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,1 Wit mtoiomt ^ 

^V> PRINCETON, N. J. *^ 

Purchased by the Hamill Missionary Fund. 

BV 3415 .F7 1904 
Forsyth, Robert Coventry, 

The China martyrs of 1900 







Compiled and Edited by 







The aim of the writeT in the present volume has been 
to place before his readers a connected account of the 
events which affected Missions and missionaries in 
China during the Boxer rising of 1900. All that has 
yet appeared has been almost necessarily sectional and 
mainly denominational, and therefore there is a legiti- 
mate place for a narrative which combines all the 
Missions represented, and describes the tragic scenes as 

a whole. 

With so large a field to cover, and such a wealth of 
material to use, some line must be drawn so as not to 
exceed reasonable limits of time and space ; and this 
has been done by confining the present volume to the 
description of events affecting the Protestant missionary 
body in China. With this end in view, the heroic 
defence of the Pei-Tang Cathedral in Peking, and the 
equally heroic resistance successfully offered by Roman 
Catholic priests and native converts to the marauding 
bands of Boxers and Imperial troops at Ma Cheng in 



Shan-si, and In other parts of the Northern provinces, 
have been excluded. 

Only a selection of the marvellous tales of the escape 
of Protestant missionaries from the hands of their 
enemies has been given for the same reason. All 
available sources of information have been freely used, 
and the narratives and descriptions of events are given 
mainly in the form in which they appeared at the time 
of their publication, or from the pens of those most 
conversant with the circumstances described. 

As the China Inland Mission has the largest 
missionary staff in the eighteen provinces of China, it 
naturally follows that the heaviest losses fell upon that 
body. In order, therefore, to make the picture complete, 
the writer has availed himself of the liberty, kindly 
granted by Rev. J. W. Stevenson, the director of that 
Mission in Shanghai, and by the Home authorities of 
the Mission, to make what use he pleased of the books 
and pamphlets issued by the members of the Mission. 
He has fully availed himself of this permission ; other 
friends have also generously assisted by writing special 
articles for this volume, or placing their productions at 
his disposal for the purpose intended, and for these the 
writer offers his best thanks. 

The tragic events of 1900 and their consequences in 
China, and their relation to Protestant missions in that 
country, should not remain scattered, and possibly buried 

Preface v 

in fugitive books, magazines, and pamphlets. That they 
should not be focussed in some way in a compact and 
convenient form seemed to the writer a deplorable loss, 
to be avoided at all cost if possible. The attempt has 
been made, therefore, to place the events of this stirring 
and formative period in a connected and readable form 
before the reader. The Churches in Europe and 
America forget only too soon such great upheavals and 
such heroic deeds as those which occurred in China in 
1900. Hence the chief aim of the writer has been to 
place on record the complete story in a permanent 

The terrible story of the sufferings of our missionary 
brethren and sisters, ending, as they did in so many 
cases, in cruel deaths, has been given so far as practic- 
able in order of time. To increase the general interest 
and usefulness of the book, and also to illustrate in 
the best possible way the true catholicity of the great 
modern missionary enterprise, the main facts and circum- 
stances in the early life and training of the martyrs have 
been collected together in Chapter XXI. The details are 
as complete and accurate as it was possible to make 
them ; but biographical facts in some cases have not 
been procurable. 

That this effort, which has been undertaken as a 
labour of love, and brought to completion amid the 
many distractions incident to missionary labour during 

vi Preface 

the whole of the trying period it has endeavoured to 
record, may have the blessing of God, and may be used 
by Him to deepen the interest of His people and call 
forth more enthusiastic support for the ardent prosecu- 
tion of His work in the Chinese Empire, is the earnest 
hope and prayer of the writer. 


















ARIES . . • • • 











viii Contents 















INDEX 513 


T'AI YUEN FU MARTYRS .... Frontispiece 
G. B. Farthing ; Mrs. Farthing ; The Farthing 
Children ; E. M. Stewart ; Mrs. Whitehouse ; S. F. 

PROMINENT OFFICIALS . . . To face page i 

The Governor of Shantung ; Yu Hsien, Governor of 
Shan -si ; The Boxer General at the Siege of Peking. 


A Boxer in 1900; S. M. W. Brook; Charles 
Robinson ; H. V. Norman. 

PAO TING FU MARTYRS . . . • » 26 

Ruins of Temple where the Missionaries were 
imprisoned; H. T. Pitkin; A. A. Gould; M. S. 
Morrill ; Scene of Martyrdom outside the walls. 

T'AI YUEN FU MARTYRS . . . • „ 38 

E. A. Caombs; A. E. Lovitt ; Mrs. Lovitt ; A. 

Hoddle ; Mrs. Stokes ; G. W. Stokes ; Mrs. Simp- 
son ; J. Simpson. 

SCENES IN T'AI YUEN FU . . . . >, 42 

House in T'ai Yuen Fu where the Missionaries lived 
a few days before the Massacre ; Starting of the 
Memorial Procession ; Memorial Service at T'ai 
Yuen Fu. 


Mrs. McCurrach ; W. A. McCurrach ; I\irs. Dixon ; 

Herbert Dixon ; Mrs. Underwood ; T. J. Under- 
wood ; B. Renaut ; S. W. Ennals. 

X List of Illustrations 


AND THE LAST ENTRY IN IT . To face page 63 


R. Bird; M. L. Partridge; Mrs. Clapp ; D. H. 
Clapp ; G. L. Williams ; F. W. Davis. 


A. King ; D. Barratt ; Mr. and Mrs. M'Connell ; A. 
Woodroffe ; E. Burton ; J. Young ; Mrs. Young. 


Mr. and Mrs. M'Kee; M. E. Smith; M. Aspden ; 
Mr. and Mrs. I'Anson and two Children. 

CHU CHOU FU MARTYRS . . . . „ 92 

Mrs, Thompson ; D. B. Thompson ; J. Desmond ; 

E. Sherwood ; E. Manchester. 

THE SIEGE OF PEKING . . . . „ 108 

In the British Legation, Peking; F. H. James; 
* Fort Cockburn ' with the Nordenfeldt rapid-fire 
Gvm ; The Missionaries in the Legation. 


Mr. M'Kie and Party in Ping Yang Fu ; Mrs. 
Glover and Mr. and Mrs. D. Kay and Daughter ; 
P. A. Ogren ; Mrs. Cooper ; M. E. Huston. 

THE TA NING MARTYRS . . . . ,, 160 

F. E. Nathan ; M. Heaysman ; Isl. R. Nathan ; 
Cave-dweUing, Ta Ning ; Ruined Chapel, Ta Ning. 

THE SI CHAU MARTYRS . . . . ,, 192 

Mrs, Peat ; W. G. Peat ; E. L. Dobson ; E. G. 

M. Hedlund; J. Lundell ; N. Carleson ; E. Karl- 
berg ; E. Pettersson ; O. L. Larsson ; E. Persson ; 
S. Persson ; A. Johansson ; J. Engvall. 


Missionary Parties at Chinese Inns. 

i. Port Arthur ; Vladivostock ; Wei Hai Wei. 

List of Illustrations xi 


tinued . .... To face page 286 

ii. A Station in ]Manchuria ; Steamer on the Amur ; 
Houses for Military Guard Zigzag at Genghis. 


timied . . . . . . ,, 298 

iii. Train at Baikal Station ; Train de Luxe with 
Observation Car ; A Siding Station. 


C. J. Suber; N. J. Fridstrom ; D. W. Stenberg ; 
H. Anderson ; C. Anderson ; H. Lund. 


Mr. and Mrs. Olson ; E. Anderson ; E. Erickson ; 
Mrs. Anderson ; INIr. and Mrs. Lundberg ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Niren ; Mr. and Mrs. Blomberg ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Nystrom ; A. Gustasson ; Mrs. Forsberg ; K. Hall ; 
Mr. and Mrs. Bingmark ; Mr. Palm ; Mr. Forsberg. 

CHINESE CONVERTS . . . • » 385 

Li Pai ; Fei Chi Hao ; Wang Hsi Yo ; Wang Ming ; 
Nich T'ungngan ; Wang Pao-t'ai ; J. P. Bruce ; 
Wu Chien-ch'ena:. 



Mrs. Simcox ; Paul Simcox ; F. E. Simcox ; Francis 
Sinicox; Mrs. Hodge; G. T. Taylor; C. V. R. 

PAO TING FU MARTYRS . . . . ,, 423 

Mrs. Bagnall ; Gladys Bagnall ; B. Bagnall ; William 
Cooper ; Graves of the Missionaries. 

T'AI YUEN FU MARTYRS . . . . ,, 432 

T. W. Pigott; Mrs. Pigott ; J. Robinson; W. 
Pigott ; M. Atwater ; N. Atwater ; M. Duval. 

T'AI YUEN FU MARTYRS . . . • „ 439 

J. Stevens ; Mildred Clarke ; The Beynon Family ; 
Mrs. Wilson ; Dr. Wilson. 


E. Searell ; Graves of the Martyrs ; E. Whitchurch. 

xii List of Illustrations 

THE FEN CHOU FU MARTYRS . . To face page 458 

C. W. Price; Mrs. Price; A. E. Eldred ; Mrs. 
Lundgren ; A. P. Lundgren ; E. R. Atvvater ; Mrs. 

CHU CHOU FU MARTYRS . . . . „ 471 

Mrs. \Yard; G. F. \Yard ; E. A. Thirgood ; A 
Chinese Poppy Field. 




[To face Chap I. 

The China Martyrs of 1900 


The Boxer Rising of 1900 

Towards the end of November 1897, the writer, with 
others in the interior of the province of Shantung, was 
startled by the rumour, which for some time seemed 
unworthy of belief, that the Germans had landed troops 
and taken possession of Kiaochou Bay, one of the finest 
natural harbours in the province. This was done 
ostensibly because two Roman Catholic missionaries of 
German nationality had been murdered in the south- 
east of the province of Shantung a short time before. 

The seizure was easily made. Three German war 
vessels, commanded by Admiral Diedrichs, entered the 
bay at Tsing-tau on November 14, 1897, and pointed 
their guns at the Chinese forts, marines were landed, and 
an order was given to the commander of the fortress to 
surrender within three hours. The Chinese troops, who 
were entrusted with the duty of holding the forts, fled 
inland, and their commander had no option but to 
surrender to the enemy within the specified time. The 
Chinese soldiers, it is said, finding that they were not 

2 The Boxer Rising of 1900 

pursued, took courage, and, doffing their uniform, joined 
the ranks of the coolies, and busily assisted in bringing 
the baggage of the German troops into the fortifications 
which they had so recently evacuated in a manner so 

This seizure, so easily accomplished, and regarded 
at the time merely as a punitive measure, met with a 
chorus of applause from foreign Powers ; but none knew 
then how pregnant this act was with consequences which 
were to cause all the world to wonder, and to inaugurate 
one of the most startling revolutions in the history of 

Following on this event came the demand of Russia 
for Port Arthur in Manchuria ; and, backed as this 
demand was by France and Germany, that fortress was 
wrested from Japan, and handed over to Russia without 
a struggle. Russia immediately thereafter poured 
troops into Manchuria, altered the terminus of her 
Siberian railway from Vladivostock to Dalny, and has 
remained practically in possession of that country 
ever since. The British, jealous of Russian influence, 
immediately pressed for the cession to them of Wei- 
Hai-wei, a convenient harbour also in the province of 
Shantung, and, after many negotiations and threatenings, 
finally secured this important place. Up to this time it 
had been held by the Japanese as a guarantee for the 
payment of their indemnity. The British took peaceful 
possession of it, and have remained in occupation till 
the present time, with every evidence of permanent 

All these events were rendered possible by the 
revelations of the utter helplessness of the Chinese 
Government, made to an astonished world by the war 
with Japan. The pride of the Chinese, and the 

Reform Movement of 1898 3 

corruption which marked the administration of public 
funds by their officials, was the efficient cause which 
could not fail to bring its Nemesis of disaster and 
humiliation for the whole nation. That the Chinese 
Government was stung to the quick by these humilia- 
tions it was forced to endure in silence, goes without 
saying. The young Emperor, Kuang Hsu, seeing that 
the empire was in danger of rapidly disappearing piece- 
meal, made efforts which were nothing less than heroic, 
to stem the tide of encroachment by the reform of the 
administration. Calling to his aid enlightened and 
progressive men, he issued, with a rapidity which dazzled 
and amazed all beholders, edicts which abolished the 
existing system of Government examinations, turned 
idol temples into village schools, reduced the various 
venerable boards in Peking to ciphers, and made the 
trembling mandarinate feel as if the heavens were about 
to fall. Not only so, but it seemed as if the new reform 
movement was to have a strong infusion of Christianity. 
Early in 1898 the Emperor sent to the American Bible 
and Tract Depot in Peking, and ordered a copy of the 
Bible and of every tract and book that the depot could 
supply, for his own reading. These books were passed 
into the palace, and early and late this ruler of millions 
could be seen poring over these books, and devouring 
their contents. 

Taking their cue from the Emperor, some of his 
advisers freely advocated placing Christianity on the 
same level of toleration with Confucianism, Buddhism, 
and Taoism, and some even urged that it should be 
adopted as the national religion. 

This reform movement was hailed with delight by 
the younger literary men amongst the Chinese, and a 
demand for Christian literature sprang up unprece- 

4 The Boxer Rising of 1900 

dented in the history of Christian missions in China. 
Mission schools were soon crowded, and men of means 
in Peking and other important centres subscribed large 
sums for the establishment of schools of Western learn- 
ing, where their sons might be taught under the new 

But all this could not proceed without arousing 
immense opposition, and from very powerful quarters. 
Many of the high officials, when what they considered 
as their vested interests were touched, and themselves 
superseded by men whom they despised as upstarts, 
turned in their dismay to the Empress-Dowager, and 
implored her to save their country — by this meaning 
themselves — from ruin. She, in giving over the reins of 
government to the Emperor, had still retained in her 
own hands two of the Imperial prerogatives — first, the 
use of the Great Seal of State ; and second, the appoint- 
ment of all the higher civil and military officials. The 
Emperor strongly urged that these prerogatives should 
be under his control, but this was indignantly refused. 
After nearly a week's struggle, the end came on 
September 22, 1898, in what is known as The coup 
d'etat, and the complete triumph of the Empress- 

Within a week from that date the heads of six of the 
more prominent reformers were shorn off by the knife 
of the executioner, giving ghastly testimony to the fact 
that in the propagation of new ideas there are dangers 
of which men who love their lives should not lose sight. 
The names of these men, called the proto-martyrs of 
the reform party, were T'an-ssu-t'ung, Lui-kuang-ti, 
Yang-tsui, Liu-hsio, Yang-shen-hsiu, K'ang-kuang-jen. 
Kang-yu-wei and others, however, succeeded in making 
their escape. The young Emperor himself was put 

Yii Hsien in Shantung 5 

under restraint, and the reins of the Government 
snatched from his grasp, and wielded once more by 
the able and unscrupulous woman who has controlled 
the destinies of the empire for nearly half a century. 
Under the new regime the Government immediately 
revoked the edicts which had caused so much offence, 
and, looking about for some means of supporting their 
designs, thought that they had found a fitting instru- 
ment in what is known as the ' Boxer Sect.' 

This movement originated in the south-east of 
Shantung, and was part of the effect of the taking of 
Kiao-Chou by the Germans. In intention its object was 
to resist the foreign invasion of the country, and one of 
its banners had the motto inscribed upon it, ' Support 
the present dynasty, and destroy the foreigners.' Under 
the direct encouragement of Yu Hsien, who was then 
Governor of Shantung, the sect spread rapidly in his 
jurisdiction, and it was one of their bands who was 
responsible for the murder of Mr. Brooks. This, how- 
ever, led to the removal of Yii Hsien, and the policy 
of repression of the Boxers, inaugurated by his successor, 
prevented the spread of the movement in Shantung, but 
drove it more to the north and west; and in the pro- 
vinces of Chih-li, Shansi, and Manchuria it flourished 
unchecked. In Shansi — under the rule of Yii Hsien, 
who had been transferred to that province from Shan- 
tung, notwithstanding all the opposition of the foreign 
Powers — it culminated in the awful murders and 
massacres of foreigners and natives which have made 
that province notorious in the annals of crime. 

In Chih-li the Boxers began the siege of the Lega- 
tions in Peking, although it was subsequently carried 
on by Imperial troops ; and in Manchuria they for a 
time laid low, and in some places almost destroyed, 

6 The Boxer Rising of 1900 

the work of Christian missions in that part of the 

Amongst the secrets of the rapid spread of the 
Boxers was the fact that they practised incantations, 
and were supposed by the credulous multitude to be 
invulnerable. These incantations are thus described 
in a brochure issued by Dr. John Ross of Moukden, 
Manchuria. He says : ' The candidate was made to 
stand facing the south-east, the direction in which 
Kuan Yin', the Goddess of Mercy, is worshipped. The 
feet of the novice were set on the sign of the cross. 
The tips of the forefingers and thumbs were brought 
together to form a circle. The other fingers were 
folded backwards on each other towards the forefinger. 
Through this circle, or through a glass, the youth (it 
was generally young persons of both sexes who were 
initiated) looked, placing a circle against each eye, 
the eyes being closed. His (or her) hands were thus 
held, and the eyes kept closed during the whole cere- 
mony. The performer went to the side of the youth, 
and, speaking close to his ear, said, " Ta t'ien, t'ien men 
kai," " Strike heaven, heaven's door opens," etc., repeat- 
ing four lines of five syllables which rhymed pleasantly. 
After the words were said, the " teacher " breathed gently 
into the ear. He then went to the other side and 
repeated the same ceremony. From side to side he 
went till the spell worked and the youth fell back in 
a trance. He was then asked what spirit he was of, 
and replied, the God of War, or other deity. He was 
then known as the medium of that spirit. He stood 
erect, uttered unearthly yells, calling out, " Slay, slay ! 
kill, kill ! burn, burn ! the foreigners." He went blindly 
knocking against walls or any obstacle in his way until 
exhausted, and then by a smart slap on the forehead 

Conservatism of China 7 

was recalled to his senses. In other words, the youth 
was hypnotised, and amongst an ignorant and super- 
stitious populace was supposed to be possessed of super- 
natural powers. It was this which gave the Boxer 
element such a hold on the people, and led to such 
portentous and disastrous results of awful wickedness 
and folly, which, with the encouragement in the highest 
quarters, well-nigh brought the empire to destruction.' 

There were also other causes at work which helped 
forward this outburst of anti-foreign feeling. 

The Chinese are strong in their attachment to, and 
reverence for, the past. The old ways hallowed by 
custom, the ways of their ancestors, are looked upon 
by them with superstitious reverence, and this feeling 
is enhanced by the worship at the tombs of their 
fathers, and their constant desire to appease the spirits 
of the dead in every act of life. 

The new ways introduced by the hated foreign devil, 
who is responsible amongst other things for the intro- 
duction of the national curse of the opium habit, which 
is eating out the vital powers of the nation, have caused, 
and are causing, the bitterest spirit of animosity in the 
people generally. 

The introduction of Christianity has also caused a 
ferment amongst the people, and the success of the 
Protestant form of it has been a source of intense 
uneasiness amongst the lazy, and mostly vicious, priest- 
hood of the Buddhist, Taoist, and Confucianist forms 
of religion. 

Roman Catholicism is also responsible for creating 
an antagonism which amounts almost to a passion of 
hatred amongst rulers and people alike, by their arro- 
gant assumption of equal status with the higher officials, 
the prosecuting of lawsuits with all the force which 

8 The Boxer Rising of 1900 

they derive from the unscrupulous use of the protec- 
tion bestowed on them by the French Government in 
the person of its representatives, the acquiring of pro- 
perty in all directions, and the use they make of the 
power and wealth which is thus created. 

The condition of the country, too, was such as to 
cause much discontent amongst the labouring classes. 
Famine is never far off from the people of Shantung, 
especially amongst the inhabitants of those counties 
bordering on the Yellow River, that fruitful source of 
sorrow and misery. In Chihli, Shansi, and Shensi, 
the crops had failed, and the sharpest pangs of hunger 
assailed multitudes of the unfortunate peasantry. In 
Shensi so great was the distress, that human flesh 
was sold on the markets as a not uncommon article 
of diet. 

These sufferings were made much of in the pro- 
clamations which were issued by the Empress-Dowager 
and her advisers, as the just anger of Heaven for allow- 
ing the foreigners to encroach on the sacred territory 
of China, and calling upon all patriotic citizens to 
rise in their wrath and expel them from their coasts. 
The treatment of the Chinese by foreigners in the 
treaty ports and elsewhere, the want of respect for 
their feelings and customs too often met with by 
them there, their exclusion from other countries by 
the jealous artisan class, and the cruel way in which 
many of their countrymen had been treated in these 
foreign lands, — all these things have helped to swell 
the tide of anti-foreign feeling which culminated in 
the disastrous outbreak, to portray which is the pur- 
pose of these pages, in so far as it affected missions 
and missionary interests in China. 


The First Martyrs 

The story of the 'beginning of sorrows' is most 
pathetic. Mr. Brooks, a young man twenty-four years of 
age, had joined, two years previously, the S.P.G. Mission, 
working in the south-west of the province of Shantung, 
In the year 1894 he had entered St. Augustine's College, 
Canterbury, and was accepted for work in North 
China in the spring of 1897. After arrival at his 
post he struggled sturdily with the Chinese language, 
and was making good progress. He had already begun 
his missionary labours, and was devout and earnest in 
his work. Mr. Brooks had been made a deacon of his 

Church. . -u u- 

Mr. Brooks had been spending Christmas with his 
sister, who had lately arrived in China as the bride of Rev. 
H. J. Brown of the same mission, stationed at T'ai ngan 
fu. Boxer troubles in the province had caused great 
anxiety ; but up to that time no foreigner had been 
attacked, and it was still believed to be a local, rather 
than a general, disturbance, and fully under the control 
of the authorities. 

At Ping-Yin, the other station of the mission m 
Shantung, about fifty miles from T'ai ngan, Mr. Matthews 
was alone, and Mr. Brooks, who belonged to that station, 
was anxious to join his colleague, to be of assistance 

lo The First Martyrs 

during that troublous period. This faithfulness to 
duty and loyalty to his fellow-worker cost Mr. Brooks 
his life. 

In connection with the death of Mr. Brooks a 
remarkable dream is recorded. He dreamt, some 
months before he was called home, that * he was again 
at St. Augustine's College, that he read once more the 
names on the cloister walls, and also in the Memorial 
Chapel. Then he noticed on one of the walls a space 
reserved exclusivly for the names of martyrs who had 
belonged to the college. As he gazed at the space 
he noticed no name thereon, until gradually as he 
looked some letters stood out upon the wall, and he 
read the characters which spelled his own name.' In 
the light of subsequent events, this seems rather a 
startling coincidence. It was a subject on which Mr. 
Brooks frequently dwelt. He certainly had a pre- 
sentiment that he would die a violent death, and that 
as a witness for the Faith. 

On Friday, December 29, 1899, Mr. Brooks started on 
his fateful journey. He rode a donkey, and had a lad 
as donkey driver with him. He passed a night on the 
road, and the next day arrived at a village called Chang- 
chia-tien, within a comparatively short distance of his 
destination. Here he was set upon by a band of 
ruffians, pulled off his donkey, and led along outside 
the village. He managed to escape from his captors, and, 
being an athlete, he ran for his life, and soon out- 
distanced his pursuers ; but men on horseback started 
in pursuit, and, having overtaken him, they immediately 
cut him down with their swords and decapitated him, 
and then threw his body into a ravine by the road- 

Thus passed away the brave spirit of a young soldier 

Character of Mr. Brooks ii 

of Christ, the first martyr who perished under the rule 
of Yii Hsien, who was then Governor of Shantung. 
Mr. Brooks's body was subsequently recovered by his 
colleague, Mr. Matthews, and with the red cross of 
martyrdom placed upon his breast, he was laid in the 
tomb at Ping-Yin till the dawn of the resurrection 

His colleague, the Rev. H. Matthews, thus writes of 
Mr. Brooks : * He was very dear to me, and it was to no 
small extent due to his wish to be with me in the time 
of great anxiety that he laid down his life in martyrdom. 
I wrote most strongly to Brown to keep him back, but 
he felt it his duty to come, with this terrible result. 
What a New Year to him ! It was on New Year's 
Day we heard of his death. He was a bright and 
happy fellow, very cheerful, and a most lovable com- 
panion. He himself is at rest, and I know that he was 
not unwilling to lay down his life in martyrdom.' 

As a result of the trial which took place three months 
after the murder, in presence of Mr. C. W. Campbell, 
British Consul, who was commissioned to act as assessor, 
two men were executed, one was sentenced to imprison- 
ment for life, and another for ten years, and a fifth to 
exile for two years. Besides this, a sum of 9000 taels 
(about ;^i5oo) was paid for erecting a memorial church 
at Ping- Yin ; another memorial at St. Augustine's 
College, Canterbury ; and the head men of the village 
where Mr. Brooks was captured were fined 500 taels 
(about £70) for the erection of a memorial tablet under 
a stone pavilion on the spot where the murder took 

The death of Mr. Brooks, so sad in itself, so cruel 
a blow to the sorrowing relatives, was in the providence 
of God used as a means for the preservation of the lives 

12 The First Martyrs 

of many missionaries scattered throughout the province 
of Shantung. 

Owing to the energetic protests of the American 
Minister at Peking, backed as we understand by the 
representations of Sir Claude Macdonald, the infamous 
Yii Hsien was removed from the Governorship of 
Shantung, and by this means was prevented from 
continuing, for the time at least, the policy of active 
encouragement of the Boxer movement w^hich led to 
the death of Mr. Brooks. This, if persevered in, would 
certainly have led to wholesale massacre of foreigners, 
and destruction of property in Shantung, as actually 
occurred in the province of Shansi, to which he was 
afterwards transferred. That Yii Hsien was thus allowed 
to continue the career which ended in so terrible a 
calamity in Shansi, is a blot on the action of the 
diplomatists which brings disgrace on the Governments 

The succession in place of Yii Hsien of the enlightened 
Governor, Yuan Shih Kai, to the governorship of Shan- 
tung was, indeed, the salvation of that province, so far as 
the interests of foreign missionaries and their converts 
were concerned. True, the evil effects of the policy of 
the previous governor could not be easily reversed, and, 
owing to the encouragement from Peking which the 
Boxer leaders in Shantung received, they were able for a 
time to defy all the efforts of H. E. Yuan to keep them 
under control ; and thus much damage to property of 
foreigners and natives alike was the result. In the case 
of Christian natives there was grievous loss of life, 
especially in northern districts on the borders of the 
province of Chih-li. Yet it may be safely inferred that 
but for the interposition of the restraining influence 
exercised by a ruler so powerful as Yuan Shih Kai, 

Harry Norman 13 

the province of Shantung would have been, in all 
human probability, a scene of carnage and cruelty as 
bad perhaps as the ill-fated province of Shansi. 

Those whose lot as missionaries in the interior of 
Shantung exposed them to peculiar peril, have every 
reason to thank God that in His over-ruling providence 
the death of Mr. Brooks was used as the means of 
their salvation. They have every reason also to 
remember him who at the cost of his life secured for 
them changes which are at the present time of very 
great value to the cause of missions in the province 
of Shantung. 

Thus this young life, may we not say, so far from 
being wasted, was spent to the best account, and has 
been used of God in a marvellous way to further the 
interests of His Kingdom, a cause to which Mr. Brooks 
had freely dedicated it. 

The second murderous outbreak occurred at Yung- 
ch'ing, and the following sketch of those who suffered 
there is from the pen of the Rev. Frank L. Norris. 

' Harry Norman was the son of a working man 
who lived at Portland, near Weymouth, in the south 
of England. When his school days were over, he was 
apprenticed to a carpenter, and so learned the trade 
that was to be useful to him long afterwards in China. 
His naturally enthusiastic spirit was kindled into a 
great longing to help in mission work. He was at 
this time teaching in a National school at Dorchester, 
and when the wish of his heart was made known, 
the Dorset Missionary Studentship Association helped 
him to go to Warminster, where from 1888 to 1890 
he was trained for missionary work at St. Boniface 

* While at Warminster Norman attended lectures in 

14 The First Martyrs 

medicine, and showed such aptitude that it seemed 
well worth while to enable him to go for six months' 
further training at Salisbury Infirmary, before he came 
out to China. I remember times when the compound 
at Yung-ch'ing would be full of out-patients who came 
to be treated by him, although he had hardly any 
instruments, and very scanty drugs. 

' In the autumn of 1891 he came out to Chefoo, and 
in April 1892 he was ordained deacon in Peking, where 
he worked for five years. He threw himself into the 
work of the boys' school, and his resistless energy is 
well exemplified in the two following instances. One 
of his boys hurt his leg in jumping off a wall, when 
Mr. Norman was away. He was taken to an American 
Mission Hospital, where the injury was found to be 
such that the leg had to be taken off at once above 
the knee. The poor little fellow was very weak, and 
the operation — the one chance of saving his life — seemed 
likely to have ended it. His father came up from the 
country, with Mr. Norman, to take his son home, as 
we thought, to die. Norman himself had to go to 
bed at once on his return, having been for some time 
seriously out of sorts. I urged him to go to Chefoo 
for the summer, as his doctor strongly recommended ; 
but I was rather surprised when, after resisting the 
suggestion for two or three days, he was suddenly con- 
verted to its immediate importance. And for twenty- 
four hours I was left in the dark as to the cause. 
Then, on the very day we were to start, I understood 
it. For there, in a cart ready to go with us to the 
station, was the little one-legged schoolboy, so weak 
that Mr. Norman carried him in his arms from the 
cart to the train, from the train to the steamer, and 
from the steamer's side at Chefoo to the mission house 

Norman's Influence Over Boys 15 

there. But he saved the boy's life, and he returned a 
bonny, healthy boy, on crutches made by Mr. Norman 
himself, and is now married and living happily at 

*The other instance is equally characteristic. One 
of our older schoolboys was due to leave school. He 
was a dunce at his books, and not very popular, and 
disinclined for farm work after five or six years at 
school. Mr. Norman said he would make a good 
carpenter, and when we pointed out the failure of 
previous attempts to launch our schoolboys in that 
way, we were told we, and not they, were to blame 
for it. Honestly, I think we all felt the experiment 
had been tried and failed, and was not worth trying 
again. But then we were not Normans. He taught 
the boy, he made us give him little orders, — the table 
he made for me was a curiosity, — he apprenticed him 
(at his own expense) to a Peking carpenter, and when 
he was dissatisfied with the result, as we had been in 
former days, he sent the boy, at his own expense, to 
Chefoo, and apprenticed him there to one of the best 
carpenters in North China, Tong Hing, where he kept 
him for three years. The boy is now making twelve 
dollars a month, and has taught two other Christian 
boys his trade. He was Norman's head carpenter at 
Yung-ch'ing in building his church rooms and furnish- 
ing them, and we have found him very useful at Tientsin 
in the same capacity. But he owes his skill entirely to 
Norman's invincible perseverance. 

* In 1897, Norman went to Yung-ch'ing, fifty miles 
south of Peking, to live; and in the autumn he was 
joined there by Charles Robinson. He at once began 
to inspire the school work there with fresh life. " Mr. 
Norman," wrote the Bishop a year later, "is indefatig- 

1 6 The First Martyrs 

able, as in his general work, so especially, perhaps, in 
the pains he takes with his boys." And he himself 
ended an appeal for help at the same time with the 
words, " Whatever is done will not be done in vain ; 
the future Church in China will reap the advantage. 
* Train up a child in the way that he should go, and 
when he is old he will not depart from it.' " But he 
did not neglect other work for the school. In 1898, 
through " the black clouds of political trouble," which 
he thought "affected our work very considerably," he 
increased the roll of communicants by twenty-five per 
cent. Between December 25, 1898, and January 6, 
1899, he "celebrated the Holy Communion eight times, 
communicated about one hundred and thirty people, 
and travelled about three hundred and eighty miles." 
On July 6, 1899, ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ completion of a district 
church, now in ruins, of which he wrote : " We cannot 
boast of a church built entirely by native money, but 
we can truly say that most of the Christians did as 
much as we could expect, and some even more. For 
they gave us of their money to buy, they lent their 
beasts of burden to draw materials, and as many as 
could be spared from farming occupations came and 
helped as labourers." 

' Mr. Charles Robinson was also trained at St. 
Boniface College, Warminster, where he had gone in 
1895 from Leeds. He was well known and much 
respected in his own parish at Wortley, near Leeds, 
and two years' steady work at St. Boniface College 
made us hope that he would be a great help to the work 
in China. 

* The first impression he produced was that of an 
extraordinarily methodical worker. And he worked 
at his Chinese with a curious unselfishness. He was 


A BOXER IX 1900. 


[To face page 17. 

Charles Robinson 17 

engaged to be married, and all through the dull grind 
of learning the language in its first stages, he thought 
and planned how he could make it easier and simpler 
for his intended wife. 

' He came to meet me at Chefoo, on my return from 
England, in March 1900. His intended bride, Miss 
Rule, had left home with me, and had died at sea 
near Colombo. I had, of course, wired the news to 
Peking, but the Bishop had rightly encouraged Mr. 
Robinson to proceed to Chefoo to meet us, and so 
to hear as soon as possible the details of her death. 
What impressed me was his perfect self-control, due, 
if one was to judge by little indications, to an 
absolute conviction that God's ways are always best. 
He had had an almost prophetic intuition of what 
was coming. I remember his saying to me, as we 
walked up and down together, "After all, it is best 
as it is. I shall be freer when the trouble comes at 
Yung-ch'ing; I could not face it with her." In two 
months it had come, and I doubt not that she was 
among the first to welcome him on the other side. 

'Trouble had threatened in that district for some 
little time, and Mr. Norman repeatedly urged the 
British Consul in Tientsin to make the Viceroy send 
troops to disperse the gathering Boxer bands. But 
no effective measures — if any — were taken, and things 
looked darker every day as the month of May wore 
on. Norman and Robinson were urged to escape; 
the former refused, and the latter expressed his deter- 
mination to stick to his comrade. 

' Norman's courage in remaining at his post was in 
my opinion entirely justified by the chance it offered 
of overawing the local Boxers, who at that time still 
feared the foreigners somewhat, and by the time it 


1 8 The First Martyrs 

afforded for some of the Christians to seek safety. 
Moreover, if the magistrate had done his duty, neither 
Norman nor Robinson would have lost their lives. 

'Very early on June i, the attack began on our 
Christians in two villages, distant half a mile and one 
and a half miles respectively from the city. By daylight 
the Boxers were at the doors of our own compound. 
The two or three Christians there were urged by Mr. 
Norman to save themselves, and he and Mr. Robinson 
did the technically correct thing in flying for refuge 
to the Magistrate's Yamen. But when the Boxers 
demanded their surrender, they were forced to leave 
the Yamen by a back way, and denied a promised 
asylum in the Confucian Temple, and compelled to 
escape as best they could. Charles Robinson was 
killed in a moment, inside the north gate of the city, 
and, later in the day, the magistrate, terrified for the 
consequences of his own cowardice, gathered the re- 
mains in a coffin. Norman had managed to get 
outside the city, but was almost immediately found 
and taken prisoner. For twenty-four terrible hours 
he lived to bear witness how a Christian could face 
death; and then was released from captivity and 
from life, and passed to his reward in heaven. His 
body was hurriedly buried under a tree, not far 
from the spot where he was murdered, and there it 
is to-day, with that of Charles Robinson and one of 
our native catcehists alongside of it, in a portion of 
ground which will for long years to come be the 
Christian cemetery of the Yung-ch'ing Church. May 
their example help us to be more like them ! ' 


The Massacre at Pao-ting-fu^ 

Pao-TING-FU, the capital of the province of Chih-li, 
is situated about one hundred and twenty miles south- 
west of Peking. The district in the vicinity of Peking 
is known as the Metropolitan district, and, together 
with the capital of the empire, has a governmental 
system entirely separate from the provincial govern- 
ment of Chih-li, to which province it geographically 
belongs. Chih-li is governed by a Viceroy (for 
many years the Viceroy was the famous Li Hung 
Chang) ; and for convenience of administration the 
Viceroy resides in the city of Tientsin, as being the 
most important centre for trade. The presence of 
many foreign residents gives it also more importance 
than Pao-ting-fu, the proper provincial capital. 

Though the Boxer Society had its origin in Shantung, 
its first outbreak on any large scale was in the villages 
about Pao-ting-fu, whence it ravaged along the railway 
known as the Lu Han line, the great trunk line route 
between Peking and Hankow, then in course of con- 
struction. The engineers, with their wives and families, 
were driven off, and had to force their way to Tientsin 
by desperate fighting, in which some lost their lives. 

^ For biographical details of the missionaries referred to in this chapter, 

see pp. 412-424. 


20 The Massacre of Pao-ting-fu 

All the stations on the new line were wrecked, and at 
Feng tai, the immense new workshops, built for the 
construction of the railway, were entirely destroyed. 
The Boxers, gaining courage from their efforts, swept 
all before them, and swarmed down on Pao-ting-fu. 

For the story of the massacre we follow mainly the 
account of the Rev. J. Walter Lowrie, of the American 
Presbyterian Mission, who belonged to the station of 
Pao-ting-fu, but, fortunately, happened to be absent 
when the final catastrophe came. 

In the spring of 1900 there were some thirty-two of the 
Protestant missionary community, including women and 
children, resident in Pao-ting-fu. These were distributed 
in three compounds. Two of these, the American Board 
and the China Inland Missions, were situated south of 
the city, and distant from the city gate half a mile or 
more, and from each other less than a quarter of a mile ; 
the third, the American Presbyterian Mission, was 
located north of the city about a mile. The Roman 
Catholics had a fine pile of buildings, including a hand- 
some church, priests' residences, and schools. 

On June i, 1900, many of the Protestant missionaries 
were absent from their station, some being in the United 
States and others elsewhere in China. There were in 
all fifteen left at Pao-ting-fu, one being Mr. William 
Cooper, of the China Inland Mission, Shanghai, who 
was there on a visit. The remainder consisted of five 
men, five women, and four children. Belonging to the 
American Presbyterian Mission were Dr. G. Y. Taylor, 
Rev. F. E. S. Simcox, Mrs. Simcox, and three children, 
and Dr. C. V. R. and Mrs. Hodge. Of the American 
Board were Rev. H. T. Pitkin, Miss M. S. Morrill, and Miss 
A. A. Gould. Of the China Inland Mission were Mr. and 
Mrs. B. Bagnall and one child, and Mr. W. Cooper. 

Murder of Pastor Meng 21 

All communication by road was destroyed before 
June 8, 1900, but protection was promised by the 
authorities. The Boxers often said they had no ill-will 
to Protestant missionaries; still they grew more violent 
in the country round about, and the missionaries 
telegraphed frequently to Tientsin and Peking for 
military protection. This the Viceroy, Yii Lu, re- 
peatedly promised, and some soldiers were sent as a 
guard, but were soon withdrawn. As the impending 
danger became more threatening, the city authorities 
suggested to the missionaries to come within the walls 
and occupy a rented house in the city. But the 
missionaries, fearing that if they abandoned the mission 
premises, these would be destroyed, decided to remain 
where they were. They were advised to put up the 
notice, in large characters, the words 'Protestant 
Mission,' and this was done. 

About June 24 some of the servants and helpers fled, 
but others, with splendid fidelity, remained to the end, 
and perished with their foreign friends. About that 
time a ferocious edict was issued inciting the people to 
kill the foreigners and to destroy their property. This 
was all that was needed to encourage the Boxers to 
begin their operations. 

On the afternoon of Thursday, June 28, 1900, while 
Pastor Meng, of the American Board Mission, was 
packing the books in the street chapel within the city, 
preparatory to removing everything and sealing up the 
premises, he was suddenly seized and bound, and carried 
off to a temple occupied by the Boxers. Mr. Pitkin 
sent his card to the Yamen to secure Meng's release, 
but in vain. After a night of suffering, he was beheaded, 
and his body thrown into a ditch 'behind the temple. 
His body was afterwards recovered, and received 

2 2 The Massacre of Pao-ting-fu 

decent Christian burial at the hands of his native 
brethren in Christ. 

On the day of Pastor Meng's arrest, Dr. Taylor had 
made his regular visit to the city dispensary in the 
north street. Some native college men, frequent patients 
of his, came in a body, and with tears in their eyes 
expressed their inability to help him. They themselves 
narrowly escaped death at the hands of the Boxers 
later on. Dr. Taylor shed tears with them for a 
moment, then recovering himself, bade them good-bye, 
and, closing the dispensary door with his accustomed 
self-control, he returned with peaceful countenance to 
sustain the hearts of the younger missionaries at his 
home. He never betrayed the slightest fear during 
these trying days, but, with amazing cheerfulness, 
diverted the ladies and strengthened the courage of his 
colleagues. They thought of fleeing southward by cart, 
and drew all their silver from the native bank ; it 
appears, however, that they could not get a carter 
who could be induced to risk the journey. 

On the morning of June 27 an officer came from 
the Yamen to ask Dr. Taylor to give up the keys of his 
city dispensary, so that the furniture and medicines could 
be removed to a safe place, for fear of the Boxers looting 
them. These he gave ; and to the officer's suggestion that 
he should appeal to some of his friends among the gentry 
for protection, Dr. Taylor answered with a sigh, ' My 
gentry friends are only friends in the dispensary ; they 
will do nothing for me now. My only real friend is 
President Wu-ru-sun, and he can with difficulty preserve 
his own life.' President Wu had in fact fled alone and 
in disguise from the city that very morning. 

The dispensary furniture was removed, the Chinese 
attendants fleeing to the country that day ; they 

Missionaries Burned Alive 23 

returned, however, on the following day to the mission 
compound, and there met their death. One escaped 
southward with a little boy, a son of a relative who had 
been entrusted to his care ; he had a son of his own also 
with him. He found that he could not save the two 
boys, and after a mental conflict he concluded to leave 
his own son with friends, and endeavour to escape with 
the son of his relative. He was able to escape, and in 
due time arrived at his relative's house, and delivered up 
his charge safe and sound in his own home. 

On June 30, a mob of Boxers and rabble from the 
streets bent on pillage came by a circuitous route to the 
Presbyterian Mission compound. They piled stubble 
against the outer gate, fired it, and soon reduced it to 
ashes. Then they looted the hospital, chapel, and Mr. 
Miller's house, and also the houses of Mrs. Lowrie and 
Dr. Hodge, setting fire to each before the contents were 
entirely removed. 

The natives in the compound— two faithful gate- 
keepers, some servants, and two old women and some 
children— were either killed or driven to leap into the 
well ; while two of the foreigners with a rifle and shot- 
gun held the crowd at bay from the windows of the 
house of Mr. Simcox, where they had all fled for refuge. 
The leading Boxer was killed by the shot, but finally 
the crowd succeeded in firing the building itself, and 
all the inmates perished in the flames. Mr Simcox 
was seen walking to and fro, hand in hand with his 
two little sons, as the flames enveloped them. Dr. 
Taylor had remonstrated with the crowd from the 
window of his own room, pleading the deeds of kind- 
ness which they all had done so many times for the 
people; but it was unavailing, and he also perished 
in the flames of his house. Thus this noble party 

24 The Massacre of Pao-ting-fu 

passed from their funeral pyre to the reward laid up 
for those who suffer for Christ's sake and the Gospel's. 

Dr. Taylor's faithful medical assistant had received 
travelling expenses from his master, so as to be able 
to flee for his life, but had nevertheless remained to 
the last. He was seized and killed, and his body, still 
writhing in death agonies, was buried in a shallow 

The report of this foul massacre soon reached the 
ears of the other missionaries, so they had a little 
time to prepare for the worst. Mr. Pitkin prayed with 
a Chinese school teacher who was with him, then he 
wrote some letters, which were buried in an outhouse 
behind his residence. His last words to the faithful 
Chinaman who was with him were, ' Tell the mother of 
little Horace to tell Horace that his father's last wish 
was that when he is twenty-five years of age he should 
come to China as a missionary.' The Chinaman, at 
Mr. Pitkin's request, then leaped over the wall, and 
managed finally to escape. 

Next morning, in the middle of pouring rain, the 
compound was attacked. Soon the gate was burst 
open, and the crowd, aided by Imperial soldiery, 
rushed in and surrounded the chapel, where Mr. Pitkin, 
Miss Morrill, and Miss Gould had fled. Through 
the window Mr. Pitkin fired on the mob till his 
ammunition was exhausted, then Mr. Pitkin and 
the two ladies leaped through a near window of the 
church into the schoolyard, and took refuge in a small 
room there. They were soon found, and Mr. Pitkin's 
head was severed from his body by a sword stroke. 
The ladies were rudely seized by the brutal mob. 
Miss Gould became powerless with excitement, and fell 
motionless to the ground. Her hands and feet were 

Murders Outside the Walls 25 

bound, and by means of a pole she was carried to a 
temple which was the headquarters of the Boxers. 
Miss Morrill exhorted the people as she walked along 
to the temple, and even gave some silver to a poor 
creature in the crowd. They were detained in the 
temple some time, and while there Mr. and Mrs. 
Bagnall and their little daughter Gladys, with Mr. 
W. Cooper, were also brought to the same place. 

It seems that this latter party, hearing and seeing 
what was going on in the neighbouring mission 
compound not half a mile away, had made a hasty 
collection of money and valuables and fled to the 
Imperial military camp near their house, hoping that 
the soldiers would at least permit them to pass on 
towards Tientsin. The colonel in charge, named 
Wang Ch'an Kuei, instead of helping them, deprived 
the party of all the money and valuables they had, 
and then handed them over to the provincial judge, 
who in turn delivered them to the Boxers. 

The Boxers, after detaining the whole party till the 
afternoon in the temple, finally led them outside the 
city to the south-east corner of the city wall. They 
were led in a line by the Boxers, by means of a rope 
passed round and tied to the uplifted hands of Mr. 
Bagnall, and thence fastened round his neck. Each 
member of the party was similarly tied, and attached 
to the one in front, except little Gladys Bagnall, who was 
allowed to walk freely at the side. Guns were fired and 
demonstrations made until they reached a large mound, 
said to have been the grave of a Boxer previously killed 
in one of the many attacks on the native Christians. 
There they were all beheaded, except little Gladys, who 
was thrust through with a sword. They were all buried 
in one grave. 

2 6 The Massacre at Pao-ting-fu 

On the arrival of the foreign troops, some three and a 
half months later, it was found that these remains had 
been much disturbed, and were seemingly undis- 
tinguishable. But kindly hands amongst the friendly 
natives of the neighbourhood had evidently reburied 
the bodies as they became exposed to view. With 
regard to this subject, Dr. Edwards writes, in a letter 
dated February 23, 1901, as follows : — * Yesterday 
we recovered the remains of those killed, and 
placed them in coffins ; we found only the skeleton 
of one headless body, which was recognised by 
some garments on it as that of Miss Gould. There was 
also part of another body. In the same pit were seven 
heads, six foreign and one Chinese ; and these were all 
recognised by some distinguishing mark. Even dear 
little Gladys Bagnall had been beheaded, but whether 
before or after death we could not tell. Mr. Bagnall 
and Mr. Cooper had both been tightly bound round 
the head with a rope which passed over the eyes, so 
tight was it that when removed it left quite a distinct 
mark on the skull. Most of the coffins will contain 
only a skull. We had a short informal service outside 
the city.' 

Mr. Pitkin's body was buried with those of a number 
of native Christians who were killed on that fatal day. 
Pao-ting-fu city has since been punished for these 
offences by the soldiers of the allies. The provincial 
judge, the military commandant, and the colonel who 
refused aid to Mr. Cooper's party, have been beheaded. 
The gate towers, the city wall towers, and a portion 
of the wall have been blown up, the Boxer temple 
destroyed, and the gentry have been fined one hundred 
thousand taels (about £17,000 or $85,000, gold). 

On Friday, March 22, 1901, a party left Peking for 





[To face p. 26. 

Memorial Services 27 

Pao-ting-fu over the newly reopened Lu-han railway 
line. The train passed through a breach in the Peking 
city wall, and thence southwards to the Lu K'ou 
bridge, without going near Feng t'ai, the former junction. 
All the railway stations along the line, except one or 
two near T'ao teng fu, had been destroyed in the recent 

The object of this visit to Pao-ting-fu was to attend 
the memorial service for the Protestant missionaries who 
were killed there last year. Rev. J. Walter Lowrie, of 
the American Presbyterian Mission, and Dr. A. Peck, of 
the American Board Mission, had made all necessary 
arrangements to this end. The provincial and city 
officials had also exerted themselves to make everything 
as comfortable as possible for the visitors. They had 
fitted up rooms at their own expense, provided with 
furniture sufficient for all the party needing accommoda- 
tion. On the night of their arrival they sent red cards, 
with four sheep, forty fowls, two hundred pears, and five 
hundred eggs, besides furnishing a quantity of foreign 

The first service was on Saturday, March 23, on the 
ruins of the Presbyterian compound, which had been 
utterly destroyed by the Boxers. A mat-shed had 
been erected in the usual manner of Chinese funerals, 
and under it the company, which included some Chinese 
officials, were shortly assembled, and where an interest- 
ing and impressive ceremony was held, conducted, in 
this case, mostly in the English language. As no 
remains of the bodies were found, the whole party 
having perished in the flames of the burning houses 
where they had assembled, there were no coffins pre- 
pared, and there was, of course, no burial service other 
than the memorial service described above. At the 

2 8 The Massacre at Pao-ting-lu 

close of the service each of the Chinese officials came 
forward and saluted the memorial tablets and inscrip- 
tions with which the mat pavilion was decorated. The 
number of native Christians belonging to the Presby- 
terian Mission who suffered martyrdom about the same 
time was, so far as known, about thirty. Many of them, 
however, having died at a distance from the city, the 
recovery of their bodies was impossible. 

On the following day — Sunday, March 24 — the 
services for the martyrs of the American Board and 
China Inland Missions were held in a large Chinese 
compound at no great distance from the place formerly 
occupied by the mission ; the mission compounds them- 
selves being in ruins, and only a few of the walls remain- 
ing. The officials, observing that at the service on the 
previous day a large company assembled, provided still 
more ample accommodation in the way of mat-sheds for 
those who might come on this occasion. 

In one of the mat-sheds were twenty-six coffins, con- 
taining the remains of the foreign martyrs of the China 
Inland and American Board Missions, and the bodies of 
some of the Chinese who had perished about the same 

The service held was similar to that of the preceding 
day, and the attendance included those already men- 
tioned and others who made it their business to be 

In the afternoon of the same day the burial proper 
took place, at a cemetery newly acquired on a large 
plot of land lying between the former American Board 
Mission compound and their hospital premises. Only 
six catafalques remained in the city, and all of them 
were voluntarily placed at the disposal of the missions 
without charge. The remaining coffins were otherwise 

Memorial Services 29 

transported to the graves, and the long and imposing 
procession, headed by screens, banners, and mottoes, 
passed through the entire length of the south suburb to 
the south gate, and then by a devious route to the 
cemetery, and was witnessed in respectful silence by 
thousands of spectators. 

Without previous intention, the day in each of 
these funeral services turned out to be exactly nine 
months after the massacres. The contrast between 
the tumultuous rioting of that terrible occasion and the 
Sabbath stillness of this, was among the most striking 
contrasts of this extraordinary experience. A few 
simple words at the graves concluded the public 

At a late hour the eighteen foreigners interested, 
who included representatives of four missions, met at 
the residence of Mr. Lowrie for a private memorial 
service, where tearful tributes and testimonies were 
offered to the memories and work of those who had 
fallen, several of them on the very threshold of life's 
task, and others after decades of Christian service. 


The Tai-yuen-fu Tragedy ^ 

T'ai-YUEN-FU, the capital of the province of Shan-si, 
lies on the northern border of a fertile plain, 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea; this plain, which extends 
for about two thousand square miles, owes its existence 
to the gradual filling up of a lake, the waters which 
were once held in it having gradually cut their way 
out and left the river Fan to drain the surplus. 
The city itself is not large in extent nor of great im- 
portance commercially, and within the city walls there 
is much vacant space. The inhabitants have been 
considered intelligent and, in the matter of banking 
business, enterprising. They are, as a rule, mild 
and inoffensive in manner, and have hitherto treated 
foreigners, whether traveller casually passing through, 
or missionary resident, with indifference, but seldom 
with hostility. Their most conspicuous vice, which 
they share with the people of Shan-si generally, is 
the opium habit. 

Protestant missionary enterprise began in that city 
in 1877, at the time of the great famine which raged 
throughout the province, and is said to have cut 
off, by the slow process of starvation, millions of 

^ For biographical details of missionaries referred tojn this chapter, see 

pp. 424-443' 


Relief Work in 1877 31 

men, women, and children. Whole villages were 
depopulated, and became a prey to the ravages of 
wolves, who battened on the bodies of the dead 
and dying people. Cannibalism was of frequent 
occurrence, and even the corpses of some were 
exhumed and eaten. Relief work was undertaken by 
Roman Catholic and Protestant missionaries alike, 
and was begun as early as the summer of 1877. 

* At the beginning of their labours,' writes the 
Secretary of the Central Committee in Shanghai, the 
late Rev. W. Muirhead, D.D., 'the distributors were 
received with a degree of prejudice and suspicion which 
utterly frustrated any attempt to prosecute the work. 
They were supposed to have sinister objects in view, 
and not only was their charity refused, but they were 
even in imminent danger of their lives. After a time, 
however, they bore down the ill-will and aspersions of 
the people of all classes, changing their sentiments and 
feelings of doubt and distrust into those of the deepest 
gratitude and respect. They gained the zealous co- 
operation of Li Hung Chang, who was then Governor of 
Chih-li, and the active countenance and help of the 
rulers and gentry of other provinces. Amongst others 
who distinguished themselves in the work of distribution 
may be mentioned Rev. David Hill, late of Hankow ; 
Professor F. H. James, who was killed at the siege in 
Peking ; and the Rev. Timothy Richard, D.D., now of 

Thus did the hand of charity open the hearts of 
the people, and thus was begun a work which has been 
nobly carried on by later workers, who have laboured 
long, and passed from us, with little to encourage and 
much to depress, but with a persistence and enthusiasm 
which, in later years, had begun to tell in a marked 

32 The Tai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

degree ; and there was promise of a harvest of in- 
gathering into the Christian Church which the recent 
outburst of anti-foreign hatred only served to render 
more conspicuous. 

T'ai-yuen-fu is the centre of the missionary work 
conducted in the province by the Shao-yang or North 
China Mission, the EngHsh Baptists, and the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. The China Inland Mission, 
whose work lies mainly in the southern part of the 
province, had also frequent communication with, and 
interest in, its capital city. 

About the end of April 1900, the then notorious 
Yii Hsien reached T'ai-yuen-fu. He had previously 
been Governor of Shantung, but had been removed in 
December 1899, owing to the representations of some 
of the Legations in Peking. He had been received, 
however, by the Empress-Dowager with special marks 
of favour, and, in recognition of his services, was 
appointed to the governorship of Shan-si. As soon as 
he arrived at the capital of his province, and even on 
the way thither, the Boxer movement sprang into 
active existence. 

Towards the end of May, letters began to come 
to T'ai-yuen-fu from the south of the province with 
the information that the Boxers had made disturbances 
in several places. On receiving this information, Mr. 
Farthing, of the English Baptist Mission, stationed at 
T'ai-yuen-fu, made representations to the authorities, 
pointing out the danger to which all foreigners and 
Christian natives were exposed if these outbreaks 
remained unchecked. These representations, however, 
seem to have had no result. Early in June, Mrs. 
Millar Wilson and child came from P'ing-yang to 
T'ai-yuen-fu, accompanied by Miss J. Stevens and 

Death of Miss Coombs 33 

Miss M. Clark from Ho-chau, and, on June 26, Dr. 
Millar Wilson arrived in the provincial capital. These 
were all members of the China Inland Mission, and 
unwittingly, as it seems, were all gathered to their 
doom, which fell upon them with startling suddenness. 
On June 27, without any previous warning, a mob 
assembled in front of the Schofield Memorial Hospital, 
which was then in charge of Dr. Lovitt. On the 
compound at the time were Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt and 
child, Mr. and Mrs. Stokes, Mr. and Mrs. Simpson, 
and Miss Coombs. In a short time the mob began 
to loot the premises, and proceeded to set the buildings 
on fire. Those within the buildings, with the exception 
of Miss Coombs, forced their way through the crowd, 
and finally succeeded in reaching Mr. Farthing's house 
in safety. Miss Coombs had returned to the buildings 
in order to help a little Chinese girl to escape who was 
a patient in the hospital. When leaving the building, 
she was struck on the head with a piece of iron, 
knocked down, and, when she rose, was pushed back 
into the burning house, where she finally perished. 
Her charred remains were, however, recovered on the 
following day, and buried in the courtyard. 

In the meantime the other missionaries had made 
every effort to secure protection for those in such peril, 
and to repress the rioters. After some time soldiers 
were sent to the scene of destruction and bloodshed, 
but it was only to look on idly while the mob proceeded 
with their deadly business. The missionaries subse- 
quently made other efforts to rouse the authorities to a 
sense of their duty and their need of protection ; but it 
became increasingly evident that no help was to be 
expected, and in the end it proved that their massacre 
was intended, and that all was done of settled purpose. 

34 The Tai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

On Tuesday, July 3, three officials came from the 
Governor and said, ' If you ask for protection, you must 
go to a house in the Chu-tu-h'siang. The house has 
four courts, and you can occupy two, and the Roman 
Catholics the other two.' This house was near the 
centre of the city, and had been used as the head- 
quarters of the Railway Bureau. The missionaries, not 
without many misgivings, finally consented to go, and 
removed there on Friday, July 6. Some faithful Chinese 
servants accompanied them, and for a dayor two they were 
left in some degree of comfort and comparative quiet. 

Meanwhile, other events were transpiring which 
afterwards helped to explain why these doomed ones 
were allowed this respite from the fate which, alas ! too 
surely awaited them. About eighty miles east from 
T'ai-yuen-fu is the county town of Shao-yang, and in 
this town, which has a market and is on the main road 
to Peking, were stationed Rev. T. W. Pigott, B.A., with 
his wife and child. In the household was a gentleman 
named Mr. J. Robinson, engaged as tutor to Master 
Wellesley Pigott, and Miss Duval as governess, and 
two girls, children of Rev. S. R. Atwater, of Fen-chou-fu, 
who were there at the time, and also under instruction 
from Miss Duval and Mr. Robinson. 

Early in June, Mr. Pigott began to be uneasy about 
the condition of the country. Rumours were being 
circulated accusing the Christians of poisoning the wells, 
and in consequence Mr. Pigott wrote to the resident 
official on the subject, and received a friendly and 
apparently satisfactory reply. On June 29, a letter 
came from the magistrate, which stated that, on the 
day previously, he had received, through the Governor, 
an Imperial Proclamation, and the tenor of it was that 
foreigners were no longer to receive official protection. 

Flight from Shao-yang 35 

If Mr. Pigott wished to leave, he would escort him in 
any direction to the boundaries of his jurisdiction, but 
could do no more. 

Mr. Pigott, on receipt of this, called together his 
household to discuss the situation, but before anything 
was decided a letter arrived from T'ai-yuen-fu which 
increased the alarm. It was written by Mr. Stokes, 
who belonged to the same mission, and was sent from 
Mr. Farthing's house, whither he and the others had fled. 
It described the burning of the hospital and other 
mission buildings, and the murder of Miss Coombs, on 
June 27. On receiving this, immediate preparations 
were made for flight. On the premises at the time was 
a Christian woman who had been residing there as a 
patient. Her husband, also a Christian, had that very 
day come to take his wife home, and they invited Mr. 
Pigott and his household to go with them to their 
village, a small one of ten families, situated in an 
isolated position. This invitation was accepted, and 
they started off the same day about four o'clock. The 
ladies and children of the party rode on animals, 
Mr. Pigott and Mr. Robinson travelling on foot. 
It was quite dark when they reached the village of 
Pei-liang-shan, where they occupied for the night 
the cave-dwelling of the Christian native who had 
invited them there. 

The next morning they were surprised to find that 
several hundreds of people came, as they said, to see 
the foreigners. All day the country people crowded 
the little yard in front of the house which the foreigners 
occupied, and a continuous stream of people went to 
and fro in and out of the place. Some were overheard 
discussing the doings of the Boxers and the destruction 
of mission premises in other places. 

36 The T'ai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

That night rain fell heavily, so that the next day- 
was comparatively free from crowds ; but two native 
Christians arrived from Shao-yang, who described 
what had happened there after the party had left. The 
assistant in the dispensary had cleared out all the 
drugs and instruments which were left there, besides 
stores, and had taken them, as he said, for safety 
to his own house. Later, a renegade Christian had 
led the crowd in breaking into the mission premises, 
looting their property, and destroying much that they 
could not carry away, even doors and windows. 

On July 2, a man came to tell them that only a 
few miles off some native Christians had been killed. 
This news was soon spread about, and then crowds 
began to gather, and commenced to pillage, not only 
the goods of the foreigners, but also of the Christian 
natives who had so kindly befriended them. Seeing 
that no effort of his could restrain the mob, Mr. Pigott 
finally decided to return to Shao-yang and seek the 
protection of the mandarin, whom he believed was 
willing to be friendly, and might be able to protect 
them. Just as the party left the village they all 
knelt in prayer. Mr. and Mrs. Pigott prayed in the 
Chinese, and the others in the English, language, and 
then they continued their sad journey. 

On reaching the river just outside the city of 
Shao-yang, they had some difficulty in crossing it, 
owing to the recent heavy rains. On reaching the 
other side, they were, as a consequence, more or less 
wet and muddy. Some of the people of the city 
recognised them, and ran, shouting 'The foreign 
devils have come back.' They, however, finally eluded 
these rowdies, and about midnight got to the Yamen, 
where they were ultimately placed in a guard-house. 

Missionaries Imprisoned 37 

In a day or two they were all conveyed on their way 
to T'ai-yuen-fu in a large country cart without any 
covering over it, and Mr. Pigott and Mr. Robinson 
were handcuffed. They had an escort of about fifty 
soldiers, who protected them in several places from the 
attacks of the Boxers. On the journey it is stated that 
Mrs Pio-ott fed her husband, as he was handcuffed, 
with the'comraon Chinese food, which can be purchased 
along the road from itinerant vendors Mr Robinson 
however, managed to take the food himself. Whilst 
they were watering the animals by the roadside, Mr. 
PicTott and Mr. Robinson occupied the time in preaching 
to'the people who gathered round. The people were 
much astonished at this, and said, 'They are going to 
be killed for preaching, and yet go on doing so. Thus 
did these faithful servants of Christ witness a good 
confession before many witnesses, and were not ashamed 
of their chains. May we not hope that their testimony 
may yet be used of God in the salvation of many ? 

When about three miles from T'ai-yuen-fu they 
were met by an escort of two hundred horse and foot 
soldiers, and by these they were brought '"to the 
city on the evening of July 8. They asked to 
be taken to where the other foreigners were, but they 
were told by the soldiers that they had all gone to 
the Yamen, and so Mr. Pigott and his party were 
lodged in the district prison. 

On Monday, July 9, IQOO, an order came from the 
Governor to the party confined in the house on the 
Chu-tu-h'siang, that they were to be brought to his 
Yamen, in order to be sent off under escort to the coast. 
One can well imagine with what alacrity all got them- 
selves ready in anticipation of their journey to a place 
of safety. On arrival at the Yamen, however, they 

3^ The Tai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

were speedily undeceived. They were all ranged in 
line outside the Yamen entrance in the open space 
next to the street. The whole number of men, women, 
and children were then stripped to the waist like 
common criminals, and were made to wait in this 
degrading condition till the Governor came out to 
inspect them. On his arrival, he asked of what nation- 
ality they were, and some one replied, ' Ta ying Kuo ' 
(' Great heroic nation ' : the official title for England). 
At this the Governor laughed scornfully, and at once 
gave the order for the murder of the prisoners. 

The first to suffer martyrdom was Mr. Farthing 
of the English Baptist Mission. His wife clung to 
him, but he gently put her aside, and, going in front 
of the soldiers, knelt down without uttering a word, 
and then received the death-blow. He was speedily 
followed by Messrs. Hoddle and Beynon, and Drs. 
Lovitt and Wilson, all of whom were beheaded by the 
executioner with one blow. Then the Governor, Yii 
Hsien, getting impatient, ordered his bodyguard to 
assist in the massacre. Messrs. Stokes and Simpson 
were next killed, one or two after several blows from 
the knives of the executioners. When the men were 
all despatched, the ladies were taken. Mrs. Farthing 
had hold of the hands of her children, who clung to her, 
but the soldiers roughly parted them, and with one 
blow beheaded their mother. The children were 
beheaded by the executioners in turn at a single blow, 
but the soldiers, being unskilled, required several blows 
to finish their victims. 

Mrs. Lovitt was wearing her spectacles, and held 
the hand of her little boy even when she was killed. 
She said to the people, ' We all came to China to bring 
you the good news of salvation by Jesus Christ. We 





\To face p. z?:. 

The Massacre 39 

have done you no harm, but only sought your good ; 
why do you treat us so?' A soldier took off her 
spectacles before beheading her, which was done in two 

When the Protestants belonging to T'ai-yuen-fu 
were beheaded, the Roman Catholics were led forward. 
The Bishop, an old man with a large white beard, asked 
the Governor why he did this wicked deed. For an 
answer, the Governor drew his sword across the face 
of the Bishop, causing the blood to flow down his 
beard, and he was then speedily massacred. The priests 
and nuns quickly followed him in death. 

Then Mr. Pigott and his party were led out of the 
county jail, which was close by. Mr. Pigott preached 
to the people till the very last. Mr. Robinson suffered 
death very calmly. Mrs. Pigott held the hand of her 
son even when she was beheaded, and he was killed 
immediately after her. Miss Duval and the two 
Atwater girls were then despatched, finishing the 
ghastly tragedy, so far as the Europeans were concerned^ 
although on that day and subsequently many native 
Christians, both Catholic and Protestant, were massacred. 
All the bystanders were surprised at the firmness and 
quietness of the foreigners in the hour of death. None 
of them made any noise except three of the children. 

Forty-six Europeans — thirty-four Protestants and 
twelve Roman Catholics — suffered martyrdom at this 
time, besides Miss E. Coombs, who died on June 27. 
The bodies were all left where they fell till the next 
morning, as it was evening before the work was finished. 
During the night, they were stripped of their clothing 
and robbed of their rings and watches. The next day, 
the remains were removed to a place inside the South 
Gate, and were finally (some months afterwards) interred 

40 The T'ai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

in a cemetery which was situated about two miles from 
the city, on the top of a hill. This was specially pre- 
pared for their interment by the then Governor of the 
province. After the massacre, all the houses of the 
foreigners and the Roman Catholic Cathedral were 
looted and destroyed. 

The following is the martyr roll : — 

Mission. Protestants. 

English Baptist. TRev. G. B. Farthing, Mrs. Farthing, Ruth, Guy, 

^, . -- , and Baby 

i ai-yuen-lu. ^ ^j^^ j^_ ^_ Stewart, governess, do. . 

I Rev. S. F. Whitehouse, Mrs. Whitehouse 

North China. 

'Mr. T. W. Pigott, Mrs. Pigott, and their son 
Vv'^ellesley ...... 

Miss Duval, Mr. J. Robinson, Ernestine Atwater 
Mary Atwater. (The two girls belonged to 
the A.B.C.F.M., Fen-chou-fu.) . 

rr., ' r Mr. G. W. Stokes, Mrs. Stokes, Mr. J. Simpson 

T'ai-yuen-fu. - ,, ^_ Cin.n.nn . . . . . 

Mrs. Simpson 

fDr. A. E. Lovitt, Mrs. Lovitt and Baby Jack 
I Mr. G. W. " ' ' ----- 

"l Mrs. S 

l^Miss E. A. Coombs (killed on June 27) 

, J , , TMr. A. Hoddle (formerly of the Shao-yang 

Independent. | ^^^.^^.^^ ... . . / . 

China Inland. fDr. W. Millar Wilson, Mrs. Millar Wlson, and 
P'ing-yang. \ Baby Alexander ..... 

Do. Ho-chau. Miss J. Stevens, Miss M. Clarke 

B. & F. Bible TMr. W. F. Beynon, Mrs. Beynon, Daisy, 

Society. -| Kenneth, and Norman Beynon ... 5 
T'ai-yuen-fu. j 

Roman Catholics. 

Two bishops, two priests, seven Sisters of 
Mercy, and one lay brother ^. . . . 



The heads of the six missionaries of the American 
Board at T'ai-ku were sent to the Governor in T'ai- 
yuen-fu. This made the full tale of fifty-one (not 
counting Miss Coombs), for which it was afterwards 

Horror at the News 41 

found Yu Hsien had claimed a reward from the 
Empress-Dowager in Peking. 

Mr. Fei-chi-hao, a school teacher employed by the 
American Board at Fen-cheu-fu, was the first to bring 
authentic news of this frightful massacre to his mission 
in Tientsin, in September. His escape and journey 
thither, which is detailed later, is a tale of almost 
incredible hardship and suffering, heroically borne in 
order to accomplish this service. 

When the news was telegraphed to England, it 

created a profound impression. Queen Victoria herself 

instructed Lord Salisbury to write, on September 20, 

1900, to the Emperor of China, that—* It is reported 

that a number of missionaries have been killed, some 

by the direct orders of the Governor of Shansi, and 

that the fate of a still larger number, including children, 

is unknown. The Queen has been deeply moved by 

the dreadful accounts which have reached her. Until 

the Emperor has shown in some signal manner his 

disapproval of these shocking acts committed in the 

proximity of His Imperial Majesty's Court, and has 

issued stringent orders for the rescue of those sufferers 

who may still have survived. Lord Salisbury cannot 

advise Her Majesty to reply to the Emperor's message.' 

Some reparation was made for the awful tragedy 

enacted at that time. The infamous Yii Hsien was 

beheaded by command of the Emperor. The new 

Governor of Shan-si received a party of missionaries 

with every mark of respect, and a profoundly impressive 

service was held over the tombs of the sacred dead. 

The place where the martyrs were imprisoned has 
been razed to the ground, and a monument erected, and 
the place made into a public garden. The tablet erected 
by the people to Yii Hsien has been taken down, and 

42 The T'ai-yuen-fu Tragedy 

replaced by one to the memory of the martyrs. In 
addition to this, at the suggestion of Rev. T. Richard, 
D.D., who had the honour of being pubHcly invited 
to propose a settlement of the matter, so far as 
Protestant missions were concerned, a fine has been 
levied on the province amounting to 500,000 taels 
(£75,000, or $375,000, gold). This sum is to be used 
for educational purposes throughout the province, so 
that the ignorance and superstition which was the root 
cause of this terrible tragedy may be removed for ever. 





ITo/ace p. 42. 


'In Deaths Oft'^ 

There are two stations of the English Baptist Mission 
in the province of Shan-si, one in T'ai-yuen-fu, and the 
other in Hsin-chou, which is situated about forty-five 
miles north of that city. The station of Hsin-chou was 
opened by Mr. Dixon in 1885. 

There the work had prospered, and with the addition 
to the staff of Mr. and Mrs. McCurrach, and later of Mr. 
Ennals and Miss Renaut, of the B.Z.M., there seemed 
every reason for encouragement and the prospect of 
definite extension. A new mission-house was, in 1900, 
in process of building, and was almost finished when the 
troubles began, which ended so disastrously. 

On June 29, 1900, a messenger who had been sent 
to T'ai-yuen-fu with the mail for the coast, returned 
without having delivered his letters. He brought the 
news of the burning of the hospital in T'ai-yuen-fu and 
the death of Miss Coombs, which had happened only 
two days before. There were stationed at Hsin-chou at 
the time, Rev. H. Dixon and Mrs. Dixon, Rev. W. A. 
McCurrach and Mrs. McCurrach, Miss B. Renaut and 
Rev. S. W. Ennals ; and belonging to the same mission 
from T'ai-yuen-fu were Rev. T. J. Underwood and Mrs. 

1 For biographical details of missionaries mentioned in this chapter, see 
pp. 443-451- ^3 

44 ' In Deaths Oft ' 

Underwood, who were on a visit to Hsin-chou at the 

On hearing the news brought by the messenger, the 
missionaries immediately decided to fly for their lives. 
They had two horses, two carts, and a mule litter to 
carry them, and, as soon as they could be got ready, 
they left the city, quietly and without molestation. 
They reached a place called Hsia-ho-pei, about ten 
miles off, where they stopped for rest and refreshment 
for the animals and themselves. The party remained 
there for some hours, but, on the arrival of a messenger 
from Hsin-chou with the news that the party of 
missionaries were wanted by the magistrate of that 
place, they hastened their flight. They succeeded in 
reaching, the same evening, a place called Liu-chia-shan, 
where some native Christians were living, and took 
refuge in the house of one of them, named Ngan-wan- 
niu. This man's house was situated at the head of a 
narrow valley, with high steep hills on either hand, 
and the living rooms were hollowed out of the hillside. 
It could be made impregnable by a sufficient and 
well-provisioned force contending against undisciplined 
peasantry, such as would be their pursuers, and it was 
with this object in view that the flight of the 
missionaries was directed to this friendly shelter. 

They remained there for over a fortnight, undis- 
covered and without molestation ; but about that time 
their retreat became known to their enemies, who had 
been out searching for their hiding-place. This fact 
led to the flight of the friendly villagers and Christian 
natives, on whom they depended for their supplies of 
food and water, and it soon became evident that their 
position was untenable. The party then took to the 
hills, and tried to conceal themselves in a cave. The 

Murders near Hsin-Chou 45 

missionaries were known to have some firearms with 
them for defence, and so were avoided by the cowardly 
enemies who sought to molest them. 

This state of things lasted for nearly a week, but on 
July 25, 1900, a military official arrived with some 
soldiers from Hsin-chou, and opened up communication 
with the party, and tried to capture them. His men 
were at first repulsed, but, seeing that resistance 
was useless, the missionaries surrendered themselves, 
were brought back to Hsin-chou, saw the magistrate, 
and after the interview were placed in the common jail. 
There they remained for a fortnight, and their condition 
may be imagined, but not adequately described. The 
Chinese call a prison 'the tiger's mouth,' and it well 
earns the appellation, for the rapacity of the jailers and 
the filth and wretchedness of the dens in which the 
prisoners are forced to live make life in them almost 
intolerable, especially during the heat of summer. 

On August 9, after the arrival of a deputy and ten 
soldiers from T'ai-yuen-fu with special instructions from 
the Governor, the missionaries were informed that they 
were to be escorted to the coast. This apparently 
joyful news was confirmed by the appearance of four 
carts such as are ordinarily used in travelling, and the 
eight foreigners gladly exchanged the loathsome prison 
for the prospect of life and liberty in the near future, 
and arranged themselves two in each cart, as is the 
usual custom in China. They started, but when the 
inner gate of the city was reached, they were met, 
evidently by previous arrangement, by a number of 
Boxers. The carts were stopped, the occupants were 
dragged out, stripped naked, their heads cut off, and their 
bodies taken to the banks of a small river near by, and 
thrown down, to be abused in the most shameful way 

46 *In Deaths Oft' 

by the rowdies of the neighbouring village of Wang- 

chia-chuang. Afterwards, one of the gentry of the 

^ '^ I city named Chou hired some men to place the 

^- 1 bodies in matting and bury them at the foot of the 

1 city wall, just outside the city. 

All the goods of the missionaries were looted, but 
a new building erected by Mr. Dixon was allowed to 
stand. The respectable people of the place, it is said, 
greatly regretted these shocking proceedings, which 
took place by the command of the infamous Yii 
Hsien, who has since himself gone to give an account 
to the Judge of all the earth for the atrocities committed 
by him, and at his instigation, and by his authority. 

The magistrate of Hsin-chou, named Li-ch'ung-kuan, 
who so faithfully carried out the diabolical instruc- 
tions received from his superior, was rewarded by the 
Empress-Dowager and her party by being made 
prefect in another part of the province, — an appoint- 
ment which has, we may well believe, been cancelled 
long ago, so that his triumph over defenceless men 
and women was fleeting, and his punishment and 
disgrace made therefore more bitter. 
1^ Mr. Dixon has left a name which will long be an 
A I inspiration to the Churches. His life had in it much 
■■'^ j heroism and self-sacrificing toil, with little pleasure and 
\ ease, and it was ended by the cruel sword-blows that 
won for him the martyr's crown. He was born in 1856. 
At the age of eleven years he was left an orphan, and 
was educated at the London Orphan Asylum School. 
On leaving school he spent some years in commercial 
life. Divine grace had early wrought a change in him, 
and he became a member of Downs Chapel, Clapton, 
then under the care of the Rev. T. Vincent Tymms. 
The Lord, who had chosen him to be sent ' far hence 

Herbert Dixon 47 

unto the Gentiles,' laid on his heart the needs of 
Africa, and he felt strongly the call to give his life to 
the great work then being commenced on the Congo 

After a three years' course at Regent's Park College, 
he was accepted by the Baptist Missionary Society 
for the Congo Mission, but remained in England for 
two years longer, to get medical and surgical training, 
as well as such other training as seemed needful. 
Thoroughly well equipped, he promised to become an 
ideal African missionary. He left England in the 
autumn of 1881, and was stationed at San Salvador, 
where there fell to him the onerous duties of receiving 
and forwarding supplies to his colleagues on the 
higher reaches of the river. His letters from Africa 
show with what earnestness and zest he entered on his 
work ; but the deadly climate laid him low with attacks 
of fever, and frequent exposure to the sun when he 
was unfitted by illness brought about a complete 
breakdown in health, so that in September 1883 he 
returned to England suffering from paralysis of the 
limbs, from which it was thought he might never 
recover. After months of careful nursing, he was once 
more able to walk, but the physicians forbade his 
return to the Congo. 

Just then, however, a letter from a former fellow- 
student in China led him to apply to the Committee 
of the Baptist Missionary Society to be sent to that 
country. To this they consented, and in the spring 
of 1885 Mr. and Mrs. Dixon arrived in T'ai-yuen-fu. 
For some years both of them had indifferent health, 
but they struggled on with indomitable courage. Two 
years after arrival in China they took up the work at 
Hsin-chou. For the next three years they were the 

48 ^In Deaths Oft^ 

only missionaries there, and their nearest neighbours 
were forty-five miles away. They had to endure many 
hardships, but the work made splendid progress. The 
little Church increased steadily in spite of much 
opposition, and a band of native evangelists under the 
guidance of Mr. Dixon carried the Gospel to the 
surrounding towns and villages. 

In September 1893, Mr. and Mrs. Dixon returned 
to England with their four children ; but for him it 
was a short stay. Leaving his wife and children behind, 
a few months later he was back again at his lonely 
station. When he was very weary he would come to 
T'ai-yuen-fu, and remain with his friends for a few 
weeks. He was a welcome guest, and with the 
children always a favourite, and this relaxation seemed 
to put new life into the tired but heroic missionary. 

In 1898 he returned once more to England, after 
four years' separation from his family. The winter 
before, Mr. McCurrach had joined him in his solitude, 
and there was every prospect of an enlargement of the 
Mission. The premises which were then rented were 
expensive, incommodious, and in a most confined and 
unhealthy situation. Mr. Dixon proposed to erect new 
premises on a healthy site. By the sale of some 
embroidery amongst his friends, and by an earnest and 
skilful advocacy of the work, he secured about ;^iooo, 
so that when he returned with Mrs. Dixon in 1899 he 
was at once able to begin operations, and speedily 
made rapid progress. The work at Hsin-chou and the 
connected out-stations had prospered steadily during 
his absence, and he was much encouraged by the 

Fresh force was added by the arrival of Mr. Ennals 
and Miss Renaut, and everything was prosperous, when 





\To face p. 49. 

Mr. Dixon*s Diary 49 

the blow fell which forced them suddenly to flee from 
their station to the mountains. 

Mr. Dixon and some of his companions left diaries 
of this terrible time, which have since been recovered, 
and are of the deepest interest and very stimulating 
to faith and hope. The following extracts are from 
Mr. Dixon's own diary: — 

' Rumours of plans to destroy all foreigners and native 
Christians had been persistent, and the appointment 
of Yii Hsien Governor of Shan-si seemed the finishing 
touch. The outburst of Boxers at Pao-ting-fu cut us 
off from all communication with the coast (about June 
4 or 5). 

' Friday^ June 29. — Last night had letter from G. B. 
Farthing saying very bad rumours about, but could 
not say if there was any real foundation for them. 
This morning, five o'clock, our letter-carrier from T'ai- 
Yuen came in saying that Dr. Edwards's premises were 
burnt down by a mob on night of June 27, and at 
least one lady (Miss Coombs) was burnt. That he could 
not get at Mr. Farthing — that troops and Boxers were 
searching everywhere for the missionaries — all the city 
gates being guarded to prevent their escape. 

' After short consultation, we (Mr. and Mrs. Dixon, 
Mr. and Mrs. McCurrach, Mr. Ennals, Miss Renaut, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Underwood) decided to escape outside the 
city of Hsin-chou before the news could be generally 
known — so hurriedly secured carts and made good our 
escape out of the west gate, having arranged to 
inform the official after our start, that he might protect 
our property. Made our way toward T'ai-Yuen, and 
there branched off south-west toward Chuan Mo Chen. 
Spent the afternoon waiting at a Christian's home. 
Sudden alarm of soldiers pursuing us made us start 

50 'In Deaths Oft* 

off about 6.45 p.m., and after an hour's toilsome march, 
pushed up into a deep gully ; dismissed our two carts, 
and hid our baggage in a hole, whilst we waited in the 
dark the arrival of some Christians with donkeys. 
r"~~ 'At last they came, and we started up a wide river- 
bed about midnight. Three ladies on horses, we men 
leading them ; Mr. Ennals and Miss Renaut on donkeys. 
An awful march through alternate water and deep dry 
sand. Could not keep up or in touch with our guides. 
Dared carry no light, neither dared we call out. Lost 
our bearings, got some mile or more out of our way. 
At last hit the entrance up a narrow pass, and found 
our guides. Then a terrible climb over a rough path : 
Mrs. Dixon very ill. 

* Arrived near village at daybreak, Saturday. Would 
not go in, for fear of bringing trouble on the village. 
Went away up a glen, and lay out all day. Rained 
heavily, and we had to sit sopped through in a rocky 
torrent-bed until near midnight. Then Christians came 
with lights, and with infinite trouble took us and our 
i, things into the village about two miles off (over most 
; difficult ground). 

' No sooner there than we men had to be marched 
^^^jju. . away over the mountain-side to hide in a cave, whilst 

/Q^. the ladies were put down in a tiny cellar and the lid 

shut down, — it almost cost them their lives. They were 
pulled out only just in time, and then stayed in a 
cave room. This was all necessitated by a fair at a temple 
on a mountain near by. About midnight we men re- 
turned to the ladies. Thus we spent Sunday, July i. 

' On Friday Chao was sent off toward the coast with 
instructions to try and convey news of our danger to 
some foreign troops or officials. On Sunday our cook 
and boy turned up, and were sent to T'ai-Yuen to try 

Mr. Dixon's Diary 51 

and get news of the missionaries there. Monday and 
Tuesday brought one and another Christian with bad 
news of T'ai Chou and Ku Hsien. Wednesday, our 
cook and boy returned from T'ai-Yuen with news that 
all the missionaries were prisoners in Mr. Farthing's 
house, and were expecting execution at any moment. 
Thursday, sent off cook w^ith a small note concealed in 
his hat-string to try and go to Pao-ting-fu, Peking, or 
Tien-tsin, asking for the utmost efforts to be made 
to save T'ai-Yuen friends and ourselves. Friday and 
Saturday, all quiet living in village. 

''Sunday, July 8. — Had open-air service. Monday, 
all quiet apparently. Tuesday, getting anxious at non- 
return of our messenger from Hsin-chou city. The 
past four days have had men digging a small cave up in 
the heart of the mountains — difficulty is the impossibility 
of concealing the dug-out earth. 

' Wednesday, July 1 1. — Villager carried home from his "7 
daughter's home fifteen li off, having been beaten almost ff^ 
to death for poisonifig the wells by 07'der oj the Joreigner : 
the Boxers who beat him threaten to invade the village] 
on Friday. 

* 1 1 p.m. — News received of rioting in Hsin-chou — 
official threatened for letting us escape — our houses prob- 
ably all looted. A hundred Boxers setting out to destroy 
Catholic villages, and to come up and kill us. Every 
village has its forty to sixty Boxers — so by the time they 
get here they will number a thousand. Decide to advise 
the villagers to scatter and abandon their village, and we 
ourselves pack up a little bedding and the few stores we 
have, and go into hiding in our cave in the mountains. 

* Thursday, July 12. — Had a most trying climb last 
night, but all got safely to the cave — a mere hole in a 
bank— room enough for all to lie down. Water a mile 

52 ^In Deaths Oft' 

below us, but we have two buckets full. All quiet until 
7 p.m., when four villagers came, saying reliable news to 
hand that all foreigners in Vai- Yuen executed by Tai 
Tung troops last Monday (or Tuesday). Twenty-six all told 
and te7i or eleve^i Catholic priests. This means no hope for 
us — as they were all under especial protection of theT'ai- 
Yuen magistrate, having been moved by him from Mr. 
Farthing's house to a house near the Yamen. 

^Friday, July 13. — Had a quiet night, all sleeping 
out of doors, but have to keep strictly in the cave during 
the day — and no talking allowed. Villagers all fled, so 
cannot get food. Must economise our biscuit and milk. 
A messenger left yesterday to try and get to Pao-ting-fu 
for help — but all seems hopeless, as our cave is known to 
at least one outsider. But God is keeping our hearts 
stayed upon Him — our lives are His. Should we be 
killed, don't forget to recompense the villagers here — 
they have given their all for us. Liu Chia San. 

' Saturday, July 14. — Ink in pen is finished. One 
or two of the villagers came in during the day, saying 
their village is deserted and has been plundered by Fu- 
chia-chuan men, i.e. men from the big village five li 
below them. An offer w^as made later on by two 
of the villagers and an outsider to take us by night to a 
more secluded spot, where there is an old cave. We had 
come to an end of our ordinary rough oatmeal bread, 
and having no prospect of getting any more, we had 
had a special prayer-meeting to ask for food and 
guidance. This cave is horribly damp, and all our 
bedding is sopping wet, and we dare not dry it out in 
the sunshine, as it might be seen from one of the heights 
around — so we should welcome a change. Just after 
the prayer-meeting the three men came and made an 
offer, bringing with them some of the roughest of bread, 

Mr. Dixon's Diary 53 

but it was indeed welcome, and the whole seemed God's 
answer to our prayers. We are to move on Sunday 

^ Sunday, July 15. — A burning hot day. All quiet 
hiding in the cave. Two more villagers came, bringing 
a few very coarse dumplings. It's awfully good of them, ^ ^^ 
as they have nothing themselves. We are much worse' 1 \\ 
off than Mafeking at its worst ; and we have no Baden 
Powell ! Comforted greatly by God ; and by the 
thought of the prayers of the congregations at home. 
At night packed up our wet bedding for removal — 
waited till 1.30 a.m., but no one came. Rain coming on, j 
had to unpack and hide again in the cave. "^ 

^Monday, July 16. — Heavy rain all the morning, 
mountains enveloped in mist. No one been near (2 p.m.). 
How long can we hold out? Only few biscuits, 
sardines, etc., and milk. Sad to see wasting of the ladies' 
faces. Mrs. Dixon almost gone this morning. Cannot 
get any information as to outside events. Villagers 
dare not be seen in any village around. Either gone 
clean away or hiding in the mountains. Two of our 
evangelists turned up on Friday, and one undertook to 
try and carry letter to any Russian or other troops that 
he might find up in the north of Kalgan, or possibly 
Peking. They told us, " Tien-tsin taken by foreign 
troops 20th of 5th moon (June 17), and Peking invested 
but action delayed owing to foreigners being inside the 
city." That is our only news. Surely if Peking be 
taken, relief ought to reach us ere long. Eveiy village 
has its band of Boxers drilling, and our position grows 
more and more desperate, humanly speaking. But God 
is our refuge and strength. 

' Tuesday, July 17. — Last night God sent us more food 
and a man to carry us some water. But they say some 

54 'In Deaths Oft* 

of the villagers, Erh Yu tzu and his brother and Hsia 
Kuei tzu, are plotting to betray us, or to prevent food 
reaching us, so as to starve us to death. Rumours came 
this afternoon of Boxers coming up from T'ai-yuen-fu 
to hunt us to death. We are still in God's hands. 

' Wednesday^ J Illy i8. — Last night heard firing in Ten 
hsi Kou village, just below us, and much shouting. This 
morning at 6.15 a.m. a man from Lui erh Kou came to 
our cave (he is related to An jung ch'ang), and said he 
himself had seen thirty or forty Boxers go past his 
village toward Fu chia chuan last night, and that the 
commotion we heard was caused by them. That at Fu 
chia chuan probably a hundred were gathered. He 
offered to lead us to a cave about a mile away, and just 
above Lui erh Kou. We prayed for guidance, and 
decided to abandon all the bedding we could not carry, 
to bury all milk we could not carry, and after a hurried 
march exposed to view on the mountain-side we have 
arrived at said cave. God knows all about it, and we 
trust Him to save us, but we are willing to die if that be 
God's will. Give the bearer of this book and letters a 
handsome reward, if delivered into the hands of friends. 
Love, warmest love, to our children. 

' Thursday, July 19. — Yesterday found small tunnel 
running from this cave into another small cave, the roof 
of which had fallen badly. By dint of hard work two of 
us levelled the rubbish, and all crept in for the night ; 
very tight quarters, and bedding scarce. A good hiding- 
place ; but a death-trap if betrayed, as a mob could 
smoke us to death. Am staying on until further 
guidance. Last night four people from two villages 
brought us some coarse food in exchange for silver, but 
supply very scanty and unpalatable. They say all roads 
blocked against any supplies being sent to us or bought 

Mr. Dixon's Diary 55 

for us. 'Tis famine time, and local supplies are exhausted ; 
but God has supplied us day by day with something. 
Boxers in villages below been fighting amongst them- 
selves, so the elders have disbanded them. The band of 
Boxers that came through on Tuesday night had been 
pursuing one of our Christians, but failed to overtake 
him. Heavy slaughter amongst the Catholics around 
T'ai-Yuen. Military reported to be coming to block all 
paths whilst Boxers from T'ai-Yuen come in to kill us. 

* Friday, July 20. — A quiet day. Mrs. Dixon very 
ill. Recovered remainder of bedding left in first cave. 
Wednesday night, Mr. Ennals and I went across with 
two Chinese to the first cave and brought back our 
buried stores. At night the man brought some oatmeal 
strings, but wanted silver , silver. 

' Saturday, July 21, 7 a.m. — About 1 1 last night the 
man came with some boiled millet. He said that he had 
seen some thirty or forty Boxers at a village two miles 
away, and at another three Boxers from T'ai-Yuen were 
drilling the people, all bent on finding and attacking us. 
As we do not mean to fight, we can only run for our 
lives, and so had once more to pack up and march by 
night back to our first cave on the other side of the 
watershed. On the march Mrs. Dixon fell three or four 
times from utter exhaustion, and had finally to be carried 
in unconscious. The utter uncertainty of our position 
and lack of all news from the outside makes us dependent 
on mere local rumours brought to us by an opium- 
smoker, as the Christians have all had to run for their 
lives. But we believe God is guarding and guiding us 
day by day. Were it not for this trust in God we should 
be in utter despair. To see the ladies, and especially my 
dear wife in her weakness, have to tramp over these 
rough mountain paths by night, and lie hiding all day 

56 <In Deaths Oft' 

on wet bedding, damp or dusty caves, without proper 
food, and of course without water to wash ourselves, 
makes me think some very bitter thoughts against the 
Governor of the province, who has promoted this terrible 
persecution. But " vengeance is Mine, saith the Lord." 

* Have omitted to say that some four days before we 
left Hsin-chou, the magistrate had definitely refused us 
protection ; this was the consequence of a secret despatch 
received from the Governor on or about June 23 or 24. 
O Lord, may relief come soon ! Chao gone east 
twenty-two days, cook gone east seventeen days, Ho 
gone east ten days, and Wen gone north eight days. 
God grant some of them may have got through the 
Governor's troops, which are guarding the passes into 
Chih-li, so that no news of his doings shall leak out. Our 
love to our children and all friends. 

'Saturday^ July 21, 4 /.;;/. — About 9 a.m. heard 
shouting of " Pastor," " Pastor," then silence ; then saw 
one, two, three, four men on top of mountain evidently 
watching our cave mouth ; this went on till about 2.45 p.m., 
when suddenly an attack was commenced by men over 
the cave hurling immense stones at the small mouth of 
the cave. After a few moments of this, fearing we should 
be blocked in, McCurrach and I dashed out, and amid a 
hail of huge stones commenced firing with a revolver and 
a gun at the more prominent leaders. One man with a 
yellow cap was most persistent, so I gave him a charge 
of No. 1 shot, and then they began to run up the hill, 
the wounded man rolling over and over down the hill- 
side into the gully below us. Then gradually the crowd 
streamed away over the ridge down to a village below, 
and left us the field. On examining the ridge above the 
cave where they had first gathered, we found one of our 
Hsin-chou Church members with a terrible gash in his 

We are at our Wit's End ' 


head and his throat cut. It was evident he had been 
dead some hours, and as his hands were bound behind 
him with a leading rope, it is evident they had caught him 
on the mountains and had led him captive to see the 
attack, and that the dear fellow had shouted to warn us, 
and had been killed on the spot. 

' That warning probably saved us. The wounded man 
had only a scalp wound, and will, I trust, soon be able to 
go off, as we have no means of dressing him here. He 
seems to be a captain of Boxers. 

' May God guide our steps, for we are at our wits' end. 
Thank Him for the nerve He gave us men (Mr. Under- 
wood fired his revolver, Mr. Ennals has none), and also 
for His grace to the women, who joined in prayer while 
we went out. Thank Him above all that we drove 
them off without killing any of them. They numbered 
probably fifty to sixty. We may not live to add more . 
to this account. But we are still in God's hands, and 
hoping for possible rescue. Our warmest love to our 
children and to their guardians. 

*9 /.;;/. — Our wounded prisoner says the band came 
from Hsin-chou south suburb, sent by Yang lao yeh, 
who is attached to Hsii-Kuei-feng, the newly arrived 
magistrate, with instructions to kill us all. He after said 
that Hsli-kuei-feng himself sent them. The prisoner's 
name is Chang-yui-hsiang, of south suburb. Their 
leader's name is Chang Hsien, of south suburb. The 
man they killed was Chang Chih Kuo of Hsia-ho-pien. 
They killed him simply because he was a Christian.' 

With this entry the diary abruptly ends, and the 
remainder of the terrible story is given in the description 
at the beginning of this chapter. 



From the last letters which Mr. McCurrach wrote to 

58 *In Deaths Oft' 

his mother, we take the following extract. The first is 
dated July 3, 1900 : — 

' We are now in very great danger of losing our lives. 
Our present Governor hates foreigners, and his desire is 
to murder all of us. He has sent word to all the officials 
to refuse us foreigners protection, in event of trouble. 

' We had hoped to flee the country by North Man- 
churia, but alas ! persecution broke out in the north 
before it did in our district, and as there is fighting at 
Pao Fu, there is absolutely no means of escape. We 
stayed at home until Friday night. June 29, about 6 
o'clock, our special messenger ran all night to inform us 
that the T'ai-yueu-fu missionaries had been attacked, 
and Dr. Edwards's premises burned to the ground. We, 
on hearing this news by our postman, all decided to flee 
to the hills. 

' This is a sad time for China. If all missionaries are 
murdered, it will move the Church in a remarkable way. 
If it is God's way of evangelising China, then surely we 
ought to be ready to die for the Gospel's sake. None 
of us want to die, but we all want to say, " Thy will be 
done." We have been here for four days ; we hear that 
the soldiers are out seeking for us ; if that be so, we may 
be caught at any moment. We have had a lot of rain, 
and this may be God's way of saving us. He delivered 
Peter from the prison, and can deliver us, if it be His 
will. It is very dark. I can't say more. Miss Renaut 
and Mr. Ennals are writing a fuller account of affairs, 
and we are leaving this with the' natives to be buried, 
until another missionary comes to whom it can be 

' It may be my last message to you all. Clara and 
I have been praying for you all one by one. I want to 
meet you all in heaven. Sorrow not for us, dearest 

Mr. McCurrach's Letters 59 

mother. If we die, I trust it is together, and then we 
shall enter heaven together and together receive our 

' Wednesday night. — Messenger to-day from T'ai- 
yuen-fu. Mr. Farthing and twenty-five more are prisoners 
in T'ai-yuen-fu awaiting their death. Governor sentenced 
them to death. Thus far they are not killed ; we hope and 
pray for deliverance. God keeps us happy and cheerful, 
and we are ready to die if it be His will. If we hear of 
soldiers coming, we are going to do a bolt to another 


' Men are busy digging a cave. We are justified in 
fleeing, since our Saviour said, " If they persecute you in 
one city, flee to another." May God deliver and save us 
and all our friends 1 May He comfort your hearts, is the 
prayer of your loving son and daughter.' 

The second letter is dated Friday, July 13, 1900:— 
' Our place of hiding is known to some, but it is our 
last hope. Yesterday we learned that all missionaries, 
ladies, and children at T'ai-yuen-fu were beheaded, 
twenty-six in all, besides Frenchmen. This is sad, sad 
news; our hope has practically almost gone. This is 
a most awful wave of persecution that has broken out. 
May God help the natives ! One of my evangelists, the 
Fan Shih man, and an enquirer, were burned to death. 
We hear of other murders too. This must be God's 
way of purifying the Church and making sure of its 
final success. We have some provisions which can keep 
body and soul together for a few days, if we are spared 
so long. My heart goes out to you, knowing how 
terribly you will feel for us. May God comfort you, and 
if I go before you all, then I will await your arrival. I 
could write on, but my heart is too full. I have given 
the main points, and now I can only say— Good-bye, 

6o 'In Deaths Oft' 

God bless you all, and keep you in safety and comfort 
and happiness.' 

' Mr. Ennals also kept a diary during the fearful days 
of suspense and waiting in the caves near Hsin-chou, the 
city where he had been stationed, and where he spent 
his short life in China. From this document we give 
the following extracts : — 

^ July 4, 1900. — The last two nights three of us men 
have been sleeping in the straw-house where we have our 
meals. To-day three boxes came up from the village 
down below where we stayed to rest on our way up. 
Two contained stores and one clothes. One feels quite 
unable to say much in a letter under these sad circum- 
stances ; we one and all, however, have been wonderfully 
calm, trusting in God. I do not regret I came to China, 
and although my life will have been short, it will in some 
way have fulfilled the Master's will. May the Lord's 
will be done ! I pray earnestly for His deliverance, and 
feel we shall have it, but after all we may glorify Him 
better by passing through a deeper persecution. If we 
flee far into the mountains we can get no food. We 
keep coming back to this, that the Lord is near, and we 
are safe in His keeping. We sent a boy off to Pao- 
ting-fu, or wherever he could find the foreign troops, 
to try and bring us help. We are adding these letters 
to the account in a book which is to be sent home if we 
are all killed. It is dreadful writing like this, but you 
know that if the trumpet call comes, I shall rejoice to 
follow my Lord, not in my strength, but in His who 
giveth strength to the faint. Good-bye, dearest ones ; 
may the Lord take all the future in His hands, and grant 
us all to meet in Jesus' presence. 

'July 6. — There has been trouble at each of our three 

Mr. Ennals' Diary 6i 

north stations, Fan Shih, the mission place, and two 
Christians are burnt, the one being the evangelist. At 
Tai-chou the mission place is burnt, and other members' 
buildings at both these places. At Kuo Hsien the 
mission place has been looted. At Chi ts'un the 
mission place has been looted. At Chao Mon Chung 
one Christian, taken by his heels and dragged round the 
place, was killed. Truly the persecution is dreadful. 
We hear that Tien-tsin is burnt to the ground; and 
Peking, the Chinese have surrounded it. 

' Where is our deliverance coming ? My help cometh 
from the Lord, and truly in Him is our help. We have 
trusted in Him, and not one good thing of all that the 
Lord has promised has ever or can ever fail us. May the 
Lord preserve our friends and us, extending us speedy 
deliverance ; if not, then we shall meet around the throne. 
The Lord watch between us. Mizpah. 

'July 7.— On the night the Tung Chia Hsiang was 
burnt, Mr. Farthing saw the Governor himself, but he 
said he was too busy to attend to that business, and 
when the other four officials went to intercede, he 
cursed them. Yet we trust the Lord will bring the 
devices of the wicked to nought. We rejoice that our 
times are in God's hands. The Lord is my light and 
my salvation ; of whom shall I be afraid ? Trust in the 
Lord at all times. Oh the peace that Jesus gives ! We 
want to know this more and more day by day, that if 
He shall call we shall gladly answer. Here am I, Lord, 
come to do Thy will. To-morrow is Sunday ; may the 
Lord be with you and all of us here, and if we meet no 
more on earth we shall in heaven sing His praises. 

'July 8. — Another day has passed, and we are once 
more drawing near to sunset. Our hearts are full of 
praise to the Lord for all His goodness. We are just 

62 <In Deaths Oft' 

here waiting, waiting on the Lord for deliverance for 
our friends and ourselves if it is His will. 

* These days of quiet have helped us to see the 
Saviour's face, and if He calls us to go, or if during this 
week and other weeks we are to pass through severe 
trials, we trust we may be more prepared. We strive to 
feel at heart " that One above in perfect wisdom, perfect 
love is working for the best." I know this, that I would 
not wish that the Lord should lead us by any other 
path than that which we have come ; and if we are to 
be still more refined for His service, we will praise Him 
that He has accounted us worthy to suffer for His name. 
The Lord be with you all and keep you safe now and 
for ever. " He is our Peace." 

''July 1 8. — I fear this may be my last to you. We 
hear there are a hundred Boxers in the village below, 
came last night, 6 o'clock. We moved to this cave, 
warned by a stranger. " The angel of His presence 
went before them." We are half a mile from other place, 
in large cave and dry. The Lord alone can save us. If 
He wants us to glorify Him by death, think of us as 
wearing the martyr's crown in the Master's presence. 

* We shall see Jesus and walk with Him. The Lord 
bring us all home at last.' 

Miss Renaut's letters from China testify to her 
interest in the work of the station, of her visits to the 
homes of the people in company with Mrs. Dixon, and 
her intense earnestness of desire to be able to speak to 
those around her the words of eternal life. During the 
awful weeks of suspense and weary wandering over hills 
and hiding in dens and caves. Miss Renaut managed to 
keep a diary, which was buried and afterwards recovered. 
From this we take one or two pathetic pages : — 

'^m ?/^ ^d( tmd n^^.^ 
€u p, a Leu a pUd o^'iuJ ^. 

^ /v*v(U« iirios/t 'mA^ "MtH 'J^WiVH, *^6•H«/^^ -uri£^ U? &it 

-S^ 'hMt I •Cjl y^ tCl(J^^ S) im ^rvv^t^ ^ ^***^ ^ ^«*«^ 
OuM iO^ ,AA>t- lUo ^I'VK^. "^ -t^'A-x^ ^ ><4rVU^ ^¥"<^ 
"U^ i/lA^oJi 6 -^L ll/vA iLf^ -^^ 4^A^ ^d*^ -««^ ii^o a-» 

lU^fu^A "hOr.e alL ^lltX /u> Uc -y^ "A^^ur^ £tH*/ "Vu^ C/i^ /:^?w^ 
eM** U cui cJ Joints. *^ 0^^ A^ftv f^j*.^ iW^ fefl4. -WO. •*l«i' 



Miss Renaut*s Diary 63 

^ July 18. — This is our twentieth day. Rescue can 
soon come. God grant it may ! But we have often said 
we would rather walk with God in the dark than alone 
in the light, and now we can prove to God our sincerity. 
He is making us willing. Oh, may He give you all 
grace to say His will is best ! In prayer for you all. 
Love to all dear friends. 

''July 21. — The man who conducted us here came 
last night to tell us that the Boxers were in his village, 
and advised our return to a former one. At 2.45 an 
attack was made from ground above, great stones and 
boulders being hurled in at mouth. The attack was 
sharp and fearful, but, praise God, is over for the present 
— most likely only to be renewed. Alas ! one of our 
native Christians has given his life for his friends. 
Chang Chih Kuo had come to warn us, and was 
captured as he came. They tied his hands behind him 
and battered him about badly and cut the side of his 
throat. He was one of the earliest converts. He is in 
glory. . . . We may be able to thank him in a day or 
two. . . . One of the Boxers was wounded — a real Boxer 
— we are going to wash his wounds. The Christians 
have all fled, so we do not know how news can come. 
Moving seems out of the question. We are praying 
for guidance, and do not expect another attack for a 
day or two. To-day we are sitting out in the valley, 
which after so much close confinement is beautiful, 
but the beauty of it seems mockery — the groans of 
the wounded man, and the great sharp boulders 
lying about, make us lift our hearts to God, and pray. 
Psalm Ixx.' 

Here the record ends. 

When the diary from which all the extracts given 
in this chapter are taken was recovered, the following 

64 'In Deaths Oft' 

touching letter'i was found with it, and forwarded to the 
Secretary of the Baptist Zenana Mission : — 

'J^'iy 13, 1900. 
' Dear Miss Angus, — You will know our circum- 
stances from the diary in which this is enclosed. Give my 
love to the Committee. We have food enough for a few 
days and water for two ; the nearest is a mile of difficult 
climb, but the gentlemen will try for it, if we are left so 
long. We have heard almost certain tidings of the 
execution of all our friends at T'ai-Yuen — all Mrs. 
Farthing's dear children and many others — and they 
were taken to the Yamen under pretence of protection, 
and two days afterwards massacred. Chao Hsien 
Sheng has been gone fifteen days towards the coast 
seeking help, our cook about eight, and to-day another 
evangelist to Kalgan. We are not building on assistance. 
God is helping us. He has given us wonderful strength 
and surefootedness for hard climbing. China's Chris- 
tians are splendid. Lui Chia Shan villagers have risked 
their lives for us, and now have had to flee from their 
village without food and money. All our servants are 
faithful. — XMth love to you all. Yours sincerely, 

' Bessie Renaut.' 


•Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented '^ 

Before the events narrated in the last chapter had 
begun, others of a like nature, in different parts of the 
province of Shan-si, had been perpetrated. 


Hsiao-I-Hsien, a county town about seventy-five 
miles south-west of T'ai-yuen-fu, was the scene of a most 
brutal massacre. It is one of the stations of the China 
Inland Mission in that district, and was occupied at 
the time by Miss Whitchurch and Miss Searell. The 
narrative of the events which happened there is largely 
that of a Chinese Christian teacher, named Wang 
Ying-Kuei, who nearly shared the fate of his foreign 

The first intimation of trouble was the arrival, on 
June 27, 1900, of the letter messenger, who brought 
the news that, on the day previous, the station of Ping 
Yao had been looted, and that Mr. Saunders, who was 
in charge of it, had fled northward towards T'ai-yuen- 
fu. The ladies thereupon sent a messenger to Fen- 
chou-fu, which is about ten miles to the west, asking for 
information. The messenger returned on June 28, 

^ For biographical details of missionaries mentioned in this chapter, 
see pp. 451-478. 

66 * Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

with the news that the missionaries there had also been 
attacked. This news the messenger had carelessly told 
the towns-people, with the result that a great crowd fol- 
lowed the messenger to the door of the mission premises. 
While the ladies were reading the letter which they had 
just received, the Chinese who surrounded them asked 
what it contained. But the ladies would not tell them ; 
they only said, ' Let us have some prayer.' 

While they were praying, the crowd began beating 
the outer door and making a great disturbance. The 
ladies then went to open the door leading on to the 
street, but could not, as the pile of brickbats which had 
been thrown against it prevented them from drawing 
the bolt. They then said, ' We cannot open the door ; 
perhaps this is God's method of protecting us.' Then 
the ladies and the faithful Chinese Christians who were 
with them went to an inner courtyard, and there sang 
some hymns together. The crowd being unable to force 
open the house door, attacked the door of the chapel, 
which was soon burst open. The ladies with some of 
the Chinese then went outside, and Miss Whitchurch 
spoke to the crowd, asking the people what harm they 
had ever done them, and trying to persuade them to 
go away quietly. While she was speaking to them the 
people were very quiet. 

Meanwhile the deacon of the native Church, named 
Heh-siao-fu, having climbed over the back wall, had 
rushed to the Yamen and rung the bell which is kept in 
all Yamens as the signal for help in dire distress. The 
mandarin set out at once, without even waiting to don 
his official robes. On arrival at the chapel, he found 
things fairly quiet, and he turned round and accused 
Deacon Heh of having deceived him. He made him 
kneel before him, and with his own hands he boxed his 

Ladies Murdered while Praying 67 

ears, and his underlings joined in kicking him. The 
mandarin then came into the chapel and asked the ladies 
why they did not go away. They replied that they did 
not wish to go. 

On leaving he told them to shut the chapel door, but 
as it had been broken by the crowd, this was impossible. 
He told the local constable to guard the door, and 
then left. The constable informed the ladies that he 
could not defend the door himself, but if they wished 
he would hire three men to help him, and to this they 
consented. The crowd, however, soon became un- 
manageable again, and the constable and the hired men 
all fled. The rioters then smashed the gate of the 
courtyard leading to the house. The ladies remained 
standing in the chapel, hoping to be able to speak to the 
crowd. The crowd were, however, now in no mood for 
listening to anything they might say. They were soon 
assailed with brickbats, and they then retired to the 
inner courtyard and united in prayer. 

Then the mandarin came again, and said to the ladies, 
* If you do not go, I cannot protect you ' ; and they replied 
' We have nowhere to go to.' ' Well, then,' he said, ' I 
cannot protect you.' The native Christians dared to 
remonstrate with him, but without effect. He forced all 
the Chinese Christians to flee except their cook, named 
Yao, who remained with them to prepare their food. 
That night they were free from molestation, but early 
the following morning, June 29, the crowd reassembled, 
and began at once their cruel work. They forced their 
way into the house where the ladies\vere. They took up 
the ornaments in the room and other things, asked what 
they were, and then flung them violently at the helpless 
women. They were thus slowly battered to death while 
they remained kneeling in prayer. Their bodies were then 

68 ^Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

stripped, exposed, and defiled. All their goods were piled 
in a heap in the courtyard, and gradually disappeared. 

The magistrates sent two cheap coffins, such as are 
supplied to pauper criminals, and their poor battered 
bodies were placed in those, and finally laid in the 
baptistery of the chapel. One of the last undertakings 
of Miss Searell had been to superintend the con- 
struction of this baptistery, which, with her great love 
for flowers, she had bordered with flower-beds. It was 
done all unwittingly ' against their burial.' There these 
two noble women lie * Until He come.' 


Twenty miles south of T'ai-yuen-fu is the county 
town of T'ai Ku. Here were stationed, during the 
summer of 1900, six missionaries of the American Board 
(A.B.C.F.M.) : Rev. Dwight H. Clapp and Mrs. Clapp, 
Rev. Francis W. Davis, Rev. George L. Williams, Miss 
Rowena Bird, and Miss Mary L. Partridge. Although 
two ladies had been murdered on June 29 at Hsiao-I, 
and the larger party massacred at T'ai-yuen-fu on July 9, 
yet no movement or measures of defence seem to have 
been taken by the missionaries at T'ai Ku, except to 
recall Miss Partridge from an out-station. 

The news of these events seems to have reached them, 
and it seems inexplicable that they did not seek safety 
in flight. Some native Christian women had fled to the 
hills, but soon came back, as they could not remain 
away for want of food, and the purchase of a quantity at 
one time excited suspicion. The missionaries evidently 
relied for protection on the local official, who had all 
along proved friendly; but, from a diary kept by Mr. 
Clapp, which has an entry as late as July 16, it 


r 1 





F. \V. DAVIS. 

iTo face p. b%. 

The Murders at T'ai Ku Hsien 69 

seems that then the missionaries had given up all hope 
of being saved, though they appear to have quietly 
carried on their work as far as possible till the very last. 
This they continued till July 31, 1900, when the 
Chinese with them numbered eight, all the others having 
one by one gradually disappeared. These eight nobly 
waited till the end came, and some died in their 

On July 31, about four o'clock in the afternoon, a cry 
was heard of ' Kill, kill ! ' and the yells of the approaching 
mob gradually grew louder. The missionaries and some 
Chinese retired to the flat roof of one of their premises, 
and determined to make a stand. They saw approaching 
a band of some three hundred Boxers and soldiers, 
evidently sent by Yii Hsien to attack them. The 
friendly official had been removed only two days before. 
The mob soon set fire to the buildings facing the street, 
and broke in the front gate of the compound. An elder 
of the native Church, named Liu, and a most valued 
helper, was calmly sitting in a chair in the courtyard, 
when the soldiers set upon him, and killed him. The 
three gentlemen fired on the mob from the roof, and 
killed some of their assailants, but their ammunition 
soon gave out, and they were easily overpowered and 
beheaded. The heads of them all were sent in a basket 
to T'ai-yuen-fu to the Governor. Their bodies were 
thrown into the flames of the burning houses, and were 
speedily reduced to ashes. 

Thus these faithful missionaries, who had evidently 
determined not to forsake their converts in the hour of 
their trial, passed to their reward. 

70 * Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 


Fen-chou-fu is situated fifty miles south-west of T'ai- 
yuen-fu, and about ten miles from Hsiao-I, the station 
where Misses Whitchurch and Searell were murdered. 
The foreign residents in Fen-chou-fu were amongst the 
last objects of Yu Hsien's diabolical designs. The 
prefect and the district magistrates had both been 
friendly to the missionaries, and up to August 13, 1900, 
they had been able to protect them. 

On that day the prefect died, and the Governor sent 
a new man, who was in full sympathy with his murderous 
plans. Two days after his arrival, this man demanded 
of the local magistrate why the foreigners had not been 
driven out, saying that in all other places they had been 
forced to fly for their lives. The magistrate replied 
that these Americans were peaceable and kindly 
disposed people, and that he had no occasion to send 
them away. The prefect insisted that they should go 
within two days, so that the local magistrate had no 
choice but to comply. The prefect then arrested the 
native dispenser at the hospital, and had him beaten 
three hundred blows with a bamboo rod, and sent him 
to fetch all the firearms belonging to the missionaries. 
These were accordingly given up : two pistols and two 
rifles or guns. 

A few days' respite were demanded for Mrs. Atwater, 
who was nearing her confinement, but the prefect insisted 
that they must leave for the coast on the following day. 
Four country carts, roughly made and without springs, 
were prepared, and some of the missionaries' goods were 
packed in them. They were to start on August 15, 
and a guard of twenty soldiers was got ready. As soon 

Broken Promises 71 

as these arrangements had been made, the houses of the 
missionaries were placed under official seal. ^ 

The missionaries requested that they might be 
permitted to sell their houses to secure some money 
for their journey, but the official replied that all their 
property had been confiscated by Imperial decree, and 
so could not be sold, but that a small property belonging 
to the Mission at one of their out-stations might be sold. 
This was accordingly done, and for property worth two 
thousand taels of silver the official gave them one 
hundred and fifty taels. ^ . , t 1 

One of the native assistants named Mr. Fei, who had 
nobly stood by the missionaries through all this trying 
and perilous time, accompanied them on horseback. 
He was soon, however, obliged to dismount and go on 
the cart. They left the city, in full sight of thousands of 
spectators, on August 1 5, IQOO. The party of foreigners 
consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Atwater and two little girls, 
Celia and Bertha, Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Price and their 
daughter Florence, ■- all of these belonged to the 
American Board Mission ; there were also Mr. and Mrs 
A P Lundgren, of the China Inland Mission, stationed 
at Ku-hui, and Miss Annie Eldred, of the China Inland 
Mission, from P'ing-yang-fu. These friends of the 
CI.M. were staying with the missionaries in Fen- 
chou-fu by invitation. On one cart were Mr. and Mrs. 
Atwater and two children, Mrs. Lundgren, and Mr. Fei ; 
on the second cart were Mr. and Mrs. Price and daughter, 
Miss Eldred, and Mr. Lundgren, with two Chinese 
Christians and the baggage. 

They went together some miles, and as they thought 
they were escaping from death they became quite 
cheerful, one lady saying, ' What a turnout there was 
to escort us!' and another adding, 'What fine new 

72 < Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented* 

uniforms the soldiers wore ! ' and the children were kept 
amused by the Chinese teacher, Mr. Fei. When they 
had nearly reached K'ai-chih, a market town thirty-seven 
miles north-east of Fen-chou-fu on the way to Tien-tsin, 
one of the soldiers said to Mr. Fei, * Escape for your 
life ! We are about to kill the foreigners.' On this he 
fled, and finally escaped to tell, with intense feeling and 
vivid minuteness of detail, all that befell those whom he 
loved so well, and from whom he had found it so hard 
to part. 

Just as the doomed party were entering the village, 
they were met by an official named Lu, and on his 
firing a shot as a signal, his attendants and the soldiers 
set upon the helpless missionaries and despatched them 
with their swords and bayonets, then stripped them of 
their clothing, and left their bodies by the roadside. 
Finally, at the instigation of the villagers, the bodies 
were buried by the soldiers in a pit near by. 

Mrs. Atwater, during that awful month of suspense 
before the end came, wrote to her family thus : — 

' We have tried to get away to the hills, but the plans 
do not work. Our things are being stolen right and 
left, for the people know we are condemned. Why our 
lives have been spared we cannot tell. . . . Dear ones, 
I long for a sight of your dear faces, but I fear we shall 
not meet on earth. I have loved you so much, and 
know you will not forget the one who lies in China. . . . 
I am preparing for the end very quietly and calmly. 
The Lord is wonderfully near, and He will not fail me. 
I was very restless and excited while there seemed a 
chance of life, but God has taken away that feeling, and 
now I just pray for grace to meet the terrible end 
bravely. The pain will soon be over, and oh! the 
sweetness of the welcome above. ... I do not regret 
coming to China, but I am sorry I have done so little. 

Yo-Yang and Ho-tsin 73 

My married life, ten precious years, has been so very 
full of happiness. We will die together, my dear 
husband and I. I used to dread separation. If we 
escape now, it will be a miracle. I send my love to you 
all, and the dear friends who remember me. — Your loving 
sister, * LiZZlE.' 

This letter was written on August 3, just twelve 
days before the end. Thus the whole family, includ- 
ing four children, perished : Ernestine and Mary in the 
massacre at T'ai-yuen-fu, and the two youngest, Bertha 
and Celia, in the party from Fen-chou-fu. 


Time and space would fail to recount all the tales 
of martyrdom and perilous adventures in escaping for 
their lives which befell missionaries in various parts of 
China. But an endeavour must be made to commem- 
orate the other martyrs who fell during the troubles 
of the year 1900. 

Mr. David Barratt, one of the missionaries of the 
China Inland Mission connected with Yo-yang station, 
near Lu-ch'eng - fu, Shan - si, died of sickness and 
privation at T'ang-ch'eng. He was a bright, active 
Christian from Australia, full of enthusiasm for the 
work, earnest and eager in preaching the word of life. 
He had the opportunity to do this for only about 
two years before his death. He reached his station 
in December 1898. Mr. Alfred Woodroffe was Mr. 
Barratt's colleague in Yo-yang. He also died of 
privation and suffering amongst the mountains of 
Shan-si. He had only joined the Mission in 1897, and 
had been trained for three years by Dr. Guinness, 
at Harley and Cliff Colleges. By his death at the 

74 ' Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented ' 

early age of twenty-eight a promising career was cut 

A party from Ho-tsin, in South Shan-si, near the 
borders of Shen-si, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. M'Connell 
and child, Mr. and Mrs. J. Young, with Miss E. Burton 
and Miss A. King, were all barbarously murdered by 
a band of soldiers at Tseng-kia-uan, a ferry on the 
Yellow River, on July i6, 1900. They supposed the 
soldiers had come to escort them, but they had been 
sent expressly to murder the party. This company 
consisted of the missionary workers whose records are 
given below. 

Mr. George M'Connell came originally from the 
north of Ireland, and was engaged as a home mission- 
ary in Dundee, Scotland, when he offered for work in 
China. He arrived in China in 1890, opened the 
station of Ho-tsin, married Miss Isabella Gray of the 
same Mission in December 1894. Miss Gray came 
from Dundee in 1892. These two had much trial to 
endure ere they attained the martyr's crown. Their 
only remaining child, Kenneth, died with them. 

Mr. John Young came from Glasgow to China in 
1896. He was able to acquire the Chinese language 
so as to speak fluently in a comparatively short time, 
and was settled in Ki-chau, a lonely station in the 
mountains of Shan-si. He married, in 1899, Miss Sarah 
Alice Troyer, who came from Indiana to China in the 
same year as her husband, so that they had little more 
than a year of married life when they left their station 
to join Mr. M'Connell's party, and perished with them. 

Miss Annie King, who came from Chesterfield to 
China in 1898, Miss Burton and Miss Elizabeth Burton 
were murdered at the same time. All three were 
workers of promise. 





iTofacep. 74- 

K*u-wu and Ta-ning 75 

V. k'u-\vu 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Kay, with their daughter Jennie, 
left their station of K'u-wu, near P'ing-yang-fu, South 
Shan-si, in company with Mr. Graham M'Kie, Miss 
Chapman, and Miss Way, on July 4, 1900. The three 
latter, having by agreement separated from Mr. and 
Mrs. Kay, were finally rescued. Mr. and Mrs. Kay, 
after escaping to the mountains and wandering about 
for nearly two months, were murdered by a band of 
Boxers on August 30, 1900. They left three children, 
who were being educated in the China Inland Mission 
school in Chefoo. Mr. Duncan Kay and his wife were 
esteemed as amongst the best workers in the Mission ; 
both were exceptionally good speakers of the Chinese 
language. Mr. Kay had been sent from the Yang-tze 
valley owing to ill-health. As an evangelist and as a 
teacher he stood high, and as an eager, anxious worker 
for Christ he had few equals. He joined. the Mission in 
1884, and was thus an experienced worker. Mrs. Kay 
was as successful amongst the women and girls as her 
husband was amongst the men and boys in the land 
of their adoption. 


Miss F. E. Nathan, Miss M. R. Nathan, and Miss M. 
Heaysman were working together in the station of 
Ta-ning, in Shan-si, near the Yellow River, on the 
borders of Shen-si. These three appear to have been 
murdered at that place, along with the faithful Christian 
natives, on August 13, 1900. They had, like others, 
wandered about amongst the hills, being sheltered by 
native Christians. They finally took refuge in a cave, but 

"j^i ^Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

were discovered, brought back to Ta-ning, and murdered 
outside the west gate of that city. 

Miss F. E. Nathan sailed for China in September 
1894, and, after some time passed in study at Yang-chau, 
she took up work in Ta-ning in 1896. She had the 
work amongst the women much at heart, and was a 
devout and earnest worker. Miss M. R. Nathan joined 
her sister in Ta-ning in 1899. She had had a good 
school and college education, and was successful as 
a teacher before leaving for China. She was studying 
the Chinese language, and helping as far as possible 
in the work, when called upon to lay down her life. 

Miss Mary Heaysman went with her parents to 
Australia when she was ten years of age. When 
twenty years of age, after some preliminary training 
at Hope College, Adelaide, she sailed for China in 1897. 
She worked for some time with Miss Chapman at 
I-ch'eng, under Mr. Duncan Kay's direction, and just 
before the outbreak of the troubles had been sent 
to join the Misses Nathan at Ta-ning. Her last letter 
to her home friends was headed, ' There shall be showers 
of blessing.' 


Mr. and Mrs. Peat and two children, along with Miss 
Dobson and Miss Hurn, were murdered by Boxers 
from K'u-wu at Liang-shi-kia Memorial Arch, in the 
Ai-keo Mountains. This party had come from their 
station of Si-chau, near Ta-ning, in South Shan-si, and 
were murdered about the same time as Mr. and Mrs. 
Kay. They had been wandering about amongst the 
mountains for some weeks before they were found and 

Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Peat were both from Scotland : 

Ta-tung-fu Murders 77 

Mr. Peat from Hamilton, Mrs. Peat, whose maiden 
name was Helen Mackenzie, from Oidiquhiil, Banffshire. 
Mr. Peat, who was formerly engaged in an architect's 
office, joined the China Inland Mission in 1887. His 
station was originally P'ing-yao, but after his marriage 
in 1 89 1 he was stationed at Si-chau. Mrs. Peat, before 
coming to China, had been an earnest worker in con- 
nection with the Carrubbers Close Mission in Edin- 
burgh. She had worked in Gan-ren, in Kiang-si, for 
about a year before she married Mr. Peat, and then 
went to Shan-si. ' She loved the Chinese, and was full 
of enthusiasm, tact, and common sense.' Their two 
children, Margaretta, aged seven years, and Mary, three 
years, were with their parents at the time of their death, 
and suffered the same fate. 

Miss Edith L. Dobson was trained as a hospital nurse 
before coming to China, where she arrived in 1894, 
spending two years in the Sanatorium at Chefoo as 
nurse and assistant to Dr. Douthwaite. She joined the 
Si-chau Mission station in 1896, and her services were 
much valued, both as worker amongst the Chinese, and 
as a nurse to her fellow-missionaries when sick. Miss 
Emma Georgina Hurn had only arrived in China in 
1898, and was thus a little more than two years a 
worker in that land. She was born in Peckham Rye, 
London, in 1868; converted in 1890; and had been 
a valued worker in connection with the Y.W.C.A. 
movement before coming to China. Her life in China 
was marked by a prayerful and earnest spirit. 


On June 14, 1900, the Boxer movement made its 
first appearance in Ta-tung-fu, in North Shan-si. Here 

yS * Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

were stationed : Mr. and Mrs. C. S. I' Anson and three 
children ; Mr. and Mrs. Stewart M'Kee and two 
children ; Miss M. Aspden, and Miss M. E. Smith — all 
of the China Inland Mission. 

On June 24 the crowd assembled and burst into 
the mission compound, Mr. and Mrs. M'Kee and their 
daughter Alice, with Miss Aspden and Miss Smith, 
having barely time to escape. A number of the crowd 
rushed after them, and threw stones. Mr. M'Kee fell 
stunned with a wound in his head, and Mrs. M'Kee 
had her ankle injured and fell insensible, and they were 
left for dead. Recovering, they took refuge in a shop, 
and finally gained the Yamen. Mr. and Mrs. I'Anson 
and children, living in another compound, had also fled 
to the Yamen, where they were kindly received. The 
Hsien magistrate did his best to protect them, and for 
a few days they remained in his Yamen. On June 27 
they were taken back to Mr. M'Kee's house, and given 
a guard of fifty soldiers to protect them. 

On the evening of June 30, Mrs. M'Kee gave birth to 
a son. The guard of soldiers were gradually withdrawn, 
till on July 12 only two remained. The same evening 
a minor official called, and advised them all not to leave 
the house nor let any one of their converts come near 
them. An hour later, the crowd burst in upon them. 
The house was surrounded by three hundred horse and 
foot soldiers, so that there was no chance of escape, 
while the Boxers did their fiendish work. 

Mr. M'Kee and Mr. I'Anson were killed first, and 
then the women and children. Alice M'Kee hid in the 
cow-house, but was discovered, and thrown into the 
flames of the burning houses. In all, about one hundred 
persons, including Catholic and Protestant missionaries 
and Christian natives, were killed in Tatung. 




[To face p. 78.. 

The So-ping-fu Murders 79 


Ten associate members of the China Inland Mission, 
belonging to the Swedish Holiness Union, were 
murdered in June 1900, near So-ping-fu, in North 
Shan-si With them also were Mr. and Mrs. O. Forsberg 
and their child, and Mr. and Mrs. C. Blomberg and a 
child. These all belonged to the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance Mission, and came from the neighbouring 
stations of H'un-yun and Tso-yun, also in the provmce 
of Shan-si. The ten members of the Swedish Holmess 
Union were: Mr. N. Carlsson, Mr. and Mrs. S. A. 
Persson, Mr. G. E. Karlberg, Mr. O. A. L. Larsson, Mr. 
E. Petterson, Miss M. Hedlund, Miss A. Johansson, 
Miss J. Lundell, and Miss J. Engvall. 

A conference of the missionaries of the Swedish 
Holiness Union had been arranged for June 24 at So- 
ping-fu, this being the day upon which the Convention 
of the mother Church in Sweden fell. The Boxer 
troubles had been so serious in the neighbouring stations 
that the missionaries decided to go to Kalgan, and 
escape northwards if possible. But before they could 
get away the mob burst in upon them, and they 
hurriedly escaped to the Yamen, where the official was 
friendly. The mob burned the mission premises on 
June 26, and went to the Yamen, and insisted on the 
missionaries being delivered to them to be killed. The 
magistrate, in order to pacify them, told the mob that 
he had orders to send the missionaries bound to Peking, 
and in order to give colour to his statement had five 
of the party put into fetters, and this seemed to satisfy 
the mob for the time being. Early on the morning 
of June 27, they were taken outside the city in carts, 
where, however, the crowd was waiting for them. 

8o * Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented* 

and they were immediately torn from the carts and 
stoned to death ; the child of Mr. and Mrs. Forsberg 
was, indeed, torn asunder by the violence of the mob. 
Messrs. Carlsson and Persson managed to flee, but 
were pursued, overtaken, and killed. The corpses of 
these two were burned, but all the others were buried 
in a field close by, their heads having been previously 
cut off and hung up on the city wall. H'un-yun and 
Tso-yiin were looted and afterwards destroyed by fire. 


The Scandinavian Alliance Mission of Chicago 
established a mission for work amongst the Mongols in 
1896. The members of the Mission were: Mr. D. W. 
Stenberg, Mr. C. J. Suber, Mr. N. J. Friedstrom, Miss 
Clara Anderson, Miss Hilda Anderson, and Miss Hanna 
Lund. These workers were most earnest in the 
prosecution of the rough pioneering work they had 
undertaken. For the greater part of the year, and 
sometimes for the whole year, they lived in tents in the 
open plains of Mongolia, living on native food, and 
without a settled home. After several years of this life, 
they had purchased, with funds specially contributed in 
the United States, a large tract of land in Mongolia, 
and were founding a farm colony. It had seemed to 
these workers impossible to accomplish anything except 
by settled work. It was hoped that some of the 
Mongols would be induced to settle at least for a time, 
and place themselves under Christian instruction; at 
any rate the colony would have furnished a base for 
wider operations, and its working provide an object 
lesson of great value in such a country. 

In May 1900, Mr. Stenberg wrote: — 

Murders at Dallat Hosso 8i 

' The ladies have just been out on a seven weeks' 
journey; it is hot now, and difficult to travel. They 
were, although tired and worn out by the journey, glad 
to have performed it, and felt confident of the future. 
They are living in tents, which is not convenient, being 
hot in summer and cold in winter, and easily overturned 
by the strong winds. At present we have to bear with 
very evil reports : " Any one who eats or drinks with us 
will die." " Any one who believes our doctrine will lose 
his soul, and any one who follows us will be snatched 
away to some foreign country." The fight is severe. 
We expect a breaking out . . . but we know God is on 
our side, and after this hour of darkness shall dawn the 
day of salvation for the Mongols.' 

The whole band, except Mr. Friedstrom, were 
murdered by Boxers, Mr. Stenberg and the three ladies 
on September i, 1900, and Mr. Suber ten or twelve 
days later. Mr. Friedstrom escaped. He was followed 
by the Boxers, but he was able to frighten them off by 
firing a gun which he carried. He fired into the air, and 
did not kill any one. This party were murdered at 
Dallat Hosso, in the Ortos district, near the Yellow 

Mr. C. J. Suber was born in Sweden in 1872. He 
graduated from the Chicago Theological Seminary in 
1896, and went to Mongolia as a missionary in the same 
year. Mr. D. W. Stenberg was born in Jonkoping, 
Sweden, in 1872. He went to America and studied 
in the Chicago Theological Seminary. He went to 
Mongolia with the party in 1896, and became their 
leader. One said of him, ' There is nothing bad about 
him, he is pure gold.' He was a favourite with all. 
Early in 1898, Mr. Friedstrom, Miss Hilda and Miss 
Clara Anderson and Miss Hanna Lund arrived in 

82 ^Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

Mongolia from the United States. One who knew 
them says, * There could not be found any braver souls ; 
they were fully consecrated to the Lord's service.' 


was established under the presidency of Prince 
Eernadotte of Sweden in 1899. Mr. and Mrs. Helleberg, 
who formerly belonged to the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance, having returned to Sweden because of 
financial difficulties, were chosen to become the leaders 
in this new work. They came back to China, accom- 
panied by Mr. Wahlstedt, in the autumn of 1899, full 
of bright hopes for the future. They first settled in 
Kalgan, and devoted themselves to the study of the 
Mongolian language. When the Boxer troubles began, 
they were on a visit to the Swedish missionaries in 
Kuei-hua-ch'eng, in Shan-si. Mr. and Mrs. Helleberg 
and Mr. Wahlstedt managed to escape to Ta-shih-t'ai, 
two hundred miles north-west of Kuei-hua-ch'eng, where, 
however, they were ruthlessly murdered by Manchu 


This organisation has its headquarters in New York. 
They began work in China in 1893. In 1900, they had 
a total force of thirty-eight missionaries connected with 
their China work, counting those who were on furlough 
in the United States at that time. Of this number, 
twenty-one fell during the Boxer troubles, besides 
fourteen children. Two families have already been 
mentioned as having fallen with the others at So-p'ing- 
fu, namely, Mr. and Mrs. O. Forsberg and one child, and 

Hardships at Kuei-hua-ch*eng 83 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Blomberg and one child. The re- 
mainder were: Mr. and Mrs. Emil Olson and three 
children ; Mr. and Mrs. C. Noven and two children ; 
]\Ir. and Mrs. E. Anderson and two children ; Mr. and 
Mrs. O. Bingmark and two children ; Mr. and Mrs. 
M. Nystrom and one child; Mr. and Mrs. C. L. 
Lundberg and two children ; Miss K. Hall, Miss K. 
Orn, Miss A. Gustasson, Miss Emelie Erickson, and Mr. 
A. E. Palm, — in all seventeen adults and twelve children. 

The headquarters of the work in Mongolia were at 
Kuei-hua-ch'eng, in Shan-si, outside the Great Wall. 
Their work was in the towns and villages of the neighbour- 
hood, and amongst the Chinese who had settled in the 
great plains of Mongolia. They were under the direction 
of Mr. Emil Olson, as superintendent, helped by his 
faithful wife, who is described ' as a tower of strength in 
every time of perplexity or trial.' 

Mr. C. L. Lundberg, in a letter dated August 16, 
1900, describes some of the sufferings which he and his 
companions passed through before the final end, in 
which he himself suffered martyrdom with the last 
survivors of the party. He writes as follows : — 

' In Kuei-hua-ch'eng, where we were stationed, the 
people began to treat us badly, so we left, intending 
to reach Urga and Russia ; but on the second day we 
were at different times and gradually robbed of all we 
possessed. The robbers stripped us even of some of 
the clothes we were wearing, so that we were both 
hungry and cold. In our vicinity lived four Catholic 
priests, who invited us to come to them ; and we went. 
We have now been here eight days, but even here it is 
very dangerous, as Boxers and soldiers intend coming to 
destroy it. All stations we know of belonging to our 
Mission are destroyed, but of the missionaries we 

84 ^Destitute, Afflicted, Tormented' 

know nothing. Those of us here are Mr. and Mrs. E. 
Olson and three children, Mr. and Mrs. E. Anderson 
with two children, one only a few days old, Miss Emelie 
Erickson, myself and wife and two children. Our way 
to the coast is cut off. If we are not able to escape, tell 
all our friends we live and die for the Lord. ... I do 
not regret coming to China ; the Lord has called me, and 
His grace is sufficient. The way He chooses is best for 
me. May His will be done. Excuse my wTiting ; my 
hand is shivering.' 

August 22 he writes : ' The soldiers have arrived, and 
will to-day attack our place. The Catholics are prepar- 
ing to defend themselves, but it is vain. We do not like 
to die with weapons in our hands ; if it be the Lord's 
will, let them take our lives.' 

The messenger who brought the letter stated that the 
same day the whole place was burned, and the mission- 
aries all perished. Mr. Olson and Mr. Lundberg indeed 
escaped, but were pursued, caught and beheaded. 


Flight Across the Desert 

After reading the harrowing details of suffering con- 
tained in the preceding chapter, it is a relief to read of 
the escape of a party of missionaries of the American 
Board, who, with ten Swedish missionaries, finally suc- 
ceeded in crossing the Desert of Gobi, and found safety 
in Russia. The account here given is taken from the 
London Daily News of September 25, 1900. It runs 
as follows : — 

' A party of American missionaries who escaped 
from the Boxers near the Great Wall in June last have 
just reached England, via Siberia, after a long and 
painful flight through the Gobi Desert. The refugees, 
who are now in good health, belong to the American 
Board Mission, and one of the number, the Rev. Mark 
Williams, has worked in China for thirty-four years. 
The remainder are : Rev. W. P. and Mrs. Sprague, Rev. 
J. H. Roberts, and Miss V. C. Murdock, M.D. To 
Reuter's representative the Rev. Mark Williams gave 
the following account of the experiences of the party : — 

*"0n May 25," he said, "I went down to Tung- 
chow, near Peking, from the Great Wall to attend a 
Conference of the American Board, and then heard of 
the murder of native Christians. Following on these 
reports came news of the Boxer attacks on the railway, 

86 Flight Across the Desert 

and of the murder of two S.P.G. missionaries. On 
June 5, Rev. J, H. Roberts and I proceeded to Peking, 
and on our arrival in the capital rumours were current 
of a massacre at Pao-ting-fu. The following day, 
accompanied by Miss Murdock, M.D., we set out to 
return to our station at Kalgan, on the Great Wall, one 
hundred and forty miles distant On nearing our 
residence, we were astonished to see hundreds of people 
collected round our buildings. Though shouting loudly 
and hissing vigorously, they allowed us to pass into our 
compound. Once inside our house, we held a hasty 
conference to decide upon our future action, and resolved 
to remain until matters became more threatening. As 
soon as darkness set in, we heard a great din, and 
crowds of people came to the gate, shouting and yelling, 
and endeavoured to batter it down with stones. Mr. 
Sprague, Mr. Roberts, and myself hastily seized our guns 
in readiness to fire if the gate were broken open. We 
discharged a few shots in the air, and warned the crowd 
that if they did not disperse we should fire upon them. 

' " Later in the evening the mob cleared, but we now 
saw that it would be useless to remain. At midnight 
we sent the girls of our boarding school off to a Christian 
near by for safety, and we decided to put ourselves in 
the hands of the magistrate of the city. We hurriedly 
collected a few necessaries, and at three in the morning 
locked up the station and started for the Yamen, two 
miles distant. After some delay we were admitted. 
The same afternoon, the magistrate informed us that we 
must leave immediately, as he had just received a wire 
from Peking that our premises at T'ung-chou had been 
destroyed, that many Christians had been murdered, 
and that the missionaries were being escorted to the 
capital by American soldiers. The magistrate advised 

Narrow Escapes from Death Sy 

us to go to an inn, but we knew that this would not be 
safe, so, after allowing us to draw our riches from the 
native bank, he sent fifty soldiers to escort us out of the 
great gate into Mongolia. He feared not only for us 
but also for his own Yamen if he sheltered us. At this 
time we had no idea of the terrible journey' that awaited 
us — we had no notion of having to escape across 
Siberia ; our only idea was to remain at a place of safety 
and return after the crisis. 

' " At Tautai an old friendly Mongol chief lived, but 
on his advice the party continued the journey, and two 
days later reached Harausa. Here the official was 
unfriendly, and ordered us to leave at once, a Boxer 
army being only ten miles distant. 

'"Fortunately," continued the narrator, "there was 
in readiness a caravan, ordered for Mr. Campbell, the 
British Vice-Consul at Shanghai, in charge of Mr. 
Larson, a Swedish missionary, and we availed ourselves 
of it, and prepared to start for the desert wastes ahead 
of us. On June 23 we started. In addition to our own 
party, we were joined by three Swedish missionary 
families, who had barely escaped with their lives, and a 
few days later we were joined by four other Swedes, 
who had had terrible experiences. A lady member of 
the party had been horribly treated, and she had been 
almost clubbed to death. One of the men missionaries, 
too, presented a frightful spectacle, and was covered 
with blood and dust. Our caravan now included twenty 
camels, nineteen horses, and six camel carts for the 
ladies and children. Our fears on entering the desert 
were not allayed by the threats that we should not be 
allowed to get water from the wells, and at some of the 
places we touched soldiers were sent to draw the water, 
so that we should not poison the wells. For eight days 

8>S Flight Across the Desert 

there was nothing to be seen but sand. We were 
surrounded by it. The heat was intense, and the air 
was like that of an oven. We all suffered greatly, and 
our animals had no grass or water. Day marching was 
impossible, so we ineffectually tried to snatch some 
sleep in the daytime, first of all drawing up our caravan 
in horseshoe formation, and keeping the necessary look- 
out. We were completely isolated, and the telegraph 
wire which crossed the desert had been cut behind us 
by Russian merchants, who, like ourselves, were fugitives, 
with a view to prevent orders being sent for our pursuit 
by Boxers. 

'"After thirty-eight days of terrible anxiety, we 
arrived at the Mongol city of Urga, on the other side of 
the desert. We presented a sorry spectacle, the want 
of sleep and the mental strain having told heavily on all 
of us. Shortly before our arrival on July 30, we had 
sent messages to the Russian Consul-General at Urga, 
demanding protection. He was most kind and friendly, 
and set aside for our use fourteen rooms of the Consulate. 
Just before we got into Urga we encountered a terrific 
hailstorm with vivid lightning, and every one of us was 
drenched to the skin. We badly needed the rest which 
we thought we should get at Urga, but, to our dismay, 
the Consul-General told us that we must leave at once, 
as there were two thousand Mongol soldiers in the 
neighbourhood, who might be hostile. He added that 
he was himself expecting a reinforcement of three 
hundred and fifty Cossacks from Kiakhta. He warned 
us that tens of thousands of Mongols were gathering for 
a religious festival, and that if we valued our safety we 
had better clear out without delay. So after three days 
we again resumed our weary progress, now aware of the 
fact that we should not be safe until we reached the 

In Safety at Kiakhta 89 

Russian frontier town of Kiakhta. The second day out 
of Urga we passed the force of Cossacks the Consul- 
General had spoken of, and cheered them heartily. We 
were now crossing a forest and mountainous country, 
and every day we were becoming more weary and ill- 
fitted to travel. 

'"In about a fortnight, on August 13, we reached 
Kiakhta. There we remained until August 27, await- 
ing advices from home. Meanwhile, the American 
Minister at St. Petersburg was arranging with the 
authorities for us to travel without hindrance on the 
Siberian railway. Having sold our caravan, we 
proceeded by tarantass, our object being to reach Lake 
Baikal, and strike the railway at its terminus at Irkutsk. 
We travelled all day over a beautiful country, sometimes 
at an altitude of eight thousand feet, and stopped at the 
Government posthouses at night. On September 2 
we reached Irkutsk, where we joined the train, and 
reached St. Petersburg sixteen days later." ' ^ 

^ For descriptions full of attraction and power of the regions referred to 
in this chapter, see Among the Mongols, by the late James Gilmour. 


The Massacre at Chu-chou-fu 

When the edict of the Empress-Dowager, ordering 
the destruction of all foreigners, was issued in July 
1900, it found its way — as it did to others — to the 
Governor of the province of Chekiang, Liu-shu-T'ang 
by name. He hesitated at first to issue it, and desired 
to consult the Viceroy at Nanking, Liu-K'un-i, as to his 
proper course ; had he done so, in all human probability 
the events now to be related would not have occurred, 
as it is well known that H. E. Liu-K'un-i had the 
courage to withhold the edict from circulation. Un- 
fortunately, the Governor of Chekiang was prevailed 
upon by the provincial judge, Yung Chuan, a Manchu, 
to publish this most monstrous edict ; and although he 
did not publish it in the usual solemn manner, and 
withdrew it altogether a few days later, the mischief 
in Chu-chou was irreparably done. 

Owing to the disturbed condition of affairs in the 
north, armed bands of marauders were gathering on the 
borders of the province, and had begun their depreda- 
tions, and, ostensibly for the purpose of protecting the 
city, the gentry and officials decided to raise a local 
band of militiamen. This force soon became a source 
of terror to the peaceably disposed citizens, but most of 
all to the defenceless missionaries of the China Inland 


Murder of a Magistrate 91 

Mission who were stationed there. These were : Mr. 
and Mrs. D. B. Thompson and their two boys, Edwin 
and Sydney, with Miss J. Desmond, Miss Edith S. 
Sherwood, and Miss M. Etta Manchester. 

Notwithstanding the disturbed state of the city and 
the surrounding country, the missionaries decided to 
remain where they were, and they were encouraged to 
do so by the friendly assurances of the county 
magistrate, named Wu. These assurances were given 
in all sincerity, and the consequences to the magistrate 
himself were disastrous, for, incited by the gentry and 
high officials, and by the proclamation made by the 
Viceroy in the name of the Emperor, the brutal 
soldiery, on July 21, 1900, turned upon this magistrate, 
seized him and all his family and servants, dragged 
them into the presence of the prefect and other high 
officials, and there murdered them to the number of 
thirty-one persons ; the unfortunate magistrate's wife 
and grandmother were the only persons who managed 
to escape. 

On the morning of the same day Mr. Thompson's 
house was attacked by a mob, who began looting and 
plundering, and were encouraged to do so by the 
military official who should have protected them. Mr. 
Thompson tried to expostulate with the rioters, but, 
finding all his efforts useless, he and his household made 
their way by desperate efforts to the Taotai's Yamen, 
as being possibly the place where protection might be 
afforded. In this, however, they were cruelly deceived, 
for, having passed the outer gate and getting to the 
second gateway, they found the door closed against 
them, and, on knocking for admittance, were told by an 
attendant, *We cannot be troubled about your affairs 

92 The Massacre at Chu-chou-fu 

Thus, with all their hopes blasted they turned away, 
sick at heart, to face the cruel mob awaiting them. 
These, taking their cue from the officials, at once 
rushed upon Mr. Thompson, dragged him out in the 
street before the Yamen gate, and stabbed him to death 
with knives and tridents, his body being covered with 
wounds. One of the children was then killed in the 
same way, and the mother pleaded in vain for the life of 
her second child. The response of the mob was to dash 
the child on the hard stones, and stab him to death 
before her eyes, and then she herself and Miss Desmond 
were cruelly murdered. The gentry of the city and 
officials who were directly responsible for these dastardly 
outrages then sent public criers through the city, who, 
after beating a gong, gave warning that if any one 
harboured any of the foreigners or native Christians 
they would be killed as well as those found in their 

The residences of Miss Sherwood and Miss Man- 
chester were situated in the north of the city, some 
distance from where the Thompsons resided. It was about 
noon on July 21 when the mob came rushing into the 
compound where these ladies were, and began plunder- 
ing and destroying all they could lay hands on. The 
ladies, in trying to escape, were discovered, and set upon 
by some ruffians and severely wounded, but managed to 
get off with their lives, and found shelter for a time 
within the precincts of the temple of the city god, and 
there they were able to remain until Monday, July 
23. On that day they were discovered, and forced to fly 
from their refuge, and the cry immediately arose, ' Here 
are more foreigners.' 

The crowd rushed upon them from all quarters, pushed 
and dragged them till they arrived near to the Roman 







[To face p. 92. 

Murders at Ch'ang-shan 93 

Catholic chapel, where they were stabbed to death, and 
their dead bodies dragged up and flung into the chapel 

These crimes, black as they are, did not finish the 
ghastly tale of murders in this city and neighbourhood. 
Ch'ang-shan, a city about thirty miles from Chu-chou, 
had within it some other missionaries of the China 
Inland Mission, these were : Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Ward 
and child, and Miss E. A. Thirgood. The neighbour- 
hood of Ch'ang-shan had been very unsettled for 
some time, and the magistrate, fearing for the safety 
of the foreigners, with whom he was on friendly 
terms, advised them to leave, promising an escort 
for their protection. Mr. Ward thought there was 
no necessity for him to leave, but decided to send 
away the ladies and the child, and made arrangements 
for them to start on July 21, promising, if any serious 
danger of an attack on the city occurred, to follow them 
on foot. The ladies and child went by water, and got 
to within ten miles of Chu-chou the same evening, where 
they anchored. An angry red glare in the sky in the 
direction of Ch'ang-shan led them to suppose that the 
rebels had arrived and were burning that city, and they 
therefore got the boatmen to proceed, which they did, 
and arrived at Chu-chou at daybreak on July 22. 

Mrs. Ward, finding that she and her party could not 
enter the city on account of the confusion there, asked 
the boatmen to proceed down the river, but they refused 
unless they were paid two hundred dollars to do so, an 
amount utterly beyond the means of the fugitives. She 
said, however, that the amount would be paid in Hang- 
chou on their arrival there ; the boatmen refused, having 
evidently no intention of proceeding further, and taking 
their effects out of the boat, threw them on the bank, and 

94 The Massacre at Chu-chou-fu 

ordered the ladles and child to land, which they had no 
choice but to do. 

After waiting on the banks some time, a passing 
boatman offered to take them to Hang-chou for thirty- 
dollars, and to this they gladly assented, and began 
placing their goods on board the boat. While this was 
proceeding, however, the brutal soldiery who had lately 
murdered Mr. Thompson's party arrived, and behaved 
in a violent and threatening manner, demanding money. 
Mrs. Ward took off her wedding ring and offered it to 
her assailants, only to have it snatched from her hand 
and dashed in her face, with the words, 'We want 
your life, not your gold rings.' 

Then they stabbed her in the arm, and with a push 
she fell on her side. The crowd then seemed to fade 
from her sight, and all she saw was her babe needing to 
be fed from her breast, and drawing the helpless infant 
to her she pressed it to her bosom. The fiends then 
stabbed mother and child together, and with the next 
blow severed the mother's head from her shoulders, and 
so ended their sufferings together. 

Miss Thirgood seeing all this, knew there was no 
escape for her, and, kneeling in prayer, committed her 
soul to God, and while in this attitude received her death 
wounds, and thus obtained release from her cruel 

While all this was proceeding, six Chinese gunboats 
were lying in full view of what was going on, and with 
soldiers and officers on board whose duty it was to 
uphold law and order; but not a hand or an arm 
was lifted in their defence. 

Mr. Ward remained in Ch'ang-shan till the marauders 
actually entered the city, which they did on July 21, and 
the same night he escaped on foot, attended by a native 

Murders at San-mo-kia 95 

evangelist and a servant. They avoided the main roads, 
fearing to fall into the hands of the banditti, and 
travelled on all night. Nothing unusual happened until 
the following afternoon, when they arrived at a small 
village named San-mo-kia, about five miles out of Chu- 
chou. Here a crowd surrounded them, on the cry 
being raised that * a foreign devil was coming.' One of 
the mob rushed up to Mr. Ward, and asked in insulting 
tones where he was going. He answered, to Chu-chou, 
at which the crowd laughed, and shouted out that ' all 
the foreigners there are killed,' and then surrounded 
them more closely, hemming them so that escape was 
almost impossible. Mr. Ward, however, pushed his way 
to the side of the road, and ran along a field path, but 
found it only led to a pond, and so had to return. The 
crowd then set upon and beat Mr. Ward and his servant 
to death with sticks and clubs, and left the evangelist 
on the ground, also supposing him to be dead. He was 
not, however, even insensible, but saw all that was going 
on, and in the night crawled to a place of safety, and 
afterwards recovered to tell the tale here related. 

Mr. A. Wright, of the China Inland Mission, from 
whose careful and accurate report the foregoing facts 
have been for the most part collected, visited Chu-chou- 
fu some nine months after these events. He received 
a special passport from the Governor of the province, 
through Consul-General Warren, and left Hang-chou 
about the beginning of April 190 1. As he was under 
official protection, each county magistrate through 
whose jurisdiction he passed provided an escort of 
soldiers, and about sixty miles from Chu-chou a native 
gunboat with soldiers on board met and escorted the party 
for the remainder of the journey. About five miles from 
Chu-chou, twenty-two of the principal gentry of the city 

96 The Massacre at Chu-chou-fu 

met Mr. Wright, and with much knocking of heads on the 
ground expressed their sorrow for what had been done in 
their city during the troubles of last year. A mile from 
the city, all the officials made their appearance and joined 
the procession, and brought Mr. Wright with much 
ceremony to a large Yamen especially prepared for his 

In company with the county magistrate, the scenes of 
the massacre were visited, and with his assistance all 
proper respect was shown to the remains of the marytrs. 
It was found, however, that the bodies of three of those 
who were killed were missing. 

The following terms were agreed upon with the Taotai, 
as some reparation for the dastardly deeds of 1900: — 

1. A public monument to the martyrs to be erected 
in a prominent position in the city. 

2. A piece of land in the city to be given free of cost, 
to be used as a cemetery for the burial of those who 
were slain and for others. 

3. When all is ready, the remains of the martyrs are 
to be conveyed to their resting-place in a public manner, 
all the officials and gentry and prominent citizens to 
attend the funeral, and the city to go into mourning 
from three to five days. 

4. A public reception to be given to the missionary 
who will be sent to reside in Chu-chou, the city to be 
draped on his arrival with red-coloured decorations (the 
sign of rejoicing). 

5. Free quarters to be granted to the missionary 
in residence until his own mission premises can be 

These stipulations, of course, in no way affect the 
action of the British Government with regard to the 
responsibility resting upon it to see to the adequate 

Atonement for Murders 


punishment of those who were responsible for the deeds 
done by their authority ; nor is it so regarded. This is 
simply reinstating the mission work carried on in the 
city in a manner which will adequately impress the 
inhabitants with a sense of its importance, and the 
sacredness of the lives of those who were slain at their 
hands, and the necessity of adequately protecting those 
who may go there to carry on the work. 


The Siege in Peking 

The narrative of the siege of the Legations in Peking 
is one of the most marvellous which the annals of war 
have produced. If we look at it from the standpoint 
of the soldier, and consider the overwhelming force of 
the besiegers and the smallness of the numbers and 
resources of the besieged ; the length of time which 
elapsed before the relieving column arrived ; the 
number of non-combatants who required protection, 
and the inadequacy of the supplies of provisions by 
means of which all the besieged had to be sustained 
in life and health ; as also the scarcity of the supplies 
of ammunition necessary for defence : the siege in 
Peking must rank as one of the most extraordinary 
on record. 

From the point of view of the diplomat it is equally 
remarkable. Consider the negotiations carried on before 
and during the siege, and the many times when destruction 
was intended by the Chinese, and as often averted as 
if by accident. For instance, the negotiations which 
resulted in the murder of Baron von Ketteler led to 
a complete change of attitude on the part of the 
Legation authorities, which undoubtedly saved the lives 
of the entire foreign community, as well as those of 
a large number of natives. This change was the 

The Crisis at Peking 99 

decision then arrived at to remain within the Legation 
walls, and to defend themselves there, rather than to 
trust to the promises of protection and safe escort to 
the coast made by the Chinese Government. 

Or we may view it from the standpoint of the 
besieged non-combatant, whether merchant, missionary, 
or one of the staff of the Legations or Customs, or as 
a Chinese Christian. Three thousand souls, including 
the foreigners and natives, had to be supplied with food 
and shelter. If we consider how the supplies were 
obtained, and the needed house accommodation pro- 
vided ; how the non-combatants, foreigners and natives 
alike, were found to be as necessary as the soldier for 
the adequate protection, safety, and comfort of all, — 
we have here the material for one of the most stirring 
incidents in the history of war. 

It is not, however, from any of these standpoints 
exclusively that we here deal with the narrative of the 
siege. It is rather from that of the devout believer in 
Divine Providence, who loves to trace the finger of 
God in the affairs of men. Men, some of whom possibly 
were without thought of God at all, were yet controlled 
and guided by an invisible power outside themselves, 
which, on the one hand, upheld and sustained, and on 
the other, diverted and restrained, we may reverently 
and truthfully say, 

'beyond all knowledge and all thought.' 

The intense anxiety which prevailed throughout 
Christendom concerning the fate of the besieged, and 
the earnest and prevailing prayers of God's people 
throughout the world in their behalf, had a potency 
and an influence on the result 'undreamt of in the 
philosophy' of those who have neither the spiritual 


The Siege in Peking 

eyes to see nor the heart to understand the ways of 
God amongst the children of men. 

The events which led up to the siege in Peking were 
briefly these. The murder of Mr. Brooks, which occurred 
in the province of Shantung, on December 30, 1899, 
though apparently without significance, was the beginning 
of all the disastrous events which followed. Negotiations 
were carried on which resulted in the removal of Yii 
Hsien from the Governorship of Shantung, only, alas ! 
to transfer him, with all the signs of approval of his 
conduct from those in authority in the capital, to the 
province of Shan-si. 

The Boxer Society, under the guidance of Yii Hsien, 
and at the direct instigation of the Empress-Dowager 
and her advisers, spread rapidly from the province of 
Shantung into Chih-li, and as early as March 1900 their 
depredations and violence were causing serious concern 
to the various Legations in Peking. Efforts were made 
to obtain satisfactory edicts for the suppression of these 
anti-foreign societies, but such efforts obtained pnly 
specious promises. Owing to the increase of disturb- 
ances, and the uneasiness they caused, two British war 
vessels, about the end of March, were ordered to 
proceed to Taku. This action produced the issue of 
an edict, apparently satisfactory, but intended only as a 
blind, behind which the schemes of the hostile section 
of the Government could be more fully developed. The 
gunboats were withdrawn, and for a time there was an 
outward calm, which, it was hoped, betokened better 

About the middle of May a rude awakening took 
place from the attitude of false security which had been till 
then indulged in. The destruction of three villages near 
Pao-ting-fu, and the murder of sixty-one Catholic 

Murders in Peking loi 

Christians, was the beginning of a long series of outrages 
which terminated in the attempted destruction of all 
the foreigners in Peking. 

On May 28, the news reached Peking of the burning 
by the Boxers of the station at Feng-t'ai, on the Peking 
and Tien-tsin railway, and the flight of the Belgian 
engineers working on the line, nine of whom were 
killed. On May 31, the guards for the various Legations 
arrived in Peking. They numbered three hundred and 
forty marines, drawn from the various war vessels which 
at that time had arrived at Taku, or were anchored at 
the bar outside that port. Later, these were increased by 
eighty-five German and Austrian sailors, making a total 
of four hundred and twenty-five men of all nationalities 
sent for the defence of their representatives in the capital. 

On June 4, the day after the last of the troops had 
arrived, the connection between Peking and Tien-tsin by 
rail was destroyed. On June 8, Chinese troops, under 
the command of General Tung-fu-hsiang, began pouring 
into Peking, and Boxers followed soon after, and burn- 
ing, looting of property, and even murder became 
common. On June 9 the grand stand at the race- 
course, six miles from Peking, was destroyed by fire. 
On June 11, Mr. Sugiyama, the Japanese Secretary of 
Legation, was killed by Tartar cavalry, near one of the 
gates of Peking; and on June 13 many of the Chinese 
Christians in Peking, and native servants in the employ 
of foreigners, were murdered. 

On June 17, after six hours' engagement, the forts at 
Taku were stormed and taken from the Chinese by the 
allied fleets. Seven days previously. Admiral Seymour's 
force had left Tien-tsin with the intention of relieving 
Peking, but were eventually obliged to turn back to 
prevent being cut off from their base, and only managed 

I02 The Siege in Peking 

to make good their escape after severe fighting and 
much loss of life. On June 19 the news of the taking 
of the forts at Taku reached the Chinese authorities at 
Peking, and the Tsung-li Yamen immediately sent word 
to the Legations that all foreigners must leave the city 
within twenty-four hours. At a meeting of the chiefs 
of the Legations, it was decided by a majority to leave 
the city the next day, and all the foreigners in Peking 
got notice to that effect. 

At about eight o'clock on the morning of June 20, 
Baron von Ketteler, the head of the German Legation, 
with his secretary, Mr. Cordes, left his headquarters to 
interview the Chinese authorities at the Tsung-li Yamen. 
They took with them an interpreter and some German 
marines. When the party arrived at the Chinese out- 
posts placed opposite the Austrian Legation, a number 
of Chinese soldiers came forward and offered to escort 
the German Minister wherever he might wish to go. 
The Baron thereupon ordered his own escort to return, 
and went forward, accompanied by Mr. Cordes, towards 
the Tsung-li Yamen with the Chinese troops. They 
were nearing the Yamen, when suddenly Mr. Cordes, 
who was in the rear, saw a Chinese soldier take deliberate 
aim and fire at Baron von Ketteler from behind. The 
Baron fell forward, and was soon despatched, and Mr. 
Cordes, who was immediately afterwards attacked and 
severely wounded, managed to crawl towards a mission- 
ary compound in the neighbourhood, and was there 
rescued and succoured. As soon as these dastardly 
deeds became known, all the foreigners living in Peking 
with one consent began to pour into the British Legation 
for protection, and at four o'clock the same day the siege 
commenced which was to last till August 14, a period 
of nearly two months. 

Plot to destroy Foreigners 103 

We may here pause to review the events, which show 
how marked was the intervention of Providence in 
preserving the Hves of the foreigners living in Peking at 
that time. It is now well known that it was the in- 
tention of the Empress-Dowager and her advisers to 
annihilate the foreigners and to destroy all their works. 
A day had been fixed in which, all over the empire, 
there was to be a simultaneous rising against and 
massacre of all who were not Chinese, and also of 
all those Chinese who had adopted the religion of the 
hated foreigner or any of his ways. Risings, however, 
took place before the full arrangements had been made. 
These forced the hands of the authorities, and made 
concerted action impossible. 

Again, patriotic and far-seeing statesmen, like the two 
great Viceroys on the Yang-tze, Liu-K'un-i and Chang 
Chih Tung, and the Governor of Shantung, Yuan Shih 
K'ai, refused to execute the orders they received for the 
extermination of foreigners within their jurisdiction. 
Owing to these brave men, who thus risked their own 
lives and others, the lives of multitudes of helpless and 
unsuspecting foreigners were saved. 

The Legations in Peking were entirely in the dark 
regarding these deadly intentions of the Chinese Govern- 
ment. No one suspected for a moment that the 
authorities could be so utterly blind and foolish as 
to think themselves capable of defying all the Powers 
of Europe at one time. Consequently the Legation 
authorities implicitly believed the representations made 
to them, and trustingly confided in the promises of pro- 
tection which were constantly reiterated. At any time 
in May, or early in June, had the Chinese reactionaries 
so determined, the whole foreign community in Peking 
might have been easily and utterly destroyed. What 

I04 The Siege in Peking 

stayed their hands? Apparently the indecision of 
Prince Ching, who all through the siege seems to have 
been one of the restraining forces which prevented 
matters being pushed to extremities. 

Again, had the arrival of the marines who were sent 
to guard the various Legations been delayed by the 
space of forty-eight hours, it seems impossible to suppose 
that the foreign community could have been saved. 
What hindered the Chinese soldiery from destroying 
the railway earlier, and by so doing preventing the 
arrival of the troops on whom so much depended ? We 
can only suppose that in this case also, what some 
would call a fortunate accident occurred ; while others 
more reasonably would say that in the providence of 
God the hand of the destroyer was stayed till the troops 
had passed. 

Another striking circumstance, on which it afterwards 
became evident the salvation of the foreign community 
in Peking depended, was the death of Baron von 
Ketteler. The day previously it had been decided by a 
majority of the Legation authorities in the capital that 
the offer of safe escort to the coast, which had been 
made by the officials of the Tsung-li Yamen, should be 
accepted. This decision was communicated to all con- 
cerned, and although many felt serious misgivings about 
entrusting themselves to the tender mercies of the 
Chinese soldiery, and some even went so far as to pro- 
test against it, yet there is no doubt that the whole 
community would have gone out of the city at the ap- 
pointed time, and it seems equally certain that they would 
all have been surrounded and massacred before getting 
very far on their journey. The death of the Baron 
von Ketteler effectually opened the eyes of all concerned 
to the fact that the Chinese professions of safe escort were 

Desire to save Converts 105 

a delusion, and nothing more was heard or said of the 
decision so recently made to retire from Peking. Instead 
of this, all the foreigners began to make immediate pre- 
parations for seeking the shelter afforded by the stout 
walls of the British Legation. The time of the opening 
fire of the besiegers (4 p.m.) seemed almost purposely 
delayed to allow all the foreigners to assemble within 
the lines of the allied forces. 

Another circumstance seems worthy of attention. 
Twelve days before the siege actually began, some 
American missionaries took refuge in the large premises 
of the Methodist Mission. These missionaries, seventy 
in number, elaborated a system of defence, and of 
general organisation in the shape of committees, for a 
variety of purposes. Sentries were placed, fortifications 
improvised, the Chinese Christians who fled to them for 
protection, or were already on the premises, were, in so far 
as they were suitable, drilled and armed, so that, when all 
the foreigners were assembled within the Legation walls, 
it only became necessary to enlarge the committees 
already formed, and adjust them to wider purposes, 
in order to secure admirable and efficient service of a 
most invaluable kind. It seemed certain that all these 
things had been working together for the good of those 
who were about to be besieged. 

When the missionaries came to the Legations, they 
naturally desired to bring their native Christian converts 
with them ; but they were met by a non possumus from 
the authorities, which might have been expected when 
the facts were soberly considered. When the foreigners 
were all assembled they numbered nearly a thousand 
souls, and this number might have been deemed sufficient 
responsibility for those who had to make provision for 
their protection and the food supplies. But when it 

io6 The Siege in Peking 

was calmly proposed to bring in an addition of over two 
thousand Christian natives, the answer * Impossible' was 
returned without hesitation. 

Nevertheless the impossible was attempted, and 
finally accomplished. Mr. James, one of the professors 
in the Peking University, accompanied by Dr. Morrison, 
the correspondent of the London Times, went to work 
with an energy and persistence that overcame all obstacles, 
and is worthy of the highest praise. They interviewed 
the authorities, and finally secured the palace of Prince 
Su, which was on the other side of a dry moat just 
opposite one of the gates of the British Legation, and 
within its ample walls and buildings the native Christians 
were securely lodged, and carefully provided for. Just 
as this task was successfully accomplished, Mr. James 
met his death, though the work given him to do was 
finished before he was taken away. Not only in 
particular details, but in the circumstances which have 
now to be related regarding the siege, the hand of 
Providence is to be clearly seen. 

The native Christians had been rendered safe, and the 
foreigners, with as many of their belongings as they 
could hurriedly bring with them, were all gathered within 
the walls, when, punctually at four o'clock in the after- 
noon of June 20, the attack on the Legations commenced, 
and the siege had begun. 

The whole attention of the hostile Chinese soldiery was 
now concentrated upon that section of the city which 
was within the lines of the allied forces. It was evident 
that the defence must be entrusted to one who had 
sufficient prestige to command the allied forces, and skill 
enough to direct their operations. The choice naturally 
fell on Sir Claude Macdonald, the British Minister, who, 
before entering upon his diplomatic career at Peking, 

Providential Food Supplies 107 

had distinguished himself in Africa and elsewhere as a 
military officer in Her Majesty's service. Surely it was 
not accident that provided a commander in every way 
so suitable as Sir Claude Macdonald proved himself 
to be. 

The first necessity for a besieged fortress is a plenti- 
ful supply of water, and it was found that within 
the Legation walls were eight wells of good water, 
capable of providing supply for all the ordinary 
necessities of the besieged, and even the extraordinary 
demands made upon them when the fires kindled by the 
enemy had to be subdued. 

As regards food supplies, there had been no time 
or even thought of making provision for a siege. No 
one, indeed, imagined that a long siege was beginning, 
nor that the foreign troops, whom they naturally pre- 
sumed to be already on the way from Tien-tsin, would 
have any great difficulty in reaching them within a few 
days, or a week or two at most. In this condition of 
unpreparedness, and with a community, including the 
Chinese Christians, of over three thousand persons, it 
seemed that it could only be a question of a comparat- 
ively short time before the siege would be terminated 
by starvation, involving unconditional surrender, and 
then indiscriminate massacre. 

But here again all such gloomy prognostications were 
banished in a most remarkable manner. Within the 
lines of the allied forces were all the shops in Peking 
dealing in foreign goods and stores, and some large 
Chinese merchant stores were also included. In one of 
these stores an enterprising Chinaman had only a few 
days previously laid in a stock of grain and food-stuffs, 
which he no doubt anticipated would sell at high prices 
during these troublous times. As soon as the siege 

io8 The Siege in Peking 

began, these shops were left in haste by the owners and 
occupants, and their contents were without hesitation 
appropriated to the necessities of the besieged. This 
grain store contained seventy tons of wheat of that 
year's crop, besides stacks of rice, Indian corn, and other 
food-stuffs. These were afterwards found, being carefully 
handled and distributed, to be sufficient for the support 
of all the besieged during the whole time the Legation 
was invested. 

Further, a far larger number of ponies were in 
Peking at that time, in the possession of foreigners, 
than was usually the case. They were there in training 
for the Peking horse races, which were about to be held. 
These ponies required fodder, and in the grain shop 
already referred to was a large quantity of millet and 
beans, and a huge pile of straw, which was preserved 
in the most surprising way, although houses on each 
side of it were burned. This fodder proved to be 
ample for the animals, which were thus kept in condition, 
and they rendered very material help in hauling, 
grinding corn, and other heavy work, while alive, and 
when killed added their quota to the food supplies 
of the besieged. Again, there was within easy access 
an immense quantity of coal, which proved abundant 
for all purposes, and wrecked buildings within the lines 
afforded ample fuel for firing, and timber for forti- 

The shops which held foreign goods proved to be 
also as essential to the safety of the besieged as the 
others. It was soon found that the enemy's fire at 
close quarters would in a very short time breach the 
Legation walls, strong as they were, and render the 
position untenable unless backed by earthworks. Mr. 
Gamewell, one of the missionaries of the Methodist 




Sand-bag Fortifications 109 

Mission in Peking, had shown considerable aptitude 
for planning and raising defensive works in the 
compound of the Mission, which they had held for 
twelve days before coming into the Legation. This 
aptitude was immediately proved on a larger scale, 
since Sir Claude Macdonald appointed Mr. Gamewell 
chief of the staff on fortifications. With a skill and 
an enterprise which commanded respect, and excited 
surprise even amongst military men, Mr. Gamewell 
set himself to strengthen the walls, on which the safety 
of the whole community absolutely depended. 

The foreign stores were overhauled, immense 
quantities of cloth of all kinds procured, and all the 
women, both foreign and Chinese, who were not otherwise 
engaged, were set to work making sand-bags of a con- 
venient size. These were speedily filled, and by the help 
of the Chinese Christians, who acted as coolies, soon began 
to line the walls, and to give to them a solid backing of 
earthworks. In all, some fifty thousand of these bags 
were made, filled, and placed in position. The work of 
making the bags provided an outlet for the activities of 
the women, and the filling and placing gave work to 
the other non-combatants. This, no doubt, had an 
excellent effect in steadying the nerves of all, and so 
rendering their position more endurable than it would 
otherwise have proved to human beings who were 
unaccustomed to the shrieking of shell, and the sharp 
ping-ping of the bullets which fell in showers by night 
and day. 

It soon became evident that every hand and brain 
would be needed for defence. Without the abundant 
supply of labour which the Chinese Christians provided, 
the heavy coolie work of raising fortifications and 
sinking mines and countermines could not possibly 

no The Siege in Peking 

have been accomplished by the small force of fighting 
men, who were called upon continually to resist the 
efforts of the enemy, and whose whole time and strength 
were needed to make these efforts effectual. Thus it 
was again proved that the good hand of God was 
guiding those who insisted on saving the Chinese 
Christians when human wisdom and prudence would 
have withheld their consent. 

Another evidence of the restraining and guiding hand 
of God, in connection with this siege, was in the aimless 
and fruitless efforts of the besiegers to compass the 
destruction of the besieged. If the Chinese had made a 
determined attack while the foreigners were assembling 
within the Legation walls, and when as yet nothing 
had been done towards organised resistance, the attack 
would doubtless have proved fatal. The attack com- 
menced almost at the exact moment after all had 
safely entered the lines of the allied forces, and had to 
some extent settled down in their quarters. Thus their 
resistance from the first was effectual. 

The Chinese troops had for a time the control of 
the city wall. This was close to the Legation grounds, 
and commanded the entire position. Had the enemy 
at that time pressed the siege, and used their opportunity, 
it seemed evident that no human power could have 
saved the unfortunate foreigners on whose destruction 
they seemed bent. The opportunity was allowed to 
slip. The walls were cleared, and held throughout the 
siege by the American marines, and the safety of all 
was again thus secured. 

The counsels of the enemy were divided. During 
the whole time that fighting was going on, negotiations 
which totally ignored all this passed between besiegers 
and besieged. To read the despatches, it appeared as 

Bad Chinese Tactics m 

if nothing special had come between them to cause a 
rupture, or anything more than strained relations, which 
a little give and take on both sides might easily remove. 
But it was noted that, after the receipt of such com- 
munications, the attack the following night was fiercer 
than ever. At another time, a present of flour and 
melons was sent to the besieged, as if the two sides 
were on the most friendly terms. These facts show 
that the counsels of the enemy were divergent, and 
while one party were prepared to push matters to an 
extremity, there were others who wished to leave at 
least for themselves some way of escape from the 
inevitable day of retribution which they rightly believed 
would certainly come. This was a factor in the final 
deliverance of the beleaguered foreigners. 

Again, no heavy guns were brought to bear on the 
Legation defences, and, strange as it may seem, the fire 
of the Chinese artillerymen was invariably too high. 
Thus the greater part of the shot and shell cleared the 
buildings at which they were directed, and fell harmlessly 
on the other side. This fact accounts for the strange 
circumstance that, although a deadly fusilade was kept 
up almost incessantly for nearly two months, so little 
damage was done, and so few lives were lost. 

When the Chinese soldiery found that they could 
make little or no impression by direct attack, they set 
fire to buildings in the vicinity of the British Legation, 
in the hope that the flames would spread until the 
buildings in which the foreigners were living might also 
take fire and be destroyed. These fires, however, never 
had the desired effect. It seemed as if God had said, 
'Thus far shalt thou come, and no farther,' for when 
the flames, fanned by a strong wind, were at their height 
and threatening inevitable destruction, the direction of the 

112 The Siege in Peking 

wind suddenly changed, and the fires burnt out harm- 
lessly. In fact, these fires were a distinct advantage 
to the besieged, as they cleared the cover under which 
the enemy had been able to come to close quarters and 
pour in their shot with more deadly effect. One of 
these buildings thus destroyed was the famous Han-Lin 
College, where were stored treasures of literature of 
inestimable value to the literati of China, and all those 
interested in the history and writings of the Chinese. 

Another most singular circumstance was the fact that 
mining was attempted underneath the walls of the Lega- 
tion, at least in two places. But these mines were never 
fired ; and after the siege was over it was discovered 
that the head of one of these had almost described a 
circle, and if it had been fired might possibly have been 
more dangerous to the Chinese soldiery than it would 
have been to those whose hurt was intended. 

Amongst the besieged were a large number of women 
and children. The children were allowed to play in 
the more sheltered courtyards. Not one of these chil- 
dren suffered any harm from the shot and shell, and 
only one lady was hurt, and that just when the siege 
was raised by the arrival of the British troops. Bomb- 
proof shelters were laboriously dug, but were never 
used. Shot and shell did penetrate even into the bed- 
room of Sir Claude Macdonald, but he was not hurt, 
and others remained uninjured. 

In the eyes of the astonished soldiery who first arrived 
with the relieving force, all covered with dust, and 
exhausted by hard marching and fighting, under a hot 
sun, the tennis lawn of the British Legation appeared 
to be occupied by those who were engaged in holiday- 
making, rather than those who had withstood a desperate 
attack for nearly two months. 

Health of the Besieged 113 

Notwithstanding the crowded and inconvenient 
manner in which the besieged had to Uve, and the 
insanitary condition of their surroundings ; the almost 
tropical heat which makes Peking during the months 
of July and August a most undesirable place of residence ; 
yet the sickness was comparatively small and the deaths 


Amongst the refugees protected by the Legation 
walls were a number of skilled physicians of both sexes, 
some of whom, laying aside professional etiquette, 
served as nurses. These organised a field hospital, 
second to none in efficiency, and in the devotion with 
which all risks were cheerfully taken, and all hardships 
uncomplainingly borne. The result was that any who 
were wounded had immediate attention, and the highest 
skill and care bestowed upon them, and so the casualties 
were attended with comparatively little loss of life, and 
the amount of suffering was reduced to a minimum. 

No praise would be too high to bestow upon the 
brave troops of so many nationalities on whom the 
burden of the defence mainly rested. Although it was 
apparently impossible to weld all these different units of 
many nations into a compact and harmonious fighting 
force, yet the feat was accomplished, and the coolness and 
courage of civilian and soldier alike, in the face of what 
appeared overwhelming odds, was worthy to be ranked 
amongst those deeds of heroism which make us think 
more worthily of humanity. 

As the siege dragged on its course, and every day 
the besieged looked and longed in vain for relief which 
never seemed to come, they made efforts to discover 
what was going on in the great world outside. Several 
messengers were sent who went out and did not return. 
One came back with good news, which afterwards turned 

114 The Siege in Peking 

out to be false. Amongst the crowd of Chinese who 
had been brought in for shelter was a lad who was 
found friendless and homeless in the terrible days 
preceding the siege. He was picked up and succoured 
by some Good Samaritan, and in return for the kindness 
shown him he volunteered to take a message to Tien-tsin. 
His offer was accepted ; he was let down from the wall 
in the night, and after many adventures safely reached 
his destination, and the precious news of the safety of 
the besieged was communicated to an anxious world. 
This feat accomplished, he also performed the much 
more wonderful one of a return in safety to the besieged, 
bringing authentic tidings of the relief force sent for 
their rescue. 

What had hindered the relieving force from making 
the journey of some eighty miles from Tien-tsin to 
Peking in a much shorter time? The bombardment of 
Tien-tsin itself was one cause of detention, and when the 
allied forces cleared the country of their enemies between 
Taku and Tien-tsin, they had still to address themselves 
to the task of reducing the native city of Tien-tsin, whose 
walls sheltered a fighting force of Chinese, and from 
whose ramparts the streets and houses of the foreign 
quarter were continually raked with shot and shell. 
This task was found much more formidable than any of 
the military anticipated, and indeed it was seriously 
debated whether it was wise to attempt the taking of 
the city by assault, in view of the probable great loss of 
life which might ensue, and thereby imperilling the 
forward movement of the relieving column who were 
preparing to go on to Peking. 

The decision hung in the balance for some time, but 
it w^as eventually settled that the assault should be 
made. The night before the assault was delivered, the 

Arrival of Relief 1 1 5 

Chinese soldiery evacuated the place, leaving it entirely 
at the mercy of the attacking force. Had the decision 
been made to fall back, the Chinese soldiery, gainmg 
courage, would no doubt have returned and reoccupied 
their defences, and the relief of Peking might have been 
indefinitely delayed. 

The relieving column, after much discouragmg delay, 
began their forward movement, and crept slowly on as 
fas't as the enormous difficulties which hampered every 
step would allow them. Eventually, after desperate 
resistance from the Chinese force opposing them, they 
got within sight of Peking. The British column, from 
private information, advanced towards a quarter of the 
city where their attack was not expected, and entered 
almost unmolested. They made their way by a some- 
what circuitous route to the Legation gate, and were 
the first to enter the Legation grounds. They had thus 
the honour of being foremost in making the connection, 
a distinction keenly coveted, and it seemed certainly 
fitting that the British Legation should be relieved by 
British troops. The joy with which the dusky Indian 
troops were received was enhanced by the fact that the 
stores of ammunition and strength of the besieged were 
perilously near exhaustion, and it was felt that the 
relieving force had arrived, as they did on August 14, 
not a day too soon. 

Thus we may trace the good hand of God in almost 
every detail of this wonderful siege, and we can fully 
sympathise with the besieged missionaries who sent the 
text which was telegraphed on their release :— 

' Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of 
the fowlers; the snare is broken, and we are escaped 
(Ps. cxxiv. 7). 

'To God be the glory ; great things He hath done.' 


Marvellous Escapes 

When the troubles began in the province of Shan-si 
consequent on the arrival of Yii Hsien as Governor in 
the provincial capital, the Rev. A. R. Saunders, his 
wife and four children, were living, with others of their 
Mission, at P'ing-yao, one of the stations of the China 
Inland Mission, about sixty miles south of T'ai-yuen-fu. 
Here they had lived in peace and quietness for thirteen 
years, without molestation from the people, and on good 
terms with the officials. Boxer placards had appeared 
in June 1900, and caused trouble in one of the out-stations 
of the P'ing-yao district, involving the destruction of 
property, and serious injury to the elder of the native 
Church in that place. Because of this, the P'ing-yao 
magistrate, at the instigation of Mr. Saunders, had 
a proclamation issued, condemning the Boxers, and 
warning the people against following them or causing 

This proclamation had the desired effect, until a higher 
official, on passing through the place after a visit to 
the Governor in T'ai-yuen-fu, warned the P'ing-yao 
magistrate to have it removed, as it would certainly 
bring trouble on him if Yii Hsien heard of it. Accord- 
ingly, on the night of June 25, the proclamation was 
washed off the walls ; and the next night the premises 


The Saunders Party 117 

where Mr. Saunders resided were attacked by a mob 
and looted, and the Mission chapel, furniture, doors and 
windows, and books on sale were destroyed by fire. Mr. 
and Mrs. Saunders had barely time to snatch their 
sleeping children from their beds and make good their 
escape to the Yamen, where they believed they would 
be safe and receive protection. On arrival, however, 
they were told that the Governor's orders were that, as 
China was at war with foreign nations, no protection was 
to be given to foreigners, and that, therefore, they must 
immediately seek safety in flight. 

They decided to go to T'ai-yuen-fu, and applied for 
and secured an escort from the magistrate to take them 
there in safety. They got without accident within seven 
miles of the capital, on June 27 ; but there they met a 
Christian native, who informed them of the burning of 
the Schofield Memorial Hospital in T'ai-yuen-fu, on the 
previous day, and advised them to fly for their lives 
elsewhere. They decided, therefore, to go to the city 
of Lu-ch'eng, another station of their Mission, situated 
one hundred and thirty miles from P'ing-yao, in a 
south-easterly direction. This they reached after much 
difficulty, having been attacked by the Boxers in one of 
the villages they passed through, and escaping only by 
paying a considerable sum for the privilege. This they 
had also to do in several places on the way. 

The party arrived at Lu-ch'eng on Thursday, July 
5 ; and on Saturday, July 7, that station was also rioted. 
The previous night, after seeking in vain from the 
magistrate the usual safe escort to take them to the 
coast, the Saunders party, with the addition of the 
missionaries living in Lu-ch'eng, started on a long and 
perilous journey of nearly seven hundred miles to 
Hankow. This journey cannot be better described than 

Ti8 Marvellous Escapes 

In the account given by Mr. Saunders, which appeared 
in London in the Times on September 29, 1900 : — 

' Our party when we started from Lu-ch'eng Hsien 
was composed as under : — Mr. Alexander R. and Mrs. 
Saunders and four children from P'ing-yao; Miss 
Guthrie (of P'ing-yang-fu) from P'ing-yao ; Mr. Alfred 
Jennings from P'ing-yao ; Mr. E .J. and Mrs. Cooper and 
two children from Lu-ch'eng Hsien ; Misses Huston and 
Rice from Lu-ch'eng Hsien. In all fourteen persons ; 
including six children. The youngest of the children 
was eighteen months, and the eldest seven and a half 
years old. We had to leave secretly at midnight, and 
we walked all night, carrying on our backs the younger 
of the children. Our baggage was carried on two 
donkeys, one of which we never saw again after leaving 

' Soon after daylight on Sunday morning we reached 
a village, where we hired donkeys on which the ladies 
and children were to ride four miles ; but when we had 
gone about half that distance we were met by a band of 
nearly two hundred men, who had come out from the 
village just ahead of us, and who robbed us of all we 
had, donkey, silver, and goods, taking almost all the 
clothes we were wearing. Most of us were left with only 
a pair of Chinese trousers, the upper part of our bodies 
and our heads being entirely unprotected from the 
burning rays of a July sun. 

' We trudged on as best we could, carrying the smaller 
children, the others walking, and all of us exposed to 
the full blaze of a semi-tropical sun. All that day and 
the two following days, through village after village, v\^e 
were subjected to the cruelest treatment, till we reached 
the nearest city, Chang-tsz, forty miles from Lu-ch'eng 
Hsien, where we hoped to get official help and protection. 

Beaten and Stoned 119 

Although we were now almost naked, without shoes or 
stockings, the people would not believe that we had no 
silver secreted about us, and we were beaten most 
unmercifully, in the hope that such treatment would 
bring confession as to where the silver was secreted. 
The people of one village would follow us to the 
boundary of the next, stoning us and throwing hard 
lumps of clay, beating us on the back and head with 
sticks and bricks, and this was kept up almost incessantly 
from village to village for the whole of those three days. 
In one village, Mr. E. J. Cooper was dragged to the 
outside of the village by a rope, and left by the roadside 
as dead. If we sat down anywhere to rest a little while, 
we were stoned and beaten all the more, and the only 
rest we got was under cover of darkness, when we 
retired to some lonely spot, and slept on the hard ground 
outside. Even then we were disturbed once, at midnight, 
by a gang of men who came out from a village to seek 
us, and, finding us asleep in an open field, compelled us 
to move on. 

* The first two days we had nothing to eat, and no 
one would give us even water to drink, and we were 
compelled to drink of any water we came to, and some- 
times it was only a dirty stagnant pool. Towards 
evening of the second day, we were stoned into a large 
market town, and, sitting down on the side of the main 
street, we told the people that we could not go farther 
till we had something to eat. They did their best to get 
us out of the town, but we refused to go on. At last 
they gave us some bread and water, and then escorted 
us safely out of the town. When we had gone about two 
miles, a man, altogether unknown to us, came up, and, 
after some conversation, he took about three dozen eggs 
(hard boiled) out of a bag he carried, and gave them to 

I20 Marvellous Escapes 

us ; so even at this unfriendly time in China God raised 
up friends to succour us. 

* At the next city, Chang-tsz, the magistrate had 
evidently already heard of us, for on arrival at dusk we 
were met outside the city by some of his underlings, 
who told us that we could not go into the city, but the 
magistrate would give us carts, and have us escorted to 
the boundary of his district. We told them that we 
could not go on till we had had a few hours' sleep and 
a little food. After a while, they brought us some bread 
and water, and after partaking of this we went to sleep 
by the roadside near the city wall ; but even there we 
were not free from molestation, stones being thrown at 
us from the city wall. About midnight the carts and 
our escort came, and we were hurried on to the 
boundary of that county, from which place we had to 
walk to the next city, Kao-Ping, fifteen miles farther on. 
A little money was given us by the magistrate at 
Chang-tsz, with which to buy food, but we had not gone 
more than a mile when we were robbed of it, and were 
again without either food or money. 

* Slowly we trudged on with sore and weary feet for a 
day and a half, through unfriendly villages, receiving 
the same treatment as before. One night we took 
shelter in an unused house by the roadside, but we had 
just settled in when some men came with lanterns, who 
said it was a pity the children should remain all night 
without food, and they had come to take us to a place 
where we could get food and shelter. As we had eaten 
nothing all day, we gladly followed them, but when we 
got to the village we found the streets lined with people 
carrying lanterns and torches, who had come out, even 
at that late hour, to glare at us, and we saw at once 
there was no intention to give us either food or shelter. 

stripped and Mobbed 121 

At first we suspected treachery, but they led us right 
on, out of the other end of the village, and sent us on 
the road again. We afterwards learned that on the 
next day they were to have a rain procession, and did 
not want us to be passing through the village the same 
day, lest we might bring ill luck. At this stage of our 
journey we were again stripped of the few garments 
we had, and I was left on the road completely naked, 
but fortunately I was supplied with a garment at once. 
Mrs. E. J. Cooper's death at a later date was largely 
due to the exposure caused by the loss of her upper 
garments at this time. 

' On Thursday, July 12, we reached Kao-ping north 
suburb about noon, and, being extremely hot, we could 
walk no more on our blistered bare feet on the burning 
sand, so we lay down under a tree till it became cooler. 
About 4 p.m. we went to the Yamen, followed by a 
howling mob that completely filled the large courtyard. 
After explaining the object of our visit, a quantity of 
bread was thrown down to us as we sat on the ground 
in the courtyard, and a bucket of cold water was 
brought with which to quench our thirst. I insisted 
that we should be properly escorted to the next city, 
not to the boundary district only ; and this they 
promised to do, but, like most officials' promises in 
China, these were made only to be broken. We were 
supplied with carts, and hurried on that same night 
without any rest, and were as before left by the escort 
at the boundary. It was then about 11 p.m. of 
Thursday, July 12, and we walked on to find a quiet 
spot to rest. 

' Early next morning, Mr. Cooper and I went on to 
a village a mile distant, to hire a cart in which Miss 
Rice, who could walk no farther, and the children could 

122 Marvellous Escapes 

ride. We had in our possession seven hundred cash — 
about two shillings, and, leaving two hundred of these 
cash with Mr. Jennings, we took the remaining five 
hundred to pay for the cart. Passing through the 
village to the farther end, where the inn was, we were 
overtaken by some men, one of whom gave me a sharp 
blow with a stick and snatched the money from me, the 
others drove us on with sticks out of the village, and 
separated us quite from the rest of the party. After we 
had left the party, it began to rain, and Mr. Jennings 
with the ladies decided to move on to a little empty hut 
by the roadside, fifty yards distant, and there await our 
return with the cart. Misses Huston and Rice said 
they would go more slowly, and join them as soon as 
possible. Just as the ladies had settled into this hut, a 
number of men came up, and, beating them with sticks 
and whips, drove them on through the village in the 
direction we had gone, and they came up with us a few 
miles farther on. Misses Huston and Rice were now 
left behind, and it being impossible for us to go back to 
their help, we deemed it best to push on to Tse-chau, 
the nearest city, twenty miles ofif, and ask the official 
there to send a cart back for them. We learned after- 
wards that Miss Rice was beaten to death by the 
roadside that day. Miss Huston also received very 
serious injuries, which resulted in her death a month 
later, just two days before we reached Hankow. They 
even ran a horse and cart over her, to break her spine. 

* Twenty long miles on foot in a pouring rain was 
no easy day's work for ladies and children, but we 
pushed on, and reached Tse-chau, the border city of 
Shan-si, about 1 1 p.m. We passed through many towns 
and villages, and it was here our sufferings reached their 
climax. This is one of the districts where the Peking 

*Kill the Foreign Devils* 123 

Syndicate have been planning to open mines and 
railroads, and the people seemed infuriated with one of 
the Syndicate agents. They said that taking these 
observations had ruined the 'feng-shui (luck), and so 
caused the drought this year. Unfortunately, they 
thought I was this person, and I should certainly have 
been killed, had I not been able to prove in each village 
we passed through that I was not the person they took 
me to be. As we walked along, crowds followed us, 
and sometimes most of us were lying on the ground 
with men pounding us with sticks and bricks. In the 
villages they howled at us, " Kill the foreign devils ! " 

' I always had to single out a few grey-haired men 
and address them as follows : — " These men think that 
I am the man who was here last year on mining 
business, but I can prove that I am not. ist. He could 
not speak Chinese, and I can, and you understand me. 
2nd. His hair was cut short, and I have a queue, and a 
queue the length of mine could not grow in a year, as 
you all know." The people were convinced, and a queue 
saved my life. In one village, they had bound my hands 
together, intending to tie me up to a tree and beat me 
to death. Even the little children were not spared, and 
sore and swollen were our bodies when we arrived that 
night at Tse-chau. They refused us admittance, so we 
slept in the gateway. Next day, I sought to see the 
official, but we were denied, and not even allowed to 
enter the city, so stayed in the gateway till noon. We 
heard the Roman Catholic cathedral there had been 
destroyed two days before, and the soldiers were 
guarding the city gates to prevent the escape of the 
priests. The enmity of officials and people alike seemed 
to be chiefly against the Roman Catholics and the 
mining and railroad engineers, and we had all along 

124 Marvellous Escapes 

the road to prove that wc were neither, but, being 
Protestant missionaries, were allowed to escape with 
our lives, and advised to make all haste to Hankow. 
Having our children with us was usually enough to 
prove that we were not Roman Catholic priests. 

* At Tse-chau we got a road pass, as we supposed 
entitling us to an escort from city to city all the 
way to Hankow; but we afterwards learned it was a 
paper stating we were to be conducted as common 
criminals. At noon on Saturday, July 14, we left on 
mules with common wooden pack-saddles, and the 
torture the ladies endured riding those animals for two 
days to Huai-ch'ing in Honan, is indescribable. They 
had to be nursed at Hankow for the sores caused at 
that time. We reached Huai-ch'ing, and were treated 
tolerably well by the officials there, and at our next 
stopping-place, Wu-chi. There were many of the better 
classes who had much sympathy with us, but dared not 
show it too much, fearing the anti- foreign officials. 
We had now suffered eight days' cruel treatment in 
Shan-si, and the sole cause was — a vicious Governor 
setting the rabble on defenceless foreigners. We had 
now travelled one hundred and forty miles, mostly on 
foot, with very little food and no proper rest, and 
uncovered heads ; but from this point onward we 
suffered no more at the hands of the people. 

' From Huai-ch'ing on for fifty miles we had good 
treatment, and travelled in carts which, though very 
uncomfortable (not having bedding or straw to pad 
them), protected us from the sun, and the sores on our 
feet began to heal. Money was supplied us at Wu-ch'i 
freely, and we began to hope for a rapid journey to 
Hankow. Disappointment met us, for at Chen-chih 
the magistrate would not pass us on. He said the 

<I would have had you Killed' 125 

official document we had got at Tse-chau was not a 
proper one. So we had to return to Wu-ch'i. There 
we found Miss Huston, who had been brought on by the 
Tse-chau magistrate, and who was very badly wounded 
in the head, the brain being exposed. The Wu-ch'i 
magistrate told us he could do no more than to escort 
us to the south bank of the Yellow River, and leave us 
there to make our own way to Chen-chou, where we 
could ask assistance at the Yamen. We went again in 
carts to the north bank of the Yellow River, and there 
our escort left us and returned with the carts, leaving us 
in hopeless condition, with the river to cross and no 
passport. We remained on the bank of the river two 
days and one night, with but very little hope of getting 
across unless we got an official pass; but at last, on 
Sunday afternoon, July 22, the man in charge of the 
ferry told us to get into a courier boat, and we crossed, 
being put on shore about one hundred yards below the 
proper landing-stage. 

' We walked thirteen miles to Chen-chou, and went 

direct to the Yamen to plead our cause. The magistrate 

himself came out to meet us, and he proved to be very 

anti-foreign. He stamped his feet as he spoke to me, 

and said, " Fortunately for you, an edict has come to-day, 

ordering that all foreigners be sent under escort to 

Hankow, and I can send you on. Had you come here 

yesterday, I would have had you all killed." He had the 

necessary document written, and we were sent on by 

cart, but as common criminals, lodged every night in 

the common jails, with only a division of wooden bars 

between us and the chained criminals of China. This 

treatment continued for six days, till we reached 

Chioh-shan, where we were taken to a temple, and the 

mandarin's wife sent sweetmeats for the children. 

126 Marvellous Escapes 

' At Sin-yang Chao, the border city of Honan, which 
we reached on Monday, July 30, we were treated well, 
and clothes were given us. There we stopped three 
days, because soldiers were passing through en route for 
Peking, and it was feared that if we met them on the 
road trouble might arise. It was here, too, that we 
overtook Mr. and Mrs. Glover, their two children, and 
Miss Gates, who had fled from Lu-an Fu the day before 
we left Lu-ch'eng, and we learned from them that they 
had met similar treatment to ourselves. Now we had 
come to the Hupeh province, ruled over by Chang 
Chih-tung, and we were treated well by all the officials, 
and instead of travelling, as before, in carts, we had 
sedan chairs. We found, too, that the native Christians 
were in favour with the officials, and the rest of our 
journey to Hankow was done in comparative comfort, 
arriving at our Mission House on Tuesday morning, 
August 14, in all forty-nine days since we left P'ing-yao. 

' In addition to Miss Rice, whose death I have 
already referred to, four others of our party died on the 
way. Two of our own children died from fatigue and 
want, and were buried in Honan. Mrs. Cooper and 
Miss Huston died in Hupeh, after terrible sufferings, 
and their bodies were sent on to Hankow by the officials. 
Mr. Cooper's baby died soon after arrival in Hankow, 
from the effects of the journey. It is a wonder to all 
that any of us reached this place, but we know our 
escape was due to the marvellous power of God on our 
behalf, in protecting us these many days when we were 
exposed to the sun without covering, so that there was not 
one case of sunstroke among us, proving the promise, 
" The sun shall not smite thee by day." Our way, too, 
was opened up sometimes in an almost miraculous 
manner, and for all these mercies we give God the praise. 

The Glover Party 127 

We feel, also, that great credit is due to the Viceroy- 
Chang Chih-tung, who persistently telegraphed to the 
Governor of Honan that safe conduct should be given 
to foreigners passing through that province.' 

The foregoing account of the escape of the Saunders 
party would not be complete without some description 
of the adventures and trials of the Glover party, which 
left Lu-an, in Shan-si, six days before the party from 
Lu-ch'eng, but which eventually was overtaken by them 
in Sin-yang, on the borders of Honan, and both parties 
travelled in company the remainder of the way to 

On June 6, 1900, the Mission compound of the 
China Inland Mission at Lu-an was attacked at mid- 
night by an idolatrous procession, which had been to 
the temple to pray for rain. The attack did not result 
in serious damage, but was sufficient to show the temper 
of the people, and the necessity there was for immediate 
flight. Mr. and Mrs. Glover left Lu-an on June 9, 
intending to go to the coast viH Tien-tsin, and they 
reached another station of the Mission at Shun-teh, 
in the province of Chih-li. Here they stopped eleven 
days ; but as the Boxers were getting more openly 
violent, they dared not show themselves, and could not 
proceed, so eventually they decided to return to Lu-an, 
and if necessary make their way through Honan to 
Hankow. Ten miles from Shun-teh, at a place called 
I-ch'eng, they 'were stoned, captured, and given over 
to death,' but they were delivered, like Paul of old, in 
a most miraculous way, and in a manner for which 
they could not account except by attributing it to 
God's restraining hand on mob violence. After a series 
of dangers and trials, they succeeded in reaching Lu-an, 

128 Marvellous Escapes 

where they found Miss Gates, who had decided to 
remain in the station when the Glovers left, just on 
the point of making her escape to the mountains. 

Mr. and Mrs. Glover got back to Lu-an on July 3 
and on the next day word came from Lu-ch'eng of the 
arrival there of the Saunders party in full flight from 
P'ing-yao. Mr. Glover immediately called on the 
magistrate of the city, and he was refused an audience. 
But the same night word came privately that the 
magistrate had a message for him, if he would send 
some trustworthy person to receive it. This was done ; 
and he was told of the Empress -Dowager's secret 
instructions to withdraw all protection from foreigners, 
and so flight was decided on. 

On July 6, the party, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. 
Glover and two children, and Miss Gates, started for 
the journey to Hankow. They hired mule litters, in 
which they were to be conveyed to Chau-kia-keo, 
where they expected to secure boats to take them on 
the remainder of their journey. This design was 
frustrated in the good providence of God, for had they 
gone to Chau-kia-keo it seems they would certainly 
have all been killed. 

On leaving Lu-an city, which they managed to do 
with some difficulty, they travelled thirteen miles to a 
place called Han-tien, where a halt was made for the 
noon meal. They were not, however, allowed to leave 
until they had paid 200 taels (i^30, or Si 50, gold). As 
this was not forthcoming, a mock trial was held in the 
night, and they were found guilty and condemned to 
death. In the morning, they were taken in their litters 
in a kind of sacrificial procession to a place outside the 
village. The road was lined with spearmen, and all 
the men and boys carried some sort of weapon. At a 

Robbed and Maltreated 129 

given signal the whole mass fell upon the litters, and 
struggled and fought like wild beasts over the baggage. 
Mr. Glover with one of the children had cleared out 
of his mule-litter in time, but Mrs. Glover and the other 
child seemed almost buried under a frantic mass of 
struggling humanity, from which it seemed impossible 
that they should come out alive. However, in a short 
time they emerged, apparently calm and uninjured, 
and Miss Gates, too, seemed miraculously preserved. 

After the mob had seized and carried off all the 
t>aggage, the party found themselves alone and un- 
touched, so they wandered back to the village to wait 
for the faithful Chinese helpers who stood by them in 
this perilous journey. To go back seemed impossible, 
so they determined to continue the journey on foot. 
They had not gone far when a crowd of evil men from 
the villages round began to follow them. At the next 
village they sat down on the doorstep of a little food 
shop, while the mob hemmed them in and refused to 
let them pass. Suddenly the suspense was ended by 
the crowd seizing them and tearing the clothes off 
their bodies. Mrs. Glover and Miss Gates had their 
upper garments stripped off, the children had only their 
combinations left, and Mr. Glover was stripped almost 
naked, but again no further harm was done to them. 
Mr. Glover had a pair of pants given him and a tattered 
beggar's coat, and in this plight they travelled on to 
the next village. 

The villagers surrounded them and seemed ready to 
attack them. They were told to go a certain road, 
where it was evidently intended to fall upon them ; but 
instead of going on this road they took a side path, 
and, strange as it may seem, the crowd suddenly came 
to a dead halt, and they presently found themselves 

130 Marvellous Escapes 

in a dry torrent bed alone, and night came on and 
the moon shone brightly. They walked on for some 
distance, and saw four men with mattocks waiting for 
them. These men told them to come to a temple near 
by, where they would find shelter for the night. On 
their refusing they became abusive, and snatched the 
upper garments from Mrs. Glover and Miss Gates, 
leaving them stripped to the waist. Mr. Glover, 
however, they did not touch, evidently considering his 
garments not worth taking. As they were making off 
with the women's garments, Mr. Glover remonstrated 
with them, and they suddenly threw down the garments 
they had taken, and made off. As soon as they had 
gone, the wanderers fled, and got to a hollow in the 
hills, where they lay down, and, despite the cold, fell 
fast asleep, as they were utterly exhausted. 

As soon as the sun got hot, they began to move again, 
as their thirst was unbearable and the heat intolerable. 
They came down from the hillside, and found a muddy 
stream, which tasted as sweet as the purest water, and 
they then lay down under the shade of some trees 
growing over some grave mounds. In a small temple 
not far off heathen worship was going on. Soon a pro- 
cession came out from the village and passed near them, 
and some of the people turned aside to see who they 
were, and immediately ran back to the village to report. 
Soon a cart came out with an official and the Yamen 
runners, and stopped near by, and to their amazement 
they found that the magistrate at Lu-an had sent the 
cart to take them to Hankow. 

At first they thought it was a ruse to secure them, 
as it afterwards seemed as if it was ; but they finally 
decided to use the cart, as the papers brought with the 
official seemed genuine, and they really had no other 

Plots for their Murder 131 

method of procedure, as they were almost certain to 
perish of hunger if they went on by themselves, and the 
cart was shelter from the heat, and progress in the 
desired direction. They got in the cart, and proceeded 
to a place called Wang-fang, where formerly Mr. Glover 
had often preached. Here the people became very excited, 
and swarmed into the inn yard where they were, and it was 
soon evident that they were again in the hands of the 
Boxers. From their talk, it seemed evident they meant 
to kill them, but the official and Yamen runners who 
had brought them to the place, though in sympathy 
with the people, yet did not wish to be compromised, 
so they in whispers decided to drive off before the 
refugees could get into the cart ; but Miss Gates over- 
hearing the plot, the whole party got on to the cart and 
refused to move. The people and official people were 
furious at this frustration of their plan, but were obliged 
to take them on. The crowd ran along, hooting and 
bellowing, and followed them a considerable distance. 

Arrived at Tui-ch'eng, they were taken to the inn, 
which had a large courtyard, and put into a room, 
where their escort wished to lock them in. Soon a 
heathen procession filled the inn yard, and, getting 
restless, finally broke into the room which the party 
were occupying. The landlord, fearing a riot and 
destruction of his property, told them to leave ; but on 
Mr. Glover refusing, he was seized and dragged out 
amongst the crowd. Mrs. Glover, Miss Gates, and 
the children followed, determined, if they were to die, 
to die together. They were surrounded by a crowd of 
several thousands, and Mrs. Glover seeing that their 
only hope seemed to be in the official who was escorting 
them, seized his hand ; Miss Gates then seized the 
other, and the others joined on. In this way they moved 

132 Marvellous Escapes 

out of the town, and by and by, to their intense relief, 
the cart came, and they proceeded on their journey. 

At a village four miles off, the official again tried to 
give them the slip, but Mr. Glover seized the animal's 
bit and stopped the cart till they all got in again ; but 
instead of going on, they were driven back to Tui- 
ch'eng, and left all night in the street near the gate, in 
company with a number of beggars. They had nothing 
to lie on or cover them, had no food and no sleep. 
When morning broke on Monday, July 9, they found 
themselves for hours without food or water, till a kindly 
man near by gave them some water to drink, and, as 
Mrs. Glover pathetically says — 'The Lord remember 
those cups of water.' After a long time, the official 
appeared with some bread, and two small trolley carts, 
used for coal hauling in these mountainous regions. 
Into these they got, and were bumped about on them 
for twenty miles — a journey of seven or eight hours 
under a burning sun. 

Arrived at Kao-p'ing, they were more kindly treated 
by the officials. Mr. Glover exchanged his beggar's 
rags for some more decent clothing, and money was 
given them to buy food. Next day they proceeded on 
their way, and at one village the poor people crowded 
round them and expressed sympathy with them, which, 
being so unusual, impressed them all the more in their 
forlorn condition. 

After a seventeen miles' ride, they arrived at the pre- 
fectural city of Tse-chau, where Mr. Glover endeavoured 
to see the prefect, but was told that anything he had to 
say should be expressed in writing. All night long the 
mob kept howling, ' Kill the foreigners ! ' but no harm 
befell them ; and next day a party of soldiers came to 
escort them, and they got on their carts and proceeded 

'Lodged in a Filthy JaiP 133 

on their weary way. Some money was given the soldiers 
to buy some straw hats such as coolies wear, but the 
soldiers kept the money and did not buy the hats, so they 
had to proceed bareheaded under a fierce, blazing sun. 

At Lan-chen, on the Shan-si border, they were set 
down outside a small official's place, and were told they 
could be escorted no farther. However, they were 
taken to an inn, where the night was spent in great 
discomfort, and plottings were heard to kill them, and 
an attempt made to poison them with sulphur fumes. 
After two days' waiting, they got an escort and cart 
sent, and proceeded without serious mishap till they 
reached Huai-king, another large prefectural city. 

Here the magistrate treated them kindly, and 
provided good food, and heard sympathetically their 
piteous tale. They had some clothing and money given 
them, and next day he sent them on in covered carts to 
Wu-ch'i. From Wu-ch'i, for three days they had to 
travel on barrows, without head covering; in some 
places treated well, in others lodged as common 
prisoners in the filthy jail. After arrival at Sin-yang, 
the official treated them with the utmost kindness, and 
here they remained eight days resting, as the official 
did not think the roads safe for travel, as so many 
soldiers were passing on the roads. Here new clothing 
was provided, and everything was done for their comfort 
as far as possible. Five days after they arrived there, 
the Saunders party joined them, and together they made 
their way to Hankow ; but on the way the cup of bitter 
sorrow was made more full by the death of Mr. 
Saunders's little boy, and then Mrs. Cooper died, and 
Miss Huston followed, and finally, Mrs. Glover, after giving 
birth to a daughter in Hankow, was some time after, with 
her baby, taken to rest in the eternal home above. 


A Wonderful Deliverance 

Early in December of 1900 messengers arrived at the 
coast, bringing tidings that at Ping-yang-fu in Shan-si, 
some missionaries still survived the terrible massacres 
which had been perpetrated in that province. These sur- 
vivors were : Mrs. P. A. Ogren, Miss M. E. Way, Miss 
M. E. Chapman, and Mr. Graham M'Kie, all of the China 
Inland Mission. They had, it appears, been for months 
wandering among the mountains, and had escaped 
the fate which had befallen so many of their fellow- 
missionaries. The M'Kie party finally returned to their 
station, and, owing to the instructions received from 
Peking, they had been forwarded to the prefectural city of 
P'ing-yang, where they occupied the mission premises, 
and were there guarded by soldiers sent by the prefect 
till arrangements could be made for their safe escort to 
Hankow. These arrangements had to be postponed 
owing to the expected confinement of Mrs. Ogren ; but 
after this event took place the party finally arrived 
safely in Hankow on February 13, 1901. 

An eye-witness of their arrival at Hankow thus 
describes the scene : — 

' Yesterday at dark there came into this city one 
of the strangest processions that ever visited the place. 
It consisted of about a score of the Governor of Shan-si, 


Miss Way's Narrative 135 

Hsillang's cavalry, direct from T'ai-yuen-fu, with twice 
as many foot-soldiers. These were escorting three mule 
litters containing the last of the poor salvage saved 
from the deplorable wreck of foreign life in Shan-si. It 
is not often that these northern conveyances are seen so 
far south, and they created as much interest amongst 
the natives as amongst the foreigners. As they stood 
on the road after the animals had been taken out, a 
wondering group of coolies surrounded them. " Ah ya ! 
what a chair, it could seat six ; I would like to see the 
men who carry it." " That is a horse chair ; you know 
nothing; men don't carry it." "Are horses permitted 
to carry chairs now ? " When they awoke to this new 
fact, the party gave a general sigh, as much as to say, 
" Whatever now, in these days of multiplying carriages 
and rickshaws, will become of the poor chair coolies, 
since horses have taken to carrying chairs ? " 

' Our interest, however, was in the occupants of these 
curious conveyances. There was Mrs. Ogren with her 
two babies. Miss Way, Miss Chapman, and Mr. Graham 
M'Kie. They had at last been forwarded to the British 
Consul by the Shan-si authorities.' 

The following account, written by Miss Way, will put 
the reader in possession of the facts regarding the 
wanderings and adventures of Mr. M'Kie's party, and the 
subsequent account by Mrs. Ogren will detail what 
happened to her and her husband before the party 
finally came together. 

Miss M. E. Way writes as follows : — 

' Wednesday, July 4, 1900. — We were compelled to 
leave. Miss Chapman and I escaped out of the city 
dressed in men's clothing. A few native Christians met 
us just outside the city gate ; Mr. M'Kie followed behind, 
and somehow missed us. After some considerable time 

136 A Wonderful Deliverance 

he succeeded in finding us. We walked thirty li (ten 
EngHsh miles) to Niu-tsuen, and about two in the 
morning Miss Chapman and I were shown into a mud 
hut, and Mr. M'Kie into an old loft belonging to one of 
the Kuh-wu Christians. We laid our weary heads down, 
placing our straw hats under our heads for pillows, 
and slept until 10 a.m., when an old woman brought us 
some bread and water. She was very excited, and said 
that the Boxers had just called and enquired about 
the Christians, and wanting to know if they were 
Christians. They said " No," but the Boxers did not 
believe them, and took the old father to a temple almost 
adjoining. He worshipped idols, and they let him off 
by paying a fine of 16,000 cash (about £1 or $5, gold). 
We were sorry he should deny Christ, but he came 
back rejoicing, saying that he only denied Christ out- 
wardly, but that down in his heart he loved Christ, and 
if he had not worshipped the idols the Boxers would 
have gone to his home and found us. 

' We were forced to leave that night at dusk ; we 
walked sixty li (twenty English miles) up into the 
Kiang-hsien Mountains. We got there at break of 
day, passed by an old man who was mending a temple ; 
he spoke to us ; we dared not answer, but our faithful 
boy (Yuen-ur) spoke. We passed by quickly. Next 
morning the man at the temple reported that twenty 
Boxers had passed during the night ; we and our 
Christians were the Boxers, at least we were so 
disguised that we passed for them. 

' We were shown into an old loft belonging to a noted 
thief. Here we remained for six weeks. We could only 
speak in whispers, and go out for a few minutes when 
dark, the old thief keeping watch all the time. Our 
beds consisted of coffin boards, and the place was overrun 

Flight at Midnight 137 

with rats and vermin. Our faithful boy handed food to 
us three times a day ; he stayed in an old cave at the 
side. We promised this thief thirty taels to keep us 
secretly for three months. At the end of six weeks we 
had twenty-five taels sent to us by one of the Christians, 
also a letter telling us of a good way to get to Hankow. 
The village people seemed to have suspicions that we 
were hiding in this loft, so we thought it best to start 
for Hankow. We intended walking all night and 
hiding during the day. We succeeded in getting an 
escort of six — three Christians and three outsiders, two 
of them being thieves; one of them showed us a knife 
that had killed eight people. 

* On August 18 we started off at midnight, and 
seemed to be full of joy thinking that we would reach 
Hankow safely. My message from the Word when we 
started out was, " The God of peace shall be with you." 
We tramped up one very steep mountain, up to our 
necks in wet scrub, there having been a terrible 
thunderstorm the night before, so the walking was 
very difficult. We had a donkey with us belonging to 
our boy; while climbing up the mountain he caught 
hold of the donkey's tail, I caught hold of his hand, Mr. 
M'Kie of mine, and Miss Chapman of Mr. M'Kie's. 

* In this way we got to the top of the mountain 
about break of day, when we came to two caves — a 
lower and an upper one. We had a rug each and a 
change of clothing, so we took off our wet clothing and 
laid ourselves to rest. At the bottom of this cave was 
a human skeleton. The old thief came up to look, and 
said, *' This is a fine place, I'll know where to come to 
again." About half an hour after, we heard a tremendous 
noise, as if the men were killing one another. Then 
there was profound silence for about half an hour. Mr. 

138 A Wonderful Deliverance 

M'Kie then said he would go to the lower cave and see 
why they did not bring us food. I said, " Don't go ; it 
means death to show yourself in open daylight." He 
went, and found the men had gone ; we knew not what 
to think or do, as we were simply lost on the mountains. 
We thought that the thieves had killed or bound 
the three Christians. We then left our few things in the 
cave and scrambled up to the top of another high 
mountain, taking off our outer garments to drag one 
another up. We then went down the other side on our 
hands and feet, and were very much bruised when we 
got to the bottom. Some natives were watching us, 
and said they had never seen any one attempt to get 
down such a place. 

'These natives gave us a drink and a cucumber. 
They seemed a little friendly. We offered them 100 
taels (about ;^I5 or,S75, gold) if they would escort us to 
Hankow ; but they laughed, and said we would not get 
any one to undertake that. They told us that the next 
village was seven miles away, so we walked on. The sun 
was intensely hot ; we had large straw hats, but we could 
see daylight through them. We got to the village 
about 4 p.m., and passed through. Then we heard a 
great shouting, and, looking behind us, saw about fifty or 
sixty people running after us with knives and staves ; 
every one had a weapon of some kind. We looked at 
one another, and said, " God wants us in heaven." I said, 
*' Yes, we are going to-night." We stood still, waiting for 
them to come, but looking unto Jesus. 

' They were very angry, and stamped their feet and 
made us march back through the village, intending to go 
to a temple at some considerable distance. They said 
they had caught six men, and bound them in the temple. 
These six men were our six ; this would have been the 

'1 had no Fear* 139 

last in our thought that all six could be bound. We 
went on a little way, and I was so tired that I dropped 
down. Mr. M'Kie pleaded with them to let us rest, and 
then we would go on to where they wanted us to go ; but 
they would not hear of this, and hurried us off. But one 
man brought us a drink ; how we enjoyed it ! ^ We 
never seemed to feel hungry, but we felt the pain of 
thirst very much. We walked on a little farther, when 
I dropped down again and almost fainted. They then 
saw that we could not go on, and so they all sat round 
us with their large knives and weapons. I had no fear. 
I realised that Jesus " went all the way to Calvary— all 
the way to Calvary, He went for me; all the way to 
Calvary, He went for me." I just leaned my head over 
and commended my dear ones to God ; so sure was I 
that the next few minutes I should enter the presence of 

the King. 

' One man whispered in Mr. M'Kie's ear, " Brother, 
you have a few friends here, but they dare not help 
you." The people then calmed down, and Mr. M'Kie 
asked the headman if he could read ; he said " Yes." 
Then he took out an old passport and showed it. 
After a little while, the man handed it back and 
released us, and told us that we could sleep in an old 
temple. This was indeed a wonderful deliverance! 
We then went to the temple, and the people brought us 
some black bread and water. We did not get any rest, 
as the people crowded round us till midnight, then left 
us with two wicked men. 

' With great difficulty we got away from these men 
about three in the morning, and then scrambled up some 
hills and one high mountain. It was then daylight ; we 
could find no place of shelter, so we were in the broiling 
sun the whole day, lying flat the whole time, in case we 

I40 A Wonderful Deliverance 

should be seen. When night came we were very thirsty ; 
we did not have a headache from the sun, although our 
faces were blistered. We walked and walked till we 
were tired, and at last found a little creek by a bed of 
maize. Here we quenched our thirst and lay down in 
the bed of maize to sleep. We had nothing but what 
we stood up in. We started out on July 4 with thin 
cotton clothing, and had the same on in October. We 
slept fairly well in this bed of maize ; the ground was 
very wet, as the maize had been watered. The weather 
had taken a change, and we shivered very much. 

' About five the next morning a man passed by with 
two cows and a dog ; we lay flat down, so that he should 
not see us. We then had a little prayer together. I 
prayed that the Lord would take us to heaven soon. 
We decided then to go to the nearest house and beg for 
food. This we did, but they refused to give us anything ; 
finally an old woman gave us a bit of bread about four 
inches long; this we received gratefully, then had a 
drink from the little creek, and went on to a small village. 
Though we drank all sorts of water and ate anything we 
could get, still our God kept us in health. " And the 
Lord thy God shall take from thee all sickness." We 
got to this village and begged for food. After a long 
discussion, the people finally told us that if we would 
wait till they had cooked their food each family would 
give us a little, and none of them would feel it. We 
were thankful for this promise, as we had been long 
without food, and the women went to prepare it. Just 
as it was about ready, a man came up on horseback 
and told them to have nothing to do with us, as we were 
condemned to death by the Empress. 

* We had to leave soon ; we got a short distance away, 
and were looking for a place to hide for the day, when 

'No hope for us' 141 

a man came running after us. He seemed to be in a great 
rage; we thought he was a Boxer; we waited calmly 
for him to come up. I looked to Jesus and said _ Lord 
Tesus Thou dost keep Thy child through sunshine or 
through tempest wild." He soon came up to us, and then 
calmed down and began talking about the six men who 
were still bound in the temple. We asked to be taken 
to them, as we thought it would be best if we all died 
to-ether; we heard that probably they would be be- 
headed This man showed us the way ; we got there 
about noon. This time the people did not greet us with 
knives • they gave us some drink and some bread. We 
sat down amongst the scrub; the people talked to us 
and gathered around us, then left us, telling us to leave 
the place, as it meant danger for them. They said 
they had been offered one hundred taels to deliver us 
up to the Boxers. Mr. M'Kie said, " There is no hope 
for us." I said, "Yes, a glorious hope-a glorious hope, 
if we go to heaven, and also if we are spared ; but we 
never thought we would be spared. 

' During this time we heard terrible rumours about 
the native Christians and missionaries, which afterwards 
turned out to be true. As the sun was setting a man 
came up to us ; he thought we had silver and was just 
about to search Miss Chapman, when we looked up and 
saw our faithful boy. We almost cried with joy. We 
had previously arranged to try and walk back to Kuh-wu, 
which was impossible without some one to lead us. Our 
boy said they were released from the temple and the 
others had gone home as fast as they could, and begged 
him not to come and look for us, as they were sure we 
should get into the Boxers' hands. He did not listen 
to them, but decided to look for us; so one of the 
thieves said, " I won't let you go alone," 

142 A Wonderful Deliverance 

' The two of them led us over the mountains. We 
walked all night, and hid during the day behind some 
rocks on the top of a very steep mountain ; we had a 
little bread with us. About 4 p.m. a terrible thunder- 
storm came, and we were drenched. We wandered over 
the mountains looking for a place of shelter, but did not 
find one. The boy suggested that we should go to a 
cave at the back of his house about twenty miles distant ; 
this we consented to do, so on we went through the 
dense scrub; it thundering, lightning, and raining the 
whole time. All that was left of my shoes was a piece 
of the heel tied at the back of my ankle ; my clothes 
were hanging in rags, through being caught in the scrub, 
having just to pull them away in haste. About 9 p.m. 
we came to a clump of trees ; the men told us that 
we must stay there for the night We refused to do so, 
as there was no place to sit down, it was all pools of 
water ; and if we could keep walking it would keep us 
warm, as we had no clothing to change. 

' The boy then said he would try and find the way ; 
we went a little farther, and we heard a big stone fall. 
We called out to our boy ; the reply was a deep groan ; 
with great difficulty we got to him, and thought he was 
dead. We sat there the whole night, our feet resting in 
a creek of water. It was so dark and the scrub so dense 
that we were simply helpless. After about an hour 
we found that his foot was seriously injured, but none 
of his limbs broken ; he seemed in great pain. At 
break of day he said he would try and walk to the cave 
and tell some one to come to us with food before it was 
dark. We had big sticks to help us in walking ; he 
took one of these sticks, and the thief went with 
him. We prayed that God would give us a fine 
day, and the sun came out bright and beautiful, and 

^Kill! Kill! Kill!' i43 

dried our clothes on us. It was so nice to feel dry 

and warm. 

'We were all day without food, and about 4 p.m. 
two thieves brought us bread, and then led us to the 
cave. On arrival they gave us a drink of boiling water 
and some hot bread ; then showed us into the cave. It 
was such a terrible-looking place that we said we would 
not go in; we would rather sleep on the mountains. 
But our boy was in the cave, and told us to come in. 
We went in, and after a while lay down to sleep. We 
were so wet and dirty 1 During all these wanderings we 
had not washed our faces or combed our hair. About 
midnight we were aroused by three men at the top of 
the cave crying, "Sah! sah ! sah!" (Kill! kill! kill!); 
we thought our last moment had come. 

' Our boy rushed to the top of the cave, and kept them 
talking till daylight. They were about to kill the thief 
who had led us over the mountains; we afterwards 
found they were discussing who should take us over 
the mountains and kill us. The next night our boy 
told us we must leave, as it was too dangerous to be 
there, and said, " There is nothing to do now but to go 
on to my home ; you are welcome to share the bit of 
food we have ; my relations have gone away to hide, 
but I will get my wife to come back.'' We were 
delighted with this thought, and started off with our 
boy at dusk. We got to Niu-tsuen, the place where we 
started from when we left Kuh-wu. There was a very 
deep gully a mile or two away from the village, and 
several caves. Our boy's foot was so painful that he 
could not walk on to his home, and so we were com- 
pelled to go to the caves, as we thought just to await 
death. We felt sorry that this faithful boy was now 
kept from leading us; but it was God's wonderful 

144 A Wonderful Deliverance 

leading. A few days afterwards we heard that the 
Boxers had gone to his home and destroyed it ; his 
relatives had gone away to hide, and thus escaped the 
Boxers ; and if his foot had not been injured, we would 
have been killed there. 

* We remained in these caves six weeks. We were 
discovered three times, but the Lord turned the people 
to be friendly. An inquirer came at midnight and 
brought us bread and water. Sometimes the bread was 
mouldy and hard. We used to take it in turns to sit 
up at night and watch for the wolves ; during these 
lonely hours I felt the presence of the Lord preciously 
real. I used to sing inwardly all the hymns I could think 
of; my favourite ones I sang in a whisper every day : 
" I shall see Him face to face," " Loved with an ever- 
lasting love," and " Lord Jesus, Thou dost keep Thy 
child." We had no Bible ; how we missed the precious 
Word of God ! I prayed day by day that God would 
send me a Bible, and when I got to P'ing-yang-fu I had 
three of my own returned. We have proved our God 
answers prayer. Hallelujah ! 

' One night an inquirer came to us, and told us there 
was no hope now. The Boxers had come to the village ; 
two in the morning, and two at night. He and his 
family went to hide in the cave just below us, and every 
one knew that we were in these caves. These four 
Boxers were waiting for others to join them, and waited 
for two days, but they did not come. We spent the 
whole day in prayer, and poured out our hearts before 
God that at this last hour He would scatter the 
Boxers and spare our lives. These four Boxers went to 
see why the others did not join them, and found they 
had made a mistake in the name of the place, and gone 
to U-tsuen instead of Niu-tsuen, and before they could 



Native Help 145 

get back a strong proclamation was out for our protection 
and the scattering of the Boxers. They then had to 
escape for their own lives ! 

* How we praised God for this wonderful answer to 
prayer ! " Hereby ye shall know that the living God is 
among you." We then prayed that God would send us 
clothes, as we were so cold, it now being October. At 
midnight four Christians came to see us ; two from 
Hong-tong, and two from P'ing-yang-fu. They brought 
us some silver, and one of them took off his thick coat 
and gave it to Mr. M'Kie. They told us all about the 
death of dear Mr. and Mrs. Kay, and told us that we were 
the only foreigners in the whole of the province. After 
prayer they went away (just before daylight), and our 
boy walked to Kuh-wu and brought us some wadded 
clothes. God answered our prayers concerning our 
boy ; his foot was almost healed. Next night he 
brought us these clothes. How glad we were to cast off 
our rags ! The inquirer brought us a Chinese comb, and 
we succeeded in getting all the knots out of our hair. 
Several times we thought of asking this inquirer if he 
would shave our heads. 

' Our boy was very much upset, as he found that 
nearly every one knew where we were ; he said it was 
very dangerous, and asked one of our friends to take us 
into his loft. After a great deal of persuasion he con- 
sented, and we went about 2 a.m. In the room below 
the loft were two little girls with smallpox, and one died. 
How marvellously God kept us in health ! We slept on 
wet ground time after time, and in the pouring rain, yet 
we did not have a cold nor even a headache, or dysentery 
from impure water. 

' While in this loft we thought of a plan to get to 
Hankow secretly, by dressing up as soldiers ; others 


146 A Wonderful Deliverance 

suggested that we should go in coffins; but still we 
waited, and Christians came to us and told us that the 
mandarin was sending soldiers to look for us, as they 
wanted to protect us. Meanv/hile we heard that wicked 
men with knives and weapons had been looking every- 
where in these caves for us, so we were just delivered in 
time. We then agreed that we would give ourselves up 
— come what might. We were so worn out that we just 
longed to go to our heavenly home. I felt the influence 
of the prayers of God's children very much. I often felt 
quite lifted up, and the thought would come, some one 
is praying for us, and I looked for wonderful answers. 
I kept the day and date all along ; they called me the 
almanac. Sometimes I would think, What day is to- 
day? " Why, Saturday." The Melbourne C.I.M. meets 
at 4 p.m., Adelaide 7 p.m., Shanghai 7.30 p.m. I 
reckoned up to the time and in spirit met with them, 
and often pleaded with God that He would pour out 
upon His children the spirit of prayer. God gave us 
wonderful peace ; our rest of soul never seemed to be 
disturbed ; though we heard of the terrible tortures and 
sufferings of our brothers and sisters, still we never felt 
nervous. My nerves to-day are stronger than ever, and 
I would not wish to feel better in health. I am hoping 
not to go home, but to have a rest, and then return to 

^Sunday, October 31. — At midday the Kuh-wu 
mandarin sent carts and soldiers to take us to Kuh-wu. 
How rejoiced we were that we could be out in the open 
daylight ! We did enjoy that ride, and arrived just as it 
was getting dark. The mandarin had hired a house, as 
the chapel and mission-house were destroyed. They were 
very kind to us, and brought us nice food, and offered to 
do anything for us if we would stay ; but we heard that 

Arrival at Hankow 147 

Mrs. Ogren was alone in Ping-yang-fu, and we felt that 
we must join her. The city people were very friendly, 
and begged us to stay ; the next day we had a skirt each 
presented to us. How delighted we were ! Then the 
Hsien mandarin arrived from P'ing-yang with a party 
of soldiers to take us, and we joined Mrs. Ogren on 
October 24. She was alone at Ping-yang when Mr. 
Ogren died. Her little boy was almost at death's door 
with starvation. The mandarhi bought a cow, and this 
little one has been saved. Mrs. Ogren had a little girl 
given to her December 8. We started for Hankow 
January 6, with a hundred foot-soldiers, sixteen horse- 
soldiers, and a mandarin from T'ai-yuen-fu. It was a 
very difficult journey, in the depth of winter. We had to 
stay in the inns several days on account of the snow. We 
arrived at Hankow February 1 8, and never shall I forget 
the warm welcome we received ; it was almost too much 
for us to bear.' 


In the Hands of the Boxers 

The preceding tale of the sufferings of the M'Kie 
party would not be complete without adding the equally 
marvellous account of the trials of Mr. and Mrs. P. A. 
Ogren and child, as related by Mrs. Ogren herself: — 

' In the spring of 1899 my husband visited Yungning- 

chow, and with some little difficulty obtained premises 

for opening a mission station. This city lies five days' 

journey south-west from T'ai-yuen-fu, the capital of the 

province. It is governed by Fenchou Fu, two days' 

journey on the road to T'ai-yuen. Mr. Atwater and Mr. 

Price were working in Fenchou Fu. No missionaries 

had ever lived in Yungningchow, but Mr. Lutley had 

stopped there a few months several years before. There 

were two Church members living there. In June we 

moved into the premises we had secured. Our place 

was in the south suburb, between the city and a small 

stream lying at the top of a steep hillside. The people 

seemed quiet and well disposed. Our preaching chapel 

was attended from the first by great crowds of people, 

who listened quietly. The official, named Ch'en, was 

also quite friendly toward my husband. This region 

was suffering from famine, caused by long-continued 

drought. This kept increasing in severity after our 

arrival, and people began gradually to blame us for 


Boxer Placards 149 

keeping away the rain. But no signs of trouble appeared. 
The people also disliked the official because once going 
to pray for rain he rode in his chair. They compelled 
him to dismount and walk to the place. So we knew 
we were among a bold and daring people. 

* In May 1900, Mr. Ogren went to P'ing-yang-fu to 
attend a Conference of Missionaries. I remained at 
home and kept the chapel preaching going on. Many 
people came every day to listen to me telling the story of 
life in Jesus. But the people were becoming restless and 
threatening, so I sent the evangelist to the Yamen with 
my card to speak about the matter. Nothing was done 
about it, however. My husband returned about June i 
with news that the Boxers had begun work in Hungtung 
Hsien, near P'ing-yang-fu. We had before heard of the 
Boxers in Shantung and Chih-li, but never thought of 
their coming into our region. 

* Two days later came a letter from Pao-ting-fu, telling 
of the black placards put out by the Boxers there, 
threatening the foreigners. So we began to be alarmed, 
and talked about leaving, but my husband decided it 
was best to stay. As the people were becoming very 
threatening, gathering about our doors at night and 
making a disturbance, my husband called on the official 
to ask protection. While he was at P'ing-yang-fu, our 
friendly official, Ch'en, had gone into mourning for his 
father, and been replaced by a new man named Chang. 
He also, much to our relief, proved to be kindly disposed. 
He had not tried to go in his chair when praying for 
rain, so the people said he was a good man. He sent 
some soldiers to keep guard at our place. He met my 
husband several times. 

* One day he sent everybody out of the room where 
he was receiving my husband, and asked him about the 

I50 In the Hands of the Boxers 

right way to pray for rain, seeing his entreaties had thus 
far failed. The opportunity was used to show him the 
difference between the dead men to whom they prayed 
and the ever-living God who rules heaven and earth. 
Some eavesdropper seemingly told about this interview, 
and soon the rumour went over all the region that my 
husband had promised to bring rain on a certain day, 
for which service he should get several thousand taels ; but 
if he failed he should be killed. When the day passed 
and no rain came, the people grew more threatening. 

* Now came our worst danger. About the middle 
of June, two men arrived, reporting themselves to be 
merchants, but they had no goods to offer. Their 
language seemed to be a Shantung or Chih-li dialect. One 
of them paid a fellow thirty cash to show him where the 
foreigners lived. Other similar mysterious persons kept 
arriving. The awestruck whisper went abroad that the 
Boxers had come. People feared them, for it was said 
they wore buttons which kindled fires, and would steal 
girls to recruit the " Red-Lantern Society " — strange 
transformation of stories in other parts about foreigners. 
Stories went abroad that ships had come to Tien-tsin 
loaded with boxes. In these boxes, so said one who 
had managed to peep through the hole which pierced 
the side of each, were foreign soldiers — two in each box. 
On arrival of these foreign troops, the "heavenly 
soldiers," as Boxers were called, had flown away to 

* In a few days black posters were out, and the Boxers 
were drilling their recruits. During this time many 
Boxers were passing Yungning in such haste as scarcely 
to stop for meals, on their way over the mountains to 
Kansuh and elsewhere. We surmised there had been 
some fighting at the coast, and the Boxers were fleeing 

^We were to be Killed* 151 

from foreign shells ; but our mails had now stopped, 
and we had no means of learning the real state of affairs. 
But when we saw how the Boxers everywhere won great 
numbers of followers, we did not think they could be 
fleeing in defeat. 

* The people very quickly turned from fearing to trust- 
ing the Boxers. As soon as they came, the crowds of 
famine sufferers who had before threatened us ceased 
coming, for they had a new ally to destroy us and allow 
rain to come again. We kept our chapel closed, and 
allowed only those to come to us whom we invited for 
Sunday meetings. From the time of my husband's 
return, we had soldiers guarding our place all the time. 
After the Boxers came, the official advised us to leave. 
But we had heard from P'ing-yao that all was quiet there, 
and, in answer to letters, were advised to remain with 
the inquirers who had gathered round us. So we still 
delayed leaving. We hoped God would keep us safe 
till the danger had passed. 

' One morning our servant woman, an inquirer, wanted 
to leave us. We asked her why, and she made some 
excuse of going to a relative. But finally she told us 
her son had come and warned her not to stay, as we 
were to be killed. Then we found out that during the 
night the headman of the gentry had sounded a gong 
round the streets, and warned people not to take water 
from ^.he spring — where nearly the whole city got their 
water — because the foreigners had poisoned it. This 
story came from my husband sending the evangelist 
late at night to our servant with a letter which he 
wished him to take early in the morning to P'ing-yao ; 
and in going to the servant's house he passed the spring 
with the letter in his hand. A mob gathered in the 
night to come and destroy us, but the headman told 

152 In the Hands of the Boxers 

them to wait, and he would accuse us to the official in 
the morning. 

* My husband went as soon as he heard this story to 
the Yamen. He told the official what was going on, and 
asked help. The headman was called, and asked who 
told him the spring was poisoned. Those he named 
were brought in and punished. They had merely seen 
the evangelist pass the spring. Sure enough, that fore- 
noon the water turned red. We suppose this was done 
by the Boxers to influence the people against us. 

'July 5. — We received a letter from Mr. Price and Mr. 
Lundgren, in Fenchou. They told us of the murder of 
the ladies at Hsiaoi-I-Hsien. They also told us the 
Boxers and the " Red-Lantern Society " of women had 
attacked Mr. Atwater, but were punished by the 
mandarin ; but this mandarin was now in disgrace with 
the higher officials for friendship with foreigners, and 
would be degraded. The people there had become 
quiet, however, and we were invited to go and stay in 
Fenchou. But our official still promised to do all in his 
power to help us, so we remained where we were. 

* Our official told my husband he must not come to 
see him any more, for fear of trouble, but when he had 
any business with him to speak to the customs officer, 
who would come and report it. After a few days more 
we were told to go to one of the secretaries named Ch'in. 
The evangelist visited him several times late at night, 
when every one in the Yamen had finished smoking 
opium and gone to sleep. One night they met outside 
the Yamen after midnight, and the secretary came along 
to our house. We told him we had not been able to get 
money from the coast, so were unable to leave, as we now 
wished to do, unless the official would lend us some silver. 
This he agreed to do, so we prepared to leave quickly. 

Flight 153 

* We had already cut a secret door through the wall 
at the back of our garden, and plastered it over, so that 
we could open it and escape if a riot should occur. The 
secretary brought us, one night after midnight, 100 taels 
from the official. We gave a receipt for this, and also 
arranged that the official should take charge of our 
property when we left. Everything was packed up, and 
arrangements made for an escort to the Yellow River, 
eighty li away, on the morning of July 13. We settled 
up with servants, etc., and got a few boxes ready to 
take along. The night of July 12, about midnight, 
the secretary came to us to make final arrangements. 
He then went back to the Yamen and brought seals to 
put on our boxes. While he was in the house talking 
with us, one of the soldiers who were guarding us cried 
out, " There is a man in the tree " just outside our garden. 
He ran in for his sword, and then began such a yelling 
and confusion that we thought the time had come to 
escape for our lives. But the secretary told us not to be 
afraid ; it was all right. Soon the uproar ceased, and the 
soldiers came back, saying the man had dropped from 
the tree and run for his life. He was evidently a Boxer 
spy, who was watching to see when we left, that they 
might catch us. So we finished our work and tried to 
get a little rest before starting. 

' In the dim twilight of breaking day there came to 
our door a litter, carried high on the backs of two mules, 
and covered over with a mat awning. This was to carry 
us to Ch'ih-k'ou, a market town on the Yellow River eighty 
li away. We came silently out and mounted. Quickly 
and noiselessly we started off on o.ur long journey to 
Hankow. Only God knew what lay before us — how we 
should turn longingly toward our home for rest and 
safety, and how our roads must part ; one going to the 

154 In the Hands of the Boxers 

old home beyond the sea, the other to the new home 
beyond the shores of time. Enough for us to know we 
were safely on our way, with a guard of half a dozen 
soldiers, in spite of all the counsels of our enemies. Well 
for us that we left when we did, for only two days later 
two Roman Catholic places not faraway were destroyed 
by the Boxers. 

' We reached Ch'ih-k'ou safely, but found the people 
there in open insurrection. Our official had sent stringent 
orders to the local official at Ch'ih-k'ou to hire us a boat 
and start us quickly on our way to T'ung-kwan, from 
which place we were to go on to Hankow as quickly as 
possible. So a boat was secured for 50 taels, and we 
began to embark, not daring to show ourselves out of the 
litter. The people were preparing to attack us, so the 
local official went forward and exhorted them to be quiet, 
saying our doctrines were not the same as the Roman 
Catholics, and we had nothing to do with them. We 
went on down the river bank, our soldier guards firing 
their guns and yelling like demons. The official had 
preceded us to the water's edge, and as we went on the 
boat took leave of us very politely. This seemed to be 
meant to influence the people favourably toward us. 
So we were again safely past great danger. As our boat 
moved off we heard some yelling and spitting after us. 
Later, we were told that the poor famine-stricken crowd 
had one hundred pairs of sticks ready on the shore to 
beat us. The One whose name is " Wonderful, Counsellor, 
The Mighty God," had restrained the weapons of our 
enemies. He has said, " Even the hairs of your head are 
all numbered," and He had not forgotten to care for us. 

* Our boat was very small, so that with two of the 
soldiers on board as a guard we had scarcely room to 
move. We went sweeping along in the rapid current. 

^We looked Above' 155 

This boat journey was a great strain on us, from the 
constant fear of wreck. The river is so swift that no 
boats attempt to ascend it. They are sold at T'ung-kwan 
for almost nothing, though many are wrecked on the 

* We travelled seventeen miles that day, and stopped 
at a place where our guard had to be changed. Our 
money was now nearly all gone, so we concluded to send 
back by the soldiers returning to Yungning for some 
more silver from the official there. We waited four 
days, and no answer came. Had our trust been in man, 
we should have despaired, but we looked above for care 
and comfort. 

'On the fourth day some ill-disposed men visited 
us. The river here forms the boundary between Shan-si 
and Shen-si. These men said they were from Wu-pu 
Hsien, whose walls we could see on the opposite side of 
the river in Shen-si. They demanded 50 taels, saying 
we must not be let off to our own land unpunished. 
Some advised us to conciliate them by a feast, others 
told us to have nothing to do with them. They kept 
trying to frighten us by telling of a place three miles 
below on the Shen-si side where we must stop for the 
customs inspector, and that our boat would be seized 
there by the people and all our goods stolen. Our out- 
look was dark indeed, but when the need is greatest the 
help is nearest. 

'Next night an answer came from the official at 
Yungning by the secretary Ch'in, who had helped us 
so much before. He brought with him 30 taels of 
silver, also a letter from the Fenchow missionaries, which 
had come after our departure. This said that all was 
quiet there. We thought that now we had money 
enough to reach T'ung-kwan, three hundred miles away 

156 In the Hands of the Boxers 

over the rapids. My husband told the secretary of the 
threats made by the men from Wu-pu Hsien, so two 
soldiers were sent to secure protection at the customs 
station mentioned. How we now praised God for again 
calming the storm which raged about us, and speaking 
peace to our hearts by His " Fear not, it is I." 

* The secretary had also been instructed to get us a 
larger and better boat, and send us on with all speed. 
No doubt the same orders had now reached Yung- 
ning as were sent to all other officials, to help the 
Boxers kill the foreigners, and our official was sending 
us away by the quickest, though also most dangerous, 
way. For the exchange of boats we had to pay 12 
taels. Another part of the 30 taels was to be given 
the two soldiers who had come with the secretary to 
guard us to T'ung-kwan for their expenses on the way 
back. So we had but a few taels left for use on the way. 
The secretary now bade us farewell, and returned with 
the other two soldiers whom he had brought along. He 
gave us a very cordial letter of recommendation from 
the Yungning official to be shown at official places. It 
spoke in warm terms of my husband, and asked kind 
care for him on his journey. 

' We started on again, and soon reached the customs 
place of which we had been warned. Sure enough, a 
crowd of roughs came at us, and were even ready to 
attack our guard. But when the officials at the customs- 
house saw this, they called out to them, "Catch the 
dogs ; tie them and bring them here." This quieted the 
rowdies, and we passed unmolested. Now our boat 
shot down the roaring rapids, the muddy water boiling 
round us as it went tossing over the rocks. We were in 
constant fear that our boat would go to pieces on the 
rocks, and we sink to a watery grave. Our sense of danger 

Perplexities 157 

was just as great as later when we were in the hands of 
Boxers. But God kept us safe from shipwreck. In two 
days we reached Lung Wang Chan, one hundred and 
seventy miles from Ch'ih-k'ou. From here it was five 
days by land to P'ing-yang-fu, and still one hundred and 
seventy miles by the river to T'ung-kwan. There is a 
rapid here so dangerous that for three miles the boat 
must be taken on shore and dragged past the rapid and 
launched again below. 

'We arrived in the evening, and stopped for the 
night, intending to continue our journey in the morning. 
But when our guard went ashore they heard that a few 
days before some foreigners had been killed by Boxers 
at Yumenk'ou, thirty miles farther down the river, and 
their bodies thrown in the river. This was the party 
from Ho-tsin and Chichow. Now we were in great 
perplexity. We knew it would be impossible to pass 
Yumenk'ou, for neither our letter of recommendation 
from Yungning nor our entreaties would avail anything 
with the dreaded Boxers, and our guard of two men 
would not be able to protect us. They now advised us 
to divide up our goods — no doubt they would accept a 
share— and escape over the river into Shen-si. 

' Near our halting-place they found an old ex-official, 
about eighty years of age, who knew our Yungning 
official, and for his sake showed us kindness. One of 
his enterprises was keeping an inn only a few steps from 
the shore. Next morning he came to us and invited 
us to his inn. He had some mules which were now 
away from home, but would be back in a few days, and 
then he would help us across the river and to a farm of 
his thirty miles from the river, where we could hide for 
a while. He said that since eight nations were fighting 
against China the war could not last long, and we could 

158 In the Hands of the Boxers 

hide in the mountains of Shen-si until peace came. We 
went to the inn, and the two soldiers of our guard 
returned to Yungning, taking with them a letter to the 
official asking advice and help. We had not yet heard 
of the proclamation ordering all foreigners to be killed. 
So we hoped for an answer to our letter to reach us in 
Shen-si. But it never came. 

^ July 26. — Our landlord's servants returned with 
mules, and we got ready to start. But thirty-three 
soldiers from P'ing-yang-fu under two officers came 
along, and told us they had been sent with orders to drive 
us out of the province, and that we must go with them 
in the morning. We made excuses, for we saw they 
meant harm. But when we said it would be impossible 
for us to start a long journey on foot with them, they 
shouted angrily, " No difference about that ; you be ready 
to go along with us in the morning." When our old 
evangelist, who had come thus far, saw them, he asked 
where they were from and what they were doing. They 
said they were out chasing foreign devils. He was a 
very timid man, and this so frightened him that he took 
to his heels. Before he got far, some roughs grabbed 
him and took from him the last of our silver — four 
or five taels — which we had left with him to keep, 
and he went on as best he could. We never saw him 

* We learned from the people that the soldiers had 
said they were going to take us a few miles and kill 
us. But God again interposed on our behalf. The old 
gentleman named Wu, in whose inn we were staying, 
interceded for us and got up a feast for all the soldiers. 
Next morning they went away without molesting us, 
but charging the old man to get us out of the province 
that day. He was overjoyed at getting rid of them : 

'Now we are Caught' 159 

came into our room, and, giving us a military salute, told 
us he had been to worship the spirit, and inquiring about 
us had got the answer, " Ming puh hsiang kan" (" No fear 
for their lives "). But if we had not had firmer ground 
than this for our faith, our hearts would have sunk with 
despair. We praised God for again delivering us, and 
prepared to go. A few of our most necessary things 
we put in a box and a hamper. These with some bedding 
we took on our flight; all the rest we left with Wu. 
He furnished us with two mules to go to his farm at 
Li-chia-san, twenty-seven miles beyond the river. He 
also gave us rice and flour for use on the journey, and 
said we could get what we needed from the tenant on 
his farm. 

* He walked out a little way with us when we 
started, as we were to cross the river at a ferry three 
miles above. We saw a woman coming toward us waving 
her arms, as though motioning us back, and calling out 
something which we did not understand. We supposed 
she was speaking to the landlord, but he paid no 
attention, though he must have understood. He soon 
took leave of us, and we went on with the servants and 
a ferryman. Now we learned that the woman had told us 
not to go on, as there were some bad characters waiting 
for us up the road. When we had gone about a mile 
we saw some men skulking about among the rocks 
ahead of us. The ferryman called out, " Oh dear, now 
we are caught." We were much alarmed, but could do 
nothing but go forward, like Israel at the Red Sea. 
On one side were the steep rocky mountains ; on the 
other, the rushing, muddy torrent, as far as we could 
see ; behind, who knew how many enemies waited for 
us ? and before were our foes crouching in sight behind 
a rock. I was riding one of the mules, our goods were 

i6o In the Hands of the Boxers 

packed on the other, and my husband came a Httle 
behind, carrying our little Samuel. 

' As I came up to the rock, the men came from 
behind it, brandishing their weapons and yelling, and 
ordered us to stop. They demanded 300 taels (say 
;640 sterling). I got down from the mule and went up 
to a man who stood swinging his sword. I begged him 
to have mercy on us, and told him to take all else of 
ours, but to spare some clothes for the baby. Perhaps 
he felt something like pity, for when they had taken our 
things down from the mule and were rifling them, this 
man took up a little baby shirt and passed it to me on 
the point of his sword. You may be sure I gladly took 
anything which would help to save my poor baby. The 
bandits divided among them one thousand cash which 
our landlord had given us for road expenses, and then 
searched my handbag. I begged them to leave us one 
hundred cash which was there, and they did so. 

* After they had taken what they wanted of our things, 
the man with the sword began whetting it with strange 
movements such as Boxers used, and cried, '' Shah " (Kill). 
We supposed that now our last hour had come, and our 
bodies were soon to be hurled into the rushing muddy 
stream. But we begged for mercy, and they spared us. 
As soon as the brigands left, we went on again, and 
came to the ferry just as it began to rain. So the men 
who were with us proposed to stay overnight in the 
small inn, and cross the river early next morning. We 
felt that our lives hung on getting out of Shan-si as soon 
as possible, so insisted on crossing at once. 

' Finally, they agreed to take us over. Well for us 
they did so, for early next morning twenty-two soldiers 
from Chi-chow came to Mr. Wu's place with orders to 
seize us, but learned we were already in Shen-si, and 





[See p. 75- 

Kindness of Mr. Wu i6i 

beyond their power. The servants of Mr. Wu would 
not cross the river with us, as had been promised us, but 
took the mules back home. Some people told us the 
old gentleman had sent us away only because he wanted 
to keep our things ; but this was hard to believe. When 
we got across the river it was dark and raining. The 
ferrymen were going to leave us alone there on the 
shore ; by promising them a good reward as soon as we 
could hear from Mr. Wu, we induced them to help 
carry our things up the bank, and they showed us two 
black, smoky caves where we could stop. This was 
where the ferrymen lived, and we found them anything 
but good men. In spite of our protests, they nearly 
used up the little flour we had, which we used to make 
gruel for little Samuel ; and they spoke very unkindly. 

'We had sent word by the returning servants of 
Mr. Wu of our robbery, and asked for the loan of one 
thousand cash. We waited in the caves four days 
for answer. We began to be uneasy, but as usual 
committed ourselves to God, waiting for His help. 
On the fourth day, a servant came from Mr. Wu with 
one thousand cash, but no mules, so we had to walk. 
The men who had helped carry our luggage up the 
bank claimed seven hundred cash for this service, and 
would not let us go unless we left with them our box 
as rent for the use of their cave four days. We man- 
aged to induce the servant who came with the cash 
to carry what baggage we had left. 

*We found the road very hard to travel, over the 
steep, rough mountains. In the broiling heat thirst 
parched us; I could walk only a little way and then 
sink down exhausted. Our baby's eyes were inflamed 
by the heat, and he suffered very much. But we had 
a small enamelled saucepan and a bottle of water, so 


1 62 In the Hands of the Boxers 

by preparing him some condensed milk which we had 
still, and native arrowroot, we kept him alive. 

' We did not go far the first day. It took much 
entreaty to get permission to stop in a village over- 
night. Next day we managed to hire a donkey for me 
to ride, and so finished the journey. Li-chia-san was 
the name of the village where the farm was. Mr. Wu 
had told us we could use his flour and rice at this 
farm ; but the tenant's wife declared she would not let 
us have food until she saw the cash for it, although the 
servant who came with us told her his master had sent 
us and given permission to use his food. We could 
not be forbidden lodging, so were given a cave outside 
the farmyard. We sent a message by the servant 
when he started home, asking Mr. Wu to lend us some 
more money, holding the clothes we had left with him 
as security. No answer came. 

'At sundown of our third day in Li-chia-san, we 
saw three men coming over the hill, and wondered 
whether they were messengers with money ; they 
turned out to be robbers. One of them we had seen 
in the ferrymen's cave, and he led the other two to 
us. One of them had a big knife, and said he was 
from Ich'uan Hsien Yamen. He whetted his sword 
and rushed at my husband, saying we had not invited 
them to eat. We ran to the tenant's house, and left 
the robbers to have their way with our things. They 
took everything they considered worth taking. We 
had before given my watch and some clothes to the 
tenant's wife to hide for us, and these they did not 
get. They were angry to get so little plunder, and 
threatened to take us to the Yamen. We did not 
know the Governor of Shen-si was friendly, so wanted 
to keep hidden. We could not give the robbers silver, 

Three Days in a Cave 163 

as they demanded we must do, but finally got rid of 
them by giving them a paper allowing them to take 
anything they wished from the box left at the ferry. 
Of course it had not much in it by the time they got 

' As soon as they were gone, four men came who said 
they were from Ich'uan Hsien Yamen with orders to 
arrest us. They were angry to find us already plundered, 
and went off to get their leader, who was about two 
miles away. The tenant now advised us to go to a 
cave deep in the mountains, where his wife would bring 
us food. As soon as it was dark we started, with the 
tenant's wife and young son as guides. The cave was 
only a small hole in the ground, from which my 
husband had to dig out lumps of earth, both to get 
more room and to build up a screen that the passing 
shepherds might not see us. The first day in this cave 
we had fire to make some gruel for the child. Then 
our matches were done, and we could not get a fire 
from native flint and steel, which we tried ; so there was 
only cold water and raw flour for a nine-months' babe. 
He suffered terribly from hunger. The first two days 
we had some maize meal gruel and bread brought us 
in the evening to eat. But when the tenant's son-in-law 
brought it the second day, he said we would get no 
more from them. Next day we waited hungrily till 
dark, but no one came near. So we crept out of our 
hole and started back to Li-chia-san, which was only 
a mile or so away. 

' The men at the farmhouse were very angry and 
brutal, but the women were kind. We asked them to 
help us by giving us a little flour, holding as security 
the few things of ours which were hidden with them. 
They flew into such a rage at the mere mention of such 

i64 In the Hands of the Boxers 

a thing that we did not dare speak of the matter again. 
By and by they offered to give us flour for a small 
travelling mirror which I had, and by this we were 
able to live on a while longer. It cut me to the heart 
to see my husband and child suffer so much from 
hunger. I could endure the hunger much better than 
they. Sometimes my husband was in awful agony 
of pain from hunger. But when I grieved about it, 
he said, " It is no matter what we suffer for Jesus' sake." 
In the midst of hunger and privation he could say, 
" I rejoice that through these sufferings the Church will 
be awakened into new life. The field is being watered 
with blood, and what a harvest there will be ! " He, too, 
was soon to join those who had shed their blood for 
poor China ; and his comfort was in the assurance that 
the sower and the reaper shall rejoice together. 

' We arranged with the tenant's son-in-law, a most 
villainous-looking fellow, to go to our old friend Mr. 
Wu and try to get some more help. The distance was 
only thirty miles, but he was gone seven days. We 
stayed at the farm waiting. We heard this son-in-law 
was such a bad man the landlord would not allow him 
on his place. So we were not surprised when he 
returned empty-handed, for no doubt he had not seen 
Mr. Wu at all. He seemed to have heard of the 
Boxers' offer of lOO taels (say £^,0 sterling) for every 
foreign head. He began to rage like a madman, 
snatched up his sword and rushed at us. But his wife 
and relatives held him back, and he did not manage 
to hurt us. 

'We now saw that we could not stay here any 
longer, and made plans to leave next day. We thought 
the war at the coast must surely come to an end soon, 
and we should be able to go on with our work at 

*My Yoke is Easy* 165 

Yungning. We felt safer in Shen-si than in Shan-si ; so 
thought of going north till opposite Yungning, then 
would cross the river and hurry secretly to the city and 
ask protection from the official, who we were sure would 
do all he could to help us. I still had my foreign 
scissors, and hoped we could persuade the ferryman to 
take them for our passage money. Next morning we 
turned our faces homeward — how we longed for home 
and rest once more after all our sufferings ! But what 
a long toilsome way lay before us ! 

' VVe knew not where we should find lodging, nor 
how we should get food ; for we were moneyless. We 
had only the clothes we wore, baby's quilt and pillow, 
the little saucepan, and a little bag of flour to make 
gruel for baby, and my scissors. But He who said, 
"The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have 
nests, but the Son of Man hath not where to lay His 
head," who had for our sakes become poor, and for 
whose sake we were now poor, had not forsaken us. He 
had said, " Take no thought for your life, what ye shall 
eat, or what ye shall drink ; nor yet for your body, what 
ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and 
the body than raiment ? " Had we not come to China 
in full reliance upon Him ? Before leaving Sweden for 
China I had said, " The Lord will care for me ; and if 
not, I am willing to go through starvation into heaven." 
Was He now to take me at my word ? I wondered. Or 
would He only try me ? However it would end, I felt 
that to die of starvation for Jesus who died for me was 
easy. I found it true, " My yoke is easy, and My burden 
is light." 

* When we set out from Li-chia-san, part of the 
people held back the tenant's son-in-law, who raged like 
a madman, and others escorted us out a little way. 

1 66 In the Hands of the Boxers 

Then we went on over the wild, steep mountains through 
the scorching heat. We avoided the larger roads, wish- 
ing to keep out of sight, and followed bypaths where 
we sometimes had to creep up mountain sides on hands 
and feet, with difficulty keeping from rolling down the 
steep slopes. The population was very sparse, but the 
people we met were kind. They gave us food at least 
once a day, and we always had some place to lodge. 
They told us to keep away from the Yellow River, as 
there were men there seeking to harm us. 

' On the third day we were told that to go farther 
north we must cross the Fen River, next in size to the 
Yellow River, but with shallow, fordable places; and 
that we had better come to the river at a ford. When 
we came to this river we could not tell where to try 
crossing it. After waiting till we had almost concluded 
to turn back, we saw an old man come down to cross. 
He agreed to show us the way over. The current was 
so swift it made one dizzy to look down, and the water 
was so deep it was difficult to wade. The old man took 
my hand, to keep me from being carried away. And I, 
by faith looking up to God, took hold of the hand of 
Him who said, "When thou passest through the waters 
I will be with thee, and through the rivers they shall not 
overflow thee." 

' When we had crossed the river, the old man showed 
us the way to his village ; so God gave us not only a 
guide across the river but also a lodging-place, for it was 
now sunset, and the region very desert-like. Weak as 
we were, it was a hard climb up the bank to the village. 
The people received us very kindly ; and supposing 
the next day was Sunday, we concluded to stop over. 
When we again set out on our journey, the old man 
gave us some directions about the road, which were not 

Seized by Ruffians 167 

very clear. We kept on till sundown, when we sud- 
denly came out of a narrow gully to a large village, 
where we saw the flags of a customs office. We had 
heard by the way that the official at Ich'uan had heard 
of our being in his region, and said he would neither 
help us nor harm us, so we felt it was necessary to keep 
hidden. But now we were seen by the villagers, and it 
was too late to turn back. They seemed to be expect- 
ing us, very likely having heard of our coming from 
some one who passed us during the day. My husband 
w^as very anxious, but we could only go on through the 
village, whatever might happen. The crowd which 
gathered round us made ribald sport as we passed, 
shouting in diabolic glee. 

' We passed clear through the place, and were going 
on our way, when some bad-looking ruffians came 
running after us. They seized my husband by the queue 
and me by the arm, and dragged us back to the village. 
They seemed determined to kill us then and there ; but 
some other men came and kept them from harming us, 
almost getting into a fight about us. So we were led 
away to a temple, and the men released us, alter much 
entreaty. We were now searched for " medicine." Then 
they shut us up in a tumble-down room, which looked 
as though it might be used as a prison. We found the 
name of the place was Anhoch'u, and that the men who 
seized us were underlings employed about the customs 
office. During the evening we received a pot of water, 
some fuel, and one " shen " of rice, sent by the gentry as 
prison fare. 

' Next morning, when they came to drive us out of 
Shen-si, my husband pleaded to see the customs officer ; 
but to no purpose. Two men were appointed to escort 
us. The younger was an evil-countenanced rogue, 

i68 In the Hands of the Boxers 

unarmed ; the elder was many-fold more villainous- 
looking, and carried a sword, which he kept prominently 
in view. Again our small stock of belongings was over- 
hauled by enemies. They emptied the feathers from 
Samuel's poor little pillow and burned them. One of 
them seized my Bible ; but the vehemence with which 
I declared I could not and would not part with that 
Holy Book seemed to touch the heart of even this 
ruffian with his murderous sword ; and after turning 
over the leaves a little, he hesitatingly handed it back 
to me. Our two guards now growled at us to move on, 
and the crowd moved with us, that evil-looking wretch 
following us swinging his sword. 

* We went on till noon, when we halted at a farm, 
and our guard ordered the people to furnish food for 
us and them, as they were on public business. The 
farmers refused, saying this was no public business, but 
only their own wicked affair. They said they were 
willing to feed us, but not our oppressors. They de- 
manded we should be set free. They also spoke to us, 
and told us these rascals were only wanting to make 
some money, and we had better give them some, even a 
few hundred cash, and get free. We said we had no 
money, and asked them to loan us a little, which we 
would repay many times over. But they evidently did 
not think that we could escape alive any way, so did not 
trust our promises. I was feeling very ill, and the 
farmers' people, seeing my condition, prepared a place 
for me to rest. But before long the guides came and 
ordered me to get up and go on. The farmers offered 
me a donkey to ride, but the guides would not allow it. 
So we had to go on as before, God giving us strength 
for the way. 

' We were led along through a wild, desolate gully 

^I Feared Foul Play' 169 

in the mountains. Some men came along with laden 
donkeys ; our guards shouted threateningly at them to 
get out of sight, and they hurried away. Once they led 
us aside from the road into a deep, pit-like ravine, and 
told us to sit down and rest. I feared foul play, and said 
we could not rest here, but must be going on. Again, on 
the summit of a hill they ordered us to sit down, but 
again we refused. The younger of our guides afterwards 
told us they had several times been about to kill us, but 
he persuaded the other to wait. Along the way they 
beguiled the time singing of the three slaves going out 
to be killed. When night came we lay on the bare 
stone floor of a theatre, too cold in our thin garments 
to sleep. We were glad of the morning, when we could 
at least move along to keep warm. 

'We were now nearing the Yellow River, and 
pleaded to be released ; but the men refused unless we 
had some valuables sewed up in our clothes which we 
would give them. It seemed they were sure of some 
reward if they delivered us to the Boxers, so would not 
let us off for nothing. At last we came to the river, and 
the ferryman was compelled to take us over free, being 
told it was public business. There was a customs 
office on the other side of the river. We saw a Boxer 
" red lantern " outside a door, and knew the place was 
held by Boxers. Only the younger of our guides was 
with us, and he handed us over to the Boxers. They 
did not harm us, but led my husband into a shop with 
the " red lantern " over the door to have a talk with him. 
A crowd gathered around me and Samuel, and one man, 
cocking his head to one side with a sardonic grin, told 
me the Taning missionaries had gone back to heaven. 
I knew from this the ladies there had been murdered. 

' After a while my husband was led out, and we were 

I70 In the Hands of the Boxers 

told we should be taken back to Yungning. But they led 
us east instead of north, and we knew we were being taken 
to Taninghsien, twenty miles away. The young man 
who brought us to the customs station was with us still, 
and several of the Boxer followers. My husband asked 
them to give us over to the magistrate in Taning, instead 
of to the Boxers, but they would not consent. We went 
on two miles that evening to a village where Boxer flags 
were fluttering. They put us in a cave to spend the 
night. These caves are built of brickwork covered over 
with earth, and used as houses. Our guards lay down 
on the brick bed and smoked opium for a while, then 
went out and locked the door. They were gone so long 
we supposed they were preparing to kill us. But after 
a long time some food was brought us, so we concluded 
our hour had not come. My eye had become inflamed 
by the heat, and w^as badly swollen and very painful ; I 
was utterly exhausted, and that night I felt it was better 
to die than go on in this way. Yet God saw fit to spare 

' In the morning my eye was too swollen to open ; 
but that could not stop us. We went on, and at sun- 
set came to T'aochiao, ten miles from Taning. Here 
the Boxer general had his headquarters. Our guard 
seemed to fear him, and some would have run away but 
for the exhortations of the young guide who had come 
with us from Shen-si. He also advised my husband to 
go himself to the general and persuade him if possible 
not to kill us, as we would thus have more chance of 
mercy than if we tried to run away from him. Now we 
came to the temple where the general was. My husband 
looked much dejected ; but I had begun to hope the 
promise of a large sum of silver to the general would 
save us. I gave my husband a word which the Lord 

*I could only Pray' 171 

brought to us that mornmg, " Fear not, for I am with 
thee." This seemed to comfort him a little. Then we 
heard a stern voice in the temple say, "Bring in the 
man." The young man came out and led my husband 
inside, coming back presently with a few small articles 
they had taken from his pockets. He led me into the 
outer courtyard, and I sat down on a stone with Samuel 
on my knee. 

' My husband was speaking in pleading tones to some 
one in the temple, telling who and whence we were, and 
how we came to be no farther on the journey we had 
undertaken. He was quickly interrupted by a loud 
shrieking voice. Then I heard the sound of sharpening 
swords, followed a little later by a weird moaning, as of 
some one being tortured. My feelings were indescrib- 
able. I could only pray to God that He would shorten 
the sufferings of my poor husband and fill his heart with 
peace, and to give me courage to meet my suffering 
without fear. After a little I was surprised to hear my 
husband's voice again, speaking pleadingly and crying. 
Again he was interrupted, and there came the same 
moaning tones as before. Then all was silent. Without 
doubt my husband was killed, and I felt alone with my 
helpless babe. 

' It was now growing dark, and all the guards had 
left me. The thought came that I should creep away 
and hide among the mountains. I rose and started a 
few steps, then turned back and sat down again. The 
thought had come to me, " How can I go away and 
leave my poor husband to die alone ? " and I was almost 
ashamed of myself Pretty soon the men who had 
brought us here came hurrying out of the temple and 
pulled me behind a wall, saying, "The general is 
coming, and he can't abide the sight of a woman." 

172 In the Hands of the Boxers 

There was a great firing of guns and hallooing, and the 
whole crowd came out of the temple yard, as I supposed 
carrying out the corpse. 

* Now they came for me, and I thought, "It is my 
turn now." A sense of weakness overcame me, and 
though I wished to go I could not. A man reached out 
an iron crook for me to hold to. But then, seeing I could 
not walk alone, took my hand and led me down to the 
side of the little river. They told me to sit down, and 
I thanked God for another deliverance. The man who 
held my hand said they would not kill me. I asked 
about my husband, and he said they would not kill him, 
but had taken him to have a talk with the general, and 
to-morrow I should see him at a place three miles farther 
on ; then we would be taken to Yungning. I asked why 
we were not taken on together to-night, but got no 

* Soon we saw at some distance by the river shore a 
number of lanterns, and heard a great uproar, but could 
see nothing distinctly. After a good while, some of the 
men who had taken out my husband came along and 
said he had run away. It seemed strange to me he 
should flee, if he indeed had not been killed. Soon there 
came from the temple courtyard voices calling, as though 
summoning back the spirits of the dying. I then under- 
stood we had been condemned to die, but they had 
changed their mind. Afterwards I was told the spirits 
said we were not to be killed. I was led back to the temple 
court, and again sat down outside with little Samuel. 
Once more I heard the same weird moaning as when my 
husband was there, and now realised it was a part of the 
Boxer incantations. 

' Presently we were led away by a man and put in a 
cave. He gave us a bowl of water and went off with his 

*Go and Hide' 173 

lantern. In the darkness I could nnake out a pile of 
brickwork in one side of the cave, but not till next 
morning did I find it was a walled-in coffin, and we had 
been sleeping in a tomb. My baby slept well through 
the night and was good, although he had no supper but 
a little cold water, and had no cover for sleeping. His 
little quilt was thrown out of the temple after my 
husband. I took off my own gown and put it under the 
baby to ease the roughness of the straw on the floor. 

' It was so late in the morning before any one came 
to me, that I feared some evil plans against me and my 
child. Finally, a man brought me our little saucepan 
and some flour to make food for baby. Our spoon was 
gone, so it was hard to feed him. Then the man brought 
me some rice and flour porridge. While I was eating, 
two of the previous day's guards came and told me to 
hurry up, as I must start for Yungning at once. One 
of them said our luggage was near by, and he brought 
me baby's quilt and hat. The lining and ribbons of 
the hat had been torn off, so it was useless, and I had 
to shield the poor little fellow from the sun as well as I 
could under my own hat. 

' The men led me along some distance, when suddenly 
they cried, " Go and hide. The old gentleman is 
coming." I ran as directed along a little side-path, and 
crouched down around the corner. As I did so one of 
the men said, " Humph ! A gentleman indeed ! " The 
other retorted hotly, " Yes, one gentleman is just as good 
as another." We could hear distinctly the sound of 
approaching music ; but the procession went off by some 
other road. I supposed it was the general passing; 
perhaps searching for my husband, if he had really got 
away. When I rose up from concealment, my two guides 
had disappeared ; why, I do not know, but perhaps from 

174 In the Hands of the Boxers 

fear of the Boxer general. So I was left alone with 
little Samuel. Yet not alone. Oh no. Had He not 
said so distinctly to me yesterday, " Fear not, I am with 
thee " ? Yes, truly I had with me the presence of One 
who is "Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, Ever- 
lasting Father, Prince of Peace." I could see only 
with one eye, but I was guided by Him whose eyes 
"run to and fro through the whole earth, to show Him- 
self strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect 
toward Him." 

' Again I had to abandon a few little things to lighten 
my burden, but kept the quilt and saucepan. I started 
on a little distance, almost fainting from the heat. I 
came to a tree which cast a shadow by the roadside, and 
sat down to rest. I intended to find out the road to 
Taning, for we had heard Mr. Peat and others were in 
prison there, and to be with friends even in a prison were 
better than this awful freedom. There was a man 
sitting under the same tree, and I asked him to please 
tell me the way to Taning. 

' Scarcely had I spoken when a score or so of men 
wearing red turbans came rushing down the mountain 
side. These were the Boxers we had heard of They 
gathered in front of me as though ready to rush at me. 
I sprang up and started to flee. They started after me 
a few steps, but stopped and yelled at me savagely to 
be off. I said, " Yes, yes, I'm going," and got away as 
fast as I could travel. Well on in the afternoon I at 
last got permission to stop in the shade of a little temple, 
where I rested and prepared some food for the child. 
Many women came round me, and asked me a great 
many questions. They were kind to my little one, and 
gave me a bowl of rice to eat. They told me that at a 
village called Koh-ho-k'ou, three miles from Taning, there 

*I met only Enemies' 175 

was a party of Boxers, and I must go past that place 
very carefully. 

' I went on again till sunset, and was drawing near 
this village when I met an old man, who told me there 
were Christians in a village on the other side of the 
river. I was overjoyed at this news, and started to go 
across and find them. When I came to the stream I 
could see no crossing-place, but called to a man who 
came down on the opposite side to draw water, asking 
where the ford was. He pointed to the left and went 
away. Before I could find a shallow place, darkness 
came on, and I had to go through the water in the name 
of the Lord. Fastening up my clothes, I stepped down 
into the water. It grew deeper as I went on. My clothes 
came down and made it very hard to walk in the swift 
current. I went on safely till when, just nearing the 
shore, I suddenly stepped into deep water. I could see 
the rock just before me, and, crying to God for help, I 
found strength to throw the little bundle on shore, then, 
as the water was about sweeping us away, I felt myself 
lifted as by strong hands from the water and set upon 
the rock. Thank God we were safe from the flood, 
though wet to the skin. I comforted myself by thinking 
of being soon among friends, where we could rest in 

' I hurried up the bank to the village. But where I 
hoped to be received by friends with a warm welcome, 
I met only enemies. A man came out from the village 
and angrily threatened to give us over to the Boxers if 
we did not get away quickly. I told them my story, 
and entreated them to give me a little fuel and water to 
make food for my babe ; but they only jeered at my 
widowhood. Finally, they brought me a little cold water, 
and all went away. This was the first night we lodged 

176 In the Hands of the Boxers 

under the open sky. Sometimes before we had had no 
walls about us, but always a roof over us. Now there 
seemed none beneath the bright cold stars to show us 
pity. A wind sprang up — oh, how cold it was ! Chilled 
to the bone, I sat there shivering. I wrapped little Samuel 
in his wet quilt and laid him on the ground ; then, com- 
mitting ourselves to God's care for the night, I sat down 
on the trunk of a fallen tree, for it was impossible to 
think of sleeping in my thin, wet garments. 

' It was now entirely dark. After a while two men 
came along, and one of them began to excuse himself 
for not coming sooner, as he was not at home when we 
came. They said it would not do for me to stay there 
all night, and led me away to a cave, where we could 
sleep on the floor. That was all they could do. They 
said I had better start very early next morning. They 
then left me with a "God bless you!" and I knew they 
were Christians, but unable to help me because of the 
Boxers. And God did bless me, for, in spite of my 
wet clothes and a stone for a pillow, I slept soundly. 
Samuel slept well too, though he had only a little cold 
water for supper. 

* I awoke early and started before daybreak, hoping 
to pass Koh-ho-k'ou before it was light; but in the 
darkness I mistook the way, and wandered round till 
daylight. Then a young man led me over the river at a 
shallow place, and cautioned me not to go near the 
village. As I hurried on another man met me, and told 
me to go round another road, or the Boxers would see 
me. In spite of all my care, however, a boy saw me and 
ran to tell the Boxers. Before I was many steps beyond 
the village a crowd of Boxers with drawn swords and 
panting with running surrounded me. When I told them 
my husband had been killed and I set free, they roared, 

Kindness of Mr. Wang 177 

*' No nonsense ! " and drove me back to the village. But 
before we reached it a gentleman came out who 
befriended me, and told me not to be afraid, as I should 
not be killed. He ordered the Boxers to stop driving 
me, and told me to go into a temple. I did so, and he 
brought me some water and a little bread for Samuel. 
He gave his name as Wang, and said, as he gave me a 
pair of socks," You will remember my name when you 
think of me by these socks." He said I was to be sent 
home. This was the village headman, and none dared 
oppose him. 

' While I was in the temple, the Boxers came to have 
their morning worship before the idol. The confusion 
as they prostrated themselves, burning incense and 
repeating prayers, was very great. They shouted I must 
be driven out of the temple. My new friend appointed 
two men to escort me safely to Taning. The Boxers 
also accompanied us, and my two protectors had 
difficulty in keeping them from attacking me. One of 
them even carried the little bundle of baby's things. At 
noon we entered Taning through the west gate, and went 
direct to the Yamen. One of the gentlemen went in to 
report to the official my arrival ; the other waited with 
me outside, keeping me from the Boxers, who were 
jumping and stamping in a frenzy of rage at losing their 
prey. As soon as the official heard of our arrival, he 
sent the " Men-shang" (secretary) with orders to put us 
in the common prison, and ordered the Boxers to leave, 
much to their chagrin. I now learned that the Peat 
party had left for the coast only two days before. How 
I wished I had been in time to go with them ! but this 
was God's ordering, for they were all killed before they 
got out of the province. 

* The prison where I was put lay to one side of the 

178 In the Hands of the Boxers 

large Yamen courtyard. A strong iron-bound wooden 
door opened into a small courtyard ; alongside of this 
courtyard were two rooms. Both had earthen floors and 
were very dirty, with heaps of old sweepings lying in the 
corners. I was put in the smaller of the two rooms. 
The door opened on the court, and when that was closed 
a little light came through a small hole high in the wall 
There was a k'ang in the room caged in by bars reaching 
to the roof and separated into two cages. This looked 
like a place of confinement for the worst class of 

' There were two men in the prison : one an 
embezzler of 1000 taels (say ;6^i4o) sterling from the 
public treasury ; the other a robber, who was bound with 
handcuffs and had his feet in a wooden stock. The large 
outer door of the prison had a hole through the centre 
of it, and after a while there was passed in to me through 
this hole fifty cash, some bread, and half a water-melon ; 
and the prison keepers spoke kindly to me. In the 
afternoon I heard the prison door open, and was ordered 
to bring out the boy. Terror seized me as if a thunder- 
bolt had struck at my feet. In the morning I was told 
at the temple that all foreign males were to be killed 
and women sent home, and was advised to say my 
child was a girl. But when they had asked in the 
Yamen I had said it was a boy. So now I supposed he 
was to be killed. But they told me I was only going 
out to be questioned by the official. 

' So I was led into the courtyard of the Yamen, 
where the official sat high on his judgment-seat between 
two lictors, and ordered to kneel. This not being 
worship but only humility, I did so. He asked me 
sternly whence I came and how about my husband. I 
told him my story, saying my husband was killed. He 

A Happy Meeting 179 

interrupted me, saying my husband was not killed, but 
had run away, and that he would soon come; also 
saying he thought it best to keep me until he should 
come. I, of course, did not believe this story, thinking 
it was a way of getting out of the murder. As I told 
my story, the official began to speak in kinder voice to 
me, as though moved by pity. 

'The examination over, I was taken to see the 
secretary's wife. She told me she had offered a reward 
for finding and bringing in my husband, but found out 
that a man had already been sent to hunt for him. 
While waiting there, a message came that the official's 
wife wished to see me ; but when I was led in, she only 
stood on a balcony and threw down one hundred 
cash. Then we went back, and I was led away to the 

*0h, how desolate I felt as I sat there with my 
orphaned babe ! My heart was very heavy. But there 
was little chance for reflection about my misery with 
that awful pain in my eye. The day wore slowly away, 
and in the evening I spread a mat on the ground in the 
courtyard for a bed, as the k'ang (brick bed) in my 
room was too full of vermin for use. As the night grew 
colder, I went in and lay on the k'ang, where it was 
warmer, though sleep was impossible. Just as day 
began to break, I w^as falling into a doze when I seemed 
to hear some one call my name. Soon waking, I ran 
out into the courtyard and looked up to the hill over- 
shadowing the prison. My heart was beating wildly, 
thinking, " Is it possible my beloved is still alive and 
calling down to me there?" Again that longed-for, 
tender voice, " Olivia ! Oh, Olivia 1 " But it came from 
the hole in the prison door. I ran to the door, and, 
looking out, saw him whom I mourned as lost, and. 

i8o In the Hands of the Boxers 

flooded with joy, cried, " Oh, Alfred ! are you really 
still alive ? Praise God, oh, praise God ! " Speechless 
with emotion, he could only look at me. We could not 
even touch hands, for the gate was between. What a 
sight he was ! But for his voice I would scarcely have 
known it was he. His clothes hung in tatters, and his 
head was bound up with a piece of lining torn from 
some garment. 

' He was quickly led away from the loophole, and I 
could see some Boxers running wildly about in the 
Yamen yard — had they seized him again at last ? My 
heart sank at the thought. But no ; he had been taken 
charge of by the Yamen people, and the official was 
waiting to receive him. Soon the prison door was 
opened, and we were all taken together to a fairly good 
room in the Yamen. They brought me some water to 
wash his wounds, and a sort of powder to help them heal. 
Having no bandages, I washed the blood from his 
muslin shirt and tore it into strips. What a sight were 
his wounds ! A great piece of the scalp hung down 
loose ; one ear was crushed and swollen ; his neck bore 
two sword-gashes ; near the shoulder were two spear- 
cuts, one very deep ; and all his back was red and 
swollen from beating. I washed and cared for his 
wounds as well as I could. Then I boiled up some rice 
and mutton ; the secretary's wife also brought a bowl of 
meat soup. By this time it was near evening, and we 
were very hungry. When we had eaten a good meal, 
my husband made me glad by saying how much better 
he felt. With rest and quiet he would soon have been 
well. But that was impossible in an open room. People 
came to see us in crowds, and were so kindly and 
sympathetic we had not heart to keep them out, even if 
we had dared to try. 

^Ask your Jesus for Water' i8i 

* When we had quiet enough I heard my husband's 
story as follows : — 

* " When I was taken into the temple at T'aochiao, 
the Boxer general ordered me down on my knees. He 
asked me how many people I had misled and ruined. 
I assured him I had never in my life harmed any one. 
He would not listen to such talk, and had my hands 
bound behind my back, and I was bound to a block 
of wood. All the crowd began to kick and beat me, 
our former guards taking part. They heaped the most 
awful curses on the name of Jesus, making me shudder 
at their horrible blasphemies. When I asked them for 
a drink of water, they said, ' Ask your Jesus for water.' 
When all hope of life seemed past, I asked them to 
let me see and speak with my wife before I died. They 
said, * Ask your Jesus whether you may see her,' and 
brutally kicked me on the head. The thought of 
dying without one more sight of that dear face which 
had so long been my cheer was too bitter, and I sobbed 
aloud. As I lay there bound to the block, they said 
jeeringly, * Now ask your Jesus to deliver you.' I 
began fervently praying, ' Jesus, forgive them, for they 
know not what they do. But show forth Thy great 
power, that Thy name may be glorified.' 

' " After a little they loosed me from the block and 
led me away to the riverside, my hands still bound 
behind my back, to kill me, as they said. When we 
came to the river, they forced me down on my knees 
and began beating me on all sides with their weapons. 
They seemed unused to handle weapons, and so clash- 
ing one on another did not kill me at once. Loss of 
blood soon made me feel faint ; but I was so happy ! 
The sweetness of His presence filled me as never before. 
Cutting and stabbing were as nothing, and I felt no 

1 82 In the Hands of the Boxers 

pain. To my inward vision heaven seemed open, and 
one step would take me there. I longed for deliverance. 

**'Then came to me suddenly as a flash of lightning 
the thought of my wife and child. I asked myself 
whether you were still alive, and we should not die 
together. Roused by the thought, I suddenly leaped 
from the midst of the crowd into the water. Thirty 
or forty men were standing round me, Boxers and 
helpers. Two started to follow me, but feared the 
deep water. The others cried, * Good ! good ! he will 
die in the water.' I managed to get out on the other 
side, and with my hands still bound behind my back 
started to run up the steep hillside. Then there was 
a great hubbub to follow me ; but under cover of dark- 
ness I got out of sight. My shoes were lost in the 
water, so I went on over the rocks barefoot. After 
going twelve or thirteen miles, I dared to stop and free 
my hands by rubbing the cords on a stone till they were 
worn through. 

' " By and by on the top of a mountain I came to 
the home of a Christian farmer. They gave me food 
and drink and two hundred cash ; but they dared not 
keep me in the house, but took me to a cave to sleep 
the rest of the night. One man stayed with me for 
company. He told me I must not attempt to stay 
there, but go on very early in the morning. This I 
found strength to do, and set off for Yungning, still 
wishing to get home. As I crossed a stream, I stopped 
to wash away the blood which covered my body and 
clothes. I found a place to hide during the day, in a 
cave, from which I could see the people running about 
as if in search of something. [We learned later the 
Boxers offered a large reward for his head.] 

* " After dark I set out again for Yungning, but lost 

*I ran for my Life* 183 

the way, and came round again to the Taning road. 
Several times I was directed on the way to Yungning, 
but ahvays got back on the same road to Taning. 
So at last I came on, and when nearing the city heard 
my wife was already there, so felt encouraged to keep 
on and if possible share the prison with my family. As 
I was coming to the city the people told me to go in 
through the east gate, which was nearest the Yamen, 
so there would be least danger of discovery by Boxers. 
But, with all my care to keep concealed, before I could 
cross the short distance to the Yamen some Boxers 
discovered me, and started in pursuit. I ran for my 
life, and managed to escape into the Yamen, where I was 
received and protected." 

* With mingled joy and sorrow I heard the story of 
this marvellous deliverance, and together we praised 
God for saving v/hen all human hope of escape was 
gone, and for bringing us together again, even in a 

' Next day we were put in another room, which had 
no door. Worse still, there was hanging in an inner 
room a green beef skin which gave off a most nauseating 
stench. This made me so sick during the night that I 
knew not how to face the coming day. The plan was to 
send us in the morning to P'u Hsien, thirty miles away, 
and then on to the coast from county to county. We 
were treated by the Yamen underlings as beggars. 
They begrudged us even a little water, and we could 
get no place to cook the rice given us by the officials. 
We seemed in the way everywhere. My greatest pain 
was to see my wounded, suffering husband so maltreated. 
But he endured it all patiently, and said frequently, 
with a look of content, " It is nothing to suffer for Jesus' 

184 In the Hands of the Boxers 

' Some people came to visit us who showed by their 
treatment of us they were not of this world. My 
husband asked them secretly about themselves, and 
they said they were Christians, but their own tortures 
had been so great, and what they heard from other places 
so terrible, that they had renounced their faith. We saw 
their hearts still clung to the people of God, and they 
rejoiced to help us. We were glad to meet them, and 
exhorted them not to forsake the Lord. My husband 
said, "Poor people! They are like sheep without a 
shepherd." He said he would be willing to stay and 
gather together these scattered children of God. We 
were greatly cheered to hear how Pastor Ch'u, whom we 
both knew, had stood the test. Not only the Boxers 
sought his life, but a few renegade Christians, who 
blamed him for all the troubles which came upon them 
for their Christianity, watched for him where they knew 
he was hidden, but he managed to elude them all, and 
came through alive. 

' My husband arrived August 28. On the morning 
of August 30, two donkeys were brought to the Yamen 
to take us to P'u Hsien. They had only rough wooden 
pack-saddles, no cushions nor stirrups. In answer to 
prayer, the Lord gave me strength to mount and go 
on the journey. We were guarded by four soldiers 
and four Boxers, under an officer. Our hearts misgave 
us as we thought of again coming under the power 
of the Boxers. Our guard all treated us very 
brutally, except the officer, who tried to restrain the 
others a little when he was near. My husband found 
the rough, sharp pack-saddle so painful that he several 
times dismounted and walked a while. He was carry- 
ing little Samuel, and was unable to remount with him 
in his arms. When he asked some one to hold the baby 

Boxer Outrages 185 

he got curses for answer — " Throw away the creature ; 
you have enough to do to look out for yourselves." Not 
even the hostler would touch him, until my husband laid 
the child on the ground and mounted, when he could do 
no other but take it up and give it to him. 

' Seven miles from Taning, when passing a large 
village, a gang of Boxers rushed out to attack us. By 
great efforts, our guard held them back, and we escaped. 
The officer shouted at us to hurry along, and, gathering 
his men just at the edge of the village, blocked the road 
against the infuriated gang. A fight began, in which 
several Boxers were wounded, before they gave it up 
and went back to their temple. I was told the people 
of the village helped the officer to hold back the Boxers. 
We found no attention was being paid to a proclama- 
tion which my husband read in Taning Yamen. In this 
the Boxers were ordered to cease their outrages ; if they 
wished still to go on with their practices, they must fight 
only to defend themselves and their followers, but must 
not attack innocent people. Severe punishments were 
threatened for those who dared to disobey. Yet they 
went on with their robbing and killing just the same 
as ever, until suppressed by soldiers. No mention was 
made in the proclamation of protection for foreigners. 

* After passing the Boxer village, we went on our 
way quietly. The road was bad. We several times 
crossed a broad mountain stream, and once when cross- 
ing I was nearly half-way down in the water, when the 
hostler was ordered to help me up. We did not reach 
P'u Hsien in one day, but stopped in a village five miles 
from there, where we slept in a theatre. Next day 
(September i) we reached P'u Hsien in the forenoon. 
The official received us kindly, gave us good Chinese 
food, and even tried to buy milk for Samuel. Being 

1 86 In the Hands of the Boxers 

unable to obtain this, he bought a sort of moss called 
" nai-kao," which rich people give their children instead 
of milk. 

* He did not send us on that day. Mr. Peat's party 
had passed a few days before, and the officer who 
escorted them on to P'ing-yang had not yet returned ; 
we were to await his coming. He arrived that evening, 
and seemed to have bad news. Probably the P'ing-yang 
official was displeased at having foreigners sent on to 
him. The P'u Hsien people were very kind, and advised 
us to request permission of the official to remain there, 
as no Boxers had ever lived in the place. We had no 
opportunity to do so, for we saw no more of the official 
after he had received us. 

' Next morning, September 2, we were ordered to 
prepare for our return to Taning. I felt I must care for 
my husband's wounds ; but the Boxers who escorted us 
were enraged at this delay, and almost broke in the door 
of our room. The news of Mr. Peat's reception in P'ing- 
yang seemed to have renewed their courage; perhaps, 
too, they were angry that we should be sent back to 
Taning; at all events, they were quite frantic. When 
we came out to start, the same donkeys were waiting 
for us, but the guard had left. Three messengers were 
appointed by the P'u Hsien magistrate to go with us, but 
we saw only one. We hurried on to overtake the guard, 
and even this one messenger fell out of sight behind. 

' At noon we overtook the guard while they stopped 
for dinner. When the officer in charge saw us, he 
ordered us back to P'u Hsien, saying we could not go to 
Taning without the P'u Hsien messengers. Even he had 
now turned brutal towards us, and forbade our following 
them. They cursed the hostler for hurrying on and 
leaving the messenger behind. He got angry, and 

Parched and Hungry 187 

would not take us back. He was about to put down 
our luggage— only a few rags given us in Taning. The 
guard went their way and left us. We understood the 
messengers were unwilling to accompany us. In great 
distress, I began praying to God for help. The hostler 
was moved by pity, and again took up our poor baggage 
to go on. It seemed to me our only hope lay in 
following the guard to Taning, so I advised my husband 
to run after them, and I would follow with Samuel. I 
cried to God for help, and He who said, " Call upon Me in 
the day of trouble ; I will deliver thee," proved even now 
His power to help. Despite weakness from wounds and 
loss of blood, my husband ran like a racer, and soon 
caught up with the guard. After much entreaty and 
many rebuffs, he finally got permission for us to follow 
them, but we could not stop for food. Later they 
allowed us to gather some fuel and make some gruel 
for the baby. He, like me, was parched by thirst and 
weak from hunger. 

'As we drew near the village where the Boxers 
attacked us, the officer went ahead to try and prevent an 
outbreak. The Boxers of our guard said we could never 
get past this time. But the village people aided our 
officer's efforts, and not a Boxer appeared. Soon after 
this we had to cross the stream where it was deep. I 
was a little way in front, and crossed the stream safely. 
Just then I heard the baby crying most piteously, and 
looked back just in time to see my husband falling from 
his mule into the water. He had been walking, and the 
baby was still lying on the ground where he had laid it 
to remount. He had lost his balance, weak as he was, 
and in falling carried our little roll of baggage into the 
water. Now it seemed even the soldiers felt a sort of 
pity, for they almost beat the hostler for carelessness. 

1 88 In the Hands of the Boxers 

and ordered him to rescue the baggage, which was 
floating away. They also helped my husband from the 
water. Despite the wet and the weariness, he still said 
cheerily, " It does not matter." He walked a while to 
dry his clothes, but the day was closing, and he had to 
mount again and ride with the wet baggage under him. 
Even one of the Boxers looked at him pityingly, and said, 
" Poor man ! " I had also to walk a while to escape the 
torture of the pack-saddle. I was weak from starvation, 
exhausted by travelling, and could only use one eye, so 
I often stumbled and sometimes fell on the rough road. 

* The soldiers now showed me a little more kindness, 
and one of them said, " She cannot walk for want of 
food," and, giving me some dates which he picked from a 
tree, asked when I had last eaten. I could not walk far, 
yet the riding was so painful that before we reached the 
city I was crying like a child. At last we crossed the 
wide stream for the last time, and were back again in 
Taning. We had been troubled for fear we would not 
be received here again. But we were not only received, 
but given bread and boiled water, and allowed to 
occupy the same room with no doors. As the underlings 
would not allow us to make a fire to cook food here, we 
were glad when permitted to move into the prison and 
occupy the small room. There we had fire and water to 
cook the grain given us. Now a new testing-time came. 
Samuel had suffered so much from starvation and dis- 
comfort in travelling that he was very sick. By our 
third day in the prison he was too weak to even cry. It 
seemed almost impossible for the poor, limp little body 
to recover ; yet we pleaded with God to spare him. A 
man came who offered to sell us a can of condensed 
milk. The official gave us money to buy it. We after- 
wards bought fresh milk from a man who brought his 

*The Horror of those Hours* 189 

cow to us every day and let us milk her ourselves. The 
fresh milk was better than medicine, and we praised 
God as we saw Samuel revive and grow stronger. 

' The official gave us one hundred cash and one 
bowl of rice per day. We gave the cash for two bowls 
of milk for baby, and got on as well as we could 
with the rice for ourselves. We were hoping the 
end of our distresses was near ; but not so. The first 
days after our return to Taning my second eye began to 
swell and ache. I sat there night and day helpless 
and suffering. My poor weak husband soon collapsed 
entirely from the overwork, and lay there in a high 
fever. I had to care for him as well as I could ; but I 
had only a little sight left in one eye, and could do little 
for him and the helpless little babe. He finally began 
to grow delirious or something — what shall I call it? 
He acted as though out of his mind, and it was im- 
possible for me to keep him quiet. Once in the night 
he was haunted by the belief we were being chased by 
men who wanted to kill us. He caught up the baby 
and wanted to flee. I had to call in the help of the other 
prisoners. We spread the old bedding given us by the 
official on the vile brick bed, and, after binding his 
hands, tied him down on the bed. How the sight of it 
cut me to the heart ! 

* God only knows the horror and misery of those 
hours. We had been hoping there would be a turn for the 
better, but matters only got worse. Here lay my poor 
delirious husband, who had so lately been strong and 
cheerful ; there our baby, the picture of health and ad- 
miration of all when we left home, now a mere living 
skeleton, lay with his little head rolling down limply on 
his shoulder ; and I — well for me I could not see my own 
face, and surely there would be little comfort in the 

I90 In the Hands of the Boxers 

sight. My bitter cup of suffering was now full almost 
to running over. After that awful night my husband 
seemed to get a little better. I rejoiced to be able to 
loose his bonds, and in a few days we could join in 
prayer and take sweet counsel together from my precious 
treasure, the Bible ; my eyes began to grow better, and 
the baby too kept improving. How we prayed — I alone, 
or when my husband's mind was clear enough both 
together — that God would end our sufferings and bring 
us once more among our friends. Now we longed for 
peace as earnestly as when hidden in the caves of Shen- 
si we longed for the roar of foreign guns. 

* I was now buying only one bowl of milk per day, 
and used the other fifty cash to buy meat for my 
husband's dinner. The jailor scolded me for spending 
my money for meat. The official also cautioned me 
several times against wasting money. I longed for some 
more nutritious food for my husband in his weakness. 
Once he looked so longingly at baby's milk, and asked 
to taste it. But though I wished to give him milk, we 
could afford only one bowl a day to keep Samuel alive. 
If I had suspected how near his end my husband was, I 
would have gone, at the risk of my life, to the official 
and begged him to help me get more suitable food, and 
if possible save the poor flickering life. As it was, I 
began giving part of our rice for a little more milk to 
give my husband. This meant robbing myself of 
needed food. Still another blow came upon us when 
the official, hearing the use I was making of the rice, 
stopped giving it, and we had only the one hundred cash 
per day to feed three of us. A few days later our 
milkman disappeared, as the official had told him not 
to come. The prison den became intolerable to me. 
Harder than all the weariness and starvation for me to 

The Power of Prayer 191 

bear were the filth and the vermin. Only those who 
have been through it know the torture of these swarms 
of creeping, biting vermin. And the sight of them, 
adding to the tortures of my helpless, suffering dear ones, 
was horrible to me. The sight of them in such a con- 
dition, and I with no chance to care for them in a clean, 
cheerful place, brought scalding tears to my eyes. But 
I sought and found comfort from God in prayer. What 
rest of soul, when for a few moments I could close my 
eyes to the miseries which surrounded me, and look up 
to the " God of all comfort ! " 

'* From every stormy wind that blows, 
From every swelling tide of woes, 
There is a calm, a sure retreat — 
'Tis found beneath the mercy-seat." 

' Whatever might be denied me, no one could deny 
me the precious privilege of prayer ; and if it had been 
possible to deny it, I should have prayed on still. One 
of the gentlemen in the Yamen asked me once whether 
we still prayed in prison. I said we did. He asked 
what use there was in it, and other similar brutal 
questions. I explained as well as possible the blessing 
and glory of being a child of God, even the poorest. 
He then asked whether we were willing to give up our 
religion and accept theirs, or whether we were deter- 
mined to cling to our faith at any cost and on any 
conditions. I told him we had come to China because 
we loved their souls and could not see them perish. At 
my simple assurance of the peace of those who have the 
comfort of God's loving presence, he seemed much 
impressed and listened respectfully. That we, poor, 
suffering, abused even by fellow-prisoners, all for the sake 
of our faith, would still hold to that faith, seemed to 
surprise him. 

192 In the Hands of the Boxers 

' When my husband grew strong enough to talk 
intelligently, we spoke together of our thankfulness to 
the Lord for the experiences of His goodness He had 
given us through suffering. We saw it as a part of His 
training for us. We had often sung, " Give me a greater, 
higher, more perfect faith in Thee." My prayer for some 
time had been, " Lord, use what means Thou wilt, but 
make me ready for Thy coming." 

' He had taken us at our word. Now I wished only 
for Him to carry out His purpose with me. After 
sharing in the distresses of the poor in China, though 
only in temporal affairs, I can more fully sympathise 
with them and pray for blessings upon them. 

' One night we were awakened by loud voices and 
alarms outside the Yamen. In the morning we were 
told that a party of Roman Catholics had passed in the 
night. They said they had met us in Lung-wang-chan, 
where we left the boat, and my husband had given them 
poison to put in the water at some places. Now they 
wanted to see him to get some money for travelling 
expenses. The Yamen underlings sent them off with 
the assurance we had no money to give them. 

* We heard the " Yeh men " (head gatekeeper) of 
Sih-chow, only one day's journey away, had been killed 
by Boxers, and the official had escaped to Shih-k'ou, 
where there were said to be one thousand Boxers. There 
he had to promise 400 taels (say £60 sterling) ransom 
money. But a few days later three hundred soldiers 
arrived at Sih-chow, sent from P'ing-yang-fu, to put down 
the Boxers. Some they killed, imprisoned some, and 
scattered the rest. Orders came to Captain Li, who 
commanded the soldiers, to escort the foreigners in 
Taning to P'ing-yang, as they were to be sent to the 
coast. Orders seemed to have been received to protect 




\V. G. PEAT. 


E. G. HURX. 

[Sec p. 76, 

Return to Ping-yang 193 

us, for the Yamen people went hurriedly to provide us 
with new clothes. Several straw mats were also spread 
on our k'ang to make us a more comfortable bed. Our 
jailor seemed to think Vv'e were getting too much luxury, 
so he dragged away one mat and spread it to prostrate 
himself on when worshipping his idol. When he got 
through his worship I dragged the mat back again. A 
fellow-prisoner, who had once been employed in Yamen 
service, and so lorded it over the other prisoners, rebuked 
me for offending the idol. Plenty of food was also 
given us, and more promised whenever we needed it. 
A few days longer of this better treatment would have 
strengthened my husband for the journey to P'ing-yang, 
but it lasted only two days. 

' On October 4, Captain Li arrived with about ten 
soldiers. My husband, who had been able to be up 
for a couple of days, was called in to see the official. 
He still had a wish to go back to Yungning and go 
on with our work as soon as possible. They soon came 
for me also to go and see the official, perhaps seeing 
my husband was not very fit to decide our course. I 
told them I thought it best to get to the coast as 
quickly as possible. They promised to have us taken 
on from P'ing-yang at the earliest opportunity after our 
arrival there. So we made ready to start next morning. 
My husband was so patient and uncomplaining that 
I did not realise how weak he was. Had I known it, 
I should have chosen to remain where we were, poor 
as our position was. 

' On October 5 we started from P'ing-yang. My 
husband and baby were carried in a sedan chair ; I 
rode on horseback. We were well cared for by our 
guard. One of the soldiers asked me whether we were 
acquainted with the Governor, that he should give such 

194 In the Hands of the Boxers 

strict orders about caring for us. On October 6 we 
reached P'u Hsien. Our passage was to be provided 
by each official along the way on to the next one. At 
P'u Hsien we were furnished with a " chia wu," or rude 
litter, carried by two mules, and we went to P'ing-yang, 
two days' journey, in it. As we heard the Empress 
was soon to pass P'ing-yang on her way to Hsi-an, 
Captain Li advised us to stop in a village four miles 
from the city until after she had passed, fearing trouble 
if we were in the city. So we stopped in the village 
temple until October 12. We could get nothing but the 
coarsest food there, and my husband's stomach revolted 
from it. He was growing very weak, when, on October 1 2, 
they brought a large sedan chair for him. We crossed 
the river by a ferry, and were taken to the city in a cart. 
*We went direct to the Hsien Yamen, and I was 
told to go in and see the official. When I entered, he 
and Captain Li, who had gone on ahead of us, rose to 
receive me. Such courtesy after our usual treatment 
quite embarrassed me. The official told me we could 
go and live at the lady missionaries' house, and some 
of the foreigners' former servants would attend us. 
He also promised to supply all our needs — of course 
according to his ideas of our needs ; and told me that 
money had been sent to us from Hsi-an. When I went 
out they both followed me politely to the cart, where 
my husband was waiting with Samuel, too weak to 
walk. Then we were driven to the mission-house. It 
was uninhabitable. Doors, windows, and ceilings were 
gone, and the fireplaces torn down. But in the back 
courtyard was a small house which had been used as 
a school, in which we found one room where we could 
stay. It was small and close, especially when used as 
both kitchen and bedroom, 

Death of Mr. Ogren 195 

*We now heard that seventeen Shan-si missionaries, 
among them our superintendent, his wife and some 
ladies, had escaped to Shanghai. This was joyful news 
to us ; for during all these months we had heard of 
murdered missionaries and ruined stations. We had 
come to think the whole of Shan-si had become a death- 
trap, and every tongue which sang praise to God and 
witnessed to the Chinese of His saving love was silent 
in the dust, and we alone left. A few days before 
leaving Taning, we heard there were foreigners also 
in Hungtung and Ch'u-wu, but we disbelieved it. The 
report said we should all meet in P'ing-yang and go 
together to the coast. It proved true that Mr. M'Kie, 
Miss Chapman, and Miss Way of our Mission had been 
hidden in the mountains of Shan-si, where the storm 
of death raged fiercest, and were still safe in Ch'u-wu. 
We learned that the foreigners in Hungtung were 
Roman Catholics, four in number. We heard our 
friends in Ch'u-wu were not willing to come to P'ing- 
yang. So Captain Li asked me to write them a letter, 
and send it with some soldiers to escort them over, 
telling them to come with the soldiers and have no 

'During the night of October 14, two days after 
we arrived in P'ing-yang, my husband was very low. 
I could not sleep much for anxiety, and yet was too 
tired to stay up. I rose several times to care for him 
when he called me. Towards morning he asked me 
to feel his pulse, and I found it very slow. This seemed 
a sign the fever had left him, and thinking no more 
of it I fell asleep. When I woke in the morning, he 
was lying as though heedless of his surroundings and 
wanting nothing. 1 prepared some condensed milk for 
him, and the cook went over to the bed to give it to him, 

196 In the Hands of the Boxers 

but said quickly, '* He cannot take it." 1 began giving 
it to him with a spoon, but he raised his head and 
drank the milk, then fell back, and a pallor overspread 
his face. A terrible fear seized me, and I seemed to 
almost lose my senses. While I was praying, a change 
came over him. He grew warmer, and the colour came 
back to his face. I thought he was better, and might 
yet be spared. He fell into a deep, calm sleep, and I 
sat beside him, keeping away the insects which troubled 
him. I had staying with me a young widow whose 
husband was killed in the recent troubles. She came 
in with Samuel crying in her arms. I did not want 
the crying to disturb my suffering husband, so asked 
her to take my place by the bed while I should comfort 
the child. Presently I heard a faint sound from the 
bed, and asked, "What is that? " " It is nothing," she 
said, though she must have seen a change come over 
his face. A few minutes later I rose and went over to 
his side. A single look showed me the truth. The 
weary, suffering pilgrim had gone into the presence of 
the King to receive the martyr's crown. 

'What this meant to me I do not attempt to 
describe. No human words are full enough of sadness 
to tell the awful loneliness I felt. No tears were bitter 
enough to ease my aching heart. The storm of grief 
overwhelmed me till God gave me comfort. When I 
had calmed down a little, I prepared to wash and dress 
his poor body. I w^ondered at the marvellous change 
that had come over his face. He had looked so 
haggard and drawn before ; but now his features were 
relaxed, and a look of quiet, peaceful happiness filled 
his face. All the pain, all the suffering, all the loss 
were gone for ever, and only joy remained. He seemed 
to me to look just as though ready to go in to a feast 

Burial of Mr. Ogren i97 

amon? friends. Looking on that calm peaceful face, 
I could almost hear in seraphic tones, "O death, where 
is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? 

'The cook helped me prepare the body for bunal. 
But here was only the scarred remnant of what his body 
had been. Starvation had worn him to mere skin and 
bone I do not know how many bed-sores he had ; and 
one deep spear wound had not yet healed. There was a 
sort of poor comfort in thinking that body would never 
again suffer torture at the hands of Boxers Even 
though I might yet have to die by them I should be 
spared seeing my beloved husband tortured. As for our 
little Samuel, we had often prayed that if we were to die 
by the Boxers he might be taken home first ; and when 
he was still spared to us we drew comfort from the 
hope of yet escaping. 

' I sent word to the official of what had happened. 
Captain Li came to see me, and tried to comfort me. 
So did the soldiers and Christians. But human 
sympathy does not go far at such times. God wonder- 
fully comforted me, and to my heart came with power 
these words, heard long ago outside the gate of Mam, 
" Weep not." I felt the truth of the song : 
"Lonely? No, not lonely, 
When Jesus standeth nigh ; 
His presence fills my chamber, 
I know that He is nigh." 

' We bought a coffin the same evening, and the next 
morning we took the remains outside the city to a place 
where the bodies of strangers are deposited till they can 
be removed to their native places. I thought if I should 
return I would have the remains taken to T'ai-yuan for 
burial, beside our little son who sleeps there " till Jesus 

198 In the Hands of the Boxers 

* After my husband's death I was much occupied 
caring for my Httle Samuel, who was very ill, and seemed 
about to be taken from me. But with the money sent 
me from Hsi-an I bought a cow, and the fresh milk soon 
revived him, and he grew fat and well. 

* October 24. — I had the glad surprise of meeting Mr. 
M'Kie, Miss Chapman, and Miss Way, who came from 
Ch'u-wu. This was a great comfort in my loneliness. 
I could not speak as I pressed their hands, and their 
faces spoke deep sympathy with me. I was very weak, 
and gladly gave over the housekeeping to Miss 
Chapman. Miss Way took charge of my little boy, 
and with sisterly love helped me night and day 
unsparingly, until at last we were safely in Hankow. I 
rejoice to think of her reward, promised to those who 
" have done it unto one of the least of these." 

* The long, trying journey to Hankow had to be 
deferred because I was unfit to travel. We removed 
to Dr. Wilson's house, and arranged to borrow 60 taels 
(say ^10) per month from the official. Secretary Ch'ien 
went security for us. He also helped us to send letters 
to the coast, by enclosing them with a letter to his son 
in Chefoo in a large official envelope. In this way they 
were safe. 

' It was unsettled times in P'ing-yang. Bodies of 
troops were constantly passing either toward T'ai-yuan 
or westward to join the Imperial forces in Hsi-an. 
Once a party of them tried to enter our premises, but 
were checked by the officials. Another time we were 
much alarmed to hear that Yii Hsien, the notorious anti- 
foreign Governor of Shan-si, was coming to the city. 
Some said he had been deposed, some said he was still 
Governor ; but we agreed to fear the worst as long as he 
had any power. The officials went out to meet him, and 

Boxer Power Broken 199 

even our guard was called away to go. We sat there 
looking at one another in bewilderment. We felt there 
was no rest for us until that man was gone. Suddenly 
some one ran in with a visiting card. We were frightened, 
thinking our hour had come. A strange official was wait- 
ing in the outer courtyard wishing to see us. I thought, 
" It is the Governor." But, looking at the card, I saw the 
name Tsen. He proved to be a deputy sent from T'ai- 
yuan. When he came in with Captain Li we were still 
anxious, for we did not expect any good designs upon us 
from T'ai-yuan. But he explained he had been sent to 
learn who we were, and guard us safely to the coast as 
soon as possible. This put us more at ease. Next day 
Governor Yii arrived, but went on his way toward 
Hsi-an. He was reported to have said he would take 
the first opportunity to complete the work he had begun 
of exterminating foreigners. We did not yet know how 
the outrages had been checked by outside nations, but we 
knew the power of the Boxers was broken. It seemed 
marvellous that there were still alive in Shan-si four 
missionaries, after all that had happened. 

' On December 6 the Lord gave me a little daughter, 
sound in body and mind ; which was another of God's 
great mercies, seeing what I had passed through. 
Secretary Ch'ien's wife now visited me often, and showed 
much sympathy. We sent a messenger to Yungning 
with a letter asking the official to send me some of my 
boxes. Just before we left P'ing-yang, the messenger 
returned with some boxes, and a very cordial letter of 
sympathy from the official. He asked what he Vv-as to 
do with the rest of my property. He also sent a letter 
to Secretary Ch'ien, with whom he was acquainted, and 
told him how much he had valued my husband. After 
this the secretary visited me, and showed us more 

200 In the Hands of the Boxers 

attention than ever. He brought his ten - year - old 
daughter, a bright and beautiful girl, and told me she 
should be my daughter, — a polite expression. He 
ordered her to salute me, which she did most gracefully. 
Thereafter she always called me mamma. 

'On January 6 we started for Hankow. One 
hundred foot-soldiers and sixteen cavalry, under two 
officers, went with us as far as Huai-ch'ing-fu in Honan. 
Fifty of the foot-soldiers and one officer returned from 
there on January i8. We went on through Honan and 
Hupeh. The soldiers were very kind and helpful to 
us, and showed especial interest in Samuel. The long 
journey was very tiring. There was much severe cold, 
but the Lord kept us safely all the way. At last we 
came in sight of foreign houses and a railway. It seemed 
like entering a new world. But we still had several 
days' journey. Two days from Hankow we met three 
missionaries, Messrs. Jones, Ridley, and Robinson, who 
had come to meet us as soon as a telegram reached them 
telling where we were. They had proposed coming all 
the way to P'ing-yang to meet us, but the officials dis- 
approved. They had baskets of food and things for 
spreading a table ; but worth more than all this was the 
opportunity of prayer and praise to God, and the warm 
welcome which they brought. Two other missionaries 
had gone three weeks' journey by boat up the Han River 
to meet us, but we did not come that way. 

* A great company of missionaries came to welcome 
us when we arrived in Hankow on February i6, and to 
see the strange conveyances and weather-beaten guard 
that had brought us out of the land of death. We were 
overwhelmed with love, sympathy, and kindness. Mr. 
M'Kie and Miss Chapman went on to Shanghai, but I 
waited with Miss Way for the return of Messrs. Gould 

Arrival at Shanghai 201 

and Harding, who had gone up the river to meet us 
with supplies. February 25, we took steamer. As we 
passed Wuhu and Chinkiang, friends came to meet us and 
extend a welcome. February 28, we arrived in Shanghai, 
and met a most hearty reception. Though among those 
we had not before known, we were really among friends. 
It was most touching to see the generosity of friends in 
England, who "^have contributed so abundantly to the 
losses of those who had lost their all. The needs of both 
myself and my little ones have been largely supplied by 
these gifts, with those of other kind friends. The Lord 
will reward all such service done in love for His name. 

' Thus far on my pilgrim w^ay, after all the Lord has 
given me to bear, I can say from my heart : 

' " Hitherto hath the Lord helped me" ; and the song 
of my soul is : 

' " Bless the Lord, O my soul ; and all that is within 
me, bless His holy name." ' 


The Flight from Honan 

i. the canadian presbyterian missionaries 

The escape of the Canadian Presbyterian missionaries 
from Honan is thus described by the Rev. J. Goforth, 
who was one of the party,and himself suffered severely : — 

* All was quite peaceable in the city of Cheng-te-fu 
when we left on June 28, 1900, but there were rumours 
of fighting in the north. We had official protection, 
and the officers seemed desirous of aiding us. We were 
told, though, that if the Boxers came our safety could 
not be guaranteed, willing as they were to do so. It 
was just at this time that the British Consul at Tien-tsin 
advised us to go to Chi-nan-fu, the capital of Shantung, 
as we could get by that route via canal to a steamer at 
the coast, which was chartered to take off missionary 

' As soon as we heard that, we asked the prefect to 
let us have an escort. He treated us very discourteously, 
leaving us waiting in an outer room, and would not 
receive us. There were crowds of natives outside jeering 
at us. Only the gatekeeper showed a friendly disposi- 
tion, taking our message in to the prefect. He came back 
saying the prefect refused to do anything for us. We 
told him we knew the Treaties, and that he must grant 

Divide into Two Parties 203 

us an escort, and send word to the next district that 
night that we were coming. When leaving, I said, " The 
Foreign Powers have seized Taku, and a settlement of 
this trouble must come." 

* Next day he sent over, saying we could have all we 
wanted, but that the carters would not go to the north- 
east {i.e. the direction of Chi-nan-fu, Shantung). "If 
you go to the south," he said, " I will give you a good 
escort, but only to Fan-ch'eng ; I can only send word 
from place to place." He sent soldiers and deputies to 
Wei Hsien-fu, and but for them we should have had a hard 
time. When stopping at an inn after the deputies left, 
the natives threw stones over the walls into the inn yard. 

' We got soldiers and deputies from Wei-hsien-fu, and 
from there to the south of the Yellow River we had 
perfect peace. At the Yellow River we met Messrs. 
Jamieson, Reed, and Fisher, engineers working in Honan 
for the Peking Syndicate, and we had the benefit of 
their escort ; otherwise things would have gone hard 
with us. This was now the ist of July. We travelled 
together, and reached Nan-yang prefecture safely. Mr. 
Jamieson and his party were anxious for the safety of 
all of us, and as they had not sufficient force to protect 
us all, Mr. Jamieson said he had heard that the district 
was disturbed, and that he would try to make for Nan- 
yang-fu in the night. We were to stay at Hsin-tien, a 
market town about ten miles from Nan-yang-fu. He 
would go on to Nan-yang-fu, the prefectural city, and 
get troops to guard both parties. 

' We decided to divide our party, each taking separate 
roads. These parties consisted of Messrs. Slimmon 
and Mitchell and their families, who went with the 
engineers, and got through in safety. The other party 
consisted of Messrs. Goforth, Mackenzie, Leslie, with 

204 The Flight from Honan 

their families, the Messrs. M'Intosh, Douw, and Pyke. 
Mr. Jamieson divided his escort to help us, and said he 
would get another for us. In this Mr. Jamieson failed, 
the prefect saying that China was at war with other 
countries, and could have nothing to do with any of us. 
We only heard this next morning. About two hours 
after our arrival on the evening of July 7, our innkeeper 
brought word that there were seventy armed men coming 
to take the inn and all we had. These men asked for 
money, and were refused. We sent to the local magis- 
trate a message, to the effect that we held him respon- 
sible for us that night. We barricaded the inn gates 
with carts and all sorts of things, and collected stones 
etc., for our defence inside the yard. 

' All passed quietly that night. Our messenger came 
back from the prefecture, saying Mr. Jamieson had had 
no success there, and we should have to make our way 
as he had done ; there was no hope of help from him. 
Our carters refused to go on until we gauranteed to pay 
them for all their losses. This delayed our start till 8.30 
a.m. Then the mayor of the town ordered us to go, say- 
ing he would send an armed escort to take us ten miles 
on our way. He knew he was sending us into a trap, and 
showed his duplicity very clearly. When we started, 
the streets were crowded with people, and the walls of 
the city were swarming with them. Outside the south 
gate there seemed to be ten thousand of them. Pre- 
sently we saw two bands of several hundreds, armed 
with swords, spears, and guns, one lot standing in a 
body waiting for us, and the other lot along the wall, 
ready to attack us in the rear. There was nothing for 
it but to go on, our little band consisting of five men, 
six women, and five children, sixteen in all. We had 
only three revolvers amongst us. The whole crowd 

Attacked by a Mob 205 

came on us with a rush. They began pelting stones at 
our covered carts, but fortunately we had them lined 
and covered with rugs, on account of the heat, and none 
of the missiles came through. Failing in this, they cut 
our animals across the back with swords, and when they 
were all tangled up we had to defend ourselves. I got 
nine wounds on my arms and hands, the only serious 
one being on the head, at the back of the skull. That 
knocked me over for a while ; I also got eight blows 
with clubs, one partly stunning me, and I felt pretty well 
done up. They also attacked the cart where my wife 
and eight-months' old child were. One ruffian made a 
desperate stab at my wife, but she warded off the blow 
with a pillow. Another cut was made, but she warded 
off its effect with a quilt. My little boy of nine, and a 
little girl of six years of age, had many narrow escapes. 
Taking my wife and family away from the cart, we left 
the horde to plunder it. Some of them followed us into 
the open, saying, " We'll not let you go farther south ; 
we will keep you." My little girl got a heavy blow on 
the chest from a large piece of dried earth. My wife 
pleaded with them, speaking of their usual kindness to 
children, and that seemed to have a good effect, as they 
then left us. 

' We next reached a village where we received much 
better treatment, the people giving us medicine for our 
wounds, and also food and clothes for the children. One 
of my four little ones was away in another cart, and 
these people at once said they would find and bring her 
back. These people, it appears, were Mohammedans. 
They were alarmed at our presence, and wanted us to 
leave, saying we would all be killed. The men, however, 
said they would fight for us. 

' Mr. Griffiths, another member of the party, had a 

2o6 The Flight from Honan 

revolver, but it was broken in his hand by a stone at the 
first onset of the crowd. He then got a big club, and 
with his back to the cart fought like a hero, keeping the 
swordsmen at bay, although badly cut. Mr. M'Kenzie 
used his revolver to frighten the mob, and he too was 
severely bruised. Dr. Leslie, who was seriously injured, 
also had a revolver. His wife had been very seriously 
ill for some time, and he was guarding her, when a 
fellow sneaked up with a sword and nearly severed his 
right hand. He was cut, too, on the knee, and the 
tendon of one leg was cut through. 

' At one time, when Dr. Leslie and his wife were 
going along in their cart, a man came up and attacked 
them with a sword. The doctor had only one cartridge 
left in his revolver, and in self-defence he shot and 
killed his assailant. The rest of our party, consisting of 
three men and three women and a child of seven years 
of age, had gone on ahead, and they were " held up " by 
robbers. The women put their rings and watches on 
strings round their necks and inside their dresses, and 
the ruffians tore their clothes open and wrenched the 
jewellery off with brutal force. They actually attempted 
to take the women's skirts off, but a remonstrance from 
one of the party caused them to desist. From the 
villages on the way they begged food and drink, but 
none would help them. I sent a message for help to 
the brigadier-general at one of the towns on the way, 
and he sent fifteen horsemen, but they really did us 
more harm than good. He told the people in a low 
voice that there was war going on, and that they had no 
business to protect us, and then he went off to the city, 
leaving us to come on as best we could. This officer is 
named Yin, and this action might easily have resulted 
in the massacre of the whole party. 

Defended by Chinese 207 

' The crowd at Nan-yang was very unfriendly. We 
got to an inn, and they swarmed into the place. We 
were in a small room on two native beds, and the room 
was so packed that it was stifling. For hours they 
made a show of us, and our women had neither food nor 
rest. I sent to the Yamen for protection and food, and 
a man came, but could not keep order. Food was 
brought, and they told us we would have to go, by 
order of the military official and a man attached to the 
magistracy. We said we had no food nor anything 
else, and that the authorities must provide us with food 
and money. We told the military official he had 
allowed us to be robbed, and that he would have to 
give us an escort. I told him the Foreign Powers were 
going to deal with China, and that if we were ill-treated 
they would have to answer for it. He promised us an 
escort of forty foot and twenty horsemen, but we could 
not stop there that night ; we must go right on. We 
replied that we would not leave until the military 
arrived. Then three times people cam.e saying the 
troops had come, and we must go. I found out each 
time that this was not true, but at last a party of eight 
or ten soldiers did come. They told our servants we 
were all to be killed that night, and advised them to 
leave us. One man cleared out, but the other two men 
and one woman stuck to us bravely. The woman once, 
when sheltering a two-year-old child, was threatened 
with death, and she said she would guard the little 
one with her life. One of our China boys also bravely 
defended a child at the peril of his life. 

' We saw that we were being followed, and decided 
to leave, as we might as well be killed on the road as in 
the inn. The mob had been besieging the Catholic 
Mission there for some days. It had been decided, we 

2o8 The Flight from Honan 

heard, that the brigadier-general, with all his troops, 
should go out and destroy everything, and leave nothing 
belonging to the foreigners. The people said these 
orders were from Peking, and that all the foreigners 
were to be killed. Our departure was made at i a.m. 
Mr. Jamieson had got there a day ahead of us, and so 
out of this trouble. When we had got outside the south 
gate, it was discovered that Mr. Griffith and Paul (my 
" boy ") were missing. We sent a man back to look for 
them, and hallooed. It was found that Mr. Griffith and 
Paul had left the cart, and we feared they were lost. 
Mr. Griffith had only his socks on at the time. We 
halted for an hour and a half, but got no word further 
than that the carter had seen them alight in the southern 
suburb. It endangered the whole party to remain 
longer, and we saw signal lights flashing at the south 
gate. We left one of our five carts for the missing ones, 
and went on. 

* Before we had gone seven miles every soldier had 
left us. Then the carters refused to go on, and were 
going to cast us off in the road and go back. This 
caused a great crowd to gather, and a man of some 
responsibility inquired the cause. He was very angry 
with the carters, and said he would have them beaten 
if they did not go on. He came some distance with us. 
After he left us, men with knives and swords stopped us 
again and again, snatching up anything they could lay 
hands on. Our people were all in their blood-stained 
clothing, and the children were in rags. This excited 
some pity, and one man who came to rob, led us through 
three different places and protected our amah. My pith 
hat, split by a sword cut, was snatched from my head, 
and when I tried to regain it, it was torn to pieces. 

' We next got to Watienlu, a big market town sixty 


Mr. Jameson's Timely Aid 209 

li from Nan-yang, and here I met two men who knew 
me. They at once came to our help, and their friendly 
attitude had a good effect on the crowd. When I 
mentioned that Mr. Griffith and Paul were missing, they 
promised to do all they could to find them, and sent two 
men with us, who took us safely to Hsin-yeh-hsin, forty 
miles south of Nan-yang. In the afternoon a messenger 
overtook us, saying that the missing ones had arrived at 
the place we had left, and that wheel-barrows would be 
sent to meet them, and that same night they rejoined us. 
'At Fan-ch'eng, Mr. Jamieson had a man waiting 
with 50 taels (about £"]) for us, and the magistrate also 
offered us money. Mr. Jamieson kindly had secured 
inns for us at Fanchen, and he very generously offered 
us 500 taels (about £']0). It is impossible for us to 
fully express our gratitude to Mr. Jamieson. He sent 
telegrams ahead to the Viceroy of Wuchang, Chang 
Chih-tung ; and that official, to whom our warmest thanks 
are due, sent up two gunboats and two boatloads of 
soldiers, to escort our reunited party down to Hankow. 
Again Mr. Jamieson's good offices stood us in splendid 
stead, he sending a steam-tug ; otherwise we should have 
made little progress against the head winds. With Mr. 
Jamieson, Messrs. Reed and Fisher, engineers of the 
Peking Syndicate, were kindness itself. The U.S. 
Consul at Hankow sent his Vice-Consul, Mr. Brown, on 
the tug to meet us, and with him came Mr. Chapen, U.S. 
Episcopal missionary at Hankow. Our hearts were 
too full to speak our gratitude at the kindnesses we 
received. At Hankow, Mr. Jamieson secured the best 
cabins on the steamer for the women, and himself went 
into the native quarters on board. The luxury of good 
plain food was heartily enjoyed by the half-famished 
people, and we all were treated with the utmost 

2IO The Flight from Honan 

hospitalit3^ Altogether, we lost property and effects 
valued at 10,000 taels (about ;{i'i40o), and Mr. Jamieson 
himself was a very heavy loser.' 

The experiences of Mr. Griffith and Master Paul 
Goforth, when they lost the party at Nan-yang, are full 
of interest, and the Rev. J. Griffith thus describes their 
adventures as ' a day and a night in peril ' : — 

* About midnight, it seemed useless to longer resist the 
persistent demands of the officials that we should leave the 
city. We had told them that, unless they gave us money 
and an escort, they might come and massacre us all in the 
inn, but we would not budge. They had yielded so far 
as to give us a few soldiers, and cash to the value of 
about eleven dollars. An hour after midnight, we 
grouped ourselves upon five bare carts — selected from 
the ten which we had formerly occupied — and started 
out. The narrow, silent, tortuous streets, the knowledge 
that bitter enemies were all about us, and the recollec- 
tion of the events of the last twenty-four hours, — these 
altogether gave one a strange feeling. But all our foes 
were not asleep, for the soldiers with us were acting very 
strangely, and we knew what threats they had been 
making in the inn yard. We had purposely arranged 
the carts with Mr. Goforth's in front and mine last, keep- 
ing the rest of the company between us. I suppose I 
noticed the actions of the soldiers more carefully than 
any one else, on account of what I had heard, and could 
not but observe how they divided into two small bands 
and surrounded the first and last carts as soon as we 
were on the street. 

* At the first town, those about my cart gathered in a 
group, stuck their swords up their left sleeves, whispered 
suspiciously together, and then sent some of their number 
hurriedly down a side street. My carter had noticed 

Paul Goforth 

2 r I 

their action too, and leaning over toward me whispered, 
in terror, his conviction that we were to be massacred in 
a few minutes. I replied that it might be well for me to 
leave the cart and walk along the dark side of the street, 
in order to watch developments. He answered that the 
plan was a good one ; so I descended, and, as little Paul 
Goforth was entrusted to my care, took him along with 
me. After telling the ladies in front to leave their carts 
in case an alarm were sounded, we skirted along the wall 
on the left side of the street. Soon I noticed that it was 
the outer city wall, and that it was broken down in many 
places. A river flowed within a hundred feet of it, 
but between the two was a winding path. This sug- 
gested the plan of keeping outside the wall and 
watching our treacherous guard through the successive 
breaks in it. 

' This plan was found to be all right for a while, but 
presently the wall was more perfect, and just there the 
carts suddenly turned off at a right angle, and we found 
ourselves compelled to go some distance to a place where 
we could recross. By that time the carts were lost in 
the darkness, and their usual noisy rattle seemed to have 
ceased. Possibly they were on a piece of sandy street. 
At any rate, pursuit seemed useless, so I formed a 
resolution to follow the river and get as far as possible 
from the city before morning. To tell the truth, I felt 
that I should never again see the dear friends from whom 
we had been parted, and plans for saving little Paul and 
myself immediately began to take shape. I felt that, if 
Mr. Goforth could have expressed a last wish under such 
circumstances, it would have been that he might have 
revenge upon his murderers by giving a son to be his 
successor in proclaiming to them the glad tidings of 
salvation. I was convinced that the river which we 

212 The Flight from Honan 

were following flowed to Fan-ch'eng, where boats would 
be waiting for us, and that, by keeping near it and 
avoiding main roads and towns as much as possible, we 
might get through the eighty miles to that city. 

' So we trudged on, venturing here and there to arouse 
some Chinaman sleeping on the ground by his vegetable 
garden, in order to ask a question of our informant, to 
prevent our being recognised. Once, on a stretch of 
river road, we saw some one coming toward us, and 
branched off on a side-path. He shouted at us, probably 
to strengthen his own courage, but we passed on and did 
not answer. Paul was acting splendidly, walking well 
and not asking too many questions, but I knew he must 
rest before morning, so told him that whenever he felt 
tired we would find a place in which to lie down. 
Presently he showed signs of fatigue, so we selected a 
fine warm spot on a dry sandbank of the river, and, 
after commending ourselves to God's care, lay down to 
peaceful slumber. There were only the faintest streaks 
of coming day across the sky when we awoke and 
continued our tramp. Hunger began to make itself felt, 
for we had eaten very little food during the last thirty 
hours. We passed an orchard, and there was a tempta- 
tion to investigate it, but we passed on. Some men 
bestirring themselves beside their water-melon patch 
suggested possible sympathisers, but they gruffly refused 
us even a taste. Then we came to a wide stretch of sand 
through which the river wandered in shallow streams. 
The sun was just rising, the birds were singing, the 
waters were cool, and man was absent. God's waters 
and grass and birds never seemed so sweet in all my life 
as during the dawning hour of that eventful day. We 
talked of them, and waded in the stream, and forgot our 
hunger, and I fear the tears stood in my eyes as memory 

Compelled to Beg 213 

carried me back to the sweet and peaceful scenes of the 
dear home land. 

*A main road crossed the bridgeless river at this 
point. Feeling convinced it was the road running to 
Fan-ch'eng, and fearing that, if the soldiers had murdered 
our companions, they would be on the lookout for us 
also, we got away from the spot as soon as possible, and 
followed the stream. But hunger soon forced us to 
capitulate, and as we had not a single coin, there was 
nothing for it but to beg. An isolated house in a lonely 
peach orchard seemed to present fewest dangers, so we 
made for it. The man and his wife, after hearing our 
story, seemed kindly disposed, but they had no fruit fit 
to eat. They also said they had no other food, and 
indeed the utter wretchedness of their hovel seemed to 
bear out their assertion. But they had some hot water, 
and gave us a drink. The man also listened to my plea 
for an old pair of cast-off shoes to save my bruised and 
blistered feet, and brought out a couple of ragged " scows " 
which he had thrown away. They were startlingly large 
for shoes, but better than nothing, so I put them on and 
stuffed in grass to tighten them on my feet. That one 
appreciates kindness in proportion to his distress and 
need was a thought borne in upon me very strongly that 
morning. I felt that this poverty-stricken fellow-man 
had done a great deal for us, and felt deeply thankful to 
him. But he added another kindness of still greater 
importance to us, by informing us of a report that some 
carts containing foreign men, women, and children had 
passed near there about an hour before. 

'We immediately started out in the direction indi- 
cated, and upon entering a large village received such 
definite information as made doubt no longer possible. 
Again hunger was forgotten, and we were for hurrying 

2 14 The Flight from Honan 

in the direction the carts had gone. But some men 
were sitting by the wayside eating their morning meal, 
and, having heard our story, insisted upon our eating a 
bowl of corn-meal before proceeding. Then we quietly 
left the village, but were only a few hundreds of yards 
out of it when little Paul looked back, and suddenly 
startled me by exclaiming that a terrible-looking man 
was almost upon us. A glance showed me that I should 
probably have to deal with a madman, so, shouting to 
Paul to run, I turned to meet the new danger. He tried 
to pass me, but I blocked the way and demanded an 
explanation. With fire blazing in his eyes, he answered 
that he must and would have " that boy." We parleyed 
a few moments in altercation, while a crowd, standing 
on the confines of the village and watching our move- 
ments, rapidly grew larger and began to run towards us. 
My antagonist began to scuffle with me to get past and 
after Paul, who was rapidly disappearing down the road. 
I scarcely know how, but we worked to the edge of a 
ravine about twenty feet deep, and suddenly realising 
my opportunity, I put forth all my strength and flung the 
fellow into it. As he went over the bank he carried with 
him one-half of my blood-saturated Chinese shirt — a relic 
of our riot the day before. Had it not parted, I should 
almost certainly have gone over the bank with my foe. 
However, once free from him, I kicked off the cumbrous 
shoes, and, taking them in my hand, followed Paul as 
fast as my legs would carry me. Any one familiar with 
China can imagine how village after village was roused 
in pursuit of us. Only the hope of soon catching sight 
of the carts induced me to run the risks involved in thus 
hurrying along where we might be suddenly struck 

'Soon, however, I learned that we were hopelessly 

A Remarkable Chinaman 215 

behind the carts, and therefore resolved that we must 
adopt another poHcy. We could run no longer, so 
explanation and appeal must, by God's blessing, save 
us, if we were to be saved. Soon we entered a walled 
town, which it seemed difficult to avoid, and there the 
surging, vociferating mobs surrounded and jostled us, 
and assumed a most threatening attitude. Our position 
seemed almost hopeless, and it looked as though a word 
or movement might precipitate the crisis and seal our 
fate, when a man suddenly spoke up and declared that 
we ought to be allowed to proceed. He was rather 
young-looking, and it seemed strange that the crowd 
should pay so much attention to his opinion. But open 
it up he did, and the man himself led us out of the town. 
Not only that, though we were absolutely penniless and 
almost naked, he voluntarily accompanied us a distance 
of thirty li (ten miles), and for one-third or more of that 
distance carried Paul Goforth on his back, as the brave 
little fellow was almost exhausted. For the last twelve 
li of the thirty he kicked off his shoes, and, carrying 
them in his hand, ran as fast as he could to a town where 
we hoped the carts would be stopped for dinner. They 
had stopped for a short time, but were gone again. Our 
strange benefactor could go no farther. He returned, 
and, meeting us still two miles from the town, quietly 
said that he must now return home. We could not ask 
him to do more. He had already done a thing so remark- 
able for this heathen land, that we could only feel that 
God had specially moved his heart in our behalf. Not 
without emotion we thanked him for his great kindness. 
It was all we could do, besides expressing the hope that 
some future day might bring him his reward. 

' Then, as he disappeared, we turned to continue our 
painful way to — we knew not where. My brave little 

2i6 The Flight from Honan 

companion was scarcely able to walk, and my own feet 
were so blistered and stone-bruised and pierced with 
thorns that it was painful to even touch them on the 
ground. Toward the town we slowly made our way, 
trying to follow footpaths among the corn-fields, so as 
to keep out of sight as much as possible. But the 
Chinese seemed to be everywhere, and again and again 
we were discovered and surrounded by excited mobs. 
Dozens of times it happened that day. Sometimes the 
clubs or hoes were held threateningly over our heads, 
while we were catechised as to who we were and where 
we came from. Gradually I came to understand the 
object of the almost ungovernable rage which seemed 
to have possession of the people. 

' It is sad to have to say it about persons professing 
to preach the gospel of the meek and lowly Jesus, 
but the fact is the people of that whole country-side were 
furious against what they considered to be the tyranny 
and oppression of the Roman Catholics. Hatred blazed 
in their eyes, and I am most firmly persuaded that, 
humanly speaking, it was only our ability to prove that 
we were not Roman Catholics which saved our lives that 
day. Once we could persuade a mob of that fact, its 
fury seemed to melt away. Again and again the same 
thing happened. On one occasion an immense crowd, 
which had been assembled at a theatre in the road, 
caught sight of us. They ran screaming and shouting 
across the fields to where we were. The people were 
excited, and, with the clubs already swinging over our 
heads, I feared even explanations would not be waited 
for. But they did consent to listen, and when eventually 
persuaded that we were Protestants and not Roman 
Catholics, British and not French, the very man who had 
seemed most determined to instantly kill us went away 

Chasing the Carts 217 

and got one hundred cash, which he gave to Paul, and 
told us to go on our way. 

* At last we reached the town, and managed, by the 
help of a pedlar, to find the inn where the carts had 
halted. Instantly we entered the yard, a well-dressed 
man rushed toward us, and hurried us, in the most friendly 
way, into a side room. I could not tell what to make of 
it, but he explained quickly that he had once been an 
assistant in the Yamen at Chang-te-fu, and while there 
had been shown kindness at our compound. He had 
seen Mr. Goforth with the carts, and had been requested 
to assist us, in case we happened to be heard of. Food 
was prepared for us, and meantime a fast messenger was 
hurriedly sent to overtake the carts and announce our 

* As soon as we had finished eating, it was announced 
that our " cart " had arrived. Our " cart " proved to be a 
very ordinary " wheel-barrow," but as it was declared to 
be the only vehicle available, and as we were scarcely in a 
position to dictate, we sat down — one on each side — and 
away the men went, one pulling and the other pushing. 
How the people laughed at our grotesque appearance ! 
Sometimes, however, they were fierce and threatening, 
until our story was told, or until some good man exhorted 
them to peace. Occasionally light showers of rain fell, 
and then the people were mostly indoors, much to our 
relief. This, too, is to be recorded as another of the 
Lord's mercies, — that we were saved from the fierceness 
of a southern sun during all that July day, as we travelled 
with unprotected heads. It was cloudy almost all day. 

' Another providential occurrence was the fact that^ 
about the middle of the afternoon, we met a servant who 
had been separated from us for two or three days. He 
had cut across country, and, happening to meet the 

2i8 The Flight from Honan 

Peking Syndicate engineers, who had heard of our being 
robbed, was entrusted with fifty ounces of silver for us. 
When met, he was going toward Nan-yang-fu (having 
missed our friends on the road), and by evening would 
have been at least twenty miles from their stopping- 
place. Our possession of this silver solved one of the 
most distressing problems pressing upon our penniless 
friends when we overtook them that night. 

* As darkness came on that afternoon, we were able 
to conceal from most of those whom we met the fact 
that we were foreigners. We began to breathe more 
freely, and to feel that the danger of mob violence was 
almost past. This was a great relief, for although I 
had felt little concern for myself in the prospect of sudden 
death, which had faced us many times during the previous 
two days, yet my heart had been sore for those whose 
hearts would break if they should never see us again on 
earth. Before midnight we were entering the inn which 
sheltered the dear friends from whom we had been so 
strangely separated, and with what joy and gratitude 
to God we met each other again I leave the reader to 

The Flight from Honan 

h. the china inland missionaries 

The missionaries of the China Inland Mission, in the 
province of Honan, are mostly working in the south of 
that province. The Canadian Presbyterians, in making 
their escape from the north and going towards Hankow, 
passed close to some of the China Inland Mission 
stations, and to one of these, She-k'i-tien, they sent a 
message, advising the friends there to flee. In accordance 
with this intimation, the missionaries there decided to 
make their escape, and an account of their adventures is 
graphically told by Dr. G. W. Guinness : — 

' At the beginning of July, reports of the disturbed 
condition of the country began to arriye at our station — 
She-k'i-tien, near Nan-yang-fu, in South-west Honan. 
Prolonged droughts had destroyed the prospects of a 
good harvest, and the people were in a restless condition, 
ready for anything in the way of uprising and excite- 
ment. They were incensed at the failure of all their 
prayers and rain processions ; no rain had fallen. " It 
must be the foreigners' fault," they said; "let us get 
rid of them." Wild rumours were current everywhere, 
and finally we heard very definite threats of violence; 
no notice was taken, however, as wild talk is very 


2 20 The Flight from Honan 

common in China, and we did not want to be disturbed 
by it. 

* On Saturday, July 7, a large party (Canadian 
Presbyterian) of foreigners, fleeing from the north, 
passed our station, and sent a messenger to warn us of 
the danger, and bid us make good our escape. The 
same evening two officials came to discuss the situation ; 
they were evidently desirous of getting money, but not 
willing to do much to help. We wrote to the man- 
darin at Nan-yang-fu, and determined to wait for an 

* The services next day were very well attended ; in 
the afternoon crowds assembled to see the Church 
members go home; a riot seemed imminent, but an 
influential man dispersed the people, and we locked the 
doors and packed a few things and prepared to leave. 
That night a few soldiers were stationed in front of the 
door, and we were left in peace, but dawn revealed the 
fact that the guard had gone. It was impossible to get 
away, because a vast crowd had assembled, evidently 
bent on rioting. The packed boxes, together with a 
case of instruments and drugs and a camera, were 
conveyed across a wall in the garden and placed in an 
out-house in our neighbour's courtyard. By means of a 
ladder, my companions (Mr. and Mrs. Conway and baby 
and Miss W. Watson) and myself scaled the same wall 
and stood in this yard, not knowing which way to turn ; 
our teacher was pale and nervous, and could offer no 
suggestion. The yells of the people and battering at 
our front door sounded ominous. He said, "You must 
hide ; they are coming ; it does not matter if you are 
killed, but I fear worse things may happen to you. 
Come ! " The landlord of the house appeared, and 
led the way through his house to his guest-hall. In one 

Refuge in a Loft 221 

corner of the room was a ladder leading up to a loft 
overhead. " Hush, go up quickly and stay still. 

' It was a long room with five windows on one side, 
dust and lumber plentifully scattered about; and there 
we lay hid, listening to the terrible shouts and yelling of 
the mob, the crash and falling of timber and masonry ; 
they had begun to riot in earnest. Two of the party 
were ladies, and one of these, Mrs. Conway had been 
seriously ill and was very weak. The month-old baby 
required food. The mother had tasted nothing since 
the previous day, and it was quite impossible to get 
anything then. Should the child cry, our whereabouts 
would be revealed, so it was all-important to keep her 
quiet. We prayed in silence, and the Lord heard and 
kept the child still from dawn till dark. 

' It was very hot. The noise of the rioters increased 
as they neared us. Our house was in flames ; we could 
hear the crackling of the fire and see the smoke. 
Suddenly there was a rush; the mob had traced us 
over the wall and across the courtyard, and into the 
room beneath they came. Every word was so distinct : 
"Kill the foreigners; smash up the house; they must 
be here up this ladder. I will go up and see ; we have 
searched everywhere else, and have not found them. 1 
believe they are here; let me go up." A brisk alter- 
cation ensued; our friends trying to dissuade the 
searchers from ascending the ladder; others urging 

them on. a- j f* 

' Time after time they were driven off, and as olten 
returned to search. They clambered on to the roof and 
stared into the windows. We stood flat against the 
wall between two windows, thus attempting to screen 
ourselves from sight. At last two boys saw us and 
spread the news. Back came the rioters. "They are 

222 The Flight from Honan 

here ; they have been seen ; we will go up." It was 
an anxious moment, but God gave peace amid the 
anxiety. The landlord managed to bluff them off 
again, and after a long time of stamping and raging 
they went away ; so passed the hours of the day from 
7 a.m. till 8 p.m. 

* Darkness at length brought relief from strain ; the 
mob had gone, and we breathed more freely. A pot of 
Chinese tea was passed up through the floor, and the 
wearied mother could quench her thirst. Presently the 
landlord appeared, white and trembling. " Don't delay," 
he said ; " follow me ; they know you are here." His 
voice was almost gone. We quickly descended the 
ladder, and again crossed the yard and passed into a 
granary situated on one side of it, immediately opposite 
the room where the boxes had been hidden in the 
morning. At one side of the room stood an enormous 
basket of grain ; a stool was placed on this, and by its 
aid we clambered up through a trap-door into a loft 
above ; the stool was removed, the door shut down, and 
all trace of our whereabouts was gone. 

' We were in a long room, dirty and quite devoid of 
furniture ; the rotting boards of the floor were covered 
plentifully with dirt and rubbish. The earth walls were 
cracked and split. A number of windows with bars of 
wood across them served to let in the light, and at one 
end an open but broken doorway, partly filled with 
earth bricks, gave us a view of the whole room, with 
the exception of one corner. It was this corner that 
gave us a hiding-place for the succeeding four days of 
riot. Thankful to have escaped thus far, we lay still on 
the floor and partook of a piece of bread and some 
native tea that Mr. Li (the landlord) had provided. 
The child still kept quiet. 

A Narrow Escape 223 

* It was quite dark by now, and presently the trap- 
door lifted and Mr. Li emerged from below. He had 
come to tell us his plans for escape. We were to be 
disguised as far as possible, and to leave at midnight 
and go to the house of a man named Chang, from 
whence a start could be made early in the morning by 
carts. This was agreed to, and about 1145 p.m. we 
passed down through the trap-door on to the grain, and 
thence regained the ground floor, little knowing the 
danger that lay ahead, had this plan succeeded. Just 
at that moment a noise at the front caused us all to 
stand still ; a few minutes later the landlord came running 
back, and said, " Quick ; back to the loft : the * Pao-kia-ku ' 
has come to search the place." There was no time to 
be lost ; up on to the basket of grain we climbed, and 
once again, by aid of the stool, managed to ascend into 
the room above. The trap-door was quietly let down, 
and I took my seat on it ; fortunately, the child did not 
cry. With short, sharp orders the Pao-kia-ku official 
ordered his soldiers to search the place. It was not long 
before the boxes and camera hidden in the morning 
were discovered ; these were promptly removed. 

* Having cleared them away, they returned to 
thoroughly investigate the whole place. " What is here ? " 
" My grain," answered Mr. Li. " The door is locked ; 
I must get in." " Here " (to his soldiers), " break open 
the door." A blow from a heavy pole followed, and we 
heard the official enter the granary beneath us. " What 
does this mean ? a stool on a pile of grain just beneath 
a trap-door. Who is up there? Search and see." 
Silently we prayed, and God heard. A voice said, 
" Only women up there." Already the trap-door had 
begun to lift. " Only women, oh ! " the door was dropped, 
and we heard them departing ; three times they 

2 24 The Flight from Honan 

returned to the search, and as often left again; we 
realised in a new way that God is a hearer and answerer 
of prayer. 

' They stationed two soldiers below, so that all escape 
for the night was impossible. Subsequently we found 
out that, had the plan of going to Mr. Chang's house 
succeeded, none of us might ever have got away alive, 
so that what seemed to us disaster was really our 
salvation. All too quickly the remaining hours of 
darkness passed ; brief snatches of sleep were seized by 
some, others listened to the conversation of the soldiers 
below ; morning dawned and revealed us to each other 
covered with dust from the floor and cobwebs from the 
wall ; the month-old baby lay asleep by her mother ; 
little sleep and lack of food was an ill preparation for 
the day of riot that was to follow, but " as thy day so 
shall thy strength be " was not to fail. 

* Very early in the morning the rioters came back to 
their work, to finally demolish the remaining portion of 
the Gospel hall. A very thorough search was made for 
the foreigners. Yells and blows resounded on all sides ; 
time after time we could only lie hiding our faces in the 
dust and praying, as the sounds of the rioters overhead 
made the room shake. They smashed the tiles and 
danced on the roof, and tried to look in the windows and 
broken door. " Where are the foreign devils ? kill them, 
kill them ! " Towards evening the sound of rioting 
diminished : they were going to their homes. I looked 
through a window into the court below and saw two 
men piling wood and straw and dried grass round the 
house. " We will burn them out and kill them as they 
run " ; the voice was low, and I could not be quite sure 
what was said. Was this then to be the end? The 
ladies knew nothing of this, and we did not tell them. 

^ F 












Fears and Terrors 225 

The house was not burned, however, and another night 
came on, and with it a chance to get a little food through 
the trap-door. 

* Wednesday and Thursday were thus passed in the 
loft. Every night fresh plans of escape were devised, 
but could not be carried out. One evening the ladies 
were to have been conveyed away from the city in water- 
butts, and we, disguised, were to walk with them. The 
butts proved too small, and could not be used. The 
attempt to let us down over the city wall with ropes 
they said would prove futile ; the wall was too carefully 
guarded. The city gates were closed, with the exception 
of two, which were jealously watched. " Would we dress 
up as soldiers and escort the ladies on horseback ? " 
" No, the risk was too great. Travellers were being 
continually robbed and killed." At last, hope of an 
escort of soldiers cheered our hearts ; one hundred or two 
hundred taels was to be given, and for this sum an escort 
provided to Fan-ch'eng. The time of starting was settled, 
and we fully expected to get away. But all hopes were 
doomed to disappointment ; the escort refused to go 
for less than 500 taels (about £70), and even then 
would accompany us for only a distance of thirty miles. 
So hope alternated with disappointment, and every day 
fear of discovery was added to the strain and trial of 
imprisonment ; bands of searchers kept coming and 
trying to look into the room. 

' At midday on Thursday, Mr. Li suddenly appeared, 
and said, " Fly ! the Pao-kia-ku has come with swords 
to kill you." In two minutes all had dropped through 
the trap-door, crossed the yard, and scaled the wall, and 
we were back in the devastated remains of our garden. 
The sun was blazing hot, and none of us had any pro- 
tection for our heads. The infant began to cry, and we 

2 26 The Flight from Honan 

thought all was over. Apart from God we were helpless. 
Not many minutes later, a man followed us across the 
wall ; it was impossible to avoid discovery ; we lay still. 
" Come back," he said ; " they have gone. It is all right." 
The revulsion of feeling can be better imagined than 

' On the evening of the fifth day after the riot, rain 
fell, and afforded the opportunity required to escape to 
another house. An excited crowd of servants and 
assistants waited below to disguise us all and lead us 
forth one by one in the darkness and rain. After a ten 
minutes' walk, we reached a large business firm, and were 
conducted to the back of the building, and hidden in a 
strong room at the top of the house. The room was 
small and dark, with one window in it eighteen inches 
high and a doorway without a door. A bed on one side 
afforded a resting-place for the ladies, and we managed 
to put up a portion of curtain, and Mr. Conway and 
myself lay on a rug on the stone floor. 

' Every day hope of escape seemed further off. The 
city was in a ferment. Rioters, robbers, and a society 
similar to that of the Boxers were continually fighting, 
and the chief man of the firm protecting us went out 
night by night to guard the city. Besides a gun and a 
sword, he carried two heavy-pointed iron pins rather like 
a cold chisel in shape. These were inserted into his belt. 
He said he could throw these weapons with accuracy for 
ten or twenty yards, and strike a man in the eye and 
kill him. A silent, taciturn man, he rarely spoke, but was 
evidently a man of power, and as such feared and re- 
spected by others. Twelve days were spent under his 
protection, and none of us suffered any violence, but the 
intense heat and confinement were proving very trying. 
Two out of the party became ill. 

Arrival at Hankow 227 

' One evening the chief partner in the firm appeared, 
and said, "To-morrow m.orning carts will be in readi- 
ness at dawn ; prepare to leave." Before daylight we 
crossed the courtyard in silence, careful not to wake 
the many men who were sleeping there. Then an 
awkward delay of forty minutes waiting for the cart 
proved trying, because every minute it was getting 
lighter. Eventually two carts arrived, and we started 
just before the sun was up. Ten minutes more were 
spent at the city gate. A bribe of one thousand cash 
per cart had to be given, and we got through without 
being seen ; our landlord sitting in front and screening 
us from view. About two miles from the city a small 
boat was waiting, into which we crept, and with an 
escort of four men started down stream. Passing the 
customs proved difficult and anxious work. The officials 
came on board and thoroughly searched our cabin, but 
never once of the twelve or more times we were 
examined did they discover the foreigner. Had they 
found us, our lives would not have been worth much. 

' The escort and ourselves lived in the one cabin for 
thirteen days, until Hankow was reached in safety. 
Here it was their turn to be frightened ; they had never 
seen such large vessels as lay in the Yangtse, and were 
only too glad to start back with the 300 taels (about ;^40) 
which was the reward for bringing us through in safety. 
Thus thirty days after our station was destroyed we 
reached Hankow, ragged and dirty, with clothing that 
had been lived in day and night for a month, but very 
thankful to have been brought through in safety by One 
who never leaves and never forsakes those who put their 
trust in Him.' 

Two other remarkable escapes, those of Mr. C. 

2 28 The Flight from Honan 

Howard Bird, from Siang-ch'eng in Honan to T'ai-ho 
in Gan-hwuy, and that of Mr. Argento, from Kuang- 
chau in Honan to Hankow. Both belong to the 
China Inland Mission. Mr. Bird's narrative runs as 
follows : — 

' I arrived safely at T'ai-ho, Gan-hwuy, on Monday 
evening, July 24, 1900, after a most trying time on 
the road from Siang-Ch'eng. I left there on Wednesday 
morning, the nth. The previous two days there had 
been an increase in the rumours, and the rowdy and 
threatening behaviour of the people when the Swedish 
ladies passed through had indicated a thorough change 
in their attitude towards us. News also had been 
received of a rising at Pao-feng, twenty-three miles west, 
where the people were said to be looting the granaries 
of the wealthy. On the Tuesday evening, the evangelist 
took my card and went to see the mandarin, but was 
told no protection would be afforded us ; an edict had 
been received ordering the expulsion of all foreigners, 
and I must leave at once. I waited till next morning, 
when the evangelist and other friends came and urged 
me to leave without a moment's delay, as the house had 
been watched during the night, and the report of a 
massacre of foreigners down south had just been 
received. I was very reluctant to leave, but thought it 
only right to follow their advice. I took nothing with 
me, intending that my boxes should be sent on later. 
A man accompanied me, carrying my rug, and some 
cash and silver. 

* That day we went thirty miles. The people were 
all friendly, but they knew we were fleeing, from the 
absence of baggage. Next morning we had not gone 
very far when we were met by a messenger from Mr. 
Powell at Chau-kia-keo, telling us of the riot there, and 

Mr. Bird*s Story 229 

of the Grades, and Mr. M'Farlane, and also the Swedish 
sisters, having been robbed. We were then about half- 
way to Chau-kia-keo. What to do we did not know. 
Just then a man coming along the road, seeing me, 
yelled at me to go back, saying that all the foreigners 
had been killed, and so on. The main road seemed 
thus to be impracticable, so I decided to go by the river. 

* I hid in the fields all day, not daring to go through 
a village ; and my man went on and agreed with a boat- 
man to take us down to Chau-kia-keo. The day was 
very hot, but I was able to get refreshing drinks from 
the wells in the fields. In the afternoon I lay in a hut 
in a melon patch, and later on in the crops by the river 
bank. At nightfall my man came back and led me to 
the boat. 

' The boatman was very friendly, having taken me 
before, and the brother of one of the men was employed 
in the hall at Chau-kia-keo. We anchored for the night 
outside the small town of Siao-iao. During the night a 
strong wind arose, and the boat became strained, and 
this delayed our starting the following morning. I sent 
off the messenger from Chau-kia-keo, with a note to Mr- 
Powell, telling him that I was coming. In five minutes 
he returned, saying he had forgotten something. He 
started again, but back he came once more, this time 
with the news that three Swedish ladies were at the 
place, only four miles distant, where they had been 

' This frequent coming and going excited the 
suspicions of a boy who was standing near, and he 
jumped on to the boat, lifted up the mat under which I 
was lying, and discovered me. Of course he immediately 
spread the news, and in a few minutes a crowd gathered. 
They clambered on to the boat, seized me and robbed 

230 The Flight from Honan 

me of all my money and the few things I had in my 
cash-bag. They then made me get down off the boat, 
and pulled the clothes off my back, leaving me stripped 
to the waist. I had put my little pocket Bible in my 
waist, and when they felt that they thought it must be 
silver, and half a dozen pairs of hands grabbed at it. I 
could have laughed, so eager they each seemed to secure 
the prize ; no one would let go ; they wrenched furiously 
at it. At last they got it out, and great was their 
disgust on finding it was only a book. A boy standing 
by suggested that they should take my trousers, but a 
bystander was indignant and rebuked him. They took 
off my shoes, however, and then they left me standing 

* I heard before this that the district mandarin was in 
the town, and had sent him my card ; but all that the 
officials did was to come down and insist on my getting 
on to the boat and continuing my journey. This I 
refused to do, as the boat people were not willing, 
naturally fearing that their cargo might be plundered 
next if I remained with them. So they gave me an old 
ragged shirt and a pair of old shoes, and I got across to 
the other bank, my man carrying me on his back. My 
intention was to strike across the fields to the place 
where the Swedish ladies were ; but I soon found that 
was impossible. The people came rushing from all 
parts, and one man seized my queue, and, drawing a 
dagger, presented it at my heart. He also took off my 
cotton girdle. 

* I then waded the river again, and, entering the 
town with my clothes all dripping, stood in the main 
street, in a shady place, determined at all costs to see 
the mandarin myself. When he came back I made my 
way to the Yamen, but I was refused admission. They 

Mr. Bird's Story 


promised, however, to tell the mandarin, and to see 
what he would do for the ladies and myself. For the 
rest of the day I sat in a tea-shop, in my disconsolate 
condition, a spectacle to all beholders. Some unknown 
friend bought me a little bread, which, however, I could 
not swallow. In the evening an inferior official came 
back with my gown and shirt, and said I must go on the 
boat again and leave for Chau-kia-keo. I replied that 
this could not be, as I was not going to leave without 
knowing something about the ladies. 

' That night I slept in the boat, and in the morning 
again entered the town. The official said it was im- 
possible to give the ladies and myself an escort, so I 
determined to make a final attempt to see the mandarin 
myself, as he descended from his chair and entered the 
Yamen. That day a Yamen runner kept constantly by 
my side, both on the street and in the tea-shop. In the 
afternoon I took my stand at the Yamen gates. A 
crowd soon gathered. They tried to get me to move 
with all sorts of promises ; but, seeing I v/ould not go 
away, two runners suddenly caught hold of me and 
dragged me down the street by the hair of my head. 
Some kind person had returned me my Bible, but one of 
the runners, seeing that I treasured it, took it from me 

* I now saw that it was hopeless to expect help from 
the mandarin, and I just sat down by the roadside. In 
this my hour of extremity the Lord in a wonderful way 
raised up a good friend for me, who took me to his 
house for the night. This man was a Mohammedan, as 
were also two others who befriended me. A pedlar 
selling a sort of porridge gave me a basin of it, and 
would not take any money, and another selling black 
bread gave me a small loaf. My good friend stayed by 

232 The Flight from Honan 

me for the next four or five days, gave me my food, and 
found me a little room where I lay hid for two days. 
He also sent messengers with letters to the ladies, but 
these never reached them. During these days, I think, 
my good friend did hardly anything else but make 
arrangements for me. 

'Then the water in the river rose, and my friend 
hired a boat for me, to take me to Chau-kia-keo. By 
that time I had heard definitely that the ladies had gone 
on ; and also that the Chau-kia-keo friends had left with 
an escort. I thought the same mandarins might do 
something for me. I knew there were many Christians 
in Chau-kia-keo, and I had given my messenger some 
silver, which I hoped I should be able to get when I 
arrived there ; so I started. 

* At night-time I bid my kind friend good-bye, got on 
to the boat, and hid in a locker underneath the deck. 
There I remained all that night and the next day. 
When we were not far from Chau-kia-keo, I sent a 
message to one of the leading Christians. In reply, a 
relative of his came to tell me of the condition in which 
the Christians themselves were. Several of their houses 
had been pillaged, and they dared not show themselves 
on the streets. After this man had left, the boatman 
offered to lead me to the house of the Christian, that I 
might see what was best to be done. As soon as he 
got me on shore he ran back, and the boat moved off, and 
I was left standing on the bank — without a cash in my 
possession, in a great city full of enemies. 

' It was by this time quite dark, and I knew that the 
gates would soon be shut, v/hen I should have to sleep on 
the bank — a most undesirable place, for it had been rain- 
ing, and everything was damp and muddy. As I entered 
the gate, the gatekeeper looked dismayed when he saw 

Mr. Bird's Story 233 

me, and wanted to know what I was doing there. He 
said that I could not possibly wait till daylight, as my 
life would not be safe. What to do I did not know, 
but just cried to the Lord ; and, seeing the night-watch 
going round, I appealed to the officer. He referred me 
to a gentleman who was just then passing by, followed 
by a soldier carrying a lantern. This proved to be the 
mandarin who had befriended the Shearer party. I 
told him my plight, but he said he could not help me, 
but would give me some money, and advised me to go 
on to the next city, six miles distant. I protested, but 
he only repeated his advice and moved on. By this 
time a small crowd had gathered, and all apparently 
sympathised with me, and seemed dismayed at the idea 
of my still remaining in the city. 

' Some told me to go to the Yamen, but I did not 
think there was any use in going there. Ultimately, 
however, there was nothing else for it, and I made my 
way there through the wet, dark streets. Knocking I 
knew would be useless, so I just lay down on the step 
outside the door, and prepared to spend the night there. 
I was only afraid that the little money the mandarin 
had given me might be stolen. After lying there some 
time, the gatekeeper of the street gate^ came and 
found me, and let me sleep in his little hole, a filthy 
place, but still affording a protection from the night 

* The policeman then came and told me that the 
mandarin could not possibly help me ; he had been 
severely reprimanded by his superiors for what he had 
already done for the other friends. He advised me to 
leave at dawn. During the night I had reason to fear 

^ In a Chinese city the streets are divided oft' by gates, which are locked 
at night. 

234 The Flight from Honan 

that the gatekeeper was planning to rob me. I could 
hardly sleep, and got up before it was light, and stole 
away down the street, and only breathed freely when 
I was well away from the city. 

* I reached the next city, Shang-shui, about breakfast- 
time, and made my way to the Yamen, in the hope that 
the mandarin might do something, or that I might 
get news there of the ladies' party, and might perhaps 
be able to overtake them. My hopes, however, were 
disappointed ; the ladies had left more than four days 
previously, and the mandarin would do nothing for me. 
I stayed there the whole day, debating in my mind and 
praying about what I ought to do. The officials became 
anxious to get me away, and promised to escort me to 
the next city. It was merely a pretext, however, for the 
man they sent with me only went a short distance 
outside the city and then turned back, so I turned back 
also, much to his chagrin. They let me sleep that night 
in the room where all the Yamen runners were. I was 
only too glad of any shelter. 

* Next day, as a last resource, I determined to make 
my way to Shui-tsai, a town some distance to the east, 
where there was a church and a good number of 
Christians. I started, but when about half-way there I 
heard that that town had been rioted as well, so that 
door seemed closed to me. On reaching Shui-tsai, I 
thought it best not to enter the town, and asked a 
passer-by the way. On perceiving who I was, he at 
once said, " Why don't you go there ? " pointing to a 
village close at hand ; " your friends are there all right." 
I set off, and the first person I met was the son of the 
leading Christian. He at once took me to his home, 
and what a welcome I received ! They gave me a bath 
and some dinner, and then made me lie down and rest. 

Mr. Bird's Story 235 

But what cheered me most of all was the good news 
that the Gan-hwuy missionaries had not all gone, and I 
had only some forty miles to go to reach T'ai-ho, where 
there were still two of our missionaries. Once there, I 
should be able to get money or hire a boat, and so get 
down to the coast. 

' We left that place at midnight, two of the Christians 
accompanying me. We intended to go to T'ai-ho by a 
roundabout way, and hoped to reach there the next 
evening. We had not gone far, however, when one of 
my companions bethought himself of a boat he knew of, 
so we made our way to the river bank. The friend was 
found ; he was willing to take me for a consideration, 
and I got on board. Once again my heart was full of 
gratitude for this help given, but the usual dilatoriness 
of Chinese boatmen spoiled everything. We had wind 
and water in our favour, but they would insist on waiting 
until they had received some money which some of their 
neighbours owed them, and they spent the whole morn- 
ing and afternoon counting over several thousands of 
cash. Nothing would induce them to move; and the 
result was that in the afternoon my hiding-place was 
discovered ; and although I had nothing of which I 
could be robbed, the boat people were so frightened that 
they refused to take me with them. So we had to get 
down and start on foot again. 

* I tied a handkerchief over my eyes, and pulled my 
straw hat down over my face, hoping to be able to go 
along unnoticed. The two Christians had a few cash in 
their girdles ; beyond this we had nothing with us. We 
had gone some distance, and it w^as now dusk, when, as 
we were passing a place notorious for its bad characters, 
two men sitting by the roadside recognised me, and in- 
stantly called on me to stop. The whole village turned 

236 The Flight from Honan 

out in a short time. Sitting down and talking to them 
was of no use. They felt us all over for silver, but found 
none. Then they told us we could not go on, but I must 
stay in the village that night. Three great ruffianly- 
looking fellows came up and told me to follow, and led 
me into a field, where they told me to sit down. They 
produced three great swords and began swinging them 
about just over my head. It was then that I really 
thought my last moment had come. I just lifted up my 
heart to God. I had no fear, only joy that I should 
soon see Jesus. But it was not to be. They led me to 
another place, and had some consultation amongst them- 
selves as to what they should do with me. 

' It was now quite dark. All this time I did not 
know where my two companions were ; but after a time 
they led me to them. They gave us a little food, and 
said we must sleep in the open under some trees, and in 
the morning they would decide what was to be done. 
Half a dozen or more arranged themselves in a circle 
round us, and continued talking till long past mid- 
night. One fellow came up bringing some ropes and 
chains, with which I thought they were going to 
shackle me. But no, they thought they had me so 
completely in their power, as I had not a single cash 
on me and did not know the way, that I could not 
possibly escape. 

' All this time I had no light at all as to what to do, 
as I knew an unsuccessful attempt to run away would 
only make it ten times worse for me, but still I had 
perfect peace, and slept soundly. Waking just before 
dawn, the thought seemed to come to me that I should 
get up and go to Shen-kin Hsien, a city about eighteen 
miles due south. As the men were all sound asleep, I 
awoke one of the Christians and told him my intention. 

Mr. Bird's Story 237 

I got up and crept out of the village, and then ran for 
dear life, not resting till I was some six or seven miles 
away from the place. It was wonderful that, although 
It was dark when I started, yet I had hit upon a narrow 
track, and it proved to be the shortest way to the city I 
wanted to reach. T'ai-ho, of course, lay due east, but 
I knew they would naturally look for me along that 
road, so I went due south. I had to pass through two 
markets, and met numbers of people on the road, but 
only two recognised me, and I went on quickly without 
saying anything. 

' At length I reached the city, tired and thirsty and 
hungry, having done seventeen miles without resting 
or having anything to eat. I made my way to the 
Yamen, not having the least idea what kind of a recep- 
tion I should receive. My surprise was great when my 
story was kindly listened to, and I was taken into one 
of the inner rooms and given a very good breakfast. 
Then I was told that the mandarin had arranged to give 
me a cart to T'ai-ho, sending six runners to escort me, 
and giving me money for the road as well. It seemed 
almost too good to be true, but in another half-hour I 
was seated in a cart with two soldiers in front; and 
about ten o'clock that night we reached T'ai-ho. 

'The city gates were shut, but on sending in the 
mandarin's letter they were at once opened, and a great 
array of officials and soldiers with big lanterns ushered 
me into the city and escorted me to the house. What a 
welcome I had from the brethren in T'ai-ho ! They had 
long since given me up, and imagined I must have gone 
some other way. I can never praise God enough for 
His goodness in preserving me all these days ; and how 
much I must have owed all that time to the prayers of 
all friends ! These days one has just felt upborne on 

238 The Flight from Honan 

the arms of prayer, knowing that so many were praying 
for us.' 

The following is Mr. Argento's story : — 
'There had been rumours of trouble and much 
unrest at my station of Kwang Chau, but they had 
not alarmed me at all. On Sunday morning, July 8, 
one of the Christians, a boy about sixteen years of age, 
told me that people were saying on the street that they 
would come either that day or the following and pull 
the house down and kill me and all the Christians. I 
told him not to be afraid about that. " Let them say 
what they will." Half an hour before the time for the 
evening meeting, I was engaged choosing the hymns, 
when 1 heard a crowd of people rush into the premises, 
making a great noise. I came quickly out of my study 
to see what was going on, and I saw the " k'eh-fang" 
(guest-hall) just crammed with people. They called 
out that they wanted me to preach to them ; but having 
heard that they had come on purpose to make trouble, 
I went back to my study to fetch a card, intending to 
try to go to the Yamen, but people with knives in their 
hands were keeping the door, and I could not get out. 
The street was packed from one end to the other, and the 
house surrounded. It had only the one exit, at the front. 
* I shouted to the servant to bring some benches to 
the " k'eh-fang " for the people to sit on. They were 
still coming in great numbers, so I stood between the 
table and the wall and tried to preach to them a little. 
I had only said a few words when I was told it was 
useless to preach, for their motive in coming was not 
to listen to the Gospel, but to kill me on account of 
my being a " ma-hu-tsi " (bewitcher). I tried to explain 
to them that that was false ; we missionaries came with 

Mr. Argento^s Escape 239 

the Gospel of peace, to let them know that all the 
people of the earth are one great family, and as such 
ought to love one another; not only so, but we also 
brought to them a message of salvation. 

' Seeing that they would not listen to these words, 
but rather became more rowdy, and some of the rioters 
surrounding me, I invited one of them, as if he had 
been a friend, just to tell the people to be quiet, and 
to explain to them that we were their best friends, and 
had come to do them good. So this man jumped 
on to the table, and with great gesticulations, and 
shouting at the pitch of his voice, tried to quiet them, 
explaining what I had told him ; but he had only spoken 
a moment or two when he was told to get down ; and 
the people rushing towards the table tried to crush me 
between it and the wall. Then I asked some people 
who were standing at my right hand to resist the 
pushing of the table. They did so for a little while, 
but seeing it was unsuccessful, exhorted me to go to 
the back part of the house. I did not do so, feeling 
that there was no way of escape there. 

* Suddenly one of the ringleaders, coiling up his 
queue on his head, pulling up his sleeve, grasped hold 
of my queue and tried to strike me on the breast. 
Some others took hold of my gown, striking at me on 
every side and trying to pull me outside the " k'eh-fang " 
(guest - room). Then some one gave a blow to the 
lamp, which fell and broke, and we were left in com- 
plete darkness. I at once made an effort, got my 
queue out of their grasp by a sudden pull, and, loosing 
my gown, left it with them. I threw myself on the 
ground, to be out of reach of their hands, and succeed- 
ing in reaching a corner, crouched down into as little 
space as possible. Having thus freed myself from their 

240 The Flight from Honan 

hands, they thought I had run away, and so began to 
smash doors, screens, and benches, and all they found 
in the "k'eh-fang." One of the screens falling under 
their blows partly covered me. 

' Nearly everything in the " k'eh-fang " having been 
destroyed, they then made a rush for the front " leo " 
(upper storey), and I availed myself of the interval to 
crawl underneath the table, where I was less cramped 
and should be less easily seen. It was not possible 
to get out, on account of the crowds surrounding the 
house. After they had finished in the front " leo," down 
they came again and made a rush for the back. From 
under the table I could see the work of destruction 
going on. After having looted or destroyed what was 
to be found at the back and in my study, they wanted 
a light to hunt after valuables. They found some straw, 
and dipping it in kerosene, made a torch of it. As 
soon as they had the light they began dividing the 
spoil, and when they could find no more they spoke of 
setting the house and debris on fire. So they set to 
work, got together a pile of wood, and poured kerosene 
on it. The torch was burning out, but one man lifted 
it up from the ground and was bringing it toward the 
pile of wood, when he saw a chair near the table and 
came over to take it away. The light revealed me, 
and with a rush they got hold of me and dragged 
me from under the table and on to the pile of wood. 
Others took up the benches and struck me with them. 

* Some of the neighbours, fearing that if they burnt 
the house their own houses would be in danger, objected 
to their burning it. " The house, " they said, " is only 
rented, and does not belong to him." Then the rioters 
replied, " Well, never mind, we will not burn the house ; 
we will only burn him." And saying this they poured 

Mr. Argento*s Escape 241 

kerosene on my clothes and set them on fire. Friendly 
neighbours, however, quickly quenched the flames, tearing 
off the burning part of the garment, whilst others were 
dragging me away by the queue to save me. I was lying 
with my face to the ground. The rioters, seeing these 
neighbours wanted to save me, got hold of a pole, and 
began to strike me on the head and all over my body. 
I tried to protect my head with my hands, but had not 
reached the doorsteps when a very heavy blow inflicted 
on my head caused me to lose consciousness. I com- 
mended my soul into God's keeping, and knew nothing 

' I remained unconscious for two days. When I re- 
opened my eyes on the morning of Wednesday, July ii, 
I found myself on the platform in the chapel, lying on 
a " p'u-kai " (native bedding), soaked with blood, and my 
head still bleeding. The Christians told me that some 
of the rioters dragged me on to the street and wanted to 
cut off my head, but others opposed this, saying, " That 
is no use, when he is dead already." Afterwards, on the 
same night, the mandarin came, and, seeing me lying on 
the public street, ordered his underlings to carry me 
inside and put me on a bed. No bed was to be found, 
so they left me on some unbroken boards of the platform. 
Some of the Christians by turns had watched me during 
the nights. 

' After I became conscious, I was terribly thirsty and 
feverish. The Christians brought me food, but I could 
not eat anything ; I only eagerly drank all the water 
they brought me. Some of the gentry, discovering that 
I had regained consciousness, spread it abroad, wanting 
the rioters to come back and cut off my head. 

' When the mandarin knew this, fearing that I might 
die in Kwang Chau, and he be held responsible for all 

242 The Flight from Honan 

that had happened, he decided to send me away to Chau- 
kia-keo, a hundred and forty miles north, thinking that I 
should certainly die on the road, and so he would be freed 
from blame, as he would be reported as having helped 
my escape to where I could obtain medical treatment. 
The gentry, having heard that the mandarin was friendly 
inclined towards me, presented him with a petition, 
threatening to murder him if he allowed me to leave 
Kwang Chau either dead or alive. 

' In the evening the mandarin visited me, and sug- 
gested, as a safe plan to get me out of the city, that I 
should be carried along in a coffin. I feared, however, 
that I should either die for want of sufficient air, or that 
the soldiers and bearers would bury me alive, or throw 
the coffin into the river, so I would not consent, although 
the mandarin promised to put breathing-holes in the lid. 
I said I would rather die in the chapel. Some of the 
Christians suggested to him to put me on a bamboo 
stretcher, with an awning to protect me from the sun. 
He agreed to this, so about midnight one was brought 
by eight bearers. The mandarin came himself, with an 
escort of fifty footmen, twenty horsemen — all armed — 
and some few attendants. He led the way on horseback 
out through the west gate, and escorted the party 
for twelve miles towards Chau-kia-keo. When he 
left us he said to me that he would punish the ringleaders, 
and exhorted the soldiers to take good care of me. To- 
wards dusk (Thursday, July 12) we arrived at Si Hsien, 
thirty miles from Kwang Chau, where we stopped to 
pass the night and to exchange escort. 

' Next morning, Friday, July 1 3, we started towards 
Sin-ts'ai Hsien, one hundred li north of Si Hsien. That 
day we travelled twenty-seven miles. When we passed 
through any market-place, people would come out and 

Mr. Argento's Escape 243 

examine the stretcher. They were very much excited 
and unfriendly, calling out to kill the foreigner ; but the 
soldiers kept them in check, and ordered the bearers to 
go quickly. Next day, Saturday, July 14, about eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon, we reached the Sin-ts'ai Yamen. 
The escort was to be changed there again. A great 
crowd of people ran excitedly into the courtyard of the 
Yamen, and, in spite of all the soldiers could do, pulled 
off the awning and tried to smash the stretcher itself. 
Then the mardarin gave orders to take me into a room 
and not allow the people in. After a quarter of an hour's 
wait there, the new escort was ready, and, the awning 
having been repaired, on we went towards Hiang-ch'eng 
Hsien, distant a farther thirty-seven miles. 

' Even at this time, in getting out from the Yamen, 
the people tried once more to smash the stretcher, and 
they took away my shoes and socks ; and then, whilst 
we were going, men and women crowded round, stopping 
the bearers every now and then to look at the " foreign 

' I was a little better that day, and, for the first time, 
I could take a little " hsi-fan " (rice gruel) that they gave 
me. After we had travelled ten miles, a thunderstorm 
suddenly broke upon us ; the rain pelted down, quickly 
soaking the awning and wetting us all through and 
through, and the wind blew like a hurricane. The bearers 
cursed and swore. Soon after, we reached a small inn, 
where we stopped for the night. 

'Next day, Sunday, July 15, we arrived at Hsiang- 
ch'eng Hsien, about half-past five in the afternoon, and 
the bearers left me outside the door of the Yamen, at the 
mercy of thousands of enemies, who crowded round from 
every direction. They thought I was dead, for I did not 
move or make a sound, although they pinched me 

244 The Flight from Honan 

pulled my hair, and knocked me about — an ordeal which 
lasted an hour long ; after which the mandarin ordered 
some underlings to take me into a room and close the 

' On the morrow, Monday, July i6, about 3.30 a.m., I 
was carried out into the yard, and, hearing them speak 
of going southward, I asked the soldiers and Yamen 
runners what that meant, and told them that, unless I 
saw the mandarin, I would not start ; so saying, 1 made 
an effort to get down from the stretcher, to sit in the court- 
yard ; but they took hold of me and put me back, and 
ordered the bearers to start off quickly. On my complain- 
ing of this mode of treatment, one of the older ones told 
me that the mandarin would not let me go on, and had 
given orders to send me back to Kwang Chau. 

' Late that evening we reached Sin-ts'ai again, where 
the mandarin, having heard that the Hiang-ch'eng official, 
would not receive me, treated me very uncivilly, leaving 
me all night in the open courtyard exposed to the rain, 
which drizzled down and wet me. 

* The following morning, Tuesday, July 17, the 
mandarin, thinking my being carried on a bamboo 
stretcher was too grand a style, ordered the Yamen 
runners to move me from it on to a wheel-barrow. 1 re- 
monstrated, saying that it was impossible for me to travel 
on a wheel-barrow, on account of my being covered with 
wounds and bruises, which would not allow me to stand 
or sit ; my head was giddy, and I could not bear the sun 
without head protection. I asked to see the mandarin, 
wanting to represent to him that, since the Kwang Chau 
official had sent me by stretcher, I must at any rate 
return in the same way ; but the underlings paid no heed 
to me, except to say unpleasant words, '* Pitch him into 
the barrow like a bag of foreign goods." Then they got 

Mr. Argento's Escape 245 

hold of me and put me roughly on the barrow and 
started off. 

' The jolting on the uneven road and the fearful heat 
of the sun beating down, caused me excruciating pain, 
and reopened my wounds. We went twenty-three miles 
that day. The mandarin had given no money for food 
for me, and if the Lord had not touched the heart of one 
of the soldiers, who pitied me, I should have had nothing 
to eat all day. The following morning, Wednesday, 
July 18, about noon, we were back at Si Hsien. The 
mandarin did not want to have anything to do with me, 
and left me in the Yamen yard, and soon a large crowd 
came around. 

* Some two months previously, I had visited Si Hsien 
on a tour for preaching and selling books. A man con- 
nected with the Yamen, named Chao, had invited me to 
preach outside his door, where he had placed a table and 
chair and kept me provided with tea. He was very 
much interested in the Gospel. Hearing that I was now 
in the Yamen amongst such a crowd of people, he came 
and told the barrow-man to push me to his house, where 
he soon prepared a bed for me to lie on, and gave me 
tea, and afterwards a good dinner. 

' I told him my story, and, on hearing of the uncivil 
manner in which I was treated by the mandarin, and 
how he did not give me any travelling money, he 
presented me with one hundred large cash, telling me 
not to spend them whilst I was his guest, but to keep 
them for my journey back to Kwang Chau. Moreover, 
as I was without " k'u-tsi " (trousers) and socks and shoes, 
he interested some friends to provide me with them. 

' Owing to heavy rains, I was his guest for three days, 
and during this time with them I had three meals a 
day, and he gave me fresh tea from morning till night. 

246 The Flight from Honan 

Many visitors, both men and women, came to see me, 
sympathising with my sufferings ; and I had the privilege 
of preaching to them, in the best way I could, the 
message of salvation. 

' On the evening of the third day there, Friday, July 
20, Mr. Chao's family tried to persuade me to stay in 
Si Hsien, rather than return to Kwang Chau, inviting 
me to continue to be their guest until I was better, and 
saying they would try to collect travelling money for 
me, say eight hundred or nine hundred cash, to send me 
down to Hankow. To this I answered that I expected 
word from the mandarin, and next day, early in the 
morning — it was Saturday, July 21 — he sent a sedan 
chair and a few soldiers to escort me to Kwang Chau. 

' We arrived at the Yamen there at half-past four in 
the afternoon. I was left in the yard four hours, all the 
time being at the mercy of large crowds of enemies, who 
abused me and mocked me, saying, " God has brought 
you safely back, has He? Your God cannot save you. 
Jesus is dead ; He is not in the world ; He cannot give 
real help. Our Kwan-ti (God of War) is much 
stronger ; he protects us, and he has sent the Boxers to 
pull down your house and to kill you " ; and thus saying 
they spat on my face, and threw mud and melon peel at 
me, and did what they liked. Some pinched me, others 
pulled my queue, and others expressed themselves in 
the most vile way. All the time I did not answer a 
word. Some of the Christians came to see me, but had 
to run for their lives. 

* At half-past eight, the mandarin, being afraid that 
the people would kill me in the courtyard, ordered that 
eight Yamen runners should carry me outside the city 
in a sedan chair towards Lo-shan Hsien. On the way 
they told the people that they were carrying me to the 

Mr. Argento's Escape 247 

execution grounds. The night was dark, and we were 
travelling by lantern light, so we only went about three 
miles. The day after, Sunday, July 22, they carried me 
without disturbance twenty-seven miles farther, to a place 
called Chau-ho-tien. I had visited there twice before, 
and many came and recognised me, but did not make 
any trouble. 

'Next morning, Monday, July 23, about 3.30, I got 
into the chair, and they carried me for a short distance, 
and then they asked me to dismount and let them 
tighten up the chair. No sooner had I left it than they 
took up the poles and away they went back to Kwang 
Chau. One of the mandarin's attendants still remained, 
and he told me that they had no official letter, and so 
were unable to escort me to Lo-shan Hsien, and that 
now I was free to do what I thought best. I talked to 
him, and asked him if the mandarin had not left him 
any money for me. He said, " No," but afterwards 
produced four hundred cash, and then left me in the 
darkness. There on the spot I prayed for guidance, 
and waited till the sun rose. 

'Then I walked on past Lo-shan Hsien, intending 
to go to Sing-yang Chau, where I had heard that there 
were some foreigners prospecting for a railway. At Lo- 
shan the people called out, " The Bewitcher," and wanted 
to kill me ; but others said, " He is only a Canton man." 
They followed me some distance, and then returned. At 
noon I stopped at a small inn four miles beyond Lo- 
shan Hsien. After dinner I rested till five o'clock, and 
then proceeded on my way, but I had only walked a 
short distance when I seemed to hear an inner voice 
saying to me, " Do not go on," and I returned to the inn. 
The landlord was surprised to see me back. I told him 
that I was footsore, and so could not get on that day. 

248 The Flight from Honan 

'During the evening, some thirty men, armed with 
swords and spikes, stopped at the inn, and asked very- 
excitedly if the innkeeper had seen a "foreign devil" 
passing by that morning, and saying that they were 
hunting after him to kill him. The innkeeper answered 
in the negative, and the men began angrily cursing the 

' I was lying down on the floor with my face turned 
to the wall and my head partly covered with my hand, 
so they did not recognise me ; but I heard all they said, 
all their plans to overtake and kill me, and their con- 
jectures that I was farther on the road to Sin-yang Chau. 
They talked for a long while, but started off very early 
in the morning. A little later, I too left the inn. It 
was Tuesday, July 24 ; I had walked five miles, and was 
feeling very weary, as if I could not go much farther, 
and for a time felt very despondent, when I saw a man 
coming from the opposite direction. As he neared me 
he stopped and looked very closely at me, and again 
went on. We passed one another, and then he stopped 
again. I turned round, and then he asked if I was not 
Mr. Ai (my Chinese name). 

* Being doubtful of the man, I did not answer, but 
only asked him his name and where he came from. He 
told me that he was a Mr. Lo, of a place called U-li-tien, 
and then I remembered having seen him two years 
before at the city of Su-ning Fu. As soon as I let him 
know who I was, he came towards me, and, bursting 
into tears, told me that he had heard that I had been 
killed. He offered to turn back and accompany me to 
Hankow, so I told him that I had hardly any money. 
He said he would get some from his house, which was 
on the way to Hankow. So we started off together. 

'When we were near U-li-tien, leaving me at an inn 

Mr. Argento's Escape 249 

on the farther side of the river, he returned and fetched 
money and dinner for me, and clothes. After dinner we 
went on towards Hankow, and by his help, after a 
week's more travelling, during which our lives were 
three times at stake, I reached Hankow safely. We 
journeyed partly on foot, partly by barrow, partly in 
sedan chair, partly by boat, and on Tuesday morning, 
July 31, we reached our journey's end, glad to have the 
dangers and sufferings over, and to be able to get rest 
and medical treatment.' 


The Exodus from Shantung 

In the month of May 1900, the condition of the 
province of Shantung seemed unusually peaceful and 
quiet. Since the time of the murder of Mr. Brooks, 
which occurred in the preceding month of December, 
the reports concerning the Boxer movement had caused 
considerable anxiety, especially to the large number of 
missionaries resident in the province. The removal of 
Yii Hsien, and the arrival of the new military Governor, 
Yuan Shih-k'ai, bringing as it did a policy of repression 
towards the Boxers, made the situation more tranquil 
and the prospects of peace more sure. 

Missionary work was being prosecuted as usual, and 
no one foresaw the events which rapidly transpired. 
Early in June the news from the north became more 
and more disquieting. The murders of Messrs. Norman 
and Robinson, of the S.P.G. Mission at Yung Ch'ing, the 
attack on the engineers on the Lu Han railway line, 
and the desperate fighting which alone enabled them to 
force their way to Tien-tsin, were ominous signs of the 
coming storm. Then the news of the burning of bridges 
and destruction of the railway line between Tien-tsin and 
Peking ; the siege in Peking itself, and the taking of the 
Taku forts by the allies, made it apparent that the 
residence of missionaries in the interior of China was 


Mr. Fowler's Energy 251 

becoming dangerous. This conviction impressed itself 
on Mr. John Fowler, the United States Consul in 
Chefoo, who, with characteristic energy, set about to 
secure the safety of the missionaries in the province 
o{ Shantung, of which a large number were under his 
consular authority, as citizens of the United States of 

He secured the able and hearty co-operation of the 
Rev. George Cornwell, of the American Presbyterian 
Mission in Chefoo, as well as the no less able and 
generous assistance of the Rev. W. B. Hamilton, also 
of the American Presbyterian Mission, stationed in Chi- 
nan-fu, the provincial capital. These three took upon 
themselves the responsibility of urging upon the entire 
body of missionaries resident in the province, the 
necessity of seeking safety in flight to the coast. They 
placed before all concerned, by means of the free use of 
telegraphic communication, the gravity of the situation. 
When Governor Yuan received the fatal telegram from 
Peking ordering all foreigners to be killed, and the 
Imperial edict following endorsing it, he, while wisely 
refusing to issue it, communicated to Mr. Hamilton his 
fears for the safety of the missionaries in his jurisdiction 
and, while promising protection in going to the coast, 
urged that there should be no unnecessary delay in 
making the journey. 

Then Mr. Fowler, on his own responsibility, hired a 
small Japanese coasting steamer in Chefoo, and sent her, 
with Mr. Cornwell on board, to the port of Yang-chia- 
kou, which is at the mouth of the canal which connects 
the provincial capital with the coast, in order to receive 
the parties of missionaries, with their wives and families, 
who were seeking safety in flight. The experiences of 
one of these parties of refugees is as follows : — 

252 The Exodus from Shantung 

On the morning of June 21, a party of twenty-one 
souls, forming the missionary community, left T'ai-ngan- 
fu (which is situated two days' journey south-west of the 
provincial capital), to make their way to the coast via 
Chi-nan-fu and the canal. In this party were the 
venerable Dr. and Mrs. T. P. Crawford, of the Gospel 
Mission (the former over eighty years of age), and an 
infant a few weeks old, several girls, and a considerable 
proportion of women. It comprised Anglicans, Baptists, 
and Methodists. The leave-taking was very pathetic ; 
the poor native Christians who had to be left behind 
hung about with eyes filled with tears and voices 
trembling with emotion, and the foreigners felt that in 
very deed they might never see them again. 

Personal baggage had to be rigidly cut down to the 
smallest dimensions, and the time which had been given 
for getting ready was so limited that everything had to 
be left in a hasty way, and no proper preparation for a 
long journey was possible. The cavalcade was a curious 
medley of luggage and passenger barrows, sedan chairs, 
four men on bicycles, servants on donkeys, soldiers as 
escort on foot and on horseback ; altogether the number 
of persons amounted to over seventy. On the afternoon 
of the second day, Chi-nan-fu was reached without 
accident or special cause for alarm. Here were found 
other missionary refugees, and the whole party were 
finally got off on the canal in a flotilla of fifty flat- 
bottomed boats, and some house-boats, which had been 
previously engaged by Mr. Hamilton of the Presbyterian 
Mission in Chi-nan-fu. 

The remainder of the story is graphically told by a 
lady ^ of the party as follows : — 

^ Mrs. H. J. Brown, sister of Rev. S. ^l. W. Brooks, murdered near 
P'ing Yin, December 30. 1899. 

Flight from Chi-nan-fu 253 

' Our soldier escort behaved splendidly throughout. 
There were several boat-loads of them, and at night half 
of them patrolled the river banks, while the other half 
remained in the boats. Every night we anchored near 
some village, and it was a pretty sight to see all the 
craft lighted up, and the different lights reflected in the 
still waters. One night, about midnight, the soldiers 
were all called up, as a band of robbers had arranged to 
attack us. An attack by Chinese robbers is indeed a 
terrible thing. However, when they found themselves 
met by such a splendid set of armed men, they thought 
better of their project, and decamped. Like many 
others, I knew nothing of the danger until morning had 
broken, having slept soundly throughout. 

* So far every one had stood the heat and discomfort 
fairly well, while I had nothing much worse than an 
intolerable thirst, which no amount of tea-drinking would 
alleviate. We had two doctors with us, — an American 
lady attached to the Presbyterian Mission at Chi-nan-fu, 
and an Englishman belonging to the English Methodist 
Mission at Laoling, a station lying between Chi-nan and 
Tien-tsin. The latter had been married about a month 
when he had to leave. His wife told me that she had 
just put the finishing touches to her little home the day 
before they fled. Like ourselves, they had to leave 
everything behind. Poor old Dr. Crawford and Mrs. 
Crawford were among the refugees. They bore up 
wonderfully, in spite of their eighty and seventy years 
of age respectively. Their great wish was to be allowed 
to die in China, having spent the greater part of their 
lives there — close on fifty years. 

'On June 26 we arrived at Yang-chia-kou, a large 
trading village on the banks of the canal. There we 
exchanged our small boats for two Chinese junks, the 

254 The Exodus from Shantung 

Gospel Mission getting into one, while the rest of us 
occupied the other. These junks are very rough 
specimens of boats, with one or two big sails, and a 
couple of oars at the stern, fixed, and worked to and fro 
by the Chinese sailors, who sing in a curious, weird kind 
of way as they swing backwards and forwards. Of 
course there is no accommodation for passengers, as they 
are merely cargo boats — no cabin, no anything. But 
that didn't much matter, as we knew — or rather hoped 
— that in a few more hours we should be safely on board 
the little rescue steamer now waiting for us at the point 
where river and sea joined. But the wind was dead 
against us, and the Chinese skipper said he could not 
possibly start until the wind changed — " The great God 
above was resting a bit," and a lot more to the same 
purpose. And so hour after hour passed by, and a 
rumour circulated that the little steamer had gone — that 
she could wait no longer. We treated that rumour as 
philosophically as we did most things then, only we 
longed for a favourable wind, and to make a start. Day 
passed into evening, and evening into night, before we 
heard the welcome sound of the anchor being weighed, 
and the rattling of the chains, and the weird song of 
the sailors. 

' It was a night to be remembered, — a night full of 
strange scenes and sounds ; everything looked ghostly 
and unreal, but behind it all lurked a very real danger ; 
a danger that never left us by night or day. To an on- 
looker our boat must have presented a curious spectacle. 
We ladies were lying on boards placed over the hold of 
the boat. We were lying like a row of sardines, as close 
together as possible, and wrapped up in rugs. Woman- 
like, we naturally decided to sit up all night with a rug 
round us, but the men would not hear of it, but set to 

Missionary Ways 255 

work to do all they could to ensure us as good a night's 
rest as was possible under the circumstances, and to a 
great extent they succeeded. Of course it was intensely 
miserable, and we lay and shivered with the cold, in spite 
of blankets and rugs. We were very much exposed, and 
the wind whistled round us as we huddled together for 
warmth. Though so hot during the day, it was strangely 
cold at night. Of course, these are all minor evils, 
and are hardly worth remembering, but as I write the 
recollection of them conjures up. a strange picture, and 
one never to be forgotten. 

' And here I think I must say one word about the 
kindness of the missionary man, more particularly the 
kindness and thought of the missionary for his wife. 
Throughout that memorable journey, it seemed to me 
that they were always studying the comfort and wishes 
of the women, and never, never thinking of themselves. 
While we had the rugs and pillows, they were shivering 
about the miserable little deck, a place with hardly foot- 
hold. While we had hot tea or coffee (if we could get 
it), they were content to wait or go without. Not that 
we wished this — far from it ; but we could not help 
noticing it, and remarking upon it. It was the same 
throughout — the husband for the wife, the father for his 
children, and the single man for one and all. During 
that eventful night, it was almost pathetic to see the 
husband or father creep up every now and then to see if 
we were all right, and to ask if we wanted anything. 

* Our boat had ten or twelve of the Governor's soldiers 
on board. Early in the morning we were greeted with 
the intelligence that we had practically made no head- 
way during the night, and, looking round, we could see 
the village of Yang-chia-kou close at hand. And all the 
time where was our little steamer ? By this time I was 

256 The Exodus from Shantung 

feeling very seedy, and could not manage to eat what 
little food was to be got ; besides, I disliked having to 
accept the hospitality of others, feeling that they needed 
what little they had for themselves. 

'And so the day wore on, and our progress was 
almost nil. We spent a good part of the time in striving 
to make out the steamer amid a crowd of junks in the 
distance, — first one and then another declaring they 
could see the smoke; jokes were never wanting, and 
some of us looking through the glasses even saw them 
talking in English, so plainly could we see what never 
existed. During the day, a boat met us with a kind of 
little Japanese officer. He informed us that the steamer 
was anchored outside the bar, but that she could not 
wait for us later than the following morning about 6 a.m., 
as she was without bread and water, and had a number 
of refugees on board. You may imagine our anxiety. 
The little Jap remained with us, and the day wore on. 

* Before evening it was decided that a prayer-meeting 
should be held, and so we all collected together — people 
belonging to many denominations : Church of England, 
Presbyterians, Methodists, and Gospel Missionary. My 
husband read a chapter out of the Bible and gave out the 
hymns, while the head of the Methodist Mission, Rev. J. 
Robinson, made a very beautiful and touching prayer ; 
then old Dr. Crawford finished up the little service with 
a few heartfelt words. 

* Almost immediately after the meeting for prayer, a 
terrible storm sprang up. All the ladies were put down 
into the hold of the boat, our bedding being arranged, 
as well as could be managed, on the baggage. Then the 
men arranged a kind of awning of matting over us, which 
kept the rain out very fairly well. By this time the 
rain was coming down in sheets, while the thunder rolled 



A Terrible Night 257 

and the lightning flashed from every part of the heavens 
at once. We were nearly suffocated down below, but it 
was far better to be there than exposed to all the fury 
of the elements, as the men were. And beside, mission- 
ary women are marvels of bravery and patience — one 
rarely heard a murmur, although we were so cramped 
and suffocated. I, for one, was in a partial stupor the 
whole night ; at the same time I was fully aware of 
everything that was going on, and quite conscious that 
a sweet, kind-hearted girl was fanning me with her hat 
nearly the whole night through. 

' The morning broke at last, but rough and miserable. 
However, our little steamer hove in sight, and we hoped 
our troubles would soon be over; but no, she was 
anchored some distance on the other side of the bar, and 
though we thought that directly she caught sight of us 
she would steam towards us, she never moved. We had 
by this time got into rough water, and in a very short 
time, with two exceptions only, we were all down with 
sea-sickness. Then the soldiers were ordered to fire off 
a signal of distress, and they fired off volley after volley, 
first from the side of the junk, and then from the prow; 
but still she never moved, and afterwards we were told 
the surprising news that never a shot was heard by any 
one on board that little steamer. Long before all this 
happened, both soldiers and boatmen had wanted to 
return. One soldier had been howling all the night 
through. The doctor said there was nothing wrong with 
him excepting fright. It seems they thought the gods 
were angry and that everything was against us, and 
really at one time it almost seemed so. The controlling 
spirit, however, Mr. Cornwell, insisted upon their con- 
tinuing on their course, although we were in imminent 
danger every moment of capsizing. 

258 The Exodus from Shantung 

' By this time the scene presented on that miserable 
Chinese junk was lamentable in the extreme. Every 
one was prostrate, and the boat was rolling to and fro 
like a drunken man. Once I closed my eyes as the 
boat lurched over on her side, feeling sure that the next 
mom.ent would find us struggling in the water, and I 
remember thinking what a mercy it would be to end 
all our troubles so easily; but it was not to be. In the 
midst of all this wretchedness, we heard shouts, and 
found that our Japanese sailor was battling for dear 
life in the cruel waves ; he was safely hauled out, but 
for some time was very ill. I never heard how he fell 
in, and we were too ill to inquire. 

' There was also a fierce dispute between Mr. 
Cornwell and the skipper, for by this time we were 
alongside the steamer. We were anchored, but it was 
impossible to board the steamer, as the sea was too 
rough. Two sailors swam across to us at the risk of 
their lives, carrying a rope ; one collapsed midway, and 
was rescued with difficulty, and both were prostrate 
for some time after. It was proposed to send us across 
one by one, and I was selected as the first to be de- 
spatched, but as I couldn't hold up my head, I fear 
there would not have been much chance of my getting 
across alive. Still, I would have done my best for the 
sake of the others. However, the waves increased, and 
it was deemed wiser to abandon the attempt, and to 
return to the Boxer-haunted village for food and water, 
and let the little steamer go on its way. And at this 
point the quarrel occurred between Mr. Cornwell and 
the boatmen. We were in danger every moment of 
being dashed to pieces against the steamer, but the 
anchor could not be hauled up. The skipper refused to 
cut tlie rope, which was a new one, and was preparing to 

Return to Yang-chia-kou 259 

save himself and his crew, leaving us to our fate. Mr. 
Cornwell had to draw his pistol, and the little Jap un- 
sheathed his sword. This had the desired effect, and we 
were soon on our way back to the dreaded village of 
Yang-chia-kou, feeling that we were indeed forsaken 
by God and man. 

* The little steamer did all she could, even offering 
to tow us out to calmer water, but it would have meant 
certain death to some of us, for more reasons than one, 
and so she steamed away, promising us help as soon 
as possible. And so we returned. In a few hours we 
had covered the distance — a distance that had lately 
taken nearly two dreadful days and nights. A big 
crowd had assembled on the shore, and it was considered 
by some very unwise to land ; however, Mr. Cornwell 
and Mr. Mathews landed to make a tour of inspection. 
They found a splendid place for us — a large warehouse 
in the form of a courtyard surrounded by small rooms, 
so we were divided up into parties and distributed. 
The men's bedding was arranged in the yard, and the 
women and children occupied the rooms. It was lovely 
to be able to lie down, to have a wash, and to have a 
little decent food. The few that objected to our land- 
ing were overruled ; we felt that, whatever happened, 
we could not stand another night in that awful boat. 
Of course there were many terrible rumours about, and 
we knew that the Boxers were there ; but then, we had 
the troops, and so felt comparatively safe. In our little 
rooms we heard the men being called up for conference, 
and we gathered afterwards that they each had to be on 
guard in turn throughout the night. But the morning 
broke, and we were still alive. 

* During the day, a message was brought that we 
were to wait for another batch of missionaries, and they 

26o The Exodus from Shantung 

duly arrived in the afternoon, all looking bright and 
happy. No one looked at any time (except when mal 
de mer reigned supreme) very miserable. Of course 
we did not know how long we might have to wait ; it 
might be for days, or it might be for ever. During the 
afternoon a big prayer-meeting was held in the court- 
yard. At the door behind me I could hear the Chinese 
making a great noise, and endeavouring to peer through 
while we performed our " sacrilegious rites." I could 
also hear the soldiers clearing them off with the flat of 
the sword. Whack ! whack ! And so the day came to 
a close, and in the evening our little Jap of the steamer 
arrived, bringing the glorious news that she had obtained 
a supply of water and bread, and had returned for us, 
and that we must leave at once. At the same time we 
were told that fresh Boxers had arrived, and were busy 
drilling, and that to spend another night in this place 
might mean certain death to us — anyhow a big fight. 

' So about 10 p.m. we commenced getting ready, 
and by midnight we had all cleared out of the inn. I 
don't think any of us will ever forget that night. We 
had to put our few things together by the aid of a 
candle, and of course, being so herded together, it was 
no easy matter to see which were our own things and 
which belonged to others, but we were always ''jolly" 
over it all, and no one would imagine from our 
aces and behaviour generally that we were in such 
peril. When I had packed, I sat down in the yard 
to wait. It was a beautiful night, clear and starry, 
and so still ; at the same time, we all experienced a 
certain nervous feeling of uncertainty and dread, 
wondering if we should ever reach our junks alive. 
As I was sitting there, young Dr. Jones and his new 
wife sauntered up, and he remarked upon the fact of 

Another Start 261 

our realising our danger so little, but supposed that we 
should in the future, when it was a thing of the past. 
It is a curious thing that when one is face to face with 
death one fears it so little ; the hurt comes when it is the 
death of those we love. That is agony of agony. 

' At last all was ready. The candles had ceased to 
flicker across the compound, as the men and their " boys " 
put the bedding together. My husband came and sat 
down by my side, and on the other side my kind little 
girl friend (the one who fanned me through the long 
night on the junk), and so we waited. We were to be 
divided up into three batches. Gospel Mission were 
the first to go, then the members of the Mission that 
arrived that afternoon, and lastly we English. There 
were three junks in readiness in the deep water beyond 
the stretch of sand (now covered with water), and each 
party was escorted down to the boats by soldiers. The 
first party left us ; there were a few quiet handshakes — a 
few tearful eyes, and they were gone — and we listened. 
It seemed a long time before the soldiers came back for 
the second party, but at last they went too, and we were 
left in the almost forsaken yard. But our turn came at 
last, and we stole out at midnight, amid a death-like 
silence. I could see faces lining the way as we went, 
but whether they were the faces of soldiers or others I 
never knew. I only know that we looked and felt like 
a funeral procession, and said so. 

' In addition to our soldiers, the official had sent a 
body of soldiers of his own, and as they stood to attention 
near our boats they looked very picturesque, absurd, and 
imposing. *' Absurd," because they had no weapons, only 
very long poles with little pennons and tufts on the top. 
It was a beautiful night, and the stars and lights were 
reflected in the still waters, and looked so calm and 

262 The Exodus from Shantung 

peaceful ; but when we heard every now and then the 
report of some distant gun, we realised our position, and 
longed to be far away safe on our little steamer. At 
last we were safely on our three junks, and the sampans 
and boatmen returned to the shore. However, we had 
to wait for Mr. Cornwell, who had remained behind to 
settle accounts. We got fearfully anxious, as he was so 
long in coming, and of course imagined all manner of 
dreadful things. 

* At last by two o'clock we were off, the sails were 
hoisted, the soldiers made themselves comfortable, the 
sailors sang their boating song, and we lifted up our 
hearts in thankfulness, feeling at last that a kind 
Providence was protecting us, and that we were saved. 
Strict instructions had been left with the official and 
others that no boats were to be allowed to follow us. 
We made ourselves as comfortable as possible — the 
men in one hole and ourselves in another. Of course, 
sleep was out of the question, but I sat and watched the 
stars and listened to the boatmen. Sometimes I heard 
a gentle snore by way of a change, and then, in the 
morning, I was rewarded by seeing the sun rise over the 
sea in all its grandeur, and the colouring was sublime. 
I shall never forget the wonderful glow that pervaded 
everything, nor the Chinese junks— their sails all manner 
of tints — going along like so many beautiful phantoms ! 
And with the morning our precious little steamer loomed 
in sight. Though the last to leave the inn, we were the 
first to reach the boat. We were soon on board, and 
kind friends were there from far-away Missions, saved 
like ourselves, to give us coffee and tea and biscuits. 

*It was the dirtiest little steamer that ever eye of 
man or woman rested upon, but to us no luxurious 
P. & O. vessel could have been more beautiful or en- 

An Exciting Voyage 26 


trancing. We looked through the skylight and saw a 
real table, a real cloth, and real cups and saucers — yes, 
and actually real foreign food. Presently the other 
junks came up, and then there was a general merry 
meeting among older missionaries. We were all refugees 
— seventy-five of us. The steamer was a little Jap 
chartered by the American Consul, I believe. The 
Americans are good to their missionaries. The mission- 
aries seem to be the important people in American eyes. 
We were a wonderful mixture, and there were crowds 
of children. Some of the people were exceedingly nice, 
and evidently clever, well educated, and refined. There 
was no accommodation on the " boat," as it was really 
built for native use; besides, it was very small, so we 
had to sleep on deck, and in the morning we smeared 
our faces over, using a rag and sea-water for the 
purpose. In the saloon the flies were so numerous, 
and the people almost as much so, and what they 
lacked in numbers they made up for in size, so that 
feeding was quite out of the question. However, they 
all tried to do their best, and an arrangement was made 
whereby we all went down in the parties arranged as we 
were in the inn. 

* But our one longing was to get to our journey's end, 
and our little " Jap " went merrily along, ploughing 
through the water at a famous rate. We had one 
very exciting incident eii route. We met a Japanese 
merchant vessel (steamer) like our own, on its way to 
Yang-chia-kou. Mr. Cornwell signalled to her, and she 
came alongside. He then told the captain that there 
would be a small party of refugees on their way from 
Chi-nan-fu, and would he bring them on, as it would be 
some days before he could get back himself? The 
captain took a letter, and he and the crew promised 

264 The Exodus from Shantung 

that, if they came up, they would not refuse them, but 
would take them on board. The compradore (who is 
all-powerful, and a Chinaman) absolutely refused to have 
anything to do with them. As you may imagine, we 
were very wrathful, and many were the bitter things said 
about that compradore. We could do no more than 
hope and pray that the good little captain would 
have his way. And he did, and the compradore was 
reported, and dismissed from the firm. 

' On arriving at Chefoo, Mr. Griffith came off on a 
sampan to meet us, and the little bay was soon alive 
with boats, — such a bright, animated scene; the 
Terrible^ too, was anchored there, as large as life, and 
other big ironclads belonging to different nations, and 
the whole scene was just one brilliant picture. We were 
taken to the house of one of the merchants, and had 
such a breakfast ; but after all we had gone through I 
felt a bit overwhelmed.' 

One other experience is worthy of record in connec- 
tion with the exodus of missionaries from Shantung, 
namely, the burning of the Weihsien Mission compound. 
This disastrous event occurred in the night of June 25, 
1900, and is described by Miss Boughton, who, with Miss 
Hawes and Rev. F. H. Chalfant, constituted all that was 
left of the Mission staff at the time. Miss Boughton 
writes : — 

' Monday, June 25, we were busy all day packing our 
own things, and other people's. About four o'clock, 
Miss Hawes and I went to Dr. Faries' house to see if we 
could put up any of their things. There was a crowd of 
children in the street, and they ran away, jeering and 
laughing at us. After this, more and more Chinese 
gathered about the compound, and finally word came to 

Mr. Chalfant's- Bravery 265 

Mr. Chalfant that they had knocked the coping off from 
Dr. Faries' wall. He went out to see about it. Just at 
this time, one of the Chinese pastors was leaving on a cart 
that was loaded with the goods of a Chinese sewing 
woman. As soon as the cart was out of the gate, the 
pastor was struck and the things all stolen from the cart. 
Mr. Chalfant went back to his house to get a revolver, 
and told us that he had sent for shenzas, and we must 
go at midnight. Soon after, he came again, and said 
that we had better go to his house. We went there, 
and he went to face the mob. For over two hours he 
kept them back, first standing inside of the wall, and 
afterward on the outside. A letter had been sent to the 
Chinese official, asking for help, but no one came. One 
soldier carrying a message to another place came to the 
compound, looked around, and went back. After he 
left, the mob was worse than ever. Mr. Chalfant shot 
several times into the air. The people shouted that 
members of the Big Knife Society could not be hurt. 
Mr. Chalfant then fired into the crowd. Next, the 
mob attempted to get between Mr. Chalfant and the 
gate. He made a rush for it, and succeeded in getting 
inside. All this time the mob had been throwing 
brickbats, and it is wonderful that Mr. Chalfant was not 
killed. He was not even seriously injured, though the 
toe of one foot was crushed and was very painful. It 
is most plainly the power of God that kept him safe. 
When Mr. Chalfant came into the compound, the south 
eate had been broken in, the mob had come in there, 
and set fire to the chapel. 

* In the meantime, Miss Hawes and I were in Mr. 
Chalfant's house. Some Christian women came there 
to see us. They were at first much excited, but soon 
quieted down. A boy brought us something to eat. 

2 66 The Exodus from Shantung 

We drank some water and ate a few mouthfuls, but it is 
not necessary to tell you that most of our time was 
spent in prayer, and, indeed, our hearts were constantly 
lifted in prayer to God. The gate of Mr. Chalfant's 
yard was bolted, and a man sat in front of it with a 
pitchfork in his hand to defend us. Word came that 
Mr. Chalfant had been taken, and we sent one man to 
look for him. It was then that the south gate was 
broken in, and our men rushed there to keep the mob 
out. Mr. Chalfant came soon after. 

*We barricaded the doors and windows and went 
upstairs, several Chinese women, a man and boy, with us. 
We heard pounding downstairs and the breaking of 
glass, and saw the flames from the burning chapel and 
from our (ladies') house. We then went downstairs and 
out of the east window. There was a ladder lying on 
the porch, and no one in the front yard. Mr. Chalfant 
and the man put the ladder against the wall, and 
we climbed over. We were seen. Some one threw a 
brick, and we heard a man calling, " The foreign devils 
are escaping : kill them ! " but no one followed us. 
Three men and a boy came with us tb a place called 
Fangtze, where the Germans have opened a coal mine, 
about ten miles off. 

' After getting over the wall, we walked quietly along, 
passing groups of people, who spoke kindly to us. I 
heard some one say, " How good it has been to have 
them here ! " and his tone evidently meant, " and what a 
pity to send them away." The last group of people we 
met jeered at us, and told us to " go home." We were 
so thankful when darkness came. We went through 
the edge of one village, and the dogs came out barking 
at us. Generally there is nothing I am so afraid of as 
Chinese dogs, but that night I did not think of them. 

A Wonderful Escape 267 

We came to one place where the people were out on 
the village wall. They were hostile, and we turned 
aside and went around the village, through the fields. 
We rested several times. Once we sat down for a 
while, waiting until the road was quiet and people had 
gone to bed. We left our compound about eight o'clock, 
and reached Fangtze at midnight. The Germans were 
still up, and gave us a most cordial welcome. Supper 
was soon ready for us and beds prepared. I shall never 
forget the kindness of these people. They put every- 
thing they had at our disposal. There were no ladies 
there, only German engineers and miners, in all fifteen 
or sixteen men. 

' As we look back upon the way God has led us, His 
love and care seem very wonderful. All the time of the 
riot. He seemed close beside us, and I kept thinking of 
the verse, " Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace whose 
mind is stayed on Thee." When we went upstairs to 
Mr. Chalfant's house, we fully expected to die. So far 
as we could see, there was no escape, but we were all 
ready to say, " Thy will be done." My earnest prayer 
was that I might not in any way dishonour God, but 
that I might be close to Him to the end. 

* We have many things for which to be thankful, and 
which show plainly that God was caring for us. If the 
riot had been earlier in the day, and we escaping by 
daylight, in all human probability we could not have 
got away. The ladder by which we escaped had been 
brought there only the day before for Mr. Chalfant to 
examine the roof. Just at this season there was no 
one in the fields. A little earlier or later, the men are 
out all night watching the crops. Humanly speaking, 
we owe our lives to Mr. Chalfant. He was one man 
against five hundred, and he held them back until nearly 

268 The Exodus from Shantung 

dark. To the Chinese who came with us we owe a debt 
of gratitude we cannot repay. They risked their own 
lives to help us. As soon as we reached the coal mines, 
the headman of the place sent a telegram asking for 
German soldiers to escort us to Tsing Tau. 

*We saved nothing except what we had on our 
backs. I had been packing all day, and wore an old 
dress that I expected to throw away. I did have my 
watch on, but everything else is gone. Our school 
teacher was killed just outside of our compound, and a 
cook was badly beaten. Most or all of our helpers and 
servants lost all they had at the station, but we have 
not heard of any others who were injured. 

* We left Fangtze after four o'clock, Saturday after- 
noon, June 30, and went ten miles that evening. Next day 
we went about thirty miles. Just as we began to eat 
dinner we heard a great uproar in front of the inn gate, 
and feared it was the beginning of another riot. The 
men grasped their weapons and rushed out. They 
succeeded in quieting the people, but no one was hungry 
after that. Toward evening we crossed a river where 
there was only one small boat, and it took several hours 
to get us over. That night we reached a miserable inn, 
where the people were sullen. Miss Hawes and I slept 
in a little inner room, with a curtain between us and 
the gentlemen. We heard alarming news of the road 
ahead of us, but there was nothing to do but push on. 

* Mr. Bergen with friends and ten soldiers were out 
nearly a week looking for us, and had suffered very 
much. After hard riding they had gone for many hours 
without food for themselves or horses. One horse died, 
another went mad, another was brought home disabled. 
Three times they were attacked by the Chinese. Once 
there was firing all night. 

Wei Hsien in Flames 269 

'After the way God brought us out of the fire at 
Wei Hsien, I can most certainly say that mine own eyes 
have seen His great power. With Him we are ahvays 
safe, and without Him no place is safe. I believe that 
after this trouble we shall see a greater work in China 
than we have ever seen before. That night we were 
fleeing from Wei Hsien, as I looked back and saw the 
flames rising behind me, I thought, — These flames will 
kindle a wonderful work for God in this place, and then 
how glad and happy we shall be ! I am more than ever 
anxious to go back and begin work again, and Wei 
Hsien and the people there are dearer to me than ever.' 

Miss Hawes, in writing of those hours of crisis at 
Wei Hsien, says : — 

' Mr. Chalfant shot into the air until they closed about 
him, when in self-defence he shot into the crowd, and 
managed to get through a small opening in the gate 
and returned to us. The bricks were flying thickly 
about him as he did so. When he appeared, I said, 
" Oh, Mr. Chalfant, thank God that you are not killed." 
He shook his head, and said, " Yes, but — " and as he 
sat down looking so pale I saw there was not hope in 
his face for our lives. He drank some fresh water, and 
we all ate a little for strength, and then we gathered 
with the Christians who were in one room waiting for 
the end. 

' We heard the smashing of our windows, and saw 
the flames on either side of us, and we prayed and shook 
hands together, expecting soon to be massacred or 
burned in the house. But, to Mr. Chalfant's amazement, 
on looking out of the east window he saw no one in 
the east yard. We went through the sitting-room 
window, which reached to the floor, and, finding a ladder 
on the piazza, crossed the yard and got safely over the 

270 The Exodus from Shantung 

wall, taking our Christian women and men with us. 
The boxes which we had packed were all on one side of 
Mr. Chalfant's yard, and evil men were carrying them 
off, while we gained the chance of escape on the other 

* After we were over the wall, we joined hands and 
walked through the corn-fields, praising God for our 
deliverance. We hid by lying down in the corn till 
dark and all was quiet, then we crept softly through 
the fields, avoiding the roads, and not daring to speak 
to each other until ten miles were done and we arrived 
at the German mines. The Chinese had already set 
fire to a large shaft belonging to these miners, causing a 
loss of several thousands of dollars.' 

It is one hundred miles from Wei Hsien to Tsing 
Tau. Of five men who voluntarily accompanied the 
fleeing missionaries as far as the mines, two were non- 
Christians who had often been employed as barrow-men. 
The faithful Chinese women stopped in a village west 
of the mines. 

Other striking incidents in connection with the flight 
of the missionaries from Shantung were: the total 
destruction of the Mission buildings belonging to the 
American Presbyterian Mission in Lin-ch'ing-chou, in 
the south-western part of the province, and also of the 
buildings of the English Methodist Mission at Lao-ling, 
near Wu-ting-fu. The missionaries and their families 
all escaped in safety. 

The buildings of the American Presbyterian Mission 
in I-chow-fu were in part destroyed by the soldiers of 
the Imperial army passing from the south, under the 
command of the notorious Li-pingh'eng, the Governor of 
Shantung at the time when Kiao-chou Bay was seized 
by the Germans. On this account he was incited to 

Missionaries at Chefoo 


become, as he afterwards did, a leader of the Boxer 

The missionaries of the American Board Mission 
from the station of Pang-chia-chuang, in the extreme 
west of Shantung, were mostly away at a meeting of 
their Mission in Tungchou, near Peking, when the Boxer 
troubles broke out, and were amongst the number who 
were saved through the gallant action of Dr. Ament of 
Peking, who rode out with carts and brought the whole 
party in safety to the capital, where, however, they had 
to endure all the horrors of the siege. 

The extensive Mission premises of the English 
Baptist Mission in Ch'ing - chou - fu escaped almost 
unharmed, though only forty miles from the Wei Hsien 
Mission compound, which was completely destroyed by 
fire by the mob. The premises, which were left in the 
care of the local magistrate, were extensively looted by 
the very men sent to guard them. The neighbouring 
station of Chou-p'ing, belonging to the same Mission, 
was preserved, mainly through the efforts of a friendly 
official, who had himself to suffer great indignity from 
the Boxers on account of his friendliness. 

The missionaries who escaped in the exodus from 
Shantung were mostly congregated in Chefoo, where 
they remained for about nine months. They were 
followed in their flight by a considerable number of 
Christian natives, who escaped from the terrible wave 
of persecution which immediately followed the abandon- 
ment of the mission stations in the interior. The 
missionaries at Chefoo were not only useful in helping 
these their native converts, but were successful in obtain- 
ing relief for the persecuted Christians in the province of 

It is only right to thankfully record the fact that no 

272 The Exodus from Shantung 

missionary, or any of their families or dependents, lost 
their lives in this most memorable flight. This was due, 
under God, to the energetic action of the then Governor 
of the province, H. E. Yuan Shih-k'ai, who, at great 
personal risk and much anxiety, befriended the mission- 
aries, and by the aid of his well-disciplined troops 
secured their safety by providing efficient escort to the 
coast. Not only did he act consistently in his efforts to 
befriend all foreigners in his jurisdiction, but, by means 
of trusty couriers, kept in constant communication with 
Peking all through the troubles, and reported constantly 
and confidently the continued safety of the Legations 
when all hope had been given up in other quarters. 
He also, on receipt of a communication from the 
missionaries in Chefoo, thanking him for past help, and 
praying a continuance of his vigorous efforts in the 
suppression of the Boxers, sent a most courteous and 
statesmanlike reply, which put missions and missionaries 
working in the province in a position never before 
attained under any previous Governor. His subsequent 
action, in summoning Rev. W. M. Hayes, D.D., of the 
American Presbyterian Missionary College, to Teng- 
chou-fu, to his aid in his wide-reaching schemes of 
educational reform in the province, also earned for 
him the gratitude of the missionary body. When the 
Consular authorities thought it safe to allow their 
nationals to return to the interior, efficient escort and a 
cordial welcome were extended to them by the Governor. 

fir, " 


I i 





The Destruction of Mission Work 
IN Manchuria 

The home provinces of the Manchu dynasty have been, 
within recent times, the scene of some of the most 
remarkable successes in modern missionary work. The 
Manchu race, composed of many warUke tribes finally 
welded into one by the force exerted by the founder of 
the present dynasty now ruling over China, has never 
fully occupied the magnificent territory which they had 
as a natural heritage. Consequently, immigration by 
Chinese from the provinces of Chihli and Shantung has 
been going on for generations ; and of late years, owing 
to famines and floods in Shantung, has been greatly 
increased and even encouraged, especially from that 
province. Those who have gone have been, for the 
most part, young, unencumbered men, drawn out from 
their paternal homes by force of circumstances, becoming 
settlers in new territory, and gradually, when able, 
gathering friends about them and founding new homes 
in new surroundings, and thus more ready to accept 
new ideas and make new developments. 

The work of the United Presbyterian Church of 

Scotland, now known as the United Free Church, and 

the Irish Presbyterian, especially amongst these settlers, 

has been, of recent years, almost phenomenal in its 


2 74 The Destruction of Mission Work 

success. Up to the time of the outbreak in June 1900, 
converts and inquirers had been numbered by thousands 
for several years previously, and it seemed as if a general 
movement of the populace in favour of Christianity was 
about to take place. 

The Japanese war of 1894 had stirred them deeply. 
The ease with which the little Japs conquered by sea 
and land, culminating in the overthrow of what was 
considered the impregnable fortress of Port Arthur, and 
the virtual surrender to them almost without a blow of 
the whole Liao-tung peninsula, was to all concerned a 
most astounding revelation of the utter weakness of the 
Chinese and Manchu authorities in that province, as well 
as in other parts. 

The subsequent combination against Japan, and the 
consequent handing over the fruits of their victories to 
the Russian Government ; the rapid Russianising of 
Manchuria by the aid of a branch line of the Great 
Siberian Railway running through the heart of the 
country, and connecting with the new Russian Port 
Arthur : all these rapid and momentous changes made 
the whole population restless and uneasy. Constant 
communication with Peking, and the rise and progress of 
the Boxer movement, had its almost immediate effect in 
the native home of the dynasty. Shantung immigrants 
readily learned the Boxer arts and incantations, as the 
initiators of these mysteries were Shantung men. When 
the Imperial edict was issued, ordering the destruction 
of all foreign buildings and the death of all foreigners, it 
was like placing a match to gunpowder. The explosion 
was as immediate as it was disastrous. 

The missionaries, warned, but only just in time, had 
barely the opportunity to make their escape, even with 
the help that Russian soldiers and railway trains could 

Troubles at East Moukden 275 

give. One of the most exciting of the adventures of the 
escaping missionaries is related by Rev. F. W. S. O'Neill, 
of the Irish Presbyterian Mission, who writes: — 

' Though we had had warning, yet the trouble came 
to a head with unexpected suddenness. On Sabbath, 
July I, I preached in our new church premises, on the 
power of united prayer when God's people were in 
danger (Acts xii. 5). It is true, the notice had been 
posted up in Fakumen to the effect that, on the following 
Sabbath, July 8, we were to be killed, and the chapels 
burned; both Protestants and Roman Catholics being 
included. But we did not take the threat as really 
serious. On Monday, however, news came that the 
East Moukden church had been burned. Several of us 
were together — deacons, members, elders. We discussed 
the situation ; we prayed, some in tears. They pressed 
me to leave Fakumen. So that night I packed up, and 
next morning set out about dawn, dressed in Chinese 
clothes. Hoping to get a train to Newchwang, I made 
for Tiehling, an important station on the Russian railway, 
thirty miles eastwards from my home. That evening I 
reached my destination, and lodged in a Chinese inn 
without disturbance. 

' Next morning, I missed what turned out to be the 
last train that presumably got through to Newchwang, 
for on the following day the train on which we were 
was attacked by a company of perhaps two hundred 
Boxers, or Imperial troops, or both. Some twenty 
miles north-west of Moukden we had stopped. Looking 
out from the waggon, I saw the enemy crouching in a 
field a little way from the railway line. Not many men 
were on the long train. The Russians fired. Then the 
Chinese began a sharp fusilade, and the train speedily 
put back. Many bullets struck the locomotive, but no 

276 The Destruction of Mission Work 

one on our side was injured. The track was broken. 
We went back some distance for help and materials, 
and returned down the line that night. We found a 
station burned, flames from piles of wood still burning 
brightly. The damage to the line was too serious to 
be repaired then. So we returned to Tiehling in the 
morning, to find that an attack had been made on the 
station there by a strong force, and repulsed with, it 
was said, over forty Chinese killed. 

' It is curious to observe the mixture of superstition 
in this rising. To enter the Boxers' Society a charm is 
repeated, after which the person swoons, and, on regain- 
ing consciousness, is supposed to be able to perform 
military feats untaught; to be, in fact, "possessed" — 
whether through imaginary demonism, or real demoniac 
power, it is hard to say. Young girls also enter the 
Society, and they especially are said to be bullet-proof. 
On the occasion of that first attack at Tiehling the 
Chinese troops were led by a maiden on horseback. 
She was shot in the head, and died, of course. But the 
story was that she became alive again. 

* Next day, Saturday, July 7, sustained fighting 
went on at the station. The Russian settlement where 
we were staying was two or three miles from the station. 
Mounted Cossacks hurrying out or returning, the sound 
of musketry, and the sight of burning houses, made that 
afternoon and evening serious with the knowledge of 
war at our door. There had taken refuge at the Russian 
settlement two French priests, two nuns, and some two 
hundred Chinese Roman Catholics. In the dusk of that 
memorable evening, they came together on the roadway 
in front of the chief engineer's house. The congregation 
knelt on the ground, the two priests standing, and thus 
repeated their prayers, mingled with the women's sobs. 

* Death stared us in the Face' 277 

It was an impressive sight. The news had already reached 
us of the destruction of Moukden Roman Catholic 
cathedral, and the death of the bishop with a French 
priest and two nuns, and it was said about three hundred 
Chinese Christians, the place having been bombarded 
by Imperial artillery. We heard that the Chinese troops 
had come on to Tiehling. The Protestant and Roman 
Catholic churches of Tiehling had been burned. From 
the train I had seen the remains of the spire of the 
latter, and clouds of smoke that may have come from 
our church or street chapel. 

' That night death stared us in the face. The same 
day a copy of a recent Peking Gazette (Chinese) was 
secured through the capture of a letter-courier. In it 
was a proclamation from the Empress-Dowager, authoris- 
ing the people to destroy chapels, buildings, and property, 
and otherwise avenge themselves on foreigners for 
taking the forts of Taku. It was decided by the 
engineers and officers to leave Tiehling at once. The 
Russian soldiers on the spot were for the defence of 
the railway against robbers, but were not sufficient 
to make war. As the way to Newchwang seemed too 
difficult, we were to make for Harpin (or Charbin), the 
great Russian settlement in the far north. 

* That night we did not sleep. We prepared for flight. 
Three boxes which I brought from Fakumen were 
thrown aside. And as my house was likely to be burned 
or at least the contents destroyed, my equipment was 
reduced to a portmanteau and such things as I could 
carry along with it. This baggage had come with me 
so far, minus an umbrella. I was more fortunate than 
several others. One acquaintance, an Italian contractor, 
had lost all but the clothes he stood in. But these things 
were trivial compared with the sacrifice made by the 

278 The Destruction of Mission Work 

Russians. In order to save the Chinese Catholics, the 
number of carts being limited, Mr. Kasignery, the chief 
engineer of Tiehling, decided to leave behind half 
a million roubles (about ;^50,ooo). Such an act of 
generosity under such circumstances is deserving of the 
highest praise, and is of a piece with what I afterwards 
saw of this gentleman. 

* In the dark we pushed out, and had abandoned the 
settlement by dawn. A lurid blaze shot up behind us, 
for the Russians set fire to their own houses themselves. 
We were a motley throng of five or six hundred souls, 
and over twenty carts. A large portion of the procession 
was mounted — soldiers, engineers, employees. Not 
having a horse, I went on foot that day, and afterwards 
sometimes on foot or the back of a horse, and latterly 
on the shaft of the cart in which were the French nuns. 
During this remarkable journey, apart from the fighting, 
two of our difficulties were to get enough food and sleep. 
On one occasion I was glad to make a meal of a piece 
of stale bread and some dirty water, which, being cold, 
was very welcome. And as for sleep, one snatched an 
hour on the ground when one could get it. I usually 
had meals with the engineers, who were very kind. But, 
as the phrase has it, h la guerre, comme h la guerre. 
Sometimes, if one did not turn up when food was ready, 
one had to look around elsewhere. I was never as 
badly off as the priest of Tiehling, Pere Lamasse, who 
one day became so giddy from lack of nourishment, that 
he was afraid of falling off his horse. It was a great 
blessing that there was a good supply of cold water from 
the wells along the road, otherwise men and horses 
might have been in a terrible plight in the very hot 
weather. Though the roads were not bad until towards 
the end, when rain fell, yet our march was slow. Thus 

The Caravan en route 279 

the enemy had time either to advance ahead of us, or, 
which is more hkely, to send messengers to the Chinese 
troops along our route. 

* The first day, Sabbath, July 8, was quiet, without 
molestation. But on the second day, beyond Kaiyuan, 
we saw the Chinese in force on the hills in our rear. 
I was staying behind to observe, when quite near me 
a Russian soldier cried out, being wounded in the leg. 
Across the valley the rattle of musketry lasted for a 
time. The caravan hurried on. Then our troops 
retreated, the Chinese following, and thus at intervals 
the firing continued. At last we reached the shelter 
of the Russian station, Sa-hetzu. The casualties on our 
side were not many. I heard that many Chinese were 
killed. Possibly this was the cause of their not 
attacking us again that night. 

' A short stage of eight miles brought us next day 
to Shuang-miao-tzu (" Twin Temples "). The Russian 
General at Harpin had telephoned that he wished us 
to remain at this place. But events proved such a plan 
to be quite out of the question, with our small body 
of some three hundred soldiers, and another one 
hundred or so armed engineers and railway employees, 
while the opposing forces might number thousands. 
On that day, July lo, we had breakfasted, and I was 
settling down to have a read and sleep ; indeed, I 
was just dozing, when I was rudely awakened by the 
hurry-scurry around me. The Chinese Christians 
came together into the backyard of the house, and knelt 
down to pray. Bullets whizzed in the trees over our 
heads. Where was the enemy ? I ventured out to 
peer around. The settlement was on an eminence. 
Native houses, trees, or crops offered shelter for the 
attacking parties. Mounted and foot poured out for 

28o The Destruction of Mission Work 

the defence. But this time it was not to be a mere 
" shoot-and-run-away," a device of which Celestials are 
so capable. From more than one side, the attack was 
kept up with determination. By and by, our men 
retired to the three compounds on the hill where we 
were staying. From roof and from embrasure, crack, 
crack, went the deadly Russian rifle. It was a solemn 
night. I wondered whether God meant me to live or 
d^ie. Once there came to my ears the confused sound 
of many voices and a whistling, which seemed possibly 
to be the rallying of the Chinese for a final assault, 
but which I afterwards thought may have been their 
call to retire. No one of our company was killed, but 
about ten were wounded. 

* In the dead of night quietly we slipped away ; but 
still in the teeth of the foe. Next day for the first 
time we were met fairly in front. The caravan called 
a halt. Our fearless Cossacks charged. In one volley, 
it was said, fifty of the enemy were killed. The 
Chinese changed their point of attack, but numbers 
were not a match for skill and pluck. We took two 
colours, one of Imperial troops and the other with the 
words, " Boxers Braves " {i.e, soldiers), thus proving 
that the regular soldiers were hand in hand with the 
Anti-Foreign Society. 

* A sad incident occurred that day, showing how in 
war the innocent suffer with the guilty. A Chinese 
evangelist, Pere Lamasse's helper, was mistaken by a 
Cossack for one of the enemy, and received five or six 
sword wounds. On the occasions where villages were 
set on fire because the enemy had been there, it is 
not unlikely that the peasants who did not manage to 
escape met their death. I saw one old man lying 
dead, scorched and blistered, where he had fallen, 

Russian Severities 281 

having perhaps run out from a burning house close 
by. Once at a burning village I saw some Russians 
threatening a couple of Chinese who looked like farm 
labourers. I went up and stepped between. When I 
spoke to the Chinese, they implored me despairingly 
to help them, saying they were innocent. Knowing 
but little of the Russian language, I turned to those 
beside me with the words, "Not soldier." "That's 
a highway robber," replied one of them; "see his 
hand" (which perhaps was bloody). Crack went the 
Russian's rifle without further parley, and I turned 
away from the sad spectacle. How could I or any 
one tell for certain that inoffensive-looking Chinese 
were not really Boxers ? A soldier one easily knew by 
his uniform, but to judge by the reports one had often 
heard before the fighting began, the whole country 
swarmed with them. 

'On Thursday, July 12, we had a long day's 
march from 12 p.m. to 10 p.m. Next day men and 
horses were too done up to go on, so we remained all 
day in the village where we had quartered the night 
before. I had sought out a quiet place below a hedge 
of trees to have a sleep ; but a soldier ordered me in 
nearer the others, while out poured the hard-worked 
mounted Cossacks on the far side of the hedge. The 
threatened attack, however, collapsed, for the Chinese 
fled, and our rest was not further disturbed. 

'Saturday, July 14, saw us off once more under the 
burning sun, This night we encamped about thirty 
miles from K'uan-ch'eng-tzu. No definite news from the 
Russian settlement there, but bad rumours. The sight 
of telegraph posts sawed off near the bottom did not 
help to make us hopeful. A small party of Cossacks 
was sent forward to find out. They returned the follow- 

282 The Destruction of Mission Work 

ing day with the ominous information that the Russians 
had gone, and that their settlement was in the hands of 
Chinese soldiers. This was enough to make us give 
K'uan-ch'eng-tzu a wide berth. And if more were 
needed we had it, for that morning we sustained the 
sharpest attack of any on our route. In front, from 
beneath a clump of trees not far away, came the fusilade 
of the unseen Chinese. The carts had to cross an un- 
protected space before they could reach shelter. It was 
weird work, with the bullets whizzing over our heads. 
Behind friendly trees and some houses we halted. Some 
of us prayed. The "hurrah" of the Russian charge 
sounded in one's ears. When the fight was over, three 
of our men had laid down their lives, and five were 
wounded. On a sunny hillside, amid the tall green 
stalks of unripe millet, a grave was dug, and the three 
men lowered into it. Then for the first time I heard 
the solemn, beautiful chant of the Greek Church Burial 
Service sung by the soldiers themselves. The devout 
crossed themselves now and again. Pere Lamasse 
made the sign of the cross, and threw in some earth. 
Then handful after handful of earth was thrown in by 
those who stood around. More than one of the strong, 
rough men had tears in their eyes. 

' After a consultation had been held as to the direc- 
tion best for us to take, in which the two French priests 
and I had some say, we sheered away westward, towards 
Mongolia. It was now that one enjoyed an all-night 
march, and but for drowsiness it was enjoyable. For 
we knew that we were probably free from bullets. 
Nothing worse than sleeplessness marred our peace, 
until July i8, when we were only about seventeen miles 
from the River Sungari, and it looked as if we were 
to reach it without further molestation. But, no, — the 

Chinese Spies 283 

sound of firing again ! Can we never get free from the 
Boxers and their Imperial allies ? By and by, the con- 
querors return, bearing aloft a fine Chinese standard, 
with the loss of one Cossack killed. 

'We halted for food at a deserted railway station 
— ice still in the ice-houses. The occupants had not 
been gone many days, and the houses were not burned. 
I had had a meal in bits, looking out for anything that 
turned up at headquarters, — glad, too, when I could get 
a mug of tea. Two respectable-looking Chinese were 
brought in on the charge of being spies. They said they 
had come from the Sungari that morning, and that all 
was quiet — steamer on river, and railway on far side 
intact. The news seemed too good to be true. " Ask 
them," said one of the engineers to me in French, " is 
it really true?" The men held firmly to their word. 
They said they were foremen, in charge of labourers 
on the railway, going to their chief office to get money 
to pay their men. After a little, some more Chinese 
were dragged or pushed in, along with the first two, 
before the officers. One of the interpreters translated 
for the accused. But it was of no avail ; they were 
executed. I felt pretty sure that those two had told the 
substantial truth. As I was going over to where their 
heads were being cut off, an engineer told me they had 
been caught with several guns. That was a decisive 
piece of evidence. Poor Manchuria, bleeding, in flames, 
hundreds of homes deserted, crops untended, the avenger 
sweeping up and down the land to-day ! 

' The same evening, as we defiled in a picturesque 
coil over hill and valley, there came cheering from the 
van. Slipping from my seat on the cart-shaft, I went 
forward to inquire. Hurrah ! hip, hip, hurrah ! We are 
safe at last, for one hundred and forty Cossacks have 

284 The Destruction of Mission Work 

come to meet us, and the way is clear for Harpin. You 
may guess the load that was lifted from every man and 
woman in our strained and weary company. The file 
of carts was now mostly occupied with wounded ; 
twenty-four of them, — sometimes two on one cart, — 
poor fellows, patient and uncomplaining, jolted, jolted, 
day after day. Altogether, eight had been shot dead 
or died of wounds. One of them was a cheery, brave 
young technical engineer, with whom I had felt quite at 
home. He could speak some Chinese. As he lay in 
the cart slowly dying from a chest wound, I tried to 
point him to God. He made no reply, and perhaps he 
did not understand. His breath came in gasps, his 
eyes rolled. I felt that in Mr. Bagisloosky I had lost a 

* It was pitch dark when we reached the " Second 
Sungari" station, Lao-shao-kou. It had been raining. 
But even to sleep on wet grass, with only a little straw 
under one's wet waterproof, could not make one miserable 
when the haven was sure. The chief engineer and staff 
had already cleared out not long ago. The engineer's fine 
house was in charge of Chinese soldiers when we arrived. 
They must have been more or less friendly, for all the 
damage noticeable was that they had broken his piano ! 

* We crossed the Sungari on July 19, leaving carts, 
horses, locomotive, houses, wood, etc., behind. Only the 
Cossacks' horses were brought over. To the variety of 
my experiences I added another. Passing the night in 
an open railway truck, there came on a storm of rain, 
which took the glory out of my felt hat, and ironstained 
some of the few white things that remained in my 

' Friday, July 20, we reached Harpin, and had a great 
reception — military band playing, high officials in their 

Arrival at Harpin 285 

white jackets with epaulettes, shaking hands Hungry, 
we go to the cUib, where a feast is awaiting the favoured 
ones A long dining-hall and many guests, civil and 
military ''England and France may declare war 
against China, but Russia will not," said the engineer-m- 
chief of the railway to me. After dinner there were 
toasts and speeches. General Guerngross, in command 
of the Russian forces in Manchuria, was carried round 
the room. The Greek Church priest, a gentlemanly- 
looking man, in a long robe with wide leg-of-mutton 
sleeves, rose to speak. He is proposing "The Mis- 
sionaries,"-explained the doctor beside me, in English. 
Pere Lamasse replied in French. It seemed to me that, 
as the only representative of the Protestant Mission, 
I should also speak. So I went forward, and m my 
mother-tongue thanked the Russian officers and gentle- 
men in the name of the Protestant missionaries for their 
very great kindness. It was not much return to make 
for all the favours I had received at their hands. Not 
very many of the company could have understood me, 
but they cheered nevertheless. During the proceedings 
my respected friend, Mr. Shidloosky, head-engineer of 
Liao-yang (whose proteg^ I had felt myself during the 
march, for he spoke a fair amount of English, and had 
been very kind to me), came up and kissed me warmly. 
There was much kissing, according to the Russian 

custom. . 

' Dr. Naumov was to be my host, so I was driven 
in a drosky to his house, near the hospital. I was 
surprised at the size of the town, or rather towns, 
scattered in three separate places. The settlement on 
the bank of the Sungari, with its high flour mill, police 
station, and shops, strikes one as a busy place in its way. 
One more experience. Lest the laundress might not 

286 The Destruction of Mission Work 

have my dirty clothes ready in time for the steamer, 
which was overdue, I tried my hand at washing them 

' Flight once again ! Unexpectedly word came late 
on July 22 from Tsitsihar, from the Governor-General 
of Hei-lung-chiang (the most northerly of the three 
provinces of Manchuria), that all non-combatants were 
to leave Harpin. Next day the river bank at the wharf 
presented a varied scene, — crowds of Russian clerks, 
engineers, employees (men, women, and children), 
Japanese and Chinese (men and women), boxes and 
bundles, chairs and samovars, tents and railway trucks, 
the wounded from the hospital carefully conveyed from 
train to barge, men eager to get quickly on board 
expostulating with those in charge, a pile of large 
loaves of bread for the wounded, and individuals with 
their private stores of eatables. By evening we had 
settled down, and next morning at dawn two paddle 
steamers, each towing three barges, in all containing 
perhaps three thousand souls, left the moorings. While 
the loading was in progress, the principal of the two 
priests went through the crowded barges in gold-laced 
vestments, and a whisk and cross, sprinkling us with holy 
water, while the more devout men and women pressed 
forward to kiss the metal symbol of the death of Christ, 
and the hand which held it, themselves making the sign 
of the cross. 

' I was on the barge that carried the wounded, and 
found new friends, one being Mr. Kishevitch, a Polish 
engineer who had been in America, and spoke very good 
English. I was fortunate in having a place on a broad 
wooden shelf in one of the holds to sleep on. Not 
having provisions for the journey, again the hospitality 
of strangers kept me well supplied. The second day out 




Arrival at Habarovsk 287 

we met the Russian fleet of steamers and barges that 
was convoying an army of three thousand, it was said. 
Just a short time before we reached them, they had 
captured the important fort near San-shing, which com- 
mands the river. 

' The previous steamer that had gone from Harpin 
had been fired on with effect. Had we started on the 
23rd, as we were ordered to, we might have had a bad 
lookout. The remains of Russian settlements along the 
banks showed the hand of the incendiary. But during 
our voyage we were nowhere molested. We had no 
military guard, and so were not in a position for 
defence, had there been trouble. The man next me in 
the hold had a nasty wound in his arm, received in 
fighting at the settlement near San-shing. The bullet 
which struck him had been flattened by first penetrating 
six sheets of corrugated iron, and so the wound was a 
wide one. He was evidently in pain ; I could not do 
anything to help him except sometimes light his 
cigarette. The Russians are great smokers of cigarettes 
under almost any circumstances. I have seen a lady 
light hers between the courses of a meal, and a man 
puffing away as he stepped on to the spring-board for a 
plunge in the sea. 

* After a voyage of five and a half days, on July 29 
we reached our destination, Habarovsk, an important 
town, beautifully situated on the Amur, in Eastern 
Siberia. Of the one hundred and twenty or so wounded 
that were with us, three had died, and seven had lost 
their reason. Here again the "Orthodox" Church 
showed how she keeps in touch with public life. On 
the river bank, or street, at the landing-place, in the 
midst of a downpour of rain, two priests in vestments 
held a thanksgiving service. There was again the kissing 

288 The Destruction of Mission Work 

of a cross by the bystanders, while we on the landing 
barge stood bareheaded. Certainly, if ever there were 
fit occasion for thanksgiving to our Heavenly Father, it 
was then. God had wonderfully, and sometimes, as it 
were, miraculously preserved us amid many perils. 

' Next morning, I took the train for Vladivostock, 
arriving on July 31, and finding, to my surprise, that 
a party of our own Irish Presbyterian missionaries 
was still there. It was a sad group, for Mrs. Greig, of 
our Mission, had been buried that morning. Though 
we talked of separating, and some of going to 
Japan, we remained there some time. Vladivostock 
is picturesquely built on hillsides along a neck of land 
jutting out into a long arm of the sea. Besides the 
large Greek church, there are Lutheran and Roman 
Catholic churches. We acted on the assumption that 
we should resume our work in Manchuria when the 
trouble is over, even if Russia is then the avowed owner 
of the country. I was told that the Greek Church has 
enough to do at home, and will not send missionaries to 
the Chinese, and, moreover, will not interfere with our 
work. This last statement we have not proof for as yet, 
but the rest, from what one sees of the Greek Church, 
seems very probable. While among Russians the feeling 
against England is strong, they treat Englishmen with 
courtesy, and even employ them in mines and in other 
ways in Manchuria. They may come to understand our 
non-political and purely religious ends. We need much 
prayer for our native Christians in their fiery trial, and 
for the future of the Church of God in this land.' 

The following brief account shows how the fugitives 
from Kirin fared : — 

'At the time of the Boxer outbreak in 1900, the 
missionaries resident in Kirinwere, Mr. and Mrs. Drysdale, 

Fugitives from Kirin 289 

of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and two children, 
Dr. and Mrs. James A. Greig, Dr. and Mrs. D. L. Fisher 
and infant, Rev. A. R. Crawford, M.A., Rev. W. Miskelly, 
M.A., of the Irish Presbyterian Mission. During the 
month of June the two latter were out-on-tour in the 
Ku-yu-shu district, north of Kirin, and saw nothing 
disquieting in the state of the country. On their 
return to the city of Kirin, however, they learned 
from Dr. Greig that all sorts of evil rumours had 
been circulated in the city, and that placards and 
handbills, denouncing foreigners and exhorting the 
people to practise Boxer drill, were being disseminated 
everywhere. Meanwhile, chapel-preaching was carried 
on with redoubled energy, and the audiences were 

' On the second day after the return of Messrs. 
Crawford and Miskelly, a code telegram was received 
from colleagues in Newchwang, which said that war 
had been declared between China and the Powers, and 
warned us to hold ourselves in readiness for flis^ht. 
This telegram had taken nine days to come from New- 
chwang, and we learned that the Tartar General had 
taken charge of the telegraph office, and was now 
allowing no private messages. As the Tartar General, 
Ch'ang Shun, had the reputation of being anti-foreign, 
and we had cause to know that his reputation was not 
undeserved, we decided, on consultation over the belated 
telegram, to take advantage of the kind offer which 
had on the previous day been pressed on us of 
hospitality and protection in the Russian colony at the 
west end of the city. The city front lies along the bank 
of the Sungari, which here runs almost exactly east and 
west. The Russian colony was situated outside the 
west gate, and the mission houses outside the east gate, 

290 The Destruction of Mission Work 

so that the whole city lay between us and our friends. 
We were, however, able to communicate by Russian 
telephone, from a little station where timber was landed, 
and the engineer-in-chief at the colony at once replied, 
requesting us to get on board a little railway steamer, 
which happened to be lying at said station, without 

' Having packed up a few necessaries, we started off 
about midnight by the light of lanterns for the place 
where the steamer lay. We had to pass the arsenal on 
our way, and the unusual procession of lanterns seems to 
have attracted attention, for a gun was fired from the 
arsenal wall, whether at us or not we did not know, but 
we were relieved that the shooting was not repeated. 
We steamed slowly up river, past the sleeping city, and 
reached the Russian colony in the grey dawn, and were 
most kindly received and attended to. Later on in the 
morning, the prefect called, and informed Engineer 
Daniel that he could not guarantee the peace of the city ; 
that affairs looked bad, and within a few days the soldiers 
and populace might be beyond control. He urged Mr. 
Daniel to send away at once all the women and non- 
combatants. This advice was understood to have come 
from the Tartar General, and the Russians decided to 
act on it. Preparations were made for a start next 
morning, and we were offered places on the little steamer, 
with an allowance of 20 lbs. of baggage each. We 
gladly accepted this offer. Meanwhile the steamer took 
some of us down stream against the east suburb, and 
allowed us to visit our houses and make choice of what 
we preferred to include in our 20 lbs. We missionaries 
urged the Russians to start before daylight next morning, 
as we thought it best to avoid being seen from the city 
and perhaps fired on with cannon. Russians, however, 

A Long Steamer Journey 291 

are not easily hurried, and it was about nine o'clock and 
full daylight of July 2 when the little steamer, laden 
with some eighty, mostly deck passengers, glided swiftly 
down stream in full view of the city. As we passed 
the Tartar General's palace, which fronts the river, our 
dauntless captain gave a long salute of the steam whistle 
by way of farewell, which had the effect of attracting 
crowds of people to witness our departure. At the east 
suburb wood station we made a long stop to take in fire- 
wood, but finally got safely and quietly off. It looked 
more like starting for a picnic than flying for our lives, 
and some of the Chinese who saw us off seemed to think 
it was a picnic such as the Russians had had not long 

' The weather was dreadfully hot, and as the deck 
was only protected by a strip of canvas about a yard 
wide, the ladies and children had a very trying time. 
The water in the river was low, and our steamer ran 
aground frequently, although sounding was maintained 
all the time with a long pole. Often we lay for hours 
before our crew could lever us off. We also stopped 
usually once a day for firewood. This gave us oppor- 
tunities of cooling ourselves by having bathes from the 
rafts moored at the wood stations. We lay to at night. 
In three days we arrived at Lao-shao-kou, where the 
railway bridge over the Sungari (north of K'uan-ch'eng- 
tzu) is to be. We were glad to hear that trains were 
running to Harpin, but we had to sleep another night on 
the deck of the little steamer. It turned out to be a 
very wet one, and we (most of us, at least) got well 
soaked. Meanwhile the missionary party from K'uan- 
ch'eng-tzu had arrived, having travelled thence by 
Chinese cart.' 

Dr. J. R. Gillespie, of the Irish Presbyterian Mission 

292 The Destruction of Mission Work 

in K'uan-ch'eng-tzu, thus describes the flight of their 
party : — 

' In June 1900 the following missionaries of the Irish 
Presbyterian Church were living in K'uan-ch'eng-tzu, a 
city of about ninety thousand inhabitants, situated about 
three hundred nniles north of Newchwang, and eighty 
miles west of Kirin : R. J. Gordon, M.A., M.B., Mrs. 
Gordon and five children ; Rev. A. Weir ; and J. R. 
Gillespie, M.A., M.B., and Mrs. Gillespie. In the latter 
part of the month. Boxer agents began practising 
on the street; and even, it was said, in the Yamen. 
Placards also were posted in the streets, urging the 
expulsion of the foreigners, — a thing unprecedented in 

'Dr. Gordon, who, on account of medical services 
rendered to his wife and his brother, was on friendly 
terms with the mandarin, sent him a copy of an anti- 
foreign placard. The mandarin responded by issuing a 
proclamation threatening imprisonment to those who 
should speak ill of foreigners, or circulate placards 
hostile to them. The placards ceased, but there were 
still unpleasant rumours, to which weight was given by 
the daily rise in the price of silver, and a steady diminu- 
tion in the number of hospital patients. On June 29, 
two letters arrived : one from Newchwang, telling us 
that the Chin-chow and Kwang-ning missionaries had 
had to leave their stations, and were already in the port ; 
the other from K'ai-yuan, — four hundred li south of us, 
— saying that the missionaries there were on the point 
of leaving for Newchwang. Next day, a telegraph 
office was newly opened in our city, and we took 
advantage of it to send messages to Newchwang and 
Kirin, asking for information. The Kirin reply came in 
the following evening, in German as a precaution. It 

Flight Northwards 293 

said that the missionaries there were going that night, 
under cover of darkness, to the Russian settlement, and 
were to leave next day on a river steamer, en route for 
Harpin. We decided to follow them, and were busy 
next day packing when the Newchwang reply arrived. 
It said : " Moukden houses, churches, hospitals burnt ; 
go north." The Russians kindly promised us an escort 
of two Cossacks to Lao-shao-kou, a newly arisen town 
on the River Sungari, from which we could get by rail 
to Harpin. We informed the civil and the military 
magistrates of our intended departure, and entrusted our 
property to their care. They promised to send soldiers 
twice a day to see that our property was not molested, and 
sent a guard of six soldiers with us to Lao-shao-kou. 

' We set out in carts at 7 a.m. on Tuesday, July 3. 
Quite a number of the Christians came to see us off, 
and a good many of them accompanied us as far as the 
Russian settlement, about three miles. After a little 
delay there, we set out with our curious guard of two 
Cossacks and six Chinese soldiers. At first we kept 
along close by the railway bank, at which work was 
going on as usual. At midday, we stopped at a 
Russian settlement, and took our midday meal in the 
open air in a little grove of fruit trees. The Chinese 
soldiers and carters did not like this, however, as their 
wants are more readily supplied at a Chinese inn. 
Accordingly, at the first opportunity, they insisted on 
going off to the Chinese road ; and the Cossacks, who 
had orders not to leave the railway route, left us, and 
we saw them no more. From this point we kept to 
the Chinese road, and stayed at Chinese inns at night, 
but without meeting with any incivility. Our Chinese 
escort was polite and obliging, helping to carry things 
into the inns for us. 

294 The Destruction of Mission Work 

' Our first day's journey was so uneventful that Dr. 
Gordon was disposed to go back to K'uan-ch'eng-tzu 
next day. Had he done so, he would have arrived on 
the eve of battle between the Russians and the Chinese. 
On the evening of our third day out, we arrived at Lao- 
shao-kou, where we were made comfortable by a Russian 
captain, whose child had been treated medically by Dr. 
Gordon some months before. Here we found that our 
Kirin friends had arrived the same day. 

* Next morning we were taken across the Sungari 
in a steamer, and got on board a train, which started 
about 1.30 p.m. We shared with Mrs. Daniel, wife of 
the chief engineer at Kirin, the only passenger carriage 
there was, a third-class one. The rest of the Russians 
were in covered waggons, and there were in addition 
large numbers of Chinese on open waggons. We 
reached Harpin about 8.30 p.m., and were allowed to 
sleep in the train all night. 

' Next morning we established ourselves in a Chinese 
inn close to the station, but the Russians did not con- 
sider this a safe place, as it was outside their settlement. 
They put their school at our disposal, as the school 
had broken up. Here the ladies and children occupied 
one large room, and the gentlemen another. We had 
meals in a hall between the two rooms ; two meals a 
day were sent gratis from a neighbouring hotel ; the 
rest we were easily able to provide for ourselves. We 
were just about settled in the school on Saturday 
afternoon, July 7, when some of our party met Dr. Muir, 
of the United Presbyterian Mission, who had just come 
in from Ashiho, his station, to get news ; having received 
a warning letter from K'ai-yuan. Ashiho was within 
easy reach of Harpin, being a station on the railway. 
Mr. Miskelly accompanied Dr. Muir next morning to 

Troubles at Harpin 295 

render assistance. Large numbers of Chinese soldiers 
had assembled at Ashiho, and it was felt that the 
greatest expedition should be used. 

' On arrival, they found Rev. Mr. Robertson preach- 
ing. They went into the chapel and sat till the service 
was over, but managed to slip a note to the preacher, 
with the news that they must all leave at once. As 
soon as the congregation was dismissed, a hurried con- 
sultation was held, carts were procured, and a few things 
hastily packed. The whole party, consisting of Rev. D. 
and Mrs. Robertson, Rev. Mr. M'Intyre, and Dr., Mrs., 
and baby Muir, reached Harpin safe that night. 

* Meanwhile things began to appear threatening in 
Harpin. We were told that the Chinese had attacked 
the Russian settlement at K'uan-ch'eng-tzu, two days 
after our departure, and that the Mission houses there 
were burned. The Russians decided to send their own 
women and children all away, down the Sungari. They 
very kindly allowed us to travel in one of the four barges. 
We got on a train on Tuesday morning, July lO, and 
went down in open trucks to the river bank, considerably 
more than an hour's ride on a slow train. We were 
towed in a barge by a stern paddle steamer, and had an 
uneventful voyage, lasting a little over four days. It 
was feared we might be fired on at the San-shing 
(Chinese) forts, but we were allowed to pass. There 
were a few cases of sickness on board, but not of an 
alarming nature. On Saturday afternoon, July 14, we 
passed fifteen steamers, mostly towing two or three 
barges each, going up with soldiers, guns, and horses 
to the relief of Harpin, which was besieged a few 
days after we left. The same evening we arrived at 
Habarovsk, at the junction of the Amur with the Usuri. 
We were now out of Chinese territory, and thankful 

296 The Destruction of Mission Work 

to have escaped without seeing any fighting or other 

Whilst these and similar events were in progress, 
the destruction of the property of the Irish and Scotch 
Missions was accomplished. The headquarters of both 
Missions is in Moukden, and large residential premises, 
a handsome chapel and well-appointed hospital and 
other buildings, had been erected there. The tale of the 
destruction of these buildings is graphically told by 
Rev. John Ross, D.D., the pioneer and founder of the 
mission work in Manchuria. He writes as follows : — 

' Er-ta-jen, or " Number Two Excellency," is an 
official peculiar to Moukden, the " second " capital. He 
is second in power and influence as in rank to the 
Viceroy. The latter is over the " Three Eastern Pro- 
vinces," as Manchuria is called. The " Second " is over 
all the Manchus, but subordinate in the office to the 
Viceroy. Both officials must be pure Manchus, and 
staunch supporters of the throne. Ching Ch'ang was 
the name of the second official in 1900. His younger 
brother was high in office in Peking, and had intimate 
relations with the Court. He had the fullest knowledge 
of the actions and the aims of the Boxers, and their 
relations to the party in power. Through him Ching 
Ch'ang was kept abreast of the entire Boxer movement, 
which was to throw off from the shoulders of the Manchu 
Government the hated yoke of the foreigner — by the 
magical influence of another Joan of Arc. There were 
constant and private messengers running with all speed 
between the palaces of the brothers in Peking and 
Moukden respectively. The Viceroy had his own, 
and received his own news from Court ; but Ching 
Ch'ang's palace was the destination of all, especially 
Boxer news. The Viceroy was sceptical as to the 

The Boxers at Moukden 297 

utility of the Boxer movement ; his colleague was 
insanely enthusiastic in their favour, hoping by them to 
oust the disturbing foreigner from the sacred soil of 

' When the Boxer representatives came to Moukden, 
they passed the Viceroy's palace and made for that of 
Ching Ch'ang. Not only did they find this official favour- 
able, but several superior Manchu officials. For here 
we have five of the six Boards of Peking, the officials in 
which are all Manchus. The Boxers boldly began the 
work of initiating members publicly in the squares and 
along the city walls. Their presence and action — pre- 
ceded by the stories of Shantung and Chih-li — caused an 
abnormal excitement. The attention of the Viceroy 
was possibly attracted to them. Though he is a very 
gentle man, and is a devout beliver in laissez faire^ he 
felt constrained to take action against those who, by 
their hallucinations, were threatening great disturbance 
of the peace. He issued a proclamation against the 
Boxers, in which he denounced them as rebels, and 
threatened severe measures if they performed in public. 
This proclamation was dated the i8th day of the 5th 
moon. It gave great satisfaction to the peace-loving 
people, who are the majority and the best of the dwellers 
in Moukden. The proclamation was posted on the 
eight gates of the inner city. 

' Meantime considerable numbers of youths and 
maidens resorted to the Boxers and practised in private. 
The soldiers and the majority of his officials largely 
sympathised with the Boxers. The Viceroy was de- 
nounced as unpatriotic and the " friend of the foreigner." 
Daily he was urged by Ching Ch'ang and his fellow- 
believers to issue a proclamation in favour of the Boxers 
and against the foreigners. They even threatened to 

298 The Destruction of Mission Work 

take his life if he continued obstinate. But obstinate he 
did continue until more potent influences made them- 
selves felt. The excitement was intense as the official 
disagreement was noised abroad. Foreigners in the 
city were drawn into its vortex, through the Christians, 
who knew all that was going on, and were thoroughly 
alarmed. So many riots and troubles have threatened 
in Moukden which never came to anything, that the 
more experienced foreigners were perhaps less alarmed 
than subsequent events justified. 

' In the endless buzz of excitement, the whole city 
was electrified at seeing on the city gates another pro- 
clamation, by which all the threats were withdrawn, and 
the good Boxers were gently exhorted to keep the peace. 
This was published on June 19. To the Boxers this 
was a sign of the capitulation of the Viceroy, and 
their audacity knew no bounds. It was believed at 
the time — it was made publicly known afterwards — that 
in the interval between the two proclamations a secret 
edict had come from Peking, binding the hands of the 
Viceroy, and compelling him at least to permit them 
full liberty to enact their own drama. Indeed, the edict 
commanded the extermination of the foreigner. The 
Viceroy kept this edict secret for some time, despite the 
many efforts of Chin Ch'ang and his sympathisers to 
compel its public issue, that the work of destruction 
might commence. Though all the official world of 
Moukden knew of its existence, he refused to publish 
it. The Boxers threatened to kill him, but he did not 

' During the interval between the two proclamations, 
but after receipt of the edict, a friendly official called by 
night on Dr. Christie, the senior missionary in Moukden, 
informing him of the great danger to the foreigners from 



The Tsai Li Sect 299 

the anarchy in the city, and the insubordination of 
the soldiers. He urged that the foreign women and 
children should go at once, and only a few men remain, 
who could get away easily a day or two later. He 
called at night and by stealth ; but it is believed that he 
did not go unknown to the Viceroy. 

'The missionaries and elders connected with the 
Presbyterian Church in Manchuria had met in presbytery 
for a fortnight in the beginning of May, to discuss the 
affairs of the Church. Except the desultory attacks of 
the Tsai Li sect, there was not a cloud as large as a 
man's hand over the Manchurian political horizon. The 
Presbytery deliberated, decided, and was dismissed, 
without any special reference to possible upheavals in 
the future. They parted, each to his own sphere, in 
perfect peace, and with great hopes of a most prosperous 
work during the following year. Over five thousand 
baptisms had been reported for less than twelve months, 
and more than seven thousand names were on the lists 
of applicants for baptism. "Enquirers" into the 
doctrines of Christianity were too numerous to be noted. 
The only reference to politics in the Presbytery was a 
resolution to have nothing to do, as a Church, with 
Yamen business. This did not, of course, imply that 
no effort would be made in behalf of a Christian who 
was in serious danger of persecution on account of his 
faith. Probably for the first time the native elders were 
on this matter completely of the same mind as the 
missionaries. The doings in Shantung and Chih-li 
were known from the newspapers and by gossiping 
rumour. But they seemed as far away as the war in 
the Transvaal. But now, a month after the Presbytery 
separated, the missionaries are warned by a friendly 
official to flee for their lives; and this official dared 


00 The Destruction of Mission Work 

not appear by day. So sudden and so overwhelm- 
ingly complete was the anti-foreign craze set ablaze 
by the Boxers. 

'The native pastors and elders daily urged the 
same advice as the friendly official. They showed that 
matters had become so serious that it was impossible 
for the missionaries to save themselves ; much less 
could they be of any service to the native Christians. 
The Viceroy had completely lost control of his sub- 
ordinate officials and of the troops, the latter especially 
publicly fraternising with the Boxers. The city magis- 
trate (Hsien) was brave enough to imprison a few 
Boxer leaders for disturbing the peace. Chin Ch'ang 
went in person and bailed them out. From that hour, 
whatever authority there was in the city was in the 
hands of the Boxers. 

' On Saturday morning, June 23, the ladies and 
children, accompanied by junior missionaries, started 
for the railway. By the courtesy of the Russian 
engineers they arrived, by the construction engine, 
safely in Newchwang. Dr. Christie, Mr. Fulton, and 
Dr. Young remained, as they could move away more 
freely, if matters came to extremity. But they too 
were urged by the Christians to go. For while they 
remained in this city no Christian could go away. They 
could, of course, be of no service in protecting the 
foreigner ; but they could not forsake the foreigner if 
there was any risk to the latter. If, however, the 
missionaries left the city, the Christians would feel 
morally free to go each his own way for his personal 
safety. With the departure of the foreigner, it was 
just possible that the anti-foreign craze might subside. 
The missionaries clearly saw that their presence was a 
real danger, instead of a problematical help to the 

Riots at Moukden 301 

Christians. Yet they remained over the Sunday for 
further developments. 

' Dr. Christie had long been superintendent of the 
Sunday school, which is attended usually by about 
two hundred men, who come for fuller Christian in- 
struction. On this day, the usual number was present. 
The work of the day went on, but with a feeling of 
suppressed excitement. The Hsien had sent thirty 
soldiers to guard the door, as there had been threats of 
burning down the church that day. After the Sunday 
school, the native Pastor Liu entered the pulpit. His^ 
text was the story of the offering of Isaac. As the 
subject of discourse, he selected the topic of the inter- 
vention of God when the resources of man were ex- 
hausted. When man's hand fainted and fell down in 
utter hopelessness, then was the time for the manifesta- 
tion of the hand of God in power unto salvation. A 
more eloquent and impressive sermon the hearers never 
listened to. And Pastor Liu can be as impressive and 
eloquent as almost any preacher in any tongue. After 
a discourse of about an hour's length on the topic, 
he wound up with a perfervid exhortation, concluding 
with the appeal, "Be faithful unto death," whatever 
occurs. It was a notable and fitting commencement of 
the week, the end of which was to see the beginning of 
a revolution in Manchuria which has already wrought 
such immense changes — changes which will continue to 
go on — till when ? towards what ? 

' During the whole of that day, the streets everywhere 
resounded with the unearthly shouts of the Boxers, 
" Slay," " Burn." They were accompanied by great 
crowds, some from curiosity, most from sympathy. The 
Christians, who live all over the city, knew that the 
rioters had decided to act, and the missionaries were 

302 The Destruction of Mission Work 

again appealed to. When they consented to leave on 
the Monday morning, the Christians were relieved of 
an overwhelming weight of responsibility. They were 
more anxious for the foreigners than for themselves. 
The few friendly officials were also gratified at the 

' Next morning early the three brethren departed 
for the friendly railway, twelve miles distant. A day 
later, the railway was no longer available, it having 
been wrecked at several points. It is particularly 
remarkable that scores of stories — of safety at the very 
last moment — have been repeated to me from all parts 
of the country. The last story told me was of an 
experienced Christian, who was apprehended, taken 
to the Boxer tribunal, and condemned to death. The 
headmen and villagers of eight villages came to plead 
and to pay for his life. They were refused. The 
executioner four times fingered his neck prior to striking 
the one fatal blow. The man had given up all hope, 
yet for some reason unknown to him he was released. 

' The Viceroy meantime continued sceptical as to the 
bullet-resisting faith of the Boxers. They were so loud 
in their protestations that he demanded to know if they 
were willing to submit to the test of rifle-firing. On 
afifirming their willingness, he called for volunteers to 
stand against the wall to be fired at. He gave instruc- 
tions to load with blank cartridge. About half a dozen 
were bold enough to step forward. The order was given 
to fire ; and as no one was hurt, the faith was declared 
triumphant. The impression made on the public was 
so serious that the Viceroy resolved to use a bullet. 
Volunteers were again called for, but forewarned 
several times that the shot was real. One man went 
forward. The rifle fired, and the man fell. In much 

Conference of Christians 303 

hubbub the Viceroy ordered his head off, as a " false " 
Boxer and deceiver of the people. This aroused the 
greatest commotion among the insane crowd, who 
threatened to kill the Viceroy, who had no right to 
dismember the man. For " had he not been beheaded 
the teacher would have brought him to life again." 
This proved how reason had abandoned the multitude. 

* On Wednesday, June 29, a crowded congregation 
collected in the church to discuss the situation, which 
was as critical as it could well be. The large church 
could hold about one thousand people. There were 
about six hundred men in the area. No woman dared 
appear, and their gallery was empty. They had heard 
that the Roman Catholics had made provision for 
defence by firearms in their cathedral. Some young 
men urged that the Protestants should follow the 
example, and defy the Boxers in the church. The 
native pastors, the elders, deacons, and the more ex- 
perienced of the members, regarded such a plan as 
useless, even if it were right. In the circumstances, 
they considered such resistance wrong. By that time 
all actual authority was in the hands or at the dictation 
of the Boxers and of those officials who were openly 
on their side. The soldiers, almost to a man, were 
wholly with the Boxers. Resistance would therefore 
mean resistance, not against the Boxers alone, but 
against the constituted Chinese authorities. Knowing 
the existence and nature of the Imperial secret edict, 
resistance was to them tantamount to rebellion. 

* After considerable discussion, it was agreed that 
the Christians must regard themselves in a position 
similar to that of the Twelve when sent out by the 
Saviour. They were but a few weak sheep, among a 
great herd of furious wolves. Their policy, therefore, 

304 The Destruction of Mission Work 

was the harmlessness of the dove and the wisdom of the 
serpent. When persecuted here, they must flee there. 
This was their only plan. Flight was their only 
resource, as far as human means could take them. But 
even flight would be ineffectual while the whole country 
was everywhere simmering with hostility, if He whom 
they had come to know and to serve would not deliver 
them. They therefore made an agreement daily to 
pray for three things, wherever they happened to be: 
first, for the Church ; second, for the Nation ; third, 
for peace. Having so decided, they engaged in prayer, 
and for the first time since they became a large con- 
gregation, they all with one accord fell on their knees. 
Their usual posture is standing. They would be guided 
each by his own wisdom as far as it could lead him. 
But their one hope was to be in God, who could, in 
man's impossibility, provide a means of escape. And 
most strangely was the hope attained in many scores 
of instances. Next day came the outburst. 

* On the morning of Saturday, June 30, messages 
were sent by word of mouth or in writing to every 
Yamen and to every restaurant and tea-shop, that in 
the afternoon the " Foreign Tower," as our church 
was called, would be burned down. One of our 
Christians, a small official, went that morning to the 
native pastor, expressly to inform him that it was time 
for him and for his family to flee. The Christians left 
in charge of the church, chapel, hospital, or dwelling- 
houses of ours, remained at their posts to the last. 

* A wall of considerable height surrounded the church 
and its halls. On the south side, this wall was pierced 
by a gate of upright bars of wood, which shut in the 
whole compound from the street. In this gate was a 
small wicket, through which men could pass freely. This 

The Compound Destroyed 305 

was usually open all day. Directly north from this 
gate was the usual heavy, solid wooden gate, opening 
on to the church, which stood with its imposing tower 
facing south. This gate was the centre of a set of 
buildings fifty feet long. To the right was a hall for 
small meetings ; to the left, the dwelling-house of the 
caretaker, with a room for country preachers and 
students when they came into town. Between the two 
gates, and to the left after entering the gate of bars, was 
a small door leading into the pastor's house, standing in 
a small compound of its own. 

' In the early afternoon several young men hovered 
about the outer gate. They soon became a small crowd, 
and passed in through the wicket. They appeared to 
be country bumpkins, or other idle sightseers ; but all 
wore the cold, impassive, stupid-looking expression the 
Chinese can so well assume when really excited. The 
caretaker asked their business, but got no reply. He 
wished them to go outside if they had no business, and 
was answered by a stone. He appealed to the pastor, 
who persuaded them to go out. The wicket was closed, 
and the pastor retreated to his own dwelling. The men 
continued to stand in front of the gate. They became 
first slowly, then rapidly, a crowd which packed the 
street. There arose the buzz of a universal talk, and 
then some man's voice shouted, " Don't heave bricks." 
And the bricks began to be heaved against the pretty 
windows of the hall. " Don't throw large bricks," came 
another shout, and large bricks began to fly, till not a 
bit of glass remained in the fifty feet front. There arose 
the usual noise of an excited mob, when a clear and 
commanding voice shouted, " Make way, make way ! " 
The pastor, looking out, saw several officers in uniform 
and on horseback, and believed there was deliverance 

3o6 The Destruction of Mission Work 

at hand. He also observed a considerable number of 

* The great crowd crushed through the barred gate, 
and in a few seconds there was the "ping, ping" of 
breaking glass all over the church. In a few minutes 
every pane of glass in the two rows of windows, higher 
and lower, were in atoms. The cry of " fire " arose, 
And while the immense crowd were intent on the fate 
of the church, the pastor and his family clambered over 
a wall separating their house from that of a widow- 
neighbour, also a Christian. Some of the Christians 
who dared not speak were looking on in the utmost 
distress for their beloved church. The compound was 
packed by a mob of all classes and ages. Between 
them and the crowd stood in array the soldiers under 
their officers. They stood to protect the couple of 
dozen youths who were rapidly making their prepara- 
tions for the burning of the church. Seats were piled 
up under the tower, heaps of dried millet stalks were 
secured, and kerosene oil poured over the whole. In a 
few moments a great shout, such as Moukden has rarely 
heard, greeted the grand flame which leaped up from 
base to crown of that tower. A mass of flame, crowned 
by a dense pillar of smoke, arose, which was seen and 
struck awe twenty miles away. 

' Such a bonfire Moukden never saw before. As 
by an electric shock, all the city seemed at the same 
moment to have realised that the great deed was done. 
The foreigner was defied at last. Every shop, store, and 
warehouse was emptied as by one consent, master and 
servants all rushing to see the sight. All classes were 
there. Ching Chang was there in undress, enjoying 
the defeat of the foreigner. Many other officials, also 
in private clothes, were onlookers. The officers who 

The Church Burnt 307 

commanded the soldiers guarding the incendiaries were 
the only men in uniform. Rich and poor were there, 
men and women and children. The high east wall of 
the city overlooking the church was a mass of human 
heads. The wide space between this wall and the 
church was crowded by tens of thousands of spectators. 
As the flames mounted high, a tremendous shout of 
triumph ascended from this immense multitude. The 
faces of all, official and private, rich man and coolie, 
were lit up with a wild delight at the sight of the great 
burnt-offering. " There goes the last of the foreigner ! " 
they joyfully sang out to each other. A very few, an 
insignificant fraction, wrung their hands, were very 
grave, and said, sotto voce, as if afraid to be heard, " This 
is the beginning of woe to China ! " But the voice was 
heard by few, and heeded by fewer, in the great mass 
of joyous noise which roared in the air overhead. The 
whole city seemed to be there, and to be of one mind. 

' The Boxers were apparently not bold enough to 
raise the defiant flame. But after the deed was done by 
youths of the Tsai Li sect, the real Boxers appeared on 
the scene, and at once the post of honour to which their 
magical power gave them claim was conceded. To the 
last, many people would not believe that any men would 
be bold enough to do the deed, despite the inhuman 
threats which were daily and all day roared in the 
street. As soon as the church was fully ablaze, the 
Boxers broke up into two firing parties. One went 
east nearly a mile to fire our dwelling-houses, dis- 
pensaries, and hospitals. The other went south and 
west about the same distance to the Roman Catholic 

'When the crowd broke up to follow. these parties, 
or to retire to privacy, the pastor emerged from his 

3o8 The Destruction of Mission Work 

dangerous position. He urged the widow and his wife 
to go together to some friends in the country to the 
east. He went westward into the city. Passing through 
the city, he did not meet a single soul. Everybody 
seemed to be with the incendiaries. 

' The Boxer party which had gone east went first to the 
splendid hospital and dispensary for women. There were 
in the large compound several halls for the prosecution 
of women's work by the four ladies who were enthusi- 
astically and successfully carrying on the work. They 
had here also a commodious dwelling-house. The 
soldiers first went into every dwelling, to see there was 
no human being within. Giving their report that all 
the houses were empty, the incendiaries went forward to 
their work. The Tsai Li sect outnumbered the Boxers 
five times. 

* While the Boxers and their allies were actively 
firing the extensive premises here, soldiers from a 
neighbouring barracks, together with the people from 
every region around, were busy as ants carrying away 
every article they could seize out of our houses prior to 
the application of the sacred fire. The Boxers themselves 
at this stage took nothing. Their work — their sole work 
— was " fire." One after the other, all our fine compounds 
were a mass of blazing splendour. The excellent men's 
hospital succeeded that for the women. Hundreds who 
had been cured there stood by, and with wonderful 
perversity enjoyed the luxury of the scene. All around, 
where a sight could be had, there stood masses of men, 
women, and children, many of them well-to-do neighbours 
with whom we had believed we were on friendly terms. 
And men and women clapped their hands and shouted 
their delight .^until the numerous houses became heaps 
of smouldering ruins. A few timid Christians were in 

Further Destruction 309 

the crowd, dreading to be made known, yet fascinated 
at the judgment and filled with amazement at the 
spectacle of well-to-do people, labourers, and men and 
women, expressing their keen delight at the devasta- 

* Expressing my surprise at this manifestation of 
undreamed-of hatred, I asked for some probable reason. 
We had always been very careful to study the etiquette, 
the manners, even the prejudices of our neighbours and 
townspeople. We had always endeavoured to be kind, 
and do all in our power to remove ill-will and suspicion, 
and to gain their good-will and respect. The reply was, 
that the joy at the dismissal for ever thus given to the 
foreigner was not because of anything we had actually 
done, but because they were now freed from the dread, 
ever hanging over their heads, that the foreigner was 
here to take possession of their land. Not hatred for 
the past, but fear for the future, made the retreat of the 
foreigner so acceptable. Of course, they believed that 
after this terrible exhibition no foreigner would ever 
again show face in Moukden. 

' On the same day the premises of the Bible Society 
were destroyed, and two street chapels for public preach- 
ing to the general public were burned, and every brick 
carried off. Other chapels rented were gutted of all 
their contents ; but as they belonged to non-Christians 
they were not burned. Next day the buildings belong- 
ing to the Irish Presbyterian Church in the west of the 
city were reduced to ashes.' 

Thus the work of many weary years in Moukden, as 
well as in the other stations in the province, was wrecked 
almost in a day, and it looked to the heart-broken 
workers as if their life-work had been destroyed. This, 
with the amazing virulence of the persecution against 

310 The Destruction of Mission Work 

the Christians referred to elsewhere, seemed to give 
countenance to the belief that the day of mission work 
in Manchuria had passed, and that nothing remained 
but to acquiesce in the fact. 

It is only necessary, perhaps, to add here that all the 
missionaries have returned to their stations throughout 
Manchuria; that compensation has been secured for 
the destruction of property in Moukden and elsewhere, 
and that the buildings are in process of reconstruction. 


On the Brink of the Grave 


Mr. and Mrs. Green and family, with Miss Gregg, of 
the China Inland Mission, were stationed at Huai-lu, in 
the province of Chih-li, near the border of the province 
of Shan-si, and a short distance from the entrance 
to the famous Ku Kuan mountain pass which leads 
up to T'ai-vuen-fu city. Mr. Green had returned to 
his station' in March 1900, and from that time 
on the Boxer troubles in the province of Chih-li 
became more and more serious, terminating on July 3 
in serious rioting and disorder. It was only after 
Mr Green had spoken to and quieted the mob that 
threatened their lives and property, that they gradually 

dispersed. . 1 j u 

On July 5 the tension in the city increased, and, by 
the advice of friendly natives, they decided to leave their 
house and go to a temple on a mountain near the city. 
This they did, and later on, under the guidance of 
friendly Chinese, took refuge first in a temple, then in 
a cave, and later on in a lonely farm among the hills. 

312 On the Brink of the Grave 

From this point we take up the narrative in Mr. Green's 

'On Thursday morning, August lO, we suddenly 
found ourselves in the hands of a band of armed Boxers. 
Warning was given that several men were approaching, 
and we quickly hid ourselves in the cave, while the 
woman covered the entrance with household chattels. 
Escape was hopeless. We were walled in securely ; the 
only exit was through the house, now being looted and 
searched. Looking up to our God, whose own peace 
garrisoned our hearts, we waited with bated breath to 
hear if the Boxers would discover the concealed doorway. 
The footsteps came nearer, the voices grew louder, there 
was a banging of utensils, then a shout of triumph ! 

'With one voice we lifted up our hearts, crying, 
" Thou art worthy." We thought of the dear children, 
whose piteous queries — " Will they kill us ? " " Are they 
going to kill us now ? " — pierced deeper than any Boxer's 
knife, and we told them that very soon we should be 
with Jesus, and 1 was led to go out and plead with these 
men for the lives of the ladies and little ones. Groping 
my way along the passage, I stooped and lifted the 
curtain which covered the hole, and was just creeping 
through when one of them fired at me. By the dull 
heavy thud on my head I knew I was wounded, and 
was conscious of falling through the entrance, then, 
rising to my feet, I seemed to spin round two or three 
times in the room, then I leaned against the wall for 
support. As I did so, I saw through the open door 
several Boxers run across the courtyard, and heard one 
shout, " All get outside and on the roof." 

^ A large part of the narrative in this chapter has been taken, with the 
requisite permission, from the little book pulDlished by Messrs. Morgan & 
Scott, for the China Inland Mission, entitled In Deaths Oft, 

Mr. Green Shot 313 

' Then I made my way back into the cave, and said 
to my wife, " They have shot me in the head, dearie ; 
'tis certain death for us, only a matter of time now. We 
are not worthy, but He is worthy." 

' Fearing we might be armed, the Boxers did not 
venture into the dark, unknown passage, and now we 
heard them battering in the recently walled-up doorway 
of the cave. Then the battering ceased, and soon the 
farmer himself came through the passage. He told 
us they had robbed the place of everything movable 
worth taking away, and now threatened to set fire to 
the house unless he could persuade us to come out of 
the cave. They promised not to kill or injure us in 
any way, but would take us to the local magistrate, and 
let him do what he liked with us. This was so far 
removed from any known Boxer policy, that we were 
sure it was only a ruse of the farmer to save his 

* To die in the cave or outside in the yard was all 
the same to us, and if the man's house could be saved, 
why should we prolong this terrible waiting? So we 
sent Mr. Kao to tell them that we would come out into 
the yard, and, after briefly committing each other to our 
faithful Creator, made our way through to the kitchen. 
Not a soul could be seen through the open doorway, 
but as I stepped on the threshold I saw a man standing 
on each side against the wall, with their huge ghastly 
swords uplifted. Stepping back for a moment to tell 
the ladies to be prepared, I walked out with one of the 
children in my arms, the ladies following with the other 

* We were immediately seized, and those great knives 
brandished above our heads. Then the word was given, 
" Bring them round to the back " ; and they dragged us 

314 On the Brink of the Grave 

out of the court, round the buildings, and up an embank- 
ment leading on to the flat roofs of the north rooms. 
Here, without releasing us or removing the swords from 
our necks, they demanded to know what things we had 
and where they could find them. Seeing the distress 
of the children, they told us to tell them that they 
would not kill us. Having secured all that was left 
of our property, they proceeded to search our persons, 
even to the tearing off of my wife's wedding ring, keeper, 
and spectacles. The only thing Miss Gregg had with 
her was a small Bible, which she was led to slip into 
her pocket as we left the cave. It was examined by 
two or three of them ; then, although divided in opinion, 
the leader handed it back and said she might keep it, 
adding, " If you read that, you can get to heaven." 

' Thus our gracious God made provision for His 
children, and this little treasure, positively the only 
thing we now possessed, beyond the few clothes we were 
wearing, was an untold help, blessing, and constant 
comfort to us through the rest of our trials. " I have 
esteemed the words of His mouth more than my 
necessary food." Once, on a later occasion, it was taken 
from us, but He prevented its destruction, and after 
six days' wanderings it was again restored. 

' Much to our surprise, having secured all the booty, 
they led us off to the city as promised, and actually 
hired two men to carry the children, seeing how weak 
I was from loss of blood, and that our progress was too 
slow. Leaving the road leading to the nearest city gate, 
they took us along by the north wall towards the east 
suburb. When I overheard them say they were going 
to our own home, my heart failed me, as I felt sure it 
must be their intention to kill us there ; once in their 
hands, no foreigner had ever been known to escape. 

^They are going to Kill Us* 315 

I knew, too, from the dialect, that these men came from 
the Pao-ting-fu district, and shuddered as I imagined 
they were probably part of the company who killed 
the missionaries there, including Mr. W. Cooper, Mr. 
and Mrs. Bagnall and their little girl. There was real 
sympathy on the part of many in the enormous crowds 
lining the streets as we passed along, and among them 
was the tear-stained face of our own serving-women, 
to whom Miss Gregg shouted as we passed, "We are 
not afraid ; God is with us." 

' On arriving at the familiar doorway, the crowd was 
held back, and not allowed to enter, while we were taken 
up into the dining-room, and the door was immediately 
fastened. The uncertainty and suspense were terrible, 
but when they proceeded to examine and wipe their 
swords, I said to the ladies, " They are going to kill us 
now." Then word was given that all should repair to 
the back for worship (this plays an important part in 
the Boxer propaganda), and we were left alone in the 
room, with the doors securely fastened. Seeing an 
empty bedstead in the inner room, we passed through, 
and were very thankful to sit down after our three-mile 
walk in the hot sun. After a while the door opened 
and a man entered, the sight of whom filled my heart 
with hope ; he was one of the local policemen. After 
some commonplace talk, he managed to whisper in my 
ear, " Don't fear, there are several of us here on the alert, 
and the mandarin will be here directly." Could it be 
that they were really handing us over to the official, as 
they said ? 

* When the official arrived, we were formally handed 
over to him by the spokesman of the Boxer party, now 
dressed up with fan and gown, and using language 
which proved him to be an educated man. Without 

3i6 On the Brink of the Grave 

much delay we were escorted outside, and a new pro- 
cession formed. We were taken to the Yamen in the 
middle of the city. There the mandarin blamed me for 
not having sought him earlier, that he might have sent 
us away before this trial came upon us ! When I tried 
to remind him that I had sought his protection, he 
immediately talked about something else. As this was 
before his staff, and he had his " face " to save, and as I 
knew how helpless he was, I did not press the matter. 

' He said he would send us to Cheng-ting-fu on 
the morrow, hoping the bishop there would receive us, 
failing which we should be escorted from city to city up 
to Pao-ting-fu, and the Governor of the province would 
find some means to enable us to leave the country and 
return to our own land. He then gave orders that a 
lodging should be found for us within the Yamen 
precincts for safety, and we were accordingly led off to 
a small temple, professedly the only available place they 
had. The relief of finding ourselves really out of the 
hands of the Boxers, and the deep thankfulness in our 
hearts to God for this second deliverance from death, 
coupled with the hope of soon seeing our friends in 
Cheng-ting-fu, enabled us to look more lightly on the 
hardships of our surroundings. 

' On examining my wounds, we found that it was a 
full charge of No. i shot that I had received, and, owing 
to my peculiar stooping position at the time, my head, 
face, shoulder, arms, and back had all taken their share. 
As blood, hair, and clothing were now firmly clotted, we 
decided to leave it so until we reached Cheng-ting-fu, 
where I could get proper surgical dressing and treat- 
ment. I suffered terribly that night, which we spent on 
some reed mats on the damp floor of the temple. The 
dear children slept, but the pain, stiffness, and dread of 

'God is With Them' 317 

the twenty-mile jolt in a cart the next day, were more 
than enough to keep me from sleep. How I longed 
for a soft pillow ! but the only one I had was a couple of 
bricks. Every now and then the blood all seemed to 
flow to my head, and I was obliged to get my wife and 
Miss Gregg to help me up, and walk me up and down 
the place for some relief. 

' We were out very soon after daylight, and had not 
been long in the yard when our helper, Mrs. Liu, arrived. 
She had tried the night before, but could not get to us, 
and had been waiting outside the Yamen since long 
before dawn, hoping for an opportunity to see us. She 
had been told by neighbours that we had been executed 
in the prison, and that we died singing hymns. Her 
reply was, " I do not fear ; our God is with them." The 
interview was most touching : she took up the two 
children in her arms with a loving tenderness rarely 
seen in this people ; and when leaving she embraced 
and kissed my wife and Miss Gregg, regardless of all 
onlookers. Her calm, strong faith in God, and loving, 
helpful words, with the recollection of others in our little 
flock, enabled us to share St. Paul's joy when glorying 
in his Corinthian converts. " I am filled with comfort, I 
am exceeding joyful in all our tribulation." Returning 
home, she sent us a thick, wadded Chinese coverlet to 
spread in our cart, with some fruit and cakes for the 

' By about 7 a.m. we left the city ; the country was 
looking beautiful, especially to us after our month's 
imprisonment. On arriving at the east gate of the city 
of Cheng-ting-fu, we saw a large crowd gathered, and 
several Yamen people about. The cart was stopped, 
and the official papers concerning us handed over by 
our escort. Then followed a long wait while the papers 

3i8 On the Brink of the Grave 

were taken to the Yamen. It was early afternoon, and 
the fierce sun, with the great crowd swarming almost on 
the cart, made the heat unbearable ; but there we sat, 
bathed in perspiration, travel-stained and dishevelled, 
gazed upon by a continually moving stream of curious 
people for two hours. It was during this trying time of 
waiting, when we expected every minute to be taken 
into the city and to the mission-house where we should 
see our friends, that the Lord gave to my wife this text, 
" Delivering thee from the people unto whom now I send 
thee " ; and previously in the cave, as we sat moment- 
arily expecting death, to Miss Gregg was given the 
promise, " A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten 
thousand at thy right hand, but it shall not come nigh 
thee." These two remarkable texts, seemingly so in- 
appropriate at the time, were used of God through all 
our later experiences to keep us in the assurance that it 
was His purpose to save us, and over and over again He 
led us to remind Him of His own word. 

' Finally, a man from the Yamen came to say we had 
better hurry up and order some food, as another cart 
was already waiting in the yard to take us on the next 
stage of our journey to Pao-ting-fu. In vain I pleaded 
that we had hoped to go to the Roman Catholic Mission ; 
that it was certain death to send us to Pao-ting-fu, where 
the foreigners had already been killed, and that many 
places on the way were full of Boxers ; also that it was 
inhuman to send a wounded man such as I was, with 
two ladies and the children, without a rest, to travel far 
into the night. He declared that I could rest as long 
as I liked at the next stage, which was only a village, 
but go on we must. The officials were afraid of the 
Boxers who accompanied us, they too being forbidden 
to enter the city. We ordered food and tried to take 

A Trying Journey 319 

some, knowing there would be no getting any more 
during the next stage. The mandarin at Huai-lu had 
given us five hundred cash for travelHng expenses, and 
now they brought me one thousand from the official 
here for the same purpose. Even while getting food 
they came again and again to hasten us. 

' The children slept most of the way, and Fuchingi, 
the next posting station, fifteen miles distant, was 
reached about midnight. Instead of being allowed the 
rest we were promised, we were transferred to another 
cart at once, and proceeded on our journey to Sinloh 
Hsien, the next stage of twenty-three miles, which we 
reached at daylight the following morning. Here the 
Boxers brought us some millet soup and a few bread 
cakes, and we begged a drink of hot water from some 
of the Yamen men. After sitting in the cart for about 
an hour and a half, we were once more transferred to 
a fresh cart and started for Tingchoo, the next twenty- 
mile stage. This was the place where the postman had 
been murdered, and all around the neighbourhood the 
Boxers had pillaged and burned the houses of the 
Roman Catholics, killing every man, woman, and child 
they could find. It seemed so improbable that we 
should be allowed to pass through the place alive, that 
our hearts were kept lifted up to God that we might be 
prepared for His will, whatever it might be ; our desire 
was that He might be glorified in us, whether it were 
by life or by death. 

' The cart was stopped in the street of the south 
suburb of the city while some of the Boxers paid a 
visit to a local branch of the fraternity, and of course 
a great crowd gathered. As we passed along, the streets 
were lined on either side, the great crowd following in 
the rear. Arriving at the Yamen about noon, we were 

320 On the Brink of the Grave 

very glad of the quiet afforded by the little prison room 
into which we were taken, and we also received some 
kindness from the keeper. The keeper made us tea, and 
lent us his boy to go and buy a couple of cheap fans 
and a small piece of Chinese calico for a handkerchief, 
as we only had one left between us. 

'About 3 p.m. word came that the cart was ready, 
and once more a start was made. Wang Tu Hsien, 
our next stop, was twenty-three miles distant, and the 
road was in a very bad condition. Heavy rain had 
fallen, and we were ploughing through mud and water 
up to the axle of the cart for a great part of the way. 
It must have been near midnight when we arrived at 
Wang Tu. Only those who have travelled by cart in 
North China will understand what this journey must 
have been to us, practically without a rest, day and 
night, for forty hours. God most certainly gave the 
strength and grace, or no ladies could have taken such 
a journey, to say nothing of the children, and I wounded 
as I was. A shake-down was made for us on the floor 
of the prison room : first a spread of straw, then a reed 
mat, over which we spread our coverlet. The official's 
headman and others with him were moved to pity to 
see little John, as soon as the bed was ready, get down 
from my knee, crawl along on to it, stretch himself out 
full length, and immediately fall asleep. 

* On rising we were able to have a wash, the first 
since we left Hual-lu. Then the headman came along 
to say that a train of one carriage and engine was 
running daily the thirty miles to Pao-ting-fu, our last 
stage, and that arrangements had been made for us 
to go by it, as the roads were in such a bad condition. 
He also spoke encouragingly to us, and told us that 
the Emperor had issued orders for the protection of 





iSee f. So. 

Again at Pao-ting-fu 321 

missionaries. About 9 a.m. we left the Yamen for 
the station. Alas ! there was a hitch somewhere, for 
as we came in sight the little train moved off. No 
one knew why. Hour after hour passed, until at last, 
about 5 p.m. word was given that we must go on by 
cart. This meant travelling all night, and thirty miles 
more of that awful jolting over bad roads. Again His 
grace was sought and given. The next thing to look 
forward to was a rest and some food while the animals 
were fed at a place ten miles on the way. Here we 
had a nice supper and the children got a little sleep. 
Then, leaving about midnight, we arrived at Pao-ting-fu, 
August 13, soon after daybreak, the city gates being 
still closed. As we waited there for the gate to be 
opened, it seemed to us that we understood as never 
before something of what our Lord must have felt as 
He went up to Jerusalem. Very soon we were able to 
enter, and were taken straight to the district Yamen. 
Alighting from the cart, almost before I was aware of 
what was happening, we were separated, the ladies and 
children being taken to the women's lock-up, and I was 
marched off to the men's common prison. I found 
myself in a filthy yard with some twenty prisoners in 
various stages of dirt and wretchedness. Spreading my 
coverlet on the damp ground, I lay down and cried, not 
for the ignominy heaped upon me, but the thought of 
being separated from my dear wife and children at this 
time was unbearable. Perhaps I had lain there about 
half an hour, when I heard a call for the " foreign man." 
Some one had been sent to fetch me back to the cart, 
which was still standing where we left it. I was rejoiced 
to find the ladies and children already there, and looking 
refreshed for the hair-combing they had been able to 
get, through the kindness of the female prison keeper. 

32 2 On the Brink of the Grave 

* I soon learned that the district magistrate had 
refused to receive either us or the official papers con- 
cerning us, and intended to send us back at once to 
the place we came from. A fast-increasing and excited 
crowd was surging about the cart, and a number of the 
city Boxers appeared with their guns and great swords, 
and took up their position all around us. Not one of 
the Boxers or official escort who had brought us were 
to be seen. The heat became intense, and we sat like 
that for at least two hours. On first rejoining the cart, 
I had heard the spokesman of our Boxer party say, 
" There will be trouble here very shortly." To that man, 
under God, we undoubtedly owe our lives on this the 
third wonderful deliverance from death. He had gone 
to the mandarin and pleaded for us, showing him that 
we should certainly be killed as soon as we got out 
of the city, even if we were allowed to get that far. 
Ultimately the official had relented, and gave orders 
that we were to be received into the Yamen, and he 
would see what could be done with us. So it came to 
pass that, with some considerable shouting and hustling, 
a way was made through the crowd for several under- 
lings, who again took us off to our respective prisons. 

*I had only been there five minutes when I was 
again called out, and taken to have an interview with 
the mandarin himself. He spoke kindly, professed 
sympathy with us in our distress, declared that the 
Western Powers, including my own honourable nation, 
were to blame for the present state of things, having 
" rebelled " against the Government and taken Tien-tsin, 
but since we had come to Pao-ting-fu, they would 
devise some means for protecting us. I asked as a 
favour that we might all be together, no matter where 
it was, so he gave orders that a room in the women's 

Help from a Mandarin 323 

lock-up should be cleared for us, and I was taken off 
to join the ladies and children there. The joy of finding 
ourselves together again, and the reaction after the 
tension, were too much for my now weakened body, 
and I could only lie down and cry. 

*The next day, Tuesday, August 14, about 10 a.m., 
one of the Yamen men came to say that arrangements 
had been made for us to be taken to Tien-tsin by boat, 
and that we were to start that day ! Such a lot of 
running to and fro from one official to another had 
been going on all night about us, and everybody had 
been " troubling their hearts " and planning for us, with 
the result above mentioned. 

' The mandarin sent me one thousand cash for 
travelling expenses ; his son, who came to see us, 
moved to pity, sent another one thousand. We were 
advised to procure what we needed for the journey 
before starting, so that no risk should be run by stopping 
to buy on the way. By travelling day and night we 
should probably get there in forty-eight hours, with the 
strong current in our favour. 

'At 3 p.m., two carts arrived to take us to the 
riverside, and we were officially sent off by the 
mandarin's headman and several secretaries. On 
arriving in my own country, I was told to be sure and 
tell our Emperor that the Governor of the province at 
some considerable trouble had sent us home ! Twelve 
runners with gowns and dress hats went before the carts, 
while several Boxers with drawn swords also acted as 
escort. Arriving at the riverside, we were soon in the 
boat. Eight of the Boxers who brought us from Huai-lu 
then came on board, with four or five of the local men, 
and in a little while we were making good progress down 

324 On the Brink of the Grave 

* It seemed too good to be true that we should so 
soon be in Tien-tsin and our troubles at an end. Yet 
our God had worked so many miracles on our behalf 
that we knew He was able to do this thing also. Yet 
I am afraid there was some misgiving in our hearts when 
we saw that there was no official representative in our 
escort. Three miles out, the local men left the boat, 
and we went on far into the night, anchoring in mid- 
stream for about two hours to give the boatmen a rest, 
then on again long before daylight. 

*Soon after sunrise we were passing a walled city, 
which I remembered was thirty miles from Pao-ting-fu. 
A little later, while in the act of eating our humble 
breakfast of dough cakes and apples, the boat stopped 
and was moored to the bank. Saying something which 
I did not quite understand, the spokesman and the 
leader went ashore together. My wife cried, " Oh, Charlie, 
something is wrong ; do ask the other men what it is." 
I spoke to one of them, but he only wrung his hands 
and said, " This is terrible ! terrible ! " 

* Then the two men returned, and the leader said, "It 
is all a lie about your being taken to Tien-tsin ; it is 
impossible to get there. The river is held by Boxers at 
several points on the way down, and it would be certain 
death for ourselves as well as for you to attempt to get 
through. Our orders from the Governor were to bring 
you so far down the river, then kill you, and put you out 
of the way." As he spoke he pointed to his long ugly 
knife, which I had seen him sharpening since we left 
Pao-ting-fu. Then he went on to say, " We don't intend 
to commit such a sin ; we have no quarrel with you, but 
you must leave the boat now, and make the best of it 
for yourselves." They advised us to go just over the 
bank, which was a public pathway, and hide in the tall 

Deserted by the Guard 325 

reeds until evening, then go west to the city we had 
just passed, and see what the mandarin there would do 
for us. 

' Protest was useless ; we were simply stunned, and as 
if in a dream. Gathering together our few belongings, 
the bedding, bundle of food, and the cloth containing 
our cash, part of which we left as too heavy to carry, 
we took the children in our arms and went ashore. 
Getting quickly over the embankment, we were soon out 
of sight among the reeds and thick undergrowth, without 
having been seen by any one. Making sure of being 
completely hidden from any one who might pass along, 
we spread out our bedding and sat down to think and 
pray. Both were difficult for a time, until we had some- 
what got over the shock of this sudden turn in our 

* Slowly we began to realise that for the fourth time 
our God had delivered us from a cruel death, touching 
even the hearts of these Boxers for us, and especially, I 
believe, for the two dear little children. All the way 
from Huai-lu we had maintained a quiet, respectful 
demeanour towards them, and they played with the 
children, often buying them fruit cakes. Many times 
during the days of our hiding in the temple and cave, 
and at the farmhouse, we had said how much easier it 
would be without the children ; but in our later experi- 
ences the Lord had undoubtedly used the children to 
move the hearts of our enemies, giving us favour in their 
eyes ; thus reproving us for murmuring about them. 

' But for the little band of refugees hiding in the 
reeds what a day that was ! Most of it spent in prayer. 
At every sound of footsteps on the bank we held our 
breath. Asking my wife what the Lord was saying to 
her, she replied, " I still have my text, ' Delivering thee 

326 On the Brink of the Grave 

from the people . . . unto whom now I send thee.' " 
Miss Gregg's answer to the same question was, " I have 
been waiting all day for a little bird to bring us a letter ! " 
We laughed at the time, but you will hear more of this 
" little bird " later on. What should we do ? Knowing 
that we were in the very heart of the Boxer country, our 
position seemed so hopeless. 

* We were terribly bitten by mosquitoes, and all day 
long the children were pleading for drink. We too 
were suffering much in the same way ; but, apart from 
the risk of going to the river to fetch water, I had nothing 
to bring it in. 

'When it was quite dark and everything seemed 
quiet, we all went to the riverside and quenched our 
thirst from a straw-hat drinking-cup. And now by the 
repeated lightning and gathering black clouds we knew 
a storm was approaching. Then came the fierce wind 
bending the reeds low to the ground, and very soon the 
rain began to fall. Covering the children as much as 
possible with the bedding and our straw hats, we sat 
through those miserable two hours ; all were very soon 
wet to the skin and chilled to the bone. O Lord, was 
there ever a more helpless, hopeless, desolate band of 
Thy little ones ? We made our way to the bank, where 
we could warm ourselves by walking up and down. We 
were all very lightly clad, having only the few thin 
garments we were wearing when surprised by the Boxers 
at the farm. Some course of action had to be now 
decided on. To the east about a quarter of a mile was 
a riverside hamlet, and half a mile to the west was the 
city. Which way should we go? Perhaps influenced 
by the advice of the Boxers, certainly guided by God, 
we decided to go west and make our way towards the 
city. About half-way there we came to a cottage, and, 

Seized by Boxers 327 

seeing a light in the window. I said, " Let us ask them to 
help us." Making our way towards the back, we saw a 
youth crossing the yard carrying a light. Telling him 
who and what we were, we asked him if he could help 
us to get a boat. He was distressed at our pitiable 
condition, and talked of the wickedness and cruelty of 
the Boxers ; then he said he would go off and see if he 
could persuade a friend of his to take us in his boat. 

' Could it be that the Lord had guided us to the very 
one who was willing to help ? We knew that He was 
able for this also, and had He not reminded us of the 
promise, " For six troubles I will be with thee, yea, in 
seven I will deliver thee " ? So, encouraging each other 
in Him, we took shelter under a tree, as the rain had 
begun again, and waited the man's return. He was not 
long away ; his friend was sleeping in the city that 
night, and the gates were closed, but he had called up 
another man who had a boat, and who would be along 
directly. Inviting us into the house, he got us water 
and offered us melons to eat. We were glad to put 
down the tired children, who soon fell asleep on the 
brick bed, while we ate one of the dry cakes we had 
with us. 

* Suddenly we were startled by an unearthly sound 
in the yard outside ; it seemed a combination of a hiss 
and a growl. With a slash of a drawn sword, the reed 
curtain at the door was dashed down, and we were 
again face to face with a crowd of fierce Boxers. 
" Betrayed ! " was the first thought that flashed through 
one's mind. The next moment all was confusion. I 
was seized by the hair, dragged to the ground, and was 
conscious of blow after blow on different parts of my 
body, then of being trampled on by many feet, as others 
rushed over me to seize my wife and Miss Gregg. I 

328 On the Brink of the Grave 

remember a pang as I heard the heart-rending shrieks 
of the children, and then a calm filled my soul, and I 
committed my spirit to God. Comparing notes since, 
we have each been able to testify that this was the 
calmest moment in our lives, so soon to be given up to 
Him ; we never doubted for a moment that we should 
immediately be killed. With joy my wife accepted this 
fulfilment of the promised deliverance, that it should be 
into the Father's presence. 

* We were dragged outside, and thrown in the mud, 
and bound hand and foot, the Boxers using their feet as 
much as their hands to get our arms and legs into the 
position they wanted, though we were quite passive. 
Then I suddenly missed the cries of the children, and 
was glad that the lambs had " gone before " and were 
spared more of these terrible sights. Miss Gregg was 
hauled by the hair into a kneeling position, and her 
head pressed down on to a stone table in the yard, used 
for burning incense, and one cried, " Who will strike ? " 
But other voices overruling cried, " No, take them all to 
headquarters first." As we lay there bound in the mud, 
one and another struck us heavily again and again with 
the backs of swords or the handles of spears. Miss 
Gregg now lay close beside me, and as blow after blow 
fell upon her no sound escaped her lips, only a long, 
deep sigh. 

* I could not see or hear my dear wife, who had been 
dragged some distance away. Word was now given to 
carry us off; the handles of two spears were put through 
my left arm, two men taking the ends on their shoulders, 
and I was taken ofif hanging between them by one arm, 
with hands tied to my feet behind me. 

* It was only about a quarter of a mile to the temple 
building they used as headquarters. I should have 

Seized by Boxers 329 

fainted with the excruciating pain, had it been much 
farther. On entering, my face struck heavily against a 
large earthenware water tank, and the next minute I 
was thrown down in the courtyard. Hearing the dear 
children cry, I knew that they had been brought off at 
once, and not killed, as I supposed. My wife and Miss 
Gregg were carried in a similar way, the former sus- 
pended by both hands and feet, the latter by one arm 
and one leg. Little John was tied hands and feet and 
carried, while Vera with hands tied behind was made to 
walk, having her feet bound when they got there. 

* Now all had arrived, and there was much rejoicing 
and mutual congratulations that these " devils " had been 
captured. Presently a tall young man arrived, who 
by his authoritative voice I soon knew was recognised 
as a leader. He came and put a brick under my head 
for a pillow, and spoke encouragingly to me, telling me 
if I had anything to say, not to be afraid to say it. I 
requested that if they intended to kill us they would do 
it quickly, and not let us go through any unnecessary 
suffering. Being questioned as to who we were, I 
explained where we were from and how we came to be 
there, but they would not believe a word I said. 

' I suppose it must have been a strange, unlikely 
story to them, as they were convinced we came from a 
neighbouring Catholic Mission against whom they had 
a special hate, two of their townsfolk having recently 
been killed in an attack on the Romanists there. Later 
on, they lifted me up and gave me a stool to sit on, that 
I might be better able to talk to them. In my new 
position I could see the ladies, and at my request my 
wife's head was moved out of a pool of dirty water, and 
Miss Gregg's hands were loosened and tied in front 
instead of at the back, a favour they would not grant 

330 On the Brink of the Grave 

for myself until next day, though I suffered intensely 
because of the shot wound in my left arm. 

* They could not pacify the children, who had been 
carried into the house, so at last they let them come out 
to their mother, and one after another they tottered with 
bare feet, their shoes having been taken from them, and, 
sitting down on the wet ground, buried their heads on 
their mother and sobbed themselves quiet. Just before 
daylight, we were carried through into the main temple 
building, where some reeds and a mat had been spread 
on the floor, upon which we were laid. A guard of five 
or six being left in charge, the remainder dispersed, 
understanding that our case was to be decided in the 

' Thus for the fifth time we find ourselves delivered 
from death, for although we could not say how our case 
would go eventually, the Lord had stayed their hand 
and prevented our being killed on the spot when 
captured. As we lay there, wet, muddy, bound, and 
aching, we appreciated the brief time of quiet that 
followed, which was spent in prayer and in encouraging 
each other in the Lord. 

' Shortly after sunrise, the people began to arrive, 
and for the next three or four days there was one 
constant stream of curious people crowding into the 
temple to look at us, and I assure you that the being 
" looked at " was not the easiest of the many things He 
has enabled us to endure " for His sake." Soon some of 
the leaders appeared on the scene, and for over three 
hours I sat there, bound and propped up against the 
leg of the incense table, to undergo a severe cross- 
examination. Of course I told the truth, and nothing 
but the truth, and at last I think they were obliged to 
own themselves baffled, as one confessed that I had a 

Reply from Pao-ting-fu 331 

mouth full of Huai-lu dialect, another that he had seen 
a boat the previous morning answering the description 
given, while a third declared I could not be a Romanist 
priest, because I had two wives and children ! Our 
cords were now removed and food was given to us, and 
we were told that they had decided to send two of their 
number to Pao-ting-fu, to obtain of the officials there 
confirmation of what I had said. One fact alone I had 
withheld from them, and that was the Governor's order 
to the Boxers to kill us. I simply told them that they 
had declared it was impossible to take us to Tien-tsin, 
as promised by the Governor, and had made us leave 
the boat. Feeling sure they would learn the truth at 
Pao-ting-fu, there seemed very little hope of our lives 
when the deputation returned. 

' On the Saturday night I was brought round to their 
meeting-room, to hear the result of the deputation's 
visit to Pao-ting-fu, and found myself in a room full 
of respectable tradesmen and scholars. These were the 
civil members of the company of Boxers whose military 
people had captured us. I learned that the society had 
been formed here in self-defence, as only in this way 
could they be safe from the depredations of the numer- 
ous societies in the district ; and that their city had no 
resident magistrate, but was governed by an adjacent 
larger city, with the help of the neighbouring tradesmen 
and gentry. 

' The Governor of Pao-ting-fu had been very angry 
when he heard we had been let go alive, and that these 
people did not kill us as soon as they found us, and 
he had now given to them the same orders that he gave 
the others. The civil part of the society we were now 
held by being much stronger than the military, they 
had overruled any other wish there may have been, 

S3^ On the Brink of the Grave 

and determined to protect us, and send us down to 
Tien-tsin when the way was clear. They had won over 
the rougher element by the promise that, as long as we 
were there, and they had to guard and protect us, the 
whole company, about forty, should be provided with 
food, and towards this expense all the tradesmen sub- 
scribed liberally. 

* Truly it was " a wonder to many " that we had not 
been killed again and again, as we should have been 
had we fallen into the hands of any other society in 
that district. Only a quarter of a mile below where we 
left the boat, a native Roman Catholic had been killed 
the very day when we were hiding in the reeds, and we 
should certainly never have passed a place five miles 
farther down the river. And here we were, a little 
helpless company, allowed to escape by those who had 
the highest authority for killing us, while a whole city 
of gentry and tradesmen were turned to be our pro- 
tectors and friends ! Yes ! Those who know not our 
God may well marvel at all He wrought on our behalf. 
No doubt their decision was largely influenced by their 
superstition ; the fact that we had been spared by one 
band of Boxers made them afraid to injure us. One 
and all declared that it was because I had accumulated 
so much merit that Heaven itself had intervened on 
our behalf, and prevented man's will from being done 
upon us. 

' About a week after our arrival we were able to have 
a wash, and a day or two later I was allowed to have 
a shave. Miss Gregg, having gained permission to go 
down to the river with an armed escort, contrived from 
time to time to wash out some of our garments, but of 
course, having no change, we were obliged to be minus 
that garment until it was dry again. The vermin were 

A Word of Cheer 333 

a constant source of trouble to us ; in fact, it was im- 
possible to keep ourselves free from them. The daily 
and nightly discomforts, mentioned above, continued 
throughout our stay, with the addition of cold in the 
night during the last week or so. 

* One day, early in the afternoon, when there were 
few people about, I was standing over the ladies and 
children as they slept, keeping away the flies with a 
fan, and looking rather gloomily, I am afraid, out 
through the open trellis-work of the door. Our guard 
were all having a nap, and one solitary sight-seer was 
peering through at the foreigners. Presently a little 
crumpled tuft of paper was dropped through on to the 
floor. I saw him throw it, but thinking it more an act 
of contempt than anything else, I took no notice of it. 
The man had moved ofl* to the outer door, then stopped, 
and seeing I had not picked it up he came back, motion- 
ing to the floor where it lay, and again walked off. My 
curiosity was now aroused, and I took it up, opened it, 
and found within, in a good bold hand, " Don't be afraid 
for Chinese robbers, nearly all have been killed by both 
Chinese and foreign soldiers. Peking and Tien-tsin 
belong to Europeans. Now I will go to Tien-tsm and 
tell your armies to protect you. You may tear it into 
pieces when you have seen." 

* Looking up, I motioned my thanks, and my un- 
known friend left hurriedly. The idiom was certainly 
that of an English-speaking Chinaman. I was so excited 
that I woke the ladies to show them. Miss Gregg at 
once claimed it as the "little bird" and letter she had 
looked for that day in the reeds. We were all elated, 
and for a time our hardships all seemed much easier 
to bear for this little gleam of hope which the Lord had 
sent us. If this friend really went to Tien-tsin and made 

334 On the Brink of the Grave 

known our position to the British Consul, we felt sure 
something would be done for us ; nor were we wrong, 
as the sequel will show. 

*0n Monday, September 3, a large company of 
Boxers visited the place, and we noticed that their 
attitude towards us was more unfriendly than usual. 
One thrust the muzzle of his gun into my wife's face, 
and said something to the effect that they were " going 
to begin business to-day." The place was packed with 
them for more than two hours, insomuch that they were 
almost treading upon us. The children were especially 
frightened, and I was kept in constant conversation the 
whole time. If any of our own guard were about, they 
usually politely asked them to move on when they had 
looked at us. We were greatly relieved when all had 
left again ; but the following morning early we were 
conscious that something unusual was abroad. We had 
just been reading together Psalm cxlvi., and had laid hold 
of the seventh verse, " The Lord looseth the prisoners." 

* We learned that the mandarin from the neighbour- 
ing town had come, but we could not gather if his visit 
was on our account. Soon after our morning meal, 
one of the headmen came to tell us that they were in 
great trouble ; the large party of Boxers mentioned had 
threatened to come in a body to-day and carry us off. 
The whole town and neighbourhood were in an uproar 
about us, and some of the leading gentry were endea- 
vouring to " talk over " the men who had come to make 
the threat. The second day we could hear a great deal 
of shouting and much excitement going on in the street, 
and at night, when all was quiet, we learned what a 
difficult matter it had been to keep off the attacking 
party of Boxers. The civil department held a monster 
meeting in the city, which was attended by some five 

Comfort in Tribulation 335 

hundred tradesmen and gentry, and by good words, 
apologies, and promises, they had succeeded in prevent- 
ing an attack on us. So busy had they all been, that 
not a soul had been near us since early morning, and 
they forgot to bring us our afternoon meal till very late. 
When the secretary with one or two others came at 
last, we had just passed nearer the point of despair than 
we had reached all through our trials. Sick, ill, tried, 
cold, hungry, and uncertain, the black pall of despair 
was settling down on my soul. As evening came on, 
with tears I implored my wife and Miss Gregg to pray 
for me, when suddenly there was quiet and music in 
my heart. I listened to catch the tune, then my lips 
tremblingly took up the strain, and sang — 

"Praise the Saviour, ye who know Him. 
Who can tell how much we owe Him ? 
Gladly let us render to Him 
All we have and are." 

'The ladies soon joined, and as the warm comfort 
of the Lord's own peace flowed again in our hearts, 
we did not try to keep back the tears that would 

* There was quite a consternation when they suddenly 
remembered that, amidst all their troubles, they had 
forgotten us. Very soon three or four different kinds 
of cakes and food were brought along, and while we 
ate we learned something of what had happened. 
Later, I was invited across to the meeting-room, and 
was told that we were to leave that evening by boat 
for Pao-ting-fu. With many assurances they tried to 
set our hearts at rest, but to us it seemed like going 
to certain death again, until one gentleman, taking 
advantage of a moment we had alone, told me that 
the English Consul, having heard that we were 

33^ On the Brink of the Grave 

prisoners at Sinan, had sent to Pao-ting-fu, demanding 
protection and safe escort to Tien-tsin, and that a 
Special Commissioner had been sent from Pao-ting-fu 
to fetch us. He had come with the mandarin the 
previous day, but they, being just in the midst of 
their trouble, had refused to hand us over, having told 
the Boxers that we had left the previous day ; but 
they promised to escort us to Aucheo, the neighbouring 
governing city, and hand us over to the Commissioner 

' So the door of our prison was opened and prayer 
answered, but not to go east to Tien-tsin, as we hoped, 
but to return to Pao-ting-fu, as His perfect will saw 
good. We knew that, owing to the Boxer movement 
being so strong and widespread, the way to Tien-tsin 
was practically impassable for a foreigner, and so had 
the Lord led us to trust Him that we w^ent forward, 
knowing all would be well. " When He putteth forth 
His own sheep. He goeth before them." 

* About midnight on Wednesday, September 5, we 
walked down to the riverside, where two boats were 
waiting. Ourselves and six or seven of the escort 
embarked on one, some of the gentry and the rest of 
the escort on the other. I almost carried my dear 
wife, who was too weak to walk. Food had been made 
for us before starting, and now we were sent off with 
many expressions of goodwill from the little throng 
who had come down with us. 

* It was only six miles up stream to Aucheo, which 
we expected to reach easily by daybreak, but a heavy 
thunderstorm came on when about a mile out, and 
after anchoring till the rain ceased, they elected to 
return to Sinan, get some refreshments, and start 
again at daylight. Consequently, we arrived on 

Pao-ting-fu once more 337 

September 6, about 8 a.m., having met two boats with 
soldiers, who had been sent out to look for us, as we 
had not turned up as early as had been promised. 

* At Pao-ting-fu the Commissioner now came on 
board again, and gave us five hundred cash and more 
cakes. He asked how the Consul at Tien-tsin knew 
we were at Sinan, and a few other questions, then, 
promising we should not be separated, told the escort 
to take us down to the district Yamen. We quite 
expected a cart would be provided. As it was nearly 
a mile away, I explained to the soldiers that I was 
afraid my wife could not walk so far, and they told 
me to carry her on my back, and they would help with 
the children and our few belongings. Although she 
was now exceedingly light, I was correspondingly weak, 
so she attempted the walk, and with Miss Gregg's help, 
and by going very slowly, was enabled to get there; 
the Lord giving the strength. 

' What a changed aspect the city now wore ! One 
could hardly recognise it as the same place. Soldiers 
were in evidence everywhere ; many of the shops were 
closed ; the streets, usually so thronged, seemed for- 
saken. We were told by our escort on the way up that 
there had been a panic when it was rumoured that 
foreign troops were coming to the city. Many of the 
tradesmen and people had fled, a lot of the disbanded 
soldiers had run wild and pillaged right and left, but 
the officials had nipped this in the bud, and executed 
a few dozen of them. Peace was now restored, 
and there were no Boxers left in the city. The last 
statement we afterwards found was very far from 

'After arriving at the Yamen, there was about an 
hour's delay while our papers were examined and the 


338 On the Brink of the Grave 

officials decided what should be done with us. At 
last the underlings came, and would have taken me 
off to the men's prison again alone, but, refusing to 
budge, I said that they could take me to the mandarin, 
and I would explain to him. At this they went away, 
returning shortly to say that we were all to go to the 
women's lock-up. What a palace it seemed after our 
quarters of the past three weeks ! How thankfully we 
settled down, and for the time being desired nothing 
better ! Very soon we were visited by one and another 
of the Yamen people, who were profuse in their con- 
gratulations upon our escape. 

' Nor was it long before a marked change in their 
treatment of us was apparent. We rose now in the 
scale rapidly ; extra bedding was brought for us (the 
cheapest available), and I was allowed to have a shave, 
the mandarin's own barber being sent for the purpose. 
New paper was put in the window to keep out the 
cold at night, while again and again the women in 
charge were enjoined to look well after us and take 
care that we lacked nothing. 

'The next day, Saturday, September 8, was the 
15 th of the Chinese 8th moon, a great feast-day. The 
mandarin sent us a meal from his own kitchen, with 
a present of moon-cakes and foreign sweets for the 
children. We were told that we should have rooms in 
the mandarin's private quarters, but that, as there was no 
room there to spare, a suite of rooms was being prepared 
for us in another Yamen, and would be ready on the 
morrow. An official was appointed by the provincial 
judge, acting as Governor, to give us daily attention 
and provide us with everything we needed. He visited 
us on Saturday to learn what we wanted, then came 
on Sunday with a new rig-out for each of us. What 

Improvement in Treatment 339 

a relief to lay aside our dirty things, and put on some 
clean, sweet, although cheap, clothing once more ! 

' On Sunday our meals were sent again from the 
mandarin's kitchen, and about 8 p.m., two carts, with 
four soldiers and others, came to take us to the new 
quarters. Thus by rapid strides we were transformed 
from outcasts and prisoners into honoured guests. 
This change in treatment was no doubt occasioned by 
the receipt of a telegram from H. E. Li Hung Chang, 
who was waited upon in Shanghai on September 7 by the 
Hon. John Goodnow and Dr. John R. Hykes, Consul- 
General and Vice-Consul, U.S.A., at the request of 
Rev. J. W. Stevenson, China Inland Mission. 

' On arriving at our new home, we found two fairly 
large rooms, simply furnished, and moderately clean (for 
Chinese) ; a cook, with orders to serve us up anything 
we might like to ask for, and the four soldiers to guard 
us day and night and attend to us just as we chose to 
use them. Here, too, we found two more new coverlets, 
and an additional suit for each one of us of rather 
warmer clothing. 

' Mr. Cheng, the official appointed to look after us, 
visited us constantly to see to our comfort and enquire 
after our needs. I must not forget to mention the 
courtyard and small garden, where we could daily get 
fresh air and sunshine. Little John picked up per- 
ceptibly from the very first day here. My dear wife, 
too, although slowly and with repeated painful relapses, 
made progress to recovery, and in a fortnight was enabled 
to help and relieve Miss Gregg, who for five weeks had 
been mother to my bairns. 

'During the first ten days, all of us, notably Miss 
Gregg and myself, suffered acutely from painful and 
severe diarrhoea, while my old complaint of neuralgia 

340 On the Brink of the Grave 

continued to trouble me nightly. But, as time went on, 
good diet, clean surroundings, fresh air and rest, com- 
bined to put us all in a better state of health. We were 
able to buy " condensed milk " in the city, and this was 
an untold boon to all, especially the children. What a 
solemn thing it was to be living in that city where so 
many of God's people had laid down their lives for Him ! 
and as we heard from the three Christians who were 
permitted to visit us the details and horrors of those 
days, was it strange that our hearts turned sick within 
us ? 

' About a week after our promotion I was given per- 
mission to telegraph to Shanghai news of our safety, at 
the provincial judge's expense, although I was some- 
what restricted in what I should say. In six days a 
reply came, " Hallelujah ! Have wired news home. 
Wait instructions from Tien-tsin or Peking." This, our 
first communication from the outside world for four 
months, was pinned upon the wall, that we might con- 
tinually refresh ourselves by reading it. 

* Towards the end of our third week here, I received a 
letter from the Consul at Tien-tsin, with a note added by 
Mr. Lowrie. This, too, filled our hearts with rejoicing, 
as we learned all that was being done for our safety by 
the authorities in Tien-tsin, and also by our praying 
friends there. 

' A very real break comes into our diary at this point 
through my dear husband's serious illness. He was 
unable to write, and so I was led to continue our 
testimony to the Lord's goodness and mercy. The long 
waiting time of between five and six weeks at Pao-ting- 
fu was a very real testing time. The Chinese officials 
were always promising to send us to the coast, and just 

Death of Little Vera 34 1 

at the last moment some excuse was forthcoming. They 
evidently had some definite purpose in keeping us. 
What was it? The most probable reason was to make 
use of us in the event of foreign troops coming into the dis- 
trict, and we were confronted by the fear that in the end 
they might make a final thrust at the enemy by killing us. 
One day, as Miss Gregg and I were talking about these 
things and feeling cast down, Vera, who was playing 
beside us and apparently taking no notice, looked up and 
said, so quickly and with such confidence, " Auntie, the 
Lordlooseth the prisoners" (our Sinan text); then she 
again resumed her play. As we accepted her rebuke, 
our faith was strengthened, and we could not but 
acknowledge that " out of the mouth of babes and suck- 
lings the Lord has perfected praise." 

' How little we realised then the path the Lord had 
for us to tread ! For weeks our little darling had been 
suffering from dysenteric diarrhoea, sometimes better, 
sometimes worse, and yet through it all so full of life 
that it helped to quiet our fears in regard to her, and we 
kept hoping that the change to the coast would com- 
pletely restore her. We were as careful as circumstances 
permitted in reference to her diet, and it was good to see 
how she helped us by her self-denial. Whilst we were 
still praising God for my gracious recovery, we were 
brought face to face with the fact that in her case the 
diarrhoea was giving place to dysentery. All thought 
and attention were now centred in our darling. The 
dysentery passed away, and we were filled with hope. 
On October 8, she seemed much better, even asking me 
to make her some toys, though the desire for them 
passed away almost as soon as expressed. In the after- 
noon she began to complain of pain again, and that 
night she grew rapidly worse, though the dysentery did 

342 On the Brink of the Grave 

not return. The next day we were shocked to see the 
change in our darling, but we did not realise that the 
end was so near. On the evening of the 9th, as I had 
been up most part of the previous night, my husband 
kept the first watch. About 3 a.m., I rose to take 
my turn, and as I looked at my darling I saw that a 
change had come over her. She did not regain conscious- 
ness again, although she asked her father to lift her up 
and give her medicine; and on October 10, after nearly 
a fortnight's illness, she fell asleep. In the solemn hush 
of that hour, God drew very near, and bound up our 
broken hearts, as with faltering lips we said, " He is 
worthy." We did not sorrow as those who have no 
hope, for we know that those who sleep in Jesus God 
will bring with Him, and that it is only " Till He come." 
His purposes through her had been fulfilled. She was 
undoubtedly used of God to preserve our lives. Her 
bright loving ways touched the hearts of the people and 
led them to spare us. Yes, her work was done, and in a 
very real sense her life was laid down for Jesus' sake and 
for China. 

'The next day the Chinese officials brought us a 
coffin, and our darling's body was taken to a temple 
near by, and remained there until further arrangements 
could be made. This seemed to be the final strain for 
my dear husband. He had caught cold a night or two 
before, when watching our darling, and now there was 
an utter collapse. He complained of much pain ; to 
swallow solid food was an impossibility. Each day 
found him decidedly weaker, and again we resorted 
to prayer. We heard rumours of French troops ap- 
proaching, which filled us with hope and thankfulness, 
but we could not understand why the officials left us so 
severely alone during these few days. 

Arrival of Relief 343 

* After many false alarms, the first detachment 
reached Pao-ting-fu on October 13. This we heard 
from the soldiers who kept guard ; no one else came 
near. How was it ? On Sunday morning there was a 
sensation and a rush. The provincial magistrate was 
announced. Now, we thought, all is well. But he 
simply told us that the French were there on railway 
business, and would have nothing to do with us ! 
Monday passed quietly away, my husband still getting 
worse. On Tuesday, October 16, we decided to write 
to the French colonel, and ask the favour of medical 

'Just as a soldier was on the point of starting, our 
eyes were gladdened by the appearance of a captain 
in the doorway. The colonel had just heard from a 
French and English speaking Chinaman, whom the 
captain brought with him, that we were in the city, and 
at once sent us an invitation to go into the French 
camp, an invitation which we were not slow to accept. 
An ambulance was brought for Mr. Green, and under 
a strong escort of French soldiers we left the city. We 
received much kindness from the French colonel and 
all the officers during our stay there, the only dis- 
advantage being our inability to speak French. Our 
conversations had to be carried on through the young 
Chinaman mentioned above, and this made a real 
difficulty in reference to Mr. Green. We learned from 
the French that when the officials were questioned as to 
why they had not mentioned the fact of our being in 
the city, they replied that they rather wanted to send us 
to the coast, but that we did not wish to go ! 

* The British troops from Peking were now drawing 
near, and almost as soon as they arrived, October 19, 
General Gaselee and several officers came to see us. 

344 On the Brink of the Grave 

The general was most kind to us, and offered to send 
the doctor round at once to see what could be done for 
my dear husband. Imagine what the sight of English 
faces and the sound of English voices meant after all 
these months ! They reminded us that we were now in 
the midst of friends. The time of our deliverance had 
come, and with grateful adoration, too deep for words, 
we praised God. 

* On Saturday, October 20, we were handed over to 
General Gaselee, and taken to the Field Hospital, where 
Mr. Green had the best medical help, so valuable in his 
critical condition. My husband was found to be suffer- 
ing from hill diarrhoea and a complete nervous break- 
down. General Gaselee gave instructions that no expense 
was to be spared. Major Thompson was most kind 
and attentive, as were many others. On Monday, 
arrangements were made for us to leave for Tien-tsin on 
the following day, by boat. We brought dear Vera's 
coffin with us. Lieutenant Bingham and Dr. Major 
Thompson were in charge, and there was a strong 
escort. Mr. Green got on very nicely until Friday 
afternoon, when his head began to trouble him. That 
night he was almost unmanageable, and he had not 
regained consciousness when we reached Tien-tsin on 
Saturday, October 27. 

* The doctor at the Gordon Hall, where we were first 
taken, told us that he was dangerously ill, and after 
further consultation it was decided that it was best to 
have him removed to our China Inland Mission Home. 
Here the difficulty of getting a trained nurse had to be 
faced, but again the Lord provided in His own wonder- 
ful way. Dr. Stevenson, a lady of the American 
Methodist Mission, offered her services, which were 
most gratefully accepted. 

'Alive from the Dead' 345 

' Sunday was a day of much prayer and anxiety for 
my loved one, but on Monday morning he regained 
consciousness. Looking at that time into the future, we 
realised that, as it had been, so it must be step by step 
with God. We are as those who are " alive from the 
dead." How solemn ! How heart-searching ! We 
cannot understand why we have been spared when so 
many of God's dear children have been called to lay 
down their lives for Him. We can only say, " It is the 
Lord." A more helpless little band there could not have 
been, so that the glory is all His own. We have often 
turned to Acts xii., where we read that " Herod the 
king put forth his hands to afflict certain of the Church, 
and he killed James the brother of John with the 
sword ; and when he saw that it pleased the Jews, he 
proceeded to seize Peter also, . . . intending after Easter 
to bring him forth to the people." But God had another 
purpose for Peter, and so we read, " Now I know of 
a truth that the Lord has sent forth His angel, and 
delivered me out of the hand of Herod, and from all 
the expectation of the people of the Jews." " His ways 
are not our ways ; but as the heavens are higher than the 
earth, so are His ways higher than our ways," and our 
hearts are still. May " the God of all comfort " comfort 
the many sorrowing hearts of those who have lost dear 
ones, and cause them to see "the bright light in the 
clouds." He was and is glorified in our lives. 

* Thursday^ November i. — Our little darling was laid 
to rest in the English cemetery here. How different it 
might have been and has been with others ! Many of 
God's dear children gathered with us to commit her 
body to the ground, " Until the day dawn and the 
shadows flee away." ' 


The Sufferings of the Native Christians 

One day a Catholic priest was endeavouring to 
persuade a native to leave the Protestant Church and 
come over to the Catholic fold. He knew the earnest- 
ness of his man, and so suited his argument to him. 
' The Protestants,' said the priest, ' have never had 
men who were brave enough to die for their faith, 
whereas the Catholics have a long roll of martyrs. 
That is proof enough that we are the true Church.' 
The statement was, of course, ridiculously untrue. 
The Protestant Church in China even then counted a 
goodly array of martyrs. True, the Catholic Church 
could point to more, because she had been centuries in 
China, and during that time suffered frequent pro- 
scription at the hands of the Chinese Government. 
But the Boxer massacres produced more Protestant 
martyrs than all the previous decades of the Protestant 
Church's history in China. The exact numbers will 
probably never be known. But we do know that in 
every corner whither the Boxers came many suffered 
unspeakable tortures, and many preferred death to 
apostasy. The record of their sufferings is on high. 
The human record presents but noble examples, from 
which we may learn more. 

Chinese Christians had apparently been singled 


Character of Chinese Christians 347 

out among the converts of all lands for especial sus- 
picion as to the sincerity of their motives. Every 
critic, and indeed every Western Christian, knew the 
opprobrious epithet, ' Rice Christian.' Many thought 
that this was a term coined by the Chinese in derision 
of the converts. In reality it is but a smart term 
invented by some scoffer, who disbelieved in the 
sincerity of all Christians, white as well as yellow. A 
missionary was once asked, ' What sort of Christians 
do the Chinese make?' He replied, 'All sorts, just 
as at home.' None knew better than the missionaries 
that there were tares among the wheat. At the same 
time, the ever-present persecutions which were sure 
to be the lot of all who joined the new faith, acted as 
a deterrent to those whose motives were sordid, and 
the Chinese were ready to suffer for their faith. The 
shortest experience showed that they could, on occasion, 
rise to surprising heights of devotion to their Lord. 
Chinese missionaries were therefore not surprised that 
many died martyrs' deaths, putting aside offers of 
life. Their heathen persecutors, like the Roman officials 
of old, seemed, in many instances, anxious to make 
the 'path to denial as easy as possible.' 'Only a 
knock of your head here ' (before the idol) ; ' only a 
little incense! No matter whether you mean it or 
not ! ' cried the executioners. But even feeble women 
and little children waxed strong to resist these specious 
pleadings, until their tormentors smote them as if 
under a painful necessity. 

Sections of this book describe the sufferings of the 
foreigners over whom the waves of Boxerism broke, 
or who fled before the flood engulfed them. But the 
full force of the storm beat most fiercely on the de- 
voted heads of the native Christians. Occasionally an 

343 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

official helped the foreigner, but who of them lifted 
a little finger to shield their own subjects, the native 
Christians? The foreigner, though under a cloud, 
might regain his influence, and he was, perhaps, worth 
making a friend of. But the natives who had been so 
base as to follow him were traitors to their country, 
and not fit to live. Flight and concealment were 
equally difficult. True, they had local knowledge of 
hiding-places, but that was equally possessed by the 
sleuth-hounds who were on their track. And some, 
while trying to hide their foreign friends, were slain 
because they refused to divulge their whereabouts. 
China, too, is the most difficult country in the world to 
hide in. Here are no inaccessible forests, such as the 
fugitive slaves of the South in the United States used 
to hide in. Here are no moss-hags to receive the 
hard-pressed runner, as in Covenanting Scotland. 
Even the mountains of China are inhabited by people, 
who worm themselves in ' like worms in an apple-core.' 
Boxerism raged, too, over the great plains of Northern 
China, where you can hardly go a step without brushing 
up against a man, woman, or child. The fields have 
watchers of crops. Upon all the reticulations of paths, 
you cannot travel long without meeting pedestrians. 
Happily, the sorghum was full grown during the brunt 
of the troubles, and gave temporary cover to fugitives 
until hunger or thirst drove them into the open. 
Frequently the crying of their hungry little ones 
betrayed their hiding-places. Women especially fell 
an easy prey to the Boxers, because unable on account 
of their bound feet to go quickly in case of pursuit, 
and thus their pursuers fell upon them and slew 

But the Chinese are very averse to wandering far 

steadfastness of Chinese Christians 349 

from their homes, even if these be in ashes. If they 
escaped once, back they would come again to the old 
scenes, perhaps in search of some one of their family, 
and so once more meet their enemies. When a native 
leaves his village, he goes among strangers, for his own 
countrymen perceive by his dialect, or brogue, that he 
is a stranger (and a stranger is an enemy in China 
still). When he fled from Shan-si into the next 
province, there also Boxerism raged. No wonder they 
were at their wits' end to know what course was best. 
How, then, did they stand through the storm? That 
is the question which at once leaps to the lips of the 
reader. We answer, at least as nobly as the Christians 
in Roman persecutions. 

In those days there were the traditores, who sur- 
rendered the sacred books to the persecutors. That was 
the age of parchment and hard labour, which made 
books rare and expensive. Hence the persecutors hoped 
to check the spread of Christianity by burning the books. 
Similarly, the first Emperor of modern China sought to 
destroy Confucianism by burning the books and burying 
the scholars. But nowadays the printing press makes 
books cheap and plentiful. It would be hard to destroy 
all the Christian books in China, and even if destroyed, 
the West would supply a fresh stock. Hence no one 
thought of demanding books, and we had no traditores 
in China. We had libellates, who procured false certifi- 
cates from the magistrates that they had abandoned 
Christianity and returned to the worship of idols. In 
many instances, magistrates, and even Boxers, were 
anxious that Christians should accept these documents. 
Satisfied with outward conformity, both sides knowing 
well that the Christians were Christians still, and that 
their so-called reversion to paganism was only make- 

350 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

believe, till the storm would pass, and peaceful and 
happier days return to the land. China had its 
theorificati^ who, weakened under fear or torture, 
bowed the knees to idols. But, thank God, many of 
these went out like Peter and wept bitterly, and being 
converted will yet strengthen their brethren. 

And China has its confessors and martyrs. The 
former tortured and harried, 'not accepting deliver- 
ance'; the latter going up to Stephen the proto- 
martyr's Master. During those awful months, He was 
bidding welcome to a succession of faithful Chinese 
martyrs who joined the great company ' who came 
through great tribulation, and washed their robes in the 
blood of the Lamb.' 

In many instances, say some, they were given no 
choice to confess or to recant, and hence they are not 
martyrs in the strict sense. But we will not deny to 
them the glorious name — any more than to those 
missionaries who died without being given the option of 
recanting, and to very few even the chance to confess. 
We call the little innocents whom Herod slew in 
Bethlehem the first martyrs for Christ. So also do 
these Chinese babes in Christ deserve the name. 

Some of them, mad with fear, committed suicide. 
At first sight, we are ready to condemn them, for the 
Christian Church in all ages has refused to follow the 
Stoics, Epicureans, and others who held that suicide, 
e.g.^ that of Cato, is sometimes justifiable and even 
commendable ; but in extenuation we must remember 
that the Chinese have always commended suicide in 
certain cases. Thus, each time foreign troops have 
invaded China, their victorious march has been preceded 
by numerous suicides of men and women, who died 
by their own hand rather than fall into the hands of 

Persecutions of Chinese Christians 351 

foreigners. Recently, in the North, the same thing has 
taken place. Over a dozen Imperial decrees, containing 
long lists of these suicides, have been issued, com- 
mending their patriotism, and conferring honours upon 
them and their descendants. And shall we greatly 
wonder if Chinese, having only lately come out of 
heathenism, did the same, through fear of falling into 
the hands of Boxers, from whose horrible cruelty they 
as Chinese knew so well what to expect ? But foreign 
example even in this is not wanting. Dr. Martin, in his 
book. The Siege in Peking^ tells us of foreign ladies who 
desired their friends to shoot them in the worst event, 
rather than allow them to fall into the hands of the 
Chinese. And their friends consented. Tennyson 
celebrates the fight of Sir Richard Grenville on the little 
Revenge against the Spanish galleons, and tells us 
how, at the last. Sir Richard cried: 

* Sink we the ship, Master Gunner, sink her, spht her in twain. 
Fall into the hands of God, not into the hands of Spain ! ' 

And the Boxers were more cruel than the Dons. 

The accounts which follow make no pretence to 
completeness. As these accounts of heroic suffering are 
perused, the reader should bear in mind the multitudes 
who suffered at the same time the same things, and 
perhaps even worse tortures, and of whose heroic 
endurance no record remains. 

The native Church in Manchuria is the largest in 
China, over ten thousand being communicants and as 
many inquirers. The Boxer craze swept through the 
whole field. There were three distinct periods of trial : 
I. The 'Fining Time,' previous to the Imperial decree 
ordering the extermination of all foreigners. 2. The 
'■ Killing Time,' reminding us of the Scotch Covenanting 

352 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

times. 3. The ' Torturing Time,' with a view to extort 

In the Sungari region in most cases the Christians 
fled, and lost all their property. Those caught were 
imprisoned and tortured ; others were suspended with 
ropes from the roof-tree. At least one man was roasted 
with fire, and his son, on hearing of his father's sufferings, 
committed suicide. 

In Hai Lung Cheng the persecution was most 
virulent. All chapels and private houses of Christians 
were destroyed. In the city, four men were put to 
death, testifying their allegiance to Christ. Chang, a 
blind preacher, was harassed a week, during which he 
spent most of the time praying and fasting. He was 
then led out to a temple and beheaded, praying and 
confessing Christ. At Shan-cheng-tzu forty-one were 
killed. Hsin-Min-tun suffered most of all. Forty-five 
died by murder or fright or suicide, and sixty per cent, 
of the houses were burned. In Kuang-Ning forty-six 
died. Two Bible-women died after faithfully witnessing 
for Christ. One was killed by the Boxers. The other 
was hunted from place to place, and at last the family 
which sheltered her was killed for doing so, after which 
she and her husband, no longer able to bear the strain, 
committed suicide. One woman, over eighty, thought 
the Boxers would respect her age, and so made no 
attempt at flight. They asked her if she believed in 
Buddha. She replied that she did not, and was at once 
cut down. 

Dr. Ross writes of the native Christians in Manchuria : 
' Over three hundred of our Christians were beheaded, 
some with the brutality which the Chinese can manifest. 
Among these were very few women. As far as I have 
heard, there was only one place where men, women, and 

Testimony of Dr. Ross 353 

children were without exception and without mercy 
beheaded. In most places the women and children were 

' The severity of the persecution depended on the 
character first of the headman, and, second, of the 
mandarin of the district. Except the character of the 
mandarin, I have been able to trace no intelligible reason 
for the great diversity in the severity of the persecution. 
The most uncompromising and deadly form of persecu- 
tion was in the town of Sin-pin-pu. Here we had a 
congregation of three hundred members, a large propor- 
tion being merchants and comfortable farmers. The 
value of the loss of goods and property there was fully 
Si 00,000 Mex. (;^ 10,000). Every man, woman, and child 
belonging to the Christian religion who was seized was 
mercilessly and often barbarously put to death. In this 
town, where there was no visible cause of any grudge 
against the Christians, beyond their connection with the 
foreigner, the persecution was more heartless that in any 
other part of Manchuria. I have seen the mandarin, 
and I can understand his attitude. He is a devoted 
Buddhist and an ignorant man. By his action he hoped 
to accumulate a stock of merit. All over the country 
we find diversity — not because of what the Christians 
were or had done, but because of the character, the 
knowledge, and the aims of the mandarin.' 

The following narrative of the sufferings of some of 
the native Christians in Peking is from the pen of Miss 
G. Smith, of the London Missionary Society: — 

' One of the most promising schoolgirls, the daughter 
of Shao Hsing-sheng of Yen San, who with his wife was 
murdered, was married to a young preacher, Chang. 
They first came to the Methodist Mission, but Mr. 
Chang evidently did not think the compound safe, so he 

354 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

removed his wife to his adopted mother's house. He left 
her there for a short time, and during his absence the 
landlord turned her, her baby, and her old blind mother- 
in-law out of the house. As she slowly went along, 
guiding the steps of the poor blind mother, and wonder- 
ing where she should go, she was seized by a Boxer, 
who fortunately was not armed and was alone. He took 
her by the sleeve of her loose dress and said, " Follow 
me." She was compelled therefore to leave the blind 
mother and follow his rapid footsteps. When they had 
gone some distance, he had a Boxer fit, throwing himself 
on the ground in a paroxysm of rage. He foamed for a 
short while, then rose and said, pointing a stiff finger 
at her, " You erh mao tza^ I will kill you." 

* Upon arriving at a place close to one of the city 
gates, she saw about fifty armed soldiers guarding the 
gate, and not far away there were corpses of about seven 
Christians who had been hacked to pieces near the spot. 
She thought, " This is one of the places where they kill 
the Christians. I am going to be killed. O Lord 
Jesus," she prayed, " give me courage to witness for Thee 
until the end." The Boxer who had brought her there 
said, " Are you a Christian ? " She replied, " I am." 
"Of what Church?" "I am a Protestant." He then 
placed a stick of incense in her hand and said, " Burn 
this to the gods, and your life will be saved." She 
replied firmly, " Never." The crowd who had gathered 
around began to jeer and laugh, and said, " Kill her, 
kill her, and see if her body will rise again and go to 
Jesus Christ." She turned upon them and said, " My 
body cut in pieces will remain scattered on the ground 
as these others, but my spirit will escape you and rise to 
God." She heard the soldiers exclaim, " How bold she 
is ! She is not a bit afraid to die." 

A Brave Chinese Girl 355 

' The Boxer then started off somewhere to fetch his 
wife. One of the soldiers then called out, " You hateful 
Christian ! you ought to die. But what would your 
poor infant do ? Quick, run for your life ! " She tried to 
run, but her knees trembled so that she could hardly 
move. The soldiers urged her, and she managed to 
escape before the Boxer came back. She found a 
hiding-place, a filthy little corner of a lonely place, and 
half-kneeling, half-crouching, she passed the night. In 
the early morning she observed the light of a lantern 
flickering to and fro, as though the owner was searching 
for some one. She hardly dared breathe, but as the 
light drew nearer she saw with joy that it was her 
husband. He had been seeking her since noon the day 

'They succeeded in getting a cart and leaving the 
city in safety. They went to a little country village, 
and there a friend bought their safety by paying a large 
sum of money to the villagers not to betray them. Mr. 
Chang was very much concerned about his old blind 
mother, left alone in the streets of Peking, so, after ten 
days, he decided to return to the city and look for her. 
He arrived here, was seized by the Boxers, and murdered 
with one of our dispensers. Their hearts were cut out 
and offered to the idol. The dispenser leaves a wife 
with four small children. 

' Another of our married schoolgirls' lives was saved 
by her husband in a curious way. In a very unfrequented 
spot he built a little stone hut, leaning against a blank 
wall, and looking as much like a heap of ruins as 
possible. The hut was about six feet high and four feet 
square, without door or window, and when he had 
placed his wife and child inside, he bricked up the 
aperture by which they had entered, only leaving a 

356 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

small hole large enough to pass a little food and water 
through. Here they remained for six weeks in the 
hottest part of the year, and they both suffered unspeak- 
able misery. The husband, at the risk of his life, 
crept backwards and forwards with food and water, but the 
supply was always scanty, and sometimes he was unable 
to come for twenty-four hours together. The poor little 
baby lived to leave its close prison, but died soon after- 
wards, as the result of semi-starvation during so many 

* An old Christian named Chiang, and a member of 
our Shih Pa Li Tien church, sixty-seven years of age, took 
refuge with us at the Methodist Mission. He was a 
great Bible student, and had always led a really con- 
sistent Christian life, and was therefore much respected 
by all. He was restless and unhappy at the Mission, as 
his youngest and favourite married daughter was still in 
the country, and he feared for her. At last he decided 
to leave his safe shelter and go and see how his daughter 
fared, and nothing we could say could turn him from his 
purpose. The first opportunity that occurred he slipped 
away, and this was the last of saintly Mr. Chiang. 
On the way to his country home, he was betrayed by a 
woman, who pointed him out as an erh mao tzu. They 
seized him, and told him that he must die. "Very well," 
he replied, " but first give me a little time to pray," and 
falling on his knees he began, " Father, forgive them," 
but his prayer was never completed. The cruel knives 
descended on the aged, kneeling figure, and he was 
hacked to pieces. 

' Another of our country Christians, with his wife and 
children, took refuge in the city. Here he was betrayed 
by a friend, who handed him over to a party of Boxers. 
They examined him, and decided he was not a 

Native Persecutions 357 

Christian. Whether he recanted or not, we do not now 
know, but the Boxers treated him very kindly, and gave 
him a sort of protection ticket. He returned to his family, 
but his wife says she never saw any one so completely 
subdued by fear. He was ghastly white, and trembling 
all over. " There is no hope for us," he said in a 
low voice ; " we shall all be taken and killed. Let us die 
now." He then produced opium, which he insisted on 
his wife and children eating, and then, swallowing a large 
dose himself, he lay down on the floor beside his youngest 
boy. His wife and eldest son fortunately failed to 
retain the opium, and, after remaining in a state of semi- 
unconsciousness for a day, recovered. But the husband 
and little one died. 

* One of our Christian Endeavourers wandered about 
homeless and penniless for more than a month. He at 
last took refuge in a little cave in the Northern Hills, 
and, thoroughly weakened by famine, at last contem- 
plated suicide, an alternative to slow starvation. As he 
crouched in his little shelter, an old man passed by, 
and, observing his miserable state, spoke kindly to him, 
and said, " You may share with me the only food I 
possess, a little millet." The poor Christian gratefully 
accepted a small bagful, and subsisted on it raw for a 
few days, when he heard that the foreign troops had 
come, and he joyfully hastened back to the city. 

* A Christian named Wen, his wife and daughter, and 
another Christian and her baby, were seized by the 
Boxers and taken before Prince Chuang. The baby 
was an engaging little fellow, and won the hearts of some 
of the Boxers, so the mother's life was spared for his 
sake. A servant of a big official who was present at 
the trial swore that Mr. Wen was not a Christian, but a 
respectable carter whom his master knew very well. 

35^ Sufferings of the Native Christians 

His evidence was accepted, and Wen and his family- 
were released. As they left Prince Chuang's abode, 
Mr. Wen was again seized by Boxers, but the rest of the 
party managed to escape, and took refuge in the country, 
where they found a safe hiding-place till the troops came 
to Peking. Mr. Wen's head was shaved by his captors, 
he was loaded with chains, and in this sad plight was 
led from village to village by his captors, who stated 
that he was an erh mao tzii they were taking to Peking, 
but that they lacked the necessary funds. While a 
collection was being taken, he was hooted and jeered 
at and tormented by the crowd of villagers who had 
collected round him. When a sufficient sum had been 
levied, the show moved on to the next village. When 
the news reached his captors that the allies had reached 
Peking, they took to their heels and ran away. Mr. 
Wen followed their example, but ran in an opposite 
direction, and he hardly ceased running until he reached 
the capital. 

* One of our church members, a man named Tung, 
was asked by another Christian to flee with him to the 
Northern Hills. Tung replied, "The Lord is able to 
keep me safe here in the city, if it be His will that I 
should live, and I would rather remain in Peking." He 
did so, and a few days after he was caught by Boxers, 
who cut his throat in a brutal manner, and left him for 
dead by the side of the road. His mother and brother, 
who were heathen, found him, and carried him outside 
the Chien Men. Here they erected a mat shed, and 
gradually nursed him back to life. But before the 
wound in his throat had healed, the Boxers, like blood- 
hounds, were on his track once more. He implored his 
mother and brother to flee while there was time. He 
said, " You are heathen ; why should you perish with 

Story of Li Pai 359 

me ? " As they refused to go, he decided to die himself, 

and thus leave the way clear for them to depart. They 

approved of his decision, and purchased three kinds of 

poison, all of which he took without any ill effects. The 

Boxers had by this time arrived at the little hut, so, with 

an imploring look at his mother to flee, he took a large 

knife and inflicted a fearful wound on the other side 

of his throat to where the Boxers had previously cut. 

They thus found him apparently bleeding to death. 

They carried him to Prince Chuang, where so many 

Christians were tried and condemned to death, but 

decided when he got there that he was as good as dead 

already, so he was just thrown out on a heap of stones 

by the roadside. He lay there insensible till midnight, 

when he came to himself, and found the new and old 

wounds in his throat had stopped bleeding. He found 

he had strength to crawl, and dragged himself to a little 

retreat he thought of outside the city gates. In a day 

or two, the allies entered Peking, and he was discovered 

by a European soldier. Tung pointed to his throat, and 

said " Boxer " in English. The soldier understood, and 

very kindly assisted him into the city, where his friends 

nursed him until completely well. He has lately been 

happily married to a very nice girl, who loves him all 

the more for what he has endured, in spite of two 

hideous scars which stand out in livid ugliness on his 


Li Pai was a shepherd on the hillsides near the city 
of Shao Yang, Shan-si, where Mr. and Mrs. Pigott 
laboured. He became one of the first-fruits of Shao Yang 
Mission. After helping the missionaries as well as 
he could, he was finally sent away, and, after many 
adventures, reached the coast. His story was taken 

360 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

down by Dr. Edwards, of the Shao Yang Mission, who 
was in Peking at the time. Only parts of it illustrative 
of the sufferings of natives are given : — 

* After Mr. Pigott had sent him away, much against 
his will, the faithful man still kept following at a distance 
to see how the missionaries would fare. As it would 
not be safe for him to go into the city, he hid himself 
in an empty shed outside the city gate. Only at night 
did he venture forth to listen to the conversation of 
passers-by, in order to learn, if possible, what had become 
of the party. His hiding-place was close to the road, 
and once he heard a great noise of shouting and 
trampling, and thought the Boxers were upon him. But 
it passed by, and he afterwards learned that it was a 
mob, hurrying seven fellows-Christians to a horrible 
death. Fearing detection if he stayed too long in the 
shed, he stole forth one dark night, and went about a 
mile and a half to the house of an old friend, a heathen, 
who was terribly scared when he opened the door and 
saw the face of a Christian. At first he would not let 
him in, being afraid lest Li Pai was seeking shelter, and 
might involve him in a common ruin. However, Li Pai 
assured him he was not going to stay, and begged him 
to find out the whereabouts of the missionaries, and tell 
him. "You will find me at such and such a place," said 
Li Pai, and departed. 

* The poor fellow was so anxious for news that he 
had revealed his hiding-place to a doubtful friend. On 
reflection he perceived the folly of this course, and at 
once left the shed, and hid himself in the tall sorghum, 
w^here, unseen himself, he might get a stealthy peep at 
passers-by. To his surprise, he beheld his friend passing, 
and revealed himself to him. The friend gave him three 
cakes, which he devoured with thankfulness. For some 

story of Li Pai 361 

days he had had nothing but a Httle grass and unripe 
wheat, which he plucked in the fields. From the friend 
he learned the road the Pigott party were to be taken to 
the capital, and as soon as it was dark he travelled to a 
point beside the road, where he hid himself, to see them 
pass by. He was rewarded by seeing the party pass 
under escort, and heavily ironed. Of course he did 
not dare show himself, but he followed them, getting 
glimpses and news of them at different points right up 
to T'ai-yuen-fu. 

'A distant relative secreted him for a time, by 
partitioning off a small space in his granary with straw, 
within which Li Pai lay, until he finally learned of the 
death of the missionaries at the Governor's Yamen. 
With a heavy heart he again took to the road back to 
Shao Yang. For two days he wandered aimlessly about, 
not knowing where to go or what to do. Then he 
thought he would go to Hsin Chou, where the Baptists 
had a station, but a friendly muleteer recognised him 
on the road, and turned him back, saying that all the 
missionaries had been murdered. Then he found a 
secluded village in the mountains where he got work in 
the fields, but, fearing discovery, he moved on, at last 
returning to Shao Yang, where he slept in a disused brick- 
kiln, and learned of the method of securing a certificate 
of protection by recanting. One recreant convert was 
employed in the Yamen as recorder of the names of 
those who recanted. 

* At last Li Pai thought of a friend whose home was 
near Shun Te-fu, in Chihli, and he set off to find him. 
As he had been all through this region selling Christian 
books, he was in great danger of being recognised, and 
he therefore went very slowly and cautiously, begging 
his way in the smallest hamlets, as he had no money to 

362 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

buy food. After twenty days' painful travel, he reached 
Shun Te-fu, very thin and weak. Four times during 
that dangerous journey had he been in mortal peril. 
Here are his own words : 

* " Had it not been for God's mercy, I should not be 
here to tell the story. The first time I was in danger 
was on August 7. When passing through a large village, 
I was recognised by one man as a Christian. He 
immediately pounced upon me, bound my hands, and 
told the villagers I was an er-mao-tsi (secondary rebel). 
He took me to the village temple, and beat the big bell 
to call all the villagers together. He told them I was a 
Christian, and ought to be killed. But no one took his 
side, and some said that whether I was a Christian or 
not was nothing to them. * Very well,' he said, ' if 
nothing to you, I will myself take him to Shao Yang and 
hand him over to the magistrate.' With that he led 
me outside the village, but suddenly turned round, threw 
down the rope, and said to me, ' Go.' I think he was 
chagrined because no one else sided with him. 

'"That same afternoon I was passing through a 
village, and stooped down to drink from a well. Some 
people saw me, and rushed towards me, accusing me of 
putting poison in the water. Again I was bound, and 
they took me to the village temple, and discussed what 
should be done with me. Some said, ' Bury him alive ' ; 
others said, ' No, let us take him to the nearest official.' 
At last an old man came along, and said, 'We don't 
want to kill anybody here ; and if you take the man to 
the Yamen, you will have to spend money. Bring him 
to my house, and we will make him drink water from 
that well every day, and then we shall know if he has 
put poison in it.' To this they agreed, and he took me 
to his house, where I stayed till the nth. During this 

story of Li Pai 363 

time he treated me very well. He was a talkative old 
man, and I had many opportunities of explaining to 
him why the Christians were hated, and in this way I 
was able to preach to him. When he let me go on the 
nth, he gave me a few small loaves to help me on my 

'"Two days later, August 13, I was again in great 
jeopardy, for in the morning I was recognised in a 
village where I had been some time before selling books. 
I was again bound, and the crowd which gathered on 
the street discussed how they should kill me. One 
said, ' We have no sword.' Others said, ' We have our 
sickles.' ' That will do,' they said, and they were lead- 
ing me outside the village, when, to my surprise, they 
one by one dropped behind, until only the man who 
had the rope which was round my neck was left. 
Looking around and finding himself alone with me, 
he threw down the rope and ran back as fast as he 
could, while I was allowed to go on in peace. 

' " But my troubles for that day were not over. I 
remembered that in the neighbourhood lived a man 
whom I had once employed as a shepherd. If I could 
find him, I thought he would be willing to aid me. I 
found him that afternoon, but, to my dismay, directly 
he saw me he called out to his fellow-villagers, ' The 
er-niao-tsi has come.' He then told them that I had 
led many foreigners into Shan-si, who had killed many 
Chinese. They bound my hands behind me, and after 
a time tied me up by my thumbs to a beam, and kept 
me there all that night, while they discussed if they 
should kill me. In the morning, another old man again 
pleaded my cause, and suggested they should let me go. 
To this they agreed, if I would write a paper guarantee- 
ing that none in the village should die because of my 

364 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

visit. I said that, as I could not guarantee my own 
life, much less could I guarantee theirs. They then 
said I must leave them my name and the name of my 
village. At once I agreed to this, and they then let 
me go." 

* Li Pai found his friend, whose house was a haven 
of rest, as the Boxers were not so bad there as in Shan-si. 
Having regained his strength, he again started for 
Shan-si, passing mission stations in ruins and the place 
where his brother had been murdered. He seemed drawn 
back to that awful province by a sort of longing which 
he could not resist. He visited T'ai-yuen-fu, and at 
last came again to Shao Yang. There he learned that 
Mr. Pigott's faithful helper had been arrested by the 
Boxers, and put through a mock trial. A circle was 
made on the floor, and the figure of a cross within it. 
The helper was then commanded to spit upon it. On 
his declining, he was ordered away to execution. Here 
he also learned particulars of the murder of many native 
Christians, and of others who were only inquirers, or 
had been in the employ of the missionaries. He then 
left for Pao-ting-fu, where he met foreign friends, and 
his troubles were over.' 

The following are some of the experiences of native 
converts connected with the Methodist Mission : — 

Chang An, a steward, was taken by the Boxers, who 
demanded that he should recant and worship the idols. 
He replied, * I will not ; you can do as you please 
with me, but I will not deny the Lord.' He died under 
the sword. 

Tou Tang, a faithful, intelligent Christian, had poor 
eyesight. When his friends urged him to make his 
escape, he said, * I cannot flee ; I shall be taken.' The 

Faithful unto Death 365 

Boxers gave him an opportunity to recant and save his 
Hfe. He firmly refused, and early in the morning they 
took him out and slew him. 

Mrs. Yang, a pale, delicate, timid woman, with her 
two little girls, was taken by the Boxers, then released. 
She fled to relatives in the mountains, and was taken 
again. They tried to make her recant and worship 
the idols in the temple to which they took her. An 
attempt also was made to compel her to marry one of 
their number, and thus save her life. To all these 
demands she opposed a firm denial, and she and her 
daughters were cut down with swords. 

Liu Ming-chin, a chapel-keeper, was bound to a 
pillar in the temple of Yu Huang. He kept preaching 
to his persecutors, as he was bound, realising that the 
Word of God was not bound. One of the Boxers in a 
rage cried, ' You still preach, do you ? ' and slit his 
mouth from ear to ear. 

A Bible-woman, named Wu, was taken to the same 
temple and bound to a pillar. She was beaten across 
the breasts, but never uttered a cry. Then a bunch of 
lighted incense was held to her face till all the flesh was 
burned off. Then her feet and hands were cut off. 
Finally she was carried out of the temple, hacked to 
pieces, and burned. 

A schoolboy, named Wang Chih-shen, was taken. 
He could have saved his life by worshipping some 
tablets. The village elders even begged him to do it, 
saying that then they could secure his release. But 
he refused, saying, ' I can't do it. To say nothing of 
disobeying God, I could never look my teacher and 
schoolmaster in the face if I did it.' So he died. 

In the Tsun Hua region, one hundred and seventy- 
eight perished for their faith. Many of these were 

366 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

tortured, as only heathen Chinese know how to torture. 
They now wear the martyr's crown. 

In the Kaiping region, forty-five Christians were mur- 
dered. A father who had seen his son, seventeen years 
old, beaten to death for not recanting, refused to recant. 
Beaten and bruised, he was appealed to three times, — 
' Will you recant now ? ' * No, no, no, not if you kill 
me ! ' Then he was thrown into prison, as an obdurate 
fellow not fit to live. He was rescued long after by 
Russian troops. Burning alive, beating to death, dis- 
memberment, disembowelling, drowning, snipping to 
pieces under a straw-cutter, throwing from a precipice, 
saturating with oil and then burning, burying alive, — 
such were some of the cruel tortures through which our 
brethren and sisters entered into the glory of heaven. 

Dr. E. H. Edwards, one of the first party of mission- 
aries to revisit Shan-si after the troubles, has gathered up 
the story of the native martyrs in Shan-si, and has carefully 
sifted the narrative, so as to obtain the truth. His list, 
however, cannot be exhaustive, and contains only a few of 
the faithful servants of Christ who walked the doleful 
way with Him during those awful days. 

' While there were isolated cases of persecution by 
the Boxers as early as April, the storm did not break 
with full violence till the end of June. On the 25th of 
that month a proclamation was posted up at the telegraph 
office in T'ai-yuen-fu, which purported to be an Imperial 
decree. The substance of it was thatat Tuka war had 
begun, the Boxers having destroyed two foreign war- 
ships. It stated that, as a result, the Emperor was 
extremely pleased ; and further, " now even children were 
able to use the sword and protect the country, and did 
not ask the Government for money or rations." The 

The Terror in T'ai-yuen-fu 367 

Boxers would therefore burn all Christian places of 
worship, and kill all Christians. 

' On July 9 came the massacre at T'ai-yuen-fu, by 
the orders and under the eyes of Yii Hsien himself. 
On the day of the great massacre, all Chmese who 
were found in the house with the missionaries, no matter 
for what purpose, were killed; and there happened 
to be five with the Protestants, and the same number 
with the Roman Catholics. Within the next few days 
four Protestants and about forty Roman Catholics were 
killed in the city. That a larger number did not suffer, 
is probably due to the fact that some of the officials did 
what they could to restrain the malice of the Governor, 
inducing him to allow a proclamation to be issued 
granting protection to the converts if they would recant. 
* In other places throughout the province, it was, 
however, very different ; the people, being in abject terror, 
and carried away with a frenzy, implicitly believed the 
absurd stories assiduously spread about by the Boxers. 
The old fable of foreigners and Christians cutting out 
and scattering the figure of a man in paper, which in a 
few days came to life and then had the power of domg 
much harm, was believed. It was said that men, more 
especially beggars, were hired by the Christians to poison 
the village wells, and make a mark with some red 
substance on the doors of the houses— the inhabitants of 
houses so marked being sure to get ill and perhaps die. 
So great was the terror spread by these reports, that 
numberless persons were killed who had no connection 
with Christianity. In consequence of the drought 
existing at that time, many people were wandering about 
picking up a precarious living, and not a few of them 
were accused of being in the pay of foreigners for bad 
purposes, and killed at sight. It was extremely danger- 

368 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

ous even for respectable foot-travellers to go about 
singly, especially if they happened to stop near a village 
well to drink. They might be immediately seized and 
their belongings searched, to see if they had anything in 
the shape of medicine with which they could poison the 

' It is but little wonder that the Christians had to bear 
the full fury of the storm ; and that so many weathered 
it and have safely reached " port," is a matter for great 
thankfulness ; while it is scarcely to be wondered at 
that, in the present condition of the Church in China 
(especially in Shan-si, where it is still in its infancy), so 
many were wrecked, and recanted in some form or other. 
But though wrecked for a time, we believe that they are 
still possible of "salvage." 

' In the Hsin-chou district of Shan-si the persecution 
began soon after the flight of the missionaries for their 
lives on June 29. Several of the Christians accompanied 
them, among whom was Ho Tsuen-kwei. He was an 
old man of sixty, and at one time had been part pro- 
prietor of a dyeing business. On his conversion he had 
relinquished his share in this, and accepted a com- 
paratively small salary to act as helper to the Rev. J. 
Turner. He remained with the missionaries in their 
hiding-place until about July 13, when he was sent by 
them to ascertain how matters were east of Hsin-chou, 
and to see if it were possible to get to the coast that 

" On nearing Hsin-chou, he called at the village where 
his sister lived, and was there arrested by the local Boxers 
— ^just a few lads in their teens. By them he was taken 
to the town and handed over to the local official, Li 
Tsuen-kwang, who at once put him in handcuffs. The 
next day this official examined Ho, and tried to find 

* You'll soon be in Heaven' 369 

out from him where the missionaries were hiding; but 
he refused to tell. This made the magistrate very 
angry, and he ordered him to be beaten with the bamboo. 
He still refused to say where the foreigners had gone, 
and while being beaten the underlings of the Yamen and 
bystanders ridiculed him, saying, " Doesn't it hurt ? " 
" You'll soon be in heaven." He was beaten with over 
one thousand strokes, and then, when nearly insensible, 
was thrown into prison, still wearing his handcuffs ; and 
in addition his feet were put in wooden stocks. Another 
Christian happened to be in prison at the time, and 
attended to his few wants, but he was only able to take a 
little water, and on the fourth day death happily put an 
end to his sufferings. He was the first martyr — as he 
had been one of the first converts — in Hsin-chou. 

* Ans-hsu-ken, aged fifty, and Chang-ling-wang, aged 
sixteen, also retreated with the missionaries to their hiding- 
place. The latter was not a church member, but had 
acted for some time as a servant to Miss Renault. 
These two were advised to return home, as the provisions 
of the party were diminishing, and there was little or no 
prospect of their being replenished. They started on 
their journey, but had not gone far before being arrested 
and examined by Boxers. It was soon found out who 
they were, and they were both condemned to death. 
The elder man pleaded for the life of his young com- 
panion, and begged that he might be allowed to return. 
But the lad stoutly refused to leave his friend, and 
they were both hacked to death and their remains 

' Si-er-mao, aged thirty-two, lived only ten li from 

Hsin-chou, and was well known in the neighbourhood as a 

Christian, as he was always preaching to his heathen 

neighbours. He was therefore one of the marked men, and 


370 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

on July 13 was arrested and bound by the Boxers of his 
own and the neighbouring villages, and taken to a temple, 
where he was ordered to kneel and kowtow (knock 
head) to the leader. This he refused to do, saying he 
was a child of God, and would not kneel to devils. This 
made the Boxer chief very angry, and he ordered his 
followers to beat him with sticks. At once he was 
knocked down, and beaten while on the ground, but 
still he refused to kneel. His hands and feet were then 
tied together behind him, a pole passed through, and 
slung in this way he was carried to the boundary of 
two villages, and there hacked to death with swords. 
Having heard Si often speak of the doctrine of the 
resurrection, and fearing lest there might be some truth 
in it, and that he might come to life and do them harm, 
they cut across the soles of his feet before burying him 
in a ditch that was near at hand. 

' On the same day, Chang-lao, aged forty-seven, and 
Si-wa-yu, aged sixty-eight, were arrested and taken to 
the village temple, tried, and condemned to death unless 
they would recant. This they refused to do, and they 
were then taken to the spot where Si-er-mao had been 
murdered, and were again urged to leave the Church. 
They still declined to do this, and were immediately 
cut down and killed. As a favour, their relatives were 
allowed to take away the remains for burial, but they 
were not interred in the family graveyard. 

* A few days after, Chang-lao's mother, aged seventy, 
and daughter, aged eleven, found it necessary, in conse- 
quence of the threats of the Boxers, to leave their home 
and seek refuge with friends in a village near by. But 
no one would take them in, as they were connected with 
Christians. At a loss to know what to do, they were 
returning to their own village when they were met by a 

< Kill them where Arrested* 371 

band of Boxers, who arrested and took them to their chief 
in Hsin-chou to ask for instructions as to their fate. The 
answer soon came, " Kill them where arrested," and they 
were accordingly taken back and murdered near their 
own village. 

* Cheo-chi-cheng, aged thirty, was employed in a boot 
shop in Hsin-chou. The same day that the missionaries 
fled, he took his wife and child to his mother-in-law's 
village for safety. Not long after, he was arrested there 
by the local Boxers, and beaten till he was insensible. 
They then searched his clothes, and, finding that he had 
on his person a copy of the New Testament, decided to 
burn him. For this purpose they made every family in 
the village contribute a bundle of millet stalks, with 
which the fire was made, and he was thrown on and 
burned to death. 

* Wang Cheng-pang, aged fifty, was well known as a 
Christian, so, when the trouble broke out, he had to flee 
with his wife and family. He took them to a waste 
place in the open country, and then, thinking they would 
be safer if he were not there, left them with the intention 
of going to a distance. But before he had gone very far 
he was recognised by some men of a neighbouring village 
who were watching their crops, and they immediately 
set upon him with stones, and beat him till he was 
insensible. Finding that he was not dead, they then 
knocked out his brains with their reaping-hooks. No 
other member of his family was injured, as they all man- 
aged in one way or another to escape. 

' When the missionaries fled on June 9, they rested 
at noon at the house of a Christian named Chang-Chih- 
kweh, aged fifty-three, who welcomed them warmly, and 
did all he could for them. A few days after, when they were 
settled in their cave, he went to visit them, but was 

372 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

arrested on his way by the villagers of Chia-chwang, who 
long before the Boxer outbreak had been the bitter 
opponents of their Christian neighbours, because they 
would not subscribe towards the local theatricals or the 
upkeep of the temples. That same day the Boxers from 
Hsin-chou arrived at the village on their way to seek 
the hiding-place of the foreigners, and demanded that 
Chang should be their guide. But he stoutly refused to 
show them the way, even though he was threatened with 
death. His persistent refusal so angered them that they 
set upon him with swords and sticks, and he was slowly 
done to death. 

* One of the saddest, and yet perhaps brightest, cases 
is that of Chao-hsi-mao, aged thirty, his mother, aged fifty- 
seven, sister, aged thirty-six, and wife, only nineteen years 
old. Being a prominent and well-known Christian, he 
was advised by his friends to leave his own village and flee. 
This he refused to do, and in July all four members were 
arrested by the Boxers, and their house and all their be- 
longings burned. They were then bound, and taken on a 
cart to the Boxer chief at Hsin-chou to ask for instructions. 
He said, " I don't want to see them ; take them back and 
kill them where arrested." While on their way back, 
they all joined in singing the hymn, " He leadeth me." 
Arrived at a vacant spot outside their own village, they 
were taken down from the cart, and the man was first 
beheaded with the huge knife generally used for cutting 
straw. Still the women would not recant, and the old 
mother said, " You have killed my son ; you can now kill 
me," and she too was beheaded. The other two were 
still steadfast, and the sister said, "My brother and 
mother are dead ; kill me too." After her death, there 
was only the young wife left, and she said, " You have 
killed my husband, mother, and sister-in-law ; what have 

'Valiant Saints' 2>1?> 

I to live for? Take my life as well." Thus all four 
sealed their testimony with their blood. 

* In addition to the foregoing fifteen, one other was 
killed by falling over a precipice while fleeing from the 
Boxers, so that Hsin-chou has now the honour of pos- 
sessing a martyr-roll of sixteen " valiant saints." 

' The next station north of Hsin-chou is Kwo-hsien, 
but here only one man, Chang-kwei, aged twenty-nine, 
was killed, so far as known. Though only an inquirer, 
he was evidently well known as a Christian, and was 
sought for by the Boxers. He managed to escape from 
his own village, but was caught in a neighbouring one, 
and at once killed. 

* Forty li north of Kwo-hsien is Tai-chou, and the 
number of Christians killed there would have been 
much greater, had it not been for the energetic action of 
the Men-shang (attendant) of the local official. Among 
those who suffered was the mother of Chen-Chih-tao, 
aged fifty. When the Boxers rose, the whole family 
had to scatter, but the mother, not being able to go far, 
was the first one to be found, and she was discovered in 
a neighbouring temple where she was hiding. At once 
the Boxers set upon her with swords, and hacked her 
to death. Soon after, Chen-Chih-tao, his father and 
brother, were found and taken to the same temple. To 
prevent their running away, the soles of their feet were 
burned with hot irons, and then they were taken in a 
cart to Tai-chou, where they were to be tried by the 
Boxer chief 

*The Men-shang having heard of what was taking 
place, waited till they were passing the Yamen, and 
then rushed out with Yamen runners, rescued the three 
men, and kept them in the Yamen till the trouble had 
blown over. In this way this man saved the lives of 

374 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

more than ten Christians, himself undertaking the 
responsibility, as his chief appears to have been a man 
without any stamina. In all the accounts received, 
nothing is more evident than that the local officials could 
protect the Christians when they wished ; and that when 
they presented a bold front to the Boxers, these braggarts 
and cowards were easily overawed. 

* In the case of Wang-shih, aged fifty, who was only 
an inquirer, the Men-shang was unable to interfere, as 
the father of his accuser was a well-to-do man with some 
local influence. As early as July 3, Wang-shih was 
attacked in his own house, and one of his hands severely 
injured. He was taken to the official, and accused of 
injuring his neighbours. The official asked what evi- 
dence they had to produce, and one man at once spoke 
up and said, " My illness has been caused by him, and 
unless he is killed I cannot get better." The magistrate 
then asked Wang-shih by what methods he injured 
people and made them sick, but he did not make any 
reply. He was then ordered to be beaten several 
hundred blows with the bamboo, and after being beaten 
was being led away to prison to await further evidence, 
when the Boxers suddenly rushed upon him, and, 
dragging him away from the Yamen runners, took him 
outside the city to kill him. Arrived outside the east 
gate, he was first set upon by the would-be sick man, 
who thrust him through with a sword. The whole 
crowd of Boxers then attacked him, and he was cut to 

' The terror in which even the people connected with 
Christians lived during the time the Boxer power was 
at its height, is illustrated by the case of Cheng-feng-hsi, 
aged forty-seven. He was part proprietor of a shop in the 
city of Tai-chou, and, fearing lest he should be arrested, 

*The Noble Army of Martyrs' 375 

he attempted to escape, climbing over a wall. Unfortun- 
ately, he fell and broke his leg, and was carried back 
by his assistants to the shop. His partners, fearing it 
should be known that they had a Christian there, urged 
him to poison himself by taking opium. This at first 
he firmly refused to do, saying, " If you don't want me 
here, hand me over to the magistrate, or even to the 
Boxers themselves." But they were too much afraid to 
adopt either of these plans, and finally either poisoned 
him or else compelled him to commit suicide by taking 


' In a village not far from the city lived Tso-hung 
and his family. On the outbreak of the persecution 
they all had to flee, and scattered in various directions. 
His wife, mother aged ninety, and daughter aged ten, hid 
in an old graveyard, but were found by the Boxers, who 
were going to kill them, when some friend rushed to the 
city and informed the Men-shang. Without waiting for 
his horse, he immediately went out with his attendants 
on foot, rescued the three women, and arrested the 
Boxer leader. Unfortunately, the little girl had been 
so injured by the harsh treatment she received at the 
hands of the Boxers, that she died soon after, raising 
the martyr-roll of Tai-chou to four. 

' Fan-si-hsien is a small town one hundred and 
thirty li to the north-west of Tai-chou, and the events 
which happened there afford further evidence of the 
influence of local officials, and their power either to 
protect the Christians or to leave them to the mercy of 
the Boxers. Missionary work has only been carried 
on in this town some four or five years— a missionary 
perhaps visiting it once a year. There were already 
quite a number of inquirers, who, though not bap- 
tized, were recognised by their neighbours as Chris-- 

Z'jG Sufferings of the Native Christians 

tians. A small house had been rented as a chapel, 
and an evangelist placed in charge. On Sunday, July i, 
a number met for worship as usual, notwithstanding 
the drilling of the Boxers and the many wild rumours. 
The evangelist, Chao-yung-yao, had previously been 
advised to leave and go to his home, but he said he had 
been appointed to that station and would not desert his 
post. As things became more threatening, he even sent 
in a petition to the magistrate, saying that, if the 
Christians were in fault, he was to blame, as he had 
taught them the doctrine. He asked, therefore, that he 
might be punished in some way to appease the anger of 
the people, and allow the others to go unmolested. 

' To this petition the official gave no heed, and the 
Boxers evidently knew they had a free hand, for the 
storm burst suddenly on the little band on Sunday, 
July I, after their service. The mob first attacked the 
chapel, breaking both the doors and windows, and then 
set the place on fire. They then sought and caught the 
evangelist, dragged him to the main street, and there 
beat him until he was unconscious. Regaining con- 
sciousness, he attempted to rise, and was partially 
kneeling when one cried out, " See, he is praying even 
now. Drag him to the fire." Immediately some of the 
bystanders caught hold of him and pulled him towards 
the burning chapel ; but he said, " You need not drag 
me; I will go myself." He quietly walked to the 
chapel and entered the burning building, and almost 
immediately the roof fell in ; death must have been 

' But the mob was not satisfied, and sought every- 
where for the Christians. Kao Chung-tang, aged forty- 
four, was caught on the street, beaten till nearly dead, 
and then thrown on the smouldering ruins of the chapel. 

'The Tender Mercies of the Wicked ' 377 

He was still conscious, and after a time begged the 
bystanders to give him some water. " Do you want it 
hot or cold?" asked one man. ''See, I will give you 
some lukewarm," and then offered him some wine to 
drink. "Others," said he, "would not even give you 
that." Among all the crowd there was not one that 
took pity on him, and the poor fellow lingered on till 

the next day. 

' Hsu-yen, aged thirty-six, and Li-chung, aged thirty- 
two, were both at the service on that fateful Sunday, 
and when the riot began fled outside the city, but 
were caught, bound and beaten, brought back to the 
city, and thrown on to the burning ruins, where they 


' Not content with what had been done in the city, 
the Boxers then turned their attention to the villages. 
The home of Liu-tsi-hen was one of the first to be 
attacked, and the house was destroyed. All the members 
of the family escaped for the time being, the wife going 
to her mother's home in a village near at hand. The 
Boxers of that village, hearing ofher arrival, immediately 
sought her, and she had to flee a second time, and hid 
in a field of wheat. There she was found and caught, 
and it is said she was stripped of all her clothing, and 
bound and taken to the city, her captors beating her as 
they went along. Arrived at the city, she was thrown 
on to the smouldering ruins of the chapel, where she 
was left by her tormentors, who soon afterwards 
scattered. Finding herself free, she managed to creep 
out of the ruins, and had passed the city gate and was 
making her way home, when she was caught again by 
the Boxers, brought back, and a second time thrown on 
to the ruins. This time they did not leave her, and as 
by night-time she was not dead, they took a cord and 

^yS Sufferings of the Native Christians 

strangled her. Notwithstanding all her sufferings, it is 
said she remained steadfast to the end. 

* In another village, the house of Kao-lien-teng, aged 
fifty, was attacked and burned. He himself was at once 
arrested and taken to the city, where he was tried by 
the Boxers. He was asked, " Why did you enter the 
Church ? " " Because it was good." " Why, then, do you 
injure people ? " "I do harm to no one," he replied. 
" Well, if you will leave this foreign sect and worship 
Buddha, we will not harm you." To this he made no 
reply, and they cried out, " This man is not willing to 
repent ; throw him into the fire." He was then dragged 
to the chapel, and thrown on to the smouldering ruins 
and perished. His wife fled, and managed to reach her 
sister's home, but was there arrested and brought to the 
city. She was taken to the Yamen, but the official 
would have nothing to do with the case, and she too 
was burned to death in the same place as her husband. 
The eldest son, aged twenty-two, was arrested while 
fleeing, and taken to his village and burned in the ruins 
of his own house. His wife, aged nineteen, fled and hid 
in a cave, but was found and immediately stabbed, and 
then buried before she was really dead. His second 
son, aged fourteen, fled from village to village, pursued 
by the Boxers, and was eventually taken in and pro- 
tected by an uncle. He was so much frightened, however, 
that he was never himself again, gradually wasted 
away, and died in April 1901. Thus, of this family of 
seven, five have laid down their lives for the truth, and 
the two remaining are a girl of seven and a boy of four. 

' But this does not complete the tale of those who 
lost their lives on that dreadful day, July i. Two 
brothers, Yao-Ch'i-heo, aged fifty, and Yao-Ch'i-wang, 
aged forty-four, were at the Christian service in the city, 

story of Wang-hsin 379 

but managed to escape to their own village. They were 
immediately arrested by the local Boxers, their house 
set on fire, and the elder of the two was burned in his 
own home. The younger was taken to the temple of 
the god of war in the city to be tried before a Boxer 
tribunal. It was at first decided that, if he would 
provide fifty swords for the " cause," he would be allowed 
to go free ; but thereupon two Boxers kneeled before 
the chief, and begged that he might be at once killed, 
" because he had done much mischief." Their request 
was granted, and he was handed over to their tender 
mercies. As he was being led along, he said, " This is 
the happiest day of my life." This angered his perse- 
cutors all the more, and as soon as they reached the 
outside of the west gate they set upon him with their 
swords and killed him. 

* On that same day, Kao-Chung-tang's elder brother, 
Kao-Ye-chung, aged fifty-two, their mother, aged seventy, 
and a boy of fifteen, escaped, and reached the outside of 
the city before they were arrested. They were taken to 
a Boxer chief at the village of Li-chia-chwang, and he 
was asked what was to be done to them. " Set fire to 
the house of the Christian Kao-lien-teng, and burn them 
in it " ; and these orders were instantly carried out to 
the letter. 

* Perhaps the most sadly interesting case was that of 
Wang-hsin, aged thirty-three. He was a native of Fan- 
si, and was well known in the city as having formerly 
been a gambler, opium-smoker, and, in fact, a regular 
" black-leg." The genuineness of his conversion was 
manifested by a complete change of life, and though 
not baptized, he was entrusted by the missionaries with 
a few books to sell, and thus became equally well known 
in all the surrounding districts as a Christian. Early in 

380 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

July, he was arrested in the village where he happened 
to be, searched to see if he had any poison on him, and 
all his books burned. Not content with this, his perse- 
cutors set upon him with swords, wounding him seri- 
ously. They then bound him, took him to the city, 
and held a kind of trial in front of the military Yamen. 
Many of the people said to him, " We know you were 
formerly a bad character, but have now reformed ; only 
leave the foreign sect, and you will not be killed." He 
replied, " I have already left the foreign sect " (apparently 
referring to Buddhism), " and now follow the heavenly 
doctrine, reverence the Supreme Ruler (Shang-ti), be- 
lieve in Jesus, and worship the True God. How can 
you say I belong to a foreign sect?" It is said that 
he spoke quite a long time to his persecutors, but 
the Boxer leader said, " This man has evidently been 
poisoned by the foreigners ; what is this he is talking 
about? If we do not kill him, he will certainly do 
mischief." He was immediately taken outside the west 
gate of the city, and there killed in a most barbarous 

'One of the most pathetic cases was those of the 
sisters-in-law, wives of two brothers, Soen-cheng and 
Soen-hsiu, who with two children were burned to death 
in their own house. Their homes were attacked on 
July 2, and all had to flee, but the two women being 
near the time of their confinement were not able to go 
far. The wife of the elder brother was caught in a 
neighbouring village, taken to the temple, bound to a 
tree, and then beaten. The next day she was taken 
back to the temple of her own village, — her own home 
being all in ruins, — and there gave birth to a child, 
which was immediately killed by the inhuman monsters. 
A mock trial was held, and she was asked, " What 

*She ought to be Burned* 381 

poison have you about you with which to do mischief?" 
She bravely replied, " We have left the false and turned 
to the true ; the evil for the good. How have we done 
any mischief? " The leader of the Boxers yelled out, 
" She is not telling the truth, and will not leave the 
foreign sect. She ought to be burned ! " At once the 
part of her own home which was not quite burned was 
rekindled, and she and a little boy of six, who had 
accompanied her all this time, were driven into the 
flames at the point of the sword. 

' The wife of the younger brother was also caught, 
taken back to her own village, and tried by the same 
tribunal. " Have you scattered abroad paper men to 
injure the people of your village?" she was asked. She 
replied, " It is you who kill, burn houses, and do 
mischief, not we." This made the Boxer leader very 
angry, and he said, " This woman ought to be burned 
to death," and she and her little boy of five were both 
driven into the flames like her sister-in law. 

* One other woman, who died from injuries received 
while fleeing from her persecutors, raises the martyr-roll 
of the infant Church at Fan-si to twenty-two. 

'The accounts of these massacres have been given 
both in writing and verbally, and there is every reason 
to believe they are correct. The stories are unvarnished, 
and given as far as possible in the words of the nar- 
rators. That there were not more killed is probably 
due to the fact that, soon after July 9, a proclamation 
was issued, notifying the Christians that if they left 
the Church they should be protected. A great number 
availed themselves of this offer, and, having obtained 
the certificates of protection, returned to their homes, 
to find them pillaged and burned. But the Boxers 
having tasted blood, it was difficult to restrain them, so 

382 Sufferings of the Native Christians 

on August 25 another proclamation was issued, saying 
that the authority to kill was not with the people or 
even the high officials, and after that date if any were 
killed without cause, the murderers would be summarily 


The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

Mr. Fei Chi Hao was the first to bring from the 
province of Shan-si authentic information regarding the 
awful massacres of the year 1900 in that province. 

Mr. Fei was a young man of twenty-four years of 
age, and a graduate of the American Board Mission 
College in T'ung Chou, near Peking, where he learned 
amongst other things to speak English. When his college 
course was completed, he went to T'ai Ku in Shan-si, and 
spent a year and a half in teaching one of the Mission 
schools there. Subsequently he went to Fen Chou Fu, 
and was associated with the missionaries of the 
American Board working in that city, principally as 
assistant to Mr. Price in the boys' school there. He was 
with the missionaries during all the hazardous time 
preceding and almost up to the time of their death, and 
it was only after urgent representations that he was 
persuaded at last to fly for his life and bring the news, 
which was, alas ! subsequently only too fully confirmed. 

The story of his flight is thus told by Mrs. A. H. 
Smith : — 

' As Mr. Fei was riding along in the back of the 
cart along with the missionaries from Fen Chou Fu, 
he noticed a Chinese soldier eyeing him intently. He 
inquired where Fei's home was, and on learning that it 


384 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

was T'ung Chou, he remarked, " Just ride this horse and 
you will soon get there," meaning that he would ride to 
certain death, and then his soul would revert to his 
ancestral home, but Fei did not take it in. Later he 
said, " Such a pity for one so young as you to be 
bewitched and follow foreigners." Another man wanted 
Mr. Fei's boots, but when he objected a third said, 
" Never mind taking them from him ; they will be ours 
in a little while any way." Later, a fourth said plainly, 
" Escape for your life ! We are about to kill the 
foreigners ! " About a mile ahead was a village where 
twenty soldiers were waiting to kill them all. 

* At this place he took his last look at the kind faces 
and left. No words were possible in the presence of 
the guard, but he thinks they saw him go. When he 
had gone a short distance the soldiers stopped him, 
and wanted his money. He protested he had only 
enough for his journey, but gave them his watch. One 
took his boots and gave him instead a wretched old pair 
of shoes, much worn and far too small. He went on 
farther, but they still pursued him ; one seized his queue 
and one held an arm, while they took his silver, all but 
one ounce, left at his pleading. About a mile from the 
village he heard shots fired. The day was very hot, and 
he suffered from violent bleeding at the nose, but at dark 
he arrived at Ping Yao Hsien, whither he went because 
the foreigners were to have been sent there, and he had 
a faint hope they were still living. His clothes had been 
taken from him, and he wore only a small jacket. 
When he thought it over, it was a sorry outlook : he had 
lost his foreign friends. His relatives in Shan-si he 
supposed to be dead. His immediate family were in 
T'ung Chou, hundreds of miles away. He had no clothes, 
no bedding, and almost no money. 





[Sec pp. 359 and 383. 

Returns to Fen Chou Fu 385 

* On the second day he decided to return to Fen 
Chou Fu, to learn with certainty the fate of his friends, 
and get a h'ttle money for his journey. A cart was 
going; he cnanged his one ounce of silver and paid 
the man four hundred cash. When they had made 
half the journey they stopped at an inn, that the 
animals might rest. Here he learned details more 
than enough. Mr. Fei was sorely perplexed and 
troubled, and thought of leaving the cart and running 
away. Finally, he prayed earnestly for guidance, and 
God showed him he was to go back to Fen Chou Fu at 
all costs. He arrived there at 8 p.m., crept cautiously 
by a back street to the house of a church member, 
who was startled enough at his appearance. Here he 
learned more details. He must move on. It was a 
dangerous place for a Christian. Mr. Fei's host, for ten 
years in service of foreigners as a courier, must fly him- 
self. At daylight they left the city, hoping no one 
would recognise Mr. Fei. They were startled by one 
man's observing to him, " I am glad you got away. 
They killed the foreigners ; you get quickly into some 
little village and hide." Going out two miles he found 
a poor Christian, who went to a relative and pawned an 
ornament, raising fifteen hundred cash, which he gave 
him, with an old garment and his dinner, and then 
hurried him away. He left them cold with fright over 
the fearful news he brought. 

' After two days he arrived at T'ai Ku. A teacher, 
Kung, told him the details. He was not a Christian, but 
had a nephew in the T'ung Chou College. He said to 
Mr. Fei, " You have known missionaries for many years 
in T'ung Chou and here. Tell me, if they have done 
nothing outrageous, why all on a sudden does every 
one wish to exterminate them ? They must have done 

2,S6 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

some evil." To this Mr. Fei replied, " I have known 
them well and long, and they have done no wrong. 
You must not judge things as they appear now. 
Wait till later on." 

'This man's nephew had two letters in his hands 
written by the foreigners. He was in hiding. Early in 
the troubles at T'ai Ku, Mr. Kung had written a letter to 
the Church urging them to fly to the hills. Mr. Clapp and 
all the rest had horses saddled ready to go, but teacher 
Liu had said," I will not fly. Outside everywhere there are 
Boxers, and God can take care of us as well in one place 
as another. I shall stay and die here." So they all gave 
up. Teacher Kung said to Mr. Fei, " Don't be bewitched 
any longer. Leave the foreigners, come back and wor- 
ship your own gods, for you can see for yourself, after 
what has happened, that it is they that have the real 

' Mr. Fei was too dismayed and heartsick to talk to 
him more, but implored help to leave. Mr. Kung was well 
off; had four or five servants. He, his mother and wife, 
smoked several hundred taels' worth of opium a year. 
He gave Mr. Fei fifteen hundred cash and an old 
garment. Later that day he arrived at Yu Tzu Hsien, 
and heard that a month or more earlier the Boxers had 
killed over a hundred church members there. 

*At Sou Yang Hsien he passed the foreign house 
and chapel. Dumb, silent, dreary, and desolate, they 
stood, windowless, doorless, and a donkey was tied 
within God's house. The missionaries had gone to 

' Mr. Fei could not understand the wonderful strength 
that came to him on this journey ; such as he had never 
known before. On the difficult mountain road he was 
able to do over thirty miles a day, and even then it took 

* In Peril from his Countrymen ' 387 

him five days. It was very hot in the day, but very cold 
at night. He could not lie down at night, as he had no 
bedding and his legs grew cold, so he sat all night 
drawn up in a shivering heap. Not one familiar face 
did he see. People at the inns would not keep a 
suspicious-looking tramp who had not an ounce of 
baggage. He felt, on looking back on it, that a thousand 
taels would be no inducement to travel over that road 
again in such a manner. 

' When he got to Huai Lu Hsien, Governor Yu Hsien 
and two thousand soldiers were there. He hoped much 
to see some China Inland missionaries there, but found 
that the Governor had arrested the Green family and 
Miss Gregg and sent them to Cheng Ting Fu. Every day 
as he passed between Huai Lu Hsien and Pao Ting Fu, 
he met countless hordes of Tung Fu Hsiang's troops and 
other soldiers, escaping after their defeat. They marched 
along, looting all the way, but poor Fei in his absolute 
destitution had nothing to fear. He had nowhere to 
sleep or to buy food, as the soldiers had seized all the 

* At Cheng Ting Fu the soldiers kept all the gates 
closely barred, for fear of the looting, marauding hordes 
from without. He waited an hour, then, there being no 
soldiers about, the thirty civilians were allowed to enter, 
and the gates were at once closed again. He went to 
the large Catholic cathedral, and found there a bishop, 
three priests, five foreign sisters, five railroad people, and 
others ; in all nineteen foreigners. The Catholics furnished 
him clothing and food, and were exceedingly kind. 
Among the guests were Mr. and Mrs. Griffith and baby 
and Mr. Brown of the C.I.M. They spent two or three 
hours in earnest, wistful talk, they sympathising with 
him. They told him they had been in hiding twenty 

388 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

days ; a crowd of a hundred people had mobbed them ; 
their clothing had been taken, and all their money except 
five ounces of silver. They had had fearful hardships 
in travelling. They had walked ten miles in the middle 
of the night. Mrs. Griffith had been ill. Her husband 
supported her as well as he could, and Mr. Brown 
carried the baby. An official had sent them away on 
carts to another district. The official at that place was 
kind, and gave them money and clothes. They were 
finally sent to Cheng Ting Fu, and the official asked the 
Roman Catholic bishop to receive and care for them. 
These troubles brought Protestant and Catholic together, 
there and elsewhere, as nothing ever has before in all 
these years in China. 

' The official would not let Boxers into the city, but 
they knew their danger was not past. They longed 
to give Mr. Fei letters, but did not venture, as five 
couriers had been killed near there. They wished a 
message to be sent to an English official of their state 
and danger. Later, Mr. Fei was able to comply with this 
request. The bishop gave Mr. Fei one thousand cash. 
Mr. Brown wished that Mr. Fei might tarry longer, but 
duty pressed, so they shook hands and parted. That day, 
besides his visit to them, he travelled over thirty miles, 
and his feet were made very painful with blisters. 

*At Ting Chou, fifty miles from Pao Ting Fu, he 
found the railway still running ; if he had had some 
money, he could have rested his tired feet. It was a long 
train ; many baggage cars were being used to trans- 
port Chinese soldiers and horses to Ting Chou. Two 
thousand men were said to have come on that train. 
He trudged ten miles more, then boarded the cars and 
offered a sum for a ride ; was curtly informed that there 
were no tickets and the cars were run for the army, and 

Reaches Pao Ting Fu 389 

so was put off. He and the other evicted civilians each 
crept stealthily into a different baggage car and lay 
down. No one noticed them till within a few miles 
of Pao Ting Fu, where the train stopped for some 
trifling repairs. There a track - tender saw them, 
demanded money, reviled and beat them. Fei fled, 
leaving the others in the man's clutches. 

' Arrived at Pao Ting Fu, he entered by the west 
gate and left by the south. The city was all in a hot 
racket, swarming with defeated troops from Peking. He 
hired one-third of a t'sang, or compartment, in a boat 
for eight hundred cash. They were so crowded that it 
was difficult to turn over at night, but that had at least 
the advantage of making them a little warmer. In Pao 
Ting Fu he went to a shop to change his remaining 
ounce of silver, and asked the news. " The foreigners 
were all killed and their houses burned." " Where are 
you from ? " " Shan-si." " How about the foreigners 
there ? " " They are all killed and their houses burned." 
" It was the will of Heaven," said the man complacently. 
" The will of Heaven," echoed Fei, but with how 
different a meaning ! 

' The boat was loaded with defeated soldiers and two 
Boxers. Whenever the boat stopped where there were 
Boxers, these two got off, introduced themselves, drank 
tea, were well treated and given a card introducing them 
to the next Boxer camp. Very like living over the 
mouth of the pit was that journey. They gambled, 
reviled, quarrelled, and fought. In his compartment was 
a soldier, better than the rest, and an old man hunting for 
his soldier son. Fei hardly left his retreat all the way, as 
he did not wish to talk to any one. He saw many boats 
loaded with Boxers, with their swords and gay sashes. 
Once a great horde of them came close to him as the 

390 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

two boats stopped, but God filled his heart with a great 
peace. The rain poured down day after day. It leaked 
through the boards and wetted them. He lay on stalks, 
which cut into him unmercifully. 

* One day it was very cold, and they could not go on, 
and the ennui and long suspense were unendurable. He 
stretched himself out wearily, and, before he thought 
what he was doing, said aloud in English, " Oh dear, 
dear ! " He quaked with apprehension, but no one had 
heard him. Boats dared not go below Tu Liu. There 
he hired a little boat for two hundred cash, the very last 
money he had, as there were two days they could not 
travel, and, alas ! he had to eat whether it rained or not. 
The last day he had nothing to eat. He longed to 
snatch something as others were eating, but controlled 
himself and refrained. 

' He arrived at Tien-tsin just before the gates closed, 
just fifteen days from Fen Chou Fu. He saw French 
soldiers, Russians, Sikhs, Japanese, and at last an 
American, who took him to his captain. He was a kind 
man, and made him sit down to tell his story. He 
showed the officer his bit of blue cloth,^ and told his sad 
tale. The thoughtful officer ordered rice and bread, and 
he had a full meal at last. Four soldiers then took him 
to three officials in the Yamen outside the city, where 
the weary soul was kept standing two hours answering 
questions. At eleven o'clock, wearied out and longing 
to go to bed, he was taken down Tzu Chu Liu, three 
miles farther, with a soldier. At twelve o'clock at night 
he faced a British officer there, who humanely dismissed 
him to bed. It was well for him that he had walked the 
three miles, for kind Mr. Dickinson was the host of this 

^A piece of cloth given him by Mr. Price, with the words written in 
blood, ' What this man says is true.^ 

In Safety at Tien-tsin 391 

official. He made such a bed of nice clean blankets and 
wraps that Mr. Fei felt as if he was in heaven. Next 
day Mr. Tenny and Dr. Porter and Mrs. Smith of 
the Tien-tsin Times had a long interview, and wrote 
down what he said, but made him sit and treated him as 
a friend. As he was ragged and forlorn and without 
stockings, he ventured to ask his kind host for a little 
help, hoping for a dollar or two. What were his surprise 
and joy to be given twenty dollars ! The English Consul 
questioned him for an hour. An English official wished 
him to go to Wei-Hai-Wei with him as interpreter; 
he would receive $30.00 a month and his food and 
clothes ; but duty still stood at the helm of his barque. 
He must not do aught else until he had learned the fate 
of his family at T'ung Chou. He went up to see his 
Chinese friends at the American Board Mission. When 
they saw him, ragged, dirty, stockingless, and with long 
hair, his schoolmates and friends were much moved, 
some of them to tears. He tarried and rested six or 
seven days, then thought he would seek his old teacher, 
Mr. Tewksbury, and ask his advice, after attending to 
his family affairs. 

* He was sent to T'ung Chou on a boat with a 
military official, and they were seven or eight days on 
the journey, as the water was high owing to the heavy 
rains of the season. Mr. Fei felt sure the official was 
not a Christian, for he drank much, smoked much, 
kicked his Hindu servant and the boatman, and talked 
in a yell. Every day at noon he took some soldiers, 
left the boat, and went off to villages to loot whatever 
they pleased. Among these things were three donkeys, 
one mule, three carts, some sheep, and a hundred 
chickens. At one place they found a rich old man. 
Every one else had fled. They demanded money. He 

392 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

said he had none. They found many swords and some 
red cloth, and charged him with being a Boxer. He 
denied, but they shot him and took all his things. The 
officer was very imperious to Mr. Fei, calling "John" 
in tones of thunder whenever he wanted him. One 
dark night he made him go a mile through the mud and 
overtake another boat to get a plate. 

' On nearing T'ung Chou, Mr. Fei left the boat and 
eagerly sought his village home. He found a desolate 
heap of ruins, and the whole village deserted. A man 
going out of the back gate heard him, and began to run. 
His heart told him it must be his brother. He called 
his name, and the man at once turned back, and the two, 
long parted, wept together a long time. His brother 
was in great fear. Once a Hindu had come and im- 
pressed him to work, dragging him off by the queue at 
a time when he chanced to have no upper garment on. 
He was forced to pull a boat, a kind of work he had 
never done before. It was hard work, and the board for 
tracking cut his chest cruelly. They would not allow 
him to come on the boat to sleep nor warm himself by 
the fire, and although he had enough to eat he was paid 
nothing for his work. 

' Mr. Fei also went to his elder brother's house. The 
brother was not at home ; he had become a Boxer. All 
the family had fled in abject terror of the frightful 
Hindu soldiery, who impressed the men and outraged 
the women, old and young indiscriminately. Five 
women were killed because they made some resistance. 
" It was China's recompense," he said sadly, thinking of 
what the Boxers had done to foreigners. 

* His sister-in-law was still there, because she was 
a paralytic, and could not fly. In July the Chinese 
soldiers had killed one man and looted everybody. 

Sufferings of his Family 393 

Every one ran away, her husband among the rest. She 
had no one to give her anything to eat or drink, so she 
crept to the river bank to end her griefs there. A 
Chinese soldier exhorted her not to die, and she thought 
better of it, and toilfully went back home again. After 
three or four days her husband came back. She had 
cried until she could with difficulty see, and he hardly 
recognised her. He tried to comfort her. He and his 
son brought her something to eat in the daytime, but 
for a month they went to a place of safety four miles 
away for the night. Again and again during her 
agonising suspense she saw the dreadful foreign soldiers 
come into the yard, but the house was little and dark 
and looked deserted, and they went away, never dis- 
covering her. She heard the foreign bugles and shots 


* She was a thrifty, shrewd housekeeper once, and 
managed well for her husband, but had been very 
ungrateful and undutiful to her kind mother-in-law, and 
the neighbours saw in her suffering the will of Heaven. 
She said, " If my father and mother-in-law had lived, 
I would not have been left alone to suffer so." She 
seemed much moved at Mr. Fei's appearance. He told 
them about the sister in Shan-si, and they told him 
that his wife's maternal grandfather and grandmother. 
Christians, were killed by the Boxers. 

' Mrs. Fei had been a dull girl, and would not '' learn 
the doctrine " at all when he married her. She was a 
great burden on his heart. After he got to Shan-si, 
after earnest prayer, even from that great distance he 
succeeded in getting her into the Bridgman School, 
where her mind was awakened and she had her feet 
unbound. He saw her with the others that night, but, 
true to Chinese etiquette, did not say a word to her. 

394 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

How glad the poor woman must have been even to 
see him ! The grandfather and mother who brought 
her up had been killed by the Boxers ; the kind 
mother-in-law was gone, and she was left to the care 
of a termagant sister-in-law. 

'Before the death of Mr. Fei's father and mother, 
the village bully, a Mr. Li, who was friendly with the 
Feis, promised the son to forewarn him if the Boxers 
came to kill the old folks, so that they might outwit 
the Boxers by suicide, and so have a decent burial from 
friends. The Boxers were very strict about not 
allowing burial to their victims. Where his wife's 
grandmother was killed in a lonely spot outside the 
village, a daughter besought leave to bury her, but was 
sternly refused, they not even allowing her to wrap her 
in a mat. There were many carrion crows about, and 
so by and by there was nothing but bones left, and 
these the dogs dragged away until not one was left. 

'On June 19, the bully, Mr. Li, sent word that the 
Boxers would be there early next morning, and the 
old folks must think of some way to die. Was there 
ever so perplexed and sorrowful a family council in 
all the eighteen provinces as that which sat down to 
determine how grandma and grandpa should end their 
lives? The second brother wanted to fly with them. 
The elder brother and uncle said it was no use ; they 
were hemmed in everywhere by Boxers. The uncle 
wanted to buy some opium for them to take, but 
grandma knew that was a hard death, and would not 
go out of life by that door. One suggested that they 
hang themselves, but the thoughtful housemother said, 
" No, that would make the room where we did it for 
ever unendurable to the rest of you ; we will not do 
that." She suggested that they drown themselves in 

Sufferings of his Family 395 

a pit. In this last sad family council there were two 
sons, three sons' wives, four granddaughters, and two 
grandsons. Mrs. Fei loved them, and thought also 
tenderly of the absent boy in Shan-si, whom she 
supposed was dead. They could, perhaps, live, for few 
of them were Christians. She thought of the helpless 
ones. Mr. Fei's little wife, whom she supposed she 
was leaving a widow, must have a son. One of the 
other brothers must give her one. The second son 
she charged to be kind to his paralysed wife. The 
wife, remember, had been unfilial and ungrateful to 

* The family sat in tears. They could not bear the 
parting, but it had to come. The night was wearing 
away, and the Boxers came betimes on their errands. 
The uncle, the eldest son, the bully Mr. Li, the headman 
or constable, and ten neighbours escorted them. The 
broken-hearted father at once ended the life that had 
grown so hopeless. The eldest son was so moved at 
the sight, he wept and would have followed his father, 
but the neighbours firmly held him back ; he was not 
a Christian, he need not die. His mother sat thinking 
wistfully of her children, especially of her " little 
Benjamin " in Shan-si, so dear to her mother heart. 
She sang hymn after hymn. At last the uncle became 
impatient, fearing the Boxers might come and find her, 
and he pushed her in. Later, the neighbours fished 
out their dead bodies and covered them with a mat. 

' On the bully's warning, the second brother, who 
was a Christian, and his son, and Mr. Fei's young 
wife, hid in a hole a day and a night, with nothing 
to eat. At daylight the dreaded Boxers came. The 
eldest brother and the neighbours knocked their heads 
on the ground to them, and told them the father and 

96 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

mother were truly dead. Then the brother burned 
incense and worshipped the Boxers. They wished to 
burn the houses, but the neighbours begged off, lest 
their houses should also catch fire, and helped the 
Boxers to pull it down instead. Then all the timbers, 
doors, and windows were hauled to the Boxers' altar. 
They either used such things or disposed of them as 
they pleased. The uncle, eldest brother, and the 
neighbours who were his parents' warm friends, kow- 
towed once more, and begged for burial for the old 
folks. The request was granted. The uncle borrowed 
two coffins, and, promising to pay later, buried them at 
once. But the Boxers would not permit a tear or a 
sound of mourning, or a particle of mourning attire. 
The family were to maintain a cheerful demeanour, as 
if to show that the deaths were just and deserved. 
Sympathising neighbours wept in secret. 

* While the family told this story, all four of them 
cried bitterly, but Fei's sister-in-law stopped them, 
saying, "If the Boxers hear you, they will come back 
and kill us yet." It was dangerous to tarry there, as 
the foreign soldiers continually came to this village 
and impressed men to work. The second brother must 
take them to the village four miles away. Mr. Fei 
pitied his poor sister-in-law, dirty and ragged, with 
bare feet, and begged that she might go with his wife. 
The others said, " No ; folks would not stand it to have 
six folks come." She cried and begged, and Mr. Fei 
entreated and carried the day. They carried her in a 
basket part of the way, and then on their backs. The 
elder brother was very much emaciated with grief for 
his father and mother, and lame from a bruise. 

* Arrived at their relatives', they were afraid to talk 
or cry, though their hearts were so full. The air was 

He reaches Peking 397 

still murky with danger. He met his aunt after his two 
years' absence with a brief word and a silent obe.sance. 
One niece, at sight of him and at thought of the desolate 
home he had found, wailed out, but her father stormed 
at her and she became quiet. 

' The little five-year-old child of the paralytic woman, 
who now saw her mother for the first time in a month, 
cried bitterly. At the time that the foreign troops came 
and the family fled, this child and two other little girls, 
also Mr. Fei's nieces, got lost and fled by themselves ten 
miles, but were finally found by their friends. As there 
were nearly one thousand Boxers only two miles from 
this village, Fei and his second brother hurried on that 
same day to T'ung Chou. He went on to Peking^n 
company with an official, to be safe on the road. He 
and his brother were ordered to take in charge a donkey 
and four sheep. Alas for our poor college boy I Shep- 
herding was new work to him. The sheep scampered 
in various directions; he had to haul them along. In 
racing after them he got very wet, and whenever the 
sheep would not go the Sikhs beat Fei with their guns, 
until he actually cried with vexation and weariness 
He asked God to help him, and went and besought the 
official to interfere. He at once put the sheep on a 
waggon, and gave Mr. Fei the more docile donkey to 
manage It seemed to him and his brother that day, 
^at although they had escaped the Boxers they were 
to die of four sheep and a Sikh. 

■ As he came in the Ha Ta gate of Peking, heespied 
his old friend and instructor, Mr. Tewksbury, with Mr 
Smith After he had taken the donkey home he returned 
to them, and to his friends the Church members, who 
wept over him. At last he had arrived '" / have" of 
peace, surrounded by those who knew and loved his 

398 The Story of Mr. Fei Chi Hao 

lost ones. His wife was rescued and brought there. 
After the passing of this fierce storm, the white dove of 
peace spreads her wings over his life once more, but 
sometimes such a great tidal wave of sorrow for his 
father and mother, and of intense longing for them, 
sweeps over him, that, as he says, " If I were not Jesus' 
disciple, I should end my life. But I have a great hope. 
As I look back I see how marvellously God preserved 
me. It is like a flight of terraces. He led me up higher 
and higher, out of that awful month-long night into the 
light of to-day." 

* God did not so wonderfully save him for naught. 
May this preserved life accomplish His will ! " Whom 
the Lord loveth, He chasteneth, and scourgeth every 
son whom He receiveth." ' 


The Story of a Recantation 

♦ And when he thought thereon, he wept.' 

The Rev. J. P. Bruce, B.A., of the Baptist Mission, 
Shantung, has recorded the following incident :— 

'While in Japan, in the summer of 1900, we heard 
of the persecution that had come like a tornado upon 
our native Church. And as we thought of that Church 
bereft of those on whom they had been wont to 
depend perhaps all too much, we began to ask ourselves 
the question, which doubtless arose in the hearts of many 
of our sympathisers at home, " How will the native 
Christians stand ? " 

*We could not but fear for many, but our hearts 
were equally assured concerning some, that Christ was 
dearer to them than life ; and we said to one another, 
Whatever others may do, we can be sure that the two 
pastors— Wang Pao-t'ai and Wang Ming— will stand 
true. They were men whose manifest spirituality had 
given us great joy. It may be imagined, then, with what 
incredulity we received the news that Wang Ming and 
Wang Pao-t'ai had, in the name of the whole Ching- 
chou Fu Church, publicly recanted ! And yet subsequent 
letters repeated the story, with the further information 
that all the four pastors had taken this step, until it 
seemed as if there was no further room for doubt. 


400 The Story of a Recantation 

Gradually our incredulity gave way to sorrow and 
perplexity. " How can this be? " was the question. As 
soon as I was able, I returned to Chefoo. 

' When I reached Chefoo, I found that the story was 
confirmed so far as the shell was concerned, but the 
kernel of it was still to be discovered. The mystery — 
for mystery it could not but be — still needed explana- 
tion. A letter had been written from Chefoo to the 
pastors about the matter, referring to the report that 
they had led the whole Church in a public recantation. 
To this a reply had been received, saying that no one in 
the area concerned had recanted except four, and the 
four were the undersigned, i,e. the pastors themselves ; 
" the sin was ours, and ours alone," said they. 

* In order to be clearer, it may perhaps be better to 
explain one or two points in connection with the con- 
stitution of our Chinese Church in Ching-chou Fu. The 
total membership is about one thousand six hundred ; 
this number being mostly composed of small groups 
scattered over ninety stations in various villages and 
towns within a radius of about fifteen or twenty miles 
from Ching-chou Fu. These stations are grouped into 
six pastoral districts, under the spiritual oversight of four 
native pastors and two elders, with a missionary (myself) 
exercising general supervision of the whole. 

* I felt that I could not believe anything, still less 
utter a word of reproof, on the strength of any reports 
that reached us, or even letters from the pastors them- 
selves. I wrote a private letter to them, telling them 
how almost impossible it was to believe even what they 
themselves had written ; that I, who had known them 
these ten years, could not question their love to their 
Lord, nor their willingness to die for Him, and begged 
them not for one moment to doubt my love for them, 

Pastor Wang Ming^s Story 401 

whatever might have occurred. I told them I felt sure 
there must be some cause for their action which I did 
not yet know, and finally asked them to come to Chefoo 
as soon as possible, that we might see one another and 
talk it all over face to face. 

' They came immediately. Wang Pao-t'ai's mother 
was aged and very ill ; another of the pastors, Wu 
Chien-ch'eng, had but recently lost his mother ; but on 
receipt of my letter they felt they could not refuse to 
come to see me, and so I was able to hear the story from 
their own lips. 

' It was as follows -.—Shortly after the missionaries 
left, the edict to exterminate all "foreigners" and 
Christians was received by the officials in Ching-chou Fu, 
and a proclamation to the same effect was posted up in 
the city. Pastor Wang Ming, on receiving news of this 
from a school teacher who had been into the city, left 
his village home, to ascertain for himself the exact state 
of affair's. At a neighbouring village he received the 
intelligence that another proclamation had been issued, 
that, if Christians recanted and found sureties, they 
would be unmolested. He also received letters, saying 
that warrants were on the point of being issued for the 
arrest of those who refused to recant. Thereupon Wang 
Ming went into the city with the object of making what 
arrangements he could for the help of those who might 
be arrested, to see that they were provided with food, 
and counselled as to their action. Subsequently, he 
learned that it was the intention of the official to arrest 
one man from each station, and force him to recant on 
behalf of all the Christians in his Church. 

' When he reached the city, it was strongly urged 
upon him that the pastors should petition the officials to 
allow the Christians to come in of their own accord and 

402 The Story of a Recantation 

voluntarily recant, Instead of under arrest. This would 
prevent the families being involved in suffering. This, 
Wang Ming could not agree to. From another quarter 
he received a message. It was from one of the heathen 
gentry, who for many years had been friendly to us, and 
who now wrote offering his services, and suggesting that 
the pastors, on behalf of the whole Church, should burn 
incense to one of the idols ; the officials in consideration 
thereof to stay all proceedings against the Christians. 
This also Wang Ming hastened to decline, politely 
but emphatically. The next day, an official in the 
magistrate's Yamen volunteered his good offices, and, 
after various proposals, said if the pastors would sign 
a document undertaking " no longer to practise the 
foreign religion," no action would be taken against the 

' By this time. Pastor Wu, with General Deacon 
Wang Hsi-yo and some Christian teachers, were in the 
city, and they consulted together as to what was to be 
done. Pastor Wang Pao-t'ai (who was first reported to 
us as being one of the active participators) was at home 
ill, but sent a letter saying he would agree to whatever 
the others decided to do. Pastor Nieh had been driven 
out of his home in the neighbouring county of Lin-chih 
by the persecution of the magistrate there, and was gone 
away into hiding among the hills. The responsibility 
of decision therefore rested with the two pastors — 
Wang Ming and Wu Chien-ch'eng — with the General 
Deacon and the Christian teachers who were in the city. 

* Here, then, were the facts of the situation : the pro- 
clamation ordering the extermination of" foreigners " and 
all connected with them ; the second proclamation that 
Christians were to be forced to recant ; warrants already 
written to arrest one from every station, opening the 

Christianity a Foreign Religion 403 

door to indiscriminate looting and murder. Many 
heathen, eager for the opportunity of plundering with 
impunity, were hurrying in from the country to buy the 
warrants from the police ; the home of one Christian 
had been already looted and two women servants killed ; 
another Christian had been wounded so severely that 
he was not expected to live. Worst of all was the 
possibility, only too sadly real, that some of the 
Christians here as elsewhere, unable to withstand the 
fierce ordeal, would recant. 

' Two things ought to be said here in justice to our 
brethren. First, the whole point of the demand^ to 
recant was that they were giving up a foreign religion. 
This is shown by the fact that in the proclamations 
announcing the recantation, the expression used was 
that they had returned to their position as Chinese 
subjects. Now, our brethren do not recognise the faith 
they profess as "foreign," but as from God, for all 
peoples. This was one element in the subtlety of their 
temptation. The other thing that ought to be re- 
membered is, that there was a way of escape open to the 
pastors personally. Only one member (the leader) was 
to be called in from each station, and in no case would 
this member be the pastor. They are pastors of districts, 
not leaders of stations, and in any case they had sufficient 
warning to escape into a district where they would have 
been safe. But they felt that they could not free them- 
selves from the responsibility ; that at all costs they 
must stand by their people— stand between them and 
the danger that threatened them. 

* Here, then, was the alternative : on the one hand, to 
take on themselves the disgrace of outward and nominal 
recantation; on the other, to look upon the sufferings 
and death or recantation of many of their people. Was 

404 The Story of a Recantation 

it not better, they asked, that four men should go 
through the form of recanting, and prevent this sin, this 
suffering and loss of life ? For the pastors were made to 
understand that it was simply a form, a legal fiction, 
not affecting in the least the religion of their hearts 
or of their homes, and even thus it was only to be a 
temporary expedient, that the magistrate might have 
a pretext for giving his protection to the Christians. 
They were not to engage in any idolatrous rite ; they 
were not to appear before the officials and make any 
public apostasy, but simply to sign the document with 
the one sentence, " No longer to practise the foreign 
religion." " So far from recanting," it was urged upon 
them, ''you are preventing recanting." 

' Their decision may be best given in the words of 
Pastor Wu Chien-ch'eng: "When I thought of these 
people," he said, his emotion being so great that the 
tears were running down his face, " in most cases with 
children and aged parents dependent upon them, and 
thought of all that was involved for them if I refused to 
sign the paper, well, I couldn't help it. I decided to 
take on myself the shame and the sin." 

' I have told the story as nearly as possible as they 
told it to me, and have tried to reproduce the situation 
as they saw it at the time. Who could listen to such a 
narrative — so sad and painful, and yet not without much 
that was noble — without sympathy and tears? One 
could not look into their faces without pain. Instead of 
the usual bright, affectionate, and frank expression, they 
seemed to be almost cowed, and yet with a half-wistful, 
half-challenging look, as if to say, " Were we not right 
to do wrong for such a cause ? " But with the pain there 
was one thought that gave comfort. Though our 
brethren had failed in the hour of trial, they had taken 

The Case of the Pastors 


this step not to save themselves, but for the sake of 

' And better than all else, they had not ceased to 
love their Master, even though they had outwardly 
denied Him. If only they could realise how much they 
had wounded Him, there would not be wanting such 
penitence as should turn this failure into rich blessing, 
For it was not possible to be blind to the fact that, 
whatever the officials might say about legal fiction, and 
however our brethren might try to explain the matter to 
themselves, they had publicly, and in the name of the 
Church, made a formal renunciation of their religion. 
And this, whatever the circumstances, and whatever the 
noble motive, was dishonour to their Lord. To shut 
one's eyes to this, and not to mention it, was to be 
unreal, and inevitably to do injury to the very men we 
longed to help. I felt, therefore, that I dare not do 
other than frankly and faithfully, though as tenderly and 
lovingly as I could, point out to them their sin, and 
where it seemed to me they had erred. 

' Here let me say a word or two as to the point 
of view from which I acted. As pastors, elected and 
supported by the Church, they are responsible to the 
Church. The question of what the Church would do was 
one for the further consideration of the Church itself. 
But the affectionate intercourse of years made me 
anxious to counsel them from the point of view of their 
own heart-relationship to their Lord, as I would wish 
some brother in Christ to counsel me in like circum- 
stances. Our brethren had a load on their hearts, a 
sense of disgrace, an agony of doubt as to their action. 
What did they need, that the load might be lifted, and 
peace and joy fill the heart once more? So far as I 
have learned from the Word of God and the experience 

4o6 The Story of a Recantation 

of my own heart, there was only one way : let them 
realise their sin as sin, not exaggerating it, yet not 
minimising it. Let them with real sorrow confess it to 
God, and the consciousness of His forgiveness and love 
would fill them with peace and joy, such as whatever 
they might suffer at the hands of others could not lessen. 
If they were conscious of being right with God, it would 
matter little to them what others thought, said, or did. 
This was my one desire. As for their responsibility to 
the Church, I knew that, once they were brought into a 
right relationship with God in the matter, they would 
find it easy enough to do anything their consciences 
dictated in that direction. But the first and foremost 
necessity was that, in the secret of their own hearts, 
they should realise what they had done, not as bring- 
ing disgrace on the Church, not as something that 
their teachers the missionaries condemned, but as sin 
against their Lord. "Against Thee, Thee only, have 
I sinned." 

* But this would come about, not by any arguments 
of mine, but by the gracious influence of the Divine 
Spirit and the teaching of God's Word. So I determined 
that all our talk should be with the Scriptures before 
us, and at our Master's feet. Day by day we met for 
prayer and Bible study. The passages chosen were not 
such as the story of Peter's denial. I rather desired to 
draw their minds away from that aspect of it for a time, 
and, avoiding ready-made expressions, such as recanting, 
denial of Christ, get below the surface to the heart of 
what was involved in their action — call it by whatever 
name you like — and to realise something of the purposes 
of God in what seemed to them so dark and inscrutable. 
So we studied such passages as the eleventh chapter of 
Hebrews, Romans the eighth chapter, and those parts of 

Grief over their Weakness 407 

Revelation which present, in a panorama of visions, the 
sufferings and victory of God's Church. 

* It was not long before they began to realise that 
God had His purpose, a purpose of infinite love, in the 
sufferings of His people, hard as it was to understand 
and harrowing to look upon ; and that there were times 
when, if God spared them physical suffering, it would be 
to rob them of spiritual blessing. We talked of the 
persecutions of past ages, and what they had done for 
the Church ; of how the story of those martyred ones in 
Shan-si would go down from generation to generation ; 
would become a household word in Christian homes, 
and enter into the bone and marrow of Christian 
character, as the story of Ridley and Latimer had done 
in England. As they came to realise this element in 
God's purposes, they began to see what their conduct 
involved. When we were reading the eighth chapter of 
Paul's Epistle to the Romans, Wang Ming said he now 
saw that, when they tried to save the people by recanta- 
tion, they had lost sight of the fact that persecution, and 
even death, could not separate them from Christ's love. 

* Of course there were other aspects of their conduct 
which we talked of freely, but this seemed to take hold 
of them most forcibly. They saw clearly that cheir 
recantation implied want of faith in Christ's love of 
His people, as well as in His power to save them, as 
though there were no other way in which He could 
protect His flock than for these His servants to publicly 
dishonour Him, or that if He did not deliver His people 
it meant that He had forsaken them, and that His love 
had failed them. There was now no avoidance of the 
word " recant " or " deny." Again and again in prayer, 
with voices broken with emotion, they made confession of 
their sin to their Heavenly Father. 

4o8 The Story of a Recantation 

' Later, when speaking of what they could do to 
counteract the ill effects of their conduct, they said that 
one thing they could and would do : they would, in 
every station, confess the sin of what they had done as 
against their brethren as well as against their Lord. 

* It was a matter of deep thankfulness to see the 
manifest working of God's Holy Spirit in them, both 
in their penitent grief and in their growing joy of 
forgiveness. But there was one thing on my mind 
which I hesitated for some days to speak of. I felt 
that, whatever the Church might ultimately decide to do, 
it would be for the pastors' own peace of mind to resign 
their position, and so put themselves right with their 
brethren. I had hoped that they themselves would 
think of this, but the time had nearly come for them to 
return, and they had said nothing. I felt sure, from 
their whole demeanour, that it was not because they 
shrank from such a step, — that it must be because, 
inexperienced in some things which are familiar to us 
in the West, it had not occurred to them. I could not 
bear the thought of anything remaining between us that 
was not frankly stated. I therefore told them what I 
felt, a morning or two before they left, explaining that I 
spoke not as having authority, but simply as a friend, 
and as I would wish a friend to speak to me ; nor was 
it, I told them, from the point of view of the Church, but 
from their own point of view, and because I desired 
there should be nothing to hinder their perfect peace. 

' To my surprise, instead of a shadow of pain over- 
clouding their faces, those of Wang Pao-t'ai and Wu 
Chien-ch'eng immediately lighted up, with evident eager- 
ness to speak. And then they told me that for days 
they had felt in the same way as I, but had hesitated to 
speak, not feeling sure what was the right thing to do. 

Submission to the Church 409 

Wang Ming then took a letter from his pocket and 
handed it to me, saying that, like the others, he had 
several days before felt that, though I had not said 
any word of condemnation, he felt self-condemned, and 
that the fault was one that, in the highest interests of 
the Church in other parts of China, as well as m Chmg- 
chou Fu, ought not to be passed over. Fearmg that 
to say this personally would give me pam, he had 
written it in a letter. The decided manner in which 
he spoke made me ask the question. Did they mean 
that, from that time, they would cease to act as pastors, 
no matter what the Church might decide ? They replied, 
No ; in the present state of things, they must continue 
to act until the troubles had passed. To leave the 
Church without leaders at such a crisis, and when the 
Church was in such need, would be evidence rather of 
hardness than of genuine penitence. But they wished 
me to understand that they gave in their resignations 
now, and asked that, when the proper time came, these 
resignations should be brought before the Church. The 
subject was indeed painful, but we were all happy m 
the thought that we had been led by the Spirit to the 
same conclusion. Whether the Church would accept 
their resignation it was not for me to say; it was, 
however, helpful to remember that our Lord restored 
Peter to office within forty days. At any rate, we may 
thank God fervently for the grace that enabled our 
brethren to face sacrifice in the reality of their re- 

' When the morning came for their departure, their 
faces were very different from those we had looked 
upon when they came. Going back to humble them- 
selves before their flocks, by confession and by resigna- 
tion, there was yet an air of triumph about them that 

4IO The Story of a Recantation 

made our own hearts glad. And we magnified the 
grace of God in them.' 

The foregoing narrative would lose some of its interest 
and point if the sequel were not given. The events 
already detailed occurred in the summer and autumn of 
1900. The pastors and deacon returned to their homes 
and work, and during the succeeding winter remained 
loyally at their posts. It was not till the following 
spring that two of the missionaries were able to return 
to Ching-chou Fu and begin the work of reconstruction. 
Mr. Bruce as soon as possible called the stewards of the 
Church together, and the subject of recantation and the 
action of the pastors was the first and most pressing 
subject for consideration. Pastor Wang Ming handed 
in his resignation, and in a touching letter took upon 
himself the whole blame for what had occurred. The 
others also formally resigned, and the Church was and 
felt itself to be bereaved. Then ensued a most extra- 
ordinary scene. No one who has had any intimate 
dealings with the Chinese people will accuse them of 
sentimentalism, or any evidence of emotionalism ; but 
on this occasion strong men sobbed like children, and 
could scarcely speak for tears. They with one consent 
declined to receive any of the resignations, and said 
that, although the pastors had done wrong, yet it was 
intended for good, and they themselves many of them 
had been equally guilty before God. They besought 
their pastors not to leave them in their then weak and 
helpless state, and finally prevailed upon them to with- 
draw their resignations. This was done in the Church 
council, composed of about fifty of the more prominent 
members of the Church. 

Subsequently, a meeting was held of representatives 
of each of the stations, numbering in all over a hundred. 

A Time of Repentance 411 

After a faithful and earnest address from Mr. Bruce, on 
* If we confess our sins/ he said that, at the request of 
the pastors, there was an opportunity allowed them to 
say a few words. In broken accents and voices trembling 
with emotion, each of the pastors humbly confessed the 
sin of which he had been guilty, and asked the forgiveness 
of the Church, as they had asked and believed they had 
received the forgiveness of their Lord and Master, Jesus 

A similar scene of uncontrollable emotion then ensued, 
affecting even the foreigners present, and others, in 
broken accents, in the presence of all, confessed their 
sins and asked forgiveness. It was an occasion never 
to be forgotten by all present, and left the impression 
that such a breaking up of the hard crust of the Chinese 
phlegmatic temperament was one to be deeply and 
devoutly thankful for, even amid so much that was so 
sorrowful and heartrending. It was indeed, as the 
apostle says, a godly sorrow not to be repented of. 

After some months of waiting, and patient and 
earnest labour in settling matters generally, a public 
thanksgiving service was held, which was attended by 
about three hundred men and about sixty women, many 
of whom had come long distances to be present, and 
thankofferings were given to the amount of 150 Mexican 
dollars (;^I5 sterling) to a fund to be applied to 
chapel building in convenient centres throughout the 


What manner of Men were These? 

In this chapter are brought together brief biograph- 
ical details of many of those who so nobly laid their 
lives upon the altar of martyrdom in the year 1900 
for the evangelisation of China. The martyrs came 
from lands far sundered; their race, birth, education, 
home surroundings and influences differed widely ; the 
one thing that linked them into a compact brotherhood 
was their personal love for and consecration to the 
service of Jesus Christ, and their willingness for His 
sake to lay down their lives in the effort to bring to the 
millions of China the glad tidings of the Gospel. These 
men and women, enthusiastic while alive in a common 
service for humanity, triumphant in the face of death in 
its cruellest forms, upheld by trust in Christ Jesus, 
constitute one of the strongest and one of the noblest 
testimonies to that catholicity of the Church of Christ, 
composed of those who, however they may differ among 
themselves in non-essentials, are all united by a living 
faith to Jesus Christ, their great Head and Captain, and 
dominated by His own spirit of self-sacrifice in the 
service of man. 


Dr. George Yardley Taylor was born at 
Taylorville, Bucks County, Pa., May 18, 1862, became 






George Yardley Taylor 413 

a communicant in the Presbyterian Church, Burlington, 
NJ., in 1883, and was educated at the Van Rensselear 
Seminary in the same city, and later at Princetown 
University. In 1885 he took the degree of M.D. at the 
University of Pennsylvania, He was commissioned as 
a medical missionary of the Presbyterian Church in 
1887. He gave twelve years of faithful service in China, 
first in the An Ting Hospital in the city of Peking, and 
afterwards at Pao-ting-fu, where the work was in- 
augurated and the hospital buildings erected through 
his personal exertions, and where he laboured alone 
with singular devotion in the medical department of 
the mission until the arrival of his friend. Dr. Hodge, 
in the spring of 1899. ^^' Taylor attained to un- 
usual proficiency in the Chinese language, and to 
great skill as a surgeon and physician. He was never 

Mrs. Amelia P. Lovvrie, one of his fellow-workers in 
Pao-ting-fu, writes of him : 

' As a physician he was reverenced and confided in. 
His unwearied attention to the poorest so attracted two 
men who at different times were patients in the hospital, 
that they became inquirers, and finally professed their 
faith in Jesus, and have stood firm in the face of many 
persecutions and trials. One mandarin, a Hanlin, had 
a paralysed hand. For a year he came every day for 
electricity treatment. He loved and admired Dr. 
Taylor, and to give expression to his feelings sent 
him a tablet on which four characters were inscribed, 
meaning, " Love others as yourself." Only eternity will 
disclose the thousand ways in which Dr. Taylor did 
kindnesses which cost him the crucifixion of self. In 
a more pronounced way than many another man he 
suffered in his daily contact with the Chinese. His 
high ideal of truthfulness and his exquisite neatness 
were over and over again shocked. 

' Dr. Taylor's musical ability brought cheer into 
our homes ; almost every hymn in the new hymnal is 
associated with him ; we sang it through from cover to 

414 What manner of Men were these? 

cover, taking sometimes a dozen hymns in one evening. 
This was his rest and recreation after a hard day's work. 
Hymn 640, " Crossing the Bar," was a favourite. The 
last time I heard Dr. Taylor sing this hymn Mr. 
Norman was our guest ; now they have both met their 
Pilot face to face. This highly cultivated musical 
talent and acute sensitive ear were wholly laid on 
the altar of consecration, for it was pain to Dr. Taylor 
to listen to the Chinese singing, and yet he always 
led the singing at our meetings. 

' Every day of his life expressed some new phase 
of self-denial. He lived not to please himself, but to 
please Him who bought him with His own precious 
blood ; and now he has heard the welcome, " Well 
done, enter into the joy of thy Lord." ' 

Dr. Cortlandt Van Rensselear Hodge was 

born in the city of Burlington, New Jersey, on July i, 
1872, while the congregation to which his father 
ministered as pastor were holding a monthly prayer- 
meeting for foreign missions. He became a com- 
municant in the Burlington Church at an early age, 
and received his education at the Van Rensselear 
Seminary, in his native city, and at Princetown Uni- 
versity. He graduated in the medical department of 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1897, and became 
resident physician in the Presbyterian hospital, serving 
a full term in 1 897-1 898. He was soon afterwards 
commissioned by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign 
Missions to be the associate of Dr. Taylor as medical 
missionary at Pao-ting-fu. After a year of service in 
this field, he was appointed by the Board to take charge 
of the medical work in the city of Peking in the month 
of April 1900; but before he had moved to that city 
the uprising of the Boxers occurred, and at the hands 
of these fanatics he and his wife lost their lives. 

Mrs. C. R. Hodge, nee Sinclair, was born in Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, December 15, 1874. She was educated in 

F. E. Simcox 415 

Philadelphia, and at Bryn Mawr College, She was 
married to Dr. Hodge in February 1899, and sailed with 
him for China, under appointment of the Board of 
Foreign Missions, in March of the same year. She 
arrived in Pao-ting-fu in the month of May, and there 
addressed herself with such assiduity and success to 
the study of the language, that she was able in a 
comparatively short time to make a beginning in 
missionary work. On May 19, 1900, she accompanied her 
husband to Peking upon reception of the news of their 
appointment to that station, and assisted him in making 
the necessary arrangements to occupy it in the following 
fall. After a visit of a few days she returned with him 
to Pao-ting-fu, and was with him when the mission 
station was attacked by the mob of Boxers, and 
together they received the crown of martyrdom. 
Dr. Kettler thus writes of Dr. and Mrs. Hodge : 

* We are reminded that the time-element enters not 
into God's estimate of service, only, " Be thou faithful 
unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life." 

' I am sure it will be said, and truthfully, by those 
competent to speak, that they were exemplars to the 
young of all that is pure and noble in youthful aspiration ; 
and these early martyrdoms will not fail to admonish 
the youth of China and of all other nations of the 
exceeding glory and honour of lives devoted to the 
redemption of a lost and sinful world.' 

Dr. Kettler also speaks of Rev. Frank Edson Simcox, 
Mrs. Simcox, and their three children, as follows : — 

* Rev. P. B. Simcox was born in Bullion, Venango 
County, Pa., April 30, 1867. His father was a man 
of thrift, integrity, and refinement. His mother was 
a consecrated Christian woman, who died in 1884; but 
her influence did not die. The son could not forget his 
mother's tender solicitude and his mother's prayers. In 
the autumn of 1884 he entered the preparatory depart- 
ment of Grove City College, and graduated in June 1890, 

4i6 What manner of Men were these? 

in the same class with his future wife, the companion 
and partner of his missionary Hfe and labours. 

'In the winter of 1884-85 a revival occurred in 
the college, in which some seventy students professed 
faith in Christ. Young Simcox was among the number. 
There are those who remember the young lad with the 
pale resolute face standing up in the presence of a large 
student body in the college chapel and saying, " I 
promised my mother on her deathbed that I would 
meet her in heaven, and by the grace of God I intend to 
do so." He immediately united with the Presbyterian 
Church of Grove City, where he remained as a member 
till his ordination as a missionary. With unswerving 
loyalty to his mother's God he identified himself with 
the Christian work of his college, exerting an influence 
on the college life which helped many a young man to a 
better and nobler career. 

' Mr. Simcox graduated from the Western Theo- 
logical Seminary in May 1893, was married on June 7, 
and in September 1893 he and his wife sailed for China. 
Mr. Simcox was ceasless in activity, going from village 
to village teaching the Word, and daily exemplifying 
the power and grace of God in his own heart. He was 
faithful and fearless, and even when surrounded by 
hooting and threatening mobs he daily risked his life 
to give instruction and comfort to native Christians. 
Mr. Simcox had preached the Sunday before his death 
on " We are pilgrims on the earth," and the natives re- 
marked on its appropriateness. He said in his discourse 
that he hoped to be a good shepherd and not desert his 
sheep, perhaps not realising that within a week his word 
would be fulfilled.' 

Mrs. P. E. Simcox, nee M. Gilson, the wife of the 
Rev. F. E. Simcox, was born in February 1863, at London, 
Pa. Her education was received at the public school 
at London, and at Grove Street College, from which she 
graduated in 1890. Like her husband, Mrs. Simcox was 
led to Christ while in college, united with her home 

Mrs. F. E, Simcox 417 

church, and became an active Christian worker in both 
church and college. During the three years that Mr. 
Simcox was student at the Theological Seminary, Miss 
Gilson was a teacher in the High School at Greenville, 
Pa. She was then twenty-two years of age, in the 
prime of young womanhood, in a marked degree beauti- 
ful in person, gentle and engaging in manner, cultured 
in her tastes, sprightly in conversation, apparently 
unconscious of power, yet winning all hearts with- 
out effort or design. Of her Mrs. Amelia P. Lowrie 
writes : 

' Five years ago I became acquainted with Mrs. 
Simcox, who has been my nearest neighbour ever since. 
I have learned to love, admire, and honour her; she was 
so faithful to every known duty. In addition to atten- 
tion to home affairs and a most constant care of her 
children, she commenced a Girls' Boarding School two 
winters ago for the daughters of the Christians, they 
paying towards their support. Mrs. Simcox never 
spared herself in this work. Although not a robust 
woman, she never failed to conduct worship every 
morning with her school, and once a week examined the 
scholars. This was not all. They were always on her 
heart, and everything she could do to contribute to their 
welfare and promote their improvement she cheerfully 
did. I can well believe that many a tear has fallen, if 
these young people know that on earth they will never 
again see the face of Mrs. Simcox. With the utmost 
sorrow do I realise that not only have we lost a friend, 
but China has lost a benefactor.' 

Paul Simcox, aged five ; Francis Simcox, aged two ; 
and baby Margaret went up in the fiery chariot with 
their parents into the kingdom of God. 

Rev. H. T. Pitkin was born in Philadelphia on 
October 28, 1869. He graduated from Yale College in 
1892, and Union Theological Seminary in 1896. He 
married Miss Letitia E. Thomas, of Troy, Ohio, October 
6, 1896, and sailed for China in November of the same 

41 8 What manner of Men were these? 

year. Mrs. Pitkin and her child had returned to the 
United States before the outbreak. 

The Rev. Charles E. Mills, the pastor of the church 
in Cleveland, Ohio, which had Mr. Pitkin as its repre- 
sentative on the foreign field, writes : 

' Of the glorious company of gifted young men who 
have followed the Banner of the Cross in foreign lands, 
and have given up their lives for their Master, Horace 
Tracy Pitkin was a fine representative. Born of a good 
family, possessed of ample means, educated in our finest 
schools, winsome in personal appearance, gracious in 
bearing, versatile, self-reliant, forceful, and profoundly 
earnest, he was counted by all who knew him a singu- 
larly attractive and promising man. 

' From that day on Round Top at Northfield, when 
while a student at Yale he chose as his life-purpose the 
cause of missions, he gave himself to it with utter 
self-abandonment. It was the greatest of his college 
enthusiasms, and the all-absorbing thought of his 
seminary course ; leading him to go through the 
country as Secretary of the Student Volunteer Move- 
ment, eagerly and effectively urging upon the young 
people of our churches the claims of foreign missions. 

* In his service abroad he was a forerunner of the 
" Forward Movement," for by his own suggestion. 
Pilgrim Church, Cleveland, adopted him as their re- 
presentative, and for the three years of his residence in 
China counted the relation a rich privilege. He has 
been a real spiritual leader, sharing with the Church his 
enthusiasms and difficulties, and leading it on into the 
life of the native helpers and the ardent desire to reach 
the people in their great need. His deep earnestness 
led him to be characteristically sanguine, to make little 
of obstacles, and to long intensely for the day when, 
having mastered the intricacies of the Chinese language, 
his tongue should be loosed to speak to those about him 
the truth as it is in Jesus. 

'When the clouds began to gather, and when, her 
health failing, his wife was obliged to return to America, 

Mary S. Morrill 419 

with their little child, for a protracted rest, and he was 
left alone amid untold perils, he put away the thought 
of personal danger, and filled his letter with cheer for 
those who were troubled for his safety. 

* Now that he is gone, laying down his life in defence 
of two helpless women, his fellow-workers, facing on 
their behalf the Chinese mob, and falling at their onset 
as a knight of the Cross, those who best knew him can 
but say amid their tears, " His death was like his life — 
fine, fearless, faithful." If there must be martyrs, never 
was one more fitly chosen. Brave, buoyant, wholly 
consecrated, he, like the greatest of missionaries, held 
not his life of any account as dear unto himself in 
comparison with accomplishing his course and ministry 
which he received from the Lord Jesus.' 

Mary S. Morrill grew up in a quiet home at 
Deering, Me., where she was born March 24, 1864. 
She fitted herself to become a teacher at the Normal 
School, and afterwards taught several years in the 
Portland public schools. Her decision to become a 
foreign missionary dates from her schooldays ; her 
inclination for China grew out of interested faithful 
work in the Chinese Sunday school of the Second 
Parish Church in Portland. In those quiet days of 
unobtrusive service, even her dearest friends would 
hardly have dared prophesy that modest, shrinking 
Mary Morrill would develop the marked abilities which 
characterised her missionary career of ten years. 

In the spring of 1889 she entered upon her chosen 
life-work at Pao-ting-fu with a glad enthusiasm, which 
enabled her to overcome all obstacles with a devotion 
which was to the last unsparing of herself. It was 
much for a young lady to take charge of the Pao-ting- 
fu Girls' Boarding School ; to instruct women in station 
classes, and fill every available hour with touring in and 
out of the city ; and not strange that the fervent spirit 
should spend the body overmuch, so that a return to 
this country became necessary in 1897. During the 

420 What manner of Men were these? 

season of recuperation she displayed great power in 
missionary addresses, of which the well-selected material, 
pithy, pathetic, often humorous, was vivified with spiritual 
earnestness. Her habits of work were systematic 
and thorough ; her instincts tender and sympathetic. 
God's Word was her daily study, and prayer the breath 
of her life. Possessed with burning love for souls, how 
could Mary Morrill be other than God's chosen servant 
for the salvation of China's women and children ! 

Annie Allender Gould was born at Bethel, Me., 
on November i8, 1867. She graduated 'valedictorian of 
her class' from Mount Holyoke, Portland. At twenty- 
four years of age, during her closing year in Mount 
Holyoke College, Miss Gould applied to the American 
Board to be appointed as one of its missionaries. In that 
application she said : ' For years every appeal for workers 
in the foreign field has been like a direct call to me. 
While painfully conscious of my own lack of fitness, the 
desire has never ceased, and even when I felt myself the 
most unfit, it has called me in to closer consecration 
and preparation.' When asked in regard to trials and 
hardships in the work, her reply was the simple one of 
faith, ' I believe that God orders the events of my life.' 

A letter from a friend, speaking of her membership 
in the Young Ladies' Mission Band of Portland, reveals 
her character : ' She was one of the youngest members, 
one of its officers, a mere girl ; and yet none were more 
interested, faithful, and able. I remember her prayers, 
simple and direct, always offered when others shirked. 
She told me it was not easy ; but " it is my duty, and 
when I see a thing to be done I do it.'" 

In this spirit of loyalty to Christ she went forth from 
college to China in 1 893. She entered into the work with 
all her heart in association with her Portland friend, Miss 
Morrill. Together they toiled for China's women and 
children till the Master called, in the dread summons 
of the mad mob who knew not what they did, when 
they destroyed those whose only mission was love 

William Cooper 421 

and whose only ministry was help. Honest, single- 
hearted, devoted, trained from childhood in the atmo- 
sphere of Christian missions, she had served her course, 
and left with others an undying testimony in blood for 
the saving of the great Empire with its millions of 
needy souls. 

Rev. William Cooper was Assistant - Deputy- 
Director, China Inland Mission, Shanghai. Prior to his 
sailing for China as a missionary, Mr. William Cooper 
was Secretary of the Y.M.C.A., Gourock, Scotland. 
He received his call to missionary service through 
reading a copy of a sermon by Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, 
on the text Isaiah vi. 8, entitled ' The Divine Call for 
Missionaries.' In that appeal Mr. Spurgeon said, 'I 
should not wonder if a hundred young men rise up in 
answer to this call, and go forth to heathen lands to 
spread the Gospel.' Mr. Cooper was the second person 
to respond to that appeal. 

Mr. Cooper reached Shanghai in January 9, i88r, 
and went immediately to Gan-king (the headquarters 
of the China Inland Mission in the province of Gan-hui, 
where probationers are sent to study Chinese). There he 
made rapid progress in the Chinese language, and in due 
course took part in regular itinerant work as well as 
preaching in the city. In 1882 he was stricken down 
with typhoid fever, from which he did not recover for a 
month. This long and serious illness permanently im- 
paired his hearing. In 1884 he was appointed to Wu- 
ch'ang in Hupeh province, where he remained about a 
year. With this exception, his work, up to his first fur- 
lough, which occurred in 1887, lay in the province of 
Gan-hui. During the furlough referred to, he married, 
and returned to China with his wife and child in 
November 1893. On his return he was appointed 
superintendent of the work of the mission in the 
province of Gan-hui, and was stationed once more at 
Gan-king. In July 1894 he was invited by the council 
of the mission in Shanghai to assist Mr. Stevenson 

422 What manner of Men were these? 

in the important and increasingly difficult work at the 
headquarters of the mission in China. In 1898 he once 
more went to England on furlough, and it was only in 
the autumn of 1899 that he returned to his work in 
China again. 

Mr. Walter B. Sloan, of the Mission Headquarters in 
London, thus writes of Mr. Cooper : ' For those who 
knew our beloved brother, William Cooper, no words 
will seem adequate to express the quiet, strong influence 
of his beautiful life ; and we fear it will be difficult to 
convey to others any satisfactory impression of his real 
worth. The outward history of his life, as seen from the 
ordinary standpoint, could not be called eventful or 
brilliant. His name was not widely known beyond the 
limits of his mission and that of a circle of attached 
friends who held him in high esteem. One of these 
friends writes that he was " one of the very few blame- 
less lives that I have ever come in contact with." And 
we know that this testimony would be confirmed by all 
those who were Mr. Cooper's co-workers in the mission. 

' Quiet strength, gentle patience, frank faithfulness, 
and tender sympathy : these seem to stand out as 
leading features in a life for which many of us shall 
never cease to thank God. Had the choice been offered 
him as to how his life should end, we believe nothing 
would have accorded more thoroughly with his own 
heart's desire than to be permitted to lay down his life 
on behalf of the people of China, whom he loved so 

Benjamin Bagnall went to China in 1873. His 
earlier years of missionary work were spent in connec- 
tion with the American Bible Society, and also later 
with the American Methodist Mission at Kiu-kiang. 
He married Miss Emily Kingsbury in 1886, having 
previously joined the China Inland Mission. After his 
marriage he went with his wife to Ping-yang-fu, in the 
province of Shan-si. For several years he was superin- 
tendent of the mission in this province. His first and 













Mr. and Mrs. Bagnall 423 

only furlough was taken in December 1 891, after nineteen 
years of missionary work. 

Mrs. Bagnall had been twelve years in China without 
a furlough. They only spent nine months in England, 
returning to China in the autumn of 1892. On returning 
to China they went back to Shan-si, but did not remain in 
that province long. In 1894 they removed to Pao-ting- 
fu, in order to take up the work of the forwarding and 
other business of the mission in that place, this being the 
farthest point reached by the railway from Tien-tsin, the 
head of the river navigation, and so convenient as a 
forwarding centre for the work of the mission. 

One who knew Mr. Bagnall for twenty-four years 
writes of him thus : ' He laboured with all his powers in 
most difficult and self-denying positions of trust for the 
glory of God and the good of his brethren and sisters in 
Christ. He was a very humble-minded man, having a 
full measure of that rare grace — esteeming others better 
than himself. He was very considerate in all his dealings 
with the Chinese, having a deep sympathy with the poor 
among the people and with the weak Christians.' 

Mrs. Bagnall went to China in 1880. She belonged 
to Walthamstow, and was for many years a member and 
worker in connection with the Wood Street Chapel there. 
The following appreciation of her is written by one who 
knew her well : — 

* After five years' residence in China, our sister, Mrs. 
Bagnall, wrote : " My life has been a very happy one 
since I came to this land — indeed, the last five years 
have been the happiest I have ever spent." Happy ! 
that just expressed her. There was always a smile, 
always a welcome for every one. No hour seemed 
inconvenient — nothing too much trouble — whether for 
Chinese or foreigner. Wherever she went it was " The 
Glad Tidings " she preached, not only by her voice, but 
by her smiling face and winning manner, while her 
intense sympathy won the confidence and love of the 
poor women who came to her for help. And yet withal 

424 What manner of Men were these ? 

one could often see how greatly she suffered from natural 
anxiety and loneliness while her husband was away 
visiting the distant stations, frequently being absent 
many weeks at a time. 

' Mr. and Mrs. Bagnall were engaged in Pao-ting-fu 
in the work of overseeing and arranging for the arrival 
and departure of the various missionary parties of their 
mission, coming from or going to Tien-tsin ; entertaining 
them in their home, and then helping them forward 
on their journey. Genial, kindly, hospitable souls ! It 
were hard indeed to find two more eminently fitted for 
such a position, and now to what honour God has raised 
them ! Even to be reckoned among " the noble army of 
martyrs," to whom belong that joy unspeakable, " that 
eternal weight of glory " — only to be realised by those who 
suffer for His name.' 


Thomas Wellesley Pigott, B.A., was born on 
August 6, 1847, and consequently at the time of his 
death was nearly fifty-three years of age. He was the 
eldest of the six children of William Wellesley Pole Pigott 
by his marriage with Lucy French, niece of the first 
Lord Ashtown. He was born at Leixlep, near Dublin, 
on the richly wooded bank of the beautiful Liffey. While 
yet a little boy, he helped his father in his daily labour 
of presenting Christ to the poorest of the people who 
gathered at his door to receive his charity and to hear 
the message of salvation. When a lad of fifteen years 
of age, in the great revival which took place in the 
midland and southern counties of Ireland in 1862, he 
was brought to decision for Christ by a remarkable 
answer to his own boyish prayer. 

He passed uneventfully his school and college career, 
and finally graduated with his B.A. degree from Trinity 
College, Dublin. In 1879 he arrived in China in con- 
nection with the China Inland Mission, and during his 
first two years of life there travelled a good deal, especially 

Thomas Wellesley Pigott 425 

in Manchuria, where on one occasion he almost perished 
with cold. In 1881 he settled in T'ai-yuen-fu (the pro- 
vincial capital of Shan-si), where he devoted himself to the 
study of the Chinese language, and actively engaged in 
evangelistic work. 

In 1883, Mr. Pigott married Miss Jessie Kemp, of 
Rochdale, England, who had come to T'ai-yuen-fu as a 
missionary, also in connection with the China Inland 
Mission. Mr. and Mrs. Pigott, being possessed of private 
means, were enabled to give largely towards the erection 
of the handsome Schofield Memorial Hospital which 
adorned the city, but which was the first building to 
be destroyed by fire by the mob on June 27, 1900. 

In 1 89 1, after a furlough in the home land, Mr. 
Pigott finally decided to settle in Shao-yang, and work 
independently, forming a separate organisation, called 
the North China, or, as it came to be called, the Shao- 
yang Mission, and he collected a number of devoted 
workers, who laboured both in T'ai-yuen-fu and in Shao- 
yang in connection with him. 

In 1898, Mr. and Mrs. Pigott visited England for the 
last time, as it proved, and on their return to China were 
able to erect suitable premises for the work in Shao- 
yang, which had been felt to be greatly needed and were 
found most convenient. They brought with them from 
England Mr. Robinson and Miss Duval, not only to 
educate their son Wellesley, but also to establish an 
educational centre for the children of other missionaries. 
It was owing to this fact that the two daughters of Mr. 
and Mrs. Atwater of Fen-cheu-fu happened to be with 
them at the time of the outbreak, and shared with them 
the horror and the glory of the martyr's crown. 

Mr. George F. French thus writes of Mr. Pigott : 

' If ever a man lived who was utterly in earnest, it 
was Thomas Wellesley Pigott. Whenever he returned 
to this country from his chosen field of labour, his 
flowing speech, in private and public, was always and 
only of China and her people, whom he loved so much. 
It was impossible to remain indifferent or unsympathetic 

426 What manner of Men were these? 

in the presence of such zeal. It wounded his spirit, it 
grieved him as something unaccountable, inexplicable, 
that others should not feel the interest, the sorrow and 
the joy with which he was filled. And this was no 
mere sentiment. It was such a reality, that to spend 
his time, his strength, his mental and physical abilities, 
and his money freely and wholly in the cause of China, 
was to him the most natural, and for him the only 
reasonable and possible way to live.' 

Rev. Arthur Sowerby, of the English Baptist 
Mission, stationed at T'ai-yuen-fu, writes as a fellow- 
labourer of Mr. Pigott thus : 

' Twenty years ago, Mr. Pigott stood on the threshold 
of his work in China. I recall the first time I met him. 
I had then been only a few days in China, and I 
remember his hearty hand-shake and genial greeting, 
and the pleasant chat which followed in the sitting- 
room of the C.I.M. premises at Chefoo. A few weeks 
later a party of us were journeying towards T'ai-yuen- 
fu, and we were pressed by circumstances to travel 
quickly. Mr. Pigott might have joined our party and 
enjoyed some pleasant companionship, but it was 
characteristic of him to prefer loneliness, and to lengthen 
his journey, although the weather was bitterly cold, in 
order that he might do some evangelistic work along 
the road. An intense zeal for the salvation of men was 
always a marked feature in his character.' 

Mrs. T. W. Pigott was born in London on August 
8, 185 1. Before her birth her mother dedicated her first- 
born to the mission field, but, being a girl, she dismissed 
the thought from her mind. Jessie was a thoughtful, 
intelligent child, and very early became the subject of 
Divine grace. Loyalty to Christ was the dominant note 
of her life, and personal inclinations were never allowed 
to turn her from the path of sacrifice. She had a 
buoyant, intrepid nature, which enabled her to carry 
out her work, no matter what hindrances stood in the 

Mrs. T. W. Pigott 427 

Early in life her thoughts were turned to foreign 
missionary work, and she received encouragement, 
especially from her grandmother, in these aspirations. 
She began working amongst the children in the Sunday 
school, and along with her sister held a children's service 
on Sunday evenings for those not attending worship 
elsewhere, when as many as two hundred children would 
often be present. 

In 1877 she sailed for India with the late Rev. James 
Smith of Delhi. She was a born linguist, and made 
rapid progress in learning both Hindi and Urdu. Her 
health, however, failed, and it was nearly two years 
before she fully recovered strength again, and the 
doctors forbade her return to India, except to a part 
where she would have to learn a new language. In 
company with her sister Florence, now Mrs. E. H. 
Edwards, she sailed for China in 1882, and on July 16, 
1883, she was married to Mr. Pigott in Peking. 

She became interested in medical work, and was able 
to operate for cataract and other surgical cases with 
considerable success. In 1885 she returned to England 
with Mr. Pigott, and in 1887, while still in the home 
country, their only child, William Wellesley, was born. 
In 1888 they returned to China, and after some months 
in T'ai-yuen they opened stations at Huai Lu and 
Shun-teh-fu, and also at Pao-ting-fu and Lu-ngan-fu, and 
finally in 1892 settled at Shao-yang, where they were 
the pioneer missionaries.^ 

William Wellesley Pigott was born on August 
24, 1887. Though born in England, yet, as he came as a 
baby to China, he always looked upon China as home, 
and much preferred it to any other. As a child, his 
jolly laughing baby face, with curly golden hair and blue 
eyes, made him a favourite everywhere. When still 
quite a child, his father and mother on a journey were 

^ For fuller details of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. Pigott and their fellow- 
workers at Shao-yang, see Steadfast unto Death, by C. A. Pigott, R.T.S., 

428 What manner of Men were these? 

surrounded by a crowd of Chinese students returning 
from an examination. The cries of ' Foreign devil ' 
were raised, and it was felt to be a moment of peril. 
Seeing this, Wellesley was told to bow, and the child 
unhesitatingly obeyed with his frank baby smile, clasp- 
ing his little hands and bending low, as a well-taught 
Chinese boy would do. The crowd was surprised and 
pleased, and became quite friendly, and after a little time 
the party was allowed to proceed unmolested. 

From childhood his parents noticed a love for the 
things of God, and, what is unusual in a child, his deep 
sense of sin. As he grew up his growth in grace 
was most marked. When in England, Wellesley stood 
watching his uncle (a captain in the Yeomanry) mount 
his charger. ' I shall be a soldier some day,' he said. 
* Yes, and wear a uniform like your uncle,' remarked some 
one standing by. * No ; I mean a soldier of Jesus Christ,' 
explained the boy. It was remarkable how he seems 
to have had the subject of martyrdom in his thoughts. 
To one friend he said, ' We can't be martyrs in England, 
but my father and mother and I might be in China.' 
During the last five months of his life he had a class 
of five Chinese boys in the Sunday school, for which his 
mother helped him to prepare. 

John Robinson was born at Doncaster on 
September i, 1875. His father and two grandfathers 
were clergymen of the Established Church. He was 
studious as a youth, and finally took his B.A. degree in 
the London University in 1896. From an early age he 
strongly desired to be a missionary, and though naturally 
of a reticent and retiring disposition, his conduct showed 
that his religious experience was deep and real. By a 
brief holiday visit to Cliff College in Derbyshire, under 
the care of Dr. Grattan Guinness, his spiritual life was 
quickened, and he more earnestly desired to be used in 
Christian service. He became a member of the Black- 
heath Y.M.C.A., and finally its secretary. His views on 
the subject of believers' baptism underwent a change, and 

Mary Duval and Edith A. Coombs 429 

he united with the Baptist Church worshipping in Lee, 
near London, and was baptized by the Rev. F. G. French. 
In 1898, Mr. Robinson accepted Mr. Pigott's offer to 
go to China as tutor to his son, and to undertake the 
education of the children of other missionaries. All 
difficulties having been removed, he sailed for China in 
January 1899, and on the voyage out began his duties 
as tutor, and studied the Chinese language with a native 
teacher. He entered on his work with zeal and earnest- 
ness, and enjoyed the opportunities of visiting the 
missionaries in T'ai-yuen-fu, and seeing something of 
their work. He made such progress in the language as 
to be able to preach, and even while on his way to 
martyrdom assisted Mr. Pigott in this way. His last 
letter contained the words, ' May we and the people 
be helped to trust ' — The sentence was never finished. 

Mary Duval had long desired to be a worker in 
the foreign mission field, and offered to go to India in 
connection with the Church Missionary Society ; but as 
she was forty-two years of age when the offer was made, 
that door was closed to her. She was disappointed but 
not discouraged, and God honoured her by calling her 
to live and die for Him in China. 

She left England for China in 1899, having accepted 
Mrs. Pigott's offer to help in the work at Shao-yang, 
especially in the education of the children of missionaries. 
Writing on shipboard, she quoted, ' God holds the key 
of all unknown, and I am glad.' And this seemed to be 
the dominant note of all her short period of service. 

Her sister writes : ' In the midst of our grief, not 
only for the terrible loss we have sustained, but also for 
the awful suffering she was called upon to go through, 
we can be but glad that God gave her the desire of her 
heart. We can rejoice in her present joy, and that she 
was counted worthy to suffer for Him.' 

Edith A. Coombs was born in Edinburgh in 
1862. She had a remarkably happy childhood, and 


What manner of Men were these ? 

seemed ' sanctified from her birth.' At the age of ten 
she entered the primary school of Neuchatel, Switzerland, 
and although on entering her knowledge of French was 
slight, she gained a prize in her first year. When about 
nineteen years of age she entered Somerville Hall, 
Oxford, where she remained for four years, graduating 
in Literature. She applied for the post of teacher to 
the High School at Edgbaston, Birmingham, and 
although she had no previous experience in teaching, 
her testimonials were so excellent that she was 
unanimously chosen to fill the vacant position. She 
remained in the school for six years, and one of her 
colleagues testifies that during that time ' I never once 
saw her otherwise than bright, sweet, helpful.' Those 
who worked with her in China could all bear the same 

Dr. Dale's ministry was helpful in deepening the 
flame of her missionary zeal, and although the home ties 
were strong, the desire to make known the light and 
liberty of the Gospel was stronger still, and so in 1899 
she found herself working in T'ai-yuen-fu in connection 
with the Shao-yang Mission. In her letters to her 
home folks, difficulties and trials were only hinted at, 
and few could have guessed the loneliness she sometimes 
felt. The winter after her arrival she took full charge 
of the mission girls' school, and as soon as possible 
organised a branch of the Christian Endeavour Society 
amongst her pupils. Her great delight was to gather 
the elder girls for an hour of prayer and quiet chat 
about the work. 

Miss Coombs lost her life in the act of trying to save 
a little Chinese child from the cruel mob. In this she 
followed the Good Shepherd, who laid down His life for 
the sheep. 

Dr. Arnold B. Lovitt was born in London, 
February 4, 1 869. He was naturally of a studious turn of 
mind, and finally chose the career of a medical missionary. 
Having finished his course at the London Hospital, and 

Dr. Arnold E. Lovitt 431 

taken the necessary qualification, he was for a time in 
charge of the Mildmay Hospital in Bethnal Green. He 
was a Baptist, a member of the church worshipping in 
the East London Tabernacle, then under the pastoral 
care of Rev. Archibald J. Brown. It was from this 
church he was formally dedicated to the service of God 
in China. 

Dr. Lovitt left England in the autumn of 1897 to join 
the Shao-yang Mission, having previously married Miss 
Grant, who had formerly been engaged in work as a 
trained nurse in the London Hospital. After arrival in 
T'ai-yuen-fu, Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt not only applied them- 
selves diligently to the study of the Chinese language, 
but were always eager to help in the work of the 
Schofield Memorial Hospital, then under the charge of 
Dr. E. H. Edwards. Owing to failure in health, Dr. 
Edwards was obliged to leave for England sooner than 
he had intended. Dr. Lovitt was thus left in charge of 
the medical work after only eighteen months' residence 
in China. Both Dr. and Mrs. Lovitt, though fully 
realising the responsibility resting upon them, gave 
themselves to the work with all earnestness, diligence, 
and ability ; and carried it on most efficiently. They 
were undoubtedly true and loyal workers for Christ, and 
had the honour of not only working but suffering to the 
death for His name's sake. 

In a letter from T'ai-yuen-fu, dated June 28, 1900, 
Dr. Lovitt expresses what was the feeling throughout 
this noble army of martyrs : ' We would like our dear 
home ones to know that we are being marvellously 
sustained by the Lord. He is precious to each one of 
us. The children seem to have no fear. We cannot but 
hope for deliverance (hope dies hard), and our God is 
well able to do all things — even to save us from the most 
impossible surroundings when hope is gone. Our trust 
is in Him entirely and alone; we are at the same time 
seeking to do all that is in our power to do, and asking 
guidance at every step. There is not much time. We 
are ready.' 

432 What manner of Men were these? 

The wife of Dr. Edwards, who knew Mrs. Lovitt 
well, thus writes of her : 

* My first remembrance of Mrs. Lovitt dates back 
to her arrival in T'ai-yuen-fu as a young bride full of 
happy hopes, and eager to begin her work among the 
Chinese women. The daughter of a devoted mission- 
ary, she had spoken their language as a child ; it was 
therefore easier to her than to many, and the ways of 
the Far East were familiar to her. There was no 
foreboding in the hearts of the young couple as they 
began their missionary life, and their cup of happiness 
was full when they were given a beautiful baby boy, 
the pet of English and Chinese alike of our little 

* As a young mother, Mrs. Lovitt had to solve the 
problem — a problem that has to be solved more or less 
ably by all missionary wives and mothers — of teaching 
her heathen sisters without neglecting the home duties. 
How difficult this is to a weary mother, who passion- 
ately longs to tell her heathen neighbours that wonder- 
ful ever new story of Bethlehem and Calvary, and yet 
is hampered and tied with her God-given home duties, 
only those who have been on the mission field can 
realise. Nobly and faithfully did Mrs. Lovitt strive 
to fulfil the many and varied duties that pressed upon 
her as a missionary's wife ; very cheerfully and bravely 
did she work day by day, as she sought to show the 
natives what a Christian home can be. 

' I have happy memories of afternoons spent visiting 
with Mrs. Lovitt in the homes of old patients. Memory 
recalls her so vividly, seated in her Chinese dress on 
a k'ang (brick bed) in one of these homes, a group of 
Chinese women clustered round her, her face bright 
and eager as she tells of the loving One so mighty to 

* Other scenes come before me as I write. I see her 
in her own little sitting-room seated at study with her 
teacher. She is poring over those difficult Chinese 
hieroglyphics ; the Chinese Gospel of Luke lies open 




George W. Stokes 433 

on the table ; and while the teacher reads the sacred 
words in his monotonous sing-song, her baby boy sits 
on her lap drumming with his tiny fingers on her cheek, 
or dashing his bricks on the crooked characters the 
tired mother is trying so hard to master. It is hard 
work, this hot summer afternoon, struggling to learn these 
uncouth sounds amidst all the baby din and clatter, 
but is it not because she wants to tell of Jesus, and the 
time is short ? To-morrow, when she tells her class of 
heathen women the wonderful story of the Prodigal 
Son, perhaps some heart will melt and long for the 
forgiveness of the Father, and how well she will be 
repaid for weary hours of study ! 

' Again I see her, this time in the dispensary, 
washing the filthy sores of a degraded woman. Other 
patients, old and young, stand waiting round eager for 
the kind word and skilful help that will soon be theirs 
too. Not one will go away without hearing of Jesus ; 
not one will leave without having seen something of 
the Christ reflected in the little waiting-room. 

' The time of service was short, as we measure time 
who are so short-sighted ourselves, but the words they 
spoke and the lives they lived are still remembered. 
The seed they sowed is not ploughed up by the enemy, 
but is lying in good soil, to spring up unto a great 
harvest when God's time comes.' 

George W. Stokes was born in Dover in 1 863. He 
found Christ in the Salem Baptist Church of that place 
in 1 88 1. He was a printer, and an excellent workman. 
He found time also to be a diligent Christian worker 
both in the Sunday school and as a village preacher ; 
besides taking an active part in establishing and 
conducting a ragged school in one of the roughest 
neighbourhoods in Dover. His desire for work in the 
foreign mission field was after a time gratified, and 
preparatory to going abroad he had a course of study 
in the Training Home under the care of Dr. H. Grattan 
Guinness in London. 

434 What manner of Men were these? 

Mr. Stokes arrived in China in 1892 as a member 
of the China Inland Mission, and by diHgent appHcation 
obtained a good knowledge of the Chinese language, 
and was earnest in his work as a preacher, first of all 
in the vicinity of Shun-teh-fu in Chih-li, and subsequently 
in T'ai-yuen-fu in Shan-si. Mr. Stokes was twice 
married ; his first wife died before he left England ; his 
second wife was Miss Margaret T. Whitaker, who was 
then engaged as a nurse in Dr. Edwards' hospital in 

Mr. Stokes left the China Inland Mission on his 
marriage with Miss Whitaker in 1897, and joined the 
Shao-yang Mission, working in connection with that 
mission in and around T'ai-yuen-fu city till his death. 
Mrs. Stokes had from her early youth been an active 
Christian worker, and when Mr. Moody came to 
London was always busy in the 'inquiry room.' 
She arrived in China in 1892, and worked as a 
nurse for five years ; and after her marriage with Mr. 
Stokes worked amongst the women in T'ai-yuen-fu 
city and surrounding villages. Mrs. Stokes had gained 
a good knowledge of Chinese, and was a most earnest 

Mr. and Mrs, James Simpson left England 
for China, December 15, 1887. They both belonged to 
Aberdeen, and had been zealous workers in connection 
with the Melville Free Church there, also the Y.M.C.A. 
and the Y.W.C. A. in that city, and had won a good report 
for their untiring and unselfish services. 

On April 20, 1900, within three months of the end, 
Mrs. Simpson wrote to her husband's sister : ' You will 
see how dark our way is, but He is light. He has gone 
before, and in Him is no darkness at all. He has put 
us in His furnace, and His desire is that we should show 
forth His praise. You speak of our return to Scotland 
seven years hence ; ah ! well, it may be there is no return 
for us ; we may return by way of heaven ; our times are 
in His hands. As I grow older I feel God's ways are 

Dr. W. Millar-Wilson 435 

best. Once I believed it because He said it; now I 
believe it because I have proved it.' 

Alexander Hoddle was the fourth son of the 
late Mr. William Hoddle, of the Bank of England, 
where he himself was subsequently employed for a 
short time. Leaving this position, he went to Canada, 
where he remained ten years. While there his thoughts 
were directed by some Quaker friends to the spiritual 
needs of others, and on returning to England he be- 
came secretary for the Y.M.C.A. in Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
While engaged in this work he was specially interested 
in sailors, and amongst these the Chinese attracted his 

After hearing Mr. Pigott plead the cause of China, he 
joined the China Inland Mission in August 1887, and 
worked in Huai-luh and Pao-ting-fu and the villages of 
Chih-li. Afterwards as an independent worker he threw 
himself with energy into the work in T'ai-yuen, taking 
charge of the book-shop, teaching, preaching, and doing 
much evangelistic work in private conversation. At 
one time he partly supported himself by teaching 
English to Chinese students, but declined an invitation 
to Tien-tsin to teach English, as he said, ' God, as far 
as I can see, wants me to remain in T'ai-yuen for the 
present at least.' He was a faithful and earnest man, 
and highly esteemed. 

Dr. W. Millar- Wilson in his native town of Airdrie 
was greatly loved, and held in high esteem by his 
fellow-townsmen. He was a man of strong intellectual 
capacity, which he proved by becoming gold medallist 
of the local academy (as was also Mrs. Wilson). He 
had the brightest prospects, from a commercial point of 
view, but chose rather 'to suffer affliction with the 
people of God,' and to devote his life to the labours and 
trials of a medical missionary. 

Converted to God in his early teens, he entered 
almost immediately into Christian work in connection 

43^ What manner of Men were these ? 

with the Airdrie Evangelistic Association, of which he 
soon became the most honoured and best loved worker. 
When, ten years later, he went out to China to begin his 
missionary career, his fellow-workers in the home land 
felt that they had indeed given of their best to the cause. 
Dr. Wilson went to China originally in connection with 
the Shao-yang Mission. 

Dr. Edwards writes : ' I first met Dr. Wilson in 
Vancouver, on my way back to my field of labour in 
1 89 1. We crossed the Pacific together, and from 
Shanghai went on to Tien-tsin. Thence I had the 
pleasure of accompanying both Dr. and Mrs. Wilson to 
T'ai-yuen-fu, where for some time they were our guests. 
The discomforts of travel, which to new-comers are 
generally considered trying, they regarded very lightly. 

* Both set to work at the language with a will, and 
were soon quite at home with the people of the country. 
In 1892, while I was superintending the building of new 
premises, and attending to the hospital and the general 
work of the station. Dr. Wilson kindly came to my help, 
and took over the whole charge of the hospital and 
dispensary. Meanwhile, he had been looking about 
with Mr. Pigott for a place to found another station, and 
finally fixed on Shao-yang as their field of labour. 
He worked there with Mr. Pigott for two or three years, 
but eventually joined the China Inland Mission, and 
was stationed at P'ing-yang-fu in the south of Shan-si. 

* From there, just before the troubles broke out, Mrs. 
Wilson went up to T'ai-yuen-fu with her baby, who 
was sick, and on the way called at Ho-chau, and 
travelled from there with Miss Clarke and Miss Stevens. 
On arrival in T'ai-yuen-fu, they all were received into 
Mr. Farthing's house. Not long after his wife left him, 
Dr. Wilson developed symptoms of dysentery, which 
gradually grew worse, and about June 19 he set out to 
go to his wife in T'ai-yuen-fu. 

' Dr. and Mrs. Wilson had intended returning to 
Scotland early in the spring of that year (1900), but a 
threatened famine caused them to change their plans. 

Jane Stevens 437 

The doctor said he could not leave when trial was thus 
facing his people. He stayed, and brought up large 
supplies of grain to meet the coming distress, and a 
local fund was instituted, to which he contributed a 
very considerable amount, for the same purpose ; and 
when he was compelled by force of circumstances to 
leave, it was a comfort to him to think that he could 
serve Shan-si better by his presence in Britain. But 
for this delay they with their child would have been 
safely out of the country before the storm of trouble 
broke which was to fall upon them so disastrously. 

'Only a short time before leaving P'ing-yang, the 
native Christians, in view of Dr. Wilson's home-going, 
presented him with a large red satin banner, on which 
was inscribed in gilt letters, " God's faithful servant." ' 

One who knew them well thus writes : * With Dr. 
Wilson's kind and genial spirit, and Mrs. Wilson's 
generous hospitality, P'ing-yang-fu became a centre 
where all comers felt welcome.' Native conferences and 
conferences for missionaries were held there, and to 
many it was like a touch of home to stay with them. 

One of his last acts as a medical missionary was to 
travel twenty miles, through a disturbed district, that he 
might do all that he could to save the life of Elder Li, 
who had been severely wounded by a sword-cut from 
one of the Boxers. 

It should be mentioned that Dr. Wilson, although 
connected with the China Inland Mission, was entirely 
at his own charges, and did not draw on mission funds 
for his support. 

Jane Stevens, of Ho-chau, Shan-si. For five 
years prior to Miss Stevens' departure for China, she 
worked as a nurse in connection with the Mildmay 
Nursing Home, London, and while there her truly 
Christlike character was a real help and blessing to 
many of the patients under her care. 

Miss Stevens went to China in September 1885 in 
connection with the China Inland Mission. Finding 

43^ What manner of Men were these 

that the climate of Southern China did not agree with 
her health, she was transferred to North China, and 
worked for some time in T'ai-yuen-fu. After her first 
furlough, however, she was transferred to Ho-chau, which 
is another station of the China Inland Mission five days' 
journey south of T'ai-yuen-fu. From there she had 
come with Miss Clarke, in company with Mrs. Millar- 
Wilson and child, to T'ai-yuen-fu, early in June, before 
the outbreak of the Boxer troubles. Miss Stevens' 
abilities as a trained nurse were much in request, and 
many recall her patient ministrations with gratitude. 

The acquisition of the Chinese language proved a 
real obstacle, but by steady perseverance she gained 
such a knowledge of it as surprised those who knew her 
initial difficulties. When on furlough, she was asked by 
a friend ' if she did not think some position in England 
would suit her better than mission work in China.' To 
this she replied, * I don't feel I have yet finished the 
work God has for me in China. I must go back. 
Perhaps — who knows? — I may be among those who 
will be allowed to give their lives for the people.' 

Mildred Eleanor Clarke. In the summer of 
1890, her father (Colonel A. R. Clarke) writes, she gave 
herself in entire consecration to the Lord. Not long 
after, while away from home, on hearing an address 
from Mrs. Ahok, a Chinese lady, and from Rev. J. 
Heywood Horsburgh, of the C.M.S. Mission in China, 
she felt that she had received a distinct call for foreign 
missionary service. 

At a missionary meeting of the Y.W.C.A. in 
Redhill, England, she was led to express her resolve 
to the missionary secretary of the Association. A few 
months before, it had been suggested that the Redhill 
branch of the Y.W.C.A. should endeavour to support 
its own missionary, and Miss Clarke was chosen as their 
representative on that mission field. 

She sailed for China in October 1893 in connection 
with the China Inland Mission, and finally arrived in 

"YRED AT T>i Yuen F^ 

J. Stevens 

Mildred Clarke. 

The Beynon Family. 


Dr. Wilson. 


W. T. Beynon 439 

T'ai-yuen-fu in April 1894. After remaining there 
some two or three years, she was removed to Hsiao- 1, 
and finally to Ho-chau, where she and her beloved 
companion, Miss Stevens, worked together. They went 
together to T'ai-yuen-fu in June 1900. An entry in her 
journal on arrival in T'ai-yuen-fu in 1894 is especially 
interesting : 

' At last we have reached our destination. . . . Pray 
that God may be sanctified in my life, and in the lives 
of all His children here; then the heathen shall know 
that He is God. I long to live a poured-out life unto 
Him among these Chinese, and to enter into the fellow- 
ship of His sufferings for souls, who poured out His life 
unto death for us.' 

Rev. W. T. Beynon was born in Haverfordwest in 
i860, and after some business experience entered Harley 
House, London, where he stayed for three years. In 
1885 he joined the staff of the China Inland Mission, 
working among the Mongols in North China, from 
Kwei-hua as a centre. He subsequently joined the 
A.B.C.F.M., and was stationed at Kalgan. The appoint- 
ment was, however, soon given up. 

In December 1895 he was appointed by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society one of their sub-agents 
in China. He sailed with his wife and family for 
Shanghai in February 1896, and from the time of his 
arrival in China had charge of the work of the Society 
in Shan-si, one of the most difficult fields for Christian 
work of any kind in that country. 

Here was little to encourage and much to depress ; 
but Mr. Beynon's faith never yielded, and he succeeded 
in raising Bible work to a high level of efficiency, and 
placing it on a sound basis. His devoted labours and 
personal worth were recognised by all the Christian 
missionaries in the province. 

A missionary writing from T'ai-yuen-fu said : ' Mr. 
Beynon is so busy, and does and helps so much. He is 
just everybody's spiritual helper; so many of the 

440 What manner of Men were these? 

brethren have borne testimony to that. His presence in 
T'ai-yuen-fu is a godsend indeed.' The report of his 
work for 1899 ends with words which read now like a 
pathetic prophecy : ' We pray that in this coming year 
the God of all grace will give us all grace to be faithful.' 

Mrs. Beynon, nie Emily Taylor, came to China 
in 1885 in connection with the C.I.M. She was an 
excellent helpmate to her husband, entering into his 
plans and work with great interest, and was a devoted 
mother to their three children. 

Rev. George Bryant Farthing was born on 
December 19, 1859, at Blackheath. The family moved 
to Scarborough shortly after his birth. From his early 
childhood he showed an aptitude for learning. At four- 
teen years of age he entered a printing and bookselling 
business in Scarborough, where he remained about five 
years, and subsequently he spent two or three years in 
connection with the same business in Maidstone and in 
Dorset. In early youth he was converted, and joined 
the Albemarle Church in Scarborough. After his con- 
version he immediately began to seek to win others to 
Christ, and took up preaching in a small village called 
Burniston, which was a station of the Albemarle Church. 
He preached in mission halls and elsewhere with accept- 
ance and success, and was a teacher and subsequently 
secretary of the Sunday school. By and by the call 
came to serve the Lord in China. With this object in 
view he entered Rawdon College in 1881. When he had 
completed his course of five years in college, he sailed for 
China on September 12, 1886, and was stationed in T'ai- 
yuen-fu, where, with the exception of furlough in Eng- 
land, he remained for fourteen years. 

He was a faithful and earnest worker, and was 
blessed in seeing the work of God prosper in his hands. 
He did good work in connection with an Opium Refuge 
which he started, and which owed all its success to him. 
He also constantly preached in the hall connected with 

Mr. and Mrs. G. B. Farthing 441 

the book-shop situated in one of the main streets of the 
city, and was active in itineration in the surrounding 
district, and in many other ways his gentle spirit found 
rest in service and in sacrifice. Even in hours of re- 
creation his chief pleasure was talking over mission 

When the troubles began to threaten ominously, he 
wrote to his colleague, Mr. Dixon, at Hsin-chou, ' If the 
worst comes to the worst, I am ready to die.' All 
through the fearful days of trial and suspense which 
culminated so tragically, he seems to have been the 
leader around whom all naturally gathered, and on the 
fatal 9th of July 1900 he had the honour of being the first 
to receive the martyr's crown. As he himself once ex- 
pressed it, ' His work was done, the shadow on the dial 
showed the hour, and the workman was called away to 
his rest.' 

Mrs. G. B. Farthing, nee Catherine Pope 
Wright, was the eldest daughter of Thomas Wright, a 
deacon in South Parade Baptist Church, Leeds. Miss 
Wright was born February 16, 1864, joined the Church 
of which her father was a deacon in 1881, and took an 
active share in the work at North Street Baptist Church, 
the branch church of Meanwood Road. She married 
Mr. Farthing in Shanghai on April 23, 1889, ^.nd shared 
with her husband the toils and perils of life in China. She 
returned with her husband to England on furlough, where 
she remained for some years with her children. 

She returned with her family and a governess in 
February 1900, only a few months before the Boxer out- 
break. She is described by one who knew her as ' one 
of the kindliest of women.' 

Three children — Ruth, aged ten, Guy, aged eight, and 
Elisabeth, three years of age — shared the fate of their 

Rev. Silvester Frank Whitehouse was born in 
Birmingham on August 14, 1 867. From his earliest years 

442 What manner of Men were these? 

his mother had dedicated him to the Lord for the work 
of foreign missions. Later in Hfe, when in business, he 
gave his leisure time to preparation for the foreign 
mission field. In 1888 he went to China as private 
secretary to Mr. Hudson Taylor, but after four years' 
service he was obliged to return to England, on account 
of private affairs which required his presence. 

While in England, he pursued his studies under Dr. 
Grattan Guinness, and on receiving an appointment 
from the National Bible Society of Scotland, he returned 
to China. After three and a half years of almost inces- 
sant travel in China on behalf of the Bible Society, his 
health gave way, and he was obliged to resign his post 
and return again to England. For two and a half years 
he studied in the Pastors' College under Rev. C. H. 
Spurgeon, and also did student-pastor work in the East 
of London. 

In July 1899 he was accepted by the Baptist 
Missionary Society of London as one of their staff, going 
out as the representative and supported by the Baptist 
Church at Upper Tooting, London. 

Mr. and Mrs. Whitehouse, on the last voyage out to 
China, had the heartfelt grief of losing their only child, 
Harold, a boy of five years of age. He was buried at 
Singapore. Little did they think, however, that he was 
only taken away from the evil to come. 

Mr. Whitehouse, writing from T'ai-yuen-fu, April 20, 
1900, says: 'We greatly need special prayer on our 
behalf, for as I write there is unwonted disturbance 
connected with the preliminary examinations which are 
now proceeding, and with the arrival to-day of the new 
Governor of Shan-si.' This letter reached England just 
about the time of the martyrdom, and the prayers offered 
were answered in the strange calm and peace in which 
all met their death, and which extorted the admiration 
and astonishment of the spectators. 

Mrs. Whitehouse, 7ice Legerton, was formerly 
a member of the C.I.M., and married Mr. Whitehouse in 

Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Dixon 443 

China. She was a teacher in the mission school in 

Ellen Mary Stewart was bom on May 11, 

1 87 1. She was converted to God when a girl by a 
dream while at school. After her school days she was 
engaged as teacher in Kindergarten work. Her desire 
for missionary work abroad was of long standing, but 
home duties prevented for some time its realisation. 

In 1894, when she was inquiring for a place as 
governess, the secretary replied, ' There is but one name 
on our books, but it is too far from home for you. It is 
to teach English children in the interior of China in 
T'ai-yuen-fu.' She went away pondering and praying 
over what seemed God's answer to her heart's desire. 
Her father's consent was given, and soon she was on her 
way to China, and became governess in Dr. Edwards' 
family, of the Shao-yang Mission, where she remained 
over four years, and where her helpfulness and affection 
made her almost like a daughter. She gave singing 
lessons to the Chinese, and studied their language in 
her leisure time, but subsequently found she had not 
strength or opportunity to acquire it. After taking a 
furlough of eight months in England, she returned to 
China with Mrs. Farthing, of the Baptist Missionary 
Society, reaching T'ai-yuen-fu in May 1900, just after 
the arrival of the new Governor, Yii Hsien. She was 
naturally timid, but a strong sense of duty and a firm 
faith in her Saviour nerved her for all the trials of her 
lot, and the end was calm and peaceful. 


Rev. Herbert Dixon and Mrs. Dixon. Mr. 

Dixon was connected with the English Baptist Mission 
for twenty-one years. Previous to this, he had been a 
member of Downs Baptist Church, Clapton, London, 
and a student of Regent's Park Baptist College. For 
about five years of his missionary career he laboured 

y 444 What manner of Men were these? 

in Africa, on the field which is now known as the Congo 
Mission, doing much heavy pioneer work, and only- 
relinquishing it when, after severe illness, medical advice 
absolutely forbade his return to that country. He then 
consented to go to North China, and arrived, with Mrs. 
Dixon, in T'ai-yuen-fu in the spring of 1885. After 
some years of work from that city as a centre, he 
opened the new station of Hsin-chou, a county town 
some forty-five miles from T'ai-yuen-fu. Here opium 
refuge work, medical work, daily preaching, and country 
evangelistic work were diligently and successfully 
carried on. New premises had just been built, in order 
to accommodate the extending work. Younger men 
had come to give of their strength and vigour in service, 
and the work amongst the women was to be more 
vigorously prosecuted, and all was full of high hope 
and encouragement, and only for the time being are 
these hopes to be unfulfilled. 

Mr. Dixon was a man of strong will, vigorous 
constitution, and restless activity. He felt, on receiving 
a letter from Mr. Farthing, that a crisis had come, but 
he did not flinch. 

Mrs. Dixon, nee Williams, was born June 14, 
1855, at the Old Cross House, St. Davids. She 
became a member of the Calvinistic Methodist Church 
at the Tabernacle, St. Davids. She left St. Davids and 
became a nurse in a children's hospital in London, and 
then joined another hospital, where Mr. Dixon was 
getting medical instruction, and became engaged to 
him before he went out to Africa. On his return 
invalided, he went to the hospital where Miss Williams 
was engaged, and she nursed him back to con- 

On November i, 1884, Miss Williams and Mr. Dixon 
were married; and in the spring of 1885 Mr. and Mrs. 
Dixon .went out to China. She was a kind, gracious, 
and devoted woman, and, owing to her skill in nursing, 
a great help in the medical work carried on, besides 

William Adam McCurrach 445 

the work amongst the women. They leave four children 
to mourn their loss, three boys and one girl. 

Rev, William Adam McCurrach was born 
in Aberdeen on March 30, 1869. After leaving school, 
he served his apprenticeship in an ironmongery ware- 
house. His family belonged to the Free Church of 
Scotland, but as a scholar in a mission school in 
Causewayend he came under the influence of teachers 
who were Baptists. 

His conversion took place when he was sixteen years 
of age. On the morning after he made his great resolve, 
he joyfully confessed to the foreman of the workshop 
that he had become a Christian. The reality of the 
change was soon proved, and he rejoiced in making the 
fact known as widely as possible. He joined the local 
Y.M.C.A., and began to exercise his gifts as a Christian 
worker in connection with the Old Aberdeen Mission, 
where he laboured till he entered college. 

About a year after his conversion he joined the 
Baptist Church at Crown Terrace, Aberdeen. After 
hearing Dr. Guinness and Mr. Pigott, who visited 
Aberdeen at this time, he resolved to apply for admission 
into Cliff College, with the object of engaging in 
missionary work in China. After two years in this 
college, he applied to the Baptist Missionary Society, 
but the committee advised him to continue his studies, 
and recommended him to apply to Rawdon College, 
which he entered shortly afterwards. At the end of his 
four years' course in Rawdon he was accepted by the 
Baptist Missionary Society for work in China, and in 
the autumn of 1896 proceeded to that country. 

He easily made friends, and always kept them. Of 
an open, frank, and kindly disposition, he was a favourite 
wherever he went. Although sometimes tempted, he 
never swerved from his original determination to become 
a missionary in China. The only thing he dreaded in 
this connection was, he said, 'saying good-bye to his 

44<5 What manner of Men were these? 

On April 20, igoo, the day on which Yii Hsien 
arrived in T'ai-yuen-fu, Mr. McCurrach writes of a 
visit which he and his wife had made with others to 
some stations about eighty miles north of Hsin-chou, 
and where the party had met with encouraging success : 
' It is needless to say that such visits are not only help- 
ful to the natives but stimulating to our own spiritual 
life. We are most grateful to our Heavenly Father for 
giving us the privilege of speaking to so many, and we 
look to Him to follow the preaching of His own Word 
with His richest blessing.' 

Mrs. McCurrach, nee Clara Novello Scholey, 

was born on January 30, 1869, in Bradford. For many 
years it was ' her ambition to become a missionary/ an 
idea which her family did not quite approve of. For 
six years before going out to China she was head- 
mistress in the girls' school at Stairfoot, near Barnsley, 
and in this position proved very successful. In 1898 she 
was married in Shanghai to Mr. McCurrach. The last 
letter to her relatives proves her to have been a loving 
and faithful wife, and a true and earnest missionary. 

Rev. Thomas John Underwood was born in 
Cheltenham on December 6, 1867. When he was five 
years old his family removed to Bath, where his father 
threw himself very heartily into the work of the Baptist 
Church meeting at Manvers Street. The young mis- 
sionary's home-life was peculiarly fitted to develop 
all that was noblest in Christian character. His mother 
was a woman of rare sweetness, and her memory abides 
in the church at Manvers Street as one of its most 
precious treasures. With her son's decision for Christ 
at an early age came the desire to bring others to the 
knowledge of the Saviour, and his work in the Sunday 
school at the Bethesda Mission Station was marked by 
a thoroughness, regularity, and earnestness which gave 
the fairest promise for his future ; and when he entered 
Bristol College in order to be trained for missionary 

Thomas John Underwood 447 

work in China, all his friends were assured that he was 
led into this course by God Himself. He became 
endeared to all his fellow-students, for if his outward 
demeanour was grave, his tenderness, his humour, his 
high honour, and his absolute devotion to his Lord, 
marked him off for the love and reverence of all who 
were privileged to know him intimately. His ordina- 
tion took place at Manvers Street Church in September 
1896, and he went forth to his work followed by the 
solicitude and prayers of many loving hearts. 

Mr. Underwood arrived at T'ai - yuen - fu in the 
autumn of the same year. Rev. A. Sowerby, the only 
man on the Baptist missionary staff in Shan-si who 
survived the massacre of 1900, gives us the portrait of 
the young missionary at work in China : — ' Mr. Under- 
wood and Mr. McCurrach reached T'ai-yuen-fu one 
Tuesday afternoon somewhat earlier than was ex- 
pected, and just as we were starting out to meet them. 
I well remember how we were impressed with the 
appearance of those fine, handsome young men, and the 
joy we felt that the Master had sent two such brethren 
to labour for Him in the mission field. Very pleasantly 
did the next few days pass, for the advent of new 
missionaries marks a red-letter day in the calendar of 
the lonely workers in Inland China ; and after the long 
and toilsome journey, and the miserable accommodation 
of Chinese inns, newcomers are delighted to be once 
more in a home, and to be surrounded with friends. 
After discussion, it was decided that Mr. Underwood 
should remain in T'ai-yuen-fu. This decision was very 
gratifying to me, and during the winter Mr. Under- 
wood was a most welcome member of our household. 
Thoroughly modest, quiet, and unassuming, he made his 
presence and influence felt, so that we speedily realised 
that it was a privilege to have him under our roof; and 
when the time for parting came, my wife and I agreed 
that his companionship had been a real blessing to us. 
He joined in the quiet life of the missionary community, 
spent several hours with his teacher, and took his daily 

448 What manner of Men were these? 

walk in the squalid streets of the Chinese city, getting 
accustomed to noisome smells and disgusting sights 
and uncouth tones, or went out to enjoy the fresh air in 
the fields. At the language he worked with so much 
patience, and by such an admirable method (as he had 
his notebook always at hand for new expressions), that 
he very soon became master of a good number of stock 
phrases. He made good progress from the first, and it 
is not surprising that he passed all his examinations in 
Chinese with great credit. 

' The rapid progress Mr. Underwood made with the 
language soon enabled him to take part in the Sunday 
school, and ultimately he had the entire charge of the 
boys' school in T'ai-yuen-fu. There is a teaching not 
conveyed by words, and Mr. Underwood's kind and firm 
treatment of the boys was well adapted to the training 
of their character. It is greatly to his credit that at all 
times he worked in complete harmony with his colleagues, 
and that when Mr. Farthing left for a visit to the coast 
in the spring of 1900, he was well satisfied to leave the 
entire charge of the station in Mr. Underwood's hands. 

' The martyrdom of Mr. and Mrs. Underwood was an 
unspeakable sorrow to those who knew and loved them, 
and a great loss to the missionary staff. Only a few of 
their colleagues were left to mourn for them, but those 
who remain will never fail to cherish their memory with 
the deepest affection and respect. " Lovely and pleasant 
in their lives, in their death they were not divided," but 
together they passed through the last terrible strife, 
leaning on Christ, and together they heard the Saviour's 
" Well done," and entered into glory.' 

Mrs. T. J. Underwood, rit^e "White, was left an 
orphan at a very early age. In her seventeenth year 
she entered a house of business in Bath, where by her 
dependableness and conscientious service she won the 
esteem and affection of her employers. In early life 
she gave herself to her Saviour, and joined the Manvers 
Street Baptist Church in Bath. After engagement to 

Bessie Campbell Renaut 449 

Mr. Underwood, she spent a year in Mrs. Menzies' 
training home in Liverpool, where she gained ex- 
perience in nursing and in addressing meetings. She 
took a full certificate in midwifery, in preparation for 
the work that lay before her. In the year 1898 she 
joined Mr. Underwood in Shanghai, China, and they 
were married there on October 24, at the same time as 
Mr. and Mrs. McCurrach. Then followed busy months 
in T'ai-yuen-fu of language study, sick - nursing, and 
dispensing a kindly hospitality as required. 

At the time when the Boxer troubles broke out, Mr. 
and Mrs. Underwood were on a visit to Mr. and Mrs. 
McCurrach in Hsin-chou, and there shared all the trials 
and sorrows of the noble band of martyrs who were 
translated at that time. Mr. and Mrs. Underwood left 
no record, so far as is known, of their sufferings. 

Bessie Campbell Renaut was a lady of consider- 
able force and ability. She had been accepted for 
mission work in China by the Baptist Zenana Mission, 
and had arrived at her station in Hsin-chou only nine 
months before her death. 

She was born at Leytonstone, England, in 1871. Be- 
fore acceptance by the Missionary Society, she had 
proved her fitness for mission work by diligent teaching 
in the Sunday school at Leytonstone, and the use she 
made of the opportunities she had in the preparatory 
training home in Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow. 

Her letters from China testify to her interest in the 
work of the station, of her visits to the homes of the 
people in company with Mrs. Dixon, and her intense 
earnestness of desire to be able to speak to the people 
the words of eternal life committed to her. 

During the awful weeks of suspense and wanderings 
amongst the mountains, seeking to escape from their 
deadly foes. Miss Renaut managed to keep the diary 
from which extracts are given in Chapter V. The 
last entry in this diary is dated a few days before the 
end came. It was committed to faithful Chinese, who 

450 What manner of Men were these? 

managed to preserve it ; and it is now held as a sacred 
legacy by her mourning relatives. 

Rev. Sydney W. Ennals was born November i, 
1872, at Lewisham. It was his happy lot to be one of 
the best beloved of men. He was of an exceptionally 
winsome disposition, and his earnestness and strength 
of character made him a great spiritual power amongst 
those associated with him. Brought up at Bury St. 
Edmunds, where for many years his father was a deacon 
of the Baptist Church, his cheerful disposition made him 
a general favourite amongst his companions. When his 
schooldays were over, he spent five years in business at 
Ipswich and Cambridge, his leisure time being largely 
taken up in Christian work. 

At Cambridge the long-cherished desire of his heart 
was moulded into a definite resolve to go forth as a 
missionary, and, notwithstanding many obstacles, he 
steadfastly adhered to his resolution. He sought and 
found opportunities for service in the villages and 
mission halls of the district, until in 1892 he entered 
Regent's Park College. There he speedily won a 
unique place in the affection and esteem of his fellow- 

He entered whole-heartedly into the life of the 
college, and excelled in sports. At the close of his 
college career he passed the Senatus Academicus 
examination in the first division, and shared the prize 
for extemporaneous speaking. He was accepted by 
the Baptist Missionary Society for China, but was 
asked to wait until a vacancy occurred. For the inter- 
vening period he accepted an invitation to the pastorate 
of a recently formed church at Queenstown, Cape 
Colony. His pastorate commenced in January 1898, 
and lasted eighteen months, and was crowned with 
conspicuous success and blessing ; a building was bought 
and fitted as a church, latent opposition was overcome 
by the manifestation of a brotherly spirit, and many 
recognised that his was a life of singular consecration. 




Emily Whitchurch 451 

When the call came to leave for China, his loss was 
deeply felt and sincerely mourned by those to whom he 
had ministered. Although only a sojourner in Africa, 
he set himself to learn the Kafir language, in order to 
speak to the heathen around him ; and though his 
knowledge of it was necessarily slight, he used his 
acquirement of it to the utmost, and was not wounded 
by laughter at his mistakes. He had a genius for 
' personal dealing,' and showed continually that passion 
for souls which is one of the highest qualifications 
for effective service in missionary work. 

After coming home to England for a few weeks, he 
left for China, September 11, 1899. Though originally 
appointed by the Baptist Missionary Society to work 
in Shantung, China, he arranged with the Rev. F. J. 
Shipway, who was appointed at the same time for work 
in the province of Shan-si, to go to that province instead 
of to Shantung, and by so doing he unknowingly joined 
the company of those who were destined to obtain the 
crowning glory of martyrdom. 


Of Emily Whitchurch one who knew her well 
writes thus : ' About seventeen years ago. Miss Whit- 
church heard from Mr. Hudson Taylor's lips of the 
needs of China. It was God's call to her, and with 
loving, glad, childlike obedience, which always char- 
acterised her life, she responded — terrible as the thought 
of going was to her at first — " If Thou art calling me to 
go, I know Thou wilt give me strength, and I am 
willing." Miss Whitchurch reached Shanghai in April 
1884, and shortly after went to Chefoo. She remained 
in Chefoo some years as teacher in the girls' school 
which is established there in connection with the China 
Inland Mission. 

* The school attained during her stay a high 
standard of efficiency as an educational institution, and 
was recognised as being well managed. When she gave 


What manner of Men were these? 

up the work, every girl in the school professed her faith 
in Christ as her Saviour. Meantime, she did what she 
could for the Chinese women around her, and several 
were converted ; her heart, however, yearned to go to 
the regions beyond, and in 1887 she was set free from 
school-work and sent to Hsiao-I-Hsien. 

' There Miss Whitchurch laboured " more abund- 
antly " than ever, and continued unremittingly, with the 
exception of one short visit to the home land about 
seven years ago. God graciously owned her work and 
service of love, many souls were saved, demons cast out, 
the sick were healed, and opium - smokers reclaimed, 
testifying how mightily God can use even one yielded life. 

* Her trust in God was uniformly simple and strong, 
and this made her life like a sunbeam to every one 
around her. She enjoyed trusting in her Saviour, and 
in times of physical weakness and intense trial of various 
kinds, her childlike faith rose triumphant over every 

On May 8, 1896, after a year spent at the China 
Inland Mission school in Chefoo in teaching music, 
Edith Searell arrived in Hsiao-I-Hsien. There 
for four years she worked with all the powers of her 
energetic character, until she was called to wear the 
martyr's crown. She was amongst the first to go out 
from New Zealand to China in connection with the 

Her excellent ear for music and her training in that 
art enabled her to acquire the Chinese language with 
great rapidity, so that very soon she became a help to 
Miss Whitchurch in the work of the station. She would 
often surprise the Chinese from other parts of the 
country by her accurate imitation of their local dialects. 

From morning till night she was always busy ; what 
with teaching, serving out medicine to the opium 
patients, visiting, and housekeeping, she never had an 
idle moment. Often in the daytime she would be found 
in the women's room, teaching them and speaking to 

Edith Searell and Dwight H. Clapp 453 

them earnestly about God. She was very merry, and 
would amuse them much at times, and by her friendly 
ways win their hearts. Constantly, Miss Searell and 
Miss Whitchurch were appealed to by the natives to 
come and pray for some sick one, and their prayer of 
faith was repeatedly honoured. 

In the summer, when the opium refuge was closed, 
Miss Searell delighted to visit the neighbouring villages, 
and the villagers received her gladly, for she made 
herself entirely one of themselves, making friends 
with the children, eating the native food, and taking 
interest in all the affairs of the household. She was 
thus engaged up to the last Sunday before her fiery trial 
and final victory. 

Miss Searell was not strong ; she suffered at one 
time much from asthma and pneumonia, and retained 
this tendency to the end, but this did not prevent her 
from doing more work than many stronger people. 

An extract from a letter written June 28, 1900, just 
the day before she died, is most touching. She says, in 
writing to a friend : ' You speak of the possibility of 
one place being safer than another ; from the human 
standpoint all are equally unsafe ; from the point of 
view of those whose lives are hid with Christ in God, all 
are equally safe, ..." A mighty fortress is our God," 
and in Him we are safe for time and for eternity. Shall 
we murmur if we have less time than we expected ? 
" The less of time, the more of heaven." " The briefer 
life, earlier immortality." ' 


Rev. Dwight H. Clapp was born in Middlefield, 
Ohio, on November i, 1841. He graduated from 
Oberlin College in 1879, and from the Theological 
Seminary in 1884. He was married at Oberlin, 
June 3, 1884, was ordained on the 22nd of the same 
month, and sailed for China in September of the same 

454 What manner of Men were these ? 

Mrs. Mary Jane Clapp, nee Rowland, was born 

at Clarksfield, Ohio, February i8, 1845. She studied 
in Lake Erie Seminary, Painesville. Mr. and Mrs. 
Clapp went to the United States on furlough in 1894. 
Dr. Atwood, a colleague who was happily out of China 
at the time of these troubles, writes thus of them : 

' How can we speak adequately of Mr. Clapp, — of 
his overmastering love of men, and zeal in their service, 
that stopped at no hardship and hesitated at no self- 
denial ; travelling many hundreds of miles from village 
to village, climbing steep and rocky mountain passes, 
sleeping on the rude stone beds or k'angs in filthy, 
smoke-begrimed inns, where the air is suffocating with 
the sickening fumes of opium, that he might bring the 
light and hope of the Gospel to those who were without 
hope and without God in that land of a darkness that is 
tangible and appalling. 

* Time would fail me to tell even briefly of Mrs. 
Clapp's heroic faith and bravery, in establishing and 
carrying on for so many years, and so successfully, the 
boys' boarding school at T'ai Ku. Naturally of a timid 
and retiring disposition, she was enabled, by the grace 
of God, to overcome all difficulties in making this school 
a model of its kind, so that it has been the m.eans of 
winning scores of boys from heathen homes, and in- 
spiring their hearts with ideals of a lofty career. Great 
hopes are at stake in the future lives of some of these 
young men.' 

Rev. Francis W. Davis was born at Sparta, 
Wisconsin, September 8, 1857. He graduated from 
Oberlin College in 1889. He married Miss Lydia C. 
Lord on August 14, 1889, 3.nd they embarked for China 
in September of the same year. Mrs. Davis was in the 
United States at the time of the Boxer troubles, and so 
escaped the fiery trial which befell her husband. Of 
Mr. Davis, Dr. Atwood writes : 

' In Mr. Davis, what sterling honesty, unswerving 
fidelity, and sincerity we all saw stamped in every 

Rowena Bird and M. L. Partridge 455 

feature and illustrated in every act of his life ! Christian 
service and helpfulness in all the varied work of the 
mission was the strong motive of his life, whether it was 
in mending a broken chair or the making of a treasurer's 

Another writer says that Mr. Davis' gifts lay in the 
line of practical effort rather than scholarly attainment. 
His labours as a missionary were devoted almost wholly 
to pioneering effort, sharing with one of his associates in 
the opening of the station at Jen-ts'un. 

Rev. George L. Williams was born at South- 
ington, Conn., October 4, 1858, graduated from Oberlin 
College in 1888, and the Seminary in 1891. He 
married Miss Mary Alice Moore, May 26, 1891, and 
they sailed for China in July of the same year. Mrs. 
Williams and her three children were in the United 
States at this time. Of Mr. Williams a friend writes : 

' He was well equipped for missionary service, full 
of missionary enthusiasm and growing zeal in its 
prosecution. He was an excellent correspondent, 
speaking kindly of his associates and hopefully of the 
work in hand.' 

Rowena Bird was born at Sandoval, Illinois, July 
31, 1865, studied at Oberlin College, and embarked 
for China in September 1890. The testimony to 
her is : 

* With what supreme loyalty of consecration to the 
work of the boys' boarding school, and to the Lord and 
Master whom she served, did Miss Bird bring the 
devotion of her earnest life and character, and also to 
the work amongst the women of the surrounding 
villages ! Hers was no fitful or unsteady devotion to 
the work of the Master ; she gave her whole soul to it.' 

Mary L. Partridge was born at Stockholm, New 
York, March 27, 1865. She pursued her studies at 
Mount Holyoke, Rollins, and Oberlin Colleges, and 

45^ What manner of Men were these ? 

joined the mission in China on October 19, 1893. She 
is thus described : 

' What tireless activity marked the brief sojourn of 
Miss Partridge among the people of China ; not a whit 
behind the foremost in the thick of the fight, cheerfully 
bearing all hardships and dangers in long and tedious 
journeys, unattended except by a Chinese servant ; 
going faithfully, in storm or sunshine, to distant villages 
to bring the cheer of her loving friendship for her 
Chinese sisters, whose souls she coveted for the kingdom, 
and whose lost and miserable condition appealed so 
strongly to her affectionate nature.' 


Rev. Ernest R. Atwater was born at Oberlin, 
August 20, 1865, graduated at the college there in 
1887, and from the Seminary in 1892; married Miss 
Jennie E. Pond, who was also a graduate of Oberlin, 
and who died at Fen-chou-fu, November 25, 1896. In 
the year 1898, Mr. Atwater married Miss Elizabeth 
Graham, who had been engaged in missionary work 
in T'ai-yuen-fu in connection with the Shao-yang 
Mission, and who had come originally from Ireland. 

Dr. Judson Smith, of the Oberlin College, thus 
writes : 

* Mr. Atwater was a man of fine scholarship, of high 
purpose, of great energy ; his coming was a welcome 
event to the missionary force, and every feature of the 
work to which he put his hand has received a helpful 
impulse. Mr. Atwater was for many years secretary 
of the mission, a constant, clear, and valuable corre- 
spondent. No member of the mission took wider or 
more hopeful views of the work. Mrs. Atwater was of 
Irish origin. She was a woman of strong character, rare 
personal attractions, and warm interest in everything 
pertaining to the mission and its work.' 

Mr. Atwater, in writing to an associate, says : 

' The work in our mission is going right on, so let us 

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Price 457 

be up and doing. The next ten years will show a 
^?eat change. I want you to be in it, and to have the 
Sactron^f it; youLve put a -nsic^erable part of 
vour life into it, and it seems to me it will pay to put 
&hde of it 'in. Let us do a work here which will 
be a joy and a satisfaction through eternity. 

Rev. Charles W. Price was born at Richland 
Indiana December 28, 1847, pursued his studies at 
Ob ZSeg" and grad^aLd^rom the Se-inary in 
1880 Mrs. Price, nee Keasey, was born at Con 
tantine, Michigan, August '?, 1855. She was also a 
student at Oberlin. She married Mr. Price in 1873, and 

Mr. Price is thus described : 

'The schoolboys at Fen-chou-fu never can forget 
the loving, smiling face of Mr. Price as he met them 
day by df; for mSrning prayers or for daily lessons in 
Sclassiom. His face and presence were a contmua 
benediction to all with whom he came in contact^The 
soul shone constantly through every look and gesture, 
and ever proclaimed a heart of deepest kindness. 

The last letter from Mrs. Price, dated May 9, i?oo, 
breathes of such ministry to the sick and suffering. 
Hef life abounded in these labours for the wretched and 
lowly among whom she lived. Though she found it 
haTd to be reconciled to the thought of two homes one 
in America and one in China, with an ocean rolling 
between, she still gave her life gladly and unreservedly 
to the service of the poor and wretched. ^ , <■ 

Mr Price was in charge of the school at Fen-chou-fu, 
and Mrs. Price also assisted in this work. 

A P Lundgren was born in Denmark in 1879. 
He w;nt to the United States in 1887, where he became 
a naturalised citizen of the States. He sailed for China 
in 1891 as a member of the China Alliance 
Mission, and in 1898 he became a full member of the 
China Inland Mission. 

458 What manner of Men were these? 

Mr. Lundgren was stationed at Ku-hiu, which is 
about seventy miles from T'ai-yuen-fu, and not far from 
Hsiao-I, where he carried on opium refuge work and 
itineration among the surrounding villages. He was a 
faithful preacher and diligent worker, and preached the 
Gospel as fearlessly to the officials in the Yamen as he 
did to the peasants in the market-place. 

In 1896, Mr. and Mrs. Lundgren returned to America, 
and spent two years in Chicago studying theology. 
Mrs. Lundgren was clever and persevering, so that, 
besides attending to the duties of her house, she followed 
certain courses of Bible study, and taught herself music. 
After a year spent in Mr. Lundgren's home in Denmark, 
they both returned to China in 1899. 

Mrs. Lundgren, with her quiet, genial manner, 
received many women who visited her, and patiently 
taught Scripture verses and hymns to the patients in 
the opium refuge. She spoke the Chinese language 
well, and had a gracious manner and real love for the 
people amongst whom she laboured. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lundgren had been invited by Mr. 
and Mrs. Price to Fen-chou-fu, as the officials there 
were friendly, and it was thought to be safer than at the 
outlying station of Ku-hiu. 

Annie Eldred, of P'ing-yang-fu, was born Decem- 
ber 22, 1 87 1, and sailed for China in connection with 
the China Inland Mission on September 23, 1898. 
Her unselfishness was very marked, and made her a great 
favourite in every place, whether at home or at school, as 
an apprentice in a house of business, or as a Christian 
worker. Her life in China was a happy one, though 
headache sometimes stopped her study of the language. 
She wrote : ' I wonder what the end of it will be ; it 
would break my heart to have to leave China, but I will 
leave it all to Him, and learn to be content, and gladly 
say, " Thy will be done." I do love the people so, and 
want to stay with them.' 

She went to P'ing-yang-fu, South Shan-si, in May 





C. TAnson and Stewart M^Kee 459 

1890, and was called to wear the martyr's crown on 
Au-ust 15, 1900, so that her life in China, though short, 
was'' glorious. She followed her Lord in laying down 
her life for the people she loved. 


Charles I' Anson, persuaded by a friend to attend 
the night-school classes at the Conference Hall Mildmay, 
London, was there led to give himself to the Lord and 
to devote his life to His service. He began by takmg 
a class at St. John's Church, Hoxton, and afterwards 
became a lodging-house preacher, and engaged m other 
forms of evangelistic work. Later, after a course of 
study in Dr. Grattan Guinness' Trainmg College, he 
sailed for China in 1887. After four months spent m 
the Training Home of the China Inland Mission in 
Gan-king, he was stationed at Ta-tung-fu m Shan-si, 
where he remained, with the exception of a furlough m 
1897, till his death. He married Miss Florence Emi y 
Dogcart in 1 892. She was born in Sandon, Bury, Herts, 
in 1S67, and had the privilege of careful training in a 
Christian home. While at school she became interested 
in missionary work through the influence of one of her 
teachers, and subsequently in 1884 joined St. Andrews 
Baptist Church, Cambridge. She sailed for China in 
1889, and seven years later, owing to failing health, 
returned to England, her husband following a year later. 
They with their two children returned to China in 189b. 
They all entered their heavenly home together. 

Stewart M'Kee was converted at the St. George's 
Cross Tent in Glasgow in the summer of 1882. He at 
once became a home missionary, and led about a dozen 
of his workmates to trust in Christ as their Saviour. 
He was employed as tramway-guard, and continued tor 
three years after his conversion to work in this capacity, 
using all his spare time in Christian work. Then the 
desi?e to preach Christ to the Chinese was born in him, 

460 What manner of Men were these ? 

and soon became his one object, and God opened the 
way for him to go in connection with the China Inland 
Mission in 1885. 

Mrs. Stewart M*Kee, n^e Kate M*Watters, 

was also converted at the St. George's Cross Tent in 
Glasgow, and became a worker in connection with it. 
She also went out to China, and afterwards married Mr. 
M'Kee there. At first their work was in Mid China, 
but as that region did not prove healthful they were 
transferred to Ta-tung-fu, where, with the exception of a 
short furlough, they laboured for ten years. Their work 
was peculiarly trying and difficult, yet God blessed their 
labours, and souls were saved by their ministry. 

Maria Aspden was a native of Preston, where 
she was headmistress for over twenty years of 
Emmanuel Infants' School. In this work she was 
unusually successful, and secured from the school 
inspectors gratifying reports. She was converted to 
God in 1887, and long had the desire for missionary 
work, but duty to her parents kept her at home. 
Finally, however, the way opened up, and she went to 
China in 1892, and was stationed at Ta-tung-fu with 
Mr. and Mrs. M'Kee and others of the same mission. 
She made rapid progress in the Chinese language, and 
was soon able to speak fluently to the people in their 
own tongue. She had a great love for children, and 
they used to run and hold out their arms to her in the 
street, and their mothers were won to attend a sewing 
class, where texts of Scripture were given them, and 
they were taught hymns. She also did much work 
amongst the women in the surrounding villages, and 
amongst the patients in the opium refuge. One of her 
former fellow-workers writes : ' I am sure many in China 
will bless God that He sent her there.' 

Margaret Elizabeth Smith was born in New 
Hamburgh, Ontario, Canada, in 1858. Her father 

N. Carleson and G. E. Karlberg 461 

was a farmer from Durham, in England, who had gone 
to Canada as an emigrant, and settled there. She had 
godly parents and a refined home, where all the 
influences which these bring were amongst her early 
privileges. When twenty-three years of age, she was 
led to decision for Christ at the weekly Bible class 
which she attended. One of her sisters having gone to 
China as a missionary, and after a year's work there 
died of fever, this seemed to Miss Smith God's call to 
her to take up work for Him in that heathen land. 
After two years' training in Chicago and Toronto, she 
sailed for China in 1896 in connection with the China 
Inland Mission, and was stationed in Ta-tung-fu. 
There she spent three years of useful and happy service 
before she was called up higher. 

Nathanael Carleson was born on January 22, 
1867, in the province of Nerike, Sweden. His father 
was a member of the Council of the Swedish Holiness 
Union. He was the oldest worker in the field, having 
joined the mission in 1890, and was stationed in Tso- 
yun. He was a practical and energetic worker, and 
enjoyed the full confidence of his brethren. On coming 
to China the second time (in 1900), he left his wife and 
two children in Sweden, and they survive to mourn his 

G. B. Karlberg was born on March 18, 1869, and 
joined the mission in 1896. Before leaving Sweden, 
Mr. Karlberg did good work on the island of Gotland. 
He was dearly beloved and appreciated. He was in 
charge of Ing-cheo station. 

S. A. Persson was born on February 25, 1873, 
and went out to China at the same time as Mr. Karlberg. 
Mr. Persson was a good speaker of the Chinese language. 
His only ambition was to glorify Christ and to save 
souls. He had charge of So-p'ing-fu station. Mrs. 
Persson was an out-and-out Christian worker. 

462 What manner of Men were these ? 

O. A. L. Larsson was born in 1873, and had 

been in China only about two years. He was an earnest 
evangelist, and a never-failing peacemaker. Mr. E. 
Petterson had been only five months in China at the 
time of his death, and was hard at work on the study of 
the Chinese language. 

Miss M. Hedlund arrived in China in 1894. She 
gave herself to work and prayer. In her last letter she 
says : ' As for me, I don't fear if God wants me to 
suffer the death of a martyr.' Miss A. Johansson was 
born in 1867, and went to China in 1898. She worked 
with Miss Hedlund. Miss J. Lundell and Miss J. 
Engvall arrived in China together in 1899. One who 
knew them writes : ' They were strong and faithful, meek 
and lowly, ready for any service, bright, cheerful, and 
shining for Jesus all day.' 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Bmil Olson left Sweden in 
the early years of their life, and went to America, when 
they, after many vicissitudes, consecrated themselves 
to the Lord's service. They arrived in China in the 
spring of 1893, and joined the first party of the 
Christian and Missionary Alliance which in that year 
went to Mongolia. After the death of the Rev. 
Emanuel Olson, of the C.I.M., they were appointed by 
the Rev. A. B. Simpson, D.D., of New York, to the 
superintendence in Kuei-hua-cheng over the North 
China branch of the C. & M. A. They were both well 
equipped for their position, and, being very zealous, 
practical, hospitable, and generous, they also won the 
confidence and love of their associates. Both learned 
the Chinese language easily, and were well understood 
by the natives. Besides the work of superintendent, 
Mr. Olson started a printing press, the plant being 
presented to the mission by a generous friend in 
America. He instructed the Chinese in printing, and 
two papers and other publications were published by 
him. Day schools and classes for women were also 

C. L. Lundberg and Emilie Ericson 463 

held, as well as work done in the surrounding villages. 
With justice it was said about them, ' One cannot 
understand how they get time for all they do.' 

C. L. Lundberg was born in Tjarstads, Socken, 
Ostergotland, Sweden, on February 27, 1867. He 
attended the Rev. J. A. Kilstedt's course of Biblical 
instruction in 1891, and was sent out as an evangelist 
of the Holiness Union in Sweden. As he met with 
hardships in this work he looked upon it as a training 
for the heathen field, and was often heard saying, * I 
am devoutly thankful for the hardships I experienced in 
the home mission field, which have prepared me for 
service in China.' He was married in Kalgan, on the 
borders of Mongolia, to Miss Augusta Brolin in 1896, 
and after that took charge of the work in Chong-wei- 
hsien, Kan-suh, where he laboured till he was trans- 
ferred to Kuei-hsia-chang, Shan-si, in 1899. Mrs. A. 
Lundberg was born on September 5, 1872. She 
attended the Rev. F. Franson's Bible school in Sundvall, 
after which she came out to China as a member of the 
C. & M. A. in 1893. 

Edwin Anderson was born on January 14, 187 1, in 
Sodermanland, Sweden. He attended the Rev. F. Fran- 
son's Bible school in Stockholm in 1892, and sailed for 
China in December 1892 as member of the C. & M. A. 
After one year's study of Chinese, he opened work in 
Tung-shui-ho-hsi, where he worked till he was trans- 
ferred to Fo-to-cheng, Shan-si, in 1900, when Mr. M. Book 
returned home to Sweden. He was married in 1897 to 
Miss Emma Hasselberg of the same mission. They 
were both used in the Lord's service, and were 
instrumental in making not a few converts. 

Emelie Ericson was born on February 12, 
1862. She too attended the Rev. F. Franson's Bible 
school in Sundvall in 1892, and came to China in 1895 
as member of the C. & M. A. She worked partly in 

464 What manner of Men were these? 

Kan-suh, and lastly in Kuei-hua-cheng, and there she 
received her call to martyrdom. 

Besides the long roll of martyrs connected with the 
C. & M. A. who all died in trying to escape from the 
Boxers, we record the names of ten others who in differ- 
ent ways and places met death — the details of their 
sufferings are not yet known — and of the two families 
who suffered martyrdom at So-ping-fu, together with the 
Holiness Union missionaries. 

Oskar Forsberg was born on December 23, 1871, 
in Wermland, Sweden. He came to China in 1896. 
Soon after his arrival he had a sunstroke, from which he 
suffered more or less afterwards, and which even hampered 
him in acquiring the language. Being very kind, and 
always willing to help, his assistance in practical matters 
was often called for by his associates. He married in 
1898, Miss Anna Lindkvist of the same mission. She 
was born in Nassja, Ostergotland, on January 9, 1872, 
and came to China in 1896. She had a love for God's 
Word, and, being a walking ' concordance,' was often 
called for when a passage was wanted in a conference or 
meeting. Having a good memory, she easily learned her 
Chinese language, and was devout and earnest in her work. 

Charles Blomberg came from Morlunda in 
Smaland, Sweden, and was born on May 8, 1873. He 
attended Rev. F. Franson's Bible school in Jonkoping 
in 1893, and came out to China in 1896 as member of 
the C. & M. A. His first years were spent in Kuei-hua- 
cheng as Mr. E. Olson's assistant. He was diligent in 
his study of the Chinese language, and succeeded well, 
giving promise of usefulness in the Lord's work. In 
1898 he married Miss Laura Hanson of the same 
mission. After their marriage they went to Sa-la-tsi, 
Shan-si, to assist Mr. Aug. Palm in the work of 
the mission at that place. 

Olof Bingmark 465 

Mrs. Blomberg was born in Goteborg on July i, 
1 87 1. She also came to China in 1896. She was 
very tender - hearted, and used to weep over the 
sorrows of the Chinese. She truly loved them, and was 
allowed to die for the cause to which she had devoted 

Olof Bingmark came from Gotland. He was 
born on March 19, 1875, and came to China in April 
1^93) a- young man of eighteen, as a member of 
the C. & M. A. Besides the Chinese language, he 
studied theological works, and even taught himself 
Greek. As an evangelist he was very successful, being 
earnest, devout, and never tired in conversation with 
the Chinese, whether at home on the station, or out 

He was married in Kalgan in 1896 to Miss Elisabet 
Erikson of the same mission. She was born in Dalarne, 
Sweden, on October 15, 1865, and came to China in 
1893. Being straightforward and frank, she was liked 
by everybody in the mission, and loved and respected 
by the Chinese. As an example of her confidence in 
God and courage in danger, we give the following 
incident : — 

In the city of Yank-hao, where she and her husband 
were stationed, the people were always very obscene, 
and hated foreigners, and more than once threatened to 
attack the missionaries. At one time a great crowd had 
gathered outside the gate of the station, wanting to ' kill 
the foreign devils.' Mrs. Bingmark wanted to go right 
out into the crowd, saying, ' If it be not the Lord's 
will, they can never hurt me ; besides, I have wronged 
none among them.' 

William Noren was born on August 11, 1871 ; 
Mrs. Noren {nee Augusta Zoberg) was born on 
September 29, 1864. She had been a nurse in the 
Serafimer Hospital, Stockholm, before she came to 
China. Both attended the Rev. F. Franson's Bible 

466 What manner of Men were these ? 

school in Stockholm in 1892, and sailed for China in 
the same year. 

When the Boxer troubles broke out, they were 
stationed at Pao-teo, and report says that they fled out 
on the Mongolian plain in the hope of reaching Urga, but 
after long suffering died from starvation in March 190 1. 

Mr. Noren had met with outrage at Ho-pao-ing in 
1895, when a mob attacked the mission there. The 
three missionaries, including Noren and Ogre, at that 
time hid themselves below the floor in the ash-hole 
belonging to the stoves of the brick beds which they 
have in that region, and escaped, as the mob never 
thought of looking for them there. 

Martin Nystrom was born in Bjornlunda county, 
Sodermanland, Sweden, on September 26, 1874. His 
father, who is still living, is a member of the S.M.U., 
and had two sons in China, Mr. F. Nystrom, however, 
escaped to Sweden. 

Mr. M. Nystrom was of a quiet and earnest dis- 
position, faithful in the Master's service, and of a 
peaceful nature. He worked in the province of Kan-suh, 
and although his day of labour was short, as he only 
came to China in 1896, he brought a good many to 
the Lord. His wife, Mrs. Anna Nystrom {7iee Johanson), 
was born in Oster Korsberga county, Ostergotland, on 
June 2, 1870, and came to China in 1896 as member 
of the C. & M. A. They were, in 1898, married in 
Kuei-hau-cheng, and returned to Ping-lo, in the province 
of Kan-suh. He also fled to the Mongolian plains, 
hoping to reach Urga, but was overtaken by the 
Boxers and unmercifully murdered. 

August Palm was born in Nerike, Sweden, on 
July 23, 1 87 1. He attended the Rev. F. Franson's Bible 
class in Orebro, and sailed for China in 1 896. He worked 
together with Mr. Albert Anderson in Sa-la-tsi, and 
when he, in 1898, returned to Sweden, Mr. Palm took 
charge of the work there. 

Alida Gustasson and K. Hall 467 

He married Miss Anna Anderson in Kuei-hau-cheng 
in 1898, but his wife died on Christmas Eve the same 
year. This was to him a severe loss, but the Lord 
comforted His servant in his grief His motto was : 
* Forward in the footsteps of Jesus. We cannot expect 
God to be with us if we choose our own way.' 

Alida Gustasson was born on August 7, 
1862, in Morlunda, Sweden. She had been an officer 
in the Salvation Army, but, meeting with Rev. F. 
Franson in Stockholm, she heard about the need of the 
Chinese women. After this she had only one desire, 
namely, to save the Chinese, and she sailed for China 
in 1893. She worked for some years in Yang-kao-hsien, 
Shan-si, but was transferred to Tong-tsing-tsi, where in 
1897 she opened up a station, and where she stayed 
most of the time alone. She was zealous in proclaiming 
the Gospel, and feared no hardships in her Master's 
service. Now she has obtained what she often longed 
for, * a martyr's crown.' 

Klara Hall was born in Nyolby, Ostergotland, 
on August 13, 1849. She was, when she met Mr. 
Franson in Stockholm, an officer in the Salvation 
Army. Hearing of the spiritual needs of the Chinese, 
she decided, after much prayer and waiting on the 
Lord, to leave the Army, and go to China, where she 
arrived in 1893. She was converted in 1873, ^^^ often 
spoke of this great event in her life thus : ' I can never 
forget that moment in that little hut by the roadside on 
the 15th of March, when the Lord worked that wonder 
in my soul.' In 1880 she was called to take charge 
of a home for prostitutes in Norrkoping. Here she 
became acquainted with the Salvation Army, which she 
soon joined, and in which she became a zealous and 
successful officer. 

She followed her Master through hardships and 
ease, yea, even in prison, where she was put because 
she openly confessed the name of Jesus. About this 

468 What manner of Men were these? 

she said : ' I was very happy in my cell, but one thing 
grieved me during the first few days, for which I even 
wept, that was the loss of my Bible, which I was not 
allowed to have with me.' She received it a few days 
later on special application. Seeing many orphans in 
China left to die, her heart ached, and she made a 
special appeal to friends in Sweden to help her to open 
an orphanage. This she was able to do in 1898 in 
Sha-ri-tsing, Shan-si. It was a great comfort to her 
when Miss Kristina Orn in the spring of 1900 arrived 
from Sweden as her associate. At that time they had 
probably over thirty children in the orphanage, and they 
and the children were probably all murdered together. 


David B. Thompson sailed for China in 1880, in 
connection with the China Inland Mission. He was 
then twenty-six years of age, an enthusiastic and 
vivacious Scotchman. He had been trained in the 
East London Institute, and had been for two and a 
half years the superintendent of Mr. Quarrier's Home 
for Boys, Govan Road, Glasgow. Early in 1885 he 
married Miss Agnes Dowman, and together they went 
to China, and began work in Chu-chou-fu, in the 
province of Chekiang. As this city is near the borders 
of Kiangsi, part of the work in that province was also 
placed under his superintendence. Mr. Thompson was 
able to say that, by the grace of God, he had baptized 
and received into the Christian Church sixty-two 
Chinese, after six years' labour in Chu-chou city. 

While in England on furlough in 1891, he under- 
took much evangelistic work, and had many signs of 
blessings on his labours. While at the seaside in the 
summer, he would show his Chinese dress to attract 
attention, and go to the beach and collect an audience 
and preach to them the word of life. 

A visitor to the Thompsons in Chu-chou in i; 
thus describes the scene : 

Josephine Desmond 469 

* The whole scene is photographed on my mind. 
The bright welcome when we arrived, — Mrs. Thompson's 
and baby Sidney, then six weeks old ; little Edwin, a 
sweet child of three years, eager to take us round the 
garden, part of which was well stocked with English 
flowers and vegetables. . . . Christian women were 
at work under Mrs. Thompson's direction, and the 
evangelist in and out, every one busy and always busy. 
A joy-tone was about that spot that will never fade 
from my memory. The work was hard, the people 
proud and unyielding, yet they were sowing in hope of 
a glorious harvest. 

* The medicine shop, in one of the busiest thorough- 
fares, was open all day, and the Christian man in 
charge was freely distributing Gospel tracts to each 
customer. About six o'clock the selling of medicine 
stopped, seats were arranged, and all the evening spent 
in Gospel work. Night after night the shop was filled 
with an ever-changing congregation of men of every 
rank, from the scholar to the coolie. I spent one 
evening watching the interesting scene, — Mr. Thompson 
and two evangelists at work, singing, preaching, and 
answering questions. The number rarely went below 
seventy throughout the three hours I was present. 
What a sowing of the good seed ! ' 

Mr. Thompson had access into many homes of all 
classes in the city, and was constantly sent for in times 
of sickness. The work was enlarging on all sides ; 
new premises had been built, Mrs. Thompson's meeting 
had an attendance of eighty women twice a week, and 
the out-stations were prospering, when the storm burst 
upon and swept them to ' the other side.' 

Josephine Desmond was born in West Newton, 
Mass., in 1867. She was of Irish descent, and her 
parents were Roman Catholics. Miss Desmond, how- 
ever, became a Protestant, and sought, along with her 
change of heart, the mental culture to be obtained in 
Mr. Moody's schools at Northfield. She remained at 

4/0 What manner of Men were these? 

Northfield five years, and during her course of study 
there received God's call for service amongst the heathen, 
through the lips of Mr. Robert Speer, who was visiting 
the seminary at the time, and had taken the opportunity 
of pressing the claims of the heathen world upon the 
attention of the students. On finishing her course at 
Northfield, she went to Mr. Moody's Bible Training 
School at Chicago, where she spent some months in 
definite Bible study. 

She then offered and was accepted for mission work 
in China in connection with the China Inland Mission. 
She spent some time in the mission home in Toronto, 
where she took a full course in the art of nursing, and 
was incessant in good works amongst the poor in that 
city. She arrived in China in December 1898, and, after 
taking the usual course of study in the Chinese language, 
she joined Miss Britton, who was in charge of the station 
at Shiao Shan, and, on Miss Britton's return to England 
on furlough, she went to Chu-chou to help in the work 
there. She was thus only eighteen months in China 
before the call to ' come up higher' came to her. 

M. E. Manchester was born in Edmeston, New 
York, on November 11, 1871. She was reared in an 
atmosphere of true piety, and so the passing from 'death 
into life ' was with her a gradual process, but when about 
nineteen years of age she gave herself definitely to the 
Saviour and to His service. She received a fair education 
in her native place, and engaged for some time in school 

She offered for mission work in China in connection 
with the China Inland Mission, and, after two years of 
training in the mission home in Toronto, set sail for 
China in 1895. After a preliminary study of the Chinese 
language, she joined Miss Fuller at the station of Ch'ang 
Shan, in the province of Chekiang, where she remained 
for two years, until Miss Fuller became Mrs. Ward. She 
then removed to Chu-chou, and worked in happy associa- 
tion with Miss Sherwood. She had heard of her father's 


G. F. WARD. 


Edith S. Sherwood 471 

failing health, and was preparing to return to the home- 
land to attend him, when the summons came which called 
her to her Father's house above. A friend in writing of 
her work says : 

' She loved the people, and, having got on well with 
the language, constantly spent weeks together itinerating 
from village to village. Many women had been brought 
to Christ, and there were many inquirers. Mr. Thomp- 
son's last letter told of baptisms, and great encourage- 
ment in the work all around.' 

Edith S. Sherwood was born on April 11, 1854. 
From her youth up she was one of those to whom 
service for Christ seems to be natural, growing with her 
growth of mind and body. While in school, her bright 
example was blessed to her young companions, and even 
on her journeys home for the holidays she would produce 
little penny Gospels that she had bought with her pocket- 
money, and confidentially present them to fellow-passen- 
gers 'whose eyes were getting too old to read small 
print.' As she advanced to womanhood, her powers 
and opportunities of service increased. Her natural 
force of mind and will made her services valuable, and 
her talents were in constant demand. 

She worked in connection with Christ Church, 
Barnet, amongst the sick and poor, and also amongst 
militiamen there, and amongst soldiers at Aldershot and 
Colchester, and for a time assisted in Miss De Broen's 
Mission in Paris. A friendship formed with Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson was the providential link which led her 
to China, where she accompanied them in 1893, and 
where she spent the last seven years of her busy life. 
Her home in Chu-chou was in the midst of native 
houses, and as she looked out upon these from her 
balcony, she prayed and longed for the salvation of the 
people. She visited freely amongst them, and was 
always well received, and for them she was called to lay 
down her life. 

472 What manner of Men were these? 

G. F. Ward was ' born again ' at a meeting of the 
Y.M.C.A. held in Aldersgate Street, London, in 1890, 
and from that time he earnestly desired that others 
might know the Saviour whom he loved. He was soon 
led to feel the urgent need of ' China's millions,' and he 
offered himself for work there in connection with the 
China Inland Mission, undertaking to pay all his own 
expenses. His joy on receiving a favourable reply was 
unbounded, and this joy of his Lord was his strength, 
the well-spring of which was his unfailing supply until 
the day on which he was called to lay down earth's 
burdens and take up the martyr's crown. He accom- 
panied Mr. and Mrs. Thompson to China in 1893, ^"^ 
was ultimately stationed at Ch'ang-shan, in the province 
of Chekiang. 

Mrs. G. P. Ward, nee Etta L. Fuller, was born 
in Iowa in 1866, but left an orphan at an early age. At 
the age of twelve, she gave her trust to her Saviour, 
and served Him with all her might from that day 
on. She had some training for her future life in the 
Minneapolis Training Institute. She felt called to go 
forth as a worker in China, and finally arrived there in 
connection with the China Inland Mission in 1894. 
She was ultimately located in Ch'ang-shan, in the 
province of Chekiang, where she was engaged in the 
ordinary work of the mission until her marriage with 
Mr. Ward in 1897. 

The work took new life from that date, and in two 
years the number of church members and inquirers had 
doubled. A little son, named Herbert Calvin, also added 
much to their joys, and became a great attraction to the 
natives who surrounded them. It was thus amidst the 
most hopeful and encouraging circumstances that the 
blow came which called them all, as a united family, to 
enter the presence-chamber of the King. 

Emma Ann Thirgood from her earliest years 
was deeply interested in spiritual things. As a scholar 

Francis Huberty James 473 

in the Sunday school, and afterwards as a teacher, 
she devoted herself to the conversion of those in her 
class. She became also an active worker in connection 
with the Christian Endeavour and Young Christians' 
Band in connection with her church. In 1889 she 
sailed for China, and spent six months at the China 
Inland Mission Training Home at Yang-chau. She was 
stationed at Ts'ing-kiang-pu, on the Grand Canal, and 
afterwards at Chi-chau, in the province of Gan-hui. She 
became so enfeebled by her labours that she had to 
return to England after seven years in China, where she 
remained over two years, returning to China in October 
1898, and was then stationed in Ch'ang-shan to help Mr. 
and Mrs. Ward in the work there. 


Professor Francis Huberty James was born 
at Upton, Berkshire, in June 185 1, where his father 
kept the village store. From his mother he inherited 
his sympathetic disposition, and from his father the 
tenacity of purpose and strength of will which were his 
chief characteristics. 

At the age of twenty-five he applied for mission 
work in connection with the China Inland Mission, and 
went to China under their auspices in 1876. For the 
next two years Mr. James travelled over the greater 
part of North China, and did much valuable pioneering 
work. He, with others, did a good deal of hard and 
hazardous work in connection with the relief of the 
famine-stricken sufferers in the province of Shan-si in 
1877. His labours in this way so reduced him that he 
was compelled to return to the coast to recruit. 

In September 1878 he married Miss Marie Huberty, 
a Belgian lady who had come out as a missionary in 
connection with the China Inland Mission, and at that 
time took from her the name of Huberty and placed 
it before his own surname. In 1881 he returned to 
England, and in 1883 joined the English Baptist 

474 What manner of Men were these ? 

Mission working in the province of Shantung. He was 
first stationed at Ch'ing-chou-fu, and afterwards in 
Chi-nan-fu in that province, where he did much useful 
work in consolidating the native Church in the pre- 
fectural city and district, and in opening up communica- 
tion with the officials in the provincial capital. In 1890 
he prepared a paper, which was read at the Missionary 
Conference in Shanghai, on the Secret Sects of China. 
Little did he anticipate then that at the hands of 
members of one of these sects he was to die. 

In 1892, owing to fundamental changes in his 
religious beliefs, he resigned his connection with the 
English Baptist Mission and returned to Europe. After 
some time spent in England and Germany, he settled 
in the United States, where he remained several years, 
and engaged in lecturing, preaching, and literary 
work. In 1895 he secured the Lowell Lectureship in 
Boston, U.S.A., following the famous Professor Henry 
Drummond, and delivered a series of lectures on the 
History, Literature, Philosophy, and Religions of China. 
These decidedly revealed * an unusual amount of careful 
research, keen criticism, and a fine analytical instinct, 
combined with great familiarity with every important 
phase of Chinese thought, history, and belief.' (These 
Lectures are expected to be published, the manuscript 
being left in the competent hands of Dr. Morrison of 

In 1897, Mr. James returned to China, having taken 
the post of translator at the Imperial Arsenal, near 
Shanghai. This position he held for about a year, and 
he was then invited to join and accepted a place on the 
staff of the Imperial University in Peking, which 
appointment he held at the time of his death. He was 
in Peking at the commencement of the Boxer outbreak 
there, and exerted himself most heroically, along with 
Dr. Morrison, in securing for the native Christians, some 
two thousand in number, the shelter of the force which 
was fighting within the walls of the British Legation. 

The Legation authorities naturally did not relish the 

Francis Huberty James 475 

idea of adding to their already heavy responsibilities the 
care of feeding and housing so large a multitude of 
natives, and at first refused to undertake it, declaring it 
to be impossible. Undaunted by this refusal, Mr. James 
with Dr. Morrison proceeded to 'accomplish the im- 
possible.' Together they appealed to Prince Su, whose 
palace was only separated by a narrow canal from the 
British Legation, and secured from the prince the 
permission to take the native Christians within his 
spacious premises. 

This effort was a most happy one for all concerned, 
for not only were the lines of defence extended and so 
the British Legation made more secure, but the Christian 
natives most willingly undertook the heavy coolie work 
of mining and countermining, and the still more arduous 
work of building ramparts of sandbags, without which 
the whole foreign and native community, who were 
besieged for two months, would undoubtedly have 
perished from the assaults of their enemies. 

This was Mr. James' last and crowning effort. On 
June 20, 1900, about five o'clock in the afternoon of the 
same day on which Baron von Ketteler was murdered, 
Mr. James left the British Legation grounds, — for what 
purpose no one seems to know definitely, — and, crossing 
the dry moat, made for a bridge situated a little distance 
to the north of the Legation gate. He was met by some 
Chinese soldiers, one of whom was about to fire on him, 
when he threw up his hands to show that he had no 
weapons, and was seized and led away. It is said that 
he afterwards suffered decapitation, by orders from Jung 
Lu, who was then engaged in directing the siege of the 
foreigners in the Legation, and that his head was stuck 
on a spear and exhibited to the passers-by, some of 
whom recognised it. 

Honour has been done to Mr. James' memory. A 
public meeting was held in Boston, U.S.A., on Feb- 
ruary 5, 1 901, presided over by Rev. Edward Everett 
Hale, D.D., at which Rev. Dr. Clark (so well known in 
connection with the Christian Endeavour Movement) 

476 What manner of Men were these? 

and other influential gentlemen were present. The 
meeting endorsed the following resolution, which was 
signed for presentation to the Chinese Government: — 

' At a public meeting of the citizens of Boston, we 
were requested to prepare a memorial which should 
express our sense of the value to mankind of the 
services of Francis Huberty James, lately Professor of 
the University of China. Mr. James visited America in 
the year 1893 with the single object of interesting us in 
the welfare of the people of China. He knew them by 
having lived there for sixteen years. 

'When he returned to China in 1897, the value of his 
work was made evident to the Imperial Government, 
and he was invited to take an important post in the 
Imperial University which he held at the time of his 
death. Had he been left, his services to peace would 
have been invaluable to-day.' 

Rev. J. Stonehouse. While Professor F. H. 
James was murdered at the beginning of the siege of 
the Legations in Peking, Mr. Stonehouse's murder may 
be said to have marked the close of that terrible and 
trying ordeal : although it did not happen for some 
months afterwards, yet it was the direct outcome of the 
state of anarchy of which the siege of the Legations was 
the climax. Mr. and Mrs. Stonehouse with four children 
passed through all the horrors of the siege, which almost 
killed their youngest child. 

Mr. Stonehouse was on the committee for the 
defence of the British Legation during the bombard- 
ment, and rendered able assistance to Mr. Gamewell, 
the chairman of that committee, in superintending the 
Chinese Christians in their work on the fortifications. 

Mrs. Stonehouse and the children returned to 
England in the autumn of 1900, but Mr. Stonehouse 
felt it to be his duty to remain at his post and help to 
reorganise the work of the mission, which the events 
of the previous months had almost destroyed. He had 
been engaged in this work for some months, and was 

J. Stonehouse 477 

at the time of his death visiting some of the country 
stations under his care, — work which he always loved, and 
for which he seemed specially adapted. On March 
23, 1901, he was crossing the river Tung-huo, near 
Lo-fa, the railway station midway between Peking and 
Tien-tsin, in a small Chinese ferry-boat, when a band of 
robbers appeared on the opposite bank, and, after several 
shots had been fired, Mr. Stonehouse was mortally 
wounded, and died some hours afterwards. The British 
troops who were encamped at Lo-fa, on receiving word 
of this shocking occurrence, sent out a detachment, 
accompanied by Dr. Macfarlane, of the L.M.S., Tien-tsin, 
and recovered the body, which was buried in Peking 
on March 27, 1901. Mr. Stonehouse's funeral was 
attended by a very representative gathering, including 
the British Minister, Sir Ernest Satow, K.C.M.G., and 
a large number of native Christians. 

The Rev. T. Biggin, B.A., the colleague of Mr. 
Stonehouse, made touching reference to his friend and 
brother in the address he made at his funeral, from 
which we make some extracts as follows : — 

' I feel I must say, however brokenly, what during 
this last year and a half Stonehouse has become to me. 
Many of you have known him longer, but I doubt if 
you have known him so intimately. They took me — 
a stranger here — into their home, and let me share their 
lives there, and that is where I first learned his worth as 
a father and husband, and these were the centre of his 
life. The home was full of love, and his love was the 
strongest and richest there. 

* It is only lately that Stonehouse the missionary has 
grown greatly on me. A new-comer cannot understand 
much, but it was the same here as in the home — the 
Chinese Christians were his children, and he loved them 
as he did his own. There was here, as in the home, a 
certain abruptness that a careless observer might mis- 
take, — and Stonehouse would be too proud to heed such 
a man, — but there was burning beneath the same, devoted, 
fervent, and jealous love — greater than any of us realise. 

478 What manner of Men were these? 

These last few months have been to me a revelation. 
With a work to do hard and thankless, but whose sorest 
difficulties those outside his circle cannot know, he has 
done that work, and done it well. At last, when the 
work is almost done, the Master called him away 
suddenly, strangely. Do not pity him ; he died at his 
post, as a man may wish to die.' 

Mr. Stonehouse was a missionary of the London 
Missionary Society, stationed at Peking at the time of 
his death. He was born in Middlesborough in 1854, 
and was trained at Rotherham College. He was 
ordained at Saddleworth, Yorkshire, on July 27, 1882, 
and sailed three months later for his station at Shanghai, 
China. Two years later he married Miss Gertrude E. 
Randle of Huntingdon. In 1886 he was removed to 
Peking, and engaged in work in the East city there for 
the next six years, when he came to England on furlough, 
returning to Peking in 1894, where he remained till his 
death. At the meeting of the directors of the London 
Missionary Society held in London shortly after the 
news reached England of the murder of Mr. Stonehouse, 
the Rev. George Cousins expressed the grief which all 
present felt at the sad intelligence lately received. He 
said : ' Mr. Stonehouse had gone into a country district 
near Tien-tsin to relieve famishing native Christians. 
He had done similar work repeatedly of late, and had 
been in peril once or twice. He had, however, felt it to 
be his duty to push out and open up communication 
with the Christians who had endured so much, and he 
had acted with the bravery characteristic of him.' The 
chairman, W. Crossfield, J. P., of Liverpool, stated that 
the latest communication received at the mission house 
from Mr. Stonehouse was an account of a memorial 
service to the native Christian martyrs in China, and he 
began his article with the words, 'It is not given to 
many Christians to suffer martyrdom for the cause of 
Christ' Mr. Stonehouse had himself now joined the 
band of martyrs. 

p. Alfred Ogren 479 


P. Alfred Ogren was born in 1874 at a little 
farm near Jonkoping, the place noted for the manu- 
facture of ' Swedish safety matches.' When he was 
fourteen, his parents moved into the city. As a lad he 
showed a disposition for study, but means not being 
forthcoming, he had to take to some practical work. 
He became a carpenter, and laboured as such until 

Soon after his arrival at Jonkoping he was con- 
verted, and from the beginning was out-and-out in 
his confession of Christ. As a member of the 
Y.M.C.A., his friends say he was never absent from 
a meeting, and was a diligent labourer in every depart- 
ment of Christian work. Although busy as a carpenter, 
he found time for much prayer, Bible study, and 
other educational pursuits, often reading far into the 

When the Rev. F. Franson visited Jonkoping in 
1892, Mr. Ogren responded to the call for labourers 
abroad. He then entered with greater zeal into his 

In China the Lord blessed his work, helping him in 
his study of the Chinese language, also Greek and Latin. 
He became a successful preacher. His colleagues in 
China say that when he was spoken of, the Chinese 
would — as their custom is — lift up the thumb and say, 
' Mr. Ogren ! oh yes, he is a missionary.' 

He was accepted as a full member of the C.I.M., 
which his friends in Sweden greatly appreciated. His 
day of service was, however, limited. To him has been 
given the martyr's crown. He leaves a sorrowing widow 
and two children. 

When the tidings reached Jonkoping, a memorial 
service was held at the Y.M.C.A., where his friends 
one after another rose and praised God for the blessing 
Mr. Ogren's life had been. 

480 What manner of Men were these? 

He was young, of humble circumstances, and not 
highly educated, yet, full of zeal, meek in spirit, abound- 
ing in joy in the Lord, always ready for service, he 
has left a memorial more precious than is given to 

Mrs. A. E. Glover, nie Florence Constance 
Kelly, was the second daughter of Rev. J. A. Kelly. 
She was born on New Year's day 1872, in Dover, 
England. From the first, her parents dedicated her 
to God and His service, and she was always the child 
of much prayer. When her father left Dover for Preston 
Gobalds, near Shrewsbury, she then took an active part 
in the Lord's work, holding classes for men and women, 
and doing much visiting, and God owned and blessed 
her efforts. 

It was here, in 1894, she married Rev. A. E. Glover, 
M.A., one of the curates of the Rev. Prebendary Webb- 
Peploe. One of the links which drew these two souls 
together was their common desire to preach and live for 
Christ in China. 

In 1896 the way seemed opened for Mr. Glover to 
proceed to China, under the auspices of the China 
Inland Mission, and he was settled in Lu-an, along with 
Mr. Stanley Smith, well known in connection with the 
mission as one of ' the Cambridge seven.' 

A year later, Mrs. Glover, with two children, a baby 
boy and a little girl, joined her husband in China, 
worked quietly at the language, and later had classes for 
women, and visited among them in the city and sur- 
rounding villages. Only three short years of service did 
they have together, and then came the final trial which 
ended in the ' martyr's crown.' 

Hattie Jane Rice was a native of Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., where she was born in 1858, and was thus 
at her death forty-two years of age. In 1888, while 
attending Mr. Moody's Convention at Northfield, she 
heard Mr. Hudson Taylor speak, and then decided 

Mary E. Huston 481 

to give herself to her Master's service in China. In 
1892 she left for China in connection with the China 
Inland Mission, and became located in Lu-ch'eng, in 
the province of Shan-si, — first of all along with Mr. and 
Mrs. Lawson of the same mission, and subsequently 
with Mr. and Mrs. Cooper and Miss Huston, after the 
Lawsons had left on furlough. 

A fellow-worker in a neighbouring station thus 
writes of her : ' Always a busy worker in the villages, 
I am sure there are many who have been led to know 
Jesus as their Saviour through her instrumentality. . . . 
In a time of great trial, she was a great comfort to me, 
and always ready with some word to help and en- 

Another writer says: 'For some time after the 
absence of Mr. and Mrs. Lawson on furlough, Miss Rice 
bravely carried on the work alone, which must have 
been no light strain to one naturally nervous as she was. 
That she could do this was owing to her deep heart- 
rest in the Lord. She was much respected by the 
people, and most conscientious in steady, plodding work, 
both among the opium patients at Lu-ch'eng, and in 
visiting the members of the church in their homes in 
the country.' 

Mary E. Huston was born in the State of 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., in 1866. In 1894 she entered the 
Gospel Training School at Abilene, Kansas, and had 
as a fellow-student Miss Troyer, who afterwards became 
Mrs. Young, and who also suffered martyrdom in Shan-si 
about the same time as her college companion. Miss 
Huston sailed for China in connection with the China 
Inland Mission in December 1895, and was, after the 
usual course of study at Yang-chau, appointed to Lu-an 
in Shan-si. However, when Mr. and Mrs. Lawson left 
Lu-ch'eng on furlough, it was arranged for Miss Huston 
to join Miss Rice in that city. This arrangement proved 
a most happy one, and a friendship ripened between 
them which was most helpful to each. 


482 What manner of Men were these? 

Miss Huston is described as ' a woman with a big 
warm heart and devoted to children.' She found scope 
for her motherly love and unselfishness in nursing the 
opium patients in the refuge. She too worked hard 
at the language, and made good progress. She also 
spent much time in the villages amongst the Chinese 
women, and could hardly be persuaded to take a 

On that terrible journey to Hankow, when Miss 
Huston with Miss Rice got separated from the 
others of Mr. Saunders' party, Miss Huston, at the 
time that Miss Rice was beaten to death, got severely 
wounded. After she had done what she could for Miss 
Rice's poor battered body, she endeavoured to make 
her way to Tseh-chau. While on the road, she met 
some men who had been sent from Tseh-cheu by the 
magistrate to bring her some clothing, and to bury 
the body of Miss Rice. Miss Huston was then taken 
to a temple, and the gods consulted as to her fate. 
The decree being favourable, she was saved from 
death by violence at that time, and was carried on 
a stretcher till she rejoined her party. Two days, 
however, before reaching Hankow she died of exhaus- 
tion, and was buried in the foreign cemetery in that 

One who was with her in her last hours writes: 
' She said to me again and again that it was a great 
joy to her to be counted worthy to have fellowship 
with Christ in His sufferings.' The same writer says : 
' Miss Huston was very bright and affectionate. She 
was always ready to shower love on all who came 
within her reach. From the first the Chinese children 
loved her dearly, and long ere she could make herself 
fully understood, she gathered the little ones round 
her on Sunday afternoons and taught them what she 
could. It was sweet to hear the school children call 
her " Auntie." They would climb on her knees, play 
with her clothing, and fondle her, just as children 
elsewhere do with those they love.' Through her 

Mrs. E. J. Cooper 483 

loving ways, not a few were gained for God and His 

Mrs. E. J. Cooper, n^e M. Palmer, arrived in 
China December 1887. During the voyage out, she did 
what she could in speaking for Christ to those who were 
her fellow-voyagers on board ship, and this although 
she suffered much from sea-sickness on the way. After 
four months' study at the Training Home of the China 
Inland Mission in Yang-chau, she took up work in the 
Receiving Home at the headquarters of the mission 
in Shanghai. Her services there are lovingly remem- 
bered by many who came under her care, as she did 
all in her power to help every one, even the Chinese 

In 1 89 1 she married Mr. E. J. Cooper, who joined 
the mission in 1888, and as he was originally an archi- 
tect by profession, was engaged in erecting the present 
headquarters of the C.I.M. in Shanghai. 

The home of the Coopers became a centre of 
Christian influence, especially amongst the sailors, many 
of whom date their conversion from the evenings spent 
in their house. After a time, as a building for the mission 
was required in Hankow, their quarters were transferred 
there, and subsequently they resided in Chefoo, where 
Mr. Cooper's talents were worthily employed in 
designing and raising the noble buildings in which the 
Boys' and Girls' Schools of the C.I.M. are now amply 

While her husband was engaged in this work at 
Chefoo, Mrs. Cooper was for a time left in charge of the 
sanatorium at that place. All this work was, however, 
undertaken as a necessary duty, while really their 
hearts were set on the work in the interior amongst 
the heathen. This long-cherished wish was fulfilled 
on their return from England in 1899, when they 
were appointed to the station of Lu-ch'eng in Shan-si, 
which they finally reached only a few months before 
they were compelled to take that awful journey which 

484 What manner of Men were these? 

ended in Mrs. Cooper's death, and that of their nearly 
two-years-old boy, named Ernest Brainerd. The two 
found also their last resting-place in the foreign cemetery 
in Hankow. 

While wounded and suffering on her last journey, 
Mrs. Cooper said to her husband, ' If the Lord spares us, 
I should like to go back to Lu-ch'eng if possible.' 


Reflections and Forecasts 

That the missionary body in China in 1900 passed 
through a most serious crisis, was apparent to the most 
superficial observer. That it was the intention of the 
reactionaries in the Imperial Court to expel by force 
not merely all missionaries from the interior, but even all 
foreigners from China, seems to be almost certain. The 
advisers of the Court supposed that the immense pre- 
ponderance which China possessed in point of numbers 
was sufficient, if exerted, to defy all the might of all the 
Powers of Europe. England was understood to be fully 
occupied in the Transvaal ; Russia had not yet completed 
the Siberian railway ; France and other nations were 
perhaps less interested, might possibly be indifferent, and 
at any rate might be treated without much ceremony. 

The Boxer movement was skilfully utilised, and 
turned from a possible danger to the dynasty, to active 
participation in its defence. The eighth day of the 
intercalary eighth moon was said to be the date fixed as 
the auspicious or lucky day for a simultaneous uprising. 
Events, however, forced the hands of the conspirators. 
The Boxers in their new-born zeal could not be held in 
check, and so what was intended as a catastrophe became 
very much like a fiasco. ' China against the world ' was 
intended for an astounding assertion of strength, but 


486 Reflections and Forecasts 

speedily degenerated into a contemptible exhibition of 
weakness, and merely showed the utter madness and 
folly of those who were responsible for its initiation. 
That China had such statesmen as Chang Chih Tung, 
Liu K'un-i, Tuan Fang, Governor of Shen-si, and Yuan 
Shih K'ai, Governor of Shantung, is, under God, the 
reason why she is not now dismembered and brought to 
irreparable ruin. 

The weight of the intended blow fell on the help- 
less and unoffending missionaries and their converts, 
especially in the province of Shan-si. There it was the 
work of the infamous Yu Hsien and his likeminded 
colleagues, backed by the usual truculent and cowardly 
ruffians who are always ready to act when restraint is 
removed and encouragement given. Of the total number 
of Protestant missionaries and their families who suffered 
martyrdom in this uprising, one hundred and two 
adults and forty-one children were killed in the province 
of Shan-si alone, besides about four hundred Protestant 
Christian converts and thousands of Catholic Christians. 
Outside Shan-si, with the exception of Pao-ting-fu in 
Chih-li and Chu-chou-fu in Chekiang, the missionaries 
in nearly all cases escaped with their lives. 

Destruction of mission property was more wide- 
spread, and the death-roll of Christian natives was ex- 
tended by additions from at least all the northern 
provinces. Manchuria perhaps suffered in this way 
more severely than any other part of the Empire. 
The cities of Peking and Tien-tsin, owing to the 
military operations, were severely handled, and the 
destruction caused by the ravages of war in those places 
will take a considerable time and heavy expenditure to 
restore to anything like their former condition. Mis- 
sionary property in the province of Chih-ii was almost 

The Siege in Peking 487 

entirely destroyed. Pei-tai-ho, the summer resort of the 
Tien-tsin people and largely frequented by missionaries, 
was ravaged by looters. 

When, however, the possibilities of damage are con- 
sidered, and also the entire helplessness of the mission- 
aries and their converts throughout the interior provinces 
in the hands of those who were their enemies, we can 
only be devoutly impressed with the fact that the loss 
of life was not even greater, and the area affected so 
restricted. Well might we say with the Psalmist, ' If it 
had not been the Lord who was on our side, when men 
rose up against us : then they had swallowed us up alive ' 
(Ps. cxxiv. 2, 3, R.V.). As an illustration of the restrain- 
ing hand of Divine Providence over what seemed the 
unrestrained purposes of lawless men, the siege in Peking 
stands conspicuous. When all praise has been rendered 
for the bold and heroic stand made by a mere handful 
of troops against the ' fearful odds ' arrayed against 
them, it is evident to any candid mind that the Legations 
in Peking could have been taken and destroyed, and all 
within them massacred, as it was with too much prob- 
ability supposed that they had been, if a determined 
and simultaneous rush had been made by the forces be- 
sieging them, any time within the two months of the siege. 
The cowardice of the assailants will not sufficiently 
account for the fact that this was not done, and to 
the devout mind it seems almost miraculous, that with 
an enemy so close, with destructive weapons of the 
latest pattern so numerous, and supplies of ammunition 
so abundant, so little damage was done and so few lives 
were lost. 

The sovereign mercy of God was seen, not only in 
sparing the lives of the foreign community sheltered in 
the Legations, amongst whom were so many missionaries 

488 Reflections and Forecasts 

with their wives and families, but also in preventing the 
Chinese from committing an act of unparalleled atrocity 
which would have deserved and most certainly have 
received condign punishment. Another reason for pro- 
found thankfulness is the fact that, although so many 
foreign nations were concerned in the punishment of 
the Chinese Government, and such antagonistic elements 
as German and French, British and Russian, prominently 
engaged in the military operations and subsequent 
negotiations, yet peace was happily preserved amongst 
them, and no European complications arose out of it, as 
there was frequently too much reason to fear might be 
the case. A protocol was signed as honourable to the 
Powers concerned as it is moderate and merciful to the 
Chinese, who had every reason to expect much more 
onerous terms. 

The weight of the outburst of persecution against 
the Native Christian Church fell mainly on those con- 
verts who resided in the provinces of Shan-si, Chih-li, 
Manchuria, and a section of Shantung. All others were, 
comparatively, undisturbed ; and in those provinces 
referred to the loss of life was not overwhelming, and 
large numbers of Christians escaped at least with their 

It has been pointed out as providential that the 
outbreak occurred in the summer-time, when the fields 
were clothed with tall millet, which not only afforded 
concealment to many fugitives, but also food in their 
distress. Had the wave of persecution burst in winter 
the fields would have been bare, and escape almost 
impossible, and consequently the loss of life would have 
been even more appalling. 

The Boxer uprising, which developed with such 
extraordinary and even portentous rapidity, was as 

Divisions among the Boxers 489 

speedily suppressed. In Shantung the vigorous measures 
of Governor Yuan Shih K'ai held the movement in 
check for a time, and eventually crushed it. In Shan-si 
the flight of the Court from Peking gave pause to the 
violent action of Yii Hsien, and the taking by the 
German troops of the Kukuan Pass through the 
mountains on the road to T'ai Yuen Fu led to a panic 
amongst the officials which caused many of them to seek 
safety in flight. Then all persecution suddenly ceased. 

In Manchuria the Boxers were divided into the Tsai 
Li and I Ho Chuan sects, and these finally quarrelled 
and fought with each other. Anarchy would soon have 
prevailed in the province had not the Russians sent 
troops, which scattered the bands of plunderers and 
blackmailers into which the Boxers had finally degener- 
ated. In Shen-si, the Governor, Tuan Fang, although 
a Manchu, had the courage to suppress the edict of 
extermination against foreigners issued by the Govern- 
ment, and by his strenuous exertions is said to have 
saved the lives of over two hundred missionaries and 
their families, who were resident in or passing through 
his jurisdiction. 

Of course other Governors, such as Chang Chih 
Tung, Liu K'un-i, and Yuan Shih K'ai, were equally 
courageous in suppressing the edict already referred to, 
and it is owing to the action of such far-seeing and 
patriotic statesmen that the Boxer uprising was kept 
within bounds, and multitudes of innocent and helpless 
people preserved from a cruel and violent death. 

That the Emperor was finally restored to his rightful 
place in Peking, after all the vicissitudes which had been 
his lot in the last few years, was, we think, a cause for 
praise and gratitude to God. If what is reported is true, 
that he feels that he has a great work to perform in the 

490 Reflections and Forecasts 

restoration of his nation to an honourable place amongst 
the nations of the world, and that he has been preserved 
from a violent end in order to fulfil this mission, then 
the expressions of devout reverence and gratitude to a 
higher Power with which he is credited are natural and 
becoming, and augur well for the commencement and 
continuance of important measures of reform. These 
measures have indeed already begun, and are being 
vigorously and successfully pushed in many directions, 
and even in most unlooked-for places. 

Shan-si, the centre and vortex of the storm of perse- 
cution and anti-foreign violence, is to-day occupying a 
prominent position in inaugurating measures of educa- 
tional reform. The Rev. Timothy Richard, D.D., had the 
honour of being specially called upon in May 1901 to 
propose terms which the Chinese Government might 
accept as a settlement for the claims which the awful 
tragedies enacted in the Shan-si province in the previous 
year had made imperative. The terms proposed were 
so generous and reasonable that they were immediately 
accepted by the authorities, and the sum of £66,000 
was at once set apart for the founding and equipment 
of a Government University in T'ai Yuen Fu, and the 
whole arrangement of the project was left in Dr. Richard's 
hands. Thus the policy of sound education based on 
Christian principles was the answer which Christian 
missionaries gave to the ignorance and fanaticism 
which were mainly responsible for the awful scenes 
enacted in Shan-si in the closing year of the century. 

In Shantung the new educational policy has been 
actively pushed forward. The college in the provincial 
capital began in temporary premises with over a hundred 
students in residence. New buildings to hold at least 
three hundred resident students have been built, and as 

Signs of Progress 491 

time goes on and men and means are forthcoming, 
colleges are to be erected in every prefectural city and 
county town in the province. 

In Shanghai a site has been given by the municipality, 
and funds have been subscribed by wealthy Chinese and 
foreign merchants, to erect a college for the instruction 
of five hundred Chinese students. Other schools for 
Chinese children and a public library for Chinese are 
also in course of construction in Shanghai, from funds 
provided for the most part by wealthy and public- 
spirited Chinese gentry. 

Other parts of China, notably Canton and the 
authorities in the province of Kiangsi, are beginning to 
move in educational matters. Imperial decrees have 
been issued abolishing the 'Wen-chang,' or literary 
essays, which have formed from time immemorial the 
principal feature in the Government examinations, and 
substituting for these a knowledge of 'Western laws, 
constitutions, and political economy.' All the 
provincial capitals are to have properly equipped 
universities for Western learning, and all existing 
Government school buildings are to be at present 
utilised for these purposes. 

Military examinations are to be in future tests of the 
knowledge of the candidates in tactics and strategy, 
not absurd exhibitions of skill in the use of bow and 
arrow and feats of strength, as they have been heretofore. 

Another decree is to the effect that young men of 
ability are to be selected in all the provinces, and sent 
to Western lands at Government expense, to be trained 
for the future service of the Empire. This decree has 
been anticipated and acted on by Chang Chih Tung; 
the late Liu K'un-i, and the Manchu Governor of the 
province of Such'uan, named K'uei Chun, who arc 

492 Reflections and Forecasts 

specially mentioned in the edict referred to, and com- 
mended for the patriotic action they have already taken. 

Another sign of the marvellous change now passing 
over China has been the extension of the postal system 
in most of the provinces of the Empire. And this 
took place amid the disasters of the Boxer disturbances, 
and the inevitable difficulties of the initiation of new 
means of postal communication. Communication by 
letter with the outside world is now convenient, cheap, 
and fairly reliable. English-speaking clerks are to be 
found in most places where foreigners reside, and the 
extension of the postal system to the whole eighteen 
provinces is merely, let us hope, a matter of a year or 

Telegraphic communication has been maintained and 
extended throughout the Empire, and is steadily gaining 
in public favour. A communication in English can now 
be sent by wire to any country in the world where the 
telegraph is in operation, from most if not all the large 
cities of China. 

Railways are slowly creeping into prominence. In 
Manchuria the new Russian line is complete, and the 
Germans are pushing on their trunk line through 
Shantung. The great railway from Peking to Hankow 
is being proceeded with, and it is interesting to observe 
that the Emperor in returning from Hsi-ngan-fu to 
Peking used this line for the last part of his journey. 
Another great trunk line between Hankow and Canton 
is projected, and is even now (1904) in process of 

Inland steam navigation, long resisted by the Chinese, 
has now become an accomplished fact. The Yang-tzu 
gorges can be passed with comparative ease and safety 
in suitable steam vessels, and in as many days as 

Missionary Work resumed 493 

it formerly took weeks to accomplish. Other rivers, 
canals, and lakes are now being traversed in this way, 
and rapid and cheap communication for passengers and 
goods is gradually becoming an important factor in 
everyday life in China. 

As soon as the Boxer movement collapsed and the 
excitement caused by it had subsided, missionaries whose 
work had been stopped, mainly in the northern and 
north-western provinces, began to return, until in a 
short time everywhere in the eighteen provinces work 
was resumed. The missionaries on their return were 
uniformly received with ostentatious respect by officials 
and gentry, in marked contrast, at least in some places, 
to the hostility shown by many of the same people only 
a few months previously. 

Missionary work has not only been resumed, claims 
for compensation, where these were made, were settled 
with a fairness and promptitude which left little ground 
for reasonable complaint. The native Christians, who 
suffered by far the heaviest part of the catastrophe, for the 
most part stood the test with a patience, courage, and 
fortitude worthy of all praise. While, under pressure 
of persecution and appalling danger, many native 
Christians gave way to their fears and outwardly 
abjured their faith and denied their Lord, yet by far 
the larger number of these have been reclaimed, and 
have in tears and bitterness of heart confessed their sin, 
and received forgiveness. Recantation was, alas ! too 
common, yet the roll of native converts who freely gave 
their lives and suffered as martyrs for the cause of God 
was as illustrious as in any previous age of the history 
of the Christian Church, and the proportion of those 
faithful unto death as high. There is reason, therefore, 
for devout thankfulness that so many were strong 

494 Reflections and Forecasts 

enough to lay down their lives for Christ's sake, and that 
the native Church has suffered less than was feared, and 
has come forth from the fiery trial, chastened and 
subdued, perhaps, but all the purer and richer in the 
Divine life for the experiences they have passed 

The next decade will probably bring great and 
marvellous changes in the life and character of the 
Chinese people. Education is taking a new place in the 
thoughts and plans of responsible Chinese statesmen. 
Everywhere Western learning is superseding the old 
leaven of Confucianism, and the demand for foreign 
literature is almost as great as before the coup 
d'etat in 1898. As the new educational movement 
is largely in the hands of missionaries, it may be con- 
fidently anticipated that the next generation will be 
largely influenced towards a favourable reception of 
Christianity, and * The miracle of China Christianised 
in fifty years,' to which Sir Robert Hart referred in 
one of his recent articles, will, we may devoutly hope, 
be successfully accomplished. Whether that actually 
occurs or not within the stated time, it seems almost 
certain that the next fifty years will see changes such as 
have not occurred in China in previous millenniums. 

Evangelisation will be more rapid, as the means of 
communication, such as railways and good roads, are 
introduced, and the cry of ' China for Christ in this 
generation ' has thus better prospect of realisation than 
ever before. The Christian Churches in Western lands 
will, we trust, be roused to adequately seize the oppor- 
tunities awaiting them, and push forward their choice 
young men and women for the great work now before 
them, and sustain them in their efforts until their designs 
be accomplished. 

Great Future Promise 495 

Statistics prove that converts have more than 
doubled within the last ten years, and if this rate of 
progress be continued the aim will be easily attained ; 
but may we not anticipate that progress will be in 
geometric proportion, and that therefore the final issue 
will be sooner realised ? 

Already there are signs that idolatry is everywhere 
becoming discredited. The writer in his itinerating 
work has observed frequently, and it is a common 
experience, that the mention of the worship of idols in 
the heathen temples usually excites a laugh or a smile 
in the hearers, as if the thing itself were ridiculous, a 
sure sign of decay in belief, and a precursor of a speedy 
and final overturning of the system. 

During the persecutions it was observed that the 
priests of the heathen temples were the most active and 
bitter in their efforts to extinguish the new light. This 
proves that the vigorous propagandism carried on by 
Protestant missionaries during the last quarter of a 
century has been so successful as to excite the jealous 
hate of those who are about to be superseded. 

There is every reason to expect a great extension 
of missionary work in every direction throughout the 
eighteen provinces of China. Everywhere missionaries 
are penetrating. Hunan, so long the stronghold of 
anti-foreign opposition, has completely capitulated, and 
missionaries are now triumphantly occupying Ch'ang- 
Sha, the capital of that province, and many other 
important centres in it — a fact which a year or two ago 
appeared impossible. 

Shan-si, where mission work has been so arduous, 
and the results of long years of labour seemed only 
beginning to appear, furnished more martyrs than any 
other province in China in the history of Protestant 

496 Reflections and Forecasts 

missions in that land, and the prospects of speedy 
extension were never more promising than now. The 
change in the attitude of the officials, and the consequent 
absence of opposition, give great hope for the success of 
missionary effort in the near future. 

Shantung, Chih-li, and Manchuria are being opened 
up in a way which would have seemed incredible ten 
years ago. Railways are piercing a pathway through 
each of these provinces ; mines are being opened, and 
coal, iron, and other minerals are being obtained in 
abundance — thus affording easy communication and a 
means of livelihood to multitudes. 

The new cities of Tsing-tau and Dalny vie in 
prosperity with the older commercial centre of Tien-tsin ; 
the latter, however, by skilful and daring use of the 
opportunities which recent events have afforded, and 
by means of the Provisional Government, the new River 
Conservancy works, and other innovations, seems de- 
termined to hold its own against all comers. 

Missionary enterprise has not and will not lag 
behind commercial enterprise in any of these provinces, 
but from present appearances will be prosecuted with 
redoubled vigour, and undoubtedly with even more 
success than has ever yet been attained, though these 
results have already been more conspicuous in these 
northern provinces than in other parts of China. 

Missionaries throughout China are combining in a 
way never known before. A missionary organisation 
having its headquarters in Shanghai already acts as 
the mouthpiece of almost the entire body of Protestant 
missionaries now working in the eighteen provinces, 
and gives promise of becoming a means of focus- 
sing opinion and voicing convictions which will be 
more impressive, when the fact is realised that they 

A Great Epoch 497 

are the utterance of the United Protestant Church of 

China. ^ , , 

Surely the events of the sorrowful years 1900 and 
1901, and the sufferings so patiently and bravely borne, 
may 'be looked upon as but the birth-pangs of a new 
era in China. 



The Memorial Services for the Martyrs 

I. t'ai-yuen-fu 

Exactly a year later than the massacre, on July 9, 
1 90 1, a party of missionaries, representing the various 
Missions concerned, entered T'ai-yuen-fu, at the invita- 
tion of the Governor of the province of Shan-si, and 
were received with every mark of respect. After paying 
and receiving complimentary visits to and from the 
officials of the city, arrangements were made for the 
memorial services for the martyred dead, and by the 
evening of July 17 everything was ready. Outside 
the west gate of the entrance to the Governor's Yamen, 
and near the place of the massacre, a large pavilion had 
been erected, stretching across the street. About fifty 
yards farther to the south-west is the Prefect's Yamen. 
The centre of the inner court of this Yamen had been 
covered with an awning, under which were arranged 
twenty silk banners, about twelve feet high, on which 
were inscribed in gilt letters the names of the Protestant 
martyrs, both foreign and Chinese. The officials had 
also prepared a number of wreaths, which were placed 
on wooden frames and covered with cloth. 

About nine o'clock on the morning of Thursday, 
July 18, nine sedan chairs, each having four bearers, 
were brought to the place where the missionary party 
lodged, and in these they were carried to the Prefect's 
Yamen. At the Yamen they passed through a court 

decorated with wreaths and banners to a hall, where 


500 Appendix 

they were courteously received by all the officials of 
the city except the Governor, who was absent, but who 
sent a written apology for the crimes which had been 
committed by Yii Hsien, which was read at the graves 
of the martyrs. 

When all was arranged, the procession started, headed 
by a hundred soldiers, who had had some smattering of 
foreign drill, and who marched in fairly good order to 
the sound of drum and bugle. The officials followed 
in their sedan chairs, and after them came the memorial 
banners and wreaths. The foreigners, as chief mourners, 
came last, and the procession was closed by about thirty 

A halt was made at the pavilion near the Governor's 
Yamen, and a short service was held on the spot where 
the massacre took place. The missionary who con- 
ducted the service stood on a raised platform, and in 
front were ranged in order of rank the officials and 
other functionaries, and at the back of all the street 
was densely packed with spectators. How different 
the scene then to the sight many of the bystanders saw 
about a year before ! Then the martyrs stood pale and 
silent in presence of their persecutors ; now the officials 
stood silent and abashed in presence of the missionaries. 
The contrast was striking, and to the thoughtful must 
have afforded suitable food for reflection. 

The service ended, the procession re-formed, and 
passed through the city and out of the east gate to the 
newly prepared cemetery, about two miles distant, where 
the remains of the martyrs had been buried. It took 
the procession nearly an hour and a half to reach the 
spot, and on arrival the foot-soldiers presented arms to 
the sound of bugle and drum as a token of respect. 

An awning had been erected in front of the cemetery 
gate, and there the mourners were met by the officials 
and ushered into an adjoining tent, where light refresh- 
ments were provided. Meanwhile, the wreaths had 
been deposited on the graves, and the banners arranged 
outside the tents, and after inspecting these, two 

Memorial Services 501 

specially selected mandarins ascended the pavilion, and 
one of them read an apology for the crimes committed 
a year previously, written by the Governor of Shan-si 
with his own hand. The other officials then bowed 
three times towards the graves, after which one of the 
missionaries, in the name of all, thanked the officials for 
coming, and for what they had done m the way of 
public reparation for the great wrong committed in 
IQOO Finally, Shen Tao-t'ai handed over the apology 
written by the Governor, to be kept as a permanent 

Representatives of the gentry then came forward 
and paid their respects to the mourners by making a 
low bow, after which the Chinese Christians gathered 
round the pavilion, and were addressed in suitable 
terms by Mr. Hoste, of the China Inland Mission. 

After returning to the city, the missionaries and 
Major Pereira, of the Intelligence Department of the 
British Force in China, who accompanied the party 
from Peking, had an interview with the Governor m his 
own Yamen. After being formally introduced to His 
Excellency, and some refreshments partaken of, special 
mention was made by the Governor of the occurrences 
of the previous year in T'ai-yuen-fu and elsewhere, and 
he expressed his great regret for the crimes committed 
by his predecessor in office and at his instigation in 
other places in the province of Shan-si. 

After further conversation, the guests withdrew, and 
were escorted to the door of the courtyard by the 
Governor in person. 


On July 26, 1901, Messrs. Edwards, Duncan, and 
Creasy Smith left T'ai-yuen-fu for Hsin-chou to hold 
memorial services for the martyrs of the English Baptist 
Mission who were massacred there in August 1900. 
They were escorted by troops, and received and supplied 
with food by the proper officials through whose juris- 

502 Appendix 

diction they passed en route. At two places on the 
way they occupied rooms which the Emperor had 
occupied in his flight from Peking to Hsi-an-fui, and 
which were suitably fitted up, the roofs in yellow paper 
and the walls in red, and made as clean as Chinese 
inns will admit of in a general way. 

When five miles from Hsin-chou, an official recep- 
tion was prepared, attended by all the leading officials 
and gentry of the place. A procession was formed, 
and with all outward tokens of respect the party was 
led through the city to the house formerly occupied by 
Mr. McCurrach, which had been fitted up for their 

Of the six places formerly occupied by the martyrs 
in Hsin-chou, two were completely destroyed, and two 
looted of everything of value in them. Following the 
example set in the capital of the province, public funeral 
services were held for the eight members of the English 
Baptist Mission who were massacred with such brutality 
in August 1900. 

III. t'ai-ku hsien 

At the city of T'ai-Ku were buried the remains of 
eighteen British, American, and Swedish missionaries, 
who were formerly located at T'ai-Ku, Fen-chou-fu, and 
Hsiao-I. They were publicly interred in a garden, which 
was previously the property of one of the leading Boxers 
of the place, but which was confiscated to the public 
use to which it has now been put. This was done at 
the suggestion of Dr. Atwood, of the American Board 
Mission, who thought that this grove-lined garden would 
make a suitable burying-ground, and at the same time 
be, in a small way, some reparation for the crimes and 
excesses committed by the Boxers. 

Relief of Shan-si Christians 503 


The Relief of Native Christians in Shan-si 

When the news reached Chefoo in December 1900 
that the native Christians in the province of Shan-si 
were in dire distress, a profound impression was created. 
This was owing to the letter received from Mr. Graham 
M'Kie, of the China Inland Mission, who was then in 
P'ing-yang-fu, he being with his party the last sur- 
vivors of the missionaries in that province. The letter 
stated that the Christians were wandering about without 
homes, worse than beggars, as, owing to the anti- 
Christian proclamations issued by the Governor of 
Shan-si, Yu Hsien, and his successor in that office, named 
Hsi Liang, and his subordinates, no one dared show 
them any kindness or minister to their necessities. The 
letter also stated that, unless help was soon received, 
many must perish of starvation. 

When the missionaries in Chefoo, who with refugee 
missionaries from other parts formed a considerable 
body, had time to consider the matter, it was decided 
to form a committee to devise means to help the 
Christians in their distress. This committee consisted 
of — Rev. H. Corbett and Dr. James Boyd Neal, of the 
American Presbyterian Mission ; Dr. G. W. Guinness 
and Mr. E. Tomalin, of the China Inland Mission ; Rev. 
S. B. Drake and Mr. R. C. Forsyth, of the English 
Baptist Mission. This committee appointed Dr. Corbett 
chairman, and Mr. Forsyth secretary, and met promptly 
to discuss plans. 

After much earnest thought and prayer, the con- 
clusion was forced upon the committee that, in the 
absence of any missionary in Shan-si (Mr. M'Kie, of 
course, expecting to leave soon), and the uncertainty 
and danger of placing sums of money in the hands of 
messengers, the only alternative seemed to be to 
approach the Chinese authorities, through the Powers 

504 Appendix 

then assembled in Peking, and get pressure brought to 
bear on the Governor of Shan-si to render such help 
as was needed. After some negotiation, it was decided 
to entrust the matter to Dr. G. W. Guinness, and he 
willingly undertook the commission, himself paying all 
costs of travel. 

The plan decided upon was to enlist the sympathies 
of Dr. Morrison, the Times correspondent in Peking, 
who was a personal friend of a member of the committee, 
and through him get the British Legation to take the 
matter up. Dr. Guinness, after a very trying journey in 
the depth of winter, reached Tien-tsin, vid Shan-hai- 
kuan, and together with Mr. Mills of the same Mission, 
stationed in Tien-tsin, proceeded to the capital. The 
following extracts from the British Blue Books on China 
will describe the result : ^ — 

*0n January 16, 1901, a deputation of the China 
Inland Mission, consisting of Dr. G. W. Guinness and 
Rev. Dennis J. Mills, called at this Legation, and re- 
presented to Mr. Tower, that in the province of Shan-si 
some two thousand to four thousand native Christians 
belonging to the China Inland Mission, the American 
Board Mission, and the English Baptist Mission, were 
in a state of extreme destitution and misery, and in 
danger of starvation. They stated that this information 
had reached them from Mr. MTCie, Mrs. Ogren, Miss 
Way, and Miss Chapman, who were still at P'ing-yang, 
and that food and clothing were being withheld from 
them by the provincial authorities on account of their 
professing the Christian faith. 

* It being impossible, in the present unsettled condi- 
tion of the province, for direct relief to be afforded by 
Mission establishments here or at Tien-tsin, or for the 
transmission of funds for distribution on the spot, I 
immediately addressed a communication to Prince 
Ch'ing and Li Hung Chang, recounting the information 
which I have received, and urgently pressed them to 

^ See Blue Book, China, No. 6, 1901, page 125. 

Relief of Shan-si Christians 505 

cause telegraphic instructions to be addressed to the 
Governor, Hsi Liang, that these Chinese subjects should 
be properly protected, the same treatment being meted 
out to them as to other Chinese in the province. I 
based my representations upon Article VI 11.^ of the 
Treaty of 1858 and other Treaty provisions, as well as 
on the score of common humanity. 

' I received an immediate reply on the i8th inst, to 
the effect that a telegram had been despatched to the 
Governor in the sense desired by me. The United 
States Minister, Mr. Conger ; the French Minister, M. 
Pichon ; the Italian Minister, Marquis Salvago ; the 
German Minister, Herr von Mumm, addressed identical 
notes to the Chinese Plenipotentiaries on behalf of their 
converts in the province of Shan-si. 

' I have communicated to Dr. Guinness and Mr. 
Mills the steps which I have taken on their representa- 
tions, and I enclose herewith copy of their acknowledg- 
ment of my action. (Signed) Ernest Satow.' 

The following letter was sent by Sir E. Satow to 
Prince Ch'ing and Li Hung Chang : — 

'FEKmc, /an. 17, 1901. 

' It has been brought to my notice that in the 
province of Shan-si there are several thousands of native 
Christians in a state of extreme destitution, and that 
unless immediate relief is afforded they will inevitably 
perish of hunger and cold. 

' That they have been reduced to such extremities is 
the consequence of the persecution to which they were 
subjected at the hands of the late Governor, Yii Hsien. 
They were persecuted, killed, plundered, and robbed 

1 Article VIII. of the English Treaty of 1858 reads thus:— 'The 
Christian religion as professed by Protestants or Roman Catholics inculcates 
the practice of virtue, and teaches man to do as he would be done by. 
Persons teaching it or professing it, therefore, shall alike be entitled to the 
protection of the Chinese authorities, nor shall any such peaceably pursuing 
their calling and not offending against the laws be persecuted or interfered 

5o6 Appendix 

because they were Christians ; and because they are 
Christians, such as have survived find it impossible to 
procure relief. They are, I am told, not even allowed 
to ask for alms. 

' It is needless for me to remind your Highness and 
your Excellency of the Treaty provisions regarding the 
obligations of China to protect all professing Christianity 
who suffer solely because they profess the religions of 
the West; and that His Majesty the Emperor is not 
unmindful of this fact is evidenced by the Imperial 
Decree of December 23, 1900, wherein His Excellency 
Hsi Liang is instructed to afford due protection to 
missionaries and converts. 

' From the information which has reached me, I am, 
however, convinced that the protection by itself is in- 
sufficient to relieve the distress of the native Christians ; 
they stand in immediate need of food and clothing. 

' They are all the children of His Majesty the 
Emperor, and as such entitled to his protecting care, 
and I feel certain that His Majesty would never allow 
them to die by the roadside, could steps be taken to 
prevent such a calamity. 

' My object in addressing you, therefore, is to ask 
you to be good enough to telegraph to T'ai-Yuan, and 
suggest to the Governor of Shan-si that he should at 
once institute some satisfactory system of relief whereby 
the lives of these poor people may be saved before it is 
too late. 

' There should be no distinction of creed or biassed 
discrimination ; the question is one of saving life, the 
importance of which duty is recognised by all laws of 
humanity, and by all who have to safeguard the wel- 
fare of the people. His Excellency the Governor of 
Shantung has, I believe, most promptly and effect- 
ively afforded such relief as was found necessary in 
the province under his jurisdiction, and it is manifestly 
unjust that the boundaries of a province should form 
a dividing line between life and death. 

' I trust, therefore, that you will see fit to telegraph 

Relief of Shan-si Christians 507 

in this sense to T'ai-Yuan, and if necessary support 
your suggestion by a telegraphic memorial to the Throne, 
asking that instructions be issued in this sense. — Await- 
ing your reply, etc/ 

On January i8, 1901, Dr. Guinness wrote to Mr. 
Tower from Peking the following letter : — 

'Dear Mr. Tower, — It is with true thankfulness that 
I have read your letter conveying the news that Prince 
Ch'ing and Li Hung Chang have telegraphed the 
Governor of Shan-si in the sense agreed upon at our 
interview with yourself. There is every reason now to 
hope that adequate help will be given, is there not ? 

' Sir Ernest Satow and yourself have been to no 
little trouble to help those who are far away and cannot 
express their gratitude, but you have the knowledge 
that " inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least 
of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me," and 
this cannot but bring you deep satisfaction.' 

It is only necessary to add that, although the 
announcement was received with incredulous surprise 
by some, yet from letters which were sent by the native 
Christians in T'ai-yuen-fu to their friends at the coast, 
the Governor of Shan-si, Hsi Liang, was compelled, 
owing to the instructions received from Prince Ch'ing 
and Li Hung Chang, to give substantial relief to the 
native Christians, thus completely reversing his own 
previous policy, and giving the poor Christians not only 
a respite from suffering, but also favour in the eyes of 
their fellow-countrymen. 

The following letter, which was received by Dr. 
Guinness from Reginald Tower, Esq., Secretary of the 
British Legation, Peking, dated February 3, 1901, will 
show what was done by the Governor of Shan-si in 
response to the instructions sent him : — 

'Dear Dr. Guinness,— With reference to our con- 

5oS Appendix 

versation while you were in Peking, it will be of interest 
to you to read the following telegram which has been 
addressed by the Governor of Shan-si on January 31 
last to Prince Ch'ing and Li Hung Chang, in reply to 
their instructions to His Excellency to aftbrd relief to 
missionaries and Christian converts. 

* The Governor has "long ago" (?) issued repeated 
instructions that measures for the relief of the converts 
throughout the province should be energetically and 
efficiently carried out. The places which have already 
reported the action taken in obedience to those instruc- 
tions are : Yang-ch'u, T'ai-ku, Hsu Kow, Chiang-chou, 
Kuei-hua, and P>ng-chen. 

* The population is most numerous in the chief 
district {i.e. Yang-ch'u), and the difficulties of investi- 
gation are also the greatest there. In the city and 
suburbs there are altogether over six thousand Roman 
Catholics and Protestants, while in the other places the 
numbers vary from under a hundred to seven or eight 

' The methods of relief are sometimes to give money 
and sometimes give money and grain. In famine- 
stricken districts there is special exemption from taxa- 
tion and special grants of relief. The converts are never 
suffered to be homeless ; if their property has been seized, 
inquiries are made and restitution effected. As regards 
distressed missionaries, the local authorities in the 
province have relieved them either by paying out of 
their own pockets, or by advancing money on loan. 

' The British missionaries at P'ing-yang, M'Kie and 
others, six in all, who started last month for Hankow, 
were given two thousand taels (say ;^300 or Si 500 
gold), and were escorted by the district magistrate, 
Ch'eng Shou-t'ai, and one hundred soldiers. Within the 
last few days the Italian missionaries at Huan-chen and 
others returning to Peking were presented with five 
hundred taels (say ^,'75 sterling, S375 gold), and a 
district magistrate, Pan-Li-yen, was also deputed to 
escort them safely northwards with a detachment of 

Punishment of Officials 509 

troops. All the expenses of these journeys were de- 
frayed from the revenue of the province. 

' All these are true facts, showing the action that is 
being taken. If there are any officials who do not do 
their duty in the matter, they will, of course, be removed 
and denounced.' 

It will be seen from this letter that much stress is 
laid on what Jias already been done^ especially towards 
the foreigners ; but nothing would have been done for 
the latter unless by the representations of Sir Ernest 
Satow, as the Blue Books inform us, on action taken by 
him in November 1900; and it is equally certain that 
nothing was thought of the Christian natives before this 
movement was made, which compelled attention to their 
needs, and forced the authorities to act in an adequate 
manner in supplying their wants. 


The Punishment of Officials concerned in 
THE Massacres 

I. THE CIIU-CHOU massacres 

The execution of fourteen persons connected with the 
murder of missionaries in and around Chu-chou last year 
took place at Hangchow, on August 25, 1901. The 
following is a condensed report of the proceedings from 
a reliable eye-witness of the events. He says : 

'Captain Chou, the commander of the garrison in 
Chu-chou last year, was to be beheaded in the Prefect's 
Yamen. A great crowd had gathered, and the flags 
and other paraphernalia were in evidence at the outer 
hall, for the criminal himself, being of official rank, had 
to worship towards the north (towards the Emperor) 

5IO Appendix 

At the prison gate the prisoner's son and grandson stood 
weeping, having been refused entrance by the jailer to 
see him for the last time. 

' Presently the provincial treasurer and judge arrived, 
and were announced by the great drum being struck 
three times. The officials when seated called for the 
prisoner, and the runners brought him in. He came on 
foot, escorted by soldiers. He was clothed in black, 
wearing boots, but no hat. He was short, stout, white- 
haired, growing bald, apparently about fifty years of 
age. He was offered wine, which he declined, and 
remained silent. 

* According to the rule for criminals of rank, he now 
knelt and worshipped towards the north, to thank the 
Emperor for his will. The crowd was increasing. Strong 
men pulled the criminal away, and thrust him into an old 
topless sedan chair, and carried him to the execution 
ground outside the Ts'ing-p'o gate. About a thousand 
soldiers and probably ten thousand spectators accom- 
panied them. Going out of the city, the criminal was in 
front and the provincial judge behind. Some ten steps 
from the gate three bamboo sheds had been erected, the 
central one being for the tablet containing the Imperial 
decree of decapitation. As the doomed man came in 
view of the tablet, he sighed deeply, stroked his beard, 
seated himself on the ground, and said to the execu- 
tioner, " Finish it up well." His hands were placed 
behind his back, and with two strokes the head was 
severed from the body. When all was over, the head 
was sewn on to the body, put in a coffin, and carried off 
by the members of his family.' 


'Early on the morning of September 8, 1901, five 
civil officials and two military officers assembled in the 
Governor's Yamen at Hangchow to conduct the pro- 
ceedings connected with the execution of thirteen 
criminals connected with the massacres of the preceding 

Punishment of Officials 511 

year. The drum having notified their arrival, the four 
superior officials bowed the Governor into his seat. 
Then, as it was yet dark, the place became suddenly 
bright with torches and lanterns. The Governor's 
deputy called for the tablets with the prisoners' names, 
which the Governor marked with a vermilion pen. The 
prisoners were named Ch'eng-kuei-seng, Ts'ui-yuan-h'ao, 
Chou-ta-ts'ing, Ch'eng-lao-wu, Chou-siao-keng, Tsiang- 
yung-lu, Hsu-chang-kow, Wang-chung-kuei, Li-chang- 
keng, Ch'eng-mo-tz, Lao-fan, Ch'en-yung-chi, and Shao- 

' The prisoners were brought into the hall in cages, 
and some were heard protesting their innocence, and 
one young man standing in the hall appealed for his 
relative's life, but was pushed aside. Suddenly the order 
was shouted out, " On with them," and as day was 
breaking they were hurried out of the gate, and seated 
in order on the ground. At the sound of a gun, the 
executioner came forward and proceeded to decapitate 
the prisoners one by one till all were beheaded. An 
officer wearing red garments and a red hat held 
aloft in both hands the Imperial tablet ordering the 

' Some of the prisoners, before execution, seemed full 
of impudent boldness, four or five kept silent, while one 
wept. The hardiest of all was Ch'eng-lao-wu, and the 
bystanders wasted no pity on him and some of his 
associates, saying they were not good men, and came to 
the end they deserved. It seemed clear that so far 
the people are persuaded that the right persons are 
punished. Their sense of justice rises above any ill 
feeling against the foreigner.' 


Ament, Dr., bravery of, 271. 

Anderson, Misses C. and H., deaths of, 80, 81. 

Anderson, Mr. and Mrs. E., and children, 

deaths of, 83. 
Anderson, E., notice of, 463. 
Ans-hsu-ken, story of, 369. 
Argento, Mr., story of, 238 sq. 
Aspden, Miss M., death of, 78 ; notice of, 460, 
Atwater, Rev. E. R., death of children of, 34; 

story of, 71 sq. ; notice of, 456. 

Bagisloosky, Mr., death of, 284. 

Bagnail, Mr._ and Mrs. , and daughter, deaths 

of, 25 ; notices of, 422, 423. 
Barratt, Mr. D., death of, 73. 
Beynon, Rev.W. T., death of, 38 ; notice of, 439. 
Beynon, Mrs., notice of, 440. 
Biggin, Rev, T., on Rev. J. Stonehouse, 477. 
Bingmark, Mr. and Mrs. O., and children, 

deaths of, 83 ; notices of, 465. 
Bird, Mr. C. H., story of, 228 sq. 
Bird, Miss R., death of, 69 ; notice of, 455. 
Bishop, Roman Catholic, death of, 39. 
Blomberg, Mr. and Mrs. C, and child, deaths 

of, 79 ; notices of, 464, 465. 
Blue Book on China, quoted, 504. 
Boughton, Miss, story of, 264 sq. 
Boxers, the, origin of, 5, 19. 

— incantations of, 6. 

— increase of, 100. 

— in Manchuria, 297. 

Brooks, Mr., story of, 9 ; dream of, 10. 
Brown, Mrs. H. J., story of, 252 sq. 
Bruce, Rev. J. P., story of a recantation, 399 sq. 
Burton, Miss E., death of, 74. 

Campbell, Mr. C. W., trial before, ir. 
Canadian Presbyterian missionaries, escape of, 

202 sq. 
Cannibalism in Shen-si, 8. 
Carlsson, Mr. N., death of, 79 ; notice of, 461. 
Chalfant, Rev. F. H., storj' of, 264 sq. 
Chang, murder of, 352. 
Chang, Mr, and Mrs. , story of, 353 sq. 
Chang An, story of, 364. 
Chang-Chih-kweh, story of, 371. 
Chang Chih-tung, conduct of, 126, 127. 
Chang-kwei, story of, 373. 
Chang-lao, story of, 370, 
Chang-ling-wang, story of, 369, 
Ch'ang-shan, murders at, 93, 
Chao, kindness of, 245. 
Chao-hsi-mao, story of, 372. 
Chao-yung-yao, story of, 376. 
Chapman, Miss M. E., story of, 134 sq. 

Chen-Chih-tao family, story of, 373. 

Cheng-feng-hsi, story of, 374. 

Cheo-chi-cheng, story of, 371. 

Chiang, story of, 356. 

Ching Ch'ang, conduct of, 296 sq. 

Chou, Captain, execution of, 509, 

Christian and Missionary Alliance, New 

York, 82. 
Christie, Dr,, story of, -3,00 sq. 
Chu-chou-fu, massacres at, 90 sq. 

— terms of treaty with Taotai of, 96, 

— martjTS, notices of, 468 sq. 

— officials at, punishment of, 509. 

Clapp, Rev. D. H. and Mrs., deaths of, 69; 

notices of, 453, 454. 
Clarke, Mr. E., notice of, 438. 
Conway, Mr., Mrs., and child, story of, 220 sq. 
Coombs, Miss E., death of, 33 ; notice of, 429. 
Cooper, Mr. E. J., Mrs., and children, story 

of, 118. 
Cooper, Mr. E. J., notice of, 483. 
Cooper, Rev. W., death of, 25 ; notice of, 421. 
Cornwell, Rev. G., conduct of, 251, 
Coup d'etat of September 22, 1898, 4. 
Crawford, Rev. A. R., story of, 289 sq. 
Crawford, Dr. and Mrs. T, P., story of, 2^2 sq. 

Daily Ne-ws, quoted, 85 sq. 
Davis, Rev. F. W., death of, 69 ; notice of, 454. 
Desmond, Miss J., death of, 91 ; notice of, 469, 
Dixon, Rev. H. and Mrs., story of, 48 ; diary 

of, 49 sq.\ notices of, 443, 444. 
Dobson, ^liss E. L., death of, 76. 
Douw, Mr., story of, 204 sq. 
Duval, Miss M., story of, 34; death of, 39; 

notice of, 429. 

Edwards, Dr. E. H,, letter of, on Pao-ting-fu 
martyrs, 26, 

— his story of Shan-si martjTS, 366 sq. 

— on Dr, Wilson, 436. 

Edwards, Mrs,, on Mrs, Lovitt, 432._ 

Eldred, Miss A,, story of, 71 sq. ; notice of, 458, 

Empress-Dowager, policy of, 4. 

Engvall, Jkliss J,, death of, 79 ; notice of, 462, 

Ennals, Rev,_ S, W,, death of, 45; diary of, 

60 sq. ; notice of, 450, 
Ericson, Miss E,, death of, 83 ; notice of, 463, • 
Examinations, 491. 

Famine, presence of, 8. 

— at T'ai-j-uen-fu, 30. 
Fan-si, martyrs of, 381. 
Fan-si-hsien, events at, 375. 

Farthing, Rev, G. B., death of, 38 ; notice of, 440. 
Farthing, Mrs., notice of, 441. 



Fej, Mr., 71 ; escape of, 72. 
Fei-chi-hao, Mr., story of, 41, 383 sq. 
Fen-chou-fu, missionaries at, 71, 

— martyrs of, notices of, 456 sq. 
Fisher, Mr., 203 sg. 

Fisher, Dr. and Mrs. D. L., story of, 289 sq. 

Forecasts, 494 sq. 

Forsberg, Mr. and Mrs. O., and child, deaths 

of, 7g. 
Forsberg, O., notice of, 464. 
Fowler, Mr. J., U.S. Consul, energy of, 251. 
French, Mr. G. F., on T. W. Piggott, 425. 
Friedstrom, Mr. N, J., 80, 81. 
Fulton, Mr., story of, 300 sq. 

Gamewell, Mr., at siege in Peking, 108. 

Gaselee, General, kindness of, 344. 

Gates, Miss, story of, 127 sq. 

Germans at Kiaochou, i. 

Gillespie, Dr. J. R. and Mrs., story of, 291 sq. 

Glover, Mr., Mrs., and children, story of, 127 sq. 

Glover, Mr, A. E., notice of, 480. 

Goforth, Rev. J., story of, 202 sq. 

Goforth, Paul, story of, 2 10 sq. 

Gordon, Rev. R. J., Mrs., and children, story 

of, 292 sq. 
Gould, Miss A. A., story of, 24 ; notice of, 420. 
Green, Mr., Mrs., and children, story of, 311 sq. 
Gregg, Miss, story of, 311 sq. 
Greig, Dr. J. A. and Mrs., story of, 289 sq. 
Griffith, Rev. J., story of, 205 sq., 210 sq. 
Guinness, Dr. G. W,, story of, 219 sq. 

— mission of, 504. 

— letters of, 507. 

Gustasson, Miss A., death of, 83; notice of, 

Guthrie, Miss, story of, 118. 

Hall, Miss K., death of, 83 ; notice of, 467. 

Hamilton, Rev, W. B., conduct of, 251. 

Han-Lin College, destruction of, 112. 

Hangchow, executions at, 510. 

Hawes, Miss, storj^ of, 264 sq. 

Heaj'sman, Miss M., death of, 75. 

Hedlund, Miss M., death of, 79 ; notice of, 

Heh-siao-fu, a deacon, 66. 
Helleberg, Mr. and Mrs., death of, 82. 
Ho Tsuen-kwei, story of, 368. 
Hoddle, Mr. A., death of, 38; notice of, 435. 
Hodge, Dr. C. Van R., notice of, 414. 
Hodge, Mrs. C. R., notice of, 414, 
Honan, flight from, 202 sq. 

— C.I.M. in, story of, 219 sq. 
Ho-tsin, missionaries at, 74." 
Hsiao-I-Hsien, troubles at, 65. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 451 sq. 
Hsin-chou, missionaries at, 43. 

— flight from, 44. 

— death of missionaries, 45. 

— martj'rs of, notices of, 443 sq, 

— memorial services at, 501, 
Hsu-yen, story of, 377, 
Huai-lu, missionaries in, 311 sq. 
Hurn, Miss, death of, 76. 

Hutson, Miss, story of, 118; death of, 126; 
notice of, 480. 

FAnson, Mr. and Mrs. C. S., and children, 

deaths of, 78. 
FAnson, C, notice of, 459. 
I-chow-fu Mission, destruction of, 270. 
Idolatry, decay of, 495-. 
Irish Presbyterian Missions in Manchuria, 273, 

James, Mr,, at Peking, 106. 
James, Prof. F. H., notice of, 473. 
Jamieson, Mr., 203 sq. 
Jennings, Mr. A., story of, 118. 
Johansson, Miss A., death of, 79 ; notice of, 

Kaiping, martyrs of, 366. 

Kao Chung-tang, story of, 376. 

Kao-lien-teng, story of, 378. 

Kao-Ye-chung, story of, 379. 

Karlberg, Mr. G. E., death of, 79; notice of, 461. 

Kasignery, Mr., generosity of, 278. 

Kay, Mr. and Mrs. D., and child, deaths of, 75, 

Ketteler, Baron von, murder of, 102, 

Kettler, Dr. , on Dr. and Mrs. Hodge and Rev. 

F. E, Simcox, 415. 
Kiaochou, Germans at, i. 
King, Miss A., death of, 74. 
Kirin, missionaries at, 288. 
K'uan-ch'eng-tzu, missionaries at, 292. 
Kuang Hsu, Emperor, policy of, 3. 
K'u-\vu, missionaries at, 75. 

Lamasse, Pere, 278. 

Lao-ling Mission, destruction of, 270. 

Larsson, Mr, O. A, L., death of, 79 ; notice 

of, 462. 
Leslie, Mr. , story of, 203 sq. 
Li, Mr., a bully, 394 sq. ; conduct of, 222 sq. 
Li Pai, story of, 359 sq. 
Libellates, 349, 
Li-chung, story of, 377. 
Li-ch'ung-kuan, 46. 

Lin-ch'ing-chou Mission, destruction of, 270, 
Liu, an elder, death of, 69. 
Liu, Pastor, sermon of, 301. 
Liu Ming-chin, story of, 365. 
Liu-tsi-hen, story of, 377, 

Lovitt, Dr. A. E., death of, 38 : notice of, 430. 
Lovitt, Mrs., death of, 38 ; notice of, 432. 
Lowrie, Rev. J, W. , story of, 20. 
Lowrie, Mrs. A. P., on Dr. G. Y. Taylor, 413 ; 

on Mrs. Simcox, 417. 
Lu-an, outbreak at, 127. 
Lu-ch'eng martyrs, notices of, 479 sq. 
Lund, Miss H., 80, 81. 
Lundberg, Mr, and Mrs. C. L., and children, 

deaths of, 83 ; notice of, 463. 
Lundell, Miss J., death of, 79; notice of, 462. 
Lundgren, Mr, and Mrs. A. P., story of, 71 sq. ; 

notice of, 457. 

M'CoNNELL, Mr. and Mrs., and child, deaths 

of, 74. 
McCurrach, Rev. W, A., letters of, 58 sq.\ 

notice of, 445. 
McCurrach, Mrs,, notice of, 446. 
INIacdonald, Sir C, chosen chief officer at siege 

of Legations, 106. 



M'Intosh, Mr., story of, 204 st^. 

M'Intyre, Rev. Mr., escape of, 295. 

M'Kee, Mr. and Mrs. S., and children, deaths 

of, 78 ; notices of, 459, 460. 
Mackenzie, Mr., story of, 203 S(/. 
M'Kie, Mr. G., story of, 134 sq. 
Manchester, Miss M. E., death of, 91 ; notice 

of, 470. 
Manciiuria, Russians in, 2. 

— story of missions in, 273 sg'. 

— Government of, 296. 

— baptisms in, 299. 
Martyrs, native, 346 sg'. 

Matthews, Rev. H., on Mr. Brooks, 11. 
Memorial services, at T'ai-yuen-fu, 499 ; Hsin- 

chou, 501 ; T'ai-ku Hsien, 502. 
Men-shang, conduct of, 373. 
Millar- Wilson, Dr. W., notice of, 435. 
Mills, Rev. C. E., on Rev. H. T. Pitkin, 417. 
Mills, Rev. D. J., mission of, 504. 
Miskelly, Rev. W., story of, 289 sq. 
Mitchell, Mr., escape of, 203. 
Mongols, missionaries to, 80. 
Morrill, Miss S., story of, 24 ; notice of, 419. 
Morrison, Dr., at Peking, 106. 

— mission of, 504. 

Moukden mission, 296 ; fire at, 306. 
I\Iuir, Dr. and Mrs., escape of, 295. 
Muirhead, Rev. W., letter of, on famine relief, 

Murdock, Miss V. C, story of, 85. 

Nathan, INIisses F. E. and M. R., deaths 

of, 75- 
Native Christians, conduct of, 347 sg. 

— of Shan-si, relief of, 503. 
Ngan-wan-niu, 44. 

Nieh, Pastor, 402. 

Noren, Mr. and Mrs. W., notice of, 465. 

Norman, Harry, story of, 13 s^. 

— kindness of, 14. 

— death of, 18. 

Norris, Rev. F. L., on Yung-ch'ing outbreak, 

No\'en, Mr. and Mrs. C, and children, deaths 

of, 83. 
Number Two Excellency, 296. 
Nystrom, Mr. and Mrs. M., and child, deaths 

of, 83 ; notice of, 466. 

Ogren, Mr. P. A., story of, 181 sg. ; death of, 

196 ; notice of, 479. 
Ogren, Mrs. P. A., escape of, 134 sg'. ', her 

story, 148 sg'. 
Olson, Mr. and Mrs. E., and children, deaths 

of, 83 ; notice of, 462. 
ONeill, Rev. F. W. S., escape of, 275 sg. 
Orn, Miss K., death of, 83. 

Palm, Mr. A. E., death of, 83; notice of, 

Pao-ting-fu, Boxers at, 19. 

— massacre at, 20. 

— missionaries at, 20. 

— story of the martyrdoms at, 22 sg. 

— memorial services at, 27. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 412 sg. 

Partridge, Miss M. L., death of, 69 ; notice 

of, 455- 
Peat, Mr. and Mrs. W. G., and children, deaths 

of, 76. _ 
Peking, siege in, 98 sg. 

— soldiers sent to, loi. 

— murder of Baron von Ketteler, 102. 

— ignorance of Chinese plans, 103. 

— conduct of American missionaries at, 105. 

— native converts in, 105. 

— Sir C. Macdonald chosen chief officer, 106. 

— supplies at, 107. 

— supply of ponies at, 108. 

— use of sand-bags, 109. 

— conduct of Chinese soldiers at, no. 

— use of mines, 112, 

— conduct of garrison of Legations, 113. 

— a brave lad, 114. 

— relief of, 115. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 473 sg. 
Peking Syndicate, engineers of, 203. 
Persson, Mr. and Mrs. S. A., deaths of, 79; 

notice of, 461. 
Patterson, Mr. E., death of, 79 ; notice of, 462. 
Pigott, Rev. T. W., story of, 34 s?. ; death of, 

39 ; notice of, 424. 
Pigott, Mrs., death of, 39 ; notice of, 426. 
Pigott, W. W., notice of, 427. 
Ping-5'ang missionaries, escape of, 134 sg. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 479 sg. 
P'ing-yao, outbreak at, 116 sg. 

Pitkin, Rev. H. S., death of, 24; notice of, 

Port Arthur, Russians at, 2. 
Postal system, extension of, 492. 
Price, Rev. and Mrs. C. W., story of, 71 sg. ; 

notices of, 457. 
Pyke, Mr., story of, 204 sg. 

Railways, progress of, 492. 

Reed, Mr., 203 sgr. 

Reflections, 485 sg.^ 

Reform movement in China, 3. _ 

Reformers, execution of six Chinese, 4. 

Renaut, Miss B. C, death of, 45 ; letters of, 

62 ; notice of, 449. 
Rice, Miss H. J., story of, 118 ; death of, 

122 ; notice of, 480. 
Rice Christians, 347. 
Richard, Rev. Dr. T., proposal of, 490. 
Roberts, Rev. J. H., story of, 85. 
Robertson, Rev. D. and Mrs., escape of, 295. 
Robinson, Mr. C, story of, 16 sg. ; death of, 

Robinson, Mr. J. , story of, 34 ; death of, 

39 ; notice of, 42 3. 
Roman Catholicism, influence of, 7. 

— martyrs to, 346. 

Ross, Dr. J., on Boxers, 6. 

— story of, 296 sg. 

— on Manchurian Christians, 352 sg. 
Russians at Port Arthur, 2. 

— in Manchuria, 2. 

— kindness of, 281 s//. 

Salisbury, Lord, on murder of missionaries, 41. 
Satow, Sir E., letter of, 505. 



Saunders, Rev. A. R. and Mrs., and children, 

story of, ii6 sq. 
Scandinavian Alliance Mission of Chicago, So. 
Schofield Memorial Hospital, burning of, 117. 
.Searell, Miss E., story of, 65 sg. ', death of, 67; 

notice of, 452. 
Shanghai, position in, 491. 
Shan-si, martyrs of, 366 so- 

— position in, 490. 

— relief of native Christians in, 503. 
Shantung, story of martyrs at, 9. 

— outbreak at, 250 sq. 

— position in, 490. 

Shao-yang, story of missionaries at, 34. 
Sherwood, Miss E. S., death of, 91 ; notice 

of, 471. _ ^ 
Si-chau, missionaries at. ;6. 
Si-er-mao, story of, 369. 
Simcox, Rev. F. E. , death of, 23; notice of, 

Simcox, Mrs., notice of. 416. 
Simpson, Mr., death of, -^Z. 
Simpson, Mr. and JMrs. j.. notice of, 434. 
Si-\va-yu, story of, 370. 
Slimmon, Mr., escape of, 203, 
Sloan, Mr. W. V>., on Rev. W. Cooper, 422. 
Smith, Mrs. A. H., on story of Mr. Fei, 383 sq. 
Smith, Miss G., her story of sufferings of native 

Christians, 353 jy. 
Smith, Miss M. E., death of, 78 ; notice of, 460. 
Soen sisters, story of, 380. 
So-ping-fu, murders at. 79 
Sowerby, Rev. A. , on T. W. Pigott, 426. 

— on Rev. T. J. Underwood, 447. 
Sprague, Rev. W. P. and Mrs., flight of, 85. 
Steam navigation, progress of, 492. 
Stenberg, Mr. D. W., death of, 80, Br. 
Stevens, J., notice of, 437. 

Stewart, E. ]M., notice of, 443. 

Stokes, ]Mr. G. W., death of, 38; notice of, 433. 

Stonehouse, Rev. T., notice of, 476. 

Suber, INIr. C. J., death of. So, 81. 

Suicides, 350. 

Sungari, native persecution in, 352. 

Swedish Holiness Union, martyrs of, 70. 

— Mongolian Mission, the, 82. 

T'ai Ku Hsien, missionaries at, C8. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 453 sq. 

— memorial services at, 502. 
T'ai-yuen-fu, missions at, 30. 

— famine at, 30. 

— Boxers at, 32. 

— martyrdoms at, 33 sq. 

— martyr roll of, 40. 

— fine on province, 42. 

— memorial services at, 499. 
Taku forts taken, loi. 
Ta-ning, missionaries at, 75. 
Ta-tung-fu, massacre at, 77. 

— martyrs of, notices of, 459 sq. 

Taylor, Dr. G. Y., story of, 22 ; notice of, 412. 
Telegraphic system, extension of, 492. 
TheoTJficati, 350. 
Thirgood, Miss E. A., death of, 93 ; notice of, 

Thompson, Mr. and ]Mrs. D. B., and boys, 

deaths of,_9i ; notice of, 468. 
Tien-tsin railway, destruction of, loi" 
— assault of 114. 
Tiger's mouth, the, 45. 
Tou Tang, story of, 364. 
Tower, R., Esq., letter of, 507. 
TradiioreSy 349. 
Treaty, English, quoted, 505. 
Tsai Li sect, the, 299. 
Tso-lumg family, story of, 375. 
Tsun Hua, m.artyrs in, 365. 
Tung, story of, 358. 

UNDERWOor, Rev, T. J., death of 48;' notice 

of, 441?. 
Underwood, Z>Irs., notice of, 448. 
United Free Church missionaries in ^lanchuria 


Wahlstedt, Mr., death of, 82. 

Wang Cheng-pang, story of, 371. 

Wang Chih-shen, story of, 365. 

Wang-hsin, story of, 3:9. 

Wang Ming, Pastor, story of, 399 sq. 

Wang Pao-t'ai, Pastor, story of, 399 sq. 

Wang-shih, story cf, 374. 

Wang Ying-Kuei, story of, 65. 

Ward, Mr. and Mrs. G. F.,"and child, deaths 

of, 93 ; notices of, 472. 
Watson, Miss W., story of, 220 sq. 
Way, Miss M._E., story of, 134 sq. 
Weihsien Mission, burning of, 264 sq. 
Weir, Rev. A., story of, 292 sq. 
Wen family, story of, 357. 
Wen-chang, abolition of, 491. 
Whitchurch, Miss E., story o^, 65 sg. ; death 

of, 67 ; notice of, 451. 
Whltehouse, Rev. S. F., notice of, 441. 
Whitehouse, Mrs., notice of, 442. 
Williams, Rev. G. L., death of, 69 ; notice of, 

Williams, Rev. ]M., story of, 85 sq. 
Wilson, Dr., death of, 38. 
Woodroft'e, Rlr. A., death of, 73. 
Wright, Mr. A., report of, 95. 
Wu, story of, 365. 
Wu Chien-ch'eng, Pastor, story of, 401 sq. 

Yang, Mrs., story of, 365. 

Yao-Ch'i brothers, story of, 370. 

Yo-yang, missionaries at, 73. 

Young, Mr. and Mrs. J. , deaths of, 74. 

Yu Hsien, conduct of, 12, 32 ; death of, 41. 

Yuan Shih Kai, rule of, 12, 272. 

Yung-ch'ing, outbreak at, 13. 

Printed by MoRRisoN & Gip.b Limited, Edinhirgh. 



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BW8222 .F73 

The China martyrs of 1900 : a complete 

Princeton Theological Seminary-Speer Library 

1 1012 00045 4092