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Full text of "Chiefs and families of note in the Delhi, Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat divisions of the Panjab"

CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE 



IN 



THE DEHLI, JALANDHAR, PESHAWAR 
AND DERAJAT DIVISIONS 



OF THE 



PAN JAB, 



BY 



CHARLES FRANCIS MASSY, 

MAJOR, BENGAL STAFF CORPS. 



ALLAHABAD: 

PRINTED AT THE PIONEER PRESS. 

1890. 



tRPENTICR 






CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE 
IN THE PANJAB, 



M612019 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE IN THE PANJAB. 
PREFACE. 



The Panjab Cliicfs, written more than a quarter of a 
century ago, dealt with the histories of the leading men in the 
districts between the Bias and the Indus, now known as the 
Lahore and Rawalpindi Divisions. A new edition has been 
recently prepared by me, in which these histories have been 
brought down to date. 

The present work practically completes the biographies 
of the families of note in the Province. It covers the Dehli, 
Jalandhar, Peshawar and Derajat Divisions, and includes 
short notices of the Ruling Chiefs. 

I was asked *' to write a business-like book of refer- 
ence for District and Administrative Officers, studying 
brevity, and eschewing minute detail." These instructions I 
have obeyed at the sacrifice of much interesting matter 
which came under my hand. The book will not attract the 
general reader ; but it will probably be found useful as one 
of reference, and every endeavour has been made to secure 
an accurate record of modern facts affecting the families. 
The histories were reviewed in type by the Honorable the 
Lieutenant-Governor, and by the various District Officers of 
the Province. 

I have great pleasure in making my acknowledgments 
to the friends who assisted me in the preparation of this 
work. It had been, in the first instance, entrusted to Colonel 
C. H. T. Marshall, who collected a large amount of material 
before his transfer to Hyderabad. Mr. Longworth Dames 



placed at my disposal his manuscript histor}-^ of Dera Ghazi 
Khan ; and Mr. Manuel, Head Clerk of the Dharamsala Dis- 
trict Office, submitted excellent notes of the Kangra Raj- 
puts, of which I have made much use. I have further received 
valuable help from Messrs. A. F. D. Cunning-ham, E. B. 
Francis, W. R. H. Merk, G. R. Drummond, J. Douie, A. 
Kensington and Baron Bentinck, as well as from Rai Lachman 
Das, who helped me to correct the early proofs, and Lalas 
Ram Nath, Gauri Shankar, Piari Mohan, Rup Singh, Har 
Narain and Amir Chand. In addition to the information fur- 
nished by the Darbaris themselves, I derived assistance from 
the various Settlement Reports of the Province, especially 
those of Messrs. O'Brien, Thorburn, Purser, Ibbetson, 
Fanshawe, T. G. Walker and Steedman. The accounts of 
the Ruling Chiefs are mainly an abstract of Griffin's Rajas 
of the Panjab, with modern facts added. It was thought 
advisable to include them, so as to make the work complete 
as a book of reference. 

CHARLES FRANCIS MASSY. 
Kapurthala; \ 

\st September^ 1890. ) 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE IN THE PANJAB, 



CONTENTS. • 








Page, 


Preface . . • . . • • • • • v 


Precedence List of Ruling Chiefs . . . . . . l 


STATES UNDER CONTROL OF THE PANJAB GOVERNMENT;— 


Patiala 






9 


Bahawalpur 








16 


Jind 








22 


Nabha 








28 


Kapurthala 








34 


Mandi 








45 


Sirinur (Nahan) 








52 


Kahlur (Bilaspur) 








57 


Bashahr 








61 


Nalagarh (Hindur) 








• 65 


Keoiithal 








68 


Maler Kotla . . 








70 


Faridkot 








75 


Chamba 








79 


Siiket 








82 


Kalsia 








• 85 


Pataudi 








88 


Loharu 








9£ 


Dujana 








95 


Baghal 








99 


Baghat 








101 


Jubal 








• 103 


Kainharsen 








105 


Bhaji 








106 


Mailog 








107 


Balsan 








108 


Dhami 








no 


Kothar 








III 


Kunhar 








112 


Mangal 








113 


Beja 








114 


Darkoti 








115 


Taroch 








116 


Sangri 








. 118 


Kanaiti 








120 


Dalthi 








I2t 


Koti 








122 


Theog 








123 


Madhan 








124 


Ghund 








125 


Ratesh 








. 126 



DISTRICT DARBAR LIST; 



Dehli Division — 


Page. 


Dehli 


.. 128 


Gurgaon 


..130 


Rohtak 


131 


Hissar 


ib. 


Karnal 


132 


Ambala 


'• nz 


Jalandhar — 




Ludhiana 


135 


Firozpur 


..137 


Jalandhar 


.. 138 


Hushiarpur 


140 


Kangra 


..141 


Peshawar — 




Hazara 


..143 


Peshawar 


145 


Kohat 


..148 


Derajat — 




Bannu 


150 


Dera Ismail Khan 


152 


Dera Ghazi Khan 


155 


Muzafargarh 


.. 157 



THE DEHLI DIVISION. 



The Dehli District — 

Mirza Suliman Shikoh 
The Gurgaon District — 

Mahomed Sarajudin Haidar Khan of Farakhnagar 
The Karnal District — 

Introductory Note 

Nawab Ibrahim Ali Khan of Kunjpura 

Bhai Jasmir Singh of Arnauli 

Nawab Azmat Ali Khan, Mandal 

Sardar Ujal Singh of Dhanaur 

Sardar Ram Singh of Shamgarh 

Nawab Fazal Ahmad Khan of Panipat 

Sardar Tilok Singh of Sikri 

Sardar Indar Singh of Barthal 
The Ambala District — 

Introductory Note 

Sardar Jiwan Singh of Buria 

Sardar Sheo Narain Singh of Shahabad 

Sardar Kishan Singh of Tangaur 

Sardar Jawala Singh of Jarauli 

Sardar Tilok Singh of Mustafabad 

Sardar Sahib Singh of Leda 

Sardar Hardit Singh of Dayalgarh 

Sardar Jiwan Singh of Shahzadpur 

Sardar Autar Singh of Manauli 



159 
161 

164 
168 
182 
186 
197 
200 
202 
206 
207 

208 

215 
217 
218 
221 
223 
225 
227 
229 
231 



THE JALANDHAR DIVISION. 

The Ludhiana District — 

Shahzada Nadar, Sadozai 

Sardar Atar Singh, K. C. S. I., Bahadar 

Sardar Utam Singh, Malod 

Bhai Arjan Singh, Bagrian 

Sardar Mahtab Singh, Lidhran 

Sardar Ganda Singh of Dhiru Mazra . . 

Faiz Talab Khan of Raikot 

Sardar Harnam Singh of Bheri 

Maulvi Sayad Sharif Hasain of Jagraon 
The Firozpur District — 

Nawab Nazamudin Khan of Mamdot . . 

Guru Bishan Singh of Harsahai 

Sardar Bahadar Sodhi Man Singh of Butar 

Bhai Zabarjang Singh of Jhamba 

Sardar Suchet Mahomed of Dharamsinghwala 

Sardar A mar Singh of Mansurwal 

Sardar Khan, Kasuria 
The Jalandhar District — 

Guru Nao Nahal Singh of Kartarpur 

Sardar Harnam Singh, Moron 

Sardar Mit Singh of Dhandowal 

Sardar Nahal Singh, Kang 

Sardar Partab Singh of Alavvalpur 

Sardar Amar Singh of Naugaja 

Sardar Sundar Singh, Sarhali 

Sardar Amar Singh of Makandpur 

Sardar Basawa Singh of Laroa 

Sardar Dava Singh of Bahram 

Sardar Jainial Singh of Thala 

Sardar Amar Singh of Baloki 
The Hushiarpur District — 

Mian Raghnath Singh of Jaswan 

The Sodhis of Anandpur 

Bedi Sujan Singh of Una 

Mian Udham Singh of Pirthipur 

Sardar Rajindar Singh Bahadar of Katgarh 

Rana Lahna Singh of Manaswal 

Sardar Bahadar Bur Singh of Mukerian. . 

Rai Hira Chand of Babhaur 
The Kangra District — 

Raja Raghnath Singh, Goleria 

Major Jai Chand, Raja of Lambagraon . . 

Raja Jai Singh of Siba 

Raja Amar Chand of Nadaun 

Raja Ram Pal of Kotlahr 

Raja Jaswant Singh of Nurpur 

Rai Dalip Singh of Kulu 

Raja Niamatula Khan, Rajauri 



Page. 

233 
238 
241 
245 
251 
257 
258 
262 
264 



267 

273 
276 
280 
28.^ 
285 
289 



294 
301 

3"3 
306 
308 
3'i 

315 
318 

3'9 
321 

3^3 



327 
330 
337 
342 
344 
347 
349 
353 

356 
362 
370 
373 
37^5 
380 
386 
395 



Raja Brijrai Singh of Trilokpur 

Raja Balbir Singh, Mankotia 

Mian Diiavvar Singh of Tilokpur 

Chaudhri Malha Singh of Indaura 

Shankar Singh of Rai 

Thakar Hari Chand, Wazir, of Lahaul . . 

Nono Durji Chotan of Spiti 

Wazir Karam Singh of Bir 

Lai Singh of Nagrota 

Martanja Parohit of Chahri 

Mian Davi Chand of Bijapur 

Mian Bararu, Kotwal, of Bir Bhangahal . . 

THE PESHAWAR DIVISION. 
The Hazara District — 

Nawab Sir Mahomed Akram Khan, K. C. S. I., of Amb 

Raja Jahandad Khan, Khan Bahadar, Gakhar, of Khanpur 

Samandar Khan of Garhi Habibula 

Ali Gohar Khan of Agror 

Sayad Mahomed Khan, Karal 

Khan Zaman Khan, Kalabat 

Kazi Fazal llahi of Sakandarpur 

Dost Mahomed Khan of Shingri 

Makadam Ghulam Ahmad of Kot Najibula 
The Peshawar District — 

Nawab Wazirzada Mahomed Afzal Khan, C. S. /., Sadozai 

Arbab Mahomed Hasain Khan, Mohmand 

Kazi Abdul Kadar Khan of Peshawar . . 

Arbab Mahomed Abas Khan, Khalil, of Tahkal Bala 

Mahomed Khan, Sardar Bahadar 

Khwaja Mahomed Khan of Hoti 

Mahomed Umar Khan of Shewa 

Mahomed Akbar Khan of Topi 

Sardar Bahadar Habib Khan of Khunda 

Maulvi Mahomed Jan of Katir Dheri 

Hasain Shah of Walai 

Dost Mahomed Khan of Gari Daulatzai 

Akbar Khan of Ismaila 

Khan Bahadar Ibrahim Khan of Mardan 

Mahabat Khan of Toru, Mardan 

Azad Khan of Hund 

The Kohat District — 

Sardar Sultan Jan, CLE. 

Nawab Sir Khwaja Mahomed Khan, K. C. S. I., Teri 

Nawabzada Rustam Khan, Bangash 

Muzafar Khan, Tahsildar of Hangu 

Khan Bahadar Mahomed Usman Khan of Hangu 

Sher Mahomed Khan, Kiani 

Sayad Ahmad Shah, Banuri 

Biland Khan, Khatak, of Khushalgarh . . 

Sayad Makhdum Shah, Jilani 

Khaiizada Fatah Mahomed Khan of Nilab 



Page, 

401 
402 
405 
404 
406 
408 
411 
412 

413 
414 

4>5 
417 



420 

424 
432 
434 
437 
439 
441 

443 

445 

446 

454 
459 
463 
469 
470 

474 
476 

477 
479 
4S0 
481 
482 
484 
487 
489 



491 
496 
506 

514 
520 

S-M 
527 
530 
531 

533 



THE DERAJAT DIVISION. 

The Bannu District— P(fge. 

Khan Abdula, Khan Bahadar, of Isa Khel . . . . 535 

Malik Yar Mahomed Khan of Kalabagh .. .. 543 

Mian Sultan All of Mianvvali . . . . . . 546 

Mani Kban, Spirkai Wazir, of Garhi Mani Khan . . . . 548 

The Dera Ismail Khan District — 

Aladad Khan, Sadozai (son of the late Nawab Mahomed Sarfaraz 

Khan) ,. .. .. .. •• 55^ 

Nawab Rab Nawaz Khan, Alizai .. ,. .. 560 

Nawab Hafiz Abdula Khan, Alizai . . . . . . 565 

Nawab Ghulam Kasim Khan of Tank .. .. .. 572 

Nawab Ata Mahomed Khan, Khagwani . . . . 580 

Hafiz Samandar Khan, Khwajikzai . . . . . • 584 

Sardar Mahomed Afzal Khan, Gandapur .. .. 586 

Saidar Ala Wardi Khan of Hazara , . . . . . 591 

Diwan Jagan Nath . . . . . . 592 

Sarbiland Khan, Ismailzai . . . . . . 594 

Ghulam Sarwar Khan, Sadozai .. .. .. 595 

The Dera Ghazi Khan District — 

Note on the Tribes of the District . . . . . . 597 

Nawab Sir Irnam Bakhsh Khan, K. C. I. E., Mazari . . 602 

Nawab Mahomed Khan, Laghari .. .. .. 614 

Mian Shah Nawaz Khan of Hajipur .. .. .. 619 

Sardar Bahadar Khan, Khosa . . , . . . 626 

Sardar Miran Khan, Drishak . . . . . . 633 

Sardar Jalab Khan, Gurchani .. .. ,. 637 

Sardar Ahmad Khan, Sori Lund . . . . . . 644 

Sardar Fazal Ali Khan, Kasrani . . . . . . 648 

Ala Bakhsh Khan, Sadozai . . . . . . 652 

Sardar Mazar Khan, Tibi Lund . . . . . . 654 

Mahomed Masu Khan, Nutkani . . . . . . 658 

Mian Ala Bakhsh of Taunsa .. .. ,. 662 

Mahmud Khan, Mirani . . . . . . 664 

The Muzafargarh District— , 

Mahomed Saifula Khan of Khangarh . . . . . . 668 

Mian Mahbub Khan Bahadar, Gurmani. . . . . . 669 



RULING CHIEFS IN THE PANJAB IN THEIR 
ORDER OF PRECEDENCE, 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



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THE PAT I ALA STATE. 
THE PATIALA STATE. 







Phul. 

1 




1 

Tilokha, Ra 

ancestor of the 

families of 

Nabha and 

Jind. 


iia. 


1 
Raghu. 


\ 
Chanu. 

An 


Jhandu. Takhat Mai 


cestors of the Laudgarhia 
families. 


1 

Duna, 

ancestor of the 

Bhadaur 

family. 


1 
Subha. 

Jodh. 


1 
Raja Ala 
Singh, 
d. 1765. 


1 1 1 
Bakhta, Budha, Ladha. 
ancestor of the 
Malod 
family. 


1 
Sardul Singh, 
d. 1753. 
1 




Bhumi 

d. 


1 

an Singh, 
1742. 


1 
Lai Singh, 
d. 1748. 


1 
Himat Singh, 
d. 1774. 


Raj 


1 
a Amar Sine 
d. 1781. 
1 




Budh Singh. 




Maharaja 
d. 


Raja Sahib Singh, 
d. 1813. 

1 




1 

Karam Singh 
1848. 

1 


, Jit Singh, 
0. s. p. 


1 
Maharaja Narindar Singh, 
d. 1862. 
1 
Maharaja Mahindar Singh, 
d. 1876. 
1 




1 
Dip Singh, 
d. 1862. 


I 

Maharaja 

Rajindar 

Singh, 

b. 1872. 






1 
Kanwar 
Ranbir 
Singh, 
b. 1873. 





The Patiala State has an area of 5,400 square miles, 
and a population of 1,467,000 according to the Census of 
1 88 1. The official estimate of the revenue is forty-seven 
lakhs ; but the actuals probably exceed this, and a rapid and 
heav}' increase may be expected from the extension of irriga- 
tion consequent on the full working of the recently-opened 
Sarhand Canal. The Maharaja maintains a military force 
of eight thousand men of all arms. The relations of Patiala 



xo CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

with the British Government are regulated by Sanads or res- 
cripts of the Governor-General. A nazarana is payable to 
the Paramount Power on succession of collateral descendants. 
The Maharaja is bound to execute justice and promote the 
welfare of his subjects; to prevent sati, slavery and female in- 
fanticide, and to co-operate with the British Government 
against outside enemies ; to furnish supplies in war time, 
and to grant, free of expense, land required for the construc- 
tion of railroads and imperial lines of road ; also to furnish 
the services of one hundred horsemen annually by way of 
tribute. He is guaranteed full and unreserved possession of 
his territories, and he is permitted to exercise unrestricted 
powers of life and death. Government has undertaken not 
to receive complaints from any of his subjects, whether mafi- 
dars, jagirdars, relatives, dependants, servants or other 
classes. 

The Maharaja ranks first in the precedence list of the 
States controlled by the Panjab Government, and receives 
a salute of seventeen guns. He is entitled to a return visit 
from the Viceroy. 

The family has been established as a Ruling Power 
south of the Satlaj since 1752, when the present capital was 
founded by Sardar Ala Singh, afterwards Raja. He was a 
Sidhu Jat Sikh, descended from Rama, second son of Phul, 
the common ancestor of the Chiefs of Patiala, Jind, Nabha, 
Laudgarhia, Malod, Jiundan and Bhadaur. Going back be- 
yond Phul, in the same line, we find the houses of Faridkot, 
Atari, Kaithal, Ghumba, Sidhowal and Arnauli, all springing 
from Sidhu, a scion of the royal Rajputs of Jasalmir. Sidhu' s 
children are thus spread all over the eastern Panjab ; and 
their blood is the oldest and the bluest in the Province south 
and east of the Satlaj, save and excepting the Chiefs of the 
Simla Hills, 



THE P ATI ALA STATE. ii 

Aki Singh, grandson of Phul, was a contemporary of 
Ahmad Shah Durani. He joined the Sikh combination, 
which had for its object the destruction of the new Mahomedan 
power, and suffered defeat at the King's hands in common 
with the Chief of Nabha, the Singhpurias, the Ahluwalias 
and others of the Khalsa w^ho had attempted to overthrow 
him. The decisive battle was fought at Barnala, then the 
chief town in Patiala, and the Sikhs are said to have left 
twenty thousand of their number on the field. Barnala 
was plundered, and Ala Singh was led captive before Ahmad 
Shah, who granted him his liberty on payment of a ransom 
of four lakhs of rupees. But the Barnala disaster proved 
the making of Ala Singh, for Ahmad Shah had no desire to 
push matters to extremities, and in proof of his magnanimity 
presented Ala Singh with a dress of honor, and conferred 
upon him the title of Raja, installing him as chief in the 
group of villages around his home. Whatever his feelings 
may have been, Ala Singh dared not express gratitude, for 
fear of exciting the wrath of his brother Sikhs, who partly 
suspected him of having played them false v/ith Ahmad Shah 
for his own purposes. No sooner had the King returned to 
Kabul than the Sikhs again coalesced, and massing them- 
selves around Sarhand, slew the Governor and captured the 
place after a bloody battle with the royal troops. Ala Singh 
was foremost in the fight, and received as his reward the 
looted town of Sarhand and the villages in the neighbour- 
hood. He made no attempt to rebuild the place, which was 
regarded as accursed by the Sikhs since the murder there 
of the sons of Guru Gobind. But the inhabitants were "re- 
quested" to move south and settle on the site where Patiala 
now stands. Sarhand has been practically in ruins ever since,. 
Strange to say, when Ahmad Shah returned to India in the 
year following, he took no notice of Ala Singh's defection, 
and once more recognized him as Raja. 



12 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The history of Patiala and the leading Panjab States has 
been already written in detail.* It will suffice here to give a 
general sketch of the more recent events connected with 
Patiala, bringing Sir Lepel Griffin's history, written twenty 
years ago, down to date. 

The boundaries of the State had been considerably en- 
larged in the interval between the sack of Sarhand and th^ 
enforcement of British supremacy in 1809 over all the Cis- 
Satlaj States. Afterwards, for services rendered to Ochter- 
lony in the Gurkha War of 18 14, Maharaja Karam Singh was 
awarded portions of the Hill States of Keonthal and Baghat, 
with a revenue of Rs. 35,000, under a nazarana payment 
of Rs. 2,80,000. A re-arrangement of territory was effected 
on a small scale in 1830, when the present station of Simla 
was being formed ; the Maharaja receiving three villages of the 
British pargana of Barauli, near Sabathu, in lieu of some 
lands lying under the Jakko Hill. Again, after the First Sikh 
War, the Maharaja's assistance was acknowledged by the gift 
of a portion of the Nabha Raja's territory, confiscated for dis- 
loyalty. After 1857 Maharaja Narindar Singh's splendid ser- 
vices were rewarded with the gift of sovereign rig'hts in the 
Narnaul division of the forfeited State of the Jhajar Nawab, 
assessed at a revenue of two lakhs, on condition of political 
and military support in times of general danger or dis- 
turbance. And he was permitted to purchase the Kanaund 
pargana Jhajar and the taluka of Khamanu in perpetual so- 
vereignty in extinguishment of certain loan transactions with 
the British Government during the Mutiny. In addition, 
the Maharaja was granted administrative jurisdiction over 
the chiefship of Bhadaur, and the right of escheats and rever- 
sion to lapsed estates therein, receiving the annual commu- 
tation payment of Rs. 5,265, hitherto paid into the Imperial 
Treasury by the Bhadaur Sardars. 

* Griffin's Rajas of the Panjab. 



THE P ATI ALA STATE. 



13 



The late Maharaja IMahindar Singh, G.C.S. I., succeed- 
ed his father Narindar Singh in 1862, and ruled for four- 
teen years, during the first eight of which, while he was a 
minor, the administration was carried on in his name by a 
Council of Regency. The most important State measure 
adopted in Maharaja jMahindar Singh's time was the sanc- 
tioning of the Sarhand Canal project for carrying off the 
Satlaj waters at Rupar, in the north of the Ambala District, 
and distributing them over an immense area of the southern 
Panjab, including considerable portions of the Patlala, Jind, 
and Nabha States, and the British districts of Ludhiana and 
FIrozpur. The canal was formally opened by His Excel- 
lency the Viceroy in 1882, and is now in full working order. 
A sum of one crore and twenty-three lakhs of rupees has 
been contributed by the Maharaja towards the cost of con- 
struction, based upon the approximate benefit likely to accrue 
to the Patlala State. The British Government undertook to 
provide funds for two-thirds of the work, and the charges 
for the remaining third share were borne by the States of 
Patlala, JInd and Nabha in the proportions of nineteen, one 
and two, respectively. The late Maharaja will long be re- 
membered for his liberality In measures connected with the 
improvement and general well-being of the country. He 
made a handsome donation of Rs. 70,000 to the University 
College, Lahore ; and in 1873 l^e placed ten lakhs of rupees 
at the disposal of Government for the relief of the famine- 
stricken people of Bengal. In 1875 he was honored by a 
visit from His Excellency Earl Northbrook, Viceroy and 
Governor- General ; and the opportunity was taken of found- 
ing the present admirable Institution known as the Northbrook 
College, for the promotion of higher education in the State. 
He died suddenly In 1876. 

Maharaja Rajindar Singh is a Prince of much promise. 
He has been thoroughly educated in English and Urdu by an 



14 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

experienced officer of the Panjab Educational Department. 
During his minority, which ceased in i8go, the administra- 
tion was carried on by a Council composed of three offi- 
cials, under the Presidentship of the late Sardar Sir Dewa 
Sing-h, K. C.S.I. ,an old and faithful servant of the State. The 
finances have been carefully watched, and considerable sav- 
ings effected, from which have been met the charges in con- 
nection with the Sarhand Canal and the broad-guage line 
of Railway between Rajpura and Patlala. An extension of 
this line joining the Rajputana-FIrozpur system at Batinda 
has been recently completed. 

The Patlala State contributed a contingent of eleven 
hundred men of all arms for service beyond the frontier dur- 
ing the Kabul War of 1879. They were employed In keep- 
ing open the lines of communication between Thai and the 
Paiwar in the Kuram Valley ; and proved themselves excellent 
soldiers, maintaining an exemplary discipline during the 
whole period of absence from their homes. Their services 
were recognized by the bestowal upon Sardar Dewa Singh 
of the Knighthood of the Order of the Star of India. Bakh- 
shi Ganda Singh, commanding the troops, was honored with 
the Companionship of the same Order. Further, the present 
Maharaja was exempted from the presentation of nazars In 
Darbar in recognition of services rendered on this occasion 
by his State. 

Towards the end of 1887 the Council of Regency, on be- 
half of the minor Maharaja, most loyally offered to place the 
whole resources of the State at the disposal of the Imperial 
Government in the event of the outbreak of a war on the 
North- West Frontier. This generous offer took a practical 
form later on in an engagement to maintain for service, side 
by side with British troops, a specially trained corps numbering 
six hundred cavalry and one thousand Infantry, fully equipped 



THE P ATI ALA STATE. 15 

and ready to take the field at a moment's notice. Similar 
proposals were received about the same time from the other 
leading States of the Panjab, and were accepted by the Sup- 
reme Government, and acknowledged by His Excellency the 
Viceroy at a Darbar held at Patiala in November 1888. 

The Maharaja's marriage with a daughter of Sardar 
Kishan Singh of Patiala was celebrated with great pomp in 
November, 1888. The festivities were honored with the pre- 
sence of their Excellencies the Marquess and Marchioness 
of Dufferin, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab, and a 
large number of officials and friends of the. Maharaja and his 
family. 

Kan war Ranbir Singh, brother of the Maharaja, married 
early, in 1889, a daughter of Sardar Lahna Singh, of Karmgarh 
in Patiala. The Maharaja's aunt, mother of the Maharana 
of Dholpur, died in 1888. 

The leading officials of the State are Chaudhri Charat 
Ram, late member of the Council of Regency ; Wazir 
Mahomed Hasan Khan, C. I. E. ; his brother Mahomed 
Hasain Khan, Mir Munshi ; Sardar Ganda Singh, C.S.I., 
who commanded the State troops in Afghanistan in 1878-79 ; 
and Sardar Partab Singh, son of the late Sardar Dewa 
Singh, K. C. S. I. Other officials of note are Diwan Gurmak 
Singh, in charge of the finances, and Mir Tafazal Hasain, 
Chief Justice. 



1 6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

THE BAHAWALPUR STATE. 



Mahomed Sadik Khan, 

(Governor of Bahawalpur, 

under the Sikh Government,) 

I 



I 1 I 

l\Iian Fatah Nawab Mahomed Nawab Mahomed 

Mahomed Khan, Bahawal Khan I. Mubarik Khan. 



Nawab Bahawal Khan II, 
d, !859. 

I 
Nawab vSadik Mahomed Khan. 

1 
Rahim Yar Khan 
(known as Nawab 
Bahawal Khan, III). 

I 



I I 

Haji Khan alias Nawab Sadat Yai Khan 

Fatah Mahomed Khan (known as Nawab 

(succeeded his brother Mahomed Sadik Khan), 

Mahomed Sadik Khan.) deposed by Haji Khan, 

I d. 1864. 

Rahim Yar Khan 
(known as Nawab 
Bahawal Khan IV), 
d. 1866. 

I 

Nawab Sadik Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1862. 

The Bahawalpur State is bounded on the north by the 
Satlaj, on the south by the great Indian desert, and on the 
west by the Indus. Its extreme length is three hundred 
miles, the mean width of populated and cultivated territory 
about twenty miles, and the total area about twenty thousand 
square miles. 

The dominant race are the Daudputras, to which family 
the Chiefs belong. They claim descent from Abas, uncle 
of the Prophet, whose children on the death of the last 
Khalifa emigrated via Khurasan and Makran to Rori-Bhakar 
in Sind. The earliest authentic accounts show them settled 
there and prosperous, having dug themselves canals from 
the Indus. In 1737, the ambition of their Chief, Daud Khan, 



THE BAHAWALPUR STATE. 17 

broug-ht them into conflict with Nadir Shah's Governor in 
Sind. They were worsted in the encounter, and were 
driven across the Indus into the desert. They continued 
their wanderings along the river bank, ultimately obtaining 
possession of the tract now known as Bahawalpur. Muba- 
rik, son of Daud Khan, subsequently finding favour with the 
local Governor, received a large tract south of the old Bias 
river, embracing portions of the present Multan and Mont- 
gomery Districts, in addition to his Bahawalpur possessions. 
But for the first fifty years the power of the Chiefs was far 
from being consolidated, and the country was practically 
divided amongst independent sections of the clan, each of 
which founded a town and dug a canal, which was the basis 
of the existing system of irrigation. Bahawal Khan, grand- 
son of Daud Khan, was the first Chief who succeeded in 
bringing the whole tribe under one hand. 

Notwithstanding a severe check received in 1789 from 
Timur Shah of Kabul, whose army occupied Bahawalpur for 
a time, Bahawal Khan gradually consolidated his power 
and exercised sovereign rights for many years over portions of 
Multan and the neighbouring districts, obtaining possession 
even of Dera Ghazi Khan for a short period from the Khan 
of Kalat, who had been holding nominal sway. In his later 
years, however, his star dimmed before the rising power of 
the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and his possessions gradually 
began to slip away from his grasp. Bahawal Khan the 
Third, who succeeded to the Chiefship in 1827, took the 
only course that was possible to preserve his dominions from 
the rapacious Sikh by securing recognition of his indepen- 
dence in a treaty with our Government made in 1833, 
thus saving his country from the fate of Multan and the 
other Mahomedan estates in the Western Panjab. In 1838 
this same Bahawal Khan loyally repaid our protection by 
services rendered to the army of occupation in Afghanistan ; 



1 8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and he was rewarded with the grant of the districts of Sab- 
zalkot and Bhang Bara. A fresh treaty was made with him 
in this year, when he again came under the protection of 
the British Government, which recognised his position as an 
absolute Ruler. In 1848 he once more rendered valuable 
assistance in connection with the Multan Rebellion, which 
commenced the Second Sikh War. His army, co-operating 
with the irregular levies under Edwardes, defeated the troops 
of Mulraj and hemmed the rebels inside the walls of Multan 
until the arrival of the British under General Whish. These 
services secured him in reward a life-pension of one lakh of 
rupees. 

In 1850 Nawab Bahawal Khan proposed to supersede 
his eldest son in favour of his son Sadat Khan. To this the 
Government made no objection, holding that the matter was 
one entirely within the Nawab' s own option. The heir-elect 
duly succeeded in 1859, t>ut was shortly afterwards ousted 
by the eldest son, Nawab Fatah Khan, who had a powerful 
backing amongst the minor Daudputra Chiefs. Sadat Khan 
appealed in vain to the Governor- General, who informed 
him that the British Government was only bound to protect 
the actual Chief against external enemies. Fatah Khan was 
thus duly recognized as Nawab. His deposed brother was 
granted an asylum in British Territory, and an allowance 
of Rs. 19,200 per annum was assigned for his maintenance; 
he agreeing to relinquish for ever on his own part and that 
of his heirs all claims to the Principality of Bahawalpur. 
But the promise was violated within the same year by the 
ex-Nawab, who was encouraged in his misconduct by the 
intriguing Daudputra Sardars. They well remembered the 
ease with which they had carried out the late revolution, 
and hoped by constant interference to lessen the authority of 
the ruling family, and thus increase their own power. On this 
occasion, however, they miscalculated the energies of the 



THE BAHAWALPUR STATE. 



19 



Supreme Government. Sadat Khan was promptly locked up 
in the Lahore Fort, and half his allowances were stopped until 
such time as he should show himself worthy of enjoying 
them. He died in 1864, leaving no issue. 

In 1863 the Daudputras organised an insurrection 
against the authority of the Nawab Bahawal Khan. The 
rebellion was speedily crushed ; but it broke out again in the 
autumn of 1865, and also in March of the following year, on 
each occasion without success. Just after he had crushed 
this last rising, the Nawab suddenly died, not without sus- 
picion of foul play. Further disorders followed, and it was 
finally decided to place the administration in British hands 
during the minority of Sadik Mahomed Khan, the present 
Nawab, then a minor under his mother's care. There ap- 
peared to be no other means of keeping the insubordinate 
Sardars in check, as they had come to believe their personal 
interests would be better served by a practical dissolution of 
the dynasty. 

Accordingly, in July 1866, the management of the 
State was assumed by the Commissioner of Multan, and 
shortly afterwards by a regular Political Agent, invested, 
under the general supervision of the Panjab Government, 
with full powers for the re-organisation and administration 
of the State. The principles laid down for this officer's 
guidance were to govern, as far as possible, through the local 
agency, and to organise affairs on such a basis that when the 
Nawab reached the age of eighteen years the administration 
might be handed back to him in a form likely to continue 
efficient in the hands of his own people. The State was in 
the last stage of exhaustion when Colonel Minchin took over 
the duties in 1867 ; and it is said there were but two men of 
position and influence left in the country. The others had 
been either killed off or had died in exile, ^nd their families 



20 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

were In poverty owing to the confiscation of their estates. 
There was no executive staff worthy of the name, and no 
officials who could be entrusted with positions of responsibi- 
lity. The treasury was empty; the salaries of the servants of 
all grades were hopelessly in arrears ; the army was starving 
and mutinous ; the canals neglected and falling into decay; 
and a considerable portion of the proprietary body had aban- 
doned their holdings, and were cultivating in the adjoining 
districts as yearly tenants. 

Affairs rapidly improved under British management. 
Every department was thoroughly re-organised, and within a 
few years the State was once more in a flourishing condition. 
The Nawab attained his majority in November, 1879, ^^'^ he 
was duly invested with full powers in the same year by the 
Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab. His Honor took the 
opportunity of noticing the improvement which good govern- 
ment had effected. The revenue, none of which could be 
collected in 1865, rose in the first year of settled administra- 
tion to fourteen lakhs, and at the time of the Nawab' s in- 
stallation had reached twenty lakhs. Roads, bridges, and 
public buildings had been constructed, the ancient canals 
had been enlarged and repaired, and new ones projected and 
carried out, adding a quarter of a million of acres to the 
irrigated area. The Indus Valley Railway, now a portion of 
the North -Western system, was made to run through the 
State for a length of one hundred and fifty miles, constructed 
entirely at the cost of the Supreme Government. 

The Nawab Sadik Mahomed Khan has since his in- 
vestiture carried on the administration, assisted by a 
Council of experienced officials of his own State. Bahawal- 
pur took an active share in the preparations for the 
Second Afghan War, and especially in assisting the Ouetta 
Column under Lieutenant-General Sir Donald Stewart. 
More than twenty thousand camels were made over to the 



THE BAHAWALPUR STATE. 21 

Transport Department, in addition to large numbers of bul- 
locks and ponies. The Nawab personally superintended all 
the arrangements in the most energetic manner. Five hun- 
dred men of the State infantry and one hundred sowars were 
stationed at Dera Ghazi Khan, and did useful service in 
strengthening the frontier posts which were vacated by our 
regular regiments. The Nawab again made loyal offers of 
assistance in connection with the operations in Egypt and 
the Soudan ; and he has joined with the other Ruling Chiefs 
of the Panjab in organising and equipping a special force, 
consisting of one hundred and fifty cavalry and four hundred 
infantry, for employment beyond the limits of his State, 
whenever their services may be recjuired. 

In precedence the Bahawalpur Chief ranks second in 
the Panjab. He is entitled to a salute of seventeen guns, 
and he receives a return visit from the Viceroy. 



22 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE JIND STATE. 



Til oka 



I 

Rama, 

ancestor of the 

Patiala and 

Bhadaur family. 



I 

Raghu, 
ancestor of 
the Jiundan 

family. 



I I I 

Chanu. Jhandu. Takhat Mai. 



Ancestors of the Laudgharia 
family. 



Gurdita, 
ancestor of the 
Kabha family. 



Sukhchen, 

d. 1751. 

I 



Alam Singh, 
d. 1764. 



Mahar Singh, 
d. 177 1. 

I 
Ilari Sino-h, 



.1 ,. .1 

Raja Gajpat Singh, B:daki Singh, 

d. 1789. from whom have descended 

I the U ialpuria Sardars. 

I I 

Raja Bhag Singh, Bhup Singh, 



d. 1819. 



d. 1815. 



(/. 17S1. Raja Fatah 

Singh, 

d. 1822. 

I 

Raja vSangat Singh, 

d. 1834. 



Partab 

Singh, 

d. 1816. 



Mahtab 
Singh, 
d. 1816. 



I . 
Karam Singh, 
d. 1828. 



Raja Sanip Singh, 

d. 1S64. 

I 



Basawa Singh, 
d. 1830. 



Sukha Singh, 
d. 1852. 

I 



Randhir 

Singh, 

d. 1848. 



I 
Raja Raghbir 
Singh, 
d. 1887. 

I 
Balbir Singh. 

Raja Ranbir Singh, 
b. 1879. 



Harnam 
Singh, 
d. 1856. 



Raja Hira Singh 

(of Nabha)," 

b. 1843. 



Ehagwan Singh, 

d. 1852. 

I 

I 



Diwan 

Singh, 

b. 1841. 

I 



I 

Sher 

Singh, 

d. 1882. 



Chatar 

Singh, 

d, 1861. 



I 

Har Narain Singh, 

b. 1S61. 



Sher Singh, 
b. 1872. 



The Jind territory comprises an area of about twelve 
hunderd square miles and has a population of a third of a 
million. The revenue has rapidly increased of late years, 
and now amounts to between six and seven lakhs of rupees. 



THE JIN D STATE. 23 

A military force is maintained of two thousand men of all 
arms. Under an offer made to the British Government in 
1887, and accepted, the State maintains a contingent of two 
troops of cavalry and a regiment of infantry for service beyond 
the border whenever the necessity for its employment may 
arise. The special troops in this and the other leading Panjab 
States are being armed with breech-loading rifles, and each 
Chief is receiving a gift from the British Government of gmis 
for a battery of artillery. The Raja of Jind ranks third in 
order of precedence in the Panjab. 

The ruling family of Jind has a common ancestor with 
that of Patiala in the celebrated Sidhu Jat, Phul, from whom 
so many of the best houses in the Panjab have sprung. 
Raja Gajpat Singh, founder of the Jind dynasty, was a great- 
grandson of Phul. His daughter, Bibi Raj Kanwar, married 
Sardar Mahan Singh, Sukarchakia, and became the mother 
of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Lahore. Gajpat Singh took 
part in the Sikh coalition of 1763 against Zin Khan, Afghan 
Governor of Sarhand, and received a large tract of country 
as his share of the spoil, including the districts of Jind and 
Safaidon. His rebellion was condoned by the Court of 
Uehli, and he was appointed revenue farmer of the villages 
in his possession. In 1767 his accounts were a lakh a.nd 
a half in arrears, and the local Governor put pressure upon 
him for settlement by sending him a prisoner to Dehli. He 
ultimately discharged the demand and was taken into favour, 
receiving the title of Raja in a Royal Firman under the seal 
of the Emperor Shah Alam. This was in 1772. From this 
time Gajpat Singh assumed the style of an independent 
Prince, and coined money in his own name. His position on 
the north-western corner of the Rohtak country made it easy 
for him to invade Gohana and Hissar whenever the Mah- 
ratas happened to have their hands full elsewhere ; and he and 
his son Bhag Singh ultimately farmed these territories as 



24 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

lessees of the Mahratas, and held them until the beginning 
of the present century. Raja Bhag Singh had shrewdly held 
aloof from the combination against the English ; and when 
Sindia's power was ultimately broken, and that Chief was 
obliged, under the Treaty of 30th December, 1803, to sur- 
render his possessions west of the Jamna, Lord Lake rewarded 
Bhag Singh by confirming his title in the Gohana estates. 
He afterwards accompanied Lord Lake as far as the Bias in 
his pursuit of Jaswant Rao Holkar, and he was sent as an 
envoy to his nephew, the Maharaja Ranj it Singh, to dissuade 
him from assisting the fugitive Prince. The mission was 
successful. Holkar was compelled to leave the Panjab, and 
Bhag Singh received as his reward the pargana of Bawana 
to the south-west of Panipat. 

Raja Bhag Singh died in 18 19 after ruling thirty years. 
He had been a consistent friend of the English throughout, 
and his loyal and active behaviour was of the highest value 
in the early days of our advance beyond Dehli. Troublous 
times followed, and his grandson Sangat Singh was obliged 
for a period to desert his capital and make over the adminis- 
tration to foreign hands. Jind in those days was described 
as " the worst of the ill-managed States on the Satlaj border." 
Matters, however, mended after his death, sonless, in 1834, 
The question of escheat was then raised, as there were no 
direct heirs, though the collateral claimants were many. 
Orders were finally passed, in 1837, in favour of Sarup Singh, 
a third cousin of the deceased Raja, as the nearest male 
heir. But he was held as having no right to succeed to more 
territory than was possessed by his great-grandfather Gajpat 
Singh, through whom he derived his title. This consisted 
of Jind Proper and nine other parganas, containing three 
hundred and twenty-two villages, having a revenue of 
Rs. 2,36,000. Estates yielding Rs. 1,82,000 were resumed 
by the British Government as escheats. 



THE JIN D STATE. 25 

Raja Sarup Singh's behaviour during the First Sikh War 
was all that could be desired. His contingent served with 
the British troops, and every assistance was rendered in the 
matter of carriage and supplies. He received in reward 
a grant of land of the annual value of Rs. 3,000. To this 
another grant, yielding Rs. 1,000, was shortly afterwards 
added in consideration of the abolition of his State transit 
dues. In 1847 the Raja received a Sanad, whereunder the 
British Government engaged never to demand from him 
or his successors tribute or revenue, or commutation in lieu 
of troops ; the Raja on his part promising to aid with all 
his resources in case of war, to maintain the military roads, 
and to suppress saii, slave-dealing, and infanticide in his 
territories.* 

Raja Sarup Singh's loyafty was again conspicuous during 
the Mutiny. He occupied the cantonment of Karnal with eight 
hundred men, and held the ferry over the Jamna at Bhagpat, 
twenty miles north of Dehli, thus enabling the Mirut force to 
join Sir H. Barnard's column. The Raja was personally engag- 
ed in the battle of Alipur on the 8th of June, and received the 
congratulations of the Commander-in-Chief, who presented 
him with one of the captured guns. His contingent ultimate- 
ly took a prominent part in the assault on the city, scaling 
the walls with the British troops, and losing many of their 
number in killed and wounded. He was further active through- 
out in sending supplies to the besieging force and in keeping 
open the lines of communication and preserving order in the 
districts adjoining his State. These splendid services re- 
ceived a fitting reward in the bestowal upon him of the 
Dadri territory covering nearly six hundred square miles, 
forfeited for disloyalty by the Nawab of Bahadargarh. The 
estate now yields over two lakhs of revenue per annum. He 
was also given thirteen villages, assessed at Rs. 13,800, in 

* Griffin's A'ajas of the Taiijab. 



26 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the Kalaran pargana, close to Sangrur, where the Raja 
now has his capital. His salute was raised to eleven guns ; 
and he received a special Sanad, granting to him the power 
of adoption in case of failure of natural heirs, and legalizing 
the appointment of a successor by the two other Phulkian 
houses in the event of the Raja dying without nominating 
an heir. 

Raja Sarup Singh died in 1864. Griffin describes him 
as **in person and presence eminently princely. The stal- 
wart Sikh race could hardly show a taller or a stronger man. 
Clad in armour, as he loved to be, at the head of his troops, 
there was perhaps no other Prince in India who bore himself 
so gallantly and looked so true a soldier. The British Go- 
vernment has never had an ally more true in heart than 
Sarup Singh, who served it from affection and not from 
fear."* 

The Raja had been nominated a Knight Grand Com- 
mander of the Star of India a few months before his death. 
He was succeeded by his son Raghbir Singh, who was in 
every way worthy of his father. Immediately after his in- 
stallation he was called upon to put down a serious insurrec- 
tion in the newly-acquired territory of Dadri. The people 
objected to the new revenue assessment which had been 
based upon the English system, though the rates were much 
heavier than those prevailing in the neighbouring British 
districts. Fifty villages broke into open revolt, the Police 
Station of Badrah was seized, and rude entrenchments were 
thrown up outside some of the villages, while the semi-civilised 
tribes of Bikanir and Shekhawati were Invited to help, on pro- 
mise of plunder and pay. Raja Raghbir Singh lost no time 
in hurrying to the scene of the disturbance with about two 
thousand men of all arms. The village of Chakri, where the 

* Kajas of the Fanjab, p. 374. 



THE JIN D STATE. 27 

ringleaders of the rebellion had entrenched themselves, was 
carried by assault, and plundered and burnt. Two other 
villages were destroyed in like manner, and within six weeks 
of the outbreak the country was again perfectly quiet. 

Raja Raghbir Singh gave proof of his loyalty by fur- 
nishing a contingent of seven hundred soldiers during the last 
Afghan War for service in the field. They were employed 
in the Kuram Valley, and aided the British troops in holding 
the posts beyond our border. The Raja was a most able 
and enlightened Ruler ; and his death, which occurred in 
1887, while he was still in his prime, was regarded as a seri- 
ous loss for the whole province. His only son Balbir Singh 
died in his father's life-time, leaving a son, Ranbir Singh, 
the present Chief, born in 1879. During his minority the 
administration is being carried on by a Council, which has at 
its head General Ratan Singh, an old and trusted official of 
the State. The other members are Munshi Harsarup and 
Khalifa Rahim Bakhsh. The title of Raja-i-Rajagan has 
been conferred upon the Jind Chiefs in perpetuity. 



28 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE NABHA STATE. 



Phul. 

I 





Tilokha, 

d. 1687. 

1 






Five 


other 


sons. 


1 

Giudita, 

(i. 1754. 

1 

Siuatyn, 
</. 1752. 




gh, 




Singh, 




1 

Sukhchen, 

from whom the 

Jind family has 

descended. 


Kapur Singh. Hamir Singh, 
^i. 1783- 

Raja J'lswant Sin 
d. 1840. 
1 




Raiijit Singh, 
d. 1832. 


Rnja 


1 
Davindar 
d. 1865. 
1 




1 
Raja Tiharpuv 
d. 1863. 


Singh, 








Raja 


1 
Bhagwan Singh, 
d. 1871. 



In precedence, the Raja of Nabha ranks fourth amongst 
the Panjab Chiefs. He is entitled to a personal salute of 
thirteen guns, and receives a return visit from the Viceroy. 
The area of the State is eight hundred and sixty square miles, 
and the population under a quarter of a million souls. The 
revenue varies from six to seven lakhs. A military force is 
maintained of fifteen hundred men, of whom one-half are 
specially drilled and equipped for service in the field with 
British troops, in accordance with an offer made by all the 
leading Panjab States and accepted by Government in 1888. 

The ruling family are of the same stock as those of 
Patiala and Jind, being Sidhu Jat Sikhs, counting back to 
the illustrious Phul. The foundations of the house were laid 
by Hamir Singh, who joined his Sikh brethren in the capture 



THE NABHA STATE. 29 

of Sarhand about the middle of the last century, and obtained 
as his reward the pargana of Amloh. He added many 
villages to the possessions received from his grandfather 
Gurdita ; he founded the present town of Nabha, struck coin 
in his own name, and exercised all the powers of an indepen- 
dent ruler for some years before his death, which occurred 
in 1783. His successor, Jaswant Singh, took sides with the 
British when Holkar, the Mahrata Prince, was being driven 
upwards to Lahore, and in return was assured by Lord 
Lake that so long as his disposition towards us remained 
unchanged his possessions would never be curtailed, nor any 
demand made on him for tribute. He was formally taken 
under the protection of the British in May 1 809 with the 
other Malwa Chiefs. The revenues of Nabha in those days 
barely reached one and a half lakhs. 

The quarrel, which lasted for many years, between Raja 
Jaswant Singh and the Sardars of Lidhran, has been des- 
cribed in another chapter ; and there is no necessity for 
dwelling upon the Raja's unhappy relations with his son 
Kanwar Ranjit Singh, which embittered the best years of his 
life. He had always proved a faithful ally of the British, 
and gave without stint when his assistance was of value. 
He furnished supplies for Ochterlony's Gurkha Campaign 
in the Simla Hills ; and hie advanced six lakhs of rupees 
towards the charges of the army which marched to Kabul 
in 1838. 

Raja Jaswant Singh was succeeded in 1840 by his son 
Davindar Singh, a vain, arrogant Prince, who had the mis- 
fortune to be Ruler during the First Sikh War. He was 
found to have intrigued with the Court of Lahore previous 
to the war ; he took no measures for the supply of transport 
and provisions ; he disregarded the most direct orders to 
attend the army in person, and he held back until fortune 



30 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

had unmistakably declared in favour of the English. He was 
accordingly removed from his State at the end of the war ; and 
it passed to his eldest son, Bharpur Singh, then a boy of seven 
years. Nearly one-fourth of his possessions were confiscated, 
the greater portion being made over to the Chiefs of Patiala 
and Faridkot in reward of loyal services rendered. The ex- 
Raja died at Lahore in 1865. 

Bharpur Singh attained his majority a few months after 
the outbreak of the Mutiny. He acted throughout with exem- 
plary loyalty, performing services not less distinguished than 
those of the other great Chiefs of the Panjab. He held charge 
of the station of Ludhiana and of the neighbouring Satlaj 
ferries at the commencement of the outbreak ; and he des- 
patched a small contingent to Dehli, which did good service at 
the siege. He further recruited many soldiers from amongst 
his own subjects, furnished supplies and carriage, arrested 
mutineers, and performed every work required of him with the 
utmost loyalty and good-will. His services were rewarded 
with the grant of the divisions of Bawal and Kanti, assessed 
at over a lakh of rupees, in the confiscated territory of Jhajar, 
on condition of military and political service in times of general 
danger and disturbance. He was also formally granted the 
power of life and death over his subjects, the right of adoption, 
and the promise of non-interference by the British in the in- 
ternal affairs of his State. The Raja was subsequently allow- 
ed to purchase a portion of the Kanaund sub-division of Jhajar, 
in liquidation of a loan made by him to the Government. He 
was a Prince of the highest promise, who devoted all his ener- 
gies to the well-being of his people ; and his early death in 
1863 was felt far beyond the limits of his own State. The 
Chiefship devolved upon his brother Bhagwan Singh, who, 
under the rules in force, was required to pay a succession 
nazarana, he being neither a direct heir nor an adopted son 



THE NABHA STATE. 31 

of the late Raja. He died in 1871. The Raja left no sons, 
and there was no near relative who could claim the Chief- 
ship. It therefore became necessary to elect a successor 
under the terms of the Sanad of i860, granted to the Phulkian 
States, which provided that in the event of failure of male 
issue an heir should be selected from amongst the members 
of the family by the two remaining Chiefs and by a represent- 
ative of the British Government acting jointly. The choice 
fell upon Sardar Hira Singh of Badrukhan, a cousin of the 
Raja of Jind ; and the appointment was confirmed and recog- 
nised by the Viceroy and the Secretary of State for India. 
Raja Hira Singh was installed on the loth August, 1871, by 
the Commissioner of Dehli, representing the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Panjab. He has proved himself an ener- 
getic and able ruler. The State had fallen into the utmost 
disorder during the later years of his predecessor's reign. 
Justice was only to be had upon payment, and bribery and 
embezzlement prevailed in almost every department. These 
stains have long since been wiped out, and Nabha is now 
one of the best-ordered and best-governed of the States of 
the Panjab. 

Raja Hira Singh joined with the other Chiefs of the 
Province in providing a contingent of troops for service on 
the frontier during the Afghan War of 1879-80. His quota 
consisted of two hundred cavalry, five hundred infantry and 
two field guns. They did excellent service in the Kuram 
Valley throughout the first phase of the Campaign. The 
Nabha State has lately undertaken to train and maintain a 
special force of one hundred and fifty horse and six hun- 
dred infantry for service in the field with British troops on 
occasions of emergency; and in other ways Raja Hira 
Singh has given repeated proofs of his desire to contri- 
bute to the power and prestige of the Empire. The Grand 
Cross of the Star of India was conferred upon him in 1879, 



32 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



and his salute was raised as a personal distinction to thirteen 
guns. His only son Rapdaman Singh was born in 1883. 

As the present Raja is not a direct heir of the old house 
of Nabha, which became extinct on the death of Raja Bhag- 
wan Singh, it becomes necessary to give a short sketch of 
the Badrukhan family, of which he is a member. They 
ranked next amongst the Phulkians after Bhadaur and Malod; 
the ancestor of their branch, Bhup vSingh, being a younger 
son of the Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, as shown in the follow- 
ing pedigree table : — 

Raja Gajpat Sinch of Jind, 
d. 17S9. 
I ■ 



Raja Bhag Singh, 
d. 1S19. 



I 

Bhup Singh. 

d. 1S15. 



Karm Singh, 
d. 182S. 



Basawa Singh, 
d. 1830. 



Raja Sarup Singh, 
d. 1864, 
(from whom is descended 
the present Rnja of Jind). 



Suklia Singh, 
d. 1S52. 



Bhagwan Singh, 
d. 1852. 



Harnam Singh, 
d. 1856. 



I 
Raja Hira Singh 
OF Nabha, 
k 1S43. 

I 
Rapdaman Singh, 

b. 1883. 
I 



Diwan Singh, 

b. 1841. 

I 



I. 

Sher Singh, 

d. 1882. 



Chatar Singh, 
d. 1861. 



I 

Har Navain Singh, 
b. 1861. 



Shamsher Singh, 
b. 1872. 



Sardar Bhup Singh's estate was separated from that of 
his brother Bhag Singh in 1789 on the death of Raja Gajpat 
Singh. But in 1834 Bhup Singh's grandson Sarup Singh 



THE NABHA STATE. 33 

succeeded to the Chlefship of Jind on the failure of heirs to 
his cousin the Raja Sangat Singh. The Badrukhan estates 
were thus left in the line of Basawa Singh, younger son of 
Bhup Singh. On Basawa Singh's death in 1830 his estates 
passed to his two sons in equal shares ; and Sardar Hira 
Singh became full owner of his father's share and head of 
the Badrukhan house on his brother's death in 1856. When 
selected for the Chiefship of Nabha in 1871, he was obliged 
to relinquish his Badrukhan lands, which reverted to his 
cousin the Raja of Jind. Sirdar Diwan Singh is now the 
representative of the Badrukhan Sardars. He lives at Bad- 
rukhan in the Jind State. 



34 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 

Sadhu Singh. 
Gopal Singh. 
Dewa Singh. 

I r i 

Gurbaksh Singh. Sadar Singh. Badar Singh, 

I ! «'.I723. 

Karpal Singh. | | | 

I Lai Singh. Mana Singh. Sardar Jasa Singh, 

Ladha Singh. | d. 1783. 

I Mahar Singh. 

Sardar Bagh Singh, 
d. 1801. 

Sardar Fatah Singh, 

d. 1836. 

I 



I I 

Raja Nahal Singh, Sardar Amar Singh, 

d. 1S52. d. 1841. 



.1 I I I 

Raja Randhir Sardar Bikrama Kanwar Sachet Daughter (married 

Singh, Singh, Singh, Sardar Diwan Singh of 

a'. 1870, d. 1887. b. 1837. Makandpur), 

I . I d. 1845. 

I I Ranjit Singh, I 

Partab Singh, Daljit Singh, '''• ^^83. Sardar Bhagat Singh, 

b. 1871. b, 1879. l>- 1845. 



I I Sardar Gulab Singh, 

Raja Kharak Kanwar Harnam b. 1S61. 

Singh, Singh, | 

d. 1877. i>- 1851- I I I I 

I I Arjan Angad Rajeshar Triloki 

Raja Jagat Singh, Singh, Singh, Singh, 

Jit Singh, b. 1879. b. 1880. b. 1883. b. 1885. 

b. 1872. 



I I I I I I 

Raghbir Maharaj Shamsher Rajindar Indarjit Dahp 

Singh, Singh, Singh, Singh, Singh, Singh, 

b. 1876. b. 1878. b. 1879. d. 1882. b. 1883. b. 1885. 

Kapurthala Proper runs in a narrow strip along the left 
bank of the Bias to its junction near the Makhu Ferry with 
the Satlaj, and there is an outlying portion, Phagwara, be- 
tween Jalandhar and Philaur ; besides the pargana of Bunga, 
a small islet, consisting of twenty-four villages, situated west 
of Hushiarpur. The State is also owner of a few villages in 



THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 35 

the Amrltsar and Lahore Districts. The whole area in the 
Panjab covers six hundred and twenty square miles, and the 
revenue is slightly over ten lakhs. The population numbers 
about a quarter of a million. To this have to be added the 
Raja's possessions in Oudh and the North -West Provinces. 
The latter consists of the estate of Bogpur, in the Bijnaur 
District. In the Oudh districts of Baraich and Lakhimpur 
the Raja has talukdari estates extending over seven hundred 
square miles, and yielding a revenue nearly as large as 
his patrimony in the Panjab. These were acquired in the 
time of his grandfather the Raja Randhir Singh, part- 
ly by purchase and partly In gift from the British Govern- 
ment as a reward for services rendered in the Mutiny. The 
Raja is entitled, to a salute of eleven guns, and he is honored 
by receiving a return visit from His Excellency the Viceroy. 
He is addressed by the title of Raja-i-Rajagan, as a special 
distinction, originally conferred in the time of his grandfather. 
The title of Raja was first enjoyed by the present Ruler's 
great-grandfather Nahal Singh, to whom it was given in 
1849 "^ acknowledgment of his services during the Second 
Sikh War. The Ahluwalia Chiefs hold their Panjab pos- 
sessions under condition of assisting the Supreme Power 
with all their means In times of trouble. The commuta- 
tion in lieu of military' service Is fixed at Rs. 1,31,000 
per annum. 

The Rajas of Kapurthala stand fifth In the precedence 
table of the Panjab. No Sanad has been conferred, as ia 
the cases of Jind and Nabha, granting the power of life and 
death, and engaging to abstain from interference in the ad- 
ministration of the State. Sentences of death accordingly 
require the confirmation of the Commissioner of Jalandhar. 

The Ahluwalia family is said to have a connection, very 
remote, with the actual ruling Rajput house of Jasalmir. 



36 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

This relationship has lately been re-asserted ; and the present 
Chief has contracted a marriage with a Rajput lady of Kangra. 
But the family has been regarded throughout the last century 
of Panjab History as of the Kalal branch of Sikhs. Their 
ancestor Sadhu Singh was an enterprising zamindar who, about 
three hundred years ago, founded four villages in the vicinity 
of Lahore. These are still held in proprietary right by his 
representative. One of them, Ahlu, caused the family to 
be known by the distinguishing name of Ahluwalia. 

Sardar Jasa Singh was the real founder of the family. 
He was a contemporary of Nadar Shah and of Ahmad Shah, 
and took advantage of the troubled times in which he lived 
to annex territory on a large scale and make himself by his 
intelligence and bravery the leading Sikh of his day. He 
was constantly at feud with the local Mahomedan Gover- 
nors of Lahore, and he was usually victorious, even when it 
came to fighting in the open field. In 1748 he attacked and 
killed Salabat Khan, Governor of Amritsar, seizing a large 
portion of the district ; and five years later he extended his 
conquests to the edge of the Bias, defeating Adina Beg, Gov- 
ernor of the Jalandhar Doab, and taking possession of 
the Fatehabad pargana which is still held in the family. 
He next captured Sarhand and Dialpur, south of the Satlaj, 
giving a half-share in the latter to the Sodhis of Kartar- 
pur ; and marched thence to Firozpur, and seized the par- 
ganas of Dogar and Makhu, which were held by the 
Ahluwalia Chiefs until after the Satlaj Campaign. Hushiar- 
pur, Bhairog and Naraingarh fell to his sword in the same 
year; and Rai Ibrahim, then the Mahomedan Chief of Kapur- 
thala, only saved himself from obliteration by becoming a 
feudatory of the successful Sikh. Then he marched south of 
Lahore to Jhang, and tried issues with the Sial Sardar Inayat- 
ula ; but here success deserted him, and he had to return 
without having done much harm. He failed also in an 



THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 



37 



expedition to Gujranwala against Charat Singh Sukarchakia, 
grandfather of IMaharaja Ranjit Singh, who beat him back 
upon Lahore with the loss of his guns and his baggage. 

Sardar Jasa Singh was undoubtedly the foremost amongst 
the Sikhs north of the Satlaj in the middle of the last cen- 
tury, and the equal of any Chief south of that river. This 
position he maintained throughout his life, though his for- 
tunes were constantly changing, and he was more than once 
on the verge of losing all he had acquired. Thus he was 
engaged on one occasion foraging south of the Jamna, when 
he was re-called to the Panjab by the return of Ahmad Shah 
from Kabul, for the special purpose of administering punish- 
ment to the lawless Sikhs. The fight took place near Barnala 
on the Satlaj, and the King scored a brilliant victory. The 
Sikhs were again badly beaten a few months later near Sar- 
hand ; and Jasa Singh and his brother Chiefs found them- 
selves obliged to seek refuge in the Kangra hills. They, 
however, had their revenge shortly after in the capture and 
plunder of the strongly-fortified town of Kasur. This was, of 
course, when the Emperor was busy elsewhere. Thence, 
under the leadership, as usual, of the brave Jasa Singh, they 
proceeded once more to the old battle-ground of Sarhand, 
a well-gnawed bone of contention between the Sikhs and the 
Musalmans. Zin Khan, the Governor, and almost all his 
men were slain, and the place thoroughly looted by the vic- 
torious soldiers of the Khalsa. Jasa Singh returned to Am- 
ritsar when the work was over, and as a thankoffering, made 
a large contribution towards the re-building of the Sikh 
Temple which Ahmad Shah had blown up, and constructed 
the Ahluwalia Bazar, which is to this day an architectural 
ornament in the sacred city. 

Jasa Singh was respected as much for his saintly and 
orthodox qualities as for his military abilities, which were 



38 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

no doubt most marked. Raja Amar Singh of Patiala and 
other Chiefs of renown were proud to accept the paJial or 
Sikh baptism from his hand ; and no matters of religious 
importance came up for discussion concerning which his 
advice was not asked and generally followed. He, in short, 
did more than any contemporary Sikh to consolidate the 
power of the Khalsa ; and his death was a calamity which 
might have damaged the new faith for ever had not the gap 
been speedily filled by a leader still more able, though not 
more brave and beloved, the redoubtable Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh. Of the two men, it may be said that Jasa Singh was 
a Sikh by honest conviction, while Ranjit Singh supported 
the movement because it was politically advantageous to 
do so. 

The Ahluwalia Sardarship passed to Jasa Singh's second 
cousin Bhag Singh, a man of very light calibre. He did 
little to improve the fortunes of the family, and died at Ka- 
purthala in 1 80 1, after ruling for eighteen years. His son 
Fatah Singh was in the beginning a fast friend of his ally 
and equal the Maharaja Ranjit Singh ; but he was rapidly 
outstripped in the race for power, and In the end found him- 
self In the position of a feudatory of the Lahore Government. 
Fatah Singh was at Amrltsar with Ranjit Singh when the 
Mahrata Chief Jaswant Rao Holkar was driven north of the 
Satlaj by Lord Lake's pursuing army; and It was on his 
advice that the Maharaja was dissuaded from giving offence 
to the British by lending countenance to the fugitive Prince. 
He and the Maharaja jointly signed the first Treaty, dated 
I St January, 1806, entered into by the British Government 
with the Rulers of the Trans-Satlaj. Thereunder the Eng- 
lish agreed never to enter the territories of '* the said Chief- 
tains," nor to form any plans for the seizure or sequestration 
of their possessions or propert}^ as long as they abstained 



THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 39 

■from holding any friendly connection with our enemies and 
from committing any act of hostility against us. In this 
Treaty both Ranjit Singh and Fatah Singh were styled 
Sardars. But they were never afterwards regarded as equals. 
Fatah Singh was of a weak, yielding nature, and shrank from 
asserting his own dignity. He thus fell by degrees under 
the powerful spell of the Maharaja, who finally treated him 
as a mere vassal, commanding his services on every military 
adventure, and insisting upon his constant attendance at 
Lahore. Matters at length became intolerable, even to the 
amiable Fatah Singh, and in 1825 he fled across the Satlaj 
and took refuge at Jagraon, then under British protection, 
abandoning his estates in both Doabs to the Maharaja. 
There was no real cause for this foolish step on the part of 
the Sardar, whose fears were apparently worked upon by the 
sudden advance of some of Ranjit Singh's regiments towards 
his border ; and the Maharaja was probably surprised and 
annoyed when he found his old friend had been driven into 
the arms of the English, whose settlements up against his 
Satlaj boundary had for some years caused him genuine con- 
cern. But the Sardar had been so harried by Ranjit Singh's 
imperious ways that he felt he must at all hazards secure a 
guarantee of his possessions Trans-Satlaj, such as had been 
accorded by the British to the Phulkian Chiefs lower down. 
This was, however, impossible, without coming to an open 
rupture with the Maharaja, in whose zone Fatah Singh's lands 
lay. All that could be done was to take his Cis-Satlaj estates 
under our protection and bring about a friendly reconciliation 
between the Chiefs, resulting in the restoration to the fugitive 
of all he had abandoned. The Cis-Satlaj territory was in 
any case secured to Fatah Singh under the general agree- 
ment of 1809. 

Sardar Fatah Singh died in 1837, and was succeed- 
ed by his son Nahal Singh, in whose time occurred 



40 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

events of vital import to Kapurthala. The early part of his 
rule was disturbed by constant quarrels with his brother 
Amar Singh, who, for some unexplained reason, considered 
himself his father's rightful heir. Then came a season of 
sore trial to him in the outbreak of the war on the Satlaj. 
Sardar Nahal Singh wavered to the last, withholding assis- 
tance from the British when it would have been of the utmost 
value. His troops actually fought against us under their 
commander Haider Ali, both at Aliwal and Badhowal ; 
but for this hostile act the Sardar was not personally 
responsible, inasmuch as the soldiers broke away from 
his control, and murdered the Wazir who attempted 
to restrain them. His conduct generally was, however, 
condemned as weak and vacillating ; for as a protected Cis- 
Satlaj feudatory he was bound to place all his resources at 
our disposal, and in this he failed. He, in fact, played a 
waiting game, wondering which side would win. At the end 
of the war the Sardar was confirmed in possession of his 
territories in the Jalandhar Doab, subject to an annual 
nazarana payment of Rs. 1,38,000; but his estates south of 
the Satlaj, yielding a revenue of Rs. 5,65,000, were declared 
an escheat to the British Government, he having failed to act 
up to his obligations under the Treaty of 1809. 

The lesson was not lost upon the Sadar. In the Second 
Sikh War he did all in his power to retrieve his name, fur- 
nishing carriage and supplies, and proving himself a loyal 
and active ally ; and at the close of the campaign he w^as 
honored with a visit from the Governor-General, Lord Dal- 
housie, who created him a Raja in acknowledgment of his 
valuable services. He died in 1852. Raja Randhir Singh 
who followed him had the gentle and generous nature of his 
father, and in addition a vigour and energy of purpose which 
secured him a high place amongst the many good men who 
were on the British side in 1857. On the first news of the out- 



THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 4X 

break of the Mutiny the Raja marched into Jalandhar at the 
head of his men and helped to hold the Doab, almost denuded 
of troops, until the fall of Dehli. The political effect of 
this active loyalty on the part of the leading Sikh Chief north 
of the Satlaj was of the utmost value ; and the Raja's able 
assistance was promptly acknowledged by the bestowal upon 
him of an honorable title, and by a reduction in the amount 
of his tribute payment. In 1858, the Panjab continuing 
quiet, Raja Randhir Singh was permitted to lead a con- 
tingent of his soldiers to Oudh and take part in the pacifica- 
tion of the disturbed districts. He remained in the field 
for ten m.onths, and was engaged with the enemy in six 
general actions. He is said to have avoided neither fatigue 
nor danger, remaining constantly at the head of his men, 
who fought at all times with conspicuous bravery, and earned 
for themselves the highest character for discipline and sol- 
dierly behaviour. 

For these great services the Raja was rewarded with a 
grant on istainrari tenure of the two confiscated estates of 
Baundi and Bithauli, in the Baraich and Bara Banki Dis- 
tricts, now yielding a rental of Rs. 4,35,000. To his brother 
Sardar Bikrama Singh, who had accompanied the Raja to 
Oudh, and behaved throughout the campaign with grea.t 
gallantry, was given a portion of the Akauna estate in 
Baraich, yielding Rs. 45,000 a year. This property was 
subsequently taken over by the Raja in 1869, under an arbitra- 
tion order of Sir Henr}^ Davies, then Chief Commissioner in 
Oudh ; Sardar Bikrama Singh receiving instead lands in 
Bareily and Lakhimpur of the value of five and a half lakhs 
of rupees, paid for by the Kapurthala State. The Raja's 
Akauna property now yields Rs. 3,60,000, and is subject to a 
Government demand of Rs. 1,32,000. 

Raja Randhir Singh was harassed for many years by a 
painful dispute with his younger brothers Sardars Bikrama 



42 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Singh and Suchet Singh, regarding the interpretation of a 
will made in their favour by Raja Nahal Singh. It is only 
necessary here to state that the matter was finally settled 
in 1869 by the Secretary of State for India, and that his 
orders were executed by giving to each of the younger brothers 
a life allowance of Rs. 60,000. It was at the same time laid 
down that a suitable provision should be made for their 
children on the death of the brothers. 

The last and most highly-prized privilege conferred 
upon Raja Randhir Singh for his Mutiny services was that 
of adoption, granted under a Sanad of Lord Canning, Viceroy 
and Governor-General, dated 31st March, 1862. In 1864 the 
Raja received the Insignia of Knighthood in the Order of the 
Star of India, in public Darbar, at the hands of Lord Lawrence, 
who warmly complimented the gallant Chief upon his well- 
deserved honor. The Raja had for years been desirous of 
visiting England to receive from Her Majesty's own lips 
the thanks that were his due, and to assure her of his devo- 
tion to her crown and person. He had arranged to leave 
India early in 1870, and he persisted in carrying out this 
intention, although suffering at the time from severe illness. 
But he had only proceeded as far as Aden when death over- 
took him. His remains were brought back to India, and 
cremated at Nasik, on the banks of the Godavri, where a 
handsome monument marks the resting-place of his ashes. 

His son Kharak Singh reigned for seven years. Noth- 
ing worthy of record happened in his time. A few years 
before his death the Raja exhibited symptoms of mental 
weakness, and it was deemed advisable to place the manage- 
ment of the State in the hands of a Council composed of the 
leading officials ; but the experiment was not successful, and 
in 1875 ^ British Officer was appointed to carry on as 
Superintendent. Raja Kharak Singh died in 1877, leaving 
one son, Jagat Jit Singh, the present Chief, born in 1872, 



THE KAPURTHALA STATE. 43 

He is being- carefully educated in English^ Sanskrit and 
Persian, and gives promise of becoming a Ruler of the 
highest good sense and intelligence. During his minority 
the State is being- administered by an Officer of the Panjab 
Commission, assisted by a Council composed of the principal 
officials of the State. 

The Raja's uncle, Kanwar Harnam Singh, C. I. E., 
holds the appointment of Manager of the Estates in Oudh. 

During the late Afghan War the Kapurthala State 
furnished a contingent of seven hundred men, composed of 
cavalr}^ artillery and infantry, for service beyond the British 
border. The force was employed on the Bannu frontier, and 
did good service under command of Sardar Nabi Bakhsh, 
C. I. E. Government has recently accepted the offer made on 
behalf of the minor Chief to maintain a select body of troops 
for service outside the limits of the State. The finances are 
in a flourishing condition ; the revenues increase year by 
year, and a handsome surplus has been accumulated during 
the minority of the Raja. 

Sardar Bikrama Singh, grand-uncle of the Raja, died in 
1877, as already mentioned. He had lived at Jalandhar 
for many years, and was known as one of the leading gentle- 
men of the Province ; kindly in his bearing, of unbounded 
charity and hospitality, always forward in loyal offers of 
service to Government. He was an Honorary Magistrate in 
Jalandhar, and had been exempted from personal attendance 
in our Civil Courts. The title of Bahadar was conferred 
upon him in 1858 for Mutiny services, together with a valu- 
able khilat. In 1879 ^^ was appointed an Honorary Assistant 
Commissioner, and in the same year he received the honor 
of Companionship in the Order of the Star of India. His 
advice was constantly sought by officials of the highest 
standing in matters affecting the general administration of 



44 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the country : while amongst his own people he was a leader 
in every religious and social movement which had for its 
object the real good of his native land. 

The Sardar's eldest son Partab Singh has been recently 
recommended for a commission in a cavalry regiment. He 
and his brother Daljit Singh receive an allowance, fixed by 
the Secretary of State, of Rs. 36,000 per annum from the 
Raja of Kapurthala. 

Kanwar Suchet Singh is also a prominent member of 
society, and has for years occupied positions in the Province 
analogous to those of his deceased brother. 

The leading officials of the Kapurthala State are Diwan 
Ram Jas, whose family has for many years held office under 
the Ahluwalia Chiefs. He accompanied the State troops to 
the frontier on the occasion of the late Kabul War, and was 
decorated with a medal and the Order of the Star of India. 
His son Lala Mathara Das is the Diwan or head revenue 
officer of Kapurthala. Sardar Bhagat Singh, C. I. E., Civil 
Judge, and in charge of the household, is a relative of the 
Raja. Sardar Nabi Bakhsh, in command of the troops, ac- 
companied the contingent in 1878-79, and his services were 
acknowledged by the bestowal upon him of the Order of the 
Indian Empire. Lala Harcharn Das is the Chief Magistrate, 
and his brother Lala Bhagwan Das performs the duties of 
Mir Munshi and Secretary to the Council. The other Coun- 
cil Members are Maulvi Waliula and Colonel Mahomed AH 
Khan. 



THE MANDI STATE. 



45 



THE MANDI STATE. 



Hari Sen, 
d. 1623. 



Raja Suraj Sen, 
(/. 1658. 



Raja Shiam Sen, 
d. 1673. 



I 
Gur Sen, 
d. 1678. 

I 



Dan Chand. 



I I 

Sudh Sen, Rlanak Chand. 
d. 1719. 

I 
Shib Joala Sen, 
d. 1703. 



Jipii. 



Shamsher Sen. 

Raja Shib Man Sen, 
d. 1779- 

I 

I 



Dhur Jatia. 

I 
Kaleswar. 



Raja Isri Sen, Raja Zalam 
d. 1S26. Sen. 

Raghnath Singh. 



I r 

Tegha Singh. Didar Singh. 

Bija Singh, 
i. 1836. 



Bhup Singh, 
^. 1837. 



Kahn Singh, 
l>. 1840. 



Sher Singh 
d. 1S46. 



Raja Balbir Sen, 

d. 1851. 

I 



Ratan Singh, 
d. 1813. 



Kapur Singh, 
L 1S18. 



Bhag Singh. 



Raja Bijai Sen, 
^. 1S48. 



Pardhan Singh. 



Man Singh. 
Kishan Singh. 



Mandi Is the leading Hill State of the Kangra Range, 
under the political control of the Commissioner of Jalandhar. 
It Is bounded on the west, north and east by Kangra and 
Kulu, and on the south by Suket and Bllaspur. The area Is 
estimated at twelve hundred square miles, and the population 
at one hundred and fifty thousand. Of the revenue of about 



46 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

four lakhs, one lakh is paid as tribute to the British Govern- 
ment. The country is very mountainous, being intersected 
by two parallel ranges, from which smaller hills and spurs 
diverge. It is watered by the Bias river which flows 
through from east to west, and receives the drainage of the 
whole of the hill slopes. The valleys are fertile and pro- 
duce all the ordinary grains, including rice, which is grown 
in large quantities. There are important salt mines at 
Guma and Dirang, yielding a profit which represents one- 
fifth of the revenues of the State. A small military force is 
maintained, but the men are underpaid and of poor physique, 
and have no value politically. 

The Mandi Rajas are of ancient Rajput lineage, being 
Mandials of the Chandar Bansi branch. Sen is the affix of 
the Chief's name, and his younger brothers take that of Singh. 
In the beginning of the thirteenth century the ]\Iandi Chiefs 
separated from the present house of Suket, and after wan- 
dering for eleven generations settled down finally at Bhin, 
close to Mandi, on the Bias. The existing capital was 
founded in 1527 by Ajbar Sen, who may be regarded as 
the first Raja of Mandi. The history of the State is of 
no interest previous to the Chiefship of Isri Sen, who in 
1779 succeeded his father Raja Shib Man Sen. He was 
then only four years of age. During his rule of forty- 
seven years, Mandi became the successive prey of the 
Katoches, the Gurkhas and the Sikhs, and lost her inde- 
pendence for ever. Raja Sansar Chand commenced by 
splitting up the State directly after Shib Man Sen's death. 
He made over the Hatli District to Suket ; Chuhari he 
gave to the Kulu Raja, while Nantpur was reserved for 
himself; and he carried off the Raja Isri Sen to Kangra, 
and kept him there a prisoner for twelve years. But 
the State continued to stand In Isri Sen's name, being 
administered by his old officials, who had to pay an annual 



THE MANDI STATE. 47 

tribute of a lakh to the Katoch Chief. Then came the in- 
vasion of the Gurkhas, incited by Raja Mahan Singh of 
Bilaspur. Isri Sen, free once more, was glad to tender his 
submission to Amar Singh Thapa, the Nipal General, who 
guaranteed him his territories in return for his neutrality in 
the war between the Gurkhas and the Katoches. Finally, 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh appeared on the scene, bidden by 
the humbled Chief Sansar Chand, whose restless ambition was 
the immediate cause of all the harm that was befalling his 
brother Princes. For five years after the beating back of 
the Gurkhas in 18 10, Mandi was made to pay a tribute of 
Rs. 30,000 to the Lahore Darbar. In 181 5 the demand 
was raised to a lakh, but fell in the following year to 
Rs. 50,000, at which figure it remained until the death of Isri 
Sen in 1826. The Chiefship then devolved upon his brother 
Zalam Sen, with whom Isri Singh had been on unfriendly 
terms for years. Zalam Sen was forced to pay a succession 
duty of a lakh, and his tribute to Lahore was raised to 
Rs. 75.000- 

In 1840 a large Sikh force was sent to Mandi 
under General Ventura, with the object of bringing this 
and other portions of the hill country into thorough sub- 
jection and preventing the possibility of danger by the 
retention of the State strongholds. Raja Balbir Sen, 
son of Isri Sen, was removed to Amritsar, and his forts 
were occupied by the Sikh troops. He was released in the 
following year on the accession of Maharaja Sher Singh, 
who had always exhibited a kindly feeling towards the petty 
rulers of the Kangra Hills. The Raja's tribute was fixed at 
Rs. 1,35,000, but by means of heavy bribes to the Darbar 
officials he was enabled to retain his country on far easier 
terms, and it is doubtful if he paid even half the amount 
assessed. He had, in common with all the Kangra Rajas, 
been anxious from the hrst to throw off the yoke of Lahore 
and come under British protection ; but there stood in the 



48 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

way the obstacle of our outward friendship with the Sikh 
Government. The Satlaj W^ar, however, gave him the 
opportunity he had longed for ; and though compelled 
under his feudatory obligations to send levies to fight against 
us on the field of Aliwal, his sympathies were on our side all 
through, and he hastened to tender his formal submission 
early in 1846. He had given proof of his good faith even 
before Sobraon, the decisive battle of the campaign, by driv- 
ing Sardar Mangal Singh Ramgarhia out of Mandi, and res- 
cuing all the forts except Kamlagarh from the Sikh garri- 
sions. A formal Sanad was granted to the Raja Balbir 
Sen, bearing date the 24th October, 1846, recognising his 
Chiefship, and defining his rights and obligations. His 
tribute was fixed at a lakh of rupees per annum. He was re- 
cjuired to join the British Army with his troops on the break- 
ing out of disturbances, and he was prohibited from levying 
customs duties on goods passing in and out of his State. In 
all other respects he was practically his own master as long 
as he carried on his government on civilised lines. Death 
sentences, however, were made subject to the confirmation of 
the Commissioner of Jalandhar. 

A claim to the Chiefship was about this time put for- 
ward by near relatives on behalf of the minor Rana Bhup 
Singh, a collateral of Raja Balbir Sen's in the fifth genera- 
tion. His claims were based upon the allegation of his being 
of purer blood than his cousin ; but they were not considered 
valid by the British Government ; and his chances of success 
were finally ruined by a foolish attempt made by his followers 
to capture the Palace by force. The young pretender was 
taken prisoner and confined for a short period in the jail at 
Simla. He now resides in Kangra, and receives a pension 
from the Alandi State. 

The affairs of the State fell into confusion during the 
minority of the present Raja, who was only four years of 



THE MANDI STATE. 49 

age when his father died. There was a struggle for power, in 
which all the officials took part, including the Wazir Gosaun, 
an arch-intriguer, whose double-dealing with the Sikhs and 
the English in 1846 nearly brought about the ruin of the 
IMandi State. But he was undoubtedly the most able of the 
Raja's advisers, and perhaps the most loyal to his individual 
interests. He was appointed as head of the Council of 
Regency in 1853, and matters quieted down for some years; 
but in 1 86 1 a change became necessar}^ and this was effect- 
ed by the banishment of Parohit Shib Shankar, one of the 
members of the Council. The Raja received over the ad- 
ministration in 1866; but his early training and unfavourable 
surroundings militated against his rapid success as a ruler ; 
and within four years of his investiture it was deemed desir- 
able to lend him the services of an English officer to advise 
in matters connected with the government of his State. This 
measure gave considerable strength to the administration, 
and the Raja was enabled within a short period to take full 
charge of his affairs. Early in 1889 the Raja again asked 
for the assistance of a British official, and j\Ir. H. J. Maynard, 
of the Bengal Civil Service, was temporarily deputed to 
Mandi. The Raja is of an amiable disposition, beloved by 
his subjects, and liked by all who know him. He has no 
legitimate sons. 

Considerable progress has been effected in public works 
during the incumbency of Raja Bijai Sen. A good mule- 
road over the Babu Pass connects ]\Iandi with Sultanpur in 
Kulu, and the communications with Kangra and Hushiarpur 
are also kept in thorough repair. A handsome suspension- 
bridge over the Bias, near the town of Mandi, was opened in 
1878; and the town of Mandi is now in postal and tele- 
graphic communication with British India. 

The leading officials are Jawala Singh, Wazir, late a 
Tahsildar in the Panjab, and Mian Suchet Singh,, brother of 
the Raja of Nadaun. 



go CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

The note which follows has been abstracted from a letter of the late 
Lord Lawrence, written in 1846, when Commissioner of the Jalandhar Doab. 
It is of interest as giving his views concerning the Kangra Hill States in the 
early Panjab days : — 

Shortly after the late war broke out, the Hill Chiefs, goaded by a sense of the injuries 
they had suffered in a long course of years, raised troops and threw off the Sikh yoke ; they 
attacked, respectively, the forts and territory of which they or their ancestors had been 
deprived, in many instances with complete success. 

These exertions, however meritorious, do not appear to me to have had any positive 
effect on the results of the campaign. The Sikhs had denuded the hills of troops to strength- 
en their levies before Ludhiana and Firozpur, so that the hillmen met with little opposi- 
tion. As it was, all the places of any strength, such as Kamlagarh, Kangra, Kotla and 
Nurpur, were still held by the Sikhs when tbe treaty was signed ; and their garrisons even 
then successfully resisted every attempt against them. 

The efforts that the Hill Chiefs then made are no doubt deserving of reward, and, as 
being so, I trust that Government will deal generously with them ; but I cannot see that it is 
any way called on, by the nature of their services, to cede to them the greater part of these 
districts. Indeed, such an act would, in my judgment, be highly impolitic. 

The Hill Chiefs greatly exaggerate the exertions they have made and the service we have 
received at their hands. They think that by their own unassisted eftorts they have re-con- 
quered the inheritance of their fathers, altogether forgetting that it was on the plains of 
Firozshahr and in the trenches of Sobraon that the fate of the Hill States and of the Sikh 
Empire was decided. I do not believe that in all the actions which occurred between the 
hillmen and the Sikhs, the former lost one hundred men. At Haripur, Vr-here they are said 
to have suffered most, their killed and wounded were thirty men ; at Tera they lost one man ; 
at Kotwalbaha I believe they lost four or five The Siba Chief fought against us ; the Nadaun 
Raja remained quiescent. 

Taking, therefore, their exertions and deserts into full consideration, I am of opinion 
that if Government maintain the Chiefs in the jagirs which they held under the Sikh rule and 
grant a money compensation to the Rajas ol Tera, Jaswan and Goler, who have plunged 
themselves into difficulties in raising and paying troops, it will not only do all that is neces- 
sary, but will satisfy tlie Chiefs themselves, who do not in their hearts expect more. 

It must not be forgotten that even in maintaining each Chief in possession of his jagir 
we confer no ordinary boon. They held their tenures under the Sikh Government by the 
most uncertain perhaps of all tenures— the caprice of the favourite who for the day ruled the 
Darbar. To secure their possessions they had but too often to sacrifice the honour of their 
families and their own pride ; and they had to bribe the Darbar with annual presents and 
feed the attendant minions. All this they will now be saved. 

The cases of the Chiefs of Mandi and Suket are peculiar. Their country was conquer- 
ed ; but they were allowed by the Sikhs to retain the management, and Government may 
therefore be inclined to deal more favourably with them. 

The Chiefs who do not recover possession of their ancient patrimony will, there can be 
little doubt, feel somewhat annoyed if Suket and Mandi are exempted from the general 
principle which affects the others. But the case of these Rajas and the other Chiefs is essen- 
tially different, and this I have explained to them all. 

It has been stated that we should obtain an excellent irregular contingent from these 
countries in the event of our restoring the Chiefs ; but experience would lead me to think 
that such is a delusion. Contingents are invariably ill-paid, half-armed, unorganised levies 
for a sudden effort where, acting in their own country, that may be of service ; but it is 
dangerous to trust them against their own countrymen. In short, to give away a large 
tract of country for the sake of such assistance would be paying for it at a ruinously high 
price. I would strongly recommend our retaining possession of these hills. Even in the 
case of the Rajas of Suket and Mandi I would only grant them the management of their pos- 
sessions on trial. I think we should abolish all customs throughout the country, with the 
exception of a moderate duty at the mines on iron and salt, and all transit duties, under 
severe penalties. In confirming jagirs, the police and customs should be especially except- 
ed. We should give the people a low assessment, and develop the resources of the coun- 
try by making good roads and bridges. And while careful against doing violence to their 
innocent prejudices, I would, by the introduction of a strong police and careful superinten- 
dence, sternly put down all such atrocities as saii, infanticide and slavery, which have 
hitherto prevailed. 



THE MANDl STATE. 51 

I am convinced that if we thus act, the people will never regret their ancient rulers 
and hereditary Chiefs, and that ten years hence the face of the country will present a new 
aspect. Already, with the experience the people have of our moderate assessment and 
even-handed justice, they have in instances come forward where their lands are in jagir, and 
requested me to take them out of the hands of their native masters. It may be asserted 
that while giving the country to its Chiefs we might bind them to do all that we propose ; 
but this appears to me to be a fallacy. While promising everything they will do nothing ; 
their efforts simply will be directed to please or to blind the Superintendent placed over 
them, nevet by legitimate means to carry out the wishes of Government ; and as we shall 
have given them their fiefs, so shall we be bound to maintain them in possession, and all 
the mismanagement and oppression which they perpetrate will be attributed to us. 



5» CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

THE SIRMUR STATE. 



RAJA SHAMSHER PARKASH, G.C.S.I., OF SIRMUR. 

Dharam Parkash. 

! 

Karam Parkash. 



Fatah Parkash, 

d. 1S50. 

I 



I I I 

Raghbir Parkash, Surjan Sinph, Bir Singh, 

d. 1S56. d. 1S81. d. 15)82. 

I . I 

Ranjor Singh, 



I I 

Raja Shamsher Kanwar Sural 

Parkash, Singh, 

b. 1S42. b. 1S53. 

I Infant, 

b. 1 888. 



I I 

Tika Surandar Bir Bikram 

Bikram Singh, 

Singh, b. 1870. 

b. 1864. 

1 

Son, 

3. 1 888. 

Simla Is the northernmost of the seven districts com- 
posing the Dehli Division of the Province. It consists of 
several detached plots situated in the mountain tracts north 
of Ambala, enclosed between the Satlaj and Jamna rivers. 
These isolated patches are scattered at considerable intervals 
amongst the independent Rajput States which cover the 
greater portion of the hill area, having had an existence for 
more than a thousand years. The portion under British ad- 
ministration is under ninety square miles, while the population 
numbers only a little over forty thousand souls. 

The Simla Chiefs appear to have enjoyed almost com- 
plete independence ever since their first establishment in 
these hills. They were apparently too insignificant to arouse 
the jealousy or attract the avarice of the Dehli Emperors ; 



THE SIRMUR STATE. 53 

and they had the wisdom, while fighting freely amongst 
themselves, to avoid giving offence to their all-powerful Ma- 
homedan neighbours, at whose mercy they were, had annex- 
ation been deemed necessary or desirable. 

At the time when the British Power was pushing beyond 
Dehli and establishing a series of outposts towards Ludhiana, 
taking under its protecting wing the Chiefs of the plains 
south of the Satlaj, the Gurkhas were quietly establishing 
themselves in a northern parallel line along the outer 
Himalayas, stopping only when they came in political contact 
with the Sikhs. Their sudden invasion of the Western 
Himalayas was instigated and supported by one of the leading 
Simla Rajas, who, to strengthen himself against a brother 
Chief in Kangra, had called to his aid the only power he 
believed could aid him. The inevitable result followed. 
The Gurkhas saw the country, and that it was easily retained : 
so they swept out the mild Rajas en bloc and kept the whole 
hill tract for themselves. The presence of the Nipalese along 
the British right flank, in a commanding position for harm, 
was a matter of concern for our officers charged with the 
consolidation of our power up to the foot of the hills ; and 
when other causes brought about the Nipal War of 181 5, it 
was thought advisable to attack the Simla posts before they 
were yet strong, and drive their garrisons back across the 
Jamna. This was done by Ochterlony, who, with the aid of 
the Rajputs, took possession of the whole mountain country 
between the Gogra and the Satlaj. Kamaun and Dera Dun 
were retained as British, and a few patches in the hills were 
held up for military purposes, or because there were special 
reasons for excluding the original owners. But the greater 
part was made over to the Rajput kinglets, who had ruled 
until Raja Maha Chand of Bilaspur brought the plague of Gur- 
khas upon this once peaceful land. The Simla Chiefs, almost 
to a man, co-operated with Ochterlony In driving out the 
common enemy ; and they have never since, It is believed, 



54 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

had cause, by unjust treatment or by undue interference with 
their rights and usages, to regret the step which they then 
took. 

The revenue jurisdiction of the Deputy Commissioner 
of Simla is small. He collects a land-tax of under Rs. 14,000 
wdth the aid of two Naib Tahsildars, But his duties in con- 
nection with the administration of the Hill States are more 
important, and he is, as Superintendent, the guide and coun- 
sellor to whom the twenty-seven Chiefs turn when in trouble 
with each other or with the people under their control. 
Theoretically, the Rajas are unfettered in the exercise of 
authority over their subjects, except in orders carrying with 
them sentences of death ; but, as they are mostly of a timid 
nature and fearful of responsibility, they do little without 
consulting the wishes of the local British officials. Their 
rule is usually mild and unoppressive, and their subjects are 
deeply attached to them. The simple people of the hills 
regard them almost in the light of gods, who, even if they 
do wrong occasionally, must still be clung to and venerated 
as a temporary evil from which good will in the end pro- 
ceed ; and I doubt if any subjects in all the East are so gene- 
rally happy as are the hillmen of Simla under their old here- 
ditary Chiefs. 

Raja Shamsher Parkash of Sirmur is the senior of the 
Rajput Rulers of the Simla Hills. His ancestors have occu- 
pied this country since the end of the eleventh century. 

In 1803 Sirmur was conquered by the Gurkhas, and 
the Raja was forced to acknowledge the supremacy of 
the Nipal Government as a condition of his remaining in 
nominal power. Karam Parkash was the Ruling Chief in 
181 5, when the Gurkhas were expelled; but he was 
removed on the ground of his notorious profligacy and 
imbecility, and the Chiefship passed to his eldest son 
Fatah Parkash. Under a Sanad dated 21st September, 



THE SIRMUR STATE. 55 

18 1 5, the British Government conferred on him and his 
heirs in perpetuity his ancient possessions, with certain 
exceptions. These were the fort and pargana of Morni, 
given to the Musalman Sardar of that place for good service 
in the war ; the Kiarda Dun, which was subsequently 
restored on payment of a nazarana of Rs. 50,000 ; a tract 
of hill country to the north of the river Giri, made over to 
the Rana of Keonthal, and the parganas of Jaunsar and 
Bawar, in the Dera Dun District, annexed to the British dom- 
inions. The Raja is required to consult the Superintendent 
of the Hill States in all matters connected with the manage- 
ment of his State, and in case of war to join the British 
troops with all his forces ; also to make roads throughout his 
territory. Sentences of death passed by him require the 
confirmation of the Commissioner of the Dehli Division. 

The present Raja succeeded his father Raghbir Parkash 
in 1856. His rule has been marked by conspicuous improve- 
ments in every department. He has established civil, 
criminal and revenue courts after the English method, and 
founded schools in the principal villages. He has also open- 
ed up good roads all through his State. His extensive sal 
forests are carefully conserved, and have become very valu- 
able. His army, consisting of one cavalry and two infantry 
battalions, and his police, worked on the British system, are 
under the control of English officers. He has established 
an iron foundry and workshops at Nahan on an extensive 
scale under the supervision of an English Engineer. He 
has reclaimed a considerable tract of waste land in the Kiarda 
Dun, and has purchased an extensive tea-garden at Kaula- 
garh in Dera Dun. 

The Raja is pre-eminently the most enlightened of the 
Simla Hill Chiefs. He was created a G. C.S.I, in February, 
1887, in recognition of services rendered during the late 
Afghan War, when he despatched a contingent of two hundred 



56 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

infantry under command of Colonel Whiting for duty in the 
Kuram Valley. His salute was at the same time raised to 
thirteen guns as a personal distinction, and he was accorded 
the honor of a return visit from His Excellency the Viceroy. 

The Raja married the two daughters of .the Raja of 
Keonthal, and has had two sons. The elder married in 1883 
a daughter of the late Raja of Suket, and the younger has 
married into the house of a Rajput jagirdar of Aligarh. Both 
Princes are well educated and of high promise. Kaur Bir 
Bikrama Singh has been lately given a Commission as a 
Lieutenant in the 2nd Gurkha Regiment. The Raja has 
Recently again married in the house of the Thakar of Kunhar, 
Simla. His first wives are dead. A sister of the Raja mar- 
ried the late Raja of Lambagraon, Kangra, and is the mother 
of the present Raja. 

The Raja's capital is at Nahan, at the head of the Kiarda 
Dun, west of the Jamna, before it enters the plains, about 
twelve miles from the Ambala border. It is a thriving town, the 
best in these hills, having British Telegraph and Post Offices. 
The area of the State is about 1,000 square miles, and the 
population 112,000. The income is estimated at nearly three 
lakhs, of which the land revenue represents about one-half. 

The affix " Singh " of the members of this family be- 
comes " Parkash" in the case of the Ruling Chief; Parkash 
signifying in Sanskrit "come to light." 



THE KAHLUR STATE. 57 

RAJA BIJE CHAND OF KAHLUR, BILASPUR. 



Raja Ajmer Chand. 
I 



Raja Davi Chand. Sakhat Chand. 

I I 

Raja Maha Chand. Bishan Chand. 

I, I 

Raja Kharak Raja Jagat 

Chand, Chand. 



d. 1836. 



Narpat Chand, 
d. 1850. 

! 
Raja Hira Chand, 
d. 1882. 

Raja Amar Chand, 
d. 1880. 



i I 

Raja Bije Chand, Sohan Singh, 

b. 1872. b. 1881. 



The Rajas of Bilaspur are descended from Damghokh, 
ancient ruler of a State in the south-west of Rajputana. 
Harihar Chand, a descendant of Angok, came on a pilgrimage 
many centuries ago to Jawalamukhi, a sacred place near 
Kangra, and settled at Jhandbari close by. One of his sons 
took possession of Chamba ; another carved out a principality 
for himself in Kanidon ; while a third, Bir Chand, founded 
the State of Bilaspur. Ajit Chand, twelfth in descent from 
Bir Chand, conquered Nalagarh, and gave it to his brother 
Suchet Chand, from whom the present ruling family of 
Hindur is descended. 

Nine years previous to the Gurkha invasion, the greater 
portion of the Kahlur lands Cis-Satlaj had been conquered 
and annexed to Hindur by the successful arms of Raja Ram 
Saran, while the further districts had in the same manner 
fallen into the hands of Raja Sansar Chand, Katoch. The 
Gurkhas expelled these Chiefs from their conquests, and 
restored Kahlur to the rightful owner, Raja Maha Chand, 



58 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

as a reward for his good offices in having invited them to 
conquer and hold the hill country. Raja Maha Chand, being 
thus an ally of the Gurkhas, refused to co-operate with the 
British troops under Sir David Ochterlony ; and a force was 
accordingly moved against Bilaspur, the capital of his State. 
But at its near approach the Raja made overtures of submis- 
sion which were favourably received by the British Agent ; 
and as it was considered desirable to afford an example 
of British clemency to the other Hill Chiefs, he was confirmed 
in all his hereditary possessions on the left bank of the 
Satlaj, on the stipulation that he would discontinue his con- 
nection with the Gurkhas and acknowledge the supremacy of 
the new power. This he of course did. He was granted 
a Sanad in 1815, confirming him in his territories, under 
the obligation of supplying troops and carriage in case of 
war, and of making good roads through his State. Raja 
Maha Chand was succeeded by his son Kharak Chand, 
a Chief of bad character and dissolute habits. He died 
childless in 1836, and the State might have been considered 
a fair lapse to the Government had it been deemed desirable 
to incorporate it with the remainder of our hill territory. 
But as a portion of the lands were situated Trans- Satlaj, and 
their appropriation would have brought us into immediate 
contact with Lahore, a proceeding at that time much depre- 
cated, it was settled that a successor should be found among 
the collateral relatives of the deceased. Raja Jagat Chand 
was thus chosen and declared to be the heir as nearest 
of kin to the late Chief in the collateral line; both having 
a common ancestor in Raja Ajmer Chand. Shortly after 
the death of Raja Kharak Chand in 1836, and while the 
question of succession was still in abeyance, one of his 
widows, the sister of Fatah Parkash of Sirmur, declared 
herself pregnant, and subsequently reported to the Agent 
the birth of a son to the deceased Raja. The lady's state- 



THE KAHLUR STATE. 59 

ment being- considered doubtful, an enquiry was instituted 
by Sir G. R. Clerk, which resulted in the child being de- 
clared supposititious ; and the claims made in his behalf to 
the succession were disallowed. Subsequently, the Sirmur 
Rani organised an insurrection, having for its object the 
deposition of Jagat Chand. She was joined by a consider- 
able portion of the inhabitants of Kahlur and by adherents 
from the other side of the Satlaj, and was thus enabled to 
drive out the reigning Chief and get possession of the capital, 
Bilaspur. This rebellion was only quelled, and the reigning 
Chief restored, by the advance of a body of British troops. 
The Rani was removed from Kahlur and directed to live at 
Sabathu, which thenceforward became the centre of plots 
and intrigues organised under her auspices with the object 
of advancing the claims of her alleged child. Matters soon 
became intolerable, and in the beginning of 1 849 she was 
deported to Nahan and placed in charge of the Raja, who 
was made responsible for her good behaviour. 

Raja Jagat Chand had a son named Narpat Chand, 
who, in consequence of his dissolute and intemperate life, fell 
into a state of imbecility. He died in 1850, leaving one son 
Hira Chand, who succeeded his grandfather as Raja and 
kept the Chiefship up to his death in 1882. In 1847, on 
the annexation of the Jalandhar Doab, the Raja was con- 
firmed in possession of the Kahlur lands on the right bank 
of the Satlaj, which he had previously held from the Sikhs 
under terms of allegiance and payment of tribute. The 
British Government excused the tribute payment, but required 
the Raja to abolish transit duties. 

The late Raja Amar Chand, whose mother belonged to 
the Raipur family in Ambala, died in 1889. He had one 
son, Bije Chand, by a Rani of the Garhwal family. Bije 
Chand, the present ruler, is a student in the Aitchison 



6o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

College. His aunt is married to the Raja Jai Chand of Lam- 
bagraon, Kangra ; and two of his sisters have married the 
only son of Raja Moti Singh of Punch. He himself has 
married a daughter of the Raja of Alankot. 

Bilaspur, the chief town, is situated on the left bank of 
the Satlaj, about thirty miles above Rupar. The area of 
the State is about five hundred square miles, and the popu- 
lation under sixty thousand. The revenue is computed at 
about one lakh of rupees. 



THE BASHAHR STATE. 6i 



RAJA SHAMSHER SINGH OF RAMPUR BASHAHR. 

Ram Singh. 

i 
Udar Singh. 

I 
Raja Ugar Singh. 

I 

Raja Mahindar Singh, 

d. IS 50. 



I 1 

Raja Shamsher Fatah Singh, 

Singh, d. 1876! 

b. 1S39. 
I 
Tika Raghnath Singh, 
l>. 1 868 

The Bashahr ruling family claims descent from the 
celebrated Srikishan of Hindu mythology. Parduman, grand- 
son of the deity, is said to have journeyed from Brindaban 
to Rampur, and there married the daughter of the ruler 
Bavasa Deo, whom he presently slew, keeping the kingdom 
for himself. Raja Shamsher Singh, now at the head of the 
State, can trace his ancestry back for one hundred and twenty 
generations. Early in the present century Bashahr was 
swept by the Gurkhas with the other mountainous tracts 
between the Ghagra and the Satlaj. In the war with Nipal 
which followed, the British Government deemed it expedient 
to expel the Gurkhas from these territories and drive them 
back upon their own border. It should be noted that the 
Gurkhas started upon their career of conquest under the 
pressing invitation of the Raja of Bilaspur, who was desirous 
of having their assistance in checking the encroachments of 
Sansar Chand, the famous Katoch Chief of Kangra, and of 
Raja Ram Saran, the no less celebrated ruler of Hindur. 

As the British force at the disposal of Ochterlony was 
small, and our object was not so much an extension of our 
own territory as the keeping of the Nipalese within reason- 
able limits, it was determined to secure the co-operation of 
the subjugated Chiefs by offering them restoration, and 



62 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

guaranteeing their future independence in the event of their 
taking our part in the quarrel. This the Simla Rajas did, with 
the one honorable exception of Bilaspur, who rightly consi- 
dered himself bound to adhere to the fortunes of his old allies. 
At the end of the war, a Sanad was granted to the minor 
Raja Mahindar Singh, father of the present Ruler of Bashahr, 
confirming him in all his ancient possessions, except Rawin, 
which was transferred to the Raja of Keonthal, to whom it 
had originally belonged, and Kotguru, which was kept up as 
a British possession. There was no hardship involved in 
our retention of Kotguru so far as the Bashahr State was 
concerned ; but the Raja of Kulu had perhaps some reason 
to complain. Shortly before the Gurkha invasion the Rana 
of Kot Khai, to whom Kotguru belonged, made over this 
portion of his State for management to the Raja of Kulu, as 
it was far removed from Kot Khai Proper, and the people 
had got out of his control. The Kulu Chief gladly accepted 
the charge ; but after a stewardship of short duration he 
ignored the rights of the real owner and incorporated Kot- 
guru with his own lands on the other side of the Satlaj. 
Kotguru thus remained for ten years under the rule of the 
Raja of Kulu. His title was, however, never recognised by 
the Chief of Bashahr, whose border touched the Kotguru 
District, and who wished to secure it for himself. It was 
the pleasantest of all the hill tracts, consisting of a low ranoe 
of hills sloping down to a strategical bend in the Satlaj, with 
plots of flat ground, and some good military posts, including 
the fort of Hatu, said to be the key of the country for miles 
around. The Bashahr Raja accordingly entered into posses- 
sion of Kotguru, and slew the Raja of Kulu who attempted to 
keep it for himself; and the dead Raja's body was only given 
up to his relatives on their promise to withdraw all claim to 
Kotguru. Bashahr was in possession only a very few months 
before the coming of the Gurkhas, and had therefore no real 



THE BASHAHR STATE. 63 

right to object to a cession of this estate to the British when 
the rest of the territory was restored on the conclusion of the 
Nipalese War. The State was handed over subject to a 
tribute payment of Rs. 15,000 per annum. This sum was 
ev^entually reduced to Rs. 3,945, in compensation for the 
abolition of transit duties. 

The present Raja succeeded his father in 1850. His 
conduct during the Mutiny was open to some doubt. He 
kept back his tribute, and in other ways exhibited a scepticism 
in the stability of our rule. Officials travelling through his 
territories were treated with discourtesy, and the ordinary 
supplies were withheld. The Governor-General's house at 
Chini was broken open and looted ; and Mian Fatah Singh, 
illegitimate brother of the Raja, openly declared himself ready 
to march upon Simla if only five hundred men would follow 
him. Lord William Hay, Deputy Commissioner, applied to 
have a force despatched to Rampur ; but there were no troops 
to spare, and the crisis passed off without action on either 
side. It was proposed after the rebellion to set the Raja 
aside and place the State in charge of the Superintendent of 
Simla ; but Lord Lawrence did not deem this measure ad- 
visable, and all that had happened was condoned. 

Raja Shamsher Singh's rule was not satisfactory in any 
respect, and in 1886 advantage was taken of his son Ragh- 
nath Singh having attained his majority, to place him in 
administrative charge of the State. Raja Shamsher Singh 
married into the Katoch house of Kangra, and with the 
Simla houses of Koti and Kamharsen. The latter lady is the 
mother of the Regent Raghnath Singh. 

The Bashahr territories are the largest in extent of all 
the Simla States ; but the people are poor, the population 
sparse, the revenues small, and the country generally back- 
ward in every sense. With an area of nearly three thousand 



64 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

five hundred square miles, the population is under sixty-five 
thousand. ' The capital, Rampur, is a picturesque little town 
on the banks of the Satlaj, and is famous for its wool trade. 
The well known Rampur chadars of commerce were origi- 
nally made here ; but the better imitations of Ludhiana, 
Amritsar and Kashmir, have driven the genuine article out 
of the market. 

The Bashahr forests were leased to the British Govern- 
ment, in 1877, for a period of forty-nine years, at an annual 
rental of Rs. 10,000, The income of the State is estimated 
at Rs. 50,000. 



THE HINDU R STATE. 65 

RAJA ISRI SINGH OF HINDUR, NALAGARII. 

Gaieh Singh. 

I 

Raja Ram Saran Singh. 

L_ 

I ! I I 

Raja F.!Je Sinijli, Fatah Singh, Raja Agar Singh, Bir Singh, 

./. 1857. d. 1872. </. 1S76. c/. 1S73. 

. I L 

Kesri Singh, i i 

'^- 1S75. Raja Jogindar 

I ISRi Singh, i^ingh, 

Bhagwan Singh, /a 1836. 0- 1S70. 

&. i860. 

I 

Gobardhan Singh, 

d. 18S5. 

The Chiefs of Hindur and Kahlur trace their origin to a 
common ancestor, a Chandel Rajput, who came from Garh 
Chanderi. The fort at Ramshahr, which commands a splen- 
did view of the plains towards Ludhiana and Hushiarpur, as 
well as of the snowy peaks of Chamba, is said to have been 
erected as a capital when the families were still united. It 
has been largely added to, and repaired by Rajas Agar Singh 
and Ram Saran, father and grandfather of the present Chief. 
Raja Ram Saran died at the age of eighty-six, having enjoyed 
a reign of about sixty years. He was expelled for a short 
period by the Gurkhas, and had to flee to Basal in Hushiar- 
pur. He then settled at Palasi, a fine fort on the plains be- 
tween Nalagarh and Rupar, living there for ten years. In 
the early part of his reign he had so extended his conquests 
that he was paramount from Palasi to Matiana, and eastwards 
as far as Ajmirgarh on the Jamna. Sabathu was also his, 
held by his Kardar Dharma Negi. But Sirmur escaped his 
grasp. 

The Gurkhas, at the invitation of the Bilaspur Raja, 
came from Nipal through the hills in 1803, and broke the 
power of Ram Saran and all the Hill Chiefs. The fort of 
Ramshahr was besieged by Gurkhas and Kahlurias ; and 
though it was provided with large tanks and granaries, the gar- 
rison was obliged to capitulate after a struggle which lasted 



66 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

three years. Then in 1814 came Sir David Ochterlony 
and his forces. A battle was fought at the Pass of Ramshahr, 
and another at Lohar Ghati near Malaun. In the latter, 
Bhagta Thapa, the Gurkha Commander, was slain ; and the 
campaign practically came to an end. 

Ram Saran joined Ochterlony when war was declared. 
Besides his natural dislike for the Gurkhas, he had to take 
his revenge upon the Bilaspur Chief who had caused all the 
trouble by calling in the foreigners. To the British he be- 
haved with consistent loyalty, and on the conclusion of the 
campaign was rewarded by being reinstated in his ances- 
tral estates. To his credit be it recorded that he absolutely 
refused to take over the districts he himself had recently 
conquered and annexed. He perhaps felt, when too late, that 
by his own ambition he had goaded the Bilaspuris to measures 
which they could only have adopted in their last extremity. 

In 181 5 the hilly district of Barauli, which devolved on 
the Government as an escheat by the extinction of the reign- 
ing family, was offered to Raja Ram Saran as a reward 
for his services in the war ; but he refused it on the grounds 
of the difficulty of administration owing to its distance from 
Hindur, and of his resolve not to add to his dominions. The 
tract was accordingly transferred to another Chief for the 
sum of Rs. 8,500, which amount was accounted for to Ram 
Saran. Subsequently, Barauli passed into the possession of 
the British, and now forms a portion of the Simla District, 
and includes the cantonment of Sabathu. Three Barauli 
villages were made over to the Maharaja of Patiala in 1830, 
in exchange for four villages now incorporated with the 
township of Simla, which was in that year regularly founded 
by contributions of territory from Patiala and Keonthal. 

Raja Ram Saran also received an indemnity of one lakh 
of rupees when, after the Nipalese War, he returned the Sat- 



THE HINDUR STATE. 67 

garha forts to the Raja of Bilaspur, from whom he had 
taken them. This sum he expended in improving and 
strengthening the fort of Palasi lower down in the plains, 
now one of the strongest on the banks of the Upper Satlaj. 

On the death of Raja Bije Singh without sons in 1857, 
a doubt arose regarding the succession, as Ram Saran's other 
sons were not true Rajputs, being the offspring of a Brahmin 
mother. The question was left pending for three years, at 
the end of which period Agar Singh, brother of Bije Singh, 
was appointed ruler. He was the most intelligent of Ram 
Saran's sons, having acted as Wazir and virtual manager of 
the State during his father's later years. He had, moreover, 
behaved loyally during the Mutiny. His elder brother Fatah 
Singh was passed over as being of unsound mind. 

The present Raja Isri Singh succeeded his father in 1876. 
He has had difficulties with his subjects, mainly owing to the 
improper influence exerted over him by an unscrupulous 
Wazir, who has lately been banished from the State. He is 
allied by marriage with the houses of Goler, Kangra and 
Kather, Simla. His brother Jogindar Singh is reading in 
the Aitchison College. He is married to a cousin of the Raja 
of Mandi. 

The Hindur State has an area of two hundred and fifty 
square miles with a population of about fifty thousand souls. 
The revenue is about Rs. 90,000 per annum. The Raja 
pays a tribute of five thousand rupees to the British Govern- 
ment, and is bound by his Sanad, granted in 18 15, to assist 
with troops in time of war. His administration is unfettered, 
except that death sentences require the confirmation of the 
Commissioner of Dehli. 

The Raja lives at Nalagarh, a thriving town about twelve 
miles north of Rupar. His territories are bounded on the 
north by Bilaspur, on the south and west by the Ambala 
District, and on the east by Baghal, Mailog and Patiala. 



^8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

RAJA BALBIR SAIN OF KEONTHAL, 



Bhup Sajn. 

I 

Raghnath Sain. 

I 

Raja Sansnr Saii>, 

d. 1S62. 

I 

Raja RIahindar Sain, 

</. iS82. 

\ 

I I r I I I 

Raja Hiia Stirat Shib Randliir Mohan 

Balisir Singh, Singh, Singh, Siiigh, Singh, 

Sain, />. 1857. L 1862. l^. 1S63. /'. 1S64. l>. 1866, 
l>. 1S54. 

I 



1 .. I 

Agar Singh, Uije Singh, 

d. 1878. I'. iSSo. 

The Keonthal State ranks fifth amongst the Simla Chief- 
ships. It has an area of about one hundred square miles, 
and a population a little over thirty thousand souls. The 
revenue is forty thousand rupees. Subordinate to the Raja 
are the five petty States of Theog, Koti, Ghund, Madhan and 
Ratesh, each paying a small annual tribute, though in many 
respects practically independent. 

The State has been held by the present ruling family for 
many generations. They suffered by the Gurkha invasion 
early in the present century in common with the other Hill 
Chiefs. Sansar Sain, grandfather of the present Raja, was 
born in exile at Suket, where his father had taken refuge 
until brought back by the British in 18 14. As the Keonthal 
Chief refused to pay a contribution towards the expenses of 
the war, and had given no assistance to General Ochterlony 
in men or supplies, a portion of his territories were taken 
away and made over to Patiala, with portions of the Baghat 
State, in lieu of a nazarana payment of Rs. 2,80,000. The 
Rana was at the same time excused tribute payment on 
account of the lands actually made over to him. 



THE KEONTHAL STATE. 6g 

In 1830 the present station of Simla was formed by the 
acquisition of portions of Keonthal and Patiala, Twelve 
villages of the former State, assessed at Rs. 937, were taken 
in exchange for the pargana of Rawin, yielding annually 
Rs. 1,289, which, in the days of Ochterlony, had been retain- 
ed as likely to be of use in a strategical sense. 

Rana Sansar Sain behaved loyally in the Mutiny, giving 
shelter and hospitality to many Europeans who fled from 
Simla, when it was feared that the Gurkha regiment stationed 
there had become tainted. The title of Raja was conferred 
upon him in acknowledgment of these services. He was 
succeeded by his son ]\Tahindar Sain in 1862. The present 
ruler is a son of INIahindar Sain by his wife of the Dhami 
Rana's house. He himself has married into the family of 
the Raja of Khairagarh in Oudh. His two sisters are married 
to the Raja of Sirmur. 

Raja Balbir Sain is said to be a ruler of the conserva- 
tive type. He has none of the social qualities of his father, 
whose smiling face a few years back was a familiar sight on 
the Simla Mall. On the other hand, he is careful in matters 
of finance, and has paid off the heavy debts bequeathed by 
his father. There is always a fair balance in his treasury. 
His forests are very valuable, especially those of deodar in 
Rawin pargana, and Chiog near Fagu. 



70 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE MALER KOTLA STATE. 



NaWAB SlIER ]Mahomed. 

I 



Nawab Jamal Khan. 
I 



Six other sons. 



Nawab Bhikan 

Khan. 

I 



Nawab 
Bahadar 
Khan. 



Nawab 
Wazir Khan. 

I 

Nawab Amir 

Khan. 

Nawab Sube 
Khan. 

I 

Nawab 

Sakandar Ali 

Khan, 

d. 187 1. 

I 
i 



Fatah 
Khan. 



Ghaus Roshan 
Mahomed. Ali. 



Umar Khan. 

i 
Hasain Khan. 

I 



Asadula 
Khan, 
d. 17S2. 



Suhan 
Khan. 



Toraliaz. 
Khan. 



I 
Iliniat 
Khan. 



Faizula. 



I 
Faiz 
Talab. 

I 

Vakub 

Ali. 



Dalaii 

Khan. 

I 

Ghulam 

Mahomed Khan, 

./. 1S77. 



I 

Nawab Ataula 

Khan, 

(/ 1809. 

I 



Kahmat Fazal Amam 
Ali Khan, Ali. Ali. 
d. 1852. 
I 



Mahomed 
Ali. 



I I I I I ]\Ie homed .Sadat 

Ahsan Bakar JMahomed Zulfakar Yusaf Dalawar Ali. 

Ali Ali. Ali. Ali. Ali. Ali 

Khan. Khan, 

I d. 1861. 

Mahomed | 
M ohsan 
Ali Khan, 
d. 1 888. 



Rustam Ali. 



I 
Faiz Ali 



Ishak Ali Khan, 
d. 1884. 



Nawab 


1 

Mahomed 


Mahomed 


Inayat Ali 


Ibrahim Ali 


Khan. 


Khan. 


1 






Mahomed 






Abdula Khan, 






d. 1889. 


i 1 
Ahmed Ali Khan, Mahomed Ali 




d. 18S1. 


Khan. 



The Nawab of Maler Kotla ranks twelfth in the Panjab 
table of precedence. He receives a salute of eleven guns. 
The State is surrounded by Nabha and Patiala territory on 
all sides except the north, where it skirts the Ludhiana 
District. The area is one hundred and sixty square miles, 
and the population ninety thousand. The revenue amounts 
to three and a quarter lakhs. 



THE MALER KOTLA STATE. 7' 

The Maler Kotla family are Sherwani Afghans, and 
came from Kabul in 1467 as officials of the Dehli Emperors. 
Their ancestor Shekh Sadarudin received a gift of sixty- 
eight villages near Ludhiana, when he married the daughter 
of the MoQ^hal Sultan Bahlol Lodhi. The title of Nawab was 
conferred, in 1657, upon Bazid Khan, five generations after 
Sadarudin, by Shah Alamgir, in whose reign the existing 
town of INIaler Kotla was founded. The family acquired 
independence in the eighteenth century. Jamal Khan was 
Chief when the Sikhs became powerful on the south side 
of the Satlaj. He joined with Zin Khan, the Deputy of 
Ahmad Shah, in repelling their attack on Sarhand in 1761, 
and was ultimately slain in an attempt to recover Rupar, 
which had been wrested from the Duranis by the Sikhs 
under Raja Ala Singh of Patiala. Jamal Khan's possessions 
were split up when he died, amongst his five sons, though 
the Nawabship devolved upon Bhikan Khan, the eldest. It 
passed on Bhikan's death to his next brother Bahadar Khan, 
in whose time the brothers found themselves stripped by the 
Phulkian Sikhs of all their possessions, with the exception 
of a few villages in the immediate vicinity of Maler Kotla. 
Many of these were recovered later on by Umar Khan, bro- 
ther of Bahadar, who made peace with Amar Singh of Patiala 
through the intervention of the Chief of Raikot. Ataula 
Khan, fifth son of Jamal Khan, was foolish enough to attempt 
the seizure of some Patiala villages at the instigation of 
Nanu Mai, a disgraced servant of the Raja Sahib Singh. He 
failed to m.ake much impression, and was glad shortly after- 
wards to crave the Raja's assistance against the incursions 
of the celebrated Bedi Sahib Singh of Una, who sacked 
Maler Kotla, and only retired when threatened with the 
displeasure of the Patiala Chief Maler Kotla next suffered 
at the hands of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who levied an in- 
demnity of one and a half lakhs. This was in 1809. A 
portion of the money was guaranteed by the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs, 



72. CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

who jointly took over Jamalpura and other villages as security 
for the accommodation, Rahmat Ali, son of Ataula Khan, 
assisted Sir David Ochterlony with carriage and supplies dur- 
ing the Gurkha War in the Simla Hills. His brother Fazal 
Ali served at the siege of Bharatpur in command of a small 
body of irregulars locally raised. Rahmat Ali was again 
forward with help to the British in the Satlaj Campaign of 
1846, furnishing a contingent of seven hundred foot, which 
was commanded by his son Dilawar Ali Khan, father of the 
present Nawab. Their services were rewarded with the 
gift of the villages of Maherna, Fatahpur and Rasulpur, now 
a portion of the Maler Kotla State. 

On the death of Ataula Khan in 1S09, the Chiefship 
passed, not to his son P^ahmat Ali, but to Wazir Khan, son 
of Ataula's elder brother. This was in accordance with a 
custom in the family under which brothers had a right pre- 
ferential to sons. But during Wazir Khan's tenure the 
British Government laid down that the ordinary rules of 
succession from father to eldest son should be observed in 
future. Thus, the Chiefship remained in the family of Wazir 
Khan, whose father was, in fact, the eldest son of Jamal Khan. 
The last of his line was Sakandar Ali, who died in 1871, 
leaving no surviving sons. A Sanad, conferring the right 
of adoption, had been granted to him in i86r, under which he 
nominated Ibrahim Ali Khan, elder son of his cousin Dala- 
war Ali, as heir. This appointment was contested by Ghu- 
1am Mahomed Khan, nearer of kin as descended from Baha- 
dar Khan, second son of Jamal Khan. But Government 
confirmed the testament, and the Nawabship passed to 
Ibrahim Ali, the present Chief The opportunity was taken 
to entrust to the Nawab alone the power which had hitherto 
been shared by all the cousins. The head of each branch 
had been exercising semi-independent power in his own 
holding, even within the town of Kotla itself, to the mani- 



THE MALER KOTLA STATE. 73 

fest injury of the State interests. The brothers were per- 
petually quarrelling and referring their pettiest disputes to 
the Ambala Commissioner, whose time was frittered away 
in deciding matters which could have been more conveniently 
setded by the head of the State. Under the new procedure 
the Nawab alone was permitted to exercise judicial and police 
powers within his territories, and the interference of his bro- 
ther Inayat Ali Khan, and of the six cousins, was confined to 
the control of revenue matters affecting their own jagirs. 
Ghulam Mahomed Khan was, however, allowed to continue to 
exercise for his lifetime the judicial functions he had enjoyed 
during the rule of the late Nawab. 

In the year following Ibrahim Khan's accession the 
town of Maler Kotla was attacked by a band of Sikh fanatics 
known as Kukas, who proclaimed a campaign against the 
Mahomedan and Christian kine-killing races, much in the 
lines of Bedi Sahib Singh's agitation in the last century. 
After murdering several innocent persons they fell back on 
the Patiala border, where they were secured without much 
trouble and taken in handcuffs to Maler Kotla. There they 
were executed without trial to the number of forty-nine by 
the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana, who acted under the 
impression that an immediate and terror-striking example was 
necessary to prevent a spread of the movement through the 
adjoining Sikh districts. It is not now supposed that the 
rising was of grave political importance. Ram Singh, leader 
of the sect, refused to countenance the mad attempt of his 
more zealous disciples, and he actually warned the police of 
what was about to happen. Their plans were, in fact, too 
crude and ill-arranged to give grounds for anxiety. But 
however questionable the punishment, the movement collap- 
sed in consequence as suddenly as it had sprung into life ; 
and the misguided fanatics were nearly annihilated before 
the Sikh population had time to exhibit its sympathies for or 



74 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

against them. It was nevertheless deemed advisable to 
deport Ram Singh to Rangoon in spite of his protest of inno- 
cence, and he died there in exile several years later. The 
Kuka doctrines are now no longer in vogue, and the sect is 
rapidly dying out as an element of political danger. 

It was felt necessary, in view of the want of energy dis- 
played by the Maler Kotla officials on the occasion of this 
outbreak, as well as on other grounds, to place the administra- 
tion of the State in the hands of an experienced English offi- 
cial during the minority of Ibrahim AH Khan. The appoint- 
ment of Superintendent was accordingly made and conferred 
upon an officer of the Panjab Commission, who held it for 
some years. The Nawab has lately exhibited symptoms of 
insanity, and his affairs are again managed by a local Council, 
under the supervision of the Commissioner of Dehli. 

Inayat Ali Khan, brother of the Nawab, was attached to 
the staff of General John Watson as Aide-de-Camp during 
the late Afghan War, and performed his duties satisfactorily. 

The Nawab Ibrahim Ali Khan is married to a daughter 
of his relative Ghulam Mahomed Khan, and has two sons 
living. His cousin, Ahsan Ali Khan, is a Viceregal Darbari 
of the Dehli Division. 



THE FARIDKOT STATE. 75 

THE FARIDKOT STATE. 



Sangar. 

I 



I I 

Bhalan, Lala. 



d. 1643. 



Kapura, 
d. 1708. 

I 



I I I 

Sukha, Saja, Makhu. 

(/. 1731. d. 1710. 



I I I 

Jodh Singh, Hamir Singh, Bir Singh. 

d. 1767. d. 17S2. 

I 



1 i 

Tegh Singh, Amrik Singh, 
d. 1 806. d. 1767'. 



I I 



I ! 

Dal Singh, Mohar Singh, 

d. 1804. d. 1798. 



Jagat Karam Singh | I 

Singh, (descendants Charat Singh, Bhupa. 

d. 1825. living.) d. 1S04. 

j r i I 

Gulab Singh, Raja Pahar Singh, Sahib Singh, Mahtab Singh. 
(/. 1826. d. 1849. d. 1 83 1. 

I I 

Atar Singh, I 

d. 1827. I 

I 



1 I I 

Raja Wazir Singh, Dip Singh, Anokh Singh. 

d 1875. "'. 1845- ^- 1S4S. 

I 
Raja Bikrama Singh, 

l>. 1842. 
,_! 

Tika Balbir Singh, Kanwar Gajindar Singh, 

d. 1869. 1''. 1879- 

The territory of Faridkot is situated to the south-east of 
the Firozpur District, and touches upon the northern border of 
Patiala. The State has an area of six hundred square miles, 
and a revenue of three lakhs of rupees. The population is 
estimated at seventy thousand. The Raja keeps up a mili- 
tary force of nine hundred men, of whom two hundred are 
specially organised under arrangements accepted by the 



76 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

British Government, for employment beyond the Frontier In 
case of need. The Raja takes the thirteenth place in preced- 
ence amongst Panjab Chiefs. He is entitled to a salute of 
eleven guns, and to a return visit from the Viceroy. The 
Sanad, under which he holds his territory, bears date 2 1 st April, 
1863. This confers no new rights or privileges, but merely 
guarantees and confirms those already enjoyed. The domain 
belongs to the Raja and his heirs male lawfully begotten. 
The right of adoption was granted under a Viceregal Sanad, 
dated nth March, 1862 ; and the title of Raja was conferred 
upon Sardar Pahar Singh, grandfather of the present Chief 
in 1846. 

The Faridkot Rajas have sprung from the same stock 
as the Kaithal and Phulkian Chiefs, having a common ances- 
tor in Barar, more remote by twelve generations than the 
celebrated Phul. They are now known as Barar Jat Sikhs, 
though they were originally Rajputs of the house of Jasal, 
founder of the Jasalmir State in Rajputana. Chaudhri Ka- 
pura founded the Faridkot house in the middle of the six- 
teenth century, and dwelt in the present town of Kot Kapura, 
which is called after him. Sardar Hamir Singh, grandson of 
Kapura, became independent a century later, having added 
considerably to the family possessions by laying such of his 
neighbours under contribution as were too w^eak to hold their 
own. He built Faridkot and made it his capital, and kept 
up an armed force, and administered justice to the best of 
his ability. His son Mohar Singh did little to improve the 
position of the family. He was deposed by Sardar Charat 
Singh, and died in exile in 1798. Charat Singh's fate was 
still worse ; he was attacked and slain by his uncle Dal 
Singh, who, in his turn, was assassinated by a cousin Fauja 
Singh. Then succeeded Gulab Singh, a minor, to whom the 
assassin acted as guardian. Things were beginnnig to settle 
down, assassinations having for the moment ceased, when 



THE FARIDKOT STATE. 77 

the town was suddenly attacked by Diwan Mohkam Chand, 
General of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the cold weather 
of 1806-7. But a good resistance was made, and the inner 
fort was not finally captured until Ranjit Singh himself ad- 
vanced against it two years later with his whole army, and 
took possession of the State, assigning five villages for the 
maintenance of Gulab Singh and his brothers. Faridkot 
Proper was made over to Mohkam Chand, who had long co- 
veted it, upon payment of a he^Lvy nazarajia. But the spolia- 
tion was regarded with disfavour by the British Govern- 
ment, and the Maharaja was forced to relinquish this prey 
early in the following year, with his other Cis-Satlaj posses- 
sions. Gulab Singh was then reinstated, and he kept the 
Chiefship until 1826, when he was murdered at the instiga- 
tion, it is supposed, of his brother Sahib Singh. He left an 
infant son Atar Singh, who was put in as ruler ; but the 
child soon followed his father, dying under circumstances 
which were regarded as suspicious, though no proof was 
forthcoming of foul play. This was in 1827. 

Sardar Pahar Singh succeeded his nephew. He was an 
able and liberal-minded ruler, who devoted himself to the 
improvement of his possessions ; digging canals and extend- 
ing the cultivation, and by these means doubling his income 
within twenty years. When the war with Lahore broke out 
in 1846 he wisely took sides with the British, and helped to 
his utmost by collecting carriage and supplies for the army. 
He obtained in reward a grant of half the territory taken 
from the Raja of Nabha under circumstances already narrat- 
ed. The ancestral estate of Kot Kapura was also restored 
to him, and he received the title of Raja. 

Raja Pahar Singh was followed in 1849 by his son 
Wazir Singh, then twenty-one years of age. He remained 
loyal during the Second Sikh War. In the Mutiny he placed 



78 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

himself under the orders of the Deputy Commissioner of 
Firozpur, and assisted in guarding the Satlaj ferries against 
the passage of the rebel troops. He also sent a detachment 
to Sirsa, and with a body of horse and two guns he person- 
ally attacked a notorious rebel Sham Das, and destroyed his 
stronghold. The Raja's reward took the form of an increase 
in his salute, and he was exempted from the service of ten 
sowars hitherto provided in lieu of an annual tribute payment 
in cash. 

The present Raja succeeded his father in 1875. During 
the Second Afghan War he furnished a contingent of two 
hundred and fifty horse and foot, which was employed on the 
Kohat Frontier ; and in recognition of his services received 
the title of Farzand-i-Sadat nashan, Hazarati Kaisar-i-Hind. 
His son Tika Balbir Singh has received a good education 
at the Mayo College, Ajmir. He has married a lady of the 
Manimajra family. 



THE CHAMBA STATE. 



79 



THE CHAMBA STATE. 



Raja Ugar Singh, 
d. 1735. 



R.ija Umed Singh, 
d. 1764. 

Raja Raj Singh, 
d. 1794. 

Raja Jit Singh, 
d. 1808. 
I 
I 
Raja Charat 
Singh, 
d. 1846. 



I 
Sher Singh. 



Mian Zorawar 
Singh. 

Parakam Singh, 

d, 1888. 
I 



I I 

Raja Sri Raja Gopal 
Singh, Singh 

d. 1870, (abdicated 
1873.) 
I 



Mian Suchet 

Singh, 

b. 1841. 



Sohan Singh, 
d. 1888. 



Dhayan Singh, 
b. 1869. 



Raja Sham Singh, Mian Eiui Singh, 
b. 1866. b. 1869. 



Kartar Singh, 
b. 1882. 



Amar Singh, 
b. 1885. 



Chamba is a mountainous tract to the north of Kangra, 
having for its northern and western boundaries the Kashmir 
Districts of Kishtwar and Zaskar, with Lahaul and Ladakh 
on the east. On this latter side is a region of snowy peaks 
and glaciers. Towards the west the country becomes fer- 
tile, and good crops are obtained of rice, wheat and barley. 
Within its limits flow two of the five rivers of the Panjab, 
the Ravi and the Chandra- Bhaga or Chanab. The forests 
at Pangi on the Chanab and at Barmaur on the Ravi, are 
important sources of timber-supply for the railways of the 
Panjab. The area of the State is slightly over three thousand 
square miles, and the population, chiefly Rajput and Gadi, 
about one hundred thousand souls. The revenue averages 
three lakhs of rupees annually ; and of this the British Gov- 
ernment takes Rs. 3,800 in tribute. 



8o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Chamba Rajas are Rajputs, connected by marriage 
at some time or other with all the Chiefs of the Simla and 
Kangra Hills. They are said to have originally come from 
Marwara in Rajputana. Owing to its isolated position, 
the principality escaped to a great extent the rapacity of 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh. A portion of the Chamba State 
was made over by inadvertence to Maharaja Gulab 
Singh of Kashmir in 1846, but was recovered from him in 
the 'following year, and the whole conferred upon Raja Sri 
Singh, the rightful owner. He was a Prince of weak nature, 
and found himself unable to keep his people in order. An 
English official, Colonel Blair Reid, was accordingly de- 
puted, in 1863, to assist him as adviser. Raja Sri Singh 
was succeeded in 1870 by his brother Gopal Singh. 
His accession was opposed by Suchet Singh, a younger 
brother, who urged his own superior rights as being of 
the same mother as the deceased Raja Sri Singh ; but 
his claims were ultimately rejected by the Secretary of State 
for India, and he is now wandering in France, a voluntary 
exile in straitened circumstances, having refused all offers 
of assistance from his relatives. 

In 1873 the misconduct of Gopal Singh brought upon 
him the censure of Government; and he abdicated in con- 
sequence, making over the State to his son Sham Singh, 
then only eight years of age. The administration was 
carried on by an officer of the Panjab Commission acting 
as Superintendent. The Raja attained his majority in 1884, 
and now manages his own affairs. He has been married 
three times, and is connected with the houses of Jaswal, 
Sirmur and Siba. The ex-Raja Gopal Singh lives near 
Chamba. 

The Chamba Rajas hold under a Sanad granted in 
1848, conferring the State upon the Chief and his heirs, male, 



THE CHAMBA STATE. 8i 

in perpetuity. The brothers, in order of seniority, succeed 
in the absence of direct heirs. The State is under the 
poHtical control of the Commissioner of Lahore, to whom 
death sentences are referred for confirmation. The Chief 
ranks fourteenth in the Panjab Precedence List. He is 
entitled to a salute of eleven guns, but does not receive 
a return visit from the Viceroy. 



82 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE SUKET STATE. 



Raja Bhikam Sen. 



I I 

Raja Ranjit Sen. Kishan Singh. 

I Bishan Singh. 

I Naranda Singh. 



Raja Bikrama Amar Dhian 

Sen. SJngh. Singh. 

I 

Raja Ugar Sen, 

d. 1875. 

Raja Rudra Sen, 
d. 1886. 

I ' ~ ! 

Mian Ari Raja Dusht 

Mardan Sen, Nakandan Sen, 

d. 1878. b. 1865. 

One son. 

Mandi and Suket were originally held by a common 
progenitor of the present Chiefs. Suket is the senior branch 
of the family ; the ancestor of the Mandi Raja having separat- 
ed early in the thirteenth century. The two States have 
rarely been on friendly terms, and their history is mainly a 
record of quarrels with one another over the merest trifles. 
When General Ventura was deputed by Prince Nao Nahal 
Singh in 1839 to bring these hills under subjection, the Raja 
Ugar Sen of Suket very wisely took the Sikh side early in 
the day, and placed his forces at the General's disposal for 
the purpose of helping towards the humiliation of his old 
enemy of Mandi. His behaviour, from a Sikh point of view, 
was highly honorable, and he secured the favor of the 
Lahore Government, paying a tribute of Rs. 13,800, besides 
a douceur of Rs. 5,000 to the principal Ministers. But he 
turned against the Sikhs in the war of 1846, and joined with 



THE SUKET STATE. 83 

the Raja of Mandi in expelling the Khalsa garrisons from 
the strongholds in the hills. He was awarded sovereignty in 
his territories, under the usual restrictions, by Sanad granted 
after the annexation of the Jalandhar Doab. An additional 
Sanad, conferring right of adoption, was given him in 1862. 
He died in 1875, and was succeeded by his son Rudra Sen, 
who, however, was deposed three years afterwards for mis- 
government He had come under the influence of a dis- 
reputable person whom he made his Diwan, and by whose bad 
advice he largely Increased the land revenue and cesses, 
throwing into prison and otherwise punishing such of the 
older officials as were opposed to these unpopular measures. 
The Raja's conduct led to a general insurrection of his 
people, which was only quieted when the administration was 
forcibly assumed by the Commissioner of the Division, sup- 
ported by the neighbouring Chiefs of Bilaspur, Mandi and 
Nadaun. The Raja was then removed to Lahore, and the 
management of the State put into the hands of a Council. His 
eldest son Mian Ari Mardan Sen was a youth of such poor 
promise that Government hesitated before placing him in 
power. The difficulty was overcome by the death of Ari 
Mardan almost immediately after his father's deposition ; 
when the Chiefship duly passed to a younger son Dusht 
Nakandan Sen, the present ruler, then about thirteen years 
of age. He was invested with full powers in 1884, the affairs 
of the State having been managed in the interval by expe- 
rienced Panjab officials, of whom the most noteworthy was 
Munshi Har Dayal Singh, a Kaith Bania, whose family had 
been settled for centuries in Kangra, and who is now holding 
high office at Jodhpur. 

The Raja Dusht Nakandan Sen married a relative of the 
Raja of Arki in 1882, and has by her one son. 

The area of Suket is about four hundred square miles, 
and the population is estimated at fifty-five thousand souls. 



84 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The revenues in 1888 reached one and a half lakhs, out of 
which a tribute payment of eleven thousand rupees is made 
to the British Government. The Raja receives a salute of 
eleven guns, and he ranks fifteenth amongst the Ruling 
Chiefs of the Panjab. His State is subject to the political 
control of the Commissioner of Jalandhar. 

The ex-Raja Rudra Sen died in November, 1886, 



THE K A LSI A STATE. 85 

THE KALSIA STATE. 



Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh. 

I 

Sadar Jodh Singh, 

d. 1817. 

I 



I I > 

Sardar Sobha Han Karam 

Singh, Singh, Singh. 

d. 1858. d. 1 8 16. 



Sardar Lahna Man Dewa Singh, 

Singh, Singh. d. 1837. 

d. 1869. I 

I Umrao Singh, 

Sardar Bishan Singh, d, 1844. 
d. 1883. 

I . 



i I 

Sardar Jaqjit Sardar Ranjit 

Singh, ^ Singh, 

,/. 18S6- l>. 1881. 

Kalsia, from which the State derives its name, is a 
Manjha village in the Kasur Tahsil of the Lahore District, 
in which the Chiefs still own a small share, though they have 
been for many years settled on the south side of the Satlaj. 
The founder of the family was Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh, 
a Sindhu Jat of Kalsia, a prominent member of the Karora 
Singhia Confederacy, and a companion of the celebrated 
Sardar Bhagel Singh of Chalaundi. Rejoined in the general 
invasion by Manjha Sikhs of the Ambala Districts in 1760, 
having previously crossed the Bias, and wrested Banbeli in 
Hushiarpur from Dina Beg, the Mahomedan Governor. His 
son Jodh Singh succeeded Bhagel vSingh as head of the 
confederacy, and by his great abilities and personal daring 
managed to secure the lands north of Ambala, which form 
the present State of Kalsia, consisting of the ilakas of Basi, 
Chachrauli and Charak ; besides many other tracts which 
were afterwards lost. Jodh Singh's possessions in the height 
of his power are said to have yielded him over five lakhs an- 
nually. He considered himself the equal of the leading 



86 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Phulkian Chiefs, and was frequently at war with Nabha and 
Patiala ; and Raja Sahib Singh of the latter State was happy 
to give his daughter in marriage to his second son Hari 
Singh, and thus secure the alliance of a most troublesome 
neighbour. In 1807, Sardar Jodh Singh joined with the 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh in an attack on Naraingarh near 
Ambala, and was rewarded with the estates of Badala Kheri 
and Shamchapal. He died at Multan, where he had been 
left in command of the troops after the siege of 1 818. His 
son and successor Sobha Singh was for some years under 
the guardianship of his relative the Raja Karam Singh of 
Patiala. He held the State for fifty years, dying just at the 
close of the Mutiny. He and his son Lahna Singh did good 
service in 1857, supplying a contingent of one hundred men, 
who were sent to Oudh. He also helped to guard some 
ferries on the Jamna above Dehli ; and he held a police post 
at Dadupur, and provided men for patrolling the main roads 
between Kalka, Ambala and Firozpur. His son Sardar 
Lahna Singh, who died in 1869, was followed in the Chief- 
ship by Sardar Bishan Singh, who was a minor at the time 
of his accession. Bishan Singh was married to a daughter of 
the late Raja of Jind. 

Sardar Ranjit Singh, the present ruler, is a boy of 
about seven years of age. He succeeded his elder brother 
Jagjit Singh, who died at the age of seven years in 1886. 
During the Chief's minority affairs are managed by a Council 
consisting of three officers of the State, at the head of whom 
is Munshi Lai Bahadar, a Kaith of Sitapur, Oudh, acting 
under the supervision of the Commissioner of Dehli, who 
has political charge of the State. The family is connected 
by marriage with the leading Sikh houses on both sides of the 
Satlaj. 

The Kalsia Ruler has full administrative powers with 
the exception of capital punishments, which are referred for 



THE K A LSI A STATE. 87 

sanction to the Commissioner of Dehli. The estate is worth 
about one lakh and ninety thousand rupees a year, extending 
over an area of hundred and fifty square miles, with a popula- 
tion of sixty-seven thousand souls. Sardar Jodh Singh 
accepted the general arrangements made in 1808, under 
which the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs were taken under British pro- 
tection. Sardar Sobha Singh, in 182 1, surrendered certain 
lands north of the Satlaj in order to be entirely free from 
obligations towards the Lahore Government. He gave ready 
assistance in both the Sikh Wars, and in many ways proved 
his loyalty to the Sovereign Power. Transit dues were 
abolished in his time, the State receiving in lieu an annual 
payment of Rs. 2,851. His son Lahna Singh was, in 1862, 
presented with a Sanad, securing to him and his successors 
the privilege of adoption in the event of failure of natural 
heirs. 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE PATAUDI STATE. 

SHEKH DAULAT KHAN. 
Shekh Badal Khan. 

Alaf Khan, d. 1784. 

\ 



Ghulam Kasul Khan. 



Faiz Talab Khan, 
d. 1827. 
I 
Nawab Mahomed Akbar AH Khan, 

d. 1862. 
I 



Inait Hasan 
Khan. 



I 

Sadik Khan. 

I 

Habibul 

Rahman Khan. 



I 

Asghar Ali 

Khan. 



Mahomed 
Hasan 
Khan. 



Ahmad 
Hasan 
Khan. 



Jafar Ali Asghar Ali Nawab 

Khan. Khan. Mahomed 

I Naki Ali Khan, 

I d. 1862. 

i I i 

Muazam Ali Wasiat Ali Nawab Mahomed 

Khan. Khan. Miikhtar Hasain 

Ali Khan, 
a. 1878. 
I 
Nawab Mahomed 
MaMTAZ Ali Khan, 
/'. 1874. 

Pataudi is a small semi-independent State in the south- 
east of the Panjab under the political control of the Commis- 
sioner of Dehli. The area covers fifty square miles ; the 
revenue for 1888 was one lakh and sixty thousand rupees; 
and the population numbers about twenty thousand souls. 
It has for boundaries the districts of Gurgaon and Rohtak. 
The State was formed by a grant from Lord Lake in 1806. 

The original ancestor of the Pataudi Nawab was an Af- 
ghan named Shekh Pir Mat, who came to India in the time 
of Akbar. Alaf Khan, seven generations later, was a com- 
panion-in-arms of Murtza Khan, whose son Najabat Ali after- 
wards became Nawab of Jhajar. He served for some years 
under the Nawab Shujaudaula of Oudh, and afterwards 
received a high military command from Shah Alam of Dehli. 
He was a soldier of distinction, and behaved well in many 
engagements. Murtza Khan gave his daughter in marriage 
to Alaf Khan's son Faiz Talab, who in his time eclipsed his 
father in gallant deeds, and became the founder of the exist- 



THE PA TA UDI ST A TE. 8g 

ing line of Pataudi Nawabs. He was at first on the side of 
the Mahratas in the struggle which agitated Upper India 
towards the end of last century ; and Daulat Rao Sindia, in 
recognition of his useful services, made over to him the 
pargana of Rohtak ; while Najabat AH, on the same occasion, 
received several villages in the present tahsil of Jhajar. But 
it is doubtful if either of these warriors ever took possession 
under the Sanads then granted to them. When the Mahratas 
were ultimately crushed on the battle-field of Hindan in 1803, 
Faiz Talab transferred his allegiance to Shah Alam, Emperor 
of Dehli, who presented him in public Darbar to Lord Lake, 
by whom he was employed against the Holkar Maharaja on 
the Chambal Ghats ; and he was present in several actions, 
including Makandra, Rampura and Bhanpura, and distinguish- 
ed himself in all as a brave and loyal soldier. At Bhanpura 
Faiz Talab was badly wounded, and he was taken prisoner 
by Maharaja Holkar, who kept him for seven months and 
then sent him back laden with presents in acknowledgment 
of his bravery. General Lake, in 1806, granted him the 
Pataudi Ilaka in perpetual jagir, with full judicial and revenue 
powers. The State has ever since maintained its indepen- 
dence. Faiz Talab afterwards joined in expeditions against 
Tank and Jaipur, and he helped to keep the Rajputana 
border quiet under the orders of Ochterlony, Charles Met- 
calfe, William Fraser and other residents of Dehli. He 
also took part in the siege of Bharatpur in 1826. He died 
in the year following. 

Mahomed Akbar Ali, son of Faiz Talab, held the Nawab- 
ship until 1862. He behaved loyally during the Mutiny, and 
thus escaped the fate which overtook the sister States of 
Jhajar, Farakhnagar and Bahadargarh. He sent a small body 
of cavalry to assist Mr. Ford, the civil officer of the district, 
and he gave shelter to some Englishmen whose lives were 
in danger at Gurgaon. He also took an active part in the 



90 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

suppression of a rising in the Bahora pargana of Gurgaon, 
organised by one Tula Ram, grandson of Rao Tej Singh of 
Riwari ; and his troops were present on the side of order at 
the action outside Jaurasi, which lasted for two days, and in 
which over one hundred rebel Jats, Ahirs and Brahmins 
were slain. A more unpleasant phase of the rebellion was 
when Rasaldar Mahomed Sher Khan, a mutineer, entered 
Pataudi at the head of a body of cavalry and demanded three 
lakhs of rupees in the name of the Dehli King as a contribu- 
tion towards the expenses of the restored Government ; 
capturing Naki Khan, the Nawab's son, and holding him as 
a hostage for the payment of the money. Nothing remained 
to the Nawab but to fight ; and this he did, killing fifty of 
the rebels. But Mahomed Sher Khan sent for reinforce- 
ments and defeated the Nawab, forcing him to flee to Narnaul. 
Pataudi was then given up to loot. 

Mahomed Mukhtar Hasain AH Khan, father of the 
present Nawab, was only six years of age when his father 
died. The State was placed under the management of his uncle 
Mirza Asghar Ali Khan, who was relieved of the charge, in 
1867, by Sayed Safdar Hasain Khan, Extra Assistant Com- 
missioner. He carried on the administration for some years. 
Nawab Mukhtar Hasain died in 1878, one year after he had 
attained his majority. He had married a granddaughter of 
Nawab Najabat Ali Khan of Jhajar, and by her had one 
son, the present Nawab, born in 1874. The State is now 
being managed by Pandit Kishan Lai, an old servant of the 
Nawab's family. He acts under the orders of the Com- 
missioner of Dehli as Political Agent of the State. Savings 
to the extent of Rs. 80,000 have been invested in Govern- 
ment Paper; and a further sum of Rs. 70,000 remains in trust 
for the Nawab with his mother the Dowager Begum. The 
Nawab is being educated at the Aitchison College, Lahore, and 
he has earned a high character for intelligence and industry. 



THE LOHARU STATE. 



91 



THE LOHARU STATE. 



MiRZA Araf Jan Beg. 
I 



Mahomed Ali 
Khan. 



I 

Ahmad Bakhsh 

Khan, 

d. 1827. 

I 



Ali Bakhsh 
Khan. 



Ilahi Bakhsh 
Khan. 



Shanisudin 
Ahmad Khan, 
d. 1835. 



Aminudin 

Ahmad Khan, 

d. iS6q. 



Ibrahim Ali 
Khan. 



Alaudin Ahmad 
Khan, 
d. 1884. 



Najamudin 
Khan, 



Amirudin 
Ahmad 
Khan, 

Nawab of 



Nasirudin 
Ahmad 
Khan, 
^.1861. 



Azizudin 
Ahmad 
Khan, 
b. 1S62. 



I. 

Bashirudin 

Ahmad 

Khan, 

h. 1863. 



LOHARU, 

k i860. 

1 






1 1 

Muazu- Aziz- 
din udin, 
Akbar b. 1885. 
Mirza, 
b. 1S85. 


1 1 ' 
Izaz- Rukan- 
udin, udin, 
b. 1887. b. 1888. 





I I I I 

Hisam- Samsam- Muzafar- Shams- 

udin, udin, udin, udin, 

b. 1882. b. 1885. b. 1886. b. 1888. 



I 

Muazudin, 

b. 1884. 



Nawab Ziaudin 

Ahmad Khan, 

d. 1885. 



Zamirudin 
Ahmad 
Khan, 
d. 18S5. 



Nasirudin, 
b. 1885. 



Shahabudin 

Khan, 

d. 1869. 



I 
Saidudin 
Ahmad Khan, 
b. 1853. 



Shujaudin Bahaudin 

Ahmad Khan, Ahmad Khan, 

b. i860. b. 1862. 



I 

Sarajudin 

Ahmad Khan, 

b, 1864. 



Mumtazudin 

Ahmad Khan, 

b. 1866. 



Loharu is a small semi-independent State in the south- 
east corner of the Panjab, under the political control of the 



92 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Dehli Commissioner. The Nawabs hold their territories in 
perpetuity under the terms of the Sanad granted by Lord 
Lake to Nawab Ahmad Bakhsh Khan in 1806, subject to 
the supply of two hundred horsemen on demand and an exhi- 
bition of manifest zeal and attachment towards the British Go- 
vernment. They exercise full criminal and civil jurisdiction 
over their subjects. Sentences of death, however, require the 
confirmation of the Commissioner of Dehli. The area of 
Loharu is two hundred and eighty square miles, mostly of 
sandy desert, dependent for a single yearly crop upon a pre- 
carious rainfall in July and August. But some wheat and a 
few vegetables are grown in small patches around the wells, 
which have to be sunk to a great depth before reaching 
water-level. Loharu itself is a straggling village of mud. 
The cultivators live in scattered tenements of the rudest 
make, bespeaking poverty and a hard fight for existence. 
The population of the State, consisting mostly of Jats, is 
estimated at twenty thousand ; the revenue reaches nearly 
one lakh. A small military force is maintained. The 
Nawab's territories are bounded by the Bikanir and Jaipur 
States on one side and by portions of Patiala, Jind and 
the Hissar District on the other. The nearest railway station 
is Bhawani, thirty- five miles distant, on the Riwari-Firozpur 
line. 

Mirza Araf Jan Beg, a Bokhara Moghal, came to India 
about the middle of the last century and took service under 
the Emperor Ahmad Shah. He married the daughter of 
Mirza Mahomed Beg, Governor of Attock, and is said to 
have succeeded him in the post. His son Nawab Ahmad 
Bakhsh Khan was virtually the founder of the family. After 
serving some years under the Mahratas he transferred his 
allegiance to the Raja of Alwar, who employed him as Agent 
to Lord Lake. He accompanied the Commander-in-Chief 
on most of his campaigns, and in recognition of his good 



THE LOHARU STATE. 



93 



services generally, and more particularly in the matter of 
the treaty negotiated with the Raja of Alwar, was awarded 
a perpetual jagir in six mahals of the Gurgaon District, 
namely, Firozpur-Jhirka, Punhana, Sankara, Bichur, Nagina 
and Loharu. This grant, yielding a revenue of about three 
lakhs per annum, was duly confirmed by the Government of 
India, and the Mirza further received the title of Fakhar- 
ti-Daula Dilawar-ul-Mttlk Rustam Jang. He died in 1827, 
and was buried close to the Kutab near Dehli. He was 
succeeded by his eldest son Nawab Shamsudin Khan, 
who acquired an unhappy notoriety in connection with the 
murder of Mr. William Fraser, the Dehli Resident. For 
his complicity in this crime he was executed in 1835, 
the Firozpur pargana being confiscated. Loharu Proper, 
given originally to Ahmad Bakhsh Khan by the Raja of 
Alwar, was allowed to remain in possession of the family, 
and passed over to the second and third sons, Aminudin 
Ahmad Khan and Ziaudin Ahmad Khan. Dissensions 
shortly after arose between the brothers. Ziaudin was 
ordered to leave the State, receiving a maintenance of 
Rs. 18,000 per annum, which he enjoyed until his death in 
1885. He made several attempts to be restored to the joint 
management, but Government on each occasion refused to 
allow the claim. The title of Nawab was conferred upon him 
in 1866 as a personal distinction in recognition of his literary 
attainments. He was well read in Arabic and Persian, and 
was regarded as one of the leading Mahomedans in Dehli. 
His eldest son Mirza Shahabudin Khan, who died in 
1869, was for some time a City Magistrate. Mirza Saidudin 
Ahmad Khan, Viceregal Darbari, is now at the head of this 
branch of the family. The question of the allowances he 
should receive from the Nawab of Loharu was settled in 
1888. They were reduced to Rs. 12,000 per annum, and are 
distributed proportionately between Saidudin and his four 



94 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

nephews, and four ladies of the late Nawab's family. He has 
been for six years an Honorary Magistrate of Dehli, and he 
served as an Extra Assistant Commissioner in the Panjab 
from 1879 to 1887, retiring shortly after his father's death. 
Of the sons of Shahabudin, one of them, Bahaudin, is 
an official in the Department for the Suppression of Thagi 
and Dacoity; the other, Mumtazudin, is an Inspector of 
Police in the Panjab. 

The Nawabship of Loharu remains in the family of 
Aminudin Ahmad Khan who died in 1869. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Alaudin Ahmad Khan, a gentleman of 
high literary attainments, fairly well educated in English. 
In his favour the title of Nawab was revived by Earl North- 
brook in 1874. He was much liked by all who had the 
pleasure of knowing him, being hospitable, easy of access, 
and simple in all his tastes and ideas, Sir Charles Aitchison 
describes him as " a loyal and true friend of the British Gov- 
ernment, a gentleman and a scholar." His financial affairs 
had fallen into disorder a few years before his death, and he 
voluntarily agreed to live in Dehli on a fixed allowance, 
leaving the management of his State to his son, the present 
Nawab Amirudin Ahmad Khan. This Prince has proved 
an able administrator, while in every other respect he is 
showing himself a worthy successor of his father. He 
was born in i860. He has received a thorough education in 
Persian and Arabic, and in English his acquirements are 
above those of most persons of his rank in life. 



THE DUJANA STATE. 



95 



THE DUJANA STATE. 





Baharmand 

1 


Khan. 




Abdul Samad Khan, 

d. 1826. 

1 




Three other sons 




1 
Nawab Mahomed 
Khan, 
d. 1849. 

1 


Dunde 


Mahoi 


1 
Ghulam Mahomed Khan. 
1 
Mahomed Amir Khan. 
i 


1 1 

Nawab Sher 

Hasan Khan, 

Ali Khan, i>. 1826. 

d. 1867. 

i 


1 

Shamsher 

Khan, 

d. 1829. 

i 


1 1 
Ibrahim Ismael 
Khan. Khan. 
1 
1 
ned Imtiaz Ali. 


1 
A 1x1 u la 
Khan. 


Nawab INlahomed 
Sadat Ali Najabat Ali 

Khan, Khan, 

d. 1879. l>. 1849. 

1 1 


1 

Ahmad 

Ali 
Khan. 


1 1 
Arshad Ali. Ajaz Ali. 


1 

Ashrat 

Ali. 


Nawab | 
AMTAZ Ali Khurshaid Ali. 
Khax, 






1 
Jamshaid Ali. 





i>. 1864. 

The State of Dujana lies about thirty-seven miles due 
west of Dehli, in the heart of the Rohtak District, which sur- 
rounds it on all sides. The Chief holds on conditions which 
may briefly be described as fidelity to the British Govern- 
ment, and military service to the extent of two hundred horse 
when required. The State has an area of about one hundred 
square miles, with a population of under thirty thousand souls, 
and a revenue of about Rs, 80,000. It includes the estates 
of Dujana and Mahrana in the Rohtak District, and a few 
detached villages in the Riwari Tahsil of Gurgaon, besides 
the small tract of Nahar and part of Ghal, lying below the 
Jhajar Tahsil. 

The Rohtak District is historically interesting as having 
formed, on the right bank of the Jamna, the border-land of 



96 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the Sikhs and Mahratas just before the break-up of the lat- 
ter power early in the present century. By the treaty of 
Anjanon, signed in 1803, this portion of the old Dehli Em- 
pire passed to the British with Sindia's other possessions 
west of the Jamna. It was no part of Lord Lake's policy 
at that time to stretch out his hand too far, and he according- 
ly formed a series of independent outposts between the 
British border and the Sikh States beyond, by giving the 
newly-acquired territories to military leaders who had done us 
good service. The houses of Bahadargarh and Jhajar, since 
absorbed, owed their origin to the effect given to this policy ; 
as also the States of Pataudi and Dujana, which are still 
existing. 

The connection of the Dujana Nawabs with the South- 
ern Panjab dates from the end of the fourteenth century, when 
their ancestor Malik Rahmat, a Pathan from Buner, accom- 
panied Timur to Hindustan, and eventually settled down in 
a village close to Jhajar, then known as Mubarakabad Jhaj, 
after its founder Raja Jhajar. One hundred years later, the 
present town of Dujana, not far from Jhajar, was founded by a 
fakir named Baba Durjan Shah, on whose invitation Malik 
Rahmat's children took up their abode in the new settlement. 
They subsisted as military servants of the Dehli Emperors, 
and they appear to have generally thriven, though none of 
them rose above the ordinary level until the time of Abdul 
Samad Khan, first Nawab of Dujana. His father had held 
a small cavalry command at Dehli, and was jagirdar in four 
villages close to his home. 

Abdul Samad Khan was born in 1764, and when quite 
a boy, took service as Rasaldar under Bhaji Rao, Peshwa. He 
received a high command in the Mahrata army, which assist- 
ed Lord Lake in his campaign against Sindia ; and he ulti- 
mately joined Lord Lake's force as a Shashsadi* and dis- 

* Comiiiandant of six hundred men. 



THE DUJANA STATE. 97 

tinguished himself at Bharatpur and in the pursuit of Jasvvant 
Rao Holkar up to the Satlaj in 1806. He received as re- 
ward two large tracts forming the whole western portion of 
the present district of Rohtak, together with all the country- 
held in Hissar by the celebrated George Thomas, formerly 
agent of the Begum Samru of Sardhana, and towards the 
end of last century, one of the most important military 
leaders in this part of India. The title of Nawab was bes- 
towed upon him, and the fortunes of Abdul Samad appeared 
to be assured. But the grant was saddled with the condition 
that he should administer his country without assistance from 
the British, and this the Nawab found himself unable to do. 
The villagers refused to acknowledge his authority, and 
withheld the payment of revenue, killing his son and son-in- 
law when on one occasion they attempted to enforce the 
Nawab's rights. Things came to an impossible pass, and in 
1809 he was obliged to resign his trust, receiving in lieu the 
smaller tracts of Mihani and Dujana, and retaining his powers 
and title of Nawab. These territories constitute the existing 
State of Dujana. 

Abdul Samad was succeeded in 1826 by his younger 
son Mahomed Dunde Khan, who held the Chiefship for 
twenty-three years. His elder brother's son Mahomed Amir 
Khan put in a claim to succeed his grandfather, but he even- 
tually compromised on being awarded a pension of Rs. 3,000 
per annum. Nawab Hasan AH Khan was Chief during the 
Rebellion of 1857. His grandson, the present Nawab, attri- 
butes Hasan Ali's apathy in the crisis to his gigantic physi- 
que. He describes him as *' enormous in person, seven feet 
in height, and powerful and fat." He did nothing personally 
to help the British " owing to his fatness and bodily disease." 
He, however, took no part against us, and his State thus 
escaped the fate of Jhajar and Bahadargarh. His successor, 
Sadat Ali, it is recorded, " possessed so much awe that all 



98 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the insurgents and rebels and miscreants remained sup- 
pressed." Consequently the State was tranquil during his 
reign of twelve years. 

Nawab Mumtaz Ali, the present Chief, was a minor when 
his father died in 1879, and his affairs were managed for 
three years by his uncle Mahomed Najabat Ali. He has so 
far had no opportunity of rendering conspicuous service ; but 
he is said to be a vigorous young Prince, and his State is 
well-ordered. Two of the Nawab's granduncles receive 
allowances, each of Rs. 6,000 per annum. 



THE BAG HAL STATE. 99 



RAJA DHIAN SINGH OF BAGHAL. 



Jagat Singh. 

Rana Shib Saran Singh, 

d. 1840. 

I 



I 1 I 

Raja Kishan Jai Singh, Bijai Singh. 

Singh, d. 1873, I 



d, 1876. 

I 
Raja Moti 

Singh, 
d. 1S77. 



Ram Singh, 
d. 1872. 



I I 

Sher Singh, Ranjor Singh, 

d. 1865. d. 1867. 



I I I I I I 

Raja Kapur Singh, Man Singh, Hira Singh, Udham Singh, Narindar 

Dhian d. 1S60. d. 1854. d. 1S56. d. i860. Singh, 

Singh, I I i?. 1858. 

0. 1842. Durga Singh, 

d. 18S0. 



I I 

Basant Singh, Partab Singh, 

i>. 1882. i>. 1885. 

The present Raja succeeded his first cousin Moti Singh 
in 1877. Moti Singh was a minor, and had been ruler only 
a few months when he died. His father Kishan Singh was 
Rana when the Mutiny broke out. He provided a contingent 
of footmen to assist in watching the roads leading from Jalan- 
dhar, whence an attack upon Simla by the mutineers of the 
3rd, 33rd and 35th Bengal Regiments was expected ; and he 
sent a party to Simla under command of his brother Jai Singh, 
father of the present Raja. Kishan Singh was rewarded for 
his loyalty by receiving the title of Raja, and khilats were 
bestowed upon him and his brother Jai Singh. 

Raja Dhian Singh is connected by marriage with the 
houses of Suket and Madhan. Two of his sisters married 
the late Raja Amar Chand of Bilaspur. Raja Kishan Singh 
married a daughter of the Jaswan Raja of Hushiarpur. 

Baghal, like the other Simla States, was annexed by the 
Gurkhas early in the century, and was restored to indepen- 



100 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

dence under a Sanad granted by the British Government in 
1815. The usual conditions were imposed of active assistance 
in case of war. The Raja's administrative powers are unfet- 
tered save in one respect, namely, that sentences of death 
passed by him require the confirmation of the Commissioner 
of Dehli. 

Raja Dhian Singh is an enlightened ruler, popular with 
his people. The State has an area of about one hundred 
and twenty square miles, and a population of twenty thousand 
souls. The revenues are estimated at Rs. 60,000. Arki is 
the capital, lying about twenty-two miles north-west of Simla. 



THE B ACHAT STATE, loi 

RANA DALIP SINGH OF BAGHAT. 

Fatah Pal. 

I 

Rana Raghnath Pal. 

L_ 

I I 

Rana Dalel Singh. Dhiraj Singh, 
\ I 

I . I III 

Rana Mahindar Rana Bije Rana Umed Jit Singh, Sobha Singh, 

Singh, Singh, Singh, b, 1830. b. 1832. 

d. 1839. it 1849. d. 1861. 

I \ \ ^1 

Rana Dalip Singh, Amar Singh, Hira Singh. Ratan Singh. 
b. 1859. b. i860. 

Baehat lies a few miles to the south and west of Simla, 
and extends from Solon to Sabathu and Kasauli, The State 
has an area of sixty square miles and a population of eight 
thousand. The revenues are about Rs. 10,000 per annum. 

The Rana's ancestors settled in these hills many centuries 
ago, having come from Dhorar Nagri in the Deccan, and 
acquired their possessions by conquest. During the twelve 
years of Gurkha rule, the Rana Mahindar Singh of Bhagat 
remained in undisturbed possession of his patrimony, as he 
was an ally of the Bilaspur Raja, on whose invitation the 
Gurkhas extended their conquests beyond the Jamna. He 
stuck to his old friends when Ochterlony drove back the 
Nipalese ; and five of his parganas were consequently made 
over to the Maharaja of Patiala. The remaining three (Bisal, 
Bachauli and Basal) lapsed to the British Government in 
1839, on the death of Mahindar Singh, sonless. But on the 
representation of Umed Singh, a first cousin of the deceased 
Rana, Lord Ellenborough conferred the State upon Bije 
Singh, brother of the deceased Rana, in 1842. It was again 
escheated in 1849 on Bije Singh's death. Then Umed 
Singh set up a claim on his own account. He sent a vakil 
to England, and employed Mr. Isaac Butt, the eminent 
barrister, to plead in his behalf before the Court of Directors. 



102 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Eventually, in i860, Lord Canning recommended the admission 
of Umed Singh's claim, and it was recognised in the following 
year. But Umed Singh was on his death-bed, and he survived 
the good news only a few hours, after thirteen years of wait- 
ing. His son Dalip Singh, then only two years of age, was 
installed as Rana, and he has held the State ever since. 

The Kasauli pargana, on which stands the existing 
Cantonment, was taken over from the Baghat Rana in 1842 
in lieu of a cash payment of Rs. 5,000 and an annual charge 
of Rs. 500. This latter rental was not revived when the State 
was restored to the Rana in 186 1. In 1863 the lands under 
the present cantonment of Solon were acquired on an annual 
payment of Rs. 500, and at the same time the Rana's 
tribute was reduced from Rs. 2,000 to Rs. 603 per annum. 
General Innes, an officer of the Indian Service, had purchased 
proprietary rights in a considerable area of the State during 
the time it had been incorporated with the British District 
of Simla. These rights were recovered by the Rana later 
on from the General's executors for a sum of Rs. 35,000. 

The Rana's administrative powers resemble those exercis- 
ed by the other Simla Chiefs already described. The present 
ruler is well educated, popular and public spirited ; and his 
administration is said to be gentle and just. His first wife, a 
daughter of the Dhami Rana, is dead. He married again, in 
1888, two granddaughters of the Rana of Mangal, near 
Bilaspur. He has no sons. His only legitimate brother 
Amar Sineh is also childless. 



THEJUBAL STATE. 



103 



RANA PADAIM CHAND OF JUBAL. 



Jog Chand. 

I 
Paras Chand. 

I 

Rana Puian Chand, 

d. 1S40. 

I 

Rana Karani Chand, 

a. 1S77. 

I 



1 

Rana Padam Chand, 

b. 1S62. 

I 

Three infant sons. 



Ghambir Chand, 
b. 1864. 



Two infant sons. 



The Jubal Rana claims descent from the original ruling 
family of Sirmur, which lost possession of the State under 
circumstances already mentioned. The tradition is that the 
old Sirmur Raja presented one of his wives as a religious 
act to a Brahmin of local renown. In the Brahmin's house 
were born of this lady three sons, who founded the Hill Chief- 
ships of Jubal, Rawin and Sairi. The custom of giving 
one's wife to a Brahmin is not uncommon even in the present 
day. But the woman is usually bought back by the husband 
at a high figure. If she remain in the Brahmin's family her 
children are not recognised by the brotherhood. 

The Jubal State was originally a tributary of Sirmur ; 
but after the Gurkha War it was made independent, and in 
18 1 5 Rana Puran Chand was granted a Sanad by Lord Moira. 
He proved a bad ruler ; his State fell into disorder, and he 
was compelled to abdicate in 1832, receiving a maintenance 
allowance of Rs. 4,400 per annum. He afterwards applied 
to be restored to his possessions, and this was sanctioned in 
1840; but he died before effect could be given to the orders 
passed in his favor. His son Karam Chand was appointed 
Rana in 1854. His rule was harsh and unpopular. The 
present Chief has been at the head of the State since 1878. 



104 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Jubal State lies east of Simla, between Sirmur and 
Rampur Bashahr. The area is about two hundred and fifty 
square miles, the population twenty thousand, and the revenue 
Rs. 30,000. The country is very beautiful, and is well covered 
with magnificent forest trees ; the people are simple-minded 
and law-abiding. 



THE KAMHARSEN STATE. 105 

RANA HIRA SINGH OF KAIVIHARSEN. 



GoRA Singh. 

I 

Rana Paritam Singh, 

d. 1858. 



Rana Bhawani Singh, 

d. 1874. 

I 



Rana Hira Singh, Indar Singh, 

d. 1S51. /'. 1872. 

The Kamharsen territory lies on the left bank of the 
Satlaj, immediately below Kotguru, and north of Narkanda. 
The area of the State is about ninety square miles, the popu- 
lation ten thousand, and the revenue Rs. 10,000. The Rana 
pays a tribute of Rs. 2,000 to the British Government. 

Kamharsen was formerly a tributary of the Bashahr 
State ; but after the Gurkha War a Sanad of independence 
was granted to the Rana Kahar Singh, with the condition 
attached of rendering feudal service to the Paramount Power, 
The Thakarais of Balsan, Barauli and Madhan were at one 
time feudatories of Kamharsen, but were made free by 
Ochterlony in 1815. Rana Kahar Singh's only son died in 
his father's life-time. Consequently, when Kahar Singh died 
in 1839, his estates lapsed to the British Government. They 
were, however, restored, and the title revived, in favor of a 
distant collateral, Paritam Singh, grandfather of the present 
Rana. Paritam behaved loyally in the First Sikh War, 
crossing the Satlaj at the head of three hundred matchlock- 
men and laying successful siege to the Kulu fort of Srigarb. 

Hira Singh, the present Rana, is of weak intellect. His 
affairs are managed by a Council of three officials. He has 
no children. Two of his sisters married the late Raja of 
Bilaspur. His aunt is one of the wives of the present Raja 
of Bashahr. 



io6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

RANA DURGA SINGH OF BHAJI. 

Amrit Pal. 

Rana Rudar Pal. 

I 

Rana Ran Bahadar Singh, 

d. 1875. 

\ 

I I I 

Rana DurgA Mian Parmatam Mian Bije 
Singh, Singh, Singh, 

h. 1842. b. 1844. b. 1850, 

The Rana holds under a Sanad granted to his grand- 
father by the British Government in 181 5. He enjoys 
powers of administration similar to those of other Simla Hill 
Chiefs, and he holds subject to a tribute payment of Rs. 1,440 
per annum. 

Rudar Pal, grandfather of the Rana, made over the State 
fourteen years before his death to his son Ran Bahadar, and 
became a recluse at Hardwar. Rana Durga Singh came to 
power in 1875, on his father's death. No sons have been 
born to him although he has married five wives. 

His territory lies on the left bank of the Satlaj, due 
north of Simla, The area is ninety-four square miles, and 
the population over twelve thousand. The revenue is com- 
puted at Rs. 23,000. Opium, celebrated for its purity, is an 
article of export from this State. The chief town, Suni, is 
famous for its sulphur springs, which have a medicinal value. 



THE MAILOG STATE. 107 

THAKAR R.\GHNATH CHAND OF IMAILOG. 



Nahar Chand. 

I 

Khushal Chand. 

I 

Thakar Sansar Chand, 

d. 1849. 



I ( 

Thakar Dalip Chand, Ganesh Singh, 

d. 1880. ^. 1841. 



Thakar Raghnath 
Chand, 
d. 1866. 



The Mailog Thakars have been settled in the Simla Hills 
for many years. Sansar Chand was driven out by the Gur- 
khas and took refuge with Raja Ram Saran of Nalagarh, who 
was himself hard pressed by the common enemy. He was 
reinstated with the other Chiefs in 181 5. His tribute was 
fixed at Rs. 1,440 ; and he had to subscribe to the usual con- 
ditions of rendering service when required in time of war. 

The present Thakar Raghnath Chand is described as 
an amiable and intelligent young man. He is setding his 
territory, and takes an active interest in his work. Raghnath 
Chand succeeded the late Thakar, his father, in 1880. He 
is connected by marriage with the house of Mangal. 

The State lies about thirty miles south-west of Simla, at 
the foot of the Kasauli Hill, between Nalagarh and Kuthar. 
The area is about fifty square miles, the revenue Rs. 10,000, 
and the population slightly over nine thousand souls. The 
capital is at Pata, a village close to the Nalagarh border. 



io8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES NOTE. 

RANA BIR SINGH OF BALSAN. 

Jai Singh. 

I 
Dharam Singh. 

Rana Jograj Singh, 
d. 1867. 

\ . 

I I I I I 

Sahib Singh. Bhil Singh. Sansar Singh, Davi Singh, Ranjit Singh, 
I cl 18S8. d. 1878. d. 1872. d. 1868. 

I I I 

I I Parem Singh, Kahan Singh. 

Rana Bhup Singh, Ratan Singh, ^- ^^34- l>- 1840. 

d. 1884. h. 1818. 



1 I 

Gobardhan Singh, Natha Singh, 

d. 1870. l>. 1852. 

_J 

I i 

Rana Bir Singh, Atar Singh, 

b. 1861. b. 186S. 



The Balsan State lies about thirty miles to the east of 
Simla, across the Giri, a tributary of the Jamna, The coun- 
try is fertile, and beautifully wooded with fine forests of deodar. 
The State has an area of fifty square miles and a population 
of five thousand souls. The revenue is under Rs. 6,000 
after deducting the Government tribute of Rs. 1,180. The 
Rana exercises full powers of administration, limited only by 
the usual control over death sentences, exercised by the 
Commissioner of Dehli. 

Sir Herbert Edwardes, writing in 1862, described the 
family as " thoroughly loyal ; united in themselves and kind to 
their people." Rana Jograj Singh was then ruler. He died 
five years later at the age of eighty-seven. Edwardes humor- 
ously describes him as " a fine old fellow with a Wellington 
nose." This Chief behaved with conspicuous loyalty in 
the Mutiny. He gave shelter and hospitality to several 
Englishmen who left Simla when the station was threatened 
by the Gurkha regiment at Jatog. Jograj was created a Rana 
in acknowledgment of his services, and he was presented 



THE BALSAM STATE. 109 

with a valuable khilat in public Darbar. He was succeed- 
ed in the Chiefship by his grandson Bhup Singh,* The 
present Rana's father died in Bhup Singh's life-time. Bhup 
Singh died in 1884. 

* Edwardes, who was Commissioner of Ambala after the Mutiny, has left the follow- 
ing amusing note of an interview in 1862 with this Chief : — "Bhup Singh is the Tika, a fat, 
heavy, but apparently well-disposed man, who speaks very slowly and with some impedi- 
ment. Bhup Singh recounts all the Sahibs who have ruled in these hills— Ross, Kennedy, 

Tapp, Erskine,-W. Edwards and Hay; and says they were all good. But and 

had bad Sharistadars who brought them into disrepute. Says that his soul fainted when 
sepoys mutinied in 1857, and thought there would be an end to the peace enjoyed in these 
hills under us." 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



RANA FATAH SINGH OF DHAMI. 



Dalel Singh. 

1. 
Rana Paritma Singh, 
d. 1813. 
i 

I I I 

Rana Golmrdhan Bishan Gayan 

Singh, Singh, Singh, 

d. 1867. d. 1S64. d. 1837. 

Rana Fatah Singh, Zalim Singh, 

/;. 1851. d. 1886. 

I I 

I I Kapur Singh, 

Hira Singh, Jawala Singh, b. 1859. 
b. 1878. b. 1884. 

The Dhami State lies to the west of Simla, about six 
miles from J atog. It has an area of thirty square miles and 
a population of about three thousand souls. The land reve- 
nues amount to Rs. 8,000 per annum. The Rana's ancestor 
fled from Rajpura, near Patiala, and settled at Dhami, when 
Shahabudin Ghori's invasion of India took place in the 
fourteenth century. 

Rana Gobardhan Singh was twelve years old when 
Ochterlony fought the Gurkhas ; and he wore arms at that 
age and fought on the side of the British. Concerning him 
Herbert Edwardes, in 1862, wrote : — " Lawrence gives him a 
good character for the excellent management of his country. 
He seems a man of more character than most." The Rana's 
loyal services in the Mutiny were acknowledged by a remis- 
sion of half the State tribute of Rs. 720 for his life-time. 
His son Fatah Singh succeeded to the Chiefship in 1867, 
and in 1880 he also received a remission of half his annual 
tribute. 

Rana Fatah Singh is well educated and public spirited 
He is said to be one of the best of the Simla Hill Chiefs. 



THE KOTHAR STATE. 



RANA JAI CHAND OF KOTHAR. 



Samar Chand. 

I 
Gopal Chand. 

I 
Rana Bhup Chand, 
d. 1858. 

I 

I I 

Rana Jai Chand, Isn Singh, 

<^.'i840. l>. 1844. 

I 

Son, 

b. 1S87. 

The Kothar family came to the Simla Hills many centu- 
ries ago from Rajauri in Jamu. They were tributaries of 
Keonthal before the Gurkha invasion. The State is a small 
one, with an area of only nineteen square miles and a revenue 
of Rs. 7,000 subject to a tribute deduction of Rs, 1,000 per 
annum. 

The present Rana succeeded his father in 1858. He is 
well educated, and manages his State successfully. He is con- 
nected by marriage with the Chiefs of Kunhar, Dhami, Keon- 
thal and Kot Khai. 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THAKAR TEGH SINGH OF KUNHAR. 



Anand Deo. 

I 

Magan Deo, 

</. 1816. 

I 
Puran Deo. 

! 

1 I 

Kishan Singh, Bishan Singh. 

(i. 1 866. I 



Thakar Tegh Mian Kahan Bir Singh, Hira Singh, 

Singh, Singh, l>. 1866. 6. 1873. 

d. 1836. d. iS79- I 

I I Rup Singh, 

Shib Singh, Bamba Singh, d. 1887. 
^. 1870. d. 1858. 



Narain Singh, Davi Singh, 

Zi. 1S78. k 1882. 



The petty State of Kunhar, in the Simla Hills, is ruled 
over by an ancient family of Gargah Raghbansi Thakars. 
Its extent is only nine square miles, and the population is 
under two thousand. Out of the revenue, yielding Rs. 4,000, 
an annual tribute of Rs. 180 is paid to the British Govern- 
ment. The Thakar enjoys the usual administrative powers. 
He has his head-quarters at Hat Kot. 

Thakar Tegh Singh succeeded his father in 1866. He 
is connected by marriage with the families of Sirmur and 
Koti. 



THE MANGAL STATE. 



RANA JIT SINGH OF MANGAL. 



Rana Bahadar Singh. 

I 

Rana Pirthi Singh. 

I 
Rana Jit Singh, 
b. 1830. 

I \ ^1 

Tika Tilok Singh, Nahal Singh, Khazan Singh, 

b. 1859. b. 1S62. b. 1869. 

The Mangal State lies on the banks of the Satlaj, near 
Bilaspur, to which it was once tributary. The Rana was 
declared independent in 18 15, after the expulsion of the 
Gurkhas. He exercises sovereign powers subject to the 
usual political supervision of the Commissioner of Dehli and 
the Simla Superintendent of Hill States. His gross income 
in only Rs. 700 per annum, of which Rs. 72 are taken as 
tribute by the British Government. 

Rana Jit Singh is related to the ruling families of 
Bilaspur, Mailog, Dhami and Baghat. 



114 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THAKAR UDAI CHAND OF BEJA. 




Thakar Udai 
Chand, 
b. 1831. 


Alam 
Singh, 
b. 1833. 

Infant 


Zalam Singh, 
b. 1835. 

Infant son, 
/'. 1 888. 


1 
Mohan 
Singh, 
b. 1837. 


Kishan 
Singh, 
b. 1839. 




son. 













Hira Singh, 
b. 1867. 



Amar Singh, 
b. 1870. 



Davi Singh, 
b. 1880. 



The Thakar of Beja has sovereign powers in his State, 
which covers four square miles. He pays a tribute of Rs. 180 
per annum to the British Government out of his revenue of 
Rs. 1,000, in which is included an annual payment of Rs. 80, 
made to him for villages added in 1844 to the Kasauli 
cantonment. 

The present Thakar is of frugal habits and adds to his 
income by lending out his savings on interest. His daughter 
is married to the Rao of Raipur in Ambala. 



THE DARKOTI STATE. 



"5 



RANA RAM SARAN SINGH OF DARKOTI. 



Bal Ram. 

Jathu Ram. 

I 

Rana Sis Ram, 

d. 1854. 

I 

Rana Paras Ram, 

d. 1856. 

I . 



Rana Ram Singh, 
d. 1SS3. 



Nahar Singh, 
d. 1876. 

I 



II II 

Lachnian, Ilaii Singh, Arjan Singh, Anant Ram, 

/'. 1841. l>. 1845. d. 1848. " 5. 1852. 



I 
Rana Ram 

Saran Singh, 
^>. 1849. 

I 

Son, 

d. 1888. 



Ilanwant Singh, 
d. 1851. 



I 

Hari Ram, 

6. 1854. 



Sita Ram, 

d. 188S. 

I 



Zalim Singh, 
^. 1857. 



Darkoti is excused tribute, being small. The State in- 
come is Rs. 600 per annum, and the area four square miles. 
The Rana's administrative powers are unfettered except as 
regards sentences of death. His family is an ancient one, 
having come from Marwar twenty-five generations ago. Ram 
Saran Singh came to power in 1884. 



Ti6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THAKAR KIDAR SINGH OF TAROCH. 



Lachu Chand. 



I I 

Karani Singh. Jhobu. 

Thakar Ranjit Singh, Siam Singh. 

d. 1877. 

I 



i I I I I I I I 

Kahar Singh, Sidia, Tikam Singh, Dhian Sis Ram, Rai Singh Rinkhu. Mathra, 

d. 1866. d. 1867. d. 1845. Singh, d. 1856. d. 1S87. ^. 1861. 
d. 1880, 



Thakar Kidar Singh, 
/>. 1866. 

\ 

I 



Surat Singh, Partab Singh, 

l<. 1887. l>. 1888. 

Taroch formerly constituted a part of the SIrmur State, 
and was bestowed as a gift on Kishan Singh, ancestor of the 
present Thakar, twenty-four generations back. When the 
hill districts fell under the dominion of the British, Karam 
Singh was the nominal Chief of Taroch, but on account of his 
great age and infirmities his brother Jhobu held the executive 
administration of the country. On the death of Karam Singh, 
the Chiefship was conferred on Jhobu and his heirs. In 1838, 
however, his nephew Ranjit Singh set up his claims and 
formed a strong party in his own favor. A lengthy corre- 
spondence ensued. Jhobu was ultimately compelled to abdi- 
cate in favor of his son Siam Singh. But the arrangement 
did not long continue owing to the intrigues set on foot by 
Jhobu and Ranjit Singh, who now coalesced. The claims of 
Ranjit Singh were finally acknowledged in 1843, ^^^ ^ Sanad 
was granted, conferring the State on him and his heirs in per- 
petuity subject to the usual conditions of military service. 

The Taroch Chiefs formerly enjoyed the title of Rana ; 
but this ceased when the State was incorporated with the 



THE TAROCH STATE. 117 

Simla District, and the rulers are now styled Thakars. Kidar 
Singh succeeded his grandfather in 1877. He was then 
an infant, and his State was placed under the management of 
a Council. He received his powers in 1883. He has mar- 
ried two ladies of the Bashahr family. 

Taroch has an area of seventy-five square miles and a 
revenue of Rs. 6,000, of which Rs. 288 are taken in tribute 
by the British Government. The State lies on the bank of 
the Tons, a tributary of the Jamna, beyond Jubal, and close 
to the Dera Dun border. The Thakar owns some splendid 
forests of deodar. 



na CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



RAI HIR.\ SINGH OF SANGRI. 



Raja Tiiedi Sixgh, 
i 



I I . 

Paritam Singh. Prem Singh. 

! I 

I I I Thakar Singh, 

Bikrama Singh, Khushal Singh. J^gat Singh d. 1S52. 

(/. 1816. I a/i'as Jhagar | 

I I Singh, Rai Gayan Singh, 

Raja Ajit Singh, Bhawani Singh. d. 1S76. </ 1870. 

«'■ '841. \ I 

I I I Rai Dalip Singh, 

Ranliir Singh, Rai Hira Singh Sansar Singh, Z-. 1862, 

(/. 1842. OF Sangri, I). 1S51. 

/.. 1849. I 

L_ 

I I 

Lai Singh, Keshri Singh, 

/>. 1872. d. 1888'. 

Sangri Is situated on the left bank of the Satlaj, above 
Kotguru, and near Kamharsen. It was a portion of the 
Kulu State, and, as such, was under the Lahore Government, 
until the annexation of the Jalandhar Doab at the close of 
the First Sikh War. In the Kangra chapter an account has 
been given of the rebellion of the Kulu people in 1840, when 
their Raja Jit Singh was seized and ill-treated by the Sikhs. 
He was rescued, and his captors massacred to the number of 
three thousand. Ajit Singh took refuge in Sangri, on the 
British side of the river, and died there shortly afterwards. 
His uncle Jagat Singh was the next heir, but was supersed- 
ed, being of weak intellect, by his son Ranbir Singh, who 
died at Mandi on his way to Lahore to receive investiture at 
the hands of Maharaja Sher Singh. The Sikhs then selected 
Thakar Singh as Raja and gave him Waziri Rupi in jagir. 
His status was recognised by the British Government. Jagat 
Singh, the imbecile, was appointed Thakar of Sangri, which 
was separated from Kulu and incorporated with the Simla 
Hill States. At that time his younger children, Hira Singh 
and Sansar Singh, were not born, Hira Singh afterwards 
claimed the Kulu jagir, but failed to succeed, as it was held to 



THE SANGRI STATE. iig 

have been properly taken away from his branch by the Lahore 
Darbar. He enjoys an allowance of Rs, 1,650 per annum 
from one of the ex-Ranis of Kulu, who has adopted him. 

The title of Rai was conferred upon Hira Singh in 1887 
as a hereditary distinction. He exercises administrative 
powers within the limits of his State subject to the control of 
the Superintendent of the Simla States. No tribute is levied, 
as the income is only Rs. t,ooo. The State has an area of 
sixteen square miles. 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



BASHAHR TRIBUTARIES. 



I.— THAKAR LAL CHAND OF KANAITI. 

Thakar Nain Chand, 
d. 1858. 

i \ i ^1 

Thakar Saran Puran Bhagirat Alam. 

Chand, Chand. Chand. 

d. 1888. 



Thakar Lal Chand, Zalam Singh, 

d. i860. d. 1864. 

Kanaiti is situated between Nag Kanda and Kotguru. 
The Thakar also holds a tract called Deori, lying between Kot 
Khai and Bashahr. He was in the habit of taking his 
revenue in kind ; but as this led to constant disputes with his 
people, who were anxious to put an end to this antiquated 
method of payment, an appeal was made to the Deputy Com- 
missioner to fix cash rates. The case was settled to the 
satisfaction of the parties in 1886 ; and the Thakar now receives 
Rs. 3,500. from which Rs. 900 are deducted on account of 
tribute levied by the Raja of Bashahr, to whom he is subject. 
The population of this petty Chiefship is under three thousand. 

The Kanaiti family has a common origin with that of 
Kumharsen and Kot Khai. The sister of the present Thakar 
is married to the neighbouring Thakar of Dalthi. 



BASHAHR TRIBUTARIES. 121 

II.-THAKAR NARINDAR SINGH OF DALTHI, 

Paritam Singh. 

I 
Padam Singh. 

1 



I I I 

Sansar Singh, Barekam Singh, Nahal Singh, 

d. 1883. d. 1880. d. 1878. 

I I 

I Naraina, 

/'. 1869. 



I I I 

Thakar Narindar Gopal Kanhya, 

Singh, Singh, ^. 1871. 

d. 1854. k 1867. 



I I 

Deo Ragnath 
Singh, Singh, 

i>. 1872. d. 1886. 

This petty State is a tributary of Bashahr, paying 
Rs. 150 per annum to the Raja in acknowledgment of his 
supremacy. The Wazir of Bashahr is also entitled to receive 
an allowance of Rs. 30 from the Thakar of Dalthi, whose gross 
income is only Rs. 600 per annum. The present Chief, Narin- 
dar Singh, has married a daughter of the late Thakar Saran 
Chand of Kanaiti. 

The family is an old one, and is held in high respect by 
the people of the Simla Hills. 



W2i CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

KEONTHAL TRIBUTARIES. 



I.— RANA BISHAN CHAND OF KOTI. 
Rana Hari Chand, 

d. 1873. 

I 



I I 

Rana Bishan Chand, Shib Saian Singh, 

d. 1836. l>. 1840. 

1 \ I 

Tika Raghbir Gopal Singh, Nahal Singh, 

Singh, i>. 1S70. l>. 1873. 
l>. 1865. 

Bishan Chand is a feudatory of the Keonthal Chief, to 
whom he pays Rs. 500 annually. His father received the 
title of Rana for services rendered during the Mutiny. 
He assisted in guarding the station from the approach of 
the Nasiri Battalion of Gurkhas, whose behaviour at Jatog, 
when ordered to proceed to the plains, brought them under 
the suspicion of disloyalty ; and he afterwards gave shelter 
to many Europeans who had fled from Simla in a moment 
of panic. 

The Rana's State is a small one, having an area 
of thirty-six square miles and a revenue of Rs. 6,000, ex- 
clusive of forest receipts and rents. He enjoys the adminis- 
trative powers conferred upon all the Simla Hill Chiefs 
under the Sanads granted them after the Nipalese War. Rana 
Bishan Chand has married a daughter of the Rana of Kathar. 



KEONTHAL TRIBUTARIES. 123 



II.— THAKAR HARI CHAND OF THEOG. 

Thakar Bhup Singh, 
d. 1S66. 

! 

I i ^1 

Hari Chand, Nand Singh, Nitu Singh, 

^- 1840- ^. 1855. ^- i860. 



uam 



I I I j 

Shamsher Madan Singh, Gobardhan Bije Singh, Kar_ 

Chand, d. 1864. Singh. d. 1876. Sin^h, 

^. i860. d. 1870. i>, 1880. 

This family came from Bilaspur some centuries ago and 
settled at Theog, north-east of Simla, becoming feudatories 
of the Keonthal Chiefs, who levy from them a tribute of 
Rs. 500 per annum. 

The income of the Theog Thakar is Rs. 3,500 per an- 
num, and the area of his possessions about ten square miles, 
having a population of three thousand souls. The Keonthal 
Raja has no power of interference so long as the Thakar 
is not in arrears with his tribute. The latter exercises full 
criminal and civil jurisdiction within the limits of his estate ; 
but capital sentences require the confirmation of the Com- 
missioner of Dehli. 

The late Thakar Bhup Singh was removed in 1856 for 
misconduct, and his son Hari Chand appointed in his stead, 
A grant of Rs. 500 per annum was passed as a maintenance 
to the father, who died ten years later. Thakar Hari Chand 
is married to a daughter of the Rana of Balsan, by whom he 
has several children. He lives at Parala near Theog, 



124 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



III.— THAKAR BISHAN CHAND OF MADHAN 



Thakar Dhakam Chand. 

I 



Thakar Nikal Bhim 
Chand, Chand. 

d. 1839. 

Thakar Sansar Chand, 
d. 1868. 

I 

I I 

Thakar Ram 

BiSHAN Chand, Saran, 

b. 1842. b. 1844. 



1 
Dhilju. 



Riwardu, 
d. 1S23. 



Sanwal Das. 



Chil Singh, 
d. 1857. 



I. I 

Gopal Singh, Raghnath 
b. 1 83 1. Singh, 

h. 1847. 



I. 
Davi 

Singh, 
b. 1855. 



Kharak Chand, 
b. 1879. 



Randhir Singh, 
b. 1887. 



1 

A son, not yet named, 

b. 1889. 



The Thakar of Madhan rules over one thousand subjects 
who occupy half-a-dozen small villages between Phagu and 
Matiana to the north of the road between Simla and Kotguru. 
The area of his State is three square miles, and the revenue 
is Rs. 700, of which one-third goes in tribute to the Raja of 
Keonthal. Short of hanging, he can do what he pleases with 
his people, subject to the control of the Superintendent of 
Hill States. 

The present Thakar Bishan Chand is seriously in debt, 
mainly owing to his fondness for horses. 



KEONTHAL TRIBUTARIES. 125 



IV.— THAKAR KISHAN SINGH OF GHUND. 

Ram Das, 
d. 1866. 

I 
Bhajnu, 
d. i860. 

I 

Kishan Singh, 

6. 1858.' 

I 
Two infant sons, not yet named. 

The Ghund Thakar pays a tribute of Rs. 250 to the 
Raja of Keonthal. He enjoys full administrative powers 
subject to the control of the Superintendent of Hill States. 
His territories cover thirteen square miles and his revenue is 
Rs. 1,000 a year. His subjects number about a thousand. He 
pays a tribute of Rs. 250 per annum to the Raja of Keonthal. 



126 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

v.— THAKAR RAM SINGH OF RATESH. 
Jit Singh. 



Kishan Sir 
d. iS6o. 

1 


igh, 


1 
Bhawani 

1 


Singh. 


1 
Moti Sii 

1 

1 


ngh. 




1 

Thakar 

Ram Singh, 

b. 1821. 

1 


1 

Raghnath 

Singh. 


1 
Madan 
Singh, 
b 1843. 


1 
Uharam 
Singh, 
b. 1846. 


1 

Lachman 
Singh, 
b. 1848. 




1 
Gopal 
Sinqh, 
d. 1868. 






1 





Ill 

Hira Singh, Zahm Singh, Bir Singh, 

b. 1869. b. 1874. b. 1S86. 

Thakar Ram Singh of Ratesh, in the Simla Hills, is one 
ofthe smallest of the semi-independent rulers under the British 
Government. Within the limits of his State, which covers less 
than three square miles, he is supreme in all but power of 
death. Capital sentences passed by him have to be approved 
by the Dehli Commissioner. His revenues are Rs. 200 per 
annum, and the number of his subjects is below four hundred. 

Before the Gurkhas came, Ratesh was a flourishing little 
kingdom. But the ruler Kishan Singh was a boy of six or 
seven years, an exile at Sirmur, when Ochterlony swept 
these hills; and there was no one to look after his interests. 
Keonthal annexed four of the Ratesh parganas, and what 
remained was seized in 1S20 by the Rana of Balsan. 
Subsequently the Keonthal Raja was made to restore the 
territory which represents the present principality of the 
Ratesh Thakars. 



DARBARIS. VICEREGAL AND PROVINCIAL. 



DEHLI, JALANDHAR, PESHAWAR AND 
DERAJAT DIVISIONS. 



128 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Da7'baris of the Dchli District. 



Order of 
Precedence 



►5 S 



Name.* 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



I 


4 


7 


46 


SI 

52 

53 


449 


54 


450 


57 


453 


64 


501 


65 


502 


66 


503 


68 


505 


69 


506 


70 


507 


73 


510 


74 


511 


76 


513 


77 


514 


78 


5'5 


79 


S16 


So 


5'7 


82 


519 


86 


609 



Mirza Mahomed 

SuHnian Shah, o f 

Dehli. 
Sayad Yakub Khan, 

Tughra, of Dehli. 
Mirza Surayajah 
Mirza Ikbal Shah 
Mirza Saidudin Ahmad 

Khan, of Dehli. 



V. Khan Bahadar Hadi 
Ilasain Khan, of 
Dehli, 



Khan Bahadar Mahbub 

Bakhsh, of Dehli. 
Khan Bahadar Nizam- 

udin Khan, of Dehli. 
Pandit Hari Shankar, 

of Dehli. 
Shekh Abdul Rasul, 

of Faridabad. 



Rai Bahadar Ram 

Kishan Das, of Dehli. 
Munshi Makhan Lai, 

of Delhi. 
Lala Dharam Das, of 

Dehli. 
Rai Ganga Ram, of 

Dehli. 
Rai Nanak Chand, of 

Dehli. 
Lala Sri Kishan Das, 

Gurwala, of Dehli. 
Khan Bahadar Maulvi 

Ziaudin Khan, of 

Dehli. 
Rai Bahadar Sukbasi 

Lai, of Dehli. 
Lala Jagan Nath, Ban- 
ker, of Dehli. 
Paras Das, Banker, of 

Dehli. 
Hakim Ghulam Raza 

Khan, of Dehli. 
Mir A s h r a f Ali, of 

Mohna. 



Mirza Ilahi Baksh, 



Sayad Nizamudin 

Khan. 
Mirza Ilahi Baksh, 

Ditto 
Nawab Ziaudin 

Ahmad Khan. 

Sayad Mahomed 
Bahksh Khan. 



Shekh Shah Maho- 

med. 
Mahomed Hidayat 

Khan. 
Ram Chand 

Shekh Inamula ... 



Lala Balmakand... 

Munshi Nath Mai, 

Lala Salag Ram ... 

Rai Umed Singh... 

Umed Singh 

Lala Narain Das 

(adoptive). 
Mahomed Bakhsh 
Khan. 

Munshi Jawahar 

Lai. 
Lala Narain Das... 

Girdhari Lai 

Ghulam Murtaza 

Khan. 
Mir Hadayat Ali... 



42 



70 



Brother of Nos. 
51 and 52. 



Brother of No. i. 
Ditto. 

Related to th e 
Nawab of 
Loharu. 

Vice -President 
of the D e h 1 i 
Municipal Com- 
mittee : late an 
Extra Assistant 
Commissioner. 



Late an Extra 
Assistant Com- 
missioner. 



Brother of Nos-. 
loi and 102. 



The initial letters V. and P. are intended to show the Darbaris as Viceregal or Provincial. 
The age is in most cases approximate, and as reported in 1889. 



DEHLI DISTRICT DARBARIS. 129 

Darharis of the Dchli District — concld. 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






D C 


<u 


Remarks. 


•5I 


■5 c 












c "> 


cl 






















(U 




■"p 


'"'pij 








< 




S7 


610 


V. 


Ahmad Shafi, of Farid- 
abad 


Mir Kasam Ali ... 


23 




ss 


611 


P. 


Faujdar Baldeo Singh, 
of Mitraon. 


Lachman Singh ... 


70 


Father of No. 
140. 


90 


613 


P. 


Sayad Sultan Mirza, 
of Dehli. 


Nawab Sayad 
Sadar Mirza. 


37 




91 


614 


V. 


Hakim Zahirudin, of 
Dehli _ 


Ghulam N a j a f 
Khan. 


40 




95 


6IS 


p. 


Fandit Jiwan Ram, of 
Dehli. 


Pandit Baini Ram, 


68 




95 


619 


V. 


Rai Sada S u k h , of 
Dehli. 


Pandit G a n g a 
Ram. 


75 




!0I 


624 


p. 


Lala Ajudhia Parshad, 
of Dehli. 


Salig Ram 


55 


Brother of No. 70. 


102 


625 


p. 


Ishii Parshad 


Ditto 


41 


Ditto. 


104 


627 


p. 


Lala Ilardhian Singh, 
of Dehli. 


Thakar Das 


48 




112 


635 


p. 


Lala Sri Ram, of Dehli. 


Sheo Lai 


54 




130 


747 


p. 


Lala Madan Gopal. 
MA., Barrister-at- 
Law, of Dehli. 


Ram Narain 


35 


Practising at La- 
hore. 


*3i 


74S 


p. 


Maulvi Latif Hasain 
Khan, of Dehli. 


Hakim Mahom.ed 
Hasain Khan. 


51 




m 


750 


p. 


Lala Mahar Chand, 
Contractor of Dehli. 


Lala Ishri Parshad, 


45 




J 34 


751 


p. 


Lala Lai Singh, Mer- 
chant, of Dehli 


Duli Sir.gh 


59 


Brother of No, 
135. 


135 


752 


p. 


Lala Kishan Singh, of 
Dehli. 


Duli Singh 


52 


Brother of No. 
134. 


537 


753A 


p. 


Rai Sheo Sahai Mai, 
of Dehli and Mathra. 


Jai Ram Das 


53 




13S 


753B 


p. 


Mahomed Ikramula 
Khan. 


Bakshi Inamula 
Khan. 


32 


Honorary Extra 
Assistant Com- 
missioner. 


140 


753D 


p. 


Chaudhri R a g h n a t h 


Faujd;<r B u 1 d e 


30 


Son of No. 88. 








Singh, of Mitraon. 


Singh. 


i 


142 


753F 


p. 


Pandit Banke Rai, of 
Dehli. 


Bashashar Nath ... 


30 


Teacher in the 
Dehli Municipal 
Board School. 



130 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
Darbaris of the Gurgaon District. 



Order of 










Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 








6 


Remarks. 


D a 














5-2 


-c .5 


























c"> 


c 








6 




•^Q 


^ Ph 








< 




33 


218 


V. 


Mahomed Sarajudin 
Haidar Khan, of 
Parakhnagar. 


Captain Mahomed 
Tafazal Hasain 
Khan. 


40 




72 


509 


P. 


Mir Mahomed Hadi 
Ali, of Rasulpur. 


Mir Parvvarash Ali, 


38 




136 


753 


P. 


Khushwakat Kai, of 
Riwari. 


Rampat 


48 




141 


753 E 


P. 


Bihari Lai 









HISSAR DISTRICT DARBARIS. 

Darharis of the Rohtak District. 



13:1 



ORnER OF 


~^~ 










Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 








^ i 


Remarks. 












V, 




^S 


"" 








< 




63 


495 


V. 


Kalian Singh, Rajput, 
of Jahazgarh. 


Raja Sabal Singh, 


27 


A claimant to 
the Gadi of 
Jodhpur. 


92 


615 


V. 


Chaudhri N a n a k 
Chand, of Badli. 


Gulab Singh 


53 




93 


616 


V. 


Umar AH Khan, of 
F'arkhanda. 


Rasaldar Basharat 
Ali. 


37 




97 


620 


V. 


Indar Singh, of Ku- 
tani. 


Bhup Singh 


SI 




100 


623 


p. 


Nahar Ali Khan, of 
Gohana 


Haidar AHKhan... 


45 




120 


695 


p. 


B h a g vv a n D a s, of 
Bahadargarh. 


Jagan Nath 


5« 




122 


697 


p. 


Rasaldar Ghulam. Rasul 
Khan, of Guriani. 


YasJn Khan, of Ka- 
lanaur. 


n 




123 


698 


p. 


Shahab Khan, of Kala- 
naur. 


Rasaldar Sandal 
Khan. 


60 




124 


699 


p. 


Rasaldar S h ah z a d. 
Khan Bahadar, of 
Kanhaur. 


Kamarudin Khan, 


82 




143 


7S3G 


p. 


Sewak Ram, Jat 


... 


... 





Darharis of the Hissar District. 



Order of 












Preceden'ce. 




Name. 


Father's name. 








<u t 


Remarks, 


1-2 


■£ -S 












c > 


►S 2 








<u 




•^Q 










< 




94 


617 


V. 


Kamarudin Khan, of 
Sirsa. 


Shams Khan 


46 




9S 


621 


P. 


Janki Das, of Rori ... 


Disciple of Baba 
Aniar Nath. 


66 




99 


622 


V. 


Ram Sukh Das, Ban- 
ker, of Sirsa. 


Fatah Chand 


44 


Related to Nos. 
118 and iig. 


iiS 


693 


P. 


Sohan Lai, Banker, of 
Hissar. 


Mul Chand 


34 


Vide above. 


119 


694 


P. 


Jai Ram Das, Banker, 
of Bhawani. 


Ganesh Das 


40 


Ditto. 


127 


702 


P. 


Sardar Khan, of Hissar, 


Dindar Khan 


59 


Late Jamadar, 
4th Punjab 
Cavalry. 



132 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
Darharis of the Karnal District. 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 










Remark.s, 


|| 


£ c 






















1 




3A 


36A 


V. 


Nawab Ibrahim Ali 
Khan, of Kunjpur. 


Nawab Mahomed 
Ali Khan. 


II 


Related to 

No. 67. 


4 


43 


V. 


Bhai Jasmer Singh, of 
Arnauli. 


Bhai Gulab Singh, 


55 


Related to No. 5. 


5 


44 


V. 


Bhai Anokh Singh, of Bhai Sangat Singh, 


S3 


Related to No. 4. 








Sidhuwal. 








6 


45 


V, 


Nawab Azmat Ali 
Khan, Mandal, of 
Kamah 


Nawab Ahmad Ali 
Khan. 


45 


Related to 
No.s. 8, 32, 105, 
106, 107, 108 
and 139. 


8 


47 


V, 


Sadat Ali Khan, Man- 
dal, of Karnal, (now 
of Dehli.) 


Kutabudin Khan... 


42 


Related to No. 6. 


32 


217 


p. 


Shamsher Ali Khan ... 


Wazir Ali Khan, 


48 


Ditto. 


34 


219 


V. 


Sardar Ujal Singh, of 
Dhanaura. 


Sardar Dewa Singh, 


30 




45 


242 


V. 


Sardar Ram Singh, 
of Shamgarh. 


Ditto 


46 




67 


504 


V. 


Ahmad Hasain Khan, 
of Kunjpur. 


Mahomed Hasain 
Khan. 


39 


Related to 
No. 3 (A). 


69 


... 


Fazal Ahniad Khan, of 


Nawab Amanula 


45 


11 e a d f the 








Panipat. 


Khan. 




family of Pani- 
pat Nawabs. 


105 


628 


P. 


Kamarudin Khan, of 
Karnal. 


Ghulam Sharaf 
Khan. 


55 


Related to No. 6. 


106 


629 


P. 


Akbar Khan, of Kar- 
nal. 


Ditto 


49 


Ditto, 


107 


630 


P. 


Karam Ilahi Khan, of 
Karnal. 


Raham Ali Khan ... 


46 


Ditto. 


108 


631 


P. 


Najabat Ali Khan, of 
Karnal. 


Ghulam Sharaf 
Khan. 


58 


Ditto. 


III 


634 


P. 


Sardar Fatah Singh, of 

Gudha. 


Sardar K a r p a 1 

Singh. 


32 




139 


753C 


P. 


Fatah Mahomed Khan, 
Mandal, of Karnal. 


Mahar Ilahi Khan, 


28 


Ditto. 



AMDALA DISTRICT DARBARIS. 
Darharis of the Ambala District. 



•^Zl 



Order of 
Precedence. 



Name. 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



35- 


V. 


36 


V. 


54 


V. 


55 


V. 


7S 


V. 


79 


V. 


S3 


V. 


84 


V. 


85 


V. 


86 


V. 


S7 


V. 


88 


V. 


89 


V. 


92 


V. 


93 


V. 


94 


V. 


95 


V. 


96 


V. 


216 


V. 


230 


V. 


231 


V. 


232 


V. 


233 


V 


234 


V. 



Sardar Jiwan Singh, 

CLE., of Biiria. 
Sardar Jiwan Singh, 

Shahid, of Shazadpur. 
Sardar Autar Singh, of 

Manauli. 
Mir Mahomed Bakar 

Ali Khan, CLE., of 

Kotaha. 
Sardar Utam Singh, of 

Ghanauli. 
Sardar Partab Singh, of 

Ghanauli. 
Sardar Harbans bingh, 

of Kandaula. 
Sardar Bhagwan Singh, 

of Sohana. 
Sardar Partab Singh, of 

Manak Majra. 
Sardar Tara Singh, of 

Chuni Machli BareH. 
Sardar Harnam Singh, 

of Kharar. 
Sardar A tar Singh, of 

Maloha. 
Sardar P a r d u m a n 

Singh, of Ramgarh. 
Mian Govardhan Singh, 

of Ramgarh. 
Mian SuUhdarshan 

Singh, of Ramgarh. 
Sardar Shib Narain 

Singh, of Shahabad. 
Sardar Bachatar Singh, 

of Shahabad. 
Sardar R a m n a r a i n 

Singh, of Kharindvva. 

A lam Khan, of Kotia 

Nahang. 
Sardar Ivishan Singh, 

of Thai Tangaur. 
Sardar Jasmer Singh, of 
Thai Tangaur. 

Sardar Jawala Singh, 
of Jharauli. 

Sardar Tilok Singh, of 
Mustafabad. 

Sardar Naina Singh, of 
Mustafabad, 



Sardar G u 1 a b 

Singh. 
Sardar Sheokarpal 

Singh. 
Sardar Jai Singh ... 

Kasim Ali Khan... 



Sardar B h p a 1 
Singh. 

Ditto 

Sardar B i s h a n 

Singh 
Sardar Bhup Singh, 

Sardar B a s a w a 

Singh. 
Sardar J a s w a n t 

Singh. 
Sardar G a n d a 

Singh. 
Sardar K h i \v a n 

Singh 
Sardar R a n j i t 

Singh. 
Mian Jai Singh ... 

Mian Karpal Singh 

Sardar D h a r a m 

Singh. 
Sardar K i s h a n 

Singh. 
Sardar Partab 

Singh. 
Ata Mahomed 

Khan. 
Sardar Javvahar 

Singh. 

Ditto 

Jit Singh 

Sardar Dava Singh, 

Sardar S u n d a r 
Singh. 



Brother of No. 
14. 

Ditto. 



Related to Nos, 
25 and 26. 
Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Related to Nos. 
28 and 29. 
Ditto. 

Ditto. 



Brother of No. 
37- 

Ditto. 



Related to No. 
40. 



Ditto. 



134 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darharis of the Amhala District — concld. 



Order of 
Preceuence. 



c > 



Name. 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



42 


236 


43 


239 


44 


240 


45 


241 


4S 


244 


48A 


4 25 A 


59 


455 


61 


465 


6iA 


465 A 


62 


466 


"5 


679 


116 


68 1 


117 


682 



Sardar Sahib Singh, of 

Leda. 
Sardar Hardit Singh, 

of Dialgarh. 
Sardar Shennarain 

Singh, of Parkhali. 
Sardar Partap Singh, 

of jMianpur. 
Sardar Sant Singh, of 

Sakandra. 
Munshi Hasain Bakhsh. 

Sardar Karpal Singh, of 

Dhin. 
Bansi Lai, Banker, of 

Jagadhri. 
Ganga Parshad, of 

Anihala. 
Lala Radha Kishan, of 

Jagadhri 
Ganeshi Lai, Banker, 

of Ambala. 
Lala Partab Singh, of 

Babain. 
Sayad Abdul Hasain, 

of Sadhaura, 



Sardar A m a r 

Singh. 
Sardar Sant Singh, 

Sardar K h a r a k 

Singh. 
Sardar Diwan Singh 

Sardar Fatah Singh, 



Sardar Ranjit Singh 

Jamna Das 

Balmakand 

Lala Davi Chand 

Charanji Lai 

Lala Nagar Mai .. 

Sayad Udham AH. 



LUDHIANA DISTRICT DARDARIS. 

Darharis of the Liidhiana District. 



13s 



Order of 
Precedence. 



Name. 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



7 


10 


8 


II 


10 


13 


iS 


48 


19 


49 


20 


52 


20A 


52A 


21 


53 


32 


80 


50 


215 


SI 


221 


54 


224 



225 

226 

227 
228 

229 

237 



Shahzada Nadir, 
C.I E., of Ludiana. 

Shahzada S a f d a r 

Jang, ofLndhiana. 
Shahzada Jalakidin, of 

Ludhiana. 
Saidar Sir A t a r 

Singh, K.C.I E., Bha- 

dauria, of Ludhiana 
Sirdar Utam Singh, 

of Ramgarh. 
Sirdar Kadan Singh, 

of Malod. 
Sardar Mahomed 

Tahar, of Ludhiana. 
Sardar B a 1 \v a n t 

Singh, of Ber. 
Sardar Sundar Singh, of 

Paldioki. 
Bhai Narain Singh, 

of Bagrian. 
Sardar Mahtab Singh, 

of Ladrhan. 
Sardar Harnam Singh, 

of Ladrhan. 



Sardar llari Singh, 

of Ladrhan. 
Sardar Albel 

of Ladrhan. 
Sardar Sham 

of Ladrhan. 
Sardar Ganda 



Singh, 
Singh, 



Singh, 



of Dheru Mazara. 



Sardar Yar Mahomed 
Khan, of Ludhiana. 



V. Sardar Nur Mahomed 
Khan, of Ludhiana. 



Shah Shuja-ul- 

Mulk, late Ruler 
of Kabul. 
Ditto 

Shahzada Timur... 

Sirdar K h a r a k 
Singh. 

Sardar Fatah Singh, 

Sardar Mit Singh... 

Shahzada Su 1 1 a n 

Sakandar. 
Sardar H a ki k a t 

Singh 
Sardar Mit Singh.. 

Bhai S a m p u r an 

Singh. 
Sardar Budh Singh, 

SardarUtam 
Singh. 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Sirdar Raja Singh, 

Sardar Daya 
Singh. 



Sardar S a 1 e h 
Mahomed Khan 



Sardar Khan 
Mahomed Hasan 
Khan. 



Related to Nog. 
8, 10 and 20A. 

Brother of No. 7. 

Related to No. 7. 

Is a feudatory of 

the P a t i a 1 a 

State. 
Related to Nos. 

20, 21 and 32. 
Related tc No. 

19. 
Related to No. 7. 

Related to No. 
19. 

Ditto. 



\ Belonging to 
j one family. 



;36 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darharis of the Liidhiana District — concld. 



Order OF 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 


< 




•5I 
c '^ 




Remarks. 


6i 


23S 


V. 


Faiz Talab Khan, of 
Raikot. 


Rai Imam Bakhsh, 


39 




75 


457 


V. 


Sardar Harnam Singh, 
of liheri. 


Sardar Bishan Singh 


42 




77 


459 


V. 


Maulvi Sayad Sharif 
Ilasain, of Jagraon. 


Maulvi Rajab Ali... 


5S 





FIROZPUR DISTRICT DARBARIS. 
Darbaris of the Firozpur District. 



f37 



Order of 
Precedence. 


Name. 


Father's name. 


< 




^1 

—' 'SI 


II 


Remarks. 


13 


24 


V. 


Nawab N i z a m u d i n 
Khan, of Manidot. 


Nawab Jalaludin 
Khan. 


26 


Honorary Lieu- 
tenant, 2nd 
Panjab Cavalry. 


22 


59 


V. 


Guru Bislian Singh, of 
Guru Harsahai. 


Guru Fatah Singh, 


37 




62 


250 


V. 


Sardar Bahadar Sodhi 
Man Singh, of Butar. 


Sodhi Jagat Singh, 


59 


Honorary Assist- 
ant Commis- 
sioner : related 
to No. 72. 


66 


380 


V. 


Bhai Zabarjang Singh, 
of Jhamba. 


Bhai Mahar Singh, 


46 




68 


382 


V. 


Sodhi Bhagwan Singh, 
of Dhilwan. 


Sodhi Sahib Singh, 


66 


Related to No. 74. 


69 


383 


V, 


Sodhi Harnam Singh, 
of Moga. 


Sodhi Khushal Singh 


32 




70 


3S5 


V. 


Sardar Suchet Maho- 
med, of Dharmsingh- 
wala. 


Sardar Gurdit 
Singh. 


31 


Has embraced 
Mahomedanism. 


71 


402 


V. 


Sardar Partab Singh, 
of Rania. 


Sardar Khazan 
Singh. 


58 


Related to No. 73. 


72 


403 


V. 


Sodhi Indar Singh, of 
Butar. 


Sodhi B hag at 
Singh. 


48 


Related to No. 62. 


73 


404 


p. 


Dial Singh, of Rania ... 


Mahtab Singh 


49 


Related to No. 71. 


74 


408 


p. 


Sodhi Hukam Singh, 
of Dhilwan. 


Sodhi Ram Singh, 


42 


Related to No. dZ. 


no 


606 


V. 


Rai Gopi Mai, of Firoz- 
pur. 


Rai Nagar Mai ... 


48 




III 


655 


p. 


Sodhi Khazan Singh, of 
Butar. 


Sodhi Jagat Singh, 


53 


Related to No. 62. 


112 


674 


V. 


Sardar Amar Singh, of 
Mansurwal. 


Sardar Deva Singh 


31 





138 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
Darbaris of the Jalandhar District. 



Order of 














Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 




Remarks 




<L) d 


(u aJ 




J3 O 


5 ^ 
























2i 






6 


9 


V. 


Kanwar Suchet Singh, 


Raja Nahal Singh, 


52 


Granduncle 


of 








Ahluwalia, of Jalan- 


of Kapurthala, 




the Raja of Ka- 








dhar. 






purthala. 




33 


97 


V. 


Sardar Harnam Singh, 
Jat, of Moron, Philaur. 


Sardar Fatah Singh, 


26 






44 


194 


p. 


Sardar Mit Singh, of 
Dhanduvval, Nakodar. 


Dasaunda Singh... 


44 


Related to 
45- 


No. 


45 


195 


V. 


Sardar Partab Singh, 
of Dhanduwal, Nako- 
dar. 

Sardar Nahal Singh, 


Jhanda Singh 


64 


Related to 
44. 


No. 


46 


196 


V. 


Bhup Singh 


39 












Jat, of Kang, Nako- 
















dar. 










47 


199 


V. 


Sardar Narain Singh, 
Jat, of Dhaliwal, Na- 
kodar. 


Sardar S u n d a r 
Singh. 


14 






89 


473 


p. 


Sardar Nahal Singh, 
Jat, of Shahkot, Na- 
"kodar. 


Kharak Singh ... 


40 






92 


476 


V, 


Sardar Partab Singh, 
Jat, of Alawalpur, 
Jalandhar. 


Sardar A c h a 1 
Singh, 


63 






96 


480 


p. 


Sardar Amar Singh, of 
Naugaza, Jalandhar. 


Sardar M a h t a b 
Singh. 


43 






97 


481 


p. 


Sardar Karpal Singh, 
of Sarhali, Philaur. 


Sardar Budh Singh, 


58 






98 


482 


p. 


Sardar Amar Singh, of 
Makandpur, Nawa- 
shahar. 


Sardar Partab 
Singh, 


16 






99 


483 


p. 


Bawa Khem Das, of 
Kartarpur, Jalandhar, 


Sukhram Das 


63 






100 


484 


p. 


Basawa Singh, of Laroa, 
Navvashahar. 


Sudh Singh 


35 






lOI 


48s 


p. 


Ram Singh, of Sarawan, 
Jalandhar. 


Easant Singh ... 


68 






102 


486 


p. 


Atar Singh, of Ladhana 
Uncha, Nawashahar. 


Amar Singh ... 


41 






i03 


487 


p. 


Kahan Singh, of Pin- 
dori, Jalandhar. 


Budh Singh 


73 






104 


488 


V. 


Bishan Singh, of Apra, 
Philaur. 


Ganda Singh 


70 







/ALANDHAR DISTRICT DARBARIS. 139 

Darbaris of the Jalandhar District — concld. 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






J2 


« g 


Remarks. 


""!3 


- S 












c.S 


> 












•^Q 


'"'Ph 








< 




106 


490 


P. 


Devva Singh, of Bahrain, 
Nawashahar. 


Chanda Singh „. 


68 




107 


491 


P. 


Jaimal Singh, ofThala, 
Philaur. 


Gurmakh Singh... 


65 




120 


689 


P. 


Hira Nand, Brahmin, 
of Nawashahar. 


NahalChand ... 


52 




122 


691 


P. 


Pandit Gauri Nand, 
Brahmin, of Nawa- 
shahar. 


Pandit Vidiadhar... 







146 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darbaris of the Hushiarpur District. 



Order of 
Precedence. 



38 
40 

41 
42 
43 
48 
48A 
49 
63 
63A 
64 
65 

90 

91 
121 



42 
71 

175 

190 

191 

192 

193 
200 

200A 
214 
264 

264A 
265 
266 

474 
690 



Name. 



Mian Raghnath Singh, 
Rajpat,',of Jaswan. 



Bedi Sujan Singh, of 

Una. 
Sodhi Ishar Singh, o f 

Anandpur. 

Mian Udhan Singh, of 
Pirthipur. 
Sardar Bahadar Rajin- 

dar Singh, of Kat- 

gaih. 
Rana Lahna Singh, of 

Manaswal. 
Sardar Bahadar Bur 

Singh, of Mukerian. 
Rai Hira Chand ofBab- 

haur. 
Sardar Dharam Singh, 

of Bachauri. 
Sadar Jamait Singh, 

of Ghorewaha. 
Sodhi Nahal Singh, of 

Anandpur. 
Sodhi Narindar Singh, 

of Anandpur. 
Sodhi Gajindar Singh, 

of Anandpur. 
Sodhi Narindar Singh, 

of Kuralisval. 
Sardar Bahadar Amin 

Chand, of Bajwara. 

Sardar Manohar Singh, 
of Pathralian. 

Sardar Nidhan Singh, 
of Mukerian. 

Jawala Bhagat, of Hu- 
shiarpur. 



Father's name. 



Mian Ram Singh, 



Bedi B i k r a m a 

Singh. 
Sodhi Harnam 

Singh. 

Raja Jagat Chand, 
Khushal Singh ... 

Rana INI a h t a b 

Chand. 
Jamadar Ruldu ... 

Rai Ratan Chand 

Dewa Singh 

Partab Singh 

Sodhi B i s h a n, 

Singh. 
Sodhi Diwan 

Singh. 

Ditto 

Sodhi Ram Singh, 

of Anandpur. 
Nahal Chand 



Sardar Fatah 

Singh. 
Jamadar Ruldu ... 

Gurmakh Rai 



Remarks. 



Connected b y 
marriage with 
the Janui Rul- 
ing Family. 



Related to Nos. 
49, 63, 63A and 
64. 



Brother of No. 91. 



Related to No. 
31- 



Brother of No. 
63. 



Formerly in the 
Judicial Ser- 
vice in Ajmir. 



Brother of No. 
42. 



KANGRA DISTRICT DARBARIS. 
Darharis of the Kaiigra District. 



141 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






Ǥ 


Is 


Remarks. 




= 1 

£ 








< 




I 


I 


F. 


Raja Raghnath Singh, 
of Goler. 


Raja Jai Singh ... 


26 




2 


3 


F. 


Raja Jai Chand, Major, 
of Lambagraon. 


Raja Partab Chand, 


26 


Related to Nos. 
23 and 24. 


3 


s 


F. 


Raja Jai Singh, of 
Siba. 


Raja Bije Singh ... 


51 




4 


7 


r. 


Raja Amar Chand, of 
Nadaun. 


Raja Sir Jodhbir 
Chand, R'.C.S.L 


49 




" 


22 


F. 


Raja Ram Pal, of 
Kothlahar. 


Raja Narain Pal ... 


36 


Related to No, 
26. 


12 


23 


V. 


Raja Jaswant Singh, 
of Nurpur. 


Raja Bir Singh ... 


46 




15 


28 


V. 


Rai Dalip Singh, of 

Kulu. 


Rai Gayan Singh, 


25 




23 


63 


V. 


Mian Jagrup Chand, 
of Laml^agraon. 


Mian Kirat Chand, 


28 


Related to No. 2, 


24 


64 


V. 


Mian Daljit Chand, of 
Lambagraon. 


Mian Ude Chand... 


24 


Ditto. 


25 


65 


V. 


Mian Pirthi Singh, of 
Nadaun. 


Raja Sir Jodhbir 
Chand, K.C.S,/. 


50 


Brother of No. 4, 


26 


66 


p. 


Mian Gopal Pal, of 
Kotlahar. 


Raja Narain Pal ... 


34 


Brother of No. 
II, 


27 


67 


p. 


Mian Hari Singh, of 
Nadaun. 


Raja Sir Jodhbir 
Chand, AT.CSJ 


46 


Brother of No. 4, 


28 


68 


p. 


Mian Sher Singh, of 
Nadaun. 


Ditto 


45 


Ditto. 


29 


69 


p. 


Mian Suchet Singh, of 
Nadaun. 


Ditto 


40 


Ditto, 


30 


70 


p. 


Mian Isri Singh, of 
Nadaun. 


Ditto 


38 


Ditto. 


34 


98 


V. 


Raja Niamatula Khan, 
of Rahlu. 


Raja Hamidula 
Khan, 


35 


Late of Rajaori, 
in the Jamu 
State. Brother 
of No. 39. 


35 


99 


V. 


Raja Brij Raj Singh, 
Bhadwar, ofTilokpur. 


Raja Umed Singh, 


56 




36 


100 


V. 


Raja Balbir Singh, 
Mankotia, of Kot- 
lahar. 


RajaAlakh Deo... 


40 





142 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darharis of the Kangra District — concld. 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






^.2 


■£ ^ 


Remarks. 


cl 


c 












^Q 


-^p: 








< 




37 


lOI 


V. 


Mian Dilawar Singh, 
of Tilokpur. 


Raja Tegh Singh, 


6S 




39 


176 


P. 


MirzaKaramatulu Khan, 
Rajauri, of Rahlu. 


Raja Hamidula 
Khan. 


32 


Brother of No. 
34- 


83 


467 


P. 


Hira Singh, of Ladauri, 


Wazir Suchet 

Singh. 
Chaudhri Sundar 


34 




84 


468 


P. 


Chaudhri Malha Singh, 


30 










of Indama. 


Singh. 






86 


470 


P. 


Mian Shankar Singh, 
of Reh. 


Mian Kishan Singh 


54 




87 


471 


V. 


Thakar Hari Chand, of 
Lahaul. 


Wazir Tara Chand, 


54 




88 


472 


V. 


Nono Durji Chatan of 
Spiti. 


Nono Tanjan Lam- 
gyal. 


56 




94 


478 


p. 


Wazir Karam Singh, 
of Bir. 

Lai Singh, of Nagrota ... 


Wazir Gosaun ... 


41 




95 


479 


p. 


Jograj 


58 




117 


686 


p. 


Parohit Martanja, Brah- 
min, of Chahri. 


Parohit Jhalu 


51 





HAZARA DISTRICT DARBARIS. 
Darharis of the Hazara District. 



M3 



Order of 
Precedence. 



Name. 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



124 
125 

126 
127 

179 
181 
183 
185 

43 279 
55 292 

293 

300 

302 
328 
329 

332 
520 



Nawab Mahomed Ak- 

ram Khan, C.S.I. , of 

Amb. 
Raja Jahandad Khan, 

Khan B a h a d a r, 

Ghakhar, of Khanpur. 
Sultan Barkat Khan, 

Bhamba, of Boi. 
Raja Firoz Khan, Gha- 
khar, of Bareh, Khan- 

pui. 
Samandar Khan, Swati, 

of Garhi Habibula. 
Khan Bahadar AH 

Gauhar Khan, of 

Agror. 
Abdul l^ahman Khan, 

of Phulera. 
Sayad Mahomed Khan 

Karal, of Dabran. 
Sardar Azad Khan, of 

Manal. 
Khan Zaman Khan, 

Khan Bahadar, Said 

Khani Pathani, of 

Kalabat. 
Kazi Fazal Ilahi, Goha, 

of Sakandarpur. 
Dost Mahomed Khan, 

P a 1 a 1 Tanauli, of 

Shingri. 
Shahdad Khan, Hasa- 

zai Jadun, of Ban- 

dai Fir Khan, 
AH Akbar Khan, Said 

Khani Pathani, of 

Kalabat. 
Mahomed Wali, Jahan- 

giri Swati, of Ogra. 
Kazi Mir Alam, Golra, 

of Sakandarpur. 
Ghulam Haider Khan, 

Swati, of Dudial, 

Agror. 
Ata Mahomed Khan, 

Dhund, of Lora. 
Ghulam Mahomed, 

Gujar, of Kot Najib- 



Jahandad Khan ... 



Raja Haider Bakhsh 
Khan. 

Rahmatula Khan, 

Raja A 1 i Gauhar 
Khan. 

Mahomed A m i n 

Khan. 
Ata Mahomed 

Khan. 

Abdula Khan 

AH Bahadar Khan, 

Sardar Hasan Ali 

Khan. 
Mir Zaman Khan, 



Kazi Faiz Alam ... 
Nawab Khan 

Khudadad Khan... 

Kalandar Khan ... 

Maulvi Mahomed 
Ali. 

Kazi Ghulam Ah- 
mad. 

Ata Mahomed 
Khan, 

Hakim Khan 

Mir Ahmad 



34 



Related to No. 
20. 



Related to Nos. 
8, 88 and 89. 



Related to No. 5. 



Brother cf No. 
68. 

Related to No. 3. 



Related to No. 
64. 



Related to No. 

67. 
Related to No. 

85A. 



Related to No. 
26. 



Related to No. 

43- 
Brother of No. 10. 



Related to No, 
117. 



144 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darharis of the Hazara District — concld. 



Order of 

Precedence. 



Name, 



Father's name. 



Remarks. 



75 


523 


85A 


533A 


86 


534 


S7 


535 


88 
89 


536 
537 


104A 


678A 


105 


717 


106 


718 


107 


719 


108 


720 


109 


721 


no 


722 


1 10 A 


722A 


iioB 


722B 


112 


724 


117 


729 



Amir Khan, Swati, of 

Nandahar (Indepen- 

dant Territory). 
Inaitula Khan, Palal 

Tanauli, of Chambad. 
Akbar Khan, Swati of 

Gidarpur. 
Maliomed Khan, Palal 

Tanauli, of Kuthiala. 
Ata Ali, Ghakhar, of Jab, 
Sarwar Khan, Ghakhar, 

of Khanpur. 
Maulvi Mahomed Is- 
mail, Swati, of Dhu- 

dial. 
Bahadar Shah, Sayad, 

of Kaghan. 
Ahmad Ali Shah, Sayad, 

of Khagan. 
Ghulam Shah, Sayad, 

of Palosi. 
Fazal Shah, Sayad, of 

Palosi. 
Mahomed Hasain Khan, 

Swati, of Mansera. 
Juma Khan, Swati, of 

Mansera. 
Subadar-Major Sadula 

Khan, Awan, of 

Shervvan, Abbottabad. 
Ahmad Khan, Kakar, 

of Panian, Haripur. 
Baba Nahal Singh, Bedi, 

of Ifaripur. 
Ata Mahomed Khan, 

Gujar, of Dehdar. 



Muzafar Khan 

Sarbiland Khan 

Ghafar Khan 

Khairula Khan 

Madad Khan 
Mahomed Khan 



Fatah Ali Shah .. 
Mir Gul Shah .. 
Sayad Shah 
Mahtab Shah .. 
Faiz Talab Rhan, 
Zaman Khan 

Kaim Khan 



Khair Mahomed 
Khan. 



46 



Related to No. 
56. 



Related to No. 5. 
Ditto. 

Fellow of the 
Punjab Univer- 
sity. 



to No. 



Related 

106. 
Related to No. 

105. 
Related to No. 

108. 
Related to No. 

107. 
Related to No. 

no. 
Related to No. 

109. 



Related to No, 
72. 



PESHAWAR DISTRICT DAR3ARIS. 
Darbaris of the Pesha^aar District. 



145 



Order of 












Precednxe. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






a"> 


^ i 


Remarks. 


«l 








. 




^s 


'"'£ 








< 




5A 


1 20 A 


V. 


Nawab Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel Sardar Maliomed 
Afzal, Khan Bahadar, 
C. S. /., Sadozai, of 
Peshawar. 


Wazir Nizamudaola 
Mahomed Usman 
Khan. 


54 


Related to Nos, 
II, ilA and 12. 


5B 


120B 


V, 


Sardar Sultan Ibrahim, 
Extra Assistant Com- 
missioner. 


... 






5C 


120C 


V. 


Arbab Mahomed Hasain Nawab Mahomed 


36 


Related to Nos. 








Khan, Mohmand, 


Sarfaraz Khan. 




21 and 77A. 








of Landi Yarghajo. 








II 


128 


V, 


Mahomed Abas Khan, 
Wazirzada, Sadozai, 
of Peshawar. 


Wazir Nizamudaola 
Mahomed Usman 
Khan. 


66 


Related to No. 
5A. 


iiA 


1 28 A 


V. 


Sardar Mahomed Akbar 
K h a n, Sadozai, of 
Peshawar. 


Ditto 


63 


Ditto. 


12 


129 


V. 


Major Mahomed Aslam 
Khan, Sardar Baha- 
dar. 


Ditto 


46 


Ditto, 


12A 


129A 


V. 


Rai Bahadar Ibrahim 
Khan, late Assistant 
District Inspector of 
Police. 








13 


130 


V. 


Kazi Abdul K a d a r 
Khan, of Peshawar. 


Kazi Fazal Kadar, 


46 


Related to Nos. 
53, 54 and 116. 


14 


131 


V. 


Arbab Abas Khan, Kha- 
lil, of Bhana Mari 
and Tahkal Bala. 


Arab Abdul Wahad 
Khan. 


51 


Related to Nos. 
28, 29 and 58. 


19 


178 


V. 


Sayad Mahomed Amin 
Jan, of Marozai. 


Sayad Ayaudin ... 


41 




21 


180 


V. 


Mahomed Azim Khan, 
Mohmand, of Kotla 
Mausam Khan. 


Mahomed Afzal 
Khan. 


26 


Related to No. 

sc 


23 


182 


V. 


Aminula Khan, Orak- 
zai, of Bhana Mari. 


Mahomed Usman 
Khan. 






25 


1S4 


V. 


Sardar Bahadar Maho- 
med Khan, of Peshawar. 


Hasan Khan 


66 




27 


186 


V. 


Khan Baba Khan, Khan 
Bahadar. 


Khan Bahadar Kha- 
nan Khan. 


36 




28 


187 


V. 


Arbab Fatah Khan, 
Xhalil, of Takkal. 


Jahangir Khan ... 


71 


Related to No. 14, 


29 


i88 


V. 


Arbab Farid Khan, of 
Takkal. 


Arbab Abdul Majid 
Khan. 


31 


Ditto. 


30 


189 


V. 


Mahabat Khan, Eusafzai, 
ofToru. 


Kadar Khan 


91 




31 


267 


V. 


K h a w a j a Mahomed 
Khan, Eusafzai, of 
Hoti. 


Sarbiland Khan ,.. 


36 




37 


273 


V. 


Abdul Ghafur Khan, of 
Zeda. 


Ibrahim Khan ... 


24 


Related to No. 38. 



^6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Da r ban's of the Peshazvar District — contd. 



Order of 








-^— 




Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






£•1 


CJ 


Remarks. 


c > 


c| 












""Q 


^£ 








So 
< 




38 


274 


V. 


Umar Khan, of Zeda, 


Arsala Khan 


51 


Related to No. 37. 


39 


275 


V. 


Umar Khan of Shewa, 


Amir Khan 


3T 




41 


277 


V. 


Akbar Khan, of Topi... 


Mir Ghazan Khan, 






42 


278 




Arbab Abdula Khan, 
Khali), of Takkal. 


Shah Pasand Khan, 




Related to No. 14. 


44 


280 




Klian Bahadar Habib 
Khan, of Kunda, Eu- 
safzai. 


Naubat Khan 


61 




45 


281 




Rasaldar Latif Khan, 
Bahadar, of Tarang- 


Hazrat Shah 


56 


Brother of No. 46, 


46 


282 




Wordi-Major S a 1 i m 
Khan, of Tarangzai. 


Ditto 


53 


BrotherofNo.4S. 


47 


283 




Afridi K.han, of Rlalo- 
zai. 


Amir Khan 


51 




48 


284 




Mahomed Jan, of Kafar 
Dheri. 


Mahomed Ali Khan, 


36 




49 


285 




Mahomed Ali, Khatak 


Rasul Khan 




Related to No. 50. 


50 


286 




Ghulam Mahomed 
Khan, Khatak. 


Khan Bahadar 
Fatah Khan. 


31 


Related to No. 49. 


S3 


289 


V. 


Kazi Amin Jan, Kazi 
Khel, of Jahangira. 


Kazi Sadula Jan... 




Related to No. 13, 


54 


290 


p. 


Knzi Abdul Wadud, of 
Peshawar. 


Kazi Amir Jan ... 


41 


Related to No. 
13- 


55 


291 


p. 


Mian Ilasain Shah, of 
Walai. 


Papa Mian 


56 


Related to Nos. 
77 and 84. 


58 


294 


V. 


Aslam Khan, Khalil, of 
Tahkal Bala. 


Samand Khan 


61 


Related to No. 
14. 


59 


295 


p. 


Gulmir, of Panjpao ... 


Ahmad Shah 


36 






297 


p. 


Dost Mahomed, f 
Garhi Daulatzai. 


Mir Afzal Khan ... 


33 




62 


298 


p. 


Akbar Khan, of Ismaiia, 


Aladad Khan 


36 


Related to Nos. 
6^ and 65. 


63 


299 


p. 


Sharif Mian, of Ismaiia, 


Mian Mahomed 
Shah. 


51 


Related to No. 62. 


65 


301 


p. 


Umar Mian, of Ismaiia, 


Sayad Rasul 


51 


Ditto. 


n 


521 


p. 


Shekh Muzafar Khan, 
of Shekhan. 


Shekh Karim 


61 




74 


522 


p. 


Pir Dost Khan, of Pin- 
d i a 1 i (Independent 
Territory). 


Nawab Khan 


43 




77 


525 


p. 


Mian Anwanudin, Ka- 
kakhel, of S u r a k h 
Dheri, Utman. 


Rahimudin 


47 


Related to No. 55, 



PESHAWAR DISTRICT DARBARIS. 147 

Darbaris of the PcsJicr.ihur District — concld. 



Order of 








" 




Precedenxe. 




Name. 


Father's name. 










Remarks. 




<u 

►S 2 








tJO 

< 




^a 


'"'cS 










77A 


S2SA 


P. 


Sadula Khan Mohmand, 
of Landi Yarghajo, 
Peshawar. 


A r b a b Mahomed 
Khan. 


55 


Related to No. 
55- 


78 


526 


P. 


Abdula Khan, Umar- 
zai. 


Hastam Khan 


29 




79 


527 


P. 


Mir Aman Khan, of 
Shabkadar. 


Habibula Khan ... 


28 




79A 


S27A 


P. 


Sayad Abdul Manun, 
liadshah, of Batga- 
raon. 




... 




80 


528 


P. 


Shahbaz Khan, Utman- 


Alaf Khan 


... 




81 


529 


P. 


zai. 
Nasarula Khan.of Amba 
Dher. 


Khushal Khan 






82 


530 


P. 


Malik Mahbub Khan, 


Sakandar Khan ... 


53 








of Mata Moghal Khel. 








83 


531 


P. 


Fatah Khan, of Kha- 
zana. 


Tarsam Khan 


66 




84 


532 


P. 


Mian Rabat Shah, of 
Z i a r a t Kaka Khel, 
Shakardand. 


Mukadar Shah ... 


53 


Related to Nos. 
55 and 77. 


85 


533 


P. 


Azam Khan, of Kha- 
zana. 


Shuja Khan 


41 




91 


539 


P. 


Sharifula Khan, of 
Chamkani. 


Amirula Khan ... 


41 




102 


676 


V. 


Faizula Khan, of Char- 
parisa. 


Arsala Khan 






103 


677 


P. 


Mian Haidar Shah, of 
Chargali. 


Bawar Mian 


61 




103A 


677A 


P. 


RTir Hasan Khan, of 
Tangi. 


Jang Baz Khan ... 


52 




103B 


677B 


P. 


Mir Fazal Ali Shah ... 












P. 


Bahram Khan, of Torn, 


Abdul Kadar Khan 


40 




iioC 


722C 




Mardan. 








III 


723 


P. 


Rai Lakhpat Rai, of 
Peshawar. 


Bhawani Das 


66 




113 


725 


P. 


Ram Das, of Peshawar 


Ala Mai 


51 




114 


726 


P. 


Teju Singh, of Peshawar 


Atma Singh 


46 




115 


727 


P. 


Sant Ram, of Amritsar 


Chela Ram 


29 




116 


728 


P. 


Kazi Tila Mahomed of 
Peshawar. 


Kazi i\I a h o m e d 
Hasan. 


71 


Related to No. 
13- 


118 


730 


P. 


Mahomed Zaman Khan, 
Khatak, of Akora. 


Samandar Khan ... 


26 




119 


730A 


V. 


Rai Bahadar Lorinda 
Mai. 


Ramji Mai 


40 




120 


730B 


V. 


Mian Ghulam Rasul, 








121 


730C 


p. 


Sahibzada Sakandar 
Shah, of Koriana. 









148 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
Darharis of the Kohat District. 



Order of 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






(U S 


<u 


Remarks. 




In th( 
Provini 








< 




I 


15 


V. 


Savdar Sultan Jan, 
CLE., Extra Assis- 
tant Commissioner 
of Kohat. 


Shahzada Mahom- 
ed Jamhur. 


48 


Related to Nos. 
10, II, 12 and 
13 (Provincial 
List). 


2 


16 


V. 


Nawab Sir Khawaja 
Mahomed K h a n , 
K.C.SJ, Khatak, of 
Teri. 


Khushal Khan ... 


67 


Related to Nos. 
17, 34, 52 and 
97 (Divisional 
Series). 


4 
6 


"3 
123 


V. 
V. 


Fakir Mahomed Khan, 
Sagfi Pathan, of Ma- 
kliad, Rawalpindi. 

Nawabzada R u s t a m 
Khan, Bangash, of 
Bahadar Kot. 


Ghulam Mahomed 
Khan. 

Nawab Bahadar 
Sher Khan. 


46 


Is also on the list 
of Darbaris in 
the Rawalpindi 
district. 

Related to Nos. 
51 and 94. 


15 


132 


V. 


INIuzafar Khan, Ban- 
gash, Tehsildar, of 
Hangu. 


Mahomed Azam 
Khan. 


68 


Related to Nos. 
16, 3S> 98, 100 
and loi. 


l6 


133 


V. 


Alayar Khan, of Hangu. 


Ghulam Haidar 
Khan. 


46 


Same family as 
No. 15. 


17 
i8 

30A 


134 
135 
237 


V. 
V. 
V. 


Khanzada Fatah Maho- 
med Khan, Khatak, 
of Nilab. 

Sayad Mir Akbar Khan, 
of Tira (Independent 
Territory.) 

Sardar Nur Mahomed 
Khan. 


Khan Bahadar Jafir 
Khan. 

Hasan Khan, of Lu- 
dhiana. 


40 


Related to No. 2. 


32 


268 


V. 


Sardar Aziz Jan, Barak- 
zai. 


Sultan Mahomed 
Khan. 


31 


Related by mar- 
riage to No. 4. 


33 


269 


V. 


Sher Mahomed Khan, 
Kiani, of Shahpur. 


Ghulam Haidar 
Khan 


55 


Brother of No. 
90. 


34 


270 


V. 


Khan Bahadar Nawab- 
zada Mahomed Zafar 
Khan, of Teri. 


Nawab Sir Khawaja 
Mahomed Khan, 
K.C.S.L 


46 


Son of No. 2. 


35 


271 


V. 


Khan Usman, Khan 
Bahadar, Bangash. 


Mahomed Amin 
Khan. 


48 


Same family as 
No. 15. 


SI 


287 


V. 


Taj Mahomed Khan, 
Bangash. 


Khanzada Ata Ma- 
homed Khan. 


... 


Related to No. 6. 



KOHAT DISTRICT DARBARIS. 149 

Darharis of the KoJiat District — concld. 



Order of 
Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






c" 




Remarks. 












< 




52 


28S 


V. 


Navvabzada Abdul Gha- 
fur Khan, Khatak, 
of Teri. 


Nawab Sir Khawa- 
ja Mahomed Khan, 
K.C.SJ. 


39 


Son of No. 2. 


90 


538 


V. 


Malik Jan, Kiani, of 
Shahpur. 


Ghulam Kaidar 
Khan, 


46 


Brother of No. 33. 


92 


540 


V. 


Sayad Ahmad Shah, 
Banuri. 


Sayad Mubarak 
Shah. 


34 


Related to Nos. 
92 A and 96. 


9.A 


5 40 A 


p. 


Sayad Sakandar Shah, 
JBanuri. 


Sayad Badshah ... 


24 


Ditto. 


94 


542 


p. 


Nawabzada S a i d a 1 
Khan, Bangash, of 
Bahadar Kot. 


Nawab Bahadar 
Sher Khan. 


28 


Related to No. 6. 


95 


543 


p. 


Biland Khan, of Amir, 


Mir Hamza Khan, 


54 




96 


544 


p. 


Sayad Makhdum Shah, 
Jilani, Banuri. 


Sayad Qui Badshah 


26 


Related to No. 92. 


97 


545 


p. 


Mahomed Azim Khan 
alias Spin Khan, 
Khatak. 


Nawab Sir Khawa- 
ja M a h o m e d 
Khan. 


31 


Son of No. 2. 


98 


546 


p. 


Sarwar Khan, of Ilangu, 


Muzafar Khan ... 


38 


Son of No. 15. 


100 
101 


i?^ 


p. 
p. 


Said Khar, of Hangu, 1 

Akbar Khan, o f ^ 

Hangu. J 


Mahomed Amin 
Khan. 


45 

42 


1 Related to No. 
J ^5. 



■I50 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
Darharts of the Baniiu District. 



Order of 
Pkecedence. 



c o 



Name, family, and place of 
residence. 



23 


142 


24 


143 


34 


153 


35 


154 


35A 


1S4A 


36 


155 


37 


156 


44 


303 


68 


333 


69 


334 


70 


335 


71 


336 


72 


377 


73 


338 


80 


345 


81 


346 


82 


347 


83 


348 


84 


349 



Ahdula Khan, Khan 
Bahadar, of Isa Khel. 

Malik Yar Mahomed 

Khan, of Kalabagh. 
Abdul Rahim Khan, 
Khan Bahadar, of 

Isa Khel. 
Abdul Samand Khan, of 

Isa Khel. 
Abdul Karim Khan, of 

Isa Khel. 
Abdul Rahman Khan, 

of Isa Khel. 
Abdul Satar Khan, of 

Isa Khel 
Ayaz Khan, Bamozai, of 

Pahar Khel, Marwat. 

Sardad Khan, Moghal 
Khel, Banuchi, of 
Ghorevvala, Bannu. 

Abas Khan, Pathan, 
Aku Khel, of Begu 
Khel, Marwat. 

Arsala Khan, Pathan, 
of Isa Khel. 

Mir Abas Khan, Ban- 
nuchi, Shahbazurg 
Khel, of Bazar Ah- 
mad Khan, Bannu. 

Mir Akbar Khan, of 
Bazar Ahmad Khan, 
Bannu. 

riafiz Misri Khan, Pa- 
than, Kasuria, of 
Bannu. 

Haknawaz Khan, Pa- 
than, of Mian Khel, 
Marwat. 

Sahibdad Khan, Midad 
Khel, of Pahar Khel 
Paka, Marwat. 

Shadi Khan, Ghazni 
Khel, of Marwat. 

Khidar Khan, Kamal 

. Khel, of Marwat. 

Muzafar Khan, Pathan 
Tapai, of Wali, Mar- 
wat. 



Father's name. 



Mahomed Khan 



Malik Muzafar 

Khan. 
Shah Nawaz Khan, 



Mahomed Alam 

Khan. 
Mahomed Ayaz 

Khan. 
Mahomed Sarfaraz 

Khan. 
Mahomed Khan ... 

Abdul Nabi Khan, 



! Jafar Khan 

Khan Mir Khan ... 

Sarwar Khan 
Lalbaz Khan 

Dakas Khan 

Mir Ahmad Khan, 

Hakim Khan 

Nawaz Khan 

Purdil Khan 
Mahomed Khan ... 
Tor Khan 



Remarks. 



Related to Nos. 
34, 35, 35A, 36 
and 37. 



Related to No. 

23- 

Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 

Related to No, 51 
(of Dera Ismail 
Khan). 

Related to Nos. 
71 and 72. 



Related to No. 
68. 

Ditto. 

Late a Tahsildar. 



Related to No. 
91. 

Related to No. 

83- 
Related to No. 
82, 



BANNU DISTRICT DARBARIS. 

Darharis of iJie Bannu District — concld. 



151 



Order of 














Precedence. 


Name, family, and place of 
residence. 


Father's name. 




Remarks 




II 


■5.5 




5 


c 








< 






91 


356 - 


V. 


Wali Khan, Mahdud 
Khel, of Pahar Khel, 
Marwat. 


Langar Khan 


36 


Related to 
81. 


No. 


94 


359 


P. 


Sarfaraz Khan, Biluch, 
of Piplan, Mianwali. 


KhanZanian Khan, 


35 






95 


360 


P. 


Mian Sultan Ali, of 
Mianwali. 


Mian Hasain Ali... 


48 


Related to 
96 and 105 


Nos. 


96 


361 


P. 


Mian Sharf Ali, of 
Mianwali. 


Mian Ghaus Ali ... 


60 


Related to 
95- 


No. 


98 


363 


P. 


Mani Khan, Isparka 
Wazir, of Garhi Mani 
Khan, Bannu. 


Sohan Khan 


53 






99 


364 


P. 


Dauian Khan, Pathan, 
Takhti Khel, of Gar- 
zai, Marwat. 


Akbar Khan 


40 






100 


365 


P. 


Wazir Khan, Pathan, of 
Shahbaz Khel, Mar- 
wat. 


Zafar Khan 


45 






lOI 


366 


P. 


Abu Khan, Pathan 
Tapai, of Bakhmal 
Ahmadzai, Marwat. 


Bakhmal Khan ... 


35 






102 


367 


P. 


Malik Amir Khan, 
B u c h a r, of Wan 
Buchran, Mianwali. 


Ahmad Yar Khan, 


25 






105 


370 


P. 


Bahadar Khan, Pathan, 
of Musa Khel, Mian- 
wali. 


Ghazi Khan 


38 


Related to 
95. 


No. 


114 


710 


P. 


Nazam Ivhan, Wazir, of 
Hathi Khel, Bannu. 


Azim Khan 


40 






"5 


711 


P. 


Khan Badshah, Wazir, 
Baka Khel, Bannu. 


Hasan Shah 


30 






116 


712 


P. 


Abu Samand Khan, 
Pathan, of Dharma 
Khel, Bannu. 


Nazam Khan 


52 






117 


713 


P. 


Atar Shah Singh, 
Arora, of Nar Har- 
deoshah, Marwat. 


Hardeo Shah 
Singh, 


42 







152 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darbaris of the Dera hmail Khan District. 



Order of 












Precedence. 


Name, family, and place of 
residence. 


Father's name. 






HI C 
^.2 


.t 


Remarks. 


■^ m 














c ■> 


G ■* 












""5 


cC 








1 




2 


17 


V. 


Nawab RabnawazKhan,! Navvab Faujdar 


42 


Related to Nos. 








Multani Pathan, of 


Khan, C. S. /., 




3, 20A, 32, 43 








Dera Ismail Khan. 


Alizai. 




and 57. 


3 


i8 


V. 


Nawab Abdula Khan, 
Alizai, of Dera Ismail 

Khan. 


Nawab Sir Ghu- 
lam Hasan Khan, 
A'. C. S. I. 


42 


Related to Nos. 
2, 20B and 43A. 


4 


19 


V. 


Nawab Ghulam Kasam 
Khan, Katikhel, of 
Tank. 


Akbar Khan (son 
of Nawab Shah 
Nawaz Khan.) 


20 


Related to Nos. 
25 and 32. 


5 


21 


V. 


Nawab Ata Mahomed 
Khan, Khagwani, of 
Dera Ismail Khan. 


Ghulam Sarwar 
Khan. 


61 


Related to Nos. 
II, 13, 33 and 
42. 


8 


no 


V. 


Plafiz Samandar Khan, 
Khavvajikzai, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Painda Khan 


50 


Related to No. 
48. 


lO 


1X4 


V. 


Aladad Khan, Sadozai, 
of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Nawab Sarfaraz 
Khan. 


45 


Related to Nos. 
12, 14, 15, 46, 
56 and 90. 


II 


"5 


P. 


Ahmad Khan, Khag- 
wani, of Dera Ismail 

Khan. 


Nawab Ata Ma- 
homed Khan. 


34 


Related to No. 5. 


12 


ii6 


V. 


Ghulam Sarwar Khan, 
Sadozai, of Dera Is- 
mail Khan. 


Hayatula Khan ... 


62 


Related to No. 
10. 


13 


117 


V. 


Ghulam Mahomed Khan 
Khagwani, of Dera 
Ismail Khan, 


Ghulam Sarwar 
Khan, 


53 


Brother of No. 5. 


14 


ii8 


V. 


Rabnawaz Khan, Sado- 
zai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Nawab Sher Ma- 
homed Khan. 


60 


Related to No. 
10. 


15 


119 


V. 


Haknawaz Khan, Sado- 














zai, of Dera Ismail 


Mahomed Nawaz 


38 


Ditto. 








Khan. 


Khan. 






i6 


121 


V. 


Mahomed Afzal Khan, 
Gandapur, Khan Baha- 
dar, of Kulachi. 


Guldad Khan ... 


38 


Related to Nos. 
17, 45 and 52. 
Is a Statutory 
Civil Servant. 


J7 


122 


V. 


Kalu Khan, Bahadar, 
Gandapur, of Kulachi 


AH Khan 


60 


Related to No, 
16. 


20 


138 


V. 


Alawardi Khan, Sardar 
Bahadar, of Hazara, 
Bhakar. 


Wazir Sher Ma- 
homed Khan. 


73 




20A 


I38A 


V. 


Mahomed Nawaz Khan, 
Alizai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Nawab Fa u j d a r 
Khan, C. S. I. 


36 


Related to No. 
2. 


20B 


138B V. 


Wordi-Major Niaz Ma- 


Nawab Sir Ghulam 


37 


Related to No. 








homed Khan, of Dera 


Hasan Khan, K. 




3 : is Adjutant of 








Ismail Khan. 


C. S. I. 




the 15th Bengal 
Cavalry. 


21 


140 


V. 


Jagan Nath, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Diwan Daulat Rai, 


15 





DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT DARBARIS. 153 

Darbaris of the Dera Ismail Khan District — contd. 



Order of 












PRECEDEN'CE. 


Name, family, and place of 
residence. 


Father's name. 






•5-2 


^1 


Remarks. 




^1 








1 




25 


144 


P. 


Mahomed Afzal Khan, 
Katikhel, of Tank. 


Nawab Shah Na- 
waz Khan. 


... 


Related to No. 4. 


32 


151 


V. 


Sarbiland Khan,Ismail- 
zai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Samand Khan 


59 


Related to Nos. 
2, 4 and 25. 


33 


152 


V. 


Mahomed Akram Khan, 
Khagwani, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Pir Mahomed 
Khan. 


56 


Related to No. 
5- 


42 


161 


V. 


Dur Mahomed Khan, 
Khagwani, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Sakandar Khan ... 


56 


Ditto. 


43 


162 


V. 


Ghulam Sarwar Khan, 
Alizai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Ghulam N a b i 
Khan, 


48 


Related to No. 2. 


43A 


162A 


V. 


Moazudin Khan, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Nawab Kale Khan, 


37 


Related to No. 
3 : Rasaldar in 
the 15th Bengal 
Cavalry. 


45 


304 


V. 


Mahardil Khan, Ganda- 
pur, of Kulachi. 


Naurang Khan ... 


58 


Related to No. 
16. 


46 


305 


V. 


Ghulam Mahomed Khan, 
of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Sarfaraz Khan, 
Sadozai. 


(>z 


Related to No, 
10, 


46A 


305A 


V. 


R a S a 1 d a r Haknawaz 
K h a n, Sadozai, o f 
Dera Ismail Khan. 


Habibula Khan ... 


53 




47 


306 


V. 


Kama Khan, Ketran, 
of Vehoa. 


Sultan Mahomed 
Khan. 


43 




48 


307 


F. 


Abdula Khan, Khawa- 
jakzai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Painda Khan 


48 


Related to No. 8. 


51 


310 


P\ 


Faizula Khan, Bamozai, 
of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Abdula 


75 


Related to No. 44 
(of Bannu). 


52 


311 


V. 


Shahalam Khan, Gan- 
dapur, of Kulachi. 


Turabaz Khan ... 


60 


Related to No. 16, 


53 


313 


V. 


Ahmad Khan, K u p - 
chani, of Kotla. 


Sakandar Khan ... 


43 




55 


315 


V. 


Sakandar Khan, Ismail- 
zai, of Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Samand Khan 


45 


Deputy Inspector 
of Police. 


56 


316 


V. 


Ghulam Haidar Khan, 
Sadozai, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Ilayatula Khan ... 


41 


Related to No. 10, 


57 


317 


V. 


Khuda Bakhsh Khan, 
Awan, of Dera Ismail 

Khan. 


Ahmad Khan 


61 


Related to No. 2. 


59 


319 


V. 


Khadam Hasain Khan, 
of Kiri Khisor. 


Shahnawaz Khan... 


20 




60 


320 


p. 


Abdul Satar Khan, of 
Bilot. 


Sarfaraz Shah ... 


17 


Under the Court 
of Wards. 


61 


321 


V. 


Gosain Het Nand Lai, 
of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Kanhiya Lai 


44 





:54 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darbaris of the Dera Ismail Khan District — concld. 



Order of 












Precedence. 


Name, family, and place of 
residence. 


Father's name. 






II 


l| 


Remarks. 


c;> 


^ 2 












^p 


*^ ^ 








< 




65 


325 


P. 


Rabnavvaz Khan, Musa- 
zai, of Musazai. 


Shahnawaz Khan... 


25 




66 


326 


V. 


Ramzan Khan, Usta- 
rana, ofKhui Bahari. 


Abdula Khan 


53 


Related to No. 67. 


67 


327 


V. 


Fatah Khan, Ustarana, 
of Khui Bahari. 


Hayat Khan 


73 


Ditto. 


74A 


339A 


P. 


Shadu Khan, of Bhakar 


Mahomed R a z a 
Khan. 


33 




74B 


339B 


p. 


Muzafar Khan, Jaskani, 
of Panj Pahari. 


Mahomed Khan ... 






75A 


340A 


p. 


Fazal Hasain Khan, of 
Panj Pahari. 


Naurang Khan 


42 




79 


344 


V. 


Malik Mir Baz Khan, 
Unara, of Garh Bah- 
ram. 


Bahram Khan 


79 


Late Jamadar in 
the M u 1 1 a n i 
Horse. 


90 


355 


V. 


Haknawaz Khan, 
Sadozai, of Dera 
Ismail Khan. 


Ali Plasain 


51 


Related to No. 
10. 


93 


358 


p. 


Azim Khan, Kundi, of 
Tank. 


Gul Imam Khan ... 


52 




103 


36S 


V. 


Abdul Rahim Kh a n, 
Tarin, of Tank. 


Mahomed Khan ... 


58 




118 


714 


p. 


Sayad Mahar Shah, of 
Panj Girain. 


Dalan Shah 


66 




126 


769 


p. 


Gosain Ude B h a n, 
Shamdasi, of Lia, 


Asanand 


52 




127 


770 


p. 


Mushtak Shah Singh, 
of Bhakar. 


Bhagat Shah 


34 




12S 


771 


p. 


Shekh Umar, of Musa- 


Sayad Mahomed... 


39 




128A 


771A 


p. 


zai. 
Seth Lakhmi Chand, 
of Dera Ismail Khan. 


Kalian Mai 


36 


Divisional Trea- 
surer. 


129 


772 


p. 


Abdula Khan, N a s i r 
Powinda. 


Shahzad Khan ... 


... 




130 


773 


p. 


Azam Hasain Khan ... 






Hospital Assis- 
tant, Sth Panjab 
Cavalry. 



DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT DARBARIS. 155 

Darbaris of the Dera GharJ Khan District. 



Order of 














Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 




Rem/ 




CJ § 


.?^- 


VRKS. 


















(1^ 








t/: 

< 






6 


106 


V. 


Nawab Sir Imam 


Bahram Khan Ma- 


66 


Related 


to Nos. 








B a k h s h Khan, 


zari. 




19,50 


and 50 A. 








K.C.I.E., Mazaii of 
















Rojhan, Rajanpur. 










6A 


106A 


V. 


Nawab Mahomed 
Khan, Laghari, of 
Choti. 


Nawab Jamal 
Khan. 


47 


Related 
38. 


to No. 


9 


III 


V. 


Mian Shah Nawaz 


Khizar Mahomed 


46 


Related 


to Nos. 








Khan, Sarai, of Haji- 


Khan. 




76 and 77. 


19 


m 


V. 


pur. 
Dost Mahomed Khan, 
Mazari, of Rojhan. 


S h e r Mahomed 
Khan. 


12 


Related 


to No, 6. 


26 


145 


V. 


Bahadar Khan, Khosa, 
of Bahadargarh. 


Ghulam Haidar 
Khan. 


27 


Related 
39- 


to No. 


27 


146 


V. 


Miran Khan, Drishak, 
of Asni, Rajanpur. 


Bijar Khan 


54 






28 


147 


V. 


Jalab Khan, Gurchani, 
of Harand. 


Ghulam Haidar 
Khan. 


44 


Related 
75B. 


to No. 


29 


148 


V. 


Ahmad Khan, of Sori 

Lund. 


Ditto 


38 


Related 
49- 


to No. 


30 


149 


V. 


Fazal_ Ali Khan, Kas- 
rani, of Kot Kasrani. 


Mitha Khan 


39 






38 


157 


V. 


Nur Ahmad Khan, 
Laghari, of Choti. 


Mahomed Khan... 


56 


Related 
6A. 


to No. 


39 


158 


V. 


Sakandar Khan, Khosa, 
of Batik 


Ahmad Khan 


60 


Related 
26. 


to No. 


40 


159 


p. 


Ala Bakhsh Khan, Sa- 
dozai, of Dera Ghazi 
Khan. 


Ghulam Murtaza 
Khan. 


46 






49 


308 


V. 


Mazar Khan, Tibi 
Lund, of Tibi. 


Bakhshan Khan ... 


53 


Related 
29. 


to No, 


50 


309 


V. 


Babram Khan, Mazari, 
of Rojhan. 


Nawab Sir Imam 
Bakhsh Khan, 
K.C.I.E. 


37 


Son of ^ 


0.6. 


50A 


309A 


V. 


Tilu Khan, Mazari, of 


Rahim Khan 


25 


Related to No. 6. 








Rojhan. 










58 


318 


p. 


Kotwal Masu Khan, 
Natkani, of l\Lang- 
rota. 


Mahomed A z i m 
Khan. 


40 






62 


322 


p. 


Mian Khair Bakhsh, of 


Abdul Rahman ... 


50 












Taunsa. 








63 


323 


p. 


Gosain Kunj Lai, of 
Dera Ghazi Khan. 


Gosain Baldeoji ... 


28 






64 


324 


p. 


Gosain Dharni Dhar, 
of Dera Ghazi Khan. 


Gosain G a n g a 
Dhar. 


48 






64A 


324A 


p. 


Tharia Ram, of Dera 


Sukhram Das ... 


54 


Deputy Collector. 








Ghazi Khan. 






Canal 
ment. 


Depart- 



156 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Darharis of the Dera Ghazi Khan District — concld. 



Order ok 












Precedence. 




Name. 


Father's name. 






V c 


^ ^ 


Remarks. 


^■2 


"5 ^ 












g'> 


il 












^Q 


p^ 








< 




75 B 


340B 


P. 


Mewa Khan, Gurchani, 
of Harand. 


Ghulam Ilaidar 
Khan. 


40 


Related to No. 
28. 


76 


341 


P. 


Jan Mahomed Khan, 
Sarai, of Hajipur. 


Ahmadyar Khan... 


49 


Related to No. 9. 


77 


342 


P. 


Latif Mahomed Khan, 
Sarai, 


Jan Mahomed ... 


40 


Ditto. 


78 


343 


P. 


KaHan Das, of Dera 
Ghazi Khan. 


Chiman Lai 


53 




85 


35" 


P. 


Khawaja Bakhsh Shah, 
of Mirhata. 


Dinan Shah 


28 




86 


351 


P. 


Mian Akal Mahomed 
Tunia, of Basti Pana, 
Harand. 


Mian Pana Ali ... 


37 




87 


352 


P. 


Din Mahomed Khan, 
Popalzai, ofSheru. 


Pir Mahomed 


42 




88 


353 


P. 


Nur Mahomed Khan, 
Bozdar, ofMahrivvala. 


Yar Mahomed 
Khan. 


60 




89 


354 


p. 


Imam Baksh, Zaildar, 
of Sokar. 


Mahomed Khan ... 


50 




112 


708 


P. 


Ali Mahomed Khan, 
Pitafi, of Lundi. 


Ahmad Khan 


52 




"3 


709 


P. 


Kadar Bakhsh Khan, 
Zaildar, oi Mana 
Ahmadani, 


Dost Mahomed 
Khan. 


57 




120 


716 


P. 


Shah Mahomed Shah, 
Zaildar, ofPir Adal. 


Karam Shah 


35 




123 


766 


P. 


Mir Alam Khan, Khosa, 
of Dalana. 


Sahib Khan 


54 




124 


767 


P. 


Khan Bahadar Imam 
Bakhsh Khan, Bozdar, 
of Dera Ghazi Khan. 


Ali Mahomed ... 


46 


Late of the Sur- 
vey Department. 



MUZAFARGARH DISTRICT DARBARIS. 157 

Darharis of the Muzafargarh District. 



Order of 


^~"" 










Precedence. 




Name. 


Father s name. 






^ c 




Remarks. 


11 


^i 














^1 








in 

< 




106 


557 - 


V. 


Saifula Khan, of Khan- 
garh. 


Aladad Khan 


29 




107 


558 


V. 


Khan Bahadar Mian 
Mahbub, of T h a t a 
Gurmani. 


Mian Ahmad 


48 




108 


640 


P. 


Mahmud Khan, o f 
Khangarh. 


Fatah Khan 


78 




109 


666 


P. 


Shekh Mahomed Hasan, 
of Sitpur. 


Shekh Mahmud ... 


12 




no 


670 


P. 


Lai Khan, of Sitpur ... 


Ghulam Hasan 
Khan, 


60 


Brother of No. 
III. 


III 


671 


P. 


Shah Nawaz Khan, of 
Khowar. 


Ghulam Hasan ... 


73 




119 


715 


P. 


Kaura Khan, of Jatoi ... 


Said Khan 


48 




119 A 


715A 


P. 


Makhdum Marid Jafar, 
head of the Dera Din 
Panah Shrine. 


Imam Bakhsh ... 


50 




121 


760 


P. 


Mian Karu, of Shekh 
Umar. 


Ghulam Nabi 


33 





THE DEHLI DISTRICT. 1 59 

DEHLI DISTRICT. 
MIRZA SULIMAN SHIKOH. 



MiRZA Bachu. 

I 

Mirza Uahi Bakhsh, d. 1878. 
I 



I i I 

Mirza SULIMAN Shikoh, Suraya Jah, Ikbal Shah, 

k 1848. b. 1853. b. 1855. 

Mirza Suliman Shikoh takes the leading place on the 
list of Viceregal Darbaris of the Dehli district : his brothers 
Suraya Jah and Ikbal Shah are also Darbaris. They have 
inherited position and fortune from their father Mirza Ilahi 
Bakhsh, whose devotion to the British cause in 1857 was of 
the highest value ; and they are connected with the Royal 
House of Dehli through Begum Umdat-ul-Zamani, daughter 
of Alamgir the Second. Mirza Ilahi Bakhsh had considerable 
influence in the Palace through the friendship borne him by 
the Begum Zinat Mahal, favourite wife of Bahadar Shah, 
jast King of Dehli. A daughter of the Mirza's had been 
married to the King's eldest son Fateh-ul-Mulk Mirza Fakharu, 
who died shortly before the outbreak of the Mutiny. Mirza 
Ilahi Bakhsh remained inside the City during the Siege, and 
was able to furnish important intelligence of the movements 
of the rebels, and to assist and protect our agents. He 
did his utmost to save the lives of a party of fifty Christians 
who were cruelly massacred, ostensibly with the King's 
knowledge, within the Palace precincts, and materially assist- 
ed our military operations by cutting the bridge-of-boats 
over the Jamna, opposite the City, thus stopping the entry of 
supplies and rebel reinforcements from the eastern side. 
Later on he brought about the peaceful surrender of the 
King, and helped Hodson in effecting the capture of the 
Princes Khizar Sultan and Abul Bakar, thus dealing the 
Rebellion a death-blow by depriving the disaffected of their 



i6o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

hereditary leaders. The Mirza's conduct was fully enquired 
into at the close of the Rebellion and suitably rewarded. 
Hereditary pensions, aggregating Rs. 22,830 per annum, with 
effect from ist May, 1857, were granted to the Mirza and his 
family in the following proportions : — 



ro the Mirza personally 


., Rs. 9,550 


„ his wives 


», 4,530 


„ daughters 


„ 7,670 


,, other relatives 


„ x,o8o 



Further, in 1861, in lieu of an assignment enjoyed by 
him jointly with others before the Mutiny from the villages 
of Sampla and Asaoda in the Rohtak district, the Govern- 
ment of India granted to the Mirza solely a perpetual jagir of 
the value of Rs. 5,000 per annum, and in 1866 released to 
him and his family the revenues of certain villages in the 
Dehli and Mirut dstricts, yielding Rs. 2,226 annually. He 
was awarded Rs. 35,000 as compensation for loss of property 
incurred during the Siege. In 1872 he was allowed to 
borrow Rs. 35,000 from government. More than one-half of 
this sum was subsequently wiped out of the accounts as a 
matter of favor to the Mirza. An addition of Rs. 2,250 was 
made to his pension in 1877, on the occasion of the assump- 
tion by Her Majesty of the title of Empress. Mirza Ilahi 
Bakhsh died in 1878. His three sons now enjoy the hereditary 
pension and jagir. Mirza Suliman Shikoh, the eldest, is an 
Honorary Magistrate, and M. Ikbal Shah is a member of the 
Municipal Committee of Dehli. 



THE GURCAON DISTRICT. 



i6i 



GURGAON DISTRICT, 



MAHO^IED SARAJUDIN HAIDAR KHAN OF 
FARAKHNAGAR. 



Aman-ul-Hak, 



(f. 1S29. 
I 



Rasaldar 

Abdul Ali 

Khan. 



Midad 
Kasain 
Khan. 



I 
Ghulam 
Mahomed 

Khan, 
d. 1833. 

I 
Captain Tafazal 
Hasain, 
d. 1868. 
I 



Kharaiti 
Ali Khan. 



Muiti 

Nur-ul-Hak. 

I 

Eakhshi Ghulam 

Haidar Khan, 

d. 1828. 

I 

1 



Sina-ul-Hak, 
d. 1S31. 



Mahomed 
Zafar Ali 

Khan, 

d. 1849. Muhib Hasain 
Khan, 
d. 1870, 



Mohib-ul» • 
Hak. 



Jiwan Ali 
Khan. 



Nurudin 
Hasain 
Khan. 



Muazudin 
Hasain 
Khan. 



Hayat Ali 
Khan. 



Raham Ali 
Khan, 



Mazhar Ali 
Khan, 



Walait Ali Wazarat Ali 
Khan, Khan, 



1 
Mahomed Sakajudin 
Haiuar Khan, 
l>. 1848. 



Shahabudin 
Haidar, 



Mahomed Alahudin 

Haidar Khan, 

d. 1866. 



Mahomed Nasirudin, 
6. 1870, 



Mahomed Safarudin, 
6. 1874. 



Shekh Umar Din came from Bokhara with Sultan 
Shahabudin Ghori, and settled at Sultanpur near the junction 
of the Bias with the Satlaj. His sons moved down to Dehli 
and were appointed Muftis of the present town of Riwari. 
This honorable office remained with the family for some 
generations. Aman-ul-Hak, in the time of Akbar Sani of 
Dehli, took service with the Raja Raghoji of Nagpur, and 
served him for many years. His grandson Hasain Khan 
was given the Subadarship of Bhandara in Nagpur ; and when 
the British annexed the State in 1853 on the death of the 
Third Raghoji v/ithout issue, he was appointed an Extra 
Assistant Commissioner in the Central Provinces. He died 



i6a CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

in 1870. His eldest son Nurudin Khan was for some years 
a Rasaldar in the Nagpur Mounted Police. 

Mahomed Zafar Ali Khan held the post of Subadar in 
Nagpur for nine years, on a salary of Rs, 6,000 per annum. 
His five sons received small pensions from the State after his 
death in 1849. One of them, Hayat Ali Khan, was for 
some years an Honorary Magistrate at Riwari, in the Gur- 
gaon district. He is in receipt of a pension of Rs. 600 
for military services. Abdul Ali Khan, son of Aman-ul-Hak^ 
was a Rasaldar in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry during the Mutiny. 
Mahib-ul-Hak, also a son, was for some years Judge of Nag- 
pur before annexation, Ghulam Haidar Khan, grandfather 
of the present head of the family, took service with the Nizam 
of Hyderabad, and commanded a small contingent under 
Wellington at the Battle of Assaye in 1803. He was reward- 
ed with the title of Khan Bahadar, and received a mafi 
grant of fourteen hundred bigas in the Riwari Tahsil. He 
afterwards transferred his services to the Raja Paoji of Nag- 
pur, who was poisoned by his nephew Apa Sahib in 18 16. 
Ghulam Haidar Khan opposed Apa Sahib's attempt against 
the English in 181 7 ; and he was continued for twelve years 
in command of the Nagpur troops after the Raja was driven 
out. His three sons were also employed in the army. The 
eldest, Ghulam Mahomed Khan, succeeded him in the military 
command at Nagpur. Tafazal Hasain, son of Ghulam Ma- 
homed Khan, was in command of the local cavalry corps at 
Nagpur when, in May 1857, the news of the Dehli Mutiny 
reached that city. To his exertions was in a measure due the 
failure of the attempt made by his regiment to stir up a rebel- 
lion in this part of India. He was rewarded with a commis- 
sion as Rasaldar in the Mounted Police, and the bestowal of 
the title of Sardar Bahadar. In i860 he was granted biswa- 
dari and jagir rights in Farakhnagar and Riwari in the 
Gurgaon district, yielding Rs. 6,000 annually, subject to 



THE GURGAON DISTRICT. 163 

a nazarana deduction of Rs. 1,500. The grant was con- 
tinued in 1868 to his son Sarajudin Haidar Khan, now at 
the head of the family. He is an Honorary Magistrate 
and Civil Judge and Sub-Registrar of Farakhnagar ; and he 
also holds the position of President of the local Municipal 
Committee. His extravagant tastes have unfortunately led 
him into monetary difficulties, obliging him to place his affairs 
in the hands of the District Court of Wards. His second son 
Mahomed Nasirudin is being educated at the Aitchison 
College, Lahore. 



i64 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

THE KARNAL DISTRICT, 

The interesting sketch which follows, of the modern 

history of Karnal, is from the pen of Mr. Denzil Ibbetson, 

late Settlement Officer :— 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century the Dehli Empire was fast 
falling to decay, and the Sikhs rising to power. In 1709 Banda, some time 
the chosen disciple of Guru Govind Bairagi, raised his standard in these 
parts, and collecting an army of Sikhs, occupied the whole of the country west 
of the Jamna. He laid the whole neighbourhood waste, and especially the 
neighbourhood of the Karnal, where he killed theFaujdar and massacred the 
inhabitants. 

In 1738 Nadir Shah, enraged at not being recognised by the Dehli Court, 
invaded India. On 8th January, 1739, he reached Sarhand, where he learn- 
ed that Mahomed Shah with an enormous army occupied a strongly fortified 
camp at Karnal. He marched on to Taraori, on which he had to turn 
his guns before it would open its gates to him. Here he learned from 
some prisoners that the approach to Karnal from the direction of 
Taraori was through dense jungle and exceedingly difficult ; and that 
Mahomed Shah had no room to move in, being encamped in a small 
plain which was hardly sufficient for his camp, and surrounded on three 
sides by thick woods. He accordingly resolved to take the enemy in flank 
from the south-east. On the isth January he left Taraori, and, marching 
round by the banks of the Jamna to the back of the city, advanced to a 
position close to the Dehli camp. Meanwhile he sent Prince Nasarula Mir- 
za with a considerable force to a spot north of the canal and close to Karnal. 
All tliis time Mahomed Shah was not even aware that Nadir Shah was in 
the neighbourhood. Just at this time a detachment which had been sent to 
oppose Sadat Khan, Viceroy of Oudh, who was marching from Panipat with 
reinforcements, came to close quarters v^'ith him. Nadir Shah and Prince 
Nasarula at once marched to the support of their detachment, which was 
the first intimation the Imperial arm}^ had of their presence. The engage- 
ment which followed was not decisive. But the army of Mahomed Shah, 
which had already been encamped for three months at Karnal- and had suffer- 
ed greatly from want of supplies, was now cut oft from the open country in 
the rear, and food became so scarce that a seer of flour could not be bought 
for four rupees. Thus Mahomed Shah was starved into submission, and on 
the 13th of February? yielded to the invader, who led him in his train to Dehli. 
In 1748 Ahmed Shah was met at Panipat by the royal paraphernalia 
and the news of the death of Mahomed Shah, and there and then formally 
assumed the royal titles. 

From this time to the establishment of English Rule, a time of horror 
followed, which is still vividly remembered by the people, and was fittingly 
ushered in by the- greatest of all the battles of Panipat. In the rainy sea- 
son of 1760, Sndasheo, the Mahrata Bhao, marched upon Kunjpura, an Afghan 
town close to Karnal, which was then strongly fortified, and at which 20,o(jo 
Afghan troops were then encamped. He put the whole of them to the 
sword, and pilla/red the country round. Ahmad Shah, who was in the Doab, 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 165 

was unable to cross the Jamna in time to prevent this disaster ; but at length 
he forded the river near Bagpat and advanced against the enemy, who 
retreated to Panipat. There the Mahratas strongly fortified themselves. 
The Uuranis encamped close in front of them, and for five months the two 
armies, numbering more than 400,000 souls, remained engaged in fruitless 
negotiation and constant skirmishes. The Durani army had free access to 
their camp on all sides, while they gradually confined the Mahratas more 
and more to their entrenchments. The latter had long ago consumed all the 
provisions obtainable at Panipat ; at length supplies VvhoUy failed ; and on 
the 6th January, 1761, the Bhao advanced to action. The Mahratas were 
utterly routed, and many of them were driven into the town of Panipat, 
whence next morning the conqueror brought them out, distributed the women 
and children, and massacred the men in cold blood. The fugitives were 
followed all over the country, and killed wherever they were overtaken. It 
is said that 200,000 Mahratas were slain in this battle. 

No sooner had the Mahratas temporarily disappeared than the Sikhs 
appeared on the scene. In 1763 they defeated Zin Khan, the Durani Gover- 
nor of Sarhand, and took possession of the whole of Sarhand as far south 
as Panipat. Raja Gopal Singh on this occasion seized Jind, Safidon, 
Panipat and Karnal, though he was not yet strong enough to hold 
them ; but in 1772 he was confirmed in his possessions up to within a few 
miles north of Panipat and- west of Karnal, as a tributary of the Dehli 
Emperor. At the same time Raja Gurdit Singh seized Ladwa and Sham- 
garh up to within a few miles north of Karnal. 

Recalled by these events, Ahmad Shah once more appeared for the 
last time in Hindustan in 1767, and, conquering the Sikhs in several battles, 
marched as far as Panipat ; but as soon as he disappeared the Sikhs again 
resumed their hold of the country. In 1774 Rahimdad Khan, Governor of 
Hansi, attacked Jind ; but was defeated with heavy loss, while Gajpat Singh 
again seized Karnal. In 1777 Najaf Khan, the Imperial Wazir, marched 
in person to restore his authority. The Sikhs invited the aid of Zabita 
Khan, a Rohila Chief, who had rebelled ; and, joining their force with him, 
encountered the Imperial armj' at Panipat, and fought a battle said to have 
been only less terrible than that of 1761. No marked advantage remained 
with either side ; and by a treaty then concluded between the Rajas and the 
Emperor, the Sikhs relinquished their conquests in Karnal and its neigh- 
bourhood, excepting seven villages which Gajpat Singh was allowed to keep. 
But the treaty was not observed ; and in 1779 a last attempt was made by the 
Dehli Court to recover its lost territory. In November of that 3'ear Prince 
Farkhunda Bakht and Nawab Majid-udaula marched out at the head of a 
large army, 20,000 strong, and met some of the minor Sikhs at Karnal. He 
made terms with these chieftains, who were jealous of the growing power of 
Patiala ; and the combined forces inarched upon that State. While negotia- 
tions were in progress, reinforcements advanced from Lahore, the Karnal con- 
tingent deserted, bribery was resorted to, and the Imperialists retired pre- 
cipitately to Panipat. About this time Dharm Rao held the greater part of 
the tract on the part of the Mahratas, and was temporarily on good terms 
with the petty Sikh Chiefs north of Karnal. In 1785 he marched, at the in- 
vitation of the Phulkian Chiefs, against Kaithal and Ambala ; and after some 
successes, and after exacting the stipulated tribute, withdrew to his head-quar- 
ters at Karnal. In 1789 Sindia marched from Dehli to Thanesar and thence 
to Patiala, restored order more or less in the country west of the Jamna, and 
brought the Patiala Divvan back with him as far as Karnal as a hostage. In 



166 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

1794 a large Mahrata force under Anta Rao crossed the Jamna. Jind and 
Kaithal tendered their homage ; but the Patiala troops surprised the army in 
a night attack, and Anta Rao retired to Karnal. In 1795 the Mahratas once 
again marched north, and defeating Raja Bhag Singh at Karnal, finally wrest- 
ed that city from him and made it over to George Thomas, who took part in 
the fight. He had, however, obtained thejagir of Jhajar, and making himself 
master of Hissar, harried the neighbouring Sikh territories ; meanwhile 
Raja Gurdit Singh, of Ladwa, obtained possession of Karnal. In 1798 Begum 
Samru was stationed with her forces at Panipat to protect the western fron- 
tier during the struggle with Jaipur. In 1799 Sindia sent General Perron, 
to whom the />(7r^(7;?a of Panipat had been granted, to bring the Sikhs to 
order. He recruited at Karnal, where the Nawab of Kunjpura joined him ; 
but matters were settled amicably. In 1801 Thomas made a foray through 
Karnal and Panipat, and then retreated to Hansi. The Sikhs asked the 
Mahratas for help against him ; and Sindia, on the Sikhs promising to be- 
come his subsidiaries and pay him five lakhs of rupees, sent General Perron 
against him. In the battle that followed Thomas lost all his conquests, re- 
tired to British territory', and shortly afterwards died. Safidon and Dhatrat 
were then made over again to Jind by the Mahratas. 

On the nth September, 1803, Lord Lake defeated the Mahratas at the 
battle of Dehli ; and on the 30th December, Daulat Rao Sindia, by the 
treaty of Sirji Anjangam, ceded his territories in the north of India to the 
allies ; while the Partition Treaty of Poona, dated five months later, gave 
the provinces about Dehli, from that time known as the conquered provinces, 
to the English. Immediately after the battle ot Dehli, Begum Samru made 
her submission to General Lake ; and the Rajas of Jind and Kaithal were 
hardly less prompt. Their advances were favourably received ; and in 
January 1805 they joined their forces with ours. The other Sikh Chiefs, 
including Ladwa and Thanesar, had actually fought against us at Dehli, and 
for a whole year they constantly displayed active hostility, till they were 
finally routed by Colonel Burn at the end of 1804. In March 1805, an am- 
nesty was proclaimed to all the Sikhs on condition of peaceable behaviour; 
but Raja Gurdit Singh of Ladwa was expressly excluded from this amnesty, 
and in April of the same year the English forces marched upon his fort 
of Karnal and captured it. 

Meanwhile Lord Wellesley had returned to England, and Lord Corn- 
wallis had been sent out expressly to reverse his policy. The leading feature 
of the new programme was the withdrawal from all the recently-acquired 
territory west of the Jamna. And as that territory had to be disposed of, 
it was natural that the petty chieftains who had done us service in the late 
struggle even, if only by abstaining from or relinquishing opposition to us, 
should be rewarded. The whole tract was therefore parcelled out between 
them and others. 

The sovereign powers of the Rajas of Jind, Kaithal, Ladwa, Thanesar 
and Shamgarh, and of the Nawab of Kunjpura, were confirmed ; and they 
were continued in the lands held by them under treaty from the Mah- 
ratas, except that Ladwa was deprived of Karnal as already mentioned. 
The Jind Raja was granted the pargana of Gohana, and he and the Raja 
of Kaithal had the pargana Barsat-Faridpur made over to them jointly. 
Eight villages were made over to the Nawab of Kunjpura. The Mandals, 
who held large jagirs in Muzafarnagar, were induced to exchange them for 
so much of pargana Karnal as was left unallotted. 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 167 

Begum Samru received considerable grants, including some villages 
of the tract, in addition to her original fief of Sardhana ; and considerable 
grants were made to people who had done good service, and notably to 
Mirza Ashraf Beg and Mir Rustam Ali. 

The policy which bade us abstain from interference west of the Jamna 
did not long stand the test of actual practice. In 1806 Ranjit Singh crossed 
the Satlaj with his army and marched to Thanesar ; and it soon became 
apparent that either he or we must be master in the tract. The events 
and negotiations that followed, how the Sikh army marched about within 
twenty miles of our lines at Karnal, and how we were compelled to insist upon 
Ranjit Singh's withdrawal beyond the Satlaj, are told in most interesting 
detail by Sir Lepel Griffin in his Panjab Rajas. The Treaty of Lahore, 
dated 25th April, 1809, and the Proclamation of the 3rd of May following, 
finally included the country to the west of the Jamna in our Indian Empire ; 
and with this event ended the political history proper of the Tract. 

It will be useful to note the dates of a few events subsequent to the 
treaty of 1809. About iSiothe jagir grants which had been made in 1805-6 
were declared grants for life only, and were taken under our police super- 
vision. They were gradually resumed on the death of the holders. Bhai Lai 
Singh died in 1816, and Raja Bhag Singh in 1819 ; and these two, with the 
Mandals, held the greater portion of the Tract. Pargana Karnal was con- 
tinued to the Mandals in perpetuity on a fixed quit-rent in 1806. In 1834 
part of Jind and in 1843 'he whole of Kaithal, lapsed to us on the failure of 
the reigning line. In the latter year parts of Safidon and Asandh were ac- 
quired from Jind by exchange. In 1845 we confiscated the Ladwa estates 
bordering on the tract as a punishment for treasonin the Sikh War. And in 
the same year the Sardars of Thanesar, Kunjpura and Shamgarh were 
deprived of sovereign power, and reduced to the position of simple jcgirdars. 
In 1850 the whole of Thanesar lapsed on the death of the widow of Fatah 
Singh, the last Chief of Thanesar. 



I68 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



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THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 169 

The Kunjpurias are amongst the best known of the Ma- 
homedan families in the existing Dehli Division. The head 
of the house enjoys the title of Nawab, and their jurisdiction 
as semi-independent Chiefs was only lost to them under the 
operation of Lord Hardinge's order, dated 17th November, 
1846, affecting all but nine of the petty rulers in the plains 
south and east of the Satlaj. They are Rohilas of Eusafzai 
origin, and class themselves with other Pathans settled in 
the Panipat Tahsil as Zaka Khels, though their identity with 
any existing tribe on the Peshawar Frontier has long since been 
lost. They marry amongst themselves, and all their social ob- 
servances assimilate with those of their Pathan neighbours, 
classed generally as " Hindustanis. " Yet it may be men- 
tioned as tending to prove the undoubted Trans-Indus con- 
nection at some remote period and as showing the desire 
of the Kunjpurias to be esteemed as genuine Eusaf- 
zais, that even to the present day they are visited at uncer- 
tain intervals by men of the clan from Attock and Peshawar, 
whom they receive with honor as " cousins," and who, no 
doubt, find the occasional pilgrimage to Karnal one of profit 
as well as of pleasure. The Kunjpurias are credited in 
the earlier Government records as having come from 
" Gurgusht in the Sinde country." By Sinde is probably 
intended in this case the country of the Upper Indus, 
for the large village of Gurgushti, in the Rawalpindi 
district, is close to the Indus or Sinde river, in the Chach 
plain north-east of Attock ; and the Pathans of Gurgushti 
are especially given to claiming kinship with the Kunjpura 
Chiefs. Thus, in 1886, on the death of the late Nawab 
Mahomed AH Khan, a Gurgushti deputation duly appeared 
at Karnal to offer condolences, and to take back with 
them the presents such attention was bound to secure. 
But here the connection always ends, and there are no 
modern instances of Kunjpurias having secured Gurgushtian 
ladies as brides. The border Pathans would probably smile 



170 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

were such a request preferred by their brethren of the lower 
Panjab. 

Nothing certain is known regarding the settling of the 
Gurgushtis in India. They were classed as Rohila Pathans, 
and received employment about the Dehli Court in the early 
days of the Mahomedan conquests. But they were of small 
account until one of their number, Najabat Khan, founded 
the fortunes of the family by his own pluck and energy. He 
flourished in the early part of the eighteenth century, and af- 
ter serving as a captain in the Imperial Forces, secured for 
himself a considerable tract of fertile land along an arm of 
the Jamna as it then flowed in a channel now dry, known as 
the Puran, in the present Pipli Tahsil of the Ambala district. 
He plundered the Bazidpur villages in the Bidauli pargana 
of theSarkar Saharanpur, and built for himself in the Jamna 
marshes a strong tower which he named Kunjpura, or the 
Heron's Nest. His sons re-named it Najabat Nagar in his 
honor ; but their children have ever since been known as 
Kunjpurias. Najabat Khan was not allowed peaceful posses- 
sion of his acquisitions. The old Bazidpur owners complain- 
ed to Izat Khan, the Chakladar of Saharanpur, who advanc- 
ed against the freebooter with such forces as he had at his 
command ; but Najabat held his own and slew the Imperial 
agent. This was more than even the effete Mahomedan 
Government of that day could stand. Mulraj, Governor of 
Panipat, was ordered to seize the person of the rebel and 
produce him before the Emperor at Dehli. But he was 
released in a few years, after the manner of the age, upon 
promise of paying a fine, which was never redeemed. 

Najabat Khan sided with Nadar Shah in his conquest of 
Dehli in 1739, and was recognised by the new power as right- 
ful owner of the Kunjpura lands. Kunjpura itself was regard- 
ed as a post of strategical importance, covering the Begi 
Ferry on the road from Saharanpur to Dehli, and commanding 
the Imperial bridge over the canal between Karnal and the 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 171 

fortified sarai at Gharaunda, in the direction of Panipat. It 
was the scene of many a struggle between the Imperialists and 
the Mahratas in the middle of the eighteenth century. In 
one of these castles, in 1760, Najabat Khan met with his 
death, defending the stronghold in the interests of the Abdalis 
against a sudden attack made by the Mahrata General, Sada- 
sheo, who put the garrison to the sword and levelled the 
place with the ground, burning most of the villages in the 
neighbourhood. Najabat's eldest son Daler Khan succeeded 
in escaping across the Jamna, and had his revenge in the 
following year by taking part in the battle of Panipat, when 
the Mahratas suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the 
Duranis. 

Daler Khan's assistance to the Duranis was evidently 
of considerable value, for the family possess Sanads bearing 
the seal of Ahmad Shah, reciting his services and those of 
his father to " this god-given Government, " and confirming 
him in the rule and revenues of Kunjpura, Indri and Azim- 
abad. The grant extended over one hundred and fifty vil- 
lages in the modern divisions of Karnal, Indri, Thanesar, 
Shahabad and Badauli. The Chief was bound to render 
active assistance in times of trouble, and he was made to 
keep up a large force of horse and foot for the Imperial ser- 
vices. The mahals of Karnal and Safidon were afterwards 
bestowed in lieu of certain other villages resumed. Upon 
Daler Khan personally was conferred about this period the 
title of Bakhshi and Arjamand. But he lost much of his pro- 
perty shortly before his death in 1773, owing to the incursions 
of Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind and the other Sikh Chiefs, 
who were now busily feeling their way towards Dehli. His 
successor Gulsher Khan was unable to resist this forward 
movement, and gradually lost what remained of the family 
estates west of the Jamna. But the fortunes of the Kunj- 
purias revived about the year 1787, when Sindia checked 



17-2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the growing power of Patiala and expelled the Jind Raja 
Bhag Singh from Karnal. Ten years later we find Gulsher 
recognised by General Perron as Nawab of Kunjpura for 
help rendered in chastising George Thomas and the Jind and 
Ladwa Chiefs, whose successful adventures had begun to 
awaken the fears of the Mahratas for the safety of their 
north-western border. Thus, Rahmat Khan, who succeeded 
his father Gulsher as Nawab in iSoi, was a personage of 
importance, whose alliance Lord Lake was glad to secure when 
gathering strength early in the century to crush Holkar 
and the combination of Sikh States headed by the Ladwa 
Chief. His son Bahadar Jang was awarded a jagir on life- 
tenure in seven villages of the Karnal pargana, under a Far- 
man signed by Lord Lake in 1806, afterwards confirmed by 
a Sanad of Lord Minto, Governor-General. We find by a 
return prepared in 1809, that the Kunjpura Chief Rahmat 
Khan, with his brother Ghulam Mahayudin and their uncle 
Karam Sher Khan, were then possessed of one hundred and 
twenty villages in the parganas of Karnal, Indri and Badauli, 
yielding a revenue of nearly Rs. 90,000. Their holdings 
were subject to the condition of furnishing a contingent 
of twenty horse and six hundred foot. Rahmat Khan's 
estates in the Indri-Thanesar tract, yielding Rs. 72,000 per 
annum, were, under the Governor-General's Proclamation, 
dated 22nd August, 181 1, confirmed to him as an independent 
and protected Chief. His son's jagir was situated in the 
Dehli territory, and was valued at Rs. 2,900 per annum. The 
Saharanpur lands were held on zamindari tenure. By an 
Italanama issued in 1809, the Kunjpura Chiefs were estop- 
ped from levying tolls and customs duties upon goods crossing 
the Jamna in the neighbourhood of their estates. This cur- 
tailment of their privileges appears to have been the subject 
of a remonstrance on the part of the Nawabs, for various sums 
were paid to them from year to year after 1813 by way 
of compensation for loss of revenue ; and they continued to 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. ryS 

levy chungi upon articles consumed within the limits of the 
estate until 1843, when it was abolished under an order of 
Sir Henry Lawrence, then Assistant to the Governor- 
General's Agent. Since 1852 the Nawabs have been allow- 
ed a fixed sum of Rs. 3,210 annually in lieu of all claims to 
tolls and customs dues of every description. As already 
mentioned, the Nawabs lost their independent status in 1846 ; 
and three years later Lord Hardinge's action was confirmed 
by Lord Dalhousie, who, under a Proclamation of June, 1849, 
declared that, with the exception of nine States specified, "all 
the Chiefs would cease to hold sovereign powers, would lose 
all civil, criminal and fiscal jurisdictions, and would be consi- 
dered as no more than ordinary subjects of the British 
Government in possession of certain exceptional privileges." 
Henceforth the Nawabs of Kunjpura were mere jagirdars, 
occasionally exercising judicial powers specially conferred. 

Much of the legitimate power and influence which this 
family might reasonably have exercised had been lost by the 
unhappy relations of different members who have quarrelled 
with each other, and especially with the head of the house for 
their own individual objects. 

As far back as 1806 the differences between Rahmat 
Khan and his brother Ghulam Mahayudin, regarding the suc- 
cession to the patrimony, terminated in an open rupture. 
Their armed retainers came to blows, and antiquated pieces 
of cannon were used by the combatants within hearing of the 
cantonment of Karnal. The Kunjpura people were described 
in an official report of those days as " turbulent and 
unruly beyond any other race in India, given to habits of 
aggression, violence and contempt of all order and autho- 
rity." The aim of the younger brother Ghulam Mahayudin 
was to dismember the inheritance on the strength of an 
alleged custom, under which the sons of the Chief by 
his first wife were said to have right to share the patrimony 



174 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

between them. Being unable to prove this allegation, he re- 
peated his demand in another form, requiring the assignment 
of a number of villages, equal almost to one-half of the estate, 
for his separate maintenance. After much squabbling and 
not a little bloodshed, the parties referred their quarrel to 
arbitration, and formally agreed to abide by the finding in 
presence of Mr. Metcalfe, Agent, and his Assistant Mr. 
W. Fraser. Hereunder, certain villages were assigned to 
Ghulam Mahayudin for the purpose of providing him with 
a proper maintenance, and not with the object of giving him 
a separate share or splitting up his father's property. The 
grantee was in 1S22 held free from liability to contribute to- 
wards the support of his younger brother, whose maintenance 
became a charge upon the possessions of the Nawab. In 
reporting this decision the position of Ghulam Mahayudin was 
explained by Sir C. T. Metcalfe in the following terms : — 
" Had the question then been as to the right of Ghulam 
Mahayudin to a portion as one of several younger brothers, 
he must, I conceive, have received a smaller provision than 
he obtained. But that was not the question, nor was the 
matter settled on any ground of right. The adjustment was 
simply on agreement between the parties, both yielding to 
the opinions of the arbitrators. Ghulam Mahayudin Khan 
was more in the character of a rival than of a younger brother. 
His pretensions arose out of circumstances antecedent to our 
Rule. We had strictly refrained from interference in the 
affairs of the petty States on our frontier. The two brothers 
were at war, and if the scene of action had not been within a 
few miles, or perhaps within sight, of one of our cantonments, 
they would have been left to fight it out, and would probably 
have destroyed each other, or would have fallen under the 
domination of some superior State. The arrangement con- 
cluded between them was considered by me more as a treaty 
of peace between contending parties than as a legal settlement 
of mutual rights." 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 



ns 



Nawab Rahmat Khan died in 1822, and was followed by 
his son Bahadar Jang, who held the estate for six years. On 
his death the life-jagir in pargana Karnal lapsed to Govern- 
ment under the terms of the Sanad of i S06. He was succeed- 
ed in default of male issue by his next brother Ghulam AH 
Khan, who was duly recognised by the Governor-General as 
"rightful successor to the principality of Kunjpura." Ghulam 
All's younger brothers lost no time in following their uncle's 
example, and in 1834 one of them, Shahbaz Khan, put for- 
ward a claim to ownership in one-third of the estate. This 
was rejected by Sir George Clerk, Political Agent at Ambala, 
who, in reporting the case to the Governor-General's Agent 
at Dehli, remarked : — ** If the Kunjpura lands are to be regard- 
ed as private property, no time should be lost in subjecting 
this inheritance to the rules of shara. But if it be deemed 
expedient to maintain the Chief in respectability and authority, 
the provision of gtizara for his brother should be left in 
a measure to the Nawab's discretion." Sir Charles Metcalfe 
in reply (dated 12th December, 1836), laid down on the 
authority of the Lieutenant-Governor, North- Western Pro- 
vinces, that " Kunjpura must be regarded as a principality, 
and the younger branches must depend upon the older for 
support ; the amount of this provision being regulated by 
the custom of the family." 

On the death of Ghulam Mahayudin in 1841, his assigned 
villages reverted to the Nawab Ghulam Ali Khan, with the 
exception of the one village of Biana and the lands of seven 
wells in Kunjpura, which were apportioned for the maintenance 
of Mahomed Yar Khan, son of the deceased. 

In 1843 the Nawab had an opportunity of proving his 
loyalty by furnishing a party of fifty sowars to assist in sup- 
pressing the disturbances at Kaithal, described in another 
chapter, brought about by the decision of Government to 



176 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

treat the estate as an escheat on the death without issue of 
Bhai Ude Singh. The men remained at the disposition of 
Sir Henry Lawrence for two months, and their services were 
duly acknowledged in a letter of thanks to the Nawab. He 
was again forward in assisting during the First Sikh War 
with carriage and supplies. 

Nawab Ghulam Ali Khan died in 1849, and was succeed- 
ed by his only son Mahomed Ali. His latter years had been 
embittered by violent family quarrels, instigated by Ghulam 
Mahayudin's son Mahomed Yar Khan of Biana. These un- 
fortunate dissensions, adverse to the best interests of the 
family, brought the estate to the verge of ruin, and paralyzed 
all attempts at vigorous action during the crisis of 1849, when 
a display of active loyalty would have for ever secured the 
Kunjpuras a high place in the esteem of the Paramount 
Power. Nawab Mahomed Ali Khan was only twenty years 
of age when his father died. He was beset with troubles 
from the commencement, due to the active opposition and 
underhand intrigues of his uncles Shahbaz Khan and Janbaz, 
who were leagued with their cousin Mahomed Yar Khan of 
Biana to bring the head of the house to ruin, and thus secure 
a partition of the property amongst all the cousins. They 
accused the Nawab, through his step-mother, of having poi- 
soned his elder brother in order to secure his own succession. 
But the charge was declared after investigation to be un- 
founded. His next trouble was concerning the succession to 
the estate of his cousin Tafazal Hasain, who died in 1851, 
and whose father Karam Sher Khan had been assigned lands 
for his maintenance in Ghir and portions of Kunjpura Proper. 
These duly passed to Tafazal Hasain, and his widow now set 
up Barkat Ali, the son of a slave-girl, as his rightful successor. 
The decision of Government was in favour of direct heirs of 
Karam Sher Khan, excluding illegitimate offspring. With 
regard to the Nawab, it was held that his rights were only 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 177 

reversionary on the failure of all Karam Sher's immediate 
heirs. 

Meanwhile the Biana branch had not been idle. Mahomed 
Yar Khan continued to press his suit, reducing the demand 
to one-fourth of the whole estate ; but this was finally rejected, 
in 1 85 1, by the Commissioner of Ambala. A fight next took 
place over the Nawab's reversionary rights in Mahomed Yar's 
Biana holdings, which dragged through the courts for m any 
years. The Financial Commissioner ruled, in 1857, that 
Mahomed Yar was merely a life-tenant, as his father Ghulam 
Mahay udin had never been acknowledged owner of a separate 
estate. 

In 1857 Nawab Mahomed Ali Khan responded to the 
call of the Commissioner and placed the whole of his horse 
and footmen at the disposal of Government. They were 
stationed at Thanesar, and assisted in preserving order and 
in supporting the executive authority. The Nawab's service 
commutation payment was remitted for one year, and the 
demand was permanently reduced by one-half. The family 
quarrels, which had been allowed to pend during the Mutiny, 
broke out afresh in 1859. Amongst other enormities, the 
Nawab was charged with attempting to assassinate one of his 
kinsmen. This accusation of course fell to the ground. He 
was next reported as being in league with the Wahabis of 
Satana. The matter was enquired into, and the result was 
communicated to the Nawab in a letter from Government to 
the Commissioner, in which the following paragraph is deserv- 
ing of record : — " The Lieutenant-Governor requests you will 
inform the Nawab that in the opinion of the Government, so far 
from the accusations made by informers having brought any 
discredit on him, the enquiries made have resulted highly to 
his honor as tending to show that, although efforts were 
made to implicate him by sending the messenger of the 



178 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

fanatics to him on the ostensible plea of obtaining charity 
from him, these efforts proved wholly unsuccessful." 

Nawab Mahomed Ali Khan's life was spent to the last 
in defending himself against a series of wholly groundless 
attacks made by his numerous relatives. It will serve no 
purpose to describe them here, and a mere list of the disputes 
would be of no value to those who have access to the fuller 
records of the public offices. But in the course of these 
disputes, settled either judicially or by interference of the 
executive, certain matters were decided which deserve a short 
notice. The sons of Sher Ali Khan, granduncle of the 
Nawab, were, in 1875, awarded a joint maintenance of Rs. 666 
per annum by the Nawab, voluntarily at the suggestion 
of the Commissioner of Dehli. Next, Faiz Mahomed Khan, 
son of the Nawab's granduncle Ghulam Rasul, who died in 
1876, claimed to retain three wells in Kunjpura and an annuity 
of Rs. 167 as his hereditary right. The case dragged on until 
1884, when Sir Charles Aitchison consented to act as arbi- 
trator. His Honor found that as Faiz Mahomed refused 
compliance with the conditions as to service and obedience 
to the Nawab, which are usual in the family on the part of 
those who receive maintenance, he was not entitled to the 
same amount as had been granted to others in the same 
degree of relationship, and that Rs. 293-7 ^ Y^^'' was a proper 
sum for his maintenance. 

A third dispute arose after the death of Mahomed Yar 
Khan in 1882, on the application of his son Ahmad Hasan 
to be recorded as jagirdar of Biana and owner of sundry 
plots in that estate and in Kunjpura. He gained his suit in 
so far as he was permitted to retain possession of the so- 
called fort in Biana with a few acres of land in the neighbour- 
hood, but the assigned revenue was declared to have revert- 
ed to the Nawab. In addition, the Nawab's estate has been 
charged with a life-provision of Rs. 1,200 per annum for 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 179 

the support of his cousin Ahmad Hasan. Finally, Nazar 
Mahomed, son of the Nawab's uncle Janbaz Khan, put in a 
claim for continuance to him of his deceased father's main- 
tenance allowance of Rs. 1,200 per annum. The de- 
cision of the Lieutenant-Governor was communicated in a 
letter to the Commissioner of Dehli, dated the 2nd July, 
1888, in which His Honor recorded his opinion that, 
according to precedents, "the allowance granted to the 
son of a Nawab of Kunjpura is reducible when he dies, 
unless there is some special agreement or order of 
Government or of the Courts to the contrary in any par- 
ticular case." The claimant was accordingly awarded a 
life-allowance of Rs. 900 per annum, subject to deduction 
of commutation and income tax, and to acquiescence in 
certain conditions which may be summarized as follows : — 
That the grantee bring no suit against the Nawab, nor 
attempt to alienate or pledge his allowances, and that he 
acknowledge the grant as strictly limited for the period 
of his own life-time, his heirs having no claim whatever upon 
the estate. 

Nawab Mahomed Ali Khan died in 1886. His name 
stood third on the list of Imperial Darbaris in the Dehli 
Division. He had exercised powers as a Magistrate and 
Civil Judge since i860 within the limits of his estate. The 
present Nawab Ibrahim Ali Khan, eldest surviving son 
of Mahomed Ali Khan, is a minor, and his property has 
come under the management of the District Court of Wards. 
He is studying at the Aitchison College. The late Nawab 
had arranged for the maintenance of his younger sons by 
assigning them certain lands acquired for this purpose some- 
time before his death. These boys are being educated 
at Karnal. 

The Kunjpura estate consists of jagir and revenue-pay- 
ing lands in the Indri pargana of Karnal and in the districts 



i$o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

of Muzafarnagar and Saharanpur, as well as of numerous 
houses in Karnal, Kunjpura, Indri and Taraori. At the last- 
named place the Naw?b is owner of the ancient Imperial 
Sarai, a building of considerable architectural interest. The 
land-revenue assignments, after deducting one-sixteenth as 
service commutation, are assessed at Rs. 27,673 per annum, 
derived from thirty-eight villages, mainly in the Khadar 
portion of the Indri pargana. In some of these villages the 
revenue is shared with Sikh jagirdars. In Taraori, for instance, 
the Sardar of Shamgarh takes two-fifths of the demand. The 
proprietary holdings comprise twelve entire villages and por- 
tions of forty-six villages. These yield a rental of Rs. 23,130 
annually, while about Rs. 14,000 are received in the form 
of house-rent, garden income and miscellaneous revenue. 

Further mention may be made of the Ghir Branch, now 
represented by Ahmad Hasan Khan, grandnephew of Ghu- 
1am Nabi, A portion of the Ghir lands had been held by 
Jamiat Singh of Thanesar. The remainder was so badly 
managed by Ghulam Nabi Khan that in 1837, on the com- 
plaint of the cultivators, his judicial powers were cancelled, 
and in i860, in lieu of jagir rights, his nephews were award- 
ed a cash allowance of Rs. 4,000 per annum. This is still 
paid from the district treasury, although the representatives 
of Ghulam Nabi persist in styling themselves jagirdars. The 
existing arrangement is distinctly to their benefit, inasmuch 
as the assessment of their old holding under the recent set- 
tlement is considerably less than the pension they are per- 
mitted to enjoy. Ahmad Khan's name is on the Provin- 
cial Darbar List. 

The family branches of the Kunjpura Nawabs are so nu- 
merous and their numbers so scattered that it becomes a 
matter of difficulty to trace up every individual. Many of 
Najabat Khan's descendants have disappeared for years past 
from the parent home, and have permanently severed their 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. i8i 

connection with the head of the house. Ghulam Mahomed 
Khan, son of Game Khan, quarrelled with the Chief, after 
the manner of his kinsmen, and settled at Panipat. His 
children have married there and acquired lands. The line 
of Ikhtiar Khan claims a distinguished representative in 
Ghulam Ahmad Khan of Gwalior, Member of the Council of 
Regency, and author of many Urdu works of great literary 
merit. His sons have received education at the Aligarh 
College. 

Two of Sher Ali Khan's sons, nephews of Nawab Rah- 
mat Ali, have served Government. Ali Ahmad retired on 
a Tahsildar's pension in 1889, and his brother Asghar Ali 
still holds the post of Tahsildar in the Ambala district. No 
other member of the family appears to have distinguished 
himself in a public capacity. The system of splitting up the 
allowances into even shares has extinguished in the holders 
all natural desire to rise above the level of petty pensioners. 
They are content to live in semi-poverty, preferring sloth 
and personal ease to the honest ambition which secures to per- 
sons less favoured by birth the larger share of the loaves and 
fishes of this life. 



i82 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

BHAI JASMIR SINGH OF ARNAULI. 

Dial Singh. 

I 

Gurbakhsh Singh, 

d. 1766. 

. I 

I I I I \ I 

■ Budha Dhana Gurdas Desu Singh, Takhat Singh. Sukha 

Singh. Singh. Singh. (/. 1781. | Singli. 

j j Dal Singh. l 



' III I ^1 

Karam Charat Bhal Lai Gurdit Basawa 

Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh. Singh, 

I ./. Ib23. 



I I 

Partab Ude Singh, 

Singh. d, 1843. 

l>. 1S24. 



I I I I I ,. , 

Bahadar Panjab Gulab Kahan Sangat bingh, 

Singh. Singh. Singh, Singh. d. 1849. 



d. 1845. I 

1 Anokh Singh, 

d. 1834- 



I I 

Bhai Jasmir Singh. Nao Nahal Singh. 

The Bhais of Kaithal are an important family, whose past 
history is much interwoven with that of Patiala and the net- 
work of minor chiefships which were spread out between the 
Jamna and the Satlaj when Lord Lake first estabhshed him- 
self at Dehli. They are of the same original stock as the 
Phulkians, going back to the celebrated Rajput Jasal, whose 
appearance is a matter almost of obligation in the pedigree table 
of a respectable Malwai Jat. Dhar, son of Sidhu, was the 
immediate ancestor of the Kaithal family, as well as of the 
houses of Sadhvval, Jhumba and Arnauli. He settled at Ba- 
tinda about the middle of the fourteenth century ; and his son 
Manak Chand founded the existing village of Bhuler and 
acquired many others around Batinda. Manak's grandson 
Bhagtu was a disciple of Guru Arjan, and was called B/iaz, 
a title still used by the family, which has had a semi-religious 
status ever since the days of Bhagtu. The next man of note 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 183 

\vas Gurbakhsh Singh, who flourished in the time of the 
Patiala Raja Ala Singh and was his fast friend. He was a 
fine soldier, with very Httle of the saintly/?//,^? about him. 
He and Ala Singh joined forces and went on many expedi- 
tions together, annexing villages on all sides and sharing the 
spoils. On the death of Gurbakhsh Singh in 1760, his pos- 
sessions passed to his six sons, of whom Budha Singh, the eld- 
est, became a greater warrior, seizing the districts of Thanesar 
and Pihoa, and building himself a strong fort at Kahod, 
which he made his head-quarters. His brother, Bhai Desu 
Singh, captured Kaithal from the Afghan owners Bikh 
Bakhsh and Niamat Khan, and he stripped the Sayads of 
their Pondri lands. The brothers were afterwards attacked 
by the celebrated Thanesar Sardar Bhanga Singh, the fierc- 
est and most feared of all the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs of his time. 
Bhanga Singh made a sudden descent upon Thanesar, In 
which were two forts, held respectively by Budha Singh and by 
a Rajput Chief named Nathae Khan. The latter surrendered 
after a weak attempt at resistance; but the Bhais held out, and 
their stronghold was only won by a stratagem some years 
later. The Sadhwal Sardars were finally driven out of the 
Thanesar district in the time of Desu Singh's son Lai Sinpfh. 
This latter Chief had been for some years on bad terms with 
his father, who had placed him in confinement, being anxious 
that the estates should pass to the younger brother Bahal 
Singh. But Lai Singh managed to get free, and after kill- 
ing Bahal Singh secured the whole patrimony for himself. 
He proved the greatest of all the Sadhwal Chiefs, and was re- 
garded as the most powerful of the Cis-Satlaj Sardars, after 
the Raja of Patiala, at the time of the British advance north- 
wards in 1809. He is described as having been a very able 
man, though utterly untrustworthy, and so violent and un- 
scrupulous that the English authorities had the great- 
est difficulty in persuading him to preserve order in 
his territories. He acquired immense tracts of country by 



f84 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

plundering his neighbours on all sides ; and he succeeded in 
regaining possession of much-coveted Thanesar after he had 
been kept out of possession for many years by his old enemy 
Bhanga Singh. He waited upon General Ochterlony, and 
having offered his assistance in the Gurkha War, was liberally 
treated, and was allowed to retain the Ilakas of Chausatha and 
Gohana, under condition of furnishing five hundred sowars, 
for whose support eight additional villages were set apart. He 
joined the British in the pursuit of Jaswant Rao Holkar up 
to the Satlaj border, and received a Sanad acknowledging his 
services in connection with the treaty made on that occasion 
with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In 1819, he was allowed to suc- 
ceed to the share of the family estate held by a childless widow 
of his cousin Karam Singh, which under the rules was justly 
an escheat to the Government. He had been a firm ally all his 
life of the Raja Bhag Singh of Jind, and on more than one 
occasion had come to his assistance in repelling the attacks 
of George Thomas, the celebrated Hansi adventurer. 

Sardar Lai Singh's son, Ude Singh, was of very differ- 
ent calibre. He was a weak-minded youth, without ambition, 
and without the energy^ to keep what his father had acquired. 
During his Chiefship the disorder and affrays on the Kaithal 
frontier became so serious, stopping all trade and disturbing 
the peace of the whole country, that a strong remonstrance 
was addressed to him and the neighbouring Sardars, who 
were In a measure jointly responsible for the good govern- 
ment of the district. Things were in this state when Bhai Ude 
Singh died childless in 1843. The Chiefship, with territory 
yielding one lakh of rupees, representing the acquisitions of 
Gurbaksh Singh, the original founder of the family, was con- 
ferred upon Bhais Gulab Singh and Sangat Singh of Arnauli, 
collaterals of the deceased in the third generation. The re- 
mainder of the estate, Including Kaithal, which had been ac- 
quired by Lai Singh and other members of the family fol- 
lowing Bhai Gurbakhsh, valued at four lakhs per annum, fell 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT, 185 

as an escheat to the British Government. This lapse was 
highly distasteful to the Phulkian Chiefs, who, as relatives of 
the deceased, were naturally desirous of retaining the posses- 
sions in the family. They were also fearful that the prece- 
dent might at some future day be used against themselves ; 
for at that time their dominions had not been guaranteed to 
them by Sanads, in the event of failure of heirs. The Rajas 
of Patiala, Jind and Nabha accordingly sent special agents to 
Kaithal for the purpose of protesting before Mr. Greathead, 
specially deputed to carry out the Government orders, against 
the alleged act of spoliation. They were, however, ultimately 
re-called, and nothing was left to the Kaithal Council but 
to submit to the Paramount Power. But knowing that they 
had with them the sympathies of the Sikh Chiefs, and Instigat- 
ed probably by secret intrigue, the people of Kaithal broke 
out into insurrection while the matter of taking possession 
was still pending, and the town and fort had to be captured at 
the point of the bayonet. 

The present representatives are Bhai Jasmir Singh, son 
of Gulab Singh, and Bhai Anokh Singh, son of Sangat Singh. 
They behaved loyally in both the Sikh Wars and again in 
the Rebellion of 1857. Bhai Anokh Singh in this latter 
crisis placed himself at the head of a body of horse and foot 
of his own raising, and helped to patrol the road between 
Ambala and Dehli. Jasmir Singh's services were also 
valuable. They were rewarded with the remission of one 
year's commutation charge, Rs. 3,577, on their estates; and 
the demand was reduced by one-half during the lifetime of 
the Sardars. 

Bhai Jasmir Singh lives at Arnauli, and Bhai Anokh 
Singh at Sadhowal. They exercise civil and criminal judi- 
cial powers within the limits of their estates, and they take 
the lead on the list of Viceregal Darbaris of the Karnal dis- 
trict. Jasmir Singh's jagir income is Rs. 14,600 annually, 
and that of Anokh Singh, Rs. 20,200. 



i86 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

NAWAB AZMAT ALI KHAN, MANDAL. 



Ghulam Mahomed KhaN. 



Jalal 



Khan. 



Ghulam Muhaiudin 

Khan. 

I 

Ghairat Ali Khan 

(Branch No. III.) 

I 



I 
Yar Mahomed 
Khan. 

Didar Bakhsh. 



Mahomed Atar 
Khan. 



I 
Sherudin 

Khan, 
d. 1789. 



Mahomed Khan 
(Branch No. I.) 



Rahim 
Bakhsh. 



Mahomed Ishak 
(Branch No. II.) 



I 
Ghulam 
Sharaf, 
d. 1855. 

I 



Basharat Ali 
Khan, d. 1849. 



Amir Ali. 



Mahomed 

Ali, 

d. 1879. 

d. 1880. 
I 
Azam Ali Khan, 
b. 1862. 

I 

Zafar Has?n Khan 

b. 1880. 



1.1 I I 

Sultan Din, Nasar Wazir Ali. Ghamdin Khan, 
(/. 1833. Ali. I d. 1866. 

I I Shamsher Ali, 

Ghulam Raham Ali. b. 1839. 
Rasul, 

Mahomed Khurshaid 

Ali Khan, 

b. 18S5. 



Nawab xAhmad Ali 
Khan, 
d. 1867. 



I 

Mahar Ilahi 

Khan, 

d. 

I 

Fatah 

Mahomed, 

b. 1857. 



Karam 

Ilahi Khan, 

b. 1834. 



I I 

Rahmat Ali, Mahfuz Ali. 
d. 1856. 



1 

Nawab Azmat 

Ali Khan, 

b. 1835. 



I I 

Rustam Ali, Umar Daraz 
b. 1863. Ali, 

b. 1865 



I 

Shamshad 

Ali Khan, 

b. 1886. 



I 
Arshad 

Ali, 
b. 1887. 



Kutabudin, 
d. 1870. 



Sadat Ali Khan, 
b. 1847. 



Faiz Ali Khan, 
b. 1878. 



Najabat Ali, 
b. 1831. 



Kamarudin, 
b. 1834. 



Akbar Khan, 
b. 1841. 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 187 

Azmat AH Khan, titular Navvab of Karnal, is the head of 
that section of the Mandals which was found by Lord Lake 
in 1804, established on the eastern bank of the Jamna in 
certain tracts included in the modern districts of Mirut and 
Muzafarnagar. 

The Mandals of the jamna Doab are described in the 
early British records as Pathans, and are usually so classed 
in official documents to the present day ; but Mr. Ibbetson, 
a high authority, considers that they are of Jat origin. They 
came, it is said, from the ancient town of Samana in Patiala, 
where several branches of the clan are still living ; and the 
leading members still hold considerable grants from the 
Patiala Chiefs, under whom they have freely taken service. 
Samana was a place of importance in the fifteenth century, 
and its rulers appear for a time to have asserted their inde- 
pendence of the Lodi Kings, and even to have held the 
southern country up to the walls of Panipat. 

The traditions of the Kaithal border suggest that in the 
confusion which marked the close of the seventeenth century 
the Mandals, pressed by the Sikhs under Banda, their Bairagi 
leader, moved from Samana to the neighbourhood of Piho- 
wa, on the Saraswati stream. The remains of one of their 
forts are still to be seen at Murtazapur, between Pihowa and 
Thanesar. From the Thanesar tract they appear to have 
been dislodged by the Sikh misals, and in 1805 we find them 
settled in the Saharanpur district, having for neighbour Raja 
Bhanga Singh of Thanesar. In 1804 the confederacy head- 
ed by the Rajas of Ladwa and Thanesar, which had con- 
tinued to oppose the British forces in the field, was finally 
broken ; and in March 1805 a conditional amnesty was pro- 
claimed for all but the Ladwa Chief, followed by steps for 
transplanting to the right or western bank of the Jamna those 
troublesome bands whose presence in the Dehli provinces was 
deemed undesirable on political grounds. The Mandals 



i88 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

were included in the list for deportation on the recommenda- 
tion of Lord Lake, who, in April 1806, reported that they 
had agreed to give up their /^/(T^^rtf lands in the Jamna Doab 
in exchange for the pargana of Karnal, which would be held 
by the present heads of the family in jagir, and by their 
descendants on istamrari tenure. T\i^jaidad or military fief 
referred to was claimed under a grant which Sherudin Khan, 
Mandal, obtained in 1779, from Farkhunda Bakht of Dehli, 
when that Prince vainly attempted to arouse the patriotism of 
the Mahomedan Chiefs of the Jamna provinces in opposing 
the advancing Mahrata hordes. The Sanad under which they 
hold is said to bear the seal of the Imperial Minister Nawab 
Majidudaula Abdul Ahad ; but the title was regarded at the 
time as of doubtful value, and from Sir David Ochterlony's 
correspondence there appears to have been a desire to ignore 
it and hand over the Karnal pargana, on the expulsion of the 
Ladwa force, to Raja Bhag Singh of Jind. The Mandals 
were, however, finally recognised as owners of the parganas 
of Muzafarnagar, Shoran and Chitrawal, which on the death 
of Sherudin, the original grantee, were given to his brother 
Mahomed Khan by Daulat Rao Sindia, on condition of main- 
taining a body of two hundred horsemen for military service. 
When the transfer was arranged by Lord Lake, the Mandals 
in possession were Mahomed Khan, his nephew Mahomed 
Ishak, and his cousin Ghairat Ali. The sixty-three villages 
thus assigned them in the Karnal pargana were estimated 
to yield Rs. 48,000 per annum ; and in order to induce them 
to accept the exchange the more readily, they were allowed 
to hold such portions of the pargana as had not already 
been given to other settlers. Mahomed Khan was further 
allowed to retain a small jagir in Muzafarnagar, which had 
been assigned to him personally for services rendered. It 
was on the express application of the Mandals that Govern- 
ment accorded the additional privilege, by order dated 9th 
April, 1806, of allowing the heirs of the three Chiefs to 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 189 

continue to hold on an istamrari tenure, subject "to pay- 
ment of an annual rent of Rs. 15,000 of the current coin." 

Violent quarrels broke out amongst the three assignees 
shortly after they had been put in possession of the grant ; 
and this led in 1807 to a partition of the villages, under a 
deed attested by the Resident of Dehli, according to the 

following: estimated annual value : — 

^ Rs. 

Mahomed Khan .. .. .. 15)°°° 

Ghairat Ali . . . . . . 13.000 

Ishak Khan . . . . . . 12,000 

The city of Karnal and one or two other estates were 
still held joint. 

The Karnal fort was taken from the Mandals in 1809 
under Lord Lake's orders ; a compensation payment of 
Rs. 4,000 having been made for disturbance of possession. It 
was used for military purposes until the Cantonment was 
abandoned, and it then passed under the civil control, and 
was assigned to the department of Education for the accom- 
modation of a school. In 1886 it again changed hands, and 
is now occupied as a Tahsil. 

In 1844 the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western 
Provinces marched through what was then known as the 
Mandal pargana, and was so impressed with the state of dis- 
order, arising out of the perpetual struggles between the own- 
ers and the cultivators, that he deputed Mr. Gubbins to effect 
a settlement, which was completed in 1847, and sanctioned 
for a period of five years. At the end of this term heavy 
arrears had accumulated, and Mr. J. G. Ross was appointed 
to revise the assessments. His final proposals were ready 
in 1856, but the events of the following year prevented the 
passing of orders, and soon afterwards the pargana became 
a portion of the Panjab. Mr. Ross's assessment was thus 
not sanctioned until i860. The Government of the Panjab 



190 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



in accepting his settlement took occasion to record that the 
Mandals were merely assignees of the revenue ; and their 
rights did not extend to the management of the land, except 
in those estates, twenty-four in number, in which they had 
acquired entire ownership. 

The following note by Mr. Ibbetson, late Settlement 
Officer, shows how the fortunes of the Mandals have fallen 
since their removal to Karnal in furtherance of the policy 
of Lord Cornwallis, which had for its object the delegation 
of our rights beyond the Jamna to a number of petty Chiefs 
who were to be entrusted with the keeping of the North-West 
border. However advantageous such a policy may have 
proved to the Paramount Power, it has evidently in no 
way bettered the position of Sherudin's successors: — "The 
constant and bitter disputes which have been rife among 
the Mandals ever since their first settlement in Karnal, 
have had the eftect which might have been expected upon 
their position as a family. Other causes, too, have contri- 
buted to their decay. As each generation increased the num- 
ber of the family, the sons, all sharing in the inheritance of 
the father, not only were relieved from the necessity of earn- 
ii g their livelihood, but also felt it incumbent upon them to 
keep as far as possible the style which was traditional in the 
family on a reduced income which was quite insufficient for 
the purpose. Being almost without exception uneducated, 
they fell wholly into the hands of unscrupulous band of rapa- 
cious stewards, who found their interest in introducing them 
to money-lenders as unscrupulous as themselves." The deca- 
dence of the family began early. In 1817 Sir Charles 
Metcalfe wrote : — 

" They have suffered much since they were established 
in Karnal ; and the period of their transfer from the Doab 
was the commencement of the decline of their prosperity. 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 191 

Their respectability, in all external appearances, has been 
dwindling away before my eyes in the course of the last ten 
years. It may be said with justice that their decline is in 
some measure owing to their own mismanagement as 
they received an extensive district capable of great improve- 
ment. It must, however, be admitted that something 
unfavorable in the change must also have operated ; other- 
wise why did not their mismanagement ruin them in the 
Doab, where I remember meeting them in 1805, equip- 
ped in a style of considerable pomp and splendour. Their 
present appearance is very different ; and their tone to me, 
since 1806, has invariably been that of complaint." 

Of course the position of a jagirdar was, as pointed out 
by Mr. Fraser, very different under Native and British rule ; 
and this difference would have been felt even if the Mandals 
had remained in the Doab. In point of mere income, they 
have considerably benefited, the present revenue of the par- 
gana being Rs. 65,265, as against Rs. 25,000 (after deduct- 
ing nazarana), when the estates were made over to the family 
in 1806. 

The late head of the Mandal house, Nawab Ahmad Ali 
Khan, rendered loyal services in 1857, and these were duly 
acknowledged in a letter from Lord Canning to the Chief 
Commissioner of the Panjab in the following terms : — " His 
Lordship is of opinion that the liberality of Government in 
the acknowledgment of the Nawab's services should be as 
unstinted as his support and assistance have been unhesitat- 
ing. The Nawab's services have been most valuable, as 
testified by all officers, both Civil and Military, who have had 
an opportunity of forming a judgment on the subject. From 
the first, the Nawab openly and fearlessly espoused the cause 
of the British Government, and his acts have been through- 
out in accordance with his professions. He neither spared 



192 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

personal exertions nor withheld material aid, but freely placed 
all his establishments and all his resources at our disposal. 
Conduct such as this calls for marked recognition. The 
Governor-General, therefore, is pleased to direct that the 
quit-rent of Rs. 5,000 now paid by him be remitted to 
the Nawab and heirs, male, of his body lawfully begotten 
in perpetuity, and that a khilat of Rs. 10,000 be conferred 
upon him in as public and honorable a manner as possible. 
His Lordship also requests that you will deliver to the Nawab 
the accompanying Sanad, acknowledging the conspicuous 
loyalty of his conduct and the value of the service performed 
by him in placing his resources at the disposal of the British 
Government." In i860 Nawab Ahmad AH Khan was appoint- 
ed an Honorary Assistant Commissioner in the Karnal district, 
and he exercised revenue and magisterial powers up to the 
time of his decease. He died in 1867, and was succeeded 
by his son Nawab Azmat AH Khan, the present head of the 
family. Besides the present Nawab, there are two sons, 
Rustam AH Khan and Umar Daraz AH Khan, by a lady 
known as Lali Begum, who, in 1872, claimed a share for her 
children and herself in the property and emoluments of the 
late Nawab. It was then held in the Chief Court that there 
existed a custom excluding widows from inheritance, but that 
there was none excluding younger sons from inheritance, or 
reducing their share below that of their elder brothers. It was 
further held that sons of concubines legitimatised by acknow- 
ledgment, although the marriage of their mothers might not 
be proved, were entitled to inherit under the grants of 1806 
and of 1858. Under orders of the Chief Court, a manager 
v^as appointed for receiving the share decreed to the half- 
brothers in the person of Kazi Ahmad Shah, a Sayad of 
Taraori, in the Karnal district, since deceased. The younger 
brothers have been fairly educated, and they are now manag- 
ing their own estates. 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 193 

The jagir and private property of the Nawab in the 
Karnal district were divided by a quasi-official proceeding 
in 1884. The same partition dealt with the property held 
by him in proprietary right in the districts of Muzafarna- 
gar and Mirut, as well as sundry rights in lands and houses 
in Dehli. The income of the three brothers is understood to 
stand at date as follows : — 

Nawab Azmat Ali Khan — 

Jagir in Karnal . , . . Rs. 

Jagir in the North-Western Provinces ,, 

Proprietary rights in land . . ,, 

Rent from houses . . • • >, 

Rustam Ali Khan and Umar Daraz Ali — 

Jagir in Karnal . . . . Rs. 

Jagir in the North-Western Provinces „ 

Proprietary rights in land . . „ 

Rent from houses . . • • ». 

Nawab Azmat Ali Khan is a Viceregal Darbari, ranking 
sixth on the Dehli Divisional List. 



6,110 


per annum. 


3,087 


,, 


17,590 


M 


4,371 


»» 


12,128 


per annum. 


6,174 


»> 


35,132 


11 


8,629 


,, 



The representative of Mahomed Ishak is Shamsher Ali 
Khan, born in 1839. His jagir holdings under the recent 
assessments yield Rs. 6,307 per annum, and are spread over 
thirteen villages of the Karnal Tahsil. He is also owner of 
two entire villages and of portions of eight others. He was 
elected Chairman of the Local Board of Karnal in 1885 ; and 
was nominated President of the Municipal Committee in 1884. 
To the latter office he was re-elected in 1889. He has on 
different occasions received official acknowledgment of ser- 
vices rendered in matters of local improvement, such as 
vaccination and education, and he was recently invested with 
a khilat in general recognition of his services at a Darbar held 
by His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab at 



194 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Dehll in 1888. His name is on the list of Provincial Dar- 
baries. Fatah Mahomed Khan, son of Mahar Ilahi Khan, 
also is a Provincial Darbari. His jagir share in twelve villages 
is valued at Rs, 2,385 annually, and he has ownership rights 
in two villages of the Karnal Tahsil. He is understood to be 
gradually clearing the estate of the heavy load of debt with 
which his father burdened it. His uncle Karm Ilahi Khan is 
also a Provincial Darbari. He holds a jagir of value equiva- 
lent to that of Fatah Mahomed Khan, and, like him, is 
weighted with heavy debts. 

Azam Ali Khan succeeded his father Ghulam Rasul in 
1880, and enjoys a jagir of Rs. 9,106 spread over seventeen 
villages. He is reported to have no proprietary holdings. 
The deceased Ghulam Rasul left heavy encumbrances 
on his estate, the bulk of which were notoriously based on 
very inadequate consideration. Azum Ali Khan contested his 
liability for these debts, and after litigation which has lasted 
since 18S1, a decision was given by the Chief Court of 
the Panjab in the plaintiff's favour. His son Zafar Hasan 
Khan is now studying in the Aitchison College, Lahore. 

The Chief Court decision in the case brought by Azam 
Ali to contest his liability for his father's debts is one of the 
deepest importance for the whole Mandal family ; and it has 
now been definitely settled : — 

I. — That the Mandal grant is essentially a jagir, and that 
the term istamrar refers only to certain special 
incidents, notably the continuing character of the 
assignment and the condition of a fixed amount, 
by way of fee or quit-rent, payable to the State 
by the assignee. 

H. — That each descendant of the original grantees on 
succeeding to a share takes a fresh estate through, 
but not from, the preceding holder ; in other 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 195 

words, that each fresh sharer takes from the 
Crown and not from his immediate predecessor 
in the jagir. 

III. — That the power of sharers to deal with their 
holdings beyond the term of their proper lives 
depends strictly on the terms of the Sanads of 
1806, and not on those of any regulations which 
may have been in force in the Karnal pargana 
in the year in question. 

IV. — That a sharer in the jagir is not competent to 
create a valid charge thereon so as to encumber 
the income beyond the period of his individual 
life-time. 

Sadat Ali Khan, son of Kutabudin Khan and great- 
grandson of Ghairat Ali Khan, is at the head of the third 
or youngest branch of the family. His jagir income is 
Rs. 5,485 per annum. He holds seven entire villages and 
shares in three others, all in the Karnal Tahsil, subject to 
a commutation payment of Rs. 1,250 per annum. He also 
owns portions of the villages of Goli and Waisri in Panipat. 
The proprietary rights of his father in seven villages were 
attached and sold some years back in execution proceedings, 
with the sanction of the Chief Court. These were acquired 
partly by a certain banker of the town of Karnal and in part 
by the late Nawab Mahomed Ali Khan of Kunjpura. 

Sadat All's branch of the family also holds a feudal 
grant from the Patiala State, in the original Samana tract, 
valued at Rs. 6,000 per annum. A suit in regard to this 
property was brought in the Patiala Courts in 1864 by 
Najabat Ali against the late Kutabudin. He sued to have 
the defendant restrained from mortgaging his share on the 
ground of injury to his, plaintiffs, co-parcenary interests. 
The decision was adverse to Najabat Ali Khan. 



196 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

During 1857 Kutabudin Khan was prompt in complying 
with the requisitions of the Civil authorities at Karnal and 
Panipat for supplies and carriage, and he furnished sowars 
for patrolling duty on the Trunk Road near Larsauli, and in 
other ways proved actively loyal. Ten of his sowars were 
employed under Government until April 1858. 

In 1868 Sadat Ali Khan accepted the post of Excise 
moharir of the Larsauli Tahsil. He also served as a judi- 
cial moharir, but he resigned in 1870, and was subsequently 
accepted as a candidate for the post of Naib-Tahsildan He 
was recommended later on for a Tahsildarship, but he ap- 
pears to have failed to pass the prescribed examination, and 
he has not therefore re-entered the public service up to the 
present. He has made his abode at Dehli, and rarely visits 
his home in Karnal. Sadat Ali's name is on the Dehli Divi- 
sional List of Viceregal Darbaris. 

The remaining grandsons of Ghairat Ali Khan are 
Najabat Ali Khan, Kamarudin Khan, and Akbar Khan, all 
resident at Karnal, and all Provincial Darbaris. They are 
reported to be hopelessly involved in debt, and to have sunk 
into comparative obscurity. Their shares in the family jagir 
are Rs. 4,815, Rs. 3,233 and Rs. 3,898 respectively. 



THE KARNAL DISTRCT. 
SARDAR UJAL SINGH OF DHANAUR. 



197 



Hazuri Singh. 



Dharam Singh. 

Sardar Sahib Singh, 
d. 1846. 

I 



Sardar Natha Singh, 
d. 1869. 



I 
Lakha Singh. 



Rai Singh, 
d. 1839. 

Sardar Aniar Singh, 
d. 1887. 

I 



I I 

Sardar Chabil 

Dava Singh, 

Singh, b, 1840. 

d. 1878. 



I 

Ranjit 

Singh, 

b. 1845. 



Sundar 
Singh, 



Man Singh, 
b. 1S79. 



I 

Sher 

Singh, 

b. 1S77. 



Khazan 

Singh, 
b. 188?. 



I I I 

Bhagat Singh, Bhagwan Singh, Jawala Siugh, 

b. 1866. b. 1871. b. 1873. 



i I 

Sardar Ujal Mit Singh, 

Singh, b. 1861. 

b. 1858. I 

Atar Singh, 1 



Gurdit Singh, 
b. 1863. 



Dhaja Singh, 
b. 1885. 



Gajindar Singh, 
b. 1887. 



Sardar Ujal Singh is at the head of the Dhanaura family 
in succession to his father Dava Singh, whose two younger 
brothers, Chabil Singh and Ranjit Singh, are joint sharers 
with Ujal Singh in the family estates. Their ancestor Hazuri 
Singh, an Upal Khatri of the Karora Singhia Misal, lived 
at Panjgarh in Amritsar, and was one of the first of the Manjha 
people to adopt Sikhism. His son Sada Singh came south 
and took military service under Raja Amar Singh of Patiala 
in 1770, receiving as his reward a quarter share in forty-eight 
villages in the neighbourhood of Dhanaura. He afterwards 
conquered seven villages on his own account, and established 



198 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

his head-quarters at Dhanaura. He was succeeded by his 
nephew Sahib Singh. On his death in 1846 there was a dis- 
pute amongst his three sons regarding the succession ; and 
the estate was divided equally under Government orders 
passed in 1848, The family behaved loyally in the Sikh 
wars and again in the Mutiny. Sardars Natha Singh and 
Amar Singh placed themselves, in 1857, under the orders of 
the Deputy Commissioner, with a body of horse of their own 
raising, and in reward one-half of their commutation charge 
was remitted for ever. 

Shortly after Sardar Dava Singh's death, in 1878, his 
brothers Chabil Singh and Ranjit Singh applied for a partition 
of the shares of the estate. This was opposed by Sardar Ujal 
Singh, who claimed the whole for himself, based upon an 
alleged custom in the family, under which younger brothers 
were only entitled to maintenance. The matter was fought 
out in all the Courts, and a decision was ultimately pro- 
nounced in favour of the younger brothers. 

Ujal Singh holds the title of Sardar in hereditary right 
as a conquest jagirdar. His name is on the Viceregal Darbar 
List, and he has the privilege of being exempted from personal 
attendance in our Civil Courts. He has recently been accept- 
ed as a candidate for a Naib-Tahsildarship. His son Atar 
Singh holds a scholarship at the Aitchison College. The 
family are in very straitened circumstances. 

His cousin the late Sardar Amar Singh, Chief of the 
Labkari family, died in 1887, leaving his affairs in an embar- 
rassed condition. Amar Singh's eldest son Sundar Singh died 
in the year following, leaving an infant son, Man Singh, whose 
estate has been taken under the management of the District 
Court of Wards. Sodhi Gajindar Singh of Anandpur, a rela- 
tive on the female side, has been appointed guardian of the 
minor Sardar, who is a Viceregal Darbari. The Dhanaura 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 199 

property is shared amongst the relatives as follows : — Sardar 
Ujal Singh and his two brothers, one-third ; Chabil Singh 
and Ranjit Singh, each one-third. The joint family estate 
consists of five entire villages and two-thirds of Dhanaura. 
The remaining one-third of Dhanaura, with Labkari and two 
other villages, belong to the children of Sardar Amar Singh, 
the value of whose jagir under the recent assessment is Rs. 
2,985 per annum. For services rendered in 1857 the Sardar 
and his uncle Natha Singh were awarded the remission of 
their commutation tax at Rs. 925 for one year, and the charge 
was permanently reduced by one-half. 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
SARDAR RAM SINGH OF SHAMGARH. 

Karpal Singh, d. 1830. 
I 

I ! I 

Dava Singh, Jai Singh. Fatah Singh. 

d. 1849. ^ I 

I Sham Singh, 

I I d. 1884. 

Kahan Singh, Sardar Ram Singh, | 

d. 1866. d. 1834. Sampuran Singh. 



II II Jasa Singh, 

Kirpa Singh, Bhag Singh, Giubakhsh Singh, Gurdit Singh, d. 1884. 

d. 1869. d. 1870. d. 1869. i>. 1857. 



I I 

Gurbakhsh Singh, Gursaran Singh, 

^. 1877. 6. 1882, 

The ancestor of the family, Sardar Karpal Singh, came 
from the neighbourhood of Batinda in 1770, and received the 
village of Shamgarh from Sahib Singh, Sardar of Ladwa, 
who had married his sister. Rejoined Sahib Singh in most 
of his expeditions, and received a share of whatever plunder 
was taken. His daughter Bhag Bhari married Kanwar Partab 
Singh of Jind, who gave her the village of Asand Taiwan in 
dowry. Karpal Singh was on the occasion presented with 
five villages in the Jind district of Safidon ; but these were 
afterwards resumed by Raja Sarup Singh. He died in 1830, 
leaving two sons, Dava Singh and Fatah Singh. 

His daughter married Shahzada Shibdeo Singh, son of 
the late Maharaja Sher Singh of Lahore, residing in Bareily. 
The latter received the villages of Saga, Kurak and Jatpura ; 
and his descendant Sampuran Singh is the present jagirdar of 
Saga. The rest of the Shamgarh estate passed to Sardar 
Ram Singh, only surviving son of Dava Singh, and now at the 
head of the Shamgarh family. His estates consist of six 
entire villages and two-fifths of mauza Taraori, yielding an 
income of Rs. 3,450, subject to a commutation charge of 
Rs. 426 in lieu of service. He is a Viceregal Darbari. He 
and his brother Kahan Singh did good service in the Mutiny, 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 2or 

and were allowed a remission of the commutation for one year. 
Gurdit Singh, son of Sardar Ram Singh, is a candidate for 
employment as a Naib-Tahsildar. The Shamgarh Sardar 
is connected by marriage with the Raja of Nabha, the 
Sardar of Lidhran, and the jagirdars of Mustafabad in the 
Ambala district. Although the present means of the family 
are not large, the Sardar enjoys considerable local influence. 
He is a member of the District Board, and takes an interest 
in all matters of local improvement. The village of Bhaini 
Khurd is held by Sardar Kahan Singh's widow, a lady of high 
repute in Sikh circles as an enthusiastic supporter of the tradi- 
tions of the Khalsa. 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 
NAWAB FAZAL AHMAD KHAN OF PANIPAT. 



Abdul Razak. 

I 



A\ 


1 
dula 


i 
Shukan 


la 


Nawab 


1 
Lutfula. 


1 
Sarafraz. 


K 


han. 


Khan 




Shamsudaula 

Khan. 

1 









Inayat Khan. Mahomed Shakar 
I Fakar Khan. Khan. 



Hidayatula Mahomed JamiUidin. 
Khan. Nabirudin. 



Mahomed 
Ibrahim. 



Hidayatula 
Khan. 



Izatula Khan, 
d. i8o2. 



Nasir AH 
Khan. 



Ali Kaza 

Khan 

(descendants living 

at Patna). 



Nav 



1 
al) Rakar 
Khan, 



Ali 



Navvah jafar Ali 
Khan. 



II II 

Latfula Shakarula Ahsanula Nawab 
Khan II. Khan. Khan Amanida Khan, 

I d. 1889. 

Ibrahim Khan I 

(Patna). 



Nawab 
Pal)hu 
(I'alna). 



Mehdi Ali 
Khan. 



Tofazal Hasain. 



I 
Wali Ahmad 
Khan 
(at Patna). 



I 

Ali 
Ahmad 
Khan. 



I 

Nasir Ahmad 

Khan. 



Have alienated 

their ancestral 

share. 



I 

Nawab Fazal 

Ahmad 

Khan, 

b. 1S44. 



Nazir 
Ahmad 
Khan. 



Nasir Ahmad 
Khan. 



Fakir Ahmad 
Khan. 



Shakar Ahmad 
Khan. 



The Nawab Fazal Ahmad Khan of Panipat succeeded 
his father Amanula Khan in 1889. This latter gentleman, 
who died at the age of eighty- one years, was one of the 
leading Mahomedans in the Karnal district, and was widely 
known and respected. He had acted for many years as an 
Honorary Magistrate and member of the local Municipal 
Committee. He was forward on all occasions in offers of 
assistance to the district authorities, and during the Mutiny he 
was actively loyal, helping to the best of his ability in pre- 
serving order in his native town and in furnishing supplies 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 203 

for the troops before Dehli. He was the recognized head of 
the Panipat Ansaris, or Helpers of the Prophet, who trace 
their descent from Khwaja Abdula Pirof Hirat, one of whose 
children, Khwaja Malak AH, in the reign of Sultan Alaudin 
Musud, o^randson of Shamshudin Altamash, mio^rated to Dehli, 
and finally fixed his abode at Panipat. The family is undoubtedly 
of great respectability, being one of the very few in the Pro- 
vince able to prove beyond dispute that the highest offices in 
the old Mahomedan Empire were held by their ancestors for 
several generations. Khwaja Nasir, son of Malak Ali, ob- 
tained the hand of Faradausa, only daughter of Jalaludin, head 
of the locally celebrated family of Makhdumzadas, with whom 
the Ansaris still intermarry ; and with her he secured a 
portion of the Panipat lands ever since owned by the family. 
Twelve generations after Khwaja Nasir we find Abdul Razak 
holding a high military command under Shah Alamgir. One 
of his sons, Muayanudaula Dalerdil Khan, was for some years 
Viceroy of the Kabul Provinces ; another son, Zakaria, was 
Governor of Lahore at the time of Nadar Shah's invasion ; 
and a third, Lutfula, held at different times the offices of tutor 
to Azim Shah, Warder of the Fort of Dehli, and Diwan to 
three successive Emperors. Mahomed Shah appointed him 
a Shash Hazari with the title of Shamsudaula, and he be- 
came Subadar of Multan, eventually succeeding his brother as 
Governor in Kabul. He spent considerable sums in the 
embellishment of his native town of Panipat, building the 
Lahore Gate and several mosques which are still in existence. 

Shakarula, fourth son of Abdul Razak, was Governor of 
Malwa during the reign of Bahadar Shah, with the rank of 
Shash Hazari and a salary of two and half lakhs per annum. 
Inayat Khan, son of Lutfula, was a Bakhshi and Naib Khan- 
saman under Mahomed Shah. He enjoyed the title of 
Rasikhul Itikad, and with it a salary of Rs. 84,000 per 
annum. His son Izat Khan drew the same pay as in 



204 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

charge of the elephant establishments, and ultimately retired 
from public life in order to look after his jagir estates in 
Shahjahanabad and Banares. These were seized later on by 
Alawardi Khan who, however, afterwards released one 
hundred villages in his favour in the Bahar Province. Izat 
Khan died at Patna in 1802, thirty-seven years after the 
authority had passed into the hands of the English Company, 
and was succeeded by his third son Nawab Bakar Ali Khan, 
who returned to the parent home at Panipat and distinguished 
himself by loyally assisting the British when Dehli and the 
surrounding territory was first brought under our Rule. He 
was followed in 1837 by the late Nawab Amanula Khan, of 
whom mention has already been made. 

The present incumbent, Fazal Ahmad Khan, has been 
favourably known to the authorities for many years past, 
having acted for his father who, by reason of chronic illness, 
was personally unable to occupy the position his rank and 
reputation had secured him. The Nawab is President of 
the Panipat Municipal Committee and member of the Local 
and District Boards. He also actively interests himself in 
several local charities, including the Islamia Free School, 
with which he is unofficially associated. He owns a large 
zamindari property at Mor Manorat, and he enjoys estates, 
revenue-free, in Mor Gobardhan and Bakhtiarpur, all in the 
Patna district. He has also istamrari rights in lands in 
the Panipat and Sonepat Tahsils. 

There are numerous branches of the Ansari Shekhs 
settled at Panipat in the present day. Many of the family 
are in service, especially in the States of Central and Southern 
India. But the minute sub-division of their holdings under 
the Mahomedan law of inheritance and the disputes 
constantly arising in connection with the rights of the purdah 
ladies, have brought most of the members down to a common 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 205 

level of genteel poverty, threatening a serious struggle for 
existence in the near future. The Ansaris settled at 
Patna are reported to be little better off than their cousins in 
the Panjab, though some of them have accepted employ- 
ment under the British Government. Tafazal Hasain of 
Patna was for some years a Munsif in Bengal. Nasir Ahmad 
Khan, son of the second Lutfula Khan, was Tahsildar in the 
Panjab. 

Fazal Ahmad Khan will no doubt succeed to his father's 
title and to his position on the list of Imperial Darbaris in 
the Province. The family intermarry only with the Pirzadas 
or Makhdumzadas of Panipat and the Sayads of Barsat and 
Sonepat. 



2o6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR TILOK SINGH OF SIKRI. 

Bhag Singh, d. 1807. 



1 I 

Bhup Singh. Mahtab Singh. 



d. 1837. 



Lahna Singh, d. 1S69, Charat Singh. 

Jawala Singh, 
d. 18S2. 
I 
Sardar Tilok Singh. 
b. 1867. 
I 
Balwant Singh, /;. 1884. 



Sardar Tilok Singh's ancestor Bhag Singh, Sukarchakia, 
left his home in Bhara, Amritsar, to join the standard of 
Dhara Rao, a Mahrata adventurer, who towards the close of 
the last century had gathered around him some of the best 
blood of the Manjha, and dominated the country between 
Dehli and Patiala. It was this Dhara Rao who sold 
his services to the celebrated Diwan Nanu Mai of Patiala, 
and who, in concert with Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind, was the 
means of restoring the exiled Diwan, and with him his 
young master, the Raja Sahib Singh, to power in Patiala, 
Dhara Rao rewarded Bhag Singh's services with the grant of 
the Sikri Ilaka, consisting of six villages, taken from Sardar 
Bhanga Singh of Thanesar. Bhag Singh afterwards acted 
as agent for the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs at Agra. He rendered 
himself useful to the British officials in the early days, and the 
revenues of three villages in the Dehli pargana were assign- 
ed him on a life-tenure in acknowledgment of his services. 
On his death, in 1807, a life-pension of Rs. 1,800 per annum 
was sanctioned for this son Mahtab Singh. Sardar Lahna 
Singh was at the head of the family during the Mutiny. He 
behaved loyally^ and his services were recognized at the time. 
The present Sardar Tilok Singh is heavily in debt, and the 
matter of placing his estates in the hands of the District Court 
of Wards is under consideration. His jagir income, under 
the new assessment, is worth Rs, 3,022 per annum. 



THE KARNAL DISTRICT. 207 



SARDAR INDAR SINGH OF BARTHAL. 

Nand Singh. 

I 

I I I I 

Raja Sirgh. Bhag Singh. Ratan Singh. Charan Singh. 

I 

Nirbhan Singh. 

I 

Ishar Singh. 

I 

Chatar Singh, 

d. 1884. 

I 

Indar Singh, 

I'- 1875. 

The ancestors of the Barthal Sardar were Sekhon Jats, 
who came independently with the Dalawalias from the Panjab 
towards the end of the eighteenth century and fell shortly 
afterwards under the supremacy of the Ladwa Chiefs. 

Sardar Chatar Singh was the first of the family to whom 
was accorded the honor of a seat in provincial Darbars. He 
died in 1884, leaving his affairs in an embarrassed condition. 
His only son Indar Singh has been taken under the protec- 
tion of the Court of Wards, and an economical scheme of 
management has been sanctioned with the object of freeing 
the estate from encumbrances. 

The Sardar holds the entire villages of Barthal, Dheru, 
Mazra and Nilo Kheri, yielding Rs. 1,750 per annum, reve- 
nue-free. To this may be added an estimated annual income 
of Rs. 200 from rents of land held in proprietary title. The 
house property is of little value, consisting chiefly of a decayed 
fort and keep in the village of Barthal. 



2o8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 

Mr. A. Kensington, late Settlement Officer, has pre- 
pared the note which follows, sketching the present posi- 
tion of the leading families in Ambala : — 

The first essential feature to be grasped is that by its geographical 
position the present Ambala district was long destined to feel the effects of 
ever}' important campaign in Northern India. Hemmed in on one side by 
the hills and on the other by the great jungle tracts bordering on the Raj- 
putana desert, Ambala was the central spot through or near which every 
horde of invaders was bound to pass on the way to the battle-ground of 
India at Panipat, with Dehli as its ultimate goal. This main fact is still re- 
flected in the character of the village population. Placed in the direct track 
of successive invasions, they appear to have been ground down till they lost 
all power of resistance to difficulty, and the inherited attitude of submission 
to the inevitable has left effects which can be still traced even under the al- 
tered conditions of British rule. It is necessary to realise this to understand 
how the district fell, almost without a blow, into the hands of the Cis-Satlaj 
Sikhs in 1763. 

The first direct experience of the Sikhs was in the time of Guru Tegh 
Bahadar, who roamed the country from Hansi to the Satlaj, and subsisted by 
plunder from 1664 to 1673. Under his successor Guru Gobind Singh a 
chain of forts was established at Anandpur in the Hushiarpur district, a few 
miles north of the Satlaj, at Chamkor in the Rupar Tahsil, and at Nahan in 
the hills, commanding the whole eastern portion of Ambala. For the first 
half of the eighteenth century there was no recognised leader of the Sikhs, who 
were, however, engaged in frequent struggles with the Dehli Empire, and were 
rapidly forming into great confederacies or misls. The storm burst at last in 
1763. The Sikhs of the Manjha country of Lahore, Amritsar and Firozpur 
combined their forces at Sarhand, routed and killed the Afghan Governor 
Zain Khan, and pouring across the Satlaj, occupied the whole country to the 
Jamna without further opposition. "Tradition still describes how the Sikhs 
dispersed as soon as the battle was won, and how, riding day and night, 
each horseman would throw his belt and scabbard, his articles of dress and 
accoutrement, until he was almost naked, into successive villages, to mark 
them as his."* It is unnecessary to enter into a detail of the partition of the 
Doab among the different confederacies. It is enough to say that, with few 
exceptions, the leading families of to-day are the direct descendants of the 
conquerors of 1763, an aristocracy with no tradition but that of plunder, with 
no claims to respect as the scions of an ancient line, aliens and foreigners 
still, and with no sympathy for the people whose revenues are now 
guaranteed to them in perpetuity. 

The history of the next forty years is made up of the endless petty 
warfare of these independent Sikh Chiefs among themselves, except when a 

!♦ Cunningham's History cf the SiMs. 



THE AM BALA DISTRICT. 209 

common dnnser banded them to resist the encroachments of the more power- 
ful States of Patiala and Manimajra on the north, and Ladvva, Kaithal and 
Thanesar on the south. Each separate family, and each group of feuda- 
tories strong enough to stand alone, built itself a strong fort as a centre from 
which it could harry the whole neighbourhood. Many of these are still in 
existence and a marked feature of the district, recalling the extraordinary 
lawlessness of a period when literally every man's hand was turned against 
his brother. No attention was paid to the country by the British Govern- 
ment which had fixed the Jamna as the furthest limit for political enterprise, 
and it is believed that the profoundest ignorance prevailed both as to the 
constitution, the rights and the political strength of the supposed rulers. 
From 1806 to 1808 the position rapidly changed. On the one hand, the Cis- 
Satlaj Chiefs themselves were panic-struck at the sudden danger threatened 
to them by the rise of Ranjit Singh's power from beyond the Satlaj. In the 
three successive years 1806 to 1811 raids were made by Ranjit Singh in per- 
son to Ludhiana, to Naraingarh and to Ambala. It w-as openly announced 
by him that he intended swallowing up the whole country to the Jamna, and 
it was realised that one Power and one only could prevent his immediate 
success. On the other hand, the British Government feared a new danger 
from the north by a combined invasion of the French, the Turks and the 
Persians, and it was hastily decided to give up the Jamna as the boundar}', 
and to trust to the new principle of alliance with a strong buffer State at 
Lahore. At the same time it was recognised that Ranjit Singh was himself 
a source of danger not to be despised, and, with the Government in this 
mood in 1808, an impulse was easily given to the policy of active inter- 
ference by the arrival at Dehli of a deputation represented by Jind, Patiala 
and Kaithal, to invoke assistance for the Cis-Satlaj States. Some help had 
been given to the British by Jind, Kaithal and Thanesar in the struggle 
with the Mahratas five years before. It was apparently assumed that the 
whole territory to the Satlaj was parcelled out among a few leading States of 
the same character through whom the country could be strongl}^ governed, 
and the efforts of the authorities were aimed at the two-fold object of, on the 
one hand, securing an effective alliance with Ranjit Singh, and on the other, 
extending British protection to these lesser States ranging from the Jamna to 
the Satlaj. 

The overtures were eventually successful, and a definite treaty was 
madevv'ith Ranjit Singh en the 25th April, 1809, by which he surrendered 
his new acquisitions south of the Satlaj, and bound himself to abstain from 
further encroachments on the left bank of that river. The treaty was follow- 
ed up in May, 1809, by the celebrated proclamation of Colonel Ochterlony, 
on behalf of the British Government, to the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs. This procla- 
mation, beginning with the quaint wording that it was " clearer than the sun 
and better proved than the existence of yesterday " that the British action was 
prompted by the Chiefs themselves, is given in full in Cunniiighain's History, 
It may be referred to by any one interested in studying the main charter by 
which the leading families of Ambala still hold their rights. It includes seven 
short articles only, of which Nos. i to 5 are important; Nos. i to 3 limit 
Ranjit Singh's power and declare the Cis-Satlaj Chiefs sole owners of their 
possessions free of money tribute to the British ; while Nos. 4 and 5 require 
them in return on their side to furnish supplies for the army, and to assist the 
British by arms against enemies from any quarter as occasion might here- 
after arise. I'he whole document is, however, so short and so full of interest 
as the foundation of future difficulties that it will well repay perusal by 



210 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

any one wishing to understand what, read in the light of subsequent events, 
appears to have been ahiiost unaccountable blindness in the agents of the 
Government of the day. 

It is indeed impossible to read the history of these transactions with- 
out seeing that the Government were in reality taking a most important 
step almost in the dark. Instead of finding the Ambala territory under the 
control of a few central States, they soon realised that they had given it over 
for ever to hordes of adventurers with no powers of cohesion, who aimed 
only at mutual aggression, and whose sole idea of Government was to grind 
down the people of the country to the utmost limit of oppression. The first 
point was easily settled by a sharp reminder given in a supplementary 
proclamation of 1811, that every man would have to be content with what 
he held in 1809, and that the British Government would tolerate no fighting 
among themselves. The golden opportunity for securing the welfare of the 
district was, however, gone, and the pledges hastily given in 1809 were soon 
found to be a constant source of difficulty and misrule, which have continued, 
with more or less gravity, almost to the present day. It was found that as 
a fact the so-called Cis-Satlaj Sovereign States were represented, as far as 
Ambala was concerned, by some thirty petty rulers with estates ranging from 
twenty to over one hundred villages, and by a host of small fraternities com- 
prising many hundreds of the rank and file among the followers of the original 
conquerors, who had been quartered over the country with separate villages 
for their maintenance, and who were all alike now vested with authority as 
independent rulers by the vague terms of the proclamation of i8og. Publish- 
ed works have nowhere very clearly recognised how sorely the Government 
repented of its mistake; but there seems no doubt as to the facts; and it is 
not to be wondered at that Sir David Ochterlony should have privately ad- 
mitted to the Governor-General in 1818 that the proclamation of 1809 had 
been based on an erroneous idea.* 

From 1809 to 1847, persistent efforts were made to enforce good 
government through the Political Agency at Ambala among the endless semi- 
independent States. The records of the time bear witness to the hopeless 
nature of the undertaking. They teem with references to the difficult en- 
quiries necessitated by the frequent disputes among the principalities, by 
their preposterous attempts to evade control, and by acts of extortion and 
violent crime in their dealings with the villages. Year by year Government 
was driven in self-defence to tighten the reins, and every opportunity v/as 
taken to strengthen its hold on the country by enforcing its claims to lapse 
by escheat on the death without lineal heirs of the possessors of 1809 or 
their descendants. It was thus that the British district of Ambala gradually 
grew up, each successive lapse being made the occasion for regular settle- 
ments of the village revenues and the introduction of direct British rule. 

Up to 1843 the Government had done its best to carry out strictly the 
unfortunate engagements of 1809, and till then little necessity had arisen for 
testing the gratitude of the States, and seeing how far they were prepared 
on their part to carry out their promises to furnish supplies for troops and 
military assistance when called on. In 1844 and 1845, the conditions again 
changed with the disastrous campaign in Afghanistan and the increasing 
signs of restlessness among the Sikhs of the Panjab. In the words of Sir 
Lepel Griffin " The Cis-Satlaj Chiefs had abundant leisure to observe the 

* Cunningham, page 152 and note. 



THE AM BALA DISTRICT. 211 

signs of the times. * * * Seeing that their resources in money 
and supplies were required for the English armies, they began to think 
that they were necessary to the existence of the British power, not that 
it was essential to their own. All fear of the Lahore monarchy was nowover ; 
there was no longer a strong and sagacious ruler like Ranjit Singh, who 
made British protection sound pleasantly in the ears of neighbouring Princes ; 
and this protection now seemed little more than a restraint, without which 
each Chief fancied that he himself might play the part which, under similar 
circumstances, the Raja of Lahore had played with so much brilliancy and 
success." * The result was, that when called on to help in the First Sikh War 
the States were for the most part passively obstructive, even where they did 
not venture to show open hostility. " Their prosperity had been so great, 
the benefits which British protection had conferred on them were so undeni- 
able, and ingratitude for benefits conferred is so certain, that it is no matter 
for surprise when at the first opportunity certain Chiefs turned against the 
power which had befriended them, and openly or secretly joined the ranks of 
its enemies." The more serious offenders were visited with signal punish- 
ment. Their possessions were confiscated to Government, and in some cases 
they were themselves removed as prisoners from the Province. One hundred 
and seventeen villages were in this way added to the British district in Pipli 
by confiscation from the Raja of Ladwa ; one hundred and six in Rupar and 
Kharar from the Sardar of Rupar ; seventy-two in the same Tahsils from the 
Sodhis of Anandpur; and eighty-nine in Naraingarh from the Raja of Kapur- 
thala. As regards minor Chiefs, less severe measures were considered suffi- 
cient, though the majority "had not shown their loyalty in 1845 in any more 
conspicuous way than in not joining the enemy. Gratitude they did not un- 
derstand, and to show them any special consideration at the close of the cam- 
paign was unnecessary. Several most important measures were then adopted 
by the Government. The first was the abolition of all police jurisdiction in 
most of the States ; for the existing system was so favorable to crime that, in 
the midst of half a hundred conflicting authorities, the capture of a criminal 
was well nigh impossible. The second measure was the abolition of transit 
and custom duties, which were as injurious to trade as the police system was 
fatal to justice ; and the last was to accept a commutation for the personal 
service of the Chief and his contingent." 

These changes were not made before they were forced upon the 
Government by open disaffection or neglect on the part of the Chiefs to obey 
orders which they were lawfully bound to fulfil. It was, however, soon found 
impossible to go so far without still further important steps. Hitherto the 
Chiefs had levied revenue from their allotted villages in kind ; an arrange- 
ment which left them free to rack-rent the land without any sort of restriction 
other than that imposed by the necessity for keeping the villagers from ac- 
tually flying the country. The regular settlement of the British portions of 
the district began in 1847 ; and it was soon strongly urged by the district 
officials that the opportunity should be taken of once for all removing the 
grievances of the villagers by extending the benefits of a fixed money demand 
to the villages still subject to the remaining States. The proposal was vehe- 
mently resisted by the Chiefs themselves, and for some years they managed 
to delay the decisive step ; but eventually they were brought to see that their 
own interests were concerned as well as those of the people, for the very 

* Faiijat Kajas, pages 183, 184, 189, igo. 



2tt CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

significant reason that they found themselves unable to collect their revenue 
when once their police jurisdiction was gone. Partly for this reason but 
still more because the existing dual system of cash revenues in British vil- 
lages, side by side with collections in kind under the Chiefs, was rapidly prov- 
ing itself intolerable. The Government at last, in 1852, consented to finally 
break the power of the Chiefs by enforcing the revenue settlement through- 
out the district, and reducing the so-called Chiefs to the position of jagirdars. 
" With this decision of the British Government fell, for ever, the power of 
the petty Cis-Satlaj Chiefs, who had too long been permitted to play at in- 
dependence, which for them had no nobler significance than the right to do 
evil without restraint, and to oppress the people who were so unfortunate as 
to be their subjects." * 

This practically ends the history of the leading families. Their 
position as jagirdars has been defined and recorded with the greatest care. 
Pedigrees have been drawn out both for the leading Sardars and for the 
minor fraternities, whose descendants were even then counted by the thou- 
sand, tracing the descent in each case from the common ancestor of the 
year 1809, or subsequent year of status fixed as the basis for collateral suc- 
cession under the var^ang conditions of diflerent jagirs. The year 1809 has 
been recognised as the status for each of the leading Sardars, and even when 
the line becomes extinct, the jagir does not lapse in their case without a spe- 
cial enquiry and the orders of Government. There have been two im- 
portant escheats in the last thirty years. The Sialba family of Tahsil Kharar 
died out in 1866, and fifty-nine villages, with a revenue ofRs, 26,000, passed to 
the Government ;andin 1875 in thesame Tahsil a like fate befell the Manimajra 
jagir, the largest in the district, covering sixty-nine villages, with a revenue of 
Rs. 39,100. Reference to the pedigree tables given for the various families will 
show that many of the leading houses are represented by not more than one 
or two members, and it is not unlikely that further lapses will occur in the 
near future. Nor is this to be altogether regretted, even with every sympa- 
thy for the representatives of former power. With the exception of the 
Mir of Kotaha, the Baidwan Sardars of Sohana and Manimajra, the Rajputs 
of Ramgarh and Rai[tur, and the minor Pathan family of Kotla Nihang in 
Rupar, the whole of the existing larger jagirdars, and an immense majority 
of the lesser shareholders known as the patidari jagirdars, are still foreigners 
in the land as much as in the days of their ancestors, the invaders of 1763. 
They have not in any way identified themselves with the people of the dis- 
trict. They still lookback on the Manjha as their real home, and if they 
notice the Ambala people at all, it is usually to recall the days when they 
had full license to oppress them, and to show too plainly vvhat line they 
would take if those days should ever return. The one privilege they have 
hitherto retained as the symbol of their former independence is the right of 
collecting their revenue direct from the villages of their jagirs, and even this 
they have frequently abused so grossly that it is not certain whether it will 
be possible to retain the right for many years to come. 

The general picture presented by this short sketch is not a pleasant one; 
but it is better to state the facts than to give the leading families a fictitious 
importance by dwelling on their large revenues, and the proud position 
which they are commonly said to hold. The condition of things is almost 
unique in the Panjab. In addition to the thirty-three leading families with 

* Panjab Rajas, page 199. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 213 

jagir revenues alone of some Rs. 2,60,000, there are over five thousand lesser 
patidarijagirdarsdividing over three lakhs a year. It is hardly too much to 
say that these men have no aims beyond living on their jagir where it is large 
enough, and starving on it where increasing numbers in the family have 
reduced each share to a miserable pittance. As a rule, they own no land and 
look down on a life of agriculture. The best of them are those who have 
returned to their native land and taken to regular employment. Those who 
remain for the most part eithercannnt or will not enter the service of Govern- 
ment, and their greatest pleasure lies in stirring up useless dissensions among 
the zamindars. A few of the heads of the larger houses have been made 
Honorary Magistrates ; but with some honorable exceptions, the powers are 
chiefly valued as a means of gratifying private enmities. '^^One man, and it is 
believed one onl}', among the chief Sardars, has had the enterprise to send 
his son into the army — this notable exception being in the case of S. Partab 
Singh of Mainpur — whose son Shamsher Singh holds a commission as jama- 
dar in the 5th Bombay Cavalry. It it difficult to imagine any more striking 
illustration of the useless lives led by these men as a class, notwithstanding 
that Government has done all that can be done to strengthen them in the 
position they are meant to hold as the heads of the people. Service in the 
army is, above all others, the profession for which they should be qualified, 
alike by their traditions in the past and their ample revenues in the present; 
and yet it is only possible to indicate one solitary instance in which advantage 
has been taken of this ready opening for the families of leading men. For 
the rest perhaps the less said the better. The really influential men can be 
counted almost on the fingers of one hand, and family after family is chiefly 
noticeable for the frequency with which drink and debauchery have brought 
their victims to an early grave. In not a few cases it is an open secret that 
vicious lives have led to a failure of lawfully begotten heirs, and that extinc- 
tion of the house, with the consequent lapse of the jagir to Government, have 
only been avoided through the extreme difficulty attending any investigation 
into the private affairs of the family — a difficulty which makes it almost impos- 
sible to ascertain the truth even where the facts obtain an open notoriety. It 
is, however, not altogether fair to trace the degeneration of character among^ 
these Cis-Satlaj Sikhs to defects in the men themselves. The position secured 
to them, almost without effort on their part, has left them in the possession of 
abundant means without the necessity for exertion to sustain their place as 
rulers in the land, and they have naturally sunk under the strong temptations 
of a life of idleness and comparative luxury. The lesson to be learnt from 
their history appears to be that no good result can follow from the creation 
of an artificial aristocracy, and the state of things in the Ambala district 
makes it easy to understand the bitterness of the discussion when a similar 
question aftecting the true Panjab came for decision before the Board of 
Administration in the early days of annexation. It may perhaps be 
added that, viewed in the experience of Ambala, there is much cause 
for congratulation that the sterner policy of John Lawrence caused that 
question to be finally decided in the Panjab on lines which effectually pre- 
vented the repetition of Ambala difficulties elsewhere. 

It only remains to add that the question of commutation for mili- 
tary service has remained settled on the lines of the orders of 1846. The 
general rule is that two annas are paid to Government for each rupee of jagir 
revenue. This was the rule governing all the leadmg families and the great 
majority of the patidari jagirdars, including all those who were recognised as 
entitled to the superior status of 1809. A comparative!}^ small number of the 



214 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

patidars, chiefly in the Rupar and Naraingarh Tahsils, were given an in- 
ferior status on special grounds, and in their case the commutation paid is 
usually four annas in the rupee for the first and eight annas for succeeding 
generations. During the Mutiny many of the leading Sardars did good service 
by providing small forces as guards to the Tahsil buildings and hold 
to important posts on the lines of com.munication, and these services 
were gratefully acknowledged by a permanent reduction in their rate of com- 
mutation to one anna in the rupee. Subject to these small payments almost 
the whole of the jagirs of the district are now held in perpetuity on the sole 
condition of continuance of heirs in the direct line from the common ancestor 
of the recognised year of status. 



THE A MB ALA DISTRICT. 21:5 

SARDAR JIWAN SINGH OF BURIA. 





Nanu Singh, 
d. 1764. 






Sardar Bhag Singh, 






Sardar Sher Singh, 
(/. 1S05. 




1 

Jaimal Singh, 
d. 1S61. 


r 


Sardar Gulab Singh, 
d. 1S44. 

Sardar Jiwan Singh, 

b. 1844. 

1 




1 

Gajandar Singh, 
b. 1869 


Madan Singh, 
b. 1 888. 



The founders of the Buria Chiefship were Nanu Sing-h, 
a Jat of Jhawal Mandan, near Amritsar, and the brothers Bhag* 
Singh and Rai Singh, all Bhangi Sikhs, who, in 1764, seized 
the fort of Buria from some Narwaria Sikhs who had en- 
tered into possession a year previously. Nanu Singh was 
shortly afterwards treacherously murdered by the Afghans 
of Aurangabad, who enticed him inside their fort under pre- 
tence of showing him hospitality. His death was revenged 
by Rai Singh, the adopted son of Nanu, who, with Bhag 
Singh, defeated the Aurangabadis, levelling their fort, and 
possessing himself of about two hundred villages in the neigh- 
bourhood. These were divided between the brothers, Rai 
Singh receiving eighty-four villages in the districts of Jagadhri 
and Dayalgarh, while Bhag Singh became sole owner of the 
Buria estates, consisting of one hundred and twenty villages. 
On the death of Bhag Singh, in 1786, his son Sher Singh 
held the Chiefship. He was killed in an engagement with the 
English at Saharunpur in 1804. Then arose a long dispute 
between his widows and sons affecting the succession, which 
ended in the estate being held in equal shares by Jaimal Singh 



216 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and Gulab Singh, the widows taking certain villages in life- 
tenure by way of maintenance. Gulab Singh ultimately suc- 
ceeded to the whole estates on the death, without sons, of his 
brother Jaimal in 1816. He himself died in 1844, leaving 
an only son Jiwan Singh, the present Sardar, not then a 
year old. Buria was disfranchised with the other minor 
Cis-Satlaj Chiefships in June 1849, when, immediately after 
the Second Sikh War, their criminal, civil and fiscal juris- 
diction was annulled, and their lands came under the opera- 
tion of the law as administered in the Panjab generally. 
During both the Satlaj campaigns Sardar Jiwan Singh's 
relatives behaved with conspicuous loyalty. In the war 
of 1849, h^ furnished levies and advanced Rs. 50,000 on 
loan to the military treasury. During the Mutiny the 
young Sardar himself commanded a body of twenty horse- 
men and eighty-six footmen locally raised and maintained 
at his own charges, and held the town of Jagadhri for some 
weeks. He on this occasion also lent a considerable sum of 
money to assist the authorities in meeting the current ex- 
penses of the war. His services were rewarded by a remis- 
sion for one year of his commutation payment of Rs. 4,138, 
and by a permanent reduction of the demand to one-half. 

Sardar Jiwan Singh is an Honorary Magistrate and 
Sub-Registrar within the limits of his estates. He is one 
of the most enlightened of the Sikh Chiefs of the Ambala 
district. He was honored in 1887 by being the recipient of 
the Order of the Indian Empire, conferred in recognition 
of his loyal public services. His jagirs and mafis yield an 
income of Rs. 5,500 ; and his rents from proprietary holdings 
amount to Rs. 41,500 per annum. 

The Sardar is connected by marriage with the ruling 
family of Patiala, his sister having married Maharaja Narin- 
dar Singh, grandfather of the present Chief. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 



2TJ, 



SARDAR SHEO NARAIN OF SHAHABAD. 



HiMAT Singh. 

I 

Sardar Karam Singh, 

d. 1808. 



Ranjit Singh. 



Sher Singh. 

Kesra Singh. 
d. 1863. 



Kharak Singh, 
d. 1S31. 



Kahan Singh, 
d. 1836. 

Partab Singh, 
d. 1878. 

1 . 
Ram Naram 
Singh, 
I. 1870. 



I I 

Dharam Singh, Kishan Singh, 

d. 1879. d. 1880. 

I I 

Sheo Narain Bachatar Singh, 

SiNOH, d. 1869. 

b. 1877- 

The Shahabad Sardars are a branch of the Nishanwala 
Mlsal. Their ancestor was Lai Singh, a successful adven- 
turer from the Manja. His cousin Himat Singh pushed on 
his conquests in 1763 so as to embrace the whole of the 
Shahabad district, a large portion of which he shared with 
his followers Bhagwan Singh and Diwan Singh. He died 
in 1775, and was succeeded by his nephew Karam Singh, 
whom he had adopted. He was friendly with the Moghal 
Governors, and received from Ahmad Shah a jagir in the 
Shikarpur Taluka and the title of Sardar for services 
rendered. Most of his lands were, however, wrested from 
his sons shortly after his death. 

In 1864 the joint holdings of the cousins of Partab 
Singh, Kishan Singh and Dharam Singh, in the Ambala 
district, were assessed at Rs. 5,800 per annum, subject to 
a service commutation charge ofRs. 613. The family be- 
haved well in both the Satlaj campaigns and in the rebel- 
lion of 1857. The present representatives are Sardars Sheo 
Narain, Bachatar Singh and Ram Narain, all Viceregal 
Darbaris. 



218-^ 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



SARDAR KISHAN SINGH OF TANGAUR. 



Chuhar Singh, 

d. 1823. 

I 

I I 

Atar Singh. Chatar 

Singh, 
d. 1847. 



Ram Narain 
Singh, 
b. 1870. 



GURBAKHSH SlNGH. 

I 

Daya Singh. 



Hal Singh, 
b. 1817. 

I 



Jawahar S: 
d. 185 

i 



ngh, 



I 
Harnam 
Singh, 
d. 1844. 



Kahar Singh, Mahar SakdAR 

d. 1871. Singh, KiSHAN 

d. 1873. Singh, 



Harnam Singh 
(infant). 



I 
Sheo Narain 
Singh, 
b. 1875. 



I 

Har Narain 

•Singh, 

b. 18S9. 



I 
Sardar 
Jasmer 
Singh, 
b. 1851, 



Sirdar Kishan Singh and his brother Jasmer Singh are 
the principal men of the Tangaur branch of the Shahid Con- 
federacy. The Shahid Sikhs were so called by reason of the 
crushing defeat their fathers suffered at the hands of the Gov- 
ernor of Jalandhar, Adina Beg, in 1 743, when led by their Chief 
Dip Singh, whom they believed to be invincible. Dip Singh 
was the maJiant in charge of the Danidauia Sahib or Tem- 
ple near Talwandi, in the Sirsa district, where, in the time of 
the Emperor Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind once took refuge from 
the fury of the Mahomedans with whom he was constantly 
at feud. Dip Singh is said to have had his head severed 
from his body early in the fight ; but he nevertheless re- 
mained on his horse, and for several hours after rushed mad- 
ly over the battle-field, cutting and hacking at the foe, and 
dealing out death at every stroke. Yet, in spite of this 
supernatural help, his followers were slain almost to a man ; 
and the few who survived to tell the tale, as well as the 
children of those who fell, have ever since been known as 



THE A MB ALA DISTRICT. 219 

Shahids or martyrs. Sirdar Jiwan Singh, Shahzadpuria, 
whose history has been already given, is the leading 
Shahid Sikh of to-day. 

The Tangaur branch is included among the thirty-four 
leading houses of the Cis-Satlaj districts. Sardars Kishan 
Singh and Jasmer Singh are at the head. Their ancestor 
Gurbakhsh Singh came from Gangobuha, a village in the 
Taran Taran Tahsil of Amritsar, where many members of 
the family still live. He was a worshipper at the Damdama 
Temple, and became a recognized leader of the Shahid Con- 
federacy with Dharam Singh and Karam Singh, ancestors of 
the Shahzadpuria Sardar. They started on a career of con- 
quest on this side of the Satlaj, and of the spoils Gurbakhsh 
Singh received many rich villages in the bet tracts of the 
Markanda river. On the death of Daya Singh, son of 
Gurbakhsh Singh, the estate was divided amongst his two 
sons and one grandson Chatar Singh. Lai Singh, one of the 
sons, was dispossessed in 1839 for the murder of his brother's 
wife. Two of his villages were made over to his nephew 
Chatar Singh, and the remainder were allowed to pass to his 
son Harnam Singh, on whose death, in 1844, Lai Singh 
was reinstated. The two villages which Chatar Singh had 
received as blood- money were resumed by Government on 
his death in 1847, and his other possessions fell to his uncle 
Jawahar Singh. These are now held, together with their 
father's own share, by Sardars Kishan Singh and Jasmer 
Singh, and they will ultimately succeed to Lai Singh's jagir, 
as he only holds on a life-interest. This latter yields 
Rs. 2,108 per annum. Their own jagir, which they jointly 
hold, is valued at Rs. 7,707, after deducting the usual com- 
mutation charge of two annas per rupee of the assessed reve- 
nue. The family behaved well in the Sikh wars ; and during 
the rebellion of 1857 they were forward in the supply of 
carriage and provision for the troops at Dehli. Their 



220 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

sowars were posted in charge of the Police Stations of Raja- 
noh and Asandh-Salwan within the Hmits of their estates. 

The Sardars are most anxious that some mention should 
be made in this history of their original ancestor Raja Karn, 
one of the Pandus. He lived a long time ago, and it was his 
wont to weigh out one-and-a-half maunds of gold every morn- 
ing as an offering to the Brahmins, and to weigh in as much 
flour and ghi for his own sustenance. Needless to say, he 
must have been both rich and powerful. This is all they 
know about him ; but of so much they are very proud. Both 
the Sardars are Viceregal Darbaris. 



THE A MB ALA DISTRICT. 
SARDAR JAW ALA SINGH OF JARAULI. 





Sardar Chuhar 
1 


Singh. 




Karai 


Jl Singh, 
1808. 




1 
Sardar Mahar 
d. 1845. 
1 


Singh, 


Jawahar Singh, 
d. 1857. 

1 ' 


Sardar 

c/. 


1 
Jit Singb, 
1S52. 

1 


Ugar Singh, 
d. 1851. 


Santokh Singh. 

Kishan' Singh, 
d. 1864. 

Nao Nahal Singh. 


1 
Sardar Jawala 
Singh, 
i>. 1839. 




1 

Bishan 
Singh. 


Har Bhagat 

Singh, 

d. 1 88 1. 

1 

Gajindar Singh, 

/>. 1874. 


1 

Mahindar Singh, 

d. 1876. 




1 

Davindar Singh, 

k 1S67. 



Sardar Jawala Singh's best known ancestor was Chuhar 
Singh of Chang, near Kasur. He was a near relative of 
Sardar Rai Singh BhangI, the conqueror of Jagadhri and 
Dayalgarh, and a prominent member of the Shahid Misal. 
He received the Jarauli Ilaka as his share of the spoils after 
the sack of Sarhand in 1763. He retained ten of these vil- 
lages for himself, giving the others to his lieutenants, and 
returned to Amritsar, where he held charge of the Shahid 
Bunga for many years. He acquired much land on either 
side of the Ravi, and was accounted one of the most power- 
ful Sardar of his day. He placed his younger son Mahar 
Singh in charge of the Jarauli villages, while Karam Singh, 
the elder, subsequently succeeded to the family estates north 
of the Satlaj. These were appropriated by Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh on Karam Singh's death, sonless, in 1808. In the 
meanwhile Mahar Singh was faring almost as badly at 
Jarauli ; for Sardar Bhanga Singh of Thanesar took advantage 
of his being a minor to wrest most of his patrimony from 
him, leaving him only with Jarauli, Fatehgarh Atri and 
Ajrana, yielding about Rs. 10,000 revenue. Mahar Singh 
gladly acquiesced in the arrangements which brought 



2Z2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

his property under the protection of the British Gov- 
ernment in 1809. Since then his family have enjoyed a 
comparatively peaceful existence. Just before his death, 
in 1845, Sardar Mahar Singh made a will, giving- three out 
of ten shares of his estate to each of his three sons, and one- 
tenth in addition to the second, Jit Singh, whom he desired to 
appoint as his successor in the Chiefship. Sardar Jit Singh 
died in 1852, and was succeeded by his son Jawala Singh, 
who is now at the head of the family. His brother Bishan 
Singh died sonless in his father's life-time. 

The family has on all occasions proved loyal to the Bri- 
tish Government. Sardar Jawala Singh holds the village 
of Fatehgarh Atri in his sole possession as head of the house. 
The remaining villages of Jarauli and Ajrana are shared equal- 
ly by the three branches of Mahar Singh's family. The 
other two branches are represented by Sardars Kishan Singh 
and Gajindar Singh. Their separate jagir income is Rs. 789. 

Gajindar Singh is being educated at the Ambala Govern- 
ment School. He is married to a daughter of Sardar Narain 
Singh, Jagirdar of Khamanun. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 223 

SARDAR TILOK SINGH OF MUSTAFABAD. 



Dana, 
d. 1771- 

I 

I I 

Desu Singh, Makki, 

d. 1775. d. 1777. 

I 
Mahtab Singh, 
d. 1796. 

! 

I 1 

Jodh Singh, Ratan Singh, 

d. 1706. d. 1843. 

I 



I I 

Dava Singh, Gursaran 

d. 1862. Singh. 
I 



I ! I 

Sardar Tilok Singh, Sundar Singh, Kahan Singh, 
d. 1832. d. 1880. d. 187 1. 

I I 

Jawahar Singh, Narain Singh, 

d. 1879. l>. iSSo. 

When the Sikh invasion took place In 1763, Desu Singh, 
Dalawala, Jat of Lalpur, near Taran Taran, took possession 
of Mustafabad and some neighbouring- villages now in the 
Jagadhri Tahsil and of Dera and Tandwala in Ambala. He 
was killed at the battle of Chandausi in 1775, and was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew Mahtab Singh, who obtained posses- 
sion of the whole estate. His eldest son Jodh Singh, who 
followed him, was slain in 1796 at Biana, fighting against 
the Mahratas. One of Mahtab Singh's widows, Masamat 
Gauran, then managed to secure possession. After a time 
her claim was disputed by Jodh Singh's younger brother 
Ratan Singh, who wrested Dera and Tandwala from her. 
He appears to have surrendered these villages as the price of 
protection to Sardar Bhanga Singh, the powerful Chief of 
Thanesar, who gave him Talheri in exchange. On the death 
of Masamat Gauran, in 1833, the whole estate was made over 
to Ratan Singh, whose grandson Tilok Singh and great- 
grandson Naina Singh are now In possession. Naina Singh 
is a minor under the Court of Wards. Tilok Singh was 
formerly a member of the District Committee. During the 



2 24 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Mutiny the Sardars of Mustafabad maintained a small number 
of horse and footmen for police service at Jagadhri. One 
year's commutation money was remitted as a reward for their 
services. The jagir consists of eight villages, of which 
seven are in the Jagadhri Tahsil and one in Ambala. The 
jagir revenue of these estates is Rs. 4,679, on which the 
jagirdars pay a service commutation charge of two annas in 
the rupee. Tilok Singh's share is Rs. 2,340. Tilok Singh's 
name and that of his nephew Naina Singh appear on the 
Ambala List of Viceresral Darbaris. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 



SARDAR SAHIB SINGH OF LEDA. 



225 



NoDH Singh, 

d. 1812. 

I 

Jit Singh, 

d. 1S48. 



I I I 

Fatah Singh, Dava Singh, Amir Singh, 

d. 1847. d. 1877. d. 1842. 

I I 

I I I I I I 

Sangat Singh. Teja Hira Singh, MaUhan Sahir Singh, Partab Singh, 

I Singh, b. 1848. Singh, b. 1836. b. 1840. 

Gurdit Singh, b. 1836. b. 1849. I I 



1863. 



I II I 

Zorawar Sin^rh, Abha Singh, Balwant Singh, Bhagvvant Singh, 

b. 1868. " b. 1875. b. 1871. b. 1880. 

Sadar Sahib Singh's ancestors belonged to the Karora 
Singhia Jat Misal, of which the Ambala Kalsiasare a branch. 
Nodh Singh, the great-grandfather of Sahib Singh, came 
from Kalsia in the Manjha, with Sardar Gurbakhsh Singh of 
Kalsia, and Karam Singh of Bilaspur, whose family is now 
extinct. When the Kalsias divided their conquests the Leda 
Chief and his followers were awarded villages in the eastern 
part of Ambala equivalent to the services of two hundred 
horsemen maintained by them ; the Sardar of Kalsia taking 
only a five-sixteenth share of the whole, consisting of lands 
in the neighbourhood of Chachrauli, near Jagadhri, where his 
descendants still reside. The Leda jagirs are at present 
composed of two entire villages and shares in five others, all 
in the Jagadhri Tahsil, as well as shares in six villages of 
Tahsil Naraingarh, valued at Rs. 2,531. The jagirdars are 
six in number and divide on ancestral shares, the value of 
Sahib Singh's share being Rs. 582. The family maintained 
some police levies during the Mutiny, and as a reward receiv- 
ed a remission of the commutation service charge for one 



r226 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

year. The title of Sardar is usually bestowed upon the most 
worthy member, independently of his position in the pedigree 
table. Thus Dava Singh succeeded Jit Singh, and was 
followed by Sahib Singh, the present head of the family. 
Sardar Sahib Singh is a Viceregal Darbari. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 227 

SARDAR HARDIT SINGH OF DAYALGARH. 







Lakhmir Singh. 
1 








1 
Baia Singh. 








1 
Bhagwan Singh, 
d. 1812. 
1 








1 

Jawahar Singh, 

d. 1812. 

1 








RaiSi 

d. 1 8c 

1 


ngh, 

Sukhail 

Bhagwan 
gh, 

jhter of 
>han Singh 
npur), 
52. 
5AMAT SUKHAN. 




1 

Masamat Day 
(Widow of Bh£i 
Singh), 
d> 1828. 


1 

1 Kaur Masamat 

gwan (widow of 

Sini 

and dau 

Sardar Ki 

of Kha 

d. 18 

Brothers of Ma 

1 




1 1 
Basant Singh, Jaswant Singh. 
d. 1871. 1 

1 Harnam Singh, 
But Singh. d. 1861. 


1 

Karpa 

d. I 


Singh, Lai Singh, 
861. d. i868. 


1 

Sant Singh. 

Hardit Singh, 
b. 1844. 


1 
Bir Singh, 
d> 1878. 








1 
Sobha Singh, 
b. 1869 




Didar 
Singh, 
d. 1887 


1 

Kartar 

Singh, 

b. 1857. 










Ajit Singh, 
d. 1880. 





Sardar Rai Singh and his brother Bhag Singh set out 
in 1760 from their home near Kasur to seek their fortune 
below the Satlaj. They were Bhangi Jat Sikhs; and in 
their company was the celebrated Nanu Singh, also a warrior 
bold. Their adventure proved successful, and in a few years 
they found themselves masters of the Jagadhri country, and 
built themselves a fort near Buria, which they named Dayal- 
garh, and made their head-quarters. Ultimately the brothers 
divided their property, Nanu Singh having been slain ; the 
Dayalgarh and Jagadhri estates, containing eighty-four vil- 
lages, falling to the share of Sardar Rai Singh. He died 



228 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

in 1805, leaving the Chiefship to his nephew Bhagwan Singh, 
who himself died seven years after without surviving issue. 
He was the last Sardar of Jagadhri. His widows fought 
over the property, and it was divided equally between them 
by the British Political Agent. To Mai Daya Kaur fell the 
Jagadhri estates, and they lapsed to Government on her 
death in 1828. 

Mai Sukhan took over the Dayalgarh villages and held 
them until 1852. She was a daughter of Sardar Kishan 
Singh of Khanpura. After her death her blood relations 
were allowed to succeed her in a portion of the jagir in de- 
fault of next of kin of her deceased husband. These were 
her nephews Harnam Singh and Hardit Singh, and her three 
brothers, as shown in the pedigree table. They took over 
the villages of Khajuri (Jagadhri) and Jatlanaon (Pipli) on 
a life-tenure. Hardit Singh is still in the enjoyment of his 
share, which is valued at Rs. 1,100 per annum. The other 
shares have lapsed by reason of the death of the grantees. 
Sardar Hardit Singh lives at Dayalgarh, where he owns some 
land. He is a man of little education and has never come 
prominently forward. He is a Viceregal Darbari. His son 
Sobha Singh is reported to be a young man of promise, 
having been educated in a Government school. The Dayal- 
garh Sardars behaved loyally in the rebellion of 1857, and 
received a handsome khilat in recognition of their services. 

Of the sons of Sardar Karpal Singh, the elder, Didar 
Singh, is a Thanadar of Police in the North-Western Provin- 
ces, and Kartar Singh is the manager of the estate of the 
minor Guru Nao Nahal Singh of Kartarpur. Mai Gayan 
Kaur, widow of Sardar Lai Singh, receives a compassionate 
allowance of Rs. 300 annually. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. 229 



SARDAR JIWAN SINGH OF SHAHZADPUR. 



Karm Singh, 

d. 1786. 
I 



I I 

Gulab Singh. Mahtab Singh, 



d. 1820. 



Sheo Karpal Singh, 
d. 1861. 
I 
Sardar JiwAN Singh, 
b. i860. 



The Shahzadpur family first rose to importance in the 
time of Guru Gobind Singh, by whom Dip Singh, grand- 
father of Karam Singh, was installed as first Mahant of 
a newly- established Gurdwara, known as Damda7na Sahib ^ 
a place of some celebrity in the Patiala State. His succes- 
sors engaged in a series of struggles with the Mahomedan 
Governors of the Eastern Panjab, and acquired the title of 
SJiahid {mdiXljv), by which the family is still known in honor 
of the legendary exploits of its head. Under Karm Singh 
a strong footing was obtained in the neighbourhood of Sirsa, 
and advantage was taken of the general viclec of 1763, to 
join the invasion of the Cis-Satlaj country by Sikhs from 
the Manjha. Karm Singh forced his way up from the south 
through the present Ambala Tahsil, where he acquired 
several villages, and finally settled down at Shahzadpur, 
in the present Naraingarh Tahsil. The estates were 
then divided for a time, Karm Singh retaining possession 
of the Kasri tract in Ambala, and making over the Shahzad- 
pur villages to his brother Dharm Singh. The latter died 
childless, and Karm Singh thereon became sole possessor 
of the numerous scattered blocks of villages still held by his 
descendants in jagir. These were administered by the family 
as independent territory until 1847, when general orders were 
passed, resuming the sovereign powers of all the separate 



230 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

petty States included in the Ambala district. The status 
of the family has ever since been that of jagirdar only ; but, 
as such, it ranks second among the jagirs of the district. 

The present Sardar Jiwan Singh was educated in the 
Government Wards School of Ambala. He is a Honorary 
Magistrate, and as a Honorary Civil Judge holds the 
powers of a Munsif for the trial of suits up to Rs. 500 
in value. He is also a member of the District Board 
and of the Committee of Management of the Aitchison Col- 
lege at Lahore. He is a man of excellent character, and 
commands universal respect. The family holds the title of 
Mushfiq Mahrbaii, but is more commonly known by the native 
title of Shahid, which ensures it respect from the Sikhs 
throughout the Panjab. The present Sardar was married 
in 1884 to a sister of the Maharaja of Patiala, an alliance 
which has much increased the dignity and prominence of the 
house. 



THE AMBALA DISTRICT. " 63* 

SARDAR AUTAR SINGH OF MANAULI. 









Khushal Singh. 

1 










Sud Singh 
d. 1792. 








1 
Budh 
Singh. 

1 




1 

Bhupal Singh. 


1 
Lai Singh. 

Santokh 
Singh, 
d. 1888. 

i 

Lachman H; 
Singh, Si 
b. 1887. 




1 

Dyal Singh. 

1 






Gopal 
Singh. 

Jai Singh, 
d. 1877. 
1 

AUTAR 

r Singh, 
b. 1873. 


Hardyal 
Singh. 


1 1 
Utam Partab 
Singh. Singh. 


Bishar 
Singh. 

1 
irbans 
ngh. 1 


I Kishan 
Singh. 


Sha 
Sit 


1 
Kehr 

Singh. 
1 


d. 1840. 

1 
Jaswant 
Singh, 
d. 1857. 




Elarendar Bhola 
Singh. Singh. 


msher Randii 
igh. Singh, 



The above pedigree includes the leaduig branches of the 
great Singhpuria family. Sardar Autar Singh of Manauli 
is the titular head of the family, which holds large jagirs, ag- 
gregating Rs. 80,000, in the Kharar and Rupar Tahsils. The 
remaining branches hold separate estates known as Bhareli, 
Bunga, Ghanauli, Bharatgarh and Kandaula ; but as, with the 
exception of the Bhareli Sardar, all are descendants of Budh 
Singh, the possessor of 1809, they have common rights of 
succession in favor of the survivors on failure of heirs to any 
separate Sardar. From 1809 to 1847 the family ranked as 
independent protected Chiefs, losing their status in the latter 
year, and being reduced to the position of ordinary perpetuity 
jagirdars, under the general proclamation issued on the close 
of the First Sikh War. During the last half century the 
family has been unfortunately more distinguished for its vices 
than its virtues. None of its representatives have been men 
of mark. Few have even lived lives of ordinary respectability, 
and again and again drink and debauchery have brought their 
victims to an early grave. There is no better typical instance 
of the rapid degeneration of character among the leaders of 
the Cis-Satlaj Sikhs, where British protection has secured 
them in the enjoyment of large revenues, and left them with- 
out the necessity to work for their position, and without 



232 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

sufficiently strong inducement to uphold the honor of the 
family name. 

The Manauli jagir is made up as follows : — 

Rs. 
In Tahsil Kharar, 24 villages with a revenue of . . 13,700 
„ „ Rupar 57 „ „ „ .. 20,400 



Total . . 34,100 



From this must be deducted commutation for military 
service at two annas per rupee in about half the jagir, and one 
anna in the remaining half, representing the Manauli share, 
for services rendered in 1857 by Sardar Jai Singh. 

Sardar Autar Singh is still a minor and unmarried, and 
a pupil in the Aitchison College, Lahore. The estate has 
been now for two generations almost continuously under the 
Court of Wards, and is very rich owing to the careful nursing 
of British authorities. The Sardar owns over a thousand 
acres of cultivated lands in Kharar and Rupar, besides numer- 
ous forts and houses, and there is also a large sum invested 
in his name in Government Securities. He unfortunately in- 
herits a weak constitution, and although the greatest pains 
have been taken with his education, it is doubtful whether 
he will acquire the strength of body and mind to enable him 
to do justice to the fine property to which he will succeed on 
release from guardianship. 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 



253 





<1 


h 


N 


n 





1— I 


M 


cc 


<^ 


h 


C/J 


CO 


^ 


5 


< 




P 


<: 


<1 


z 


^ 


< 


< 




<! 


Q 


N 


D 
J 


< 




C/] 



Q K M 

< <CO- 



cn ^ -^ 

C/2 



rt .00 




-1"- 






c/5 "^ 




-Ifl 




I, 




















" rt rt " 



5 t/AO 












^00 



_ rt c 20 



<i: 00 



< - 

- c 00 









E S' 












-i "' 






■^ c 00 



-11^ 

~ o 3 00 
^ -5 -si 

Is 2. 



-■^ g J3 -: 

-.S rt ii "* 



234 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Ludhiana is the home of the children of Shah Shujah-ul- 
Mulk of Kabul. The circumstances under which that un- 
fortunate Ruler twice gained and lost a throne, are matters 
of general Indian history, and need only be touched upon 
here. It will be remembered that Shah Zaman returned to 
his capital after his second unsuccessful invasion of the 
Panjab In 1799, merely to be supplanted by his brother 
Mahmud, who took the precaution of incapacitating him 
from future Kingship by putting out his eyes. But the blind 
monarch was speedily avenged by another brother Shujah- 
ul-Mulk, who, in 1803, deposed Mahmud, and installed him- 
self as Ruler of Afghanistan. Seven years later. Shah 
Shujah was, in his turn, driven out by Mahmud, and forced to 
seek assistance from Maharaja Ranjit Singh. This he did 
not receive, although the Sikh Chief used the King's name 
in attempting to seize Multan, which he intended keeping for 
himself. The expedition was a failure. After holding Pesh- 
awar for some months, and trying in vain to establish 
his sovereignty over Alultan, Shah Shujah one day found him- 
self a prisoner in the hands of Jahan Dad Khan, Afghan 
Governor of Attock, who deported him to Kashmir, and had 
him kept there for over a year. He was released by Wazir 
Fatah Khan, who had crossed the Indus to re-assert Afghan 
dominion over Kashmir. In 181 3 he visted Lahore, still 
in search of some one who would help him to re-conquer 
his kingdom. There Ranjit Singh exchanged turbans with 
him as a token of the sincerest friendship, and after a little 
manoeuvring, induced him to give up the Koh-i-Niir dia- 
mond, which the Maharaja had longed to possess. Shah 
Shujah was now made to perceive that his presence was only 
desirable in so far as it enabled the Maharaja to take action 
against Kashmir in his name. He managed to remove the 
ladies of his family to Ludhiana without Ranjit Singh's 
knowledge, and himself fled shortly after to the Kishtwar 
Valley, whence, aided by the local Chief, he made an abortive 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 235 

descent on Kashmir. Beaten back, he followed the moun- 
tains through Kulu, and crossing the Satlaj high up, came 
round to Ludhiana in September, 1816, having kept well out 
of the ]\Iaharaja's reach throughout the journey. He was 
granted an allowance ofRs. 50,000 per annum by the British 
Government, and was treated with the respect due to 
his rank. But Shah Shujah's nature was too restless 
to allow him to sit long inactive at Ludhiana. In 1 818 he 
again started on his travels towards Kabul, and receiv- 
ing assistance from the Nawab of Bahawalpur, seized Dera 
Ghazi Khan, while his son Timur marched further south 
and took possession of Shikarpur. He proceeded along the 
Indus to Peshawar,, where he was successfully opposed by 
Mahomed Azim Khan, Wazir of Ayub Khan, and obliged 
to take refuge in the Khaibar. Thence he was driven, step 
by step, back to Shikarpur, and finally found himself once 
more a refugee at Ludhiana after wandering for months 
through Rajputana and the Eastern Panjab. Here he met 
his blind brother, Shah Zaman, who, after nearly similar ad- 
ventures, had also become a guest of the British Govern- 
ment. This was in 1821. Twelve years later the Shah 
again set out for the recovery of his patrimony, now in the 
hands of the Amir Dost Mahomed Khan. His English 
hosts had told him that they had no objection to his making 
the attempt, though they could not promise a continuance 
of hospitality were he again, through stress of circumstances, 
obliged to knock at their door. He had with him about three 
thousand armed followers and two lakhs of rupees. The 
Bahawalpur Nawab gave him a gun and some camels. He 
defeated the Sindians at Shikarpur, and levied from the 
towns-people a contribution of five lakhs. Thus enriched, he 
proceeded towards Kandahar, but remained in that neigh- 
bourhood only until Dost Mahomed had time to march down 
from Kabul and administer to him a crushing defeat. Once 
more he was forced to turn towards Hindustan for safety ; 



236 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and once more the English g-ave him shelter at Ludhiana. 
In money he was half a lakh richer ; but in prestige more 
damaged than ever. Next came the triple alliance for the 
subversion of the power of the Barakzais, broken by the 
death of the Maharaja in 1839, and followed by the return 
to Kabul of Shah Shujah and the re-establishment of his 
dominion with the aid of British troops and British money. 
The unfortunate Shah Shujah was assassinated immedi- 
ately after the disaster to our Kabul Garrison in 1842; 
and his family, no longer able to hold head against Dost 
Mahomed's faction, returned to their asylum at Ludhiana, 
which has been their head-quarters ever since. 

Shahzada Nadar, youngest son of Shah Shujah, is now 
at the head of the family. His elder brother Shahzada Shah- 
pur, who had been in receipt of an allowance of Rs. 4,800 
per annum from Government, died in 1884. Shahzada 
Nadar is President of the Municipal Committee, Honorary 
Magistrate, and Sub-Registrar of Ludhiana. He and his 
deceased brother received a grant in 1877 of four thousand 
acres of land in the Montgomery district. His offers of 
service in the Mutiny were duly acknowledged by Govern- 
ment. He enjoys a pension of Rs. 3,600 per annum, and 
takes a high seat in Viceregal Darbars. He was created a 
Companion of the Indian Empire in 1888. Shahzada Shah- 
pur's son Alamgir is an Extra Assistant Commissioner. 

Shahzada Safdar Jang, also a son of Shah Shujah-ul- 
Mulk, receives an allowance of Rs. 3,000 per annum. 
One of his sons, Sardar Haidar Jang, is an Extra Assistant 
Commissioner ; another, Bahadar Jang, is a Tahsildar in this 
Province. 

Timur Shah's son, Sultan Jalaludin, was instrumen- 
tal in saving the lives of some members of the American 
Christian Mission at Ludhiana in 1857, for which service he 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 237 

received a special reward. His annual allowance is Rs. 3,000. 
His nephew, Sardar Mahomed Tahir, receives a pension 
of similar value. 

The members of the family have taken with great readi- 
ness to the public service. At the present moment there are 
in civil employment live Extra Assistant Commissioners, three 
Tahsildars, three Naib-Tahsildars, eleven Deputy Inspectors 
of Police, and numerous others in smaller posts ; while 
in the army are four Rasaldars, one Jamadar, twelve Dafa- 
dars, and several Sowars, all of the family of Shah Shujah. 



238 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR ATAR SINGH, K.C.SJ, BAHADUR. 



I 

Tilokha 

(ancestor of the 

Jind and Nabha Chiefs"). 

i 

Duna, 
d. 1726. 



I 
Rama, 
d. 1 7 14. 



Raja Ala Singh 
(ancestor of the Patiala Chiefs. 



I I 

Bigha Singh, Dao, 

d. 1773- d. 1723. 

I 



1 I I 

Sangu Singh, Sukhu Singh, Suma Singh, 

d. 1744. d. 1765. d. 1772" 

(ancestor of the 
Rampuria Sardars), 



Gurdas Singh, 
d. 1748. 



I 

Chuhar Singh, 

d. 1793. 



I . 

Mohar Singh, 
d. J 826. 



Dal Singh, 

d. 1793 

(ancestor of the Kot 

Duna Sardars). 



Bir Singh, 
d. 1823. 



I 
Dip Singh, 
d. 1822. 

I 
Kharak Singh, 
d. 1859. 

I 

Sardar Atar 

Singh, 

b. 1833. 

I 



I i 

Amrik Singh, Samand Singh, 



d. 1826. 
I 
Dewa Singh, 
d. 1S57. 
I 
Narain Singh, 
b. 1852. 
I 
Balwant Singh, 



d. 1836. 
I 
Achal Singh, 
d. 1879. 



Sujan Singh, 
d. 1828. 

Utam Singh, 

d 1855. 

I 

Atar Singh, 

d. 1879. 



I 

Bhagwant Singh, 

b. 1852. 

I 

Son, 

b. 1887. 



Balwant Singh, 
b. 1855. 



Jawahar Singh, 
d. 1827. 

Bibi Atar 

Kaur 

married 

Prince Nao 

Nahal Singh, 

of Lahore. 



Jaimal Singh, 

d. 1808. 

I 



Jagat Singh, 
d. 1865. 

I 



Khazan 
Singh, 
d. 1831 

I 
Mahan Singh, 
d. 1858. 
I 

Ishar Singh, 
d. 1866. 



I 
Nadhan 
Singh, 
d 1838. 



Gulab 
Singh, 
d. 1850. 



I 

Basavva 

Singh, 

d. 1845. 



I 
Khem 
Singh, 
d. 1S46. 



Narain Ajepal 
Singh, Singh, 
d. 1865. b. 185S 



Kahar Singh, 
b. 1835. 

I 



Partab Singh, 
b. 1853. 



Ufar Singh, 
b. 1863. 



One son, b. 1887. Two sons. 

Sardar Atar Singh's ancestor, Duna, was brother of 
Ala Singh, first Raja of Patiala. Bhadaur was the original 
home of the Phulklan family, and Duna continued to live 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 239 

there after Ala Singh set out to seek his fortune in 17 18, and 
founded a dwelling-place for himself at Barnala, whence he 
removed to Patiala after the destruction of Sarhand, and 
made it is his capital. 

Duna held the office of Chaudhri, and he had to collect 
the Imperial revenues of his district, and account for them to 
the Mahomedan Governor. Having failed in this duty on one 
occasion, he and one of his sons were seized and thrown into 
prison at Lahore. They there suffered such hardships that the 
son succumbed, while Duna died shortly after his release. 
This was in 1726. His grandson Chuhar Singh was the most 
celebrated of all the Bhadauris. He lived in the time of the 
weak-minded Sahib Singh of Patiala, and took advantage of 
the confusion into which affairs had fallen to seize ninety 
villages, including the district of Barnala ; but he had to 
surrender most of his acquisitions later on. He also freely 
helped himself to the lands of Maler Kotla, and was in a fair 
way to become one of the leading Sikh Chiefs, when treachery 
put an end to his career. Chuhar Singh's sons Bir 
Singh and Dip Singh were alive when the British Power felt 
its way up to the south bank of the Satlaj. They at first 
admitted Patiala to be their head, and identified themselves 
with the interests of that State ; but perceiving the advan- 
tages attaching to independence, they afterwards claimed the 
privilege of dealing direct with our Government. This was 
objected to by Patiala, upon grounds which need not here be 
detailed. The matter was under dispute for many years, and 
w^as not finally set at rest until 1858, when the Maharaja's 
supremacy was recognised as an act of grace and as a reward 
for loyal services rendered in the years of the Mutiny. All 
the rights of the Paramount Power were then yielded to 
Patiala, including reversion in lapsed estates, and the annual 
commutation tax of Rs. 5,265 hitherto taken by the British 
Government. The decision was naturally distasteful to the 



240 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Bhadaur family, and they have not yet gracefully acknow- 
ledged their position as feudatories. They probably feel that 
the reward to Patiala might have taken a form less hurtful to 
the minor Chief, who had himself not proved backward in 
loyalty during the Mutiny. But the concession would no 
doubt not have been made to Patiala had not her claim been 
just and allowable in itself ; and it is perhaps incorrect to 
affirm that she received Bhadaur because of special service 
rendered. * 

Sardar Atar Singh, the present head of the family, 
served under the District Officers of Ludhiana and Firozpur, 
in 1857, in command of a body of fifty horsemen, whom he 
raised and equipped at his own charges ; and as a reward, was 
exempted from payment of his commutation tax for a period of 
six months. He succeeded his father in 1858. He was 
educated at Banares, and there acquired a taste for learning. 
His library at Bhadaur is well stocked with valuable manus- 
cripts in Sanscrit, Gurmakhi and Persian ; and he is always 
foremost in matters connected with the education and intel- 
lectual improvement of the people. He is, moreover, an ac- 
complished author, having written many poems and short 
works in Persian and Gurmakhi. He was nominated a mem- 
ber of the Senate of the Panjab University College in 1870 ; 
and he was granted the title of Malaz-ul-tihna Val Fuzala in 
acknowledgment of his eminent and liberal patronage of 
learning. In 1880 he was created a Companion of the Order 
of the Indian Empire, and in 1888 he was admitted to Knight- 
hood in the same distinguished Order. In 1887, on the 
occasion of Her Majesty's Jubilee celebration, the newly- 
instituted title of Mahamahopadhyaya was conferred on him 
in recognition of his loyal conduct and eminent services in 
the promotion of Oriental learning. 

* '' The supremacy for which the Maharaja had struggled with so much pertinacity, 
but which he was unable to establish as a right, was granted as an act of grace and as 
a reward for loyal service to the British Government in the year 1858." Griffin's l\ajas of the 
Tanjab, 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 



241 



SARDAR UTAM SINGH, MALOD. 



Phul. 



1 

Raghu 

(Jiundan 

family). 



Tiloka 

(ancestor of 

the Nabha and 

Jind Rajas). 



Raman. 



Jhandu. 



Chatu. Takhal MaK 



ancestors of the Laudgharia 
families. 



I 
Ala Singh 
(ancestor of 

Patiaia 
Maharaja), 



Duna Singh 
(ancestor of 
Bhadaur 
family). 



Bakhat Mai, 
d. 1742. 



Man Singh, 
d. 1778. 



Bhag Singh, 
d. 1819. 



\ 

Dalel Singh, 
d. 1824. 

I 



I 

Sardar Tlakikat 

Singh, 

d. 1^7 s. 

Sardar Balwant 
Singh, 
6. 1866. 

I 
Infant, 
d. 1882, 



Sardar Ranjit 
Singh, 
d. 1854. 



I 
Fatah 
Singh, 
d. 1849, 



Mit 
Singh, 
d. 1878, 



Sardar Hazura 
Singh, 
d, 1854. 



Sardar Utam 
Singh, 
d, 1841. 



1 

Sardar Badan 

Singh, 

d. 1850. 



I 

Sardar Sundar 
Singh, 
^. 1853- 



Sardar Harnam 
Singh, 
d. 1 866. 



1 I I 

Sardar Mahtab Sardar Dal Infant, 

Singh, Singh, d. 1887. 

d. 1879. L 1867. 



The history of the Malod family is given in Griffin's 
Rajas of the Panjab. Sardar Utam Singh, Malod, goes back 
in six generations to the celebrated Phul, from whom are 
descended the present Rulers of Patiaia, Jind and Nabha, as 
well as the Chiefs of Bhadaur, Malod and Badrakhan, and the 
minor Sardars of Jiundan, Laudgarh, Dialpur, Rampur and 
Kot Dina. The family claims for itself a Rajput ancestor in 
Jasalji, founder of the city of Jasalmir. Jasalji was driven from 
his State towards the end of the twelfth century and settled 



242 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

near Hissar. His son Hahmal was appointed Governor of 
the Sirsa and Batinda countries. Hahmal's great-great- 
grandson Khiwa took a Jatni as his second wife, who bore 
him his son Sidhu, from whom has sprung one of the most 
important Sikh tribes in the Panjab. It is unnecessary to 
go into details of the earlier history of the Malod Sardars, 
as it has received full notice in Sir Lepel Griffin's work 
already alluded to. Their immediate ancestor was Bakhat 
Mai, brother of Ala Singh, from whom the Patiala branch 
has sprung. 

The district of Malod was taken from the Maler Kotla 
Afghans in 1754 by Sardar Man Singh, son of Bakhat Mai. 
On his death, in 1878, the estate was divided amongst his 
two sons ; the elder, Dalel Singh, taking two-thirds, including 
the Malod and Shaina villages. To these he added Khiali 
and Sahur, wresting them from the Rais of Raikot in 1807. 
He gave assistance to the British authorities in 181 5 during 
the Ghurka War, and in other ways showed a desire to be on 
good terms with the new Power then beginning to make itself 
felt. Sardar Dalel Singh died in 1824. His eldest son 
Fatah Singh took two-thirds of the patrimony in accordance 
with the established custom of the family. In his share were 
included the villages of Ramgarh and Shaina. To Sardar 
Mit Singh came Malod and Dhapali. Both brothers were 
present with the British troops at Mudki and Firozshahr, 
and helped in the matter of carriage and supplies. Sardar 
Fatah Singh's services were again utilized in establishing a 
civil government in the Sikh Cis-Satlaj districts annexed in 
1846. He died in 1850. His son Utam Singh, a minor, 
inherited the whole property on the death of his brother Hazara 
Singh, in 1854. He behaved with conspicuous loyalty during 
the Mutiny, helping with money and men. His services were 
suitably acknowledged by a permanent remission of one six- 
teenth of the revenue demand in his villages, and he was made 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 243 

a Jagirdar Magistrate in 1 86 1 , shortly after attaining his major- 
ity. He was forward in offering his services during the late Af- 
ghan War, but they were not required. He is a Viceregal 
Darbari, and takes seniority over the other three Darbaris of 
his family. His jagir income is valued at Rs. 43,136 per 
annum. He lives at Ramgarh, in the Ludhiana district. 

Sardar Hakikat Singh succeeded his father Bhag Singh 
in 1 8 19. To him fell the villages of Chima and Bar, in the 
latter of which his branch of the family still reside. He per- 
formed good service in the Mutiny, and encouraged educa- 
tion by founding and endowing a school at Bir, which still 
exists. Balwant Singh, his son, was a minor when Hakikat 
Singh died in 1875, ^^^ was educated at the Ambala Wards 
School. He is an Honorary Magistrate and a Civil Judge 
in his Ilaka. One of his first acts on attaining his majority 
was to provide funds to found a hospital for the Aitchison 
College. He has a jagir yielding Rs. 19,050 per annum, and 
his lands in the villages of Rohli, Sohian, Chima, Bawar- 
pur and Bir (Ludhiana) yield an annual income of over 
sixteen hundred rupees exclusive of the Government demand. 

Sardar Mit Singh, nephew of Bhag Singh, and uncle 
of Utam Singh, was as forward as his other relatives in 
assisting the Government both at annexation and in 1857; 
and his services were also suitably acknowledged. He divided 
his estate between his two sons, giving a two-thirds share, 
in accordance with the usage of the family, to the elder, 
Badan Singh. Mit Singh died in 1878. Sardar Badan 
Singh behaved well during the Kuka disturbances, defend- 
ing his fort, which was attacked with the object of procuring 
weapons, and killing and capturing about a dozen of the 
fanatics. He is known as a thoroughly loyal subject of the 
Queen-Empress. His services have been recognized on many 
occasions. He exercises criminal and civil powers within 



244 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

his Ilaka, and receives a chair in Viceregal Darbars. His 
jagir is valued at Rs. 15,780 per annum. He owns land in 
Pakhoka, Malod, Somal, Bundhari, Burkhera, and Teh 
Loharan, all in the Ludhiana Tahsil, yielding Rs. 2,230 per 
annum. 

His younger brother Sundar Singh, who is also a 
Viceregal Darbari, lives at Pakhoka, and has a jagir income 
of Rs. 8,000, in addition to one thousand rupees derived 
from land rents. 

The family jagirs are subject to a commutation de- 
duction in lieu of providing men for service annually as 
follows : — 

Sardar Utam Singh . . . . . . Ks. 5,384 

„ Balwant Singh . . .. • • „ 2,294 

„ Badan Singh . . . . . . „ 989 

„ Sundar Singh . . . . • • „ 487 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 245 

BHAI ARJAN SINGH, BAGRIAN. 



Bhai Arjan Sing-h's father Narain Singh submitted a 
pedigree table of his ancestors, going back thirty generations, 
which perhaps need not be reproduced here. Centuries ago, 
according to him, his people were Rajput Princes in the 
Marwara country. One of them, by name Bhadan, being 
childless, was advised by a fakir to take unto himself a wife 
of another caste. He allied himself with the daughter of a 
carpenter against the consent of her father, who is said to 
have complained to " the Emperor of Dehli." This poten- 
tate, to avenge the wrongs of the carpenter, led an army 
against the Rajput King, who was duly slain ; but not 
before his Consort had presented him with a son and heir, 
whom they called Puran. Puran found himself coldly re- 
ceived by his father's relatives, who refused to regard him as 
a proper Rajput ; and when the time came for him to marry, 
none of the pure blooded would give him a daughter. So 
he was obliged to turn towards the carpenters, as his father 
did before him ; and thus it came about that Bhai Narain 
Singh's immediate ancestors lost the higher caste status and 
became simple village tarkJians. The Emperor of Dehli (his 
name is not stated) was greatly incensed when he heard the 
son of his old enemy Bhadan was grown up : so he despatch- 
ed an army against him and drove him out of the Marwara 
land into the Panjab. Puran settled in a village called Mania 
Kal Jharani, near Batinda, and maintained himself by hus- 
bandry and carpentry. Sudhu, sixth in descent from him, 
settled at Tanglani in Nabha, and married a lady of Sikh 
parentage, against her will, evidently ; for it is said she left 
him on the night of her marriage, and sought comfort and 
consolation from a neighbouring Guru, who told her to be 
of good cheer as her husband would certainly adopt the Sikh 
faith ; and this actually happened. Sudhu tracked her up, 
and so overpowered was he by the Guru's eloquence that 



246 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

he there and then went through the necessary formalities 
and became a Sikh. His son Rup Chand, so named by 
reason of his extraordinary beauty, was taken as a boy to 
Amritsar and there given the pahal. Many tales are still 
told of his devotion to the new faith. On one occasion, when 
Guru Hargobind was at their village, Rup Chand and his 
father fainted from thirst while ploughing in the field, rather 
than put their lips to a vessel of cold water which they desired 
to offer to the Guru in the evening as a special delicacy. 
So pleased was the Guru with this exhibition of self-denial 
that, after bringing them round, he directed them to follow 
him as his disciples. He gave his cloak and sword to Rup 
Chand, who carried them on his head, regarding them as 
things too sacred and too precious to be worn in the ordinary 
fashion. The Guru, pleased at this fresh act of reverence, 
settled the father and son in a village, which he re-named 
Bhai Rupa, near Sangalani, in Nabha. This was in 1630. 
In the following year the Guru Sahib again passed that way, 
and was royally entertained, with three thousand of his fol- 
lowers, by the devoted Rup Chand, to whom he gave the 
title of Bhai, and put him in spiritual charge of the Cis-Satlaj 
country, promising that his children should one day come to 
be venerated as Sodhis. Bhai Rup Chand lived to a great 
age, and acquired large influence, doing much for the spread 
of Sikhism in the neighbouring Jat villages. Amongst those 
who listened to his teaching were Tilokha and Rama, sons 
of Phul, to whom the present Rulers of Patiala, Jind and 
Nabha owe their origin. 

The descendants of Maha Nand, eldest son of Rup Chand, 
are still to be found in the villages of Bhai Rupa (Nabha), 
Sheraj (Firozpur), Kotha Guru (Patiala), and Bawal Heri 
and Lakhneri, in the Ambala district. The children of his 
remaining six sons have also spread themselves about the 
Malwa country. From Rup Chand' s seventh son, Dharam 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 247 

Singh, comes Narain Singh, best known of the living Bhais. 
His son Dayal Singh founded the village of Dayalpur, now 
belonging to the Nabha State, the revenues of which (Rs. 
4,620) go to the support of the lan^ar at Bagrian. Dharam- 
pura, in the Firozpur district, was also founded by Dayal 
Singh, and the proprietary dues are still levied by the family. 
Of Dayal Singh's sons, Godar Singh is particularly remem- 
bered for his piety and holy living. It is related of Gajpat 
Singh, first Raja of Jind, that, having no children, he came 
to confide his troubles to his friend Godar Singh. After 
thinking it over, the Bhai pronounced in the matter as fol- 
lows : — " This is indeed a misfortune ; for you of all men 
should have offspring. In my fate it is written that I 
shall have children, as it is in yours that you shall have 
none ; but I will gladly transfer to you this portion of my 
good fortune if my wife will give consent." His wife, the 
good Mai Baji, willingly agreed, whereupon Godar Singh 
performed certain rites over the Raja, who returned home 
with the Bhai's " luck," and in due time became the father 
of several sons and daughters. One of the latter. Raj Kaur, 
was eventually the wife of the celebrated Sardar Mahan Singh, 
Sukarchakia, and the mother of the still more celebrated 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh.* 

Later on, in 1754, it fell to Godar Singh's lot to have to 
entertain Dina Beg and Sadik Beg, Governors of the Dehli 
Emperor, and so well pleased were they with his hospitality 
that they procured for him the jagir rights of the Bagrian vil- 
lage in which Bhai Narain Singh now lives. He soon after 
founded the villages of Diwala and Kalahar in Ludhiana, 
Gungrali and Vahra, in Faridkot, and Vandran and Talwadi, 
in Firozpur. In 1763 his old friend, Raja Gajpat Singh of 

* In connection with Raj Kaur's birth there is a tradition that the Raja, enraged when 
the expected child proved to be a daughter, ordered her to be buried alive, a not uncommon 
habit amongst disappointed Jats even in the present day. And it was only on the faith of 
Godar Singh's assurance that she would certainly be the mother of a great Ruler, that the 
Raja was induced to allow her to live, 



248 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Jind, presented him with six villages in the Karnal and Pani- 
pat districts, which he had just overrun ; but he had to sur- 
render them again shortly after, as the Raja was rapidly 
beaten back within the proper limits of his State. However, 
in those days land had not the value it now has, and to receive 
a present of a deserted village, with all the conditions attached 
of revenue payments, was often regarded by the donee more 
as a misfortune than a blessing. The next member of the 
family to acquire property was Bhai Mohar Singh, who early 
in the present century was given two villages by the Jind 
Raja, one by Sardar Hari Singh Khana, and one by the Sardar 
of Ladhwa. In 1807 Maharaja Ranj it Singh honoured him 
with a visit at Bagrian, on the occasion of his second invasion 
of the Cis-Satlaj districts. Mohar Singh acted up to the 
family reputation for hospitality, and received the villages of 
Sadhowala and Sujana in jagir from the Sikh Chief as a grant- 
in-aid towards the expenses of the langar. The Maharaja also 
presented him with five hundred maunds of salt, promising 
that this article should be in future supplied to the kitchen, 
without charge, from the stores of the Royal Palace. Raja 
Fatah Singh, Ahluwalia, of Kapurthala, who was with Ranjit 
Singh on this expedition, also presented Mohar Singh with a 
village named Gangrali. 

Mohar Singh died in 1820, leaving the property to his 
nephew Bahadar Singh, a minor, whom he adopted. The 
family affairs were looked after by his widow Mai Gohran, 
who was fortunately a clever woman ; for the growing power 
of the Bhais had begun to excite the envy of Raja Karm Singh 
of Patlala, who, by way of exercising authority as Suzerain, 
established a Tahsil and Thanna at Bagrian. For this un- 
justifiable trespass he was at once reported by the widow to 
Captain Murray, Political Agent, who requested the Raja to 
withdraw his posts. This order was duly complied with, but 
Karm Singh sat uneasy under the rebuke, and soon after he 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 249 

found means of setting Bahadar Singh against his mother 
from whom he demanded the surrender of his patrimony. 
But the widow appealed, again successfully, to Captain Murray, 
and she was allowed to hold the estates in life-tenure, it being 
considered certain that Bahadar Singh, if his own master, 
would fall an easy prey to his Patiala neighbours. When, 
however, Mai Gohran died in 1838, and the property was 
taken over by Bahadar Singh, it was found he was perfectly 
able to look after his own interests, as he fully proved in more 
than one victorious tussle with Maharaja Karm Singh. On 
one occasion, in 1840, under cover of active loyalty towards 
the British Government, the Maharaja sent one of his Colo- 
nels, Mansa Singh, to seize all the camels he could find in 
Bagrian for use in connection with the Afghan Campaign. 
The Colonel had not driven the camels very far before he was 
overtaken by Bahadar Singh, captured, and led back in 
triumph to Bagrian. Karm Singh, enraged at this act of 
insolent insubordination on the part of one whom he desired 
to treat as a vassal, sent a portion of his troops, including 
a solitary gun, to effect the Colonel's release, and level 
Bagrian village with the ground. But the ever watchful Chiefs 
of Jind and Nabha and Maler Kotla, who had no desire to 
see Patiala grow larger on a frivolous pretext, sent " armies 
of observation" to that neighbourhood, and Karm Singh 
withdrew his forces, re non effcda. Bahadar Singh had next 
to assert himself against the Raja of Faridkot, who, in 1840, 
seized the village of Talwandi, founded by Bhai Godar Singh, 
holding it with his horsemen, and building a mud wall around 
so as to convert it into a fort. But this time Bahadar Singh 
used the weapons of diplomacy, and complained to Sir George 
Clerk, who had just relieved Colonel Wade in charge of the 
British relations with the Panjab. The Raja was made to 
retire after pulling down the walls he had so hastily put up in 
token of possession. 



2 so CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Bhai Bahadar Singh was the first of his house who 
had the honour of receiving a seat in the Governor-General's 
Darbar. On his death, in 1847, seven of the jagir villages 
were resumed, and his son Sapuran Singh was confirmed 
in possession of one-fourth of Mauza Vandu (Firozpur) , half 
of Mahalan Kalahar and Ismailpur, and the whole of Sha- 
jahanpur, Umarpura, Thriki, Gangrali, Paharwal, Talwandi 
and Bagrian ; also in two-thirds of Ronta, Diwala and Ki- 
shangarh. During the Mutiny, Sapuran Singh behaved 
loyally, remaining under the orders of the Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Ludhiana with a small body of horse and foot, main- 
tained at his personal cost. For this service a year's revenue 
was remitted to him, and the commutation charge in lieu of 
service was reduced to one anna per rupee. In 1 860 he was 
made an Honorary Magistrate and Civil Judge in the Jhajar 
Ilaka. He died two years later, and was succeeded in the 
estates by his son Bhai Narain Singh, born in 1848. He 
has an income of about Rs. 1,700 per annum. He is inves- 
ted with the powers of a Magistrate and Civil Judge in 
Bagrian. His influence extends all over the Malwa country, 
and most of the Phulkians take the pahal at his hands. Sir 
Henry Davies, late Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjab, styled 
him some years back an excellent example to the rising 
generation of the Sikh aristocracy ; and a Deputy Commis- 
sioner, who had ample opportunity of judging, put him 
down as one of the most loyal and enlightened Raises of the 
Ludhiana district. He is a Viceregal Darbari. * 

* Bhai Narain Singh died after the above account was written. He has been succeeded 
by his adopted son Arjan Singh. 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 
SARDAR MAHTAB SINGH, LIDHRAN. 



25» 



Saedar Jai Singh, d. 17S4. 
Charat Singh, d. 1816. 



1 I 

Utam Singh, Wazir Singh, 

d. 1841. d, 1827. 

I 



I I , 

Ram Singh, Raja Singh, 
d. 1S28. d. 1847. 

I 



Atar Singh, 
d. 1831. 



I I 

Budh Singh, Chainan Singh, 
d. 1877. d. 187 r. 

I 
Mahtab Singh, 
b. 1847- 



Sham Singh, Nadhan Singh, 
b. 1837 d. 1887 

(children). (children). 



1 I 
Kishan Singh, Sahib Singh, 
d. 1884 d. 1878. 
(children). | 



Sher Singh. 



I 

Shamsher 

Singh. 



Ragbir Singh, Thakar Singh, Sarpat Singh, 
5, 1870. b. 1875. b. 1876. 



I 
Sangat Singh, 
b. 1820, 

I 
Two sons. 



Albel Singh, 
b. 1825. 



I 

Harnam Singh, 

3. 1828. 

I 

Two sons. 



I 
Hari Singh. 

Mansha Singh, 
b. 1847. 



■ I . 

Chatar Singh, 

3. 1843. 



Two other 
sons. 



Sardar Jai Singh was a Dharm Jat Sikh of the Manjha, 
living near Atari, in the Amritsar district. He joined the 
Nishanwala Confederacy, twelve thousand strong, in their 
invasion of the Cis-Satlaj tracts in 1763, when the battle of 
Sarhand was fought, and assisted at the seizure of Ambala, 
Shahabad, Lidhran, Amloh and Sarai Lashkar Khan. His 
share of the spoil was thirty-four villages around Lidhran 
and Kharar, roughly estimated to be worth Rs. 60,000 per 
annum. Jai Singh with his fellow Sikhs suffered defeat 
shortly afterwards at the hands of Ahmad Shah Durani, and 
had to abandon his holdings and take refuge in the hilly 
country north of Ambala. The Raja Aniar Singh of 



252 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Patiala took the opportunity of annexing the Kharar villages, 
and this led to a serious quarrel as soon as Jai Singh found 
himself strong enough to return and claim what he con- 
sidered his own. The matter was subsequently compromised 
by the rendition by Patiala of four of the villages. Jai Singh 
was a man of consequence, and the Raja Jaswant Singh of 
Nabha felt honoured by receiving his daughter in marriage. 
But, like many others of the minor Sardars, he and his son 
Charat Singh, after him, lived in constant fear of being 
swallowed up by the powerful Ruler of Patiala. Charat 
Singh was glad to accept British protection when it was 
offered in 1809. He accompanied General Ochterlony's 
force into the Simla Hill country in the campaign against the 
Nipal General, Amar Singh Thapa, in 18 14, and gave good 
help in the matter of carriage and supplies. On his death 
his lands were divided into three equal portions, represent- 
ing the numbers of his wives — the sons of each wife taking 
a third share. This splitting-up of the property had the 
effect of weakening the position of the family, and they 
were obliged in the same year to place themselves under the 
protection of the Nabha Chief, agreeing to supply him with 
fifty horsemen, and to come to him in full strength whenever 
he required their services. But they still strove to maintain 
their independence in all respects, save the obligation to 
assist against a common foe, while the Raja Jaswant Singh 
was more than ever anxious to hasten on the day when the 
Lidhran family must merge as common vassals with his other 
subjects. A struggle thus went on for some years, the Raja 
doing all in his power to bring his weaker neighbours under 
subjection ; the brothers steadily resisting the attempts of the 
Raja to deprive them of the position their grandfather and 
father had won and maintained. The question was taken up in 
1827 by Sir Charles Metcalfe, Agent to the Governor-General 
in Dehli, on the joint representation of the Lidhran and 
Sonti Sardars, and referred by him to Captain Murray, 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 253 

who considered that although the Chiefs should continue to 
furnish contingents for service to the Raja, they must 
be protected from his oppression, and their disputes heard 
and decided by the British Agent at Ambala. But the 
Resident held the Sardars to be dependants of Nabha, 
and that any interference on the part of the British 
Government would injuriously affect the position of the 
Raja. The case was again taken up by Sir George Clerk 
in 1836, when this view was somewhat modified. The Chiefs 
had for some years, it was admitted, rendered suit and ser- 
vice to the Raja, and their obligation to do so had been main- 
tained on many occasions by the British Government. The 
Government of India did not, therefore, deem it expedient to 
declare the Sikhs of Sonti and Lidhran altogether indepen- 
dent of Nabha. The complaints which they had made of 
harassing and perpetual demands for service were neverthe- 
less regarded, and the Raja was directed to dispense 
with their services altogether, except on the occasion of the 
birth of a son, the marriage of one of his sons or daughters, 
the death of the reigning Prince, or in time of actual war.* 
This decision satisfied neither party. The ill-feeling continued, 
and exists in a measure to this day. In 1851 Government 
admitted the claim of the Raja to feudal supremacy, and 
withdrew its own criminal jurisdiction ; but this was rescind- 
ed later on, and in i860, when a Sanad was granted by 
Lord Canning to the Raja Bharpur Singh, the Lidhran Sar- 
dars were excluded in the Schedule from the list of Feuda- 
tories and Tributaries of the Nabha State. 

The Lidhran Sardars have always loyally assisted the 
Government when occasion has required their services. They 
supplied horses, grain and carriage to the army of the Satlaj 
in 1845, and again in 1848 in connection with the suppression 
of Multan rebellion. During the Mutiny the family rallied 

* Vide Griffin's Kajas of the Puttjab, 



254 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

round the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana. Sardars Budh 
Singh, Kahan Singh, Sahib Singh and Albel Singh took up 
duty as a personal escort to Mr. Ricketts, while Sardars 
Chaman Singh and Ram Singh helped to hold Jagraon with 
a body of their own horsemen. 

Sardar Budh Singh died in 1877. His chair in Vice- 
regal Darbars, as senior member of the family, is 
occupied by his son Mahtab Singh. The other Darbaris 
are Sardars Harnam Singh, Hari Singh, Albel Singh 
and Sham Singh. The three former are the sons of Sardar 
Utam Singh, who was present with our army in Kabul 
during the first campaign. Sardars Hari Singh and Albel 
Singh are the most distinguished of the brothers. Hari 
Singh was present as a boy in Major Broadfoot's camp when 
the battles of Firozshahr and Mudki were fought. Shortly 
after the Mutiny broke out he acted on orders received from 
Sir John Lawrence and raised and equipped a full troop, which 
became a portion of the 12th Bengal Cavalry. He received 
the rank of Rasaldar, and fought well all through the 
campaign. He has also done good service in Abyssinia 
and Afghanistan. He retired in 1885 on a pension of 
Rs. 1,080 per annum, after holding a Rasaldar's commission 
for twenty-three years, during which period he earned 
and maintained the highest regard and respect of every 
officer with whom he served. He enjoys the title of Sardar 
Bahadar. 

Still more distinguished is Sardar Albel Singh. After 
helping the Deputy Commissioner at Ludhiana in the earlier 
stages of the Mutiny, he elected for active service and joined 
Watson's Horse, now the 13th Bengal Lancers, bringing with 
him one hundred sowars and receiving the rank of Rasaldar. 
He fought splendidly in many battles beside his gallant 
Commander General John Watson, V. C, who in 1876 wrote 
to his old comrade as follows: — " If any one should ask 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 25-5 

anything concerning you, show him this letter, and he will 
read that for seventeen years I have known you a valuable ser- 
vant of the State and never ceased to regard you as a personal 
friend, and to esteem you for your many good qualities of 
head and heart." Sirdar Albel Singh was entrusted for 
years with the enlistment and management of the Sikhs of 
his regiment, and his tact and intelligence secured him the 
love and esteem of all the men, who regarded him in the light 
of a father. He possesses handsome testimonials from many 
distinguished officers who knew him well, including Sir Hugh 
Gough, General R. C. Low, and Colonel Macnaghten. 
He took part in the Afghan War of 1879, ^^id was in Egypt 
with the Expedition in 1882. Lord Northbrook conferred 
upon him the title of Rai Bah adar in 1875. He was for a 
short time an Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency Lord Napier 
of Magdala, and he was attached as Orderly Officer to his 
Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in 1876. At the close 
of the Egyptian Campaign he visited England and received 
his War Medal from the hand of Her Majesty the Queen- 
Empress ; obtaining at the same time the rank of Rasaldar- 
Major in his old regiment. He is now a pensioner, receiv- 
ing Rs. 1,560 per annum. He has been given three thou- 
sand acres of land in the Shahpur district, which he is rapidly 
bringing under cultivation. The assessment, Rs. 562, has 
been remitted In acknowledgment of his gallant services. 

Sardar Singh's son Chatar Singh is a Rasaldar in his 
father's regiment. Many of his relatives have taken military 
service. 

The Lidhran family cannot be said to be in flourishing 
circumstances in the present day, and were it not for remit- 
tances of savings made by those who are in military 
employment, many of its members would be in a state of 
comparative poverty. The jagir comprises the revenues of 



256 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

twenty-five villages in Ludhiana and four in the Ambala dis- 
trict, yielding Rs. 24,000 annually. But it is split up amongst 
numerous branches of Charat Singh's descendants, and Mr. 
Gordon Walker, late Settlement Officer of Ludhiana, is of 
opinion that in another generation or two the shares will be 
insufficient for their maintenance. 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 257 

SARDAR GANDA SINGH OF DHIRU INIAZRA. 



Rai Singh. 

I 
Chet Singh. 

I 
Utam Singh. 



1 I i. 

Daya Singh. Sher Singh. Lehna Singh. 

i I I 

Ganda Singh. Bishan Singh. Fatah Singh. 

The Jhabu and Dhiru Mazra jagirdars of the Samrala 
Tahsil, Ludhiana, are now only of small importance. Mn 
Gordon Walker, Settlement Officer, says of them : — " There is 
little to distinguish these men from the Jats around them, 
except their extravagance ; and not one of them is in service." 
The founder, Rai Singh, a Kang Jat from Amritsar, entered 
the Malwa country about 1763, and secured sixteen villages 
to the south-west of Khana. After a long struggle for 
independent existence, the holders found themselves swal- 
lowed up by the Raja of Patiala, who annexed the villages to 
his own State. An appeal made to Mr. Fraser, Resident at 
Dehli, resulted in the restoration of eight of them to the 
Mazra Sardars, who thenceforward came under British pro- 
tection, furnishing three sowars for duty at the Samrala 
Tahsil in token of feudal service. Sardar Utam Singh about 
this time took up his abode at Dhiru Mazra, dividing off the 
villages with his nephew Gurbakhsh -Singh, who thencefor- 
ward became the head of the Jhabu Mazra branch. The 
family was of assistance to Government during the Sikh War, 
furnishing supplies and helping with carriage. 

Sardar Ganga Singh is a Zaildar, a member of the Dis- 
trict Board, and a Viceregal Darbari. He has lately received 
the acknowledgments of Government for having built a school 
in his village. His jagir share yields Rs. 1,903 per annum. 
He is owner of eleven hundred bigas of land in the Samrala 
Tahsil, and of forty-five bigas in Mauza Ghamapur, Amritsar. 



2S8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

FAIZ TALAB KHAN OF RAIKOT. 



Rai Imam Bakhsh Khan, 

d. 1886. 

I 

I I I 

Faiz Talab Khan, Amir Khan, Fatah Khan, 

b. 1848. b. 1854. b. 1857. 

I ! 

Inayat Khan, Bahawal Khan, 

b. 1877. b. 1882. 

The late Rai Imam Bakhsh Khan was the nephew of 
Rani Bhag Bhari, who nominated him as her successor. 
The last of the male issue was Rai Alyas, who died in 1802. 
He was succeeded by his mother the Rani Nur-ul-Nisan, 
after whom followed the Rani Bhag Bhari. The family is 
of Hindu Rajput origin, tracing itself back to the Chandar 
Bansi dynasty. The present representative is Faiz Talab 
Khan, a Viceregal Darbari, living at Raikot, in the Ludhiana 
district. 

Mention is frequently made of the Chiefs of Raikot in 
Griffin's Rajas of the Panjab. Their ancestor Tulsi Ram, 
a Hindu Rajput, left Jasalmir early in the fourteenth century 
and settled at Chakar, in the Jagraon district, adopting the 
Mahomedan faith. He took the name of Shekh Chaku. His 
grandson, Rai Chaku, occupied a high post under Sultan 
Alaudin Ghori, who made over to him the revenues of 
thirteen hundred villages south of the Satlaj, subject to an 
annual payment of five lakhs of rupees. The family con- 
tinued to prosper, and for many generations ruled the country 
between Ludhiana and Ambala. One of them, Rai Ahmad, 
founded the existing town of Raikot in 1648. Jagraon was 
built by his nephew Rai Kamaludin, whose son Rai Kulha 
was the first of the famil}^ called upon to protect the patrimony 
from the incursions of the Manjha Sikhs. This he effectively 
did with the aid of Shah Ali Khan, Nazim of Sarhand. But 
they took advantage of his death and of the minority of his 
successor, Rai Alyas, to try their fortunes once more in the 
Malwa country. The celebrated Bedi Sahib Singh of Una, 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 259 

who four years earlier had devastated Maler Kotla with sword 
and fire, swept down upon Raikot in 1798 at the head of 
numerous rabble, announcing his determination to exterminate 
the kine-killing race whose presence polluted the land. 
Jagraon, Raikot and Ludhiana were speedily overrun, and a 
fierce battle was fought at Jodh, where the Raikotia made a 
gallant stand under Roshan Khan ; but their leader was killed 
towards the end of the day, and victory remained with the 
Sikhs. The Bedi was, however, obliged ultimately to retire 
upon Ludhiana, pressure having been put upon him by the 
Phulkian Chiefs whose aid the Raikotias had sought. The 
Sikhs of Ludhiana opened the gates of the city to the Bedi, 
but the fort held out, defended by Hasan Khan. It was re- 
gularly invested, and would no doubt have fallen had not Rai 
Alyas in his last extremity sent for the celebrated George 
Thomas of Hissar, who was only too happy to fight when loot 
was to be the reward. George Thomas was not, however, 
destined to draw his sword on this occasion, for the Bedi 
hastily raised the siege on hearing of his approach, and betook 
himself to his home beyond the Satlaj. 

But Raikot only escaped the ravages of the Bedi to be 
ruined by a more terrible foe. The Phulkian Chiefs were at 
this period fighting amongst themselves. The weak-mind- 
ed Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala was completely in the hands 
of his violent-tempered, semi-masculine wife, the Rani Aus 
Kaur. This lady had involved her husband in a quarrel with 
the Rajas of Nabha and Jind, in which much blood was shed 
on both sides. Ultimately, the Jind Raja Bhag Singh, 
whose sister, Bibi Raj Kaur, was the mother of Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh, applied to his nephew for aid against the Rani 
Aus Kaur. This was most readily granted by the Maharaja, 
who was only too pleased to have an opportunity of interfer- 
ing in Cis-Satlaj politics. He did little to restore friendship 
between the contending parties, but he took the opportunity 



26q chiefs and families of note. 

of breaking up the Raipur Chlefship on the plea of avenging 
Bedi Sahib Singh's defeat, prompted, probably, by the feel- 
ing of fanatical hatred borne towards Mahomedans general- 
ly by the majority of his followers. " The Chief representa- 
tives (at Raikot) were at the time," writes Griffin, " two 
women, Nur-ul-Nisa, widow of Rai Alyas Khan, and Lachmi; 
but Ranjit Singh had no generosity, and preferred despoil- 
ing a widow to attacking a Chief who was better able to 
resist. From the plunder of this family, Raja Bhag Singh 
received the districts of Ludhiana, Jhandala, Kot, Jagraon 
and Basia, including fifty-four villages, of an annual rent 
of Rs. 23,260 ; Sirdar Gurdit Singh of Ladwa, the districts 
of Badowal, with portions of Jagraon, thirty-two villages 
worth Rs. 23,540; Raja Jaswant Singh of Nabha, portions 
of Kot Basia, Talwandi and Jagraon, thirty-one villages 
worth Rs. 26,590 ; Sirdar Fatah Singh, Ahluwalia, portions 
of Dhaka Kot, Basia, Jagraon and Talwandi, one hundred 
and six villages worth Rs. 40,505; Diwan Mohkam Chand, 
portions of Ghila, Kot, Jagraon and Talwandi, seventy-one 
villages worth Rs. 33,945; Sardar Basawa Singh, ten vil- 
lages, in Kot and Jagraon, worth Rs. 5,714; and Sardar 
Bhanga Singh, one village in Talwandi, worth Rs. 400." 

The Rani Nur-ul-Nisan thus found herself left with 
only Raikot and portions of Malha, Jhajewal, Hiran and Tal- 
wandi out of all the fertile country bequeathed her by Rai 
Alyas Khan. Nur-ul-Nisan was succeeded by Alyas Khan's 
widow, the Rani Bhag Bhari. She represented the interests 
of the family when the British forces fought the campaign 
on the Satlaj, and helped them to the best of her power with 
carriage and supplies. On her death in 1854 the property 
passed to her nephew and adopted son Rai Imam Baksh 
Khan. In lieu of jagir rights he was awarded a pension of 
Rs. 2,400, with a mafi grant of one hundred acres in Raikot. 
He behaved loyally in the Mutiny. His three sons are in 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 261 

receipt of allowances aggregating Rs. i ,800 per annum. Faiz 
Talab Khan, the eldest son, retains the mafi grant. Six hun- 
dred bigas, jointly owned by the brothers, is now all that 
remains to the once powerful Chiefs of Raikot. 

The family is proud of its Hindu Rajput origin, and 
many old Hindu customs are still observed in connection 
with marriages and other ceremonials. 



262 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR HARNAM SINGH OF BHERI. 



Rai Singh, 

d. iSio. 

I 

Ratan Singh, 
d. 1846. 



I I 

Sarmakh Singh, Gurmakh Singh. 



d. li 
I 



i I Lai Singh, 

Bishan Singh, Bhagwant Singh. d. 1887. 

d. 1877. I 



Harnam Singh, Harnam Singh, Naurang Singh, 

I'- 1844- b. 1856. b. 1842. 



I I 



I I I I I 

Jagdish Singh, Bakhshish Singh, Harden Singh, Baldeo Gursaran Gurdayal 

i>- 1880. b. 1883. i>, 1880. Singh, Singh, Singh, 

b. 1883. b. 1883. b. 1885. 

The Kotla Badla family, Tahsil Samrala, Ludhiana, is 
another of the many petty Chiefships, owing their origin and 
prosperity to the adventurous spirit of a Manjha ancestor who, 
when the Mahomedan power was weak, crossed the Satlaj 
and helped himself to as much as he was able to hold of the 
g-ood lands in the jMalwa. It is scarcely necessary to give 
an account of the fights which resulted in acquisitions, or of 
the struggles that were of every-day occurrence for their 
retention. Many of the stories now submitted for the manu- 
facture of history are manifestly exaggerated, and few of 
them are of interest to any one outside the family circle. 

Rai Singh's father Mahtab Singh was taken and killed 
for the murder of Masa Khan, Mahomedan Governor of Am- 
ritsar, in the time of Nadar Shah, about the middle of the 
last century. Rai Singh, then an infant, was saved from his 
father's fate by a sweeper who sheltered him v/hile the search 
was being prosecuted, and ultimately left him in a jungle. 
Here he was found by a Kambo woman, and taken to her 
husband's home. But he never lost his identity, and when 
he grew up, Sardar Sham Singh, founder of the Karora 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. z6^ 

SInghia Confederacy, gave him his daughter in marriage. 
He accompanied his father-in-law on most of his plundering 
expeditions, receiving his reward in villages, many of which 
are still held by the family. At Miran Kot he built a mud 
fort, and here he lived until his death in 1809. Of his four 
sons, the descendants of Gurbakhsh Singh and Kanwar Singh 
now reside at Kotla Badla, Ludhiana, while Ratan Singh's 
children have their head-quarters at Bheri, in the Samrala 
Tahsil. Ratan Singh was a man of culture. He was a good 
Persian scholar, and at the request of Captain Murray, Agent 
to the Governor-General, wrote a history called the Panth 
Parkash, of the various families then celebrated in the Pan- 
jab. He, moreover, rendered assistance in carriage and sup- 
plies during the Afghan War, and again when the troops 
were assembling for the campaign on the Satlaj ; his son, 
Gurmakh Singh, accompanying the army with four armed re- 
tainers. For these services, and others rendered in 1857, 
half the commutation payments were remitted by Govern- 
ment. Gurmakh Singh's best act, perhaps, was to found a 
school in his village, for which he duly received a khilat 
and Sanad. 

The present Sardar, Harnam Singh, is the son of Bishan 
Singh. The whole family jagir is worth Rs. 7,611 per 
annum, and of this Harnam Singh's share amounts to 
Rs. 1,600. He owns a village in Nabha and collects his 
dues in kind. He is on the list of Viceregal Darbaris. 



?64 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

MAULVI SAYAD SHARIF HASAIN OF JAGRAON. 



Sultan Mahomed. 

1 
Sayad AH Bakhsh. 

Maulvi Sayad Rajab Ali, 
d. 1869. 

I r 

Sharif Hasain, Sharif Hasain, 

i>. 1831. d. 1838. 



II I I I 
Ali Akbar, Abas Hasain, Mahomed Mustafa Hasain, Murtza Hasain, 
d. 1874. d. 1868. Mohsan, l>, 1869. d. 1878. 
I d. 1884. 
I 

1 I . , 

Ahmad, Sharif Ali, 

d. 1884. d. 1886. 

Sayad Sharif Hasain is the son of Maulvi Rajab Ali, 
one of the most worthy of the many excellent men who 
served Government in the days of the Board of Administra- 
tion at Lahore. The family is beyond doubt an old one, and 
of the highest respectability. Their ancestry dates back to 
Sayad Mahmud, a celebrated theologian, who, in 1502, left 
his home in Multan, and attached himself to Sakandar Lodi 
of Dehli. Fifty years later, in Akbar' s time, the Sayad was 
given a jagir of five hundred bigas near Batala, in the 
Gurdaspur district. The Emperor Jahangir increased the 
holding, and the family resided at Panjgrain, near Batala, 
for several generations. During the reign of Mahomed Shah, 
Sayad Mahomed Jafar was granted istamrari rights in 
twelve villages in the Ludhiana district, one of which, 
Talwandi, is still held by the family. They continued to 
flourish until the beginning of the present century, when 
Diwan Mul Chand, representative at Jalandhar of Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh, seized the jagir and reduced its holders to 
poverty. 

To Maulvi Rajab Ali was given the privilege of res- 
toring the fortunes of the family. We find him, in 1826, at 
the age of eighteen years, obtaining the Persian Essay Prize 



THE LUDHIANA DISTRICT. 265 

at the Dehli College, then the best educational institution in 
Upper India. He was not long in obtaining a small post 
in the office of the Political Agent at Ambala. He soon 
became Head Reader, and was sent forward in this capacity 
to Ludhiana, under Mr. Robinson, in 1839. Later on he 
accompanied the Lawrences to Lahore, and rapidly gained 
the confidence of the Panjab Chiefs and gentlemen with 
whom his work brought him in contact. The late Sir Herbert 
Edwardes held him in the highest esteem. In 1848 he re- 
corded of him as follows : — " I believe his judgment on 
questions of policy to be valuable, and that he has always 
proved to Sir Henry Lawrence a trustworthy depository of the 
most secret information. I hope also to be able to testify that 
the Maulvi, though a Sahib-i-kalain, is by no means afraid of 
the gleam of a shanishcr. He behaved with very great 
coolness and bravery in the Cow Riot in Lahore in 1846." 
This opinion was endorsed by Messrs. F. Currie, George 
Clerk, Melvill, Barnes, Montgomery and Temple, all of whom 
knew him well, and had ample opportunities of studying 
Rajab All's character. Sir Henry Lawrence, in recommend- 
ing him in 1853 as having earned the continuance in per- 
petuity of his ancestral jagir holding in mauza Aligarh, 
wrote : — " During the Lahore troubles I hardly know what 
we should have done without Rajab Ali ; and he has ever 
since been of the greatest use to me in all political arrange- 
ments and negotiations." 

The reward which Sir Henry Lawrence strove to obtain 
for him in 1853 was finally conferred by Lord Lawrence, 
Viceroy, in 1868. He received jagir assignments valued at 
Rs. 2,696 per annum in Aligarh and both Talwandis, Tahsil 
Jagraon, Ludhiana, " in consideration of most valuable 
services rendered to the State, at the time of the negotiations 
with the Ruler of the Panjab to obtain permission for the 
British Forces to cross the Sikh Frontier and proceed to 



266 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Afghanistan in the campaigns which led to the annexation 
of the Panjab, and during the Siege of Dehli in 1857." 
During the Mutiny the Maulvi's services were placed at 
the disposal of the Quartermaster-General before Dehli for 
the purpose of assisting Hodson in organizing and working 
the Intelligence Department, and he was thoroughly success- 
ful in the discharge of these important duties. He received 
cash rewards of Rs. 10,000 in recognition of his services 
during the Siege. 

The Maulvi was given the title of Khan Bahadar in 
1846 ; that oi Arastii Jah (the Aristotle of the age) in 1858. 
He died in 1869, beloved and regretted by all who had 
known him. 

Half the jagir of Rs. 2,696 has been continued to Rajab 
All's two sons. The elder, Maulvi Sayad Sharif Hasain, 
at the head of the family, is a Viceregal Darbari, a Zaildar, 
and a Member of the Municipal Committee of Jagraon, 
where he resides. He shares with his brother the income of 
about eleven hundred bigas of land in the Jagraon Tahsil, 
yielding Rs. 2,500 per annum. The brothers used to re- 
ceive each an allowance of Rs. 100 per mensem from the 
Maharaja of Patiala in consideration of his friendship for 
their father. But this bounty has recently been stopped. 
Sharif Hasain was, during his father's lifetime, for a few 
years in the service of Government as Nazir at Lahore, and 
as Naib-Mir Munshi in the Rajputana Agency. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 261 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 



NAWAB NAZAMUDIN KHAN OF MAMDOT.* 





Sultan 

1 


Khan. 






i 

Maujudin Khan. 
1 


1 
Mahomed Khan. 

ban. 




1 
Nazamudin Khan. 


1 
Kutbudin Kl 
1 




Fatahdin Khan. 


1 
Kah Khan. 


Jamaludin Khan, 
d. 1863. 

1 


i 

Jalaludin Khan, 

d. 1875. 

1 

Nazamudin Khan, 

6. 1862. 




i 

Khan Bahadar Khan 

d. 1S38. 

1 


1, M- 


ahon 


1 
tied Khan, 
1872. 


Shah Nawaz Khan, 
d. 1S83. 


Akbar Khan, 
i>. 1886. 


Fatahdin Khan, 
6. 1887. 





The ancient city of Kasur, situated some twenty miles 
to the south of Lahore, was, in 1570, by permission of the Em- 
peror Akbar, settled by a colony of Pathans, numbering about 
three thousand five hundred souls. Among these came from 
Kandahar the ancestorsof the Mamdot Chiefs of the Hasanzai 
tribe, and till the fall of the Mogal Empire, they lived at Kasur, 
sometimes traders, sometimes soldiers, as suited their inclina- 
tion or their means. When the Sikhs rose to power, they ex- 
perienced great opposition from the Pathan colony ; but in the 
end the Bhangi Confederacy overran and subdued the whole 
of the Kasur territory, under Sardar Gulab Singh ; and 
the two brothers, Nazamudin Khan and Kutbudin Khan, 
entered the service of the Conqueror. These young men, 

* From Griffin's Faitjah C/iie/s. 



268 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

however, were energetic and brave, and in 1794, with the 
aid of their Afghan countrymen, expelled the Sikhs entirely 
from Kasur, and established a Chiefship of their own. They 
were not left unmolested. Sardar Gulab Singh made frequent 
attempts to recover his lost territory, and later, the young Ran- 
jit Singh attacked the brothers several times without success- 

Nazamudin Khan joined vigorously in the cabal against 
Ranjit Singh in 1800, when that Chief obtained possession 
of Lahore, and the next year Kasur was more vigorously 
attacked, but Nazamudin held out, though he agreed to pay 
tribute to Ranjit Singh. In 1802, Nazamudin Khan was 
assassinated by his three brothers-in-law Wasil Khan, Haji 
Khan and Najib Khan, whom he had ousted from their jagirs. 
Kutbudin Khan has generally been accused of having been 
privy to the murder ; but he appears to have been absent from 
Kasur at the time, and on his return he stormed and took 
the fort of Azam Khan, whither the murderers had retired, 
and put Wasil Khan and Najib Khan to death, Haji Khan 
escaping to the Deccan. 

Ranjit Singh at the close of the year again invaded 
Kasur, but was not able to make much impression, and till 
1807, Kutbudin held his own, when the Maharaja again ap- 
peared with a strong army, and after a month's fighting, 
Kutbudin gave in, and agreed to retire to his territory of 
Mamdot, on the other side of the Satlaj, holding it in jagir, 
subject to the service of one hundred horsemen. Kutbudin and 
his brother had conquered Mamdot from the Rai of Raikot, in 
the year 1800, with the assistance of the Dogars, a turbulent 
Mahomedan tribe inhabiting the district. Ranjit Singh gave 
to Fatahdin Khan a jagir at Marup, in the Gugaira district, 
subject to the supply of the same number of horsemen as 
Mamdot. But Fatahdin Khan was not satisfied, and was 
always appealing to the Maharaja for the grant of Mamdot, 
which he considered his right. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 269 

At last, with the connivance of the Maharaja, in 1831, 
he crossed the river when his uncle's contingent was absent on 
service, and attacked him. The Dogars, ready for any change, 
joined him, and Kutbudin was defeated, severely wounded 
and driven out of the country, and he died soon after at Am- 
ritsar. Ranjit Singh now thought fit to interfere on the other 
side. He recalled Fatahdin, and confirmed Jamaludin Khan 
in his father's possessions. Once again Fatahdin tried his 
fortune, but the British Agent interfered, and the Maharaja 
ordered him back to Lahore. 

The Mamdot Chiefs were at no time invested with 
sovereign power, but were merely jagirdars ; feudatories of the 
Lahore Government. Lahore was the high court of appeal ; 
and there are many instances on record of fines imposed 
upon these Chiefs. In 1824, Kutbudin Khan was fined 
Rs. 12,567 for conniving at, and sharing in, the plunder 
of catde from the Lahore territories. In 1844 Jamaludin 
Khan was fined Rs. 11,100 for the murder of Suba Rai, 
the Lahore news-writer at his court, who had rendered 
himself obnoxious to the Chief by giving information of the 
disorders committed in the district. 

In 1845, before the Satlaj Campaign, Jamaludin Khan 
was told that if he stood on our side his possessions would be 
confirmed to him ; yet at Mudki and Firozshahr he fought 
against us, and in the latter battle his cousin Fatahdin 
Khan was killed. Only towards the end of the campaign, 
when he perceived where the victory would eventually be, did 
he turn round and render some trifling assistance to Sir John 
Littler, when that General was threatened by the Sikh army 
at Firozpur, which induced the Government to grant him 
sovereign powers and to confirm him in his possessions. In 
1848 his contingent, under his brother Jalaludin, behaved 



270 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

well at Multan, and Jamaludin was granted the title of Nawab 
and the contingent of one hundred horsemen was reduced to 
sixty in time of peace and seventy in war. 

Jamaludin Khan was an example of the danger of entrust- 
ing irresponsible power to a wicked and sensual man. During 
the Sikh times his tyranny had been notorious, but, under the 
British Rule, his power was increased, and his tyranny grew 
in the same proportion. His revenue system was but robbery 
extortion and violence. The Dogars were the especial objects 
of his hatred, for by their aid his father had been driven from 
the country; but all classes, Hindus and Mahomedans, felt his 
heavy hand. Robbery flourished under his protection, and even 
the property of British subjects was not secure from his gangs 
of thieves, who shared the booty with their master. At 
length all men of consideration or wealth left Mamdot. It 
had once been fertile and populous, with many wells and 
irrigation canals, but these were all falling to ruin ; the 
towns were deserted, and the corn-fields were again becomino- 
jungle. 

Retribution at length came. The British Government 
had, with its known policy, long refused to interfere with 
the internal arrangement of this State ; but affairs at 
length came to such a pass, and the voice of the people was 
so unanimous against their oppressor, that an investigation 
was, in 1855, made into the charges against the Nawab, and 
on their truth being established, he was deprived of his powers, 
and his territory was annexed to the Firozpur district. The 
Nawab was pensioned, and, till 1861, resided at Lahore. He 
then settled at Machiwara, in the Firozpur district, where 
he died, in March 1863, of apoplexy. 

Then came the question of succession as between the 
sons of Jamaludin Khan and his brother Jalaludin. The latter 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 271 

was in no way concerned in his brother's misgovernment' 
He was a brave and intelligent man, who had fought well in 
many battles. He was against us in 1845, but at Multan, in 
1848, he did good service under Lake, and later in the war, 
under Lumsden. His fidelity was at that time fully proved. 
He also behaved very well in 1857, and laid a camel dak 
from Firozpur to Bahawalpur, and his conduct was, at the 
time, highly spoken of by the authorities. 

Accordingly, in 1864, the Governor-General in Council 
declared Jalaludin, brother of the late Nawab, to be the Chief, 
to the exclusion of the sons of Jamaludin, with succession to 
his male issue, the law of primogeniture being established. On 
Jalaludin also was conferred the title of Nawab, to descend to 
the eldest son in regular succession ; and he was permitted to 
return and live at Mamdot. In 1870 he was invested with 
magisterial powers. He died in May, 1875, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Nazamudin Khan, the present Nawab, 
born in 1862. During his minority, which ceased in 1883, the 
estate was managed in the Court of Wards by the Deputy 
Commissioner of Firozpur. Its resources were considerably 
developed by the construction of important irrigation canals, 
which resulted in an increase in the annual income from 
Rs. 52,000 to Rs. 1,30,000. The present town of Jalalabad 
was founded in a healthy locality and at a distance of 
about twenty miles from the old capital of Mamdot, which had 
been partly washed away by river action. In fact, the property 
was made over to the Nawab in a most prosperous condition. 
Things have not thriven so well since 1883, and the Nawab 
is now in debt. He received a Commission from Her Majesty 
in 1885 as a Lieutenant in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry. His in- 
terest in matters connected with horse-breeding has been re- 
cognized by the bestowal upon him of a special diploma at the 
hands of the Viceroy. He is a keen sportsman and a splendid 
rider. No heir has yet been born to him. 



^72 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Nawab's first cousin, Khan Bahadar Khan, lives at 
Lahore. He receives an annual allowance of Rs. 6,000. 
His only brother, Mahomed Khan, who had been in receipt 
of a monthly pension of Rs. 400, died childless in 1872. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 273 

GURU BISHAN SINGH OF HARSAHAI. 





H 




GdRU JlWAN Mal. 








1 
Guru 
arsahai. 

1 


Gur Bakhsh 

Singh. 

1 

Children. 


1 
Ram 
Singh. 


Gurdial. 
Singh. 












1 






1 

Ginru Ajif 

Singh, 

d. 18 1 3. 

i 


1. 
t Nadhan .Singh, 

Children. 




1 
Guru A' 
Singh 

1 


mir 


Pahar 
Singh. 




Guru Gulab 

Singh, 

d. 1869. 

i 


Kahan 
Singh. 


Karatn 
Singh. ; 


1 
A tar 

Singh, 

Singh, 


1 
Fatah 
Singh, 


1 
Jaimal 
Singh, 








\ 
Guru Fatah 
d. 1878. 
1 




3uRU Bisi 
l>. 1 


HAN Singh, 
1854. 


i 
Autar 
Singh, 
b. 1S60 




1 

Kabul 
Singh, (/. 



About a hundred years ago there was a desert tract in 
the Mukatsar Tahsil, lying on the edge of the lands occupied 
by the Barars ?nd the Dogars, who were constantly quarrel- 
ling over its possession. Upon this waste, one Jiwan Mal 
came and pitched his tent. He was a Sodhi, seventh in 
descent from the celebrated Guru Ram Das. He had been 
driven from his home at Mahomedpur, near Chunian, in the 
Lahore district, by the Kardar who represented Ahmad 
Shah's government. No doubt he had made himself obnox- 
ious by a display of fanaticism against the rival religion. The 
Dogar Chief, Sultan, gave him protection and encouraged him 
to remain in the place, believing that his presence would in 
a measure stop the incursions of the Barars, and put an 
end to the disputes between the tribes. The Barars also 



274 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

regarded him with a favourable eye, as a priest of their own 
religion. He was thus permitted to establish a number of 
villages in the plain, and he fixed his boundaries by marking 
down the tracks of his horse's hoofs as he took a long circuit 
cne morning along the edge of the lands he fancied. He 
named the Ilaka Guru Harsahai, after his eldest son, who 
eventually took his father's place as head of the family. 
Jiwan Mai appears to have made friends later on with Ahmad 
Shah, for he was allowed to hold his lands free of revenue ; 
and the grant was renewed by Ranjit Singh when the 
Mahomedans disappeared from this part of the Panjab. In 
the time of Guru Gulab Singh, the jagir income of several 
villages in the Chunian Ilaka was assessed at Rs. 3,740 per 
annum. 

The religious influence of the family was very great 
throughout the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, and many 
of the Harsahai Sodhis were employed about the Court at 
Lahore, and accompanied the army on expeditions along the 
Frontier, when it was necessary to preserve the enthusiasm of 
the men at a high pitch. In making these journeys they seized 
the opportunity of recruiting followers under their own religi- 
ous banner from amongst the scattered Hindu families of the 
Western Panjab ; and they were, until quite recently, honored 
and revered by large numbers of Sikhs, not only in their im- 
mediate neighbourhood, but in Rawalpindi, Peshawar, Kohat 
and the Derajat. On the death, in 1869, of Guru Gulab Singh, 
only two-thirds of the jagir were continued to his successor, 
Fatah Singh, on a life-tenure. He was unfortunate in be- 
coming involved in quarrels with his own sons, and in his 
time much of the old influence of the family melted away. 
He was, moreover, on bad terms with Bishan Singh, his eldest 
son, and in order to despite him, made a gift of his property 
and of the Guru headship to his younger son Kabul Singh. 
A law-suit followed, in which Guru Bishan Singh was sue- 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 275 

cessful ; but the expenses of litigation seriously crippled 
the property. On the death of Fatah Singh in 1878, the 
jagir was temporarily resumed ; and it was re-granted to Guru 
Bishan Singh in 1885, under a Sanad from the Supreme 
Government. 

Guru Gulab Singh and Fatah Singh both exercised ma- 
gisterial powers within the limits of their jagirs. These privi- 
leges have not been continued to the present incumbent. The 
jagir holding is valued at Rs. 3,550 per annum, and the family 
are owners of nearly twenty-four thousand acres in nine villages 
of the Mukatsar Tahsil. Bishan Singh's income from all 
sources, including land rents and offerings of his co-religionists, 
is estimated at Rs. 20,000. His only son died at the age of 
fifteen, a few years ago. He has recently made a second mar- 
riage in the house of a Khatri family of Amritsar. He is 
President of the Local Board of Mukatsar, and has the 
privilege of a seat in Viceregal Darbars. 

Guru Gulab Singh had five half-brothers, sons by a 
Biluch lady. It is doubtful if they could establish a claim to 
the family headship in the event of Guru Bishan Singh dying 
without sons. There are descendants of Ram Singh and 
Gurdial Singh living at the old home in Chunian. The 
children of Gurbakhsh Singh and Nadhan Singh are estab- 
lished in the neighbourhood of Harsahai. 

Guru Bishan Singh, as head of the family, is the guardian 
of a sacred book [pothi] and rosary {viala), which originally 
bt^longed to Guru Nanak. They are objects of high venera- 
tion, and people travel long distances for the privilege of 
seeing them. 



276 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR BAHADAR SODHI MAN SINGH OF BUTAR. 



Guru Kaul. 

I. 
Kanwali Das. 

.1 
Abhai Ram. 

I 

Jaspat Singh 

i 



I I 

Didar Singh. Bishan Singh, 

fl'. 1826. 

I 



I I I 

Jawahat Singh, Jngat Singh, Bha^jat Sintrh, 

(i. 1838. </. 1S58. ,1 1S62. 



I I I 

Sahib Singh, Mahtab Singh. Gulab Singh, 

fl'. 1853. I d. 1S69. 

Children living Jawala Singh, 

in ]SJabha. U. 1869. 



I I 

Kajindar Indar Singh, 

Singh, d. 1855. 
//. 1 888. 



Ajit Singh. 



I I I 

Man Singh, Khazan Singh, Ulam Singh, 
<^. 1826. d. 1833. L 1849. 



Bhagwan Singh, Ram Singh, Karlar Singh, Kishan Singh, 

L 1826. d. 1879. d. 1834. l>. 1841- 

I 
Hukam Singh, 
d. 1844. 
I 
Ganda Singh, 
d. 1884. 

The Butar Sodhis are descended from Guru Maharban, 
Khatri, grandson of the fourth Guru Ram Das, and uncle of 
Arjan the sixth, from whom the Anandpur and Kartarpur 
Sodhis branch off. 

The Sodhis of Moga, Sodhiwala and Chuganwan are 
descended from Chandsain, the youngest son of Pirthi Chand, 
who was Guru Maharban' s father. The family became in- 
fluential in the time of Guru Kaul, who founded the village 
of Dhilwan, and also Kotha Guru in Patiala. These posses- 
sions were added to by Guru Abhai Ram, who was in the 
confidence of the Patiala and Nabha Chiefs. He founded 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 



277 



Guru Kot, and received in gift the village of Dila Ram from 
the Diwan of that name. His great-grandson Jawahar Singh 
was a man of note early in the century. He co-operated 
with Diwan Mohkam Chand, agent of the Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh, in the annexation of the smaller Cis-Satlaj Chiefships. 
They took possession of Zira, Mudki, Kotkapura, Badhni 
and Chuhar Chak. The last-named ilaka was bestowed upon 
Jahawar Singh. He founded Sibian, Sahu and Burj, and 
acquired Kaliki. In 1807, the villages of Manawan in the 
Zira Tahsil, and Dosanjh in Moga, were taken by the Maha- 
raja from the family of Tara Singh Gheba, and conferred 
upon Jawahar Singh as a reward for services rendered in 
many expeditions, including Multan and Peshawar. ]\Iaha- 
raja Sher Singh gave him half of Khirkiwala and Nathewala. 
His brothers, Jagat Singh and Bhagat Singh, were associat- 
ed with Jawahar Singh in the Chuhar Chak Jagir ; and their 
descendants now hold the village of Butar. This is all that 
now remains to the Sodhis in that neighbourhood. Sahib 
Singh and Gulab Singh, sons of Jawahar Singh, joined the 
British at the time of the Satlaj Campaign. The following 
villages were confirmed to them : — 

To Sahib Singh : — Dhilwan, Burj Sarai, Gurukot, and 
half of Khirkiv/ala, all in Faridkot or Patiala. 

To Gulab Singh : — Manawan in Zira, Dosanjh, Kaliki, 
Sibian, Sahuki in Moga, and Bahbalpur in Ambala. 

Rasulpurin the Hushiarpur district, was released to the 
sons of Sahib Singh in life-tenure. Half of Dila Ram was 
released to Gulab Singh and half to the Butar branch 
for maintenance of the SamadJi of Guru Bishan Singh. Mah- 
tab Singh took his share from the family holding in the Na- 
bha State. In 1853 the sons of Sahib Singh acquired owner- 
ship in the village of Chotia in the Moga Tahsil by paying 
the accumulated arrears of revenue due by the former 



278 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

proprietors. They behaved well in the Mutiny, and received 
khilats in recognition of their loyalty. 

Gulab Singh's jagir lapsed at his death in 1869. 

Sodhi Hukam Singh, son of Ram Singh of Dhilwan, en- 
tered the public service in 1866. He became IVIir Munshi 
in 1875, and held that office for twelve years. He was ap- 
pointed a Subordinate Judge in 1887, and has recently been 
deputed for duty under the Maharaja of Bikanir. He owns, 
in addition to his ancestral property, sixteen hundred acres 
in Bhatianwala in the Lahore district. His share of the jagir 
amounts to about Rs. 900, and the income of his lands to 
Rs. 8,000. 

Sodhi Man Singh, the eldest son of Sodhi Jagat Singh, 
served in the Police for a short time after annexation. He 
helped in the matter of supplies and carriage during the 
Mutiny, and his services were again conspicuous when the 
Kukas gave trouble at Maler Kotla in 1872. He is a Magis- 
trate and Civil Judge, and has the name of being a most 
energetic officer, disposing of a remarkable amount of work 
in an admirable manner, thereby affording considerable relief 
to the ordinary Courts of the district. He also works as 
Sub-Registrar in his Tahsil. His name was placed on the 
Viceroy's list of Darbaris in 1872. Plve years later he re- 
ceived the rank of Assistant Commissioner, carrying with it 
full magisterial powers ; and he has on three occasions re- 
ceived a valuable khilat in public Darbars in recognition of 
his excellent services. In 1882 he was given the title of Sar- 
dar Bahadar. Sodhi Man Singh's brother Utam Singh is a 
Tahsildar in the Province. 

Sodhi Rajindar Singh died suddenly at Faridkot in 
December, 1888. He was an Honorary Magistrate in the 
circle of villages around Baghaparana in the Moga Tahsil 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT, 279 

where he lived. Rajindar Singh was always forward in the 
performance of loyal services, especiilly in encouraging Sikhs 
of a good stamp to take service in our regiments. His in- 
come from jagir and land rents was about Rs. 9,500. His 
son Ajit Singh was for a short period a Naib-Tahsildar. 

Sodhi Indar Singh is sole owner of the large village of 
Sulan Khanwala in the eastern p^rt of the Firozpur Tahsil, 
which was purchased by Sodhi Jagat Singh. This and his 
other landed properties and jagirs yield him an income of 
Rs. 1 1,000 per annum. He exercises the powers of an Hono- 
rary Magistrate in his Ilaka. 

Sodhi Khazan Singh, brother of Sodhi Man Singh, was 
appointed an Honorary Magistrate in 1888. 

Sodhi Man Singh, with his brother and cousins, owns two 
or three villages in the north of the Mukatsar Tahsil, and 
enjoys the jagir of those villages and of half the village of 
Butar, worth about Rs. 4,000 per annum. These jagirs were 
granted for the lives of Sodhi Jagat Singh's sons ; but by their 
consent the sons of Sodhi Bhagat Singh enjoy two-fifths of 
the income. One-fourth of the grant is in perpetuity. 



28o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



BHAI ZABARJANG SINGH OF JHAMBA. 

Bhai Budha Sinc;h, d. 1774. 
I 

I , ^ I 

Bhai Te - Singh, Four other sons. 

J. 1794. 
I 
Bhai Ran Singh. 

Bhai I'aujdar Singh, </. 1822. 

I 



I I 

Bhai Mahar Singh, Bhai Ganda Singh. 
tL 1841. _ I 

I Bhai Marnam Singh. 

Shih Saran Singh. 



1 I I 

Bhai Ivanjang Bhai Fatahjang Bhai Zaiiarjang 
Singh, Singh. Singh, 

d, 1849. /' 1S38. 



I I 

Bhai Shih Sham Bhai Kaul Singh, 

Singh, d. 1864. /'. 1867. 



I I 

Bhai Jawala Singh. Bhai Sher Singh. 

Bhai Zabarjang Singh is a Barar Sidhu Jat Silvh of 
the same stock as the ruhng family in Faridkot. He lives 
at Jhamba, in the Mukatsar Tahsil, and has a perpetual 
jagir-holding in five villages, which yields Rs. 3,137, after 
deducting the Government commutation charge of Rs. 448, 
taken in lieu of personal military service. His lands bring him 
in about Rs. 1,200 per annum. He is one of the leading 
Darbaris in the Firozpur district, and is exempted from 
personal attendance in our Civil Courts. He is a member 
of the Mukatsar Local Board. 

Bhai Budha Singh took part in the union of Sikh 
Confederacies in 1762, which attacked Sarhand and captured 
it from the Mahomedan Governor Zin Khan, who was slain. 
The spoils were divided amongst the victors according to 
the amount of assistance rendered, and Budha Singh re- 
ceived as his share the village lands of Sarhand, a camel- 
swivel and one hundred and fifteen matchlocks. 



THE FIROZPVR DISTRICT. iSt 

He returned to Jhamba, and shortly afterwards took 
possession of twenty-eight villages in the Bahor Ilaka. He 
next joined with Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Chief of Kot 
Kapura, and Bhai Desa Singh, in the spoliation of Bahak 
Bodla, which was divided among the allies in the usual 
fashion, Budh Singh receiving one-eighth. He died at 
Kaithal after a fighting career of thirty-four years, in which 
period he managed to acquire lands yielding Rs. 84,000 in 
revenue. His son Tek Singh was killed in an endeavour 
to push the family boundaries beyond what his father 
had bequeathed him. Ram Singh, nephew of Tek Singh, 
exchanged the Sarhand lands for twelve villages in the 
Adampur Ilaka, with the Maharaja of Patiala. In the time 
of his successor Faujdar Singh, the Babarpur possessions were 
lost in a quarrel with the Raja of Nabha. After Faujdar 
Singh came Mahar Singh, who, in 1835, received five villages 
in the Jhamba Ilaka from the Maharaja Karam Singh of 
Patiala, in exchange for Bahor lands. But owing to a quarrel 
over the details the Maharaja refused possession ; and in 
the fight which followed, Mahar Singh was worsted. He 
promptly placed himself under the protection of the Gover- 
nor-General's Agent at Ambala, who decided the case in 
his favour ; and the villages were duly made over. The 
brothers Mahar Singh and Kandla Singh effected a partition 
of the property in 1838, when the country was taken over 
by the British. The former received the villages of Jhamba- 
Hasana, Bahujatri, Piori and Ghagar, with half of Bahubian 
and a portion of Bahak Bodla. Mahar Singh died in 1841. 
He is supposed to have been poisoned by his brothers-in- 
law, who were desirous of securing the management of the 
estate during the minority of his sons. They were duly- 
appointed agents of the property ; but their oppression of 
the cultivators made them so unpopular that Bhai Kandla 
Singh, brother of the deceased, attacked and slew them 
with the approbation of the country side. This crime was 



282 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

punished by the confiscation of all the family jagirs, small pen- 
sions being fixed for the maintenance of Kandla Singh and 
his relatives. The case was made the subject of a revised 
order by the Board of Administration in 1850, when Bhai 
Zabarjang Singh was reinstated in his father's jagir-holdings 
in Jhamba, Ghagar and part of Bahak Bodla. Three ladies 
of the family were given jagirs in Husana and Bahus Khurd 
and Kalan, with reversion to Bhai Zabarjang. One of them 
is still holding the village of Bahu Kalan. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 



283 



SARDARSUCHET MAHOMED OF DHARAMSINGHWALA. 



Sarhana. 



Amrika. 
1 
Sardar Tara Singh, 
Gheba. 



Bhumia. 



Sardar 
Singh, 


Dharam Kaur Singh, Dargana Sin 
d. 1815. J. 1792. ^- 1757- 
1 


1 

Mohar Singh, 

^. 1815. 


Dal Singh, 
d. 1825. 


Sher Singh 
^. 1836. 


.1 1 . 
Gurdit Singh, Dava Singh. 
d. i86i. 1 



SucHET Singh Bakhshish Singh. 
(now known as I 

SucHET Mahomed), Narain Singh, 
i. 1856. 

Bhanga Singh, 
b. iSSj. 

Suchet Mahomed is the great-grandson of Dharam Singh, 
first cousin of the celebrated Sardar Tara Singh, Gheba, whose 
history has been given in another chapter. These Chiefs 
joined the Bhangi Sardars in the sack of Kasur in 1758, 
enriching themselves with the booty. They grew in power 
and acquired large estates in the Nakodar Tahsil of the 
Jalandhar Doab and in Firozpur. They took Dharamkot 
from the Rais of Raikot, and strengthened their position by 
building a mud fort within the village. They also captured 
Ramanwala and Mari in the Moga Tahsil. 

Kaur Singh, brother of Dharam Singh, took Kang in 
Nakodar and Fatahgarh Panjtar, an important place in the 
Zira Tahsil. His descendants now live in the Jalandhar 
district. The brothers separated in 1768. Dharam Singh 
founded the existing village of Dharamsinghwala and made it 
his head-quarters. JMaharaja Ranjit Singh gave him a cluster 
of villages in the neighbourhood, taking away from him the 



2S4- CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Lohian Ilaka in Nakodar, north of the Satlaj. His grandson 
Sher Singh was killed at Peshawar in 1836, fighting under 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gurdit Singh and Dava Singh were 
confirmed at annexation in the jagirs which they had inherited 
on the death of their father Dharam Singh ; comprising the 
villages of Dharamsinghwala, Ramgarh, Khera Daroli and 
Milak Akalian in Tahsil Zira, and half of Mahla Khurd in 
Tahsil JMoga. This last village was afterwards exchanged 
for Shadiwal, Sayad Mahomed and Rajanwala, all in the Zira 
Tahsil. To Dava Singh fell Phida, Kot Karor and Kotla in 
Tahsil Firozpur. 

Gurdit Singh, who- was an Honorary Magistrate, died in 
1 86 1. He had received a khilat and Sanad for services ren- 
dered during the Mutiny. 

Suchet Singh, son of Gurdit Singh, married a Mahomedan 
lady in 1884, and adopted her religion, taking the name of 
Suchet Mahomed. The relatives of his Hindu wife have 
obtained the conveyance to her infant son, Bhanga Singh, of 
half the property, both jagir and ownership rights. These 
latter are included in the jagir villages of Dharamsinghwala, 
Ramgarh and Khera Daroli, and the khalsa villages of Rawal 
and part of Milak Akalian. The value of the jagir, according 
to the new assessments of 1888, is Rs. 1,492. 

The descendants of Dava Sinq-h reside in Lahore. 



- THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 285 

SARDAR AMAR SINGH OF MANSURWAL.* 



Saman Singh. 
I 



i I 

Sapha Singh. Dal Singh. 



I 
Fatah Singh. 



I I I I I . 

Dava Singh, . Sawa Singh, Panjab Singh, Vir Singh. \^ nzir Singh, 
i>. 1S02. b. 1824. d. 1834. I 



Sant Singh, Gurdit Singh, Hardit Singh, 

l>. 1S48. i. 1834.^ d. 1S38. 



I I I 

Amar Singh, Isar Singh, Karpal Singh, 

i. 1856. </. 1866. d. 1873. 



About five hundred years ago there lived in the Firozpur 
district a Jat Zamindar named Gil, of Rajput Ragbansi des- 
cent. He must have been a man of some wealth, for he 
was the happy owner of two wives and seven concubines ; 
but, although of mature years, he had no children. At 
length one of his wives became pregnant, to the vexation of 
the other women who fancied the affection of their lord 
would be all given to her who should bring him a child, per- 
haps a son and heir. They, accordingly, when a son was 
born, stole it away and carried it far into the jungle where 
they left it to perish, placing in the mother's bed a large 
stone, of which they asserted she had been delivered. The 
next day the family bard, wandering in the jungle, saw, with 
astonishment, a lion, common in those days to the south of 
the Satlaj, licking and fondling a new-born child. He ran 
home to tell the strange news, and returning with assistance, 
drove away the beast and brought the child to Gil, by whom 
the conspiracy was discovered, and the boy, to whom the 
name of Shergil (or Lion-Gil) was given, acknowledged to 
be the rightful heir. After this, by his slave girls, Gil had 
eleven other sons, whose descendants are still numerous in 
many parts of the Panjab. Shergil had four sons. The 

* In the original edition of Griffin's Fanjab Chiefs. 



286 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

two youngest died without issue ; but from the eldest, Rana 
Dhar, has descended the great house of Majitha, and from 
Jubal the second, Dava Singh, in the twentieth generation, 
and the founders of the Nishanwala Misal. Such is the tradi- 
tional origin of the Jat tribes, Gil and Shergil. 

Sawan Singh, the great-grandfather of Dava Singh, 
was third cousin of Sangat Singh, the leader of the Nishan- 
wala Confederacy, of which he himself was a member, al- 
though he does not seem to have been of a very warlike 
disposition. Sapha Singh was one of the Sardars who held 
Sonti so gallantly against Jaswant Singh, Raja of Nabha, 
and subsequently his own fort of Jahangir against Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh, who had besieged it in 1806. The fort would 
have fallen but for the remonstrances of Bedi Sahib Singh, 
to whom Sapha Singh had given a tenth of his jagir, and 
who persuaded Ranjit Singh to raise the siege. Sapha 
Singh would not enter the Maharaja's service ; but his son 
Fatah Singh did so, and under Diwan Mohkam Chand be- 
came a very distinguished soldier. He received Jahangir 
Burj and Barampur in jagir, besides large cash allowances. 
He accompanied Diwan Karpa Ram to Kashmir, and remained 
high in his favour till his recall and disgrace, when the jagirs 
of Sardar Fatah Singh north of the Satlaj were resumed, 
and he retired to the Cis-Satlaj estate of Sonti, where he 
remained till his death, although the Maharaja more than 
once tried to induce him to return to Lahore. 

Dava Singh entered the service of the Maharaja in 18 16, 
at a very early age. He went to Kashmir with his father, 
and when the latter retired across the Satlaj, he received 
the command of two hundred and fifty of his sowars, and 
the charge of the Ilaka of Durpana. After a year and a half he 
was placed under the orders of Sardar Lahna Singh Majithia, 
who made him commandant of the regiment of his brother 
Gujar Singh, the black sheep of the Majithia family. In 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 287 

1834 he accompanied the young Sardar to Calcutta on a 
mission half complimentary, half political. On his return 
he was transferred to the Dhonkalvvala regiment as comman- 
dant. He did not, however, join his new corps, but remained 
with Sardar Lahna Singh. In 1842 he was transferred to 
the Gurkha regiment, with which he did service in Hazara. 
Under the Darbar he was posted at Dera Ismail Khan in 
command of the Surajmukhi regiment, and when the out- 
break at Multan took place, he proceeded with his regiment 
to join Edwardes and Van Cortlandt, with whom he 
served throughout the campaign. He was present at the 
battle of Kaneri, on the i8th June, 1848 ; the batde of 
Sadosam on the ist July, and during the first siege of 
Multan. When the Katarmukhi regiment was disaffected 
and ready to join the rebels, Dava Singh was transferred 
to it that he might repress its disposition to mutiny, and 
improve its discipline. After the fall of Multan, he marched 
with his regiment to Isakhel, and had there several skirmishes 
with the Waziris, in which he showed his known courage 
and energy. 

When the Panjab Military Police was formed in 1853, 
Dava Singh was selected to raise and command the 7th 
Police Battalion at Amritsar. After the native corps had 
been disarmed at Amritsar, on the outbreak of the 
mutinies of 1857, this battalion was the only armed force at 
that important station, to watch the two disarmed regiments 
of Hindustanis; to preserve order in the city; to guard 
the treasury, and to uphold the Civil authority ; and that this 
work was so well and successfully performed must 
be in a great measure attributed to the energy, ability and 
unswerving loyalty of Dava Singh. He also rendered great 
assistance in raising levies for service at Dehli, and during 
1857-58 a very large number of recruits were enlisted and 
sent down country by him. For his services, Dava Singh 



388 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

was granted the Star of British India with the title of Sardar 
Bahadar, and a personal allowance of Rs. 1,200 a year. 

On the re-organisation of the Panjab Police, and the 
disbandment of the old force, on the ist January, 1861, Dava 
Singh retired after a long and honorable military career. 
He received a special pension of Rs. 3,000 per annum, and 
a grant of six hundred acres of waste land, the proprietary 
rights in which his family will hold in perpetuity. 
He died in 1872. His son Amar Singh has received a 
good education, and was for some time a candidate for employ- 
ment as a Tahsildar ; but he has not taken service. He 
acts as Secretary to the Local Board of Zira, and is the 
Zaildar of his Ilaka. He lives at INIansurvval. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 



SARDAR KHAN, KASURIA.* 



Mahomed Hayat Khan. 

I 
Usman Khan, 



Madat Khan. 



Abdul Rahman Khan. 
I 



Suliman Khan, 



I I I 

Burhan Khan. Subhan Khan. Sultan Khan. 

I I 

Sham=udin Khan, Kadar Bakhsh Khan. 

d. iS68. I 

Usman Khan. 
d. 1880. 

I 

Sardar Khan, 

b. 1845. 

I 

Mahomed Umar Khan, 

b. 1876. 

About one hundred and fifty years ago Mahomed Hayat 
Khan, of Bhati Rajput descent, settled at Thathi Kotna, a now- 
deserted village near Kasur, and set up in trade. Kasur, some 
two hundred years before this, had been settled by a colony of 
Pathans, and into the service of their Chief, Nazamudin Khan, 
the three sons of Mahomed Hayat entered. They fought 
in many engagements, and at Chunian, in the great 
battle between the Imperial forces and the Kasur Pathans, 
who had refused to pay tribute, Subhan Khan was slain. 

After the assassination of Nazamudin Khan, Sultan Khan 
remained in the service of his brother Kutbudin, and retired 
with him to Mamdot, when Kasur was conquered and taken 
possession of by Ranjit Singh in 1807. Shamsudin Khan 
was also for many years a servant of the Mamdot Chief, and 
attended the Lahore Court as his vakil ; but for some fault he 
was summarily dismissed, and became afterwards the confi- 
dential agent of Raja Lai Singh. This position he held at 

* Griffin's Punjab Chiefs, original edition. 



2go CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the time of the Satlaj Campaign, and was the medium of 
communication between the Raja and the British officers. 

As the conduct of the Sikh leaders in 1845 has been 
variously represented, it may be interesting to state what 
amount of information was really given by Raja Lai Singh, 
and how far he was a traitor to the Sikh Government. On 
the 1 2th December, 1845, when the Sikh army was crossing 
the Satlaj, the Raja sent Shamsudin Khan to Captain 
Nicholson at Firozpur to assure him that both he and 
the Maharani were the friends of the British, and desired no- 
thing more than that the Sikh army might be destroyed ; 
that he would keep his force back two days from joining the 
regulars ; and that he had marched that day back to Asal, and 
the next day would march to Hariki. To this Nicholson 
replied that he would report the matter ; but that whether 
Lai Singh's horse joined the regular army or not, was a matter 
of indifference, as the British could thrash one or both with 
equal ease. The next day Raja Lai Singh proposed delaying 
the army under pretence of making a bridge at Hariki 
and discovering fords. On the i6th December, Nicholson, 
hearing that the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief 
were approaching by way ofMudki, sent forShamsudin Khan, 
who stated as before, that his master was well disposed towards 
the British, that he had influence with certain brigades which 
he would march, with all his own cavalry, to attack the Go- 
vernor-General, if the British Force at Firozpur would attack 
the remainder. Nicholson said that if the Raja had the 
influence he asserted he would act and not talk, and that 
his good intentions would be seen by his marching as he 
proposed. 

On the I Sth Shamsudin Khan came and reported that 
the Raja had marched to Firozshahr, and Nicholson gave 
him a letter to Major Broadfoot, which, it is believed, was 
delivered to that officer as the troops were going into action 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 291 

at Firozshahr on the afternoon of the 21st, as it was found 
in his pocket when his body was brought in on the 22nd,* 

On the 19th of December, the day after the battle of 
Mudki, Raja Lai Singh sent a messenger to Major Broad- 
foot to express his desire to be of any service ; but the Major 
considered that the only object of the Raja was to ascertain 
the effect of the action of the previous day, and sent him with 
a guard beyond the pickets. Nothing more was heard of 
the Raja till two days before the battle of Sobraon. He had 
been hidden in a dry ditch during the battle of Firozshahr, 
but gave out that he was wounded, and retired to Amritsar, 
where, according to popular report, he concealed himself in 
an oven from the fury of the soldiers who swore to murder 
him. But through the remonstrances of the Maharani he 
joined the army about the middle of January ; and on the 8th 
February he sent Shamsudin Khan to Major H. Lawrence 

* The number of the Sikh troops engaged at Mudki has been variously estimated. 
Lord Gough, in his despatch of the 19th December, estimates them at from 15,000 to 
20,000 infantry, almut the same force of cavairy and 40 guns. But the numbers engaged 
did not exceed, the regulars and irregulars, 15,000 men. The force which marched from 
Firozpur with Lai Singh, a portion of which fought at Mudki and the whole at Fiiozshahr, 
was thus composed : — 

Regular — 

French Brigade 
Bahadar Singh's Brigade 
Mahtab Singh's Brigade 

Total 
Irregular 

Cavalry — Charyari, Naolakhas, &c. 
Orderlies 
Raja Lai Singh 
Raja Hira Singh 
Pindiwala 
Mulraj 
Atar Singh 
Bela Singh Mokal 
Ratan Singh 
Dogars 
Nihangs 
Ganda Singh 

i7,Si2 
Heavy Guns ... ... ... 28 

Zamburas or Camel Swivels ... ... 250 

This is exclusive nfthe force of Sardar Tej Singh who commanded the reserve. Raja 
Lai Singh left behind him at Firozpur 5,6co men, infantry and cavalry. 



Battalions. 


Cavalry. 


Gun: 


4 
4 
4 


2 

I 


26 
16 
18 


12 


4 


60 

4.500 

3,500 

1,800 

3.350 

900 

550 

1,700 

200 




z 


5C 

100 

1,000 



2gi CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

with a plan of the entrenchments and a detailed account of 
the number and disposition of the Sikh troops. This infor- 
mation was correct, though it came too late to be of any use 
beyond confirming the information which had been already 
acquired. It will thus be seen that Raja Lai Singh, though 
at heart a traitor, did little to serve the British. He may 
have prevented an attack by the Sikh army on Firozpur ; 
but beyond this, which is not certain, he was of no service 
whatever. 

When Major Lawrence was appointed Resident at La- 
hore, Shamsudin Khan was made agent of the Darbar, to 
communicate its wishes and sentiments to the Resident. In 
1848 he did good service, and was present at the battle of 
Gujranwala. In July, 1846, a donation of Rs. 5,000 was 
granted to him, and after annexation, when his jagirs were 
resumed, he received a life-pension of Rs. 2,500. He lived 
at Kasur with his great friend Malik Khairudin Khan. Both 
had been servants of the Mamdot family ; both had been 
deprived of their estates by Nawab Jamaludin Khan, and they 
have ever since remained bitter enemies of the family. * 
When Jamaludin Khan was alive, they did all they could to 
injure him, and joined the party of his sons, who had openly 
quarrelled with him. 

Usman Khan, the nephew and son-in-law of Shamsudin 
Khan, was a brave man and a good soldier. In 1857 he 
distinguished himself in command of a troop of cavalry which 
his uncle had raised. He subsequently served in the Police 
as Rasaldar under the old arrangements, and as Inspector 
under the new. He received his discharge in 1863 on the 
reduction of the force, with the highest character for energy 
and integrity. He died at Firozpur in 1880. 

* Khairudin was afterwards reconciled to Nawab Jamaludin, whose mother was 
Khairudin's cousin. 



THE FIROZPUR DISTRICT. 



293 



His son Sardar Khan owns about six hundred bigas of 
land in Subukadim, near Firozpur. He is in somewhat infirm 
health, and on this account resigned membership of the 
Municipal Committee in 1886. He married his own niece, 
a daughter of his sister by Kadar Bakhsh Khan, a retired 
Extra Assistant Commissioner. 

Shamsudin Khan died in 1868. 



294 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 
GURU NAO NAHAL SINGH OF KARTARPUR, 



Guru Nanak, Bedi (Khatii). 

I 
Guru Angad (Tihaii Khatri), J. 1552. 

I 
Guru Amar Das (Bhalai Khatri), d. 1574. 



1 
Mohuru. 



I 
rirthi Chand. 



i I 

Mohan. Guiu Ram Das 'Sodhi 

Khatri, son-iii-law 
of his predecessor), d. I58r. 
I 



Guru Arjan Nath, 

I d. 1606. 

Mahar Pal | 

(from whom are descended the Guru Hargol^nd, 

Mina Sodhis of Haranpur in Jhiiam d. 1644. 

and of Butar and (nnu Harsahai I 

in Firozpur). ( 

I 



I 

Mahadeo. 



Eaba Gurdita, 
d. 163S. 



AniRai, 
0. s. p. 



I I 

Gum Guru Dhir Mai, 

Har Kai. d. 1677. 

j 

I I 

Guru Ram Guru Hai 

Kai, Kishan, 

0. s, p. 0. s. p. 



I I I 

Atat Rai, Guru Tegh Suraj Mr.l 

0. s. /. Bahadar. (his descendants 

I are at Anandpur 

Guru Gcbind in Hushiarpur). 
Singh, 
d. 1 70S. 



Fatah 
Singh. 



Jajhar 
Singh. 



I 
Zorawar 
Singh. 



I 

Ajit 

Singh. 



Guru Bahar .Singh, d. 1692. 

I 



A ll slain at Sar hand in 1706. 
I 



Guru Ram Chand, 0. s. p. 



I 
Guru Naiinjan Rai, 
d. 1702. 

Guru BikramaPingh, 
d. 1727. 

I 

I 



I 
Bopaji. 

I 



I 
Karam Parkash, 

I 

Kirat Singh | | 

(no issue). Nonit Rai. Jiwan Mai. 
I . i 

I Gurdial, 0. s.p. 



Guru Ram Singh, Pahar Singh, 
d 1737. (no issue.) 

I 
Guru Bharbhag Singh, 
d. 1762. 



I I I 

Khushal Guru Takhat Guru Gulab. 
Singh. Singh, Singh, 

I 0. s. p. 1766. d. 1806, 

I I 

I I Guru Sadhu 

Jaswant Rai, Harbans Rai Singh, 

o.s.p. (no issue). a". 1859. 



Suchet Singh (no issue.) 



Guru Jawahar Singh, d. 18S: 

Guru Nao Nahal 
SiNUH, (J. 1S81. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 295 

Guru Nao Nahal Singh of Kartarpur, Tahsil Jalandhar, 
is a Sodhi Khatri, and a direct descendant of Guru Nanak, 
first of the ten recognised heads of the Sikh rehgion. Nanak 
was a Bedi Khatri. Ram Das, third in succession to Nanak, 
was the first of the Sodhis. The history of Sikhism in the 
earlier days was practically made by these Gurus, who were 
not only priests but politicians and soldiers. Their story has 
been already told at length, and a few words will suffice to 
connect them with the Kartarpur family, of which Nao Nahal 
Singh, a minor, is the present head. 

Arjan, fifth Guru, was the founder of Kartarpur. He 
was killed by the Emperor Jahangir in 1606, in revenge for 
the share he took in the rebellion of Prince Khushrau against 
his father's authority. Guru Arjan laid the foundation-stone 
of the present sacred temple and tank at Amritsar, known as 
the Darbar Sahib. Amritsar was formerly called Chak Guru. 
Arjan Singh re-named it Ramdaspura, after his father, and it 
subsequently received its present name in honor of Amar Das, 
Arjan's maternal grandfather. Arjan Singh is also the found- 
er of the sacred buildings at Sirigobindpur, in the Gurdaspur 
district, on the right bank of the Bias ; and the lands of this 
village are still in the proprietary possession of the Kartarpur 
Gurus. Taran Taran also owes religious fame to Guru 
Arjan. The immense tank there was begun by x'\rjan ; and 
its waters were blessed by him with most successful results. 
Constant bathing at Taran Taran, accompanied by faith, is 
believed to be a certain cure for leprosy. Arjan visited Kar- 
tarpur in 1598, and there stuck his walking-stick fast in the 
ground, exclaiming : — " This shall be the support of our faith ! " 
The village, which rapidly throve under his protection and 
patronage, is now a considerable town. It is conveniently 
situated on the high road and line of railway between Jalan- 
dhar and Amritsar, and pilgrims flock there all the year round. 
Guru Arjan's walking-stick is still shown. It is a stout post 



296 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

of sandal-wood, known as a tkam ; too heavy for ordinary 
mortals to carry, but a mere nothing in the hands of a saint. 
The Maharaja Ranjit Singh, always glad to encourage the 
religious enthusiasm of his people, made a grant of a lakh 
and a quarter of rupees in 1833 towards the building of the 
fine edifice now known as the Thamji, in which this stick re- 
poses ; and he set apart the revenues of the Amritsar village 
of Fatahpur for the maintenance of the institution, which is a 
most popular place of resort for pilgrims of every sect. 

Guru Arjan sunk a well near the Thamji and called it 
Gangasar. The Ganges water is said to flow into it by an 
underground channel. This was clearly proved in Arjan's 
own time ; for one of his followers having visited Hardwar, 
mentioned on his return that he had lost his brass loia by 
letting it fall into the Ganges while bathing. " Let not 
this trouble you," remarked the Guru ; " for you will find it 
here in the Gangasar." The half-doubting disciple let him- 
self down into the well by a rope in presence of a large 
gathering of believers ; and presently emerged, full of joy, 
with the lota in his hand. He had found it, as the Guru 
said he would, at the bottom of the well. The Gangasar has 
ever since been freely bathed in by those whom circumstances 
deny the opportunity of visiting the great parent stream. 

In 1604 Guru Arjan made a collection of the sayings 
of the original Guru Nanak and other Sadhs. The compila- 
tion is known as the Adi Granth. The original volume, in 
the handwriting of the Guru, is venerated by all Sikhs as the 
most precious of their religious relics. Guru Dhir Mai de- 
posited this work at Kartarpur in 1644. Thence it was 
stolen shortly afterwards and made over to the rival Guru 
Teg Bahadar, who is reported to have dropped it by design 
or accident into the Bias. Some sceptics assert that the book 
now shown is a mere substitute for the original, which was 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 2g-j 

never again fished out of the river. But the beHef of the 
Sikhs is that Teg Bahadar deliberately consigned the volume 
into the depths of the stream until such time as his nephew 
Dhir Mai should be in a position to guard it with safety ; 
and that Dhir Mai recovered the book later on, intact, and 
enshrined it with all honor in its present resting-place at 
Kartarpur. Sadhu Singh, grandfather of the present Guru, 
took the volume to Lahore at Ranjit Singh's request, in 1830, 
and received the highest honors as its guardian. A daily 
offering was made of Rs. 86 ; and special doles of Rs. 600 
were received at each festival of the amaivas (end of a 
moon) and J«?^/Cv'^;^/ (beginning of the calendar month) ; while 
once a year a valuable shawl and a horse were presented in 
the Maharaja's name. The Granth Sahib was always taken 
into camp whenever a military expedition of importance was 
about to be undertaken, and the soldiers fought with greater 
ardour, feeling that victory must be with them while the 
Guru's breathed spirit was in their midst. Thus, the money 
given to the man in charge was in no wise thrown away. 
This sacred volume was similarly taken to Patiala in i860 
to be shown to the Maharaja Narindar Singh, who in vain 
tried to acquire it. He fixed for its guardians a daily allow- 
ance of Rs. 51^, and made them stay with their precious charge 
for three whole years. The book now rests at Kartarpur. 
It is exposed every Sunday to the public gaze in the Shish- 
mahal of the Guru's house ; and the charawa or money, cast 
before it by the faithful, forms an important item in the 
owner's income. Just before his death, in 1859, Guru Sadhu 
Singh prepared a very handsome copy of the original Granth 
Sahib for transmission to the Queen, who most graciously 
accepted the gift ; and Her Majesty's acknowledgments were 
conveyed to the Guru in a letter from the Secretary of State. 

Guru Arjan was succeeded by his son Hargobind, a 
warrior Sikh, who armed his followers and became a military 



2gS CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

leader. He was cast into prison by Jahangir, and on release 
continued his tactics of annoyance towards the local Gover- 
nors whose authority he defied. The Sikhs worshipped 
him as a supernaturally brave hero ; and under his bold rule 
their religious enthusiasm reached its highest heat. Guru 
Gobind was the next priest of note. He flourished towards 
the end of the seventeenth century, and instituted the pohal 
or baptismal rite, by which alone the candidate is received 
amongst the khalsa or chosen people. He abolished caste 
distinctions and proclaimed that war was the most glorious 
of pastimes for man, though it proved unremunerative for 
him personally. He was slain, an exile from his home, on 
the banks of the Godavri, two years after the death of his 
sons who were captured in a mad attack on the imperial 
garrison at Sarhand, near Ambala, and executed as dangerous 
fanatics. This was in 1708. 

Gobind Singh was the last of the spiritual Gurus. 
Mention has already been made of his first cousin Dhir Mai, 
immediate ancestor of the Kartarpur family. He was a 
brave, ambitious man, who seized lands in the Doab worth 
Rs. 75,000 per annum. Several villages were founded by his 
immediate successors. Guru Sadhu Singh who held the 
property all through Maharaja Ranjit Singh's reign, was 
often at feud with his neighbours, the Ahluwalias of Kapur- 
thala ; but the latter were kept in check by the Maharaja, 
who regarded the Sodhis with peculiar favour. Sadhu Singh 
was also on good terms with the Chiefs of the Cis-Satlaj 
States, and he received substantial jagirs and occasional pre- 
sents from the Rajas of Patiala, Jind and Nabha. Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh presented him with the houses and gardens 
attached to the Baoli Sahib in Lahore city, which still yield 
a handsome revenue. This Baoli or well, with the chamber 
above, is said to have been originally the abode of Guru 
Arjan. But, during his absence on one occasion, the Kazis of 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 299 

Lahore, who were beginning to tire of the new doctrine, 
plundered the place and threw Arjan's servants into the well, 
burying them in the debris of the wrecked building, and mak- 
ing a mosque on the site. Years afterwards, in 1834, Maha- 
raja Ranjit Singh fell ill and dreamed that he would not re- 
cover unless he bathed in the Baoli Sahib of Guru Arjan. 
But no one knew of Arjan's Baoli, or where it had stood. At 
length a flower-seller came forward who said he had heard 
from his father that the Kazis' mosque was built upon the 
ruins of the Baoli of Arjan. The mosque was forthwith des- 
troyed, and the well below was discovered, with the bones of 
Arjan's servants lying at the bottom, covered with chains. 
Then they cleaned the well out, and the Maharaja had his bath, 
and recovered. And he ordered that every servant in the. 
State should pay in a day's pay ; and the Rs. 70,000 thus col- 
lected were expended upon the restoration of the Baoli Sahib 
in all its original splendour. The shops at Lahore, in the 
Bazar now called Dabi, were made over to the Gurus of 
Kartarpur to assist them in maintaining the Baoli in a pro- 
per state of repair. These shops yield an income of over 
two thousand rupees. The grant was continued to the family 
by the British Government. 

Guru Sadhu Singh's lands were estimated as yielding 
Rs. 63,000 when the Jalandhar Doab was taken over in 
1845-46. He had been holding certain villages on lease, 
worth Rs. 5,000 per annum. These leases were cancelled 
under our administration, as they were found to affect the 
cultivators injuriously ; and his jagirs were reduced to 
Rs. 19,694, of which Rs. 10,944 were confirmed to the family in 
perpetuity, subject to a service commutation of one-fourth. 
The Guru's behaviour throughout the Mutiny crisis was all 
that could be desired. This was recognised in 1861, two 
years after his death, by the release of the perpetual jagir from 
the burden of a service charge. 



300 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Sadhu Singh was succeeded by his son Javvahar Singh, a 
man of weak character and intemperate habits. He latterly 
becam.e incapable of managing his affairs, and Government 
was forced to interfere to save the estate from utter ruin. In 
1877 the management of the property was made over to the 
Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar ; and a loan of Rs. 1,64,000 
was sanctioned at a low rate of interest to meet the more 
pressing claims. At the beginning of 1889, a sum of 
Rs. 1,16,700, including interest, was still due to Government 
on the loan account. 

Guru Jawahar Singh died in 1882. He left a son, the 
present Guru, who was born one year before his father's 
death. The boy is under the charge of the Deputy Com- 
missioner of Jalandhar. His income is about Rs. 41,500, in- 
cluding jagirs, mafis and profits on lands, house-rent, offerings 
at fairs, and miscellaneous items. He is an intelligent child, 
and is receiving instruction in Gurmakhi and Urdu. It is 
intended to send him shortly to the Aitchison College at 
Lahore. The estate is being managed by Sardar Kartar 
Singh, a cousin of Sardar Hardit Singh, of Dialgarh, 
Ambala. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 301 

SARDAR HARNAM SINGH IMORON. 



Sahaj Singh. 

I 
Albel Singh. 

I 

Sardar Dayal Singh, 

(/. 1868. 

Colonel Fatah Singh, 
d. 1867. 

Sardar Harnam Singh, 

/;. 1861. 

I 



I I 

Balvvant Singh, Sheo Naiain Singh, 

b. 1883. '''■ "SSs- 

Sardar Harnam Singh is a Bhangu Jat Sikh, and resides 
at Moron, Tahsil Philaur, Jalandhar. He is a Viceregal 
Darbari, taking the lead of all the Raises of the district. 

The founder of the family was Sahaj Singh of Makhowal, 
in Amritsar, who, in 1759, visited the Jalandhar Doab and 
annexed fourteen villages yielding about Rs. 20,000, between 
Phagwara and the Sntlaj. His grandson Dayal Singh was 
allowed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to continue in possession 
of twelve of these villages under condition of providing 
twenty-three sowars when required for service. Dayal Singh's 
son Fatah Singh rose to the rank of Colonel in the Artillery. 
He went back to the plough on the break-up of the Sikh 
army. Four villages were resumed at annexation in lieu of 
the services of the twenty-three horsemen, which were dis- 
pensed with. In 1858, when the conquest jagir holdings 
were being revised, it was settled that the revenues of the 
villages of Asaor and Fatahpur should revert to Government 
on the death of Sardar Dayal Singh, who was allowed to 
hold them for life subject to an annual nazarana deduction 
of Rs. 678. Six villages, with an aggregate revenue of 
Rs. 7,500, were confirmed to Dayal Singh and his lineal male 
heirs subject to a deduction of half the revenue. The pre. 
sent Sardar Harnam Singh was a minor when his grandfather 



302 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

died in 1868. He was educated at the Ambala Wards' 
School. He is a Zaildar in his Ilaka, and has lately- 
been appointed an Honorary Magistrate* In addition to 
the jagir already specified, he is owner of six hundred and 
fifty ghumaos of land in Moron and of seven hundred ghu- 
maos in a village in Ambala, yielding about Rs. 4,000 per 
annum. He is connected by marriage with Sardar Narindar 
Singh of Sarda Heri, in the Ambala district. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 



303 



6X) 



S ■ 
C5 



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^_^ 


^ 











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p 




S 


^ 






<1 






ffi 













h 











Clio 




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ex C — 


K 


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•H g- ^ 





— 


c °:S 


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c/3 







• s.s 



« ^ vo rt-C 
5 t£0O ^ CJ3 

- « c « rt 5 



r/; CO 









304 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Sardars of Shahkot and Dhandowal are Badecha 
Jats, and are descended from the same ancestor Amrika, a 
resident of Dhianpur, Amritsar. About one hundred and 
fifty years ago he settled in Kang and inherited the property 
of his mother's father. Amrika's sons Sujan Singh (who was 
killed at the capture of Nakodar), Man Singh and Dan Singh 
became members of Tara Singh's band, and were given 
villages about Shahkot, Bopara and Raipur Bahia, in Nako- 
dar, and some in Dharamkot, Mari and Tihara, to the south 
of the Satlaj. On the break-up of the Dalawala Confederacy 
the descendants of Dan Singh seem to have been completely 
despoiled ; but those of Sujan Singh and Man Singh retained 
part of Shahkot and Dharamkot on submitting to Ranjit 
Singh. The British Government resumed the Dharamkot 
estates in lieu of service sowars and released part of Shahkot. 
This grant was changed to a conquest jagir in 1858. The 
family of Dan Singh live in Shahkot, where they own some 
land. The descendants of Sujan Singh also live there, and 
those of Man Singh reside in Dhandowal. Sardar Narain 
Singh, Zaildar of Shahkot, is the son of Sardar Gurbakhsh 
Singh, great-grandson of Sujan Singh. Sardar Bhup Singh 
was the son of Sardar Bhag Singh, eldest son of Man Singh. 
His widows have a pension of Rs. 1,200 per annum, and one 
of them is a Lambardar of Shahkot. The jagirs of the 
family are situated in Shahkot, Dhandowal and twenty-two 
other villages, and are worth Rs. 11,800 per annum, of 
which about three-fifths belong to the Shahkot branch. 

Sardar Partab Singh, Dhandowal, is married to a daugh- 
ter of Sardar Khushal Singh of Dialpur, Patiala. His son- 
in-law, Sardar Gurdit Singh of Thala, is a Naib-Tahsildar. 

Sardar Gurbaksh Singh, who died in 1881, was Sub- 
Registrar at Shahkot for some years. His son Dalip Singh 
is a Naib-Tahsildar. He is also allowed to hold the Zail- 
darship of Shahkot. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 305 

Sardar Mit Singh, Dhandowal, is the senior representa- 
tive of both families. He and his cousins Partab Singh, 
Dhandowal, and Nahal Singh, Shahkotia, are Viceregal 
Darbaris. Sardar Amar Singh's name is on the Provincial 
List of Titled Gentlemen. 



3oG CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR NAHAL SINGH, KAXG. 







Sadhana. 
1 








1 

Amrika. 






! 

Bliamian. 

1 




Sardar Tara 
Singh, Ghel)a, 

d. .807. 
{ Vide Sardar 


I 

Dargaha 

Singh. 


Kaur 
d. 


Sin-h, 

17S8, 

1 


1 
Dharam 
Singh. 


Amar Singh, 

BaloKi). 


Hari Singh, 
d. 1828. 

Masamat Mahtab 
Kaur, daughter. 
1 
Sardar Bhiip Singh, 
d. £858. 




Bi 


1 
Singh. 


1 

Sardar Narain 

Singh, 

d. 1885. 




1 
Sardar Nahal 
Singh. 



Sardar Kaur Singh and his brothers were first cousins 
of Tara Singh, Gheba, whom they assisted in founding the 
Dalawala Sikh Misal. They were present at the saclc of 
Kasur in 1763, and acquired much booty, of which now only 
are left a sword in possession of Nahal Singh, and a cook- 
ing-pot, much prized by the widow of his brother Narain 
Singh. On the partition of the Dalawala conquests in 1768 
the Kang villages fell to Kaur Singh, and Lohian to his bro- 
ther Dharam Singh. These possessions were considerably 
curtailed in 1808 by Diwan Mohkam Chand, Nazim of Ma- 
haraja Ranjit Singh, in the Jalandhar Doab, who took advan- 
tage of Sardar Tara Singh's death to break-up the Dalawala 
Confederacy. In 1846 Sardar Bhup Singh, great-grandson 
of Sardar Kaur Singh, was confirmed for life in his jagir of 
Rs. 6,350, subject to the usual one-fourth deduction in lieu of 
sowars. On his death, in 1858, his sons Nahal Singh and 
Narain Singh were allowed to retain the jagir subject to a 
three-quarters deduction, an allowance of Rs. 300 being pass- 
ed to their mother. Sardar Bhup Singh was the son of 
Bibi Mahtab Kaur, daughter of Sardar Hari Singh, who had 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 307 

no male issue. On Bhup Singh's death his sons were allow- 
ed to succeed to three-fourths of their grandfather's jagir in 
Mulewal, Gurdaspur. Sardar Narain Singh's share in Mu- 
lewal was resumed on his death in 1885. One-half his share 
of the Kang jagir, amounting to Rs. 420, was continued to 
Nahal Singh, he agreeing to maintain his brother's widow. 
Nahal Singh's own share in the jagir is Rs. 840. 

Sardar Nahal Singh, Viceregal Darbari, new represents 
the family. He has an income of about Rs. 5,000 per annum, 
including the jagir revenue. He lives at Mauza Kang, 
Tahsil Nakodar, Jalandhar, and owns about seven hundred 
ghumaos of land in the neighbourhood, as well as three hun- 
dred and fifty ghumaos in two villages in Amritsar. He is 
well educated, and acted for a short period as Naib-Tahsildar. 
He is a Lambardar, Zaildar and Vice-President of the Na- 
kodar Local Board. The Sardar married a daughter of 
Karpal Singh, Jagirdar of Sarhali, Jalandhar. His brother 
Narain Singh married a daughter of Sardar Dava Singh, 
Patiala. The family are Kang Jat Sikhs. 



3o8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR PARTAB SINGH, JALAWALIA, OF 
ALAWALPUR. 





GULAB 


Rai. 


1 

Himat Singh, 
d. 1829. 
1 




1 
Four other 
sons. 


i 
Albel Singh, 
d. 1825. 
1 
Achal Singh, 
d. 1857. 
1 




1 . 

Kishan Singh, 

d. 1841. 

1 

Basawa Singh, 

d. 1858. 




1 




1 
Sardar Partab 
b. 183: 

1 


Singh, 
2. 


1 
Sardar Ajit Singh, 
Bahadar, d. 18S9. 
1 


1 1 1 

Achar Singh, Jawala Singh, Bhagwan Singh, 
b. 1875. b. i88i. b. 1866. 



Chaudhri Gulab Rai, a Bains Jat of Mahalpur, Hushiar- 
pur, joined in the Sikh Conquest of the Sarhand Province in 
1759, and secured for himself the village of Jala, vi^hence the 
family derives its title of Jalawalia or Jalavasia. He after- 
wards acknowledged the supremacy of the Nabha Chief, 
who incorporated Jala and other villages seized by Gulab 
Rai with his own territory. His son Himat Singh represent- 
ed Nabha in the negotiations which led to the Cis-Satlaj 
Chiefs being taken under British protection. For his services 
he was granted lands by the Rajas of Patiala and Jind, 
valued at Rs. 20,000 per annum. In 1812 he was induced 
by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to leave Nabha and become his 
Wazir, which office he continued to hold until his death in 
1826. He and his four brothers were given the Alawalpur 
Ilaka, in the Jalandhar district, forfeited by the Pathans in 
1812, with a revenue of a lakh and twenty thousand rupees 
per annum. This jagir was subsequently increased until 
the annual value of the holding reached three lakhs. Himat 
Singh also received two villages south of the Satlaj from 
Sardar Fatah Singh Ahluwalia, ancestor of the present Raja 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 309 

of Kapurthala. These villages are now in the Ludhiana 
district, and the widow of Basawa Singh, grandson of 
Himat Singh, holds a small plot, revenue free, in one of them. 
Sardar Albel Singh, elder son of Himat Singh, pre-deceased 
his father. He was killed on the banks of the Jhilam in 
1825, fighting for Ranjit Singh. The Maharaja expended 
Rs, 5,00c upon his samadk, and granted a mafi plot for its 
maintenance and repairs. On Sardar Himat Singh's death 
in 1829, the Alawalpur villages, valued at Rs. 60,000 per 
annum, were continued to his heirs subject to the provision 
of one hundred and eighty horsemen. In 1832 the estates 
were divided between the younger son Kishan Singh and 
the grandson Achal Singh. The two estates were there- 
after known as Alawalpur and Dhogri, both in the Jalandhar 
Tahsil. Sardar Kishan Singh was killed in battle before 
Kohat in 1841, and advantage was taken of his son's minor- 
ity to transfer the Dhogri jagirs to Sardar Ram Singh, 
nephew of Himat Singh, a General high in the Maharaja's 
favour. On his receiving command of the Troops in the 
Lahore and Gujrat districts, this Dhogri jagir was exchanged 
for one of similar value in Gurdaspur, which, however, lapsed 
to the State on the death of Ram Singh's son Alam Singh. 
Alawalpur was thus all that remained to the family, Achal 
Singh being at its head. His jagir was reduced on annexa- 
tion by the deduction of an equivalent for the service of 
eighty sowars, and was confirmed for his life by Government 
orders passed in 1827. The six-and-a-half villages thus 
left to him were assessed at the regular settlement at 
Rs. 9,180, and this revenue was enjoyed by Achal Singh 
until his death in 1857, when the jagir was resumed, pensions 
aggregating Rs. 3,000 being granted to his widows and sons. 
Both Partab Singh and Ajit Singh were forward in their 
ofters of help during the Mutiny, They furnished five sowars 
and ten footmen, and offered their personal services, which, 



31 o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

however, were not required. In 1874 Mr. D. G. Barkley, 
Deputy Commissioner of Jalandhar, applied on behalf of 
the brothers for a re-consideration of the orders convert- 
ing the family jagir into a life-pension. His recommend- 
ation received the sanction of the Secretary of State in the 
same year. Thereunder the cash pension of Sardars Partab 
Singh and Ajit Singh was commuted to a jagir grant of three- 
fourths of the village of Alawalpur, valued under the recent 
assessment at Rs. 2,000 per annum, to be continued after their 
death to the lineal heirs male of the late Sardar Achal Singh. 

Sardar Ajit Singh is better known than his brother 
Partab Singh, who does not mix much in public affairs. He 
was appointed Sub-Registrar at Alawalpur in 1875, and 
Honorary Magistrate in 1881. The title of Sardar Bahadar 
was conferred upon him by the Viceroy's Sanad of 1888. 
By his loyal and upright conduct he has gained the respect 
of every official who has been connected with the Jalandhar 
district. His impartiality as a Magistrate and private 
liberality and charities have made him popular with the 
people of his neighbourhood. Mr. Purser, late Settlement 
Officer, describes him as " a gentleman whose acquaintance 
is worth having." 

Sardar Partab Singh is connected by marriage with the 
late Sardar Bhup Singh of Rupar, who gave his daughter a 
village in dowry. On resumption of Sardar Bhup Singh's 
jagirs, this daughter was allowed a pension of Rs. 200 per 
annum in lieu of the said village, Sardar Ajit Singh married 
the daughter of Sardar Jai Singh of Sankhatra, Sialkot. His 
son Bhagwan Singh married a daughter of the late Sardar 
Thakar Singh, Sindhanwala, who died in exile lately at Pondi- 
chery. Sardar Partab Singh's son Achar Singh is connected 
by marriage with Sardar Richpal Singh of Bhagowal, Gur- 
daspur, Munsif of Ludhiana. ^^_ 

Note.— Sardar Ajit Singh died early in 1889 after the above account was written. 



THE JALANDHAR DIS TRICT. 3 1 1 

SARDAR AMAR SINGH OF NAUGAJA. 



Mahtab Singh, 
d. 1858. 



I I I I 

Dava Singh, Sewa Singh, Amar Singh, Harnara Singh, 

d. 1844. d. 1880. d. 1828. 6. 1831. 

I I 

! .1 I 

Narain Singh, Sarain Singh, Thakar Singh, 

d 1822. ' d. 1878. d. 1876. 

I 1 I 

Wariam Singh, bant Singh, Partat Singh, 

i. 1S62. I'. 1858. d. 1870. 

The family goes back to one Firoz, a Tawar Rajput of 
Dehli, who, eleven generations ago, wandered to the Panjab, 
and settled at Mauza Khokhowal in Amritsar. He amalo-a- 

o 

mated with the Jats of the neighbourhood, and, sinking his 
origin, became gradually recognised as a Bhindar Jat. He 
and his connections by marriage came to own nineteen vil- 
lages around Khokhowal. Firoz acquired jagir rights in 
three villages of Gurdaspur from the Emperor Akbar, 
which were continued to his oftspring for eight gene- 
rations. The next remarkable man in the family was 
Ram Singh, surnamed Dharvi the robber, who joined with 
another freebooter Bhagel Singh in seizing ten villages in the 
Jalandhar, Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts, in some of 
which their representatives still have rights. In this manner 
Ram Singh, who had joined the Karora Singhia Misal in 
1759, found himself possessed of lands yielding him 
Rs. 1 5,000 per annum. 

His son, Sardar Mahtab Singh, was a Commandant in the 
army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, at the head of two hundred 
horsemen, of wliich seven were maintained by himself as a 
charge on his jagir. He took part in most of the campaigns 
of his day and acquired more land, which he lost in squab- 
bling over the produce with his brothers. He made over 
the patrimony to his four sons while still a young man. Sewa 



312 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Singh and Dava Singh took the village of Vila, in the Ba- 
tala Tahsil of the Gurdaspur district. Its revenue was 
resumed by Government on their death. Sardar Amar Singh, 
now at the head of the family, received over the Jalandhar 
villages of Naugaja, where he resides, Isapur, Mokhe and 
Mor. The revenue (Rs. 2,700) was released to him on life- 
tenure, charged with a deduction of Rs. 1,670 in lieu of 
service. The jagirdar has further benefited to the extent of 
Rs. 370 under the operation of the recent settlement, in which 
the demand was enhanced in all four villages. Sardar Amar 
Singh also owns a fourth share of six hundred ghumaos in 
the village of Vila, being the land held up by Mahtab Singh 
for his own maintenance. 

Sadar Amar Singh's nephew Narain Singh is the Lam- 
bardar of Vila Bhaju, in the Batala Tahsil of the Gurdas- 
pur district. His son Wariam Singh is a Police Inspector, 
lately employed on special duty in attendance on His Ex- 
cellency the Viceroy. His grandfather, Sardar Dava Singh, 
was for many years a Deputy Inspector of Police in Amritsar. 
The family has considerable local influence, and its members 
are allied by marriage with many of the leading people in 
Jalandhar and the Manjha. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 313 

SARDAR SUNDAR SINGH, SARHALI. 



Nahar Singh. 
I 



I I I 

Diwaii Singh. Charat Singh. Mohar Singh. 

I I I 

I I Sobha Singh. Suba Singh. 

Budh Fatah 

Singh, Singh, 

(i. 1852. d. 1S53. 

I . 
Karpal Singh, 
d. 1883. 

I_^ 



I I I 

SUNDAR Bishan Gurdit Singh, 

Singh, Singh, b. 1873. 

d. iSsi. b. 1S64. 



Sardar Sundar Singh is a Man Jat Singh, living at 
Sarhali, Tahsil Philaur, Jalandhar. No orders have yet been 
passed regarding his obtaining the seat in Darbar, vacated by 
his father in 1883. 

Nahar Singh of INIan, Tahsil Batala, Gurdaspur, founder 
of the family, is said to have crossed the Bias in 1759 and 
seized upon several villages in the Philaur Tahsil of the 
Jalandhar Doab. He became rich and built a handsome 
Bunga or rest-house close to the Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, 
which is still owned by his descendants, and known by his 
name. His son Diwan Singh and grandson Dalel Singh 
were killed in Maharaja Ranjit Singh's service. Budh Singh 
and Fatah Singh, sons of Dalel Singh, were allowed a third 
share in an assignment valued at Rs. 30,000, made by the 
Maharaja under the usual conditions of service. Several 
members of the family held high military appointments and 
distinguished themselves on various occasions. Sardar Suba 
Singh was a General in the Sikh Army, and met his death 
before Multan. His widow received a pension from the 
British Government. At annexation the brothers, Budh 
Singh and Fatah Singh, were confirmed as life-jagirdars in 



SI4 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the villages of Sarhali and Chak Andhian, valued at Rs. 2,450. 
On his death, in 1852, Fatah Singh's share lapsed, a life-pen- 
sion being granted to his widow. One-quarter of the village 
revenues was assigned to Budh Singh's son Karpal Singh, 
and to his lineal male heirs who are now holding. They own 
thirty ghurnaos of land in Sarhali, one hundred ghumaos in 
Sarai Jatan (Kapurthala), and fifty ghumaos of the original 
patrimony in Man, Tahsil Batala, Gurdaspur. 

The present head of the family, Sundar Singh, was for 
some time a Naib-Tahsildar, but resigned on his father's 
death in 1883. He and his brothers have a good deal of 
local influence, and they are connected by marriage with good 
families in Jalandhar and Ludhiana. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 315 

SARDAR AMAR SINGH OF MAI^jVNDPUR. 



Takht Mal. 

I 
Chaja Mal. 

I 
Zorawar. 
I 
Sultan Bakhsh. 



I I 

Bhup Singh, Achar Chand* 



d. 1865. 



1 I 

Gulab Singh, Partab Singh, 

d. 1838. d. 187 1. 



I 

AMAR Singh, 
k 1871. 

The present head of the family is Sardar Amar Singh, 
a Gil Jat Sikh. His home is at Makandpur, Tahsil Nawa- 
shahar, Jalandhar district. 

In the reign of Shahjahan, about three hundred and 
twenty-five years ago, the ancestors of Sardar Amar Singh 
were chaudhris in the Jalandhar Doab, and managed to make 
themselves masters of seventy villages on the north bank of 
the Satlaj. They built Makandpur, Nawashahar, where 
the family now has its head-quarters. Their chief enemies 
were the Jaijun Rajputs, the old proprietors, whom they 
gradually managed to oust by fighting or intrigue. There 
is an anecdote told in the family that Ganga Ram, one 
of the Makandpurias, in Public Darbar tore up a Sanad 
of the Emperor Shahjahan, confirming the Rajputs in their 
rights of ownership. The matter was quickly reported, and 
Ganga Ram was summoned to answer at Dehli for his disres- 
pectful conduct. He pleaded that he had acted in the in- 
terests of his Sovereign, inasmuch as the Rajputs were 
notoriously bad cultivators, and the land was certain to thrive 
in the hands of the Jats. There was sufficient wisdom in the 
argument to secure condonation of the offence, and Ganga 
Ram and his brothers were maintained in possession of the 



3t6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

patrimony of the Rajputs. But the latter were not prepared 
to accept this ex-parte decision without protest. They 
murdered Ganga Ram on the earHest opportunity, and 
attempted to take back their old lands by force. They were 
defeated, however, by Chaju Mai, cousin of Ganga Ram, who 
took from them a considerable portion of what remained of 
their holdings. The fighting went on from year to year with 
varying results. Finally Chaju Mai and all the members of 
the family except one boy, Zorawar, were killed off by the 
Rajputs, who became once more masters of the situation. 
Zorawar's mother fled with him to her father's house. She 
was summoned thence later on by the Mahomedan Governor 
Dina Beg, to take over thirty-five villages of the old posses- 
sions ; the Rajputs, as predicted by Ganga Ram, not proving 
punctual in the payment of the State demand. Zorawar's 
grandson Bhup Chand was the first Sikh in the family. He 
was an admirer and follower of the celebrated fanatic Bedi 
Sahib Singh of Una, Hushiarpur, and while still a mere lad, 
accompanied him on his expeditions south of the Satlaj 
against Maler Kotla and Raikot in 1 794-1 798. Bhup 
Singh's natural energy and love of adventure were, however, 
checked by an accident which left him blind before he had 
reached his prime, and he never attained a position of much 
significance. His elder son Gulab Singh was killed in 1838, 
fighting in Ranjit Singh's service. Bhup Singh died in 
1865. On the accession of the British the Makandpuria claims 
to headship were ignored except in Makandpur itself, of 
which one-fourth the revenue, now yielding Rs. "^2)^ per 
annum, was released to Bhup Singh and his lineal male heirs. 
The jagir has since passed from his son Partab Singh, who 
died in 1870, to the present holder A mar Singh, a youth of 
seventeen years, now reading in the Aitchison College. He 
owns 1,080 ghumaos of land in Makandpur and Sukar, Tah- 
sil Nawashahar. He is a Zaildar under the guardianship of 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 317 

his maternal uncle Jawala Singh, Jagirdar of Thala. The 
young Sardar's name is on the Lieutenant-Governor's Darbar 
List. He is an intelligent lad, and has married a daughter 
of Sardar Bakhshish Singh of Khamanon Kalan in Patiala. 
The estate is a small one, but has thriven during the minor- 
ity of Amar Singh. About twenty-four ghumaos of land in 
Makandpur have recently been acquired by purchase, and 
there is a small cash balance in the guardian's hands. 



3i8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR BASAWA SINGH OF LAROA. 



Dasaundha Singh. 
I 
Chuhar Singh. 
I 



I I I 
Budh Singh. Sudh Singh, Chatar Singh. 
d. 1851. 
I 

I I 

Kishan Singh, Basawa Singh, 

d. 1836. d. 1849. 

Dasaundha Singh, from whom Sardar Basawa Singh is 
descended, was a Dhilon Jat of Jhabhal, in the Amritsar dis- 
trict, half-brother of the celebrated Baghel Singh, leader of 
the Karora Singhia Misal. He crossed the Bias in 1759, 
and seized some villages in the north of the Jalandhar Tahsil. 
The family retained possession under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 
supplying in return a contingent of twenty-six horsemen, 
whose services were valued at Rs. 2,420 annually by the 
British Government on annexation ; and the revenues of 
three villages were resumed in lieu thereof under the usual 
system. To Sudh Singh the villages of Laroa, Madhopur 
and Dhada Sanora, valued at Rs. 4,600, were released for 
life. On his death, in 1851, Madhopur only was continued 
to his son Basawa Singh, the present holder. The village 
of Dhada was left with Sudh Singh's step-mother in life- 
tenure. She has since died. On the revision of the conquest 
jagir records in 1857, Laroa was released for ever to Basawa 
Singh and his lineal male heirs. This jagir, under the recent 
District Settlement, is now worth Rs. 1,000 per annum. 

Sardar Basawa Singh is a Zaildar, drawing Rs. 190 per 
annum, as well as a sufedposhi allowance of Rs. 100. He 
is Lambardar of Laroa, Jalandhar Tahsil, where he lives, 
owning forty ghumaos of land. He is connected by marriage 
with the Garewal family of Raipur, in Ludhiana. He is a 
Lieutenant-Governor's Darbari. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 319 

SARDAR DAVA SINGH OF BAHRAM. 



Lal Singh. 



I I ' 

Ram Singh. Chanda Singh, Gulab Singh, 

d. 1843. <i- '847. 

I 

I I I 

Dava Singh, Daya Singh, Jawahar Singh, 

i>. 1825. d. 1856. b. 1834. 



I I I I 

Basant Singh, Bhagat Singh, Jaswant Singh, Fatah Singh, 

d. 1875. b. 1S47. b. 1851. d. 1866. 

I 



Jai Singh, 
b. 1880. 



Lachman Singh, Surjan Singh, 

b. 1868. d. 1878. 



Narain Singh, Hukarei Singh, 

d. 1886. b. 1871. 



The family migrated from the Amritsar Manjha about 
one hundred and forty years ago. Lal Singh, to whom the 
present Sardar counts back, is credited with having posses- 
sed himself of thirteen villages in the Jalandhar Doab and 
south of the Satlaj, in Patiala territory. He owned three 
villages at his death. Bahram, in the Jalandhar district, fell 
to the share of Chanda Singh. Gulab Singh was deprived 
of his rights by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, whom he happened 
to have displeased, and he maintained himself upon one 
hundred and forty ghumaos of land in Bahram, made over to 
him by his brother Chanda Singh. This latter Sardar had 
seen much active service, having accompanied Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh on several of his expeditions in command of a 
small body of horsemen, which he was obliged to maintain 
in return for the jagir rights of Bahram. He was killed in a 
skirmish near Peshawar in 1843. 

Dava Singh, the present head of the family, has also been 
in many fights in his younger days, and was present when 



320 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Bannu fell to Ranjit Singh's troops in 1823. At annexation 
the village of Bahram was given in jagir to the three sons of 
Chanda Singh and to his brother Gulab Singh, subject to a 
deduction of Rs. 1,150 in lieu of the services of six sowars 
maintained in Ranjit Singh's time. Gulab Singh's share was 
resumed on his death in 1847. The question of further re- 
sumptions was reconsidered in 1857, upon the death of Daya 
Singh, and it was ruled that two-thirds of the revenue of the 
village should be released to the lineal male heirs of the 
holders, namely, Dava Singh and Jawahar Singh. They 
enjoy hereunder a jagir of Rs. 1,350 per annum, as fixed at 
the recent settlement. They are also joint owners of forty- 
eight ghumaos of land in Bahram, and of one hundred and 
twelve ghumaos in the village of Doburji, in the Amritsar 
district. 

Sardar Dava Singh has been blind for some years past. 
He is always forward in his offers of service to Government, 
and was useful to Colonel Lake, Deputy Commissioner of 
Jalandhar, during the Mutiny. His sons Bhagat Singh and 
Jaswant Singh are Deputy Inspectors of Police in the Pro- 
vince. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 



321 



SARDAR JAIMAL SINGH OF THALA. 



Mahan Singh, 
d. 1828. 



I . 
Ganda Singh. 



Budh Singh. 

Eishan Singh, 

d. 1863. 

i 



I 
Sardul Singh. 



Nahal 
Singh, 
d. 1S45 

I 

Dava 

Singh, 

d. 1872. 



I 
Basant 
Singh. 



Sher 
Singh. 



I 

Gurmakh 

Singh, 

d. 1847. 

I 
Jaimal 
Singh, 
i>. 1S27. 



I 
Natha 
Singh, 
i 1859. 



I I 

Gaja Dharam 

Singh, Singli, 

/;. 1S60. l>. 1856. 

I 

Harbans 

Singh. 



Buta 
Singh, 
d. 1859. 

I 
Paritam 

Sinsh. 



Dalip 
Singh, 
l>. 1848. 



I 

Hari 

Singh, 

i 1843. 

I 



Ishar 
Singh. 



Karpa 
Singh, 
i. 1 868. 



I 
Ganda 
Singh, 
b. 1873. 



Gulzar 
Singh, 
d. 1878. 



Sham 
Singh, 
l>. 187S. 



W.nriam 

Singh, 
b. 1882. 



1 

Bishan Singh, 

d. 1881. 

I 



Giirdit 
Singh, 
d. 1845. 



Indar 

Singh, 

d. 1870. 



Jawala 
Singh, 
b- 1853. 

1 



I 
Wazir Singh. 



Chiihar .Singh, 
d 1 886. 



Paritam 
Singh. 



Harbans 
Singh. 



Hira Singh, 
l> 1S63. 



Indar Singh, 
d. 1869. 



Mahan Singh, to whom Sardar Jaimal Singh counts back, 
was a Ladhar Jat Sikh, who in 1760 seized ten villages in the 
Philaur Tahsil, Jalandhar, and was allowed by Ranjit Singh 
to retain them, subject to the furnishing of twenty-three 



322 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

horsemen. His sons did good service in many battles, more 
than one member of the family having lost his Hfe fighting 
for the Maharaja. On annexation a summary settlement 
was made with Mahan Singh's representatives, who agreed 
to pay Rs. 17,100 per annum on the ten villages. Four 
of these later on were resumed by Government in lieu of the 
services of the horsemen. Again in 1847-48, two more vil- 
lages were resumed on the death of Nahal Singh and Ganda 
Singh, pensions being granted to their widows and children. 
Further resumptions followed as other members of the family 
died. During the recent settlement operations the shares 
actually enjoyed were ascertained to be as follows : — 

Rs. 

Jaimal Sin^h . . . . . . 565 



Two sons of Sher Singh 
Two sons of Dava Singh 
Chuhar Singh 
Two sons of Bishan Singh 



565 
280 

655 

655 



In all, Rs. 2,720. There was also a life-pension of 
Rs. 478 to Kishan Singh's widow, which lapsed on her death 
in 1886. Chuhar Singh's grant was continued on his death 
in 1886 to his sons Hira Singh and Indar Singh. 

The family is one of some local importance, and its 
members have always been forward in offers of assistance to 
Government. Sardars Jaimal Singh and Bishan Singh were 
deputed to guard the Lasara Ferry on the Satlaj when the 
troops at Jalandhar mutinied in 1857. Sardar Jaimal Singh 
lives at Thala, Tahsil Philaur, Jalandhar, which is wholly 
owned by his family. Jaimal Singh's share is about two 
hundred and sixty ghumaos. He is a Zaildar. Natha Singh, 
son of Sardar Dava Singh, is a Dafadar in the 7th Bengal 
Cavalry. Bishan Singh's son Gurdit Singh is a Naib-Tah- 
sildar. 

Jaimal Singh's name is on the Provincial Darbar List. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 323 

SIRDAR AMAR SINGH OF BALOKI. 





Sardar Tara Singh, Gh 

c/. 1S07. 

1 


EBA, 




1 

Sardar Jhanda 

Singh. 

1 

1 


Sardar Gujar Singh. 
Jagal Singh. 




1 
Dasaundha Singh. 


1 
Sardar Narmal Sa 
Siiii^h, 
d. 1872. 


1 

irdar Bakhtawar 

Singh, 

ci 1873. 








1 

Sardar Amar 

Singh, 

b. 1845. 

rhakar Singh, 
b. 1866. 


1 

Lahna Singh, 




Khazan Singh, 
d. 



Sardar Amar Singh, living at Baloki, Tahsil Nakodar, 
Jalandhar, is a Kang Jat Sikh. He is a relative of Sardar 
Nihal Singh of Kang. 

Sardar Amar Singh, Baloki, is the great-grandson of 
Sardar Tara Singh, Gheba, the celebrated founder of the Sikh 
Confederacy known as the Dalawala Misal, so named after 
the village of Dala, near Siiltanpur, in the Kapurthala State, 
not far from the junction of the Bias and Satlaj rivers. He 
was a Kang Jat, but in his following were many Manjha Jats, 
thieves and adventurers who flocked round the man able to 
offer them excitement and loot. One of Tara Singh's first 
exploits was to rob a detachment of Ahmad Shah's troopers 
of their horses and arms when crossing the Beyn river, close 
to his home at Kang. Thus enriched, Tara Singh soon be- 
came a leader of importance. He visited Amritsar and allied 
himself with the Ahluwalias and Singhpurias, who were 
plundering wherever plunder was to be found. In 1760 he 
crossed the Satlaj and conquered the districts of Dharamkot 
and Fatahgarh, making over the latter to his cousins Dharam 
Singh and Kaur Singh, and retaining Dharamkot for himself. 
On his return to the Doab he took Dakhni from Sharafudin, 
an Afghan of Jalandhar, and marched eastwards, seizing all 



324 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the country around Rahon and taking up his residence in 
that town. He next captured Nakodar from the Manj Raj- 
puts, and other groups of villages on the right bank of the 
Satlaj, including Mahatpur and Kot Badal Khan. His name 
had by this time become notorious amongst the Sikhs, and 
there were few matters connected with the sect in which he 
was not directly or indirectly concerned. He secured an 
alliance by marriage for his son Dasaundha Singh with Bibi 
Chand Kaur, daughter of the Raja Amar Singh of Patiala, 
and he was thus enabled to stretch his hand, when so mind- 
ed, as far as Ambala, and take part in the quarrels of the 
Phulkian Chiefs, He rendered active assistance to Amar 
Singh in suppressing the rebellion of his half-brother Himat 
Singh in 1772 ; and he helped the Raja again in 1778 when 
attacked by Sardar Hari Singh Sialba, who was supported 
by Sardar Jasa Singh Ramgarhia. In the year following 
he joined the other Khalsa leaders in resisting an attempt 
made to recover the Malwa country by the Wazir Majad-ul- 
Daula Abad-ul-Ahad. Later on, in 1794, we find him allied 
with the fanatic Bedi Sahib Singh of Una, Hushiarpur, in 
his invasion of Maler Kotla ; which expedition ended unsuc- 
cessfully owing to pressure brought to bear upon the Sikhs by 
the Patiala Raja. 

In 1799 Tara Singh was again in the field, this time on 
the side of his relatives, the Phulkians, who were measuring 
strength with the celebrated George Thomas of Hansi ; and 
shortly after he was busy at Faridkot championing the rights 
of the deposed Sardar Charat Singh. He appeared never 
to be able to take rest. He died of a fever caught while 
following Maharaja Ranjit Singh in his expedition to Narain- 
garh, Ambala, in 1807. On his way back to the Manjha, Ran- 
jit Singh took the opportunity of breaking up the powerful 
Dalawala Confederacy, merging its possessions into the 
greater State he was rapidly consolidating for himself. 



THE JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 325 

Dasaundha Singh was allowed to retain his father's 
Dakhni property till his own death, when it was made over 
by the Maharaja to Bedi Sahib Singh. To Gujar Singh, 
second son of Tara Singh, had been assigned the Ghumga- 
rana estate south of the Satlaj. His possession was contested 
by some of the minor Phulkian Chiefs who, however, were 
obliged by Ranjit Singh to refrain from hostilities. He 
divided the villages amongst the Rajas of Patiala and Jind 
and the Sardar of Nangla. The Nakodar and Mahalpur 
estates were the share of Jhanda Singh, the third son ; but 
these were promptly seized for himself by Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh, and placed under the care of Diwan Mohkam Chand, 
Nazim of Jalandhar. The Maharaja was ultimately induced 
to recognise Sardar Jhanda Singh's rights to maintenance 
out of the patrimony, and he accordingly allowed him 
a half share" in Baloki and Sharakpur. This act of 
generosity cost him nothing, for he had already given the 
entire villages to sonie Udasi Sadhs and Akalis. The for- 
mer refused to surrender possession, and Jhanda Singh was 
obliged to eject them by force. His mother. Rani Ratan 
Kaur, took refuge in the British Cantonment of Ludhiana, 
and was there granted a maintenance allowance of Rs. 1,800 
per annum. 

At annexation Sardars Narmal Singh and Bakhtawar 
Singh, sons of Jhanda Singh, possessed jointly one-half of the 
two villages already mentioned. Under orders passed in 1847, 
they were maintained in these jagirs for life, subject to an 
annual service commutation payment of Rs. 280 ; the share 
of each to lapse at death. On the death of Sardar Bakhtawar 
Singh, childless, in 1873, a small pension was passed to his 
widows. Sardar Narmal Singh's jagir was in like manner 
resumed in 1873, a life-pension of Rs. 200 per annum being 
granted to his widow. Narmal Singh was a Subadar in the 
British service, and had proved himself a gallant soldier. 



326 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The case of his son Amar Singh was represented to Govern- 
ment by Mr. D. G. Barkley, Deputy Commissioner of 
Jalandhar, in 1874, and it was ruled that Sardar Narmal 
Singh's jagir share in Baloki and Sharakpur should descend 
to his son Amar Singh, and thence integrally to a selected 
male heir, the successor on each occasion to be chosen by 
Government. The compassionate allowance to Narmal 
Singh's widow was of course resumed, and the grant was 
subjected to an annual nazarana deduction of Rs. 140. The 
value of the holding under the revised settlement is Rs. 685 
per annum. 

Sardar Amar Sin^h lives at Baloki, in which villao-e he 
owns about forty ghumaos of land. He is married to a 
daughter of Sardar Sujan Singh, Jagirdar of Karari, Tahsil 
Jalandhar. The other members of the family are well con- 
nected by marriage. But little of the old influence and none 
of its power remains. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 327 

HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 
MIAN RAGHNATH SINGH OF JASWAN. 



Raja Narpat Singh, 
d. 1782. 

! 

Umed Singh, 

d. 1854. 

I. 

Jai Singh, 

d. 1356. 

I 



I I 

Pirthi Singh. Ran Singh, 



^>. 1833- 



1 I 

Narindar Singh, Raghnath SinGH, 

d. 1849, d. 1852. 



Mian Raghnath Singh belongs to the Kasib £0/ of the 
Chandarbansi Rajputs, having a common origin with the old 
Chiefs of the Kangra district. 

Towards the middle of the thirteenth century the Jaswan 
branch separated and established a principality in the lower 
hills with Rajpura as their capital. They were, however, 
obliged to acknowledge the supremacy of the Mughal Em- 
perors, and paid tribute at irregular intervals down to the 
time of Raja Narpat Singh, who died in 1782. His son 
Umed Singh was then an infant, and offered but a feeble 
resistance to the encroachments of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who 
a few years later began to extend his power along the north of 
the Satlaj. In 1815 the Maharaja, not content with a simple 
acknowledgment of his suzerainty, compelled Umed Singh 
to yield his territory by keeping him in confinement at Lahore 
until he had signed a surrender of his rights. Thus reduced 
to a state of vassalage, the Raja became a mere Jagirdar of 
twenty-one villages in the Jaswan Dun, valued at Rs. 12,000 
per annum. 



y 



328 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Hushiarpur, with the rest of the Jalandhar Doab, was 
annexed at the close of the Sikh War in 1846. The Raja 
of Jaswan and the other Rajput Princes, judging doubtless 
by the liberal treatment the Simla Hill Chiefs had received 
at our hands, were under the belief that with the coming of 
the English the powers of sovereignty formerly enjoyed by 
them would be restored. But no such hopes had ever really 
been held out, and they had done nothing to entitle them 
to privileges which they had not exercised for years. Yet 
they felt bitterly disappointed when they discovered that a 
change of Rulers had brought with it no amelioration of 
their condition ; and all of them no doubt sympathised with 
the attempt made in 1848 by Raja Umed Singh and some 
other petty Chiefs of the lower Sawaliks to break free from 
the new yoke. The revolt was speedily suppressed. John 
Lawrence, then Commissioner of Hushiarpur, attacked the 
Raja's forts at Amb and Akhrot, took them and razed them 
to the ground. His possessions were confiscated, and he and 
his son Jai Singh were deported to Kamaon, in the North- 
West Provinces. Ran Singh, son of Jai Singh, was, however, 
permitted to reside in Jamu with his son Raghnath Singh, 
who was married to the daughter of the Maharaja Ranbir 
Singh. He is still alive, and has been recently allowed to 
return to his home at Amb. He receives a cash pension of 
Rs. 200 from the British Goverment. Mian Raghnath Singh 
is the only living son of Ran Singh. He usually resides 
at Ramkot, in the Jamu State. In 1877, at the Maharaja's 
earnest solicitation, His Excellency the Viceroy assigned 
to him the land revenue derived from the villages 
constituting the Jaswan Principality at the time of its annexa- 
tion to the British Government. In accordance with the 
terms of this grant, the jagir originally held by Raja Umed 
Singh, consisting of twenty-one villages in the Jaswan Dun, 
yielding a revenue of Rs. 18,442 per annum, has been assigned 
to Mian Raghnath Singh, besides the revenue-free proprietary 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 329 

right in twenty-five acres of the family garden at Amb, 
Tahsil Una, Hushiarpur, and the buildings at Rajpura close 
by, which formed the old palace of the late Raja Umed Singh. 
Mian Raghnath Singh has a daughter who is married in the 
family of the Raja of Chamba. 



3S^ 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



Pi 

Q 

< 
< 
O 



Q 
O 

W 
H 



1^ 






c^ rt 






.r w a 



12; 



-e E 
■5 5 









i* n S! 

1" Si^ 



•5 I g, 
« n '= 



o™^^ 



-o-a "^ 

ill! 









c 






" e 



n 


M . Q 


c 


c ji; JJ 




cAi S-a 






2 


S'H5 


rt 


4i E <3 


•a 


S<^ 


1- 
n 



-Hin 


a 


^^-a 




c/; c 


c 


?!S^ 



(uj=; a 
^ to"-' 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. '3ji 

The Anandpur Sodhis are Andh Khatri Sikhs, and claim 
descent from Guru Ram Das, fourth in succession to Baba 
Nanak. It was he who built the famous temple known as the 
Darbar Sahib at Amritsar, thus securing to that city the honor 
of being the permanent head-quarters of Sikhism through- 
out the Panjab. Guru Ram Das had three sons, Pirthi 
Chand, Mohandeo and Arjan, of whom the youngest took 
the ^^rt'? on his father's death. Most of the Sodhis of the 
Firozpur, Jalandhar and Shahpur districts and of Patiala 
and other Panjab States, are descended from Pirthi Chand, 
while those of Anandpur (Hushiarpur) and Kartarpur 
(Jalandhar) are of the children of Arjan. Mohandeo was an 
ascetic and did not marry. Guru Arjan devoted himself to 
the compiling and arranging of the Granth Sahib, or Sacred 
Volume, in its present form. His son Guru Har Gobind 
is said to have possessed both spiritual and temporal excel- 
lence. He acquired lands, founded villages and met his 
natural foes, the Mahomedans, in many pitched battles, 
adding all the time to the strength of his own sect by pros- 
elytising on a large scale wherever he went. Guru Tegh 
Bahadar, youngest son of Har Gobind, also proved a vigor- 
ous missionary, doing much to strengthen the position of the 
Sikhs, though he often endangered their existence by his 
fiery zeal and blind trust in Divine support. His head was 
cut off by the Emperor Aurangzeb, who perceived the neces- 
sity of suppressing the young sect and did his best to check 
its growth. With his father's death to avenge. Guru Gobind 
was the bitter enemy of all Mahomedans. He was the last 
of the Gurus ; the favourite hero in Sikh history, whose mira- 
cles rival the older records, and whose acts of bravery and 
charity are sung by every Sikh-mother to her son. Guru 
Gobind was, in his turn, crushed and broken by the Mughals. 
His four sons were slain in their father's lifetime, and for a 
moment the flame of fanaticism appeared to have been stamp- 
ed out, for there was no one worthy to succeed the Guru 



332 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and his place still remains unfilled. A spiritual successor is 
believed to be on his way, and the Sikhs watch constantly 
for his coming ; but Gobind is still the last of the recognised 
heads of the Faith. He was nominally succeeded as temporal 
leader by his uncle Suraj Mai, a man of no energy of charac- 
ter, who never had the people with him, and under whose 
weak sway the cause only suffered harm. It is unnecessary 
to follow the family history step by step. Gulab Rai, grand- 
son of Suraj Mai, rebuilt the town of Anandpur, destroyed 
by the Mahomedans in the time of Guru Gobind, and pur- 
chased extensive plots of land from Raja Bhim Chand of Bilas- 
pur, thus largely helping to restore the social position of the 
family, upon which much of their religious influence depend- 
ed. From his four nephews, Nahar Singh, Udai Singh, 
Khem Singh and Chaur Singh, are descended the Anandpur 
Sodhis in four branches, known as the Ba7'i, Dusri, Tisri 
and Chaiithi Sarkars. The Anandpur Sodhis have always 
been treated with the greatest respect as representatives of the 
fountain head of the Sikh Faith. In the Khalsa days it was 
a matter of importance to secure their co-operation when an 
expedition on a large scale was being organized south of the 
Satlaj ; and the four brothers mentioned above were constant- 
ly out on the war-path towards the end of the last century. 
They were usually present in the exercise of their spiritual 
functions, taking no active part in the fighting, and merely ex- 
horting the more fiery Jats to go in and win. But their 
share of the plunder was always handsome, a sure proof of 
the high value attaching to their services. At annexation 
they held jagirs valued at a lakh-and-a-half per annum. 
They were naturally dissatisfied at the coming of the English. 
It meant loss of dignity and comparative ruin to them ; 
^nd they did all their timid natures permitted to thwart 
our officers and discredit our actions in the eyes of the people. 
But the people failed to respond : they had been too completely 
crushed to be in much spirit to resist a Power that had recently 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 333 

broken to pieces a disciplined army. The Sodhis found 
themselves temporarily paralyzed. They were obliged to 
accept the new Rule, tardily and sulkily, and to secure the 
best terms they could for themselves. Weapons had been 
found concealed in their villages in disobedience of the 
order requiring the immediate surrender of all arms ; 
treasonable letters came to light which might justly have led 
their writers to the scaffold ; but every consideration was shown 
to a family that had some reason for objecting to a change 
of government, and the Sodhis were dealt with in a spirit 
of liberality which they could hardly have expected, and which 
no doubt has since been gratefully acknowledged by the 
whole Sikh nation. Cash allowances, aggregating Rs. 55,200, 
were made to the different members of the Anandpur house 
in 1847. These, however, gradually lapsed with the lives of 
the holders, and had thirty years later dwindled down to 
Rs. 9,924. But it was not the desire of Government that the 
family should sink into poverty after a generation. The 
question was taken up and settled in 1884 by the sanctioning 
of a scheme regulating the scale of pension for each recipient, 
and securing succession to next heirs on fixed principles. 
Hereunder, the head of the house was declared entitled to an 
allowance in perpetuity of Rs. 2,400 per annum, descending 
integrally to the representative of the family for the time 
being. The heirs of all other recipients were permitted to 
succeed to one-half, subject to the commutation of all pen- 
sions of less than fifty rupees, provision for the widows and 
unmarried daughters being in all cases made from the other 
half of the allowances. 

Prominent among the representative Sodhis of Anand- 
pur are Tika Harnarain Singh and his uncles Narindar 
Singh and Gajindar Singh ; also Nahal Singh and Ishar 
Singh, and Narindar Singh Kuraliwala, so called from 
Mauza Kurali, in the Ambala district, which was once in 



334 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

possession of the family. They are all Darbaris, either 
Viceregal or Provincial, and are descended from Sodhi Sham 
Chand. 

Tika Harnarain Singh represents the senior branch, 
descended from Nahar Singh, and known as the Ba7'i Sarkar. 
Sodhi Nahar Singh had held a large number of jagir villages 
yielding more than a lakh of rupees. He died in 1795. His 
grandson Diwan Singh was at the head of the family in 1846 
when the Jalandhar Doab was annexed. As already stated, 
the conduct of the Sodhis generally was unsatisfactory at that 
period, and they suffered in the confiscation of their estates. 
Diwan Singh was awarded a cash allowance of Rs. 8,400 per 
annum. He died in 1850. His grandsons Harnarain and 
Ramnarain are minors, whose estates are under the manage- 
ment of their uncle Narindar Singh, appointed guardian by the 
District Judge of Hushiarpur under Act XL of 1858. Sodhi 
Harnarain Singh is a youth of some promise. He is studying 
at the Aitchison College, Lahore. Sodhis Narindar Singh 
and Gajindar Singh, uncles of the minors, are gentlemen of 
position and substance, and have much local influence. Their 
income is set down as follows : — 

Pension. Other income. 
Rs. Rs. 

Harnarain Singh .. .. 2,400] 

Ramnarain Singh . . . . 200 J * * 3o90 

Narindar Singh . . . . 600 . . 1,800 

Gajindar Singh . . . . 600 . . 750 

There is a jagir assignment in Patiala of Rs. 10,000 per 
annum shared in proportion by the two minors and their 
uncles. Sodhi Harnarain Singh also holds a village in jagir 
from the Raja of Faridkot, yielding Rs. 475 per annum ; and 
Narindar Singh and Gajindar Singh enjoy a small jagir in 
the Nalagarh State. The uncles and nephews are joint 
owners of Chak Guru, Tahsil Nawashahr, Jalandhar, and of 
small plots in Gangawal, Kiratpurand other villages in Tahsil 
Una, Hushiarpur. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 535 

Sodhi Narindar Singh is a member of the Municipal 
Committee of Anandpur and of the Local Board of Una, 
Hushiarpur. He is also President of the Local Board of 
Nawashahr, Jalandhar. 

Sodhi Gajindar Singh is an Honorary Magistrate and 
Vice-President of the Municipal Committee of Anandpur. 

The present Maharajas of Patiala and Kapurthala have 
received thQ po/m/, or ceremony of initiation into the Sikh 
religion, at the hands of the young Sodhi Harnarain Singh. 

The second branch descended from Udai Singh, called 
the Diisri Sarkar, is represented by Anup Singh, Narain 
Singh, Puran Singh and Chuhar Singh. None of these 
individuals are Darbaris. They enjoy pensions from Go- 
vernment. 

Sodhis Nahal Singh and Ishar Singh are the most 
prominent representatives of the third branch, descended 
from Khem Singh, known as the Tisri Sarkar. Nahal Singh 
is a Darbari. He receives a pension of Rs. 600 per annum, 
and holds in jagir Mauzas Jhabkara and Maheshpur in the 
Gurdaspur district, yielding Rs. 2,095 P^"^ annum. Kahan 
Singh, the youngest son of Kesra Singh and grandson 
of Khem Singh, died in 1846. His son Partab Singh 
inherited a jagir of Rs. 19,900. This was resumed on 
annexation with the other Sodhi jagirs ; but as it subsequently 
appeared that Partab Singh's behaviour was not such as to 
deserve the entire resumption of his estate, he was allowed 
to retain a portion, yielding Rs. 2,500, in sixteen villages in 
Tahsils Gurdaspur, Batala and Shakargarh of the Gurdaspur 
district, and in Mauzas Gobindpur and Chahnat of the 
Gujranwala district. His son Hardit Singh and grandsons 
Ishar Singh and Kishan Singh now hold the jagir. Hardit 
Singh receives a pension of Rs. 800 per annum. Ishar 
Singh is a Darbari and an Extra Assistant Commissioner 



336 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



in the Panjab. He and his brother enjoy each a family- 
pension of Rs. 200 per annum. Kishan Singh is an Hono- 
rary Magistrate and President of the Anandpur Municipal 
Committee and of the Una Local Board. He is also Sub- 
Registrar at Anandpur. 

The fourth branch, descended from Chaur Singh, called 
the Chauthi Sai'kai', is at present represented by Narindar 
Singh, Kuralivvala. He inherited a large jagir until the 
annexation in 1846. A portion in the Ambala district was 
confiscated, and in lieu thereof he received a cash allowance 
of Rs. 4,800 per annum. The jagir in the Hushiarpur and 
Jalandhar districts detailed below is still held by him : — 



Sansowal 

Naloti 

Ahlgraon 

Mahomedpur 
Barnala 



Tahsil 
Una. 



Tahsil 
Garhshankar. 



Tahsil 
Nawashahr. 



District 
Hushiarpur. 



Do. 



Jalandhar. 



■^ 



)> Value Rs. 1,625. 



He also has proprietary rights in two villages in the 
Una Tahsil, aggregating one thousand ghumaos. He is an 
Honorary Magistrate at Anandpur. His son Kishan Singh, 
born in 1864, is a candidate for the post of Naib-Tahsildar.* 



* After the above account was written, the young Sodhi Ilarnarain Singh destroyed 
himself at Lahore, on the 8th May, i888, while in a fit of temporary insanity brought on 
by over study. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 337 

BEDI SUJAN SINGH OF UNA. 





Baba Kala Dhari, d. 1738. 
1 




1 

Kur Singh. 
Children. 


1 1 
.■\ular Chand. Jit Singh, 
1 <^- 1773- 
Children. 1 
1 


1 
Dharam Chand. 

1 
Children. 


1 

Sagar Chand, 

d.s.p. 




1 

Sahib Singh, 

d. 1834. 

1 


1 
Mahbub Singh. 

1 

I Singh, 

S63. 

i 

1 




1 

Bishan Singh 

(ancestor of 

Bedi Khem 

Singh, C.J £. 


1 
Tegh Singh. Bikrama 
d. I 






( 

Suraj Singh, 
d. 1864. 


Bedi Sujan Singh, 
d. 1845. 






1. 1 

Ram Kishan Man Mohan 

Singh, Singh, 

3. 1S74. ^. 1^79- 


Shibdeo Singh, 
6. 1886. 



Bedi Kala Dhari, a descendant of Baba Nanak, crossed 
over from Dera Baba Nanak, Gurdaspur, early in the last 
century, and after wandering about the Jalandhar Doab for 
some years, finally settled down at Una, Hushiarpur, where 
he attracted a crowd of followers, who flocked to hear his 
eloquent disquisitions on the GraJitJi Sahib, a book as difficult 
of understanding then as in the present day. The Jaswal 
Raja, Ram Singh, made himself popular by granting the Bedi 
the revenues of seventy ghumaos of land. Kala Dhari's 
sons scattered after his death, in 1738. Autar Chand settled 
at Barian in the Garhshankar Tahsil, where his descendants 
still hold a mafi. Dharam Chand returned to Dera Baba 
Nanak, Sagar Chand died without issue. Chet Singh suc- 
ceeded his father in spiritual matters ; but there was little 
religious zeal in him, and had it not been for his celebrated 
son Bedi Sahib Singh, the family would in all likelihood 
have sunk into insignificance. Sahib Singh was fortunate 
enough, shortly after his father's death, to be chosen as arbi- 



"338 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

trator by the parties in a land dispute between Sardar Gurdit 
Singh of Santokhgarh and Raja Umed Singh of Jaswan ; 
and so pleasantly did he arrange matters that he received for 
his trouble the Taluka of Una from the Raja while Gurdit 
Singh made him Jagirdar in the rich village of Kulgaraon. 
Thus honored, the Bedi soon became a man of authority on 
religious and social questions. He acquired immense in- 
fluence all over the Jalandhar Doab ; and even in the Manjha 
country, which he frequently visited, crowds would gather to 
listen to his fiery eloquence. The Raja of Kahlur found it 
politic to present him with the village of Band Lahri, and 
others in a position to do so were eager to press land-grants 
upon him, large or small, according to their means. Even 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, smitten by his sanctity, and in appre- 
ciation of his worth, added Udhovvali, Gujranwala, to the 
Bedi's ever-increasing possessions. We find the Raja Sahib 
Singh of Patiala referring in correspondence to the Bedi as 
" Baba Sahib Bedi Sahib Singhji." Later on we find the 
Bedi accompanying Ranjit Singh on several of his expedi- 
tions ; and it may be presumed that the Maharaja benefited 
by the presence of such a zealous and holy man in his camp? 
for he rewarded him generously from time to time with por- 
tions of the spoils which fell to him as victor. But many 
villages thus acquired were resumed by Ranjit Singh's 
immediate successors. 

In 1794, the Bedi proclaimed a religious war against 
the Maler Kotla Afghans whom he accused of killing cows, 
and induced Sardars Tara Singh, Gheba, Bhagel Singh, 
Bhanga Singh Thanesar and several other Chiefs, to join 
him. They were men who thought little of religion and a 
great deal of plunder, and who considered a religious cry 
as good as any other, so long as they could kill and pillage. 
The unfortunate Maler Kotla Afghans, under Ataula 
Khan, made a stout resistance, but they were overpowered 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 339 

and defeated, and fled to Kotla, which the Bedi immediately 
invested. Ataula Khan sent off messengers to Raja Sahib 
Singh of Patiala begging for assistance, and as a force under 
Bakhshi Seda and Sardar Chen Singh was encamped close 
by at Amargarh, it soon reached the town and obliged the 
Bedi to withdraw across the Satlaj. 

Four years later, in 1798, the Bedi preached at Amrit- 
sar a second religious war against the Rajput Mahomedans 
of Rai Kot, on the same pretext as the last. The Sikhs 
again crossed the Satlaj, about seven thousand in number, 
and overran Rai Kot, which included Jagraon, Rai Kot, 
Ludhiana, and the neighbouring country. The Chief, Rai 
Alyas, was only fifteen years of age ; but his principal officer, 
Roshan Khan, made a gallant stand at the village of Jodh, 
and would have repulsed the Sikhs had he not been killed 
by a musket-shot, when his troops, disheartened, took to 
flight. Rai Alyas sent to his neighbours for help, and 
the Chiefs of Patiala and Jind, with Bhai Lai Singh of 
Kaithal, and Jodh Singh Kalsia, collected their forces and 
marched towards Ludhiana, driving the Sikhs before them 
and recovering the villages which the Bedi had seized. 
Driven out of some villages, Bedi Sahib Singh seized others. 
To Mansur he was invited by the zamindars, weary of the 
tyranny of Sher Khan, the collector of Rai Alyas, and the 
Naubat Fort came into his possession, while he built a new 
one in the village of Doghari. He next took the town of 
Ludhiana and laid siege to the fort, which he would doubt- 
less have captured had not Rai Alyas induced him to retire 
across the Satlaj by threatening to send for the celebrated 
George Thomas of Hissar.* 

Bedi Sahib Singh died in 1834. His eldest son Bishan 
Singh had, in his father's lifetime, taken up his abode at 

* Vide Griffin's Rajas of the Paitjab. 



340 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Malsian, Jalandhar, receiving- an allowance of Rs. 6,000 per 
annum from the revenues of Chablchra and Wasilpur, assig^n- 
ed to Sahib Singh by the Maharaja. Bikrama Singh, third 
son, succeeded his father in the bulk of the acquired property, 
and on him also descended the spiritual mantle as represent- 
ative of Baba Nanak between the Satlaj and Bias. His 
position was recognised at Lahore, and for some years the 
family continued to thrive. But things changed with the 
advent of the British. The Manjha jagirs were resumed, 
with others, as enquiry exposed the feeble title and short- 
lived possession of the Bedi. A consolidated jagir, valued at 
Rs. 31,212 per annum in lieu of all claims, was offered and 
indignantly refused. The Government had grounds for be- 
lieving in Bikrama Singh's disloyalty, and was not disposed 
to treat him with the liberality a ready acquiescence in the 
new state of things would have secured him. Fire-arms, 
which he should have surrendered, were found concealed in 
his garden, and other proofs were present of his readiness 
to rebel if any one would take the lead. The first offer was 
accordingly modified, and Rs. 12,000 were refused by him 
as was the larger sum. Then came the local rebellion in 
1848, during the Second Sikh War, of the hill Chiefs having 
possessions north of Hushiarpur. Foremost amongst them 
were the Rajas of Kangra, Jaswan and Datarpur. The 
rising was speedily put down by John Lawrence, then Com- 
missioner of the Trans-Satlaj States, who swept down the 
Dun with five hundred men and four guns, securing the re- 
bellious Rajas, who were expatriated, and their possessions 
confiscated. Bedi Bikrama Singh threw whatever weight 
he had into the movement, hoping that his luck was about 
to turn. He was marching towards Hushiarpur to raise 
the country, and had halted at Maili, eight miles off, when, 
hearing of the break-up of the Rajas' forces, he changed 
his plans and fled in all haste across the Bias to Maharaja 
Sher Singh. He gave himself up later on, and was permitted 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 341 

to reside at Amritsar, his lands being declared forfeit, on an 
allowance of Rs. 2,000 per annum, which he enjoyed until 
his death in 1863. 

Bedi Bikrama Singh's eldest son died in 1864. A 
maintenance allowance of Rs. 1,100, raised to Rs. 2,300 per 
annum three years later, was passed to the second son 
Sujan Singh, who now stands at the head of the family. His 
case was re-considered in 1883, and it was thought advn'sable 
— with the object of resuscitating the fortunes of a fallen 
house, which once wielded vast power, and which is still 
held in veneration by a large section of the Sikh community 
— to grant him, in lieu of the cash allowance, a jagir valued 
at Rs. 2,484 in the villages of Arniala. Lai Singh and Una, 
Tahsil Una. The Bedi's mafi lands and gardens yield an 
additional income of about Rs. 500 per annum ; and he owns 
six hundred and seventy ghumaos in Arniala, Kotla 
Lai Singh, Nangal Kalan and Nurpur, Tahsil Una, Hushiar- 
pur, besides small plots in Gujranwala and Shahpur. He 
is an Honorary Magistrate, President of the Una Municipal 
Committee, member of the District Board, and one of the 
leading Viceregal Darbaris of the Hushiarpur district. 



342 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

MIAN UDHAM SINGH OF PIRTHIPUR. 



Anant Chand. 

I 

Gobind Chand. 

d. i8i8. 

I 

Jagat Chand, 

d. 1^77 . 

! 

I i I 

Davi Cliand, Man Chand, Udham Singh, 

d. 1884. d. 1857. !>. 1838. 



I I 

Suram Chand, Ras^hbir Chand, 
b. 1842. b 1S46. 

I 



I I I I 

Bal Rai Chixnd, Sheo Rai Chand, Hira Chand, Hari Bal Rai 
k. 1866. b. 1870. b. l^-jj. Chand, 



b. 1S81 



I I I • 

Sohan Singh, Hiikam Singh, Partab Singh, 
b. 1865. b. 1S71. b. 1873. 



The early history of Mian Udham Singh's family is as 
interesting from a mythical point of view as that of Rai Hira 
Chand of Babhaor. Both go back to Bhum Chand, 
the Heaven-born. But they branched away from each 
other about twenty generations ago, when Gani Chand, son 
of Raja Megh Chand, came down from the higher mountains 
and founded the Kingdom of Goler, near Gopipur Dera, 
Kangra, just north of tne Hushiarpur boundary line. His 
possessions passed to his elder son Makamal Chand. The 
younger, Sri Data, moved south into the present Dasua 
Tahsil of Hushiarpur, and there established the small Raj- 
put State of Datarpur, which had an existence of many hun- 
dred years. The Rulers were practically independent until 
the beginning of the present century, when Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh began to interest himself in their affairs. Raja Gobind 
Chand, grandfather of the present representative, having 
failed to obey the Maharaja's summons to attend at Lahore, 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 343 

was deprived of his sovereign powers and reduced to the 
status of a Jagirdar. On his death in 18 18, his son Raja 
Jagat Chand was allowed a jagir grant of Rs. 4,600 ; and 
was in the enjoyment of this income when the Doab became 
British territory in 1846. The Rajput Princes of Kangra 
had been under the impression that the accession of the 
English would be marked by the restoration to them of all 
their ancient rights and privileges, of which they had been 
shorn by the Sikhs ; and bitter was their disappointment 
on finding that the new Rulers were by no means inclined 
to alter the state of affairs which existed on their taking 
over the country. The revolt of the Jaswan and Datarpur 
Rajas and its speedy suppression by Sir John Lawrence has 
been described in another Chapter. Raja Jagat Chand was 
made prisoner and deported with his eldest son Davi Chand 
to Almora, in the North-West Provinces. They were allowed 
a maintenance grant of Rs. 3,600 per annum. 

Jagat Chand died in 1877. His son Udham Singh 
lives in Pirthipur, Tahsil Una, Hushiarpur, and enjoys a 
pension of Rs. 600 per annum. His stepmother has a similar 
allowance, and the widow of his brother Man Chand also 
receives a small pension. Mian Davi Chand died in 1883, 
leaving two sons. The elder, Suram Chand, is a General 
in the army of the Maharaja of Jamu. The second 
son, Raghbir Chand, has office under the Raja of Mandi, who 
is married to his sister. He is in receipt of a pension of 
Rs. 420 per annum from the British Government. Both bro- 
thers are connected by marriage with the Raja of Simur. 
Mian Udham Singh is married to a cousin of Rai Hira 
Chand of Babhaor. He is a Provincial Darbari of the 
Hushiarpur district. The widows of Mian Davi Chand are in 
receipt of a maintenance allowance of Rs. 180 per annum. 

The family are Dadwal Rajputs. 



344 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SARDAR RAJINDAR SINGH BAHADAR OF KATGARH. 



Jhanda Singh, 
d. 1797. 



I I 

Sham Sin.h. Tara Singh, 

I d. 1831: 

Haisa Singh, I 



d. 1887. 



Partab Singh, Khushal, Singh 

d. 1828. d. 1854. 

I .■ 

I I 

Sardar Rajindar Indar Singh, 

Singh Bahadar, d. 1854. 

b. 1847. 



I III 

Gulab Singh, Jaswant Singh Narindar Singh, Mohindar Singh, 

b. 1846. b. 1849.' '''• 1S86. b. 1 888. 



! II I 

Dayal Singh, Maisa Singh, Narain Singh, Bhagwan Singh, 

b. 1864. b. 1878. b. 1867. b. 1S73. 

I 



Balwant Amar Singh, 

Sintjh, /'. 1886. 

b. 1883. 

Jhanda Singh of Sultan Wind, Amritsar, like many 
other Manjha Jats of his time, took advantage of the break- 
up of the Mughal power to secure an estate for himself in 
semi-independence. Having seized certain villages in Sialkot 
which he made over to his younger brother, he turned east- 
wards to the rich country between the Satlaj and Bias. This 
was in 1759. He acquired sixteen villages in Ilakas Basi 
Kalan and Singriwala, Tahsil Hushiarpur, forty villages in 
Katgarh, and seventeen in Ilaka Jamiatgarh, Tahsil Garh- 
shankar, yielding an annual revenue of about one lakh. He 
died in 1797, and was succeeded in his Hushiarpur estates 
by his son Tara Singh, who built five small forts, still in 
existence, for the protection of the patrimony. But he had 
to admit the supremacy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ; his 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 345 

acknowledgment taking the usual form of a supply of horse- 
men, fixed according to the extent of his holdings. 

He was succeeded in 1831 by his only surviving son 
Khushal Singh, who became a favourite of the Maharaja, 
accompanying him on many of his expeditions. He was con- 
nected by marriage with Sardar Lahna Singh Majithia, 
Amritsar. When the turn of the British came, he was given 
a jagir of eighteen villages, yielding Rs. 10,371, in Hushiar- 
pur, while holding that of Sultan Wind in the Amritsar dis- 
trict, valued at Rs. 2,031. He died early in 1854, and one 
of his sons Indar Singh followed him within six months, 
leaving the present incumbent, Sardar Rajindar Singh, then 
seven years old, as the sole surviving member of the family. 
He was placed under charge of the Deputy Commissioner 
of Hushiarpur, and received a good education at the District 
School. The family jagir, reduced to Rs. 3,000 per annum, 
was spread over four villages in Tahsil Hushiarpur, seven 
in Tahsil Garhshankar and one (Sultan Wind) in Amrit- 
sar. His proprietary holdings aggregate one thousand six 
hundred ghumaos of land in the Tahsils mentioned. 
He lives at Katgarh, Garhshankar and Hushiarpur; is 
Circle Zaildar, Honorary Magistrate, Sub-Registrar and 
Civil Judge within the limits of the Balachaur Police Thana. 
He is President of the Local Garhshankar Board and mem- 
ber of the Hushiarpur District Board. He has also recently 
been appointed a member of the Committee of the Aitchison 
College, Lahore. The title of Sardar Bahadar was conferred 
upon him in January 1888. He is a Viceregal Darbari. 
The Sardar is connected by marriage with the houses of 
Sardar Nahar Singh of Ahmad Kalan, Amritsar ; Sardar 
Shib Deo Singh of Lidhran, Ludhiana ; and Sardar Lahna 
Singh (uncle of Sardar Gurdayal Singh, District Judge) of 
Harpargarh, Nabha, and Chief of Manimajra, Ambala. 
Sardar Rajindar Singh is described as a man of great per- 



346 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

sonal worth, a fine sportsman, and a good rider, having 
great influence in his own part of the country. He is one of 
the few members of the old Sikh aristocracy who have 
accommodated themselves to the changed spirit of the 
times. He has, for instance, taken a prominent part in the 
movement for the reduction of marriage expenditure amongst 
the Jats. 

Mention may here be made of the elder branch of the 
family, descended from Jhanda Singh's son Sham Singh, 
who succeeded to the Amritsar, Sialkot and Jamu properties, 
said to have yielded over a lakh of rupees income. Harsa 
Singh, son of Sham Singh, was a distinguished soldier in the 
Khalsa army, and commanded one of the regiments of the 
French brigade. He had the rank of General under Maha- 
raja Sher Singh. In 1849 he espoused the national cause 
and fought on the wrong side at Multan, thus forfeiting a jagir 
of twenty-five thousand rupees. In 1857 he took service in the 
nth Bengal Lancers as a Rasaldar and proved himself a 
gallant soldier. He retired in i860 with the rank of Sardar, 
and a pension of Rs. 600 per annum. One-half of this has 
been continued to his son Gulab Singh, at the head of the 
family since Sardar Harsa Singh's death in 1887. The 
Sardar was a Viceregal Darbari of the Amritsar district, and 
resided at Sultan Wind. Gulab Singh is Chief Lambardar 
of the village. He is a man of good presence, high intelli- 
gence, and possesses considerable local influence. His 
brother Jaswant Singh is a Rasaldar in the nth Bengal 
Lancers, and for his services in connection with the Afghan 
Boundary Commission received the Order of Merit. Jas- 
want Singh's son Narain Singh is serving as a Dafadar in his 
father's Regiment. The family owns about two hundred and 
fifty acres of land. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 347 

RANA LAHNA SINGH OF MANASWAL. 



Jhagar Chand. 

Lai Chand, 
,/. 1855. 

I 

Mahtab Chand, 

d. 1871. 

1 



I I I I I 

Khushal Singh, Sahib Singh, Lahna Singh, Sham Singh. Udham Singh. 
d. 1854. d. 1881. b. 1836. 

I \ I i ^1 

Opindar Singh, Ram Singh, Janardhan Singh, Pardaman Singh, Pirthi Singh, 

/). 1865. b. 1869. b. 1872. b. 1874. b. 1877. 

This family is of some standing in the lower hills of the 
Hushiarpur district, representing the southernmost of the 
ancient Rajput Chieftainships of Kangra. They are of the 
Dad^a^, one of the thirty-six Royal Rajput races. Four 
scions of the Dad stock are said to have come upwards of 
eleven hundred years ago from Garhmuktasar and Garh- 
mandal to these parts. One, now extinct, founded Jaijon ; 
another settled at Siroha near Garhshankar, where his des- 
cendants are now Musalmans ; a third founded the existing 
family of Manaswal ; and the fourth that of Kungrat. 

Rana Jodh Chand, thirty-seven generations earlier than 
Lahna Singh, came up from Garhmuktasar in Mirut to 
worship at the Jawalamukhi shrine on the north bank of the 
Bias, and brought with him followers sufficient to enable him 
to hold the lower Sawaliks near Garhshankar, with his head- 
quarters at Manaswal. Early in the last century, however, 
they lost their independence and became tributary to the 
Jaswal Raja, of whom Mian Raghnath Singh is now the 
representative. In 1759 when the Jaswals were hard pressed 
by Sardar Hari Singh, Sialwa, Ambala, their Chief was 
forced to purchase his conciliation by assigning him one- 
half the tribute he had been receivino- from the Rana of 



348 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Manaswal. We next hear of the Rana joining with the 
Jaswalis, in 1804, to resist an invasion of the Katoch 
Rajputs, headed by the celebrated Sansar Chand of Kangra. 
The defence was successful, and Sansar Chand was forced 
to retire with loss. The Maharaja Ranjit Singh was the 
next outsider who had to be reckoned with. He was 
not long in stretching his arm out towards the Manaswal 
plateau. In 181 5 he confirmed the title of Sardar Dava 
Singh, son of Hari Singh, in his jagirs, at the same 
time recognising Jhagar Chand's rights in what remained 
of the patrimony, subject to the supply of fifteen horsemen 
for the common weal. When the British came in 1846, 
Jhagar Chand's son Lai Chand received the revenues of 
eight villages, yielding Rs. 3,800 annually, with continuance 
of one-half to his lineal male heirs for ever. Lai Chand died 
in 1855. His grandson Lahna Singh is now at the head of 
the family, having succeeded his brother Sahib Singh in 1881. 
He is a Viceregal Darbari. His jagir holdings, worth 
Rs. 2,169 per annum, are spread over seven villages in 
Tahsil Garhshankar and one in Tahsil Una. He owns 
two thousand five hundred ghumaos of land in Manaswal 
and five thousand ghumaos in six other villages of the 
Garhshankar Tahsil, besides the whole vilk^ge of Mahand- 
pur, containing two thousand ghumaos in Tahsil Una, 
Hushiarpur. 

The family have been recognised as of a Royal Rajput 
clan, and the jagir devolves in accordance with the law of 
primogeniture upon the head of the house for the time being. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 



349 



SARDAR BAHADAR BUR SINGH OF MUKERIAN. 







BUDHA DiTA, 

d. 1827. 

Raldu Ram, 

d. 1848. 

1 








^DAR Bur 
Singh. 


1 
Sardar Budh 
Singh. 
d. 1840. 


Sadar Sudh 

Singh, 

d. 1 888. 

1 


Sardar Nadhan 
Singh, 
d. 1889. 
1 


1 

Sardar Mahan 

Singh. 



Atma Singh, Gulab Singh, 
d. 1856. d. 1873. 



Panjab Singh, 
d. 1884. 
I 



Harnam Singh, 
b. 1870. 



Indar Singh, 
b. 1881. 



I I 

Parem Singh, Ganda Singh, 

b. 1837. b. 1846. 



Jhanda Singh, 
6. 1850. 



I I I 

Lachman Sundar Moti 

Singh. Singh. Singh. 



I I 

Chanda Ishar Singh, 

Singh, b. 1869. 
b. 1851. 



Narain Singh, 
b. 1873. 



I 
Narindar 
Singh, 
b. 1877. 



Maksudan Singh, 
b 1881. 



I 
Hari 

Singh, 
b. 1885. 



The family is one of Jhiwar or Kahar Sikhs of the 
Mandlai got, having its residence at Mukerian, Tahsil 
Dasua, Hushiarpur. Buda Dita and his son Raldu Ram 
attached themselves nearly a century ago to Sardars Jai 
Singh and Gufbakhsh Singh, Kanhya, who had charge of 
the Mukerian Taluka ; and for their faithful services were 
awarded the village of Dhawa in Kahnuwan, Gurdaspur. 
Gurbakhsh Singh's widow, the Rani Sada Kaur, played an 
important part in Sikh history as the mother-in-law of Ma- 
haraja Ranjit Singh. Raldu Ram continued in her service 
as Kardar of Mukerian after her husband's death, and receiv- 
ed from her a house in Amritsar city which his son now owns. 
The Maharaja Sher Singh was born of Sada Kaur's daughter, 



35^ CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the Rani Mahtab Kaur, at Mukerian, and Raldu Ram was given 
charge of the infant. But he incurred the displeasure of 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh later on by siding with Sada Kaur 
when the two were on bad terms, and he was obliged to 
flee to Badni, in the Ludhiana district, and forfeit all his 
lands north of the Satlaj. He was, however, forgiven shortly 
afterwards and allowed to present himself at Lahore with his 
son Bur Singh, who was appointed a personal attendant of 
the Rani Mahtab Kaur. His other sons were also by degrees 
given employment about the Court as orderlies to the Rajas 
Sher Singh and Partab Singh. One of them, Budh Singh, 
was murdered in 1843 with the Maharaja Sher Singh. Bur 
Singh was employed on various occasions as a confidential 
agent, and with such success as to secure him in reward the 
whole village ofGulerian, Gurdaspur, a jagir of thirty ghumaos 
in Mukerian, and a house at Batala and at Lahore, all of 
which are still held by him. Later on he was given the 
village of Bathu, Tahsil Una, Hushiarpur, for services 
in Kashmir under Rajas Gulab Singh and Partab Singh- 
And for his assistance to the British on the occasion of Gene- 
ral Pollock's advance on Kabul he received a mafi plot in a 
village near Peshawar, yielding Rs. 300 per annum. His 
enemies took advantage of the murder of his master, the 
Maharaja Sher Singh, to attempt Bur Singh's ruin, and the 
Darbar levied from him a fine of Rs. 81,000 alleged to have 
been misappropriated on various occasions. All his jagirs 
were at the same time temporarily resumed. But the storm 
did not last long. On Sardar Hira Singh's death the power 
passed to Raja Lai Singh and Sardar Jawahar Singh, who 
speedily reinstated Bur Singh and appointed him Governor 
of Amritsar, at the same time conferring upon him the jagir 
revenue of Karimpur in Jamu. During the commotions 
following upon Sher Singh's death, Bur Singh came to the 
front as an able administrator and kept the country around 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 351 

Jhilam and Ravval Pindi in a comparative state of quiet, after 
crushing the turbulent spirits who were incHned to shake 
themselves loose from the trammels of the Sikhs. For these 
services he received a jagir of Rs. 6,500 per annum in the 
Gurdaspur district, while his brothers Sudh Singh and 
JNIahan Singh were allowed jagirs of Rs. 2, 260 and Rs, i,oSo 
respectively. 

We next find Bur Singh in charge of the Maharani Jin- 
dan, mother of Dalip Singh, at Fort Shekhupura, Gujran- 
wala, where it was deemed expedient to detain her. This 
trust was reposed in him by Sir Henry Lawrence and Sir 
Frederick Currie. His brother Sudh Singh was at the time 
in attendance on Maharaja Dalip Singh at Lahore. The 
Maharani having been deported to Banares in consequence 
of a suspicion attaching to her conduct in connection with the 
rebellion started by Mulraj, Bur Singh's services were util- 
ized in preserving order along the Lahore and Multan Road 
under Sir Robert Montgomery's orders. Sir Robert held 
him in the highest esteem, and many years afterwards wrote 
to him as follows : — " My friend, you have always been faith- 
ful under whatever Government you have served. Maharaja 
Sher Singh created you a Sardar for your devotion to him. 
During the days of the Residency at Lahore you did loyal 
service to our Government, and your relatives served in our 
army. I am sure all EnglisH officers will treat you with 
consideration and kindness." 

This fine old man still leads an active life. He is a Sub- 
Registrar of documents for the cluster of villages around 
Mukerian, where he resides. He is President of the Muni- 
cipal Committee, and was lately an Honorary Magistrate, but 
resigned the office in favour of his brother Sudh Singh. He 
was honored with the title of Sardar Bahadar by the Gov- 
ernment of India in 1888. The Sardar has two grandsons 
livino^. His three sons are dead. 



352 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Sudh Singh, who recently died, was a Magistrate, Presi- 
dent of the Local Board at Dasua, and a member of the 
Mukerian Municipal Committee. He raised and commanded a 
troop of Police for service before Dehli in 1857, earning a 
name for conspicuous gallantry on more than one occasion. 
He was afterwards made an Inspector of Police, but being 
illiterate he was found not fit for the appointment, and he 
resigned in 1863. Nadhan Singh, the third brother, has also 
distinguished himself by loyal behaviour. 

Sardar Bur Singh enjoys jagirs yielding Rs, 5,940 in 
four villages of the Gurdaspur district. He also holds one 
hundred and sixty ghumaos of mafi land in Gurdaspur, 
Peshawar and Hushiarpur, and he is owner of ninety 
ghumaos in four villages of the Dasua Tahsil. Sardar Sudh 
Singh's jagir-holdings in Gurdaspur yielded Rs. 2,060 per 
annum, and those of Sardar Nadhan Singh Rs. 1,000. 
The latter has also mafi and proprietary rights in the 
Hushiarpur district. 

The two brothers are Viceregal Darbaris. 



THE HUSHIARPUR DISTRICT. 353 

R.\I HIRA CHAND OF BABHAUR. 



Karam Chand. 



I I 

Akm Chand, Four other 



d. 1843. 



III! 

Ratan Chand, Man Singh. Mushtak Singh. Divvan Singh. 

</. 18S4. \ I 

I I I Gopal Singh. 

I i Parem Singh. Sundar Singh. 

Rai Hira Mangal 

Chand, Singh. 

b. 1859. 

Rai Hira Chand of Babhaur, a Rajput, living at Bangarh, 
Tahsil Una, Hushiarpur, traces his descent back to the 
mythical hero Bhum Chand, Raja of Kangra, and son of the 
goddess Jawalamukhi, who is said to have conceived in a 
miraculous manner after a personal encounter with two 
powerful demons, Shambu and Nashambu, who were noto- 
rious enemies of the peaceful Deities then abounding in the 
valleys north of the Satlaj. Raja Parag Chand, more mo- 
dern by one hundred and twenty-two generations than his 
ancestor Bhum Chand, came down from his abode on the 
snow-line and established a small monarchy in the Jaswan 
Dun. Others of the family followed suit, and Rajput Prin- 
cipalities were as common as blackberries when history first 
began to find anchorage in the facts which succeeded tradi- 
tion. It would be profitless to detail all the wonderful deeds 
which Bhum Chand's descendants are said to have performed. 
But we find his people early in the last century bitterly op- 
posed to the Jaswal Rajas, whose hereditary enemies they 
ever were. They had to submit, however, to their more 
powerful rivals, and accept at their hands a jagir revenue of 
Rs. 14,000, and talukdari rights in seventy-two villages. Later 
on, in 1759, Rai Karam Chand, then at the head of the fa- 
mily, sided against the Jaswalis with Sardar Gurdit Singh, 



354 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Santokhgarhia, and received fifteen villages as his share of the 
spoil. He sided also with the Katoch Raja Sansar Chand 
of Kangra in 1803, on the occasion of his conquest of the 
Jaswan Dun, and was in consequence allowed to retain his 
jagir rights in nine villages. These were reduced in number 
to six, on the invasion by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of this Doab 
in 18 1 5, and were held subject to a nazarana deduction of half 
the jagir and to the supply of five horsemen to the State. 
But his talukdari rights already mentioned were not inter- 
fered with. On the annexation of the Jalandhar Doab by 
the British Government in 1846, the jagir was confiscated, 
and in lieu a cash allowance of Rs. 1,000 per annum was 
passed to Ratan Chand, son of Rai Alam Chand. The mat- 
ter was, however, reconsidered later on, with the cases of 
other Jagirdars, and a jagir of the value of Rs. 1,200 per 
annum in Babhaur and Bangarh, Tahsil Una, was restored 
to the family, with a continuance of one-half to the lineal 
male heirs of Ratan Chand. This was in lieu of the cash 
allowance. He was also allowed to retain his talukdari rights, 
being a collection of twenty-two per cent of the revenue of 
twenty villages, yielding Rs. 2,849 per annum. 

Rai Ratan Chand cheerfully accepted British Rule when 
it came. He assisted the authorities from the commence- 
ment, and wisely held aloof from the abortive rebellion of 
the Hill Chiefs in 1848-49, which brought his hereditary 
enemies of Jaswan to such signal grief. He was again 
forward in loyal assistance on the occasion of the Mutiny, 
proceeding to Dehli with a number of his kinsmen and doing 
excellent service side by side with the British Troops 
throughout the rebellion. He died in 1884. 

Rai Hira Chand, now at the head of the family, has 
entered upon the patrimony under unfavorable circumstances, 
his father having left it saddled with a debt of Rs. 84,000. 



THE HUSHIARFUR DISTRICT. 335 

His affairs are in the hands of the Deputy Commissioner, 
who is trying to come to some reasonable understanding 
with the numerous creditors. The jagir, in Tahsil Una, 
yields Rs. 739 per annum. The brothers have ownership 
rights in three thousand five hundred ghumaos, in the villages 
of Babhaur, Bangarh, Takhera, Makhidpur and Badsara, 
Tahsil Una. The greater part of this land is unculturable 
waste, comprised in the forest lands of Bangarh. Hira Chand 
is a Provincial Darbari. The title of Rai is recognized by 
Government. Gopal Singh, cousin of Hira Chand, has taluk- 
dari rights in Gakhera, and is an occupancy tenant in Bangarh. 
The present Raja of Goler is the son of Rai Hira Chand's 
sister. A second sister has married the Raja of Mankotia. 



35^. CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

KANGRA DISTRICT. 
RAJA RAGHNATH SINGH, GOLERIA. 





GOVARDHAN CHAND, 

({- 1773- 

! 


Pargas Chand, Prakaram Chand. 
J. 1820. 
1. 
Bhup Singh, 
(/. 1820. 


Shamsher Singh, 
d. 1877. 


1 

Jai Singh, 

d. 1884. 

\ 


I 

RAGHNATH 
t>. i860. 

1 

Baldeo Singh, 
t. 1884. 


1 
Singh, Hard it Singh, 
b. 1866. 



From time immemorial the Kangra Hills have been in- 
habited by Hindu races living under the government of 
their own Chiefs. Among these petty States, the oldest and 
most extensive was Kangra. According to local legend the 
Katoch family, as the house of Kangra is designated, is not 
of human origin. The first Raja, Bhum Chand, sprang to 
life fully grown, having been created from perspiration off the 
brow of a goddess enshrined at Kangra ; and became the 
progenitor of a line of five hundred Kings. The ancient 
name of his dominions was Trigart, an evident attempt to 
identify the dynasty with the princes of Trigarta, mentioned 
in the Mahabharat. 

Boastful and illusory as the local traditions are, there is 
no reason to question the antiquity of the Katoch Chiefs. 
The "Mountain Kings north of the Panjab " are referred to 
by the Greek Historians of Alexander more than three hun- 
dred years before Christ ; and Farishta alludes to the Raja of 



THE K A NCR A DISTRICT. 357 

Kot Kangra in narrating the exploits of a former ruler of 
Kanauj who overran the hills from Kamaon to Kashmir, 
subduing five hundred petty Chiefs. The time when this 
conqueror flourished is within the limits of authenticated 
history, about the twentieth Sambat of Vikramajit, or over 
nineteen hundred years ago. The ancient origin of the family 
is still further corroborated by the number of its branches 
and the extent of country over which it has spread. Through- 
out the lower hills, from the Satlaj to the Ravi, there is 
scarcely a clan of any mark that does not lay claim to Katoch 
blood. Four independent Principalities — Jaswan, Haripur, 
Siba and Datarpur — have been founded from the parent 
house. The fraternity of Sadu Rajputs with their seven 
Raos or Chiefs, who occupy the Jaswan Valley between 
Una and Rupar, claim descent from the same stock ; and 
the colony of Indauria Rajputs, at the other extremity of the 
district, boast that their ancestor was an emigrant Katoch. 
The earliest records refer to the Katoch Monarchy as a power 
which had already attained the vigor of maturity. But the 
traditional story of the circumstances under which Haripur 
was separated from Kangra may be accepted as trustworthy, 
inasmuch as it is implicitly believed by the general body of 
Rajputs whom it most concerns. Hari Chand, Raja of 
Kangra, was out hunting in the neighbourhood of Harsar, 
a village of Goler, still famous for its extensive woods stocked 
with various kinds of game. By some mishap he fell into a 
dry well unobserved by his companions, who, after a long and 
fruitless search, returned to Kangra fully impressed with the 
belief that he had become the victim of a beast of prey. His 
loss was mourned as one who was dead, and his brother 
Karam Chand ascended the throne. But Hari Chand was 
still alive. After the lapse of several days he was discovered 
and extricated by some shepherds, from whom he learned 
the story of his brother's accession. His position was em- 



358 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

barrassing ; his name had been effaced from the rolls of the 
living, and another ruled in his stead. A return to Kangra 
would cause obvious confusion ; so he generously resolved 
not to attempt the recovery of his birth-right. Selecting a 
spot on the banks of the Ban Ganga opposite Goler, he built 
the town and fortress of Haripur, called after himself, and 
made it the head-quarters of a separate Principality. Thus, 
the elder brother reigned at Haripur on a small scale, while 
the younger sat, without real right, on the throne of the 
Katoches. 

Since the days of Hari Chand twenty-six generations 
have passed away ; but the ancient limits of his Principality 
are preserved almost intact in the present Dera Tahsil. 
Datarpur is alone excluded, as it now belongs to the dis- 
trict of Hushiarpur ; and the only addition is Tapa Ghagot, 
formerly a portion of Jaswan, With these exceptions the 
Dera Tahsil, as it stands in the map of Kangra, represents 
pretty accurately the Haripur of Hari Chand's time. 

Dealing with comparatively modern history, we find 
Raja Rup Chand of Goler allied with Shahjahan in the sub- 
jugation of the Jamwal and Mankotia Rajas, who had rebelled 
against the Imperial authority in alliance with the Katoches. 
For this assistance the Emperor conferred upon him the 
title of Bahadar, a dress of honor, and two weapons which 
are still preserved in the family as things to be prized. 

Raja Man Singh, who flourished in the first half of the 
seventeenth century, paid court to the Mughals, who sent him 
on an expedition to Kandahar, which failed. He was sub- 
sequently employed with better success in punishing Raja 
Jagat Chand of Nurpur, who had been neglectful in some 
matter of etiquette to Aurangzeb. The Emperor Shahjahan 
conferred upon Man Singh the title S/ier Afghan, the 
Lion-killer, and appointed him head of the Kangra Chiefs. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 359 

Raja BIkrama Singh took service under Aurangzeb, and was 
sent with an expedition beyond Kabul, where he died. He 
was famous for his physical prowess, and could break a 
cocoanut into pieces by pressing it in his fingers. This is 
what Goler history says. 

Raja Bhup Singh, in whose time the Sikhs began to ap- 
pear on the scene, distinguished himself by fighting the 
Katoches and gaining a victory over them. Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh at first treated him with respect, and called him Bawa ; 
but later on, in 18 12, he seized his territory, worth about 
Rs. 90,000, per annum, and ejected the Raja, allotting him a 
jagir of less than one-fourth the revenues. This operation 
was not effected without the exercise of some questionable 
diplomacy on the part of the Maharaja. Having lessened 
the chances of local resistance by borrowing a strong con- 
tingent of Rajput soldiers from Bhup Singh, he took advan- 
tage of the Prince's presence in Lahore, to impress upon him 
the desirability of complete submission to the Paramount 
Power, emphasising his arguments by threatening to detain 
him until consent had been given. The Raja perforce 
agreed ; but only in order to regain his liberty. Once free, 
he protested against the confiscation, and refused to touch 
the Rs. 20,000 which had been fixed for his maintenance. 
The allowance eventually went to the support of the ladies 
of his family. When the country was taken over by the 
British, this jagir of Rs. 20,000 was confirmed to his son 
Shamsher Singh, who had succeeded Bhup Singh as titular 
Chief in 1820. The grant was spread over twenty villages ; 
and together with two detached mafi plots and three gardens 
in Talukas Nandpur and Haripur, was estimated to yield 
Rs. 20,711. The right of raising revenue on drugs and 
spirituous liquors was also continued to the Raja. 

Shamsher Singh was the last of the old Rajput Chiefs 
of Kangra. He was a rough, uneducated soldier, celebrated 



36o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

for his honesty and straightforwardness. In the First Sikh 
War he gathered his retainers together, and turned the Sikhs ' 
out of Haripur, the old stronghold of his State. He shared 
the disappointed feeling of the Rajput Chiefs generally when 
they learned that the supremacy of the English was to bring 
them no relief from the degradation which the Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh's ambitious policy had caused them. Yet 
Shamsher Singh remained outwardly loyal and refused to give 
countenance to the rebellious movement set on foot by some of 
his kinsmen immediately after annexation. He died in 1877, 
leaving neither widow nor son ; and his jagir consequently 
lapsed, as no provision for collateral heirs had been made 
under the Sanad given him in 1853. But as an act of grace 
the estate was continued to his brother Jai Singh and his 
legitimate heirs, male. The conditions accompanying the 
new grant mainly were, that he should hold as a simple jagir- 
dar, that the levy of excise duties and other rates should 
cease, and that no police or magisterial powers should be 
claimed by the Raja as of right. 

Mian Jai Singh was gazetted in 1878 to the title of Raja, 
conferred upon him as a hereditary distinction. As the 
estate had been heavily encumbered, Government stepped 
in shortly before the Raja's death and saved him from hope- 
less insolvency by granting a loan of Rs. 86,000, recoverable 
in half-yearly instalments of Rs. 6,000, and bearing interest 
at six per cent. This sum is still in course of liquidation. 

On Jai Singh's death in 1884, he was succeeded by 
his son Raghnath Singh, the present Raja, a young man of 
fair educational attainments. He exercises minor criminal 
and civil judicial powers within the villages comprising his 
jagir, specified in the original Sanad of 1853. The nominal 
value of the property is Rs. 21,411 ; but the realizations 
average about one-third more. The Raja is the leading 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 361 

Viceregal Darbari of the Kangra district. His sister is 
married to the Raja of Mandi. 

The living Katoch representatives in the Kangra dis- 
trict are Raja Raghnath Singh of Goler, Raja Jai Chand 
of Lambagraon, Raja Jai Singh of Siba, and Raja Amar 
Chand of Nadaun. The Goler family is, however, usually- 
called Goleria ; the Sibas, Siviya ; the Datarpuras, Dadwal ; 
and the Jaswans, Jaswal. 



362 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

MAJOR JAI CHAND, RAJA OF LAMBAGRAON. 





Raja Teg 


;h Chand. 

1 




Raja Sansar Chand. 

Raja Anrudh Chand. 
1 


Raja 
Mian 


1 
Fatah Chand. 

1 
Ludar Chand. 

1 


Mian Man Chand; 
died childless. 


Raja Ranbir Raja Parniodh 
Chand, Chand, 
d. 1847. '^- iSSI- 

Raja 


i 

Raja 

Partab 

Chand. 

1 

Jai Chand, 

b. 1S62. 


Mian Kirat 
Chand. 

1 

Mian Jaqrup 
Chard, 
b. i860. 


1 

Mian Udai 

Chand. 

1 

Mian Daljit 
Chand, 
l>. 1866. 



Raja Jai Chand is the representative of the younger 
branch of the ancient Kangra dynasty, whose origin, antiquity 
and former greatness have already been touched upon in the 
history of the Goler branch, which seceded from the parent 
house in the thirteenth century. He is said to be the four 
hundred and eighty-fifth Raja of Kangra in Hneal descent. 

In times comprised in modern history, Raja Sansar 
Chand, great-granduncle of the present Chief, was the most 
renowned of the Kangra Princes. JJe flourished early in the 
present century, and was a contemporary of Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh. With the assistance of the Sikhs he regained posses- 
sion of Fort Kangra from Nawab Jiwan Khan, son of Saif 
Ali ; the Emperor Jahangir having some generations pre- 
viously captured the place from Raja Chandrabhan. Sansar 
Chand soon became powerful in the Kangra district, and 
annexed several parganas in the Jalandhar Doab, including 
Hushiarpur and Bajwara, and portions of Mandi, Kutlahr, 
Chamba, Jaswan and Kahlur. The yield of the whole was 
not less than nine or ten lakhs of rupees. For twenty years 
he reigned supreme throughout these hills and secured a name 
never attained by any of his ancestors. Had he remained 
content with his possessions he might have bequeathed a 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. t,6t, 

princely portion to his children ; but his aggressive nature 
brought him into colHsion with a power mightier than his 
own, involving him in irretrievable ruin. In 1805, Sansar 
Chand fell upon the State of Kahlurand seized the Taluka 
of Bati, adjoining his own district of Mahal Mori. The 
Kahlur Raja, not beings in a position to retaliate alone, solicit- 
ed the aid of the Gurkhas, who had already overrun the 
hills between the Gogra and the Satlaj, three hundred miles 
beyond their proper border. They gladly responded, and 
crossed the Satlaj. The first action was fought at Mahal 
Mori in 1806, when the Katoches were signally defeated and 
fled in confusion to Tira, a fortified position within their own 
territory. Then followed a period of anarchy. Certain por- 
tions of the country were subdued and held by the Gurkhas ; 
while Fort Kangra and the principal strongholds remained 
in the hands of the Katoches. Each party plundered the dis- 
tricts held by the other, so as to weaken his adversary's re- 
sources. The people, harassed and bewildered, fled for 
refuge to the neighbouring States ; some to Chamba, some 
to theplains of Jalandhar. The other Chieftains, incited by 
Sansar Chand's former oppressions, made inroads on his 
holding and aggravated the general disorder. At last, in 
despair, the Katoch Chief invoked the succour of Ranjit 
Singh. This was readily granted. The Sikhs entered 
Kangra and gave battle to the Gurkhas in August 1809. 
The Gurkha army had suffered severely from sickness ; yet the 
field was long and obstinately contested. But fortune finally 
declared In favor of the Sikhs, who followed up the victory 
by pressing close upon the enemy, obliging them to 
abandon all their conquests on the right bank of the Satlaj. 

Ranjit Singh was not the man to confer so large a 
favor for nothing. In remuneration for his services he took 
Fort Kangra and the sixty-six villages in the valley allotted 
by ancient usage for its maintenance ; guaranteeing to Sansar 



364 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Chand all his other dominions, unfettered by conditions 
of service.* This was in 18 10. But in the same year Ranjit 
Singh withdrew from his engagement and began to encroach 
more and more on the Katoch Chiefs possessions, until 
nothing was left but the bare title, and a small jagir to save 
him from begging his bread. Raja Sansar Chand died in 
1824, having sunk into the position of an obsequious 
tributary of Lahore. Twenty years earlier he was Lord 
Paramount of the Hill States, and almost a rival to the great 
Maharaja himself. He was succeeded by his son Anrudh 
Chand, from whom the Sikhs exacted a lakh of rupees as 
succession money. In 1827 Ranjit Singh took advantage 
of Anrudh Chand's presence at Lahore to demand his sister's 
hand on behalf of Hira Singh, son of his Minister Dhian 
Singh. Surrounded by Sikhs, and fearing the consequence 
of abrupt refusal, the timid Chief acquiesced and returned 
homewards. He had no intention, however, of being bound 
by such a promise, and was prepared to lose his Kingdom 
and live in exile rather than compromise the honor of his 
ancient house. Knowing the folly of resistance, he quietly 
left his home, and crossing the Satlaj with all his household, 
sought refuge within British territory. Ranjit Singh was 
naturally enraged at this passive defiance of his authority ; 
but the person and honor of the Raja were safe. His 
country was of course annexed in the name of the Khalsa. 

Shortly after reaching Hardwar, his chosen retreat, 
Raja Anrudh Chand gave the girl who had been the inno- 
cent cause of his misfortunes to Sudarshan Shah, Raja of 
Garhwal. He died of paralysis while still in exile. His 
son Ranbir Chand obtained an asylum near Simla from the 
Rana of Baghal with whom he continued to reside for some 
years. 

* At the end of this history is given a copy of the Treaty granted to Sansar Chand 
by the Maharaja. It was executed in the Holy Temple of Jawalamukhi, and was stamped 
by Ranjit Singh with his own hand colored with saffron. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 365 

Ultimately, Lord William Bentinck, Governor-General, 
interested himself in the case and advised the Raja to go 
to Lahore and make terms with Ranjit Singh, promising 
him his sympathy and support. This the Raja did, accept- 
ing a jagir of the pargana of Mahal Mori in his own coun- 
try, yielding annually Rs. 50,000. When the war with 
Lahore was declared, Ranbir Chand assisted to his utmost 
in expelling the Sikhs from his native valley. He and his 
brother Parmodh Chand collected a large following of Raj- 
puts and attacked and captured the Forts of Tira and Riah, 
which had once belonged to the family. This was in 1846. 
Subsequently the Katoches possessed themselves of Pathiar 
and Karot, in Palam, and the Forts of Sola Singhi and 
Chaumukhi in Nadaun. Chauki was seized and occupied by 
the Kutlahr Raja. 

Ranbir Chand was confirmed by our Government in pos- 
session of his jagir of Mahal Mori, and he was reimbursed 
for the charges he had incurred in the war. He died in 
1847, when the Chiefship passed to his brother Parmodh 
Chand. 

The fate of the Kangra Princes is a remarkable contrast 
to the fortunes of the Hill Chiefs across the Satlaj. There, 
the British Power delivered the country from the yoke of 
the Gurkhas and restored the Native Rulers without excep- 
tion to independence. The knowledge of this generosity 
made the dethroned Chieftains look forward with anxious 
hope to the coming of the new Power, and converted them 
into desperate and discontented subjects, when they found 
that the English intended these conquests for themselves. 
So strong was this feeling that three of the Kangra Princes 
actually rose in insurrection during the Panjab W^ar of 
1848-49. Emissaries had been sent into the hills inciting 
them to rebel, and promising them restoration to their here- 
ditary Kingdoms if the movement proved successful. Parmodh 



566 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Chand was among those who received the Sikh overtures 
with favor and returned promises of assistance. Towards 
the end of 1848 his proceedings became clearly defined. 
He had advanced from Mahal Mori and taken possession 
of the neighbouring forts of Riah and Abhemanpur. A 
salute was fired, and the people were informed that their 
hereditary Chief had again assumed Kingship in his do- 
minions. The district officer used every exertion to bring 
the foolish youth to his senses, offering still to procure him 
pardon if he would disband his forces and return peaceably 
to his home. But these good offices were rejected ; and on 
the 3rd December intelligence was brought that an army of 
eight hundred Katoches had crossed the river with the in- 
tention of attacking the British encampment which was halted 
at about ten miles from Tira. Soon afterwards the insur- 
gents were descried on the opposite bank of a broad ravine. 
They were met by a well-directed volley ; their leader was 
wounded, and after a short engagement they had to turn, and 
were chased back to the walls of Tira. Parm.odh Chand 
was taken prisoner and deported to Almora, where he died 
three years later, leaving no sons. He was thus the last of 
the lineal descendants of the great Sansar Chand. 

Ludar Chand was the representative of the younger 
branch when the country was taken over by the British. 
He was confirmed in possession of his jagir of Rs. 35,598, 
which was to remain in the family and descend according to 
the Hindu law of inheritance. His conduct during the 
rebellion of 1848-49 was unimpeachable. He not only 
refused to join his misguided relative Parmodh Chand, but 
actually went to Jalandhar to inform the Commissioner, John 
Lawrence, of the excitement prevailing in the hills, and to 
warn him of the coming insurrection. 

Ludar Chand died in 1850, and was succeeded by his 
son Partab Chand. In the following year, on the demise of 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 367 

the exiled Chief Parmodh Chand, he was constituted a Raja, 
and acknowledged as head of the Katoch Rajputs. The 
opportunity was taken of lifting the jagir grants out of the 
operation of the ordinary law of succession, and making them 
heritable by a single son. This was a measure of great 
importance, securing as it did a continuance of the principle 
of Chiefship ; and it was shortly afterwards accepted by the 
whole of the Kangra Rajas and made to include their rights 
of every description in land. They were not slow to per- 
ceive that on this principle alone could they continue to main- 
tain even a semblance of the authority and dignity enjoyed 
by their fathers. Partab Chand's younger brothers Kirat 
Chand and Udai Chand by private arrangement received 
annual allowances of Rs. 3,000 and Rs. 2,000, respectively, in 
lieu of a jagir share. 

Raja Partab Chand was extravagant In his tastes and 
careless in money matters, and when he died in 1864 his 
affairs were found to be considerably involved. 

The present Chief, Jai Chand, was only two years of age 
when he succeeded his father. His property was taken over 
by the Court of Wards, and the old debts were cleared off. 
The Raja resides at Lambagraon, a picturesque locality on 
the right bank of the Bias, within a few miles of the old home 
of his ancestors. He was educated in Ajmir at the Chiefs' 
College. He speaks and writes English fluently, and is fond 
of sport and manly exercises. In January, 1888, he was 
granted the honorary rank of Major in the British Army. 
He exercises magisterial judicial functions within the limits of 
his jagir, and is President of the Local Board of his Tahsil 
and member of the District Board. Raja Jai Chand Is the 
second Viceregal Darbari In Kangra. His cousins Jagrup 
Chand and Daljit Chand are also entitled to seats In Darbar. 
The latter Is of weak Intellect, and has squandered his inheri- 
tance and contracted debts to a large amount. His affairs 



568 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

have been recently taken in hand by the District Court of 
Wards. 

Raja Jai Chand is married to a daughter of the Raja 
of Bilaspur (Kahlur), and his sister has married Raja Ram 
Singh, brother of the Maharaja of Kashmir. His mother is 
a sister of the present Raja of Sirmur. 

A summary settlement of the Lambagraon estate was 
made while the property was under the management of the 
District Courts. The Raja was declared Talukdar or superior 
proprietor of the lands included in his jagir, the other Katoch 
holders being classed as his lessees. The estate is estimated 
to yield Rs. 45,300, namely, Rs. 35,600 from twenty villages 
comprised in the jagir, and the remainder from miscellaneous 
sources. The jagir figures include the allowance of Rs. 5,000 
which was assigned in the Raja's father's time for the 
maintenance of his younger brothers Kirat Chand and Udai 
Chand, since deceased. Their sons enjoy the allowances 
originally granted to their fathers. 

Raja Jai Chand has no sons and no brothers. 



Translation of a Treaty concluded by Jllaharaja Ranjit 
Singh of Lahoi^e with Raja Sansar CJiand of Kangra, dated ^th 
Saivan, 1866 Sanibat, corresponding njith i^io A. D. 

(Seal of Ranjit Singh). (Original signature in Gurmakhi). 

A treaty and solemn compact is hereby concluded with 
Raja Sansar Chand, who agrees to transfer the Fort of 
Kangra and district of Sandhta to the Government of Lahore 
subject to the following conditions. Accordingly, after being 
duly signed and sealed, this instrument is delivered to the 
Raja. 

Clause I. — By the favor of Sat Guru Dialji, the whole 
of the Gurkhas shall be driven across the Satlaj and the 
Jamna. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 369 

II. — Whatever countries have been alienated from the 
Raja since the arrival of the Gurkhas shall be, as hereinafter 
set forth, restored to his possession according to the best of 
my ability, zu'z,, Bhorot, Muhara (the Khalsaji will not 
retain these), Chauki, Kotwal Bah, Siba with Chanaur 
Ghoasan, Chartgarh and Talhati, Chadhiar and Chando, 
Baira, &c., in Mandi. 

III. — The entire revenues of whatever countries were in 
the possession of the Raja previously to the Gurkha advent 
shall be left to the free and exclusive use of the Raja ; and 
until the before-mentioned arrangements are effected for the 
Rajaji, the Thana of Bhai Sahib Bhai Fatah Singh (Ahluwalia) 
shall remain in the fort. But if one or two only of the 
before-mentioned places shall not be transferred, the garrison 
of the Khalsa shall nevertheless be introduced into the fort, 
and the remaining places shall subsequently be conquered. 

IV. — Except Kila Kangra with the Taluka of Sandhta, 
the Government of Lahore has no claim whatever on the 
Raja, whether for life, property, dignity, service or revenue ; 
and in exchange for Sandhta, some other places in the hills 
will be conferred on the Raja. 

V. — The foregoing clauses in this Treaty shall remain in 
full force, and not be disturbed by any of the descendants of 
the concluding parties. 

I hereby swear by Akalpurakjl, Sri JawalamukhijI, Sri 
Baba Nanakji, Sri Guru Hariji, Sri Amritsarji, Sri Guru 
Arjanji, Sri Guru Gobind Singhji, Sri Baba Gurdataji, Sri 
Anandpurji, that I will faithfully maintain the whole of the 
provisions of this Treaty to the best of my ability. 

This solemn compact Is written that it may form an 
absolute and complete instrument. 

Written at Sri Jawalamukhiji on Tuesday, 5th Sawan, 
1866 Sambat. 



37° CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

RAJA JAI SINGH OF SIBA. 

Raja Biiao Singh. 



I I 

Mian Khushal Raja Madbo 

Singh. Singh. 

I I 

Mian Davi Rai Sher 

Singh. Singh. 



I I [ Raja Gobind 

Raja Bije Mian Gulab Mian Zalam Singh. 



Singh, Singh, Singh. I 

' ' Rpja Ram 

Singh, 
d. 1874. 



d. 1879. b. 1816, 

I 



Raja Jai 
Singh, 
b. 1 8 29. 



I I 

Mian Karam Mian Ratan 

Singh, Singh, 

b. 1841. d. 1873. 

I 



I ! 

Dhann Singh, Suchet Singh, 

/;. 1870. b. 1S72. 



Gajindar 


Tilochan 


Upindar 


Singh, 


Singh, 


Singh, 


b. 1853. 


b. 1864. 


b. 1875. 



Raja Jai Singh is the representative of another branch 
of the ancient Kangra Kings. As Goler seceded from Kangra, 
so Siba separated from Goler. In the fourth generation after 
Hari Chand, about six hundred years ago, a younger brother 
of the reigning Chief, by name Sibaran Chand, managed to 
make himself independent in some Talukas south of the Bias, 
callino- them Siba, after his own name of Sibaran. The 
domains of Siba proper are maintained in their old limits, 
under the title of Taluka Siba. In 1808, Raja Bhup Singh of 
Goler seized this country from Raja Gobind Singh and 
his brother Davi Singh. Ranjit Singh took it from the Goler 
Chiefs ten years later, and in 1830 restored it to Gobind Singh. 
Siba alone of all the petty States in Kangra escaped un- 
touched in the game of grab that went on all through 
the palmy days of the Sikhs. Ranjit Singh at one time had 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 3,71 

doomed it to destruction ; but his Minister, Raja Dhian 
Singh, had married two ladies of the family ; and through 
his interest the Raja escaped with a yearly tribute of Rs. 1,500 
and the surrender of his principal fort. The estate was, 
however, divided between the cousins. Lands worth Rs. 20,000 
were given to the Raja, while the Kotla Taluka, worth 
Rs. 5,000, was made over unconditionally to ]\Iian Davi 
Singh. Oh the death of Davi Singh the Maharaja again 
re-distributed the property, leaving only the equivalent of 
Rs. 15,000 to Gobind Singh, who was required to maintain 
a service contingent costing two-thirds of the grant. Raja 
Gobind Singh died in 1 845, and was succeeded by his son Ram 
Singh. During the Sikh War, Ram Singh, under the terms 
of his feudal tenure, was obliged to join the Sikh army with 
one hundred men, and was present at the battle of Firoz- 
shahr. But he had no stomach for the fight, and was glad 
to escape back to Kangra in the confusion that followed. 
He drove the Sikhs out of his fort of Siba with the aid of 
his own people, and then proceeded to oust his cousin Bije 
Singh of his Siba possessions, in which he had been con- 
firmed by the Maharaja. These he took ; but he was obliged 
to restore them shortly afterwards under orders passed by 
the British Government. 

The cousins were subsequently confirmed in their res- 
pective jagirs. Ram Singh's portion consisted of villages 
of the aggregate annual value of Rs. 14,200, and was grant- 
ed to him and his male issue, for ever, subject to a tribute 
deduction of Rs. 1,500 per annum^. Bije Singh was given 
six villages, yielding Rs. 4,800 per annum, which after his 
death were to descend according to the Hindu law of inherit- 
ance. He, however, forfeited his rights by taking part in 
the Katoch insurrection of 1848, and his share was resumed. 
It was restored to him nine years later in consequence of the 
loyal behaviour of his younger brother Gulab Singh, who 
commanded one of the regiments of the Jamu Contingent, 



372 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

which marched to Dehli, and did excellent service in the 
Mutiny. The restitution was made at the personal interces- 
sion of the Maharaja of Jamu, with whom the Mian was con- 
nected by marriag-e. Raja Ram Sing-h's own loyalty in the 
crisis of 1857 was undoubted. He had no children, and his 
request to be allowed to adopt an heir was refused. But 
when he died in 1874 the jagir was re-granted to Bije Singh, 
his nearest male relative, and confirmed to Bije Singh's 
heirs male, in perpetuity, subject to an annual tribute pay- 
ment of Rs. 1,500. The jag-irdar was at the same time 
made responsible for the maintenance of his brother Gulab 
Singh and his nephew Karam Singh at a cost not exceeding 
Rs. 3,000 per annum. The title of Raja was conferred upon 
him as a personal distinction in 1878. He died in the fol- 
lowing year. The jagir has been continued on the same 
terms to his son Jai Singh, who has also received the title 
of Raja. The Siba jagir was brought under summary 
settlement on the death of Raja Ram Singh, and its assess- 
ment has been fixed at Rs. 20,000 ; the rights of the jagir- 
dar being defined as those of a superior proprietor. The 
Raja estimates his income at Rs. 30,000, namely, Rs. 20,000 
from Siba, Rs. 5,000 from Kotla, and the remainder from 
miscellaneous sources. 

Raja Jai Singh exercises judicial powers within the 
limits of his jagir, which is spread over forty-two villages 
in the Siba and Kotla Talukas. His connection with the 
house of Jamu has been noticed above. His sister married 
the late Maharaja Ranbir Singh, and was the mother of the 
present Maharaja Partab Singh and of Rajas Ram Singh and 
Amar Singh. His own wife belongs to the Bilaspur family, 
which is again connected by marriage with the Raja Moti 
Singh of Punch. The sons of Mian Karam Singh receive 
an allowance each of Rs. 720 per annum from the Jamu State. 

Raja Jai Singh ranks third amongst the Viceregal 
Darbaris of Kangra. 



TEE KANGRA DISTRICT. 



373 



RAJA AMAR CHAND OF NADAUN. 



Raja Sansak Chand. 

1 

Raja Jodhbir Chand. 



I 

Raja Amar 

Chand, 

b. 1837. 

Narindar 

Singh, 
b. i860. 

1 
A son (not 
yet named), 
b. 1888. 



I 

Mian Pirthi 

.Sinc:li, 

b. I'^SsS. 

I 

A son (not 

yet named), 

b. 1 888. 



I 
Mian Hari 

Sin^h, 
b. 1840. 



.1 
INIian Sher 

.Singh, 
b. 1844. 
I 



I 
Mian Suchet 
.Singh, 
b. 1848. 



I 
Mian Ishri 

Singh, 
b. 1851. 



.1 . I I 

Jit Singh, Kehnr A son (not 

b. 1867. Singh, yet named), 

b. 1S70. l>. 1887. 



Khnshal Singh, 
b. 1875- 



I 

Basant Singh, 

b. 1879. 



Thakar Chand, 
b. 1 886. 



Raja Amar Chand is the son and successor of Raja 
Jodhbir Chand, K. C. S. I., son by a Gadi wife of the cele- 
brated Sansar Chand, mentioned in the family history of 
his collateral descendant. Raja Jai Chand of Lambagraon. 
Jodhbir Chand laid the foundation of his fortune in giving- 
his two sisters in marriage to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who 
created him a Raja, and conferred on him the Taluka of Na- 
daun, yielding about a lakh of rupees. This was the north- 
ern portion of the possessions of the Katoch Chief, Anrudh 
Chand, who had fled rather than give his daughters to Sardar 
Dhian Singh as already mentioned. Jodhbir Chand at 
first acquired great influence at Lahore, being a personal 
favorite of Ranjit Singh ; but by degrees the friendship 
lessened, and he was gradually stripped of the jagir lands he 
had acquired when his sisters were in high favor. His 
allowances had thus dwindled down to Rs. 30,000 when 
the Sikh War broke out, and he had to choose on which 
side to fight. He had received orders from Lahore to enlist 
a number of men and advance into Kahlur to occupy the 
Ghats on the Satlaj, opposite Bilaspur, in support of the Sikh 
detachment, thus threatening the British districts on the 
left bank of the river. Jodhbir accordingly advanced from 



374; CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Nadaun with a few hundred men and took up a position 
on the boundary of the Katoch and Kahlur countries. The 
movement caused some excitement, as he was known to be 
a good soldier. It was, however, pointed out by INIr. Erskine, 
Superintendent of the Hill States, that his interests were on 
our side, and that he would do well to preserve a neutrality 
if he were not prepared to throw in his lot with us altogether. 
Jodhbir followed the good advice, and carefully refrained 
from assuming the offensive, though there was strong tempt- 
ation to cut in on our unprotected flank and give trouble 
where we were least prepared for it. As a reward for his 
consistent behaviour in this crisis he was confirmed in his 
jagir of Rs. 26,270, which was to be treated as perpetual, and 
he received recognition as head of his branch of the family. 
In 1852 the grant was, at his own request, made tenable by a 
single heir, the others being entitled only to maintenance 
at the hands of the Chief for the time being. 

Raja Jodhbir Chand subsequently gave proof of his 
loyalty on more than one occasion. During the Katoch in- 
surrection he assisted in holding the Nadaun Tahsil, captur- 
ing several of the rebels. His services were acknowledged 
by Mr, Barnes, then Deputy Commissioner, in a letter to 
the Commissioner. His son PIrthi Singh fought during 
the ]\lutlny in Central India, winning the Order of ]\Ierit 
and receiving a khilat of Rs. 500. For his good ser- 
vices generally, the Raja was made a Knight Commander 
of the Star of India in 1868, and was granted a salute of 
seven guns as a personal distinction. Other concessions 
were made him in the form of rights to mafi escheats within 
his jagir. He thus by his own merits became one of the 
foremost of the Hill Rajputs, standing high in the esteem 
of the district officers. On his death in 1873, the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Sir Henry Davies, expressed regret at losing 
a friend " whose upright and honorable character had se- 
cured the respect and esteem of all, while he had discharged 



THE KANCRA DISTRICT. 375 

the duties of his position to the entire satisfaction of Govern- 
ment." The succession of Amar Chand, eldest son of the 
late Raja, to his father's jagir, was duly recognised ; provi- 
sion for the other sons being regulated in accordance with 
the rules already laid down. Raja Amar Chand was at the 
same time invested with the powers of a Magistrate and of 
a Civil Judge as exercised by his father, within the limits 
of his jagir. 

In 1878 the Raja obtained from Government a loan 
of Rs. 50,000, on the security of his estates, to enable him 
to discharge the heavy liabilities incurred by his father. 
This advance was duly repaid. Of his brothers, Mian Hari 
Singh Is an Extra Assistant Commissioner, and Sher Singh, 
an Assistant Superintendent of Police. Mians Pirthi Singh 
and Ishri Singh reside with their brother at Nadaun. 
Suchet Singh has attached himself to the Raja of Mandi. 

Raja Amar Chand stands fourth on the district list of 
Viceregal Darbaris. He is married to a niece of the Raja 
of Jasrot. His son Narindar Singh is allied by marriage 
with the Jubal (Simla) and Mankotia families. 

The Raja estimates his income from all sources at 
Rs. 35,500 per annum, namely : — 

Rs. 
Fourteen villages in jagir . . ZZyi^(> 

A tea garden in the Palampur Tahsil . . 2,000 

Land in Alampur, Tahsil Palampur . . 184 



$76 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

RAJA RAM PAL OF KOTLAHR. 



Raja Diiaram Pal. 

I 

I I 

Raja Gurpal. Nahal Pal. 

I I 

Raja Amrit Pal. Sapuran Pal. 



I I 

Raja Narain Pal, Bhagwan Pal. 

fl'. 1864. I 

j Ran Bahadar Singh, 

d. 1847. 



I I 

Raja Ram Pal, Gopal Pal, 
/'. 1849. k 1854. 

I I 

Rajindar Pal, Kalian Pal, 
i. 1874. I). 1874. 



Kotlahr is the smallest of all the Kangra kingdoms. 
The territory has been formed by a break in the continuity 
of the second or Jaswan chain of the hills. As this ridge 
approaches the Satlaj, it suddenly divides into two parallel 
branches ; and the valley between them, with a portion of 
the enclosing hills, is the petty State of Kotlahr. The dynasty 
is one of considerable antiquity, numbering, according to 
local accounts, forty generations. The first Raja was a 
native of Sambhal near IVIuradabad, originally a Brahmin ; 
but after acquiring temporal power he and his descendants 
were considered Rajputs or members of the military class. 

The Raja's account of the origin of his family, however, 
differs from the above, which is given by Mr. Barnes. He 
traces his descent from Raja Gobind Pal of Poona, and 
claims to be the three hundred and seventy-seventh in lineal 
descent. At the close of the Duapar Jug, or Third 
Age of the World, there flourished in Poona the Raja Gobind 
Pal, who traced his descent from the Moon. He had two 
sons, Ajain Pal and Dharam Pal. While Ajain Pal was away 
on a pilgrimage his father died and his birth-right was usurp- 
ed by Dharam Pal. Finding himself expelled from his home 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 377 

he wandered to the Panjab with his son Sukh Pal, and settled 
at Babhaur on the Satlaj, in the Hushiarpur district. His 
son moved on into the Kangra Hills, and was fortunate in 
securing the friendship of Sansar Chand, a Katoch Raja of 
that period, who gave him his daughter in marriage, and ap- 
pointed him to rule over the country now known as Nadaun. 
The twentieth Raja after Sukh Pal, by name Jas Pal, is said 
to have been a powerful monarch, who made himself master 
of " the whole country west of the Satlaj ;" an evident exag- 
geration. This much may be said for Jas Pal, that he was 
the progenitor of one hundred and one Rajas, counting down 
to his representative now living at Kotlahr, and excluding 
younger sons who became Chiefs on their own account out 
of the regular line. One of these, Gajindar Pal, second son 
of Raja Jas Pal, emigrated to the Simla Hills and founded 
thehousesof Bhaji and Koti, still in existence as independent 
States. 

Coming to modern facts, we find the Kotlahr Rajas 
holding Chauki Kotlahr, Man Khandi in Nadaun, and Tal- 
hati in Hushiarpur, about the time of the first Mughal In- 
vasion. The Emperors granted Sanads to the Rajas of Kot- 
lahr, addressing them as Rai, and recognising their rights 
in the above named tracts on payment of a tribute of 
Rs. 1,600, and subject to their furnishing a contingent of 
forty horsemen and five hundred foot. 

In later times the aggressions of the Katoch, Jaswal and 
Kahlur Rajas limited the Kotlahr possessions to their present 
small dimensions. This was immediately before the coming 
of the Great Maharaja, who swallowed up all the Kangra 
kinglets with the utmost impartiality. Kotlahr had for years 
past maintained a precarious existence. In the time of the 
Katoch Chief Ghamand Chand, grandfather of Sansar Chand, 
one-half the Principality had been annexed to Kangra, and 
during the zenith of Sansar Chand's power the Kotlahr Raja 
became entirely dispossessed. But when Sansar Chand was 



378 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

pressed by the Gurkhas, Narain Pal took the opportunity 
of recovering the Fort of Kotwal Bah, a hereditary strong- 
hold on the second range of hills overhanging the Satlaj. 
Then came the Sikhs. In 1825 they laid siege to this fort 
for two months without making much progress, though they 
had more than one severe brush with the garrison, com- 
manded by Raja Ghamand Chand in person. Finally, Jamadar 
Khushal Singh compounded by promising the Raja a 
jagir of Rs. 10,000, should he surrender without further 
fighting. These terms were accepted, and the Raja duly 
entered into the enjoyment of his allowances. This jagir 
comprised the tract called Charatgarh in the Jaswan Dun, 
Hushiarpur. During the First Sikh War Raja Narain 
Pal, at the instance of the Superintendent of Hill States, ex- 
pelled the Sikh garrisons and seized Kotwal Bah. Later on, 
when the valley came to the British, he demanded the restor- 
ation of his Chauki Kotlahr property. This was refused ; 
but in consideration of hopes which the Raja alleged had 
been held out to him by our officers when his alliance was a 
matter of consequence to us, he was awarded a life-grant of 
Rs. 10,000 in addition to the jagir of like value he 
had received from Maharaja Ranjit Singh, which was con- 
firmed to the Raja and his heirs lawfully begotten for ever. 
An exchange of villages was subsequently effected with the 
object of giving the Raja a compact jagir in the Kangra 
district. The new villages were Tapas Tira, Heru, Thara 
and Dhiungli in Hamirpur ; and as their value exceeded that 
of the old villages by Rs, 1,188, this sum was made payable by 
the Raja to Government as nazarana. The Raja was also 
allowed three-fourths of the income of the forests within his 
jagir, subject to a small annual deduction. Raja Narain Pal 
died in 1864. His property had become involved from 
various causes, and two years before his death it was taken 
over by the District Court of Wards, and retained during the 
minority of the present Raja Ram Pal, which ceased in i86g, 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 379 

Ram Pal has received a good education. His estate is well 
managed, and he is always forward in loyal offers of assis- 
tance to Government. He exercises criminal and civil judi- 
cial powers within the limits of his jagir. His income from 
miscellaneous sources is estimated at twelve hundred rupees, 
including two hundred rupees paid him in lieu of forest 
fines, which are now wholly credited to Government. The 
Raja stands fifth on the local list of Viceregal Darbaris. 



38o. CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

RAJA JASWANT SINGH, PATHANIA OF NURPUR. 



Raja Dia Data. 
I 



Raja Pirthi Singh, Indar Singh 

J, 1819. (now represented by Mian 

I Shankar Singh, 

Fatah Singh, Jagirdar of Rai). 

^. 1789. 
I 
Raja Bir Singh, 
d. 1846. 

1 
Raja Jaswant Singh, 
^. 1839. 

I 



Gagan Singh, Udhain Singh, 

l>. 1882. /'. 1885. 

Raja Jaswant SIng-h is the representative of the old Rajas 
of Nurpur, a small State to the west of Goler. The original 
founder was a Tawar Rajput, Jeth Pal, an emigrant from 
Dehli. About seven hundred years ago he established him- 
self at Pathankot near Gurdaspur, whence his descendants 
are called Pathanias. Subsequently, the family removed 
to the hills, probably for seclusion and safety, as the plains 
were open to incessant attacks. Nurpur became the capital 
in the reign of Raja Basu, about two hundred and fifty years 
ago. Between Jeth Pal, also known as Rana Bhet, and the 
present representative, thirty generations have elapsed. 
The boundaries of the old Principality are retained almost 
entire in the British pargana of Nurpur. During the period 
of Mahomedan ascendancy more than one member of this 
family were appointed to places of high trust, and deputed 
on hazardous expeditions in the service of the Empire. 
In the reign of Shahjahan, Raja Jagat Chand of Nurpur, 
at the head of a large body of Rajputs, raised in his own 
country, conducted a difficult enterprise against the Uzbegs 
of Balkh and Badakhshan ; and in the early part of the 
reign of Aurangzeb, Raja Mandhata, grandson of Jagat 
Chand, was deputed to the charge of Bamian and Ghor- 



JhlE KANGRA DISTRICT. 381 

band, on the western frontier of the Empire. After a lapse of 
twenty years he was a second time appointed to this honor- 
able post, and created a JMansabdar of two thousand horse. 

In later times Raja Bir Singh of Nurpur fell a victim to 
Ranjit Singh's aggressions. At the commencement of the 
cold season of 181 5 the Maharaja had appointed a grand 
rendezvous of all his forces, personal and tributary, at Sialkot. 
But Bir Singh failed to obey the summons, and as a penalty 
was fined a sum designedly fixed beyond his ability to pay. 
After vainly endeavouring to meet the demand, even, it is 
said, by the sale of his sacrificial vessels, Bir Sinj^h found 
himself forced to quit his home. He crossed the border 
into Chamba, whither he was followed by many of his sub- 
jects and retainers, who voluntarily shared the bad fortunes 
of their old Chief. Urged by some of the bolder spirits, he 
presently made a descent upon Nurpur, determined to strike 
one desperate blow for the recovery of his patrimony. But 
the tactics and resources of the simple Hill Chief were of 
no avail when opposed to the disciplined skill of veteran 
battalions. He was beaten, and forced to fly in disguise 
through unfrequented mountain paths to the British posts 
across the Satlaj. 

In 1 81 6 Bir Singh was at Ludhiana, plotting with Shah 
Shujah against the Government of Ranjit Singh, who consid- 
ered their machinations of sufficient Importance to make 
them matter of remonstrance with the British Agent. Bir 
Singh was requested to leave Ludhiana, as his presence 
there was objectionable to the Lahore Darbar with which we 
were on terms of amity. He retired to Arki in the Simla 
Hills, where he lived for ten years in constant correspond- 
ence with his Wazirs, never abandoning the hope of ultimate 
success. In 1826, encouraged probably by the dangerous 
illness of Ranjit Singh, he determined on another struggle 
for his rights. Starting in the garb of a fakir he reached 



382 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Fatahpur, a villa2[e of Nurpur, bordering on Harlpur. The 
headman recognised the Raja in spite of his disguise, and 
basely betrayed his presence to the Sikh Kardar. News was 
sent by express to Lahore that the hills were in rebellion ; for 
when the arrival of their old Chief was known the people 
rose to a man and joined his standard. Nurpur was invest- 
ed ; but within a week Sardar Desa Singh had arrived at 
the head of an overwhelming force, and Bir Singh was a 
second time obliged to seek refuge with the Chamba Raja, 
who handed the unfortunate man over to his enemies. He 
was sent to Gobindgarh, and there kept for seven years. 

Bir Singh's wife was sister to Raja Charat Singh of 
Chamba and resided with her brother. At her solicitation, 
and in remorse for his own conduct, Charat Singh ultimately 
ransomed the ex- Raja, paying Rs. 85,000 for his release. 
Ranjit Singh offered him the jagir of Kathlot, a fertile 
district on the Ravi, just outside the hills, yielding 
Rs. 12,000; but Bir Singh refused to be pacified with any 
thing less than his old dominions, and these the Maharaja 
had no intention of giving. He, however, fixed a mainten- 
ance allowance for Bir Singh's infant son Jaswant Singh, the 
present Raja, of Rs. 6,000 per annum, which his mother 
had the good sense to accept. 

The last days of this Prince were worthy of his character 
and career. In 1846, when the British and Sikh forces were 
engaged on the banks of the Satlaj, Bir Singh again raised 
the banner of his race. He had been thirty years asserting 
his rights, and the present opportunity was not to be fore- 
gone. But the excitement proved too much for a frame 
broken by age and the vicissitudes of fortune ; and he died 
before the walls of his fort at Nurpur, consoled by the 
assurance that his enemies were overthrown and his wrongs 
at last avenged. The gallant and obstinate resistance shown 
by Raja Bir Singh no doubt influenced, and perhaps may be 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 383 

held to palliate, the conduct of his successor towards the 
British Government. Yet, the Raja's infant son could 
scarcely be regarded as responsible ; although from the de- 
meanour then assumed by his officials proceeded the mis- 
fortunes which subsequently fell upon him. .All the other 
Kangra Rajas had stipends assigned them by Ranjit Singh, 
and their claims were easily disposed of by the British 
authorities. But the Raja of Nurpur never acquiesced in 
the seizure of his birth-right by the acceptance of a jagir. 
His case was therefore exceptional, and had to be treated on 
special grounds. The opposition which he had always 
made, and his repeated attempts to recover his territory, 
had given him and his advisers a bad name with the Sikhs, 
who regarded them as turbulent and dissatisfied ; and no 
doubt this character was true, though justified in part by 
the treatment they had received. Acting upon these im- 
pressions Sir Henry Lawrence, Agent to the Governor- 
General, proposed a jagir of Rs. 20,000 for the young Chief, 
on condition that he should not reside at Nurpur, which the 
officials, misled by false hopes, most foolishly and insolently 
refused. For a year the Raja remained without any provision, 
and in the interval John Lawrence, Commissioner, had 
lowered the offer by three-fourths ; and this the Raja was 
ultimately obliged to accept. 

On the outbreak of the Rebellion of 1848, Ram Singh, 
son of the Wazir of the ex- Raja, collecting a band of adven- 
turers from the neighbouring Jamu Hills, suddenly crossed 
the Ravi and threw himself into the unoccupied fort of 
Shahpur. That night he received a congratulatory deputa- 
tion from the neighbourhood, and proclaimed by beat of drum 
that the English Rule had ceased; that Dalip Singh was the 
Paramount Power ; Jaswant Singh, Raja of Nurpur, and he, 
Ram Singh, his Minister. When the news reached Hushiar- 
pur a small force was hurried off to the spot and the fort 



384 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

invested. This promptitude frightened the rebels, who fled 
during the night and took up another position on a wooded 
range close to Nurpur. Shortly afterwards John Lawrence, 
Commissioner, and Barnes, the District Officer, came up 
with reinforcements and stormed the position. Ram Singh 
was routed and obliged to seek shelter in the camp of the 
Sikhs at Rasul. Daring his occupation of the hills he had 
been joined by about four hundred men from the surrounding 
villages, some of them Rajputs of his own family, but princi- 
pally idle, worthless characters who had nothing to lose. 

In January, 1849, Ram Singh persuaded Raja Sher 
Singh to give him two Sikh regiments, each five hundred 
strong, and with them made a seconcf irruption into the 
hills, taking up a position on the Dula heights. A force of 
all arms under General Wheeler marched to the attack, and 
the rebels were driven from their fastness with considerable 
slaughter, though not without loss to the British troops. 
Ram Singh was taken prisoner and transported to Singapur. 
But Raja Jaswant Singh was at that time a boy of ten years, 
and of course in no way responsible for what had happened. 
In 1 86 1 when the matter of the family allowances was re- 
considered on the death of his step-mother, the Rbja's pension 
of Rs. 5,000 per annum was doubled, apparently upon repre- 
sentations made on his behalf in 1854 by the Deputy Com- 
missioner. These were based upon the antecedents of the 
family, and must have gained strength by the Raja's loyal 
behaviour during the Mutiny. 

In 1867, a part of the Raja's pension was converted into 
a small jagir, consisting of the village of Baranda Ghandwal, 
yielding Rs. 2,138 in the Nurpur Tahsil, the balance 
Rs. 7,862 being paid to him as a cash pension. The Raja 
possesses nearly five hundred acres, revenue-free, of forest 
and cultivated lands in the Chatroli, Khani, Chach and Chin 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 385 

Lagor villages of Nurpur. The Kach lands, with a garden 
called Machi Bhawan, were assigned to him in consideration 
of his loyal behaviour during the Rebellion of 1857. He 
also holds in proprietary right about four hundred and fifty 
acres in village Bhadwar, Tahsil Nurpur. 

Raja Jaswant Singh is the sixth Viceregal Darbari of the 
Kangra district. He is President of the Local Board, and 
is also a member of the District Board of Kangra. 

Mian Shankar Singh, cousin of the late Mian Kishan 
Singh of Rai, and Hira Singh, son of the late Wazir Suchet 
Singh of Ladauri, are also members of the family and hold 
small jagirs. Shankar Singh is the descendant of Indar 
Singh, second son of Raja Dia Data, who separated from 
his brother Pirthi Singh upwards of a hundred years ago. 

The jagir held by Hira Singh was granted to his father, 
Wazir Suchet Singh, for services rendered during the Mutiny. 
It consists of 2,692 acres, yielding Rs. 1,050, in the villages of 
Malak, Pundar and Bhadwar, Tahsil Nurpur. Hira Singh 
is a Provincial Darbari, ranking twenty-first on the district 
list. He is a member of the Local Board of Nurpur and 
o( the District Board of Kangra. 



386 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

RAI DALIP SINGH OF KULU. 







Raja Thedi 

1 


Singh. 






1 
Paritam Singh 

1 


• 


Sansar 
Sinch, 
b. 1851. 

1 


Parem Singh. 


1 

Bikrama 

Singh, 

d. 1816. 

.1 

ija Ajit Singh 
d. 1841. 


Kishan 

Singh, 

d. 1817. 

1 
, Ranbir 
Singh, 
d. 1842. 


i 
Jagar Singh, 
d. 1876. 
1 

1 
Hira Singh, 

Rana of 

Sangri Simla, 

b. 1849. 


Raj,t Thakar 
Singh, 
d. 1852. 

Rai Gayan Singh, 
d. 1870. 

Rai Dalip Singh, 
b. 1862. 




t 

Lai Singh, 

b. 1872. 




Kesri Singh, 
b. 1888. 



Rai Dalip Singh, Jagirdar of Waziri Rupi, is the repre- 
sentative of the old Rajas of Kulu. Tradition describes Sudh 
Singh, founder of the house, as a young Rajput, the banish- 
ed son of a Raja of Miapuri in Hindustan, wandering in 
search of adventure, and fortunate in having secured the 
good graces of a Davi of local fame, with whose assistance 
he succeeded in overthrowing some unpopular Thakars and 
making himself King in their stead. This is the story of 
their origin put forward by the present Chiefs. The other 
theory is that Sudh Singh was a peasant of greater intelligence 
and energ}^ than his fellows, and pushed himself into the 
front rank on some occasion which necessitated the selection 
of a leader for the common weal. But all are agreed that 
there was a man named Sudh Singh who raised Kulu to the 
status of a Kingdom, and whose children have since ruled 
under the designation of the Koli Rajas. Sudh Singh's con- 
nection with the Waziri Rupi and Parol country dates back 
about four hundred years. There was at first a struggle for 
existence. Then succeeded a period of prosperity, when the 
Kulu Rajas took the lead in hill politics, and made their 
power felt along the Satlaj. in the far Bashahr country and 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 387 

In Lahaul, as well as lower down the Bias and in the Upper 
Kangra Valley. Finally came the fall before Sikh supremacy, 
and amalgamation with Lahore, forced upon all the Rajput 
States north and west of the Satlaj. 

The Mughals who established themselves as the supreme 
power in Akbar's reign interfered little with the Hill States 
so long as the gross tribute levied on the Chiefs was paid 
with tolerable punctuality. But the absence of fighting or 
disturbance of boundaries of the Principalities in Kulu, which 
distinguishes the reigns of Raja Bahadar Singh's four succes- 
sors, has probably something to do with the general subjec- 
tion of the Rajputs to the Dehli Emperors. Rai Dalip Singh, 
the present Chief, possesses copies of orders sent by the 
Emperors to his ancestors, in which they are addressed as 
** Zamindars of Kulu." This is fair evidence of the estima- 
tion in which these kinglets were held by the Mahomedan 
Rulers of Hindustan. 

A second period in Kulu history begins with the conquest 
of Lag by Raja Jagat Singh in concert with the Raja of 
Mandi, early in the seventeenth century. The Lagwalti Raja 
possessed Kohar and Sawar in Chota Banghal as well as all 
the slopes to the Ul River from the outer Himalaya, now in- 
cluded in the Mandi State, and the country known as JMandl 
Sahraj. This latter territory fell to the Mandi Raja's share, 
while what remained was kept by the Raja of Kulu, who 
shortly afterwards annexed Srigarh and Naraingarh on the 
Suket side. Lahaul was added by Bidhi Singh, son of Raja 
Jagat Singh, and he also wrested Dhol and Kandi from the 
Raja of Bashahr. He was succeeded by his son Raja Man 
Singh, in whose time the fortunes of the Kulu Raj reached 
their highest pitch. He continued to plunder Bashahr, and 
eventually annexed Sangri, and took tribute from other petty 
States, such as Kumharsen and Kotguru, now in the Simla 
district. Man Singh made himself for ever infamous by 



388 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

condoning the Mandi Raja's assassination of his own son-in- 
law Pirthi Pal, last Raja of Banghal, whose sister he (Man 
Singh) had married, and by accepting as the price of his for- 
bearance, a considerable slice of the Kingdom which his 
murderer had seized. Then he quarrelled with Mandi 
and took possession of the Salt Mines at Goma and Dirang, 
enjoying the revenues for some years. He finally met 
his death at the hands of the Kumharsen Raja, with 
whom he had always been on bad terms. 

The period of decline begins with a revolt organized 
against Raja Man Singh's grandson Jai Singh by one of the 
Dial Wazirs, who had been banished the country. This 
family always figured very prominently in Kulu history, and 
has influence to this day. The result was that Jai Singh 
was expelled, and his brother Thedi Singh put on the throne. 
Mandi took advantage of the confusion to seize the greater 
part of the Choar country; and everything portended a 
speedy break up of the Kulu Raj, when Thedi Singh resolv- 
ed upon a desperate measure for recovering the power which, 
under the Wazirs, had oozed out of his hands. He invited 
the leading Dials and their adherents to a Royal Banquet, 
and having made them well drunk with drugged liquor, slew 
them one and all to the number of three hundred and over. 
This proceeding had the effect of clearing the political at- 
mosphere for some time, and Thedi passed the rest of his 
days in the undisputed enjoyment of his patrimony. He was 
followed by his son Paritam Singh, in whose time the power 
of the Mughals melted away, and anarchy began to show signs 
of spreading over the land. The Gurkhas in those days issu- 
ed from their hills and spread along the Himalayan slopes to 
the edge of the Satlaj ; while beyond, to the Ravi, all the 
Rajputs had become tributary to Sansar Chand Katoch, of 
Kangra. The Kulu Rajas paid tribute to the Gurkhas for 
Sangri, and to Sansar Chand for Kulu proper ; but their 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 389 

geographical position was in itself a protection from the levy 
of exactions which would have been difficult to realise, and 
they passed, on the whole, a tolerably independent existence. 
Their troubles, however, were all before them. They were 
about to have to deal with the Sikhs, a nation in those days 
united and powerful, which no combination of Hill Chiefs 
could withstand. 

Kangra was invaded by the Gurkhas In 1806, and three 
years after Sansar Chand, in desperation, sought the assist- 
ance of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In doing so he was un- 
wittingly signing the death-warrant of his own and every 
Rajput State in Kangra. The Gurkhas were indeed driven 
back ; but Ranjit Singh retained his hold on the hills. Kulu 
suffered in common with its neighbours. An official of the 
Khalsa was sent to ask for tribute, and he returned to Lahore 
with Rs. 40,000. Three years later, when a second demand 
was evaded, Diwan Mohkam Chand promptly arrived with a 
following strong enough to enforce it. Fifty thousand rupees 
was the sum named. The Raja urged it was beyond his 
means, but the Sikhs insisted and took possession of his 
dwelling at Sultanpur, forcing him to fly for safety to the 
mountains. Eventually the unfortunate Prince raised the 
money and induced his visitors to retire. About this time 
(18 14- 1 5) the Gurkhas were driven back into Nipal by the 
English, and the Governor- General granted a Sanad for 
Sangri to the Raja who, like the other Cis-Satlaj Hill Chiefs, 
had taken side against the Gurkhas. In 1 8 1 6 the Chiefship was 
assumed by Ajit Singh, an illegitimate son of the last Raja 
Bikrama Singh. The succession was disputed by his uncle 
Kishan Singh, who, with the aid of Raja Sansar Chand, collect- 
ed a large force in the Katoch country wherewith to invade 
Kulu. But he was repulsed twice with heavy loss, having 
been made prisoner on the second occasion with most of his 
followers, owing to the defection of the Raja of Mandi, who 



39° CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

basely went over to the other side at a critical moment in the 
fight. The Katoch men were stripped naked and sent back 
over the mountains to their homes, while Kishan Singh died 
shortly afterwards with mysterious suddenness. 

In 1839 ^ Sikh Force was sent under General Ventura 
against the neighbouring State of Mandi. It met with only 
slight resistance, and the Raja was made prisoner and sent 
to Amritsar. Having penetrated so far into the hills, the 
opportunity of exploring farther was too good to be lost ; so 
on the pretext that Kulu had shown a disposition to help 
Mandi, a force under the Sindhanwalia Sardar was sent up 
the Bias. No resistance was made, and the Raja beguiled by 
fair promises, and wishing to save Sultanpur and his Palace 
from another sack, allowed himself to be made a prisoner ; 
whereupon the Sikhs set about making themselves com- 
fortable in the country they had practically annexed. As 
the quickest means of reducing the hill forts of Sahraj, 
the prisoner Raja was made to march with the army, and 
personally order the surrender of such as desired to hold 
out in his name. He was not treated with even common 
courtesy ; and his guards went the length of dragging him 
about by the beard and offering other indignities to his 
person whenever it was deemed expedient to hasten the 
movements of the villagers, who almost worshipped their 
King, in the supply of food and money. This brutal 
treatment met with a severe punishment. The hill men, who 
could have borne much on their own account, boiled over 
with fury at the thought of a suffering Raja. A plot to 
rescue the unhappy Chief was devised by Kapuru, Wazir 
of Sahraj, head of a branch of the Dials. A sort of fiery 
cross was sent round, and men were secretly mustered from 
all parts of the country. The Sikh Force was probably 
about one thousand strong. It had done its work, and had" 
returned from outer Sahraj by the Basleo Pass. A little 



THE K A NCR A DISTRICT. 39 « 

way below the fort of Tang, the road, a mere foot-path, ran 
along the bank of a wooded ravine ; and here the Sahrajis 
lay in ambush and awaited the Sikhs, who came marching 
along in single file, undisturbed by any feeling of insecurity. 
When that part of the line which guarded the Raja came 
opposite the enemy, a sudden rush was made, a few men cut 
down, and the Raja caught up and carried swiftly up the 
mountain side. At the same time, all along the line, rocks 
were rolled down and shots fired from above at the Sikhs, 
who were seized with a panic and fell back upon the fort 
of Tang. Here they remained two days until they were 
forced to move out by the failure of provisions. They were 
attacked again as they marched down the valley, and made 
slow progress. At last they struck up the mountain side, 
hoping to reach uncommanded ground and secure supplies 
in the villages above. But they did not know the country, 
and only got on to a particularly barren, steep and rugged 
hill side, where they could barely keep their footing, and 
did not find even water to drink. The light and active hill 
men kept above them wherever they went, knocking over 
some with rocks, and driving others like sheep over the 
precipices. After a night spent in this way the miserable 
remnant were forced down again into the valley, and there 
induced to give up their arms on the promise that their lives 
should be spared. It is said that four or five men of low 
caste, dressed as Brahmins, entered the rough entrenchment 
which the Sikhs had thrown up, and with their hands on a 
cow's tail, swore that the lives of the Sikhs should be spared. 
But no sooner were they disarmed than the Sahrajis set up 
on them and massacred them without pity. One or two 
camp followers, not regular soldiers, were the only sur- 
vivors. 

At the news of this triumph, which occurred in the 
spring of 1840, some of the Kulu people gathered on the 



392 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

hills round Sultanpur and made an attempt to rescue the two 
Ranis who were detained in the Palace; but the Sikhs 
easily repulsed them. Ajit Singh, the rescued Raja, retired 
across the Satlaj to Sangri. Here he knew he would be 
safe from the revenge the Sikhs were sure to take on the 
Sahrajis ; for the Satlaj was the boundary line between the 
Sikh and English Governments, and the Raja held Sangri 
from the latter. 

A Sikh Force marched to Sahraj shortly afterwards, 
and found the country completely deserted ; every soul 
had fled into inaccessible places, in the forests high up the 
mountain sides. After burning and plundering some vil- 
lages they retired and handed over the country in farm to 
the Raja of Mandi at an annual rental of Rs. 32,000. 

In Kulu, however, a force was retained, and a Kardar 
appointed to manage the revenue. In the autumn of 1841, 
the two Ranis escaped from their prison in the palace by a 
passage which they had secretly dug out under the walls, and 
fled up the mountains. They were on their way to join the 
Raja at Sangri when they heard the news of his death, which 
happened there in September, 1841. Instead of going on 
to be burnt with his remains according to the custom of the 
family, they returned to the palace at Sultanpur, and began 
intrigues with regard to the choice of a successor. 

The Sikhs at this time seem to have intended to give 
up Kulu, and to instal as Raja some one of the family who 
should hold the country on a heavy tribute. Maharaja 
Sher Singh, who had succeeded Ranjit Singh about two 
years previously, had been much in these hills, and was inclined 
to be lenient towards the Chiefs. When Ajit Singh died at 
Sangri, Mr. Erskine, the Superintendent of the Simla Hill 
States, reported in favor of Ranbir Singh, infant son of 
Mian Jagar Singh, who had accompanied his first cousin Ajit 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 393 

Singh to Sangri. Jagar Singh was passed over as being 
defective in intellect. The Ranis sent for Jagar Singh's 
child to Sultanpur, and the Sikh officials there admitted his 
claim, and wished to send him to Lahore to receive investi- 
ture. But on the way, at Mandi, he fell sick and died. 

Thakar Singh, a first cousin of Jagar Singh, was then 
made Raja and given the Waziri Rupi in jagir. The whole 
country was offered to him on a heavy tribute ; but he was 
a dull and timid man, and refused the responsibility. Sangri 
ultimately remained in possession of the imbecile Jagar 
Singh. 

Three or four years later, in 1846, at the close of 
the First Sikh War, the Trans- Satlaj Territory, namely, the 
Jalandhar Doab and the hill country beween the Satlaj 
and Ravi, was ceded to the British Government. Kulu 
with Lahaul and Spiti became a Tahsil of the new district 
of Kangra. Thakar Singh was confirmed in his title of 
Raja and allowed to exercise Sovereign Powers within his 
jagir of Rupi. Jagar Singh of Sangri claimed the estate, 
but was told to rest content with what he had received. 

On Thakar Singh's death in 1852, there was some 
question whether the whole jagir should not be resumed, as 
the mother of his only son Gayan Singh was not a wife. It 
was decided to give Gayan Singh the title of Rai instead 
of Raja, and only half the jagir, with no political powers ; 
but three years later, on a reconsideration of his claims, the 
resumed half was restored. Government, however, gave him 
no judicial or executive powers, and reserved the right to 
fell timber in the whole jagir. 

Rai Gayan Singh died in 1870, and the succession to 
the jagir devolved on his son Rai Dalip Singh, the present 
incumbent. He was a minor at the time of his father's death, 
and the estate, which was then encumbered, was managed 



394 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

under the Court of Wards until 1883, when it was made over 
to Dalip Singh, greatly improved and free of debt. The 
jagir, which comprises the villages of Kot Kandi, Chung 
-Harkandi, Kanawar, Bahlan and Sainsar in Kulu, was 
brought under settlement in 1876-77, and the assessment 
fixed at Rs. 10,000. The Jagirdar's rights were declared 
to be those of a superior proprietor. The valuable timber 
forests situated within the limits of the jagir are reserved 
as the exclusive property of Government. The jagir con- 
tains a great number of subordinate rent-free tenures held 
under the grantee, who estimates their yield at Rs. 2,000 
per annum. Rai Dalip Singh has been fairly well educated. 
He can read and write Urdu and English. He exercises 
the powers of a Magistrate and of a Munsif in small cases 
within the limits of his jagir. 

He is the seventh Viceregal Darbari of the Kangra 
district, and acts as a member of the Kangra District Board 
and of the Kulu Local Board. He is allied by marriage 
with the Nadaun and Mandi Rajas. He has no sons. His 
cousin Hira Singh is Jagirdar of Sangri in the Simla 
district. 



THE K A NCR A DISTRICT. 



395 



RAJA NIAMATULA KHAN AND THE RAJAURI FAMILY. 



Raja Karamula Khan. 



Raja Aghar 
Khan. 

Afrasiah Khan. 
I 



I . 
Raja Rahimul 
Klian, 
d. 1847. 



Muzafar 
Khan, 
i>. 1822. 



Kudratula 
Khan, 
i>. 1830. 



I 
Sadikula 
Khan, 
i 
I 
I 



Yusaf 
Khan, 
^. 1833. 



Hibibula 

Khan, 
d. 1836. 



I 1 I 

Asadula Rahmat- Ghulamul; 

Khan, ula Khan, Khan, 

d. 1847. i>. 1849. d. i860. 



Mahmud Fakir- 
Khan, ula 
Khan, 
d. 1804 



Asmatula 
Khan, 
i>. 1S60. 



Hafizula 
Khan, 
d. 1866. 



Raja 

Hamidula 

Khan, 

d. 1S79. 



1 
Raja 

NlAMAT- 

ula Khan, 
i>. 1855. 

.1 
Azimula 
Khan, 
d 1881. 



I 
Karamat- 
ula Khan, 
^. 1857. 



I 
Waliula 
Khan, 
-5. 1867. 



I. 
Kalimula 
Khan, 
^. 1873. 



J . I 

Vahia Nawab 
Khan. Khan. 

I 

I 

I 
Zafarula 
Khan, 
b 1857. 

Karimula 
Khan, d. 1881 



Saifula 
Khan. 



I I 

Ahsan- Faizula 

ula Khan, Khan, 

d. 1884. i>. 1S86. 



Ataula 
Khan, 
. 1836. 

I 

Ikramula 
Khan, 
k 1874. 



Hahibula 

Khan, 
d. 18S0. 

I 
Najibvda 
Khan, 
i>. 1866. 



Abdula 
Khan. 



\ 

Firozdin 

Khan, 

d. 1843. 

I 

A bad ula 
Khan, 
i>. 1 886. 



Hayatula 
Khan. 



Asmatula 
Khan, 
d. 1863. 



I 
Aminula 
Khan, 
o. 1865. 



I I I I I 

Azmatula Safiula Wahidula Khalilula Sadula | | 

Khan, Khan, Khan. Khan, Khan, Nasar- Ama 

i>. 1870. i. 1872. d. 1S74. d. 1S84. ula 



Inayat- Ghiilam 
natula ula Hasain, 
Khan, Khan, Khan, d. 1874. 
l>. 1855. 6. 1863 d. 1869. 



Raja Niamatula Khan Is the head of the family of the 
Kashmir Rajas of Rajaurl, which was held by them In sove- 
reignty up to the year 1841. The last Ruling Chief was 



396, CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Rahimula Khan, who on suspicion of attempting the life 
of the Maharaja Gulab Singh, was sent prisoner to Gobind- 
garh and his lands taken over by the Sikhs. He was shortly 
afterwards set at liberty ; but his country remained with 
Gulab Singh, and formed part of the territory confirmed to 
him under the Treaty of March, 1846. Fakirula Khan, son 
of Rahimula, took an active part in conjunction with Nawab 
Inamudin Khan, then Governor of Kashmir, in resisting 
surrender of possession to the Maharaja. But his efforts were 
fruitless. He was exiled to Rahlu in Kangra, where his 
children now live as semi-foreigners, never having been 
heartily received by the indigenous Rajput Princes. 

The family were originally Hindus. They claim descent 
from Raja Jir Rao, a Jiral Rajput of the stock of the Maha- 
bharat Pandavs. They emigrated from Kalanaur many years 
ago, and after long wanderings and varied fortune, settled 
down in Rajauri and created bit by bit the kingdom from which 
the Sikhs ultimately expelled them. They probably changed 
their faith in the early days of Mahomedan conquest ; and 
they appear to have accepted fiefship under the Mughals 
without murmur, and even to have assisted them in conquer- 
ing and holding the country. Raja Mast Khan received 
lands yielding a revenue of fifty-thousand rupees from Akbar 
for services rendered in connection with the conquest of 
Kashmir ; and some years later Raja Taj Khan gave his 
daughter Rajbai in marriage to Aurangzeb, who made a short 
stay at Rajauri in the course of a pleasure-trip to Kashmir. 
Rajbai bore a son, Bahadar Shah, who succeeded to the 
throne of Dehli. The Mughal prefix of Mirza, used by the 
younger members of the family, is said to have originated 
from this connection with the Royal House. 

Inayatula Khan, grandson of Taj Khan, was made a 
Panjhazari, or Governor, and appointed to the charge of 
Ghorband on the western frontier. He was granted Punch, 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 397 

Bhimbar and certain other tracts. He laid out handsome 
gardens at Rajauri, built a palace and a sarai at Inayatpur, 
and forts at Naushahra and Manawar. His grandson 
Rafiula Khan quarrelled with Raja Dharb Deo of Jamu over 
a boundary dispute, and in the fight which ensued he worsted 
the Raja and beat him back to his capital. To commemorate 
the victory he removed some bricks from the Mandi Palace 
at Jamu and placed them in the walls of his own house at 
Rajauri, whence they are said to have been rem.oved and 
restored to their original position by Maharaja Gulab Singh. 
After Rafiula, the Rajauri power began to decline. His 
successor Asmatula had been brought up in luxury at Dehll, 
and was enervated and unfitted to give and take the hard 
knocks which were the portion of a Ruler in those days. 
Early in the thirteenth century the Rajauri Rajas were being 
worsted on all sides. Manawar was seized by Jamu, the 
people of Bhimbar and Karial openly refused to pay revenue, 
and the outlying districts transferred their allegiance to 
Chiefs better able to guarantee them a peaceful existence. 
Raja Karamula was a man of energy and ambition, and 
might have restored the family fortunes ; but he was per- 
sistently crushed and kept under by Sardar Abdula Khan, 
whom Timur had appointed Governor of Kashmir. Abdula 
had reason to be angry with Karamula, for the latter refused 
him his daughter in marriage. Then came Karamula's son 
Aghar Khan, who was unfortunate in having to resist the 
attempt of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1813 to seize Rajauri. 
He fled and was captured, and died in prison. His son 
Rahimula Khan was allowed a jagir of Rs. 12,000. He made 
friends with the Maharaja and was employed in many mili- 
tary expeditions, including one against Kashmir which 
proved successful, and for which he received a jagir worth 
Rs. 50,000. This was held by him until his expatriation 
in 1 84 1. 



SgS CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Rahimula rendered service to the British Government 
during the First Afghan War by sending his son Yahia 
Khan, under Maharaja Ranjit Singh's orders, with a force of 
about one thousand men to keep the road open between 
Peshawar and Ali Masjid. But in the Sikh Wars he sided 
against the English, and fought with our enemies at Firoz- 
pur and Firozshahr. Since annexation the family has always 
evinced a spirit of active loyalty. During the Mutiny, Hamid- 
ula Khan, grandson of Raja Rahimula Khan, furnished 
levies who were employed in Hushiarpur, Kulu, Kangra and 
Dharmsala, under the orders of men of the Rajauri clan. 
They behaved in an exemplary way, and a relation of 
Rahimula Khan had charge of all the posts of trust at Dharm- 
sala. His uncle Nawab Khan fought on our side at Multan, 
and accompanied General Taylor with a body of retainers 
when that Officer proceeded to Nurpur to disarm a Wing of 
the 4th Native Infantry. In recognition of these services 
Hamidula Khan received a khilat of Rs. 1,000 and the title 
of Raja Bahadar, while a khilat of Rs. 500 was conferred 
upon Nawab Khan. Zafarula Khan, son of Yahia Khan, is a 
Tahsildar, and a Provincial Darbari in the Gujranwala 
district. 

The pension of Rs. 16,000 which had been assigned to 
the family was subsequently converted into a jagir of eight vil- 
lages in the Kangra Tahsil. Raja Rahimula Khan died 
shortly after settling at Rahlu, and was succeeded by his 
grandson Hamidula Khan. His second son Fakirula Khan 
took up his residence at Wazirabad in Gujranwala and died 
there in 1889. 

The pension had been divided as follows : — 

Hamidula Khan .. .. . . Rs. 5,000 



Fakirula Khan 
Yahia Khan 
Nawab Khan 
Saifula Khan 



3.300 
2,800 
2,500 
2,400 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 399 

The jagirs are held by the original sharers or their heirs 
in the above proportions. The income is realised by the 
head of the family and distributed by him to the several 
recipients. Succession is regulated by the Mahomedan Law 
of Inheritance, as modified by the rules prescribed for the 
conquest tenure jagirdars of the Panjab. 

Hamidula Khan took service under Government, and 
died as an Extra Assistant Commissioner in 1879. He was 
succeeded by his son Niamatula Khan, the present head of 
the family, who was given the title of Raja as a personal 
distinction. In 1885 he was appointed an Honorary Extra 
Assistant Commissioner, and invested with civil and criminal 
powers to be exercised within a circle of villages around his 
home at Rahlu. Niamatula Khan is a Viceregal Darbari, 
and is also President of the Local Board of Kangra and Vice- 
President of the District Board. His younger brother 
Karamatula Khan is a Tahsildar in the Amritsar district. 

To enable him to pay off the large debts left by his 
father, Niamatula Khan obtained, on the security of his land- 
ed property and his share of' the jagir income, a State loan 
of Rs. 29,000, now in course of liquidation. He holds in 
proprietary right about two hundred and fifty acres of land 
in the Rahlu and Bunhar villages of the Kangra Tahsil. 

Mirza Fakirula Khan, as the head of a separate branch, 
deserves some notice. He was an Honorary Magistrate at 
Wazirabad and a Viceregal Darbari of Gujranwala ; and for 
services as Magistrate he received the title of Khan Bahadar 
in 1877. He died in 1889. His eldest son Ataula Khan 
was appointed Rasaldar of Irregular Cavalry, and with twen- 
ty-five men of his own clan joined Hodson's Horse at Dehli, 
serving with credit throughout the Mutiny. He was also in 
Abyssinia, and took part in the late Afghan War, receiving 
the Orders of Merit and of British India. In special acknow- 



400 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

ledgrnent of his services, a grant of six hundred acres in 
Rukhanwala, Tahsil Kasur, Lahore, was made to him and his 
heirs in perpetuity. He was subsequently promoted to the 
honorary rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in his Regiment, the loth 
Bengal Lancers, and is now holding the importemt post of Bri- 
tish Envoy at Kabul on a salary of Rs. 13,000 per annum. His 
younger brother Abdula Khan, who entered the service with 
him, is a Rasaldar- Major in the same Regiment ; and 
his step son Ghulam Ahmad Khan is a Rasaldar in the 9th 
Bengal Lancers. Mirza Fakirula Khan owned four hundred 
and thirty-two acres in the Mitranwali and Nika Khel 
villages, Tahsil Daska, Sialkot, and about one hundred acres 
in Radala, Tahsil Wazirabad, Gujranwala. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 



401 



RAJA BRIJRAI SINGH BHADWAL, OF TRILOKPUR. 



Raja Autar Singh. 

i 

Raja Umed Singh, 

J. 1876. 

I 



Raja Brijrai Bhopal Singh, 
Singh, <^ 1834. 

i>. 1831. 
1 
Kishan Singh, 
i 1872. 



I 
Kesri Singh, 
i>. 1839- 
I 
Mahtab Singh, 
d. 1884. 



Sundar 
Singh. 



Fatah 
Singh, 
b. 1844. 



Atar Singh, Sardul Singh, 
d. 1864. i>. 1881. 

I 

Tiru Singh, 
i. 1887. 



Chiina Singh, 
d. 1887. 



Jaswant Singh, 
d. 1866. 



I 

Shib Saran 

Singh, 

i. 1873. 



Raja Brijrai Singh, the twelfth Viceregal Darbari of the 
Kangra district, is the descendant of the ex-Rajas of Bhadu 
in Kashmir, who elected to reside in British territory on the 
cession of that country to Maharaja Gulab Singh, receiving 
perpetual cash pensions from Government in lieu of lands 
ceded for this especial purpose by the Maharaja. 

The pension for the Badhwal family was fixed at 
Rs. 5,000 per annum. Of this sum Rs. 500 were allotted to 
Bir Singh, the younger brother of Autar Singh, who was 
the first pensioner, as the former chose to remain in Kashmir. 
The balance is paid to Autar Singh's descendants, of 
whom Brijrai Singh is the present head. When a dispute 
arose some years ago regarding the distribution of the shares 
among the brothers, an authoritative partition was effected. 
The pension is now drawn by Brijrai Singh, and shared by 
him with his brothers and the widows of the family. 



4P? CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



RAJA BALBIR SINGH, MANKOTIA. 



Raja Apurab Singh, 

d. 1849. 

I 

i ■[ 

Raja Alakhdeo Singh, Upindar Singh, 

d. 1867. L 1825. 
\ I 



II II I 

Rajajagdis Raja Balbir Shibdeo Shib Singh, Davi Singh, 

Singh, Singh, Singh, </. 1S76. ^. 1866. 

d. 1877. i>. 1851. l>. 1864. 

Raja Balbir SIng-h, Mankotia, a Viceregal Darbarl of the 
Kangra district, is the grandson of Rai or Raja Apurab 
Singh of Mankot, who left Kashmir on its cession to Maha- 
raja Gulab Singh, and was granted a perpetual pension of 
Rs. 1,500 in lieu of land annexed to British Territory. The 
family has settled in the jagir of the Raja of Kotlahr, with 
whom they are allied by marriage. 

Balbir Singh is a Rasaldar In the 13th Bengal Lancers. 



THE K A NCR A DISTRICT. '■ 403 

MIAN DILAWAR SINGH KISHTWARIA, OF TILaKPUR. 



Raja Tegh Singh. 
I 



I I 1 

Jaimal Singh, Zorawar Singh, Dilawar Singh, 

</. 1871. <i. 1^73- ^- '824. 



I I 

Sardar Singh, Amir Singh, 

d. 1867. i. .1883. 

Mian Dilawar Singh, Viceregal Darbari, is the only sur- 
viving son of Raja Tegh Singh of Kishtwar in Kashmir, 
who elected to leave his home when the countrjr was made 
over to Maharaja Gulab Singh. As in the cases of the other 
Rajput exiles, an allowance was fixed for the maintenance of 
this family, to be paid by the British Government from the 
revenues of certain lands assigned by the Jamu Darbar. 

A pension of Rs. 3,000 per annum was granted to the 
three sons of Raja Tegh Singh in the following propor- 
tion : — 

Jaimal Singh ., ,. .. Rs. 1,380 

Zorawar Singh . . . , • - ■,, i>38o 

Dilawar Singh . . . . • • »> 240 

The whole allowance passed over in 1875 to Dilaway 
Singh after the death of his elder brothers. He resides 
at Tilokpur, near Kotla, in the Nurpur Tahsil. Though ori- 
ginally Hindus and still retaining the suffix of " Singh," the 
family have professed the Mahomedan Faith for the last six 
generations. 



H04 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



CHAUDHRI MALHA SINGH, OF INDAURA. 



GURBHAJ, 
d. 1851. 



Tek Chand, 
d. 1870. 

I 



Arjan, 
d. 1883. 

I 



1 
Sundar 
Singh, 
d. 1875. 



I 

Bhag 

Singh, 

d. 1886. 



I 
Partab 
Singh, 
d. 1S79. 



Fakir Chand, 
d. 1870. 



Panjab 
Singh, 
d. 1840. 
I 
Harbalab 
Singh, 
i>. 1889. 



Bpchitar 

Singh, 

i>. 1844. 

I 



I 
Sohan 
Singh, 
y 1850. 



Piar 
Singh, 
6. r86i. 



I 
Karpal Singh, 
i>. 1881. 



Shankar Singh, 
& 1886. 



Ilira Singh, 

d. 1851. 

1 
Kam Singh, 

i. 1878. 



Kesri Singh, 
i>. 1854. 



1 I 

Lahna Singh, Tilok Singh, 

i>. 1S62 3. 1868. 



I 
Malha Singh, 

^. 1855. 
I 



Lai Singh, 
d. 1859. 



I. 
Ratan Singh, 



Raghnath Singh, 
6. 1882. 



Dharam Singh, 
i. 1885. 



Chaudhri Malha Singh is the head of the Indauria clan 
of Rajputs, and possesses considerable local influence. 

The family claim descent from Raja Indu Chand, a 
Katoch Prince. About two hundred years ago Malha Chand, 
grandson of Indu Chand, left the Trigart country and 
settled in the valley of the Bias to the south-east of Nurpur. 
He founded the villages of Indpur and Indaura, calling them 
after his grandfather. Chaudhri Gurbhaj, the great-grand- 
father of the present Chaudhri, was kindly received by the 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who granted him the villages of 
Shahpur in Gurdaspur, and Hajipur in the Hushiarpur dis- 
trict. When the Raja of Nurpur was deprived of his 
territory, Ranjit Singh associated Gurbhaj in the manage- 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 405 

ment. It was in his time that the country passed into the 
hands of the British ; and he was among those that helped 
at annexation. The village of Chanaur in Nurpur, of the 
value of Rs. 1,000, was granted to him revenue-free. His 
son Tek Chand rendered good service during the insurrection 
of 1848-49, and again in the Mutiny, when he assisted in the 
capture of rebels, and furnished a number of men for patrol 
duty. In acknowledgment of these services the village of 
Chanaur was conferred upon him and his male heirs in per- 
petual tenure, subject to the usual conditions of service and 
good conduct. Tek Chand was succeeded in the Chaudhri- 
ship by his son Sundar Singh, who, however, died soon after- 
wards, leaving his son Malha Singh, the present Chaudhri. 
He is a Kotwal and Vice-President of the Local Board of 
Nurpur. He is also a member of the Kangra District Board. 
His uncle Basant Singh is Sub-Registrar of Indaura, and 
another uncle, Bachitar Singh, is an Inspector of Police in 
the Kangra district. The family owns about nine thousand 
acres of land in ten villages of the Nurpur Tahsil, yielding 
about Rs. 3,000 per annum. 



40(5 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

SHANKAR SINGH OF RAI. 



I.NDAR Singh, 
d. 1824. 

I 
Arjan Singh. 



I I I 

Ishri Singh, Kesri Singh, Sahib Singh. 

d. 1859. d. 1S76. I 

I I I 

Kishan Singh, | | Shib Singh, 

d. 1879. Shankar Singh, Bishan Singh, d. 1874. 

^. 1835. d. 1870. I 

I I Nahal Singh> 

I I I I ^. 1848. 

Raghnaih Singh, Bhikam Singh, Piar Singh, Hira Singh, I 

d. 1 86 1. k 1864. d. 1864. 6. 1S69. 

I I I 

Hushiar Singh, Gaynn Singh, 



'>■ 1S84. 6. 1885. Raghbir Singh. Gandharb Singh. 

Shankar Singh is the representative of a branch of the 
Nurpur family, which seceded from the parent house upwards 
of a hundred years ago. His ancestor Indar Singh was felt to 
be a rival of his brother Raja Pirthi Singh, owing to a doubt 
as to which was the elder, and because of Indar Singh's 
marriage with the daughter of Katoch Raja, who asserted a 
kind of suzerainty over the other Hill Chiefs. Indar Singh, 
in consequence of this ill-feeling, was obliged to reside at 
Kangra as a pensioner of the Katoch Raja Ghamand Chand. 
His son Arjan became a favorite of the celebrated Sansar 
Chand, who granted lands to him and to his brothers Bijaor 
Singh and Surat Singh. 

In the next generation Ishri vSingh, the eldest son of 
Arjan, succeeded to his father's jagir, and secured the pro- 
tection of the Lahore Government by giving his daughter to 
Raja Dhian Singh, the Prime Minister. Through him he 
obtained a jagir in Nurpur territory, at this time annexed by 
the Sikhs. On the other hand, his uncle's children remained 
attached to the Katoch Rajas, who were reduced by the Ma- 
haraja Ranjit Singh to the position of small jagirdars ; and 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. '407 

they lost everything when the holdings of the Chiefs were 
confiscated by the British Government for participation in 
the rebellion of 1848. Ishri Singh's jagirs were in a differ- 
ent country, and he was not of the Katoch faction, or con- 
cerned in the rebellion ; so his jagirs remained untouched. 

Ishri Singh was succeeded by his son Kishan Singh, on 
whose death, sonless, in 1879, the jagir lapsed under the 
terms of the grant. In consideration, however, of the high 
rank and lineage of the family, the jagir in the village of 
Rai, Nurpur, yielding Rs. 1,800 per annum, was released to 
Shankar Singh, senior representative of the elder branch, 
subject to payment of one-fourth of the revenue as nazara)ia, 
and to provision of maintenance for the widows and the 
junior members of the family. 

Shankar Singh is a General in the Kashmir army, and 
the family estate is managed by his son Raghnath Singh, 
a Kotwal, or Zaildar in the Nurpur Tahsil. He is a member 
of the Local Board of Nurpur and of the District Board of 
Kangra. The family owns 637 ghumaos of forest and cul- 
tivated lands in village Rai, and about 2,000 ghumaos in 
Riali, both in the Nurpur Tahsil. 



4o8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

THAKAR HARI CHAND, WAZIR, OF LAHAUL. 





Karam Chand. 
I 




1 

Singi. 






1 
Nono Chogan, 


Sarsham. 

1 






Chang Namgyal. 


Chogan. 






Tashi Angyal. 


Hari Ram. 

1 






Chagn. 


Himi Ram. 

1 






Bhag Chand. 


1 
Nema Singh. 

Moti Ram. 
1 


1 
Gatu. 

1 

Davi 

Chand, 


Dharam 
Singh. 


Tashi 
Angta, or 
Dharam Chand 

1 


Bhag Chand, 
b. 1863. 


b. 1832. 

1 




Tara Chand. 

1 


1 

Thakar Hari Chand, 

b. 1836. 


1 

Ram Chand 

d. 1S84. 

1 


• 


Mahar Chand, 
d. 1870. 


1 1 


Jai Chand, 






Amar Chand, Mangal 
b. 1884. Chand, 
b. 1887. 


b. 187 1. 







Lahaul and Spiti do not form a part of the country 
described by Mr. Barnes as " hills from time immemorial in- 
habited by Hindu races living under the government of their 
native kings." On the contrary, they are Tibetan countries 
which originally had no connection with India, and were 
included in the Empire of Great Tibet. On the dissolution 
of this Empire in the tenth century, many of the outlying 
districts were formed into independent kingdoms ; and in 
this way a Chief of the name of Palgyi Gon formed the king- 
dom of Ladakh, of which Lahaul and Spiti were the southern- 
most provinces. The first occasion within historic times on 
which Ladakh became in any degree politically connected 
with India was in 1687-88, when in return for aid in repelling 
an invasion of the Sokpas or Kalmach Tartars, a small tribute 
was paid to the Governor of Kashmir as representative of the 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 409 

Emperor of Dehli ; but a similar tribute seems to have been 
levied at the same time by the government of Lhasa. After 
the break-up of the Dehli Empire, the Rajas of Ladakh conti- 
nued to pay the tribute to Kashmir till their country was con- 
quered and annexed to the Panjab in 1835 by 3- Dogra force 
under Wazir Zorawar, sent by Rajas Dhian Singh and Gulab 
Singh, Jamuwala. In what manner and at what time the 
separation from Ladakh took place it is impossible to ascer- 
tain ; but the traditions of the Lahaulis go to show that the 
connection was severed many years ago. It is probable that 
in the confusion preceding the re-consolidation of the Ladakh 
Kingdom by Chang Namgyal, Lahaul became independent 
and remained for a short time governed by the Thakars or 
petty barons of small clusters of villages. Four or five of 
these families have survived up to the present day, and are 
still in possession of their original territories which they hold 
in jagir, subject to payment of tribute or nazarana. It is 
believed that soon after its separation from Ladakh, the whole 
of Lahaul became tributary to the Raja of Chamba, and that 
the part now forming British Lahaul was subsequently trans- 
ferred from Chamba to Kulu. According to the account 
given by the present Kulu Raja, his ancestor in the seventh 
generation, Bidhi Singh, acquired Lahaul from Chamba. 
Bidhi Singh was son of Raja Jagat Singh, who was a con- 
temporary of Shahjahan and Aurangzeb ; and the date of the 
acquisition may therefore be placed approximately at 1700. 
It would appear, however, that subsequently to this the 
Lahaulis continued to pay a small annual tribute to Ladakh, 
probably to avert forays and to keep the roads open for trade. 
Indeed, the Lahaulis, without orders, continued to pay this 
tribute to the Governor at Leh up to 1862, when our Govern- 
ment, being informed of the fact, prohibited the practice. 

When Lahaul passed into the possession of the British, 
the jagirs enjoyed by the Thakars were maintained to them. 



410 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Tara Chand, father of the present representative, had 
governed Lahaul under the Sikhs and under the Raja of 
Kulu. He was appointed Negi or chief village headman 
in administrative charge of the valley. This title was subse- 
quently changed to that of Wazir. In 1861 he was ap- 
pointed an Honorary Extra Assistant Commissioner. He 
died in 1877, and was succeeded by his eldest son Wazir Hari 
Chand, now at the head of the family. He has had charge of 
the Waziri for many years past, as his father abstained from 
active interference in 187 1 owing to advancing years. Hari 
Chand has on several occasions made himself useful to the 
Government. In 1858 he procured information regarding 
the death of Mr. Schlagentweit of the Survey Department, 
who was murdered in Yarkand by Wali Khan of Kokan. 
These services were suitably rewarded. In 1863-64 he 
travelled through Tibet and reported on the resources of 
the country, the routes, and possibilities of developing the 
trade. He accompanied Sir Douglas Forsyth's Mission to 
Yarkand in 1870, and collected much valuable in- 
formation concerning the countries through which their route 
lay. He is the fifteenth Viceregal Darbari of the Kangra 
district, and is a member of the Local Board of Kulu. He 
exercises judicial powers, and is Sub-Registrar in Lahaul. 
In consideration of the public duties performed by him, Hari 
Chand receives an allowance of Rs. 550, or one-fourth the 
revenue of Lahaul ; and he appropriates as his perquisite all 
the fines and fees received in criminal and revenue cases 
coming before him. He estimates his income at about 
Rs. 2,000. 

The Ghamrang branch of the family is represented by 
Davi Chand. Hira Chand of Gondla is at the head of the 
third branch. They established themselves in Lahaul eight 
hundred years ago. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 41 1 

NONO DURJI CHATAN OF SPITI. 



NONO KULJANG. 

I 

Nono Tanzan Lamgyal. 

I 

Nono Durji Chatan, 

b. 1833. 

The Nono, or ** Great Noble," Durji Chatan Is the repre- 
sentative of the hereditary Governors of Spiti, formerly one 
of the southernmost provinces of Ladakh, and now a portion 
of the Kulu sub-division of the Kangra district. Spiti is an 
outlying- Tibetan valley among the external ranges of the 
Himalayan system ; It is shut in to the north and divided 
from Ladakh and Chinese Tibet by the great snowy range of 
the Western Himalayas. From Its remote and Inaccessible 
situation, Spiti was always left to govern itself, and affairs 
are managed In much the same way at the present day. 

Nono Durji Chatan succeeded his father Tanzan Lam- 
gyal in 1878, when the latter resigned office through old age. 
He exercises limited magisterial powers, and is responsible 
for the collection of the land revenue of Spiti, receiving an 
allowance of six-sixteenths of the revenue, equivalent to 
Rs. 282. He also holds about fifty acres of land, revenue- 
free, and In proprietary right. Durji Chatan is the sixteenth 
Viceregal Darbari of the Kangra district. 



4*2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

WAZIR KARAM SINGH OF BIR, 



Wazir Goshaun, 
d. 1871. 

I 

Wazir Karam Singh, 
/^. 1854. 

I . 

Bhup Singh, 

b. 1879. 

Wazir Karam Singh, Provincial Darbari, Is the son of 
Wazir Goshaun, the well-known Finance Minister and Regent 
of Mandi. At the time of annexation, Wazir Goshaun was 
without exception the most influential man in these hills. 
When the garrison of Fort Kangra refused to surrender, 
he brought about a peaceful solution of the difficulty by his 
own personal exertions. During the Mutiny of 1857, as 
Regent of Mandi, he placed the resources of the State at 
the disposal of Government, adding a considerable contribu- 
tion from his own private funds. He supplied one hundred 
and twenty-live matchlock-men to the local authorities of 
Hushiarpur, and posted some fifty men with the Commis- 
sioner at Jalandhar. He had also made arrangements for 
furnishing an additional batch of five hundred men if any 
call had arisen for their services. In reward, a jaglr, con- 
sisting of lands situated in the villages of BIr Korh and Sansal 
in the Palampur Tahsll, of the annual value of Rs. 2,000, was 
granted to him and his llne^il male heirs in perpetuity, on 
condition of good behaviour and service. 

On Goshaun's death, Karam Singh succeeded to the 
jaglr and the extensive landed and other property acquired 
by his father ; but through carelessness and prodigality the 
greater part of his patrimony has either been alienated or 
is heavily encumbered. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 413 

LAL SINGH OF NAGROTA. 









Jog RAJ. 




1 

Lal Singh, 
b. 1832. 








Kishan Lal, 

b. 1847. 

1 


. 1 
Salig Ram, 
b. 1869. 


Lach 
b. 


1 
man Das, 
1873- 


1 
Kali 

Parshad, 
b. 1874. 


Sheo Parshad, Bija Ram, 
b. 1879. l>. 1885. 



Lal Singh, Provincial Darbari, is the son of Jograj, 
Kanungo, of Nagrota. Jograj, who served as Tahsil 
Kanungo, had inherited several petty mafis granted to the 
family by the Rajas of Kangra ; and on his death some of 
these, consisting of about one hundred acres, valued at 
Rs. 215, were continued to his sons during the pleasure of 
Government and on condition of service as Kanungos. Lal 
Singh served Government for many years, and retired as a 
Naib-Tahsildar on a pension of Rs. 129 per annum. Several 
members of the family are employed in the subordinate 
Revenue Establishments of the district. They own much 
land in proprietary right and have some local influence. 



414 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

MARTANJA PAROHIT OF CHAHRI. 



Chandar Mardan. 



II II 

Kashi Ram, Martanja, Dhurjali, Birbhatlar, 

b. 1834. b. 1840. b. 1851. b. 1854. 

Bishambar Nath, 
b. 1S82. 

Martanja Parohit, son of Chandar Mardan, Provincial 
Darbari, is the head of the family of Parohits or spiritual 
guides of the Katoch Rajas of Kangra. The family have 
always been held In esteem by reason of their religious call- 
ing, and enjoyed numerous revenue-free grants when the 
Rajas had power. The village of Chahri, in the Kangra 
Tahsil, yielding Rs. 825 per annum, is held by the present 
representative, subject to a deduction of one-fourth of the 
revenue. The family is also in possession of five other mafi 
plots of the aggregate annual value of Rs. 300. 



THE RANG R A DISTRICT. 415 

MIAN DAVI CHAND OF BIJxVPUR. 



Narpat Chand 

(uncle of Bhim Chand, Raja of Kangra). 

I 

Prag Chand. 

I 
Agar Chand. 

Nigahi Chand. 

Molak Chand, 

d. 1874. 

I 

Mordhaj Chand, 

d. 1887. 

I 

Davi Chand, 

b. 1881. 

Julian Davi Chand is the representative of a branch of 
the Katoch dynasty, which is descended from Narpat Chand, 
a nephew of Raja Bhim Chand of Kangra. About two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago Raja Bhim Chand gave Narpat 
Chand a jagir of the value of Rs. 20,000. When Narpat 
Chand died the jagir was continued to his four sons in equal 
shares. On the death of one of them without issue, his 
portion was resumed by the Raja, but the descendants of the 
others enjoyed their shares until the conquest of Kangra by 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who confiscated the whole. Subse- 
quently, Mian Molak Chand, representing the younger 
branch, had Rs. 2,000 of his jagir restored to him, 
and this is now enjoyed by his grandson Davi Chand. 
Molak Chand originally received an assignment in Mahal 
Mori in lieu of that in Rajgiri, and a cash grant in lieu 
of that in Changar Bhaliar, but he had actual posses- 
sion of the present jagir from the time it was granted 
to him. Molak Chand was one of the few Katoches 
of rank who took no part in the rebellion raised by 
Parmodh Chand. He adhered to the British under 
circumstances peculiarly trying, his house having been 



4i6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

plundered and burnt down by the rebels. He was con- 
firmed In the possession of his jagir now valued at 
Rs. 2,095, situated in the Talukas Changar Bhaliar and Raj- 
giri. The grant was in perpetuity to Molak Chand and his 
heirs, male. 

On Molak's death in 1874, the jagir devolved on his son 
Mordhaj Chand, who was a good specimen of a high-born 
Rajput, simple and retiring, but thoroughly loyal, and pos- 
sessing much local influence. He lived by good manage- 
ment within his moderate means, and when he died in 1887, 
he bequeathed to his successor an unencumbered property. 
Davi Chand was then only six years of age, and it was deem- 
ed necessary to bring his estate under the Court of Wards. 
Provision has been made for his education, and Mian Hem 
Chand, a Katoch Rajput of the same stock, has been appoint- 
ed guardian. His father, Mordhaj Chand, was a Provincial 
Darbari. 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 



417 



MIAN BARARU. KOTWAL OF BIR BHANGAHAL. 



Raja Pirthi Pal, 
d. 1728. 

I 

Raja Raghnath Pal, 

d. 1749. 

1 



Raja Dalel Pal. 

Raja Man Pal. 

Raja Uchal Pal. 
I 

! I I 

Ram Pal, Mian Jit Pal, 

d. Bahadar d. 
Pal, 



Mian Bhim. 
1 



Murli. 

I 

Mathru, 

d. 1882. 



Dhanu. 

I 
Gahra. 

1 
Cheta, 
d. 1878. 



I 
Mian Bararu, 
b. 1857. 



Ludar Singh, 
b. i860. 



Kharak Singh, 
b. 1864. 



Birja, Bhag Singh, 

b. 1855. b. 1863. 



Gulab Singh, 
b. 1865. 



Lahnu, 
b. 1868. 



Arjan, 
b. 1871. 



Kanhya, 
b. 1874- 



Mian Bararu, Kotwal (or Zaildar) of Eir, is a descendant 
of the Rajas of Bhangahal, who appear to have maintained 
their rights until the time of Raja Pirthi Pal in the early part 
of the eighteenth century. Raja Pirthi Pal fell a victim to 
his father-in-law Raja Sidh Sen, who, in 1728, invited him to 
Mandi on the pretext of seeking his assistance against the 
Raja of Suket. He was kindly received ; but within a month 
of his arrival he was beguiled into the Damdama Fort, and 
there murdered. It is said his body was duly burnt, but his 
head was buried in a tank facing the Mandi Raja's palace. 
A pillar was erected on the spot, and a light was kept burning 
on it for years. Sidh Sen's object in murdering Pirthi Pal 
was to seize his territory, but in this he only partially succeed- 
ed. The forts at Jagapur, Tika Thana and the pargana of 
Nir, with eighteen villages of Ilaka Chuhar (all of them until 
then forming part of the Bhangahal kingdom) were annexed 



4i8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

to Mandi. Subsequently, Sidh Sen attempted to seize 
Karanpur, which also belonged to Bhangahal ; but he was 
repulsed by Raja Raghnath Pal, who had succeeded his 
father Pirthi Pal. He penetrated, on a second occasion, as 
far as Kotharli Gulu, then in Bhangahal ; but Raghnath Pal 
was able, with the assistance of Raja Thedi Singh of Kulu, 
not only to check his advance, but also to beat him back with 
considerable loss. 

The Mughal Emperors always appreciated the loyalty 
of the Bhangahal Chiefs, and when news of the repeated 
aggressions of the Mandi Raja on Bhangahal reached the 
Emperor at Dehli, he deputed Adina Beg, Governor of 
Jalandhar, to drive him off. But the Khan died on the road 
at Dinanagar in 1732. The affair ended unfortunately for 
Raghnath Pal, who went to meet the Governor, as Sham Sher 
Singh, then Raja of Mandi, took advantage of his absence to 
seize the much-coveted Ilaka of Karanpur. 

Raghnath Pal died in 1749, and was succeeded by his 
son Dalel Pal, whose reign was rendered memorable by a 
combined, though unsuccessful, attack made on Bhangahal 
by the Rajas of Mandi, Kulu, Kahlur, Nalagarh, Goler and 
Jaswan. The united forces of these Chiefs encamped at Tika 
Changar, and made an attempt to capture the Raja and his 
brother Mian Bhim, but were eventually driven back with 
great loss. The Raja commemorated the victory by erecting 
several mounds composed of the heads of their slaughtered 
foes. One of these mounds exists in the pine forest in Bir, 
and another stands on the banks of the Pun River within the 
limits of Bhangahal. 

Taluka Bir was annexed in 1749 by the Raja of Kulu 
shortly before the death of Dalel Pal, whose son Man Pal 
succeeded only to the Talukas of Lanod and Paprola. He 
died on his way to Dehli, whither he was proceeding with the 



THE KANGRA DISTRICT. 4^9 

object of enlisting the sympathies of the Mughal Emperor in 
an attempt he intended making for the recovery of his 
patrimony. The Rajas of Kangra and Goler took advantage 
of Man Pal's absence to seize villages and lands ; Kangra 
appropriating Lanod and Paprola, and Goler the remaining 
property. Man Pal's widow and her infant son Nahal Pal 
sought refuge with Raja Rai Singh of Chamba at Rihlu, who 
gave her a home and allowed her a small jagir. In 1785, when 
Raja Sansar Chand of Kangra married a daughter of Man 
Pal, he lent Uchal Pal a small force to help him in recovering 
his lands from the Mandi Raja. This latter Chief had re- 
course to stratagem. He bought off the principal of Sansar 
Chand's officers and persuaded Raja Rai Singh of Chamba to 
carry war into the Katoch dominions. When Sansar Chand 
found that Rai Singh had advanced within a short distance of 
Kangra, he had to muster all his available forces, including 
the portion he had lent to Uchal Pal. After the battle of 
Nerti, in which Raja Rai Singh was defeated and killed, the 
Mandi and Kulu Rajas secured themselves in possession of 
Bhangahal by paying Sansar Chand five lakhs of rupees. 
Some time after this Uchal Pal died, leaving three sons and 
a daughter, who lived under Sansar Chand's protection. The 
girl subsequently married the Raja of Siba. Ram Pal, eldest 
son of Uchal Pal, died childless in 1843. The efforts of 
Bahadar Pal, his younger brother, to recover the family estate, 
were always opposed by the Raja of Mandi, Mathru, father 
of Bararu, the present representative, succeeded in obtaining 
from the British Government a, pension of Rs. 500 per annum 
for his cousin Mian Bahadar Pal, and this he enjoyed until 
his death in 1854. 

Bararu is Lambardar and Kotwal of his circle, anil a 
member of the Local and District Boards. His family hold 
eighty acres as proprietors in Bir Bhangahal and Bir, yielding 
Rs. 2,200 per annum. 



420 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 

NAWAB SIR MAHOxMED AKRAM KHAN, K.C.S.L, 
OF AMB. 



Nawab Khan. 



Painda Khan, 




Madad Khan. 


d. 1843. 

1 




Abdula Khan, 


Jahandad Khan, 
d. 1858. 
1 




(i. 1888. 

1 

Abdul Rahman Khan. 


Nawab Mahomed 






Akram Khan, 






d. 1849. 
1 






1 
Mahomed Afzal 


Seven 


other 


Khan. 


sons. 



Nawab Sir Mahomed Akram Khan, /CC.S.I., Chief of 
Amb, is head of the Hindwal Division of the Tanauli tribe. 
He possesses a genealogy showing him to be a descendant 
of Alexander the Great, and reaching through the patriarchs 
Isaac and Abraham, to Adam himself. But his first ancestor 
of any historical importance was Painda Khan, who flourished 
in the early part of the present century. In those troubled 
times Painda Khan, with the aid of hired servants and mer- 
cenaries, succeeded in depriving all his fellow-clansmen of 
their rights, and reduced them to the level of rent-paying 
tenants, drowning in the Indus many who refused to abandon 
their claims. Painda Khan was perpetually at feud with the 
Palal Section of the Tanaulis, as well as with the Utmanzais, 
the Hindustani followers of Khalifa Sayad Ahmad and the 
Sikh Kardars. At last, pressed by his other enemies, he 
submitted to Sardar Hari Singh, who cleared the Hindustanis 
out of Tanaul, and restored it to Painda Khan, taking his son 
Jahandad Khan as a hostage for his good behaviour. But 
Painda Khan was scarcely again in power before he expelled 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 421 

the Sikh garrisons, seized an envoy whom they had sent to 
treat with him, and detained him as hostage for the safety of 
his son, who was ultimately sent back. From this time 
Painda Khan was always in opposition to the Sikhs. He 
possessed himself of Agror, driving out Ghafar Khan, whom 
he caused to be assassinated ; but the Sikh Governor espoused 
the cause of Ghafar Khan, and put in his son after expelling 
the Tanaulis. Jahandad Khan, though a man of less energy 
and vigor than his father, continued the struggle against the 
Sikhs. Yet, in the general up-rising in 1846, he had the 
good sense or humanity to save the lives of the Sikh garrisons 
in his country ; and for this he was rewarded by Maharaja 
Gulab Singh v/ith a grant of the revenues of Badnak Kalga 
and Kalinja, valued at Rs. 6,000, in the Siran Indus Doab. 
He was in power when the Panjab was annexed, and he be- 
haved afterwards in a generally loyal way, lending his services 
on occasions of emergency. During the Mutiny he streno-- 
thened the garrisons and guards in his territories and pre- 
served an unbroken quiet. He furnished a contingent of 
horse, and his bearing and undoubted allegiance had great 
weight at a time when the lower orders were looking for a 
sign. In the expedition against the fanatic Sayads and Hin- 
dustanis of Satana under Sir Sidney Cotton, in 1858, he was 
present at the head of his clansmen, and his services were 
acknowledged by the General in his official despatches. He 
was succeeded in 1858 by his only son Mahomed Akram 
Khan, the present Nawab. In 1868, when the Deputy Com- 
missioner and a small detachment of Gurkhas were practi- 
cally beleaguered in Agror by a number of Hasanzais, Akazais 
and Chagarzais, the Tanauli Chief at once came to their 
assistance with his retainers and rendered conspicuous service, 
showing great personal gallantry in the emergency. He was 
rewarded with a cash pension of Rs. 6,000 per annum and 
the title of Nawab ; and after the Second Black Mountain 



422 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Expedition of 1888, his general loyalty and good conduc 
were further recognised by the honor of Knighthood in the 
Order of the Star of India. 

The Nawab is described as a man of great force of cha- 
racter, who in his youth was distinguished as a bold rider 
and a brave soldier. He rules his territory with a rod of 
iron ; but, on the whole, administers it well, and has creditably 
managed his somewhat difficult charge, creating very few 
troubles and complications with the neighbouring indepen- 
dent tribes, x^s regards his possessions Trans-Indus, Amb, 
and a small tract round it, including Ashra and Betgali, he 
is an independent Chief, The tract called Feudal Tanaul, 
or the hereditary jagir, is in British territory, but is adminis- 
tered by the Nawab. There has been no settlement of 
the revenue, and our Courts do not interfere in civil or cri- 
minal matters except to take cognizance of cases of murder. 
This tract contains about two hundred and forty square 
miles, having a population of 24,000 souls. The Nawab is 
landlord of the whole. He also enjoys the revenues of 
forty-two villages, comprising what is known as the Kulai 
and Badnahak Ilakas, south of Tanaul on the Indus. This 
is a perpetual jagir, assessed at settlement at Rs. 8,963, and 
he also realizes a large revenue from tolls on trade, especially 
on timber floating down the Indus. The Nawab's whole 
income is probably not less than Rs. 50,000 per annum ; and 
as he is careful in money matters, if not parsimonious, he may 
be regarded as the wealthiest man in the district, in spite of 
large necessary expenses on retainers, and in the form of 
allowances to relatives. He has eight sons, of whom Mahom- 
ed Afzal Khan, the eldest, has been designated his heir and 
successor. Another prominent member of the Tanauli family 
is Mahomed Khan, son of the late Khairula Khan, of the 
Palal branch. He owns a one-ninth share of the Kathia 
villages and enjoys a jagir of Rs. 332 per annum. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 



423 



Another representative member of this family is Abdul 
Rahman Khan, a second cousin of the Nawab. His grand- 
father, Madad Khan, brother and deadly enemy of the cele- 
brated Painda, was Chief of the Phalera or western section 
of the Hindwal Tanaulis, and in the early days of our 
administration was treated as a valuable counterpoise to his 
nephew Jahandad. He supplied a body of horsemen for 
service in 1857, and personally opposed the crossing through 
Hazara of the mutineers of the 55th Regiment from Swat 
into Kashmir. He also did useful service against the Satana 
fanatics in 1858, and in reward was presented with a valuable 
khilat. Abdul Rahman, his grandson, is now Chief of Phalera 
in Feudal Tanaul. 



424 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



RAJA J AH AND AD KHAN, KHAN BAHADAR, G A KHAR, 
OF KHANPUR. 

Sultan Sarang. 



Sultan Kamal Khan, 
d. 1559- 



Sultan 
Jalal Khan. 

I 

Sultan 

Nawazish 

AH 

Khan. 



Sultan Said 
Khan. 

I 
Fatah Khan. 

I 
Shah Beg. 

Sultan Ajmir. 

I 
Bisharat. 

I 
Namdar Khan. 

I 



Alawal 
Khan. 



I 
Murid Khan. 



I I 

Sultan Jafar Mehndi Ali 

Khan, Khan, 

d. 1801. d. 182S. 



I I 

Sardar Madad Raja Najaf 

Khan, Khan, 

d. 1822. d. i860. 

_J 

I I 

Ata Ali, Ghulam 
b. 1817. Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1820. 



Sher Mahomed 
d. 1S29. 



Raja Ali 
Gohar 
Khan, 

d. 1863. 



Said Mahom- 
ed Khan, 
d. 1835. 

Raja Niaz 

Ali Khan, 

d. 1856. 

I 

Raja Nur Mahome 

b. 1853. 



I 

Mahomed Azim 

Khan. 

I 

Fatah Ali Khan. 

t 

Amir Ali Khan, 

d. 1825. 



Raja Mahomed 

Khan, 

d. 1 88 1. 

I 

Raja Mahomed 

Sarwar Khan, 

b. 1865. 

I 

Mahomed 

Khusro Khan, 

b. 1885. 



Raja Firoz Khan, 
b. 1828. 



I 

Raja Haidar 

Bakhsh Khan, 

d 1865. 



I 

Raja Shadman 

Khan, 

b. 1829. 

I 



I 
Raja Sultan 
Khan, 
b. 1833. 



khan, 



Farman Ali, 
b. 1866. 



Raja Jahandad ] | 

Khan, Raja Mahmud 

b. 1848. Fazaldad, Khan, 

b. 1855. b. 1858. 



I 

Raja Sher 
Ahmad, 
b. 1858. 



I 
Raja Gohar 
Rahman, 
b. 1876. 



I 
Yusaf 
Khan, 
b. 1859. 



I 
Hasain 
Khan, 
b. 1864. 



I 
Mahomed 

Jafar, 
b. 1873. 



The history of the Gakhars generally has been given 
in Sir Lepel Griffin's Panjab Chiefs. The Hazara branch 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 425 

separated from the parent stern towards the end of the six- 
teenth century. Fatah Khan, son of Sultan Said Khan, crossed 
the Nurpur range in Rawalpindi and settled at Khanpur, a 
large village just inside the southern border of the present 
Hazara district, between Kala Sarai and Haripur, and not 
far from the ancient Taxila of Alexander. This Khanpur 
Ilaka was a portion of the Sarangwal Gakhars' estates, and 
was made over by his grandfather Sultan Sarang to Fatah 
Khan, whose children have held it ever since. The Khanpur 
Gakhars managed to preserve tlieir independence until the 
Sikhs got a firm grip of the Hazara tract in 1831. 

During the decline of the Mughal dynasty the Gakhars 
joined with their neighbours in playing the game of grab ; 
but they came off only second best, for they had no man of 
strength at their head, and when the gains and losses were 
reckoned up the balance was on the wrong side. They had 
acquired practically nothing, while their feudatories, the 
Karals and Dunds, had almost shaken themselves free. In 
the reign of Ahmad Shah Durani, who was ruler of the 
Panjab and Kashmir in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
the Gakhars were entrusted with the keeping of order in the 
lower portions of the district, and received large allowances 
for military services rendered. These were comparatively 
quiet days for Hazara. The high road between Kabul and 
Kashmir passed through the valley, and the constant move- 
ment of officials and troops kept the people within bounds ; 
but things changed early in the present century. The 
Duranis were no longer strong, and the tribes began to despise 
their old masters, though afraid to assert their own complete 
independence. Raja Sultan Jafar Khan of Khanpur stood 
out amongst the others as a Chief, sturdy and honest, who 
fought on the side of order and made the people fear and 
respect his authority. He is remembered to this day in 
Hazara for his just and honorable ways. But he was almost 



426 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

alone in the fight against anarchy, and the general cry was 
for bloodshed and plunder. 

Then came the Sikhs. They were welcomed by all honest 
men as likely to do better than the effete Duranis who had had 
their day and were now rulers in name only. Yet the Sikh 
Sardars proved harsh and cruel and unsympathetic, and more 
grinding than any the Hazara people had known. These 
latter had no reason to rejoice over the " settled government" 
introduced by the Lahore officials. Makhan Singh, Kardar 
of Rawalpindi, visited Hazara in 1818 with five hundred 
sowars, and levied a tax on such of the Khans as he could 
reach. He was slain in the following year in fair fight with 
the Turin Chief; and his followers had to fall back in indecent 
haste upon the Attock Fort. Reinforcements were of course 
sent from Lahore, and the Sikhs had their revenge, and 
might have kept the country without much further fighting 
by a little fair dealing with the Chiefs. Diwan Ram Dayal, 
who came up in command of the troops after Makhan Singh's 
death, unwarily attacked a combination of the tribes at Nara 
in the Gandgarh range, and was badly beaten, and himself 
slain in the battle. He was succeeded by Sardar Amar Singh 
Majithia, a brave soldier and a good politician. He won the 
Chiefs over by kind treatment, and would probably have made 
a successful Governor had he not lost his life while leading 
a foraging party against some rebel villages in the Nara 
country. All this time the Khanpur Gakhars had the status 
of independent jagirdars. They acknowledged the supremacy 
of the Sikhs, but paid revenue to no one. 

In 1820, Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, Governor of Kashmir, 
was put in charge of Hazara. His administration was not 
successful, for he was constantly embroiled with the Swatis, 
the Turins, Sadikhanis, Mishwanis and other clans. He 
suffered such a serious defeat at Nara in 1824 that the Maha- 
raja himself was obliged to hasten to his assistance. The 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 427 

complete conquest of Hazara, which followed under the 
governorship of Hari Singh, concerns the Gakhars only to 
this extent, that the Sardar's hand was raised against every- 
one. He refused to distinguish between professed friends 
and proclaimed foes. Fair words were lost upon him ; and 
the mild Gakhars thus found themselves in the same bad 
plight as the most turbulent clans. In 1831, Raja Najaf 
Khan and the other leading Gakhars were ousted on the 
pretext of their having been behindhand with the nazarana. 
Their country was seized by Sardar Hari Singh, who built 
a fort at Khanpur and arranged for the cultivation direct with 
the tenants. Six years later Raja Ali Gohar, father of the 
present Raja Firoz, succeeded in obtaining a jagir in his 
former estates of Rs. 2,000 per annum, which is still held by 
his son. About the same time Raja Najaf Khan, the senior 
Chief, was given a cash allowance of Rs. 1,200, which, in 1846, 
was commuted to a jagir. But this treatment could scarcely 
be termed liberal ; and it is not surprising that the Gakhars 
joined with all the Hazara Chiefs in attempting to expel the 
Sikh garrisons when they heard of their reverses on the Satlaj 
in 1846. Raja Haidar Bakhsh, father of the present Chief 
Jahandad Khan, was one of the first to rise, capturing the 
Khanpur Fort, and re-possessing himself of his ancient hold- 
ings. 

In the treaty of 1846, concluded between the Lahore 
Darbar and the British Government, the Hazara district was 
included in " all the hilly or mountainous country, with its 
dependencies, situate eastward of the river Indus and westward 
of the river Ravi, " which was to be the future kingdom of 
Raja Gulab Singh. The new ruler lost no time in taking 
possession. He despatched Diwan Hari Chand to collect the 
revenue of the Hazara tract. Haidar Bakhsh had to haul 
down his colors and pay up what was due ; and most of the 
other Chiefs of the valley had the good sense to follow suit. 



42 8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Early in 1847 ^^^ Hazara tract was again taken over by the 
Lahore Government in heu of valuable lands at the top of the 
Sialkot district below Jamu, which the Raja Gulab Singh 
was very anxious to secure. He would have willingly sur- 
rendered Hazara to any one who cared to relieve him of 
the charge ; but to receive in exchange rich villages in the 
plains was really more than he expected, though not more 
than he demanded. The details of the transfer required a 
decision to be arrived at as to the revenue value of the 
Hazara lands, upon the basis of a reasonable assessment ; 
and this duty was entrusted to Captain James Abbott, Assist- 
ant to the Resident at Lahore, who proceeded to Hazara in 

1847, and made a summary settlement of the district. Under 
his administration the tribes rapidly settled down into peace- 
ful life ; and within a year of his arrival on the Frontier he 
was able to assure the Resident that complete tranquillity 
reigned in the valley. But it was not long to continue. . 

Sardar Chatar Singh, Atariwala, was the nominal Gover- 
nor of Hazara in the name of the Lahore Darbar. In June, 

1848, his son Sher Singh was hurried down to Multan with 
all the available Sikh troops in the district to assist in quelling 
the insurrection which had opened with the murder of Messrs. 
Vans Agnew and Anderson. But Sher Singh joined Mulraj 
and headed the movement on the lower Chanab, while his 
father threw off the mask in Hazara and declared himself 
leader of the national party, in which all his people joined. 
Captain Abbott, a servant of the Khalsa, or at all events 
working in its interests, thus finding himself deserted by the 
Sikh officials, was obliged to depend upon the loyalty of his 
newly-made friends for the keeping of the country, if not for the 
safety of his own life. These latter rallied round him in good 
spirit, and for some time he was able to hold his own against 
the rebels ; and he might eventually have expelled them from 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 429 

the district had not a new enemy risen up against him in the 
person of Ghulam Haidar Khan, son of the Amir Dost 
Mahomed Khan of Kabul. This prince had been sent by his 
father to seize Kashmir after the fall of Attock'in January, 1848. 
Ghulam Haidar joined his forces with those of the Sikhs 
with the object of putting an end to British influence on the 
Frontier almost before it had commenced to bud. The 
combination looked too powerful to be resisted ; and most 
of the Hazara Chiefs, including the Turins and Tarkhelis, 
went over to the allies, leaving Abbott almost alone. This 
gallant officer did not even then despair. He moved back 
to the country round Sherwan, determined to oppose the 
passage of the Duranis in the event of their making a move 
towards Kashmir. 

In the meanwhile the fate of the rebels was being sealed 
lower down upon the plains of Gujrat and Chilianwala. 
Almost within a year of their capture of Attock, the last of 
the Afghans had fled back over the Indus to their own 
mountains ; while the Sikh power was broken up for ever, 
and their country possessed by the British. After an anxious 
seven months of waiting, Abbott found himself able to smile 
upon the few friends who had remained faithful and helped 
him in all his difficulties, believing in his assurances that the 
English must win in the end. The Khanpur Gakhars stuck 
to Abbott throughout ; and some of their best men went 
down to Multan and served at the siege under Edwardes. 
They, moreover, paid their revenue to us regularly during 
the war, when Abbott wanted all the money he could collect. 
Yet the treatment they received when we took the country 
over was not such as we can now feel proud of. They were 
merely confirmed in their old jagirs and told to wait for a 
consideration of their claims to the ownership of their villages, 
which had been snatched from them by the Sikhs, until the 
district should come under regular setdement. The matter 



43Q CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

thus drifted on until taken up by Colonel Wace, Settlement 
Officer, in 1872. Yet the clan continued to serve us as 
occasion offered, and in 1857 behaved with marked fidelity. 
Colonel Wace treated them in a spirit of liberality which they 
had scarcely hoped for after the interval that had elapsed. 
They were established as owners in seventy-eight villages in 
the hill tract and in the Ilakas of Panj-Kata and Baharwal ; 
and of these the village of Jawalian was reserved for Raja 
Jahandad Khan in consideration of the charges he would 
have to meet as Chief of the tribe. 

The detail of the Gakhars' holdings in the Hazara dis- 
trict is as follows : — 





Number of 


Assessment, 




villages. 


Rs. 


Raja Jahandad Khan 


•• 31 


7.643 


Faja Firoz Khan 


.. 23 


6,737 


Other members of the family 


.. 24 


9,020 



For their personal services in the Mutiny, Rajas Ata 
AH Khan and Mahomed Khan, cousins of Haidar Bakhsh, 
were awarded jagirs of Rs. 600 each in perpetuity. Rajas 
Haidar Bakhsh and AH Gohar Khan were appointed 
Honorary Magistrates within the limits of their estates. 
Their representatives are Raja Jahandad Khan and Raja 
Firoz Khan. The former is a thoroughly loyal and trust- 
worthy official. He was appointed an Extra Assistant 
Commissioner in 1877, and is now in receipt of a salary of 
Rs. 4,800 per annum. He was present throughout the 
Agror Expedition of 1868 ; and in 1880 he acted as a Political 
Officer under Sir Lepel Griffin at Kabul ; receiving as a 
reward the title of Khan Bahadar and a life-jagir of Rs. 600. 

According to a return recently furnished by the De- 
puty Commissioner of Hazara, the Gakhars of Hazara are 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 431 

separated into sixteen families or houses, owning 82,450 
acres, assessed at Rs. 23,477 of revenue, of which Rs. 7,626 
are retained in jag-ir ; Rs. 22,^ in mafis ; and Rs. 1,095 in 
chaharam dues. The headmen also divide a lambardari cess 
of Rs. 565. 



432 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



SAMANDAR KHAN, SWATI, OF GARHI HABIBULA. 



Sadat Khan. 

I 
Habihula. 

I 
Mahomed Amin Khan. 

I 

Samandar Khan, 

b. 1844. 

The Swatis are the offspring of the miscellaneous 
rabble which Sayad Jalal Baba collected when he set himself 
to clear the country of the old Turk landlords early in the 
century. They inhabit almost the whole of the Mansehra 
Tahsil, and are numerically one of the most important tribes 
in the district. 

At the head of the Khan Khel Swatis is Samandar 
Khan, Jagirdar of Konsh and Garhi Habibula. They claim 
as ancestor Abubakar, first Khalifa and uncle of the Prophet ; 
and they allege that Abdul Rahman, fortieth in descent 
from Abubakar, left Madina, where he was Governor, and 
settled at Pakhli in Hazara. It is a far cry from Madina to 
Pakhli ; and Pakhli was such an out-of-the-way place for an 
ex-Governor to care to settle in that one is puzzled to think 
how it should have all come about. But the Khan Khels 
are satisfied of the truth of what their bards tell them : so 
we must accept what they say as a fact. Whether or not 
they came from Arabia, they no doubt migrated to Hazara 
with the general body of Swatis who were pushed eastwards 
by the Eusafzai Pathans emerging into the Peshawar plain 
from Kandahar, after many years of ceaseless wandering. 

The village of Garhi was founded by Sadat Khan dur- 
ing the reign of Timur Shah, and it is now known as Garhi 
Habibula, after Sadat's son of that name. Both father and 
son served in the adjoining Kashmir Province, and were 
given large jagirs, and became prosperous. Mahomed 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 433 

Amin Khan, son of Habibula, gave valuable assistance in 
1846 to Diwan Hari Chand, agent of Raja Gulab Singh of 
Jamu and Kashmir, in suppressing a rising of Hindustanis 
and Swatis just after he had received over the Hazara hill- 
tracts under treaty from the British Government, and he 
was rewarded with the jagir rights in the Konsh Ilaka, 
which are still enjoyed by the family. These were at first 
granted for the life-time only of Mahomed Amin Khan ; 
but the assignment was made perpetual after 1858, in recog- 
nition of the Khan's Mutiny services. 

The present Chief enjoys the revenues of the Konsh 
glen and of sixteen villages in the Garhi Ilaka, valued at 
Rs. 9,113 per annum. He is a large landed proprietor, and 
he exercises magisterial powers within the limits of his 
Ilaka. He has received khilats and Sanads in Darbar on 
various occasions for services rendered on the Hazara 
border. 



4-34- CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



ALI GOIIAR KHAN OF AGROR. 



AKHUM) Sadudin, 



Inavatula Khan. 



Ghafar Khan, 
a. 1S35. 



Ata Mahomed Khan, 
a. 1875. 



II III I 

Ghulam Ali Gohar llaibat Gohar Usman Azjid 

Haidar Khan, Khan. Aman. Khan. Bakht. 

Khan, Khan of 

(now living Agror (at 
in Dhaiial.) present 
a political 
prisoner in 
Dharmsala), 
b. 1857. 

Ata Mahomed Khan was the hereditary Chief of the 
valley of Ag-ror, on our extreme north-west border, when we 
took over the country in 1 849. The defence and manage- 
ment of this portion of the Frontier were practically left to 
him in the early days of British Rule ; and he was unfetter- 
ed by either military posts or police control, a tribute of 
Rs. 700 being exacted from him in acknowledgment of our 
suzerainty. Later on, a summary settlement of his villages 
was made ; but Government still limited to Rs. 700 the 
quota payable by the Chief. 

Up to the commencement of the eighteenth century 
Agror and all the neighbouring Swati country was held by 
a family of Turks, or Karlaghs, who are said to have come to 
India with Timurlang early in the fifteenth century, settling 
in Fakhli and the neighbouring country. It included the 
Ilakas of Tanawal, Dhamtaur and Agror, and was held as an 
outlying district of the Kashmir Province. The Karlaghs 
were driven out by the Swatis, who, under a Sayad named 
Jalal Baba, crossed the Indus and appropriated a consider- 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 435 

able tract on this side of the river. In the partition which 
followed, Agror and Pakhli fell to the Mithrawi Swatis, and 
of these, the Bagal section ultimately kept the Agror Ilaka, 
having secured it after some fighting under their leader 
Akhund Sadudin, from whom the present Khan is descended 
in the fourth generation. After him came his son Inayatula 
Khan, who, in the course of constant fighting with the Chiefs 
of Tanaul and the adjacent Hasanzais, succeeded in usurp- 
ing the rights of nearly all his fellow-clansmen, holding his 
own with the aid of mercenaries and paid servants ; while 
many of the other Bagals who did not take up arms 
against the common enemy had gradually to resign their 
lands to the Khan. He was succeeded by Ghafar, who 
fought alternately against Painda Khan of Amb and the 
Sikhs with varying success. Painda Khan ultimately caused 
Ghafar to be assassinated in 1835, and kept Agror for him- 
self. The Swatis appealed to Sardar Hari Singh, who was 
unable to help them just then ; but his successor restored 
Ghafar Khan's son Ata Mahomed, and gave him a jagir of 
Rs. 875, and the lease of the rest of the valley for Rs. 800. 
Ata Mahomed was Khan when the country fell to the British 
after the Second Sikh War. Living at a great distance from 
head-quarters, and coming seldom in contact with the dis- 
trict officials, the behaviour of the Khan for two or three years 
after our first occupation indicated some arrogance and a 
want of confidence in the intentions of Government ; but 
by degrees he became more friendly in his attitude, and 
during the Mutiny he and his followers behaved with perfect 
loyalty, maintaining a peaceful attitude even when matters 
were at their worst in Hindustan. His jagir was increased 
to Rs. 1,500, of which Rs. 1,000 were made perpetual, on 
condition of service ; his heirs being selected by Govern- 
ment. In 1868 it was resolved to place a Thana in Agror 
and bring the valley more directly under our administrative 



4i6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

system. Ata Mahomed, incensed at this, instigated a raid 
by the Black Mountain clans, who invaded the Agror valley 
and burnt the newly-built Thana. This led to the first Black 
Mountain Expedition. The Khan was removed to Lahore, 
but after a few years he was released and reinstated on the 
ground that his proprietary rights in Agror had not been 
understood or recognised at the period of the summary 
settlement, and that his restoration would be an act of justice 
popular with the surrounding tribes. He died in 1875, hav- 
ing chosen as his successor Ali Gohar Khan, his son by a 
Hasanzai wife, daughter of the Chief of the Khan Khel of 
Teri, which nomination was approved by Government. 

Ali Gohar fell under suspicion of treasonable conduct in 
connection with offences by the clansof the Agror border, and 
he was removed from the valley in 1888. He is at present 
residing at Dharmsala; and his younger brothers are under 
surveillance at Khanpur in the south of Hazara district. A 
jagir of Rs. 2,000, which had been conferred during the 
recent settlement operations, was resumed in 1888. 

Ghulam Haidar Khan, step-brother of Ali Gohar, has 
kept in a measure free from the intrigues which the 
other members of the family have fomented, but at the 
request of Ali Gohar he was some years ago expelled from 
Agror, and he has since lived at Darial in the Mansera 
Tahsil. He is a Viceregal Darbari, 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 



437 



SAYAD MAHOMED KHAN, KARAL. 



Sardar 


Badal Khan. 




1 

Mahmud Khan. 
i 
Ahmad AH Khan. 

1 




1 
Mahomed Khan. 

Mir Hasu Khan. 

1 


II 1 
AH Bahadar Ata Mahomed Ah 
Khan. Khan. Gohar 
1 Khan. 
Sayad Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1845. 


1 

Sardar Azad 

Khan, 

b. 1847. 


1 1 
Ahmad Abdul 
Khan. Rahman. 



Sayad Mahomed Khan is head of the senior branch of 
the Karals, who inhabit the mountain tracts between Murree 
and the Hazara plain. His father, Ali Bahadar, was in receipt 
of ajagir of the annual value of Rs. 980 from the Sikhs, in 
lieu of large perquisites which they relieved him of shortly 
after the country came under their rule. This grant was 
continued to the family in perpetuity by the British Gov- 
ernment. During the Second Sikh War, Ali Bahadar 
remained staunch to Abbott, though some of his near 
relatives joined hands with Chatar Singh. In the Mutiny he 
and his brothers, Ata Mahomed and Ali Gohar, proceeded 
with their armed retainers and clansmen to Murree on the 
first intimation of the Dhund outbreak, and rendered faith- 
ful service until they were allowed by the Commissioner to 
return to their homes. Ali Bahadar was awarded a cash 
allowance of Rs. 200 per annum, and the three brothers 
received valuable khilats in public Darbar. 

Sayad Mahomed Khan's jagir now yields Rs. 1,090 per 
annum, in the villages of Dabran, Masa Gojoi and Lasan. 
He is a Viceregal Darbari. 

Azad Khan, head of the other Karal branch, is also a 
Darbari. His father, Mir Hasan Ali, enjoyed one quarter of 



438 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the revenues of the Karal tract under the Sikhs ; but he 
unfortunately behaved with doubtful loyalty in 1857, and he 
thus missed the rewards which were secured by the other 
branch of the family. Azad Khan holds the perpetual jagir 
of Rs. 1,011, which his father received when the country was 
first taken over from the Sikhs. The Karals are said to 
have been settled in the Bakot country since Timur's inva- 
sion of India. They and the Dhunds were for many years 
feudatories of the Khanpur Gakhars. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 439 

KHAN ZAMAN KHAN, KALABAT. 







Mir Baz Khan. 

1 
Sadula Khan. 

1 


1 

Fatah ; 
1 


Khan. 


' . 1 1 

Mir Zaman Khan. Kalandar Khan, Abdula Khan. 

1 1 


1 


1 Karam Khan. 


1 
[amidula 
Khan. 


, 1 
Faiz.ula 
Khan. 


1 1 
Khan Zaman AH Bahadar 

Khan, Khan, 
b. 1842. b. 1846. 



Khan Zaman Khan is the head of the Said Khani family 
of the Utmanzai Pathans who are settled in Eusafzai and in 
the south-west corner of the Hazara district, about Torbela 
and the Khalsa tract. 

Baba Said Khan, their ancestor, held Kofa and Topi in 
the time of Ahmad Shah Durani, and founded Kalabat to 
protect his possessions in Hazara. He was perpetually 
fighting with the Tanaulis and Tarins, but managed to hold 
his own and gradually to extend his estates. His grandson, 
Sadula Khan, was one of the boldest opponents of the Sikhs, 
defeating Sardar Hari Singh at Nara in the Gandgarh hills 
above the Khalsa plain. A white pillar was put up by Major 
Abbott to mark the spot where Sadula Khan and his 
retainers had fought and conquered. 

Mir Zaman Khan, father of Khan Zaman, was one of 
Abbott's most gallant and loyal supporters ; and it was with 
the help of the Utmanzais and Mishwanis that he made head 
against Chatar Singh and his soldiers when they rebelled 
against the Darbar. Mir Zaman Khan was rewarded with a 
jagir valued at Rs. 1,500 in the villages of Kalabat, Kag, 
Basira, Kot and Mamaia in Khalsa. At settlement the as- 
sessment of these villages was granted to him subject to 
payment of Rs. 800, the value of the new jagir being 
Rs. 3,479. 



440 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Said Khani family of Kalabat have, from annexa- 
tion, been distinguished for loyalty and good behaviour, and 
none of the Hazara Chiefs did more to assist in the establish- 
ment of British rule than the brothers Mir Zaman Khan, 
Kalandar Khan and Abdula Khan. The latter accompanied 
the expedition in 1852 against the tribes of the Black Moun- 
tain and the Khagan Sayads, and behaved with great judg- 
ment and gallantry. Kalandar Khan served for some years 
at Abbottabad as Thanadar. In 1857 the brothers contribut- 
ed their quota of horse and foot to the levies which were 
being raised for service in Hindustan. Abdula Khan pro- 
ceeded to the Indus border in command of a body of horse- 
men, to watch the fanatics of Satana who were busy preach- 
ing and propagating sedition. He was also present with Sir 
Sidney Cotton throughout the first Ambeyla Expedition. 

Khan Zaman Khan is an Honorary Magistrate in his 
jagir villages. His cousin, Ali Akbar Khan, succeeded to 
Kalandar Khan's jagir of Rs. 285, and was given a further 
jagir of Rs. 440 for military services in the Afghan Campaign 
of 1879-80. 

Many of the family have served, or are now serving, in 
Bengal and Panjab Cavalry Regiments. Faizula Khan, son 
of Fatah Khan, was for many years a Jamadar in the ist 
Panjab Cavalry ; and Karam Khan, son of Abdula Khan, 
holds the rank of Rasaldar in the 17th Bengal Cavalry. 

The brothers Khan Zaman and Ali Bahadar Khan are 
Viceregal Darbaris. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 441 

KAZI FAZAL ILAHI, OF SAKANDARPUR. 



Kazi Sadula. 

I 

Kazi Mahomed Alam. 



Kazi Mahomed Azim. ■ (?) 

I I 

Kazi Ghulam Ahmad, Kazi Abdul 

d. 1846. Ghafar. 

I I 



I I I I . I I I 

Kazi Mir Sayad Nur Kazi Faiz Mahomed Mahomed Abdula. 

Alam. Alam. Alam, Alam, Arfan. Said. 

cl 1888. 

I 
Kazi Fazal Ilahi. 

The family are Awans. They settled in this district in 
the time of the Lodi Kings ; but first came to notice in the 
person of Sadula Khan, who after studying at Lahore, 
acquired a reputation for learning, and in the reign of 
Shah Jahan was appointed Kazi of Hazara. Since then the 
tide of Kazi has been hereditary in the family. During Sikh 
rule, Ghulam Ahmad, great-grandson of Sadula Khan, was 
of service to Sardar Hari Singh, and was rewarded with jagir 
grants in Sakandarpur and Dheri, and with a percentage on 
the revenue of the Hazara plain country. Ghulam Ahmad 
was killed in attempting to put down an outbreak of the 
Dhamtaur Pathans in 1846, and as his sons were minors the 
lead in family was taken by Abdul Ghafar, a man of immense 
energy, who rendered valuable service to Major Abbott in the 
critical years of 1847-49. He was made Tahsildar in Hazara, 
and his personal merits and services raised his branch of the 
family to the position they now enjoy. His son Kazi Faiz 
Alam, who died in 1888, received jagirs in perpetuity, valued 
at Rs. 1,100 in Dheri and Sakandarpur. He has been suc- 
ceeded by his only son Fazal Ilahi, who takes a higher place 
in Viceregal Darbars than his cousin Mir Alam, though the 
latter must be regarded as the leading member of the family. 



442 CHIEFS A ND FA M IL IKS OF NOTE. 

Kazi Mir Alam, son of Ghulam Ahmad, who managed 
the Haripur tract under the Sikhs, was a child when his 
father died. He rose in our service to be an Extra Assis- 
tant Commissioner, and lately retired on a pension. He is 
an Honorary Magistrate, and has a jagir of Rs. 500 in 
Sakandarpur ; and is accounted one of the wealthiest men in 
the district. 

The Kazi family own the villages of Sakandarpur, Dheri 
Kazian and Khiva in the Haripur Tahsil. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 443 

DOST MAHOMED KHAN, OF SHINGRI. 



Dost Mahomed Khan is head of one of the leadinQf 
families of Palal Tanaulis. They claim descent from the 
patriarch Joseph, and place one of their ancestors on the 
throne of Khorasan. Driven thence by "the King of Assy- 
ria " the Khorasan Monarch came and settled in Swat, His 
decendant Amir Khan ruled there and had two sons, Pal 
Khan and Hind Khan, fathers of the Pal and Hindwal 
Tanaulis, who took their name from the Tanal Pass in Swat. 
Being forced to leave their country of adoption, they travelled 
eastward and overran Amb and the tract west of the Siran, 
now called Tanaul. In the time of Ahmad Shah Durani, 
the Chief of the Palal Tanaulis was Zabardast Khan, who 
rendered some service to the Afghan King on his way to 
Kashmir, and was rewarded with a large jagir and the title 
of Suba Khan, by which he is still locally known. Suba 
Khan's name is one of the most famous in Hazara song, and 
marvellous tales are told ot his bravery, his wealth and his 
unbounded generosity. His tomb at Pahar, near Sari Sher 
Shah, is one of the few architectural remains of any interest 
in the district. His descendants were perpetually quarrell- 
ing amongst themselves, and lost power and possessions in 
consequence. Nawab Khan, great-grandson of vSuba Khan, 
did good service after annexation for Major Abbott, who 
styled him Chief of eastern Tanawal. He had previously 
marched down to Multan at the head of a body of horsemen 
and served under Edwardes throughout the Siege. He was 
again forward in assisting at the suppression of the Dhund 
rising in the neighbourhood of Murree in 1857, losing his 
eyesight from the effects of exposure. He was rewarded 
with a perpetual jagir of Rs. 1,780. His son, the present 
Khan, has succeeded to this jagir, and holds revenue assign- 
ments valued at Rs. 2,779 in Shingri, Paswal, Serai Niamat 



444 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Khan and some neighbouring villages. His uncle Inayatula 
Khan of Chamhad, also a Darbari, has a jagir of Rs. 400 per 
annum given for good and loyal service. 

Sultan Mahomed Khan of Bir, now studying in the 
Aitchison College, Lahore, and Mahomed Khan of Puhar^ 
are also leading members of Suba Khan's family. 



THE HAZARA DISTRICT. 445 

IMAKADAM GHULAM AHMAD, OF KOT NAJIBULA. 



The Makadams of Kot Najibula are leaders of the 
Gujars of the Hazara plain. This tribe, like others of old 
Indian origin, being held in less repute than later emi- 
grants from the west, chooses to claim descent from the Kurai- 
shis of Arabia, where their ancestor was a contemporary and 
friend of the Prophet. Nevertheless they call themselves 
Chohans, and they admit that for generations they were Hin- 
dus. The Gujars are one of the most numerous clans in 
Hazara, and out-number the Pathans and Swatis ; yet 
they have never attained political importance. The Maka- 
dams of Kot Najibula assert that one of their ancestors be- 
came Governor of Hazara, under Mahmud of Ghazni, and 
founded the village of Shekhabad on the site of Kot. In 
the time of Aurangzeb the title of Makadam was given to 
Chaudhri Daulat Beg, then head of the clan. The Tarins 
ousted the Gujars from many of their villages in the Hazara 
plain; and in 1760, Najibula Khan Tarin became Governor 
of Hazara under the Duranis. His widow afterwards entrust- 
ed the management of her possessions to Makadam Masharaf, 
who for many years administered the Tarin and Gujar 
Tapas, holding his own against Utmanzais, Tanaulis and 
Gakkars. 

Masharaf's great-grandson Ghulam Ahmad is the pre- 
sent Makadam. He holds a jagir of Rs. 1,884 in Kot 
Najibula, and a large estate spread over seven villages 
assessed at Rs. 1,700. 

Ata Mahomed Khan of Dahdar, a grandson of Makadam 
Masharaf, also belongs to this family. 



446 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



THE PESHA\VAR DISTRICT. 

NAWAB LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MAHOMED AFZAL 
KHAN, CS./.y WAZIRZADA, SADOZAL 

Yakub Khan. 

I 
\usaf Khan. 

I 
Haiun Khan, 

I 
Fatahula Khan, 
d. 1741. 
I 



I I 

Nasrula Khan, Samandar Khan, 
(i. 1733. d. 1805. 

I 
Sakandar Khan, d. 



Rahmatula Khan, 
d. 1805. 



Mahomed Khan, 
d. 1805. 



Mahomed Usman Khan, 

d. 1S65. 

I 



Habibula Khan. 



I I 

Mahom- Maho- 

ed Abas med 

Khan, Zaman 

d. 1 819. Khan, 

d. 1877. 

I 



I I I ! I I I I 

Maho- Maho- Colonel Major Ataula Asadula Inayatula Ilayat- 
med med Umar Maho- Mahom- Khan, Khan, Khan ula 



Akbar Khan, 
Khan, d. 1S33. 
^- iS33- 



MED ed Aslani (>. 1862. 



I I 

Maho- Sarhiland 
med Klian, 

Azim d. 1870. 
Khan, 
/;. 1857. 



Afzal 

Khan, 

C.S.L, 

b. 1835. 



Khan, 



d. 1872. d. 1887. 
I b 

Mahomed 
Asaf Khan, 
b. 1885. 



Khan, 
, 1864. 



Habibul 
Rahman, 
b. 1883. 



I 

Khalilul 

Rahman, 

b. 1884. 



I I I I 

Mahomed Maho- Jalaludin Hasam- 

Akram med Khan, udin 

Khan, Azam b. 1880. Khan, 

b. 1866. Khan, b. 1881. 

i b. 1875. 



I I 

Mahomed Ghulam 

Sarwar Haidar 

Khan, Khan, 

/'. 1871. /'. 1881. 



I I 

Mahomed Mahom- 
Yusaf ed Yakub 
Khan, Khan, 

b. 1S83. b. 1883. 



1 

\ ay a 

Khan, 

b. 1884. 



Abdul 
Wahid, 
b 1888. 



Abdul 
Ahad, 



I I 

Amir Mahomed Ghulam 

Khan, Rasul. 

b. 1874. b. 1879. 



! 
Mahomed 
Anwar, 
b. 1S89. 



Abdul Ruf Khan, 
b. 1885. 



Nasrula Khan, 
b. 1865. 



Nurula Khan, 
b. 1867. 



Azimula Khan, 



Mahomed Tahmasab 
Khan, d. 1875. 



Ill I 

Hadaitula Fatah Mahomed Abdul Samad Abdul Hamid 

Khan. Khan, b. 1869. Khan, b. 1875. Khan, b. 1S74 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 



447 



Nawab Mahomed Afzal Khan is a member of the 
Sadozai Bamlzai family of the Kamran Khel branch, which 
followed the fortunes of Shah Shuja in the First Afghan War, 
and found themselves exiles in Peshawar at its close. They 
trace their ancestry back to the original Sadula Khan, an 
Abdali Pathan of Kandahar, founder of the Sadozais in the 
time of Shah Abas The Great, of Persia, who ruled early in 
the seventeenth century. From him sprang Ahmad Shah 
Abdali and the other Kings of Kabul, afterwards ousted by 
the Barakzais. Malcolm relates how Sadula the Sadozai, 
and Ahmad, founder of the Barakzais, were put in as Ris/i 
S?i/ed of the Abdalis, to act as the agents of King Abas at 
Kandahar in the place of a Persian Governor who was 
dismissed for oppression and cruelty. He asserts the descen- 
dants of Sadula possessed a semi-sacred character in the 
eyes of the tribesmen, who held it impious to lift a sword 
against them, even In retaliation for murder.* 

Fatahula Khan, great-grandfather of Afzal, was Wazlr 
of all Afghanistan under Ahmad Shah Abdali and his son 
Timur, receiving a salary of a lakh of rupees per annum. 
He died in 1741, and was burled at Kandahar, the Wazarat 
passing to his third son Rahmatula in the time of Shah Zaman, 
elder brother of Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk ; while Samandar Khan, 
elder brother of Rahmatula, became Hakim or Governor of 
Kabul, and Mahomed Khan, the youngest, was appointed 

* " The Seedoozahis (or descendants of Seedoo) are held in such veneration that if 
one of them was to attempt the murder of an Ameer, or lord of another tribe, it would be 
considered wrong to obtain safety by assaulting the Seedoozahi. If an Afghan acted other- 
wise, he would be deemed an outcast in his own class or tribe. There is, however, an 
exception to this rule in favour of the descendants of Ahmed ; and the Ahmedzais may, 
without sacrilege, slay as above ; but a great number of the Afghans deny this privilege 
even to the Ahmedzais. Seedoo and Ahmed were raised to rank by Shah Abas The Great, 
and derived their fortunes from that fountain of dignity and splendour." (Foot-note to 
Malcolm's Persia, Vol. I., page 599, Edn. 1815). 

This peculiar reverence for the " Seedoozahis " has since worn off, if it ever really existed. 
The Ahmedzais, in other words Barakzais, were particularly forward in slaying Sadozais 
towards the beginning of the present century ; and the practice became quite common with 
all Afghans, Barakzais included, about the time of Shah Shuja's last visit to Kabul. Their 
sacred descent did not save Mahomed Afzal Khan's grandfather and two granduncles from 
having their throats cut in cold blood under the walls of the Bala Hisar in 1805. 



448 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Naib of Kandahar. Rahmatula was murdered in Kabul in 
1805, under orders of Mahomed Shah, together with his bro- 
thers Samandar and Mahomed Khan. His son Mahomed 
Usman Khan, afterwards known as the Wazir Nazamudaula, 
was then only three years old. He was saved from 
death by his mother's father, Mir Aslam Khan, a Turko- 
man of some position in Kabul city, who concealed the child 
for nine years by disguising him as a slave-boy. He was sent, 
while still a lad, to his cousin Nawab Mahomed Khan, Go- 
vernor of Dera Ismail Khan, who owed his position to the 
good offices of Usman Khan's father. Mahomed Khan made 
the child a handsome allowance and afterwards gave him 
military service. He remained in the Derajat until the sur- 
render of Nawab Ahmad Khan to the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, 
as described in another chapter. His niece, a daughter of 
Habibula Khan, was given in marriage to Nawab Sher Ma- 
homed Khan, son of Ahmad Khan, and was thus the grand- 
mother of the present Nawab Sarfaraz Khan of Dera Ismail 
Khan. Usman Khan subsequently took service under Maho- 
med Zaman Khan, Governor of Jalalabad, receiving a hand- 
some salary as Naib or Deputy. He was holding this post 
when the British advance was made with the object of set- 
ting Shah Shuja upon the throne ; and he at once went 
over to his natural ally and was of the greatest assistance in 
keeping the country, sharing in the storming of Ghazni and 
all the fighting around Kabul in the early days of the occupa- 
tion. He was appointed Wazir of Afghanistan with the 
title of Nazamudaula ; and his sons, Mahomed Abas Khan, 
Akbar Khan and Zaman Khan, were put in as Governors 
of Kabul, Lughman and Jalalabad, respectively. Abas Khan 
was afterwards transferred as Governor to Kandahar. He 
had to leave Afghanistan when the British retired in 1842, 
taking up his abode at Peshawar on a pension of Rs. 6,000 
per annum. He shared in both Sikh Wars and placed his 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 449 

services at the disposal of Sir Herbert Edwardes, Commis- 
sioner of Peshawar, in the Mutiny of 1857. During this 
latter crisis he sent his son Afzal, the present head, to fight 
before Dehli ; while Abas Khan, another son, was stationed 
at Hoti Mardan, and helped to preserve order along the bor- 
der. Aslam Khan (now Major), in like manner, came for- 
ward and enlisted in the Cavalry. The services of these 
brave men will be presently detailed. Mahomed Usman 
Khan died at Peshawar m 1865, universally regretted. He 
was a staunch and consistent friend of the British, and never 
wavered in his loyalty, even when our days were at their 
darkest. An allowance of Rs. 2,400 was sanctioned for the 
ladies of his family. 

Mahomad Abas Khan, the eldest son, is still alive. He 
behaved gallantly in Kabul, and his services were warmly 
acknowledged by Conolly, Burns, Macnaghten and other 
officers with whom he worked. He was badly w^ounded while 
acting as Governor of Kandahar, and lost the whole of his 
property in the evacuation ; returning to Peshawar with his 
father, comparatively a poor man. He was afterwards engaged 
in both the Sikh Wars ; and for services in connection with the 
suppression of Sardar Chatar Singh's rebellion, he received a 
pension of Rs. 1,200 per annum. Under the British adminis- 
tration he w^as appointed Tahsildar of Eusafzai, and did good 
service there during the Mutiny. He receives a pension of 
Rs. 1,800 per annum. , His son Sardar Tahmasab Khan, who 
died in 1875, was for some time an Extra Assistant Commis- 
sioner. Nurula Khan, son of Abas, is an officer in the Peshawar 
Border Militia. Azimula Khan, another son, is an accepted 
candidate for the post of Extra Assistant Commissioner. 
Abas Khan's name heads the list of Viceregal Darbaris in the 
Peshawar district. 

Mahomed Zaman Khan, second son of Usman Khan, 
after leaving Kabul, became personal orderly to Herbert 



450 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Edwardes, and was with him throughout the Siege of Multan. 
He was appointed a Rasaldar of Cavalry after annexation, and 
passed thence into the Peshawar Police. He died at Kabul 
in 1877, having been for some years in the enjoyment of a 
pension of Rs. 600 per annum. 

Mahomed Akbar Khan also fought for the British in 
the Sikh Wars after coming away from Kabul, and was 
awarded a maintenance allowance of Rs. 1,200 per annum 
for services at Attock under Lieutenant Herbert in 1848. He 
was appointed a Tahsildar in 1859, and held the position for 
eleven years, afterwards working in the Settlement as an 
Extra Assistant Commissioner. He retired in 1885 on an 
annual pension of Rs. 2,000. Mahomed Umar Khan is an 
Extra Assistant Commissioner in the Hazara district. 

Mahomed Usman had three daughters and four sons by 
one wife. Of the daughters, one of them was married in 
1869 to the Amir Sher Ali Khan, and the mother lived with 
her in Kabul for several years, with her sons Ataula, Inayat- 
ula, Asadula and Hayatula. The latter is now a Dafadar in 
the 9th Bengal Cavalry. The widow receives a pension of 
Rs. 1,200 per annum from the British Government. She was 
expelled from Kabul with her children by the present Amir 
in 1886. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Haji Mahomed Afzal Khan, C.S.I., 
Wazirzada, was born in Kabul, and was twenty-one years of 
age when the Mutiny broke out. His father placed him as 
a Rasaldar in Stokes' Irregular Cavalry. He was severely 
wounded at Muradnagar near Dehli, and was forced to retire 
from the service, receiving a pension of Rs. 600 per annum. 
In 1864 he again came forward, and was made Rasaldar in 
the nth Bengal Lancers. He was selected to accompany 
Sir Douglas Forsyth to Yarkand in 1873, and on return was 
rewarded with the title of Khan Bahadar, and with a jagir 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 451 

yielding Rs. 800, close to the city of Peshawar. He was next 
attached to the suite of his Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales, and accompanied him on his return to England in 1876 
as an Orderly Officer. He saw service in Kabul during the 
late Afghan War, and did duty with Sir Lepel Griffin during 
the negotiations which led up to the bestowal of the Amirship 
upon Sardar Abdul Rahman. On the return of the Troops to 
India he was presented in public Darbar with a valuable 
khilat, and was given jagir rights in lands close to Peshawar, 
yielding Rs. 1,800 annually. He was further honored with 
the title of Lieutenant-Colonel, and he was created a Com- 
panion of the Order of the Star of India. He was appointed 
in 1882 British Envoy at the Court of the Amir on a salary 
of Rs. 12,000 per annum, and was further awarded a military 
pension of Rs. 1,500 per annum. He remained in Kabul un- 
til 1885, when he was obliged to resign his appointment 
owing to failing health. He was then nominated Aide-de- 
Camp to His Excellency the Viceroy, receiving at the same 
time a gift of six hundred acres of land in the Chunian Tah- 
sil of the Lahore district; and in 1886 he was created a 
Nawab. Mahomed Afzal Khan's name is still borne on the 
list of the nth (Prince of Wales' Own) Bengal Lancers. 
He has had six sons, all of whom died in their infancy. 

It remains to notice one more member, not the least dis- 
tinguished, of this illustrious family. Major Aslam Khan, 
sixth son of Mahomed Usman, was born in Kabul in 1838, 
and was brought to Peshawar at the age of eleven. He was 
selected by Edwardes in 1857 for a Rasaldarship in the 5th 
Bengal Cavalry ; and he fought in many battles, and was 
specially distinguished for his dash and bravery. He was 
engaged later on in various frontier expeditions, and in 1879 
went to Afghanistan with his regiment. He was there 
detailed as an Assistant to the Political Officer at Jalalabad^ 



45Z CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and remained in the Khaibar in this capacity after the British 
Army had evacuated the country. When the Khaibar Rifle 
Corps was raised for the protection of the Pass, Aslam Khan 
was appointed Commandant. To him is in a great measure 
due the present efficiency of this useful regiment. In 1884 
he was selected to accompany Sir West Ridgeway to the 
Russo-Afghan Border, and he once more distinguished 
himself by rendering valuable service. On his return he 
resumed his command in the Khaibar, which appointment 
he holds on a salary of Rs. 6,000 per annum. For political 
services during the Kabul War he was awarded the Order 
of Merit and the title of Sardar Bahadar ; and in 
connection with his labors on the Boundary Commission 
he has received the honor of Companionship in the 
Order of the Indian Empire. In 1885 he was gazetted 
to the rank of Honorary Major. He has also been 
granted a special annual allowance of Rs. 600 for services in 
Afghanistan, and of Rs. 1,000 for his services under Sir 
West Ridgeway. He wears on his breast seven military 
Medals and Orders, bearing witness to a life spent, not in 
ease, but in rough service cheerfully rendered. His 
brave acts and loyal conduct have no doubt been generously 
rewarded ; but it was not a thirst for money that impelled 
Aslam Khan and his gallant brothers to risk their lives over 
and over again in the service of a strange and foreign people. 
They were the children of Malcolm's Sado, real or mythical ; 
of the Sado whose upright ways caused his offspring to be 
classed as sacred amongst the simple savages whom they 
governed. Usman Khan and his sons deemed it honorable 
to serve the British ; they threw in their lot with our's when 
we were carrying all before us in Kabul, and they never 
wavered when fortune more than once appeared to desert our 
flag. They have richly earned the rewards that have been 
heaped upon them ; and they have but to thank their own 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 453 

brave and gallant natures for the honorable position they 
now occupy. 

Mahomed Akram Khan, son of Major Aslam Khan, 
is an accepted candidate for the post of Extra Assistant 
Commissioner. 



454 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



ARBAB MAHOMED HASAIN KHAN, MOHMAND. 



Mahabat Khan. 

1 

Ahmad Khan. 

I 

Rahmatula Khan. 

I 

Arsala Khan. 







Mahomed Khan 
1 


Jur 


na I 
d. I 

Sa 
K 
d 
la. 

Horn 

Kh£ 


1 

vhan, 
S79. 
1 






Arbab 

Fatah 

Khan, 

d. 1871. 


1 1 1 
Nawab Lashkar Sadula 
Sarfaraz Khan, Khan. 
Khan, d. 1 




1 




biland 
ban, 
1868. 


Mahomed 
Afzal Khan, 




d. I 

r 


1 
Ghulam 
Sarwar. 

1 


I 1 
Ataula. Abdu 

1 
Rasul Ma 
Khan. Azim 

1 


d. 1887. 






;d E 
in. 


1 1 


Ghulam 
Haidar 


1 

Sher 

Bahada 

Khan 


ihadar Shamsudin 
Khan. 


Khan. 




ad. 








1 

Mahomed 
Uniar. 


1 
Zakria. Al 

Ghul 


1 
jdul Sam 






im Nabi. 


Ya> 


I 
a Khan. 


Arbab 

Mahomed 

Hasain 

Khan. 


1 

Mir 

Ahmad 

Khan. 

1 

Said Ahmad. 


A 
K 


1 
<bar 
dan. 


1 
Usma 
Khan 


n Yakub 
Khan. 






1 




1 
Aslam 
Khan. 


1 
Akram 
Khan. 


Alam 
Khan. 


1 
Ayub 
Khan, 









Zaman Khan. 



Bazmir Khan. 



The Mohmands occupy the south-west corner of the 
Peshawar district between the right bank of the Bara river 
and the Afridi hills. The leading men are styled Arbabs, 
meaning lord or master, a title of comparatively recent 
date. Mahomed Hasain Khan and Azim Khan are the present 
Arbabs. Their ancestor Mahabat Khan was Malik in the reign 
of Shah Jahan. Four generations later Mahomed Khan 
received the title of Arbab, by which the Khalil Chiefs on 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 



455 



the other side of the Bara were already known. The 
Mohmands have always been loyal to the British, and their 
Chiefs have rendered good service on many occasions. 
Arbabs Mahomed Khan and Juma Khan accompanied 
George Lawrence to Kohat when he was driven out of 
Peshawar by the Sikh mutineers in 1848, and secured him a 
safe conduct through the Pass. Juma Khan's property was 
looted by the rebels in revenge, his women escaping with 
difficulty to Adam Khel territory. After annexation Mahomed 
Khan helped in the realisation of fines and the recovery of 
cattle taken across the border. Fatah Khan, who subsequently 
succeeded to the Arbabship, accompanied the troops in 
the Ambeyla Campaign against the Hindustani fanatics, 
and made himself useful in conducting negotiations with the 
Bonerwals, who were in sympathy with the enemy. Later 
on, in 1870, he accompanied Sir Richard Pollock on the 
Adam Khel border. He died in 1871, and the Chief- 
ship devolved on his brother Mahomed Sarfaraz Khan, who 
served us for many years faithfully and well. In 1857 he 
commanded a troop of horse attached to the irregular regi- 
ment under Major Stokes, and did duty for two years in 
Hindustan, distinguishing himself on more than one occa- 
sion by his gallant behaviour. He also fought against the 
Kabul Khel Waziris in i860. In the same year he was 
appointed Kotwal of Peshawar city, and filled that difficult 
post for eleven years, helping to repress violent crime, and 
doing much to check the system of assassination so common 
on this border in the early days of British Rule. He was on 
one occasion instrumental in avenging the murder of Major 
Adams, Deputy Commissioner, by cutting down an assassin 
when in the act of stabbing his victim. A Tahsildarship 
was offered him and refused, as it involved service away 
from his home. He was entrusted in 187 1 with the adjust- 
ment of the boundaries of the Adam Khel and Basi Khel 



456 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

countries, and in the year following he settled along-standing 
dispute between the Adam Khel Waziris and our own villagers 
within the border. But his services in connection with the 
Kohat Pass troubles of 1876-77 were less conspicuous ; 
and it was deemed desirable to withdraw from him 
the charge of the Adam Khel Afridis, whose conduct had 
been unsatisfactory. He, however, retrieved his name during 
the Jawaki Expedition which took place in the following year. 
In 1880, when the Basi Khel Afridis were heavily fined for 
pulling down the fort which was being built by our officers at 
Jala Talao, the Arbab undertook to realise the money, and did 
so without the assistance of our troops. Arbab Sarfaraz Khan 
was created a Nawab in 1880, in recognition of his generally 
loyal services. He exercised magisterial powers for many 
years. 

Previous to the regular settlement of the district, the 
Mohmand Arbabs had collected their jagir revenues in kind. 
This practice was considered objectionable, as leading to 
endless disputes with the tenants, and was stopped. They had 
enjoyed an income nominally valued at Rs. 6,822 per annum, 
but in reality much larger. The loss sustained by them in 
abolishing in kind payments was made up by the bestowal of 
an additional grant ; and at present the assignment yields 
Rs. 11,156. Of this sum, Rs. 500 were personal to the 
Nawab, and the remainder perpetual, subject to loyal 
behaviour and the renderinor of service. 

o 

Juma Khan, who was head of the other branch of the 
family, rendered excellent service on many occasions. This 
was recognised in a Sanad granted him in 1S77 in the name 
of Her Majesty the Queen-Empress, On the death of Arbab 
Fatah Khan in 1871, juma Khan's age and character marked 
him as the man best fitted to fill the position of Arbab ; but he 
refused to press his claims, and generously expressed his 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 457 

willingness to act as the adviser and supporter of which- 
ever of his nephews Government should be pleased to 
appoint. Sarfaraz Khan, then in the service, was thus duly 
nominated. His uncle acted up to his word, and proved a 
most loyal friend. His death, in 1879, was a serious loss to 
the District Officers, to whom he had always been an able 
assistant and unbiassed councillor. 

Sarbiland Khan, son of Juma Khan, was also constantly 
employed in connection with border aff"airs. At Ambeyla he 
worked under Reynell Taylor. In 1867 he coerced the 
Kalar Khel Afridis who had attempted to build a small post 
in the plain near Banda Bazid at the mouth of the Kohat 
Pass. He died shortly afterwards of cholera at Badabir, 
where he held the post of Thanadar. Another of Juma 
Khan's sons, Mahomed Afzal Khan, did useful service in 
connection with the Kohat Pass blockade of 1875-76, and the 
operations in the Jawaki country which followed. But, like 
his brother Sarbiland, his career was brought to an early 
close by his death, which occurred in 1887. 

Lashkar Khan, brother of the late Nawab Sarfaraz 
Khan, was for many years an Extra Assistant Commissioner. 
He retired in 1883, and has since died. His sons Ghulam 
Sarwar Khan and Rasul Khan are Naib-Tahsildars. 

It remains to notice the present heads of the family. 
Sarfaraz Khan was drowned in the Bara river in March, 
1886, and was succeeded by his son Mahomed Hasain Khan, 
who was allowed three-fifths of his father's life-jagir of 
five hundred rupees in addition to the family assignments 
in perpetuity. He enjoys a jagir income of Rs. 10,948. He 
has done good service in the Police as Deputy Inspector, 
especially in connection with the blockade in 1876 of 
the Hasan Khel Afridis near Charat, which post was in his 
charge. During the Afghan War he served at Jalalabad as 



458 CHIEFS AND FAMILES OF NOTE. 

an Assistant to the Political Officer, and his name was favour- 
ably noticed by Sir Lepel Griffin in a letter to Government 
at the close of the campaign. He had been offered a Tah- 
sildarship, but preferred the appointment of Inspector of 
Police at Peshawar, which he held until his accession to the 
Chiefship in 1886. He is now an Honorary Magistrate. 
His younger brother, Mir Ahmad Khan, is employed in the 
Border Militia. His uncle Sadula Khan fought in the Mutiny 
in Major Stokes' Pathan Horse, and afterwards served for 
some years in the Peshawar Frontier Police. 

Arbab Fatah Khan's son Sher Bahadar Khan, was the 
rightful successor to the Chiefship on his father's death ; but 
he was a minor, and it was deemed desirable to have a strong 
man in charge of the clan ; and he was therefore superseded, 
as already mentioned, by his uncle the Nawab Sarfaraz. He 
is now an Extra Assistant Commissioner at Dera Ghazi 
Khan. 

Mahomed Azim Khan, the head of the other branch of 
the family, lives at Kotla and enjoys a jagir of Rs. 5,000. 
He served in the Border Militia for about three years, resign- 
ing on the death of Mahomed Afzal Khan in 1887. His ser- 
vices were valuable, and especially so when the Afridis gave 
trouble, as he was intimately acquainted with all the sec- 
tions, and was able to furnish reliable informajtion concerning 
their movements. 

The Darbaris in the family are Arbab Mahomed Hasain 
Khan, second on the Peshawar list ; and Arbab Mahomed 
Azim Khan, nephew of INIahomed Afzal Khan. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 



459 



KAZI ABDUL KADAR KHAN, OF PESHAWAR. 



Mahomed Ghaus, 
d. 1773. 



Kazi Akbar 
Shah. 



Kazi Mahomed Hasain, 
d. 1813. 
I 
Kazi Rabaidula Khan. 

I 



I 
Kazi Aladad 
Khan. 

I 



Kazi Abdul 
Rahim. 



One son. 



Kazi 

Mahomed 

Hasan 

Khan, 

d. 1844- 



Kazi 
Mahomed 

Khan. 

1 

One son. 



Kazi 

Abdul 



Kazi 
Samad Mahomed 
Khan. Sharif. 

1 I 

Two sons. 



I 
Kazi 

Sadul; 
Jan. 

I 



I 

Kazi 

Mahomed 

Najib. 

I 



Two other 
sons. 



J I 

Kazi Kazi Sher 

Abdul Rab. Ahmad. 



Kazi Maho- 
med Jan. 



Kazi 
Kamarudin 



Kazi 
Badarudin 

I I 

Kazi Kazi 

Sadarudin. Abdul Majid 



J I 

Kazi Kazi 

Akram. Fazal 
Rahim. 



Kazi Sayad Ahmad, CLE. 

b. 1844. 

I 



I ! 

Kazi Abdul Kazi .Abdul 
Mahk. Khalik. 



Kazi Wazir 
Ahmad. 



Kazi Fakir 
Ahmad. 



Kazi Abdul 
Rahim. 



I I 

Kazi Abdul Kazi 
Wahid. Umrao. 



Kazi 
Zafar. 



I 

Kazi Abdul 

Latif. 



Kazi Safil 
Rahman, 



Kazi Saifula 
Jan. 



Kazi Mir 

Ahmad. 



Kazi Amin 
Jan. 

1 



Kazi Ataula, 



Kazi Mahomed 
Akbar. 



Kazi Mahomed 
Yusaf Jan. 



I 
Kazi Tila 
Mahomed, 
b. 1823. 
I 
Kazi Mahom- 
ed Aslam, 
Khan, C.M.G., 
b. 1S58. 
I 
Kazi Abdul 
Salam Khan. 



I 

Kazi Abdul 

Karim. 

1 

Kazi Abdul 

Rahman. 

I 

Kazi Abdul 

Ghafar, 



, . I ^ . I 

Kazi Kutab Kazi Fazal 
Alam. Kadar Khan, 
I d. 1872. 



L I. 

I f Kazi Ma- 

Kazi Abdul Four other homed Jan. 
Kadar Khan, sons. 1 

b. 1832. Three sens. 

_\ 

I I I 

Kazi Abdul Kazi Mahom- Kazi Abdul 
Ayaz Khan, ed Ilasain Kauf Khan. 
Khan. 



1 I 

Kazi Ghulam Four other 
Kadar Khan. sons. 

I 

I 



I 

Kazi 
Nasirula 

Jan, 
d. 1868. 

I 

Six sons. 



Kazi 

Amir 

Jan, 

d. 1882. 



Mahomed 
Amin. 



I 
Ata 
Mahomed. 



I 
Kazi Mahomed 
Azim. 



Kazi Abdul 
Rahim. 



Kazi Ghulam 
Sarwar. 



Abdul Wasia. 



Mahomed Amir. 



Abdula. 



Kazi Ghulam Jan. 

I 

Kazi .Mahomed Ghaus 



Kazi Mahomed Tan, 

I 
Kazi Abdul Ghafar. 



Kazi Aljilul Wahid Jan. 
I 
Kazi Abdul Rauf. 



46o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Peshawar Kazi Khels are Eusafzai Afghans of the 
Daulatzai branch. They took part in the general emigration 
of the Eusafzais from Kandahar into the Peshawar plain in the 
time of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Madad Khan was then at 
their head. Tenth in descent from him came Mahomed Ghaus 
Khan, who took service under Ahmad Shah Durani, and 
accompanied him to Panipat. He was appointed Minister of 
education with the title of Khan-i-Ulum. The Khan was 
a learned man, who wrote several books, some of which, on 
logic and elocution, are still in demand. His office was con- 
tinued to his younger son Mahomed Hasain Khan, known as 
Khani-Mula in thejeign of Shah-i-Zaman. He also distin- 
guished himself as a learned author. His influence at the 
Court of Kabul was considerable, and the appointments of 
Kazi in the various cities were practically in his hands ; and 
he had charge of the religious endowment funds which were 
on a large scale. His grandson Abdul Samad was for some 
years Kazi of Herat ; and Abdul Samad's grandson is the 
well known Kazi Sayad Ahmad Khan, CLE., lately an 
Attache in the Foreign Office of the Government of India. 

Kazi Sayad Ahmad has been recently obliged to resign 
the service owing to suddenly failing health while still a 
comparatively young man. He was for some years a teacher 
in the Mission School at Peshawar, and was appointed a 
Tahsildar in 1873. Eleven years later he was selected to 
accompany Captain the Hon'ble George Napier on a special 
mission to the north of Persia. He travelled for three years 
throughout Pars, Yrak, Mazandaran and Khorasan, and in the 
Teke Turkoman country on the north-east border. He also 
visited the Yamut Turkoman Obah on the Gurgan, and 
Astrabad and the Afghan colony of Kara Tapa on the Cas- 
pian. From Persia he was recalled in 1875 to take up the 
post of Attache in the Foreign Office, which he held for 
fourteen years. In January 1877, he was deputed to assist 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. ^6i 

Sir Lewis Pelly in the negotiations at Peshawar with the 
envoy of the Amir Sher AH Khan. He was attached in the 
following year to Sir Neville Chamberlain's Afghan Mission, 
and in 1880 he accompanied Sir x^lfred Lyall, Foreign 
Secretary, to Kabul. He was rewarded for his services on 
this latter occasion with the title of Khan Bahadar ; and in 
1888 he was further honored by admission to Companionship 
in the Order of the Indian Empire. 

Another son of Mahomed Ghaus Khan was Aladad 
Khan, for several years Khani-Mula in Kashmir. Aladi^d's 
second son Najib Khan rendered important political 
services in the First Afghan War, visiting Kafiristan and 
other unknown regions. He was awarded a jagir of Rs. 2,000 
per annum, of which two-fifths have been continued to his 
sons. 

Kazi Mahomed Hasan Khan, grandson of Mahomed 
Ghaus, was one of the favorite Ministers of the unfortunate 
Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk. His son Ghulam Kadir took up his 
abode at Peshawar after the Kabul catastrophe and rendered 
loyal service in 1857, receiving in reward a perpetual jagir in 
Mauza Noda, Tapa Hashtnagar, yielding Rs. 1,200 per annum, 
which his grandson Abdul Wadud Khan now enjoys. An- 
other well-known member of this family was Fazl Kadar, 
Kazi of Kabul during the reign of Shah Shuja. His eldest 
son, Kazi Abdul Kadar Khan, is a man of note in Peshawar 
and Kabul, and now stands as head of the Kazi Khel family, 
taking the fifth place on the list of Viceregal Darbaris in the 
district. Hecommenced life as a Naib-Tahsildar in the Panjab, 
and later on became Minister of the Amir Sher AH Khan, 
who treated him with the greatest confidence, and entrusted 
him with all his secrets. He deputed him on one occasion 
on an important mission to Russian Afghanistan, which was 
considered at the time of the highest political importance. 



462 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

In the Second Afghan War, Abdul Kadir came over to the 
British and rendered important services to Cavagnari and 
Sir Lepel Griffin, for which he was rewarded with a pension 
of Rs, 3,600 per annum. 

Abdul Karim Khan, fifth son of Kazi Mahomed Hasan 
Khan, accompanied Sir William Macnaghten to Kabul as 
confidential Munshi, and he was afterwards appointed to the 
charge of the Treasury. His son Abdul Rahman holds a 
subordinate position in the office of the Divisional Judge at 
Peshawar. 

Kazi Tila Mahomed, sixth son, is an Honorary Magis- 
trate and a member of the Municipal Committee at Peshawar. 
His son Kazi Mahomed Aslam Khan was appointed an 
Assistant Commissioner in the Panjab in 1882 ; and acted 
as Mir Munshi for some years. He was a member of Sir 
West Ridgeway's Boundary Commission, and for services 
rendered, was decorated with the Order of St. Michael and 
St. George. 

Mention may also be made of the late Ghulam Sarwar 
Khan, an Extra Assistant Commissioner, whose son Abdul 
Rahim is serving as a Tahsildar in the Karnal district. 
Ghulam Sarwar's father was third son of Kazi Mahomed 
Hasan Khan. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 



463 



t^ 















' 














"3 i, 




-s« 








J= 






■ V. 


a; 


6 
































< 


?? 



Ji ?- 



■fi CO 









< 

Q 

w 

o 



•y 3 




. 


c 






TS 












^^5 =• 


3.^ 


ffit4 






^ 


-1 


rt S '-^ 


3 






-- S 


_rt 


■^1 






S3 s 

Is 


"^ 


-3 


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S 
■""S 


•? 


n 


|3 ■5S ^ ,, 


7. 


P4 




14 


-it 




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"II" 


•a 


6 
< 














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"rt 


























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< 


11" 


11 






-1"^ 


-s^ 






.c 


ffi 


ri^ 


■P "2 




td 






1 

ar Mahome 
an Mahom 




i 


1 

Sher 

/lahomed 

Khan. 

1 


-Is 






t3 

St:- 


l|3 




5 


1 
— 1^_ 


|<^ 














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3 <!* rt 






464 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

The Khalil Arbabs are one of the most important 
families in the Peshawar district. They acted for many years 
as the intermediaries between the British Government and 
the tribes of the Khaibar ; and the whole of our political 
relations were practically in their hands previous to the last 
Kabul War. But the arrangement proved unsatisfactory, and 
the tribes along this line are now worked by an officer 
specially appointed. 

The Khalils occupy the country south-west of Daudzai, 
on the north bank of the Bara stream. Their western 
boundary is the Khaibar, and on the north and east their 
possessions are enclosed by the Kabul River and the Badni. 
The Tapa extends for about twenty miles along the foot of 
the Khaibar range, with an average breadth of ten miles. 
The Khalil tribe, with the Mohmands and Daudzais, formed 
the Ghoria Khel clan of Afghans, and were formerly settled 
along the banks of the Tarnak river, south of Ghazni. They 
emigrated to Peshawar in the reign of Kamran, son of Babar, 
and with the assistance of that Prince drove the Dilazaks across 
the Indus. During the administration of the Sikhs they held 
their lands on condition of service, and this privilege was con- 
tinued to them when the country came under British Rule. 
Arbabs Abas Khan, Fatah Khan, Farid Khan and Abdula 
Khan are the leading men of the Isakzai sub-division. Daru 
Khan, fourth in descent from Isak, is said to have received 
the epithet of Mitha on account of his liberality, and thus his 
descendants are known as the Mitha Khel. The title of 
Arbab was, in the first instance, conferred by the Emperor 
Shah Jahan upon Asal Khan. This Chief rendered useful 
service, and was granted a jagir in Tapa Khalil, said to have 
yielded Rs. 60,000 ; and he was entrusted with the manage- 
ment of the Khaibar and the tribes in its vicinity. His son 
Arbab Abdul Rahman, in the reign of Nadar Shah, held 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 465 

practically independent control over the Khaibar, and only 
rendered service to the Emperors by escorting them on their 
way through the Pass, to or from India. 

Abdul Rahman was succeeded by his son Nur Mahomed 
Khan, but not without opposition from his cousin Faizula, 
who coveted the Chiefship. Faizula had a large following, 
being popular with the wilder spirits of most of the neigh- 
bouring tribes, and he gave trouble in the Khaibar for many 
years ; but he was at length slain, and his band exterminated 
by Timur Shah, who sent a strong force to the support of 
the rightful Chief. The jagir was split up on the death of 
Nur Mahomed Khan into equal portions amongst Khan Gul 
Khan, his son, and his brothers Mahomed Said and Abdul 
Kadar. 

During the governorship of Sardar Hari Singh, the 
Chiefs of the tribe for the greater part fled from the district 
and took service with the Amir Dost Mahomed Khan of 
Kabul. Mahomed Khan, the only man of note who remained 
behind, received the title of Nawab from Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh, together with a jagir of Rs. 60,000. He was killed 
in 1837 before Jamrud, fighting on the Sikh side in the battle 
between Sardar Hari Singh and Mahomed Akbar Khan. 
This latter Sardar had been sent by the Amir to expel the 
Sikhs from the fort they had recently occupied at the mouth 
of the Khaibar. Sardar Hari Singh met with his death in 
this action, as related in another chapter, when pursuing the 
broken Afghan forces towards the end of the day. Teja 
Singh shortly afterwards recalled the exiled Chiefs and rein- 
stated them in their jagirs. These were confirmed in 1849 
by the British Government as follows : — Abdul Majid, 
Rs. 5,422 ; Mahomed Amir Khan, Rs. 6,000 ; and Gujar 
Khan, Rs. 2,222. Abdul Wahad Khan had been killed when 
Colonel Lawrence was attacked at Peshawar in 1848 by the 



466 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

mutinous Sikh soldiers. His son Mahomed Abas being but 
a child, the Arbabship was conferred on Abdul Majid Khan, 
uncle of Abdul Wahad. In 1851 Mahomed Amir Khan, 
Majid Khan and Gujar Khan were arrested and sent to 
Lahore as a punishment for having allowed a number of the 
hostile members of the Mohmand tribe, then in insurrection, to 
take refuge in their villages. They were permitted to return 
two years later. Mahomed Amir and Abdul ]\Iajid Khan 
subsequently rendered good service in 1857, and their jagirs 
were confirmed in perpetuity ; but that of Gujar Khan was 
resumed. The two loyal Arbabs and the other leading men 
of the tribe were further permitted to hold certain lands 
acquired by purchase free of revenue, subject to a resumption 
of one-fourth on the death of each holder. 

Abdul Majid was succeeded by his son Fatah Mahomed 
Khan ; on whose death, in 1879, the Arbabship devolved 
upon Abas Khan, the present Chief. Abas Khan has always 
proved himself a good and loyal subject. In 1857, on the 
recommendation of Sir Herbert Edwardes, he was appointed 
Rasaidar in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry ; and he was present 
with this regiment throughout the siege of Lucknow, and 
afterwards for some months in Rohilkand, taking part in 
many engagements, in one of which he was severely 
wounded. 

When Shahpasand Khan died in 1872 his jagir ofRs. 5,000 
was split up ; his son Abdula Khan receiving Rs. 1,000, while 
Rs. 4,000 went to Fatah Khan and Abas Khan in half shares. 
Abas Khan and Abdula Khan belong to different branches of 
the family, and it is a standing grievance with Abdula Khan that 
part of Shahpasand's jagir should have been bestowed on a dis- 
tant relative. In 1874 Abas Khan retired from his regiment 
on a pension of Rs. 540 per annum. During the late Afghan 
Campaign he furnished forty-five sowars and retainers, and be- 
came responsible for the postal arrangements between Jamrud 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 467 

and Tira Bazar, where our troops were encamped. Mean- 
while Arbab Fatah Mahomed Khan had died, and Abas Khan 
succeeded to the Chiefship of the Khahl Tapa with a jagir of 
Rs. 5,111. In 1886 he was made an Honorary Magistrate, 
and at the Viceregal Darbar held at Peshawar in November, 
1887, he received a Khilat of considerable value. 

Bahadar Khan, brother of Abas Khan, has served as a 
Deputy Inspector in the Border Militia since 1883, and has 
on several occasions rendered assistance politically. Nadar 
Khan, his nephew, is also an officer in the Border Militia. 

Farid Khan, brother of the last Chief and son of Arbab 
Abdul Majid Khan, has not hitherto distinguished himself. 
His complaint is that he has been wrongly deprived of the 
Headship now held by Abas Khan, whose claims are, however, 
undoubtedly superior. Farid Khan and his younger brother 
enjoy a jagir of Rs. 2,272. 

Arbab Fatah Khan is the head of the second branch. He 
received a jagir of Rsi 2,000 and the title of Arbab on the 
death of Shahpasand Khan in 1872, in recognition of good 
services at all times rendered. During the early years of an- 
nexation he lived in the Kohat district, having leased several 
State villages on favourable terms. He returned to Peshawar 
in 1855. He has won the respect and good wishes of the 
many officials who have known him by his uniformly loyal and 
straightforward conduct, and his readiness to perform any 
service demanded of him, however difficult. In 1878, especi- 
ally, he was most useful in recovering the large arrears of 
revenue due from Tahkal and other troublesome villages of 
the Khalil Tapa, and in settling disputes as to liabilities for 
arrears. During the late Afghan War he came forward with 
a body of sowars, who did good service both as patrols and 
in the carriage of express letters along the line of communi- 
cations. AbdulaKhan, son of Shahpasand Khan, died in 1889. 



468 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

He never rendered service, and his jagir only amounted to a 
fifth of that of his father. 

The Viceregal Darbaris in the family are Arbabs Maho- 
med Abas Khan, Fatah Khan, Farid Khan and Aslam Khan, 
son of Samand Khan. They live at Tahkal in the Khali! 
country. Abdula Khan, son of Shahpasand Khan, was also a 
Viceregal Darbari. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 469 

MAHOMED KHAN, SARDAR BAHADAR. 



Nadar Shah, Emperor 

(Grandfather of 

Imam Wardi Khan). 

I 
Agha Mahomed Hasan Khan. 

Mahomed Khan. 

1 



II II 

Yusaf Ali, Sabz Ali, Sher Ali, Hasain All, 

b. 1859. b. 1857. b. 1667. d. 1873. 

Sardar Mahomed Khan Bahadar is a descendant of King 
Nadar Shah, who was assassinated in 1747. Mahomed Khan's 
grandfather Imam Wardi Khan came to Peshawar with Sar- 
dar Ata Mahomed Khan, half-brother of the celebrated 
Fatah Khan, Minister of Mahmud Khan of Kabul. He was 
for some time in charge of the city, and acquired great 
influence amongst the tribes of the valley. 

Sardar Mahomed Khan served throughout the first Ka- 
bul War, and after annexation of the Panjab, joined the 
Corps of Guides as Dafadar. His gallant conduct on many 
occasions during the Mutiny secured him the rank of Rasal- 
dar-Major. He retired in 1873 on a pension of Rs. 2,280 
per annum, when his services were further acknowledged by 
the grant to him of 453 acres in proprietary right in the village 
of Laram. To these, in 1876, were added perpetual jagir 
rights in Laram, Kukar, Kite Lar Ahmad and some rich 
plots close to the city of Peshawar, aggregating in value 
Rs. 3,600 per annum. He is one of the leading Viceregal 
Darbaris in the Peshawar district. 

Of his sons, Yusaf Khan served with the Guides for 
many years, and Shahbaz Ali was for some time in a Bengal 
Cavalry Regiment. Sher Ali Khan, a younger son, is at 
present serving in the Corps of Guides. 



470 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



KHWAJA MAHOMED KHAN, K.\MALZAI, OF HOTI. 



Fatah Khan. 

I 
Lashkai Khan. 



Ahmad Khan, 
d. 1850. 

I 
Mir Afzal 

Khan, 

d. 1853. 

I 

Shah Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1S53. 

I 



Mir Aslam 

Khan. 

I 

Mahomed Khan, 

d. 1 85 1. 



Sarbiland Khan, 
d. 1872. 



Fatah Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1882. 



I 
Dost Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1887. 



I 
Khwaja Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1856. 



Sher All 
Khan, 
b. 1866. 
I 
Yakub Khan, 
b. 1888. 



Fatah Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1877. 



Mahomed Akbar 
Khan, 
b. 1S84. 



The family say their ancestors emigrated about a thousand 
years ago from Kandahar and Kabul to the country now 
known as Eusafzai. One of them, Kamal Khan, accompanied 
Sultan Mahmud in his invasion of India. His family settled 
at Hoti when the Dilazaks, who held the country, were driven 
out by the Eusafzais. Kamal is said to have held lands 
yielding a rental of Rs. 70,000 ; but this is an unsupported 
allegation, probably wide of the facts. On Kamal Khan's 
death one son remained as Khan of Hoti, and another 
settled at Toru, thus forming two branches which have 
since been distinct, and are known as Misharanzai or 
Torus, and Kisharanzai or Hotis. Shahbaz Khan showed 
his allegiance to the Emperor Akbar in 1 560, and was granted 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 471 

the revenues of Eusafzai under a Sanad still in possession of 
the family. He assisted the Imperial Government with levies 
on several occasions, as did also his descendants Jalal Khan 
and Nazir Khan, who were permitted to hold a contract of 
the Eusafzai revenues. 

In 1 761, when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India, Fatah 
Khan, a member of the family, joined him with five hundred 
cavalry and a large force of foot, and rendered good service. 
This was acknowledged by a continuance of the revenue 
contracts in his favor. In 1817, during the rule of the 
Barakzai Sardars, the family jagir was fixed at Rs. 12,000, 
extending over the Tapa known as Kisharanzai. Mahomed 
Khan, grandson of Fatah Khan, about this time opposed the 
invasion of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, as in duty bound, in the 
interests of his masters the Barakzai Sardars, and offered battle 
to the Sikhs at Hoti ; but he was defeated and driven away 
to Swat. He returned later on and made peace, and was 
allowed a jagir of Rs. 4,000. In 1844 Mahomed Khan again 
rose against the Sikhs and attacked Sardar Sher Singh at 
Hoti ; and he was again defeated and forced to leave his 
home. Once more was the ofience condoned ; for he was a 
dangerous foe, in spite of his ill-success ; and he was permitted 
to return and enjoy a reduced jagir yielding Rs. 2,000. This 
was continued by the British Government in 1849; but it 
was thought advisable to split it up between Mahomed 
Khan and his nephew Mir Afzal Khan of Mardan, each 
receiving one-half. 

Mahomed Khan died in 1851 and was succeeded by his 
son Sarbiland. The allowance of Rs. 1,000 was continued to 
him, and in recognition of his services during the Mutiny he 
received a further jagir grant of Rs. 250, the whole made 
perpetual under orders passed by the Government of India in 
1859. 



473 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

vSarblland Khan was instrumental in saving the Hfe of 
Lieutenant Home, the Civil Officer at Mardan, during the 
Mutiny, sheltering him for three days in Hoti, when the re- 
bels of the 55th Bengal Infantry broke loose from discipline; 
and he helped to drive the mutineers over the border into 
Swat, by inducing the villagers of the plains to harry them and 
withhold supplies. The men of this regiment perished in large 
numbers shortly afterwards, while attempting to make their 
way from Swat into Kashmir. Sarbiland further exhibited his 
loyalty during the crisis by furnishing a contingent of ten 
sowars and fifty footmen for service in Hindustan. For the 
Black Mountain Expedition of 1863, and again at Utman Khel, 
in 1 865, he supplied a small body of horse and foot which proved 
useful in many ways ; and he was able to furnish reliable in- 
telligence of the movements of the enemy. For his various 
services he was on three different occasions rewarded with 
Khilats in public Darbars at Peshawar and Lahore. He was 
held in esteem by the local officers, and his death in 1872 was 
generally regretted. He had the honor of a seat in Vice- 
regal Darbars. His son Khwaja Mahomed Khan is at the 
head of the family, and has succeeded to his father's jagir of 
Rs. 1,250. He also has been forward in rendering personal 
services, and he is regarded as a man of influence in his clan. 
In 1879 he was awarded a perpetual jagir in eight hundred 
acres, valued at Rs. 374, and five years later he received an 
additional grant in the villages of Mahodheri and Chamtar, 
yielding Rs. 200, also in perpetuity. His services have further 
been recognised by the bestowal upon him from time to time 
of khilats of value in public Darbar. 

Mention must be made of the Mardan branch, at the 
head of which is Shad Mahomed Khan. The jagir allow- 
ances of Fatah Khan passed through his son Lashkar to 
Ahmad, who became Khan of Mardan. He also enjoyed 
jagir rights in the villages of Shahi, Nisata, Gango, Tarna 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. All 

and Dargai in Hashtnagar, under the obligation of main- 
taining five hundred sowars and one thousand footmen. He 
married the daughter of Inayatula Khan, Khan of Ranizai in 
Swat. Ahmad Khan was succeeded in 1850 by his son Mir 
Afzal Khan, who was, however, only allowed a cash grant of 
Rs. 1,000 per annum. He did good service shortly after 
annexation, and was made jagirdar of the Baizai Tapa. 
He died in 1853, leaving an infant son Shad Mahomed to 
the guardianship of his brother Afzal Khan. Shad Mahomed 
Khan, now at the head of the family, is of weak intellect, 
and his property is administered by the District Court of 
Wards. He receives an allowance of Rs. 500 per annum. 



474 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



MAHOMED UMAR KHAN KHADARZAI, OF SHEWA. 



Mazam Khan. 

I 
Kalandar Khan. 

I 

Umar Khan. 

I 



Mishkar Khan. 



Anand Khan. 

I 

Arsala Khan, 

d. 



ashkar Khan, 
d. 


Karam Khan. Amir Khan, 
d. 1879. 


Ibrahim Khan. Ismail Khan 


1 1 


1 
Ahmad 
Khan, 
b. 1853. 


1 1 

Mahomed Mahomed U 
Khan, Khan, 
b. 1852. b. 1858. 


1 
MAR Mahomed Afzal 
Khan, 
d. 1S67. 




Mahomed Ayub 
Khan, 
d. 1884. 


1 
Sher Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1 886. 



Mahomed Umar Khan is a member of Khadarzal family 
of the Razar Tapa. He is a descendant of Khadar Khan 
who came with the Eusafzais from Kandahar and founded 
the Khadarzai family. In 1707, when Ahmad Shah Abdali 
invaded Hindustan, Kalandar Khan accompanied him, and 
was killed in action at Ganjpur. His son Umar Khan was 
awarded a cash allowance of Rs. 2,000 in consideration of his 
father's services. This remained in the family, descending 
from father to son, until the coming of the Sikhs. 

When Maharaja Ranjit Singh invaded Peshawar In 1S23, 
Mishkar, grandfather of Mahomed Umar Khan, opposed him, 
and was killed in action at Turlandi. Amir Khan, son of 
Mishkar, made his submission and was granted a cash allow- 
ance of Rs. 1,200. He was present with the British troops 
in the Narinji Expedition in 1857, and in the following year 
took part in the operations against Satana, and on various 
occasions did useful political service, for which he was granted 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 475 

an addition of Rs. 900 to the family allowance of Rs. 1,200. 
In 1863, during the Black Mountain Expedition, he placed 
twenty sowars and fifty footmen at the disposal of the Civil 
authorities, and he furnished a like contingent in 1865 against 
the Usman Khels. His services, when the district was 
being settled by the late Colonel Hastings, were rewarded 
with a mafi worth Rs. 244 in Mauzas Shev/a Khalil and 
Chak Khalil. Amir Khan was succeeded in 1879 by his 
son Mahomed Umar, the present Khan. He enjoys the 
hereditary cash allowance of Rs. 1,200 in addition to his 
father's mafi, which has been continued to him as a special 
favor in consideration of his general good conduct and loyal 
behaviour. 



476 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



MAHOMED AKBAR KHAN OF TOPI, UTMAN BOLAK. 

AzAD Khan. 

Shujabat Khan. 

1 
Zarif Khan. 

I 
Shah Wall. 

I 



I I 

Ahmad Khan. Mahomed AH. 



I I 

Fazal Khan, Karim Khan. 
d. 1864. I 

I Sharif, 

Mir Ghazan Khan, d, 

d. 1888. 

I 
Mahomed Akbar Khan, 
b. 1865. 



Mahomed Akbar Khan is an Utmanzai Pathan, living at 
Topi, on the Gadun border, in the Utman Bolak Tahsil. His 
grandfather Fazal Khan was an enemy of Arsala Khan of 
Zaida, who held this portion of the district under the Afghans. 
He rendered useful services to Major Abbott in Hazara, when 
the country was first taken over by the British, and he was 
again forward with help in the Ambeyla Campaign, furnishing 
thirty sowars and fifty footmen at his own charges. He died 
in 1864. For his father's services, Mir Ghazan Khan was 
grantedaperpetual jagir of Rs. 1,748 in the villages of Murad- 
abad and Gurkhan of the Hazara district. He further en- 
joyed a life-mafi of Rs. 180 in four Peshawar villages for ser- 
vices rendered at settlement. On his death, in 1888, he was 
succeeded by his son Mahomed Akbar, the present Khan of 
Topi, to whom were continued the jagir and mafi in Hazara 
and Peshawar. He maintains some sowars and footmen for 
border service; but the family have lately lost much of their 
former prestige ; and they have no longer any influence with 
the independent tribes. As Akbar Khan has no sons and 
no near relatives, the Khanship will probably become extinct 
when he dies. He is a Provincial Darbari. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 



477 



SARDAR BAHADAR HABIB KHAN OF KHUNDA, 
UTMAN BOLAK. 



TwAHAR Khan. 

I 
Jalal Khan. 

I 

Naubat Khan. 

I 



Sardar Khalil. 

Habib Khan. 



I 
Hamidula. 

I 

Khairula. 



I t 

Amirula. Najihula. 



Bostan. 



Manir 
Khan. 



Alam 
Khan. 



Azam 
Khan. 



I I 

Bahrain Ghnlam 

Khan. Khan. 



I I 

Khushal Khan, b. 1847. Ahmad Khan, b. 1841 



I 1 

Bahadar Mahomed 

Sher Khan, b. 1867. Sher Khan, b. 1878. 



1 

Abdul 


Abdul 


Sultan 


1 
Dost 


Sher 


Mahomed 


Ghafar 


Shakur 


Mahomed 


Mahomed 


Mahomed 


Umar 


Khan, 


Khan, 


Khan, 


Khan, 


Khan, 


Khan, 


/;. 1S64. 


b. 1870. 


b- 1873. 


b. 1875. 


b. 1879. 


b. i883. 



Sardar Bahadar Habib Khan, late Subadar-Major of 
the ist Panjab Infantry, is a Daulat Khel Sadozai, whose 
family came from Kandahar with the Eusafzai stream of 
emigrants centuries ago. 

His father was a Lambardar of Khunda in the Utman 
Bolak Tahsil. Habib Khan owes his present honorable 
position to his exemplary conduct throughout an eventful 
military service of twenty-four years. The numerous letters 
he holds from officers of every rank, who saw him fight in 
many battles, are the best evidence of the esteem in 
which he was held by those best competent to judge of his 
sterling qualities. In 1848 Habib Khan was appointed 
Subadar in the Sabaz Patka Regiment raised for service in 
the Sikh Rebellion. He had been the personal orderly of 
Major George Lawrence when that officer held political 
charge of Peshawar; and he accompanied him to Kohat and 



478 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

shared in his imprisonment when treacherously seized, as al- 
ready related, by Khwaja Mahomed Khan, son of Sultan Ma- 
homed Khan, Barakzai, the local Governor. Habib Khan 
subsequently made his escape on the advice of Lawrence, 
who entrusted him with some important messages for Abbott 
in Hazara. Later on, he took service in the ist Panjab Infan- 
try, then known as Coke's Rifles, with the rank of Subadar, 
Captain Coke was at the time Deputy Commissioner of 
Kohat, as well as Commandant of this illustrious regiment ; 
and he retained his command for some years after throwing 
up civil employment in disgust, because his arrangements 
regarding the administration of the Miranzai Valley were not 
approved by higher authority. To give a history of Habib 
Khan's varied military services would be equivalent to writ- 
ing an account of the numerous battles and campaigns the 
ist Panjab Infantry took part in while Habib Khan was with 
them. It must suffice to record that this gallant officer 
fought in five different frontier expeditions, besides having 
been present at and around Dehli throughout the eventful 
years of 1857-58. For his Mutiny services he was rewarded 
with the Order of Merit, and he received an allowance equal 
to two-thirds of his pay. This was still further augmented 
after the Mahsud Waziri Expedition of i860 ; while for gallant 
conduct at Ambeyla, three years later, he was made a Sardar 
Bahadar. He for many years held the honorable position of 
Subadar-Major in the ist Panjab Infantry ; and the rank 
was conferred upon his son Khushal Khan out of special 
compliment to the gallant old man shortly after his retire- 
ment from the service in 1872. He lives at Khunda, near 
Attock, in the enjoyment of a well-earned jagir yielding 
R,s. 2,950 annually, and of cash allowances aggregating 
Rs. 1,350. Habib Khan's name is on the list of Imperial 
Darbaris of the Peshawar district. His family is connected 
by marriage with that of Hund, one of the oldest in Eusafzai. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 479 

MAULVI MAHOMED JAN, OF KAFIR DHERI. 

Sadik Khan. 



I I 

Mahomed Akiam Khan. Mahomed Akik Khan. 

I 
Sher AH Khan. 

I 

Mahomed AH Khan. 

I 

Abdula AH. 

I 

Mahomed Jan, b. 1826. 

I i ^1 

Abdul Wadid Jan, Latif Khan, Ahmad AH Jan, 

b. 1S83. b. 1SS5. b. 1 886. 

The family of Mahomed Jan of Kafir Dheri belongs to 
the Baroza sub-division of the Khalil tribe, clan Umarzai. 
When the descendants of Khalil divided their lands, a por- 
tion of the village of Shahi-Payan and the whole of Kafir 
Dheri fell to Haji Darya Khan. Their property thus allot- 
ted remained joint in the next three generations ; but a par- 
tition was ultimately effected by the brothers Akik Khan 
and Akram Khan. To the latter fell the site of the present 
village of Kafir Dheri which he duly founded. But he was 
obliged to abandon his lands shortly after, having been 
worsted in a fight with his neighbours, the Mitha Khels, who 
levelled Kafir Dheri with the ground. He returned in Shah 
Shuja's reign and re-built his village. During the Sikh 
occupation he had again to seek safety in flight, being hard 
pressed for revenue which he was not in a position to pay. 
Under British Rule the family has behaved well, and they are 
no longer obliged to flee when the tax-collector makes his 
rounds. 

Mahomed Jan is a prosperous landholder, enjoying a 
cash ma7)i of Rs. 200 per annum, together with half the reve- 
nues of Kafir Dheri, valued at Rs. 450. His father Abdul 
Ali married a daughter of the Khan of Lalpura, who gave 
his other daughter to the Amir Sher Ali Khan of Kabul. 
His name is on the list of Viceregal Darbaris. 



48o CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

HASAIN SHAH, JAGIRDAR OF WALAI. 



Zahi Kaha. 

I 
Ambar Shah Kaka> 

Akram Shah. 

I 

Afam Shah or Fapa Mian, 

d. 1S67. 



I I I I 

AbfUil Kami, Musanaf Shah, Hasain Shah, Nuiul Hasan Shah, 

/;. 1852, b. 185S. b. 1845. ^>- 1857. 



Hamayun, Mahmud Shujad Sultan 

Shah, Shah, Shah, Shah, 

b. 1863. b. 1862. b. 1871. b. 1886. 



The Kaka Khels are the best known and most respected 
family of Mians in Eastern Afghanistan. They and their 
property are safe among the wildest tribes. They are great 
traders in timber, floated down the Indus, Swat and Kabul 
rivers from Chitral and the Upper Hindu Kush. In 1882 
Hasain Shah, the present head of the family, accompanied 
Mr. McNair in his survey expedition to Swat, Bajaur, 
Chitral and other unexplored countries, and by his personal 
influence enabled that officer to make his observations in per- 
fect safety. His father Papa Mian, a man locally reputed as 
a saint, behaved loyally in the Mutiny and put in the weight 
of his counsels on our side. On his death in 1867, Hasain 
Shah succeeded to the family jagir of nearly seventeen hun- 
dred ghumaos in the village of Walai, Tahsil Naoshahra. 
He is a Viceregal Darbari. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 481 

DOST MAHOMED KHAN, OF GARI DAULATZAI. 



Namdar Khan. 

I 

Mir Afzal Khan, 

d. 1879. 

I 

Dost Mahomf.d Khan. 



Zahta Khan, Umar Khan, 

b. 1876. b. 1S78. 

Dost Mahomed Khan is one of the leading men of the 
Daulatzai branch of the Amanzais, now known as the Kapur 
Khels. The family emigrated from Kandahar with the 
Eusafzais when Aman Khari was at their head ; and from his 
two sons are descended the present houses of Daulatzai and 
Ismailzai. They were brought under subjection by Aurangzeb, 
who granted their representative Muhal Shah a muajab, or 
allowance, in lieu of services which he had to render in con- 
nection with the revenue collections and the general adminis- 
tration of the district. His son Kapur took military service 
and enjoyed allowances said to have amounted to Rs 7,000 
annually. He had revenue charge later on of the Amanzai 
Tapa. He died in Hindustan. Namdar Khan was recog- 
nized by Maharaja Ranjit Singh as Khan of the Amanzais. 
His son Mir Afzal Khan was the head man when the country 
was taken over by the British. He supplied a small body of 
horse and foot in the Narinji Expedition of 1857, and was 
awarded an annual cash allowance of Rs. 120, which was in- 
creased to Rs. 250, after the Ambeyla War. He was granted 
mafis aggregating Rs. 69 in the villages of Garhi Mahbub 
Band and Hosai in connection with services rendered during 
the recent settlement operations. Half the cash allowance 
was continued in 1879 to his son Dost Mahomed Khan, who 
is now the leading man of the tribe. Dost Mahomed has a 
chair in Provincial Darbars. 



482 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

AKBAR KHAN OF ISMAILA, UTMAN BOLAK, 



AjAB Khan. 

I 

Nur Khan, 

i 

Lashkar Khan, 

I 



I 1 

Amir Khan. Ibrahim 
I Khan. 



I . I 

Ismail Khadi Khan, 
Khan. ci, 1854. 



Aladad Khan, 
d. 1855. 



Khoidat? Khan, 
d. r88o. 



Mahomed 
Khan. 



Akbar Khan, 
i. 1846. 

I 



Sohbat Khan, 
d. 1872. 



I 

Sherdil Khan, 

/>. 1875. 



Purdil Khan, 
i. 1878. 



Rahmat 


Fakir 


Sher Taj Mahomed 


Abdul 


Amirula 


Khan, 


Khan. 


Mahomed Khan, 


Ghafar 


Khan, 


6. 1861. 


d. 1862. 


Khan, d. 1871;. 
d. 1866. 


Kh-jn, 
^. 1S78, 


L »88o. 



Akbar Khan is of the same tribe as Umar Khan of 
Shewa, but descended from Aku Khan, son of Razar ; Umar 
Khan being descended from Razar's son Kadar. Nurai was 
the first recognised Khan of the Aku Khels, but there are no 
records regarding him. Lashkar Khan succeeded Nurai, 
but resigned in favor of his son Ibrahim Khan. Ibrahim, 
granduncle of the present Khan, was killed with seventy of 
his followers at Gila near Karapa, on the Buner Road, when 
fighting against the Sikhs under Sardar Hari Singh, to whom 
he had refused submission. He was succeeded by his bro- 
ther Ismail Khan, who being unable to hold his own against 
the Kamalzai Khan of Toru, submitted to Hari Singh and 
was recognized as Khan of the Aku Khel Tapa, and was 
granted a cash miiajab of Rs. 2,500. He was killed at Tar- 
landi in a skirmish between Afghans and Sikhs, fighting on 
the side of the latter ; and was succeeded by his brother 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 483 

Khadi Khan, whose muajab was increased to Rs. 2,670 in 
consideration of his having behaved loyally towards the Sikh 
Government ; and he was declared Khan of the whole Razar 
Tapa. He continued his services when the British came, and 
opposed Arsala Khan of Zaida, who refused to tender his 
allegiance to the new comers, expelling him in 1852 from the 
Khadu Khel lands. He was allowed to remain in the enjoy- 
ment of his old cash allowances, which were, however, lost 
later on by his nephew Khoidad Khan, who was punished 
with seven years' imprisonment for an offence under the Indian 
Penal Code. Khoidad received a reduced allowance of Rs. 
1,000 per annum on being released ; but he got into trouble 
again in 1880 by eloping with a neighbour's wife, and he died 
in prison in the same year. His nephew Akbar Khan, now 
at the head of the Tapa, enjoys the grant of Rs. 1,000 which 
has been continued in the family. He is described as good- 
looking, intelligent and well-behaved. But the family have 
lost their importance, and it is probable that the Khanship 
will go back to the elder branch when the present incumbent 
dies. Akbar Khan is a Viceregal Darbari. 



484 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

KHAN BAHADAR IBRAHIM KHAN, OF MARDAN. 



Zanun. 

I 

Mahomed Said Khan. 

I 

Ghulam Khan. 



I I I I 

rimATliM Ismail Sardar Khan, Mahomed 
Khan. Khan, d. 1887. Ashraf 

I I Khan. 



I I I Mahomed | 

Abdula Khan, Hamidula Dost Aslam, Mahomed 

6. l866. Khan, Mahomed, l>. 1886. Afzal, 

d. 1878. d. 1883. i>. 1882. 

Khan Ibrahim, Khan Bahadar, is a member of the Kisha- 
ranzai branch of Kamalzais, of which Khwaja Mahomed 
Khan of Hoti is the leading member ; Muhabat Khan of 
Toru being head of the Misharanzai branch. He is a des- 
cendant of Kamal Khan who came to this country with the 
Eusafzais from Kandahar and founded the Kamalzai Tapa. 

During the reign of Ahmad Shah Abdali, some of the 
Eusafzai MaHks rendered service and were granted imiajabs 
and designated Khans of their Tapas. Ibrahim Khan's fore- 
fathers were honored in this manner. He and his brother 
MaHk Ismail Khan are among the present Maliks of Mardan, 
having sprung from Malik Bara Khan, who was first recog- 
nised as such ; while Khwaja Mahomed is Khan of Hoti, as 
representing the original Malik Aladad ; both families being 
of the Kisharanzai stock. 

In 1853 Ibrahim Khan took service as a Havaldar in 
the Police Battalion, known as the Sherdils. He was pro- 
moted Jamadar in the Mutiny. In 1864 he was appointed 
an Inspector, and served as such at Amritsar and Peshawar. 
Six years later he was deputed to visit Yarkand in a semi- 
political capacity. He was there imprisoned for some 
months, and was very near being hanged as a spy. In 1873, 
he was again sent to Yarkand with the Mission under Sir 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 485 

Douglas Forsyth. His services were rewarded with the 
bestowal of a handsome khilat ; and he was created a Khan 
Bahadar under the Viceroy's orders in 1874, receiving at the 
same time a life-jagir of Rs. 800 per annum in Chak Mardan. 
In 1875 he was promoted Assistant District Superintendent 
of Police, and in the same year he received a present of 
Rs, 5,000 for political services rendered in Badakhshan and 
Wakhan. He was deputed to wait upon His Royal High- 
ness the Prince of Wales on the occasion of his visit to India 
in 1875-76; and he received a handsome gold watch and a 
large sum of money in recognition of his services. He ac- 
companied Sir Lepel Griffin to Kabul in 1880, and was 
employed on various duties of a delicate nature; receiving on 
his return to India a life-jagir in Chak Mardan and Jalala, 
yielding Rs. 1,800 per annum. In 1883 he was appointed 
Commandant of the Peshawar Border Milita, and in the fol- 
lowing year was attached to the staff of the Russo-Afghan 
Boundary Commission. For the services then rendered he 
received a valuable khilat from the hands of His Ex- 
cellency the Viceroy in public Darbar ; and he was awarded 
a cash vmajab of Rs. 800 per annum. He retired from the 
service in 1888 on a special pension of Rs. 3,600 per annum. 
It was at the same time settled that Rs. 2,000 per annum of 
his life-jagir should be continued to any heir whom he might 
select, under the usual conditions of loyalty and good con- 
duct. His brother Ismail Khan is an Ala Lambardar in 
Mardan. Sardar Khan, another brother, lately deceased, 
served for some years as a Deputy Inspector of Police. Ma- 
homed Ashraf Khan, a younger brother, is now a Deputy 
Inspector in the Peshawar district ; and Abdula Khan, son 
of Ibrahim Khan, is an Inspector of Police at Amritsar. 

Ibrahim Khan is a man of very great ability. He 
has served Government well and faithfully for thirty-five 
years, and has earned the respect of every English officer 



486 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

with whom he has had official relations. The following 
extract from a letter, addressed on his behalf by Sir Lepel 
Griffin to the Panjab Government in 18S2, proves the high 
opinion that officer entertains of the Sardar : — 

"In 1880, I specially selected Ibrahim Khan to serve on 
my personal staff in Afghanistan. Here his assistance was of 
the greatest value, and I chose him with Rasaldar Mahomed 
Afzal Khan, C.S.I., also attached to my staff, to proceed to 
Turkistan and open negotiations with the present Amir. 

" This service, it is superfluous to state, was one of con- 
siderable personal risk, the country through which the envoys 
had to pass being inhabited by turbulent tribes, many of them 
exceedingly inimical to Amir Abdul Rahman. But Ibrahim 
Khan has never permitted any consideration of personal in- 
terest or danger to influence the performance of services to 
Government, and the information which he was able to 
accumulate in Turkistan was of the utmost value in deter- 
mining the political situation. 

"There can be no greater incentive to zealous and loyal 
work in our native fellow-subjects than seeing the labors of 
distinguished officials like Ibrahim Khan adequately and 
generously rewarded by the Government they have served 
so well." 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 487 

MAHABAT KHAN OF TORU, MARDAN. 



MalAk Khan. 

I 

Fatah Khan. 

I 
Jalal Khan. 



I I I 

Dalel Khan. Bahadar Khan. Abdul Kadar Khan, 
d. i860. 

[ 

I 

I I I I I 

Mahabat Khan, Bahram Khan, Ibrahim Khan. Nasir Khan, Kanm Khan, 
^.1798. 3.1849. 3.1850. 3.1855. 

I L 



Fakir Mahomed Khan, | I 

h. 1883. Taj Mahomed Khan, Aminula Khan, 
b. 1885. 0. 1S88. 



I I I I I I 

Hamidula Rahmatula Mahomed Sherdil Taj Mahomed Aminula 

Khan, Khan, Akbar Khan, Khan, Khan, Khan, 

b. 1870. b. 1872. b. 1876. b. 1878. b. 1885. b. 1887. 

Mahabat Khan is a Misharanzal Kamalzai, the early his- 
tory of whose family has been already given.* Dalel Khan, 
uncle of Mahabat, was at the head of the Toru section when 
the Sikhs first moved up to Peshawar, and he gave them consi- 
derable trouble as one of the leaders of the combination 
against them. He was, however, driven out by his own two 
brothers, who went over to the enemy ; and after some further 
family broils the Khanship finally devolved upon Abdul 
Kadar, father of the present head of the Tapa. He was 
appointed revenue agent in 1831, on behalf of the Sikh Go- 
vernor for five Tapas comprised in Eusafzai, and he received 
a muajab of Rs. 10,000 per annum. He discharged his 
duties faithfully as long as the Sikh power lasted. In 
1847 he was on Major Lawrence's side and helped with horse 
and foot during the rebellion which immediately preceded the 
British annexation. He was the leading man in Eusafzai in 
the early days of our rule, and served us heartily and loyally. 

* Vide Khwaja Mahomed Khan of Iloli. 



488 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Occupying, as he did, a position of trust and confidence which 
many of his old companions had not the good fortune to 
share, it was natural that he should have made enemies who 
were anxious for his fall. They on one occasion took advan- 
tage of the attempted assassination of an officer of the Corps 
of Guides to declare that the act had been instigated by 
Abdul Kadar, and he was accordingly seized and thrown into 
Jail. He was, however, released later on by the Commissioner, 
and publicly declared innocent of the charge ; and in proof of 
his restoration to favor he was presented with a handsome 
khilat in public Darbar by the Chief Commissioner of the 
Province, in presence of the whole of the Peshawar Khans. 
He behaved loyally afterwards in the Mutiny, and took part 
in several expeditions on the border. His death in i860 was 
a matter of general regret. 

Abdul Kadar had been in receipt of an allowance of 
Rs. 6,000 per annum ; and of this one-half was continued 
to his son Mahabat Khan, who is now at the head of the 
clan. He also has loyally served Government on many 
occasions. He was with us in the Waziri Expedition of 
1859, in command of ten sowars and twenty footmen sent by 
his father. He also shared in the Ambeyla Campaign of 1863 ; 
and in the late Kabul War he was employed for some months 
in a subordinate political capacity. He was rewarded with 
a mafi grant in perpetuity valued at Rs. 430 per annum. He 
is a Viceregal Darbari of the Peshawar district. 

Bahram Khan, brother of Mahabat, used to enjoy a 
mafi of Rs. 250 per annum, and this was increased to Rs. 310 
in 1887 as a reward for services rendered by him in Afgha- 
nistan and on the Peshawar border. He is a Provincial 
Darbari. His brother Karim is also a mafidar on a small scale. 



THE PESHAWAR DISTRICT. 489 

AZAD KHAN OF HUND, UTMAN BOLAK. 



Mahomed Amir Khan. 

I 

Shahdad Khan, 

d. 1875. 

I 



Akbar Khan. Azad Khan. 



I I I 

Sher Mahomed, Mahomed Haslam, Ghulam Haidar, 

d. 1876. ^. 1882. d. 1884. 

Azad Khan is a Sadozai Pathan of the Balar Khel section. 
The family came to this country with the Eusafzais from 
Kandahar and founded Hund. 

Biland Khan removed from Hund with his three bro- 
thers Ibrahim, Rahmatand Himat Khan, and settled at Zaida, 
while Latif Khan remained at Hund. This family is the 
elder branch of the Zaida family, and one of the oldest in 
Eusafzai. 

Zabita Khan's grandson Ashraf Khan became first Khan 
of Zaida, his son being Arsala the Second, who refused to 
submit to the British when the district was taken from the 
Sikhs. The Hund branch, though the elder, thus lost its 
power and gave place in political importance to the Zaidas, 
notwithstanding that the wealth remains with the Hunds, 
who own valuable timber-bearing islands in the Indus. The 
families became more completely separated in later years 
when Ibrahim was Khan of Zaida. Shahdad Khan, father 
of the present Khan, succeeded at settlement in ousting many 
of the smaller owners from their lands, and he was murdered 
in consequence in 1875, while praying in the mosque at 
Hund. His son Azad Khan has done little to keep up the 
position of the family. He seized the whole of his father's 
property, and has in consequence been involved in much 



490 ' CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

litigation with his half-brother Akbar Khan. Azad Khan, 
in 1887, instigated an attempt to murder the patwari of his 
village for having given evidence against him in a law-suit, 
and was, by the Commissioner, deprived, under the Frontier 
Crimes Regulation, of his muajab of Rs. 300 and mafi of 
Rs. 305 for a period of five years. He was also deprived of 
his seat in Darban 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 491 

KOHAT DISTRICT. 
SARDAR SULTAN JAN., C.I.E. 



King Timur Shah, 
d. 1793- 



Shahzada Sultan Thirty 

Khawar. other sons. 

I 
Shahzada Sultan Asad. 

\ 

I III 

S. Mahomed S. Shah Rukh. S. Kurban AH. S. Wali Ahmad, 
Jamhur, ( late Rasaldar, 

•d. 1869. S. Jahangir, 5th P C, 



d. 1865, d. 1S80. 



I ! I 1111 

S. Mahomed S. Sultan Mahomed Mahomed Mahomed Gkulam Agha, Jan, 

Taifur, Jan, Azim, Shwaib, Shahr Yar Hasain, b. 1868. 

«?. 18S3. CI.E.^ ^.1843. Inspector of Khan, late <^. i860, 

b. 1840. Police, Janiadar 

I b. 1848. in 9th B. C, 
Mir Alam, (L 1885. 
b. 1858. 

Sardar Sultan Jan takes the leading place amongst 
the Darbaris of Kohat. He is fifth in descent from Timur 
Shah. His father Shahzada Jamhur was a loyal and faithful 
subject, whose official career is deserving of detailed record. 

Shahzada Sultan Khawar, grandfather of Shahzada 
Jamhur, was some time Governor of the Kandahar Province 
during the reign of Shah Zaman. He was, however, re-called 
to Kabul when Shah Mahmud usurped the Throne. His son 
Shahzada Asad fled to Peshawar in 1830, and sought the 
protection of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who treated him with 
consideration, assigning lands valued at Rs. 2,300 annually 
for his support. Shahzada Jamhur's connection with the 
British dates from the First Afghan War, when he attached 
himself to Colonel Wade, who was proceeding to Jalalabad in 
charge of the Shahzada Timur. Having borrowed as much 
money as he could on the security of his jagir, he raised a 
bodyguard of one hundred and fifty horse and two hundred 



492 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

foot, mainly from amongst his own followers, and placed them 
at Colonel Wade's disposal. On his return to Peshawar at the 
end of the war, he opened up a correspondence with Mr. 
Currie, British Resident at Lahore, and kept that officer in- 
formed from time to time of the political movements in the 
Valley, being one of the first to give warning of the insurrec- 
tion organized by Sardar Sultan Mahomed Khan, Barakzai, 
and the Sikh Sardar Chatar Singh. He was suspected by 
the leaders of the rebellion of being in correspondence with 
George Lawrence, who was then a prisoner at Kohat, and he 
was arrested and kept for some time in confinement. But on 
his way to Peshawar he managed to escape from his guard, 
and keeping to the Jawaki Hills, reached Attock in safety, 
where Lieutenant Herbert with a handful of Pathans was be- 
ing besieged by Sardar Sultan Mahomed Khan. He re- 
mained with Herbert as long as the place held out, and refused 
to listen to Sultan Mahomed, who did his utmost to induce 
him to betray his Commander, even going so far as to threaten 
to murder the Shahzada's children under the walls of the 
fort. He joined Reynell Taylor shortly afterwards at Bannu, 
and was by him sent with letters to the Army, then on its way 
to Rawal Pindi after the battle of Gujrat. 

In 1849 the Shahzada was posted to Kohat as Extra 
Assistant Commissioner, and with this district he was closely 
connected for the remainder of his service, which lasted until 
1869, in which year he died of cholera. During the Mutiny he 
exerted himself in every way to check the spread of false in- 
telligence, and by various means to prevent disaffection and 
encourage the well-disposed. He was rewarded with a khilat 
of Rs. 2,500, and his jagir of Rs. 2,300 was confirmed to the 
family in perpetuity. On various occasions Shahzada Jamhur 
proved himself a staunch adherent and devoted servant of the 
British Government. He studied our interests with zeal and 
loyalty, and supported our conciliatory policy with the inde- 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 493 

pendent tribes, winning them over by his surprising tact, ev^en 
temper and intimate knowledge of their ways. Beside every 
District Officer in succession, he took his place as chief adviser 
in all matters connected with border administration ; and none 
of them ever had reason to regret having listened to his 
experienced counsels. The three Lawrences, Sir Herbert 
Edwardes, Majors James, Henderson, Munro and Cavagnari, 
have all left on record the respect and esteem in which they 
held him. His long connection with the district, his profuse 
hospitality and kindly bearing towards all classes, his honor- 
able nature and honest ways, gave him an extraordinary in- 
fluence over the wild people with whom he had to deal. He 
frequently spent money from his own purse in furtherance of 
State interests ; in private life he was open-handed, charitable 
and generous to a fault ; and he died a poor man, beloved 
and mourned by all. It is sad to have to record that his sons 
were forced to submit to the sale of their father's house in 
execution of a decree of the Courts against his estate. The 
whole of the Shahzada's property went to his creditors. Govern- 
ment merely gave the children a grant later on of Rs. 2,000 
to purchase a dwelling-house for the ladies of the family. 

Sardar Sultan Jan, CLE., Extra Assistant Commissioner, 
took his father's place in 1869. He and his brother Taifur 
led one hundred horse to Hindustan in 1857, and did good 
service in the Aluzafarnagar district, guarding the Ganges 
Ferries, and afterwards marching with General John Coke, 
their old Deputy Commissioner, into Rohilkand, where the 
rebels were made to feel the folly of their ways. The charge 
of Sultan Jan's troop on the guns at Mirganj near Baraily, is 
said by General Coke to have been one of the brilliant feats 
of the campaign. The Mutiny services of the Shahzada 
were rewarded with the grant of a khilat valued at Rs. 500. 

Sultan Jan served for twelve years after i860 as a Tah- 
sildar at Peshawar and Kohat. He took part in the Utman 



494 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Khel Expedition of 1866, assisting with supplies, and after- 
wards in the estabh'shment of villages in the plains, in the 
room of those destroyed by our troops. He has held the 
position of Extra Assistant Commissioner since 1872, and 
has gradually assumed the place occupied in the old days by 
his lamented father. His services in connection with the 
Kohat Pass Blockade of 1876 were rewarded with a khilat of 
value. He again received a present for service in the Jawaki 
country in 1878. At the outbreak of hostilities in Afghanistan 
he was deputed to the Kuram Valley as a Political Officer 
under Mr. Archibald Christie, who entertained a high opinion 
of the Sardar's merits. He was afterwards selected for the 
difficult and somewhat dangerous charge of the newly-acquired 
Valley of Khost. But his rule was of short duration. The 
tribes would not assent to the arrangement, and a force had 
to proceed from Kuram to bring him out in all haste. Khost 
was allowed to go back to the Amir of Kabul, while Kuram 
later on was made over to the local clans. The Sardar's 
services throughout the whole campaign were exemplary, 
and our failure in Khost is in no way due to his want of wis- 
dom in counsel or action. For his services in the Kuram 
Valley he was made a Companion of the Indian Empire ; and 
an additional jagir of Rs. i.ooo was conferred upon him, of 
lands in the Kohat Tahsil. 

In the winter of 1884-85 he again visited Kuram to 
assist the Turis in settling their outstanding cases with the 
Amir's subjects, who were represented by Akhundzada Abdul 
Rahim Khan, Governor of Khost. He was awarded a khilat 
of the value of Rs. 500 by the Panjab Government, and later 
on the Secretary of State for India sanctioned a further 
reward of Rs. 1,000 for his eminent services in satisfactorily 
settling these disputes. In the following year he again went 
to Kuram, and on his return again received a khilat from the 
Lieutenant-Governor. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 495 

The jagir of Rs. 2,300 in the Peshawar district, originally 
bestowed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, had been confirmed to 
the family at annexation in perpetuity. In 1873, cash rates 
were substituted for payments in kind, and the jagir was 
assessed at Rs, 3,315 ; but this sum was found to be below 
what the Sardar had been receiving under the older system 
of collection, and the whole was brought up to Rs. 4,000 by 
an additional grant of Rs. 6S5 from the revenues of Tap! 
and Bakizai, Tahsil Kohat ; on which also is charged the 
personal jagir of Rs. 1,000, granted to the Sardar for ser- 
vices in the Afghan War. The whole assignment of 
Rs. 5,000 is now treated as one grant, to be continued in per- 
petuity to one direct heir of the late Shahzada Jamhur. Gov- 
ernment has the power of requiring the holder to make suit- 
able provision for the junior members of the family. The 
jagir is nominally enjoyed by Sultan Jan ; but most of the 
income goes towards the maintenance of his numerous 
relatives. 

Mahomed Shwaib, brother of Sultan Jan, now an 
Inspector of Police in Peshawar, rendered good service on 
the Khaibar Line during the late Afghan War. A second 
brother, Agha Jan, is serving in the Burma Police, and a 
third, Mahomed Azim, is a Dafadar in the Corps of Guides. 
Mir Alam, son of Sultan Jan, is Deputy Inspector of Police 
in the Bannu district. 

Sardar Wali Ahmad, uncle of Sultan Jan, was a Rasal- 
dar in the 5th Panjab Cavalry. He died in 1880, leaving 
no sons. Another member of the family descrying of men- 
tion is Mahomed Shahr Yar Khan, late a Jamadar in the 9th 
Bengal Cavalry. He died in 1885. 



496 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB SIR KHWAJA MAHOMED KHAN, KHAN BAHA- 
DAR, K.C.S.L, TERL 



Malik Aku, d. 1600. 

Yahiya Khan, i/. 1620. 

Shahbaz Khan, I, d. 1641. 

I 
Khushal Khan, I, d. 1658. 

Ashraf Khan, d. 1682. 

Mahomed Afzal Khan, d. 1741. 

Sadula T\han alias Khan Shahid, d. 1748. 



1^ 

Sadat Khan 

alias Sarfarnz Khan, 

ancestor of the 

present Akora 

Chiefs. 

I 



I 

Khushal Khan, 

d. 1759- 



Nawaz Khan, 



I I 

Shahbaz Khan, Sharafat Khan, 

ancestor of the known as the 

Teri Chiefs, d. 1799. Naih of Gumbat. 

I 



I t I 

Ajab Khan. Nurula Khan. Asaf Khan. 

I I 

I I Najaf Khan. 

Mir Humza. Firoz Khan. I 



I 

Jafar Khan, 

Jagirdar of 

Nilab, d. 1883. 



Afzal Khan, 
Jagirdar of 
Khwara. 



1 
Amir Khan. 
I 



I 
Hasham Khan. 



I I I 

Naib Naib Mahomed 

Mahomed Mahomed Khan. 
Said Khan, Khan. | 

I Mahomed 
Ghaus Sadik 

Mahomed. Khan. 



I 

Abas Khan, 

d. 1828. 



K ha was 
Khan. 



Mansur. 
I 



Hasan. Nasir, 

d. 1812. 



Nadar Ali. 



Biland. 



Hasan ISIurtaza Karim 
Khan. Khan, d. Khan. 

I 
Biland Khan, 
Jagirdar of 
Khushalgrrh. 



I 
Rasul. 

I 
Fatah 
Jang 



I 
Jahangir. 

!_ 

I 



I I 

Arsala. Khushal. 



Shahbaz. 



Sher Mavvaz, 
Khan. Mahomed. d. 



Abas 
Khan. 



Nawar Sir Khwaja Mahomed, 
K.C.S.L, b. 1822. 



Spin 
Khan, 



I I I I I I 

Muzafar Mahomed Abdul Rahim Ghafar Taj Khan, Namwar 

Khan, Zafar Khan, Khan, Khan, l>. 1856. Khan, 

rf. 1887. ^.1843. ^.1848. ^.1853. I ^1856, 

I 1 I 

I Abdul Hakim Khan, "j i j [ 

Mahomed Uroar Khan, ^- '876. Avub Ibrahim Nasir Yar Mahom- 



Zakria 
Khan, 
6. 1857. 



l>. 1S79. 



Ayub 
Khan, 
l>. 1880. 



Khan, 
d. 1882. 



Khan, ed Khan, 
Ik 1885. d. 1886. 



II II 

Abdul Jabar Khan, Shad Mahomed Khan, Amir Mahomed Khan, Abdul Ghafar Khan, 
l>. 1856. i'. 1861. L 1862. ^. 1S63. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 497 

The original classification of the Khataks into Teri and 
Bolak has long since been dropped, and is remembered by 
very few of the modern clansmen. The existing branches 
are the Akoras and Teris. The Akora Khataks are settled 
in Peshawar apd the north-eastern corner of the Kohat dis- 
trict, comprising the Nilab, Khwara, Zira and Patiala Tapas. 
The Teris are in subordination to the Nawab of Teri, who 
has extensive rights in the Teri Tahsil, lying south of Kohat 
and north of the Bannu district. In extent this tract is 
about half the size of the Kohat district. The first home of 
the Khataks was at Shwal, a valley in the Waziri country lying 
to the west of Bannu, near the Pir Ghal peak, whence they 
emerged in the fourteenth century, and settled on the left 
bank of the Kuram River near it? junction with the Indus. 
Thence they were pressed into the plains by a fresh exodus 
from Shwal, this time of the Shataks, who finally settled in 
Bannu. In alliance with the Bangashes they secured posses- 
sion of the Chauntra, Bahadar Khel, and Teri Valleys, and 
driving out the tribes previously occupying the north-eastern 
tracts of Kohat, obtained as their own share the Tapas of 
Gumbat, Patiala and Zira. In the sixteenth century we find 
them under their chief Malik Aku at war with their old friends 
the Bangashes, whom they expelled from the Teri Valley. 
Aku was an able ruler who enriched his tribesmen by organ- 
izing them into bands for making raids on their neighbours 
whenever this might be done with tolerable safety. It is 
said he had a particular aversion to Hindus, and that it was 
his pride to possess two large earthern vessels filled with 
the ornaments of those he had slain. This is no doubt a 
libel; but it is an index of the sentiments of the family his- 
torian who chronicled his deeds over a hundred years ago. 
Aku had the honor of an interview with the great Akbar 
when he crossed the Indus Ferry at Bagh Nilab in 1581. 
He on this occasion made his excuses for having beaten the 



498 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Emperor's Governor, Shah Beg Khan, a short time previous- 
ly at Peshawar. Akbar accepted his apologies and placed him 
in charge of the road between Attock and Peshawar, allow- 
ing him to levy a fee upon all pack-animals in return for safe 
conduct ; and he was confirmed in the possession he had 
taken of a fertile tract along the banks of the Kabul River, 
between Khairabad and Naushera. He had already made 
himself secure in case of reverse by building a series of 
strong posts in the Charat Range. He now built a fortified 
sarai at Akora near Peshawar, which gave him command of 
the country between the Kabul and the Kuram Rivers. 
From his people north of the Jawaki hills he took produce 
varying from one-tenth to one-fourth the yield, according to 
the strength or weakness of the village with which he had to 
deal. Salt was also a source of considerable profit to him ; 
for he levied a handsome royalty on every camel, donkey and 
bullock-load that left the mines at Jata and Mangla. Altoge- 
ther, Malik Aku was one of the prominent men of his time in 
the northern Panjab ; and he is still revered by his tribe as 
the Chief who brought them all they have since possessed 
and enjoyed. He was killed in 1600, fighting against the 
Bolaks. 

Khushal Khan, who flourished forty years later, was 
the next Khatak Chief of note. He served in the armies of 
Shah Jahan in Hindustan, and was employed in repressing the 
plundering propensities of the Eusafzais and other tribes of 
the Peshawar Valley. He is said to have been well educated, 
having written a number of Persian poems of considerable 
merit. He received honors and rewards from the Emperor 
Shah Jahan ; but on the accession of Aurangzeb, who was at 
enmity with his father, he was disgraced and imprisoned in 
the Gwalior Fort for six years. He was ultimately released 
and sent back to look after the Peshawar Valley, which had 
relapsed into a state of anarchy after his removal. But the 



THE KOHAT DISTRJCT. 499 

hardships to which he had been subjected, left him without 
spirit. He had lost his power of command, and did little to 
restore order. His grandson Afzal ruled the tribe for sixty 
years. He was a clever man, with literary tastes, and was 
the author of the Tarikh-i-Murasa, or history of the Khataks, 
and other works. 

Teri, the present home of the Khatak Nawabs, rose to 
importance in the reign of Ahmad Shah, who received sub- 
stantial assistance from Sadat Khan, grandson of Afzal, when 
he invaded India in 1748. Sadat was confirmed by the 
Emperor as Khan of Akora, while his cousin Khushal Khan 
took over the southern country and became Chief of the Teri 
branch. Khushal Khan served in Ahmad Shah's Wars, and 
was killed in battle at Hasan Abdal in 1759, when Ahmad 
Shah was driving back the Mahratas from the Indus, a little 
before the battle of Panipat. Sadat Khan so distinguished 
himself in this campaign that the King made him ruler of the 
country as far as Jhilam. Timur Shah afterwards bestowed 
on him the title of Sarfaraz Khan, by which he is generally 
known. The family history is exceedingly intricate for some 
years previous to the accession of the present Nawab, and is 
of no interest except to the tribesmen themselves. They 
took opposite sides when the Durani monarchy was breaking 
to pieces after the murder of Wazir Fatah Khan at Hi rat. 
Shahzada Mahomed Sultan, brother of Mahmud Shah, was then 
Governor of Kohat. He was driven out by Firoz Khan of 
Akora, and with him Nadar Khan of Teri. But Nadar had a 
strong backing amongst the Khataks, and was enabled, after 
a brief interval, to return to Teri and dislodge his cousin 
Arsala, whom Firoz Khan had set up in his place. Nadar 
was murdered three years later, in 1827, while saying his 
prayers in a mosque ; and the Chiefship passed to Shahbaz, 
the son of his old rival Arsala. He was in his turn ousted 
by Nadar's brother, Biland. A series of struggles continued 



5O0 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

to keep the whole district in disturbance, the tribe being spHt 
up into factions which appealed alternately to the Sikhs on 
one side and to the Afghans on the other. Rasul Khan, one 
of the claimants, secured the assistance of the Maharaja 
Sher Singh, who sent him a detachment of Sikh troops from 
Bannu, enabling him to turn out Biland, after whom he held 
the Chiefship for seven years. His widow adopted the pre- 
sent Khan, Khwaja Mahomed a posthumous son of Khushal 
Khan, who was murdered in 1S24. He was at the head of 
the Khataks when Reynell Taylor marched through Kohat 
with a detachment of Sikhs fromPeshawar in 1 848, and he has 
ever since been Chief of the Teri Khataks. At annexation 
he obtained the lease of the Teri Tahsil at Rs, 31,068 per 
annum. This amount was soon afterwards lowered to 
Rs. 25,000 ; and in 1851 the Ilaka was leased to him at 
Rs. 20,000 for five years. In 1855 these rates were con- 
firmed for his life, and in 1858 they were made perpetual ; 
while in recognition of his services during the late Afghan 
War, the payments during the lifetime of the present Nawab 
were reduced to Rs. 18,000. 

The splendid services rendered by this loyal Chief and 
the recognition they have from time to time received, are 
worthy of detailed notice. In the Second Sikh War of 1848, 
when the issue was still doubtful, he actively opposed the 
Barakzai Governor, corresponding regularly with our officials 
and keeping them informed of all that passed ; and after 
annexation he lent Reynell Taylor every possible assistance 
in keeping the wild and lawless mountain tribes in order. In 
1 85 1 he accompanied Captain Coke, then Deputy Commis- 
sioner, on his expedition into the Miranzai Valley at the 
head of over two thousand men to collect revenue from 
the Upper Bangashes, whose allegiance was claimed by 
Sardar Mahomed Azim of Kuram, on behalf of the Amir 
Dost iVlahomed Khan. The Sardar was prepared with 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 501 

a large body of Waziris and Zamushts to make good the claim 
by force had not this counter-demonstration been made. The 
Khan of Teri had with him a contingent of three hundred 
foot and one hundred and fifty horse, and rendered himself 
most useful as a political adviser and military Chief; while 
from the fertile valley of Chauntra he sent in regular supplies 
of grain and fodder to the camp. 

Owing to a Waziri raid in 1850 on the village and salt 
mines of Bahadar Khel in the Teri Ilaka, a military force was 
moved thither in November 1851, and arrangements made 
for the construction of a military post to hold the Waziris in 
check. This work was most distasteful to the semi-indepen- 
dent Khatak clans of the neighbourhood, and they for some 
time evinced a spirit of sullen resistance ; but the Chief behaved 
well throughout, and eventually succeeded in putting down 
all opposition. He assisted in collecting materials for the 
fort and in keeping open the communications with Kohat by 
patrolling the roads with his armed followers. The Khan also 
helped at this period in securing the eastern border against 
the Afridi robbers and raiders. The military road from Kohat 
to Rawal Pindi was practically in his charge as far as Khus- 
halgarh, and he was always prepared to march with a force 
of two hundred horse and four hundred foot in any required 
direction. 

A second expedition against the Upper Bangashes was 
undertaken in 1855, under General Neville Chamberlain, 
with the object of bringing the Valley more effectually under 
control and completing the work commenced in 1851. The 
Khan of Teri again accompanied the column with a number 
of followers, and did good service along the line of com- 
munication. In 1856 the Miranzai Valley was the scene of 
a third military expedition. General Chamberlain passed up 
into the Kuram with a force of 4,700 men and 14 guns to 



S02 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

coerce the refractory Zamushts, and to exact compensation 
from the Teri tribe for outrages committed in British territory. 
Khwaja Mahomed Khan, again assisted with a Khatak levy, 
and afterwards by his advice and influence, was instrumental 
in bringing the negotiations to a successful termination. 

In 1857 the Khan with his own clansmen held the fort of 
Bahadar Khel and the posts of Latamar and Nari, thereby 
setting free the military garrisons ; and he despatched a con- 
tingent of horse and foot to Peshawar, remaining himself in 
attendance on the Deputy Commissioner of Kohat. "It would 
have been impossible," Edvvardes writes, " for any Chief to 
behave better. He took charge of forts for us, entered into 
all our anxieties and arrangements as if they were his own, 
punished the disaffected, repressed false or alarming rumours, 
and was a sound and loyal councillor to his District Officer." 
For these services the Khan received a khilat of Rs. 5,000, 
and the lease of his territory in perpetuity on a nominal 
tribute of Rs. 20,000. The title of Khan Bahadar was also 
conferred on him. The Khan was present in i860 with the 
Kabul Khel VVaziri Field Force of 4,000 men and 13 guns 
under Brigadier Chamberlain, assisting with his levies ; and 
for his services receiving the thanks of the Government of 
India. 

Khwaja Mahomed Khan's long and unwavering services 
were especially brought to the notice of Government in 1871. 
He was honored with the much-coveted title of Nawab, and 
was created a Knight Commander of the Most Exalted Order 
of the Star of India. In 1876 he had the privilege of being 
presented to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and of 
receiving a medal from his hands. 

When the Pass Afridi troubles of 1876-78 commenced, 
the Nawab found himself too much weakened by illness and 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. ' 503 

age to take the personal part he would have felt proud to 
assume a few years earlier. He, however, detailed his son 
Mahomed Zafar Khan to command the Khatak levies, who 
remained under arms until the final submission of the Jawakis, 
and did good service throughout. The Nawab and his son 
were publicly thanked by the Lieutenant-Governor in a 
Darbar held at Kohat in 1878. During the late Afghan War 
the Nawab furnished over two thousand workmen for the 
construction of the cart-road between Thai and Kuram, and for 
the building of military posts and of camp defences at Thai. 
He also sent a body of two hundred men under command of 
Nawabzada Mahomed Zafar Khan, to hold the posts on the 
line between Kohat and Thai, patrolling the road with sowars ; 
and he collected over fifteen hundred camels and about one 
thousand pack-bullocks for transport purposes. Mahomed 
Zafar Khan again materially aided in securing communica- 
tions between Thai and Alizai during the Zamusht Expedi- 
tion of 1879, and added to the good name he had already 
acquired as commandant of the Khatak levies in the Jawaki 
Expedition. The Nawab's third son, Abdul Ghafar Khan, 
was in charge of the Kohat road labourers at Thai for several 
months. A fourth son was employed with Sir Frederick 
Roberts in Kuram, and accompanied him to Kabul on behalf 
of the Nawab. 

The Nawab's income from land is put down at Rs, 54,000, 
after deducting the Government demand (Rs. 18,000), and 
Rs. 21,800 paid away as via/n and da7'a^ to relatives and 
others having a claim to maintenance. His villages are spread 
over the Teri Tahsil in the four Tapas of Seni, Khawaram, 
Teri and Barak. The system of collection varies a good deal 
in each sub-division. The Seni and Khawaram villages are 
almost all let out for fixed sums either to the proprietors as a 
body or to individual holders. The Teri Tapa lies round the 
Nawab's own head-quarters. In a few villages he takes in 



504 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

kind direct ; the rest are held by proprietary communities who 
pay a fixed share of the produce converted into cash. 

During the late Afghan War the demand for men, both 
as soldiers and labourers on the Kuram line, was in a great 
measure supplied by the Nawab. They were liberally paid 
through departmental officers, but the service was forced and 
very unpopular ; and in March, 1880, large numbers of the 
Barak Khataks who were thus employed entered a practical 
protest by running away to their homes. The movement 
rapidly developed into an insurrection against the Nawab's 
authority. In June and July it became difficult to execute 
criminal or civil processes in the portion of the district lying 
south of Teri. Prisoners were forcibly released, and the 
orders of Government were practically set at defiance. In 
August a small force marched into the heart of the Barak coun- 
try, and most of the malcontents submitted ; but the complete 
pacification of the Lawaghar tract was not effected for more 
than a year afterwards. The Baraks insisted that they had 
been driven to rebellion by the oppressive nature of the Na- 
wab's revenue system ; and as his arrangements were found to 
be out of harmony with the settled tracts in his immediate 
vicinity, a fresh assessment was made by the Deputy Com- 
missioner, which has apparently given satisfaction to both 
parties. The Nawab's claim to ownership of the whole Tapa 
was not admitted ; but he was awarded a talukdari allowance 
of Rs. 9-6 per cent, on the land-revenue proper in lieu of 
certain dues which he and his ancestors were proved to have 
continuously levied from the tribe. Besides his income of 
Rs. 54,000 from land, the Nawab enjoys a percentage on 
collections of the Bahadar Khel and Nari Salt Mines, bring- 
ing in, on an average, Rs. 3,300 per annum. 

The Nawab unfortunately finds it impossible to reduce 
his expenditure within reasonable limits, and he remains in 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 505^^ 

embarrassed circumstances notwithstanding the HberaHty 
aways shown to him by Government. As head of an import- 
ant clan, he is expected to keep open house, and his kitchen 
hres are never cold. His hospitality is proverbial, even in a 
country where this quality is regarded almost as a religious 
obligation. He had to accept a loan of Rs. 35,000 from 
Government in 1870; and twelve years later he borrowed 
an additional sum of Rs. 60,000. Of this latter sum about 
one-half remains unliquidated; and the Nawab's liabilities go 
on increasing. He exercises civil and criminal judicial powers 
within the limits of his Tahsil. He is aided in all his 
work by his second son Mahomed Zafar Khan, who is gener- 
ally regarded as the Nawab's heir. Zafar Khan has done 
good service on several occasions, as already noticed. At the 
close of the Afghan War he was honored with the title of 
Khan Bahadar. He is a Magistrate and Civil Judge, and 
he superintends the revenue business of the Tahsil. Of the 
Nawab's remaining seven sons, the most prominent are 
Ghafar Khan and Spin Khan. The former has been invest- 
ed with magisterial powers ; and both are on the Lieutenant- 
Governor's Darbar List. The old Nawab has latterly given 
up attending public functions. His son Mahomed Zafar 
Khan takes his place in Viceregal Darbars. 

In other branches of the family, the most prominent 
man is Mahomed Sadik Khan, known as the Naib of Gumbat, 
who receives an allowance of Rs. 360 per annum in connec- 
tion with the Malgin Salt Mines. 

Khanzada Sher Mahomed, a distant cousin of the 
Nawab's, set up a claim to the Chiefship in 1880, and is be- 
lieved to have incited the Baraks to create the disturbances 
described above. He had left his home immediately after 
annexation, and taken up his abode in Kuram. He was mur- 
dered by hill robbers while his claims were still pending. 



5o6 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 



NAWABZADA RUSTAM KHAN, CHIEF OF THE BAIZAI 
BANGASHES. 

IzAT Khan. 



I 
Azmat. 

Najabat. 

I 
Sher Ali, 
d, 1844. 



Larmast 

alias Baz Jang 

Kuli Khan. 



Zabardast 

alias Nawaz Jang 

Kulj Khan. 



Lashkari. 

I _ 

Sher Mahomed. | 

I Ismail, 

Ghulam, Lambardar 
of Kalu China. 



Nawab. 

I 



t 
Musahib. 

.1 
Azizula. 

I 
Umar Khao, 



t Ata Khan 

Khan Bahadar of Mitj. 
Mahomed Said. 

t 
Ata Mahomed. 

I 
Zakria. 



Fatah Khan. 

I 

Haidar. 



Sharabat. 

I 



I 
Nawab Bahadar 
Sher Khan, 
d. 1880. 



Ata Mahomed 
Khan, Jagirdar, 



Kamar Ali. 



Mahar Ali, 
b. 1843. 



I I I I 

RusTAM Sherdil Usman Mahar 
Khan, Khan, Khan, Dil 
Chief, Tahsr, D. I., Khan, 
b. 1843. ^- 1848, Border b. i860. 
Militia, 
b. 1853, 



I I I I.I 

Saidal Jala! Khoshal Ismail Shamas- 

Khan, Khan, Khan, Khan, udin 

h. 1862, b. 1865. b. 1868. b. 1876. Khan, 

I b. 1876. 



Mahomed Ali 

Khan, 

b. 1879. 



Abdul Rahman 
Khan, 
b. 1887. 



I 
Jandar Khan, 
b. 1884. 



I 

Ayub Khan, 

b. 1886. 



Mahomed 
Afzal Khan, b. 1873. 



Shad Mahomed 
Khan, b. 1884. 



I I 

Purdil Khan, Faiz Mahom- 
b. 1865. ed Khan, 

b. 1870. 



Yakub Khan, 
b. 1 88s. 



Khush Dil Khan, 
b. 1864. 



Ehanan Khan, 
b. 1879- 



Ibrahim Khan, 
b 1884. 



Taj Mahom- Aswar 
cd Khan, Khan, 
b. 1864. b. 1868. 



Ill I I II 

Mana- Nasar Mahom- Mahom- Zabardast Mahomed Mahom- 
war Mahomed ed Kafik ed Hayat Khan, Azam ed Aslaia 
Khan, Khan, Khan, Khan, b. 1S84. Khan, Khan, 



b. 1870. b. 1872. b. 1882. b. \l 



b, li 



1S86. 



Nasar Mahomed Khan, 
b. 1883. 



Pir Mahomed Khan, 
b. 1887. 



The Bangashes are not real Pathans. They claim des- 
cent from Khalid, a Shekh of the Arab tribe of Kureshi, 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 507 

whose children are said to have settled in Persia. They were 
driven thence at the commencement of the thirteenth century 
by Changez Khan Mughal, and passed through Sind into 
Hindustan. Ismail Khan, one of their headmen, was appointed 
Governor of Multan, where his oppression gained him the 
name of Bangash, or tearer-up of roots, by which title 
his descendants have been known ever since. He and his 
people excited the enmity of the neighbouring tribes, who 
drove them off. They retired to the Suliman Mountains, 
and eventually settled in Gardez, moving fifty years later into 
the Kuram Valley. This immigration is supposed to have 
taken place about the beginning of the fifteenth century, 
subsequent to the invasion of Timur. They pushed thence 
into the Miranzai Valley and ousted the Orakzais from the 
country about Kohat, aided by the Khataks, who were simul- 
taneously invading the district from the south. The Orak- 
zais previously held the country as far as Resi on the Indus. 
The Khataks took the eastern Ilakas of Resi, Patiala and 
Zira ; while the Bangashes helped themselves to the Valley 
of Kohat. This acquisition had been probably completed be- 
fore Babar's invasion in 1505. The lands abandoned by the 
Bangashes in Kuram were taken possession of by a new tribe, 
the Turis, who gradually obtained the mastery, and are now 
the dominant people. 

The Bangash tribe appear from the time of their first 
settlement to have been divided into the Upper Bangashes 
of Miranzai or Hangu, and the lower Bangashes of Kohat. 
The rule of the Khans of Kohat and Hangu was of the most 
intermittent character. The boundaries of their holdings were 
perpetually varying, and they were always at war amongst 
themselves. Upper Miranzai appears to have been all along 
almost independent. Occasionally a powerful Chief, with the 
support of the King, became Governor of the whole country 
from the Indus to the Kuram. Ghulam Mahomed Khan of 



5o8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Hangu in the time of Nadar Shah is thus said to have ruled 
over Baizai, and as far as Matani in Peshawar ; and Zabardast 
Khan of Kohat during the reign of Timur Shah was ruler 
as far as Biland Khel when the Hangu family were tem- 
porarily expelled. 

Khan Sher Khan, the first Baizai Bangash of whom any- 
thing is known beyond his name, flourished in the time of 
Aurangzeb, during the last half of the seventeenth century. 
Haji Bahadar Shah, founder of a famous shrine in the town 
of Kohat, was his contemporary, and married his daughter. 
Khan Sher Khan re-divided the Baizai lands and fixed a 
tax of one rupee per bakhra or share ; and this assessment 
afterwards became the standard of right in land. He was 
killed in the Emperor's service in Hindustan. A number of 
Chiefs followed, whose usual fate was to suffer death at the 
hands of their successors. It would be profitless to trace the 
history of the clan step by step. Few of the family distin- 
g^uished themselves except by murders and acts which in the 
present day are deemed disgraceful ; and the mass of names 
given in Mr. Tucker's Report is confusing to any one not 
thoroughly acquainted with the internal affairs of the tribe. 

Larmast Khan accompanied Ahmad Shah Abdali to 
Hindustan, and received the title of Baz Jang Kuli Khan for 
good service. Zabardast, who flourished towards the end of 
the eighteenth century, was one of the most renowned of the 
Baizais, keeping the country between the Indus and Biland 
•Khel on the Kuram for some years in a state of comparative 
quiet. But there was no strong man to follow him, and the 
country lapsed into anarchy after his death. This lasted 
until 1810, when Mahomed Sultan, brother of Mahmud Shah 
of Kabul, was appointed Governor of Kohat, and the Baizais 
lost their semi-independent position. Sher Ali Khan, murder- 
er of his cousin Azizula, at one time Chief, now became the 
leading man of the family and generally held a large part of 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 509 

the country subordinate to the local governors. He married 
his daughter to Sardar Sultan Mahomed Khan, who had ob- 
tained the district in jagir in 1836. The alliance secured 
Sher AH Khan unusual consideration at the hands of the 
Sardar, who was then all-powerful. Sher AH Khan was 
succeeded in 1844 by his eldest son Fatah Khan, who was 
ousted two years later by Bahadar Sher Khan, probably 
through the sister's influence. 

At annexation Bahadar Sher Khan fell into trouble with 
his revenue and had to abscond ; but he was recalled by 
Captain Coke, Deputy Commissioner, and placed in charge 
of the Kohat Pass, then, as ever since, a thorn in the side of 
the local officials. In 1853 the village of Mir Ahmad Khel 
close to Kohat, which had always been held by the Khans 
of Lower Bangash, was bestowed in jagir on Bahadar Sher 
Khan and his brother Ata Mahomed Khan, in propor- 
tions of nine-tenths and one-tenth, respectively, at the 
estimated value of Rs. 1,000 per annum. The grant was 
made subject to the rendering of such services as the Deputy 
Commissioner might require. Bahadar Sher Khan was also 
confirmed as jagirdar in several garden plots in the Tapa, 
yielding annually about Rs. 400; and the British Government 
fully recognised him as Chief of the Lower Bangashes. He 
proved of much assistance to Coke in the early days. On 
the occasion of the Basi Khel disturbances in 1855, he was 
deputed to protect the mouth of the Kohat Pass, and co-operate 
with our troops at Aimal Chabutra and Fort Mackeson. This 
he did with some effect, checking the men of Akora in an 
attack on the Basi Khel, and forcing them to return for the 
protection of their own villages. For this service he received 
a reward of Rs. 300 from the Chief Commissioner of the 
Panjab. In 1857 Bahadar Sher Khan placed himself under 
the orders of Sir Herbert Edwardes at Peshawar, who 
wrote of his loyalty in the highest terms. He raised and 



510 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

commanded about two hundred men, many of them Afridis of 
the Kohat and Jawaki Passes, whom it was essential to 
keep quiet during the crisis. He guarded the Court House, 
the Treasury, and other important buildings, and held Fort 
Mackeson, Aimal Chabutra, and the line of road from Pesha- 
war to Kohat. Sir Herbert writes : — " Bahadar Sher Khan is 
the natural head of the Bangash clan, extending along two- 
thirds of the Kohat district, and the whole length of the Af- 
ghan Valley of Kuram. He is a man of great personal 
character ; daring, determined, ambitious and able ; full of 
observation of public affairs, and dexterous in the art of 
managing hill tribes. He is equal, in short, to being a stout 
friend or a stout foe ; and as for nine years he has been a 
faithful supporter of our Government in all the campaigns on 
the Peshawar and Kohat Border, and has now crowned his 
services with most devoted conduct throughout this great 
crisis, he deserves to be permanently assured of an honorable 
and comfortable position." 

On Edwardes' recommendation Bahadar Sher Khan's 
Mutiny services were rewarded with the title of Khan Bahadar. 
Hisjagir of Rs. 1,400 was brought up to Rs. 3,000 per annum 
and made hereditary ; and his allowance of Rs. 1,200 for hold- 
ing charge of the Kohat Pass was doubled. He also received 
a khilat of the value of Rs. 2,000. The addition of Rs. 1,600 
to his jagir was made by the grant of the village of Kharmatu, 
Kohat, then assessed at Rs. 1,950, subject to an annual cash 
payment of Rs. 350. In 1862 this latter sum was released for 
the life of Bahadar Sher Khan, to be treated as table-money 
for the entertainment of the Pass Afridi Jirgas visiting Kohat. 
The Khan was made a Magistrate in 1874 ; and he was granted 
the title of Nawab in 1877 in connection with his services 
during the Kohat Pass rupture of 1876-77, and the Jawaki 
Expedition of 1877-78. The Nawab again rendered service 
during the Afghan Campaign of 1879-80. He kept his 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT, 511 

border in an exemplary state of order; and in the midst of the 
war when our troops could have been ill-spared to enforce the 
demand, collected a fine of Rs. 5,000 from the Hasan Khel 
Afridis without the firing of a shot. Not a single offence 
was committed on the portion of the line of communications 
between Kohat and Thai held by the Road Police under his 
command. He was also forward in procuring transport for 
the columns advancing into Kuram and Kabul. His services 
were duly brought to notice by the Deputy Commissioner ; 
but the Nawab's untimely death prevented any recognition 
being made. He died in August, 1880, suddenly, of heart 
disease. 

The Nawab had many faults of character which, in spite 
of his desire to do well, damaged him in the eyes of the 
District Officers and made him unpopular with his tribe. He 
was self-seeking, avaricious and inhospitable, and usually 
succeeded by craft rather than by open honesty of purpose. 
Owing to a disagreement with the Deputy Commissioner he 
had resigned the charge of the Kohat Pass a few weeks be- 
fore his death. The duties are now undertaken by the 
Deputy Commissioner without any intermediary assistance 
from the members of the Nawab's family. 

As the Nawab took rent in kind from the villages both 
of Mir Ahmad Khel and Kharmatu, his actual jagir revenues 
were largely in excess of the official estimate. His income 
from jagirs, landed property and allowances at the time of 
his death, was put down at about Rs. 11,000, made up as 
follows : — 

Nominal Actual. 

value, value. 

Rs. Rs. 

Mir Ahmad Khel .. 900 913 

Hereditary lands . . . . -| Gardens . . 400 454 

Kharmatu .. 1,600 5, 000 



Life-allowances and jagir . . i l^'^ fowance 

'^ [ Sumptuary allowance, 



2,400 2,400 

350 1^728 



SI2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

To this may be added Rs. 2,400 from house property 
and other sources. One half was set apart for the main- 
tenance of his three widows, while the remainder was divided 
amongst the Nawab's nine sons. The family no longer en- 
joy the Pass and sumptuary allowances. 

Rustam Khan, the eldest son, was selected to succeed 
the Nawab in the perpetual jagir ; and in recognition of his 
father's services he was granted proprietary rights in the 
Crown lands of Kharmatu. Alienation and sub-division, both 
of the jagir and proprietary rights, have been expressly for- 
bidden under the terms of the grant. Government retains 
the power of selecting an heir ; and the conditions make it 
imperative on the holders to support and maintain their rela- 
tives and followers, and otherwise uphold the name and 
dignity of the family. 

The title of Nawab died with Rustam Khan's father. 
The present Chief has not, so far, given promise of securing 
a high place for himself and his tribe in the estimation of the 
District Officers. An attempt was made in 1883 to utilize 
his services by conferring magisterial powers upon him; but 
he is not given to work, and he appears incapable of per- 
forming any of the important duties which devolved upon his 
father. 

Only two of the late Nawab's sons are in the public 
service. Sher Dil Khan is a Tahsildar in the Peshawar 
district, and Usman Khan holds the post of Deputy Inspec- 
tor of the Kohat Border Militia. 

Ata Mahomed Khan, brother of the Nawab, was for 
eiccht years a Naib-Tahsildar. His services were trans- 
ferred to the Border Militia in 1878, and he retired four 
years later on a pension of Rs. 720 per annum. The quiet 
state of the Baizai Samilzai border during the late Afghan 
War is said to have been mainly due to the personal exer- 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 5^3 

tions and hard work of Ata Khan, who had charge of the 
various Police Posts along this line. He and his nephew 
Usman are reported to have personally done the hardest 
work of all the Khans in the district. " Few Englishmen," 
wrote the late Colonel Plowden, " could have worked more 
zealously than they have done. The efficiency of the Baizai 
Border and Road Police are almost entirely due to the per- 
sonal supervision of the Khanzadas." For these services 
Ata Mahomed Khan was granted a cash jagir of Rs. 1,200 
per annum for life in addition to his former jagir of Rs. 100 
per annum in the village of Mir Ahmad Khel. He died of 
pneumonia in March, 1888. The question of continuance 
or resumption of his holdings is under consideration. 

Ata Mahomed left nine sons. Taj Mahomed Khan, 
the eldest, is an accepted candidate for an Extra Assistant 
Commissionership, and is employed as a Deputy Inspector 
of Police. He is married to a daughter of his cousin Rustam 
Khan. 



SI4 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



MUZAFAR KHAN, TAHSILDAR, OF HANGU. 



Alayar Khan. 

I 

Wali Mahomed Khan, d. 1793. 



I 

Mahomed Azam 

Khan, 

d. 1823, 

" I 



Khan Bahadar 
Khan, 
d. 1829. 



Nakshband, 
d. 1823. 



Ghulam 

Muhaiudin 

Khan. 



Ghulam 
Rasul 
Khan. 



Ghulam 
Haidar 
Khan, 



Muzafar 
Khan. 



I 
Alayar 
Khan, 
5. 1845- 



I 

Mir Alam 

Khan, 

b. 1847. 



I 

Mahomed 

Akram 

Khan, 

b. 1852. 



I 

Mahomed 

Abas 

Khan, 

b. 1865. 



I 

Abdul 

Ghafar 

Khan, 

b. 1867. 



Mahomed 

Ali 

Khan, 

b. 1876. 



I 

Ghulam 
Mahomed 

Khan, 
b. 1855. 



Ghulam 

Muhaiudin, 

b. i8Ei8. 



Bahadar 

Sher 

Khan, 

b. 1877. 



I 

Mahomed 
Zakria 
Khan, 

b. 1887. 



1 

Sultan 

Khan, 

b. 1871. 



I 
VVali Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1877. 



I 1 

Abdul Sher 

Rahman Ali 
Khan, Khan, 

d, 1883. b. 1873 . 



Fatah 

Khan, 

b, 1876. 



I I 

Abdul Mahomed 

Aziz Umar 

Khan, Khan, 

: 1885. b. 1887. 



Baz Gul Khan, 
b. 1840. 



Sarwar 

Khan, 

b. 1851. 

I 



Fakir Mahomed, 
b. 1865. 



I I 

Nasar Khan, Abdul Rahim 
b. 1S68. Khan, 

b. iSSi. 



Mahomed 

Zafar Khan. 

b. 1869. 



I 

Mahomed 

Alam Khan, 

b. 1875. 



I 

Mahomed 

Ayub Khan, 

b. 1877. 



1^ I I 

Ghulam Ahmad Mahomed Ghulam Hasain 

Khan, Azim Khan, Khan, 

b. 1870. b. 1875. ^' 1S76. 



I I 

Mahomed Mahomed 

Ibiahim Khan, Unis Khan, 

b. i88i . 6. 1886. 



Abdul Majid Khan, 
h. 1887. 



Khushal 
Khan, 
d, 1888. 



Mahomed 

Sharif Khan, 

b. 1867. 



I I 

Nakshband Mahomed 

Khan, Amir Khan, 

b. 1885. b. i288. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 515 

The Emperor Babar in his Memoirs relates that in the 
year 1505 he was induced to visit Kohat under the false hope 
of obtaining a rich booty. He reached the town from the 
Peshawar side through the Kohat Pass, and after plundering 
it sent foraging parties as far as the Indus. Bullocks, 
buffaloes and grain were all he obtained. Then he marched 
up the Valley towards " Bangash." On reaching a narrow 
gorge, the tribes crowded the heights, raised the war-shout 
and made a loud clamour. At last they foolishly occupied a 
detached hill in the open. Now was Babar's opportunity. 
He sent a force to cut them off. About a hundred and fifty 
were killed and many prisoners taken. These put grass in 
their mouths in token of submission, as much as to say : — " I 
am your ox ; " a custom which Babar first noticed here. Not- 
withstanding, he had them beheaded at once, and a minaret 
of their heads was erected at the camping place. The next 
day he reached Hangu. Here again he met with resistance. 
The Afghans held a fortified post which was stormed by 
Babar's soldiers, who cut off the heads of some hundreds of 
them for another minaret. Babar gives us no further 
account of either Kohat or Hangu. In two marches from 
Hangu he reached Thai, and thence marched for Bannu 
through the Waziri Hills along the Kuram. 

The early history of the Bangash tribe has been al- 
ready given. The Khan of Hangu is in possession of several 
Sanads given to his ancestors ; one dating as far back as 
1632, from the Emperor Shah Jahan, granting in lease the 
lands of Kachai and Marai. Another in 1700 from Aurangzeb 
confers the lease of both Upper and Lower Miranzai on a 
net revenue of Rs. 12,000. The Khans belong to the Mar- 
du Khel section of the Umarzai Bangashes of Miranzai who 
occupy the whole of the Hangu Tahsil. The Chiefship has 
remained in the same family for the last three centuries, the 



Si6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

succession going from father to son with greater regularity 
than is usual on this frontier. Wali Mahomed Khan died in 
1793, and was succeeded by Mahomed Azam Khan, father 
of the present Chief. When Nawab Samand Khan gained 
possession of Kohat, he continued Mahomed Azam as a Kardar 
under him ; but after some years they fell out. Mahomed 
Azam had carried off grain from Babarmela, which was 
claimed as a portion of his revenue by the Nawab, who 
marched against him to Hangu and demanded compensation. 
By the advice of Shahbaz Khan, Shinu Khel the Chief sur- 
rendered on a promise of good treatment. But the promise 
was speedily broken ; and he and two of his sons were taken 
to Kohat and put to death. This was in 1823. During the 
period of twenty-five years between the death of Mahomed 
Azam and British annexation, the Miranzai Valley was gen- 
erally more or less in a state of anarchy. The revenue was 
collected through a succession of contractors, who were con- 
stantly being removed. There was mnch rivalry also be- 
tween the family of the old Chief and that of Naib Darwaza, a 
Lambardarof Togh Miranzai, whose descendants still live there 
as zamindars. The Hangu Khans when out of possession 
used to live in Tira, and bring down the Orakzais to raid on 
the Miranzai villages ; and the town of Hangu itself was 
alternately besieged by the hostile factions. When the Ba- 
rakzais fled from Kohat after the battle of Gujrat, Ghulam 
Haidar Khan, the eldest surviving son of Mahomed Azam 
Khan, was put in by Lieutenant Pollock as lessee of Lower 
Miranzai. In 1851 he was deprived of the farm, but con- 
tinued as Tahsildar on a fixed salary. 

In 1855 complications in the Miranzai Valley arose out 
of the murder of Ghulam Haidar, who was Khan of Hangu 
as well as Tahsildar. The appointment was bestowed upon 
a stranger by Captain Coke, Deputy Commissioner, and this 



THE KOHA T DIS TRICT. 5 1 7 

was resented by the relatives of the murdered Khan who 
regarded the office as hereditary. They had no difficulty in 
stirring up the Samil sections of the neighbouring Orakzais, 
with whom in the old days they had habitually taken refuge 
when hard pressed by the Governors of Kohat ; and the 
whole of the Miranzai border was soon in a state of ferment. 
A force under Colonel Neville Chamberlain was accord- 
ingly despatched to Hangu ; and they attacked the Rabia 
Khel strongholds in the Samana Mountains, while a 
party of Khwaja Mahomed Khan's Khataks destroyed the 
villages in the Khankai Valley behind. After this the 
Orakzais submitted. The Commissioner, Colonel Edvvardes, 
insisted on Muzafar Khan being appointed Tahsildar of 
Hangu in the place of his brother, and the title of Khan 
was conferred upon Alayar Khan, minor son of the murdered 
Chief. Alayar Khan, however, has always remained in 
the background, and his uncle Muzafar Khan is practically 
Khan of Miranzai. A pension of Rs. 400, formerly enjoyed 
by his father, was continued to Alayar Khan and made 
perpetual ; and some mafi lands, now assessed at Rs. 366, were 
granted on similar conditions. Alayar Khan is a Superinten- 
dent of the Kohat Salt Mines, drawing a salary of Rs. 150 
a month. Muzafar Khan, for services during the Mutiny, 
received a jagir of Rs, 500, which has since considerably 
increased in value, being assessed in the recent settlement at 
Rs. 1,564. It is hereditary, Government having the right to 
select an heir. In 1881 Muzafar Khan was granted a further 
assignment of Rs. 1,200, and a sumptuary allowance of 
Rs. 1,200 for life. He also enjoys the lease of the Govern- 
ment lands in Hangu and some adjoining villages. In the 
greater portion of this estate he takes rent in kind ; but in 
some of the smaller villages he collects cash nialikana. The 
lease is very valuable, probably worth Rs. 3,000 a year, and 



5i8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

is held during the pleasure of Government. The Khan's 
income may be roughly estimated as follows : — 

Rs. 

Hereditary jagir .. .. .. 1,564 

Profits in kind from hereditary jagir . . 1,500 

Cash assignment for Hfe . . . . 1,200 

Sumptuary allowance for life .. .. 1,200 

Profits from lease of Crown lands. . . . 3,000 

Salary as Tahsildar . . . . . . 3,300 

Muzafar Khan was naturally on our side when General 
Chamberlain avenged the death of his brother Ghulam Hai- 
dar in 1855. During the Mutiny he used his influence to 
maintain order ; and when called upon to proceed to Peshawar 
he obeyed the summons without hesitation and placed a con- 
siderable body of horse and foot at the disposal of the Deputy 
Commissioner. He took part in both Kabul Khel Waziri 
Expeditions of 1859 and 1869, receiving on each occasion the 
thanks of Government for his exertions in effecting a settle- 
ment with the insurgents. Again, in the late Afghan War, 
he managed the tribes in his neighbourhood with success, and 
was instrumental in supplying large gangs of labourers for 
works on the roads and on the various Military Posts along 
the border. He kept the Samil faction of the Orakzais in 
hand during General Tytler's operations against the Zamushts 
in 188 1. But of late years his conduct has not given satisfac- 
tion to the local authorities. 

Muzafar Khan's second son, Sarwar Khan, accompanied 
General Roberts to the Paiwar Kotal in the first phase of the 
late Kabul War, and afterwards worked in the Kuram Valley 
as a Political Assistant. Baz Gul Khan, eldest son of Muzafar 
Khan, was for a short period a Deputy Inspector of Police. 
He has recently incurred the displeasure of Government. 
Another son, Fakir Mahomed, has recently received a com- 
mission as Jamadar in the 2nd Panjab Cavalry. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 519 

Of Alayar Khan's four brothers, Mahomed Akram Khan 
is a Resaidar in the 9th Bengal Lancers ; Ghulam Muhai- 
udin is Superintendent of the Khwara and Zira Rakhs in the 
district ; and Ghulam Mahomed Khan is a Jamadar of Local 
Levies. Mir Alam Khan was in charge of a section of the 
Thai Road Police during the late Afghan War. 



520 



CHIEFS ASD FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



KHAN BAHADAR MAHOMED USMAN KHAN, OF 
HANGU. 



Alayar Kuan, 
d. 1773- 



Aladad Khan. 

I 
Amanula Khan. 

I 

Shahwali Khan. 

I 

Mahomed Amin Khan, 

d. 1880. 

I 



Wali Mahomed. 
Khan, 
d. 1793. 



Mahomed Usman Khan, IMahomed Said, 
d. 1840. I?. 1842. 



Mahomed Akbar 
Khan. 
I 



I .1 I I I 

Ishak Khan, Hasain Khan, Mahomed Wazir Mahom- Amanula 

/'. 1871. /;. 1878. Anwar ed Khan, Khan, 

Khan, /;. 1872. l>. 1882. b. 1887. 



Mahomed 


1 

Taj Mahom 


1 

Yakuh 


1 
Ataula 


1 
Aziz Khan, 


1 
Sahm Khan, 


Sadik 


ed Khan, 


Khan, 


Khan, 


b. 1878. 


b. 1884. 


Khan, 


b. 1865. 


b. .867. 


b. 1870. 






b. 1862. 


1 














Shah Wali 














Khan, 














b, 1884. 










ahar Khan, 




1 
Ghafar Khan, 




l>. 1884. 






/- 1887. 









Mahomed Amin Khan, Khan Bahadar, belonged to the 
same family as Muzafar Khan of Hangu, and was an efficient 
and loyal representative of the Khan Khels in the Miranzai 
Valley. For thirty years he was prominently connected with 
the political management of the tribes on the Upper Miranzai 
border, and took part in every military expedition, earning the 
highest commendations from such eminent men as Edwardes, 
James, Henderson and Neville Chamberlain. He did good 
service during the Mutiny of 1857, and was granted a jagir 
of Rs. 100 per annum for life. He drew pay as Thanadar of 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 521 

Gandior, but was usually employed upon Important duties 
outside the official limits of his jurisdiction. He received a 
small retiring allowance in 1874. 

Mahomed Amin Khan accompanied the British troops 
to Kuram in 1878-79, and was present at the Paiwar Kotal 
and in Khost, rendering assistance in the negotiations with the 
Kabul Khel Waziris, Turis and other tribes. In the second 
stage of the war he accompanied Sir Frederick Roberts to 
Kabul, and was present at Char Asiab. He was afterwards 
deputed as Political Officer under General Gough when a 
force was detached to relieve the Shutar Gardan Post. In 
December 1879, he was summoned by the Deputy Commis- 
sioner of Kohat to accompany him to the Zamusht country. 
His sound counsel, great personal influence and staunch loyalty 
are reported to have materially contributed to the success 
which attended the negotiations with the tribes. The satis- 
factory settlement which was effected with the Alisherzais and 
Mamuzais, at a time when the British force was actually under 
orders to retire from the country, was also due in a great 
measure to his influence and exertions. For these services 
he received the title of Khan Bahadar and a khilat of 
Rs. 1,000. 

Mahomed Amin Khan died at Lahore in 1880 while at- 
tending the Viceregal Darbar held on the conclusion of the 
first phase of the late Afghan War. The title of Khan Baha- 
dar was conferred upon his eldest son Mahomed Usman Khan 
in recognition of his father's and his own meritorious services. 

The three sons of Mahomed Amin Khan have for years 
past been actively employed in connection with the manage- 
ment of the Border. Mahomed Usman Khan succeeded his 
father in 1874, in political charge of the Upper Miranzai 
Border. During the late Afghan War he rendered assistance 
in connection with the management of the Waziri, Zamusht 



322 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

and Orakzai tribes ; and in the Expedition of 1879 he was 
associated with his father in the negotiations which led to the 
satisfactory settlement with the Alisherzai Orakzais. 

The second son, Mahomed Said Khan, served in the 
Police for twelve years in the Bannu and Kohat districts as 
Deputy Inspector ; and was employed under the Political 
Officer at Thai during the Afghan War. He is a man of 
marked courage, intelligence and coolness, and was favourably 
reported upon by the Officer Commanding the i8th Bengal 
Cavalry when in April, 1880, a party of the regiment hunted 
up and successfully attacked a large band of Waziri raiders at 
Mardani, He also did useful service in the raid on the 
Zamusht village of Dand by the i8th Bengal Cavalry, 
receiving the acknowledgments of Government in a compli- 
mentary parwana. 

Akbar Khan, the youngest brother, was employed as 
Tahsildar of Kuram for the two years of British occupation, 
and was much liked by the officers under whom he served. 
He is not now in Government service. Having regard to 
the very exceptional character of the services rendered by 
Mahomed Amin Khan and Usman Khan, and the unswerv- 
ing loyalty which the family have on all occasions displayed, 
the Government of India was pleased to sanction the grant of 
a jagir of the value of Rs. 2,400 per annum to Khan Usman 
Khan, subject to the deduction of a maintenance allowance of 
Rs. 800 for his two brothers. The question of a continuance 
of the jagir after Usman Khan's death was left unsettled ; 
but it was ruled that in the event of his heirs not being 
allowed to succeed, the cash allowances of his brothers would 
be continued to them direct for life. 

Usman Khan's eldest son Mahomed Sadik Khan is a 
Deputy Inspector in the Kohat Border Militia. Another 
son, Taj Mahomed Khan, is a Dafadar in the 5th Panjab 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 523 

Cavalry. Mahomed Usman Khan is a Viceregal Darbari. 
His younger brothers, Mahomed Said Khan and Akbar Khan, 
have seats in Provincial Darbars. 

Besides the jagir-holding In five villages, Usman Khan 
owns nearly two thousand acres in twelve villages, and 
seventy-seven acres of mafi in three villages, all in the Hangu 
Tahsil. 



524 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



Abdul Ghafar, 
b. 1882. 



SHER MAHOMED KHAN, KIANL 



Malik Rustam Khan. 

I 



Malik Nasir 
Khan. 



Malik Mahomed 
Khan. 



Sakandar 
Khan. 



Asfandyar 
Khan. 

i I 

Ghulam Fatah Ali. 
Haidar Khan, | 

d. 1887. Mahomed 
I Hadi Jan. 



Mahomed 
Ali Khan, 



Ata Khaci. 



I 

Sher Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1836. 

I 



~^ Malik Jan Khan, 
b. 1843. 



I I 

Abdula Abdul 

Khan, Ahmad, 

b. 1859. b. 1882. 



Mir Mahomed 

Mahomed, Eusaf, 
b. 1884. b. 1887. 



Sher 

Ali. 

b. 1888. 



I 
Ghulam 
Ahmad, 
b. 1883. 



Abdul Miran, 
b. 1887. 



Ahdul Wahab, 
b. 1888. 



I 

Ghulam Hasain, 

/'. 1869. 

I 

Musa Khan, 

b. 1886. 



I 

Ghulam Hasan, 

b. 1870. 

I 

Ghulam Ali, 

b. 1887. 



Sher Mahomed Khan's grandfather, Sakandar, came 
from Sistan to Peshawar in the reign of Timur Shah Durani, 
and was killed in 1828 at Zaida, fighting on the side of 
Sardar Yar Mahomed. Ghulam Haidar Khan was then a 
lad of sixteen. He attached himself to Sardar Sultan 
Mahomed Khan of Kohat, receiving a small grant of land in 
lieu of his services as Jamadar of a body of horse. He 
accompanied his master to Kabul after the Second Sikh War, 
but returned when the country was quiet, and in 1854 accept- 
ed the lease of a waste tract lying beyond the Toi stream, 
south of Kohat, in which are now situated the villages of 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 5^5 

Shahpur and Baman. He took up his abode in Shabpur, 
and in 1871 was awarded a mafi of one hundred bigas in lieu 
of a larger plot he had been holding without sanction in 
Zaramela. By his energy, influence and good example, Ghu- 
1am Haidar Khan induced many of the tribesmen to settle in 
the waste lands around his holdings, thus securing the tract 
against thieves and lawless characters. He constructed water- 
cuts, and otherwise reclaimed and improved the Crown lands 
leased to him. 

Ghulam Haidar had no opportunity of actively display- 
ing his loyalty during the Mutiny ; but his cousin Fatah Ali 
took service in the troop of horse raised by Coke, and was 
promoted to Rasaldar in recognition of his gallant conduct 
before Dehli, and again in Rohilkand. Ghulam Haidar 
always stood well with the District Officers, whom he assisted 
to the best of his ability. His sons Sher Mahomed Khan and 
Malik Jan took part in the Jawaki Expedition, and accom- 
panied Sir Frederick Roberts on his march up the Kuram 
Valley to the Paiwar Kotal. Sher Mahomed was sent with 
Sir Louis Cavagnari to Kabul, and escaped the general 
massacre by the accident of temporary absence at Ali Khel. 
He and his brothers were afterwards detailed to assist in lay- 
ing out the new cantonments of Shalozan in the Kuram 
Valley. Sher Mahomed Khan was made an Honorary 
Magistrate of the Baizai Tapa in 1883. 

In 188 r, in consideration of the services of the family 
during the Afghan War, Ghulam Haidar's mafi grant was 
increased to two hundred and fifty bigas, and he received a 
present of Rs. 3,000 in cash. He died in 1887. The leases 
of the Crown villages of Shahpur and Chambai, which were 
held in life-tenure by the deceased, have been continued to his 
sons. The brothers are owners of about one thousand acres 
in five villages of the Kohat Tahsil, and they are lessees of 



526 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

about ten thousand acres of State land in Chambai and Shah- 
pur of the same Tahsil. Sher Mahomed also accompanied 
Mr. Udny to Kuram in the recent commission to settle affairs 
between the Amir's subjects and the Turis, and did good 
service, for which he obtained a khilat of Rs. 400. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 



527 



SAYAD AHMAD SHAH, BANURI. 



Say AD Adam. 

I 



Ghulam Mahcmed. 

I ^ 
Mahcmed Kutab. 

I 
Mahomed Said. 

I 
Mi.in Niir. 



Three other sons. 



Mian Kam Bakhsh. 

I 
Mahomed Shah. 

i 

Mian Saidan Shah. 
I 



I I 

Sayad Abdula- Mian Didar Bakhsh. 



I 

Hasain AH 

Shnh, 

d. 1852. 



Ill I 

Mir Mubarak Sayad Sayad Ali Lataf Shah, Muhaiudin 

Shah, Badshah, Shah, i>. 1848. Sliah, 

d. 1857. li. 1S85. i. 1S38. d. 1850. 

I I 

Sayad Ahmad Sakandar 

Shah, Shah, 

d. 1854. ^. 1S62. 

Sayad Adam, the ancestor, is said to have come from 
Arabia in the time of Shah Jahan, who granted him the village 
of Banur, now in Patiala. He accompanied Aurangzeb to 
Eusafzai, and succeeded in inducing the semi-savage tribes of 
Swat and Buner to come down and tender their submission. 
The Emperor is said to have fixed a tribute of Rs. 6,000 
upon the Swatis, who engaged to pay the same to 
Sayad Adam and his descendants. The Banuri Sayads still 
receive an uncertain dole from the Swat villages ; but the 
offerings are voluntary, and are not based upon any 
order Aurangzeb may ever have issued. From Sayad 
Adam's son Khwaja Ghulam Mahomed is descended the pre- 
sent Sayad Ahmad Shah, Banuri, a Viceregal Darbari. He 
is a Deputy Inspector of Police in the Peshawar district. 
He holds the perpetual jagir of Bahawalgarh in the Kohat 
Tahsil, yielding Rs. 200 per annum, and he enjoys a heredi- 
tary life-pension of Rs. 426, His father Mir Mubarak 



528 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Shah was a staunch supporter of Captain Coke in the 
early days of annexation. He had great influence with the 
Jawakis and the eastern Afridis, whom he was often able to 
restrain from committing raids upon British Territory. He 
also helped to re-establish many villages along the base of the 
hills towards Khushalgarh, which had been depopulated in the 
old days when there was no settled government. He was 
nominally a Thanadar, and drew the pay of the appointment 
until 1855, when he was sent to Hangu as Tahsildar in the 
room of the Khan Ghulam Haidar Khan who had been mur- 
dered. In the following year he was deputed by the Chief 
Commissioner to visit Kabul on some special service. Dur- 
ing the Mutiny he was employed in Hindustan with Coke's 
Rifles, and was killed in battle near Aligarh after having 
served consistently and loyally for nine years. He was con- 
nected by marriage with the Baizai Bangashes, having married 
a sister of the late Nawab Bahadar Sher Khan. 

Sayad Badshah, half-brother of Mubarak Shah, was not 
less favourably known on this Frontier. He also v/as nomi- 
nally a Thanadar ; but he was practically the Deputy Com- 
missioner's right-hand man in all matters connected with the 
Police of the district, as well as in the conduct of political 
cases of difficulty. His status as head of the Banuri Sayads, 
a family much venerated by the border Pathans, gave him an 
immense advantage in dealing with the Afridis, and his ser- 
vices were usually requisitioned whenever a complication arose. 
During the Jawaki Expedition, however, he was suspected of 
having intrigued with the section opposed to Nawab Bahadar 
Sher Khan, whom he wished to discredit, and he was removed 
in consequence to the Peshawar district. In the Afghan 
War he was appointed an Assistant Political Officer at Jalal- 
abad, and in this capacity he rendered valuable service in pro- 
curing supplies for troops, in obtaining information, in induc- 
ing men of influence to cast in their lot with the British 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT, 529 

Government, and in advising the Political Officer and the 
Governor of Jalalabad in various matters. Sir Lepel Griffin 
brought these services to notice as especially deserving of 
acknowledgment. He was given the title of Khan Bahadar. 

Sayad Badshah resigned in 1881 after a faithful service 
of twenty-eight years, and became an Honorary Magis- 
trate at Kohat. In 1884 he was appointed commandant of 
the Khaibar Rifles, on a salary of Rs. 6,000 per annum ; but 
he did not hold the appointment long. He died of heart dis- 
ease in September, 1885. He had succeeded his brother 
Mubarak Shah in the cultivating possession of a large tract 
of about eight thousand acres, now forming the village of 
Jarma, Tahsil Kohat. This plot, which had been irregularly 
given to Mubarak Shah by Captain Coke, was in reality 
Crown land, and was so declared at settlement and assessed 
at Rs. 2,000; possession being left with the Banuri Sayads. 
In recognition of Sayad Badshah's distinguished services, 
one-fourth of the Jarma area has been made over in proprie- 
tary tenure to his son Sakandar Shah. He is a young man 
of some promise, but has so far had no opportunity of 
rendering service. His name is on the list of Provincial 
Darbaris. 



530 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

BILAND KHAN, KHATAK, OF KHUSHALGARH. 



Sadat Khan 

alias Sarfaraz Khan. 

i 

Ajab Khan. 

I 



Ilasain Khan. Muitza Khan, Karini Khan. 

I J. 1871. 



BiLAND Khan, 
b. 1835. 

I 



I . I 

Sadula Khan, Shad Mahomed Muhabat Khan, 

b. 1870. Khan, b. 1882. 

/;. 1874. 

Biland Khan, Khatak, is a great-grandson of Sadat Khan, 
ancestor of the present Akora Khatak Chiefs. Before annexa- 
tion his uncle Murtza Khan held the villages of Khushalgarh 
and Khwaza Khel, Kohat Tahsil, in jagir. They were a 
portion of the large jagir held by Afzal Khan of Jamal Garhi, 
Peshawar, Chief of the Akora Khataks ; and previous to 1854 
Murtza Khan had been obliged to struggle for his rights 
which Afzal Khan wished to over-ride. Murtza Khan died 
in 1871 ; but the succession to the jagir had been previously 
confirmed to Biland Khan. He resides at Amir in the Khwa- 
za Ilaka, Tahsil Kohat. He holds for life only, but the jagir 
will probably be continued in the family. He receives a per- 
centage of one-fifteenth on the income from the Khwaza jun- 
gles, of which his uncle Karim Khan was for many years 
Superintendent. The jagir is assessed at Rs. 290. 

In 1885, Biland Khan was granted an i^iavi of Rs. 50 per 
annum in compensation for an equivalent lower assessment 
of his jagir village of Khwaza Khel. He is a man of consider- 
able local influence, and is in a position to assist in matters 
connected with Jawaki and Hasan Khel Afridis. He works 
with zeal in the interests of Government. He is a Provincial 
Darbari. 



THE KOHAT DISTRICT. 



531 



SAYAD MAKHDUM SHAH, JILANI. 







Sayad Arab Shah. 

1 
Sayad Sufi Ali Shah. 

1 






Shah Mahomed 
Ghaus. 

1 

Chan Eadshah. 

1 

Jafar Shah. 




1 . 

Sayad Amir Shah. 

1 




Sayad Karim 
Haidar 
Shah. 


Sayad Kasam 
Shah. 

1 




1 




1 

Gul 
Eadshah. 


Sa) 


1 
-'ad Ghulam, Haji 
b. 1848. b. 


1 1 
Shah, Azizudir 
1853. b. 1S60. 


1 1 

1, Lai Saidan Gul, 

Eadshah. d. 18S7. 


1 
;hdum Shah, 
b. 1858. 


1 
Shah Zaman, 
b. 1863. 





Makhdum Shah is a Jilani Sayad of the Suni persuasion. 
His ancestor Sayad Arab Shah is said to have first come to 
the Panjab about 1770, in the time of Ahmad Shah, who gave 
him some revenue-free grants. 

One of his grandsons, Mahomed Ghaus, settled in Mak- 
had, on the Indus, in the Rawal Pindi district, where the family 
is still influential. The other, Sayad Amir Shah, remained at 
Kohat, and was granted the Chach (Rawal Pindi) villages of 
Haji Shah, Mansara and Jamga, by King Shah Shujah ; 
while the Amir Dost Mahomed Khan gave him Mansur Khel 
in the Bangash Ilaka of Kohat, and the Khatak Chief later 
on added another village to the Sayad's possessions. One of 
his sons, Karim Haidar Shah, was killed in a quarrel with 
some Sikh soldiers in his own mosque situated near the Kohat 
springs. Kasam Shah, the second son, revenged his death 
by putting himself at the head of an excited mob and attacking 
the Sikh camp ; but without doing much serious harm. At 
annexation the Sayads were found in possession of several 
small mafi plots scattered through the different Tapas. These 



532 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



were confirmed to them revenue-free and are still in the family. 
They are assessed at Rs. 172 ; and the sons of Sayad Kasam 
Shah are also in the enjoyment of Rs. 400 per annum in the 
shape of cash grants. Of his six sons, the most noteworthy 
was Sayad Gul Badshah, who had considerable influence with 
the Orakzais, and always used it in furthering the wishes of 
the local officials. Sayad Makhdum Shah is his eldest son. 
He receives an allowance of Rs. 100 per annum besides his 
share of the family jagirs. These grants include a villag-e 
in the Mishti country, and another, Resi, given them by the 
Khatak Nawabs. 

Sayad Makhdum Shah is a Provincial Darbari. 



THE KOHA T DIS TRICT. 533 



KHANZADA FATAH MAHOMED KHAN, KHATAK, 
OF NILAB. 



Sadat Khan alias Sarfaraz Khan 
(^ancestor of the Akora Khataks). 


- Narula Khan. 
. 1 
Mir Hamza. 

Tafar Khan, 
d. 1883. 






1 
Asaf Khan. 

1 
Najaf Khan. 

1 
Afzal Khan, 
jagirdar of Khwara. 






1 




Fatah Mahomed 

Khan of Nilab, 

b. 1849. 






1 
Twelve other 

sons. 



Jafar Khan, father of the present jagirdar, was a scion of 
the senior branch of the family of the Akora Khatak Chiefs. 
In the scramble that followed the Sikh conquest of Peshawar 
he obtained the Nilab Tapa in jagir. During the Second 
Sikh War he sided with the Sikhs ; but he was confirmed at 
annexation in possession of his jagir, which was valued at 
Rs. 2,178, and consisted of ten villages. Three of these, lying 
east of the Indus, were afterwards transferred to the Rawal 
Pindi district. The jagir was increased to Rs. 3,000 in 1852 
by a cash grant of Rs. 822 to Jafar Khan ; to be re-considered 
after his death with a view to the grant being made perpetual 
during the good behaviour of his successors. In the same 
year the three villages transferred to Rawal Pindi were 
excluded from the jagir, a cash grant of Rs. 400 being substi- 
tuted, also in perpetuity. Jafar Khan sent some levies to 
Naushera and Peshawar during the Mutiny, and on return 
was granted an additional pension of Rs. 822. 

Up to 1878 Jafar Khan collected his jagir income in kind, 
and he levied heavy miscellaneous cesses in addition. These 



534 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



latter were stopped at settlement, when cash rates were intro- 
duced and the cesses declared illegal. Compensation was 
afterwards awarded the owner in the form of a payment of 
Rs. 15,400. The annual loss suffered by Jafar Khan was 
estimated by the Deputy Commissioner at Rs. 2,800. 

Jafar Khan took little part in public affairs. For many 
years before his death in 1883, his second son, Fatah Mahom- 
ed, occupied his place as representative of the family. He 
was, with the consent of his twelve brothers, selected by 
Government as his father's successor to the jagir and hereditary 
pension. He has also succeeded his father as a Viceregal 
Darbari. 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 



535 





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536 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

In the reign of Ahmad Shah of Kabul (1747 to 1773), 
the Chief of the Isa Khel was Dalel Khan, and he received 
a Sanad declaring that the four Tapas of Isa Khel were for 
the future his, as a reward for past services ; and Rs. 6,000 
were to be paid him yearly as a charge upon Marwat 
and Bannu, on condition of assisting in collecting the reve- 
nue of those districts. From this fact we gather incidentally 
that Marwat and Bannu never paid revenue to the most 
powerful king that ever sat upon the throne of Kabul ; and 
that Ahmad Shah was obliged to give the Khan one-half 
the revenue as an inducement to collect and bring in the 
remainder. When Dalel Khan died, Ahmad Shah con- 
firmed his son Khan Zaman in the above privileges. Khan 
Zaman took military service under the Shah, and was pre- 
sent in the fight against the Mahrattas at Panipat in 1761, re- 
ceiving a present of a dagger from Ahmad Shah, which is 
still in possession of the family. These revenue assignments 
were further increased by a fresh jagir grant of Rs. 4,000 
in Timur Shah's reign, subject to the furnishing of 
twelve horsemen as an escort to the Shah. Later on, when 
the Nawab of Dera had charge of the Province, Khan 
Zaman's son Umar Khan was allowed to retain the Chief- 
tainship ; but his allowances were cut down to one-quarter 
the revenue collections of the Ilakas. 

He acted as a Kardar or Agent of the Nawab in the 
southern villages of Isa Khel, and increased the revenues by 
excavating the canal now known by his name, and bringing 
new tracts into cultivation. These newly-broken lands were 
lightly assessed by the Nawab at one-sixth the produce. 
Umar Khan was also allowed to enjoy one-half the income 
of the Kotri alum-pans in the Isa Khel Ilaka. He was suc- 
ceeded in 1825 by his son Ahmad Khan, who continued to 
improve the estate, until adverse fortune set in on the con- 
quest of Isa Khel by the Sikhs. A Sanad was given him in 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. ^ 

1836 confirming his possession, but requiring payment of 
seven-eighths of the collections, thus leaving little for the 
maintenance of the Chief and his family. Ahmad Khan de- 
murred in subscribing to the terms ; and he was reported 
to the Lahore Government as a dangerous rebel by Diwan 
Lakhi Mai, who then had charge of the Derajat Province. 
A force was sent to eject him, under command of Sardar 
Fatah Singh Ran and Raja Suchet Singh. Resistance would 
have been fruitless. He fled to Kot Chanda in the Khatak 
Hills, and thence to Bannu, where he was hospitably received 
by Sher Mast Khan, Chief of the Jhandu Khel. He died 
shortly afterwards in exile. Fortunately for the family, Prince 
Nao Nahal Singh had received kindness at the hands of 
Ahmad Khan, and refused to support Lakhi Mai's policy of 
crushing the clan out and out. He insisted on appointing 
Mahomed Khan, brother of the deceased Ahmad Khan, to the 
full rights and privileges of the Chieftainship. But the Diwan 
had his revenge later on. He persuaded Shekh Imamudin, 
who was marching through Bannu and Marwat at the head 
of a- strong Sikh force, to make a descent upon Isa Khel, and 
carry Mahomed Khan away. The measure was not a com- 
plete success. Some of Mahomed Khan's children were taken 
prisoners ; but he himself received timely notice and fled to 
the hills, while his son Shah Nawaz rode off to Peshawar, 
and throwing himself at Nao Nahal's feet, secured the kindly 
intervention of that Prince a second time in his father's behalf. 
The Khan was duly reinstated, and his family were allowed 
to return to Isa Khel. 

It appears strange that the Diwan, who was subordinate 
to Nao Nahal Singh, should have had the hardihood to risk 
his wrath in so often running counter to his express wishes. 
Yet Edwardes records a third attempt on the part of Lakhi 
Mai to ruin the unfortunate Khan, this time with better suc- 
cess. He arranged with Sardar Fatah Singh to seize Shah 



538 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Nawaz, who had been sent to Lahore by his father to offer 
condolences on the occasion of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's death, 
and his arrest was actually effected as the unsuspecting youth 
was on his way back to his own country, clad in a dress of 
honor which had been bestowed on him by Prince Nao 
Nahal, Heir-Apparent to the throne. The Sardar sent him 
prisoner to the Diwan, who kept him in close confinement for 
over two years, at the same time confiscating the whole of the 
revenues of the Chief of Isa Khel. Mahomed Khan again fled 
to Bannu, and Lakhi Mai " managed " the property, taking the 
Chief's eighth share for himself, and all he could get besides. 

Mahomed Khan had in the meantime lost his good friend 
Nao Nahal Singh, who on the day of his father's funeral was 
himself killed by the falling-in of the palace gateway at Lahore 
as he passed underneath. The Wazir Dhian Singh, however, 
took up the case, and ordered Lakhi Mai to send his prisoner 
Shah Nawaz to Lahore. He was received with much honor, 
presented with a khilat, and permitted to return to his home 
in company with Malik Fatah Khan Tawana, then about to 
start on a tax-collecting expedition in the Marwat country. 
Fatah Khan's orders were to reinstate the Chief of Isa Khel on 
his way to Bannu. But the Diwan refused to recognise 
the Malik's authority, and Fatah Khan returned to Lahore 
without having put Ahmad Khan in possession. Thither, too, 
returned the wretched Shah Nawaz to sit at the Wazir's door 
and cry ineffectually for justice. "Such," writes Edwardes, 
•' was the state of the authority of Ranjit's successors 
on the distant frontiers of their Empire ! " But, as Shah 
Nawaz told Edwardes, " It pleased God that the Raja Dhian 
Singh and his Royal Master should both be murdered ; " and 
their removal was indirectly the means of Ahmad Khan's 
restoration, though after a considerable interval. Malik Fatah 
Khan was at Lahore when Maharaja Sher Singh met with his 
death, and he was suspected of having joined in the conspiracy 



THE BAi\NU DISTRICT. 



539 



for the Wazir's removal. He managed to get away in the 
confusion, and took refuge in the Fort of Jhandu Khel, on the 
Kuram, where also was his friend Ahmad Khan, outlawed 
under the orders of the Diwan. The Wazarat at Lahore 
had devolved upon Raja Hira Singh after his father's mur- 
der ; but he in his turn was assassinated by Sardar Jawahar 
Singh, uncle of the Maharaja Dalip Singh, who speedily re- 
moved Lakhi INIal from the Dera governorship and restored 
Fatah Khan to favor. But Mahomed Khan's trials were not 
yet over. Jawahar Singh, who would have helped him, was 
murdered at the instigation of his sister, the Rani Jindan, by 
her paramour Lai Singh, who assumed the Wazarat, and 
handed over the Dera Province to Lakhi Mai's son Daulat 
Rai. He was, however, removed shortly afterwards by Sir 
Henry Lawrence, to whom Edwardes had furnished a full re- 
port of the father's iniquities, of which the Isa Khel troubles 
were but a sample. General Van Cortlandt, the new Governor, 
lost no time in restoring Mahomed Khan to his patrimony, 
which he enjoyed without further worry for the remaining six 
years of his life. Edwardes had championed his cause through- 
out; and the old Chief proved his gratitude shortly afterwards 
by siding with him in the Second Sikh War, and doing his best 
to hold the rebels in check. His son Mahomed Alam was in 
the citadel of Fort Dalipgarh (Bannu) with Malik Fatah Khan 
Tawana, when the latter was killed in attempting to cut his 
way out. Mahomed Alam was taken prisoner and carried away 
across the Indus by the rebels, who did not release him until 
after the battle of Gujrat. His brother Mahomed Ayaz Khan 
harassed the Sikhs from outside with the object of forcing 
them to abandon their attack on Fatah Khan ; but his efforts 
were unsuccessful. He afterwards joined Reynell Taylor with 
his younger brother Sarfaraz, and did good service in the 
attack on Fort Lakhi ; while their father Mahomed Khan lent 
active and useful assistance in forwarding supplies and 



540 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

materials for the siege. The faithful Shah Nawaz, second son 
of the old man, was killed in charging the enemy's guns at 
Kaneri, on the 1 8th June, 1848, literally, as Edwardes describes 
it, at the cannon's mouth. His son Abdul Rahim Khan was 
awarded a pension of Rs. 500 per annum with a jagir of similar 
value, and the title of Khan Bahadar was conferred upon him. 
Mahomed Khan died in 1855, having shortly before 
divided his property equally between his seven sons and his 
one fatherless grandson, Abdul Rahim. Government confer- 
red the jagir in perpetuity in the same shares, but reduced 
the alum share proceeds to one-sixth. The jagir and dues are 
valued at Rs. 6,878, as detailed below : — 

One-eighth the land revenue .. . . Rs. 5,395 

One-sixth the alum proceeds .. .. „ 419 

Cash abiana (water-rates) . . . . „ 1,064 

In addition to these hereditary allowances, several mem- 
bers of the family received life-jagirs or pensions for special 
services rendered. 

All the brothers behaved well in the Mutiny. Mahomed 
Ayaz Khan placed himself under the orders of the Deputy 
Commissioner of Bannu at the head of a body of Sowars of his 
own raising, and after the rebellion was awarded a pension of 
Rs. 250 per annum. Sarfaraz Khan and Abdula Khan marched 
with a troop of one hundred horse to Dehli, and joining the 
Hariana Field Force under General Van Cortlandt, were pre- 
sent at the actions of HIssar, Phatauli, Mangoli and Jamalpur. 
Abdula Khan's bravery was conspicuous throughout, and his 
gallant conduct was rewarded with the thanks of Government. 
He was present at the Siege of Lucknow, as Rasaldar in the 3rd 
Sikh Irregulars, and took part in the subsequent operations 
in Oudh, frequently receiving the commendations of the 
General Officers under whom he was serving. On one 
occasion, after being out all day with his squadron, he 
met with a party of the 6th Foot, who were returning 
to camp in the evening, weary and prostrated with 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 541 

fatigue. He at once dismounted his men, and making the 
English soldiers mount the horses, led them into camp. 

Mahomed Abdula Khan resigned his commission in i860. 
He had been awarded the Order of British India with the 
accompanying pension of Rs. 360 per annum ; and a jagir 
was bestowed upon him of the value of Rs. 600. He was 
appointed a Tahsildarin 1868, and was promoted to an Extra 
Assistant Commissionership six years later. He retired in 
1887 on a pension of Rs. 1,520 per annum, and now works 
as an Honorary Civil Judge and Magistrate. He has at all 
times rendered good service. During the late Afghan War 
he equipped one hundred Sowars for service on the border, 
besides furnishing a large number of camels to the Transport 
Department. He holds the title of Khan Bahadar, and he is 
one of the leading Darbaris of the district. His son Ataula 
Khan is a Naib-Tahsildar. 

Mahomed Sarfaraz Khan resigned in 1858, after the 
pacification of Hariana, and was rewarded with a jagir of 
Rs. 1,000 and the title of Khan Bahadar. The grant ceased 
on his death in 1883. He was the most wealthy and able 
man in the family. Besides his Isa Khel and Nar lands, he 
had a grant in the Shahpur district, yielding a handsome 
revenue. 

Mahomed Ayaz Khan died in 1887. His second son 
Hakdad Khan is a Jamadar in the 15th Bengal Cavalry. 
Khudadad Khan, grandson of Mahomed Khan, is a Deputy 
Inspector of Police at Kohat. 

Khan Abdula, Khan Bahadar, is the present Chief of Isa 
Khel. His nephews, Abdul Rahim and Abdul Samand, are 
Viceregal Darbaris ; and his brother Abdul Satar and 
nephew Abdul Rahman, have seats in Provincial Darbars. 
Abdul Rahim married the only child of the late Sher Khan of 



542 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Isa Khel, and succeeded to his property, said to be worth 
Rs. 50,000, in 1884. Mr. Thorburn, in his Settlement Report, 
writes of Sher Khan : — " He is the sole surviving descendant 
in the male line of Jangi Khan, grandfather of Khan Zaman. 
His father Hasan Khan was Umar Khan's right-hand man. 
At his death Sher Khan was a child. Grown up, he sided with 
the Sikhs, and did not share in the long exile of the other branch 
of his house. On their reinstatement Mahomed Khan's sons 
treated their kinsmen with scant consideration, and in conse- 
quence Sher Khan has been their bitter enemy ever since. 
During the Second Sikh War he was shut up in the Bannu Fort 
with Fatah Khan Tawana and taken prisoner on its fall, but re- 
leased after the battle of Gujrat. In the Mutiny he did ex- 
cellent local service as commandant of Mounted Police, and 
was rewarded with a pension of Rs. 600 a year. Altogether 
he now receives an annual pension of Rs. 1,360. He is still 
an active old man. His whole life has been one lonsr con- 
tention. He will die as he has lived, a struggling, disappoint- 
ed man. He has been hitherto unable to convert his pension 
into a land-jagir, and in this settlement some of the fruits of 
his former misdeeds have been lost to him." 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 543 

MALIK YAR MAHOMED KHAN, OF KALA BAGH. 



Malik Surukhru Khan. 

I 
Malik Mahomed Azim Khan. 



Alayar Khan, d. 1863. 
.. I 



I I 

Muzafar Khan, Ambaz Khan. 

d. 1SS5. 

I 



I I 

Yar Mahomed Khan. Sultan Mahomed Khan. 

Kala Bagh, the home for generations of the local Awan 
Maliks, is one of the most ancient towns in this part of the 
Panjab. It owes its existence to the celebrated salt quarries 
close by, and the extensive alum works, which are carried 
on in the town itself The Indus Ferry, too, below the town, 
being the easiest for fifty miles on either side, has helped to 
draw a considerable traffic this way and make Kala Bagh 
a halting-place for caravans and armies using this route to 
India in the olden times. The town is picturesquely situated 
on the hill-side, at the point where the Indus enters the plains 
It has the name of being hot in summer and unhealthy. 

The Awan Maliks are said to have come here about three 
centuries ago. They at first squatted on the barren rock of 
Dang Koh, a natural fortress a short distance above stream 
from Kala Bagh, where the people of the neighbourhood 
were wont to take refuge when they had reason to dread the 
approach of a powerful enemy. Band AH, grandson of 
Shekh Adu, the first Awan settler, took possession of the 
salt-mines and established himself as Chief in these parts, 
controlling the ferry, levying taxes on salt and alum, and tak- 
ing tribute from the Bhangi Khel Khataks occupying the hills 
north of Kala Bagh. The Awans continued to hold their own 
after Band All's death in spite of temporary reverses. They 
lived, as did their neighbours, in a perpetual state of unrest, 



544 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

fighting all round for existence, sometimes victorious, often on 
the verge of annihilation. But they continued to make way, 
and gradually acquired lands in the plain and founded vil- 
lages. Timur Shah, towards the end of the last century, re- 
cognised Mahomed Azam Khan Awan as head of the Kala 
Bagh Ilaka, and allowed him Rs. 1,200 annually for keeping 
his portion of the road open between Kabul and Dehli. The 
grant was continued by Timur's successors. Malik Ali Yar 
Khan was Chief when the Sikhs annexed the district in 1822. 
He was made responsible for the revenue, and had to give 
an annual tribute to the Maharaja of two horses, eleven 
camels, five dogs, two-thirds of the salt tax and two-fifths of 
the revenues of the Masan lands held by him. The counten- 
ance of the Sikhs enabled Ali Yar Khan to strengthen and 
extend the hold he had lately acquired on certain Cis-Indus 
villages, and his family generally benefited largely under the 
comparatively secure rule of the Lahore Darbar. Ali Yar 
made himself useful to Edwardes in many ways at Bannu, 
just before the outbreak of the Second Sikh War. He helped 
with men and material in the construction of the Fort of Dalip- 
garh, and placed his son Muzafar Khan under Edwardes' 
orders in command of a body of horse of his own raising. 
Muzafar Khan afterwards held the inner Bannu Fort with 
Malik Fatah Khan Tawana, whom Edwardes had left in 
charge of the district when obliged to proceed in all haste to 
Multan. Fatah Khan was killed in trying to cut his way 
through the Sikh soldiers who hemmed him in ; but Muzafar 
Khan surrendered and was carried prisoner to the main army 
at Gujrat, where he was allowed to purchase his liberty 
on payment of Rs. 5,000. 

During the Mutiny, the Maliks exhibited active loyalty. 
Muzafar Khan and his son Yar Mahomed raised about 
a hundred followers, and placed themselves at Edwardes' dis- 
posal in Peshawar. They were entrusted with the charge 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 545 

of one of the city gates. Muzafar Khan was rewarded with 
the title of Khan Bahadar. Another brother, Ambaz Khan, 
remained at Bannu with some levies under the orders of 
Captain Coxe, the Deputy Commissioner, who was carrying 
out the second settlement of Trans-Indus tracts as if 
nothing serious were happening further east. 

Muzafar Khan took over the Chiefship on the death of 
his father in 1863. He constantly assisted the local officials 
in border matters ; and his services were especially useful 
during the late Afghan War, when he furnished a number of 
animals for transport purposes, and helped with supplies 
along the Kuram route. He died in 1885. His son, who 
is now at the head of the family, served at Peshawar as a 
Dafadar during the Mutiny, and he has always stood beside 
his father when there was work to be done. He enjoys an 
annual income of about Rs. 11,000, made up as follows : — 

Jagir lands in Isa Khel and Mianwali . . Rs. 6,190 

Alum works at Kala Bagh . . • • » 4,5oo 

Miscellaneous .. .. •• » 310 

He is one of the leading Viceregal Darbaris in Bannu. 

For the last three or four generations the eldest son has 
in each case succeeded to all the property left by his father, 
the younger sons taking only a maintenance allowance. 
This arrangement was legalised by our Courts shortly after 
annexation in a suit brought by some ofthe younger members. 



546 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



MIAN SULTAN ALI, OF MIANWALI. 



Mian Zakaria. 



Ali Mahomed. 

[ 



Chara_i;h Ali. 
I 



Murad Ali 
I 



Ghaus Ali. 
I 



Hasain Ali. Mahar Ali. Bahadar Ali 
I I 

Sultan Ali. Sher Ali. 
I 
Nasar Ali, 



Two other Sharaf Ali. 
sons. I 



Six other 
sons. 



Fazal Ali. 

I 

Mardan Ali. 



I 
Abas Ali. 



Ali Sher. 



Ali Ahmad. 



Mubarak Abas Ali, 
Ali. 



Ilayat 
Ali. 



Maluk Sultan Ali. 
Ali. 



I I 

Amir Ali, Mahomed 
Hayat. 



Haidar 
Charagh. 



I 
Sardar Ali. 

I 



Sher Zaman, 



Mardan Ali. Hayat All. Fatah Sher. 

Mian Ali, who founded Mianwall in the Gakhar times, is 
said to have been a holy man from Baghdad. 'He gained 
ascendancy over the Pathan settlers in the country by 
encouraging them to throw off the yoke of the Gakhars. 
His promises of success were fulfilled, and the Gakhars were 
driven out of the country. His son Sultan Zakaria was 
spiritual guide of the peasantry for many years, and is 
credited with having possessed miraculous gifts. In 1847, 
Mahomed All's three sons., Charagh Ali, Murad Ali and 
Ghaus Ali, were in power, and rendered assistance to 
Edwardes in settling a blood feud which had until then cost 
many lives annually. After annexation an enquiry into the 
holdings of the family was made, and in 1864 revenue to 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 547 

the amount of Rs. 1,200 a year was released in equal shares 
to the three heads of the house, with the condition attached 
that each grant was to be re-considered on the death of 
the holder. By mistake, the sanction was translated as 
being equivalent to a perpetual grant, and was so treated for 
many years. In the course of the recent settlement opera- 
tions, however, the orders of Government were taken. 
Sanction was given in 1879 ^^ ^^^ continuance of a jagir of 
Rs. 1,200 to the family. Of this amount, Rs. 660 was to be 
held by all the members on ancestral shares, and the remain- 
der as sardari allowances by the leading men for the time 
being of each of the three branches. 

Mian Hasain Ali, son of Charagh Ali, helped Edwardes 
in various ways, especially in the disposal of difficult land 
cases. He was much respected by the tribesmen owing to 
the name he had acquired for honesty and impartiality. His 
only son Sultan Ali, a Provincial Darbari, is now the recog- 
nised head of the family. He is a Magistrate for Mianwali 
and seven surrounding villages. Mr. Thorburn describes 
him as a man of sterling character, fond of sport, being the 
most successful and fearless pig-sticker in this part of the 
Panjab. The Mians have considerable influence, due to 
their status as spiritual guides ; but their holdings are small, 
and they have no tribal following. The daughters are given 
only amongst themselves in marriage ; but most of the best 
men of the neighbouring clans are proud to secure Mians as 
husbands for their girls. Hasain Ali, father of Sultan Ali, 
thus married a sister of Malik Fatah Khan Tawana. 

Sharaf Ali, cousin of Sultan Ali, is also a Provincial Dar- 
bari. Another Darbari in this family, Ali Sher, died in 1887. 



S48 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

MANI KHAN, SPIRKAI WAZIR, OF GARHI MANI KHAN. 



Bhai Khan. 

I 

Gulbai. 

Maljan. 

I 

Sohan Khan, 

d. 1854. 

I 



I I I I I 

Najib Khan, Azmat Khan. Mani Khan, Mir Akbar Nai' Kamgal 

d. 1866. I d. 1844. Khan. Khan. 

I Jang Bahadar. 

Jalandar Khan. | 

Idan Khel, d. 

The Darwesh Khel Wazirls were the fourth and last 
wave of colonists from the west that settled in the Bannu 
plains, following the track of the Bannuchis, Niazais and 
Marwats, which had preceded them. The tribe is divided 
into two great sections, the Utmanzais and the Ahmadzais, 
and has for many centuries occupied the hills between Thai 
in Miranzai and the Gabar mountain. Until about one 
hundred years ago their camps only occasionally descended 
into the plains during the cold season, and always clung 
about the mouths of the passes leading up into their hills. 
Latterly their visits became annual; and between 1750 and 
1775 the Jani Khel and Baka Khel sections of the Utmanzai 
branch seized the Miri grazing lands lying between the Tochi 
(Gamblla) and the hills. The Mahomed Khels and Ahmad- 
zai clan next took possession of the stony ground at the 
mouth of the Kuram Pass ; and soon after other Ahmadzais 
began to occupy the Thai beyond the left bank of the Kuram, 
driving off the Khatak and Marwat grazing camps they 
found there. Still the visits of those savage highlanders 
only lasted during the cold months, and no great alarm was 
caused. Years went by ; the strength of the DuranI hold on 
the country began to wane, and by about 18 18 Bannu had 



THE BANNU DISTRICT. 549 

become practically free. A short period of semi-independ- 
ence followed, and finally the Sikh domination was established. 
Taking advantage of the general confusion, the united Dar- 
wesh Khels commenced systematic encroachments on Mar- 
wats, Khataks and Bannuchis alike; and frequently sold 
their aid to one or other of the rival parties in the country. 
On one occasion they crossed the Kuram to attack old Lakhi, 
the head-quarters of the Marwats, but were routed and 
pursued back as far as Latamar. After this lesson they 
confined their operations to the north bank of the Kuram, 
extending their hold north and east, to within a few miles of 
Latamar and Shinwa, both Khatak villages. They eventually 
learnt that peace is more profitable than war, and they now 
and again swore a truce with their neighbours, during which 
friendly intercourse was maintained. Thus, in 1826-27, when 
Masson paid Bannu proper a visit, he found Bannuchis and 
Waziris "on a good understanding" together. 

Mani Khan is a Spirkai Wazir. His father Sohan Khan, 
noted for his gigantic size and strength, was of great assist- 
ance to Edwardes during his first and second visits to Bannu. 
He gave good help in persuading the Waziris to pay a 
fixed revenue on their holdings, and he put himself forward 
as one of the leading men of his tribe; receiving as his 
reward a cash grant of Rs. 600 per annum. His son 
Najib Khan succeeded him in 1854, and held the Chief- 
ship for twelve years. For services rendered during the 
Mutiny and on other occasions he received a grant of land 
in Nar, assessed in the current settlement at Rs. 525. 
Najib Khan's son Jalandar Khan was an infant when his 
father died in 1866, and the Khanship was accordingly 
transferred to the present family representative Mani Khan, 
younger son of Sohan, in whose favour also the cash grant 
of Rs. 600 was revived. He is said to be the most 
influential of the Waziri Chiefs, and he has more than 



S50 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

once rendered service in connection with the affairs of the 
Mahomed Khels and Mahsud and Kabul Khel Waziris. He 
gave help during the last Afghan War in supplying baggage- 
animals and escorts along the Thai and Bannu road, securing 
for himself in acknowledgment an enhancement to his cash 
allowances of Rs. 400, besides a khilat bestowed in public 
Darbar. His nephew Jalandar Khan has lately been recognis- 
ed as a joint head of the clan. He and his uncle have 
each a /«;/^/ inam of Rs. 50 per annum. Mani Khan is a 
Provincial Darbari. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 551 

DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 
NAWAB MAHOMED SARFARAZ KHAN, SADOZAI. * 



Ghazi Khan. 

I 
Momin Khan. 



i i 1 

Haji Sadat Khan. Abdul Rahman Khan. Three other sons. 



I 
Mahomed Khan, d. 



I I 

Hafiz Ismail Khan, d. Nawab Hafiz Ahmad Khan, 
d. 1823. 

1 \ \ i 

Nawab Sher Abdul Rahim Abdul Karim Abdul Samad 
Mahomed Khan, Khan, Khan, 
Khan, d. 1855. d. iSll. d. 1886. d. 1811. 
I 

1 \ \ \ I 

Nawab IMahomed Rab Nawaz Dost Mahomed Sarbiland 

Sarfaraz Khan, Nawaz Khan, Khan, Khan, Khan, 

C. S. I., b. 1823. d. 1873. b. 1841. b. 1845. d- 1843- 

I _ 



I I I I 

Hak Nawaz Ahmad Yar Ata Mahomed Mahomed Akbar 

Khan, b. 1853. Khan, b. 1858. Khan, b. 1858. Khan, b. 1861. 



I I I 

Aladad Khan. Hakdad Khan. Abdul Rahim Khan. 

The history of Nawab Sarfaraz' s family for sixty years 
previous to annexation is practically that of the Dera Ismail 
Khan district. The ancestor who brought the family all 
their fame was Nawab Mahomed Khan, a Sadozai, cousin of 
Nawab Muzafar Khan, in whose room he had acted for a short 
period as Governor of Multan. He was Invested with the 
government of the Sind-Sagar Doab by a Sanad under the 
hand of Timur Shah in 1792, in succession to Nawab Abdul 
Nabi, who had fallen into disgrace. But he had to commence 
by taking forcible possession of his province; for Abdul Nabi 
refused to hand over charge without a fight. A battle 
took place near Leia, and for some time Abdul Nabi 
had the best of it ; but he was eventually attacked from behind 
by the Labana allies of Mahomed Khan, and his forces put to 

* Nawab Sarfaraz Khan died in May, 1889. 



552 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

flight. The new Governor behaved with unusual mildness 
towards his beaten rival. He allowed Abdul Nabi a clear 
day to remove himself and his property out of the district. 
This he did, taking the river route to the south. 

Mahomed Khan was fortunate, at the commencement of 
his administration, in being of valuable service to Zaman 
Shah, successor, in 1793, to Timur Shah, by capturing the 
rebel Prince Hamayun when passing through Leia in flight. 
Hamayun's eyes were put out by Mahomed Khan under the 
King's orders, his followers suffering a cruel death. This 
act, securing for him as it did the full confidence of Timur, 
considerably added to his prestige amongst the tribesmen, 
who about this time were taking advantage of the weak- 
ness of the Durani Rule to set up for themselves indepen- 
dent Chiefships all over the country. But Nawab Mahomed 
Khan gradually brought and kept all within his grasp, ex- 
tending his influence as far as the Tawana country, where he 
made himself a name by defeating Malik Khan Mahomed, 
grandfather of the celebrated Fatah Khan Tawana, who later 
on had much to do with the history of Dera Ismail Khan. 
This excursion was the origin of the feud between the Multani 
Pathans and the Tawanas, which has traces of existence in 
the present day. The Nawab next attacked the Khasor tribe 
by way of punishing them for the murder of a holy Sayad of 
Belot, and kept their country on the other side of the Indus. 
Many other minor expeditions followed. 

The Province of Dera under the governorship of Mahom- 
ed Khan extended from the Khasor Range to the Sagar 
country, ruled over by the Nutkani Chief, and included the 
Makalwad possessions, which were surrendered to him with- 
out a blow. He received a check, however, in an attempt to 
reduce the Mian Khel Pathans, who succeeded in organising 
a combination of the tribes against him under the leadership 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 553 

of the locally celebrated Sarwar Khan. But nothing could long 
withstand the persistent ambition of the Nawab. He took 
advantage of the rapid dissolution of the Durani Monarchy 
which had first given him power to secure for himself a prac- 
tically Independent position, and continued, as the central 
control relaxed, to extend his holdings without consulting 
interests other than his own. In 1 813 we find him sending a 
large force under his Diwan Manak Rai against the Ganda- 
puris, whose chief town of Kalachi was captured and destroy- 
ed. Several fine villages were on this occasion retained 
in lieu of payment of indemnity. The Mian Khels and other 
neighbours were shortly after treated in similar fashion. 
Mahomed Khan thus found himself ruler over the whole 
Daman tract up to the Tank border. Tank escaped by 
reason of Sarwar Khan's artful tactics. Housed to flood the 
country by cutting the canals whenever the Nawab made 
signs of paying him a visit. 

Nawab Mahomed Khan had his head-quarters at Man- 
kera and Bhakar, governing Dera by deputy. He died in 
1 81 5, leaving no son. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, 
Hafiz Ahmad Khan, a man of little strength of character, 
with none of the qualities which had enabled Mahomed Khan 
to hold his own and take whatever he wanted from others. 
Unfortunately, too, Ahmad Khan was fated to have to deal 
with a foe far more crafty and powerful than the petty 
tribesmen whom his predecessor had constantly beaten. 
Maharaja Ranjit Singh had been steadily feeling his way 
westwards, and now knocked at the gates of the Dera Pro- 
vince. The proceedings opened with a demand for tribute 
from the new Governor, and this was speedily enforced by 
the occupation of Khangarh and Mahmud Kot, within his 
boundaries. The Sikhs had to be bought off in the usual 
manner, for the Hafiz did not feel himself strong enough 
to say no. 



554 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Other demands, equally extortionate, followed as a mat- 
ter of course. The Nawab was made to send a present of 
his most valuable horses to the rapacious Maharaja, who 
never tired of taking the best of everything. Yet all this 
was but a preliminary to complete subjection. A pretext was 
readily found for annexation. In 182 1 the Sikhs marched 
through Shahpur and halted on the Indus, opposite Dera 
Ismail Khan. No resistance was offered. The town sur- 
rendered, together with Bhakar, Leiah, Khangarh and other 
places. The Nawab shut himself up in the mud fort of 
Mankera, and there withstood a siege of nearly a month, 
doing some damage to the Sikh troops, who were command- 
ed by Ranjit Singh in person. But there was no hope of a 
successful issue for the Nawab. He surrendered against the 
advice of his more impetuous followers, who were all for 
fighting, and was allowed to march out with his arms and 
property, retaining the town and district of Dera, with a 
suitable jagir. Ranjit Singh lost no time in annexing the 
Cis-Indus Tahsils and the Dera Fatah Khan Ilaka, contain- 
ing the strong forts of Girang and Mankera, which were 
placed in charge of his own trusted kinsmen. The whole 
country was in a more or less disturbed state for many years 
after annexation. It had been mainly parcelled out into 
jagir tracts given, with varying service conditions attached, 
to the Maharaja's retainers and followers. These assignees, who 
were usually non-residents, invested their agents, known as 
hakims, with the judicial and revenue authority which in- 
variably went with the jagirs. The hakims were constantly 
at feud with the Kardars who managed the khalsa or State 
portions of the district, and they, moreover, fought freely 
amongst themselves, raiding on one another and lifting 
cattle. It was not until the coming of the celebrated Diwan 
Sawan Mai as Governor in 1837 that all this was changed, 
and a period of comparative peace and prosperity set in. 
The Diwan was famed for the excellence of his revenue ad- 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 555 

ministration and for his general encouragement of agricul- 
ture ; and his name is still said to be a household word in 
the south-west of the Panjab. His death in 1845 was 
lamented as a calamity by the many who had benefited by 
his benevolent rule. 

Deprived of his Cis-Indus territory, in which Mankera, 
his capital, was situated, Hafiz Ahmad Khan took up his 
head-quarters at Dera Ismail Khan, and exercised a more or 
less disputed rule over a considerable tract up and down the 
right bank of the river. He had taken Isa Khel and Marwat 
before the coming of the Sikhs ; but they were visited in 
1823 by Ranjit Singh, and thenceforth, until the final incor- 
poration with Lahore in 1836, these districts were regarded 
as debatable territory, to be harried at will by the Maharaja 
or the Nawab. 

Hafiz Ahmad Khan died in 1825. The Maharaja took 
advantage of the accession of his son Sher Mahomed Khan 
to exact a lakh of rupees by way of nazarana. He is said 
to have been a man of no administrative ability, and fonder 
of shows and sports than of work. The country consequent- 
ly suffered during his eleven years of headship. He was 
perpetually engaged in war with Sarwar Khan of Tank, and 
with the Pawinda and other border clans. His revenues 
were eaten up by a swarm of rapacious and lawless followers, 
and he had further to meet the extortionate demands of the 
Sikhs. The cultivating and trading classes were in conse- 
quence ground down with ever-increasing exactions. The 
Nawab at length found the life of a purposeless ruler so in- 
tolerable that he gladly embraced a proposal to surrender all 
semblance of kingship to the Sikhs, taking from them in lieu a 
handsome jagir and a guarantee of future immunity from the 
cares of government. This arrangement was brought about in 



556 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

1836 during the visit of Prince Nao Nahal Singh to Dera, after 
his successful expedition against the Nawabs of Tank, whose 
territories were in the same year annexed and placed under a 
Sikh Kardar. But Sher Mahomed Khan was not destined 
to lead the life of ease he had counted on. He was constant- 
ly worried by unfriendly visitors from all quarters. The 
Tawanas were his especial aversion. They came down on 
him in force under their brave leader Malik Fatah Khan in 
1845, and made him retire to Bhakar after exacting a ransom 
of Rs. 12,000 for sparing his life. But he had his revenge 
shortly after ; for with the assistance of Diwan Daulat Rai he 
succeeded in driving Fatah Khan back to his own country, 
whence he never again returned to disturb the peace of 
Dera. He was killed in the Second Sikh War in a vain 
attempt to defend the Bannu Fort against the revolted Sikh 
soldiery. 

Nawab Sher Mahomed Khan is better known under his 
honorary title of Shah Nawaz Khan. The jagir he received 
in 1836 from the Sikhs was valued at a lakh of rupees per 
annum, with the condition of occasional personal attendance 
on the Maharaja w^ith a quota of horsemen. This w^as shortly 
afterwards commuted to a jagir of Rs. 60,000, free of service. 
Nawab Shah Nawaz continued in possession of this jagir 
until his death in 1855. His jagir was then assessed at 
Rs. 44,000, half of which was resumed, and the remainder 
continued to his sons in a two-fifth share to the eldest, 
Sarfaraz Khan, the present incumbent, and one-fifth each 
to his three brothers ; to be held by each on a life-tenure, 
subject to a re-consideration in the case of lineal heirs. The 
whole is shown as an undivided property in the Government 
records, but a private partition has been effected by the 
Nawab and his brothers, under which the Nawab is said 
to be receiving a portion larger than that officially assigned 
him. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 557 

In 1862, the Kahiri Ilaka, forming part of the jagir 
lands resumed in 1855, was made over to the Nawab alone. 
All the jagirs were in 1877 confirmed to the holders and 
their descendants in perpetuity, subject to resumption only 
in the case of failure of a particular branch. 

Nawab Sarfaraz Khan has on several occasions shown 
his loyalty towards the British Government. He did much 
to keep the peace on his portion of the border during the 
Sikh Rebellion of 1848-49, deputing his son-in-law Rahim 
Yar Khan to Multan, where he met with his death. In 
1857 several of the Nawab's relatives took service on our 
side against the mutineers ; and he was himself anxious to 
proceed to Dehli, but it was thought advisable to detain him 
at home, as his presence was likely to have weight in keeping 
down any tendency to a spread of the insurrection on this 
border. His son Aladad Khan and his maternal uncle 
Ghulam Mahomed Khan took part in the expedition of i860 
against the Mahsud Waziris, and did excellent work with the 
body of horsemen under their command. Aladad Khan is 
in receipt of a personal allowance of Rs. 2,400 per 
annum in recognition of these services. In 1868 Nawab 
Sarfaraz Khan took part in the punishment of Kaura Khan, 
Kasarani, who had seized the person of Lieutenant Grey, 
then Deputy Commissioner, and carried him away in 
captivity. 

The Nawab and his brothers were awarded a life-grant 
of Rs. 11,800 in 1879 as compensation for loss of income 
occasioned by the substitution of cash assessments for the 
old collections in kind. 

The area of jagir lands held by the family in Dera 
Ismail Khan is about 320,000 acres, yielding a revenue of 
Rs. 36,887. They also hold nearly thirteen thousand acres 
in Multan. 



5S8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Aladad Khan, eldest son of the Nawab, is an Extra 
Assistant Commissioner. The second son, Hakdad Khan, 
is a Magistrate, and a member of the Dera Municipal Com- 
mittee. The Nawab himself is a Magistrate, a member of 
the District Board, and Vice-President of the Municipal 
Committee. He exercises civil and criminal judicial powers 
within the limits of his jagir. The Companionship of the 
Star of India was conferred upon him in 1885. 

Amongst other near relatives of the Nawab may be 
mentioned his nephews Hak Nawaz Khan and Ahmad Yar 
Khan. The former served for some years as a Jamadar in 
the 4th Panjab Cavalry. He is now a Magistrate and a 
member of the Dera District and Municipal Committees. He 
helped the Deputy Commissioner during the late Afghan War 
by collecting camels in large numbers ; and he accompanied 
the Takht-i-Suliman Expedition in 1883. His brother 
Ahmad Yar is a Police Inspector in Biluchistan ; and another 
brother, Ata Mahomed Khan, serves in the same force as 
Deputy Inspector. They are joint owners of six hundred 
acres in two villages of the Dera Tahsil. 

Another relative is Ghulam Mahomed Khan, Sadozai, 
married to the Nawab' s sister. He receives a small subsist- 
ence allowance from Government. His eldest son Ahmad 
Yar Khan is a Tahsildar in Bahawalpur, and a younger son 
has taken service as a Subadar in the 28th Infantry. 

Mention may also be made of Hak Nawaz Khan, 
Sadozai, late a Rasaldar in the ist Panjab Cavalry. He is 
a maternal uncle of Nawab Mahomed Sarfaraz Khan, and is 
also related to Hafiz Samandar Khan. His record of service 
is excellent, and he has been through many campaigns with 
his regiment. On his retirement in 1887 he was granted a 
plot of three hundred acres in the Isa Khel Tahsil, in 
addition to the pension he had earned. Two of his brothers 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 559 

have also served In the ist Panjab Cavalry, and many of 
his relations are scattered through the army in difterent 
regiments. 

Khan Bahadar Hak Nawaz Khan, son of Ali Hasain 
Khan, is also a worthy member of this distinguished family. 
He commenced service as a Police Moharir in 1859, ^^^l 
worked his way up to his present high position of Assistant 
to the Governor-General's Agent in Biluchistan solely by his 
own personal merits. He joined the Agency in 1879, ^-^d 
took part in the late Afghan War. He has received the 
title of Khan Bahadar, and exercises the full powers of a 
Magistrate. Two of his nephews are employed in subordi- 
nate posts in Biluchistan. 



56o 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB RAB NAWAZ KHAN, ALIZAI. 





Alayar Khan, 






d. 1811. 

1 






Khudayar Khan, 
d. 1813. 






Zulfakar Khan, 
d. i8n. 

1 






Nawab Faujdar Khan, 
d. 1875. 




Nawab Rab Nawaz 
Khan, 
b. 1847. 


1 
Hafiz Mahomed Nawaz 
Khan, 
b. 1S53. 


Sarfaraz Khan, 
b. 1856. 

Hak Nawaz Khan, 
b. 1881. 




1 




1 
lomed Khan, 
b. 1863. 


1 

Aladad Khan, 

b. 1868. 


IJakdad Khan, 
^.1871. 



When Nawab Mahomed Khan, Sadozai, came from 
Multan to take up the governorship of the Dera Province in 
1792, he brought with him a number of Pathans, mostly of 
Durani origin, who served in his army, and gradually spread 
out and settled in the districts under his rule. There are 
still several families of so-called Multani Pathans in Dera 
Ismail Khan. They are, however, essentially a foreign race, 
and have but little connection with the people of the country. 
Chief amongst them is Nawab Rab Nawaz Khan, Alizai, son 
of the illustrious Faujdar Khan, who was one of the most 
worthy of the many good men who have rendered loyal service 
to Her Majesty since the Panjab was added to the Empire. 

A section of the Multani Pathans had overrun the Tank 
Ilaka on their own account after the break-up of the Durani 
Kingdom, holding its revenues in jagir, and would no doubt 
have continued to extend their dominion had not Sir Herbert 
Edwardes forcibly ousted them in favor of Nawab Shah 
Nawaz Khan shortly after British influence first began to make 
itself felt along the western border. They had therefore little 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 561 

cause to support the new-comers ; yet they rallied bravely 
round Sir Herbert in his effort to check the Multan Rebellion, 
and later on, took service freely in our cavalry. Lind's and 
Cureton's Horse during the Mutiny were mainly made up of 
them. Their children are the backbone of the present 15th 
Bengal Cavalry. 

Of all .the Multanis with whom our own officers have been 
connected, Faujdar Khan, Alizai, was in every way the most 
remarkable. His father had been killed in battle with the 
Nawab of Multan, who was fighting against the Nawab of 
Bahawalpur in 181 1, and his grandfather met his death two 
years later when Multan was being besieged by the Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh. The young Faujdar was then only eight 
years of age. When he grew up he was given service by his 
kinsman Sher Mahomed Khan of Dera. In 1836, when the 
Dera Nawab surrendered his sovereign rights to the Sikhs in 
exchange for a jagir, Faujdar Khan accepted a military com- 
mand under Diwan Lakhi Mai, Nazim on behalf of the Maha- 
raja. He rendered help in subduing the Marwat country, 
and took part in the defeat of Malik Fatah Khan Tawana, 
at the battle of Babar, in 1846. We next find him marching 
under Edward es to Multan in 1848 to suppress the 
revolt instigated byMulraj. He was present at the battles of 
Kaneri and Saduzam, and at the taking of Multan in January, 
1849. The action at Kaneri is graphically described by 
Edwardes in his Vcar on the Panjab Frontier, and full praise 
is meted out to the gallant Faujdar for his splendid be- 
haviour. Edwardes desired to check the advance of the 
enemy's infantry by beating back their own cavalry upon 
them, and thus give time to Van Cortlandt to come up with 
his guns. " Gladly," he writes, " did these brave men get 
the word to do a deed so desperate, but with set teeth I 
watched them mount, and wondered how many of my choicest 



562 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

officers would come back. Spreading their hands to 
Heaven, the noble band solemnly repeated the creed of their 
religion, as though it were their last act on earth ; then 
passed their hands over their beards with the haughtiness of 
martyrs, and drawing their swords dashed out of the jungle 
into the ranks of the enemy's horse, who, taken wholly by 
surprise, turned round and fled, pursued by Faujdar Khan 
and his companions to within a few hundred yards of the 
rebel line, which halted to receive its panic-stricken friends. 
In executing this brilliant service Faujdar Khan received two 
wounds, and few who returned came back untouched. Many 
fell." 

Faujdar Khan's behaviour at Saduzam was not less 
praiseworthy. Edwardes writes : — " To Faujdar Khan, Alizai, 
who has throughout these operations acted as my Adjutant- 
General, and who, in spite of several sword-wounds received 
at Kaneri on June i8th, took command of the cavalry 
yesterday at Saduzam, and directed their movements, I feel 
under the greatest obligation." 

In recognition of these gallant services, Nawab Faujdar 
Khan received a khilat of Rs. 4,000, with a sword and 
shield, from Sir Henr}^ Lawrence, and a life-jagir of Rs. 4,000 
per annum, with a cash allowance of Rs. 4,800 as service pay. 
He was subsequently employed with the force that entered 
the Sharani hills and the Dara Bhati (Kasrani) country. In 
1854 he was deputed on a special mission to Kabul, and suc- 
ceeded in bringing the heir-apparent, Sardar Ghulam Haidar 
Khan, to Peshawar, where a treaty was concluded between 
the British Government and the Amir. For this service he 
received the title of Nawab, and his life-pension of Rs. 400 
per mensem was doubled. In 1857 he was again sent as an 
envoy to Kabul, and there received news of the outbreak of 
the Mutiny. His presence at such a period was fortunate ', 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT, 563 

for he was able to counterbalance the evil influence over the 
Amir of his brother Sultan Mahomed Khan, who persistently 
counselled an Afghan advanceon Peshawar. Faujdar Khan's 
fresh services in Kabul were rewarded with a Sanad confirm- 
ing- to his offspring in perpetuity the jagir which had previ- 
ously been granted for life. We next find him taking part 
in the Mahsudand Kabul Khel Waziri Expeditions of 1859-60. 
In 1862 the Nawab's pension of Rs. 9,600 was converted 
into a life-jagir ; and he was invested with the powers of an 
Honorary Civil Judge and Magistrate within the limits of his 
jagir. In 1870 his troop of horse was reduced, and he was 
granted a money allowance of Rs. 1,200 per annum as com- 
pensation for loss of the command. 

In a civil capacity he did good service in connection 
with the management of tinii (grazing dues) in the district, 
which resulted in a considerable increase of revenue. The 
Companionship of the Star of India was conferred upon him 
in 1866. In 1875, i^ consideration of his honorable services 
in war and peace, the life-jagir of Rs. 9,600 and the title of 
Nawab were made hereditary. The total perpetual jagir 
amounted to Rs. 13,600, of which half was to pass to the 
holder of the title, the remainder being divided equally 
amongst all the sons, including the Nawab for the time 
being. 

The present Nawab, Rab Nawaz Khan, succeeded his 
father in 1875. ^^ commenced as a Rasaldar during the 
Mutiny, and saw much service with the Multani Horse. He 
was next engaged nearer home against the Kabul Khel 
Waziris in 1859-60, and shortly afterwards retired on a pen- 
sion of Rs. 300 per mensem, taking up the post of Inspector 
of Police, which he held until his father's death.. He has since 
loyally tendered his services to Government on many occa- 
sions, and they have been more than once utilized. He 



564 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

accompanied Sir Frederick Roberts to Kabul, and remained 
with him throughout the Campaign, receiving on his return 
in 1 880 a handsome khilat from the Viceroy in public Dar- 
bar. He afterwards acted for a short period as Assistant 
Superintendent of Police in the Bannu district. He is now 
an Honorary Magistrate and Civil Judge within his jagir, 
and is a member of the Municipal Committee of Dera Ismail 
Khan and of the District Board. 

His younger brother, Mahomed Nawaz Khan, is aRasal- 
dar in the 15th Bengal Cavalry. He lately visited England on 
the occasion of the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty 
the Empress. 

The whole value of the family jagirs, extending over 
thirty-five villages in the districts of Dera Ismail Khan, 
Muzafargarh and Multan, may be put down at Rs. 20,000, 
shared by the brothers in the proportions already detailed. 

Another distinguished member of this family was Nawab 
Kale Khan, who died in 1876, after a life of exemplary 
service. One of his sons, Muazudin, is a Rasaldar, and 
two others are subordinate officers in the 1 5th Bengal Cavalry. 
They own thirteen hundred acres, including a grant of nine 
hundred acres made them in 1884 in the Multan district. 
Rasaldar Muazudin has married a daughter of the late 
Nawab Ghulam Hasan, K. C.S.I. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 



565 



NAWAB HAFIZ ABDULA KHAN, ALIZAI. 



Alayar Khan, 
d. 1811. 

I 

Sardar Khan, 

d. 1818. 

I 



Ashak Mahomed 

Khan, d. 1846. 

I 



Barkhurdar 
Khan, d. 



Ghulam Sarwar 
Khan, d. 



I 

Ghulam Mahomed 

Khan, 

d. 1846. 

I 

Sher Mahomed 

Khan, 

d. 1S55. 



Nawab Ghulam 

Hasan Khan, 

d. i88i. 



I 

Ghulam Kasim 

Khan, 

d. 1857. 

Saifula Khan, 
b. 1857. 

Mahomed Hasan 
Khan, 
b. 1885. 



Nawab Hafiz 
Abdula 
Khan, 
b. 1847. 



.Hafiz 
Ahmad 

Khan, 
d. 1872. 

I 

Mahomed 

Afzal 

Khan, 

b. 1872. 



Hafiz 

Mahmud 

Khan, 

d. 1880. 

I 

Ghulam 

Mustafa 

Khan, 

b. 1874, 



I 
Naiz 
Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. 1852. 

I 

Ata 

Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1881. 



Hafiz 
Sadula 
Khan, 
b. 1857. 

I 
Mahomed 

Jan 
Khan, 
b. 1883. 



Habibula 
Khan, 
b. 1S71. 



I 
Faizula 
Khan, 
b. 1872. 



Mahomed 

Baran Khan, 

b. 1878. 



Mahomed 

Zaman Khan, 

b. 1882. 



I 

Mahomed 

Nasir Khan, 

b. 18S5. 



It appears scarcely necessary to dwell upon the early 
history of this branch of the Multani Pathans. They are 
Alizai Duranis, and came originally from Kandahar. Alayar 
Khan took military service under the Nawab Muzafar Khan 
of Multan early in the present century, and acquired lands 
in the neighbourhood of Muzafargarh. His grandson, 
Ashak Mahomed Khan, accompanied his kinsman, Mahomed 
Khan of Dera, to Mankera, and obtaining a high command, 
shared the Nawab' s fortunes for many years. 



566 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Later on, when the Sikhs came, he was kindly treated 
by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who granted him a jagir in 
the Tank Ilaka when the Nawab Sher Mahomed Khan sur- 
rendered his Dera possessions in 1836. But he had to hold 
his own by constant fighting, and his body was covered with 
wounds. He was ultimately murdered by Malik Fatah Khan 
Tawana, together with several of his relatives, in a treacher- 
ous attack made upon them under circumstances which were 
regarded as disgraceful, even under the code of honor recog- 
nised in those days by the Tawanas. Ashak Khan's son 
Ghulam Hasan was then aged twenty-two years. Later on, 
throughout a long and honorable public career, he proved 
himself a splendid type of a perfect gentleman, a loyal subject, 
and a devoted servant of his Queen. Among the many good 
men of his family who worked heart and soul in our interests, 
none holds a higher place in the memory of every Englishman 
who knew him than does Nawab Ghulam Hasan Khan. In our 
darkest days he never hesitated. His brave spirit and cheerful 
ways lent courage to those who lacked it, and converted the 
wavering into fast friends. His services were richly rewarded ; 
but he deserved every honor and largesse the Government 
from time to time bestowed upon him ; and his children have 
the satisfaction of feeling that the bread they are now eating 
w^as fairly won for them by a worthy father. 

Ghulam Hasan Khan was In the Tank fort when the 
news reached him of his father's death. He put the place 
into a state of defence, and was able to hold out until the 
news of Sher Mahomed Khan's advance caused Fatah Khan 
to fall back upon Dera. He then marched out, and joining 
hands with his kinsman the Nawab and Diwan Daulat Rai, 
had the satisfaction of taking part in the battle of Babar, 
which resulted in the utter defeat of the Tawanas, who were 
sent back in disgraceful flight to their homes. This was in 
1846. In the following year we find Ghulam Hasan at 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 567 

Lahore as one of a deputation sent to represent the griev- 
ances of the Multani jagirdars ousted under Edwardes' advice 
from the Tank Ilaka. But just then the Multan Rebellion 
fully occupied the attention of the Resident, and there was 
no leisure for the consideration of minor questions. Ghulam 
Hasan and his companions were despatched by Sir Frede- 
rick Currie to the seat of war. They came up with Bhai 
Maharaj Singh, the Impostor, in the neighbourhood of Jang, 
and broke up his following, forcing him to cross the Chanab 
and conceal himself in the wilds. They were allowed by way 
of reward to loot his camp on their own account. They then 
joined the force under General Whish, and took a leading 
part in the siege of Multan. Ghulam. Hasan's services in 
this campaign were favourably noticed by Major Becher and 
the present Lord Napier of Magdala, then a young Lieuten- 
ant of Engineers. 

But before the place had fallen they had to hurry back 
to the Marwat and help to hold the Bannu district against 
the rebel Sikh soldiers. Having killed Fatah Khan Tawana 
outside the citadel of fort Dalipgarh, the Sikhs marched off 
to join in the concentration of forces which later on fought the 
battle of Guj rat. Their place at Bannu was taken up by 
Mahomed Azim Khan, son of the Amir Dost Mahomed Khan 
of Kabul. He used every effort to win the Multanis over to 
his father's side ; but they remained staunch, and carried out 
Edwardes' orders to the letter. Mahomed Azim Khan 
thought it prudent to retire after a short tenure of office at 
Bannu, seeing little chance of disturbing the hold the 
English already had on the country. All the important passes 
commemding the road to Multan had been in charge of Ghu- 
lam Hasan and his kinsmen, whose duty it was to prevent 
a junction of the Bannu rebels with those of Multan. They 
were employed under Lieutenant Taylor^in the capture of the 
Lakhi fort from the Sikh garrison, and did useful service in 



568 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

dispersing the smaller bodies of rebels after the main army 
had passed out of the district. For his services gene- 
rally before annexation, Ghulam Hasan was awarded a jagir 
of Rs. i,ooo per annum in perpetuity in addition to his cash 
allowance of Rs. 2,400 granted in lieu of his jagir rights 
in the Tank Ilaka. He was appointed an Extra Assistant 
Commissioner at Bannu, and held the rank for three years. 
But the work was not congenial to him, and he resigned and 
went back to his home. The Rebellion of 1857 again 
brought him to the front. He raised a large body of horse- 
men for service in Hindustan, and received the rank of Com- 
mandant under Colonel Charles Cureton of the regiment now 
known as the 15th Bengal Cavalry. So well did the new 
soldiers behave in their first action in Rohilkand that a jagir 
grant of Rs. 600 was immediately sanctioned by the Chief 
Commissioner, Sir John Lawrence, for Ghulam Hasan. He 
was further decorated with the Order of Merit, carrying with it 
a liberal life-pension. The regiment was engaged in four- 
teen actions during 1857-58, and did well in all under such 
leaders as Cureton and the gallant Ghulam Hasan. 

After the Mutiny it was deemed advisable to send an 
envoy to reside at the Court of Kabul. The office was con- 
ferred upon Ghulam Hasan, and was held by him for five 
years, during which period he is said to have carried out his 
important duties with wisdom, tact and loyalty. He accom- 
panied the Amir in his expedition against Herat and Kanda- 
har, and was instrumental in stopping a raid upon Michni, 
within the Peshawar border, by Sultan Mahomed Khan 
Mohmand, father-in-law of the Amir. At his suggestion 
Sultan Mahomed was arrested and kept for some time in 
Kabul. The Amir was on terms of real friendship with our 
envoy, whom he termed his brother, and to whose sensible 
counsels he always lent a willing ear. On Ghulam Hasan's 
return from Kabul he was made a Nawab ; his cash allow- 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 569 

ances were increased to Rs. 6,000, and his life-jag-ir of 
Rs. 600 was confirmed in perpetuity. In 1867 the Nawab 
took service in the Bahawalpur State as commander of the 
troops. In the following- year the Viceroy conferred upon him 
the Order of the Star of India. Later on. Lord Napier of 
Magdala appointed him to his Staff as Aide-de-Camp. In 
1875 his jagirs were increased to Rs. 12,400, of which 
Rs. 2,400 were in perpetuity ; and the title of Nawab was 
made hereditary. He was allowed to hold the rank of Native 
Commandant of the 15th Bengal Cavalry, receiving pay with- 
out any obligation as to service. While at his home in Dera 
Ismail Khan he constantly made himself useful to the local 
officials in matters affecting the administration. He took 
part in several minor expeditions, and was of much assistance 
in checking feuds between our own subjects and the tribes- 
men beyond the border. 

In 1878 the Nawab was again deputed to Kabul in con- 
nection with some difficulties which had arisen in our deal- 
ings with the Amir Sher Ali Khan, and which led up to the 
Second Afghan War. He returned to India in October of 
the same year, and was shortly afterwards attached to the 
Kandahar Column of invasion under General Stewart. He 
was appointed Governor when Kandahar was occupied by 
our troops, and received the honor of special mention in the 
General's despatches for valuable services rendered. The 
extraordinary contentment of the people of the Kandahar 
Province, and their ready acceptance of our rule, were ascribed 
by Sir Donald as mainly due to the Nawab' s judicious civil 
administration. From Kandahar Nawab Ghulam Hasan was 
summoned by Sir Louis Cavagnari to help him over his 
difficulties in Kabul. But he had only proceeded as far as 
Ghazni when the news of the massacre reached him. His 
own life was in danger for some time, as a servant of the 
Christian Empress ; but he managed to escape through the 



570 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

influence of two old friends, Mahomed Afzal Khan and Ata 
Mahomed Khan Wardak. He was enabled to join General 
Roberts' Force which marched via the Shutar Gardan, and 
was present at the battle of Charasia and re-occupation of 
Kabul. His son Abdula Khan was appointed Kazi of the 
city. On the Navvab's return he received the honor of 
Knighthood in the Order of the Star of India, and a khilat of 
the value of Rs. 5,000. Further honors, all well deserved, 
would doubtless have been showered on this worthy old 
servant were it not that death claimed him before there was 
time for consulting his own wishes as to the form they should 
take. Government, however, was not slow to mark its sense 
of the loss Her Majesty had sustained. The perpetual jagir 
was raised in his children's favor to Rs. 12,000 per annum, 
of which three-fourths were set apart for the holder of the 
title, and the remainder for the younger sons. 

The Nawab was succeeded in 1881 by his son Abdula 
Khan, a gentleman who has done good service with fewer 
opportunities than fell to his father. He assisted the Deputy 
Commissioner of Dera Ismail Khan in quelling the Waziri 
and Pawinda disturbances in 1878-79, and in the following 
year was instrumental in procuring five thousand camels for 
work in connection with the Afghan War. As Kazi of Kabul 
during the British occupation, he performed his duties to the 
satisfaction of Major-General Hills, to whom he was subordi- 
nate ; and he was selected later on to accompany the ex- Amir 
Yakub Khan to India, in which latter duty he is described as 
having shown much tact and judgment. He remained with 
the Amir until recalled to his home by his father's death. He 
had charge of the Shirani border during the Mahsud Expedi- 
tion in 1881, and acquitted himself well. In 1884 he was ap- 
pointed Honorary Commandant of the 15th Bengal Cavalry. 
He is a Magistrate and Civil Judge within the limits of his 
own jagir, and he has magisterial powers in the city of Dera 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 571 

Ismail Khan. He is a member of the Municipal Committee 
and District Board. 

The Nawab's brother, Niaz Mahomed Khan, also a 
Viceregal Darbari, is a Rasaldar in the family regiment. 
He has seen service in Afghanistan and on the Thal-Chotiali 
border. The jagir yields a little over Rs. 12,000, and includes 
twenty-nine villages in Tahsils Bhakar and Dera Ismail 
Khan. The brothers also own land in twenty-four villages, 
giving an annual income of about Rs. 41,000. 

Another member of the family deserving of notice Is 
Rasaldar Ghulam Sarwar Khan of the 15th Bengal Cavalry. 
His son is a Dafadar in the same regiment. They own some 
lands and nine wells in the Muzafargarh district, yielding an 
income of about Rs. 500 per annum. 



572 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB GHULAM KASIM KHAN, KATIKHEL, 
OF TANK. 

Katal Khan, 
d. 1782. 

Sarwar Khan, 
d. 1836. 



I I I 

Aladad Khan, Sahibdad Khan, Khudadad Khan, 

d. 1844. d. 1S43 



Daulat Khan. Nawab | | 

Shah Nawaz Shah Jahan Fanikh Sher 

Khan, Khan. Khan, 

d. 1881. I d. 1876, 

I I 



I I Ghulam 

Mahomed Mahomed Saiwar 

Akbar Afzal Khan, 

Khan, Khan, d. 1876. 

d. 1877. b. 1857. I 

I Mahomed Nawaz 

Nawab Ghulam Kasim Khan, 

Khan, b. 1869. b. 1874 

From very early times the Pawlnda tribes were in the 
habit of trading- between Hindustan and Khurasan by the 
Gumal Pass. Most of them had their homes in the hill coun- 
try east of Ghazni. Many then, as now, were graziers 
rather than traders. In the beginning of the cold weather 
they moved down to the pastures of the Daman, re- 
turning to their mountain homes with the spring. Some- 
times a feud would arise, and a tribe, unable to return to its 
own country, would remain permanently in the plains. The 
Lodi clans are believed to have thus settled in the time of 
Shahabudin Ghori in the beginning of the thirteenth century. 
The tribes of the Suris and Pabis, of the Prangis and Dres- 
khels, belonged to this branch of the Afghan nation. They 
occupied Tank, Takwara and the northern part of the Dera 
Ismail Khan Tahsil. In the time of the great Akbar, the 
Lohanis, themselves a branch of the Lodi family, having been 
expelled from their homes in the Ghazni mountains by the 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 573 

Sulimankhels, commenced to settle in Tank. The leading 
clans of the Lohanis were the Alarwats, the Daulatkhels, 
the jMiankhels and the Tators. They fought with the Prangis 
and the Suris, and under their Malik, Khan Zaman, defeated 
and dispersed them, so that these tribes are heard of no more. 
The Lohani clans are said to have afterwards quarrelled 
among themselves about the lands taken from the Lodis, but 
eventually they settled down in the countries which they 
now occupy ; the Marwats in the ]\Iarwat Tahsil of the Bannu 
district ; the Daulatkhels and Tators in Tank ; and the Mian- 
khels at Draban and Musazai in the Kulachi Tahsil. The 
Daulatkhels include a number of smaller tribes, the leading 
among which is the Katikhel, to which the Chiefs of Tank 
belong. 

The Tank Tahsil of Dera occupies the north-western 
corner of the Daman, and now includes the whole country 
lying in the corner between the Bhitani Range on the north 
and the Suliman Range to the west. The greater portion 
forms a semi-circular plain, stretching round the town of 
Tank, and open to the south and east. It comprises the 
territory formerly ruled by a family of Katikhel Pathans, and 
has, until quite lately, been under the management of Nawab 
Shah Nawaz Khan, who, though holding a position entirely 
subordinate to the District Officer, and by no means that of a 
semi-independent Chief, still, as the local head of the revenue, 
judicial and police administration, retained to some extent the 
feudal authority formerly exercised by his ancestors. Consi- 
dering, however, the democratic constitution of these Pawinda 
tribes, it is improbable that they exercised much power except 
over their immediate followers. Khan Zaman, who lived about 
the time of Akbar, appears to have been a man of note, and to 
have been employed in the management of Tank and also of 
Marwat and other adjoining countries. Katal Khan, his 
successor in the third generation, was an active, enterprising 



574 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

man, who took part In the Durani expeditions into Hindustan, 
and acquired a good deal of power In his tribe by means of 
the wealth he brought back with him. Under him the 
Daulatkhels reduced the Tators and other small tribes In their 
neighbourhood, and several of the largest of the Jat villages 
in the Tank circle were founded In his time. The Daulat- 
khels under Katal Khan were a numerous and powerful tribe. 
He was murdered, probably about 1782, by his own tribes- 
men, who resented his action In hiring a body of Biluch and 
SIndl mercenaries to preserve order in his territories. His 
eldest son Sarwar Khan, then sixteen years old, fled to the 
Court of TImur Shah, who despatched a force to reinstate 
him, and he thus secured a position considerably stronger 
than that held by Katal Khan. This he Improved by gra- 
dually killing off all the leading men of the Daulatkhel, until 
he reduced the tribe to its present feeble state. He built a 
large fort in Tank, and established himself as an absolute 
ruler over all the surrounding country. The colonization of 
the south-eastern portion of the Tahsil with Jats, which had 
commenced under Katal Khan, now went on rapidly, and 
numerous villages were founded. The whole Gumal valley 
was in subjection to Sarwar Khan, and he built a large fort 
at Dabra, where the Gumal valley joins the Tank plain, to 
facilitate the collection of tolls from the Pawlnda caravans 
passing along that route. He took great Interest in agricul- 
ture and Irrigation, and cultivation extended greatly under 
his rule. During the latter part of his rule, Sarwar Khan 
conquered the Kundls, who held the country north of the 
Sohali, and located garrisons in their midst. In this way he 
gradually got possession of the whole of the present Tank 
Tahsil except Mulazal. He was always engaged more or 
less in border warfare with the Gandapurs and the Nawab of 
Dera. He was allied by marriage with the Wazirls, but in 
order to keep that turbulent_trlbe more effectually In check, he 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 575 

built a fort at Jandola, in the Bhitani country, some ten miles 
up the Tank Zam beyond Kotkhirizi. Katal Khan does not 
appear to have paid tribute to the Durani Princes, but was pro- 
bably made to supply a contingent for service in Hindustan in 
lieu of tribute ; and as Sarwar Khan was only enabled to estab- 
lish his authority with the King's assistance, he was made to 
pay a cash tribute of from Rs. 8,000 to Rs. 12,000. During 
the earlier years of the present century, this was paid with 
tolerable regularity as the Kabul Kings used to take advan- 
tage of their expeditions against Sind to collect the revenues 
due from the Chiefships along the Indus. In i8og, the Durani 
Monarchy was broken up, and for some years Sarwar Khan 
remained practically independent. A short time before the 
taking of Mankera by the Sikhs in 1821 he made his submis- 
sion to Ranjit Singh, and agreed to pay tribute. . This at first 
amounted to Rs. 12,000 or Rs. 15,000, but before his death in 
1836, it was gradually enhanced to Rs. 40,000. At that 
time Nao Nahal Singh was engaged in an expedition to 
Bannu, and took advantage of the opportunity for settling 
the affairs of Tank. He accordingly raised the tribute of 
Tank to one lakh. Aladad Khan, who had succeeded his 
father Sarwar Khan, unable to meet the Sikh demands, fled 
to the Waziri hills, whence he made perpetual raids on the 
Tank villages. 

After the annexation of Tank, Nao Nahal Singh placed 
it under Badri Nath as Kardar. The constant attacks of 
Aladad, however, made it an unprofitable acquisition, and 
after a year or two the Sikh Government assigned the whole 
province in jagir toPainda Khan, Khajikzai, Ashak Mahomed 
Khan, Alizai, and Hayatula Khan, Sadozai, leading men of 
the Multani Pathans. To them were allotted nine-tenths of 
the Tank revenues, the remainder being divided in smaller 
p-rants to Sahibdad Khan and Khudadad Khan, Katikhel, the 

o 

younger sons of Sarwar Khan, to Shah Nawaz Khan, son of 



576 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the refugee Aladad Khan, afterwards Nawab of Tank, and 
to Mian Khan Kundi and other leading men of the Ilaka. 
The revenue of Tank was then valued at one lakh. After 
Sarwar Khan's death the circumstances of the country- 
changed owing to the insecure state of the border and the 
constant internal warfare that was going on. In spite of this, 
the Multani Khans are said to have made about a lakh and a 
half a year out of Tank ; but their administration was oppres- 
sive, and they appear to have squeezed out of the country all 
that they could get. The Tank jagirdars had to keep up a 
certain number of horsemen and camel guns, and to pay for 
the repairs and garrison of the fort at Tank, They held the 
province with one or two short intervals till 1847 ; but their 
position was never secure. 

Aladad Khan was by no means conciliated by the miser- 
able pensions to his son and relatives. After trying unsuccess- 
fully to get assistance from Dost Mahomed Khan, Amir of 
Kabul, he made a desperate attempt at the head of a large undis- 
ciplined force of Waziris and Bhitanis to seize the fort of Tank. 
How that attempt was frustrated by the gallant KhudaBakhsh 
Khan Khatak, is related at length by Edwardes. Aladad 
Khan after firing the town had to retire to the hills. This is 
only one of the many raids carried out by this restless spirit ; 
all the border villages were burnt and harried, and some of 
them have even now hardly recovered from the effects of this 
predatory war. The political state of Tank during the rule 
of the Multani Chiefs is closely bound up with the history of 
the quarrel between Fatah Khan Tawana and Diwan Daulat 
Rai. When Fatah Khan was put in as Governor of Dera, it 
was arranged that Aladad should be restored to the govern- 
ment of Tank on an allowance of Rs. 20,000 a year, but he 
died on the road as he was marching down to take possession. 
The Multani Chiefs, when ordered to give up their jagirs, re- 
fused, and sided with the Diwan Daulat Rai. Sahibdad Khan 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 577 

Katikhel, the youngest and favourite son of Sarwar Khan, had 
also sided with Daulat Rai. He was confined in the fort of 
Akalgarh, where he was murdered along- with the other pri- 
soners after the defeat of Fatah Khan at Babar. On the return 
of Daulat Rai, the rule of the Multani Chiefs over Tank was 
again thoroughly re-established ; the revenues of the province 
w^ere re-distributed between Hayatula Khan and the heirs of 
the murdered Chiefs ; and the allowances of the partisans of 
Malik Fatah Khan were at once confiscated. Shah Nawaz 
Khan, the son of Aladad Khan, in this way lost his pension of 
Rs. 3,000. He left the country, and hung on as a dependent 
on the fallen Malik until restored a year or two later by 
Edwardes. Mian Khan Kundi, one of the chief men of Tank 
under Sarwar Khan, had also taken the losing side ; he was 
killed at Dera in the murderous attack on Ashak Mahomed 
Khan. The Multani Chiefs now retaliated on his family, the 
principal members of which had to fly the country, while the 
allowances enjoyed by them were confiscated. 

In 1847 the Sikh Darbar, among other retrenchments, 
resumed the Tank jagir enjoyed by the Multani Chiefs, and on 
Edwardes' recommendation, the management of the Ilaka was 
entrusted to Nawab Shah Nawaz Khan, the fugitive grandson 
of the great Sarwar. When making over the province, 
Edwardes fixed the revenue at Rs. 1,00,000, of which Shah 
Nawaz Khan was to retain one-fourth for expenses of collec- 
tion and administration. He was given a lease on these 
terms for five years. On the abolition soon after of the fron- 
tier customs, the revenue taken from Shah Nawaz Khan was 
reduced to Rs. 65,000. On the expiry of the lease a summary 
settlement for three years was made village by village, the 
leases being, as a rule, given to the leading zamindars. Shah 
Nawaz Khan himself retained only Tank Khas and two or 
three other adjoining villages. In 1854 Government recog- 
nized Shah Nawaz Khan as Chief of Tank, and granted him 



578 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

a third of the Tank revenues, from which he was to meet the 
cost of the civil administration. This, owing to the large 
reduction in the revenue, was rather less than the Rs. 25,000 
allowed by Edwardes. But at the second summary settlement 
of the Tahsil, Shah Nawaz Khan, who had in the same year 
been given the title of Naw\ib, was continued in the enjoy- 
ment of a third of the increased revenues, which by the revised 
assessm.ents, were raised to nearly Rs. 70,000. The villages 
were farmed as before to the leading zamindars, though a 
great number of holdings changed hands owing to the old 
lessees having broken down. 

Rights in Tank had been treated in a vague manner in 
both summary settlements, and except in the Kundi villages 
to the north and those of the Gumal valley, the proprietary 
rights of the whole Tahsil were recorded as sarkari ovh^Xong- 
ing to Government. In the Gumal and Kundi tracts the 
original ownership rights of the people had never been extin- 
guished, but in the rest of the Ilaka there is no doubt that 
the position of Sarwar Khan was as much that of a proprietor 
as of a ruler. On annexation, the rights formerly enjoyed by 
Sarwar Khan lapsed to Government, and when Shah Nawaz 
Khan was put in to manage the Ilaka, the position held by 
him was based merely on the pleasure of the Paramount Power. 
At the recent settlement, Nawab Shah Nawaz Khan was 
eager in urging his claims to be recognized as proprietor. 
Nicholson, however, had, in 1855, recommended that the 
lessees should be recognized as proprietors ; and on the ques- 
tion being referred, in 1874, the Government considered that 
the orders passed on his report involved a surrender of all the 
State proprietary rights in the Tahsil in favor of the persons 
with whom the settlement had then been made, and that these 
could not now be made over to the Nawab, 

Nawab Shah Nawaz Khan, from a combination of cir- 
cumstances for which he is not altogether responsible, was 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 579 

never popular with the officials of the district. He latterly 
lost much of the iniluence which he should have been in a 
position to exercise over the neighbouring Waziri tribe, and 
it was found that his services were of little use when matters 
of importance were on hand. The Nawab blamed some of 
his kinsmen who were said to have tampered with the tribes 
to bring him into disgrace. But Government held him res- 
ponsible, and it was deemed advisable to modify the existing 
arrangements connected with his position. The question 
was dealt with in 1 8 74-75, when the Deputy Commissioner's 
hands were greatly strengthened by giving him direct con- 
trol over the Waziris, hitherto worked through the Nawab. 
He was also given charge of the water-cuts, which had 
been a constant source of dispute between the Nawab and 
his people. The Nawab was granted his own seven villages 
in full jagir, assessed at Rs. 7,574, and a cash allowance 
of Rs. 25,000. He was relieved of the cost of police and 
revenue establishments, thouQrh allowed to nominate to vacan- 
cies in the latter; and his judicial powers were at the same 
time increased. A Tahsil establishment was entertained, the 
post of Tahsildar being given to a cousin of the Nawab, while 
regular police were located at Tank, Gumal and Mulazai. 

The Nawab had been living at Lahore for some years 
previous to his death in 1881, in a state of obscurity, weighed 
down with debts, which reached a lakh and a quarter of rupees. 
He has been succeeded in the title and jagir by his grandson, 
Ghulam Kasim Khan, a young man of some promise, now un- 
der instruction at the Aitchison College. The estate is in the 
hands of the Court of Wards. The debts left by the late Nawab 
have been extinguished, and the property is in a thriving 
state. The cash allowance has been distributed as follows :^ 

Nawab Ghulam Kasim Khan . . Rs. 18,000 

Mahomed Af'zal Khan, second son of Nawab 

Shah Nawaz Khan . . „ 5,000 

Two widows of Shah Nawaz Khan , . ,, 2,000 



SSo 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB ATA IMAHOMED KHAN, KHAGWANI. 



Salah Mahomed Khan. 

I 

Baikhurdar Khan, 

d. 1836. 

I 

MuaziuUn Khan, 

d. 1S55. 

I, 

Ghulam Sarwar Khan, 

d. 1869. 



I 
Navvab Ata 
Mahomed 

Khan, 
b. 1828. 



I 
Ahmad 
Khan, 
h. 1S48. 



I 

Hnji 

Mahomed 

Khan, 
b. 1853- 



Mahomed Nawaz 



b. 1S55, 



Ghulam 
Hasan 
Khan, 

/'. 1872, 



I 
Kasim 
Khan, 
b. 187S. 



I I 

Ahdula Mahomed 

Khan, Akbar 

b, 1870. Khan, 

b. 1879 



Mahomed 
Azam 
Khan, 
b. 1SS7. 



I 
Hamid Yai 

Klian, 

/'. 1S62. 

I 

Kahim Yar 

Khan, 

b. 18S8. 



I 

Abdul Satar 

Khan, 

b. 1S85. 



I 

Ghulam 

Mahomed 

Khan, 

b. 1836. 



t 
Mall mud 
Khan, 
d. 1S87. 



I 

Mahomed 

Ramzan 

Khan, 

b 18S7. 



I 
Mahomed Sadik 
Khan, b. 1877. 



Mahomed Hashi 
Khan, b. 1884. 



Mahomed Hayat 
Khan, I'. 1887. 



Abdul Rahman 
Khan, 
b. 1863. 



I 

Hafiz Abdul 

Rahim, 

b. 1S70. 



I 
Mahomed 
Baran, 
b. 1872. 



Abdul Ilalim 
Khan, 
b. 1882. 



Barkhurdar Khan, great-grandfather of Nawab Ata 
Mahomed Khan, was in the service of the Dera Nawabs, and 
his son Muazudin after him. Ghulam Sarwar Khan, son 
of Muazudin, left his country on the coming of the Sikhs 
and served Mir Ali Murad of Sind for many years. Leaving 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 581 

Sind, he proceeded to Kabul in 1843, and was there given a 
command in the Amir's army. He returned to his home to 
help in resisting the attacks of Malik Fatah Khan Tawana, 
but arrived too late to be of much assistance. When the 
Multan War broke out he was appointed a Rasaldar in the 
local levies and accompanied Edwardes down the Frontier 
with thirty sow^ars of his own raising. Edwardes held him 
in the highest esteem for his many acts of gallantry. He 
was badly wounded at the battle of Saduzam and incapacita- 
ted from further active service.* 

Ghulam Sarwar Khan was granted a life-pension of 
Rs. 2,400, his son Ata Mahomed Khan succeeding him as 
Rasaldar. He was afterwards deputed with Colonel Lums- 
den's Mission to Kandahar. For services there rendered he 
was rewarded on his return to India with a perpetual jagir 
grant of Rs. 1,000, and a garden in Shujabad, Multan. 
This property passed to his sons Ata JMahomed Khan and 
Ghulam Mahomed Khan on Ghulam Sarwar's death in i86g. 
They hold three-fifths and two-fifths shares respectively. 

Ata Mahomed Khan volunteered for service in Hindu- 
stan on the outbreak of the Mutiny, and proceeded by forced 
marches with a troop of horse to join Nicholson at Mardan. 
He engaged the rebels outside Jhilam, losing- several of his 
men in action, and then followed in Nicholson's tracks to 
Gurdaspur and finally on to Dehli. He was detached after 
the fall of the city to Rohtak and Hissar. In the action at 

* Edwardes describes the incident in his Vtiir on tlie Punjab Fiontier in the foUcvviiig 
terms: — " Of all the wounded in my force, the one who caused me the liveliest sorrow 
was Ghulam Sarwar Khan, Khagwani. This noble officer had not the rare ability of his 
friend Faujdar Khan in either Camp or Council, but for grandeur of stature, personal 
strength, skill as a swordsman, and reckless bravery in the tield, he had no equal among 
thousands of brave men ; and might well be called the pride of the border. Yet I have 
already recorded the close of his active career as a soldier. When our guns at Saduzam 
were brought up by the canal, Mulraj's infantry on the right were emboldened to come out 
and taunt our cavalry on the left. Sarwar Khan called on his fifty men to follow him and, 
leaping over the canal, charged into the foremost body, and drove them back upon their 
line. He was in the act of cutting down one of the last, when an infantry soldier raised 
his musket and shot Sarwar Khan through the right arm, breaking both bones and render- 
ing it useless for life." 



582 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Narnaul he was instrumental in saving the life of an officer of 
Engineers at the eminent risk of his own. For this gallant 
conduct he received the Order of Merit. Thence his regi- 
ment marched to Rohilkand and earned distinction in a series 
of brilliant actions, materially helping in stamping out the 
rebellion in that district. Ata Mahomed was present on 
every occasion, and did much by his brave example to encour- 
age and give heart to the young soldiers of the regiment. Sir 
Sidney Cotton remarked of him that he had never seen a 
smarter squadron-leader. He was honored in 1859 with the 
title of Khan Bahadar, receiving shortly afterwards the post 
of Rasaldar-Major in the Multani Cavalry. His brother 
Ghulam Mahomed was made a Rasaldar. On the breaking up 
of the Irregulars in 1861, Ata Mahomed Khan was granted 
a gratuity and a perpetual jagir of Rs. 1,000, and was ap- 
pointed an Extra Assistant Commissioner in the Panjab. 
This office he surrendered in favor of his brother Ghulam 
Mahomed Khan in 1865, when he himself was selected to 
proceed as an envoy to Kabul. He held the post for twelve 
years, receiving on his return a jagir yielding Rs. 10,000 
per annum, of which Rs. 4,000 were in perpetuity. The title 
of Nawab was also conferred upon him. He was attached to 
the Kabul Eield Eorce in 1879 ^^ 3- Political Officer with the 
troops on the Khaibar line, and his services were rewarded 
with the bestowal of a valuable khilat. 

The Nawab is a member of the Dera Municipal Com- 
mittee and District Board. His jagir is spread over thirty- 
two villages in the Dera and Kalachi Tahsils ; and he has 
ownership rights, jointly with his brother, in about ten 
thousand acres in districts Dera and Multan. 

Ghulam Mahomed Khan retired in 1888 on a pension 
of Rs. 2, 160 per annum, after serving for thirteen years as 
an Extra Assistant Commissioner. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 583 

Amongst other distinguished members of this family 
distantly related to the Nawab, may be mentioned Mahomed 
Akram Khan, Khagwani, a pensioned Rasaldar and a 
Darbari of the Dera district ; also Rasaldar Dur Mahomed 
Khan, Honorary Magistrate of Dera, 



584 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



IIAFIZ SAMANDAR KHAN, KHWAJIKZAI. 



Mahomed Asad Khan. 

I 
Mahomed Fazil Khan. 



Mahomed Ilayat 
Khan. 

I 



Gliulam 
Sarwar 
Khan. 

I 



Mahomed 
Sadik 
Khan. 



Malik Khan. 

I 

Salah Mah.Tmed 

Klian. 

I 



Mahomed 
Painda Khan. 



Shah Mahomed 
Khan, d. 



(diu'am 

Muhniiulin 

Khan. 

I 

Hafiz Mir 

Mahomed 

Khan. 



Ghulam ^'asin 
Khan, 



Kadar T^akhsh 
Khan, cL 



I 

Tlafiz 

Sakandar 

Khan 

I 

Yar Mahomed 

Khan. 

I 
G hid am 
Hasan Khan. 



Hafiz Abdula Khan. 
Samani:)AR [ 

Khan. 



Fatah Din 
Klian. 



I 

Hafiz 
Ghulam 

Haidar 
Khan. 



Abdul Karim 
Khan. 



I 
Abdul Rahim 
Khan. 



Saifula 
Khan. 



Sadula 
Klian. 



Glndam 

Mahomed 

Khan. 



Mahomed 
Afzal 
Khan. 



Ahmad 
Khan. 



Ghulam Mahomed 
Khan. 



The origin of the Multani Pathans, and the circumstances 
under which they settled at Dera, have already been 
described. 

Painda Khan, father of Hafiz Samandar, after serving 
Nawab Mahomed Khan of Mankera, was, in 1845, cruelly 
murdered with his son Sakandar by the Tawana Malik Fatah 
Khan. He was succeeded in his share of the Tank jagir by 
the present incumbent, who was later on awarded a cash 
allowance of Rs. 2,500 per annum in lieu thereof, on the res- 
toration of Tank to representative of the former owners. 

Samandar Khan rendered good service in connection 
with the Multan Rebellion. Again, in 1857, he came forward 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 585 

in command of a small body of horse and foot, raised by 
himself, and placed them under Edwardes' orders at Peshawar. 
Thence he was despatched to Sirsa and Hissar, to act with 
his men as a Police force after the rebels had been dispersed. 
He received a khilat for his Mutiny services. 

In 1865 he entered civil employment as an Extra i\ssis- 
tant Commissioner, and served for twelve years, retiring on 
a pension of Rs. 1,900. His brother Abdula Khan is a Tah- 
sildar in the Province. 

Samandar Khan has a mafi of eighty-four acres in two 
villages of Tahsil Dera, and he owns land, yielding about one 
thousand rupees per annum, in the districts of Dera, 
Muzafargarh and Multan. 



586 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



SARDAR MAHOMED AFZAL KHAN, GANDAPUR. 



Haji Atal Khan. 



Dadu Khan, 
d. 1S15. 



Mian Nur 
Khan. 



Sardar 
Khan. 



Mian Khan. 



Mahomed Zafar 
Khan, 
d. 1836. 

I 



Mahomed Ali 
Khan. 



I I 

Mahomed Sardar 

Guldad Khan, 

Khan, d. 1S76. 

b. 1829. 



I 
Air lad 
Khan, 
d. 1S72. 



Wali 

Mahomed 
Khan, 
d. 1870. 



1 I 

Chandan Mahomed 
Khan, Kalu 

b. 1826. Khan, 

1 b. 1828. 



Muazam 
Khan, 
b. 1861. 



I 

Umar 

Khan, 

b. 1S70. 



Saifiila Khan, 
b. 1848. 



Ayaz Khan, 
b. 1864. 



Umar Daraz, 
b. 1868. 



I 

Mahomed Afzal 

Khan, 

b. 1851. 



Dost Mahomed 
Khan, 
b. i860. 



Atal Khan, 
b. 1877. 



The country of the Gandapurs, which has an area of four 
hundred and sixty square miles, reaches from the Bannu 
district on the north to the Miankhel and Zarkani country 
on the south. On the west it adjoins the Suliman Range, 
but the boundary reaches only to the foot of the hills, and 
the tribe has no rights in the country beyond. 

The Gandapurs were originally a poor Pawinda tribe, 
mainly dependent on their flocks. They lived in the hills 
east of Kandahar, but were driven out by the Kakars. 
For some time they led a wandering life, until, eventually, 
about the beginning of the seventeenth century, they were 
persuaded to settle at Rori by Khan Zaman, Chief of the Dau- 
latkhel, who wanted their assistance against the Marwats. 
They soon after established themselves at Luni, and gradu- 
ally, by ousting the Dreskhels and the other old inhabitants, 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 5S; 

got possession of their present country, from Takwara to the 
Miankhel border. They were engaged in constant feuds 
with their neighbours, more especially the Miankhels. The 
Gandapurs and Miankhels, however, would often join toge- 
ther to oppose Sarwar Khan of Tank or the Hot ruler of 
Dera Ismail Khan, and sometimes to resist the Wazir sent 
by the King of Kabul to collect his outstanding revenues. 
Their independence was first disturbed by Mahomed Shah 
Nawaz Khan, Nawab of Dera, who exacted an annual tribute 
of Rs. 10,000. This was raised after five or six years to 
Rs. 15,000 and again to Rs. 30,000, at which figure it 
remained till the Nawab's possessions passed into the hands 
of the Sikhs, when Prince Nao Nahal Singh at once brought 
the demand up to Rs. 50,000. 

When Sir Herbert Edwardes visited this part of the 
country in 1847, he found the Gandapurs much oppressed, 
and gave them relief by an immediate reduction in the demand. 
Guldad Khan was then their Chief. His allowances were re- 
duced to Rs. 7,000 under the second summary settlement, 
and in 1855 they were fixed at twenty-five per cent, of the 
revenue actually realized. 

Guldad offered his services to Edwardes on the occasion 
of the Multan Rebellion, and he was made responsible for the 
peace and order of his own district. He was again left at 
home during the Mutiny ; but of his loyalty there was not 
the slightest doubt, and his cousins did excellent service. In 
i860 he took part in the Mahsud Waziri Expedition with a 
following of four hundred men. He afterwards assisted the 
district officials in their relations with the Shiranis, for which 
services he was presented in Darbar with a valuable khilat. 
He, however, fell into disgrace by purchasing a plot from the 
Shiranis, about four miles beyond the Zarkani border. On 
this land he proceeded to build himself a fort ; but the Shirani 



588 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Maliks objected, and in the scuffle which ensued, fifteen of 
Guldad's men were killed and eleven wounded. The blame 
was cast upon Guldad. He was deprived of the Chiefship, 
which passed to his son Mahomed Afzal Khan ; and his cousins, 
Kalu Khan and Naurang Khan, were fined for neglect in 
not giving timely warning to the authorities. 

Mahomed Afzal Khan has received an English education 
at the Lahore University, and is now an Assistant Commis- 
sioner under the Statutory Civil Service Rules. He afforded 
assistance to the local authorities when the Mahsuds and 
Pawindas created a disturbance on the Tank border in 
1879, and was instrumental in stopping the Pawindas and 
Shiranis from raiding the British villages. His men occupied 
the military posts of Jata and Manjhi, and proved themselves 
amenable to discipline. Khilats for these services were 
bestowed upon Afzal Khan and his cousin Saifula Khan. In 
the late Afghan War he was detailed for duty as a Political 
Officer under Sir Lepel Griffin, and was rewarded, on the 
conclusion of the campaign, with the title of Khan Bahadar. 
He was summoned from Dehli in 1881 to take part in the 
Mahsud Waziri Expedition. He again assisted on the occa- 
sion of the Shirani blockades of 1883 and 1886-88. Mahom- 
ed Afzal Khan is privileged to appoint sixteen sowars to the 
Border Police. Fie has ownership rights in twenty-four vil- 
lages of the Gandapur Ilaka, with an aggregate area of 
twenty-eight thousand acres. He owns several houses at 
Kalachi and Dera. 

Of the same family is Rasaldar Mahar Dil Khan, 
who proved himself a gallant soldier in many battles before 
and after the Mutiny. His father, Naurang Khan, was one 
of the foremost of the Gandapur Chiefs in Edwardes' time. 
Mahar Dil Khan enjoys a special pension of Rs. 1,000 per 
annum, and he has a small jagir yielding Rs. 434. Many of 
his cousins and nephews are soldiers. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 589 

Shah Alam Khan of Kalachi is another conspicuous 
member of the Gandapur family. He and his brother Ahmad 
Khan did good service in the early days of British Rule. 
He enjoys a small pension, and owns about two thousand 
acres in four villages of the Kalachi Tahsil. 

Kalu Khan is an uncle of Mahomed Afzal Khan. 
Edwardes-had a great liking for him, and describes a brave 
feat, when on one occasion with only fourteen companions 
he dashed into a large body of Nasir Pawindas, who were en- 
camped across the Luni, and seized a number of their camels 
with the object of forcing them to pay grazing dues, which 
they had attempted to evade. Kalu received six or seven 
sword-cuts in the affray, and was left on the ground for dead. 
But his wounds were neatly sown up by the Nasir women with 
hairs plucked from his own horse's tail, and it was not long 
before he was able to get about again. He was, however, 
kept prisoner by the Nasirs, and Edwardes was obliged to 
give them back seventy-five camels of those raided before 
they would consent to his release. The grazing dues were 
then paid up, and everything was friendly as before. 

Kalu Khan did good service during the rebellion of Diwan 
Mulraj, and received as a reward a pension of Rs. 3,000 per 
annum. Again, in 1857, he furnished two hundred men to 
garrison the posts under the Deputy Commissioner on the 
Suliman border, and himself proceeded to join his old friend 
Edwardes at Peshawar, where he remained throughout the 
crisis in command of a considerable body of horse and foot 
of his own raising. His rewards were a valuable khilat, a 
perpetual jagir of Rs. 1,000 and the title of Khan Bahadar. 

Kalu Khan has always been forward in helping -the local 
authorities in matters connected with the border. He render- 
ed especially good service in the Waziri Expedition of i860, 
and again, in 1868, when there was trouble with Kaura Khan, 



590 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Kasrani, He, however, got into disgrace over the Guldad 
Khan incident with the Shiranis, as already noticed, and was 
cast in a fine of Rs. 500. He is a member of the District 
Board, and takes an interest in local improvements. He is a 
Lambardar in four villages, and he exercises the right of 
nominating eight sowars for service in the Border Militia. 
His jagir brings him in Rs. 2,646 per annum, levied in four 
villages of Tahsils Kalachi and Dera ; and he receives one- 
third of the quarter collections of the Gandapur Ilaka allowed 
to the family. He also owns about eleven thousand acres in 
the Kalachi Tahsil. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 591 



SARDAR ALA WARDI KHAN OF HAZARA. 



H^ji Khan. 

I 

Khudadad Khan. 

I 
Sher Mahomed Khan. 

I 



1 

Haidar 

Ali 
Khan. 


1 
Ashak 
Hasain 
Khan. 


1 

ALA WaRDI 

Khan. 

i 


1 

Yusaf Ali 

Khan. 


1 
Alayar 
Khan. 


Abdula 
Khan. 


1 

Sadat 
Khai 



I I I I I I 

All Mahomed Sadik Yar Ghulam Fida 

Hasain Akbar Ali Mahomed Muilza. Hasain. 

Khan. Khan. Khan. Khan. 

Ala Wardi Khan's father, a Kazalbash, accompanied 
Shah Shujah to India. He himself obtained a command of 
sowars locally raised in the First Afghan War, and was after- 
wards made Rasaldar in the 17th Irregular Cavalry. His 
regiment behaved well during the Mutiny, He led a bril- 
liant charge against the mutineers of the 9th Cavalry, and 
slew their leader Wazir Khan with his own hand. His services 
w^ere also conspicuous in the Mahsud Expedition of i860. He 
was given a jagir of Rs. 2,400 in 1862, of which one-fourth 
was in perpetuity in lieu of cash allowances, without prejudice 
to his military pension of Rs. 970 per annum. 

The Sardar has acquired about one hundred and seventy 
acres by purchase in Mauzas Hazara and Bahal in the Bhak- 
kar Tahsil, and he has received a grant of three thousand 
five hundred acres at Pak Patan, Montgomery. He exercises 
magisterial powers within the limits of his jagir. He is a 
member of the District Board, and has lambardari rights in 
two villages, besides being Zaildar of the Bahal Ilaka. He 
is decorated with three War Medals, and he wears the 
Orders of Me:it and of British India. 

His eldest son is the Rasaldar-Major of the 13th Bengal 
Lancers. Many of his relatives are serving in the Army. 



592 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



DIWAN JA.GAN NATH. 



Rai Tek Chand. 
I 



. I . .1 

Diwan Lakhi Rai Chirkanda 

Mai, Mai, 

d. 1843. d. 1878. 

I . I 

Diwan Daulat Rai Khan 

Kai, Chand, 

d. 1885. d. 1 88 1. 
I 
Diwan Jagan 
Nath, 
b. 1S74. 



a 


Rai Rup 
Chand, 
d. 1878. 




1 
Parma 

Nand, 

d. 1882. 


1 

Takht 

Ram, 

b. 1841. 


1 
Bhaja 
Ram, 
b. 1858 




Sewa Ram, 
/'. 1867. 





I I 

Ganga Ram, Jaswant Ram, 

b. 1857. b. i860. 

In 1765 Rai Tek Chand was Hakim or Governor of the 
Khichi Ilaka under Mahomed Hayat Khan, the ruling Jaskani 
Chief. His son Lakhi Mai held a similar post under Nawab 
Mahomed Khan of Mankera, who took Khichi from the 
jaskanis, and was given the title of Diwan. When the Nawab 
surrendered his rights to the Sikhs, Lakhi Mai was put in as 
Kardar by Prince Nao Nihal Singh. He was succeeded in 
the office by his son Diwan Daulat Rai, who was supplanted 
by Malik Fatah Khan Tawana ; but again reinstated on the 
death of the latter under circumstances already detailed. The 
Diwan' s rule was oppressive and unpopular. He was dis- 
missed from office on the advice of Lieutenant Edwardes, who 
visited this frontier in 1847 on behalf of the Resident at 
Lahore ; and General Van Cortlandt was appointed Governor 
in his stead. The ex-Diwan proceeded to Lahore to adjust 
his accounts, and was so engaged when the Multan Rebellion 
broke out. He was able to furnish a body of horsemen, 
who were of some use In helping to disperse the rabble that 
had flocked round the Pretender Maharaj Singh. When the 
British took over the government, the Diwan was awarded a 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 593 

Ilfe-jagir of Rs. 1,400 in consideration of the high position 
he had once held. The jagir assets have since fallen to 
Rs. 690. The Diwan was a Magistrate and a member of the 
Dera Municipal Committee. He died in 1885. 

His son, Jagan Nath, a minor, is receiving education at 
the Dera city School. He has been allowed to retain two- 
thirds of his father's jagir, and he is owner of about three 
hundred and fifty acres in four villages of the Dera Tahsil. 



594 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

SARBILAND KHAN, ISMAILZAI. 



MuHABAT Khan. 
1 




1 
Mahomed Sadik Khan. 




1 
Mahomed Saifula Khan. 




I 

Abdul Samand Khan, 

d. 1882. 

1 




i 
S4RBILAND Khan, 
b. 1820. 
1 


1 
Sakandar Khan, 

Hafiz Mahomed 

Akram Khan, 

b. 1868. 


1 1 
Mahomed Amin Ghulam Yasin 
Khan, Khan, 
b. 1865. b. 1868. 



Sarbiland Khan belongs to the Ismallzai branch of the 
Multani Pathans, and is a relative of the late Nawab Ghulam 
Hasan Khan. His people before him did good service of a 
character similar to that described in the case of other mem- 
bers of the family. He himself entered service in 1848 as a 
Jamadar in the Mounted Police of the district. At the out- 
break of the Mutiny in 1857, he was at Kandahar, where he 
had proceeded on escort duty with Colonel Lumsden. Sir 
Herbert Edwardes summoned him to Peshawar, and he there 
remained in command of a troop of Multani Horse. He was 
afterwards transferred to the 15th Bengal Cavalry. He was 
made Rasaldar-Major in 1876, and retired in 1887 on a pen- 
sion of Rs. 1,596 per annum. One of his sons, Mahomed 
Amin Khan, is a Rasaldar, and another, Ghulam Yasin 
Khan, a Dafadar in their father's regiment. Many of his 
near relatives are also serving in the 1 5th Bengal Cavalry. 

His younger brother Sakandar Khan was for some years 
a Deputy Inspector of Police, and has done good service on 
the Frontier. 

Sarbiland Khan owns 2,230 acres in six villages in the 
Dera, Bhakar and Muzafargarh Tahsils. 



THE DERA ISMAIL KHAN DISTRICT. 595 



GHULAM SARWAR KHAN, SADOZAI. 



Yar Mahomed Khan. 

I 
Khudayar Khan. 

1 

Hayatiila Khan, 

d. 1873. 

\ 

1 1 

Ghulam Sarwar Khax, Ghulam Kadar Khan, 
' 1826. 5. 1847. 

I 
Ahmad Nawaz Khan, 
L 1 88a 



I I 1 

Slafiz Ahmad Mahmud Khan, Abdula Khan, 
Khan, d. 1873. d. 1876. 

i>. 1871. 

This Darbari is nearly related to the Nawab Sarfaraz 
Khan. His father, Hayatula Khan, did good service when 
the Sikh Army revolted at Bannu and Multan. He was 
awarded a pension of Rs. 4,000 and a perpetual jagir valued 
atRs. 1,000 per annum, partly in recognition of loyal services 
and partly in lieu of the Tank jagir rights which he was 
made to surrender with the other Multani grantees. He 
acted later on as a Tahsildar for a short period, 

Ghulam Sarwar Khan and his brother Ghulam Kadar 
succeeded to the family jagirs on the death of their father in 
1873. Ghulam Sarwar' s services to Government since an- 
nexation have been sound, if not brilliant. He was constantly 
employed with his father in assisting the local officials, and 
he was more than once entrusted with an important indepen- 
dent command on the border. He served for two years in 
the Irregular Cavalry before the formation of the existing 
Bengal Regiments, and was awarded a pension of Rs. 1,000 
on the disbandment of his corps. He remained at Peshawar 
with Edwardes during the Mutiny, furnishing a contingent 



596 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

of two hundred horse and one hundred infantry. A jagir of 
Rs. 600 per annum was awarded him in perpetuity. He took 
service as a Tahsildar in 1867, and held the office for twenty- 
two years, retiring early in 1889. He has acquired ownership 
of about six hundred acres in three villages of Dera and 
Bhakar Tahsils. 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 597 

THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT.* 

The history of the Dera Ghazi Khan district may be 
said to commence with the irruption of the Rind Biluches 
into the Southern Panjab, about the middle of the fifteenth 
century. Previous to that time there is nothing but vague 
tradition as a guide. The country nominally formed part of 
the kingdom of the Sultans of Dehli, and was included in 
the government of Multan. When the Langha dynasty 
established their independence at Multan, this district no 
doubt continued under their rule ; but practically the tribes 
inhabiting it must have enjoyed a rude independence. The 
most important seem to have been the Nahars of the south and 
the Satha Somra in the central and northern parts of the dis- 
trict. The latter were a Rajput confederation whose members 
had probably already adopted the Mahomedan creed. They 
were sufficiently powerful to retain a good deal of their influ- 
ence, but they only did so by entering into terms with the 
Biluches and by joining their brotherhood. The tribe which 
sprang from this union was named Dodai, said to be derived 
from Doda, the son of a Satha Somra father and a Rind 
mother. One of the first Biluches, whose name is known, 
was Malik Sohrab Dodai, who, according to Farishta, en- 
tered into the service of Sultan Hasain Langha of Multan, 
from whom he obtained a large tract of country lying along 
the Indus, including Sitpur, now on the left, but then on the 
right bank. Two important off-shoots from the Dodai tribe 
will be found alluded to in the family histories which follow, 
namely, the Miranis of Dera Ghazi Khan and the Gurchanis. 

The Nahars ruled in the south of the district, and their 
territory may be roughly described as consisting of what is 



* This note has been prepared by Mr. M. L. Dames, late Deputy Commissioner of the 
Dera Ghazi Khan district. 



598 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

now the Rajanpur Tahsil and the Harand Dajal tract of 
Jampur. They also spread into the northern part of Sind, 
now comprised in the Upper Frontier district. The origin 
of the Nahars is unknown, but they were probably Rajputs 
or Jats. Their rule in Harand Dajal was destroyed in the 
fifteenth century by the rising power of the Miranis, sup- 
ported probably by the Biluches, who were pouring into the 
country. To the south they maintained their position for a 
longer period, but they were finally supplanted by the Maza- 
ris, as is related in the history of that tribe. They now 
exist only as a few zamindar families in Harand and Bhagsar. 
In the latter place they have retained some slight local 
importance. 

The Biluches continued to migrate into the country 
during the latter part of the fifteenth and commencement of 
the sixteenth centuries. According to their traditions the 
Rinds had been engaged for thirty years in war with the 
Lasharis, and they also came into collision with the Mughals 
or Turks, as they are more correctly called. This was co- 
incident with the invasion of northern Sind and the establish- 
ment of a dynasty there by Shah Beg Arghan. The leader 
of the Rinds was Mir Chakar, who is represented in the 
legends as having allied himself with the Emperor Hamayun 
and accompanied him to Dehli. Certain it is that at this 
time the Biluches spread all over the south and west of the 
Panjab, so that even to the present day they form a large 
element in the population, not only of Dera Ghazi Khan but 
of Dera Ismail, Muzafargarh, Multan, Jhang, Montgomery 
and Shahpur, as well as of the Bahawalpur territory. Mir 
Chakar' s tomb stands at Satgarha in Montgomery. All the 
tribes now occupying the Dera Ghazi frontier trace their 
settlement to this period. Some, such as the Mazaris, 
Gurchanis and Lunds of Tibi, first confined themselves to the 
hills, but they gradually spread down into the plains and 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 599 

occupied the nearest lands, extending themselves in some 
places as far as the Indus. The original owners, Jats or 
Rajputs, were in some instances ousted ; in others they held 
their own. They still retain nearly five million acres of land, 
whereas the Biluches own only about two millions, of which 
a large part is barren waste. But the Jats became entirely 
dependent on the Biluches even where they retained their 
lands ; and their subordinate position is shown by the fact 
that one of the leading families of the district belongs to 
this race. Most of the tribes acknowledged the suzerainty 
of the Miranis of Dera Ghazi Khan, who themselves were in 
subordination to the Mughal Emperors of Dehli ; and when 
the Empire began to show signs of decay at the close of 
Aurangzeb's reign, the Miranis tried to establish their inde- 
pendence, but without success. Prince Muazudin, afterwards 
Jahandar Shah, suppressed this attempt, as also a similar 
rising headed by the Kalhoras of Sind. It marked the 
beginning of a long period of invasions and rebellions, cul- 
minating in the expeditions of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah. 
The final establishment of the Durani Kingdom found the 
Miranis very much weakened by the persistent attacks of the 
Kalhoras, who were themselves shortly afterwards obliterated 
by the rebellion of their Talpur Wazirs. Mahmud Khan 
Gujar, Wazir of the last Ghazi Khan Mirani, rose to power 
during these disturbed times, and held sway for many years, 
in nominal subjection to Timur Shah and Zaman Shah. 
These events are related in detail in the history of the Sarai 
and Mirani families. 

The Durani Rule brought another factor into play in the 
central and southern parts of the district. Nasar Khan, the 
Brahoi Khan of Kalat, ancestor of the present Khan, was 
rewarded by Ahmad Shah for his services by a grant of the 
Harand Dajal country, which remained under the Khans until 
conquered by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1827. This tract 



6oo CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

included the whole Gurchani and Tibi Lund holdings. 
The northern tribes of the district, which had been first 
under Mahmud Khan Gujar, and afterwards under gov- 
ernors appointed from Kabul, were constantly at war with 
their neighbours, and the country of the Mazaris and 
Dreshaks fell into absolute anarchy. Canals were deserted 
and villages ruined, and in some places the devastation of 
this period has left traces still visible. 

The Sadozai and Popalzai families of Dera Ghazi Khan 
and the Bozdars of Naharwala settled in the district during 
the Durani Rule. 

The Sikhs first made themselves felt in Dera Ghazi Khan 
in 1 8 19. Between that year and 1830 Nawab Sadik Mahom- 
ed of Bahawalpur farmed the revenues from Maharaja 
Ranjit Singh. General Ventura was the first Governor after 
1830, and he was followed in 1832 by Diwan Sawan Mai who 
held charge for twelve years. The wild independence which 
had reigned among the Biluch tribes was not put down with- 
out difficulty. Nawab Sadik Mahomed had a long struggle 
with the Khosas, as related in the history of that family, and 
they were never on good terms with the Sikhs. The Gur- 
chaniswere at perpetual war with the Lahore Government, 
and Diwan Sawan Mai had himself to march against the 
Mazaris. The Lagharis and Nutkanis found their profit in 
professing loyalty to the Sikhs, although the Chiefs of the 
latter tribe fell into arrears with their nazarana payments, 
and got into as much trouble as if they had been all the 
while in active opposition. When Mulraj rebelled, the tribes 
which had been most opposed to the Sikhs naturally took 
the lead in joining Edwardes, and of these the Khosas were 
foremost. The Lagharis and Nutkanis, as might have been 
expected, held back and waited for the result ; but all sub- 
mitted cheerfully in the end, and welcomed the establishment 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 6oi 

of a government which proclaimed peace and order. There 
is probably no race in the Panjab more thoroughly loyal than 
the Biluches of Dera Ghazi Khan in the present day. 



6o2 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB SIR IMAM B^KHSH KUAN, MAZARI, K.C.I.E. 



Hamal. 
I 

Mitha. 

I 
Gulsher. 

I 



Shah AH. 



Dost AH. 

I 

Hamal d. 1801. 

I 
Bah ram. 



I 

Dost AH 

Khan. 

Sher Mahomed Khan. 

I 



Nawab Sir Imam 
Bakhsh Khan. 



Rahim Khan. 



I 

Dost Mahomed 

Khan. 



Miuad Bakhsh. 



I 

Tilu 

Khan. 



Jalab Taj Mahomed 
Khan. Khan. 



Bah ram 
Khan, 
^.1857. 



Sobhdar 
Khan. 



Ghulara 
Haidar 
Khan. 



Ata Mahomed 
Khan. 



Khair Mahomed. 
Khan. 



Ghaus Bakhsh Khan. 

The Mazari tribe is one of the largest, and was until 
lately one of the most turbulent of the Rind Biluches on the 
Sind-Panjab frontier. They occupy the whole of the 
southern part of the Dera Ghazi Khan district from 
Umarkot downwards ; and their territory includes large hilly 
tracts and lands on both banks of the Indus up to the Sind 
and Bahawalpur borders. A large section of the tribe also 
lives in Sind in the frontier district Trans-Indus, and the 
Ubaro Taluka of the Shikarpur district. The office of 
Tumandar of this important tribe is vested in the Gulsherani 
branch of the Biluchani section, the present head of which is 
Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan, K.C.I.E. 

The Biluchanis are said to have been originally separate 
from the Mazaris. They trace their origin to Hot, the eponymic 



THEDERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 603 

founder of the Hots, one of the five great branches of the 
Biluch race. A son of Hot named AH had two sons, Sahak 
and Panu; and in the general descent of the Biluches into the 
plains of the Panjab at the end of the fifteenth and beginning 
of the sixteenth centuries, Sahak setded at Kashmor, a town 
now included in the Sind Frontier district. The Mazaris were 
at that time livingin the hills near Mount Bambor, and had not 
made any settlement in the plains. Kashmor was their only 
market, and here they used to resort to barter their cattle for 
corn and cloth. Sahak, who was already settled there, made 
himself useful to them in the disposal of their produce and 
the making of purchases. His good name spread through 
the hills, and all returning Mazaris carried his praises to Bizanr 
who was then at their head. On one occasion, when four 
Mazaris had been imprisoned by the people of Kashmor, Bizan 
sent four women to Sahak to ask him to assist in procuring 
their release. Sahak used his influence with the Governor, 
and the men were duly sent back to their tribe. On this, 
Bizan sent Sahak an invitation to pay him a visit, and when he 
came the Mazaris hailed him as their Chief. Bizan himself 
bound the turban of office round Sahak's head, and gave him 
his daughter in marriage. Sahak had two sons, of whom the 
elder was named Biluch (whence the name Biluchani), and the 
younger Shadhen. Biluch succeeded his father, but on his 
death there seems to have been a difficulty about the succes- 
sion, which may be attributed to a want of discipline in the 
tribe. The Chieftainship was evidently elective. It was 
offered, in the first instance, to Radho, son of Biluch, who was 
willingto accept it; but just then a high wind arose, and Kadho's 
keri or hut collapsed and fell down. This was regarded 
as a bad omen, and the Mazaris determined to give up Radho, 
and choose a Chief from among the descendants of Shadhen, 
There were three brothers, sons of Bhando and grandsons of 
Shadhen. The eldest of these was named Badhel. To him 



6o4 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

the Mazaris went in a body and offered the turban. He 
hesitated to accept it, saying he must first consult his 
mother. 

This lady counselled him as follows : — " There are three 
things the Mazaris should agree to if they wish you to be 
Chief. The first is, that if one Mazari kills another, or dis- 
graces a family {i.e., by eloping with a woman), he and his 
whole section are to go forth from their homes and be wan- 
derers on the earth for a year; and they are only to return if 
they have made peace with the injured family. The second 
is, that if a guest or stranger comes for hospitality and the 
Chief takes a sheep from the Mazaris and slays it to entertain 
his guests, the people shall make no claim for it, nor ask any 
price. And the third thing is, that the tribe shall willingly 
pay any tax which the Chief demands. If the Mazaris agree 
to these terms, take the Chieftainship ; if not, refuse it." 
Thereupon Badhel laid these conditions before the tribe. 
They at once accepted them, and he became Chief. The 
story is interesting, as showing the growth of the feeling that 
a settled government with the power of raising taxes and 
suppressing feuds was a necessity for the tribe, and it also brings 
out the idea still strong among Biluches that hospitality is a 
duty, and that the Chief represents the tribe. 

It was in Badhel's time that the irruption of the Biluches 
into the Central Panjab took place under Mir Chakar. 
One faction, headed by Haivtan, refused to follow him and 
stayed in the hills, while Chakar marched towards Dehli 
with the Emperor Hamayun. When he reached Talamba 
in the Multan district, he asked whether any one would 
volunteer to return and attack Haivtan. As no one else 
offered, Badhel Khan said that he would take the Mazaris 
back ; and with him went Mir Chakar's son Sahak, and Bijar 
Khan, one of the old Rind leaders in the war with the Lasharis, 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 605 

noted for his long beard. Haivtan surprised this force, and 
both Bijar Khan and Sahak were killed. Haivtan thereupon 
stuck Sahak's ribs on spits and roasted them ; and Bijar's long 
beard he made into a chauri or fly-whisk. After this he 
lived in dread of revenge, and shaved off his own beard lest 
he should be treated as he had treated Bijar. He had not long 
to wait, for when Mir Chakar heard the news he marched 
down from Satgarha and defeated Haivtan, who fled over the 
hills, until he came to a certain chasm called Gogar, into 
which he fell and was killed. A Sargani Mazari, who was 
pursuing him, went down and cut off his head and brought it 
to Mir Chakar, who made a cup out of the skull. 

In Badhel's time there was war between the Mazaris 
and the Chandias, caused by the protection given by the 
Mazaris to Nindav and Motan, two Maghasi Chiefs, who had 
been driven out of their country by the Chandias. Badhel 
Khan raided on Kach and carried off great booty ; but the 
Chandias pursued and overtook the Mazaris at the Mazardan 
torrent. The result was disastrous for the Mazaris, for 
Badhel Khan was killed by an arrow discharged by Hamal 
Khan, the Chandia Chief. The Chandias also suffered 
heavily, and Hamal Khan himself was killed. Badhel Khan's 
eldest son assumed the Chiefship. He made war against the 
Maris, and in battle with them was killed, with his second 
brother Biluch. A series of petty wars followed which it 
would be profitless to describe. 

In the time of Hamal II., the Mazaris first began to settle 
in the plains. The country along the Indus was held by the 
Nahar tribe, whose Chief was Mahomed Kasim Khan, with 
head-quarters at Kin, while another section of the Nahars 
made Bhagsar their capital. The Mazaris, who brought their 
cattle down every winter to graze near the Indus, entered 
into an alliance with the Kin Nahars. 



6o6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

When war broke out between the two sections of the 
Nahars, the Kin section called on the Mazaris for assistance. 
Mir Hamal Khan brought the tribe down, and with his help 
Bhagsar was taken. In return the Kin Nahars presented the 
Mazaris with the tract of land lying between Rojhan and the 
Indus, which is still known as Hamal Wah, from a canal 
which Hamal Khan dug through it. The Mazaris also 
gained possession of the Pachadh country lying immediately 
under the hills, and began to encroach on the Sind or riverain 
lands occupied by the earlier Biluch colonists. Perpetual 
war was the result ; and the Chandias were eventually pushed 
across the Indus, their lands being seized by the Mazaris. 
War next broke out between the Bughtis and the Mazaris, 
and there were several fights and reprisals. On one occasion 
the Mazaris had carried off a quantity of cattle and were 
retreating by way of the Teghaf stream under the Zen Koh. 
It so happened that five of the party who were separated from 
the main body sat down to gamble, and became so engrossed 
in the game that they did not notice a Bughti force which 
was on their track. They were consequently surprised and 
killed. When this was reported to Mir Hamal Khan, he 
made a vow that he would slay any Mazari whom he found 
gambling in future. Shortly afterwards he came upon his 
son Mitha Khan engaged in the favourite game. Mitha Khan, 
seeing his father, leapt over a wall ; but Mir Hamal Khan let 
fly an arrow with such force that it passed through his son's 
thigh. The Mazaris thus perceived that their Chief was in 
earnest, and gave up gambling, which even in the present day 
hardly exists among them, although very prevalent in many 
Biluch tribes. 

There was war also in Mir Hamal Khan's time between 
the Mazaris and Drishaks ; and this may be considered as the 
commencement of the feud which has lasted to the present 
day, although the law courts have latterly taken the place of 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 607 

the battle-field. The Mazarls were allied with the Kaizais or 
Shambanis, and they grazed their flocks together on the slopes 
of Mount Gandari as they still do. The Drishaks attacked 
them and carried off a herd of cattle, at the same time killing 
a Kaizai and a Mazari, Hamal Khan pursued and overtook 
them at Hamidpur, killing fifteen Drishaks in the fight. Mir 
Hamal Khan then led a force to attack Asni ; and Shaihak 
Khan, the Drishak Chief, made a counter-attack on Rojhan. 
The two forces passed each other unperceived, and the assaults 
were made almost simultaneously, both being successful. 
The Drishaks, however, had the greater triumph, and plun- 
dered Rojhan ; though, according to the Mazari's account, 
they disgraced themselves by killing Hamal Khan's wife and 
wounding his mother. The Drishaks admit this, but say it 
was done accidentally in the confusion of the fight. Soon 
afterwards another skirmish took place, in which the Drishaks 
were defeated and Shaihak Khan himself was killed. 

On Mir Hamal Khan's death, he was succeeded by his 
son Mir Mitha Khan, in whose time there was almost perpetual 
war between the Mazaris and their neighbours the Kaizais, 
Drishaks and Gurchanis. The whole country was devastated, 
and large tracts were thrown out of cultivation. Peace was 
eventually made by the betrothal of a girl of the Gurchani 
Chief's family to Jamal Khan, grandson of Mustafa Khan. 
Soon after this, about 1764, Mir Mitha Khan died and was 
succeeded by his son Mir Gulsher Khan. 

Up to this time the Mazaris enjoyed a wild independence, 
and paid allegiance to no sovereign. The Dehli Empire had 
fallen to pieces, and that of Ahmad Shah Durani had taken its 
place. He bestowed the Harand Dajil country on Nasar 
Khan, the great Brahoi Chief; and the latter, wishing to extend 
his authority over all the Biluch tribes, claimed allegiance 
from the Mazaris. The Brahois took possession of the plain 



6o8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

country, and established a fortified post at Kashmor. The 
Mazaris retired into the mountains, but were pursued ; and 
a battle took place, in which they were defeated and Mir 
Gulsher Khan was killed. He was succeeded by his son Mir 
Shah Ali Khan. The Mazaris were, in those days confined 
to the hills, reduced to the greatest extremities. At last, how- 
ever, Shah Ali gathered strength to attack Kashmor, and 
drove out the Brahois for the time. 

The Chandias were still the most powerful tribe on the 
river Indus, and the Mazaris entered into an alliance with 
them, probably in order to make head against the Brahois. 
The rivalry for the possession of the fertile lands along the 
river was, however, too strong for the peace to last, and hos- 
tilities soon again broke out. The Mazaris prepared to sur- 
prise the Chandias, but Shah Ali's wife, a relative of the 
Chandia Chief, sent information to her kinsmen, who occu- 
pied the further bank of the Indus. They had secured them- 
selves by seizing all the ferry boats and collecting them on 
the left bank, so that the Mazaris had no means of crossing. 
But they determined to throw the Chandias oft their guard by 
making a feint of attacking the Bughtis ; and accordingly 
marched into the hills from Jatroh, but secretly turned back, 
and came by way of the Sori torrent to await their chance of 
crossing the river. Meanwhile Jaurak Lulai and Gyandar 
Kird had discovered a boat at the Kin ferry on the left bank, 
in charge of Sohna, a Chandia Makadam. Gyandar came to 
the river's edge, pretending to be a peaceful traveller, and 
called out to be ferried across. Sohna told a boatman to 
bring him over. Gyandar, when he got close to the left 
bank, suddenly discharged his gun and shot Sohna. He 
then took back the boat to the right bank. A messenger 
was sent to the Mazaris, who arrived in hot haste. The 
boat made seven trips during the night, taking over a hun- 
dred men each time ; and before morning a large body of 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 609 

Mazaris was collected on the left bank. They attacked and 
stormed Marak Khan's town, killing him and sixty Chandias, 
and obtaining great plunder, including three pairs of large 
kettle-drums, which are still in the possession of the Mazari 
Chief. The whole of the land belonging to the Chandias 
was annexed by the Mazaris, and is known by the name of 
Chandko. 

Mir Shah Ali Khan was succeeded by his brother Dost 
Ali Khan, and on his death his son Mir Hamal Khan III. 
followed. In his time Nasar Khan of Kalat renewed his 
attempts to annex the Mazari country. He was joined by a 
body of Bughtis under their Chief Bivaragh Khan. They 
stormed Rojhan, killing forty-four Mazaris in the attack, and 
carrying off a large number of camels and cattle. The 
Brahois established a military fort at Umarkot in order to 
hold the country. But the Mazaris took heart and collected 
to the number of five hundred, and successfully attacked the 
Brahoi army, which was completely routed and the leaders, 
Mihan Khan and Sanjar Khan, were killed. No further 
attempt was made by the Khans of Kalat to interfere 
with the independence of the Mazaris. But Mir Hamal 
Khan perceived the wisdom of acknowledging the supremacy 
of some powerful ruler, and tendered allegiance accordingly to 
Rustam Khan, the Talpur Amir of Sind, He attended the 
Amir's Darbar at Khairpur, and promised to pay revenue for 
all the lands held by the Mazaris. They were then formally 
bestowed on him, and half the revenue remitted in kasiir, ?i\\ 
arrangement which has been upheld ever since as regards the 
lands situated within the limits of the Panjab. This was in 1791. 
After the departure of the Brahois, the Mazaris invaded the 
Bughti country, and won a battle near a stream known as Jahl- 
Syahaf between Syahaf and Lanjsila. They collected great 
booty in cattle, and were driving it down to the plains when 
they were overtaken by the Bughtis, who attacked them 



6io CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

from behind, and killed many of them in the dark. It is said 
that a Takarani Mazari named Chachar vowed to present a 
black ox at the shrine of Rindani Pir, a local Saint, if he 
would only turn night into day ; and that thereupon it 
suddenly became day. The Mazaris rallied, and ultimately 
inflicted a severe defeat on the Bughtis. Hamal Khan died 
in 1 80 1, and was succeeded by Mir Bahram Khan, father 
of the present Chief Wars with the Brahois and Drishaks 
followed, in which the balance of success was in favour of 
the Mazaris. 

But the Mazaris had now to deal with a more formid- 
able enemy, as the power of Maharaja Ranjit Singh was 
beginning to make itself felt. Dera Ghazi Khan had been 
annexed in 1819, and the administration made over to Nawab 
Sadik Khan of Bahawalpur. His province nominally includ- 
ed Rojhan ; but it was not until after the Harand Dajal 
province was conquered from the Khan of Kalat in 1827, that 
the Sikh supremacy became a reality. Diwan Sawan Mai 
then took over the administration, and as the Mazaris con- 
tinued their predatory habits, he marched with an army of 
seven thousand men to Badli near Rojhan. The Mazaris 
were driven into the hills, and had to surrender all the stolen 
cattle in their possession before they could make their peace. 
This was a great grief to them. But they soon broke out 
again, attacking the Sikhs at Mithan Kot and looting the 
town. The Diwan then marched down and occupied the 
country, forcing the Mazaris to take refuge in the territories 
of the Amir of Khairpur. Finally, terms were arranged 
through Rahim Khan, Laghari ; Diwan Sawan Mai agreeing 
to restore the confiscated kasur allowances and the jagirs 
held by the Mazaris. Mir Bahram Khan attended the 
Diwan's Darbar at Multan, and was presented with a khilat. 
This was in the cold weather of 1833-34. 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 6ri 

^lir Bahrain Khan died in 1837, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son Dost AH Khan. Shortly after his accession 
the Mazaris again broke into revolt against the Sikhs, and 
were once more driven into Sind. But fortune again favour- 
ed them, for Diwan Sawan Mai was murdered at this period, 
and his son Mulraj, wishing to gain adherents, sent for Dost 
Ali Khan and pardoned him. Then followed the annexation 
of the Panjab. Dost Ali Khan had fallen into dissipated 
habits, and the management of the tribe was practically in the 
hands of his energetic younger brother Imam Bakhsh Khan, 
who devoted himself with great energy and tact to reclaiming his 
barbarous and lawless tribe. He speedily recognised the ad- 
vantages of the new r<^z;;^t' of law and order, and threw him- 
self heart and soul into the work of making good subjects of the 
Mazaris. He never allowed self-interest or partizanship stand 
in the way of justice ; and the general recognition of his integrity 
gave him enormous influence, not only with Biluches generally, 
but among all classes of the population, Musalman and Hindu. 
His active and intelligent loyalty has been conspicuous on 
various occasions. In the Mutiny he was made Rasaldar of 
a corps raised for service during the absence of the regular 
cavalry regiment from Asni. He was appointed an Hono- 
rary Magistrate in 1859, and he has ever since disposed of 
all the criminal work arising in the Mazari country. Crime 
is severely dealt with, and good order enforced ; his word 
being law to his people, who have entire faith in his justice. 
An excellent feeling of loyalty prevails in his territories. His 
services have been conspicuous in dealing with the Maris and 
Bughtis, with whom he has considerable influence. He was 
of the greatest assistance to Sir Robert Sandeman when, as 
Deputy Commissioner, he had to bring these troublesome 
tribes under control, and prevent their raids on British terri- 
tory. In the negotiations with the Khan of Kalat, extending 
from 1874 to 1877, his services were of value in bringing 



6i2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE, 

matters to a successful issue. He received the title of Nawab 
in the latter year for distinguished services generally. He 
was made a Companion of the Indian Empire in 1884, and 
four years later was raised to the rank of Knighthood in the 
same Order. The Nawab is unquestionably the best and 
most worthy of the many excellent Chiefs whose aid is so 
valuable in watching our western border and keeping it free 
from the ravages of the semi-civilized races living beyond our 
jurisdiction. Every aspect of his character is admirable. 
He is brave, truthful, just, generous, hospitable ; dignified in 
his bearing ; of kindly and sympathetic ways ; gentle in dis- 
position ; but in purpose and action strong as iron. 

Dost Mahomed Khan is the eldest son of Sardar Sher 
Mahomed Khan, son of Sardar Dost Ali Khan, who was the 
nominal Tumandar. On Sher Mahomed's death in Novem- 
ber, 1883, the Nawab generously recognised Dost Mahomed 
Khan as successor in the Tumandarship ; and at his special 
desire the boy was invested with the turban by Sir James 
Lyall at a Darbar held at Dera Ghazi Khan in March, 1888. 
He and his younger brother Murad Bakhsh are treated as 
members of the family of the Nawab who has carefully educat- 
ed them with his own sons. 

Sardar Bahram Khan is the eldest son of Nawab Sir 
Imam Bakhsh Khan. He is a man of excellent character, and 
has inherited his father's keen intelligence and restless energy. 
He is in every way fitted to succeed him in the management 
of the Mazaris, among whom he is exceedingly popular. 
Sardar Bahram Khan was made an Honorary Magistrate in 
1883. He is married to the widow of his brother Sobhdar 
Khan and has no sons. 

Tilu Khan is the son of Rahim Khan, the younger bro- 
ther of Nawab Sir Imam Bakhsh Khan. He is a young man 
of activity and intelligence, and gives great assistance in 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 613 

managing the Mazari tribe, and in the detection and suppres- 
sion of crime. He received a seat in Darbar in 1887. He 
has two brothers named Jalad Khan and Taj Mahomed 
Khan. 



6i4 



CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



NAWAB MAHOMED KHAN, ALIANI LAGHARI. 



BiLucH Khan, 



Mahomed 
Khan. 

I 
Jamal Khan. 



Mahmud 
Khan. 



Hasan 
Khan. 



Dad 
Khan. 



I 

Lai 

Khan. 

I 

Mahomed 

Hasan 

Khan. 



Fatah 

Khan. 

I 

All 

Mahomed 

Khan. 

Dad khan. 



Ahmad 
Khan. 



Sayad 
Khan. 



Rahim Khan. 



I 
Hasan 
Khan. 

I 
Sayad 
Khan. 



Lai Chakar 
Khan. Khan. 



Masu 
Khan. 



Sahib 
Khan, 



Fatah 
Khan. 



Mir Rindo Khan. 

I 
Mir Hazar Khan. 



Hayat 
Khan. 



Jan Mahomed 
Khan. 



Gul Mahomed 
Khan. 



Dost Maho- 
med Khan. 



Bahram 
Khan. 



Gulam 
Haidar 
Khan. 



Mir Alam Aladad 
Khan. Khan. 



I 
Gohar Khan. 



Ghulam 
Hasain 
Khan. 



Ahmad 
Khan, 



Mahmud Khan. 



Mahomed Khar 
I 



Laslikar Khan. 



Jalal Khan. 



I 

Nawab Jamal 

Khan. 

Nawab Maho- 
med Khan, 
b. 183S. 



Nur Ahmad Khan. 



Tagia Khan. 



Din Mahomed Khan. 



I 

Gul Mahomed Khan, 

d. 1889. 



I 
Phulu Khan. 



The Tumandars of the Lagharl tribe belong to the 
Aliani section ; and the Chieftainship has been held in 
an unbroken line for fifteen or sixteen generations. They 
settled in their present location during the first half of 
the sixteenth century. Like most of the Biluches of the 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 615 

Derajat, they accompanied Mir Chakar when he joined the 
Emperor Hamayun on his expedition to Hindustan against 
the Afghan successors of Sher Shah. Mir Chakar ulti- 
mately settled down near Satgarha in the Montgomery 
district, where his tomb still exists. The Lagharis, under 
their Chief Mir Rindo Khan returned to the Trans-Indus 
country, where the first Ghazi Khan Dodai was in power, 
and took possession of the territories now held by them, 
driving out the Ahmadani Biluches who still exist, scat- 
tered throughout the district, but are not organised as a 
clan. Rindo Khan's tomb, a ruined domed building in the 
style of the early Mughal period, still exists near Choti. 

In the Tumandarship of Biluch Khan, before the middle 
of the eighteenth century, the Talpur section of the Lagharis 
split off from the main body and went to northern Sind. 
Their leader Shahdad Khan took refuge with Ghulam Shah, 
the Kalhora Chief of northern Sind. The Talpurs ended by 
supplanting the Kalhoras in 1772, when Abdul Nabi, the last 
ruler, fled to the Derajat. This was the foundation of the 
Talpur family of northern Sind, still represented by Mir AH 
Murad of Khairpur. 

From the time of Biluch Khan the Aliani family have 
been in possession of considerable estates at Barkhan, adjoin- 
ing the territories of the Khetrans. This tract is known as 
Laghari Barkhan to distinguish it from Khetran Barkhan. 
It was until lately independent, but is now included in the 
new province of British Biluchistan, district Thai Chotiali. 
During the troublous times ensuing on the break-up of 
the Durani Monarchy, when the Sikhs took possession of 
Dera Ghazi Khan, Sardar Mahomed Khan fled to Laghari 
Barkhan, and his son, the late Nawab Jamal Khan, was born 
there. The Lagharis afterwards became allies of the Sikhs, 
and reaped their reward in obtaining the assistance of Diwan 
Sawan Mai against their old enemies the Gurchanis and the 



6i6 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Khosas, Chata Khan Gurchani had usurped the Tumandar- 
ship from Bijar Khan his nephew ; but the latter surprised 
and killed him, and recovered his rights. The Lagharis, who 
supported Chata Khan, took up the quarrel and obtained the 
assistance of Diwan Sawan Mai, who had an old grudge 
against Bijar Khan. He was seized and sent to Multan, and 
there made over to the Lagharis by whom he was slain. The 
enmity that arose out of these events slumbered for some 
time, but is now again active ; and the recent murder of Ala- 
dad Khan, son of Rahim Khan Laghari, in Bahawalpur terri- 
tory, is said to have been instigated by the Gurchanis in 
revival of the old feud. 

Rahim Khan, cousin of the present Chief, usurped the 
Tumandarship after the death of Mahomed Khan, but was 
finally driven out with the assistance of the Mazaris, and went 
to Bahawalpur, obtaining a jagir from the Nawab at Rahim- 
abad in the Sadikabad Tahsil. His sons, Ghulam Haidar 
Khan and Mir Alam Khan, still live there and retain the 



When Edwardes marched down the Frontier in 1848 to 
attack Dera Ghazi Khan, the Lagharis naturally sided with 
the Sikhs, while the Khosas and Gurchanis went over to 
Edwardes. Jalal Khan Laghari joined Mulraj in the 
Sind Sagar Doab, and five hundred of his tribesmen 
assembled under Longa Mai, the Kardar at Dera Ghazi 
Khan. They were defeated by the Khosas under Ghulam 
Haidar Khan and Kaura Khan, and suffered heavy 
losses. After the occupation of Dera Ghazi Khan by Ed- 
wardes, Jalal Khan came over to him with eighty men. But 
he proved rather an embarrassing ally owing to the enmity 
between the Lagharis and Khosas, At this time Jamal Khan 
was Tumandar ; but Jalal Khan was the more influential man 
in the tribe ; and his reputation was widespread among the 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 617 

Blluches, His enterprise in peaceful matters was shown by 
the various irrigation projects originated by him, such as the 
Dhundi, the Manka and Nur Canal-extension schemes, and 
the Karez at Choti Bala. This latter work he executed at con- 
siderable cost with the help of Pathan labourers, on the model 
of the subterraneous channels existing- in the Quetta district. 
No doubt he at times allowed his eagerness for profit to carry 
him too far, as in the matter of certain frauds relating to canal 
management, in connection with which he was for a time 
deprived of his magisterial powers. Subsequently, however, 
he rendered useful service on the frontier by exercising his 
influence with the trans-border tribes, especially the Khetrans, 
in the interests of Government. He accompanied Sir 
Robert Sandeman to Kalat in 1875-76; and in recognition of 
his loyal behaviour was invested with the tide of Nawab, 
and restored to his magisterial powers. In 1881 he went on 
a pilgrimage to Mecca, and on his return died at Dera Ghazi 
Khan, being unable to reach his home at Choti. The pre- 
sent Chief, Nawab Mahomed Khan, is able and popular, and 
has managed his tribe most successfully. The title of Nawab 
was conferred on him in 1887, on the occasion of Her Majesty's 
Jubilee. He is a man of magnificent physique, and is a very 
fine specimen of a Biluch Chief. He is well educated, and 
he exercises magisterial functions within the limits of his 
Tuman. 

An znam of Rs. 1 2,000 is payable from the jamas of eight 
villages, from which the Tumandar collects in kind at the rate 
of one-fifth, except in the Darkhwast and Ganehar, The 
Darkhwast is his private property. In Ganehar the rate is 
one-sixth. His income from lands, in addition to his ZTmm, is 
estimated at Rs. 28,000 per annum, making a total of 
Rs. 40,000. He receives a pension of Rs. 500 from Govern- 
ment, enjoyed since the Sikh days, as well as Rs. 1,300 for 
the charge of the Sakhi Sarwar and Vidor Passes. 



6i8 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Sardar Nur Ahmad Khan is brother of the late Nawab 
Jamal Khan, and uncle of Nawab Mahomed Khan, the present 
Tumandar, and in the absence of male issue of the present 
Nawab, is heir to the Tumandarship. He is now an old 
man. His eldest son Tagia Khan stands next in the order 
of succession. Nur Ahmad's income from all sources is 
about Rs. 4,000 per annum. He is not able to read and 
write, but his sons and grandsons are well acquainted with 
Arabic, Persian and Urdu. 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 



619 



MIAN SHAH NAWAZ KHAN SARAI, OF HAJIPUR. 



Var Mahomed (Khuda Var Khan, Abasij 

I 
Nui- Mahomed. 





1 
Ghulam Shah. 

1 

Mahomed Saifa^az 

Khan. 


Abdul 


1 
Nabi, 










Taj Mahomed, 

ti. 1815. 

1 


1 

Mahomed 

Araf. 




Fa^al 

D 

Mah 

Kh 


AIL 




1 










Yar Mahomed. 
1 


Az 


1 

ad 


Var 






1 1 
Niir Jan Mahomet! 
Mahomed. 


i 
Ghulam 
11 iidar Khan 


Dmed 
in. 


1 

Mjax Sahik 
Nawaz Ki 


1 

Shau Lalif Mahomed 

{A.\, Khan. 

1 

Lutnf Hasaiu 

Khan. 


Ghulam 
Mahouied Khan. 




1 

hail- 
iiomed 


L 1841 


1 1 
Lutaf Dad 

Ali Mahomee 
Khan. 

Maho 


. ^ 

lied 


1 
.Shei- K 
lahomed. Ma 

1 
Alam Khan. 



This family is usually known by the name of Sarai, 
which apparently means a native of northern Sind, now 
known as Sira, to distinguish it from Lar or southern Sind. 

The Sarais are the direct representatives of the Kalhora 
Chiefs, and claim descent from Abas, uncle of the Prophet, 
calling themselves Abasi. Captain Goldsmid, in his Memoir 
on Shikarpur, states that they are descended from one jam 
Janjar, who had two sons, Daucl and Mahomed ; of whom 
the former was ancestor of the Daudputras of Bahawalpur, 
and the latter of the Kalhoras. Mahomed's son Ibrahim is 
said to have been known as Kalhora Khan. The members 
of the family, however, do not trace their descent from Jam 
Janjar, but claim that their ancestors were the Abasi Khalifas 
of Baghdad, and ruled for seven generations over Arabia, 



620 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Irak-i-Arabi and Irak-i-Ajami. It is said that after leaving 
Baghdad the family lived for some time at Aleppo ; and then 
a jump is taken to A. H. 1068, when Adam Shah entered 
Sind with three thousand men. 

Adam Shah was the disciple of a famous Sayad of Jam- 
pur, who flourished about 1657. He is said to have been a 
religious leader ; and he was put to death at Multan, His 
body was taken to Sakar by Agha Mahomed, Kotwal of 
Multan. The family say nothing about his having been 
killed at Multan, but all agree that his tomb is at Sakar. 
Alyas Mahomed, his grandson, was the first to assume tem- 
poral as well as spiritual power. But it was in the time of 
Nasar Mahomed that the family first became historically 
important. Towards the end of Aurangzeb's reign, Nasar's 
son Yar Mahomed, with the assistance of the Khan of Kalat, 
defeated the Governor of Sevi, and established himself in 
northern Sind. Meanwhile Jahandar Shah had ascended 
the throne of Dehli. Yar Mahomed made his formal sub- 
mission to him, and in return was invested with the title of 
Nawab and the governorship of Sevi. This was in i 7 1 2. The 
title of Khudayar Khan Abasi was bestowed upon him, and he 
ruled for fifteen years, being succeeded by his son Nur Mahomed, 
who was an able and enterprising Chief. He extended his 
power over the greater part of Sind, partly by conquest and 
partly by purchase. He commenced by attacking Shikarpur, 
and obtained possession of a portion, and afterwards attacked 
the Khan of Kalat, who purchased peace by giving his 
daughter in marriage to Mahomed Murid, son of Nur 
Mahomed. 

During Nur Mahomed's Chiefship, India was invaded by 
Nadar Shah, and the authority of Mahomed Shah of Dehli 
was effaced. Nur Mahomed took advantage of this anarchy 
to secure possession of Thata by giving a bribe of three 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 621 

lakhs to the governor. He built himself a fort at Amarkot, 
thinking probably that Nadar Shah would not follow him 
into the surrounding wilds. Nadar Shah, however, on his 
return from Dehli, marched southwards from Dera Ghazi 
Khan with the object of attacking him. Nur Mahomed sub- 
mitted at once, and was allowed to retain Thata on paying a 
fine of a crore of rupees and promising an annual tribute of 
twelve lakhs ; and his sons Mahomed Murid and Ghulam 
Shah were carried away as hostages. On Nadar Shah's 
assassination, Ahmad Shah Durani obtained possession of 
the eastern part of his dominions. He received Nur Mahom- 
ed's submission, and gave him the title of Shah Nawaz 
Khan, which has been ever since borne by the head of the 
family. During one of Ahmad Shah's expeditions to Dehli, 
Nur Mahomed rebelled, but he was shortly afterwards attack- 
ed by Ahmad Shah, and obliged to fiee to Jasalmir, where 
he died. This event may be placed in the winter of 1748-49, 
when Ahmad Shah, after receiving the submission of Mir 
Manu at Lahore, marched back probably by the Bolan Pass 
to Kandahar, settling on the way the governments of Dera 
Ismail Khan, Dera Ghazi Khan, Multan and Shikarpur. 

Nur Mahomed was succeeded by his son Ghulam Shah, 
In his time Shahdad Khan, Talpur Laghari, came to Hyder- 
abad with his followers who had separated from the Choti 
branch. The whole Laghari tribe were at that time disciples 
of the Kalhora Ruler, whom they regarded as their spiritual 
Chief. Shahdad Khan was well received by the Kalhoras, 
and was granted a jagir. On his death Mir Bahram, his son, 
became Chief of the Talpurs, and was made Wazir by Mian 
Ghulam Shah. It was probably through the support of this 
powerful body of Biluches that Mian Ghulam Shah was en- 
abled to extend his territories, in the language of his repre- 
sentatives, " from Kach in the south to Kala Bagh in the 
north." There is no doubt that his power was widely felt. 



62 2 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Mir Bahram had already come into collision with the Hot 
Biluches of Dera Ismail Khan, and his authority over the 
Jistkanis of Leia seems to have been to some extent ad- 
mitted. Mian Ghulam Shah governed at Dera Ghazi Khan ; 
and the last Ghazi Khan Mirani and his powerful Wazir, 
Mahomed Khan Gujar, acknowledged him as their Chief. 
Ahmad Shah, however, interfered. The Kalhoras were 
defeated by his troops under Kaura Mai, Governor of Multan, 
in 1756; and their final fall was brought about by the 
energetic Talpurs, on whose support they had relied. Abdul 
Nabi, brother of Ghulam Shah, demanded in marriage the 
daughter of Mir Bahram Khan Talpur, who refused, as being 
contrary to Biluch usage. This was in effect equivalent to 
saying that the Kalhoras were of inferior rank to the Talpurs. 
Mian Abdul Nabi could not brook this insult. He caused 
Nur Bahram Khan to be murdered, and made his son, Mir 
Bijar Khan, Wazir in his place. Soon afterwards Mir Bijar 
Khan, who had obtained great power and influence, revolted 
against the Kalhoras. For a time he was successful, and 
Mian Abdul Nabi was forced to take refuge in Mar war. 
Thence he sent an agent to treat with Mir Bijar Khan, who 
unsuspiciously visited him with only a few followers, and was 
treacherously murdered. But Abdul Nabi's success was 
short-lived. Mir Sobhdar Khan, son of Bijar, raised the 
Talpurs and other Biluches, and drove him from the country 
in 1772. Abdul Nabi, now known as Abdul Nabi Khan 
vSarai, asked the aid of Ahmad Shah, who granted him a 
jagir, said to have been worth Rs. 40,000, in the Rajanpur 
country, and promised to assist him with troops. But Ahmad 
Shah was in the last year of his reign, and Timur Shah, his 
successor, had sufficient to do in consolidating his own power ; 
so the promised help was never given. Abdul Nabi settled 
at Hajipur and obtained a grant of one-third of the revenues 
from Nasir Khan of Kalat, the actual ruler, under the nominal 



THE DERA GHA7J KHAN DISTRICT. 623 

suzerainty of the Durani King. Abdul Nabi was not, how- 
ever, prepared to sink into obscurity. The province of Leia 
offered a field for his energies, and he made an offer to 
Timur Shah to administer it for him, sending him at the 
same time a large nazai-ana. Timur Shah accepted the pro- 
posal and the present, and bestowed upon him a Sanad of 
governorship ; whereupon he invaded the country, and de- 
feated and drove out Mahomed Khan, Jistkani, and held the 
province for a period of three years. But as complaints 
were made against Abdul Nabi's tyrannical rule, the Shah 
appointed Mahomed Khan, Sadozai, governor in his place. 
Abdul Nabi, however, refused to surrender his office, and 
encountered Mahomed Khan near Leia. At first the Sarais 
had the advantage, and Mahomed Khan was on the point 
of retreating ; but he was stopped by his Jamadar, who urged : 
" Better die than fly." Abdul Nabi's son Mahomed Araf was 
just then killed by some Labanas, who crept up from behind 
through a hemp field ; and as he was the real leader of the 
Sarais, they were obliged to give way. Abdul Nabi took 
refuge for a time with Maharaja Bhim Singh of Jodhpur, 
but retained his jagirs in Rajanpur and Hajipur. He took 
up his residence later on at Hajipur, where the family now 
live. He was succeeded by his son Taj Mahomed Khan, 
who died in 181 5. The present head of the family, Ghulam 
Shah Khan, better known as Mian Shah Nawaz Khan, was 
born in 1841. 

The Rajanpur jagir, with certain fluctuations, has been 
held since 1772. It is said to have been then worth 
Rs. 40,000 per annum ; and in addition the family received 
one-third of the revenues of Hajipur in kasiir. One-third of 
the jagir was confiscated by the Nawab of Bahawalpur in 
1830. Maharaja Ranjit Singh fixed the nazarana at 
Rs. 4,500 ; but Diwan Sawan Mai raised it to Rs. 9,000. The 
British Government continued the jagir for life, fixing the 



624 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

nazarana at Rs. 3,000 ; and it has since been continued. It 
consists of thirty-tiiree villages, which at the last settlement 
were assessed at Rs. 13,715. T\\& nazarana of Rs. 3,000 
has been commuted in lieu of the revenues of six villages 
situated in the jagir which have been assigned to the Drishak 
Tumandar in inam. The clear value of the jagir after de- 
ducting all charges may be estimated at Rs. 10,224. By 
orders passed in 1874, the option of paying in cash or kind 
was left to the villages. At present seven villages pay in cash 
and twenty in kind. Those paying in kind give one-fifth, 
and in some cases one-sixth and one-seventh of the gross 
produce. In addition to his jagir revenue, Mian Shah Nawaz 
receives the kasiir, consisting of one-third of the jamas of 
Hajipur and the adjoining Mahals, aggregating Rs. 1,100. 
He also enjoys two small mafi plots in Sirkiwala and Haji- 
pur, valued at Rs. 72 ; and his personal holdings in Hajipur 
yield Rs. 300 per annum. Allowing that the collections in 
kind from the jagir produce something more than the nominal 
assessment, his total income from every source may be taken 
to be about Rs. 12,500. A small sum is also derived from 
offerings made by the Murids or religious followers of the 
family. 

No tide has been given to the fam.ily by Government ; 
but since the days of Ahmad Shah Durani, the Chief has 
always borne the name of Shah Nawaz Khan, and is 
popularly known as Mian Sahib. He also claims the titles 
of Muazam-ul-Mulk, Nusrat Jang and Azdudaula. 

The Sarais are Shia Musalmans, but have certain pecu- 
liar customs which are not unlike those of the Sikhs. For 
instance, they never cut the hair, which is tied in a knot on 
the crown of the head ; and their turbans are fastened in a 
peculiar style, forming two angles at the sides, being flat at the 
top. The head of the family keeps up certain regal forms. 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 625 

He sits on a gadi or cushion, and never rises when any one 
enters the room. He is spoken of as the Gadi-nashin. Until 
the death of the late Mian Sahib a pair of kettle-drums was 
always played whilst he was seated on the gadi. Mian Shah 
Nawaz Khan married a daughter of Fazal Mahomed, Kalhora 
of Burai, in the Khairpur Taluka of the Shikarpur district, 
but has no children living. 

Jan Mahomed Khan and Latif Mahomed Khan are 
Viceregal Darbaris. They are uncle and brother, respectively, 
of Mian Shah Nawaz Khan. 



626 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 



SARDAR BAHADAR KHAN, KHOSA. 



Said Khan. 

I 
Eusaf Khan. 

I 
Ghulam Haidar Khan. 

I 
Barkhurdar Khan. 
I 

I I I 

Ghulam Haidar Kaura Khan, Jahan Khan, 

Khan. d. 1871. ] 

I Sahib Khan. 

I r~~^ \ I 

Ahmad Barkhurdar Ghulam Khair 

Khan. Khan, Haidar Khan, Mahomed 

I d. 1870. Khan. 

Gul Mahomed | 

Khan. Sardar Bahadaf 
Khan. 



I I 

S. Sakandar Dost 

Khan. Mahomed 

I Khan. 
Mubarak Khan. 

The settlement of the Khosas in the Dera Ghazi Khan 
district, like that of most of the other Biluch tribes, 
dates from the commencement of the fourteenth century. 
They are a branch of the Hots, one of the main divisions of 
the Biluch nation. One section received lands in Sind at Son 
Miani, and are now settled between Sakar and the Sind 
Canal and in the Jacobabad district to the west of Rojhan. 
Another branch of the tribe under Balel Khan settled in the 
hills beyond the Dera Ghazi Khan frontier at Koh Balel, 
which appears to correspond with the Rakhni Valley, now 
in the possession of the Khetrans. Thence they moved 
down into the plains under their Chief Batil Khan, and were 
accompanied by a body of Isani Khetrans under Yaru Khan. 
These Chiefs founded the towns of Batil and Yaru, which are 
three miles apart, and jointly form the head-quarters of the 
Khosa Tribe. The Isanis have ever since been included in 
the Khosa Tribe as one of its main sections. 



THE DERA GHAZI KHAN DISTRICT. 627 

The first Ghazi Khan Mirani gave Batil Khan a grant 
of country revenue free. His grandson Eusaf Khan fought 
on behalf of the Ghazi Khan of his day ; and the fame of his 
exploits spread far and wide. It is said that a certain Raja 
Sodh of Kanchi heard of him and gave him service. The 
Chief and his son Ghulam Haidar Khan, in reward for their 
bravery, were loaded with presents by the Raja, who gave 
Ghulam Haidar his daughter in marriage. It seems likely 
that the Khosa tribe fell into anarchy during Eusafs absence, 
for the Isanis showed bitter enmity towards him on his return, 
and eventually poisoned him. His son Ghulam Haidar suc- 
ceeded him ; but he was also treacherously murdered. Ghu- 
lam Haidar's son Barkhurdar was at the time a minor, and in 
order to provide for his safety he was sent away by his mother 
to be brought up among the Khosas settled at Tibi Lund. On 
coming of age he returned, and determined to attack the 
Isanis, and obtain revenge for the murder of his father and 
grandfather. The majority of the Khosas rallied round him, 
and the Isanis were subdued and their leader taken prisoner. 
Peace was purchased by three of the leaders in the revolt by 
giving their daughters in marriage to the Tumandar. These 
were Khan Mahomed Khan of Yaru, Jawanak Khan of Dalana, 
and Hot Khan of Hot. Barkhurdar Khan then entered into 
an alliance with Masu Khan, the Nutkani Chief, and in re- 
turn for his services the Nutkanis presented him with the 
villages of Mati and Mahoi and their adjoining lands, water- 
ed by the Mahoi stream. These estates still belong to the 
Khosas, although divided from the rest of the tribal territory 
by the lands of the Sori Lunds. Barkhurdar Khan also went 
to the assistance of Mian Abdul Nabi Khan Sarai in his un- 
successful war with the Talpurs, already described, and was 
wounded in one of the engagements. 

He was ultimately slain in battle while supporting the 
claim of Asad Khan, a relative of Masu Khan, to the Nutkani 



628 CHIEFS AND FAMILIES OF NOTE. 

Chiefship. He was succeeded by his eldest son Ghulam 
Haidar Khan, who prosecuted the war against Lai Khan 
Nutkani with success. Lai Khan was defeated at Pahar, 
and Asad Khan was recognised as Tumandar. Lai Khan 
took refuge in Afghanistan and allied himself with the 
Barakzai family, which had now become powerful, by marry- 
ing his daughter to Jabar Khan, half-brother of the Amir 
Dost Mahomed. Jabar Khan was made Governor of Dera 
Ghazi Khan in Zaman Shah's time, and he gave Lai Khan 
a Sanad appointing him Chief of the Nutkanis. Thus sup- 
ported, he returned to Sangarh and slew Nur Mahomed and 
Yar Mahomed, the Chiefs of the Mati and Mahoi Khosas. 
This raised the tribe against him again, and he had to flee a 
second time. On this occasion he went to Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh, and afterwards to the Nawab of Bahawalpur. 

Dera Ghazi Khan was conquered by Maharaja Ranjit 
Singh in 1819, and was farmed to the Nawab of Bahawalpur, 
Sadik Mahomed Khan. Lai Khan, the expelled Chief of 
the Nutkanis, now sought his patron's aid in attacking his old 
enemies, the Khosas. The Nawab gave him an army of 
two thousand men, and there was a fight at Dalana near the 
Vador Pass. But the Khosas were victorious, and Lai Khan 
himself was killed. His death was regarded as ample satis- 
faction for all the injury he had inflicted on the tribe. This 
defeat led the Bahawalpur Nawab to resolve on the humilia- 
tion of the Khosas, and he accordingly demanded that Ghulam 
Haidar Khan should give him his daughter in marriage, 
knowing he was almost certain to meet with a refusal. Ghu- 
lam Haidar, supported by the Laghari, Gurchani and Nutkani 
Chiefs, refused with scorn. The Nawab was, however, 
determined to enforce submission and laid siege to the fort of 
Gujri. After two years Ghulam Haidar Khan and a few 
followers were surprised on the open plain and killed by the 
Nawab's troops. He was succeeded by his brother Kaura 



THE DERA GHAZl KHAN DISTRICT. 629 

Khan, who found it necessary to submit ; and he had to give 
his daughter in marriage to Bahawal Khan, the Nawab's 
son. He, however, induced the Nawab to demand a similar 
concession from the Tumandars, who had backed up Ghulam 
Haidar Khan in his refusal, and the Chiefs of the Lagharis, 
Gurchanis and Nutkanis were obHged each to give a daughter. 
In 1830 Kanjit Singh took over the direct administration 
of Dera Ghazi Khan. Kaura Khan then went to Lahore to 
make his submission, and was awarded a pension of Rs. 1,000 
per annum. In 1832 Diwan Sawan Mai became Governor. 
Kaura Khan gave him active support against the Bozdars 
and Khetrans, whom the Diwan was anxious to subdue. The 
wars with the Khetrans were not attended with much glory- 
to the Khosas, for Mir Haji, Khetran, who was the most 
powerful Hill Chief of his day, invaded their country and took 
Yaru by storm, inflicting gr