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China in Convulsion 

Volume Two 



" Not only two of the v/ry best books on China, 
but two of the very best books which have ever 
been published by any author on any country at 
any tin'?" — Dr. Talcott Williams. 

Tenth Thousand 

"V'illage Life in China 

A Study ill Sociology, 8vo, fully illus- 
trated, $2.00. 
"Arthur H. Smith has added a second to those extra- 
ordinary studies of China life, of which he is so easily mas- 
ter. No book like this has been written on China except 
one, and that is Dr. Smith's ' Chinese Characteristics.' The 
two books together may fairly be said to give a clearer idea 
of China as it is than any or all of the 5,000 or 6,000 works 
published on the Empire during the last century." — Phila- 
delphia Press. 

A MAGAZINE OF INFORMATION 



" He is an acute observer, a discriminating judge of both 
people and facts, and an entertaining narrator. No one can 
begin to understand the Chinese until he has read such a 
work as this." — New York Observer. 

Fifteenth Thousand 

^hinese Characteristics 

New Edition. With 20 full-page illustra- 
tions and index, and characteristic decoration 
for each chapter. 8vo, cloth, $2 00. 

"Those best informed call it without exception the best 
book on the Chinese that is before the public, and a 
pretty careful survey of it confirms that opinion." — The 
Independent. 

"There is all the difference between an intaglio in onyx 
and a pencil scrawl on paper to be discovered between Mr. 
Smith s book and the printed prattle of the average globe- 
trotter. Our author's work has been done, as it were, with 
a chisel and an emery wheel. He goes deeply beneath the 
surface." — The Critic. 

A KEEN ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER 
'• The book is generally accepted by students in the Far 
East as not only one of the ablest analyses and portrayals 
of the Chinese character, but, on the whole, one of the most 
truthful and judicial." — The Nation. 



J 




FIKST TRAIN PASSING TllKOLGil IIIK WALL OF PKKl.NG 



China in Convulsio 



BY 



ARTHUR H. SMITH 

Twenty-nine years a Missionary 

of the American Board in China 

Author of 

*' Chinese Characteristics " and " Village Life in China " 



With Numerous Illustrations and Maps 

IN TWO VOLUMES 
Volume Two 





NEW YORK CHICAGO TORONTO 

FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 

1901 



Copyright 1901 

by 

FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY 

(November) 



Press of 

Riggs Printins^ df Publishing Co. 

Albany, N. Y. 



CONTENTS 

Volume II 

CHAPTER PAGB 

XX. Siege Life 365 

XXI. Days of Waiting 383 

XXII. Renewal of the Attack 402 

XXIII. The Relief 419 

XXIV. From Taku to Peking 435 

XXV. The Fortifications 462 

XXVI. After the Siege 485 

XXVII. Hand of God in the Siege 508 

XXVIII. Punishment of Peking 517 

XXIX. The Capital in Transformation 535 

XXX. Ruin of T'ung Chou 555 

XXXI. Tientsin after the Siege 571 

XXXII. Foreigners in the Interior 594 

XXXIII. Notable Experiences 621 

XXXIV. The Catastrophe to the Native Church 650 

XXXV. Personal Narratives 665 

XXXVI. Fire and Sword in Shansi 207 

XXXVII. A Twelve-month of Foreign Occupation 713 

XXXVIII. The Outlook 733 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 
VOLUME II 



FACING 
PAGE 

First Train Passing Through the Wall of Peking Title 

The " International " Gun, " Our Betsey " . . . 373 

Fortified Bridge across the Moat near Legation Street 383 

British Legation Gate^ Fuel Supply Committee . . 40.2 

Buddhist Temple and Modern Tram Car .... 416 

Water Gate, Peking, through which Allies Entered . 416 

" Here They Come." General Gaselee on the Right . 432 

Fraternizing on the Tennis Court 432 

Black Fort at Tientsin, Outside View .... 446 

Black Fort at Tientsin. Inside View 44j6 

Wall of Tientsin After Bombardment .... 452 

Gate Through which Allies entered Tientsin . . 452 

Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters .... 460 

Court, Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters . . 460 

Gateway to British Legation, Moat and Barricade . 468 
The Six " Fighting P.a.rsons " and Sergeant AIurphy 

at Fort Cockburn 474 

Group of American Missionaries present during the 

Siege 494 

Ruins of Presbyterian Mission, Peking .... 498 

Ruins of Methodist Mission, Peking 498 

British Legation Wall S02 

Chinese Gun Platform for Firing on the Legation . 502 

Coming out of Church, Legation Grounds . . . 508 

Railway Station, Peking 518 

Police Station, Peking S18 

Chien Men Gate, Peking 522 

Ruins of Chien Men Gate 522 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



FACING 
PAGE 

Y. M. C. A. Headquarters, Peking 528 

Street Panorama, Peking 528 

Coal Hill, Chinese Serving German Officers . . . 532 

Summer Palace from the Lake 532 

Tartar Wall, Location of Astronomical Observatory . 545 
Temple of Agriculture, Peking, American Headquarters 548 
Entrance Temple of Agriculture. American Headquar- 
ters 548 

North China College, T'ung Chou 558 

American Board Mission, Tientsin 576 

American Board Mission. Tientsin, after the Siege . 576 

Arsenal, Tientsin 586 

Ruins of Roman Catholic Cathedral. Tientsin . . 586 

First British-Chinese Regiment, Wei Hai Wei . . 590 

Russian Troops en route to Peking 590 

Pei Tai Ho Watering Place, from which Foreigners 

WERE rescued BY CONSUL FoWLER 604 

Corner of City Wall, Pao Ting Fu, destroyed by Allied 

Troops in Punishment for Massacre . . . .611 

Pastor Meng, a Martyr of Pao Ting Fu . . . . 680 

Miss Gould of Pao Ting Fu and School Girls . . . 682 

^Ianchu Family, some of them Christians . . . 700 

Nattvx Christian Refugee 700 

Vicinity of Legation Street, Peking 722 

Dr. Ament Receiving Vill.a.ge Deputation .... 730 

MAPS 

Map showing routes of Relief Forces .... 438 

Plan of British Legation, Peking 480 

Map of se.\t of Boxer Disturbance 620 



XX 



SIEGE LIFE 



THERE is need of a digression at this point, to 
explain certain phases of the routine of siege 
hfe which are otherwise in danger of being over- 
looked. 

The matter of registration labour supply was one of 
the first importance. No sooner were the foreigners 
settled in the Legation and the Chinese in the Su Wang 
Fu, than a systematic census was begun under the Com- 
mittee on Registration. The list of foreigners was soon 
complete and required little revision. That of the Chinese 
proved for a variety of reasons far more difficult. 

Two most important and useful officers in the siege 
were the Superintendent of Labour and the Registrar. 
Their work to a large extent dovetailed, the former mainly 
controlling the Protestant labour supply outside the Lega- 
tion and the latter the time of every Chinese living within 
its walls. To the energy, vigilance, kindness, firmness 
and tact of these two men much of the results achieved is 
to be attributed. The labour of the Roman Catholics 
living outside the British Legation, it should be remarked, 
after an unsatisfactory experiment on the part of the 
committee, was directed by their priests, and by the 
French, Japanese and others for whom work was done. 
The registration put into effect in the Fu was modelled 
after that which had been found to work successfully in 
the British Legation. 

365 



366 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

The demand for labour was clamorous and universal. 
Many of the Legation servants had fled some time before, 
and others had to be found for their places. All the 
numerous housekeepers must have a detail of cooks, table 
boys and coolies ; the hospital required a staff always at 
the command of the surgeons ; there were many horses 
to be fed and watered ; the scavenger and other sanitary 
work was imperative and, like the bakery and laundry, 
did not admit of irregular depletion of employees. Some 
educated native Christians, like the scholar class of 
Chinese, were unused to manual labour and unfitted for 
it ; but every grade and variety of talent was eventually 
utilized, especially those able to speak English, who could 
serve as messengers, interpreters, or overseers. A small 
percentage of men manifested a rooted and chronic dis- 
inclination to active effort, but ere long these idiosyn- 
crasies were dealt with on their real merits. 

When the incessant calls for labour had first to be 
met, much confusion reigned for many days. Let an 
actual case stand as a sample : 

At nine o'clock one evening an order came from Col. 
Shiba. commanding the Japanese in the Su Wang Fu, 
for ten men and fifty sand bags for immediate use. The 
superintendent secured the bags, but could find only four 
available men. He then waked up another gentleman 
who, being appointed on a wholly different committee had 
nothing to do with the present exigency, but assisted on 
general principles. On arriving at the Fu this gentle- 
man learned that Col. Shiba had already got the men 
needed from the Roman Catholics near at hand. 

Meantime a note had come to the British Legation 
from the American Captain on the wall, requiring twenty 
men to raise higher the western wall of the eastern barri- 
cade, as the Chinese west barricade was firing into it. 



SIEGE LIFE 367 

The superintendent excused a lad too small to handle 
the huge bricks on the wall, and sent the same obliging 
substitute with the three men on hand to aid the band 
that were kept permanently in the American Legation 
for emergencies, but happened on this occasion already 
to have been working all day. When he arrived there the 
Captain who gave the order had been relieved, and his 
successor in charge knew nothing about any call for men, 
but informed the conductor of the workmen that it had 
been decided to postpone the work until daylight, when 
it would be done better. The ad interim assistant, the 
superintendent and the Chinese were then enabled to 
retire for what remained of the night. 

Perhaps a summons arrived from the French to con- 
struct an important barricade. No men could be found, 
for it was late at night, when the labour market, espe- 
cially the free labour market, is generally closed. A visit 
to the Fu disclosed numbers of Chinese lying about, but 
each one proved to have some cherished and dangerous 
malady. One is the victim of a persistent diarrhcea, an- 
other shows by a lim.p that his lower leg is broken in two 
places, the crepitation of the bones being, as he alleges, 
distinctly audible ; not, however, to the trained ear of the 
foreign examiner, who soon ascertains that the man is 
after all able to walk. Some deserve to be excused, but 
by degrees, between boys and men, the order is filled and 
they are sent to work. 

The superintendent is no more than back at the Lega- 
tion, ready for bed after an exhausting day's work in 
reducing order from chaos, when a request comes for ten 
men immediately to work all night on a new and impor- 
tant barricade in the Hanlin Yuan. No one but the 
superintendent can find the men. and to the summons 
of no one else will they respond. Once more the Fu 



368 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

must be visited and every sleeping room entered with a 
lantern. In the darkness dusky forms are dimly seen 
prone upon the k'angs. Here the drafting process is re- 
peated, until at length the required number is obtained, 
but in transit through so many court3^ards and in cross- 
ing the canal in the darkness it turns out that three out 
of the ten have escaped, and being unknov^n they cannot 
be identified. At a later period every man had his number 
not only entered on the register but sewed upon his cloth- 
ing, so that evasion of duty like this became impossible. 

About midnight one hears a great disturbance and 
angry remonstrances. The weary registrar is roused 
from his slumbers by an urgent demand for seventeen of 
the short shovels used by marines, wanted at once by 
somebody in another Legation. After an hour's hard work 
and a visit to every place where digging is known to have 
been prosecuted the day before, some of them are found, 
but upon being brought in as a part of what is wanted 
are refused, for they have not the serrated edges of the 
Austrian shovels. In the renewed search every doubtful 
spot is approached with a lantern. 

" Put out that light," cries a sentr}-, with the addition 
of emphatic language. He is informed that the search 
is being conducted under official orders and will be con- 
tinued until the required articles are found. 

At a later stage, the duty of a ship's yeoman is added 
to that of the registrar, and the tools, as far as possible, 
had to be called in at night and kept in a box near the 
bell tower. Under careless Chinese use, spades, shovels, 
and picks, of which the supply was originally lamentably 
small and for which the demand was general and insistent, 
have their handles broken off and are rendered useless. 
The assistant registrar afterward added to his many other 
functions that of general repairer, and as far as possible 



SIEGE LIFE 369 

counteracted the ravages of the wasteful cooHe. The 
Chinese carpenters were kept busy making handles, as 
also the blacksmiths in their efforts to point iron rods 
so as to serve as picks or crowbars. 

As the result of an orderly evolution of registry every 
Chinese on the premises came to be known not only by 
name but by his reputation ; the better and more thor- 
ough workmen requiring little or no supervision, the lazy 
and inefficient ones needing constant stimulus. Each man 
was provided with a ticket good for that day only, en- 
titling him to one meal or to two, according to the amount 
of work done. When he had finished his work and eaten 
his meal he returned to his family in the Fu. After the 
Fu was mostly lost, and it became necessary to remove 
the Protestants to the vacant houses between the canal 
and the American Legation, the task of getting labour 
was much expedited. Those liable to night work were 
then kept on the premises where they were needed, and 
where they could not escape. If a man living in the Fu 
were derelict in his work at the Legation his pass was 
taken away and he could not get out to return to his 
family, a punishment generally quite sufficient, as their 
food depended upon him. 

Some Chinese were fortunate or provident enough to 
have food supplies of their own, which rendered them in 
a measure independent. In a solitary instance a man of 
some education after persistently refusing to work, and 
repeated warnings, was at last tied to a post with his 
hands behind him, there to remain until his views upon 
the relation of military law to muscular activity and to 
rations became materially modified, which happened 
within a few hours. 

The carelessness of the Chinese in everywhere knock- 
ing out the burning ashes of their pipes, made it neces- 



370 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

sary to forbid smoking in buildings. Those guilty of 
violating this rule were put on duty for four-and-twenty 
hours continuously. In an especially aggravated case the 
cook of one of the Legations was discovered to have built 
a fire of a dangerous and unlawful kind late at night, to 
see how to take care of his child. At whatever incon- 
venience to individuals the authority of the committee, 
found by experience to be just and wholesome, was 
sustained against all appeals, of which, however, there 
were but few. Those liable to punishment were sent to 
whatever work was most urgent ; if it chanced that for 
the time there was none such, they might temporarily 
escape. 

But however perfect the system of registration and 
labour supply, the simultaneous demand for details of men 
who were not available necessarily made many hitches in 
the progress of military work. Thus six men were de- 
tailed for labour on fortifications in the Hanlin, but at 
that juncture a pile of sand bags had fallen in a heavy 
shower from a hospital window into a gutter, stopping 
the drainage. The six men were deflected from the less 
to the more pressing task, but while on the way one of 
them was called ofif to carry to the Chinese hospital a 
woman who in a time of special danger had been shot 
in crossing the canal from the Fu. 

The need of labour made it necessary to require from 
every able-bodied Chinese two hours' work each day for 
the public, which often proved irksome alike to servants, 
mistress and superintendents. 

Against this requisition, which was later supplemented 
by another for the whole time of one or more of the large 
staff of servants, some employers were disposed to re- 
monstrate vigorously. One gentleman who had at first 
been very energetic in his cooperation, at a later period 



SIEGE LIFE 371 

asked a detail of men for the purpose of getting his pri- 
vate dwelling ready for a rain, and still later for two 
labourers to clear up the grounds of the Russian Lega- 
tion. The unforgetting Registrar recollecting that two 
of this gentleman's servants had for some time evaded 
duty, went to his kitchen and called them out. They ob- 
jected that they were not liable, as they did not live in 
the British but in the Russian Legation. 

" Exactly," was the reply, " there is where you are to 
work," and the amazed and abused master was then pre- 
sented with two of his own servants to do his own work 
in his own Legation! 

The work done by the besieged Christians, often hard 
and exhausting, in no case rewarded with anything more 
than a bare subsistence, was in general performed with 
characteristic Chinese patience and perseverance, many of 
them, under the tireless supervision of foreigners, throw- 
ing into it much energy, and in some cases considerable 
skill. 

Indeed their behaviour was almost uniformly admir- 
able. Instead of being a dead-weight to be carried by 
foreigners as many of these besieged feared they would 
be, they were soon found to be an indispensable means 
to the salvation of the rest, and except they had abode 
in the ship none would have been saved. As in all large 
bodies collected at random, there were some black sheep, 
and many speckled ones, but as a rule the patient, uncom- 
plaining fidelity of the Christians in toilsome tasks under 
dangerous conditions was beyond praise. The steadiness 
under constant attacks, and in the midst of repeated re- 
movals from one unsafe place to another, manifested by 
the Chinese women, and especially by the 120 and more 
school girls, were also noteworthy. Many Chinese were 
furnished with rifles, and fought at the loop-holes side 



372 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

by side with the plucky and soldierly Japanese, winning 
even their cordial commendation. A good number were 
killed in posts of danger, many others were struck by 
the innumerable flying bullets, two of the best helpers of 
the Methodists — one of them an ordained pastor — falling 
at the same time. 

Many others fell victims to disease, and probably a 
score or two of poor Chinese children died from disease 
aggravated by mal-nutrition, but the mothers bore their 
deep grief with Christian fortitude, and uttered no word 
of reproach to the Fate in which all non-Christian Chinese 
have a firm faith, but rather thanked the Heavenly 'Father 
for such mercies as they still enjoyed. 

Each day there was a gathering both of Chinese and 
foreigners upon the lawn, to examine the growing pile of 
clothing and other stuff brought into the Legation. This 
may be a fitting opportunity to explain in detail the method 
of dealing with confiscated goods. The area enclosed by 
the numerous Legations being extensive, it was inevitable 
that many Chinese families who had no connection either 
with foreigners or with the Boxers should find them- 
selves gradually encircled with troops, making entrance 
and exit increasingly difficult, and a prosecution of their 
ordinary business impossible. 

As time went on most of these families became alarmed 
at the outlook and fied while it was not yet too late, some 
of them, however, leaving behind trustworthy servants 
to look after their premises. But numberless dwelling 
houses and many shops were absolutely deserted, some 
of the latter being well stocked with goods of many sorts, 
and many of the former being well furnished. In the 
confusion of the time it was inevitable that many shops 
and houses should be exposed to raids from neighbours 
who remained, as well :is from needy Christians, many of 




iLiiH 



SIEGE LIFE 373 

whom had fled for their Hves with only the clothing 
which they wore. 

Soon after the general gathering into the British Le- 
gation, when it became necessary to check promiscuous 
pillage and to secure a wise use of the miscellaneous 
articles thus placed within reach, Dr. Ament was ap- 
pointed a committee with plenary powers. An impromptu 
depository of second-hand clothing was established on the 
tennis court lawn, resembling the storeroom of a Chinese 
pawnshop. For many days it supplied hundreds of Chi- 
nese with clothing and bedding for themselves and their 
families, until the demand appeared to be fairly met. 
But many Chinese were unable while at work to guard 
their possessions, and others ruined their clothes in the 
heavy rains, or while labouring in the damp trenches or 
on the wall ; these had to be resupplied, yet still the inflow 
kept on. Foreigners, too, drew liberally from the same 
source, until the superintendence of the business became 
a heavy load of responsibility and care. 

When there was a scarcity of material for sand bags 
the Chinese women cut apart many wadded garments, 
whose legs and arms, filled with earth, were used to add 
to the prophylactic embankments on the walls and house- 
tops. In quest of bag material, scores (perhaps hun- 
dreds) of Chinese houses were entered, but nothing was 
anywhere taken by force. Some of these dwellings had 
already been visited and largely despoiled, but others were 
fresh fields and pastures new. A great variety of articles 
which at first appeared to have no relation to the wants 
of a beleaguered garrison, ultimately proved to be most 
useful, especially tools from a blacksmith's shop and an 
old Chinese cannon nicknamed " Betsy," or " The Inter- 
national." Some of the abandoned dwellings had been 
forsaken in hot haste, and contained elegant garments. 



374 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

pieces of silk, furs, valuable chinaware, clocks and curios. 
A large quantity of such articles was found in the Su 
Wang Fu. One of the Japanese barricades was largely 
composed of trunks full of priceless raiment, seized as 
the most available material ; all of this was ruined by 
contact with earth, or by rains, or was destroyed in the 
fires. 

The Christians lodged in the Su Wang Fu gave early 
information of the probable concealment of a considerable 
quantity of sycee silver, which was brought away and 
stored in the strong room of the British Legation until 
the close of the siege. Small guns were also found in 
some of the shops, and also many irredeemable bank bills. 
On one occasion about seventy taels was discovered in a 
coal pile, and other amounts were doubtless confiscated 
by the Chinese on their own account. 

The owners of two foreign stores on Legation Street 
decided to abandon them, bringing into the Legation what- 
ever could be saved. As the siege became closer and the 
risk in visiting the stores became evident by the whis- 
tling of bullets and the killing of one of the workmen, 
the owner of the larger one gave notice that whoever 
wished to take any of the remaining articles was wel- 
come to do so. It was an unfortunate and ill-judged step, 
which for a few days made looting legal, and so facili- 
tated the universal diffusion of intoxicating liquors that 
an order was soon issued forbidding any one what- 
ever to visit the place without the express permission 
of the General Committee. Thereafter, the articles res- 
cued were put into the hands of a commissariat and is- 
sued only upon due requisition, a course which should 
have been adopted from the first. 

During the brief reign of unchecked lawlessness the 
general demoralization was very great. Many messes 



SIEGE LIFE 375 

of poor Chinese ate their rice out of broken crockery, but 
with the addition perhaps of a plate-glass mirror set in a 
plush frame, or a cut-glass syrup pitcher flanked by a 
marble clock. The commissariat issued not only stores 
and utensils but everything which came to hand. All the 
memoranda of the progress of the siege were entered in 
note books, with pencil or pen and ink, all of which had 
been secured by application to the obliging supply com- 
mittee. One had but to make his necessities sufficiently 
known to insure such a supply for them as the case ad- 
mitted, for the besieged in a most literal sense had all 
things common. 

The bulletin boards, where were posted the translations 
of the " Peking Gazettes " obtained during the armistice, 
were surrounded for days with a crowd that exhibited the 
keenest interest in the utterances of that unique publica- 
tion. Many of these were printed many weeks before, 
but some of them were highly important, and most of 
them quite new. 

The most important utterance among them was a de- 
cree issued the day after the murder of the German Min- 
ister, but significantly making no reference whatever to 
that occurrence. It is a window through which the 
Chinese side of the international question may be seen. 
It ran as follows : 

" Ever since the foundation of the dynasty, foreigners 
coming to China have been kinclly treated. In the reign 
of Tao Kuang and Hsian Feng they were allowed to 
trade ; they also asked leave to propagate their religion, a 
request which the Throne reluctantly granted. At first 
they were amenable to Chinese control, but for the past 
thirty years they have taken advantage of China's for- 
bearance to encroach on China's territory and trample on 
the Chinese people and to demand China's wealth. Every 



376 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

concession made by China increased their reliance on vio- 
lence. They oppressed peaceful citizens and insulted 
the gods and holy men, exciting the most burning indig- 
nation among the people. Hence the destruction of the 
chapels and the slaughter of converts by the patriotic 
braves. The Throne was anxious to avoid war and issued 
edicts enjoining the protection of the Legations and pity 
to the converts. The decrees declaring Boxers and con- 
verts to be equally the children of the State were issued 
with the hope of removing the old feud between people 
and converts and extreme kindness was shown to the 
strangers from afar. 

" But these people knew no gratitude and increased 
their pressure. A despatch w^as yesterday sent by Du 
Chaylard, Doyen of the Consular body at Tientsin, call- 
ing on us to deliver up the Taku forts into their keeping, 
otherwise they would be taken by force. These threats 
show their aggressions. In all matters relating to inter- 
national intercourse we have never been wanting in 
courtesies to them ; but they, while styling themselves 
civilized States, have acted without regard for right, re- 
lying solely on their military force. 

" We have now reigned nearly thirty years and have 
treated the people as our children, the people honouring 
us as their deity ; and in the midst of our reign we 
have been the recipients of the gracious favour of the 
Empress Dowager. Furthermore our ancestors have 
come to our aid and the gods have answered to our 
call, and never has there been so universal a mani- 
festation of loyalty and patriotism. With tears have 
we announced the war in the ancestral shrines. Better 
to do our utmost and enter on the struggle than seek 
some means of self preservation involving eternal dis- 
grace. All our officials, high and low, are of one mind. 



SIEGE LIFE 377 

and there have assembled without official summons sev- 
eral hundred thousand patriotic soldiers [Boxers], even 
children carrying spears in the service of their country. 
Those others rely on crafty schemes ; our trust is in 
heaven's justice. They depend on violence, we on hu- 
manity. Not to speak of the righteousness of our cause, 
our provinces number more than twenty, our people over 
four hundred millions, and it will not be difficult to vindi- 
cate the dignity of our country." 

Another Decree, in the "Gazette" of June 21st, ex- 
presses the satisfaction with which the Throne has re- 
ceived the report of the Governor General of Chihli, Yii 
Lu, of the successful engagements at Tientsin on the 
I7th-i9th of that month, and gives much praise to the 
Boxers who have done great services without any assist- 
ance either of men or money from the State. Great 
favour will be shown them later on, and they must con- 
tinue to show their devotion. The phraseology of the 
Decrees already cited serve as an excellent specimen of 
the Janus-faced utterances of the Empress Dowager in 
regard to the Boxers. They are violators of treaties, have 
been often rebuked and must now positively disperse, 
yet a few days later they are loyal and patriotic, and de- 
serve well of their Empress, who will reward them. 

On the 24th of June the Board of Revenue is ordered 
to give Kang I two hundred bags of rice for distribution 
as provisions among the Boxers. Still another Decree 
of the same date mentions, as previously quoted, that since 
the Boxers — now styled " Boxer Militia " — are scattered 
all around Peking and Tientsin, it is necessary and proper 
that they should have Superintendents placed over them 
(in other words be definitely and fully accepted as in the 
employ of the Chinese Government). Accordingly Prince 
Chuang, and the Assistant Grand Secretary Kang I were 



378 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

appointed to the general command, Ying Nien to act as 
brigadier general of the left wing, and Tsai Lan of the 
right. All the members of the I Ho T'uan (it is re- 
marked) are exerting their utmost energies, and the Im- 
perial Family must not fall behind in harbouring revenge 
against our enem.ies. It is Our confident hope that the 
desires of each and all be successfully consummated, and 
it is of the utmost importance that no lack of energy be 
shown. 

On the 27th, Edicts commanded Yu Lu to retake the 
Taku Forts, and to prevent the foreign troops from creep- 
ing northward ; and ordered the distribution of one hun- 
dred thousand taels of silver to the divisions of troops 
in the Metropolitan districts, and a like sum to the Box- 
ers assisting them. 

During these weeks there are frequent references in 
memorials and in Imperial Decrees to the general law- 
lessness which had resulted from the encouragement to 
irresponsible private individuals, as well as to soldiers, 
to take vengeance. Were there no other proof, these 
documents alone would show that the Capital and its en- 
virons were under a reign of terror, against which there 
are numerous protests both from Censors and from the 
Empress herself. 

But the mischief is always laid to those who pretended 
to belong to the Boxer Militia in order to plunder and 
kill, and it is these (and not the Boxers as a class) who 
are ordered to be rigorously dealt with. On the 2nd 
of July another important Edict appeared, under the 
aegis of which the slaughter of all foreigners, mission- 
aries not more than others, anrl the extermination of all 
native Christians who would not recant, became a duty. 

" Ever since Foreign Nations began the propaga- 
tion of their religion there have been instances through- 



SIEGE LIFE 379 

out the country of ill-feeling between the people and the 
converts. All this is due to faulty administration on the 
part of local authorities, giving rise to feuds. The truth 
is that the converts also are children of the State, and 
among them are not wanting good and worthy people ; 
but they have been led away by false doctrines, and have 
relied on the missionary for support, with the result that 
they have committed many misdeeds. They hold to their 
errors and will not turn from them, and irreconcilable 
enmity has thus grown up between the converts and the 
people. 

" The Throne is now exhorting every member of the 
Boxer Militia to render loyal and patriotic service, and 
to take his part against the enemies of his country, so 
that the whole population may be of one mind. Knowing 
that the converts are also subjects owing fealty to the 
Throne, we also know that they can bring themselves 
to form a class apart and invite their own destruction. 
If they can change their hearts there is no reason why 
they should not be allowed to escape from the net. The 
Viceroys and Governors of the Provinces are all there- 
fore to give orders to all local officials to issue the fol- 
lowing notification : All those among the converts who 
repent of their former errors and give themselves up to 
the authorities, shall be allowed to reform, and their 
past shall be ignored. The public shall also be notified 
that in all places where converts reside, they shall be al- 
lowed to report to the local authorities, and each case will 
be settled according to general regulations which will be 
drawn up later. 

" As hostilities have now broken out between China and 
Foreign Nations, the missionaries of every country must 
be driven away at once to their own countries, so that 
they may not linger here and make trouble. But it is 



380 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

important that measures be taken to secure their protec- 
tion on their journey. The high provincial authorities 
shall make close investigation into the circumstances of 
all places within their jurisdiction, and speedily take the 
necessary steps. Let there be no carelessness. (The 
above Decree is to be circulated for general informa- 
tion.) " 

The putting forth of this Edict was doubtless regarded 
by its authors as the happy issue of a long and doubtful 
contest, in which China by a few sweeps of a camel's- 
hair pencil had now obliterated forty years of the Past, 
and entered upon a new era! 

On the 9th of July Li Hung Chang was appointed 
Viceroy of Chihli, and Superintendent of the Trade which 
the rulers of China had by this time extinguished in that 
part of the Empire. Pending Li's arrival, the former 
Governor General, Yii Lu, was to consult with Prince 
Ch'ing as to the best measures to be taken, and the latter 
are warned against a slackening of responsibility. 

On the I2th of July Gen. Nieh, who fought near Tien- 
tsin, is severely rated for his failures and blunders and 
deprived of his rank although retained in command (a 
favourite Chinese punishment), and in the same sentence 
his death at the head of his troops is mentioned without 
comment. 

On July 15th the Acting Governor of Shansi quotes 
a Decree which had been issued on the 20th of June to 
the several Governors General, and Governors, in which 
the following significant sentence occurs : " They must 
suggest plans for safe-guarding the boundaries of the 
Empire against the aggressive designs of the foreigner, 
and see that reenforcements be sent to the assistance of 
the Capital, in order that no disaster befall the Dynasty." 

Three days later ai)pcared a Decree which sets forth 



SIEGE LIFE 381 

another aspect of the international troubles, again refers 
to the murder of the Japanese Chancellor, and for the 
first time mentions that of the German Minister, nearly 
a month previous, carefully avoiding the least informa- 
tion as to the circumstances. 

By this time the pressure of events succeeding the 
capture of Tientsin began to be severely felt in Peking, 
and the dissensions among the followers of the Empress 
were at their maximum. 

" The reason for the fighting between the Chinese and 
the foreigners sprung from a disagreement between the 
people and the Christian converts. We could but enter 
upon war when the forts at Taku were taken. Never- 
theless the Government is not willing lightly to break off 
the friendly relations which have existed. We have re- 
peatedly issued Edicts to protect the Ministers of the dif- 
ferent countries. We have also ordered the missionaries 
in the various provinces to be protected. The fighting 
has not yet become extensive. There are many mer- 
chants of the various countries within our dominions. 
All alike should be protected. It is ordered that the 
Generals and Governors examine carefully where there 
are merchants or missionaries, and still, according to the 
provisions of the treaties, protect them without the least 
carelessness. Last month the Chancellor of the Japanese 
Legation was killed. This was indeed most unexpected. 
Before this matter had been settled, the German Minister 
was killed. Suddenly meeting this affair caused us deep 
grief. We ought vigorously to seek the murderer and 
punish him. 

" Aside from the fighting at Tientsin, the Metropolitan 
Department (Shun Tien Fu) and the Governor General 
of this province should command officers under them 
to examine what foreigners have been causelessly killed, 



382 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

and what property destroyed, and report the same, that 
all may be settled together. The vagabonds who have 
been burning houses, robbing and killing the people these 
many days have produced a state of chaos. It is ordered 
that the Governors General, Governors, and high military 
officials clearly ascertain the circumstances, and unite in 
reducing the confusion to order and quiet, and root out 
the cause of the disturbance." 



XXI 

DAYS OF WAITING 

SUNDAY, July 22. — Early this morning some of 
the Chinese went out through the water-gate into 
the southern city to buy fruit, but when others 
tried it a little later they were fired upon, so that the 
market is spoiled. Labour on the barricades was sus- 
pended at II A. M., the first time this has been practicable, 
as on most of the previous Sundays work has been more 
urgent than on other days. 

The courier to Tientsin with messages got off about 
noon, and the package was so large that he asked to have 
its size reduced a little for better concealment. (To 
many friends of the besieged the word brought by this 
courier was the first gleam of hope after almost utter 
despair.) The baby of Dr. and Mrs. John Inglis died 
during the day, and was buried at nightfall, — one of the 
six infants who succumbed during the siege. 

It is rumoured that the Japanese, always the most en- 
terprising collectors of outside reports, have heard that 
our troops have already got half way to Peking travel- 
ling along the bank of the river. Tung Fu Hsiang is 
said to have lost his influence, and his men are scattering 
from him, but according to others he has gone out to 
oppose our troops. The Chinese have put up a new 
barricade in the Hanlin. A Chinese soldier has in- 
formed some one that we are now surrounded by only 
about 900 men. 

383 



384 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Monday, July 23. — A heavy rain came on in the 
evening yesterday and kept up all night. There were 
many collapses of barricades, and in the Hanlin a part 
of a house-wall suddenly fell, covering the mattresses 
upon which the volunteers had just been lying. The 
buildings in Peking are as insubstantial as any others in 
China, often being composed of small pieces of bricks 
not larger than one's fist, bound loosely together with 
mud and a mere suggestion of lime. The result is that 
whenever a heavy and continuous rain-fall occurs, the 
walls may be heard falling in all directions — often to the 
danger of those living within the flimsy structures. The 
rain is very destructive to the sand bags, especially to 
the more expensive ones, which are not meant for such a 
strain as this. Many of them collapse into mere heaps 
of slush. 

Early this morning the Norwegian whose mind had 
become unbalanced took advantage of the rain, the dark- 
ness, and the slumbering guards, British and Chinese, 
to make his escape over the wall, desirous of speedily 
falling into the hands of the Chinese, where it is feared 
he will not fare so well as he expects. It is said that 
despite the apparent diminution in the number of Chinese 
troops, they are building new barricades. Yesterday a 
dog was sent from one of their fortifications to one of 
ours, with a letter in his mouth — all that is left in Peking 
of the Imperial Postal Service ! 

Tuesday, July 24. — It was very hot in the night, so 
that many could not sleep. The Japanese Secretary of 
Legation, Mr. Harahara, died of tetanus, greatly re- 
gretted both by foreigners and Japanese. He had the 
reputation of a great knowledge of China, and was uni- 
versally liked. There appeared to be a severe attack upon 
the Pei Tang last night, judging by the constant sounds 



DAYS OF WAITING 385 

of firing there. On the wall the coolies worked at the 
barricade till after nine o'clock, when the Chinese began 
firing on them, and the work stopped. 

Notwithstanding the " truce " firing goes on, and four 
Chinese have been wounded in the Fu to-day, as well as 
one Italian, A mat-shed has been erected over the de- 
fences at the front gate of the British Legation, to pre- 
vent it from being ruined by the heavy rain, and only one 
shot was fired by the Chinese. 

After dark a notice was posted that Col. Shiba had seen 
a Chinese who told him that foreign troops occupied 
Yang Ts'un on the 17th, and fought a battle on the 19th. 
One hundred and fifty wounded Chinese of Tung Fu 
Hsiang's army are said to have been brought to Peking, 
and foreign troops were forty li this side of Yang Ts'un. 
This news is discredited by Mr. Conger and many others, 
as being too fast an advance for the time during which 
troops must have been on the way. 

Wednesday, July 25. — About I A. M., we were 
startled by hearing a great many rifle-shots in succession, 
mainly from the direction of the Mongol market, indi- 
cating that a renewed attack was beginning, but it was all 
over in less than five minutes. It is reported that yester- 
day a Japanese shot a Chinese who was getting over his 
barricade, a Chinese in retaliation shot a Chinese Chris- 
tian, when the Japanese returned the fire; the Chinese 
then wounded an Italian, on which a British marine 
killed the man who shot him! 

Two days ago there were rumours of a large Chinese 
force from Pao Ting Fu. which would soon attack the 
Legations. Now it is said that troops are coming in from 
the Western Park, to be separated into two divisions 
at two of the Peking gates. There is a rumour that there 
was an attempt, to blow up the Pei T'ang recently, but 



386 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

that it did not succeed, or that at least the Cathedral was 
not injured. The Chinese soldier who has been giving 
information to the Japanese, now informs them that a 
battle was fought on the 24th, between Ts'ai Ts'un and 
Ho Hsi Wu, lasting from noon till midnight, after which 
the Chinese retired on Ho Hsi Wu. 

A flag of truce was sent during the day to the 
German Legation with several letters. One of these 
is to Sir Claude from " Prince Ch'ing and Others " say- 
ing that a great many inquiries are being made of the 
Chinese Government as to the safety of the Ministers. 
The Chinese Government is willing to send replies from 
the Ministers to these inquiries, but they must have noth- 
ing in them of a military nature, and must be in plain 
writing, not in cipher. Another document raises once 
more the proposal of removing the Legations to Tientsin, 
pointing out that the number of rebellious people daily 
increases, and that something unforeseen is liable to 
happen. (It has already happened, however). Travel 
is temporary, residence is permanent, and an escort could 
be provided which would make the journey perfectly safe. 
China does not want war. What means are proposed to 
stop it? It would be better to settle matters at Tientsin, 
therefore the Ministers are asked to pack up, and name 
a fixed day in order that provision may be made for their 
travel. 

A messenger disguised as a fortune-teller was sent out 
with a repetition of the last batch of messages. The man 
that was sent to procure a number of " Peking Gazettes " 
has returned, having experienced some trouble and dan- 
ger, for which he was rewarded with fifty taels. 

Thursday, July 26. — Only a few stray shots in the 
night, which was very hot and was followed by a day 
of the same sort. The fortune-telling messenger did not 



DAYS OF WAITING 387 

get away after all, being dissatisfied with some detail of 
his costume. At first his despatches were rolled up in 
the handle of an old umbrella, but this was criticized as 
too obvious, and he is now ruminating on a variation of 
dress for another attempt later. 

The Japanese Soldier-Information-Bureau (now ri- 
pened into "one of Tung Fu Hsiang's body-guard") 
to-day ofifers the very latest. There was another fight 
at Ho Hsi Wu yesterday, lasting till 3 p. m., twelve hun- 
dred Chinese being killed and wounded. The Chinese 
force included 5,000 soldiers and 3,000 Boxers. Li Ping 
Heng is said to have reached Peking, and the plan to 
deport the Ministers is thought to be his. In the after- 
noon the Ho Hsi Wu battle was revised so as to have 
begun at six o'clock, the Chinese being driven back ten li. 
By the same opportunity we learned that 4,800 troops 
had come in from the west, but they had left to join the 
Chinese army, with nine guns. 

Mr. Conger puts absolutely no faith in any of these 
reports, but many others give them a qualified credence, 
" so as to hit it if it were a deer, and miss it if it were a 
calf." 

During the night there were continual isolated rifle- 
shots to show that we are watched, but no replies came 
from us. 

Friday, July 27. — Much cooler last night. After 
breakfast there were rumours that a man had arrived 
from T'ung Chou, with the same man who has come so 
often before, bringing a report that the Chinese intend 
to make their last stand at T'ung Chou, and that if they 
should be defeated there, the Court would retire to Hsi 
An Fu, the distant capital of the province of Shensi, 
for which journey carts are said to have been already 
impressed. 



388 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

The messenger who was to go out as a fortune-teller 
has made his second effort to get away and failed. The 
first time he was let down over the wall, met Chinese 
soldiers and pretended that he was sent to inspect their 
camp, but they told him that he could not get there with- 
out a pass. Then he pulled the rope, and was hauled up 
again upon the wall. The next time was at the east gate 
of the Fu, where he found himself surrounded by bar- 
ricades and became frightened. 

To-day at noon he tried the third time. He had pro- 
cured a Boxer uniform, but b.e could not make any use 
of it. Two soldiers were willing to help him out, one 
to be the security for the other. The latter remained 
within our surveillance, while the other took the mes- 
senger to a distance of several li. When he left the 
messenger, the latter handed him a small piece of a for- 
eign lady's hair-pin as a pledge, a token unknown to the 
security who had remained. Upon presenting this hair- 
pin certificate that the safe-conduct had been honourably 
executed, the two men were paid ten taels. The mes- 
senger was to have two hundred taels on his arrival at 
Tientsin, with his thirteen letters. (It is remarkable 
that all this elaborate preparation was worse than wasted. 
There was some little doubt about the trustworthiness of 
the man, but he was not seriously suspected. When he 
had got beyond the city he was advised by his brother 
either to kill himself outright, or go to the headquarters 
of Prince Chuang, and make a full confession, thus en- 
suring his own escape from punishment. This he did, 
and all the thirteen letters were sent out to the translators 
of the Tsung Li Yamen, who soon put them into circula- 
tion in the Imperial Court, where those of them that were 
not in cipher were doubtless much enjoyed — as so many 
of their predecessors had already been). 



DAYS OF WAITING 389 

The Ministers yesterday had another meeting to con- 
sider what form of sound words to employ in replying 
to Prince Ch'ing and his " Others," so as to keep the 
matter in suspense as long as possible, with a minimum 
of definiteness — an aim for which diplomatic training is 
supposed to fit everyone perfectly. With regard to the 
matter of plain telegraphing, it was to-day replied that 
no Government would accept such telegrams, and no 
Ministers could send them, for they would not be accord- 
ing to usage, and would therefore defeat the very end 
proposed, which was to impart information as to the 
condition of the Ministers. Furthermore, it was impossible 
to affirm that the families of the Ministers are well, as 
they have suffered from the five weeks siege, and the 
lack of accustomed food. As for the omission of mili- 
tary information, this was easy to arrange, as the Ministers 
had no information in regard to the military situation, 
and therefore would be under no risk of sending that 
kind of intelligence. 

The Japanese soldier-spy has told them that Jung Lu 
has five regiments (liang-tzu) at the Pei T'ang, two at 
the Hou Men, or North gate of the Imperial city, three 
surrounding the Legations, while three more have gone 
to meet the foreign troops. Two hundred carts have 
been summoned to the Palace for the removal of the 
Court, and seventy more for Gen. Tung Fu Hsiang. 

A Chinese who had beaten his wife was to-day put 
into a small light cangue, or frame-work about his neck, 
near the bell-tower, the cangue bearing an inscription : 

" THIS MAN BEAT HIS WIFE AND IS NOW PUNISHED FOR 

IT." He is surrounded much of the time by a curious 
crowd, both of foreigners and Chinese, who regard it as 
a novelty ; indeed, there is reason for supposing that it is 
the first case in the history of the Chinese Empire — though 



390 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

this is undoubtedly a rash statement to make about any- 
thing. 

There was a sensation during the afternoon on the 
arrival of red cards and a quantity of fruit, etc., for the 
Ministers, and a separate lot for Sir Robert Hart. The 
approximate census of the provision consignment is as 
follows: Melons, 150; cucumbers, 100; squashes, 100; 
flour, 1,000 catties; eggs, 500; ice, 24 blocks. In regard 
to the acceptance of these Imperial gifts there was, at 
this as at other times, wide divergence of opinion. Some 
refused to partake of them in any way, and wished them 
returned or declined. The controversy was sharply ar- 
gued on both sides, one of the Ministers being even me- 
morialized by a deputation of ladies against the acceptance 
of such treacherous bounty. 

There was, however, no diflference of opinion about 
the imprudence of using any of the flour, at least until 
it had first been tried upon a dog, — a suggestion presented 
by deputations of native Christains, which commended 
itself to all. It was put aside till urgently required, and 
had not been touched when the Relief Force arrived, but 
it was subsequently used with no apparent ill effects. 
These gifts were as before merely acknowledged by a 
receipt. 

A letter to the Ministers through Sir Claude from the 
Prince Ch'ing combination suggests that the number of 
converts in the Legation premises is reported to be large, 
and the space small. The feeling is now quiet abroad, 
and the converts may very well be sent out, and directed 
to pursue their avocations. There need be no doubt and 
fear. It is requested that the number of them be esti- 
mated, and a day fixed for sending them out. 

Sir Claude did not consider it worth his while to con- 
sult the Christians as to whclhcr they wished to facilitate 



DAYS OF WAITING 391 

their own massacre by leaving their only place of refuge, 
and no reply to this artless corHmunication was returned. 
In the evenings there are frequent gatherings around the 
bell-tower for singing. 

Several songs have been composed bearing upon the 
siege, which have become very popular. The Russians 
sing their fine national air, the Germans " Die Wacht am 
Rhein," the British " God Save the Queen," and the 
Americans the " Star Spangled Banner," with great good 
fellowship. 

The messenger reports that a foreigner has been cap- 
tured by the Chinese, in a very forlorn and unkempt con- 
dition. We recognized him as an escaped Norwegian 
about whom we wrote on the 25th a note of inquiry. He 
is reported to have been taken to the headquarters of Jung 
Lu, who examined him and then sent him to the yamen 
of the prefect of Peking where he now is. 

Saturday, July 29th. — The two ponies killed this morn- 
ing were found to have been preempted by a parasite 
(filaria) in the flesh, making them unwholesome and 
dangerous. As the Chinese are never deterred by any 
trifles of this nature, the meat was accordingly sent over 
to the Fu, and another pony substituted for the foreigners. 

A sensation was caused by the arrival of the boy who 
was sent out on the night of July 4th, disguised as a 
beggar. He brings a letter to Sir Claude replying to 
his of the 4th which gave the details of the siege up 
to that time, and the number of killed and wounded, and 
which stated that Chinese troops had fired into the Lega- 
tion quarter continuously since June 20th, and that the 
Legations were hard pressed. 

Notice of the contents of the letter from Tientsin, which 
is written by the British Consul, is posted on the bulletin 
board as follows : " Tientsin, July 22nd. Your letter 



392 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

July 4th. There are now 24,000 troops landed, and 
19,000 here. Brig. Gen. Gaselee expected Taku to-mor- 
row. Russian troops are at Pei Ts'ang. Tientsin city is 
under foreign government, and Boxer power here is ex- 
ploded. There are plenty of troops on the way if you 
can keep yourself in food. Almost all the ladies have 
left Tientsin. D. R. Carles." 

The more this strange communication was con- 
templated, the more extraordinary it appeared. The one 
vital question to persons in a state of continuous siege 
is as to when relief may be expected, and on this point 
the letter not only gave no information whatever, but 
its phraseology was so ambiguous as to be unintelligible. 
Even the number of available troops was left a matter of 
debate, the whole culminating in the singular intelli- 
gence that " there are plenty of troops on the way if 
you can keep yourself in food." This led to the very 
natural inquiry, what would become of the troops if Sir 
Claude found that he could not keep himself in food? 

It was not until long afterward that it became dimly 
known that the benevolent purpose of the writer of the 
letter was to disguise the fact — which it was thought 
might be fatally depressing to the besieged — that at pres- 
ent there was nothing whatever in immediate prospect for 
their relief, and that they might as well adjust them- 
selves to these conditions. 

The messenger lad reported that he left the Red Bridge 
above Tientsin July 23rd, and slept at Yang Ts'un in a 
locomotive boiler. The railway bridge there was not de- 
stroyed. That day he saw only Chinese infantry — the 
main body being at Pei Ts'ang 8 miles west of Tientsin. 

He saw no Boxers there. The night of the 24th he 
spent near PIo Hsi Wu. That day he saw parties of 
Boxers in the villages, but none on the road. At Ma 



DAYS OF WAITING 393 

T'ou the river was in flood, many boats moored, but few 
in motion. On the 27th he reached the Sha Kuo gate of 
Peking. The telegraph poles and wire along the river were 
all gone, the railway was everywhere torn up, and the 
rails either buried or used for making Boxer swords. The 
highway to Tientsin was in good condition. The crops 
everywhere looked well, and the villagers were attending 
to their farm work. There was a Boxer organization in 
every village. 

When the messenger left Tientsin the foreign troops 
had not advanced beyond the defence wall. All the ya- 
mens in Tientsin were occupied by foreign troops — chiefly 
Japanese. All Boxers had left the front at Tientsin, be- 
cause they were so badly punished in battle. The Chinese 
soldiers despised them because of the contrast between 
their previous extravagant pretensions to invulnerability 
and their present flight. 

The Japanese subsidized body-guard soldier of Tung 
Fu Hsiang informs them that there has been " a battle " 
at An P'ing on the 26th, when there were seven hundred 
Chinese killed, their army retreating on Ma T'ou. A 
miltary Harmony has now been constructed with a view 
to reconciling the dates given by the body-guard expert, 
with the evidently authentic information of the messenger 
lad, as follows: 

Summary of Battles under the patronage of the soldier 
of Gen. Tung Fu Hsiang : Ts'ai Ts'un battle, July 24th ; 
Ho Hsi Wu battle, July 25th ; An P'ing battle, July 26th ; 
Chinese army at Ma T'ou, July 27th. The messenger 
boy reports that he slept at Yang Ts'un on the 23rd, Ho 
Hsi Wu, 24th, Ma T'ou, 25th, Yii Chia Wei, 26th, Peking, 
27th. There is thus no material contradiction between 
these reports. 

The word of the intended escape of the Empress Dow- 



394 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

agcr is confirmed by four others, as well as the soldier- 
spy. Yesterday an experiment was made in getting rude 
cobbling done by one of the Christians, and watch-repair- 
ing by a Roman Catholic refugee. 

Sunday, July 29th. — Last night there seemed to be 
heavy firing about the Pei T'ang, or Northern Cathedral. 
Early in the morning the intellectually aberrant Nor- 
wegian w^as brought to our lines by a Chinese guard, 
looking much like a wreck. He had been manacled, and 
remarked that all the gold in the world would not induce 
him to repeat the experience. It gradually leaked out that 
he was asked a great number of leading questions by Jung 
Lu, and others, showing that they have a very correct 
knowledge of what is going on inside the Legation prem- 
ises. One inquiry w'as about the pits which were being 
dug, probably the bomb-proofs, and another as to the 
amount of damage done by the Chinese firing. The Nor- 
wegian gave the whole thing away by frankly stating 
that the Chinese fired too high, and as there w^as soon 
after a marked depression of the muzzles of their rifles 
(and of the spirits of the besieged to match) it was pro- 
posed to shoot the man as a deserter and a spy. Alore 
temperate counsels prevailed, however, and he w^as thence- 
forth kept in a state of surveillance until the siege termi- 
nated. 

An Austrian marine, who was acting as a cook in his 
Legation at the time it was abandoned, says that when the 
order was given to retreat, he was at work in the cook- 
house and knew nothing of it, supposing that the firing 
was due to the Boxers, and was unimportant. Hearing 
the bullets whizzing he went out to see, and was imme- 
diately struck with the total absence of any Austrians 
at the barricade; he was himself soon hit by a bullet that 
made a flesh-wound in both legs. Crawling back to the 



DAYS OF WAITING 395 

guard-room he wrote his name in his own blood on the 
wall, explaining that circumstance, lest he should die 
unknown to the rest. Finding that the Chinese did not 
enter, he tore up his clothing, made rough bandages ,and 
crawled to the barricade at the Customs, pursued by 
bullets. It is now generally recognized by impartial ob- 
servers that the abandonment of the Austrian Legation at 
the time was utterly inexcusable. 

Air. Sugi the dispenser of Japanese-Chinese intelligence 
has taken a small house just outside the Japanese lines, 
opening on the Customs lane, where he receives messages 
and whence he dispatches couriers. His body-guard 
soldier to-day informs him that there are 25,000 Chinese 
troops at Ma T'ou awaiting the foreign army, which is 
30,000 strong and retired yesterday on An P'ing. 

A messenger sent out to Chang P'ing Chou, north- 
west of Peking, met refugees from Tu Shih K'ou. There 
are said to be Russian troops coming hither by way of 
Kalgan, but whence is a dense mystery known only to 
the immortal gods. It is now affirmed that all but two 
of the gates of Peking are stopped with sand bags. 

During the afternoon the Chinese began to build a new 
barricade along the south side of the bridge which crosses 
the canal under the walls of the Imperial city. This was 
at once observed from the north stables, and reported. 
The Italian gun was sent up there to attack the work- 
men, and fired several shots, until the gunner (Italian) 
got a bullet through his hand. 

The method of the Chinese was very business-like and 
effective. There was no one in sight, but now and again 
a brick or two came around the corner, and then others 
were thrown on it, until the wall began to show up. 
Sometimes a box full of earth or bricks was suddenly 
pushed around adding to the fast growing barricade, but 



396 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

still no one in sight. The shots fired at them did the 
Chinese no harm, and did not in the least impede their 
work. Before dark the new wall stretched along the 
whole bridge front, and during the night it was completed, 
very high and strong. ]\Iucli of their work elsewhere 
was done like this, and having practically unlimited ma- 
terials and labour, they were able to execute a great deal 
in a short time. Everyone sympathized with the Russian 
gentleman who remarked the next morning: "That new 
barricade makes me very uneasy." 

Another and rival messenger just in from Somewhere, 
tells us that Yang Ts'un was completely destroyed by 
foreign troops "two or three days ago," they being in 
steady advance. This makes necessary a revised Har- 
mony of the Peking Anabasis, involving great intellectual 
labour and highly uncertain results. 

A few " Peking Gazettes " have been secured, but 
there is nothing of commanding interest. The issue of 
July 23rd contains a long joint memorial from Yii Lu, the 
Governor General of Chihli, and Gen. Sung Ch'ing, giving 
confused details of the attacks upon the Foreign Settle- 
ment from the 8th to the nth of July. The " Gazette " 
of July nth also had a long memorial of the same de- 
scription from the Governor General. The Chinese losses 
are admitted to have been severe, but then those of the 
enemy were " not small." The Empress Dowager is com- 
forted by information that the Arsenal at the Treaty 
Temple is not so injured that it can not be repaired. The 
tone of the later memorial, which was sent two days be- 
fore the last and successful foreign attack, is much less 
hopeful, giving details of the numerous foreign forces 
present and prospective, and each of them makes it plain 
that " large reenforcements " will be needed. 

A paragraph from the former memorial is interesting 



DAYS OF WAITING 397 

as illustrating Chinese strategy under depressing con- 
ditions : " I have consulted," Yii Lu says, " with Gen. 
Ma Yii K'un, about the mode of continuing the warfare, 
and we have come to the conclusion that in the first 
place it is necessary to force the foreign troops to retire 
from the foreign settlement of Tientsin, and then to at- 
tack them at Taku. I have consulted on this subject 
several times with Generals Ma, Nieh, and Lo, and we 
hope to be able to take the Taku Forts." A Rescript ap- 
proves this mode of action (as well it might, considering 
that it is the Report of a Committee of Civil and Military 
Rats as to the best Alethod of Putting a Large Bell on 
several Foreign Cats now in possession of Our Attic). 

In a memorandum by the same Governor published 
at the same time, he informs the Throne that " Boxers 
of different places in my province have at dift'erent times 
arrived at Tientsin, and taken part in the battles. At 
present there is a Boxer-chief of the district of Ching Hai 
who has come with 5,000 Boxers, and presented himself 
to me. Seeing that he is a man physically strong and 
mentally capable, 1 have ordered him to choose a resi- 
dence and await instructions. I have also directed that 
fire-arms and provisions should be distributed to his fol- 
lowers. In case of any merit on his part in future, a 
special report will be made by me on the subject." A 
Decree announces that as a reward for the nvmierous vir- 
tues of Jung Lu, he is to be allowed to ride with two 
bearers through the Forbidden City (a privilege which 
he was unable to retain for any length of time. ) 

Monday, July 30th. — The new barricade at the head 
of the canal commands the whole roadway on each side 
down to the city wall, and although passage is forbidden, 
there are many shots fired at the pertinacious Chinese 
who will take the more dangerous route, instead of the 



398 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

perfectly safe one through the tunnel. A Roman Catholic 
was killed this morning outside one of the houses near 
the Fu, along the canal road. A Cossack who was suf- 
fering from malaria took this morning a twelfth of a 
grain of strychnine by mistake for quinia, but he was 
saved from the toxic effects with some difficulty. 

It is a great strain on the human understanding to 
digest, and especially to coordinate the incessant contra- 
dictory reports which come from every quarter. Here 
is to-day's budget : Col. Shiba's messenger says that he 
left Chang Chia Wan (three miles from T'ung Chou) at 
eight o'clock on the evening of the 29th. There had been 
desultory fighting there from 3 to 8 p. m., and many 
Chinese were killed. The foreign troops had advanced 
on j\Ia T"ou on the morning of the 29th, the Chinese fall- 
ing back upon Chang Chia Wan, with about 10,000 men. 
in the afternoon a candy-seller from T'ung Chou, who 
had been sent out as a spy, returns with the story that 
there are foreign troops at Yang Ts'un but none this 
side. As this is not the news we wish, the man is tied 
up, until he can revise it! He also informs us that Li 
Hung Chang is here, and has been given three days to 
make peace. A courier was sent off early this morning 
with eleven letters, and during the day it was reported 
that two who had been dispatched yesterday by Mr. Sugi 
had returned. One of them has brought word of a battle 
just south of Ma T'ou, on the 29th (or 28th.) These 
men say that they saw a man who had been in the Roman 
Catholic village of Chia Chia T'uan, eight miles from 
T'ung Chou, who reports that foreign troops have come 
there to relieve the Catholics, who have been standing a 
little siege of their own. 

There are wild and contradictory accounts of what is 
seen from the Anicrican position on 'the wall, looking 



DAYS OF WAITING 399 

down into the southern city, singular movements of carts, 
horses, coohes, etc., in great confusion. It is said that Sir 
Robert has received a ciplicr telegram of nearly an hun- 
dred words for which he has no cipher key — so that it is 
unintelligible. 

A reply was sent to-day to the letter suggesting that 
the Chinese Christians might return to their " avoca- 
tions," now that the country is quiet. The Ministers 
mention that in view of this statement they were sur- 
prised at the sound of heavy firing at the Pei T'ang, which 
was evidently being attacked. The barricade at the north 
canal bridge is referred to, and the fact that a continuous 
fire is kept up from there, and also against the French 
and the Russian Legations. There is a strange contra- 
diction between the above professions and the actions 
described. There are European officers and soldiers at 
the Pei T'ang. If such attacks as these can not be pre- 
vented, it is difficult to see how similar assaults could be 
prevented on a journey to Tientsin. Explanations are 
wanted in regard to this matter, before discussing the 
question of transport. 

Prince Ch'ing and his " Others " in reply informed the 
Ministers that, in the preparation for the journey to Tien- 
tsin, the Chinese Government would of course provide 
carts and chairs for going to T'ung Chou. Brig. Gen, 
Sun Han Lien with a picked force, and also some of Gen. 
Sung Ming's troops would be the escort ; notice a few 
days in advance is requested. In reply to the letter just 
quoted it is explained that the attack on the Pei T'ang 
was due to the converts going out in all directions to 
plunder for food. The people joined the crowd of Box- 
ers, and made continuous attacks. A Decree has now 
been issued that if the converts do not come out to plunder 
they are to be protected and not attacked. The troops 



400 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

of Gen. Tung were building a road across the canal, and 
the Legation mistook it for a barricade, whicli was a mis- 
understanding on both sides. With regard to the pro- 
posed departure, it is not an easy matter to adjust. It 
was only after much arrangement that it was possible 
to give guarantees against mischance. The matter is one 
of the greatest importance, and we could not purposely 
deceive. We ask you not to be over anxious, but to come 
to a decision. 

Tuesday, July 31. — During the night, there was what 
one of the British marines called " a tidy bit of firing " 
down the canal. The Chinese complain that we fired first 
on them as they were working on their " road " (barri- 
cade), which is true. Despite their promise of cessation 
of hostilities, the Chinese do not suspend their firing any- 
where. The supply of eggs has never been large, and 
now that the Chinese have beheaded a man who was 
bringing supplies for sale, and the French guards have 
shot an egg-seller, there are not likely to be any more. 

The Chinese soldier-spy brings to the Japanese his 
usual tale of military news. The foreign army advanced 
from Ma T'ou fighting, arriving at Chang Chia Wan 
late on the afternoon of the 30th. The Chinese army is 
eight miles south of T'ung Chou. The " Ch'ang A.n Vic- 
torious Army " of fifteen regiments, which left Ilsian 
Fu June 27th, is expected at the Southern Hunting Park 
to-day, and is to make a forced march to T'ung Chou. 
Tt is thought that there may be 4,000 or 5,000 of them, 
and as they are not foreign drilled they will add but little 
to the Chinese strength in a military way. 

The five great armies hitherto controlled by Jung Lu 
are said to have been turned over to Li Ping Hcng, who 
had arrived from the south a few days before in obedi- 
ence to a special summons, and whose influence was at once 



DAYS OF WAITING 401 

thrown into the scale in favour of further hostilities, so 
that they began to be more pronounced in every direc- 
tion. Tung Fu Hsiang has leave of absence for ten days. 
Li Hung Chang (who is already in Peking) will arrive 
at Tientsin in two days. A dispatch from Chi Nan Fu 
reports that Yuan Shih K'ai, the Governor of Shantung 
has " revolted and joined the Germans ! " 

A party of Mr. Gamewell's men who were at work 
on the fortifications, were to-day called off to make a 
" brick-proof " for the north-west corner of the Han- 
lin, where bricks and bottles are coming over almost 
every minute, and " make the men nervous." The Hague 
Peace Conference should have included these weapons in 
its condemnation, along with the " dum-dum bullet." A 
barricade has been built in the night across the north side 
of the bridge at the Legation Street. At present the 
bridge is very unsafe, owing to the perpetual sniping 
from the Chinese barricade at the upper bridge. 



XXII 

THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 

WEDNESDAY, August i.— During the night 
the mentally unbalanced Norwegian broke 
away from the Japanese Legation where he 
was under restraint, and went to the Hotel de Pekin. The 
proprietor brought him to the British Legation at 2 a. m., 
whence he was sent back to be put under watch again. 
The barricade at the south gate of this Legation, to pro- 
tect the crossing of the canal, was finished last night, and 
we can now breathe a little more freely, but still there is 
a certain (or rather a very uncertain) amount of danger 
in going to Legation Street by this route. 

The Committee on Food Supply have been very active 
in getting together everything which could be used, and 
especially in the steady and most important work of get- 
ting the grinding done properly and in season. LTpon 
this the continued existence of all the besieged depends. 
As the duration of the siege is so uncertain and the 
matter is one of vital importance, careful stock-taking has 
been had as to the visible food supply. There seem to be 
about 600 pounds only of white rice, 11,500 of the " yel- 
low," or olfl rice, and 34,000 pounds of wheat. If all other 
supplies were unavailable, it is estimated that the public 
stores coulfl furnish one thousand persons each a pound 
of wheat and one third of a pound of rice each day, for 
five weeks. There are about thirty available ponies re- 

402 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 403 

maining, which at the rate of three every two days would 
last twenty days. 

A visit to the wall shows a vast improvement in the 
defences there as compared with the period when the first 
effort was made to build a worm fence of bricks to the 
top of the ramp. Now this has been completed, and is 
perfectly safe from shots in any direction. Each of the 
barricades on the wall is built up very high and strong, 
and could not be rushed by the Chinese even if they had 
the disposition, which since the night of July 3rd they 
have never exhibited. Between the two terminal barri- 
cades there is a long path on the wall, protected all the 
way so as to be entirely safe for passage. The western 
barricade is held conjointly by Americans and Russians. 

Another letter from " Prince Ch'ing and Others " has 
been received, continuing the subject of the previous cor- 
respondence. It says that last night some converts again 
fired on the posts of the Government troops, wounding 
two of them. If the converts are not amenable to control, 
it is to be feared that they will produce a great dis- 
aster, and ruin the whole situation. The strictest re- 
straint is requested so as to avoid further hostilities. We 
hear that the converts have collected in great numbers, 
and that they do not wish the Envoys to leave Peking, 
their hope being that they will thus have a perpetual 
support. The Foreign Ministers ought not to fall into 
this trap. A reply is requested within two or three days, 
as to the date of the Minister's departure. 

It seemed best to the Ministers to respond as if they 
were arguing with rational beings, as there was no cer- 
tainty into whose hands the correspondence might fall. 
Accordingly a reply was sent to this nonsense the follow- 
ing day. The Legation is defended, not by " converts," 
but by guards. All day and all night there had been shoot- 



404 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ing from the new barricade on the north bridge, and not a 
shot was fired in reply. It is difficult to see why this is 
kept lip. The Foreign Envoys are in great difficulty 
about the plan to go to Tientsin on a certain day. What 
security could the Legations have that the firing would 
not begin en route? 

It is learned from the telegrams received through the 
Tsung Li Yamen to-day, that Mr. Conger's telegram of 
July 17th saving that the Legations had been bombarded 
by shot and shell for a month, had made a great sensa- 
tion, and that relief would be sent. It is singular that 
both the tidings of our distress and the intelligence of the 
efTect produced by the announcement of it, should each 
have been transmitted through the Tsung Li Yamen. A 
Shantung Christian named Chang, who was dispatched to 
Tientsin on the i8th of July, returned to-day with a reply 
to the Japanese Baron Nishi from Gen. Fukushima, say- 
ing that there had been unexpected difficulties in the land- 
ing of the 5th Japanese Division, but that most of the 
troops had already reached Tientsin and the remainder 
were constantly arriving. The messages sent out from 
Peking had made the situation there universally known, 
and many councils had been held as to dispatch of a 
relief expedition. It was expected that within two or 
three days from the date of writing, which was July 
26th, an expedition would start. 

Other letters brought the same or similar intelligence, 
which makes it clear that the reports which have been 
coming in so frequently and so regularly from the heavily 
subsidized body-guard soldier-spy of Gen. Tung Fu 
Hsiang's are deficient in the element of coordination with 
other facts of contemporaneous history — in other words 
they are pure fabrications, which have served their one 
purpose of holding the attention of the besieged, au'l 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 405 

which have kept them studying the map and making esti- 
mates of the probable present situation of " our troops." 
Those who had all along discredited the military narra- 
tives, were enabled to say with much and iterative em- 
phasis : " I told you so." 

This last messenger, although he had been promised a 
large reward for executing the commission which he had 
so well fulfilled, said that he did not care for money, 
would not accept it, and only insisted that he should be 
furnished with a return packet of letters as soon as pos- 
sible. He explained that he was risking his life for the 
general good, and not for private gain. To the Japanese, 
as well as to some others, he appeared to be a very eccen- 
tric individual. Within two hours he was sent off again 
on the coveted errand. 

A telegram to Sir Robert Hart mentions the results 
of the fighting at Tientsin July 15th, and states that sub- 
sequent to it arrangements for the relief were being ha- 
stened, and inquiries whether the Chinese Government is 
protecting us and supplying us with provisions, etc. 

This last sentence exposes the " true inwardness " of 
the water-melons, egg-plants, and cucumbers, all of which 
had been sent in not for the purpose of serving as 
food, but as padding for the dispatches of the Chinese 
Ministers to various Western Powers, all of whom were 
now assured that the Government was doing its utmost 
to make the besieged experience ideal happiness, so that 
their lot was upon the whole an enviable one. 

It is reported from Japanese sources that their losses 
in killed have been ten, (including the Chancellor of the 
Legation) of whom five are soldiers, three Legation of- 
ficials, one an officer, and one a civilian. There have been 
seven badly wounded, and thirty slightly so. The dead are 
buried in a special spot in the grounds of the Su Wang 



4o6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Fu, and when the siege is over the bodies are to be taken 
up, cremated, and the ashes transferred to Japan. 

During the siege a Htter of kittens has made its ap- 
pearance, two of which have been adopted by the ma- 
rines in the main gate, have had coloured ribbons put on 
their necks, and sleep serenely in the loop-holes ! 

Thursday, August 2. — One of the Continental Min- 
isters who was for a long time very timid and pessimis- 
tic, remarked in our gate-house this morning: "Well, 
we are going to get out of this." He seems to think the 
thermometer is rising. 

The two soldier-spies returned to-day, and one gave 
an account of the retreats of their phantom foreign armies 
as far as Yang Ts'un ! He was somewhat alarmed at 
finding his fictions rated at their true value. Instead of 
falling into a passion, as the unskilful Occidental would 
have been likely to do, his shrewd Japanese employer 
smiled upon him, and remarked that he was aware all 
along that the tales were a tissue of fabrications, inso- 
much that he had never even mentioned them to Col. 
Shiba at all! Considering that each day a careful ab- 
stract of the reports had been drawn up, illustrated with 
maps, and the whole at once posted on the bulletin board, 
this was almost as robust a falsehood as the marching 
and retreats of the imaginary forces from Tientsin. In- 
stead of being dismissed, the soldier was told that he 
would still be paid, if he would hereafter bring in reports 
which were somewhat more veracious than any of those 
which had preceded, but from this date he ceased to be 
quoted by any one as a military authority. 

A man who was sent out for the purpose, returned to- 
day with a fresh lot of " Peking Gazettes," which con- 
tain some crumbs of news. 

On the 28th of July a memorial appears from Yii Hsien^ 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 407 

the Governor of Shansi, who reports that the district 
magistrate of the capital of his province, T'ai Yuan Fu, 
had sent word of a Boxer gathering which invaded his 
yamen and had asked for troops. Upon investigation the 
Governor learned that the crowd was a small one, and 
that only one man had come to the yamen demanding 
food, and he was not a Boxer. He recommends the dis- 
missal of the magistrate. (There is probably much more 
in this little incident than appears upon the surface, and 
it not improbably signifies that Yu Hsien was engaged in 
inculcating the teaching among his subordinates that 
Boxers were not to be interfered with, and that any 
official guilty of obstructing them would be promptly 
cashiered.) 

The same Governor mentions that he was about dis- 
patching four " camps " of infantry and two hundred cav- 
alry to Peking, in obedience to a Decree, but that in ac- 
cordance with a later Decree their destination was changed 
to Kalgan. Fie also reports that he is about to raise 
fresh regiments. (It was learned later that he marched 
at the head of his troops for the relief of Peking as far 
as Huai Lu Hsien, at the entrance to the Ku Kuan pass 
leading from Chihli to Shansi. Learning that Peking had 
already been taken, he returned to his own capital, where 
he later welcomed the Empress Dowager on her flight to 
the remote west.) v 

A Decree of which the date is uncertain, but apparently 
of July 28th, states that Hsu Ching Ch'eng and Yuan 
Chang, two of the Ministers of the Tsung Li Yamen, 
had been denounced as of bad reputation, and as given 
to serving their private ends in dealing with foreign 
affairs. At an Imperial audience they have made wild 
proposals, and used the most improper language. Their 
suggestions have tended to introduce divisions (i. e. be- 



4o8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tween the Empress Dowager and the Emperor) and have 
been extremely wanting in respect. In order to inspire 
awe in the minds of other officers they are both con- 
demned to immediate execution. (The above two officials 
were sacrificed to the fury of the Empress, apparently at 
the instigation of Li Ping Heng immediately upon his 
arrival at Peking. PIsii Ching Ch'eng was the Chinese 
President of the new Imperial University, had been 
Chinese Minister to Russia, and was an enlightened and 
liberal man. At an Imperial audience of unusual impor- 
tance the Emperor reached over the dais upon which he 
was seated, grasped the sleeve of Hsii, and exclaimed, 
" If China is to fight the World, will it not put an end to 
China?" At this the numerous Manchu nobles present 
manifested great indignation, and someone cried out that 
Hsu had laid hands upon His Majesty, and began to re- 
vile him openly. Hie retired as soon as he was able, very 
much frightened. The same day Li Ping Heng is re- 
ported to have reached the Capital, and the following day 
both Hsij and Yuan were executed. Their real crime 
was in daring to advise against the insane course of the 
Empress Dowager, as urged by Prince Tuan and the 
rest, in endeavouring to find some way of adjusting the 
growing difficulties, in alleged truckling to foreigners by 
visiting the Legations secretly, and in taking up the body 
of the German Minister when it lay exposed in the street, 
and encoffining it.) It was at once perceived that this 
was a most ominous proceeding, displaying the temper 
of the actual rulers of China as nothing had yet done. 

Yesterday preparations were made for extending our 
line to the southwest of the British Legation, by taking 
in the ruins of burned buildings near the Mongol Mar- 
ket, and making barricades of them witli a view to keep- 
ing the Chinese at a greater distance. This was done to- 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 409 

day by Mr. Gamewell and his men, under Lieutenant 
von Strauch of the Customs (formerly of the German 
Army), a brave and skillful officer, who threw himself 
into the new movement with the greatest zeal. The work 
was designedly begun at a time when the Chinese sol- 
diers are usually torpid (taking their opium and resting 
after the fatigues of their early rising), and the work 
was for a long time not even discovered. It has enlarged 
the area under our control by a space perhaps fifty yards 
wide to the west, and stretching the entire distance from 
the Carriage Park on the north to the Russian Legation 
on the south. Many court-yards were crossed, many 
houses perforated, and a final barricade made of flag- 
stones in the one furthest west. When at last the 
Chinese found out what was going on, they made a par- 
ticularly spiteful attack, piercing a wooden door, and 
wounding a Chinese, but notwithstanding their utmost 
efforts they were never able to recover any part of this 
tract and hold it against the defence. 

Toward evening another courier arrived, — the one who 
took the messages July 23rd, conveying information of 
the safety of the Legation and the besieged up to that 
time. The greatest excitement prevailed, both before the 
posting of the news (which happened almost immedi- 
ately, as the letters were mostly for the American Minis- 
ter) and afterwards. The cipher dispatches and letters 
gave the dates of the military movements for the relief 
of Tientsin, and information as to the probable order of 
advance by columns of the relieving force, which did not, 
however, correspond to the actual movements later on. 
One of the letters contained the judicious advice to 
"Hold on by all means," and another said: "Keep 
heart, aid coming early. Troops pouring in." 

The letter of Consul Ragsdale to Mr. Conger, although 



4IO CHINA IN CONVULSION 

very brief, was of special interest to Americans for the 
welcome glimpse into the doings and feelings of their 
distant countrymen: "July 28th. Tlad lost all hope of 
seeing you again. Prospect now brighter. We had thirty 
days' shelling here, nine days siege, thought that bad 
enough. Scarcely a house escaped damage. Excitement 
at home intense, of course. Our prayers and hope are 
for your safety and speedy rescue. Advance of troops 
to-morrow probable. McKinley and Roosevelt nomi- 
nated. Also Bryan — Vice-President unknown." 

A letter from Lieut. Col. Mallory, 41st U. S. Infantry, 
said: "A relief column of 10,000 is on the point of 
starting for Peking. INIore to follow. God grant they 
may be in lime." Under date of August 30th, Maj. Gen. 
Chafifee announced that he had just arrived at Tientsin. 

Some of the other letters mentioned that attacks had 
been made by Boxers upon Chinese Christians in the dis- 
tricts of Tsun Hua Chou, Shan Hai Kuan, and many 
other places. That the Russians had been fighting near 
Chin Chou in Manchuria, and that Newchwang was 
much disturbed, as all Manchuria seemed to be rising 
against foreigners, and the hands of the Russians were 
likely to be full there. The Yangtze valley was said to 
be also very unquiet, although the two Governors Gen- 
eral, Liu K'un Yi, at Nanking, and Chang Chih Tung, 
at Wu Ch'ang, were doing their best to keep order. Li 
Hung Chang was still at Shanghai, and his coming north 
to Tientsin considered doubtful. Tientsin was governed 
by a joint foreign Commission. Germany and the United 
States were each to send 15,000 men, and Italy 5,000. 
Tientsin was full of soldiers, with more constantly arriv- 
ing. The railway was running between Tientsin and 
Tongku. Many ladies and children had been sent to the 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 411 

United States on the transport " Logan." All property at 
the sea-side resort at Pei Tai Ho was destroyed. 

For some time it has been known that there was a 
stock of Chinese sanishu, or strong wine somewhere, but 
recently it was traced to a shop in Legation Street, where 
they deal in condiments, sauce, etc. Mr. Tewksbury 
went there with some men on behalf of the General Com- 
mittee, and found a sick man asleep above a large wine- 
jar. He was forced to remove, and the fluid was all 
poured into the street, which was highly perfumed, to 
the value of many taels. The jar had been sealed up 
once before, but the thirsty marines had broken through 
the seal. 

The messenger who brought the welcome news of 
prospective relief says that, when he reached T'ung 
Chou, instead of taking the usual route he went east, 
spending one night on the way with Chinese soldiers. 
On his return he had his letters sewed into his hat. He 
left Tientsin by the west gate, making a wide detour so 
as not to excite suspicion, yet got through in very good 
time. 

Friday, August 3. — The Committee on Confiscated 
Goods is busy this morning going through the houses 
which are within the territory captured yesterday, and a 
great deal of stuff was found which will be of service. 
There is a fire in the Imperial City, but it is impossible 
to determine where it is. The following has just been 
posted : 

Census of the British Legation, August ist. 

Soldiers, British and others 73 

General Hospital, wounded 40 



412 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Legation residents : 

Foreign men 191 

Foreign women 147 

Foreign children 76 

414 

Legation residents: 

Chinese men 180 

Chinese women 107 

Chinese children .. .■ 69 

356 

Total 883 

This afternoon the Yamen sent to Sir Claude, an un- 
dated cipher telegram from Lord Salisbury, in which he 
complains of having heard nothing since July 4th. The 
Ministers are trying the experiment of sending cipher 
telegrams through the Yamen. The latter send notice 
of the appointment of Jung Lu to escort the Ministers to 
Tientsin, a piece of impudence which even for the 
Chinese Government is nothing less than colossal, con- 
sidering that he has spent the whole summer in trying 
to kill everyone in the Legations. 

In reply to Sir Claude's remonstrances about the in- 
cessant firing upon us, the Yamen blandly remarks that 
it was the result of a misunderstanding, and that it is 
more or less on the same footing as the morning and 
evening bells of the temple priests. " It is really hardly 
worth a smile." In confirmation of the morning-and- 
evening-bell theory, it is mentioned that the wife of one 
of the Ministers has been heard to say that, now there 
is so little firing of rifles and no shelling, she cannot sleep ! 

Over at the Fu some Chinese coolies have brought 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 413 

rifles and ammunition for sale at one of the out-posts. 
(This circumstance probably gave rise to the widely cir- 
culated story that during the siege a part of the ammuni- 
tion was bought from the attacking Chinese troops. It 
was, however, stated as a fact that a Japanese paid one 
of the Chinese Imperial Guard two dollars for 140 rounds 
of ammunition, and that within a quarter of an hour the 
two men were diligently attacking each other!) 

Saturday, Aug. 4. — There was much less firing last 
night than before. The Nordenfelt gun was put up on a 
high platform at the angle of the newly annexed territory 
behind the house of the Chinese Secretary, and has a very 
dissuasive appearance. " Oh, he's little, but he's wise. 
He's a terror for his size." 

The Ministers had a meeting and agreed to ask the 
Yamen to send mutton and other supplies for the ladies 
and the sick, but the action was not unanimous, and some 
of the besieged protest against it vigourously, as a dis- 
play of uncalled for weakness. A letter was received from 
the Yamen, informing the Ministers that the various 
Foreign Offices of the different Nations concerned wish 
the Foreign Ministers escorted out of Peking, and de- 
siring a speedy reply. Two Russians who were at work 
in the Russo-Chinese Bank incautiously exposed them- 
selves too much, and were wounded this afternoon, ap- 
parently by the same bullet. One of them died during 
the night. 

At an adjourned meeting of the Ministers during the 
afternoon, the draft of a letter in reply to the Yamen was 
agreed upon, to be sent to-morrow. The general pur- 
port is that the Ministers must be allowed to communicate 
with their Governments direct, and that they can not re- 
ceive instructions through the medium of the Tsimg Li 



414 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Yamen. Foreign Ministers in China must have the same 
rights that Chinese Ministers at foreign courts at pres- 
ent enjoy. 

With this letter were sent cipher telegrams to the vari- 
ous governments from the Ministers, asking for instruc- 
tions as to leaving, in compliance with the Yamen's de- 
mand. The object of this is to gain time, as the replies 
at quickest can not be received in less than ten days or 
two weeks, since the telegrams have to be sent, according 
to the Yamen's letter of to-day, by courier to Chi Nan 
Fu, the capital of Shantung. It is understood that at 
least one of the Ministers incorporated in his dispatch a 
hint of the object of raising the inquiry at all, with the 
suggestion that there need be no haste as to a reply. In 
the interim the Yamen was told that, when these replies 
are to hand, the Ministers will be in a position to arrange 
the matter of leaving or remaining — (a prediction and 
promise which was more than fulfilled.) 

Yesterday the Ministers had for the first time tried the 
experiment of all sending cipher dispatches to their re- 
spective governments, to be forwarded by the Yamen, 
and it is understood that as they have not been returned 
they have been forwarded. 

There is a species of censorship established over out- 
going telegrams, to the deep indignation of some of the 
correspondents who do not wish their opinions revised by 
a committee. 

At the Su Wang Fu soldiers without arms crowd around 
our sentries in a very friendly way, as the Imperial Edict 
arranging for the departure of the Ministers is well 
known and we are supposed to be soon leaving. A soldier 
who has been useful in getting copies of the " Peking 
Gazettes " for us, took occasion to observe : " You are 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 415 

alive ; we are dead. The foreign army is on the way, and 
has driven back Gen. Sung Ch'ing, 140 h from here." 
Rumours among the Chinese say that among the for- 
eign troops there are many " blacks," who are supposed 
to be from India. 

Sunday, August 5. — A report has got around that the 
Chinese are intending, if the Foreign Ministers do not 
accede to the proposition to go at once to Tientsin, to 
attack the Legations in earnest. After nearly three weeks 
of comparative quiet, with steady preparation under the 
invariable persistence of Mr. Gamewell, there are many 
who are quite of the mind of the German soldier who 
exclaimed on hearing the rumour : " Let them come 
on!" (Lassen sie kommen.) 

There was a hard rain last night for two hours or 
more, and everything is fresh to-day. No walls have 
fallen in the Mongol Market addition to our territory, as 
was feared. This is the first Sunday when no work has 
been done at all. Several Chinese children died yesterday 
and to-day. The Roman Catholics are very short of food, 
— for what reason is not quite clear, as the total stock 
appears to be good. In the afternoon there were letters 
from the Yamen again, one of which conveyed expres- 
sions of sympathy to the Italian Legation on the death 
of King Humbert (of which they had not previously 
heard.) The news was communicated by Lo Feng Lo, 
who is accredited both to Great Britain and to Italy. 
Other letters to other Ministers communicated inquiries 
as to health, etc. 

The following letter was sent out to-night to the Allied 
forces, and it was through the use of this information 
that the British and American troops entered Peking so 
early. 



4i6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

COPY OF MESSAGE SENT TO COMMANDER ALLIED FORCES: 

August 5, 1900. 

" I enclose map showing Manchu City soutli wall, with 
lines in rear, including Legations now occupied by us. Our 
position on wall is strongly held, is about 300 yards long, 
and equally distant from the two city gates, and is indi- 
cated by flags, Russian and American at each end. The 
left of the position (American) covers the water gate, 
an opening under the wall, about forty feet wide and 
twenty feet high, and through which any number of men 
could pass without difficulty; arriving within our lines, 
could take one or both the gates by assault, following 
down the wall and in the rear from the street. 500 men 
for each gate would be a sufificient force, especially if 
assisted by artillery fire from outside. The wall of the 
Chinese City near the south gate is in bad condition, and 
far easier to take than any part of the Manchu city wall, 
which is thicker and higher. The ground from Chinese 
City south gate up to houses in that city is open. After 
shelling, an advance up the main street towards the middle 
gate, then turning to the right in the direction of the 
water gate, ought to be made without any very great diffi- 
culty. I deem this the safest and most feasible entrance 
into Peking. See Slater's Code, using Ragsdale's code 
number." 

(Signed) Claude MacDonald. 

Monday, August 6. — Between two and three o'clock 
this morning there was a furious rifle attack, such as we 
have not had for a long time, beginning with the Mongol 
Market region and apparently going all around. It con- 
tinued for perhaps half an hour. It may have been stirred 
up by the steady work on the barricades in the new terri- 




BUDDHIST TEMPLE AND MODERN TRAM CAR 




WATER GATE, PEKING, THROUGH WHICH ALLIES 
ENTERED 



THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 417 

tory, which are being strengthened all the time. A Chinese 
barricade fell down at the French Legation, and the 
Chinese had the presence of mind to set up a great yell- 
ing, beating of drums, etc., to distract attention. There 
was much alarm at some of the houses in the British 
Legation, and in one of them the second story was aban- 
doned for the night as unsafe. 

The alley through which the egg-sellers and the pur- 
veyors of news have made their entrance into the Japanese 
lines, has been walled up, so that we are again isolated 
from the world, except for the driblets of news — largely 
of an obituary nature — filtering through the Tsung Li 
Yamen. During the afternoon another communication 
arrived from that august body, in reply to those sent yes- 
terday referring to the various home Governments the 
question of return to Tientsin. The Yamen has forwarded 
the dispatches, thus recognizing the right of the Ministers 
to ask for instructions. They also explain the attack of 
last night by saying that some foreigner made a great 
noise, so that the Chinese soldiers thought they were being 
attacked, and replied in kind ! 

Tuesday, August 7. — The night was much more quiet 
than the previous one, though there were some shots. 
To-day is the " Japanese Decoration Day " (the thirteenth 
day of the Chinese seventh moon), the equivalent of our 
" All Souls " festival, and they have put flowers upon the 
eight graves of their dead, — the touch of nature which 
makes the whole world kin. 

The sand bags in the windows of the hospital are all 
giving way, and are to be taken down and used to fill 
up the unsightly holes in the tennis-court where earth 
has been removed. Despite the general quiet there is 
firing near the Mongol Market, and a Japanese was 
brought in from the Fu wounded in the leg. A telegram 



4i8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

was received to-day from the Yamen with condolence for 
the death of the Duke of Edinburgh, of which there was 
no previous information. 

To-day after elaborate preparation and many emenda- 
tions, the Register of the Siege in Peking is published, 
and put upon the bulletin board. It was originally headed 
" Commander in Chief, Sir Claude MacDonald," which is 
understood to have been in accordance with a vote of 
the Ministers, asking the British Minister, in view of 
his twenty-four years of service in the British Army, to 
take the command, which no one else was willing to do. 
This was the more appropriate, as it was agreed that in 
the last extremity the British Legation was to be the place 
for a final stand. Now that the siege seemed nearly over 
and the unremitting exertions of Sir Claude for the gen- 
eral welfare were about to end, it appeared somewhat un- 
gracious to assert, as some of the Continentals seemed 
disposed to do, that he was not their " Commander in 
Chief." Some final appeal in a military way there must 
of necessity be, and aside from the previous agreement of 
the Ministers made in the presence of a deadly peril, no 
more competent or more suitable candidate than Sir Claude 
was either available or requisite. 

In the evening Mr. Squiers prepared a long message to 
be sent out to the troops, recommending the Southern City 
as the best point of attack, as being less defended, more 
easily entered, affording a shorter distance, largely through 
open spaces where there can be no loop-holing buildings, 
and having the water-gate accessible. Other letters of 
this kind have been sent also to the British detachment. 



XXIII 



THE RELIEF 



WEDNESDAY, August 8.— During the night 
there was considerable firing in the region of 
the Mongol Market, a few Chinese creeping 
through the ruins and throwing bricks at the guard on 
the high platform where the Nordenfelt gun is placed. 
It was this that gave rise to the story that this post was 
" attacked." It is impossible for all to look at the matter 
in the same light, and there are some who are fully per- 
suaded that this addition to our territory, instead of being 
(as it really is) a source of additional security, is rather 
the reverse. 

There was an auction yesterday of much confiscated 
property, clothing, furniture, etc., bringing several hun- 
dred dollars to a relief fund for the Christians. A French 
marine accidentally shot another this morning through the 
lungs, the man dying not long after. Nothing but the 
grossest and most inexcusable carelessness could have 
occasioned such a calamity. Work was begun outside 
the main gate of the British Legation on a trench leading 
to the canal, where a platform is to be put up for the 
Austrian gun to command the bed of the canal, down 
which it would at any time have been possible for a bold 
and determined enemy to have made an effective rush 
in the night. On the west side of the Hanlin compound 
a countermine is being made for the Chinese mine, which 
has not, however, been discovered, 

419 



420 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

A meeting of the Alinisters was held to-day, and strict 
economy was enjoined in the use of food. It was agreed 
to say to the Yamen that in view of the kindly feehng 
manifested by them in the communication of tidings of 
the death of kings and princes, it would be greatly ap- 
preciated if like kindness should be shown to the women 
and children here, in arranging for the furnishing of eggs 
and vegetables. They were also to be asked to take over 
more than an hundred neutrals who are still within our 
lines. 

In the afternoon a circular dispatch came from the 
Yamen to announce that yesterday Li Hung Chang had 
been appointed a High Commissioner to arrange terms 
of peace between China and the Powers, with the Gov- 
ernments of which he is to correspond telegraphically. 

One of Col. Shiba's informants says that there are at 
present only about 2,500 Chinese troops in Peking — the 
rest having gone to confront the foreign army. He also 
reports that another body of 50,000 foreign soldiers has 
been landed at Taku. It is thought that the appointment 
of Li as Peace Commissioner may mean that there has 
been a decisive victory at Yang Ts'un, but one of the 
Ministers would not be surprised if the expedition had 
not yet started, owing to difficulties of transportation, etc. 

Sir Claude replied to the letter conveWng sympathy 
for the death of the Duke of Edinburgh, remarking that 
notwithstanding these agreeable amenities it still remained 
true that he could not put his head out of his own Lega- 
tion without the danger of being shot ! This is the fiftieth 
day of the siege. 

Thursday, August 9. — During the night there was a 
great deal of firing from the north bridge, not only down 
the canal but on the British Legation. It is rumoured 
that there has been a general change of the Chinese 



THE RELIEF 421 

soldiers attacking us, the Manchus taking the place of 
the Chinese, who have been sent out to meet the troops 
of the enemy. Bullets rattled through the Legation 
grounds, and during the night a groan was heard, but 
no out-cry. In the morning it was found that a Chinese 
Roman Catholic " Brother," whose head was turned to 
the north and who was asleep on the outer pavilion, had 
been wounded in the chest by a glancing bullet which 
perforated his clothing and made a flesh wound near the 
ensifonn cartilage. The man was perhaps stunned, for 
he did not even wake up, and when he did it was to find 
himself bloody. 

Specimens of the " food " eaten in the Fu have been 
brought over on a tray, consisting of a mixture of chaff, 
sorghum seeds, wheat, and the leaves of plants and trees, 
made into flat cakes. A request has been sent that those 
who can do so will go out and shoot dogs and cats for 
the Chinese, to serve as food. There has been a recount 
of the Catholics in the Fu. The census is 755 women 
and 546 children, a total of 1,301. The men, who were 
absent, number 412, making a grand total of 1,713. 

Friday, August 10. — About three o'clock this morning 
there was a sudden and very violent attack begun in the 
Mongol Market, running all around the circle. It lasted 
only about fifteen minutes, but during that time it was as 
vicious as anything we have had. At the signal of a 
rocket the firing suddenly ceased. Before it began, there 
had been a Boxer killed and another wounded west of 
the Market. There was also much shooting down the 
canal. 

In the morning an aged Catholic priest slowly walked 
the entire distance from the Legation Street bridge to the 
entrance of the Fu, against many remonstrances, attract- 
ing at once the fire from the north bridge. There were 



422 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

twenty-six shots directed at him, but not one struck him. 
Yesterday some one counted thirty shots fired at a Httlc 
girl, and an old woman gathering greens became a speedy 
target. Some Chinese do not seem in the least con- 
cerned when fired at, while others are terribly alarmed. 
One of the Chinese was cautioned not to go into danger, 
but would not heed, when a bullet pierced his clothing 
over the abdomen. From that time he became more pru- 
dent, but his caution assumed the form of a thick wad 
of cloth over the place where he had been hit, assuming 
that the next bullet would strike in precisely the same 
spot! 

One of the diplomatic military authorities says that there 
were shots enough fired into the British Legation last 
night to have killed, if properly directed, every person 
in it. The intention certainly was not lacking, but the 
execution was imperfect. The trouble began in a corner 
of the Mongol Market where a bag of powder was found 
yesterday. 

Designs are invited for a Siege medal to be struck in 
commemoration of the experience. One of the mottoes 
suggested has been the words " Mene, mene, tekel, up- 
harsin," but one of the besieged was heard to object to 
this on the plausible ground that " not everybody knows 
Latin." The total of several auction sales thus far comes 
to $68 1. 

About three in the afternoon there were rumours of the 
arrival of a messenger from the troops en route to Peking. 
There was a letter from the Japanese Lieut. General 
Fukushima, dated near Ts'ai Ts'un on the 8th. The 
Japanese and the American troops had defeated the enemy 
near Pei Ts'ang on the 5th, and occupied Yang Ts'un 
on the 6th. " The Allied forces, consisting of Americans, 



THE RELIEF 423 

BritisH, and Russians, left Yang Ts'un this morning, and 
while marching north the General received the letter of 
Col. Shiba. It is very gratifying to learn from your letter 
that the foreign community are holding on, and it is the 
earnest wish and unanimous desire of the Lieut. General 
and all of us to arrive in Peking as soon as possible, and 
deliver you from your perilous position. Unless some un- 
foreseen event takes place, the Allied forces will be at 
Ho Hsi Wu on the 9th, at Ma T'ou on the loth, Chang 
Chia Wan on the nth, T'ung Chou on the 12th, and 
probably arrive at Peking on the 13th or 14th." A letter 
of a similar tenor was also received from Gen. Gaselee. 

The messenger got among Chinese soldiers, who de- 
tained but did not search him, and coming back he was 
forced to help track a boat. Still he made a relatively 
quick trip, leaving Tientsin Sunday night, reaching the 
foreign troops Wednesday morning, and arriving at 
Peking Friday afternoon. He came in through two half- 
manned barricades disguised as a coolie searching among 
the ruins of buildings. 

Many telegrams were received making inquiries, and 
others with news. Mr. Conger received one from Wash- 
ington asking information about his telegram of July i8th, 
and giving him a name to insert in his reply to establish 
authenticity. This seems to be an indication that the 
Yamen is suspected of having sent bogus messages. 

There is still no answer from the Yamen in regard to 
food, except a strange verbal message purporting to come 
from Jung Lu to the Chairman of the General Committee 
asking him to make out a list of what he wanted, which 
Jung Lu would furnish, and for which Mr. Tewksbury 
could pay him later ! The messenger brings a rumour 
that Li Ping Heng was wounded in the shoulder at Yang 



424 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Ts'un. One of the Ministers thinks it a pity that it had 
not been a little lower ( but the wound eventually proved 
fatal.) 

There was an attack on the German Legation last night, 
as well as on the British, and this morning a message 
came from the Yamen apologizing for it, and saying that 
they had beheaded the man who made it ! 

A cow was killed the other day, to the great joy of 
everyone who could get some of it. One of the legation 
ladies sent for the cow's liver, only to find that it had 
been calmly appropriated by the marines. An attache of 
the British Legation sent up for a part of the cow's 
kidney as a great luxury, but it had been already dis- 
tributed. The sympathetic superintendent of the meat ap- 
portionment, however, not wishing to disappoint him, sent 
the man the kidney of a horse, " without note or com- 
ment ; " afterwards meeting him, he inquired how he 
liked it. He had enjoyed it greatly, and remarked that 
while eating it he had forgotten that he was in China ! 

In the afternoon Lt. von Strauss made a sortie on a 
Chinese barricade in the Mongol Market addition, which 
provoked a great deal of retaliatory firing. Showers of 
bricks came over; one of the British marines had his 
head cut open, and two Chinese were badly stunned. The 
bricks are much more dangerous than the bullets. Fortu- 
nately the worst brick attack came while the Chinese work- 
men were at their afternoon meal, so that the most of 
them could stand quietly under shelter and watch the 
bricks curve through the air to their harmless destination. 

In the evening a hard rain came on, and with it an 
attack, the firing being especially furious at each loud 
clap of thunder. It really aj^pcars as if it were considerctl 
as a signal from the gods for the encouragement of the 
Chinese. 



THE RELIEF 425 

Saturday, August 11. — Two ponies were condemned 
this morning on the ground that they were affected by 
phthisis, but they were absorbed by the less fastidious 
Chinese, and another horse and a mule were substituted. 
Dogs, cats, magpies, crows, and sparrows have all been 
shot for the Catholics, who got the condemned animals. 
It is proposed to give the grain directly to each family, 
instead of having it cooked in a common kettle and di- 
vided. 

There is some indication of special activity on the wall 
of the city, where the Chinese flags have been removed, 
but the number of soldiers seems increased. They have 
begun firing on the American Legation again, and a ball 
went through the door of Mr. Squier's office and pene- 
trated the outer door of the (so-called) iron "safe!" 
Bullets struck some of the other buildings, and one came 
into the Minister's bed-room. After several weeks of 
comparative immunity from this kind of attack by day, 
its sudden resumption by the enemy is peculiarly exas- 
perating. 

Sunday, August 12. — There was intermittent heavy 
firing during the night at no very long intervals, making 
it difficult to sleep. There were rumours of sharp attacks 
in various directions. An Austrian and a German were 
wounded, and a Frenchman killed. A Russian on duty 
on the wall was slightly wounded. Another Russian died 
in the hospital yesterday, and also a French marine. Over 
at the Fu there was a great deal of yelling during the 
night. Col. Shiba had kerosene tins beaten, and the 
Italian soldiers shouted, whistled, and cried " Bravo " to 
one another, to give the Chinese the impression of un- 
limited numbers. 

It was understood yesterday that a deputy official was 
to come to-day to open a market, but no one appeared. 



426 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

A man who sells eggs to the French Legation soldiers has 
tokl them tiiat there was a battle at Chang Chia Wan yes- 
terday, and 3,000 Chinese were killed. There are some 
appearances of a panic in the city. Jung Lu is said to 
have taken poison. It was very hot all day, and it was 
often remarked how trying this must be for the marching 
troops. 

In the afternoon there was a sudden and savage attack 
on the Mongol Market defences, to which the Nordenfelt 
gun replied. The bullets fell thick, and very low. There 
w'as a melancholy funeral of two Frenchmen to-day, just 
on the eve of what we hope is to be the raising of the 
siege. 

The ladies of the United States Legation were busy to- 
day making sand bags for the German Legation defences. 
The Austrian gun was taken to the stable-yard. A letter 
was received from the Yamen saying that the Princes 
and Ministers would come to the British Legation to- 
morrow to confer w'ith regard to the cessation of hostili- 
ties. The French Captain La Bruce was killed early in 
the evening in his own Legation, while walking to a barri- 
cade. It might have been well to have replied that this 
Legation is at present a very unsafe place for " Princes 
and Ministers." Sir Claude planned to receive them in 
his own house. The Spanish Legation would have seemed 
a far more suitable place, but at last a mat-shed was put 
up outside the front gate. The Chinese do not believe 
in receiving them at all. 

It is reported that a Chinese gun at the Ha Ta gate 
has been firing blank cartridges, so that the Germans did 
not think it worth while to reply with rifles. At a loop- 
hole in the Mongol Market region, two nights ago, a 
bullet cut clean through the small board over the open- 
ing, so that the bricks dropped down without having been 



THE RELIEF 4^7 

hit. It is becoming a favourite plan with the Chinese now 
to keep on firing away at a loophole and its neighbour- 
hood, until the wall gives way. Sometimes they get the 
range, strap the gun tight, and keep blazing away at one 
spot. Our Nordenfelt yesterday knocked down a sec- 
tion of the Chinese barricade in this manner, but the 
hole was promptly filled up with sand bags. 

Monday, August 13. — The attack which was expected 
came off, and was practically continuous all night, and 
very violent. The Chinese soldiers and their rifles seem 
to be different from those before used, and the bullets 
(Mannlicher) have much more penetrating power. Many 
barricades were much weakened and must be repaired. 
It is marvellous that no one in the British Legation was 
hit during the night. The firing was more consecutive 
than at any time since the siege began, and strangely in- 
congruous with proposals for peace, — another of the many 
glaring absurdities of our situation. The impression given 
by these repeated and furious onsets is that, the time 
being short, they must annihilate us immediately. The 
shooting was much lower than hitherto. 

There was a meeting of the Ministers in the forenoon 
to consider the place of receiving the Yamen Ministers. 
It is difficult for the Ministers to refuse an interview with 
the Yamen, because it was on the ground of being use- 
ful in helping on such negotiations that they declined to 
go to Tientsin. 

At half past ten o'clock, however, came a letter from 
the Yamen to say that the Ministers have reopened hos- 
tilities ( !), by killing an officer and 26 men in the region 
of the Board of Works (just west of the British Lega- 
tion), and as "the Yamen Ministers are busy," they can 
not come as agreed ! There was no reply as to the pur- 
chase of food, and not an atom of news from outside. 



428 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Both the German and the American Legations were at- 
tacked last night, the former at very short range. Notice 
is posted that arrangements have been made to take photo- 
graphs of the siege positions, etc., with a camera which 
belongs to a Japanese, and there are fortunately enough 
photographic chemicals available for the purpose. 

Some Chinese cavalry leaving the city yesterday by the 
Ch'ien ^len were fired at several times from the wall, but 
this is not the alleged resumption of hostilities, but the 
fact that men were killed on the west of us. The Chinese 
officer who was shot is said to be a Captain who had 
guaranteed to take the Legation within five days, which 
time was up yesterday. This, however, is not authenti- 
cated. The American and Russian flags have been put 
up on the wall to-day, and a staff prepared for the British 
flag. 

About eight o'clock in the evening there w-as, as ex- 
pected, a furious attack in the Mongol Market region, 
which was kept up for a long time and only died down 
to be again resumed. An hour or so later there was a 
second, likewise very furious and vindictive. 

Tuesday, August 14. — The distinction between to-day 
and yesterday was entirely obliterated, as no one could 
sleep, and very few made any pretence of even going to 
bed. The battery on the wall of the Imperial City began 
firing Krupp shells during the night, about ten shots in 
all. One of these fell in a dressing-room off Sir Claude's 
bed-room, and made a complete wreck of it. Three others 
struck in the front gate fort, one of them coming through 
the gate-way and knocking over by its concussion those 
who were at hand. 

Between eleven and twelve o'clock there was an alarm 
on the bell of a " general attack," and every one turned 
out — the first experience of the kind for nearly six weeks. 



THE RELIEF 4^9 

Sir Claude was on hand and, after waiting to see how 
many appeared, dismissed them after a brief delay as if 
it were a mere drill. 

Three hours later there was a second alarm, which was 
caused by the fear that the Chinese were about to make a 
rush into the Mongol Market defences. Volunteers were 
assigned their positions, and the attack was as savage as 
those which had preceded, and as unsuccessful. It was 
alleged by some of the Volunteers that the Chinese officers 
were heard urging the men to make the long-expected 
rush, crying " Don't be afraid — we can get through," to 
which after a short interval there was the response, " It 
can not be done." 

In preparation for this attack all the big guns had 
been made ready, the American Colt's Automatic in the 
main gate, as usual, the Nordenfelt on its high platform 
back of the house of the Chinese Secretary, the Austrian 
and the " International " in the Mongol Market addition. 
In firing the latter, owing to its recoil and uncertainty, 
it was necessary to have a large porthole, and Mitchell, 
the American gunner, had his arm shattered by a rifle- 
ball while discharging the piece. When the sheh-gun 
opened fire on us, the Colt's replied, and the gun was 
eventually silenced, or at least suspended operation. 

All through the night at irregular intervals could be 
heard the deep baying of the Nordenfelt, the irresistible 
and simultaneous discharges of which must have been 
very depressing as well as exasperating to those within 
its range. The attack at the Fu was fierce as elsewhere, 
but it did not drive the Japanese from their position, for 
the Chinese did not charge. The same was the case in 
the Hanlin, and likewise in the French Legation, be- 
tween I and 2 A. M. 

A French priest and the Belgian doctor were slightly 



430 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

wounded during the night, at the British Legation — 
among the very few casualties to civiHans within that 
area during the whole siege. The Japanese doctor at the 
Su Wang Fu had a ball through his leg, a British marine 
was wounded in the shoulder, and a German who had 
been wounded previously and had recovered, was killed, 
also a Russian on the wall. It was understood that yes- 
terday the Yamen had notified the Ministers that what- 
ever Chinese officer reopened hostilities should be court- 
martialed. The proceedings of this fearsome night were 
a singular commentary upon this imaginary truce. 

Between 2 and 3 a. m. there was distinctly heard 
the sharp rat-tat-tat of a machine gun far to the east, and 
it was at once concluded that the foreign troops are at 
hand. The yard, even at that early hour, swarmed with 
eager groups discussing the probabilities. The question 
was raised whether the machine-guns which we heard 
might not be in the hands of the Chinese themselves, and 
it was remembered that Li Hung Chang had ordered a 
large number of them many years ago. (It was not then 
suspected, what was afterwards said to have been a fact, 
that these particular guns had been captured from the 
Chinese, and were probably a part of the very equipment 
referred to.) 

Many excellent designs have been sent in for the pro- 
posed commemorative medal, and to-day they are repre- 
sented by drawings placed on the bulletin board, and 
votes are solicited as to the material, the pattern, the in- 
scription obverse and reverse. A limit of time is also 
fixed. Unfortunately for the best effect, the all absorb- 
ing interest in the impending relief deprives the mere 
pictorial symbol of much of its interest, so that the voting 
halted, and was soon altogether abandoned. 

In spite of the heavy firing none of our barricades were 



THE RELIEF 431 

overthrown, and the strength of those most threatened 
in the Mongol Market tract had been almost doubled 
within twenty-four hours. During the forenoon it was 
learned that the shell-gun on the Imperial city, which 
fired so much last night, had been taken away, which 
indicates activity of some sort. Our Austrian Maxim 
has been removed to the north stable court to be ready 
for it, however, should it begin again. 

There has been a sound of heavy cannonading to the 
eastward all the morning. From the wall the Southern 
City seems to be quiet, but Chinese troops are hurrying in 
through the Ch'ien Men, instead of going out, as yester- 
day. The bulletin-board has a notice that " the sentries 
in charge of the south gates have received orders not to 
allow any civilian to leave tlie Legation without a special 
permit from the ofificer in charge of the defences, since in 
case of a general attack by retreating Chinese the services 
of every available volunteer will be required." 

Another order announces that '' women and children 
and persons not on duty are requested as far as possible 
to keep within doors to-day, as there will probably be 
considerable danger from dropping fire." 

From the city wall an excellent view is to be had of 
the bombardment of the Ch'i Hua gate, upon which thus 
far not much impression seems to have been made. There 
is also a heavy attack at the Tung Pien Gate, and all the 
time the deep rumbling of the heavy booming guns of 
" our troops." " Blessed are the people that hear the 
joyful sound." The troops on the wall thought those 
outside would " be lucky if they got in to-morrow night." 

Soon after two o'clock, Mr. Moore, who was on the 
wall, reported to Capt. Hall that he saw foreign troops 
in the distance; though this was doubted, it soon proved 
to be the case, and he was sent post-haste to convey the 



432 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

news to Sir Claude MacDonald. It was at first errone- 
ously supposed to be the Germans who had been sighted, 
but they soon showed up as British. 

The excitement was now at its height, and the few who 
had leave to do so, not being on duty, hastened out 
through the Russian Legation to the street, only to be 
told that the troops w^ere already making their way into 
the Tartar city through the water-gate. There was at the 
time very little water, but the mud rendered the entrance 
through the narrow passage somewhat disagreeable, yet 
it was only for a few rods and unworthy of mention as 
a difficulty in a march. 

The regiment w-hich made the first entry, was the ist 
Sikhs and then the 7th Bengal Rajput Infantry, and Gen. 
Gaselee was one of the first officers to be seen. The 
banks of the canal were lined by Chinese, and tlie few 
Europeans present, among whom was Sir Claude, tried 
to raise a cheer, but their voices were unequal to the 
task and it was a feeble failure ! 

On reaching the British Legation there was such a 
riot of joy as is seldom seen in Asia, and such as was 
never seen in the Capital of the Chinese Empire. Every- 
body swarmed out to see the glorious spectacle. The 
Rajputs cheered as they marched, till they brought up on 
the tennis-court, beyond which there seemed to be no- 
where to go. The next regiment was the 24th Punjab 
Infantry (Frontier Force), who went cheering past the 
hospital filled with brave but disappointed, yet happy, men 
who had lived through it after all, and now saw the day 
of rescue. 

It was remembered that the ist Sikhs regiment is des- 
cended from the one which helped take Peking forty years 
ago. The ist Bengal Lancers came next, having had to 




HERE THEY COME," GENERAL GASELEE ON THE RIGHT 




FRATERNIZING ON THE TENNIS COURT 



THE RELIEF 433 

wait for the Ch'ien Men to be forced ; then a detachment 
of the Royal Welsh Fusileers, the 23rd Field Battery, the 
Hongkong Regiment, and the Royal Marines. 

By this time the limited available spaces of the tennis- 
court and the Legation roads and paths was more than 
exhausted, and the whole place was one complicated tangle 
of Sikhs, Rajputs, Lancers and Fusileers, with Chinese 
and the besieged Occidentals everywhere at once. 

In the midst of this wild welter the American 14th In- 
fantry arrived, to add to the joy and the chaos, and 
everyone is asking to know where some one else is, and 
what is going on in that segment of creation outside of 
the Peking Legations. 

The troops were no sooner in the courts than Gen. 
Gaselee relieved the sentinels on duty with his own men. 
One of them (a Sikh), was assigned to the front gate 
fort where the Colt's Automatic was pouring out its reck- 
less welcome in a thunder of rat-tats. There he was imme- 
diately hit by a bullet through a loophole and went 
promptly to the hospital. The tumultuous cheering of 
both the besieged and the relievers roused the Chinese 
from their afternoon nap, and they began the fusillade 
with renewed vigour, but apparently without any notion 
of what the altered conditions denoted. For a time the 
bullets were falling thickly all over the Legation, and the 
wife of a Belgian engineer was wounded in the leg, — 
the only case in which a lady received any injury from 
shot or shell during the whole siege. 

In a very short time a large hole was blown into the 
Carriage Park through the thick wall to which we had 
owed so much, and in a brief time that expansive en- 
closure was filled with the jaded horses of the Lancers. 
The Chinese shots grew less in vigour, fewer in number, 



434 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

more distant in space, and died away to nothing. The 
men who had so long manned the barricades facing us 
" folded their tents like the Arabs, and silently stole 
away " (except that so far as they had any tents they left 
them in situ), and were to be seen and heard no more. 



XXIV 

FROM THE TAKU FORTS TO THE RELIEF OF PEKING 

AS the military events connected with the progress 
of the AlHes from the coast to the capital have 
been detailed at length by more than one com- 
petent observer, they will be sketched here only in the 
briefest manner, — though of the deepest importance and 
interest. 

While the clouds were thickening about the all but 
doomed city of Peking, a splendid fleet had for weeks 
been proudly riding at anchor off the mouth of the Peiho. 
There was good reason for indecision as to their move- 
ments. 

By the middle of June it was obvious to everyone that 
the political complications were so grave that no peace- 
ful solution was at all likely. The Mephistophelian 
cynicism of the Edicts of the Chinese Government, the 
fact that the regular troops and the Boxers were every- 
where fraternizing, and the increasing evidence that the 
Throne was privy to the councils of extermination, made 
the situation difficult beyond precedent, surpassing the 
flight of the wildest imagination previous to this experi- 
ence. Peking was already cut off from the world. There 
was an unknown body of Chinese troops between the 
capital and Tientsin, where the McCalla-Seymour Ex- 
pedition was soon to be fighting for its life against over- 
whelming odds. Gen. Nieh was somewhere, and there 
was a great camp of his troops at Lu T'ai, which could 

435 



436 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

be brought to bear upon the hne of communication of the 
fleet with the Settlement of Tientsin. There were signs 
that those troops were about to move, that the river itself 
was being mined with torpedoes, and that the Taku Forts 
were to be strongly reinforced, so that their capture 
without enormous loss would be out of the question. 

On Saturday, June i6th, the Admirals held a Council 
and under these exigent circumstances determined to 
send an ultimatum calling for the disbandment of the 
troops, and announcing that if it was not complied with 
before 2 a. m., the United Squadron would destroy 
the forts. Admiral Kempff, representing the United 
States, dissented from this step, but that fact did not in- 
fluence his subsequent actions. 

The questions in what is termed " International Law " 
thus brought to the front, have served for much debate, 
and many vigorous editorials ever since. But at the time, 
and under the circumstances, it is difficult to see what 
else the Admirals could have done with any self-respect, 
or with any regard to the interests of their respective 
Powers. It is quite true that it was this ultimatum 
which directly led to the corresponding order to the Lega- 
tions to leave Peking within four and twenty hours, and 
it is likewise a fact that the effect of the attack upon 
the Taku Forts by the Allied Forces was to fire the 
Chinese national feeling, as nothing else had ever before 
done. In some respects it is comparable in its conse- 
quences to the effect of the assault upon Fort Sumter 
upon the people of the North, at the opening of the 
American Civil War. 

Nevertheles.% if the Taku Forts had not been taken 
within a few hours of that time, it is a moral certainty 
that not only would the Legations in Peking have been 
even in far greater peril than ll;ey were placed by this 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 437 

act, but that it would have been hard to save the lives 
of a single man, woman, or child of the large numbers 
who were at Tientsin, and who as it was were rescued 
from deadly peril only with the greatest difficulty. 

The Chinese Commander of the principal Fort acted 
with more decision and courage than was expected, and 
an hour before the time limit had expired opened fire 
upon the fleet, and hostilities had begun. The Forts 
were for the third time assailed by foreign guns, which 
in 1858 had taken them within the compass of twenty 
minutes, while the succeeding year the Forts had been 
able to beat back a combined squadron of thirteen British 
and French gunboats. On the present occasion the fight 
lasted about six hours, when the last gun was silenced 
and the north Fort was stormed, the British and the 
Japanese entering simultaneously, and the other contin- 
gents a little later, the Chinese soldiers prudently aban- 
doning the position in hot haste. 

A shell from the British " Algerine " exploded a maga- 
zine in the south Fort, which blew up, with a magnificent 
column of black smoke, 500 feet in height, the wreckage 
falling for miles around. By 7 130 all the Forts had been 
taken, with a loss of 21 killed and 57 wounded on the 
part of the assailants. But for various errors of judg- 
ment on the part of the Chinese, and their lack of resolute- 
ness, the results might have been very different. 

The situation at Tientsin was now serious, but no in- 
formation regarding it had reached Taku, the communi- 
cation having been completely cut ofif. It was impera- 
tively necessary to get word to the fleet of the dire dis- 
tress of the foreign settlement. In this emergency James 
Watts, a young Englishman of 22 years, volunteered to 
ride with despatches through forty miles of country 
swarming with Boxers. ITe started under cover of dark- 



438 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ness on a pony, with three mounted Cossacks, for a 
journey of twelve hours, knowing only three words of 
Russian. He had to speed through villages where men 
were sitting with rifles and fixed bayonets, his flask was 
shot away, and the lives of all were in momently peril. 
The horses swam a creek near a hostile village and 
reached Taku, where the despatches were delivered to 
the Russian Admiral. This brave act saved the lives of 
the besieged at Tientsin, and was subsequently rewarded 
with a decoration. 

From Tangku to Tientsin the railway was largely torn 
up by Boxers, and the last part of the distance was m.ade 
with extreme difficulty by the relieving forces. They 
were welcomed by the besieged with great joy, a full 
week after the Forts had been taken. 

In case relief did not come, the military authorities 
had seriously debated the question of the necessity of 
abandoning Tientsin altogether, and retreating upon 
Taku. 

The relieving body had no sooner reached Tientsin 
than a party was sent out to rescue in turn the force of 
Admiral Seymour which though but a few miles from 
Tientsin was unable to move on account of the large 
number of the wounded and the strength of the enemy. 
To the fortunes and misfortunes of that famous expedi- 
tion it will be desirable to devote a little attention. 

Early in June Admiral Seymour had proposed that the 
senior naval officers should consult in regard to mutual 
protection, and the first meeting of this kind was held 
June 4th, the officers of eight nations being present. Two 
days later at another consultation it was agreed that if 
communication with Peking should be cut oflf, it should 
be reopened with whatever force was necessary. 

On the 9th another conference was held owing to the 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 439 

receipt of an urgent telegram from Peking, the Ministers 
saying that unless they were soon relieved it would be 
too late. Capt. McCalla was resolved to go to the relief 
of the United States Minister, and Admiral Seymour in 
like manner declared his intention to start at once, and ex- 
pressed a hope that the rest would cooperate. 

The force which left on the morning of the loth was 
composed of 300 British, 112 Americans, 40 Italians, and 
25 Austrians. The train proceeded to Yang Ts'un where 
it had to stop for repairs. There it remained for the 
night, and there two more trains joined the expedition, 
making a total number of 112 Americans, 25 Aus- 
trians, 915 British, 100 French, 450 Germans, 40 Italians, 
54 Japanese, and 112 Russians. This was increased the 
next day by the addition of 200 Russians and 58 French, 
to a total of 2,066 men. 

On the 1 2th a guard having been left at Lo Fa, it was 
found that the line was much cut up in front. A party 
was sent out to An Ting to prevent more damage and 
to hold the station there. The party was attacked three 
times by Boxers, who retreated with the loss of fifteen 
men. 

About the middle of the forenoon there was another 
onset by 450 Boxers, who advanced with great courage 
and enthusiasm, but who were repulsed with a total 
loss of about 150. As the party at An Ting was out of 
ammunition a retreat was ordered. 

On the 13th Maj. Johnstone was sent towards An 
Ting, but was attacked in a village adjoining the railway. 
The Boxers lost about 25 men killed, while there were no 
foreign casualties. The party returned to the main body 
on the evening of the 14th. On that day there was a 
fierce and determined assault by Boxers in great numbers 
on the train at Lang Fang. They advanced in a loose 



440 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

formation, vsitli ihc utmost courage under a withering 
fire, and some even reached tlie train before they were 
killed. Their loss was about lOO. Five Italians who 
were on an exposed picket in an abandoned village were 
killed. 

At 5 :30 p. M. a messenger from Lo Fa in the rear 
reported that the guard was being attacked by a large 
body of the enemy. A train was taken down the line to 
assist them, when it was found that the fight was over, 
and that the Boxers were retreating having left about 
lOO killed. Two small cannon had been captured from 
the Chinese. Two seamen were dangerously wounded, 
one of whom died later. 

On the 15th the line was repaired under a strong guard, 
but the road below Lo Fa to the rear was reported broken 
up, and the Boxers were concentrating on Yang Ts'un 
to cut off the retreat of the expedition. 

On the 1 6th a train endeavoured to get through to 
Tientsin, starting at 4 a. m., but returned at 3 p. m., 
because the line was too much damaged. Both provisions 
and ammunition were now running short ; the expedition 
was entirely cut off from its base and since for three 
days there had been no intelligence from Tientsin, it was 
ignorant of what was occurring elsewhere. It was vital 
that the rear sliould be protected; but when on the 17th 
a train reached Yang Ts'un it found the station de- 
molished, communication more than ever cut off, and 
no supplies obtainable. Messages had been sent back to 
Tientsin with orders for junks and provisions to be sent 
to Yang Ts'un, but no couriers had got through, and 
even if they had done so no boats could have been sent. 
From the 13th of June to the 26th there was no com- 
munication from tlic Admiral to Tientsin or rice versa. 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 441 

As an advance was now felt to be an impossibility the 
recall of the trains in the front was determined on. 

The following day — June i8th — a new aspect was put 
on affairs by a strong attack at Lang Fang, not as here- 
tofore by Boxers, but by the regular troops of Tung Fu 
Hsiang, who had been stationed in the Hunting Park 
south of Peking, and who now began to " bear a hand " 
in a decided manner. The force including cavalry was 
estimated at not less than 5,000 men, armed with the 
latest magazine rifles. This gave the first definite knowl- 
edge that Imperial troops were arrayed against the ex- 
pedition. They were driven off, but rallied, and when 
repulsed were supposed to have lost 400 killed. The 
loss of the Allies was six killed, and 48 wounded. 

At a conference the next day (19th) it was decided 
to abandon the railway trains, and to withdraw to Tien- 
tsin, marching by the left bank of the river, conveying the 
wounded and the necessaries in boats, four of which had 
been taken by the Germans below Yang Ts'un. A start 
was made at 3 p. m. A six-pounder gun had to be thrown 
overboard before one of the junks would float. The 
men were unskilled in handling the clumsy boats, and no 
Chinese were to be had. The enemy opened fire but 
were driven back. Several villages had to be carried by 
rifle fire or by bayonet charges, which were invariably 
successful. A one-pound gun used by the enemy was 
harassing, but its position could not be located. The 
distance made this day was eight miles. The Chinese 
cavalry hovered about all day firing occasionally, the 
enemy using artillery which was replied to in kind. Sev- 
eral villages had to be taken by fighting, the enemy 
being strongly posted in Pei Ts'ang. It was decided after 
a rest to make a night-march. 



442 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

On the 2 1st the enem}' made an increasingly stubborn 
resistance, and their gun-power was augmented so tJiat 
but six miles were made. The hghter containing the 
guns filled and sank, and had to be abandoned, only the 
Maxims being saved. 

At 4 p. M. the expedition arrived opposite the Imperial 
Chinese Armory at Hsiku. A party of lOO men under 
Maj. Johnstone was sent across the river to rush the 
position, and at the same time a German detachment 
crossed lower down, capturing several Krupp guns. The 
two parties soon cleared the Armory, the main body 
crossing the river and occupying the place, which was 
commodious and defensible by the numerous captured 
guns. The provisions remaining were sufficient only for 
three days at half allowance, but the next day when there 
was an opportunity to make a search, 15 tons of rice were 
found. This set at rest all fears of starvation. 

Renewed efforts were made to communicate with 
Tientsin, but in vain. The Chinese made a most de- 
termined attempt on the 23rd to retake the Armory, but 
were wholly unsuccessful. Immense supplies of guns, 
ammunition, and war material of the latest pattern were 
found there ; thus the great want of food and ammuni- 
tion being suddenly met it was possible to hold out for 
several days. The number of wounded was about 230 
and on this account it was impossible to force a way 
to Tientsin, now but a few miles distant. The couriers 
had all been either kil'ed or stopped. Guns were mounted 
and a Boxer stronghold down the river was attacked with 
such good effect that thereafter the enemy was more 
quiet. 

A courier succeeded on the 23rd in getting through 
to Tientsin. Although captured and tied for a time to 
a tree, he had destroyed his message and was released. 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 443 

A Chinese soldier taken prisoner the next day said that 
Gen. Nich's army was much discouraged at their failure, 
having attacked with 25 battalions of 300 or 400 men 
each. On the 25th the relief column under the Russian 
Col. Shirinsky appeared in sight, to the joy of all. The 
wounded were transported across the river, and the whole 
force followed later, bivouacking on the bank for the 
night. On the 26th, after the return march had com- 
menced, Lt. Lowther-Crofton, and Mr. Davidge, Gun- 
ner, remained behind to destroy as far as possible the 
contents of the Armory, which were of the estimated 
value of three million pounds sterling. After the work 
of destruction had been accomplished the officers re- 
crossed the river, mounted ponies which were in waiting, 
and overtook the main body. 

During the whole sixteen days it was difficult to esti- 
mate with precision the numbers of the enemy. At first 
they were simply Boxers armed with spears, but later 
the Chinese regulars, and perhaps the best fighting men 
to be found in the Empire, joined them. It was unfore- 
seen that these soldiers would join in the attack, and this 
alone made the whole enterprise impracticable. 

The gallantry and steadiness with which it was con- 
ducted by this mixed contingent are worthy of all praise. 
Admiral Seymour in his official report especially com- 
mends the conduct and services of Capt. Von Usedom 
of the Imperial German Navy, whom he had nominated 
as his successor in case of accident, and also Capt. Mc- 
Calla, each of whom were wounded. 

The dramatic incidents of this attempted relief expedi- 
tion attracted universal attention, and whatever else the 
enterprise may have accomplished it disposed once for 
all of the favourite proposition so often advanced that it 
would be possible for a small but well organized and 



444 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

thoroughly equipped foreign force to march through 
China from end to end without effective opposition. 

An important result of this failure to force a way to 
Peking was the profound conviction on the part of many 
military authorities that the Capital could not now he 
reached without an enormous army prepared for all con- 
tingencies, and able to hold open communications with 
their base against any possible force which the Chinese 
could bring. Extreme confidence in foreign ability to 
deal with Chinese opposition, thus gave way to a much 
juster estimate of the difficulties to be faced when the 
Chinese were thoroughly aroused and poured forth in 
practically illimitable numbers. 

The story of the Siege of Tientsin deserves far more 
space than can be devoted to it in these pages, for taken 
altogether it is perhaps not less remarkable than the 
Siege in Peking. 

It should be remembered that the Foreign Settlements, 
French, British, and German, lie along the Peiho, be- 
ginning a mile or so below the native city and extending 
for another two miles or more, with an average breadth of 
perhaps half a mile. An earth rampart fully ten miles in 
length surrounds the settlements, the native city, and the 
suburbs. The vicinity of the city itself and that of all 
the settlements, was crowded with Chinese villages, each 
of which became a natural and a convenient nest for 
Boxers and for Imperial Soldiers in their attack. 

The rampart which, could it have been held, would 
have made an excellent defence, was partly within and 
partly without the lines, and the handful of foreign 
soldiers, aggregating about 2,400 when reenforced by the 
Volunteers, was totally inadequate to guard so long a line, 
attacked by perhaps five thousand Chinese troops, with 
an indefinite number of cooperating Boxers. 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 445 

Instead of making a strenuous attack in two places 
at once, the Chinese contented themselves with a galling 
rifle fire from across the river, and indeed from every 
direction. The bombardment by shells began on Sunday, 
June 17th — the day of the fighting at the Taku Forts — 
by a plan evidently preconcerted, and continued with 
occasional intermittence until the city was captured a 
month later. 

The miscellaneous foreign community retreated to the 
Municipal Hall, a lofty structure in the Norman style, 
well adapted to serve both as a fort and a hospital. 

The larger part of the non-combatants gathered there 
under siege conditions, but a considerable number of the 
missionaries were invited by Mr. Edmund Cousins, the 
hospitable agent of Jardine, Matheson & Co., to his com- 
pound, where also the native Christians to the number 
of over 500 found accommodation in the expansive go- 
downs. As in Peking, so here at the beginning of the 
siege, the Christians were regarded as a menace and a 
nuisance, and as in Peking so in Tientsin, it was not 
long before it was perceived that without their help the 
necessary labour simply could not have been performed as 
practically all other Chinese quit their work and fled. 

The whole settlement was barricaded with bales of 
goods from the godowns, a task which, owing to the long 
distances and the number of cross-streets, involved a 
great amount of exhausting labour. The men among the 
Christians carried water, ammunition, and provisions, 
and dug the numerous graves, the women did the hospital 
washing, picked over the camel's- wool for pillows, and 
performed much other useful service, winning in the end 
unstinted praise. 

The arrival of the relief force at Tientsin did not 
prove the immediate deliverance of the Foreign Settle- 



446 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ments from perpetual attack, as had been expected. The 
enemy was numerous and gradually became aggressive. 
After a fierce and bloody contest, the Eastern Arsenal 
was taken on June 27th, a slightly inaccurate report of 
which by Yii Lu, the Governor, found its way into the 
"Peking Gazette," and enlightened the darkness of the 
besieged in the Legations. The military relations were, 
it is true, sufficiently harmonious, but that did not lead 
to the vigorous action which any one or two of the de- 
tachments would have been likely to take by themselves. 

A Fort situated at the junction of the Peiho and the 
Grand Canal was the key of the position, for it com- 
manded the native city, the suburbs, the settlements, and 
the line of advance to Peking by rail or river. The dif- 
ficulties of the Allies were enormously increased by the 
inexplicable lack of suitable artillery, theirs being far in- 
ferior to that of the Chinese. Many of the Chinese guns 
were difficult to locate, and practically inaccessible, but 
their range was excellent, and their attacks most annoy- 
ing. On a single day six shells were thrown into the 
Temperance Hall, occupied as the head-quarters of Gen. 
Dorward and his staff. One shell went through the 
dinner-table while the officers were at tiffin, followed im- 
mediately by another equally well aimed. 

It was unsafe to appear anywhere upon the streets on 
account of random shots, the steady rifle fire, and the con- 
stant shooting from loopholes in Chinese houses in the 
French settlement and elsewhere, at every foreigner who 
showed himself. The settlements were full of spies, 
many of them posted in foreign houses deserted by their 
owners, whence they kept up a perpetual fusillade. Some 
of them even acted as signalmen for the Chinese gunners 
at a distance, indicating at what places to direct their fire, 
and it proved practically impossible to detect and dislodge 




BLACK FORT AT TIENTblX, OUTSIDE VIEW 




i -^■^msi 

;i» 1^ 1^ .' • • '^ *^ '^ •'^''•►'^.i-i^i;.! 









BLACK FORT AT TIENTSIN, INSIDE VIEW 



I 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 447 

them all, but as many as were caught were immediately 
executed. 

The center of the fighting and the key of the position 
on the east side of the river was the railway station, the 
holding of which was recognized both by the Chinese and 
the Allies as vital. The courage and persistence of the 
Russians at tliis point more than once saved the day. 
They guarded the pontoon bridge, and bore the brunt of 
the heavy fighting in the exposed positions between the 
river and the captured Arsenal. On one occasion en- 
gines were urgently needed down the line. There were 
locomotives at the station, but the problem was how to 
get them out under the heavy shell fire. Russian in- 
fantry made a wide feint attack to attract the enemy's 
attention on the left, while two engines on which steam 
had been got up, and three trucks were to make a dash 
over a mile of exposed embankment. 

Hardly had the first pufif of white smoke appeared from 
the funnel, when the Chinese saw what was going on 
and at once turned their guns upon the train. Four 
shells whizzed over it and then two fell just short; 
speed was gathered and the gunners did not again get 
so near, but the gauntlet had to be run for a mile or so, 
and it was made warm for them all the way. It was a 
daring deed dashingly done, and the most exciting inci- 
dent of the day. 

On the 5th of July transportation was provided and 
the ladies and children who were still left in Tientsin 
were sent to Tangku, on the way to some safer place than 
a settlement which was daily being shelled. A previous 
party had escaped just in time to witness the attack on 
the forts, and to be within range of the fire, — to their 
imminent peril, from which they all happily escaped. 

For a summary of the following events, as for some 



448 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

which have been previously mentioned, we are indebted 
to the graphic and trustworthy narrative of the Corre- 
spondent of the " London Times," who called attention to 
the surprising and unique fact that 10,000 European 
troops were being held in check by about 15,000 Chinese 
braves, the former paralyzed by the lack of long-range 
guns ; thus repeating the lesson which England had paid 
so dearly to learn in South Africa — the importance of 
heavy artillery. 

The inactivity of the Allied forces encouraged the 
Chinese to renewed efforts. Not content with vigorously 
shelling the settlements, they were busily engaged in 
pushing out their lines in a south-westerly direction, until 
eventually their flank rested on the ruined building at 
the race-course, their left remaining as before on the 
mud wall where the Lu T'ai canal flows through it. 
Their lines thus stretched from north-east to south-west 
over a distance of about six miles, in a rough crescent or 
semi-circular shape, having the settlements for a centre. 
A British battery of naval guns on the mud wall at the 
extreme west of the northern line of defence was in a 
precarious position, being under a harassing fire from 
front and rear, besides being enfiladed. The settlements, 
now become one huge camp, were subjected to a severe 
cross-fire, in addition to being bombarded from the fort 
near the city and from the batteries on the north bank 
of the Lu T'ai canal. The practice made by the Chinese 
gunners showed signs of considerable improvement, so 
that an increasing amount of damage was done and the 
casualties in barracks grew frequent. Inactivity was no 
longer possible ; sometiiing had to be done. 

The most pressing need was for the clearance of the 
rear and flank of the battery of British guns on the mud 
wall, and this was accomplished on the 9th b}' a com- 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 449 

bined wide flanking movement to the south-west, working 
around eventually to the north-east until the West Arsenal 
was captured and cleared. This was accomplished by 
the Japanese blue-jackets and the American marines, who 
entered together, the Japanese flag flying over it soon 
after. The whole movement was well planned and well 
executed by the British, Japanese and Americans in com- 
bination, the naval battery was relieved in flank and rear, 
and the settlements were subjected to no further cross 
shell-fire. 

The next day passed quietly, the Chinese even refrain- 
ing from attacking the outposts at the railway station, 
which had not before happened since the siege opened. 
They began again on the nth, and were only repulsed 
after three hours' sharp fighting, in which the French 
and Japanese lost heavily, and the British and Russians 
slightly. The Boxers had bayonets, and as they got into 
a string of railway trucks lying outside of the foreign 
lines, the soldiers had to turn them out at the point of 
the bayonet. The difficulties in getting the Allied artil- 
lery into position were great, owing to the lack of ma- 
terial, tools and machinery. These were at length over- 
come, and on the 13th it was arranged that a combined 
movement of the Russians, assisted by the Germans, 
should be made on the batteries of the Chinese at the Lu 
T'ai canal, w'ith a force of perhaps 3,500. Another body 
of about 4,500, consisting of Japanese, British, Ameri- 
cans, French and Austrians, was to advance under cover 
of the western battery of British naval guns and attempt 
the capture of the city of Tientsin. 

The forces of the Japanese and British, under General 
Fukushima and General Dorward, started at 3 a. m., 
making a wide flanking movement similar to the one on 
the 9th. 



450 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

At daylight the British batteries attacked the Chinese 
position. The AlHed troops converged on the West 
Arsenal about a mile from the south gate. 

During the morning there was a terrific explosion 
caused by the blowing up of a vast quantity of brown 
prismatic powder stored in a magazine connected with 
the East Arsenal and situated near the Lu T'ai canal. 
A colossal cloud of smoke stood up white and still against 
the clear blue sky — a " wonderful and beautiful sight." 
In the settlements nearly every one got the impression 
that his house had been struck by a shell, and many, 
running out to see what damage had been done, found 
this marvel in the sky. 

The plan was to advance against the south gate, which 
the Japanese were to blow up and so effect an entrance ; 
on their right were the French, and later, through an 
error, the Americans under Col. Liscum ; on the left 
were the British. 

The day was hot, and so was the fire from the British 
battery as well as from the Chinese guns and the innu- 
merable rifles on the wall. The plain is dotted with 
tumuli each representing a Chinese grave, but they af- 
forded very little shelter for so many soldiers at so short 
a distance from the enemy. Col. Liscum fell pierced by 
a bullet, and the loss of the Americans, as well as of the 
other detachments, was very great, perhaps amounting 
to ten per cent, of the forces engaged, and including a 
great number of officers. If the Chinese infantry and 
cavalry which during the whole morning had been seen 
drawn up on the plain to the westward had taken an 
active part in the operations, matters would have been 
still more serious. As it was, the failure of ammunition 
and the difficulty of making effective headway made the 
situation bad enough. 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 451 

Hour after hour passed, but the blowing up of the 
south gate did not take place. At length Gen. Fukishima 
sent word to Gen. Dorward that he should himself oc- 
cupy his present position throughout the night, to which 
Gen. Dorward agreed. Meantime no report had come 
from the Russians whose operations on the north were a 
principal part of the work of the day. It later appeared 
that they had been very successful. After heavy fighting 
they had captured the batteries on the north bank of the 
Lu T'ai canal, and pushing on to destroy two Chinese 
camps, left a force to attack in the dawn, the main body 
returning to camp with the loss of about 150 men. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 14th, the Japa- 
nese crossed the city moat, blew up the entrance to the bas- 
tion of the south gate, scaled the walls, and opening the 
gate itself from the inside, admitted the rest of the force. 
The Japanese, French, British and Americans poured into 
the city, the Chinese dispersing like clouds before a 
strong wind. The Chinese position, had it been properly 
defended, was one of irresistible strength, but Chinese 
troops are incapable of resisting a resolute attack of 
Western or Japanese soldiers and had virtually aban- 
doned their defence before there was any external evi- 
dence of that fact. 

The city was no sooner captured than a Tientsin Pro- 
visional Government was organized by the Military Com- 
manders, and installed in the yamen of the Governor 
General, who had fled, and who seems to have killed 
himself and his whole family at Yang Ts'un. 

From the occupation of the city onward for a period 
of nearly three weeks, the whole world, especially the 
tiny segment of it imprisoned in the Peking Legations, 
was anxiously waiting to know what was next to be done 
toward their relief. The correspondence in regard to 



452 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the matter would fill volumes, and there is more between 
the lines than in them. 

Considering the proximity of Japan and the complete- 
ness of her military preparations, it appeared to many 
that, in the dire emergency, that Power would surely be 
intrusted with the task of rescuing the besieged of all 
nations, lest by undue delay they should all be massacred 
together. Japan was ready to do the work, provided she 
were asked to do so by all the other Powers. The " other 
Powers " had their own ideas, some of which were ex- 
pressed and some of which were repressed. In case 
Japan were to execute this commission, what was to pre- 
vent her from retaining the territory which would be 
once more hers by right of conquest? Every one had 
vivid memories of the events following the war between 
China and Japan, when the latter Empire was defrauded 
of the fruits of her victory by " diplomacy," in other 
words by superior force. 

The result was what every one, even the besieged 
themselves, anticipated, and diplomatically next to noth- 
ing was done beyond exchanging notes and ascertaining 
by slow processes of conference, proposition and explana- 
tion, iterated and reiterated, what the Powers respectively 
were not prepared to do. Troops meantime were pour- 
ing into northern China from the uttermost parts of the 
earth, with more and ever more to follow. 

There was not wanting evidence that delay might be 
fatal to the success of the relief of the Legations, but 
the inevitable difficulties attendant upon the movement of 
large bodies of troops in a foreign land under unpropi- 
tious conditions, especially when as now flying several 
diflTcrent flags, made it unlikely that anything would be 
done before September. The efi"ect of the repulse of 
Admiral Seymour, as already remarked, was to inspire 




*r>^i ^^ ^:^^^ 







W 



PI 






WALL OF TIENTSIN AFTER BOMBARDMENT 




GATE THROUGH WHICH ALLIES ENTERED TIENTSIN 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 453 

extreme distrust of any but the most thorough prepara- 
tion, especially as it was thought that the Chinese might 
be able to mass perhaps fifty thousand troops to oppose 
the Allied advance. The Americans and the British 
were alike impatient for a forward movement, but noth- 
ing seemed decided upon. 

It became known at a later day that the influence of 
Jung Lu had been exerted in Peking to minimize the 
unavoidable attacks upon the Legations, and that, while 
he could not repress he could in some degree neutralize 
the vicious energy of Tung Fu Hsiang; and in this he 
was to a considerable degree successful. Jung Lu was 
in communication with trusted Chinese at Taku and at 
the Pei T'ang Forts, who perfectly comprehended the 
situation. It was learned from messengers who left Pe- 
king at the time when the capture of Tientsin was first 
known there, that the party of Prince Tuan and Tung 
Fu Hsiang was practically irresistible, and that it would 
not do to wait till September to start the army of relief. 
This information was communicated to Mr. Detring, one 
of the commissioners of the Imperial Customs, and by 
him to the Allied Commanders. 

On the 3rd of August a five hours' conference of the 
Allied Generals was held, at which it was decided to 
start the next day, despite the fact that it was in the 
midst of the rainy season when the difficulties of trans- 
port are likely to be almost insuperable. As it was they 
were truly colossal, and were greatly augmented by the 
heterogeneous nature of the Allied forces, and the end- 
less variety of their equipment. The latter was at all 
points insufficient, even that of the Japanese, who had 
to provide for a division instead, as originally planned, 
for a brigade. The road w^as blocked with carts of all 
sizes and kinds, from the light little wagon used by the 



454 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Japanese to the heavy arm)- wagons of the Americans, 
drawn by four enormous mules and capable under any 
ordinary circumstances of hauHng immense loads. The 
total number of troops was in the vicinity of 20,000, of 
whom the Jar»anese had about 10,000, the Russians 4,000, 
the British 3,000, the Americans 2,000, and the other 
Powers each but a few hundred. All the larger con- 
tingents were provided with artillery, the Japanese alone 
having perhaps as many guns as all the others combined. 

On the afternoon of the 4th the British and American 
troops moved out toward Hsiku, where Admiral Sey- 
mour's expedition had taken the Armory. The route 
lay through the endless series of villages which line the 
Peiho on either side. Heavy rain had threatened, and 
on the way it began to fall, making the roads slippery 
and furnishing a foretaste of what might be expected 
if the fall should be heavy and continuous. 

Before the village was reached the rain had stopped. 
Gen. Gaselee took up his headquarters with the British 
troops to the left of the place, and the Americans to the 
right. Orders were issued for an early start on the fol- 
lowing day, and the force lay down on the wet ground 
to snatch what sleep they might before the impending 
fight. The British troops consisted of four companies 
of the Welsh Fusiliers; the ist Bengal Lancers; the 12th 
Field Battery and the Hongkong Artillery, with two 
naval 12-pounders and four Maxims; the ist Sikhs, 250 
of the 24th Punjab Infantry, and 400 of the Rajputs. 
The Naval Brigade was to cooperate with the Rus- 
sians and French, preparing the way for an attack on 
the enemy's left. 

The American force under Gen. Chaffee consisted of 
450 marines, tlic 14th Regiment, t.ooo strong; the 9th 
Infantry, 800 strung; two Ilotchkiss guns, and the Fifth 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 455 

Field Battery under Capt. Reilly. The Japanese division 
was under Gen. Yamaguchi, Gen. Fukushima being Chief 
of Staff, with three field batteries, and six mountain 
batteries. The Russians had two infantry regiments 
with a nominal strength of 2,000, two field batteries 
(eight guns each) and some squadrons of Cossacks. The 
French, only a few hundred in number, were infantry 
from Tongking, with two mountain batteries firing 
melinite. 

The enemy were intrenched in a position running 
roughly north-east and south-west across the river and 
the railway, their right resting on an embankment, their 
left five miles away on the other side of the river, near 
the fifth railway bridge, beyond which the country was 
inundated. The main strength of their position was in 
the centre where it crossed the river. PI ere was a skil- 
fully concealed series of rifle pits and trenches from 
which it would have been exceedingly difficult to dislodge 
a courageous enemy. On the left bank of the river their 
position was protected along its whole length by a canal. 

The combined forces of the Japanese, British, and 
Americans were to operate against the enemy's position 
on the right bank of the river, the Japanese leading the 
attack, the British supporting, and the Americans in re- 
serve, while the Russians and French, assisted by the 
guns of the Naval Brigade, were to operate on the left 
bank. 

About 3 A. M., the Japanese moved forward and cap- 
tured a battery which would have enfiladed a front at- 
tack on the enemy's centre. There was an artillery duel 
for a time, when the Japanese under a galling fire made 
a charge for which the Chinese did not wait, although 
they inflicted severe losses on the Japanese before taking 
flight. The whole army advanced, the Americans on the 



456 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

left, the British in the center, and the Japanese on the 
right. Here and there the Chinese made some slight 
resistance at long range, and it was expected that they 
would make a stand near Pci Ts'ang where they were 
supposed to hold strong positions, but while they had the 
positions they had not the disposition to stick to them. 
The fight was practically over when the first trenches 
were rushed. Before 9 a. m., the Japanese occupied Nan 
Ts'ang, after which all firing ceased. 

The Japanese had borne the brunt of the fight, and 
their losses were all out of proportion to those of the 
other forces engaged, being estimated at about 60 killed 
and 240 wounded. The British lost four killed and 21 
wounded, while the Americans lost none. The Russians 
on the left bank had six wounded. The Chinese loss in 
men was not large, owing to their being protected by a 
mud wall, but they lost " face " and lost heart, a far more 
important matter than the actual number killed. 

The whole army spent the night at Pei Ts'ang. On 
the morning of the 6th there was another encounter with 
the enemy at the ruins of the railway station of Yang 
Ts'un which lasted for about four hours, the Chinese 
being driven back on the town of Yang Ts'un, the Rus- 
sians shelling them, and the Bengal Lancers clearing 
them out of the villages. The effect of the previous 
day's action was throughout apparent, the enemy fight- 
ing in a very half-hearted manner. The heaviest losses 
were sustained by the Americans, 65 killed and wounded 
in the 14th Regiment, and nine in the 9th. The British 
losses were under 50, the Russians had seven killed and 
20 wounded. 

The troops were exhausted after their two days of 
marching and fighting in excessive heat, and it was de- 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 457 

cided to remain at Yang Ts'un during the whole of the 
following day, to rest the force and to wait for supplies. 

The advance w^as resumed on the 8th, the whole force to 
march thereafter on the right bank ; the Japanese in front, 
the Russians next, the Americans following, the British 
bringing up the rear, while the French were to remain 
at Yang Ts'un. The Japanese were quick marchers and 
the Russians slow, slouching along wnth frequent halts at 
a pace hardly exceeding a mile an hour, which greatly 
embarrassed the Americans in their rear, who were often 
compelled to halt on the sandy plains in the hot sun, 
while the Russians were resting in the umbrageous vil- 
lages in front. This fact was of importance as accounting 
for the large number of casualties which they suffered 
from the heat, the Americans and the British being 
obliged to do the heaviest marching in the hottest hours 
of the day. 

The superior organization and equipment of the Japan- 
ese were everywhere conspicuous, and their position in 
the front of the column gave the enemy no time to rally, 
so that their retreat was in reality a long and rapid flight 
before the agile men from the Land of the Rising Sun, 
who gave them no respite and no pause. Gen. Fu- 
kushima, the moving spirit of the pursuit, was asked if 
his troops were not very tired, and replied : " Yes, but 
so are the enemy." 

His plan was to keep them on the run at all costs, 
and it was carried through perfectly and with great suc- 
cess. His cavalry and mounted infantry were usually 
pushed ahead about three miles in advance of the main 
body of infantry. Whenever they got into touch with 
the enemy they dropped back upon the infantry, which 
was then extended and sent forward to go thoroughly 



458 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

through all the villages to the right and left of the line 
of march. While the infantry rested after this, the cav- 
alry pushed on again, and the process, to the consterna- 
tion of the pursued, was repeated. 

On the morning of the 9th the Japanese shelled the 
Chinese out of Ho Hsi Wu, who after some skirmishing 
fled, leaving the place to the Japanese. The same day 
the Bengal Lancers and the Japanese Mounted Infantry 
came on a body of 200 Chinese cavalry, scattering them, 
killing about fifty, and capturing four banners of Gen. 
Sung and Gen. Ma. 

On the loth the main body was at Ma T'ou, and 
though the march was not a long one the road was lined 
with stragglers. The place where the Chinese had break- 
fasted in the morning was strewed with melon rinds. 
They had no commissariat and lived on what they could 
pick up, such as melons and Indian corn. 

The next day the weather was a little cooler, and to 
the great relief of the troops, rain fell. The army brought 
up at Chang Chia Wan, and the Japanese shelled the 
enemy out of a position south of T'ung Chou, from 
v.-hich they retired into that city. 

Early on the morning of the 12th (Sunday) the 
Japanese advanced to assault the east south gate, and 
found the city evacuated by the Chinese troops and no 
resistance offered to an entrance, though the city wall is 
strong and high and could easily have been defended. 
By way of saluting their own general the Japanese blew 
in the outer gate of the enceinte, and the city was quietly 
occupied. Gen. Yamaguchi issued a proclamation assur- 
ing safety and protection to non-combatants, and promis- 
ing to respect the rights of the people in their homes. 
The Japanese took the southern half of the city, and the 
French, who had now reappeared, the northern part. 



FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 459 

The Allies spent the night of the 12th at T'ung Chou, 
and on the next day began the last march to Peking, now 
only twelve miles distant. The Japanese advanced along 
the stone road leading to the Ch'i Hua gate, the Rus- 
sians south of them, but to the north of the canal, on 
the road to the Tung Pien gate of the southern city. 
South of the canal, on the road to the same gate, marched 
the Americans, and still farther south, the British. 

It had been arranged that at a distance of three miles 
from Peking, the four columns were to halt, and that 
another conference should be held to decide on a plan of 
attack. But the Russians, instead of halting, marched 
close up to the city walls, and meeting no opposition 
thought it possible to effect an entrance. But they had 
not reached the gate before a hot rifle fire from the corner 
of the northern city wall met them, and their loss was 
heavy, including the Chief of Staff, Gen. Vasilewski. 
They became tangled up inside the Tung Pien gate, 
which had been forced open, and for many hours made 
no progress. 

The Japanese advanced to the vicinity of Ch'i Hua gate 
early on the morning of the 14th, working under cover 
of houses toward the vicinity of the gate, which they 
hoped to blow up. But the rifle fire from the wall was 
so sharp that the Japanese suffered severely, and it was 
decided to bombard the wall. The bombardment began 
about 10 A. M., and continued for some hours without 
much visible impression being made. Only the heaviest 
artillery would have breached the wall of the gate, and 
the number of sharp-shooters made impracticable any ap- 
proach to blow it up. More than a thousand shells were 
wasted, as well as the whole day, and nothing had been 
gained. It was decided to wait until night to blow up the 
gate. It was then successfully accomplished, the lofty 



46o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tower being set on fire, and the Chinese troops driven 
from the wall with great slaughter. All honour to the 
brave troops of every nation, and most of all to the 
sturdy Japanese ! 

The American troops had come early in the fore- 
noon to the corner of the southern city wall, near the 
Tung Pien gate, where some of the men scaled the wall. 
The main body came in at the Tung Pien gate, as the 
Russians had done before them, and found themselves 
within the southern city exposed to a heavy fire from its 
northern wall. Their detachment entered the southern 
city at about the same time as the British, but they missed 
their way, and it was many hours before they reached 
the water-gate, entering the British Legation some time 
after the British, a part of each of these forces forcing 
open the Ch'ien Men, or main gate of the wall between 
the cities. 

The British were fortunate in finding the Sha Kuo 
gate, on the east face of the southern city, almost en- 
tirely undefended, though a party of Chinese cavalry had 
first to be shelled out of a village in front of it. A small 
guard was left to hold the gate, the 24th Punjab In- 
fantry was sent to occupy the Temple of Heaven, and 
the remainder of the force advanced along the main east 
and west street of the city, more than half the way to its 
centre, when they turned north in the direction of the 
water-gate, in accordance with the advice previously 
quoted in a letter from Sir Claude MacDonald to the 
Commander of the Allied Forces. When the British 
advance emerged from the houses to the south of the 
canal, at some distance from the water-gate, there were 
still Chinese riflemen posted at the Ha Ta gate to the 
cast, who opened an ill-directed and ineffectual fire. The 



^•^w 



Wi-"^" ~~^'^M 




* ^ — *»* 



,^._,.42»*- ^, X 



^ 




FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 461 

first officer to enter through the gate was Major Scott, of 
the 1st Sikhs, accompanied by four of his men, with 
Capt. Pell, and Lieut. Keyes, Aides to Gen. Gaselee, who 
with his staff was close behind. 

From the water-gate by way of the Russian Legation 
(the only safe route) to the British Legation, was but 
a few minutes' walk, where the deliverers were welcomed 
with an outburst of joy, which to those who experienced 
it can never be other than a vivid recollection while life 
itself lasts. 

The Siege in Peking was raised ! Once more the 
Occidental had met the Oriental in a face to face 
death struggle, and by means of intrepid resourceful- 
ness, indomitable perseverance in the face of obstacles, 
supreme courage confronting deadly dangers, and the 
Superintending Providence of God, had been victorious. 
It was the dawning Twentieth Century victorious against 
the Middle Ages, a potentially glorious Future vanquish- 
ing an inert and lifeless Past. In it was the seed of a 
New China, and Hope for the Far East. 



XXV 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 



TECHNICALLY speaking, the Siege in Peking 
was over, although much still remained to be 
done to render the relief effective. Before add- 
ing anything on that head it may be well at this point to 
mention in somewhat fuller detail, a topic to which no 
justice has yet been done, but which can not be omitted 
altogether — siege house-keeping. 

Under the abnormal conditions of the siege, the exi- 
gencies of domestic life (if such a thing could be said 
to exist) deserve to be depicted by a woman's pen. 
Every building on the grounds was crowded, sometimes 
almost to the point of suffocation. The mess of Lady 
AlacDonald was generally about thirty-five in number, 
and the whole establishment was literally turned inside 
out for the benefit of the besieged ; Sir Claude's office and 
library became a hospital, the smoking-room was occu- 
pied by gentlemen by night, and the ball-room by ladies, 
while for weary officers there was, during the day, an 
overflow into the sleeping apartments of the ladies of the 
house. It would liave been difficult to suggest anything 
for the comfort of the sick, or for the welfare of the 
besieged, which was ncjt promoted by the administrators 
of this hosjMtablc establishment. 

The quarters of the legation doctor, ordinarily occu- 
pied in the summer by one European, or at most two, 
suddenly became llie abode of eight and twenty men, 

462 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 463 

women and children, distributed into four different 
messes. Their servants' quarters absokitely swarmed 
with Chinese, and the minute back yard was always over- 
flowing with eager candidates for participation in the 
next kettle of rice, always just about ready for distribu- 
tion. 

The Customs mess (in the Escort quarters) was of 
variable size, the number ranging between thirty and 
forty, and as the dining-room was small it was neces- 
sar}^ to serve the meals to five different detachments, 
when all were on hand. But a large part — perhaps one- 
half — were members of the Customs volunteers, assigned 
to duty in various parts of the defences, oftenest in the 
Su Wang Fu, for a period of twenty-four hours at a 
time. Food had then to be sent over to them three times 
a day. This greatly augmented the care of so large a 
family, yet two capable English ladies ably and success- 
fully managed it all. 

The number of American missionaries who came in 
from the Methodist compound was about seventy. They 
were assigned to the occupancy of the church, a rectan- 
gular structure situated near the median line of the com- 
pound, measuring forty-three feet in length by twenty- 
five in width. On each side of the entry was a small 
closet, and one of these was provided with a winding stair- 
case to the loft. The rear of the audience room was 
occupied by a platform, surrounded by an altar-rail and 
furnished with a lectern. Passages on each side led to 
the small robing-room in the rear. Most of the available 
space in the main room was absorbed by more than a 
dozen large wooden seats, each with a book support in 
front. 

Trunks of all sizes were piled at the entrance, and out- 
side under the projecting eaves. The mattresses were 



464 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

spread for the night wherever there was room, the dispo- 
sition for sleeping much resembhng the ground plan of 
a box of sardines. Some of the gentlemen found tempo- 
rary and precarious lodgment on the edges of one of the 
pavilions, and later, as already mentioned, in the smoking- 
room of the Minister's house. The two closets on each 
side of the entrance were soon cleared out and turned 
into wash-rooms, every superfluous article being relegated 
to the loft. 

At a later stage this attic was itself transformed from 
a lumber room into a dormitory. A high platform in the 
middle (representing the arch in the ceiling of the 
church) and the surrounding spaces in front, in the 
rear, and on either side, were found choked with the 
accumulation of the entire Legation for decades. Among 
the mass may be mentioned the balls and pins of the 
bowling-alley, huge packing-cases, iron bed-steads with- 
out their ropes, scores of windows used for winter fittings 
to the dwelling-houses, punkah fans, shelves, trunks, 
boxes, relics of the Queen's Jubilee in the shape of trans- 
parencies, lanterns by the hundred, theatre scenery, rush- 
mats, reed-screens, cubic yards of copies of the some- 
what useless treaty between Great Britain and China, 
and piles of legation archives and accounts, running 
back to the ancient days of the East India Company, — 
all profusely decorated with hoary cob-webs accumulated 
under successive ministries. 

L^nflcr the energetic superintendence of a few gentle- 
men and ladies, much of this material was removed else- 
where, leaving space for narrow bed-rooms in which 
nearly twenty persons found much better accommodation 
than had been before available. The loft was built to 
conform to the general Chinese architecture of the Lega- 
tion, having windows upon the cast side only, making a 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 465 

circulation of air an impossibility — a circumstance little 
adapted to promote comfort in the heats of July. Yet 
despite a due allowance of sand-flies, fleas, and mosqui- 
toes, it was discovered that the inconveniences almost 
amounted to luxuries, and by mutual exchange of quar- 
ters the sick and the weary could always find some haven 
of comparative rest and quiet. 

The small room in the rear of the church, already men- 
tioned, was made to do duty as the only store-room for 
such provisions as had been gathered, or at any later 
period turned up. At first even a part of this was used 
as a ladies' bath-room, which was replaced later by the 
little lamp-room at the front entra,nce. Sergeant Herring 
obligingly gave the mess his own kitchen — a tiny one at 
the back of his quarters, with a small Chinese range — 
and had his own meals prepared on a Chinese stove on 
the door-step, or wherever he might be. 

In the effort to get all the needed articles cooked at 
once on this minute range, the cooks were forced to 
exert themselves to the utmost, every hour of the day. 
A small kerosene stove and a little spirit lamp were in 
constant use as accessories, but as there was no oven it 
was only possible to bake biscuit in a kerosene tin. To 
get quantities of food cooked at one time under such 
conditions, without perpetually having some of it 
scorched, would appear out of the question — yet it was 
accomplished. 

One of the greatest and most serious perplexities, suffi- 
cient to drive an Occidental cook to complete distraction, 
was the incessant demand upon the kitchen for hot water. 
It was wanted for cooking the regular meals, it was 
called for by the occupants of the house to which the 
kitchen belonged, by the marines, by the mothers of sick 
babies, and by the Chinese ad libitum. Fortunately two 



466 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

large braziers were brought, which materially relieved 
tlic pressure on the kitchen, so that tea, coffee, and a 
certain amount of hot water could be provided near to 
the church— the kitchen being distant from it half the 
width of the Legation compound. It is to be borne in 
mind that while many were able to drink the water from 
the principal wells without even filtering, perhaps half 
of the company were less fortunate, and had to be sup- 
I)lied with that which had been thoroughly boiled. 

The indispensable utensils for cooking on a large scale 
were happily provided from the stock distributed by the 
owners of the foreign stores. Yet the provision v»as far 
from complete. There was a great lack of large dishes, 
and it was sometimes necessary to soak beans, or to make 
biscuit, in a wash-bowl. The dishes must often be 
washed in cold water, when there was no other. For it 
must be remembered that the first contingent of about 
thirty-two persons were summoned to breakfast at 6.30, 
and must finish their meal and make way for the second 
section, who at no long interval gave way to the third. 
(Later the three divisions were condensed into two.) 

Sideboards for this large company there were none, 
except the altar, and all the surfaces — seats, book-rests, 
window-sills — were uniformly aslant, aft"ording no sup- 
port for crockery, which had to be continually passed out 
through tlie window to be rewashed, a task of some 
difficulty during the frequent heavy rains. A similar 
embarrassment was felt on rainy days, in drying the dish- 
cloths, the supply of which never seemed to run short, 
being mysteriously recruited from odds and ends which 
turned up (table-cloths and napkins being practically 
and hai)pily unknown). 

All this unceasing round of work was carried on by 
three diiTer'jnt sets of cooks and servants, each of which 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 467 

had always to hasten its work so as to be out of the way 
of the next relay; yet there was never a quarrel, and no 
friction worthy of the name. 

During the height of the rainy season, the only place 
in which to put away food was a small wire-screen safe, 
about a foot and a half square — there was no ice-box 
and no ice. A few rods distant w^as the slaughter place 
for ponies, haunted by millions of flies, and the only way 
to keep meat from their attack was to have it always 
covered with a cloth — a very temporary device in the hot 
damp days of July. 

There was a standing committee of three ladies who 
planned the menu for the three daily meals, and two 
others — changed each day — attended to setting the tables 
and saw that each meal was ready on time. The in- 
genuity of this committee in so planning an extremely 
limited diet as to make the most of it, was positively 
marvellous, — a housewifery that frequently served up the 
flesh of tough mules so that no one would have suspected 
its origin, and that made tasty puddings without milk, 
butter, or eggs. 

The lady in charge of the hospital kitchen also showed 
great skill in making palatable dishes for the wounded, 
and if at any time there happened to be a little left which 
would have spoiled before the next morning, she was 
invariably able to make such arrangements as to forefend 
that catastrophe. Little committees of the foreign Chris- 
tian Endeavor children busied themselves in carrying 
around whatever might be left on hand, distributing to 
those in need, and to the sick Chinese, who were always 
so hungry after their perpetual diet of porridge that all 
scraps from a foreign table were welcomed with joy. 

Much of the time there were sick ones among the mess 
wdio could not eat the coarse brown bread and the old 



468 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

yellow rice, and for such, whatever the stress of other 
work, appetizing dishes were always ready. There were 
also wan little babies, for whom their mothers had to cook 
in a passage-way so narrow that if one stooped down no 
one else could pass, and for many, many nights these 
tired mothers were kept awake by the moaning of their 
own infants, or perhaps by the cries of some of the others, 
for whom no other place was open and for whose ills 
there was no respite and no help. In the recapitulation, 
all these disadvantages and inconveniences appear most 
formidable, but at the time they were submitted to with 
a patience and a courage which never once failed, and 
which was not a little promoted by a daily half-hour serv- 
ice of prayer and praise in which many passages from 
the Psalms, the prophecies, and the epistles, were made 
to become luminous with a new light, glowing like a 
diamond in the dark. 

Although this is in no sense a military history of the 
Siege in Peking, yet a few words in regard to the fortifi- 
cations of the British Legation must not be omitted. 
These it may be remembered were early in the siege 
put in charge of the Rev. F. D. Gamewell, whose edu- 
cation as an engineer proved a unique qualification for a 
unique work. At the request of Sir Claude MacDonald 
he also undertook in a few instances work outside of the 
area of the Legation and its precincts ; but this was 
exceptional. 

The barricade on the west side of the Legation Street 
bridge was made eight feet thick, with five feet of earth 
intended to stop cannon balls, for which it is probable it 
would have sufficed. One of the military engineers con- 
sidered that such an elaborate defence, each of the double 
walls being of the thickness named, was quite unneces- 
sary, but after the German losses had become ver}- heavy 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 469 

he wished it continued. There was a similar experience 
of change in military opinion as to the value of thorough- 
going fortifications, in the Mongol Market, where the 
bullets penetrated fifteen and eighteen inches of rubble — 
or common Chinese wall. 

The Russian Legation was practically not fortified at 
all, for what reason it is difficult to comprehend, although 
there were barricades in some parts of the premises. 

At the south end of the Mongol Market lane, the barri- 
cade built was five feet thick, and solid. The north and 
south walls were reenforced so as to be always eighteen 
inches thick, and in no case was dependence placed on a 
single line of bricks, where there are sure to be many 
cracks, and where there is always a chance of penetration 
bv a stray bullet. This reenforcement continued up to a 
point opposite the house of the First Secretary. Beyond 
that the outer line began with a thickness of two feet. 
The importance of this was illustrated by the fact that 
on the very day on which Mongol Market defences 
were finished at 11 a. m., by 4 p. m. the Chinese had 
every house opposite loopholed, and twelve loopholes in 
a single building. 

The ordinary penetrating effect of the Mauser bullets 
on Chinese bricks was from one-half to three-quarters 
of an inch ; but in the case of the Mannlichers used dur- 
ing the closing days of the siege, the damage was much 
greater, — the bullets leaving deep pits, and rapidly cutting 
away any wall. On the last Monday morning of the 
siege Mr. Gamewell was called up to build extra walls 
to check this destructive and corrosive fire. 

The courts next beyond the one last mentioned were 
protected in the same way, under constant attack. Dur- 
ing all the building of fortifications, at which probably 
an average of fifty men were employed every day except 



470 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Sunday, only one man was killed, and that was due to 
his total disregard of repeated cautions not to expose 
himself unnecessarily. The barricade immediately to the 
west of the south stable-court was four feet in thickness, 
aside from the outer yard wall, and was one of the 
strongest in the whole line, as it was one of the most 
exposed to attack. It was a marvel that the two-storied 
house in the stable-court did not fall. Behind the stable- 
yard gate was a barricade three feet thick slanting to the 
north-west, and next beyond that was a platform built 
for the Italian gun, the wall being ver>' solid, and eight 
feet thick. The next wall was twenty inches thick, inde- 
pendent of the original outer wall, and very strongly built. 
Beyond this was a sort of fort, with five loopholes, very 
securely put up, and after that a rubble wall four feet 
in thickness, reenforced by still another substantial wall. 

Further to the north stood " Fort von Strauch," which 
was the situation of the " International " gun at the close 
of the siege. The gunner, Mitchell, stood behind it when 
he was wounded, and not to one side. Directly to the 
west of this, and not more than fifty feet distant, was the 
Chinese barricade. Still further beyond is a court which 
is directly under the wall of the Carriage Park, 

The death of the marine who was killed at the stable- 
court early in the siege first called the attention of the 
military men to the need of sand bags. Before that time 
they said they had enough, but it was discovered later 
that the director of the work of fortification was right 
in his consistent declaration that there would never be 
enough of them until the relief column reached the Lega- 
tion. After a time every officer was converted to the 
value of sand bags, and made frequent and liberal calls 
for them. 

Behind the .Students' Liljrary a deep trench was dug as 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 471 

a countermine, between ten and twelve feet deep, and only 
ten inches from the wall of a two-storied building whose 
foundations were only three or four feet below the ground. 
Digging this trench was at great risk of undermining the 
building, but the risk of being blown up was also a 
serious one, and it was risk against risk. The trench 
was not absolutely continuous, but the main sections were 
connected by cavities which went from one to the other, 
or as nearly so as the roots of a large tree would allow. 
It was almost certain that this digging would have de- 
tected any Chinese mine, as it was 12 feet deep, and at 
that time of year the water line was thought to be about 
13 feet. In the first court of the Hanlin a countermine 
was begun which extended some distance into the Car- 
riage Park, but it was discontinued as superfluous, and 
v/as a standing jest for a long time. 

In the Hanlin grounds the line of defence was at first 
weak. The second line, however, had a two foot brick 
wall very strongly propped, and reenforced to stand ar- 
tillery fire. Being short of bricks, the Vv'orkmen used a 
great number of the wooden plates of books, mostly 
poetical works in the Hanlin Library. From this point 
eastward to the north stable-court the whole line of 
wall was likewise reenforced for withstanding artillery, 
and there was a trench 12 feet deep just behind the de- 
fence for the whole length. 

In case this should have been rushed by the Chinese, 
the pavilion immediately to the rear had a loophole 
three and a half feet in thickness to enfilade the enemy. 
This pavilion, itself, by the way, was perforated with solid 
shot from the batteries on the Imperial City wall, seven 
shots striking within the space of ten feet. One of 
them went through a heavy post, 16 inches in diameter, 
and shattered one of the marble tablets let into the 



472 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

^vall. The book-cases of the Hanlin had been set up in 
the yard, and covered with tar-paper simply as covering- 
screens, so that the Chinese should not be able to detect 
the movements of the defence. A smaller pavilion in 
from was looplioled to prevent the approach of the enemy 
unseen, and there was a second strong line of defence 
beiiind. The larger of the two pavilions (called the Ching 
I T'ing) was named " Fort Strouts." Another smaller 
one to the north was loopholed in the same manner. 

At the east end of the Hanlin the artillery defences 
were carried up two-thirds of the way to the top, but 
were never wholly completed. The most eastern of the 
fortified positions was styled " Fort Oliphant." Immedi- 
ately in front of this the defences were ver}-- strong, con- 
sisting of an enormously thick wall, eight feet through at 
the base, and a trench 13 feet in depth. The steps up 
to the elevated sentry-posts were made of the wooden 
cases which when found contained the great Ming Dy- 
nasty Encyclopaedia, " Yung Le Ta Tien ", but were now 
packed solidly with earth. The strength of the Hanlin 
position as finally fortified was great, and if the Chinese 
had been able to screw up their courage to the point of 
a desperate charge, the positions could have been cap- 
tured only with the greatest difficulty, and with the sacri- 
fice of a great number of lives, for which happily they 
were at no time quite prepared. 

The defences of the eastern side of the Legation (the 
Hanlin being on the north) received perhaps more labor- 
ious consideration than those of any other quarter. 
On the 29th of June — only nine days after the siege be- 
gan — Col. Shiba informed Sir Claude that at the outside 
he should not be able to hold the Su Wang Fu more than 
two or three days longer. Sir Claude communicated to 
Mr. Camewell the information, with the comment, "You 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 473 

should know this." The result was a most elaborate plan 
of defence which was a surprise alike to Chinese and to 
foreigners, who were perpetually asking " What is the 
use of all this work? " The use was to guard the Brit- 
ish Legation at its weakest point, in case the Su Wang 
Fu should be abandoned, and the Chinese should plant 
artillery on the high mounds of the Flower Garden be- 
longing to the Fu, which was separated from the Lega- 
tion only by the width of the canal road. The Chinese 
would have been able to mount guns within fifty yards 
(or less) of the residence of the British Minister, and it 
was difficult to see how any part of the Legation grounds 
could have then been held for an hour. 

The fortifications by way of defence against this 
danger began at the end of the north stable-court, and 
extended in an unbroken line to the Escort Quarters, a 
little north of the main gate of the Legation. The post 
on the roof of the cow-house at the north end was a 
very strong position, and a very exposed one, being much 
nearer to the batteries on the wall of the Imperial City 
than any other, as well as close to the enemy's positions 
which attacked the northern end of the Fu. The wall of 
the stables themselves on the canal front was about fifteen 
inches thick, and with great labour this was reenforced 
by a wall five feet thick, strongly braced both at top and 
bottom throughout its whole length. At the upper end 
of the stable-court there were countermines, lest the 
Chinese should attempt to blow up the post. The tunnel 
was run to the west about five feet, thence north twenty- 
five feet, and then east the same distance, but no sign 
or sound of Chinese mines was found, and the very ex- 
istence of the countermines was not generally known. 
From the stables to the Escort quarters the same plan of 
defence against possible cannonading was pursued 



474 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tliroughout, — thick and high walls made of earth well 
rammed down, and stoutly braced by the heaviest avail- 
able timbers against the buildings opposite at every point. 

The cannon balls and shells of the enemy received on 
this side did much damage. One of the three brick col- 
umns in the second stor>' veranda of the Minister's house 
was knocked down into the yard below, but extra posts 
were put in under the supports of the roof, so that it 
did not give way. On the last night of the siege one of 
the smaller roofs of a room adjacent to a bed-room in the 
Minister's house was crushed in by a shell, as already 
mentioned, but the injury throughout the siege from this 
source was surprisingly small. 

The discerning reader will perceive that, amid so many 
military men at a time of such peculiar strain, the task 
of a civilian charged with one of the most important 
duties of the defence, was one of peculiar difficulty and 
delicacy. The sense of responsibility was at times al- 
most overwhelming, and, aside from sometimes working 
twenty hours a day, the necessity of having the most 
discouraging military secrets confidentially imparted was 
enough to wear out the constitution of one in the most 
robust health. 

Perhaps in no other order throughout the entire siege 
did Sir Claude MacDonald exhibit to better advantage 
sterling good sense, than in placing Mr. Gamewell in 
a position absolutely free from military interference of 
any kind, with responsibility to the Commander in Chief 
only. When this fact was thoroughly established, all 
occasion for friction disappeared, and the civil and the 
military defence dove-tailed into one another in an ad- 
mirable and most effective way. At the close of the 
siege Mr. Camcwcll received a cordial letter from Sir 
Claude acknowledging the common ol)ligations to him 



^A 




THE SIX "FIGHTING PARSONS" AND 
SERGEANT MURPHY AT FORT COCKBURN 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 475 

for his services, and j\Ir. Conger in a similar note justly 
added that " to you more than to any other man we 
owe. under God, our preservation." A few days after the 
relief forces arrived, one of the British subjects who 
had been through the siege took occasion to ask Gen. 
Gaselee what he thought of " our infant fortifications ? " 
Gen. Gaselee replied that he was greatly surprised at the 
extent and the effectiveness of the defence conducted, and 
especially with the amount of work done in the time at 
the disposal of the besieged ; and that the fortifications 
and everything connected with the defence were " beyond 
all praise." 

In the official report of the events connected with the 
siege of the Legations, Sir Claude MacDonald states that 
an important effort to betray the Legations was only dis- 
covered after they had been relieved. " Among some 
documents seized by the German troops was found a letter 
addressed to the General commanding at the Ha Ta 
gate on the subject of mines. The writer had been a 
teacher at tlie British Legation in the employ of Her 
Majesty's Government for four years, and was well known 
to the student interpreters ; together with all other teach- 
ers he disappeared about the middle of June. The letter 
was dated the beginning of July, and pointed out that 
the General's methods of attacking the Legation were 
faulty, and were bound to lead to considerable loss in the 
future as they had done in the past. The proper method 
of attack, the writer said, was by mining; to assist the 
General in his attack he enclosed a correct plan of the 
British Legation, with which he was well acquainted, 
and marked on the plan the most suitable place for the 
mine to be driven. Eager inquiries have been made, since 
the siege was raised, for the writer of the letter, but as 
yet he has not been found." The fact that with such de- 



476 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tailed treachery as this freely offered to the Chinese, they 
failed to drive a single mine under any part of the long 
front of the British Legation, adds one more to the 
already long list of surprises connected with the defence. 

In view of the supreme importance of the subject it 
may be worth while to devote a little space to a brief 
summary of some of the foregoing aspects of the defence 
of the Legations, by a competent military authority, Lieut. 
Col. Scolt-Aloncrieff, of the Royal Engineers, who con- 
tributed an article on the subject to the " Royal Engineers 
Journal" (April, 1901.) Only a few points can be se- 
lected. The reader is indebted to him for the excellent 
map of the defences which accompanies this volume. 

" The first thing which strikes one on looking at the 
plan of the whole defensive position is the enormous 
number of buildings crowded together on the ground. 
Even in this respect the plan comes short of the truth, 
for if the houses had all been actually drawn it would 
have added to the confused mass of buildings shown, in 
such a way as to obscure essential points. 

" Some of the Legation compounds and yards have 
many trees standing in them. The trees were both a 
help and a hindrance to the besieged. They obscured the 
look-out, tended to spread conflagration when a fire broke 
out, and falling branches were often a source of danger ; 
but they afforded some protection, and prevented the 
enemy from seeing in. The massive and heavy roofs of 
the Chinese buildings though giving considerable com- 
mand were not much taken advantage of by the assailants. 
The two-storied houses in the Legation, though heavily 
bombarded, acted most efficiently as traverses, so that it 
was quite possible to move about freely inside the de- 
fended area. This was very much noticed by the relieving 
force wht-n they entered. The noise of the musketry and 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 477 

machine guns was incessant, projectiles of all sorts were 
whistling overhead, yet on the lawn-tennis court of the 
British Legation ladies were moving about so freely that 
it was like a garden-party. The defences of the British 
Legation were, by all consent, the strongest and best of 
any of the works in any part of the position. The engi- 
neer who devised and superintended them was an Ameri- 
can missionary, the Rev. F. D. Gamcwell. He was one 
of a considerable number of American missionaries who 
were sheltered during the siege in the Chapel of the 
British Legation, and whose skill in organization and 
cheerful energy contributed largely to the comfort and 
well-being of the garrison. 

" There were no engineers, military or civil, among the 
garrison of the British Legation. Mr. Gamewell made 
it his business to be always working at and improving 
the defences. Walls liable to artillery fire were strength- 
ened and strutted. Walls supporting roofs, or in any way 
doubtful, were propped and buttressed, traverses were 
made in every possible passage, openings and communica- 
tions were made freely throughout the defensive line, 
barricades and flanking caponiers were made in every 
place where it was possible they might be needed, deep 
trenches were sunk across every part where the enemy 
might be expected to mine, the upper stories of houses 
were barricaded, loopholed and strengthened, and above 
all in every place ample head cover was given to the firing 
line, so that only as much of the man as came opposite 
the loophole was exposed. 

" On the west of the British Legation in one of the 
large sheds of the Imperial Carriage Park, the enemy be- 
gan a mine, the failure of which is very instructive. They 
started in the direction of a strong barricade and breast- 
work inside of our works in the Hanlin. Thev were 



478 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

heard at work, and a countermine was started, which 
however, did not go far. The enemy apparently heard 
the countermine, and changed direction to their right, 
heading for the Students' Quarters, a double-storied 
building close to the boundary wall. They seem to have 
lost their bearings, and kept edging off to the right, so 
that they worked round in an almost complete semi-circle, 
and ultimately were heading away from their objective. 
This was afterward discovered, when, after the relief 
was accomplished the mine was opened. It was found 
that the atmosphere in the mine was so foul that it was 
impossible to keep a light burning, and as the Chinese 
were probably working in the dark, it is little wonder 
that they missed their way. The difficulty of keeping the 
true direction of a small mine gallery, even when one 
has the aid of lantern and compass, is well known, and 
in this case the enemy were probably unable to use any 
such assistance. Some empty powder-boxes and powder- 
hose were found in the mine, but no charge. 

" The last and most furious assault on the Legations 
was delivered on the 13th and 14th of August, when the 
enemy knew it was their last chance. But the defences 
were sound and the hearts of the defenders good, for 
relief at last was near. The closeness of the attack may 
be gauged by the fact that when Major Scott and his 
Sikhs, who were the first to enter the Legation, relieved 
the Marines of the Legation Guard at the Mongol Market 
1)arricades, and were greeted with cheers, they at once 
received a volley of brickbats from the enemy a few 
yards off ! " 

It was gratifying intelligence to all who were interested 
in the work of the siege and its results, to know that so 
many who tcx>k an active part in it were promptly re- 
warded by a due recognition of their services. 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 479 

The last six pages of the British White Book, (China 
N. 4, 1900) are exclusively occupied with dispatches 
from Sir Claude MacDonald to the Marquis of Salisbury, 
calling attention to the singular services of a great number 
of individuals, both military and civil, including almost 
every nationality. Among those selected for honourable 
mention were Capt. Halliday, already mentioned, who 
fought with conspicuous courage at close quarters ; Capt. 
Poole, who was not absent from duty for a single day 
or night during the whole 55 days; and Capt. Strouts, 
who was killed. The British Volunteers, among whose 
number David Oliphant and Henry Warren were killed, 
are highly commended. 

Mr. Dering, Second Secretary of the British Legation 
was in charge of important defences. He was always alert, 
and had also the difficult task of deciding what ponies 
or mules should be killed for food, each of the owners 
naturally being desirous of reserving his own as long 
as possible. Mr. Cockbum, Chinese Secretary, was both 
a Volunteer, and in charge of the very important 
correspondence between the British Minister and the 
enemy. His house was an especial target of shells and 
rifle bullets. He was ably seconded by Mr. Ker the Sec- 
ond Chinese Secretary. Capt. Percy Smith, a retired 
officer, was especially useful on the city wall in difficult 
and dangerous circumstances. Mr. Clarke-Thornhill, 
formerly of the Diplomatic Service, was an active and 
willing Volunteer. 

The Rev. Frank Norris,, Chaplain of the Legation, ren- 
dered invaluable services outside of his especial duties, in 
work with pick and shovel in the trenches and on the 
barricades ; and also in taking charge of and encouraging 
the Chinese converts in their work on the defences. He 
was always ready, willing, and cheerful; though severely 



48o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

wounded by the explosion of a shell in the Su Wang 
Fu, he stuck to his work, and was at all times a splendid 
example to those about him. 

Mr. Tours of the Consular Staff, aiid :Mr. Tweed of 
the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, were indefatigable as 
captains of the Fire Brigade, which several times saved 
the Legation. The former had such arduous duties that 
at the close of the siege his health gave way completely, 
and for a long time he hovered betw^een life and death. 

Dr. Morrison, Correspondent of " The Times ", acted as 
Lieutenant to Capt. Strouts, and rendered most valuable 
services. Active, energetic, and cool, he volunteered for 
every service of danger, and was a pillar of strength when 
matters were going badly. By his severe wound on the 
1 6th of July his valuable services were lost to the de- 
fence for the rest of the siege. 

All the Student Inteqjreters are warmly praised. They 
behaved with pluck and dash, yet a steadiness under fire 
worthy of veteran troops. The Volunteers belonging to 
the Imperial Maritime Customs likewise distinguished 
themselves, and soon after the siege received the promo- 
tion which they had so well earned. 

Mr. Nigel Oliphant took an important part on several 
occasions until he was seriously wounded, on the i8th 
of July. 

In another supplementary dispatch Sir Claude asks that 
the thanks of the British Government be conveyed to Lieut. 
Baron von Rahden, of the Imperial Russian Navy ; Capt. 
Myers, U. S. Marines (wounded) ; Lieut. Darcy, French 
Navy (wounded) ; Lieut. Baron von Soden, Imperial Ger- 
man Marines; Lieut. Paolini, Italian Navy (wounded); 
and Lieut. Hara, Japanese Navy. In addition to these, 
the skill, tenacity, and courage of Lieut. Col. Shiba, of the 
Japanese contingent, are mentioned as worthy of all 



pa 
o 

<; 
-I 







in^ 




>>^ 



T=nr 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 481 

praise. His dispositions were taken with the greatest 
skill, and he contested every inch of ground, thereby 
giving time for the defences of the British Legation to 
be put in order; and as a direct effect of this the lives 
of very many of the garrison were saved. 

Don Livio Caetini, Second Secretary of the Italian 
Legation, is commended to his Government for his de- 
votion and ability, having never once quitted his post, 
which was a barricade exposed to a very severe shell and 
rifle fire. M. von Strauch, a member of the Imperial 
Maritime Customs, formerly an officer of the Prussian 
army, was in command of the Customs Volunteers, and 
was of the greatest assistance to Sir Claude, who was 
much struck by his zeal and intrepidity. He and Dr. 
Velde of the Hospital are especially commended to the 
German Government. M. Fliche, an ex-ofificer of the 
French Cavalry, was an orderly constantly under fire, and 
for his gallantry was recommended to the notice of the 
French Government. 

The United States has few methods, aside from the 
vote of special thanks by Congress, of accomplishing the 
highly desirable objects aimed at in the decorations and 
honours thus worthily bestowed. It was therefore the 
greater gratification to the besieged and their friends to 
find in Washington telegrams of Jan. 4th, 1901, the fol- 
lowing : " The British Ambassador has communicated to 
the Secretary of State a dispatch recently received by him 
from the Alarquis of Lansdowne, commending the gallant 
conduct of certain Americans who distinguished them- 
selves last summer during the attacks on the Legation 
quarter in Peking. The text of the dispatch is as follows : 

" My Lord : With reference to my preceding dispatch 
of this day's date, I have to inform you that Sir C. Mac- 



482 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Donald has brought to my notice the conduct of certain 
gentlemen who particularly distinguished themselves dur- 
ing the attacks on the Legation quarter, and who gave 
invaluable assistance both to him personally and to the 
defence in general. 

" Sir Claude mentions the names of the Rev. F. D, 
Gamewell of the iVmerican Methodist Alission, and Her- 
bert G. Squiers, Secretary of the U. S. Legation. He states 
tliat the Rev. F. D. Gamewell carried out the entire de- 
fences of the British Legation, and that these defences 
have excited the admiration of the officers of the various 
nationalities who have since inspected them. As a tribute 
to their excellence he mentions that notwithstanding a 
constant rain of rifle-fire during the five weeks of the 
siege, not a single woman or child in the Legation suf- 
fered. He adds that a deep debt of gratitude is owed to 
him by all the besieged. 

" Herbert Squiers acted in the capacity of Sir Claude's 
Chief-of-Staff after the death of Captain Strouts of the 
Royal Marines. Sir Claude says that his earlier services 
in the United States army were of great use in the de- 
fence, and that he can not speak too highly of his zeal and 
ability. The barricades on the Tartar wall were designed 
and carried out by him, and under Sir Claude's orders he 
drew the plan for the entry of the troops which was 
conveyed to Gen. Gaselee by a messenger let down from 
the wall. 

" I request that you will bring the names of these two 
gentlemen to the favourable notice of the United States 
Government, and express the appreciation felt by Her 
Majesty's Government of their eminent services. 

(Signed) Lansdowne." 

This series of graceful recognitions of merit is fitly 



THE FORTIFICATIONS 483 

concluded by the following dispatch to Sir Claude Mac- 
Donald, published in the White Book relating to the 
siege in Peking. 

Foreign Office, Feb. loth, 1901. 

" As the present report completes your account of the 
siege and relief of the Legations, I desire to take this 
opportunity of stating how highly His Majesty's Govern- 
ment value these admirable and exhaustive records of an 
episode of the deepest historical interest. The gallantr)^ 
with which the siege was maintained by all the foreign 
forces engaged, more especially after the failure of the 
first relief expedition, and the consequent disappointment 
of the besieged, coupled with the energy and courage with 
wdiich the efforts of the regular forces were seconded by 
the Legation Staffs and other civilians, has commanded 
the admiration of the whole civilized world. 

" His Majesty's Government desire also to place on 
record their appreciation of the important part borne by 
yourself throughout this crisis. On the 22nd of June at 
the request of your colleagues you took charge of the 
defence, a position for which from your military train- 
ing you possessed exceptional qualifications ; and from 
that day you continued to direct the operations of the 
garrison until the relief took place on the 14th of August. 

"Information has reached His Majesty's Government 
from various sources that the success of the defence was 
largely due to your personal efforts, and more particularly 
to the unity and cohesion which you found means of estab- 
lishing and maintaining among the forces of so many 
different nationalities operating over an extended area. 
Competent eye-witnesses have expressed the opinion that 
if it can be said that the European community owe their 
lives to any one man more than another, where so many 



484 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

distinguished themselves, it is to you that they are in- 
debted for their safety. 

" I can not conclude this dispatch without asking you 
to convey to Lady MacDonald the thanks of His Majesty's 
Government for her unceasing and devoted attention to 
the welfare of the sick and wounded. Her work and 
that of the ladies who assisted her have earned the last- 
ing gratitude not only of those who were benefited by 
her ministrations, but also of their relatives in Europe 
who were kept for so many weeks in a condition of most 
painful anxiety and suspense. 

Lansdowne." 



XXVI 



AFTER THE SIEGE 



WHEN the relieving columns marched into the 
Peking Legations they received a glad wel- 
come from all the besieged, who had been look- 
ing for their coming with such mingled fears and hopes. 
But it was soon evident from the bearing of the rescuers, 
as well as from their remarks,, that they were considerably 
disappointed in us. They found a large number of gentle- 
men and ladies going about as they would have done 
under ordinary circumstances, except that many of them 
were on sentry duty. The specific occasion of the disap- 
pointment felt and expressed seemed to be that the be- 
sieged did not look sufficiently pinched with hunger, and 
that some of them — especially the ladies — were far too 
well dressed, and met the relieving army witli glad smiles 
and cheers, instead of bursting into hysterical sobs. As 
one of the bright young women phrased it, " they seem 
to have expected to find us lying gasping on the ground." 
Several of the besieged were only visitors in Peking 
who had been caught in the eflfort to leave on the very 
day when trains finally ceased to run, and these ladies, 
at least, had lost none of their belongings. All the rest, 
however, displayed the singular feminine talent for mak- 
ing a little go a great way in dress, as they had done 
in food, and even under the most depressing circum- 
stances of lack of changes of raiment, of persistently rainy 
weather and absence of all ordinary facilities for washing 

48s 



486 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

clothes, not to say for starching and ironing, often blos- 
somed out in attire which showed no signs of hard usage 
or of age. 

All the ladies alike appeared to rise to the occasion in 
a way to make one proud of the civilization of the West, 
which has found so large a place for the energy and 
the diversified talent of the fair sex. The wives of the 
American and the Russian Ministers were especially as- 
siduous in working for the comfort of those who were 
wounded and in the hospital, giving up anything and 
everytliing for their comfort. When the detail for clean- 
ing the hospital failed to appear, Madame de Giers one 
day seized the mop herself and more than made good his 
place. 

Many of the women, through the entire siege, were 
quite as cool and as courageously hopeful as the men. 
During the severest attacks they sat diligently working 
on the sand bags without pause, nor was there ever any- 
thing in the smallest degree approximating a panic. Noth- 
ing at the time (nor in subsequent calm review) appeared 
more surprising than the cool way in which everything 
about the siege was taken as a matter of course, and the 
facility with which the necessary adjustments were swiftly 
and tactfully made by all the women alike, and pre- 
eminently by those who chanced to have any especial re- 
sponsibility placed upon them. 

During the whole of the siege the numerous children 
played about the grounds, and seldom with any restraint 
upon their movements. They paraded as " Boxers," and 
as companies of soldiers sent to arrest Boxers. The small- 
est mites had their little flags and cartridge-belts, and 
joined in the incessant sport. They made deep holes in 
inconvenient situations, but as these were said to be for 
" bomb-proofs " they could not be disturbed. They tugged 



AFTER THE SIEGE 487 

at heavy bricks and timbers which were placed in pre- 
posterous positions to be regarded as defences. They 
filled tiny sacks, made for their especial use, with earth, 
and heaped them up passim, to guard the works which 
they had constructed. 

On one occasion a redoubt of this sort built by infants 
of the " Number four " size, was totally demolished by 
some of those of the " Number ten " variety, to the in- 
dignation of the justice loving mammas, who remonstrated 
w^ith the big boys for their harsh treatment of the little 
ones. But the leader of the attacking party drew him- 
self up proudly and replied : " In time of war they ought 
to have put a guard over their works, or else they might 
expect to have them captured ! " As there seemed to be 
some reason in this military view of the case, the matter 
was dropped. On another occasion some children of 
missionaries were seen throwing stones at another com- 
pany of lads, who were returning the compliment ; but 
upon inquiry each side hastened to explain that " They 
were trying to break down our barricades, and we 
wouldn't let them." 

It has been already mentioned that there was a foreign 
child born during the progress of the siege, a circum- 
stance which was commemorated in the name bestowed 
upon him — " Siege Moore." There were probably several 
Chinese babies introduced into the world at the same 
inauspicious epoch, but of these there is no record. More 
than one of the Chinese schoolgirls was married during 
the early days of the imprisonment, as their parents could 
not take care of them, and they could not otherwise go 
to their prospective homes. 

Of the number of Chinese who died of wounds, or of 
illness, it is impossible to speak with any accuracy, as it 
was impracticable to collect satisfactory information. It 



4b'8 



CHINA IN CONVULSION 



has been already mentioned that the mortaUty among 
Chinese children was very heavy. Six foreign infants 
succumbed to the hardships of the time. The following 
semi-oflficial table of casualties among the defenders of 
the Legations is of great interest, but it ought to be 
understood that it docs not represent the final account, 
which is perhaps not to be had in a completely accurate 
shape. When the marines left Peking, a few too weak 
to be removed remained in the hospital. The very first 
British marine to be wounded (Sawyer) was the last one 
to die, long after his comrades had gone back to their 
ship. Something similar may have been true of some of 
the wounded in other detachments. As soon as the ter- 
rible strain of the siege was over, most of those who 
were able to do so left Peking, and many of them left 
China. Among them were several who seemed to be in 
perfect health, only " a bit tired." 

Casualties among Volunteers during Siege in Peking. 



LEGATIONS. 



American . 
Austrian . . 
British . . . 
French . . . , 
German . . , 

Japanese . , 
talian . . . , 
Russian . , 

Totals 



Killed. 



*3 

3 



Wounded. 



23 



Total 
Killed. 



7 
4 
6 

13 
13 
10 

7 
7 



67 



Total 
Wounded. 



II 
II 
26 
42 
16 
29 
12 
20 



167 



1 Bftron von Ketteler, German Minister. 

« Mr. von Cordes. Chinese Secretary, German Legation. 

* Including SurReon Captain Ando. 

* Including Mr. Wagner, a Frenchman in the Imperial Maritime Customs, 



AFTER THE SIEGE 



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490 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

A fearfully long list of deaths has to be added to these 
tables, which cannot without danger of serious omissions 
catalogue those who, in places widely distant from each 
other, and at intervals of weeks or of months, lost their 
lives as a direct consequence of the Siege in Peking. 
The tables will therefore be understood to refer to the 
time when the siege was raised, and not to the final 
result. 

The incidental references to the International Hos- 
pital, which constituted so important a part of our re- 
cui^erative energies, should be supplemented by a few 
notes, most of which are culled from an article by a 
British lady physician well qualified to write on the sub- 
ject. 

The large proportion of the medical faculty represented 
among the besieged was truly remarkable. Altogether 
there were, of all nationalities, twenty men and women 
with medical and surgical degrees, including Dr. Ts'ao, a 
Chinese physician of the American Methodist Mission, 
and a retired naval surgeon. 

The Hospital was opened on the day after the siege 
began, Drs. Poole and Velde being the staff. The women 
doctors were asked to nurse, which they gladly did. 
There were two trained nurses, and other ladies to help. 
The physicians who had to leave home at an hour's notice 
had of course few drugs and dressings. The British Le- 
gation was poorly stocked, as Dr. Poole had only just 
come out. Fortunately Dr. Velde had a large supply, all 
of the German army type, — iodoform gauze tied up in 
little packets very much compressed, to be cut into strips, 
with white muslin gauze squares, about five inches each 
way, folded and compressed into another very small pack- 
age. He had also a sterilizer, which later had to be used 
when muslin curtains took the place of the white gauze, 



AFTER THE SIEGE 491 

and bags of peat or saw-dust that of wool. Instruments 
were always sterilized for operation. 

To most of the assistants the experience of shot and 
shell was new. The hospital first occupied two rooms in 
the Chancery bungalow, but gradually, as the number of 
the wounded grew, more rooms had to be taken over, 
until there were an operating-room with two tables ; five 
wards and beds for five patients in the hall ; a conva- 
lescent ward for officers and civilians in Lady MacDon- 
ald's house, and another for marines elsewhere. Three 
American ladies superintended the kitchen and stores ; 
they were beyond all praise. 

The Hospital had of course first claim to commissariat 
stores, but nowhere else was there such fragrant pony- 
soup, such really eatable mule stew. Officers and men ap- 
peared to think it worth while to be slightly wounded to 
get a few days' good feeding. Owing to the difficulty of 
** diverse tongues " the men were " warded " by nationality 
wherever possible, — at any rate no man was in a room 
where he could not talk to some one. Italians and French 
were together, with a French Sister in charge; Russians 
were in another room, where they were most tenderly 
cared for by Madame de Giers, herself. The Germans 
were often put with them and one room was always full 
of the bright, interesting little Japanese. English and 
Americans naturally went together. There was one ward 
for officers and civilian volunteers, and here were nursed 
British, American, German, French, Italian, Austrian, 
Dutch, Australian, and Russian. 

It was wonderful how the stores and supplies came in 
— beds and bedding, shirts, and all that was necessary. 
They represented very much self-denial on the part of 
some, and exhibited many expedients. The under 
pillows were made of straw from the packing of 



492 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

wine bottles, cidcr-dowii quilts were cut up for soft 
pillows, a long piece of Chefoo silk found in the Aiongol 
jMarket made shirts, as did best damask linen and bright 
yellow cotton. " Imperial " shirts these were called. 

There w ere very few bedsteads ; matresses were placed 
on tl:!e floor, but every man did have a mattress from 
somewhere, as well as sheets and pillows. 

The families of some of the Legation people went with- 
out mosquito curtains for the whole siege, that the men 
in the Hospital might be supplied with this luxury — al- 
most, indeed, a necessity. Some of the marines had first- 
aid dressings in their haversacks, but the civilian volun- 
teers had none, so that their wounds were not cared for 
until their arrival at the Hospital. 

The character of the wounds was not that of open 
warfare, for the fighting was all behind barricades. Con- 
sequently the proportion of head injuries was large. Sec- 
ondary operations, undertaken on account of symptoms, 
often disclosed bits of material — shirt or trousers — which 
had been driven into the wound, or the missing bullet 
or fragment of shell. The proportion of shell wounds 
was small, only one, of the face proving fatal. There 
were three perforating woimds of the larynx. Two cases 
of compound fracture of tibia developed tetanus, each of 
which was fatal. 

A case of strychnine poison has been already alluded 
to. Chloroform inhalation, continued for two and a half 
hours, followed by the stomach pump, brought about re- 
covery, and the second day the man was dressed, return- 
ing to duty the day following. 

Towards the close of the siege several cases were in- 
valided with diarrhoea and dysentery. Among the Rus- 
sians there were two deaths from the latter, but they were 



AFTER THE SIEGE 493 

known to be exceedingly careless about their drinking 
water. There were three cases of typhoid, one of which 
died after removal to Tientsin. With the exception of 
the two tetanus cases, there was during the siege no death 
of any one who survived his injury twenty-four hours. 

No hospital notes were kept during the siege, which 
was a cause of regret, but no one had the time. At the 
Pei T'ang, explosion from mines was the cause of most 
of the casualties. 

In his dispatch to the Marquis of Salisbury regarding 
the conduct of the defences. Sir Claude MacDonald 
makes especial reference to the Hospital, and to the two 
physicians in charge. During the siege 166 cases passed 
through the Hospital, twenty suffering from illness, the 
rest surgical cases. Owing to the devotion and skill of 
the two medical officers, no of the wounded were 
eventually discharged cured. Dr. Poole was inde- 
fatigable at his work, always sympathetic and cheer- 
ful. The wounded of all nationalities spoke most 
warmly of his devotion and skill. At the conclusion 
he was struck down with fever of a very danger- 
ous description, and had to be invalided. The sick-bay 
steward, Mr. Fuller, is highly commended for his care 
and gentle treatment of the wounded, and the willing and 
cheerful manner in which he carried out his duties. Miss 
Myers and Miss Brazier daily filtered the water for the 
Hospital (a task by no means easy with a hand-pump 
filter) and carried it there themselves, often with bullets 
and shells bursting in the trees overhead. Several of the 
ladies received, for their tireless labors in nursing the 
sick, the well merited order of the Red Cross. Miss 
Jessie Ransome was personally decorated by King Ed- 
ward, while Miss Lambert of the Anglican Mission, Miss 



494 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Abbie Chapin of the American Board, and Miss Dr. 
Saville of the London Mission, received the decoration in 
China. 

Immediately upon the conchision of the siege, the 
Americans met and adopted resolutions recognizing their 
obligations to the Marines by whom they had been de- 
fended for so long a time, to Sir Claude MacDonald, 
Her Britannic Majesty's Minister, and to Minister Con- 
ger. From the latter the following communication was 
received at about the same time: 

" Peking, August i8, 1900. 
" The Besieged American Missionaries : 

" To one and all of you, so providentially saved from 
threatened massacre, I beg in this hour of our deliverance 
to express what I know to be the universal sentiment 
of the Diplomatic Corps, the sincere appreciation of and 
profound gratitude for the inestimable help which you 
and the native Christians under your charge have ren- 
dered toward our preserv^ation. Without your intelligent 
and successful planning, and the uncomplaining execu- 
tion of the Chinese, I believe our salvation would have 
been impossible. 

" By your courteous consideration of me, and your con- 
tinued patience under most trying occasions, I have been 
most deeply touched, and for it all I thank you most 
heartily. I hope and believe that somehow, in God's un- 
erring plan, your sacrifices and danger will bear rich 
fruit in the material and spiritual welfare of the people to 
whom you have so nobly devoted your lives and work. 

" Assuring you of my personal respect and gratitude, 
believe me, Very sincerely yours, 

E. H. Conger." 



INDEX TO GROUP OF AMERICAN 
MISSIONARIES. 



I. 


Rev. G. W. Verily 


26. 


2. 


Miss Amy Brown 


27- 


3. 


Mrs. A. H. Smith 


28. 


4- 


Rev. \V. T. Hobart 


29. 


5- 


Rev. John Wherry, D.D. 


30. 


6. 


Rev. W. F. Walker, D.D. 


31- 


7- 


J. H. Ingram, M.D. 


32. 


8. 


Rev. H. E. King 


33. 


9- 


Rev. G. R. Davis 


34- 


10. 


Rev. A. H. Smith, D.D. 


35. 


II. 


Rev. C. A. Killic 


36. 


12. 


Rev. W. B. Stelle 


37. 


rs- 


Rev. Gilbert Reid, D.D. 


38. 


14. 


Miss Grace Newton 


39- 


15- 


Miss Luella Miner 


40. 


16. 


Miss Nellie Russell 


41. 


17- 


Miss Maud Mackey, M.D. 


42. 


18. 


Miss Elizabeth Martin 


43- 


19. 


Mrs. F. D. Gamewell 


44. 


20. 


Miss Gertrude Gilman 


45- 


21. 


Miss Anna Gloss, M.D. 


46. 


22. 


Mrs. C. M. Jewell 


47- 


23- 


Miss Gertrude Wyckoff 


48. 


24. 


Miss Ada Haven 


49- 


25- 


Mrs. Howard Gait 


SO. 



Mrs. J. H. Ingram 

Rev. F. M. Chapin 

Miss Janet McKillican 

Mrs. Gilbert Reid and child 

Miss Eliza Leonard, M.D. 

Mrs. C. A. Killie 

Miss Alice Terrell 

M iss Jane Evans 

Mrs. C. Goodrich 

Mrs. W. F. Walker 

Miss Emma E. Martin, M.D. 

Mrs. C. E. Ewingand child 

Mrs. F. M. Chapin 

Miss Mary Andrews 

Mrs. J. L. Mateer 

Rev. C. Goodrich, M.D. 

Miss D. M. Douw 

Miss Ruth Ingram and sister 

Miss Grace Goodrich 

Miss Esther Walker 

Miss Marion Ewing 

Miss Dorothea Goodrich 

Master Carrin},'ton Goodrich 

Master Ernest Chapin 

Master Ralph Chapin 



The following American Missionaries were not on hand when ilie picture 
wasukcn: Rev. F. D. Gamewell, Dr. G. D. Lowry. Rev. C. E. Ewing, Rev. 
W. S. Ament, D.D., Rev. and Mrs. C. H. Fennand family, Rev. J. L. Whiting, 
Dr. and Mrs. J. Inglis, Rev. Howard Gait, Miss Bessie McCoy, Miss Abbie 
Chapin, Miss A. H. Gowans, Miss II. E Rutherford and Miss Grace Wyckoff. 



AFTER THE SIEGE 495 

Three days previous to this, Sir Claude had written to 
the Chairman of the General Committee, as follows: 

" British Legation, Peking, Aug. 15, 1900. 
" Dear Mr. Tewksbury : 

" I have been busy these last few days, and feel quite 
worn out, otherwise this letter would have been written 
before. 

" I want to express to the American members of the 
Committee of General Comfort my high appreciation of 
the good work they did during the siege, and of the 
ready and loyal manner in which they anticipated my 
every wish. 

" With such men to work with, work becomes a pleas- 
ure, and is bound to be crowned with success. This remark 
applies to all the American missionaries who took part 
with me in the siege. Their work and support were un- 
stinted, intelligent, and most loyal, and I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that I consider that their presence in 
the Legation saved the situation. Yours very truly, 

Claude M. MacDonald." 

A few days later, the following telegram from the 
President of the United States was received by the Min- 
ister: 

" The whole American people rejoice over your deliver- 
ance, over the safety of your companions of our own and 
other nations, who have shared your trials and privations ; 
the fortitude and courage which you have all maintained, 
and the heroism of your little band of defenders. We all 
mourn for those who have fallen, and acknowledge the 
goodness of God which has preserved you, and guided 
the brave army that set you free. 

Wm. McKinley." 



496 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Two Jays later the following communication from the 
Queen was received by Sir Claude MacDonald. 

" Warmest congratulations on your safety, after such a 
terrible time of anxiety to us all. Trust you, Lady Mac- 
Donald, and children are well as well as the others. 

V. R. I." 

A separate telegram was sent from the same source. 

" To the Officer Commanding the British Marine Guard : 
I thank God that you and those under your command 
are rescued from your perilous situation. We, my people 
and I, have waited with the deepest anxiety for the good 
news of your safety, and a happy termination to your 
heroic and prolonged defence. I grieve for the losses 
and sufferings experienced by the besieged. 

V. R. I." 



The siege in Peking was scarcely raised before many 
of those whose homes were in the city, hastened to visit 
the sites of their dwellings, to see in what condition they 
then were. Most of them were found to resemble the 
premises of the Methodist Mission, where the Americans 
had been in a state of semi-siege for twelve days. On 
these spacious grounds, in three distinct divisions, sepa- 
rated from one another by intervening streets, had been 
seven dwelling houses, three chapels, two boys' schools, 
one large girls' school, two training schools, two hos- 
pitals, two dispensaries, and eight native houses. The 
University of Peking: was a large two-story building en- 
closed by a high wall, on extensive grounds. 



AFTER THE SIEGE 497 

When it became possible to revisit this familiar spot, 
one could have ridden on horse-back everywhere except 
where the cellars of the buildings had left dangerous pits. 
It was difficult to find anywhere a whole brick, and aside 
from occasional sheets, or parts of sheets, of galvanized- 
iron roofing, it was difficult to find anything whatever to 
suggest for what the premises had been used. From 
all the compounds together not enough splinters of wood 
could have been gathered to kindle a fire. The outer 
walls of the premises, as well as those of the buildings, 
had been excavated down to the bottom of the founda- 
tions, to remove every brick, and every tree had been not 
only cut down, but dug up by the roots, so that the 
exact situation of each could be determined by the deep 
and irregular holes. The only exception was a fine old 
tree standing just within the main gate, upon which the 
notices and bulletins had been daily posted during the 
semi-siege. Why this was spared is somewhat of a 
mystery, unless it may have been supposed to be the 
abode of a spirit ; but it served as a landmark without 
which it was difficult to determine where anything had 
once stood. 

On the University campus a flock of an hundred sheep, 
intended for the use of the troops, were quietly grazing. 
Few Chinese were anywhere to be seen. Many of the 
neighbouring dwellings were destroyed together with the 
Mission property, either through accident, from revenge, 
or in gratification of the wild instinct of promoting 
universal ruin. Most of the neighbouring court-yards 
were found full of bricks and other looted material, but 
only a trifling fraction of that which had been lost could be 
recovered. The large bell of the church had been buried 
but was afterwards exhumed, on the locality becoming 
known. This process of sepulture for compromising 



498 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

articles was one of which the Chinese made great use, 
especially in the concealment of rails and ties from the 
railway, but in many cases unfriendly informers made 
the last state of those who had ventured upon this method 
far worse than the first. 

The condition of the Methodist compounds may serve 
as a type of all the premises destroyed in Peking. In a 
few instances walls were left standing as if to mark 
where the buildings had once been, but this was excep- 
tional. In almost every compound there was the same 
monotony of absolute and total destruction, unrelieved 
and hopeless. 

The total amount of property destroyed belonging to 
the various Protestant missions in Peking, has not been 
exactly ascertained, but approximately it may be said to 
comprise thirty-four dwelling houses, eighteen chapels, 
eleven boys' schools and one university, eleven girls' 
schools, four training schools, eleven dispensaries and 
eight hospitals, besides more than thirty summer-houses 
at the western hills, and several others at the sea-side. 

Within a few days of the arrival of the troops, the 
Protestant Cemetery at the southwest corner of Peking 
was visited, and it was found that the tales which had 
been told of its condition were only too true. All the 
enclosing walls had been pulled down, and even the foun- 
dations were dug up. The long avenue of trees, nearly 
forty years old, had been destroyed, monuments had been 
overthrown and broken into fragments, and thirteen of 
the graves had been opened and the bodies removed ; 
some of them had evidently been used for a bonfire, only 
a few fragments of bones and here and there a metal 
button remaining to tell the tale. 

This sava,cj:cry, so alien to the usual Chinese respect 
for the dead, differentiates the Boxer rising from any 




i*V'';<r 




AFTER THE SIEGE 499 

anti-foreign movement which had preceded it, and may 
serve as a gauge of the violence of the volcanic forces 
deliberately let loose. The Russian Cemetery received the 
same treatment, which indicated that despite the appar- 
ently exceptional relations existing between Russia and 
China, at the crucial moment there was no discrimination 
between one barbarian and another. 

On the 19th of August a memorial service was held for 
Earcn von Ketteler in the German Legation, with mili- 
tary honours, the body having been brought back in the 
Chinese coffin where it had been deposited by the kind in- 
tervention of one of the members of the Tsung Li Yamen 
who was not carried away by the prevailing insanity of 
the hour. On the 6th of September a still more im- 
pressive memorial service was held on the Ha Ta great 
street, the coffin being deposited at the spot where the 
German Minister had been basely shot seventy-eight days 
previous. Some companies of German soldiers were in 
attendance, with a band, and many members of other Le- 
gations. A part of the brief exercises was a stirring ad- 
dress delivered by a Chaplain named Kessler, review- 
ing the career of the late Minister, and enforcing the 
obvious lessons to be drawn therefrom. 

It was a strange and an impressive spectacle, taking 
place as it did on one of the great arteries of the ancient 
Capital of the Empire, which with all its experience had 
never witnessed conditions like these. The chair of the 
Baroness, in deep mourning, stood beside the coffin ; the 
streets were lined with interested European spectators, 
and with impassive Chinese, perhaps dimly wondering 
what it was all about. What a change of circumstances 
within that two and a half months, and what a wonder 
that events shaped by an unseen Hand had brought about 
such a surprising revolution, for the man who fired the 



500 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

shot was already in the custody of the Germans, admitting 
the act, but explaining that he was obeying the orders of 
his immediate superiors. 

During the entire siege more than seventy Chinese 
Peking carts stood in the British Legation, a reminiscence 
of the expectation that an overland journey to Tientsin 
would be soon undertaken, and they would all be wanted. 
As soon as the besieged beg^n once more to go upon the 
streets, there occurred one of those surprising alterations 
of conditions to which despite their perpetual recurrence 
it was difficult to become accustomed. The city was 
flooded with foreign troops, and such Chinese as had re- 
mained soon began to perceive that nothing would be 
safe in merely Chinese possession. Accordingly many of 
them who had foreign friends among the besieged, or 
even mere acquaintances, hastened to confide to them 
the carts and mules which in the sudden and universal 
demand for transportation, it was impossible to save from 
confiscation. Thus was realized the Chinese adage which 
says : " Nothing to eat in the morning, and at night a 
horse to ride." 

The disagreeable and dangerous pervasiveness of some 
of the Continental soldiers became so obtrusive and in- 
trusive, that it was necessary to remove the Chinese 
Christians, especially the school-girls, from their siege 
quarters to safer and more secluded places. The quest 
for suitable headquarters occupied some of the guardians 
of these helpless wards for many weary days. In many 
cases Chinese who had been in good circumstances were 
more than willing to put their property at the disposal of 
any foreigner whom they knew, to prevent it from being 
despoiled. 

In two instances considerable bodies of Chinese Chris- 
tians were lodgcfl by the consent of the military and le- 



AFTER THE SIEGE 501 

gation authorities in the palaces of Manchu Princes, 
which had been abandoned by their owners in terror. As 
the extensive complicity of all the Manchus in Peking 
with the Boxer movement became established as a fact, 
it seemed increasingly probable that the property in these 
places would be promptly confiscated. In accordance 
with the express advice both of the British and the 
American Ministers, it was decided to sell the property 
thus abandoned, and to use the abundant proceeds for the 
support of the destitute Christians, the number of whom 
continually increased as refugees from distant places 
began to have courage to come into the city. 

This step gave rise to much misapprehension, and when 
the story was repeated with unconscious exaggeration by 
those ignorant of the peculiar circumstances, led to the 
propagation of much absolutely unsupported scandal. It 
would have been quite possible to have refused to enter 
these places at all, but having entered them, the only way 
to preserve the property from miscellaneous looting was to 
take possession of it under the highest authority then in 
existence, and to use it in ways which that authority ap- 
proved. 

With the flight of the Empress and the Court, the whole 
Chinese army disappeared from vision, dispersed in many 
diiTerent directions, harrying the people through the 
regions where they passed, and anon congregating in Pao 
Ting Fu and other centers, only again to scatter. The 
mere occupation of Peking was probably regarded by 
them simply as an untoward incident, and by itself ac- 
complished little or nothing toward the settlement of the 
numerous and intricate questions arising upon every hand. 
The extensive supplies of arms which seem to have been 
sent to Peking during the siege, were concealed in a great 
variety of places, many of them coming to light in un- 



502 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

expected localities. Young Fargo Squiers with a com- 
panion discovered a great number of cases of Mannlicher 
carbines ; two of these they conveyed to the American 
Legation, but upon returning for the rest, it was found 
that the French had seized them. Mr. Tewksbury learned 
through a Buddhist priest that in a temple a short dis- 
tance outside of the Chang I gate of the southern city 
there were stored several cases of 35^ inch shells belong- 
ing to the captured Krupp guns. On reporting this to 
the United States officers, a Major and a guard were sent 
to take possession. Similar finds were made in other 
quarters. 

One of the most interesting discoveries was the mode of 
construction of the elaborate gun-platforms which the 
Chinese had put up inside the south-eastern corner of the 
Imperial City, for attacking the Legations and the Su 
Wang Fu. These were built of pine poles of large size 
carefully and strongly lashed together, supporting a plat- 
form about twenty-five feet in height, with an area of 
about twenty-five by forty feet. A long ramp led up to 
each one, for dragging the guns into position. A careful 
count showed that not less than seven hundred poles had 
been required for each platform. They were provided 
with strongly built roofs of two inch planks and the port 
holes, which had been dug through the coping of the city 
wall, were protected from rifle-firing by doors of 3-16 
inch iron as bullet shields, — apparently some of the plun- 
der from the electric light works. Either one of these 
batteries properly worked ought to have made the Brit- 
ish Legation and the Fu untenable after two hours firing; 
yet. except during the final night of the siege, the execu- 
tion actually done was trifling. 

The water-gate directly below these gun-platforms had 
been most securely barricaded with bricks and stones, as 




BRITISH LEGATION' WALL 




CHINESE GUX PLATFORM FOR FIRING OX THE LEGATION 



AFTER THE SIEGE 503 

if to prevent the besieged from making' a rush on the 
Imperial and Forbidden cities, and capturing the Court ! 
At the same time, the corresponding gate in the southern 
wall of the northern city, through which as already men- 
tioned, the first foreign troops actually entered, was left 
wholly unguarded, some of the iron bars being altogether 
lacking, and the remainder easily removed. 

By far the most interesting sight in Peking after the 
relief, was the Pei T'ang, or Northern Cathedral, which 
had been defended with supreme courage from the i6th 
of June (four days before the Legation siege began), 
until the i6th of August (two days after the Legations 
were delivered), when the first entry, singularly enough, 
was made by the Japanese troops. The extensive grounds 
are adjacent to the west wall of the Imperial City, and had 
been attacked from a gun platform similar to the one just 
described, situated at the north-west comer of the wall, 
but on the outside, as well as from rifle-platforms only 
a short distance off. Just beyond the north wall of the 
orphanage premises was situated a large magazine stored 
with sulphur and other materials for the manufacture of 
powder, of which the Chinese made incessant use. 

During the sixty days of uninterrupted attack there 
occurred four explosions, due to the mining of the Chi- 
nese, which was indefatigable and on a large scale. Two 
of the four were very severe and resulted in great loss 
of life, especially among the Chinese children. In one of 
these explosions the roof of a building fell in and buried 
an Italian officer five feet deep in the debris. It was 
supposed that he was of course killed, but some hours 
after, when there was leisure to attend to it, excavations 
were made, and he was found to be uninjured! 

The Cathedral was terribly battered by shells, but most 
of the bullets were fired far too high to do much execu- 



504 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tion. During the whole two months of the Cathedral 
siege, the attacks of the enemy were never intermitted, — 
as was the case at the Legations — and in all that weary 
time no messengers were able to get out, and no outside 
news was received. During the period of semi-truce at 
the Legations, those besieged in the Cathedral, hearing 
no more artillerv', naturally concluded that the Chinese 
had been victorious, and that the Legations had suc- 
cumbed. 

The total number of foreigners imprisoned in the prem- 
ises was about ninety, of whom forty-three were officers 
and marines. There were several thousand Chinese, and 
a very inadequate food supply, as Bishop Favier had ex- 
pected that they would all be rescued within a short time 
after the siege began. At the close there was absolutely 
nothing to eat, the besieged having been reduced to two 
ounces of food a day ; and when the relief arrived 
even this morsel was not available, and the civilians had 
agreed to go without food that what there was might be 
given to the fighters. The Mother Superior, a venerable 
lady of great age, never wavered in her conviction that 
the Lord would assuredly save His little flock. She lived 
through the siege to see her prophecy fulfilled, and then 
quietly passed away in peace. 

The accurate foresight of the Bishop in forecasting the 
coming storm was equalled by the heroism of all those 
who passed through this frightful ordeal, which on some 
accounts was much worse than that experienced by those 
in the Legations, as its duration was longer, the attacks 
continuous, the resources more meagre, the defenders a 
mere handful against vast numbers, and the harrowing 
suspense in regard to what was taking place outside was 
never once broken. Whatever may be the fate of Chris- 
tianity in Peking or in China, the Northern Cathedral 



AFTER THE SIEGE 505 

will always remain as a witness of what Christian men 
and women, Chinese as well as Europeans, can do and 
suffer for a faith to which they have given their whole 
selves, and for which they would gladly have given their 
lives. 

The following additional notes upon the Siege of the 
North Cathedral are condensed from an account by Rev, 
Gilbert Reid. 

There were congregated there 30 French officers and 
marines, 10 Italians, 13 French Fathers, 20 Sisters, and 
3,2CX) native converts. 

There was food enough for about 500 usually living 
on the place, but the task of feeding six times that num- 
ber was a serious one. 

At first the Chinese had eight ounces of food each day, 
but toward the end this was reduced to two ounces. The 
men worked well as long as their strength remained, but 
afterwards could not do much more than crawl about 
and keep up a mere existence. The supply, such as it was, 
chaff, grass, and leaves of the trees, could only have 
lasted a few days more, and then famine and pestilence 
would have occurred. The foreigners fared better as 
their strength was indispensable for the defence. 

The attack, at first by Boxers, began on June 15th, when 
forty-eight of the enemy were killed. By June 20th, 
Chinese soldiers appeared, and ever afterward continued 
■to be the chief factor. On that day they also began 
cannonading, firing with one gun straight into the main 
entrance of the Cathedral grounds. The marines made 
a rush upon the enemy and captured the gun, which was 
the only artillery they had during the whole siege. The 
cannonading thus began earlier than at the Legations 
and was more severe. For three days the Cathedral was 
under fire from at least fourteen guns, while the number 



5o6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

^vas ordinarily not less than four, including one from the 
Palace grounds, and another from the palace of Prince Li. 

There were twenty-eight successive days of shelling, — 
being four days more than the whole period in which 
any of the Legations were shelled. During these days as 
many as 2,400 shells were fired, and on June 24th, 380 
shells burst in the grounds. 

The only defenders of the Cathedral and its vast 
crowd of helpless refugees were the forty marines wdio 
were sent from the foreign guard, stationed at the six 
different places where the fortifications were made 
strongest. The French were supplied with 2,000 rounds 
of ammunition, but the Italians had less. As soon as one 
of their number was killed a Chinese would take his 
place. Night and day this small number had to keep 
watch, and be ready to resist every device of the enemy. 

The shelling left its marks on every other building as 
well as on the Cathedral itself. But the greatest effect 
was from the powder explosions. As many as eighty 
persons were killed in one explosion, and 400 in all, of 
whom 120 were children. The loss among the natives 
was mainly from these mines. The Foundling Hospital 
was a total wreck, a fitting illustration of the designs of 
the enemy. 

At the beginning as many as 600 of the native con- 
verts were armed with swords and spears, but when the 
Chinese soldiers began firing shot and shell, such equip- 
ment was useless. Forty rifles and one gun were the 
defence against perhaps 2,000 rifles and a dozen guns. 

However superior the strength and number of the 
enemy, they made no attempt to assault and enter the 
place. The shots of the French were too well aimed to 
encourage such an attempt. A kind Providence rested 



AFTER THE SIEGE 507 

over the place, and the united prayers of each morning 
brought their blessing in rich munificence. 

The enemy who fought, and the Empress and advisers 
who schemed, had clearly one intent, and that was the 
annihilation of the body of Christians who never fired a 
shot except in self-defence. To the credit of Catholic 
France and Catholic Italy the calamity was prevented. 

The defence was one of sublime heroism. The head 
of the Mission, Bishop Favier, was the leader of courage. 
While untrained to martial deeds, he maintained cheer- 
fulness and hope, and by calmness of spirit and trust in 
God, kept in check any panic among the converts, and 
all despondency among the marines. Half of the Italian 
defenders, and both of the French officers, with three 
marines, v/ere killed, or one-fourth of the total. How- 
ever desperate the position, the Bishop never lost heart. 

The Siege in Peking, from whatever point of view it 
is regarded, will always remain a memorable experience 
in human history. It was the culmination of a movement 
without any parallel in the annals of the past, and which 
is not likely to be repeated under any future conditions. 
There is much about it which is obscure, and much which 
will perhaps remain so. But as an example of the stead- 
fast, patient courage of a handful against a host, of the 
sagacious use of slender resources, of the bravery of 
men and the fortitude of women, of unfaltering trust in 
God, and of a great deliverance wrought by Him against 
all human probabilities, it is a story, however inadequately 
told, which the world will not willingly let die. 



XXVII 

THE HAND OF GOD IN THE SIEGE* 

FREDERICK the Great is said to have inquired of 
his Chaplain what he considered to be the proof 
of the authenticity of the Bible. The Chaplain 
repHed: "The Jews, Your Majesty." Should any one 
ask what is the evidence of a Providence which watches 
over the affairs of men, the compendious answer might 
well be : " The Siege in Peking." Instead of submitting 
the case to argument, it is better to confine our attention 
to a few outline facts. 

1. The preservation of the lives of the foreigners in 
Peking before the Legation guards arrived. There is 
probable, but not certain, evidence that the Grand Coun- 
cil held a meeting at which the question of exterminating 
all Occidentals in Peking was discussed, and nothing but 
the vacillation of Prince Ch'ing seems to have delayed 
the act. 

2. The arrival of the Legation guards by the very last 
opportunity. Had they been two days later, the utter and 
irreparable ruin of the railway and the general blaze 
throughout the country would have prevented them 
from coming, as it prevented Admiral Seymour a few 

* The substance of this address was delivered at a Union 
Thanksgiving Service, held in the British Legation grounds, 
Peking, Sunday morning Aug. 19th, after the arrival of the re- 
lieving army. 

508 




COMING OUT OK CHURCH, PKKlNc; 



THE HAND OF GOD IN THE SIEGE 509 

days after. This would have insured the massacre of 
every foreigner at once. 

3. The immunity from attack while foreigners were 
unaware of their serious peril. Many were scattered in 
distant parts of Peking, and some even at the Western 
Hills, as if nothing were wrong. They were gathered in 
by the 8th of June. The largest part of all, twenty- 
four in number, travelled without escort thirteen miles, 
from T'ung Chou, through a region seething with animos- 
ity to foreigners, not only without attack, but with no 
threatening symptoms of any sort. 

4. These Americans just mentioned, with others to the 
number of seventy, took refuge in the large premises of 
the Methodist Mission, where for a period of twelve days 
they were in a state of semi-siege, a time which was a 
most important rehearsal of the coming period of far 
greater trial. An elaborate organization was at once 
effected, committees of many kinds chosen, fortifications 
and defences begun, sentries mounted, the Chinese Chris- 
tians drilled and armed, so that when the whole body of 
foreigners assembled at the British Legation, and the 
British A'linister desired the active cooperation of the 
Americans, the whole machinery was in order, and it was 
only necessary to slip the belt on the wheel for it to begin 
to work, 

5. The safety of the native Christians. When the 
sudden murder of the German Minister led to the order 
that all foreigners should repair to their Legations, noth- 
ing was said in regard to the native Christians. They 
were regarded as outside the sphere of influence of the 
Ministers, who took no action in regard to them at all. 
To many they were an unconsidered and a negligible 
quantity. Largely through the agency of the lamented 
Professor James, who was killed at the very time of the 



510 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

entrance of tlie Christians to the palace which he had 
helped to secure for them, they were graciously and mar- 
vellously provided for, at a time of dire extremity, in the 
Su Wang Fu. Little as most of us realized it at the time, 
this palace and its grounds were absolutely essential to 
our salvation. Without it the British, Spanish, Japanese, 
French and German Legations could not have been held, 
and without the services of the Chinese Christians the 
work of defence could not have been prosecuted. It 
might have been said, " except these abide in the ship, 
ye cannot be saved." 

6. In round numbers there were probably three thou- 
sand persons to be fed during the siege, exclusive of the 
many hundred marines. Many foreigners came into the 
Legation, as did nearly all the Chinese, without any pro- 
vision whatever. It was inherently improbable that any 
considerable food-supply could be obtained within our 
lines, for a siege of unknown duration. Yet in a grain 
shop on Legation Street was discovered between one 
hundred and two hundred tons of wheat of this year's 
crop, recently arrived from Honan. Besides this, there 
were mountains of rice, white and yellow Indian corn, 
pulse, and much else. All the shops in Peking dealing in 
foreign goods were within our lines, and their stores 
were immediately available, and during the whole siege 
were absolutely essential. 

There was a large supply of ponies for the races, as 
well as mules, most of which were consumed for food, 
while nearly all the remainder were needed for hauling, 
grinding grain, etc. The food for all these animals was 
supplied as remarkably as that for men and women. Con- 
siderable sorghum and beans were discovered, besides a 
huge pile of millet-straw close to two dwelling-houses 
which had been burned, — one on either side of the straw, 



THE HAND OF GOD IN THE SIEGE 511 

which was not disturbed. Many old residents of Peking 
were surprised to find the water of the eight wells in the 
British Legation was of great excellence, and it was 
abundantly proved that it could be safely drunk without 
being filtered or boiled. While there were heavy drafts 
on these wells during the great fires, they never once 
failed us. 

The fuel supply was absolutely unlimited, though had 
it been absent nothing could have taken its place. We 
were surrounded by hundreds of thousands of pounds of 
coal, which had only to be brought a short distance. 
Wrecked buildings afforded all the kindling needed and 
abundant timbers for fortifications. 

7. Miscellaneous supplies were procured from the for- 
eign stores ; and clothing for many foreigners, who had 
not even a change of garments, was found at tailor shops 
near by. One of the greatest, most imperative, and con- 
stant needs, was material for sand bags, of which perhaps 
50,000 may have been made. At first, legation curtains, 
damask tablecloths, and any and every fabric obtainable 
was used. Later the supply from the foreign stores and 
Chinese sources seemed literally inexhaustible, and 
to the end never gave out. From Chinese dwellings 
within the lines, or without, were procured enormous 
quantities of clothing most useful for the destitute 
Chinese Christians, until their wants in all directions 
were amply supplied, much being sold at auction for their 
benefit. 

Materials for the defence were discovered in many 
places, notably in a blacksmith's shop, where were ob- 
tained an anvil, bellows, smelting-pots, and best of all, 
an old Chinese cannon which proved invaluable. It was 
mounted on an Italian carriage, loaded with Russian shell 
refilled by the British armourer, charged with Chinese 



512 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

powder, and fired by an American gunner — justly termed 
the " International Gun." In many shops and houses 
were found britannia-ware to the extent of several cart- 
loads, much of which was used in making balls for the 
cannon, and sliot for the Italian one-pound gun, besides 
many bullets. Of all the miscellaneous stuff which came 
to hand, very little proved amiss in the end. 

8. The restraining hand of God upon the Chinese. 
When foreigners were on their way to the Legations, 
and everything was in a chaotic state, the Chinese might 
readily have annihilated the whole body at a blow. While 
the Chinese held the city wall, they could easily have 
made every Legation uninhabitable if they had used the 
right means. Rifle shots alone would have been suffi- 
cient. 

Then they adopted well-chosen plans to burn the 
British Legation, by the spread of fires set on the out- 
side. Of these attacks, three were fierce, persistent, and 
dangerous in the extreme. Yet in the end they not only 
all failed, but we were left in each case in a stronger posi- 
tion than before. More than once the wind suddenly 
veered about, saving us from what appeared to be immi- 
nent destruction. Buildings being removed which shel- 
tered the enemy and which might spread fires in our Lega- 
tion limits, we were better protected. The destruction of 
the Hanlin Yuan was the means of extending our line of 
defence a considerable distance, the position being later 
made almost impregnable. 

More terrible than all else was the threat of mining. 
This we knew to have been actually begun in two places, 
and perhaps elsewhere, one mine in a building in the 
Carriage Park, and one on the wall near our most ad- 
vanced post to the west. Why were these mines never 
finished? 



THE HAND OF GOD IN THE SIEGE 513 

The Chinese might at many different times have made 
a sudden and a violent attack at a weak point, from which 
it would have been difficult to defend ourselves, the lines 
being very long and the defenders few. Had we been 
attacked by European or Japanese troops, they would cer- 
tainly have crept down the edge of the Canal in the dark, 
where our rifles could not command them, and have 
rushed the front gate. Only two days before the siege 
was raised, was a platform completed for the planting of 
a gun to prevent this, though, owing to the greater peril 
elsewhere, the gun was never mounted upon it. A few 
hundred Chinese, willing to throw away their lives to 
ensure the capture of the Legations, would have taken 
them at any moment during the first month of the siege. 
Why was it never done, or even attempted ? The Chinese 
were in some way kept from following up the principal 
advantages which they gained. 

At the very beginning of the siege nearly all the Lega- 
tions were abandoned in a panic, but the Chinese did not 
enter, and the positions were reoccupied. At another 
time the city wall was abandoned, but the Chinese did 
not find it out until too late, and it was at once retaken. 
When the new battery had begun to play on the house 
in the south stable court, a few shots threatened to bring 
the house tumbling down. Rifles attacked the battery 
and it was withdrawn, and never replanted there. 

At a later date shells were thrown into the house of 
the Chinese Secretary in a way to threaten the whole 
Legation, as well as that one dwelling. Again the rifles 
assailed the gunners, and after five shots the battery was 
withdrawn permanently. Time after time, when the 
gunners appeared to have got the exact range, the shell- 
ing ceased. The very last night of the siege the shells 
were most destructive, but only ten shots Vv-ere fired, and 



514 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the next day the gun was gone. The most terrible en- 
gines of destruction were rendered comparatively harm- 
less. 

It has been estimated that between a million and a 
half and two million bullets must have been discharged 
at us. In some of the cariier attacks, when we appeared 
to be surrounded by several thousand foes, there seemed 
to be 124 shots a minute, or more than two a second. 
Yet excluding men at the loopholes, only three or four 
persons are known to have been injured by these bullets 
in the crowded British Legation, where there were prob- 
ably never less than 800 persons on an average, and some- 
times over 1,000. One marine was killed in this way, 
and two or three others wounded, and the last day of the 
siege two civilians were scratched. After the relieving 
force had entered the Legation, the only injury received 
by any lady took place. No child was hit, though the 
yards swarmed with them. 

Careful count shows the number of shells and shots 
fired at all the Legations during the siege to be about 
2,900. In the British Legation it is believed that no one 
not on duty at the loop-holes was ever really injured by 
any one of these, although a few Chinese were hurt by 
bricks knocked down by cannon balls. Hundreds of solid 
shot fell in the Hanlin courts, in the Ministers' houses, 
and in other crowded places. Why were these innumer- 
able missiles so harmless ? For a long time there appeared 
to be from twelve to fifteen guns playing at once. Thir- 
teen bomb-proofs were laboriously dug, but so far as is 
known not one of them was ever entered to escape from 
a shell. 

9. The restraining hand of God in warding off disease. 
The overcrowding was excessive, the conditions most 
unwholesome. Orientals are impatient of sanitary re- 



THE HAND OF GOD IN THE SIEGE 515 

straints. Whooping-cough, measles, typhoid and scarlet 
fevers, as well as small-pox, have all been experienced 
during the siege, by both foreigners and Chinese, but 
there was no contagion to speak of, and no epidemic. 
What an opportunity for the development of Asiatic 
cholera! Bad and insufficient food had caused consider- 
able mortality among Chinese children, and the aged, but 
in general the vital statistics have been extraordinary. 
There was no known case of heat-stroke, and for this 
latitude the weather throughout was phenomenal. 

The physicians available for service were exceedingly 
numerous and skilful. One of the most intelligent pa- 
tients declared that in no hospital in the civilized world 
would better care and more tender nursing be secured. 
Lady doctors laid aside all professional etiquette, and 
were content to act simply as nurses. Under the circum- 
stances, the percentage of losses in the hospital cannot 
be considered large, especially among so many serious 
cases. 

10. The Lord sent a spirit of confusion among our 
enemies, who feared us far more than we feared them. 
Their most savage attacks seemed designed to prevent us 
from making sorties which they exceedingly dreaded and 
tried in every way to prevent. 

On our part there was a spirit of unity rare to see. 
Greek, Roman Catholic and Protestant Christians frater- 
nized as never before. We represented every country 
in Europe except Turkey and Greece, besides three in 
Asia, and the United States. What a Noah's Ark 1 Yet 
the thought of Plato and the hint of Cicero, concerning 
" the common bond " which links the whole human race 
was seldom more strongly felt, realizing the idea of Paul 
that we are all members one of another. Amid political 
and military jealousies this fact will remain a precious 



51 6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

memory. The harmony of the defended was well matched 
by the bravery of their defenders. 

In all these things we see the Hand of God in the Siege 
in Peking. In many of its aspects it is fully and com- 
prehensively anticipated in Psalm CXXIV, especially the 
seventh verse, which was sent home as a telegram the 
day after relief came. We honour the living for their 
heroism in defending us. We cherish the memory of the 
brave dead. But most of all we thank the Lord who 
brought us through fire and water into a healthy place. 



XXVIII 

THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 

FORTY years have elapsed since the first occupa- 
tion of the capital of China by European troops, 
in i860. At that time, every consideration was 
shown to the feelings of the Chinese : the city was left 
uninjured, and within a month of their first entry the 
troops were withdrawn from within the walls. Great 
things were hoped from the blow to the national pride 
involved in this brief occupancy. It was confidently ex- 
pected that it would prove the death-blow to the old 
stubborn arrogancy that has so long looked down upon 
the foreigner as an outcast and a barbarian, and made 
Peking a closed city to the outside world. 

But after more than a generation of intercourse with 
Europeans, Peking must still be called an anti-foreign 
city from first to last. 

Although the Yamen Ministers have gone to the Lega- 
tions for occasional banquets, it has always been notice- 
able that there were no return visits at their own homes, 
and the effort to introduce such an innovation a few 
years since was a blank failure. Except in the case of 
the missionaries, it is still true that the homes of the 
city are tightly closed to the outsider. 

The number of treatments in the various hospitals, es- 
pecially in the pioneer one of the London Mission, has 
amounted to hundreds of thousands — perhaps even to a 
million or more — and many wide and effectual doors have 

517 



5i8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

thus been opened to the Chinese heart ; hut, takhig Peking 
as a whole, it has remained irreconcilable in its contempt 
and hate. 

It has long been known that the native pundits who 
teach foreigners the language would not recognize their 
pupils on the street should they meet them, because, what- 
ever their private views might be, to do so would cause 
the pundit to lose " face," or self-respect. And what 
was true of scholars v^-as to a considerable degree the 
case also with the tradesmen, who were willing enough 
to absorb the foreign dollars, but who despised their 
owners. The same was also true to a large extent of the 
working class — even the coolies — who felt themselves 
immeasurably the superiors of those for whom they toiled 
— a vievs' not, perhaps, unlike that entertained by the 
Jews in Babylon toward their conquerors. 

The southern city of Peking has always prided itself 
upon being far more pronouncedly anti-foreign than the 
Tartar city. It has steadily resisted every effort to buy 
a foot of its sacred soil for missionary purposes, and if 
there have been occasional exceptions in the success of 
such attempts, they have but served to emphasize the 
general rule. 

Such has been the response of the capital to the first 
foreign occupation, when leniency and magnanimity of 
treatment were scrupulously observed. The second occu- 
pancy has occurred under circumstances widely different 
from the first, and with consequences never to be for- 
gotten by the Chinese. If the crimes that led to it were 
of a singular atrocity, their punishment also has been of a 
singular completeness. 

When the Boxers first arrived in practically limitless 
numbers, they were distributed like soldiers all over the 
city, and fed, as soldiers often (but not always) are, at 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 519 

the expense of the people. This would have been a heavy 
tax, but it was followed by much worse. In order " to 
guard the Legations," the large detachments of the troops 
of Jung Lu, Commander-in-Chief of the provincial army, 
and of General Tung were brought in. These soldiers 
w^ere related to the Boxers much as scorpions to grass- 
hoppers. 

Between them the city was reduced to an acute pitch 
of misery such as it had never known since the arrival of 
foreigners. ]\lany families were extinguished, and in 
others only one or two out of eight or ten members re- 
mained alive. Hundreds of house doors were walled up 
entirely, which often meant that there was no one left. 
The savages from the province of Kansu who followed 
General Tung speak a strange dialect almost unintelligible 
to the Pekingese, but they have written their names in 
blood. They are to the Chinese in Peking what the 
Chaldeans from afar were to the ancient Jews, " a hasty 
and a bitter people." 

The ruin of all Christian property was but the be- 
ginning of destruction. During the week of burn- 
ing, the relatively few foreign houses by no means suf- 
ficed to quench the unquenchable thirst for places to 
loot and to destroy. On some days one could count six or 
eight distinct fires in different quarters, the greatest of 
them all being the destructive conflagration outside the 
Front Gate, in the southern city, where were situated the 
richest shops and the most flourishing trade of Peking. 

When it was once more possible for foreigners to 
traverse the streets of the city, the desolation which met 
the eye was appalling. Dead bodies of soldiers lay singly 
or in heaps, in some instances covered with a torn old 
mat, but always a prey to the now well-fed pariah dogs. 
Indeed, dead dogs and dead horses poisoned the air of 



520 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

every region. The huge pools of stagnant water were 
reeking with putrid corpses of man and beast ; lean cats 
stared wildly at the passer-by from holes broken in the 
fronts of shops boasting such signs as " Perpetual Abun- 
dance," " Springs of Plenty," " Ten Thousand Prosperi- 
ties," and the oft-quoted maxim from the Great Learning, 
" There is a highway to the production of wealth." One 
might read over the door of a place thrice looted, and 
lying in utter ruin, the cheerful motto, " Peace and Tran- 
quillity." For miles upon miles of the busiest streets of 
the northern and southern city not a single shop was open 
for business, and scarcely a group of persons was any- 
where to be seen. 

But the capital of the Chinese Empire had no sooner 
been occupied by the Allies and its territory distributed 
for purposes of patrol among the several military contin- 
gents represented, than the Chinese began to adapt them- 
selves to the new relations with the same ease with which 
water fits itself to the dish into which it is poured. The 
Japanese, having the command of the Chinese written 
language, were the first to enter this new field, and in 
three days the whole city was inundated with little flags 
with a red disc in the middle, and thousands of doors 
began to be ornamented with the legend : " Compliant 
subjects of the Great Japanese Nation." For some time 
it was common to meet Chinese with such flags, the 
upper space blank, and only the words " compliant sub- 
jects " inserted, the nation to which they gave their 
adherence being left to be filled in later — a striking com- 
mentary on the " patriotism " of the Chinese. Of ten 
men on the streets, eight would probably be "furnished 
with flags of different lands (in cheap imitation only, 
and much the worse for a heavy shower). The advice 
so often given by Chinese to one another not to " follow 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 521 

foreigners " has, then, brought about this result, prob- 
ably unique in the history of mankind. 

Not only were flags made the symbol of allegiance to 
other and unknown countries, but the English language 
was tortured to compel it to announce this allegiance. 
" Belong Japan " was the notice on an old shed in the 
great Ha Ta street. " Noble and good Sirs," read another 
placard, " please do not shoot us. We are good people." 
Surely never was there stranger and more unanticipated 
fulfillment of the prophecy that " the sons of them that 
afflicted thee shall come bending unto thee," than the cir- 
cumstance that within a few doors of a temple which 
served as a Boxer headquarters one read the surprising 
legend, " God Christianity men," while the remainder of 
the alley was decorated with the reiterated petition, " Pray 
officer excuse. Here good people." 

There was not only no business doing in Peking in 
the early months of the occupation, but the very sources 
of commercial prosperity had been cut up by the roots. 
In the northern city were four allied banks, each with 
the character '' Heng," denoting Perpetuity, and the syn- 
dicate (supposed to be owned by a eunuch of the Palace) 
was considered as safe as the Bank of England. In 
the third week in June the Chinese soldiers plundered 
each of the Perpetuities, which have ceased to exist — 
as for a time did all other cash-shops and banks. The 
streets were abundantly supplied with bank-bills, which 
blew hither and thither with the gusts of wind and the 
swirls of dust, and were impartially nosed over in the 
gutters by the few surviving dogs. 

It was not many months, however, ere the shrewd 
Chinese had a system of cash-shops once more in opera- 
tion, greatly modified by the inrush of foreign dollars 
which now became the standard currency of the city. 



522 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

During the extreme political uncertainties of the winter, 
it sometimes happened that the price of silver in terms 
of Peking cash suddenly advanced, at one time to the 
extent of twenty-five per cent within a period of ahout 
three weeks. This was supposed to be because silver can 
be buried with facility, while brass cash is much too bulky, 
and it was considered only prudent to confide one's 
bullion to Mother Earth, who, when not tampered with, 
is practically tlie only safe banker in the Empire. 

That the gates of Peking, so intimately associated in the 
minds of all Orientals with the safety of the people, suf- 
fered severely during and after the siege has been al- 
ready mentioned. The Boxers were responsible for in- 
directly igniting the outer tower of the Ch'ien Men dur- 
ing their costly conflagration of June 13th, and the inner 
tower was set on fire accidentally through the carelessness 
of a signal party after the British troops were in posses- 
sion. 

The outer tower of the Ela Ta gate also disappeared 
in flames and smoke during those stormy days, while that 
of the Ch'i Hua Men was destroyed by the Japanese on 
their entry. After the foreign soldiers took charge of 
Peking the city gates were never closed at all, the de- 
pendence for security being not upon the wall but upon 
the guards and the sentries at the outposts. 

The first instinct of the Occidental on taking posses- 
sion of a Chinese city is to provide facile means of ingress 
and egress. The Chinese seldom make gates except in 
the middle of the walls on each face of the city, to the 
great inconvenience of traffic and with a waste of time 
utterly intolerable to Westcmers. Peking had not been 
occupied three days before the hole already mentioned 
had been blown through the walls into the Imperial 
City, at the head of the canal above the British Lega- 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 523 

tion, and this has ever since been an important thor- 
oughfare. At a point more than half-way up the east 
face of the same wall another slit was cut also, wide 
enough to admit of the passage of carts, saving many 
hours of time in crossing the city. But the greatest 
innovation of all was at the southwest corner of the 
Tartar City, where the British dug a tunnel quite 
through the entire outer wall, making an arch, securely 
boarded in, and labeled in Chinese '" English Gate." It 
has a barricade on the outside and on the inside, and has 
become indispensable to foreigners, although the Chinese 
will doubtless hasten to close it up when they have the 
power. The cutting thus laboriously drilled through the 
tough concrete, on which dynamite is said to have made 
but a faint impression, gave an interesting exhibition of 
the internal anatomy of the fourteen and a quarter miles 
of this vast protecting rampart, which after all failed to 
protect. 

During the spring there was witnessed the remarkable 
spectacle of the demolition by the Royal Engineers of 
the south-western tower at the comer of the wall of the 
northern city, that its timbers might be employed for 
the rehabilitated railway to Tientsin. It will be remem- 
bered by those who have ever visited the Capital of China 
that each face of these towers has eight and forty little 
windows each provided with the board shutter on which 
is painted the picture of the mouth of a cannon — a not 
inapt symbol of the general defences of Peking. 

Directly in front of the Temple of Heaven was the new 
terminus of the Tientsin and Peking Railway, formerly 
at Ma Chia P'u, a mile or two outside the southern city. 
A huge breach was made in the wall of the southern 
city, through which the trains enter, reminding the 
traveller of old York in England — an innovation for 



524 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

uliich, but for the Boxers, we might have waited long. 
In front of the station stretched a long row of electric 
lights, the plant of which was rescued "from the Summer 
Palace by the British, and was now for the first time made 
useful. 

The carts and wagons which cluster about the sta- 
tion on arrival of the trains were T<ept from overrun- 
ning the platform by a long line of stone posts with 
a famihar look. One face read " Southwest boundary 
Wang Family," and the next " Northeast boundary Chang 
Family." They came from the corners of cemeteries in 
the country, the practical and unsentimental Occidental 
soldier finding the removal of these landmarks the easiest 
way to accomplish his end. 

The original terminus of the Lu-Han Railway, one of 
the first enterprises of this sort undertaken by the Chinese 
Government, was placed at Lu Kuo Ch'iao, on the Yung 
Ting (or Hun) river, so as to be at a safe distance from 
the Capital. During the military occupation it appeared 
to be a suitable opportunity to extend the line directly 
to Peking, no questions being likely to be asked. This 
was accordingly done, and a hole was blown in the west 
wall of the southern city, and the rails laid near the 
dividing wall between the cities and parallel with it. 
The station was fixed just outside the Ch'ien Men. 

The British military authorities, on the other hand, 
determined upon a line to the Pciho at T'ung Chou, which 
was at once begun on the same facile terms. The em- 
bankment passes through the enceinte of the Ha Ta gate, 
to a station just outside the water gate through which 
the British relieving force entered the city ; from the Ha 
Ta gate eastward it passes under the wall in a direct 
line, through a l^rcach in the wall of the southern city. 

Thus T'ung Chou, which cut off its own hope by refus- 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 525 

ing the railway when it was first projected, may yet 
through its agency be raised, as it were, from the dead. 

The plan of the Allies in this and numerous other im- 
provements appears to be to introduce practical ameliora- 
tions of existing conditions which may have to be 
defended by pressure for a few years, after which it is 
hoped that the Chinese will so thoroughly appreciate 
them that there will be no call for a return to the previous 
conditions. 

Let it not be supposed that because Western modes 
of transportation are increasingly employed, Asia is sud- 
denly to be hustled into the abandonment of its past and 
of its traditions. Perhaps the best symbol of that past 
and its traditions is the patient, slow, but sure-footed 
camel, who has always abounded in Peking streets, " a 
prince in winter, a beggar in summer," with bits of hair 
here and there clinging to his almost bare hide. The long 
lines which used to be seen loaded with tea for Russia 
have disappeared, but droves of them are still bringing 
coal from the western hills as of yore. It is a Chinese 
adage that when the camel carries despatches, whatever 
may be said of his speed, he is at least sure. Attentive 
contemplation of their apparently expressionless visage 
may reveal the ground-plan of a sly half-wink, as if the 
leader of the long line of deliberate creatures were calmly 
ruminating thus : " Ah ! I perceive that you believe you 
could get on and not use me. Ah! you were wrong, as 
you shall see; for I am strong, I can wait long; here I 
belong; long after you and yours are gone, here I shall 
be." 

The numerous jinrikishas which had begun to form so 
prominent a feature in Peking, and which were so utterly 
extinguished by the siege and its concomitants, again 
became all-pervasive, forming a useful link in the not too 



526 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

abundant facilities for locomotion. Carts once more began 
to ply for hire, at rates somewhat advanced above those of 
former days, and the streets, including the few which had 
been melaled, after being badly worn by the heavy army 
and other traffic, were repaired, although but superficially, 
if at all, by the military authorities. 

In ordinary times the dust is partly laid by throwing 
on the roads all the waste water of the city, but for many 
months this was altogether pretermitted, and the result 
was such depths of loose, friable soil as passed all pre- 
vious experience, which was already sufficiently painful. 
The whole winter may be said to have been one semi- 
continuous dust-storm, reducing life to its lowest 
terms, although the climate is not in itself objec- 
tionable. 

Under the military government of the city, Peking 
was lighted at night as it had never been before, 
in many places every house being required to maintain a 
lamp at the door. Even on the walls of the Imperial 
City, and in places where heretofore there had usually 
reigned Cimmerian darkness, small kerosene lamps shone 
clear, enabling the traveller to see his way with sufficient 
distinctness. Even the smaller alleys were thus lit to 
some extent, and in the larger streets, as outside the 
Ch'ien Men, the effect was not unlike that of a Western 
row of street lamps. The military also endeavoured to 
teach the Chinese how to keep their streets and alleys 
clean, an art never previously acquired in the capital of 
China. Had the occupation of the city been prolonged, 
there ought to have been a marked improvement in its san- 
itation as a whole ; but that the Chinese themselves will 
ever adopt and enforce regulations like these is too much 
to expect. As the saying goes, " When the windlass stops, 
the garden-beds dry up." 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 527 

The huge piles of lime which during the siege were 
so conspicuous in readiness for the repair of the Peking 
highways, were absorbed by military or by private indi- 
viduals, who will doubtless never again find such material 
so conveniently provided. A huge combination of cap- 
ital had a " comer " on all the lime-kilns in the Western 
Hills region, as well as on all the brick-kilns, and expected 
to realize great sums when rebuilding once set in. 

The siege barricades were everywhere entirely re- 
moved, and the British Legation was soon put into 
its normal trim and tidy condition. But the wall at the 
extreme end of the north stables was left as the reliev- 
ing forces found it, battered by the incessant impact 
of bullets, shot, and shell, the whole surmounted by a 
damaged lookout, surmounted by decaying sand-bags, 
while beneath on the outer face of the wall are printed 
in bold capitals the significant words : " lest we 

FORGET." 

The disposition of the refuse from the cavalry stables 
appeared to have been a perplexing problem. It was ill 
solved by making huge winrows in the spacious broad- 
ways in front of the Imperial City on the south, forming 
a perpetual Gehenna, where lean and mangy dogs 
during the bitter winter weather reposed in peace and 
security on the warm and reeking manure piles. One 
of the military eccentricities was the renaming of all 
the Peking streets, one being " Gaselee Road," another 
" Stewart Road," etc., so that when an American sol- 
dier informed one that his barracks were at " the comer 
of Ave. A and 5th St." in the southern city, it was neces- 
sary to study a new map. 

The presence of so many foreigners in the Capital ren- 
dered tlie pursuit of philological researches both easy 
and fascinating. One of the more recent arrivals wished 



528 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

to know why the Chinese were always saying " Quite 
so," and what they meant by it. It turned out to be 
merely a reflection of the impatient foreigner, whose most 
imperious demand is k'noi-tsou (go on fast ) Still 
another thoughtful observer noticed the singular fact that 
the Chinese appeared familiar with one of the most doubt- 
ful of French novelists, and frequently spoke his name 
— " Zola," tsou-la (gone) ! 

The one phrase of pure and unadulterated Pekingese 
which is more certain to be heard than any other, is the 
expression " Pukoii pcn'rh " — meaning that the sum of 
money supposed to have been mentioned is less than the 
article cost. It is said that " poko " is a Filipino word, 
meaning " a little," and it was soon introduced into 
Pekingese as a new slang phrase with a wide range of 
meaning. A defective postage-stamp was " pnkou 
pcn'rh,'' and so was a lad who failed to win a race with 
his fellow, or a lamp chimney with a flaw. 

The city in which all foreigners were but lately stormed 
at with shot and shell, now began to display posters in 
Chinese informing the natives at what places schools 
might be found where English, French, Russian, or Jap- 
anese could be learned. The walls of the entrances to 
the Forbidden city bore huge hand-bills notifying the 
whereabouts of the " Y. M. C. A. Reading, Writing, and 
Coffee Rooms," while on West Legation street might be 
observed the announcement printed in neat capitals : 
" The work-shop in which any iron-work are pro- 
posed." French and German advertisements everywhere 
abounded, and the main street of the southern city bris- 
tled with notifications in every leading European lan- 
guage, as well as in Japanese ; they were of every variety, 
from a barber's shop with its colored pole to the per- 
emptory announcement at the railway station in front of 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 529 

the Temple of Heaven : " No Admittance Except on Bus- 
iness." 

The Winter Palace, within the innermost recesses of 
what the troops have dubbed " The Sacred City," was vis- 
ited during the winter by many thousand persons, mili- 
tary and civil, and later by a stream of tourists, and while 
all of its buildings may not have been entered, the greater 
part of them arc now as familiar to us as the palaces at 
Versailles, and have been photographed times without 
number. It has been well known that from the very first 
opening of these apartments to the select circle, the curios 
and bric-a-brac began to disappear, until, ere weeks had 
passed, nothing portable was left in sight, and but httle of 
any kind which would be worth carrying away. It is sup- 
posed that much still remains within the storehouses and 
treasuries with which the residences of princes and the 
Imperial family are amply provided ; but for the exclusive 
and haughty Manchus who have so long ruled China, it 
is difficult to regard their abodes as other than hopelessly 
defiled by the contamination of the Barbarian for so many 
moons. 

There were left the foreign musical instruments, an 
organ, a baby-organ, and a piano, all horribly out of 
tune, together with a pile of books in the Emperor's 
librarv, some silk-covered mattresses on the divans 
(stuffed with cotton), and the usual worthless bric-a-brac 
of the Chinese mansion, all that is really valuable having 
been removed to some other sphere of usefulness. Some 
time ago there was the huge brass (or bronze?) elephant 
with his preposterous accompaniments of a train, but like 
the real animals in the city he seems to have gone the 
way of the rest, and perhaps some time when a visitor's 
vest-pockets had an unusual bulge, it was owing to this 
two foot monstrosity tucked carelessly away inside! 



530 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

As the restrictions upon entering became more strin- 
gent, the number of doors closed up with a long type- 
written set of rules and regulation multiplied, until there 
were many places, once easy of access, closed to all 
comers. And the public was politely requested not to 
kick the Chinese attendants because they declined to open 
doors which they were forbidden to unlock. This cau- 
tion was not unnecessary, as the demeanour of the mili- 
tary portion of the visitors frequently demonstrated. 
They are used to being minded without question, and to 
have a " heathen Chinee " refuse to do what they told 
him was intolerable. 

On the whole the more minute and reiterated inspec- 
tion of the " Palaces " was disappointing. We knew all 
the while that they must be much the same as other 
Chinese elegant dwellings, yet we had a secret hope that 
it would prove otherwise. To begin with, courts in the 
Winter Palace are surprisingly small in area, and one 
is not without a feeling of pity for an Empress and an 
Emperor who should have to put up with much smaller 
breathing-places between their dwellings than some of 
their humbler subjects. Why the palaces were laid out 
on such a scrimped pattern is as unaccountable as the like 
phenomenon in the village hamlet, where the land, being 
worth absolutely nothing at all, is treated as if it were the 
corner-lot of a city, and must not be wasted. Taking 
into account the far ampler accommodations of the build- 
ings used as headquarters by Count von Waldersee and 
the German officers, it is easy to see why they should have 
gradually displaced in favour the others in the more 
" Forbidden City " itself. 

This "Western Court" (Hsi Yuan), which has long 
been the city home of the Empress Dowager and the 
Emperor, is situated to the west of the main Forbidden 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 531 

City, to which it forms a species of annex. The abode 
of the former (called Ying T'ai) was the handsomest 
building- in Peking, with rich black-wood carving adapted 
to entrance the eye (and to hold the dust) in an unusual 
degree. In the adjacent courts there were theatres, lotus- 
ponds, and endless pavilions, while at the south-western 
angle there was a stretch of what is probably the most 
extensive and elaborate rock-work in China, so skilfully 
concealing the relatively small areas of the enclosure that 
the general effect was that of intricate labyrinths, though 
the whole tract is but a few rods in width. 

Still further east is the palace of the Emperor (Nan 
Hai Tzu) in which for many months he was confined 
upon an island in gilded misery, daily sitting on the ter- 
race on the southern side overlooking the lake, and vainly 
longing for a turn in the wheel of Fortune, which, when 
at last it came, by no means brought the relief expected. 

On the night of the 17th of April the Ying T'ai Palace 
of the Empress Dowager was largely destroyed by a 
fierce fire, which was so rapid in its spread that the 
Commander-in-Chief of all the Armies was rescued 
through a window, while his Chief of Stafif, Gen. 
von Schwartzhoff, who returned to his room to save val- 
uable papers, was burned to death immediately. It is 
altogether likely that these, and similar disasters, are 
largely if not entirely due to the careless manner in which 
Westerners introduced their huge stoves into the fragile 
structures designed to be heated only by braziers, or at 
most by coal fires under the brick floor. The first step 
taken by the Occidental is to build brick partitions, and to 
wall in the verandas, and the next is to set up his stoves 
with pipes of all sizes, made of the most imperfect ma- 
terials, protruding through the flimsv wooden lattice-work 
at all heights and angles. The Chinese servants, in the 



532 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

effort to suit their masters and keep the fires always hot, 
stufif the stoves to the top with fuel, and then leave the 
stove door open to prevent too rapid combustion. With 
such antecedents the consequences experienced are almost 
inevitable. 

From the Nan Hai Tzu to the Ying T'ai, and northward 
along additional lotus-ponds, extended the line of the toy 
raihvay built for the delectation of His Majesty, where 
he was wont to ride in the carriages ptished by coolies so 
as to insure immunity from railway accidents. For the 
accommodation of the handsomely furnished cars elabo- 
rate sheds had been built, but the vehicles had long been 
entirely exposed to the weather, and during the rains and 
snows had not only parted with their elegant varnish, but 
likewise with every scrap of plush and velvet trimmings. 
A string of open freight cars was daily employed for 
removing the manure from the stables of the German 
cavalry. 

The hitherto inaccessible Coal Hill became greatly 
appreciated by the Chinese as a recreation park, for which 
it was much frequented. At its eastern side near the base 
is pointed out the gnarled and stunted pine-tree on which 
the last Emperor of the native Ming Dynasty hung him- 
self in 1644, when he saw that the Manchus had entered 
his Capital and seized his Empire. 

In the beautiful Iho Park, within the inclosure 
known as the " Summer Palace," or Wan Shou Shan, 
several miles northwest of Peking, the Empress spent 
much of her time, and it was here that she was 
visited by her favourites in the official ranks, bring- 
ing word of cverylliing said and done outside. These 
spacious and beautiful grounds, known as the Moun- 
tain of Ten Thousand Ages, were in i860 visited 
by the besom of destruction as a penalty for the 




COAL HILL, CHINESE SERVING GER.ALAN OFFICERS 




SUMMER PALACE FROM THE LAKE 



THE PUNISHMENT OF PEKING 533 

trcachcr}- of the Imperial Court in capturing and tortur- 
ing Sir Harry Parkes and others while protected by a flag 
of truce. Within recent years the buildings have been 
restored to something of their pristine beauty, and re- 
stocked v/ith those elegant adornments inseparable from 
Oriental luxury. 

It is a strange fate which has overtaken this pleasure 
park that, at the expiration of just forty years from the 
former destruction, it should once more fall into the 
hands of the Barbarians, and, while not this time reduced 
to absolute ruins, should yet be unmercifully looted. Even 
the huge Buddhas were toppled over with violence to 
get at their true inwardness, and the looters have often 
been rewarded by securing old Chinese treasury notes 
dating back to the middle of the fourteenth century. 

The crowning Temple to the Five Hundred Buddhas, 
on the crest of the hill, which almost alone escaped the 
devastation of i860, has now been less fortunate, for in 
some unexplained manner a fire was started in it, and 
though its structure was too massive to fall, its walls are 
blackened and cracked from the effects of the intense 
heat. 

From the lake at the base of the hill upon which this 
Temple stands to the summit, stretched a splendid suite 
of apartments, which when inspected by civilians were 
found to be scenes of wreck and ruin. The rooms were 
littered with broken fragments of carved partitions, and 
pieces of immense plate-glass windows, while prisms of 
chandeliers and broken bulbs of electric lights strewed 
the floors. That portion of this palace assigned to British 
care was carefully guarded and kept in fair condition, 
while all bric-a-brac still remaining was removed to a 
place of safety and securely guarded. 

The fate of the Imperial palaces in falling into the 



534 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

hands of the invader was matched by that of the abodes 
of the Princes, Dukes, and other nobihty, all of which 
were promptly pitched upon, as a " military necessity," 
for headquarters. The former palace of Prince Ch'un 
in the southwest corner of the city in which the present 
Emperor was born (and which therefore had to be given 
up as a residence and rebuilt as a family temple) was 
occupied by Gen. Stewart. Among its unique features 
was a model of a Chinese junk made with great fidelity 
in details, but built on a foundation of brick and stone 
in an artificial pond, where the occupants might go and 
imagine themselves on a voyage. This was employed by 
the British as a small-pox hospital ! 

A still more surprising curiosity, however, was a model 
of a small steam-boat likewise on a rock-work basis in 
another pond, in which were decks, upper and lower, 
steering-wheel, cabin with complete set of berths, each 
state-room with a foreign lock, etc., etc., all complete. 
This proved a most useful mine to the carpenters in refit- 
ting the Fu for foreign use, and all the cabin flooring, the 
locks, gangways, and the like, were unceremoniously 
transferred to the rooms of the General and his staff. 

At another palace in the neighbourhood there was sup- 
posed to be treasure buried, which the officers tried in 
vain to discover. At length a representative of the owner 
succeeded through Li Plung Chang in getting a pass for 
men and carts to go by night and remove whatever was 
concealed, the P)ritish officer being politely requested to 
shift his bed (temporarily) while the jars of ingots buried 
beneath were being exhumed ! 



XXIX 

THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 

ASIDE from the residences of the nobihty, count- 
less dvvelUngs of those whose names are known 
all over China were open to inspection, and with 
the inspection commenced what was practically a trans- 
formation. A particularly desolate place of this sort on 
an alley opening on the Ha Ta street was pointed out as 
belonging to Weng T'ung Ho, formerly tutor of the 
Emperor. The Austrian contingent took possession of 
the house of Ch'ung Li (Governor of the Nine Gates of 
Peking) — a very attractive place not at all like the typical 
P'u and quite neat and clean. When the late owner sent 
over to ask for a fur garment as the winter was coming 
on. they genially replied that they had none to spare! 

By an arrangement with the Italians, the T'ung Chou 
Christians and their shepherds occupied the premises 
known as the Chao Kung Fu, north of the Tung Hua 
gate, and close to the Imperial City wall. This place was 
owned by someone who had an eye to the picturesque, ' 
and built a very pretty two-storied building facing east 
and west, called the " Ying Ch'un Lou,'' or " Chamber to 
Welcome Spring." An enemy at Court promptly de- 
nounced the audacity of erecting such a structure which 
should command a view of the Imperial City, and the 
Empress Dowager saw her opportunity and fined the 
unhappy welcomer of the Spring one hundred thousand 
taels. As he was unable to raise more than forty thou- 

535 



5j6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

sand taels, the Empress kindly confiscated his place for 
the remainder, and gave it to her own younger brother, 
whose son was living in it when the troubles came on. 
The owners were very willing to have foreigners in occu- 
pation, as their premises were thus safe from further 
pillage than they had already undergone from the Ital- 
ians, and they have now been put in good order again 
at some expense. A considerable Christian community 
is lodged in numerous houses all around. The hours by 
day and night are sounded by a watchman on the large 
500-pound bell of the North China College at T'ung 
Chou, which was stolen by the Boxers when the place was 
burnt, carried to a village and buried, and later rose from 
the dead and was brought to Peking. This bell and three 
or four bunches of keys are all that now remain visible 
of that institution of learning, aside from low rows of 
brickbats on its former site, and numerous pits. 

After the occupation of the premises by the T'ung Chou 
station, Mr. Tewksbury, its indefatigable manager-in- 
chief, employed the chamber mentioned above as a 
printing-office, whence have issued, together with much 
else, numerous copies of the tonic-sol-fa hymn-books to 
replace those destroyed last year. One of the rooms con- 
sists of five expansive divisions, and appeared to be fore- 
ordained for a chapel, which it has become. It is now 
filled every Sunday with several hundred Christians, and 
the Duke and Duchess who formerly lived there regularly 
attended the morning worship. During the winter the 
premises, through Prince Su as middleman, were leased 
to the Mission for two years at a fair price, payment 
beginning at the signing of the Protocol in January. At 
the back of the room used as a chapel hung a large tablet 
draped wilh white silk, as the Chinese symbol of mourn- 
ing, and across its front were hung, against a background 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 537 

of blue cloth, tags of silk containing the names of those 
members of the T'ung Chou church who gave their lives 
in witness of their faith. The list, though far from com- 
plete, embraced the names of forty-four men, forty-six 
w'omen, and forty children. 

The Missions of the American Presbyterians and of 
the American Methodists were each lodged in the resi- 
dences of the gentry, with full approbation of the 
owners, who would otherwise have lost everything left in 
these dwellings. The latter Mission required accommo- 
dations for the students of the Peking University, and 
for the hundred or more school-girls who had been suc- 
cessfully carried through the siege, but for whom a secure 
domicile was imperative. 

The experiences of the London Mission refugees were 
so unique that a few paragraphs may well be devoted to 
them as strikingly illustrating the exigencies of the time. 

On account of the absence of the male members of the 
Mission, Miss Georgina Smith found herself in charge 
of about 200 destitute refugees who had no food and 
no means of getting any. The compound next to the 
London Mission on the southeast was vacant, having been 
owned and occupied by a Manchu family active in the 
Boxer outrage, who had promoted the destruction of the 
mission buildings and later walled in a portion of the land 
for their own use. Now they justly feared punishment 
and had all fled, and the authorities, legation and mil- 
itary, handed over this place to Miss Smith with all which 
it contained. 

She had no money and could get none, but she issued 
tickets for a certain amount of grain, redeemable on 
demand at the neighbouring shops just resuming business. 
The latter preferred the orders to ready money as they 
were liable at any moment to be robbed by the Russian 



538 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

soldiers, against whom j\Iiss Smith was provided with a 
written protection signed by the General, which was 
framed and in constant requisition. 

The furniture of the premises was left untouched, and 
funds were raised in the only practicable way by the sale 
of the furs and other clothing of the establishment. All 
the converts were set to work and the proceeds thrown 
into a common fund, a plan which worked surprisingly 
well. Contracts were taken for making mattresses, quilts, 
and horse-cloths for the British troops, and then for the 
Germans. Later another contract was taken to furnish 
hay for the Indian horses, and finally to undertake the 
scavenging of the German section of the city, thus pro- 
viding full employment for all. Preachers, teachers, hos- 
pital-dispensers, and all others received a uniform allow- 
ance of about sixpence a day. 

\\nien German rule replaced that of the Russians the 
whole district would have been impartially occupied and 
incidentally looted but for the prompt action of Miss 
Smith, who offered to provide the Germans with furni- 
ture for barracks, officers' rooms, etc., on condition that 
the matter should be left entirely in her hands, and no 
soldiers allowed to enter the homes of the people. On 
these terms the non-Qiristian Chinese in the neighbour- 
hood gladly collected all that was required, and countless 
families were saved from spoliation. 

The authorities with the aid of the Christians sought 
out some of the chief Boxers and dealt with them, while 
others through intermediaries offered to make restitution 
or compensation for the injuries which they had inflicted 
on Giristian families, and in this way provision was made 
for widows and orphans. In recognition of her distin- 
guished services Miss Smith was presented with six pairs 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 539 

of the gorgeous " Myriad People Canopy," the highest 
popular honour in China, and not often bestowed. 

Attentive consideration of an instance like this makes it 
strikingly evident how much may be accomplished by one 
resolute and resourceful Western woman, and how hope- 
less it would be to judge of such conditions and the steps 
required to meet them without full and accurate acquain- 
tance with the facts. 

The Government of China has always been conducted 
through the agency of the six Boards, of War, Rites, 
Works, Revenue, Civil Office, and Punishments, mostly 
situated on a street named after one of the most impor- 
tant — the Board of War. At the wide doors con- 
cealing the arcana of this Chinese official life, foreigners 
have for the most part hitherto gazed from afar. Every 
one of these Boards was promptly occupied by the mili- 
tary, as well as several other Government Bureaus in the 
vicinity, some of which were destroyed during the occu- 
pation, and others, like the Board of Revenue, burned 
somewhat later. 

The Board of Works and the Board of War fell 
to the British as headquarters of an Indian regi- 
ment, the tall and dusky warriors of the hill tribes of 
the Indian frontier making themselves at home in the 
ample apartments at their disposal. The thrifty Japanese 
contrived to get the west side of this same street redis- 
tributed so as to come within their lines, and then sent 
a caravan of mules working day and night for a long 
period, and carried off from the Board of Revenue treas- 
ury a sum reported to be at least three million taels, in 
silver ingots. This same Oriental race, who appeared to 
know much more about Peking than the Pekingese them- 
selves, promptly fastened their talons on all the principal 



540 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Imperial granaries, and are said to have gained posses- 
sion of rice to the value of several million dollars — their 
indemnity being thus automatically paid with no diplo- 
matic pressure whatever, or any consent asked of any 
" Power." 

Perhaps one of the most characteristic structures in 
China is that of the Board of Punishments. All the Boards 
are situated almost in a block just west of the British 
Legation, but this stands by itself to the west of the divid- 
ing street of the city. You know when you get to it, 
because you seem to be going into a basement as you 
alight from your cart and look down into the main 
entrance, which is several feet below the average level of 
the road. If your visit is in summer, you will see a huge 
pond in the first courtyard, and the same repeated in 
every other. If you enquire of one of the attendants, 
remaining after the Empress took her flight and somebody 
liberated all the hundreds of prisoners then confined there, 
to what height the water really comes when it is highest, 
he raises his hand to about the level of his neck, " To 
here." " But," you observe, " then there must be water 
in all the side-rooms, which you see are on a still lower 
plane " " Of course," he replies simply. 

Scattered about the court were parts of the Complete 
Laws of China, at present much more conspicuous in Pe- 
king by their absence than otherwise, and records of cases 
innumerable, now gone to the region which Carlyle com- 
pendiously referred to as " the mud-gods." 

The prisons proper, of which there are perhaps twenty 
or twenty-four (or perhaps forty-eight, it does not mat- 
ter), are all just alike, old buildings with brick walls, with 
thick wooden gratings to the windows, which a Euro- 
pean prisoner would whittle in two with a pocket-knife 
in fifteen minutes, and within, two-inch planks laid on 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 541 

piles of loose bricks. Copies of the " Peking Gazette " 
were at first (just after the siege) as thick here as the 
leaves in Vallombrosa (or thereabouts), and that was far 
the best place to get complete files at that time, when all 
others had omitted to " take in " the " oldest daily paper 
in the world." Later the place was used as an Interna- 
tional prison for a select lot of criminals, or alleged crim- 
inals, who had not been condemned by the military, and 
W'ere sent to the Chinese to be tried by their own officers. 

In the spacious Carriage Park adjoining the British 
Legation on the west, which was such a thorn in the side 
of the besieged, there are several large halls for the 
storage of the Imperial furnishings. 

The British relief corps had no sooner occupied the 
Legation than a hole was blown in the Carriage Park 
wall by means of dynamite, and the swarthy Pathans and 
Beluchis filed into the large pastures thus placed at their 
disposal. It did not take long to run out of doors the 
lacquered red and yellow Imperial equipages, se- 
dan-chairs, wedding-chairs (including the one used when 
the Emperor v/as married), and elephant-carriages of an 
eccentric and peculiar construction, where they were after- 
wards exposed to the vicissitudes of the hot August sun 
and the pouring rains. 

Mountains of paraphernalia were found in every build- 
ing — silk cushions, satin pillows, gorgeous harnesses and 
trappings of every description and of no description at all. 
Mule-loads of this elegant rubbish were brought into the 
Legation for sale by auction, or perhaps for transmission 
to the distant Isle of the Ocean whence came the " fierce 
and untamable Barbarian " (as the British used to be 
termed in Chinese despatches). Both in the expansive 
grounds of the Carriage Park and in the far larger ones of 
the Temple of Pleaven, parks of artillery stood serenely 



542 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

awaiting fresh orders, the mules meantime trampling in 
the mire hundreds of moth-eaten official hats made of felt, 
and furlongs of once elegant and costly silk coverings of 
bridal chairs and palanquins. The tall weeds, undis- 
turbed for no one can say liow long by the hand of man 
or the hoof of beast, rapidly disappeared, and the entire 
spectacle was one adapted to make Celestials weep. 

The destruction of the Hanlin Yuan has been described 
in connection with the narrative of the siege, but a 
few additional details deserve mention. The principal 
literary monument of the most ancient people in the 
world was obliterated in an afternoon, and the wooden 
stereotype plates of the most valuable works became a 
prey to the flames, or were used in building barricades, 
or as kindling by the British marines. Priceless lit- 
erary treasures were tumbled into the lotus-ponds, wet 
with the floods of water used to extinguish the fires, 
and later buried after they had begun to rot, to dimin- 
ish the disagreeable odour. Expensive camphor- wood 
cases containing the rare and unique Encyclopaedia of 
Yung Le were filled with earth to form a part of the 
ramparts for defence, while the innumerable volumes 
comprising this great thesaurus were dispersed in every 
direction, probably to every library in Europe, as well as 
to innumerable private collections. Not a few of the 
volumes were thrown into the common heap to mold and 
to be buried like the rest. 

Thousands of Hanlin essays lay about the premises, 
the sport of every breeze, serving as fire-wood for the 
troops. Odd volumes of choice works furnished the waste- 
paper of the entire Legation for nearly two months ; they 
were found in the kitchens, used by the coolies as pads for 
carrying bricks on their shoulders, and lay in piles in the 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 5^3 

outer streets to be ground into tatters under the wheels 
of passing carts when traffic was once more resumed. 

Of the varied forms of Nemesis connected with the up- 
rising against foreigners in China, the fate of the ancient 
and famous Hanlin takes perhaps the foremost place. 
Out of twenty or twenty-five halls, but two remained and 
a few months later ever}' trace of these had been removed 
from the Hanlin premises, which are now a part of the 
British Legation grounds. On the northern side a high 
wall has been put up, with scientific loopholes concealed 
in its upper part, and protection for gunners in arched 
recesses at the base, while a clear space is left in front 
to make a surprise impossible. 

Within three minutes walk of the British Legation 
stands an old yamen known as the Li Fan Yuan, which 
had to do with Mongolian affairs. During the siege it 
was barricaded and loopholed, and served as one of the 
numerous points from which to attack the Legations, 
being directly across the main road from the northern end 
of the Su Wang Fu, and but a few rods distant. When 
the siege was over the buildings were found to be in 
ruins, and some sales of loot were conducted there by the 
Italians, but otherwise the place was completely aban- 
doned. 

During the winter this ancient Government Bureau 
was fitted up as an International Club, at the rear of 
which it was possible for members to order meals in 
parties or singly, while a large room was devoted to the 
indispensable bar. In the front building there was a 
large room supplied with the latest British and Conti- 
nental periodicals. The most recent telegrams were 
posted upon a daily bulletin, and on a large placard were 
registered the names of about five hundred members of 



54.4 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the Club — mostly the military officers of the eight differ- 
ent nations represented in Peking, whose flags floated 
serenely from as many staffs at the entrance. 

The part which the Tsung Li Yamen, or Foreign Office, 
has taken in the relations between China and the West 
is well known. It has been an Oriental circumlocution 
office, not to transact but to prevent the transaction of 
business. It was itself an epitome of the double-dealing, 
shuffling, and treacherous policy which has marked the 
course of China's intercourse with her " Sister Nations." 
A just fate has overtaken it, for while guarded by a party 
of Japanese soldiers, the various interpreters of the Lega- 
tions went on a set day and unitedly sealed each the 
bureau containing the records of the correspondence with 
his own countr>% so that they are in the safe custody of 
all the Powers, while not accessible to any one solely — 
least of all to the Chinese. Surely the humiliation of a 
great Empire could scarcely go lower than this. 

On the first of May these records were restored to the 
custody of the Chinese officials appointed to take them 
over, but one of the terms of settlement between China 
and the Powers involves the abolition of the Yamen as 
a Bureau — the only fit manner of dealing with this cum- 
brous and exasperating piece of Oriental machinery. 

The questions with regard to the survival of the rec- 
ords of Chinese yamens and other public offices in Peking, 
is naturally one of much interest to the Chinese them- 
selves. From repeated and diversified inquiries one 
seems justified in inferring that as a rule there is noth- 
ing whatever left of the documents of any of the six 
Boards, or of the public offices of any sort with the excep- 
tion of the Tsung Li Yamen. 

Among the numerous offices for preparing the ma- 
terials for future histories, are two historiographers' 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 545 

bureaus, the one belonging- to the State and called the 
Kuo Shih Kuan, which is situated in the Imperial City, 
inside the Tung Hua Men. The records of the Emper- 
or's sayings and doings were kept in the Ch'i Chii Chu 
which was located, as we are told, within the limits of the 
Hanlin Courts. When the latter were attacked, the 
records were prudently moved to the Kuo Shih Kuan for 
safe keeping. A Chinese teacher who visited the place, 
ascertained its present condition. He reported that it 
was closed, but that the contents have long since been 
scattered to the winds of heaven. During the anarchy 
following upon the occupation of Peking, whoever had a 
mind to do so visited the place and carried off whatever 
he chose for waste paper, and although there may be 
some parts of the archives remaining, nothing is said to 
be complete, and all might as well be lacking. 

On the night of the 4th of June, 190 1, a building called 
the Wu Ying Tien in the southwest comer of the For- 
bidden City was destroyed by a fire, the origin of which 
was disputed. It was a Throne Hall, or Imperial Pavil- 
ion, and its contents were archives of State, edicts, rec- 
ords, books, and blocks of governmental works, and 
attached to it were the Recording Office and the office 
of one of the Grand Secretaries. It was the final act in 
a long series of conflagrations and destruction, the ulti- 
mate efifect of which can not fail to be far-reaching. 

The Astronomical Observatory situated on the eastern 
wall of the city, and containing the ancient and wonder- 
ful products of the genius of the early Jesuits in China, 
Verbiest and Schall, was speedily dismantled by the 
French and the Germans, every one of the instruments 
being removed to the French or German Legations, and 
in the process the needless incidental damage was so great 
that the whole place was left a wreck. The Chinese 



546 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

looters were not long in following those from abroad, and 
the iron railings which once enclosed the terrace were 
broken off in mere wantonness, and many of them stolen 
— as why should they not be, since the place was ruined ? 
It is a perfectly just reflection that this vandalism of 
Continental troops, under orders from their highest mili- 
tary authorities, is far less excusable than the attack of 
the savages under Tung Fu Hsiang on the Hanlin Yuan, 
for that was done under strong excitement, and this de- 
liberately and against the protests of a large part of the 
civilized world. 

The Examination Grounds display the same reckless 
destruction. The cells for the students (a little less than 
8,500 in number) open in front, with a roof slanting back- 
ward, supported on two or three small poles. Other v/ood- 
work there is none. Yet in order to secure this trifle of 
material for kindling, hundreds of the stalls were pulled 
down, as well as the buildings at the entrance. 

It should be mentioned that the foreign troops in urgent 
need of firewood during a cold winter, demolished indis- 
criminately whatever buildings were most convenient — - 
yamens, old granaries, and temples. It was reported that 
by the time the winter was over, hardly any temples re- 
mained in the city of T'ung Chou. 

The headquarters of the American troops during the 
military occupation of Peking were in the Temple of 
Agriculture, a spacious series of enclosures in the south- 
ern part of the Chinese city. One of the main halls was 
employed as a hospital, and another as a supply depot 
for the commissariat, displaying long rows of hams, cases 
of tobacco, boxes of army beans, and barrels of beef. 

One of the side halls became a reading-room, and others 
were hospital wards. Another had been used for 
the storage of the gilded and lacquered specimens of 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 547 

agricultural implements, the plough, the seed-drill, the 
harrow, the brush-harrow, the spade, the broom, the pitch- 
fork, and smaller utensils such as baskets and broad hats. 
All of these were unceremoniously hustled into the open 
air, and some of the smaller articles furnished convenient 
fuel for the 9th and 14th Regiments of U. S. Infantry. 

The officers for whose headquarters the main halls were 
used had no sooner taken possession, than they began to 
Iiave holes cut in the venerable walls and large plate-glass 
windows inserted, a proceeding which must have ap- 
peared to the shades of the divinities worshipped as an 
additional profanation and humiliation. 

The marble altar where the Emperor worships old 
legendary Shen Nung was a convenient place for the 
cavalry horses to be left in charge of the nearest coolie, 
and the choice spot of earth which the Emperor is sup- 
posed to cultivate with his ovv^n hand every successive 
spring, as an example to the tillers of the soil all over 
the Empire, was quite indistinguishable amid the dense 
growth of omnipresent weeds. 

Across the wide street opposite the Temple of Agricul- 
ture is the vast area, at least a mile on each face, in- 
closing the Temple of Heaven. For many years it was 
absolutely inaccessible to foreigners, and even during 
the minority of the present Emperor it was difficult to 
set one's foot inside. Now there is not a single Chinese 
anywhere to be seen, the keepers having been all driven 
away by the British when they took possession imme- 
diately on reaching Peking. One can drive his cart quite 
up to the lofty terrace leading to the triple cerulean 
domes denoting the threefold heaven. Each gate was 
sentried by a swarthy Sikh soldier — the personification of 
the domination of a greater empire than that of Rome 
in its best days — who merely glanced at you as you passed 



548 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

or asked unintelligible questions in Hindustani, and made 
a respectful salaam when he was informed in several 
European languages, as well as in Chinese, that you 
were unable to catch the drift of his observations. 

The door to the great circular building devoted to the 
ancestral tablets of the Manchu dynasty stands wide 
open. It contained a huge tablet on the northern side, to 
Imperial Heaven, and eight cases — four on a side — to the 
eight Emperors who have thus far reigned during the 
past two hundred and fifty-six years. Every one of the 
eight cases, with heavy carv^ed doors, has been broken 
open, and every one of the eight tablets ta the deified 
ancestors has been taken away by British officers for 
transmission to the British Museum — an act of almost 
justifiable reprisal for Chinese treatment of the foreign 
cemetery. 

The Emperor's Hall of Fasting was used as the head- 
quarters of the British army in this part of the city, and 
every day was partly filled with many cart-loads of loot 
— silks, furs, silver and jade ornaments, embroidered 
clothing, and the like. This was daily forwarded to the 
British Legation, and sold at auction for the benefit of 
the army, to be soon replaced by as much more. The 
personal apartments of the Emperor in the rear served 
as the bedrooms of the officers, who looked mildly sur- 
prised when the circumstance was communicated to 
them at their dinner, and merely gave an inquiring glance, 
as much as to say, " Well, what of it, don't you know? " 

The seventh section of the Peace Conditions imposed 
by the Powers upon China provided for defences around 
the Legations and for the removal of all Chinese build- 
ings from their vicinity. The " Legation Area " was 
construed to embrace at least all the territory within a 
rectangle bounded on the south by the wall of the city, 




TEMPLE OF AGRICULTURE. PEKING 
AMERICAN HEADQUARTERS 




ENTRANCE, TEMI'LE OF AGRICULTURE, 
AMERICAN HEADQUARTERS 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 549 

on the north by the wall of the Imperial city, on the 
east by the Ha Ta street, and on the west by the median 
line of the city, leading to the Ch'ien Men ; but that part 
lying north of Legation street, and west of the Board of 
War street will probably be excluded as superfluous. 
Within this broad tract, measuring more than a mile 
in length by perhaps half a mile in breadth, the most 
revolutionary changes at once began, such as the dem- 
olition of dwellings, yamens, and temples, and the gen- 
eral rehabilitation of the old Legations, with the most 
liberal additions. 

Opposite the Austrian Legation stood a green-tiled 
building which contained the Tablets of the prc-Imperial 
Ancestors of the founders of the Manchu Dynasty. This 
comes within the territory demanded for the Legations, 
and will be removed, the efforts of the Chinese and 
Manchus to save it having proved abortive. Its removal 
is in itself a fit outcome of the Manchu effort to end all 
relations with the rest of the civilized world by destroy- 
ing its representatives. 

The Japanese take in the Su Wang Fu, to which they 
have a strong claim, while the Italians, the French, and 
the Austrians, in like manner will cover a large part of 
the fighting area of the siege, absorbing the site of the 
Imperial Maritime Customs, the Imperial Mint, and the 
unfinished Chinese Bank. 

The abolition of the immemorial buildings belonging 
to several of the six Boards was vainly resisted by the 
Chinese, who will be helpless in the presence of the 
new fortresses commanding the Imperial palaces. It is 
a bitter humiliation, but one which the Court of Peking 
richly deserves. 

That Court was itself the great contriver and executor 
of the crime against all nations in Peking, and some of 



550 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Its agents have suffered a fit penalty. The provincial 
Treasurer of Chihh, Ting Yung, whom a Military Com- 
mission held at Pao Ting Fu in October adjudged guilty 
of the death of the fifteen British and Americans killed 
near that city, was there beheaded, together with others 
of lesser importance. During the winter two other officials 
of high rank were handed by the Allies over to the 
Chinese authorities to be beheaded in Peking, Ch'i Hsiu, 
and the son of Hsti T'ung, Hsii Ch'eng Yu. 

No Chinese had more to do with promoting the attack 
upon foreigners than Li Ping Heng, former Governor 
of Shantung, and subsequently the active agent of the 
Empress Dowager. He either died or committed suicide, 
and was subsequently bewailed at his home in Chang 
Te Fu, Honan. 

Imperial Decrees ordered and subsequently certified 
to the death of Prince Chuang (who was allowed to 
strangle himself), of Yii Hsien, the most infamous of them 
all, under whose personal superintendence forty-five for- 
eigners were hewn down at his yamen in T'ai Yuan Fu, of 
Chao Shu Ch'iao, Ying Nien, and others of less notoriety. 
Kang I, another important factor in the Boxer rising, 
was reported to have died in southern Shansi. Since there 
was no foreign witness of these deaths or executions the 
evidence of their reality has been regarded by many as 
inadequate, but there seems little reason to suppose that 
any of these officials will ever again figure in Chinese 
affairs. There is a long list of those who might well 
have been included, but if all were named who arc 
guilty it would be hard to make a beginning and still 
harder to kntiow where to stop. 

The experiences of the Chinese Court in the second 
enforced flight of the Empress Dowager within forty 
years, have a peculiar interest for one who pursues this 
strange story to its conclusion. The following notes of 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 551 

some of its incidents are quoted from an interesting 
article by Miss Luella Miner, in the " Century Magazine," 
the collator being a progressive Chinese who, together 
with his relatives, suffered much bitterness from his 
friendship for foreigners, and regard for Western learn- 
ing. It is morally certain that the Empress Dowager 
had been deceived into a belief that foreign troops were 
either not near Peking, or would be unable to enter it, 
otherwise her delay in effecting her flight is utterly in- 
explicable. 

" On the 14th of August the sound of rifles and cannon 
was heard incessantly throughout the day. and it was 
rumoured that foreigners and native Christians were 
sneaking up from T'ung Chou and attacking one of the 
eastern gates. Toward evening it was noised abroad 
that a great company of Mohammedans, in most peculiar 
costume, had entered the city and encamped in the Temple 
of Heaven. Not till the next day was it generally known 
in the city that Peking had been captured by the ' for- 
eign devils ' and that the so-called Mohammedans were 
Indian troops under British officers. That Tuesday after- 
noon, soon after the Rajputs and Sikhs had entered the 
British Legation, General Ma was summoned to the 
Palace, and commanded to await the Imperial chariot 
at the northern gate of the Forbidden City. Toward 
evening the American troops captured the Ch'ien Gate, 
and sent shot and shell against the southern gate of the 
Imperial City. The Empress Dowager wept, and to- 
gether with the Emperor, the Empress, and the heir ap- 
parent, burned incense in the palace and prayed to Ileaven. 
Kang I entered the palace and v/ith great earnestness 
urged them to seek a refuge from the blast of the enemy. 
An edict was issued ordering all the princes and ministers 
to follow in the Imperial retinue. 

"Early on the morning of August 15th, the allies at- 



552 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tacked both the southern and eastern gates of the Im- 
perial City, whereupon the high Ministers hastened to 
the Ning Shou Palace to see the Empress Dowager ; but 
before they entered the palace a eunuch met them with 
the intelligence that the Empress Dowager and the Em- 
peror had already fled, having heard a false rumour of 
a revolution. 

" From the 14th of June, when the Empress Dowager 
returned to the city palaces, she had simply twisted her 
hair in a knot and worn the common dress of the people. 
The morning when she took her flight it was in this 
guise. The Empress Dowager, the Emperor, the Em- 
press, and the heir apparent, each rode in a separate cart, 
the Empress Dowager having Duke Lan's private cart, 
from which she had the red side-awnings removed. They 
left the city by the Te Sheng Gate on the north side. 
General Ma escorting them. The Chinese report that the 
favourite concubine, " Pearl," was strangled and thrown 
in a well. Of the Princes, nobles and high Ministers, 
about thirty were in their retinue ; Prince Tuan, Prince 
Chuang, Duke Lan, and Kang I being of the number. 

" The first night the royal fugitives lodged at Kuan 
Shih, a little village containing a Mohammedan inn, about 
thirty miles north of Peking. At this point they obtained 
mule litters, — palanquins borne by poles on the backs of 
mules, one in front and one behind. The Empress Dow- 
ager lay down in her litter all day, eating very little. 
The next night they lodged at Ch'a Tao, a place just 
outside the inner arm of the Great Wall, about fifty miles 
northwest of Pekmg. The District Magistrate did not 
know of the arrival of the chariot, and had made no 
preparation for their entertainment, so there was nothing 
for the Imperial table but a few grains of corn, while 
the retinue all had a hungry look. The District Magis- 



THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 553 

trate had only one sedan-chair, in which the Empress 
Dowager rode from this point, while the Emperor and 
the Empress still rode in the mule-litters. 

" On the 17th of August they arrived at Huai Lai. 
When they left the capital in haste and confusion, they 
were simply clad in summer raiment. After going 
through the Pass, the weather became suddenly cold, so 
they stayed in the Pure-True Temple of Huai Lai for two 
days to make their winter clothing. 

" On the 20th of August they arrived at Hsiian Hua 
(twenty miles from Kalgan). From this point three Ver- 
milion Pencil edicts were dispatched, one giving the 
causes which led to the flight of the Imperial family, the 
Emperor blaming himself for lack of intelligence in his 
use of men as officials, and blaming his Ministers for not 
using to the utmost the talents with which they were 
endued by Heaven. A second edict commanded the Min- 
isters to follow the court to T'ai Yuan Fu, while another 
remitted the taxes of the region through which they had 
passed. They stayed five days at Hsiian Hua. 

" From Hsiian Hua they went to Ta T'ung (near the 
northeastern boundary of Shansi), where they stayed two 
days. In going from there to T'ai Yuan Fu they passed 
through Tien Chen. This place had already been looted 
by rebels, so that shops and markets were all empty. 
Just as the District Magistrate was in great confusion and 
dismay, having nothing to lay his hand to, it was an- 
nounced that the holy chariot had suddenly arrived. 
Crazy with grief and fear he drank poison and died. So, 
when the Imperial party arrived they found only an empty 
city, and that night supped on a few drops of soup. They 
then sent the Imperial butler, a eunuch, back to Peking 
to purchase provisions and other necessities. 

" When the chariot, the retinue, and the Eight Banner 



554 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

'(Manclui) soldiers arrived at T'ai Yuan Fu, over three 
hundred soldiers were sent back to Peking, under the com- 
mand of General Te, with only four taels apiece for 
pay, and later over three hundred men were sent back 
under Prince Su, each man receiving five taels. Of the 
high Ministers, only Kang I, Wang Wen Shao, and Chao 
Shu Chiao were left in the Imperial retinue, though there 
were several lesser Ministers. 

" Toward the end of September the earnest plea of the 
Emperor for a return to Peking seemed likely to win the 
day. The provincial Treasurer of Pao Ting Fu tele- 
graphed that the allies were about to make an attack on 
Pao Ting Fu, followed by an invasion of Shansi, so again 
the wish of the Empress Dowager prevailed, and the 
course of empire took its way westward. It is almost as 
far from T'ai Yuan Fu to Hsi An Fu as from Peking to 
T'ai Yuan Fu, so now it seems as if the Empress Dowager 
had burned her bridges behind her. In this ancient capi- 
tal of the Empire she means to stand at bay." 

It seems likely to be the strange fate of this woman, 
after directly authorizing the commission of perhaps the 
greatest crime against the intercourse of nations in the 
whole history of the human race, to be restored to her 
usurped throne, and to undisputed power, with no criti- 
cism upon her conduct in the past, and no guarantee as 
to her behaviour in the future. 

Whatever her fate or that of the Empire which she 
did so much to ruin, one of the most picturesque scenes 
of modern times will continue to be the Punishment of 
Peking. The city has been turned inside out, like the 
fingers of a glove, but whose hand shall ultimately fill 
it remains still to be settled. 



XXX 

THE RUIN OF t'uNG CHOU 

THE city of T'ung Chou, twelves miles east of 
Peking, is situated at the head of navigation of 
the Peiho, or North River. The plain upon 
which Peking is built, while thickly populated, does not 
afford sufficient supplies for the use of a large city, and 
every year enormous quantities of tribute rice from the 
central provinces pass through this river port on their 
way to the capital. 

The very name of the city denotes that it is the town 
by which traffic penetrates to Peking (" t'ung " signifying 
"to pass through"). From T'ung Chou to Peking a 
broad stone road on a high level was constructed cen- 
turies ago, but this has fallen into complete disrepair, so 
as to furnish at once a monument of the capacity and the 
incapacity of the rulers of the Empire. Parallel with this 
great stone road, of which countless foreign travellers 
have had heart-breaking (and back-breaking) experi- 
ences, a canal leads to the Tung Pien Gate of Peking, at 
the junction of the northern or Tartar City with the 
southern or Chinese City. Five blocks interrupt the pas- 
sage of boats, the cargoes requiring as many reshiftings, 
but to the patient Chinese this is an altogether minor 
matter. 

Contrary to the erroneous impression prevailing in 
Western lands, Chinese cities may be said to be built with 

555 



556 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

an invariable irregularity for geomantic purposes, but 
few city walls even in China have such a devious out- 
line as that of T'ung Chou. This is because it consists 
of two cities, an old and a new, the latter added many 
hundred years ago on the western side of the former one, 
apparently for the purpose of including within its spa- 
cious and devious circuit an Imperial Granary, long since 
fallen into ruin. 

Owing to the composite structure of the city, T'ung 
Chou enjoys the unusual (perhaps the unique) distinction 
of having two south gates, but the principal suburbs are 
outside of the east and the west gates, although that on 
the north, in the vicinity of the handsome and striking 
old pagoda, is also of considerable size. 

What the population of T'ung Chou may have been 
no one can say with certainty, but there is good reason 
to suppose that since foreigners have known it there 
have been perhaps between fifty and seventy thousand 
persons in and about the city. The arrival of the grain- 
boats from Tientsin, as well as those bringing the tribute 
direct from Shantung, was an annual event of capital im- 
portance to the whole population, for a large part of the 
people got their living directly from this nourishing 
stream of rice. This rice which had formerly been 
brought in junks by sea, and within recent years in 
steamers from the south, was trans-shipped at Tientsin 
to special boats which ultimately discharged their cargo 
on mats spread upon the bank of the canal leading to 
Peiho, a short distance below. After being measured 
and sacked, it was carried to the granaries, thence pass- 
ing through the intricate and tortuous channels estab- 
lished by Chinese precedent before reaching its final des- 
tination. Armies of huge brawny coolies were to be seen 
shouldering the clumsy sacks weighing perhaps consider- 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 557 

ably over 200 pounds avoirdupois, and in this manner 
thousands of laborers found employment. 

Next to the excitement caused by the annual arrival 
of the tribute grain, was that occasioned by the various 
Literary Examinations in Peking', especially that for the 
second degree of " Selected Men " (Chii Jen). For a pe- 
riod of several weeks, when the river was alive with boats 
and boatmen, innkeepers, carters, wheelbarrowmen, mer- 
chants, and coolies, as well as many others in T'ung 
Chou, reaped a rich harvest. At such times the prices 
of boats and carts would mount to extravagant figures, 
for the traveller from a distance was completely at the 
mercy of the local sharks, each one of whom took care 
to get a liberal bite. Aside from these special causes of 
prosperity the steady stream of official and unofficial 
travellers, merchants, and traders, and the handling of 
the merchandise passing through for Peking, particularly 
the large and important item of foreign freight, upon 
which it was easy to collect the most exorbitant charges, 
made the carrying of goods and passengers a lucrative 
specialty of this gateway of the Capital. 

For about a third of a century, or since 1866, T'ung 
Chou has been a station of the American Board Mission, 
beginning with small premises in the center of the city, 
and later extending to others further west. Within the 
past ten years they have embraced also an extensive area 
some distance beyond the south-west comer of the city. 
Within the city walls were located a dispensar}- and hos- 
pitals, for both men and women, a theological seminary, 
schools for boys and girls, as well as four dwelling- 
houses and numerous other buildings. Outside the city 
was the North Qiina College of the American Board, 
together with four dwelling-houses occupied by the 
faculty of that institution ; there were also adjacent 



558 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

premises, where were the beginnmgs of an industrial 
plant. 

It is important to observe that, from the first, the rela- 
tions of the people of T'ung Chou with the foreigners 
living am.ong them had been one of ideal friendliness. 
There had not only never been a riot, but no disturbance 
of any sort had broken the uniform harmony. The in- 
fluence of the long years of work in the hospital and 
dispensary had been wide-spread. The College was 
recognized by the people and by the local scholars as an 
honour to the city. Intercourse with the officials had al- 
ways been friendly, and sometimes cordial. That the 
foreigners were well known and trusted, the following 
instance will show. 

When the Allied Forces attacked Peking, in October, 
i860, the city of T'ung Chou took occasion to capitulate 
on its own account, offering to furnish the foreign troops 
whatever was required in the line of supplies, on the 
condition that the city itself should not be harmed, — an 
arrangement which was carried into effect. 

During the progress of the war between China and 
Japan, when it was feared that Peking must fall a prey 
to the invader, Dr. Sheffield, the President of the College, 
was approached, with a view to ascertaining whether in 
the event of the arrival of the Japanese he would under- 
take to go out and meet them, and make such terms as 
would secure the integrity of the city. When it was 
learned that he was willing to assume the undertaking, 
upon a set day a guard of five hundred soldiers was sent 
to their residences to escort Dr. Sheffield and Dr. Good- 
rich to the military headquarters. There they were re- 
ceived with the salute of cannon, reserved for officers of 
the rank of Governors-General, and were introduced to 
an audience with several high officials, all of whom 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 559 

treated the foreigners with the highest respect, and were 
greatly reheved at the prospect of intervention at a crisis 
of pecuhar difficuhy. While the later movements of the 
Japanese did not call for the execution of this service, 
the fact that it was asked and promised, and especially 
the gaudy concomitants of the explosion of so much 
powder and the marching of so large a force of soldiers 
in honour of two foreigners, tended to surround them 
with a blaze of glory, the effects of which were not 
evanescent. 

For more than ten years previous to the building of 
the railway between Tientsin and Peking, such a work 
had been not only projected, but approved by Imperial 
Edict. Upon one occasion, when it seemed about to 
materialize. Dr. Sheffield was visited by one of the gen- 
try of the city, whose first movement was to perform 
the kotow. Subsequently he arose to explain that he was 
praying to be saved from the terrors of an invasion of his 
ancestral grave-yard by the iron road of the fire-wheel- 
carts, which would disturb the slumbers of his fore- 
fathers, and bring swift and irreparable ruin upon the 
whole family. It was no doubt difBcult for him to com- 
prehend, and still more to believe. Dr. Sheffield's statement 
that this entire business from first to last was in the hands 
of the Government, and that private Americans living in 
T'ung Chou had absolutely no connection with it. 

After many false starts and countless set-batiks, the 
building of the line from Tientsin actually began to take 
shape after the close of the war with Japan. At a pre- 
vious period, when it was regarded as certain to material- 
ize, Chinese speculators took pains to lay hold of large 
tracts of land in the vicinity of the city, where the rail- 
way station was likely to be. The people of T'ung Chou 
were in an agony of apprehension lest the geomantic for- 



56o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tunes of their city be overwhelmed with disaster, and 
the trade ruined by the new and dreaded innovations now 
not merely threatened, but certain to come upon them. 
They had left no means untried, no stone unturned to 
avert this calamity, but in vain. 

At their very extremity one more device was thought 
of, which was their last hope. The difficulty with the 
innumerable protests which had been made was, that 
some yet more influential counter-memorial always took 
the wind out of T'ung Chou sails, and left them in a 
worse position than before. It was by bribing the Cen- 
sors in Peking that an influential memorial against the 
proposed line was secured, pointing out its dangers for 
T'ung Chou, and the undesirability of antagonizing the 
people of that city. There was a popular impression that 
one of the Princes was also induced to interest himself 
in the matter, and that it was owing to his influence that 
the course of the railway was turned toward the west, 
around the great Hunting Park, known as the " Nan 
Hai Tzu," where it passed through a region destitute of 
any towns of importance. While it would receive no 
local traffic, there would at least be no opposition. At 
all events, although the evil could not be altogether pre- 
vented, it was at least driven to so great a distance that 
it would no more disturb the peace of the denizens of the 
City of Penetration. 

There was a brief period during which these hopes 
seemed to have been completely accomplished. Every- 
thing went on as it had always done, and fear was 
banished. But in the spring of 1897 it began to be no- 
ticed that the usual number of travellers did not visit the 
city, en route to Peking, and that the boat traffic fell 
off in an unexampled manner. This happened to be the 
year for the triennial examinations in Peking, when, as 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 561 

mentioned, T'ung Chou expects a plenteous harvest. But 
only a fraction of the students came by the river as they 
had hitherto invariably done, for the fire-wheel cart had 
just begun its regular trips, and the curiosity of the travel- 
ling public to see it and to experience the sensation of 
'■ rapid transit," brought such a multitude of passengers 
that the means of transportation were much more than 
exhausted. The vans were all filled, and so were the 
freight cars ; even the platform cars used for hauling 
gravel had to be pressed into service. 

The railway was a triumphant success from the start, 
but poor T'ung Chou wept in secret (and in public) 
places over the loss of its passenger trafific. Business 
was no longer done as before. The inns were largely 
unoccupied, the stores sold but little, building and re- 
pairing stopped at once ; the carters and donkey-boys, con- 
stituting a by no means insignificant portion of the active 
life of the city, had nothing to do. Venders of food on 
the street found a small and a diminishing market. The 
barbers w^ould tell their customers, as they gossiped over 
the dressing of their queues, that from the largest firm 
in the place down to the peripatetic seller of ankle-ties 
not a soul but was suffering from the locomotor ataxia 
which had attacked every form of business. In short 
the place was beginning to die, and the people were likely 
to die with it. 

This was bad, but worse was in prospect. The numer- 
ous important families who farmed the tribute grain 
business of T'ung Chou had good reason to fear that 
their innumerable perquisites, derived from the trans- 
portation, the storing, and the handling of the rice, would 
soon be cut ofif. It had been discovered that galvanized 
iron box-cars had proved a complete protection to the 
great quantities of tea formerly shipped from Tientsin 



562 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

z'ia T'ung Chou for Russia, much of which used to be 
stolen 01 route by broaching the packages on the river. 
A memorial to the Emperor already quoted had long since 
suggested the sending of the Imperial supplies by the 
same route, on the ground that " it would put a stop to 
stealing by the crews of the boats." It would also put 
a period to the subsistence of a large part of the T'ung 
Chou people, as they clearly foresaw. 

But as their earnest prayer had been granted and as 
the peril had not invaded their grave-yards, and as the 
new road was built for the Emperor himself, it did not 
appear that there was anything to be done about the 
matter, unless it might be to repent in dust and ashes, 
which the whole city appeared to do. From the merchant 
in his large and unfrequented shop to the manure-gatherer 
and the beggar, all alike would tell you of the decay of 
business and the fact that it was no longer possible to 
make a living. A score or more of large firms were said 
to have removed bodily from the eastern suburbs of the 
city to Peking, to regain their trade which had left them, 
and in some of the streets grass was literally growing 
where it had never been before noticed. 

The northern part of China is the land of dust-storms. 
On some sunshiny day it is noticed that the rays of the 
sun appear to be less powerful than usual. Presently 
they are obscured. No cloud is to be seen, but a dull 
haze of a dark brown hue becomes more and more per- 
vasive, until the dust settles down quietly from above, or, 
if the wind has arisen, arrives in swirls speedily envelop- 
ing everything, so that on the worst occasions it may be 
necessary to light the lamps in the middle of the day. 
No one knows whence the dust comes, why it comes 
at some times and not at others, or why it comes at all. 
It is simply an indisputable and an iiiiluential fact. 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 563 

Not unlike the dust-storm of the quiet t>'pe, was the 
arrival of the Boxer movement at T'ung Chou. " Like 
a spirit it came in the van of the storm." 

The writer reached that city on the 17th of May by 
boat from Shantung, with a guard of three soldiers, who 
were regarded with surprise by all foreigners and most 
Chinese, as an unwonted and a superfluous luxury of 
travel. The river route was quiet, and so was that by 
land. T'ung Chou was quiet also, although there were 
rumours that trouble was brewing in the east suburb. 
It was afterward known that the Boxer virus had been 
brought by men who came in boats from Tientsin, or 
perhaps Tu Liu, a noted Boxer head-quarters on the 
Grand Canal eighteen miles south by water, and after- 
wards nearly destroyed by foreign troops. The training 
was recommended as useful for protection of one's per- 
son, one's home and family, and one's village. It had no 
elements of hostility to foreigners, and was so simple that 
even children could learn it, as w'as soon demonstrated. 

Occasionally some of the ladies going about as usual 
in their sedan-chairs or otherwise noticed demonstrations 
which attracted their attention. Once a man capered in 
front of the chair and made motions as if to cut off his 
head, and the by-standers laughed. In about ten days 
the rumours grew more alarming, but were vague, inde- 
finable, and could not be verified. 

The movement had no sooner begun to mal<e headway 
than a beggar was seized who had been to the foreign 
hospital for treatment of the itch, where he had been 
given a sulphur ointment. This was held to be a deadly 
drug designed for use in the poisoning of wells. An 
elaborate examination was held by the Chou Magistrate, 
at which the charge was solemnly declared to be not 
proven, but it had the effect of inflaming the minds of 



564 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the people, already wrought upon by the rumours of 
what had been done, or was to be done elsewhere, in the 
way of driving out all the foreign devils. 

The culmination of this movement has already been de- 
scribed in connection with the account of the flight of 
the party of Americans from Tung Chou to Peking, on 
the 8th of June. A notification was sent to the officials 
that the premises were turned over to their care, and 
on the follow'ing day the college was burned and looted 
by th.e troops themselves, as well as the dwelling houses 
and every building connected with the place. On the day 
following, the same ruin fell on the property in the city, 
where a large street chapel was approaching completion. 
So complete was the wTeck that it was not only possible 
to ride a horse over the site of two-story buildings but 
it was difficult even to identify the sites themselves. 

The telegraph office and the Imperial post-office were 
likewise destroyed. The post-master (a Christian) had 
a series of the most dramatic adventures in the escape to 
Peking, wdiere he turned over his accounts in full, and 
then barely made his escape to the south, arriving eventu- 
ally in safety at Shanghai. Shen Taotai was imprisoned 
in his own yamen, the sport of the Boxers, and was at 
length enabled to fly, being plundered en route of all his 
possessions, his yamen being one of the first places looted. 
Such was the terrorism of the Boxer movement that it 
may be said that the whole population of the city went 
into it, willingly or otherwise, with a heartiness wonderful 
and instructive to behold. If there were any who pro- 
tested, their voices must have been drowned in the gen- 
eral madness. Their only tangible grievance was the rail- 
way which had destroyed their traffic, and to right this 
wrong T'ung Chou committed suicide! 

The Chou Magistrate was especially hateful and hypo- 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 565 

critical, endeavouring to get evidence against the foreign- 
ers through the incriminating testimony of the beggar 
arrested with his colored itch-ointment ; failing in this he 
had the yamen-runner who made the arrest beaten eight 
hundred blows, for the real reason that the proof was in- 
complete. When the hospital was pulled down he had 
the skeleton found in Dr. Ingram's laboratory ostenta- 
tiously hung up in the front hall of the yamen, where it 
was exhibited to every one as a positive and visible dem- 
onstration of the truth of all the charges previously in- 
sinuated against the Westerners. When the College was 
pillaged the Taotai ordered the Chou Magistrate to 
take the articles of value and put them into the treasury, 
but the latter purposely did nothing, and allowed every- 
thing to be either looted or destroyed. 

The Intendant of the Grain Yamen, named Chang 
Ts'ui, was really the head of the T'ung Chou Boxers, and 
the most incriminating documents were found in his prem- 
ises when they were occupied by United States soldiers. 
A few months later large bundles of these papers with 
complete lists of the Boxer leaders, the memoranda of 
their camps, rations, and followers, and much other like 
information, were captured by the British, and sent to 
Mr. Tewksbury to be overhauled and annotated. 

A few paragraphs from the graphic account of a Chinese 
" Refugee " on his flight south, may serve to give an 
insight into the condition of this city after the foreigners 
had escaped. He arrived on the 21st of June and saw a 
boisterous crowd entering the city gates, while others 
fired off three volleys from their guns as a sign that 
some Christian had been killed, after being dragged to 
the bank of the canal, where the bodies of the slain were 
thrown to prevent the infection of the countr}' with an 
epidemic. 



566 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

These volleys were heard many times a day, and indi- 
cated the terrible slaughter in progress, for about one hun- 
dred and fifty of the Protestant Christians of that station 
in city and country lost their lives in this reign of terror. 

When the Boxers had gathered sufficient headway, 
they demanded an interview with the Taotai, intending 
to kill him. He, however, resolutely refused to see 
them. The Boxer mob began threatening to break 
down the yamen doors, when the other subordinate offi- 
cials, although out of sympathy with him, came to his 
rescue and saved his life, the Boxers being pe.'suaded to 
accept ten " shoes " of sycee (taels 500) in lieu of the 
Taotai's head. It was also agreed that he was not 
to appear outside his yamen upon any pretext, else he 
W'ould be killed. They further compelled him to give 
them a written Commission empowering the Boxers to 
keep order in T'ung Chou and its dependencies, to punish 
all traitors fovmd by them, to demand money and food 
whenever necessary, and to decapitate all who threatened 
the city. 

On the 22nd of June, the Imperial Decree having ar- 
rived authorizing the destruction of the Legations, the 
Boxer banners had prefixed to the characters " Support 
the Dynasty; Exterminate Foreigners," the additional 
words : " By Imperial Command." The result of this 
was to make the Boxer desperadoes absolutely supreme, 
and from the 26th of June onwards the city was under 
their sole control. 

It is worth noting that after the arrival of Li Hung 
Chang, the Chou Magistrate, under whom all this took 
place, was restored to his office (without protest from 
the Ministers), and it was with him that the T'ung Chou 
missionaries were obliged to negotiate for indemnities for 
the native Christians who had been pillaged through 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 567 

the connivance of this very man, now ostentatiously 
friendly and complaisant. 

The embarrassments attending- a readjustment of the 
old relations was aptly expressed by the prefect who was 
appointed to confer with the missionaries as to the in- 
demnities for the Christians, and the punishments which 
should be thought sufficient to atone for so many cruel 
and unprovoked murders. " If you are to take those 
really responsible," he observed, " you must begin with 
the Empress Dowager and go right down, for we were 
all in it," — an accurate and a compendious summary of 
the general situation. 

Within a few days after the Japanese had taken the 
city, several tons of powder stored in a small building 
on a section of the northern wall were blown up, by 
Indian troops as is supposed by some, but with the result 
of a terrific explosion which not only destroyed its 
authors, but the city itself for more than a quarter of a 
mile in either direction. The ruin and desolation within 
this area was more complete than in any other region in 
northern China. The whole tract seemed to have been 
tossed in a blanket, so great was the force of the con- 
cussion. The temple to the god of war, a prominent land- 
mark in T'ung Chou, was left in fragments, its skeleton 
standing, but the remaining timbers lying or leaning at 
every angle. The roof also was gone, but amid the debris 
three figures of the late divinities might be seen standing 
erect, as if striving to appear unconcerned at what had 
befallen their abode. The city was parcelled out among 
the various detachments, and while the Japanese, had 
they been in sole control, might have carried out their 
promises, as it was, not many hours had elapsed before 
T'ung Chou was looted and burned. From the centre of 
the city eastward to the east gate, scarcely a shop re- 



568 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

mained on what was once the great thoroughfare, and 
on the main street connecting this with the north gate 
not a single shop or dwelHng remained standing. Nearly 
all the large places of business were destroyed, and the 
devastation in the eastern suburb, which is long and popu- 
lous, was only less complete. The western suburb escaped 
being burned, and to a large extent the northern also, but 
the latter was occupied by the French and the Russians, 
from whom the people suffered unspeakably. 

A correspondent entering the city tri^d to find a house 
which had not been looted in which to spend the night, 
and where he hoped to secure a bedquilt. He did indeed 
find three in succession in the same building, but each 
one contained a dead Chinese woman, who had evidently 
been first outraged and then cut open, and covered with 
her own bedding ! The miseries of the people for leagues 
about T'ung Chou and for all the following month, from 
the brutalities of the foreign soldiers, will never be known. 

A month after the capture of the city the apparent 
population, aside from the attendants upon the foreign 
troops, amounted to but a few hundreds of persons. One 
might walk for miles even in the western part of the city, 
where the buildings had not been extensively burned, and 
see no sign of life in any court-yard other than those oc- 
cupied by the Japanese, — with the exception of the troops 
of starving dogs. Carts and rikshas were to be seen 
tumbled into a pond, and covered with green slime. 
Some of the largest shops had been looted but not burned, 
and within was still a large quantity of furniture which 
there was no one to use. Only the account-books left 
scattered in the street indicated what firm had gone to 
wreck, whi'c on the dead-wall opposite smiled the felici- 
tous saying: " Creat Joy on Issuing from the Door." 

On the north back street where the foreigners had lived, 



THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 569 

and where some of their neighbours had joyfully ha- 
stened to pkinder their goods, might now be seen in Japa- 
nese, French, and English the announcement : " This peo- 
ple is belonged to Japanese entirely 5th regiment." *' No 
admittance to enter this house," was common, and in 
some districts every door had " Japan " over it, with the 
motto overhead in Chinese (left over from the last New 
Year's posting) " Imperial Grace; Family Happiness." 

In tlie destruction of the dwellings of the foreigners, all 
the adjacent houses had been destroyed also. Not a shop 
was open, not a vender to be seen, not a cup of hot 
water nor an egg to be bought, but throughout nineteen- 
twentieths of the long city desolation reigned supreme, 
while the Japanese flag waved over the granaries holding 
what was left of the tribute rice, which had been the life- 
blood both of T'ung Chou and of Peking. On the river- 
bank, where in the autumn of the year trade was wont to 
be brisk, there was indeed a busy scene, but it was not 
the grain-fleet from Tientsin, nor the cargo-boats with 
tea for Russia, but the Japanese, British, French, Russian, 
and American transports crowding the otherwise un- 
vexed waters of the canal leading to the Peiho. Not a 
boat arrived or departed but under military orders, and 
every boatman was impressed under inexorable — but 
mildly despotic — martial law. 

In a particularly impassable mud-hole (probably dating 
from the Yuan Dynasty) one might come on the strange 
spectacle of a party of Sikhs engaged in making out of 
the roof-timbers of a Chinese house a species of bridge, 
covered with doors, sliutters, and other wood-work, on 
a foundation of huge bundles of ripe sorghum cut from 
the fields with the grain attached. The military road, of 
which this bridge formed a minute section, passed directly 
over deep trenches where the walls of the grounds of 



570 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the North China College had lately stood. When it was 
destroyed the Boxers or the joyful neighbours hastened 
to plant its land with Indian corn, and by the time the 
troops arrived in the autumn this was just ripe enough 
to feed the animals of the members of the mission who 
halted there to inspect the ruins. 

Over the whole twelve miles between T'ung Chou and 
Peking one might pass and repass, and never see a hu- 
man being, nor find at any of the countless tea-houses 
and inns along the route a single opportunity to pur- 
chase a mouthful of food, or even to water the animals. 
Unusually luxuriant crops were standing absolutely un- 
touched, or if, as happened later, the heads of the grain 
were cut off, it was done swiftly and furtively, and with 
scouts looking both ways to detect the presence of for- 
eign troops on that much travelled military road. Many 
of the soldiers took a keen delight in shooting ever}' hu- 
man being in sight who looked like a " heathen Chinese," 
and the result was a broad belt of practically depopulated 
territor)^ where any one could pillage the empty houses 
with comparative impunity, except for the all pervading 
fear of the sudden appearance of the dreaded polyglot 
foreign troops. Each of them represented a hasty and a 
bitter nation, marching through the breadth of the land 
to possess the dwelling-places that were not theirs, whose 
horses were swifter than the leopards, and more fierce 
than the evening wolves, their horsemen spreading them- 
selves and coming from far. 

Many wear}' months was this heavy burden to be home, 
with many nameless horrors upon which we do not ven- 
ture to touch. And all this — and more — was a part of 
The Punishment of T'ung Chou. 



XXXI 

TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 

THE city of Tientsin is the natural gateway for 
the provinces of ChihU and Shansi, as well as 
for parts of Shantung and Honan, and of Man- 
churia and Mongolia. In its relations with foreigners 
there is much which is instructive, and which in view of 
the history of the past year throws light upon the action 
and interaction of causes in a manner well adapted to rivet 
attention. 

The Tientsin men have a reputation for violence, espe- 
cially in speech, and all over China are dreaded as quarrel- 
some and obstreperous. In some places in the central 
provinces the inns have a standing notice: " No Tientsin 
men admitted." When the Taku forts were captured in 
i860 Tientsin capitulated on its own account, and fur- 
nished the foreign troops with all the provisions and other 
supplies needed, at remunerative rates, soon learning how 
to make out of a military occupation a mine of wealth. 
But the people of Tientsin from the first moment of their 
acquaintance with foreigners down to the present time 
have had no love for them. At the very beginning of 
their knowledge of the barbarians a new nickname was 
employed to designate them, by allusion to their hair, and 
they were called " Maotzu." There has never been a time 
when any foreigner passing through the streets or sub- 
urbs of this inhospitable city might not at any moment 
hear himself saluted by infants scarcely able to walk alone, 
reinforced by children of both sexes and all ages, with a 

571 



572 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

taunting chorus of ''Mao! mao! )iiao! mao! " as long as 
he was within hearing. 

The Tientsin massacre of 1870 has already been men- 
tioned among the instances in which the mob element was 
encouraged by the literati and not discouraged by the 
officials, and its result was the loss of twenty foreign 
lives. The French were the principal sufferers in this 
outbreak, but by an unfortunate coincidence their over- 
whelming defeat by Germany in that year made the tardy 
settlement with China in ever)- way unsatisfactory. Had 
the Tientsin riot been properly punished, it is morally cer- 
tain that many important events in the sulDsequcnt rela- 
tions between China and the West would have been dif- 
ferent. 

But though France failed to secure adequate repara- 
tion for the wrong done to all foreigners, according to the 
belief of the Chinese themselves the city and region could 
not escape the vengeance of Heaven. The surrounding 
country is low and flat, and for many successive years 
it was inundated in a way to cause terrible misery to 
an enormous number of people. Refugees by the thou- 
sand, and even by the ten thousand in years of heavy 
floods or wide-spread famine, flocked to this metropolis, 
where they were huddled together in great mat-sheds, 
or allowed to crowd into huts plastered with mud, so 
low that an adult could not sit upright ; there, with no 
other furniture than a broken iron kettle and a rice- 
bowl or two, the occupants lay piled together like the 
puppies of a litter, kept from freezing in the terrible 
blasts of winter only by a few handfuls of straw on the 
bare ground, their ragged clothes, and fragments of 
gimny-bags. 

The population of Tientsin has been estimated at a 
million, or in that vicinity, but this is almost certainlv 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 573 

too high a figure. The city itself is small, and the suburbs 
while crowded are narrow and straggling. But within 
the past two decades the increase has been marked. The 
water traffic centreing here is enormous, and there are 
miles upon miles of boats, laid up in winter, but intensely 
active during all other seasons. 

The great growth in the commercial prosperity of Tien- 
tsin is wholly due to the advent of foreign trade, which 
had advanced with giant strides. Lord Charles Beresford 
found that the amount of duty collected in 1897 amounted 
to about £139,000. a gain in nine years of nearly 65 
per cent ; while the total value of all the exports and 
imports in the same year was about £9,232,030, being an 
increase in ten years of 99 per cent. 

No shrewder people than the Chinese are to be found 
upon this planet — or perhaps any other. They have never 
had the smallest difficulty in perceiving that the phe- 
nomenal prosperity of the " Open Ports " springs from 
foreign trade, and they are ready enough in every one 
of them, as well in British possessions like Hongkong, 
Singapore, and Penang, to put themselves under the rule 
of the outer Barbarian. But this is not to say that they 
love him, or even like him, because they do not. Of the 
innate antipathy between the Chinese and foreigners Tien- 
tsin is an excellent, because an indisputable example. 
What harm had ever come to the people of Tientsin from 
the Settlements, where the Occidentals lived, and in 
which they have expended annually a sum equal to the 
revenues of a kingdom, all of which fell into the hands 
of the Chinese? There was, indeed, in the details of the 
intercourse much to be regretted, and something might 
be said to show that the Chinese had a grievance, but on 
the whole their treatment we believe to have been con- 
spicuously fair and just. 



574 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

The rise of the Boxer movement was far to the south 
of Tientsin, and appeared to wake Httle responsive echo 
in that turbulent metropohs — a fact which excited the 
surprise of many old " China hands." Even in the early 
months of 1900 very little if any unusual excitement 
was visible, and absolutely no sign of a great popular 
rising. A few anticipatory Boxer enthusiasts who 
paraded the streets to beguile the people were promptly 
arrested, severely punished, and put in the wooden collar; 
when the ferment apparently disappeared. 

Yii Lu, the Governor General of Chihli, like most other 
high officers everywhere in China at that time, was a 
]\lanchu. There is always much difficulty in ascertaining 
what a Qiinese (or a Manchu) official means by what he 
says, or by the proclamations which he issues, but there 
certainly appeared to be strong circumstantial evidence 
that His Excellency was not then friendly to the Boxer 
enterprise. Gen. Mei, the commander of the provincial 
troops, was actively fighting and destroying them in large 
companies, which could not have been the case had Yu 
Lu desired to stop him, as the Governor of Sh.antung 
(Yii Hsien) did with his military officers. At all events 
there was an apparent effort to put the Boxers down, 
and some of the proclamations had a ring of severe ear- 
nestness and firm purpose. A little later all this was 
changed by the undoubted approval of the Boxers by the 
Court, and definite orders from Peking to patronize and 
to utilize them. 

It was noted as a singular aiid on the whole an un- 
accountable fact that this city, which one would have 
expected to be the head-centre and distributing point of 
all maleficent anti-foreign virus, was not actually cap- 
tured by the I'oxers until long after they had been operat- 
ing in Pao Ting Fu, Cho Chou, and T'ung Chou. In 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 575 

the country districts within an hundred miles they were 
already violent by the middle of May, and Christian refu- 
gees were pouring into the missionary compounds at the 
foreign settlement in anticipation of a storm which they 
well knew would be unprecedented. 

The correspondence afterward discovered in the ya- 
men of the Governor General showed conclusively the 
complicity of that official with his subordinates in Pao 
Ting Fu (under instructions from Peking), in feeding 
and patronizing the Boxers. The events which took place 
along the line of the Lu-Han railway, and especially the 
destruction of the machine shops and engines on the 28th 
of May at Feng T'ai, and later the stations on the Peking 
line, made a profound impression at Tientsin, which was 
already throbbing with excitement. 

The escape of a large party of Belgian engineers from 
Pao Ting Fu has already been mentioned, and added to 
the tension of feeling. They had left that city on twelve 
boats for Tientsin with an escort and an interpreter. 
They were abandoned and betrayed on the river, lost 
their way, became separated, and several of them dis- 
appeared. Twenty-six of them formed a square with 
the women inside and made direct for Tientsin, travelling 
as well as they could, being ill clad, ill shod, and without 
food, and obliged to drink from pools and streams as 
they could. Five of this party, almost delirious with suf- 
fering and excitement, became separated from the others, 
two of them arriving in Tientsin by themselves. A rescue 
party of twenty-five mounted volunteers and ten men on 
foot bravely went out to bring in the refugees ; the former 
missed them by going around the city, but the others 
brought them into the settlement much more dead 
than alive, and for a time they were totally unable to 
give any account of themselves. One man was shot in 



576 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the leg, and had besides seven wounds in the shoulder 
and head ; one of the ladies was shot through the shoulder, 
and others had wounds of various descriptions. 

The Chinese in the city, as well as the settlement, with 
few exceptions were convinced that the Boxers could do 
all that they claimed — and more. They could resist 
swords, were impervious to bullets, could emit fire at will, 
and could fly. The foreigners, on the other hand, were 
much too self-confident. The very same correspondent 
who reported the adventures and sufferings of the engi- 
neers, remarked on the 3rd of June that " there is no 
reason whatever for anxiety about Tientsin." The people 
of the native city were almost crazed with excitement. 
Many houses were found smeared with blood, and this 
was laid to the door of the Christians, w'hile incendiaries 
and robbers saw in the general disorder a rich harvest 
time. 

On the evening of June 14th (one day later than the 
similar outbreak in Peking) the Boxers began operations, 
and from the second story of high buildings their pro- 
ceedings could be watched. Three chapels inside the city 
were set on fire, and many of the adjacent buildings were 
involved in the conflagration. 

It was probably not anticipated by those who exerted 
themselves to destroy foreigners by shooting at them 
from buildings on the land adjacent to the French settle- 
ment, that within a few weeks their property would be 
confiscated and in some cases sold to the ver>' ones whom 
the late owners had diligently endeavoured to kill : nor 
did the short-sighted Chinese who surreptitiously at- 
tacked their employers foresee that it would not be long 
before it would not be safe for them to go about the 
streets of their own city, and that after nine o'clock at 
night no Chinese would l)e allowed abroad on the foreign 




A.MERICAX BOARD MISSION, TIENTSIN' 




AMERICAN BOARD MISSION, TIENTSIN, AFTER THE SIEGE 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 577 

concessions, except jinrikisha men actually drawing a 
foreign passenger. 

There is no doubt that the Chinese armies under com- 
mand of General Nieh and others fought with a des- 
peration for which nothing in the war with Japan afforded 
any parallel. The official report of Yii Lu published in 
the " Peking Gazette " of June 25th and subsequent dates, 
is an interesting document. He mentions that the troops 
and the Boxers are in cooperation, and that the latter 
were willing to offer their services freely and had fully 
demonstrated their patriotism. Their numbers actually 
present at Tientsin, can not, he says, be less than 30.000, 
and " they regard the burning of churches and the killing 
of foreigners as their profession." So did His Excellency, 
for in the papers captured at his yamen there is an entry 
of one hundred taels as having been paid as a reward for 
the heads of two foreigners ! 

The net result of all this Boxerism and of the sacrifice 
of so many Chinese soldiers in numerous engagements 
was that the Chinese troops were utterly routed (even 
where they might have made a formidable stand outside 
and beyond the walls), and the city left a prey to its foes. 

Military government at once began, and so likewise did 
destruction and pillage. When the whole field had been 
surveyed the destruction of life and of property w^as 
found to have been enormous. Of the former it is im- 
possible to speak with definiteness.but of the latter there 
were everywhere visible proofs. The south gate which 
the Japanese blew open, and at which they entered, had 
its tower totally destroyed, and a temple within the south- 
eastern quarter, used as an arsenal, was the scene of a 
great explosion. Between the south gate and the cen- 
tral drum-tower many of the houses and shops were 
burned, and between this tower and the north gate noth- 



578 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ing was left standing on either side of the street. From 
the drum-tower to the west gate the ruin was not quite 
so universal, while east of the drum-tower except in the 
vicinity of a mission church there was not much devasta- 
tion. 

Outside the north gate, the narrow street extending 
to the iron bridge leading to the yamen of the Governor 
General for display of its wares and for the extent of its 
trade, was perhaps one of the finest in all China. Be- 
tween the Boxers, the Chinese soldiers, and the local 
ruffians whose habit was first to loot and then to burn, 
this long row of business houses was almost entirely ob- 
literated, involving losses amounting doubtless to tens of 
millions of taels. For many days the principal occupa- 
tion of many soldiers, and civilians also, was the garner- 
ing of the rich crop of looted silver from the innumerable 
places where it was to be found, and whence it was car- 
ried ofiF by the wheel-barrow load and the cart load. It 
was a standard story that when the attention of a soldier 
was called to the fact that he had dropped one or two 
" shoes " (each worth about $70 Mexican), he would re- 
ply ; " Never mind, you pick them up — I have all I want ! " 
The treasure found in the various yamens must have been 
enough to furnish a mint. 

The fate of these yamens was interesting as a part 
of the general retribution. That of the Governor General 
which for twenty-two years had been occupied by Li 
Hung Chang (a large part of it accidentally destroyed 
by fire during the winter), became the headquarters of a 
" Tientsin Provisional Government," established by the 
military' authorities, when it was found that there were 
insuperable objections to conceding the request of the 
Russians thatTientsin should be turned over to that Power 
alone. This Provisional Government was constituted by 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 579 

the appointment of a British, a Russian, a Japanese, and 
later a German, Colonel to act as Commissioners, the 
number being subsequently increased to six, assisted by 
the necessary staff for the execution of the functions of 
policing and controlling so large a city and so important 
a centre. 

As soon as Tientsin was taken every Chinese official, 
civil as well as military, promptly disappeared, and most 
of them suffered extreme " bitterness " on the flight 
southward, being systematically pillaged by the Chinese 
at all points of their long journey, so that they were in 
many cases reduced to absolute penury. The yamen of 
the Customs Taotai (one of the most important in the 
city) was occupied by the Japanese ; that of the Prefect 
by the French ; while those of the District Magistrate, of 
the Salt Commissioner, and of the Brigadier General, were 
reduced to complete ruin. Thus an incidental outcome 
of the plan of the officials to combine the Boxers and 
the Chinese troops to drive the foreigners into the sea, 
was that within sixty days of the beginning of serious 
operations officials, Boxers, and Chinese soldiers had ab- 
solutely disappeared from the scene, leaving the hated 
foreigner in undisputed charge of everything everywhere. 

The fort near the Governor General's yamen from 
which the settlement had been viciously attacked, was 
soon taken by the Japanese, who posted a small guard 
over it, other troops occupying the numerous forts in the 
immediate vicinity. Numbers of new and unused Krupp 
gtms were captured in the neighbourhood of the city, 
showing the utter demoralization which seized the Chinese 
soldiers when once it had set in. 

The city had no sooner been occupied than the British 
and other officers pressed on to the river outside the north 
gate to seize the junks, cargo-boats, and house-boats for 



58o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

military transports, in consequence of which thereafter 
not a boat could stir nor a boatman peep except with 
military consent. Every craft of every sort either had 
the label of some " outside country " painted upon it — 
British 87, U. S. Transport 63, etc., — or flew a flag with 
the mystic symbol " T. P. G.," showing that it was reg- 
istered and licensed by the Tientsin Provisional Govern- 
ment, as were the carts, barrows, rikshas, " and also much 
cattle." 

The rice tribute came to an abrupt period, and all the 
extensive supplies on hand were soon looked after by 
some of the military, who were at once omnipresent and 
omnipotent. The long mountain ranges of salt stocked up 
on the left bank of the Peiho, had over them a Russian 
flag at one end, and a French flag at the other, and for 
the next year or so no salt-boats left for the interior, 
where the people got on as they could. 

At the New Year season, when the Chinese most de- 
light in the promiscuous and unrestrained explosion of 
innumerable bunches of fire-crackers, proclamations were 
issued in Tientsin (as well as in the other cities under 
foreign military rule) positively forbidding anything of 
the kind on pain of arrest and punishment. Few of the 
hitherto universally posted ornamental and flowery in- 
scriptions over doorways, and on the door-posts, were to 
be seen, and such was the terror inspired by the foreign 
soldiers that even formal bows on the streets (said to 
be forbidden by the Japanese police) had to be wholly 
pretermitted. It was not considered altogether safe to 
perform these indispensable ceremonies even in the pri- 
vacy of one's own court-yard, where even women were 
said to be sometimes arrested for indulging in the in- 
evitable gambling appropriate to the period of national 
relaxation. Under these strange and bitter conditions 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 581 

many Chinese were heard plaintively to exclaim that it 
would have been better not to have any New Year at all ! 

A year ago the word " yang" (foreign) was every- 
where so odious that even the innocent Mohammedans 
who sold "yang joii " (sheep-meat, a word with the same 
sound but different meaning), were attacked on that ac- 
count. Everything foreign was taboo, or if indispensable 
was dubbed with a new name. Foreign drilling must 
be called " fine cloth " or " wide cloth," foreign rifles 
" knobbed-guns," foreign matches " quick-fire," and the 
like. But now Chinese were everywhere to be met, 
dressed in foreign hats, coats, trousers, and boots (and 
in winter even in hitherto unprecedented mittens and 
gloves), the cast-off property of soldiers and civilians. 
All classes learned the miHtary salute with more or less 
inaccuracy, the smallest children ostentatiously perform- 
ing it before every passer by, and old beggar women care- 
fully shaded one eye under the impression that they were 
thus punctiliously observing the foreign proprieties while 
soliciting a " foreign cash." 

The fate of the materials which were especially de- 
pended upon for the destruction of the hated foreigner 
is an apt illustration of the miscarriage of plans which 
seem to their promoters the best laid in the world. The 
Arsenal in the southeastern corner of the city was found 
stocked with weapons of the most miscellaneous nature, all 
of which were taken over by the Provisional Government 
and issued to whatever foreigner presented a request for 
them as a defence to his life and property. Lead from 
this Arsenal and elsewhere was collected by the Provi- 
sional Government, melted into 200 pound bars, and 
shipped to Shanghai in large quantities, the proceeds 
going to swell the handsome revenues which were pres- 
ently pouring into the coffers of that energetic corpora- 



582 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tion. which with conspicuous success undertook many- 
branches of administration hitherto distributed among a 
score or more of yam.cns, or left altogether undone. 

The right to excavate and remove the remains of the 
Arsenal at Hsiku partly destroyed by Admiral Seymour's 
party was sold at auction, the purchaser unearthing vast 
lava-flows of lead and other metal melted in the general 
combustion, to the enrichment of the foreigner and the 
impoverishment of the Chinese Government. 

For two months after the siege the people of Tientsin, 
many of whom had fled to villages at a distance, were 
afraid to return, but by degrees the city began to look 
less deserted, and the Taku road which passes through 
the foreign settlement began to assume something of its 
wonted activity. Numerically considered, the destruction 
of dwellings in the city itself was a small matter when 
compared with that in the environs. The densely crowded 
main street running through the French concession, upon 
which were most of the Chinese shops dealing in foreign 
goods, was totally destroyed, not a single building left 
standing. Some of them were burned by the foreigners 
during the siege to prevent them from being used as forts 
to attack the foreign houses, and then the shops were 
looted by whomever could get there first. Large tracts 
of the French concession were burned in the same way, 
for since so much was being destroyed it would be con- 
venient to have the whole area laid out anew, and no 
questions asked. 

On the east of the river around the railway station, 
where the fighting was most furious, not a Chinese dwell- 
ing was left, nor for a long distance in any direction. 
The villages along the river between Tientsin and Taku 
have likewise been destroyed, and the same was true on 
every side of the city, but in varying degrees. This ex- 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 583 

tensive diminution in the number of houses, resulted in 
great inconvenience and discomfort, and, when the cold 
weather came on, in unspeakable misery. Extravagant 
rents were demanded for tlie meanest huts ; even more 
serious than the lack of an abode was the difficulty of 
bupng food and the scarcity of fuel, for the rains had 
been deficient, and the crops, such as they were, had 
been neglected. 

Prices were at a preposterous figure, while wages, ow- 
ing to the irrational standard set by the military, seemed 
to promise sudden riches, forty cents being paid for the 
labor of a short day, instead of twenty as heretofore. 
Cash ceased to be the topic of conversation, as it had 
been since the creation of all things, and all the talk was 
of "mao" (dimes), and "yuan" (dollars). But this 
fictitious prosperity had its outcome in the fact that in- 
stead of one's buying for cash — a tenth of a cent — as a 
unit, almost nothing was to be had for less than ten cents, 
so that in terms of food and clothes no one was much 
better off than before. 

To these evils due to a violation of the laws of political 
economy, were added others arising primarily from a 
contempt for the laws of nations. China had defied the 
world, and the world was upon her. With such a poly- 
glot force of troops it was next to impossible to keep 
them in order, and as a matter of fact it was not done. 
Some of the Russian, the French, the Indian, and the 
German troops distinguished themselves as high-way 
robbers, plundering the Chinese of their money, their 
goods, and their clothing, and this in broad daylight and 
in public places. 

Military raids into the regions about Tientsin were 
made in all directions, and although it is impossible to 
get at the facts it is certain that the three shortest of 



584 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the Ten Commandments were constantly violated on an 
extensive scale, and with no redress for " the heathen 
Chinese." Ever}' individual coolie must have a label 
sewed to his coat, or he might be commandeered by an 
urgent military officer for his particular job, perhaps 
being paid good wages, and perhaps at the end being 
dismissed with a kick. Lest their badges be stolen from 
them for the protection of others, some of the Chinese 
had brass plates clamped to their arms, and many poor 
fellows after working hard all day on their way to their 
hovels had the results of their toil snatched from them by 
a French trooper from Algiers, or a German from Kiao- 
chou. 

The native scoundrels who had lately been drawing ra- 
tions from the Governor General as " patriotic Boxers," 
had thrown away their red girdles, and while the looting 
season lasted gave themselves to that industry with a 
single eye and with both hands earnestly. If however, 
one continued poor, he mingled with the crowd and of- 
fered his services as a policeman of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, where he might levy black-mail indiscriminately, 
since there was no one to testify to his past record. 
Now and then, as a result of too great temerity one such 
lost his head, but this was regarded as a mere incident 
in the ordinary line of risks, and had no deterring effect 
upon others. 

The professional rowdies and blacklegs of Tientsin, 
as the fruit of their prudent exertions at the moment of 
destiny, are now rich a.nd prosperous, while those who 
were formerly well-to-do are either in exile or in poverty. 
As one outcome of this inversion of the social order, the 
poor being suddenly rich and the rich becoming poor, the 
numerous and important charities of Tientsin were largely 
dried up at the fountain-head. The soup-kitchens which 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 585 

usually flourish were sought in vain, and although there 
are still a few benevolent gentry who would gladly do 
something for those in distress, their inadequate resources 
are, in classical language, but " a cup of water to put out 
a fire in a cart-load of fuel." 

Whatever the excellences of the Tientsin Provisional 
Government, which within a certain radius were many, 
it entirely failed in the first principle of good administra- 
tion, that the work should be done through the Chinese 
themselves. Li Hung Chang indeed appointed a District 
Magistrate, a Prefect, and a territorial Taotai, not one 
of whom was allowed by the six military " kings " who 
held the actual authority to open an office in the city, 
even if he could set foot in it with safety. The last 
named official, who is a man of weight and dignity in 
the Chinese scale of rank, ought to ride in a chair, and 
appear in his robes of office, but he was ordered out of 
Tientsin as if his arrival were an impertinence, and was 
not even allowed to have a place of business anywhere 
within the county limits. When he called upon the 
" kings " he dared not appear in his proper costume, 
but only in undress clothing, being rightly assured that 
they would never know the difference. 

The whole Chinese system of government is one of 
graded and interrelated responsibility. By their wanton 
acts of violence the Chinese at Tientsin put an end to 
their own rule, and that which took its place was at 
best limited, inadequate, and irresponsible. The inces- 
sant raids of the military drove away the officials in wide 
tracts of country, over which there was no government 
of any kind. Bands of pirates who usually rob water- 
craft and hide up the inaccessible creeks and bays, now 
ranged the country as mounted thieves. Their only and 
inappeasable cry was for " silver." If that were not 



586 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

forthcoming, the poor wretch who was attacked might be 
tied by the queue to a beam in his own house and slowly 
roasted over a fire of fuel. This is termed " sitting on 
the lotus flower " Or he might be forced into a frame- 
work of telegraph-wire heated red-hot, which is called 
" riding on the fire-wheel cart," until he should pay the 
sum demanded. When complaint was made to the Pro- 
visional Government, the very natural reply was received 
that they had at present (although later it was other- 
wise) no jurisdiction beyond the outer rampart of Tien- 
tsin — all the rest was a No-man's land dedicated to mis- 
rule and to primeval chaos ! 

The great eastern arsenal, from which the attacks upon 
the settlement were so fierce and persistent, was captured 
by the Russians on the 27th of June, and although largely 
destroyed as a work-shop for weapons, became an excel- 
lent Russian hospital. The western arsenal, in the 
" Treaty Temple," was a complete wreck, and all its ma- 
chinery was sold to private speculators by the Provisional 
Government, and was stacked up in a melancholy row 
next to the foreign cemetery on the British Concession. 
The huge bell presented by the Krupp Company to the 
Chinese Government long years ago, was in turn pre- 
sented by the Provisional Government to the Tientsin 
British Municipal Council, where it hangs in the Pub- 
lic Gardens, and is expected to give the settlement its 
much-needed standard of time. Could the military 
humiliation of Tientsin go deeper than this? 

The land lying between Tientsin city and the settle- 
ments had gradually increased in value to the extent of 
many hundred per cent, and as much of it was dotted 
with graves it was not to be had at any price. Not many 
months after the capture of the city the French Consul 
General issued a circular notifying the public that that 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 587 

office " did not recognize " the validity of any Chinese 
deeds drawn before the 17th of June (the date of the 
capture of the Taku forts), and that within specified and 
expansive Hmits all land had now by this fiat become the 
property of the French Municipal Council, any previous 
deeds requiring to be registered at the Consulate. In 
pursuance of this act of annexation the ruins of Chinese 
houses were leveled, broad boulevards laid out in de- 
sirable directions, and all plaints of Chinese owners for 
compensation answered with a shrug of the shoulders. 
As much of this land had swarmed with dwellings, the 
hardship to innocent owners was great and remediless, 
and presently these unfortunate individuals found them- 
selves required to pay a tax of several dollars a month 
for the right to continue in temporary occupation of their 
own houses ! These additions to the French territory 
extended from the settlement, north to the river, and 
thence west to the rampart enclosing the city. Upon a 
large part of this it is announced that in future no 
Chinese will be allowed to live. 

Immediately adjoining this is the Japanese quarter, em- 
bracing the whole battlefield of July 13th, and extending 
to the south wall of the city, and east and west from the 
Peiho to the mud rampart. The densely crowded houses 
had almost all been destroyed, and over the ruins of every 
door was posted a sign in Japanese and Chinese : " This 
house reserved for Japanese troops." 

Along the whole frontage of their extensive addition 
they demolished all buildings, dwellings, shops, yamens 
and temples with the rest, and opened a wide street along 
the water front, which the Provisional Government con- 
tinued the whole distance to the Grand Canal, and to the 
Iron Bridge opposite the yamen of the Governor General. 
Innumerable Ch'nese shops and dens thus disappeared. 



588 CHINA. IN CONVULSION 

The boulevard which replaces the narrow and tortuous 
alleys is macadamized and wholesome — but it is by no 
means certain that the late Chinese occupants are entirely 
happy. 

In continuation of this new avenue it was decided 
by the Provisional Government to make a roadway en- 
tirely around the city, but this could only be accomplished 
by the removal of the city wall. A contract for this work 
was given out to a Chinese, who, during the winter 
months hired armies of the poor, thus having the melan- 
choly satisfaction of assisting in destroying the defences 
of the city which had so recently felt the need of them. 
Multitudes of " squatters " along the city wall were 
thereby dislodged and had no place to go, and such was 
the number of homeless wretches in the bitter months of 
the winter, that every temple was choked with them, and 
they filled even the jail of the yamen of the District i\Iagis- 
trate. an official for whom there was now no yamen and 
no use. The whole city wall w^as levelled, the city moat 
filled up, and adjacent dwellings demolished, all to make 
a long esplanade, sixty or more feet wide, encircling Tien- 
tsin, looking to the probable introduction of an electric 
road to accommodate the steadily growing and hitherto 
unmanageable traffic. 

A proceeding so revolutionary could not take place 
without exciting the most bitter opposition from the gen- 
try and the people, who sent repeated and urgent memo- 
rials to Li Hung Chang against it, pleading piteously in 
the figurative language of the Orient that a Chinese city 
without walls is like a woman without her nether gar- 
ments ! Li quashed their petitions with the curt remark 
that the wall was old and of no protective value, and the 
work went on apace to its completion. In the meantime 
the official surveyor of the Provisional Government was 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 589 

set at work to map out the whole region, and to mark out 
a street of uniform width from the north to the south 
gate, remorselessly cutting off several feet from each shop- 
front for the advantage of that hitherto disregarded en- 
tity, the Public. The extensive ponds and holes in dif- 
ferent corners of the city are all to^ be filled up, and 
the land offered for sale, and as every situation is in- 
comparably more accessible than before, the ultimate 
convenience will be great, while the actual owners may 
perhaps be heavy losers. 

The mountains of bricks from the facing of the city 
wall were exposed for sale, and now form the enclosing 
walls and the pavements of foreign premises on the 
settlements, whose owners a few months since were shot 
at and bombarded by soldiers posted on that same city 
wall and perhaps treading on these very bricks. Through- 
out all the streets and alleys of Tientsin, and the other 
cities similarly governed, the houses are all numbered 
with Arabic figures, and many of the streets have been 
renamed, especially by the Japanese, who appear to re- 
gard their settlement as merely an addition to the Islands 
of Nippon. 

Below the mud rampart so often mentioned, the Ger- 
mans, by the same simple formula now exclusively em- 
ployed, have annexed a large tract which has become an 
integral part of the German Empire. Across the Peiho 
on the east, the same facile plan has been followed by 
Belgium, by Russia (whose miles of addition included 
the railway station, and brought two Empires to the very 
verge of war), and by Italy and Austria. Each of these 
nations has now broad areas dignified by the satirical 
designations of " Concessions," but which might rather 
be styled " Aggressions." 

All the " Powers " (except China) are now accommo- 



590 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

dated with a commodious water-front, nearly the whole 
distance from the junction of the Grand Canal and the 
Peiho being appropriated in this way, with the prospect 
of larger demands for the " hinterlands " of each section 
in the future. 

The foreign settlements of Tientsin have been turned 
into a camp, and its principal buildings occupied for mili- 
tary purposes. The Gordon Municipal Hall was a British, 
and the Union Church an Italian hospital. The Japanese 
took the building of the Y. M. C. A. ; the Temperance 
Hall was filled with Sikhs, the Tientsin University with 
Germans, the Chinese Alilitary and Medical School with 
French. All nations, all races, were on perpetual exhibi- 
tion. One might see everywhere the sturdy little Japa- 
nese ; the coarse-featured, stocky Russian ; the somewhat 
undersized Frenchman (perhaps a company of Zouaves 
from Algiers in flaming scarlet trousers of astonishing 
size and shape) ; the burly young German; the stout Brit- 
isher of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers ; the lithe American ; 
together with a motley flow of tall and swart Sikhs, Pa- 
thans, Beluchis, and Rajputs, as well as the Chinese or- 
ganized into the British First Regiment of Wei Hai Wei ; 
here and there an Austrian, Italians decorated with huge 
tufts of feathers on their hats, and occasionally the 
shrewd white-turbaned Parsee. 

To deal with the problem of the commissariat for all 
this mixed multitude was a mighty task. 

In the dead of night one might detect the deep tones 
of the l>ells hung to the neck of long strings of camels 
loaded with stores for Peking, a mode of transportation 
not seen in Tientsin for decades, and only employed while 
the railway was undergoing its slow repairs. The streets 
were choked with interminable processions of British 
pack animals, lines of the capacious Studebaker American 




FIRST BRITISH-CHINESE REGIMEXT, WEI llAI WEI 




RUSSIAN TROOPS EN ROUTE TO PEKING 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 591 

army wagon, the clumsy forage carts of the Russians, 
German vehicles bought from the Dutch and made in 
Java, and the trig little trucks of the Japanese. The big 
humped Indian buffalo drew a light framework support- 
ing a water-barrel for the I\Iohammedan troops, and long 
lines of all descriptions of wheeled drays or carts struggled 
at the hydrants, or at the hose-pipes furnishing distilled 
water. 

The enterprising Cantonese, who owned most of the 
Chinese stores dealing in foreign goods, being regarded 
by the Tientsinese as practically foreigners, were either 
driven away or killed, and their possessions impartially 
looted. The " Tientsin Road " on the French settlement, 
formerly filled with these shops from end to end, was 
totally destroyed, and their places taken by French bar- 
racks. The Temple of the " Purple Bamboo Grove " 
(Tzu Chu Lin) which gave its name to the settlement, 
was wholly demolished and burned, its site being heaped 
with the timbers of wrecked buildings. The once stylish 
Victoria Road was lined with patient Chinese squatting in 
attendance upon stands (if that can be called a " stand '' 
which is merely a cloth spread upon the ground), dis- 
playing a stock of pears, eggs, turnips, and the odds and 
ends saved or plundered from the wreck of the numerous 
stores dealing in foreign goods — candles, lamps, chimneys, 
towels, socks, mirrors, pictures, and all the miscellaneous 
wares found in Chinese shops, each " stand " a small de- 
partment store in itself. 

New places of business burst forth in unexpected spots. 
A gate-house suddenly developed a glass-window on the 
side to the street with the legend : " Exchange to Money," 
for the coin was most confusing. Counterfeit dollars and 
fractional currency abounded, so that one was afraid to 
talve any change at all. The city which hated foreigners 



592 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

and their speech began to be full of signs in English, 
Japanese, French, and German, perhaps informing the 
passer-by that " Japan Wishky are sold here," or that the 
proprietor was prepared, for a consideration, to " Makee 
tattoo in the skin." 

It is a melancholy fact that it was the worst phase of 
Occidental civilization which was displayed most widely 
and conspicuously to the Chinese, and that they were 
given the very best reason to suppose that the principal 
object of every " ocean man " was to find a place in which 
to drink. 

The entire lower end of the Taku Road was filled with 
saloons and disreputable resorts of every variety, where 
roistering crowds of foreign soldiers from all the great 
countries of the world nightly met, and drank, and fought. 
Privates and officers, the latter too in considerable num- 
bers, were shot and killed during the winter in quarrels 
between different contingents of the " China Expedition- 
ary Force," and more than once the French and the 
Americans, the British and the French, or the Russians 
and the British, seemed to be on the point of open hostili- 
ties, with no greater cause than some private bar room 
dispute or a national feud growing out of hotly recipro- 
cated taunts and flings. 

All this, however, belongs to an exceptional and a tran- 
sitional state. Tientsin is undergoing a great transforma- 
tion. It is sure to be in the future far more than hitherto 
a vast commercial distributing depot, its river deepened 
and straightened, the navigation improved, and the in- 
tractable Taku bar brought under effective control. It 
will be a great manufacturing, railway, and educational 
centre, and before the twentieth century is well under 
way will enjoy a prosperity unthought of in the past, 



TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 593 

which will make the year of the Boxer rising seem in 
retrospect like a troubled dream. 

And all this it will owe to the far-sightedness, energy, 
persistence, and skill of the foreigners for whom in the 
closing year of the nineteenth centur>' the Chinese Gov- 
ernment and the Chinese people had no other wish than 
to kill them all. 



XXXII 

FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 

TO describe in detail the experiences of the great 
number of foreigners who were scattered all 
over the interior of an Empire far larger than 
the whole of Europe, would of itself require a volume. 
All that can here be attempted is such a rapid surv'ey 
as to make clear that the Boxer movement was in no 
sense a " rebellion," which it soon became the interest 
of the Government itself and especially of its Ministers 
abroad to represent it to be, but a deliberately planned and 
comprehensive attempt to exterminate foreigners wher- 
ever found. 

That there were edicts issued from the Central Gov- 
ernment in Peking to different and distant parts of the 
Empire ordering the immediate massacre of all foreign- 
ers, is certain. The evidence is of a varied and convincing 
nature. Intelligence of such a Decree was brought to 
missionaries and others by friends in the yamens, by 
friendly telegraph operators, and by officials — some of 
them of high rank — in at least three provinces and in 
numerous places hundreds of miles apart, almost 
simultaneously. Twice at least the original dispatch was 
seen by foreigners, and its phraseology is indelibly en- 
graved on the memories of those who were stunned by 
the appalling and unexampled words : " Feng Yang-jcn 
pi sha, yang-jcn t'ui hui chi sha," " Whenever you meet 

594 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 595 

foreigners you must kill them, and if they attempt to 
escape they must still immediately be killed." 

It has been generally believed that the two Ministers 
of the Tsung Li Yamen who were executed during the 
progress of the siege in Peking, Hsu Ching Ch'eng, and 
Yiian Ch'ang, admitted that they had altered the char- 
acter for " kill," into another meaning " protect " (pao), 
and this is said to have been affirmed by the son of one 
of them, and assigned as a reason for their decapitation. 
This point remains in some obscurity, for several different 
reasons. As a matter of fact the dispatch was not 
altered within the numerous regions where it most seri- 
ously affected foreigners, and in the case of Imperial 
Edicts it is thought incredible that any one should dare 
to take such a step at once fatal and futile. It was of 
course convenient both for the Governors General and 
Governors who refused to obey this Decree and later for 
the Chinese Government itself to assume that it was 
" spurious," a legal fiction which has been consistently 
maintained, and will doubtless remain as the standard 
explanation among the Chinese, and among many for- 
eigners. The theory in that case is that Prince Tuan was 
" a usurper," and that his clique gained possession of the 
seals of State, and for a time put the real " Government " 
under duress. 

It is a Chinese maxim that " an officer depends upon 
his seal," — losing that he loses his office too, and having 
the seal he ex oiHcio is the person to whom the seal be- 
longs. Prince Tuan was put in power by the deliberate 
act of the Empress Dowager herself for a definite pur- 
pose, and there seems to be no evidence that his acts 
were either disavowed by her, or in any way objection- 
able to her until their consequences became so. After 
that, the adoption of the theory of " spurious Decrees " 



596 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

was inevitable, and has been definitely fixed by an Edict, 
as from the Emperor, ordering the collection of all the 
Decrees issued after the siege of the Legations began, that 
their genuineness might be officially denied, so as to put 
an end to their citation as acts of " the Government of 
China." But it should be distinctly recognized that such 
disavowal has no real bearing upon historic facts, and 
can in no way undo the irreparable past. 

In this connection peculiar interest attaches to the ac- 
companying note from Sir Robert Hart, Inspector-Gen- 
eral of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs: 

" Peking i8//i June, 1901. 
" Dear Dr. Smith : 

" It would be interesting to get a really reliable Chinese 
account of Palace doings — and Peking doings — during 
1900: As it is, we are all guessing and inferring and 
putting this and that together, but we have not got at the 
facts yet ! It's all a question with no finality in it — you 
may put down your pen, but every new touch will bring 
a new picture to the eye that looks through the kaleido- 
scope of history — and the Aurora Borcalis of circum- 
stance will change unceasingly. 

" Truly yours, 

" ROBERT HART." 

While the Empress Dowager may not have had per- 
sonal knowledge of every Decree put forth in her name, it 
is morally certain that without her general sanction none 
of them could have been issued. That she was kept mis- 
informed of the actual conditions is altogether likely, and 
nothing is more probal)le, if not indeed certain, than that 
the decisive and irrevocable step was taken in one of 
those paroxysms of fury to which all Chinese and Man- 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 597 



x)j{^iV <^ ^--^ 




A c? L 



«? 



/f- jT^'^ 



r 



. ^r^ 



Vrf--^^-^^ 



O 



«r <J'^« 




598 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

chus, high and low. the latter quite as much as the 
former, are perpetually liable. 

That this act was itself caused by a piece of intelli- 
gence received just before the decision was taken, which 
exerted a powerful influence on the mind of the Empress 
Dowager, has been often and confidently affirmed, and 
is in itself so natural an explanation of her sudden anger 
that, while it is impossible at present to prove it, there 
is yet sufficient evidence to adopt it as an hypothesis. It 
must be premised that it had long been the habit of the 
Court to have translations made from the foreign jour- 
nals in China for palace perusal, many of which must 
have been particularly unpleasant reading. 

The story is that on the 19th of June an unknown offi- 
cial in Shanghai sent to the Grand Council in Peking a 
telegram embodying the substance of something which 
had there appeared. What that article was is not known, 
but that there were editorials printed at that time which 
would have been likely to produce such effects is indis- 
putable. Of that type is the following paragraph, which 
appeared in the leading journal of the Far East, the 
" North China Daily News," on the morning of June 
19th, 1900. 

" The Empress Dowager is reaping the whirlwind with 
a vengeance, and it is very doubtful whether she will 
stay in Peking to gather the harvest. . . . Instead of 
having one or two Powers to pacify, China is at war with 
all the Great Powers at once, and she is at war by the 
choice of the Empress Dowager and her gang. . . . 
Whatever happens, this gang, if it does not go of its own 
accord, must be driven out of Peking. It is to be hoped 
that it will be possible to get out the Emperor Kuang 
Hsii and replace him on the throne. Meantime, it should 
be made perfectly clear that it is the Empress Dowager 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 599 

who has undertaken the present war, and that we are not 
fighting- China, but the usurping Government at Peking." 

This newspaper, which has for a sub-title " The Su- 
preme Court and Consular Gazette," might very naturally- 
pass among the Chinese for what is remote enough from 
its real character, the organ of the British Government 
and its official spokesman, although the smallest acquaint- 
ance with the facts would show any reader that it was 
the alm.ost incessant critic of the acts of that Government. 

The Relief Expedition under Admiral Seymour had 
been already ten days on its way from Tientsin to Peking. 
Should it succeed in entering the city this was to be its 
program, and no faltering for sentimental reasons was 
to be allowed : " The Empress Dowager was to be de- 
posed," — the mere suggestion of which had brought about 
the coup d'etat of 1898. " Hell has no fury like a woman 
scorned " — and the rest we know. 

Attention has been repeatedly called in these pages to 
the fact that the greatest hostility to foreigners in China 
arose among the Manchus, rather than the Chinese. In 
the Grand Council the former were represented as being 
practically unanimous in favour of defying the world, 
while the latter ofifered strenuous albeit unavailing ob- 
jections. The leading officials at the bottom of the move- 
ment, with a few prominent exceptions, were Manchus. 
Among the singular phenomena of this strange time was 
the frankness with which Chinese Ministers abroad ex- 
pressed themselves in regard to the policy of the Gov- 
ernment at home, in marked contrast to the usual cau- 
tion of all Chinese officials in refusing to commit them- 
selves. Press reports of utterances of this sort on the 
part of the Minister to Great Britain (Lo Feng Lu), the 
Minister to France, and the Minister to the United States 
(Wu Ting Fang), agreed in thus fixing the responsi- 



6oo CHINA IN CONVULSION 

bility for the invasion of the laws of nations on a Manchu 
clique. 

The substance of a few sentences from an interview 
with the first named, as published in the October (1900) 
number of " Crampton's Magazine" (English), clearly 
illustrates tJiis point. " The enlightened part of the popu- 
lation," he says, " including all the Chinese Mceroys and 
Governors, condemn the Boxer movement, and have no 
sympathy with it. But with the Manchu Governors and 
\'iccroys the case is different. They get their posts with- 
out rigorous examination tests, and are on this account less 
educated. No educated Chinese would believe, for in- 
stance, that foreign rifles would prove harmless in battle. 
I should never have supposed that a Manchu mandarin 
could believe such a statement. It has been a revelation 
to me, I confess. If there is to be a free competition of 
talents, there can no longer be a class monopoly of the 
high offices of the Empire. The Manchus are all con- 
servative, while the Chinese are more liberal." 

After explaining how Confucius can be interpreted 
as in favour of some check upon unlimited authority, he 
expresses the opinion that there would be no justice in 
the demand for implicit obedience if the man at the 
helm of State would go madly in support of a Boxer 
movement so as to endanger the destiny of four hundred 
millions of people who are quite innocent. He closes 
with these significant words : " I hope that financial, edu- 
cational, and judicial reforms will be introduced after this 
crisis is over, and I would even say — as a representative 
of my country as well as of my Government — that I hope 
the Powers will insist upon reforms." 

The Chinese Ship-of-State under its Manchu Pilots 
was thus launched upon its dangerous course down un- 
known rapids, and the shock was distinctly felt in every 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 6oi 

part of the huge craft, from the southern top of the 
province of Kuangtung to the banks of the Amur River 
in the distant north, and from the sea-board to the con- 
fines of Turkestan. No such evidence of the unity of 
the Chinese Empire has ever been witnessed. 

It was of the greatest importance to the Government 
that there should be practical unanimity of action through- 
out the Empire, as well as in tlie Peking Grand Council, 
and to make sure of it a Decree was issued on the 26th 
of June, addressed to twenty-four Governors General, 
Governors, Military and Naval officials, in the following 
terms : 

" We yesterday announced to Li Hung Chang, Li Ping 
Heng, Liu K'un Yi, and Chang Chih Tung, the facts 
that it is equally difficult to repress or to soothe the 
feud of the society men against the converts, and that hos- 
tilities were first resorted to by the Powers. 

" The reluctance of you Viceroys and Governors, after 
considering the position and estimating your strength, to 
provoke foreign enmity lightly, may well be the policy 
of tried Ministers consulting the interests of their State. 
But unfortunately, in the present case, the Boxer bands 
have spread over the whole capital, and their numbers 
are not less than several hundred thousand. From soldiers 
and people up to princely and ducal palaces, alike comes 
one cry of hatred of the foreign religion : the two can not 
exist together. Repression meant intestine trouble and 
the utter ruin of the people. The only course, therefore, 
was to turn the movement to account, while slowly de- 
vising reformation. The warning in your memorial not 
to endanger the State by believing their heretical talk, 
leaves out of account the helpless position in which the 
Court is placed. 

" Did you Viceroys and Governors realize how great is 



6o2 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the crisis in the capital you would surely be unable to 
eat and sleep in peace, and would be so anxious to do 
your duty that you could never think of making one-sided 
representations. The present state of things is one in 
which the incitement and pressure of providential op- 
portunity and human affairs have combined to make war 
inevitable. Do not any of you longer hesitate and look 
on, but with all speed provide troops and supplies, and 
vigourously protect the territories ; for any remissness 
you shall be cal'ed to account." 

That any Chinese officials, after a warning such as 
this, should have hesitated to obey the express and re- 
peated commands of the Court, would seem to have been 
in itself virtual rebellion, especially as it was not the cue 
of those in authority to claim or to admit that the Em- 
press Dowager was in any sense a " usurper." 

The outcome of this unexampled situation was that 
Chang Chill Tung, Governor General of the prov- 
inces of Hupei and Hunan, Liu K'un Yi, Governor Gen- 
eral of the " River Provinces," and Yuan Shih K'ai, Gov- 
ernor of Shantung, entered into an agreem.ent with one 
another and with the representatives of foreign Powers 
that order should be maintained within their territories 
upon certain specified conditions, of which the absence 
as far as possible of foreign gun-boats formed a part. 
While refusing to relinquish her treaty rights, Great 
Britain was anxious to do everything in her power to 
strengthen the hands of these Chinese officials who were 
" loyal," if not to the reckless Alanchu rulers, at least 
to the best interests of China itself. 

It was most fortunate that the welfare of Great Britain 
was represented at Shanghai by Mr. Pelham L. Warren, 
as Acting Consul General, and later as Acting British 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 603 

Minister, and at Hankow by Mr. E. H. Frazer, whose 
activity and energy were constantly exercised for the 
general behoof, x^t the suggestion of Mr. Warren, an 
arrangement was made by which the British Government 
took the unusual step of loaning Chang Chih Tung the 
sum of £75,000 for ten years at 4^ per cent, on the 
security of the unpledged likin revenue of his provinces. 
Mr. Warren pointed out (Aug. 9th) to Lord Salisbury 
that it was " most important to strengthen the Viceroys 
in their present position, for if they were overthrown the 
result would be a rising, the suppression of which would 
involve the expenditure of much time and the employ- 
ment of large forces, and this would inevitably be 
followed by the partition of China. The firm position of 
the Viceroys," he adds, " has for the time checked the 
plans of the Peking Government for a general uprising 
against foreigners, which but for this would certainly 
have been carried out." 

The policy of Yuan Shih K'ai in Shantung, where the 
Boxer movement had its origin, was very unpopular, and 
it is said that his own life was in constant danger, a 
special guard of a thousand of his men — the best drilled 
soldiers in China — being stationed at his yamen gates 
with machine-guns to prevent any demonstrations. Many 
months later, when it was perceived that it was only the 
foresight and firmness of Governor Yuan which had pre- 
vented Shantung from being over-run by foreign troops 
as the adjacent province of Chihli had been, the popular 
feeling changed materially; but in the summer of 1900 
the outlook v/as a dark one. 

Another official to whom perhaps the most credit of all 
is due — considering that he is a Manchu — was Tuan 
Fang, then Acting Governor of Shensi. His firmness 



6o4 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

prevented the development of the Boxer bacillus in the 
province, and in the face of the decree of extermination 
already quoted he used the utmost dihgence in pro- 
tecting all foreigners, not only within his jurisdiction but 
also in sections contiguous to it, without that punctilious 
reverence for boundary lines which generally characterizes 
Chinese officials. He specially dispatched strong escorts 
for all foreigners leaving Shensi, and gave express orders 
tliat the soldiers should not return until their charges 
had been actually turned over to the troops of Chang 
Chill Tung sent to meet them, wherever that might 
happen to be. On the long routes thus traversed from 
Hsi An Fu to the comparative quiet of Hupei, there 
were times when but for such protection the travellers 
would have been attacked by large armed bands, and 
might easily have been destroyed. As it was, all the 
foreigners both in Shensi and in Kansu escaped across 
the mountains of Hankow, with no loss of life. 

In the adjoining province of Honan, while there was 
no actual massacre, there were terrible hardships, and 
marvellous escapes. The officials and the people were 
more hostile than in Shensi, yet there were some notable 
exceptions. 

In Shantung, thanks to the protection of Governor 
Yuan Shih K'ai, there was not only no foreigner killed 
during the troubled season of anxiety and flight, but 
comparatively little of the suffering elsewhere so com- 
mon. The American Consul at Chefoo, Mr. John Fowler, 
(assisted by the Rev. George Comwell and others), dis- 
played the greatest energy and resourcefulness in this 
time of emergency, at his own risk chartering, by the 
kind aid of the Japanese Consul, a small Japanese steamer 
at several hundred dollars a day. This made repeated 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 605 

trips to Yang Chia K'ou, at the mouth of an artificial 
canal terminating near Chi Nan Fu, by which and other 
means more than two hundred and sixty foreigners were 
brought safely out of the province. 

The firm stand taken by the triumvirate of high Chinese 
officials previously mentioned, saved the central and the 
southern provinces from becoming inoculated with the 
virus so fatal farther north, but it did not and could not 
prevent isolated manifestations of hostile feeling in the 
intensely anti-foreign coast provinces, as well as in the 
interior. Early in the summer there was serious danger 
in Yunnan, where the French had been active, but 
from whence they were compelled to retire. There were 
hostile demonstrations in Kuangtung, resulting in much 
loss of mission property, and these continued at inter- 
vals for a year or more. Fukien was excited, though not 
to the danger point ; and it became necessary to remove 
all foreigners from the isolated port of Wen Chou farther 
up the coast. 

On the 22nd of July a ghastly tragedy occurred in 
K'ii Chou Fu in western Chekiang, by which Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson, and two sons, Miss Desmond, Miss 
Sherwood, and Miss Manchester, of that city, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Ward and infant, with Miss Thirgood, sta- 
tioned at Ch'ang Shan, were all killed with the utmost 
cruelty.. The movement among the people by which these 
missionaries of the China Inland Mission lost their lives, 
is believed to have had no direct connection v/ith the 
Boxer rising, but was a local rebellion, in which the Dis- 
trict Magistrate was himself killed while endeavouring 
to quell it. 

Although there was no actual outbreak in the remote 
province of Szechuan in south-western China, it was con- 



6o6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

sidered advisable to remove all the foreign residents from 
that province, and from the other interior stations of all 
inland provinces, to the ports. 

There is no reasonable doubt that the Boxer rising had 
been planned to come to a crisis in the eighth moon, for 
occult reasons connected with the intercalary eighth month 
of that year, already mentioned in a previous chap- 
ter ; but, like a time-fuse which could not be regulated, it 
exploded prematurely in the month of May, at least 
twelve weeks in advance of schedule time. 

Some of the phenomena connected with this sudden 
development were entirely new in the long experience of 
foreigners in China. In Mukden, the capital of Man- 
churia, for example, the relations between the Protestant 
missionaries and the officials had been of the most 
friendly character. The Military Governor had assured 
the Presbyterian missionaries, who were holding their 
annual sessions during the early part of June, that no 
safer place could be found than where they were. Yet 
within the space of less than a week the whole atmos- 
phere had changed, and the extreme of friendliness on 
the part of officials and people was replaced by suspi- 
cion and hostility. The Governor would return no answer 
to communications of urgent importance, and it was evi- 
dent that the temperature had been artificially altered 
from Peking. The Protestants escaped just in time to 
Newchwang, their property being destroyed by a mob on 
the 30th of June, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral being 
burned and sacked (July 2nd) and all its inmates roasted 
or butchered. 

Places in which heretofore there had never been any 
open hostility to Occidentals were suddenly turned into 
hot-beds of fanatical fury against everything foreign, the 
people stopping at no atrocities until their purposes were 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 607 

accomplished. The passions of the Chinese appeared 
to be kindled, as fires are lighted by stray sparks falling 
in dry prairie grass, automatically and with no previous 
preparation of any sort. This occurred not in cities 
only, but in the most remote and inaccessible mountain 
hamlets, as well as on the crowded plains and on the 
Mongolian steppes. After all reasonable explanations of 
this fact have been offered, it must be admitted that 
there is a residuum of mystery in these terrible explosions, 
resembling those of contact mines, without perceptible 
antecedent causes. 

The foreigners north of Mukden scattered through 
Manchuria were able to escape by the friendly help of 
the Russians to Harpin, or other places of relative se- 
curity. 

There had long been serious friction between the 
Chinese and Manchu population of Manchuria and the 
numerous Russian troops sent to guard the new railways. 
To what extent this had gone it was difficult to judge, 
owing to the constitutional reticence of the Russian press. 
The Russian Empire was suddenly electrified by the an- 
nouncement that, on the 14th of July, the steamers on 
the Amur River had been fired upon at the Chinese town 
of Aigun by Chinese officers who affirmed that they were 
acting under orders, one Russian officer being killed and 
six men wounded. The next day unexpectedly and with 
no warning the Russian town of Blagovestchensk across 
the river was bombarded by a Chinese battery, three 
Russians being killed and six wounded. 

The reprisals on the part of the Russians for this 
breach of faith, under the misconstrued orders from St. 
Petersburg, were of a terrible nature, involving the 
massacre of many thousand Chinese, men, women and 
children, whose bodies filled the Amur, as certified by 



6o8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the testimony of several independent and unprejudiced 
travellers, themselves eye-witnesses of the devastation. In 
the following September the British Legation in St. 
Petersburg called the attention of Lord Salisbury to the 
report in a Russian paper of a formal thanksgiving serv- 
ice held on the ashes of the Chinese town of Sakalin, 
now renamed Ilinsky, in the presence of tlie authorities, 
the army, an English officer, and a large crowd of 
people. The priest said : " Now is the cross raised on 
the bank of the Amur which yesterday was Chinese. 
Mouravieff foretold that sooner or later this bank would 
be ours." It was added that " in a beautiful speech Gen. 
Grisbsky congratulated the victorious troops ! " In reply 
to the remonstrance of the British Minister to Russia, 
Sir Charles Scott. Count Lamsdorf explained that the 
Government had only just heard of this incident, and 
that it was an unauthorized act of the military at too 
great a distance from the central Government to be in 
touch with its views. 

Meantime Russian troops were pouring into Manchuria 
in immense numbers, and the Russian Government was 
able to give the most satisfactory assurances to all the 
Powers in regard to her intentions to turn over Man- 
churia to the Chinese, as Sancho Panza definitely prom- 
ised Don Quixote that he would perform the necessary 
self-flagellations on behalf of the Lady Dulcinea del To- 
boso " just as soon as ever I have a mind to do so." 

Next to ordering the attack by the regular Chinese 
armies on the Legations, the most fatuous act of the 
Chinese Government in the summer of 1900 was its 
assault upon Russia, to the threatened dismemberment of 
the Chinese Empire, and tlie exposure of " the open 
door " to unknown perils in the future. 

In the province of Oiihli there were many Protestant 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 609 

and far more numerous Roman Catholic stations, from 
which if the foreigners escaped at all, it was with diffi- 
culty. The sea-side resort of Pei Tai Ho, one hundred 
and fifty miles from Tientsin, near the Shan Hai Kuan 
railway, was soon isolated, and its residents were re- 
moved to a British vessel, the various establishments being 
promptly looted by the local villagers without the aid of 
Boxers or soldiers. 

From T'ang Shan to Shan Hai Kuan the railway was 
defended by the Cantonese and others employed in the 
mines, and there might be seen the singular spectacle of 
an Imperial railway operated by the workmen for their 
own convenience and safety, the coal mines being like- 
wise kept from injury, until the advent of the Russians, 
who impartially plundered all property public and private 

From Pao Ting Fu to Ting Chou the Lu-Han rail- 
way was kept in operation for the transport of Chinese 
troops. 

The London Mission station of Ts'ang Chou on the 
Grand Canal was destroyed, but thanks to a friendly 
official its occupants escaped overland to a small sea-port, 
and thence to Taku. Those living at Hsiao Chang, farther 
to the southwest, another station of the same mission, 
fled to the village of P'ang Chuang in Shantung 
and thence to the coast. 

It was the strange fortune of the last named mission 
station, after having been threatened for more than a 
year, to escape at last absolutely untouched and even un- 
entered, being, with the exception of defended treaty- 
ports and one or two minor instances, perhaps the only 
case of this sort in all the vast stretch from the Yellow 
River to the Amur. The temper of most of the people 
was friendly, the reputation and influence of the hospital 
and dispensary wide-spread, but the rancourous furv of 



6io CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the Boxers thirsting for loot was held in check only by 
a timely agreement between one of the native pastors 
and a Boxer leader, by which, in consideration of a 
" feast " and a horse to boot, the place was not to be 
attacked. 

The residents of Kalgan, American and Russian, 
escaped across the interminable deserts of Urga and 
Kiakhta, with great hardships and many wonderful de- 
liverances from seemingly insurmountable perils. 

The China Inland missionaries in Shun Te Fu were 
for a time in great danger. They were driven out of 
their city, but after wandering in the mountains were 
escorted a part of the way to Shansi, whence they were 
turned back by an official just in time to save their lives, 
and at last found refuge in the great Cathedral at Cheng 
Ting Fu. Owing to the prudent and inflexible determin- 
ation of the civil and military authorities not to open the 
city gates, this was not attacked at all. Here the Roman 
Catholic Bishop, three priests, five nuns, and a party of 
refugee Belgian railway engineers were protected until 
rescued by Chinese and later by the French troops about 
the middle of October. 

The adventures of the Greens and Miss Gregg, who 
v^^ere at Huai Lu Hsien at the entrance to the Ku Kuan 
pass, were of the most terribly dramatic character, and 
furnish material for a small volume. They endured 
everything, hunger, nakedness, peril and sword, and their 
escape at all is a standing miracle. The fate of Dr. Tay- 
lor, Dr. and Mrs. Hodge, Mr. and Mrs. Simcox, and 
three children, of the American Presbyterian Mission; 
of Mr. Pitkin, Miss Morrill and Miss Gould, of the Amer- 
ican Board, and of Mr. and Mrs. Bagnall and daughter, 
and Mr. William Cooper, of the China Inland Mission, 
at Pao Ting Fu was still more tragic. 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 6ii 

By the connivance of the officials, civil and military, 
they were all killed. The former party were burned alive 
in their dwelling by a mob on the last day of June, and 
the two latter parties were shot, stabbed, or beheaded, on 
the first day of July. 

In penalty for this great crime a mixed Military Com- 
mission sitting in that city in the following October, after 
full investigation recommended that the Provincial 
Treasurer Ting Yuan be beheaded, tocrether with Kuei 
Heng, the Tartar official of the city, and Lieut. Colonel 
of the cavalry camp, near the China Inland Mission, to 
which Mr. Bagnall and his family with Mr. Cooper fled, 
only to be betrayed to the Boxers and slain. This sen- 
tence was approved by Gen. Gaselee and Count von Wal- 
dersee, and was carried into execution. Several of the 
temples principally used by the Boxers as their head- 
quarters were also blown up, the most important being 
that of the city-god, and the Ch'i Sheng An, in the south- 
eastern part of the city,, where the prisoners had been 
examined at the Boxer altar. All the towers of the city 
gates were destroyed, and the corner of the city wall was 
also blown away for a distance of several yards, to leave 
a brand upon the provincial capital which had witnessed 
such official crimes. 

But it was in the province of Shansi and the adjacent 
regions of Mongolia that the most terrible fruits of the 
Boxer rising against foreigners were produced. This was 
mainly due to the presence there of the founder and 
patron of the Great Sword Society, Yu Hsien, so often 
previously referred to, who had taken his seat as Gov- 
ernor when the nets for extermination began to be spread. 

It has already been mentioned that so rapid was the 
spread of the anti-foreign rising that, by the time danger 
had become certain, it was sometimes too late to escape. 



6i2 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

]\Iany of the missionaries, especially in the northern part 
of Shansi, were Swedes, with but an imperfect acquaint- 
ance with China, and with only infrequent communica- 
tion with the coast. Others, both British and Americans, 
who had been long in the country, had become accustomed 
to being rioted, and regarded this as but one of the ex- 
tended series of outbreaks of which they had had abun- 
dant experience in the past. Many of them could not 
make up their minds to desert their native Christians, 
and nobly preferred to die with them, rather than to con- 
sult their own safety only. 

Friends at the ports exhausted every efifort to convey 
information of the apparent conditions to those known 
to be in danger, but events moved so rapidly that it was 
impossible alike for those at a distance and those nearest 
the storm-centre to determine with certainty what it was 
best to do. 

The danger of the missionaries, great as it was, w^as less 
than that of other foreigners unable to speak the lan- 
guage, and in regard to whom nothing was known by the 
Chinese who saw them pass. Capt. Watts Jones, a brave 
officer of the British Royal Engineers, was barbarously 
murdered west of Kalgan. Mr. Saunders, one of the 
members of the China Inland Mission whose party en- 
dured the most terrible sufferings before they escaped 
from Shansi through hostile Honan to Hankow, at one 
place saved his life only by proving that he was not the 
railway prospector who had been through the country 
some time previously, disturbing the repose of the Earth 
Dragon, spoiling the feng-shui, and preventing rain, thus 
bringing on the terrible drought which was destroying 
the whole land. 

It will be seen from an appended table that the total 
number of Protestant workers murdered durincr the whole 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 613 

Boxer disturbances was one hundred and thirty-six adults^ 
and fifty-three children, of whom more than eighty-four 
per cent were killed either in Shansi or the adjacent re- 
gions of Mongolia. The story of a few of these terrible 
experiences can be recapitulated only in the merest out- 
line.* 

On the 29th of June, the Swedish Union in association 
with the Christian Missionary Alliance, experienced a 
fearful tragedy at So P'ing Fu, in northern Shansi, when 
ten of its members were killed at one time. Six members 
of the China Inland Mission were slain at Ta T'ung Fu 
at about the same date. At T'ai Ku Hsien, on the 31st 
of July, Rev. D. H. Clapp and wife. Rev. Geo. L. Wil- 
liams, Rev. F. W. Davis, Miss Rowena Bird, and Miss 
Mary Partridge, all of the American Board Mission, were 
killed, and their heads are supposed to have been sent 
to T'ai Yuan Fu. 

There were numerous other atrocities in other cities, 
but nowhere anything equal to the terrible spectacle at 
T'ai Yuan Fu on the 9th of July, the account of which we 
have from an unwilling witness, — a Baptist convert whose 
story has been confirmed from other sources. He saw 
the foreign pastors and their wives and children, the 
Roman Catholic priests and nuns, and several Chinese 
Christians, taken to the Governor's yamen. Hearing that 
they were to be killed, he vainly endeavoured to get out 
of the crowd, but was borne along by it, and witnessed 
the massacre. 

* Partial accounts of some of the experiences of the members of 
the largest of the Protestant Missions in China, may be found in 
"Martyred Missionaries of the China Inland Mission, With a 
Record of the Perils and Sufferings of Some who Escaped." 
It is a volume of more than three hundred pages, filled with tales 
of touching pathos, a story of which any branch of the Christian 
Church in any country and in any age might well be proud. 



6i4 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

" The first to be led forth was Mr. Farthing (English 
Baptist). His wife clung to him. but he gently put her 
aside, and going in front of the soldiers knelt down 
without saying a word, and his head was struck off 
bv one blow of the executioner's knife. He was quickly 
followed by ^Ir. Hoddle, and j\Ir. Beynon, Drs. Lovitt 
and Wilson, each of whom was beheaded by one blow of 
the executioner. Then the Governor, Yii Hsien, grew im- 
patient and told his body-guard, all of whom carried 
heavy swords with long handles, to help kill the others. 
!Mr. Stokes. Mr. Simpson, and 'Sir. AMiitehouse were next 
killed, the last by one blow only, the other two by several. 

" When the men were finished the ladies were taken. 
Mrs. Farthing had hold of the hands of her children 
who clung to her, but the soldiers parted them, and with 
one blow beheaded their mother. The executioner be- 
headed all the children and did it skillfully, needing only 
one blow, but the soldiers were clumsy, and some of the 
ladies suffered several cuts before death. Mrs. Lovitt 
was wearing her spectacles and held the hand of her 
little boy. even when she was killed. She spoke to the 
people, saying * We all came to China to bring you the 
good news of the salvation by Jesus Christ ; we have done 
you no harm, only good, why do you treat us so?' A 
soldier took off her spectacles before beheading her. which 
needed two blows. 

" When the Protestants had been killed, the Roman 
Catholics were led forward. The Bishop, an old man 
with a long white beard, asked the Governor why he was 
doing this wicked deed. I did not hear the Governor give 
him any answer, but he drew his sword and cut the 
Bishop across the face one heavy stroke: blood poured 
down his white beard, and he was beheaded. 

" The priests and nuns quickly followed him in death. 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 615 

Then Mr. Pigott and his party were led from the dis- 
trict jail which is close by. He was still hand-cuffed, and 
so was Mr. Robinson. He preached to the people till 
the very last, when he was beheaded with one blow. Mr. 
Robinson suffered death very calmly. Mrs. Pigott held 
the hand of her son, even when she was beheaded, and 
he was killed immediately after her. The ladies and two 
girls were also quickly killed. 

'' On that day forty-five foreigners were beheaded in all, 
thirty-three Protestants and twelve Roman Catholics. A 
number of native Christians were killed also. The bodies 
of all were left where tliey fell till the next morning, as 
it was evening before the work was finished. During 
the night they had been stripped of their clothing, rings, 
and watches. The next day they were removed to a place 
inside the great south gate, except some of the heads, 
which were placed in cages on the gates of the city wall. 
All were surprised at the firmness and quietness of the 
foreigners, none of whom except two or three of the chil- 
dren cried, or made any noise." 

Yii Hsien was Governor of Shansi for but a few 
months, yet such was the fatal spell thrown over the peo- 
ple of that hitherto friendly province by the known ap- 
probation of the Imperial Court, that when he left the 
city he was escorted by thousands of the people, who had 
prepared wine and refreshments along the road-side for 
miles, his " boots of honour " were taken off and hung in 
the city gate to commemorate his virtues, and as if this 
were insufficient, a stone tablet was erected in the south 
suburb to glorify his achievements in clearing the province 
of the hated foreigners. 

It was almost universally recognized at the entry of 
the foreign forces into northern China that the honour 
of the five countries represented among those officially 



6i6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

butchered at this time (Great Britain, the United States, 
France, Italy, and Holland) as well as the safety of all 
future residents of Shansi, required that an indelible 
brand should be affixed to T'ai Yuan Fu, as was done at 
Pao Ting Fu, and that the yamen of the Governor ought 
to be destroyed. But in the pressure of other military 
expeditions all over northern Chihli, this one was omitted, 
to the extreme surprise of the Chinese, and later to the 
unalterable conviction on the part of the population of 
Shansi that their province was totally inaccessible to for- 
eign troops. 

Four different parties from the southern portion of 
Shansi succeeded after terrible sufferings in making 
their way to Hankow, but some of them died of ill treat- 
ment or exhaustion. So far as known it appears that in 
this part of the province, while nineteen escaped, thirty- 
five adults and ten children were killed, or died. 

One of the most pathetic instances of all was that of 
a company of ten, composed of Mr. and Mrs. Atwater and 
two children, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Price, and daughter, 
of the American Board Mission, with Mr. and Mrs. Lund- 
gren and Miss Eldred of the China Inland Mission, who 
were betrayed by the officials of Fen Chou Fu, taken on 
a pretended journey to the coast, and then killed at the 
junction of two counties, their bodies being tumbled into 
a pit near by at the request of the villagers. 

While this tragedy was being enacted in this distant 
province, American cannon were already shelling the For- 
bidden City in Peking, but it was too late to save the 
lives of this and other beleaguered bands, some of the 
members of which were killed more than a month after 
that event. 

The stories of the tragedies connected with those who 
at last escaped from their tormentors, yet so as by fire, are 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 617 

among the most touching memorials of the Christian 
Church in any age. Men, women and children were be- 
sieged in their own dwellings, and when these had been 
fired, were speared or stabbed as they endeavoured to es- 
cape, or were thrust back into the flames. They were 
driven forth from their homes as outcasts unfit to live, 
robbed of their scanty possessions at every turn, until in 
the blistering heats of June, July and August, they were 
bareheaded, bare-footed, and in many cases possessed of 
only the clothing upon their bodies. In repeated in- 
stances ladies were left but a single garment, and on more 
than one occasion a missionary was deprived of every 
stitch of clothing, standing naked upon the streets 
of the inhospitable villages of Shansi. One Catholic priest 
escaped only by being carried a long distance in a coffin. 

They were continually not only under that observation 
without sympathy which Mrs. Browning called torture, 
but were everywhere, for days and weeks in succession, 
confronted by mobs, chased from village to village, into 
mountains, and swamps, obliged to take refuge in aban- 
doned huts, in grave-yards, and often in caves of the 
earth. They were hunted by armed bands like wild 
beasts, and when caught were beaten, dragged on the 
ground, — one of the ladies being purposely run over by a 
cart to kill her — were tied hand and foot, and carried to 
Boxer altars that it might be decided by the spirits when, 
where, and how they should be murdered. Sometimes 
they were saved because the villagers were afraid to have 
them killed in their village, sometimes by a timely fall of 
rain, and again by the instinctive pity of Chinese for the 
poor suffering children and the agony of their mothers. 

Repeated efforts were made to poison them, they were 
often almost starved, and compelled to subsist on roots 
and leaves. Some of them were delirious from uncared 



6i8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

for wounds, and all were subjected to the continued nerv- 
ous strain of incessant alarms by day and by night. They 
were the victims of repeated and deliberate treachery on 
the part of officials, soldiers, and professed guides. Yet 
amid the almost all pervading gloom some act of human 
kindness would lighten their sky. Some officials were 
most friendly, and would have been still more so had they 
dared. One such was degraded by the Empress Dowager 
when she traversed Shansi, for no other reason than his 
kindness to the destitute foreigners passing through his 
jurisdiction. In some cases members of the same family 
were not allowed to see or to care for each other, although 
almost at the point of death. Is it any wonder that one 
who escaped remarked that the text most frequently re- 
curring was that which declared that " the tender mercies 
of the wicked are cruel ? " 

Who were these that Avere thus entreated? They were 
earnest God-fearing men and women who had left all to 
obey the command of their Master to make known the 
glad tidings of the Kingdom of Heaven ; men and women 
of irreproachable character and blameless lives ; some of 
them graduates of the best colleges and universities, to 
whom attractive careers had been opened in the home 
lands, but upon which they had turned their backs. Many 
of them had given long years of toil to the relieving of 
Chinese sufifering in dispensary and hospital work. 

Many months later the last letters of some who were 
killed were brought out of their concealment by faithful 
Christian friends. There is in these missives no note 
of despair, only the solemnity of those face to face with 
a terrible death. One father leaves as a legacy to his 
son the hope that when he shall be twenty-five years of 
age lie may return to China and take up the work which 
the father could not do. 



FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 619 

As long as the Church of God survives upon the earth, 
the record of the Hves and of the deaths of these mar- 
tyrs will be a precious heritage. 

That so many parties, travelling under the conditions 
which have been imperfectly hinted at, should have passed 
through hundreds of miles of hostile territory, been seen by 
hundreds of thousands, and in the aggregate by millions 
of enemies, many of whom were eager for their death, 
and yet have escaped to tell their story, is a moral miracle 
to i^e accounted for only by the recognition of the re- 
straining hand of God. 

The great disproportion between the number of the 
Roman Catholics killed and that of the Protestants, ap- 
pears to be due to the greater size of the Roman Catholic 
tlocks, and to the circumstances that in numberless cases 
thev had extensive establishments which they defended 
with earth ramparts, deep ditches, and rifles or even for- 
eign machine guns. The number of such places success- 
fully defended is at present unknown, but is certainly not 
a small one, and thus far we happen to have heard of 
but two instances where these defences failed. 

No more illustrious examples of martyrdom can be 
found than some of those of the Roman Catholic faith. 
Bishop Hamer of the West Mongolian Mission, nearly 
thirty-five years in China, was seized while celebrating 
mass, bound, and marched through the city to be mocked 
by all that saw him. His hands were cut off while he 
was counting his beads, and three days later his garments 
were torn off, he was wrapped in cotton upon which 
petroleum was poured, and was burned alive. Five thou- 
sand Christians were killed, and every church and build- 
ing in his diocese was destroyed. 

In the Jeho district, Father Segers was tied by his 
hands and feet and carried by a pole, not allowed to speak 



620 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

to his converts, but thrown into a ditch, where he was 
buried ahve. Once he contrived to stand up and his 
head became visible, when he was struck on the head 
with a mattock. 

Surely if anything is to be learned from the teachings 
of history, if the saying of Tertullian that the blood of 
the martyrs is the seed of the Church is a law of unwast- 
ing and perennial energy, and if the promises of God 
are still secure, a religion which has done so much for 
China, and the heralds of which have suffered so much 
from the Chinese, has a great work yet to do in the 
regeneration of that Empire. 



XXXIII 

NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 

Canadian Presbyterian Mission, North Honan* 

The trouble which began in Honan during the spring 
seemed to be local in character, originating in the severe 
drought from which we had been suffering. Three crops 
in succession had failed. As early as March there were 
riots in different places. Some of these were of a serious 
nature, in which there were conflicts between the people 
and soldiers, lives being lost on both sides. By the month 
of June matters became very serious indeed, every day 
bringing fresh reports of granaries searched and wealthy 
farmers looted by bands of starving men. The Magis- 
trates stationed small posts of militia at all the market 
towns, but were unable to preserve peace. They acknowl- 
edged their helplessness by refusing to punish any who 
were accused of stealing grain, saying it was useless to 
punish starving men, and that those who had lost grain 
might look upon it as having afforded help to their dis- 
tressed neighbours. 

On June 15th we were startled to receive a telegram 
from Tientsin saying " Escape south." We also got the 
news of the murder of two Belgians at Pao Ting Fu. 
Not having had any reliable news from Tientsin for sev- 
eral weeks, we were ignorant of what was happening 
there and did not feel like deserting our station without 

* Prepared at the author's request by the Rev. James A. Slim- 
mon, one of the party. 

621 



622 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

knowing the reason why w^e had been advised to do so. 
We waited on anxiously looking for letters but none 
came. 

Meanwhile we communicated with Mr. Jameson and 
party of the Peking Syndicate, who had passed through 
our town on the way to Huai Ch'ing Fu. In reply there 
came a letter from Mr. C. D. Jameson, saying that he saw 
no reason for escaping, as he had not had any word from 
his agent at Tientsin or Peking; and he could rely on 
their sending word if matters were very serious. But 
for our comfort he added that if we thought it necessary 
to go he would place everything he had at our disposal, — 
arms, money, etc., and the personal services of himself 
and Messrs. Reid and Fisher. 

On June 19th we received word that our friends at 
Ch'u Wang were besieged by a mob of over a thousand 
people. This trouble was brought on by a woman who 
declared she had seen Mrs. MacKenzie at an upper win- 
dow performing mysterious rites and sweeping the clouds 
from the sky. Mrs. MacKenzie had been cleaning a win- 
dow in her new house, and this seen from the outside 
looked like making passes and motions towards the 
clouds. The mob gathered round for two or three days, 
but seemed to be in need of a leader. The official on 
being appealed to for help promised to send it, but first 
of all tried to disarm our friends by asking for a loan 
of any rifles or other arms in their possession. This 
ingenuous request was politely refused as was also one for 
a few thousand taels of silver " to purchase arms for 
the soldiers." 

From this time on till the 24th, things began to look 
more and more threatening. Our bankers refused to 
pay us any more money, although they had a considera- 
ble balance in our favour. We heard of Boxer societies 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 623 

springing up in different towns and gradually coming 
nearer us, until on the 24th a few Boxer teachers arrived 
and founded a Boxer school. The motto of this branch 
was " First kill the foreigners, then annihilate the 
Manchus." 

On June 25th we received word that our friends at 
Chang Te Fu and Ch'u Wang had decided to make their 
escape, and that they were arranging to travel together 
to Chi Nan Fu, which seemed the best route. Later on 
they had to abandon this plan, as they found it impossible 
to hire carts for the trip, could get no escort across the 
strip of Chihli Province which lies between Honan and 
Shantung, and had no means of speedy communication 
w^ith the Governor of Shantung. Our friends had de- 
cided on this step because of another telegram which had 
arrived, saying that the Taku Forts had been taken by the 
Allied Forces. We knew then that trouble was certain. 
We sent oft messengers, one to ask Air. Jameson and party 
to meet us at the Yellow River, another to the Prefect at 
Wei Hui Fu, and another to the Magistrate at Hsii Hsien. 
We were afraid of delay in being referred from one 
Yamen to the other. 

We got no help from the Prefect. An escort however 
was promised by the District Magistrate, and friendly 
messages were returned. But he refused to take charge 
of our house, saying that in the present state he could not 
possibly guarantee protection of our property. 

Things were at their very darkest on the 27th. We 
had got together the few things that we had decided to 
take with us, but it looked as if we should require to 
make our escape in the dark, taking no more with us than 
w-e might be able to carry ourselves. The carters who 
had agreed to take us had backed out of their bargains 
and would not come near us, though we offered four or 



624 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

five times the usual rates. Our servants were panic- 
stricken, as we heard of one band of desperate characters 
planning to attack us before we left our premises ; and of 
another band at the other end of the town, formed for 
the purpose of attacking us after we left. 

There was no sleep for us that night ; indeed there had 
not been much for several nights ; but this particular one 
was passed in trying to put courage into our servants, 
and in spurring on the few friends we had in the town 
to take active measures on our behalf. We induced one 
man — our teacher (a literary graduate), — to interview the 
leaders of one band, and by reasoning, expostulating and 
threatening, to persuade them to let us go in peace. 
Another friend performed the sam.e office with the other 
band. But the argument that weighed most with both 
was that we had failed to secure carts, and could carry 
nothing away with us. 

Daybreak of the 28th arrived and while we welcomed 
it as a relief from the terror of the night, we dreaded it 
as the day on which we should have to set out on our 
journey without having been able to make proper 
arrangements for transport. We had sent a messenger 
to a neighbouring town to secure carts there at any cost, 
and as he had not yet returned we feared he had failed 
in his mission. To our great relief, he turned up with 
four carts while we were pretending to take breakfast. It 
did not take us long to get our boxes and bedding on 
board. 

And here one of those incidents occurred that force 
us to believe in a special providence. Just as we were 
almost ready to mount our carts and face the mo^D that 
had gathered around our door, the officer in command of 
the Militia in our town returned from an expedition 
against some robbers, bringing prisoners with him. At 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 625 

our request he called on us and we persuaded him to 
send some of his men to escort us a few miles on our 
way. This nonplussed the mob who got the impression 
that the officer had come by arrangement for our special 
protection. And the fact that he had prisoners with him 
proved to the rowdies that he did not hold his office in 
vain. 

The whole town was gathered together to see us oflf, 
and lined the streets three and four deep on both sides 
all the way from our house to the town gates ; but all 
passed ofif quietly and a few miles out our special escort 
left us to the care of four men who had been provided by 
our Magistrate. We made our first halt at Wei Hai Fu, 
and at once sent our cards to both civil and military offi- 
cials, also to Father Gerrard, who called on us in the 
course of the evening. We explained the situation to the 
priest and invited him to join our party. He replied 
that he had not power to do so without permission from 
his bishop, and if the bishop concluded that it was not 
safe for the priests to remain at their posts, they would 
all retire to a place already prepared among the hills, 
where all their converts were armed and could hold out 
against an army. 

The military official arrived just in time to disperse the 
mob that had gathered round the door of the inn, and was 
getting beyond the control of our escort. The local soldiers 
dispersed them and we had peace for the rest of the night. 
Next day we halted at Hsin Hsiang Hsien for our mid- 
day meal. I was well known at this place, and put up 
at the inn of a man who had been friendly for some 
years. We had been there about an hour when this inn- 
keeper told us that some Boxers had arrived in the town 
a day or two before and that some of them had just come 
to him making inquiries about us, our destination, etc. 



626 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

We at once sent our card to the official to inform him 
and ask for protection. The only result was that we 
were told that the official was not at home, and that our 
informant was at once sent for by the Yamen people 
and told to get rid of us at once. We started off fully 
expecting to be pursued by the Boxers, but reached our 
inn at night without having heard anything more of 
them, and from there on " Boxers " seemed to be an 
unknown term. 

Next day, 30th, w^e reached Yuan Wu Hsien, quite 
close to the ferry on the Yellow River, where we were 
to meet Mr. Jameson and party. The official here at once 
put a strong guard at the door of our inn and thus 
secured perfect quietness for us inside. 

In the evening we were much relieved by the arrival 
of a mounted messenger from Mr. Jameson, bringing 
word that he and his party were coming with a large 
escort, plenty of silver and a few fire-arms. 

Next day, Sunday, ist July, we got to the bank of the 
Yellow River first and waited two hours for Mr. Jame- 
son. When they arrived we found them dressed in 
Chinese costume. They had found the people at Wu 
Chih Hsien — their last halting place — very rude. The 
Magistrate not only declared he could not protect them 
unless they put on Chinese clothing, but made them give 
up much of their luggage. The clothing not only failed 
as a disguise but seemed to emphasize the fact that they 
were refugees, and must have been meant by the officials 
to humiliate them or else as a practical joke, for they cer- 
tainly looked awkward and clumsy. 

Just as we got to the south bank of the river, we saw 
the Chang Te Fu and Ch'u Wang party arrive on the north 
bank, so we waited till they came across. We were now 
a large company — made up as follows: Ch'u Wang party, 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 627 

Mr. and Mrs. MacKenzie and one child, Dr. and Mrs. 
Leslie, Misses Mcintosh and Dow ; Chang Te Fu party, 
Mr. and Mrs. Goforth and three children, Miss Pyke and 
Miss Dr. Wallace, Messrs. Griffith and Hood; Hsin Chen 
party, Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell, Mr. and Mrs. Slimmon and 
one child ; Peking Syndicate party, Messrs. Jameson, Reid 
and Fisher. The missionaries had only a small escort, 
but Mr. Jameson's party had a fine escort of mounted 
men, and a petty court officer who was very useful in mak- 
ing arrangements with officials by th-e way, about local 
escorts, inns, etc. Having now the Yellow River between 
us and the Boxers, we got off bright and early next morn- 
ing, all in good spirits, with the exception of Mrs. Slim- 
mon, who was beginning to be anxious about her baby, 
who showed signs of breaking down under the strain of 
the journey. 

Mr. Jameson was inspired with a happy thought this 
morning and sent a man off on horseback to dispatch a 
telegram from K"ai Feng Fu to the British and Ameri- 
can Consuls at Hankow, informing them of our where- 
abouts and asking that help be sent. The messenger had 
seventy miles to go, seventy miles back, and then to catch 
up with a party travelling thirty-five miles a day. It was 
a great undertaking, but Mr. 'Jameson was not a man to 
be daunted by difficulties and the feat was accomplished 
at the expense of the plucky little pony, that died after 
reaching Fan Ch'eng. Tlie sending of the telegram 
proved to have been a wise proceeding, as it conveyed to 
our friends the first intimation that we were alive, and 
also enabled our Consuls to get Chang Chih Tung to 
send us much needed help. 

The next two days we suffered much from heat, as we 
were travelling through the loess region. The sun blaz- 
ing down into the deep roads made them like ovens, and 



&28 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ihe roads being thirty or forty feet below the level of the 
country there was no possibility of getting any breeze. On 
reaching Hsiang Hsien we found Mr. and Mrs. Gracie 
living in seeming peace and quietness. They were sur- 
prised to learn that we were fleeing for our lives and 
invited Mrs. Slimmon and myself to stay with them for 
a while, and give our little one a chance to recover. She 
was by this time very ill indeed and we were sorely 
tempted to run the risks and accept the invitation. But 
at midnight Mr. Gracie came to our inn and told us 
that the converts and friends had strongly advised them 
to join our party, which they decided to do and would 
have done, but found it impossible to secure carts. They 
expected to be able to do so in the course of the day and 
try to overtake us. Subsequently we learned that they 
made their escape by way of Chou Chia K'ou to the 
province of Anhui, having most harrowing experiences 
by the way. 

We were now approaching the Nan Yang Fu district, 
the only place where we really anticipated any trouble, 
and our fears proved to be only too well grounded. On the 
7th July we arrived at Hsin Tien, thirty li north of Nan 
Yang city. We had intended halting there for the night, 
but on our arrival we found it impossible to get accom- 
modations for the whole party. Mr. Jameson, with his 
usual thoughtfulness for the ladies and children, decided 
to push on to Nan Yang city, well knowing that it was 
a most dangerous place at which to halt. 

And just here I would like to say that Mr. Jameson 
and his party nobly fulfilled the promise that th.cy per- 
sonally, and all they had, w'ould be at our disposal. They 
not only gave us the best rooms at the inns when there 
was any choice, but shared their stores with us, giving up 
their last tins 01 milk when they learned that our friends 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 629 

had exhausted their own supply. They let us have all the 
silver we needed, and without this help it would have 
been impossible for us to get along. Air. Jameson also 
proved himself to be a born leader. It was a great relief 
to leave everything in his hands, knowing that there was 
no detail of arrangements, such as interviewing Man- 
darins, getting the daily local escort, securing inns, and 
the hundred and one little things incidental to such a 
journey, but w^ere in most capal^le hands. He never 
seemed worried or anxious, but had a cheery word of 
encouragement for each one as he went his daily rounds. 
On leaving Yu Chou at daybreak Mr. Goforth's serv- 
ant took the wrong road and later the other parties got 
separated from us and went by a different way. This 
took the large company of ladies and children safely past 
a procession of rain dancers that VvC ran into in one of 
the towns en route. Mr. Jameson and his friends were 
on horseback five hundred yards ahead of our carts, and 
suddenly found themselves surrounded by an armed body 
of men two hundred strong, followed by a huge rabble. 
The rain dancers wore green wreaths on their heads, and 
were armed with huge swords, being on a pilgrimage to 
a famous temple to pray for rain. Catching sight of 
the foreigners they at once surrounded them crying out 
" Here are the foreign devils that have chased away the 
rain." One of the leaders suggested killing them at once, 
and our friends had a bad ten minutes persuading the 
crowd that it would be a dangerous thing to try. Mean- 
while we came to the fringe of the crowd, and learning 
that it was a rain procession, we did not stay to make fur- 
ther inquiries but turned hastily up the first lane, which 
proved to be a ciil do sac, and our carts stood there with 
their backs toward the main street effectually screening 
us from the mob, who passed by quite unaware of the fact 



6jo CHINA IN CONVULSION 

that there were foreign women in their midst. Upon get- 
ting through the town we found Mr. Jameson and friends 
filled with the gravest apprehensions for our safety. 

We arrived at Nan Yang Fu after dark, and searching 
the city for quarters had finally to separate and put up 
in miserably poor inns, but this turned out to our advan- 
tage. We approached our inns from the south, thus 
throwing those off the scent who were expecting us from 
the north. On trying to see the official we were told he 
would see us at eight o'clock next morning. This looked 
ominous. At midnight a messenger arrived from the 
party at Hsin Tien, saying they were besieged in their 
inn, and asking for help. We tried to see the Mandarin 
to get help for our friends, but only succeeded in getting 
a promise that some runners would be dispatched to put 
down the disturbance. Mr. Jameson, seeing that it w-as 
useless to expect help from the Mandarins, sent back half 
of his mounted escort. 

Some of our servants told us that the Roman Catholics 
had been besieged in their fortified place four miles away, 
and that a soldier had been beheaded by the officials, be- 
cause he had carried out their orders too literally, and 
in tr}ang to disperse the besiegers had injured one of 
them ; we also learned that plans had been made to kill 
the whole of our party, and it was for this reason that 
we had been told to wait till eight o'clock next morning. 

Realizing our danger, we at once got our tired animals 
hitched up again, and got off at three o'clock and 
travelled to Hsin Yeh Hsien ; here some of the mounted 
men who had been sent back to Hsin Tien to help our 
friends turned up, and told us what had been taking place. 
Our friends had been in negotiation with their besiegers, 
who were demanding a large sum of money. They 
waited on in tlicir inn till eight o'clock, hoping that assist- 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 631 

ance would come from us, then despairing of that hope 
they left their inn, and were surprised to find the town so 
quiet. 

The sigh of relief they gave on reaching the town gate 
was turned into a gasp of dismay as they passed through 
and found a mob of several thousand people waiting for 
them outside. A band of two hundred men lining the road 
waited till the last cart had passed out of the town and 
then made a sudden attack on our friends, who jumped off 
the carts and tried to frighten them off by firing a few 
revolver shots over their heads. Mrs. Leslie, who was 
completely prostrated by the fatigue of the journey, was 
unable to get off her cart, and it was in trying to shield 
her that Dr. Leslie was seriously injured. Besides a large 
number of flesh wounds he had his right wrist and right 
leg cut through to the bone, the large sinews in each case 
being severed. Mr. Goforth also received bad sword 
cuts on the head, and two of Mr. Jameson's men who 
fought bravely received severe wounds, which later proved 
to be fatal. When our friends got clear of the carts, the 
mob began at once to break open the boxes and the sight 
of the loot turned the armed band from their design, thus 
enabling our friends to make good their escape. 

In the course of the day they all found their way back 
to the main road, managed to get the empty carts, and 
proceeded on their journey, having lost everything, but 
thankful to have escaped alive. At daybreak next morn- 
ing the servant who had lost his way rejoined us. He 
belonged to Mr. Goforth, so we gave him a shoe of silver 
and sent him back to meet his party. 

We pushed on towards Fan Ch'eng and about midday 
reached the border of Hupei province to find a fine body 
of soldiers sent out to meet us from Hsiang Yang Fu. by 
order of Chang Chih Tung. Our hearts went up in 



632 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

thanksgiving as we realized that here was real and ade- 
quate help, and that consequently our dangers were over. 
Arriving at Fan Ch'eng we found that every provision 
had hcen made for our safety and comfort. We waited 
here for our friends, who arrived on the night of the 
loth, in a sad plight indeed, poor Dr. Leslie especially 
being in a bad case, having had to lie in the bottom of his 
cart for three days without having his wounds attended 
to since they had received the first rough dressing by 
Dr. Jennie Dow, who tore up one of her remaining gar- 
ments to make bandages for him. 

We spent all of the next day providing them with an 
outfit. Mr. Jameson and his friends were able to supply 
the gentlemen with underclothing, etc., while the ladies 
had to be content with a Chinese wardrobe. Our sweet 
little Eleanore died on the nth, just nine months old, 
and while our hearts felt too sore for words, we were so 
thankful that she had lived until reaching Fan Ch'eng, as 
we were able to take the. body on from there and have it 
buried in the English cemetery at Hankow. 

We travelled down the Han River to that port, and 
two days out from there were met by a steam-launch 
sent out by the American Consul to bring us in. 

Arriving at Hankow on the 21st we went directly on 
board a steamer for Shanghai, having been twenty-four 
days on our journey. 

English Baptist Mission, Shansi. 

Upon the entrance of Yii Ilsien into Shansi as Gov- 
ernor, the Boxers spread rapidly throughout the province. 

Communication with the coast was cut off in May, so 
that money supplies were not received. About June 21st 
Mr. Farthing wrote from T'ai Yuan F"u to Mr. Dixon, 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 633 

at Hsin Chou, that it was known that a telegram had 
come from the Empress Dowager to destroy all foreigners, 
and added " If true, I am ready and do not fear ; if such 
be God's will I can even rejoice to die." On reading this, 
Mr. Dixon said to Mr. Chao, his evangelist, " I feel just 
the same ! " 

In the city of Hsin Chou, from June 23-25th, near 
the mission premises, theatrical performances were given 
to the god of wealth. A great crowd were present 
and a clamouring mob formed at the mission gate. Ap- 
peal was made to the Magistrate who at first promised a 
guard, but it failed to appear. 

By this time the Edict telegraphed from Peking had 
become known, as when another request was made, with 
threat of reporting to the Governor if not granted, the 
Magistrate replied, " Tell the foreigner he can report to 
the Emperor if he likes and I shall not fear! " 

Reports from country stations of violence of Boxers 
towards native Christians led to sending a messenger to 
T'ai Yuan with a letter of consultation to Mr. Farthing. 
On reaching T'ai Yuan the messenger found some of the 
missions already destroyed and all abandoned. He ha- 
stened back and reported the circumstances. Mr. Dixon 
comprehended the growing danger, called the mission to- 
gether and after consultation decided upon flight. There 
were eight in their party. 

Taking food, clothing, and bedding, with some money, 
they set out in the early morning and travelled thirty li 
where they rested for a time. While at this point they 
learned that two hours after they left their homes a 
proclamation from the Governor had come for the local 
officials to destroy the foreigners' houses and kill the 
foreigners. On hearing this they decided to move on at 
once to the place of hiding which they had chosen. 



634 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

After leaving the village Mr. Dixon dismissed the 
faithful evangelist Mr. Chao, who was only persuaded 
to leave them on the consideration that he might get word 
to foreign friends and perhaps secure help. It was a 
sorrowful parting, but in it shone forth the brave spirit 
of those who were soon to lay down their lives. Mr. 
Dixon said " If we are all killed and not one escapes there 
are many more to take our place." Mrs. Dixon spoke of 
her four children who were to lose a mother's care, but 
said, " God will surely raise up friends for them." 

This same evangelist returned to Shansi in October 
and learned the rest of the story of this company. 

On the evening of that day they reached the village 
of Liu Chia Shan where the one Christian of the place 
had his home in a cave, and where they expected to pre- 
pare a cave for themselves as a place of refuge and 
defence. 

They lived in this place for twenty days unmolested, 
when their place of hiding became known to the Boxers 
who sent a company to arrest them. The villagers fled 
and the band could not efifect their arrest. A few days 
later a deputy wath soldiers went to them and with prom- 
ises of a safe escort to the coast induced them to return 
to Hsin Chou. By this time their food supply was 
exhausted, and they had been five days without food. 

On arriving at Hsin Chou they were taken to the ya- 
mcn. The Magistrate asked how much money they had 
in the bank, and when told drew it all out and kept it 
himself. 

The missionaries were placed in the common jail where 
they were kept for sixteen days, receiving only the poorest 
prison fare. On Aug. 7th, a deputy from Yii Hsien came 
to see that the Governor's will was carried out. 

Two days later they were taken from prison, placed in 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 635 

four carts and told they were to be taken to the coast. 
Arriving at the east gate of the city the missionaries 
were dragged from their carts and stripped of all their 
clothes. Then both Boxers and soldiers set upon them 
and literally hacked their heads to pieces. Their bodies 
were dragged outside the city and left on the banks of a 
river where they were shamefully treated by villagers 
near by. Later the head of the literary graduates of the 
city, who had been friendly to Mr. Dixon, bought mats 
in which to wrap the bodies and hired men to bury 
them at the foot of the city wall. 

After the massacre the highest military official went to 
the mission houses, chose the articles which he wanted 
for himself, and then turned the houses over to the 
soldiers and the people to loot. 

China Inland Mission, Honan* 

The long continued drought in Honan had produced 
a restless feeling among the people and made them ripe 
for mobs and riots. Warning had been sent by mission- 
aries fleeing from the north that it would be better for 
us at She Ch'i Tien to escape at once. 

Sunday, July 8th, a large crowd gathered at the close 
of the service, watching the Christians as they scattered, 
and although it was dispersed without an outbreak it 
became evident that we must hasten our preparations for 
leaving. 

The next morning at an early hour the streets were 
again packed with a mob, evidently intent on mischief. 
We could not go into the streets, but our boxes were 
taken over a wall into a neighbour's yard, and we all 
followed by means of a ladder. Soon after this the mob 

* Dr. G. W. Guinness and party. 



636 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

were battering on our front door. Our teacher, who was 
pale with apprehension, said " I fear worse than death 
may happen to you ! " The landlord of that house led us 
to his guest-hall in one corner of which was a ladder 
leading to a loft. He bade us " go up quickly and keep 
still!" 

There we lay hid, listening to the shouts of the mob 
and soon to the crash of falling timbers and masonry. 
The rioting had begun in earnest. The heat was intense 
and in a little time we heard the crackling of flames, and 
saw the smoke of our burning homes. Suddenly there 
were a rush ! The mob had traced us over the wall and 
into the room beneath, where every sound was heard by 
us. " Kill the foreigners ! They must be here ! Let us 
go up the ladder ! " 

After brisk altercation they were dissuaded from doing 
so and went away only to return again and again. They 
got on the roof and stared in through the five windows 
but we stood between the windows, flat against the wall. 
Once two boys caught sight of us and spread the news. 
Back came the crowd but again were bluflfed off by the 
landlord. 

So passed the day from 7 a. m. till 8 p. m. when dark- 
ness brought relief. One of the ladies had been seriously 
ill and was very weak. Her month old babe might cry 
and reveal our whereabouts, when all would be lost. We 
prayed in silence and the Lord heard and kept the child 
quiet from dawn till dark. A pot of tea was passed up 
and then the wearied mother could quench her thirst. 

Then the landlord came and said " Don't delay ! Fol- 
low me ! " We descended the ladder, crossed the court 
and entered a room where grain was stored. A stool 
was placed on a great basket of grain, from this we 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 637 

clambered through a trap-door to a loft above. The stool 
was removed, the door shut and all trace of our where- 
abouts was gone. The room was full of dust and rub- 
bish, but it gave us a safe refuge for four long days. 

That first night we left the loft to go to another 
house where carts were to take us away when the police 
again appeared at the front gate to search the house. 
Back we hastened up the ladder and their search was 
again futile. The next morning rioters came and finished 
the work of demolishing our house. All day their yells 
and blows on the house sounded in our ears. Towards 
night I heard two men piling timbers near our hiding 
place to burn us out, but they did not fire the house. 

Every night new plans for escape were discussed. 
Every day fresh bands of searchers came to hunt for us. 
At midday of Thursday our landlord suddenly appeared 
and said " Fly ! they have come with swords to kill you ! " 
In two minutes all had dropped through the trap-door 
and scaled the wall into the garden of our ruined home 
and were standing in the blazing sun. Soon a man fol- 
lowed us over the wall, failed to see us, and called back 
" They are not here ! " We were soon safely back in our 
loft again. 

That night came rain and with it a chance to escape 
to a large business firm, where we were hidden in the 
strong room in the top of the house. The room was 
small and dark with one window eighteen inches high. 
Here we stayed twelve days, guarded by a member of 
the firm who was armed with gun and sword and sharp, 
heavy iron pins for throwing. 

In the early morning of our last day carts were brought, 
in which we made our way out of the city and eight li 
down the river where a small boat was in waitinsr with 



638 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

four men for escort. The boat was searched by customs 
officials at different barriers twelve times or more, but 
we were not discovered. 

We and our escort lived in the one small cabin thirteen 
days until we reached Hankow in safety. We paid our 
escort their well-earned reward and dismissed them. We 
were ragged and dirty, and in clothing that we had lived 
in for a month, but we were thankful to have been 
brought safely through our perils by One who " never 
forsakes those who trust in Him." 

China Inland Mission, Shansi.^ 

Mr. and Mrs. Ogren had been stationed at Yung Ning 
in the western part of Shansi only a year. The officials 
were very friendly, one of them having asked Mr. Ogren 
privately the right way to pray for rain, as his own 
prayer had been unavailing. The people had become rest- 
less and threatening because of the long drought. 

In the middle of June the Boxers came to the city. They 
rapidly made recruits and soon a guard was sent to 
protect the mission from them. The official advised Mr, 
Ogren to take his family away. Their servants began 
to forsake them. 

One day a man went through the streets beating a 
gong and warning the people away from the wells which 
the foreigners had poisoned. That day the main spring 
of the city turned red. The official dared not let Mr. 
Ogren longer visit him but sent his Secretary by night to 
consult with them. They at last asked the official to 
furnish them with funds for their journey, their own 
supply from the coast being cut off. This he was ready 
to do; also to take charge of their house. 

* Story of Mr. and Mrs. Ogren. 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 639 

That night while packing, a spy was discovered in a 
tree of the court watching them. Before dayhght the 
morning of July 13th Mr. and Mrs. Ogren and their little 
child started in a litter for the Yellow River eighty li 
away, to go to Hankow. They were provided with a 
guard, and also with an order from the Magistrate to the 
official at the river hank to hire a boat for them. On ar- 
riving at the river there was a hostile demonstration by 
the crowd but the official saw them safely off in person. 
Two soldiers went with them on the boat. 

The current was very swift and their frail craft was in 
constant danger of being wTecked. They went five hun- 
dred li, half-way to Tung Kuan, the corner of the prov- 
ince where Shansi, Shensi and Hanan join. At this half- 
way place they were told that a party of foreigners had 
been murdered and their bodies thrown into the river only 
a few days before, and it was probable that this would 
be their fate if they continued down the river. 

They decided to get across the river into Shensi, and 
soon came to a place where there v/as an official eighty 
years old who knew the Yung Ning official and showed 
them great kindness. He had a farm across the river 
in Shansi and offered to send them there and let them 
have food, while they could hide in caves nearby till 
peace came. While with this old official, a party of 
soldiers came saying they were sent to drive the for- 
eigners out of the province. Their host gave the soldiers 
a feast and persuaded them to go away. He soon sent 
the refugees on their way, with servants to escort them 
across the river. 

It was only ten li distant, but before going half that 
distance they were set upon by robbers who took all their 
money, except one hundred cash, and most of their cloth- 
ing. Reaching the ferry they crossed in the early morning 



640 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

but waited four days to send back to the old official for 
money. This came and they walked on towards the 
farm, going slowly, carrying their child. The next day 
they reached the farm but were not kindly received by 
the tenants. At first they refused them food but later 
gave a scanty supply. They were twice visited by rob- 
bers, and at last were threatened by the farmer's son, 
who coveted the hundred taels offered by Yii Hsien 
for ever}' foreigner's head. 

This led them to leave their hiding-place and make 
their v/ay northward again to return to Yung Ning. The 
road was very rough, the country sparsely inhabited, but 
many people were kind, so they could at least get one 
meal a day and places to sleep. 

After several days they came to a branch of the Yellow 
River which they must ford on foot. An old man led 
the way through the swift current, and also let them 
rest at his place that night and the next day. The day 
after, when nearing a customs barrier, they were set upon 
by a crowd and later followed by a customs guard who 
had been ordered to get them out of Shensi. This guard 
several times seemed on the point of killing them, but 
finally went with them across the river and then handed 
them over to the Boxers. 

The next morning Mr. Ogren was taken to the Boxer 
General. Mrs. Ogren could hear his voice for a time 
pleading for his life, then the sound of the incantations 
inquiring if their lives were to be spared, then followed 
a great uproar which she thought to be his death. 

Later a man came to take her on, telling her she 
and her husband were to be sent on to Yung Ning, but 
she did not believe that the latter was still living. She 
spent that night in a cave. In the morning while going 
on they met a Boxer band and her guide disappeared. 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 641 

The Boxers rushed at hier as if about to kill her, but 
only ordered her to get away, which she did rapidly. 

In the afternoon she stopped under the shade of a 
tree where many women gathered around her. They 
were very kind and pitiful and gave food for herself and 
babe. At night she learned that there were Christians 
across the river. She forded it, being nearly swept away, 
and then found no friends, only enemies who would only 
give her water and left her and the child to sleep under 
the open sky. In the night two Christians stole to her 
side and led her to a cave, but could do no more for 
her because of the Boxers. 

In the morning she re-crossed the river but was soon 
seen by Boxers who with drawn swords drove her to a 
temple. The head-man of the village came out and rescued 
her, giving her food and some stockings ; the next day 
he sent her on to Ta Ning under guard. The Boxers 
followed full of fury and were with difficulty restrained 
from falling upon her. Arriving at Ta Ning she was 
taken to the common prison. Food and fruit and some 
money were passed to her through a hole in the door. 
The keepers were quite kind. 

The next morning she was taken to the Magistrate, 
and made to kneel while she told her story. He became 
kindly in manner and said her husband was still living 
and would rejoin her later. She was then led to an inner 
court where the official's wife wanted to see her. The 
lady came out on a balcony and threw one hundred cash 
to her. That night in the midst of the night she heard 
her husband's voice calling her. She found him speak- 
ing through a hole in the door. The next morning they 
were taken to a comfortable room in the yamen where 
she was able to dress his wounds, cook some food for 
him and hear the story of his escape. 



642 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

When talcen to the Boxer General he had first been 
upbraided for destroying the people with his doctrine and 
was then given up to the crowd of Boxers. They kicked 
and beat him cruelly, taunting him with " Pray to your 
Jesus now ! " 

They led him to the bank of the fiver to kill him 
and there fell on him with spears and swords. Being 
clumsy with their weapons they inflicted no fatal wounds. 
He finally jumped into the river and although his hands 
were bound he struggled across and escaped in the dark- 
ness. The next day a Christian farmer helped him with 
food and money. Learning that his wife was at Ta 
Ning he worked his way on to that city avoiding notice 
and evading Boxers until just as he entered the city, 
when he was chased to the yamen where the official 
sheltered him. His wounds were severe, on head and 
neck and shoulders, from sword and spear. 

By this time it was the last of August. After two 
days two donkeys with wooden pack-saddles were fur- 
nished them and they were sent on to P'u Hsien. They 
were attacked by Boxers, but their guard fought them off. 
From that place they were to have gone on to P'ing Yang, 
but orders came to send them back to Ta Ning. 

This journey was made in great pain and discomfort, 
no food being given them. Her husband fell into the 
water when fording a stream, but they at last reached 
the city. They were again put in prison and given food. 
At this time the little one grew very ill, but a man brought 
a cow and they got milk. The vermin in tiie filtliy prison 
were terrible, and \lr. Ogren grew ill with fever. Their 
only comfort was prayer. 

Here they lived on till early in October, when deliver- 
ance came. Orders arrived to suppress the Boxers and 
send the foreigners to P'ing Yang to be forwarded to the 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 643 

coast. They went part of the way in chairs and part way 
in mule Utters, being forwarded from stage to stage by 
the officials. 

Arriving at P'ing Yang they were most poHtely re- 
ceived by the officials and sent to a former mission house. 
It was nearly all in ruins but there were two rooms that 
could be used. After a few days Mr. Ogren grew worse 
and died October 15th. The Chinese were kind and as- 
sisted in giving burial. Not a few surviving Christians 
came to sympathize with his widow. 

Soon after, the baby boy grew very ill, but again the 
mother got a cow, and with proper food the child re- 
covered. The latter part of October she was joined by 
Mr. McKie, Miss Chapman and Miss Way, who with 
herself w^ere probably the only foreigners who had re- 
mained in the province and survived the storm. Early 
in December a little daughter was born to her and a 
month later the party were sent under escort south 
through Shansi, Honan, and Hupei to Hankow, which 
they reached after about six weeks of travel. 

Kalgan to Kiakhta* 

On June 6th, 1900, the Rev. Mark Williams and the 
Rev. J. H. Roberts left Peking for Kalgan, returning to 
that station in haste, to help the Rev. W. P. Sprague and 
other members of the mission of the American Board 
against the Boxers. With us went Miss Dr. V. C. Mur- 
dock, to do medical work in Kalgan ; and Mr. Carl G. 
Soderborn, whose family were there. Passing through 
Hsuan Hua Fu, we persuaded Mr. Lundquist and family 
to go with us, for there were many Boxers in that city. 

* Prepared at the request of the author by the Rev. James H. 
Roberts. 



644 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

On June lOth we reached Kalgan, and found a howling 
mob at our gate, — hundreds of men and boys having come 
to see our houses burned. After a long time, an official 
sent the mob away, but they returned in the evening, and 
the danger became so imminent that a shot-gun had to 
be pointed at the crowd. Most providentially, they 
yielded to that argument. 

In the night we sent away all the Chinese who were 
with us, and at daybreak we fled to the Yamen of the 
Manchu General. There were six in our party, includ- 
ing Mrs. Sprague and Miss Engh. We asked to be pro- 
tected one day, and sent into Mongolia with a guard. In 
the afternoon a mob gathered in front of the Yamen. 
The General tried to send us to another part of the city, 
but we refused to go. At sunset we and our baggage 
were removed to a little musty house in one corner of 
the yard, and were locked up — whether for life or death, 
we did not know — but after midnight we were sent wdth 
a guard of many soldiers through the Great Wall into 
]\Iongolia. 

We found that the Mongols also were Boxers, and 
there was no place where we could remain. At Hara 
Oso, fifty miles northwest of Kalgan, we joined Messrs. 
Larson, Soderborn and Lundquist, with their families, 
who were living in tents, and preparing to go to Urga. 
Mr. Sprague went back to Kalgan, and got our money, 
which was on deposit in a Chinese bank. He brought 
with him Mr. A. L. Fagerholm, who was vainly trying 
to reach the coast. Mr. Roberts also went to Kalgan, to 
get warm clothing for the whole party. We all rejoiced 
that, when we had to flee for our lives, we found ten 
camels and nine horses ready for our use. 

On June 23rd, under a glorious sunset sky, we started 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 645 

on our long journey. The third day we lost a camel, and 
the search for it delayed us two days. Meantime mes- 
sengers came from four Swedish missionaries, who had 
been attacked by a mob in Feng Chen and were hurry- 
ing to overtake us. Their magistrate, most wonderful to 
relate, had given them an indemnity of eight hundred 
taels ($600), and they came to us with large supplies of 
money and food. The latter was as necessary to us as 
our camels and horses wxre to them, and we saw that the 
loss of the camel was most providential, as without it 
they could not have overtaken us. 

Our party consisted of ten men, seven ladies, six little 
children, and seven Mongols to care for the animals. At 
the most we had twenty camels and nineteen horses. At 
one place we were forbidden to draw water from the 
well. The King of the Sunit Mongols forbade his people 
to sell animals to us, and sent soldiers to watch the wells, 
lest we put poison in them. 

Mr. Larson was a splendid leader, a good marksman 
and horseman, a fluent speaker of Mongolian, and a man 
of great courage. He had traversed the desert of Gobi 
twice before. We called him " Moses." We had an 
armament of one rifle, one shot-gun, and two revolvers, 
which, under the divine Providence, saved us from at- 
tack. 

Two ladies and two gentlemen each day formed a 
Cooking Committee. The other men were a Fuel Com- 
mittee, the fuel consisting of the dung of animals, dried 
in the sun and wind. Two large buckets with covers, 
carried on a camel, contained our precious supply of 
water. The wells were far apart, and often the water 
was undrinkal^le. Once in a few days we killed a sheep 
and ate mutton, but the meat was little for so many 



646 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

hungry people. Our chief food was thin rice or millet 
gruel, with gravel in it that cracked our teeth. Once 
in five or ten days, one would feel satisfied with his 
dinner. 

In the desert, ten days of great heat intensified our 
thirst. The shade of the six carts, in which the ladies 
and children rode and slept, was our only relief from 
the burning sun : and the lack of sleep, due to constant 
travelling in the night, made existence almost unen- 
durable. 

When within one hundred and twenty miles of Urga, 
we telegraphed to the Russian Consul-General : " Six 
Americans, seventeen Swedes, going to Urga request 
protection." His answer, telling us to come right to the 
Consulate, gave us a new lease of life. Arriving there 
July 30th, after thirty-eight days (660 miles) from Hara 
Oso, we had four days of rest. 

However, Urga was full of Boxers, and we must move 
on. Russian passports were given us, to enable us to 
travel to St. Petersburg; food was bought for our jour- 
ney; and we started for Kiakhta, the nearest town in 
Siberia. Mr. O. S. Nastegard, Jr , a Norwegian mis- 
sionar>-, who could speak Russian, went with us, and 
became our " Joshua." 

Shortly after leaving Urga, we met three hundred and 
fifty Cossacks, who had been sent to protect us. In 
thirteen days we travelled two hundred and ten miles 
to the border of the two Empires. There the 
Mongol Mandarin tried to stop us, but the Russian Gov- 
ernor of Kiakhta saved us from his clutches. We rested 
there two weeks. Many Russians were ver}^ kind to us. 
The infant child of Mr. Soderborn died, and was buried 
in a Russian cemetery, and even the Priest attended our 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 647 

Protestant funeral. Money was sent by cable from 
America for onr use, but the robbers, who dogged our 
steps fourteen days, could not get it, because we took it 
in letters of credit, to be paid in Irkutsk. 

We hired a number of tarantasses — carriages with 
wooden springs, drawn by three horses driven furiously 
— and after going five days over prairie and mountains, 
and through a magnificent forest, we reached Lake 
Baikal, which we crossed on a small steamer September 
1st. The waves on the lake were tremendous. Re- 
covering from sea-sickness, we spent the night sleeping 
on a railroad station platform. The next morning we 
reached Irkutsk. Then ten days on the Siberian railway 
brought us to Moscow. A Government permit granted 
us a special car, new, clean and commodious. We left 
our Swedish companions in St. Petersburg, and came z'ia 
Berlin and London to New York, where we arrived No- 
vember 8th, after travelling more than four months. 

It was a special providence that we were driven out 
of China in the summer, for, exposed as we were to the 
weather day and night, on the table-land of Mongolia, 
and in the high latitudes of Siberia, we should have suf- 
fered terribly from the cold at any other season. A Rus- 
sian friend, on hearing about our journey, said : " Your 
guardian angels have come with you all the way." Not 
only during our flight, but also afterward, as we have 
learned of the many deaths of missionaries in China, we 
have realized that God himself was leading us and fulfill- 
ing his gracious promise : " My presence shall go with 
thee, and I will give thee rest." 

The Rev. J. W. Stevenson, Director of the China 
Inland Mission, compiled the following list of the Protes- 



648 



CHINA IN CONVULSION 



tant Missionaries who were killed, or who died from 
injuries received during the Boxer uprising of 1899 and 
1900; the societies with which they were connected; the 
provinces in which they were located; and their 
nationality : 



SOCIETY. 



Adults. 



Children. 



Total. 



China Inland Mission 

Christian and Missionary Alliance 

American Board 

English Baptist Mission 

Shou Yang Mission 

American Presbyterian, North 

Scandinavian Alliance Mongolian Mission 

Swedish Mongolian Mission 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 

British and Foreign Bible Society 

Unconnected, Mr. A. Hoddle 



5S 
21 
13 
13 
II 

5 
5 
3 
3 
2 
I 

135 



21 

15 

5 

3 

2 

3 



53 



79 
36 
18 
16 

13 
8 
5 
4 
3 
5 
I 



PROVINCE. 

Shansi and over the Mongolian Border 

Chihli 

Chfikiang 

Shantung 



113 


46 


159 


13 


4 


17 


8 


3 


11 


I 




I 


135 


53 


188 



NATIONALITY. 

British 

Swedish .. 

United States 



1901. Rev. J. Stonehouse, London Mission 





71 
40 

24 


29 

16 

8 






56 
32 




;sion 


135 
I 

i3(J 


53 


188 

I 






189 



NOTABLE EXPERIENCES 



649 



List of Roman Catholic Bishops, priests, and nuns 
killed in 1900: 



PROVINCE. 



Men. 



Women. 



Manchuria 
Shansi . . . . 
Mongolia. . 

Chihli 

Hunan . . , 
Peking. . . . 



10 
5 
7 
4 
2 

7 



35 



N. B.— This list is probably not entirely complete. 



XXXIV 

CATASTROPHE TO THE NATIVE CHURCH 

THE number of Protestant Christians in China at 
the beginning of the Boxer movement, by which 
is meant actual members of churches, was esti- 
mated to be somewhat more than one hundred thou- 
sand. To this should be added three or four times as 
many more who came under the general name of adher- 
ents, denoting those who, while not yet baptized, were 
either members of families where the leading elements 
were Christian, or were themselves favorably disposed 
to the new faith. It is from this class that converts are 
perpetually recruited. The membership of the Roman 
Catholics, usually reckoned by families, was several times 
as numerous, that faith having been in China for many 
centuries. In each case these Christians were distributed 
over a large part of the Empire, the number of Prot- 
estants in Manchuria being much larger than elsewhere. 

While there are among these communities some who 
are wealthy, or rather in a small way well-to-do, by far 
the larger number of them come from the farming and 
the working classes. In China, as in the land of its 
birth, it has always been true that " to the poor the gos- 
pel is preached," and considering the hopes which this 
faith enkindles, and the barrenness of the average Chinese 
life, this is not singular. 

It is a capital error to suppose that there arc in the 
Chinese churches any considerable number of those who 

650 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 651 

join them from unworthy motives, for what they can 
get. Of the Protestant churches at least we can speak 
upon this point from full knowledge. The Chinese are 
excellent judges of character, and in such a condensed 
society it is impossible that the main facts with regard 
to every applicant should not be well and accurately 
known. Numerous mistakes of judgment must of course 
be made, but missionaries and natives alike have learned 
by long experience that eternal vigilance is the price of 
a church w^hich will not fall apart of its own weight, and 
the tendency accordingly is continually toward a raising of 
the standard. 

It should be remembered that there are always and 
everywhere serious risks attending the identification of 
any one with a body like that of the Christian church 
in China, and in the face of the inevitable ostracism the 
advantages are too precarious to be attractive. Those 
who had joined the Christians from unworthy motives 
hastened in this last year to cut loose as soon as the 
dangers of their connection became apparent. 

It is important also to bear in mind the fact that in a 
society like that of China it is inevitable that every 
Christian should have many enemies. It is a classical 
saving that on entering a village one should inquire 
its customs. In China the first and greatest command- 
ment is not to do what others do not do also, for thus 
only will the whole of the Chinese law and the prophets 
be fulfilled. But the Chinese Christian is ex officio a 
non-conformist. He objects to ancestral worship, which 
is the real religion of the Chinese race. He refuses to 
subscribe to the erection of temples, to the performance 
of Taoist and Buddhist ceremonies, and to the village 
theatricals held in honor of some god or goddess. 

He is at variance with his family and with his clan 



652 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

on occasion of every wedding and every funeral, and 
weddings and funerals constitute a large part of the 
earthly joys of the barren life of the Chinese. In the 
incessant and intricate relations with innumerable indi- 
viduals he will have differences on a great variety of sub- 
jects with a great variety of people, and whether he is 
himself at fault or not, he will have earned the ill-will 
of many persons. And the Chinese have long memories 
for grudges and spites, which are not infrequently carried 
on from generation to generation, each one patiently 
waiting until his turn shall have come for that revenge 
so dear to the Chinese, and so strongly inculcated in the 
Classics. 

All persecutions of Christians in China have within 
them these inevitable elements, but this special one dif- 
fered from all that had gone before. Those were local 
and sporadic, often secretly stimulated by the literati, and 
not infrequently by officials. This one was an emana- 
tion direct from the Throne itself. Never had there 
been such an opportunity as was now afforded to pay 
off old scores with compound interest. 

The social solidarity of China is such that all the 
parts are more distinctly and exactly representative of the 
whole than perhaps in any other society in the world. 
When it is remembered that the Chinese are deeply 
imbued with a profound respect for all the forms of 
authority, one gains a faint notion of what an official 
and especially an Imperial persecution must be in China, 
far exceeding in its inherent momentum those of ancient 
Rome. The Chinese mind does not readily entertain the 
conception of actual resistance to regularly appointed 
magistrates. Every Chinese is unconsciously something 
of a fatalist, and when he is commanded by the highest 
power of which he knows anything to do or to forbear 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 653 

doing certain acts, he naturally regards it as " the Will 
of Heaven," and bends to the storm. That all Chinese 
did not behave thus in this universal persecution is itself 
a phenomenon to be accounted for, and one which shovvs 
that some force absolutely new in Chinese history had 
taken possession of many of the Chinese race. 

The officials, some through motives of the deepest hos- 
tility to Christianity, and some with a desire to save the 
lives of their subjects, issued orders to the Christians 
to recant, sometimes furnishing tickets which should be 
pasted over their doors, certifying that they were no 
longer members of " the foreign religion " and were thus 
entitled to protection. This plan was in accordance with 
an Imperial Edict, and it is not to be wondered at that 
many Christians fell into the cunning trap laid for them, 
especially when, as in Shantung, it Vv'as accompanied by 
the alluring words " temporarily recant." In Man- 
churia some of the magistrates hit upon the happy plan 
of requiring the converts merely to step over the figure 
of a cross drawn upon the ground, which many of them 
hastened to do, glad to have escaped with no worse 
test, by no means realizing the significance of what they 
had done. 

In one marked instance in Shantung, two native pas- 
tors under great pressure took upon themselves the 
responsibility and the sin of vicariously recanting on be- 
half of their whole flock, in order to save their lives. 
They had not the smallest intention of denying the faith, 
but nothing else v/as to be done, they thought, and it 
was better that two men should incur guilt than that 
the whole church should do so. 

The innumerable varieties of recantation, actual and 
merely nominal, make the problem of the rehabilitation 
of the church in the re2:ions where it prevailed a delicate 



654 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

and a serious one. But it should be distinctly recognized 
that in all but a fraction of cases it was regarded as only 
a form, an error no doubt due in many cases to inad- 
equate instruction on the part of their leaders. Innu- 
merable instances of absolute refusal to deny the faith 
under any circumstances, especially among the large 
Roman Catholic communities, are everywhere reported, 
but the case is not fully set forth without the distinct 
avowal that this was by no means the universal rule. 

In some regions the threats of the Boxers had been 
heard for many, many weary months, or perhaps for 
more than a year. The poor Christian communities had 
been living the lives of isolated sheep with a day per- 
petually threatened for the advent of the wolves in force. 
Is it any wonder that at the last many of them fainted 
with terror at the actuality so long menacing them, and 
did whatever seemed to be required to prevent their aged 
parents from being turned adrift with no home and no 
food? 

Some groups of Christians were pillaged over and over 
again, while elsewhere there was nothing but rapine and 
sudden death, the whole storm having passed over in an 
afternoon, leaving scarcely a living representative of the 
hated faith. " Destroy Christians root and branch," was 
often the war-cry, which the Boxers sought to carry into 
literal effect by killing not only all human beings, but 
every cat, dog, and chicken belonging to the homes of 
Christians, cutting down every tree, uprooting flowers, 
and laying waste the courts and gardens of the ruined 
houses. In a room occupied by a refugee Christian fam- 
ily, a forlorn little kitten was pointed out to a lady vis- 
itor, with the remark : " A whole village was out all night 
hunting for that cat. They said that it must be found 
and destroyed or it would bring calamity to the town. 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 655 

It was picked up and sent to relatives at a distance and 
so escaped." 

Never was the prophecy that the foes of a man shall 
be they of his own house more exactly fulfilled. They 
were themselves the spies and informants, whose precise 
knowledge nothing could escape. All human affection, 
all social sympathies seemed to be dried up at the roots. 
Daughters drove away their own mothers from their 
doors, saying " Don't you come in here, or we shall be 
implicated too — go to your foreign friends, let them look 
after you." Even the storage of books, or clothing, or 
any article of furniture was absolutely forbidden under 
penalty of having the house pulled down or burned. The 
nearest neighbors were often the ones who invited the 
Boxers to come, leading them through the village and 
pointing out every door to Christian courts. Then when 
the goods were dragged upon the streets and sold for 
next to nothing, these were the ones who bought them for 
a trifle, subsequently reviling and taunting the owners, 
when they crept back to their desolated yards, with the 
observation that there was no more place for them — their 
goods were distributed to new owners, and their land 
had reverted to the village temples ! 

The cruelties of the persecutors found expression in the 
most hideous forms. All the barbarities practiced upon 
foreigners were shared likewise by their followers. Men, 
women, and children were chopped into pieces and their 
bodies thrown into running streams to be dispersed be- 
3^ond power of doing injury. Great numbers were burned 
alive, and children were flung back into the flames after 
they had once broken forth. Yet in one case known to the 
writer a lad who had twice been bound and thrown into 
the Grand Canal, and had each time succeeded in getting 
free, was allowed to escape, because it must be " the Will 



656 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

of Heaven." Unusually attractive Christian children 
were sometimes adopted by the Boxers, or by others, val- 
uable lives being thus saved. Many Christian maidens 
were sold to a life of odious slavery to be the " wives " 
of the Boxers who had killed all the other members of 
their families. 

The mutilation of Christians may be said in some 
regions to have been the rule, not the exception, gen- 
erally followed by a slow and terrible death. In other 
cases the joints of the victims were dislocated, and they 
were left in this maimed condition. 

The writer was personally acquainted with a Roman 
Catholic school teacher who was persecuted by the Box- 
ers, middlemen finally arranging that his life should be 
spared on payment of a fine of about thirty (Mexican) 
dollars. His father, however, begrudged the waste of so 
much money, and together with another son and a nephew 
tied up the son and his wife in the middle of the night, 
and killed them with a sword, their little girl being 
thrown on the ground and stamped to death. Two small 
boyS; however, made their escape. The people of the vil- 
lage, who had no sympathy whatever with Christianity, 
were so incensed at this inhumanity that they refused to 
assist in any way at the funeral. 

It is worthy of notice that in many places the bitterest 
animosity extended even to those who had been treated in 
mission dispensaries, or whose connection with foreigners 
had been only temporary and casual. In cases where 
the number of those killed was large, sometimes amount- 
ing to quite half of the total membership, there was an 
additional percentage of those who thus suffered vica- 
riously. There were, on the other hand, some who while 
not members of the church, nor even probationers, yet 
refused to renounce its teachings, thus forming an 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 657 

exoteric band of martyrs whose number will never be 
known. 

Attention was early called to the important fact that 
in many places where the Chinese Church was about to 
be tested as never before, special strength was afforded 
them for the coming conflict. In Peking, T'ung Chou, 
and Tientsin, earnest meetings had recently been held, 
at which large numbers of the leading members of many 
cluirches had been brought near to God, and a similar 
experience was that of many mission stations in Shansi 
and Chihli which had been visited by Mr. William 
Cooper. Numbers of Christians afterwards testified that 
they had been thus unconsciously fortified for the terri- 
ble trials which proved to be so near. 

The natural timidity and the clannishness of the Chi- 
nese is well known to those who have had intimate rela- 
tions with them. It has been previously mentioned that 
both in Tientsin and in Peking the greater part of the 
servants in every foreign establishment disappeared in 
a body upon the prospect of danger. It is important to 
recognize that the reverse was the case with the Chris- 
tians, not merely where their safety was bound up with 
that of foreigners, but where they might, but for their 
fidelity, have easily escaped. 

The most impressive instances of this are to be found 
where the peril to Chinese Christians was greatest, in the 
province of Shansi, where the Governor had given formal 
authority to Boxers to kill all Christians, and where any 
one found writing letters to foreigners was slain with- 
out mercy. The foreign letters from those who were 
martyred in that province, continued in some cases to 
within a few hours before death and concealed at great 
risk by their converts, furnish the most ample evidence 
of the beautiful loyalty of the Christians, and of their 



658 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

fearful trials. In every mission headquarters the first 
quest was for the mission records, that the names of all 
the followers of the " foreign religion " might be cer- 
tainly known. When these were discovered it went ill 
with the flock. 

In repeated instances servants who had been sent away 
for their own safety returned on the eve of a riot, saying 
simply : " I heard that you were to be attacked to-night, 
and I thought that I ought to be here to help you." 
Many of them voluntarily served as couriers at the immi- 
nent risk of their lives, not once or twice, but constantly, 
and in this way it is known that many were killed. When 
the missionaries had been robbed of everything, the poor 
Christians sometimes offered to them their own scanty 
hordes of silver or cash, saying that it was but right to 
do something for those to whom they owed so much, " As 
long as I have anything," said one such, " of course I 
will share it with you." Many Christians offered to find 
hiding-places for the foreign pastors and the ladies, at 
the greatest risk to themselves, and others undertook 
the yet more difficult office of acting as their travelling- 
stewards during their long and dangerous flight through 
hostile regions. 

Some of the prominent preachers were intrusted by the 
missionaries with large sums of money, to be sent to 
whomsoever appeared to be in the greatest need. One of 
them thus became the steward of about two hundred 
pounds sterling, which at no little risk to himself he dis- 
bursed with great discretion, in such a way as to assist 
materially many missionaries who had lost everything, 
and who had no resources. An instance of this sort 
is of great weight as an aid in estimating the real char- 
acter of the men who have embraced Christianity, and 
who are at once its apostles and its proof. 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 659 

It is to be noted that the reports brought to the coast 
of the experiences of the foreigners in the interior, while 
greatly doubted at the time by some, afterwards proved 
to be exact even in details, and at the same time there was 
no apparent disposition on the part of those who had 
helped foreigners under these circumstances to pose as 
heroes. In a letter brought to light many months after 
the massacre of the English Baptist missionaries at Hsin 
Chou, Shansi, was known, it appeared that the Boxers 
had captured one of the leading Christians and had 
taken him to the hiding-place of the missionaries that he 
might witness their death. With the certainty of imme- 
diate retribution this Christian uttered a loud cry of warn- 
ing to his " Pastor," and was immediately himself struck 
with a spear or sword as a reward. 

An evangelist and his family were all dragged from 
their carts in a Honan village, and their baggage being 
thought insufficient for loot, they were all, men and 
women, stripped of all their clothing and left naked in 
the street. 

The manner in which the Christians met these terrible 
sufferings was a perpetual astonishment to their tor- 
mentors. They could not understand what inspired the 
calm courage of the tall and stalwart Teacher Liu of 
Fen Chou Fu, who sat calmly in his room fanning him- 
self and awaiting the advent of the Boxers, who killed 
him instantly ; nor that of the Peking deacon who put on 
his best clothes and went out to meet them joyously, 
facing death with a smile. Was it any wonder that 
the Boxers in their superstition cut out the hearts of such 
people to endeavour by an inspection to ascertain the 
source of their more than human courage? 

The belief that Christians were able to poison wells, 
and to turn paper images into real foreign soldiers, was 



66o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

practically universal, and accounted for much of the 
insensate fury of the Chinese against them. The notion 
also widely prevailed that within three days they would 
rise from the dead, unless energetic steps were taken to 
prevent it. It was for this reason that so many were cut 
in pieces, and burned, in exceptional cases the ashes being 
passed under stone rollers and dispersed to the winds. 
The same superstition also accounted for the entirely 
un-Chinese refusal to allow the bodies of Christians to 
receive any kind of burial. A convert in Peking several 
times passed the corpse of his own mother lying in the 
street where she was struck down, but he dared not touch 
it. 

The question has been often raised as to what the mis- 
sionaries in China are doing, and what are the results 
of their work. They have been criticized as " idle and 
mischievous," but now that the Boxer rising has burst 
we are told that " they have turned the world upside 
down." The statement is most literally true. The 
nature of the totally new energy widely diffused through- 
out the Chinese Empire may now be clearly perceived. 
It is one with the life manifested in the Roman Empire 
in the days briefly described in the Acts of the Apostles, 
and it is the only force adequate to cope with the gigantic 
ills of China. This proposition, to those wdio read the 
story of the sufferings of the native church in China dis- 
criminatingly, will be self-evident, wdiile to others it will 
remain an idle claim. 

The interest of the appended instances of the expe- 
riences of Christian Chinese is found not only in the 
occurrences themselves, but in the fact that these are such 
cases as have first come to hand, and that it would be 
possible to duplicate them by the thousand, until the 
aggregate product would be a series of volumes exceeding 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 66i 

in bulk the Encyclopedia Britannica. These narratives 
need no other comment than a few explanations of techni- 
cal terms, and bear within themselves the evidences of 
their fidelity to truth. 

Attention has already been called to the fact that the 
spread of the Boxer movement was x?vrgely through 
young boys who were put under the influence of some- 
thing like hypnotism, or mesmerism. The proportion of 
genuine subjects may have been small as compared with 
the spurious, but the influence of a single genuine case in 
a superstitious country like China would be great, where 
education, despite the claim of many influential Chinese, 
is no bar to the wildest credulity. 

In many places, the baneful effects of the movement 
became manifest to everyone, and often brought the whole 
Boxer propaganda into discredit. In one instance a lad 
of fifteen was so filled with the frenzy for murder that 
he attacked his own parents, an event which filled the 
villagers with horror, and led to the disbandment of the 
Boxer camp. Sometimes susceptible children would be 
so strongly affected with the impulse to perform the 
Boxer drill that they would go through with it irre- 
spective of time or place. These occurrences made many 
reflective Chinese dread the unknown influence which they 
had evoked. When all the phenomena attending the 
Boxer development are attentively considered, there is 
reason to believe that many will come to the conclusion 
that if there is any such phenomenon in this world as 
" Demon Possession,'' this was an instance of it. 

The frequent expression " Boxer altar," it should be 
explained, does not refer to a place of worship, a pile of 
stone, nor even a table, but denotes the organization itself, 
the band as a whole, with its " Great Elder Brother " as 
leader, as well as the drill headquarters, and the idol 



662 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

shrines before which tests were made by burning incense 
or paper. If the latter flamed high the accused was in- 
nocent, but if the flame was feeble and deflected he was 
guilty and must be beheaded at once. The opportunity 
for fraud in all these ceremonies is obvious. 

Among the many singular phenomena connected with 
the rise and spread of the Boxer sect, nothing seems 
stranger or more in defiance of Chinese customs and the 
ideals of long generations than the accompanying organ- 
ization of the " Hung Teng Chou " or " Red Lantern 
Light " society. This was composed of young girls be- 
tween the ages of ten and twenty, just the age when 
Chinese maidens are most carefully hidden in the seclu- 
sion of their homes, — when to go about in the streets 
would be in defiance of the proprieties, and to be exposed 
to public gaze would be for rich and poor alike disrepu- 
table. 

These girls in large companies were taken to the tem- 
ples, put under the low and vicious men who were the 
Boxer leaders, and after a certain amount of drill accom- 
panied Boxer bands in their public parades. Their uni- 
form was entirely of red, red cloth about their heads, red 
shoes on their feet, red banners in their hands. Their 
training was similar to that given Boxer boys, the repeti- 
tion of charms by the leader, who was sometimes a man, 
sometimes a woman, — following this the hypnotic trance, 
then a frenzy of desire to fight with sword or spear or 
gun. 

The special power said to belong to these girls was to 
ride upon the clouds and to point out the houses of for- 
eigners or their friends. Christians or others. From the 
clouds they could kindle a fire that would harm none but 
those proscribed. From the clouds, too, they could cause 
the iron battle-ships of the enemy to burn like tinder. 



CATASTROPHE TO NATIVE CHURCH 663 

During the weeks when riots and fighting were most 
violent, towards evening hundreds of ignorant, credulous 
people would gather outside their villages and watch the 
sun hastening to the west. The impression upon the 
retina caused by gazing at its disc, causing a round red 
spot to appear whenever the eye should turn, was pro- 
nounced the magic light of the " Red Lantern," and 
excited cries of "There are two!" "I see three!" 
" There are a great many in the north ! " would fill the 
air. Then when the evening clouds gave back the sun- 
set glow, this common sight took on the aspect of the 
supernatural, and the people would v.hisper to each other 
" Truly the power of the Red Lantern is very great 1 
With it we must conquer the foreigners ! " 

These stories of Chinese persecution may fitly con- 
clude with the citation of a significant testimony in 
regard to the relative qualities of the Chinese Christians, 
from a paper read at the Newcastle Church Con- 
gress, by the most accomplished lady traveller of the 
day, Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop, who began her ex- 
tended journeying with little or no interest in mis- 
sions, and who has ended with a sincere devotion to mis- 
sion activity, after having enjoyed unequalled advantages 
for learning at first hand what is accomplished by 
the effort to elevate the men and the women of 
the East. 

" Everywhere small, oft-times very small commu- 
nities of persons had been formed, who by their aban- 
donment of ancestral worship and idolatrous social cus- 
toms were subjected to a social ostracism, and who partly 
in consequence clung together as brethren, with a tenac- 
ity similar to that which finds its secular expression in 
the powerful Chinese organizations known as ' guilds.' 
These converts live pure and honest lives, they are teach- 



664 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

able, greedy of Bible knowledge, generous and self- 
denying for Christian purposes, and so anxious to pre- 
serve the purity of their brotherhood that it would be 
impossible for such abuses as disfigured the Church at 
Corinth to find a place in the infant churches of China. 
Above all, every true convert becomes a missionary, and 
it is in this spirit of propagandism that the hope of the 
future lies. After eight and a half years of journeyings 
among Asiatic peoples, I say unhesitatingly tl:at the 
raw material out of which the Holy Ghost fashions the 
Chinese convert, and oft-times the Chinese martyr, is the 
best stufif in Asia." 



XXXV 

^PERSONAL NARRATIVES 

Kao Hsin 

KAO HSIN is a graduate of College and Seminary, 
and has been in charge of the preparatory sta- 
tion school at T'ung Chou. This was closed at 
mission meeting time and after the meeting he went to 
his home fifteen li away. In a few days he came back 
to learn of the condition of things. He found only one 
man, Mr. Lin, in the city compound, who told him that 
the missionaries had gone to Peking, and the church 
members had scattered, and advised him to get his family 
and follow to Peking. 

While they were speaking, a man came from Yung Le 
Tien and told them of the murder of the preacher Li Te 
Kuei while making his escape with his wife and three of 
his children. His three older children were pupils in 
T'ung Chou and Peking schools. Mrs. Li was Kao's own 
sister. She had pleaded for her baby as it was such a 
fine boy. The Boxers looked at it and said : " Yes ! un- 
commonly fine ! It might be an Emperor some day, it 
must be killed first." So they dispatched the children, 
hacking them with swords and burning them. They 
killed at the same time several church members who 
were escaping with the helper. 

As Mr. Kao was starting back for his home he met a 
messenger from P'ing Ku Hsien, where Deacon Li Wen 

665 



666 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Jung was stationed, forty miles from T'ung Chou. He 
had come to bring word to the deacon's mother that her 
son was ill with fever and the invalid wife unable 
to care for him, and to beg for help. After directing 
the man to the deacon's mother's home, Mr. Kao went 
back to Fu He, his home. 

About dark, the P'ing Ku messenger reappeared say- 
ing there was no one to go to the deacon's help. Mr. 
Kao had told his family about the fate of the Christians 
at Yung Le Tien and other places and consulted with 
them about plans for escape. His mother, an efficient 
energetic woman, said : " We are all natives of this vil- 
lage and our neighbours will not want to harm us women. 
You and your nephew go to P'ing Ku where there are 
no Boxers, and you will be safe yourselves and able to 
help the sick deacon and his family. We will scatter 
among our relatives in the village and I will stay and 
care for the house." 

Mr. Kao begged that they all go to Peking, but she 
thought her plan the safer one. His feelings overcame 
him and she said : " Don't cry my son ! Can we not 
bear this for Christ? If Jesus saves us we will be re- 
united. If we are taken we die for Him. Can we not 
trust Him? Go quickly! " 

She prepared them a meal, and at eleven o'clock at 
night Mr. Kao and his nephew, the eldest son of the 
murdered helper Li Te Kuei, set out, a neighbour going 
with them to bring back word to the mother. 

They reached P'ing Ku the next day at noon, and 
found the deacon's wife in distress at the situation, — her 
husband ill, and no cart or animals to be hired to take 
them back to T'ung Chou. She had been praying that 
God would open the way before them. Mr. Kao advised 
them to remain as it was quiet there, and if it grew 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 667 

dangerous the mountains were near where they could 
hide. 

The next day was Sunday and the httle company of 
Christians gathered for service. One from a hamlet not 
far away in the hills consented to let Mrs. Li and the 
children go to his home, though they had only millet and 
salt and water to give her. They stole out in the early 
morning, Mrs. Li walking some distance to meet the don- 
key sent for her. After seeing her safe in the new hid- 
ing place ]\Ir. Kao and the sick husband returned to 
P'ing Ku where they remained another week. 

Conditions grew worse all the time. The evil reports 
about Christians as poisoning wells and smearing blood 
on the doors were started in the city. They were threat- 
ened with being bound ready for delivery to the Boxers 
when these should reach the city. A friendly yamen- 
runner told them these things and advised them to leave, 
giving the name of friends, one forty and one eighty li 
away. Mr. Kao and his nephew decided to go. Deacon 
Li at first remained behind but soon joined his wife and 
started on his own long wanderings. They were sepa- 
rated from that time on. 

The first man mentioned would only give them one 
meal and sent them on. After going a short distance they 
were in the mountain gorges with no plain road. Bewil- 
dered and knowing not where to go, they stopped and 
prayed to God to guide, where there was no man to ask. 
Two crows flew overhead and they asked that they might 
fly in the direction they ought to take. They flew north- 
east. This took them back to their unwilling host, whom 
they begged to escort them a few li. He was afraid and 
refused, but a caller came in who lived on that very road, 
and he offered to direct them. 

It was cloudy and threatened rain and they begged this 



668 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

guide to take them to his home for the night. He did 
so and they had hardly entered the house when the rain 
fell in torrents. For ten days they remained there work- 
ing hard for their board. They had said that they were 
Christians, so that when, soon after, a Boxer altar was 
started there, the wife of the man was frightened and 
wanted them to go, giving them money to help them on 
their way. 

The nephew was homesick and begged to return to 
their home. They started back, but in a few li met Yang 
Erh, a chair-bearer for a member of the T'ung Chou 
Mission. He had been to P'ing Ku twice as messenger, 
but was now fleeing for his own life. He told how he 
had been pursued by Boxers and had seen them cut down 
others on the road, and said that neither T'ung Chou nor 
Tientsin were safe for any Christians. 

Mr. Kao and his nephew with Yang Erh turned back 
to the north-east and went on outside the pass. The wild 
rumours about Christians were everywhere, and believed 
by everyone. The rumours said that the Christians 
smeared blood on the doors, which would make some one 
in the household go crazy, and kill all the family; that 
they poisoned wells so that the water would destroy those 
who drank it; that foreigners were selling sheep-skins 
and goat-skins and would later turn them all into live 
sheep and dogs and men. The sheep would hunt people 
and destroy the crops, the dogs would bite people and 
make them go mad, but the men were worst of all as they 
could not l)c conquered. If these sheep or dogs or men 
were struck they turned back into sheep-skins or goat- 
skins. The great trade of foreigners in black pig's bris- 
tles was said to be for the purpose of performing incan- 
tations over them, by which they would turn into evil in- 
sects that would fly about and bite like a mosquito, the bite 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 669 

proving fatal. The Boxers claimed that they alone could 
avert all these evils. 

No one was allowed to stay at an inn, as it was said 
that foreigners hired beggars, fortune-tellers, travelling 
priests and peddlers to scatter blood and medicine. Every 
suspicious stranger was searched. If any bottle was 
found on his person they were sure it was medicine and 
the man was at once cut to pieces. 

It was necessary to appear unconcerned and walk boldly 
to the crowds or inns as any attempt to avoid notice at 
once awoke suspicion. They must have a reasonable 
explanation for their journeying, so they gave as a 
reason that they were going north in search of a debtor 
who had owed his uncle a debt to get payment for the 
same. As they several times got work for a few days in 
the fields, they could say that they were searching for work 
on account of drouglit on the plain. The poppy harvest 
was ready for the first slashing of the seed-pods, and 
many came every year to do this work. 

At one stage they joined a traveller who proved most 
kind to them, took them to his village, found work for 
them with a rich man of the place, cared for Mr. Kao 
during several days' illness and adopted him and Yang 
Erh as " sworn brothers " and the nephew as a " dry 
son." His kindness was the bright spot in the long, 
sorrowful summer. 

While at this man's village, word came of the destruc- 
tion of everything foreign in Peking except the British 
Legation and the Cathedral, and with a heavy heart Mr. 
Kao thought of all his fellow Christians as gone. At last 
the news of the victories of the Allies in Peking reached 
them in the mountains and they started back for the 
plains. 

Not far from his old home Kao Hsin met an acquain- 



670 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tance who exclaimed on seeing him, '' Why are you 
here!" "I want to see my home and my family!" 
" Alas ! You have no home to see and your fam- 
ily are all dead, killed by the Boxers." Then the 
dreadful details were told of how his mother was 
cut to pieces, all his children but one little deaf 
girl killed with his w'ife, all the Christians of the 
village, with nearly all of their relatives, more than thirty 
in all, killed in most cruel ways. The aged grandmother, 
over eighty-four years old, w^as a mid-wife and nearly all 
the villagers up to forty years of age had been brought 
into the world by her — so many begged for her and she 
was spared. " One old woman and one little girl can do 
nothing to avenge those killed ! " they said contempt- 
uously. They had searched everywhere for Kao Hsin, 
but said he was a wizard of such power he could bur- 
row in the earth and escape. They feared he would come 
with an earthquake to destroy them. 

Mr. Kao had travelled thirty miles that day and had 
six more to go. He staggered on almost sleeping as he 
walked. At last he crawled under a mat shed in which 
were dead bodies and tried to sleep a little, but was 
awakened every little while by firing guns and barking 
dogs. At daylight some Russian soldiers impressing 
workmen found them and drove them to some boats to 
unload supplies. There was a motley crowd of coolies, 
merchants, teachers, rich men, poor men — all kinds in the 
line. Their burdens were heavy and if they did not 
handle them just right they were beaten. Kao Hsin felt 
the lash because he dropped a box too quickly. After a 
supper he slept on the wet ground with no bedding. 

The next day he was harnessed in with some men to 
drag cannon over the stone road outside the city near 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 671 

to the ruins of the college. One man fell, the wheel ran 
over his leg and broke it. Another, who thought such a 
life too bitter to endure, jumped into the moat as they 
went over the bridge and was drowned. That night they 
were well fed and given dry clothes. After a little they 
were better treated, were given three meals a day and 
paid ten cents besides. 

He remained a month in all, thinking the Christians all 
dead and himself the sole survivor and that the mission- 
aries would all have been sent home. So he made no 
effort to get away. One day he met a T'ung Chou church 
member on the streets and learned the good news that 
many were saved. His presence in T'ung Chou was re- 
ported to the Mission in Peking and he was soon passed 
over to the Americans and sent up to the Capital. 

Deacon Li 

To find a Christian in a Chinese yamen reminds one 
of the " saints in Nero's household." Yet it was in 
such a place that Li Yiin Sheng was converted, and it 
was in pursuing the duties of that place that he led for 
twelve years a consistent Christian life. He was known 
as a man faithful to duty, one who took no bribes and 
shared no " spoils of office." He had the respect of the 
official in T'ung Chou and of his associates in the 
yamen. Such a man was a shining mark for the malig- 
nity of the Boxers. He had seen the burning of the Mis- 
sion buildings and boldly denounced the deed. " Your 
punishment will come," he said, " and these buildings will 
be restored." When the massacres began, the official at 
the head of the yamen took Mr. Li under his own pro- 
tection and found a small, retired room where he was 



672 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

hidden. When the Boxers came to the yamen and de- 
manded the Christian in hiding, they refused to give 
him up. 

At last the Boxers, who had no respect for dignitaries, 
broke into the yamen and began a search. Mr. Li was 
taken by the official's command into the apartments of the 
women. But the Boxers penetrated to that court and 
soon found their victim. He was dragged out and taken 
to an altar near by, where they put him to death. His 
wife was a very timid woman and when she heard of her 
husband's death she went to a pit of water not far away, 
leading her little daughter, and the two plunged into the 
water together. 

Deacon Li was buried but the word went around among 
the Boxers that so zealous a Christian would rise from the 
dead in a short time, so his body was exhumed and 
burned to ashes. 

The Unknown Martyrs 

Among those who died for their faith in this field were 
many whose names are unknown, but whose steadfastness 
in the face of death produced so much wonder among tb.e 
heathen that their stories are being told by those who 
" were consenting " by looking on silently when they were 
condemned. 

At P'ing Ku Hsien two men were taken to the " Great 
Elder Brother " of the Boxers for his decision as to 
which was guilty of following the foreign religion. After 
repeating his incantations he turned and pointed to one 
and said " This is one of them ! " The man was led away 
and killed, the other one was released. He turned away 
and went off a little distance, then came back to the 
Boxers. "What are you coming back for? You can 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 673 

go," they said. He replied " Kill me too! 1 too am one 
of them ! " And they led him to where his friend had 
died and there killed him. 

At the T'ung Chou north gate two boys of thirteen and 
fourteen years of age were making their escape into the 
country when the Boxers seized them to question them. 
These nameless young confessors said boldly " We are of 
the Jesus Church." When about to be bound they said, 
" You need not bind us. We will not try to get away. 
Every step we take to your altar is one step nearer 
heaven." And they soon joined the victors above. 

Deacon Heng 

(As told by himself) 

" On returning to Peking from Annual Meeting we 
found the danger and excitement in the city had greatly 
increased. A council was held and, soon after, the mis- 
sionaries and the girls of Bridgman school were removed 
to the Methodist Mission, while many of the men of the 
church remained to guard the Mission. On the evening 
of June 13th, a man came rushing to the chapel say- 
ing ' The Boxers have entered the city and are setting fire 
to the Missions.' I went into the street and could see the 
smoke of the Methodist street chapel and of the London 
Mission rising to the south of us. The streets were full 
of excited people saying ' They will come here next ! 
These will be the next to die ! ' After a short consulta- 
tion we decided we could not defend the buildings and 
could only try to save our lives by flight. 

" There were many who saw me and knew me, but I 
made my w^av to the north part of the city where T was 
least known, and as it was dark I hid in a temple near the 



674 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

northwest gate. From there I saw the burning of the 
two Presbyterian Missions and further south the smoke 
and flames of our own Mission. 

" I rested part of the night but rose at 3 a. m. and went 
to the Presbyterian Mission, which was still burning, and 
saw the bodies of those killed during the night, some of 
them in the burning buildings, some outside in the courts. 
I went to the An Ting gate, but it was closed not to be 
opened till noon. After wandering around I came back 
to the north-east gate. I met several Christians of our 
own and other Missions, but no one showed signs of rec- 
ognition. Later we went out through the gate together, 
each making for his own place of refuge. 

" 1 went to a village eight li away to warn a Christian 
family living there. They gave me food and I rested 
for a time, after which I went back to the city by the An 
Ting gate, which was now open. There were many 
bodies of the Christians lying along the road, of which 
I recognized one as a colporteur who had been killed while 
carrying his books on his back. There were men and 
women, young and old among them. I then went from 
one to another of my relatives but none would let me 
remain. I went to the yamen where I have duties but 
was told there was no place for me. 

" For a day or two I wandered about getting food 
and shelter as best I could. At last I went to my uncle 
and he said he would try to get me out of the city safely 
but could not keep me, as it would surely bring ruin to 
them all. 

" They advised me to shave my head and put on the 
garments of a Buddhist priest, but I was not willing to 
wear that garb. Finally they brought me the outfit of a 
fortune-teller, the mystic character of the ' Book of 
Changes,' and wrote out for me enough couplets for 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 675 

twenty fortunes. Then my uncle put on his Manchu 
robes for ceremonial service, gave a suit to me and we 
rode out of the city as official and attendant. No one 
challenged me. He went a few miles with me, gave me 
money for my journey and we separated. 

'' I went to the village at the north where there were 
Christians, but found them scattered ; went on to another 
place and found the Boxers were everywhere. I still went 
north and after a few days reached a valley among the 
mountains where a large branch of our family lived. 

" After waiting two days at an inn and no one appear- 
ing, whom I knew, I decided to turn back to the city to 
learn the fate of our church. I went to a few fairs on the 
way, spread out my table, told a few fortunes, always 
watching for familiar faces. At last I met three Chris- 
tians who told me of the siege of foreigners and Chris- 
tians at the Legation and North Cathedral. They said 
we could not go to the city yet, — it was not certain that 
any one would survive the fierce attack. 

" So again I turned north, this time in company with 
these three. We travelled by twos and stopped at differ- 
ent inns. One of them soon hired out to a farmer and 
the others found other work, but I was not strong enough 
to be of any use, so I went to fairs and told fortunes, 
working my way back to the north to my relatives. 
Sometimes I was tempted to end my days in a river or 
to jump from a precipice, but I held back from that sin, 
feeling that God would care for me or take me to 
Himself. 

"At last I reached again the home of my relatives. 
There were some sixteen families in the hamlet, all of 
our clan. I went to the head man, who was the only one 
of an older generation — an uncle. There were four of 
my own generation whom I could call * brothers.' I 



676 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

could not tell them of my being a Christian but did tell 
them of how Peking was in a state of chaos and ruin, 
with fighting in the streets and robbers and Boxers every- 
where. 1 had fled for safety and must ask them to give 
me refuge until the country should become quiet. They 
consulted together and agreed to share in keeping me. 
There I remained until after the New Year. They were 
poor people but they gave me food such as they had 
and money enough for me to buy a sheep-skin garment 
and other clothes for winter. I was kept in the house for 
more than a month by sickness. 

" As the weather grew warmer I could wait no longer 
but turned back to the plain to see if any of our church 
survived. The roads and inns were full of dispersed sol- 
diers. Several times I told their fortunes and gave them 
the truth. I told them they could not succeed in fighting 
foreigners but had been deceived by the Boxers and had 
better give up being soldiers and go to their homes ! 
They were not angry at this but paid my food and lodg- 
ing and treated me kindly. I made my way to the city 
gate where the Japanese were in charge. I could not 
make myself understood but found my way back to our 
old street. 

" There I saw a notice in foreign letters on the gate, 
and came inside and found myself in the presence of those 
whom I had thought dead. The Lord has brought me 
back. I am far from perfect. The Lord has not done 
teaching me so He has let me live on to finish His work 
in me." 

Mrs. Li Pen Yuan (Dorcas) 

Li Pen Yuan is one of the younger preachers of the 
American Board Mission, and Dorcas, his wife, is a wor- 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 677 

thy helpmeet. She was educated in the Bridgman school 
and is a woman attractive in person and of a lovely Chris- 
tian character. 

On the night when the Missions were burned in 
Peking Mr. and Mrs. Li were visiting the brother of the 
former in a distant part of the city. The brother was 
a preacher of the Presbyterian Mission. As the mob 
drew near that place they all fled together but after go- 
ing a little distance the two families separated so as to 
attract the less attention. Mr. Li found a retired corner 
in the angle of some house where he left his wife and child 
while he went on to the great street to look about. She 
could see him standing at the corner not many rods away 
when a crowd of Boxers come along. He knew it would 
not do to run, so followed along as one of the crowd till 
he could turn aside unnoticed and make his way back to 
his wife. She had seen him apparently swept along by 
the crowd, and as a long time elapsed and he did not 
return she gave him up as lost. 

She finally came out from hiding and worked her way 
slowly back across the city to the American Board Mis- 
sion, which was burning when she reached it. Wander- 
ing about from one place to another she finally sat down 
in front of a large gate of a strange family and rested 
till the morning broke. Soon after light a band of 
Boxers came along and seeing the lonely woman and 
child marked them with blood-hound instinct as refugee 
Christians. Just as they stopped in front of Dorcas the 
gentleman of the place, an entire stranger to her, came 
out, took in the situation at a glance, and said to the 
Boxers, " You are mistaken. This is a neighbour of 
mine ! " His word was taken and the mob went on leav- 
ing her there. 

She told her story to this " good Samaritan " and he 



678 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

went with her to a village near the eastern city gate where 
she had relatives living. They found the house de- 
stroyed and the people fled. The man who was trying to 
save her then said they were expecting a visit from a rel- 
ative named Li, and she must represent that relative to 
their family and go to his home till some other plan could 
be made. The women at first received her cordially but 
after a little, suspicions arose and then she told her story 
to them. They would not let her remain. The man 
begged them to keep the little one but they refused that 
too. As Dorcas left the house he said to his wife, " The 
one good act of my life you will not let me do ! " 

She went back near the Mission from one old neighbour 
to another, none of whom would receive her. She appealed 
to a police-station, to a man who knew her husband, but 
he drove her roughly away. Towards night she sat down 
on some logs near a lumber-yard but was soon told to 
" move on " and when she said she had no place to go the 
man pointed down a blind alley and said " You can wait 
there." There was nothing to wait for but death. 

Just then a carter of the Mission came along, saw 
her and called her by name. She went to his cart and got 
inside ; he quickly dropped the curtain and drove up and 
down the streets for hours trying to find some place of 
refuge. At midnight he drove into a cart-stand yard and 
received permission to keep his .cart and mule there for 
the night. Dorcas spent that night in the cart. The lit- 
tle child of only two years, a bright winsome little one, 
seemed to know she must keep quiet and did not cry 
once in the night. 

The next morning at earliest dawn they drove away and 
went to a village where some Christians were known to 
have taken refuge, and there she remained until word 
was taken to her husband who came and took her to the 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 679 

Methodist Mission. They had been separated from 
Wednesday night till Saturday morning and he had 
searched all over the city for her. 

The T'sai Family 

This family is one of the oldest Protestant Christian 
families in North China, the present head of it, Mr. T'sai 
Fu Yuan, being of the second generation of Christians. 
He has been a preacher for nearly twenty years, and their 
home has been a centre for the church of the Yii Chou 
region. 

By the latter part of June the whole city and region 
were aflame with the Boxers. Mr. T'sai was in the city 
with his family. His aged mother, who shared the uni- 
versal Chinese dread of extinction of the family, saw the 
approaching crisis and told her son and grandson that 
they must flee while it was yet possible. After vainly 
protesting they at last yielded and left the city about the 
middle of July. They first went to Hsi He Ying, where 
there were other Christians, but found that place still 
worse than Yu Chou, as the large Catholic Church drew 
the Boxers to its attack from the whole region around. 
He then went on to Pai Lu, where he had friends, but 
soon left them and took refuge in the watch tower of a 
melon patch, where a Catholic old lady was also in hid- 
ing. He remained in this place until he learned of the 
destruction of his home and the death of all his family 
except the son who was with him. 

The crisis in Yii Chou culminated about the last of July, 
when a large body of Boxers passed through on their way 
to attack the Catholic Church of Hsi He Ying. At that 
time a mob surrounded the Mission place and led out the 
women to a temple near by, locking them within. Then 



68o CHINA IN CONVULSION 

the chapel and homes were looted and burned, after which 
the crowd scattered, leaving the women in the temple 
without even a guard. Toward night they were able to 
escape and went back to their ruined home. They found 
two small side rooms which had not been destroyed and 
went into these to prepare some food for themselves. 

In a little time some rowdies of the city came to pick 
up anything that might remain in the ruins and found 
the women there. They raised the cry and gathered the 
Boxers again. Some demanded that they all be killed, 
and some of the baser of the crowd suggested that the 
young women might be sold to the public houses for a 
good sum. At this the blind old grandmother raised her 
voice and said, " We are not that kind ! Kill us if you 
want ! We can die I " 

The Boxers being on their way to battle did not wish 
to defile their swords with the blood of women, so led 
them to the well in the court and threw them in, one 
after another, burying each with stones and earth as she 
was cast in. In this way it is thought six perished, though 
there are rumours that two were carried away and given 
to a military official. 

Pastor Meng Chi Hsien 

Pastor Meng Chi Hsien was the oldest of the 
younger body of preachers in the Mission of the American 
Board, who had been trained from youth in the Mission 
schools. For eleven years he had been an ordained 
pastor at Pao Ting Fu. He was a man of strong con- 
victions, of great energy, was a natural leader, beloved 
and trusted by all. 

He and h.is younger brother, Pastor Meng Chi Tseng, 
attended the Annual Mcctincr of the Mission at T'uncr 




PASTOR MENG, A MARTYR OF PAO TIXG FU 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 68 1 

Chou, both taking prominent part in the meetings. While 
these were in progress, tidings came that the railroad 
was destroyed and communication with Pao Ting Fu 
cut off. Mr. Meng decided to return at once to stand 
by Mr. Pitkin's side in the perils and perplexities of the 
hour. He went overland, most of the way on foot. The 
three devoted missionaries at Pao Ting Fu, ]\Ir. Pitkin, 
]\Iiss Morrell, and Miss Gould, who were cut off from 
all hope of escape, were quietly going on with their work 
for the church. 

• During the month of June, Mr. Meng, with other 
preachers, and returned college students, opened the street 
chapel daily. They saw the gathering storm and advised 
the church members to leave the city, helping them to 
choose places of escape, but these preachers and the Bible- 
readers deliberately decided to remain at their posts. 

They said : " Our missionaries have remained with us, 
— we will stand by them and live or die together." They 
could have escaped had they fled. All who went away 
did escape. They chose to stay, although they saw 
more clearly than their foreign friends the inevitable 
results. 

One man, a life long friend of Mr. Meng, said to him, 
" We have lived together, now we will die together." 
" No ! " said the pastor, " My place is here with our 
missionaries. I shall stay, but you must take my oldest 
son and get away. If you escape and he is spared, he 
will represent me and carry on my work." So the friend 
took the son. a fine boy of fifteen, and went away. After 
many dangerous experiences during the summer he 
brought h'm safely to Tientsin after the arrival of the 
Allies. 

Friday afternoon of June 27th, Pastor IMeng was at 
the street-chapel packing books and furniture, preparing 



682 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

to remove from the rented building, as notice to do so 
had been given by the owner. 

Suddenly a company of Boxers came into the chapel, 
seized him, bound him, and carried him to their altar in 
a temple in the south-east corner of the city. The first 
blow had fallen upon the mainstay of the native church. 
He was beheaded at the altar, his head exposed as that 
of a criminal, while the body was buried like a pauper's 
near the city wall. 

Nine months later to a day, a great memorial service 
for the martyred missionaries and Christians was held 
at Pao Ting Fu, attended by the chief ofificials of the city 
and witnessed by thousands of silent spectators. In the 
stately funeral procession were banners and flags, em- 
broidered catafalques, native musicians, a long line of 
carts filled with mourning friends, and ahead of all, above 
thirty memorial banners, more than half of which were 
to the memory of this noble man. They were no empty 
show, but gave the last, true estimate of the best men 
of the city, officials and merchants, guilds and citizens, of 
the life and character that had been lived in their midst. 

Chang Ch'ing Hsiang 

Chang Ch'ing Hsiang was a member of the senior class 
of the North China College, and had returned to Pao 
Ting Fu at the close of the college year, taking part in 
the work of the station up to the time when the storm 
broke upon the Mission. 

The night that the elder Pastor Meng was seized by 
the Boxers was a sleepless one in the Mission. All felt 
that they were doomed to death, and it was only a ques- 
tion of time. Towards morning, Ch'ing Hsiang's mother, 
who was one of the Bible-women, came to him and said: 



■^■^RHntm 




"^m-^f 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 683 

" There is no need for all to die. You are young and 
may have many years of work for the Lord. I shall stay 
and die with Miss Morrell. You must try to escape." 

Starting out in the early dawn, he first went to their 
home to get money and an extra garment, then turned 
south to a place twenty-five miles away, where there were 
Christians. Arriving at the town towards night he found 
the streets alive with Boxers coming in from the coun- 
try, and knew it was no place of refuge, so turned back 
to retrace his steps. He was pursued a few li by some 
villagers who noticed his being a stranger and alone. 
As night came on it rained heavily, and in the darkness 
and storm he made his way on the railroad back to his 
home. His sister met him with the warning to flee at 
once, as search had been made for him. He had had no 
sleep for two nights, his limbs were swollen and every 
step was painful, but his friends led him out a few li 
and he set his face towards the hills. 

He fixed on a town a hundred miles away as his 
destination, and knowing that single travellers were 
viewed with suspicion, soon joined some merchants going 
to that place. After reaching there he decided to go into 
Shansi, not knowing that it would be entering the tiger's 
den. He soon joined an official train whose followers 
were friendly, and with them made the journey all the 
way to T'ai Yuan Fu. Arriving there he learned that 
already a large number of missionaries had been killed, 
and he himself saw a Boxer mob chase down some 
Catholic Christians. 

His money was almost gone, and he turned his face 
back to Pao Ting Fu, hoping the worst would be over 
when he should have again made the long journey. After 
going thirty miles he found that he had taken a branch 
road to T'ai Ku, and was only ten miles from the city. 



684 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

His classmate, K'ung Hsiang Hsi lived there, and al- 
though not knowing whether he were yet alive, he de- 
cided to try to find him. Entering the city he found the 
missionaries were still living and made his way to the 
gate. It was very closely guarded as spies had visited 
them, and his ragged, travel-worn appearance excited 
suspicion, so that the door was shut in his face. 

He finally met his friend and they found a hiding 
place in a village not far away. After the Mission 
was destroyed he was again in great peril, and after 
a hasty visit to his friends, he started to return to Chihli. 
He soon joined other travellers of his own province and 
in their company made the long journey out of Shansi 
safely. 

He then turned south to a village where there w^ere 
Christians, and a good deacon took him in and treated 
liim as a brother. He had journeyed over a thousand 
miles on foot, had an ulcer on one leg, and his feet were 
covered with blisters. His clothes were in tatters, and 
his shoes almost gone. He received the kindest care, his 
needs were supplied, and he was soon able to join them 
in the harvest fields and work with them till news came 
that foreign troops had entered Pao Ting Fu. Then the 
deacon went with him to keep him company. The 
friends at Pao Ting Fu received him as one from the 
dead, having heard repeatedly that he had been killed in 
Shansi. 

His experiences illustrate those of hundreds who wan- 
dered from one place of hiding to another, suspected, 
hunted, in danger every moment of licing recognized, not 
knowing each morning but the new day might be their 
last. The marvel is that so many were able to escape the 
constant perils, and survive as witnesses to the providen- 
tial care of their God. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 685 

Mrs. Huo's Story 

" When we saw the danger increasing around us/ I 
said to my husband. ' We must not all die. You must 
go away and hide. They are not so likely to kill me and 
the children as to kill you. If I am spared you can hunt 
me up afterwards. If not it will be God's will.' So I 
baked him some cakes, rolled up his quilt and some 
clothes, and then had to fairly push him out of the door. 

" After the Alission houses were burned the Boxers 
came and took me and the children to their altar for trial. 
As we started I begged them to let me say a few words. 
' You want to talk nozv do you? ' ' If you will let me, — 
if not I will keep silent.' * Well, talk ahead ! ' So I told 
them how we had lived there many years, hov/ our neigh- 
bours all knew we had quarrelled with no one, had of- 
fended no one, how my husband was gone and I was 
alone with my little children. Would they not be merci- 
ful to me and the little ones? Some of the by-standers 
said : ' What a pity to destroy the children ! ' 

" They put chains on my hands and feet as I sat on 
the ground and then ordered me to get up. I tried sev- 
eral times in vain, then told them it was impossible, and 
finally said my body was * inconvenient,' and I could not 
rise without help. They then called two women who 
belonged to the jail to attend to women prisoners, and 
they led me to the prison, where I spent seventy-two days. 
They gave me coarse food and drink. After twenty days 
my baby was born. The official had ordered clothing for 
the child, and extra food for me, but these things did 
not reach me, being kept by the guards. The little one 
lived only three weeks. I did not know the fate of my 
poor children, from whom I had been separated, but I 

' Pao Ting Fu. 



686 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

prayed God every day to spare their lives and restore 
them to me. 

" After a time two other Christians, a mother and a 
daughter who had given themselves up to the Boxers 
voluntarily, were put in with me, and we comforted each 
other. They were alone and knew they could not escape, 
so they went to the Boxer leaders and told them plainly 
that they were Christians, and would not give up Christ, 
and they could kill them at once. The Boxers did them 
no harm, but shut them up in the prison, and they came 
through safely with me. 

" There was another woman prisoner there, one who 
had been very wicked, and who was awaiting her sen- 
tence at the law, expecting death. She was friendly and 
anxious to know about us, so we talked freely together. 
One day I asked her, ' If you must die have you any 
one to help you in the next world ? ' ' No, no one,' she 
said. I said, ' We have some one. We are not afraid to 
die.' So I told her about Jesus who died for us, and who 
takes away the fear of death. She was a very bright 
woman and learned quickly. We taught her to pray, and 
she learned to trust in Christ to forgive her many sins. 
I told her at last. ' If they come to deliver us, you may 
tell them you are a Christian too now, only you must 
never go back to your old life of sin.' 
. " Sure enough, when the foreign soldiers let us out she 
too was released. The interpreter for the troops was a 
missionary, and he asked her many questions to test her 
knowledge of the truth, and she answered them well. 
She has gone back to her father's home in a distant vil- 
lage, and I am going there to see her as soon as it is safe 
for me to walk there. The Lord saved me, body and 
soul, why shouldn't I try to save some one else, body 
and soul? 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 687 

" After a time, before the soldiers came, we heard that 
some foreigners had been brought to the prison. ' Could 
it be Pastor Evving, come to try and save us ? Were they 
to be killed? ' we asked. ' No,' the guard said, and then 
added, ' You need not worry, no one will kill them or 
you now,' I did not then know that they meant that the 
foreign armies were in Peking, and every one was afraid 
of their vengeance, but I felt sure we were safe and 
would in some way be delivered. In time I learned that 
the foreigners were Mr. and Mrs. Green and their party. 

" At last the time came when they brought us out of 
prison and restored my four children to me. They had 
been taken to the city orphanage and cared for during 
my long stay in prison. They were sick and wasted from 
poor fare and lack of mother's care, but they had not 
been unkindly treated. After a time my husband came 
back, so we are all spared to each other. God has been 
very good to us. My children are His to do with just 
what He wants." 

Dr. Ch'iu 

Dr. Ch'iu was a former student with Dr. Atterbury at 
Peking, who was carrying on an independent practice, and 
had a medicine shop of his own. 

As the Boxer altars multiplied in the city and danger 
to Christians increased. Dr. Ch'iu became alarmed for his 
own safety. He is very lame and this made it harder for 
him, rendering him conspicuous, and making it difficult 
for him to flee. This led him to go out of the city to 
relatives in a village a few li away, before the attack on 
the missions began. His relatives refused to allow him 
to remain, so after vainly trying to find a hiding-place, he 
returned to the city. Not long after that the great out- 



688 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

break occurred. His shop of foreign medicines was 
looted, and his home also. He was seized by the Boxers 
and taken to their altar. In his fright he yielded to their 
demands and burned incense to their idols. 

They were still bent on killing him, when some one 
suggested that he be kept alive to dress the wounds of 
those who had been wounded during the attack on the 
Legations. \\'ith this in view they took him to a temple, 
where were over thirty suffering from wounds, lying on 
the steps or in the court, or one of the rooms, while in 
another large room lay more than twenty bodies of those 
already killed. These bodies were to be kept, as the 
Boxer leaders promised that after a few days all would 
rise from the dead and again join them in exterminating 
Christians and foreigners. 

For more than ten days Dr. Ch'iu was kept a close 
prisoner in this court, the decaying bodies of the dead, 
and the groans of the living, all about him, his own life 
depending on his success in healing those under his care. 
His guards never left him day or night. He knew it 
would be impossible for some of the wounded to recover, 
having no medicines or appliances to use for them, and 
he quietly waited the end, praying for forgiveness for 
yielding in the matter of burning incense. 

Then came a sudden turn in affairs. A wealthy village 
had been pillaged by Boxers, although not related to the 
proscribed classes, foreigners or Christians. Their lead- 
ing men came into the city and entered complaint, and 
the company at the temple where Dr. Ch'in was confined 
were summoned to appear. Some went to the official and 
the rest fled, leaving no guard. This was the opportunity 
for flight, but to flee into the streets was vain, as others 
would seize him. He succeeded in sending a message to 
his older brother, who came with a cart and took him 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 689 

to his home. This brother was a heathen, and not in 
danger for himself, and although during the days of at- 
tack he had refused shelter to his brother, he now took 
him in and hid him away, and for two months succeeded 
in keeping him from the Boxers. When the troops came 
in he was taken by the missionaries to a place of safety. 

Wen Li 

One of Miss Newton's school girls, Wen Li, was be- 
trothed to a young doctor. Mr. Ma, of one of the leading 
families of the Presbyterian Mission.^ Wen Li's own 
mother was not a Christian, and was out at service in a 
wealthy Chinese household. As Wen Li had no home 
when the school was disbanded, she was sent to her 
future mother-in-law. 

The family desired to have a wedding in the usual man- 
ner. — to send the bride to a friend's house, and have her 
brought in a red bridal chair ; but the streets were so 
disorderly, and the mobs so rude that they feared a wed- 
ding among Christians would attract notice and lead to 
trouble, so the matter was delayed from day to day. One 
day Mr. Ma received notice that they must give up their 
rented house to their landlord. They went to the Mis- 
sion, where a few empty rooms were found, and there 
they made a temporary home. It then seemed best to 
have a quiet wedding which should place the young bride 
in better position to receive the protection of her husband. 

That very night the mission houses were burned. A 
company of native Christians hid away in a court where 
there were trees and shrubs, but the light of the burning 
buildings betrayed their presence and they were pursued 
and struck with knives and axes. Thev made their es- 
cape but were soon separated. Wen Li, with her hus- 

^ Peking. 



690 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

bands sister, hid in a ruined temple, the front of which 
was burning, so that the smoke of the fire gave them a 
veil as they crouched against the brick wall in the rear. 
By morning this hiding-place was searched, and those in 
hiding were laken to the Boxer altar to be tested. Wen 
Li was released, but the sister-in-law was killed. 

The same day the young husband was also taken again 
and was put to death. Wen Li, the bride of a few hours 
was left alone, a widow. She carried two severe wounds 
on her neck from the Boxer knife, and in pain and terror 
made her way to her mother. But her mother could not 
keep her, and after going from place to place, she was 
taken into the home of a sister of Wen Yen a school- 
mate, where she remained two months. The husband 
of the family was a Boxer, but he gave these girls his 
protection. They had to suffer from his reproaches, and 
constant efforts to make them recant. 

One day he said to them, " I am bearing a bad name 
on your account. I am accused of making you my lower 
wives. I must give you up to the Boxers unless you 
recant."' His wife then said, " We have protected them 
so long they must not die now." Wen Li was ill from 
her unhealed wounds and was discouraged, so when he 
lit a stick of incense and said, " You've only to kneel 
while this is burning and then you will be safe," she 
could hold out no longer. The wife took pity on her 
distress of mind and body and broke off the incense stick 
to only an inch or two, to make the time the shorter. As 
the poor girl told her story she broke down weeping, and 
asked me to pray for her forgiveness for yielding in the 
time of trial. 

At the close of the siege she was taken to the place 
where the mission had established itself, and with care 
and kindness soon recovered. She was later again mar- 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 691 

ried to a young man whose fiancee had been killed during 
the Boxer reign of terror. 

Mr. Chang and Mr. Wen 

After the allied troops reached Peking, Mr. Tewksbury, 
with a company of helpers, went to T'ung Chou to le^rn 
the fate of the Christians who had not gone with them 
to Peking. They also went to the deserted yamens, 
gathering up documents which should give evidence as 
to Boxer leaders and their victories. 

Among the papers of the city magistrate was one stat- 
ing the trial of a Mr. Chang of the London mission. His 
home was in a village near T'ung Chou, but his business 
was in Peking. When the city became full of Boxers all 
business was broken up, and Mr. Chang went to his home 
and took his family and fled. Being recognized, he was 
seized by the Boxers, stripped of clothing, bound with 
ropes upon a cart and carried to T'ung Chou to the offi- 
cial yamen. The cords had worn ofif the flesh so that he 
was already covered with bleeding wounds when taken 
to his trial. 

On being questioned he plainly stated his faith. He 
said that he had been several years in business when he 
was attracted to the street chapel of the London mission. 
The more he heard of the Jesus doctrine the more he 
considered it a good doctrine, and after attending church 
for a year he was baptized. He said, " This is my faith. 
I am ready to invite death. I am not afraid to die, and 
shall not give up my religion." The writer wrote out his 
statement and he affixed his mark, the impress of his 
second finger. He then knelt down and began to pray, 
when the official left the court and the Boxers fell upon 
him and hacked him in pieces. 



692 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Later his son gave a statement of his death, fully agree- 
ing with the official record. Still later the magistrate 
when discussing with the missionary the terms of indem- 
nity, also told of this man's trial, and then added, " How 
could I save his life when he said right out where all 
could hear him that he was a Christian? " That a man 
could die for his faith was beyond the heathen official'c 
power to comprehend. 

A Mr. Wen, with his wafe and child, of the same mis- 
sion, were taken to Prince Chuang's place by the Boxers, 
but through the influence of a friend were released. As 
they were leaving, Mr. Wen was again seized, his head 
was shaved, he was loaded with chains and taken to the 
country from village to village, the Boxers claiming that 
they were taking him to Peking for punishment but 
lacked funds. After levying money in one village they 
moved to another; in every place Mr. Wen was subjected 
to insult and indignity fromi the crowds. While being led 
about in this way the news reached his captors that the 
Allies had arrived, upon which they all took to their heels. 
Mr. Wen hastened to the capital which he reached safely, 
and later learned that his wife and child had found refuge 
in the country, so that they were soon reunited. 

Mr. Chiang 

Mr. Chiang, of the London Mission, was sixty-seven 
years old, a very saintly Christian, and a great Bible 
student. He was taken safely to the Methodist Mission, 
but was anxious about his youngest daughter who was 
still in the country, and wanted to leave his shelter to 
find her, At the first opportunity he slipped away and 
was not seen again. 

On his way to the country home he was pointed out to 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 693 

the Boxers. They seized him and told him they should 
kill him. He asked for a little time to pray, and falling 
on his knees he began — " Father forgive them — " but his 
prayer was not completed. The knives fell on him as he 
knelt and he was hacked to pieces. 

One of the married school girls of this same Mission 
was saved by her husband in this way. In an unfre- 
quented spot he built a stone hut leaning against a blank 
wall. It was about four feet square on the ground and 
six feet high with neither doors nor windows. When the 
wife and child were inside he bricked up the entrance, 
leaving only an opening for passing in food. Here the 
mother and child remained for six weeks, the husband 
going back and forth at the risk of his life to take them 
food. Sometimes he was unable to • get to them for 
twenty-four hours together. The poor little child lived 
only a short time after they were able to leave the hiding 
place, being reduced about to starvation by the scanty 
supply of food. 

Mr. and Mrs. Chang 

One of the young preachers of the London Mission, 
Mr. Chang, whose wife was a former bright school girl, 
took his family to the Methodist Mission when the Chris- 
tians were flocking there from all parts of the city. 
Later, not thinking that a safe place, he took them back 
to his adopted father's and left them for a short time. 
While he was gone the wife, little babe and blind old 
mother were turned upon the streets by the landlords. 

As Mrs. Chang moved slowly along, guiding the steps 
of the blind mother — not knowing where to go, a Boxer 
came along, seized her by the sleeve and said " Follow 
me ! " While they went along he had a Boxer trance. 



694 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Throwing himself on the ground, he foamed and raved 
a short time then rose and pointing a stiff finger at her, 
said " You crsh mao tzu! I will kill you! " He soon led 
her near a city gate where there was a soldier guard of 
about fifty men and not far away several bodies of those 
who had been killed. 

Mrs. Chang thought she was to be killed and began 
praying for strength to bear witness for the Lord to the 
end. They began to question her. " Are you a Chris- 
tian? " ■" I am." " Of what church? " " I am a Prot- 
estant." He then offered her a stick of incense and said 
" Burn this and your life will be spared." She replied 
firmly " Never ! " The crowd which had gathered began 
to shout " Kill ! Kill her and see if her body rises again 
and goes to Jesus Christ." She turned to them and said 
" My body cut into pieces will remain scattered on the 
ground like those others, but my spirit will escape you 
and rise to the Lord." The Coxer started off to get his 
knife. One of the soldiers called out " You hateful 
Christian ! You ought to die, but what would become 
of your child? Quick ! Run for your life ! " 

She trembled so she could scarcely step, but ran as fast 
as was in her power and with the soldiers helping her 
she escaped before the Boxer returned. Hidden away in 
a filthy corner she passed the night. Towards morning 
a man came along with a lantern as if looking for some 
one. As he drew near .she saw it was her husband ! He 
had been looking for her since noon of the day before. 
They got a cart and escaped to a village, where a friend 
bought safety by bribing the villagers not to report them. 
Later Mr. Chang went to the city to try to find his old 
mother, was arrested by the Boxers and murdered, and his 
head cut off and offered to the idol. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 695 

Christian Students 

Wang Chih Shen was a student of the Methodist Uni- 
versity, a senior. At the close of the school year he re- 
turned to his home at the east. He was well known as 
a Christian and was soon seized by the Boxers. They 
urged him to recant. He not only refused to do so 
but bore testimony before his persecutors to his faith. 
They tried to make him stop but he persisted in exhort- 
ing them and the crowd about him. They finally cut 
off his lips, then his tongue, and then cut him up limb 
from limb till he expired. Perhaps no case of greater 
bravery and greater suffering is known. 

Another student when seized and asked " Are you a 
Christian?" first replied "What would you do with me 
if I were?" then said "Yes, I am a Christian." They 
killed him on the spot. 

Wu Hsi K'ou was a member of the junior class. He 
was taken near Shan Hai Kuan where a heathen adopted 
him as a servant. He kept him safely through the stormy 
times and when the troops came, gave him clothing and 
money and sent him away. 

At Tsun Hua the keeper of a tea-shop rescued one of 
the school boys, took him home as a son, cared for him 
through the time of danger and later when his uncle came 
searching for him gave him up safely. 

Wen Lan was a former pupil of the girl's school and 
was employed as teacher at Tsun Hua. When the church 
and school were scattered, she with her grandmother and 
a few others fled to the hills. For two days they had no 
food. At last they thought they might as well run the 
risk of being found by Boxers as of starving to death, so 
they gathered sticks and lighted a fire. The smoke be- 



696 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

traved their hiding place. The Boxers came and seized 
them. 

In their company was a former student of the Univer- 
sity who had been employed on the railroad, and had 
grown cold in his faith. On the road Wen Lan began 
exhorting him in English to repent and make ready to die. 
He tried to stop her as the Boxers would recognize them 
as Christians, but she said, " We shall tell them plainly 
we are Christians." She encouraged the little band to be 
faithful to death. When they were about to be executed 
she asked to be allowed to speak to the people. It was 
permitted and she gave an earnest testimony of her faith, 
then said to her companions, " We shall soon be in 
heaven," then covered her head with a handkerchief and 
said " Kill me now." She died after two blows of the 
knife. 

Wang Ching Lin had studied medicine, then entered 
the regular University course. He was put to death in 
the city, and it was reported that his body was cut in six 
pieces. 

One student helper was seized and urged to recant. 
He refused repeatedly. At last they prepared a vessel to 
receive his blood, made him kneel over it, and began 
carving on his neck slowly. His courage failed him and 
he consented to burn the one stick of incense which saved 
his life. 

Young P'u was a Christian servant who was with the 
missionaries, away from his family. His wife was seized 
by the Boxers and wounded with a knife. She was a 
fine appearing woman and they evidently wanted to spare 
her life. They tried to persuade her to become the wife 
of one of the Boxers. She refused to do so. They then 
shaved her head and put on the garments of a Buddhist 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 697 

nun, but she refused to act in this character. At last 
after vainly trying to make her recant, they decided that 
nothing was left to do but to kill her. She had two little 
children. As she was bound, the older child ran by her 
side carrying the younger, begging the Boxers to spare 
their mother. They killed the mother and the two chil- 
dren on the same spot. 

Mrs. Ma 

During the early days of the outbreak a native catechist 
of the Anglican Church was killed, leaving a wife and 
two children. Mrs. Ma disguised herself, took her two 
children and hid away in a temple. She was seen by a 
friend of her husband, a Mr. Wei, who was very sorry for 
her helpless condition. Although he was not a church 
member he was in danger from the Boxers because of 
friendly relations to foreigners. He had taken the pre- 
caution to obtain the good-will of one of the Boxer leaders 
as a measure of self-protection. He went to this man 
and told of the death of Mr. Ma, begging that if the wife 
and children were brought to him he would save their 
lives, as only Mr. Ma himself was a Christian. 

In a short time Mrs. Ma and her children were taken 
to the altar and she was questioned. " Are you a Chris- 
tian?" "Yes — I am!" The Boxer leader was per- 
plexed, and finally had her put into a prison. He wrote 
a letter to Mr. Wei asking what it meant that he should 
have said she was not a Christian while she said she was. 
We do not know what further passed between them, but 
though Mrs. Ma remained true to her faith she was re- 
leased in a few days and allowed to go unharmed. 



698 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Roman Catholic Christians 

The refugee Christians of the Protestant Church bear 
witness to the faithful manner in which Cathohcs met 
death in many places. 

Deacon Heng said " In one place I saw the death of a 
Catholic family. A mother and two children were bound 
and led away. A neighbour begged for the younger 
child and took it to keep, but the mother and older child 
were led away and cut to death. I heard her cry ' O 
Lord ! O Lord ! receive my soul ! ' That soul truly went 
to heaven."' 

Wen Ts'ui, the young girl saved in Shansi, said that 
the Catholics were very brave. The children when led 
to death said " You are bringing us great honour ! This 
is our day of great joy ! '' 

Deacon Li of T'ung Chou told of a Catholic hiding in 
disguise who when brought out and questioned confessed 
to being a Christian and died for his faith. 

Notes of Persecutions of Christians in K'ai P'ing Circuit 
English Methodist Mission * 

Li Fu, preacher at Ying Ke Chuang. Seized by Boxers 
in Lan Chou district ; l)nrncd on the back and shoulders 
in several places ; stabbed in the stomach, fortunately not 
deep enough to cause death ; the back of both heels cut 
with knives so that he will be lame as long as he lives; 
then bound with ropes so tightly that the marks remain 
upon his breast to-day, and conveyed to the Yamen at 
Lan Chou. There his ]KTscoutors appealed to the magis- 
trate to execute him, but whether from fear or kindness, 
he refused to do so. throwing Li Fu into prison, faint and 

* Contributed at the request of the author by the Rev. John 
Hecilcy. 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 699 

bleeding from his wounds. There he lay for about three 
months, cared for only by a fellow prisoner, who washed 
his wounds and shared his food with him. Li Fu was 
only released from prison when Mr. Hinds returned to 
Tientsin in September and wrote to the Lan Chou magis- 
trate. The poor fellow suffered so much in the hands of 
his tormentors that he pleaded with them to put him out 
of his misery at once, or even to bury him alive. His wife 
and children were also very badly treated. Mrs. Li had 
her clothes torn off her back, and with her husband was 
bound with ropes on a cart. One child, four years old, 
was caught by the feet, and hurled across the court- 
}-ard like a log of wood. Another child received a bullet 
in her back, yet not a mortal wound. Li has since received 
a large sum of money as compensation for all his suffer- 
ings, but proposes to devote part of it to the building of a 
chapel, or the support of a preacher in the district where 
he suffered. 

Li Shu Chill. Member at Yung P'ing Fu city chapel. 
He was caught by the rabble, headed by a wealthy Manchu, 
bound and carried to our own chapel where a mock trial 
was held. Here he boldly avowed his Christianity, and, 
although appealed to several times, absolutely refused to 
recant. He was beaten with 500 stripes, then thrown into 
city prison, where after about two months of awful suffer- 
ings, he passed away in the faith and hope of the Gospel. 

Chang Shou Chen. Preacher at Hsiao Chi. With liis 
wife and seven other members of his family, burned alive 
in their home. 

Chang Yn Wen. A lad seventeen years old. Very 
earnest member. Resisted so bravely all temptation to 
recant that his body was chopped in pieces, nailed to wall, 
and offered for sale at 500 tacls per piece — an only child. 

At He Chuang, thirty li from Yung P'ing Fu, twenty- 



700 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

three members and probationers were killed, most of 
whom had opportunity to recant. Prominent among 
those who died were: — 

He Ming Chang, one of the elders. His wife and little 
son also perished. Mr. He, wich his wife and child, had 
escaped to the hills, but was pursued and recaptured. To 
all their offers he refused to listen and was burned alive. 
His wife and child were thrown from the precipice by the 
brother of Mrs. He, who afterward descended and kicked 
mother and infant to death. 

Yang Lin and wife : Yang Yi Ch'ing, wife and daugh- 
ter : Yang Shou : Yang Chung, one family of seven. Cap- 
tured together and carried to a temple. Kept there for 
some hours, but unanimously refusing to recant they were 
murdered at midnight, their bodies being cut in pieces 
and flung apart. 

Hsu Yang Hsi and daughter. Sister and niece of above 
Yang Yi Ch'ing. Neither of these had been baptised. 
Mrs. Hsii was a widow, thirty-two years of age. An uncle 
of her husband's had a grudge against her because she 
would not marry again, and himself led the Boxers to her 
home, where they wounded mother and daughter, and then 
drowned them in the River Lan. The uncle took posses- 
sion of the property, but after the first visit of missiona- 
ries to Yung P'ing Fu, sent deeds, etc., to the preacher. 
The magistrate is dealing with this case, and making dis- 
position of the land. 

Chen Hsi Kung. Teacher at Pai Chia Tien Tze and a 
literary graduate. This man's courage and bearing so as- 
tonished his persecutors that after killing him they cut 
out his heart to see what had given him such fortitude. 
The heart was left for some days on a stone in the village. 

Chen Jen Yi. This little fellow, onlv ten years old, had 
been baptised as an infant. The child was caught and 



PERSONAL NARRATIVES 701 

asked if he were a Christian, to which he replied that 
he was. Asked again if he would forsake Jesus, he re- 
fused most boldly and was cut down there and then. Two 
brothers and two nephews, although not baptised, died at 
the same time. 



/ 



XXXVI 

FIRE AND SWORD AMONG THE SHANSI CHRISTIANS 

ON the 19th of September a native Chinese helper 
named Wang Lan P'u arrived in Peking, with 
a non-Christian acquaintance who had kindly- 
come many hundred miles to see him safely through the 
disturbed districts. His story is of great interest, not only in 
itself, but for the incidental light which it sheds upon the 
modus in which the almost incredible fanaticism of the 
Boxers was introduced, took root, and bore its terrible 
fruits all within the space of a few days, and before any 
one could have supposed such results possible. j\Ir. 
Wang's story is very similar to another brought but two 
days before by Mr. Fei Ch'i Hao, a graduate in 1898 of 
the North China College of the American Board at T'ung 
Chou, who related with extreme circumstantiality the 
murder of most of the missionaries in the Tai Yuan Fu 
valley. 

W^ith this introduction we will let ]\Ir. \\^ang tell his 
own story, which was heard in detail by the writer three 
different times, on the last occasion full notes being taken, 
and many details supplied. There was not only no 
attempt at embellishment, but his own sufferings and 
those of his family were dismissed in a very few sen- 
tences, as being too unimportant to be mentioned, or too 
terrible to be dwelt upon. 

" In the fourth moon (in May) there is held here a 
large fair which lasts fifteen days, where many horses and 

702 



FIRE AND SWORD IN SHANSI 703 

mules are sold, and excellent theatrical exhibitions are 
given, thus attracting enormous crowds. At this fair 
the Boxer excitement was propagated, and an attack was 
planned upon the chapel of the China Inland JNIission, 
which was only just completed. 

" The local Magistrate, knowing what was going on, 
went out himself and drove away the crowds threaten- 
ing the attack, using a whip on them till they were dis- 
persed. This happened twice, but the third time the mob 
was uncontrollable and the Magistrate was himself 
beaten, his spectacles knocked off, and his sedan-chair 
broken in pieces. This was on Sunday, and the mission- 
aries were at the chapel for a service. They escaped to 
the roof and then took refuge in the house of a church 
member named Chou, who was a carpenter. The rioters 
followed and pulled the shop down, the Magistrate los- 
ing his official hat in the scuffle. There was a military 
official there also, and between them they put the mis- 
sionary (whose name was Larsson) and his companion 
(who had recently arrived and whose name I do not 
know) on a cart, the two Magistrates having whips in 
their hands, and riding outside the cart one on each side 
to protect the foreigners. The mob followed throwing 
clumps of dirt and the like, and the curtains of the cart 
were torn in pieces. 

" It was now noon, and when the missionaries arrived 
their clothes had all been torn to bits, but the Magistrate 
gave them other clothes and took them into his yamen, 
saying that he would repay them for their losses. This 
official's surname was Juan (Rwan) from somewhere in 
the south of China. He had a kindness to Christianity 
because when he v/as a child he had been at a Mission 
school, and he used often to come into our chapel and 
look about. 



704 



CHINA IN CONVULSION 



" The missionaries remained in the yamen two or three 
days. At first nobody cared for the foreigners, they were 
so occupied in looting the chapel, which was torn down 
to the foundations, everything being carried away. Else- 
where the chapels were all burned. The Magistrate sent 
the missionaries on to Ying Chou in the night, as the 
mob kept coming to the yamen to try to get them. He 
lent them his own cart, with a Military Official for an 
escort, and two soldiers, or runners. For the church- 
members he hired a long cart, so that at Hun Yiian none 
were killed. At a later period, when they had returned, 
they were chased about the city and abused, being daubed 
with filth if they would not recant — but not one of them 
did so. 

" Mr. Karlberg, with whom I worked, and myself 
remained at Ying Chou. On the 26th and 27th of the 
moon the people began to pray for rain, but the Mag- 
istrate thought there would be no trouble in consequence. 
He required those that were going through the rain- 
praying ceremonies to register their names — that is, the 
leaders — so as to know whom to hold responsible. He 
sent for the literati and enjoined them to prevent any 
trouble. Soon the leaders of the Boxers arrived at Ying 
Chou, inviting cooperation in killing foreigners. Even 
the children began to learn and practise the drill, and 
the whole thing was brought to a head within about 
three days. The Magistrate invited Mr. Karlberg and 
myself into the yamen, where we remained some days, 
but as we went in the night not many knew that we were 
there, and there was no external disturbance. Mr. 
Karlberg rode on horseback, and reached So P'ing in less 
than two days, escorted by men sent from the yamen, and 
there was no trouble anywhere. 

" On the first dav of the 6th moon things became so 



FIRE AND SWORD IN SHANSI 705 

bad that the Magistrate wanted me also to get away. 
He told me to put on the dress of a yamen courier, gave 
me one of the yamen horses, and wrote a dispatch to the 
prefect at So P'ing telling the conditions of things. As 
bearer of an official letter I should be much safer, though 
I was well known all along the road. I also took dis- 
patches to the Magistrate at Tso Wei Hsien, the first 
county town, wdiere I arrived at dark. I went at once to 
the yamen, just in time to see the chapel there set on fire 
by a mob. The church members saw me in the yamen, 
and none of them had then been injured. 1 only spent a 
part of the night there, as it was unsafe, and started very 
early the next morning getting twenty li before day- 
light, escorted by yamen men. 

" By the middle of the forenoon I was in So P'ing Fu, 
where I went direct to the yamen with the horse and to 
deliver the dispatches, and then to the mission head- 
quarters to tell the news. Everything was still quiet 
there. Four of us went to see the Magistrate. The 
Magistrate went over to see the Prefect when we applied 
to him, and the latter said, ' Do whatever you like about 
it,' meaning that he did not care. He is one of the Man- 
chus, who all violently hated Christians, not for any par- 
ticular reason, only they had a devil inside which made 
them do so. After this the Magistrate had no plan of his 
own. He was asked for an escort to Kalgan, and 
promised to furnish one to the boundaries of his own 
country. He ordered five or six carts, for which the price 
was agreed, and he paid it through the yamen men. 

" We returned to the chapel much pleased that there 
appeared to be a way of escape, and were busy getting 
readv when a mob gathered. In a trice the door was 
forced, and looting began. We saw that things were 
hopeless, and again fled to the yamen, the Magistrate 



7o6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

giving us one small room for all the missionaries, and 
another for the Christians, and they were outside not 
inside rooms. His treatment was very perfunctory, and 
boded us no good. At this time the crowd had not 
become savage ; they were fully occupied in looting the 
premises. By noon we had reached the yamen, and the 
house was soon after burned. 

"It was ingeniously proposed to represent to the people 
that I had come to the city with Imperial Orders just in 
from Peking, requiring all foreigners to be sent there in 
manacles. In this way the lives of the prisoners could 
be saved from the mob, and when we were clear of the 
city and of danger it would be easy to remove the fet- 
ters. To this the missionaries agreed as a shrewd device. 
A blacksmith was called who made six pairs of hand- 
cuffs, one for each of the men. As I had the yamen 
horse to take back, and my own family to look after, it 
was thought best that I should return to Ying Chou. I 
remained in the stable court of the yamen. During this 
whole day the missionaries were too excited to eat, and 
when they reached the yamen no one offered them any- 
thing, not even a drink. After I had been asleep some 
time, being very much exhausted, I was loudly called out 
by name, and everyone saw that mischief was meant. I 
could not escape, so I went out and found a great crowd 
of Boxers and Alanchus, who began to beat me terribly 
and dragged me off to the still burning chapel to throw 
me into the fire. 

" It was not long before I lost consciousness entirely, 
being half dead and supi)osed to be entirely so. I learned 
afterwards that the Boxers felt me to see if I was really 
dead and thinking that I was, they did not care to drag 
mc the rest of the way simply for the trouble of throw- 
ing me into the fire. Besides, two men were standing by 



FIRE AND SWORD IN SHANSI 707 

who befriended me by using a great deal of conciliatory- 
language to the Boxers, begging them to let me die where 
I was. One of them was from a village near by, the other 
a sort of local bully in the city who had often seen me in 
the street chapel. He was fond of the doctrine, only he 
could never make up his mind to repent. They felt my 
heart and pulse, saw that I had no mortal wound, and 
waited by for me to revive, which the night-chill helped 
me do. The mob, meantime, had left me, to go back to 
the yamen and try to drag the missionaries out to kill 
them. There were ten or more Christians there, whom 
they beat severely; some of them probably were killed, 
but they did not get at the missionaries. 

" My benefactors helped me up and took me back to 
the yamen, and wanted to lay me inside where I had been 
before, but the yamen men would not admit me on any 
terms. ' Suppose he should die here, who would be sup- 
posed to have killed him ? ' But they gave the two men 
my horse, clothes, bedding, cash-bag, and my dispatch, 
and while one of them led my horse the other one carried 
me on his back outside the city. Between them they 
helped me on the horse, though I was so weak and faint 
that unless supported by one while the other led the ani- 
mal I could not have sat on him. They went with me all 
the way to an inn, where we happened to meet the cook 
of the missionary family. We dared not stay there, so 
they soon all helped me on the horse again. 

" The cook returned to his home in Fen Chou Fu, and 
the man from the city went with me all the way to the 
end of the first day's journey. On the way, at a town 
forty li from the city, I met travellers who told me that 
that morning thirteen foreigners had been killed near 
So P'ing Fu. I heard this at two different times, and 
am sure it is true. They were probably manacled, and 



7o8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

could make no resistance. I gave the men who escorted 
me some clothes for their kindness, as I had no money. 
In my feeble condition I was three days in getting to 
Ying Chou. 

" When at a town forty li away from there I was told 
that it was useless to go back, as the place had been 
destroyed on the third of the sixth moon (June 29th). 
I heard also that my mother and others had been sent by 
the IMagistrate in a cart to So P'ing Fu, but that she had 
been overtaken by the Boxers half a day's journey distant, 
brought back, and herself, with my brother, sister, my 
little child and an old lady named Wu (my wife had died 
in the second moon) buried alive. Not only this, but the 
head yamen-runner who had escorted them was also 
thrown into the fire, the cart burned, the mule killed 
and thrown into the flames, as well as the dog and chick- 
ens of the yard I lived in. People were not tied, but 
just thrown into the fire loose and driven back whenever 
they tried to get out. It was a slow and a bitter death, 
which I do not like to think of. 

" All the church members w-ere captured at the same 
time, except my brother who used to do a little trade 
and sell Christian books on his own account, and was 
away from home at the time. The Magistrate was in- 
formed of these events, and did his best to save the life of 
his own yamen servants, but was told that if he pressed 
the matter he himself would be thrown into the fire too. 

" Notwithstanding these dreadful stories 1 could not 
give up the idea of returning to see for myself if this 
was true, — and there was the horse to be taken to the 
yamen. So I went on by myself. About ten li from the 
city a band of forty or more Boxers set on me, and rec- 
ognizing me with glee, ordered me to get oflf the horse, 
tied mc tightly and dragged me on to the city. They 



FIRE AND SWORD IN SHANSI 709 

called their Head-master of Boxers, who happened to be 
a tinker, whose occupation was mending iron kettles. He 
could not even read, but now he was a ' Head-master.' 
The Magistrate soon had my arrival reported to him, 
and heard that the Head-master was trying the case. The 
Magistrate sent a polite invitation to the Head-master to 
come to him, which he did. 

" Then the Magistrate said that he had all along felt 
grave doubts whether these were true Boxers, and 
whether they could, as pretended, keep out arrows and 
bullets. He now proposed to test this. ' Let your men 
go through their spells, make themselves invulnerable if 
they can, and I will attack them with guns. If you are 
not hurt, you may kill the courier Wang in any way 
you like; you are true Boxers and I will be one too; 
otherwise I shall know that you are not the true Boxers, 
and your claim is a fraud.' The Head-master had the 
Boxers from one village or region only with him, but 
he thought it over, and as it seemed a fair proposition he 
assented, but wished himself not to be in the ranks but 
to one side, so that he could tell when the Spirits had 
really arrived. He also insisted that the test should not 
begin until he announced that the Spirits had arrived. 
To this the Magistrate agreed. 

" By this time it was late at night — nearly midnight — 
but, the story having got out, the whole city was there 
with torches and lanterns to see the spectacle. There was 
a Chen Wu Temple on the city wall, and in front of that 
the Boxers were drawn up making tlieir passes in the air 
and otherwise practising for the trial. 

" Most of the many onlookers were below the wall in a 
good position to see. The four yamen men that the Mag- 
istrate had appointed to guard me wanted to see and 
loosed me, so that we could all look on together. The 



710 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Magistrate had given careful directions and looked after 
the loading of the guns himself with balls as well as 
powder. Foreseeing that there was to be trouble he had 
engaged two hundred experts who could fight, wrestle 
and shoot, to be his guards, and it was these men that he 
set against the Boxers. They waited until the Head-mas- 
ter cried 'Shcn lai la' (The spirits have come), when the 
Magistrate, who had a gun himself, gave the order ' K'ai 
ch'iang' (Open fire). Four or five of the Boxers were 
killed outright, six or seven were hurt so that they fell 
over the city wall, and not a single man among them was 
without a wound. Then they all scattered. 

" The Magistrate now summoned me and told me how 
he had been unable to protect his own yamen headman, 
and that it was not safe for me to remain. He gave me 
twenty ounces of silver and some brass cash, together 
with an official letter which I was to take to T'ai Yuan 
Fu (where I expected to go), mainly as a protection to 
me in travelling. Although very unfit to ride a horse 
or even to move at all, I went away that night. We then 
knew nothing about the attitude of the Governor toward 
the missionaries, or I should never have thought of going 
in that direction. 

" After about thirty li I got into serious trouble. 
There was a crowd at a large village who suspected me, 
and were sure that I was a follower of foreigners. They 
accused me of having little figures of men cut out of yel- 
low paper, and foreign bewildering medicines about me, 
and searched me to see. In this way they found my 
silver, and also the official letter. It was nothing but the 
latter that saved my life. Then the crowd was divided, 
some crying: 'Kill him anyway and be done with him;' 
while the rest said: 'He is a courier, let him go on his 
official route ; it is none of our business.' In this way 



FIRE AND SWORD IN SHANSI 711 

they wrangled for a whole half day, and some well- 
intentioned people spoke a good word for me. In almost 
every mob there arc some of this kind ; not all are the 
very worst. 

" I learned afterwards, what I did not then suspect, that 
there was a little party who privately agreed that it was 
best to let me go, and then they would pursue me on their 
own account, rob and kill me, and divide the silver 
among them. I went on as far as I could, and had got 
seven or eight li when some men came running after me, 
crying out that I must leave the big road and take a 
byway, for there was a band of men just behind intend- 
ing to chase and kill me, who were armed with swords and 
guns. This perplexed me very much, and I was not sure 
but this was a plot to kill me. They were very urgent, 
so I yielded, and left the road where there was a pass in 
front and a mountain near. It was not a cart road, but 
for pack-mules only. I came to a village and begged 
them to let me rest there for a time, but they would have 
nothing to do with me. 

"But at another small village an old man was kind to 
me, and advised me against going to T'ai Yuan Fu, which 
was 800 or 900 li, while it was only 600 or so to Pao 
Ting Fu, the capital of Chihli. Here I stayed for three 
days until the pursuers would have all gone back, and 
then I made a detour around the mountain and regained 
the main road. After this I went to Wu T'ai Hsien, 
where the famous mountain is, escorted by a man who 
was sent by my village friends, with whom I had to share 
my silver, so that I had very little left. Beyond this, at a 
place called Tai Ving, I met the Boxers again, and was 
once more examined. Here I told a different story from 
the former one. and said T was a trader returning home. I 
had torn up the official document wliich would now h.avc 



712 



CHINA IN CONVULSION 



implicated me. Not to have told different stories at dif- 
ferent times would have been impossible ; there was really 
no help for it. Finding that Boxers were worse and 
worse the further on I went, I resolved to turn back into 
the mountains again, 120 li to a city named Fu P'ing. I 
did not then know the characters, but as ' Fu ' means hap- 
piness, and ' P'ing ' peace, I thought the Lord was open- 
ing a way to both, and though the first character was 
wrong, I did get relief. I told my story to the inn-keeper, 
and he advised me to do a little trading with what small 
funds I had left. 

" There was a neighbour of his who knew how to make 
twisted dough-nuts fried in oil, and I got to know him, 
gave all my things to him as security, and did a small 
business in this way with him for more than two months. 
There were no Boxers at all in that place. When it 
came to the 8th moon, I thought I might go on. In 
that time I had cleared a string and a half of cash, and 
bought a good many things besides. I had no adven- 
tures on the way to Pao Ting Fu, and there I heard that 
all the foreign buildings had been burned, and many 
church members killed. I did not hear of the murder of 
any foreigners there. On the way to Peking the Sikh 
soldiers took away the money of myself and the man who 
came down with me. It is a great joy to me to see so 
many Christians together again, and to tell and to hear 
of tlie Lord's mercies." 

Note — The following are the names of the missionaries mur- 
dered at So P'ing Fu, so far as known — 

Of the Swedish Union, Mr and Mrs. S A. Persson. Mr. N. 
Carleson, Mr. O. A. L. Larsson, Mr G. E. Karlberg, Miss J. 
Lundell, Miss J Engvall, Miss M. Hedlund, Miss A. Johannsson. 

Of the Cliristian and Missionary Alliance, Mr. and Mrs. C. 
Bl;)mberg and child. 



XXXVII 

A TWELVE-MONTH OF FOREIGN OCCUPATION 

IMMEDIATELY after the siege was raised, Peking 
was divided among the armies of invasion for pur- 
poses of patrol and as a base for possible operations 
elsewhere. The Russians and the Japanese appeared to 
have the largest number of troops, but as the coming 
and going was incessant, no accurate statements were pos- 
sible for more than a day at a time. 

In about a month it was suddenly announced that the 
Russian forces were to be withdrawn, and, soon after, the 
Russian Legation actually departed for Tientsin, where 
it remained for a short time and then returned, its lead 
not being followed by any other Power. It was evident 
that the occupation of Manchuria was causing a great 
deal of trouble, and that if other armies could be per- 
suaded to leave Peking at the suggestion of Russia, the 
latter would gain the credit for doing China a good turn, 
while at the same time serving her own interests. 

For the remaining months, until the end of the year, 
there was an increasing series of military expeditions in 
everv direction from Tientsin and from Peking, some 
of which were on a large scale and fully reported, while 
others attracted little attention. The one which was 
of the chief interest was that to Pao Ting Fu, starting 
both from Tientsin and Peking, the intention being to 
arrive simultaneously. The result illustrated the inherent 

713 



714 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

weakness of a campaign in which eight distinct sets of 
armies bore a hand. The French from Tientsin arrived 
just a week before the British, the German, and the Ital- 
ian contingent, and it was currently reported that they 
exacted a heavy " ransom " on their own account for 
sparing the city. Whether this is true it appears impos- 
sible to ascertain with certainty. Military operations 
anywhere are hard to follow and the facts difficult to 
verify. In this case they are at least eight times as ob- 
scure as usual, and some of them do not appear to be 
objects of knowledge at all. 

It was soon perceived that if any one first-class Power 
had been dealing with China, progress would have been 
definite and steady. In the case of two Powers, the de- 
lays were twice as great and the progress twice as slow. 
With three Powers the friction was so much increased 
that the pace was diminished by a still larger percentage ; 
and by the time that all eight armies had to be reckoned 
with, it becomes a complex and practically insoluble prob- 
lem whether the decrease of efficiency has been inversely 
as the square of the number of Powers involved, or as 
the cube of the number of Major-Generals. 

At Pao Ting Fu an investigation was held into the 
behaviour of the Provincial Treasurer, Ting Jung, who 
had been the patron of the P)0xer movement for the whole 
year. As a result of that trial, he was condemned 
to be beheaded, together with the Tartar General of the 
City and the Lieutenant-Colonel of the camp, who had 
refused protection to foreigners, and whose soldiers had 
stood idly by while the burning of the Mission premises 
and the slaughter of missionaries was in progress. Of 
all the acts of the military since the capture of Peking, 
this is the one most righteous in itself and most salutary 
in its result, yet it has been perversely criticised as a 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 715 

bloodthirsty cry for " vengeance," unworthy of Western 
nations ! 

The German expedition to Kalgan, four days to the 
northwest of Peking, was widely known by reason of the 
accidental suffocation of one of the high military ofificers 
by the fumes of charcoal. What it amounted to it would 
be difficult to say with precision. There was a raid in the 
direction of the Imperial Tombs, for moral effect, with 
results hard to summarize beyond the exasperation of the 
Chinese and the demoralization of the troops. It is al- 
ways a delicate matter to keep soldiers under control 
when in an enemy's country. 

The circumstances of the Boxer uprising appear to 
have convinced the commanders of the armies of in- 
vasion that the rules of international law had no appli- 
cation to China at that time. There is, moreover, a con- 
tagious demoralization of fighting men when they per- 
ceive others acting in a lawless manner. War is itself 
a repeal of law ; and of the extent to which it shall be 
abrogated the soldiers themselves must to a large ex- 
tent be judges. If this, or anything like it, was true of 
the larger expeditions sent out incessantly, it was far 
more so of those minor raids of which the public knows 
little or nothing. 

It would be a gross misrepresentation to affirm that 
all the commanders or all the soldiers of any section of 
the allied armies have been lawless and violent, for in 
that case the results wou4d have been such as took place 
along the banks of the Amur River, where helpless, in- 
offensive villagers by the thousand were slaughtered and 
their bodies thrown into the broad stream until it was 
positively choked with them. But armies, like individ- 
uals, will be judged, not by the best but by the worst 
which they have done ; and in this case the worst must 



7i6 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

be admitted to have been very bad indeed. There have 
been times when it has seemed as if the foreign troops 
had come to northern China for the express purpose of 
committing within the shortest time as many violations 
as possible of the sixth, the seventh, and the eighth Com- 
mandments. The combined result has been such a state 
of chaos in many districts as is at once incredible and 
indescribable. Of the promiscuous murder of non-com- 
batants there is overwhelming evidence, which need not 
be cited. The only defence of this which is ordinarily 
made is to reply: " Oh yes, of course, war is always like 
that — what do you expect it to be? " 

Of the looting and wholesale robbery with violence, 
both in expeditions and in districts which have been vis- 
ited by small military parties, much has been written, 
but it will be long before the whole terrible catalogue of 
crimes is known. Long lists of the exactions made on 
Chinese officials and cities could be (and have been) made 
out, showing that the total sums extorted for alleged 
" protection '" and " ransom '' have been sufficient to im- 
poverish the country for a long period. In some instances 
the same cities and towns have been visited repeatedly 
with reduplicated demands ; and the fact that the expedi- 
tionary " spheres of influence " have been vaguely de- 
fined and imperfectly regarded, so that the same city 
might be raided by different sets of soldiers, has made the 
condition of large regions more or less anarchic. 

Two expeditions should be mentioned which stand out 
especially as examples of what has been already men- 
tioned, each under the conduct of the Germans. Of these 
the first was to Ts'ang Chou, a city about sixty miles 
south of Tientsin, on the Grand Canal. The Magistrate 
of the city had always been friendly to the foreigners, 
who had just removed the station of the London Mission 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 717 

to the vicinity and put up extensive buildings. The Chi- 
nese mihtary officer in charge of the ChihU troops vas 
General Alei, who was not only on the best of terms with 
the various foreigners living in that part of the province, 
but had made it his principal business for the greater 
part of the previous twelve months to fight the Boxers 
whenever and wherever they could be found, and had 
probably done more to defeat, disperse, and discourage 
them than any other man in China. 

The Germans made a raid upon Ts'ang Chou, plun- 
dered the yamens of the Magistrate and that of General 
Mei, who prudently retired to a distance upon their ap- 
proach. They released all the Boxer prisoners whom they 
found in the city jail, returning to Tientsin in triumph, 
whence a despatch was sent to Shanghai informing the 
world of " A Successful Attack," saying that " the Ger- 
mans have routed General Mei's forces at Ts'ang Chou, 
looted his baggage, and killed fort3--three men." 

To those cognizant of the facts this inexcusable folly 
boded no good for the denizens of such territor)' as may 
hereafter come under German rule in Shantung or else- 
where. Is it any wonder that General Mei is said to 
have complained that " on all eight sides I have no face 
[self-respect and respect of others] left? " 

In the district city of Yung Ch'ing Hsien, between 
Tientsin and Peking, where Messrs. Norman and Robin- 
son were killed early in June, the Germans made a visit 
and killed nearly a hundred and fifty persons, with no 
loss to themselves, under circumstances so indefensible 
that the British remitted the monetary fines which had 
been imposed on the city, and employed the monev in re- 
lieving the acute distress caused by the barbarity of the 
Germans ! When attention was called to these and 
numerous similar acts of the Germans, their militarv au- 



7i8 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

thorities were greatly stirred up against Dr. Morrison, 
the correspondent of the London " Times," who had first 
formulated the feelings of those acquainted with the facts. 
The result is supposed to have been, not the threatened 
" court martial " of Dr. Morrison, who had purposely 
understated the facts, but the imposition of a certain 
amount of restraint upon German military action. 

As the result of all that gloomy winter one of the 
lessons which have been impressed upon the Chinese in 
varied but convincing forms is the moral inferiority of 
foreigners to Chinese. This the Chinese had always 
known and believed, but had never been able to demon- 
strate. 

Many years ago a son of Li Hung Chang, while under 
a foreign instructor in Tientsin told him that his father 
had once said that formerly he himself had supposed 
Westerners as a whole to be more honest and more truth- 
ful than Chinese, but his long and intimate experience of 
their ways had taught him the opposite. And, indeed, in 
the item of struggles for contracts with the Chinese Gov- 
ernment, the Syndicates who had need to deal with the 
Viceroy, have not invariably illustrated the highest qual- 
ities of the civilization whence they sprung. 

But with the occupation of China by foreign armies the 
veil — if there was one — has been torn away. The extent 
of the lawlessness committed by Western troops in China 
has probably been greatly exaggerated in the reports to 
the press, but the conditions at the beginning were hor- 
ribly bad, though they steadily improved, partly no doubt 
in consequence of the " bright sunlight of publicity " 
which is nowhere without its deterrent force. 

Alaking all abatements, however, the impression upon 
the Chinese, wlio only know or can know the facts through 
the repercussion of rumour and through distorted native 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 719 

journalistic media, is distinctly to lower the not too high 
estimate which the Chinese had previously placed upon 
Western character and morals. For them there is a 
simple and easy explanation — foreigners have never en- 
joyed the hlessing of a thorough mastering of the contents 
of the Four Confucian Books, and the Five Confucian 
Classics. While they recognize with clearness that the 
worst that has happened in China is but a fraction of 
what the Chinese would have themselves perpetrated in 
any foreign country which they might have overrun, the 
fact that Western nations have always assumed the moral 
inferiority of the Chinese, and have posed as their in- 
structors, not in abstract principles only but in their daily 
exemplification, has added to the sting of the disillusion. 

The Chinese have also been enabled by these months 
of foreign occupation distinctly to perceive what all dis- 
cerning persons predicted, that foreigners have no ade- 
quate talents for dealing with the Chinese on a large 
scale. The ancient and compact civilization of China 
has been in operation for millenniums, and there is a 
way and a rule for everything. The Westerner comes 
in with calm confidence that he will show them a thing 
(or perhaps two), and he does. The Chinese adapt them- 
selves to the sinuosities of the Occidental temperament as 
the water fits the boat which rushes through it, or as the 
air closes about the flying projectile. But when the boat 
or the bullet has passed, the water and the air are in situ, 
ready for any number more of the same kind. 

Despite the jaunty way in which even those of long 
experience in China and the Far East speak of the facil- 
ity of governing China through foreign hands, and al- 
ways cite " India " in evidence, it is plain to the dis- 
criminating observer that there is really no just analogy 
between the two. India is a museum of races and Ian- 



720 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

guages, while China is essentially a unit in its ideas and 
its ideals, as well as in its history, language, and insti- 
tutions. It ought to be understood by this time that 
without the consent of the Chinese themselves no Power 
on earth can really rule them, though many Powers may 
overrun and endeavour to control them. If the Chinese, 
during this year of stress and strain have succeeded in 
finding: out what " the Powers " want to do with the 
Chinese Empire when it is within their combined " sphere 
of influence," they have learned more than any one else 
knows or for some time to come is likely to know. 

The inevitable division among foreign councils has been 
familiar to the Chinese ever since they have known for- 
eigners at all, and the Chinese and the Turkish Govern- 
ments have united (and competed) in their capacity and 
talent for making the most effective use of that fact 
against them all. But the phenomena of the past year, 
when all the Powers had the greatest possible motives 
for combination, which lasted until the Legations were 
relieved (and no longer), have taught the Chinese anew 
that in disunion is feebleness. 

That China will escape from much that at first appeared 
inevitable as a punishment is as certain as that eleven 
different Nations have been worrying at her doors, await- 
ing the settlement of their claims and due " guarantees " 
for the future. The Chinese can and will give them all, 
for in that line they have seldom failed, and in this hour 
of their greatest distress are not likely to do so. An in- 
dividual Chinese will and does make the most abundant 
promises, when he is in trouble, as to what he will do if 
only he is allowed another day of grace. The Chinese 
Government, which has been in a tighter place than anv 
of its subjects ever imagined it could be, can do no other 
than adopt this policy, wb.ilc the " experts " show in what 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 721 

way this can be accomplished — as very possibly it can be. 
Whether it will be, is another matter, for the future, even 
in the fixed and immobile Orient, is full of pleasant sur- 
prises. Still, like the cheerful Chinese, we shall hope for 
the best, and will await the result with what patience we 
may. 

The Empress Dowager has recently been issuing the 
most admirable Imperial Edicts on the subject of the 
protection of missionaries and of converts. " The failure 
to do this last year was contrary to our wish often ex- 
pressed, and hence many heads have fallen. Hereafter 
there must be no failure in this direction." How repent- 
ant this sounds, and how hollow as the supple bamboo, 
which yields to the strongest pressure in any given direc- 
tion, and upon removal of the same instantly resumes its 
former position ! 

At Washington it is the fashion to look at the Chinese 
situation through the colored glasses furnished by the 
clever Mr. Wu, whose presence abroad at this crisis is to 
China the greatest stroke of good fortune. It is easy for 
him to represent that the Chinese Government is more 
than ready to take over the functions of office everywhere, 
and that it is quite capable of keeping order. But it 
cannot possibly be comprehended in Western lands 
how utterly the Government of China is dependent upon 
the temper of the officials and of the people to get its 
orders executed. The great storm which has swept over 
the face of China was raised by complex and long-con- 
tinued causes, but it will not subside in a month nor in 
a year, and, unless all signs are deceptive, the tranquillity 
which will be everywhere reported after an interval will 
frequently be found to be only superficial. 

During the period in January and February when the 
Court seemed to be hesitating to grant the irrevocable de- 



722 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

mands for the punishment of the more important guilty 
parties, the influence of that hesitation is known to have 
been felt immediately in the military camps in Shantung, 
under the command of Governor Yuan Shih K'ai. They 
were apparently ordered to be ready to march' northward 
at an early day, and it was popularly supposed that a 
large body of southern troops had been somewhere gath- 
ered to support the advance, which was to be a death- 
struggle with the foreigner. Even if the army was 
beaten, it would at least make the whole country a waste, 
and so useless to the invader. While this was probably 
mere rumour, or at most a preparation for a possible con- 
tingency, and perhaps nothing but empty bluster, in 
either case it equally showed the determined bent of the 
Chinese mind. 

The wild passions which have been raised are not to be 
spirited out of existence by a mere edict announcing that 
peace has been arranged for all within the Four Seas, 
for the facts which underlie the troubles have been at 
last ground into the Chinese national consciousness as 
never before. It is a significant circumstance that, si- 
multaneously with this military programme, the Shantung 
Boxers have again begun to assert themselves, holding a 
formal gun-drill (such as last year announced actual hos- 
tilities) at a village within twenty miles of the home 
of the writer of these lines. That fact was accompanied 
by the open proclamation of an intention to resume the 
operations of last year, under the directions of the "' Great 
Fairy," who superintended them. This dignitary has of- 
ficially informed the Boxers that in the previous out- 
breaks they had squandered their opportunity by requir- 
ing ransom money, and by the spoliation of the houses of 
Christians, whereas this time all that was to be absolutely 
forbidden, and in the new attack every Christian was to 
















VICI.MTV OF LEGATIOX STREET, PEKING 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 723 

be killed, as well as the chickens and the dogs, that there 
might be no root left alive when the grass should be 
cut up. 

These renewed attempts, with the wide-spread brig- 
andage that attends them, may be purely local. But they 
are not the less worthy of notice as an indication of what 
many of the Chinese would like to do were it within their 
power. There is no reasonable doubt of the intentions 
of Governor Yuan and other officers like-minded, but here 
again we must reckon with the " personal equation " on 
an enormous scale. No Chinese and no Manchu, what- 
ever his rank, can conduct the work of his position against 
the united opposition of his subordinates. As the Chi- 
nese saying goes, " One can manage with Pluto, but it is 
with the small devils that the trouble comes." Yuan has 
issued the most stern proclamations, offering incentives 
and positive rewards for the total suppression of troubles 
with foreigners for a period of three years, but in many 
districts these proclamations remain unposted, and the 
people are left in ignorance of his utterances. 

Another feature of the past twelve-month has been the 
manoeuvring of China's great antagonist, Russia, to play, 
as at other times, the role of benevolent protector. The 
American public, especially, dislikes to entertain the small- 
est suspicion that it does not apprehend the basal facts 
of the Chinese situation to such an extent as to render 
the usual snap judgment safe. But it is not strange that 
the peculiar relations between the Chinese and the Rus- 
sian Empires should not have been forced upon the notice 
of the Americans. To an unprejudiced spectator it is 
clear that no foe ever so gravely threatened the exist- 
ence of the Chinese Government as Russia has done and 
is still doing, yet the Chinese, while shrewd observers and 
gifted with remarkable insight into motives and inten- 



724 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

tions, show little apparent perception of the real con- 
dition of their Empire as related to their colossal neigh- 
bour. Sometimes Chinese statesmen, when asked how it 
is that thev have drifted into this condition, simply reply, 
" What could we do to prevent it ? " — an inquiry to which 
it is not easy to formulate a satisfactory answer. 

All the world was aroused during the early spring to 
the gravity of the situation in regard to Russian domina- 
tion of Manchuria, although what the world proposes to 
do about it finally, other than to send Notes and to pro- 
pose inquiries, is not apparent. Yet the situation is not 
inherently different from what it has been for some years, 
except that the folly of the Chinese, in their wanton at- 
tacks on Russian cities and settlements, put the handle 
of the sword into the hands of Russia, to use a Chinese 
phrase — an advantage which, whatever other Powers may 
say or do, she is not likely to surrender. 

Ever since the conclusion of the war with Japan in the 
spring of 1895 such a state of things w'as distinctly fore- 
shadowed, but nothing was then done about it. Lord 
Charles Beresford published in his literary weighty volume 
on " The Break-up of China," the protests handed to him 
by the representatives of the British Municipal Council 
of Tientsin, who informed him that at that time Man- 
churia was practically a Russian province. This was at 
least a brevet fact, if it had not then been promoted to 
the dignity of past history, but no attention seems to have 
been paid to it in our own country, except noting the 
statement. 

Here is a door the closing of which will make a differ- 
ence of unknown millions of dollars in American trade, 
and that door shows signs of being forcibly slammed shut. 
The State Department at Washington then secures writ- 
ten affirmations, from a great variety of sources, that each 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 725 

of the Powers approves in theory and will support in 
practice the plan of fastening the door open on equal terms 
to all. No one Power more cordially assents to this proi^- 
osition than Russia. It is exactly in the line of her policy, 
her wishes, and her practice. We were all delighted to 
have American diplomacy score a decided and a unique 
triumph, impossible to other Powers with a less pro- 
nouncedly altruistic history ; and essays on " The Open 
Door in China " filled the journals for many months. 
Meantime Russia goes on with her preparations, and 
when the heaven-sent fatuity of the Boxers gives the 
golden opportunity, she knocks out the chocks, slams the 
door, puts the key in her military chest, posts a strong 
guard in the province, warns off all others, draws up an 
agreement of a stringent character with China in the 
face of all the Powers, smiles blandly at the Anglo-Ger- 
man agreement, with which she is in full harmony, and 
cordially sympathizes with the dictum of Daniel Web- 
ster that "the past, at least, is secure." 

The formal and merely nominal retirement of Russia 
from her claims for the signature of the ]\Ianchurian Con- 
vention may be laid to the partial agreement of some of 
the Powers most nearly concerned, as well as to th.e unex- 
pected expression of Chinese sentiment all over the Em- 
pire, which it is certainly not to the interest of Russia to 
antagonize. That the disavowal of hostile intentions on 
the part of the great Empire of the North means any- 
thing more than the usual temporizing, until the times are 
more favourable, no one probably believes, whatever for 
diplomatic purposes he may say to the contrary. It is 
an ancient and a significant Chinese adage that " A mon- 
key's hand drops no dates," and the same generalization 
applies to bears — especially to the species which has 
learned to be fond of Chinese dates. Everv friend of 



726 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

China and of Japan must sympathize with the difficult 
position of the latter (as well as the former), forced to 
choose a time for the inevitable conflict, the outcome of 
wliich no human intelligence can foresee. 

The list of punishments demanded by the Powers upon 
guilty officials in consequence of their complicity in the 
atrocities of last year, is surprisingly small in the eyes 
of the Chinese themselves, the number of those to be ex- 
ecuted embracing less than fifteen persons, although about 
240 defenceless and innocent men, women and children, 
of several nationalities, were deliberately massacred by 
official orders, largely in yamens or by soldiers detailed 
for the purpose. The ostentatious leniency of the Rus- 
sians is a strange exhibition from a nation which could 
tolerate the savage butchery of innocent Chinese on the 
banks of the Amur River. 

When it is remembered what these men have done, 
and with what savage brutality many of them have plotted 
to exterminate every foreigner in their jurisdiction, it 
is evident to every one acciuainted with the conditions 
that in the New China, that ought to ensue after peace 
negotiations have been completed, such officials ought not 
for a moment to be tolerated. The cry which appears to 
be so popular in the United States, that to demand the 
capital punishment of less than two score Chinese offi- 
cials as a partial expiation of the deliberate crime of the 
Chinese Government is an exhibition of " bloodthirsti- 
ness," betrays a hopeless incapacity to comprehend the 
real conditions in China, and, what is of more import- 
ance, to grasp the aspects in which the matter must pre- 
sent itself to the Chinese mind. 

If Western Powers, whether moved by sentimentality 
or by a desire to trarlc upon the supposed good will of the 
Chinese, to be gained by minimizing the guilt of the 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 727 

guilty, are to slur over the past and deal weakly with 
those who are not only criminals in our eyes but in those 
of the Chinese themselves, the inevitable result must be 
to reawaken in all Chinese officials and people alike a 
thorough contempt for Westerners who are so easily 
hoodwinked. The Chinese will attribute the result to 
every motive but the real one, and will certainly think and 
feel that Powers who have held the sword in hand so long, 
and yet have failed to employ it as Chinese know that 
it ought to be employed, are not to be dreaded in the fu- 
ture; and it is a moral certainty that the Chinese will act 
in accordance with this view. 

There was a special incongruity in this false sympathy 
for Chinese wrong-doers when the Powers were governing 
the cities of Tientsin, Pao Ting Fu, and Peking, and were 
inflicting punishments upon Chinese miscreants in accord- 
ance with Chinese law, without reference to Western 
codes. The Germans particularly are reported to have 
cut off the heads of many hundred Chinese within their 
jurisdiction, many of them for absolutely trivial offenses. 
This is regarded as simply a question of military admin- 
istration, and no notice whatever seems to be taken of 
it, while the settlement of the penalties for the great in- 
ternational crime of 1900 is hindered from sources the 
most opposite, through selfishness and sentimentality. 

In this connection it is well to mention that renewed 
attention has just been called in the foreign press of China 
to the terrible nature of the sufferings to which the mar- 
tyred missionaries were in many cases subjected. The 
matter is a painful and a delicate one, especially in the 
case of the ladies, but the suspicion that there is an effort 
to suppress the facts, lest the knowledge of them should 
lead to restrictions upon missionary work in the interior, 
has only led to the publication of the most terribly shock- 



728 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

ing details, said to have been obtained from the hps of 
eye-witnesses. It is undoubtedly better that the whole truth 
should be known, for it must sooner or later come to the 
surface, and it is only by a calm contemplation of all the 
facts that a wise conclusion can be reached as to what 
ought to be done to prevent a recurrence of similar 
atrocities. 

The prospect for such prevention is by no means as 
hopeful as it should be. For ten months this part of 
China has practically been embarked upon a foreign fleet, 
tossing about in a stormy sea. Now the time has arrived 
when the passengers and crew must be transferred back 
to the old unsea worthy Chinese junks in which they were 
before. The gangways are all down, the water is full of 
small sampans waiting to take men and cargo, but there 
is so much of a swell that the exchange is not an easy 
one to effect, and some will probably get drowned. 

The very first step toward the safe transfer is the re- 
turn of the court to Peking. But that the Emperor 
should return alone, though much desired by foreigners 
and by the most patriotic Chinese, seems not to have been 
suggested. This means, the Occidental reader will do 
well to bear in mind, that the relation of the Empress 
Dowager to the Chinese Government — a relation of essen- 
tial identity — is exactly what it was when one year ago 
she gave the order to fire upon the Legations. It is not 
known that the question of her right to rule the Empire 
which she has brought to the verge of ruin and disrup- 
tion has been so much as seriously considered. 

The most melancholy feature of a situation full of 
varying shades of colour, with a predominance of the 
darker ones, is that the Powers have taken no notice what- 
ever of the deposition of the rightful Emperor, of the 
fact that his present anomalous relations to the Govern- 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 729 

ment of his Empire are unsatisfactory and fraught with 
peril, that the recognized Heir Apparent is a youth desti- 
tute of character, whose assumption of power would prob- 
ably complete the ruin of the country within a year, and 
that the Empress Dowager, who has brought this condi- 
tion of things upon China and the World, still holds the 
scepter undisputed and irresistible. 

It is vain to cherish the fiction that these circumstances 
have no relation to anything which the Powers can do. 
It is these conditions which have brought the present 
crisis, and to ignore them is to invite future disaster, as 
is clearly foreseen and constantly predicted by the dis- 
cerning. Yet as a year ago at this time, nothing is done 
about the perils visibly imminent, and the hopeless dis- 
agreement of the Powers probably renders action of real 
unity impossible. 

The Rev. Timothy Richard has visited Peking at the 
request of the Governor of Shansi and the Chinese Peace 
Commissioners, and has drawn up a scheme for the settle- 
ment of the Protestant cases in that province which is so 
conspicuously fair and just (and so utterly in contrast 
to the Roman Catholic demands) that the Chinese press 
comments upon it with uniform approbation. In consid- 
eration of the fact that the people were acting under 
orders in their riots of last year, he suggests that one 
Boxer leader in each district be punished as a warning; 
that the losses of converts be provided for and pro- 
vision made for widows and orphans ; that the province 
raise half a million taels, one-tenth to be paid each year, 
for the establishment of schools to enlighten the people 
of Shansi, thus avoiding delusions in the future — one 
educated foreigner and one educated Chinese to manage 
the business ; monumental stones to be erected wherever 
converts were killed ; the officials, gentry, scholars, and 



730 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

people to receive courteously missionaries whenever again 
sent, and apologize for the past; equal treatment to be 
granted converts and non-converts in everything; and 
lists to be kept of the names of rioters, that they may be 
punished if they again offend. These principles have 
been agreed to by the representatives of the Protestant 
societies working in Shansi — the China Inland Mission, 
the American Board, the English Baptist, the Gospel 
Alission, and an independent organization. 

These suggestions were submitted to Li Hung Chang, 
who is said to have been exceedingly pleased with the 
moderation of the demands, exclaiming that never yet 
had there been in China such an enlightened and moderate 
gentleman as Dr. Richard had shown himself to be, and 
that if these suggestions w-ere put into effect there would 
be no more missionary troubles in the Empire. Dr. Rich- 
ard's long residence in Shansi — from 1876 to 1886 — his 
devotion and tact in distributing famine relief at the be- 
ginning of that period, his cordial relations with officials 
from the Governor down, and his wide reputation as the 
best known and most representative Protestant missionary 
in China, combine to give his recommendations great 
weight. 

Representatives of nine of the important missionary 
societies in China have recently issued, both in English 
and in Chinese, a " Statement " in regard to the con- 
nection between missionaries and the present crisis. It 
is of the nature of an explanation, and incidentally a de- 
fence, and has attracted favourable comment from the lead- 
ing foreign journals of Shanghai for its conspicuous fair- 
ness and moderation of language. A paragraph from an 
article in the " North China Daily News " dealing with 
it should be quoted: " The charge that missionaries have 
manifested an improper desire to see vengeance done on 




DR. AMEXT RECEIVING VILLAGE DEl'UTAlIuN 



FOREIGN OCCUPATION 731 

the perpetrators of last year's outrages is, except in pos- 
sible isolated cases, as unfounded as Mark Twain's ig- 
norant charges against Dr. Ament and his colleagues in 
Peking and its vicinity. Men who have examined the 
whole question with an honest desire to arrive at the truth 
without prejudice or partiality allow that the behaviour 
of the missionaries as a body has not only been above 
reproach, but worthy of praise and gratitude. They 
have been anxious, as we have all been anxious, to see 
outrages such as those of last year made impossible in the 
future, and as long as human nature is what it is, men 
must be deterred from crime by the conviction that it 
will be followed by punishment ; and not to have punished, 
and punished severely, the culprits of last year, would 
have been to invite a repetition of their crimes." 

It is a hopeful circumstance that Minister Conger will 
soon be on his way out again. It is simply a fact that at 
the present time there is no other man who can take his 
place, or who ought to take it. Like all the other Minis- 
ters, he did not foresee the coming cyclone in China, but 
when it came he proved a tower of strength, not to Amer- 
icans only, but to the common defence — a service ill 
requited by the theory prevalent at Washington that be- 
cause his insight was so much greater and more accurate 
than that of any one in Washington, his " mind was af- 
fected ! " As President Lincoln desired more Generals 
who drank the " whisky " to which General Grant was 
alleged to be addicted, so the United States Legations 
abroad would do well to lay in a stock of Ministers who 
have the common sense and the manliness of Mr. 
Conger. 

It is incidentally a gratification to many whose sense 
of justice has been outraged by the captious criticisms of 
those with neither knowledge nor candour to compre- 



732 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

hcnd existing conditions, to see that Air. Conger has not 
hesitated to take the responsibility for his own advice con- 
sistently given to American citizens acting in times of 
storm and stress. He has comprehensively replied to all 
the current criticism by the remark : " I am prepared to 
justify the conduct of the missionaries before the siege, 
during the siege, and after the siege." 

It is well for the friends of those moral reforms without 
which the regeneration of this Empire is utterly impossi- 
ble, to bear in mind that existing conditions do not alter 
our duty to China, but only modify present action. If 
anything is certain it is that there is to be in some form 
a new China. For that we should watch, and perhaps 
wait, but not idly nor as those without hope. All mission 
methods should be re-examined, as ships are overhauled 
in the dry-docks, but always with reference to a new and 
a longer voyage than the last. 



XXXVIII 



THE OUTLOOK 



THE questions arising in consequence of the Con- 
vulsion in China are too numerous and too com- 
prehensive to be recapitulated in a closing chap- 
ter, even if from a single point of view they could all be 
understood. In the preceding pages an effort has been 
made to point out some of the remoter underlying and 
predisposing causes of this great movement, which in 
the peculiar condition existing was an inevitable part of 
the evolution of the international relations of mankind. 
Other nations were driven toward intercourse with China 
by an impulse which they could no more resist than the 
waters of the ocean can withstand the pull of the moon, 
clearly recognizing that no nation has either the right or 
the power to refuse such intercourse. As a result China 
was forced into relations with the West, unwillingly ac- 
cepting treaties which she intended to keep only while 
they could not be evaded or broken. 

Had the Occidental Powers invariably observed the 
far-reaching rule of Lord Elgin never to make an unjust 
demand and never to retreat from a just demand once 
made, China would have been peacefully coerced into 
right relations with the rest of the World, to her own 
unspeakable benefit and ours. As it was, the impact of 
Western Nations on China was met by unvarying evasion, 
duplicity, falsehood, arrogance, and an intolerable inso- 

733 



734 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

lence which from time to time brought on conflicts, and 
ahvays with the same viltimate results. 

The occurrences of the year 1900 displayed upon a great 
scale the emptiness of those Chinese pretensions which 
have never been and are not yet abandoned. They have 
also exhibited, notwithstanding the universal prevalence 
of a lofty system of theoretical morality, a " dauntless 
mendacity," a barbaric cruelty, and a colossal pride, un- 
exampled in modern history. The result of the humil- 
iation of China before the Powers is to leave them con- 
fronted with the gravest problem which Occidental civili- 
zation has ever faced. Great issues hang upon the out- 
come, both for China and for the World. That the 
wishes and the supposed interests of the Powers are not 
only not identical but apparently hopelessly irreconcilable, 
has long been plain, from which arises the ominous and 
significant fact that the only progress possible has been by 
the composition of counteracting forces. 

The outline of the terms of settlement with China in- 
volved a mission of apology to Germany for the murder 
of her minister; monuments in desecrated cemeteries; a 
prohibition of the importation of arms and munitions of 
war ; the destruction of the Taku and other forts ; a Lega- 
tion area in Peking, defended by foreign guards, with 
provision for other forces elsewhere; a financial indem- 
nity of perhaps 450.000.000 taels of silver, the payment of 
which is to be distributed through the coming thirty or 
fifty years ; the punishment of specified persons who were 
most guilty in the late uprising; the suspension for five 
years of examinations in cities where foreigners were 
murdered ; the universal publication of the fact of these 
punishments, a strict prohil)ition under penalty of death 
of all anti-foreign societies, and an Imperial Edict dis- 



THE OUTLOOK 735 

tinctiy recognizing the future responsibility of officials for 
outrages occurring within their districts. 

There are undoubtedly some items in this list to which 
exception may be taken as injudicious, but those most 
familiar with the circumstances are most likely to agree 
that they are not in themselves unjust. Yet they are al- 
together inadequate, being mainly punitive, privitive, and 
destructive in character, and containing no seed of future 
promise. A unique opportunity for aiding in the rehabili- 
tation of the most populous and most ancient of Empires 
seems to have been lost. For this, the simple and ade- 
quate explanation is that the numerous Powers involved 
in the settlement do not desire for China the same things. 
A more impressive object-lesson of the failure of diplo- 
macy to achieve constructive results, when unhampered 
by external conditions and operating on a large scale, has 
seldom been seen. Unless China is in some way essen- 
tially changed, past conditions may gradually recur, but 
for these changes we shall look in vain to Prime Ministers 
of Western Powers, or to Ministers resident in China. 

The long cherished and confident expectation that 
China was to be gradually regenerated by her contact 
with Western Civilization, by commerce, by steamships, 
railways, telegraphs, and mines, has been demonstrated to 
be utterly insubstantial. It is these very appliances of 
" funded civilization " which more than anything else 
have helped to bring about the Convulsion in China. 
They are in themselves disturbing forces destitute of 
moral qualities, not only not remedying the evils which 
they inevitably occasion in an Empire like China, and 
among a people like the Chinese, but having no tendency 
to do so. 

There remains the method of education, so earnestly 



736 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

advocated by Chang Chih Tung in his work already 
quoted. By this means light is to be gradually introduced 
into China, making in future such a crusade as that of 
19CX3 impossible. 

Education is indeed a valuable and an indispensable 
agency, which to some extent has already been employed, 
and which must be used upon a scale ten thousand fold 
greater before the darkness of the masses of China can 
be expelled and replaced by light. But there are many 
kinds of education. That which deals only with co- 
ordinated physical or mental facts, conducted with what- 
ever degree of thoroughness, has never yet proved ade- 
quate for the regulation of the conduct of mankind. It 
is intellectual only, leaving the highest parts of man's 
nature unsatisfied and untouched. It is a two-edged 
sword certain to cut in both directions. 

The Chinese themselves have already perceived that 
the rigid prohibition of the importation of arms and 
munitions of war will eventually compel them to become 
the producers of implements of destruction, perhaps upon 
a scale never before seen in any land. The mere bulk of 
the Chinese people, unmilitary as they have always been, 
might conceivably make them, when once aroused, a 
menace to mankind. Will a knowledge of chemistry', and 
an ability to calculate the curves of falling bodies, and 
the velocity of projectiles in itself suffice to keep the 
Chinese under due restraint, with countless Lamps of 
Aladdin always in their hands, always waiting to be 
rubbed ? 

It is true of China more than of any other non-Chris- 
tian people, that they have never been profoundly moved 
by other than moral forces. The rapid and irresistible 
progress destined to be made by Western science in the 
Chinese Empire will speedily and surely undermine 



THE OUTLOOK 737 

Chinese faith in the " Book of Changes," which under- 
lies the pyramid of Chinese philosophy. Whatever is 
permanently true will remain in imperishable blocks, but 
the structure as a whole will be left in ruins, with Chinese 
ideals pitilessly and irrevocably shattered. At this 
critical period of the disintegration of outworn forces, 
what new moral ideas are to replace the old? 

Christianit}- has been in China a disturber, as it always 
is and always has been ever\^where. It had the fortune 
(or misfortune) to be formally introduced to the Chinese 
in connection with treaties imposed b}' force for ends 
which the Chinese detested, — in this respect, however, 
standing on a level with the rights of trade. It has also 
had the additional disadvantage of being in one of its 
forms indissolubly associated in the minds of the Chinese 
with political agencies, which they dread wnth reason and 
instinctively antagonize. There has been much in the 
method of its propagation in China which is open to just 
criticism, and which at this crucial juncture ought to be 
fearlessly exposed, frankly admitted, and honestly 
abandoned, new and better methods replacing those which 
have proved faulty and unworthy. 

But Christianity is itself an integral part of modem 
civilization, from which it can no more be dissociated than 
the rays of light and of heat can be imtwisted from the 
sunbeam. The attempt on the part of the Chinese to 
expel from their Empire spiritual forces, is an uprising 
of the Middle Ages against the Twentieth Century. The 
effort on the part of some who have been cradled in 
Christian lands, in an unspiritual and a materialistic age, 
to pinion and hand-cuff the disintegrating yet construc- 
tive forces of Christianity in their operation in China, is 
a futile struggle to reverse the tide of human develop- 
ment, and to arrest the slow but irresistible progress of a 



738 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

law of man's spiritual nature. Let it be distinctly recog- 
nized that the development of Christianity in China will 
he and must be marked by conflict, perhaps not more so 
than elsewhere, but surely not less. It will undermine 
idolatry as it did in the Roman Empire, and upon the 
wreck of the old will build a structure as much fairer 
than the Roman as the moral ideals of the Chinese race 
are higher and purer than those of that ancient state. 

When adopted, and even imperfectly put in practice, it 
may be expected to alter the life of the court, as it has 
done in Western lands, inadequately Christianized though 
these be. It will make the dry bones of Chinese scholar- 
ship live by unifying, and for the first time completing, 
their knowledge of " Heaven, Earth, and Man." By the 
introduction of new standards and new sanctions it will 
begin to purify the Augean stable of Chinese ofificialdom, 
a task, under right conditions, by no means impossible of 
performance. For the mass of the Chinese people it 
would at least make life worth living, joining the present 
and the future by golden links in a manner at present 
wholly inconceivable, yet the inevitable outcome of 
spiritual enlightenment. 

The wide diffusion of Christianity in its best form will 
not suddenly introduce into China the Millennium, for no 
goal can be reached without passing through all the inter- 
mediate stages. But it will, for the first time in Chinese 
history, realize the motto of the ancient T'ang, quoted at 
the opening of the Great Learning, " Renovate, renovate 
the people." Thus alone can the Empire be adapted to 
the altered conditions brought about by the impact of 
Western civilization, with its Pandora Box of evil and 
of good. 

The immediate future of China will depend on the one 
hand upon her relations with the Powers, and on the 



THE OUTLOOK 739 

other upon the temper of the court, the temper of the 
officials, the temper of the hterati, and the temper of the 
people. There is no possible way of reaching these vari- 
ous classes so well and so directly as through the native 
Chinese Church, which has already suffered so much and 
borne such witness to its faith by its life, and by the 
heroic death of many of its number. This truth has found 
expression in the notable magazine article in which Sir 
Robert Hart frankly declares that if, in spite of official 
opposition and popular irritation, " Christianity were to 
make a mighty advance," it might " so spread through the 
land as to convert China into the friendliest of friendly 
Powers, and the foremost patron of all that makes for 
peace and goodwill." This, he thinks, " would prick the 
Boxer balloon and disperse the noxious gas which 
threatens to swell the race-hatred programme, and poison 
and imperil the world's future." 

It is well that the dilemma should be recognized and 
squarely faced. Unless China is essentially altered she 
will continue to " imperil the world's future." Other 
forces have been to some extent experimented with, and 
have been shown to be hopelessly inadequate. Christian- 
ity has been tried upon a small scale only, and has already 
brought forth fruits after its kind. When it shall have 
been thoroughly tested, and have had opportunity to de- 
velop its potentialities, it will give to China intellectually, 
morally, and spiritually, the Elixir of a New Life. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 

THE GREATEST CYCLOPAEDIA IN THE WORLD. 

A brief summary of what is known of this great work 
may be of interest. 

In the annals of bibliography, remarks a great Chinese 
scholar (the late Alexander Wylie), there are few in- 
cidents comparable to the gigantic effort made by Yung 
Le, the second Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, who 
reigned from 1403- 142 5. 

Desiring to compile an all-comprehensive cyclopaedia, 
he issued in a. d. 1403, a commission to a native scholar 
to undertake the work, assisted by a hundred and forty- 
seven literary men. These having completed their labours 
in a year and a half, the result was presented to the Em- 
peror. As the work, however, fell far short of His 
Majesty's idea, a much more extensive committee of 
scholars was appointed, with a commission to collect in 
one body the substance of all the classical, historical, 
philosophical and literary works hitherto published, em- 
bracing astronomy, geography, the occult sciences, medi- 
cine, Buddhism, Taoism, and the arts. Three scholars 
were now designated as presidents of the commission, and 
under them were five chief directors and twenty sub- 
directors, beside two thousand one hundred and sixty- 
nine subordinates. The work was brought to a conclusion 
near the close of the year 1407, containing in all 22,877 
books, besides the table of contents, which occupied sixty 
books. There is some irregularity in the principle of 

743 



744 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

quotation; sometimes single clauses are given containing 
the head character; sometimes whole sections of books; 
and sometimes works are given entire if pertaining to 
the subject. 

When the first draft was laid before the throne, 
orders were given to have it transcribed for print- 
ing, and the cop)' was finished in 1409; but in considera- 
tion of the great outlay that would be necessary for the 
workmanship, the blocks for printing were never cut; 
and on the removal of the court to Peking the copy was 
deposited in an Imperial apartment. What became of 
this copy is not known, but it probably perished in a fire 
which occurred in the palace in 1557, for in 1562 we find 
a hundred transcribers appointed by the Board of Rites 
to make two new copies. Three leaves a day was con- 
sidered each man's work, at which rate they completed 
their task in 1567. During the disturbances that occurred 
at the overthrow of the Ming Dynasty and the coming 
of the Manchus (1644), one of the copies, and also the 
original draft which had been kept at Nanking, were both 
destroyed by fire ; and on the restoration of peace, one 
copy was found to be deficient 2,422 books. 

This great work has proved of service to Chinese litera- 
ture in a way not probably anticipated by its originators. 
The wholesale selections were at one time considered as 
a defect, but have now become the most important feature 
of the whole ; for by this means three hundred and 
eighty-five rare and ancient works have been preserved, 
which would otherwise have been irrevocably lost ; 
and many of them have since been reprinted and 
extensively circulated. Such is the history of the 
most elaborate and most comprehensive work perhaps 
in any literature, never published, yet always de- 
stroyed only to come forth from its ashes. It is not 



APPENDIX 



745 



a little remarkable that it now owes its preservation — 
so far as it has been saved — to the hated foreign devil, 
but the separate volumes have been dispersed all over the 
world, and a few have found their way into American 
libraries as unique curiosities. 



DIRECTORY OF THE SIEGE IN PEKING. 

This Register of the Siege is of varied interest, apart 
from the personality of any of the participants, as a 
species of index to the mode by which a handful of Occi- 
dentals, confronted by unnumbered Asiatics, so disposed 
of their limited forces as to make the most of them, and, 
in the end, to win success from the very jaws of defeat 
and extinction. 

Military. 

Major Sir Claude MacDonald, in charge of Defence Opera- 
tions. 

Officers belonging to Foreign Detachments. 

Austro-Hungarian, Capt. Winterhalder ; Capt. Kollar, Sub. Lt. 
Tom Meyer; Baron Boynberg. 

British, Capt. Halliday (wounded, hospital) ; Capt. Wray. 

French, Lt. Darcy; Sub. Lt. Darcy (Pel T'ang). 

German, Lt. Graf von Soden. 

Italian, Lt. Paolini; Lt. Olivieri (Pel T'ang). 

Japanese, Lt. Hara. 

Russian, Lt. Baron von 'Raden ; Lt. Dehn. 

United States, Capt. Myers (wounded, hospital) ; Capt. Hall. 

Officer in command at the Su Wang Fu, Col. Shiba (Jap.). 

In charge Italian post, Su Wang Fu, Lt. Paolini ; Mr. Caetani. 

Personal Staff of Sir Claude MacDonald, Mr. Herbert G, 
Squiers (former Lt. U. S. A.), Chief of Staff; Capt. Poole. Adju- 
tant : Orderlies, Messrs. Fliche, Hewlitt, Squiers, Jr., Barr. 

Officers doing regular duty in charge of post on south city 
wall, Capt. Hall, Capt. Labrouse, Capt. Percy Smith, Capt. Wron- 
bleffesky, Lt. von Loesch. 

Fortification Staff, Chief of Staff, Mr. F. D. Gamewell ; Aides, 



746 CHINA IN CONVULSION 

Messrs. Chapin, Ewing, Killie, Norris, Howard Smith, Stone- 
house, and others. 

In charge fortifications on south city wall. Mr. Squiers ; Aides, 
Messrs. Pethick, Cheshire, Moore, Splingard, and others. 

Volunteers, general charge, Capt. Poole. In charge Customs 
Volunteers, Lt. von Strauch. In charge of Russians, Mr. Was- 
silieff. In charge of French, M. Bureau. 

Customs Volunteers. Lt. von Strauch, Messrs. Piry, Brazier, 
Brewitt-Taylor, Reutenfeld, Macown, Richardson, Wintour, 
Simpson, Konovaloff, Sandercock, Smj'th, Bismarck, Bethell, 
Ferguson, Lanon, De Courcey, Le Luca, Destallan, Diehr, Encar- 
nascao, De Pinna, Dupree, Mears (Attached), Fliche, Barbier, 
Hageman. 

British Legation Volunteers. Messrs. Bering. Ker, Tours, 
Russell (in charge), Hancock, Flaherty, Bristow, Giles, Porter, 
Kirke, Hewlitt, Drury, Townsend, Barr. 

Board of Works, Mr. Cowan. Attached to British Legation, Mr. 
Thornhill. Peking Syndicate, Messrs. Bristow, Sabbione. Im- 
perial Chinese Bank, Messrs. Houston, Oliphant. Hongkong 
and Shanghai Bank, Messrs. Tweed, Brent. 

Russian Volunteers. Messrs. Wassilieff fin charge), Alexan- 
droff, Koehler. Brackmann, Osipoff. Posdneyeflf, Mirny, Wihl- 
fahrt, Piskinoff, Polujanoff, Orlovsky. 

French Volunteers. Messrs. Parrot, Bertaux, Philippine, De- 
meyer, Chibant, La France, Berthe, Saussine, Bureau, Cuillierde, 
Gieter. 

Belgian Volunteers. Messrs. Yoostens, Goffinet, Roland, De- 
Melotte. 

Miscellaneous Volunteers. Messrs. Ament, Turner, Norris, 

Allen, Peel, AUardyce, Peachey, Backhouse, Coltman, Jr., Dr. 

Coltman. 

Medical Department. 

Doctors in charge. American Detachment, Surgeon Lippett 
(wounded). Dr. Lowry, vice. 

French and Austrian Detachments, Dr. Matignon. 

Japanese Detachment, Capt. Nakagawa. 

International Hospital, Dr. Poole, Dr. Velde. 

Medical Assistants. Messrs. Amati (Italian), Dose (Ger- 
man). Fuller (British), Yamagata (Jap.), Stanley (Am.). 

International Hospital Nursing Staff. Miss Lambert, Matron. 
Drs. Anna Gloss, Eliza Leonard, Maud Mackic. Emma Martin, 



APPENDIX 747 

Lillie Saville; Miss McKillican, Miss Newton, Miss Shilston, 
Mrs. Woodward, Deaconess Jessie Ransome, Sisters Marie and 
Stephanie. 

Honorary Stewards to Hospital. Messrs. R. Allen, Richard- 
son. 

In charge of hospital kitchen. Misses Chapin, Gowans, Russell. 

Occasional Helpers at Hospital, Mme. de Giers and Russian 
ladies, Mrs. Houston, Miss Sheffield. 

Civilian. 

General Committee of Public Comfort. Messrs. Tewksbury 
(Chairman), Bredon, Cockburn, Hobart, Kruger, Morisse, 
Popoflf. Secretaries, Messrs. Stelle and Gait. 

Sub-Committees, bakery, Mr. Tewksbury ; carpentry and black- 
smithing, Messrs. Gait, Gamewell. 

Confiscated Chinese Goods. Mr. Ament. 

Fire Department. Messrs. Tours, Tweed. 

Food Supply. Messrs. King, Berteaux, Clarke, Thornhill, 
Fenn, Kolossoff, Oliver, Russell; mutton, Mr. Brazier; horse- 
meat, Mr. Allardyce. 

Fuel Supply. Messrs. Bailie, Wherry, Kanahami, Barbier. 

Gate Day Watchmen. North Gate, Messrs. Martin, Smith; 
South Gate, French Brothers ; Tunnel, Russian Volunteers. 

Kitchen for Chinese Workmen. Messrs. Hobart, Goodrich, 
Whiting, Walker. 

Labour, Chinese Christians. Messrs. Hobart, Verity ; Chinese 
servants, Messrs. Stelle, Gait ; foreign, Mr. Cockburn. 

Laundry. Mr. Brazier. 

Markets, eggs, vegetables. Messrs. Brent, Allardyce. 

Messenger Service. Chinese (English speaking), Mr. Hobart; 
To Tientsin, etc., Mr. Tewksbury. 

IMilling. Mr. Fenn. 

Registration. Messrs. Stelle, Gait, Cockburn. 

Sanitation. British Legation, Messrs. Poole, Dudgeon, Inglis, 
Herring; Su Wang Fu, Fathers Banteynie, Bafcop, Drs. Ingram 
and Ts'ao. 

Shoe-repairing. Mr. Hobart. 

Stabling, with care and selection of animals. Messrs. Deering, 
Dupree. Ker, Brazier. 

Watch Repairing. Mr. Stelle. 

W^ater Inspection. Mr. Davis. 



Index 



Abb6 Hue, the, 35 

Adaptability of Chinese, illus- 
tration of, 581 

Admiral Courbet, naval battle 
of. 25 

Admirals, council of. 436 

Advertisements in Peking, 528 

Allen, Y. J. ; publisher " Re- 
view of the Times," Shang- 
hai, 129 

Allied Forces in China, arrival 
of, 432 ; composition of, 439 ; 

■ difficulties, 446 ; inactivity, 
448; inadequate equipment, 
453; start for Peking, 454; 
raising the siege, 461 ; con- 
duct of troops, 715. 716, 718 

Allied generals, conference of, 

453 

Ament, Dr., goods placed in 
charge of, 281 ; charges 
against, 731 

American Bible Society, gives 
Bible to Emperor, 129 

American Board Mission, an- 
nual meeting of, at T'ung 
Chou. 230; T'ung Chou com- 
pound, 557; destruction, 564; 
marsacre of missionaries, 
610, 613. 616 

American Legation, foreigners 
take refuge in, 258; attacks 
on, 335, 425. 428 

American Methodist Episcopal 
Compound in Peking, Ameri- 
cans gather in. 215 

American Methodist Episcopal 
Mission, annual meeting of, 
at Peking. 230 

American Missionaries in Meth- 
odist Compound, letter from 
Mr. Conger to, 249 



American railroads, 118 
American sailor, executed, 15 
American text books, funds for, 

142 
American troops. Temple of 
Agriculture headquarters of, 
546 ; composition of, 454 
Americanising Chinese, effect 

of. 23 
Americans in China, ill treated, 
21; plan defence, 233; organ- 
ization among, 273, 509; 
adopt resolutions, 494 
Amur, massacre at the, 607 
An Ching Fu, riot at. 82 
Ancestral tablets of Manchu dy- 
nasty, British seizure of, 54S 
Ancestral Worship, question of, 
34; decision of Pope against, 

47 
Anglo-Chinese College, Presi- 
dent of, on French treachery, 
25 
Anglo-German railroad. 119 
Anglo-Saxon, and Chinese, 5 
Anhui, troubles in, 156 
Annam, Roman Catholic Bish- 
op in, influence of, 48 
Anti-foreign governor of Pe- 
king, appointment of, 224 ; 
literature, issue of, 79; move- 
ments, 87, 185, 223 ; pam- 
phlet, "JT. picture gallery, 81 ; 
proclamation. "]}, ; propaganda 
and its results, 77-87; riots, 
65-76 
Antipathy, remoter sources of, 

3-.13 . 
Antiquity of Chinese, 4 
Argent. Mr., murder of. 83 
Armistice, the 340-364; arrang- 
ing terms, 355 

749 



750 



INDEX 



Arms, discoveries of. 451 

Army, the Chinese, disappear- 
ance of, 501 

Army of Avengers, nucleus of, 
223 

Arsenal, the siege, 33.3 

Arsenals at Tientsin, Provision- 
al Government takes, 581, 
586 

Ashmore, William, on " Out- 
rages," 55 

Astronomical Observatory, dis- 
mantling of, 545 

Athletic sects not Boxers, 171 

Attacks on Legations. 253-271 ; 
renewed. 402-418 

Atvvater family, murder of, 616 

Austrian Legation, troops fire 
on, 266; abandoned, 394 

Audience question, the, 27 

Australia, suffering of Chinese 
in, 21 

Bagnall, Mr. and Mrs., and 

daughter, murder of, 610 
Bakery, starting a. 307 
" Barbarians," Chinese view of, 
10; their desires, 122; deal- 
ing with the. 15 
Barbarities of Boxers, 616 
Barricades, the, 468 
Battles, summary of, 393 
Belgian engineers. Right of, 
212; from Pao Ting Fu, 575 
Beresford, Lord Charles, on 
" Break-up of China." 115. 
724; on duties collected at 
Tientsin. 573 
Besieged, condition of the. 485 
Beynon. Mr., murder of, 614 
Bible. Emperor asks for, 129 
Bible and Tract Societies, work 

of, 41 
Big Knife Societies approved 
by Throne, 188; their sup- 
pression demanded by foreign 
ministers, 190 
Bird, Miss, murder of, 613 
Bishop, Mrs. Isabella Bird, on 

native Christians, 663 
Bishop of Colon, the, 35 



Bishop of Northern Cathedral, 

the, 504, 507 
Blagovestchensk, massacre at, 

607 
Blomberg family, murder of, 

712 
Board of Punishment, the, 540 
Board of Rites, punishment of 

officers of, 146 
Bomb proof, strengthening the, 

305 
Bombs, refuges from, 293 
Book depots, establishment of, 

" Book of Changes," Chinese 
faith in, Ty] 

Books, Western, bureau for 
translation of, 141 

" Boxer altar," explanation of, 
661 

Boxer banners, capture of, 334; 
characters on, 566 

Boxer chiefs, authorities seek, 
539 

Boxer Militia, the, y?! '■ ex- 
horted to patriotic service, 
379 

Boxer uprising and treaty of 
Tientsin, events between, 22 

Boxer movement, its purpose 
150; patronized by Empress 
Dowager, 150; its genesis, 
152-174; basis, 197; arrives in 
T'ung Chou, 563 ; in Tientsin, 
574. 576; planned for the 
eighth month, 606 

Boxer Society, proclamation 
against. 229 

Boxer tiger, fierceness of, 240 

Boxers, the. 154; defeated, 167; 
superstitions of. 169, 172, 659; 
invulnerability of, 170, 245, 
576, 709; children among. 172, 
661, 662; persecute Chris- 
tians, 175, 177, 654-657; their 
power, 187 ; approved by 
Throne, 188, 224, 225 ; sup- 
pression demanded, 190; their 
incantations, 197; exercises, 
108: cliarms, 199; posters, 
200, 201 ; Buddhist Patriotic 



INDEX 



751 



League of. 200; relation to 
Chinese troops, 214; to Chi- 
nese government, 218-231 ; 
auxiliary to army of aveng- 
ers. 22s ; practice openly. 230 ; 
arrive in Peking. 518; leader 
in T'ung Chou, 565 ; ordered 
to kill Christians, 657; resume 
drill in Shantung, 722 ; su- 
perintended by the Great 
Fairy. 722 

Boys, Christian, massacre of, 
673. 699 

Boys in Boxer Movement, 661 

" Break-up of China," Lord 
Charles Beresford on. 724 

British and French allies, 19 

British, attacks upon, 112 

British engineers. Kansu troops 
attack. 163 

British claim, justice of, 18 

British fleet, loss of. 19 

British government, fluctuating 
policy of, 68 ; its demands, 
III; recognition of services, 
481 ; loan to Chinese Viceroy, 
603 

British Legation : attack on stu- 
dents of. 229; visited by Ya- 
men ministers, 236 ; made 
general headquarters, 261 ; 
Americans ordered to. 263 ; 
its defence, 272; sanitation, 
295 ; attacks on. 420. 422. 425, 
427, 428; fortifications, 468, 
477 

British railroads, the. 118. 119 

British students, bravery of, 309 

British troops in allied forces, 
272, 454 

British White Book, siege dis- 
patches in, 479 

Brooks. Mr., murdered by Box- 
ers, 182 

Buddhist Patriotic League of 
Boxers, 200 

Buddhist priests, Chinese em- 
ployment of, 7; attitude to- 
ward Christianity, 39 

Buildings, Imperial, foreign oc- 
cupation of, 541 



Bully, Chinese. 50, 86 
Burlingame Mission, the, 22 

Canadian Presbyterian Mis- 
sion, notable experiences of, 
621-632 
Canal, the Grand, 56; the Im- 
perial, 260 

Canton, causes of troubles in, 
13 ; diplomatic representa- 
tives. 14; right of entering 
granted. 17; riots at, 71; pa- 
triotic defence, 112 

Capital in transformation, the, 
535-554 

Carles, Mr., British Consul at 
Tientsin, 205 

Carleson, Mr., murder of, 712 

Cassini Convention, the, 104, 
107. 117 

Casualties, table of siege, 488, 
489 

Cathedral at Canton, hatred of, 
57 

Cathedral, Tientsin, destruction 
of, 56, 69 

Cathedral, Northern, siege of, 
503-507 

Catholic (see Roman Catholic) 

Celestial Empire, the, 6 

Cemetery, foreign, wreck of, 
238 

Cemetery, the Protestant, dese- 
cration of. 498 

Censor, memorial of a, 130 

Censor Wang, Imperial inter- 
view with. 224 

Censors, reforms advocated bj^ 
144 

Census of the siege, 29S, 411 

Central Asia, nomads of. 5 

Central Empire, division of in- 
habitants, 9 

Chaffee, General, 455 

Chamot, M., brave rescue by, 
209 

Chang. Mr., personal narrative 
of. 6gi 

Chang. Mr. and Mrs., personal 
narrative of, 693 



752 



INDEX 



Chang Chih Tung, issues proc- 
lamation, T}, ; receives loan 
from British, 602; aids for- 
eigners, 631 

Chang Ch'ing Hsiang, personal 
narrative of, 682 

Ch'ang Hsin Tien, siege of for- 
eigners at, 209 

Chao Shu Ch'iao, 227 

Chapin, Miss, Red Cross given, 
494 

Charms, the Boxer, igg 

Chefoo, growth of, 12; helpful- 
ness of American consul at, 
604 

Chekiang, Roman Catholics in, 
56 ; murder of foreigners at, 
605 

Ch'en Pao Chen, reform efforts 
of, 141 

Cheng Ting Fu. safety of for- 
eigners at, 610 

Chiang, Mr., personal narrative 
of, 692 

Chiang Pei, riot in, 86 

Chien Ning Fu. riot at, 86 

Chihli. mission affairs in, 51 ; 
riots in, 165 ; foreigners es- 
cape from, 609 

Children in the Boxer bands. 172 

Children, massacre of, 299, 605. 
610, 614, 616, 665, 670, 673, 
697, 698, 700, 701 

Children, siege play of, 486 

China, complex population of, 
3 ; isolation of, compared 
with Egypt, 4; foreign com- 
merce of, 12; causes of out- 
breaks in, 13; Irishmen of, 
13 ; Merchants Company, the, 
139; Merchants' Steam Navi- 
gation Company. 212: rela- 
tion with foreign Powers, 
268; Christianity in. 637: pe- 
culiar relations with Russia, 
^2'^, ; attitude toward Western 
nations, 8, Jiz \ terms of set- 
tlement with, 734; regenera- 
tion of, 735 ; educational 
problem, 736: "China and 
Christianity," Michie. 45 



China Inland Mission, the, 65; 
massacre of missionaries, 
605, 610, 613, 616; notable 
experiences of, 635-643 

Chinese, the, moral code of, 6; 
golden age of, 7; relation to 
the Three Religions, 7; rela- 
tion to sages, 7; to trade. 9; 
a century ago. 10 ; in treaty 
ports, 12; use of opium, 15; 
and exterritorial rights, 17; 
in foreign lands, 21 ; relation 
to other nations, 22; Amer- 
icanised, persecution of. 24; 
foreigners' view of, 218, 719 

Chinese army, co-operates with 
Boxers, 5, yj 

Chinese bubble, the. 26 
bully, the, 50 

Church, faithfulness of, 657 
courts, no justice in, 50 
empire, size of, 10, 14 
fans, pictures on, 10 
history, puzzle of, 5 
institutions an evolution, 5 
junk, the, 10 

law. punishments inflicted ac- 
cording to, "jlj 
laws and foreigners, 16 
labor strike. 13 
ministers abroad ; policy of 
government criticised by, 
599, 600 
point of view, 20 
race, origin of, 3 
resistance of foreign force, 

18 
sages, the, 6 

scholar and foreign ideals, TJ 
servants, courage of, 307 
ships destroyed by French, 25 
soldiers, 8 

Chinese, characteristics of: 
pride of race, 5; ideals of, 6; 
aversion to war, 7; timidity 
on sea, 10; antipathy to for- 
eigners. 12; saying vs. doing. 
12; untruthfulness of, 12; 
pride. 15; treachery. 19; atti- 
tude toward treaties, 29; love 



INDEX 



753 



of revenge, 2)7', forbearance, 
37; animosity, 30; adaptabil- 
ity. 520; fatalism, 652; clan- 
nishness, 657; timidity. 657 

Chinese government and for- 
eign trade, 9; its conceit, 15; 
ignores treaty, 18; relation to 
world, 20 ; indemnity demand- 
ed from, 25 ; loans to, 121 ; 
seclusion of, 127; encourages 
Boxer rising, 205 ; its treach- 
ery, 229 ; asks assistance from 
Powers, 361 ; present relation 
of Empress Dowager to, 728; 
of Emperor, 728 

Chinese officials and trading 
class, 9; knowledge of geog- 
raphy, 11; bitterness toward 
domineering Occidentals, 24; 
their duplicity, 179, 188; their 
punishment, 550; flight from 
Tientsin, 579 ; their exactions, 
716; opposition of people to, 

723 

'' Chinese Progress," official or- 
gan, 139 

'' Chinese Recorder," the, arti- 
cle in, 54, 55 

Ch'ing Tao, Germans in, 106, 
160 

Chinkiang, foreign settlement 
in, 13 

Ch'iu, Dr., personal narrative 
of, 687 

Chou Han, placards of, 79 

Christian Alliance Mission- 
aries, murder of, 712 

Christian Church and ancestral 
worship, 35 ; and non-Chris- 
tian Chinese, 43 

Christian literature in Imperial 
palace and Hunan, 43 

Christian students, personal 
narratives of, 695 

Christianity and heathen priests, 

Christianity proposed as State 

religion, 145 
Christianity in China, effect of, 

72>7 



Christians, nonconformity to 
Chinese custom, 2)2> 

Christians, the Chinese; mis- 
sionaries refuse to abandon, 
232 

Ch'un, Prince, influence of, 128 

Church, the attitude of, to- 
ward non-Christian Chinese, 
43 (see also Christian) 

Church members, unworthy, 38 

Cipher telegrams, sending of, 
412, 414 

Clapp, Mr. and Mrs., murder 
of. 613 

Classics, study of, 136 

Clothing, supply of, 511 

Coal Hill, the, 532 

Code, moral ; of Chinese, 6 

Colquhoun, A. R., 52 

Commerce and Chinese, 10 

Commercial intrusion, the, 88- 

lOI 

Commercial diplomacy, tangle 
of, 121 

Commercial prosperity of Pe- 
king, 521 

Commemoration Day for the 
Six Martyrs, 150 

Commissariat, appointment of 
a, 374 . 

Commission, American, appoint- 
ment of, 75 

Committee, General ; members 
of, 274 

Committees, organization of, 
27i 

Comprador, functions of the. 89 

Confiscated goods, method of 
dealing with. Z72', work of 
committee on. 411 

Confucian Analects, study of, 
136 

Confucian colleges, foreigners 
asked to visit the. 137 

Confucianism, tenets of, ac- 
cepted by Chinese, 6. 7 

Confucius, service of, to China, 
33 ; on reciprocity, 62 

Conger. Minister. 179, 188. 190; 
thanks the American mission- 
aries, 494; his services, 731 



754 



INDEX 



Conservative Party, resist re- 
forms, 139; joint memorial 
of, to Empress Dowager, 147 
Consuls, helpfulness of, 67 
Continental troops, vandalism 

of, 546 
Converts, decree on, 379 
Coolie traffic, the, 21 
Cooper, Mr., murder of, 610 
Copyright and Patent Laws, 

establishment of, 139 
Cotton goods, trade of, 90 
Courts, Chinese, no justice in. 

Cousins, Edmund ; Mission- 
aries aided by, 445 

Customs Staff, quarters of, 
abandoned, 230, 257 

Customs mess, the siege, 463 

Cyclopsedia, the greatest in the 
world, 743 

d'Addosio, Pere, saving of, 237 

" Daily News," Shanghai, let- 
ter of Griffith John to, 79 

Dark Days. 318-339 

Davis, F. W., murder of, 613 

Davis, John W., first U. S. Min- 
ister to China, 14 

Days of waiting, 382-401 

" Death to the devil's religion," 
circulation of, 79 

Decrees. Imperial, on foreign- 
ers, 375 ; praising Boxers, 377 ; 
native Christians, 379 ; safe- 
guarding Empire, 380; on 
cause of disturbances, 381 ; 
despatching troops, 407; de- 
parture of ministers, 414 (see 
also Edicts) 

Defence, Americans organise 
for, 233; materials for, 511 

De Giers, Madame, 486 

Demon possession, instance of, 
661 

Dcnby, Minister, despatch of, 

75 
Departments, proposed new, 135 
Dering. Mr., assists in de- 
fences, 479 



Despatches from Tientsin, send- 
ing, 437 

Despatches, siege, 479 

Devastation, scenes of, 496 

Diedrichs, Admiral ; commands 
German fleet, 108 

Diplomatic corns telegraph for 
guards, 210 

Director of China Inland Mis- 
sion ; list of Protestant mis- 
sionary martyrs prepared by, 
647, 648, 649 

Directory of the Siege, 745 

Disease, freedom from, during 
siege, 514 

Dixon, Mr. and Mrs., murder 
of, 634 

Dorward. Gen., leader of Brit- 
ish forces, 449 

Drought, effect of, 219 

Duplicity of Chinese officials, 
178, 179, 188 

Eastern Empress,, death of, 
125 

East India Compan}', relation 
of, to Chinese, 15 

Eastern Arsenal in Tientsin, 
taking of, 446 

Edicts, Imperial, anti-foreign, 
225 ; on Christianity in China, 
226 ; character of, 435 ; on 
protection of missionaries, 
721 (sec also Decrees) 

Edicts, the Vermilion Pencil; 
despatch of, 553 

Education in China, problem of, 
736 _ 

Egyptians, ancient ; contempo- 
rary with Chinese, 4 

" Eight Diagram " sects, 42 

Eighth moon, disturbances ex- 
pected in the, 219; Boxer ris- 
ing planned for, 606 

Eldred, Miss, murder of, 616 

Elgin, Lord ; rule of, 733 

Emperor K'ang Hsi, see K'ang 
Hsi 

Emperor Kuang Hsii ; plans re- 
forms, 43, his liistory, 124; 



INDEX 



755 



begins reign, 126; learns Eng- 
lish, 129; obtains Bible, 129; 
issues reform decrees. 131; 
threatens to abdicate. 146; im- 
prisoned in palace, 148; forced 
to abdicate, 149 ; opposes 
Manchu policy, 246, 269 ; 
anomalous relation to gov- 
ernment, 728 
Emperor Tao Kuang, 14 
Empress Dowager ; issues war 
edicts, 28; receives legation 
ladies, 28; sketch of. 125; 
given New Testament, 128; 
reviews troops, 142 ; opposes 
Emperor, 147; repeals re- 
forms, 149; heads Boxer 
movement, 150 ; nominates 
heir apparent, 186; favors 
Boxers, 223 ; believes in di- 
vine mission of Boxers, 226 ; 
anti-foreign attitude. 230, 244 ; 
issues edict to exterminate 
foreigners, 270 ; intends to 
escape. 393 ; her flight, 501 ; 
confiscates palace, 535 ; second 
enforced flight, 55 ; sanctions 
anti-foreign decrees, 596, 597; 
issues edicts to protect mis- 
sionaries, 721 ; present rela- 
tion to government, 728 
Encyclopaedia, the greatest, 743 
English Baptist Mission, no- 
table experiences of, 632-635 ; 
massacre of missionaries. 613 
English Methodist Christians, 

personal narrative of, 698 
Engvall, Miss, murder of, 712 
Envoys, received by Emperor, 

28 ; treatment of. 343 
Escapes, narrow, 297 
Escort to Tientsin, Yamen of- 
fers. 412, 413 
Examination Grounds, destruc- 
tion of, 546 
Exercises, the Boxer, 198 
Expatriated subjects: Chinese 

attitude toward. 21 
Explosions, eflfect of. t,2)7 
Extermination Edict issued, 
270 



Exterritorial rights and the 

Japanese, 17 
Eunuchs, baleful influence of, 

221 

Famine in Kiangsu, 157 
Far East; Shanghai the com- 
mercial capital of, 12 
Farthing family; murder of, 

614 
Fashoda incident, the, no 
Fathers, the Catholic, Chinese 

suspicions of, 60 
Favier, Mgr., appeals from Pe- 
king to French Minister, 206; 
his courage. 507 
Fengshui, the. 57, 96. 324 
Feng Tai, opposition to inno- 
vations at, 99; attack on 
railway, 207 
Fenn, Mr., milling in charge 

of, 275 
Financial methods of Roman 

Catholic Church, 58 
Fire and Sword among Shansi 

Christians, 702-712 
Fire, danger from, 280, 281, 287 
Fire Brigade, captains of, 480 
First overt act of pillage, 166 
First Week of the siege, the, 

272-296 
" Fists of United Harmony," 
the, see also " Boxers," 168 
" Five Storms of Wrath," 57 
Flag, legation, hauled down, 22 
Flags. Chinese use of, after 

siege, 520 
Fleet. Allied ; Chinese fire upon, 

437 
Fleming, Mr., murder of. 87 
Flcury. Father, capture of, 86 
Fliche. M., heads rescue party. 

Flight from Peking, prepara- 
tions for, 249 

Food supply, inventory of, 276; 
horse-meat, 291 ; work of 
Committee on, 402 ; scarcity 
of, 420. 421, 424, 425 ; at 
Northern Cathedral, 505 ; 
amount of, 510 



756 



INDEX 



Foreign buildings, destruction 

of, 22,7 
Foreign commerce and China, 

12 

" Foreign devils," ban upon the 

term, 225 
Foreigners in China, Chinese 
opinion of, 11, 12, 218, 518, 
573.718; classification of, 88; 
expulsion desired by Empress 
Dowager, 187; extermination 
planned by Boxers. 206; im- 
prisonment in Peking, 231 ; 
census of in Peking, 298; im- 
munity from attack, 509; ex- 
periences in the Interior, 594- 
620, 659; Manchu hostility 
toward, 599 
Foreign journals, Empress 

Dowager influenced by, 598 
Legations, pressure of, 180 
Ministers demand Imperial 

decree suppressing Boxer 

and Big Knife Societies, 190 
Ministers, meeting of, 248 
missionaries, edict on, 49 
occupation, a twelve-month 

of. ']\2>-'72>2 
Powers, Empress Dowager 

urges destruction of, 244 
relations of Chinese empire, 

settlements; jurisdiction of 
Chinese over, 17; location 
in Tientsin, 444 ; attack on, 
445. 448 ; military occupa- 
tion of, 590 
stores, looting of. 313 
teachers, education by. 135 
teachers and Chinese lan- 
guage. 36 
trade and Chinese govern- 
ment, 9, ID 
troops, arrival of. 432 
Formosa. blockade of, by 
French, 25 ; Japanese posses- 
sion of. 103 
Fortifications, work of, 274 
Fortifications, the. 462-484; in 
cbnrpc of F. D. Gamcwcll, 
468; military opinion of, 476 



Fowler, John, U. S. Consul, 604 

France, war with, cause of, 24; 
demands indemnity, 25 ; pro- 
tects Jesuits, 48; uses mis- 
sionaries, 53 

Frazer. E. H., Hankow, 603 

French Minister, the, and Ro- 
man Catholic outrages, 55 ; 
appeal from Mgr. Favier to, 
206 

French, The : animosity against, 
69; at Shanghai, opposition 
to, 70; further encroach- 
ments, 113, 121; massacre in 
Tientsin, 572 

" French beef." 291 

French Legation. assistance 
asked for, 301 : attack on, 304, 
319, ZZT, 429; British marines 
sent to assistance of, 331 ; 
condition of, 360 

French missionaries, rescue of, 
237 

French railroads, the, 119 

French troops in allied forces, 
the, 455 

Freedom of speech, Emperor 
insists on, 146 

Fu Chou, blockade of. by 
French, 25 ; turbulence of 
people in, 13 

Fuel supply, the, 511 

Fukushima, Gen., leads Japa- 
nese forces, 449 

Gamewell, F. D.. plans fortifi- 
cations, 274, 468 
Garrigues. Pere, murder of. 237 
Gaselee. General. 454 
Gates of Peking, the. 522 
Gathering of the Storm. 175-19S 
Gcniihr. Immanuel, of Rhenish 

Mission, 54 
Genghis Khan. 4 
General Committee, members of, 

274; letter to chairman. 495 
German expedition, a punitive, 
160 
aggression at Kiaochou, ef- 
fect of. 161 
barricade, attack on, 304 



INDEX 



757 



expedition to Kalgan, 715; 
to Ts'ang Chou, 716; to 
Yung Ch'ing Hsien, 717 

mines and railway, hostility 
to, 182 

railroads, the, 119 

Legation, attack on, 338, 358, 
424, 428 

possessions in China, 106, 108 
Girls in Boxer Movement, use 

of, 662 
" Glorified Tigers," the, 223 
Golden age of Chinese, 7 
Gould, Miss, murder of, 610 
Government bureaus. Chinese ; 

military occupation of, 539 
Granaries. Imperial ; Japan 

seizes the, 540 
Grand Council of Manchus and 

Chinese, a. 244 
Great Britain in China, 16; 

prestige of, 2;^, 219; policy 

of, 104. no; in Yangtze Val- 
ley, 121 
■' Great Fairy," Boxers super- 
intended by the, 722 
" Great Sword Society," the, 

13s ; hatred of Catholics, 106 

(see Boxers) 
Green. Mr., murder of, 83 
Greig, Dr., attack on. 84 
Guinness, G. W., and party; 

notable experiences of, 635- 

638 
Gun, manufacturing a, 325 
Gun-platforms, the Chinese, 502 
Guns, location of, 308 

Hall of Fasting, British army 
occupy. 548 

Hamer. Bi.shop. murder of, 619 

Hand of God in the siege, the, 
508-S16 

Hanlin University, burning of, 
281 ; destruction of, 542 ; de- 
fences in the, 471 

Hanlins. reform advocated by 
the, 144 

Harahara. Mr., death of. 384 

Hart. Sir Robert, 109, 286, 596, 
597, 739 



Hedlund, Miss, murder of, 712 
Heir Apparent, nomination of, 

186 
Heng Chou Fu, foreign priests 

in, 60 
Heng, Deacon; personal narra- 
tive of, 673 
History, Chinese ; loss of ma- 
terials for. 545 
Hoddle, Mr., murder of, 614 
Hodge. Dr. and Mrs., murder 

of, 610 
Honan, beginning of trouble in, 

621 
Hongkong coolie regiment, 19 
Hospital, patients in, 299, 308, 
313 ; work in kitchen, 467 ; 
the International, 490; num- 
ber of cases. 493 
Hostilities, cessation of. 356 
Hotel de Pekin, retreat upon, 

307; condition of, 359 
" House and Opium Tax." the, 

130 
Hung Hsin Ch'iian, founder of 

Taiping rebellion, 31 
House-keeping, siege. 646 
Hsi An Fu, 14; purchase of 
books in, 137; Imperial refu- 
gees arrive in, 554 
Hsi Ku. Arsenal, 582 
Hsiao Chang, riot in, 165 
Hu Yii Fen, Governor, 164 
Huo, Mrs. ; personal narrative 

of, 685 
Hunan, anti-foreign literature 
issues from, 79; reform mea- 
sures in. 141 
Hunan pamphlets, the, 41 

I Ch'ang Fu, riots at, 13, 83, 
160, 162 

Ideals, the Chinese. 6 

I Ho Ch'iian. the Boxer Society, 
154; second stage in develop- 
ment, 209 ; appointment of 
leaders. 225 (see Boxers) 

Imperial buildings, foreign oc- 
cupation of. 541 
Chinese Armory, relief expe- 
dition takes, 442 



758 



INDEX 



Imperial Court, culpable, 549; 

favours Boxers, 574 

edicts, insincerity of, 188. 
243 ; favourable to Boxers, 
i8g; against them, 191; or- 
dering punishments, 550 ; 
authorises destruction of 
legations, 566; anti-foreign, 

594 
family, flight of, 551 
Maritime Customs, 120, 264 
Palace instigates riots, 76 
Palaces, fate of the. 529, 534 
Pavilion, burning of the, 545 
resorts, destruction of. 20 
troops instigating riots, 13 ; 

relation to Boxers, 228; 

attacked by allied forces, 

441 
tutors, appointment of, 186 
University, decree on, 138 
Improvements, allies introduce, 

525 

Incantations, the Boxer, 197 

Indemnity, demand for, 67 ; re- 
fused. 68; German demand, 
106; payment of, 161; claims 
for, 276 ; question of. 567 ; 
Protestant scheme for, 729 

Institutions, Chinese; an evo- 
lution, 5 

Intercalary eighth moon. Chi- 
nese superstition about, 219 

Interior, foreigners in. 594-620 

■' International," the new gun, 
328, 2,72,, 429- 470. 511 

International club, an, 543 
complications, 14-29; danger 

of, 187 
Hospital, the, 490; cases in, 

493 

law, effect of, on Chinese, 
21 ; questions of, 436 

prison, an, 541 

trade, study of. 142 
Inundation of country round 

Tientsin, the effect of. 572 
" Irishmen of China." 13 
Italian Government, demands 

of, 114 



James, Prof., murder of, 267 

Jameson, C. D., helpfulness of, 
628 

Japan, war with, 26, 129 ; usur- 
pation of Chinese territory by, 
76 ; military readiness of, 
452 

Japanese, the : and exterritorial 
rights. 17; their courage, 301 ; 
courtesy, 322; Dr. Sheffield 
asked to make terms with, 558 

Japanese Decoration Day. 417 

Japanese indemnity, automatic 
payment of. 540 

Japanese Legation, murder of 
chancellor of, 235 ; death of 
secretarj' of. 384 

Japanese Minister, letter re- 
ceived by. 354 

Japanese Soldier — Information- 
Bureau, the 387 

Japanese troops in allied forces, 
the, 455 ; good work of, 457 

Jesuits protected by France, 48 

Johannsson, Miss, murder of, 
712 

John, Griffith, 79 

Julien. Roman Catholic priest, 
attacks Rhenish mission- 
aries. 54 

Jung Lu, 148 

Junk, the Chinese, 10; discon- 
tinuance of. 95 

Junk masters, influence of, 
against railways, 98 

Kalgan, peril of missionaries 
in, 231 ; escape of foreigners, 
610; German expedition to, 

715 

Kalgan to Kiakhta. notable ex- 
periences in flight from, 643- 
647 

K'ang Hsi, Emperor. 35 ; on aji- 
cestral worship, 47; precedent 
of. 135 

K'ang Yii Wei. " The Modern 
Sage and Reformer," 133; 
suggests reforms. 134; audi- 
ence with Emperor, 135 ; 
escape of, 148 



INDEX 



759 



Kao Hsin, personal narrative 

of. 665 
Karlburg, Mr., murder of. 712 
Kempff, Admiral, on taking 

Takii forts, 436 
Ketteler, Baron von, 191 ; 

Boxer beaten by, 236; sketch 

of, 254 ; murder of, 255 ; 

memorial service for, 499 
Kiangsu, troubles in, 155 
Kiaochou, German possession 

of, 106, 108 
Kotow, omitting the, 27 
Ku Cheng, riot at. 85 
K'ii Chou Fu. massacre, 60S 
Kuang Hsii. Emperor. 125 (see 

Emoeror Kuang Hsii) 
Kuang provinces, governor gen- 
eral of, 15 
Kucichou. murder of missionary 

in. 87 
Kung, Prince, position of, 127, 

134 

Labour strike in China, 13 

Labour system, the coolie: 
charges against, 21 

Labour, work of Superintend- 
ent of. 365 : demand for, 366 

" Laffan " News Telegraph 
Agency, despatches from. 256 

Lambert, Miss, Red Cross 
given. 493 

Lands, granting of, 17 

Lang Tang. 439 

Language, the Chinese, mis- 
sionary use of, 36 

Lansdownc. commendatory des- 
patches from, 481. 483 

Larsson, Mr., murder of, 712 

Legation guards, arrival of, 
211. 508 

Legation ladies. Empress Dow- 
ager receives, 28 ; kindness of. 
262 

Legations in Peking, the. 187 ; 
attack planned on. 206: their 
protection. 210. 288 ; guarding 
Legation Street. 241 : Mar- 
quis Tseng urges they be re- 
spected, 245; attacks on, 253, 



271, 420, 422, 424, 425, 428, 
429; topography of district, 
259; burning of Italian and 
Dutch compounds, 279; for- 
eigners asked to leave. 341, 
362. 386; condition of Ger- 
man, 358; of French, 360; 
Tsung Li Yamen sends sup- 
plies, 362; arrival of allied 
forces, 461 ; extent of fortifi- 
cations, 468; attempted be- 
trayal. 475 ; extent of area, 
548 

" Lest we forget," 527 

Letters, commendatory, 494, 
495 

Li, Deacon ; personal narrative 
of, 671 

" Light of the Red Lamp," the, 
202 

Li Hung Chang, on relation of 
America to Chinese, 21 ; as 
peace maker, 23; cancels rail- 
way plans, 98; dismissed from 
Tsung Li Yamen, 146; ap- 
pointed Viceroy of Chihli, 
380 ; appointed Peace Commis- 
sioner. 420; reinstates anti- 
foreign official. 566 : appoints 
native officials. 585 : Chinese 
appeal to. 588; his opinion of 
foreigners. 718: approves 
Protestant indemnity plans, 

.739 
Li Lien Ying, Eunuch, influence 

of. 221 

Li Pen Yuan, Mrs. ; personal 
narrative of. 676 

Li Ping Heng. 550 

Likin taxes, proposed abolition 
of, 1.35 

Literary class, antipathy of. 32 

Literary essay, edict abolishing 
.the, 135 

Literati, reforms advocated by, 
144 

Literature of Protestant mis- 
sions; inadequate. 40; in Im- 
perial palace and Hunan, 43 
on Roman Catholics in China, 
45 ; anti-foreign issue of, 



76o 



INDEX 



79; circulation of, 137; 
practical Chinese schools 
for, 139 

Liu K'un Yi, 602 

Loan, national, plan for, 130 

Loans, Chinese government 
needs, 121 

London Mission refugees, ex- 
periences of, 537; destruction 
of station, 6og 

Loot, soldiers forbidden to, 321 ; 
permission given to, 374 

Looting in Tientsin, the, 583, 
5B4 

Lord Elgin, Diary of, 18 ; his 
motto. 69 

" Lord of Heaven " religion, 
Chinese familiar with, 31 

Lottery in Canton, the 139 

Lovitt family, murder of. 614 

Lu-Han railroad, Belgian man- 
agement of, 99 ; work on, 
117; decree on, 138; wreck of, 
211 

Lundell, Miss, murder of, 712 

Lundgren, Mr. and Mrs., mur- 
der of, 616 

Macao, centre of coolie traffic, 
21 

McCalla, Capt., 242, 439 

McCarthy, Justin, declaration 
of, 18 

MacDonald, Lady, 261 

MacDonald, Sir Claude, 187, 
195, 206 ; asked by Powers to 
take charge of defences, 278; 
official report of, 475 

McKinley (see President) 

Machinery, introduction of, pro- 
posed 142 

Magistrates, hostility of, 38; 
to Catholics, 52; inactivity of, 
178; reproved, for repressing 
Boxers, 205 

Ma, Mrs. ; personal narrative 
of, 697 

Manchu Clan, election of em- 
peror by, 125 
"Dynasty, and the Boxer 
Movement, 187 



policy, the 245, 600 
rulers, purpose of, 30 
soldiers, murder of mission- 
ary by, 85 

Manchuria, Roman Catholics in, 
55; insurrection in, 84; Rus- 
sian work in, 99; extent of, 
102; railroads in, 104; af- 
fected by Russo-Chinese 
agreement, 105 ; anti-foreign 
movement in, 606 ; friction 
with Russians in, 607; num- 
ber of Protestants in, 650; 
Russian occupation of, 713, 
724 

Manchurian Convention, atti- 
tude of Russia toward, 725 

Manchus and Chinese, govern- 
mental relation of, 220 

Manchus, superstition of, 226; 
complicity in Peking, 501 ; 
hostile to foreigners, 599 

March to Peking, the, 453-461 

Margary, murder of, 22 

Marines, courage of, 315; rec- 
ognition of services, 494 

Mark Twain, charges of, 731 

Martin. W. A. P., 140 

Martyrs, missionary, list of, 
647-649 ; the unknown, 672 ; 
memorial service at Pao Ting 
Fu, 682 

Massacre, the Tientsin, 13, 22, 
572 ; ferocity, 69 

Meadows, T. T., 64 

Medal, designs for a siege, 422, 
430 

Medhurst, Consul, Shanghai, 66 

Medicine, Chinese practice of, 
41 ; handmaid of Christianity, 

41 

Memorials, presentation of. to 
throne, 144; in the "Peking 
Gazette," 193 ; character of, 
396, 397 ; Governor of Shansi 
issues, 406 

Memorial service for Baron 
von Ketteler, 499; for mar- 
tyrs, 682 

Mcncius, service of, to China, 
23 



INDEX 



761 



Meng Oil Hsicn, pastor; per- 
sonal narrative of, 680 
Menus, planning the, 467 
Messengers, 329. 331, 340, 347, 
353 ; reports of, 383, 386. 388, 
391, 395. 396, 398 400, 404 
405, 406, 409, 411, 420^ 422 
423, 453 ' 

Alethodist Mission, foreigners 
take refuge in, 22,2; flight 
from, 257; condition, after 
siege, 496 
Mikado, proposal that Emperor 
and Empress Dowager visit 
the. 745 
Mihtarj- Commanders. Tientsin 
Provisional government or- 
ganized by, 451 
Commission, Chinese officials 

executed by. 6rr 
examinations, changes pro- 
posed in, 138 
expeditions, a series of 713 
force in China. 16 
life, attitude of Chinese to- 
ward. 8 
Militia, anti-foreign, voluntary 

enrollment of, 81 
Minister Wu ; influence at 

Washington of. 721 
Ministers. Chinese ; selection 

of. for foreign lands, 131 
Ministers, foreign, appeals to 
Yamen of, 203. 204, 207 ; letter 
from Tsung Li Yamen, 267; 
reply to. 268 
Miner, Miss Luella, 551 
Ming Dynasty, the preceding. 

cause of fall of. 221 
Mings, attitude of, to Roman 

Catholic Church. 47 
Mining, antipathy to, loi ; pos- 
sible concessions for, 121 
Mining, danger from, in Lega- 

tions. 338; threat of. 512 
Mission afl^airs in Chihli and 
Shantung. 51 
property, amount destroyed, 

498 
records. Boxers, seek, 658 
work, effect of, 161 



Missionaries, preaching of 22,- 
Foreign Ministers endeavour 
to protect, 204; their peril, 
231 ; American, letter from 
Minister Conger to. 494 ; fear- 
ful experiences. 616. 727- their 
character, 618; their work, 
060; edicts on protection of, 
721 ; in the present crisis ■ a 
statement, 730; justified 'by 
Minister Conger, 732 
Missionaries, Massacre of : 
American Board. 610, 613, 
616; American Presbyterian,' 
610. China Inland. 605. 6ro' 
613, 616; English Baptist, 
013; Roman Catholic, 614 
619 

Missionary conference at 

Shanghai, 78 
Missionary Societies in China, 

statement of, 730 
Missions, annual meetings of, 

230 
Missions, located in Chinese 

dwellings, 537 
Mitchie, Alex., on " China and 

Christianity," 45 
" Mixed courts " undesirability 

of, 17 
Mongol dynasty, the, 4 
Mongol Market, attack at, 2,37 
Mongolia, spread of foreign ris- 
ing in, 611 
Monroe Doctrine, a Chinese, 

necessary, 121 
Moral Code of Chinese, 6 
Morrill. Miss, murder of, 610 
Morrison. Dr.. 480 
Mother Superior of Northern 

Cathedral, the. 504 
Moule. Bisliop. brings charges 
against Roman Catholics in 
China, 56 
Mountain of Ten Thousand 

Ages, the. 532 
Mukden, 606 



N.NNKiNr;. riot at. 82 
Narratives, personal, 665-70T 



762 



INDEX 



Native Christians: attitude to- 
ward idolatrous ceremonies, 
36; persecution of. 37, 175; 
rescue of, 238; protection of, 
250 ; exemplary conduct of. 
259 ; a refuge for, 265 ; cloth- 
ing of the, 2*^1 ; identification 
of, 312. 321; helpfulness of, 
371 ; Prince Ch'ing suggests 
sending out, 390 ; decree on, 
399; in Tientsin, 445; their 
safety, 509; murder of. 615; 
character, 651 ; asked to re- 
cant, 653 ; Boxers persecute, 
654-657 ; faithfulness of, 657, 
658 ; funds entrusted to, 658 ; 
courage of, 659 ; testimony of 
Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop on, 
663 ; wild rumours of, 668 

Native Church ; catastrophe to 
the. 650-664; its faithfulness, 
657 ; possible power of. 739 

Native preachers ; missionaries 
intrust money to. 658 

Naval Brigade, the. 454 

Naval demonstration, need of, 

193 

Naval officers, consultation of, 
4.38 

Newchwang, treaty port of; dis- 
pute over, III 

New Testament, gift of, to Em- 
press Dowager, 128 

New Year, Chinese forbidden to 
celebrate, 580 

Newspapers, native ; influence 
of, 22 

Newspapers, on Boxer Move- 
ments, 183. 185, 193 

Ningpo men in Shanghai, 13 

Non-Christian families, removal 
of. 233. 

Non-Christians, what to do 
with. 324 

Nordenfelt gun, 308 

Norman. Mr., murder of. 717 

Norris, Chaplain ; services of. 

479 
North China College, flight 
from, 214; destruction of 



buildings, 236, 564; location 
of. 557 

" North China Daily News," 
183, 222; on Empress Dow- 
ager, 598 

Northern Roman Catholic 
Cathedral, foreigners take 
refuge in, 232; siege of, 503- 
507 

Notable experiences. 621-649; 
Canadian Presbyterian Mis- 
sion. 621-632; English Baptist 
Mission. 632-635; China In- 
land Mission, 635-643; Kal- 
gan to Kiakhta, 643-647 

Noyes, Mr., on " Five Storms 
of Wrath," 57 

Occidental, Chinese incompre- 
hensible to, 5 

Occidental civilization, grave 
problem of. 734 

Occidentals, domineering; bit- 
terness of Chinese officials to- 
ward, 24; extermination of, 
discussed. 508 

Offices, abrogation of, 143 

Officials, Chinese, and trading 
class, 9 

Officials, liberal ; execution of. 
408 ; punishment demanded by 
Pov/ers, 726 

Ogren. Mr. and Mrs.; story of, 
^ 638-643 

" Open Door," the 724-725 

Open Ports, prosperity of, 573 

Opium, British trade in, 15; 
sale of, 91 ; Chinese opinion 
of. 92. 93 

Opium war. purpose of, 16 

Opium Commission, report of, 
92 

Orphanages, Roman Catholic, 
Tsung Li Yamen on, 58 

Outbreaks in China, causes of, 
13 

Outlook, the. 7?,?,-72,9 

" Overland to China," 52 

Palace. Imperial; foreigners 
visit the, 529 



INDEX 



763 



Palace examinations, abolition 
of, 142 

Palace where Emperor was im- 
prisoned, 530 

Palaces, sale of abandoned, 
501 

Pamphlets, the Hunan, 41 

P'ang Chuang missionaries, 
protest of, 180 

P"ang Chuang, riot at, 609; 
Boxers, checked at, 610 

Pao Ting Fu, disturbance at, 
206, 207 ; Belgian engineers 
escape from, 212; massacre 
at, 610 ; memorial service held 
at, 682 ; military expedition 
to, 713; punishment of native 
officials at, 714 

Parkes, Mr., seized by Chinese, 
20 

Parliament, English, on war 
with China, 15 

Partition of China, 115, 184 

Partridge, Miss, murder of, 613 

Patriotic Harmony Society of 
Boxers, the, 227 

Pavilion, British Legation, 263 

Peace conditions, defence of 
Legations included in, 548 

Pearl River, capture of forts, 
18 

Peiho, the, railway connection 
with, 26 

Pei T'ang Cathedral, 264, 304, 
456, 503 

Peking, Manchu government in, 
21; city gates, 26; Roman 
Catholic mission in, 206; ar- 
rival of allied forces, 261 ; 
anarchy in, 270 : condition 
during siege, 329; anti-for- 
eign, 517; its punishment. 
517-534; first occupied by 
European troops, 517: devas- 
tation, 519; street lighting, 
526; military expeditions 
from, 713 

" Peking and Tientsin Times," 

"Peking Gazette,' ministers re- 



quest publication of Edict in, 
191 
Persecution of native Chris- 
tians, 2>7 
Personal narratives. 665-701 ; 
Kao Hsin, 665; Deacon Li, 
671 ; Deacon Heng, 673; Mrs. 
Li Pen Yuan, 676; the T'sai 
family, 679; pastor Meng Chi 
Hsien. 680; Chang Ch'ing 
Hsiang, 682; Mrs. Huo, 685; 
Dr. Ch'iu, 687; Wen Li, 689; 
Messrs. Chang and Wen, 691 ; 
Mr. Chiang, 602; Mr. and 
Mrs. Chang, 693; Christian 
students, 695; Mrs. Ma, 697; 
Roman Catholic Christians, 
698; English Methodist Chris- 
tians, 698 

Persson, Mr. and Mrs., murder 
of, 712 

Pethick, W. N., heads res- 
cue party. 238 

Philological studies, opportuni- 
ties for, 527 

Physicians, the siege, 515 

Pigott family, murder of, 615 

Pitkin, Mr., murder of. 610 

Placards, anti-foreign, circula- 
tion of, 80 

Placard, Boxer; range of com- 
plaint in, 201 

Polk. President, letter of, 14 

Population of China, complex 
problem of, 3 

Port Arthur. Russian occupa- 
tion of, no 

Ports, opening of new, 16 

Posters, Boxer, 200 

Powers, The ; relation to Japan, 
452 : appropriation of Tien- 
tsin lands by 587. 589 : fric- 
tion among the. 714. 720; 
" spheres of influence," 716, 
720 

" Practice of Virtue," Chinese 
respect for. 152 

Prenching of Occidentals, prej- 
udice aroused bv. 40 

Preparatory Schools, establish- 
ment of, ordered, 140 



764' 



INDEX 



Presbyterian Missionaries, mas- 
sacre of, 6io 

Prescription, a Divine, 200 

President McKinley, appeal to, 
216; congratulations tele- 
graphed by, 495 

Press, the foreign, on break up 
of China, 116 

Price family, murder of, 61G 

Priests, Buddhist and Taoist, 
7; leaders in disturbances, 40 

Prince Ch'ing. interview of 
British Minister with, 228 

Prince Ch'ing and Others, cor- 
respondence with, 340, 343, 
348, 362, 364, 386, 389, 390, 

399, 403 . ^ . 

Proclamation, anti-foreign, 73 
Progress, Chinese idea of, 89 
Promoter, the typical. 100 
Property, claim of Roman 
Catholics to, 56, 58; purchase 
by foreigners. 57; foreigners 
hand to Chinese Government, 
230 ; wholesale destruction, 
238. 498 
Prophecy of Boxer troubles, re- 
markable, 222 
Protestant missions, literature 
of, 40 
organizations, diversity of, 42 
societies, agreement of, in in- 
demnity scheme, 730 
martyrs, number of, 613, 647, 

648 
Christians in Chma, number 
of, 650 
Protestants in China, 30-44; 

Chinese view of, 31 
Providential care, evidences of, 

512. 513 ., , , 
Provincial guilds, the, 152 
Provisional Government, Tien- 
tsin, 451 . , 
Public buildings, losses in, 264 
Pu Chiin, Heir Apparent, 185 
Public Harmony Volunteers, 

the, 174 
Punishment of Peking, the, 517- 

534 



Punishments demanded by 

Powers, small list of, 726 
Puzzle of Chinese history, 5 

Queen Victoria, congratula- 
tions telegraphed by. 496 

Queue, proposed abolition of, 
145 

Railways, Imperial sanction of, 
25 ; development, 26, 524 ; 
arouse opposition, 96, 120, 182, 
559, 560; the Peking road, 97; 
the trans-Siberian, 104, 117; 
list of concessions, 117; de- 
fence of 228. 609 ; trains 
stopped, 235 ; a new terminus, 

Rank, official ; repeal of pur- 
chase and sale of, 140 

Ransome, Miss, Red Cross 
given to, 493 

Rations, issuing, 276 

Reaction against reform, 124- 

Reactionary Imperial Decrees, 

effect of, 162 
Recant, native Christians given 

opportunity to. 653 
Reciprocity, Confucius on, 62 ; 

Chinese thought of, loi 
Records, Chinese Yamens ; fate 

of, 544 

Red Cross, siege ladies receive 

order of, 493 
" Red Lantern Light " Society ; 

the. 662 
Reform Translating Bureau, 141 
Reforms, desire for, 11, 130; 
planned by Emperor, 43 : edict 
on. 131; plan for, 134; books 
on, presented to Emperor, 
135: effect of, 136; conserva- 
tives resist, 139; governors 
censured for slowness in, 143 ; 
repealed by Empress Dow- 
ager, 149 
Refuge pits, digging of, 293 
Refugees, experiences of. 537; 
condition of T'ung Chou de- 
scribed by, 565 



INDEX 



765 



Regeneration of China, problem 

of- 735 
Regiment, the Hongkong coo- 
he, 19 
Register of siege, publication 

of, 418 ; directory, 745 
Registrar, work of, 365 
Regulations, eight, of Tsung 

Li Yanien, 58 
" Regulations for the Mainte- 
nance of Order in Peking" 
228 
Reid, Gilbert, 45, 88, 505 
Relief, the, ng, 434 
Relief expedition, the Seymour- 
]McCalla, expected in Peking, 
235 ; word from 236, 299 ; ef- 
fort to send word to 242; 
futile effort to stop, 246; its 
trials, 440; takes Imperial 
armory, 442: its character, 
443 ; plan of, 599 
Relief expedition, The final; 
word from, 354, 385. 392, 409. 
422; anxiety about, 320; 
efforts to communicate with, 
415. 418; approaches Peking, 
430 ; enters city, 432 
Remoter sources of antipathy, 

3-13 
Renewal of the attack, the, 402- 

418 
Restitution to Christians, Box- 
ers offer to make, 538 
Revenue, raising of, 135 
Revolt of conservatives, 147 
Rice, the tribute; method of 

carrying to Peking, 99 
Rice junks; boatmen on, 13 
[Richard, Timothy, 78, 150; 
scheme for Protestant in- 
demnities, 729 
Riots in Yangtze Valley, 26 
Riots, cause of, 59; anti-for- 
eign, 65-76; season of, 86; at 
\ang Chou, 65; ChSn Chiang, 
65 ; Shanghai, 70: Canton, 71 ; 
Szechuan, 75; instigated by 
Imperial palace, 76; at Wu 
Hu. Nanking, An Ching Fu. 
Tan Yang, 82; Wu Hsueh. 



I Ch ang Fu, 83; Sungpu, Ku 
Cheng, 85; Chien Ning Fu, 
Chiang Pei, Szechuan, 86; 
spread of, 155, 156, 158; in- 
vestigation ordered, 203 
Rising, the popular; prediction 

of, 62 ; primary sources of, 63 
Ritualists, the. 172 
Roberts, James H. ; flight from 

ivalgan, 643-647 
Robinson and Norman, 

Messrs. ; murder of, 227 
Rock Springs, treatment of 

Chinese in, 21 
Roman Catholic Church. Unity 
of contrasted with Protes- 
tants, 31 
JRoman Catholic Church, be- 
lieved a political agent. 47; 
believed a shelter of bad men, 
52; its property. 56; its finan- 
cial metliods. 58; its secrecy, 
60; its good work, 61 ; hostil- 
ity to rites of, 61 ; its semi- 
political administration, 61 
Roman Catholics in China, the, 
45-64; bishops, rank adopted 
by, 48 ; missionaries, power of. 
49; outrages of. 55; rising 
against, 157; successful de- 
fence of, 179; fortifications 
of, 207; rescue of, 251; 
massacre of missionaries, 614, 
619; list of martyrs, 649; 
number in China, 650; per- 
sonal narrative of converts, 
698 
Ruin of T'ung Chou. the, 555 

570 
Russia, a menace to China, 723 ; 

dominates Manchuria, 724 
Russian Cemetery, desecration 
of, 499 
railroads, the. 118 
soldiers, barbarities of. 670 
troops in allied forces, the, 
455 
Russians in Manchuria, friction 
with. 607 
leniency of, 726 



766 



INDEX 



relation of, Chinese. 357 
Russo-Chinese agreement, the. 

104 
Russo-French alliance, the, 103 

Sages, the Chinese, 6 

Salisbury, Lord, unwilling to 
resort to naval action, 193 
telegram to, 195 

Sand bags, demand for, 279 ; 
manufacture of, 289; mater- 
ials for, 511 

Sanitary care of British Lega- 
tion during siege, 295 ; im- 
provements, 820 

Scholars, classification of, 9 

Schools and colleges, establish- 
ment of, 139 

Searchlight, sight of, 304. 312 

Secret societies, number of, 153; 
forbidden by government, 173 

Segers, Father, murder of, 620 

Semi-siege, in Peking, the, 232- 
252 

Servants, Chinese, faithfulness 
of Christian, 657. 658 

Settlement with China, terms of, 

734 
Seville, Miss, Red Cross given. 

494 

Seymour-McCalla expedition, 
the, 235, 236, 299, 242. 246, 
438. 440, 442. 443. 599 (see 
Relief Expeditions) 

Seymour, Mr., U. S. Consul at 
Canton, 55 

Shanghai, commercial capital of 
the Far East, 12 : Ningpo men 
in, 13 ; foreign settlement in. 
17; agreement of Powers 
over. 24 ; conference at, 55, 
78; riot at, 70 

Shanghai journals. Ningpo cor- 
respondents of, 71 

Shanghai Agricultural Asso- 
ciation, the. 138 

Shanghai Cathedral, supposed 
foundation of on infants. 97 

Shansi, foreigners escape from. 
616; Pioxcrs authorized to 
kill all Christians in, 657 



Shansi Christians, fire and 
sword among. 702-712 

Shantung, mission affairs in, 
50 ; German work in, 99 ; mur- 
der of priests in. 106; policy 
of governor of. 603 ; foreign- 
ers protected, 604 ; drill re- 
sumed by Boxers, 722 

Sheffield, D. Z., asked to medi- 
ate with Japanese. 558 

Shen Taotai of T'ung Chou, 
help of. 215 

Shensi. travelling in, 14; policy 
of governor of. 603 ; spread 
of anti-foreign rising in, 611 

Shimonoseki, treaty of, 29 

Shots fired at Legations, num- 
ber of, 514 

Siege, the ; first week of, 272- 
296 

Siege life, 365-382 

Siege, raising the, 433 

Siege, after the. 485-507 

Siege child, a. 298 

Simcox. Mr. and Mrs., murder 
of. 610 

Slimmon, James A., notable ex- 
perience of, 621-632 

Simpson, Mr., murder of. 614 

Smith. Miss Georgiana. distin- 
guished services of. 537 

Smyth, G. B., on French treach- 
ery, 25 

So P'ing Fu, massacre of mis- 
sionaries at, 613. 707. 712 

" Society for the Diffusion of 
Christian and General Knowl- 
edge," 43, 150 

Society to Protect the Heavenly 
Dynasty, tenet of, 224 

Soldiers, Chinese. 8 

Soldiers. Continental, conduct 
of, 500 

" Sources of Anti-Foreign Dis- 
turbances in China." 88 

South African War, effect of, 
on Cliina. 220 

" Spheres of influence," expedi- 
tionary. 716. 720 

" Spirits." Boxers aided by, 172 

Spread of the Rising, 196-217 



INDEX 



767 



Squiers, Herbert G., 346 

Squiers, Mrs., 262 

Stampede, an international, 277 

State Department code, tele- 
gram received in, 346 

Steam navigation, opposition to, 
96 

Stevenson, J. W., list of Prot- 
estant missionary martyrs 
prepared by, 647, 648, 649 

Stewart family, murder of, 85 

Strategy, Chinese, illustrated, 
397 

Streets in Peking, care of, 526; 
renaming of, 527 

Strike, labour, in China, 13 

Strouts, Capt., death of. 345 

Struggle for the wall, The, 
297-317 

Student interpreters, praise of, 
480 

Students, Christian, personal 
narrative of, 695 

Su, Prince, 265 

Su Wang Fu, 265, 273 ; Japa- 
nese ordered to abandon the, 
277 

Sugi^'ama, Japanese chancellor, 
murdered. 235 

Summer Palace, the, 532 

Sun Chia Nai. approval of regu- 
lations of, 140 

Sung and Ming Dynasties, 
methods of government of, 
132 

Sungpu, riot in, 85 

Supplies, difficulties in purchas- 
ing. 241 

Supplies, the siege, 509 

Swedish Union missionaries, 
murder of. 712 

Syndicates, agents of. 88; min- 
ing lands sought by, 121 

Szechuan. riots in, "j^ 86 

Ta Tag Hur. the. 106 

Tablets, ancestral, of the Man- 
chu dynasty, British seize the, 
548 

Tablets of pre-Imperial Ances- 
tors, removal of, 549 



T'ai Ku Hsien, massacre of 
missionaries at, 613 

Taiping rebellion, the, 22, 30 

T'ai Yuan Fu, massacre of mis- 
sionaries at, 613 

Taku forts, capture of, 18, 19, 
336; surrender demanded, 
247; effect of capture, 436 

Taku Forts to relief of Peking, 
From. 435-461 

Tan Yang, riot at. 82 

fang dynasty, emperor of, 
quoted, on Confucianism, 7 

T'ang. motto of. 738 

' T'ang-tzu." the. 335 

Taoist priests, employment of, 
by Chinese. 7 

Taoist priests and Christianity, 

39 . 
laotai of Shanghai, riot planned 

by. 67 
Taotai of T'ung Chou. appeal 

to. 212; Boxers intimidate 

the, 566 
Tartar dynasty, presage of fall 

of. 239 
Taxation, protest against, 120 
Taxes, remission of, 5:3 
Taylor. Dr. Geo. Yardley. mur- 
der of. 610 
Taylor. J. Hudson, beginning 

of China Inland Alission by, 

65 

Telegram in State Department 
Code. Mr. Conger receives, 346 

Telegram from Paris. 361 

Telegrams to governments, 
question of. 386. 389 

Telegrams, receipt of, 404. 405. 
412. 414, 423 

Telegraph, opposition to. 96; 
sending of edicts by, 143; 
sending appeals by, 216: com- 
munication, stopped. 235 

Telescope. Chinese fear of. 214 

Temple of Agriculture. Amer- 
ican troops occupy the. 546 

Temple of Heaven, foreigners 
enter the. 547 

Temples in T'ung Chou. de- 
struction of, 546 



768 



INDEX 



Temples, proposed use of, for 
schools. 139 

Territorial Aggression. 101-123 

Tewksbury, Mr., 274. 495 

Thunder shower, effect on Chi- 
nese of, 303 

Tientsin, metropolis of four 
provinces, 12; supplies fur- 
nished by, 19 ; cathedral at, 
56; riots in, 58; effect of cap- 
ture of, 342; serious situation 
at, 437; relief of, 438; loca- 
tion of foreign settlement, 
444 ; attack, 445 ; Eastern Ar- 
senal taken, 446; foreigners 
leaving, 447; taking city. 451; 
story of siege, 444 ; after the 
siege, 571-593 ; location of, 
571 ; character of men of, 571 ; 
massacre, the, 572 ; popula- 
tion of, 572 ; prosperity of, 
573 ; antipathy to foreigners 
in. 573 ; devastation of. 577, 
582 ; provisional government 
of, 578; taken by foreign 
troops, 579 ; British munici- 
pal council of, 586; wall re- 
moved, 588 ; new roads in, 
588, 589: business conditions 
in, 591 ; military expeditions 
from, 713 

Tientsin Road, the, destruction 
of. 591 

Tientsin, treaty of, 18, 20, 21 

Tientsin Massacre, the, 13, 22. 
46, 69 

Tiger, the Chinese, 122 

Tombs, Imperial ; raid in direc- 
tion of, 715 

Topography of Legation dis- 
trict, 259 

Tower of city gate, burning of, 

239 

Territory, cession of, to for- 
eigners, 16 

Tract and Bible Societies, work 
of, 41 

Trade, foreign, effect on China 
of, 90 

Trade in Tientsin, 591 

Traders and Chinese, 9 



Tragedies, a chapter of, 617, 
618 

Trans-Asian railway, terminus 
of, no 

Trans-Siberian railway, the, 
104, 117 

Transformation of Tientsin, 
588-593 

Translators in Great Britain 
and France, Chinese Minis- 
ters ordered to engage, 142 

Transportation, Western modes 
of. 525 

Treaties, present, a growth, 14 
attitude of China toward, 29 
of Nanking, causes of, 16 
of 1842 ignored by Emperor, 

of Shimonoski, 29 

of Tientsin, 18, 20, 21, 22 

ratification of, at Peking, 19 

Treaty ports in China, 12 

" Triad " Society, 153 

Tribute grain, arrival of, at 
T'ung Chou, 556; effect of 
railway on, 561 

Tribute Rice transport by 
Grand Canal, abolition of, 144 

Truce, a f^.ag of, 292. 346 

T'sai family ; personal narrative 
of, 679 

Tsai Li, or the Ritualists, 172 

Ts'ang Chou, German raid of, 
716 

Tseng, Marquis, 245 

Tsung Li Yamen, the. 46; 
memorandum of, 52, 56, 59, 
61 ; French influence over, 
55 ; American Minister sends 
protests to, 192; protection 
promised by, 210: Prince 
Tuan appointed president of, 
230 ; request withdrawal of 
foreign troops, 242 ; request 
foreign ministers to leave, 
247 ; ministers reply, 248, 268 ; 
letter to Legation ministers, 
267 : messenger from, 346 r 
provisions sent from, 362, 
390; despatch from. 420, 426, 
427; fate of, 544; alleged 



INDEX 



769 



cause for execution of its 
ministers, 595 

Tuan Fang. Gov. of Shensi, 
helpfulness of, 603 

Tuan, Prince, bribed by Em- 
press Dowager, 147; ap- 
pointed President of Tsung 
Li Yamen, 230, 269 

T'ung Chou ; capitulates, 19, 
558 ; arrival of Boxers. 204, 
563; troubles, 212; foreigners 
flee, 214, 564; wreck of Post 
Ofiice and mission, 235 ; 
meaning of name, 555 ; ruin 
of, 555-570; composite struc- 
ture of city, 556; population, 
556, 568; people friendly to 
foreigners, 558; affected by 
railway, 561 ; magistrate hos- 
tile to foreigners, 564 ; Boxer 
leader in. 565 ; destruction of, 
564. 567-570 

T'ung Chou Christians in Pe- 
king, location of, 535 

Tung Fu Hsiang, 163 

Tung Kun, resentment of Chi- 
nese at. 113 

" Turbid-Stars," at Tientsin, 12 

United States, educational 
mission to, 23 ; first minister 
to China, 14; suffering of Chi- 
nese in, 21 

United Village Associations, 

174 

Unity during siege, the remark- 
able, 515 

University in Peking, impor- 
tance of, 133 ; condition of 
after the siege, 497 

Vegetarian Society, murder of 

missionaries by, 85 
Vermilion Pencil Edicts, de- 
spatch of, 553 
Viceroys, uprising checked by, 

603. 605 
Victory, an important. 316 
Victoria, see Queen. 496 
Vileness of Hunan pamphlets, 
81 



Village. Christian. Boxer attack 

on, 177, 207, 214 
Volunteers, the, 174 

Wade, Sir Thomas, experi- 
ences of, in China, 23 

Waldersee. Count von. 611 

Wall of Tientsin, removal of. 
588 

Wall, the struggle for, 297-317; 
defences on. 403 

Wang Lan P'u, story of, 702 

War of 1840-41. 15 

War with Japan, China at close 
of, 102 

War edicts of Empress Dow- 
ager, 28 

Warren. P. L., British Consul, 
Shanghai, 602 

Washington, Chinese situation 
viewed from. 721 

Water, supply of, 280, 511 

Watson, Joseph, on " China 
and the Present Crisis," 117 

Watt. James, despatches taken 
by, 437 

Watts Jones, Capt., murder of, 
612 

Weather, the siege, 332 

Wei Hei Wei, British demand 

for, in; occupied by Japan, 

103 
Wen Hsiang. character of. 46 
Wen. Mr., personal narrative 

of, 691 
Wen Li, personal narrative of, 

689 
Weng T'ung Ho, Emperor's 

tutor, 134 
Western Empress, death of, 125 
Western innovations, introdu- 
cers of, 26; their effect, 94 

Learning Schools, graduates 
of. 138 

nations and China. 8 

powers, opportunity of, 87 

science in China, power of, 
736 

troops in China, lawlessness 
of. 718 



770 



INDEX 



Whitehouse, Mr., murder of, 

614 
" White Lily " Society, 153 
Williams, Dr.. on Treaty of 

Nanking. 16 
Williams. Fred'k, " History of 

China," 46. /O 
Williams, G. L., murder of, 61 j 
Wilson, Dr., murder of, 614 
Women, bravery of, 485 

given Red Cross, 493 
Women, massacre of, 338, 605, 

610. 614. 615, 616, 617, 670, 

680, 696, 697, 698. 700 
Workmen, classification of. 9 
Wu Ting Fang, telegram from, 

350; influence at Washington 

of. 721 
Wu Hu. riot at, 82 
Wu Hsieh, riot at, 83 
Wu Hsiieh, riot at, 83 
Wylie, J. A., murder of, 85 

Yamen, Ministers, British Le- 
gation visited by, 236 



Yamaguchi, Gen., leads Jap- 
anese forces, 455 

Yang Chou, riot in, 65 

Yang Ts'un, 440, 456 

Yangtze Valley, riots in, 26, 58; 
Great Britain in, 121 

Yeh. Gov.-Gen., British capture 
of, 57 

Yellow River, rising of, 162 

Yuan Shih K'ai, 148. 155, 180, 
602 ; proclamations of, ']22, 

Yii Hsien, career of, 168; re- 
moval of, 180; collusion with 
Boxers, 192; condemned, 550; 
influence in Shansi, 611 

Yii Lu. Gov. of Chihli, 574 

Yung Ch'ing Hsien, 228; Ger- 
man raid on, 717; British re- 
mit taxes on, 717 

Yung Wing, influence of. 23 

Yunnan, struggle of French 
for, 121 



Zahn, Franz, 
Catholics, 54 



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