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Full text of "Children's occupations"

CHILDREN'S 
i OCCUPATIONS 





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THE KINDERGARTEN CHILDREN'S HOUR 

Edited by Lucy Wheelock 

IN FIVE VOLUMES 

ILLUSTRATED 

VOLUME II 

children's occupations 

By Maude Gushing Nash 




DOLLS FURNITURE 




CHILDREN'S 
OCCUPATIONS 



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



NOTE 

THE editor has aimed to suggest articles easily 
made from materials readily accessible. Kinder- 
garten supplies may be obtained, however, if one pre- 
fers, from local dealers, or from the Milton Bradley 
Company, Springfield, Massachusetts. 



CONTENTS 

I. The Merry Little Men 1 

II. Kindergarten Occupations 12 

in. The Little Artist 32 

IV. Use of Nature Materials 52 

V. Little Farmers 61 

VI. Value of Pets 72 

VII. The Little Housekeeper 77 

VIII. The Doll-House 93 

IX. ToY-To\\^ Villages 104 

X. The Scrapbook 121 

XI. Toy-Making 131 

XII. Holidays 147 

XIII. Games 175 

XIV. Make-Believe 199 

The Folk-Lore Tale of Kenny Penny . . .212 

Three Little Kittens 216 

Old Mother Hubbard and Her Dog . . . 220 

XV. Building and Construction 224 

XVI. The Neighborhood Group 245 

XVII. Suggestive Programmes 250 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Doll's Furniture (page 142) Colored Frontispiece 

Title-Page (in color) 

First Forms of Paper-Folding 14 

Paper-Folding 16 

Paper-Tearing 18 

Paper- Weaving (in color) 20 

Weaving (in color) 22 

Card-Winding with Worsted (in color) 24 

Card-Sewing (in color) 26 

Kraus Folding 28 

Cutting and Tearing 30 

First Steps with Crayons (in color) 34 

Illustrating with Crayons (in color) 36 

First Steps in Water-Colors (in color) 38 

Night Scenes in Water-Colors (in color) 40 

Examples of Floating Colors (in color) 42 

Clay-Modeling (in color) 46 

Clay Beads (in color) 48 

Tiles in Clay (in color) 50 

Nature Chains (in color) 54 

Construction Work with Toothpicks and Peas .... 56 

Nature Toys 58 

Nature Dolls 60 

Paper-Cutting (in color) 62 

Exterior of Doll-Houses 100 

Interior of Doll-Houses (in color) 102 

Toy-Town Houses 106 

ix 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

A Fabmtard 108 

A Village of Building Blocks 108 

An Eskimo Village 110 

A Dutch Village 110 

A Chinese Village 116 

Scrapbooks (in color) 124 

Home-made Clocks 134 

Dolls and Pets (in color) 136 

Toy Carts from Cardboard 138 

Home-made Tots 140 

Christmas-Tree Decorations (in color) 152 

Transparencies (in color) 156 

Paper Patterns 166 

Windmills 168 

Transformation-Cutting (in color) 254 

Conventional Design from the Sixteen Square Fold . . 264 

Clay-Modeling (in color) 276 

Snowflake Paper-Cutting 288 

Stories Illustrated by Paper-Cutting (in color) .... 294 

Paper-Cutting and Pasting 302 

Designing in Water-Colors (in color) 318 

Illustrating with Crayons (in color) 338 

Title-page {in color) from a drawing by Alice Ercle Hunt. 
All other illustrations are from photographs of objects made. 



INTRODUCTION 

IT is the purpose of this book to open the eyes of par- 
ents to a reahzation that through play a child may 
be led to desire knowledge. Give your boy a garden of 
his own, and while digging in the soil and planting seeds 
he \n411 develop a curiosity to learn how it is that plants 
grow from seeds, and how the vegetables he eats are 
produced. Give your little girl an opportunity to play 
with dough, and in later years she will hardly remember 
the time when she first learned the art of making bread. 
By playing with blocks children imitate the construc- 
tion of buildings they have seen. There are hundreds 
of ways in which the play of children may be regulated 
so that they will develop the creative instinct. This is 
what happens when children are encouraged to make 
dolls and toys from common materials that are easily 
obtained. They become inventors by acquiring the 
habit of expressing, through their hands, the thoughts 
of their minds. Oftentimes the playthings thus manu- 
factured have a larger value in the eyes of the children 
than their more expensive counterparts purchased in 
the stores, because they have the satisfaction of having 
made such toys themselves. 

I have endeavored to explain in detail a large variety 
of occupations for little hands, such as are commonly 
used in the kindergartens, endeavoring to present the 
subject in such a way that any mother may be able to 

xi 



INTRODUCTION 

direct her children along these lines. In addition, I have 
suggested some programmes by means of which the chil- 
dren of a neighborhood may be brought together and 
given an opportunity to develop their thoughts and 
energies in work, play, and song. As each season brings 
its own peculiar interests, these programmes have been 
arranged by months, so that the occupations of this na- 
ture may be conducted continuously out of doors or 
indoors, as weather conditions permit, and in accord- 
ance with the usual festivities pecuhar to certain holi- 
days. 

Let song and laughter enter into every occupation, 
whether it be a task or a game. Count it a privilege to 
live with the children, to play with them, and to see 
things from their point of view. Make all kinds of work 
seem to be play, because of the enjoyment that enters 
into it. 

This book will have accomplished its purpose if, 
through its suggestions, it enables you to fill the waking 
hours of your children with beneficial occupations, for 
to a child the world is a big place and his ideas are be- 
wildered when he is left entirely to himself. The direction 
you will thus be enabled to give to the children's play 
will in a large measure determine the ideals that are to 
influence their later lives, at the same time helping 
them to meet their problems and to perform their tasks 
with confidence and self-reliance. 

Maude Cushing Nash 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 
I 

THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 

"A little baby came to town. 
He opened his eyes and looked around. 
What is this place?' and 'WTio am I? 
Can I move and feel and cry? 
Who is this -mth eyes of brown 
That cuddles me up, then lays me down? 
Ah, well! there's much for me to learn. 
And I '11 try each day to squirm and squirm. 
Till a real person I'll grow to be, 
And find this is Mother who truly loves me.'" 

IT is said that sensation is the world of consciousness: 
thus the tiny baby is awakened by sensations of hun- 
ger or discomfort into a world unknown. Because of a 
poverty of past experiences, there is nothing connected 
in his mind. By chance, when a finger or toe reaches his 
mouth there is a beginning of experience which, when 
repeated, becomes an activity of physical and mental 
growth. New sensations are experienced, and he real- 
izes in part his personal control of such action when he 
has tried the movement several times. As new experi- 
ences come, perchance through instinctive or reflex 
motions, he is connecting himself with the world about 
him, especially if the mother is by his side to encourage 
this growth. Tenderly the mother fondles her baby and 
in reality is opening the field of play. Through the play 
comes an awakening of feelings, presentiments, and 

1 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

yearnings. Muscular activity develops the physical 
body and opens the way to self-activity. Mental ac- 
tivity creates knowledge, consciousness is awakened by 
sensations, and, greatest of all, the mother's singing 
and tender words weave a spiritual web about the soul 
of this precious little being. All this makes up the life 
of the first year, and how essential it is that a mother 
should realize her part in developing the senses aright ! 
As everything touched seems to go to the mouth first, 
see to it that this activity does not become a constant 
habit. Have simple articles near by that the hands, 
which are in perpetual motion, may grasp. Choose toys 
made of celluloid or rubber that can be washed and are 
harmless if carried to the mouth. 

Complete joy, accompanied by coos and gurgles, fills 
the baby's mind when freed from clothing so that the 
limbs can kick and arms can fist the air. What a bond 
of sympathy comes between mother and child as she 
sings the traditional ditties ! Mother pats the bottom of 
little feet, first one and then the other, saying : 

Shoe the old horse, shoe the old mare. 
Let the little colt go bare, bare, bare. 

Take a foot in each hand, crossing the legs first one 
way and then the other way, in rhythm to the lines : 

Leg over, leg over, dog went to Dover! 
When he got there, hop! he went over! 

With the last line raise both little limbs into the air, 
raising the body slightly, making a slight bounce. 

Playing with the individual toes has always been a 
game which brings forth squeals and delight to the 

2 



THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 

growing baby. The tiny muscles of the toes need exer- 
cise, so these pulls and pinches give great satisfaction. 
The time-worn verse runs as follows, beginning with 
the big toe: 

This little pig went to markei. 
This little pig stayed at home 
This little pig had roast beef. 
This little pig had none. 
And this little pig cried, 
*Wee, wee, wee," all the way home! 

The following jingle comes from China where baby's 
toes are played with in the same fashion : 

This little one eats grass. 
This little one eats hay. 
This little one drinks water. 
This little one runs away. 
This little one does nothing. 
But just lies down all day. 

With the last line, big sister or mother playfully slaps 
the soles of baby's feet. 

How happy the child is when big enough to have 
father place him across his foot and play '*Ride a cock 
horse to Banbury Cross." Now place the little one on 
your lap and make-beheve go to ride, saying: 

This is the way the lady rides — 
Trot — Trot — Trot. {Gently.) 

This is the way the gentleman rides — 
Gallop — Gallop — Gallop. (Stately.) 

And this is the way the farmer rides — 
Bumpity — Bumpity — Bump. 

(Rolling from side to side.) 

Another ride on the knees is accompanied with these 
words : 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Trot, trot to Boston, 
Trot, trot to Lynn, 
Trot, trot to Salem, 
Then trot home again. 

Here is another saying with two verses. The first 
verse is repeated slowly: 

Trot, trot to Boston 
To buy a fat pig. 
Home, home, home again, 
Jiggity, jiggity, jig. 

Ride, very slowly with second verse: 

Trot, trot to Boston 
To buy a fat hog. 
Home, home, home again, 
Joggity, joggity, jog. 

The first idea of mystery comes to the child when 
mother plays the first Hiding Game. Mother hides her 
face and baby pulls the handkerchief away to find her, 
for he is very happy in Mother's smile when she says 
"Peek-a-boo" to him. Then Baby hides behind the 
handkerchief and Mother finds him in the same manner. 
Both hands are also used to cover the face and play peek 
in the same way. 

All games and plays of children are based on physi- 
cal development. The baby begins to realize that he 
has eyes, ears, nose like Mother. He is learning about 
himself as well as developing a vocabulary in naming 
different parts of his face. 

The following verses he loves to hear Mother say, or 
to repeat after her: 



THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 
baby's house 

Knock at the door of a little white house. (Foreheoil.) 

I wonder who lives inside, — 
Peep in here at a window bright, (Eyes.) 

Now don't you try to hide! 
Lift the latch with a cautious hand (Nose.) 

Or somebody '11 turn the key. 
Then walk in through the doors ajar, (Mouth.) 

But don't you stay to tea; 
For the little white dogs that live inside (Teeth.) 

Might gobble you up, you see. 

LORD MAYOR 

Here sits the Lord Mayor. (Forehead.) 
Here sit his two men, (Eyes.) 
Here sits the cock, (Right cheek.) 
Here sits the hen, (Left cheek.) 
Here sit the chickens, ( Top of nose.) 
Here they run in — (Month.) 
Chin chopper, chin chopper. 
Chin chopper, chin. 

Using the hands, point to all parts of the body as they 
are mentioned : 

Two little eyes to open and close, 
Tw^o little ears and one little nose. 
Two little lips and one little chin. 
And two little cheeks with a rose shut in. 

Two little elbows, dimpled and sweet. 
Two little shoes and two little feet. 
Two little shoulders, stout and strong. 
And two little hands, busy all day long. 

Here is still another one and much simpler: 

Knock at the door. (Forehead.) 
Peek in. (Eyes.) 
Lift up the latch, (Nose.) 
And walk in. (Mouth.) 

Take a chair right down there. (Hastily tickle neck.) 
5 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

With the discovery of his hands the child is amused 
for a long time. The wiggling of each little finger inter- 
ests him as do the toes. Inasmuch as the hand is one of 
the human being's greatest factors, too much stress can 
never be laid upon its development. 

In distinction from the animals, prehistoric man rose 
to a world of his own when he found he could make 
things. As the hands developed their powder, so the mind 
in parallel channels has arisen to advanced thinking. 
The mother, therefore, in her moments of leisure with her 
baby, can hold the little hands and fingers, imagining 
what wonderful powers lie hidden in the delicate muscles. 
At this point playful exercises amuse the baby and yet 
give stimulus to growth. Through counting the fingers 
in rhyme and song there comes not only an educational 
value, but a flow of rhythm and happy play. 

Dramatic action with the fingers, combined with im- 
agination, of which the child has an abundance, illus- 
trates these rhymes and affords great amusement. 

Five little soldiers standing in a row. {Hand outspread.) 
Three stood straight and two stood so. 

(Three fingers up, two fingers bent over.) 
Along came the general, (Thumb of other hand.) 
And what do you think? 
Those two little soldiers 
Jumped — quick as a wink. (Spoken rapidly.) 

Naming and counting fingers: 

" I am one," said little thumb. 

**I am two," said pointer. 

"I am three," the tall man said. 

"I am four," said ring finger, 

"And I am five," the baby cried; 

"You could not catch me if you tried!'* 



THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 

Bedtime story for the fingers, bending them over into 
the palm of the hand one by one : 

Tired and sleepy the thumb went to bed. 
The pointer so straight fell down on his head. 
The tall man said he would cuddle up tight, 
"While the ring finger curled himself out of sight. 
And last of all, weary and lonesome, too. 
The little one hid and cried Boo-hoo! (Crying.) 

THE WASH BENCH FINGER PLAY 
I 
Here's a little wash bench, 

(Fingers clasped in horizontal position, thumbs turning dovmward, 
resting on table or lap to represent legs.) 
Here's a little tub, 

(All fingers touching at ends to make oval shape.) 
Here's a little scrubbing board, 

(Left hand in vertical position, tips of fingers resting on table or 
lap.) 
And this is the way we scrub. 

(Right hand forming a fist and making scrubbing motion over thty 
left hand.) 

II 

Here's a little cake of soap, 

(Thumb and pointer meeting at ends to make oval shape.) 
And here's a dipper new, 

(Pointer of left hand attached to oval shape in right hand.) 
Here's the wide, deep clothes-basket, 

(Two arms joined in front to make circle.) 
And here are clothespins two. 

(Fingers bent into palms. Pointer and tall man hanging down, 
representing shape of clothespin. Do this with both hands.) 

Ill 

Here's the line above so high, 

(With both hands stretch an imaginary line in opposite direction.) 
And now the clothes are flying. 

(Hang up imaginary clothes.) 

7 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Here's the sun so warm and bright, 

{With arms make large circle over head.) 
And now the clothes are drying! 

FINGER PLAY — LITTLE SQUIRRELS 

Five little squirrels sat up in a tree. 

This one said, "What do I see?" 

This one said, "I smell a gun." 

This one said, "Oh, let's run." 

This one said, "Let's hide in the shade." 

This one said, "I'm not afraid." 

{Suddenly clap hands.) 
Bang, went the gun; they ran every one. 

{Put hands quickly behind the back.) 

FIVE LITTLE CHICKENS 

Imagine each finger in turn represents a chicken: 

Said the first little chicken with a queer little squirm, 

"I wish I could find a nice fat worm." 

Said the second chicken with an odd little shrug, 

"I wish I could find a nice fat bug." 

Said the third little chicken with a sigh of relief, 

"I wish I could find a nice green leaf." 

Said the fourth little chicken with a faint little moan, 

"I wish I could find a wee gravel stone." 

Said the fifth little chicken with a queer little squeal, 

"I wish I could find some nice yellow meal." 

"Novv-, come here," said the mother from the green garden patch, 

"K you want any breakfast, come here and scratch." 

{Spoken somewhat sternly.) 

This has a twofold value in that it is instructive to the 
child as to needs of the chicken, and it has a moral les- 
son. The following also calls for questions from the 
nature world and experiences of the farmer. It is to be 
repeated as each finger is touched and two fingers at 
the last: 

8 



THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 

PLANTING FIVE SEEDS IN A ROW 

One for the blackbird. 
One for the crow. 
One for the cutworm. 
And two to grow! 

As the child's vocabulaiy increases and he can follow 
directions, he will wish to say and act out these finger 
plays, and because of his great desire to repeat many 
times, he will soon have them memorized. 

A simple gymnastic exercise which has a quieting 
effect is given while the child is sitting in a chair. Have 
the arms stretched forward in a horizontal position 
from the shoulder, and act out the words with hands 
as he says : 

Open, shut, open, shut, 

And give a little slap; 

Open, shut, open, shut, 

And lay them in youi lap. 

FIVE LITTLE FROGS 
Point to each finger: 

Five little frogs sitting in a row. 

This one said, "I stubbed my toe." 

This one said, "Oh — oh — oh." 

And this little one laughed and was glad. 

This one cried and he was sad. 

And this one hopped off to the doctor's 

As fast as he could go. {Spoken quickly.) 

THE FIVE COWS 

Point to each finger: 

This mooly cow ate the sweet meadow hay. 
This mooly cow switched her tail all day. 
9 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

This mooly cow chewed her cud in the shade. 
This mooly cow in the water would wade. 
This mooly cow said, "The sun's going down. 
We must take back the milk to the babies in town.** 

MON PETIT LAPIN — MY LITTLE RABBIT 

Mon petit lapin 

A bien du chagrin. 

n ne saute plus, 

II ne court plus 

Dans le jardin. 

Saute, saute, saute, lapin; 

Saute, mon petit lapin. 

My little rabbit 

Has many troubles. 

He does not jump. 

He does not run 

In the garden. 

Jump, jump, jump, rabbit; 

Jump, my little rabbit. 

{To imitate the ears of the rabbit, put the closed 

hands up on the forehead ; lift up the forefingers 

of the two hands and move them slowly.) 
(To imitate the jumps of the rabbit, throw the 

hands forward, at the same time jump with the 

feet) 

LA SOURIS — THE MOUSE 

La petite souris a passe par ici. 
Celui-ci I'a vue, 
Celui-ci a couru apres, 
Celui-ci I'a attrapee, 
Celui-ci I'a mangee — i-i-i. 

The little mouse passed through here. 

(With the forefinger of the right hand turn in 
the center of the palm of the left hand.) 
This one saw it, 

(Shake the forefinger of the left hand.) 

10 



THE MERRY LITTLE MEN 

This one ran after it, 

(Shake the major finger of the left hand.) 
This one caught it, 

(Shake the ring finger.) 
This one ate it — e-e-e-e. 

(Shake the little finger.) 

LES MARIONNETTES — PUPPET SHOW, OR PUPPETS 

Ainsi font, font, font 
Les petites Marionnettes. 
Ainsi font, font, font. 

(Lift the hands and turn them in the air.) 
Trois petits tours et puis s'en vont. 

(Three turns like the mill, then put the hands 
behind the back.) 

This is the way 

The little puppets. 

This is the way 

They do three little turns 

And then go away. 



II 

KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 
PAPER-FOLDING 

THERE is always something fascinating about a 
piece of paper, and as a child's inquisitive nature 
develops there is great opportunity to suggest and create 
with this material. Paper can be purchased in all the 
pretty colors with their tints and shades, but this should 
be kept for special occasions. 

For immediate use the wrapping-paper near at hand 
will suffice for the beginner. Your attention is called to 
the paper used in the department stores for wrapping 
purposes. You will find different shades of brown or 
green; sometimes two shades with stripes or figures 
have been noted. E the paper is somewhat wrinkled, a 
warm iron will bring it back to smoothness. From this 
paper cut perfect squares, four inches being an ordi- 
nary dimension. If you can spare the paper, eight-inch 
squares are easier for a child to manage and see what he 
is doing. 

When a child is given a square, he is absorbed for 
some time trying to see what he can do with it. Finally, 
a note of discouragement in his voice gives you the op- 
portunity to suggest. The simplest thing to do is first 
to fold the right edge to the left edge, having the corners 
touch as accurately as possible that good results may 
follow. In this folding the first thought is that a book 
has been made. Several of these folds may be made and 

12 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

pinned together in the middle. The completed book may- 
afford amusement for the child if he is permitted to draw 
or write on the pages. At all events, he is proud of the 
book he has made. 

Going back to the one piece of folded paper, stand it 
up on edge and it may be called a screen; then let the 
child peek behind it, and, if his imagination is great, he 
will doubtless tell stories of the mysteries behind the 
screen. 

Open the paper again and fold each edge, meeting at 
the middle crease. Again the imagination comes into 
play, for here you open the blinds and find a window. 
With a few strokes of a pencil, curtain effects make the 
window seem more real. Now turn the window over so 
that the screens become legs, and then it can be called a 
table. 

Take another square piece of paper. Make the first 
fold down the center, then make the same fold the other 
way, lower edge to the upper edge. Now the paper is 
creased into four squares and you can caU it a window 
with four panes of glass. 

If you fold the paper the first vertical fold and then 
over this the horizontal fold, you will make a napkin or 
handkerchief. This can be designed with a few strokes 
of the pencil, or, to make it seem more realistic, the 
child's initials may be printed. 

The next fold is to make sixteen squares. This is done 
by combining the folds of the vertical and horizontal 
square folds with the folds of the blind, the latter also 
folded horizontally and vertically. The paper, when 
opened again, will have sixteen creased squares. 

13 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

THE BARN 

Fold the first horizontal fold again on this creased 
paper, keeping fold at the top. Take corner marked with 
an X and open haKway back on itself, bringing X down 
to the second crease, and the sides become diagonal. Do 
the same to the left-hand corner. You now see the barn 
with its two big doors which have swung open to let the 
hay wagon in and the cows into their stalls. 

BENCH 

To make a bench, take this same barn, and you find 
the squares 1 and 2 are free to be lifted up so they will 
remain in a horizontal position. Now fold the sides 3 
and 4 forward to meet the sides of 1 and 2, and you will 
then have a bench which can stand up. By cutting off 
one row from the sixteen squares, leaving a fold of three 
squares one way and four squares the other way, folding 
by same barn-door process, you will see a narrower 
bench; so call it a chair. 

PICTURE FRAME 

Take another piece of paper and fold into sixteen 
squares. Now bring each one of the four corners of the 
square into the center and do not open. Turn it over on 
the other side and again fold each one of those four 
corners into the center and let them remain. Turn back 
again to the front side and you will find four points in 
the center which you can turn back halfway, and leave 
an open space in the center. A picture can be inserted 
here and used as a valentine. These four points may 
be turned back in several different folds which may be 
suggested to you as you make them. 

14 




FIRST FORMS OF PAPER-FOLDING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

WINDMILL 

Fold a paper in sixteen squares, then make, diagonal 
folds from corner to corner. Open again and fold over 
the top row of squares, fold over the right-hand row of 
squares, pulling out the top square to a point and flatten. 
Turn the paper around, doing the same to each corner. 
This will make the four arms of the windmill. 

BOAT 

Fold sixteen squares and diagonals. Fold as for wind- 
mill, only fold upper and lower left-hand corners toward 
each other and upper and lower right-hand corners 
toward each other. Now fold the center fold backward 
on its horizontal diameter and a double boat is made. 

SOLDIER CAPS 

The simplest form of a soldier cap is made by folding a 
square to the handkerchief shape. Take the top square 
and fold back on itself in triangular form. Take the re- 
maining three squares together and fold back the op- 
posite way and you can open the cap at the fold. An 
ordinary paper napkin folded in this way will fit a 
child's head, but a twenty-inch square is necessary for 
an adult. This may be decorated on the sides with fancy 
ornaments. 

Make the two diagonal folds of a square piece of 
paper. Having one point facing you, fold it and its op- 
posite point into the center. Now fold these two sides 
together bringing lower edge over to the top edge. These 
will naturally fold on the long horizontal fold you have 
already made, and will make the other points you have 

15 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

not touched crease in halves. Take the right-hand 
point and fold it upwards at right angles with the cen- 
ter. The point will go above the center. Fold the point 
over and tuck it down between the sides. Now turn the 
cap over on the other side. Again you will have the 
long point on the right-hand side. Do as before, fold- 
ing this point upwards at right angles to center crease. 
The point which goes halfway above, fold over and 
tuck between the original folds. You will see you have 
a pointed soldier cap which cannot come undone. Dec- 
orate with a side cockade or feather. To fit a child's 
head, a square of paper from nineteen to twenty inches 
will be needed. 

The overseas cap recalls a distinctive shape, one which 
is liked by the children and is also becoming. Take a 
piece of brown wrapping-paper, cutting it nine inches 
wide and about twenty-three inches long. Turn up one 
inch on one long edge. Bring left and right edges to- 
gether in the middle, lapping over an inch, and fasten- 
ing with a brass pin or by gluing it. Remember to keep 
the inch edge, which is turned up, on the outside of the 
cap. 

Take the upper right-hand corner as it is doubled 
and fold over to the middle where the paper is lapped. 
Bring the left-hand corner down to meet it at the center. 
This forms a point at the top. Take this top, folding it 
over and down the center, meeting the side edges, which 
are folded. Through these several thicknesses of paper, 
put another brass fastener, putting your hand inside the 
cap so it will not go through the other side. Here you 
find your cap complete. As it is of the brown paper, it 

16 



PAPER-FOLDING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

will greatly resemble the khaki caps worn by our sol- 
diers in action. These caps are also attractive when 
made in varied colors of crepe paper and used at chil- 
dren's parties. 

Another paper cap is easily made, though not by 
folding, but may be of interest at this point. With 
heavy paper make an inch- wide head-band joining by 
glue or brass fasteners. Take any colored tissue or 
crepe paper desired, head-band length and nine or ten 
inches wide. Paste or sew one edge around the head- 
band ; gather the other edge to a point and tie, putting 
on streamers or rosettes. A set design of a contrasting 
color decorates the head-band. These can be rapidly 
made and bring forth great merriment at festive occa- 
sions. 

THE KITE 

With a fresh paper, fold over one diagonal crease only. 
This is called the shawl fold. Surely the little boy would 
like a kite. Open this paper with the crease vertical to 
you. Bring the lower right side over to the center, then 
likewise bring the left over to the center, and you have 
made the kite. 

TENT 

Invert the kite, bringing the sharper point at the top. 
At the bottom, fold back the point to the horizontal 
edges of the paper. To please the boy's imagination, 
fold back the loose corners of the flaps a little way, and 
stories of tent life will be brought to mind. The tent 
will stand by itself if the point turned under is properly 
adjusted. 

17 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

DRINKING-CUP 

Very often a drinking-cup is quickly needed and it is 
well to know that one can easily be created. An eight- 
inch square of paper makes a convenient size. Make the 
crease of both diagonals. With one fold toward you, 
take with both hands the left and right points and lay 
over one another until they cross evenly, the upper 
edges becoming a straight line on the other diagonal 
fold. Now fold down the top corner facing you upon 
these folds. The other corner, fold backward, and you 
will find you have a cup to open. 

PAPER-TEARING 

The study of hands and the wonderful gifts which lie 
hidden in the power of little muscles of the fingers are 
so numerous and fascinating that the subject will never 
be exhausted. Children cannot be guided too early in 
making good use of them, and paper is one of the best 
materials to practice on. We have seen the charms of 
careful folding, but now let us create by tearing. The 
youngest child is fascinated by the crumpling of paper. 
If carefully watched so that it does not go into the 
mouth, the baby will have a happy hour, just tearing, 
because of the sound and seeing something happen. 
Give an older child some paper and tell him to tear it 
into some shape. He is likely to say he can't, so, if he 
has nothing to offer, tear at random and see if any ob- 
ject can be imagined in it. Always hold paper between 
thumb and forefinger of both hands close together and 
tear a small bit at a time, thus getting finer detail of the 
object desired. In deciding upon a tree, start tearing 

18 




PAPER-TEARING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

the trunk, and balance each side as nearly as possible 
as you go out to the branches. It is only by practice that 
you can attain success, and though this is one of the arts 
which seems hopeless at first, it rapidly develops. The 
child's little fingers are soon trained so he can make his 
own picture of a snowman, rabbit, butterfly, apple, 
pear, or house. With a piece of paper folded, tearing 
double will quickly make some objects. The lack of a 
pair of scissors should not stand in the way of creating 
amusement as well as pretty pictures. With trees, 
houses, flowers, etc., real landscape effects can be 
arranged. Calendars may be made for gifts by pasting 
some of the torn designs upon a cardboard background 
and a calendar pad placed below. With groups of 
children, a game or guessing contest can be enjoyed by 
deciding what the object torn is supposed to represent. 

WEAVING 

PAPER- WEAVING 

There has been much discussion among educators as 
to the advisability of having young children do weaving 
The accuracy needed for this work, which brings strain 
on the eyes, may cause some question. Starting with 
coarse material, however, the child gains much powder 
in his hands without too close application, thus preparing 
himself for finer work later. Any cardboard near at 
hand may be used for a mat. Heavy manila or bogus 
paper is good, and some people have used oilcloth satis- 
factorily. Mark off with pencil and ruler a border of an 
inch width all round an 8 x 10-inch mat. On the narrow 
way of the paper make six slits an inch wide and within 

19 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the border-line. Now from the same heavy paper pre- 
pare strips an inch wide and eight inches long. With 
careful instruction of over and under motion, talking 
about the dog jumping over the fence and then crawling 
under the fence, a double interest will be aroused. The 
next strip alternates: this time the dog goes under the 
fence and then jumps over, and so on until with this 
sized mat you have used eight strips. To get more in- 
teresting results, let the child color these strips with 
colored pencils or crayons. The little fingers can weave 
the strips in and out as they are of good size, but if nar- 
rower paper is used, a large tape needle will have to be 
used. There is a steel needle made expressly for this 
purpose which can be purchased at small cost. There 
is a spring clip at the end of the needle which holds the 
paper strip firmly. Colored paper also comes prepared 
for weaving, but of smaller size and better adapted for 
the more experienced child. The blending of colors 
should be given attention when colored paper is used, as 
artistic choice is most essential in child training. The 
variety of designs is innmnerable. With increasing in- 
terest, the child will soon work out his own ideas. Here 
he is creating many geometric designs and beauty forms. 
It is also interesting to work out something from obser- 
vation, such as a house, tree, or a basket. 

WEAVING WITH OTHER MATERIALS 

With these fundamental principles learned, and which 
have been handed dovvTi to us from prehistoric ages, the 
weaving of grass, raffia, worsted, strips of rags, string, 
or rope may fill many hours of pleasure. In the use of 

SO 




□ ■ D ■ D-^iSj 



n.n.n.F 



PAPER- WEAVING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

other materials than paper, many useful aticles can 
be made. A loom, which takes the place of the mat in 
paper- weaving, can be made at home by taking an empty 
wooden box, a salt-box, for instance, and driving nails 
halfway in on the ends. The nails should be about one 
quarter of an inch apart. The warp is wound across the 
box and around the nails, back and forth. The warp 
may be of the same material as the woof, that which 
is to be woven in and out. Rugs and carpets for doll- 
houses are great fun to make, and here again choice of 
color and design should be given attention. Material 
called cotton roving, which comes on large spools in a 
dozen different colors, is used with splendid results for 
rugs. It is soft and pliable and easily used by the chil- 
dren. The material nearest at hand is narrow strips of 
rags sewed together. Squares of raffia woven in this 
fashion make nice mats upon which one might set warm 
dishes, and squares of woven worsted can be faced with 
canton flannel or cambric to make splendid kitchen 
holders. 

doll's hammock 

A HEAVY colored twine is used for both warp and woof 
in making a doll's hammock. "WTien winding on the 
warp, carry string through a brass ring which is held by 
a tack a few inches from the nails at each end. Begin the 
weaving as usual. Take a long piece of string and weave 
it back and forth, over and under. When it is necessary 
to start a new string, join the ends on a side. If a fringe 
is desired, weave across each time with a separate string, 
leaving free about two inches in length on each side. 

21 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

When taken from the loom these ends may be knotted, 
or before taken from the loom a string may be woven in 
and out down each side to hold the woof in place. 

doll's tam-o'-shanter 

Worsted is used for a tam-o'-shanter. To make the 
mat or loom for this, draw a circle any size you wish on 
a piece of cardboard. A circle with a six-inch diameter 
makes a tam for a small doll. In distances three eighths 
of an inch apart on the circumference draw slanting 
lines making points. Cut out around these points and 
also cut a quarter-inch circle out of the center of the mat. 
With a long piece of worsted, pass through the center 
hole and wind over the nicks, into the center and out, 
and so on around the circle. Tie the two ends. You will 
see that both sides of the mat look alike. Weave on one 
side only, using a tape needle or ordinary weaving 
needle. Begin at the center, going under and over 
as near the hole as possible. Continue weaving until 
you come nearly to the edge of the mat. ^Vhen this is 
done, turn over the mat on the other side and cut the 
worsted warp about halfway between the circumference 
and the center. Take the cap off the loom and push the 
worsted which is near the center through the hole to the 
other side. With a piece of worsted, wind tightly and 
tie these ends which will make a tassel. Tie the ends 
of the outer circle rather tightly in twos, to make the 
tam bend under a little. After doing this all the way 
around the edge of the cap, tie alternate twos in the 
same way to finish firmly. The ends may now be cut 
off and the tam is finished. 

22 




WEAVING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

These improvised looms and mats which have been 
described may be supplemented by purchasing well- 
made looms of all sizes for different articles. 

TOY KNITTER 

The tubular reins are familiar playthings to all children 
and it is fun to make them too. A toy knitter can be 
purchased at small expense, but one can be improvised 
with an empty spool. Take four double-pointed steel 
tacks, drive them halfway into one side of the spool 
and at even distances apart. Make a ball of worsted 
from pieces of yarn tied together. Let the end of the 
worsted drop through the center of the spool. Now 
carry the worsted around the four nails. As you go 
around the second time, use a wire hairpin to lift the 
first piece of worsted over the second piece and slip it 
over the double-headed nail. After the first row is ad- 
justed, it is very easy to continue on and on, round and 
round, going through the same process of carrying the 
old thread over the new. As the spool seems to fill up 
with the work, take the end of worsted, which was at 
the beginning put through the spool, and pull the fin- 
ished reins down through the center hole of the spool. 

KNITTING 

Through the stress of war, knitting for the comfort of 
our soldiers became a part of daily occupation from the 
smallest tots of boys and girls to the dear grandmas. 
For the youngest knitters an af ghan composed of knitted 
squares sewed together became their work. This ac- 
complishment should still be carried on, not only be- 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

cause of the ability to knit, but because a child feels the 
experience of joining with others to make something 
worth while. To teach the stitch to the little one just 
learning, use wooden meat skewers, for they make 
splendid needles and are not long and clumsy. Use a 
little sandpaper on them to smooth them down. 

CARD-WINDING 

A SIMPLE form of amusement and yet of much value is 
called card-winding. The material to use consists only of 
a piece of cardboard six inches by three inches, and a yard 
of colored worsted. At intervals across the card, using 
a ruler to make more accurate results, cut down slits, 
top and bottom. With the left hand, hold card and one 
end of the worsted. With the right hand, wind the 
worsted in and out of the slits you have already cut. The 
child for some time is content with the straight hues 
he is making with the pretty worsted. Vary the slits 
in length alternately or graduate them Make several 
cards, using different colors of worsted. You will see 
there is an opportunity to teach arithmetic as the child 
counts how many short lines or long lines he has made. 
From the simple line formation, many designs can be 
formed by crossing lines diagonally or horizontally. 
The illustrations suggest several designs that the reader 
may work out with the children. 

SEWING 
CARD-SEWING 

Closely allied with weaving and winding comes sewing. 
When a child sees a needle and thread in the hands of her 

24 




CARD-WINDING WITH WORSTED 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

mother she naturally wishes to imitate what she is doing. 
One of the simplest devices in this form of hand- work is 
the sewing of pictures outlined on cardboard by means 
of holes or perforations. Prepared cards are easily ob- 
tained which are perforated alike in squares of quarter 
or half inches over the entire surface, or with a few lines 
or circles. These should be used first so that a child may 
become accustomed to sewing. The circle may be colored 
inside the sewing and he will call it the picture of a ball. 
Tie a piece of bright worsted to a large blunt worsted 
needle for this work. By tying the thread in the needle 
the possibilities of its being unthreaded are avoided and 
much time is saved. To create interest, see that the child 
sews down one hole, up another, and so on, saying, "We 
will leave the gates open first and then go around the 
next time to close them." The card should be sewed 
without turning it over, as this way saves confusion 
and is much easier. 

The plain square or oblong perforated card will soon 
suggest all kinds of original ideas. The first work may 
be in vertical, horizontal, or slanting lines, lines in dif- 
ferent lengths or grouped together. Suggest dividing the 
square card into four parts and make the same design 
in each of the corners. Compare these designs with 
those of oilcloth, carpets, rugs, and wall-paper. Work 
out geometric, flower, and border designs. 

Cards can be purchased with object designs and pic- 
tures to be outlined with this sewing, but it is possible 
and easy to make the cards at home. Trace the shape 
of a fruit, an article like a hammer or milk bottle, then 
go around the edge of the drawing pricking holes about 

25 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

a half-inch apart. A picture can be pasted on a card 
and either the exact outline can be sewed or the picture 
can be bordered by a square or circle done in a sewing 
design. 

An instrument called a "punch" or a sewing-card 
perforator can be purchased, which makes the neatest 
holes. Both boys and girls enjoy this work and the little 
fingers become more nimble for greater tasks. 

SEWING WITH CLOTH 

A PIECE of cloth is the next natural desire, especially for 
a little girl. If there is a dress being made in the house, 
of checked material, preferably of gingham, give the 
child a piece with a needle full of coarse thread or silka- 
teen. Over the dark squares of the cloth, show her how 
to make the cross-stitch. Pretty designs can be worked 
out to trim the dress or apron. To transfer a design or 
pattern on woolen or linen, baste a piece of cross-barred 
canvas where you wish to work. Count out squares and 
cross-stitch the pattern right on. When completed, the 
threads of canvas can be pulled out one by one, leaving 
the cross-stitch work on the dress or towels. Books of 
cross-stitch design can be bought in the embroidery de- 
partments of stores. Many magazines give illustrations 
also. 

Understanding this work, children see possibilities 
for making Christmas presents. Work a cross-stitch de- 
sign on a piece of canvas five inches square. To make a 
background, fill in all the empty squares around the de- 
sign with one color. Sew a square of cambric on the back 
of this work and you have made a pretty and useful 




CARD-SEWING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

holder. Interest in sewing increases at this point and 
the Httle girl decides that dolly must have some new 
dresses. Let her have a box of left over pieces that she 
may do her own choosing. At first the work is crude, 
stitches are large, the scissors have made mistakes, but 
it is a wonderful accomplishment in the child's eyes. 

USE OF SCISSORS 

Was there ever a brighter object in Mother's work- 
basket than her shining pair of scissors.'^ It seems to be 
the one object a baby reaches for and the first thing he 
is taught not to touch. It is not many years, however, 
before that much-sought-for treasure can be acquired 
and used dexterously. By the time the child is three 
years old, a small pair of blunt scissors may be called 
his own, and careful instruction as to their use brings 
hours of pleasure. The right use of scissors taught in 
earliest years is the best means to prevent improper 
use of them. The child who has learned to create some- 
thing pretty, and something to play with, is too busy 
to hunt around for something to cut which may cause 
calamities and destruction. 

Scissors should be put into the child's thumb and 
fingers correctly, and the exercise of "open and shut" 
practiced over and over again until he shows a free use 
of them. Then give him a piece of brown wrapping- 
paper, letting him cut and snip to his heart's content; 
of course watching him so that no harm is done while 
he learns the art of making scissors cut. The apparent 
waste of cutting paper can be used to kindle the fire or 
t30 pack around an article which is to be sent by parcel 

27 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

post. Soon the desire to create something comes. Give 
him a piece of paper two inches wide and six inches long. 
Show him how to cut off a strip the narrow way and 
about half an inch wide. Place it on the table and call 
it a soldier. Cut more, arranging in column fashion and 
suggesting that they be cut as straight as soldiers stand. 
Again take the same sized paper, ruling with pencil the 
lines a haK-inch apart. By following the line accuracy 
in direction is developed. With a piece of paper, fringe 
each end in the same manner, but with finer lines ; thus 
a towel is created. Fringing around a circle gives you a 
doily. 

Kraus folding. Take a four-inch square of paper, and 
as before directed fold to get the vertical and horizontal 
diameters. These creases make four smaller squares. 
Open the paper flat again and cut on the folds. With 
these squares the Greek cross and hollow square can be 
formed. Each square may have one corner folded over 
to the center and arranged in design. Then turn two 
corners, three corners, and all four corners to make 
variety. Some squares can be folded diagonally and 
cut to make triangles. Let the child, with these pieces 
of paper, work out ideas of his own in design. Thus, 
folding and cutting combined, brings into action more 
suggestion and more development. All of this work he 
can easily do by himself if at first properly directed. With 
the use of the scissors comes a broader field of creative 
power. Through the child's mind passes many fanciful 
pictures ; it may be a story told him, a poem, or a song 
which he likes to sing. Why not make a picture to il- 
lustrate and make real these thoughts .f* Paper in aU 

28 




KRAUS FOLDING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

colors, tints, and shades can be purchased in small or 
large quantities. Packages large or small with varied 
colors give you the assortment from which to choose 
combinations for picture work. This field is so great 
that it is possible to illustrate only a few suggestions to 
the reader. The child is able to cut much of this work 
himself, but is often delighted to have the mature hand 
assist, that he may imitate and learn. Many pictures 
combine tearing and cutting, such as the snow scenes 
with the torn horizon line. 

In the illustrations are examples of simple pictures 
which the five-year-old child is capable of working out. 
The little girl with her sled is walking up a hill of snow 
which is a torn piece of white paper pasted upon a gray 
mounting. She is cut out of black paper and the sled of 
red gives the touch of color. 

The picture with the boy and the big snowball has 
simple lines to follow. Tear the snow background first, 
next cut out a big white snowball, and then paste on 
the boy. 

The making of maple sugar is an interesting subject 
to discuss with the child, and the picture suggested here 
makes the story realistic to one who has not seen the 
actual process. First an irregular piece of white torn 
paper is pasted on a gray card. The house is cut out of 
black paper and pasted on at the left. The boy is placed 
in the foreground as if coming from the house to the 
trees. The trees are just irregular strips of paper pasted 
in a row at the right of the picture. The sap pails could 
be cut out of paper, but in this instance are sketched in 
with a pencil. 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Pasting a yellow moon behind a tree gives another in- 
teresting touch of life as is shown in the two pictures. As 
the moon shines across snow or water, a few lines with 
yellow crayon show the reflection which it makes in the 
form of a path. 

After one has read to the boy the great hero tales of 
the strong, brave knights of old and their castle homes, 
the stories become more vivid as he creates pictures. 
The silhouette of the knight riding over the snow to the 
castle is simple for him to make. Perhaps he will have 
suggestions and additions to make. 

The night scene may be developed in many ways. 
Here is its row of varied heights of buildings cut from 
black paper, pasted upon a dark blue background. On 
this evening sky are the moon and stars. Sometimes 
windows are cut out of buildings and a line of yellow 
paper is pasted behind. This gives the effect of light in 
the windows. 

If one cannot draw figures free hand, there are books 
and magazines to turn to for aid. Trace on thin paper the 
object desired, and while cutting it out, hold the colored 
paper underneath the traced figure, thus cutting both 
out at the same time. As experience with success en- 
courages this form of occupation, more difficult pictures 
will be tried. The flower, a blue gentian, is made with 
two shades of blue paper. The heavy shadows of dark 
blue are cut in such a shape as to bring out the right 
contour of the petals. It takes careful finger manipula- 
tion to cut the fine orange strips that suggest a simset. 
Always draw outline of figures on the wTong side of the 
paper so that no pencil marks wiU show on the right side. 

30 




4 





53 



CUTTING AND TEARING 



KINDERGARTEN OCCUPATIONS 

Animals, fruits, and flowers mean much in the child's 
world, so let him reproduce them on paper. The evolu- 
tion from a large red circle to an apple, or from a white 
circle to a daisy, shows the results that can be achieved 
by any one who tries. 



Ill 

THE LITTLE ARTIST 
CRAYONING 

THE use of the pencil is always entertaining to 
children and the colored pencil or crayons are still 
more fascinating. Crayoning is the earliest form of art 
which comes to a child. As this material is so easily 
handled and not difficult to obtain, no child should be 
denied this form of entertainment. A box of crayons 
comprising the standard colors can be purchased in 
almost any store for ten cents and upwards. The best 
results follow using paper with a slightly rough sur- 
face. Crayons do not adhere to smooth paper so well. 
Give the young child one color at a time, as the be- 
wilderment of many colors inhibits definite results. 

SPOT WORK 

The first response from a child will be that of scribbling, 
but soon it will take a suggestive shape and the child's 
imagination will begin to work. There are two forms of 
movement which will naturally appear. The first is a 
round and round motion, which we call " spot work." 
There is a broad field of suggestiveness here. Call the 
spot a ball, a marble, balloon, or soap bubble. A large 
brown spot with three small blue spots in the center 
gives us a bird's nest. From a group of three red spots 
draw some brown stems having them come together 
with a spot of green. Here we have made a bunch of 

32 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

cherries. A larger red spot with a brown, short stem is 
an apple; with a green stem, it can be a tomato. With 
the orange spot we think of the fruit, or with a green 
stem and a few grooved lines there is the pmnpkin. The 
fruit and vegetable kingdom offers many suggestions as 
well as the flowers. The pussy willow brings the first 
thought of spring. Use a dark piece of paper, on which 
draw a brown line for the stem. On either side of the 
stem, at alternate points, put white spots, using black- 
board chalk. A touch of brown under each spot gives 
the effect of the downy pussy coming out of its winter 
sheath. 

Children venture into the animal world too. These 
spots soon are given names, such as cats, dogs, sheep, 
horses. Ears, legs, and tails are added according to 
their observation of the object. The bunny has his long 
ears without a tail, while the chicken, duck, and birds 
must have their bills. No matter how crude may be the 
spot representing a body, another spot or circle or 
smaller dimension is put on top for the head. Arms and 
legs are represented by lines, and the little one is quite 
satisfied with the man drawn. Encourage this play; 
it will develop to better work ere long. The child's 
memory and imagination will begin to work as he illus- 
trates in this form of drawing stories he has been told 
or experiences in his own life. He will always see the 
smoke coming out of an engine. He will not only draw 
a house, but through the house see the chairs, and they 
must be drawn on the outside of the house because in 
his mind he sees them vividly. As a child naturally 
grabs a crayon and bears on the paper heavily, it is 

33 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

suggested that at the beginning a little instruction 
should be given as to the holding of the pencil, and free- 
dom of wrist and arm movement. Give him objects 
to look at when possible that a true perception may be 
formed of the shapes. 

Designs are easily created from spots. Suggest to the 
child that spots large and small be placed alternately 
in a row. In similar manner make other arrangements 
of spots combining two colors. Let the child originate 
groupings and shapes of spots representing borders. Let 
the child make his book fold and with his own ideas of 
spots and lines, he will be delighted that he has designed 
a book cover. The tulip is as simple a flower as any which 
can be developed into a conventional spot design. Gifts 
for Christmas, such as calendars and blotters, give an 
opportunity for decorations of this kind. The holly 
berry is the small red spot and an irregular larger spot 
of green, the leaf. With a little help from Mother, the 
child is encouraged to create. 

BACK AND FORTH RUBBING 

The second form of movement which naturally appears 
with the child is what is spoken of as back and forth 
rubbing in horizontal Hues. This should be developed 
so that eventually an even coloring of a piece of paper 
can be done with one color. A blue paper suggests 
a sky, a green paper may be the grass, and by using 
brown it may represent the ground or a rug for the doll- 
house. There are many things that can be done with 
a plain piece of crayoned paper. It can be folded for 
the book cover, or it can be made into a box which, by 

34 



IE--:.. 



FIRST STEPS WITH CRAYONS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

putting a handle on it, makes a basket for May Day. 
Cardboard patterns of fruit or animals may be placed 
on this crayoned paper. Draw around, making an out- 
hne which is cut out afterward. The heart shape would 
suggest material for Valentine's Day. Leaves of differ- 
ent trees should be gathered and outlined in the same 
manner. Autumn coloring can be introduced to make 
a variety. This is also a means of studying trees and 
pointing out their differences. In the center of a piece of 
cardboard, cut out any desired shape. Put this upon a 
piece of white paper and let the child rub in the design. 
This is called stenciling, and is very simple and inter- 
esting work to do. Do not forget to save old magazines 
and picture books, because every child takes pleasure 
in illuminating or coloring the pictures. This is a splen- 
did occupation on the train, so when starting on a 
journey put a box of crayons in your travehng-bag. 

LANDSCAPE 

From this rubbing movement we come to a second step, 
that of working out landscapes. From the top of the 
paper, working toward the center, use a blue crayon, 
rubbing smoothly with long free-arm movement, back 
and forth. Beginning at the lower edge of the paper, in 
like manner rub in green. As you come up to the blue 
crayoning, bear on a little heavier, making a horizon 
line of irregular rubbing. This gives the effect of trees 
and shrubbery in the distance. As this work is so free 
hand, no two pictures will be alike, which makes the 
occupation very interesting to all ages. A few strokes 
of brown here and there throughout the horizon suggest 

35 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

shadow and trunks of trees. In another picture, try- 
making the outhne of a house in the distance. With 
gentle rubbing of black, let some smoke come from the 
chimney. Use a little brown, yellow, orange, with green 
in the foreground. Also from the horizon upwards 
throughout the blue sky, blend in soft colors seen in 
the sunsets. These touches bring warmth and life to 
the simple picture. As the use of the crayons in blend- 
ing of colors and free rubbing becomes easier to the 
little artist, more elaborate pictures can be undertaken, 
such as are suggested in the illustrations. A snow scene 
is easily worked out on dark paper, using white chalk to 
represent snow. Also a representation of night is pic- 
tured here with the yellow moon rising behind build- 
ings, casting pale yellow rays across the country. Do not 
forget the heavy shadows which it causes beside the 
buildings, and in front of the trees which reflect in wa- 
ter. Children delight in illustrations of water, seashore, 
rocks, lighthouses. Always put a few strokes of dark 
on the horizon to represent a boat, and do not forget 
the smoke coming out of the smokestacks. Rocks should 
have jagged points with heavy shadows, and from the 
lighthouse yellow rays should be streaming from its 
windows in different directions, representing its lights 
along the coast. A seagull flies overhead. Starting from 
a given point and drawing lines which curve upward in 
opposite directions will give you a picture of a bird on 
the wing. Several drawn near together give the effect of 
a flock of birds. After a little practice, a child can in- 
troduce birds into his picture very nicely. 

In a distant meadow you may see a field of butter- 
36 




WHERE GO THE BOATs" (SteVCtlSOll) 




BY THE SEA 
ILLUSTRATING WITH CRAYONS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

cups and daisies. These can be represented by a mass 
of yellow rubbed on irregularly, leaving white spaces 
here and there to represent daisies. Never attempt too 
much detail in free-hand work. A touch of purple at a 
horizon gives the effect of still more distance. Remem- 
ber, all this work is done in free-hand rubbing either 
with short or long strokes. 

If it is difficult to sketch from nature, copying is the 
alternative. Most exquisite suggestions of landscape 
can be found on Christmas, Easter, and Birthday cards. 
These are tiny, but copies of them will make pretty 
decorations for calendars, dinner cards, and souvenirs. 
Choose a simple picture which your little daughter can 
copy, and she will be delighted that she has shared in the 
preparation of her Birthday Party. Above all, never 
forget to call children's attention to coloring in nature, 
sunsets, and birds and flowers. 

CHALK 

If a child is fortunate enough to have a blackboard in 
his play-room, chalk may be used in the same ways 
as suggested above for crayons. The standard colors in 
chalk can be purchased at school supply stores. There 
is dust to chalk work as well as soiling of clothes and 
hands, so prepare the room and child's attire for such 
play. More elaborate blackboard illustration work re- 
quires skill, practice, and mature fingers. Children de- 
light in watching a picture grow from the hands of 
mother or teacher, and one who is at all gifted should 
develop his talent. There are a few books published on 
Blackboard Sketching, which would be of assistance to 

37 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the reader. The simplest and most direct instruction 
may be found in '* Blackboard Sketching," by Frederick 
Whitney. 

WATER-COLORS 

As the child becomes acquainted with his crayons and 
has learned to appreciate the pleasures of drawing, the 
next step is to help him enjoy the paint-brush. It is said 
that children with poor motor control can get results 
more easily with the brush than with crayons. However 
that may be, crayoning and painting go side by side 
in developing the child's sense of the beautiful as well 
as perfecting skill with the hands. Children are fond 
of color, and psychologists say that the development of 
character has been effected through the careful study 
of bright colors. 

Little folks should know the primary colors, red, yel- 
low, and blue. The blending of these colors has pro- 
duced the secondary colors. Here, then, one must begin 
the discussion of the rainbow in all its beauty. Let him 
find the six predominating colors, red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, and purple. Now he is anxious to try his 
ability; but he must first learn to use his brush and take 
one color at a time. 

MATERIALS 

Water-colors come in several forms. The paint-box 
is the most common way of buying them. These come 
in many sizes with different qualities of paints and 
brushes. The box which contains the six standard 
colors with sepia and black added, is sufficient for any 





i^^»MJM:4kM^^«Mtf^ 



I 



k' 



FIRST STEPS IN WATER-COLORS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

one to use. Paint also comes in tubes. If using this kind, 
take out just enough for present use, mixing it with 
water according to strength of color needed. This is a 
good quality of paint and is guaranteed not to harden. 
There is a liquid paint which comes in glass jars which 
also should be diluted with water. Paper for painting 
should have a slightly rough surface. 

The best brush for a child to begin with is a Japanese 
school brush. It is of fairly good size, holds the paint, 
makes a good point, and is splendid for the large, simple 
washes. A smaller camel's-hair brush is used when 
lines and finer detailed work are desired. 

All these materials can be found in art stores, chil- 
dren's department of general stores, and school supply 
stores. 

WASHES 

The first result to be obtained is an ability to make a 
good even wash of color. Fill the brush with paint, hold 
it lightly, and make a free stroke across the paper from 
left to right with one wash. Raise the brush from the 
paper, beginning again at the left side, and pass freely 
and quickly across to the right. Overlap slightly the 
first stroke, thus avoiding hard lines. Continue this 
process until the paper is entirely covered. Never go 
back to fill in or go over the surface a second time while 
it is wet, as it would cause streaks and blotches. Avoid 
the scrubbing motion at this time. With perseverance 
the child is able to improve, getting splendid results. 
When the paper is dry, take cardboard patterns, draw 
outlines of fruits or animals on the painted paper in 

S9 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the same manner as was described when using crayons. 
Cut these out and paste them on mounting or construc- 
tion paper. 

Another way of using the one-wash paper would be 
to consider it as representing the sky. Cut a yellow 
circle from another piece of paper. Paste this on the 
sky to illustrate either the sun or the moon. 

With this first experience of painting with one color 
the child will want to color articles he has made, such as 
boxes and toys. He will want to color pictures in books 
and magazines. Painting-books for just this purpose 
have been published in large numbers and afford amuse- 
ment by the hour for the little ones. 

One of the most successful ways of procuring an even, 
one-color wash is first to wet the entire paper with 
clear water. Now pass the color over the paper in the 
same manner as before described. 

LANDSCAPES 

To get a landscape with one color, wet the paper and 
then at different places drop on the color to be used. 
Let the color flow by tipping the paper this way and that, 
sometimes directing it to procure a horizontal line. Re- 
markable clouds can be made in this way. Very beauti- 
ful landscapes have been created just by this chance 
floating of paint. Sepia is suggested for this work. 

Results with two colors give the first idea of landscape 
true to nature. Wash haKway down the paper with 
blue; then wash from lower edge up toward the center 
with green. When the blue is nearly dry, take a brush 
full of stronger green and pass through the horizon, 

40 





NIGHT SCENES IN WATER-COLORS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

letting the green blend into the blue irregularly. This 
will produce the effect of trees against the sky-line. In 
the illustration three washes were used. The yellow 
wash in the foreground represents sand. In going from 
one color to another, the brush must be cleaned; other- 
wise the painting will have a muddy appearance. When 
letting one or more colors flow through water, be sure 
that the surface of the paper is clean before putting 
on colors. When water is put on the surface at first, let 
the paper dry a little before applying colors; then the 
paints will not run too much. 

To make a night scene, as is illustrated in the "Three 
Wise Men," make a good wash of blue sky and brown 
earth. Just a bit of green is suggested through the 
brown. When nearly dry, put a wash of black over the 
entire paper. Let this dry and, with clean brush of 
black, accentuate the horizon, thus suggesting the 
"little town of Bethlehem" in the distance. Three tiny 
touches of black paint make the camels. The star is 
scratched in afterwards. A gold star could be pasted on 
by the child more easily. 

In the moonlight scene the moon is painted with its 
yellow rays first, and the sky is worked in around it 
as was described in the former picture. When the sky 
is dry, the city buildings are outlined and painted in 
with black. 

Beautiful effects with blending of two colors can be 
worked out if a clean brush is used when a new color is 
washed directly over another color which is slightly 
dry. Suggestive colors to try would be blue over red, red 
over yellow, yellow over blue. 

41 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

FLOATING COLORS 

The fascinating stained glass found in church windows 
can be produced with paints by the process of floating 
colors. Have the paper wet. With a clean, full brush 
each time splash or drop several colors here and there 
on the paper. Move the paper about, letting the colors 
float into each other just enough to blend and mix with- 
out becoming muddy. Set this aside to dry and, in the 
meantime, take silhouette or black paper to make a 
church window. With ruler and pencil design on the 
wrong side of the paper the shape of windows which 
the child has seen in his own church. In the illustration 
is seen a group of three windows. When this is cut out 
paste it on to the painted paper and then cut around 
the window. Mount this on a heavy light-colored card. 
Children are delighted with the pretty colors, as they 
never float twice alike, always changing until the paper 
dries. Many other things may be cut from paper with 
the floating colors. The illustration shows a row of Jap- 
anese lanterns pasted on a heavier paper. With black 
paint brush in posts. Paint a black string across from 
post to post and a black string down from this to meet 
each lantern. Larger lanterns may be cut and folded for 
decorations. Candy boxes, too, can be folded from this 
paper and are very attractive. 

SPOTTING 

There are three ways of getting spot effects with paint- 
ing. First, rub the brush round and round, making large 
spots suggestive of fruits and vegetables. Simply press- 
ing the brush down once gives another effect which may 

42 





EXAMPLES OF FLOATING COLORS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

be applied to petals of flowers like the daisy or small 
leaves. The third type of dots are still smaller and are 
made with the point of a brush. 

Usually from a child's point of view the large spots 
represent shapes, while the brush full of paint pressed 
down makes the leaves. 

From the spots, designing in conventional patterns 
can be developed. Ask for a row of spots, spots of differ- 
ent sizes, and spots connected with lines. The illus- 
tration here of the flower pot shows the conventional 
spotting while the wall-paper combines conventionality 
with the flowers. An especially clever child can, in this 
manner, design the wall-paper in the rooms of her own 
little doll-house. 

Stenciling in its simplest form can be done by chil- 
dren with their paints. For tools select different sizes 
of sticks of wood evenly cut at one end, either square or 
oblong in shape. Cork stopples of different sizes, which 
are round or may be cut in oval shape, must be col- 
lected. Have the paper dry. Press the end of the stick or 
stopple into fairly thick paint and stamp on the paper. 
Thought must be given to the arrangement of spots or 
design before beginning the work. It takes practice to 
stamp on the color evenly and in regular formation. 
This work is very effective for book covers, scrapbooks, 
and anywhere that application of a border is desired. 

CLAY MODELING 

History of prehistoric man tells us that his existence 
depended upon what he could accomplish for himself 
with his hands. Psychologists of to-day are agreed that 

43 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the development of mind and hand go together m the 
training of the best type of man. Therefore, through 
the experience of the ages it has been proved that 
the fundamental instrument in child education is the 
hand. 

We have seen the use and value of many interesting 
phases in the foregoing chapters, but the occupation 
which develops down to the sensitive finger-tips is clay 
modeling. Primitive man found out its value when he 
realized he could make his home and utensils of clay. 
Then the enduring character of the utensil called for 
more careful workmanship; so designs were imprinted 
upon it; lines depicted a story or records of events to be 
preserved. The hot sun of the Orient taught him that 
clay could be baked, thus making it imperishable, which 
experience has been used and perfected to the present 
day. This discovery brought great progress in the 
world's industries and education. 

As civilization developed, clay remained one of the 
best mediums of expression. This is noted in the won- 
derful Greek sculpture. We can conclude, therefore, 
that modeling in clay prepares the muscles for delicate 
use. It leads to beauty of form and accuracy, which 
mean the well-trained eye. One must have patience, 
carefulness, and neatness, all of which are beneficial to 
a child's growth. 

From time immemorial making and baking of mud 
pies have been the joy of every child. By the seashore 
he has reveled in making his castle, forts, and canals 
with sand. Sand, however, lacks coherence and dura- 
bility and satisfies only for the time being. Clay, which 

44 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

is but an ugly lump of gray, soon fascinates the child as 
it takes form under his hands. At first the crude shape 
with four legs is called a horse or a dog, and for some 
time his imagination deals kindly with him. Then comes 
another stage when he is not satisfied ; something is not 
right. He soon feels the need of encouragement. The 
time has now come for the discussion of pictures and 
models and for more technical and accurate work. From 
this point on there is rapid development. 

MATERIAL 

Clay can be purchased in two forms. From potteries 
where stone jugs and crocks are made it can be procured 
in its moist condition, ready for use. It comes also in the 
form of powder in five-pound packages, and is to be had 
from school supply firms. This has to be mixed with 
water to the right consistency, and then moulded into 
loaves like bread. There are substitutes for clay on the 
market which are desirable and easily handled. Plas- 
teline is always ready for use. It is soft, plastic, and 
remains so. It can be left standing any length of time, 
and can be worked over again if desired. Plasticine 
resembles plasteline in consistency, and both of these 
materials come in many colors. It is the purpose of 
this writing, however, to tell and illustrate what can 
be done with ordinary clay, for this work hardens and 
remains for all time. 

CARE OF CLAY 

Clay should be kept in a covered galvanized pail. If 
a heavy cloth Hke canvas is kept damp and wrapped 

45 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

around the clay, it will keep moist and in a workable 
condition for many weeks. When clay becomes too 
hard for use, break it up in small pieces with a hammer. 
Put it into a bag and place it in water until the clay 
has absorbed enough moisture. Then it can be again 
moulded into shape. 

In working with clay, remember that it is clean even 
though it may stick to the hands. It will soon turn to 
powder on the fingers, and by clapping the hands to- 
gether a good deal of it is removed. If clay is used ex- 
tensively, the skin of the hands may seem a little dry; 
therefore, after removing all clay rub into the pores a 
little glycerine or any form of cold cream. 

Prepare a table by covering it with oilcloth turned 
over on the wrong side. Clay is more easily taken up 
from this rougher surface. Modeling in its primary sense 
is done with fingers and hands alone, yet a wooden 
skewer comes in as a helping tool. To cut off a piece 
from a large mould, take a piece of string and holding 
it taut between the hands, press it down through the 
mould. This cuts like a slice of bread. Give a child a 
small piece at a time because, while held in the hand, 
moisture soon leaves it and it becomes unworkable. 

USE OF CLAY 

A NEW occupation has come to the child. Let him play 
freely, finding out its qualifications and possibilities. He 
will pound it, roll it, pinch and press it. The child's 
curiosity as to the feel of the clay must first be satisfied. 
Encourage him to make something; it may be a cookie, 
or if he makes a hole in the middle, it will be a doughnut. 

46 




CLAY-MODELING 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

He may roll a piece that will be called a banana, Father's 
cigar, or Mother's rolling pin. Then comes a httle ball 
which he can call a marble. 

CHAINS 

Let the child make many little balls, placing them in a 
row. These will suggest beads and he will want to put 
them together. Take heavy linen or shoe-button thread 
and with a coarse needle string them while they are 
moist. String a piece of paper, then a bead, and so on 
alternately. This will keep the beads from adhering 
to each other while drying. After they are strung, move 
them around occasionally that they may keep free to 
slide on the thread. After twenty-four or thirty-six 
hours they will have become thoroughly dry and the 
paper can be torn away from between them. Fasten 
one end of the string to a wire or nail from which it can 
hang. Now hold on to the other end and, as they swing, 
paint them with water-color paints. Use as little water 
as possible with the paint, as otherwise they will be- 
come streaked and will need several coats of color. As 
one color dries another color can be used over to give 
Oriental or Indian effects. When the paint is sufficiently 
dry, white shellac can be applied, not only to preserve 
them, but to give a luster to the beads. Use a bristle 
brush for shellac and when not in use keep it in dena- 
tured alcohol. Until dry the shellac is sticky, so care 
must be used in keeping the beads still hung up, moving 
them free from each other. This is, however, a short 
process and they are soon dry enough to be left to 
hai'den. The illustrations give varied ideas of clay 

47 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

bead chains which have all been through the de- 
scribed process of making. Different shapes other than 
the round ball can be introduced with effectiveness. 
Children are equal to this work with some supervision 
and will take great pride in the finished finery. 

CLAY ARTICLES 

The simple ball may become an oval in shape which 
may be called a bird's egg. After several of these have 
been moulded, a bird's nest will need to be made. Balls 
and eggs have been made by the rolling round and round 
in the palm of the hand, but the fingers must come into 
play in making more difficult objects. From a lump of 
clay, press down in the center, continually working to 
make the hollow of the nest. The outside of a nest has 
a rougher appearance, but it must have the round effect 
of the weaving'of straw and hair of the real nest. A few 
strokes with the wooden skewer will give the desired 
results. A bird can be made to sit on the nest. From 
another lump of clay, mould the oval body, stretching 
it out at one end to make the head. Pinch a little bill 
out from the clay head. The tail, if short, may be 
moulded from the same piece of clay; but if it is a long 
tail the clay should be flattened and made wedge- 
shaped at one end. The tail is then pressed on the 
body. Sometimes a toothpick is useful here. Stick half 
into the body and half into the tail and work the clay 
over it, blending all together like one piece. In all figures 
keep smoothing clay with the end of the thumb or fore- 
finger that no humps or cracks remain, for in the drying 
it might crack and get out of shape. Children cling to 

48 




CLAY BEADS 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

the animal world in their visions and hours of play. 
Much can be learned of animals, their habits and shapes, 
by moulding these forms. Perhaps the circus has been 
visited and a clay menagerie is desired at home. The 
elephant must show his big flappy ears, his long trunk, 
and his beautiful ivory tusks. Many animals, like the 
dog, cat, or bunny, are living models in the home of the 
child to be observed and reproduced in this play. Small 
sticks are used in making legs that are attached to the 
body. They are, of course, hidden in the clay and yet 
they give much support and poise to the finished prod- 
uct. Articles of usefulness can be made, too, not for- 
getting that they can be given as Christmas presents. 
There are the bowls, ash trays, and candlesticks. In 
the curved handle of the candlestick or in similar places 
where the curve needs support, a piece of wire can be 
introduced through the clay and treated as the sticks of 
wood in other pieces. The clock illustrates once more the 
fascination of the timepiece to all children. The fruits, 
too, are such familiar objects that it is easy for them 
to mould an apple, pear, or orange. They are simple to 
form in clay. Take a lump of clay and form a smooth 
ball making an indentation at the top and bottom for 
an apple. The pear will be slightly elongated and nar- 
rowed at the top. A separate leaf and stem attached 
completes the imitation of nature. Use of paint and shel- 
lac gives added pleasure and interest to all this work. 

TILES 

The making of tiles or plaques is another form of clay 
modeling. It may illustrate a story the child has heard 

49 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

or a picture he wishes to copy or yet again some fan- 
ciful idea in his mind. It gives expression of the 
imagination in picture rather than in words. Cut and 
smooth out with a wooden clay knife or skewer a piece 
of clay four or five inches square, and a half -inch in 
thickness. It is well first to draw on paper a pattern of 
desired illustration or design, then w ith the pointed end 
of the skewer copy it in outline on the tile. You will 
then be better able to see just how and where to place 
clay. Take small pieces of clay, flatten out to shape of 
pattern, and press on the tile within the given outline. 
With fingers, smooth around the edges so that soon it 
will look as though it was a part of the tile in bas-relief. 
Another way of treating the tile is to outline the form on 
the tile as before; this time cut or chisel away from the 
design, leaving it raised in bas-relief. This work, how- 
ever, would be for the more advanced student who has 
passed through the simpler stages. 

Children enjoy taking leaves of trees or shrubbery and 
spreading them on a moist clay tile. Press the leaf 
gently upon it over its entire shape, and there in all its 
detail of veins it will appear beautifully imprinted upon 
the clay. Now around the outline of the clay leaf, press 
away with the fingers some of the tile, leaving the design 
to stand out by itself. As is seen in the illustrations, the 
subjects for this work have a wide range. Here is the 
black cat, a goose, three little bunnies; perhaps they 
are Flopsie, Mopsie, and Cottontail having a discussion 
concerning the antics of Peter Rabbit. There is a won- 
derful cow, a dainty butterfly, and a basket of fruit. The 
soldier on his fine steed recalls the story of the knight 

§0 




TILES IN CLAY 



THE LITTLE ARTIST 

coming in search of the good child. The Dutch girl is a 
familiar figure, for we see her in the well-known adver- 
tisement for Dutch Cleanser. The gorgeous peacock dis- 
plays his tail feathers and the little girl is seen picking 
her flowers. Painting these tiles and articles gives the 
realistic interpretation, and the coat of shellac over all 
preserves color and form. 

Perhaps some of these things may seem beyond the 
child's ability; but there is much he can do through in- 
terest, perseverance, and gradual development. He 
will soon want to do the part he has been assisted in, and 
surprising results will follow. Where the older child has 
made a bowl or vase for flowers and it is to be so used, 
it will be necessary to use enamel paint and have it fired 
in a kiln as is all china and pottery that is made for serv- 
ice. That is a more advanced step in the art of model- 
ing and requires further study. Water-color paints and 
white shellac are sufficient to use w ith the little children. 
Throughout the fascinating development of clay model- 
ing our first idea must not be forgotten, which is, that it 
stands for great educational value in the building-up of 
the child's mind and trains his sense of touch to a great 
degree. 

In all branches of work and play, let the boys and 
girls work out ideas for themselves when they can; let 
us guide them when they turn to us for advice and find 
our happiness in Froebers motto, 'Xome, let us live 
with our children." 



IV 
USE OF NATURE MATERIALS 

THE inborn love of nature and a desire to get 
close to it, turn our first thoughts to suggestions 
for the little child as he plays among the pretty flow- 
ers, picks up round pebbles by the roadside or attractive 
shells at the seashore. The touching of things leads to 
the play with things. Thus the collecting instinct is 
first portrayed and should be encouraged. 

CHAINS 

As you sit under the trees with your sewing, be sure you 
have brought with you a strong linen thread and a 
coarse needle. At almost any time of the year materials 
for chains are to be found. In the fall of the year comes 
the large variety of seeds and berries. There is much 
fun in stringing them into a chain. Talk with the child 
about the colors or arrangement of these on the chain. 
This calls forth originality. The rose seeds, or rose 
hips, as they are sometimes called, may be gathered in 
abundance by the roadside from the wild rose bush. 
These make a brilliant red necklace. The combination of 
squash and watermelon seeds makes a chain in black 
and white contrast. The fun of counting the seeds is 
good mathematical exercise, saying, "Two black, one 
white," repeating over and over again as they are 
strung. These seeds, as well as corn and peas, can be 

52 



USE OF NATURE MATERIALS 

dried and kept for the winter days when storms bring 
shut-in hours for the Httle folks. Acorns and horse- 
chestnuts make heavier chains and a Httle harder to 
string, but still it is all good fun. When the festival 
days draw near the youngest of the family can help 
prepare the decorations. Popcorn and cranberries strung, 
either separately or together, make a bright spot on 
the Christmas-tree. Straw cut into inch lengths com- 
bined with a seed or berry is attractive. Macaroni may 
be used in the same way. Break it into inch lengths. 
With water-colors paint some pieces blue and some red. 
In stringing these be sure to put the pieces on each time 
in the same order: red, white, and blue. This makes a 
patriotic chain. Squash seeds take the water-color paint 
very well, so one can make colored chains with them. 

Dandelion stem chains are fun to make. Break off the 
flower head. Now put the small end of the stem, which is 
nearest the flower, inside the other end. This makes a 
link. Slip another stem through this link and join the 
ends in the same manner. Continue until the desired 
length, then join the two ends of the chain by linking 
them together with another stem. 

Pine needle chain : If you are in the woods near a pine 
tree, stop long enough to gather tufts of pine needles. 
Take one cluster and carefully remove all the needles 
save one. Bend this one over and slip the point into the 
little pocket made vacant by removing the others. This 
is the unit link in which is slipped the next needle, and 
so on until the chain is finished, as in the dandelion 
chain. On the last link a red berry can be placed as a 
sort of pendant. 

53 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Noted in the chains illustrated are interesting com- 
binations of seeds. The acorn chains are heavy but 
symmetrical and rich looking. The purple seeds are 
from the muskmelon and dipped in purple ink. These 
are combined with small rose hips. The hemlock cones 
have barberry berries with them, while the black and 
orange chain are colored berries picked up from under 
shrubbery in the parkway. Job's tears combined with 
seeds from the pod of a linden-tree make a chain, soft 
in colors and attractive to wear. When dry, the bitter- 
sweet berries burst into lovely shapes. These combined 
with rose hips make a dainty chain. 

Children enjoy painting squash seeds and these in 
black and yellow suggest the Hallowe'en festivities. The 
chain resembling coral is nothing more than hundreds of 
muskmelon seeds strung through the middle and dipped 
in red ink. It is lovely enough to grace any gown. 

LEAVES 

Next to the flowers and seeds come the leaves, fascinat- 
ing in their varied shapes and colorings. Children de- 
light in decorating themselves with wreaths on their 
heads or about their necks. These are made by pinning 
leaves together with green stems or twigs. Picture frames 
may also be made. Different combinations of sizes, 
shapes, and shades of leaves suggest a great variety of 
design and construction. Little folks may be kept busy 
and contented a long time by playing tea party under 
the trees. Make a tablecloth by pinning leaves together 
in a solid square; use one leaf for a napkin and set the 
table with acorn cups. Pretty plates and baskets can be 

54> 




NATURE CHAINS 



USE OF NATURE IVIATERIALS 

made from the burrs of the burdock plant. The adhesive 
propensities of these Uttle prickly balls offer opportu- 
nities for almost any shape. Two remarkable examples 
of the use of burrs are illustrated here : one of the little 
dog with the perky turn of the head and the other one 
a stately camel. 

CONSTRUCTION WORK WITH DRIED PEAS 

Take a small quantity of dried peas and soak them 
overnight. Remove them from the water a little while 
before using and you will find they will be soft enough to 
pierce with a needle. A form of constructive play may 
be developed by straightening a wire hairpin and plac- 
ing peas on in a row. This develops the child's ability 
to count. Now bring a supply of wooden toothpicks 
with which to build. More pleasure is gained by de- 
veloping slowly, so pierce one pea with a toothpick, 
allowing the child's imagination to guess what it resem- 
bles. It may look like a hatpin or a cane. Place a pea on 
the other end of the toothpick and then it may look like 
a dumb-bell with which Father takes his morning exer- 
cise, or it may be a rolling pin which Mother uses when 
making cookies. x4t right angles from each of these put 
toothpicks in the same direction and then two more 
perpendicularly from the same two peas at another 
right angle. At the ends of these four toothpicks attach 
more peas, join with more picks until a skeleton cube is 
made. Once this first form is made there is no end of 
designs and building which can be developed. Try to 
make a chair, table, house, chicken coop, barn, and so on. 
Notice the wonderful aeroplane, the gunboat, a man 

55 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

riding a horse, and the farmer's pitchfork. All phases 
of life interests can be suggested in this play. Flatwork 
suggests stars, snowflakes, and all forms of geometric 
designs. Note illustrations. 

VEGETABLE TOYS AND DOLLS 

In getting the potatoes for dinner, unusual shapes are 
found which may be evolved into suggestive forms. 
Again use toothpicks or wooden skewers for legs and you 
will soon have a wonderful menagerie. Just before mak- 
ing the lemon pie, see if the boy can imagine a pig made 
from the lemon. From the orange peel try to fashion a 
boat. Pin a toothpick through a piece of paper, stick this 
into the peel and a sailboat is completed. From the stone 
of a peach which has been dried, a little basket can be 
whittled. Making the pointed end of the stone the top, 
cut down on each side nearly halfway. Remove the 
inner nut and you will see you have made the handle. 
This cutting takes time and patience, and is too difficult 
for a child to do; but the toy made by Father or Big 
Brother will be highly treasured. The little girl will put 
it on a ribbon and hang it round her neck. By digging 
out the inside of a horse-chestnut and patting in through 
the side a wooden skewer, a play pipe is made, which 
especially pleases the little boy. 

Corn husks should not be hastily discarded, as from 
these wonderful dolls may be made to the delight of 
every boy and girl. Wrap the green husk around a bunch 
of the brown silk which flows out as hair. About two 
inches down, tie with a stout thread or string, tightly 
drawing in a neck which also forms the head. With 

5Q 



CONSTRUCTION WORK WITH TOOTHPICKS AND PEAS 



USE OF NATURE MATERIALS 

scissors cut the green husk up a short way on both 
sides. This makes the arms. With more string tie in- 
side these cuttings, thus forming the waist hne. A few 
strokes with crayon or pen make the face and a doll has 
come to life. More time may be spent to complete this 
creation, but this is the simple transformation. 

In the illustration note the Indian warrior made of 
husks. Small hens' feathers complete the headdress. 
The simplest of all dolls is the one made of hay. Surely 
a child should not want for a plaything so simple as this. 
Take a bunch of dried grass, arranging it so that the stems 
lie the same way. With string tie the bunch a short way 
from the top to make the head. Take spears from each 
side, cutting off a correct length to tie for arms. Bind in 
the waist line and lower down divide in halves, tying 
again to make the legs. 

Seen in the picture is an acorn doll. The acorns are 
pierced with a sharp point and strung on stout string. 
The same kind of doll is made with peanuts. The top 
nut being the head, use ink here to make the features 
of the face. Nuts strung in this fashion, leaving a long 
end of string at the top of the head, are loose-jointed, 
so that, to the delight of your baby, the doll dances 
and hops around. The acorn especially is a practical 
toy for the youngest child, as there is no harm done if he 
puts it into his mouth. 

Notice the brownie boy made of a sweet potato. He 
has a feather in his head which resembles a cap. The 
bird is also made from a sweet potato. He has twigs for 
his feet, black pins for his beady eyes, and a feather for 
his tail. The white potato cat almost speaks to us: A 

57 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

small potato is joined to a larger potato with toothpicks 
to make the head. His face is drawn with ink, his whisk- 
ers are small pieces from the whisk broom, while the 
pink bow around his neck adds the finishing touch. The 
turnip man also shov/s great possibilities in this vege- 
table. The small turnip was placed upside down for the 
head, so that the fibrous root could be tied with a bow 
and wave in the air like a queue. 

Other vegetables, such as the radish or carrot, may be- 
come dolls too. On a wooden skewer place a rosy radish. 
Leave a little of its green on top, and tie around the 
bottom some leaves or grass, thus forming a dress. 
Mark a face on the red cheeks and I 'm sure another doll 
will smile at his little playmates. 

A special surprise for a fitting occasion would be the 
fig doll. It is not only good to look at, but good to eat. 
On a toothpick put first the broad side of a fig. This is 
the body. Next put on a marshmallow, which is the 
head, and on top place another fig the narrow way, which 
will be the tam-o'-shanter. On four other toothpicks 
place a row of raisins leaving room to pierce the other 
end into the fig body, where the two arms and two legs 
should go. With a small quantity of melted chocolate 
on the end of a toothpick draw the features of the face 
on the marshmallow. Whole cloves may be placed down 
the front of the body to represent buttons of his coat. 

As before mentioned, the collecting instinct is so 
strong in children that when they so desire they should 
be given their freedom to enjoy it. Because of the large 
variety of specimens, special places and boxes should 
be arranged for them, thus causing little confusion to 

58 




NATURE TOYS 



USE OF NATURE MATERIALS 

the household and giving great delight to the child. 
Much of this material will serve as amusement on rainy- 
days and the actual collecting is surely educational. 
Nature produces many things for the children to collect. 
There are the flowers and leaves to press, also the sea 
moss which can be washed, dried, and pressed. The Irish 
moss is, of course, edible and may be kept for years. 
There are small stones, seashells, seeds of every kind, 
acorn cups, nuts, pods, pine cones, and last year's birds* 
nests. Perhaps a new house is being built near by where 
many small pieces of wood have been thrown aside. 
These should be collected and would mean hours of play 
and pleasure from the baby just beginning to notice 
things, to the little man who wants to build an engine 
house. With a jackknife, the rough edges may be 
smoothed down, so that no splinters shall be found to 
cause trouble. 

A child likes to dig, and unless a special place is given 
him some treasured plant may happen to fall victim to 
the ruthless energies of youth. The diminutive garden 
tools are easily obtainable. An old iron spoon is a favor- 
ite tool, while from a shingle may be whittled a spade. 
By the seashore a clamshell is the nearest implement 
at hand. Let the boy or girl have a corner of the vege- 
table garden, that he may plant his own beans, watch 
them grow, gather and then eat them. A flow^er bed, too, 
is a source of great delight. There is always a little pride 
in caring for one's possessions. This note of responsi- 
bility may need to be encouraged by Mother; but once 
instilled in youth, it may be the greatest force in after 
years for a successful life. 

59 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The great resources in Nature's world for play and 
education, for youth as well as adult life, are so extensive 
and manifold that these seem but few suggestions. 
Every season brings its charm, and we have but to use 
our eyes and hands and the mind is soon occupied. Out- 
standing in my mind is one play which filled hours and 
hours of my out-of-door life. It was the making of 
villages under the trees in the orchard of the old home- 
stead I used to visit. The ground was rich and soft and 
much material seemed near at hand. By taking empty 
spools I rolled out street after street, delighting in the 
cunning little tracks they made. I collected pebbles 
to make stone walls, and pieces of wood to represent 
houses and buildings of all kinds. There were small 
branches for trees and shrubbery with which to lay out 
parks, while a dish of water, surrounded and packed in 
with earth, became my pond. "VMien my town was built 
and streets named after those of my own town, I would 
play go to ride on the spool. I would roll it up this 
street, down that avenue, stop to see a friend or call on 
Auntie, until only the dinner call made me realize an- 
other happy morning had gone by. Perhaps a shower 
came up, or a hen in her strolling found a good place to 
scratch, so the town fell ! That, however, never daunted 
me, because I knew I would have the fun of building 
another. 








NATURE DOLLS 



V 
LITTLE FARMERS 

"O the green things growing, the green things growing. 
The faint sweet smell of green things growing! 
I should like to live, whether I smile or grieve. 
Just to watch the happy life of green things growing." 

FROM our observation of human life we learn that 
there is nothing so fascinating, so interesting, 
beautiful, and miraculous to the people of the world 
as Nature. The desire or longing to get closer to it is 
revealed in our love of gardening. This love of gar- 
dening we find instinctive in childhood. To prove this, 
one has only to observe a child playing in the mud, 
dirt, or sand. It is as if Dame Earth, with her wonder- 
ful lesson of Nature, were drawing the child to her in 
loving playfulness to whisper low the sweet lessons to 
be learned in planting a seed and watching the won- 
derful unfolding of life. 

The little child has a right to dig in the earth, plant 
a seed, and watch the results. He should be given a por- 
tion of the yard or a corner of the home garden to call 
his own. If the child lives in a home without surround- 
ing grounds, perhaps he could plant a little garden 
near by in a vacant lot, or if he happens to live in the 
crowded section of the city he may be able to obtain 
a box from a grocery store, and fill it with earth in 
which he may plant his seeds. The mother can easily 
adapt herself to the living conditions and thus give to 

61 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

hev ciiild the kind of garden which she is able to obtain. 
If possible, the taking of a ride or walk into the coun- 
try gives him an opportunity to observe plant life about 
him. Let him notice where things grow, when they 
grow, and how they grow. 

"A little rain and a little sun 
And a little pearly dew. 
And a pushing up and a reaching out. 
Ah! that's the way the flowers grow. 
Don't you know? " 

Of all the children the wide world over, the ones 
who are blest with a home in the country are the most 
fortunate. There they have an opportunity to become 
acquainted with Nature first-hand. 

When instructing a child in garden-making, it is best 
to guide him to find out things through his own efforts 
and experiences. This can be done by giving the right 
assistance, which will open the way to keep his interest 
and avoid discouragement. If the child learns to think 
about what he is doing and the manner of doing it, he 
will continue to reason and act through life on the same 
basis. In this garden project the children must be 
shown that we do not simply put seeds into the ground 
and then expect them to grow. We must show the 
children that it is necessary to know how to prepare the 
soil for the seeds, when to plant, to water, and to remove 
weeds. Discuss with the child the appropriate locations 
and why. If a place is selected where the sun does not 
shine all day, try for a place which has the morning 
sun rather than the afternoon sun. Flowers are like 
children who wake up early in the morning and will 

62 




PAPER-CUTTING 



LITTLE FARMERS 

want to find the sun then. K one can have only a shady 
place for the garden, one can still have a pretty one of 
flowers which prefer the shade such as pansies, forget- 
me-nots, and lilies-of-the-valley. It also makes a great 
deal of difference to a plant whether it finds anything 
good to eat or not. Soil and water are the chief foods. 
In poor soil nasturtiums and mignonette can be grown, 
while in sandy soil the dahlias and poppies thrive. When 
planting the garden bed against a wall or fence, be sure 
to put the tallest plants at the back because it is enough 
for these to look over the heads of the shorter ones, but 
if instead the little ones are put at the back they cannot 
see anything or get any air or sunshine, for the tall 
plants take it all. The morning-glory is a quick-growing 
vine which spreads rapidly and blossoms profusely in 
the sunshine. Mother should help in advice as to choice 
of seeds according to conditions of the garden plot. Let 
the child mark off his garden and plant the seeds. Tell 
him how it is to be done, whether the seeds should be 
scattered or planted in rows, and the distance between 
each seed. The following rhyme may be learned at the 
planting time and convey with it some of the necessary 
directions for success : 

"When the sun has gone away, ' 

That's the proper time of day. 
If you plant the seed too deep. 
Then the leaves may never peep. 
Seeds four times their depth must go; 
That is, if they are to grow. 
Keep the ground stirred in your garden plot, 
'T is better than too much watering-pot." 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Another rhyme which helps one to remember when 
to plant vegetables which come later in the season runs 
as follows: 

"Beans and cucumbers, melons, corn — 
Don't plant these till the weather 's warm; 
Squash and tomato, pumpkin too. 
Early sowing for these won't do." 

Here are some important teachings concerning the 

use of the watering-pot: 

"This is the song of the watering-pot, 
Don't use me when the sun is hot. 
Wait until he has gone away. 
Fill me with water at close of day. 
Then soak yoiu- plants and soak again. 
Soak and soak, till they think it's rain. 
Soak till each root gets all it wants. 
That's the way to w^ater your plants. 
Next morning loosen the earth on top. 
So the moisture below will stop. 
Then hang me up on a nail quite high. 
Don't use me again till the soil is dry." 

In laying out the garden the use of a measuring-stick 
or a string for proper spacing will contribute much to 
the beauty of the garden as it grows. A little plan which 
gives joy to the beginner is simple if there is enough 
space. By means of a stick or hoe, write the little gar- 
dener's name in the carefully prepared soil bed. Then, 
following the curves of the name, sprinkle some seed 
such as lettuce. Cover these lightly with earth and pat. 
When the dainty little plants make their appearance^ the 
green name on the earthy background is very much 
appreciated by the child. He will need to weed carefully 
by hand if he is to preserve the design, and then come*^ 

64 



LITTLE FARMERS 

the lesson in weeding. The child will soon learn the 
reason and will, early in the game, recognize the most 
common weeds. He must know that they should be 
pulled up because they take the strength from the little 
plants and use up the good substances of the soil which 
are really food for the plants. Vegetables and plants 
that climb must have sticks or poles or trellises placed 
beside them so they can twist, turn, and cling as they 
grow. 

The hidden mysteries of planting and growing are 
sometimes too much for the child to understand and he 
has a great desire to pluck the plant, root and all, just 
to see how it grows. In such cases it would be wise for 
Mother to take a glass dish and fill it with wet moss. 
Put peas or beans in the moss which must be kept 
soaked with water. When the seeds first sprout show 
them to the child that he may see for himself. Daily, 
then, he is fascinated to watch the seed throw out its 
httle plant, and he can thus understand that the same 
process is going on under the ground. As the earth has 
more food for the seed it will grow stronger and better 
there than on the moss, so let him now plant it in a pot 
of dirt or in the ground and wait patiently for it to grow. 

If the child seems to want more botanical instruction 
it may be an excellent time to talk more scientifically. 
Take a plant that has been developed so that root, stem, 
leaf, flower, and perhaps partially developed seed are 
all visible, such as the string bean. Now explain how the 
plant grows, feeding through the root from the soil by 
means of numerous rootlets. Tell of the food and water 
that are required just as people need nourishment. 

65 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Notice the alimentary system, or stems that convey the 
digested food to the leaves, flower, and seed. The leaves 
also do their part by absorbing from the air and rain 
more goodness. Study the general formation of the 
flower as a protection and provider for the seed pod and 
its precious contents, which will later reproduce the life 
of the plant after it has passed away. It would also be 
interesting to compare other means of plant propagation 
such as bulbs and root growths instead of seeds. The 
potato, turnip, and carrot illustrate vegetable roots, and 
tulips or lilies are examples of flower bulbs. For a house 
plant take a five-inch flower pot, fill it with an inch 
and a half depth of rich soil. On this set the brown bulb, 
covering it slightly with dirt. Put in a cool place in the 
cellar. In about two weeks the bulb will begin to push 
up. It must then be covered with a little more dirt, re- 
peating the process as fast as the stalk comes up until 
the pot is nearly filled to the top. By the middle of Jan- 
uary you can bring the pot to the light, putting it into 
a cool room, and spraying the foliage often. If Easter 
is getting near and you want to hurry the flower, bring it 
into a warm, sunny room. The Easter lily is one of the 
loveliest plants to grow. October is the usual time of 
planting bulbs. An Easter lily makes a lovely Christmas 
present, so by starting to work with the bulb in August 
the plant will be ready to bloom in December. Other 
bulbs may be used for window boxes in the home or 
schoolroom and children can easily take care of them. 
Chinese lily bulbs grow when embedded in a dish of peb- 
bles and well supplied with water. The gathering of 
smooth, pretty pebbles is an occupation dear to every 

66 



LITTLE FARMERS 

child, and here is an instance where they may be used 
to good purpose. 

Talk with the child about the different ages of plants. 
Vegetables must be planted every spring and also many 
kinds of flowers. These are called annuals. There are, 
however, some flowering plants which live over another 
year which are called biennials, such as Canterbury bells 
and foxglove. Those which live on for a number of years 
are called perennials, for example, the sweet William 
and golden glow. 

The child's interest may be very much increased by 
telling him stories about plants, gardens, and what the 
farmers do. More walks to the woods or visits to a farm 
will encourage him to go back to his own tasks. xVU 
children play with a great deal of earnestness, so why 
not direct their play to the making of a garden? With 
their little implements, such as spades, hoes, and rakes, 
they will play and work at the same time. Let the 
children make a game out of the weed pulling. The 
flowers can be lovely little fairies coming to see them, so 
they nurture them, but the weeds are the wicked fairies 
and are most undesirable. The boys might call them 
pirates who come to steal the riches of the sweet flower 
children. 

In the experience of gardening the child learns the 
needs of the plants and this knowledge in turn he will 
apply to himself. It implants that love and appreciation 
for Nature which otherwise might die. It teaches the 
child to be patient, loving, and kind. The care which 
is needed to keep his garden neat and help plants to 
grow makes him realize the tremendous amount of care 

67 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

tlie farmers are compelled to exert in order that the 
world may have food. Emerson says : "The farmer repre- 
sents the necessities of life. He bends to the order of the 
seasons, the weather, the soil, and the crops as the sails 
of the ships bend to the winds." 

Once a child begins a garden do not let him neglect it. 
Let him know the harvest is coming, the gathering of 
fruits and vegetables or collecting seeds of flowers. En- 
courage community spirit among the little friends. If 
groups of children are working gardens it is desirable 
to have an exhibit. Rew^ards of a simple nature, such 
as new seeds or a new garden tool, might be offered as 
an incentive. To the older child comes the desire to sell 
goods. Neighbors and friends are always interested to 
see enthusiasm and are glad to encourage honest work. 
Traveling along in automobiles on the coimtry roads, 
one is always delighted to find fresh vegetables and ber- 
ries. The experience of "keeping store'" gives children 
an insight into business methods and a sense of respon- 
sibility. It goes still further in its effect upon those about 
them in the family and community. An interest and 
cooperation are aroused as well as means of support. It 
creates an interest in the appearance of the front lawn 
and back yard, and, best of all, the child is brought to 
realize that all of the best and greatest things in life are 
obtained only by constant toil, effort, and care. 

SCHOOL GARDENS 

By Jeannette Stephenson 

Over two hundred years ago Comenius, a noted edu- 
cator, said: "A garden should be connected with every 



LITTLE FARMERS 

school, where children can at times gaze upon trees, 
flowers, and herbs, and be taught to enjoy them." 

And to-day educators are coming to realize that the 
garden is an important part of the school curriculum. 

If a garden is to be of the greatest possible benefit to 
the children, work on it should begin in September. 

In a school of thirty-six children, from six to eight 
years of age, the following plan in regard to the mak- 
ing of the school garden was carried out: A strip of 
land 2 feet deep was divided into eighteen little beds, 
each 4 feet broad; here vegetables were to be planted. 
Another strip of land 4J feet deep was divided into 
eighteen beds, each 3 feet broad, and this part was for 
the flowers. 

The borders of these beds were made of small stones 
collected by the children. Then the beds were allotted, 
two children getting a flower and a vegetable garden 
between them for a year. And then the actual work be- 
gan. The soil was prepared and bulbs were planted 
for the spring flowering. 

During the winter a garden plan was made. This con- 
sisted of a drawing of the garden, which gave the exact 
location of all the vegetables and flowers and indicated 
the date on which they were to be sown. Then the plant- 
ing was so arranged that the ground would be occupied 
by successive crops all through the growing season. 

In making this plan the children became familiar with 
seed catalogues. They were very much interested in 
looking at the pictures of the flowers and vegetables 
which they were to plant in their gardens. 

Let us consider some of the ways in which the garden 
69 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

may be directly connected with the subjects taken up 
in the curriculum. 

What does the wind do for the garden? The wind 
helps to sow the seeds, and it blows the leaves over the 
roots of the flowers and so helps to keep them warm in 
the winter- time. 

What does the rain do? It helps the plants to grow, 
and washes the dust from their leaves. 

And the children will be very much interested to 
know that the birds help in the work of their garden by 
eating the little insects which would ruin the flowers and 
vegetables. 

Then we may explain to the children that the welfare 
of the garden depends very much upon the earthworm. 
Recently I read of a child who was so afraid of these 
little creatures that the joy of caring for her garden was 
spoiled. One day the teacher told her how much the 
earthworm did for the flowers and vegetables. The next 
morning this child was observed trudging back and 
forth between her garden and a piece of ploughed land. 
Each time that she came back she was seen to put 
something on the ground. WTien she came into the 
schoolroom the teacher asked her what she had been 
doing, and her reply was, "Oh, I have been putting a 
lot of earthworms in my garden so that the flowers 
and vegetables will grow well." 

Naturally we ask, '* What does the child gain from his 
work in the garden?" He gains health and happiness, 
and "each hour spent in work in the garden means the 
opening of a fresh door for the child in the realms of 
science. Neither will this close the doors of art and lit- 

70 



LITTLE FARMERS 

erature to him. Nature is still the great artist and the 
great poet. We have often made a dreary workshop of 
school for the children; let us now make it a beautiful 
place for them by connecting it with the wonderful hfe 
of nature." 



VI 
VALUE OF PETS 

The love of animals is inborn. The child that has no pets is to be 
pitied. (G. Stanley Hall.) 

PARENTS have their children upon whom to lavish 
their love and care; the children with this same 
nature instinct long for something other than toys, 
something that is alive, something that depends upon 
them for care. Therefore it is true that few boys or girls 
are really happy without a pet. Animals are far more 
sympathetic than toys that cannot move and have no 
life. Even if it is only a mongrel puppy, a lonely mud 
turtle, or scraggly fowl, the young owner thinks it is the 
most beautiful, intelligent, and affectionate creature in 
the world and loves it with his whole heart and soul. 
The baby wants to put his hand on the kitty's fur, 
stroke the dog's head, or pat the horse's nose. Even 
the rough child has in his make-up the love for animals. 
This love should be fostered, for if it is not cultivated, 
a great opportunity is lost and may never be regained. 
The child may develop the other side of his nature and 
so become very unkind and cruel. It was Cowper who 
said, "I would not enter on my list of friends (though 
graced with polished manners and fine sense, yet want- 
ing sensibility) the man who needlessly sets foot upon a 
worm." 

When your child wants a pet and you refuse him the 
privilege, you are doing him a great injustice. Perhaps 

72 



VALUE OF PETS 

if you realized the value of it all, you would think twice 
before deciding in the negative. It is instinctive for chil- 
dren to want pets to care for, and this companionship 
with animals helps them to be more gentle, considerate, 
and kind. It also teaches them a great deal about nature 
and natural history. No boy or girl, however, should 
have a pet if he or she is not willing to give it the in- 
telligent care it needs and that it is entitled to have. 

Birds must be fed regularly, the dog must be washed 
and kept in the house until thoroughly dried. If the 
kitten is stupid and dull, its little owner must see that 
its food is more carefully selected, that it does not have 
too much meat. Perhaps the kitty needs some catnip 
and pennies must be saved to buy this treat for the little 
pet. The playful puppy must be trained carefully not 
to run into the flower beds or be destructive with toys, 
shoes, or clothing. 

Pets have another value in that their need of exercise 
calls forth the same activity from their little master. 
It gives an object of interest to take the listless girl or 
the absorbing bookworm boy out into the fresh air and 
sunshine. Through protection, nurture, and ownership 
of living things, responsibilities are best presented. 

To keep and care for living things is most interesting 
and instructive and, if properly done, will prove a source 
of profit as well as of pleasure. But all too frequently 
pets are neglected or suffer greatly through ignorance 
of their wants or through the lack of proper preparation 
for their needs. Many pets are acquired accidentally; 
a wounded bird, a helpless nestling, or a stray cat or dog 
is found and carried home. No provision has been made 

73 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

for this unexpected addition to the household and the 
pet is placed in some empty cage or box. It is fed on 
anything and everything it will devour. Through over- 
feeding, improper shelter, too much handling, or lack 
of its natural food, the poor creature dies, and no knowl- 
edge of its wants or its proper care has been gained by the 
unfortunate experience. Before keeping any variety of 
pets one should study the requirements and the peculiar- 
ities of the various kinds; for only with knowledge can 
one judge intelligently of the best pet to adopt. 

The kind of pet one decides to keep should depend 
very largely upon one's location, surroundings, tastes, 
and the purpose for which one intends to keep it. The 
city child must necessarily have animals and birds that 
have been bred for centuries in confinement, such as 
rabbits, small dogs, cage birds, cats, and goldfish. The 
child in the country is most fortunate, with the stable 
and farmyard containing domesticated animals which 
he can watch grow, feed, and pet. What joy when the 
family of kittens appear from the haymow or the brood 
of downy chickens gather around the proud hen. How 
true is the story of *'Mary and her little lamb that fol- 
lowed her to school one day," when we talk with a little 
girl who really has a pet lambkin ! There are the after- 
noon chores at the farm that no child should lose from 
his education. Go with the family dog to the pasture, 
calling the cows. Perhaps the horse and her colt must 
be led to the stable, and then what fun to gather the 
fresh eggs from the henhouse! All farmyard animals 
and fowls soon learn to know who is caring for them and 
who is kind and gentle, so the child will want to be the 

74 



VALUE OF PETS 

favored one. Give him all opportunity possible and he 
will take pride in whatever responsibilities are bestowed 
upon him. 

Some animals and birds can be more easily made pets 
of than others. Some can be more fondled than others. 
Few species of birds will survive handling and usually 
have strong objections to being touched. Crows, jays, 
parrots, doves, however, bear a great deal and exhibit 
a large amount of affection for their owners. Such birds 
are very intelligent and are easily taught many tricks. 
Dogs, cats, guinea pigs, white rats, and many other 
creatures may be handled as much as one wishes with- 
out any apparent injury. Rabbits, however, though 
used frequently as real pets, do not thrive well if handled 
too much. Fish, turtles, and lizards make splendid pets 
and often show intelligence and affection. 

We must not forget the mascots which have shown 
so much loyalty and service to their human comrades, 
such as the dogs, goats, cats, monkeys, who remain 
close to the crew of the ship on which they sail or the 
company of soldiers whether in camp, on the march, or 
in active battle. 

Many a dog has carried a pouch of water to a faint- 
ing soldier or led the way for his rescue. The carrier 
pigeons have loyally flown on their trained course carry- 
ing a message which was tied to their legs and thereby 
saved many a life. Because of their alertness they can 
cover the ground under the heaviest shell fire and pass 
from one camp to another. In the great World War they 
were trained to give a warning whenever they scented 
the poisonous gas or heard the enemy creeping up. 

75 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

A large part of children's literature deals with sto- 
ries of animal life. The old Jataka tales, fables, 
fairy stories, Mother Goose jingles, modern stories 
and poems, not only portray animal life, but put words 
of real moral worth into the mouths of these dumb 
creatures. The newspapers of to-day realize the great 
value of stories of this type for children, for in most 
daily papers one can find "Bed-Time Stories" in the 
Children's Column dealing with animal experiences. 
Stories of the animal world may be found in Volume I 
of this series. 

It has been said that much can be learned about 
animals by visiting and studying in museums and zo- 
ological gardens, but for real education in responsibihty 
and devotion no child can appreciate the true meaning 
imless he has a pet of his own. A child who has been 
brought up with a pet learns to look out for and care 
for animals, and for all things weaker than himself that 
need care and protection. Because of his great affection 
for his own pet his own life is enriched, and he comes to 
realize the true meaning of service, devotion, and sac- 
rifice. 

"I had a little kitty 
And Lassie was her name; 
I raised my hand to shake 'how-d-do,* 
And she would do the same." 



vn 

THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

OH, Mother, let me help too." How often we hear 
this request from a child and how frequently we 
find it is ignored or refused. The child's petition is 
prompted by an earnest desire both to help and to ex- 
periment with materials or processes. It is, therefore, 
important that we should allow the child to share in the 
work of the household. If we encourage his instinctive 
interest in its earliest beginnings, we shall give the child 
a chance to learn much that is valuable to him and at 
the same time develop in him a helpful and thoughtful 
nature. The mother who allows her child to satisfy 
his wish to help in household tasks, not only makes her 
child's life happier and more interesting, but makes 
her own routine work lighter and more enjoyable. 

All of this sounds very serious, as if the child were to 
be given a burden to bear and the mother an irksome 
lesson to impart. In reality it is all a very happy and 
simple feature of home life. When your child asks to 
help, greet him enthusiastically and make a game of the 
work to be done. An appeal to his natural love of play, 
his spirit of competition, his pride in achievement will 
show him the true joy of work. Children should learn 
through play to perform useful tasks. We all know that 
the little girl enjoys helping Mother with her house- 
hold duties and if the spirit of play can be brought 

77 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

to the performance of these duties they are doubly in- 
teresting. 

All small children like to play keeping house and de- 
light in washing and keeping clean the various things 
connected with their play. One of the best helps in 
training your child to enjoy domestic duties is through 
dolls. Every little girl should have her family of dolls 
and care for them. With the dolls should go the small 
stove, the little washtub, board, and iron, and the toy 
furniture and dishes. Let the child have a room of her 
own or else a portion of the room in which you are busy 
which she may call her own. Through these play ma- 
terials the child can really begin to cook, wash, and 
iron, and care for her dolls. As she grows older and more 
competent with her doll play she will wish to enter into 
the experiences of the same duties in the home. 

Do you know that your little boy can be interested 
enough to help you build the kitchen fire in the morning? 
Ask him to bring you an old newspaper and explain to 
him why paper is necessary to build a fire. Tell him 
that if he will bring you some wood from the woodshed 
you will tell him some interesting things about it, for 
instance, about the forests of California where there 
are great trees large enough in which to live. Explain 
how we use the wood for making a fire that is not hard 
enough or big enough to build houses. Show him how 
to lay the fire, using paper, kindling, or small pieces of 
soft wood to start the blaze and follow with larger wood 
to hold the fire. Another time ask him to bring some coal, 
telling about the miners who go down into big holes in 
the ground and find all this black coal which was once 

78 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

wood. Explain how through years and years the wood 
from trees had become buried and in due time had hard- 
ened. Pictures of mines and miners will make the story 
more vivid to him, and he will better appreciate that 
there is much to be considered before the coal is drawn 
up to the home in carts. Keep him so intent upon your 
interesting facts that he will be eager to help you and 
still want to hear more. He will see how careful you have 
to be to get a fire started and what a difference it makes 
in the warmth of the room. He will soon acquire the 
habit of helping you with the fire and in time will be 
able to build it himself. 

So often children perform their tasks quite well, but 
their faces show what is going on in their minds. The 
eyes are dull, the mouth droops a httle or is disfigured 
by that bugbear to all mothers, a pout. There is no 
happy childish smile. Mother can many times avoid all 
this by a little wise planning. Help the child to find some 
joy in his task. Make him feel his responsibility in its 
accomplishment and, too, his responsibility in being 
cheerful. A helpful, right example is the best aid for 
children; let them follow your lead. Often a Uttle verse 
repeated makes suggestions more effective than many 
sermons, and for the little child who lags and waits to 
be asked to help, the following speaks for itself: 

"Are your eyes bright to-day, 
Or will mother have to say, 
'Please do this,' or, 'Please do that'? 

" Can you do some little task 
Before yom* mother has to ask, 
'Please do this,' or, 'Please do that'? " 
79 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

If there are several children in the family one might 
call them soldiers and the house a camp. One child 
could be the captain of the company for a week. Each 
child would have certain duties to perform and these 
duties could be written on a bulletin board. Duties 
could be assigned at the breakfast table. There should 
be a daily inspection of each room, and of course all 
true soldiers must carefully and truthfully attend to all 
duties. At the close of day have a flag lowering and 
perhaps some songs. Try to instill the feeling that just 
as our soldiers fought for the good of our country and 
fought because they were willing to, the children must 
willingly and cheerfully perform their duties for the 
home and mother. Try to make them feel that no 
matter how small their task may seem, it is a great help, 
and only as each part is done and done well is the whole 
home a place of law, order, and happiness. 

As morning dawns the first duties which await us are 

in our own bedrooms. Morning is a joyous time; we 

should wake up happy, rested from a night of sleep 

with a heart full of hope and these words on our lips: 

" Every day is a fresh beginning. 
Every day is the world made new." 

Take a little time at night to talk over going to bed. 
There are ever so many kinds of beds. There are beds 
out of doors as well as in the house. Have you ever 
thought that flowers are used for beds? There are many 
tiny insects that find safe, cozy places to sleep in among 
the petals of a rose or a lily. 

"There 's never a leaf or a blade too mean 
To be some happy creature's palace." 
80 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

Did you know that Nature teaches the animals to make 
their beds? She tells the birds to choose soft things for 
their nests and to have a warm place for their tiny eggs. 
The squirrels find a cozy place in the hollow of a tree, 
and the bears and other wild animals find caves and 
holes in the ground in which to sleep. Stories and songs 
may be found in other volumes of this series which relate 
to this subject. Now it is time for children to get ready 
for bed. A game, which has been used successfully, may 
be played when undressing. A heavy cord or even a 
twine doubled, stretched from a closet doorknob to a 
window sill, makes a fine clothesline. As the children 
hang up their clothes in an orderly manner, they play 
they are hanging out the washing. The doll's clothes 
are hung up, too, using the tiny clothespins which can be 
purchased at the five and ten cent stores. This trans- 
forms a duty and sometimes an irksome task into play. 
This play is the foundation of a habit which should be- 
long to every person who is neat and orderly. 

The first morning habit should be to open the bed in 
an orderly fashion. Thoughtlessness on the part of the 
child often discourages Mother until her note becomes 
one of nagging, which is annoying to all. A few instruc- 
tions in rhyme may make the task more pleasurable. 

"In the morning when I get up 
There are several things to do; 
The sheets go back to get fresh air; 
Pillows are shaken, a nice soft pair; 
My windows are opened everywhere 
In the morning when I get up.'* 

Bed-making is an art in itself. The child, however, can 
early in life help and learn simple rules of making a bed. 

81 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

A soft pad is often placed first on the bed. Put the first 
sheet on with the wide hem at the top and right side up; 
put on the second sheet with the wide hem at the top, 
but wrong side up, which brings the two right sides to- 
gether. The blankets go on next, then perhaps a quilt, 
and finally the clean white spread on top. Tuck the 
sheets and blankets in carefully at the corners so the 
bed will be square. Draw them tightly at the sides to 
make the bed smooth. In placing the pillows on the 
bed, the closed end of the pillow cases should meet in 
the center. 

With a little girl standing on the other side of the bed 
Mother can teach her in verse, and then every time the 
beds are made the duty will be a play, saying: 

"Pull the bottom sheet so tight. 
Tuck the blankets in just right. 
Puff the pillow, smooth the spread! 
Helping Mother make the bed." 

Breakfast over, the dishes must be cleared from the 
table and washed. How many hours a mother spends in 
a day washing dishes ! Why not all help and remember 
the motto, "Many hands make hght work *'? I think a 
Httle girl would be happy to say this: 

"Will good fairies grant my wishes 
If with care I wash the dishes? 
Bring Mother's smile so sweet and bright 
And this will make my task seem light.'* 

Here is something else to say while washing: 

"Work and play go hand in hand. 
All oiu- duties must be planned. 
Washing dishes is lots of fun. 
The sooner started the sooner done." 

82 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

Why not make the dish-washing a game? First of all, 
look at the rainbows in the dishpan. The bubbles in the 
soapsuds are full of lovely colors. There are really six 
of them, but it is hard to tell one from the other as they 
blend in together. See the red, orange, yellow, green, 
blue, and violet. So each tiny bubble in the dishpan has 
a rainbow of its own. Perhaps we can blow soap bubbles 
after the dishes are washed : 

" Now we will wash the dishes. 
The glasses and silver so fine. 
Next the pitchers, the cups, and the saucers; 
Remember that each time. 

"Then come the plates and the platters. 
Use plenty of soap, don't forget! 
We '11 wash them all over so carefully 
And then on the shelves shall they set." 

Tell the children how soap and grease do not like each 
other; when one comes in the other goes out. This en- 
courages thorough washing. 

It is time now for the house to be put in order. There 
is sweeping and dusting to be done, and the little helper 
can get up and down so easily that Mother should find 
much for little hands to do. While working there are 
interesting stories to tell and songs to sing so that there 
is no thought of drudgery. (See Volumes I and V.) It 
is also fun to recite simple rhymes and couplets while 
working, and the child would like to say them too : 

" I will sweep the floor. 
Make it very clean; 
Sweep behind the door 
Till not a speck is seen." 
83 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Give the child a small light broom and tell her that now 

we shall see the dust elves go flying out of the window. 

Children take great delight in personifying inanimate 

objects, so we can call this "Miss Broom": 

"Oh, how useful is Miss Broom, 
Brushing corners in each room. 
Under tables and each chair. 
Raise no dust, but sweep with care.** 

Instruction is more graciously accepted through verse, 

stories, songs, and games, and unconsciously the child 

will act out the words he is saying. To a simple rhythm 

of music one could hum these words, sweeping to the 

tune: 

"The dust fairies are sleeping, sleeping, sleeping. 
The dust fairies are sleeping all through the house. 

"The great big broom comes sweeping, sweeping, sweeping, 
The great big broom comes sweeping all through the house. 

"Then the dust fairies go flying, flying, flying. 
The dust fairies go flying out of the house." 

While the dust is settling the little girl may be given 
a piece of cheesecloth to make into a duster. Take a 
bright-colored piece of worsted to work into the two 
ends. The song, "Sweeping and Dusting, '* on page 106 
of Volume V can be sung at this time. Here 's a good 
verse to say, too : 

" Sweep and dust, sweep and dust. 
Make everything neat and clean; 
Scour and polish, scour and polish. 
No spot of dirt must be seen. " 

The child is rested from sweeping and, with her dust 
doth, she will think it fun to think she is making the 

84 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

dust elves and fairies go dancing out of the window. K 
several children are helping in the process they could 
sing to the music on page 124, Volume V, and play the 
game, singing: 

"Round we go, round we go. 
One little child is dusting so. 

"Round we go, round we go. 
Two little children dusting so," etc. 

Repeat the words, adding one more child each time it is 
sung until all are accounted for. The dust will surely fly 
while work and happiness will go hand in hand. 

Washing and ironing always come into the play of a 
little girl with her doll. There seems to be a fascination 
in putting one's hands in water and splashing. Every 
one's clothes are washed and of course the doll or Teddy 
bear must have clean clothes, too. Right instruction and 
proper implements must be given at the start, remember- 
ing all the time that it is a form of play to the child. A 
finger play found in the first chapter of this book drama- 
tizes with the fingers the process of washing and drying 
clothes. No matter what the age of the child, a recrea- 
tional play like this is always enjoyed. Other verses 
describe the work as well as give instruction : 

/ "Rub-a-dub-dub, 

Rub-a-dub-dub, 

All the doll's clothes are here in my tub. 
Soap them and scrub them. 
And rinse them with care. 
Hang them all up in bright sunshine and air." 

"Scrub, scrub, scrub. 
Now 't is scrubbing day; 
85 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Till the clothes are clean and white 
» You must scrub away. 

"Rinse, rinse, rinse. 
All the clothes must be 
From the soapy water now 
Rinsed so carefully. 

" Wring, wring, ■^Ting; 
Wring them out so dry. 
See, the clothes are ready now. 
Hang them out so high." 

With the iron and board the little girl stands beside 
Mother to do her ironing. She must learn the need of 
a hot iron and also how to use it. This takes time 
and patience, but it is laying the foundation for future 
much-needed assistance: 

"We sing as we iron our clothes to-day 
Because we are smoothing the wrinkles away." 

Nearly all children like to cook, but if they can be 
given a definite object toward which to work, it adds 
interest and a feeling of pride in the thing accomplished. 
For example, a child might be told that when she had 
learned to cook a certain dish well she could invite some 
of her little friends in and have a party. Thus the child 
is given three important ideas: doing a useful thing, 
doing a thing well, and the idea of hospitahty. 

In making bread the mother often should give her 
child a piece of dough to shape and to mould. Give 
directions to imitate what you are doing, and finally put 
in a pan and bake: 

"We roll our dough 
To make the bread, 
86 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

For little children 
Must be fed." 

Cookies may be rolled out into many shapes to the 
delight of all children. Let them suggest and make 
shapes to illustrate their story of the Gingerbread Doll. 
Decorate the cookies with eyes, nose, mouth, and but- 
tons of white frosting. It is not every time you are 
cooking that the child wants to cook, therefore occa- 
sionally, especially when the desire comes, take the 
time to give instruction. Boys or girls will enjoy beating 
the eggs or stirring up the cake. Let them butter pans 
and make small ones for themselves. Let them watch 
the baking, saying: 

"Let us bake 
A little cake; 
When it's done 
We'll have some." 

To the using of the egg-beater a rhyme is said: 

" Whirr — whirr — whirr — 
Round and round we go. 
Turn the handle fast and steady 
Till the fluffy whites are ready. 
W hirr — whirr — whirr." 

Getting the vegetables ready for dinner is something 
every child can help in doing. He may go to the pantry 
or cellar to get them, and if peas are to be prepared he 
can shell them. He can learn to string the string beans, 
he can wash the potatoes, beets, turnips, and as the 
fingers become stronger and discretion used, the use of 
the knife in paring can be allowed. Much amusement 
comes with this work, as the pea pod can be made into 

87 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

a boat and sail in a pan while other interesting things can 
be done as is suggested in Chapter VI of this book. 

The many steps taken in setting and clearing away 
the dinner table are those which can be taken by quite 
young children. Let Mother sit still while real play is 
being enjoyed by either the girl or boy. If there are 
several children in the family, taking turns is the best 
way. Records may be kept to see who has improved in 
learning the art and general etiquette. Counting up the 
record gives a chance for a kittle arithmetic. Once more 
the instruction can be given in rhyme, and the repeat- 
ing of it each time the table is set drills the first princi- 
ples of table appointments: 

"Fork on left and knife on right. 
On the snowy table white; 
Spoons next to knife in a row. 
While next to fork the napkin goes." 

"The fork at the left, the knife at the right. 
Place spoon by the knife with fingers light. 
The tumbler we take to the table with care 
And place at the right so carefully there. 
Then at the left 'bove the fork we see 
A place for the butter plate plain as can be. 
Now count up the family, a place for each one; 
Is n't setting the table the very best fun? " 

A comradeship between mother and child is firmly 
welded together as she takes him into her confidence and 
daily work. He begins to think he is of some value and 
feels quite proud in saying: 

"I wash the dishes, 
I dust the chairs, 
I help my mother 
With all her cares." 
88 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

The child begins to appreciate all that Mother does for 
him, the many steps she took for him before he could 
walk and wait on himself. A new baby comes into the 
family and these thoughts are more deeply impressed 
upon his mind. Often splendid resolutions are made at 
this time to help Mother more and more. What a child 
thinks is well expressed in the following lines: 

"Baby cannot even talk. 
Cannot run and cannot walk. 
Once I was a baby small, 
Could not help myself at all. 
Mother gave me loving care. 
Now the work I want to share." 

The mother does not train the child in these house- 
hold tasks with the thought that he will do any great 
amount of work at present, but in order to make him 
intelligent in these duties both now and in the years to 
come. It makes him helpful and thoughtful, it teaches 
him systematic and orderly methods of accomphshing 
tasks, it gives him practical knowledge which will serve 
through life. He gains not a distaste for work, but a 
cheerful attitude toward it, and develops the habit of 
seeking the pleasant side of all duties. The most im- 
portant result of all is that he appreciates and enjoys 
his home to a greater extent because he feels that he 
is responsible for a contribution toward making it a 
cleaner, brighter place, and he is drawn closer to his 
mother because of this delightful companionship with 
her. The truth of this is shown in the following story: 

"Do you help your mother at home.? " I asked Sarah, 
one of the sweetest of my kindergarten children, who 

89 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

came from a rural home. I had met the mother, a neat 
Httle woman with an air of worry and anxiety, but a most 
painstaking housekeeper. 

"No, teacher," came the answer. "Mother don't let 
none of us stay round the house. We 're in her way. She 
always sends us outdoors to play." 

"Does n't Mother ever show you how to make clothes 
for your dolly?" I asked. 

Again the answer was negative. I was just beginning 
to realize how very few mothers ever include the children 
at all in their household duties. That noon I walked 
home with Sarah to see how the land lay. I found the 
mother preparing the lunch, while two of the older 
children were outdoors jumping rope. Mrs. O'Brien 
bade me sit down, and while she hustled around we 
chatted. 

"You must find it very hard," I remarked, "without 
any help in the kitchen." 

"Right you are. Servants is too dear for anybody 
these days. I never seen the beat of it!" she replied. 

"Did you ever think of how much your children 
could help you if you'd let them?" 

"Sure and it's a big bother they are, messing up my 
clean kitchen, playing in the flour barrel, twirling the 
egg-beater, riding horseback over the dust mop, banging 
me pans and kettles together, and a thousand and one 
other things till it's about crazy I am." 

"Well, isn't it nice they're so interested in the 
kitchen! And of course they like to be around with 
you, where there's something interesting going on. 
When they're HwirHng' the egg-beater, would it take 

90 



THE LITTLE HOUSEKEEPER 

any longer to say, *Do you suppose you could put that 
in this bowl and see if you can beat the eggs up? ' than it 
would to say, 'Run away and don't bother me'? They 
will be fascinated to see the vhites stiffen and turn to 
meringue. If they can reach the pots and pans, they can 
bring down the right ones and grease them for you. 
They '11 love it, and you '11 be surprised at the time it will 
save. Let the little boy that plays horseback with the 
mop push it around the edges of the room and pretend 
he's mowing the grass, or something similar." 

At this point the little boy in question came rushing 
into the room pursued by an older sister. 

" Look, Mamma ! Look what Benny done ! " she cried. 

Benny was nervously clasping and unclasping a comer 
of his blouse, revealing a great three-cornered tear. 

" Well, I have n't time to mend it now. You '11 have 
to put on his dirty blouse." 

"How old is Clarabelle?" I asked. 

"Goin' on fourteen." 

** Could n't she mend it for him?" 

"No. She ain't very handy with her needle." 

"How do you know? Have you given her much 
chance?" 

"No. I do all the se win'. She learnt a little at school, 
but did n't like it much." 

"What did she do at school?" 

"Oh, different kinds of fancy stitches." 

"Well, Mrs. O'Brien, let me tell you. That's just the 
way it was with me. I showed no taste or interest in 
sewing, and no one ever tried to interest me. The conse- 
quence was when I went away to school, I found the 

91 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

other girls making their own clothes, while I could barely 
darn my stockings decently. Now just give Clarabelle 
some odd pieces of bright cloth, and take a few minutes 
to show her how to cut out a dress for her doll, and I '11 
wager she'll be a great help to you some day." 

"Mebbe you're right at that. You teachers sure do 
have some queer ideas, but I'll try 'em, sure I will!" 
was the hearty response. 

"All right!" I laughed. "I'll come to see you next 
week, and I '11 expect you to have your little army lined 
up, and working, or playing, rather, like Trojans." And 
I left the house feeling that I'd left some fertile ideas 
rooted in the mind of one mother at least. 



VIII 
THE DOLL-HOUSE 

PAPER dolls or even small bisque dolls like to live 
in a real house; so with a little ingenuity and many 
kinds of materials, a house can easily be created. Any 
wooden box lying on its side and partitioned off in four 
parts gives the suggestion of four rooms. A salt or starch 
box may only be large enough to be called a one-room 
bungalow, but immediately the child's imagination 
begins to work. One corner suggests a living-room, 
another a bedroom, a play-room and kitchen. There 
is also the hat box, shoe box, and corrugated packing- 
box from which to choose. Good taste in furniture des- 
ignated for different rooms, color schemes and arrange- 
ment all are beneficial to the child's development and 
occupy many hours of play. 

WALLS 

Choose from rolls of left-over wall-paper appropriate 
designs to paper the different rooms. Small patterns 
are preferable for these miniature homes. If you Lave 
no wall-paper, plain brown wrapping-paper can be used. 
The child may like to draw a frieze of flowers with his 
crayons or cut out patterns and paste in border design. 
If the box chosen is clean and of a good shade to blend 
with other decorations of the room, the borders or cut 
out designs may be put directly upon the sides. There 
should be a few w<^ll-chosen pictures upon the walls. 

93 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

From the catalogue of the Perry Pictures, Maiden, 
Massachusetts, a remarkable choice of masterpieces of 
the world can be made. Sometimes children will prefer 
to draw pictures depicting a story or an incident of their 
experience, to be pasted on the walls. Small snap-shot 
photographs have been used. Never discourage their 
originality. 

WINDOWS AND DOORS 

Before cutting out windows and doors, plan first the 
size, shape, and height. From pictures in magazines, 
such as " House Beautiful " or *' Ladies' Home Journal," 
artistic suggestions and arrangements can be copied. By 
cutting across the top and bottom and down the center, 
then bending the cardboard back on each side, the shut- 
ters are made and still attached to the house. Work out 
the doors in the same manner and decorate by drawing 
lines to represent paneling. Any transparent paper, 
such as wax paper found in candy boxes, makes the 
window panes. With a soft black pencil and ruler, the 
panes may be marked off in large, small, or diamond 
shapes. Isinglass also is used for windows. At the base 
of the window paste on flowers in flower pots which you 
cut from some illustrated magazine. A window box 
can also be constructed. Take the dimension of the 
width of a window and cut a little longer an oblong 
piece of green or brown construction paper. Fold so as 
to make an oblong box by cutting, folding, and pasting 
comers. On the outside of each corner paste on legs, 
making height of box come to the window edge. Cut 
out and paste inside the box red tulips and green leaves. 



THE DOLL-HOUSE 

Paste the plants on the bottom end and place them along 
the center of the box. Cut up and crumple soft dark 
brown paper and gently pack in box around the flowers, 
giving the suggestion of dirt. 

CURTAINS 

Though there may be many suggestions as to window 
curtains, there is no better taste than white draperies. 
Side drop curtains with a narrow ruffle across the top 
of the window are very effective. Tissue or crepe paper 
gives the best results. If color scheme is desired to carry 
out the treatment of the room, choose carefully the deli- 
cate shades which will blend well with furniture and wall 
decorations. 

FLOOR 

A PLAIN wall-paper, dull-colored cardboard, and blotting- 
paper are materials which can be used for covering the 
floor, or making rugs. With crayons rub in soft colors 
of Oriental patterns or Indian designs. The two op- 
posite sides may be cut up in narrow strips a short dis- 
tance, to give the effect of fringe. In another chapter 
is described how to weave mats made of worsted or 
string. To make and use these always please the chil- 
dren. 

FURNITURE 

Fairly heavy paper should be used to make furniture. 
Construction and mounting-paper, also bogus paper, 
are the kinds of paper to call for at stationers or school 
supply stores if one is ordering. In the home, however, 

95 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

something usually can be found among empty boxes. 
Better still, the city laundry supplies each starched 
shirt with a piece of cardboard which is just the thing 
for your purpose. A heavy quality of wall-paper, with 
appropriate colors and figures, makes furniture resem- 
bling cretonne upholstery. The simplest form of folding 
is advisable so the child may make much of the furni- 
ture himself. Take a six-inch square piece of cardboard 
and fold as before explained, creasing it into the sixteen- 
inch squares. With scissors, cut down the distance of 
one square at each of the four corners as designated by 
lines in 

Fig. I. Fold dotted line A— B and C— D. Bring 
A — C together, lapping E — E over them. Do the same 



1 ' . 

7 



r^d. 



Fig. I 




Fig. II 



Fig. Ill 



on the other side by bringing B — D together, lapping 
F — F side over them. By putting glue on the under side 
of E and F, these folds will remain in position and you 
have made a box. (Fig. II.) To make a cover for the 
box, construct another box in same manner only making 
the size of the paper one eighth inch larger in square di- 
mensions. (Fig. III.) The table is an inverted box, cut- 
ting out the sides between the four corners, which be- 
come the four legs. 

96 



THE DOLL-HOUSE 



CHAIR 

Fold paper into sixteen square creases. Cut off from 
two sides a row of squares, leaving nine squares. Cut 
down one square each side of middle square of two 
opposite sides, as shown by heavy lines in Figure IV. 
Fold and paste to- 

a [ C \(t 



B 



iii 



'.M 0^ 




Fig. IV 



Fig. V 



gether A and A. 
Crease square C in- 
to an upright posi- 
tion. Fold and paste 
B and B together; 
now paste square D 
down upon B — B. 

Cut out between the corners in any shape desirable, 
leaving the corners to become legs. The back of the 
chair, which is square C, should be cut out in simple 
patterns copying your dining-room chair. (Fig. V.) If 
desired, the seat can be perforated in even rows to imi- 
tate cane- woven seats. A rocking-chair is made in the 
same way, pasting a curved piece of paper on two sides 
of the chair at the lower edge of the legs. 



BED 

A BED is made like the table. On one side the squares are 
cut, but instead of being removed, fold them in an up- 
right position to make the headboard of the bed. The 
opposite end can be treated in the same manner, cutting 
off half the width of squares which are turned up, mak- 
ing it seem like a footboard. A more elaborate canopy 
bed can be made by folding another box shape and set- 

97 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

ting it upright on one end of the bed. This canopy can 
be cut out with curved sides, patterning after pictures 
of beds used in historic days. The four-posted bed 
can be worked out, adding paper posts at the four cor- 
ners. Tissue paper spread with valance and bed roll 
complete a most attractive bed. 

Bureaus, sideboards, divans, kitchen stove, ice chest, 
may be made from this first simple sixteen fold by ad- 
justing the folds to form the desired piece of furniture. 
If furniture of the entire room is to be of the same 
pattern, one can easily see that such parts should be 
designed, crayoned, or painted before glued together. 
From paper doilies or candy boxes, use the lace paper 
for tablecloths and covers, cutting it down to suit the 
size of table, sideboard, or bureau. Silver paper, which 
wraps chewing gum, chocolate candy, or even yeast 
cakes, is used for mirrors. To make a smaller chair or 
cradle use a smaller piece of paper, folding in the same 
manner. Discretion must be used in getting correct 
proportions. Furniture, doors, and windows must be 
constructed according to the size of box used for the 
house. 

FIREPLACE 

A GREAT addition to the living-room or dining-room is 
the fireplace. If you have no red paper, a piece of white 
paper can be crayoned or painted red. When dry, a 
white crayon or chalk can be used to mark off small 
rectangles which resemble bricks. Proceed as with fur- 
niture, getting the sixteen square creases. Fold one row 
of squares on left, right, and top of paper in halves. Cut 



THE DOLL-HOUSE 



^. 


-*- 


7^ 


i .' 




( * 


1 ! 


i 


i ; 


ll 




lii 



Fig. VI 



out one half of square at A and B in Figure VI. Cut 
lines C and D. Now fold back the entire row of squares. 
The half fold is made here in order that the first part 
of half squares may be pasted to 
the side of the room, allowing the 
chimney to stand out into the 
room, and it also makes a shelf 
on top. Before pasting, however, 
cut out a curved piece from the 
two lower middle squares. On 
the floor under the fireplace, put 
an oblong piece of this red paper to represent the 
tiling. Andirons made from black paper should be put 
in the curved opening of the fireplace, while pieces of 
paper and broken toothpicks give 
the finishing touch to the cozy 
corner. (See Fig. VII.) 

All this work when carried out 
in every detail takes planning and 
practice. It is, however, absorbing 
in interest and gives an opportu- 
nity for originality and cooperation 
with big brothers, sisters, and parents. 

The first illustration shows the doll-house constructed 
from a corrugated box. The top may be adjusted to slant 
like a roof, but the child often likes the top cut off so she 
can play easily in the rooms. If the box is turned on 
one side and up and down stairs are partitioned off, 
the front should be left entirely open so that the child 
may play freely. If Big Brother or Father wishes to 
make a more enduring house from wooden box or beaver 

99 




CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

board, the front of the house may be built to swing like 
a big door on hinges. Doors and windows in this front 
part should be worked out according to a real house. 
Constructed in this fashion the house is kept free from 
dust, as well as looking orderly and complete when not 
in use. 

Sometimes one sees house-boats along the shores of 
either salt or fresh water or on a river, where people 
spend their summer, going to the land only for food sup- 
plies. To a child it would make quite an impression to 
see a house resting on top of the water and an imitation 
one will need to be made. By the illustration you will 
see that an ordinary shoe box has been converted into a 
playhouse boat. Take the box part and cut about three 
or four inches from one end. Now insert this end 
into the rest of the box and paste it upside down on 
the cover. This foreshortening of the box gives an 
opportunity to have a piazza at the front of the boat. 
Now cut out doors and windows. In making the win- 
dows cut around three sides, bending upward and 
outward from the upper line. By crayoning in green 
stripes on the bent cardboard you will get the effect of 
awnings. From dark or light paper cut out a railing or 
fence to edge around the piazza and top of house which 
may be used for a piazza. Inasmuch as quick-growing 
vines are often planted in pots and allowed to climb over 
the sides of the boat, so on this house an imitation vine 
adds greatly to its attraction. Make a paper boat and 
tie to the piazza, as this is the dory which takes you to the 
shore. Chairs can be made for the piazza and other 
furniture for inside the house; last of all do not forget to 

100 




EXTERIOR OF DOLL-HOUSES 



THE DOLL-HOUSE 

hoist a flag which represents the country in which you 
live. As this boat is made of cardboard it can only make- 
beheve to float on the table or floor, but if it is placed 
on a piece of wood it would afford great sport in the 
bathtub or beside the seashore. 

Children's inclinations tend toward duplicating in play 
the activities they see about them in real life, therefore 
the little housekeeper and little mother are expressed in 
the making and caring for these houses. Going to school 
is also a daily experience which, with its trials and tribu- 
lations, is nevertheless carried over into the play hours. 
It is such fun to be teacher and use stern discipline, de- 
mand hard lessons and tasks of one's little playmates. 
This suggests that for the dolls a schoolroom can be built 
from a box. The illustration depicts a kindergarten 
room. On the walls are a few pictures, and a strip of black 
paper pasted across the side represents a blackboard. 
From construction paper fold a box in which sea sand 
is placed. This would be in one corner of the room just 
like the real sand table. A kindergarten bench or table 
is made of a long narrow piece of heavy paper pasted on 
top of two spools. A table and chairs can be made from 
folded paper, or use a spool as foundation on which a 
table or chair top is pasted. There should be a few 
tiny toys added to the room, such as small blocks of 
wood, a piece of plasticine put on the table, or a little 
cart made from a small match box. From the child's 
own school experience he will suggest what he wants in 
his kindergarten room. 

As is seen in the two-roomed doll-house, much thought 
of details and comforts of a modern home has been 

101 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

shown. The grand piano is realistic. Its shape is copied 
from pictures and worked out in heavy black paper. 
The keyboard is carefully drawn on a piece of white 
paper and pasted in its right place in the front of the 
piano. The victrola is made from the sixteen-fold 
paper as described in another chapter. Cut down at 
each crease the distance of one square across the top 
row. Cut off entirely three quarters of the bottom row 
of squares. The remaining quarter of the square cut out, 
leaving four corners to make the legs. Fold and paste 
down on top of each other the cut squares at the top, 
leaving the last one free to represent the cover of the 
victrola. Reinforce underneath the edges of the two 
sides of the victrola, which just meet, with paper and 
paste. On top of the squares which have been folded 
draw in a black circle representing a record. In the 
front upper square cut two doors, folding them out just 
a little, thus imagining the music to sound louder. 

The divan and chairs have pieces of paper curled and 
placed over the edges of the sides to make comfortable 
arms to the furniture. The vase on the table is filled 
with carefully cut jonquils while folded pieces of paper 
represent little books. All these incidentals give oppor- 
tunity to observe what makes up the comforts of the 
home living-room. 

The bedroom has suggestions of antique furniture. 
This four-posted bed came from the original sixteen-fold 
paper. Cut at the corners and lap over squares, following 
directions for making a bed. To each corner paste a 
post cut in any desired design. The spread, flounce, and 
pillow roll complete the bed-making and look realistic 

102 





INTERIOR OF DOLL-HOUSES 



THE DOLIr-HOUSE 

and dainty. The window curtains carry out the same 
color scheme, and are made of yellow crepe paper. The 
bureau and chairs are made as before described. No two 
children will want the same things in their houses, as 
the desire comes from their own experiences. If a child 
has not seen a victrola he would not understand if you 
suggest it be made, but as he visits in a home where he 
sees and hears one, on his return the victrola must be 
made for the doll-house. It is well, therefore, that every 
child be given the opportunity to create a home or the 
doll-house which outwardly expresses his thoughts 
through manual labor. 



IX 
TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

FROM a simple piece of paper, with its folds, an- 
other suggestion comes which will delight the in- 
ventive girl or boy. This time let us consider making a 
house; not a big house with many rooms and furniture 
such as we have been talking about, but just a small 
house with a roof, doors, and windows. After you have 
made one, then make another and another, changing its 
architecture somewhat to give variety. The first type 
of a house can be made easily by a small child. 

DESCRIPTION 

Take any size square of construction or heavy paper. 
The illustrations seen here are made of bogus paper and 
a nine-inch square was used. This gray-toned paper 
gives the effect of a cement house and opportunity for 
contrasting colors in decorations. The square paper, 
having been creased into sixteen squares, follow these 
directions : On two opposite sides cut up the distance of 
one square on the three creases. Bend the two middle 
squares one on top of the other and paste together. 
Bring the two outer squares together which will lap each 
other and cross the center of the two middle squares 
just pasted. Now paste these together. Repeat these 
instructions at the opposite end of paper, and then the 
house with its slanting roof will be created. If desired, 
a brass fastener can be passed through these folded 

104 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

squares which will hold it in shape. This method may 
be used when a little child is satisfied with the plain 
house. To suit one's fancy, doors and windows are cut 
on the different sides. A back door, front door, small 
and lattice windows or long Dutch window doors. 
With more paper a dormer window can be projected 
from either side of the roof, and a chimney must be 
made. This can be either pasted on the side roof or a 
hole can be cut in which it is inserted. At one side mth 
extra paper a porch or a sun parlor can be added, which 
gives a modern touch of architecture. In walks with a 
child, ideas of houses can be discussed as they are passed. 
Pictures also help in the designing of a miniature house. 
When the child needs assistance and asks for it, quite 
elaborate and attractive houses can be made. If bogus 
paper is used, bits of red tissue paper can be pasted on 
the inside of the windows, giving a bright, pretty con- 
trast. Window boxes of green with tiny flowers look at- 
tractive. Water-colors or crayons can be used to good 
advantage in coloring the chimney or moss-green roof 
and trimmings of the house. A green vine, an ivy, or 
even a rambler rose can be suggested with paints on a 
side of the house or on a lattice-work over the doorway. 
When the project is planned, all drawing and cutting 
should be done before the building is pasted together, 
thus avoiding mistakes. With pencil and ruler the win- 
dows and doors can be drawn after the folds are made; 
the painting and decorating after it is put together. 

This construction of buildings can be carried on to 
greater extent. A toy village should be the next ambi- 
tion. On top of a table or bench streets can be laid out 

105 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

with houses on each side. Included in the group of 
houses should be other buildings such as the school- 
house, church, library, and fire-engine-house. Do not 
try to make everything at once; but take the buildings 
one by one, the child finding out for himself their uses 
and differences in construction. The schoolhouse and 
engine-house have large double doors and some have 
towers, too. The schoolhouse has steps while the engine- 
house doors open on a broad driveway so the engines 
can dash out quickly. The church should have a fine 
steeple, its windows tall and narrow with a curved top or 
arch. A cross is sometimes placed upon the top of the 
steeple or at the corner edge of the roof. At one side of a 
door there is, perhaps, a portico for the automobiles and 
carriages to drive under. The fruit stores have large 
show windows and shelves covered with fruit, while a 
bank or library would have a very dignified appearance 
with tall pillars and good-sized windows. Surely a flag- 
staff with flag waving would be seen on some one of these 
buildings. Thus the child observes what is in his home 
town and learns to describe not only the different build- 
ings, but the activities which are going on within them. 
A piece of green paper or paper crayoned green may 
be placed under these buildings to represent grass. A 
brown-crayoned walk should wind up to the front doors, 
and paths should be laid out about the lawns and flower 
gardens. Group some buildings, such as the church, 
school, and library, about a center green or call it the 
village park. Trees should be growing along the road- 
side. Real twigs can be gathered and set up in the center 
of an empty spool which has been painted dark brown. 

106 







TOY-TOWTN^ HOUSES 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

With paper, however, there are several kinds of trees 
which can be originated by tearing free hand or be cut 
from green paper. Make two patterns at once of the 
same shape; paste one on each side of a small stick and 
put this in the empty spool. In your walks discuss the 
shapes of trees noting the differences so that in repro- 
ducing on paper the child will feel satisfied he has made 
a maple, an elm, or a fir which he calls a Christmas-tree. 
The development of this kind of work is limited only 
by the time and inclination of mother, teacher, or older 
companion to help, suggest, and, best of all, to encourage 
the little builder. We have come to realize that learning 
rules and facts never instruct, but that experience is the 
true teacher and moulds our education. From his owti 
town and home environment let us then give the child 
experience in developing som^ething from a neighboring 
city, or from the farm, or discovering life and customs 
in far-away lands. The use of pictures through photog- 
raphy has developed a closer bond between states and 
nations, but to see a small likeness in the form of toys 
makes one step in advance in appreciating how others 
live. It is more reaUstic to the child. 

THE FARM 

A VISIT to the farm and country makes a deep impres- 
sion upon the city child. Wliat fun it would be for him, 
on his return home, to make a farmhouse and barn of 
his own ! The children who live on the farm would take 
great pleasure in their play to do what Father must do 
every day, so they would like to build a toy farm. 
The house must be made first, using the directions of 
107 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the first house fold. A smaller house, built in the same 
fashion and attached to one end of the larger house, 
would give the familiar look of an ell. The barn is often 
larger than the house, therefore the original square piece 
of paper should be a half -inch larger in proportion. 
There are the sheds, toolhouse, henhouses, and carriage- 
house to be made for this farm, and then we must not 
forget the farmyard. With long, narrow strips of paper 
cut out rectangular pieces which will make a fence and 
posts all in one piece of paper. Bend the fence in a 
square formation, letting it stand at one side of the barn. 
Some dried grass can be put into the enclosure, or a 
quantity of brown and green snippings of paper can be 
used for this purpose. 

To make the farm complete, there must be life. From 
patterns or pictures cut out some of the farmyard ani- 
mals and place them about the yard. If the child has 
visited the farm or has pets of his own, he will know or 
remember just what should be found there. In cutting 
out animals fold the paper double so that somewhere on 
the back or head there may be kept a small section of 
the pattern on the fold. This holds the two sides of the 
animal together and yet spreads at the bottom so that it 
can stand. Another way is to cut out two patterns alike, 
paste along the upper edge of head and back, and then 
spread apart below. This gives the single head and body 
and four legs of the horse, cow, or dog. For the smaller 
pets, like hens and chickens, an extra piece of paper 
should be kept on at the bottom of the feet so that it can 
be folded at right angles and give balance to the bird 
that is trying to stand. 

108 



A FARMYARD 




A VILLAGE OF BUILDING BLOCKS 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

Let us hope this play with the farmer's home and his 
cares will give the child a slight sense of appreciation of 
how much we are indebted to him. The wool cut from 
his sheep is made into cloth to keep us warm. From his 
cow comes the milk which we drink. He supplies the 
eggs and chickens which we eat. He raises wheat for our 
flour, and cares for the trees which bear fruit for us and 
for the garden which produces vegetables. 

THE ESKIMO VILLAGE 

In turning to a land where there are no farms and no 
green grass, the child is filled with wonder as he is told of 
his little friend of the North, the Eskimo. His country, 
home, habits, and life in general are so different from 
ours that the child will delight in creating a toy village 
of ice and snow. In reproducing the picture here illus- 
trated, a large flat box is the first article required. If a 
wooden box is available this village and the other villages 
may be set up in more compact form and will make less 
clutter in a home or schoolroom. Cover the bottom of 
the box with cotton batting pulled up here and there to 
give the natural effect of snowdrifts. At the back are 
two hills or glaciers, which can be made either by mass- 
ing a great deal of the cotton together or by pasting a 
layer of cotton over heavy paper which can be bent into 
irregular shapes to represent hills. As a day of the 
North is very much darker than ours, this should be il- 
lustrated by painting on a piece of paper the wonderful 
colors of a sunset. Paste this paper at the back of the 
hills on heavy cardboard so that it can stand up and 
cast its glow of colors over the snowy foreground. 

109 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

At the foot of the hills are the igloos. These are the 
homes of the Eskimos. They are dome-shaped huts 
usually built of shaped blocks of hard snow with a win- 
dow made of a slab of ice. To make these for our village 
cover a stiff piece of cardboard with the cotton and then 
bend over into a round shape. Place these here and there 
in the snowy country. 

For the little people who live here, china dolls should 
be dressed in cotton batting even to the caps on the 
head, for all you should see of their faces are their eyes, 
nose, and mouth. Dolls cut out of heavy cardboard and 
covered with batting would answer the purpose. 

The dogs of this country are very faithful, and their 
master is very fond of them. He has many of them 
which are trained to be harnessed to sleds to carry peo- 
ple and provisions over the snowy land. These dogs 
have coats of brown fur, so for our play we must make 
them of heavy brown paper cut double so they will 
stand up. Cut out a sled also of heavy paper. Draw a 
rectangle and on each long side draw lines representing 
the runners. When cut out, fold on the long side of the 
rectangle and you will see you have made a sled. With 
a heavy thread harness the dogs along in a row and then 
attach to the sled. 

Let this train of dogs and sled curve around the foot- 
hills as if coming home from a long journey. In the fore- 
ground is a lake frozen over with ice. Let this be repre- 
sented by a mirror embedded in the cotton. Great 
white polar bears come to the lake in the hope of finding 
a hole in the ice so they can get a drink of water. These 
can be made of heavy white paper cut out on the fold 

110 



AN ESKIMO VILLAGE 




A DUTCH VILLAGE 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

and cotton pasted on them to represent the shaggy 
white fur. Over the whole landscape sprinkle tinsel 
quartz which -^all give a realistic touch and make you 
feel it is the land of snow. 

INDIAN VILLAGE 

Every little boy is thrilled with the ownership of a tent. 
He likes to sleep or play in it with all its imaginary fas- 
cinations of the earliest inhabitants of America, the In- 
dians. Perhaps the child has been given an Indian suit 
of kliaki, and having had stories told him of the life and 
habits of the Indians he wants to imitate them in play. 
Still another more educational way would be to create 
in toyland for both boy and girl an Indian village de- 
picting, as history has handed down, the habits and cus- 
toms peculiar to the race. Pictures and stories will give 
the background on which to work. The children will 
take a keen interest in making a village of tents, or 
"wigwams" as they are called. 

As the Indians were a restless race their homes were 
made so that they could easily fold them up and travel 
to another attractive resting-place. Long before heavy 
canvas was woven, these people had to use what they 
could find, so they used the skins of animals tied together 
to make their homes. In making this little village brown 
paper must be folded to represent the wigrv^am. Jijst 
outside the door of each tent pile up pieces of toothpicks 
or burnt matches for a make-believe fire. Be sure the 
sticks are laid to come to a point in the middle, thus 
making a circular pile, for this is the way the Indians 
did. Here is where each mother, or "squaw" as she was 

111 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

called, cooked for the family. She was very busy all 
day, because after the father had caught the deer, duck, 
or fish, she had to prepare it for cooking. She had to 
take the hide of an animal and cure it for making either 
a tent, a dress, or a blanket. She also took the kernels of 
corn and, after grinding them between stones, mixed 
them with water to make bread. If there was a baby in 
this home, he was wrapped in a case made of leather and 
strapped on Mother's back, who carried him around aU 
day while she worked. The baby was called a little 
"papoose." The girls helped Mother with these house- 
hold duties while the boys went off hunting with the 
men to see how brave they could become. 

Small dolls can represent different members of the 
family. Dolls can be made of paper, cloth, or corn 
husks if china dolls cannot be bought. With paint or 
crayon their bodies should be colored dark. Their skin 
became very dark from exposure of their bodies to heat 
and cold, for their dress was only the animal skins that 
Mother had prepared. 

Many wigwams can be set up to make the village. 
These may be made as in the midst of a forest, by the 
mountain-side, or on the prairies. You can make the 
Indian setting according to the material you have at 
hand. In the center of the settlement there was always 
an area where a large bonfire would burn when the In- 
dian chief and his council held a meeting. On festive 
occasions, when they painted their faces and bodies and 
had gay-colored quill feathers adorning their hair or at- 
tached to their robes, they would dance wildly around 
the fire. Tiny hen or bird feathers can be dipped in red, 

112 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

green, or purple ink, then pasted on these dolls to repre- 
sent the Indian warrior. Some tribes of Indians had 
horses. Here is an opportunity to cut out horses of 
brown paper. They may be tied to posts near the wig- 
wams. From time to time add to the primitive scene 
some new article which has been made as a result of 
suggestions gathered in reading, study, or conversation. 

LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS 

No less important than the Indians were the brave band 
of Pilgrims who, because of persecutions and trials, 
sought freedom on the New England shores in 1620. 
The small child, with whom we are living as we read 
these pages, cannot appreciate far distant or past time. 
There is, to him, however, a fascination about the story 
which begins "Once upon a time." True also is an in- 
born sense of family relationship; and, listening to the 
stories Grandma and Grandpa tell of their childhood, it 
is proper and advisable to let the child know that once 
upon a time there were some grandmas and grandpas 
who were very brave when they were young. They 
sailed many, many days, not knowing when they would 
come to land. The story of the landing of the Pilgrims, 
of their first years of want and struggle, of their meet- 
ing with the Indians, should be on the lips of the world 
to-day. Correct and interesting accounts may be found 
in all hbraries. This story offers material easily devel- 
oped and interpreted by means of toy construction. 

In a large flat box place dirt or sand, working it over 
to make the irregular shore of Cape Cod. The bottom of 
the box can be painted blue, or paper can be crayoned 

113 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

blue and tacked on the wood to represent water and 
introduce the coming of the ship Mayflower. The ship 
can be whittled out of wood, with masts of toothpicks 
and with square sails made of paper or cloth. One can 
also be made of paper folding it as described in Chap- 
ter II. This the child will wish to place on the water 
headed for shore. Interesting in detail would be the 
placing of a few small stones along the shore and one 
larger one which could be called '* Plymouth Rock" and 
noted as the first one stepped upon in landing. 

The Pilgrim men immediately had to hew down the 
trees to make log cabins for their families to live in. The 
paper-fold house described earlier in the chapter will 
answer for these cabins if with a brown crayon the roof 
and sides are drawn upon to resemble logs. A chimney 
should be made at one end of the house starting wide 
at the ground and growing narrow as it rises above the 
roof. This primitive village had one road along the 
shore and going up a hill, so make and place a dozen 
cabins in such a fashion. In the center of the group and 
on the opposite side was the leader's house. He was 
called the "Governor" and had a larger house, with a 
high fence around it making a shelter in case of attack 
by Indians. On top of the hill was a very plain cabin 
which was called the "Fort," and here the men took 
turns looking out to sea watching for any ship that 
might come their way, or else they would look toward 
the forest back of them. The Indians did not under- 
stand them at first and therefore were not to be trusted. 

Quite impressive is the description of that first 
Thanksgiving Day when in a friendly spirit Chief Mas- 

114 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

sasoit and his council came to a feast of the white man. 
Long wooden tables, which were piled high with good 
things to eat, can be made of folded paper and chairs, or 
even stools can be made to be put about the table. If 
the story is vividly described, the child will want paper 
dolls made to represent well-known characters such as 
Governor Bradford, Miles Standish, or John Alden and 
Priscilla Mullens. Pictures can be found from which to 
copy the style of dress worn by the men and women at 
that time. Significant features were the strange black 
hats, with tall crowns, wide brims, and a buckle, worn 
by the men, while the women were clothed in simple, 
quiet, gray dresses adorned by white kerchiefs about 
their necks. The month of November would be an op- 
portune time to work out this project, when a strong 
impression is made by the time of rejoicing and giving 
thanks to the God, who not only blessed the Pilgrims, 
but has ever watched over the generations which have 
followed. 

CHINESE VILLAGE 

Through travel, commerce, education, and friendly 
spirit we of to-day are becoming acquainted with foreign 
nations. Right impressions should be given to the youth 
in the home and school by first-hand knowledge of these 
other countries. Because of the thousands of years 
which passed before our introduction to these neighbors 
across the water, and because our language, customs, 
and life differ so widely, a study of each other is essential 
to a common understanding. With the little children 
this method through building and constructing seems a 

115 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

natural medium. Each country has its own interesting 
features which can be found by reading, seeing pictures, 
and Hstening to lecturers. A wise mother will store up 
for the future material relevant to certain subjects 
which she can use later to help her children in a 
practical way and in their study of other countries. 
Every country has suggestions for us, and the children 
of to-day must not grow up in ignorance of them. 

In the illustration is seen a representation of life in the 
world's oldest empire, China. The buildings represent 
shops, geisha tea-rooms, a monkey shrine, and a pagoda. 
The houses are made of heavy paper and put together 
like the house-fold previously described. The wide front 
doors are cut out and Chinese lanterns are made and 
hung from overhead with coarse thread. The building 
with a cage in front is called a monkey shrine. The 
Chinese in their worship believe that the souls of their 
ancestors may come back to life in another form; there- 
fore even animals are carved in wood or ivory and wor- 
shiped as idols. This shrine is cut from paper, and sev- 
eral small ivory monkeys are placed behind the paper 
bars. 

The tower is a pagoda or form of temple. In the Far 
East, as India, China, and Burma, these sacred towers 
are built in connection with a temple or often alone. 
Sometimes a saint or precious relics of Buddha were 
buried beneath, but to-day the towers are built by some 
pious man who hopes by so doing that good luck will 
come to the village. It is made as follows : first, take a 
long, narrow piece of paper, folding it to make a four- 
sided pyramid. Take squares of varying sizes and cut 

116 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

out a square in the center large enough to slip down the 
distance desired on the tower. Grade five or more differ- 
ent squares up to the top, giving the effect of many- 
stories. Pinch corners of the squares a little so they will 
droop slightly in true Chinese style. 

These i>eople are not advanced in the use of modern 
conveniences as is seen by the hand-saw, the boy carry- 
ing heavy burdens of merchandise, and the hand- 
plough drawn by the ox. On the rivers are seen the 
gondola type of hand-paddled boats for transportation. 
This is a collection of souvenirs brought from China. 
Such articles as these, when arranged upon a table or 
box, will give knowledge of the life in the country from 
which they came. 

The Chinese are lovers of color, flowers, and all na- 
ture. This would not be a typical scene, therefore, with- 
out the garden in the foreground. Moss brought from 
the woods was solidly packed around and in an old tin 
plate filled with water. Violet plants, anemone, and 
bluets were also planted in this pond. Islands of moss 
were joined by little bridges and tiny Chinese figures of 
coolies, storks, ducks, turtles, and a bamboo house were 
placed about. For many days this little garden will live 
if continually watered. With the constructing of this 
pretty village and caring for it, your child is going to 
live with the Chinese in spirit. 

DUTCH VILLAGE 

From the Orient let us pass to a European friend, the 
little country of Holland. The average town here is a 
quaint little place with bright roofs, green gardens, 

117 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

dikes, blue waterways, gay flowers, and windmills. 
There are many dikes made of stones which are covered 
with a natural green substance that looks like paint. 
These dikes, which are always tended and watched by 
some one, receive through pipes the drainage of the 
houses and also the supply of drinking and washing 
waters. 

Up and down the canals, over which attractive little 
bridges are built, sail or are drawn the low wooden 
boats. Running parallel with these canals are well-laid- 
out streets, bordered with well-built and well-kept, at- 
tractive houses. 

The houses are for the most part alike, and a descrip- 
tion of one will do for all. The house is generally painted 
red or some other bright color. The great roof is 
thatched or tiled in regular ornamental patterns. Many 
pretty little parks are found about the houses which are 
well cared for and filled with gay flowers. 

The Dutch women dress in long, full skirts covered 
with an equally full white apron from under which 
protrude the large wooden shoes. Over the shoulders a 
kerchief is folded. The head is adorned with a white 
"Dutch" bonnet. The men are dressed in long, full 
trousers and a jacket of bright colors. They wear the 
customary wooden shoes and blue cap. 

In making this village, fill the low box with dirt or 
sand, building up the dikes on each side of a waterway. 
The water may be represented by the painted blue bot- 
tom board of the box, or painted blue paper, or blue 
tissue paper. The bridge can be made of wood or card- 
board. Make the houses from the original paper-fold 

118 



TOY-TOWN VILLAGES 

and paint the roofs red. Make window boxes with paper 
flowers in them. The well-known windmill gives the 
finishing touch to the Dutch scene. This can be pat- 
terned from the illustration here or from one found in 
another chapter of this volume. 

Dolls can be dressed in the costumes of the people or 
dolls can be cut from paper and painted, and then comes 
the fun of playing with our little Dutch friends in their 
home town. 

With these suggestions one can pass from one country 
to another till in time the whole universe has been trav- 
eled on top of the playroom table. Old and young peo- 
ple alike have learned much as well as enjoyed many 
absorbing hours. 

BIBLE STORIES 

When a stormy Sunday comes and it is impossible to go 
to church, remember this large flat box and see what 
can be done with the lesson by illustration. The story of 
baby Moses found in the bulrushes lends itself easily to 
this work. Make a river through the center of the sand. 
With green crayon color paper which is to be cut after- 
wards into narrow strips giving the effect of the tall 
grasses. In making the grass, cut to within a half -inch 
of the other side so you will have a row of grasses to be 
embedded in the sand. Many rows of this will be 
needed to give a dense effect beside the river. Fold a 
piece of brown paper to make a basket in which is put 
the baby doll. Perhaps among the playroom treasures a 
small candy basket can be found for the baby's cradle. 

119 



CHILDHEN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The landscape should have a few trees scattered here 
and there, and in the distance some buildings represent- 
ing the king's palace and other smaller dwellings. The 
characters in the story should be cut from heavy paper 
so that they will stand in the sand. Paint the robes with 
bright Oriental colors. The Princess and her servants 
are down by the river's edge where they find the baby. 
On the opposite bank of the river and at some distance 
is Moses' sister Miriam, who with their mother is 
watching over him. While making the picture tell the 
story to the children and let them discuss all points in 
detail. 

There are many stories in the Bible which can be 
learned and enjoyed in this manner. There is the mak- 
ing of Noah's Ark; Moses and the Israelites crossing the 
Red Sea; and stories of Joseph and of David. In the 
New Testament the vision of the Shepherds, the Wise 
Men visiting the Manger, and many other stories depict- 
ing the life and good works of Jesus and His disciples in 
the Holy Land. 



X 

THE SCRAPBOOK 

HAVING once acquired the art of cutting, the fas- 
cination never ceases even to all ages. It is, 
therefore, wise to keep enough material on hand so that 
little fingers may have enough to do. Find a place 
somewhere in the home where old magazines may be 
stored and yet be accessible. There are so many maga- 
zines published (the post-office service is so extensive 
that the smallest corner of the universe may be reached) 
that subscribing for a publication should not be con- 
sidered a luxury, but an educational factor for young 
and old. Children never tire of returning to the back 
numbers, and of course some pictures are more appeal- 
ing to them than others. These they would like to 
preserve and so the scrapbook comes into existence. 
Inexpensive scrapbooks may be purchased, but most 
children are well satisfied with those they make them- 
selves or with the assistance of Mother or Big Sister. 
A heavy paper called "mounting" or '* construction" 
paper can be purchased in large sheets which should be 
cut into four parts, folded in the middle, thus making 
two leaves of each piece. If the large sheet is 24 X 36 
inches, cutting in the way described, there will be four 
parts 24 X 9 inches. Put the four sheets together and 
fasten down the center fold with brass pins, or tie with 
raffia or worsted. For this purpose choose paper of soft 
gray, brown, dark green, or black, as these colors make 

121 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

a better background for pictures. A still less expensive 
book to prepare is the one made from brown wrapping- 
paper smoothed out by a warm iron. Make in the same 
way as described, having any dimension of paper de- 
sired, remembering to make the length twice as long as 
the book will be when finished, then you can make the 
fold in the center. 

There is an opportunity for training the child's eye in 
regard to good taste, choice, and color of pictures while 
arranging a page. Do not crowd them together or have 
different ideas mixed on the same page. Have a page 
with flowers and another with automobiles, another 
with animals; but all three subjects, while good in them- 
selves, detract from each other when together, and are 
not at all artistic. 

The wondrous postcards which have grown in favor 
the past few years lend their part in the development of 
scrapbooks. I believe that they need to be in a book set 
apart by themselves. In the first place, being of a heav- 
ier paper than that cut from a magazine, they do not 
look well together. Further, their high coloring often 
does not blend with other pictures and they seem to tell 
a personal story all their own, as coming from friends 
who are traveling or visiting. 

Such attractive scrapbooks may be made for the 
nine-months-old baby, using material that will not 
tear, but will stand the reckless treatment of tiny 
hands. Baby enjoys looking at books, and as he has 
not learned either the control of his hands or the 
proper use of books, the books he does get hold of are 
generally in sad condition soon. He needs a book of his 

122 



THE SCRAPBOOK 

own, one expressly made for him that he can enjoy and 
not harm. One of the most useful to give him is a book 
made of holland window-shade material. You can buy 
it anywhere that window shades are sold, and they will 
cut it for you any dimension you wish. A good-sized 
book can be made from one yard of material, and the 
edges are best finished with the blanket stitch. Heavy 
cambric serves well, as the edges of a page can be 
snipped all round in points with scissors. From the box 
of left-over cotton materials, select some denim or 
khaki cloth. Make any size page the cloth affords, but 
one 6X8 inches or 8 X 10 inches makes a book which 
is easy for the tiny child to hold. Around the edges of 
these pages work a coarse buttonhole stitch with 
worsted. Glue should be used in making this book, as it 
adheres to the cloth better than paste. Use much care 
in putting the pictures in so that the entire edge is se- 
curely sealed. Thus the baby cannot raise the picture 
from its place. One picture on a page of a small book is 
sufficient for a child to look at, talk to, and tell wonder- 
ful stories about in his childish glee. The pictures 
should be chosen to suit the baby's world of knowledge 
and experience. Pictures of animals, flowers, children, 
mothers and fathers, and home activities are interesting 
to the little ones. When choosing pictures, the size of 
the objects and general simplicity of their forms should 
be taken into consideration. 

Six attractive book designs are given here as examples 
of good taste as well as representing materials found in- 
side the home. One is made of green paper, fairly heavy 
in weight. The tulip border and boy were cut from the 

123 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

front cover of a magazine. Another is made of plain 
brown wrapping-paper with a cut-out figure pasted on. 
The lettering is well done by a mature hand. There is 
one made of green denim with coarse blanket stitch 
holding the edges from raveling. Every child would 
fasten his eyes on the brown denim book cut in the 
shape of a bunny with a white pompom made for a tail. 
The gray cambric is neatly put together at the side, and 
the edges of the pages are snipped off as a finish. The 
small orange cambric book with its black cat comes 
in for its share of good points. It is an easy size for a 
tiny child to hold. The color is attractive, and best of 
all, it is well finished. Each page is made double, the 
seams coming on the inside so that the edge is finished 
of itself. 

For an older child the scrapbook becomes a memory 
book or place to preserve treasures of his own work. 
Pictures that he has drawn with pencil, colored crayons, 
or water-color painting, and paper-cut designs, all find 
their places in this book. I cannot refrain from speaking 
here of the great joy and comfort which are derived 
from scrapbooks as gifts. Here is one of Mother's great- 
est opportunities to instill in the minds of Httle folks the 
joy of doing for some one else. This missionary spirit is 
keen, once it is awakened, and the gift of scrapbooks to 
hospital children, or filUng boxes for foreign lands, 
brings joy to the children who give and gladness to 
those who receive. 

The Sunday afternoon hours which are so often prob- 
lems to the mother can be filled with wholesome occupa- 
tion in the making of scrapbooks. The questions and 

124 




SCRAPBOOKS 



THE SCRAPBOOK 

discussions which would arise over each picture chosen 
would be of great educational value. This is a time 
when the parent gains much in comradeship with the 
child as well as the occasion to give the child information 
of value. Years afterward recalling the memories of 
such Sunday afternoons will be cherished as the founda- 
tion building of right and wholesome thoughts and prin- 
ciples in the minds of many men and women, 

STORY-BOOK 

An interesting book to make is the illustrating of a 
story by means of cutting out pictures or words which 
pertain to the subject at hand. For example, sand- 
wiches are being passed for luncheon, and bread becomes 
the subject of conversation. In the scrapbook its pro- 
cess of development can be worked out with interest by 
placing on the first page a picture of a field in which a 
man is ploughing. The next page a picture of a wheat- 
field in all its beauty. Next comes an illustration of a 
machine which cuts the wheat down and binds it. Per- 
haps a picture of a threshing machine can be found, too. 
The mill where wheat is taken for grinding comes next, 
then a picture of a barrel of flour. The child of to-day 
thinks of the purchasing of groceries at the store, there- 
fore he will want to add a picture of a grocery store to 
his collection. In the advertising columns of magazines 
one can easily find pictures of the cook making bread 
and putting it into the oven. The crisp loaf of bread cut 
into slices and happy children eating bread and jam are 
found in illustrations, too. With their bright eyes chil- 
dren will quickly find pictures of almost any subject you 

125 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

are willing to discuss with them. Such books, compiled 
in this way, would be worthy of perusing by all ages. 

PUZZLE PICTURE BOOKS 

For the child who is old enough to read, the following is 
an interesting occupation: Take a short story, write a 
few words, and when a picture can illustrate the next 
word cut it out from some advertisement and paste it in 
the place where the word would naturally be written. 
For example, write, "This is the (dog) that worried the 
(cat) that ate the (rat)," etc. The dog, cat, and rat 
would be pictures. This work not only keeps the chil- 
dren busy writing words, finding pictures, and cutting 
them out, but they become familiar with the subjects 
and story too. When these books are well done, they 
too give pleasure to the little patients of hospitals. 

CUT PUZZLE PICTURE BOOK 

To the convalescing child who can sit up and paste pic- 
tures, give a blank book ready to be filled. Now take a 
pretty postcard, cut it up into eight or ten irregular 
pieces, and carefully place the pieces in an envelope and 
seal. Send with your book as many sealed cut-up pic- 
tures as there are pages to fill. This idea serves two 
purposes: first, with one envelope at a time the child 
must work out the puzzle on a table beside him; sec- 
ondly, when this is completed he then can have the fun 
of pasting the pieces in correct position on the page of 
the book. Thus the entire process will take up many 
hours that might otherwise be restless and unhappy. 
Children will also take great pleasure in preparing the 

126 



THE SCRAPBOOK 

sealed envelopes of cut-up pictures which might well 
serve for a Christmas or birthday present. 

DOLL-HOUSE SCRAPBOOK 

The doll-house scrapbook has its fad with every little 
girl. A catalogue of a large furniture store has page after 
page of pictures from which to choose the furniture of 
different rooms. Any furniture store of a large city will 
send a catalogue upon request. A double page of a 
scrapbook is called a room. Appropriate furniture for 
the living-room, dining-room, kitchen, bedrooms, and 
even playrooms is selected, cut out, arranged, and pasted 
on the pages, and it seems quite like a real home. 
Dolls cut out from fashion plates, home-made or bought, 
may come to live in this house, passing from room to 
room as the pages are turned. In this compact book 
form, the doll-house can be carried to call on a friend, 
carried on a journey, or packed in a trunk. Elaborate 
books can be purchased, which are all prepared to be 
cut out with instructions as to placing of furniture, but 
the home-made scrapbook is quite as dear to the heart 
of the little girl because she worked and planned it her- 
self. 

PAPER DOLLS 

There must be people to live in this scrapbook doll- 
house, and a family must be created. These can be 
chosen from the advertising columns of magazines, es- 
pecially the fashion books. Skill with the scissors is 
quite essential to cut some of the figures, and the chil- 
dren may ask for assistance, but they will spend many 

127 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

happy hours at this occupation. The universal demand 
for paper dolls is so great that even daily and Sunday 
papers have printed, in colors, dolls with their ward- 
robes. Many women's journals have set apart pages de- 
voted to paper dolls' patterns, furniture, scenery, and 
animals. Paper dolls and their sets of clothes can be 
purchased either to be cut out or already cut and ready 
to be played with. These make excellent gifts and are 
very much enjoyed, but often the dolly that is loved the 
best is home-made. A favorite picture of a child can be 
traced and retraced upon heavy cardboard. On thinner 
paper draw a dress much the shape of the doll. Once 
Mother makes a pattern, many dresses of a variety may 
be made by using colored crayons or water-colors. 
Usually the little girl designs dresses similar to her own. 
Wall-paper is used for dresses or for suits for the boy 
paper doll. More elaborately made dolls' dresses may 
be made from crepe paper. Cut from white paper the 
shape of the dress and paste colored crepe paper on as is 
desired. An entire outfit of this material with directions 
for making is put out by the Dennison Paper Company, 
Boston. 

A most interesting family of dolls, representing differ- 
ent countries, can be made which will not only serve for 
pleasure, but for educational purposes. From maga- 
zines, especially missionary publications, these designs 
can be traced from pictures as before suggested. The 
costumes may be colored with crayons or paints or be 
made of tissue paper. Stories should be told with each 
dolly which describe manners and customs of the coun- 
try which it represents. The "Everyland Magazine," 

128 



THE SCRAPBOOK 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York City, furnishes a wealth 
of material especially adapted for the use of children of 
all ages. 

Dolls can be cut out from a piece of paper folded over, 
one side being drawn and cut on the double. When the 
fold is opened the whole doll will be there. Many folds 
made from a long piece of paper and cut in the same 
manner will become a row of dolls joined together when 
opened. Simple amusement like this will delight a 
young child even though he cannot do it himself. Paper 
dolls, which will easily represent little playmates in the 
child's imagination, may be made from pieces of paper, 
by folding, as follows : 

THE MAKING OF JACK AND JILL 

Take a piece of manila paper seven inches long, six 
inches wide. Make the book fold, then fold over again, 
making the shape seven inches long and one and a half 
inches wide. Take another piece of paper six inches 
long, four inches wide, and fold in the same manner, 
having it six inches long and one inch wide when folded. 
Place the narrow piece of paper at right angles on top of 
the wider piece and one and a half inches down from the 
top. Take a piece of red string twelve inches long. Bring 
it from the back to the front, cross the two ends at the 
center and down over the narrow strip, carrying it to 
the back again and tie. The top of the paper repre- 
sents the doll's head, on which draw, with crayons, 
brown hair, a nose, eyes, and mouth. The cross-piece 
of paper represents the arms. Color these as blue 
sleeves. With scissors cut each end in curved lines to 

129 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

make the hands. Cut up through center from the bot- 
tom edge about one and a half inches to make the 
legs. A few strokes of black crayon on these will rep- 
resent shoes and stockings. Color the rest of the paper 
to match sleeves and complete the suit. Jack is now 
complete. 

Jill is made in the same fashion, but make her dress 
and sleeves another color. Her dress goes to the very- 
bottom, so no legs will be cut on this doll. These dolls, 
as you see, can be made on short notice and at a time 
when only this simple material is obtainable. 



XI 
TOY-MAKING 

A CHILD'S play is necessarily imitation of things 
he sees; therefore, if his toys are to be of any use 
to him, they must bear some actual relation to the world 
in which he lives. The toys that will be most instructive 
are those that are made by him, and the crude toys that 
are made in the playroom with materials at hand are 
dearest to his heart. 

Every child, therefore, should have raw materials 
placed about him, and with a few complete toys in his 
possession as an incentive and as models, he will be 
happy and busy all the day. 

Children are often destructive because the elaborate 
toy given them must be examined. They want to find 
out how it is put together. The finished toy placed in 
their hands soon loses its interest, and they turn from it 
to something new. A train of cars made from spools, 
sticks, and cardboard boxes will give infinitely more 
pleasure than the train of cars which require a knowl- 
edge of engineering to run. An incident in real life may 
exemplify the foregoing truth. 

There were two boys each being the only child of 
adoring parents. Financially these parents were able to 
gratify the desires of the children for toys, and to lavish 
every possible gift on them. After having seen many 
dollars' worth of toys thrown aside as useless, one boy's 
play-room was provided with a small carpenter's bench, 

131 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

a set of tools, nails of various sizes, a bundle of laths, 
and some soft pine. That boy was the king of the neigh- 
borhood. Callers were sometimes led to believe that the 
upper part of the house was being reconstructed, but 
the reconstruction was in the nerves of a small, over- 
stimulated boy. 

One day the mother of the other little boy was calling 
at this home and asked to see their son's playroom, say- 
ing: "I do not see what you can have in it that be- 
witches my boy; the moment he is out of bed he wants 
to come over here; he cries when he has to come home; 
and yet there is n't anything made for boys that you 
can't find in his playroom. Only the other night his 
father brought him home a train of cars that cost 
twenty dollars. Of course he cannot play with them 
himself, because you have to have alcohol to make them 
go; but his father plays with him every night and morn- 
ing; yet he does n't care a fig for those toys." 

The two mothers went to the bright, sunny room at 
the top of the house. Every toy that had been bought 
and given to the small boy was in its proper place on the 
shelves; but the room was littered with shavings and 
chips of wood. The boys were wildly excited over the 
building of a henhouse. Probably there was not a hen 
within four miles of that home, but that made no differ- 
ence to the boys; they were n't interested so much in 
the occupant as in the construction of the house. 

Until one's attention is called to the fact, one is sur- 
prised at the store of supplies found in the waste-basket. 
Empty boxes, spools, silver foil, and pieces of cloth are 
some materials always to be found in the home. 

132 



TOY-MAKING 

The accompanying illustrations give much food for 
thought with the foremost idea in mind that no money 
need be spent if the garret has not been too thoroughly 
house-cleaned. 

CLOCKS 

Early in the child's life he becomes enamoured of 
clocks. From the big grandfather's clock in the hall to 
the little watch on Mother's wrist, his attention is al- 
ways called to the "tick-tock." WTiat fun it is, then, to 
make facsimiles of these which will amuse the baby. 
There is the kitchen clock. The foundation of this is a 
small empty ribbon bolt. Cover it with silver foil, which 
may have come around cream cheeses, chewing gum, or 
sweet chocolate. Push two brass fasteners through the 
bottom part, which will represent the legs. On the top, 
screw in a brass ring for a handle. The face of the clock 
may be drawn carefully on a piece of white paper and 
pasted on one side; if, however, you search diligently in 
magazine advertisements, you will surely find faces of 
watches or clocks which can be cut out and used. 

There are two types of grandfathers' clocks here illus- 
trated. One is made from a black, heavy cardboard 
box. In the cover part is cut a long window, through 
which is seen the pendulum. The face is pasted above 
this aperture. The pendulum is a wooden ball tied to a 
string which is attached to the top inside the box. T^n- 
less the pendulum is made of something with weight, it 
will not swing sedately. 

The other clock is made from a Nabisco cracker-box. 
Cut out the pendulum window from one long side. Cut 

133 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

up an inch from one end on the four sides between each 
corner. By so doing the legs are made and it will stand 
up. The top of the clock may be treated in the same 
manner as ornamentation. These corners cut down one 
half inch. Swing a pendulum down from the top inside 
the box. A clock-face is added as before described and a 
very attractive clock is made for the doll-house. 

As a child grows older his ^reat desire is to learn to 
tell time. Perseverance on the part of the child and pa- 
tience from Mother and Father is the only way to this 
victory. 

As a help and guide it is suggested that a simple 
dial be made with which to practice. Make a circle 
about four inches in diam^eter of gray cardboard. On 
this draw in with coarse black figures the face of a clock. 
Out of black paper cut two hands, one longer than the 
other, and each three eighths of an inch wide. Fasten 
them together at one end and to the center of the dial 
with a brass fastener. They will pivot freely, thereby 
giving the opportunity to use the hands as they work on 
a real clock. The child can now turn the hands to all 
combinations and gain his knowledge with first-hand 
experience. 

DOLLS 

A DOLL is the oldest and best-loved companion from 
Toyland. There is not a human creature of this world, 
whether civilized or uncivilized, whose parent love in- 
stinct has not crept out in childhood. Even a piece of 
wood has been known to be called a doll. In the first 
chapter a few nature dolls were described, elsewhere the 

134 




HOME-MADE CLOCKS 



TOY-MAKING 

paper dolls are spoken of; and once more we find some 
other material to encourage the making of dolls. 

The rag doll here shown is made of rolled white 
cloth. Take a strip of cloth four inches wide and a yard 
and a haK long and roll it' fairly snug. This stands for 
the body. About an inch from the top is tied a thread to 
make the neck. Above this make a face on the cloth 
with paints or crayons. Now make four smaller rolls of 
cloth, sewing on two for arms near the neck and the 
other two on the other end of the body for two legs. 
The doll is now ready to have her clothes made and put 
on. On the head sew a mass of black thread ravelings 
which will look like curly hair, especially when a hair 
ribbon is tied on. Sew a small piece of black cloth on 
the bottom of the feet to look like shoes. 

This pair of twins, the worsted dolls, are attached to 
the ends of a long crocheted chain which can be put 
around the baby's neck. To make the dolls, wind sev- 
eral yards of worsted over a piece of cardboard, four 
inches long. Cut the worsted off the card at one end. As 
the worsted slips from the card, keep it double and tie 
a piece of worsted around the top to make the head. 
Three of these strands can be pulled out to braid and 
hang down the back for hair. From each side take sev- 
eral strands, tie and cut shorter for arms. Tie again 
around the center to make a waist line. 

Who would believe that clothespins could be so life- 
like ! The girl and boy appear to be a very stylish couple 
as they stand up side by side. Water-color paints will 
make the faces and also paint the boy's suit of clothes 
right on the wood of the clothespin. The girl's dress is 

135 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

easily made and fastened to the neck of the clothespin as 
well as tied around the waist line. The hat is glued to 
the top of the pin. A suggestion for Halloween favors 
would be like the clothespin doll dressed in yellow and 
black crepe paper. 

A witch doll can be cleverly made by taking a candy 
lollipop for a foundation. Take a piece of medium- 
weight paper, cut it in circular fashion, and tie to a 
stick a short way down from the end. The paper should 
come to the end of the candy part and give it balance so 
as to stand up. On top of the stick put a marshmallow 
on which has been marked a face with hot chocolate. 
Make a yellow crepe-paper dress, tying it around the 
neck and waist. Over this put on a black crepe-paper 
cape. Tie a few whisks from the broom into a tiny brush 
and place on a toothpick. Stick this into the front of the 
dress. The hat should be made of black paper, pointed 
at the top, and with a brim. With small black streamers 
tie this hat on the marshmallow head. Though this 
doll is ferocious-looking, she is very good to eat and 
would make a nice place gift at a dinner party. 

For the six-months-old baby, why not make a ball 
doll? The foundation is a ball made of cotton batting 
or rags tied up. Cover it over with white-ribbed stock- 
ing or shirt material. Over one half the ball stretch red 
flannel, and around the circumference where the white 
and red are joined together, finish by tying around a red 
ribbon. On the white half of the ball make a face with 
water-color paints. This toy gives two pleasures; one of 
joy because it rolls, and it has apparent life to the child 
because of the face. 

138 



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J^ 



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DOLLS AND PETS 



TOY-MAKING 



ANIMALS 



When bath or Turkish towels give out, the holes usu- 
ally come in the center, leaving the ends to make into 
wash-cloths. This time try making something to amuse 
the baby. As is seen in the picture a cat and a rabbit 
have been made from this material. First draw a paper 
pattern either from pictures found in children's books 
or copy from these illustrations. Make the lines and 
curves as simple as possible. Cut two sides alike and 
sew together, leaving a space at the least conspicuous 
place. Turn right-side out and fill the animal with soft 
scraps of cloth or cotton batting. Work the rags around 
so as to fill the parts out in as natural shape as possible. 
Finally sew up the open space from the outside. Black 
shoe buttons are good to use for eyes. Pink noses and 
black whiskers can be embroidered on with coarse em- 
broidery floss. White whiskers could be of fine wire or 
stiff canvas threads sewed through the face and left cut 
to stand out. For the rabbit put a layer of canvas inside 
the ears when sewing it. This will help make the ears 
stand up. Also a facing of pink cloth can be sewed on 
the front of the ear to represent more accurately the 
pink skin of the bunny's ear. 

CARTS 

As children become more interested in things about 
them, they desire to reproduce them in smaller dimen- 
sions. Empty boxes and spools now come into use. A 
cart that will really go is made of half of a box for the 
body and the wheels are spools. Place two spools on a 
wooden skewer, the ends being driven through a strip of 

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CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

cardboard bent above it. The top surface of the card- 
board is now glued to the bottom of the cart. With a 
pair of wheels in front and back is made a substantial 
express wagon. The wagon can be colored with crayons 
to suit the child and the name printed on its side. 

Wheels made of cardboard and placed on the outside 
of a box can be fastened with brass pins or a piece of 
wire or even a wire hairpin. This crudeness does not 
disturb the child until he comes to the age of carpentry, 
and then definite technicalities are worked out. 

The black rocker chair was made by cutting out two 
big dog figures, the bottom of which was made into 
smooth rockers. Between these two figures was glued 
part of a box which makes the chair part, with sides and 
a back. In place of a dog figure, a cat or a squirrel or a 
rabbit can be made. Seen in this rocker is a little doll 
made of acorns and pieces of toothpicks. He looks very 
happy in his chair of state. 

THE MERRY-GO-ROUND 

Was there ever a child so happy as when thrilled with a 
ride in a merry-go-round! Let us make a little one at 
home just for fun and amusement. Stand a wooden 
skewer in the hole of a good-sized spool. Cut out of 
hea\^ cardboard a circle about ten inches in diameter. 
At intervals around the edge paste on animals cut out of 
magazines or drawn, colored, and cut out. Just inside 
of these animals paste on little folded chairs. Cut out 
paper dolls and put them in these seats. Making a hole 
in the center of this cardboard, slip it over the skewer so 
that it rests on top of the spool. Now put another spool 

138 




TOY CARTS FROM CARDBOARD 



TOY-MAKING 

on top of the cardboard. On the very top of the skewer 
place another circular cardboard decorated as elabo- 
rately as desired to represent a tent top. The lower 
cardboard will spin beautifully for a moment as you 
twirl it with your fingers, so the paper dolls will have 
a ride. The second spool can represent the music organ 
that always plays while the merry-go-round is in motion. 

KIDDIE CAR 

One of the newest forms of locomotion for the children 
is the ride on a Kiddie Car. This one illustrated is a 
facsimile which can be used by a doll. Some pieces of 
beaver board were found and cut into the shape of the 
seat and wheels. It was put together with wire and 
spools, and the handle was made to steer the front 
wheel. This runs remarkably well and has durability. 

STEAM ENGINE 

This steam engine will do any little boy's heart good if 
he has n't the good fortune to own a train of iron cars 
and tracks. The body of the engine is an empty ribbon 
bolt. Cardboard is used to make the caboose and cow- 
catcher. Spools are wired on for wheels, and one is at- 
tached on top to make the smokestack. A toy bell, 
which really rings, is fastened on, and the headlight is a 
fancy glass button found in Mother's button box. The 
entire engine is painted with shoe blacking. 

ELECTRIC CAR 

A FANCY box originally filled with candy is the electric 
car. One can see that front and back platforms are well 

139 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

portrayed and the steps are not forgotten. If you can 
look in the windows you will find seats in a row, and on 
top is an imitation of the trolley. These wheels are cut 
out of cardboard and are stationary; but spools used as 
described in the express wagon would make possible the 
running of the car. 

A CORK TURKEY 

Pebhaps from the picture it would be hard to tell what 
kind of bird is seen here. It really would be a good sug- 
gestion for Thanksgiving Day souvenirs at the place of 
each guest. The body is a big cork. The legs, neck, and 
bill are toothpicks, while the head is a small piece of 
cork. Find some little feathers to paste on for the tail. 
If put on at a certain angle they will make the bird look 
quite haughty. 

CIRCUS DANCERS 

Take partitions from a box of a dozen eggs. Remove 
the center piece of cardboard. Out of the other card- 
board cut and color the figure of a clown, boy, girl, dog, 
and a fancy ball. Paste these onto the different sections 
as seen in the illustration. By working the partitions 
back and forth between the fingers, you will see the dolls 
dance. Little children always enjoy toys that move and 
seem to be doing something. 

JUMPING JACK 

The Jumping Jack moves also, and will delight old and 
young as he performs his ludicrous tricks on the cross- 
bar. This was made from a cigar box. Two uprights 

140 






>fEri 8 iiii i1 Il l 





HOME-MADE TOYS 



TOY-MAKING 

were securely fastened onto a piece of the box for a 
flooring. Joining these two uprights at the top is a 
round stick which is driven through holes. On one end 
of the cross-pole is made a handle. This is a piece of 
wire bent into the end of a spool. From a piece of old 
brown kid glove cut a shape resembling a monkey with 
long arms and legs. A piece of hemp rope makes a 
splendid tail. With glue fasten the two hands of the 
monkey to the cross-bar and let him hang there. Now 
as you turn the handle of the cross-bar the monkey 
turns over with it, jumping about and going through 
all kinds of antics expected of this animal. 

BABY CARRIAGE AND CRADLE 

Ant little girl would be pleased w ith a baby carriage or 
cradle for her little doll. An empty pound box is used in 
each instance. A straight piece of cardboard or a part of 
the box cover is bent over one end of the box and slipped 
down inside, so that a curved hood is made. The car- 
riage has a handle and wheels attached with brass pins 
to make it complete, while the cradle has curved pieces 
of cardboard pasted onto the front and back of the box 
to make the rockers. A coat of white shellac is painted 
over these articles inside as well as outside, making 
them firm and durable. With dainty pieces of muslin 
and pink cambric these can be dressed up with pillows 
and coverings, which make them more attractive and 
enticing for play. The little sled is fashioned out of a 
box and covered with gold paper. Turn the cover up- 
side down pasting it to the top of the box. Cut the 
lower part like sled runners. The handle is pasted onto 

141 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the back, and the little rings on the side are used to put 
ribbon through that the doll can be tied to her sled. 

GLOUCESTER HAMMOCK AND STOVE 

From a long, narrow box cut out one of the long sides. 
With a heavy needle carry several strands of worsted or 
string through each side at short intervals from each 
other. A few inches above tie these ends through a brass 
ring, one on each side. Upholster the inside of the box 
with colored cretonne cushion and pillows. Hold these 
two rings in your fingers and you will see a comfortable 
Gloucester hammock. To make it serviceable for the 
child to play with, a heavy wooden framework can be 
made, the rings attached to the side, and the hammock 
will be ready to give the doll a swing. 

The stove was cut from a square box. A little door 
was cut out on three sides, bending it back on the fourth 
side. A grating was cut out on the front and a stovepipe 
added. Circles were scratched in to represent stove 
covers. This was blackened with ink, but shoe blacking 
or paint can be used. 

DIVANS 

Most comfortable of all are the luxurious divans. The 
foundations are empty boxes, the covers being set up on 
end to make the backs. They are padded with a thin 
layer of cotton batting which is glued to the boxes, then 
covered with pieces from the scrapbag. One of these is 
upholstered in green crepe de chine, the other with pink 
chintz. The pillows add to the attractiveness and com- 
fort of these little seats. The green divan has four spools 

142 



TOY-MAKING 

glued to the bottom for legs, while the pink sofa has four 
glass push pins to stand upon. These pieces of furniture 
are dainty enough to grace any doll-house. 

CIRCUS 

When spring of the year comes, with its many pleasures, 
every child looks for the posters which announce the 
coming of the circus. Once a child is given a day's ex- 
perience under those wonderful tents, there is enough 
mental action going on to keep him thinking for many 
weeks to come. There are the kinds of animals to be dis- 
cussed, their differences, habits, and families. There are 
the marvelous tricks they are taught to do in captivity 
and the daring masters who work with them. We al- 
ways remember the funny clowns who make every one 
laugh, and the people who do such acrobatic feats that 
we hold our breath in awe and fear until they are over. 

All this must be expressed through play in the back 
yard or nursery. Often with a group of neighborhood 
children an original entertainment worth a penny for 
admittance can be made quite a replica of the circus and 
its charms. Children walk on hands and feet growling 
like a tiger, roaring like a lion, or waving their heads to 
which is tied a long proboscis made of cloth. Of course 
these elephants are waiting to be fed with peanuts. 
Those who wish to be clowns are dressed up in funny 
costumes, wear masks, and do most ridiculous perform- 
ances. Let the children work out their own interpreta- 
tion of the circus, not forgetting the sale of pink lemon- 
ade and peanuts. 

For the individual child who must play alone or with 
143 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

but one or two friends, it is just as interesting to create a 
toy circus. A corner of the playroom or top of a table 
can be the circus grounds. With a number of candy 
boxes of the same size make cages for the animals. Tip 
the boxes on a long, narrow side and attach some spools 
at the bottom for wheels. In the cover, which is the side 
facing you when tipped, cut out strips of cardboard, thus 
making the bars of the cage. Place inside the boxes 
paper animals cut out on a double fold of paper so that 
they will stand and be seen through the bars of the cage 
car. Use crayons to give the animals their natural coat 
of fur or skin. Now arrange these cages in a circle so the 
paper-doll families can visit them. 

Beside this group other circles or rings made of nar- 
row strips of cardboard must be made. Here the horses, 
elephants, and other animals come in turn to perform. 
From picture books trace good patterns of animals. 
Make dolls with fancy costumes and ballet skirts and 
set them on the horses' backs. Perhaps some artist 
friend can design some clowns for you. For the chariot 
races make small two-wheeled carts, and if you have 
gold water-color paint it will make the chariots look 
very true to life. 

Like a toy village, so the toy circus can come to your 
own house to give hours of work and pleasure. The 
family group may develop this play with great oppor- 
tunities of instruction concerning animals. 

GROCERY STORE 

Great is the fascination of a grocery store to the small 
child. Seeing the boxes, barrels, cans, and bottles aU 

144 



TOY-MAKING 

placed in rows fills him with a desire to play the game 
in his own play-corner. Without elaborate preparation 
Mother should join in the searching party to find 
materials in the house which will help make the play- 
store. Empty cartons and boxes will be filled with 
proper contents by the child's imagination. 

A miniature store can be made to rest on the play- 
room table and the dolls can be worked into service as 
storekeepers. Three half -boxes can be set on end and 
pieces of cardboard set in and fastened across to make 
shelves. Set these boxes at right angles, giving the 
appearance of three sides of a store. The fourth side is 
left open so the child can play and have easy access. 

In front of these three sides which have shelves 
place counters, which can be made of long, narrow 
boxes or folded heavy paper. With scraps of cardboard 
make tiny boxes to set on shelves and counters. With 
pencil and crayons label the articles that are for sale. 
Mother can spare a teaspoonful of sugar, salt, flour, 
corn meal, etc., to fill these small receptacles and make 
the play more real. 

From former descriptions a wagon can be made of 
box and spools to deliver the grocery orders. Dolls of 
paper, rags, or bisque can be the people who come to 
buy. The money used can be small circles of gray paper. 
Another kind of money is made the natural size and 
makes a splendid means of teaching the use of real 
coins. Take a penny, five-cent piece, or a dime, place 
them under a piece of paper and with the broad side of 
a lead pencil rub back and forth on the paper over the 
coin. Presently the shape and design of the coin will 

145 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

appear. Cut out the circle thus made and you will find 
money-making easy. 

All these toys are just suggestions of how many more 
pieces of odds and ends can be put to good service 
rather than thrown away. It is not the costly toy the 
child appreciates, but the one you have helped him to 
create. 



XII 
HOLIDAYS 

SUGGESTIVE PATTERNS FOR FESTIVE OCCASIONS 

A HOLIDAY is a day set apart for commemorating 
some important event, or in honor of some per- 
son. It is a day when ordinary occupations are sus- 
pended by individuals, a community, or a nation. At 
those happy times children are ready to catch the spirit 
if shown its meaning, and a development of knowledge 
beyond the home ties brings new ideas. 

For children we have occupations to help symbolize 
these events and make the holidays different from 
other days. Always have a story or historical descrip- 
tion to tell why there is such a day, and with interest 
awakened, find some outward expression which will 
make the story more impressive. 

THANKSGIVING 

In the fall of the year, Thanksgiving is a festival of 
gratitude and thanks. In another chapter has been 
described the building of the Pilgrim village and the 
first Thanksgiving Day. Thus the children are re- 
minded of the harvesting time, the gathering of fruits 
and vegetables. 

FRUIT BASKET 

On a piece of drawing-paper, outline different shapes 
of fruit such as a banana, an orange, an apple, and a 

147 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

pear. These should be given their natural color with 
crayons or paints. Now fold a large piece of paper keep- 
ing the fold at the bottom. Draw or trace with a pattern 
the shape of a basket. Curve the sides outward and 
join with a handle. With paper still folded cut out the 
basket and handle; thus you have two sides held to- 
gether by the fold at the bottom. Now paste the 
double handle together and around the outside edge of 
the two baskets, except across the top of the basket 
part. Here you will stick in the fruit in an artistic 
arrangement. On the outside of the basket a crayoned 
design can be drawn or lines can be made crossing each 
other to look like the weave of basketry. Remember 
to color both sides of the fruit as well as the basket. 
These would make attractive dinner cards if made an 
appropriate size for the individual plate. 

THANKSGIVING PIE 

Take a paper plate, such as are used for picnics, and 
fill with animal crackers or popcorn. Cover the top of 
the plate and its contents with orange tissue paper, 
pasting it down around the edge of the paper plate. 
Now the goodies are inside the pie, and the fun comes 
when each one who is given one is surprised when he 
tears open a corner of his Thanksgiving pie. 

CHRISTMAS 

Christmas is essentially the child's festival, and its 
true significance — the blessedness of giving — is 
strongly imbued in his mind as he makes not only 
pretty trimmings for the tree and home, but creates 

148 



HOLIDAYS 

gifts to give to those so dear to him. Only by giv- 
ing gifts can the true meaning of the great gift of 
peace and good-will be impressed. An old legend of 
"The Origin of the Christmas-Tree" is full of the spirit 
of the season. It runs as follows: Tw^o children are sit- 
ting by the fire, on a cold winter's night. A timid knock 
is heard at the door, and the boy runs to open it, to find 
a child standing outside in the cold and darkness, with 
no shoes on his feet, and clad in thin, ragged garments. 
He is shivering with cold, and asks to come in and 
warm himself. "Yes,'* cry both the children, "you shall 
have our place by the fire. Come in." They draw the 
little stranger to their warm seat, share their supper 
with him, and give him their bed, while they sleep on 
the hard bench. 

In the night they are awakened by strains of sweet 
music, and looking out see a band of children in shin- 
ing garments approaching the house. They are play- 
ing on golden harps, and the air is full of melody. 
Suddenly the stranger child stands beside them, no 
longer cold and ragged, but clad in silvery light, and 
his soft voice says: "I was cold, and you took me in. 
I was hungry, and you fed me. I was tired, and you 
gave me your bed. I am the Christ-Child, wandering 
through the world to bring peace and happiness to the 
hearts of all good children. As you have given to me, 
so may this tree every year give rich fruit to you." So 
saying, he broke a branch from a fir-tree, planted it 
in the ground, and disappeared. But the branch grew 
into a great tree, and every year bore golden fruit 
for the kind children. 

149 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The joy of the greeting to the Christmas-tree may 
be voiced in very simple words : 

"Oh, happy day! that brings to me. 
With laden bough, the Christmas-tree! 
Christmas-tree! Christmas-tree! 
Hurrah! Hurrah! for the Christmas-tree! 

**0h, happy day! we sing again. 
That brought good- will and peace to men. 
Christmas-tree! Christmas-tree! 
Hurrah! Hurrah! for the Christmas-tree!** 

PAPER CHAINS 

I. The simplest form of paper-cutting can become a 
thing of beauty and is something a child can do. For the 
inexperienced child, draw with a ruler lines that he can 
follow. Colored paper, or paper crayoned or painted 
by the small child, is still more interesting; it must be 
cut in narrow strips, all being the same length. A fair 
proportion would be six inches in length and five 
eighths in width. These ends are then pasted together 
after being put through the loop of another link. Thus 
yards and yards can be made for Christmas-tree and 
room decorations. 

II. Another form of chain may be made by taking 
long strips of paper two or three inches wide and folding 
them in halves, lengthv/ise. While still folded, cut slits 
along both sides three eighths of an inch apart and 
across the fold to one half inch from the other edge. 
Cutting on the opposite edge pass between the other 
slits, thus alternating. Now open the long piece of 
paper and pull by the length. As is shown in the illus- 
tration you will make a very pretty chain. 

150 



HOLIDAYS 

III. With a long, strong thread, string in order first 
a red paper circle an inch in diameter, then the same 
size piece of cotton batting, followed by an inch-length 
piece of straw. Repeat in same order until the end of 
the thread. 

IV. Cut out four-inch squares of white tissue paper. 
In each square tie a marshmallow or one hard piece of 
candy. Tie these connectedly with one long piece of 
string, and later on there will be much sport in the tug- 
of-war for the sweet trophies of the tree. 

CHRISTMAS LANTERN 

Take a piece of paper about five inches by nine inches. 
This may be red or green paper, or better still, painted 
in two-toned colors suggested in the painting chapter. 
Paint or crayon a solid band of black, one half inch 
wide, at the top and bottom of paper. Now fold in 
half, the painted or colored side out. With the fold of 
the paper toward you, cut in one half-inch spaces to the 
black border. Now open the sheet of paper and fasten 
the two ends with brass fasteners or paste. Over the 
top tie a piece of worsted or use wire with which to 
hang the lantern. 

CHRISTMAS BELL 

From the pattern illustrated cut two red or green bells. 
Fold them down the center, and while folded cut out the 
small square loop at the top. Put the two bells together, 
sewing them down the crease with same colored thread. 
Through the two top loops tie worsted to hang it on thp 
tree. 

151 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

CANDY PAPER BAG 

Buy a quantity of small, white paper bags at your gro- 
cery store. As is suggested by the illustration, cut out 
a body of a man, pasting it on the lower part of the bag. 
Cut out circles for eyes, pieces for a nose and a mouth; 
paste them farther up on the bag. With a black crayon 
a few strokes will make his suit and a collar as well as 
lighten his eyes. When the bag is filled with candy or 
popcorn, tie the top with red worsted, leaving ends long 
enough to tie again into a loop so it can hang on the tree. 

CANDY DOLL 

From coarse scrim or canvas cut two dolls about eight 
inches long. The shape is suggested in the illustration. 
The head must be made the size of a large peppermint. 
Sew the two dolls together with a coarse blanket stitch, 
using red worsted. As the different parts are completed, 
fill in with small, hard candy. A licorice jelly bean at each 
toe looks like shoes, and red jelly beans at the beginning 
of each arm look like hands. A long stick of candy down 
each limb is advisable to hold the legs and arms in good 
position. Fill the body part with smaller candies. Fi- 
nally place the big round peppermint between the two 
heads and sew it in. With melted chocolate mark a face 
on the peppermint before sewing it up. This is far more 
attractive than the plain bags of old if you allow plenty 
of time to make up the candy doll. 

FLOWERS AND SNOWBALLS 

Prepare tissue paper into four- or five-inch squares, 
using red or yellow preferably. Fold each piece into four 

152 




CHRISTMAS-TREE DECORATIONS 



HOLIDAYS 

squares, making the handkerchief fold. Take a strong 
thread and needle and string these folded pieces one by 
one at the folded point. After stringing eighteen or 
twenty pieces, take the two ends of the thread and tie 
tightly in the center, leaving a long thread to make a 
loop. Then with the fingers open up these folded pieces, 
and the irregular ball shapes will look just like shaggy 
red and yellow chrysanthemums. With the loops hang 
them on the Christmas-tree. They will make very 
bright decorations. The snowball is made in the same 
manner, using a circle of white tissue paper, folding 
and stringing in the same manner. After the ends are 
tied together, open up the circular fold which will help 
make the fluffy ball. These, too, are to be hung on the 
Christmas-tree. 

SANTA CLAUS 

Find a good picture of Santa Claus in a book or maga- 
zine. The artist of the family must now be called in to 
dissect him; that is to say, to draw separately the differ- 
ent parts including the body, arms, legs, and head. Af- 
ter working out satisfactory patterns, trace them on 
heavy paper for the child to cut out. Let him take his 
crayons, coloring his suit red, belt black, leggins red and 
black, and cap red. After this is completed, fasten the 
legs, arms, and head in respective places upon the body 
by means of small brass fasteners. This makes it possi- 
ble for all parts to move. Paint in a face and paste cot- 
ton on for his beard and any white fur trimmings de- 
sired. With a string attached to his back he can easily 
be hung on the Christmas-tree. 

153 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

JACK-IN-THE-BOX 

On a piece of paper draw a head about one and one half 
inches in diameter, with a pointed cap on top. From the 
neck down, for about an inch, draw irregular, jagged 
lines representing the springs of a Jack-in-the-Box. Be- 
low this leave an inch of plain paper about three and a 
half inches wide. Having made this as a pattern, out- 
line it again so that the child may cut it out himself. 

Take a piece of paper eight by four inches in dimen- 
sions. Fold this over double and paste along the edges 
of the two sides only. Now at the top insert the Jack 
into his box and paste or seal down about an inch of the 
edge on each side of him. This prevents him from falling 
out. In the top of his pointed cap punch a hole in which 
is tied a piece of worsted. You see he will disappear into 
his box, and then pull him up quickly as far as he will go. 
By the loop of worsted he can be hung on the Christmas- 
tree. Jack and his box can be colored with bright col- 
ors. If several are made as decorations or souvenirs a 
variety of colors will be very attractive. 

CANDLESTICK 

Give the child a pattern of a candlestick to outline and 
cut out. The candle can be represented as standing in a 
tall, plain holder, or in a short one which has a round 
tray for the bottom. Be sure to cut out a point at the 
top of the candle to represent the flame. Color the can- 
dle-stick red, green, or yellow like brass, and make the 
flame of the candle orange. On the part which repre- 
sents the tallow candle cut and paste on a long piece of 

154 



HOLIDAYS 

sandpaper. Now paste the candlestick upon a green or 
brown card. Punch a hole at the top of the card through 
which raffia may be tied. This makes a useful match- 
scratcher for Father which he can find hanging on the 
Christmas-tree. 

WRISTWATCH 

I. Cut out a circle of cardboard one and one quarter 
inches in diameter. Cut another circle, of the same 
size, of gilt paper and paste it on top of the cardboard 
circle. Draw the face of a watch on a smaller white 
circle or cut out one from an advertisement. Paste this 
on top of the gilt circle. Punch a hole on two opposite 
sides of the watch through which put a piece of yellow 
worsted and tie around the child's wrist. 

II. Cut out of heavy gray paper a pattern all in one 
piece, the center part shaped like a circle, and from two 
sides taper down to two narrow ends like a strap. On 
the circle part of the paper put the face of a watch. 
Put the long, narrow strap ends around the child's wrist 
and fasten with a small clamp or brass fastener. This 
watch resembles one made of silver. 

TRANSPARENCY 

For years we have seen pretty glass pictures hanging in 
the windows of friends' homes. Sometimes there would 
be a scene like Niagara Falls, sometimes photographs of 
children, and again it might be a butterfly in wonderful 
colored glass. It is always fascinating to see the light 
shine through these pictures. It has occurred to us that 
children can make pretty pictures and hang them up to 

155 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

see the light shine through. There is a wide field of 
experiment in this occupation, and a few suggestions will 
carry the child's imagination afloat to many illustra- 
tions he would like to try. Three examples are here pro- 
duced. Every child has seen the colored light through a 
church window; therefore, in his night picture he cuts 
out of the black church a window. Back of this he 
stretches a piece of red tissue paper. Holding it to the 
light he gets a soft red coloring. 

The flock of bluebirds are cut cut of white paper, and 
over the entire back is pasted a piece of blue tissue paper. 
Another white paper, cut out like the first, may then 
be fitted on and both sides will look alike. A black paper 
border sets off the contrast to the bluebirds. A cord or 
piece of worsted can be tied across the top so it can hang 
up at the playroom window. 

If it is not advisable to own live goldfish, then what 
fun it would be to make-believe! Take two good-sized 
pieces of dark green or gray cardboard. From the 
center of each cut out a bowl of the shape of an aquarium. 
Paste over each cardboard, where it has been cut away, 
a sheet of white onion paper. Cut out from orange-tint 
coated paper little goldfish, and seaweed or moss from 
green paper. Paste these on the inside of one of these 
white bowls you have just made. Now paste the two 
sides together and place a piece of worsted or cord at the 
top. Holding it to the light, you can see the fish swim- 
ming about in their glass bowl. 

Each festive season will give a suggestion for a sub- 
ject in transparency design. The Halloween pumpkin 
with glittering eyes, the snowman in winter, Santa Claus 

156 






TRANSPARENCIES 



HOLIDAYS 

and his tiny reindeer, the moon and stars, rabbits and 
chickens, and boats sailing by moonlight, are all equally 
attractive subjects for reproduction. With the help of 
an older person a scene or conventional design could 
be developed for a candle shade; a suggestion for a 
Christmas gift to give to Mother. Paper, scissors, paste, 
and good ideas will keep many a child out of mischief 
and possibly start him on the road to greater things. 

VALENTINE'S DAY 

Dating back to the worship of the goddess Juno mes- 
sages of love were sent at about this time of year. In 
later years a festival was observed in memory of a Chris- 
tian saint named Valentine on February 14th. Thus 
comes to us the custom of sending love messages on 
Saint Valentine's day. These messages are now called 
"valentines." 

Among the children it has become a happy event sur- 
rounded with sweet thoughts and mystery as to the 
sender of the greetings. The older child feels the neces- 
sity of buying elaborate cards and valentines, but the 
little one is delighted to cut out of red paper, heart 
shapes and arrows, and to paste on small colored pic- 
tures, or to use crayons for decorating and printing 
words of love, perhaps helped by an older adviser. 

VALENTINES 

I. In the center of a red heart cut a short vertical line. 
Cut across the top and bottom of this line a short dis- 
tance left and right. Bend back these pieces to represent 
the opening of shutters. On the back of the card across 

157 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the center, which is cut, paste a pretty picture or a love 
message, so that when the window is opened a pleasant 
surprise awaits the receiver. 

II. Cut hearts on folded paper so that two may be 
slightly joined together at the side or at the two high 
points of the curve of the heart. Decorate with pictures 
or gold-paint lettering. 

III. Cut out a red heart about four inches in length. 
Make two holes near the center and pass a piece of 
colored worsted through them. As the two ends come 
up on the front side tie in a candy kiss ^Tapped in oiled 
paper. Above the candy print, "To you a " and below 
the kiss write, "I send." 

IV. Take a piece of paper six inches square, and paint 
it bright red on one side. Find the center of the square 
on the unpainted side and fold over four corners of the 
square to it. Now you will see the red side. On these 
four red corners trace hearts that will fit in that space, 
turning the lower points of the hearts toward the center. 
Now cut them out and you will find you have double 
hearts. Open these up and write a verse on the white 
inside. Now fold the hearts over again and join them 
together with a gold heart at the center. The one who 
receives it will have to break the gold heart open to see 
what is written inside. 

V. More elaborate valentines can be made by using 
the lace perforated paper which comes in candy boxes, 
or by using paper doilies. Hidden under this material are 
placed pretty pictures and poetry. The Dennison Paper 
Company make boxes filled with valentine material 
which can be purchased in the toy departments of stores 

158 



HOLIDAYS 

LINCOLN'S AND WASHINGTON'S BIRTHDAYS 

Children know the joy of celebrating a birthday, and 
in this month of February we have the birthdays of 
two important men to make into hohdays. Because 
they were good and brave and helped the United States 
to be the great nation that it is, we want to show our 
respect for them. It is therefore fitting that patriotic 
festivities be enjoyed by the young children. Songs of 
patriotism should be sung, soldier games played, and 
some form of mementoes should be made on these days. 
February 12th is Lincoln's birthday and Washington's 
comes on February 22d. 

PICTURE FRAMES 

I. Make a picture frame by folding red paper as de- 
scribed in another chapter. In this frame put the pic- 
ture of Lincoln or W^ashington. These pictures may be 
found in magazines, especially in the month of Febru- 
ary, or may be purchased in small sizes, for a penny 
apiece, of Milton Bradley. In this way a child becomes 
familiar with the faces of these great men. 

11. Cut two gray cardboard circles six inches in di- 
ameter. From one circle cut out from the center a circle 
two inches in diameter. In the center of the large circle 
paste a picture of Washington. Now put the two circles 
together and around the outer edges punch holes at 
regular intervals. W^ith red worsted sew over and over 
once, and the second time go the other way to make a 
cross-stitch. This completes the frame. At the top tie 
a loop of worsted by which to hang it up. 

159 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

BADGES 

There seems to be a loyalty and fellow-feeling that 
arises when a group show their spirit by wearing a 
badge. This may represent an emblem of an event or 
loyalty to a cause or person. Children are quick to 
catch this spirit, and to make a badge of their own will 
make them prouder still. 

I. Cut a circle two inches in diameter out of red 
paper. Cut a second circle of white an inch and a half 
in diameter, and a third circle of blue an inch in diam- 
eter. Paste one on top of the other in the order given; 
thus the three colors are shown. In the center paste a 
small flag "sticker," the kind which come fifty in a 
box. Through a hole punched in the outer red circle tie 
a piece of worsted in a loop so it can be hung on a button 
of a coat. 

II. Make a badge as before mentioned, only place a 
small picture of Abraham Lincoln or George Washing- 
ton in the center instead of the flag. Three pieces of 
paper of red, white, and blue, cut about four inches 
long and half an inch wide, are pasted underneath the 
circle and hang down in a row. 

HI. Cut a piece of cardboard the shape of a three- 
leaf clover. CiJ^i out three circles of the three colors and 
paste them on the three petals. In the center paste a 
picture of either Lincoln or Washington. Make a hole 
at the top; tie with ribbon or worsted. 

IV. Cut two strips each of red and white paper, three 
inches long and one half inch wide. Notch both ends. 
Paste two white pieces on top of each other and at right 

160 



HOLIDAYS 

angles. Paste the red pieces across each other between 
the white pieces. In the center paste a blue circle an inch 
in diameter. In the center of the circle paste on a gold 
star. 

V. Instead of cutting three sets of circles, cut out 
three sizes of stars, placing a white star on the red and 
a small blue star on the white. This badge can be pinned 
or tied onto the coat. 

BOOKLET 

A STRIP of white paper, seven inches long and three and 
one half inches wide, folded in half, forms the booklet. 
On the outside is pasted a square of blue paper slightly 
smaller than the cover, and on this is pasted a still 
smaller square of red. On this again are pasted two 
flags crossed (use Dennison's flag stickers). Inside the 
book on one side place a picture of Abraham Lincoln, 
and on the other side a small picture of the log cabin in 
which he first lived. 

knight's flag 

The knights of old, with their good works and brave 
deeds, furnish fascinating stories to inspire youth. At 
an appropriate time when these are discussed, children 
hke to make a knight's flag as history portrays it. Make 
a flag two inches long and one inch wide. In the center 
paste a red cross cut in the shape of the Maltese cross. At 
the outer end of the flag cut an indentation. On the 
other end put some glue and wrap it around a tooth- 
pick which makes a handle. 



161 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

SPRING 

With the coming of spring and the Easter message, the 
child reacts to the joys of budding flowers, return of 
birds, hatching chickens and ducks; life has awakened. 
Let the children in their play express their interpreta- 
tion of the world alive ; planting their gardens, watching 
birds build their nests, and feeding the baby chickens. 
In the quiet hour of play at the nursery table let them 
do the same with scissors and paint. 

CARDS 

The custom of sending Easter cards gives children an 
opportunity to try their skill in making them to give 
away. Patterns of the early flowers, as the tulip, crocus, 
jonquil, violets, and pussy willows, are easily colored and 
mounted on heavy dark paper. A yellow chicken can 
be cut out and mounted. From white paper cut out half 
the shell of an egg and paste this on the back of the 
chicken. Cut out a rabbit sitting up, and color a car- 
rot or orange which he is eating. If this is cut on a 
fold of paper with the fold coming on a portion of one 
side, it will stand up beautifully when opened. Write 
an Easter greeting inside, or use it as a place card for 
an Easter party. 

POT OF TULIPS 

Cut a piece of drawing-paper eight and one half inches 
long and five and one half inches wide. Fold the paper 
in halves leaving one half inch over at one end. Now 
fold the piece over again so the paper will be five and 

162 



HOLIDAYS 

one half inches high and two inches wide, with the one 
half inch extra which you fold back. On another piece 
of paper, five and a half inches by two inches, draw a 
pattern of a tulip and leaf growing on each side in a 
flower pot. Now place the pattern on your folded paper. 
Outline it and then cut it out. When you open this you 
will have four flowers in four pots joined together. With 
paints or crayons make brown pots, green leaves, and 
red tulips. Bend the four sides around to make a hollow 
square, and the half -inch flap is ready to be painted to 
the back of the flower and pot. This will stand alone and 
prove to be very effective to stand on the window-sill. 

FLOWER POT 

With a piece of bogus or heavy paper make a pattern 
of a flower pot by drawing a slightly curved line eight 
inches long. Opposite this line and three and one half 
inches below draw the same curve only four inches long. 
Connect the two lines with slanting lines and cut it out. 
At the bottom or narrow edge cut up four slits an inch 
apart and an inch long. Bring the two slanting sides 
together and fasten with brass pins. Let the cut papers 
at the bottom lap over each other and paste down, mak- 
ing a bottom to the pot. Fill the pot with sand and stick 
into it paper flowers and leaves which have been cut 
out and colored on both sides. Real flowers stuck into 
the sand will last for a few hours if this idea is to be 
carried out at a party. If you desire to paint or decorate 
the flower pot, do this before cutting or shaping the 
pot. 



183 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

A BOWL OF PANSIES 

The bowl is three and three quarters inches high, five 
and one quarter inches at the widest part, tapering to 
two inches at the base. It may be made from pale green 
paper and is cut on the double fold at the top. Decorate 
the bowl by first washing the paper with clear water, 
then drop a darker green on at the top, letting the color 
float at will over the surface. Other colored paper and 
paints may be used, such as pale blue paper with dark 
blue paint, tan paper with dark brown, or gray paper 
with black paint. 

The pansies are made from small circles of any com- 
bination of colors desired. For example, use dark and 
Hght purple and dark and light yellow. It takes five 
circles to make a pansy. Arrange the circles by over- 
lapping to make the face. Two overlap at top, one on 
each side, and one in front. Touch the faces with yel- 
low and black crayons to get the dark vein effects of 
the flower. Arrange five of these pansies at the top of 
the bowl as if coming over the edge. Paste them onto 
the bowl as you make them. By opening at the bottom 
an Easter message or poem may be written inside. 

FORSYTHIA CHAINS 

One of the earliest shrubs to blossom is the forsythia, 
and the child welcomes gathering a few sprays to have 
in a vase. To represent these flowers in hand work he 
will enjoy making a forsythia chain. From yellow tissue 
paper cut a four-pointed star with a diameter of an inch 
and a half. Make a quantity of these, for a long chain is 

164 



HOLIDAYS 

going to be made. Give the child a needle and strong 
white thread; also a lot of half -inch straws. Now string 
first the straw, then go through the center of a yellow 
star, then straw, paper, etc. As the paper is put on 
crease it up to look like the flower. The yellow paper 
can also be put on in another way. Fold it over and put 
the needle through the double thickness of the center 
end. Afterwards the petals would need to be opened a 
little. 

BLUEBIRD 

On rather a hea\'y piece of paper draw a pair of wings 
outspread and joined by about an inch of plain paper 
between. Next draw the body of a bird; examples can 
be traced from a bird book. Let the child color the 
lower edge of the breast an orange red and the rest of 
the body and wings blue. Crease the wings at the center 
so that the inch of plain paper acts as a hinge over the 
top of the bird's back. Paste these wings just at the 
crease, beside making a hole a short distance below, 
through which pass a long piece of worsted. Let the 
bird swing suspended from a high place in the room 
and it will seem as though it were flying. This idea 
may be carried out with other birds, and a splendid 
chance is given in this way to study the great variety 
of birds. 

THE PIGEON-HOUSE 

The birds' homes are always interesting to children. 
Though the birds build their nests, yet many will use a 
little house built by human hands if it seems to meet 

165 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

their needs. The pigeon-house pattern here illustrated 
is made on a fold of the paper, thus cutting at once the 
two sides. Also, cut in this way, it will stand. The child 
can cut the house outline, but doubtless he will want 
steadier hands to cut out the little pigeon and paste him 
onto the window sill of his little house. While you are 
telling the story of how little birds fly off into the world 
and then come back, or singing the sweet coo songs of 
the birds, the child will be happy making his bird-house 
and will play the experience you are telling about. 

THE TEDDY BEAR 

Outlines of large objects should be given the child at 
first. The combination of becoming used to handling 
scissors and watching the picture he is cutting often is 
confusing to him. Accidents happen, dismembering a 
head or an arm of a pretty doll, which brings grief and 
discouragement. Trace the different parts of the Teddy 
bear found in the illustration. When enlarged, these 
will show how simple the curves are to follow and cut. 
Yet when these pieces are put together a wonderful toy 
is made. Join the head, legs, and arms to the body at 
their proper places with small brass fasteners. These 
pins permit motion of the head and limbs. Copy a sun- 
bonnet baby from a child's book, making her head and 
arms move in the same manner. With brass fastener 
attach a watering-pot to her hand; then her arm can 
move up and down in gardener fashion. Children enjoy 
seeing motion in their playthings; therefore it is a 
pleasure to use these forms of patterns in the cut-out 
toys. 

166 




\ 



: H 



) ■•• r^ 



r ■■ ) 



T 




PAPER PATTERNS 



HOLIDAYS 



THE EASTER GOOSE 



Have body, legs, and wings of a goose cut out sepa- 
rately of white drawing-paper. Color the bill and feet 
orange. Fasten the legs and wings to the body with 
brass fasteners. This makes an attractive novelty for 
Easter. 

FLOATING DUCK 

Draw and cut out a duck, and extending from the feet 
keep on a flap which is bent at right angles and glued 
onto a wooden button mould. Make several of these, and 
then let the child have a basin of water to put his ducks 
in for a swim. These can be used to introduce the idea 
that many things live in and on the water. 

THE ROCKING-HORSE 

The rocking-horse really rocks! Cut out two parts: 
make a flap by cutting away under the horse down to 
the center of the rocker. With glue put the two heads, 
tails, and edges of backs together. When dry bend them 
apart slightly. Now under the horse paste the two 
flaps one on top of the other, holding the rocking-horse 
in place. Now you will see that the pony will stand 
alone and rock. 

THE WHEELBARROW 

The wheelbarrow will be of interest to make, especially 
when talking about the farmer and of how many times 
he has use for this hand vehicle. This pattern is also 
cut on a double fold of paper. The fold is seen just at 

167 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the top of the wheel in front. If cut in this way, it will 
stand alone. A shovel can be made by folding a small 
square piece of paper and sticking a toothpick into it. 
Let the shovel bend open below the toothpick. 

THE COTTAGE 

The cottage also is put together with glue by the chim- 
neys and top edge of the roof. When dry, it can be bent 
to spread a little and then will stand alone. Cut out 
half of the doors on each side, bending them open a little. 
With colored crayons the roof can be made green, house 
brown, blinds green, chimneys red; and rambler roses 
or trumpet vines should climb over the doorways. With 
a group of houses like this, children can play as if living 
in a village. The impromptu-built house will often sat- 
isfy better than one more elaborately constructed. 

THE WIND 

The wind, which we cannot see, yet does so many 
thmgs, is a source of much interest and fascination. 
A windmill in action illustrates the story; so here is 
placed an attractive pattern of one which a child can 
cut out himself. At one side is a point which is bent 
around and put into the slit cut on the other side. This 
enables the windmill to stand up. Cut out two fans, 
place them on top of each other at right angles, and with 
a brass pin fasten them to the top of the mill. They will 
be free to pivot as the child pushes them or the wind 
catches and turns them. 

The Dutch windmill represents a gala day with these 
little children of Holland who seem to be playing ring- 
168 








WINDMILLS 



HOLIDAYS 

around-a-rosy about their mill. Make a large circle of 
heavy cardboard. Around the edge paste the Dutch 
children. They are cut out on a double fold of paper 
and painted in the fashion of the clothing of that coun- 
try. The windmill is made of two empty ribbon bolts 
glued one on top of the other. A conical top made of 
cardboard is pasted over the top, and all is covered 
with a coat of shellac. A door is half cut and bent 
back in the lower section. The fans are made of 
pieces of cardboard pasted onto narrow wooden slats. 
These are pinned to the mill with brass fasteners and 
are movable. This Dutch scene would make an attrac- 
tive centerpiece on the table at a child's birthday party. 
Tiny favors, placed inside the doors, could be pulled out 
with ribbon streamers. 

PIN WHEELS 

The simplest form of a windmill is a pin wheel made 
quickly from a piece of paper. Take a five- or six-inch 
square of colored paper. Fold it to make the two 
diagonal creases. If desired a design can be drawn be- 
tween each fold, or a design cut from a contrasting col- 
ored paper. At about three quarters of an inch from 
the center of the paper make a pencil mark. From the 
four corners cut on the diagonal creases as far as the 
mark. Bend each of the four corners to the middle. 
Join them with a pin stuck through a small cardboard 
first, then the paper corners, and finally into the end 
of a stick of wood. Holding this toward the wind the 
paper will pivot round and round on the pin and give 
pleasure to even the youngest child. 

169 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

WEATHER VANES 

For the older boys and girls there are many interesting 
subjects from which to copy weather vanes. To one who 
has ever visited Cape Cod the remembrance of seeing 
many little wooden windmills whirling in the breeze will 
never be forgotten. Patterned after the historic mills of 
the Cape, which once helped to make salt, a piece of 
wood is whittled out with five sloping sides coming to a 
pointed top. Near the top on one side are the four fans, 
which pivot on a nail driven partially into the mill. On 
the opposite side at the bottom is a piece of wood run- 
ning out horizontally the same number of inches as the 
mill is high. From the top of the mill out to the end of 
the piece of wood is a small stick, at the end of which 
is a small round piece of wood resembling a wheel. This 
construction is to represent the balance wheel of the 
fans on the opposite side, and as the wind turns them, 
the wheel turns on the ground. In the center of the bot- 
tom of this little mill make a hole an inch deep. In this 
place a stick which you hold or fasten to a fence or 
piazza and the wind will turn the mill to its quarter. 
At the same time the fans will whiz faster and faster. 

HYDROPLANE 

A BOY can easily whittle a hydroplane from a shingle 
It can also be made from cardboard. Follow a picture 
in a magazine to make the right-shaped body. At right 
angles to the body fasten flat, narrow pieces at the top 
and bottom of the front part. At the end of these wings 
on both sides hold them together with toothpicks driven 

170 



HOLIDAYS 

in and glued. At the nose of the body place the pro- 
peller which rotates on a nail driven into this part. Just 
under the front of the body and through the lower wing 
make a hole where a nail or small stick may go, on which 
the whole hydroplane pivots when the wind turns it. 
The propeller will turn just as fast as the wind. 

MAY 

With the month of May comes the old English custom 
of celebrating in festival form the beginning of summer. 
On May Day, the first day of the month, children gather 
flowers and crown a fair playmate the Queen of the May 
on her throne before a Maypole. Decked with beautiful 
colored streamers groups of children catch hold of these 
streamers and wind them in and out while dancing before 
their Queen. 

A simple custom which children in many countries 
enjoy is the making of pretty paper baskets, filling 
them with flowers which they have gathered, and mys- 
teriously hanging them on the doorknobs of their little 
friends' homes. 

MAY BASKETS 

I. For a foundation, take a round paper drinking-cup 
or a paper charlotte russe mould. Cover the outside 
with colored tissue paper and with paper fringe dress 
up the basket, tying with long streamers and putting 
on a handle. 

II. Cut in two-inch lengths a cardboard roll used for 
wide ribbon or paper toweling roll. Cover the bottom 
with a heavy circle of cardboard. From pink and green 

171 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

cr^pe paper, cut from each color six oval-shaped petals 
two and a half inches long and one and a half inches 
wide. With paste put the pink petals around the outside 
of the basket letting them lap a little. Place the green 
petals outside of the pink in the same way and finish 
the bottom neatly with more green paper. Pull the edges 
of the petals out a little, giving a wavy appearance. 
Paste fringed white paper inside the basket. For a 
handle take millinery wire and wind it with a strip of 
narrow crepe paper. This makes an effective basket not 
only for May Day, but for candies or nuts at the birth- 
day table. 

III. In the center of a large sheet of drawing paper 
make a two and one half inch square. This is to be 
the bottom of the basket. From each of the four sides 
work out a pattern of a flower or chicken or rabbit. 
Draw the design large enough so that, when cut out 
and bent upwards, the four corners will meet, making 
a flap which can be pasted over to the next side. This 
will hold the sides of the box together. Once the pat- 
tern is accurately worked out, it can be traced on heav- 
ier paper, and the child can then make it all himself. 
Before pasting, color the design, as it is easier to do 
when flat. Put on a handle with paste or brass fas- 
teners. 

IV. A simple way to make an attractive box is to cut 
a piece of heavy paper into the shape of a Red Cross. 
At a short distance from each end bend over a section, 
which decorate with design bands of color or vine of 
flowers. Two holes are punched on each side of the four 
sides. These four sides are now bent up at right angles 

172 



HOLIDAYS 

to the bottom square. Through the holes punched on 
the sides tie heavy silk wool or raffia; thus the box is 
completed. 

mothers' day 

The second Sunday of May has been set aside to 
commemorate the devotion our mothers bestowed upon 
us. Throughout the United States the custom has been 
established that, if possible, every one wears a pink 
carnation if his mother is living and a white carnation 
if dead. The little children can none too early in life 
begin to show their appreciation of mother love, and 
they will enjoy celebrating this day by gathering flowers 
to bring to her either by hand or in a May basket. 

NATIONAL HOLIDAYS 

In every country there are special days set aside for 
historical reasons when patriotism and loyalty to one's 
country should be emphasized in the life of all children. 
History of wars cannot mean much to them, but there 
is a sense of citizenship which should arise in every 
bosom when the national flag waves on high. Festivals 
appropriate to custom should be entered into by every 
family. If Father and Mother do this, the example is 
set for the children. Interest in the community, state, 
and nation should be embodied in the spirit and ideals 
of every citizen young and old. 

CAMPING GROUND 

The soldier and his tent life make a fascinating subject 
for occupational work. In another chapter is found a 

173 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

description of folding paper to make a tent. This one 
reminds us of the Indian wigwam; therefore the fol- 
lowing instructions will result in a likeness of the 
modern camp for soldiers. 

Take a large piece of green paper or white paper 
crayoned green, calling it the field on which the tents 
are to be placed. White or light brown paper, three 
inches wide and five inches long, is used for a tent. 
Fold this paper to get a middle crease. At each end 
fold over one quarter of an inch. Place this quarter- 
inch fold down onto the green, pitching the paper at a 
proper angle. Make rows of tents on each side of the 
green. At the head of this field make a few larger ones 
for the oSicers. Brown paper can be folded to make 
cots to be placed in the tents. A flagpole on which is a 
paper flag must be before the officers' tents. If just one 
tent is being made and placed on a small piece of green 
paper, paste a small paper flag on a toothpick and in- 
sert into a hole in the top crease of the tent. 



XIII 
GAMES 

PLAY is the chief business of the child." It is the 
medium through which he expresses himself, and 
therefore if encouraged in right channels, play becomes 
educational. If parents and teachers properly under- 
stand the play of children, due recognition of its value 
will be given it in their daily life. 

The first plays of the chiM are with its mother. 
These are activities of the muscles, such as the Finger 
Plays described in chapter I, and different movements 
with the limbs. Soon he is conscious that some one is 
playing with him, there seems to be a special aim in 
what is being played, and then comes the rise of the 
term "game." 

Unconsciously, however, the child begins to form 
ideas of loyalty, fair play, cooperation, kindness, and 
sympathy for others. There is the social cooperation 
and wholesome competition, as well as development of 
poise, balance, and an excellent means of character- 
building. It is said that "the new type of education 
must concern itself with developing ideas and ideals of 
cooperation." Does not the game have an important 
bearing upon this statement .f* In games a child has a 
chance to exhibit his ability not only to be a good leader, 
but to be a good follower; that is, to play the game and 
to back up his leader. Each child reaps the benefit of 
his earnest endeavors and is given due credit. The 

175 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

timid child is made less self-conscious, the over-stimu- 
lated child learns the lesson of self-control. He mi- 
consciously begins to realize that "obedience to law is 
liberty." Not license but conformation to law and 
order brings happiness. If, then, the seeds of unselfish- 
ness, courtesy, and lovingkindness are nurtured in 
childhood, the flower of good citizenship cannot fail to 
bloom in later life. 

Plato says, "Children should be brought together in 
groups and taught games." The group or ring game is 
like a firm in which all must do their share willingly 
and give the best that is in them to win success. It is 
the purpose of this chapter to suggest games which will 
develop the best that is in the young child. Different 
types of games bring out different benefits. These may 
be classified under different headings. 

GYMNASTIC EXERCISES 

These are concerned chiefly with the development of 
physical powers; exercising the large muscles, skill in 
coordinating them, and the growth and control over 
movements. In very young children we see these plays 
in kicking, waving arms round and round like a wheel, 
swaying the whole body up and down, and sideways 
like a see-saw. When the child gets on his feet we find 
him walking, running, galloping, hopping, and skipn 
ping. As he grows still older all those movements enter 
into the activities called games, some more strenuously 
than others. Jumping the rope, skating, and rolling 
the hoop, are activities which suggest movement every 
moment. Gymnastic exercises with arms, legs, head, 

176 



GAMES 

and body, no matter how simple, should be used daily. 
It is play to the child if the commands are given with 
the right spirit and Father is doing them, too. 
Head: 

Forward bend. 

Backward bend. 

Left sideways turn. 

Right sideways turn. 
Arms: 

Sideways raise, up and down, like birds. 

Forward raise, hands open, shut, open, clap. 

Forward raise, swing back as in swimming. 

Upward raise, clap hands over head. 

Upward raise, fingers move like twinkling stars. 
Body: 

Hands on hips. 

Bend forward, backward, sideways, etc. 
Legs: 

Swing right foot, then left foot. 

Hop on right foot, then on left foot. 

Hop on both feet together. 

Bend at knees and hop like frog. 

Sit on floor, lift right leg, lift left leg. 
All in action: 

"Walk slowly, walk fast. 

Run slowly, run fast. 

Gallop like horses. 

Fly like birds. 

Creep like mice. 

March like soldiers. 

Tip-toe like fairies. 

177 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

IMITATIVE GAMES 

As the child grows, so does he imitate all that is about 
him. He beats the imaginary drums, waves flags, 
imitates all animal life. The child's whole play life is 
imitative, for as he enters the group and ring games he 
must do what others do. Playing house is an imitation 
of Mother in the home, and playing school is the living 
over again the day spent in a schoolroom. The older 
child is imitating teacher and the little tots must do as 
directed. 

Follow the Leader. One child is chosen to lead and the 
other players form in one long line behind him. They 
must do exactly what he does as he keeps moving. If 
he skips, they skip; he hops, they hop; he sits down, 
they sit down; he waves his hands, they wave their 
hands, etc., until they are tired and all sit down to 
rest. 

Magic Circles. A number of good-sized circles are 
made on the floor or playground. A leader is chosen 
and the children follow him imitating him running, 
skipping, galloping, going in and out of the circles. 
When the leader claps all stand still. Those who happen 
to be standing in circles when he claps have to leave 
the line and sit down. The object is to see who can 
stay in the game the longest and yet follow the leader. 

Five Little Kittens. Five children are chosen from the 
group to imitate in action the verse which the rest of 
the children say together: 

"Five little kittens playing on the floor. 
One ran away and then there were four. 
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GAMES 

Four little kittens, happy as could be. 

Another scampered off and then there were three. 

Three little kittens biting at a shoe. 

One became tired and then there were two. 

Two little kittens having lots of fun. 

One got hurt and then there was one. 

One little kitten left all alone. 

He fell asleep and then there was none." 

Toy Shop. Children are in a circle and have been 
singing Christmas and Santa Claus songs. All are sup- 
posed to have returned from a visit to the Toy Shop. 
They wish to tell what they have seen there. The play 
is to imitate what each one saw while the others guess 
what it is. Give each child a turn to act out in the 
center of the circle the way he would play with this 
certain toy. When the children have guessed what it is, 
they all do the same. Better order is kept by having 
music, doing the action to even time. Find a refrain of 
one of the Christmas songs which has good, snappy 
rhythm, playing it over and over again, slow or fast, 
soft or loud, according to the best way of illustrating 
the toy action in progress. 

I. Drum. 

With two hands beat the air as if holding drum- 
sticks. Make sounds with mouth like the roll of 
a drum. The piano would play in the bass clef. 
II. Music box. 

Left hand holds a make-believe music box. 
Right hand goes round and round on top of it as if 
turning the handle. Piano plays on upper treble 
clef of piano while children hum in high-pitched 
tones the tune being played. 
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CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

III. Horn. 

Hold hands in front of mouth as if holding 
trumpet. With the music the children sing with 
these words, *' toot-toot-toot," 

IV. Train of cars. 

Circle of children turn in their places to form a 
line. Put hands on the shoulders of friend in front 
of him. With time of music take small, shuffling 
steps saying, "Chu-chu-chu.'* In this manner go 
around in the circle formation until music stops. 
V. Baby Doll. 

Each child folds arms as if holding baby. Swing 
arms left to right humming a lullaby with music. 
VI. Jumping Jack. 

Each child in squatting position. Hands on 
top of head. Some one says, 1-2-3. All jump up 
together, throwing hands up in air and squeaking 
hke the Jumping Jack. 

SENSE GAMES 

The sense plays are so called because they have to do 
particularly with the training of the five senses, Sight, 
Touch, Hearing, Taste, and Smell. These are developed 
through the eye, ear, and hand. Through plays and 
games which develop these senses the child will be 
trained to act more intelligently. He will be more skill- 
ful in interpreting impressions for himself as well as ex- 
cel in accuracy and concentration. 

Sight. 

I. For the little child an excellent way to stimulate 
observation is to ask him to find different objects in the 

180 



GAMES 

room, pointing to them when he sees them, such as the 
clock, rocking-chair, picture, window, book, etc. 

II. Let the child tell all he sees in a picture you are 
showing him. 

III. Have a vase containing several well-known flow- 
ers. Let him describe them, their color and shape. Do 
the same with a basket of fruit. 

IV. Place several objects on a table. Show them to 
the child letting him name them and examine them. He 
must then turn away closing his eyes while you remove 
an article. He then turns back and tries to guess what is 
missing from the group. When a child is a little older, 
the game may be made more difficult. Let him look 
at the row of articles while you count ten, then 
cover them up quickly asking him to name the arti- 
cles he saw. Observation and memory enter into this 
game. 

Who is it ? Children are seated in a circle formation 
and one is asked to leave the room. When he has gone, 
one or two children leave the circle and hide. The first 
child is then called back and is asked, "TMio has gone 
from the ring?" If he guesses correctly, another child 
tries to guess; if not he must try again. 

Hide the Thimble. With a very little child make the 
game as simple as possible. Put a small object like a 
thimble, spool, nut, or shell, in plain view. Tell him to 
get it and bring it to you. Next time ask the child to 
close his eyes while once again you place the object in 
plain view. Ask him to discover it and bring it to you. 
The third time ask him to go out of the room while you 
hide it. He finds it a^ain, but this time tell him that he 

181 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

must not take, touch, or point to it, but just sit down 
when he has discovered it. 

With a group of children it is played in the following 
way: One child goes out of the room while the object is 
being hidden. He returns to find it and is helped by the 
clapping of hands or music, which grows louder as he 
nears the hiding-place and softer as he goes away from it. 

Color Game. Use soft, colored balls made by crochet- 
ing worsted coats over small rubber balls. The rainbow 
colors are the seven standard colors; red, orange, yel- 
low, green, blue, indigo, and violet, and should be used 
at this time to teach colors. Let the children form a 
ring, each having one or more balls according to the 
supply. Choose one child to say, holding up his ball, 

*' Use your eyes, use your eyes. 
Quickly look and see; 
And if your ball is the color of mine 
Bring it here to me." 

When a child matches correctly, then let him be the one 
to say the rhyme after the colored balls have been 
changed around. Other articles can be used such as 
blocks, shells, flags, or flowers. The same rhyme is used 
inserting the name of the object instead of ball. 

Game of Four. Children are standing in a ring; one is 
chosen to be blindfolded. Four are chosen from the ring 
and stand in front of him. His eyes are opened long 
enough for some one to count four. In the meantime he 
looks at the four playmates. Again he is blindfolded and 
the four children scamper on tip-toes to their places in 
the circle. Now the child can look again, and this time 
must pick out the four who stood in front of him. 

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GAMES 

Ring Toss. Have half a dozen rope rings at hand, and 
drive a stake into the ground, letting it project from the 
ground about a foot. Each child has a turn tossing the 
rings over the stake. Accuracy of sight is needed for 
this game, and the experience trains the child in meas- 
urement of distance. It is more exciting when two sides 
are chosen for the game. The point then is to see which 
side puts the most rings over in a certain number of turns. 

Hearing. 

Training the ear is of equal importance with the eye, 
for through the ability to hear, listen, and listen aright, 
one is able to enjoy and interpret so much that is beauti- 
ful in life. With the youngest child one must begin by 
calling to him and speaking in quiet tones. Let him hear 
different sounds made by striking several objects. With 
his back turned let him try to distinguish different 
sounds, such as ringing a bell, blowing a whistle, knock- 
ing on wood, and clapping hands. 

Blind Man. From the circle choose one to be in the 
center, blindfolded, and holding a cane in his hand. The 
children march or skip around him, with or without 
music, until he taps on the floor with his cane. They 
stand still and the blind man points with his stick at 
some child in the ring who steps forward and grasps the 
other end of the cane in his hand. The blind man asks 
him to make a noise like an animal. Examples : moo like 
a cow, bark like a dog, baa like a sheep. When this is 
done the blind man tries to guess who it is. If he guesses 
correctly, they change places; if not the same blind 
man must try again. 

183 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Ring, Bell, Ring! Children form a circle. One cliild is 
blindfolded and stands in the center. Near by, inside 
the circle, is another player who holds a bell. The blind 
man calls out "Ring, Bell, Ring!" Whereupon the bell 
is rung and the one blindfolded points in the direction 
from which the sound comes, or he may walk toward the 
bell-ringer. The bell-ringer may on tip-toes try to run a 
little in different directions, ringing the bell at short in- 
tervals. The blind man tries to run after and catch him, 
guided by the sound. It is sometimes well to set a time 
limit upon this activity, that others may have a chance 
to take their turn at playing the game. 

Who am I? Child is chosen to be blindfolded in the 
center of the circle. Another child advances, speaks to 
him, saying in a natural voice, "Guess who I am," 
"How do you do," "It is a sunny day." The one blind- 
folded must guess who is speaking. If he guesses right, 
then all clap, and the one who spoke is next blind- 
folded. If the person cannot guess who talks, then an- 
other must try. For older children, a few bars of music 
may be sung instead of conversation. This is more diffi- 
cult, but a great deal of fun, and naturally the children 
must be intimate friends to recognize either a speaking 
or singing voice. 

Guessing Rhythms. While a child is blindfolded let the 
rest of the children interpret some rhythmic motion 
such as skipping, galloping, running, hopping. The 
blindfolded child must guess the form of motion. 

Walks with children in field and wood create a deep- 
ening sense of impression as well as train the ears and 
eyes for good service. Games may be played along 

184 



GAMES 

the way, such as standing still a few moments with 
eyes shut, listening intently, then telling what is 
heard. 

With eyes open look carefully in all directions, then 
close eyes telling what has been seen. Count every 
bird's nest seen, or a certain kind of tree or animal. 
Lessons in arithmetic as well as observation are thus 
being given, while acquiring knowledge in the happiest 
atmosphere. Enlargement of the vocabulary and free- 
dom of expression with the mother tongue should be 
realized in this form of play. 

Touch. 

To develop the sense of touch let the child feel dif- 
ferent objects, such as balls, blocks, toys, spoon, fork, 
plate, brush, etc. Now blindfold him, place one of these 
objects in his hands letting him tell what it is. Continue 
with these articles making a game out of it while he is 
fast training the sense of touch. Much can be learned in 
discrimination of different materials. 

Use pieces of silk, taffeta and satin, velvet, woolen, 
canton flannel, and cotton cloth. Let the child examine 
and feel of each piece. After they have been shaken 
up in a box, let him draw them out one by one, 
while his eyes are closed, and name the kind of 
material. 

Train his touch to the difference between hard and 
soft, like a wooden chair and a pillow, rough and 
smooth, such as whisk broom and the kitty's fur; heat 
and cold, like a flat iron in use and a piece of ice; dry 
and wet, like flour and water. 

185 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Have separate boxes filled with materials, such as 
sand, pebbles, seeds, shells. By touch let him learn to 
know them. This can also be used for hearing, as shak- 
ing each box will give a different sound. 

Children stand in a circle with hands open behind 
them. One child is chosen to walk behind them with a 
basket of articles. He places something in each one of 
these open hands. Now the children begin to feel what 
they have, trying to give the name. The leader stands 
in the center of the circle and asks each one in turn 
what he has. After he has named it, he holds it up high 
for all to see and decide if he has said correctly. 

Skip Tag. Players are in ring formation and one is 
chosen to skip around the outside of the circle. He does 
so, and suddenly touches one of the children in the circle 
on the shoulder. That one immediately starts skipping 
after the first child trying to touch him before he enters 
the vacant space of the circle. If he does not touch him, 
then he must go skipping and tagging some one else. It 
all must be done by skipping; thus music can be used if 
desired. 

Tip-toe-tap. All the children are seated on the floor, 
or they may be kneeling or squatting. Their eyes are 
closed. One child with his eyes opened runs on tip-toes 
around the circle and finally touches a child on the head. 
The one who touches goes back to his place, the tapped 
child opens his eyes and tip-toes around touching some 
one else. The game continues until all have had a turn 
to open their eyes and tip-toe around to tap a friend. 
This gives the sense of touch an opportunity to be active 
and yet the game is very quiet. 

186 



GAMES 

Smell and Taste. 

Games of discrimination for these senses may be 
played in the same manner as described for the other 
senses. Through the medium of fruits different flavors 
can be learned. Have separate dishes containing pieces 
of fruit, such as apple, orange, banana, lemon, and ber- 
ries of some kind. The child, whose eyes must be closed, 
tells what fruit is placed in his mouth. A small portion 
is sufficient. 

As certain scents identify flowers, this same game 
may be used to train the sense of smell. Choose a few 
well-known flowers which have been discussed with the 
child. With his eyes closed test his sense by trying one 
flower at a time. 

BALL GAMES 

Play with the ball is of great benefit to the little child. 
It is valuable training for the hand, eye, ear, rhythm, 
and muscular movements for the entire body. Let the 
child have balls of different sizes and experiment freely 
with them, such as bouncing, catching, tossing, and 
rolling. You will notice how awkwardly the ball is 
handled at first. It will be hard even to roll it in a de- 
sired direction, but soon skill will develop as he gains 
control over his muscles. 

Roll to hit a spot in opposite wall of room. 

Roll through a ring drawn with chalk on the floor. 

Roll so the ball will stop in the chalk ring. 

Roll to hit an object placed at a distance on the floor. 

Roll through a wicket. 

Bounce and catch. 

187 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Toss and catch. 

Bounce to a partner who in turn bounces back. 

Toss to a partner who in turn tosses back. 

Bounce catch — toss catch. 

As the child gains in mastery over tossing and bounc- 
ing, a new element, that of music, may enter in. An ex- 
cellent game for the ring is played by letting a child 
stand in the center and bounce to each little friend in 
turn who catches it and bounces it back to the time of 
music. Any simple waltz may be used emphasizing the 
first beat of every other measure. All the suggestive ex- 
ercises of tossing and bouncing can be doubly enjoyed 
if done to music. All the games may be used in a double 
ring formation so that they are played with partners. 
Naturally these would not be attempted until the child 
had gained a good bit of skill so that he would rejoice in 
his ability to carry out the exercises to a successful fin- 
ish. 

SOCIAL GAMES 

Another type of game which the child will, by this 
time, enjoy playing is the so-called social game. This 
combines the good qualities of all plays heretofore dis- 
cussed. The element of relationship is introduced, the 
joy of togetherness, helpful cooperation and the realiza- 
tion that others must join to make the game a success. 
Thus comes the desire for companions. Where a child 
must choose a partner, this social relationship is found. 
Forming of the ring is the beginning of the group rela- 
tion. 

Here, too, the lesson of self-control is learned. The 
188 



GAMES 

child must wait his turn; he learns to follow, not always 
to lead. The diffident child unconsciously loses his sense 
of embarrassment and the too aggressive child learns the 
lesson of self-effacement. 

In these social games music comes into use. It is 
natural that this should be, for music appeals to the 
happy emotions as well as to the sense of rhythm. Refer- 
ences and illustrations are found in Volume V, which are 
of value in many ways. These are Folk-Dances and 
Games with music. They not only exercise the body 
accompanied with joyous music, but they stimulate the 
mind. The element of concerted action is introduced, 
which means working together in unity. It is necessary 
to the successful accomplishment of the dance that the 
movements be performed by all in the same way at the 
same time. 

Drop the Handkerchief. The players form a circle, 
with the exception of one who stands outside holding a 
handkerchief. He starts around the circle saying, "I 
have a little pony and he won't carry you, and he won't 
carry you" (repeating as many times as he chooses), 
" but he will carry you ! " The child drops it at the heels 
of the child he wishes. The child, behind whom the 
handkerchief was dropped, picks it up as quickly as 
possible and runs after the first child trying to catch 
him before he reaches the vacant space left in the circle. 

Spin the Ring. The children sit in a circle with the 
exception of one who stands in the center and spins a 
wooden towel ring, a tray, or tin cover. As he spins he 
calls some child's name. The child called must rise 
quickly and try to catch up the ring in both hands be- 

189 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

fore it ceases to spin. If he succeeds, he has a chance to 
spin the ring; if not he must return to the circle. 

Beckoning Game. This is a quiet game, but demands 
close attention on the part of the children. A child in 
the center of the ring beckons with her forefinger to a 
little friend to come to her. When they meet in the cen- 
ter they bow to each other. The new child remains to 
beckon to another child, while the other one goes back 
to the circle. The game continues until each one has 
been beckoned. 

Menagerie. Choose one child to be the keeper. Each 
of the others chooses the name of an animal he wishes to 
be. The animals form a circle around the keeper march- 
ing until he gives the order to halt. He calls for an ani- 
mal to come into the cage, such as the dog. The dog 
barks, and then walks on all fours to the keeper. He 
calls for a lamb; the lamb baas, and comes running to 
him. Thus each one in turn comes to his master, and 
follows him to the next room, each making sounds like 
the animal he represents. 

Squirrel Tag. This can be an outdoor game letting six 

children represent six trees; they must stand still where 

they are placed. One child is chosen to be a squirrel; 

another child is to chase him. He says: 

"Run, little squirrel, run, run, run; 
Oh, what fun, oh, what fun!" 

Now the squirrel must run in and out of the six trees 
with the child running after him while the trees are 
counting up to twenty. A new chaser is chosen if the 
squirrel is not caught in that time. The one who catches 
him becomes the squirrel. 

190 



GAMES 

Competition can be stimulated here for older children 
by choosing sides, letting the trees and squirrel be chosen 
from one side and the one to run after the squirrel from 
the other side, changing positions each time and keeping 
score. 

COMPETITIVE GAMES 

The element of healthy competition, of "give-and- 
take" and "for-and -against" enters into many games 
and is beneficial to the child. These games, when rightly 
chosen and rightly played, prove an excellent medium 
through which is stimulated in the child a desire to do 
his best, not only for his own personal satisfaction, but 
for the good of all. There comes the desire to strive for 
the honor of his side, to work loyally, honestly, and 
learn to abhor cheating. He learns to take defeat 
cheerfully and glory modestly. The social spirit and all 
forms of activity come into the large variety of games. 
Many familiar and best-liked games are handed down 
from generation to generation, and books concerning 
them have been published with long lists and directions. 
Remember the little child must be given easy plays at 
first, however; hence the games of this chapter are sim- 
plified in accordance with that thought. 

Bean Bag Races. I. Choose two captains who in turn 
choose sides having the two sides stand opposite each 
other. At the word "Go!" the captains start the bags, 
six or more in number, down their respective lines and 
the last in line keeps them in a chair beside him. The 
object is to see which side passes the bags the quicker. 

II. This game may be made more difficult by having 
191 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the end man, upon receiving all the bags, start them 
back again. This time the question will be which cap- 
tain will receive them all first. 

III. Place two waste-baskets at equal distances away 
from two children who stand opposite the baskets. 
Place four bean bags at equal distances apart and in line 
with each basket. Each child must stand two feet back 
of the last bean bag. At the signal '*Go!" the two chil- 
dren run, picking up one bag at a time, placing it in the 
basket, and going back for the next, and so on until four 
are picked up ; the object being to see who will be first to 
get all the bags in. 

IV. Have the children stand in two lines in marching 
formation, lines being about six feet apart. At the feet 
of each leader there are placed three bean bags. At the 
word '*Go!" each leader stoops, picks up a bag, and 
passes it over his shoulder to the one directly back of 
him, who in turn passes it over his shoulder, and so on 
down the line. The last one drops it at his side on the 
floor. As soon as the leader has passed one bag on, he 
immediately stoops for another until the three bean 
bags have gone down the line. The object of the game is 
to see which line can pass the three bags in the quickest 
time. This game can be made more difficult by passing 
the bags over the head in both hands to the one behind. 

In winter splendid games for outdoor sports would be 
to use the snowballs in the different ways described with 
the bean bags. 

Pussy Cat and the Little Mice. One child is chosen for 
the cat who runs off out of sight. The rest of the children 
are the little mice who are out hunting for bread crumbs 

192 



GAMES 

or cheese. They, at first, creep around very softly, then, 
growing bolder, run lightly around. Soon they discover 
some crumbs and stop to nibble them. Suddenly the cat 
appears and the little mice scamper away, the cat trying 
to catch one. The mouse who is caught becomes in turn 
the big gray cat, but if no mouse is caught the cat must 
try again. 

Wolf and Sheep. One child, the wolf, stands outside 
a circle formed by the children who clasp hands. The 
sheep is another child inside the circle. At the cry of 
**Wolf ! Wolf!" the wolf tries to get inside the circle and 
chase the sheep. The children assist the sheep to run in 
and out of the circle under their hands, but try to pre- 
vent the wolf from getting in by lowering their arms and 
keeping hands tightly clasped when he comes near. If 
the sheep is caught, he must join the circle and the wolf 
becomes the sheep while a new wolf is chosen. 

Farmer and the Wolf. Choose one child to be a farmer 
and one to be the wolf. The children join hands in a 
circle leaving the farmer outside and the wolf inside. 
The farmer calls, '*Who is in my field?" The wolf re- 
plies, "Wolf, wolf," and starts to run, the farmer after 
him. The wolf leads the farmer in and out under the 
children's arms. The farmer must imitate everything 
the wolf does, such as running, hopping, jumping over 
children's hands, and crawling under on all fours. If the 
wolf is caught he joins the circle, the farmer becomes the 
wolf, and a new farmer is chosen. To keep the game in- 
teresting it is well to set a time limit. 

Hide-and-Seek. One child is chosen to shut his eyes at 
the goal while all the other players run quickly away 

193 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

and hide. When the one hiding his eyes counts to one 
hundred, he starts to hunt for the others. The first one 
found becomes "it" the next time. Sometimes the last 
one caught has to be "it." 

The important question is how to decide who shall be 
"it," and for generations back nonsense rhymes have 
been said to a row of children by a leader. This leadef 
points to each child as he repeats the words, the one to 
whom the last word comes is "it." All ages of children 
join in these games, so very early a little tot of four 
years is imitating his older playmates in saying these 
rhymes. The following verses were heard recently in a 
group of young children : 

I 

" Ibity-bibity-sibity-sab, 
Ibity-bibity-canabo, 
Canabo in, canabo out, 
Canabo over the ibity-bibity spout. 
Out goes y-o-u." 

The children hold their fists out. The leader with his 
fist hits their fists in turn as he repeats the verse. The 
fist hit at the end of the verse goes behind the child's 
back. The verse is repeated many times until one fist 
remains. The owner of that fist is "it»" 

II 

" Inti-minti-tibiti-fig, 
Delia-dolia-dolma-nig, 
Ychi-pychi-dolma-nychi, 
Hong-Pong-tusk, 
Alca-balca-boo. 
Out goes y-o-u." 

The leader points with finger to each child. 
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GAMES 

ni 

"Nigger-nigger come to dinner. 

Half-past two. 
Alligator, sweet potato, 

Woo-woo-woo. 
Out goes y-o-u." 

The leader points with finger to each child. 

IV 

"Engine, engine number nine. 
Running on Chicago line 
How she sparkles, how she shines! 
Engine, engine number nine. 
Out goes y-o-u." 

The leader points with finger to each child. 

V 

"Eeni-meeni-myni-mo; 
Catch the traitor by the toe. 
If he hollers let him say, 
I surrender, U. S. A. 
Out goes y-o-u." 

Statue Game. Any number of children run about here 
and there until a leader counts ten. At this point all 
stand still in the position they are, remaining in that 
position until the leader comes and taps them. 

This can be done to music also. Let the children skip 
in time to the music, and when it stops they must stop 
in their positions. This takes concentration to keep 
still, but is good practice for the children. Another 
game requiring the same power is called — 

Come, Bossy. One child in the center of the circle is 
chosen to be the little calf. The children hold out their 

105 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

hands pretending to feed him salt. The calf goes up to 
one child. The child must say to the calf three times 
without smiling, "Nice Bossy, nice Bossy, nice Bossy." 
If he smiles, he then must become the Bossy and goes 
up to some one else to catch him smiling. If he does n't 
smile, then the calf must pass on to another and another 
until some one smiles. 

Stars on the Floor. Similar to the familiar game of 
Going to Jerusalem is the Stars on the Floor. Crosses 
can be made on a sidewalk or playground, or on hard 
sand at the beach. If played in the house the piano is 
used; if out of doors clapping can be done. Make as 
many crosses as there are children less one. The chil- 
dren form in line marching around and over the crosses. 
When the signal is given by stopping of music, all try to 
stand on a cross. One child will be left out, who must 
sit down. A cross is erased and the music begins again. 
Repeat erasing of crosses until one cross and two chil- 
dren are left, and finally the excitement ends when the 
music stops and one child is victorious on the one cross. 

The House the Snail built. Children take hold of hands 
and follow the leader in line who winds round and round 
inside the circle, the circle growing smaller and smaller 
until the leader reaches a center. He has found the 
snail's secret house, then turns around and goes out of 
the house unwinding. This is done with loud marching 
music, or, if softly played, the children may go on tip- 
toes. 

Shower of Goodies. Have a bag of nuts and candy 
high up in the center of the room out of arm's reach. 
Give each child a small basket or bag. Blindfold some 

196 



GAMES 

one; put a stick or wand in his hand, turn him about 
three times, and then let him try to hit the bag. If he 
fails, try each child in turn, the other children standing 
a distance away. Some lucky one will break the bag, 
and then there will be a shower of goodies. Now every 
one will busy himself picking up his share and filHng 
his basket. This is fun especially at a children's party. 

St. Valentine's Candle. Light a candle and place on a 
table. Each child in turn is blindfolded and stands ten 
feet away from the candle. Turn him about three 
times, then ask him to take ten steps toward the candle, 
and allow him three attempts to blow the candle out. 
Those who are successful will be fortunate through the 
coming year. Unfortunately, many find themselves 
blowing into space when their eyes are opened. 

Family Game. From the ring a child is chosen leader. 
He then chooses some one to be father, another mother, 
a brother, a sister, and the baby. These stand in a row 
in the center and each in turn acts out his daily occu- 
pation. The children in the circle imitate the different 
movements as they are given by those in the center. 

Father — saws wood, walks downtown to oiEce or 
drives automobile. 

Mother — beats eggs, kneads bread, sews. 

Brother — plays ball, marbles, or whistles. 

Sister — plays piano, reads a book. 

Baby — says "goo," cries, or claps hands. 

Now the family join hands and skip around happily 
united. After this they take their places in the circle 
and a new family is chosen. 

Bird Game. This is a good game and play when one 
197 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

is calling attention to family life, noticing how the birds 
build their nests and talking to the children of the many 
families in the world beside our own human family. 

A circle is formed from which several children are 
chosen to make a nest. This is made by placing arms 
on each other^s shoulders, the children sitting or stand- 
ing in the center forming a small circle or nest. A 
father and mother bird are chosen who fly around 
pretending to pick up sticks, wisps of hay, string, etc., 
and bringing to the nest to build it completely. Two 
very small children are chosen to be little blue eggs. 
They go into the nest and curl up with heads down. 
Pretty soon the mother bird flies into the nest and plays 
keeping them warm while the father bird flies away 
for food returning to feed the mother bird. In a few 
minutes the two little children raise their heads, coming 
from their blue shell, and say, "Peep, peep, peep." 
The children in the big circle come softly on tip-toe to 
peek over into the nest and hear them say, "Peep." 
After the children have returned to their places the 
mother and father bird fly around getting food for their 
little ones. 

Then the mother bird says, 

"Now, little birds, 't is time to fly. 
Come, spread your wings and try, try, try." 

The father bird joins in the flying lesson, and though 
they have to try and try again, the little birds finally 
fly round and round with their parents. It is suggested 
that all the children at this time play they are little 
birds, and fly around too until the music stops, which 
can be softly played at the last of the play. 



XIV 
MAKE-BELIEVE 

DRAMATIC representation was used as a means 
of instruction as far back as the history of culture 
extends. The Pagan Priests and Christian Fathers 
made it serve for their special ends. Through dramatic 
appeal each taught his own peculiar cult or religion. In 
the very early times, experiences in the life of the race 
were acted out by the bards as they sang of the deeds of 
great men of the tribe. 

Primitive man and children are alike inasmuch as 
they both are essentially dramatic. The essence of 
children's play is the acting of a part and the realizing 
of a new situation. The dramatic impulse in children is 
their desire to understand the world about them. They 
learn by doing and have an unconscious sympathy with 
all life. They are attracted especially by things that 
move and they imitate from the very beginning. First 
they imitate movements and sounds made by those 
about them. Later comes imitative play with toys. The 
child's impulse is to make-believe to be some one, a 
sailor, a soldier, or a policeman, until he forgets his real 
surroundings and his actual self. He acts out experi- 
ences, such as sowing seed, picking apples, washing 
clothes, driving nails, through which he gains first- 
hand knowledge. He is not always particular about 
accuracy of detail in these dramatic projects. A mere 

199 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

suggestion, and the imagination has supplied a wealth 
of detail. The instincts are often factors in determining 
the choice of subjects; for example, the pugilistic in- 
stinct prompts soldier plays, lion hunts; the nurture 
instinct suggests playing house, doctor, or gardener; 
the social and constructive instincts develop creative 
and group plays. 

Day-dreams and the mutterings of mystic words to 
himself all illustrate this desire to realize a part. In the 
working-out of this impulse, external surroundings take 
a small part. Sometimes there is hardly a change of 
scene, for a child plays out his action with purely 
imaginary surroundings. The pleasure of children in 
what we call dramatic make-believe is wholly inde- 
pendent of any appreciating eye. They love to act 
their play scenes in some remote spot, dark corners, or 
even in behind curtains. 

The great value of these dramatic plays lies in the 
spontaneity of expression. Imaginative children are 
full of the joy of creation, of animation. In the story 
of "Sara Crewe" we find a little girl who found joy even 
in the midst of great hardships by making herself a 
princess and her doll a sympathetic friend. Sometimes 
this natural outlet to the dramatic instinct has to be 
guided, as in the play of those unfortunate street ur- 
chins, whose environment presents nothing refining to 
imitate, and hence they act out sordid happenings 
that lower their outlook on life. The children's envi- 
ronment, therefore, should be enriched and their hori- 
zon broadened to include the finer things of life, that 
they may have fit subjects for imitation in play. 

200 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

When considering dramatization for the young child 
perhaps we think first of Mother Goose. Many of these 
rhymes are excellent to use because they are familiar, 
simple, and full of action, and they can be performed 
without the aid of any properties or costumes. For 
example : 

I 
"Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet," 
Eating some curds and Vthey, 
When along came a spider 
And sat down beside her, 
And frightened Miss Muffet away." 

A little girl sits down on a low stool making-believe 
to eat with a spoon from an empty bowl. Another child 
comes in creeping on his hands and feet, and when he 
comes close the little girl screams, drops her bowl, and 
runs away. One person in the audience may repeat the 
lines while it is acted or a group may say it if desired. 

II 

"Mistress Mary, quite contrary. 
How does your garden grow? 
With silver bells and cockle shells 
And pretty maids all in a row." 

A row of six little girls may be squatting on the 
floor with heads bent downward. Mistress Mary, with 
empty watering-pot, comes along making-believe to 
water her flowers and saying the rhyme. As she waters 
them, each in turn slowly lifts her head and gradually 
rises to her feet. At the end there will be *' pretty 
maids all in a row." 

201 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

III 

"Jack be nimble, Jack be quick, 
Jack jump over the candlestick." 

Any little boy would delight in a good excuse for 
jumping. Thus a small brass candlestick may be placed 
on the floor, on the grass, or ground, and the rhyme will 
be acted out many times. The good, both physically 
and mentally, coming from all these actions is obvious. 

After Mother Goose the children enter upon the 
fairy-tale period. And now we must begin to think 
about the properties and costumes, but let us remem- 
ber it is better to use home-made costumes and scenery 
than to buy elaborate finery and stage settings. Chil- 
dren enjoy making their own costumes if materials 
which they can use are available. For instance, make 
costumes of cretonne in place of brocade, cheesecloth 
for fairy costumes, and crepe paper with its variety of 
colors and designs. Trimmings may be used of artifi- 
cial flowers, fruits, gold and silver paper, and Christmas 
decorations. Fairy wings may be made of light-weight 
cardboard, of heavy wrapping paper, or white lining 
canvas. 

Suggestions for simple stage properties are torches 
cut from gilt cardboard with streamers of flame-colored 
tissue; a silver goblet can be made by covering a glass 
goblet with silver paper foil; round collar boxes serve 
for bowls; tissue paper, which is used for packing glass, 
makes excellent snow. 

The holidays make good subjects for dramatization. 
After building a toy village of Pilgrim days, the next 
impulse will be to act out '*The First Thanksgiving 

202 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Day." A group of children will choose their parts. 
Some one will want to be Massasoit, the Indian Chief, 
and he will have a few of his band with him. Others 
will characterize well-known Pilgrims, both men and 
women. There will be the long dinner-table around 
which they gathered, piled high with good things to 
eat. This will be a good time to introduce a real lunch 
which will appeal to the actors. As we learn from pic- 
tures and history that this feast was given out of doors, 
the children can enjoy imitating under the trees of the 
yard or in a shady nook of a park. The friendly greet- 
ings, exchange of gifts, and final formal departure of 
the Indians will impress the little folks by the difference 
of the first days of America and the present time. 

The celebration to-day is the gathering together of 
families and relatives at Thanksgiving time. These, 
too, are the first people with whom a child becomes 
acquainted, therefore it is natural that he should imi- 
tate them in play. With brothers and sisters and per- 
haps a friend, the festive play begins with some one 
making-believe to be grandma, another grandpa, an 
aunt or an uncle. Now comes the fun of dressing up in 
Mother's and Father's clothes. If possible have an old 
trunk in the attic or a box in the closet in which can be 
kept cast-off garments set aside for just this purpose. 
When Mother is presumably busy about her work, she 
will be well entertained with familiar phrases and ac- 
tions of her own which are used in the play going on 
about her. Other members of the family will be imi- 
tated, too, and a happy reunion of several months past 
will be taking place again in imitative form. 

203 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The Christmas season has many forms which could 
be developed. The impersonation of Santa Claus is 
dear to the hearts of the children. The chimney-place 
with its mysteries, and the Christmas-tree only need 
to be mentioned to a child and his imagination sees 
possibilities of acting out the sentiments of the subject 
at hand. Stories of holidays and festivals found in vol- 
ume I of this series will suggest material for the little 
folks to work upon. Pick out the essential points on 
which action hinges to be the parts of the story used in 
dramatizing. Minor details are confusing, and so the 
points to be gained or moral impressed will be lost, if 
these are made prominent. 

Incidents in the lives of great men have become 
popular stories to the children and can be simply acted 
out. In George Washington's life was the story of 
"The Making of the First Flag," and from Abraham 
Lincoln's life one should read "Abraham Lincoln and 
the Little Bird" and "Abraham and the Little Girl." 
Once these incidents become real to a child's mind, he 
will be able to reproduce them in action and simple 
words for you. If the child dramatizes the stories which 
he hears, not only do they make a deeper impression 
than they would otherwise, but the child's interest is 
stimulated to know more about the characters and 
places of the story. 

This fact is especially true in working out stories 
centered in foreign lands. The manners and customs of 
other children amuse and interest our own. It is such 
fun to dress up in a Chinese costume, hold a fan before 
your eyes, and run around serving tea, taking queer 

204 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

little running steps. The Dutch girls and boys plod 
along with big clumsy wooden shoes, while the children 
of the Hawaiian Islands wear none. Their dresses are 
just short skirts made of long grasses, and they gather 
pretty white shells which they string and wear around 
their necks. 

FRIENDS ACROSS THE SEA 

Betty and Peggy had been sailing many days on the 
ocean in a great, big steamer. Land was finally seen 
in the distance, and gradually it seemed nearer and 
nearer until the boat finally drew up to a wharf. It 
had stopped at a seaport of one of the Hawaiian Islands. 
On going ashore the little girls and their parents were 
driven several miles out of town to a farm or a planta- 
tion as it is called there. While Father was talking busi- 
ness the children wandered across the fields where they 
chanced upon some funny houses. They were small huts, 
which were made of bamboo sticks. The roofs were 
thatched with grasses and great palm-trees were waving 
overhead. 

Running out from one of these shanties came two 
little dark-skinned girls wearing funny short skirts 
made of grass, no shoes or stockings and no waists, 
but around their necks hung pretty strings of shells. 
They seemed almost afraid when Betty and Peggy ap- 
peared, for they rarely saw white children from the 
city and never before from the United States. 

The children did not understand each other's lan- 
guage when they talked, but with many gestures they 
soon understood that Betty and Peggy wanted to play 

205 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

with them. Betty superintended the instruction of a 
game which the little native children soon understood, 
laughing heartily and begging to play more. Several 
games were played followed by singing songs American 
fashion. The little natives clapped their hands with 
glee and tried to imitate them too. 

By this time the strangeness had entirely disappeared; 
the Hawaiians came closer to touch the pretty dresses 
Betty and Peggy wore. Through signs and motions 
they expressed the wish that they could try them on, so 
Peggy ran back a little way where she had left her 
dress-suit case and brought it for inspection. Every- 
thing in the case had to be examined, and many were 
the squeals of delight as they looked at the dresses, 
shoes, stockings. Betty and Peggy chose two dresses 
that they could easily spare and gave them to the ex- 
cited children. Red and blue ribbons were also found 
and tied on the little black heads. 

Time had flown fast, and the father's call told the 
sisters they must say good-bye. With many adieus by 
gestures and jabbering of two languages the city chil- 
dren bade farewell promising to send gifts back to the 
little Hawaiians from America. Betty and Peggy were 
convinced that this was the most wonderful part of their 
trip, for they had not only made new friends, but they 
had found real happiness in showing these far-away 
children worth-while things to do which they had never 
known before. 

This story is easily staged in the playroom; two 
chairs representing the hut. Out of doors the bushes 

206 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

would be splendid. Four little girls can take the parts, 
two being dressed in brown bloomer suits with low 
necks, and bare feet. The other two would be dressed 
in any traveling dress, coat, and hat. A little distance 
away they leave the dress-suit case, to return for it later. 
There is great opportunity for acting trying to make 
each other understand. The teaching of the games and 
songs give a chance for choice and practice in instruc- 
tion. Games may be chosen from this volume and 
songs from '* Songs with Music," Volume V of this series. 
A boy, somewhere in the background not seen, can be 
the father and call in loud tones for the two sisters, 
Betty and Peggy, to return to him. The original con- 
versation, to represent the meeting, playing, and final 
adieus, gives the children free opportunity to use their 
imaginations in such a circumstance. 

In the story of "Rosebud" comes the study of 
nature, as well as impressing a moral truth. A little 
child was chosen to be a rosebud. She hid under the 
table which she made-believe was the brown earth. She 
was sleeping there, waiting to grow, and along came a 
raindrop, which could be represented by a little boy. 
He knocked on the table and said, "May I come in, 
little rosebud.^" "No, you can't," answered the rose- 
bud. "I am too snug and comfortable to move." Then 
came along Mr. Sun, another little boy. "May I come 
in, little rosebud?" said he. "No, no," said she. "I do 
not want to wake up and grow." Finally, after a little 
time, along came both raindrop and sun again, and the 
little rosebud, tired of her dark home, decided it would 
be best to grow. So the sun and the raindrop acted 

207 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

their part and helped her to grow, and she became a 
beautiful pink rose. 

This play can be made most attractive by costumes 
of crepe paper. The rosebud could have a hat of pink 
petals, the raindrop simply dressed in gray, and the 
sun in yellow. It is best to keep the play simple, for it 
amuses the children just as well and gives a chance for 
the imagination to work. Let the children suggest and 
plan. In this way it becomes vital and not a trivial 
performance. 

Dramatization can be used as a means of interesting 
the child in the life about him. The wise mother or 
teacher will suggest only enough to enable the child to 
express his own ideas and see what is best in his en- 
vironment. A child, once asked to play policeman, 
answered, '*Yes, that will be a good play because the 
policeman is a helper to every one." Rows of chairs 
were used to form the streets. Little friends playing 
with him took their parts, some becoming automobiles 
rushing along, while others were people trying to cross 
the street. Through the signs of the policeman the 
traffic and people passed and repassed as is done at the 
busy street corners of large cities. 

A dialogue between the Baker's Boy, who is dressed 
in spotless white, and a Chimney Sweep, whose clothes 
are smeared with black, leaves an unwritten moral for 
the children who repeat the verses and the young au- 
dience who listen. 

Baker s Boy: 

"Go, go, you little black boy. 
Don't touch my snow-white coat." 
208 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Chimney Sweep: 

" Don't send me ofif with such an air. 

Your chimney smokes if I'm not there. 
And when your oven bakes too slow 
Your bread will not be good, you know.'* 

Baker s Boy: 

**If that is so, it harms you, too. 
For there will be no bread for you." 

Chimney Sweep: 

"Why, you are right, so let us go 
And work together, even so; 
I '11 sweep the chimney, your bread you '11 knead. 
Black, white, united friends in spirit and deeds.'* 

The word *' charade" to a small child would mean 
nothing, but if you asked him to be a bird he would 
immediately do things he has seen a bird do, such 
as fly, hop, or pick up imaginary crumbs from the 
floor. Thus he is acting out or representing the word 
"bird." Among the animals there are many which he 
can easily imitate enough to recall the correct name. 
In turn he can act out something and ask you to guess 
what he is representing. This passes into the realm of 
games, but there is a close relation between dramatiz- 
ing and playing a game. 

When the representatives become acting without 
dialogue or spoken words it is called "pantomime." 
This is another form of playing in the make-believe 
world, and makes a change and quiet activity from the 
dramatic form. Many lovely expressions of activity 
come from pantomime, such as portraying the seasons 
in costume and dance. Children are happy hopping 
and skipping, especially if dressed in a fancy costume 

209 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

as simple as an extra sash or cap. These seem to inspire 
dancing and acting. 

For a child's party it would be interesting to have 
twelve chosen to represent the months of the year. 
The rest of the little people are to guess, as each comes 
in one by one, which month they represent. Suggestions 
which can be used on short notice are here given. 

January : 

Toboggan cap, muffler, skates. Anything which 
represents the cold. 
February: 

Pin a large red heart on the front of the dress. 
March: 

Child runs in blowing around. Use old-fashioned 
bellows if you have one. 
A'pril: 

Child rubbing eyes and crying to suggest the show- 
ers of this month. 
May: 

Carry in hand a short pole from which float many 
pretty streamers. 
June: 

A bunch or basket of real or imitation roses. 
July: 

Boy snapping off play pistol. 

August: 

Child fanning and making-believe to be very hot. 

September: 

Carry bunch of grapes, real or imitation. 
210 



MA.KE-BELIEVE 

October: 

Make pretty autumn leaves with paper and crayons. 
Pin them all over the child's dress. 
I^ovember: 

Basket of fruits and vegetables. 
December: 

Illustrate Christmas tree or Santa Claus in some 
fashion. 

When all the months have entered the room, they 
join hands making a circle dancing and singing: 

"Twelve months we are, you see us here. 
We make the circle of the year. 
We dance and sing and, children, hear. 
We wish you all a glad New Year." 

Aside from Mother Goose, fairy stories, fables, and 
stories of real life, we must not forget the wonderful 
narratives of the Bible. A more charming Sunday after- 
noon employment could not be suggested than drama- 
tizing the historical and moral truths as told in the 
Book of Books. The story of Joseph, of little Samuel, 
and the Baby Moses awaken a keen interest, give 
reality to these heroes, and make a lasting impression. 
In the story of the Good Samaritan the properties 
needed to illustrate would be a purse for a ''Certain 
Man," a book for the Priest, a bottle of oil, a cup of 
cold water, a strip of muslin, and a handkerchief for the 
Samaritan, and a scroll for the Innkeeper. Chairs can 
represent the hiding-place of the robbers. This story 
and other Bible stories are delightfully written in play 

211 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

form for acting in the book "The Good Samaritan and 
Other Bible Stories Dramatized," by Edna Earle Cole. 
Dramatization should be greatly valued, for it de- 
velops cooperation, initiative, self-confidence, use of the 
language, and is a great aid to memory. Let us cherish 
this dramatic impulse and make the best possible use 
of it. It is closely akin to sympathy, enthusiasm, and 
creation, and merits our best attention and effort. 

THE FOLK-LORE TALE OF HENNY PENNY 

Charaxiters 

Hennt Penny — Girl, wearing buff -colored cape of cambric 

or crepe paper. Cap of same color with a touch of red paper 

at top to represent her comb. 
Cocky Locky — Boy wearing gray cape speckled with black. 

Gray cap and large piece of red paper for a larger comb. 
Chicken Licken — Very small girl with yellow cape. 
Ducky Daddles — Girl in white cape and cap. 
Goosey Loosey — Girl a little larger than the duck wearing 

white cape and cap. 
Turkey Lurkey — Boy wearing dark brown cape and red cap. 
King — Boy with long purple cape and crown made of gilt 

paper. 
Page — Boy who waits on the King. He wears a dark suit 

of clothes with white collar and cuffs turned back. 

Scene 1. Barnyard. Part of a room in front of portieres. 
Screens placed at the hack and floor cleared of furniture. 
Corn-stalks here and there and a large clump tied together 
at one side. At the hack can he seen a chair covered with 
large pieces of crumpled brown paper to give the appearance 
of a cornstack. Shovel, rake, and hoe can he in evidence to 
give another realistic touch to the farmyard. 

The hen comes strolling in from one side of the stage and 

makes-believe she is hunting for worms or seed. She walks 

around saying once in a while to herself, "Cluck-Cluck.'* 

Finally she comes near the stack of corn. Some one from 

212 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

behind drops over a kernel of corn uhich hits her on the 
head. She looks up very much startled. 

Henny Penny. Cut-cut-cut! I must tell the King 
about that! 

(She turns around and finds a rooster coming 
her way.) 
Cocky Locky (crowing) . Cock-a-doodle-doo ! Where 
are you going, Henny Penny? 

Henny Penny (running excitedly to him). Cut-cut- 
cut-ca-dah-cut ! O Cocky Locky ! the sky is falling, and 
I am going to tell the King. 

Cocky Locky (straightening up his shoulders). Cock- 
a-doodle-doo, I will go with you, Henny Penny. 

(They are interrupted by a tiny chicken who 
comes running in saying in a high-pitched 
voice:) 
Chicken Licken. Peep-peep-peep! \'\Tiere are you 
going, Henny Penny and Cocky Locky? 
(In unison:) 

Henny Penny. Cut, cut, cut ! 
Cocky Locky. Cock-a-doodle-do ! 
O Chicken Licken, the sky is falling, and we are going 
to tell the King. 

Chicken Licken. Peep, peep, peep, I '11 go with you, 
Henny Penny and Cocky Locky. 

(Just then the dux^k ic addles in on the stage.) 
Ducky Daddles (quacking like a diLck). Quack, 
quack! Where are you going, Henny Penny, Cocky 
Locky, and Chicken Licken? 
(All together:) 

Heiwy Penny. Cut, cut, cut! 
213 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Cocky Locky. Cock-a-doodle-doo ! 
Chicken Licken. Peep, peep, peep ! 
O Ducky Daddies, the sky is falling, and we are going 
to tell the King. 

Ducky Daddles. Quack, quack, I will go with you, 
Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, and Chicken Licken. 

{These birds begin to get in line forming a 
semi-circle in the order in which they have 
spoken. The goose waddles in and is quite 
startled to see the gathering of friends in so 
unusual a manner.) 
Goosey Loosey (turning head from one to another). 
Qua-ck, qua-ck! Where are you going, Henny Penny, 
Cocky Locky, Chicken Licken, and Ducky Daddies? 
(Together, each making his own sound). 
Henny Penny. Cut, cut, cut ! 
Cocky Locky. Cock-a-doodle-doo ! 
Chicken Licken. Peep, peep, peep! 
Ducky Daddles. Quack, quack! 
O Goosey Loosey, the sky is falling, and we are going 
to tell the King. 

Goosey Loosey. Qua-ck, qua-ck, then I will go with 
you, Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, Chicken Licken, and 
Ducky Daddies. 

(They start to move in line when they are sur- 
prised by the entrance of an elegant turkey.) 
Turkey Lurkey (strutting in with head high and 
shouting to them). Gobble, gobble, gobble, gobble! 
Where are ycu going, Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, 
Chicken Licken, Ducky Daddies, and Goosey Loosey? 
(Together as before:) 

214 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Henny Penny. Cut, cut, cut! 
Cocky Locky. Cock-a-doodle-do ! 
Chicken Licken. Peep, peep, peep ! 
Ducky Daddles. Quack, Quack! 
Goosey Loosey. Qua-ck, qua-ck ! 
O Turkey Lurkey, the sky is falling, and we are going 
to tell the King. 

Turkey Lurkey (strutting to end of the line). Gobble, 
gobble, gobble, gobble, 1 will go with you, Henny 
Penny, Cocky Locky, Chicken Licken, Ducky Daddies^ 
and Goosey Loosey. 

(With heads high and with the manner of going 
on an important errand they walk according 
to the bird they represent in line across the 
stage each making its own noise.) 
Curtain drops. 

Scene 2. Room in the King's Palace. Armchair raised up on 
a box and covered ivith rugs to represent the throne. This 
placed in the center at the back of the room. Other furni- 
ture placed 171 formal manner about the stage. As curtain is 
opened the King is found seated on his throne. His Page 
enters at this moment and bows before him. 

Page. Your Majesty, there are guests at the door. 
King (ivith commanding voice). Let them enter. 

(One by one Henny Penny, Cocky Locky, 

Chicken Licken, Ducky Daddles, Goosey 

Loosey and Turkey Lurkey ivalk in and 

stand before the King.) 

King. What do you want, Henny Penny, Cocky 

Locky, Chicken Licken, Ducky Daddies, Goosey Loosey, 

and Turkey Lurkey? 

215 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Henny Penny {hastily stepping forward). Cluck- 
cluck! O King, the sky is falling and we came to tell 
you. 

King {somewhat amused). But the sky cannot fall! 
What made you think it was falling? 

Henny Penny. Cluck-Cluck! I was picking corn from 
the cornstack in the farmyard and something fell on my 
topknot, I am sure, and I thought it was a piece of the 
sky. 

King. Well, v/ell, let us see. {The King beiids forward 
and examines the head of Henny Penny. Presently he 
picks out a kernel of corn and standing up holds it high 
that every one may see. The kernel is placed in her cap 
before she enters the stage.) {Spoken slowly and decidedly.) 
Henny Penny, let your foolish journey teach you to 
think twice before you speak. 

(Henny Penny turns away^ head bowed, and 
with slow, heavy tread leads her line of friends 
across the stage and out of the door. The King 
sits down and watches each fowl as it moves 
off with bowed head. Just as the turkey goes 
out of the door, the curtain falls. As each one 
passes out, crestfallen, it can make its own 
sound.) 

• THREE LITTLE KITTENS 

Characters 

Mother Cat — Girl with spectacles, cap, and some knitting. 
Three Kittens — Three little girls. 

Scene. A sitting-room of a house. Mother Cat is seen sitting 
in the room when the curtain rises. She is busy knitting and 
216 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

rocking in her chair. Three little kittens come rushing in 
from a side entrance. 

Kittens {speaking all at once and very excitedly). 

Oh, mammy dear. 

We sadly fear 

Our mittens we have lost ! 

IVIiew-Miew-Miew-Miew ! {Crying.) 
Mother {speaking sternly). 

What ! lost your mittens, 

You naughty kittens; 

Then you shall have no pie. 

Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r ! — {Growling.) 



Kittens. 
I Kitten. 



Miew-Miew-Miew-Miew ! 



Let us look everj^where for them. 

II Kitten {peeking under table). 

They 're not under the table. 
Miew-IVIiew-Miew-Miew! , 

III Kitten {looking into a hat-box). 

I don't see them here. 
Miew-Mew-Miew-lMiew ! 

I Kitten {crying and rubbing her eyes). 

Oh, dear, oh, dear, what shall we do? 
Miew-Miew-Miew-Miew ! 

II Kitten {searching everywhere) . 

Keep on looking until they're found. 
{Three kittens rush toward a waste-basket and 
find that the mittens have been dropped in 
there.) 

217 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

All together {excitedly), 

Miew-Miew-Miew ! 

Oh, mammy dear. 

See here, see here. 

Our mittens we have found!" 

Mother {dropping her knitting). 

What! found your mittens. 
You darUng kittens; 
Then you shall have some pie! 
Purr-Purr-Purr-Purr ! 
{They gather about her; she puts her arms around 
them while they purr together. As the kittens 
are putting on their mittens. Mother brings 
out a pie, placing it on the table. She gets three 
plates, knives, and forks, and sets the table. 
The pie can be a round sponge cake which the 
children can eat.) 

Mother. 

Bring your chairs up to the table. 
Purr-Purr-Purr-Purr ! 
(Mother sees that they are properly seated and 
then, cutting the pie, gives them each a piece 
which they immediately proceed to eat. 
Mother goes back to her chair and knits 
while the kittens miew and purr as they enjoy 
their pie. As they finish eating they call to 
their mx)ther.) 

Kittens. 

Oh, mammy dear. 
We sadly fear 

218 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Our mittens we have soiled. 
Miew-Miew-Miew-Miew! (Crying.) 

Mother (in a cross voice). 

What ! soiled your mittens, 
You naughty kittens ! 
Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r ! 

Kittens. 

Miew-Miew-Miew-Miew ! 

Mother (shaking each kitten's shoulders a little). 
You '11 have to clean them, 
You naughty kittens! 
Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r — Gr-r-r ! 
(The kittens hurry out of the room and return, each 
bringing a small pail and ivashboard. The 
pails are put on chairs so they can be seen by 
the audience and each kitten makes a great 
commotion in scrubbing her mittens. In one 
corner of the room must be stretched a small 
clothesline across from hook to hook. As each 
kitten thinks her mittens have been scrubbed 
sufficiently, she hangs them up with clothes- 
pins. When the three pairs are hung up to 
dry, the three kittens run over to their mother 
who is still rocking and knitting.) 

Kittens (happily). 

Oh, mammy dear, 
Look here, look here. 
Our mittens we have washed. 
Miew-Miew-Miew-Miew. 
219 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Mother (delighted). 

What ! washed your mittens. 
You good little kittens ! 
Purr-Purr-Purr-Purr. 

(Mother strokes each head and then goes over 
to examine the washing, very proud of her 
smart children. Suddenly, the Mother, ivho 
seems to be startled by something, sniffs the 
air, and crouches closely to her children, say- 
ing:) 
Hush, hush, I smell a rat close by! 

(They all dash off the stage. Mother goes first 
and then each little kitten on tip-toes and 
creeping.) 

Curtain drops, 

OLD MOTHER HUBBARD AND HER DOG 

Characters 

Old Mother Hubbard — Girl dressed with cap, spectacles, 

long dark dress, and white apron. 
The Dog — Boy. 
The Cat — Girl. 
The Goat — Boy. 

Scene. A dining-room with plain furniture. As curtain 
opens the dog is lying on the floor. As Old Mother Hub- 
bard enters the dog gets up and goes to meet her. 

Dog. Bow-wow! Bow-wow! 

Mother Hubbard. Poor dog, you are hungry. I'll 
go to the cupboard and find you a bone. {Goes to cup- 
board and opens it.) Alas! the cupboard is bare! 

T>OG {whines and slowly barks) . Bow-wow! Bow-wow! 
220 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Mother Hubbard (tying on her bonnet). I'll go to 
the baker's and buy you some bread. 

(She leaves the room and the dog falls over on 
his side.) 
Mother Hubbard (returning vnth loaf of bread, 
throws up her hands, screams). My poor dog is dead! 
I must go to the undertaker's to buy him a coflfin! 

(She goes over to look at her dog, then rushes out 
of the room, crying. The dog sits up and looks 
around.) 
Dog (as Mother Hubbard comes back). Ha-Ha- 
Ha-Ha! 

Mother Hubbard (happy again pats him on head). 
As long as you're alive I'll take this plate and go out 
to fetch you some tripe. 

(When she comes back he is sitting up smoking 
a pipe.) 
Mother Hubbard (with hands on hips). Well, well, 
well, you are a funny dog. Guess I '11 go to the grocer's 
to buy you some fruit. 

(While she is gone he hunts around and finds 

a flute on the shelf. When she returns she 

drops her basket of fruit with surprise to see 

him playing the flute.) 

Mother Hubbard. Something is surely the matter 

with you. I 'II go to the Tavern to buy you wine, white 

and red. 

(She comes back to find him standing on his head. 
If this is too difficult, perhaps he can turn 
somersaults.) 



221 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Mother Hubbard (going out of the room). I'll go 
to the kitchen some broth to prepare. 

(The dog understood it was food she was going 

after so when she returned she found he had 

climbed into a chair.) 

Mother Hubbard. Well, well, I never saw the beat 

of you, you knew what I said. I'll draw up this table, 

put on a tablecloth, and give you some dinner. 

(First she brought in a bowl of soup which he 
drank right down.) 
Dog. Bow-wow! Bow-wow \ (meaning it was good). 
(Next she brought in some meat and with his 
knife and fork he cut it up himself and ate it.) 
Dog. Bow-wow! Bow-wow! 

Mother Hubbard (standing near him and looking 
at him with pride). Dear me, if you can do all these 
things you must be dressed up like folks, so I'll go out 
to the tailor's to buy you a coat. (Goes out.) 

Goat enters. (A boy comes in walking on hands and feet.) 
Goat. Bla-a-a! Bla-a-a! Bla-a-a! 
Dog (running to him joyously) . Bow-wow ! Bow-wow ! 
Bow! 

(They play together and as Mother Hubbard 
comes in carrying a coat on her arm she 
screams.) 
Mother Hubbard. Mercy me! Mercy me! He's 
riding the Goat ! 

(The dog climbs on the back of the goat as he 
walks around the room. The goat goes out one 
door as Mother Hubbard leaves by the 
other one. The dog is alone again.) 



MAKE-BELIEVE 

Cat enters, {A little girl runs in). 
Cat. Miew-Miew-lVIiew! 
Dog. (in kindly voice). Bow-wow! Bow-wow! 

(The dog pats the cat's head, then puts her in a 
chair and draws her up to the table. With a 
spoon he begins to feed her milk from a bowl. 
Mother Hubbard (entering with a hat in her hand). 
Gracious me, he's feeding the cat! I'll leave them 
alone and go to the hosier's to buy the dog some hose. 
(The cat gets down from her chair and goes to 
one side of the room where she proceeds to 
make-believe wash her face with her paws. In 
the meantime the dog tries on his coat and hat.) 
Mother Hubbard (returning). Here he is dressed 
in his clothes. I must go to the cobbler's to buy him 
some shoes. 

(The dog now sits down in a chair and, finding 

a pair of spectacles, puts them on, takes up a 

newspaper, and looks at it.) 

Mother Hubbard (bringing in a pair of shoes). 

Just look at this, he is reading the news! I must go to 

the barber's to buy him a wig. 

(This time when she returns she finds the cat and 
the dog dancing a jig. She makes many ges- 
tures of amazement and of approval. The dog 
is too wonderful for her to say much, so — ) 
The dame made a curtsey, 
The dog made a bow, 
The dame said, "Your servant!" 
The dog said, "Bow-wow!" 
Curtain falls 



XV 
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

" The ball is the first friend of a child and is the best means 
of interpreting his world." (Sntdee.) 

THE universal toy, from the infant in his crib to the 
man on the professional diamond or golf course, 
is the ball. History tells us that the Greeks and Romans 
had a special place for the ball in their school curricu- 
lum with special masters to instruct in the use of it. 
Excavators have also found the ball in the ruins of the 
Lake Dwellers. 

Realizing the significance of its value it becomes the 
first toy for the baby. It seems to awaken his m^ental 
and physical powers because of its simplicity, always 
presenting the same appearance, its activity, its ease 
and safety in handling; and finally it resembles so many 
things in form, and motion. If it is swinging from a 
string it has rhythm, and therefore the baby gains un- 
consciously this sense-stimulation. Through months of 
growing the child has a ball for his constant companion. 
The spirit of play soon enters in with this toy. Move- 
ment is interpreted by having the child swing the ball, 
roll it, throw it from him and have it come back, bounce 
it, see it fall, push it, and draw it. Many simple games 
may be played to illustrate these ideas. Further sug- 
gestions for ball play may be found elsewhere in this 
volume. Slowly, slowly, the use of the ball grows until 

224 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

it creates in the boy's mind the game of baseball, tennis, 
and golf. It becomes the basis for all sport through all 
stages and all ages. 

Every child loves to create. If the proper material for 
building is not at hand, it is not long before the child is 
busy at work with manufactured blocks of his own, such 
as scraps of wood or pieces of glass, which, to the adult 
eye, are most unsatisfactory and inadequate. 

At the age of three years, the child endeavors to in- 
vestigate for himself the interior construction of things. 
WTio has not seen a child, left alone with an unfamiliar 
object, examine it, and then try to see what is inside? 
Every young child instinctively takes things apart and 
puts them together over and over again with no definite 
aim, but just with curiosity to handle things. He is 
continually covering and uncovering a box, or endlessly 
emptying a drawer merely to fill it again. 

It is because of these instinctive desires, therefore, 
that blocks of definite form and size have been made as 
one of the most instructive toys which can be given to 
children. The stores are full of a large assortment from 
which to choose. There are wooden blocks, plain, 
painted, or pictured, as well as blocks made of cement 
and in different shapes. From a new house in process of 
building, left-over blocks may be gathered which 
should be cut into definite sizes and sand-papered until 
smooth for the young child to handle. 

From the carpenter a few pieces of joists of light- 
weight wood, such as sugar pine, may be purchased. 
Cut and smooth these into blocks of different dimen- 
sions, giving the child free opportunity to construct a 

225 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

narrow window or broad doorway as he chooses. Tri- 
angular pieces afford opportunity for erecting slanting 
roofs. Very thin pieces of boards make excellent floors 
laid between blocks to make floors of doll-houses, suc- 
cessive floors of apartment houses or office buildings. 
In making a house, the child builds one hke those with 
which he has had experience. The city child thinks of 
the apartment in which he lives, or the building where 
Father has an office, or the engine-house. The child in a 
smaller community thinks of the barn, schoolhouse, or 
the church. 

Long, narrow pieces of wood laid on the floor will al- 
ways suggest to the boy tracks on which he can run his 
train of cars. It can also be a canal, the wooden sides 
forming the dikes. Boats of paper or wood can be 
dragged along with string by a horse which walks along 
the embankment. This play will be suggested by stories 
from Holland or from descriptions of another way of 
transportation in this country like the Erie Canal in 
New York or the great Panama Canal. 

With the use of blocks build at one end of these tracks 
steps from which the tracks can slope down to the floor. 
This makes a raceway through which marbles will run 
with great speed, starting them at the tower of blocks at 
one end. This affords great amusement for both boys 
and girls. 

The blocks which the child uses to construct his tower 
or his wall, tell him a story of the waving forest upon 
the distant mountain, of the woodman with his axe, of 
the rushing mountain stream, the sawmill, the busy 
carpenter, and all the helpful work of humankind 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

which ministers to pleasure. Let him hear the follow- 
ing lines and he will find more fun in opening his box of 
toys: 

THE PLAYTHINGS IN A BOX 

This is the box, so smooth and long. 
That held the baby's playthings. 
This is the carpenter, tall and strong, 
Who made the box so smooth and long. 
To hold the baby's playthings. 

This is the mill where the wheel goes round, 
And the wood is sawed with a buzzing sound. 
The wood for the carpenter, tall and strong. 
To make the box so smooth and long. 
To hold the baby's playthings. 

These are the oxen, steady and true; 
'Way from the forest the logs they drew, 
Down to the mUl where the wheel goes round. 
And the wood is sawed with a buzzing sound. 
The wood for the carpenter, tall and strong. 
To make the box so smooth and long. 
To hold the baby's playthings. 

This is the teamster, with measured tread, 
W^ho drives the oxen before the sled. 
These faithful oxen, steady and true, 
'Way from the forest the logs they drew, 
Down to the mill where the wheel goes round, 
And the wood is sawed with a buzzing sound. 
The wood for the carpenter, tall and strong. 
To make the box so smooth and long. 
To hold the baby's playthings. 

This is the woodman with axe and all, 
WTio chops the tree to make it fall. 
To give to the teamster, with measured tread. 
Who drives the oxen before the sled. 

227 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

These faithful oxen, steady and true, 
'Way from the forest the logs they drew, 
Down to the mill where the wheel goes round. 
And the wood is sawed with a buzzing sound. 
The wood for the carpenter, tall and strong. 
To make the box so smooth and long. 
To hold the baby's playthings. 

This is the darling baby boy 
Who seized the box with greatest joy. 
The wooden box, so smooth and long. 
Made by the carpenter, tall and strong. 
Out of the tree which the oxen drev/ 
'Way from the forest in which it grew. 
In this box the baby found 
Playthings square, and some were round. 
The ball he rolled upon the floor. 
The blocks he piled up by the score; 
BuUt low, built high, with great delight, 
Because he knew he had the right 
To play with playthings in his box. 



THIRD GIFT 

Building blocks which have been used in the kinder- 
garten for many years are called "Gifts." These are 
sets of series of blocks made of plain wood and come in 
boxes. As the Ball, baby's iSrst toy, is called the First 
Gift, the Ball, Cube, and Cylinder together are called 
the Second Gift, we begin with the first box of blocks, 
calling it the Third Gift. This is composed of eight 
cubes an inch in diameter, which piled together in sym- 
metrical form make one large cube two inches square. 
These come also in larger dimensions for constructing 
on the floor larger buildings and toys. School-supply 
houses can furnish you with any size desired, the ex- 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

pense naturally increasing according to the dimensions 
called for. 

Simple as these blocks are, they present great possi- 
bilities for the child's inventive ability. Many practical 
lessons may be gained from the use of them, and with 
the accompaniment of a story or rhyme fascinating il- 
lustrations are possible. Let the child experiment for 
himself, finding out what he can do with his toy. As he 
continues, the mother may suggest something which 
will bring to the child newer and better ideas. It is 
through such cooperation that the child develops his 
power of discrimination, originality, initiative, and is 
stimulated to close observation of the great world of 
form through his work. 

The child, when given his new blocks, naturally piles 
them or puts them in a straight row. Here is Mother's 
chance to suggest that it be called a train of cars. Count 
them and see how many cars there are. Now the com- 
monplace little blocks are changed into houses, barns, 
gates, steps, and churches. To the child, the crude 
houses he builds are lived in by real people, animals live 
in the barn he constructs, while he imagines people 
and vehicles cross his bridge. Building forms, such as 
tables and chairs, are imitations of things seen in the 
child's ordinary experiences. Placing the blocks in cer- 
tain set positions form designs, while piling them high 
makes towers and monuments. Number work enters 
in, too, for the blocks must be counted separately and 
in combinations. 

It is detrimental to let a child construct objects and 
then destroy them with no thoughtful purpose. Let 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

him construct objects and from them develop others. 
Changing from one thing to another in this work is 
called "Transformation in the Form of Sequences." 
This comes in the form of instruction after the child has 
become somewhat weary of his own free play. If the 
directions are given in story form the play will be dou- 
bly entertaining. 

Transformation Series. 

Use eight cubes of equal size. Pile four on top of four, 
which are on the table, making one large cube. Begin 
the story with blocks in this position saying: 

I. This cube is the house a little boy lives in. It is a 

square house. 
II. His father takes him downtown stopping first at 
the post-office. 

(Take two back cubes in each hand and bring 
them forward beside each side of the front four. 
You will have a long, low building two cubes high 
and four cubes long, facing you.) 

III. From here they go to the father's office building. 

(Take two blocks in each hand from each side of 
this low building and place them on top. These 
now should be two cubes wide and four cubes 
high.) 

IV. As they looked out of the office window they saw a 
high tower or chimney. 

(Turn the office building around so the narrow 
side faces you. With both hands raise four cubes 
on top of the other four cubes, making eight in all. 
Here you have a tall chimney.) 
230 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

V. As father and son are going back home they pass a 
church. 

(Take two cubes down and place them at right 
of the chimney. Bring two more cubes down and 
place two beyond the first two. Now you have a 
church tower at the left four cubes high, the 
church part is tw^o cubes bej^ond the tower on the 
right side.) 
VI. Next they see a fire-engine house. 

(Take the two outer cubes at the right and place 
them on the left side of the tower which brings the 
tower in the middle.) 
VII. Home again. 

(Place the upper two cubes of the tower behind 
the lower cubes of the tower and with the remain- 
ing two cubes fill in the space at the back forming 
the original one large cube.) 

FOURTH GIFT 

Next in the series of blocks comes the Fourth Gift, 
which is made up of eight blocks rectangular in shape. 
The proportions of these being two inches long, one inch 
wide, and one half an inch thick. These are called 
bricks and when piled together make the same two-inch 
cube as was found in the Third Gift. These blocks pre- 
sent more and varied possibilities to the child and he 
delights in discovering for himself the many uses to 
which they can be put. He builds steps, fences, gates, 
bird-houses, furniture, and so on, lending more artistic 
and natural form to the original models. 

Examples of transformation are here given using the 
231 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

bricks. They afford much pleasure as well as develop 
ability to count and accuracy of work. 

Story of going to see Grandmother. 
I. Children start from home. 

(Their house is the bricks piled to form a square; 
two piles of four bricks each side by side.) 
II. Went to see Grandmother in a coach with two 
horses. 

(Take two upper bricks and place them in front 
on the table on their long narrow sides.) 
III. They drove past a factory. 

(Use the two bricks which were the horses and 
pile one on top of the other on the small narrow 
side, placing them back of one of the piles of three 
bricks.) 
IV. On reaching Grandma's house they found her sit- 
ting in a big chair. 

(Take one brick from each of the piles and 
put up beside the factory chimney in same man- 
ner. These make a broad, high back to the 
chair.) 
V. The children found two small chairs beside Grand- 
ma for them to sit in. 

(Separate the big chair in two parts making two 
chairs with two high backs.) 
VI. They went down into the garden to play in a 
pretty summer house. 

(Stand up on small ends four bricks for pillars. 
Lay a brick on its broad side across the tops of 
two pillars and another across the tops of the other 
232 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

two pillars. Now join these by laying the remain- 
ing two bricks on top of these making a roof.) 
VII. Grandma called them to supper and again they 
fomid their two chairs. After that Grandma sat in 
her big chair and bade the children good-bye as 
they drove off in the coach with two horses. They 
passed the factory again and finally reached home 
safe and sound. 

(Here the transformation goes backward over 
the same construction till finally the bricks are in 
their original position.) 

The little hoy who went to Church. 

I. Once upon a time there was a little boy who lived 
in a square house. 

(Make same square formation of the eight 
bricks. Have the narrow, short sides facing you.) 
II. On leaving his house he went to the garage and 
found the automobile was out. 

(With each hand take two bricks from the top 
placing them on each side of the center ones. 
This is the garage.) 
III. From here he strolled down the board walk. 

(Take one brick in each hand; lay them down on 
table beside the others. Take the remaining two 
bricks on top and do the same. Now you have 
eight bricks lying in a row with narrow sides facing 
you.) 
IN. He passed a fence. 

(Very carefully raise these eight bricks to a 
standing position, the broad sides facing you.) 
233 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

V. He came to a gate. 

(Take the two center bricks out and balance 
them one on each side, touching each other over 
the middle of the gateway. These two bricks 
should be lying on long narrow sides.) 
VI. Walking through the gateway he came to the door 
of a beautiful church. 

(Take the next two outer bricks of the fence and 
on their small sides stand them on top of the gate- 
way, giving an effect of a tower.) 
VII. After church he came out through the church 
door, and the gateway. He passed the fence, went 
down the board walk, looked in at the garage and 
then went into his house. 

(Take the steps backwards with same direc- 
tions as given. The bricks will again be piled in 
their original position. With these suggestions of 
transformations children can build in sequence 
from their own experiences.) 
With the combination of the cubes from the Third 
Gift and bricks from the Fourth Gift there is a broader 
field of building with more artistic results. Let a cube 
be the chair and a brick stand up to be its back. Two 
of these chairs put together will be a bench. On top of 
a cube put the brick broad side. Two of these placed 
side by side make a square table. Make four chairs 
and put one on each side of the table. This can be used 
as the dining-room table for four little dolls. 

Pillars, forming gateways, doorways, and windows, 
can be made by standing a brick on its small end on 
top of a cube. Place another cube on top of this brick. 

234 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

By placing two pillars side by side a window is formed. 
For a gateway spread two pillars apart joining them at 
the top by laying a brick across. Build steps in between 
the pillars of the gateway to make a doorway. Piling 
pillars higher with windows will develop attractive 
towers and monuments. 

Laying bricks and cubes on the table in regular and 
alternating formation will make Grecian border pat- 
terns. Unit designs can be worked out by starting with 
a hollow center formed with cubes or bricks. Whatever 
block is placed on one side must be placed in the same 
position on the other three sides. Continue balancing 
the four sides with good arrangement of blocks until all 
are used. Designs are innumerable that can be worked 
out in this way and greatly please the little folks, for 
there is real beauty to them. 

FIFTH GIFT 

The next box of blocks is the Fifth Gift. It contains 
twenty-seven cubes which in its compact formation 
makes a three-inch cube. When separated we find that 
some blocks are divided into halves and some into 
quarters. With these triangular blocks new-shaped 
articles and buildings can be made. Slanting roofs can 
be made to houses and more elaborate monuments, 
arches, and bridges can be constructed. 

A group of farm buildings can be made from this 
Gift, which not only uses the imagination, but can tell 
a story as it progresses. 

House. At one side of the table arrange, side by side, 
and running back from you, two rows of three cubes 

235 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

each. On top of the right-hand row place another row 
of three cubes* Now on top of the first two cubes of this 
row put two quarter cubes having the broad side flat to 
the cube. This makes part of the roof. On the third 
and back cube stand two quarter cubes together, on 
small triangle ends, to make a chimney. On the left- 
hand row of three lower cubes place three half cubes in 
a right-angle position. These will lean against the right- 
side row and complete the slanting roof. Make a front 
door and side door by placing a quarter block broad 
side against the cubes in the center of any two sides. 

Bam, Place four cubes in a row; now another row of 
four cubes on top of these. On top of the three cubes place 
three half cubes, broad side flat to the cubes to make 
an overhanging roof. On the fourth cube put two quar- 
ters together to make the same shape as the half cube. 

Henhouse. Place three cubes in a row. Put three 
quarter cubes on top, broad sides flat to the cubes. 
These make the roof. 

Dog kennel. There is one cube left on which place the 
last quarter block to make a little roof. Group the 
buildings as desired, but it is attractive if they are 
placed to make a yard in the center. 

An illustration of building with these blocks can be 
found in this volume in the chapter on "Toy Villages." 
Houses, public buildings, and churches will soon de- 
velop into the semblance of a town. In the picture 
there is also seen in front of the buildings a sidewalk. 
These are flat squares of polished wood called "tablets." 
Placed one after another in a row they give quite a bit 
of dignity to the town. 

236 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

These tablets represent one side or face of the cube 
and are used with pretty effects for flat-design work. 
They are prepared for children to use in squares, 
circles, and different-shaped triangles and can be pur- 
chased in bulk at school-supply stores. 

SIXTH GIFT 

The Sixth Gift far surpasses the other blocks in its 
architectural forms. It is made up of bricks, half bricks 
and columns which work out with splendid success in 
making colonnades and buildings resembling those of 
the Grecian type. 

By combining the Fifth and Sixth Gifts still more 
elaborate work can be done. A toy village will look more 
like a palatial courtyard. A throne can be built at one 
end on which may sit little dolls dressed in royal robes. 
A May Festival is in progress and a Maypole is in the 
center of the court. Put a stick in the middle of an 
empty spool. On top of the stick should be tacked pretty 
colored streamers of tissue paper. This is the Maypole 
and is surrounded by little dolls dressed in white ready 
for the dance. 

At intervals about the courtyard should be trees. 
These are made like the Maypole using green paper for 
the tree foliage. Use the tablets for walks and to sur- 
round flower beds or make-believe fountains. 

The educational value to the child in using these 
special blocks designed for the kindergarten are many 
and varied. They are an outlet for the child's creative 
impulse and they afford an opportunity for him to ex- 
press his originality in this construction work. They 

237 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

satisfy the desire of the little artist to make beautiful 
designs and buildings. 

For the child who does not own them, wood can be 
cut as before suggested. Father or big brother who are 
interested to help, have a great opportunity to do their 
part in assisting in the early beginnings of the educa- 
tion for the youngest members of the household. In 
the humblest home there is no reason why some form 
of blocks cannot be enjoyed by these little builders. 

STICKS 

It is very natural for children to be interested in and 
play with sticks. They like to gather sticks, pile them, 
arrange them, and count them. Having observed this 
manner of play the kindergarten recognizes their value 
enough to introduce this form of occupation into defi- 
nite instruction. On closer study one can see that 
sticks represent the outlines of objects. The edges 
of the blocks we have just read about are represented 
by lines on paper. As a basis of drawing, the child 
having made a picture of simple objects with sticks, 
he is better able to take pencil in hand and reproduce 
what he has made on paper. 

Small sticks an eighth of an inch in diameter, and in 
different dimensions from a half -inch to five inches long, 
may be purchased from kindergarten supply-stores. 
Toothpicks or burnt matches may be whittled to de- 
sirable lengths also. A child will play with them by the 
hour developing all kinds of designs and pictures, in 
outline form. 

It is suggested that the first educational and simple 
238 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

step to be accomplished is the placing of sticks in rows 
like soldiers, in twos, threes, and fours. A bit of mathe- 
matics enters in as well as artistic formation. Next 
proceed to slanting lines, pointing two lines and finally 
adding a third to join these at the base to make a 
triangle. 

Pass on to the use of four sticks. There will be the 
square and rectangle in geometrical form from which 
definite designs in patterns can be made. Many articles 
can be made, too, such as a chair, bed, a gate, or a flag, 
one side of the square being a longer stick. 

With five sticks a greater variety of pictures can be 
made, such as a house with slanting roof, shovel, arrow, 
or banner. Now give free use of sticks of different length, 
and a goodly number. Here are suggestions of several 
things to do. 

Christmas-tree. One long stick with many short 
sticks slanting down from it on each side make the 
branches. 

Flower pot. Four sticks, the two side sticks slanting 
inward toward the bottom. Sticks short and long at the 
top of the pot to represent a plant with leaves and 
blossoms. 

Clover. Three small triangles meeting at the center 
point from which is placed a stick for the stem. 

Fireplace. Large rectangle at center of the bottom 
line; use small sticks for andirons and cross tv»"0 sticks 
for the firewood. On top of the horizontal stick which 
forms the mantel place small sticks for candlesticks. 
Place three small sticks in the form of a triangle for the 
candle shades. From the under side of the mantel place 

^39 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

small sticks downward representing stockings hung for 
Santa Claus. 

Tent. Large triangle. Place inside two small chairs 
each side of the table placed in the center of the triangle. 
Put small flag at the top of the triangle. 

Pig. Form a rectangle. At the upper left-hand corner 
make a small triangle with small sticks. Find a bead 
for an eye. Place four short sticks for legs below the 
rectangle and a short stick for the tail at the right 
side. 

RINGS 

The child is now beginning to observe the edges of 
everything. The sticks represent straight edges, but he 
also sees curved edges. The ball is round; the saucer is, 
too. Some things are round half of the way and others 
have just a short curved edge. In order to satisfy this 
want, once again the kindergarten has furnished the 
necessary materials. Metal rings made whole, in halves, 
quarters, and eighths, can be purchased in small or 
large quantities. 

Let the child compare different-sized rings. Place one 
inside of the other, put them in different positions 
making designs. Now take the half -circle, quarter, and 
eighth sizes and gradually combine them. The child 
sees beautiful curves everywhere, in the trees, flowers, 
hills, and ocean waves. With the help of the rings he 
can make all these illustrations. Surely the steel rings 
with which he outhnes beautiful flowers and designs 
tell him a fascinating tale more wonderful than the 
magic ring of the Arabian Nights. 

240 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

Combining the sticks and rings gives a wealth of ma- 
terial with which to create pictures of objects. 

Balloon. A stick placed at the bottom of the large 
ring. 

Pipe. Circle resting on the end of a stick. 

Dumh-hell. Two rings joined by two parallel sticks. 

Cart. Two circles joined by a stick across the top. 
Another stick tipped at an angle at the end makes the 
handle. 

Cherries. Two sticks brought to an angle point. At 
the other end of the two sticks are small circles. 

Umbrella. A stick coming down from the inside center 
of the large half -circle. 

Hat. A stick joining two ends across the bottom of 
the large half-circle. 

Vase. Use sticks and half rings making the two sides 
alike. Coming from the top of the vase sticks to make 
flower stems, and quarter and eighth rings arranged to 
make flower petals and leaves. 

Pigeon House. Sticks for house; quarter rings for 
Httle windows or doors. 

Church. Sticks for the building and high steeple; 
sticks and rings to make doorways, arches, windows. 

House. Sticks for building, adding an ell, chimneys, 
and porch. Use eighth rings in alternate irregular line to 
represent smoke coming from the chimney. 

Castle Gate. Towers on each side of portal gate made 
with combination of sticks and rings. 

Stories or a child's experiences may be pictured in 
outline form. A visit to the farm would mean making a 
panorama of house, barn, henhouse, and fence. 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The Three Bears. While the story is being told make 
three chairs, three beds, and a table with three curved 
bowls. A few small eighth rings arranged just above the 
bowls give the appearance of steam rising from the por- 
ridge which was hot. 

Chicken. For the body, a large circle; head, small cir- 
cle; bill of two small sticks; and find a bead for an eye. 
Two sticks for the legs. 

Ostrich. Body, a large circle; stick for a long neck; 
head, made like the chicken at the top of the neck. 
First a stick and then three quarter rings for the tail 
feathers. Two sticks for the legs. 

Woman. Medium-sized ring for the body; large half 
ring, upside down with stick across the bottom, for a 
skirt. Small ring for the head; beads and very small 
sticks for the eyes, nose, and mouth. Quarter rings for 
the arms. At the end of one arm make an umbrella with 
short stick and quarter ring. Sticks for the feet. 

Tablets may also be combined with sticks and rings. 
When one has seen the great possibilities with the sticks 
and rings, the tablets will offer more suggestions along 
the same line of interests with which to experiment. 

LENTILS OR SEEDS 

In the chapter on nature work the collective instinct was 
developed through a play which seems to be one of the 
greatest pleasures of little children. The gathering, sort- 
ing, and keeping of certain materials is an occupation so 
thoroughly appreciated by teachers of children that the 
use of them and the encouraging of such play have been 
introduced into the child's programme of education. 

242 



BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION 

A new thought expresses itself as materials, such as 
pebbles, shells, seeds, lentils, or even buttons, are given 
for occupation. Place pebbles or lentils in rows, as sug- 
gested with the sticks, and count them. As the child is 
given free use of these new playthings something will 
soon be created. 

The outline forms of articles known to the child will 
be made by placing the seeds side by side to make a 
connecting line. Perhaps the mother as well as the child 
is interested to know that it is seed by seed or point be- 
side point which in reality makes the complete line. In 
other words, he is drawing a picture on the table, not 
with pencil and paper, but with points. 

As an outline is made the center can be filled in solid 
if desired; thus giving a massed effect. For example, a 
circle may be formed. Fill it in solid with seeds and a 
ball is suggested. Take a few seeds away from the top, 
making an indentation; add a small vertical line of 
seeds, and you have a picture of an apple. A Jack-o'- 
lantern, doughnut, basket, cup, or a flower may be de- 
veloped from the circle. 

From a square outline which has been made, fill in or 
take away so as to make a box, house, gate, hat, flower 
pot. From the original triangle shape suggestions of a 
tent, tree, fan, bell, or a flag will come. Life forms of 
birds and animals will suggest a large field of employ- 
ment for busy little fingers. Conventional designs and 
borders can be copied from linoleums, rugs, and wall- 
paper. This work encourages creative desires and will 
lead to the making of permanent drawings of articles at 
another time. 

US 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

In introducing occupations such as the ball, building 
blocks, sticks, rings, and lentils, it is not the purpose to 
instruct the child in abstractions which do not properly 
belong to childhood, but to lead him in early Hfe to the 
practical knowledge of things about him. These should 
inculcate in him the love of industry, helpfulness, and 
independence of thought and action. 



XVI 

THE NEIGHBORHOOD GROUP 

A KINDERGARTEN for every child, and every 
child in a kindergarten" — this is the slogan of 
Commissioner Claxton of the Bureau of Education. But 
in many places it is not possible to have a kindergarten 
for every child. In the country, where homes are widely 
separated and distances are great, a public kindergarten 
cannot be maintained as a part of the school system. A 
neighborhood group may often be formed, however, 
where two or three families live near enough together 
to permit the children to play together. Every child 
needs the companionship of playmates. The solitary 
child will rarely become a good "mixer." Social contact 
is necessary in the period of childhood in order to form 
a social being. 

The virtues of unselfishness, generosity, consideration 
for others, and cooperation are cultivated in the social 
group. A mother who desires to give her child the bene- 
fit of group work and play may open a play school in her 
home. She may invite three or four children in the 
neighborhood to come to her home for two or three hours 
daily or semi- weekly as her time permits. The home 
school may be planned like a kindergarten. Each child 
may furnish his own chair, and a low table may be made 
by cutting down a kitchen table. Or Father or Brother 
may make a rustic table. In the summer the group may 
meet in the garden or in the woods. A programme for 

245 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the day should begin with a hymn or a child's prayer or 
with a song of greeting. (See Volume V.) 

Then "the time has come to talk of many things" — 
of wind and weather, of the signs of spring, or signs of 
winter, of the first flowers, the first birds, of the hap- 
penings of the neighborhood, of the work to be done in 
the fields or in the home. 

This "morning talk" corresponds to the conversation 
of older people and should set a standard for the give- 
and-take of social life. Songs may be suggested by the 
conversation according to the season. In the spring 
children like to sing of buds and blossoms, of birds and 
bees, of the farmer in his field and of the little garden 
bed. (See "Songs of the Seasons," Volume V.) 

No piano is needed for these songs. It is better for 
children to learn to sing independently. If there is a 
piano in the house, it may be used while learning the 
songs. It is also useful for playing rhythms and marches 
to accompany the rhythmic and gymnastic plays which 
follow the morning circle. (See Volume V.) 

Much free play is desirable. Running plays and chas- 
ing plays as Hide and Seek, Chase the Squirrel, Hunt 
the Thimble, are among the old favorites. Many new 
plays will be invented by a group of children. For move- 
ment plays see the chapter on "Games." 

Some time during the morning or afternoon a story 
group should be formed. The mother tells the first story. 
The little listeners should be ready to retell the story and 
in succeeding days to tell it over and over again. When 
a child tells a story he gains excellent exercise in English. 
His vocabulary is increased, his store of ideas enlarged. 

246 



THE NEIGHBORHOOD GROUP 

The stories should be wisely chosen according to the 
ages and interests of the group. Each season brings its 
own circle of interests. There are tales of especial value 
in the fall when leaves are falling and nuts and fruits are 
ripe. Winter tales have a different theme and spring and 
summer bring their own delights. 

(For timely tales see "Out of Doors" and "Our Ani- 
mal Friends," Volume I.) 

Holidays should be observed in every group of chil- 
dren. (See Volume V for Christmas, Easter, Thanks- 
giving, Patriotic songs. For holiday stories see "Holi- 
days and Festivals," Volume I.) 

Home and neighborhood activities are of absorbing 
interest in the lives of children. Their play should be 
largely a reproduction of these activities. They share 
in the life about them and their life begins in sharing 
the daily experiences of the home and its environment. 
Play is a child's means of entering into life. His play 
world is a miniature world reflecting all he has seen and 
heard and enjoyed. He begins to understand the big 
world by reproducing it in his little world. 

So our daily programme will include an hour devoted 
to some form of constructive or creative work. Kinder- 
garten plays should be used. There should be a doll- 
house to furnish. Boys as well as girls may share in mak- 
ing the furniture. (See Chapter VIH for a description 
of a doll-house.) 

When the doll-house is complete, housekeeping should 
begin. There should be dinner-parties and supper- 
parties. Dolls' clothes should be washed and ironed and 
hung out to dry. Through play little girls learn how to 

247 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

lay a table, to dust the room, and to make a bed. (See 
Chapter VII.) 

Nature excursions should be made when the weather 
permits, and seeds, nuts, burrs, etc., collected for use in 
the play school. This material furnishes most valuable 
means of employment. Directions for making things 
may be found in Chapter IX. Occasionally there should 
be a building period to satisfy the constructive instinct. 
Kindergarten blocks may be secured from a kinder- 
garten supply store or a near-by carpenter may make 
bricks 4 by 2, cubes 2 by 2, some half -cubes for roofs and 
some half-bricks for columns. (See Chapter XV.) 

These blocks may be used for free building. Houses, 
churches, and stores will be made. Bridges will be built 
and towers erected. The community idea will be sug- 
gested and we shall have a village or a town. Streets 
will be laid out. Sticks will be found to make car-tracks; 
a trolley-car will soon be running through the town. 
(See Chapter IX.) 

A Japanese toy or a picture may lead to the making 
of a Japanese scene. The story of our Dutch Twins or a 
pair of wooden shoes may be the incentive to making a 
Dutch Village. (See Chapter IX.) The children see how 
other people live and geography begins. 

We must remember the little artist in our plan of 
work. Clay, paint-boxes, paper, scissors, pencils, and 
paste must be part of the equipment of the home school. 
Many suggestions for exercises are given in another chap- 
ter. Drawing gives a child another language and there 
should be ample opportunity for the use of pencil and 
paper. 

248 



THE NEIGHBORHOOD GROUP 

The stories which have been told may be dramatized 
as the children desire. They will assign the parts and 
take the roles. (See Chapter XIV.) Such make-believe 
is especially desirable as a social enterprise. It brings 
one group together and shows the need of each one act- 
ing well his part. To teach children to live was the aim 
of Rousseau's scheme of education. To teach children 
to live and to teach them to hve together is the aim of 
our home kindergarten. 



A 



XVII 
SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

September 

OPENING OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD SCHOOL 

S a general outline to follow in the morning's pro- 
gramme, the following is a basis on which to work, 
though always subject to change: 

A.M. 

9.00. Hour for children to assemble. 
9.00 to 9.30. Free play. 
9.30 to 10.00. Mornmg Circle talks and songs. 
10.00 to 10.30. Lesson with Gifts or occupations. 
10.30 to 11.00. Luncheon and free play. 
11.00 to 11.30. Games. 
11.30 to 12.00. Hand-work. 
Noon. Home. 

The first period is called free play because it is the 
time when the children come together fresh in the spirit 
of good-fellowship to see each other and to see what is in 
the room ready for their use. The little girls are at 
liberty to go to a doll-house in the corner and play 
house. Some one wants to build with the blocks that 
are ready there for use. There is a blackboard to draw 
on; there are crayons and paper with which to make 
pictures; beads or buttons to be strung; and toys with 
which the boys and girls may play. Free choice makes 
free play. 

At 9.30 strains of music tell the children it is time to 
250 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

come together in a group with the teacher or mother and 
little friends. Quietly hands are folded and with bowed 
heads the children give thanks to their Heavenly Father. 
Preceding the prayer the following verse may be said: 

Now before my prayer is said 
I fold my hands and bow my head. 
I try to think to whom I pray, 
I try to mean the words I say. 

A Prayer: 

And now before we work to-day 
We'll not forget to pray to God, 
Who kept us through the night 
And brought us to the morning light. 
Help us. Lord, to love Thee more 
Than we ever loved before; 
In our work and in our play 
Be Thou with us through the day. 

Amen. 

A Monday morning Pledge: 

In the week before us 
In our work and play 
Let us all be loving. 
Working every day. 
Try to help our Mothers, 
With the hands and feet 
Make the week a glad one 
Filled with service sweet. 

Prayer songs may be found in Volume V of this series; 
also Good-Morning and Greeting songs. These are sung 
with action, sometimes going about shaking hands with 
each other and sometimes with gestures as the children 
are seated in their chairs. 

The Morning Circle period is the precious half-hour 
251 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

of the morning when the children have something to 
tell you and something to learn. It is a time when con- 
versation never lags, and a time when the teacher and 
children give and take of each other's best thoughts. In 
the first weeks, become acquainted with the children. 
Let them become acquainted with you and feel at home 
in the group. Try to encourage cooperation and team 
play. Now is your opportunity to plan necessary regu- 
lations for the definite hours together. 

During the remaining weeks of the month there may 
be conversation on experiences common to all, such as: 

Where the children live, how far away. 

How they come to school. 

Their families; father, mother, brothers, sisters, and 
the baby. 

Joy found in their home, what affection they re- 
ceive. 

Talks on the children's duties and of their helpfulness 
in the home. 

Introduction of the fascinating subject of their pets 
and their family life. 

Pets, such as cats, dogs, rabbits, birds, goldfish, etc. 

Use pictures to illustrate animal families. 

Tell the children how animals take care of their ba- 
bies. 

Tell a story of mother love in the animal world. 

Find out from the children what animals do for us. 

What should be our treatment of them.^^ 

Impress upon the children that with the privilege 
of having pets comes the care and responsibility for 
them. 

252 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Songs about animals (Volume V) : 
"My Rabbit." 
''The Gray Donkey." 
"Bossy Cow." 
"Feeding the Chickens." 

Children will bring in wild flowers, such as the purple 
asters and goldenrod, barberries, milkweed pods, or 
pretty leaves. The season has much of interest to talk 
about, and whatever the child brings in gives an oppor- 
tunity for discussion and for learning about nature at 
first hand. 

Songs (Volume V) : 
"Autumn Leaves." 
"Aster." 
"Good-bye to the Flowers." 

The milkweed pods are fascinating to children and 
following a talk about their contents the little girls es- 
pecially will want to gather many of them. Suggest 
that the little boys help gather them, too, and find out 
what the little girls are going to do with them. 

Repeat the following verses: 

THE MILKWEED CASE 

" Cover and case close locked together. 
Filled with a curious kind of feather; 
Open the box — you '11 need no key — 

pretty green case, did you grow for me?" 

" 'T was only the other day I said 

1 must make my dolly a feather bed. 
And here is the softest, fluffiest stuff. 
Silky and white and plenty enough." 

253 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

The lesson hour is the time suggested when the Gifts, 
which are described in Chapter XV, are introduced. The 
ball, a child's first toy, is the First Gift to be introduced 
to the children. Ways of using and playing with the 
ball are described in Chapters XIII and XV. 

Ask the children to find other things in the room that 
are round. 

Another day put a square box or a cube beside the 
ball, letting the children talk about the differences be- 
tween these two forms. 

If you have not the complete Second Gift, an empty 
round tin can may serve as the roller or cylinder. Ask 
the children to name articles that resemble these shapes. 

In the course of the month make a separate lesson of 
the cube. Talk of its faces, edges, and corners. Com- 
pare it with other forms. Give the children the Third 
Gift with which to build. 

The luncheon period may be one of much commotion 
or of order according to the way it is managed by the 
mother or teacher. Have a definite place for the lunch- 
baskets and see that they are put there. As the hour 
approaches, the children's work is put away. One little 
friend is asked to be the lunch-bearer. He brings the 
packages one by one giving the right lunch to the right 
child as is designated by a show of hands. With folded 
hands and bowed head a short verse or song may be said 
or sung at this time. Each child must be shown the 
orderliness of spreading a paper napkin upon the table 
before he starts to eat. As a child finishes his lunch he 
must remember that there are crumbs to be gathered up 
and a lunch-basket to be put back upon the shelf. Then 

254 





TRANSFORMATION-CUTTING 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

he is free to take a picture book to look at, or play in a 
sand box or with toys until all the children have finished 
their lunches. 

The game period is the time for gymnastics. Simple 
movements for the limbs and body may be chosen first, 
followed by different ring games. x\s the children learn 
them they will soon have their favorites, and it will be 
a great pleasure to be given the privilege of choosing the 
next game. This period will be a good time to give folk- 
dances or to get ready for a special occasion such as 
preparation for the May dance in the springtime. If the 
weather is fair, this hour may be spent in taking lunch- 
eon out of doors followed by games better suited to 
the playground. A walk may be taken to the park or 
to the yard of a friend who has some interesting pets to 
watch. 

The last period of the morning is devoted to occupa- 
tions, something to make with their hands and which 
very often they may keep and take home. If it is pos- 
sible to relate the work to that which has been talked 
about during the morning or previous day, it means 
more to the child. Through this month he has talked 
about the home, pets, flowers, and about the ball, cube, 
and cylinder. He has learned the colors and is delighted 
with colored crayons. With them he will want to draw 
what he has seen — his house, dog, cat, or a flower. Use 
directions for working in crayons which are given in 
another chapter. 

Large wooden beads remind the children of balls, and 
stringing them is an occupation which is always en- 
joyed. 

255 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

String colored paper circles, an inch in diameter, al- 
ternately with inch lengths of cut straw. These repre- 
sent a circular face of a ball and the cylinder. Square 
pieces of paper may be used also in combination with 
the circles and straws. 

Make balls with wet sand. 

Have a pattern of a man for the child to outline on a 
piece of construction paper. Above him on the card 
paste irregularly seven small circles of paper, represent- 
ing the seven standard colors. Draw a line down from 
each circle so the lines will all meet in the hand of the 
man. Here we have made a picture of the balloon man. 
Let the child take this home. 

At another time give the first instructions in paper- 
folding using the book fold and handkerchief fold. 

Trees seen about the home or parks may have been 
discussed in a Morning Circle, therefore introduce a 
tearing lesson. From a piece of paper, folded, tear out 
trees. (See description of the work in Chapter II.) 

At the closing hour a good-bye song may be sung. 
Let each child learn to help himself in putting on his 
hat, coat, and rubbers. Let him learn the courtesy of 
shaking hands with his teacher and of saying good-bye 
to each playmate. 

October 

" A place for everything and everything in its place." 

The child is now becoming acquainted with his new 
environment; he is falling in line by working and playing 
with others. Out of the confusion of the child's thought 
as to what to do next comes the creating of an orderly 

256 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVIMES 

mind. It is therefore a great opportunity to impress defi- 
nite ideas upon him, and the best of habits will be 
formed. 

Devote a morning to the discussion of hanging up 
hats and coats in a proper way and in a proper place. 

Orderly putting away of playthings. 

Orderliness in their homes and schoolroom. 

Talk of hands and feet in their correct positions. 

Marching well; carrying chairs properly. 

Handling of their lunches. 

Care of their own possessions. 

Tell a story which applies to the subject under dis- 
cussion. 

Play a game emphasizing order: Let a child go out 
of the room. Two or three children in the group dis- 
arrange a dozen articles in the room. The child comes 
back again and tries to find out what is wrong in the 
room and puts everything back in its proper place. 

Following closely upon the subject of order is the 
thought of time. Robert Burns says, 

"Nae man can tether time or tide." 

There is so much to be learned of interest about the 
clock that a week can well be spent on this topic with 
the children. The following points may be discussed: 

The clock is a good friend to all. 

Talk about its uses. 

Emphasize necessity of being on time. 

Father goes to catch a train by the clock. 

Mother cooks by the clock. 

There must be a certain time to feed the baby. 
257 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Time to go to church, time to go to school. 
Telling time. (See Volume III of this series.) 

Songs (Volume V) : 
"The Clock.'' 
"Time to Rise." 
"The Cuckoo Clock." 

Gift work: 

Build tower in which to put town clock. With sticks 
and rings make face of a clock. Use lentils to make face 
of watch. 

Hand-work: 

Make clocks from boxes. (See Chapter XI and il- 
lustrations.) 

Games: 

Singing game, "Hickory, Dickory, Dock." (See Vol- 
ume V.) 

See how long it takes to walk around a circle putting 
one foot before another. 

Through pantomime show what the grandfather's 
clock in the hall does by swinging arms at the side like 
the big pendulum. The mantelpiece clock pendulum is 
imitated by swinging the forearm from the elbow a little 
faster than was done for the big clock. For Father's 
watch there should be a very quick motion with the 
band from the wrist which suggests tick-tick-tick. 

Time races with the bean bag. (See Chapter XIII.) 

October is the month of great changes in Nature. It 
is the month when many of our animals make their 

258 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVMES 

final preparations for their long winter's rest. It is not 
only their harvest-time, but ours likewise. It is a time 
for gathering and collecting Nature's bountiful supply. 
We want the children to know and appreciate how 
closely Nature is allied to our lives. 

Subjects for thought and discussion: 

Passing of summer and coming of winter. 

Falling leaves and bareness of twigs. 

Show buds on twigs explaining there will be another 
spring. 

Gathering of pretty leaves. 

Collecting of different kinds of seeds and nuts. 

Show a variety of seeds and pods. 

Scattering of seeds and nuts by wind and animals. 
Development of new trees. 

Seeds that have wings and feathery attachments. 

Some seeds good to eat; such as peas, beans. 

Cocoa bean and chocolate. 

Seeds used for ornamentation. 

Seeds from grain and their uses. 

Take a walk to gather nuts. 

Different uses of trees. 

Logging and Lumbering (See Volume III.) 

Planting bulbs for another spring. 

Gardener covering bushes with dried leaves. 

Birds migrating and going South. 

Empty birds' nests. 

What happens to the fish in the sea, the insects that 
fly, and the ants and grasshoppers.? 

Talk of the farmers gathering in their harvests. 
259 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

If possible have samples of fruits and vegetables to 
show to children. 

Mother canning fruit and vegetables. 

Mother making jelly. 

Frosty nights have come. 

Why do the children button up their coats? 

Mother getting out heavier clothing and bedding. 
Woolen clothes. 

Where does wool come from? (See Volume III.) 

Talk about everything pertaining to keeping warm. 
Heat in the house. 

Blanketing horses. 

Songs (Volume V) : 
"Jack Frost." 

"The North Wind Doth Blow." 
"The Seasons." 
"Baa, Baa, Black Sheep." 

Story: 

THE LAMENT OF THE LEAF 

HIS WISH AND THE USE TO WHICH HE PUT IT 

One bright, spring morning when everything was fresh 
and green, a poor little leaf, with a feeble shake of its 
head, sighed and said, "Why is it that I am so sad and 
lonely when all the leaves are dancing about on the 
branches playing with one another? Nobody seems to 
care for me or to stop to play with me. I know that I am 
not as pretty as some of the leaves, but if they would 
only come to see me, I would try to be very kind and 
good to them. How I wish I had a playmate!" Such 
was the lament of the leaf. 

260 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Let me tell you how the little leaf came to be so un- 
pleasant to look at. 

Early that spring it was very warm, so the leaves 
thought that summer was coming and they decided to 
put on their new spring dresses. Jack Frost, however, 
was hidden not far off, and when night came he went 
around pinching all the little leaves' faces which sent 
shivers down their backs, so that they all caught cold. 

Now, near this leaf that I am telling you about was a 
dear little baby leaf whom he loved very much. When 
the leaf saw Jack Frost coming, he tenderly wrapped the 
baby leaf up in his own warm coat. Jack Frost came and 
our leaf caught such a cold that for many days he could 
not go out. He soon grew better, but, alas! All his 
bright green color was gone and his body was withered. 

The other leaves, even the one he had so tenderly 
cared for, did not play with him after this because he 
was so homely. At first he did not complain, but this 
day, when he saw the other leaves having such a good 
time together, he wished that he had a playmate. The 
good old tree heard the leaf's wish and thought to him- 
self that he would give him some one with whom he 
could play. 

The days grew warmer and warmer until finally one 
day the leaf looking around him saw a beautiful pink 
bud which soon opened to a wonderful blossom. The 
fragrance was, oh! so sweet! 

"What a charming playmate, but, oh, what a gor- 
geous dress! I shall not dare ask her to play with me." 
After a few days she bowed her little head and one morn- 
ing the pretty dress flew away. At first the leaf felt very 

261 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

sad, for he thought he was alone again, but in a few days 
he looked in the same spot and saw by his side a little 
green ball. 

"Oh!" he cried; "my little playfellow is still here 
and she has come to staj^" 

Then he put his arms around the little ball and told 
her how glad he was to have her. Every day the little 
leaf cared for his playmate, and when night came he 
took her in his arms and watched over her all the night. 

The little ball grew very fast until at last the leaf 
could hold her no longer. When the days grew warmer 
the leaf fanned his playfellow's cheeks, shaded her from 
the hot sun, and spoke kindly to her when she was 
weary. With all this loving care the little ball grew very 
beautiful. Her cheeks grew so round and rosy that every 
one stopped to look at her. 

One day, in the fall, a poor little lame girl sat down 
under the apple-tree to rest. She heard the leaves rus- 
tling in the tree overhead, and looking up saw the beau- 
tiful red apple. 

"Oh! how I wish I could have that lovely baU. Oh, 
dear, how can I get it?" 

Our little leaf looked down into her poor little pinched 
face and thought: 

"Can I give up my dear little playmate to this poor 
child? She is the only thing that I have to care for. 
How can I give her up?" 

Then he said, "When I was lonely this dear little 
playmate came to me, now I will give her to the child 
because she seems so lonely and sad." 

He tapped his playmate upon the arm and down fell 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVIMES 

the ball gently into the child's lap. She looked up very 
sweetly to the leaf and said, "Thank you, dear leaf," 
and she went home smiling. 

The little leaf was very sad for many days, except 
when he thought of how happy he had made the little 
girl. Not long after this he flew down to the ground to 
help make a nice blanket for the grass so that it would 
be warm when winter came. Let us hope he passed a 
very happy winter under the snow, for surely such a 
good little leaf ought to be happy. 

Gift work: 

Introduce Fourth Gift. 

Make bird-houses. 

A log house for lumbermen. 

Furniture. 

Use tablets, sticks, and rings, or lentils to make pic- 
tures of bird-houses, trees, barns, and vegetables. 

Lentils may be used to make leaf forms. 

Peg boards are flat pieces of wood in which are placed 
holes at regular intervals in which colored sticks or 
"pegs," as they are called, may be stuck. Children 
enjoy using them, making-believe that they are all sorts 
of things. Sometimes they are people and sometimes 
trees. Make a fence enclosure around the edge and in- 
side the field put trees and cows. In one corner a few 
pegs could represent a barn. 

Games: 

Played out of doors in a pile of leaves or indoors with 
an imaginary pile. Act out the words of the verse, 

263 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Like a leaf or a feather 
In windy, windy weather 
We'll whirl about, 
Twirl about. 
And all sink down together. 

Squirrel game. (Chapter XIII.) 

Folk-Dance, "Rabbit in the Hollow." (Volume V.) 

October Pageant 

An older child can be dressed as a farmer in overalls 
and broad-brimmed hat. He is making-believe gather 
his vegetables for the winter. Children must designate 
in some way what kind of vegetable they represent. 
Costumes may be made of crepe paper or cambric. The 
simplest way is to have a large shape of the vegetable 
cut out and colored. Make two vegetables, pinning one 
on the front of the child's dress and one on the back. The 
familiar vegetables to represent would be potatoes, tur- 
nips, pumpkins, beets, carrots, and watermelons. Each 
vegetable or group of same kind of vegetable comes 
in separately performing an original dance or making 
appropriate gestures. A large imitation barn or store- 
house can be constructed in one corner of the room into 
which these vegetables finally skip. There can be a 
group of children representing leaves. They come whirl- 
ing about in their autumn colors and finally fall to the 
ground. Another group of children should represent a 
flock of birds flying away to the South. They fly in 
around the room, group together, and then in flock fash- 
ion with a leader fly out of sight. The farmer is now left 
alone to sit down and rest from his busy days of summer 
toil. 

264 




CONVENTIONAL DESIGN FROM THE SIXTEEN SQUARE 
FOLD 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAjVIMES 

Hand-work: 

Pressing of leaves into scrapbooks for preservation. 

Collecting of seeds and nuts. 

Making seed chains. 

Making nature toys. (See Chapter IV.) 

Arranging winged seeds in decorative forms of design. 

Begin use of scissors as described in Chapter II. 

Paper-folding: 

Barn-fold. This is where the hay is stored for the 
horses and cows to eat in winter. 

With heavier construction paper fold and make box 
to hold seeds. 

Make a toy barnyard. (See Chapter IX.) 

Paper-tearing — different shapes of leaves. 

Clay. Make a large ball and then mould it into an apple. 

Make impressions of leaves on a flat piece of clay. 

Mould a bird. 

COLUMBUS DAY, OCTOBER 12 

Each month has, beside its many activities, days upon 
which to stop and reflect. The child cannot entirely 
grasp the meaning of historical days. Our attitude, how- 
ever, toward a holiday makes the impression which for 
the present is only imitative, but later develops a desire 
to study with more interest. 

Give simple descriptions of Columbus sailing across 
the ocean, discovering the new country, landing and 
meeting Indians, and returning home to Queen Isabella. 
Bring out his characteristics of bravery and endurance. 

Sing patriotic songs. 

Dramatize story impromptu. 
2Q5 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Gift work: 

Make a boat with sticks or lentils. 

Paper-folding: Fold sailboat as described in Chapter II. 

Paper-cutting: Make a banner similar to the one 
Columbus placed on America's soil. Fold a long, narrow 
piece of white paper in halves making a double banner. 
Cut ends in wedge shape or fringe them. Paste the 
center of the back banner on the upper part of a small 
stick bringmg the fold at the top of the stick. The 
front banner is left free to wave back and forth. In 
the center of this banner paste a green cross made in 
the Grecian form. 

Sand box: 

The sailing of Columbus and his boats can be illus- 
trated by dividing the sand into the Old World and the 
New World with the Atlantic Ocean between. The Old- 
World side will show civilization with houses and people, 
while America wiU be filled with trees, using many twigs 
and a few Indians. The boats may be moving across 
while the children retell the story. 

HALLOWEEN, OCTOBER 31 

A Time for fun and frolic with myths and supersti- 
tions of the pranks played by fairies and elves years and 
years ago. 

Talk of some of the simple Halloween customs. 

Let the children try bobbing for apples. 

Tie cookies on ends of pieces of string which are hang- 
ing up. Have the children try to eat them with hands 
behind backs. 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Tell story fitting the occasion. (See Volume I.) 
Make a Jack-o'-lantern: Use a good-sized pumpkin 
scraping out the entire center. On one side cut out eyes, 
nose, and mouth. Place a lighted candle in the center of 
it. Now darken the room and let the children gather 
in a ring dancing around the Jack-o'-lantern which is 
placed in the middle of floor. To the tune of "Here 
we go round the Mulberry Bush" (Volume V), let the 
children sing: 

"This is our Jack-o'-Lantern man, 

Lantern man, Lantern man; 

This is om- Jack-o'-Lantern man 

On this our Halloween day." 

Let children draw a Jack-o'-lantern with orange-col- 
ored crayon. 

Have them cut one out on folded paper letting the 
crease at the side hold the two sides together; when 
opened it will stand up. This will make a good place 
card at a supper party. It can also be used as an invi- 
tation card, the writing being found inside. 

Make a witch doll of a lolly pop. With the candy part 
down dress the stick first with stiff white paper, then 
with orange crepe paper and a black cape. Put a marsh- 
mallow on top of the stick for a head, marking the eyes, 
nose, and mouth with melted chocolate. Put a black 
pointed hat on top of the marshmallow and tie it under 
the chin with black streamers. Roll a piece of wire with 
black paper. Tie some fringed paper on the end, making 
a broom. Attach this to the front of the witch's dress, 
She should stand alone. 



267 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

November 

November usually finds the harvest nearly stored, and 
as we turn toward the approaching winter we are glad 
that we are prepared for it. The animal world, too, is 
getting ready for it. Nature has already done her work, 
for the trees and plants have begun their long winter's 
sleep. The days are growing shorter and colder. 

Let the children continue their talk about the habits 
of the wild animals. 

Animals storing their food. 

Their hibernation. 

Their heavy coats of fur. 

Our care of domestic animals in winter. 

Housing of hens, cows, and horses. 

Warm place for the cat and dog. 

Emphasize feeding the birds who stay with us. 

Study of the squirrels is especially interesting to the 
children. 

Talk of the spider who wants to come into your 
kitchen and weave a web. Show or tell about his little 
legs that enable him to crawl so lightly on his slender 
thread. 

Take up the subject of the caterpillar. Find some 
cocoons or let the children bring you some which they 
have found. Keep them in moist cotton batting and put 
them in a dark place through the winter. Early in the 
spring bring them out into the warm room where they 
may be watched. The children will be delighted to see 
the exquisite butterflies emerge in due time from their 
little houses. What better example could one have to 

268 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

show the children faith in our Heavenly Father who 
cares for even the smallest of His creatures? 

Mother is busy in the home with her fall work of ad- 
justing the house and clothing for cold weather. She 
is still canning and preserving. 

Father is storing supplies of all kinds for his family 
and the animals. 

Coal and wood are already in use. 

Explain to the children how the farmer has gathered 
his corn and threshed his wheat. Wheat is made into 
flour and corn into meal for our use. (See Volume III.) 

Have samples of wheat and corn in their growing 
state. A coffee-mill will answer the purpose of illus- 
trating how the miller grinds the corn. Do this for the 
children. 

Show samples of corn meal, different cereals, and 
flour as we buy it. 

Discuss the many ways of using these products. 

What does Mother use flour for.'^ 

If possible, take the children to visit a bakery. 

If your school is accessible to a kitchen, take the 
children there and make a loaf of corn bread. Let them 
watch and help you in the process of making and baking. 

Through these days of interesting talks bring out the 
thought of interdependence. Show the relation of Na- 
ture, man, and God in all things. 

Take, for example, the bread which children eat. An- 
alyze in this fashion, if possible getting answers from 
the children: 

Bread is made from flour. 

Flour is bought from the storekeeper. 
269 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

He gets it from the miller. 

The miller makes flour from wheat. 

Wheat is raised by the farmer. 

The farmer plants the seed. 

Seed grows because of good soil, sun, and rain. 

For all these we must thank our Heavenly Father. 

Children should give thanks to all. 

Let the children learn these verses: 

"Bread from flour. 
Flour from grain. 
Grain from sun. 
And wind and rain. 
Which our Father in His love 
Sends his children from above." 

Also: 

" Back of the loaf is the snowy flour. 
And back of the flour the mill, 
And back of the mill is the w-heat and the shower 
And the sun and the Father's will!" 

And: 

"God sends the sun and rain 
To ripen all the grain, 
To fill the trees w^ith fruit so good. 
That we may never lack for food." 

Another subject which exemplifies the thought of 
interdependence is the butter which the child spreads 
on his bread. Explain to him how the butter is made 
from milk. 

Milk comes from the cow. 

The cow must be cared for by the farmer; therefore 
hay must be cut, made, and stored for the cow to eat in 
winter, while in the summer the farmer must give her 
a nice pasture full of green grass and clover. All this 

270 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

must be done in order that butter can be served at our 
dinner table. 

We cannot keep our houses warm if we have no coal. 
Explain transportation, mining, and the life of the 
miner. (See Volume III.) 

Talk of how man has harnessed Nature to his work, 
such as: 

Getting power from Niagara Falls to work machinery. 

Irrigating lands for agriculture. 

Use of electricity discovered in the air. 

The aeroplane. 

Let the children suggest other forms of interdepend- 
ence and our need of giving thanks for all that comes 
to us. 

THANKSGIVING 

Through all the month we are thinking about and lead- 
ing up to the great festive day of Thanksgiving. This is 
a joyous day of family reunions and of a feast of good 
things to eat. Before a child can understand the signifi- 
cance of this holiday he must be familiar with the story 
of the "First Thanksgiving Day." A simple narrative 
of the Pilgrims, who came years after Columbus, is in- 
teresting to the children whether they understand it all 
or not. Relate especially: 

The Pilgrims' first winter on Cape Cod. 

Meeting with the Indians. 

Pilgrims showing gratitude for their first harvest. 

Their invitation to the Indian Chief and his council 
to share the First Thanksgiving Feast with them. 

Find pictures illustrating these events. 
271 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Show hospitality to those who come to visit us. 

Subject of sharing emphasized. 

Can we enjoy our hoUday if we have not shared with 
others less fortunate than ourselves? 

Plan with the children to give a dinner to some poor 
family. 

All through the month the children may be earning 
money with which to buy materials for a Thanksgiving 
dinner for some poor or sick friend. It would be inter- 
esting, if possible, to let the children go to the stores, 
make their own purchases, and carry the gifts to the 
person for whom they are intended. 

Another way would be to ask the children to bring, 
the day before Thanksgiving, whatever they choose for 
the baskets — groceries, fruits, vegetables, or perhaps 
a fowl or turkey. 

Find homes where clothing is needed and ask the chil- 
dren to bring garments they have outgrown or discarded. 

Whatever the gift, it must represent love and work 
on the part of the giver. A truly thankful heart is al- 
ways a generous giver. 

Tell appropriate stories. (See Volume I.) 

Songs (Volume V) : 
"In a Hickory Nut." 
"The Baker." 
"Hymn of Thanks." 
" Thanksgiving Worries." 

Gift lessons: 

Use the Fifth and Sixth Gifts. (See Chapter XV.) 
Build barns, storehouses, and mills. 

272 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVUVIES 

Build farmhouse and buildings described in Chap- 
ter XV. 

Use transformation, " Going to see Grandma." 

Make a long table for the Thanksgiving dinner. 

Introduce sticks, rings, and lentils to set the table. 

Build a grocery store using the Second Gift, cylin- 
ders to represent barrels, cubes for boxes. 

With sticks and rings make Indian wigwams, bows 
and arrows. 

Games: 

Use finger play about the cow. (See Chapter I.) 

Sense of touch: Place several kinds of fruit on a table. 
One child is bUndfolded and after feeling of the fruit 
tells what kind it is. 

Sense of sight: When the child is not looking remove 
one kind of fruit and then have him look and tell what 
kind is missing. 

Sense of taste. (See Chapter XII.) 

Playing store: Let the children put fruits and vegeta- 
bles made of clay into small paper boxes which they 
have previously made. One child may be the store- 
keeper, the others being the customers. Money may be 
made of clay or paper. 

Playing Thanksgiving Celebration: Let the children 
put on hats and make-believe to take a train to go and 
see Grandma. Have them knock at some other door of 
the building you are in. It is opened and the children 
find Grandma sitting there knitting. She greets them 
warmly and asks them to remove their hats. Then they 
gather about her while she tells them stories. She may 

273 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

tell a story about the Pilgrims, or what she did on 
Thanksgiving Day when she was a little girl. She may 
tell animal or nature stories too. Grandma may be an 
older child, or a teacher, or even somebody's mother 
or grandmother. Children sing songs to her, and then 
light refreshments are served. This should be played at 
the regular lunch-hour time. Later the children say 
good-bye and go back on the make-believe train. 

Build the toy village of the Pilgrims as described in 
Chapter IX. 

Hand-work: 

Take patterns of different kinds of fruit; let the chil- 
dren draw around these on colored paper using the 
color appropriate to each fruit. Cut these out and paste 
them at the top of a basket. The basket is drawn on 
and cut out from wrapping-paper. These baskets look 
attractive pasted on the window panes during this 
holiday week. 

Work with toothpicks and peas making forms 
adapted to this month's interests. 

Make a fruit basket of green or brown construction 
paper. Fold the paper double, the crease coming at the 
bottom. With a pattern draw a basket on the double 
paper. Have a large curved handle. Cut it out and 
paste the handle and sides together. Make separate 
pieces of fruit and stick them into the top of the basket. 
(See Chapter XII.) 

Make an individual dinner place: Cut a smooth piece 
of brown wrapping-paper about 8 x 10 inches. With 
silver paper or white paper painted silver, cut out fork, 

274 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

knife, spoon, and napkin ring. Cut circles of different 
sizes; one for a plate, a saucer, and bread-and-butter 
plate. With crayons or paints, color on the plate some 
meat and vegetables. Paint with red some cranberry 
sauce on the side dish and bread and butter on the small 
plate. Paste these in their proper places on the brown 
paper. The napkin with silver napkin ring should be 
placed at the left. If each child has a dinner place of his 
own before him the group will look as if they were hav- 
ing a sumptuous dinner. 

Put five grains of corn at each place and let the chil- 
dren repeat this verse: 

"Here by our plates, as we see. 

Are five grains of corn in a row. 
To help us remember the Pilgrims 

Who came here so long ago. 
Five little grains of corn — 

I'm sure I've heard somebody say 
It is all they had for their dinner 

One very cold winter's day." 

Through the month let children have practice with 
water-color washes so that when Thanksgiving week 
comes you can choose between crayoning and painting 
when decorating some of the hand-work or making 
paper vegetables and fruits. 

Collect pictures of the harvest and Thanksgiving 
time making a scrapbook especially for this season. 

Make a story-book as suggested in Chapter X. 

Paper-folding — An Indian wigwam. 

Paper-tearing: Find pictures of fruits in advertise- 
ments which are good representations. Let the children 
tear them out carefully that they may learn the correct 

275 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

outlines of the fruits. After they have formed a fair idea 
of the shapes, give the children plain colored paper to 
tear free-hand the same fruits. 

Clay-modeling: Make birds' nests. 

Make basket putting fruits or vegetables in it. 

Different foods served for the Thanksgiving dinner 
may be imitated in clay modeling, such as the turkey, 
bread, pies, etc. This work not only gives exercise for 
the fingers, but for the memory as well, because the 
child will try to reproduce what he has seen his mother 
make. Paint these articles with water-colors and shellac 
them as instructed in Chapter III. Many of the clay 
illustrations will give ideas of subjects to try. 

Make chains of corn, squash- or apple-seeds. Let the 
children wear them home. 

Make a Thanksgiving pie. Use a paper plate filled 
with popcorn and covered with orange or light brown 
tissue paper. (See Chapter XII.) 

Make an Indian doll of corn husks. (See Chapter 
IV.) 

December 

The month of anticipation and expectation for the 
children has come. The grown-ups also enter into the 
spirit of preparing joyful surprises for their loved ones 
in honor of that Greatest Gift of all time, the Saviour of 
the world. It is the time of all others when hearts are 
attuned to one another and are warmed toward the less 
fortunate. Children look forward to Christmas as the 
happiest festival of the year and talk about it and plan 
for it weeks beforehand. 

276 




.^^^^-. 

wm 



1 1.* 








r* 






CLAY-MODELING 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVIMES 

Look out of the windows with the children and see 
what Nature is doing. The trees are bare and brown 
save one kind that is always green — the evergreen 
family of pines, spruces, hemlocks, and firs. 

What winter birds are here? 

Has any one seen a squirrel or chipmunk? 

Perhaps those in the parks are tame enough to take 
nuts from the children's hands. 

Watch the squirrels eating nuts. 

First signs of ice. Talk about what the children would 
like to do when the ice is strong enough to hold them. 
Put some water in a pan outside the window that the 
children may watch the congealing process. 

What did Mother put over you to keep you warm 
last night? 

What kind of blanket was spread over the earth last 
night? 

Let the children tell of their experience coming to 
school in the first snow of the season. 

Talk of the land 'way up in the North. 

Tell of the Eskimo children, of their home and life. 
(See Volume I.) 

Another holiday is coming. What is it? 

Let the children tell all they can remember of last 
Christmas. 

Learn all you can from them about Santa Glaus. 

Santa Glaus is the chief figure of interest during this 
month. His activities are a fascinating subject for spec- 
ulation. Keep him mysterious. Do not let the prosaic 
and practical enter into the charming mjrth. In mak- 
ing him too convincing and mundane you make the 

277 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

inevitable disillusionment too severe and endanger your 
reputation for veracity. 

Santa is jolly, good, and kind. 

He has reindeer, a sleigh, and pack of toys. 

He may come down the chimney. 

Hang up the stockings. 

Poem, " Hang up the Baby's Stocking." 

Let the children write letters to Santa Claus asking 
for the toys they want. 

Discuss their visit to the Toy Shop. (See Volume 

m.) 

If possible take the children to a store. 

Poem, "The Night before Christmas." 

Stories of the Christmas-tide. (See Volume I.) 

We give presents to people we love. 

Let us play we are Santa Claus and we '11 make things 
for other people. 

Talk over with the children plans to have a Christ- 
mas-tree. Let us make it a surprise for our mothers and 
fathers. We will make trimmings for the tree and gifts 
for parents which will be hung on the tree. 

Discuss Christmas gifts showing patterns which they 
will use later when the hand-work hour comes. 

Emphasize secrecy in the work, because Santa Claus 
works that way, and Mother has secrets, too. 

Why do we have Christmas? 

WTiose birthday is it.? 

We like to celebrate our birthdays, and as this is the 
greatest birthday of the year the whole world is going to 
enjoy it. 

Tell the story of the Christ Child from the Bible. 
278 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Talk of Mary, his mother; of the shepherds, stable, 
and the animals there. 

Story of the Wise Men and the Star. 

Choose one story which you can illustrate on the 
blackboard by drawing the picture while telling the 
story. Use colored chalk. 

Have a collection of pictures of the Christ Child and 
Madonna. 

Jessie Willcox Smith has illustrated both aspects of 
Christmas and her pictures are always appealing. 
Charming illustrations are found in the magazines. 

Songs: 

One of the sweetest things about the Christmas fes- 
tivities is the carols and songs. The old English custom 
of placing lighted candles in the windows on Christmas 
Eve, while a group of carolers sing as they pass through 
the streets, is to be commended for the cheer and happi- 
ness it brings to many in a busy world. Little children 
may not be able to be the singers outside, but they may 
listen from inside the home. They will hear many songs 
and carols they have learned, for this is the time when 
old and young sing of the little babe who lay in the 
manger. 

Teach the carols to the children while they are young 
that they may always enjoy them. 

Sing these songs (Volume V) : 

" Winter Song." 

"Snow Song." 

"ToaSnowflake." 

"Christmas Hymn." 

279 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

" Santa's Visit." 
*' Christmas Eve." 
" Santa Claus So Jolly." 
" The Christmas-tree." 

Gift lessons: 

Through the month use all the blocks, that the chil- 
dren may freely build as their imagination directs. 
Many things can be made to illustrate the Christmas 
Story or Santa Claus. 

Chimneys, fireplaces, houses, shops, toys, boxes. 

With sticks, rings, lentils, and tablets pictures can be 
made of trees, the Star, the Manger. 

Make a fireplace with tablets. With sticks and rings 
put ornaments on the mantel, andirons and sticks in the 
fireplace, and last of all the stockings hanging in a row 
down from the mantel. 

Games: 

Gymnastic exercises imitating winter sports like — 

Throwing snowballs. 

Skating. 

Running about with arms in air and fingers moving 
like snowflakes. 

Prancing like reindeer. 

Motions like mechanical toys. 

Reaching up as if trimming Christmas-tree. 

Play Toyman's Shop. (See Chapter XIII; see also 
Volume III.) 

Play Santa Claus. Children love to act out the story 
of Santa Claus coming with his tiny reindeer and sleigh 

280 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMJVIES 

to fill the stockings beside the fireplace. Have them all 
go to sleep save one, who takes Santa's part. Bells of a 
pair of horse reins are shaken by some one outside the 
room which signifies that Santa has arrived with his 
sleigh and pack of toys. On tip-toe Santa enters the 
room where the sleeping children are and goes to a make- 
believe fireplace where he places some toys borrowed for 
the game. He goes out as quietly as he came. Then the 
children play waking up on Christmas morning and find- 
ing the treasures Santa has left. 

Out-of-door game. Make a snow man. Let the chil- 
dren help, then let them take turns hitting first his head, 
then his arms, and then his body until he is all gone. 
Let children take turns each throwing three snowballs 
to a turn. 

Construct an Eskimo village as described in Chapter 
IX. (Read "The Eskimo Twins," Volume I.) 

Give the children the privilege of trimming the tree. 

Hand-icork: 

Let the children express freely with crayons and 
water-colors the joyous thoughts that are teeming 
within their small brains at this time. They will derive 
great joy and benefit from such creative self-activity. 

The combining of all materials with which the chil- 
dren have worked up to this time gives splendid results. 
There is a great deal to be accomplished before the great 
celebration in the schoolroom when Mother and Father 
come to visit. 

Christmas-tree decorations. See Chapter XH, describ- 
ing: 

281 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Paper chains, candy chains. 

Stringing popcorn and cranberries. 

Stringing paper circles, cotton batting, and straws 
alternately. 

Red flowers. Red or green bells. 

Snowballs. 

Lanterns — Candy bag with face and body of a doll. 

Make tissue paper excelsior by letting the children 
snip long pieces of white tissue paper. 

Candy dolls. The dolls, described in Chapter XII, 
which are made of scrim and filled with candy, should 
be made by the teacher as a surprise for each child. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR GIFTS TO BE HUNG ON THE 
TREE 

Calendars. Paste calendars on the lower part of a 
card cut from construction paper. Above the calendar 
children may do different kinds of hand- work for deco- 
ration. With crayons or water-colors a landscape may 
be done with snow on the ground and pine-trees drawn 
here and there. The Star of Bethlehem with its golden 
rays would be an appropriate subject. A conventional 
border of holly leaf and berry is simple to make. 

With tearing or paper-cutting the children can deco- 
rate the calendars attractively. Illustrations suggesting 
a winter scene of snow, trees, and a rabbit can be found 
in Chapter II. 

With heavy green or brown card made of construction 
paper find the vertical diameter and fold each side to the 
center making the original window fold. Now open and 
on the center section paste a calendar, decorating above 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

it or about it as desired. Thus the calendar is folded in 
and yet when opened will stand up nicely on Father's 
desk if given to him. The outside of the card may need a 
bit of decoration such as lines of color and spot work or 
holly leaf and berries. 

Take a large pattern of a dog, rabbit, or cat. Cut out 
of construction paper and touch it up with crayons sug- 
gesting the eyes, nose, mouth, and paws. On it paste a 
calendar. 

Blotters. Cut blotting-paper into desired size making 
three or four pieces. Cut from construction paper one 
piece the same size. Tie these all together at one side 
with raffia or brass fasteners. On this construction 
paper make pictures or designs as has been suggested 
for calendars. 

Desk-blotter. Cut heavy cardboard 11x16 inches. 
Make four corners for it of light-weight cardboard or 
construction paper. Make the corners about a three- 
inch right angle. On these corners let the children make 
a conventional design with cra^^ons or paints. A few 
holes may be punched and with worsted or silkateen a 
design may be sewed in. Fold the right-angled edges of 
these corners over the corners of the large cardboard and 
glue down leaving the slanting side free. Now slip in a 
piece of blotting-paper the size of the large cardboard. 

Match-scratcher. On a piece of construction paper 
work out a landscape either with crayons, paint, or cut- 
ting paper. Let something in the picture be made of 
sandpaper. For example: 

I. Cut out a house of black paper. Cut out of the 
house two windows behind which paste red tissue paper. 

«8S 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Cut out black trees to paste beside the house. Paste 
these on the card. Now cut out of sandpaper the shape 
of the slanting roof and paste it on top of the roof. With 
white crayons make snow on the ground about the 
house. The red paper gives the effect of light in the 
windows and the sandpaper roof is the place to scratch 
matches. 

II. Another suggestion is a seashore view. Use cray- 
ons for blue water and sky. Cut a piece of sandpaper 
and paste on the picture for the sand. Sitting at the 
edge of the water on the sand place two little children 
who are supposed to be playing in the sand. From pat- 
terns the little children may be cut out and pasted on. 
Sunbonnet babies are cunning little figures to place 
here. 

III. Cut out a good-sized candlestick which has been 
crayoned first. Paste it on a card. The candle part 
should be a long, narrow strip of sandpaper the top of 
which is cut pointed. On the card and at the top of the 
candle put on some orange crayon to represent the 
flame. These should have a loop of ribbon at the top of 
the card with which it may be hung up. 

Shaving-paper case. Cut white tissue paper into a 
rectangular shape and make a package of it about one 
half inch in thickness. Cut two pieces of construction 
paper slightly larger than the size of the tissue paper. 
Let one be the back of the package of tissue paper and 
the other piece the front. Punch two holes across the 
top through the entire package and tie with raffia. On 
the outside front cover let the child decorate with cray- 
ons, paints, or cut-paper designs. 

284 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Time-table case. Cut a piece of heavy green paper 
twice the width of a time-table and an inch longer. 
Now fold the green paper over double. At each end 
punch holes a half-inch apart and a quarter of an inch in 
from the edge. Let the child sew over and over with 
worsted or raffia. Now one side is to be decorated with a 
border pattern done in crayon or a Christmas-tree 
drawn in at opposite ends. The case may hold several 
time-tables. 

Pin-holder case. This is made as described for the 
time-table case, only made of a size which will hold a 
package of pins. Turn the flap of the package of pins 
back so that the rows of pins can be seen. 

Napkin ring. From a paper tubing, which may come 
from paper towel rolls or ribbon rolls, cut from an inch 
to an inch and a half in width. Wrap this over and over 
with raffia and fasten the end securely. 

Shopping-bags. Take smooth, heavy brown wrap- 
ping-paper sewing over and over around the three edges, 
or, if a long piece of paper, double it so that two sides 
would be joined together with raffia. The bag when 
finished should be about twelve inches wide and fifteen 
inches long. If the paper is to be doubled, you will need 
a piece thirty-four inches long. At the top fold over, in 
inch folds, two inches of the bag to make it firm. On 
each side of the top fasten in handles made of several 
strands of raffia braided. 

Paper-tearing: 

Let the children tear good-sized Christmas-trees that 
may be placed in border fashion around the room. 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Tear a landscape, pasting it on a card mount. An ir- 
regular piece of white paper pasted on gray background. 
This shows the ground is covered with snow. Tear ever- 
green trees, their limbs pointing downward. Paste tbera 
here and there or in clumps on the snow. Tear out a 
white snowman putting him in the foreground. With 
crayons put in his eyes, nose, and mouth; also buttons 
down the front of his coat. 

Tearing combined with cutting gives still more op- 
portunities. (See illustrations in Chapter 11.) 

Paper-folding: 

Fold and cut snowflakes as described in Chapter II. 
Sled. 

Transparency: 

Cut a large star out of the center of a piece of heavy 
black or brown card. Paste over the place where it was 
cut out some yellow tissue paper. Do the same to an- 
other piece of paper the same size. Now paste the two 
together so that the pasting will come inside. This is 
very effective hung in the window. 

A snowman made of white tissue paper is pasted on 
an oblong piece of white tissue paper. This is bordered 
with a band of black construction paper about half an 
inch wide. The snowman is given a black paper hat. 
With black paint put in his features, put a pipe in his 
mouth and buttons down his coat. This may be pasted 
lightly on the windowpane. 

A red fireplace may be worked out into an interesting 
transparency. 

More elaborate transparencies may be made by the 
^6 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

teacher which the children will enjoy looking at when 
hung in the windows. Take subjects such as *' The Star 
of Bethlehem and the Wise Men traveUng toward it," 
and " Santa Glaus and his reindeer." 

Clay-modeling: 

Snowballs — Snowmen. 

Oranges; paint them. 

Sleds. 

Chimneys. 

Candlestick. Paint it green or brown and shellac it. 
When dry put a red candle in the socket. 

Make an ash-tray for Father. (See illustrations of 
bowls.) 

As is done at Thanksgiving time so now plan to 
make Christmas a happy day for somebody else. Sur- 
prise boxes of food and clothing for other children 
should be arranged. Make the most of this beautiful 
season and bring out the best that is in the children in- 
stead of the selfish tendencies, as is very easy when 
there are so many gifts for them. Lead them to think of 
the happiness of others rather than their own. Only 
thus can they realize the full beauty and joy of the 
Christmas-tide. 

January 

The New Year has come. Children enter into the 
spirit of the time only as it is presented to them. They 
will follow as they are led; therefore show them that 
they are now about to start on fresh work and that new 
duties will be added. They will review some of their 

287 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

past experiences to see what has been accomplished and 
then push on with new zeal to do all things better than 
they have ever done before. Talk of the new month and 
the new year. As we say " Good-Morning," so we say 
we wish our friends a " Happy New Year " on the first 
day of January. 

The Christmas holidays are over and perhaps your 
group of children have been separated for a few days. 
Give them a little time, therefore, to tell of their happy 
vacation. 

Who had sleds for Christmas.'' Discuss the sport of 
coasting. 

Did Brother have skates.? Talk about skating. 

January suggests snow in the nature world; also ice, 
and that under the ice and snow everything is sleeping. 

Talk of the snow and of making a snowman. 

Shoveling snow and snowplough. 

Frost on the windows. 

Ice and ice-cutting. 

If possible, take the children to a pond where ice- 
cutting is in process. Go to the ice-house and let them 
watch the ice carried by machinery from the pond, up 
the runway and into the house. Let them see how the 
ice is packed away in sawdust where it will not melt even 
through the summer. The carts are driven to this house 
to get the ice which is delivered at our back doors. 

Ask the children the use of ice. 

We need it to keep food cold in hot weather. 

It keeps Baby's milk cold. 

It is used to make ice-cream. 

It is used in ice-bags in some kinds of sickness. 
288 






If 



SNOWFLAKE PAPER-CUTTIXG 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAIVIMES 

On a day when large flakes of snow are falling, exam- 
ine the crystal flakes with the children. Note the won- 
derful designs. 

At this time of the year, the days being short, children 
have an opportunity to see darkness come on before 
they go to bed. Full of wonder and curiosity the chil- 
dren are naturally attracted to the heavens. The moon 
and stars are unusually clear on a cold and frosty night. 
This is, therefore, an opportune time to discuss with 
them the subject of light. (See Volume III.) 

Who has seen the moon.'* 

Ask Mother to look at it with you to-night. 

Who needs the light of the moon.^ Sailors at sea. 
Doctors going out to see sick people at night. 

Talk of the stars. The Great Dipper. 

Tell stories about them. (See Volumes I and III.) 

Talk of the sunlight. Of what use is it.'* 

Discuss lights we need to have in the home when it is 
night; electricity, gas, lamps, candles. 

Discuss street lights given us by the town in which we 
Uve. 

Other things that have to be lighted at night : Electric 
car, automobile, train with its red and green signal lights; 
also steamers. The searchlights. Light-houses on dan- 
gerous shores to light the path for boats. (See Volume 
III.) 

In Nature we find the firefly with its httle lantern 
under its wings. (See poem. Volume I.) 

Symbolize this point of light and how much joy it 
brings. How can a little child be a light.? If he is cheer- 
ful and helpful he makes everybody about him happy. 

289 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

" I '11 be a little sunbeam true, 
A tiny ray of light, 
And try in all I say and do 

To make the world more bright." 

The child has now begun to realize that he is in a big 
world in which there is a great deal going on. He has 
learned of the dependence of each one upon every one 
else. He sees the relation of Nature to man, of man to 
men, and of all to God. There are many laboring for the 
child's welfare and comfort; he must appreciate it and 
act accordingly. Devote some time, therefore, to em- 
phasize these points : 

Respect for those who labor. 

Desire to labor. 

Value of time in labor. 

Alternation of work and play. 

Let the children tell of the different ones who labor, 
such as the carpenter, plumber, baker, blacksmith, 
cobbler, fisherman, farmer, postman. All these men 
have learned a trade and must work together in har- 
mony for the good of the community. Those who em- 
ploy them must respect them and appreciate their need 
of them. Take up the different trades from time to time 
with the children. 

The subject of the blacksmith and his work is always 
interesting to children, for it shows the care of animals, 
especially the horse which is beloved by mankind. If it 
is possible, visit the blacksmith shop with your children. 
(See Volume I.) 

Did any one see horses slipping on the icy streets? 

What do we wear to prevent slipping? 
290 



SUGGESTIVE PROGR^VIVIMES 

Rubbers protect us, but shoes help the horses. 

Having visited the shop or shown a detailed picture 
of one, talk over what was seen, such as the iron shoe, 
paring of hoof, nails, tools, red-hot fire to fix the shoes. 

Think of how many people are dependent upon black- 
smiths to fix their horses' shoes; the grocer, milkman, 
farmer, etc. The horse is a friend to everybody. 

From the discussion of caring for the horse a review 
on care of our pets is advisable now. In some way each 
animal is of use to us ; the cat catches our mice, the dog 
watches over our homes, and the cow gives us our milk. 
Impress upon the children the fact that these dumb 
creatures are dependent on us for food and shelter. He 
who is kind to his beasts has a heart for mankind. 

The postman is an interesting friend. Through all 
kinds of weather he tramps the streets delivering mail. 
The ring of the postman brings every child to the door. 
Let the children talk about their postman and encourage 
them to give him a cheery '' Good-morning " greeting and 
to thank him for letters. 

Let the children repeat this verse and talk about it; 

"The market man is out to-day 
Calling for orders on his way 
We'll order things kept in his store 
One, two, three, and sometimes more." 

Songs (see Volume V) : 
*'The Little New Year." 
"Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star." 
"Coasting." 

"When the Man in the Moon goes Fishing." 
"Day and Night." 

291 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

"The Song of Iron." 
"The Little Shoemaker." 
"The Postman." 

Gift Lessons: 

Make ice-houses with the blocks. 

Designs of snowflakes with sticks. 

With blocks, windows out of which you can look to 
see the stars and the moon. 

Pictures of windows made with tablets or sticks. 

With rings make the moon and sun; put faces in with 
sticks. 

Stars made with sticks. 

Stars can be made on the peg boards. 

Make lamp-post with sticks. 

Attach letter-box to post. 

Make picture of train of cars with sticks, rings, or 
lentils. 

Build an engine with blocks. 

Games: 

Exercises imitating things talked about. 

Snow falling. 

Throwing snowballs. 

Skating — sliding. 

Play horses are walking, trotting, and galloping. 

Swing the blacksmith's tools. 

Puff like an engine while scuflSng with the feet. 

Railroad train. The following poem may be acted 
by seven children chosen to stand in line to represent 
each kind of a car. Let them go and stand in place as 

292 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

they are called. When the seven are joined together, 
each child putting his hand on the shoulders of the one 
in front, they imitate the going of the train. If done 
with the piano playing they continue to go until the 
music slows down and finally stops, the children imitat- 
ing. Let another group of seven children play it and so 
on until all in the circle have had a chance. 

THE RAILROAD TRAIN 

One is the engine, shining and fine. 

That stands at the head of the cars in line. 

Two is the baggage-car, solid and strong. 
That carries the trunks and suit-cases along. 

Three's the express-car with strong double locks; 
Send what you please in a parcel or box. 

Four is the mail-car, open to all. 

That carries the letters for great and for small. 

Five is the passenger-car so gay. 

That carries the people who ride by day. 

Six is a sleeping-car, a pleasant sight. 
That carries the people who ride by night. 

Seven 's a dining-car, large and neat. 
That carries the people who travel and eat. 

This is the train all ready to go. 

That works for all of the world, you know. 

It goes as fast as a bird with wings. 

"Clear the track! Clear the track!" when the bell rings. 

The boy who is the engine rings the bell as the train 
goes along. 

293 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Singing games (see Volume V) : 

"The Galloping Horses.'* 

"TheRocking-Horse." 

Choose several ring games during the month. Com- 
petitive games show the friendly spirit the children 
should have developed by this time. (See Chapter XIII.) 

Hand-work: 

Let the children draw or paint freely their own im- 
pressions gained from talking about snow, sports, cut- 
ting ice. Let them illustrate the different kinds of lights 
mentioned. They will want to picture what they saw 
on their visit to the blacksmith or to the baker, etc. 

Have patterns of the anvil, hammer, and horseshoe 
which the children may outhne and cut out. 

A blacksmith's shop will be great fun for the children 
to make. Use a large box of either cardboard or wood. 
Make a fireplace and fittings found in the shop the 
children visited. Among the toys find a horse and a 
doll, which can be dressed as a blacksmith, to be placed 
in the shop. 

Copy the illustration of the boy rolling a big snowball. 
Also the little girl with her sled. These pictures include 
tearing of white paper for the ground covered with snow 
and the cutting out of figures from black or colored 
paper. Paste the figures on a heavy paper of gray. Fall- 
ing snow is illustrated by putting dots over the gray 
background with white chalk. 

Make night scenes with crayons and again try them 
with paints. 

An attractive night scene is made by painting, cutting, 
294 




STORIES ILLUSTRATED BY PAPER-CUTTING 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

or by having a row of city buildings silhouetted in black 
in the foreground. The yellow moon sails in a dark 
blue sky above and a few yellow stars can be seen here 
and there. 

Make the rocking-horse as described in Chapter XII. 

Make a doll's sled, electric car, and an engine out of 
boxes and spools. (See Chapter XI.) 

Cut out stars which have been outlined on paper from 
patterns. Crayon them yellow. With piece of worsted, 
which has been put through one of the points of the 
star, tie it on the child's button-hole when he goes 
home. If silver or gold paper is obtainable, cut out stars 
and paste on cardboard. 

Make the paper fold of a window. (See Chapter II.) 
In the center section draw in panes of glass. Color the 
panes yellow and the side shutters green. This gives the 
eflFect of yellow light inside the house. If desired, cut out 
where the four panes of glass would be, leaving a frame- 
work of paper. Paste yellow tissue paper across the back. 

Fold two boxes and slip one inside the other. Cut 
a slit on one side as in a mail-box. Let the children tear 
or cut small pieces of paper, make-believe to write on 
them, and drop them into the mail-box. 

With perforated cards let the children sew star de 
signs using worsted or heavy silkateen. 

Make a transparency of a night scene. (See Chapter 
XII.) 

Clay-modeling: 

Make an Eskimo house which reviews the subject 
of last month. 

295 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Make cubes representing blocks of ice coming from 
the pond. 

Balls of clay represent snowballs, and several pressed 
together will make a snowman; a large one for his body, 
smaller one for his chest and shoulders, and a small one 
for the head. Cover toothpicks with clay and press them 
into the sides. These represent the arms. 

Mould a lamp-post. 

February 

The short month of February brings with it several 
holidays which give not only pleasure, but a chance to 
show one's patriotism. We cannot begin too soon to 
teach children the true significance of loyalty and patri- 
otism. In order to inspire them with the right spirit we 
should acquaint them with our country's heroes. The 
child's mind can be reached easily through showing him 
an example near at hand and through admiration for 
the spirit of loyalty and altruism shown in the hero's 
life. The unselfish devotion to duty of our firemen and 
policemen is an excellent concrete example within the 
child's experience. 

Who helped you across the street to school .f* 

Who looks after your house in the night when you are 
asleep.'^ 

Who catches people who are not doing right? 

Policemen are strong and brave. 

People must respect and obey them, for they stand 
for law and order. 

The firemen are brave, strong, and fearless. They dare 
to risk their lives to save other lives and to save property. 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

We have very brave and strong men who are looking 
after the whole country. 

There is a man, called the President, who is at the 
head of the Government of the United States. He must 
be wise, good, and true to the right. 

Such a man was Abraham Lincoln, one of our Presi- 
dents who lived years ago. Because he was very brave 
and stood for the right, every one learned to love him. 
Even though he is not living now we want to show him 
special tribute, so we celebrate his birthday, which is 
February 12. 

Give brief anecdotes of Lincoln's life and bring out 
the underlying spirit which dominated his career, that 
all peoples should be free. Every one should respect 
every one else because we have found out individual 
rights and yet all are dependent on one another. 

Have pictures of Abraham Lincoln, and such others, 
illustrating incidents in his life, as would interest the 
children. (See Volume III for illustration of Lincoln's 
log cabin.) 

Another birthday is at hand, that of our first great 
President, George Washington, which comes on Feb- 
ruary 22. He, too, was a strong, brave man who be- 
lieved in truth and honesty. It was he who formed this 
country into a law-abiding, peaceful nation and to him 
has been given the title of "The Father of his Country." 

Tell anecdotes of his life. 

Tell of his interest in having a national flag. 

Tell the story of Betsy Ross who made the first flag 
for the United States. 

Teach the salute and pledge of allegiance to the Flag. 
297 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the Republic 
for which it stands; one nation indivisible with liberty 
and justice for all." Right hand held at forehead until 
the words "for all," when arm is stretched forward 
toward the flag. 

Another pledge of allegiance, in poetry, is: 

" My country is America, 
My flag red, white, and blue, 
And to the land of Washington 
I ever will be true. 
So wave the flags and wave again, 
And give three loud 'Hurrahs' 
For this our loved America 
And for the Stripes and Stars." 

A very little child could repeat : 

"I love the name of Washington, 
I love my coimtry too; 
I love the Flag, the dear old Flag, 
Of red and white and blue." 

The significance of the three colors should be taught: 

Red says, "Be brave." 
White says, "Be pure." 
Blue says, "Be true." 

(See "Our Flag," Volume I.) 



OUR FLAG COLORS 

I know three little sisters, 
I think you know them too; 
For one is red and one is white 
And the other one is blue. 
Hurrah for these three sisters! '' 

Hurrah for the red, white, and blue! 
Hurrah [said five times] for the red, white, and blue! 
298 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

"I know three little lessons. 
These little sisters tell. 
The first is Love, then Purity, 
And Truth we love so well. 
Hurrah for these three lessons! 
Hurrah for the red, white, and blue! 
Hurrah [said five times] for the red, white, and blue!" 

Three little girls may be dressed in red, white, and blue 
respectively and as their names are called they come to 
the group of children and make a curtsy. 

There have always been heroes in every country who 
were brave and true. In the olden days these heroes 
were often called knights. 

Tell stories of the heroes and knights of old. (See Vol- 
ume IV of The Children's Hour.) 

Exemplify the qualities of character for which the 
knights or heroes stood; purity, honesty, bravery. Let 
each child realize his own ability to attain these attri- 
butes. 

He must learn obedience. 

Respect the rights of others. 

Always be ready to do a service for some one. 

Learn the right use of time. 

Cooperation in community spirit. 

Use of liberty as long as it is law-abiding. 

Talk of the Girl and Boy Scout. 

Martin Luther says, "The richest prosperity of the 
State is the production of honorable citizens." 

It is only through early guidance that the right prin- 
ciples of conduct are instilled; therefore great stress 
should be placed upon these qualities during the month 
of February when two such knightly men as Lincoln 

299 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

and Washington can be given as examples to the 
children. 

There are brave and heroic women. Tell stories of 
Joan of Arc and others. 

Refer to Florence Nightingale, Clara Barton, Edith 
Cavell, and the brave nurses of the world wars. 

Children can be brave, too. Give examples, if pos- 
sible, of heroism among their own friends or instances 
in the town or city near by. Brave children will make 
brave men. 

Let children tell of their fathers or uncles who may 
have served in France during the recent war. 

Carefully chosen pictures will make a great impres- 
sion. Show pictures of knights in armor. 

Valentine's Day 

February 14 has been held as a festive day for many 
generations, the origin of which dates back many years. 
Saint Valentine was distinguished for his loving and 
charitable acts, and whatever the origin of the day, we 
may give him these attributes which we like to commem- 
orate on this date. Impress upon the children that it is 
a day of sweet thoughts of our friends and of the desire 
to send them loving messages. It is the custom to send 
these missives without signature, so one is left to guess 
who the sender is. With the little children great pleas- 
ure is gained by making the valentines; therefore, some 
time beforehand must be given to the occupation. A 
festive hour during school-time may be arranged to 
receive the mysterious envelopes. 



300 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Songs for the month (see Volume V) : 
"Lincoln." 
*' Washington Song." 
"Flag of our Country." 
"America." 
"The Postman." 
"Saint Valentine's Day." 

Gift lessons: 

Building with blocks: Monuments to the memory of 
special heroes. Barracks where soldiers live when in 
service. Trenches. 

Arrange sticks to make an outline of the log cabin 
where Lincoln was born. 

With colored sticks make the United States flag. 

Make rows of tents. 

With toothpicks and peas make aeroplane and gun- 
boat, flag. (See illustrations in Chapter IV.) 

Games: 

Sijiging game. "Soldier boy, Soldier boy." (See 
Volume V.) 

Knight game. (Read the " Search for a Good Child," 
Volume IV.) One child is chosen to be the knight who 
goes off in his castle to live, which may be in the corner 
of the room or just outside the door. The knight comes 
galloping in to the center of the circle and asks the 
teacher or mother if she has a good child who would 
like to go to ride with him to-day. He says he wants 
only a good child who has done a kind service for some 
one. The mother looks around over the group and says, 

301 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

"John has been good to-day; he helped bring in the 
wood for the stove. Yes, he may go to ride to-day." 
OS John goes galloping with the knight around the room 
or out to another room. Immediately there come from 
the other children tales of the kind deeds they have done 
and they ask for the next ride. Perhaps one child has 
been disturbing another. When the knight comes back. 
Mother has to say, "Frank cannot go to-day because 
he was not thoughtful." The children are quiet for a 
moment, which casts a shadow on the game as well as 
sends a lesson home to Frank. Now the game proceeds, 
and both boys and girls have turns in telling a good deed 
they have done to make them deserving of a ride with 
the knight. 

Exercises may be of military form: 

Raising and saluting the jflag. 

Saluting officers. 

Drill marches. 

Galloping of cavalry horses. 

Bugle calls and beating of drums. 

Valentine game. Let the teacher prepare one valentine 
apiece for her children. One child is chosen to begin the 
game by taking a valentine from the teacher and running 
around the outside of the circle dropping the envelope 
where he chooses. Play as in the game "Drop the hand- 
kerchief"; the one receiving it must pick it up and run 
around the circle after the postman who dropped it, who 
by this time has reached his place in the circle. The next 
child is given another envelope by the teacher, and the 
game continues imtil each one has received a valentine. 

302 




wipr>. 



PAPER-CUTTING AND PASTING 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Hand-work: 

Let children draw on paper a picture which will illus- 
trate something they remember of the stories told of 
Lincoln or Washington. 

Plant grass-seed in a saucer of dirt a week before the 
22d. Plant the seed in little rows to make the shape of a 
W. When it comes up the green lines of grass will be 
very attractive and will stand for Washington's name. 

Refer to Chapter XII: Choose a pattern to make a 
soldier cap. Make a different badge for celebration of 
the 12th and 22d. 

Make a flag. Mark off with pencil half-inch distances 
on piece of oblong paper leaving a square in left-hand 
corner. Let children crayon in the stripes and make 
stars in the corner. Paste this on a stick or slat. 

L:ig cabin. Cut and fold a house the same as for a toy 
village (see Chapter IX). Keep the house plain making 
a door at one end and pasting a chimney on the other 
end which starts from the ground on the outside. Cut 
out small square windows on the sides. With crayons 
mark off the house with brown, horizontal lines to make 
them resemble logs. 

Soldier's camp-ground. Follow directions in Chapter 
XII. 

Valentines. Several ways are suggested in Chapter XII. 

Paper-folding: 

Soldier cap. Drinking-cup. 

Picture frame for either Lincoln's or Washington's 
picture. Follow directions as given in Chapter II. 

Fold a boat. 

303 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Sand table: 

Illustrate the story of Washington crossing the Del- 
aware. 

Clay-modeling: 

Give children free play to make what would be sug- 
gested to them from stories told at this time. They 
may think of guns, soldier hat, or a fort. 

March 

Having woven loyalty and patriotism into the thoughts 
of the children, let the next few weeks be devoted to a 
civic programme. Find out in discussion just what our 
country, and especially our city, is doing for us. 

All the fathers are paying money (taxes) to help the 
city take care of the people who live in it. 

Discuss the physical welfare of the people of which 
the city takes care. 

Policemen guard property and see that law is kept. 
Discuss punishments by law if one does not do right 
by other people's property. Speak of stealing, damag- 
ing things, and throwing stones. 

Firemen come when the house has caught fire. 

Men are employed to shovel snow from the side- 
walks. 

Streets are cleaned and sprinkled. 

Ashes, paper, and garbage are taken away. 

There are lights on the street at night. 

The United States employs postmen to bring the 
mail to the homes. 

There are public parks with beautiful trees and flowers. 
304 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

There are fountains for beauty, and drinking-foun- 
tains. 

There are playgrounds with all kinds of amusements, 
and in winter the ground is flooded for skating. 

There is a gymnasium with a swimming-pool. 

In summer there are pubhc baths if the city is near 
a lake or an ocean. 

There are hospitals with clinics free to all, supervised 
by splendid physicians and nurses. It is a nice place to 
go because there is such good care given to any one who 
is sick. Emphasize this because so many children have 
fear of hospitals. 

For the mental welfare of citizens there are: 

Public schools, night schools, vocational schools. 

Libraries and free story- telling hours. Lectures. 

Museums, aquariums, and zoos. 

Community entertainments: singing, band concerts, 
supervised moving-picture shows. 

Show postcards of public buildings. 

The month of March brings a strong, cold wind. It 
is at work with all its might drying up the snow and ice 
and is refreshing the earth, preparing for spring. 

Let us see what it does: 

It dries up the mud. 

It blows the dead twigs. 

It turns the windmills and weather vanes. 

It blows the kites into the sky. It will take your 
balloon if you do not hold it tightly. 

Feel its strength when it pushes you down the street. 

It dries the clean clothes upon the line. 

We can hear it as it howls among the trees and around 
305 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

the corners of houses, but we cannot see it or grasp it. 
The child who is led to realize its great unseen power, 
appreciates its true value, and is interested through the 
long month of March with its strong winds. 

Show pictures of the weather vane and windmill. 
Who has a weather vane on the barn at homcf^ 

Take a walk letting the children carry pinwheels 
which they have made. See what happens when the 
wind strikes the pinwheels. 

Point out everything blowing; the bare tree branches, 
a flag, clothes in a back yard. Find a weather vane. 

Tell stories about the wind. 

Liken the boys and girls to winds. Make a moral les- 
son of the contrasting winds. Some one once wrote that 
"Some boys and girls are selfish and thoughtless of the 
happiness of others. Like the cyclone, wherever they 
go they destroy happiness; their frowns and cross words 
drive away smiles and fill every one's heart with sorrow. 
There are other boys and girls who affect you just like 
the ocean breeze on a hot day. They bring faces that 
are covered with smiles, voices that bubble over with 
laughter, and a good time for every one." To which 
wind will you belong? 

Besides the wind there are other unseen powers at 
work, such as heat and cold. We can see what is accom- 
plished, but not the power. 

The sun is beginning to melt the snow. Jack Frost 
will soon disappear. Bring into the room a bit of frozen 
earth. Watch the moisture appear and then explain 
that it is the frost melting to water. Soon the sun's rays 
evaporate the water and the earth has become dry. 

306 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Explain to the children that this process is what the 
farmer is waiting for the earth to go through before he 
can plant his seeds. 

Fire also makes heat. For this reason we have fire in 
stoves to cook our food. 

Cold gives us ice. Review what has been said before 
about its uses. As ice comes near heat, it melts and be- 
comes water. 

Talk about different forms of water: Steam, mist, fog, 
rain, frost, snow, and ice. 

Talk about different forms or bodies of water, such as 
the ocean, harbors, lakes, ponds, rivers, brooks, springs, 
and the fountains in the parks. Perhaps some child has 
seen Niagara Falls. 

Of what use is water.? 

To help preserve the life of human beings, animals, 
birds, insects, and plants. 

For cleansing purposes. 

For traveling and commerce. 

It puts out fire. 

It generates power for machinery to move. 

Talk of the animals that live in or near the water. 
Discuss the fishes, frogs, turtles, snakes, beavers, and 
muskrats. 

Mention flowers that live in or near the water. 

At the end of this month come the first signs of spring. 

Buds on the trees have begun to swell. 

The pussywillow begins to come out. 

Bulbs are seen to be pricking through the ground. 

Have Chinese lily-bulbs growing in water for the 
children to watch. 

307 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Measure with a ruler the height of the green leaves 
from day to day. 

A few birds have come North. 

Take a walk looking for signs of spring. 

If the season is a little advanced the forsythia bush 
will show signs of life. Take a few branches into the 
warm room and put in water. In a few days the yellow 
flowers will begin to develop rapidly. 

Songs (see Volume V) : 
"Rain Song." 
"Rain." 

"Who Has Seen the Wind.?>" 
"The Windmill." 
"Pussywillow." 

Gift lessons: 

With blocks build a toy village having a library 
schoolhouse, engine-house, stores, and a hospital. 
Build rows of beds for the hospital. 
Build a swimming-pool for the gymnasium. 
Build bookcases for the library. 
Make a bandstand for the musicians. 
Make a windmill. Put two cardboard fans in thf 
front of it. 

Build a bridge to go over the river. 
Build a wharf to which a boat can be tied. 
With sticks, rings, tablets, lentils make pictures of 
Wagons carrying off rubbish. 
Wheels for the watermill. 
Fans for the windmill. 
Bridges. 

308 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Weather vanes. 
Trees in the park. 
Fountain. 
Beds in a hospital. 

Games: 

Give exercises that will imitate what the wind does, 
such as moving like the swaying branches, arms and 
body twist like the weather vane, turn like the windmill 
fans. 

Make sounds like the wind. 

Imitate holding on to a kite or balloon. 

Fly like a bird. 

Hop like a frog. 

Swimming motion with arms. 

Sit on floor and row as if in boat. 

Soap bubbles. Let the children make soap bubbles. 
This shows another form of water. Air blown into the 
soapy water through a pipe forms a w ater ball and floats 
off into air. Note the beautiful rainbow colors in the 
bubbles. 

Marbles. As this is the time when marbles appear 
with the big brothers, let the little children enjoy them 
too. Play some of the ball games with marbles. 

Dramatize going to a Are. Ring a bell or strike a few 
notes on the piano, to announce a fire. Now the children 
are busy making-believe to get on their suits and to har- 
ness the horses. The piano begins to play and the child- 
ren gallop and gallop around until they get into a corner 
of the room when the piano stops. The children now 
imitate firemen getting out the hose and they all hold 

309 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

their arms and hands as if playing the hose. At the same 
time they make a noise with their mouths Hke the 
swishing of the water. Soon the fire is out, the music 
begins again, and the horses (children) trot home not 
quite so fast as they went. 

Let the children choose ring games which already 
have been learned. 

Dramatize some of the Mother Goose Verses. "Jack 
be Nimble," "Little Miss Muffet." 

Use finger plays suggested in Chapter I. 

Hand-work: 

With crayons the children will Want to illustrate their 
impressions of stories and talks. Subjects hkely to be 
sketched are: 

Firemen scaling the wall of a burning house. 

Engines dashing down the street. 

A fountain playing in the park. 

Fish in the aquarium. 

Bear seen at the zoo. 

Turtle they remember from last summer. 

A kite going skyward. 

Trees as they are bending under the March winds. 

Balloons such as were suggested in September. 

The pussywillow is lots of fun to draw. Use a piece 
of chalk to make the white pussies on each side alter- 
nating down the brown stem. 

There is the ocean or river remembered from last 
summer's vacation. 

Make pinwheels which the children may carry home. 
(See Chapter XII.) 

310 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Cut and make a windmill from the pattern found il- 
lustrated in Chapter XII. With the teacher's help it 
would be interesting to put the Dutch windmill together. 
The children can help by cutting out from folded paper 
the little Dutch children. 

In the sand table work out the toy Dutch village as 
described and illustrated in Chapter IX. Holland is the 
land of windmills, and this is, therefore, a fitting time 
to construct the Dutch village, telling stories about it 
at the same time. Let the children cut and make as 
many parts of the scene as possible. (Read *' Market 
Day with Father,*' Volume I.) 

Perhaps an older brother can follow directions to 
make a Cape Cod windmill or the hydroplane, described 
in Chapter XII. Either would be a great contribution 
to the little school group at this time. They could be 
adjusted outside the window where the children could 
watch what the wind makes them do. 

Paper-folding (see Chapter II) ; 

Kite fold. 

Windmill fold. 

Make a kite. Take a long, flat stick called a slat and 
paste on the kite fold along the center, vertical diameter. 
Take a short slat and paste it across the other slat on 
the paper at the widest horizontal diameter. At the 
top of the kite fasten a very long string with which to 
hold it. At the bottom of the kite or the narrowest end, 
tie the tail which consists of a shorter string with paper 
circles placed at intervals along its length. Tie knots in 
front and behind each circle to hold it in place. As the 

Sll 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

child runs with it, the wind is supposed to carry it into 
the air. 

Boat. Make a boat from half a walnut-shell or of 
orange-peel. Make the mast of a toothpick and pin a 
piece of paper through it to be the sail. Let the children 
sail their boats in a basin of water. 

Teddy-hear. From the pattern illustrated in Chapter 
XII cut out different parts of a Teddy-bear, then put 
them together with brass fasteners. 

Turtle. Make the body from a flat dried prune. Stick 
cloves into the sides for his legs and one at the back for 
his tail. For his head use a raisin which can be joined to 
the body with a clove. If the group of children is small, 
let each one make a turtle and take it home. 

Clay -modeling: 

Make a tile of the clay and mould in bas-relief the 
picture of a Dutch windmill or a sailboat. 

Mould a fish, turtle, or snail. 

Transparency: 

Follow directions for the making of the goldfish in a 
bowl. (See the illustration Chapter XII.) 

April 

Spring has come; Jack Frost and the cold north wind 
have gone. The sun begins to feel warmer. Nature feels 
her warmth because already is seen a change coming 
over all growing things. 

Grass is turning green. 

Dandelions begin to show their yellow heads. 
312 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Crocuses, tulips, daffodils, and narcissus are among 
the early flowers that come from those brown bulbs 
that were planted last fall. The snow and ice kept them 
warm under the ground until cold winter should pass 
away. 

Birds are returning from the South and are thinking 
about building nests. Who has seen a robin .'^ 

The animals that were sleeping all winter are waking 
up. 

The domestic animals can soon be turned out to 
pasture. 

Farmers are beginning to plough their fields for plant- 
ing a little later. 

Have some beans or peas soak in water overnight 
and then keep them on moist cotton batting that the 
children may watch them sprout. Have other seeds put 
into flower pots that they may grow naturally and send 
out their leaves. If possible have a school garden so 
that the children may learn the process of tilling the 
soil, planting the seed, pulling the weeds, and caring 
for their own plot of ground. In Chapter V may be 
found instructions for developing school gardens. En- 
courage the children to help Father at home. If pos- 
sible give them plots of their own to care for. 

Talk of the different implements the farmer needs: 
the hoe, rake, shovel, plough, and wheelbarrow. Ask 
how many children have garden tools at home. 

Discuss the part played by the sun, rain, and wind to 
make things grow. 

Talk of the different kinds of trees. Have twigs in the 
room to show how the buds develop. The bud of the 

313 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

horse-cliestnut tree is the best example to show chil- 
dren, as it is large and the unfolding process is easily 
seen. Note the stickiness of the outside of the bud, the 
stiff, dark brown cover, and the tender, little leaves 
forming inside. Keep the buds in water and they will 
open nicely. 

Trees familiar to children — use of different trees. 

Fruit-trees — apple, pear, cherry, peach, banana. 

Maple-tree; sap forms maple sugar. 

Oak-tree; building houses. 

Nut-trees — chestnut, hickory, horse-chestnut. 

Elm-trees, in which orioles build their nests. 

Evergreen trees — fir, pine, spruce, used for building 
houses, making a fire, Christmas-tree. 

Birds build their homes in the trees. 

Trees are a shelter for man and beast. 

Devote a day to describing the process of making 
maple sugar. Have pictures illustrating the tapping of 
the trees. Perhaps you can procure a wooden faucet 
which is placed in the trees. The sap runs through the 
tree and out of the faucet into a bucket which is placed 
underneath. Explain the boiling-down of the sap to 
make sugar. Small pieces of maple sugar may be given 
to children at the luncheon-hour. Maple sugar melted 
becomes the maple syrup which we like to eat on griddle 
cakes and bread. 

Talk of the carpenter who uses wood to build every- 
thing he makes. 

First the great trees of the forest must be cut down by 
the lumbermen and carried to the sawmiU where the 

314 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

tree is cut into boards. These are carried by tram to 
lumber yards all over the world and the carpenter must 
go there to buy his wood. 

Follow out the construction of a house, pointing out 
our dependence upon other workmen who must help the 
carpenter so that the house will be built correctly. 

Men must dig down into the earth for a cellar with 
their pick-axes and shovels. 

The mason comes with stones and mortar to build the 
walls of the cellar. He also builds the chimney. 

The carpenter builds the house on top of the cellar. 

The plumber puts in pipes for water. 

The electrician wires the house for lights. 

Lastly the painter comes to paint the house when it is 
built. (See Volume III.) 

In the home Mother is cleaning again, making the 
rooms seem fresh. She is putting away winter furs and 
clothing and making new garments, for we want lighter 
clothing now. 

EASTER 

With the awakening of all plant life comes the spiritual 
thought, to impart to the children, of the Heavenly 
Father's care over all things. Strengthen their faith 
that His promises are always fulfilled. Easter is the ful- 
fillment of the promise of a new seed-time and an awak- 
ening of new life. 

Bring out from the dark closet the cocoons which 
were carefully kept in a box all winter. Dwell upon the 
great beauty of the butterfly springing from the small 
gray nest. 

315 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Have a brown bulb and beside it place a beautiful 
Easter lily telling the children that the flower came 
from a dark bulb just like this one. The contrast of both 
these examples of the butterfly and lily should impress 
upon the children the marvelous work of the Heavenly 
Father. 

Easter, therefore, is a joyous time. The church bells 
will ring and we will go to sing praises to God for His 
wondrous works. The beautiful Easter lilies and other 
flowers will be in the church too. 

Take the children to a florist's shop that they may see 
the beautiful display of blossoms. Take a lily to a sick 
child. 

Old legends and customs have brought into use the 
celebrating of Easter not only with the lily, but with the 
Easter egg and the little chicken just hatched. The rab- 
bit, too, symbolizes the season. 

Take a walk to some friend's yard where there is a 
rabbit or perhaps a brood of downy chickens just 
hatched. 

Talk about the kinds of birds that are seen, such as 
the robin, sparrow, bluebird, red-winged blackbird, 
woodpecker, and oriole. Have pictures of these so that 
they may be closely examined. It may be possible to 
have a collection of stuffed birds which would help more 
definitely to teach size, form, and color. 

Songs (see Volume V) : 
''Spring." 

"Bobby Redbreast." 
"What Robin Told." 

316 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

"The Nest." 
"Two Little Birds." 

Gift lessons: 

Build with blocks: Houses of different architecture. 
Greenhouse. Chimneys. 

Transformation of the little boy going downtown 
with his father. (See Chapter XV.) 

Sticks and rings. Make pictures of pick-axe, shovel, 
hoe, rake, wheelbarrow. Carpenter's tools — hammer, 
saw, etc. 

Lentils. Pictures of lily and other flowers. Pictures of 
chicken, rabbit, egg. 

Games: 

Imitate the bird in his different activities, such as fly- 
ing, hopping, drinking water, and going to sleep. 

When possible let the recess hour ' be spent out of 
doors using many of the ring games used indoors through 
the winter. 

All ball games can be used. 

See who can put the most balls into the basket which 
is a certain distance away. 

Hand-work: 

The suggestions are many for the use of crayons and 
paints because the season has come when there is a va- 
riety of activities to illustrate as well as Nature sub- 
jects to paint. 

The flowers are large and have fairly simple lines to 
follow. The tulip especially comes easy to the children. 

317 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

First give them freedom to paint what flowers they 
choose. Make a conventional border of tulips or cro- 
cuses to be placed about the room. Have patterns of 
these flowers which can be outlined, colored, and then 
cut out. 

Cut out a crocus flower and its leaves, about three 
inches in height, having colored them first. Make a 
drawing of a bowl three inches wide and two inches 
high. Color this dark green, blue, or brown. Cut this out 
and paste it around the edges on a large piece of white 
paper. Now slip the crocus flower into the top of the 
bowl. This makes an effective picture to take home. 

Paint horse-chestnut twig showing the folded bud at 
the top. 

Suggestions of patterns to copy are given in Chapter 
XII; such as — 

The Easter goose. 

Floating duck. 

Flying bluebird. 

Pot of tulips. 

Flower pot filled with sand. 

Wheelbarrow cut from a double fold of paper. Make 
a rabbit from turkish toweling. (See Chapter XI.) 

Let the children make a church window by floating 
colors and blending them to give the effect of stained 
glass. With black paper cut out the framework of a 
church window. A full description of making it and an 
illustration may be found in Chapter III. 

Cut out a landscape picture showing how maple sap 
is gathered. (See illustration in Chapter II.) 

Easter card. Paste white paper on a gray mount. 
318 



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DESIGNING IN WATER-COLORS 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Crayon the upper part of the white paper blue for sky, 
the lower half green for grass. Let children cut out a 
chicken from a pattern they have drawn in and crayon 
the chicken yellow. Paste this on the green grass. 

Pa'per-tearing: 
Farmers' tools. 
Butterfly. 
Rabbit. 

Trans'parency: 

Make a picture of chicken to hang in the window. 
Cut out of green or black paper two ovals six inches 
long and three inches wide. From each of these ovals 
cut out the centers leaving a border about half an inch 
wide. This makes the picture frame. Now cut out two 
ovals six by three inches of transparency paper. Paste 
these on the inside of each of the frame ovals. Make a 
yellow chicken about two inches tall. Color him yellow 
on both sides. Now paste him in the middle of the trans- 
parency paper on the inside. Then paste the two ovals 
together, and on holding it up to the light you will see 
the chicken in between. Tie in a piece of raffia at the 
top and hang the chicken in the window. 

A more elaborate one can be made by making the 
picture of a hencoop, hen, and several little chickens. 

Transparencies of a pot of tulips or yellow jonquils 
are lovely. 

Clay-modeling; 

Make a tile with bas-relief of a chicken coming from 
half a broken shell. Paint chicken yellow. 

319 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Mould maple sugar cakes. 

Easter eggs. 

Rabbit. 

Humorous blackboard drawing: 

While the following verses are read let some one illus- 
trate on the board. 

THE FORGETFUL CARPENTER 

There was a jolly carpenter 

Whose heart was good and kind. 
But a poorer memory than his 

It would be hard to find. 

Once on a time he built a house 

For his family of nine. 
And when at last it was complete 

He thought it verj' fine. 

(Draw a square on the board) 

The wagons came piled high with goods 

Till they could hold no more. 
But no one could get in the house 

For there was n't any door. 

"Why, how could that have slipped my mind?** 
Said the carpenter with a grin. 
And then he quickly made a door 
To let the family in. 

(Draw in a door) 

The eager nine rushed in with glee, 
But started back with fright: 
"Why, Father, what's the matter here? 
The house is dark as night." 

"The windows, too, could I forget?'* 
He said in sad dismay, 
320 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMIVIES 

And went to work to saw some out 
Without an hour's delay. 

{Draw in windows) 

The family tried to settle there. 

But the nine began to sneeze. 
And cried, "We surely cannot live 

In draughty rooms like these." 

"Oh, what have I forgotten now?" 
Said the weary man. "Alas! 
I 've only sawed the window holes. 
Now I '11 put in the glass. 

{Draw lines to represent window panes) 

This was a peaceful, happy home 

Till it began to pour; 
It came down through the plastering 

And flooded walls and floor. 

The carpenter hurried out of doors. 
Forgetting coat and hat; 
**0h, woe is me, there is no roof — 
Why did n't I think of that?" 

He soon had built a gable roof. 

No better could be found. 
The nine were snug and dry inside. 

The rain poured on the ground. 
{Draw a roof) 

But when they made the furnace fire 

They all began to choke 
And double up in coughing fits. 

For the house was filled with smoke. 

"Oh! what have I forgotten now?" 
The man cried in despair. 
His frantic eyes the house-top scanned 
"No chimney, I declare!" 

{Build chimney) 

821 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

He made a handsome chimney high. 

Then said, "Oh, children mine. 
If ever I build another house 

For a family of nine, 

"If you love your poor old father, dear. 
Stay by me, if you please. 
And gently jog my memory 
On little points like these." 

May 

Spring has brought the beginning of growing in the 
world of Nature and activities among the birds and ani- 
mals. This month of May continues the good work, 
bringing more warmth, sunshine, and rain. The leaves 
are entirely out on the trees. The shrubbery is flowering, 
and even the wild and garden flowers are showing their 
pretty heads. 

Inquire of the children how their gardens are getting 
along at home. If there are school gardens spend some 
time daily in them, for things will not grow without care. 

Talk over the different kinds of vegetables to be 
planted. 

Study more about the birds. Have samples of bird 
nests that the children may examine them. See what 
they are made of. 

What tools do the birds use to make the nests? 

Discuss family life of the birds. 

Keeping of eggs warm. 

Father's and mother's tender and patient care of 
their young; feeding of the young and teaching them 
how to fly. 

Compare these with children's homes. 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Tender care of them by their parents. 

Fed, clothed, sheltered, and loved by their parents. 

Speak of Mother's Day, the second Sunday of May. 
(See Chapter XII.) 

How should children act toward their parents .^^ 
Grateful, loving, and helpful. 

Boys can help in the home: 

Run errands for Mother. 

Bring in coal and wood. 

Keep the yard picked up. 

Help in planting and weeding garden. 

If living in the country they can drive the cows home. 
Learn to milk the cows. 

Feed the hens, and gather the eggs. 

Girls may be busy little housekeepers in helping 
Mother. (Read Chapter VII.) 

Talk about the different insects, bugs, grasshoppers; 
their habits and uses. 

Study about the bees. If possible have some Uving 
honey bees at work in an apiary. 

Speak of different kinds of bees and their homes. 

The commimity life of the bee. Duties of the Queen 
bee, drones, and working bees. 

Making of wax combs. 

Gathering pollen from the flowers and carrying it in 
the pockets of their little legs. 

Making honey. 

Let the children have some honey on bread for their 
luncheon. 

Take children for many walks, calling attention to 
things that have been talked over in the group. 

32S 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Gather wild flowers, cautioning the children to pick 
only flowers they know about. Some leaves are poison- 
ous and the children must learn about them early. 

If possible visit a farm where the children can watch 
ploughing, planting, hoeing, and how the animals are 
fed and housed. Let them feed the chickens, ducks, and 
turkeys. Let them watch the cows as they chew their 
cud; watch milking. Perhaps there is a bossy or a new 
litter of pigs. The opportunity for children to see all 
this life means a great deal to their early education and 
appreciation of labor and preparation of food materials 
for the maintenance of the physical world. 

There are many stories to tell of the animal world. 
The old fables are interesting to the children because 
they put conversation into the mouths of animals. 
Fairy stories tell wonderful tales of what happens to 
good and bad children. The morals of all these stories 
sink into the children's minds without being alluded to 
directly. 

MAY DAY 

The first day of May is a day set apart for a festival. 
Coming from an old English custom we find much about 
it worth while preserving. It is a day when we greet our 
friends with cheer and joyousness because we 're glad to 
be living when all Nature is blooming again. (See Chap- 
ter XII.) 

Let the children plan with you, during the last of _ 
April, to make May Day a day of joy and merry-mak- 
ing. Make a programme of games, dancing, and sing- 
ing, and hope that the day will be fair so that the event 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

can be carried on out of doors. Arrange for the Maypole 
with as many streamers floating from the top as you 
have children. Let them weave their streamers as they 
pass each other in and out until the pole is entirely 
wound up with colors. Now let the children turn round 
and skip in and out the other way, still holding to their 
streamer ends. The pole will soon be unwound and once 
more the children stop at their rightful places. The 
dance is most effective when the children are dressed in 
white. 

MEMORIAL DAY 

The 30th of May is a national holiday of the United 
States. It is a day when we think of the brave soldiers 
who in years gone by have bravely fought in wars that 
this country should be free. Though a day of sadness 
and retrospect for the older people, yet the children 
should realize that they could not be so happy if they 
had not been protected by these loyal and courageous sol- 
diers. They lost their lives for a great cause and now we 
decorate their graves with reverence and gratitude. The 
spirit of patriotism is the thought to dwell upon. It is 
very fitting, at this time, to invite a veteran to come, in 
uniform, to talk to the children. He will tell them how 
glad he was that he could fight to protect them. 

Saluting of the flag and patriotic songs should be a 
part of the programme. 

Songs (see Volume V) : 
"Over in the Meadow." 
"Feeding the Chickens." 
325 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

"The Sparrows." 

"Bossy Cow." 

"This Little Pig Went to Market." 

"Flag of our Country." 

"Sweeping and Dusting." 

Gifts: 

Build courtyard and throne for the Queen of the May 
illustrating May Day Festival. 

Farm buildings and fences. 

Boxes to hold honey. 

Monuments to the memory of soldiers. 

Rings. Beehives, bird nests, flower forms. 

Sticks, rings, and tablets: Cooking utensils, vases for 
flowers, furniture. 

Games: 

Exercises imitating household occupations, such as 
dusting, sweeping, beating eggs, stirring cake, washing 
and ironing. 

Finger Play: "The wash-bench." (Chapter I.) 

Exercises imitating farm activities, such as plough- 
ing, planting, weeding, feeding chickens. 

Fly like birds, butterflies, bees with the buzz. 

Take children out of doors letting them play house 
under the trees. 

Play ring games. (Chapter XIII.) 

Family game. 

The Bird Nest. 

Singing game (Volume V) : Oats, peas, beans. 

Dramatic game of "Henny Penny." (See Chapter 
XIV.) 

326 



SUGGESTIVE PPOGRAMMES 

Hand-worh: 

Draw the bean in diflFerent stages of its growth. 

1. The bean. 

2. Root starting to shoot downward. 

3. Cotyledons starting upward. 

4. Pair of leaves at the top and the root branching 
out into several roots. 

Painting of new flowers, such as violet, cowslip, and 
twig of forsythia. 

Crayoning illustrations of a day's experience visiting 
the farm. 

Draw bees flying around a beehive. 

Give children patterns of different animals, such as 
cow, horse, or of a hen or chicken. Let them outline 
these on a double fold of paper, the fold coming at the 
side. Now cut out the figure and if only a small part can 
be kept creased and not cut, this will be sufficient to 
hold the double picture together. Made in this way the 
animals will stand up. 

Make forsythia chains. 

Pigeon-house. 

Soldier caps. 

Cap for May Day Festival. 

May baskets. (See Chapter XII.) 

Doll-house and furniture. (See Chapter VIII.) 

Paper-folding: 

Use the Kraus folding forms described and illustrated 
in Chapter II. 

Paper-tearing: 

Bluebird. Beehive. Flowers. 

3^7 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

June 

School is about over for the season. Schoolroom work 
is giving way to outdoor play for the children. There is, 
however, a new school open for them, a larger school, 
the school of Nature, where there are endless lessons. 
This is the month of flowers and gardens. Let the flow- 
ers and gardens be the children's teachers. 

At this time of year the farmer is still ploughing and 
planting for the late winter vegetables. He is hoeing 
and weeding the plants and vines already growing. 
Early radishes and lettuce are ready to be gathered and 
strawberries are being sent to market. The children 
must watch their own gardens and gather in whatever 
is ready to be picked. Proud are the children when 
they take in their first bright red radish to Mother. 

With this change from school hours the wise parents 
will give regular daily duties to be done in the home. 
Let the child feel that he is responsible for certain things 
to be accomplished. The family working together for a 
common interest will further the development in the 
children of right ideals of citizenship, patriotism, and 
cooperation. 

June has but one festival of national consideration, 
that of June 14th which is called Flag Day. On this day 
the children should fly their flag, learn what the flag 
stands for, and how it should be treated. Show them 
pictures of flags of other nations. All flags should be re- 
spected, but one's first loyalty is to his own flag. (See 
Volume I.) 

The circus generally arrives in town some time this 
328 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

month. The children are nearly at fever heat with ex- 
citement when they rush into the house and announce, 
"The circus has come to town!" 

Setting aside the grotesque and unnatural features of 
the circus, the opportunity for the children to see live 
animals straight from the jungle is an education in itself. 
Throughout the year the children have been poring over 
picture books looking at the pictures of the lion, tiger, 
hippopotamus, kangaroo, and many more. Now they 
can gaze into the faces of these wild animals. Doubtless 
the roar of the lion sends cold chills down the children's 
backs, but nevertheless it is a thrilling sound to hear. 
The elephants, too, are so huge, yet seem to understand 
human language, and are always ready for more pea- 
nuts. A day at the circus means happy memories to the 
children for months and months to come. 

There are the parks to visit where a group of children 
may take their lunches for a picnic. The city has pro- 
vided forms of amusement for these reservations. There 
are the swings, the see-saw, and the sand piles to dig in. 
With squeals of joy the children beg for a ride when 
they see the merry-go-round. If there is a body of 
water near by there will be rides in the swan boat or 
some other kind of boat. There is the popcorn man, 
balloon man, and near by there is, perhaps, a place to 
buy ice-cream cones. Good judgment and patience 
must go with the mother or attendant when the continu- 
ous question is put before her, "May I have some.^^" 
Tired, but happy and with a day of experiences never to 
be forgotten, the children go to bed wishing all days 
could be like these happy days in June. 

329 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Songs (see Volume V) : 
"June." 
"Buttercups." 
"Daisies." 
"The Giraffe." 
"The Popcorn Man." 

Rhythm music: 

"The Elephants Go Down the Street." 

Gifts: 

Build a circus building with blocks. 

Make animals to go in it. 

Make the transformation with the Fourth Gift. 

Sticks and rings: 

Make pictures of all the wonderful things seen at the 
circus. 

Borders of flowers can be made by taking the butter- 
cup for a motif and repeating it several times. 

I. Take the electric car. Stand bricks on long, nar^ 
row side in a row like car seats. 

II. Make four benches in the pine grove. Put second 
brick on top of first brick with broad flat face on top. 
Do same with every one making four benches. 

III. Form two square tables in grove. Move two 
benches together making one table. Do same with other 
two benches. 

IV. Let us be more sociable and have one long dining- 
table for the picnic. Move two tables together. 

V. Put back the two square tables. 

330 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

VI. Leave four benches in the grove. 

VII. Make the electric car to take you home. 

VIII. Home — pile bricks into square formation. 

Games: 

Give children free choice in outdoor games. 

If a dismal day comes when they must be indoors, let 
them play menagerie. (See Chapter XIII.) 

Merry-go-round. Use music. The following words are 
set to the first sixteen measures of "Mosquito Parade," 
by Howard Whitney. Transpose the music to key of F, 
so that it can be more easily sung: 

"Who'd like to ride on the Merry-go-round: 
But first the horses must be found. 
We'll form our wheel within the ring 
And take our places while we sing." 

Four children, with arms locked across each other's 
shoulders side by side, form the small inner circle or hub 
of the wheel. Four more children are used for spokes of 
the wheel. To make the spoke let each child stand back 
of one of these children forming the hub. Let him stand 
with arms outstretched to the side and one hand on 
shoulder of the hub child who is standing in front of 
him. This wheel will turn slowly around while the out- 
side circle of children will be ponies. Let them turn to 
the side, form a line, and hold hands together in front of 
them as if holding reins. Now sing second stanza: 

"Stand still, my pony, don't run away: 
We want to have a ride to-day. 
Jump on your saddles and crack your whip 
And here we go cHppity-clip." 
331 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

A chord on the piano means to give a jump and 
make-believe to get on the ponies. The music is played 
through again in quicker time as the ponies gallop. 
Then, slowing down at the end, the ponies walk and 
finally stop with the music. Repeat the game letting 
new children make the wheel inside. 

Hand-work: 

Let the children work out a toy village under the ap- 
ple-tree using spools to make the roads. (See descrip- 
tion in Chapter IV.) 

Make a merry-go-round. (See Chapter XL) 

Elephant. In an animal book find a good picture of an 
elephant. Make patterns of the different parts of the 
body. Now let the child draw an outline of these and 
cut them out himself. There should be a body, head and 
trunk, tail, and four legs. Fasten these different parts 
with brass fasteners to the proper places of the body. 
Thus you have made a jointed elephant like the Teddy- 
bear described in Chapter XII. 

The little girl may like to try her hand at sewing for 
her doll. Encourage her in this quiet occupation as the 
days grow warmer. 

July 

When July rolls around with its succession of warm 
days, there comes the inevitable call from the country 
and seashore, urging us away from the hot, dirty city 
with all its din and roar. 

At the first breath of salt air, with what glee the chil- 
dren seize pail and shovel and run to the ghstening 

332 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

white beach! What a treat it is for them to make all 
sorts of things, patting the sand into every conceivable 
shape! 

Let them have the fascination of adventure in explor- 
ing around the rocks. 

Bring with you several small boxes so that they can 
make separate collections of shells, pretty stones, and 
starfish. 

Find a pointed stick that they may draw designs on 
the sand. 

With twigs and stones let them lay out a toy village. 

There are living creatures in the water, and here is a 
chance for educational material. The little fiddler crabs 
run up and down their holes. They have such funny 
legs and claws. Here is a big crab that if boiled is good 
to eat. 

Let the child dig down the hole where he saw water 
spurt out. He is surprised to find the clam, perhaps 
several of them. 

The jellyfish is the simplest form of life. The starfish 
is so pretty when dried. 

Give the child a chance with a real hook and line to 
experience the labor of a fisherman. 

The seaweed is fun to gather. When dried the little 
pods may be strung to make a chain. 

An edible form of Irish moss is found on some parts 
of the coast. Once shown the right kind of moss, the 
child can soon gather a pail full, especially after a storm 
has driven it in and torn it from the rocky deep. Wash 
the moss carefully in several fresh water rinsings, then 
spread on brown paper and place in the sun to dry. 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Move it about several times so that in all parts it will be 
thoroughly dried before you pack it away in a tin to 
bring home in your trunk. A small amount will go a long 
way in cooking. Irish moss blanc-mange is considered 
one of the most delicate desserts, and physicians order 
it for patients, who can take milk, as one of their first 
menus. 

Call attention to the different kinds of boats in the 
harbor. Let the child go in boats. 

Let him have a toy boat. Make one of a shingle with 
a mast and cotton sail if you have nothing better. 

Talk about buoys and lighthouses. 

If there is a life-saving station near by find a way, if 
possible, to visit it. Talk of the brave men who patrol 
our coast while we are sound asleep. They are heroes. 

Let the child enjoy wading and bathing as is seen fit 
for his health. 

Many games may be played on the hard sand. The 
ball is the favorite. It can be rolled and tossed and 
bounced. If it is a cork ball there is much sport taking 
it into the water while bathing. 

Races with competition in running, hopping, and 
jumping are fun. Use pebbles placed along in a row for 
time races and see who will gather his row first. 

The game of statue can be played on the beach. 

There are picnics to be had on the beach and a clam- 
bake. The building of the fire, heating the stones, using 
seaweed over the stones in which to throw the clams, 
then covering them with sail cloth, is a process never to 
be forgotten by a child or a grown-up. It is primitive 
cooking, but it tastes so good! 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

Nature gives beauty to the seashore besides the sand 
and rocks. A child will find some wild flowers near the 
sand. There are low, scrubby bushes which surprise us 
with the beach plum, from which jelly can be made. 
The gorgeous marsh mallow stands up in salt marshes as 
beautiful in flower and color as any hollyhock, and here 
and there one stumbles on a bed of Indian sweetgrass. 
The pine-trees seem to thrive in sandy soil, and on some 
parts of our Eastern coast where the ozone of the pine 
and salt air are combined it is considered the most mar- 
velous tonic for any human being to have. 

The child who can spend the month in the country is 
indeed fortunate. There are so many things to see, learn 
about, and best of all live a free, happy existence close 
to Nature. 

We have spoken of the farmer, his work and respon- 
sibilities; we may have taken children to visit a farm 
for a day; but to live from day to day with all the won- 
derful development of Nature is a great experience for 
a child. The seeds planted in April and May are now 
peas, squash, cucumbers, beets, carrots, etc., on your 
table for dinner. The tiny kernels of corn are now beau- 
tiful stalks of green and the wheat is growing too. 

The grass has grown tall and ripe, so the farmer goes 
with his machine to cut it. He spreads it in the sun, 
turns it, and then stacks it. Let the children jump into 
the hayrack and go bumpity, bump down the field to 
get a load of hay. Now the hay is tossed into the hay- 
rack, the children tramp it down so more can be put in. 
The cart becomes fuller and fuller and the children 
laugh and squeal with delight as they too must chmb 

335 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

higher. At last the ride home on a bed of ease on top of 
that wagon of hay is the joy of the day's play. 

Let the Httle girl bring a bunch of hay into the house 
and with some string make the hay doll described and 
illustrated in Chapter IV. 

This is the month when cherries are ripe. The young- 
est child cannot climb trees, but he can help put the 
cherries into baskets and bring to Mother for canning. 
Of course he will want to eat some raw, but see to it if 
possible that you portion him his share. 

He finds there are bites taken out of some of the 
cherries. Yes, the robins like cherries, too! 

Take walks in search of wild flowers. The wild roses 
by the roadside are so fresh in the morning dew! The 
black-eyed Susans in the meadow are a pest to the 
farmer, for they spoil his hay, but they are pretty to 
gather. The white daisies, too, are lovely decorations 
for summer porches. One should have a book concern- 
ing wild flowers and one of birds, especially through 
the summer months when flowers and birds are here to 
watch and examine. 

The children who must remain in the hot city have 
many things to enjoy, for a short ride or walk will take 
them to a park where flowers are blossoming, birds are 
singing, and fountains are playing. There are marine 
parks near the ocean and parks near inland lakes so that 
groups of children can be taken by mothers or teachers 
to places of rest and recreation. 

Do not miss a band concert, for music is always a 
delight to children and is good for them to hear. 



336 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

FOURTH OF JULY 

Let us not forget this month gives to the United States 
the most memorable hoHday of the year. July 4th is the 
anniversary of the day when this country became a free 
and independent country. Tell the children briefly a few 
of the historical facts. Let us keep up with the modern 
tendency of the day, to think less about firecrackers 
and more about the real meaning of the day. 

Let them see the parade, hear the band concert, and 
see fireworks conducted by those who know how to 
handle fire. 

Small firecrackers and torpedoes are sufficient for lit- 
tle children and even then should be carefully watched. 

Let the children make up a parade of their own. Of 
course some one carries a drum, some one hums on a 
comb covered with tissue paper, and another has a toy 
horn. Let them make soldier caps and wear them as 
they go marching down the street. 

With their blocks they can build a fort, or outdoors 
in the back yard they can gather boards and boxes 
enough to make a big barricade and play battle. 

If the children are to keep quiet in the house for a 
while on this great day, they can use their crayons to 
draw illustrations or cut and make toys that represent 
guns, firecrackers, or flags. 

The day would not be complete without singing 
patriotic songs, saluting the flag, and seeing it hauled 
down at sundown while Big Brother blows the proper 
call on his bugle. 



337 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

August 

With the sun in its zenith, the midsummer month 
gives one a full realization of heat, thunder showers, and 
a desire to be more lax in the hours of work. The child 
feels it from his standpoint and therefore he should be 
given a care-free life and a chance to grow like every- 
thing else in Nature. 

Do not burden him with too much clothing or insist 
upon being spruced up for company. If he is at home 
let him play in a sand pile which you can place in a low, 
large box, under a tree. His pet, which may be a dog or 
eat, will be content to lie under the tree near his little 
master and sleep while the play is going on. 

A bird will sing overhead, and because of your formei 
talks with the child, he will look to discover the little 
songster and perhaps run to tell you he has seen an 
oriole. 

When your household tasks are done, go out and join 
him. Tell him stories of outdoor life, an animal story, a 
fairy tale, or perhaps he would like to hear about some 
children who are playing just as he is in some far-off 
land. (See Volume I.) 

In his sand pile he will want to make a toy village il- 
lustrating what you are talking about. Bring out from 
the house heavy paper, scissors, and crayons with which 
to construct houses, bridges, etc. With the assistance 
of stones, moss, and twigs a cunning village will be made 
to represent the home of a Chinese boy, or of little 
Dutch children. (See Chapter IX.) 

As the market-man drives up to the door and gives 




ILLUSTRATING WITH CRAYONS 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

you your choice of many vegetables, you are reminded 
once again of the farmer and that August is one of his 
busiest months. 

Discuss with your child and a group of his playmates, 
who have joined him for the afternoon, all the things 
that can be found growing at their best and coming to 
maturity now. Every summer vegetable is about ready 
to be served on the dinner-table. The farmer and his 
helpers must hasten to gather them in before they spoil. 
They must be sold to the market-man who in turn sells 
them to us. 

Help the child to keep watch of his garden that 
nothing may go to waste. 

Look for the bugs and worms that destroy plants and 
show the child how to get rid of them. 

Mother must begin to can vegetables and the little 
girl can help. Show her how to shell peas, cut up string 
beans, and peel tomatoes. 

Blackberries, blueberries, and raspberries are ripe. 
The children can pick many quarts of these with their 
nimble little fingers, and thus help with the preserving. 

The month of August finds the wild flowers and gar- 
den beds in full blossom. Discuss every new flower you 
find. 

The birds, bees, insects, and animals are coming to 
maturity. The baby birds are spreading their wings and 
flying with mother, the kittens, though still playful, are 
quite weaned from mother's care. 

The farmer says it is time that the grain is cut and 
threshed. Wonderful machinery is made to-day which 
is of great assistance to him. Farmers often club to- 

339 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

gether in owning these machines and take turns going 
from one farm to another assisting in the mighty task of 
reaping. If children are fortunate enough to hve on a 
farm, or visit the farm at this harvest-time, the experi- 
ence will never be forgotten and the process of work will 
be thoroughly understood. 

Pictures are the next best substitute. Explain to the 
children that acres and acres of the United States and 
other countries are seeded down every spring and the 
harvest of grains gathered every summer that we may 
have flour and cereals the next winter. 

Eggs are plentiful now. Explain how they are pre- 
served in large quantities for cooking purposes during 
the coming winter. 

Chickens have grown large enough to be sold for eat- 
ing. 

The cows must be milked night and morning. The 
milk must be cooled, sealed in bottles, and sent to the 
city to be sold. The milk not used in this way goes to 
factories to be made into butter and the sour milk is 
made into cheese. 

Give the child some cream in a bowl and with an egg- 
beater let him beat until the cream becomes butter. 
Season it with salt and roll into balls that he may use 
his own butter on his bread. This way, though crude, 
gives him a chance to see what the process is when but- 
ter is made in large churns in the factory. 

The little pigs of the spring-time are now hogs. They 
must be sold and killed that we may have pork, bacon, 
and lard. 

A great deal of respect must be paid to the farmer for 
340 



SUGGESTIVE PROGRAMMES 

his toil and all that he accomplishes. From his land we 
are fed, and the wool from his sheep in due time be- 
comes cloth with which we are clothed. The world is 
dependent for its existence upon Nature through the 
toil of the farmer. One cannot explain these facts too 
often or too fully to a child. 

Songs (see Volume V) : 

Let the child choose songs he likes to sing. 

As he goes to bed he may want to sing about the stars. 
The flowers will remind him of spring and summer songs. 
Mother Goose songs have their place in the fun time. 

Games: 

Singing-games always fill the air with children's happy 
voices. The warm weather will call forth the more quiet 
games. The little girl will want to play house with her 
dolls. 

Dramatizing stories and poems can be done very im- 
promptu under the trees. 

Occupation: 

Free use of paper, pencil, crayons, and paint should 
be given the child. Through the winter he has had in- 
struction enough to give him ideas of what he wants to 
draw. 

Tearing and cutting is just as fascinating. 

Let him make toys from spools and boxes and play 
vvith them in his sand pile or toy village. 

With pebbles he will make pictures and with leaves he 
will make wreaths and picture frames. 

341 



CHILDREN'S OCCUPATIONS 

Our daily talks with the children should be such that 
in their playtime, rather than hunt up some mischief 
to do, they will be eager to work out in occupation the 
educational thoughts which in due time will make the 
children of to-day true citizens and thinkers of the fu- 
ture for better and saner policies of the world's interests. 







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