthropy broadened to include recreational, educational, protective, pre' 
ventive and a host of other activities, so that we came at length to think 
of social service as much more than charity. We began to realize it as em' 
bracing every effort that strives to give normal people a fair chance to dc 
velop their personalities, or works to improve the environment in which 
we all live. 

While our private social agencies, supported by the gifts of benevolent 
citizens, were first multiplying and then centralizing their efforts, our public 
social work, supported by taxes, was compelled to enlarge its program to 
meet the needs of a swiftly growing city. Our Juvenile Court was bom. 
In 1925 the Cook County Bureau of Public Welfare was created by an 
act of legislature. Its employees are under the civil service law and its pro' 
cedure accords with the best social service practices. It is under the control 
of the County Board of Commissioners, and of an advisory board composed 
of representatives of our leading public and private social agencies and of our 
schools of social work. There has always been a fine spirit of team work 
between our County Bureau of Public Welfare and the voluntary social 
agencies of this city. 

Chicago has grown from a few cabins huddled around a log fort, to the 
second largest city in the United States. Her social services have grown 
from the neighborly impulses of those first pioneers, to vast and intricate 
structure. There are now about 140 child'welfare organizations in Chicago, 
including homes for children, day nurseries, and societies that place children 
in family homes. There are at least 200 organizations in the health field, 50 
homes for the aged, 45 summer camps, 30 family welfare agencies, 50 com- 
munity centers and settlements, 25 civic reform associations and 250 parks 
and playgrounds. In normal times the money spent by our public and 
private social agencies in their work for the health and happiness of our 
people is considerably in excess of $30,000,000. 

Any business of this size requires an engineering or planning department. 
In Chicago, this need is met by our Council of Social Agencies, a federation 
of 206 major social service organizations of the city. This council is con- 
trolled by a board of directors selected from its member agencies, represent' 
ing both public and private social work as well as all creeds and races. It 
is not a financial federation. Each member agency has, in the past, raised 
and controlled its own funds. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



407 




(Walingcr Photo) 

EUGENE A. RUMMLER 



Mr. Rummler, patent lawyer, was born in Kalamazoo, Michigan, April 20, 1872, son 
of Joseph J. and Jenny R. (Sittig) Rummler. He attended the public and high schools 
of Detroit and received his B. S. (Bachelor of Science) degree in mechanical engi- 
neering at the University of Michigan in 1898. He began as a draftsman in the engi' 
neering department of the Detroit Water Works, studying law nights, and was later 
with the Detroit Dry Dock Company and the Crescent Shipyards, Elizabeth, New York. 
He has been a member of the firm of Rummler, Rummler and Woodworth, patent 
attorneys, since 1901. He is one of the original patentees of the "postage meter," 
which is widely in use throughout America. He is a director of the Haynes Corpora- 
tion, industrial engineers, and Hasbrouck Haynes, Inc. 

Mr. Rummler was president of the Village of Winnetka, Illinois, from 191? to 1917, 
chairman of the Winnetka Zoning Commission during 1920 and 1921, and is now 
chairman of the Winnetka Plan Commission. He is a member of the Patent Law 
Association, Western Society of Engineers, Society of Industrial Engineers (president, 
Chicago Chapter, 1923-24; national vice-president, 1925; national treasurer since 1927), 
also member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, Chicago Regional Planning 
Association, Art Institute of Chicago, and Field Museum of Natural History. He was 
chairman of the Court of Honor of the Boy Scouts of Winnetka and was chairman of 
the congregation of the Winnetka Congregational Church. His clubs are City, and 
Engineers, and his recreations are gardening, yachting, golf, and motoring. 

In June, 1903, Mr. Rummler married Clara J. Wenborne of Buffalo, New York, 
and their children are Charles W., Rosalia, Frederick S. (died 1928), and Emma. 



408 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The economic crisis which began in 1929, however, taxed our social 
service machinery almost to the breaking point, and joint emergency relief 
campaigns for private funds were necessary to help finance our private social 
work, while our public agencies were obHged to ask help from the state 
legislature and the national Congress. The partial assumption of nation'wide 
responsibility for unemployment relief by the federal government marked a 
new step in social service. The policy of Chicago and its neighboring com' 
munities in asking and accepting such assistance was quite clearly defined. 
Pubhc funds, raised by taxes will in the main be used for unemployment 
relief and disbursed through our public social agencies. Behind these stand 
our private social agencies, a solid second line of defense. Their chief re- 
sponsibihty will still be to perfect family service, encourage recreational, edu- 
cational and preventive work, and sustain the morale of Chicago's men, 
women and children. And back of both public and private social service, 
inspiring and directing their efforts, is the same old impulse of neighborhness 
that stirred in the hearts of our earliest pioneers. 




VIEW SHOWING THE GLEAMING BEAUTY OF DOWNTOWN CHICAGO 

AT NIGHT 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



409 










• . .,,.»^: 






([Jjident'ood and Undencood P/ioto) 

EDWARD L. RYERSON, JR. 

Mr. Ryerson, president of Joseph T. Ryerson ii Son, Inc., was born in Chicago, December 
3, 1886, son of. Edward Larned and Mary Pringle (Mitchell) Ryerson. He received his 
preparatory school education at the Hill School, Pottstown, Pennsylvania; he obtained his 
Ph. D. (Doctor's) degree from the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale University in 1908; 
and attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1909. Mr. Ryerson has been 
identified with the Joseph T. Ryerson &? Son, Inc., organization since September, 1909. 
He is a director of the Northern Trust Company and of the Quaker Oats Company. 
He is a commissioned captain R. M. A., Air Service of the United States. 

In 1930 Mr. Ryerson was appointed vice-chairman of the Governor's Commission 
on Unemployment and Rehef and chairman of the Budget and Relief Committee. In 
1931 he became president of the Joint Emergency ReHef Fund of Cook County; chair- 
man of the Governor's Commission on Unemployment and Rehef; a member of the 
President's National Advisory Committee on Unemployment and Relief; and chairman 
of the Illinois Emergency ReHef Commission. He is a trustee of the University of Chi- 
cago, member of the Corporation of Yale University, president of the Council of Social 
Agencies of Chicago, secretary of the Sunday Evening Club, a member of the board of 
the Chicago Community Trust, and a member of the executive committee of the Chicago 
Plan Commission. Mr. Ryerson's club affiliations are Chicago, University, Commercial, 
Commonwealth, Saddle and Cycle, and Onwentsia. 

Mr. Ryerson married Nora Butler, of Evanston, Illinois, October 6, 1914. Their 
children are Nora, Edward, and Morton. 



410 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO— AN ART CENTER 

BY C. J. BULLIET 

Art Critic, The Chicago Daily News, Author of ''Robert MantelVs Romance,'' 

"Apples and Madonnas," "The Courtezan Olympia," "Firebrands of Art." 

AT the age of twentytwo, Chicago became "art conscious." It's an in' 
fantile age, as cities go, but then the still youthful and lusty squatter 
on the southern tip of Lake Michigan always was precocious. 

It was in 1855 that an Irish carpenter by the name of O'Brien — 
Martin O'Brien — set aside a corner in his little shop on Lake street near 
State for the special accommodation of his customers who had been having 
him frame their pictures, such as they were. 

This picturc'framing branch of carpentry became so thriving, that, on 
the very day Fort Sumter fell (April 13, 1861), O'Brien opened on Lake 
street near his carpenter's shop a new shop devoted exclusively to the mak' 
ing of picture frames and the selling of chromos to be framed, and that was 
Chicago's first art gallery and the young city's first "art center." 

Chicago grew, artists came to town along with the butchers and the 
bakers, among them G. P. A. Healy, painter of crowned heads of Europe, 
but also of uncrowned American heads, wherein whirred the brain wheels 
of industry. Healy was Chicago's first international painting celebrity. 
Martin O'Brien's shop was his Chicago hang'out. 

There were Chicagoans who were getting rich. They began to patronize 
Healy and other painters, supplanting the chromos on their walls with 
"hand'painted pictures." 

By 1866, "art interest" had so crystal' 
li2,ed that there was formed an association 
of artists and art lovers under the name 
Chicago Academy of Design. It was pri' 
marily a club for the discussion of art 
topics, but thither came students to see 
pictures and to copy them. Martin O'Brien 
inserted in his advertisements a clause: "N. 
B. Paintings and Chromos rented for the 
purposes of copying in oil." 

In 1871, the great fire destroyed the 
headquarters of the academy. The club 
was kept intact, but lay dormant until 
1878, when it adopted the title "The Chi- 
cago Academy of Fine Arts," chartered 
the following year at Springfield. George 
Armour was elected president. In 1882, 
the name was amended to read "The Art 
Institute of Chicago," which persists to 
this day. 

Charles L. Hutchinson was chosen presi' 




Section of modern decoration by John 

Norton on the ceiHng of the Daily 

News building concourse. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



411 




(Mofjett-Russcll Photo) 

JOSEPH T. RYERSON 

Mr. Ryerson, treasurer and member of the board of directors of Joseph T. Ryerson & 
Son, Inc., was born in Chicago, November 21, 1880, the son of Edward Lamed and Mary 
Pringle (Mitchell) Ryerson. He was educated at Sheffield Scientific School, Yale Uni- 
versity, where he received his Bachelor of Philosophy degree in 1901. After leaving 
college he entered the employ of the American Sheet Steel Company (now the American 
Sheet and Tin Plate Company of the United States Steel Corporation), Vandergrift, Penn- 
sylvania, but a year later joined the firm of which he is now a director. He served as 
vice-president and treasurer from 1916 to 1923, and as president and treasurer from 
1923 to 1929. Since 1929 he has been treasurer and a member of the board of directors. 

Mr. Ryerson's hobby is collecting "Chicagoana." He built the Chicago room on top 
of his residence at 1406 Astor street to house his collection. As a boy he collected World's 
Fair tickets at the Exposition of 1893. His Chicago collection contains, in addition to 
rare prints, maps, lithographs, etchings, photographs, histories, and early directories, a 
complete file of the World's Fair Puck, puWished from the Puck building on the Expo- 
sition grounds. On the shelves of Mr. Ryerson's "Chicago room" will be found also his 
grandfather's published account of his arrival here in 1842, his experiences during the 
great fire of 1871, and the rebuilding of the city. There are also many first edition and 
"association" books by Chicago authors, including Finley Peter Dunn's "Mr. Dooley," and 
novels dealing with the Chicago scene, among which are lurid murder mysteries and 
"penny dreadfuls." Mr. Ryerson secured his treasures in Europe as well as America. 
For the encouragement of Chicago photography he has at times offered a prize at the 
Camera Club's international exhibition. 

Mr. Ryerson is junior warden of St. James Episcopal church, and is treasurer of the 
Girls Latin School of Chicago. He is chairman for 1932-1933 of the Trades and In- 
dustrial division of the Emergency Welfare Fund of Cook County; a director of the 
Chicago Association of Commerce, the Illinois Chamber of Commerce, and the Personal 
Loan and Savings Bank; a trustee of the Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago His- 
torical Society, Art Institute of Chicago, and St. Luke's Hospital. Mr. Ryerson is repre- 

Continued on page 549 



412 Chicago's accomplishments 

dent, and held the office until his death in 1924. Associated with him were 
such men as Mr. Armour, Frank G. Logan, Samuel Nickerson, Edward E. 
Ayer, Clarence Buckingham, Edward B. Butler, Levi Z. Leiter and, a 
little later, Martin A. Ryerson. 

The Art Institute of Chicago started in rented quarters at the corner 
of Monroe street and Michigan avenue. It then bought the southwest 
corner of Michigan avenue and Van Buren street, and, in 1885, erected 
a building with a brown stone front, four stories high, with class rooms 
and an exhibition gallery. There was little money left in the treasury 
after the building was completed. But the association, undismayed, bought 
$1,800 worth of plaster casts of antique sculpture, with a "sum met by 
subscriptions, membership dues and an issue of bonds secured on the 
property." 

Dawned 1892 and the activities looking toward the World's Columbian 
Exposition. In apportionment of the money. President Hutchinson and his 
associates persuaded the fair officials to allot $200,000 for a permanent 
picture museum. It was too late to get the galleries ready for the paintings 
imported for the fair. But the present Art Institute of Chicago on the lake 
front came into being, and, in its uncompleted state, was used as headquar' 
ters for various women's activities in connection with the Fair. The Insti' 
tute was dedicated as an art museum in December following the close of 
the exposition. It cost the $200,000 plus $425,000 paid for the corner the 
association was vacating — bought seven years before for $45,000. 

The Art Institute, from its inception in 1866 as the "academy," was 
the center of all of Chicago's art activities until the Columbian Exposition. 
The rank'and'file of Chicagoans were not particularly interested, but there 
was growing up a slowly-widening group of art lovers and of persons in- 
terested in art for social reasons. Also, the school operated in connection 
with the institute began to grow and to become known in an ever-widening 
circle. But "art" was for the classes instead of the masses. 

The Columbian Exposition changed all this. Chicago and the entire 
West suddenly was galvani2;ed. The directors of the Fair, who were doing 
everything in a big way, including the Ferris wheel, brought over from 
Europe a tremendous picture show — the biggest that had ever crossed the 
Atlantic. "Fine Arts" began to mean something to the man in the street. 

Rich people who saw the pictures at the fair were impelled to buy. 
Commercial establishments sprang up in rivalry with Martin O'Brien's. 
Native painters began to get commissions, private and public. Lorado Taft, 
sculptor, and OHver Dennett Grover and Ralph Clarkson, painters, head 
the list of Chicagoans who profited almost to this day directly and hand- 
somely from impulses born in the excitement of the Fair. 

When time came to send the borrowed pictures back to Europe, the 
promoters of the new museum pooled their resources. In a gallery named 
for Mr. Hutchinson was installed a collection of old masters, purchased by 
President Hutchinson and Vice-president Ryerson with the assistance of 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



413 





i. 







B^ 



KJinliHifii 



(Matzene Photo) 

FRED W. SARGENT 

Mr. Sargent, president of the Chicago and North Western and the Chicago, St. Paul, 
MinneapoHs and Omaha railways, was born in Akron, Iowa, May 26, 1876, the son of 
Edgar Wesley and Abbie E. (Haskell) Sargent. He received his LL. B. (Bachelor of 
Laws) degree from the Iowa State University in 1901 and his LL. D. (Doctor of Laws) 
from Lawrence College, Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1929. Mr. Sargent began his practice 
of law at Siqux City, Iowa, in 1901. He was appointed general solicitor of the Chicago 
& North Western Railway, Chicago, in 1920. From 1923 to June, 1925, when he became 
president of both railways, he acted as vice-president and general counsel for the Chicago 
& North .Western Railway and the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Railway 
Company. 

Mr. Sargent is a member of the American, Illinois State and Iowa State bar associa- 
tions; a director of the Continental Illinois National Bank 6? Trust Company, the Mer' 
chandise Bank & Trust Company, the United States Chamber of Commerce, and the 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company. He is a trustee of Northwestern University, Lake Forest 
Academy, the Julius Rosenwald Museum of Science and Industry, Field Museum of Na- 
tural History, and the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company. He is also 
general chairman of the Committee on Public Expenditures for the City of Chicago. 
His club affihations are the Commercial Club of Chicago, Industrial Club of Chicago, 
Chicago Club, Union League Club, Old Elm, Glenview (Chicago); Minneapolis Club, 
Minneapolis, and Minnesota Club, St. Paul, Minnesota; Des Moines Club, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

Mr. Sargent married Mary Minier, of Flandreau, South Dakota, January 9, 1902. 
Their children are Minier, Haskell and Fredrica. 



414 Chicago's accomplishments 

the first Marshall Field and Sidney A. Kent. Among these pictures is Rem' 
brandt's "Girl at the Half Open Door/' rated now one of the finest of all 
Rembrandts, and worth ten times the price paid for the whole collection. 
Henry Field, Marshall's son, had been collecting the then fashionable 
Barbizons, and he loaned these pictures, forty-four of them, including 
Breton's "Song of the Lark," still the best-loved picture in the museum. 




(Frederic\ O. Bemm Photo) 
A vista through the galleries of the Chicago Galleries Association. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer, "advanced" in her art tastes, had sat for the 
"daring" Zorn for a portrait during his visit to the fair. Mrs. Palmer had 
been collecting the French "Impressionists," too, partly out of friendship 
for Mary Cassatt. 

These and others gladly hung their pictures on the museum's walls, 
and the impulse persists, Chicago collectors being known the world over 
for the generosity with which they share their treasures with the people. 

The Art Institute continued on as the center of Chicago's art interest, 
its collections growing and its school increasing in si2,e until it became the 
largest art school, in the number of students, in the world. There were 
numerous small activities outside the institute, but it was not until the 
advent of "Modernism" that any important rivalry grew up. 

"Modernism" came in 1913 with the so-called "Armory Show," housed 
in New York in one of the city's numerous armories, soon to be the scene 
of sterner activities. The "Armory Show," with its rebel painting and 
sculpture, excited outcries here, as in New York and Paris, against "acade- 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



415 







PAUL SCHUL2E 

Mr. Schulze, patron of the arts and president of Paul Schulze Biscuit Company, was 
born in Osterode, at the foot of Harz Mountains, Germany, June 13, 1864, son of Gustav 
and Henrietta ( Keeper) Schulze. He attended the high school at Osterode and came 
to the United States in 1883, becoming a clerk in a store in Big Stone City, South Dakota. 
In 1887 he was with a wholesale hardware house in Minneapolis, and from that year 
until 1891, was a bookkeeper for a wholesale flour house in St. Paul. In 1891 he came 
to Chicago as a representative of the Washburn-Crosby Company of MinneapoHs, which 
he represented until 1902. In 1893 Mr. Schulze organized, and became president of the 
Schulze Baking Company, and in the same year he became a naturalized citizen. 

Under Mr. Schulze's leadership of twenty-eight years, the Schulze Baking Company 
became one of the largest in the United States, covering nine cities. In 1921 he sold 
out his interests in the baking company and acquired the business of F. Westerman and 
Company, operating under the name of Quaker Biscuit Works and the McMahon Biscuit 
Company, in the cracker biscuit business, which he incorporated in 1924 as the Paul 
Schulze Biscuit Company of which he is president. This company manufactures crackers, 
cookies, and biscuits, and has branches in Des Moines, Iowa; Hastings, Nebraska; 
Decatur and Rockford, Illinois; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and South Bend, Indiana. 

Mr. Schulze, who is interested in art, has been president of the Municipal Art League 
of Chicago since 1929. He is vice-president of the Association of Arts and Industries, 
treasurer of the Chicago Galleries Association, and governing member of the Art Institute 
of Chicago. In memory of their son, Walter, who died in the American Air Service in 
1918, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Schulze founded, in 1924, the Walter H. Schulze Gallery of 
American Paintings in the Institute. He is a member of the Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago Historical Society, and Illinois Historical Society. He was vice- 
president, a member of the advisory board and is now treasurer of the IHinois Manufac- 
turers' Association. For more than twenty-five years Mr. Schulze has been a trustee of 
the Concordia Normal School located at River Forest, Illinois. His clubs are Union 
League (chairman of the art committee), German, Cliff Dwellers, Arts (director), Palette 
and Chisel (vice-president), Skokie Country, Army Athletic Association (West Poipt, 
New York), and National Arts (New York). 

On May 24, 1892, he married Ida Johl of Faribault, Minnesota; children, Walter 
(killed in World War), Paul, Jr., Helen Louise (Mrs. Edgar F. Burch), and Victor Hugo. 



416 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



mic art" — and the Art Institute, which harbored the exhibition, became 
the center of attack from the rebels. 

But the war intervened, and the mimic battles of the artists became hope' 
lessly lost in the roar of iron canon in France. It was not until after the 
Armistice that the art war broke out again. 

The first gun in the battle was fired by the Arts Club of Chicago, which 
had on its walls on Armistice Day itself its first exhibition of "Modernism." 
Around this exhibition soon were 
surging all the passions that had 
lain in abeyance since the "Armory 
Show." 

The Arts Club, headed by a 
group of rebels in taste, with Mrs. 
John Alden Carpenter as president 
and Miss Alice Rouher as head of 
the exhibition committee, combed 
Europe for the best in "Modern- 
ism," and its shows soon were 
eclipsing in interest the shows of 
the Institute, and there was an 
added furore. 

Then, the Chicago "rebels" got 
together and formed in 1922 the 
No'Jury Society of Artists. These 
artists exhibited in their annual 
shows whatever they chose, with- 
out having to submit their work 
to a jury. 

The Art Institute, the Arts 
Club and the No-Jury Society are 
still the main focal points of Chi- 
cago's art activities. 

Nothing else revolutionary de- 
veloped for a decade, until the sum- 
mer of 1932, when, for thirteen 
days in Grant Park, just south of 
the Art Institute, the artists of 
Chicago camped on park benches 
and on the grass and sold their pic- 
tures direct to passers-by. It was an 
innovation inspired by the depres- 
sion, and was hugely successful 
financially. 

As an art center, Chicago, a Cen- An inspiring modem design of fortynme 

• J • 1 11 iT stones at One North La Salic Street. 

tury young, is decidedly alive. k. m. Vitzthum Co.. inc., architect.. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



417 




(Moffctt-Russdl Photo) 

LEO J. SHERIDAN 

Mr. Sheridan, president of L. J. Sheridan 5? Company, specialists in business property 
developing, renting, building management and financing, was born in Chicago, April 
24, 1897, the son of John J. and Mary Ellen (Guhin) Sheridan. After his graduation 
from Lane Technical High School in 1915, he became associate editor of the Brick and 
Clay Record, a position which he held until 1918. After returning from the service he 
went with S. W. Straus ^ Company, first as assistant to the senior vice-president, then as 
chairman of the committee in charge of the construction and operation of the Straus 
Building. In 1927 he was made vice-president and director of S. W. Straus 6? Company 
and of the Straus Investment Corporation, in charge of the western real estate and finance 
division. He resigned in 1929 to organize the company he heads today, which, in addition 
to its general real estate activities, acts as exclusive agents for the forty-nine-story One 
La Salle Building, twenty-three-story Builders Building, and the McKinlock Building. 

As a second lieutenant in the aviation corps Mr. Sheridan served as an instructor in 
flying at Fort Worth, Texas, in 1918 and 1919, and he is still actively interested in 
aviation. He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, the Chicago Real 
Estate Board, the National Association of Building Owners and Managers, and the 
Building Managers' Association of Chicago. His clubs are the Union League, Tavern, 
Briergate Country, and Chicago Athletic Association. 

Mr. Sheridan was married, June 26, 1921, to Irene S. Leader of Chicago. The chil- 
dren are Donald Tilden, Irene Mary, Mary Claire, and Catherine Patricia. 



418 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY— ITS IDEALS, TRADI- 
TIONS, AND RECORD OF PUBLIC SERVICE 

A Pioneer Institution That Has Consistently Contributed to 
the Welfare of the Community 

BY WALTER DILL SCOTT 
President, Northwestern University 

IT is not what a university has that counts, but what it does. North' 
western University has had no "angel" — no one outstanding benefactor. 
It has been built up by gifts from thousands of loyal citi2,ens and loyal 
alumni. Realizing what it means to the community, more than 10,000 
people a year make gifts to this institution, and their donations in the last 
ten years have amounted to $30,000,000. 

The standards of admission to Northwestern University are high. Only 
about a third of those who apply are admitted, and these are recruited 
largely from the honor rolls of accredited high schools and preparatory 
schools. 

While recognizied as a Methodist institution. Northwestern University 
is by no means denominational. The only religious requirement is that one 
half the members of its board of 33 trustees be Methodists. Its 8,000 full 




Entrance to the Milton H. Wilson campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, 
showing University Hall at the left and Harris Hall at the right. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



419 




'spAe^ideH 



'r, MORTHWESTERri 

UH5VERS8TY 







Wl., 



r;V>,yjU^*u;4,;i"i;','jr 









WALTER DILL SCOTT 

Dr. Scott, president of Northwestern University, was born in Cooksville, Illinois, May 1, 
1869, son of James Sterling and Henrietta (Sutton) Scott. He graduated from the 
Illinois State Normal University in 1891, received his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree 
from Northwestern University in 1895, graduated from the McCormick Theological 
Seminary in 1898, and received his Ph. D. (Doctor of Philosophy), from the University 
of Leipzig in 1900. Dr. Scott has received the honorary degree of LL.D. (Doctor of 
Laws) from Cornell College, in 1921, and from the University of Southern California, 
in 1932. He was appointed instructor in psychology and education and director of the 
psychology laboratory, Northwestern University, in 1900; made professor of psychology 
and head of the psychology department in the College of Liberal Arts, 1905; became 
professor of advertising in the School of Commerce, in 1909; appointed professor of 
applied psychology in the School of Commerce, in 1912. He has also served as special 
lecturer at Columbia and Chicago universities, and as director of the Bureau of Salesman- 
ship Research of the Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1916-1917. 

During the war he served as chairman of the committee on classification of personnel 
in the United States army. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal "for spe- 
cially meritorious and conspicuous service in originating and putting into operation the 
system of classification of enlisted personnel now used in the United States Army." He 
is now a colonel in the United States Reserves. Following the war he founded and was 
president (1919-1921) of the Scott Company, engineers and consultants in industrial 
personnel, with offices in Chicago, Philadelphia, and Dayton. He was president of the 
American Psychological Association in 1919-1920 and was elected president of North- 
western University in 1920. He is a trustee of the Wesley Memorial Hospital and the 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Chicago; vice-chairman of the board of the National 
Advisory Council on Radio in Education; and a member of the American Council on 
Education (chairman, 1927), American Psychological Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Delta 
Mu Delta, Sigma Xi, Phi Delta Kappa, and the American Legion. Some of his club 
affihations are University (Chicago, Washington, Evanston), Commercial, Union League, 
City (Chicago), Glenview Golf, et cetera. He is the author of several volumes; his books 
dealing with the appHcation of psychology to business are probably the best known. 
Dr. Scott married Anna Marcy Miller, July 21, 1898. Their children are John Marcy 
and Sumner Walter. 



420 Chicago's accomplishments 

time students, drawn from nearly every State in the Union, and representing 
every important country in the world, include approximately 800 Jews and 
almost the same number of Catholics. 

The College of Liberal Arts alone has an enrollment of 2,500. The 
Schools of Law, Medicine, Dentistry, Engineering, Commerce, Music, 
Speech, and Education, and the Graduate School account for the remainder 
of the students. The faculty includes many members who give no class' 
room instruction, but act as advisors to the undergraduates. 

The University has many outside interests. It is concerned with socio' 
logical research, visiting nurses, infant welfare, heart disease, children's 
theaters, crime detection, church music, athletics. It maintains a university 
settlement in one of Chicago's "melting pot"" districts. 

The subjects taught and problems investigated are designed to relieve 
human suffering and increase human happiness. The courses are selected 
for their vocational as well as for their cultural value. They seek to train 
students for a life of service. 

More than eighty years ago, on May 31, 1850, a group of nine Chi' 
cagoans met in the law office of Grant Goodrich over a harness shop in Lake 
street to discuss the founding of a university that would fill a definite need 
in the growing Northwest. 

At that time, no academic degree had ever been conferred west of 
Chicago. Chicago was a city of only 28,000. No railroads had yet reached 
it from the populous East, and those seeking a higher education journeyed 
east to Yale or Harvard. But each son who selected an eastern university 
was costing his family in the neighborhood of $1,000 a year. 

Why, these nine men asked, should not this new Northwest have a 
Yale or Harvard of its own for the education of its sons? Backed by 
Chicago families, and supported not only by Chicago, but by the entire 
territory, such an institution of higher learning, they believed, could per' 
form a service which would be expanded as the city grew. 

That day, in the law office over the harness shop in Lake street, the 
foundation of Northwestern University was laid. The records show that 
on January 28, 1851, the original charter to "The Northwestern Univers' 
ity" was granted without debate by the Illinois Legislature, a mere incident 
in the day's routine. Later it was decided to omit the article and have the 
institution known merely as Northwestern University. 

Dr. John Evans, a physician of striking personality, who had come to 
Chicago from Indiana, and who took a keen interest in education, acted as 
chief advisor to the sponsors. He was aided and inspired by the counsel 
of Orrington Lunt and other outstanding men. 

Land was purchased at Jackson and La Salle streets, and it was intended 
to build a college there. But a more desirable site was found in a clump 
of woods a few miles north of the city on the lake front. The original down' 
town property, the present site of the Continental Illinois Bank, is still 
owned by the University. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



421 







EDEtWEISS 

FOOO 
^ l>ROOUCtS > 




*^ ,Al-- 



^•**, 



-"*'^'^!'i^<^#=^-^" 



(Covington Studio Photo) 

SHERMAN J. SEXTON 

Mr. Sexton, president of John Sexton and Company, was born in Chicago, September 
12, 1892, son of John and Anna Louise (Bartelman) Sexton. He was educated at the 
De Paul University of Chicago, of which university he is now a member of the Execu' 
tive Committee of the Board of Trustees. He has been associated since 1911 with the 
firm of John Sexton and Company, wholesale grocers of Chicago and Brooklyn, which 
was founded by his father. He has been president of the company since 1926. John 
Sexton and Company specializes in supplying foods for hotels, restaurants and institutions 
and through nationwide distribution of quality foods to this exacting clientele has be 
come America's largest distributors of No. 10 canned foods. The number ten can serves 
twentyfive to thirty portions of food to the can. Mr. Sexton pioneered the sale of frozen 
foods to large hotels and restaurants, in which field his firm holds an outstanding 
leadership. The company manufactures a large assortment of foods in its own modernly 
equipped plant located at lUinois, Orleans and Kingsbury streets. All foods distributed 
by the company are packed especially for it and in each case are packed in large size 
containers to meet the needs of those who feed many people each day. The company 
has never sold retail grocery stores. 

Mr. Sexton has also been vice-president of the Great Lakes Transit Corporation 
of Buffalo, New York, since 1919. This corporation operates a fleet of eighteen express 
package freighters and three palatial passenger ships, the Octorora, Tionesta and 
Juniata. Both the passenger and freight ships make all the principal ports of the Great 
Lakes during the navigation season. He is a member of the Chicago Athletic Associa- 
tion, Knollwood and Edgewater Golf clubs. His favorite recreation is golf. Mr. Sexton 
has for many years been a member of the Executive Committee of the Catholic Charities 
of Chicago. 

On November 1, 1916, he married Alice Jordan Conners, and they have three 
children, William C, Alice C, and Shirley Ann. 



422 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




McKinlock campus from the tower of the Furniture Mart showing Passavant hospital at 

the left, and from left to right the Montgomery Ward memorial building housing the 

schools of medicine and dentistry, Wieboldt hall, the school of commerce, Levy Mayer 

hall, the school of law, and the Elbert H. Gary library of law. 

Dr. Evans helped to finance payment for an option on a tract of 379 
acres. It was agreed to clear the land adjacent to Lake Michigan, erect a 
building on a suitable spot, lay out streets, and create a village. The village 
was given the name of Evanston in honor of Dr. Evans, who was the first 
president of the University's board of trustees. Similarly, the streets of the 
village were named from early faculty members and trustees. A tract of 70 
acres was set aside for a campus. Some of the primeval oaks that stood 
there when the land was cleared were spared, and are still standing. Gradu' 
ally the University's holdings were increased to 700 acres. This was sub' 
divided and sold year by year to Chicagoans who wished to make Evanston 
their home. Space was arranged for parks and public school sites, and land 
was offered free to churches that would build there. The campus reserva' 
tion was expanded to 140 acres. 

It was not until five years after that first meeting over the harness shop 
that, on November 5, 1855, ten hardy students pushed their way over the 
muddy roads of the frontier city of Chicago and arrived in Evanston to 
enroll in the new university. They sought out a rather pretentious frame 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



423 




I f im )m^^ 



(Lareccha Studio Photo) 



WILLIAM JONES SMITH 

Mr. Smith, member of the architectural firm of Childs and Smith, was born in Philadel' 
phia, Pennsylvania, May 26, 1881, son of Uselma Clarke Smith and Fannie (Mitcheson) 
Smith, of Scotch and English descent. He received his A. B. degree at Central High 
School of Philadelphia; B. S. (Bachelor of Science) in Architecture at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1903; and A. D. G. (Architecte Diplome par le Gouvernement Frangais) 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris, 1907. 

Mr. Smith started his architectural career with Cass Gilbert of New York in 1907. 
In 1909 he came to Chicago and joined Holabird and Roche where he remained until 
1912, and since that year has been a member of the firm of Childs and Smith. He is in 
partnership with Frank A. Childs and O. H. Breidert. He was associate professor in 
charge of senior design at Armour Institute of Technology from 1924 to 1929. Childs 
and Smith are architects for many buildings in Chicago, as well as in other cities through' 
out the country. Some of them are: State Bank and Trust Company of Evanston; First 
National Bank & Trust Company, Hamilton, Ohio; First National Bank, Davenport, 
Iowa; Hardware Mutual Insurance Building, Stevens Point, Wisconsin; Central Manu- 
facturers Insurance Building, Van Wert, Ohio; American Bankers Insurance Building 
and 1448 Lake Shore Drive Apartment Building, Chicago; associate architects of Mc 
Kinlock Campus Buildings, Northwestern University. Mr. Smith served as captain in 
the 319th Engineers, United States Army, and was instructor in engineering of infantry 
ofiicers, and regimental instructor in French during 1917 and 1918. He is a member of 
the Plan Commission of Winnetka; member of the committee of the Burnham Library 
of Architecture; member of the American Institute of Architects (aUied arts committee; 
vice-president, Chicago Chapter, 1932); member of the Art Institute of Chicago and 
the Architectural Guild of the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago. His clubs are Union 
League, CHff Dwellers, and The Little Room (Chicago). His recreations are golf, crafts- 
manship, and reading. 

On June 30, 1914, he married Mary Van Home of Zanesville, Ohio. Their children 
are William Mitcheson, Van Home, and Sidney Stockton. 



424 Chicago's accomplishments 

building of three stories at Hinman avenue and Davis streets, and took up 
their studies without further ceremony. 

That building, removed from its original site, but still cherished, is 
known today as "Old College," and houses the School of Education. It is 
here, annually in May, that the big purple candle is lighted and allowed 
to burn for fifteen minutes, while graduates in all parts of the world hold 
reunions, hght smaller candles, intone the ritual for which Bishop Stewart 
wrote the inspiring words, and sing ''Quaecumque sunt vera." 

The institution which had such a modest beginning has grown until 
today it ranks as one of the outstanding educational centers of the country. 
Its financial resources are close to $50,000,000 and the enrollment has in' 
creased from that original ten to 16,000 full time or special students, with 
a faculty of more than 1,000. 

Northwestern University was created to fill a very definite niche in the 
West and Northwest and there have been among its faculty and students 
men and women of renown. Northwestern has turned out men who have 
become presidents of other universities, who have become governors of 
various States and who have gone to both houses of Congress. 

The University soon outgrew its single building. In 1868, University 
Hall was completed. It is a picturesque old building, ivy covered and orna- 
mented with a high clock tower. 

Other buildings followed rapidly. Today the Evanston campus extends 
for almost a mile along the shore of Lake Michigan. On this campus are 
the College of Liberal Arts, the Graduate School, the School of Speech, the 
School of Commerce, the School of Engineering, the School of Music, the 
School of Journalism and the School of Education. Over to the north is 
Dyche Stadium, inclosing one of the finest athletic fields in America. 

Plans for the future development of this campus call for an expenditure 
of 100 million dollars in the next fifty years. These plans include a group 
of new science buildings, a new building for the School of Education, a 
Women's building, a new building and theater for the School of Speech, 
a Gothic chapel, a hbrary and a new building for the School of Music. 

Work on the first unit in this development project was started when 
ground was broken for the new $1,250,000 Deering Memorial Library, the 
gift of the family of the late Charles Deering, formerly chairman of the 
board of the International Harvester Company and a lifelong friend of the 
University. 

The plans also call for the extension of the Evanston campus a quarter 
of a mile or a half mile out into Lake Michigan. East of the campus prob- 
ably will be a lagoon and east of the lagoon a pubhc park, a landing field 
for airplanes and a boulevard. 

The Board of Trustees recently named the Evanston campus in honor 
of two of Northwestern's principal benefactors. The south part, extend' 
ing as far north as Willard place, is now known as the Milton H. Wilson 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



425 





'^4tm3 



.---'K 



a ijiii, ill i 







^a^^^S^^^^^ 



HARRY W. SOLOMON 

Harry W. Solomon is president of Transcontinental Hotels, Inc.; vice-president in 
charge of property service and hotel operations for S. W. Straus 6? Co.; member of 
Cook County Assessor's advisory committee on personal property taxes for Chicago 
hotels and apartment houses; vice-president of Milwaukee Terminal Co.; secretary of 
Manor Realty Co., and vice-president of Pere Marquette Building Corporation, New 
Orleans. He is an officer and member of numerous bondholder's committees. He was 
born in 1893. Mr. Solomon has been called "America's Greatest Host." Under his 
supervision stretches a vast domain of office building skyscrapers, hotels and apartment 
house properties extending all the way from the Great Lakes region to the Gulf of 
Mexico and westward up and dov-jn the Pacific coast. In Chicago some of these prop- 
erties include the Straus Building, the Medical and Dental Arts and Old Dearborn 
Bank buildings, the Belmont, Lake Shore Drive, Sovereign, AUerton, Sherry, Plaisance, 
Southmoor, and many other hotels. Similar properties are located in Cincinnati, Dallas, 
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Detroit, Cleveland, and elsewhere throughout the United 
States. 

Regarded as one of America's foremost authorities on building and hotel operations, 
Mr. Solomon is essentially an operator and not a banker. He devised the widely heralded 
system of centralized control by which nineteen hotels in the Chicago area alone under 
his command saved more than half a million dollars in operating expenses in less than 
two years' time, and this in the face of adverse conditions. An intense student of hotel 
operations and management, Mr. Solomon spent more than sixteen years learning the 
details of this business from actual construction v^ork on up to management and re- 
organization of properties, effecting sensational economies and increasing revenues on 
the basis of efficiency alone. It is said of him that he is as equally at home among the 
footings of a new project as he is in the penthouse of a de luxe hotel or apartment 
dwelling of which he has built scores. 

He is married and has two children, Lawrence and Shirley. His hobbies are golf, 
boxing and aviation. 



426 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Campus; and the section north of the Garrett Biblical Institute to Lincoln 
street, where are situated Patten Gymnasium, the Dearborn Observatory, 
and the men's dormitories, is designated as the James A. Patten Campus. 



g^K^"**^ T'^BM 


8f i \ - ^ 


n ' ' ^^w. ^H^Hp 


\*i>4tdiltKmi Wf'^^W^> ' 


^*^/^' t 


Jw^^Ki'^H^m^^^^mI^B m^ ' 


<^- ' 


^^^^KUf ^ai^ ^ 


K;' ■ 


:. ^P 


^j 


^-^^^^^ 


r% 


'"''im-f^- 


,^."^2^.^ 




-■ --«itr" 


.-.d*^ 


fSBBF'^^gl 




University hall on the Milton H. Wilson cam' 
pus of Northwestern University in Evanston. 



The Dearborn Observatory on the James A. 
Patten campus of Northwestern University. 



On the Alexander McKinlock Memorial Campus in Chicago, at Lake 
Shore drive and East Chicago avenue, are the professional schools of the 
University: the Medical School, the Dental School, the School of Law, and 
the downtown divisions of the School of Commerce and the Medill School 
of Journalism. 

As far back as 1913, plans were being discussed for the consohdation 
of all the professional schools of the University on a single downtown 
campus on the near north side. In 1915, a preliminary draft was drawn 
by the committee on endowment in which the purchase of the tract at 
Lake Shore drive and Chicago avenue was strongly advised. Two years 
later an option on the site was obtained. 

William A. Dyche, business manager of the University, was doing 
valiant service persuading the trustees of the University that the site should 
be purchased, and interesting particularly the late Milton H. Wilson, with' 
out whose generosity the project never could have been carried out. 

Finally, on June 15, 1920, the Trustees voted to purchase the nine-acre 
tract for $1,420,260. A year later, announcement was made of the receipt 
of a gift of $250,000 from Mr. and Mrs. George A. McKinlock in memory 
of their son who had lost his life in the World War, and by order of the 
Trustees the new Chicago campus was named in his honor. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



427 



■^^"Si. 



\ U i 



- H 




A 




.. ■ '#.^... 






ALBERT A. SPRAGUE 

Col. Sprague, wholesale grocer and commissioner of public works, was born in Chicago, 
May 13, 1876, the son of Otho Sylvester Arnold and Lucia Elvira (Atwood) Sprague. 
After attending the Chicago public schools he entered St. Paul's School, Concord, New 
Hampshire, and from there went to Harvard University, where he received his Bachelor 
of Arts degree in 1898. Returning to Chicago, he entered the wholesale grocery firm 
of Sprague, Warner ii Company, of which firm he is now a director, having served also 
as president and chairman of the board. 

Col. Sprague was chairman of the Chicago chapter of the American Red Cross at the 
time of America's entry into the World War, but he resigned this position to attend the 
Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan. He received his commission as major in the 
infantry, was assigned to the 341st regiment, 86th division, and detailed to headquarters. 
He was intelhgence officer of the 86th division at Camp Grant, also commanding officer 
of the 2d batalHon, 341st infantry at Camp Grant and in France. He sailed for France 
in July, 1918, and two days before the signing of the Armistice was advanced to the rank 
of heutenant-colonel. He returned to the United States in March, 1919, was honorably 
discharged a few days later and is now a colonel in the Officers' Reserve Corps. 

Col. Sprague entered public life in 1923, when he was appointed commissioner of 
public works by the late Mayor Dever. He was again appointed to this position in 1931 
by Mayor Cermak. In 1924 he was the Democratic candidate for the United States 
Senate. His interest in Chicago's cultural and philanthropic enterprises is reflected in 
the many trusteeships he holds. He is a trustee of Field Museum of Natural History, 
the John Crerar Library, the Children's Memorial Hospital, Rush Medical College, the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Shedd Aquarium, the Museum of Science and Industry, 
and the Sprague Memorial Institute. He was recently elected a member of the board of 
overseers of Harvard University. He serves as Vice-chairman of the Chicago Plan Com- 
mission. Col. Sprague is also a director of the Continental lUinois National Bank 6? Trust 
Company of Chicago, the Chicago fe? North Western Railway, the Calumet 6? Arizona 
Mining Company, and the B. F. Goodrich Company. He is a member of the University, 
City, Mid-Day, Commercial, Saddle and Cycle, Onwentsia, and Old Elm clubs. 

He was married June 22, 1901, to Frances Fideha Dibble of Rye Beach, New Hamp- 
shire. The children are Albert Arnold, Jr., Laura, and Otho S. A. 



428 Chicago's accomplishments 

In 1923, Mrs. Elizabeth J. Ward gave the University $1,000,000 aug- 
mented by the sum of $3,000,000 in January, 1924, to be used for the erec- 
tion of a building as a memorial to her husband, the late A. Montgomery 
Ward. The building was to house the laboratories and clinics of the Medical 
and Dental Schools. In March, 1926, Mrs. Ward added another $4,000,000 
to her original gift, the income from which was to be used for scholarships, 
research and increased instructional facihties. 

Mrs. Ward visioned a great medical center in the heart of Chicago on 
the McKinlock campus. In making her gift, she stressed the service the 
University is rendering. 

Last year the Medical School in its clinics gave treatment to more than 
100,000 persons and the Dental School performed more than 100,000 
operations. This same ideal of service extends throughout the University, 
as is evidenced by the fact that the legal aid bureau of the School of Law 
last year gave legal aid to more than 8,000 persons, the speech clinic in the 
School of Speech treated 550 persons afflicted with defects in speech, and 
the psychological clinic extended its service to approximately 300. 

Since the completion of the Montgomery Ward Memorial building, 
Passavant hospital has been built on the McKinlock campus and the Wesley 
Memorial hospital has drawn up plans for the construction of a $5,000,000 
building there. Proposed plans for the campus also include a maternity 
hospital, a children's hospital and a general university hospital. When all 
of these buildings will have been completed, the McKinlock campus will 
be one of the world's greatest medical centers. 

Other buildings on the McKinlock campus are the Levy Mayer Hall 
of Law, home of the School of Law, the gift of Mrs. Levy Mayer; the 
Elbert H. Gary Library of Law, the gift of the late Judge Elbert H. Gary; 
the Wieboldt Hall, home of the School of Commerce and the School of 
Journalism, made possible by a gift of $625,000 from the Wieboldt Founda- 
tion. 

Mere si2,e is not an evidence of success and size alone does not justify 
itself. Yet in the case of Northwestern University the material growth that 
has been witnessed has gone hand in hand with the spiritual growth. In- 
creased facilities have led to increasing service, have justified increased vision 
and have focused recognition upon the real worth of our endeavors. 

This growth in the intangible means for the accomplishment of magnifi- 
cent purposes has been made possible by the donations of those who have 
been profoundly convinced that the spirit of service, the high ideals and 
the adequacy of administration were sufficient to the task imposed. 

A metropolitan university such as Northwestern is not a cloistered 
institution. It takes itself seriously and tries to contribute to the welfare 
of the community. Northwestern University today is making distinct con- 
tributions to the welfare of this community, through its clinics, the research 
of distinguished scholars, and other agencies; and the Northwestern Uni- 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



429 




' ARBlTRATiON I 

CONCILIATION I 

• : COUNSELOR I 










(Mofett-Russell Photo) 

DR. BENJAMIN M. SQUIRES 

Dr. Squires, arbitrator, was born in Neptune, Richland county, Wisconsin, October 12, 
1889, son of Mark Abraham and Mary Angehne (Page) Squires. He obtained his 
preparatory education in the public schools, then his B. A. (Bachelor of Arts) and 
M. A. (Master of Arts) degrees from the University of Wisconsin and his Ph.D. 
(Doctor of Philosophy) degree from Columbia University. He studied medicine in 
Germany. Dr. Squires was special agent. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1914 
to 1916; commissioner of conciliation, United States Department of Labor, 1916 to 1920; 
member, Alaskan Board of Mediation and Arbitration, 1916; administrative member and 
chairman, New York Harbor Wage Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1918; executive secretary. 
National Adjustment Commission, 1919 to 1920; and statistician and assistant. Employers' 
European Commission appointed by U. S. Department of Labor, 1919. He lectured on 
industrial relations, Columbia University, 1919; was investigator for the United States 
Coal Commission, 1923; lectured on political economy. University of Chicago, 1924 to 
1929; and has been impartial chairman for the Cleaning and Dyeing Industry of Chicago, 
since 1930. 

He is chairman of the Trade Board; chairman. Board of Arbitration, and chairman, 
Unemployment Insurance Fund, Chicago Men's Clothing Industry; professorial lecturer, 
Department of Economics, University of Chicago; chairman. General Advisory Board, 
Illinois Department of Labor; and executive secretary of Governor Emmerson's Un- 
employment Commission during 1930. Dr. Squires is a member of the Cosmos Club, 
Washington, D. C; a director, Chicago City Club; member, Quadrangle Club; life mem- 
ber of the Press Club, and chairman. Committee on Industry and Trade, Social Science 
Research Council. 

On March 26, 1924, he married Margaret J. Regan of Chicago, and they have 
four children, Benjamin Mark, Mark Page, Mary Page, and Barbara Joan. 



430 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



versity of tomorrow will strive to make these contributions even greater 
and more significant through its faculty, its graduates, its progress in the 
methods of instruction, and its increased physical equipment. 




{Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc.) 
DYCHE STADIUM AS SEEN FROM THE AIR 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



431 



k 




i i I g w 2 ^ i; ' ' 
r I i^ I k S S ^ ■ 







(Blan)^ &• Stoller. Inc., Photo) 



EUGENE M. STEVENS 



Mr. Stevens, chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, was born in Preston, 
Minnesota, February 1, 1871, the son of Andrew J. and Clara Morgan (Bentley) 
Stevens. He received his education in the public schools. From 1887 to 1891 Mr. 
Stevens was with the Winona (Minn.) Wagon Company. He was in the employ of 
F. H. Peavey ii Company, Minneapolis (grain merchants), 1891 to 1901, and organized 
Stevens, Chapman ^ Company (investment bankers), also of MinneapoHs, which con- 
tinued from 1901 to 1917. Mr. Stevens became vice-president of the Illinois Trust &? 
Savings Bank of Chicago in 1917, which later merged with other banks under the name 
of the Illinois Merchants Trust Company, and became president of the latter institution 
in 1927. After the merger in 1929 with the Continental National Bank and Trust Com- 
pany, he was president of the new organization, the Continental Illinois Bank and Trust 
Company, until November, 1930. He was appointed Class C director and chairman and 
Federal Reserve agent of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, January 1, 1931. Mr. 
Stevens is also director of the Diamond Match Company since 1924; of the Texas Cor?v 
poration since 1928; and of Wilson 6? Company, Inc., since 1926. ^'~ 

He is a trustee of the University of Chicago and is president of The John Crerar 
Library, Chicago. He was a member of the executive committee of Liberty Loan cam- 
paigns of the Chicago Federal Reserve District. His club affihations arc Chicago, Com- 
mercial, The Attic, Bankers, Glenview Country, and Old Elm. 

In 1899 Mr. Stevens married Mary Frances Rolfe of Stacy ville, Iowa. Their children 
are Eugene M. and Charles Rolfe. 



432 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S LEADERSHIP IN OIL REFINING 

Converting Millions of Barrels of Oil Into Commercially 
Important Products 

BY KEITH FANSHIER 
Petroleum Editor, Chicago Journal of Commerce 

FEW think of Chicago as an "oil town." Applied to this city of millions 
of inhabitants, the words seem incongruous — reminiscent of gushers, 
mushroom oil camp communities, easy money, booming growth and as sud' 
den decay. Yet the fact is, Chicago is an oil town. More, it is the biggest 
oil town in the world. 

Chicago, unknown to most of its residents and most outsiders, is the 
world's greatest oil market — meaning the greatest market for refined petro' 
leum products. More oil is sold in, from and through Chicago than any 
other point on earth. 

The oil industry was built on the enterprise of the individual, the pro' 
ducer, seeking the oil. Today the important part played by Chicago reveals 
a reversal of trend. The oil is seeking the individual, the consumer. Around 
the southern tip of Lake Michigan has been built up an industrial entity 
that acts as a magnet, drawing millions of barrels of crude and refined pe- 
troleum annually by pipe line, by rail, by waterway, by highway, toward 
this great central market from the producing districts. 

Not only is Chicago the strategically important market and sales center, 
but the Chicago region is the seat of one of the World's leading refining 
districts. Located as the hub of a great circle of oil producing fields, yet 




Chicagoland's greatest refinery — an airplane view of the Standard Oil refinery at Whiting, 
Indiana, one of the largest complete refineries in the world, if not the largest. The process 

of cracking oil originated here. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



433 



STANDARD 
COMPANY 




(Blan\ & Stoller. Inc., Photo) 



EDWARD G. SEUBERT 



Mr. Seubert, president of the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, was born in Syracuse, 
New York, June 20, 1876, the son of Nicholas and Johanna (Neumeister) Seubert. He 
was educated in the Syracuse high school, and as a boy not yet sixteen, was given employ 
ment as a mechanic's helper at the Whiting refinery of the Standard Oil Company of 
Indiana, which had been organi2,ed only two years previously. Mr. Seubert advanced 
steadily to positions of greater and greater responsibility, chiefly in the accounting division. 
He served as auditor from 1911 to 1919, as assistant secretary and assistant treasurer 
from March to November, 1919, and was elected to the directorate in that year, when 
he was advanced also to the position of secretary and treasurer. 

From 1920 to 1927 he held office as vice-president, and in 1927 was elected president. 
On the ehmination in 1929 of the position of chairman of the board, he became chief 
executive of the company. As an officer and director Mr. Seubert has played a major 
role in the development and growth of the Indiana company. Some of the most vital 
steps in its expansion have been made under his administration, with resulting increase 
in the strength of the company's position as one of the leading units in the oil industry. 

Mr. Seubert is a member of the Union League, Old Elm, South Shore Country, and 
Flossmoor Country clubs. 



434 Chicago's accomplishments 

crowded by none, Chicago is destined to become an oil refining center second 
to none. Already its refining capacity is measured in terms of hundreds of 
thousands of barrels daily. The do2;en or more plants in the immediate 
vicinity of the city rank among the best, most efficient, and most complete 
refineries in the world. In these refineries in and around Chicago are manu- 
factured hundreds of separate products, ranging from high grade, volatile 
gasolines to the finest of table candles; from heavy, viscous fuel oils for 
industrial use to bland toilet, cosmetic and medicinal preparations. 

The fields of petroleum utili2,ation are enormous. The world demands 
petroleum derivatives. Deprived of them, our present-day civili2,ation would 
totter. Probably no raw material is as essential to our well-being as petro- 
leum. On the farm, in industry, in the sick room, in the beauty parlor, in 
the home, on the high seas and below them, in the jungle, on the desert 
and in the air, this strange, mysterious substance plays its ever-increasing 
part. And forced to the utmost, the Chicago refining community could 
take care of a large share of the country's requirements. 

Great, integrated corporations in and around Chicago and the central 
region generally have built upon petroleum far-flung industrial empires ex- 
tending throughout the nation and abroad. Thousands of independent dis- 
tributors keep in touch with developments here, in serving their trade. 
Hundreds of thousands of retail outlets make Chicago's petroleum products 
available to all. 

The future may well be ama2;ing, judged by our present knowledge 
and our standards. Packed away within a single one of all the billions of 
droplets of oil finding their way into the Chicago district are elements 
which may well go far toward shaping the destiny of the nation and the 
world. Man knows comparatively little about the make-up and the possi- 
bilities of petroleum, even now. But it is known that vast fields of un- 
touched utili2,ation lie open, when man knows enough about this material 
to harness and develop it. Toward this end, large numbers of petroleum 
technologists are working today. 

Petroleum will write its own history and carry along with it to logical 
destiny whatever is intimately associated with it, as is the Chicago region. 
As an industry it has well substantiated its ability to withstand adverse 
economic conditions. The little service station around the corner stands 
as a symbol of a force that will go far toward determining what is to come, 
just as it has influenced what has happened in the past. Chicago will have 
an important place in that picture. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



435 





4 ?•. -^ 



/ 



^ * 



15 % 



(Mojjett-Russell Photo) 

AMOS ALONZO STAGG 



Mr. Stagg, athletic director and football coach at the University of Chicago, was born 
in West Orange, New Jersey, August 16, 1862, the son of Amos Lindsley and Eunice 
(Pierson) Stagg. He attended Yale University where he was one of their greatest 
athletes; received his A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1888. In 1891 he graduated 
from the International Y. M. C. A. College at Springfield, Massachusetts, which school 
conferred on him the honorary degree of Master of Physical Education, in 1912. He 
received the honorary degree of Master of Arts from Oberlin College, in 1923. Sum' 
mers, during 1889, 1890 and 1891, he w^as director of athletics of the Northfield 
(Massachusetts) Students' Conference and the Lake Geneva (Wisconsin) Students' Con- 
ference. Mr. Stagg, as a member of the original faculty, became associate professor and 
director of the department of physical culture and athletics of the University of Chicago, 
1892. He was made professor in 1900, Mr. Stagg holds an acknowledged position as 
one of the cleverest and most resourceful of coaches. He has made many contributions 
to the technique of football and as senior member of the Football Rules Committee he 
has had an important influence in shaping the development of the game. In 1931 his 
alma mater sent its football team west for the first time in history to play Mr. Stagg's 
fortieth Chicago team, in recognition of the fact that his "significant service to the best 
interests of college athletics is national rather than local in its influence." 

Mr. Stagg represented the University of Chicago at the Inter-Collegiate Conference 
of Faculty Representatives, 1896 to 1911. He has been a member of the Football Rules 
Committee since 1904; member of the American Committee of the Olympic Games at 
Athens, 1906. London, 1908, Stockholm, 1912, Antwerp, 1920, Paris, 1924. and 
Amsterdam, 1928. He was coach of the middle distance runners of the American Olym' 
pic team, Paris, 1924. He was president of the Society of Directors of Physical Edu- 
cation in Colleges in 1911 and 1912 and of the Western Alumni Association of Phillips 
Exeter Academy, in 1924. He was presidential elector for the Progressive Party in 1912. 
Mr. Stagg is athletic adviser for the Order of De Molay. He is a fellow of the American 
Physical Education Society and a member of Sons of the American Revolution, National 

Continued on page 549 



436 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO COMPLETES GREAT CIVIC IMPROVEMENTS 
Developments Which Have Added to the City's Commercial and 

Recreational Facilities 

BY JAMES SIMPSON 
Chairman, Chicago Plan Commission 

FIFTY or seventyfive years ago no one, not even a prophet, could have 
foreseen Chicago's destiny. But in 1907, the city was growing so rap' 
idly that it was apparent that some guidance was needed. City planning was 
a new idea in those days, but its value was so well understood in Chicago 
that the Commercial Club decided to draw up a comprehensive city-wide 
plan for future development. 

Accordingly, in 1908, a Plan of Chicago was published and submitted 
to the city with the recommendation that a commission be appointed to 
study it and advise as to its execution. Thus the Chicago Plan Commission 
came into existence, but as a purely advisory branch of the city government. 
It was vested with no executive authority. The Chicago Plan was then, 
as now, merely an influence. It has been called "one of the city's most 
splendid conceptions since the World's Fair," of 1893. 

To unimaginative people, the plan at first seemed visionary, Utopian, 
A "Chicago beautiful" was an excellent thing, they agreed, but hardly 
practical. It was a pretty picture, an artist's dream. 

Yet the character of the Commission was such as to inspire public con- 
fidence. The men who composed its membership were practical citizens, 
the kind who have the ability to make dreams come true. If Chicago had 
to be taken apart and reassembled; if entire square miles of buildings must 
be razed to make room for new streets; if land had to be reclaimed from 
Lake Michigan; if the river had to be unkinked, well, why not? The diffi' 
culties were by no means insurmountable. Legal proceedings, pickaxes, 
steamshovels, and cement mixers could toss them aside. 

The most urgent problem was the reclamation of the waterfronts, lake 
and river, and their conversion into esplanades and parkways. The next in 
importance was the acquisition, before land prices became prohibitive, of 
the forested areas on the city's outskirts. A third problem was one of street 
widening and extension; of providing adequate connections between the 
central business district and outlying sections, and of connecting these 
various sections. A fourth problem was that of unifying Chicago's railroad 
terminals. 

Many of these colossal projects have been carried out and others are in 
more or less advanced stages of construction. A former Chicagoan who 
had not visited the city since 1910 would hardly recognize it. He would 
see the Loop no longer strangled by the elevated railroad structure, but 
extending from Canal street to the lake, and from Roosevelt road to Chicago 
avenue. He would see a new "front yard" east of the Illinois Central right 
of way, extending for miles along the lake. The Field Museum, the vast 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



437 




CHICAGO 

PLAN 

COMMISSION 









(BIdnS; &■ Stoller, Inc.. Photo) 

JAMES SIMPSON 

Mr. Simpson, chairman of the Chicago Plan Commission and chairman of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company, The Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company, and the Pubhc 
Service Company of Northern Illinois, was born in Glasgow, Scotland, January 26, 1874, 
the son of WilHam and Isabella (Brechin) Simpson. He was brought to Chicago by his 
parents in 1880. After attending the public schools and a business college, he secured his 
first job — a clerkship in the cashier's office of Marshall Field ii Company. This was in 
1891. Within a year he had been picked by Mr. Field for his personal staff, and it was 
later, as confidential secretary to Mr. Field, that he received the training which was to 
carry him to the head of the great organization. On the death of Mr. Field in 1906 he 
was made second vice-president and assistant to the president, and in 1917 was elevated 
to the first vice-presidency. He became president of Marshall Field 6? Company in 1923, 
and was later chairman of the board, resigning in 1932 to head the public utility com- 
panies. It was during his regime as president of Marshall Field's that the store for men 
was built and the huge Merchandise Mart, the world's largest commercial building, was 
completed. 

It is as chairman of the Chicago Plan Commission that Mr. Simpson has contributed 
most signally to the city's betterment. Under his leadership such projects as the Wacker 
Drive improvement, the Outer Drive extensions, and the straightening of the Chicago 
River have been carried out. During the World War he was a director of the Chicago 
chapter of the American Red Cross. In 1918 he went to France to assist in the Red 
Gross work overseas. He was also a member of the Capital Issues committee and 
civihan aide to the secretary of war for the 6th Corps Area. As his private responsibilities 
have increased, his civic and philanthropic cares have multiplied. He is a director of 
Rush Medical College, the Children's Memorial Hospital, and the Scottish Old People's 
Home; treasurer of the Chicago Fresh Air Hospital; and a trustee of Field Museum of 
Natural History, the Sunday Evening Club, and the Otho S. A. Sprague Institute. To 
Field Museum he gave the Simpson Theater, and Simpson Hall is named in his honor. 

Continued on page 549 



438 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



amphitheater of Soldier Field, the Shedd Aquarium, the Adler Planetarium, 
the Aladdin city of the Century of Progress Exposition stand where the 
waters used to roll. He would see a double-decked esplanade, Wacker 
drive, extending along the river front where the noisome and congested 
South Water street market once stood. He would see Michigan avenue, 
today one of the world's show streets, spanning the river and sweeping on 
northward through an entirely new commercial district. He would see the 
new Union Station and the new postoffice. A new "La Salle avenue." A 
new "'South Parkway." A new Ogden avenue. A new outer drive, con- 
tinuous from Jackson Park to Evanston, with the exception of the new 
bridge at the mouth of the river, which is now (1932) under construction 
but temporarily halted due to lack of funds. Visiting the outskirts of the 
city, he could drive through miles of woodland whose natural beauties 
have been assured to Chicago for all time because of the vision embodied 
in the great Plan of Chicago. 

Today no inland city has a more beautiful waterfront than Chicago. 
The outer drive, now virtually twentyfive miles in length, will eventually 
be carried from the Indiana state line to Milwaukee. Burnham Park, con- 
necting Grant and Jackson parks, provides a recreation ground six miles in 




length, containing 1,139 acI•e^ and 343 acres ot inclosed waters, bathing 
beaches and lagoons. Lincoln Park has been steadily advancing along the 
lake front, offering unrivaled facilities for tennis, golf, trap shooting, riding, 
swimming, and yachting; and new park lands equal in area to those along 
the southern shore of the lake. 

The produce market, for many years an eyesore, cluttered up as it was 
with tumble-down buildings, and choked with trucks and wagons,- has been 
removed to a new and more convenient site on the West Side, and replaced 
by a boulevard as splendid as any to be found in Paris. Wacker drive, al- 
ready a mile and a quarter in length, named in honor of Charles H. Wacker, 
for seventeen years chairman of the Chicago Plan Commission, lined with 
impressive skyscrapers, and carrying traffic on two levels, is to be extended 
eastward to the lake and southward into the south side railway terminal 
area. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



439 




^>r -X 



iiiili 




(Mofftt-Russell Photo) 

THE RT. REV. GEORGE CRAIG STEWART 



Bishop Stewart, head of the Episcopal Diocese of Chicago, was born in Saginaw, Mich' 
igan, August 18, 1879, the son of George Forbes and Katharine (Craig) Stewart. He 
was graduated from the Evanston Academy in 1898, entered Northwestern University, 
and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1902. While still an undergraduate he was 
ordained to the Methodist ministry, and from 1897 to 1900 was pastor at the Calumet 
Heights Church. He was graduated from the Western Theological Seminary in 1903, 
and experiencing a change in faith, became a deacon and priest of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. After serving for one year as rector of the Glencoe church, he came to 
St. Luke's, Evanston, at that time a comparatively small congregation, numbering only 
200, and with property valued at $5,000. Twentysix years later, when he left St. Luke's, 
it was a congregation of 2,000, and its property was valued at $1,000,000. In 1915 he 
received his Doctor of Literature degree (L.H.D.) from Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio. 
In 1917 the Doctor of Divinity degree was conferred upon him by Northwestern Uni' 
versity, and in 1930, he was given the Doctor of Sacred Theology degree by the Western 
Theological Seminary. 

Bishop Stewart was secretary of the war commission of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church in 1918, and was chaplain of Evacuation Hospital No. 6, with the American 
Expeditionary Forces. He has been a delegate six times to the General Convention of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. He is a member of the National Council and of the de- 
partment of religious education of that church, a director of the Church Congress (Pro- 
testant Episcopal), of the Religious Education Society of America, and of the National 
Economic League. He is a trustee of Northwestern University and of the Western 
Theological Seminary; also a fellow of the Ecclesiological Society, vice-president of the 
Evanston Council of Boy Scouts, and a member of the Art commission of Evanston. 
He was elected bishop of the Diocese in 1930. Bishop Stewart is in demand as a preacher 
by universities from coast to coast, and has lectured on homiletics at the Western 
Seminary and at The College of Preachers. He is the author of The Colors of the Re- 
Continued on page 549 



440 Chicago's accomplishments 

The opening in May, 1920, of the Michigan avenue bridge, linking the 
North and the South Park systems, marked a new era for Chicago. Since 
then, all the old turnstyle bridges have been replaced by bridges of the 
bascule or cantilever type, the Wabash avenue, La Salle street, and Franklin' 
Orleans spans being the most recent. Not only has Wabash avenue been 
carried across the river for the first time, but a new and wider North La Salle 
street now extends from the City Hall to Lincoln Park. Bridge construction 
comes within the province of the city's Department of Public Works, of 
which Colonel Albert A. Sprague is commissioner. Colonel Sprague is also 
vice'chairman of the Chicago Plan Commission. The third official of the 
Plan Commission is vice-chairman Michael Zimmer, warden of Cook County 
Hospital. 

Under the recommendations of the Plan Commission some twenty major 
street widening projects have been carried out. Roosevelt road, widened 
from 66 feet to 108 feet from Ashland avenue to Canal street, and carried 
by a new viaduct over the south branch of the river and the railroad tracks 
to Michigan avenue, has become one of the city's main arteries, and is to be 
continued to the lake front. With the completion of the Union Station in 
1925, Canal street was elevated and widened. In preparation for the exten- 
sion of Dearborn, La Salle, Wells, Franklin, and Market streets to the South 
Side, the river has been straightened at a cost of millions of dollars, the 
greater part of which cost was borne by the railroad companies. Dingy old 
South Park avenue has become a section of the new South Parkway. Ogden 
avenue has cut its way from Lincoln Park to the West Side. Ashland 
avenue and Western avenue have been widened in accordance with the 
Chicago Plan and Damen avenue has been opened on the north. 

Electrification of the Illinois Central's suburban system at a cost of 
$25,000,000 has given Chicago the best suburban service in the world, a 
service superior to anything offered by New York's subway. Noiseless, 
smokeless trains running at the speed of sixty miles an hour whisk the pas- 
senger from the Loop to Hyde Park in about six minutes. Completion of 
a new and palatial terminal station for this line will see the materiahziation 
of another Chicago Plan Commission undertaking. 

The depression of 1929-1932 delayed work on a comprehensive subway 
system which, had the era of prosperity continued, it was hoped would be 
completed in time for the opening of A Century of Progress Exposition. 
The subway, however, will come in time. Another major project, outlined 
by the Plan Commission, is a system of grade separation superhighways 
radiating from the heart of Chicago to all parts of the city. 

The Chicago Plan also provides for aviation field sites, sites for filtration 
plants, and greater navigation facilities for the river and the harbor. It is 
a plan which, if adhered to and carried out as necessity requires and as 
financial resources permit, will assure the city's consistent progress. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



441 




_ J t^ iicicnt 

PRESBYTERIAN 

THEOLOGICAL 

S £ M 1 N A RvY 






(Doose' Studio Photo) 

REV. JOHN TIMOTHY STONE 

Dr. Stone, president of the Presbyterian (formerly McCormick) Theological Seminary 
and pastor emeritus of the Fourth Presbyterian church, was born in a suburb of Boston, 
September 7, 1868, the son of Timothy Dwight Porter and Susan Margaret (Dickinson) 
Stone. The family moved to Albany, New York, in 1876, where Dr. Stone graduated 
from high school in 1887. Dr. Stone was graduated in 1891 from Amherst College, and 
was class orator. He was graduated from Auburn Theological Seminary in 1894, and 
was ordained in the Presbyterian ministry at Utica, New York, in June of the same year. 
He has received honorary degrees from nine universities and colleges: Doctor of Divinity 
(D.D.) from the University of Maryland and from Amherst College in 1919; Doctor of 
Laws (LL.D.) from Emporia College in 1913, Occidental College in 1914, Coe College 
in 1917, LaFayette College in 1923, and Northwestern University in 1926; Doctor of 
Sacred Theology (S. T. D.) from Columbia University in 1919; Doctor of Letters (Litt. 
D.) from the University of Vermont in 1923. 

He was pastor of Olivet Church, Utica, from 1894 to 1896; Presbyterian Church, Cort' 
land. New York, from 1896 to 1900, and of the Brown Memorial Church, Baltimore, from 
1900 to 1909. Two years after he began his pastorate in Chicago, the new Fourth 
Presbyterian church, a model of Gothic architecture, was erected in North Michigan 
avenue near Delaware place, at a cost of $850,000. Dr. Stone served this church for over 
twenty years before becoming president of the Presbyterian Theological Seminary. He 
is a director of the Chicago Bible Society, the Presbyterian Ministers' Fund of Phila- 
delphia, Presbyterian Hospital, and Presbyterian Home. In 1913 and 1914 he was 
Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, and 
from 1920 to 1922 was chairman of the Committee which reorganized and consohdated 
the various boards of the Presbyterian Church. 

He is also a trustee of the Half-Orphan Asylum, a past chaplain of the National 
Society of Sons of the American Revolution and of the Illinois chapter of the same 
society, and is now national chaplain of the Founders and Patriots of America. Dr. Stone 
is the author of Footsteps in a Parish, Recruiting for Christ, The Life of Whitfield, That 
Friday Night, Everyday Religion, Christianity in Action, and of numerous other books 
and monographs on educational and religious themes. He is a member of the University 
and Union League clubs, and of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. 

He was married, June 22, 1932, to Miss Marie Briggs of Chicago. 



442 Chicago's accomplishments 

TRADITIONS OF THEODORE THOMAS PRESERVED 

IN THE CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA 

A Famous Institution and Its Influence on the 

Life of the Community 

BY HENRY E. VOEGELI 
Manager, Chicago Symphony Orchestra 

ORCHESTRA Hall, CHicago's superb temple of music, and the home of the 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, is a monument to Theodore Thomas. 
But it is more than that. It is a symbol of the cultural aspirations of the city. 

In its Symphony Orchestra Chicago has a priceless asset. It has added 
immeasurably to Chicago's prestige as a musical center. It has raised the 
musical standards of the community to a high level. It has been the in' 
spiration of thousands of professional and amateur musicians. It has de' 
veloped in Chicago's army of school children an appreciation of the best 
in the art form it interprets. 

While the shadow of Theodore Thomas will remain ever in the back' 
ground of this splendid organization, we must go even farther back than the 
first concerts given in Chicago by this pioneer for the beginnings of the 
Orchestra. 

Let us turn back the pages of history to 1850. Chicago at that time 
was a crude and rapidly growing city, but among its residents were men 
of culture, men who were jealous of the monopoly in the finer things of life 
held by such eastern cities as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston. 

The first serious attempts at implanting musical culture in Chicago were 
made by Hans Balatka, who, with the support of this group of public 
spirited citizens, organized the Philharmonic Society, which for several years 
provided Chicago with high'class musical programs, and paved the way 
for Theodore Thomas. This organization, however, owing to the many 
discouragements it encountered, was forced to disband, and for a time Chi' 
cago had to do without orchestral music. 

Then, in 1869, Mr. Thomas, who was touring the country with his 
New York orchestra, included Chicago in his itinerary. So favorable was 
his reception that a return engagement was arranged for, and the following 
year, the ensemble was heard here in a series of seven concerts, the pro' 
grams including works altogether new to local music lovers. 

In 1877, however, a more extended season was announced, and the de' 
lightful summer night concerts in the Exposition Building were inaugurated. 
The success of these led in 1890 to the founding of the Orchestral Asso' 
ciation, which is today the governing body of the Chicago Symphony 
Orchestra. 

During the thirteen years of these concerts, the popularity of Mr. 
Thomas grew, and more and more Chicago was beginning to adopt him 
and his musicians as her own. Thus, when the prospects for his orchestra 
in the East seemed hopeless; when New York failed to provide him with 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



443 




CHICAGO 
SYMPH9NY 
ORCHESTRA 






fry. 



'Uf 



_- " y'r > ?>/.-X.•^#*•*- 



(Underwood 6" Underu'ooci, Washington, D. C, P/ioto) 



FREDERICK A. STOCK 



Dr. Stock, conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, was born in JuHch, Ger- 
many, November 11, 1872, the son of Frederick Carl and Maria Stock. He became a 
naturalized citizen of the United States in 1919. His father, a bandmaster in the Prus' 
sian Army, began his musical education at the age of four, at which time he was given 
a small violin to play upon. At the age of fourteen Frederick Stock was admitted to the 
Cologne Conservatory where he spent four years in intensive study and practice of the 
violin under Japha, and theory and composition under Franz Wullner, Zollner, Gustav 
Jensen and Humperdinck. He was graduated in 1887 and for the next eight years was 
a violinist with the Cologne Municipal Orchestra. 

In 1895 he was requested by Theodore Thomas to join the Chicago Orchestra, which 
he did as viola player in the fall of that same year. Under the guidance of Thomas, who 
took a personal interest in his protege's welfare. Stock was soon given more and more 
of the director's tasks. As a signal of recognition and respect for Stock's gifts as a com- 
poser, Thomas, in 1903, conducted Stock's "Symphonic Variations." At the death of 
its founder, Frederick A. Stock, as was the wish of Theodore Thomas, became perma- 
nent director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1905. Dr. Stock has conducted 
several performances of Wagnerian opera for the Civic Opera Company of Chicago 
(1923). He received the decoration of Chevalier, Legion of Honor (France) in 1925. 
The honorary degree of Doctor of Music has been bestowed upon Dr. Stock by North- 
western University, 1915, University of Michigan, 1924, University of Chicago, 1925, 
and Cornell College, Mount 'Vernon, Iowa, 1927. He has been appointed general music 
director of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's Fair. Besides the one 
mentioned above he is the composer of a number of works for orchestra, string quar- 
tette and chorus. 



Dr. Stock married Elsa Muskulus, of Fulda. Germany, 
daughter, 'Vera F. (Mrs. Alfred M. Wolfe). 



May 22, 1896. There is one 



444 Chicago's accomplishments 

a hall, and no endowment fund was forthcoming, Mr. Thomas accepted 
the invitation of Chicago to make his permanent home here. 

He brought with him sixty artists, and augmented his ensemble with 
musicians recruited from the local ranks. Some of these, indeed, had wor' 
shiped the music master from afar, mostly from gallery seats at the Ex- 
position Building performances. The Orchestral Association accepted full 
financial responsibility, and Chicago had its "Thomas Orchestra."" 

The first concert under the new regime was given in the Auditorium 
in 1891, and the first season scheduled twenty Friday afternoon public re 
hearsals and the same number of Saturday night concerts. 

Despite the acclaim with which the Orchestra was received, it cannot 
be denied that the early days of its existence were discouraging. For one 
thing, the Auditorium was far too large. It would have been much easier 
to play to a smaller house filled to capacity than to an audience which rattled 
around, as it were, like a dried pea in a pod. At that time there was no sub' 
scription list and the size of the audience was determined more or less by 
weather conditions or the popularity of counter attractions. Also it was 
difficult to obtain musicians of the desired virtuosity. There was no train' 
ing school for ensemble players such as is provided for today by the Civic 
Orchestra, an off^shoot of the Chicago Symphony, which was formed in 
1919. It must be admitted, too, that Chicago, in the "Gay 90's'' was in' 
terested more in things material than in things spiritual. 

Nowadays it is diff^erent. Chicago has a passion for music. The dictates 
of fashion alone make attendance at the Symphony Concerts almost im' 
perative. Subscription seats are handed down from father to son, from 
mother to daughter. They are treasured by Chicago's haute monde as a 
priceless asset. Seats for the popular concerts are snapped up far in advance. 
The conservatories of music are turning out highly accomplished artists in 
such numbers that the problem of their absorption is a grave one. The 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, with long waiting lists both of subscribers 
and musicians, is virtually a closed corporation. 

Never did the Chicago spirit come to the front more ebulliently than 
when the campaign was launched to erect in Michigan avenue a shrine of 
music worthy of the organi2iation which was making musical history here. 
Millionaires and shop girls alike contributed to the building fund, the 
amounts given ranging from twenty 'five cents to $25,000, and totaling 
$600,000. More than 7,500 Chicagoans, including hundreds of school 
children, subscribed. 

In 1904, the dreams of Theodore Thomas were realized. The Chicago 
Symphony Orchestra at last had a home of its own, and a magnificent home, 
at that. On the night of the dedication, the music master received one of 
his greatest ovations. A few weeks later, Chicago and the rest of the nation 
were mourning his death. To Theodore Thomas Chicago owes a debt of 
gratitude that can never be repaid. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



445 




(Rayliujf-Ricfiter Photo) 

GUSTAVUS FRANKLIN SWIFT 



Mr. Swift, third president of Swift 6? Company, is the second chief oiScer to bear that 
name, the company having been founded by his father, Gustavus FrankHn Swift, Sr. The 
present chief executive was born in Chicago, March 1, 1881. He was educated in the 
Chicago public schools and business colleges. While still in school he spent much of his 
time after school hours in the Chicago Union Stock Yards with his father and older 
brothers. Here he learned the rudiments of livestock buying. After finishing school, Mr. 
Swift's first real job was in the buying end, where he became a weight taker in the hog 
buying department. After serving his apprenticeship here, he became a buyer and later 
was sent by his father to the packing house market, where he learned how meat is bought 
by the retail dealer. 

Following an apprenticeship in selling to the retail trade, Mr. Swift worked in the 
general superintendent's office in order to attain a grasp of the operating end of the 
packing business, and it was as an operating executive that he first began to make himself 
felt in the business of the company. After some time spent also in the provision end of 
the packing business, he took charge of that branch of the work. While engaged in this 
he made several surveys of European markets and learned first hand the needs of the 
various nations to which Swift 6? Company was shipping its products. On January 6, 
1916, G. F. Swift was elected a vice-president and director of the company. He was 
elected to the presidency of Swift & Company on January 8, 1931. Always careful and 
thorough in his ways, Mr. Swift's grasp of all angles of Swift 6? Company's business is 
most comprehensive. He also found time to take an active part in the organization of the 
Institute of American Meat Packers and has served for a number of years as head of its 
department of public relations. His clubs are Chicago, Industrial, Onwentsia, Casino, 
Saddle and Cycle, and Shoreacres. 

He married Marie Fitzgerald, June 10, 1907, and they have four children, Geraldine, 
Marie, Gustavus F. Ill, and Jane Gertrude. 



446 Chicago's accomplishments 

His successor, Frederick A. Stock, the present conductor, was brought 
by Mr. Thomas from Cologne. The son of a Prussian bandmaster, he was 
born and reared in the grim shadow of bastions and guns. Early in life, 
however, he showed a predilection for the musical rather than the military 
profession. Under the practical guidance of his father, he spent long hours 
at his violin. Graduated with honors from the Cologne Conservatory, he 
became a member of the Cologne Orchestra, where he was discovered by 
Mr. Thomas on one of his many trips abroad. In the Fall of 1895, the 
young musician came to Chicago. His ability and character at once won 
him the favor of his leader, who selected him for special work and de- 
velopment. 

During those trying years when the future of the Orchestra was in the 
lap of the gods. Stock and Thomas worked side by side, often for the very 
existence of the organi2,ation, and when the latter laid down his baton, it 
was Frederick A. Stock who took it up. For a quarter of a century he has 
remained faithful to his trust, ever strengthening, ever building, until today 
the Chicago Symphony Orchestra stands as a living monument to the ideals, 
dreams, and aspirations of these two great figures in the world of music. 

It was Mr. Stock who inaugurated the Children's Concerts. These, 
made up of fortyfive minutes of music, interspersed with charming ex' 
planatory talks and slides, were from the start an unequivocal success. The 
children are encouraged to participate in the singing, and to answer ques- 
tions put to them by the director. The concerts dovetail with the music 
courses of the public schools, courses which were introduced and organ- 
i2;ed through the influence of the Orchestral Association. 

Each individual player of this great orchestra is a virtuoso on his chosen 
instrument, if not on several instruments. Some are American-born; some 
foreign-born, but each is a master. The roster of the orchestra is a roll of 
honor. Because of the loyalty of the members, vacancies are few, but the 
Civic Orchestra, governed jointly by the Orchestral Association and the 
Civic Music Association provides for younger players a convenient stepping 
stone. Many of its members have been graduated to symphony orchestras 
in other cities. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



447 




LAW ^^*^ 
]. BUSINESS 
BANKING 

^ COMMERCE 

CIVIC 
■ AFFAIRS 

fOMlGH 
RElAIiONS 



(Harris d' Eiuing Photo, Washington, D. C.) 

SILAS H. STRAWN 

Mr. Strawn, senior member of Winston, Strawn 6? Shaw, was born in Ottawa, Illinois, 
December H, 1866, the son of Abner and Eliza (Hardy) Strawn. He graduated from 
the high school in Ottawa in 1885, taught school for two years, and was admitted to the 
Illinois Bar in 1889. He has received the degree of Doctor of Laws from the University 
of Michigan, Northwestern University, Knox College, and Lake Forest College. Mr. 
Strawn practiced law in Ottawa from 1889 to 1891 and in Chicago since then. He has 
been senior member of the firm of Winston, Strawn & Shaw since 1918. He is chairman 
of the executive committee of Montgomery Ward 6? Company, director and member of 
the executive committee of the First National Bank and the First Union Trust and Savings 
Bank of Chicago, director and general solicitor of The Alton Railroad Company, director 
of the Electric Household Utilities Company, director of the Wahl Company, chairman 
of American Committee and viccpresident of the International Chamber of Commerce, 
delegate of the International Chamber of Commerce at Rome, 1923, Stockholm, 1927, 
Amsterdam, 1929. He was honorary vice-president of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States in 1928 and president in 1931-1932. Mr. Strawn is also a member of the 
executive council of the American Society of International Law. He was a delegate from 
the United States Government to the Chinese Customs Tariff Conference at Peking, 
1925-1926, and the United States Commissioner and chairman of the International Com- 
mission of Extra-territorial Jurisdiction in China, 1925-1926. He has served as president 
of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations and was chairman of the Citizens" Commit- 
tee for Tax Reform and Financial Relief of Chicago, 1929-1930. 

Mr. Strawn was president of the Chicago Bar Association in 1913-1914, president of 
the Illinois State Bar Association, 1921-1922, and president of the American Bar Asso- 
ciation in 1927-1928. He is a trustee of the Carnegie Endowment for International 
Peace, of the Field Museum, and of Northwestern University. His club affiliations are 
Chicago Law, Commercial (ex-presidcnt), Industrial (ex-president), Chicago, University, 
Chicago Athletic Association (honorary member), Mid-Day (ex-president), Casino, 

Continued on page 549 



448 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



THE CHICAGO STADIUM— THE WORLD^S GREATEST 
INDOOR ARENA 
Where Presidential Candidates Have Been Nominated and 
Trained Elephants Have Performed 

HAD it existed in the Ancient World, the Chicago Stadium, out on West 
Madison street, would have been included among the ''Seven Won- 
ders/*' It is the world's largest building of its kind. 

Here Herbert Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt were nominated for 
the Presidency by the National Conventions of their respective parties. 
Here during the Rodeo, cowboys have ridden bucking broncos and have 
bull-dogged steers. Acrobats, equestrians, aerialists, and trained elephants 
have performed in its arena or under its steel girders. Here six-day bicycle 
racers have competed, boxing tournaments have been held . . . tennis 
tournaments ... ice hockey matches . . . indoor track meets . . . flower 
shows . . . operas. 

The Stadium, an immense pile of steel and stone, was erected in 1929. 
It is a monument to the enterprise of Paddy Harmon, west side politician 
and philanthropist, whose body lay in state there shortly after the com- 
pletion of the building. 

As a convention hall, as a temple of sport, as a setting for great public 
spectacles, the Chicago Stadium relegates New York's new Madison Square 
Garden to the background. 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
CHICAGO STADIUM. Eric E. Hall 6? Company, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



449 




(LoubelJ Studios, Photo) 

SIDNEY N. STROTZ 

Mr. Strotz, president of The Chicago Stadium Corporation, was born in Chicago, April 
26, 1898, son of Charles N. and Clara A. Strotz. He attended St. John's Military 
Academy, Delafield, Wisconsin, and received his college education in the school of law 
at Cornell Univenrity. Immediately after his withdrawal from college he began extensive 
activities in the administration of various business enterprises in Chicago and in the East. 
In 1928 Mr. Strotz and his brother, Harold, organized and financed the Chicago Stadium, 
the largest building of its kind in the world, with a seating capacity of 25,000 persons. 
Upon the completion of this project, Mr. Strotz became secretary and treasurer of this 
organization, which he remained until 1930 when he succeeded the late Paddy Harmon 
as president. The Chicago Stadium, the world's greatest indoor arena, is the scene of 
boxing matches, bicycle races, conventions (notably the 1932 Republican and Demo- 
cratic), rodeos, circuses, exhibits, hockey games, flower shows, and even operas. The 
original cost of the Stadium was $7,000,000. 

During the World War Mr. Strotz was with the 326th Batallion, Tanks Corps, in 
France for eighteen months. He is a member of the Chicago Athletic Association, the 
Steuben Club, and the Rotary Club. For recreation he enjoys golf, boating, and horse- 
back riding. He has many fine saddle horses on his plantation at Swans Point, Virginia. 

He married Frances Vyse. There are three children, Shirley, Charles N. II, and 
Sandra. 



450 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The Stadium has a seating capacity of 25,000, but on special occasions 
has accommodated 30,000 people without crowding. It occupies an entire 
city block, with parking spaces at either end. The seats are arranged in 
tiers around an oval 244 feet long and 145 feet wide. 

It manufactures its own weather and has its own refrigerating plant. 
The ventilating and cooling systems, under thermostatic control, deliver 
6,000 cubic feet of conditioned air every minute. The $368,000 ice^making 
equipment can manufacture 600 tons of ice within twenty-four hours, and 
for hockey matches or skating, the entire floor can be converted into a rink. 
The following week perhaps it may blossom into a huge garden. 

In the building of the Stadium special attention was given to acoustics, 
with the result that acoustically it is superior even to the Mormon Temple 
at Salt Lake City which heretofore had been considered peerless in such 
matters. 




(Kaufmann ii Fabry Co. Photo) 
A PROFESSIONAL HOCKEY GAME AT THE STADIUM 

A "super" amphfying system makes it possible for a whisper to be 
heard in the most remote corner of the building. Powerful batteries of 
floodlights can be focused on any section of the amphitheater as required. 

Unique in respect to being the world's largest is the Stadium organ, in 
volume of sound the equivalent of twenty-five bands of 100 instruments 
each, or 2,500 orchestral pieces. The great organ plays simultaneously 40 
harmoni2;ing snare drums, 16 vioHns, 12 saxophones, 4 bass drums, 12 flutes, 
9 clarinets, 6 trumpets, 7 French horns. More than 240 feet of pipes and 
5,000 feet of wire have gone into its making. The range of controlled 
sound runs all the way from a bird note to a thunder storm, but its full 
power never has been tested. On several experimental occasions, its vibra- 
tions have shattered electric light bulbs. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



451 




(From drawing by Burkart) 

CLEMENT STUDEBAKER, JR. 

Mr. Studebaker was born in South Bend, Indiana, August 11, 1871, son of Clement and 
Ann (Milburn) Studebaker. His father was one of the founders of Studebaker Brothers 
Manufacturing Company, now The Studebaker Corporation. He received his preliminary 
education in the public schools of South Bend, and later attended Northwestern Uni' 
versity. He began his business career as a member of Studebaker Brothers Manufac- 
turing Company, becoming cashier and treasurer. Upon the merger and incorporation 
of The Studebaker Corporation, he became treasurer and first vice-president, later being 
elected first vice-president and chairman of the committee of control. 

Resigning from his offices with The Studebaker Corporation in April, 1914, Mr. 
Studebaker for a time devoted his attention to other interests, and on April 16, 1915, was 
elected president of the North American Light &? Power Company, in which capacity 
he served until his death on December 3, 1932. He was an officer or director of various 
subsidiaries including Illinois Power and Light Corporation, Iowa Power and Light Com- 
pany, Missouri Power £s? Light Company, Kansas Power and Light Company, and Des 
Moines Electric Light Company. He was also chairman of the board of Illinois Terminal 
Railroad System and president of the Illinois Traction Company and Illinois Traction, Inc. 
Following the example of his father, Mr. Studebaker was a trustee of Chautauqua Insti- 
tution and of DePauw University. He was also trustee of Illinois Weslcyan University, 
of Bloomington, Illinois, and a past president of the Indiana Society of Chicago. He was 
a member of the following clubs: Chicago, Union League, Attic, Traffic, The Tavern, 
Glenview, of Golf, Illinois; Abenaqui of Rye Beach, New Hampshire; Tombigee, Mac- 
intosh, Alabama; Grand Island Lodge, Bath, Illinois; Algonquin, of Boston; and the 
Lotos, of New York. 

On April 27, 1893, Mr. Studebaker married Alice Rhawn, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania. The children are Clement III, and Esther (Mrs. Peticolas). 



452 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Two restaurants, numerous conference rooms, public telephones, a priv 
ate switchboard, telegraph and radio connections are among the Stadium's 
conveniences. 

With main floor entrances on opposite sides of the building, balcony 
entrances at the four corners, and exits at either end, the Stadium can be 
emptied, even of a capacity crowd, within a few minutes. 

The Stadium has its own staff of trained ushers, its own fire and police 
departments, the latter augumented by city police and firemen. President 
Sidney N. Strotz has tried to leave nothing undone that will make for the 
convenience, comfort and safety of the public. 

There is something of interest going on almost all the time at the 
Stadium. Its conventions, expositions, entertainments, and sporting events 
have attracted nation'wide attention, thus adding to the fame of Chicago. 




THE CHICAGO RIDING CLUB. Rebon and Wentworth, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



453 




f ' I if -V 



S ECaST 
$ EKVICE 




(Mofett-Rusjell Photo) 

WILLIAM J. SUTHERLAND 

Mr. Sutherland, president of Mooney, Boland, Sutherland Corporation, international 
intelligence bureau, was born in Logansport, Indiana, November 3, 1863, son of George 
C. and Esther A. (Gerhart) Sutherland. He began as a clerk in a grocery store in 
Logansport in 1878. In 1880 he came to Chicago and was employed as a clerk in the 
Mooney 6? Boland Agency, the largest secret service organization in the country, which 
looks after the confidential matters of corporations and prominent individuals. Subsc 
quently he became a partner, Vice-president, and general manager of the western division, 
continuing in this capacity until 1918, when he became president of Mooney, Boland, 
Sutherland Corporation. This organization maintains offices in Chicago, New York, 
and Philadelphia, and has representatives all over the world. Mr. Sutherland is also 
president of Sutherland Incorporated and vice-president and general manager of the 
Employers' Protective S* Bonding Association. 

He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce, and his clubs are Chicago 
Athletic, Medinah Athletic, Hamilton, Press, Chicago Yacht, South Shore Country, and 
Business Men's Prosperity. He is the owner of Polo Farm at Wheaton, Illinois, and his 
favorite hobby is the raising of saddle horses. Many fine horse shows are held on his 
estate. 



He married Ella M. Minnick, of Chicago, May 30, 1888. 



454 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



CHICAGO^S ARCHITECTURE— IS IT BEAUTIFUL? 

A Century of Progress Exposition Ushering in a New 
Architectural Era 

BY THOMAS E. TALLMADGE, M.A., F.A.I.A. 
Author of "The Story of Architecture in America" 

WRITERS on the subject of Chicago's architecture have become very 
erudite in the last decade. In tracing our architectural history or in 
penning acid arguments on which was the first skyscraper we have often 
lost sight of the sheer beauty of some of our buildings. This little sketch, 
however, will be neither history nor controversy. It will merely be a humble 
attempt to appraise the beauty in its old'fashioned meaning of our architec 
ture in both old and new fashioned guise. 

Here we are brought face to face at once with age'old questions as to 
what constitutes beauty and whether we can condemn today what our 
fathers unanimously considered as beautiful yesterday or praise without 
qualifications what our descendents may regard as ugly, but we will pass 




A RELIC OF OLDER CHICAGO 

The Chicago Avenue Water Tower, the only structure of importance to survive the great 

fire of 1871. Once derided because of its mid'Victorian pompousness, the tower is regarded 

in a more favorable hght today. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



455 




(Mayo's Studio Photo) 

ARTHUR H. SWETT 



Mr. Swett, president of the American Tag Company, was born in Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, November 22, 1866, son of WiUiam O. and Charlotte M. (Heath) Swett, 
and is of American Revolutionary ancestry. He was educated at the Englewood High 
School and Cook County Normal School. He began his business career as secretary 
and treasurer of the American Playing Card Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1890. 
He was vice-president and manager of the Acme Flexible Clasp Company (now Acme 
Steel Company), of Chicago, from 1894 to 1898, and has been president and general 
manager of the American Tag Company since 1897. 

This company designs and builds their own special machines for the economical 
production of tags, paper goods, etc., making it possible to start with a ball of string 
and a roll of paper stock and produce complete tags in one operation. These machines 
print tags on both sides in colors, die-cut, perforate, punch, number consecutively, 
gather, count in lots of one hundred or more, tie with string, and knot the end of 
same, all in one operation. The American Tag Company produces more than 2,000,000 
tags a day; has more than $50,000 worth of stock dies of all sizes and shapes; and has 
its own electrotype foundry, as well as a department for making their own shipping 
cartons. This organization has offices in all the principal cities and has factories in 
Chicago and Newark. He is a member of the Chicago Association of Commerce and the 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association. His clubs are Chicago Athletic Association and the 
Ridge Country Club, and his favorite recreation is motoring. 

In 1893 Mr. Swett married Emma Monroe of Chicago (deceased), and is the 
father of Arthur HoUister, Jr., Donald Monroe, William O. Ill, and Eleanor Emma. 
On January 11, 1911, he married Alice Beardsley of Chicago, and they have one son, 
Robert Wheeler. 



456 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



these by. What are the buildings in Chicago today that most deHght 
the eye? 

Long before the war everyone laughed at and apologi2;ed for the mid' 
Victorian Water Tower sticking up like a huge nail through the long silver 
tape that is Michigan Avenue; but when in 1919 it was proposed to tear 
it down a howl of protest went up from esthete and Philistine alike. Why? 
Because it was useful? No. Because it was historical? Perhaps, in a degree; 
but I think the most potent reason was because we had come to consider 
it beautiful. Age itself can throw a veil of loveliness over a face or a piece 
of architecture which in its youth was harsh and unpleasing, especially if 
we have learned to love it. Sentimentality, however, cannot lead us into 
praise on the strength of loveHness of many buildings left to us of the seven' 
ties. Built in the gaunt and awkward fashion that our architects thought 
was the last word in the fashionable English Gothic or the stylish Mansard 
Roof Classic of Paris in the decade succeeding the fire, their bodies today 
seem to be all shrouded and waiting for the grave digger. One other familiar 
example of this ilk is the Potter Palmer palace. Beautiful or not as you are 




A MONUMENT OF THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 

The Marshall Field Wholesale Building in North Wells Street, which was razed several 

years ago, was regarded in its time as a glorious monument to the Romanesque revival, 

of which its designer, H. H. Richardson, was a leading exponent. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



457 





i 


- ' ' , 


t ! >■ ■ /^ ' 




■^"i-^' 1 


llil! ^} 


^i;\ ?5'=| ' 




mil UWi 


|l(l!}| 


~i 


' fM^^ 




9 


=!/;t;K-^ 


"^ » *■ 5 1 


1 


^^f'ivH 


'S * '• • ' 




;- ' •^"'■"•i^iu 


./■;|.ix.*.,^ 


i 




■V /ct f-\ 




' i^^ 


■"' .-,7.'""* 




'■-' 


"' ■■'.-, :'4s'' 


f< 


■ _^.^_ .^ 


.'.-., 




^..- „...,./«^. -"" K 


I%jl&?' ■ 




'ip'^fe^^^ 






-rfWf:';::;^' 


^-- •"^fl':=! .,.,... , 



(Mofett-Russell Photo) 



NATHANIEL G. SYMONDS 



Mr. Symonds, vice-president in charge of sales of the Westinghouse Electric and Manu' 
factoring Company, was born in Ossining, New York, September 19, 1878, son of Henry 
Clay and Beatrice (Brandreth) Symonds. He received his early education at the Los 
Gatos (California) High School, and obtained his A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 
electric engineering at Leland Stanford University in 1901. His first position was with 
the Texas Consolidated Gold Mining Company as electrical engineer. In 1902 he joined 
the Westinghouse Church Kerr Company and the following year became district super- 
intendent of stoker erection for the same firm. When the Westinghouse Machine 
Company became engaged in the manufacture of stokers, Mr. Symonds was assigned 
to East Pittsburgh. In May, 1905, he came to the Chicago sales ofiice as stoker sales- 
man, and in 1915, when the Westinghouse Machine Company was absorbed by the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, he was appointed manager of 
the power division of the Chicago office. Three years later he became the industrial 
division manager; in 1921 was made Chicago district manager, in 1930 became com- 
mercial vice-president, and in October, 1932, was made vice-president in charge of sales. 

The Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company manufactures electrical 
equipment for central power stations, buildings, land and water transportation, etc.; 
in other words, equipment for the complete "electrification of industry," as well as 
electrical appliances for the home, such as Westinghouse electric refrigerators, ranges, 
washers, ironers, air conditioners, and many others. Mr. Symonds is a director of the 
Allcock Manufacturing Company, Ossining, New York, director of the Hinsdale (Illinois) 
State Bank, and served in the Illinois Reserve Militia during the World War. He is a 
member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Kappa Sigma, and Rotary 
International. His clubs are Chicago, Union League, Electric, Hinsdale, Hinsdale Golf 
(Hinsdale, Illinois), and University at Pittsburgh. His principal interests, outside of his 
family and work, are golf and fishing. 

He married Amy Irene Millberry, of San Francisco, California, December 25, 1901. 
Their children are: Henry Gardiner, Nathaniel Millberry, Amy Irene (deceased), and 
Cortlandt. 



458 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



at liberty to consider it, it still sits like a Frederick Barbarossa clad in the 
ermine of other days; waiting, undoubtedly in vain, for the time when 
architecture shall call it back to rule again. 

The Marshall Field Wholesale Building by H. H. Richardson and the 
Chicago Club by Burnham and Root were both glorious monuments of 
the Romanesque Revival, the style of architecture that overran the land 
in the eighties. These two buildings have been destroyed, the first, it would 
seem needlessly so. If one is interested in searching out other examples of 
this romantic and exotic style there is the Auditorium, the Congress hotel, 
the Newberry library, and the Rookery Building, not lovely perhaps, but 
vigorous and interesting members of one family. 

Chicago's fame as a creator of the beautiful came with the World's 
Columbian Exposition of 1893. Here if ever was tested the dogma that 
beauty is its own excuse for being. Without logic or practicability the 
skin'deep loveliness of the Court of Honor brought a nation to her feet and 
launched if not a thousand ships, at least ten thousand architects on a new 




THE "GOLDEN ENTRANCE" OF WORLD'S FAIR MEMORIES 

One of the glories of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1903, this "Golden Entrance" 

to the Transportation Building, is a striking example of the Chicago school of architecture 

established by Louis SuUivan. It is somewhat reminiscent of the Moorish. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



459 








*. ft-. > 



^ ■■■— -V.:.:| 






< 



M. S. S2YMCZAK 



Mr. Szymczak, comptroller of the City of Chicago, was born in Chicago on August 15, 
1894, son of Stanley and Magdalena (Werner) Szymczak. He received his A. B. 
(Bachelor of Arts) degree at St. Mary's College, St. Mary, Kentucky, in 1914, his 
A. M. (Master of Arts) degree in 1918. He took graduate study at Mount St. Mary's 
Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio, during 1914 and 1915 and received his A. B. (Bachelor 
of Arts) degree at De Paul University in 1917; A. M. (Master of Arts) degree in 
1919; graduate study at New York University School of Commerce. He was an in' 
structor in mathematics at St. Mary's College during 1913 and 1914; instructor in 
mathematics and history at De Paul University Preparatory School during 1916 and 
1919; instructor in logic and public speaking at the College of Commerce, De Paul 
University, from 1919 to 1923; and professor of ethics, logic, and psychology in busi- 
ness, municipal government and business administration since 1923. 

Mr. Szymczak is active in financial endeavors and organizations, and was director 
of several building and loan associations. He is a director of the First National Finance 
Corporation. In 1929 he became clerk of the Superior Court of Cook County and was 
appointed comptroller of the City of Chicago in 1931. He is an ex'Commissioner of 
the Portage Park District and was general superintendent of the Cook County Forest 
Preserve District during 1927 and 1928. He is a member of the Izaak Walton League, 
Mercier Philosophical Society (organizer), Chicago Zoological Society (governing 
member). University Public Speakers Council (honorary president since 1921), North- 
west Chamber of Commerce, Milwaukee Avenue Chamber of Commerce (president), 
State League of Building and Loan Associations (educational director), and Alpha 
Chi Fraternity. Mr. Szymczak is a lecturer on philosophy in business, and is a member 
of the Illinois Athletic, City and Iroquois clubs. 

On January 15, 1916, he married Helen Marie Lappin of Chicago, and they have 
two children, Helen Josephine and Mary Elizabeth. 



460 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



course. The recent transmutation of one of these buildings, the Palace of 
Fine Arts, from plaster and wood to stone and steel has proved that beauty 
is more than a fleeting smile and that architecture cast down to earth may 
rise again. This old World's Fair building reincarnated as the Rosenwald 
Museum is probably the most beautiful building in Chicago, surpassed in 
loveliness by but few in the whole world. 

As a result of the World's Fair the twenty-five years from 1893 through 
the World War is known as the Eclectic period. Classic architecture pre' 
dominated but Gothic in a new and more attractive garment returned. Of 
the first species there is the Art Institute, the Union Station and numerous 
houses in various phases of the Classic such as Georgian, French and Itahan 
Renaissance; and of the Gothic, buildings of the University of Chicago 
such as the Harper Library; of Northwestern University in the McKinlock 
Campus, and the Fourth Presbyterian Church are typical. 

Chicago as far back as 1888 had become known as the father of the 
skyscraper but the delusions of architectural grandeur given us by the Fair, 
caused such simple and logical, though perhaps not beautiful, solutions of 
an entirely new problem that existed in the Tacoma (destroyed), the Mo' 
nadnock or the Reliance buildings to be discarded. The enormous number 




(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 

CHICAGO DAILY NEWS BUILDING AND PLAZA 
Holabird 6? Root, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



461 




■:^^v> 













(Jean Crunelle Fhoto) 

LORADO TAFT 

Mr. Taft, sculptor, author, teacher, and lecturer, was born in Elmwood, Illinois, April 
29, 1860, the son of Professor Don Carlos and Mary Lucy (Foster) Taft. He is a 
graduate of the University of Illinois where his father was for many years professor of 
geology. He received his B. L. (Bachelor of Letters) degree in 1879 and his M. L. 
(Master of Laws) in 1880. From 1880 to 1883 he studied in Paris at the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts, and independently. The honorary degrees that have been conferred on him 
are L. H. D. (Doctor of Literature), Northwestern University, in 1913; Litt. D. (Doctor 
of Letters), University of Colorado, in 1927; and LL. D. (Doctor of Laws), University 
of Ilhnois, 1929. Mr. Taft was an instructor in the Art Institute of Chicago from 1886 
to 1907, a lecturer there from 1886 to 1929; a lecturer on art in the university extension 
department. University of Chicago, 1892 to 1902 and a professorial lecturer since 1909; 
and a non-resident professor of art at the University of Illinois since 1919. His principal 
works are Solitude of the Soul, in the Art Institute of Chicago; Black Hawk, in Oregon, 
IlHnois; Columbus Memorial Fountain, in Washington, D. C; Ferguson Fountain of the 
Great Lakes, in Grant Park, Chicago; Thatcher Memorial Fountain, in Denver, Colorado; 
The Fountain of Time, on the Midway Plaisance in Chicago; Lincoln, Urbana, Illinois; 
The Pioneers, Elmwood, Illinois; Alma Mater, University of Illinois; and The Crusader 
(Victor Lawson Memorial), Graceland Cemetery, Chicago. 

Mr. Taft received the designer's medal at the Chicago Exposition, 1893; the silver 
medal at the Buffalo Exposition, 1901; and the gold medal at the St. Louis Exposition, 
1904. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, the National 
Academy of Design (A. N. A., 1909, N. A., 1911) and the National Sculpture Society; 
and honorary member of the American Institute of Architecture. He was appointed 
member of the Board of Art Advisers of IlHnois, 1917 and 1929; member of the National 
Commission of Fine Arts, Washington, D. C, 192? to 1928. He belongs to the Century 
(New York), Cliff Dwellers, City, and Quadrangle (Chicago) clubs. Mr. Taft is the 
author of The History of American Sculpture, 1903, and Recent Tendencies in Sculpture, 
1921. 

He married Carrie L. Scales, of Evanston, October 4, 1890 (died April, 1892). Mr. 
Taft was married a second time to Ada Bartlett, of Boston, February 11, 1896. They 
have three children, Mary, Emily, and Jessie Louise. 



462 Chicago's accomplishments 

of huge office buildings erected in the loop in this Eclectic period, though 
painstakingly veneered by the architect with every ancient style and 
crowned, each one, with huge cornices, were not considered beautiful even 
by the man in the street. He called them "packing boxes." Typical ex' 
amples are the Marquette Building, the Commonwealth Edison Building, 
the First National Bank Building. The most meritorious example of this 
old type, as we call it now, of skyscraper is the Peoples Gas Building. 
Here a skillful attempt was made to force beauty by texture and pattern. 
The Woolworth Tower in New York in the latter part of the period 
turned architects away from the box type, so unpopular with the laity, 
to the tower and the picturesque silhouette. Of these we have successful 
examples in the Wrigley Tower, the Straus Building and the Methodist 
Temple. 

Throughout this era Louis Sullivan, Chicago architect and now ac' 
knowledged father of modernism in architecture, stormed and swore at his 
confreres for trying to put the new wine of skeleton steel construction into 
the old bottles of the ancient architectural styles. He even built such 
structures as the Schiller Theater (now Garrick), the Gage Building, and 
the Stock Exchange Building to show how "form should follow function," 
but in vain. 

In 1922 came the famous Tribune competition. As a result, undoubt' 
edly one of the most beautiful buildings in Chicago, the Tribune Tower 
by Raymond Hood, was erected. This building is Gothic and, as it proved, 
is the last of the Eclectics, for in this symposium of ideas for skyscrapers 
was an extraordinary design by a Finn, Eliel Saarinen. In Saarinen's draw- 
ings lay the solution of the skyscraper, a veritable philosopher's stone that 
would transmute the dross of eclecticism into the gold of the new archi' 
tecture. Such corniceless and clean flanked buildings as 333 North Mich- 
igan, the Palmolive, the Daily News, the Marshall Field, one North La 
Salle, the Board of Trade, are all children of Saarinen's dream-mother. 

The International Style as the new approach is being called, seems to 
be establishing itself as the architectural vehicle of the New Era now being 
born, as you have doubtless observed, with so much travail and with so 
much expense. Nor is it solely enveloping us in the cloudlike forms of the 
skyscraper. The Planetarium, the Chicago Motor Club, shops galore, resi- 
dences in increasing numbers, and even a church or two proclaim the new 
dispensation. Even the 13th century architecture of the University of 
Chicago chapel owes its life to the new blood which is flowing in old veins. 
The Century of Progress Exposition is attempting to picture to you what 
the new architecture will be when the science of building has advanced so 
that its principles and forms can be applied to every sort of structure, and 
that brings us back to the problem that confronted us at the outset. What 
constitutes beauty? Will these strange shapes on the lake front, horrific to 
many of you, be acclaimed one day as were the colonnades on the Court 
of Honor? I feel that they may be. May I quote myself? 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



463 





' ;:*•: ■tm-.i-i 






jli «/ s-^ It-* r-^fe 



(Walmger Photo) 

THOMAS E. TALLMADGE 

Mr. Tallmadge, architect, lecturer and writer on architectural subjects, was born in 
Washington, D. C, April 24, 1876, the son of Louis Cass and Lida M. (Eddy) Tall- 
madge. He was graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Science from the Massachu' 
setts Institute of Technology in 1898, and was awarded the honorary degree of Master of 
Arts by Northwestern University in 1927. Since 1905 he has been a member of the firm 
of Tallmadge i^ Watson. Mr. Tallmadge has lectured on architectural history at the 
Art Institute and was professor of architecture at Armour Institute of Technology, and is 
serving as president of the Summer School of Painting at Saugatuck, Michigan. He was 
architect in chief of the Victory Loan decorations in Chicago in 1918. 

He is president of the Art Commission of Evanston, a director of the Federated 
Council of Art Education, chairman of the board of art advisers of the State of Illinois, 
a member of the architectural commission for the restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia, 
a fellow of the American Institute of Architects, a governing member of the Art Insti- 
tute, vice-president of the Chicago Society of Etchers, and a director of the Chicago 
Regional Planning Association. Mr. Tallmadge is president of the Cliff Dwellers and a 
member of the Arts and Tavern clubs, the Lake Zurich Golf Club, Bear River Gun Club, 
Utah, the University Club of Evanston and of the Phi Beta Epsilon Fraternity. He was 
co-editor of The Significance of the Fine Arts, published in 1921, and is the author of 
The Story of Architecture in America, 1927, and of many brochures. With his partner, 
he is architect of many important buildings, chiefly ecclesiastical, such as First Methodist 
Church, Evanston, First Presbyterian Church, Chicago, Grace Lutheran Church, River 
Forest, Perkins Observatory, Delaware, Ohio, et cetera. 



464 Chicago's accomplishments 

"A Century of Progress will be the luna moth of exhibitions, and only 
when the sun goes down behind the skyscrapers and darkness laps in from 
over the cool lake will the great buildings really open their myriad eyes and 
spread their damasked wings. Then, bathed and adorned with Hght — light 
innumerable of stains and splendid dyes that changes form and substance, 
that transforms, with the touch of Midas, earthborn structures into towers 
of ethereal gold, that now denudes, now covers with veils of changing 
mystery — the Exposition will be one of the most beautiful things that man 
has created." 



THE WOMAN'S ATHLETIC CLUB 
Philip B. Maher, architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



465 



LAW 




(Mojjett-Russdl Photo) 

ORVILLE J. TAYLOR 

Mr. Taylor, attorney and partner in the law firm of Taylor, Miller, Busch and Boyden, 
was born in Sioux City, Iowa, September 8, 1885, son of Orville James and Eleanor 
Sarah (Harris) Taylor. After completing his elementary and high school education in 
the city of his birth, he matriculated at the University of Chicago and in 1909 received 
his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree at the Northwestern University Law School. In 
1922 and 1923 he served as special assistant to the Attorney General of the United 
States, and together with the Hon. Jacob M. Dickinson, conducted the injunction pro- 
ceedings against the shopmen's strike in the case of United States of America versus 
American Federation of Labor, et al. During the World War he attended the first 
Officers' Training Camp at Fort Sheridan and was there commissioned Captain of 
Cavalry and assigned for duty to the 86th Division at Camp Grant. In November, 1917, 
he was commissioned as Major, J. A., U. S. A., and served with his division overseas. 

Mr. Taylor is a member of the Board of Education of Chicago; a member of the 
Chicago Plan Commission; a trustee of A Century of Progress, Chicago's (1933) World's 
Fair; member of the board of the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment, Illinois 
Division; member of the Chicago Real Estate Board; a director of the Chicago Stadium, 
and a director of L' Alliance Francaise. He is a member of the Chicago, IHinois and 
American bar associations; the Association of the Bar of New York; Chicago Law In' 
stitute; the Law Club; Legal Club; and American Branch of International Law Association; 
a member of the vestry of St. James Episcopal Church; is on the faculty, professor 
of law of private corporations, of Chicago Law School and is an American Legionnaire. 
His fraternities are Beta Theta Pi and Phi Delta Phi. His clubs are Chicago, Saddle and 
Cycle, Tavern, Attic, Chicago Riding, Exmoor Country, and Tippecanoe Lake Country. 



On January 19, 1924, he married Catherine E. Apperson. 
and horseback riding. 



His hobbies are golf 



466 Chicago's accomplishments 

THE CHICAGO MERCANTILE EXCHANGE AND ITS 

VAST OPERATIONS 

Chicago, The World's Greatest Market for Butter, Eggs, Cheese, 
Poultry, Vegetables, and Fresh Fruits 

WHEN Chicago speaks of its "Big Butter and Egg Men," it can do so 
without any exaggeration. ''Big" is right. Since shortly after the 
Civil War, Chicago has been perhaps the most important dairy and poultry 
center in the world. This may be disputed by New York, but the fact 
remains that Chicago is without exception the world's greatest storage and 
distributing center for dairy products and poultry. 

At first, when butter and eggs became of increasing importance to the 
farm industry, Elgin was the price-making center for the United States. 
The Elgin Board of Trade was formed in 1872, that city being considered 
the dairy capital of the Nation. 

Before long, however, the men responsible for supplying Chicago with 
its daily quota of butter, eggs and poultry, and with shipping these com- 
modities to the East, became discontented with the Elgin Board's restricted 
activities. The result was the formation of the Chicago Produce Exchange 
in 1874. 

This Exchange at first handled not only, butter, eggs, cheese, and poul' 
try, but fruits and vegetables as well. In 1898, the butter and egg divisions 
of the Produce Exchange divorced themselves from the organization and 
established the Chicago Butter and Egg Board. This Board functioned 
until 1919. 

In that year, after prolonged discussion, it was decided that butter and 
eggs needed the facilities of a futures trading market, just as did grains, 
cotton and like commodities. This conviction had been growing steadily 
since shortly before the war. 

The Butter and Egg Board was abolished and in its stead came into 
being the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The Butter and Egg Board mem- 
bers formed themselves into an association operating not for profit, to handle 
"butter, eggs and other products" on a futures basis. Thus, from a begin- 
ning in 1874 there gradually evolved the greatest butter and egg market 
in the world and the formation of one of the most novel organizations in 
existence. 

Just as the Chicago Board of Trade has provided facilities for trading 
in grains, so has the Chicago Mercantile Exchange provided a place where 
butter and eggs can be similarly handled. Hedging operations, speculative 
buying and selling and large scale merchandising operations are carried on 
daily on this Exchange. 

Before many years after its organization, the Exchange found its quar- 
ters too cramped for its heavy business activity. As a result, the members 
decided to erect their own building. A site was purchased at the comer 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



467 




(Mofett-Russell Photo) 



LLOYD S. TENNY 



Mr. Tenny, agricultural expert, and business manager of the Chicago Mercantile Ex- 
change, was born in Hilton, New York, December 24, 1876, the son of Delos P. and 
Fannie Elizabeth (Lee) Tenny. On his graduation from the State Normal School at 
Brockport, New York, in 1896, he entered the University of Rochester, receiving his 
A.B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1902. He was awarded a scholarship for research at 
the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and in 1908 was engaged 
in post-graduate studies at Cornell. From 1911 to 1913 he was a member of the faculty 
at Cornell. 

As first state leader of the county agricultural associations in New York, he assisted 
in establishing the first country farm bureaus. Entering the service of the Federal Gov- 
ernment, he became in 1921 Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics of 
the United States Department of Agriculture, in charge of the service and regulatory 
work of the Bureau, and in 1926, he was appointed chief of this Bureau, a position which 
he held for two years. Mr. Tenny was vice-president of the California Vineyardists 
Association from 1928 to 1929, and in the latter year, president of the Federal Fruit 
Stabilization Corporation of California. Since 1930 he has been business manager of the 
Chicago Mercantile Exchange, one of the great produce marts of the city. In 1921 Mr. 
Tenny served as a member of the Advisory Committee of the War Finance Corporation. 
He is a member of the Alpha Delta Phi Club of New York, the Cosmos Club of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and the Midland Club of Chicago. He is the author of many magazine 
articles and published addresses. 

Mr. Tenny was married June 1, 1907, to Abby Warn of Washington, D. C. They 
have three children, Fannybelle Lee, Stanley Warn and Lloyd Stanley. 



468 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



of Franklin and Washington streets and a l7'Story structure completed 
in 1928. 

The Exchange occupies the second and third floors. Its trading floor 
ranks as one of the most spacious and most beautiful in the Nation, ex- 
ceeded in sizie only by the new Chicago Board of Trade and the New York 
Curb floors. 

The extent of the trading may be reali2;ed from the fact that a carlot 
of butter consists of 19,200 lbs. and a carlot of eggs 12,000 doz;., and the 
Exchange handles between 50,000 and 70,000 carlots a year. In 1925, sales 
totalled 99,000 cars. The value of the products sold on the futures call in 
1930 was $349,293,000 and in 1931 was $204,338,000. In both these 
years, prices were exceptionally low. 

Huge dairy organisations, packing houses and brokerage concerns use 
the facilities of the Exchange extensively, the dairy concerns and packers 
largely for hedging operations, while the brokers supply their customers 
with information in order that the latter may speculate in butter and eggs. 
The turnover is rapid and the margins relatively small. Thus butter and eggs 
have become increasingly attractive 
in the past few years in the speculative 
market. In addition, hundreds and 
even thousands of smaller butter and 
eggs houses, storage houses, jobbers, 
and shippers have found hedging in 
butter and eggs their best means of 
insuring profit. 

In 1931, the Exchange started 
branching into other lines. It placed 



potato futures on the board for trad- 
ing. There were 5,000 cars sold in 
that year, a very poor year for the 
potato industry. In 1932, an even 
worse year, trading was much smaller, 
but the Exchange plans to increase 
this trading in the future while adding 
other commodities to its list. 

As to Chicago and its Central Mar- 
ket fame, it has taken first rank in 
the dairy and poultry industries, due 
for the most part to its excellent facil- 
ities for handling these perishable pro- 
ducts and its nearness to the heart of 
the great production area. While few 
persons realise this fact, it neverthe- 
less is true that dairy and poultry pro- 
ducts annually have a monetary value 




5UH.1 



!:!^«m;1I8 



r » . f t fffMllliiij, 




(Kaufmann 6s? Fabry Co. Photo) 

MERCANTILE EXCHANGE BUILDING 
Alfred S. Alschuler, architect. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



469 







(T ""~\ 



m v..\ rrvTii 

K I 



{Yiami £# £u)ing Photo) 

SAMUEL E. THOMASON 

Mr. Thomason, president and publisher of the Daily and Sunday Illustrated 
Times of Chicago, was born in Chicago, Illinois, January 24, 1883, son of 
Frank Davis and Diana M. (Bean) Thomason. He received his A. B. 
(Bachelor of Arts) degree at the University of Michigan in 1904 and his 
LL. B. (Bachelor of Laws) at Northwestern University in 1906. He was ad' 
mitted to the Illinois Bar in 1906, practicing in the office of Stuart G. Shepard 
until 1909, when he became a member of the firm of Stuart G. Shepard fe? 
Robert R. McCormick. From 1911 to 1918 he was a member of the firm of 
Shepard, McCormick, Thomason, Kirkland 6? Patterson. He was vicc'presi' 
dent and business manager of the Chicago Tribune from 1918 to 1927. The 
Illustrated Times, of which Mr. Thomason is president and publisher, shows 
news events graphically and is of convenient tabloid si2;e. He is also publisher 
of the Tampa (Florida) Tribune. 

Mr. Thomason was president of the American Newspaper Publishers' 
Association, 1924-1926. He is a member of the American, Illinois State, and 
Chicago bar associations and Theta Delta Chi Fraternity. His clubs are 
University, Chicago, Legal, Mid-Day, Tavern, South Shore, Glen View, and 
Swannanoa. 

He married Alexina E. Young, of Chicago, September 10, 1907. They 
have one daughter, Elizabeth, and a foster-son, Ralph. 



470 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



more than twice as great as all grains and cotton combined. 

We may stress that fact all the more in emphasiziing Chicago's impop 
tance in this field of agriculture. Some idea of Chicago's leadership can be 
gained from the following: 

Receipts of butter in Chicago in a year total more than 3,000,000 tubs, 
in the neighborhood of 200,000,000 pounds. Egg receipts total 4,000,000 
cases and over, more than 120,000,000 dozen. Surplus stocks stored in 
Chicago during flush production for use in low production seasons, reach 
a peak of betw^een 25,000,000 and 30,000,000 lbs. of butter, and egg hold- 
ings average between 50,000,000 and 65,000,000 dozen. This means that 
in the huge cold storage warehouses of Chicago around 25 per cent of the 
surplus stocks of the entire nation are held. 




■el- 



The peak holdings of frozen poultry in Chicago reach to around 3,000,' 
000 pounds while the surplus cheese stocks on hand in Chicago warehouses 
during a year run well over 2,000,000 pounds. This does not take into 
account the thousands and hundreds of thousands of pounds of cheese and 
dressed and live poultry sold daily and which never enters a warehouse 
except for a short stay. 

Nor has mention been made of the enormous quantities of milk shipped 
into Chicago for reshipping elsewhere for manufacturing purposes. More 
millions of dollars of value are represented in this item. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



471 





-MUST BE 

A GOOD PLACE TO eat/ 




{Koehne Photo) 

JOHN R. THOMPSON, JR. 

Mr. Thompson, Jr., president of John R. Thompson Company, owners and operators 
of about one hundred and twenty Thompson's Restaurants in forty-two cities, was born 
in Chicago, September 2, 1894, the son of John R. and Rose (Holloway) Thompson. 
After graduating from Taft School. Watertown, Connecticut, in 1913, he attended Yale 
University and received his B. A. (Bachelor of Arts) degree in 1917. While a student 
at Yale he spent his vacations working in Thompson's Restaurants, obtaining first-hand 
experience that was useful to him, when, at the age of thirty, he became president of 
the Thompson Restaurant interests. The slogan, "Thompson's Restaurants Must Be a 
Good Place to Eat!" is substantiated by the fact that all the new restaurants have been 
built from the profits of preceding ones. A completely equipped laboratory tests all the 
food products for Thompson's Restaurants, most of which are open twenty-four hours 
a day. 

In addition to his responsibilities as head of this great corporation, Mr. Thompson 
is president of John R. Thompson Securities Corporation, investment bankers; a direc- 
tor of the Chicago, North Shore and Milwaukee Railroad Company, and Personal Loan 
and Savings Bank. He is a life member of the Chicago Historical Society and of the 
Field Museum of Natural History and member of the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity. His club 
affihations are University, Chicago Athletic, Racquet, Knollwood, Bob o" Link Golf, and 
the Yale Club of New York. His hobbies are horses and baseball. 



On June 22, 1916, Mr. Thompson married Lois Bell, of Chicago, and they have 
three children, Eleonore Rose, Lois, and Pauhne. 



472 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Chicago is truly a world center as far as the dairy and poultry indus' 
tries are concerned. The price paid for butter, eggs, poultry, cheese, etc., 
in Chicago is of great importance to the farmer in Iowa and to the buyer 
in the East. The Chicago prices are quoted all over the nation and recorded 
in London and Copenhagen as well. The price of butter in Chicago is of 
greatest interest in Australia, New Zealand and wherever else butter is 
manufactured in large enough quantity to be exported. 

Of equal importance to the outside world is Chicago as a potato market, 
an apple market and as a market for other produce of a like nature. In the 
East, it is true that Boston leads as a potato market, distributing the crops 
of Maine and the southern coast states. But Chicago is the largest market 
for the fine Idaho russets and for the great quantities of potatoes produced 
in the Midwest. 

Chicago has the facilities of a great produce market where auctions are 
held daily and where prices are determined daily. Thousands of carloads of 
potatoes travel to Chicago from Idaho, Colorado, Nebraska, Texas, Mis' 
souri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin, to mention only 
the heaviest shipping states. Likewise, apples roll in almost by trainloads 
throughout the shipping season, and citrus fruits, as well as various other 
farm products, are governed as to price by the Chicago quotations. 




{Kaufmann ii Fabry Co. Photo) 

SOUTH WATER MARKET— CHICAGO'S PRODUCE DISTRIBUTING CENTER 
Thielbar ^ Fugard, architects. McLennan Construction Company, contractors. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



473 




If., ^i '^hii^^i, 









j^flOWI- 




(Gibson Photo) 

REV. JOHN THOMPSON 

Dr. Thompson, pastor of the First Methodist Episcopal Church (Chicago Temple), was 
born in Nenthead, England, the son of Jonathan and Hannah (Erwine) Thompson. 
He was educated at the London Polytechnic, the Wesleyan Methodist Theological 
School, Oxford University, and the Garrett Biblical Institute of Evanston, from which he 
received his Doctor of Divinity (D.D.) degree in 1921. Dr. Thompson was engaged 
for several years in city missionary work in London. He came to the United States on a 
visit in 1892 and was invited to remain permanently here. He was ordained to the 
ministry in 1897 and received his citizenship papers in the same year. Prior to coming 
to the Chicago Temple, he had held two pastorates in Chicago, the first at Grace 
Church, the second at the Hyde Park Church. He has been pastor of the Chicago 
Temple since 1920. 

Dr. Thompson is a trustee of Garrett Biblical Institute and of Wesley Memorial 
Hospital, and since 1914 has been superintendent of the Chicago Home Missionary and 
Church Extension Society, which is doing missionary work among twentyfive nation' 
alities in Chicago. He is editor of The City Foursquare, and as a contributor to the 
church press has for many years furnished weekly pages interpreting current events. 
He is the author of "The Soul of Chicago" (1920). 

Dr. Thompson was married June 8, 1888, to Jane Cousin of England, the mother 
of his two children, Sarah Hannah (Mrs. W. A. Gamon) and Howard Newton. His 
second wife was Ruth Clegg of Chicago. They were married October 16, 1907. 



474 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S EVERYDAY HEROES, THE BLUECOATS 
The Distinguished Record of the City's Police Force 

BY JOHN I. HOWE 
Detective, Chicago Police Department 

CHICAGO has an undeserved reputation for crimes involving violence, 
and many Europeans are persuaded, indeed, that life is unsafe on 
Chicago's streets. 

It is true that many of Chicago's crimes, such as the operations of the 
"car barn bandits" and the more recent St. Valentine's day "massacre" have 
been spectacular. It is also true that modern inventions, especially the auto- 
mobile and the machine gun, have made the criminal more resourceful 
than ever. 

The newspapers, moreover, either because their editors have been gradu- 
ated from the night police beat, or because of the theory that it is more 
wholesome to give widespread publicity to crime and bring it out into the 
open, have focused the spotlight on crime, and have overestimated its 
news value. 

In the days when the open saloon and the gambling house provided the 
underworld with a safety valve, there was less crime in Chicago than today. 
It can no longer be denied that prohibition, bringing with it a golden op- 
portunity for gain by traffic in illicit liquors, has produced a new especially 
audacious type of criminal, has increased the influence of the gangster, and 
developed an unholy alliance between politics and organi2,ed crime. 

Chicago's police department has been faced with problems that were 
inconceivable at the beginning of the century, and in order to cope with 
the outlaw has had to resort to every aid offered by science. Members of 
Chicago's police force have studied ballistics under Col. Calvin Goddard 
at Northwestern University's classes in scientific crime detection. They 
have been enrolled in the courses in police administration conducted by 
the University of Chicago. The radio, of course, is the latest contribution 
of science to the prevention of crime. Bulletins sent out constantly on a 
short wave length from the radio station in the Police Building are picked 
up not only by other starions but by the cruising squads as they patrol 
the streets. 

As for Chicago's crime record, statistics easily available will show that 
it is proportionately far below that of many other cities. In comparison 
especially with certain southern cities, where the slaying of a negro is not 
regarded as news, Chicago can be said almost to have an enviable record. 
That Chicago's bluecoats are indeed the "finest" needs no further proof 
than that offered by the annual police games at Soldier Field. The exhibi- 
tions of horsemanship, marksmanship, boxing, wrestling, and field athletics 
have won the admiration of the thousands who have witnessed them. 

Evidence of the individual heroism of Chicago's policemen is seen in 
the collection of stars in the office of the police commissioner. Each star 
in this galaxy represents the supreme sacrifice on the part of its former 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



475 




(Lewis-Smith Photo) 



ORVILL W. THOMPSON 



Mr. Thompson, president and general manager of the Commercial Instru- 
ment Corporation of Chicago, was born in Vermillion, South Dakota, No- 
vember 15, 1879, son of Myron D. and Anna Thompson. He attended the 
University of South Dakota. In 1913, he began with James P. Marsh and 
Company, manufacturers of steam specialties, in Chicago, and was president 
until 1929, when this organi2;ation became part of the Commercial Instru- 
ment Corporation, which also comprises the following: Connecticut Tele- 
phone and Electric Corporation, Meriden, Connecticut; Tiifany Manufactur- 
ing Company, operated as Tiffany Division of Connecticut Telephone and 
Electric Corporation; The American Paulin System, Inc., Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia; Sargent Company, Chicago; and Carl Norgren Company, Denver, 
Colorado. 

Mr. Thompson was a member of the South Dakota State Senate from 
1906 to 1908 and was appointed colonel of the South Dakota National Guard 
in 1903. His clubs are University, Exmoor Country, The Tavern, Midland, 
Everglades (Palm Beach, Florida), and The Cloud (New York City). He is 
a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity and one of three life members 
of its Scroll Endowment Trustees. 

In 1913 Mr. Thompson was married to Blanche Gilson, of Knovxille, Iowa. 



476 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



wearer. They tell the story of unsung, everyday heroes who have marched 
steadfastly and without thought of personal safety, to a rende2;vous with 
death. They tell of gun duels in dark alleys, of fights against tremendous 
odds, of truly noble deeds done quietly and simply in the routine discharge 
of duty. 

The great Chicago fire of 1871; the railroad strikes of 1877 and 1894; 
the Haymarket riot of 1886; the Iroquois fire, the teamsters', stockyards, 
and street car strikes, the race riots, the Eastland disaster — all have tested 
their mettle. 

Need of adequate protection against the lawless element was felt as far 
back as the Fort Dearborn days. To the fast'growing community that was 
young Chicago flocked gamblers and adventurers, men who held the idea 
that the world owed them a living, and were bent on getting it without 
being overscrupulous. Prosperity, loose society, unrestricted immigration 
brought fortune seekers and individualists, some of whom needed careful 
watching. 

Before Chicago's incorporation as a town, constables acted as peace 
guardians. In May, 1837, Chicago elected a "high constable." His election 
marked the beginning of the Chicago Police Department. 

It was in 1854 that Chicago had its first experience with a mob. In 
a Fourth of July speech of that year Stephen A. Douglas had made a bitter 
attack on the Free Soilers and the Know Nothings. His political enemies 
in Chicago determined to give him a warm reception on his return home. 
Douglas arrived in Chicago on August 25 to find the town in arms against 
him. Despite warnings and threatening letters, he decided to speak at a 
meeting to be held in the old Market Hall. Mayor Milliken, a Democrat, 




DES PLAINES RIVER. WITH FOREST PRESERVE ON BOTH SIDES 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



477 




(Underwood and Underwood Photo) 



CHARLES M. THOMSON 



Mr. Thomson, lawyer, was born in Chicago, the son of James and JuHa (Marsh) 
Thomson. He is a graduate of Washington and Jefferson College, receiving his Bachelor 
of Arts degree in 1899 and his Masters degree in 1902. He attended Northwestern 
University Law School, receiving his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1902. In that year he 
began his practice of hw in Chicago. 

In the spring of 1908 Mr. Thomson was elected to the Chicago City Council. He 
was reelected twice, in 1910 and 1912. In November of the latter year he was elected 
to Congress from the Tenth Illinois District, where he served from 1913 to 19H. In 
June, 1915, he was elected a Judge of the Circuit Court of Cook County. In 1917 the 
Supreme Court of Illinois appointed Judge Thomson a member of the Appellate Court 
for the First District where he continued to serve until 1927, when he returned to the 
practice of his profession, becoming associated with the firm of Chapman and Cutler, 
where he has continued since that time. 

In October, 1905, he married Bessie Holbrook of Chicago. They have two children, 
Dorothy and John Holbrook. Their home is in Winnetka. 



478 Chicago's accomplishments 

presided, and took every precaution to preserve the peace. A heckler in the 
audience supplied the spark that touched off the explosion. An exchange 
of repartee was followed by a hostile demonstration. Pandemonium broke 
loose. The ''Little Giant" was surrounded by a maddened mob. A cordon 
of police, augmented by citizens, managed to break through the crowd and 
rescue him. This sudden outcropping of mass violence left Chicago won' 
dering what would have happened if the city had not had a few well 
disciplined policemen. 

Dr. Levi D. Boone, candidate of the American or Know Nothing party, 
was elected mayor in March, 1855. The entire city government fell under 
the control of this party. Race prejudice ran high, and every applicant 
for employment under the new administration was obliged to prove that 
he was born on American soil. The city council passed an ordinance pro- 
viding for a police force of ninety men, every man to be a native American. 
This discriminatory measure was enforced despite the fact that half the 
population of Chicago was of foreign birth. Today, the flower of many 
nationalities is represented on the force. 

When Mayor Boone raised the liquor license fee from $50 to $300, 
and tried to enforce a Sunday closingr ordinance, he stirred up a hornets' 
nest. The rear and side doors of the whisky shops remained open to natives, 
but the German beer gardens were, by order, closed tight. The Germans 
resisted, and more than 200 arrests were made. One of the German saloon 
keepers was made defendant in a test case, whereupon a mob of 500 or more 
sympathi2,ers marched solidly upon the court to demand a verdict in their 
favor. The mob was dispersed, but it reassembled later in the day, this time 
armed with deadly weapons. In Clark street, between Lake and Randolph, 
the rioters were confronted by a body of police. A battle followed, with 
casualties on both sides. The mob was defeated. The Chicago police, in 
their first significant test of strength, had proved equal to the occasion. 

In 1871, the force numbered about 310 men. They showed of what 
stuff they were made during the tragic days of October 8, 9, and 10 of that 
year, when the entire city from De Koven street on the south to Lincoln 
Park on the north was swept by flames. Many of these bluecoats them- 
selves had homes and families. Despite the fact that their homes had been 
wiped out and the fate of their loved ones was in doubt, they remained at 
their posts day and night, protecting property, aiding the firemen, and main- 
taining law and order to the best of their ability. 

In July, 1877, transportation was paralyzed by a strike affecting the 
great transcontinental railroad lines. At a mass-meeting in Market street, 
soap-box orators harrangued the crowd, denouncing capital and the police, 
but the meeting adjourned without violence. A few days later, a similar 
gathering became so menacing that the police intervened and dispersed the 
agitators by the use of blank cartridges. Everywhere, however, mobs were 
proceeding from shop to shop, demanding that the workers lay down their 
tools and join the strikers. Mayor Heath, sensing a crisis, called upon the 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



479 




(Fcrnand dc GuMrc Photo) 



GEORGE PAULL TORRENCE 

Mr. Torrence, president of the Link-Belt Company, of Chicago, was born in 
Bethel, Connecticut, February 24, 1887, son of George P. and Mary (Fer- 
guson) Torrence. Graduated from Purdue University as Bachelor of Science 
in Mechanical Engineering, he began his business Ufe with the Ayer ^ Lord 
Tie Company in Arkansas, followed by a two-year shop apprentice course in 
the Pittsburgh shops of Wcstinghouse Air Brake Company. In 1911, he 
entered the employ of Link-Belt Company in Indianapolis. 

After successively holding various managerial positions with Link-Belt 
Company, including that of vice-president and general manager of Indianapolis 
operations, Mr. Torrence was elected director of the company in 1931, and 
president in March, 1932, with headquarters in Chicago. The company 
manufactures elevating, conveying, excavating and power transmitting ma- 
chinery. Mr. Torrence is a director of Fletcher Trust Company in Indian- 
apolis, and a member of the Indianapolis Board of Trade, the University Club 
of Chicago, the Evanston Country Club, the Alpha Tau Omega Fraternity, 
and the honorary fraternity of Tau Beta Pi. 

On September 3, 1912, he was married to Florence Abbott at Wawasee, 
Indiana. There are three children, George Paull, Jr., Dorothy, and Haskell. 



480 Chicago's accomplishments 

citi2;ens and the police to crush the rioting at any cost. Several bloody 
skirmishes resulted. One mob assembled at the C. B. 6? Q. roundhouse in 
West 16th street, bent on wrecking the place. An advancing police squad 
was met with a barrage of stones and bullets. Revolvers in one hand, clubs 
in the other, the poHce charged the mob, and after an hour's fight, broke 
it up. Again Chicago's everyday heroes had made good. They were lauded 
on all sides for their pluck and courage. 

They were to receive another baptism of fire on May 4, 1886, the day 
of the Haymarket riot. A group of anarchists had scheduled a meeting at 
the West Side market place. Incendiary speeches were in progress, and 
the mob was being worked up to a dangerous pitch when Inspector Bon' 
field drew up his forces, marched to the scene of trouble, and ordered the 
speakers from the platform. A sputtering noise was followed by a terrific 
explosion, and a volley of pistol shots was directed against the poHce. The 
police, recovering from the shock, returned the fire. Men on both sides 
fell dead or wounded. The police victims are still honored today at me- 
morial services held by the survivors. A monument has been erected in 
their memory. 

The Pullman strike of 1894 spread to Chicago. Rioting followed, but 
was put down by the police. At the Iroquois fire, the pohce fought their 
way into an inferno and carried to safety scores of maddened, panicstricken 
people. The early years of the century brought the prolonged stockyards 
strike and the bitter strike of the teamsters, again taxing the resources of 
the police department. The south side race riots would have been much 
more serious had it not been for the effective work of the poHce. When 
the city was thrown into confusion by the street car strikes, the police like- 
wise preserved order and prevented rioting. One of their most gruesome 
jobs was the rescue of hundreds of bodies from the capsi^d excursion 
steamer, the Eastland, 

In their more peaceful duties they have acquitted themselves admirably. 
The handling of hundreds of thousands of people on such occasions as the 
Eucharistic Congress, the Dempsey-Tunney fight, and the Army-Navy foot- 
ball game at Soldier Field is all to their credit. In every Memorial Day 
parade, the blue ranks of the poHce, on foot or mounted, and the police 
band have made only the most favorable impression. 

Chicago's police department has grown until the force now numbers 
6,700 men, including a fine company of ''Mounties." Owing to their watch- 
fulness, citi2;ens live here in less fear of their lives and property than the 
citi2,ens of any other large community. New York, Philadelphia, and Los 
Angeles are grappling with the same problems that confront Chicago, for 
in these cities the underworld is well organized, well supplied with money, 
and resourceful. Chicago's crime rate is, of course, affected by its many 
nationalities and by its geographical location, but despite its emphasis by 
the newspapers, it is no greater than that of other cities in which the same 
problems obtain. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



481 




(Matzene Photo) 

HOWARD VAN SINDEREN TRACY 

Mr. Tracy, president of Rogers and Tracy, Inc., stocks and bonds, was born in Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, October 8, 1887, son of Howard and Bessie (Lindsley) Tracy. He was 
educated at private schools and under tutors, later at Northwestern Academy, and from 
1906 to 1908 attended Harvard University. He served as a partner in the firm of A. E. 
Butler and Company, stocks and bonds, of Chicago, until 1914, was executive and 
director of John Burnham and Company from 1916 until 1924, and since that time 
has been president of Rogers and Tracy, Inc. He was also a director of Holland' 
St. Louis Sugar Company of Michigan and of Tracy fe? Avery Company of Ohio, and 
is regarded as an authority on sugar. 

Mr. Tracy is an active member of the Chicago Association of Commerce. He was 
the organizer in 1919 and first president, now secretary, director, and member of the 
executive committee of the Investors Protective Bureau, Inc., which was established 
to cooperate in the effective administration of the Illinois "blue sky" law and to assist 
in the suppression of bucket shop and fraudulent securities evils. This Bureau has been 
highly successful and has been widely copied throughout the United States. He has 
been an Illinois delegate to various waterways congresses, a director of the Advertising 
Council of the Association of Commerce, an active member and director of the Chicago 
Crime Commission, and is one of the leaders in Chicago civic affairs. He was consulted 
in the drafting of the lUinois "blue sky" law, and originated the idea of "Class C" 
securities. He is a member of the Chicago Historical Society, life member of the Art 
Institute of Chicago, and has written tariff articles used in Republican presidential cam- 
paigns. He is interested in historical research and has one of the largest private col- 
lections of rare autographed letters in America. He is a member of the Harvard-Yale- 
Princeton, Mid-Day, The Tavern, Evanston Country, Indian Hill Winter, and Barrington 
Hills Country clubs. His principal recreations are music, hunting, horseback riding, 
and various other sports. 

On April 19, 1916, Mr. Tracy married Ruth Wilbur Alexander of Nashville, 
Tennessee (divorced 1925), and they have one daughter, Anne Alexander. 



482 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO^S VAST UNDERGROUND 

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM 

Tunnels That Relieve Traffic Congestion and Bring the Railroad 

to the Shipper's Door 

FEW Chicagoans as they go about their business in the Loop are aware 
of the vast network of tunnels under their very feet or give much 
thought to the subterranean labyrinth along whose corridors electric trams 
weave in and out freighted with hundreds of thousands of tons of goods. 
A descent into these Stygian realms and a tour of the dark catacombs is 
an experience never to be forgotten, though the Tunnel System makes no 
pretenses of being a scenic railroad. 

Should its operations suddenly be suspended, however, pedestrians and 
motorists on the surface would reali2ie immediately that something extra' 
ordinary had occurred, for the resulting traffic jam would be almost un' 
believable. 




A four-way intersection and three-way switch. The tunnels have 128 such intersections 



An airplane soaring over the Loop represents the uppermost level of 
transportation. The trams shuttling back and forth in the tunnels repre' 
sent the nethermost stratum. Between the two are the elevated structures, 
the city streets, and the river. 

In the course of a year some 600,000 tons of package freight are moved 
through the Chicago freight tunnels. To this volume may be added 300,000 
tons of coal, cinders and waste materials and, during normal times when 



CHICAGO 8 LEADERS 



483 



i~i ■^ 



. -, •^. !^ ! : 




(UiideruJood and Underwood Photo) 



SHERMAN W. TRACY 



Mr. Tracy, president of Chicago Tunnel Company, which operates a railroad 
sixty-two miles long under the downtown district of Chicago, was born in 
Brevard, North Carolina, November 29, 1866, son of Samuel Joseph and 
Arminda Catherine (Hogsed) Tracy. He began his business career as a 
telegraph operator for the Hocking Valley Railway in 1883; then was with 
the I. I. 6? I. Railroad as agent in Indiana; and later was an accountant and 
auditor at Kankakee, Illinois. From 1907 to 1908 he was in Chicago as a 
statistician for the New York Central Railroad. From 1908 until 1912 he was 
superintendent of car service and auditor for the Indiana Harbor Belt Rail- 
road at Hammond, Indiana. 

Mr. Tracy joined the Chicago Tunnel Company and associated companies 
in 1912 as vice-president and has been president since 1916. He is also presi- 
dent of the Chicago Warehouse and Terminal Company and the Chicago 
Tunnel Transport Company and is vice-president of the Chicago Tunnel 
Terminal Corporation. Mr. Tracy is a member of Union League, Traffic, and 
Olympia Fields Country clubs. 

He married Mary Alice Carr, February 14, 1889. Their children are 
Agnes Veronica (deceased) and Oswald Crawford. 



484 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



there is considerable building going on, a vast amount of excavated clay. 

Many of the great buildings in the central business district receive their 
coal through the tunnels, instead of on the surface, and dispose of cinders 
and ashes in the same way. Waste material is hauled by tunnel to a dis' 
posal station, loaded on scows and dumped far out in the lake. 

The tunnels are connected by side lines, shafts, and elevators with many 
shipping concerns and warehouses, and with all railroad freight terminals. 
Their facilities are brought within reach of shippers, not located on tunnel 
lines, by four universal freight stations, strategically located outside the 
congested loop. The business concerns which use these stations find it 
economical to do so because the tunnels are a common carrier, subject to 
the same rules and regulations as other railroads. They issue through bills 
of lading over all lines. A shipper may deliver a single load, containing 
shipments to a dozen or more destinations, at one station where the sorting 
and routing will be done and the necessary shipping papers issued. Thus 
the shipper is relieved of the delay and expense incident to a dozen hauls 
through crowded streets to a dozen different railroad freight houses. 

The tunnel system, which permits these extensive operations, is opep 
ated by two affihated corporations, the Chicago Tunnel Company, which, 
since the expiration of the original franchise, leases the bores from the city, 
and the Chicago Warehouse & Terminal Company, which owns the ap' 
proach tunnels, the shafts and elevators and the universal stations. The 
tunnels, in aggregate distance, extend 62.5 miles under the streets. There 
is a tunnel under nearly every street in the Loop. They extend south to 
Sixteenth street, west to Halsted street, north to Erie street and under 
Grant Park to Field Museum and the terminals and warehouses near the 
mouth of the river. They pass under the river eleven times. Most of the 
material for filling in the lake to make Grant Park was supplied by tunnels 
at no cost to the public. No other city in the world has such a system 




Shipping room of a large commercial house. Showing how freight is loaded on to tunnel 
cars at commercial houses. Cars are moved to elevator by electric motor truck, in foreground. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



485 



■^^-^. 






J-^^v 






!.?'«;■ 



ii 









{From Drawing by John Doctorojf) 



MELVIN A. TRAYLOR 










Mr. Traylor, president of the First National Bank of Chicago and the First Union Trust 
and Savings Bank, was born in Breeding, Kentucky, October 21, 1878, the son of James 
Milton and Kitty Frances (Harvey) Traylor. His home was a log cabin in the hills, 
remote from the railroad. He attended school in a log schoolhouse, his term ending at 
corn shucking time. Later he rode on horseback to the county seat to attend the High 
School in preparation for a teacher's examination. After four months of study he re- 
turned with his certificate, and for two years taught a small grade school near his birth' 
place. In 1898, at the age of twenty, in a suit of eight dollar "store clothes'" and with 
sixty dollars in his pocket, he set out for Texas, traveling on horseback and by stage to 
Campbellsville, Kentucky, where he saw a railroad train for the first time. At Hillsboro, 
Texas, he clerked in a general store in the morning, earned his meals by working nights 
in a hotel, slept in the loft of the fire station, and studied law in his spare time. He was 
admitted to the Texas bar in 1901. In 1904 he was elected assistant county attorney of 
Hill County, Texas. The following year he abandoned law and went to work as cashier, 
janitor, and night watchman in the Bank of Malone, Texas, without pay. In 1907 he 
became cashier of the Citizens National Bank of Ballinger, Texas, was later vice-president, 
and when this bank consolidated with the First National, he was elected president of the 
combined institution. His wide knowledge of cattle loans, acquired during his stay in 
Texas, led to the vice-presidency of the Stock Yards National Bank of East St. Louis, 
Illinois, and in 1914 he came to Chicago as vice-president of the Live Stock Exchange 
National Bank, of which he became president in 1916. 

During the World War he made a distinguished record as director of sales in 
Chicago for the Liberty Loan campaign, and in 1919 went to the First National Bank 
as vice-president. He has headed this institution since 1925. Mr. Traylor is a director of 
the U. S. Gypsum Company, the Standard Oil Company of Indiana, the Pan-American 
Petroleum 6? Transport Company, the General Electric Company, and the National 
Broadcasting Company. He is president of the Shcdd Aquarium Society and a trustee 

Continued on page 5?0 



486 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



for the hauling of freight, or such connections between railroad freight 
terminals. The tunnels, within the limits of their capacity, extend every 
railroad to the shipper's door. 

Strangely enough, the tunnels as a freight carrying system were an acci' 
dent. The bores were originally intended to carry the wires and cables of 
an independent telephone system and to lease space for similar purposes to 
other concerns. This plan was several years in failing and it was during this 
process that the tunnels as freight carriers were evolved. The costs of the 




Nothing in the way of safety appHances is wanting, and, as a final protection the employees 
have been carefully trained. There has never been a major accident in the tunnels. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



487 




(Koehne Studios, Inc.) 

JULES URBAIN, JR. 

Mr. Urbain is a partner of Olsen and Urbain, Inc., architects, and secretary 
of the Mandell Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of cardboard adver' 
tising displays. He was born in Chicago, lUinois, on January 24, 1894, son 
of Jules and Anna (Hommerding) Urbain. He studied architecture in the 
Society of Beaux Arts Architects, and in the office of Otis and Clark. During 
the World War, Mr. Urbain served in the Navy Department at Great Lakes, 
Illinois, as designing architect for Public Works in the 9th, 10th, and 11th 
Districts. Immediately after the World War, Mr. Olsen and Mr. Urbain 
organi2,ed the firm which bears their names. 

Some of the recent important works of this firm are the Petrolagar Plant 
at Niles Center, lUinois, the Jefferson Electric Company Plant at Bellwood, 
lUinois, the William C. Grunow residence at River Forest, Illinois, and Mr. 
Grunow's estate at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, and the Mandel Lowenstine 
residence at Valparaiso, Indiana. In 1920, Leif E. Olsen, Jules Urbain, and 
Albert E. Mandell, organized the Toymakers Inc., which later was reorganized 
into the Mandell Manufacturing Company. 

On December 28, 1922, Mr. Urbain married Charlotte Selbman, at Chi' 
cago. 



488 Chicago's accomplishments 

failure were heavy and the millions of dollars in losses were distributed 
among many venturesome investors. The tunnels have, however, won a 
place for themselves with the shippers. They have, in fact, made their 
facilities indispensable to Chicago. They are built into Chicago's scheme 
of freight distribution which covers a great territorial area and there is 
emphatic testimony that they not only save Chicago shippers time — by 
expediting freight movements at the initial point — and money — by elimin' 
ating or reducing costs of truckage — but they reduce the truck investment. 
Shippers who can avail themselves of tunnel service can make one truck 
do the work of several. 

In the freight tunnels Chicago has one asset which cannot be measured 
in dollars and cents. The tunnels, running in silence 42 feet below the 
surface of the streets, divert from the street surface 5,000 to 6,000 heavy 
truck movements a day. In the business center of a great city, where a 
new traffic problem seems to follow the solution of every old one, the im' 
portance of such relief is hard to estimate and harder still to overestimate. 
Even if it seeks to build on reality, the imagination will fail to create an 
adequate picture. Such a number of trucks, normally spaced, would extend 
in a double line from Madison street north to Waukegan. The potentialities 
of jams, blockades, collisions and accidents are startling. But add this vast 
amount of heavy, cumbersome traffic to the already congested streets of 
the mile-square Loop and the districts immediately adjacent, and the poten- 
tialities are increased many fold. 

Street traffic problems, since the advent of the automobile, are far- 
reaching. The character of cities, the returns from taxes, the values of 
business property, the returns in rent, trade and commerce itself, have all 
been profoundly affected by this great increase in vehicular traffic. 

Traffic engineers are unanimous in agreement that the freight tunnels 
have been the largest single contributor to the maintenance of the Loop 
as an efficient business district, to the maintenance of real estate values 
therein, and, therefore, to the maintenance of city income from taxes. 

The tunnel system is, therefore, not only an asset to the merchants 
and shippers of Chicago and to the railroads but is as well a municipal 
and a civic asset. 

The original franchise under which the Chicago Tunnel Company 
operated, expired February 20, 1929. By the terms of that ordinance, the 
tunnels became the property of the city on that date. After long negotia' 
tions they were leased to the Chicago Tunnel Company for a term of thirty 
years beginning in July 1932, and for a further term unless one of the 
parties to the agreement notifies the other of intention to terminate. 

Shippers, railroads, city and company are, therefore, assured of the con- 
tinuance of this unique and efficient freight service for a long time to come. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



489 







(Kau/maiHi and Fabry Photo) 

MALCOLM D. VAIL 

Mr. Vail, life insurance actuary, was born in Highland Park, Illinois, Octo- 
ber 4, 1888, son of Henry Sherman and Jennie (McCuUoch) Vail. In 1908 
he graduated from Lake Forest (Illinois) Academy, and received his A. B. 
(Bachelor of Arts) degree at Cornell University in 1912. He has been in 
the life insurance business in Chicago since 1912 as member of the firm of 
H. S. Vail and Sons. He served in U. S. Navy Aviation Corps during 1918 
and 1919, and received the commission of ensign. 

He is a member of the Life Insurance Underwriters' Association, Amer- 
ican Legion, U. S. Veterans of the World War, and is a Beta Theta Pi. 
His clubs are University, Adventurers, Chicago Yacht, (vice-commodore, 
1932) Officers of World War. His principal recreations are saiHng, hunting, 
and riding, and he may often be seen saiHng his well-known "Gossoon 11" 
in Chicago's front yard. 

On April 4, 1916, Mr. Vail married Margaret Nye, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
and they have three children, Katherine Lewis, Malcolm Dennison, Jr., and 
Henry Sherman II. 



490 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 




(S/iigeta-V\'nglu Photo) 
Ceres, goddess of grain and harvest, overlooking the trading floor of the Board of Trade. 
Mural by John Norton. Holabird &* Root, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



491 








\m% 


-'X" 


„ 


' — r 




1 rr 



LOUIS L. VALENTINE 

Mr. Valentine, patron of the arts and philanthropist, was born in Lexington, Illinois, May 
10, 1865, son of William and Eva (Joerger) Valentine. In 1927 he retired from the 
furniture manufacturing business, which he had entered as a youth, learning cabinet mak' 
ing from his father. He founded the ValentincSeaver Company, manufacturers of up' 
bolstered furniture, in 1889. ReHeved of business details, Mr. Valentine devotes much of 
his time to aiding the cause of the underprivileged boy. During 1930 and 1931 he was 
president of the Chicago Boys' Club, Inc. He is now a trustee of the Union League 
Foundation for Boys' Clubs, a director of Off'thcStreet Club, and a director of the Boys' 
Clubs of America, the national organization. Mr. Valentine believes an investment in 
boyhood pays big dividends and advocates building more clubs, in order to keep boys 
busy and out of trouble during their unoccupied time. He is a director of the lUinois 
Academy of Fine Arts and of the Municipal Art League of Chicago, and president of 
the Chicago Galleries Association, which provides a permanent gallery for the display 
and sale of the best work of Chicago and western artists and interests the general public 
in art and in acquiring beautiful pictures for their homes. During the past six years the 
Chicago Galleries Association has been instrumental in the sale of more than 
one-half million dollars worth of fine paintings. One may become a member of the 
Chicago Galleries Association Circulating Department for twelve dollars a year and 
this fee entitles one to take one of the smaller sized pictures home and then exchange 
it for another picture every thirty days. This naturally increases the interest in art and 
brings about the sale of many of the paintings. The Galleries have a splendid central 
location at 220 North Michigan avenue, comprising five large exhibition galleries with 
the latest modern lighting equipment, which is ideal for effectively displaying the works 
of leading artists. 

Mr. Valentine is a collector of fine paintings, sculpture and ivory carvings. His fav- 
orite pastimes are fishing, hunting and golf. He is a member of the Union League, 
Illinois Athletic, Lake Shore Athletic, Chicago Yacht, Cliff Dwellers, and Westmoreland 
Country clubs. 

On November 24, 1898, he married Anna Louise Paul of Wisconsin Rapids, 
Wisconsin. 



492 Chicago's accomplishments 

CHICAGO, ITS BAZAAR STREETS AND 
DEPARTMENT STORES 

Merchants Who Have Added To The City^s Fame 

CITIES of the ancient and the medieval world rose to high position 
largely through the enterprises of their merchants. Chicago, too, has 
had and has its outstanding merchants, and to them owes much of its 
prestige. 

State street, with its great department stores, each a "World's Fair" in 
itself, and Michigan avenue, with its specialty shops, are among the world's 
most famous bazaar streets. State street's show windows set the styles for 
merchandise display. 

From Chicago's department stores an army of buyers goes out to the 
fashion centers of Europe to bring back the latest creations of the cou' 
tourier. From every country in the world come articles of use or beauty, 
to delight the shopper. 

Chicago is said to be the birthplace of the department store in this 
country. It was H. G. Self ridge, a Chicago merchant, who introduced 
American methods in department stores of London. 

The history of department stores in Chicago is the history of the city 
itself. It is the story of pioneer merchants who, losing everything but the 
goodwill of their customers in the great fire of '71, started to build their 
fortunes anew. 

Identified with the growth and development of the department store 
in Chicago were Potter Palmer who, foreseeing the trend of business, led 
the exodus of retail merchants from Lake street to State, and Marshall 
Field, who insured the Illinois Central terminals for the downtown district. 

Among Chicago's other merchants were Levi Z. Leiter, Marshall Field's 
first partner, and John G. Shedd; Charles Netcher and Edward and Charles 
W. Pardridge, founders of the Boston Store; E. J. Lehman, founder of The 
Fair; Samuel Carson, John T. Pirie, and Andrew MacLeish who entered 
into a partnership in 1864 under the name of Carson Pirie Company; the 
Mandel brothers, Simon, Leon, and Emanuel. 

Others have brought the department store to the outlying districts, 
creating new shopping centers there. 

The department store of today is an oute^rowth of the general store 
of fifty or seventyfive years ago. Although the kind of merchandise sold* 
remains essentially the same, the variety has been tremendously increased 
and the quality improved. The service too is highly specialized. Every 
convenience that can be thought of— rest rooms, tea rooms, writing rooms, 
expert shopping service — is at the disposal of customers. The local delivery 
service, requiring fleets of motor vehicles, extends far out into the suburbs. 

Selling has become specialized. In the days when Chicago was younger, 
each salesman had his own following, and he sold throughout the store. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



493 



FACE 
BRICK 







:-a 



/"If 






(Moffett-Russel! Photo) 

WILLIAM P. VARNEY 

Mr. Varney, manager of the Chicago branch of the HydrauHc Press Brick 
Company, was born in Weston, West Virginia, February 19, 1872, son of 
John W. and Mary E. (Urbach) Varney. After attending the public schools 
of Loudon County, Virginia, he was a student at the Oak Dale Academy 
at Lincoln, Virginia. He began his business career with the HydrauHc Press 
Brick Company at Washington, D. C, in 1893, was sales manager of the 
company from 1905 to 1909, and has since been manager of the Chicago 
branch. Many office and industrial buildings in Chicago, as well as thousands 
of homes, are constructed with "hydraulic brick" furnished by the Hydraulic 
Press Brick Company. A few of them are the Wrigley Building, Carbide and 
Carbon Building, Builders' Building, Blackstone Hotel, the new Jefferson 
Electric Company Building at Bellwood, and many others. 

Mr. Varney is a member of the American Ceramic Society, American 
Face Brick Association, IlHnois Manufacturers' Association, and Chicago 
Association of Commerce. His clubs are: Chicago Athletic, Architects, Build- 
ers, Executives, Lake Shore Athletic, and Chicago Motor. His recreations 
are golf and automobiUng, 

On December 9, 1900, he married Mamie E. Cockrell, of Alexandria, 
Virginia, and their children are Charles William, Francis Carleton, Margaret 
Virginia, Vivian (Mrs. Malcolm M. Swift), William P., Jr., Edna, Ralph, 
and Alice May. 



494 Chicago's accomplishments 

There were German'speaking salesmen with German followings, Swedish 
salesmen with their Swedish trade. 

Rules for employees of that day would seem curious now. Employees 
were required to attend church regularly, and were forbidden to smoke 
while waiting upon customers. The stores were open six nights of the week. 

John Wood, of Carson, Pirie & Scott's retail store, recalls the time 
when as a "light watcher" his duties consisted of turning on the lights 
when the sky was clouded and turning them off when the sun shone. "In 
the Spring," says Mr. Wood, "when April showers would alternate with 
sunshine, I was often kept so busy at this job that I felt like a one'man 
track team." 

There were of course no telephones, typewriters, cash registers, or 
adding machines in the early days. Horscdrawn street cars and "handsome 
equipages" brought customers to the store. Often the proprietor himself, 
who met the shoppers at the door, would be called on to prevent a runaway. 

Most of Chicago's dry-goods stores remained dry-goods stores until the 
World's Columbian Exposition, when they added such departments as 
groceries, furniture, shoes, and musical instruments. 

Early advertising was based almost wholly on price-appeal, with no 
attempt to emphasize either quality or style. Thus, an advertisement in 
the Chicago Daily News of July 2, 1877, featured the following bargains 
for the "Fourth," men's linen suits, $2.25; ladies' fine gloves, 10 to 50 cents; 
white skirts, 59 cents to $1.00; sunbonnets, 15 cents; ladies' shoes, $1.00. 

It was not until the gay '90's that style began to creep in. Plush capes 
with tight waists, leg-of-mutton sleeves, and Columbian collars were pre- 
sented as the latest mode. High-heeled shoes, the subject of heated discus- 
sion by physicians, were recommended as "the thing for evening wear." 

Today, to the appeal of price, style, and quality, is added color appeal. 
Linoleums of brilliant hues, tile cretonnes to match, and clocks to harmonize, 
kitchenware of red, green, yellow or blue — color in the kitchen, color in the 
bedroom, color in the living room — are making the home cheerful. Fashion 
experts, interior decorators and other specialists have been added to the 
sales staif — a far cry from the German speaking salesman and his German 
speaking trade. 

As the line of demarcation between the dry-goods store and the depart- 
ment store is somewhat vague, the exact number of department stores in 
Chicago is not accurately known. The study of department store sales in 
1926, the federal census year, embraces only 39 stores, but is extremely 
interesting. Sales by these establishments total $361,000,000, 18.2 per cent 
of Chicago's aggregate retail business — first among merchandising concerns. 
These figures, however, do not begin to tell the story. They fail to 
take into account the many new department stores which have sprung up 
in the outlying and suburban districts. They indicate in a general way, 
however, that the department store in its development has kept pace with 
the swift, forward strides of the city. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



495 




(Moffett-Rusidl Photo) 

HENRY B. VOORHEES 

Mr. Voorhees, vice-president and executive representative in Chicago of the Baltimore 
6? Ohio Railroad Company, vice-president, in charge of all departments, of the Alton 
Railroad Company, and president of the Baltimore 5^ Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad 
Company, was born at Saratoga Springs, New York, January 22, 1876, son of Theodore 
and Mary E. (Chittenden) Voorhees. He was a student at the College of the City of 
New York, 1891-1892, and in 1896 received the degree of Civil Engineer from the 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He began his railway career in 1897 as assistant super- 
visor of the Philadelphia &? Reading Railway, and filled various positions with that com- 
pany before going to the Baltimore 6P Ohio as assistant division engineer in 1901. He was 
promoted to assistant to general superintendent of transportation of that line in 1903, and 
then became superintendent of the Philadelphia division in 1905, serving in the latter 
capacity until 1910. From 1910 to 1911 he was assistant to president, and the following 
year served as general superintendent of transportation. From 1912 to 1917 he was gen- 
eral superintendent of the southwest district of the Baltimore & Ohio at Cincinnati. 

In 1917 he returned to Baltimore and was general superintendent of transportation 
of the Baltimore &' Ohio and affiliated lines until 1919, this being the period of Federal 
control during the World War. From 1919 to 1924 he was general manager of the 
New York terminal Hnes of the Baltimore ^ Ohio, at the same time being vice-president 
and general manager of the Staten Island Rapid Transit Company. He became general 
manager of the Western Lines of the Baltimore &? Ohio in 1925 with headquarters at 
Cincinnati. Serving four years at Cincinnati, Mr. Voorhees became vice-president and 
executive representative in Chicago of the Baltimore &' Ohio on June 15, 1929. He also 
has been president of the Baltimore is' Ohio Chicago Terminal Railroad Company since 
June 15, 1929. Mr. Voorhees has been vice-president of the Alton Railroad Company 
since July 18, 1931. He is a member of Sigma Xi and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternities. 
His clubs are the Chicago, Union League, Saddle and Cycle, and Olympia Fields of 
Chicago, the Queen City of Cincinnati, and the Maryland of Baltimore. 

On October 20, 1903, Mr. Voorhees married Ethel Roland of Reading, Pennsyl- 
vania; died, February 27, 1924. There are two sons, Roland and Harlow C. On August 
8, 192?, Mr. Voorhees married Grace Ferguson Anderson of Cincinnati. 



496 



Chicago's accomplishments 




Spire of Chicago's First Skyscraper Church, the Chicago Temple Building 
Holabird and Root, architects. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



497 





^^■P^ 


P 


^^HB 








^^^^^H 


X 'i 






I^^^^H 


b ^-.,J 






i^^^^^^^^l 


^^^ 


Kni 




li^^^^i 




^K,^iT 




^^^^H 








IhI 


f i\ 






^^^^^^^^H 








^^.. ■%■ . v-vl 



) 






*^iJi 



-.j.<!a 















{B\an\ and Stoller, Inc., Photo) 



RUSSELL S. WALCOTT 

Mr. Walcott, as an architect, has designed many of the fine residences along 
Chicago's North Shore as well as in other parts of the country. He was born 
in Chicago, May 28, 1889, son of Chester P. and Martha Cook (Howe) 
Walcott. After graduating from Princeton University in 1912, he studied 
and traveled in Europe and served his years of apprenticeship as a draftsman 
in the office of Howard Shaw and other prominent architects. 

During the war he was in the American Expeditionary Forces as sergeant 
in Company A, 335th Battalion, Tank Corps, and upon his discharge, in 
1919, formed a partnership with his brother, Chester H. Walcott, for the 
practice of architecture. He was a member of the firm of Clark and Walcott 
from 1920 until 1922, after which he practiced for six years alone. In 1928 
the present partnership of Russell Walcott and Robert Work was organized. 

On October 12, 1917, he married Eugenia M. Buffington of Chicago. 



498 Chicago's accomplishments 

TREATMENT AND PRESERVATION OF WOOD 

CONSERVING AMERICANS GREAT 

TIMBER RESOURCES 

Despite Vanishing Forests, Chicago Holds Her Own as a 

Lumber Port 

CONDITIONS in the lumber trade have changed significantly within recent 
years. Time was when the Chicago river front bristled with masts of 
lumber schooners bringing their cargoes of pine from the boundless forests 
of Wisconsin and Michigan, and later from Minnesota. 

Chicago, because of its favorable location as a Great Lakes port, and 
its unrivaled rail connections, became the largest lumber port in the world, 
and lumber did much to establish Chicago's commercial supremacy over 
other Mississippi Valley cities. 

Chicago lumbermen would bid for lumber at the cargo market at the 
foot of Franklin street; the ships would be towed to the yards of the pur- 
chasers, where the lumber was unloaded, piled, and seasoned. Not a few 
Chicago lumber merchants owned and operated their own fleets. 

In those days, the lumber arriving by boats, was shipped to New York, 
Philadelphia, and other eastern markets; to the prairie States, and to the 
South and the Southwest. Wood was cheap and plentiful, and furnished 
about the only building material. 

The forests at that time seemed inexhaustible. America was rich in 
natural resources; no immediate scarcity threatened, and the conservation 
movement was unheard of. But, despite their vast extent, the northern 
forests were gradually denuded. Wasteful methods of cutting and disas- 
trous forest fires hastened the time when the supplies would run precari- 
ously low. Gradually the lumber camps moved back into the interior. No 
means of treating wood to prolong its life had been discovered. 

By 1890 the timber resources of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota 
were greatly diminished. As the lumber camps receded, mills were built 
nearer the source of supply. Chicago as a lumber port was slipping. 

Then the southern forests came to the rescue. For a while, more pine 
from the South reached Chicago than from the North, But eventually 
these forests, too, began to fail. 

Today, though the picturesque lake schooners have disappeared, Chi- 
cago is again coming to the front as a lumber distributing center, but most 
of the lumber reaching the city is cut on the Pacific coast. 

Late in the day, but perhaps not too late, scientific forestry combined 
with the scientific treatment of the finished product, is coming to the rescue 
of the forests. Waste is being eliminated at each end, and the prodigal use 
of lumber has been checked. 

An entire industry, based on the preservative treatment of wood, has 
sprung up to avert the threatened scarcity of timber without restricting 
its use for the many purposes for which it is adapted. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



499 




(Puffer Photo) 

WILLIAM T. WATKINS 

Mr. Watkins, chairman of the board of Joyce-Watkins Company, was born in Chau- 
tauqua County, New York, January 30, 1860, and is the son of Sherman Sheldon and 
JuHa Jane (McGlashen) Watkins. He was educated at the pubhc schools of Red Wing, 
Minnesota, and began his business career as a purchasing agent of the "Soo Line" (Mil' 
waukee, St. Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway) in 1886, continuing with this railroad 
until 1895. In 1897 he became vice-president of Bradley-Watkins Company, later 
president of PillsburyWatkins Company, both of which are now liquidated. He was 
vice-president of Joyce-Watkins Company from 1906 to 1909, president from 1909 until 
1932, and is now chairman of the board. He is president of Watkins Creosoting Com- 
pany, Arrow Transportation Company, and director of Wyoming Tie & Timber 
Company. 

Mr. Watkins is a member of the Art Listitute of Chicago, and his clubs are: Union 
League, Mid-Day, Chicago Athletic, Chicago Yacht, Evanston Club, Evanston Golf, 
and Gulf Hills (Mississippi). His favorite recreations are horseback riding, yachting, 
and golf. 

He married Louise Genevieve, daughter of G. D. Williston of Lake View, lUinois, 
September 3, 1884. Their children are: Louise Genevieve (Mrs. Ricker Van Metre), 
Carrie Armine (Mrs. A. R. Joyce), William Wynne (who is president of Joyce-Watkins 
Company) and Sherman Sheldon. 



500 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Certain chemicals, it was found, would double or treble its life by pre' 
venting decay and guarding it from attack by insect pests — the two great 
enemies of wood. 

Chemically treated, it becomes a highly satisfactory and economical 
construction material, and since less lumber is thus required for replace- 
ment, the drain on the forests is materially lessened. 

Chicago is the center of this wood-preserving industry, which is guar- 
anteeing to future generations an abundant timber supply. Among the 
pioneers of the new industry is William T. Watkins, who, from his execu- 
tive offices in Chicago, directs the activities of his plant outside the city, 
where wood is treated with coal-tar creosote and 2,inc chloride to prolong 
its life. 

From a modest beginning back in the '70's, when a few thousand rail- 
road ties were treated in a small cylinder, the industry has progressed until 
at the present time, 134 pressure treating plants, with cylinders ranging from 
six to eight feet in diameter and from 100 to 175 feet in length, turn out 
billions of feet of processed timber annually. The treated products include 
railroad ties, mine ties and timbers, cross-arms, poles, wood blocks, railway 
and highway bridge timbers, and piling. 

While this industry had its beginning in an effort by consumers to effect 
economy by prolonging the life of timber, the success of that effort and the 
rapid growth of the wood processing business have been hailed nationally 
as the most efficient and practical means yet found to prevent waste of 
forest products. 

For, as President Coolidge said in 1924, addressing the National Con- 
ference on Utilization of Forest Products, "a tree saved is a tree grown. . . . 
We hold the resources of our country as a trust. They ought to be used for 
the benefit of the present generation, but they ought neither to be wasted 
nor destroyed. The generations to come also have a vested interest in 
them.'"" 





f 




SfflilH!?' 


IfSH^^ 








# 




f 


V|HB| 












1, 




#p 


Hlfett-^ 
















^ 


^^^■^^^^■a 




\ 












HHI 


^MM 




ikk 


m\ '.*. 


^1^^^ 


1 








■■■•^■^■■••^ 






. <v>^.>^3^B 


■ 








^.„ 1 


_..,._ 


.. 












■i 



CHICAGO'S 



(Chicago Architectural Photographing Company) 
'FRONT YARD," A VIEW TAKEN FROM GRANT PARK 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



501 



^.i'-Al' 



"^.'-Vftlf 




0= Stolkr. Inc., Photo) 



CHARLES R. WALGREEN 

Mr. Walgreen, president of the Walgreen Company which operates drug stores in 129 
cities scattered through thirty states, was born in Knox County, Illinois, October 9, 1873, 
the son of Charles and Ellen (Olson) Walgreen, and was educated in the public schools 
and the Dixon Business College, Dixon, IHinois. He began as an apprentice in a drug 
store at Dixon, and became a registered pharmacist. Mr. Walgreen entered the retail 
drug business in Chicago in 1902, and in 1909 the business was incorporated, with two 
drug stores in operation. The Walgreen Company has enjoyed a steady growth. In 
1920 there were nineteen units, doing an annual business of $1,500,000. Fifty more 
stores were added in the next five years, bringing the net sales to more than $9,000,000 
annually. In 1932 the company was operating 471 stores in such important cities as 
Chicago, New York, St. Louis, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Dallas, Milwaukee, 
Minneapolis, Nashville, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Rochester, N. Y., Salt Lake City, and 
Sacramento, and serving 144,000,000 customers. In addition, the company has two 
stores at A Century of Progress Exposition, one of them housed in its own building. 
It is the second largest chain drug store enterprise in the United State. The company 
has its own laboratories for the manufacture of drugs and toilet articles and for research 
work. It maintains creameries in Ohio and Illinois and large ice cream plants in 
Chicago and other cities. The Walgreen candy plant has an annual capacity of 5,000,000 
pounds. 

Mr. Walgreen served in the Spanish'American War as a private in Company L, 1st 
Illinois Volunteers. He is a member of the commission on the Fort Dixon Memorial 
to Abraham Lincoln, and of the Gorgas Institute, and donor of the Walgreen essay prize 
in 1930 and 1931. He is a director of the First National Bank of Chicago and First 
Union Trust and Savings Bank, and of the Dixon National Bank; of the National Chain 
Store Association, the Associated Chain Drug Stores, and the Northwestern University 
Associates; also a founder member of A Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago's 
(1933) World's Fair. He is a member of the Rotary, Beverly Hills and South Shore 
Country clubs, and of the Chicago Athletic Association. 

Mr. Walgreen was married, August 18, 1902, to Myrtle R. Norton of Normal, 
Illinois. Their children are Charles R., Jr. and Ruth (Mrs. Justin W. Dart). 



502 Chicago's accomplishments 

HARDWARE — A STUDY IN EVOLUTION 
A Business That Reflects Chicago's Changing Tastes and Needs 

PERHAPS no more striking commentary on the changes brought by modern 
science and invention into the everyday lives of all of us is to be seen 
than in the evolution of the wholesale hardware store. Hardware has an 
interesting story to tell of human progress, of advances in our mode of 
living from the days of the blacksmith shop and the kerosene lamp to the 
day of the garage and electricity. 

In the attractive displays of golf clubs, radio sets, fishing tackle, and 
mechanical toys which now line the shelves and counters of the whole' 
sale hardware establishment we can see reflected the changes brought about 
by twentieth century manners. 

One hardware house alone, Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett 6? Co., which 
has been identified with Chicago for more than seventyfive years, will serve 
to illustrate this evolution. 

Despite the fact that the automobile, electric light, the gas range, the 
washing machine, the central heating system, and other improvements and 
inventions have rendered obsolescent if not obsolete many of the items 
formerly carried by this pioneer firm, the number of items on its catalog 
has increased from 20,000 to 60,000 within recent years. 

Only twenty-five years ago, at least one out of every four items sold 
had to do with a horse, a wagon, or a buggy. Today, the very names of 
these articles have all but passed out of the English language. Collars, 
straps, buckles, halters and chains, flynets, clevises, and wagon body rods 
are in small demand. Horseshoes, horseshoe nails, blacksmiths' anvils and 
bellows, which once formed the foundation of the hardware merchant's 
stock in trade, are left to gather rust today like Boy Blue's little tin soldiers. 
The felloe oiler, which prevented a hot'box in a buggy, has likewise faded 
from the picture. 

Almost coincident with the exit of the horse and buggy came the fare' 
well to the kerosene lamp and all that went with it. As recently as thirty 
years ago, half an entire floor in the Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett plant was 
given over to lamp goods and lanterns. There were stable lanterns, bicycle 
lanterns, dark lanterns, kitchen lamps, student lamps, raised or lowered 
on a rod, overhead parlor lamps, cleverly contrived with chains for their 
adjustment. The wick and chimney business alone was considerable. Today 
the company still carries a few lamps and lanterns, but the volume of such 
business is a mere trifle. Electric lighted homes and pocket flashlights for 
out'of 'doors have brought about the change. 

Combine harvesters have cut into the sale of steel forks and other farm 
tools. Concrete and steel have greatly reduced the consumption of nails. 
Because of the vast amount of preparation of building material at the mill, 
even to the boring of holes, fewer carpenter's tools are needed now than 
formerly. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



503 




(Koehne Photo) 

WILLIAM U. WATSON 

Mr. Watson, president of Green Duck Company, manufacturers of adver- 
tising novelties, was born in Girard, Illinois, April 5, 1883, and is a son of 
Larken Burwell and Martha Susan (Keysear) Watson. He attended the 
public and high schools of Girard, Illinois, North Manchester (Indiana) 
College, Brown's Business College at Jacksonville, Illinois, and later studied 
at the Armour Institute of Technology, Chicago. 

Mr. Watson began his business career in the Pitner Gasoline Lighting 
Company at Springfield, lUinois, where he was branch manager from 1909 
until 1910, when he moved to Chicago to become general manager of the 
Sunderland Manufacturing Company. In 1921 he resigned from this company 
to become president and owner of the Green Duck Company, world's fore 
most manufacturers of badges, advertising buttons, metal advertising novel- 
ties, name plates, emblems, etc. He is also president and owner of the Green- 
duck Metal Stamping Company of Chicago. He is a member of the Beach 
View Club and his favorite recreation is fishing. 

On April 25, 1906, Mr. Watson married Madeleine de Sprangh Mason 
of Jacksonville, Illinois, and they have one son, John Robert. 



504 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



The vogue of readymade clothing has reduced to a great extent the 
amount of home sewing. Hibbard dealers used to sell thousands of dozens 
of pairs of scissors and shears each year, but today the sales are a mere 
fraction of what they were. 

The tin shop is all but extinct. Before the days of better public laun- 
dries and stationary wash-tubs or washing machines in the home, the tin- 
smith manufactured wash boilers for family use, purchasing his tin as well 
as copper for the bottoms from the hardware companies. Today this busi- 
ness is all but gone. 

Along with the wash boilers has gone part of the tinware that once 
went into the dairy industry. Tank cars for carrying milk have supplanted 
millions of cans. 

Central heating has reduced to a negligible minimum the demand for 
stoves and stovepipes. 

The biggest sales outlet for shotguns had always been the boys grow- 
ing up on farms. Today, with families on farms fewer and smaller, even 
though city folk have more leisure 
for hunting and trapshooting, shotgvir 
sales in the last twenty years have 
barely held their own. 

Pocket knives have been hit by the 
automatic pencil which requires no 
sharpening. The metal cuspidor, once 
handled in carload lots, has almost dis- 
appeared. 

But new times have created new de- 
mands. Just now we are in an era of 
color. More paint is used than at any 
previous time in the world's history. 
Kitchen ware now comes in cheerful 
colors. Garden tools have color 
schemes. 

Toys, which were practically un- 
heard of in hardware stores a genera- 
tion ago, have now become an item 
of tremendous importance. As people 
have come into greater wealth, they 
have begun to think more about lux- 
uries. Thousands of families spend 
more money annually on toys alone 
than would once have bought a horse 
and buggy. 

The householder may no longer re- 
quire an ax or a cross saw, for his ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ apartments 
winter fuel is supphed largely by the Rebon y Wentworth, architects. 




CHICAGO S LEADERS 



505 




(Fernand de Gueldre Photo) 

JOHN WENTWORTH 

Mr. Wentworth, a great'nephew of "Long John" Wentworth, who was one 
of the most famous of Chicago's pioneers and who was twice mayor of Chi' 
cago, was born in Chicago, September 24, 1892. He is the son of Moses Jones 
Wentworth and Lizzie Shaw (Hunt) Wentworth. He graduated from Har- 
vard University, A. B. (Bachelor of Arts) degree, 1914; was a captain in the 
Aviation Service during the World War, serving with the 94th and 49th 
Squadron, A. E. F. In 1924 he became vice-president of Rebori, Wentworth, 
Dewey 6? McCormick, Inc., a firm engaged in general architectural practice. 
Among their work are the Racquet Club, 1325 Astor Street, The Cudahy 
Memorial Library, the Riding Club, and Curtis Airport. 

He is chairman of the Architectural Committee of the Chicago Plan Com- 
mission. He is a member of the Chicago, Saddle and Cycle, Racquet, and 
Tavern clubs. 

Mr. Wentworth was married in 1924 to Harriet Brown, of Baltimore. 



506 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



gas and oil companies. But he spends more money for golf clubs than he 
ever did on tools for more productive forms of manual labor. 

The man who would have been content once with a bamboo fishing 
rod requires a steel rod and the very latest artificial lures. Paved roads and 
the automobile have made it possible for the fisherman to go far beyond 
the limits of his own locality. If there are no fishing waters near home, 
he can reach the Minnesota or Wisconsin lakes and streams almost over 
night. 

Improved agricultural methods call for millions of yards of paper 
mulch. . . . Profits once made by the hardware dealer on bicycles are now 
made on radios. . . . Electrical devices of all kinds have become house- 
hold necessities. 




{Kaufmann 6? Fabry Co. Photo) 
Warehouses and industrial plants just north of the downtown district. The Hibbard, 
Spencer, Bartlett &? Company building is in the left foreground. 

Few Chicago firms have had as interesting a history or have been longer 
in business than Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Co. The house was estab- 
hshed in 1855 by William Gold Hibbard, who came to Chicago in 1849 
from Cortland, N. Y. The first store occupied a four-story building in 
South Water street, equipped with a windlass for hoisting heavy goods, 
and a chute for lowering boxes to the basement. In 1857, the house of 
Tuttle, Hibbard ^ Co., as it was then known, was wiped out by fire, but 
more commodious quarters were opened in Lake street. Franklin F. Spencer, 
who entered the firm about that time, was its first travehng salesman, his 
territory being confined largely to Iowa. Today the firm has sales repre- 
sentatives in every State in the Union and in several foreign countries. The 
great fire of 1871 again reduced the stock to molten metal and left the Lake 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



507 




■-a-.-c 



CHARLES J. WHIPPLE 

Mr. Whipple, president of Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett and Company, was born in 
Chicago, July 10, 1885, son of Charles Backus and Almira (Hayward) Whipple. He 
received his preparatory education at the Chicago Manual Training School and obtained 
his B. S. degree in Electrical Engineering at the University of Michigan in 1907. He 
became an apprentice at the Western Electric Company in June, 1907. In February, 
1908, he started with Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett and Company, wholesale hardware, as 
a stock clerk, later becoming a salesman, and then a sales correspondent. Mr. Whipple 
became superintendent of Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett and Company in 1913; was made 
general manager in 1916; and in 1920 was elected vice-president and in 1926, president. 

During the World War he was associated with the Committee on Personnel of the 
Adjutant General's Department, and installed the first personnel system at Camp Dodge 
during the summer and fall of 1917. For the duration of the War, he served as Per- 
sonnel Supervisor of the Military Camps in the Central West. Mr. Whipple is a director 
of the Chicago Railways Company. He is vice-president of the Employers' Association 
of Chicago, member of the Northwestern University Vocational Council, president of the 
Chicago Home for the Friendless, and a member of Alpha Delta Phi Fraternity and 
Tau Beta Pi Honorary Society. His clubs are Chicago, University, Industrial, South 
Shore Country, and Barrington Hills Country. He has contributed many articles to 
hardware trade journals and has spoken on trade problems to association gatherings. 
His principal recreation is golf. 

Mr. Whipple married Elsa Kempf, of Ann Arbor, Michigan, April 2, 1910. Their 
children are Pauline Elizabeth and Charles John, Jr. 



508 



CHICAGO S ACCOMPLISHMENTS 



Street building in ruins. Business was carried on temporarily in Mr. Hib- 
bard's Prairie avenue home. Customers responded generously to an appeal 
to pay their outstanding obligations promptly. Orders were filled from 
New York, and new supplies were rushed to Chicago from New York 
and Milwaukee. The Hibbard stable was jammed with hardware, and a 
big shed was erected in the garden. The drawing room space not filled with 
desks was stored with cutlery. The clerks slept on the floor and ate in the 
kitchen. 

Business was resumed finally in Lake street, but in 1903, the firm erected 
a ten-story building near the State street bridge, which was occupied until 
the Wacker drive improvement forced the company out. The present four- 
teen-story plant at 211 East North Water street was uncompleted, but the 
wreckers had arrived, and it was necessary to remove a $3,000,000 stock 
without delay. A temporary storehouse was found, and the gigantic mov- 
ing job was managed. 

Today, the firm occupies one of the most modern commercial homes in 
America, a plant in which more than 1,000,000 square feet is devoted to 
the display of hardware. Steamships, freight trains, and cars of the lUinois 
Tunnel Company load and unload goods at the back door. 




{Courtesy, Curtis Lighting, Inc.) 

Mcjunkin Building at Wilson Avenue and Broadway— an interesting example of the way 
various Chicago buildings are floodhghted to concentrate attention on the location. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



509 




(Moffet-Russell Fboto) 



HAROLD F.WHITE 



Mr. White, member of the law firm of White and Hawxhurst, was born in Chicago, 
December 8, 1877, son of Captain Lyman A. and Annie Hungerford (Ferris) White. 
After receiving his LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree from Lake Forest University in 
1901, he was admitted to the IHinois Bar and became associated with the late Albert N. 
Eastman in practice in Chicago the same year. He has been a member of the firm of 
White and Hawxhurst and its predecessors continuously since that time. 

Mr. White is a director of several industrial and financial organizations in Chicago 
and other cities. He is a director of the United Charities of Chicago, former chairman 
of the Legal Aid Committee, member of the American and Illinois State Bar associ- 
ations, member of the Chicago Bar Association, life member of the American Law In- 
stitute, and member of the Association of the Bar, City of New York. He is a life mem- 
ber of the Art Institute of Chicago, member of the Field Museum of Natural History, 
member and ex-president of the Municipal Voters League; and member of the Chicago 
Historical Society, Chicago Geographical Society, and Delta Chi Fraternity. His clubs 
are Union League (member Public Affairs Committee), City, Law (ex-president). Com- 
mercial (secretary, 1930-1932), Quadrangle, Arts, South Shore Country, and the 
Chikaming Country of Lakeside, Michigan, (president). His favorite diversions are golf 
and the drama. His home is frequently the gathering place of a group interested in the 
writing of scenarios and producing of plays for their own amusement. 

On June 21, 1904, he married Catharine Eddy Cleaver of Chicago. Their children 
arc Roger Quincy, who is practicing law with his father, Harold Ferris, and Phihp 
Cleaver, 



^lO Chicago's accomplishments 

GREAT LAKES, WHERE CORN-FED BOYS ARE 
TRANSFORMED INTO SAILORS 

U. S. Naval Training Station and Fort Sheridan Giving a Martial 
Aspect to the North Shore 

CHICAGO, though nearly a thousand miles removed from the eastern 
seaboard, has in the United States Naval Training Station at Great 
Lakes one of the four stations maintained by the Navy Department for 
giving the apprentice seaman his preliminary training. 

Also on the North Shore, at Highland Park, is located Fort Sheridan, 
an important U. S. Army post, permanently garrisoned by troops. Here, 
during the World War, an Officers' Training Camp was maintained, and 
hundreds of fine young officers were turned out. Fort Sheridan serv^es also 
as the summer training camp of the Citizens Army, and is well equipped 
for the purpose. The camp is open to young men within the prescribed 
age limits who can meet the physical requirements, and offers them an 
opportunity to perfect themselves in military maneuvers, rifle, and artillery 
practice. The "regulars" stationed at Fort Sheridan are always in demand 
to lend a martial tone to Chicago's Memorial Day and Armistice Day celc' 
brations, and always make a splendid showing. 

One of the thrills of Chicago life is the annual Army Show at Soldier 
Field, where aircraft roar overhead or fly in close formation, sham battles 
are fought, and exhibitions of high jumping and polo are staged by cavalry 
men and officers. 

Fort Sheridan, with a commanding site on the lake front, is about 
twentyfive miles north of Chicago, and can be reached by automobile from 
the city, via Sheridan road or other routes, in about three-quarters of an 
hour. Great Lakes is only a short distance farther north. Both institutions 
are well worth a visit. 

The growth of Great Lakes has been almost miraculous, though why 
the station came to be the most productive in the world, and why such an 
astonishing development should have taken place so far inland is still a 
puzzle to the seaboard sections of the country. 

If Great Lakes has proved anything in the twenty-one years of its exist- 
ence, it has proved that the corn-fed boy of the western prairies and the 
Mississippi Valley can make as good a sailor as the lad from Maine or 
Massachusetts. 

Great Lakes draws its material — and good material it is — from the farms, 
the small towns, and the cities of the Middle West. It occupies a tract of 
land 182 acres in extent, on a high plateau, overlooking Lake Michigan. 
The buildings and equipment of the station represent an investment of 
$3,500,000. The magnificent plant, together with its ideal location and 
picturesque surroundings, make it an excellent school for the young naval 
apprentice. 



CHICAGO S LEADERS 



511 





Krome 



(Blank y Stoller, Inc., Photo) 

JOHN E. WILDER 

Mr. Wilder was born in Lancaster, Massachusetts, April 16, 1861, son of Charles Lewis 
and Harriet Ellen (Harris) Wilder. He was president of Wilder and Company, tanners 
and leather merchants of Chicago, and chairman of the board of J. W. and A. P. Howard 
Company, tanners of Corrychrome at Corry, Pennsylvania, until his death on July 26, 1932. 
He received his B. S. (Bachelor of Science) degree at the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College in 1882 and began his business career as a clerk with Wilder and Hale in Novem' 
ber of that year. He became a salesman in 1883 and a partner in 1886. The firm 
changed the name in 1887 to Wilder and Company of which he was vice-president from 
1906 to 1919, and from that year until his death he was president. 

Mr. Wilder was president of the lUinois Manufacturers' Association during 1905 and 
a member of the board of directors from 1906 through 1914. He was one of the original 
organizers, and from 1909 to 1915 was president, of the Tanners Association of America 
(now called the Tanners Council of America). For more than thirty years he was an 
active trustee of Beloit College and was an honorary trustee until his death. From 1900 
to 1916 he was president of the lUinois Y. M. C. A. and for twenty-five years was an 
active director of the Evanston Y. M. C. A. He was chairman of the financ