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Full text of "The China mission year book"

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 




This boo\ is the gift of 

Frederick Clark Stephenson 

M.D., D.D. 

1864-1941 

Pioneer Leader in Missionary Advance 

Organizer of the Young People s Forward Move 
ment for Missions in the Methodist Church and 
its Secretary from 1906 to 1925. 

From 1925 until his retirement in 1936 Secretary 
of the Department of Young People s Missionary 
Education of the United Church of Canada. 



THE 

CHINA MISSION 

YEAR BOOK 

1924 

(TWELFTH ISSUE) 

Issued under arrangement of the Christian Literature 
Society for China and the National Christian Council 
under the direction of the following Editorial Committee 
appointed by the National Christian Council. 



Editor-in-Chief : Rev, FRANK RAWLINSON, D.D. 

Editor, Chinese Recorder 

Dr. H. F. McNair Dr. John Y. Lee 

Mrs. Lawrence Thtirston Rev. D. MacGillivray, D,D. 

Prof. T. C. Chao Dr. H. T. Hodgkin 

Mfss R. Venable Rev. E. H. Cressey 

Dr. E. M. Merrins Miss G. Townsend 



SHANGHAI 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 
J924 



EMMANl F 



FINEPAGE 

THERE is no space for the Editor to attempt anything like an 
introductory article. The contributions are so many and 
varied that it is not needed. A prefatorial remark or two, 
however, is in order. 

The China Mission Year Book is not a Year Book in the sense 
that the articles Driven are repeated and brought up-to-date each 
year. Neither does the China Mission Year Book deal with 
statistics. It aims to summarize the Christian Movement as a 
whole. It is in nature an annual review. It attempts to give 
reports on those aspects of, and problems connected with the 
Christian Movement in China which seem to be currently 
prominent. It varies considerably, therefore, from year to year. 

The main point about this issue of the China Mission Year 
Book is the large number of new movements that are treated. A. 
study of these should convince one that a new era in Christian 
work is well under way. 

The attempt has been made to have the China Mission Year 
Book as typographically correct as possible. Each page, therefore, 
has been read six or eight times. For errors overlooked, of which 
no doubt there are plenty, the indulgent patience of the reader is 
asked. Thanks are due to the following for cheerful assistance in 
the routine and humdrum task of proof reading : Ur. D. 
MacGiilivray ; Mr. Isaac Mason; Prof. H. F. MacNair; Rev. 
Carleton Lacy. 

As a whole this issue of the Year Book represents the planning 
of the entire group of editors. For their assistance also special 
thanks are herewith accorded. 

FRANK RAWUNSON, Editor in Chief 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE iii 

CONTENTS iv 

CONTRIBUTORS x 
PART I. CHINA TO-DAY 

Chapter PAGE 

I. PAST AND FUTURE USE OF BOXER INDEMNITY 

FUNDS Carrol B. Malone 1 

II. THE BANDIT SITUATION AND CHRISTIAN WORK 

Frederick G. Onley 7 

III. SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES D. K. Lieu 10 

IV. MILITARISM Grover Clark 22 

V. CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

I. South China Kenneth Duncan 28 

II. The Wuhan Chas. C. Shedd 31 

III. Chefoo J. W. Nipps 41 

VI. WHAT Is EXTRATERRITORIALITY ? 

Charles Sumncr Lobingier 46 

PART II. CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGIONS OF 
CHINA 

VII. CHANGING STANDARDS IN MORALS AND RELIGION 

Guy. W. Sarvia 50 

VIII. EECENT RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS Gilbert Reid 59 

IX. THE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANISM 

F. C. M. Wei 67 

X. THE NEW CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO BUDDHISTS 

Karl L. Reichelt 73 

XI. CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM 

Mark Edwin Botham 78 

XII. CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG CHINESE MOSLEMS 

Isaac Mason 86 



CONTENTS 



PART III. THE CHURCH IN CHINA 



Chapter 
XIII. 

XIV. 



PAGE 



PROGRESS AND 
MOVEMENT 



PROBLEMS 
SINCE THE 



OF THE CHRISTIAN 

REVOLUTION (1911) 

Edwin Marx 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

1. West China R. 0. Jolliffe 

2. East Central China W. P. Roberts 

3. North China George L. Davis 

4. Fukien Willard L. Beard 

5. South China A. J. Fisher 

6. Wuhan Alfred A. Oilman. 

7. Manchuria F. W. S. O Neill 

XV. THE RURAL CHURCH AND ITS RELATION TO 
RELIGIOUS, EDUCATIONAL, MEDICAL AND 
SOCIAL WORK K. T. Chung 

XVI. THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANGING CHINA 

T. C. Chao 

XVII. THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPORT 

Robert E. Chandler 

XVI II. THE COMMUNITY CHURCH IN CHINA 

R. T. Henry 

PART IV. THE COOPERATIVE MOVEMENTS IN 
CHINA 

XIX. THE FORWARD PROGRAM OF THE NATIONAL 
CHRISTIAN COUNCII Henry T. Hodgkin 

XX. THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL AND THE 
CHURCH IN CHINA L. J. Birney 

XXI. PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 

David Z. T. Yui 
XXII. SOME MODERN ASPECTS OF THE YOUNG WOMEN S 

CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA Mrs. 

T. C. aim, Miss Ting Shu-ching, Miss 
Theresa Sever in 

XXIII. CHINESE HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

XXIV. HUNAN BIIJLE INSTITUTE Frank A. Keller 

XXV. COOPERATION IN THE C. I. M D. E. Hoste 

XXVI. CHURCH FEDERATION IN* CHINESE CITIES 

J. S. Burgess 
XXVII. DAILY VACATION BIBLE SCHOOI S. P. Chiian 



100 
103 
10(5 
111 
114 

123 

127 
131 
138 
143 



117 
151 

158 



172 
175 
ISO 

184 
18!) 



VI CONTENTS 

Chapter PA on 

XXVIII. CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 

E. G. Tewksbury 191 

XXIX. CHINA CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOUR UNION 

E. E. Strother 1% 

XXX. THE EPWOKTII LEAGUE Gcraldine Townsend 15)8 

XXXI. THE CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION 

J. Whitsed Dovey 202 

PART V. SPECIAL EVANGELISTIC MOVEMENTS 
XXXII. SOME PROBLEMS OK EVANGELISTIC WOKK 

1. In the Church ...... Ting Li Mei 205 

2. Of Itineration J. Goforth 208 

8. In Rural Fields W. A. Mather 210 

XXXIII. THE WORK OP THE UNITED METHODIST MISSION 

IN WENCTTOW Win. R. Stobie 213 

XXXIV. TENT EVANGELISM Andrew Thompson 222 

XXXV. WORK AMONG THE SHANS J. W. Lowrie 22(5 

XXXVI. WORK IN HAINAN David S. Tappan 230 

XXX VII. WORK AMO>G TURKI AND THE TRIPES IN 

CENTRAL ASIA G. W. Hunter 235 

PART VI. MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES 

XXXVIII. THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE HOME BASE 

J. L. Stuart 23S 

XXXIX. AViiAT SHOULD BE THE PRESENT CONTRIBUTION 
OF MISSIONS TO CHRISTIAN WORK IN CHINA ? 

T. K Shen 242 

XL. RECENT CHANGES IN MISSION ORGANIZATION^ 

James Maxon Yard 247 

XLI. THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY FROM NORTH AMERICA 

Burton St. John 252 

XLT.I. THE METHODIST CENTENARY MOVEMENT 

James Maxon Yard 257 

XLIII. THE MISSIONARY SITUATION IN GUEAT BRITAIN 

Nelson Ritton 2i ,0 

XLIV. ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSION,-, IN CHINA 

Eliza L. iioots i! ; () 

PART VII. EDUCATION AND STUDENTS 

XLV. GROWTH OF UNIFICATION IN EDUCATION 

Donald Roberts 270 



CONTENTS 



Vll 



Chapter PAGE 

XLVI. GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIPS AM) CHRISTIAN 

EDUCATION Earl Herbert Cressy 274 

XLVI I. THE PRESENT SITUATION IN RELIGIOUS EDUCA- 

TION William L. Sanders 278 

XLVIII. SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA. ..George R. Twiss 283 
XLIX. THE MOVEMENT FOR THE SCIENTIFIC MEASURE 
MENT OP EDUCATION IN CHINA T. T. Lew 288 

L. PRELIMINARY SUMMARY AND REPORT OF THE 
NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 

E.irle L. Terinan 207 

LI. STUDENT VOCATIONAL INTERESTS... A.. J. Bowen 301 
LI1. UNION COLLEGES FOR WOMEN 

Matilda C. Thurston 507 

LLII. THE POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT...!. C. YEN 30!) 
LIV. THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHABET AND FOR 
THE SIMPLIFICATION OF THE CHARACTERS 

Yii-t ang Lin 1518 

L V. PRESENT USE OF PHONKTIC SYSTEMS IN TEACHING 
ILLITERATES TO HEAD THE BIISLE 

Arnold G. Bryson o^o 
LVL. THE STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT 

Jung Fang Li 340 

LVI1. CHINESE STUDENTS AIJROAD Y. Y. Tsu 343 

LVill. Sc. iiooLs FOR MISSIONARIES CHILDREN 

Charles L. Boynton 3;") 3 

PART VIII. MEDICAL WORK 

L1X. THE PUBLIC HEALTH MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

l!)22-li)2;> John B. Grant of>S 

LX. Woitic OF THE PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 

Henry S. Iloughton 3(53 

LXI, PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS IN MISSION 

SCHOOLS S. M. Woo 3(57 

LX11. INTERDENOMINATIONAL AND NATIONAL SERVICE 
OF TUB CHINA MEDICAL MISSIONARY As- 

soci Ation James L. Maxwell 374 

LXill. NURSES WORK IN* CHINA Cora E. Simpson 378 

LX1V. THE AMERICAN UED CROSS IN CHINA 382 

LXV. KULING MEDICAL MISSION Calvin E. Buswell 385 



Vlll CONTENTS 

PART IX. SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

Chapter PAGE 

LXVI. PRESENT INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITY BEFORE THE 

CHURCH Wei Tsung Zung 388 

LXVII. CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES 

Lily K. Haass 394 

LXV1II. OPIUM AXD NARCOTICS. ..W. II. Graham Asplaiid 391) 
LXIX. FAMINE RELIEF WORK 1921-1922. ..Y. S. Djang 410 

LXX. THE MORAL WELFARE LEAGUE OF SHANGHAI 

Isaac Mason 413 

LXXI. DOOR OF HOPE AND CHILDREN S REFUGE 

Ethel Abercrombie 41(i 

LXXII. THE PRESENT SITUATION OF THE ANTI-FOOT 

BINDING MOVEMENT Martha E. Pylo 419 

LXXIII. YANGTS/EPOO AND OTHER COMMUNITY CENTERS 

D. Y. Tsicn 422 

LXXIV. WORK FOR RICKSHA MEN J. C. Clark 426 

LXXV. WORK AMONG THE CHINESE BLIND 

George P.. Fryer 43) 

PARTX. LITERATURE 

LXX VI. BIBLE DISTRIBUTION DURING THE YEAR 

G. Carleton Lacy 432 

LXXV] I. THE PRESENT SITUATION WITH REGARD TO 

CHRISTIAN LITERATURE Elijah S. Nieh 438 

LXX VI II. THE CHINA CHRISTIAN LITERATURE COUNCIL 

II . J. Molony 443 

LXXIX. THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 

D. MacGillivray 44(5 

LXXX. THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY FOR CHINA 

George A. Clayton 44X 

LXXXI. CHINA As INTERPRETED TO THE OCCIDENT BY 

THE RECENT BOOKS Kenneth Latourette 450 

LXXXII. SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED 

T. C. Chao 457 

LXXXJII. NEW PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE FROM OCTOBER 
IST, 1922 to SEI TEMBKR 31sT, 1923 

George A . Clayton 406 

LXXXIV. BOOKS ON SEX AND FAMILY LIFE 

Ella W. Mac Neil 483 



CONTENTS IX 

PART XL MISCELLANEOUS 

Chapter PAGE 

LXXXV. GOVERNOR YEN AND His WORK IN SHANSI 

Paul L. Corbin 48M 
LXXXV I. THE SALVATION ARMY IN CHINA 

Francis W. Pearco 490 
LXXXVIL. THE CHINESE A.KKOAD H. F. MacNair 493 

LXXXVILI. WORK AMONG CHINESE SOLDIERS 

Kev. Liu Fang 504 
LXXXIX. CHINESE LAWS AFFECTING WOMEN 

Chu Feng-ch ih -"308 

PART XII. OBITUARIES (J922-J923) 512 

PART XIII APPENDICES 

A. BIBLIOGRAPHY f\ Jiawlinson 51(3 

Books: 51(5 

Articles: 519 

13. TENT EQUIPMENT ,. 527 

C. COVENANT o;- 1 THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE SALVA 
TION OF NATIONS THROUGH CHRISTIANITY -529 

I). CONSTITUTION OF THE CENTRAL CHINA TEACHERS 

COLLEGE 531 

E. LIST OF ANTI- NARCOTIC BOOKS .. 533 



CONTRIBUTORS 

PAGE 

Abercrombfe, Miss Eth;l (1898)* DOOR OF HOPE AND CHILDREN S 
REFUGE. 

In charge of receiving home and Mixed Court Work, 
Door of Hope, Shanghai 41*5 

Aspland, W. H. Graham, M.D., CM., F. R. C. S. E. (11)05) 
OPIUM AND NARCOTICS. 

S. P. G. General Secretary, International Anti-Opium 
Association, Peking ... ... ... ... ... ... 399 

B.-ard, WilJard L. t B.A., D.D. (1S94) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 
IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE (Fukien). 

A. B. C. F. M. President, Foochow College, Mission 
Secretary Ill 

Birney, Bishop L. J. (11)20) THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 
AND THE CHURCH IN CHINA. 
M. E. Bishop of the Shanghai Area 154 

Bittern, Rev. Nelson, THE MISSIONARY STITUATION IN GREAT 

BRITAIN ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 200 

Botham, Mark Edwin (1903) CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM. 

C. I. M. Evangelistic work among Mohammedans in 

N. W. China 78 

Boweii, Rev. A. J., B.A., LL.D. (1897) STUDENT VOCATIONAL 

INTERESTS 

M. E, President University of Nanking, Nanking... ... 301 

Boynton, Rev. Charles L., B.A. (11)06) SCHOOLS FOR MIS 
SIONARIES CHILDREN. 
Acting Principal, Shanghai American School, Shanghai... 35l> 

Bryson, Rev. Arnold G. (1903) PRESENT USE OF PHONETIC 
SYSTEMS IN TEACHING ILLITERATES TO READ THE BIBLE. 
L. M. S. Country evangelistic work. Tsang Chow, Chihli 325 

Burgess, Mr. J. S. (1909) CHURCH FEDERATION IN CHINESE 
CITIES. 
Secretary, Y. M. C. A., Peking 184 

Bus well, Calvin E., A.B., M,D. (1919) RULING MEDICAL 
MISSION. 

P. N. Physician, Killing Medical Mission (Chinese), and 
Killing Estate Hospital (Foreign) 38fi 



Year of arrival in Chiiui. 



CONTlUBUT XI 

PAGE 



Chandler, Robert E., B.D., M.A. (1011) THE STATUS OK 
SUPPORT. 

A. B. C. F. M. General Secretary of North China Kung 
Li Iltii, Tientsin 138 

Chao, T. C., M.A., B.D. Tin: CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANG 
ING CHINA, SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED. 
M. S. Dean of College of Arts and Sciences, Soochow 
University, Soochow ... ... ... ... ... ... 131 

Cbu, Mr. Feng-ch ih. CHINESE LAWS AFFECTING WOMEN. 

Educated at Hangchow Law School. Secretary to the 
Civil Governor and Head of the National Bank of Com 
merce, Hangchow ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 508 

Chu, Mrs. T. C., B.A. SOME MODERN ASPECTS OP THE YOUNG 

WOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA. 

Formerly Chairman, National Committee, Y. W. C. A. ... 1<>7 
Chuan, Mr. S. P. DAILY VACATION BIRLE SCHOOL. 

Office Secretary and Secretary of Publication Department 

of the National Christian Council of China, Shanghai ... 189 
Chung, Rev. K, T., B.A. THE RURAL CHURCH AND ITS 

RELATION TO RELIGIOUS, EDUCATIONAL, MEDICAL AND 

SOCIAL WORK. 

Chung Hua Shen Rung Hui. Secretary of National 

Christian Council, Shanghai ... .. ... ... ... 127 

Clark, J. C., B.S. (1911) AVoKK FOR RICKSHA MEN. 

Y. M. C. A. Secretary, Shanghai. 

Clark, Grover, A.B , A.M. (1920) MILITARISM. 

Professor of English Literature, Peking National Univer 
sity : Managing Editor, Peking Leader ... ... ... 22 

Clayton, Rev. George A. (1895) THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY 
FOR CHINA, NEW PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE FKOM OCTOBER 
1st, 1922 TO SEPTEMBER 31st, 1923. 

General Secretary, Religious T*ract Society for China, 
Hankow 448 

CorbZn, Paul L., D.D. (1904) GOVERNOR YEN AND His WORK 
IN SHANSI. 
A. B. C. F. M., Taiku, Shansi 486 

Cressy, Earl Herbert, (1910) GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND 
CmtrsTiAX EDUCATION. 

A. B. l \ M. S. Chairman National CommitU". on Govern 
ment Relationships. General Secretary, East China 
Christian Educational Association, Shanghai ... ... 274 

Davis, Georg L M M.A., D.D. (1902) RKCEVT DEVELOPMENTS 
IN CIHXKSE CHURCH LIFE (North China). 
M. E. District missionary, Peking City district; Secretary, 
North China Mission, Peking ... 10(5 



Xll CONTRIBUTORS 

PAGE 
Djang, Mr. Y. S., B.A. FAMINE RELIEF WORK 1921-1922. 

Associate Executive Secretary, China International 
Famine Eclief Commission 410 

Dovey, J. Whitsed, (1917) THE CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS AS 
SOCIATION. 

Secretary, Christian Publishers Association of China, 
Shanghai 202 

Duncan, Kenneth, Ph.D. (1911) CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 
(South China). 

Professor of Economics; Dean of Faculty of College of 
Arts and Sciences, Canton Christian College, Canton ... 28 

Fang, Rev. Liu, B.A., WORK AMONG CHINESE SOLDIERS. 

M. E. Church. District Superintendent Peking District 504 

Fisher, Rev. A. J.,. (1902) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE 
CHURCH LIFE (South China). 

P. N. Evangelistic work: Associate Executive Secretary 
of the Church of Christ in China, Canton, Kwangtung ... 114 

Fryer, Mr. George B. (Born Shanghai 1877: returned to China 
1898). WORK AMONG THE CHINESE BLIND. 
Superintendent and Secretary Institution Chinese Blind. 
Director Shanghai Benevolent Industrial Inst., Shanghai 430 

Oilman, Rev. Alfred A., B.A., (Nebraska) S. T. D. (Philadel 
phia), (1902) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE CHURCH 
LIFE (Wuhan). 
(P. E. U. S. A.) President, Boone University, Wuchang 119 

Goforth, Rev. Jonathan, D.D., (1888) SOME PROBLEMS OF 
EVANGELISTIC WORK (Of Itineration). 
C. P. M. General evangelistic work. Changtehfu, Honan 208 

Grant, John B., (1918) THE PUBLIC HEALTH MOVEMENT IN 
CHINA 1922-23. 

International Health Board, Rockefeller Foundation. 
Associate Professor Hygiene and Public Health, P. U. 
M. C., Peking 358 

Haass, Miss Lily K., (1914) CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTER 
PRISES. 
Y. W. C. A. Secretary, Peking 394 

Henry, R. T., (1919) THE COMMUNITY CHURCH IN CHINA. 

M. E. S. Kong Hong Institutional Church, Soochow. 
Acting Executive Secretary China Association of Com 
munity Church Workers. Soochow, Kiangsu U3 

Hodgkin, H-nry T., M.A., M.B., (1905) THE FORWARD 
PROGRAM OF THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL. 
F. F. M. A. Secretary, National Christian Council, 
Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 147 

Hoste, Mr. D. E., (1885) COOPERATION IN THE C. I. M. 

Director C.I. M., Shanghai 180 



CONTRIBUTORS Xlll 

PAGE 

Houghton, Henry S., Ph.B., M.D., (1900) WORK OF THE 
PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE. 

Director P. IT. M. C. Acting Resident Director Cliina 
Medical Board, Peking 303 

Hunter, G. W., (1889) WORK AMONG TURKI AND THE TRIBES IN 
CENTRAL ASIA. 
C. I. M. Tiliwa, Sinkiang 235 

Jolliffe, R. O., B.A., (1904) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN 
CHINESE CHURCH LIFE (West China). 
C. M. M. Chengtu, Szechwan TOO 

Keller, Rev. Frank A., B.A., M.D., (1897) HUNAN BIBLE 
INSTITUTE. 

C. I. M. Superintendent, Hnnan Bible Institute, Chang- 
sha, Hunan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 175 

Lacy, Rev. G. Carleton, M,A., B.D., (1914) BIBLE DISTRIBU 
TION DURING THE YEAR. 
Agency Secretary, American Bible Society, Shanghai ... 432 

Latourette, Prof. Kenneth. (1910) CHINA AS INTERPRETED TO 
THE OCCIDENT BY THE RECENT BOOKS. 

Formerly a member of Yale Mission, Changsha, and now 
occupying the Chair of Missions in Yale University ... 450 

Lew, Dr. T. T., THE MOVEMENT FOR THE SCIENTIFIC 
MEASUREMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA. 
Dean of Faculty of Theology and Professor of Psychology, 
Peking University ... 288 

Li, Rev. Jung-Fang, M.A., B.D., Th.D. THE STUDENT 
VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT. 



M. E. Professor, School of Theology, Peking University, 
Peking 340 

Lieu, D. K., B.A., F. R. S. A., SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES. 

Chief of Investigation Department, Government Bureau 
of Economic Information; Technical Expert, Financial 
Readjustment Commission and Special Tariff Conference 
Preparation Bureau, Peking 1C, 

Lobfngier, Charles Summer, Dr. Jur., D. C. L., Ph.D., WHAT 
Is EXTRATERRITORIALITY ? 

Judge U. S. Court and American Judicial Superinten 
dent in China, Shanghai 4(5 

Lowrf^, Rev. J. W., D.D., (1883) WORK AMONG THE SHANS. 

P. N. Chairman of the China Council, Shanghai 220 

MacGillivray, D., M.A., D,D., LL.D., (1888) THE CHRISTIAN 
LITERATURE So CIET Y. 

C. P. M. General Secretary, Christian Literature 
Society, Shanghai 440 



XIV CONTRIBUTORS 

PAGE 
MacNair, H. F., Ph.D., (1912) THE CHINESE ABROAD. 

A. C. M. Professor of PJistory and Government, St. John s 
University, Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... 493 

MacNeill, Miss Ella W., (1915) BOOKS ON SEX AND FAMILY LIFE. 

Y. W. C. A. Student Field Secretary, Shanghai 483 

Malone, Rev. Carroll B., (1911) PAST AND FU-URE USE OF 
BOXER INDEMNITY FUNDS. 
Professor of History, Tsing Hua College, Peking ... ... 1 

Marx, Edwin, A.B., B.D. ; (1918) PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF 
THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION (1911). 
U. C. M. S. Professor of English, University of Nanking. 
Since 1922, Secretary, Treasurer and Chairman of 
Advisory Committee of U.C.M.S 80 

Mason , Isaac, F. R. G. S., (1892) CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG 
CHINESE MOSLEMS. THE MORAL WELFARE LEAGUE OF 
SHANGHAI. 

F. F. M. A., Editorial Secretary, Christian Literature 
Society, Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 86 

Mather, William Arnot, b.A., B.D.. (1902) SOME PROBLEMS 
OF EVANGELISTIC WORK (In Rural Fields). 
P. N. Evangelistic work. Paoting, Chihli 210 

Maxwell, James L., M.D., B.S., London (1901) INTERDENOMINA 
TIONAL AND NATIONAL SERVICE OF THE CHINA MEDICAL 
MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION. 

E. P. M Executive Secretary, China Medical Missionary 
Association, Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... 374 

Molony, Rev. H. J., D.D., Bishop, (1900) THE CHINA 
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE COUNCIL. 
C. M. S., Bishop in Chekiang, Ningpo ... -143 

Nieh, Mr. Elijah S., B.A., THE PRESENT SITUATION WITH 
REGARD TO CHRISTIAN LITERATURE. 

Editorial Secretary, Christian Literature Society for 
China, Shanghai 438 

Nfpp>, ]. W., (1913) CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE (Chefoo). 

Y. M. C. A. Secretary, Chefoo, Shantung 41 

O f Neiil t Rev. F. W. S., M.A., (1897) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 
IN CHINES K CHURCH LIFE (Manchuria). 
I. P. M. Evangelistic and Educational work, Fakumen, 
Manchuria ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 123 



Onley, Rev. Frederick G., (1909) THE BANDIT SITUATIO; 
CHRISTIAN WORK. 
L. M. S. Tsaoshih, Hupch 7 

Pearce, Francis W., (1920) THE SALVATION ARMY IN CHINA. 
Commander of Salvation Army work in North China, 
Peking 490 



CONTRIBUTORS XV 

PAGE 
Pyle, Miss Martha E., (1892) THE PRESENT SITUATION OP THE 

ANTI-FOOT BINDING MOVEMENT. 

M. E. S. C. L. S., Editorial Secretary, Shanghai 41!) 

Rawliason, Rev. Frank, M.A., D.D., (1902) BIP.LIOGKAPHY. 

A. B. C. F. M. Editor, Chinese Recorder 510 

Refcfult, Rev. Karl L., (190o) THE NEAV CHRISTIAN AI>IRJACII 
TO BUDDHISTS. 
N. M. S. Christian Mission to Buddhists, Nanking 73 

Reid, Gilbert, Rev. A.M., D.D., (18S2) RECENT EFLIGIOUS 

MOVEMENTS. 

Originally P. N. Since IH M in International Institute, 

Peking 59 

Roberts, Donald, M.A., (1915) GROWTH OF UNIFICATION IN 

EDUCATION. 

A. C. M. Professor of History, St. John s University, 

Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 270 

Roberts , Rev. W. P., (191-i) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN 

CHINESE CHURCH LIFE (East Central China). 

A. 0. M. Evangelistic Work, Nanking 10. ) 

Roots, Mrs. H. L., (1S99) ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA, 

Hankow 200 

Saiders, Rev. "William L., (1920) THE PRESENT SITUATION IN 
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. 

M. E. M. Secretary, Sunday School Work in China, 
Nanking 27S 

Sarvls, Guy W. t M.A., (1911) CHANGING STANDARDS IN 
MORALS AND RELIGION. 

U. C. M. S. I rofessor of Sociology and Economics, 
Nanking University 50 

Severia, Miss Theresa, M.A., (1913) SOME MODERN ASPECTS 
OF THE YOUNG WOMEN S* CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA. 
Y. W. C. A. National Secretary for City Work, Shanghai 107 

Shedd t Chas. C., B.A., (1916) CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 
(Wuhan). 

Formerly Y. M. C. A. Secretary for Industrial Work, 
Wu-han. Now in Chungking, Szechwan ... ... ... 81 

Sh;n x T. K., WHAT SHOULD RE THE PRESENT CONTRIBUTION 
OF MISSIONS TO CHRISTIAN WORK TN CHINA ? 
Presbyter, Chung Hua Sheng Rung Hui, Nanking ... 242 

Simpson, Miss Cora E., R.N., (1907) NURSES WORK IN CHINA. 
M. E. M. General Secretary, Nurses Association of 
China, Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 378 

St. John, Barton, THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY FROM NORTH 
AMERICA. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 
New York 252 



XVI CONTRIBUTORS 

PAGE 

Stobie, Rev. Wm. R., (1890) THE WORK OF THE UNITED 
METHODIST MISSION TN WENCIIOW. 
U. M. C. General mission work, \Venchow, Chekiang ... 213 

Strother, Mr. E. E. ; (11)00) CHINA CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR 
UNION. 

General Secretary, China Christian Endeavor Union, 
Shanghai 190 

Stuart, J. L., B.D., D.D., (Born Hangchow 1876; returned to 
China 1906) THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE HOME 
BASE 
P. S. President, Yenching University, Peking 238 

Tappan, Rev. David S., A.M., (1906) WORK IN HAINAN. 

A. P. M. Principal, Hainan Christian Middle School, 
Member of China Council, Kiungchow, Hainan Island ... 230 

Terman, Mr. Earle L., (1916) PRELIMINARY SUMMARY AND 
REPORT OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY. 
M. E. M. Professor in Yenching University, Director 
of National Educational Survey 297 

Tewksbury, Rev. E. G., (1890) CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION. 

General Secretary, China S. S. Union, Shanghai 191 

Thomson, Rev. Andrew, B.A., (1906) TKNT EVANGELISM. 

C. P. M. Evangelistic work, Taokou, Honan ... ... 222 

Thurston, Matilda C. t (1902) UNION COLLEGES FOR WOMEN. 

P. N. President Ginling College, Nanking ... ... ... 807 

Ting, Mr. Li Mei. SOME PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK 
(In the Church). 
Secretary, Student Volunteer Movement 20-1 

TJng, Miss Shu-Ching, B.A., SOME MODERN ASPECTS OF THE 
YOUNG WOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA. 
General Secretary, National committee Y. VV. C. A. of 
China, Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 167 

Townsend, Miss Geraldin?, A.B., (1919) THE EIMVORTII 
LEAGUE. 
M. E. Secretary, Epworth League for China, Shanghai ... 198 

Tsien, Mr. D. Y., B A., YANGTPZEPOO AND OTHER COMMUNITY 
CENTERS. 

S. B. C. General Director of Yangtszepoo Social Center, 
Shanghai ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 422 

Tsu t Dr. Y. Y., CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD. 

A. C. M. Formerly professor of St. John s University, 
now General Secretary of the Chinese Students Christian 
Association in North America ... 343 

Twiss t George R., (1922) SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA, 

Director of Science Education, Chinese National Associa 
tion for the Advancement of Education, Peking ... ... 283 



CONTRIBUTORS 

PAGE 

Wei, Francis C. M.,TnE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANIANISM. 
Chung Him Sheng Kung Hui, Professor, Boone Univer 
sity, Wuchang <>7 

Woo, Dr. S. M., PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS IN MIS 
SION SCHOOLS. 

P. N. Associate Director, Council on Health Education, 
Shanghai ... ... ; >(>7 

Yard, James Maxon, B.A , B.D., (1910) KKCEXT CHANGES IN 
MISSION ORGANI/ATIOX. THE METHODIST CENTENARY 
MOVEMENT. 

M. E. M. General Secretary, Executive Board of Metho 
dist Missions in Eastern Asia, Shanghai ... 247, 257 

Yen, J. C.,- THE POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT. 

Secretary, National Popular Education Movement, 

Y. M. C. A., China... . JO!) 

Yu, T ang Lin, A.M. (Harvard), Ph.D. (Leipzig, Germany), 
THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHAHKT AND FOR THE 
SIMPLIFICATION OF HIE CHARACTERS. 

Professor of English and Comparative Phonetics, 
National University, Peking ... ... ... ... olS 

Yui, Mr. David Z. T., B.A., PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE 
CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 

Chung Una Sheng Kung Hui. General Secretary National 
Committee of Y. M. C. A. s of China ... ... ... ... 15S 

Zung, Miss Wei Tsung, PRESENT INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITY 
BEFORE THE CHURCH. 

Secretary, Industrial Department, National Committee 
Y. W. C. A., Shanghai ... 3S8 



PART I 
CHINA TO-DAY 

CHAPTER I 

PA.VT AND FUTURE USE OF BOXER INDEMNITY FUNDS 
Carroll B. Ma lone 

. The Boxer Indemnity was exacted from 

Amount Chimi l >y tho lowers in 1901 to cover their 

actual losses due to the Boxer Uprising. 
Chinese Statesmen seemed to he- shocked by the aggregate 
of the claims which reached a total of 450,000,000 taels. 
This was then calculated at the current rate of exchange 
in the gold currency of each country and according to the 
Protocol of September 7, i >0i, it constituted a gold debt 
bearing interest at 4 / and to be paid in full during ttS) 
years ending in 11)40. 

The table below shows the amount (in round num 
bers) due each country calculated in gold dollars at the 
rate of .712. 

Russia (iS9(i,735,000 Belgium G$o, 285,000 

Germany ,, (5(>,S32,00() Austria-Hungary ,, 2,970,000 

France ,, 52,59l,<)00 Netherlands ,, 580,000 

limit Britain... ,, H7,5b 0,000 Spain ,, 100,000 

Japan 2o,8H),()QO Portugal 68,000 

United States... 24,440,000 International 157,000 

Italy P>,74 ( .),000 

Tota 1 over ( J 8^^,000, 0()( ) 

In liHU John Hay told Sir Chen-Tung 
Remittanceot r jiju ( ] irng , the Chinese minister in Wash- 
American . i i i 
Share mgfon that he would bring to the attention 

of President Moose velt th<^ question of remit 
ting to China a portion of the Boxer Indemnity due to the 
United States. President Roosevelt agreed to the plan but 



2 BOXER INDEMNITY FUNDS 

wanted to bo sure that China would really use the money 
for the benefit of the people. 

The Chinese minister wrote to his home government 
recommending that they tell the American Government 
that the. money, if returned, would be used for education, 
as that would meet the American idea of the benefit 01 the 
people and would help in the, negotiations. The powerful 
viceroy, Yuan Shih-kai, recommended that the 
first used to develop railways and mines 
profits fnrn these be used for education. 

In I .jOo J)r. Jeremiah \V. Jenks, who had recently 
returned from investigating the currency system of China, 
talked with President Roosevelt about the possibility of 
using a part of this fund for currency reform in China and 
for the adoption of a gold standard, and part for education. 

in IDOo Dr. Arthur II. Smith had an interview with 
President Roosevelt in which he urged on the President the 
advisability of making arrangements for the return of the, 
surplus indemnity to China whereby China would use it 
for education instead of warships, as she might do 
otherwise. President Roosevelt later said that the return 
of the indemnity was largely a result of this conversation 
with Dr. Smith. 

In 1007 the Chinese Minister was notified 
Manner and t j mt tho ]> ras i f ] en t. wou ld recommend to the 
Arno f mts ot , -, , i T > 

American next congress that the surplus ot the .Boxer 

Remission Indemnity over and above the, actual cost of 
the military and naval expeditions and the 
amounts paid out to private citizens and corporations, 
should be remitted to China. Congress accordingly passed 
a joint resolution dated May 7, 1908, authorizing the 
President to remit to China "at such times and in such 
manner as lie shall deem just : the amount of G$10,785,286 
and interest at 4 ( /r. The Congressional resolution thus 
left the President free to make what arrangements ho 
would with the Chinese Government. 

No formal conditions wore attached to the return of 
the money to China, The Chinese diplomats wore well 
aware of the ideas of the American Government. Very 
graciously they expressed their gratitude and their desire 
to send students to the United States. They soon pre- 



REMITTED INDEMNITY FUNDS 



son ted a plan so satisfactory to the American Minister, 
Mr. lloekhill, in Peking that he recommended that the 
remission of the Indemnity begin at oner, a-; was done in 
January, 1 ( .)09. 

The following table shows (I) the annual amounts due 
to the United States according << the Protocol of 1901, (2) 
the amount retained by the United States, and (3) the 
amount being remitted annually to China, by the President s 
order of December 28, 1908. 





(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


r 
} ( (ITS 


Due from China. 


Jfett d r ne<l !>// 


Remhtxl to 




to the U. X. 


the U.S. 


China 


1909-10 


SI, 022,688 


8539,588 


S 483,091 


1911-1 [ 


1,080,787 


i > 


511,198 


1915 


1,261,582 


^ ? 


724,993 


1916-31 


1,329,781 


> i 


790,196 


1932-39 


1,919,967 


} 5 


1,380,378 


1940 


1,932,374 


, , 




Deficit 


3,407 







The United States kept $13,655,492 but of this amount: 
82,000,000 was held pending the settlement of certain 
claims in the Court of Claims. Of this amount over 
$1,100,000 was returned to China in six instalments in 
the years 1914-1917. This makes a total of 11,960,000 
plus the interest, which the United States is remitting to 
China during the years 1909-1910. 

The plan submitted hy the Hoard of 
Use or Remitted m A re a -\ - JjL -i 

Funds -foreign Anairs for the use ot the remitted 

indemnity provided for sending to the United 
States a. hundred students annually for four years, after 
which fifty should be sent each year. Tsing Hua College 
was established to prepare; the selected students to enter 
American colleges and universities. Its authorities are 
responsible to the Board of Foreign Affairs, and have 
charge also of the students studying in America, of 
the granting of scholarships to girls and of fellowships to 
graduates of other institutions. 

Of the additional remission made in the years 1914- 
1917, $100,000 was given to the Chinese Social and Political 



ROXER INDEMNITY FUNDS 

Science Association for its Library. The rest, over 
$1,000,000, went to Tsing Him College and was used for 
the splendid buildings which have been erected there. 

A ee-rtain part of the annual remittnnees is being held 
in an Endowment Fund, of which the trustees are the 
Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs, the \ T ice-minister, 
and the American Minister in Peking. Jt is believed that 
by 1940, when the remissions cease, there will bo in the 
Endowment Fund enough money to keep the institution 
on the interest alone. 

It is still much too early to judge of the full success 
of the plan as most of the returned students are still 
young. Plans to open the scholarships to graduates of 
other colleges beside Tsing Hua and to provide for sending 
more mature and experienced students are under con 
sideration, 

Cancellations When China declared war against Ger- 

and Postpone- many and Austria, in 1917 payments on the 
ments Doe to German Austrian shares of the Boxer 
V - r Indemnity ceased entirely, and by the 
treaties which ended the war China was relieved of all 
further payments to these countries. 

In 1917 arrangements were made with the British, 
American, French, Italian, Japanese, Belgian, and 
Portuguese Governments to postpone payments on their 
shares for five years, thereby extending the date of the 
expiration of the payments due to those countries from 
1940 to 194-o. 

Russia agreed to the suspension of only one-third of 
her share, but all payments to Russia were suspended in 
July, 1920, because there was no central Russian Govern 
ment recognized by China. Although this deferred Russian 
share is being held in trust by the Chinese Government 
for the Russian Government, it was used as security for a 
domestic loan in 1922. 

In October, 1922, after the cancellation of the German 
and Austrian shares, the remission of a part of the 
American share, and the postponement of payments on 
several other shares, the amounts slill due to the Powers 
as calculated in pounds sterling by the Ministry of Finance 
were as follows: 



Russian Gov t 


27,019,107 


Belgian 


French ,, 


,, 15,OG. >, 2(11 


Dutch 


British 


11,180,517 


Spanish 


Ja panes* 1 ,, 


,, 7,088,807 


Portugut 


Italian ,, 


5,882,040 


Swedish 


American ,, 


2,517,959 





REMITTED INDEMNITY FUNDS 5 

Gov t, 1,874,040 

,, ,, 141,981 

,, ,, 24,565 

e,, ,, 20,480 

,, ,, 11,405 

The (/re-iter part of this seems likely to he remitted or 
used for purposes deemed beneficial to China. 

The United States is the only country 
Further* which lias voluntarily remitted a part of the 

Remission Boxer Indemnity to China, and the remission 

of the remainder of the American share has 
heen proposed in Congress more than once. Japan, France, 
Great Britain and Russia also have plans for using the 
payments still due them for the benefit of the Chinese 
people. 

The Japa.nese Government has definitely decided to 
use future Boxer Indemnity payments for the advance 
ment of Chinese civilization. The money is not to he 
returned for China to use herself, but its expenditure has 
been entrusted to a Japanese Government Bureau. It will 
amount to about 2 1- million yen per year. The details of 
the plan have not yet heen announced, but at present some 
support from this fund is being given to Japanese hospitals 
in Tsinanfu and Tsingtao. 

The French Government has made a conditional offer 
to the Chinese Government to use the proceeds of all 
future Boxer Indemnity payments for two purposes, which 
will be of mutual benefit to both countries. The first 
purpose is to satisfy the Far ICastern creditors of the 
Banque Indnstrielle de Chine by giving them ^% bond a 
payable in g Id dollars in exchange for the bonds which 
are being offered them by the defunct bank. The second 
purpose is the benefit of Sino-French educational or 
charitable enterprises to he agreed upon each year by the 
Chinese and French Governments. The conditions of the 
offer are that the creditors of the Banque Industrielle shall 
agree to accept the gold bonds of the French Government 
in place of the franc bonds of the bank, and that the 
Chinese Government shall agree to pay the subsequent 
instalments of the Boxer Indemnity in gold francs in 



6 BOXER INDEMNITY FUNDS 

conformity with the Protocol of 1901. The question 
whether China must pay in gold or may iv.iy in paper 
francs at the current rates of exchange is still unsettled at 
the present writing. 

The British Government has also informed the Chinese 
(government that it has decided in principle thai further 
payments on the Boxer Indemnity should he used for 
purposes mutually beneficial to both China and Great 
Britain. The exact method of so using the money has 
not yet been decided upon. 

The latest offer is that made by the representative of 
the Soviet Government, which has not yet been officially 
recognized, in answer to an appeal from the representatives 
of the Eight National Institutions of Higher Learning in 
Peking. The Soviet representative ;- peaks of the Boxer 
Indemnity as having been forced by criminal violence on 
the Chinese people by the Tsarist Government in 1901, 
refers to the offer made in 1919 to give up the Boxer 
Indemnity, protests against the use of the money by the 
Chinese Government for diplomatic or any other purposes 
until there shall be some agieernent between the two 
governments in the matter, but, in view of the danger 
threatening the Peking Institutions, he offers to allow 
China to use the money for their relief immediately, even 
before the formal conference between China and the Soviet 
Government. 

Mis M. E. Wood, Librarian, Boone 
Sp^clal Plans TT . .. -, , ., 

for the Future University, has a plan for the allotment of a 
portion of the next remission which the 
United States may make for the establishment of reference 
libraries in some of the chief cities of China. 

There has been some discussion of the advisability of 
pooling the funds remitted by the various countries for 
the sake of the larger educational needs of China, if the 
various nations concerned could agree. 



CHAPTER II 

THE BANDIT SITUATION AND CHRISTIAN WORK 
Frederick G. Onley 

A lending article in a Chinese newspaper 
Bandit Types describes the prevalence of the bandits in 
China as " thick as hair . The term bandit, 
however, is loosely applied to what the Chinese call 
" Hsiao T u-fei " (Small bandits) and Ta T u-fei ;; 
(Big bandits). The big bandits are of the type of the, 
famous "White Wolf 7 who was the scourge of Honan 
some years ago. To this type belong the authors of the 
Linclieng outrage on the " Blue Express " in May 1U28, and 
Lao Yang Ren (Old Foreigner) in Honan and Hupeh 
during 1922 and 1928. They loot, burn cities and take 
captives, and if these be foreigners, expect a large ransom, 
incorporation into the army for the rank and iile, and 
high promotion for leaders. 

The Small bandits or local T u-fei are very widely 
distributed small groups of bandits and highwaymen of 
varied origin. Many are survivals of the movement which 
opposed the military and political policy of Yuan Shih- 
kai, who since they did not receive willing support froir. 
the democracy, began to levy forced contributions fron: 
well-to-do farmers, sometimes up to one half of a man s 
capital. Menee these bands became known as " Shang 
K uan ti (contribution raisers) or more euphemistically 
K uan ITsiensheng " (Mr. Sum of Money). These bands 
now are not political to any marked extent, but are 
recruited from the class of respectable-farmer-by-day, who 
turns bandit at night, and by deserters from local militia 
and from unpaid or defeated units of the army. These 
bands are from ten to fifty in number in the case of the 
small ones, and from two hundred to five hundred in the 
case o? the larger bands, but such tend to become; united 
as " Big bandits ". Small bandits seem (o be endemic 
in most regions, although there are some patches of 



8 BANDITS 

territory in bandit-ridden provinces where the resistance 
of the inhabitants has secured freedom for the last ten 
years. 

Not since the raids of White Wolf has 
Bandits in IT 

Honan Honan known such terror from bandits as 

was experienced in the autumn of 1922. 
The progress of the band was swift and terrible, and soon 
a long list of looted cities appeared, and the new feature 
was the capture of numbers of missionaries including 
women and children. In some cases the wives of mission 
aries were allowed to go free, perhaps in order to raise 
money for ransom A typical experience was that of 
Mr. Ledgard of the 0. I. M. in Honan who was forced to 
leave his looted home and wife and child, and was carried off 
for thirteen days until he effected his escape from 
stragglers of the band. During this time he saw five large 
cities taken and almost entirely burnt, and hundreds of 
villages and large market towns treated in the same way. 
Other missionaries suffered similarly, and in some cases 
children were captured and separated from their parents 
in different sections of the same band. The leader of 
these bandits was a man named Chang, whose bandit title 
was " Old Foreigner ;; (Lao Yang Ren). After this Honan 
outbreak, the big bandits in the company of Lao Yang Ren 
were paid ransoms, received into the army, supplied with 
arms, and ammunition, and uniforms, and their leader 
made a general. The following year, this same bandit 
broke out again, and surpassed his previous records 
for ruthlessness in the capture of cities in northwest 
Hupeh, and southwest Honan. It would be interesting 
to discover the cause of this further outbreak, whether due 
to arrears of pay, the prospect of disbandment, or of a, 
tardy punishment. 

The Big bandits subsided for a while, and the spring 
of 15)23 passed with few alarms, although the city of Shang 
Tsai, from which Mr. Ledgard was taken in the previous 
Autumn, was again threatened by a band 2,000 strong, 
but the walls were manned by the people, and the band 
passed by. The Small bandits, however, were as active as 
ever, and in many parts of Hupeh, it was a common thing 
to hear of the ill paid bands of local militia turning bandit 



LINCHENG Q 

and looting small towns. The same conditions were found 
in Shensi, Fukicn, Shantung, Szechuan, Manchuria, 
Hunjin, Anhui, etc. The provinces of Shansi, and Kiangsi 
were reported quiet. 

On May 6th, 1028, the "Bine Express - 
Lincheng was wrecked by Shantung bandits at Lin- 

cheng. The date was that on which the 
Chinese government, after postponing it for a year, 
announced that it would be ready for an investigation as 
to its fitness for the abolition of extra-territoriality in 
accordance with the decisions of the Washington Con 
ference. Twenty-four foreigners and 200 Chinese were 
captured and one foreigner was killed. All suffered great 
discomfort and hardship, most of the foreigners being 
unused to Chinese food and conditions outside a treaty 
port. 

The ladies of the party were released before the men, 
the majority of whom spent live weeks in the bandit 
stronghold of Paotzuku. The Diplomatic Corps made 
strong representations to the Chinese government and 
practically dictated the means to be used to secure the 
release of the captives unharmed. The result was that 
the bandits were paid a large ransom, uniforms supplied, 
the men incorporated into the regular army, and the 
leader promoted to high rank. Tin s action seems to have 
fixed the normal method of dealing with bandits who 
capture foreigners. Later activities of bandits seem to 
show that the mishandling of the Lincheng affair, according 
to the almost unanimous opinion of Chinese and foreigners, 
has been largely responsible for the subsequent efforts to 
capture foreigners in order to achieve a similar result. 

In June a Honan bandit named Liu, an 

Foreigners ox-lieutenant, raided northern Hupeh, start- 
Vjapiurea-;7zo . . ,, * 

ing irom the hweti or 1 ungpeh in Honan. 

He penetrated as far as Yingcheng hsien, and captured 
Fr. Melotto, an Italian priest, and threatened Tsaoshih, 
but turned and returned to Honan after looting an 
out-station of Tsaoshih. Following this episode, the 
Chinese officials advised the missionaries at Tsaoshih, 
which is an unwalled town, to remove temporarily to the 
nearest walled city, or to take a holiday at Kuling earlier 



10 BANDITS 

than usual. The missionaries of the London Mission 
complied and followed their families to Kuling, but the 
Irish Roman Catholic priests refused to leave, and relied 
on the soldiers sent to protect the town. 

On August 16th, the same band which held Fr. 
Melotto decended again to the same region from Honan, 
and burnt Tsaoyang and Sungho on their way to Tsaoshih. 
On arrival at Tsaoshih, the first question asked was 
"Where an* the foreigners? Lead us to them . This 
seems to have been the prime motive of the attack. The 
R. C. priest barely escaped by crossing the river on a door, 
and the premises of the Koman Catholics and of the 
London Mission were looted and burned, including 
residences and a part of the hospital. The Chinese doctor 
and assistants were taken captive, also a large number of 
men and women, old and young from the town, which was 
two-fifths burned. 

Fr. Melotto refused to be ransomed by money, and 
when the soldiers sent to secure the release of the old 
priest got to close quarters with the brigands two and a 
half months after his capture, the leader of the band 
murdered the priest with his own hand and fled, and has 
not been caught. 

On August 28nl, two C.M.S. missionaries, Messrs. 
Watt and \Vhiteside, were murdered by bandits at short 
range near Mienchow, Szechnari. At the end of the same 
month an engineer was captured by bandits in Yunnan. 
At this time there were also attacks on a Roman Catholic 
church near Laohokow in N. W. Hupeh, and alsolon a 
R. C. station in Chihli. Mi< nchih, 80 miles from 
Kaifengfu, Honan, was attacked. Early in September a 
French mission station on the borders of Fukien and 
Kuangtung was attacked by rebel troops (also termed by 
Chinese T u Fei) the priest beaten, and the furniture 
of church and school smashed. 

The end of September was marked by the capture on 
the 22nd of two lady missionaries of the C.T.M. at the 
sack of Sihua in Honan by a band of Shantung bandits 
under Fan Ming Hsin. They suffered great indignities 
and terrible discomforts as they were dragged over the 
roughest hill country for five weeks, before they were 



CAUSES OF BANDITRY 11 

released by the hot pursuit of soldiers under the personal 
direction of the Military Governor of the province. 

Ln October a German missionary was captured in 
Huna.ii, and at the end of December was unreleased. 
November saw the capture of a R.C. Bishop and a priest in 
Shantung, the former was set free, but the J titter was 
released by a trick. The soldiers pretended to join the 
bandits, and on entering their camp, opened fire on them. 
This followed an appeal by the Bishop in Peking to the 
government to use peaceful methods in securing the 
release of Fr. Frederick, who was reported to have 
baptised i-ome of the bandits before his capture, and to 
have promised to try to secure their enrollment in 
the army. 

Mr. K. W. Schmalzried, an American missionary, was 
captured on the western border of Hunan on November 
21st. At the end of this month the notorious bandit of 
Honan, Lao Yang Ren, broke out of the army with his 
band of some thousands and crossed into N.\V. Hupeh 
and attempted to attack Laohokow. He then went to 
Likuanchiao, over the Honan border and after sacking 
the town, put most of the males to death under conditions 
of the utmost barbarity. Some, were tied up, soaked in 
kerosene and then burned. It is estimated that of the 
known persons, apart from floating population, 4,000 were 
killed. An unsuccessful attack on Yunyangfu, lasting 
three days and nights was beaten off and the next city of 
Yuinhsi hsien was treated in the same fashion as 
Likuanchiao. 

Reports from South Hunan, West Hunan, and North 
Hupeh indicate that during December the Small bandits 
were active over wide areas. In many places church 
services were interrupted, and Christians molested along 
with the rest of their fellowcountrymon. They are bearing 
the "cross of perpetual insecurity ". 

To say that banditry is due to unpaid 
Banditry soldiery, is to begin at the, middle of the 

chain. The soldiers are enlisted from tho.se 
who arc suffering from economic pressure in the poorer 
parts of China. The pay of a. soldier is little inducement 
to enlist, and when this is withheld, the inducement to 



12 BANDITS 

become a bandit is great. The core of the bandit bands is 
formed of ex-soldiers. It is a common saying that the 
soldier of to-day is the bandit of to-morrow, and the bandit 
of this year is the soldier of next. The typically Chinese 
method of receiving bandits into the army is not so strange 
as appears. The men to become bandits must have some 
grievance. If an ex-soldier, it is owing to the smallness of 
the pay or its arrears over many months; if a farm 
labourer, it is the grinding oppression of the landlords in 
some parts of the country that drives them to desperation. 
In some parts of Hnpeh, a rich province, fields lie untilled 
owing to the fact that many laboureis have taken to the 
more profitable occupation of bandit. In many areas the 
local town elders employ poor men as militiamen at a 
monthly remuneration of ^4.00 Mex. These men readily 
accept bribes from the bandits to sell ammunition or to go 
over to the bandits with their guns. In some cases the 
bandits, on getting the guns have turned the deserters 
adrift. A careful investigation of the Lincheng bandit 
area shows that economic pressure was the chief factor in 
producing banditry in that area. This conclusion is 
endorsed by foreign and Chinese captives, and is published 
by some of those who shared in the negotiations for the 
release at Lincheng. In some cases, an existing band is 
joined by those who fear vengeance from enemies, and 
some use bandits to exact retribution for past injuries. In 
some parts of Szechuan the "Muddy Water members " of 
a Secret Society known as The Long-robed Brotherhood are 
the Small bandits and practically control the whole of 
society. Kven officials belong to the higher orders of the 
Brotherhood. 

In sonic cases Christians have been tempt- 

Chu C rch n and ed to get into touch with l)an(Iity in order 
Christian work to secure immunity from attack. Some have 
acted as go-betweens in negotiating ransoms 
or the purchase of immunity. In one case known to the 
writer, an agent of the Independent Chinese Church with 
headquarters in Shanghai, hns urged farmers to join this 
movement in order to secure immunity from attack. 
Bogus bandit visits have boon organised to prove the 
statements, upon which subscriptions to the church have 



INDEMNITIES 13 

been readily forthcoming. This became so notorious that 
the magistrate had to suppress the agents. Some testi 
mony speaks of a, moral decline of converts in bandit areas, 
but the majority speak of a strengthening of faith and 
fortitude owing to answers to prayer for the release of 
friends. One case is mentioned of the bandits leading a 
captive blindfolded back Jo his own farm and ordering the 
man not to remove the bandage until some time after, 
when he discovered himself at home. Ifis fellow 
Christians had been engaged in unceasing prayer for his 
release. 

Much mission and church property has been des 
troyed, and many Christians have suffered from captivity 
and some have lost their lives. In some cases, there has 
been a noticeable keenness to urge the missionary to claim 
compensation, and when this has been refused, some 
bitterness has been caused, but this has been modified when 
missionaries have, refrained from claiming compensation 
for personal and mission losses. The opinion of Chinese 
outside; the church has been that this is a sign of 
weakness, and some of the more ignorant have turned from 
the evangelistic appeal with scorn in consequence. This 
is probably due to a belief in the church as a help in 
litigation, and a survival from past methods of propaganda. 
On a full explanation of the reasons being given, the 
outsiders and church members have appreciated the point 
of view that inasmuch as indemnities in most cases come 
from added taxes placed on local people (who in most 
cases have themselves suffered from bandits with no hope 
of redress), it is a generous and Christian act to forego any 
claim on the Chinese government. The attitude of the 
Consular officials and business community generally is 
that indemnities should be claimed in order to force 
the government to protect the lives and property of 
foreigners. 

On the part of the missionary community, opinion is 
divided. In (he case of one mission, the L. M. S., the 
experience of the harm dune to the evangelistic work by 
the acceptance of indemnities in HUM, has led them to 
refuse unanimously ;ny claim for destruction of property 
at Tsaoshih. At Kuling in the summer of 1923 a resolution 



14 BANDITS 

at a meeting of missionaries looking to the relinquishment 
of the use of force and the exercise of extraterritorial 
rights found a majority against it, but it is said more 
might have been in favour had the wording boon, 
different. 

The unrest of tin; country lias much hindered the 
itineration of foreigners in most provinces, and many 
missionaries have been driven out of their stations for a 
time. The sale of Scriptures in the countryside lias been 
reduced, and that of tracts and Christian books been much 
lower than normal. This is held to be a sure index of the 
state of disturbance. On the other hand, the experience 
of some has been that an evangelistic appeal based on the 
topic of " How to save the country " has been more than 
usually successful, especially where bandits have swept 
over the country. 

Whilst most parts of the country have been affected 
by the bandit scourge, yet only a small fraction of the 
missionary body, say two percent, has suffered losses to 
personal or mission property, and still fewer have been 
captured by bandits, although many have been in danger 
of capture, or robbery. The chief danger zone has been 
the province of Honan, where, perhaps the strongest 
military forces of China are kept. 

The strength of the bandits is the possession 
i o wards a <, n ,-. T , IT-,,! ? 

Q Jr , of firearm-. Where bandits have run out or 

ammunition, the peasants have been able 
easily to destroy them. Whilst a considerable amount of 
arms smuggling by foreigners has been brought to light, 
and probably much more is undiscovered, yet the chief 
source of supply of ammunition is the government arsenals 
of China, ami the distributors of this to the bandits can be 
none other than the soldiers who sell it to supply the 
arrears of their pay. The bandits offer high prices, and 
sometimes pay with loot. In some cases soldiers have 
revolted when the usual supply of ammunition was 
curtailed. 

it would seem that none of the soldiers of the army of 
the "Christian general 1 , Feng Yu Hsiang, have turned 
bandit. They have been taught trades. That is one 
Christian solution. The reduction of the numbers of 



RANDI1S 15 

soldiers, i nllowing instruction in improved agriculture and 
trades, together with increased attention on the part of 
the Christian movement to the prohlem of economic 
improvement of rural life, wiJJ gradually eliminate! the 
causes of the present unrest. The full Christian programme 
is required as an amplification of the Christian Message to 
meet the whole need of the whole nation. 



CHAPTER III 

SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES 
D. K. Lieu 

Many Chinese students have recently l)een 
Socialistic influenced by socialistic teachings. Some 

Teachings have even inclined toward bolshevisni. In 

Peking, the students of the National Uni 
versity are much interested in the study of .such questions, 
and have arranged for many special lectures on them. Mr. 
Chen Tu-hsiu, a former professor of the University, is a, 
leading advocate of socialism. Ho was editor and publisher 
of the monthly magazine " La Jennes.se," which started 
some discussion of this topic, but his later publication a 
Shanghai weekly called the Guide is out and out 
socialistic (both publications are in the Chinese language). 
In fact, he attracted so much public attention that the 
Government issued an order for his arrest as a bolshevist. 
A socialistic publication was suppressed in Peking not 
long ago. 

It is hard to tell whether the students are really 
converted to socialistic doctrines, or merely infatuated by 
tli em because they are new. There has been a tendency 
in the school population of China to embrace any and 
every form of innovation, just as women take to new 
fashions and fads. If that w true, they will quickly forget 
socialism when still newer ideas come to take its place. 
But, however that may be, at least a small number of 
them must have taken the. matter very seriously, and 
advocated socialism with strong convictions that it is a 
good thing for this country to adopt. Exactly what 
percentage of the students of the whole country is among 
the real advocates, and how many of them are in favor of 
each of the many forms of socialism, it is very difficult to 
tell. It may bo stated in a general way that the two forms 
of socialism most discussed in China at present are Marxian 
socialism and Russian bolshevisni. 



STRIKES 17 

There were probably more strikes in the 
Strike? last two or three years than in all the 

ten preceding years. Labor lias awakened to 
its unsatisfactory conditions, and is demanding higher 
wages, shorter hours and so forth. Many labor unions 
have been formed, especially among the seamen, the cotton 
mill bands and the railway workmen. Professor C. Yang, 
of South-Eastern University, Nanking, has compiled SOUK; 
interesting statistics about strikes during the last quarter 
of 1922, which are given in the following table. But 
strikes alone do not prove that socialism is spreading among 
the laborers. On the whole, Chinese laborers have not 
yet reached the stage of disputing about the inequality of 
wealth distribution and such broader and deeper economic 
problems Their strikes having been concerned with 
problems of local and individual trades. Nevertheless, 
cooperation between, the students and the laborers 
may some da.y make socialism a real force in this 
country. 

Strikes dttriny September- December, 1922 

No. of rfri-kes Number of Strikers 

Kiangsu 19 58,1*0 

Chihli 4 38,000 

Kiangsi 1 25,000 

Hupeh 4 11,500 

Shansi 2 7,500 

Hunan 7 5,700 

Shantung 1 4,008,000 

Hongkong 2 

Chekiang 1 100 

.. Cooperative societies are being organized in 

Societies insm y P aiis <)f th( - country. Fengtien has 

many savings societies which offer more 
or less easy facilities for cooperative credit. The China 
International Famine Relief Committee is trying to organize 
rural credit societies at Siangho (fp M), Tangshan (; Uj), 
Tinghsien (fe $$) (all in Chihli) for experimental purposes. 
Cooperative book stores have also been established by 
students. 



18 FOCI A LI STIC TENDENCIES 

If we turn backwards and study the 
Early Chinese . . , , . ,, . , . . -, ,. 

Socialists economic thought of the nation beiore 

Western socialism was ever heard of, we 
shall find certain doctrines and ideas which, though not 
known by this name, are nevertheless socialistic in nature. 
In certain respects, the Chinese people practise these 
doctrines very consistently, and some of them have produced 
good results, although these are hardly noticed by modern 
advocates of socialism. The earliest teacher of such 
doctrines, strange to say, wa.s a patriarch who ruled the 
country oven before the days of Hwangti. 

Shennung (fity J|), who lived more than twenty-five 
centuries before Christ, was the first socialist in China. 
He may indeed be considered the first in the world. 
According to his teaching, nobody should consume any food 
which he did not himself produce. This doctrine applied 
more particularly to agricultural products. It was his 
ideal that every man should become a farmer. As late as 
the fifth century 1$.C. some of his followers Hsu Hsin, 
Chen Hsiang and Chen Hsin still upheld this doctrine 
and severely criticized the feudal lords for not attending 
personally to the cultivation of the land and the spinning 
and weaving of the fabrics which they wore. This, they 
contended, was most unjust, as it meant the sharing of 
products by people who did not produce themselves. A 
long discussion between Mencius and these socialists is 
recorded in the book of sayings of the former, by which 
the Confucian sage convinced Chen Hsiang of the necessity 
of division of labor, the exchange of products, and the value 
of immaterial services rendered by (lie feudal lords. How 
many more people; preached Shennung s doctrine after this 
is not definitely known, but this socialistic idea of " no 
farming, no food ; has had much influence on the Chinese 
mind. 

Through tradition which had its origin 
Farm Laic rets , , . . 

^ci a ^ a boui the same time as Shennung, the 

Chinese people have been taught to have 
special respect for farm labor. This respect may not be 
outwardly shown to the farmers, but it is entertained 
toward agricultural labor in the abstract. Even very rich 
men, especially in the country districts, would feel a sense 



PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION 19 

of guilt, sometimes tantamount to sacrilege, it farm products 
were wasted by their children or their servants. It is a 
common saying in Kiangsu, where rice is produced in 
abundance, that each grain of that cereal has undergone 
seventy-two processes of labor, and is for that reason far 
more valuable than its market price indicates. Household 
servants in the south sometimes even the masters arid 
mistresses always do their best to avoid wasting one 
grain of rice; or one ounce; of wheat Hour, although meat 
and fish may bo generously thrown into the garbage pan. 
And this holds true oven in such cities as Shanghai and 
Soochow, where the people are accustomed to extravagant 
habits in other respects. 

Another evidence of this respect was the age-old prac 
tice of the emperors to cut the sod personally with a plough 
at the beginning of every new year, and of the empress to 
attend to the silkworms for a short while. It was to show 
the common people that the task of producing food and 
clothing is an important one, and should be participated in 
by every body in the country. 

Under the I Ian dv nasty, a great scholar, 
Production and f ^ . AT . , \ , T ,, ,. . , 

Consumption Chla ^ ] { ^ it) ^iiadc the following remark 
to the emperor: If one man in the country 
does not plough, somebody is going to suffer from hunger, 
if one woman in the country does not weave, somebody is 
going to riii (for from cold." Fn addition ho pointed out 
that production must proceed faster than consumption in 
order that al! people might be adequately supplied. His 
ideal was that everybody must produce, and nobody consume 
a share larger than the average. In particular, he wanted 
the emperor to decrease consumption. This does not sound 
like a socialistic, doctrine, but it is a truism, which, if 
universally practised, will to a grout extent alleviate the 
kind of suffering which has caused the socialists to condemn 
the present economic organization. 

Another doctrine having a similar effect on economic 
life is that of Laot/u. " If you do not find anything 
desirable, you have no craving to disturb your peace of 
mind. Ff rare objects are not highly valued, there will ho 
no thief or robber. This goes a, step further than (Jhia 
Yi s doctrine, and instead of controlling consumption, the 



^U SOCIALISTIC TENDENCIES 

desire itself is to be held in check. As economics teaches 
us, both utility and want have a psychological basis. If 
one does away with desire, there will be no want and no 
dissatisfaction. If there is no desire for distinction, much 
useful labor would not have been wasted on the mining of 
diamonds and other precious jewels. The followers of 
Hwangti and Laotzu do not pretend to say that food and 
clothing are not necessary, but they mourn the waste of 
human energy for the satisfaction of wants which could be 
done away with. 

"In the palace there was a, super-abundance 
Distribution of ! foorl {iru * Delicacies; in the country people 
Wealth died of hunger, was a poet s criticism of 

certain uncharitable rulers. It is a picture 
of unequal distribution of wealth. Chinese historians and 
men of letters always condemn extravagant ruleis, and all 
rich people who waste the products of labor, especially 
farm labor, share the same criticism. In fact, there is a 
general opinion against waste and extravagance, and even 
luxuries are usually condemned. Farming and weaving 
are considered the foundation of economic society; other 
industries and trades are of minor importance. Both the 
producers and the consumers of luxuries are not held in 
respect. 

The Chinese attack inequality of consump- 



Inequality of 
Consemption 



tion more than that of distribution. One 



man may receive a larger share of the society V 
products than another, because he is more able to make 
use of it for the good of society, but he is not entitled 
by any divine right to consume more than others. In 
respect of economic wants, all human beings a?:e equal. 
Approximately speaking, what is enough to feed and clothe 
one man is enough to feed and clothe another under the 
same climatic conditions, and no one can ever argue that a 
rich man will die when he has no bird s nest for one meal, 
while a poor laborer may live without the coarsest food for 
three days! God has made all men equal in such respects. 

There is also a good deal of practical 
Practical . ,. Xi 

Socialism socialism in China in connection with the 

family and the industrial guild. The 
"family" in China is far more inclusive than in Western 



COMMON PROPERTY 2l 

countries, so much so that the income of one well-off 
member is practically the common property of all members 
of a large family. He has to support his third or fourth 
cousins, and in some families a piece of land, known as 
Yi-chuang (f &), is actually kept as common property for 
the support of all unfortunate relatives. The guild, too, 
provides for its members who are sick, and for their families 
when they die. The advocates of guild socialism are 
making a study of this Chinese institution with a view to 
utilizing it as the foundation of a new economic system. 
The above is a brief account of socialistic tendencies 
in this country. How far China will go in the direction of 
Western socialism, no one can tell, but judging from the 
mental attitude of the whole nation, it is very unlikely 
that it will be stampeded by the doctrines of communism 
or bolshevism. 



CHAPTER IV 

MILITARISM 
Grover Clark 

r a Though there is no enemy threatening 

her borders, though there is no real cause 
for civil war, though her people are naturally industrious 
arid peaceful, China to-day has more soldiers in her midst 
than any other nation and this in spite of the fact that 
the upkeep of the hordes of " armed coolies " draws off so 
large a part of the country s financial resources that 
almost nothing is left to pay the legitimate foreign and 
domestic debts of China or to keep the most necessary 
administrative machinery running, to say nothing of there 
being no money for large constructive enterprises such as 
railway building or for the adequate maintenance and 
development of education, 

Nor has this situation come about through any active 
desire of the great majority of the people of China. It is 
the result of the passive yielding of the people and the 
squabbling among various unscrupulous and purely selfish 
individuals to secure power and the perquisites of office. 
A few of the military leaders have perhaps been sincere in 
their desire to help China, even though they felt that such 
help could best be rendered by getting for themselves an 
increasing share; of control in the nation s affairs. Most of 
them, however, have thought only of personal aggrandize 
ment-ami enrichment, and have hesitated at nothing from 
cold-blooded poisoning of their superiors or associates 
down to realize; their desire. 

Moreover, the unscrupulous struggles for 

Bandits" power of these militarists have done mor* 

than load China down with a. worse than 

useless burden of soldiers -i.e. of men nominally in 

recognized organizations and under responsible commands. 



BANDITS 

A largo part of the bandits with whom the country is at 
present infested arc former soldiers who, chiefly through 
the defeat of their commander?, have been expelled from 
the army. Having become used to the easy life of the 
soldier who, in China, has everything provided for him 
in the way of food and housing without being called on, 
except in extremely raie cases, io do any lighting 
or actual work many of these men were unwilling to 
return to their homes and the life of peasant farmers from 
which most of them had come originally. Therefore they 
turned bandits; and not infrequently they were allowed 
surreptitously to take their arms and ammunition with 
them on leaving the army. 

Sun Mei-yao s bandit gang, which was responsible for 
the Lincheng Incident, for example, was composed largely 
of ex-soldiers who had drifted into banditry in this way. 
And Lao Yang- Jen s g ing which lias been terrorizing Honan 
for several years is made up almost entirely of men from 
the defeated armies of one or another of the former 
Tuchun of that province. 

The, militarists also are responsible 1 for the continuance 
of banditry in another way. Few of the military men on 
top to-day are sure of being aide to keep their positions for 
any length of time; they may :it any time have to light to 
retain their olliees; in that lighting it would be an 
advantage to be able to call on the support of fairly large 
bodies of ex-soldier bandits; in case of defeat and this 
the common soldiers feel especially it would be well to 
have the door left reasonably wide open for joining (lie 
bandits. 

In many cases, too, the men at present on top in one 
way or another owe their positions part y at least to the 
help of these so-called bandits. 

And besides all this, some of the provincial militarists 
are distinctly not on good terms with the Peking Govern 
ment. But if foreigners suffer from the bandits it is the 
Peking Government, not the provincial leader, which must 
bear the anger and listen to the protests of the foreign 
Powers. 

These are some of the reasons why many of the military 
leaders show 7 so little energy in suppressing the bandits in 



24 MILITARISM 

the territory under their control. In some of the provinces- 
such as Shensi and Szechwan there is no one mnn 
actually in sufficient authority to enforce his will 
throughout the whole district. But in many of the others 
where either the bandits or the soldiers and the soldiers 
not seldom do as much damage to the farmers as the 
bandits, if not more apparently are left with practically 
no check on their depredations, the responsibility must lie 
directly on the military chief. Such is the case in Honan, 
Ilupeh, Chihli, and Shantung, for example, where the 
authority of Tsao Kun and Wu Pei-fu has been substantially 
undisputed for some years. And yet perhaps the worst 
bandit area to-day is Honan, in which Wu Pei-fu s head 
quarters are located and one of the principal winter 
rendezvous of the bandits is reported to be within a short 
distance of those very headquarters. 

Even most of the military men themselves 

Numerical recognize that the hordes of soldiers and 
Strength and = ,. , . . 

Cost of Upkeep ex-soldiers create a grave problem in China; 
most of the civilian leaders, and some of the 
militarists, would agree that they are perhaps the most 
serious obstacle in the way of financial, economic and 
political order. 

Exact figures of the number of soldiers duly enrolled 
are impossible to obtain, but semi-official and reliable 
estimates put the total at between a million and a half and 
two million. A Chinese army division contains, at full 
strength, 12,000 men. On this basis there are enough men 
under arms in China to form between 125 and 150 
divisions. The monthly expense of maintaining a division 
is approximately $450,000. Assuming that all the men 
under arms were regularly paid and the normal peace-time 
expenses of this "army" were met in full, therefore, 
between $56,250,000 and $07,500,000 monthl;/ would be 
required. 

But far short of this amount is available, with the 
result that the private soldiers are chronically behind in 
their pa}^ and, in order to keep them pacified, the leaders 
are forced to get what money they can wherever they can. 
The consequence is that, for one thing, all sorts of special 
taxes and levies are imposed on the people in the districts 



FINANCING THE MILITARY 25 

whore the soldiers are quartered. In addition to this, as 
the amounts due their men have fallen more and more in 
arrears, there has been a growing inclination on the part 
of the militarists to take for themselves the receipts from 
various of the regular Government undertakings such as 
the railways, the salt monopoly administration and the 
wine and tobacco monopoly administration. 

The diversion of funds from the railways -- the 
Peking-Hankow line has suffered particularly in this 
respect has meant that little or nothing is left even for 
repairs and upkeep of the rolling stock or the road bed, 
not to mention improvements. 

The seizures by tl.e provincial authorities of the salt 
and wine and tobacco receipts this has been done most 
conspicuously in Manchuria, though some of the southern 
provinces also have held up the payments to Peking from 
these sources have been in such amounts to jeopardize 
the various foreign and domestic debts secured on these 
revenues. 

And even what money has found its way past the, 
provincial leaders to Peking, or has come in from such 
sources as the Peking octroi, has been drawn on by the 
militarists to such an extent that the administration has 
for many months been forced to live on borrowed money 
almost exclusively. It has been able to provide for some of 
these debts by putting them under foreign supervision in 
the Consolidated Loan Service. But in spite of everything 
that could be done to get security, there are at present in 
the neighborhood of ^600,000,000 outstanding debts of 
the Peking Government for which there is no security except 
the promise of that bankrupt Government, besides enough 
more debts which are secured more or less adequately to 
bring the total to something over 2,000,000,000. These 
figures do not include the amounts due fnr arrears of pay 
to civilian officials and soldiers, running probably to over 
6500,000,000 more. 

Distandment . The e "^ <)f thls d ? lt > f r V lllUlT 

like China, is no particular cause for com 
ment. The seriousness of the situation arises from the 
fact that a large part of the debt is due directly or 
indirectly to the demands of the militarists, that 



26 MILITARISM 

much of it has been incurred for no constructive purpose, 
and with no benefit to anyone except a few who grew 
rich at the public expense and that there seems to be 
little prospect that in the near future this militaristic drain 
will be stopped. 

There has been, of course, a good deal of talk about 
disband ment. But though this talk has been going on 
with particular enthusiasm since the Washington Con 
ference, nothing has been dune. Instead, there is no doubt 
but that there are more distinctly more. "soldiers "in 
China to-day than there wore two years ago. 

There are several reasons for the continued recruiting. 
Each leader wants to insure his own position as against 
possible rivals. Therefore he adds to his army on the 
slightest provocation. Seeing him do this, his rivals add to 
their armies. So the vicious round goes. Nor is any one 
of the men at present on top quite willing to start 
disbanding until after his rivals begin though they all 
talk much about how good they think it would be for 
China to reduce the number of troops. Nor is any one of 
the leaders strong enough to force the rest to cut down 
their armies. 

And the question also arises of what would bo done 
with the soldiers after they were disbanded. They could 
not simply be turned loose on the countrj 7 ; this would 
mean only so many more bandits. 

For meeting this problem of the disbanded soldiers 
various schemes are proposed. One is that they should be 
encourage:! by Government grants of land and temporary 
financial help to settle in the unoccupied areas of 
Manchuria and Mongolia. Another is that a loan should 
be raised for railway and canal construction work, the 
labor to be performed by ex-soldiers. 

But the obstacle in each case aside from that of 
getting the militarists to agree to reduce their armies is 
the difficulty of financing the undertaking, especially 
since, in addition to the funds needed after the men are 
out of the army large amounts would be required to pay 
even a part of the arrears due them as soldiers. 



MERCHANTS AN 7 1) MILITARISM 27 

Altogether, the prospect of putting an end 
Merchants and , . *.,.,. /a 

MHitaris 11 ^ ^ 1( curse oi militarism in China does not 
seem very bright. Whichever way one turns, 
lie is :il most sure to find some seltish, unscrupulous 
military leader, backed by n horde of uneducated, armed 
coolies almost, as unscrupulous as himself, at the bottom 
of the particular evil which needs remedying. And these 
military men are ahle to maintain their positions hecanse, 
hy hook or crook, they can get enough money together to 
keep the men under them satisfied. 

Once the source s of revenue were cut off the armed 
hordes on which they rely would disappear and their power 
would be gone. 

The final control of the finances of the country rests, 
of course, in the hands of the people of the country, and 
particularly in the hands of the merchants. They suffer 
much from the present conditions. Perhaps when con 
ditions get worse and they suffer more they will be ready 
to take such action as will put an end to the militaristic 
domination of China s a Hairs. They could do this simply 
hy refusing to pay taxes or in any other way letting money 
get into the hands of the authorities. Probably some of 
the merchants would be killed, in the beginning, in an 
attempt to force submission. Hut such murders would 
stir up a furor of popular protest, and if the merchants 
stood firm the militarists would very soon capitulate. 

There are few signs that any such stand will be taken 
by the merchants in the near future, however. The chief 
difficulty is the lack of solidarity among the m- rchants, and 
the absence of any readiness to sacrifice for the sake of the 
country as a, whole. 

But whatever the reason, the responsibility for the 
present conditions military and otherwise - must in the 
end rest directly on the people of China and specifically on 
the more intelligent and better educated part of the people 
who should be the leaders. 

The militarists keep going because they can get money. 
They can get money because the people let them have it. 
They will not get money when the people stop giving it to 
them. When they have no money they will be forced to 
go out of business. 



CHAPTER V 

CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

I. SOUTH CHINA 

It should be taken for granted that China 
f Wij] Il(I ? fc as S()()n as P^ible, modern 
Machinery machine industry and the business technique, 
which has formed so conspicuous a feature of 
occidental civilization during the last century and a half. 
The economic advantages of capitalistic methods, seen in 
the multiplication of goods, in the most productive 
utilization of material resource.-, and in the benefits of 
improved transportation and communication facilities, arc 
so obvious that it is certainly a matter of only a very short 
time before China, like Japan, will pa-s through an 
industrial revolution. 

Industrialization is inevitable. The urban population 
may be expected to grow more rapidly than the rural, 
household industries will give place to factories, the 
personal relationships of proprietors and workmen in the 
small shop will become the more impersonal relationships 
between corporation employers and employees, workmen 
will be concentrated in industrial areas, class consciousness 
will develop, and probably a new chapter of the old struggle 
of capital versus labor will be enacted in China. 

Already industrialization has proceeded far 
of * n ^ 1C eas ^ ern am ^ central portions of China. 
Indutrialism in I R &outh China, however, the movement has 
South China been retarded by the continuance of an 
uncertain political situation, which has 
arrested all industrial activities to a greater or less extent. 
In spite of the wealth and progressiveness of the Cantonese, 
very few large factories are to be found in the Canton 
region, although there has been a remarkable increase in the 
numbers of smaller factories and establishments using light- 
power machinery. 



FACTORIES AND UNIONS 29 

Match factories, cotton knitting mills, 
Factories in ^ \ i u . 

Canton machine shops, glass factories, rice mills, 

tanneries, drug and chemical factories, silk 
filatures, cotton and silk weaving mills, brick factories, and 
tin 1 like these are the industries which, despite war con 
ditions, are springing up in great numbers in Canton and 
vicinity. Fuel costs are high, and until the rich coal 
resources of Kvvangtung are made available it is not likely 
that many large mills, or heavy power factories, similar to 
those in the Yangtze region or in Japan, will be built. At 
present, power is generally developed by crude oil or 
producer gas engines, or by motors using electric 
currents. 

Tn some of the factories, especially in those devoted to 
the manufacture of (doth, matches, and chemical products, 
machinery has been imported from Europe and America. 
In some cases modern factory buildings have been erected, 
but probably more frequently the new machinery is installed 
in old structures poorly adapted for use as factory build 
ings. Many women and children are employed in these 
factories, as skill rather than physical strength is required 
of the operatives. 

j , of A number of fairly strong labor unions 

Organization have grown up with the beginnings of the 
new industrialism in .South China. Among 
those who are most effectively organized are machinists, 
printers, seamen, restaurant workers, barbers, workers in 
the oil-expressing shops, tobacco cutters, etc. Some of the 
unions have been able to secure for their members im 
provements in wages, hours of labor, and working 
conditions. The strike as an industrial weapon has 
occasionally been attempted, but with one or two notable 
exceptions has met with comparatively little success. 
The resources of the workmen or of their unions are 
seldom sufficient to sustain a prolonged strike. 

Industrial ^ committee in Canton under the auspices 

Survey f the National Christian Council is under 

taking a survey of certain industrial con 
ditions in and about the city. The committee is composed 
of Chinese and foreigners of the various Christian 



30 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

organizations in the region. It is limiting its field of 
speciaJ. survey to the silk industry (particularly the 
filatures), and to the machine shops and foundries. A 
general social survey of broader questions will he undrr- 
taken in the city at the same time, and it i" hoped to use 
the material gained in a definite campaign for better 
conditions. 

It has often been observed that the Christian 
Christianity (^^.h } ias {m extraordinary opportunity in 
Industrialism connection with the problem of the indus- 
triali/ation of China. Jf by its efforts the 
Church can anticipate the coming of the industrial order 
in this country, provide those safeguards that will insure 
to the masses of workers just treatment and fair working 
conditions, and by its organized effort and the influence 
of its members humanize industry and foster relationships 
of brotherhood, cooperation, mutual respect and happiness, 
it will bo a, splendid achievement in Christian service 
rivaling in importance any other activity the Church can 
undertake. The Church has an opportunity, and indeed 
a responsibility, in taking the initiative in the intelligent 
study and solution of the labor problem that should 
challenge its finest talents, its broadest sympathies, and 
its most generous efforts. 

It would be a great pity if the workman of China 
should have to engage in a long struggle, as has been the 
case in western lands, in order to secure for himself the 
simple privileges of honest wages, reasonable hours, safe 
and healtnful working conditions, and a measure of 
security in his job. It possible, the factory worker here 
should be spared the terrible exploitation which European 
labor suffered. The Church should take the lead in 
cultivating an aroused and enlightened public opinion and 
in securing the enactment and enforcement of appropriate 
labor legislation that will prevent the oppression of the 
helpless in industry and will relieve industrialism from its 
more serious mechanizing effects. China should profit 
from the unlovely experiences of the West and be spared 
the flagrant evils that have characterized the rise of the 
factory system. The tremendous material gains from the 



RURAL INDUSTRIES 31 

use of modern machine methods are apt to eclipse social 
and human values. To preserve and enlarge these human 
values in the transition to industrialism is the duty of all 
Christians and of the Church. 

KENNETH DUNCAN. 

If. THE WUHAN * 

With our restricted perspective we (tan make hut 
limited and partially accurate estimates of the changes 
that are taking place all ahout us. It is impossible for us 
to perceive- changes th;it must be reckoned by decades 
and by centuries instead of by hours and by days. 

What seems to be a great and lasting change may 
be only a snag in the river s bed that creates quite a 
disturbance, until it is either removed or the water rises 
above its influence, but the river Hows on unceasingly. 
The tool that a, workman uses does not necessarily mean 
a change in his home life and yet it may. Anyone who 
lias read Pound s " The iron Man in Industry " cannot 
help but feel that power-driven machines do affect men in 
different ways from hand-power tools that require individual 
initiative and skill. 

^ ^ Very little information is at hand regarding 

Districts the changes taking place in the rural districts, 

in which are living and working the vast 
majority of China s industrial population, and the ones 
wherein the most fundamental economic industry is 
carried on food production. One wonders how much 
change really has taken place in the life of the Chinese 
farmer during the last 2000 years. Certainly there are 
the kerosene lamp, matchis, tin and other metal made 
implements, and cigarettes, but these are of only minor 
importance. It is high time that more people face the 

* I n tlit preparation of this article ihe opinions of quite a 
vuiied irroup have been received, representing both Chinese and 
foreigners in busings, frovernrnent, and Christian service. The 
writer deeply appreciates and hereby acknowledges the kind and 
thoughtful corporation Driven by the numerous friends who have 
assisted him. In some places exact words have been used but, to 
avoid monotony, quotation marks have been omitted. 



32 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

rural life of China and look to the future, for here 
certainly China can compete industrially and render a 
real service to the world. Food stuffs and cotton are in 
demand everywhere and China can produce these things 
economically and can compete in the world s markets, if 
she only sets herself to the task. 

~ It is in the open ports and in the other 

Open Ports ... P /-n 

steam-served cities of China, however, that 

the greater and seemingly rapid changes are seen. Modern 
machines are gradually but surely pushing the handicraft 
industries backward and outward. The old-fashioned 
spinning wheel gives place to a complicated power-driven 
machine, and the crude looms are being displaced by 
improved hand-or steam-driven ones, because the articles 
are more cheaply produced and the quality usually 
improved. 

The home workshop must step aside for the 
^ e small factories with limited capital and a few 

workers, and these in turn gradually give 
way to big concerns employing thousands and backed by 
millions in capital investment. At present small factories 
are proving more successful than the large enterprises, due 
chielly to the lack of leaders with sufficient ability and 
moral character for large responsibilities. In the larger 
concerns the salaried managers displace the inanaging- 
owners with the result that the intimate concern of the 
employer for his business and for his employees that 
existed in the smaller shops, is lessened. For like reasons 
it is also apparent that commercially owned enterprises are 
more efficient and more apt to make profits than those 
owned and operated by the government. 
Disturbances The numerous strikes that are constantly 

disturbing industry in most of the larger 
cities show that many evil-; of the industrial systems of the 
\Yest are being repeated in China, before the country has 
developed the means of coping with the social and economic 
change which attend an industrial revolution. 

The products of indu-try tolJ of changes of economic 
value, such as those aimed at eliminating the necessity of 
importing from other countries. Locks, valves, soap, 
brushes, leather, nails, and machine-knitted socks, in- 



BANKING 33 

dicate new demands. In many cases these things are 
produced by methods purely manual, while in others 
manual-machine methods are used with apparent effective 
ness. Methods and products are continually changing to 
meet the demands of commerce. The trend is certainly 
away from hand-work toward machine-work. The quality 
in many cases is becoming better. It seems impossible that 
any wide spread changes can come as long as the military 
strangles the nation. The surprising thing is that in 
dustry has been able to develop at all under such 



No account of industrial and commercial 
nts ;, 

in Banking 



Developments .i ljvo ] opln(mfc j,, C hi na j g comp l e te without 



mention, at least, of development in the field 
of banking. There is no single factor of greater im 
portance in a society organized along modern commercial 
and industrial lines than a good system of banks. Credit 
is essential if the wheels of industry are to move smoothly 
and commerce is to expand. 

Banks, so called, have existed in China for hundreds 
of years but many of these banks have been little more than 
exchange shops with only a few of the larger ones in 
terested in long or short time investing for productive 
purposes. 

Modern banks in China are largely a development of 
the decade since the Revolution. They are the product of 
many forces. The presence of foreign banks has proved a 
stimulus and scores of returned students, trained in the 
methods of Western banking, together with men trained 
locally in the foreign banks in China have provided a 
trained staff. Hut more important still has been the ever 
increasing volume of trade which has clamored insistently 
for more and better credit facilities. In the absence of 
strong Government control the advent of modern banking 
in China, as was to be expected, was not without signs of 
mushroom growth. Failures however followed and fail 
ures brought their lessons with the result/ that Chinese 
banks have more and more tended to eliminate the 
speculative element in banking. Reserves have been more 
carefully guarded and care has been exercised in the 



34 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

extension of loans. The Great War saw the entrance of 
Chinese bankers into the field of foreign exchange, a field 
hitherto a monopoly of foreign banks. 

Modem Chinese banks are to be. found in all of the 
treaty ports and large cities with more than fifty in 
Shanghai alone. The bankers are fast becoming organized 
and, in the strength of organization, have adopted a 
non-co-operative policy towards the Central Government 
in the matter of making loans to the Government, a factor 
which is not without great significance. As the move 
ment towards modern banking in China grows the bankers 
will be in a position to bring ever increasing pressure to 
bear on the Government. The bankers represent a large 
force making for peace and security within China and 
progress in modern banking is among the most hopeful 
signs in the country to-day. 

The movement from individual to mass 
Human Factor , . - 

production is accompanied D3 T a concentra 
tion of population into small areas. The more crowded 
the district, the more difficult becomes the enforcement of 
sanitary and health measures. The fresh air and the 
freedom of country life is lost in the rush and the 
congestion surrounding the mill worker. 

Many view T these changes with deep regret and concern 
while others see in them, however bad they are, the 
promise of the better daj T . They view these changes as 
inevitable and bound to come whether we want them or 
not-transient? on the road to progress. 

The regrettable thing is that modern industry seems to 
carry an accompanying increase of poverty, at least 
poverty is here seen in its more objectionable phases. 
Closely related also are: a greater insecurity of work, 
more unemployment, children doing men s work, and 
women becoming wage-earners instead of home-keepers. 
Many men are therefore being pushed out by the lower 
paid women and children; some of whom take this chance 
to go into more remunerative occupations, while others see 
in it a chance to loaf allowing the wives and daughters to 
support the family, the percentage of men in this parasitic 
class being alarmingly high. 



WOMEN AND CHILDREN 35 

The chief cause for women entering in- 
Women in ^ , i i -i * 

Industry clustry is the stringent economic demand ot 

the home, in some cases they merely supple 
ment the family incomes but often the mother is the 
only bread winner. The present wage scale for ordinary 
Labor is such that one bread winner in each family can 
hardly hope to bear the entire burden. A very careful 
study made in Wuchang showed that $12 a month is the 
le<i*t a family of seven (allowing four children and one 
dependent relative) of the laboring class, requires for the 
lowest grade of living. The same study gave $25 as the 
wage such a family o-uyht to have for a moderately 
decent living. 

Highly skilled mechanics to-day receive a wage higher 
in proportion to the cost of living than they did a few 
years ago. Ordinary mechanics receive more in actual 
cash but living costs have gone up as rapidly resulting in 
almost no improvement. The unskilled a,nd transient 
laborers have a harder time because their incomes have 
not kept pace with the advance in cost of living. 
~, ,., , In the homes of the skilled tradesmen 

Tradesmen conditions are better. In some, the children 
are given educational advantages where for 
merly it was considered sufficient that the son become an 
apprentice and work his way gradually into the skilled 
class. A combination of education and hard work is a 
change of real worth. There is an evidence of thrifty 
living on the part of some of the more highly skilled. For 
instance certain groups have accounts in modern savings 
banks and others in the postal savings. To our knowledge 
no definite cooperative plan has been worked out in any 
of these groups except a sort of a consumer s cooperative 
idea in a small way, such as combining in the purchase of 
rice when the prices are favorable. Extravagance is a 
tendency noted more frequently than thriftiness, but that 
must be expected as more money comes into the hands of 
those who are not trained in its proper use. 

Women and children have always been workers in 
China but in occupations that do not require great speed 
and usually contined to piece work in their own homes. 
Handicraft shops, even with longer hours, injure children 



36 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

far less than factories in which they are little more than 
parts of the machinery. A wider field of employment for 
women is now opening, and continues to grow as old 
industries are altered and new types started. Naturally 
there is some opposition on the part of male workers to 
this so called intrusion of women. For instance, the 
telephone operators in the Wu-Han cities have set up 
such a protest that the authorities dare; not bring in 
women to be trained for switch-board work. 

Although the Chinese Classics put the laborer 
Social Status -, . , . . , , ., - / ,, 

of Workers high up in the social scale, it is a tact that 

workers have been looked down upon by the 
merchant, student, and official classes. A change of this 
attitude is evidenced by a growing recognition of the 
worker s place in society, and a more adequate provision 
being made; for his welfare. The change in viewpoint is 
all too slow, and in many cases has come only through 
pressure. But a slow march is more likely to reach the 
goal than a forced and hurried one. The demand of 
thoughtful Chinese for educational facilities for the laborer, 
is a phase of this advance. The wide spread Popular 
Education movement (an evidence of this demand), is 
especially hopeful because it combines with the teaching of 
the most used characters, a foundation for intelligent 
citizenship. 

There is in Hanyang a machine shop owner who feels 
strongly the need of a middle group of mechanics, with some 
technical and some practical training, to bridge the gap bet 
ween the highly trained engineer and the ordinary mechanic. 
He wants men who are capable of becoming foremen 
through their ability both to think and to do the task better 
than those working under them. Leadership by doing in 
stead of by talking is sorely needed in all shops. This owner 
has had poor success with technical middle school graduates 
for their educated heads seem to have produced impotent 
hands. He feels that the only efficient way to train such 
men is to give some technical training in his shop and to 
that end has worked out a. very worthy system of promotions 
and certificates in recognition of passing certain stages in 
their development. He has found the human factor to be 
the most important element in successful shop management. 



SUPERVISION AND ORGANIZATION o/ 

He has found that a nine hour day, and four free days a 
month, pay in better workmanship and bring larger 
dividends. 

Common practice seems to prove the opinion 
n * na * rejl ^y important concerns cannot succeed 
without some foreign supervision because of 
the difficulty in controlling those that find capital and those 
engaged in production. This does not mean that there arc- 
no good engineers and mechanics, for there are SOUK; 
that rank with the highest anywhere, but their number is 
so hopelessly inadequate. Skilled workmen object to work 
ing under those that are untrained or wrongly trained for 
their tasks with the result that proper respect and discipline 
is lacking. 

Comparing this period with what the future is bound 
to 1m, the change at present is slow. Now is the time for 
employers to plan carefully for the, future. Everywhere a 
great need is expressed for men who, when working for 
other people, will be honest and ready to put their hearts 
into their work. This requires a, change in the spirit of 
both the employer and the employee. An engineer of long 
experience in China, seems to think all too true the old 
Chinese saying, " Only a foolish man is honest and honest 
only because he is not clever enough to be dishonest," but 
adds, " I consider that those who are clever enough to be 
dishonest are often paid so badly that they cannot afford to 
lo honest". The solution suggested by this engineer is not 
so much emphasis on education as upon conversion to 
Christian principles. 

Labor Organized labor is not a new thing in 

Organisations China. Her guilds have exerted much 
influence throughout her industrial history. 
Many guilds include both the employer and the employee 
while most of them are employer s guilds in fact if not in 
name. The purpose of most guilds can be expressed as 
follows, " One product, one price, one principle, and 
protection." The changes in guilds tend toward more 
selfishness than formerly. The regulations are being 
altered, for instance, in the barbers guild; the barbers in a 
shop formerly kept a record of the shaves and haircuts and 
a wage was calculated accordingly, this being merely a piece 



38 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

work system. Now the barbers are on a day wage thus 
guaranteeing them a regular income; but perhaps the 
service to the master and to the customers is less efficient 
and of poorer quality. 

More recently a new group conciousness on the part of 
the workers has grown up. This has come partly from 
within and partly from without the laboring classes. Much 
of the latter influence has been due to professional agitation 
by men who have never worked with their hands and whose 
motives have not been proved worthy of a following. It 
cannot be denied, however, that some of this new group con 
sciousness is due to a natural uprising against unfair odds 
and unjust treatment. 

More than ten years ago there were some people in 
Wuchang who promoted a la,bor union. It failed not so 
much because of its uselessness or from official opposition, 
but because the chosen leaders did not understand their 
duties and maliciously squandered the funds contributed. 
Since that glaring failure the laborers have been very 
cautious. For instance, in the Hankow rickshaw parleys 
of 1922-1923, the rickshaw pullers demanded twenty 
" listeners " at the meetings for they did not trust their 
three official representatives. 

The flourishing rise of labor unions, following the 
successful seamens strike in Hongkong in 1922, came to a 
sudden ending when the Hupeh governor used powder and 
shot to put a number of railway union leaders out of the 
way and subsequently executed Mr. Shih Yang, the lawyer- 
leader of most of the labor movements in these cities. He 
has left behind some leaders and certain activities are still 
carried on by the remnants of the unions but most of the 
activities are secret and not connected with recognized 
organizations. A few head men may meet quietly together 
at an inconspiciuous place and reach a common mind, but 
their influence is naturally limited. Some students and a 
few newspaper men are also at work though their activities 
are closely watched and severely restricted, and therefore 
ineffective. 

Women Labor Formerly where both men and women were 

Organizations employed, the men usually represented the 

women when parleys were necessary, but the 



HEAD MEN 39 

female workers have found that they cannot trust the men 
to play fair. For instance, the money granted as a part of 
the settlement of the British Cigarette Company strike, was 
put into a savings bank and a seal in eight sections was 
required to draw upon this fund. A few men contrived to 
secure all eight parts of this seal and made away with some 
of the money bat this set up such a disturbance that a 
change was made whereby no money could be drawn unless 
the seal was presented at the bank by four men and four 
women. 

Head M n Another form of labor leadership is growing 

up that is extremely insidious and difficult to 
control. Especially in unskilled groups, such as the 
stevedores, there are the head men (liu mang they are 
called in this district) who are bold, fearless, unscrupulous 
fellows, who control by force, intrigue, and crooked 
scheming; in fact they are the very worst sort of men. 
They are not chosen leaders, but gain their places by 
physical strength, cunning, and cruelty. They are only 
recognized because their victims fear them. If the workers 
do not obey they are brow-beaten into submission or are 
caused bitter suffering until they knuckle under or get out. 
The result is that only rotten or weak willed men can work 
in such occupations. Morality and humanity are at the 
zero mark in such groups. As high as fifty percent is ex 
tracted from the worker s pay by these head men, the 
amount being regulated only by the comparative strength 
or weakness of the men under their power. 

Similar conditions exist in the employment end of 
most of the larger factories. No job can be secured unless 
the employment men with inside pull are given their com 
missions, then they will exert their influence in the 
applicant s favor. The percentages demanded are unbeliev 
able and often are not limited to the first month s pay. 

In the old monarchial days these head men were 
strictly controlled, and very severe punishment was given 
by the ollicials when these head men became too powerful 
and loo unjust to those under their control. Executions 
frequently did away with this unfairness until a new leader 
worked his way into power. 



40 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

Not only do such laborers suffer to-day but the 
travelling public is their special victim. They force the 
strangers to pay " all the traffic will bear" and forbid 
reasonable men entering the trade. Foreigners can got by 
with a modicum of injustice, but all Chinese travellers 
suffer because of the influence of those unscrupulous bosses 
of unskilled, unorganized labor. This system includes not 
only the stevedores, baggage men, and others connected 
with the transportation systems, but also most occupations 
in which large numbers of the so-called coolie class are 
employed. The system often has the support of silk-gowned 
underlings in the transport companies thus making it most 
difficult to uproot and almost impossible to control. 

We must expect to see many more unions spring up. 
Undoubtedly the workers will sooner or later get together. 
Some far-sighted industrial leaders are preparing for 
these changes, but very few are facing them fundamentally. 
Superficial preparations are all too common; while the 
majority of the people still ignore the future. 

In these days of great uncertainty and travail it is 
highly important that all who desire to render the greatest 
service to China, must face frankly and fearlessly these 
industrial changes. We must apply ourselves to careful 
study, not only of existing conditions here in China, but 
also of industrial developments in Hongkong, Japan, and 
India where Asiatic labor is at work and similar con 
ditions exist, and where modern industrialism is farther 
advanced. 

CITAS. C. SUE 



III. CHEFOO 

The extent of the changes that have taken place in the 
industrial life of China has often been greatly magnified. 
Sometimes the few million dollars worth of machine- 
manufactured goods largely exported to foreign lands, loom 
larger in our eyes than the supply required by the 
400,000,000 Chinese which is in large measure still 
being produced and distributed by the old methods of 
industry. 



OLD AND NKW INDUSTRIES 41 

On the other hand it would he utter blind - 

ChTnges ness * * }l ^ to t:l ^ " lto Consideration the 

tremendous iniluence of these changes upon 
the whole life of China. These are far beyond their 
comparative magnitude as the influence of the port cities 
filters hack into even the most remote villages. But for the 
rapid changing of the structure of Chinese industry, we 
must wait for the coming of coal on a large scale and for its 
accompanying corollaries of steel and railroads or for other 
newer materials and methods which will replace them. 
Besides the unmeasured weight of custom, industrial 
changes have against them the economic pressure of the 
masses. Old type industry provides employment for 
enormous numbers for which they receive enough to 
subsist. Until vast, undeveloped resources are opened up 
and provision nia.de for their rapid transportation no 
comparatively large changes in the industry of China can 
be reasonably expected. The one outstanding problem is 
to increase production and facilitate transportation on an 
equitable basis so that the benefits will go to the mass of 
the common people and not merely into the pockets of a 
few already well-to-do. China possesses sufficient material 
to support her own people on a reasonable standard of lift;, 
but these materials must be opened up, developed and 
equitably distributed. It is not only a matter of changing 
the industrial life of China, hut changing it in the right 
direction so as to bring the benefits to those who really 
need them. 

It is sometimes remarked that the industrial 
Causes of , , , . ~. . 

Changes changes now taking place in China are 

arialagous to the changes that took place in 
England and the West from 10!) to loO years ago. While 
there are some aspects and re-suits of these changes that are 
similar, the underlying causes are from almost opposite 
sources. In the West the changes came with the coming 
of eoal. The industrial revolution in the West developed 
rapidly as a spontaneous movement from within. At that 
time it would have been possible to have established modern 
industry on a cooperative Christian basis, it is here that 
the Church lost the opportunity of centuries. In China 
the changes that have taken place have come from pressure 



42 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

exerted from the West. This competitive economic 
pressure lias driven the Chinese either to adopt the method 
and system of western industry or to allow the industry of 
their own country to go into foreign hands. They have 
evidently decided upon the former course. So long as this 
influence of the West directs and dominates the industry 
of China, will it ever be possible to establish any other 
industrial system or to avoid its consequences ? 

The other day a Chinese returned student from 
America, now a, successful business man in China, in a 
discussion group of English-speaking Chinese business 
men, declared that China never would have established 
modern industry if it had not been forced upon her from 
the West, They resented the fact that not only the system 
but all of its methods and evils had been transplanted to 
Chinese soil and that China was helpless to free herself 
from the strangling hold of the modern western system. 
f There are two main types of changes notice- 

Changes able in the industry of China to-day, one of 

which is the coming in of purely modern 
industry, the other is the change taking place in the old 
industries as a result of the new. The former type is 
limited to a few of the great centers most accessible to 
foreign influence and to a limited number of industries. 
The latter is a varying element reaching and affecting to 
some extent nearly the whole industrial life of the nation 
and resulting in a semi-modern type of industry in which 
there is constant strife for supremacy between the old and 
the new. Two local firms have recently dissolved as a 
result of this conflict and the Chinese Chamber of Commerce 
is divided into these two contending camps. The feeling 
of many of the ablest and most energetic Chinese business 
leaders is that foreign competition has made the purely old 
type impossible, but that custom, habit, and precedence 
equally prevent the sudden establishing of the new. 

, T In both the pure and semi-modern types 

N^w Problems . . . 

a number of changes are transpiring that are 

creating a new world with new problems which can only be 
rightly solved by a new system and a new spirit. Consider 
the changes wrought by the introduction of machinery and 
the factory system. Work that formerly required hundreds 



WOMEN IN INDUSTRY 43 

or even thousands of hand workers can now be done by a 
score of men manipulating levers and wheels. Unless the 
undeveloped resources of the country are opened up how is 
provision to be made for those left out of employment? 
Almost every phase of life is affected by these changes 
but perhaps the most far-reaching results are in the 
social life. 

No other one thing so seriously effects and so quickly 
tears down the old family life upon which Chinese civiliza 
tion has been built. The old family home is broken up in 
its native place by the departure to the industrial centers 
of many of its younger and more enterprising members. 
In these centers the home Kfe is revolutionized by the 
entrance of the women into factory work and by the removal 
of industry from the home to the factory. 

__ The status of women in Chefoo has been 

Industry radically altered by their employment in 

hairnet and lace factories. The wages they 
receive gives them something of a sense of economic 
independence and this in turn creates a realization of 
self-respect and freedom. The social contacts with large 
numbers of both men and women fellow-workers develops 
a group consciousness, greatly widens their vision, broadens 
their view of life, creates within them a, dissatisfaction 
with present conditions a.nd a real desire for a better way 
of life. Large numbers of girl workers have broken the 
marriage, arrangements made by their parents and others 
are refusing to follow the desire of their parents to make 
such arrangements for them. They know too well the 
place of a daughter-in-law in the Chinese family and prefer 
the regular hours of factory work with their semblance of 
freedom and independence. 

In this section the comparatively attractive 
Hairnet and ... . ., , . i i < 

Lace Factories opportunities in the hairnet and lace iactories 
are causing great dissatisfaction amongst the 
working class of women. Domestic service has no appeal 
in the face of these factories and even such women as 
nurses are being attracted to this work. Living conditions 
at oner become a serious problem involving great changes 
in. the manner of life and fraught with extreme perils. 



44 CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 

Large numbers of these women workers come in from the 
villages. With no adequate provision for living quarters 
or for leisure time, this first breath of freedom creates 
dangers too evident to need mention. 

E I . Another outstanding change is that of the 

Employee * personal relationships between employer and 
employee. Under the old handicraft system 
the woikers are often the members of the family or friends 
of the employer. They work side by side in the most 
intimate relations. Under the factory system this is all 
changed. The workers are hired, driven and iired by 
foremen who are subject to the owner and there is little- or 
no personal contact between the owner and the average 
workman. In the minds of the workmen the owner is a 
far off impersonal being whom they seldom if ever see and 
from whom they receive their sustenance. In a recent 
conversation with the owner and manager of six silk 
filatures, he prided himself on the fact that he rarely 
ever steps inside one of his factories. In questioning the 
workers they have repeatedly stated that to their knowledge 
they had never seen the owner. This separation divides 
the interests, gives rise to misunderstandings, destroys 
sympathy, breeds suspicion, contempt and hatred and 
paves the way for open conflict and strife. By thus 
separating the owner from his workmen and segregating 
the workers in large numbers by themselves, there is created 
a group consciousness and a realisation of their united 
strength, and labor unions in embryo are formed. 
Employers on the other hand naturally drift together for 
mutual protection against the workers, and manager s 
associations are brought forth and the fields prepared for 
battle. 

There can be no doubt that momentous changes in the 
industrial life of China are in process. The greatest 
challenge to our Christian forces to-day is not only to be 
conscious of but to understand and to direct these changes. 
Let us not forget that movements and systems are directed 
most readily from their source, and that the source of this 
industrial system is in the West. Wo hear a great deal 
these days about avoiding the mistakes and evils of our 



CHANGING INDUSTRIAL LIFE 4~> 

Western system in China as though it were merely a matter 
of a ic.w small changes here and a little shifting there. 
How long will it take us to learn that it is impossible to 
avoid un-Christian results from an un-Christinn system, 
that a corrupt tree will inevitably bear corrupt fruit and 
that it is the system which must be changed in order to 
a, void the evil consequences which we fear and hate. We 
must not only recognize the changes which are taking place, 
but we must direct them from their source. 

J. W. NUTS. 



CHAPTER VI 

WHAT IS EXTRATERRITORIALITY ? 
Charles Sumner Lobingier. 

n f , ... The Editor has asked me to write, in answer 

Definition lt . 

to the above question a brier, succinct 

statement of where extraterritoriality originated and what 
it actually means, particularly with reference to Christian 
work in China. Of course, its relation to merchants should 
also be noted/ I shall try to meet these requirements, 
confining myself to a definition of the subject and 
a discussion of its historical development, without attempt 
ing to treat of its merits or demerits. 

Extraterritoriality, or more properly "extraterritorial 
jurisdiction/ is a system under which a sovereign power 
retains full control of its nationals in territory outside its 
own. This necessarily excludes the exercise of control over 
the same national by the sovereign power of the territory in 
which he is located. In other words the national remains 
under his own laws and institutions instead of becoming 
amenable to those of the locality. 

Or . , a Contrary to popular belief, extraterritoriality 

is neither novel nor, historically speaking, 
exceptional. It is in fact the result of a legal conception 
which was once nearly, if not quite, universal. For 
whereas jurisdiction is now generally territorial it was once 
almost if not quite universally personal. Ancient law, in 
other words operated upon individuals wherever they 
might go and was not, as is generally the case now, limited 
by territorial boundaries. In reviewing Brown s " Foreign 
ers in Turkey", Dean John H. Wigmore, a very eminent 
American jurist, observes: 

* We venture to suggest, with diffidence, that the 
naturalness of the exterritorial privilege, as explained 
by the author, might be more emphatically illustrated 
by the personality of all law, as distinguished from 



ORIGIN OF EXT R A LIT Y 47 

its territorially, which prevailed throughout the vast 
Carlovingian empire till nearly 1,000 A. I).; i. e. instead 
of saying, with the author, that exterritoriality was in 
accordance with usage which became generally re 
cognized with the gradual extension of commerce, we 
should prefer to helieve that it was in accord with a 
universal prior custom prevailing in the first half of 
the Middle Ages". : 
Another distinguished author has said: 

The conception of sovereignty as territorial is 
relatively modern, and extraterritoriality is a surviving 
form of the earlier prevailing conception that it was 
the duty of a sovereign to protect those who swore their 
personal allegiance to him". 

This glimpse of its origin may serve to correct certain 
misconceptions regarding extraterritoriality. When we find 
that it was once a universal system, observed by the strongest 
as well as the weakest, powers, we need no longer think of it 
as an invasion of sovereign rights. Again, under the 
form or conception of sovereignty as personal, it is easy to 
see how one nation might not care; to be responsible for the 
subjects of another, though residing in the former s territory. 
Thus as early as 1687, it is recorded, a Chinese official 
suggested that an English offender in China be punished 
by his own nationals. 

From Roman ^ ufc extraterritoriality did not originate in 
L aw China nor even during the Middle Ages. For 

the germ of it wo must resort, as in the case of 
so many other important legal ideas of modern time, to the 
Roman Law. 

The so-called system of personal law, of the 
earlier Middle Ages," declares Von Bar, 1 " is only a 
development of the system which the Romans had 
already observed . 

The system was continued under the barbarians who 
conquered Roman territory and who, though introducing 

1. Illinois Law Review, X, 4.">1. Cf. Hinckley, American 

Consular Jurisdiction in the Orient, 17. 
2. Pitfgott Exterr. (new ed. 1907) p. ">. 
o. Kames, The English in China, (London, 1009), 40. 
4. Priv. Int. L. (Gillespie ed.) p. 15. 



4S WHAT IS EXTRATERRITORIALITY 

theirown laws, alhnved their Roman subjects to retain theirs. 
Similarly the Italian states of the early Middle Ages 
permitted foreign officials and tribunals in their midst to 
handle the affairs of their own nationals; and so in Spain, 
France and even England. " All this existed for the most 
part independently of treaty and because of the recognition 
of law jurisdiction as personal rather than territorial. 

In China CHINA has not been different from other 

nations in this regard, though one who studies 
merely the treaties might acquire that impression. But 
extraterritoriality existed in China centuries before it was 
mentioned in any treaty and probably before China had 
negotiated any treaties with foreign powers. Thus it is said 
that about 720 A. I), a maritime tribunal similar to that of 
the admiral in Europe, including the function of deciding 
causes among foreign merchants, existed at one of the ports 
of China/ We have already noticed the instance of 1687 
and the importation of the " factory " system from India 
by English merchants 7 necessarily brought with it English 
la.ws and officials functioning for the "factory 5 . In 1884, 
a full decade before the recognition of extraterritoriality 
by any treaty, an English " Act to Regulate the Tra.de to 
India and China 7 provided that the superintendent of 
British trade in China might be empowered by orders in 
council to create a court of law for trying offences 
committed by British subjects in Chinese 1 territory. So when 
Caleb dishing came from America to negotiate its first treaty 
with China he found the system of extraterritoriality 
already in existence wherever foreigners were located, 
although the treaty of Nanking, signed less than two years 
previously, makes no mention of it. 

For the distinguishing feature of the treaty of Wanghia 
was not that it originated extraterritoriality that is 
a popular misconception but that it frankly recognized 



o. See the writer s article "Extraterritoriality", Corpus 

Juris, XXV, ;!p2, oO;>. 
0. 5 Jourti. Asiatique p. 40 (citl Miltitz Manuel des 

Consuls (1S;>7) p. 1(52 note). 

7. Hunter, Fan Kwae at Canton, 20. 

8, The Weekly Review, October H, 1922. 



RECIPROCITY 49 

the system, defining and regulating it in specific terms. 
The treaty of Wanghia, in other words, was a voluntary 
pact between equals. No force or coercion was employed 
and no undue advantage sought. America received and 
China granted, privileges which other nations had long 
enjoyed but which in this instance were hedged about by 
certain restrictions and balanced by certain obligations. 
For extraterritoriality is a system of reci- 

System or procity and operates with success only when 

Reciprocity ., 

each contracting party observes its respective 

undertakings. The nation granting it is relieved of all 
responsibility for the misdeeds and disputes of the other s 
nationals; but this responsibility is merely shifted; it is 
not cancelled and the power enjoying extraterritoriality 
assumes a burden even greater than that which exists in 
its own country. For there ;my failure to enforce its laws 
and adjust rights and wrongs affects its own people alone. 
But in an extraterritorial country such failure affects also 
the people of that country as well as other foreigners who 
reside, there. Thus extraterritoriality, like any other 
mutual or contractual relation, requires the utmost good 
faith on the part of those adhering to it. Whether we like 
it or not, we who are nationals of powers enjoying extra 
territoriality, have the duty of seeing that, so long as it 
exists, the spirit and purpose; of the system is observed with 
scrupulous care. Criticisms of it arise more often from its 
non-observance and from the lack of good faith in carrying 
out its purposes than from inherent defects. Each one of 
us can help to make the system less objectionable; and 
more workable by recognizing and remembering that we 
have an individual yea a patriotic duty to see that the 
obligations of our respective governments, operating as 
they mu>t through their nationals, are carefully and 
conscientiously observed. 



PART II 

CHRISTIANITY AND THE RELIGIONS 
OF CHINA 

CHAPTER VII 

CHANGING STANDARDS IN MORALS AND RELIGION 
Guy W, Sarvis 

R , , . , The writer, as a teacher of Sociology and 

Economics, comes into contact chiefly with 
students, although it is also his business to investigate 
social facts of all kinds. The conclusions of this chapter 
are based not only upon his own observations, but upon 
the judgment of some of the leading men in China, 
supplemented by the opinions of a large number of 
students. There is a surprising unanimity of judgment 
among these persons in very diverse situations. 

r f . . Has there been progress or the reverse in 

Confucianism _ iiin- i ^11 

Conmcia.nism and Buddhism during the last 

twenty years? With reference to Confucianism there is 
practically complete unanimity of opinion that its force as 
a standard of conduct has greatly and rapidly declined. 
One business man says: "That it has been on the decline 
especially for the last twenty years is a patent fact." He 
explains this fact by saying, " With the abolition of state 
examinations one of the most powerful incentives to the 
study of Confucian books was removed, and it has become 
a common occurrence to find a school boy who does not 
know what the Four Books are .... The next 
formidable cause of the neglect of Confucianism and its 
books is in the introduction of foreign languages and 
Western ideas and religions. No struggling young man of 
the present day can afford to devote himself solely to 



CONFUCIANISM AND BUDDHISM 51 

Confucianispj if he wishes to get a living. He has to 
follow the general trend and fashion, and when noted 
scholars like Kang Yu-wei, Chang Chien, and Liang Chi- 
chao, having attained eminence by their intellectual 
excellence, do not inculcate the Doctrines, Confucius must 
for the present remain in vague respect, and an empty 
name." These opinions an; shared by all, although there 
are not lacking those who believe that a reaction has 
already set in, and that Confucianism is destined to enjoy 
a revival. Nevertheless, the general opinion is that 
Confucianism, being autocratic and absolutistic in its 
nature, will be unable to serve the needs of a dynamic, 
democratic society. A study of current writers confirms 
this judgment. The leaders of China are indifferent, 
contemptuous, or actively opposed to Confucianism. These 
new attitudes affect chiefly the educated classes, and 
particularly those Jiving in cities, but they are by no 
means confined to these. Testimony from rural districts 
confirms the opinion of those from urban centers, that 
Confucianism is gradually losing its hold upon the common 
people of China as well as upon the educated. 
Buddhism With reference to Buddhism the testimony 

is almost equally clear. Buddhist practices, 
superstitions, and temple worship are generally held to be 
declining somewhat. And even though they may not be 
actually decreasing, their hold upon those who do practice 
them is less absolute. Probably fewer people are be 
coming Buddhist priests than was formerly the case. 
Buddhist and Confucian temples have been used in large 
numbers in recent years as schools and as barracks. 
Although there are isolated reports of building and 
repairing, the number of temples is decreasing, and the 
number of worshipers is likewise less than formerly. The, 
question as to whether more or less is being spent for 
incense, candles, paper money, and other materials for 
worship does not receive a unanimous answer. Some are 
of the opinion that these things are very evidently on the 
wane. Others are of the opinion that they are increasing. 
It is a significant fact that in times of prosperity more 
money is spent for these purposes than in times of 
adversity, even though the intensity of the belief which 



52 MORALS AND RELIGION 

gives rise to the practices may not vary. It follows that 
judgments about the changes in religious beliefs based on 
the amount of money spent in religious ritual are some 
what untrustworthy. 

On the other hand the principles of Buddhism are 
attracting more attention than formerly as evidenced by 
the output of Buddhist publishing houses in Peking, 
Nanking, Hangchow, Shanghai, Chengtu, and other places. 
There is general agreement that this revival of Buddhism, 
while due to a number of other causes, is to a considerable 
degree the result of social and political unrest which 
causes men who are by temperament or training idealists 
to turn from the transient and unsatisfactory things of the 
present world to the philosophical abstractions of specula 
tive Buddhism. This renewed interest in Buddhism has 
not, however, resulted in many organized movements. 
Nothing corresponding to the Buddhist revival in Japan 
has taken place. 

p Aside from these changes in Buddhism and 

Movement Confucianism there; are a number of other 
significant changes in the religious life of the 
country. On the one hand, there is the anti-religious 
movement among a certain section of the "intellectuals." 
It seems to be the general opinion that the opposition to 
Confucianism is, to a considerable extent, atheistic and 
materialistic in character. Religion itself is felt by many 
to be merely superstition. The revolt against historical 
religions does not, however, exhaust itself in atheism and 
materialism. There has been a remarkable increase in 
various eclectic sects and organizations. One of these, the 
Tao Yuan, has been described at length in the " Chinese 
Recorder. I am informed that there are twenty-three 
religious organizations in Nanking which use the plan- 
chette (fu chi) as a means of communicating with the 
spirit world. Most of these sects are attempting to combine 
the good in all religions. They are in general promoted 
by scholars, ex-officials, and members of the middle class. 
Most of them practice some form of social service. Many 
of them conduct schools and profess to heal diseases, and 
almost all of them claim to be in communication with 
supermundane spiritual forces. They are unquestionably 



CHRISTIANITY AND CHINESE RELIGIONS 

the outgrowth of the disorders of our times, both in China 
and in the world in genera,!. So far, there is little promise 
that these movements will exercise any important in- 
fluence on conduct among the Chinese people. The 
question whether Christianity is or is not gaining in 
influence is one on which there is much disagreement. It 
is quite evident that among the people as a whole there is 
less opposition than formerly, but while sonic are turning 
wistfully to the religion of Jesus, others are turning away 
from all religion. Again and again the answers to my 
questions indicate that the Chinese; people are largely 
indifferent to spiritual religion. 

The answers to the question "What type of religion 
do you consider best suited to the Chinese temperament," 
are quite inconclusive. The one significant attitude re 
vealed is that Confucianism must be the basis for any 
successful religion in China. Some advocate a socialized 
Buddhism. None feel that Christianity and the older 
religions in China are mutually exclusive. There is a 
strong tendency to emphasize the ethics of Christianity as 
opposed to Christian philosophy or theology. Among 
students who are Christians, Christianity is unqualifiedly 
accepted as the best; but among business and professional 
men of greater maturity, not one believed that Christianity 
as traditionally presented was best suited to China. 

Philanthropy ( . )no of _ thc J narks * roligion in all lands 
and ages has been philanthropy m one form 
or another. There may be philanthropy without religion, 
but there; has rarely been a religion without philanthropy. 
There seems to be fairly complete; agreement in the opinion 
that organized philanthropy is on the increase. The 
writer above quoted says, "There are more organized 
charities than before, but undertakings of a permanent 
nature and of great magnitude are still lacking. It is 
gratifying to find some educational institutions, started and 
maintained by single individuals, running more smoothly 
than publicly supported institutions. 

One teacher ventures the following opinion, "For 
merly it was much easier for the beggars to secure help 
from the people;, who regarded this kind of giving as 
morally meritorious. At present most thinking people 



54 MORALS AND RELIGION 

would regard this kind of private charity as cultivating 
dependence on the part of the poor." This .statement 
doubtless reflects the student rather than the popular point 
of view, but is indicative of a trend in public opinion that 
is of some significance. On the whole there is little 
change in the matter of charity except in the large centers 
where great philanthropic organizations are being built up, 
and in the case of famine relief, and similar organizations. 
There has been little progress in the development of the 
essentially religious attitude involved in group conscience 
and cooperation, and expressed in organized benevolences. 

In the matter of increase or decrease of 

Superstition . . 

superstition we find no certain reply. It is 

true that among educated classes superstition is somewhat 
on the wane, yet, as is pointed out by several, the degree to 
which even Christians and graduates of western schools 
cling to superstition is somewhat surprising. The opinion 
of one writer is as follows : " Boys arid girls at school seem 
to be now less superstitious, but to look at the numerous 
physiognomists, fortune-tellers, geomancers and quacks, 
who are still able to earn a living, and the increasing 
consumption of joss paper money, I cannot say that 
superstition is on the wane, for the general people are still 
very credulous." Here again we conclude that a criterion 
of change which at first sight would seem very reliable is 
after all untrustworthy. Superstitious practices may 
persist, or even increase long after their power has largely 
disappeared, (witness our prevalent superstition about 13, 
spilling salt, and similar matters). There can be little 
doubt that the strength of superstition has greatly waned, 
even though its practice continues as before. 

, With reference to religious practices in 

Practises 2 10t general it may be said that among the great 
mass of the population the old practices 
continue with little change. That they are being gradually 
forced out by the pressure of high standards of living there 
can be no doubt. A smaller and smaller proportion of 
expenditure goes into such practices except where they are 
identified with display of one kind or another. In the case 
of weddings, funerals, and other practices that are partly 
religious and partly social in their nature, they tend to 



WEAKENING OF VIRTUES OO 

become more elaborate and more expensive. The motive 
for their continuance, however, is decreasingly religious, 
and increasingly social, namely, the desire not to be out 
done in expenditure by one s neighbors. This element of 
social fellowship and competitive display has always been 
prominent in these matters, and it is entirely possible for 
a ceremony which was originally religious in motive to 
continue long after all religious elements have disappeared. 
Among westerners marriage and burial ceremonies in many 
cases illustrate this fact. 

R . F , , In the matter of business honesty there is 
:s again conflicting opinion. It is evident that 
Chinese society is passing from status to contract. Com 
mercial agreements are valid if written or published, but 
verbal and informal agreements are not observed as formerly. 
The break-down of the family system leads to greater 
individualism in business, and the family is no longer 
responsible for fulfilling the obligations undertaken by its 
members. More and more, shops have fixed prices and 
guarantee their goods. In the more progressive cities the 
old fashioned standards of business honesty have been 
largely swept away in the ca.se of large dealers, and in their 
place modern commercial practices are being substituted. 
The process is by no means complete, but is rapidly taking 
place. In connection with the change, however, many 
abuses and much confusion are arising. Times of change 
are times of opportunity for the rascal, and business men 
agree there are many such abroad in China to-day. 
Classic Virtues ^ ler( no question that filial piety and 
loyalty and the other classic virtues are greatly 
weakened. It is becoming the fashion for young people to 
declare their independence from their elders. The tra 
ditional conceptions are sharply criticised by some as 
tending to servility on the part of the young and those of 
low estate, and absolutism and arbitrariness on the part of 
those in authority. In some quarters the break-down of 
the traditional loyalties is gradual and more or less uncon 
scious. The idea that all parents are infallible, and all 
kings beneficent, is no longer seriously entertained by 
thoughtful people. It is impossible in a brief statement to 
indicate the grave significance for Chinese society of the 



56 MORALS AND RELIGION 

break-down of these ancient attitudes. They are at the 
base of Chinese family and social organization, and their 
weakening is like the removal of the mortar from a brick 
wall. Yet this weakening is inevitable. In this "as in 
other innovations in China, we may expect a turn for the 
worse before a good result can bo obtained," as a Chinese 
correspondent remarks. No greater problem confronts 
China to-day than that of building up standards and 
loyalties that will take the place of those that are 
crumbling away. 
Sx M alit ^ n ^ ie ma ^er of sex morality generalizations 

are likely to be untrue. Perhaps the most 
obvious thing to say would be that China is repeating the 
history of other nations. The flaunting prostitute along 
the main lines of communication is witness to changes in 
standards if not in practice in these places. It is a well 
known fact that in communities where all members are 
known to each member, the control of sex impulses is much 
more certain and complete than in situations such as we 
find in modern cities where personal relationships are 
reduced to the minimum, and where anonymity is the rule 
rather than the exception. There can be no doubt that 
the modern hotel, the railway, and the steamship have 
greatly increased commercialized vice. Likewise city life 
always tends to the increase of loose relationships between 
the sexes. The whole question of marriage, courtship, 
concubinage, and equality between men and women is too 
complex to be dealt with in this paper. All agree, however, 
that in each of these particulars there is a loosening of old 
standards and an absence of new ones which constitutes an 
unusually serious problem. 
Lawlessness There is complete agreement that the people 

are less law-abiding than they were before the 
beginning of the Republic. Official proclamations are 
universally disregarded unless some visible manifestation 
of power is invoked for their enforcement. Public criticism 
of officials, in newspapers and by word of mouth, has 
become common. In some cases students and merchants 
have refused to accept officials appointed by the central 
government. The disorganization and weakness of the 
government at Peking is to some degree responsible for the 



FAMILY MORALITY 57 

conditions mentioned, but the ideas connected with democ 
racy, boLshevism, and free thought have undoubtedly had 
great influence over the people. Brigandage, piracy, and 
constant revolution have contributed their share. It is 
difficult to see where these tendencies will lead in the 
absence of any government which the people are compelled 
by custom or fear to respect. Local government continues 
relatively efficient, but even there the forces of disintegra 
tion are active. 

The question as to whether families are 
Morality providing for their helpless members is raised 

because the answer will reveal the extent to 
which the old family morality is breaking down. Statis 
tical replies- are, of course, impossible. It is unquestionably 
true that in rural districts and in those parts of cities which 
are populated by old families the care of defectives and 
dependents is still assumed by the family. Many institu 
tions for the care of these classes which are necessary in 
our individualistic western countries have not been 
developed in China, because the family system made them 
unnecessary. There is very much to be said in favor of 
this family responsibility, but in this particular, as in 
others, we cannot escape the fact that, at any rate in the 
great cities where changes of moral and religious standards 
are made and disseminated, the public is being compelled 
in constantly increasing measure to assume those functions 
which were once performed by the family. In other words, 
the old family system with its mutual repression and 
its tendency to develop parasites on the one hand, and its 
mutual responsibility and tendency to protect society from 
the criminal and the weakling on the other, is crumbling 
under the impact of modern industrialism and urbanization 
which make necessary the separation of working men from 
their parents and the old home. 
s The situation is succinctly summarized in 

a letter written October 27, 1923, by the late 
Dr. K. S. Liu, Dean of South Eastern University: There 
is a general break-down of traditional standards and 
values. In place of the filial attachment there; is a more 
individualistic tendency, and at the, same time a social 
emphasis. Superstitious practices are disappearing, but 



58 MORALS AND RELIGION 

due to lack of general education they still persist among 
the illiterate classes, though it should be said that, due to 
habit perhaps, even people with some education, and 
especially men of the older type, still have some faith in 
geomancy and the Jike. At the same time, clairvoyancy and 
theosophy are spreading among certain classes of people in 
certain places, but this i attribute to the unsettled political 
conditions which make men crave for another world, or 

some sort of spiritual situation The most deplorable 

thing is the break-down of the old standards of moral 
worth." 

The conclusion to be drawn from this study is not 
pessimistic. New wine cannot be put into old bottles, yet 
human nature is such that the attempt is inevitable. The 
necessary result is the destruction of the old bottles and 
the provision of the new in the form of altered social atti 
tudes, values, faiths, loyalties, and organization. It must 
be apparent to any clear-thinking person that this disinte 
gration of ancient faiths and morals will continue for an 
indefinite period in the future and that the supreme task of 
Christian leadership is somehow to build up the new faith 
and new morals for a new age. It is a constructive task. 
Destructive forces spring up spontaneously, constructive 
forces must be created. The creation and organization of 
such forces is the mission of all who are interested in the 
welfare of China. 



CHAPTER VIII 

REGENT RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN CHINA 
Gilbert Reid 

Of late there have arisen many new movements and 
associations devoted to matters moral and spiritual. Three 
characters represent these associations (fr, flit, US). None 
use the special characters denoting some religion. However, 
in the principles and practices of most of these associations 
recognition is given the live religions, namely, Con 
fucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity and Islam. Of 
these five, Confucianism is generally accorded the pre 
eminence. In matters of form and ceremony Buddhism 
takes the lead. 

In describing these various associations, I. shall divide 
them into four groups. 

I. In Group One the emphasis is placed 
ofRight^usaTss " riffht.fio<i*,ie** t first in the heart and then in 

conduct. 

(1) The first one is the Society for Purifying the 
Heart ($fejfrftt). This movement originated a, few years 
ago in Taiyuan, the capital of Shansi, " the model 
province" of China. The movement was encouraged by 
Governor Yen Hsi-san and was promoted by one of his 
Staff. The source of political reform was seen to be in the 
individual, and, as to the individual, in his heart. In 
carrying out this reforming idea the following methods 
have been used: 

(a) Use has been made of the printed page and (b) 
the lecture method, or preaching, has been adopted. The 
Governor, as a part of his statecraft, has also adopted these 
two methods in establishing a, stable government and earing 
for the people. He has a lecture-hall in his own yaw en and 
has erected a larger hall for lectures open to the public. 
Proclamations exhorting to right living, sheet tracts and 
"good books", are all made use of, in direct or indirect 
connection with this Heart-Purifying Society, 



60 RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS 

(c) Those who are linked with this Society have kept 
the Confucian Temple in best repair of any in China, and 
this because the halls and courts, besides heing set apart at 
stated times for worship of the Sages, are turned into a 
modern educational enterprise with library, reading-room 
and an attractive educational exhibit. 

(2) Two other Societies devoted to " works of righteous 
ness " are almost alike in name OR] ff- it) and fe H ijtt) , 
the Association for Advancing Goodness. They have their 
headquarters in Peking, and brandies in a, few provincial 
towns. The former was started about six years ago, and the 
latter two. There are four characteristics. (a) One is 
devotion to deeds of charity, (b) A second feature is that 
of exclusiveness, or secrecy. This is more in connection 
with certain rites and aims. it is somewhat like the 
mysteries in Greek and Roman religion. (c) A third 
feature is the use of silent meditation in the spiritual 
training of one s self, (d) The second society mentioned 
also makes use of the planchette to receive responses, like 
the Greek Oracles, from favorite divinities: it also uses 
spirit photography. These features are also seen in 
another prominent society, which will be dealt with later on. 
II. Group two consists of movements 
MoraTldeals centered around morals or moral -ideals, with 
which there are religious and spiritual 
principles and rites. The Chinese words (sM; H), translated 
k morals" or "truth and virtue", are near in concept to 
the English word "religion", or the words "being 
religious". There are four of these organizations. Moral 
character is made the root of all things. 

(1) The Universal Moral Association 

As!ociaHo^ (8 m ^ ^ ^ The organization only began 
some three years ago in Tsinan, but the 
movement or its moving ideas had been in existence a decade 
before. The following are the chief features of the Society 
and the movement: 

(a) It has prepared and distributed many books, ex 
plaining in simple language the meaning of the classics, 
both Confucian and Taoist, and adding exhortations to do 
the right. It is planned to interpret the Classics of the 
other religious Faiths, 



ETHICAL MOVEMENTS 61 

(b) The movement is largely eclectic, recognizing the 
universal good in all religious teachers. The leader at 
present is a student in a Christian school, and is enrolled as 
a catechumen in the Methodist church. 

(e) The movement had its origin in a young prodigy 
Chiang Hsi-chang (r_r. ft #*) who began to expound the 
Classics before he was ten years old. In Chinese con 
ception such a person is under enlightenment of the gods, 
and is spoken of as (;!$ 3). Like prodigies in other lands, 
lie has lost his abnormal qualities, as he grows into 
manhood. However, this element of the unusual, the odd, 
or what many view as the supernatural, attracted many of 
the religiously-disposed. The followers are of the simple 
peasant class, without guile or pretense. On the other 
hand, the highest officials in the land have patronized the 
movement and have aided in the wide distribution of its 
literature. 

(d) During the period of the Great War, as well as 
civil strife in China, books have been written against 
war and in support of peace. Herein it is akin to the 
Taoism of Lao Tzu, and to the main import of Jesus the 
Prince of Peace. 

(e) Since the movement developed into an organiza 
tion, it has had in mind to go beyond the bounds of China 
to other lands. For financial reasons this has been 
impossible. It has succeeded, however, in spreading 
throughout China, though each branch is a law unto itself. 

(2) The Society for Moral Instruction (ii; 
f^it). Its headquarters are in Peking 
and a, few branches are found in the prov 
inces. It differs slightly from the previous 
society. 

(a) Like all the new movements it lays stress on 
sound morals. 

(1)) From the use of the word for instruction or 
learning (^) it makes morals or ethics a part of sound 
learning. The learned as well as those who are lovers of 
good deeds have joined the movement and helped in its 
maintenance. 

(c) By selecting a particular worthy man as the 
head, to whom the rest show reverence, the old ceremonial 



62 RELIGIOUS MOVEMENT? 

customs of respect to superiors are duly conserved. The 
Society represents Old China rather than the New 
Culture. 

(d) Importance is placed on self-nurture and quiet 
meditation. 

(e) Meetings are held for receiving the exhortations 
and enlightenment of moral teachers. 

TaoYuan ^ The Tao Ymul ^ ^ r Ethical 

Society (sHUfflt). The latter name was used 

first and is still used, hut the former name is the one more 
commonly used, as being commanded from out the spirit- 
world. As an organization it had its beginning in Tsinan 
in 1921, but in two years it has extended to Peking, to 
most of the capitals in North China and along the Yang 
tze, and to many of the cities in the province of Shantung. 
It is composed of the official and educated classes and 
has made remarkable progress, one branch being started 
in Japan. 

The following are some of its leading features: 

(a) Self-cultivation (ft j#j, s& ft ft) by means of silence 
and meditation (fp ^). It is believed that through such a 
process good influences from the spirit world will help to 
mould the human spirit. Such training of one s self is 
regarded as the root of all worthy activities. 

(b) The outward expression of the inner and better 
self (ft #j, j ft ft) in deeds of mercy (& f| ^ fg). Some 
of these deeds of mercy are homes for the crippled and 
unfortunate, giving medicine to the sick, relief to the 
famishing, and starting savings banks for small deposits of 
the poorer people. 

. . (c) Recognition of the Spirit of the Great 

F st Cause _,. v Al n en 

First Cause or the Primeval Ancestor 01 all 

mankind (H S :5fe 5c ^ jjffl.). In the center of the main 
building is a tablet on which is inscribed characters telling 
that this is the seat of this Great First Cause (^ ^ 
1ft ^ = TC & IE J ilia). Ho is regarded as the True 
God. At the bottom of the tablet are the names of the 
founders of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism, (jji # 
fitf ^> :fc -t ^ 3T, & M /E) and signs for Islam and 
Christianity. That for Jesus is a triangle, standing for the 



SPIRITUALISM 63 

Trinity (A 1 - That for Mohammed is a curve, a sign of 
the True Lord (Cx)). Messages from the Primeval 
Ancestor are also indicated by a sign (# ). 

(d) The Society has a small book, which was de 
livered through the medium of the planchette by the Great 
First Cause and gives instructions as to the processes of 
Silence and Meditation, 

(e) The particular feature of the Tao Yuan 
Pianchette ., . L r 

that lias the greatest hold on its followers is 

the daily use of the Chinese form of a planchette (^ &), 
by means of winch messages are received, sometimes from 
the Great First Cause, sometimes from the Founders of the 
Five Religions and sometimes from others. One of these 
is Lii Tsu who lived in the Tang dynasty, one of the P]ight 
Taoist Immortals. The planchette is used in two ways. 
It consists of a stick about a yard long, in the center of 
which is attached at right angles a- curved stick less than a 
foot long. One man on one side of a table holds the stick 
by the left hand and another man on the other side with 
the right hand. The planchette traces characters in sand 
placed in a tray on the table. The two men are only the 
medium for the spirit to give its messages. In another 
form of the planchette a brush is attached to the curved 
stick, and characters are traced by it on paper. Most of 
the messages are dictated in good Chinese style;, and, what 
is most striking, there is no message, as far as I know, that 
orders one to wrong-doing. 

s . rit (f) The Tao Yuan also makes use of spirit 

PhoYography Photography (|ffl 3fe). These photographs, at 
first indistinct, are produced by a camera 
directed against a black cloth or turned towards the open 
air. One of these photographs is that of the Great First 
Cause. Another has boon thus taken of the deceased head 
of the Tao Yua.n at Tsinan and is true to the original 
likeness. 

(g) The Tao Yuan is divided into rive rooms or 
courts, each being set apart for some form of spiritual 
development. They are the Court of Worship 0$ |5), the 
Court of Scriptures fe p), the Court of Charities (* p), 
the Court of Meditation (d |j), and the Court of Preaching 
te K). 



64 RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS 

It is the first one that is the largest and most 
Worship important. In the center is the shrine for 

the Primeval Ancestor and the Founders of 
the Five Religions, as described above. On the right are two 
shrines, one for the Papal Scat of all the Tao Yuans (|& $c l& 
t^) and one for the attainment of Scholarship (>c ^ t^). 
On the left are also two shrines, one for the local Tao Yuan 
in Peking (^ l?^ $ if ) and one for Petition or Inquiry (jf!J 
3|1$). In the Court of Scriptures there is a shrine for 
pictorial symbols (-ft ^t -j ) , and in the Court of Charities 
there is a shrine for asking cure in time of sickness (>R // 
tf [). At each of these shrines the planchette is used as 
medium for the Spirits to make response. 

(h) Another feature of the Tao Yuan is the synthesis 
of the Five Religions. As most of the, adherents arc 1 
devotees of Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism, these 
three receive the most attention and are interpreted the 
most intelligently. Still, Christianity and Islam are 
treated with an open mind. 

Swastika ^ Tlie Universal Swastika Society (ft ?f 

Socfety & ^ ^)- r ^ s Society is in imitation of 

the Red Cross Society. The character for 
Swastika ( W ) is current in art and religion not only in 
China but in many of the countries of Asia. The Society 
was formed in the summer of J922 in Tsinan at a gathering 
of choice delegates from different branches of the Tao 
Yuan. It is the outgrowth of the Tao Yuan, as the Red 
Cross Society is the outgrowth of Christianity. It was 
started under orders from the Primeval Ancestor, of 
mankind as made known in one of the worship-ceremonies 
at the Tao Yuan in Tsinan. It has already done much to 
render relief to the distressed. It carries out the special 
functions of the Court of Charities. As thus organized 
it issues a daily paper in Peking (Ft 1 ij: P Fl $? Wl). 
This Swastika Society is not separated from the Tao 
Yuan but seeks to carry out the principles of the 
Tao Yuan. 

III. Group three consists of two Societies that put 
the emphasis on religion (~ fit) instead of morals ($& ) 
or goodness 



RELKUOU8 UNITY 65 

(1) The most noted is the Universal 
Association for the Unity of Religion (ft # 
f J<. hi) ff)- This originated in S/echwan l).v 
Tang Huan-chang (j# #& v : ) who had conic in contact with 
Christianity. When a branch was started in Peking, (lie 
principles announced were beyond criticism. Very soon 
it became known that this Society was sending out 
thousands of pamphlets telling of a great catastrophe to 
descend in the month of September, much like the Christian 
prophecies of the end of the world. The effect on the 
credulous was astounding, and the authorities found it 
necessary to close down all branches and warn the people 
against all such vain prophecies. On the good side this 
Society was absorbed in the search for truth and goodness, 
but on the bad side there was lack of an enlightened 
conscience. 

( 2) Quite a similar movement originated in Yunnan. 
It was named the World s Association for Unity in the 
Holy Religion (& z$ $i $r IJ ff). The; founder was 
Wang Chia-shn (. ; K M Juf), who having travelled all the way 
to Peking proclaiming his doctrines, sought to establish a 
branch at the capital. He showed an acquaintance with 
the Scriptures of all the Five Religions and was evidently 
a sincere truth-seeker. 

IV. Group four represents the Old Learn- 
Society of the . r / n rm T 

Four Principles H1 k r * China. 1 here is one outstanding 
society. It is called The Learned Society of 
Four Traditions or the Society for preserving four prin 
ciples (pij -fc #1 ff). These four principles wore first 
formed into a system at the opening of the Tsing dynasty 
by a noted scholar Yen Hsi-chai (M^$f)- 1 he four 
principles were, preserving the doctrine of Man (fr-A) 
preserving the doctrine of (moral) Nature (fc ft), pre 
serving the ancient learning (fr: ^ , and preserving 
government (/r : in)- These ideas were incorporated into a 
Society and Institution in 1 ( ,) 21 in Peking under President 
Hsu Shih-chang. A branch was started in Kaifeng. The 
central idea is more that of scholarship than of morals and 
religion, but as with the learned men of China in the past, 
so now, ethics and even spiritual truth arc inseparable 
from true learning. 



66 RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS 

In a word, these various movements and organizations 
show that there is a stir in the religious aspirations of all 
classes of the Chinese. Everywhere there are those who 
are religiously-disposed, or as St. Paul said of the 
Athenians, " very religious," though groping in the dark 
and needing the true Light "that lighteth every man 
coming into the world." Others are also seeking after the 
truth and are amenable to reason and still more to the 
touch of sympathy. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANISM 
F. C. M. Wei 

Confucius ^ more confusing expression can scarcely 

be found in the Chinese language than Kung 
Chiao (^Llfc), a translation of the English word 
"Confucianism" which has, during recent years, found 
its way into common usage. A considerable amount of 
unnecessary controversy has been caused by the 
equivocation of this term over the question whether 
Confucianism is a religion or a mere system of ethics. 
The answer depends of course upon our definition of 
religion and the meaning of the word Confucianism. 

It is obvious that Confucius is not in the same class 
as Siddhartha of the Sakya clan and Jesus of Nazareth. 
Confucius preached no new religion, nor did he found a 
new church. He made no claim even to the glory of being 
a religious reformer. Religion was not one of his primary 
interests, which were almost entirely in the field of 
politics and ethics, subjects closely linked together in 
ancient times. His best parallel in Western history is 
found perhaps in Socrates who was born in Athens just 
a decade after the death of the Chinese sage in Shantung. 
A great deal that can be said of the one can also be said 
of the other. In religious questions, however, the attitude 
of Confucius was by far the less positive. But the two 
sages were alike in their loyalty to the existing religious 
institutions and practices of their respective fatherlands. 
Hence, it is not only improper to speak of any religion 
in connection with Confucius; it is even difficult to find a 
religion of Confucius. 

Confucianism What, then, is the meaning of the current 

word "Confucianism" or of its translation 

Kung Chiao (fL $f)? There are three conceivable meanings. 

First, we may mean by Confucianism the "Religion of 



68 THE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANISM 

the State" that existed in China before Confucius time 
as ascertained at present from the Book of History ( , f- ffO 
and the Book of Odes (,$ ?.) which according to tradition 
were edited by Confucius and the religious ideas of which 
may therefore be said to have received his endorsement. 
The chief features of religion as there set forth are simply 
those of the faith of an agricultural people in an early 
polytheistic stage of religious development. The conception 
of nature is animistic. The spirits are vague and formless. 
A great god has emerged, but a hierarchy of deities is 
not yet formed. The objects of worship are the natural 
phenomena which are of the greatest concern to the 
farmer, namely, Heaven and Earth, Sun, Moon, and 
Stars, Mountains and Forests, Rivers and Seas, Cold 
and Heat, Flood and Drought, the Four Seasons and the 
changes of Weather. These are worshipped at proper 
times, if good crops and prosperity are desired. This 
religion has certainly shown a wonderful tenacity. It has 
persisted through all the centuries down to our own. 
However, changes have already set in. The annual 
sacrifice to Heaven which was formerly the greatest feast 
of the religion has ceased to be a great state occasion, 
and no one could now visit the Temple of Heaven in 
Peking, that colossal and glorious achievement of Chinese 
architecture, without being impressed by the fact that the 
classical religion of China is dying a natural death, 
and that perhaps witho -t a mourner. It is one of the 
relics of ancient China. Its gradual disappearance seems 
inevitable, and so far no attempt has been made to 
postpone i s exit from the stage. 

< . c The second possible meaning of the word 

wofshio or r . e . . . ,-, i 55 j? /-i p 

Confucius Confucianism is the worship" of Confucius 

in the Confucian Temples and in the schools. 
In the schools of the olden days, the ceremony took place 
twice a month as well as on special occasions such as 
the opening and the closing of the school each year. 
Incense and candles were burnt and the master and pupils 
prostrated themselves before the tablet of the Sage. 
There was no regulation about this, but people did it 
spontaneously. When schools along modern lines were 
established towards the end of the Manchu Dynasty, the 



WORSHIP OF CONFUCIUS 69 

same ceremony was held on the first day of each month 
in the hall specially set aside in each school for the 
purpose. Since the establishment of the Republic such 
a hail is still found in most of the educational institutions 
which receive government grants or public support. But 
in a large number of these the ceremony is not observed 
even though the hall is there, and where it is observed, 
attendance is not compulsory for either teachers or 
students as it was under the old regime. In a few schools 
not even the hall is found and honour to Confucius 
occupies no particular place in the life of the school 
except the observance of a holiday on the anniversary of 
the birth of the Sage which is prescribed by the regulations 
of the Ministry of Education in Peking. This negligence 
of the "worship" of Confucius together with the abolition 
of the study of the classics as a required subject in the 
elementary and secondary schools effected in 1912 is for 
some people indicative of the decoy of Confucianism. 
This feeling is enhanced when it is observed that the 
semi-annual ceremony of honouring Confucius in the 
Confucian Temple in the cities in the second and eighth 
months of the year generally referred to as Ting Tze 
(T a) * s o^y performed by the officials as a matter of 
mere routine with but little of the spirit of reverence 
that characterized the occasion in days when the literary 
competitive examination was the main road leading to 
a political career. It is out of place here to discuss 
whether or not these ceremonies are religious in nature. 
But what concerns us at present is to point out that if 
the "worship" of Confucius is Confucianism, it certainly 
has its days numbered as far as people in the cities 
and in the modern educational institutions are concerned. 
As to the situation in the country districts, a word will 
be added later. 

Thirdly, Confucianism is sometimes taken 
Political and .-11 a T<- 

Moral Tenets mcan particularly the system of political 
and moral tenets together with the social 
institutions and practices presupposed by them, as handed 
down from the remote past by Confucius and embodied 
now in the Confucian Classics, It may be summed up 
in the doctrine of the Five Relationships and the Eight 



70 THE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANISM 

Cardinal Virtues, which are too well known to students 
of the Chinese Classics to need any further explanation 
here, and which though enshrouded in many rules now 
obsolete are yet the flowers of Chinese civilization that 
the world at large should not willingly let die. It is no 
part of any religious system. The worship of Confucius 
is not necessary to it. With the worship of ancestors 
it has only a collateral relation. Failure to realize these 
points has caused considerable commotion during the early 
years of the Republic. Alarmed at the change of attitude 
of the educational circles towards the worship of Confucius 
and the study of the classics in the schools and perhaps 
to a large extent irritated by the religious liberty clause 
in the Provisional Constitution adopted in 1912, a few of 
the Confucian zealots took the situation to mean the 
moral deterioration of the nation and measures were at 
once taken to launch a propaganda in the first year of the 
Republic, to establish a Confucian Association and to found 
even a Confucian Church in order to restore the Confucian 
Kultur to its former vantage-ground. A monthly magazine 
was published for a period of less than two years 
under the able editorship of Dr. Chen Huan-chang, author 
of The Economic Principles of Confucius and His 
School, ; a two volume book edited and published by the 
Faculty of Political Science of Columbia University. 
Efforts were also made to have Confucianism adopted as 
the state religion of China, and having failed to 
accomplish this end by 1914, a new attempt was made 
in the period from 1910 to 1918 to secure in the 
would-be permanent constitution, then under consideration, 
government sanction for Confucianism as the basis of 
moral education in the schools. On account of the 
postponement of the adoption of the permanent constitu 
tion, the problem was held in abeyance, but it has not 
been entirely without effect, for in the new constitution 
promulgated on October 10, 1923 we find a clause to the 
effect that "citizens of the Republic of China shall have 
the liberty to honour Confucius and to believe in any 
religion," obviously a compromise intended to satisfy two 
contending parties in the Constitutional convention when 
the clause was considered and debated. 



NEW THOUGHT MOVEMENT 71 

In 1014 the Confucian Association Monthly stopped 
its publication, and since that year nut much lias 
been heard of the Association itself. Here and there 
one may still find the sign-board "Confucian Association " 
hanging over the door of a building, but one might be 
disappointed to find little Confucian activities inside. 

In the meantime the New Thought 
Movement^ Movement is directing its merciless attacks 
upon the social and moral teachings of old 
China, and few have come to the rescue of Confucius in 
his greatest distress. Now that the first wave of the New 
Thought Movement is apparently over, there is emerging 
in Hongkong and Shanghai a new Confucian Association 
bearing the title of Chung Him Sheng Chiao Chung Hui 
(qj ^ jg |fc jffa ^-). It is rut her moderate in size as well 
as in influence in comparison with the older association. 
The latter was headed by some of the best known men 
of the country and had branch associations in almost all 
the important places in the Republic, while the former 
is even now scarcely known to the public and seems to 
have only a modest programme. The new association 
has also a magazine published fortnightly. It is called 
the Ngai Kuo Pao (f |$| $fc) and has reached its fourteenth 
issue, but gives the impression of being only a feeble 
attempt. Another Confucian magazine, published by an 
individual under the title Sbih Chieh (/hong Ming Pao 
(1H: % i" W $ft) was started last September and is of about 
the same quality and influence a,s the first one. 

As a whole this recent Confucian movement is rather 
insignificant when compared with the New Thought 
Movement with which it tries to cope. In the great 
centre s and especially among the students, Confucianism, 
not only as the religion of the state or as the "cult" of 
Confucius, but also as a system of moral and political 
tenets, is rapidly losing its vantage-ground and looks as 
if it were threatened with complete extinction. 

The situation in the interior is however, different. 
There in the country districts and as a rule in places 
where contact with the outer world is slight, new ideas 
imported by the New Thought leaders are not only not 
in vogue but not even heard of. There the old moral 



72 THE PRESENT STATUS OF CONFUCIANISM 

system is still upheld as any moral system is ever upheld 
by a community. The Confucian institutions are still 
untouched by outside influences. Confucius is worshipped 
as before in the schools, although the regulations of the 
Ministry of Education have excluded the study of the 
classics from the school curriculum. By far the majority 
of people are still Confucian. Ibis does not mean, of 
course, that they are all princely men (ft -j -) , but their 
professed ideal is still that of the Confucian classics. 

But even in the interior this state of things is not 
to remain unchanged. Forces are at work to bring about 
some change before long. The leaven fermenting in the 
metropolises is bound to spread to the country districts. 
Further, it is significant that few of the leaders before 
the public eye are eminent in Confucian scholarship or 
pronounced in their enthusiasm for Confucianism. 
Naturally this cannot help exerting important influence 
upon the rising generation. In view of these circum 
stances our problem is not whether Confucianism will 
eventually have to make room for something new, but 
rather how its best may be conserved in order not to lose 
from the world that which has boon fondly cherished by 
a great nation for a period of not less than three 
thousand years. 



CHAPTER X 

THE NEW CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO BUDDHISTS 
Karl Retcheft 

In dealing with this great and live theme I wish to 
(Irnw attention to some of its most important principles as 
shown in the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists, 
Nanking. 

p , . - , I. The Approach u Christian. We therefore 

Approach stress what is most essential in Christianity. 
What is that? Nothing more and nothing less 
than Christ. Christianity is not in the iirst place a line 
system of dogmas and masterly definitions, although these 
are also very helpful. Christianity is a person, a living, 
working person, the unique revealer of God our Father and 
Creator, who through his holy, unique life, his precious 
death and glorious resurrection has obtained eternal 
redemption for us all. 

Therefore this new work among the Buddhists is from 
the very beginning and from the very bottom Christo- centric. 
The great aim is to help our Buddhist friends $ee " the glory of 
(rod in the face, of Jesu* Chriat". 

II. We must gire the Buddhists the whole Christ. This 
must be done not only in pointing out to them God s 
wonderful preparations in the Jewish people for the sending 
of IFis Messiah; not only by telling how Christ was born in 
Bethlehem and how he lived and died and rose from the 
dead, and now gloriously reigns at the right hand of the 
Father sending his merciful and omnipotent Spirit to all 
living beings in the universe. All this is very essential. 
But it is not enough. In the present Christian approach 
to Buddhists, Hinduists, Taoists and Confucianists, some 
thing very essential and important is lacking. 

The scriptural foundation for the special 
Foundation principle to be explained here 1 is to be found 
in many pa.ssages throughout the whole Bible, 
but is stated most clearly in the New Testament. 



74 THE NEW CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO BUDDHISTS 

The apostle Paul refers to them in many places in his 
epistles, one of the best references for our purpose is 
Colossians 1 : 15-20 where he deals with the personality of 
our Lord, Jesus Christ. 

But the principal passage is the famous introduction 
to St. John s Gospel, 1:1-5, 14. 

There we see that Jesus Christ has been very real, very 
active from "the beginning . All that has been created 
has got its form, its life and its glory through him as the 
eternal word of God, the logos from above. 

Furthermore you will notice that the significant word 
in the 5th verse is "The Light". "Life" and "Light " 
are used in the fourth and fifth verses. The " logos J} as 
Light is said to have a wonderful aim and function. 

" The light shineth in the darkness; and the darkness 
comprehended it not." 

,, , Here is the history of religion through all 

ages given in a nutshell. Christ is the "word". 
The logos has been shining from the very beginning and 
shines through all eternity. This is Plis permanent func 
tion from the first days of creation, when God s will was 
manifested in the mighty works: " Let there be light and 
there was light". 

It means that the special and unique revelation of God 
in the Old Testament originates in Christ as logos. But it 
means more still. 

According to the context of St. John s Gospel it means 
that this light is forcing its way through religious systems 
all over the world; that everywhere He has not left himself 
without witness (Acts, 14:17). And so great is our God, 
that he could afford to give not only his chosen people, but 
mankind everywhere, holy men, prophets, men like Mel- 
chiscdec of old, Laotzu, Confucius, Buddha, Zoroaster, 
who could receive the logos and reflect His beams through 
holy and devoted lives and through holy writings. When 
we study these books we find in their obscure words many 
beautiful and divinely inspired passages, just as St. Paul 
the tenderhearted missionary of old found such expressions 
in the Greek classics. For instance in Athens when, in 
that famous sermon given in Acts, 17, he quotes from the 



THE LOGOS 75 

neo-platonists Cleanthes and Aratus : " For wo are also his 
offspring". The same, was the case when ho walked round 
among the temples in Athens. He met many things which 
grieved his heart. But lo, among the many images and 
shrines he found in a corner "an altar to the unknown 
God." This he used as a starting point in his sermon. 
It was a beam from the logos, now incarnated in a historical 
person, whom he loved from the bottom of his heart. And 
a beam from my most beloved Friend and Master can not 
but fill my soul with joy. 

This is what Justin Marty n calls the >.67os o-vcpnaTiKbs. 
The word, which like the seed is lying hidden within the 
systems of religions all over the world and which brings 
forth refreshing green leaves and fragrant flowers in the 
great desert of superstition and heathen darkness. 

Many missionaries are frightened, when they find any 
thing good and true and noble in non-Christian religions 
and worship. They try to explain it as nicely veiled 
diabolic delusion. 

But there are other missionaries who with sincere and 
wholehearted joy receive these beams for what they really 
are, tokens of the omnipresence and omnipotence of the 
eternal logos, Jesus Christ, who is the source of light and life 
from eternity to eternity. 

This attitude will enable us to do justice to all men. "By 
manifestation of the truth commending ourselves to even/ man s 
conscience in the sight of God" (II Cor. 4:2). It will open 
our way to the conscience of all truth-seekers, Buddhist, 
Taoist, Confucianist, or whatever they may be. 

A few words about the development and 
Mis!ion n to progress of the Christian Mission to Buddhists 
Buddhists are i R order. I laid this scheme before 

Christian Chinese leaders and interested mis 
sionaries gathered in Shanghai in connection with the China 
Continuation Committee meeting of 1920. The scheme was 
heartily approved. A number of letters of introduction 
were given me as I started home for furlough. 

Most of my furlough lecturing, in Scandinavian coun 
tries, the north of Germany and in the United States 
dealt with this topic. Everywhere I met with interest and 



76 THE NEW CHRISTIAN APPROACH TO BUDDHISTS 

sympathy. But the financial depression is felt everywhere 
and friends will naturally hesitate; to give large sums in 
such times. 

We have not the working machinery in running order 
at least in Scandinavia. My own home board decided to set 
me apart for this special work and a young and very able 
man, Mr. N. N. Thelle, was sent out with me to assist me as 
manager so as to enable mo to plunge into the real work as 
soon as possible. The Swedish State Church Mission lias 
pledged itself to stand behind this work and will send out 
a pastor Inter on to join us. The Danish Missionary Society 
will do the same and will send an expert architect to bo in 
charge of the building of our institute, which we hope 
to erect. 

Mr. Thelle and I came back to China in October 1923. 
We have already, by God s wonderful grace, got a place in 
Nanking, where we have opened the work in a humble and 
simple way. Monks are daily coming for conversation and 
reading. I have had some very interesting experiences 
with them. Also lay Buddhists devotees, Chii-sV, and 
people belonging to the vegetarian sects have met with us 
in devotion and worship. In the monasteries we have been 
received most cordially, and many of the leading abbots 
have been with us at our vegetarian meals; for we, of course, 
are all vegetarians here. 

But we may go further. In addition to 

j cordial intercourse, we must get some of the 
Intercourse and , - . & , 

Training earnest and most religious monks under con 

stant care and instruction. With this in view 
we have extended our little place in Nanking so as to make 
room for a school and "hall of hospitality". Sixteen 
young novices, mostly coming from the small temples in 
the neighborhood of Nanking have been given over to us 
and get daily Christian and secular education in our school. 
Two monks have already been baptized and a few others 
are preparing for baptism. 

At our Sunday services we have fairly good audiences 
of monks who come from the monasteries and temples. 
Some very interesting men have come from some of the 
religious associations in Nanking, the Tao Yuan etc. 
Pilgrims are allowed to stay in the "Hall of Hospitality " 



MISSION TO BUDDHISTS 77 

for three days. If we find tha/t they are of the special 
religious type, we invite them to stay for longer periods. 

Of course some of the bad typo also come. But they 
do not like to stay here and depart very quickly, not finding 
the earthly gain they sought. 

Beside daily worship, morning and evening, we also 
have a special hour for meditation and prayer. One of our 
helpers sits quietly in the " hall of hospitality " and gives 
about half an hour to explaining religion. 

It is very touching to sec; how pious Buddhist and 
Taoist monks like this hour and how of their own will they 
continue to study the Bible and perform their private 
meditation in our prayer room or elsewhere. We have 
succeeded in purchasing a fine hill about one mile outside 
one of the eastern gates of Nanking. There we hope after 
a few years to erect the institute. Some of our Buddhist 
friends have done agricultural work out there. 

Later we hope to start a small industrial plant in con 
nection with our place in the city. We must help those of 
our Buddhist and Taoist friends, who are becoming 
Christians, to learn something whereby they may secure 
a living. 

The hill we have bought in the country is called 
Chlny Fong Shan (j^ E III), these words are taken from the 
Nestorian monument. They mean the "illuminating 
wind (spirit) which blows from above, stirring up the 
heart to new religious life. 



CHAPTER XI 

CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM 
Mark E. Botham 

To the visitor, as to the home student of missions, and 
even to some residents at coast ports, the word "China" 
conveys the idea of a crooked coast line, great cities such 
as Peking, Shanghai, Canton, a long river coming from 
somewhere beyond Hankow, and a vast unknown region to 
the West. Whether or not this idea of the vast Republic 
be either just or correct politically, one would not venture 
to decide, but a few years residence in that mysterious 
interior of the North -West, followed by a journey through 
a number of the Provinces of the East and Centre, has 
convinced the writer that it produces an entirely false 
impression of Chinese Mohammedanism, which judging by 
ideas gathered at the coast ports, has been placed in the 
catagory of those sects that are of some interest but need 
hardly be taken into consideration in the missionary 
programme. 

Although in the East and Central districts 
Influences one ^ nc ^ s m ^ ne Moslem communities such 

modern movements as result from contact 
with the Western world, the real uniting forces of Islam, 
springing from the essential characteristics of its organism, 
and the religious divisions common to all Moslem countries 
and communities, find their source in the far North-West, 
where China Proper is linked with that vast region of 
Central Asia, inhabited by a conglomeration of little- 
known Moslem tribes. In Nanking a school was founded 
for the instruction of theological students in Arabic, 
Persian and Islamics. The aliung (or mullah) who taught 
Arabic was from the extreme North-Western province of 
Kansu. A sect whose beliefs constitute a division in the 
fabric of Islam, and whose followers are considered by the 
majority of Chinese Moslems as heterodox to the point of 



THE MOSLEM RACE 79 

infidelity, has branches throughout Eastern, Central, and 
Southern China. The traveling ahung whose mission it is 
to encourage them comes from Kansu, where resides the 
leader of the sect. In short the actual, though not 
necessarily the recognized center of the Mohammedanism 
of China is in the West and more particularly the North 
west. When this fact is kept in view some curious 
anomalies are explained. 

~.. Islam in its Chinese manifestation has 

Chinese Islam . . , , , , 

otteri been considered a counterpart of the 

Christian Church in China and there is much to 
support this view. Comparatively small communities of 
Mohammedans live in the Chinese cities, their religious 
life centers round the mosque, they have their own 
clerical caste and their own religious tenets, of a 
completely different character from those of the heathen 
populace among whom they find themselves. In these 
respects the analogy is striking, and largely true. 
Another aspect however has probably not been sufficiently 
emphasized, namely that a racial as well as a religious 
distinction is made between Mohammedans and other 
Chine.se. When the name of Republic was given to China, 
a new Hag was adopted, consisting of five colors typifying 
the five races of which China is composed, i.e. Chinese, 
Manchus, Mongols, Tibetans and Moslems, the government 
thereby demonstrating that it recognizes Moslems as 
belonging to a distinct race. This race-consciousness is 
also prevalent among the Mohammedans themselves. A 
pupil in a mission girls school asked a Christian friend 
whether it were possible for one whose parents were 
Moslems to become a Christian. As a racial characteristic 
Islam entered and continues to enter, the land, by way of 
the Northwest from Central Asia and it is only where the 
impact of Western thought is felt in the East, that it is 
otherwise conceived. 

Moslem units or parishes are found scattered through 
out the vast area included in the Chinese Republic, and 
investigation has proved that Chinese Islam is closely 
united within itself, and against aggression from without. 
During the journey above mentioned I had opportunity to 
visit several Moslem centers in North China, and then 



80 CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM 

made a rapid journey to Hankow. I was surprised to find 
on arrival, that rumor of my coining had preceded me to 
that place, and that my visit was expected by the ahungs. 
The following is an interesting illustration of the swiftness 
with which news relating to themselves is transmitted 
from community to community When Dr. Zwemer was 
in Honau his visit was reported in Kansu, and the faithful 
were warned against this dangerous enemy ! 

The manner in which the Moslems unite to prevent 
secession to Christianity is also remarkable. A somewhat 
unsatisfactory Moslem in one Northern district, became an 
equally unsatisfactory Christian. So strong was local 
feeling that it was threatened to burn the mission 
compound of the town, should the man continue in 
his profession of Christianity. Similar cases could be 
multiplied. 

A Moslem General Advance Movement was founded in 
Peking in 1911. Within a few years it had no less than 
two to three thousand branches throughout the country. 
It is somewhat difficult to know whether this is a cause or 
an illustration of the present unity of Chinese Islam. It 
is probably the latter, for the real causes lie deeper. 
Islam and First may be mentioned the essential 

Idolatry difference between Islam and the idolatrous 

religions of China. Much has been said of 
the influence of Confucianism on Islam. But one must 
ever bear in mind that whatever superficial modifications 
Mohammedanism may have undergone in China, it is still 
primarily and essentially Islam. The religious difference 
of outlook knits every Moslem to his brother Moslem 
against the infidel beliefs of these pork-eating sons of 
Han. The social cleavage between Mohammedan and 
Pagan results in certain trades coming largely into the 
hands of Moslems. The trade in sheepskins in Shantung 
is practically their monopoly. The curio-dealers of Anking 
are nearly all Moslems. So are the chair-bearers who 
carry pilgrims up the sacred Tai Shan. 

Organization There is further the essential similarity of 

each Mohammedan parish to its counterpart 

in any other place. Each one has its recognized leaders or 

"District Elders" who elect their own Imam (who in 



AHUNGS AND TRAVELERS 81 

China is generally responsible i ur the business affairs 
connected with the mosque) and muezzin. Tlie.se in 
consultation invite an ahung, often from another district, 
to become the " Ahung who opens schools." This man 
acts as pastor and theological instructor and often brings 
with him several students who assist in the conduct of 
minor ceremonials connected with births, marriages and 
burials. Such is the organization throughout China and 
its very similarity is a strong binding power. For 
wherever the Moslem travels he finds such parishes and 
feels himself at home immediately, even apart from the 
fact that the members of the community all hold the same 
beliefs as himself. 

Again the power of the ahung class is a factor which 
binds the various communities together. The laity openly 
profess ignorance of the content of their faith. Again and 
again in widely separated parts of the country laymen 
have said to me, when brought face to face with the need 
for a salvation not provided by their religion " We do not 
understand these things, but our ahungs know." One 
man added, " We expect them to lead us in the heavenly 
road, we can only follow blindly." A class of man grossly 
ignorant of all but the narrow system of doctrine and 
ceremonial that gives to them their power, is bound to do 
all possible to maintain that power, by allowing no one 
over whom it is exercised to stray beyond its limits. 

There remains yet another factor that goes 
Travelers towards welding the Islam of China into an 

organic whole. The Mohammedans are of a 
considerably more enterprising spirit than their fellow 
countrymen of other religions, and this fact has its 
expression in the proportionally larger number of them 
who travel. There is a constant movement not only 
throughout the districts in which large communities are 
found, but across the length and breadth of the land, from 
Kashgar to Shanghai, and from Peking to Yunnan. In 
accordance with the demands of his religion, in every place 
along the main caravan routes, Moslem inns, restaurants and 
mosques are to be found. In 1 [ankow the mosques themselves 
are fitted for the entertainment of guests. There are couches 
in the bath-houses, tables and chairs in the rooms attached 



82 CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM 

to them, one end of the very prayer hall itself of one 
mosque has the appearance of a small clu broom. The 
same is true of Shanghai, where I have met Moslem 
travelers from Kansu and Shensi. It will be readily 
understood what a power this constant movement is in 
binding together all the scattered units of Islam. The 
principal travellers are of three kinds the merchant 
trading sheep, wolf and fox skins from Kansu and Tibet, 
who brings with him the sterner Mohammedanism of his 
home, which is an incentive to spur on his laxer 
co-religionists of the East to stricter observance of the 
commands of their faith. Then there are from fifty to 
one hundred pilgrims going every year to Mecca, for the 
most part from the West of China. Formerly the journey 
was made by way of Central Asia, through Persia, and 
consumed the better part of two years. But improved 
methods of transport have changed the route, and the 
pilgrims now travel by sea. The zeal of outgoing pilgrims, 
and the fresh ideas with which they return, are both 
conducive to revival and cohesion. 

The third type of traveler are the ahungs in charge of 
the mosques. These are often "called" from far-distant 
districts. Throughout Kansu, Shensi and Szechwan, 
ahungs from Hochow in West Kansu are to be found 
holding oflice. An ahung met in Changteh, Hunan was a 
native of Yunnan and had held oflice in Canton. In the 
same city was another who had studied in Kansu. 
Pr a anda Occasionally I came across the tracks of 

Moslems from Turkestan and India who had 
done some propaganda in widely separated parts of China. 
Hut it would seem that the effect of such visits has been 
over-estimated. Usually the men were considered rather 
heretical and in one instance at least their books had been 
publicly burned. 
Schisms The foregoing will suffice to indicate some 

of the causes for the existence of a unity 
among Chinese Moslems which has not been fully recognized 
hitherto. It will be noticed that union is organic rather, 
than organized, and does not depend on any recognized 
central authority or formulated cohesion, between mosque 
and mosque, community and community. At the same 



SCHISMS 83 

time the obverse of the picture must be recognized. The 
same schisms and rifts that one learns to connect with 
Jslam everywhere are also to be found in China. D OHone 
has pointed out the almost complete isolation of the mosque- 
parishes from each other. But not much emphasis can be 
laid on this admitted fact, for as indicated above, the union 
that exists does not depend on ecclesiastical centralization 
of authority. Of far greater importance are the sects that 
divide and subdivide Chinese Mohammedanism into 
innumerable more or less hostile factions. There has not 
yet been sufficient investigation of this subject to make any 
authoritative pronouncement. Suffice it to say, that the 
recognized division into "Old" and " New " Sect is quite 
inadequate. Indeed it is almost impossible to discover 
which of the numerous recent manifestations are in the 
" New Sect." One mystical sect interested me greatly. It 
is known as the Djheriya (or Djherinya). The leader lives 
in Kansu. His followers are found in Manchuria, Chihli, 
Shantung, Kiangsu, Kweichow, Yunnan and probably 
other provinces. Everywhere they are spoken of as the 
most despicable heretics by the more orthodox sects. I was 
always received with the utmost friendliness by them. In 
Peking one of their ahungs said to me in effect, " We are 
condemned as heretics, but we feel with you that if man is 
to come to God, there must be the MAN who will lead us 
to Him." Verily a vast departure from orthodoxy, and one 
not unfraught with promise ! 

Throughout Northern and Central China, I found 
tombs of Moslem saints, each one a center of pilgrimage, 
and each group of earnest pilgrims constituting another sect 
in potentiality, and sometimes in fact. These tombs from 
one point of view form a connecting link between com 
munities in different parts of the country, and at the same 
time embody and typify a schism in the camp of Islam a 
contradiction strange but easily understood. 
M odefn r l no impact of modern thought is producing 

Movements results, the tendency of which is to cause a 
breaking away from orthodox Chinese Moham 
medanism. In one center three brothers have all broken 
away from the faith of their fathers because they felt that 
Islam was unable to meet the demands of modern life. In 



84 CHINESE ISLAM AS AN ORGANISM 

another town two brothers have confessed their belief in 
Christianity and opened a school in which it is taught. 
Attempts have been made to meet the "tide of modern 
thought" by means of education and general literature, 
some of it definitely anti-Christian. But although in some 
centers notably in the northwest, schools of primary grade 
have been founded and are carried on with some success, 
attempts at higher education have failed completely, and in 
the case of such students as I have met, it seems rather the 
"race-consciousness" before mentioned, than any strong 
religious convictions, that holds them true to their religion. 
From what has been recorded of the General Forward 
Movement, it might be imagined to be a rather successful 
power, revivifying and reuniting the Mohammedanism of 
China. Without denying some truth in this view it should 
however be realized that in a large number of instances it 
has been a partial or complete failure. I have seen the 
name of the movement placed conspicuously over doors t>f 
mosques in which its activities had produced no results and 
had long since ceased. In one town was an ambitious 
notice of a bookroom opened under its auspices to which 
all were invited; on entering I found closed doors, thick 
dust, and broken windows, with no sign of books or papers 
or any living thing. 

In closing one cannot but make some ref- 
Evanpelization 

erence to the missionary attitude and respon 
sibility towards the whole question of the evangelization of 
Chinese Moslems. It was with not a little disappointment 
that I found an almost complete absence of sustained 
interest in this problem in all the centers visited, with a 
very few notable exceptions. Some of those whose names 
we had long connected wit!) sterling work done for our 
Moslem friends, had been called to Higher Service, and no 
one had stepped forward to fill the gap. Some have retired. 
Others were on furlough and will no doubt soon return. 
The reasons for the lack of active useful interest are not 
difficult to find. The claims of missionary work on any 
sincere man or woman are many and various, and this one 
form has many peculiar difficulties which tend to its neg 
lect. In some centers one found complete, one might 
almost say studied, indifference. One missionary in a 



EVANGELIZING MOSLEMS 85 

center where there were two or three thousand families of 
Mohammedans claimed that they were quite adequately 
reached by ordinary methods, such as are used for the 
heathen; in that center there were precisely two ex-Moslem 
Christians one of whom had boon converted elsewhere. 
Another missionary treated the whole idea of special work 
for Moslems with open contempt, as a freak fad that was 
unworthy serious consideration. Moreover much of the 
literature prepared by the Committee on Work for Moslems 
is lying idle, orders for it being limited to some half dozen 
persons. 

It surely should be unnecessary to have to urge upon 
those who are Heralds of the Gospel of Salvation the claims of 
some nine million souls, who constitute a widely scattered, 
largely united, distinctly anti-Christian force that is using 
every means within its power, from open persecution to 
boycott, to prevent its adherents from receiving the benefits 
of the Gospel; and that shows by its very divisions and 
failures that the time is ripe for an organized advance upon 
it by the Christian Church. 

I would venture to appeal most earnestly to all 
Christian readers to pray that the Church as a whole, and 
each one of us individually may realize our responsibility, 
and that effective methods may ho discovered and used, the 
result of which will be the liberation from the thraldom of 
Islam of many darkened souls. 



CHAPTER XII 

CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG CHINESE MOSLEMS 
Isaac Mason 

There are probably eight millions of 
Chinese Moslems scattered throughout the 
country, bat the efforts put forth to reach 
them with the Christian evangel are disappointingly few. 
The present writer has never heard of any work under 
taken by Roman Catholics for Moslems, and only about 
one in a thousand of the Protestant missionaries in China 
can be regarded as being set apart definitely for work 
among them. Probably not more than a dozen mis 
sionaries are giving serious attention to Moslems, whereas 
at least a hundred should be doing so, in view of the 
proportion of Mohammedans to the total population. 
Many missionaries come in contact with Moslems among 
the general population, and some distribute the special 
literature which has been prepared, and in other ways 
seek to influence them. 

In Kansu, medical and other work specially intended 
to benefit Moslems is undertaken, and a few missionaries 
in that province are studying the problems, and seeking to 
make contacts: but such work is still in the elementary 
stages. The death, during 1923, of Mr. M. E. Botham, lias 
removed a devoted and able missionary to Moslems, who is 
sorely missed. 

,, Mr. F. H. Rhodes has worked quietly and 

Greater Effort TI * i 

Needed steadily for many years, making contacts by 

correspondence, and by judicious intensive 
efforts for individuals, as well as in stimulating foreigners 
to more interest in the Moslems. Dr. S. M. Zwemer s 
visits to China a few years ago roused much interest, and 
a Committee on Work for Moslems was formed. This 
Committee has been instrumental in increasing the special 
literature for Moslems, but thus far it has not done much 
at the problem of evangelizing Islam s millions in China. 



WORKERS AND LITERATURE 87 

This problem, like many others, awaits a- rising tide of 
faith which shall bring in the workers and the funds 
necessary for an effort commensurate with the needs. 
Until the Churches, Chinese and foreign, awake to the 
responsibilities and the opportunities of the Moslem 
situation in China, the Committee appointed will find it 
difficult to do very much. Quite recently a travelling 
Secretary has been appointed, and it is hoped that a 
forward movement may soon be possible. There are many 
important centers where organized work should be under 
taken. The argument sometimes heard, that such work is 
hopeless, should not be allowed undue weight; it is being 
disproved in all Mohammedan lands, and also in China 
at times. No record exists as to the number of 
Moslems in this land who have become Christians, but 
such conversions do take place. We know at least two 
valued Christian pastors who were formerly Moslems. 
While it remains true that in China Mohammedans are 
more approachable and more friendly than in other 
countries, yet it is difficult for a Moslem to change his 
religion; the traditions of the past, and the strong 
influences of family and friends, make it hard to change 
openly, even where there has been conviction of the 
Truth. 

In Christian work for Moslems, the use of 
Literature . , , ,.. < , T 

suitable literature is 01 great importance. In 

China we are now, fortunately, in a better position than 
ever before in the matter of literature; there are no less 
than GO titles of Christian books and tracts which have; 
been prepared for believers in Islam. Many of these books 
pay no attention to the special terminology used by 
Moslems, but within the last few years a number of books 
have been prepared which use such terms, and more is 
contemplated along this line. The I>. and F. i>. S. has 
issued some attractive Gospels and other portions of 
Scripture in Chinese and Arabic. Most of the books 
available are very small ones, and there is need for 
larger works. The problem is how to get the literature 
into the hands of those for whom it is intended, and here 
cooperation of missionaries is urgently needed; thus far 
the requests for literature have been utterly inadequate. 



otf CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG CHINESE MOSLEMS 

A large number of Chinese Moslem men can read, and 
they are usually glad to have gifts of books, and when 
these are given with discretion, they may be of immense 
help in preparing the ground. But personal contact and 
friendship oiler the best hope of influencing our Moslem 
friends; arguments are of little use, and if they lead to 
disputes they are harmful. Love and forbearance, and 
patience and tact, are valuable at all times, and they are 
indispensable in all Christian work for Moslems. 



PART III 

THE CHURCH IN CHINA 
CHAPTER XIII 

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF THE CHRISTIAN 
MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION (I9U) 

Edwin Marx 

Within the limits of this article all that can be done 
with the subject is to summarize the results of study 
and present the salient conclusions. The sources of 
information have been books and periodicals dealing with 
the general history of the period; general missionary 
publications of the time; files of the China Mission Year 
Book, and of the Chinese Recorder; the Survey Volume 
(Christian Occupation of China), and records of the 
National Christian Conference; and, finally, correspond 
ence with Christian workers in various parts of China. 

The dark side of China s history since the inaugura 
tion of the republic is well known. Her problems, 
failures, shame and sorrows have been proclaimed to the 
world: ignorance, poverty, official corruption, social evils, 
militarism, lawlessness, internal strife and external pres 
sure; "to cap all, floods, famines, and plagues to add to 
the distress and perplexities of the people." No one can 
ignore or minimize these sinister facts. However, the 
forces of evil and havoc have been matched with con 
structive influences which, if not yet predominant, are 
making headway. There are unmistakeable signs of new 
life welling up, of now branches shooting out of the old 
stem. Space permits only to hint at a few; such as 
language reform, the literary movement, the feminist move 
ment, growth of the press (practically all since 1911), 
experiments in modern and better city government, rising 
self-consciousness of labor, growth of public opinion, 



90 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION 

development of education, creation of industries, extension 
of self government, growth of Chinese leadership, and a new 
intellectual awakening. The outcome of the efforts for im 
provement is not in douht if the forces of progress do not 
waver or weaken. The sky is dark enough, but it is streaked 
with light the light of dawn, not of sunset and one of 
the rays is the Christian movement in China. 1 

I. THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT" 

The Christian movement may be said to include all 
the forces and influences in any way contributing to 
propagate in this nation the life of God as revealed in Jesus 
Christ. In the beginning this had to be done through the 
efforts of foreign missionaries. These have been rein 
forced, ever since the first convert was won, by the 
increasing body of Christian Chinese. There are other 
influences assisting the progress of the Christian move 
ment, such as the general advancement of knowledge and 
communications with the west, although these latter 
influences have also their retarding effects. These various 
factors are in some ways separate, with distinct sets of 
problems and lines of progress. The foreign mission 
organizations, integral as their share has been in the 
Christian movement, are not the whole of the movement ; 
and in the ratio that their offices have been well performed 
they will bulk less and less in the future. The Christian 
Chinese community, " the Chinese Church, >J has come to 
self-consciousness and is destine 1 to develop more and more, 
until it can decisively dispense with its paedagogue, the 
foreign mission body. As yet, however, the Chinese Church, 
even should it be regarded as having arrived at full maturi 
ty, is not the whole of the Christian movement in China, 
and to assume that it is and act on that assumption would 
invite disaster. Christ s kingdom embraces many constitu 
ent parts and, axiomatically, is greater than any of them. 
The Christian movement lias not so nearly attained its 
final goal in this country, nor indeed in any country, that 
it can dispense with a single possible ally. Its spirit and 
fellowship should be as comprehensive as the heart of its 
Leader, who counted among his helpers all that were not 
against Him. 



NUMERICAL GROWTH 91 

II. PROGRESS. 

After the l)irth of the republic, it was widely asserted 
that tiie Christian movement did more than any other 
single force to prepare the way for the revolution and 
to make possible its successful consummation ; and 
reciprocally that the revolution brightened the prospects 
of the Christian movement." At the end of 1923 
Christianity was pronounced the most steadying factor 
and the most optimistic feature in the total situation in 
China. 4 Between these two points of time, lies more 
than a decade of steady achievement. The progress may 
be traced along the following lines. 

1. Numerical Growth. The number of communicants 
increased from 207,747 in 1913, to 366,000 in 1920, an 
average of more than 6% annually. At the same ratio, 
the number is now well above 400,000, thus doubling the 
membership since the beginning of the republic. Aside 
from members added to the Church, there has been a 
remarkable growth in reaching adherents. Sunday schools 
increased twice as fast as communicants, or about 12% 
annually from 1914 to 1920. From 1906 to 1920 
communicants increased 105^, students in Christian 
schools 832%. During the l:it two years the movement 
has established contacts of great potentiality with three 

special groups, (> students (noted in the World Student 

Christian Conference in Peking); laborers, through the 
interest of the church in industrial problems; and to a less 
extent with political leaders. 

2. Leadership. In 1913 the number of missionaries 
in China was approximately 5,565, T and in 1923 it was 
7,820,^ an average yearly increase of about \ l /c . During 
the war about 350 new missionaries a year entered China. 
This numerical growth has not yet stopped, though it is 
slowing down, due to the conviction that the need for 
rapid extension of foreign workers is past. In the future 
the numbers will be limited, with insistence on the 
highest standards of qualification and training. 1 The 
increase in Chinese workers has been amazing. In 1907 
the Chinese salaried workers outnumbered the foreign 
workers 2 to 1; in 1913, 3 to 1; and in 1922, the last 
figures we have, the ratio was 6 to 1. In seven years 



92 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION 

preceding the conference of 1922, while the missionary 
force increased 25%, the Chinese force increased 9")%. 
Evidence could be presented to show that these Chinese 
workers have developed in spiritual apprehension and in 
general ability to discharge their responsibilities, quite 
as truly as they have been augmented in numbers. 1 " 
" The reaction of the Christian teaching and experience 
on the Chinese gifts and character is producing men and 
women who stand beside any in the world". 11 

3. Domestication. 12 Each year has seen Christianity 
striking firmer roots into the Chinese soil and being 
recognized as a permanent addition to the landscape. It is 
no longer, as formerly, unknown or ignored. Among its 
known members are officials and gentry all over the 
country, and individuals of national prominence. The 
patriotism of Christians as such is not now impugned. 
The atmosphere of Christianity begins to permeate the 
nation, and in every phase of life is exerting influence out 
of all proportion to its small part in the total population. 
The Christian Church has an acknowledged position, and 
is now recognized as not antagonistic to Chinese life, 
thought, customs, ideals and interests. It has its 
adversaries, but the most active ones resist it not on the 
ground that it is alien, but because they are opposed to 
all religion. There are protests against its western dress, 
but not professedly against its essential message. 
Christianity may be said to have become domesticated 
in China. References are beginning to be made to 
"the four religions of China." One writer who is in a 
good position to know declares that the other religions 
are beginning to fear Christianity will usurp the place 
previously occupied by them. 13 In 1922 the center of 
gravity of the movement was shifted from the missions 
and foreign Christian workers to the churches and the 
Christian Chinese. 14 Christianity has obtained a strategic 
position in China. This does not mean that the movement 
has no further obstacles. It has ! But they are the 
impediments that Christianity meets everywhere, "the 
world, the flesh and the devil," . . . indifference, selfish 
ness, sin in its myriad forms, . . . rather than the 
hostility formerly directed against it as exotic. 



SPIRITUAL GROWTH 93 

4. Dtse.peiuny Spiritual Life. 1 * There is abundant 
testimony that those in China professing the Christian 
faith have secured a lirni grasp on its essential meaning, 
and have acquired a real personal experience of it. The 
message issued hy the Chinese at the Conference of 1922 
was characterized by "concentration on big essentials, 
deep reverence, strong facing of the larger issues of the 
time, and demand for unity and courage in handling 
them." The same witness who thus described the message 
said further: The hope of the church is not merely 
in the ability, nor even in the moral character of its 
leaders. It is in the fact that there are many people, 
often quite ordinary people, who have themselves come 
into a personal knowledge of God through Jesus Christ . . . 
Now T can say after spending a year and a half in fairly 
continuous travel here, that I have repeatedly met men 
and women who show the mark of such a personal 
experience. They are not copies, they are the real thing." 
The Christian experience with them is not merely a 
passive acceptance of teaching or emotion, but a strong 
desire is manifested for applying the principles of Christ 
to the problems of life: 111 for establishing schools, 
hospitals, Red-Cross work, famine and flood relief and 
prevention. True, their energy and strength in these lines 
may not seem great if measured by Western standards, 
but the stream of activity is taking the right direction, 
and its volume will increase. Christians have cooperated 
heartily in movements against opium, alcohol, lotteries, 
gambling, and commercialized vice. They have assisted 
to develop play grounds, reading rooms, hygenic lectures, 
and institutional and community churches. They have 
given support to creating and maintaining new moral 
standards in regard to the home, business, politics, 
international relations, in fact in every relation that 
touches the life of the people. " A new religious climate 
is being produced, a different religious atmosphere is 
being created, and this cannot be described in tables of 
figures." 

5. Cooperation and Unitjf. A study of " Progress of 
Church Union and Cooperation in China," based on a, study 
of the Survey Volume and reports of the five commissions 



94 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION 

to the National Christian Conference, 1922, was made and 
published a few months ago. 1 * The conclusion was summed 
up thus : 

To one who believes in Church Union, this study 
has brought disappointment. The conclusion of it 
may be put in one sentence thus : the last fifteen to 
twenty years in China show much progress in coopera 
tion on specific tasks, especially educational; less 
progress in more general Church cooperation ; and very 
little progress in real Church Union. Beside the 
China facts of achievement or its absence, as found in 
the Survey Volume, there are also hopes, longings, and 
purposes. These too enter into the present situation. 
Some have been put into deliberate and significant 
statement. This sort of material is found abundantly 
in the Commission Reports and elsewhere. It is 
valuable for our study, and it is hopeful for further 
progress." 

In addition to the above, three specific manifestations 
of growing unity may be pointed out. (a) The relations 
of the foreign missionaries with the Chinese Church during 
the period of the republic, involving as they have constant 
readjustments, increasing recognition of the Chinese 
churches with corresponding retirement of the missionaries 
from positions of control to positions of advisers and 
helpers; relations fraught with constant possibilities of 
friction and misunderstanding, due to international as well 
as local causes; . . . these relations have continued on the 
whole most fraternal and agreeable, and have every promise 
of so continuing. 10 (6) Nation-wide Christian surveys; 
and (c) the National Christian Conference, and establish 
ment of the National Christian Council. 20 During 1922 
four outstanding events focused the attention of the world 
on China, and all were manifestations of the unified 
Christian movement. They were the publication of the 
Survey Volume ; 2l the World Student Christian Federation 
Conference ; "~ the National Christian Conference; and the 
Survey of Christian Education " " by a special Commission 
representing "the Mission Boards and Societies conducting 
work in China. 3 



CHALLENGES 95 

III. PROBLEMS 

Encouraging as are all the lines of progress noted 
above, they are only the roads along which the Christian 
movement is traveling. It has not yet arrived at the 
terminus of any one of them, and at every step lurks the 
possibility of the road suddenly stopping or branching off 
into a devious by-way. 

Excellent as the numerical growth has been, it has yet 
to reach 999 out of every thousand of the population. 
Splendid as the response to the call for workers has been, 
yet over 90 % of the Survey correspondents testified that 
the inadequacy of the occupation of their fields is due to 
the insuflicient supply of Chinese workers. 1 1 There remain, 
vast unoccupied (even if officially "claimed") areas, and 
untouched masses of the people, including nearly all of the 
rural 80% of the population. 20 The Christian movement 
is confronted with gigantic challenges, which if not 
accepted and carried off victoriously wil] finally defeat 
or neutralize the movement. Some of these are challenges 
growing out of its own life needs: How to promote 
self-reliance, both financial and spiritual ; how to 
emphasize more adequately work by and for women; 20 
how to develop a. Christian literature that is of, by and 
for the Chinese people;" how to deepen the spiritual 
life of the Christian community, . . . that is, how to 
promote stewardship, Bible and other devotional reading, 
and in fact to evolve to a higher level the whole system 
of religious nurture that shall produce all the fruits of 
the Spirit, all the virtues and graces of Christian character. 
Other challenges to the movement grow out of the needs of 
the society of which it is part. It should engage as in a life 
and death struggle to help Chinese society meet the 
possibilities and dangers connected with the new industrial 
development ; 2s to deal with the complicated problems 
arising from the changing family life,"" as well as from 
the passing of some ethical standards and the coming 
of others; 3 " to combat the menace; of vice and drug"" 
traflics and the socialized cancers, such as gambling, 
bribery, polygamy and concubinage, that gnaw at the 
vitals of the nation. 



96 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION 

However, it is not these challenges that most threaten 
the movement. The direction of duty with respect to them 
is fairly clear, and the whole movement can proceed in 
that direction unitedly, even if through toil and sweat, 
fire or ilood. They appear as heroic tasks to be 
accomplished, where the whole force can apply itself 
with single purpose, and where failure or adversity 
encountered together does not weaken but strengthens the 
etprit de corps. The more critical situations arise where 
the way of duty or expedience is not clear; the consequence 
of which may be division of counsel, confusion of practise, 
or even deflection of the entire movement into a wrong 
course. The most conspicuous examples of this type now 
before the Christian movement, and the crux of each 
appear to be as stated below. Some would add to the list 
the relations between Chinese arid foreign workers. But 
that matter seems to have taken care of itself fairly well 
hitherto, as indicated before ; and we see no good reason 
for anticipating a different trend. It is one of the lines to 
progress to be maintained. 

1. Influence of the New National Spirit. 1 " It is 
inevitable and certainly proper and desirable that the 
appearance of better internal conditions and signs of 
progress should arouse in the Chinese people ever growing 
pride in their civilization and all things pertaining thereto. 
The process is now going on. The point to safeguard is: 
will the Christian movement in the face of the rising 
tide of nationalism maintain its catholic spirit and its 
universal outlook? China can from her spiritual heritage 
and genius make a noble contribution to the interpretation 
of the Christian religion, by which the Church universal 
will be enriched. But this will hardly be done if the 
spirit of nationalism should beget a narrow and proprietary 
attitude toward the Christian Church within her borders. 
The world is surfeited with "national" religions. The 
present age cries for faiths and attitudes that transcend 
national boundaries. The assumption that the gospel 
or any part of it belongs to any group less than 
universal . . . whether a, denomination, a nation, a race 
or a hemisphere ... to do with as it lists is a pernicious 
fallacy. The need of our time is not for more adjectives 



NATURALIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY 97 

to qualify the noun Christian, but for the adjective 
Christian to be prefixed to more nouns ; not Chinese 
Christians, but Christian Chinese. The Christian move 
ment must take possession of the nation, not the notion 
take possession of the movement. The appeal to the 
Christians of China is not to emulate the nations of the 
West, much less to retaliate upon them, but to excel them 
in this respect. 

2. The Naturalization of Christianity in China. 34 By this 
is meant the assimilation of Christianity by Chinese life 
and thought; "a Christianity that has possession of the 
Chinese spirit and expresses itself in Chinese fashion ; ; 
"an interpretation of Christianity by the people of the 
country through statements of doctrine, through ceremonial 
forms through architecture and music, which are the result 
of their own experience rather than taught them by the 
leaders from the West." If any foreigner questions the 
right or the need of such interpretation, he should go to a 
denomination other than his own and see how congenial IK; 
finds it. Will Greek and Roman Catholic, or Catholic and 
Protestant, or within the latter lines Baptist and Anglican, 
interchangeably declare each other s forms and statements 
sufficiently satisfying? If the Westerner himself will not 
bear these different yokes manufactured by other men of 
his own racial stock, and in some cases of his own nationality, 
how can he expect the Chinese (with natural temperament 
and spiritual inheritance more widely divergent from the 
West than those Western groups are from each other, 
assuming that such is the case), to be satisfied with the 
Western interpretations? " An interpretation of Christianity 
by the people of the country " there should be and must 
be. Yet, this is fraught with hazard to the Christian 
movement. It is one of China s boasts that she is a sea 
which salts every stream flowing into it. Will this Life- 
giving Stream perhaps be transformed into a polluted and 
stagnant marsh, even as it has some times in the West? 
Or, to change the comparison : many Chinese express the 
wish, quite legitimately, to free the Christ from his Western 
garb, and present him in apparel more appropriate for 
China. If they will do this and leave him clothed only in 
His own simple, seamless robe, fit for every age and clime, 



98 CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT SINCE THE REVOLUTION 

the whole world will acclaim the achievement with reverent 
gratitude. Cannot China here again excel the West, and 
after relieving Jesus of his Western regalia, spare Him the 
ordeal of being tricked out in mandarin garments ? 

8. Too much emphasis on the intellectual expression and 
the institutional features of Christianity, rather than on the 
creation of new life in the believers. Christianity is primarily 
a way of life. Life, at least as we know it on this planet, 
does not function apart from concrete embodiment ; hence 
some form of institution is indispensable. But life is ever 
greater than scientific statements about it, or the vessel 
which contains it, and the latter must never usurp the sole 
nor the primary place of solicitude. But to do and to say 
is so much easier than to be; and it is so much easier 
for " leadership ; to perform in the realm of organization 
that is, by ruling or directing than in the sphere of humble 
service and spiritual attainment ! Perhaps this is precisely 
a point at which the East will make one of its most 
helpful contributions in the interpretation of Christianity 
to the world. 

REFERENCES 

NCC : The Chinese Church, 1922, National Christian Council. 

IRM : International Review of Missions. 

YB : China Mission Year Book. 

CR : Chinese Recorder. 

FMC : .Foreign Missions Conference of North America Report. 

(1) For general situation, see: NCC 101-173: YE 1912-192- ] inclu 
sive ; IRM Jan. 1922, 3-29 ; CR Dec. 1923, 701-708 ; Jan. 1924, 1-8. 
For Renaissance, New China: NCC 156-101; CR Aut?. 1923, all; 
Apr. 1921, 257-267; May 1921, 303-323. 

(2) The Christian Movement: NCC 30-38; 177-242; G75-683; FMC 
1923, 200-210; CR Sept. 1923, 603-510; Oct. 1920, 704-709; Dec. 
1920, 851-S56 ; Jan. 1920, 9-12. 

(3) V~B 1912, 96-112. (4) CR Nov. 1923, 633 and 698. 
(5) NCC 144-147. () CR Jan. 1923, 4-5. 

(7) YB 1916, 1. (8) (9) CR Sept. 1923,505. 

(10) NCC 179, 220. (11) CR Jan 1923, 35. 

(12) YB 1912, 25; 1913, 40 and 116-136; 1915, 31-35; 1923, 12-17, and 
66-69; NCC 134, 6u3 ; CR Jan. Iu21, 6; Jan. 1923, 3; IRM Jan. 
1922, 13; CR Dec. 1923, 708. 

(13) CR Nov. 1923, 673. (14) CR Jan. 1923, 8. 

(15) CR Jan. 1923, 7; NCC 138-142. 

(16) CR Jan. 1923, 35; Dec. 1923, 708; YB 1912, 25; IRM Jan. 1922, 
22. NCC 146. 

(17) IRM Jan. 1922, 16. (18) CR Sept. 1923, 511-520. 
(19) YB 1915, 33; IRM Jan. 1922, 24-25. 



NATURALIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY 99 

(20) NCC, contents; YB 1923, 51-65; on Nat. Chr. Conn, espec. 
NCC 08574. 

(21) NCC 41-77, esp. 04; YB 192;-}, 34-41. 

(22) YB 1923, 315-317. 

(23) YB 1923, 155-165; NCC 05; "Christian Education in China," 
Eeport. 

(24) NCC 221. 

(25) OR Oct. 1920, 696-700; Feb. 1923, 100-102: Apr. 1923, 231-232; 
NCC 300-365. 

(20) NCC 137; YB 1915, 33; NCC 240-242. 

(27) NCC 411-401; CR Dec. 1923, 713-718; China Bookman, Dec. 

1923, 3-10. 

(28) NCC 323-339, 401-471; YB 1923, 18-29, 225-23o ; CR Dec. 1923, 
737-739. CR Dec. 1920, 820-837. 

(29) CR Aug. 1923, 439; Sept. 1923, 504; Dec. 1923, 709-712; Jan. 

1924, 24-27. 

(30) NCC 339-340; 472-479; YB 1923, 260-270; CR Aug. 19:20, 
524-525; CR Nov. 1923, 031; Jan. 1921, 3-4. 

(31) YB 1923, 230-241. (32) YB 1923, 210-224. 

(33) CR Jan. 1921, 4-7; July 1923, 391-390; Aug. 1928, 450-459; 

Nov. 1923,084-036; FMC 1919, 188-212; 1922, S8-141. 
(84) NCC 246-251, 495-534, 6(54-674 ; CR Sept. 1920, 028-0 -;0; 030-639; 

Nov. 1920, 768-772; Dec. 1920, 817-618; Aug. 1923, 443-444, 

445-440; Dec. 1923, 705-707; Jan. 1924, 88-39, 57-58. YB 1915, 

34 ; 1923, 56-57. 



CHAPTER XIV 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE 
CHURCH LIFE 

I. West China. 

In the province of Szechwan itself probably 

Szechwan ^ most important movement within the 

Christian ~. . , 

Council Chinese churches during the past year was 

the organization of the Szechwan Christian 
Council. Since 1913 there has been an Advisory Council 
of the churches corresponding in a general way to the 
West China Mission Advisory Board. During the past 
year it has been reorganized as the Szechwan Christian 
Council with headquarters in Chengtu. 

The objective of the S. C. C. is to develop methods of 
evangelism, to promote a spirit of cooperation and to 
foster friendly relations between the churches. It is 
composed of six representatives from each of the partici 
pating churches, two each from the Y. M. C. A. and the 
Y. W. C. A., one from the Bible Societies, three from 
the Union University and two from the Educational 
Union. All of the churches represented in the Advisory 
Board, except one, are at present represented in this body. 
The work of the former Province-wide Evangelistic- 
Committee was merged into the Evangelistic department 
of the S. C. C. 

In harmony with a recommendation of the 
r? *l a S. C. C. that where two or more Missions are 

Councils at work in one city, local union Councils be 

formed, Kiating and Chengtu have fallen 
in line and organized city Christian Councils. 

Special Evangelistic campaigns have been 
Camjfains conducted during the year in a number 

of cities. The immediate results of these 
campaigns, conducted under the leadership of the Secretary 
of Evangelism, Rev. H. J. Openshaw, testify to their 



SIX RELIGION SOCIKTY 101 

intrinsic value, but from the standpoint of the develop 
ment of Chinese leadership they have a particularly 
important significance. Each church represented on the 
S. C. C. releases one of its strongest Chinese preachers for 
a period of two months in the year to accompany the 
Secretary on his campaigns, visiting as a rule cities 
outside the sphere of the church to which the Chinese 
preacher in question belongs. Thus, under the most 
favorable conditions of association and work, a great 
interdenominational brotherhood of leaders is, we hope, 
developing. 

One activity of the Chinese church, along 
financial lines, as evidenced in at least three 
of the churches, is seen in the establishment 
of endowment societies for the purpose of furthering 
self-support. These societies are being organized for the 
support of hospital, educational and evangelistic work; 
in some oases quite large sums being raised. While some 
might question the spiritual value of the method, others- 
point to it as an outstanding development of the year. 

S/echwan is not true to herself if not 
Movements initiating something. During the year the 
new \\orld Religion or Six Religion 
Society sprang up and through its drastic prophetic 
messages soon spread its influence through all China. 
Coming out as it did from the very midst of the Christian 
churches and accompanied by distracting political 
conditions, it profoundly influenced the thinking of the 
Christian groups throughout West China. That it weakened 
the faith of many goes without saying but on the whole 
the final effect was probably beneficial. It compelled the 
Christians to think, to put out tracts, to oppose something 
definite, and in church pulpit and street chapel to define 
both to themselves and the non-Christians, their real 
conception of Christianity. 

Independence . ^ ns , are 11( ? t Anting here and there of 
independent churches springing up around 
strong Chinese leaders who for one reason or another 
think that Christianity should not center round the 
* missionary type of church alone. These apparently weak 



102 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESS CHURCH LIFE 

beginnings of indigenous Christianity may eventually 
prove to be the most important of all developments. 

.. . While the contributions of the West China 

Home Missions , , , , . . - 

churches to the missionary work 01 the 

Chinese church in Yunnan are probably small, denomina 
tional missionary developments are not lacking. The 
West China Baptist Chinese Convention has opened up 
work among the aborigines to the South. Chinese 
missionaries have been sent in, the task surveyed, funds 
collected and preparations made for the full establishment 
of the work during the coming year. The Home 
Missionary Society of the church in connection with the 
Canadian Methodist Mission has added two women 
(Chinese) missionaries to the staff already at work among 
the hill tribes to the west and has purchased a 
valuable property at Wei Chiu looking to expansion in that 
direction. 

Union While efforts are still being made in some 

directions to foster the spirit of unity, 
and while the standard of inter-recognition of church 
membership between the churches is still in general being 
maintained, it would, nevertheless, be difficult to point 
to any new and specific development among the churches 
(or Missions) which might be interpreted as taking 
seriously the 1908 proposal of " One Protestant Christian 
Church for West China." 

The Student Volunteer Movement within 

Vofuntler the sfcnc ? ent bo(1 y of the West China Union 

Movement University has shown special activity during 

the year. This was largely the result of 
sending three delegates to the National Conference at 
Ruling, 1922. There are about thirty members and they 
publish a Quarterly. The movement as such has 
unfortunately as yet no direct connection with the Chinese 
churches, though efforts have been made by the Christian 
Council towards linking them together. 
g. I! - Reporting for the Province of Szechwan 

only we find a total of 17,497 communicant 
members. In 1920 the total was 12,954, which allows 
for an increase of about 35 % in three years. During 1922 
the increase was 1,200, over 900 of which was within the 



CONDITIONS IN S/ECHUAN 103 

work of the Eastern section of the China Inland Mission; 
the balance of the 300 increase was divided among four 
churches, two societies reporting a decrease. In 1920 
there were 30 ordained Chinese pastors; there are now 
45, an increase of about 50% in three years. 

School for A Sch o1 for tlie Blind in West Chil h{ls 

the BUndT been on the program of Union activities for 
over ten years. Finally the American Baptist 
friends have undertaken the task and are running a 
school with an enrollment of 12 students in connection 
with their Social Service Club. It is opened to serve as 
far as possible the other churches in caring for this 
needy class. 

r .... As illustrating the conditions which 

Conditions . . 

handicapped campaign work and work in 

general during the year we might quote from a report 
in the \Vest China News of the Union meetings at Chinese 
New Year in Chengtu. "The day after the meetings began 
the city was attacked and the city gates closed. More 
than one address was given to the accompaniment of 
machine gun and rifle bullets, while an occasional shell 
thrown into the city added variety. . . . "Under such 
circumstance? to gather from 250 to 400 Christians 
together from all parts of the city every morning and 
hold a meeting for outsiders with an attendance ranging 
from 300 to 000 every afternoon is an achievement for 
which we may thank God and take courage. Could 
it be done by any other organization except the Christian 
church?" 

R. O. JOLIFFE 

II. EAST CENTRAL CHINA 

p Most of the churches in East Central China 

report favorable progress during 1923. There 
has been increased openness to the Christian appeal on the 
part of the people at large, and if there has been any anti- 
Christian propaganda it has been limited to the intellectuals 
and has not infrequently proved a spur to the Christian 
movement. This has proved the case in several government 
schools. The churches have kept well at their tasks, with 



104 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

only a set-back here and there. North of the river and in 
parts of Chekiang, the churches have suffered with the 
common people from bandit raids but East Central China 
has, on the whole, suffered the least in such matters. 

In Christian work it is still impossible to consider the 
work and life of the Chinese Church apart from the activities 
of the western workers. Except for various unrelated units 
the work is still done by the combined efforts of both 
Chinese and westerners. Some of the recent features of the 
church life in this section of China may be summarized as 
follows : 

There is a movement towards the institutional or 
Church" 11 " community " church. Attempts of all kinds 

are being made to relate the church life to 
certain needs of the community and in the larger cities such 
as Nanking, Soochow and Shanghai institutional churches 
have been erected in which the busiest time of day is the 
period between four in the afternoon and ten at night. 
Surveys and investigations, industrial work, community- 
centers, night classes, health campaigns, clubs for young 
men and women, dispensary work, vacation schools, 
these and other activities are the order of the day. A new 
type of church worker is asked for, one trained not to hold 
preaching-hall meetings but to carry on social welfare 
work. Noted visitors from abroad have come to investigate 
the social conditions in Shanghai and other industrial 
centers of China, and mass meetings have been held to 
promote movements against evil factory and living condi 
tions. Child-labor has been abolished in some factories as 
a result of the movement and other good results have been 
effected. During the summer a spirited conference on the 
"community church" was held in Shanghai and only 
the community church w r as held to be the " live " church. 
Self-Support Special efforts have been made to maintain the 

work of the church with Chinese money. Several 
localities report churches erected entirely from funds raised 
by the Chinese Christians. Education in Christian steward 
ship has been promoted systematically in various missions 
and brought good results. Some attempts have been made 
to raise money through industrial ventures not always. 
with success. Church schools still prosper and often bring 



INDIGENOUS CHURCH 105 

in enough money to maintain the work of the church. 
Self-support on the part of the mass of churches is 
still very far off and can only come when the Chinese 
people see the real value and importance of the Christian 
church. Progress is, however, being made. 

The churches are giving attention to elementary 
, . m , , /j \ , 

education. This has two aspects: (1) the 

churches are working towards literacy among women. The 
phonetic has been used with success, especially in some 
country stations, but during the latter part of the year the 
popular movement towards learning at least one thousand 
of the most used Chinese characters seems to have supplanted 
the interest in phonetics in the larger cities. Nearly all 
the churches report attempts to teach illiterate women and 
children. (2) Attention is being given to the primary 
schools and efforts are being made to train up a better class 
of teacher and to organize and supervise the work. The 
higher educational centers are giving courses in the training 
and supervising of teachers and by the help of the East 
China Christian Educational Association a standard is being 
generally recognized for such primary school work. 

The younger Chinese workers are talking much 
indigenous 7 , . L <t . 7 - 7 7 . , rr , ,-, 

Church about the indigenous church. lo some this 

has meant a desire for complete control of the 
church life by Chinese and a growing impatience with 
the western workers. To others it has meant the quiet 
acceptance of the responsibilities of church government and 
gospel propagation. The prominence of young Chinese in 
positions of leadership is noteworthy, as for instance, on 
the National Christian Council, on church boards and 
committees, in mission hospitals and in the general work 
of the church. The word "indigenous" is being used 
without clear definition. The more scholarly are pondering 
what the contribution of the Chinese mind and civilization 
to the Christian Church of the Ages really is or could be, 
but up to the present it may safely be said that no real 
contribution has been offered either to credal statement or 
to church polity. Some compromises in thought with 
Buddhism have been indulged in, but this seems to be 
regress rather than progress. 



106 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

,,,. , The foreign workers are pondering more than 

ever their real contribution to the work in China 
and their relation to the growing native church. Many are 
making special effort to pass responsibilities over to the 
Chinese. Others have gone on about as before, but realiz 
ing more than ever that their aim must be to decrease 
while the native control increases. 

~ .. Increased willingness to cooperate with others is 

Cooperation 1 . . 

expressed by most churches. In Nanking a 
city Church Council has been organized for some years, but 
in Hangchow for the first time an effective organization of 
all the Christian activities in the city has been brought 
about. The churches express sympathy with the National 
Christian Council and welcome suggestions from it. The 
earthquake in Japan gave an excellent opportunity to 
the Chinese churches to show their brotherly spirit to the 
Japanese churches and the response was very satisfactory. 

W. P. ROBERTS 
III. NORTH CHINA 



F f om ^ e year ^^ should go down in the 

Disturbances records as one remarkably free from the dis 
turbances which have hindered the work of 
preaching the Gospel for the last few years. The regular 
staff has not been turned aside from their preaching duties 
to serve tables on account of famine or flood, and the people 
have enough to eat as their harvest was a good one. Neither 
has there been any fighting on a large scale between the 
armies of the Chihli and Manchurian parties. These two 
things alone are a source of great thanksgiving, for the 
poor people no matter wha tmay come in the future have 
had a chance to recuperate from past devastations. Because 
of the splendid work that was done in famine relief and in 
establishing safety zones after the war, and the way in 
which the work was carried on, the reputation of the 
church has been greatly enhanced among all classes, and 
the thinking public have come to realize more nearly what 
the purpose of the church is. It is not the old despised 
foreign institution. It is not the servant of the foreign 
governments that compelled obedience to its wishes with a 



GREAT NEED OF CHURCH 107 

threat of foreign intervention as was the idea after 1900, 
but it is an organ that is trying to help the best interests 
of the people in every walk of life. 

While there have been no great wars, the country has 
been sadly afflicted with bandits and marauding soldiers, 
and in this general desolation which exists nearly all over 
China, with the exception of the province of Shansi, the 
church has been very seldom molested. There have been 
cases where missionaries and pastors have been carried off 
for ransom, but they are very few considering the fearful 
unrest. 

There has come during the last year in all 
Needs * ^ ^ 1C c hurches a realization of the fact that 

the great need of the church in North China 
is a spiritual uplift. The fearful competition, in business, 
the absolute loss of all ideals in politics and the craving for 
amusement that has spread all over the country has 
threatened to engulf the spiritual life of the new church in 
China, and there is a realization on all sides that these 
tides must be stemmed. The only hope of China is in the 
living, vital, Christ-filled church. The organization of a 
few foreigners or Chinese when not led by the Master him 
self is absolutely useless and will not aid in any way in 
stemming the present downward tendency. How is the 
spiritual life to be deepened ? The answer is not far to 
seek. The missionaries and pastors must be willing to pay 
the price. It will not be brought about through committees 
nor campaigns, but only through agonizing prayer on the 
part of individuals and groups of individuals who will carry 
their newly acquired strength out into the larger life of the 
church. The living Christ is as willing to give his spirit 
to the church now as at any time in the past, and His power 
is sufficient for all even in the most trying circumstances 
of modern life, if we as a church are only willing to seek 
that power and to live the life He would have us live. There 
is need not so much for great campaigns as for intensive 
work among the present membership of the churches thai 
they may understand their relation to God and their 
responsibilities as Christians to their families and their 
neighbors and go out to fulfill those responsibilities. 
The new tendency to give more of the administrative work 



108 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

over to the Chinese will release some missionaries we hope, 
so they can devote all their time to developing the spiritual 
life in the church. 

In the days gone by when there was so 
much objection to Christianity the question 
of bringing people into the church for false 
motives was one not to be thought of among the better 
classes. But now there is a certain prestige about being a 
Christian in many quarters, and men will join the church 
who can pass any examination on the Bible that is set up 
for them, and still lack entirely the essence of Christianity. 
They can read and pray and sing, but do not know Christ, 
and after all that is the great demand for the Church at the 
present time. A new emphasis must be placed on the 
efforts of the church. The old churches which have been 
built simply to serve as meeting places once a week must 
be adapted to the present needs of the people or must be 
rebuilt so they can be open every day in the week to serve 
the people in a variety of ways. Following the example of 
the Salvation Army several large and well-built modern 
churches have been placed on some of the great streets 
of the city of Peking during the last year, and it will be 
interesting to see whether these modern buildings, adapted 
for a great variety of work, will be successful in developing 
a real living and working church more rapidly than the old 
type of building. They do attract a new class of listeners, 
and the fact that some of the leading officials in our great 
towns are now actively Christian is having a very marked 
effect on the feeling toward the church. We need to pray 
most earnestly that all of the men who have become 
Christians shall dare to show their colors on all 
occasions. 

The institutional church has come to stay and is 
proving its popularity and success. Whether we have 
lectures on health or general subjects, or organize the 
members for work among the poor, or in clubs for boys and 
girls, they are well attended and there are sufficient people 
who are willing to help if they are properly directed. But 
there certainly is a need of highly trained Chinese and 
foreign specialists along this line. 



PREACHERS AND SELF-SUPPORT 109 

I o{ The supply of preachers in North China is 

Preachers ^ ar ^ rom adequate. Although one of the 
leading theological seminaries has raised the 
standard to that of middle school graduates, even these 
men while they are able to cope with the situation in many 
country towns and villages will not be able to meet the 
situation in the cities, and there are not nearly enough of 
them to supply the demands. For the day has gone forever 
when a common servant or man with a lower primary 
school education can be trained in a few T months to actually 
lead the people in spiritual things. The larger posts in the 
cities must be filled by the university theological school 
men. But how the four or live men who graduate each 
year can supply all of the present demands it is impossible 
to see. This problem needs the most earnest thought and 
prayer by all the workers in this area. There are countless 
opportunities everywhere, but the responsibility has shifted 
from the missionary to the young Chinese leaders. Will 
these young men who are graduating from our universities 
hear the call of the Lord Jesus to help their countrymen 
and will they be willing to pay the price of serving churches 
with rather difficult boards of deacons or stewards, or, when 
the situation becomes tense will they resign and satisfy 
their consciences with the fact that they have been driven 
from the hard work of the church to the more remunerative 
employment outside, by the church members themselves? 

~ H The matter of self-support is one that must 

Salt-support , , .. . , . . 

l>e solved. \\ bile the people are giving large 

sums of money for educational and medical work, they are 
not contributing like sums to the support of the church. 
On the other hand we are demanding a better class of 
pastor and he must be paid a very much higher wage as 
the necessities of life have increased at least 100^ during 
the last six years. It is evident that while the people are 
getting under the educational and medical burden, they 
have not yet seen the vision of the self-supporting church 
as they should. Whether we would all turn to a voluntary 
ministry is a question that has been seriously discussed and 
has been tried out by some of the larger churches. What 
the result will be after a period of eight or ten years we are 
all earnestly waiting to see. 



110 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

There seems to be an earnest determination that church 
members shall be better educated. Some of the large 
churches are insisting that all the membership shall be 
trained to read and write. In the city this is not a hard 
thing to bring about, but in the country if it were not for 
the new Chu Yin Tzu Mu it would be absolutely impossible. 
We find everywhere men and women who were absolutely 
hopeless as far as education was concerned now being able 
to read the Gospels without difficulty. But still the demand 
for the regular Chinese characters is very apparent and all 
who are able to learn it prefer the regular characters. 

cif A w The special student work department in 

connection with the churches and the 
Y. M. 0. A. in Peking has had another successful year, and 
has proved beyond doubt that this is the best way to solve 
the student work. One building has recently been erected 
especially for the work near the Higher Normal School, and 
the young men from that institution are taking a great 
interest in Bible Class work and other departments. It 
will be of interest to see this year when they have so much 
leisure on account of the failure of the government schools 
to run full time, if they will make the most of this oppor 
tunity to study the Christian life and to do Christian work. 
Up to the present time very few Christian workers have- 
come from the government schools, but with the opportunity 
of working in the church from the time they first enter the 
government schools until they leave, there should be an 
entire change in this respect. The missions should be able 
to appoint a few able, consecrated men to so impress the 
young life of the government that they will be willing to 
devote their lives to this work as willingly as young men 
and women from the state universities of America. 

On all sides the members and students are reading and 
studying as never before. There is a great demand for 
books, books on philosophy and books on the modern 
situation. The Renaissance movement has certainly 
aroused an interest not only in Christianity but in all of 
the older religions of China, and it is probably true that 
the higher classes of China are studying Buddhism at the 
present time as never before. This is a fair challenge to 



DISTURBANCES 111 

Christianity to enter the field with the best of modern 
literature and prove its worth. While the average 
missionary has not the time nor ability to prepare such 
books, the church must face these facts and the books must 
be prepared. 

GEORGE L. DAVIS. 

IV. FUKII-N 

The territory covered by this report is the northern 
part of Fukien province. 

Disturbances Every district sees its work with a back 
ground of bandits and soldiers, plunder and 
war. One writes; "This year there has been almost 
constant requisition of load men, so that there has been 
very little traffic of any kind. Official demands for money 
have also been a great burden to the people. It is hard 
to picture the misery of the poor people. During July 
there was an unexpected outbreak of hostilities. Three 
battles took place in or near Yungan city. A number of 
people were killed and a section of the city burnt down. 
Looting was common. The loss suffered through tiro and 
looting amounted to about 6200,000. Eight times in two 
weeks the people had to make heavy payments to the 
soldiers. The suffering was terrible. Some men were 
compelled to sell their wives; others their children to 
meet thc.se extortions, while others committed suicide. 
The suffering caused by the soldiers has fully equalled 
that caused by the bandits. The past year has been the 
worst since the beginning of the Republic." 

In spite of the above, in several places 
Evangelism special evangelistic meetings have been held. 
Sometimes a campaign with carefully planned 
program, speakers and personal workers, as at Yenping 
and Futsing. In one place " over ninety men and one 
hundred and lifty women signed their names thus 
expressing their desire to learn more about Christianity." 
In another place over 10,000 heard the Gospel. 

In other places the church leaders from several 
churches have gathered two or more times during the year 



112 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

with each church in turn, and thus the whole district 
has been covered more than once during the year. This 
method has been used in Diong Loh. 

In other places, notably Ing Tai, students have been 
used during the summer vacation to go into new villages. 
As a result at least ten large centers are calling in this 
one field for Christian workers, and they are offering to 
bear a large part of the expense if only the Christian 
workers can be found. 

On Easter or on Christmas in Kienning and in 
Foochow the Christians have had a procession. At Easter 
they visited the graves and held family services. They 
distributed leaflets telling about the resurrection. At 
Christmas leaflets about Christmas were distributed. As 
the procession passed a Christian s house or a church, 
firecrackers announced the fact. 

New Building In ^ spite of the looting, burning and 
extortion, several centers report unprecented 
advance in the building of churches, schools and social 
centers. The C. M. S. of Hing Hua reports; " In material 
things there is more progress than in any time I can 
think of. Several churches are being built." The money 
has come almost entirely from the Chinese. Kutien 
reports: In three centers large new churches have 
been erected. In each case the enterprise was initiated 
by the local Chinese church members ; all the funds were 
raised by them with no help whatever from the Missionary 
Societies, and very little from any foreign sources at all. 
The Chinese church members are beginning to take a 
share in the educational burden. In two centers they 
have built boarding schools for Higher Primary grade 
pupils, and are making themselves responsible for a greater 
part of the running expenses of these two new schools. 
"Much the same could be written of the Ing Tai field 
and of the Funing field. Yenping reports ten new 
churches, and other places less numbers. The material 
growth in church buildings and buildings for schools, 
hospitals and social centers is very gratifying. Is the 
spiritual growth keeping pace? One writer says; " I should 
say that real solid, spiritual work has been at a discount. 



DEVOLUTION 113. 

That is, there is no large number coining on for baptism 
or confirmation. Congregations of ordinary folk are 
smaller than usual, and the spiritual atmosphere seems, 
lacking in power." I have watched the great expansion 
in land purchasing and in building by the missions here 
in north Fukien for the past decade with intense interest, 
and the spiritual is not keeping pace with the material. 
Is this inevitable? The reasons for the great increase in 
building this past year are (l) more contributions from 
the Chinese, (2) the lessened influence of the world war. 

Devolution ^ speak of increased responsibility 

assumed by the Chinese in the departments 
of finance and administration and in a general interest 
in the success of Christianity in China. The younger 
workers are definitely more willing to think in wider 
terms than the older and are more willing to take risks. 
They can picture the conception of a Chinese church in 
a wny the older men don t wish to." From lack of men 
and money "the mission has had perforce to withdraw 
a good deal; the Chinese church rose to the occasion ; she 
has not suffered at all ; on the contrary, with the necessity 
of discovering her own powers and relying on her own 
resources, she lias developed in a very marked degree." 

Moral Welfare The . Moral Welfare Association, an 
undertaking in which all the missions in 
Foochow co-operate, has for the first time engaged a full 
time Organizing Secretary, the Rev. Hu Ing-huang, a 
Methodist pastor. He began his work on Jan. 1st, and 
has been fully engaged ever since. He attended and spoke 
at the Preacher s Conference at Amoy, and afterwards 
visited among other places, the districts of Futsing 
Hinghua, Funing, Ningteh, Loyuan and Lienkong and 
branches of the Moral Welfare Association have been 
started in each of these centers. In most cases the 
co-operation, of the local gentry has been secured. 

The membership campaign of the Foochow Association 
resulted in the enrollment of some two thousand members, 
and the program against gambling, sexual vice, opium, 
wine and cigarettes was brought before the whole city. 
The Foochow press was most cordial in its help. 



114 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

O ium The whole region has felt the insistence 

of the militarists to tax opium and to force 
the planting of the poppy. In one place the church 
leaders met on Saturday evening in special session and 
decided to try and stop the planting of the seed which had 
been distributed. Sunday morning an official proclamation 
was issued to the effect that the seed need not be planted. 
Not all places are as brave. 

* it The first missionaries of the Methodist 

ivietnocnst ^-, , A ^ ,, .,.,. , , 

Jubilee Church ^orth arrived in China and began 

work in Foochow September 1847. Their 
Jubilee was held in November 1928. Delegates were 
present from every one of the China Methodist Conferences 
and from Korea, Japan and America. Dr. H. H. Lowry 
of Peking was present. He came first to Foochow in the 
early days of mission work and went soon to help open 
the new station in Peking. His life in China almost 
covers the history of Methodism in China. 

Church Union ^ le Congregational churches in Foochow 
and in Shaowu have voted to become integral 
parts of the new church union, The CHURCH OF CHRIST 
IN CHINA. Last November and December the Foochow 
and Amoy branches of that church exchanged fraternal 
delegates for their Annual Conferences. 

WILLARD L. BEARD. 

V. SOUTH CHINA 

Our subject assumes that there is development. This 
development is understood as progressive. It should also 
be noted that we are discussing, not individual Christian 
life, but the corporate life of the Chinese Christian 
Church. 



Self-conscious- o ^ conspicious and also the most 

ness important development of the Chinese Church 

life is a CONSCIOUSNESS THAT THE 
CHURCH IS CHINESE. With this consciousness there 
is a certain amount of self-assertion as the Christians 
begin to realize that the Church is their very own. This 
is, of course, a sign of a healthy growth and should be 



INDIGENOUS CHURCH 115 

encouraged in every way. Tt is not in opposition in any 
way to those who planted the Church. On the contrary, 
those coming here from foreign lands are heartily welcomed 
as fellow workers when and if they work for the 
upbuilding of the Chinese Church not the transplanting 
of the Church from the West. It is the feeling of a son in 
the home becoming of age and desiring to stand on his own 
account that they have. 

This spirit of self-assertion manifests itself most 
conspiciously in the desire for SELF-GOVERNMENT. Time 
was, and not so very long ago, when all government as 
well as initiative and forward steps taken, were in the hands 
of, and led by, the foreign missionary. This is entirely 
changed now. Most of the church courts are being presided 
over by Chinese and no forward steps are being taken 
nowadays without the Chinese being in the lead. Not 
that the foreign missionary is discounted, but that the 
Chinese feel it is their right, their privilege, and their 
responsibility to take the lead. 

The writer has in mind one church that was started 
entirely independent of foreign support or control, yet a 
foreign missionary was asked to sit with the church 
council as an adviser ; the pulpit also is often occupied 
by a missionary. The idea of "China for the Chinese" 
has, however, taken firm hold of the Church, and must 
be recognized. To oppose it is futile if not wrong. If 
understood and done in a brotherly fashion there can be 
no harm in it ; it is, on the contrary, fraught with the 
possibility of great good. 

These things make one feel that the Church 
is in P rocesss of becoming INDIGENOUS. 
On this subject we desire to quote from an 
Editorial in the Jan. 1924 "Chinese Recorder." 

"The Indigenous Church is the China 
Christian s Castle in the air. For many years its 
glowing ramparts have gleamed afar. It is, therefore, 
no new subject of discussion. The past year has, 
however, registered widespread questioning as to what 
is really meant by the Indigenous Church. That it 
stands for something that both the Chinese and 
the Western Christians want is generally agreed 



116 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

on. But they do not seem to want the same thing. 
Many Western Christians think of the Indigenous 3 
Church as an Institution made up of Chinese, it is 
true, but conserving certain type elements in the 
Western Church of their experience. When the Western 
Christian is a strong denominationalist he is apt to 
think of the Indigenous Church in China in terms 
of the supremacy of his type of church. Some Western 
church leaders at the home base are not sure that the 
Indigenous Church should have as much freedom in 
development as some Chinese leaders are asking. 
Chinese Christians are not as articulate as their Western 
colleagues. The articulate Chinese group, though 
small, must be taken as representative of the present 
tendency of Chinese Christian thought and as 
indicating the direction of the thought of the mass 
of Chinese Christians when they have likewise become 
articulate. The articulate Chinese group asks for 
sufficient freedom to express its Christian life in 
Chinese thought form, and to some extent in Chinese 
symbols. None of them knows yet just what is 
needed. They are feeling their way. Those who are 
thinking into the problem have, during the past 
year, come more clearly against the fundamental 
difficulty in the establishment of the Indigenous 5 
Church. This difficulty is the over-shadowing and 
overpowering influence of the diplomatic protection 
of Christianity in China, and the financial dependence 
of the Chinese Church on* the generosity of the 
Western Christians. They do not know what to do. 
It has been stated by some Chinese Christian leaders 
tha.t the expressed desire for an Indigenous Church 
can be achieved only by the starting of a new type 
of Christian Church, that is, a Church from the 
foundation up really Chinese. No suggestion has 
come our way as to how this is to be secured. The 
hesitancy of the Chinese Christian to sacrifice self 
and means is said to be due, in part at least, to the 
chill cast on the Chinese Christian spirit of adventure 
by the shadow of the existing system of protection 
and support." 



NEW CHINESE CHRISTIAN 117 

c ,, There is also a tendency to self assertion in 

Self-assertion ^ . . . 

the matter ot Theology. Ihe Chinese who 

said " I feel that x I spent too much time in studying books 
written by Westerners about the Church and about Christ, 
and not enough in the study of Christ Himself ; voiced 
the sentiment of many of the younger and aggressive Church 
leaders. Most of the old time preachers were only echos 
of their foreign missionary teachers which was of course 
a very natural thing and not necessarily to their 
discredit. Hut now among the younger leaders there are 
those who are trying to interpret Christ from the standpoint 
of Chinese thought, or dressing the TRUTHS of the 
Gospel in Chinese ideas. One need not be too much 
concerned over this. The same "SPIRIT OF TUUTH" 
is leading the Chinese that led saints and scholars of the 
West to express these same truths in the thought of their 
own day. 

<, H . There has been great development in 

SELF-SUPPORT. Every year the number 
of self-supporting Churches increases. This in spite too of 
the political disturbances of the past few years. The 
Southern Baptists have perhaps made the greatest advance 
along this line. In their Hakka Mission the Chinese 
Churches have organized a Home Board, for carrying 011 
evangelistic work among the Hakka people, and a Board 
of Education for the care of day schools in connection with 
the chapels. A Sunday School Secretary is employed 
for the promotion of this work among the Churches. The 
middle schools for boys and girls in Canton are almost 
entirely independent of the mission. 

The Church of Christ in China is making rapid strides 
towards self-support and self -propagation. It is entirely 
autonomous and self-governing. The annual observance 
of "Church Sunday" in which the work, its history and 
its glory is set forth is a great stimulus towards self- 
support. Contributions are annually made to the middle 
schools both for boys and for girls. Special scholarships 
have been subscribed for training young men in the Union 
Theological College. An effort is now being made to raise an 

1 See Chinese Recorder, January, 1924, page 8. 



118 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

endowment fund of $20,000 for the Union Theological 
College. This shows that the institutions started by the 
missions are considered by the Chinese as worth while 
and worthy of support. 

CHURCH BUILDING has received a great deal of 
attention during recent years. Several new and up-to-date 
church edifices have been built. One church of the 
institution type, costing over $ 70,000 Mex., has just been 
completed. A great deal of the money for these building 
projects has been gathered from Chinese abroad. As a 
rule the architecture used is the Western type. 

There has been considerable development 
gcpressional in the EXPRESSION AL ACTIVITIES of the 
Chinese Church. This is indicated by joint 
efforts such as health campaigns, purity campaigns, and 
works of mercy, such as Red Cross work among the 
soldiers, and relief for destitute people in the war region. 
The Federated Churches in Canton have established a 
school for poor boys. A group of Christians has established 
an Old People s Home. The Baptist Church in Shiu 
Chow has organized an Orphanage. They also control a 
hospital in Ying Tak which was started by the mission. 
The Church is the recognized leader in reform as well as in 
works of mercy. Surveys of social and labor conditions 
are being undertaken and welfare work is considered a type 
of activity that the church should undertake. 
<, r T f With reference to the question as to how 

far the Church is influencing the social 
life of the Chinese several points should be mentioned 
as indicating tendencies. 

First of all is the fact that non-Christians will often 
admit that there is something in the Church that is alive 
and * up and doing. !} 

The observance of the Christian Sunday is making 
headway. Though this is one of the weak points in 
Kwangtung we can register progress made in the last few 
years. Whether or not Sabbath observance, as our fathers 
in the west knew it, will ever become a rule in China may 
be questioned. How r ever this much may be said, that 
Sunday is more and more winning favor as a day of change 
and rest, not necessarily as one of religious observance. 



NATIVE COLOR f 119 

Government offices and Government schools observe 
Sunday as a holiday. Many of the workshops are giving 
part holiday on Sunday, some give the entire day. The 
big department stores give a half day s holiday and also 
provide religious services. In the country churches 
spending a few hours in the Chapel is considered as 
" keeping the Sabbath/ 

In some instances the Church has taken the place of the 
Ancestral Hall which is the center of all village, social, 
political and religious life. While these cases are few in 
number they show what may happen in the future when 
we shall see clans as a whole coming into the Church. 

The Chinese Church is taking on " Native 

!i, I7 e color 7 . In this we rejoice for it is the 

Color . J . . 

crowning glory ot the mission. Ihere have 

been real progress and development and we believe, on the 
whole, along the right lines. What a grand institution 
the Chinese Church may become I The churches of the 
west, the south and the north have given China their 
richest gifts. The Chinese Church can choose the best of 
each and mould it into one complete whole, which may yet 
become the model for the Church Universal. I believe 
the Chinese Church desires, not to stand aloof from the 
churches of other nationalities, but to take her rightful 
place among them. The Chinese Church is a vital organ 
for the regeneration of the social life of the Chinese, 
because of the Spirit of God which is in her and because 
of "the one foundation " on which she is built. May she 
glorify him who for her life died, until the day when 
she shall be presented before God " without spot or blemish 
or any such thing." 

A. J. FISHER. 

VI WU-HAN 

North and south of the center and through- 
Distur bances out ^ ie coantrv districts, the life of the people 
has been much disturbed by the movement 
of armies and by the destruction wrought by bandits. The 
three central cities of Hankow, Hanyang and Wuchang 
have, however, been free from disturbance and alarm. 



120 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

The political conditions throughout the country have 
caused a greater seriousness in the thought and life of the 
people, so that the preaching of the gospel has had free 
course. Religious thought has further been stimulated by 
the activities of the Buddhists in this center. 

The Evangelistic Band has proven itself, in 

Evangelistic at ^ east two m i ss i ns ^ n this area, to be a 
Band** very hopeful form of attack in the mission 

ary campaign. The workers go together and 
mutually inspire each other. The hearers also realize that 
the Gospel Message is not connected with any peculiarity 
of one or two persons. Plans are being made to make the 
visit of bands through the country a fairly permanent 
feature, so that country places may not be restricted to 
simply an underpaid preacher of rather inferior talent. 
These bands also cause the leaders to get an intimate 
knowledge of the problems of the country, and they are 
able to carry their needs back to the centers. 

Through the activities of Dr. Boville, many 
Daily Vacation of the gtudentg in this cen ter, both girls and 
bide cchool , ,. . i -i T <. ,-, 

boys, nave discovered the children of the 

poor and show great enthusiasm in canying on daily 
schools for the children throughout the summer holiday. 
This activity links itself up with the general attempt to 
attain universal education and the more recent movement 
to do away with illiteracy. So far the students have been 
unable to carry on this work during term time because of 
the impossibility of finding rooms in which to hold the 
classes. 

P ison "Wo fc ^ or man y years there have been those who 
carry out our Lord s injunction to visit those 
in prison, but it is only recently that the authorities have 
welcomed such visitors. Prison reform seems to have 
progressed so far in this center that all those in charge of 
the more important prisons welcome the assistance of the 
Christians in teaching and comforting those under their 
control. Many stirring tales are told, and one would judge 
that there are many more ivhose hearts can be touched in 
a Chinese prison than in a prison abroad. 



SOCIAL PROJECTS 121 

Union Meatin s ^ ie i nn * uence ^ the undertakings of any 
one portion of the Christian body in this 
center soon affects the rest because of the many gatherings 
of the Christians for prayer and conference. Each month 
all the different bodies gather in one place for a Chinese 
prayer meeting, and this is recognized as the regular place 
for reports and for the consideration of any plan for the 
action of the whole Christian body. The foreign ladies of 
Wuchang felt that much would be accomplished by a 
special foreign women s prayer meeting, and this has 
proved a source of information, inspiration and sympathy. 
For many years it has been difficult to arrange for a place 
and time for a union English service on Sunday, but during 
the past autumn, such a service has been arranged and 
carried out in the new chapel of St. Hilda s Girls 7 School. 
Although the chapel is outside the city, because of its 
proximity to two city gates, it has proven to be more 
central to the missionary body than any other place. Not 
a few government students have availed themselves of the 
privilege. 

Directly out of the Women s Prayer Meet- 
Sch ol ing k ruw the project for the Girls 1 Blind 

School. The women saw the great need for 
such an institution and began in full faith that means 
would be supplied. Captain Robert Dollar, the world 
known shipping magnate, supplied Wuchang with its 
Y.M.C.A. and he has also given liberally to the support of 
the Girls Blind School. A permanent site has been 
purchased and a foreign woman has given her life to this 
service. She is assisted by the prayers, interest and 
assistance of many of the women of Wuchang. 

Famine relief work led many to ask 
^/p whether we were caring for the poor at our 

doors, while the insistence of the beggars on 
the street corners led many to desire to give what relief 
might be possible. Investigation showed that some mem 
bers of the Christian community were in greater need than 
any of the sturdy beggars, and also showed that it was 
possible to arouse the community to an interest to see 
that the very needy should be cared for. By making 



122 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

preparations in advance and by careful planning, much 
help has been rendered. Special efforts are being expended 
in Hankow this fall among the rickshaw coolies, not 
only to give them physical relief but to treat them as 
fellow men. 

Several conference? have been held during 

Conferences the past months and the whole Christian 
body is being informed as to actual con 
ditions, possibilities of improvement, and the dangers to 
be avoided in the new industrialism. 

For years the primary education of the 

Girls Union m i ss i O ns o f thig centor h as been unified in 
Normal bchool . . . 

the Central China Christian Educational 

Association. With the development of interest in the 
education of girls and the need for diversification, it was 
generally agreed that it would be to the interests of all 
to have the normal training of girls carried on in one 
institution, and it was decided to ask the AVesleyan Girls ? 
School to carry on this work with assistance from other 
missions. 

During the same period great developments 

Tethers have takeD place in the Union Nornml School, 

College which has now taken the English name of 

Central China Teachers College. In the school 
for the training of Primary Teachers no student is admitted 
without a seventh grade certificate or the proof of 
equivalent education. In the school for middle school 
teachers, students are expected to be graduates of the 
Association of the Central China Christian Educational 
middle schools. Several missions have joined the school 
and special agricultural training has been added. 

The outstanding feature of educational 
Central China ( | eve i p men t during this period has been the 
University . * ,. ,, ,, ,-, i m TT -, 

organization ol the Central China university. 

The organization plans for a central teaching organization 
around which the collegiate units belonging to the various 
Christian bodies working throughout Central China will 
group themselves. Work will begin in September 1924, 
on the campus of Boone University, by the cooperation of 



MANCHURIA 123 

the American Church Mission, the Wesley an Mission, and 
the Yale Mission. It is hoped that before the opening 
day, other units will have signified their adhesion to 
the scheme. 

ALFRED A. GILMAN. 

VII. MANCHURIA 

The Presbyterian Church of Manchuria with which 
the Scottish and Irish Missions are connected, has for 
some years been decreasing in membership. At present 
the total number of baptised Christians is much the same 
as it was twenty-three years ago, just before tin; Boxer 
outbreak. This being the case, the Church s inner growth 
has been remarkable. For example, in the matter of 
liberality, within two years, the average annual con 
tribution has increased about oO c /o, being now S2 for each 
grown-up member. In other directions, progress is also 
notable. 

Democrac ^ an y ne hitherto familiar with the 

Synod of Manchuria, composed for the most 
part of grave and reverend Chinese seniors, a visit to the 
last meeting in July, 1928, would have brought a surprise. 
Crowded with members, having full voting powers, the 
hall included, for the first time, (a) women, and (b) young 
teachers, doctors and Y. M. C. A. secretaries. For, by 
order of the previous Synod, Kirk-sessions could send 
others besides pastors and elders to represent them. The 
missionaries formed a tiny minority. The revolution, 
bringing democratic rule into Presbyterian Church 
government, has been accomplished without even a groan. 

Our advance towards an indigenous Chinese 
of the Purse Church is further evidenced in two respects, 
(a) Three years ago the roll of pastors, called 
and supported by Chinese congregations, totalled 20; the 
roll has now 32. (b) Following the National Conference 
of 1922, a scheme of financial devolution had been drawn 
up, by which Mission appropriations for evangelistic, 
educational and medical purposes, with the exception of 
the Colleges in Moukden, were to be handed over to the 
Synod, which is the Supreme Court of the Church. The 



124 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

Board of Finance was to consist of Chinese and foreigners, 
in equal numbers. Instead, however, of the Chinese 
leaders grasping at the control of the purse, thus freely 
offered, they are holding back. The reception of the 
offer was extremely cordial, and the harmony, characteristic 
of the relations between the Chinese presbyters and their 
foreign brethren, was in no way disturbed. But the 
leaders decided to proceed cautiously. At the 1923 
meetings, the scheme, approved with a few slight modifi 
cations by the Home Boards, was postponed until District 
Finance Committees in local centers are more widely in 
operation. 

Nevertheless, the die has been cast. The foreign 
Mission has abdicated its throne. 

Th* F r N th With its assigned sphere in the vast lands 
of the north, in the Province of Heilungkiang, 
our Chinese Missionary Society had been doing very well. 
We were, in fact, proud of it. And then one day the 
National Missionary Society gathered our fledgeling under 
her spacious wing, when lo ! it suddenly clapped its wings 
and crowed. We rubbed our eyes at the apparition. 
What had actually happened? (a) Being invited to form 
auxiliaries, Church members rose with alacrity to the 
opportunity, (b) Money flowed in as never before, (c) An 
Executive was formed in 1922, with office in Harbin, 
independent of Synod, on a broadened basis, including 
the Danish Lutherans, who have gladly thrown all their 
weight into the movement, (d) New life has been put into 
the Society by the Executive s choice of the ideal man 
for the post of paid secretary, the Rev. K. Y. Shang. 
Among the best of the Manchurian ministers, Mr. Shang 
with his enthusiasm, learning, tact and humour, is 
everywhere respected and beloved. Thanks then to the 
wise heads of the N. M. S., our Missionary Societj 7 has 
now shot up into vigorous manhood. It has rive pastors 
in the north, one of them a graduate from the 1923 class 
of the Theological School of Yenching University. A 
graduate of Moukden Girls Normal School went up to 
Heilungkiang in 1923 to act as Biblewoir.an. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH 125 

Formerly, owing to labours of the pioneers, 
Education - A 

g oar:} the Provinces east 01 the .Barrier were noted 

for evangelism. We were slow to put money 
and strength into educational institutions, and when we 
did begin, it was at the top, hardly a strong type of 
architecture, albeit inevitable in the circumstances. While 
the Manchuria Christian College has done excellently, we 
have wakened up to the necessity of digging down to the 
foundations. For our primary and middle schools, aside 
from some exemplary districts, have left much to be 
desired. Accordingly, an Education Board for both 
Lutherans and Presbyterians, has come into being. With 
competent educational experts, Chinese and foreign, 
deliberations being in the vernacular, taking over the 
control of finance, the Board is making a valiant fight to 
lift the more backward Church schools to a higher level. 
After heavily taxing his powers at the Summer 
Training School for Teachers in Moukden, 1923, Mr. 
Y. K. Sun, the Chinese secretary of the Board, was struck 
down and died of typhoid fever. He had been exactly 
the right man for the position. The foreign secretary, the 
Rev. J. W. Findlay, is not yet free to devote his whole 
time to the advancement of education. 

c . The most important indication of progress 

Spiritual . iii Tif.^ 

Awakening remains to be recorded. Without any very 

noticeable outward signs of revival, nothing 
indeed to compare with the emotional upheaval of 1908, 
a real spiritual awakening has been taking place. This is 
seen in a variety of ways, (a) Instead of contenting 
themselves with being spoon-fed, our Christians are much 
more ready than formerly to shoulder responsibility. 

(b) In regard to social evils, a new conscience lias appeared. 
Supplementing the old emphasis on the salvation of the 
individual soul, the Social Gospel is being preached from 
our Chinese pulpits. For the last two years, the Synod 
has occupied a large portion of its time in tackling 
questions bearing on the Church s relation to the world 
we live in, with a view to practical action in social service. 

(c) There is a shifting of aim in religious teaching. The 
child is now to the front. And the Church is to a less 
extent our sole care, for the cry is, "Make the Home 



126 REGENT DEVELOPMENT IN CHINESE CHURCH LIFE 

Christian." (d) Young men are more willing to take up 
the Cross. The Student Volunteer Movement has recently 
had encouraging success. It is hoped that several of the 
Manchuria Christian College graduates of 1923 will go on 
to study for the ministry, (e) Finally, this awakening has 
the mark of permanence, because it is due to a deepened 
sense of sincerity, a closer touch with the mind and heart 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

F. W. S. O NEILL. 



CHAPTER XV 

THE RURAL CHURCH AND ITS RELATION TO 
RELIGIOUS, EDUCATIONAL, MEDICAL AND SOCIAL WORK. 

K. T. Chang. 

Dr. K. L. Butterfield of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College reported that there are 300,000,000 farmers, 10,000 
market places and 1,000,000 hamlets in China. Eighty-five 
per cent of the Chinese people are in the rural districts. 
The problem of China is not therefore the problem of Peking 
or any other large city. China must be reconstructed from 
her base; that base is the rural district. If the farmers 
remain at the mercy of the gentry and of the country 
officials, if they continue to lack the education which will 
fit them for proper citizenship, the modern ideas they need 
in agriculture, and the Gospel which can redeem their 
social life, then China need not expect that her future will 
bring any improvement over the present. 

It is encouraging to realize the stability of 
Position of n s-,i -i j T i.! 

Farmers ^ ne Chinese race, due largely to the power of 

resistance in the country people. They. are 
the ones who really stand firm against existing chaotic and 
far from ideal conditions ; they are doing their best to servo 
the country and by their diligent labor feed and clot he- 
China, and produce a surplus for export to world markets. 
Yet no one feels any responsibility about their welfare and 
only those who wish to live on them are willing to live 
with them. 

The farmers are the real China. Anything done for 
their betterment conserves the life of China, develops the 
spirit of the Chinese race and contributes to the world s 
civilization. All those who work among these simple and 
devoted folk, find their hearts throbbing with joy because 
of the great opportunities for service. They are like sheep 
without a shepherd. Those who get a chance for educa 
tion become their natural leaders. 



128 THE RURAL CHURCH 

The opportunity for work in the rural churches is 
tremendous. We often find these people coming to 
Christians to seek for justice and refuge from tyranny. The 
fellowship of the country Christians is a dominant factor in 
Christianizing the community. They are a latent force in 
promoting better farming, better business and better living. 
It is up to the Church to train them for and lead them in a 
Christian program of village development. 



Rural Church e small family system is gradually taking 

the place of the old patriarhal one. The 
Church will be the center of life, the "new ancestral hall " 
of family and clan life. There they worship God as their 
common Father and regard their fellow villagers as their 
brothers and sisters. They form a "big family ; of 
Christian members which looks after the physical, intel 
lectual, social and spiritual needs of its members. Perhaps 
it is in these rural districts that we shall see the real 
indigenous church arise. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ lived in Nazareth a village of 
Galilee for thirty years. His message is, therefore peculiarly 
acceptable to the Chinese farmer. The power of His life 
will be full of meaning for what is so often looked upon as 
the " weaker class ". Christ s Word is life. If it is sown 
it will grow naturally until the harvest. A little band of 
faithful ones in this village or that hamlet who bind 
themselves together by prayer and reading of the Word and 
adventurous service will grow stronger and bigger every day 
until they become the church of the farmers, run by the 
fanners and for the farmers. 

In reviewing the present situation of the Christian 
movement in China the work is more or less centralized in 
the " so called " strategic centers. Any country work done 
is generally undertaken by persons not needed in the cities. 
The time has come when we should look beyond the city 
walls, and go right out into the country places where the 
beauty of nature and the glory of God s work is manifested 
clearly before us. Rural work needs the organized efforts 
of missions and workers, local congregations, men and 
women, students and members of churches, Chinese and 
foreign. We need to find out what our part is as workers, 



THE RITUAL CHURCH 129 

cither evangelistic, educational, medical or social, in 
forwarding the work of this immense field of which the 
churches at present are only touching the fringe. 

In facing this work the following points might he 
considered: 

R d* t fa t ("^ Perhaps it is time for those uho engage in 

of Force s ^ ie direct work oj evangelism to reconsider the, 

distribution of forces and of money for the work. 
There are many villagers in these hamlets who never come 
to the market places. How can they hear the Gospel if we 
preach in the cities only ? God s children are scattered in 
the smaller places, as well as in the bigger ones. They ore 
waiting in beautiful groves to be called into His fold. 
There will also come man y dominant leaders from the 
wilderness to be prophets to the present generation. This 
situation demands the readjustment of the entire plan of 
our church work. We should give Christian workers as 
well as laymen ample opportunity to engage in this phase of 
service. Work should be started on Sundays or week-ends 
by open-air preaching, or the worship of two or three to 
whom Christ promised His living presence. This will 
mean the growth of Chinese Christians in faith and love. 
(2) The tendency of the Christian schools and 
Education colleges in China is to take boys and girls from 
the counlri/, bring (hem up in the city, and never 
send them bark. This is a tremendous loss to country 
districts, for it means that they have to wait still another 
generation for their leaders. Changes in curricula, in 
buildings, in centers where schools are established, in 
teaching staff, and in the selection of candidates for school 
positions are necessary. During summer and winter 
vacations students can spend their time in the villages. 
Rural surveys should be arranged. Short-term schools 
should be opened. In these, students might teach. To 
sympathize with and help their fellow citizens is a real ex 
pression of love of country on the part of students. 
Rural Hospitals &\ Medical work, ^oat ot the hospitals 
are in big cities. Only rich farmers can 
come to the cities for treatment. Medical missions have 
developed into strong individual organizations. It is not 
as in former times, when preaching and healing were done 



130 THE IUT-RAL 

by the one man who visited every place which was open to 
him, whether town, market place or village. Popular 
education on sanitation should he given during festival 
times. 

(4) Social icork. In the country places 
B t^ mont there are sufficient forces for local social 
betterment, if they once get the idea of the 
power of fellowship among themselves and realize their 
responsibility to the community. They will build good 
roads, dredge the canals, reforest the land, build village 
playgrounds, and organize cooperative selling and buying. 
They are a willing army, but lack able leaders. If every 
village had its own program for Christian development, the 
reconstruction of China right from the foundation would 
begin. It may be that the institutional church movement 
should also be directed to the rural districts as well. The 
experience of the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. movement in 
China would bean invaluable help to these, the rural units 
of the Republic. Individuals, students, congregations, 
Church Federations, and missions should unify their efforts 
for this common task. 

With the combined effort of the standing committee of 
the National Christian Council on Rural Problems and the 
Country Church, the standing committee of the China 
Christian Educational Association on Agricultural Educa 
tion, with the cooperation of the colleges of Forestry and 
Agriculture and some thirty agricultural missionaries, the 
Church of China should be able to tackle this rural church 
problem in a comprehensive and organized way. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANGING CHINA 
T. C. Chao 

chan gs The year 1928 saw many changes in China. 

The most prominent changes were the rapid 
development of banditry ; the departure of Li Yuan-hung 
from Peking; the entrance of Tsao Kun into the office of 
President of the Republic of China, both by foul and 
passive means, petty wars that rose and fell; the 
anti-Japanese movement and the boycott of Japanese 
goods ; depression in educational institutions, and the 
deterioration of the spirit of the students in most schools. 
It was, therefore, a desperate year. Instead of a reduction 
of armies, there was an increase. Bad government went 
hand in hand with unsatisfactory educational conditions 
and poor business. On the side of the intellect and spirit 
of the nation, it is evident that while old moral restraints 
were being thrown to the four winds, the young fed 
themselves on such things as free love, rebellion against 
family and school authorities, personal happiness, and 
pleasure. Apparently social, moral, and religious life, 
went on under severe criticism, and without any semblance 
of sanction. The son thought himself wiser than the 
father, the student acted more authoritatively than the 
teacher, the ignorant spoke louder than the learned, and 
the worthless seemed more honorable than the good. It 
was a desperate year when looked at from the viewpoint 
of evils that existed and still exist. 



Ho eful Signs ^ ut s ^ no( - ^ ie g ates f the temple of Janus 
are wide open we ought to look at both faces. 
It is trite to speak of such a time as transitional, and in 
that iind excuse for certain evils. Yet the optimistic 
spirit, though oppressed by this exhibition of evils, has 
good reason to reassert itself, and that without equivocation. 
We cannot be blind to certain signs of life in the nation, 



132 THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANGING CHINA 

in spite of the fact that there are among us so many 
calamity howlers, both native and foreign, and that 
certain foreign friends have changed their attitude toward 
China and the Chinese people after untoward experiences 
at the hands of the bandits, or in traveling. The 
Association for the Advancement of Education did some 
very significant work as seen, for instance, in the sixteen 
bulletins it issued. The popular education movement was 
more than a fad. The friendly spirit shown by the 
Chinese people to the Japanese after the earthquake, when 
those most energetic in boycotting Japanese goods took 
the lead in raising funds for the relief of Japanese 
sufferers, was not a display of hypocrisy. The people 
were much more alert in political matters than before. 
Public opinion is in many respects still at fault, yet it 
is rapidly growing more intelligent. Democratic ideas, 
communicated with much difficulty on account of the lack 
of adequate moans, have, nevertheless, been successfully 
fixed in the minds of many. The spirit of social service 
is rising everywhere. An incredible number of people 
are beginning to take an interest in athletics and health 
movements. The women of China are quietly taking their 
place in society and asserting their rights in the family. 
Altruism is broadcast in magazines and conversation. In 
the rising national consciousness, the prophet can plainly 
see the growing oneness of the nation, in spite of the 
political divisions for which tuchuns and generals, who 
do not represent the people, are responsible. He who 
cannot sec progress in the Chinese people to-day is 
blind indeed. 

Church Fa s Amidst such changes, when evil darkens 
Situation ^ ne ^ ace ^ ^ no f ^ a y ^ ne church, criticized 

though she is, has not only become conscious 
of her imperfection and her task, but is also taking 
vigorous measures to meet the situation. While it is 
undeniable that the various denominations as such are 
not wide-awake, and while the local churches in many cases 
fail to see the demands of the day and, therefore, do not 
rise to the opportunities before them, the church, as an 
indivisible fellowship and as a group of Christian organiza 
tions, is looking at the situation with wide-open eyes and 



THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANGING CHINA 133 

ready hands. The students are demanding an explanation 
of the "faith". The Young Men s Christian Association, 

in its ninth National Convention, perfected a Christian 
student organization. This was one attempt to answer 
the students and to meet student needs. A group of Christian 
literary men also tried to meet this situation with more 
adequate interpretations of the Christian life. The opium 
question, industrial and moral problems, the need for 
energetic evangelistic work, the family question, and 
international issues have become insistent in their demand 
for the church s attention and service. The church, 
through the National Christian Council, created a number 
of working groups composed of people who are more or 
less expert in their lines to deal with these tilings. Much 
therefore has been done. Unsatisfactory as is the literature 
produced by the Church, the books published during the 
Jast year are far better than those of preceding years. 
Those who love their own denominations are beginning to 
realize that their loyalty to Christ is of primary importance. 
This is making Christian cooperation easier. Many Chinese 
Christians are forgetting con*chu4i/ their denominational 
differences. 

Education Through Christian education also, the 

church is making rapid progress. In spite 
of difficulties in raising funds for educational expansion 
and in spite of unfavorable criticisms directed at them 
by disgruntled and ignorant Chinese, Christian educational 
institutions have shown an amount of correlation and 
cooperation that may be said to be unprecedented in the 
history of missions in China. The East China Christian 
Educational Association, for instance 1 , is putting up a 
vigorous program and conducting a keen investigation of 
the middle school and normal school situation. There has 
also been cooperation between Christian and Government 
schools. The employment by the National Association 
for the Advancement of Education of Prof. Terman of 
Yen-ching University to make an educational survey of 
schools throughout the nation is prophetic of a new 
relationship between these two groups of schools and of a 
great future for Christian education. 



134 THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANGING CHINA 



While some folks are fighting over words, 
l s ,7,, 
in Church 



Strong Points ( ] oetrniCiSj p } irase s, and interpretations, the 



wise and devout aro exerting themselves in 
loving serviee and good deeds. The most valuable things 
in the Church in China to-day are (1) its unreserved efforts 
at spreading the Gospel in the land ; (2) the growing 
consciousness of the need of meeting the demands and 
the heart of the Chinese people by the, creation of an 
indigenous church and the small beginnings shown in 
attempts at the working out of certain indigenous forms, 
(3) the emphasis on Chinese leadership and responsibility, 
and (4) the growing social spirit. These seeds must grow, 
and both missionaries and Chinese Christians are uniting 
in watering the tender plants. There is also an awakening 
in the Church to the necessity of giving an adequate 
Christian philosophy of life to the people now groping in 
the dark, and also of giving them practical assistance 
in the working out of the new problems that are now 
vexing the minds of the thoughtful in regard to family 
relations, birth, death, marriage, making a livelihood and 
service. The church has begun to understand the vastness 
of its task, to enter upon some small experiments. All this 
is very hopeful. 

But in the face of such a situation, wherein 
changes are often unanticipated and 
stupendous, the Church is still unable by reason of 
inadequate strength and equipment, to cope with the 
many problems demanding solution. In the lirst place 
she needs a strong native leadership which does not make 
its appearance fast enough. She is in urgent need of an 
adequate and educated ministry, for the clergy, an at 
present, not merely too small in numbers, but also too 
untrained to carry on the work. 

Preachers in large cities cannot satisfv the 
Dissatisfaction 

spiritual hunger or the people whom they 

serve, and pastors in the smaller towns do not know how 
to cultivate a stable and permanent Christian constituency. 
Never has there been such dissatisfaction as now exists 
both within and without the Church with those who 
perform the duty of feeding the believer? with intellectual 



ino (urrxKSK CITITIMMT AND (UIANDIXC; <iirr\A 135 



and spiritual food. There is also needed Jin army of social 
workers, literary men and women, and lay-leaders in 
various lines of church work. On account of this hick of 
a spiritual and aggressive leadership, the Church is not as 
enterprising as she should or might he. 

Again, we find that the Church is not fully 

JJff f . conscious of the need of cooperating with ail 

Mobilization . ,. . , -Y 

N^edtd existing social agencies in the task of social 

regeneration and national reconstruction. 
She has not exerted herself as she might have done to 
mobilize the forces at her command. Entirely too 
insignificant a number of church members take active part 
in the Church s attempts to serve the. Christian constituency 
and the non-Christian community. In too many cases 
the church exists on Sunday alone and only for those who 
go to Sunday services. Old Testament ethics are preached in 
contrast to the lack of ethics in the people s everyday life. 
The avowal that the Church creates new and powerful men 
and women for the nation is not carried out, and eagerness 
to make high-sounding reports is far greater than 
anxiety to win souls to the Kingdom of God. The real 
humiliation of the Church to-day is in her empty pride 
and her unwarranted sense of superiority in the religious 
and moral life a claim which in all too many cases is not 
borne out by facts. Can the Church stand the moral 
scrutiny of this inquisitive day ? 

This leads me to ask, whether the Church 
?ducatkm ^ s doing her best to formulate an aggressive 

program for religious education which will 
give room for the development of various types of service 
and life, but which will not force people upon any 
Procrustean bed to suit ancient and/or traditional schemes. 
Any system of instruction that does not provide an outlet 
for energy in the ethical life of the day, in the solution 
of everyday problems, and in the betterment of the 
character and living conditions of those who come under 
such instruction, is not worth the giving and is a positive 
waste of energy, money and effort. We must be fair. On 
the one hand we realize the difficulties that beset efficient 
religious education. But we see on the other hand that 



136 THE CHINESE CHURCH AND CHANCING CHINA 

the insignificant number of activities and people that carry 
on such activities, casts a dark shadow in the bright light 
of the day. 

Finally, we see local churches taking most 
Needed interest in merely local church problems ; 

the Church at large lias not awakened to 
the most urgent present need, that of presenting a united 
front and bearing a common witness to the non-Christian 
world. It is surprising to find so much devotion to 
denominations, even among the Chinese Christians, without 
a corresponding loyalty to the great and invisible fellowship 
of all denominations. But no justice can be done to the 
spiritual life and thought of the Church as a whole, if no 
attempt is made to create a church, every part and 
member of which reads. Until the Church has become 
an intelligent judge in spiritual things, she is incompetent 
to make any decision on the matters that threaten to rend 
Christian people into meaningless parties at a time when 
united effort is most needed. The Church up to the end 
of 1923 did not have a sufficient measure of tolerance and 
open-mindedness. The Church after 1923 should find it 
possible for her adherents to be loyal to the regiments to 
which they severally belong, and at the same time to be at 
one with the rest of the great Church of God. All are 
citizens of the one Kingdom. The slogan is: "Seek 
first His Kingdom." 

A small number of believers in the Church has come 
to realize that many readjustments are needed to meet these 
changing conditions. Unless these readjustments are made 
she will not fulfill her vast task or be firmly rooted and 
grounded in Chinese life. 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPORT 
Rob?rt E. Chandler 

These notes are taken from reports, or observations, of 
Mission work in nine different provinces and Manchuria. 
For the most part, they refer to conditions in country 
churches. City churches, we would expect, can earlier 
attain financial independence. The Chinese Church must 
be established in the country, however, and the largest 
problems need to be settled in the country villages. Returns 
are by no means exhaustive. Comments were requested 
from missionaries of districts where some success in this 
matter was believed to have been obtained. It is interest 
ing to observe that the missionaries on the ground sometimes 
have an estimate different from the general report about 
their work. They may feel that the status of self-support 
is far less satisfactory than the reputation of their work 
shows: The reverse is sometimes true. 

The difficulties of comparison and of 

Self-Support? estimate appear immediately in the variety 

of definitions of "Self-support." At least 

three different definitions, or grades of definition, may be 

distinguished: 

1. A self-supporting church is one which 
meets the total expense of its Christian work 
including the salary of its pastor or preacher, all 
expenses for maintenance, such as fuel and repairss 
and the expenses of schools or other enterprises 
managed by or connected with it. 

Such a church usually contributes, to a large extent, also, 
to general funds outside its own work, in its diocese or 
association, or for home missionary work. 

2. " A self-supporting church is a company 
of believers, organi/ed as a church, with some kind 
of administrative officers, and supporting, by its 
contributions, a pastor who administers ordinances, 
and statedly preaches the Gospel to the people. 






138 THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPOlt f 

This is the definition used by Dr. C. W. Mateer in discus 
sion of Dr. Nevius " Methods of Mission Work." This is 
the commonest usage for the term. Such a church may be 
receiving a Mission subsidy for a school, or for women s 
work, or both ; and also share in the privileges of a central 
administration. 

3. Self-supporting churches are those which 
pay all their own material expenses, and provide 
for all regular spiritual ministrations, although 
these do not imply the employment of a salaried 
pastor or evangelist. 

The differences of definition show something of the 
diverse views among missionaries, and diverse conditions 
among the Chinese Churches. There are also considerable 
differences due to the varying degree of connectionalism. 
Some groups an; not trying to work for the self-support of 
single congregations, but rather to raise the self-support 
of the whole Church in the diocese or association. All 
churches contribute to a common fund, and the superfluity 
of one makes up for the deficiency of another. 

Considerable "success" is reported among 
Progress . . , . 1 . J 

churches in country districts, irom Cnangsha, 

Hunan, from the English Baptist field in Shantung, from 
Kwangtung Province, from Fukien, north and south, 
from Manchuria, and from Honan. These are all on the 
basis of definition (2) , though in many, perhaps most cases, 
it is not a single country church which supports a pastor, 
but a group of from five to twenty which unites in such 
calling and support. The Liebenzeller Mission in Hunan 
shows a rather remarkable change in a short time, due to a 
stoppage of all funds from the Home Society for the 
support of churches. In April, 1920, no churches were 
self-supporting, not even in part. Within about two years 
and a half, there were sixty-one; evangelistic workers 
associated with the Mission. Of these twenty were sup 
ported fully, and fifteen in part, by the Chinese. Chapels 
were being built, also, witli funds locally raised. A number 
of other districts report a great deal of difficulty in passing 
from the old idea of receiving everything from the Mission, 
including pastors and other workers and buildings and 



THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPORT 139 

sundry expenses, to the new plan of self-support at the very 
earliest date. " Every dollar given in the earlier days of 
the mission seenis to have made it more difficult, later, to 
gut the Christians to consider seriously the question of 
giving as part of their duty and privilege." If self-support 
he on the highest pecuniary standard, as per definition (1) 
above, there are some very striking examples. But these 
are in the largest cities. Some such are connected with the 
Sheng Kung Hui ; others are independent undenomina 
tional Chinese Churches. The third sort of self-support, 
according with definition (8) above, would agree with Dr. 
Nevius principles. And the most thorough-going applica 
tion of these, in the London Mission work in Chihli 
Province deserve some separate discussion, 
ptjf.jtfj From all quarters it is reported that the 

practice of giving to larger causes arose early 
in the; life of the Church, and not merely to its own local 
needs. A broad vision of the Christian cause (in China 
and elsewhere in the world), and a feeling of comradeship 
and close association, are thus cultivated. There is great 
diversity, however, as to the order of causes to which a 
newly growing church will give its efforts. Many churches 
will start and carry forward a school, and perhaps medical 
work as well, before they pay anything towards the support 
of their local pastor. In such cases, it is usually true 
that the pastor serves the broad countryside, and not 
the local church alone. In some cases the gifts of the 
church members to local enterprises, and to general causes 
such as home missions, are reported to be equal in total to 
the salary of the pastor. Still they cannot be ranked as 
self-supporting. 

As to connectionalism, in the binding up nf 

the individual local church with a larger 
group, there is far less difference among the missions and 
denominations than might be expected. All are apparently 
being led to feel and to cherish the strength of the group. 
Pastors are called by districts or groups. Salaries, in 
general, are fixed by central organizations. These fix 
yearly grants made to churches from mission funds, or from 
other funds. It does not appear that there is an over 
development of "Congregationalism" in church policy. 



140 THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPORT 

This in spite of the comment of a Bishop in the Sheng Rung 
Hui, that the principle of self-support in his diocese is 
" too congregational and parochial!" In many eases the 
difficulty of raising salaries, year by year, to meet living 
conditions is spoken of. And it would appear that the 
central boards or committees become somewhat remote 
from the lay membership. The system of gradual reduc 
tion of grants is commonly practised, but does not give 
full satisfaction. "It seems to me a little worse than 
useless to attempt to force our churches into independence 
by slowly turning off the tap. Better spiritual health in 
our churches will lead to a natural movement for 
independence." The danger and the futility of over 
developed machinery of ecclesiasticism show markedly at 
this point. It must be the laymen and women who shall 
settle whether there shall be a self-supporting indigenous 
Chinese Church or not, and of what sort. If they are not 
in close connection with the problems, if they do not feel 
that the whole enterprise is their own, there is not much 
use in policies and resolutions passed by "office-holders of 
the church." This connection of the laymen with the 
church enterprise is much closer, usually, in the city 
churches. They show no hesitation or difficulty in 
raising salaries, when needed, and in keeping the support 
adequate for every enterprise that they undertake. 

Is a professional paid ministry for the Chinese 
LsRud Church necessary and permanent ? The question 

Essential? leads us to the heart of the discussion. The 

question was by no means settled in Dr. 
Nevius time, twenty- five years ago. It will not be settled 
until the Chinese Church can speak. In the meantime, 
missionaries and Chinese leaders must follow the light they 
have. The replies received on this question, as put, were 
most significant. Four reports from different parts of the 
country, in Anglican, Baptist, and two kinds of Presbyterian 
churches, accepted the paid ministry, without question, as 
permanent, and necessary, and right. Five other reports 
from those same church groups and others, spoke of the 
paid ministry as "apparently fixed;" but they have a 
feeling of uneasiness. They are not sure that it is the right 
thing, especially for the village church in China, An 



THE STATUS OF STCLF-SUPPOKT 141 

Anglican Bishop spoke strongly: The paid ministry is 
one of those crimes, like denominational ism, which Western 
Christianity has perpetrated in the Kast! ; OIK; reply 
holds the view that paid ministers in the country churches 
"are an expensive, unnecessary luxury." They may he 
more of a hindrance than a help. It is admitted that such 
ministers may he necessary for the churches in the larger 
cities. The mission in this district (the L.M.S. field in 
Ts angchow and Siaochnng, Chihli) have set themselves 
against the whole policy of local paid preachers. They 
maintain "a mobile preaching force" of evangelists, whose 
task is to evangelize the district as a whole, aiming particu 
larly at the places as yet unreached. They endeavor, at 
the same time, to keep in living touch with the little groups 
of Christians or new churches, and to develop the latent 
leadership within them. The churches founded "are 
expected to be self-supporting from the start; on the 
material side, they shall provide, their own buildings and 
equipment, and meet their own current expenses; on the 
spiritual side they shall learn to depend also, through 
prayer and study of the Bible, on God, rather than on man, 
and through fellowship, to depend on one another, rather 
than outside helpers. And further, they shall feel it their 
highest duty and privilege to pass on the Gospel they have 
received to those round about them. " A survey was made 
in 1 ( J13, in company with Mr. Sidney J. \V. Clark. The 
magnitud c of the task, and the inadequacy of the spoon 
feeding methods then used, were simultaneously seen. A 
complete change of policy was inaugurated with great 
difficulty, in the older churches. The spiritual vitality of 
the younger churches seems fully to justify the change. It 
appears that principles that many other missionaries favor 
are being whole-heartedly carried out here. Progress thus 
far has been good despite the difficulty of the war years and 
the poverty of the Mission. 

CostofLivia ^ ne nios j i various answers have come to the 
question: " Does the rise in the cost of living 
make self-support more difficult ? " Of course missionaries 
in the voluntary worker district, just described, will say 
that self-support is not more difficult. Chinese leaders in 
the cities, also, seem to be unconcerned about this matter, 



14 2 THE STATUS OF SELF-SUPPORT 

The " earning power of the ordinary Chinese Christians is 
increasing fully as fast " as the price of necessities. The 
number of replies saying strongly, "No," or "Yes." was 
equal. There were other replies are between these two. 

We cannot say that Chinese churches arc; reaching the 
summit of their ability in self-support. As to the right 
principles and methods of progress, the Chinese Church 
must speak for itself. Probably it is unable to speak with 
clearness and finality at present. May God give new 
wisdom to churches and missions in the use or non-use 
of money. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

THE COMMUNITY CHURCH IN CHINA 
R. T. Henry 

Histor Community Church work has a long and 

interesting history. In England plans were 
made as early as 1840 to bring the church into closer 
relation with the secular world. The fuller development 
of the Institutional Church, however, belongs to the latter 
part of the nineteenth century. In the United States the 
movement may be said to date from about 1880. Tin? 
name "Institutional" was first applied to Berkley Temple, 
Boston, by Dr. William Jewett Tucker, then President 
of Dartmouth College. In 181)4 the Open Institutional 
Church League at New York was formed. This held a 
number of conventions and served as headquarters for the 
numerous separate churches. In connection with this 
League was later formed the "National Federation of 
Churches and Christian Workers. 

The work in China, is the product of the last ten years. 
Of the seventy churches now in existence only ten have 
been organized more than six years. This indicates that 
the China movement is still in its infancy. Even though 
more or less recent the movement is meeting a long 
recognixed need and under proper direction can and will 
reach classes thus far unchurched. The movement has 
become nation-wide in its scope and at present thirteen 
provinces have some work of this kind. Shanghai has the 
largest number of centers engaged in this work, there being 
about nine. 

During the National Christian Conference, Shanghai, 
1U22, plans were launched to form an organization which 
would bring together those interested in this particular 
type of work. A special Committee was appointed by the 
Conference to study the needs and to take steps towards 



144 THE COMMUNITY CHURCH IN CHINA 

drafting a constitution and securing membership. At 
present there are eleven denominations represented in this 
organization with a total membership of 102. 

In May 1 ( .)23 a Conference of those com- 
monly Designated " Institutional Church 
Workers 7 was called and met in Shanghai at 
the Cantonese Baptist Church. This Conference gave vision 
and horizon to institutional church workers. Commissions 
had been previously appointed to study the following 
questions and bring in findings to the Conference: The 
Training of the Volunteer and Paid Worker, Finance and 
Equipment, Administration and Organization, Survey and 
Program, This work would not have been accomplished 
but for the untiring efforts of Rev. A. R. Kepler, of the 
Nantao Institute, Shanghai. He has been elected Travel 
ling Secretary for the movement. 

As indicated above the term generally used 
Community in Americil an( * England has been " Institu- 
Church ? tional. ;; But in recent years this term has 

come under severe criticism. It is charged 
that this term makes the Church a secular institution, or 
tends in the direction of making it a machine, rather than 
a living power in the community. In China the tendency 
has been in the direction of using the term "Community." 
to designate those churches which supplement the ordinary 
forms of church activity by others. In America on the 
contrary the term ** Community Church " has generally 
meant those churches of various denominations which 
have combined into one church. 

It has been said that the Community Church adds to 
the commonly designated ecclesiastical activities, those 
which meet the whole need of men, such as reading 
rooms, games and the like. The China Conference of 
Community Church Workers decided on the following 
definition- " A Community Church is a church which is 
making definite efforts to apply the principles of Christ to 
all the individual and social life of the community." This 
definition does not limit the Community Church in equip 
ment or budget, and makes it possible to unite a number 
of churches carrying on some or all of those activities 
included in the whole program. 



TIIM COMMUNITY (MtUllCII IN CHINA 145 

p jr In the above definition we find the real 

purpose and intent of tlie Community Chureh- 
n;imely an agency to Christianize and conserve tbe wbole 
life of man. It uses equipment to roach men and through 
this touch with their interests seeks to lead them into a 
deeper realization of their relationship to (Jod and man. 
Big staffs and big budgets are not essential to successful 
community church work, (liven a leader, with a " Bible 
and a ball, one can open a Community Church with 
Departments of, (1) Worship, (2) Religious Education, 
(3) Evening School, (4) Heading Room, (5) Physical 
Recreation." 

Following clo.se upon the purpose of the Community 
Church to deal with the whole man, is the fact that it 
develops social consciousness. When we arc; face to face 
with the problem of conservative custom, it is most 
difficult to secure for new ideas a fair hearing. It must 
be remembered that it is one aim of the Community Church 
to develop sympathy and understanding, in order to 
get men to see the needs of society about them. 

The need for an awakened social consciousness is also 
recognized in the desire to arouse a feeling of responsibility 
for civic morals and the administration of law and order. 
The time has passed when the Church can draw aside and 
say that it will have nothing to do with the problem of 
government. China to day needs above all else the con 
tribution of the Christian Church. 

Recognizing that the tn.sk of awakening social con 
sciousness belongs to the Community Church as well as to 
other organizations, an added responsibility conies in the 
necessity of giving direction to this awakened conscious 
ness. It is not to be expected that the Community Church 
can do all that ought to be done in any community. It 
has neither the man power nor the, money for that. But 
it can maintain a place of leadership 

Furthermore the. Community Church provides oppor 
tunity for the individual to render service. The mature 
Christian can find opportunity for working along side his 
non-Christian friend and through this comradeship in task 
find the road to Christ. 



146 THE COMMUNITY CHURCH IN CHINA 

What arc some of the difficulties in the 
way of the development of the Community 
Church in China? 

One of the biggest difficulties is the securing and 
maintaining of a thoroughly Christian membership. With 
the establishment of the Community Church comes added 
opportunity for demonstrating the value of the Christian 
life. Therefore the member of such a church has a larger 
responsibility as to the kind of testimony his life bears. 

Thus far we have not mentioned the leader. But if 
any Community Church would really touch the life of its 
people, it must depend upon a leader of untiring devotion. 
In the ordinary church the worker has been more or less 
free as to the direction of his time. This has placed both 
missionary and Chinese worker in a position that makes it 
easy to form haphazard habits. This does not mean to 
say that all have formed such habits. This new work 
demands much time, energy, and thought. It is not a task 
for occasional or spasmodic effort. 

The Church as such must never be overshadowed by 
the more popular activities of a social nature. These 
activities must ever be kept as arms to reach out and bring 
men into the Church. For the business of any church, be 
it community or otherwise, extension of the Kingdom. 



PART IV 
COOPERATIVE MOVEMENTS IN CHINA 

CHAPTER XIX 

THE FORWARD PROGRAM OF THE NATIONAL 
CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

Henry T. Hodgfcin 

The National Christian Council has been called into 
existence in order to serve the Christian forces in China and 
is not, therefore, a body which should be looked to for the 
inauguration of its own policies. It does not enter upon 
its task with the idea of creating a program, as it were, out 
of nothing; and any program which comes from the N.C.C. 
should be one which reflects the desires and hopes of the 
various Christian forces in China. Its fulfillment will thus 
be regarded by them as a part of the task in which they 
are themselves engaged. To summarize in detail the 
objects of the N.C.C. we may give four: First to discover 
what the churches and missions seem to need; second, to 
make suggestions in regard to these specific needs third, to 
help the churches in discovering other ways by which their 
work may be improved and of which they may not at present 
be distinctly conscious; and fourth, to correlate the varied 
activities of the different churches so that in every possible 
way the work of the whole Christian movement may be 
seen to be a unity in spirit and aim if not in organization. 
The fourth purpose here mentioned may, so far as this 
paper is concerned, be omitted. Certain outstanding needs 
felt by the churches and missions have engaged the Council s 
attention and may here be stated : 

KT A f j I. It soon became evident to the officers of 

Needs Already , .... , 

Felt the Council that no need was more keenly telt 

throughout the churches in China than that 
for a deeper spiritual experience, or, as some one has put it, 
" an increase of the spiritual efficiency of all oar work ". 



148 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

From every part of the country the question came, " What 
can you do to help ? " The answer of the N. 0. C. lias been 
mainly to direct attention to the great value of the small 
group conference or retreat, where a few chosen leaders, 
Chinese and foreign, can moot together for a long enough 
time to discuss unhurriedly the work that is committed to 
them, and to seek for Divine guidance and the renewal of 
their own spiritual life. In a number of cases the Council 
has arranged for the holding of retreats. One of the 
secretaries or some other suitable person has visited the 
locality in order either to lead the retreat or make some 
special contribution to it. The great hope of the 
Council is that this plan may be adopted more and 
more throughout the entire field, quite apart from any 
arrangement made by the Council itself. To this end a 
letter has been addressed to all Christian workers in China 
and suggestions, both for the holding of retreats in general 
and for the discussion of particular topics, have been 
prepared. The Council looks to this method not only for 
the deepening of the spiritual life of those who meet in 
such gatherings, but also as the starting point of a new 
evangelistic fervor throughout the churches. The 
Council is, in some cases, planning for the carrying on of 
definite evangelistic efforts with the help of visitors. The 
emphasis which it would place upon evangelism, however, 
would be even more upon the call to every church member, 
in his own way and according to his own opportunities to 
be a soul winner. Evangelism being the prime duty of the 
church should not be entrusted to a special group of 
evangelists only. 

II. The second need felt in many parts of the field is 
being cared for particularly by the Committee on the 
COUNTRY CHURCH AND RURAL PROBLEMS. It 
has been the habit for years past to think of missionary 
work largely in terms of the great cities which have been 
spoken of as "strategic centers". Opinion seems to be 
moving rather in the direction of recognizing the very great 
importance of the country, not only in the economic sphere, 
but also in providing men and women of the type needed 
for national leadership. The tendency of central organiza 
tion is always to think in terms of the town and big city and 



riHRISTIANITY AND SOOTAL LIFE 149 

to ovor emphasise their relative importance. The missionary 
movement has not escaped this danger. The program of 
the N. C. C. includes a, very earnest effort to correct the 
mistake. No one who thinks about missionary problems 
fails to reali/e the importance of developing the Christian 
Church in every land as a truly indigenous organization ; 
but few seem to realize how closely this is bound up 
with the development of the rural church as a, genuine 
community center having iLs roots in the common life of 
the people a.nd meeting their cvery-day needs. The N. C. C. 
stands for Chinese leadership and for the contribution of 
China, and especially of the Church in China, to the 
development of the common life of humanity. In connection 
with the Committee on International Relations a careful 
study is being instituted and a number of the leading educa 
tional institutions are taking part in it. Its object is to 
bring together the best thought of Christian China on some 
of the great questions which are being faced in the world 
to-day, in order both to clarify the thinking of Chinese 
Christians and to make clear to others what China has to 
bring to the world. 

Ill The third main line of activity is in regard to 
APPLIED CHRISTIANITY. In the industrial centers 
where the ideals and methods of east and west are meeting 
and re-acting upon one another, there is a strong conviction 
among Christian leaders that the church should help in this 
perplexing and dangerous situation . Great evils have come 
into China partly through the contact of China with foreign 
nations, and in some cases the difficulty of handling these 
evils is increased because of the international relations. A 
few years ago China was able in a remarkable way to handle 
the opium situation, and the rest of the world looked on 
ama/ed at the result achieved so rapidly; to-day, owing 
largely to the political unsettlement and the financial chaos, 
China is rapidly slipping back into a condition even worse 
than that from which she escaped, worse especially because 
of the addition of other forms of the drug habit more 
deadly in their result than the smoking of opium. The 
N. C. C. seeks to bring together the forces which should 
cooperate in meeting this evil, greatly hoping that the 
Church may through such cooperation become a far more 



150 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

effective force in dealing with this evil than it has been in 
the past. The clangers to the home life and some of the 
most significant social institutions of China through this 
mixing of different cultural streams is engaging the earnest 
attention of the Council. Within a short time something 
should be done to put before the country the Christian 
conception of home life as the only way out of the present 
confusion. One of the most important factors in these large 
centers tending to disturb the old conditions and create new 
evils is modern, large scale industry, and one of the most 
vigorous sections of the Council s work is that which is 
directed to a thorough investigation of present conditions 
and the making of a fearless witness in relation to them. 
In each of these three main directions there is no doubt 
that the Council is dealing with needs widely felt among 
Christians. It is also true that a divided Church cannot 
face these problems nearly so effectively as one which has an 
organ through which unity of thought and practice may bo 
reached and by means of which each different group may 
make its contribution to the life of the whole. 

T It is much more difficult to indicate the 

the Future direction in which the Council is beginning to 
discover needs of which the churches have 
not been actually conscious but which some here and there 
have felt strongly. These needs arc being revealed through 
retreats and similar small groups, through prayerful 
consideration of our work and through personal contact 
with leaders in different parts. A chief means is the 
travel of the secretaries and the many opportunities which 
come to them of quiet discussion with people who in the 
ordinary way of things are so busy as hardly to be able 
themselves to think back to the deeper causes of the 
difficulties they are facing. Some of the problems which 
may be included under this general heading are the 
following: 

(1) The need of more iiuliffeiiwis Christian literature. 
While a great deal of splendid literature is available 
through the work of many persons and societies, there 
seems still to be a very distinct need for Christian literature 
springing out of the religious experience of Chinese and 
their own attempts to express themselves. What might 



KKLIOIOUS KDrCATION 151 

not be the result of a Chinese author bringing with 
vivid and picturesque detail this wondrous story to the 
minds and hearts of the rising generation in this land? 
What mines of rich material have as yet scarcely been 
tapped in the opening up of the great ideas of the Chinese 
classics and their interpretation in the light of the teaching 
of Jesus, so that they are made to live for this generation 
not simply as ancient and beautiful truths but as dynamic 
principles for the making of a new China. 

(2) The need of improvement in religions education. 
The recent Commission summing up the situation says, 
" Progress in this field lags behind that in almost every 
other department of education. Mission schools fail oftener 
here than in mathematics or science. ;) While this need 
has been strikingly brought home to those who have 
studied the Report, very many are only just beginning to 
realize how serious this lack is. It refers not only to the 
schools and the school curriculum, but to the home 
education of children, to the religious education of adults 
and to special courses in summer schools, etc. The N. C. 
C. in close cooperation with the Educational Association, 
the Sunday School Union and other organizations, is 
seeking to handle this most urgent situation. 

(8) The need for fresh, thinking on the conservation of 
results. In a few cases where active Christian woik is 
being carried on, it must bo admitted that the results are not 
conserved, for though more men and women are constantly 
being added to the church, the net result does not seem 
to be proportionate to the combined efforts, and this is 
largel} 7 due to the fact that those who join the church, after 
a few years, in many cases drift away from it. This 
serious leakage must be stopped, but very few people are 
really giving attention to the question. 

(4) The need fcr a unification of thought and i olicy in 
relation, to public affairs. This has been brought home 
especially to missionary administrators by the very 
unsettled state of many parts of the country. The 
executive committee has already issued a call to the mis 
sions and churches dealing with one aspect of the problem 
(see N. C. C. Bulletin for October li)28). Hut there are 
many other aspects to be considered and in determining 



152 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

upon right action, Chinese and missionary leaders should 
confer together and understand one another even if the; 
matters are of such a character as to require handling 
separately by the Chinese churches and by the foreign 
missions. The N. C. C. provides an ideal meeting-place 
for the frank discussion of this intricate question, involving 
such problems as the relation of Church and State, the use 
of force in restraint, extraterritorial rights, etc. 

(5) The need for a reconsideration of our method of 
presenting the Gospel. We have but the one Gospel, and 
its power is the same to-day as when Paul determined 
long ago to know nothing but Christ and Him crucified. 
How to bring this saving word effectively to an age and 
race whose thought forms and specific approach to life are 
in many ways different from that of the first century in 
Europe, is an ever-recurring problem. Quiet thought, 
patient effort to understand those to whom we bring the 
message, sympathy one with another in trying to work out 
this problem, courage in forsaking old ruts combined 
with the true conservatism that holds tenaciously to 
unchanging truths these are some of the qualities we 
need. If the N. C. C. cannot help the Christian forces 
in China in this matter, it will miss one of its largest 
opportunities. Yet we must all recognize that it is a 
sphere of activity beset with dangers, and only as we are 
led by the Spirit dare we seek to enter it. 

(0) The need for a frank discussion of Church Unity. 
The N. C. C. is not charged with the duty of creating a 
united church for China and has no intention of setting 
out upon such a difficult task. Nevertheless many are 
thinking and talking about the problems which are sure 
to arise as serious attempts are made in this direction. 
If the N. C. C. can provide an atmosphere in which such 
discussion can proceed amicably and constructively it 
may render a very big service to the cause of Christ in 
this land. 

(7) The need of a better understanding of the problem of 
Missionary Training. With all that has been done in 
starting Missionary Training Schools in the Field there 
is still felt to be an inadequate understanding of the 
problems and too little correlation between the various 



COOPERATION WITH COUNCIL lOO 

parties concerned. The International Missionary Council 
has referred this matter to the N. C. C. which is now 
seeking to study the problem in consultation with those 
enaged in its solution and with Chinese Christian leaders. 
To the above it would l>e easy to add other problems 
already on the horizon. But enough lias been said to 
show that the Council will not lack for work within its 
well-defined sphere. It has only been functioning in any 
complete way for about a ye;ir, a.nd it is far too soon to 
speak of the results of its work. Uy visitation and by 
literature, by its annual meetings and committee meetings, 
by its retreats and groups for research, it hopes to learn 
its task more 1 : and more. It relies upon the candid 
criticism, the sympathetic understanding, the willing 
cooperation and the loyal support of all whom it seeks to 
serve. If progress seems slow in some of these directions, 
may we have patience remembering that " He that believeth 
shall not make haste", and that it is better to do a few 
things well than to rush into a multitude of activities and 
leave many only half done. After all, in the last resort, 
the N. C. C. is what the Christian forces in China make 
it, and if, as Ave firmly believe, God is working in these 
forceps surely the result will be to His glory and honour. 



CHAPTER XX 

THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 
AND THE CHURCH IN CHINA 

L. J, Birney 

The National Christian Council was created 
by the National Christian Conference held in 
Shanghai, May, 1922. It is the successor of The China 
Continuation Committee and carries forward the work of 
that pioneer organization with increased vigor and effective 
ness, having the added advantage of being constituted on a 
more truly representative order, and inspired by the 
tremendous impetus of the history-making conference 
which gave it birth. 

Natufe The Council in no sense stands in the rela 

tion of controller or director of church activities. 
It has neither been given nor does it desire authority in any 
degree. It is the servant of all individuals and churches who 
wish to avail themselves of its help in the interests of the 
whole Christian Movement in China, or of any specific plmse 
of it. It is a "Council" of cooperation in the common 
Christian task of building the Kingdom of Heaven in China. 

Aims and ^ n ^ 1G "^ orests ^ a ^ ^lic Churches and most 

Tasks a of a11 f tn - growing indigenous Church in 

China, the Council seeks to perform among 
other services, the following: 

Spiritual Life ^ ie enrichment of the spiritual life of the 
Church. Nothing of graver importance awaits 
the ministry of the Council. It is the conviction of many 
that the spiritual life and vitality of the Chinese Church 
has not kept pace with its numerical and territorial expan 
sion. The Church of to-day is fixing the types and standards 
for the future. It is imperative that in the indigenous 
conception of the Church, the supreme emphasis should be 
placed upon the central characteristic, of the true Christian 
Church in any age or country its essentially spiritual 



SOCIAL WELFARE 155 

nature. This its chief service of spiritual stimulation, the 
Council seeks to render through evangelistic meetings, 
conferences and "retreats," in which church lenders in 
limited numbers spend unhurried days in studying the 
more vital Christian problems, seeking for themselves 
a deeper and more virile spiritual life that they may in 
turn bring new life to the churches they represent. Much 
good has already been wrought in many parts by these 
means. 

^ study of social problems, moral and indus- 

. , . , * . PI- i /il A 

trial, with the aim of bringing to bear Christian 
forces that will ameliorate the conditions already existing, 
and of preventing the growth of menacing social evils. 
The opportunity for exploitation of illiterate and desperately 
needy multitudes, the absence of a government interested 
in making laws that will protect the helpless, or in enforcing 
them if made, renders this problem an exceedingly dillicult 
one, but in consequence all the more imperative. The 
Church is being made increasingly to feel its responsibility of 
leadership in this struggle for human justice. The Council 
stands strongly for, 

(a) No employment of children under twelve. 

(b) One day s rest in seven. 

(r) The safeguarding of the life and health of 

workers. 

The problem of restraining and reducing the evils of pros 
titution, gambling, opium, etc. are distinct responsibilities 
assumed by the Council on behalf of the Church. Much 
effective work has been done in the way of research, 
publicity and the stimulation of interest and activity in 
relation to these threatening evils. Special committees are 
constantly at work on these varied problems and next to 
the deepening of the life of the Church, the Council will 
probably render its largest service in this field, seeking to 
achieve and retain for the Church a rightful leadership in 
social welfare a leadership which the Church in the 
West lias too largely sacrificed. 

TJ , y .< A more tl)orou(/lt, study of conditions in RiiTdl 

(Ikina and of the character, methods and 

possibilities of the country church. 66 % of missionaries 

of China are in cities and towns of over o(. ! ,0()0 inhabitants. 



156 THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 

On the other hand, 85 % of China s population is rural. 
The creation of an indigenous church is, in the mind of the 
Council, clearly dependent in large measure upon the 
development of the rural church. A Chinese writer traces 
the Lincheng affair in part to a well nigh total neglect, on 
the part of the Church, of the region responsible for it. 
However true this may he, his logic is sound. China s 
rural multitudes demand a far larger proportion of the 
Church s ministries than they have ever received, and 
the Council is endeavoring to lead the way. Definite study 
and visitation has begun and will persist until a well con 
sidered policy is possible on the basis of known conditions 
and needs. 

C 6 eration More effective coordination and cooperation. 

The stimulation of the Christian forces of 
China to a closer and more sympathetic cooperation will 
vastly increase their effectiveness in achieving the aims 
common to them all. The idea of organic unity of missions, 
or of the constituent elements of the Chinese Church, is not 
within the purview of the Council. It takes the Chinese 
Church for granted as a living fact and seeks, so far as may 
be, to correllate and concentrate its energies, that the full 
united power of its momentum may be brought to bear 
upon the immediate Christian needs of China. That such 
a service? is demanded is everywhere admitted and by the 
Chinese Church urged as imperative. There is no other 
organ except the Council in a position to embody and 
realize this universal desire. As it becomes a common bond 
in united effort, and therefore a common Christian witness 
to a non-Christian land, it will render one of its great 
services to the Church and the whole Christian cause in 
China. 

Research and Information. The Council aims to become 
increasingly an effective instrument of research and a 
bureau of needful information touching the work of the 
Church in China. There are outstanding Christian 
problems that require, the closest thinking and the most 
painstaking investigation. No one Christian body can do 
this work in any comprehensive way. It is more properly 
the task of such a servant of all the churches as the Council 
seeks increasingly to become. Here is being collected, 



HOME LIFE 157 

analyzed, and made available for use in further advances 
of the Christian army, the information accumulating from 
surveys, investigations, and programs-denominational and 
interdenominational . 

Home Lif ^ D a( J ( ^ion to these the Council aims to 

assist the Church in such important work as 
the creation of a more efficient Christian home life; the 
study of the relation of education to the Christian move 
ment; the fostering of Christian international relationships 
and the opposition to war as a means of adjusting inter- 
provincial or international differences; to encourage in 
every possible way the creation and use of the right type of 
native Christian leadership. Detailed tabulation of what 
has already been accomplished in these lines of action is 
difficult and in many cases impossible, but the Council has 
made substantial progress in most of these, though it lias 
been at work scarcely two years. With a stall which 
commands the complete confidence of all and an organiza 
tion of undoubted efficiency, there is highest assurance of 
rapid gains in the immediate future. 



CHAPTER XXI 

PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 
David Z. T. Yui 

One of the elements of strength of the Y. M. C. A. as 
a Movement is, doubtless, its capacity to adapt itself to 
new conditions and to help meet new needs without 
sacrificing the cardinal points of its objective and organi 
zation. The first Y. M. C. A. was organized in England. 
It quickly found its way to Europe and North America, and 
later to Asia and other continents. A close examination 
of the Y. M. C. A. s in these lands will reveal the fact 
that in the cardinal points they are much alike, but in 
programs they differ because of different environments 
and needs. 

The International Committee of Y. M. C. A. s of North 
America was responsible not only for the introduction 
of the Y. M. C. A. Movement into China, but also, 
through generous and continuous supplies of inspiring 
and experienced leadership, building funds, and of 
encouragement of various kinds, for its rapid growth and 
development. The Danish Y. M. C. A. Movement has of 
late years been of similar help to the Chinese Y. M. C. A. 
particularly in Manchuria. Several Christian missions in 
China have been generously cooperating by allocating 
some of their men to Y" service at different times. 
To these, the Chinese Y. M. C. A. feels exceedingly 
grateful. At the same time, we should mention the keen 
and sincere appreciation of the Y. M. C. A. on the part of 
the Chinese people and their remarkable response which 
is no less important in achieving the success that we 
see to-day. 

But, how can this apparently heterogeneous group of 
forces work so well together? It is because they have one 
common purpose; viz., to help build Christian character 
among the boys and young men of China. They have 
also one common conviction ; viz., this important task 



Y. M. C. A. AND STUDENTS 159 

can be more easily and fully accomplished through tho 
Chinese V. M. (-. A. in contrast to any foreign Y. M . (1. A. 
In addition, they have persevered in pushing tho 
development of the Movement in this direction without 
change or serious deviation. The International 
Committee and other movements or missions gladly and 
conscientiously support the Chinese Y. M. C. A. in various 
ways and at the same time respect its autonomy. The 
Chinese Y. M. C. A. shows deep appreciation of the 
friendship and cooperation of these agencies and is faithful 
and enthusiastic in shouldering its responsibilities for 
the Movement. 

What are the present tendencies of the Chinese; Y. M. 
C. A.? The above comments already indicate the general 
direction in which the Chinese Movement has boon 
developing. No attempt will be made here to describe 
the regular work which the Chinese Y. M. C. A. seeks ever 
to improve and enrich. For clarity, we shall bring out 
tho tendencies as we see them under two groups: First, 
those which help meet some present needs; second, those 
which enable the Movement to accomplish its task more 
efficiently. 

1. The Chinese Y. M. C. A. has, from the beginning, 
recognized the tremendous potentialities of the student 
(lass in relation to the present and future of China, and 
has shaped its policy and program accordingly. Much 
hard and good work has been done. Unfortunately, 
conditions in the country in general and in schools in 
particular have, for the last decade or more, affected 
students in a very serious manner. Their minds have on 
the one hand been thoroughly intoxicated by the different 
"isms" and "ologies" from abroad which are often 
presented in inadequate and distorted form and hence 
arc poisonous and dangerous, and on the other hand 
they have been stirred to tho very depth of their hearts 
by the corruption and disintegration which they see 
around them. The general world situation is no less 
responsible for this restlessness. Their life in many 
ways is in a most appalling state. The devil by the name 
of " Legion" has been and is still busy, and countless 
youths have fallen and are falling into his deadly clutches 



160 PKESENT TENDENCIES TN THE CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 

every day. What are we going to do? The challenge of 
the student work of to-day demands new, redoubled and 
more concerted efforts on the part of the Chinese Y. M, 
C. A. and all other Christian agencies. The Chinese 
Y. M. C. A. and also the Y. W. C. A. are strongly 
convinced that the following should be carried out without 
delay : (a) To enrich the program of the student work to 
help meet the present urgent and challenging conditions ; 

(b) To seek for greater cooperation with the churches in 
order to man more adequately the field and also to identify 
more closely the students with the churches; and, 

(c) To create a national Christian student consciousness 
among the student Y. M. C. A. "s and Y. W. C. A. s, 
which consciousness should be a powerful impetus to the 
work. 

2. We recognize that the development of industries 
has greatly profited the peoples of Europe and America, 
and we are equally aware of the terrible effects of 
industrialism among these same peoples. China is now 
on the threshold of her industrial development, and we 
should indeed welcome this new era. Shall we not, 
however, profit by the experience of western countries 
by reducing to a minimum the evils of industrialism? 
Already, lock-outs, strikes, etc., have found their way 
to China, and the horrors of child-labor, long working 
hours, low wages, unsanitary working conditions, though 
on a much smaller scale, are by no means less intense. 
The Chinese Y. M. C. A. feels a distinct call to enter the 
industrial field of service, although it is not prepared 
to-day to plunge itself head-long into it by borrowing a 
program from some foreign countries irrespective of 
differing conditions and problems or by trusting to luck for 
good results. No time has been lost. The Chinese Y. M. 
C. A. has been quietly studying the industrial situation 
in the large cities; earnestly trying to have men trained 
both in China and abroad for this service; and faithfully 
conducting experiments in a few well-chosen centers to 
gain experience. Efforts have repeatedly been made to 
secure a few experienced industrial secretaries from 
Europe and America, to guide the Movement; these have 
not met with success. The Chinese Y. M. C. A. believes 



EDUCATIONAL CAMPAIGN 161 

that it has been following a wise and constructive policy 
in this matter, but feels also that it has yet much to learn 
from its studies and experiments. Jt will probably therefore 
follow this course a while; longer. Meanwhile, the 
Chinese Y. M. C. A. is pleased to cooperate with other 
organizations in studying and experimenting in the 
industrial field of China for the purpose of rendering 
much-needed service. It also wants to draw as many 
lessons as possible from the experiences of industrial 
workers in other countries. It will fearlessly tackle this 
job as soon as it lias gained a clear conception of what its 
service should be and how best it can be done. 

3. One of the most serious hindrances to the rapid 
growth of democracy in China is, of course, the appallingly 
high percentage of illiteracy among her 400,000,000 people. 
How can the Republic develop when the overwhelming 
majority of the people cannot read or write; do not 
possess the fundamental knowledge of modern life in all 
its aspects; are not aware of their privileges and respon 
sibilities as citizens ; and even refuse to take an active 
interest in the welfare of the country ? On the other hand, 
we have to remember the hundreds of dialects which are 
keeping our people apart, the former education which 
narrowed our minds to a mere form of literary gymnastics, 
and the very dillicult written language which we have to 
learn. We should also consider the important fact that 
our people have been living under an absolute form of 
government for many centuries and have, therefore, been 
taught by bitter experience to have as little as possible to 
do with the aft airs of the country. These constitute, how 
ever, no excuse against introducing improvements at this 
time. The Chinese Y.M.C.A. feels that it has a special 
contribution to make. Our lecture work on science, 
education, public health, and other topics with specially 
invented apparatus for demonstration and with charts and 
lantern slides for illustration has been reaching thousands 
upon thousands of people each year, and the success of this 
work for enlightenment is exceedingly encouraging. 
Recently, a method consisting of the teaching of 1,000 
" foundation characters" scientifically and empirically 



162 PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE CHINESE Y. M C. A. 

selected has been devised by Mr. Y. C. James Yen to break 
the backbone of illiteracy and to provide the masses 
with a simple key with which to unlock and secure the 
knowledge they must have. This method, in the few 
demonstrations thus far conducted, has proved a success. The 
level of general intelligence among the people must be raised 
and kept on a high plane. With demonstrated and illustrated 
lecture work, with the simple tool of 1,000 "foundation 
characters," and with other supplementary means, the 
Chinese Y.M.C.A. hopes to be able to teach the Chinese 
people "Citizenship" not only in China and the world but 
also in God s Kingdom. It aims not merely to enlighten 
the mass of the Chinese people on what citizenship is, but 
also to apply the principles of Jesus to e very-day living. 
The Chinese Y.M.C.A. feels keenly its responsibility for 
the masses of the Chinese people along these lines and will 
make ever greater efforts to serve. 

4. The Chinese Y.M.C.A. is to-day projecting itself 
more and more into the field of international service and 
cooperation. That it ought to have a large share in creating 
a consciousness of world-wide brotherhood has been brought 
home vividly and successfully to the Movement during the 
last few years. The llth Conference of the World s 
Student Christian Federation held at Tsing Una College, 
Peking, two years ago, with its wonderful fellowship among 
the student delegates of many nations, produced a most 
wholesome effect on our student mind. The after- 
conference tours by the foreign delegates left a permanent 
impression on the entire Movement. The rest of the world 
remains no longer a mystery. Not only that, mutual 
admiration and appreciation have been fully awakened, and 
the relationship of mutual service has been growing in 
strength ever since. Mr. T. Z. Koo was called to be the 
first Oriental Secretary with head-quarters in Europe, and 
he will proceed to his post this summer. Last year, under 
the auspices of the Federation, Mr. Koo visited India and 
met with her student leaders in many centers. It has been 
reported to us from many sources that no man, oriental or 
occidental, has made a more effective and helpful impres 
sion upon the Indian student mind than Mr. Koo. In the 



LEADERS HI L> 163 

spring of 1023, the World s Committee, which is composed 
of the National Y. M. C. A. Movements of different lands, 
held in Hungary a World Conference on Boy s Work, which 
Mr. M. T. Teliou went especially from China to attend 
on behalf of the Chinese Y.M.C.A.. He played a very 
important part at the Conference. We shared our problems 
and experiences in boy s work with the rest of the world, 
and in turn we learned much. Early this fall, the Chinese 
Y.M.C.A. will participate in the Conference of the National 
General Secretaries which has been called by the Inter 
national Committee to be held in America. This will afford 
added opportunities of studying our common task from an 
international stand-point and exchanging our experiences. 
We cannot lay too much emphasis on the importance of 
our entering whole-heartedly this field of international 
service and cooperation, aiming at creating a world-wide 
brotherhood without which international understanding, 
cooperation and peace can hardly be realized. 

We shall now come to the second group of tendencies 
which go to enable the Chinese Y.M.C.A. more efficiently 
to accomplish its task. 

1. Leadership is the first essential in the success of 
any organization or movement. For thirty-seven City 
Y.M.C.A. s and one National Committee, we had in 1922 
altogether 550 secretaries as compared with 478 in 1921. 
On the surface, it naturally seems that the Chinese 
Y.M.C.A. is well supplied with secretaries, and the number 
is increasing in accordance with the growing work. We 
have every good reason to be thankful for the men now in 
the secretaryship. At the same time, we feel painfully the 
fact that we are not able to measure up to the opportunities 
of expanding service pressing upon us on every hand. We 
have been appealing to the International Committee and 
sister movements in other lands and several Christian 
missions in China to assign, loan or allocate to our work 
men of the best preparation and highest consecration. The 
Chinese Y.M.C.A. greatly needs these men because of the 
distinct and permanent contribution they can make; vi/., 
training and reproducing themselves in their Chinese 
associates. No service is nobler or more fundamental to 



164 PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 

the permanency of the Chinese movement than this. 
Meanwhile, the Chinese Y.M.C.A. is not sparing itself in 
developing Chinese leadership. The supply of leadership 
from other countries cannot but be limited in numbers and 
can never be equal to our unlimited demands in view of the 
immenseness of our field and the complexity of our work. 
The natural growth of the Chinese Y.M.C.A. will devolve 
more and more upon the Chinese secretaries. Already we 
have Chinese General Secretaries in seven or eight of our 
City Associations, and the number of Chinese Departmental 
Executives is increasing even more rapidly. Our foreign 
secretaries have indeed excellent reason to congratulate 
themselves on the real success of reproducing themselves in 
their Chinese associates. We should quickly point out our 
urgent need of more and even stronger foreign leadership 
as well as its permanent place in the Chinese Y.M.C.A. 
In fact the terms "foreign" and "Chinese " secretaries are 
certainly misleading. We want to state emphatically that 
there is no such distinction in the Chinese Y.M.C.A., for 
we know of no racial or national differences. All secretaries 
are on an absolutely equal basis, and are working for the 
same cause. Because of different temperaments, training 
and experiences, they supplement one another in a wonder 
ful way, and have, as a rule, affectionate regard for one 
another. This is indeed an element of real strength which 
should be preserved at all costs. 

2. To a casual observer, the Chinese Y.M.C.A. appears 
to be merely an efficient organization full of activities. 
This is a real compliment. The implication is, however, 
that the Chinese Y. M. C. A. does not make much use of its 
brains. The reason for its success thus far is the presence 
of the foreign secretaries who have been borrowing suc 
cessful Y. M. C. A. methods from abroad and have been 
applying them equally successfully in China. To many 
who know the Chinese Y. M. C. A. better, the above criticism 
betrays ignorance. As a rule, each local association has 
two setting-up conferences in the early spring and fall of 
each year to discuss thoroughly the policy and program of 
the association and to set up carefully the program of the 
term. There are daily meetings and weekly conferences 
to check up and improve the program if necessary. We 



RETREATS AND RESEARCH 165 

have regular meetings for our Directors and committee 
men, and also special retreats for them from time to time. 
The National secretaries visit the local associations not only 
to assist in their activities but also in their studies by 
drawing upon experiences in other centers or countries. 
Regional conferences and retreats each year and National 
Conventions and Employed Officers Conferences once in 
three years are all intended for educational and spiritual 
purposes. This is not enough. The Chinese Y. M. C. A. 
feels the importance of starting a Research Department 
whose function will be not only to study the problems 
as they come up, but also to investigate and experiment in 
new fields and new lines of service which conditions in 
China will call for and which may not be found in the 
policy and program of other movements. We should not 
take things for granted, nor accept anything from abroad 
without examining the same in the light of our own 
conditions and needs. The Research Department will 
study Chinese civilization to find out the good qualities to 
l>e re-awakened and brought into the reconstruction of our 
country. It will also scrutinize western civilization so 
that our young men and boys will be warded off from the 
evils therein and will be benefited by the good in it. Not 
only should we re-evaluate everything but also have the 
courage to venture into the unknown and experiment. 
Only in this way, can we really make progress. The 
Chinese Y.M.C.A. believes in this Research Department and 
its great possibilities, and is making plans to install it at 
an early date. 

8. Some people criticise the Chinese Y. M. C. A. for 
not being religious enough, and its religious work is looked 
upon as superficial and indefinite. Others decline to help 
the Chinese Y.M.C.A. because it is a religious organization. 
Two years ago, on the opening day of the magnificent build 
ing of the Ningpo Association in Shanghai, one of its 
directors remarked to a group of foreign visitors that in 
that building they had everything a well-equiped Y.M.C.A. 
usually has except religion. Opinions difrVr. May we 
refer briefly to a few statistics of the religious work of the 
Chinese Y. M. C. A. ending December 31st, 1922 as 
follows: 



166 PRESENT TENDENCIES IN THE CHINESE Y. M. C. A. 

Bible-study Classes 3,431. 

Enrollment in these classes 36,999. 

Religious Meetings 5,008. 

Attendance at these meetings 628,391. 

Men and boys joining churches 3,174. 

We should by no means over-emphasize these figures 
which simply serve to show the general situation. In 
reality, they should sober us to a sense of greater 
responsibility for the religious life and activities of our 
members, when we see our failure to reach less than one 
half of them, their number in 1922 being 77,947. The 
Chinese Y. M. C. A. is not at all satisfied with the results 
thus far, and is endeavoring to deepen its religious life in 
every possible way. Greater efforts will be made to push 
Bible-study classes, religions meetings, and personal work. 
More helpful devotional literature will be prepared and 
placed in the hands of our members and those with whom 
we come into contact. A series of local and regional 
retreats are now being prepared for this spring and 
early summer especially with the leadership of 
Mr. F. S. Brockman, Dr. H. T. Hodgkin, Rev. K. T. Chung, 
Mr. T. Z. Koo and others. We shall more faithfully 
promote prayer, meditation, and practice of the presence of 
God. It is imperative that we should feed our spiritual 
life, if we want it to grow. How many of us often allow 
our spiritual life to starve without even feeling the pangs 
of hunger ? Not only that, we should exercise or give ex 
pression to our spiritual life in service which is just as 
important as spiritual feeding. A spiritual life without 
expression is as dead as the Dead Sea. The Chinese Y.M.C. A. 
feels the urgency of vitalizing and spiritualizing every 
phase of its work and also every worker, be he director, 
secretary, committee-man, or member, and is endeavoring 
to work in this direction. The service of the Chinese 
Y. M. C. A. can be as effective only as the religious life is 
filled to overflowing with the grace of God. 



CHAPTER XXII 

SOME MODERN ASPECTS OF THE YOUNG WOMEN S 
CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA 

Based on material given fay Mrs. T, C. Chu and Miss 
Ting Shu-ching, and prepared by Theresa Severia. 

Qf A w i- The year 1923 is a significant one in the 
Commissi.3 n history of the Young Women s Christian 
Association in China. In the spring of the 
year a National Student Work Commission met in 
Shanghai in April and after days of discussion and 
thinking together prepared a Statement of Purpose and 
Basis of Membership in Student Associations, and plans 
for program, which were sent out to Student Associations 
all over the country in order that there might he the 
fullest possible thinking on these lines before the National 
Convention of the entire Association called for October of 
the same year. The Purpose as thus discussed and 
presented to the Convention, and formally accepted by 
them was as follows : 

I Based on Christ-like friendship, to unite the members 
through Bible study and prayer to know deeply Jesus 
Christ as the highest revelation of God, perfect 
exam pi e of man and Saviour, and to copy his way 
of living. 

II To lead students to share the friendship of this 
movement in order to advance their character, step 
by step to understand Jesus Christ clearly, to be an 
active members in the Church, and with united 
strength to help meet the needs of society. 

The Convention also voted that any student who 
expressed approval of the Purpose of the Association 
might become a voting member, thus challenging all who 
wish to participate in the work of the Student Association 



168 vouNCi WOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA 

to pledge themselves to a deeper loyalty to Jesus Christ 
for themselves, and to share with others that knowledge in 
such a way as to lead others into the same active loyalty. 
. . The calling of the First National Convention 

Convention for Association members was the goal to 
which the leaders of the Association had 
been looking forward for years. The results of the 
Convention proved in a convincing way that the goal of 
to-day is but the signpost pointing onward to a goal more 
distant. Perhaps this struggle to steadily move forward 
to an ever receding goal is the genius of the Association 
movement everywhere, but during those October days 
the one hundred and fifty delegates, representing City 
and Student Associations all over China, were pledging 
themselves to programs of endeavor which could only be 
accomplished with the bringing in of the Kingdom of 
(jod itself. 

A glance at the recommendations passed at this 
Convention gives one some idea of the scope of the 
Purpose of the Association. Leading women into a fuller 
knowledge of Jesus Christ means an interpretation of the 
practical application of His principles of life. Therefore 
it is not strange to find recommendations that the Associa 
tion cooperate with all existing agencies in campaigns 
against Foot-Binding, the Planting and Sale of Opium; 
that it should work constructively on plans for Popular 
Education, Recreation, and Health Campaigns. The appeal 
from the National Christian Council that we cooperate 
with it in its effort to meet the industrial problems in 
China was most heartily endorsed by the Convention. 
That such endorsement was not a matter of mere words 
is testified to by the fact that the national Industrial 
Secretaries of the Association movement are working 
directly under the Industrial Committee of the National 
Christian Council. 

R-Iation to ^ liri noto ^ co P ( rjlt i ()n was tne one that 

Church" was heing continually struck, no matter 

what particular problem was being faced. 
Underlying all the discussion and thinking was the desire 
to have the life of the Association express itself through 
the Christian Church. The methods of such expression 



Y. W. O. A. AND CHURCH 1(39 

must necessarily vary in different places, depending on 
how far the church in any center has gone on the road to 
unity of effort, but in certain cities the Association lias 
been asked to use church equipment in making its 
contribution to the girlhood and womanhood of that 
section of the city. This desire that the Association should 
lose itself wherever possible in the life of the Church is 
deep in the hearts of many of the Association leaders. 
This is especially true of Miss Ting Shu-ching, the Acting 
National General Secretary for China. 

c , { Miss Ting s coming into this position is 

Leadership another evidence of the significance of the year 
1923. For the first time our National movement 
is going forward under Chinese leadership in the chief 
executive position, and there are daily evidences of the 
power of that leadership. Miss Ting is convinced that 
the Association movement offers a unique opportunity 
to Chinese women to work together in making a Christian 
society. No one understands more fully than she the 
splendid capacities of Chinese women for service. But 
recognizing that in many instances their efforts are too 
isolated she is eager that the opportunity be given 
them of working together. 

Interpretation . 1 interpretation of the work and place 
ot the Young Women s Christian Association 
in China as given by Mrs. T. C. Chu, former Chairman 
of the National Committee, gives further evidence of the 
leadership that is being given to this movement by the 
women of China. She writes: 

" The official name of our Association is the Chinese 
Young Women s Christian Association. Putting 
Chinese in front of the name makes the distinction 
from the Association of other countries, and adding the 
word Christian emphasizes the aim of our Association, 
which is to guide women to God and to follow Christ. 
We sincerely believe that to serve others is absolutely 
necessary in a wholesome life for the individual, and 
to sacrifice one.- elf is necessary in developing social 
happiness. This is the spirit of Christianity! Only 
the women who are sincere and who live by the truth 
of Christianity can have this spirit." 



170 YOUNG WOMEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION IN CHINA 

As evidence of what the Association means to its 
membership I would again quote Mrs. Chu: 

* Though the volunteer workers help without salary 
they do get in return a benefit which cannot be purchased 
with money. Women with ability and wisdom ought to use 
it. Now in China the women are not allowed to go out to 
work. People do not understand that human beings were 
created to be useful. Women are kept at home as some 
thing precious and they are not allowed to know life outside. 
The volunteer workers of our Association are the fine 
women of the country. If it has been said that students 
trained in the mission schools and the returned students 
can work more harmoniously with foreigners, because they 
have had more association with them, it is wrong ! The 
Y.W.C.A. is one of the cooperative movements of the world 
and it is the greatest movement among women of these 
times. The international movement for suffrage for women 
and the Federation of Women Laborers works no better 
than our Association. Can we women of the Chinese 
Republic boldly go forward as do the women of other 
civilized nations ? 

, r f This is not all. All the volunteer workers 

Volunteer . . . 

Workers can recei ve group training and learn the 

spirit of cooperation, because anything 
that is to be done will be put in the hands of appointed 
committees. The elected president is simply an officer 
standing for other people and she can nevei\do anything by 
her own will. The co-workers, with varying ability, can 
work together happily. This is the very aim of our Associa 
tion and we fully believe that it can be of help to the people 
of China. The trouble in China now is not due to a lack 
of able people, but to a lack of cooperation among able 
people. If we want to reform this wrong, we must first of 
all work among women. Any sort of work in our Associa 
tion demands cooperation." 
Growth Thus at the close of 1923 we find a woman s 

movement which started barely twenty years 
ago now reaching out through twelve City Associations and 
ninety Student Associations, under leadership increasingly 
Chine.se; a movement which by virtue of its first National 
Convention has become a national movement endeavoring 



ASSOCIATION AND MASSES 171 

to so express the spirit of Jesus Christ that women of all 
classes shall be drawn to Him as giving that fullness of life 
which is the birthright of all the children of God. 

Daring the early years of the Association s history in 
China most of the activities were planned for and directed 
by the educated women of leisure, but steadily there has 
been a reaching out to all classes and all ages with a 
growing eagerness to bring to younger girls a truer concep 
tion of God and their relation to Him. Even more 
significant was the recommendation passed at the Convention 
that membership in the Association should not be limited 
by nationality, so that in looking ahead to future days one 
realizes that the Young Women s Christian Association of 
China may, if it faces its task with sufficient humility, be 
a very tangible expression of the oneness of all life in Christ. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

CHINESE HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

*, . . In the fall of 1922 the Society sent Dr. 

iviissionaries T T _ T . .... 1 . . , f . 

L. K. Liu to Yunnan, making a total of ten 

missionaries working in the three centres of the Yunnan 
Mission. In the early spring of 1923 it accepted, with 
great reluctance, the resignation of Dr. T. C. Hsueh who is 
now working with the Episcopal Mission in Yunnanfu. 
Later in the spring Miss Li Mu-chen s health failed and 
she was ordered by her doctor to leave the south and return 
to her home in the north. But the change did not benefit 
her and she was called to her eternal rest on the twenty- 
second of September. Another resignation was forced on 
the Society when Miss Hope Hsu became engaged to a 
young man in Ko-kiu who was brought to Christ through 
our missionaries. The marriage took place in October and 
the Society s loss of a valued worker is Ko-kiu s gain in a 
Christian family. 

,, In this provincial city there have been three 

Yunnanfu ... , riA1 

missionaries, two women and one man. I hey 

have been engaged in educational work mainly. The 
schools are a primary for girls, a primary for boys, and a 
kindergarten for both boys and girls. The enrollment for 
the year in the three departments was one hundred and 
thirty. Seven girls finished the primary course and entered 
the higher primary school. Five came to Shanghai to study 
in the Bethel Mission and one went to Hangchow. Four 
girls from the primary school were baptized during the 
year. Through the girls the women missionaries got in 
touch with many women of leisure in the city. The 
missionaries give time to the study of the home life and 
environment of these women and thus learn their needs. 
They organized in August, 1922, a philanthropic society, 
the aim of which is to arouse greater interest in the welfare 
of others, encourage a proper use of time and money and 
develop individual talents. Within the short space of a 



HOME MISSION STATIONS 173 

few days, the members raised six hundred dollars among 
themselves and started a school for the blind. For this 
school they secured JL teacher educated in Canton. Ever 
since its opening the financial burden of this enterprise has 
been carried by these women, missionaries having assumed 
the executive part. A few classes in Bible Study were 
started in Government Schools. 

The year s church records show a goodly number of 
probationers and the baptism of several men. 
Lu | eii It was through the medical department that 

missionary work was welcomed in Lu-feng. 
For the greater part of the year two doctors were there, one 
woman and one man; their time was given to dispensary 
work and evangelistic calls. The average daily clinic was 
more than thirty and the calls were courteously received. 
After Dr. Liu left for Ko-kiu, the work was carried on by 
Dr. Lin Chieh-en alone with such help as Miss Chen Yu-ling 
and Mr. T. S. Chen could give. 

A half -day school for women was opened by Miss 
Chen. There were nineteen pupils who were taught to 
read and write, do useful handwork, and, most important 
of all, to study the Life of Christ. In addition to the work 
above mentioned visits were made to the prisons for both 
men and women, meetings held with the soldiers in camps, 
and classes taught in Government Schools. Six baptisms 
and a long list of probationers are some of the results of 
the year. 

Ko _ kiu The work in Ko-kiu was started a year ago. 

Dr. T. C. Hsueh was the pioneer worker. He 
opened a dispensary and was joined by Mr. Chang Chuen- 
lisin and his family and Mrs. Lu Siu-mei. The latter was 
called back to Yunnanfu by Miss Li s illness and Dr. Liu 
took Dr. Hsueh s place after his resignation. 

So many changes have hindered this work that no fair 
report can be made of this young enterprise. 
H-Hungkiaug Long before the Chinese; Home Missionary 
Society came into existence the Chinese 
Christians of the Presbyterian Mission in Manchuria had 
started home mission work in Heilungkiang. A unique 
piece of work was done there. ]>ut in the early part of 
11)22 this work was affiliated with the Chinese Home 



174 rirrxE-jE HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

Missionary Society and is now called the Heilungkiang 
Mission. Later a main auxiliary was organized and 
located in Harbin with two salaried officers, a general 
secretary and an assistant. The budget for the work and 
the office expenses is raised entirely through the branch 
auxiliaries of the three Manchurian provinces. This 
includes one hundred dollars given yearly to the G.H.M.S. 
for its annual budget. Besides the help given by the 
Christians of the churches started by this mission, there 
are seven missionaries connected with this society. The 
whole amount collected for the year was $8,396.35. 
The number who take communion is forty-six. 

A Jf , , There were thirty-four new auxiliaries 

Auxiliaries , . . 

organized during the year, making a total 

number of fifty -eight. The Manchurian Auxiliary alone 
has over eighty branches ; another one has about fifty. 
p. Full particulars of receipts and expenditures 

are not now available. The yearly budget of 
more than twenty thousand dollars was met by contributions 
from auxiliaries, Christmas gifts, group gifts and individual 
gifts. A few of the gifts were from foreign friends. All 
conference expenses were covered by the Milton Stewart 
Fund. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

HUNAN BIBLE INSTITUTE 

Frank A. Keller 

For an account of the beginning of this work and itd 
growth during the early years the reader is referred to 
the article "the Hunan Col portage Work of the Bible 
Institute of Los Angeles" in the China Mission Year 
Book for 1917, pages 353-307. 

The Hunan Bible Institute is the China Department 
of the Bible Institute of Los Angeles and its work is 
carried on along three main lines: J. A Bible School at 
Changsha. 2. The Biola Evangelistic Bands. 8. An 
Autumn Bible Conference at Nanyoh. 

Th B bl ^^ s Bible School was started in response 

School ^ Jl m st urgent need and its growth has 

been remarkable. The original plan was to 
begin classes in the fall of 19.18, but the I\ev. W. S. Home, 
principal of the Burrows Memorial Bible School, was 
summoned home on account of the serious illness of his 
wife, he had a, small class nearly ready for graduation 
and he asked us if it would be possible to open our school 
in the spring, and receive and graduate his class. God 
enabled us to do this and the regular school work was 
begun in the spring of 1918 with the class from Nanchang 
and a few local students. 

The school has grown steadily and we now have one 
hundred and twenty-seven students who have come from 
twelve provinces and represent eighteen different missions. 

The course of study leading to a diploma requires two 
years. Each year s work is separate, making it possible 
to have smaller classes and to give more personal attention 
to each student. This plan necessitates a much larger 
staff of teachers than is required by the "two year cycle ; 
method of most Bible Schools. Our present staff consists 
of twelve Chinese and nine foreign teachers, and we hope 
to increase the number in the near future. 



176 HUNAN UIJiLE INSTITUTE 

The twelve missions in Changsha offer rare 
Students opportunities to onr students to make a 

thorough study of all kinds of church, 
evangelistic and Christian educational work, and also 
to engage in the various branches of work in the church of 
their choice under the direction of the inissionary-in-charge. 
Our own street chapel, "Biola Hall," and the street chapels 
of the several missions make it possible to give to our 
students a practical training in preaching that is of the 
utmost value. 

Three afternoons each week the students go out two 
by two to visit in the homes. Interested persons are 
invited to attend the nearest church on the following 
Sunday and the students offer to escort the enquirers 
to the church and introduce them to the missionary 
and pastor. 

During the winter vacation of one month 
Evangelism an ^ ^ no summer vacation of two months the 
students are organized into evangelistic bands, 
and go out into various fields on the invitations of the 
missions responsible for those fields. During our last 
school year, including the vacation periods, our students 
visited 24,117 homes and had the joy of leading man} 7 to a 
definite faith in Christ. 

Milt Tho "Milton Stewart Hall" now under 

Stewart Hall construction, with its large auditorium, 
splendid class rooms, lecture halls, reading 
rooms, library, and offices, will add greatly to the efficiency 
of the work. In the dormitories each student has a 
separate room, thus giving opportunity for the private 
Bible study and prayer that mean so much to the growth 
of a soul. 

Biola The word "Biola" is formed by using the 

Evangelistic initial letters of the name of our home 
Bands institution, Bible Institute Of LOB Angeles, 

B. I. 0. L. A. 

The Biola Evangelistic Bands are each made up of 
twelve men and a trained leader. Our special work is 
PERRON A), EVANGELISM in the homes of the people, 
mainly in urievangelized districts. The bands, when 
available, are sent to the fields of various missions on the 



EVANGELISTIC BANDS 177 

written invitation of the mission concerned, our main 
conditions being that the hands be allowed to work in new 
districts, and that the work be consecutive and thorough. 
A most important feature of the work is 
Study the daily morning united Bible study under 

the direction of the band leader. An hour 
and a half every morning is devoted to this Bible class 
which is attended by every man in the band, and the 
lessons have to be carefully prepared. Interested enquirers 
are invited to this class and so they learn the joy and 
value of systematic Bible study from the very beginning 
of their Christian experience. 

Da s Work After their morning Bible study the men 

go out two by two to visit in the shops and 
homes. They invite the people to the evening evangelistic 
service and as soon as people become interested they form 
them into classes for Bible study. They organize classes 
for men, for women, for students and for children. They 
teach important texts and stirring hymns to the children, 
and after a band has been in a center for a few days the 
children all along the street are singing out the Gospel 
message from morning till night. 

A missionary of one of the largest missions 
in Hunan in a recent letter to his home 
mission paper wrote: (< We secured the 
promise of a Biola Evangelistic Band for our district and 
looked forward to their coming with great expectations. 

" After Chinese New Year they began work. They 
went up and down the streets visiting every home and 
inviting people to the meetings. 

11 The leader of the band got a group together for 
regular Bible study, and he kept that class going through 
the whole spring; in April 60 persons entered our catechu 
men s class. 

* We also saw the fruit of their work among the 
Christians of our church, they became more eager to win 
others to Christ and more people attended the Sunday 
services than ever before. 

"Those young evangelists were indeed an example to all 
of us, whatever the weather, snow, rain or burning sun they 
went around in the country and villages with their books. 



1?8 HUNAN BIBLE INSTITUTE 

** Their way of living is very simple, they take only 
two meals a day, they neither smoke nor drink wine. 
Every morning at six o clock the hell rings for the morning 
watch. They always looked happy and they carried their 
joy into the homes they visited. It was quite an experience 
to do house visiting with them: many sick and bed-ridden 
people were converted and baptized during the stay of the 
band with us." 

It is important to note that the bands are 

Leadership under Chinese leadership, no foreigner goes 

out with them, though missionaries in whose 

districts they are working are invited to visit them and so 

are brought in contact with the converts. 

The bands are supplied with a number of the best 
religious publications which keep them in touch with 
Christian work all over the world. The men are all 
systematic givers, making contributions regularly to various 
Christian enterprises, and they teach their converts the 
duty and joy of giving. The work has resulted in the 
establishment of many indigenous, self-supporting and 
aggressive churches. 

We now have twelve bands (156 men) working in three 
provinces. Last year ten bands visited 232,241 homes and 
gave out 890,726 Testaments, Gospels and other Christian 
literature. 

Bible Conference Ever y y ear we s P end the month of Sep 
tember at Nanyoh, one of the five so-called 
Sacred Mountains of China. There are three lectures or 
classes each morning, and occasional additional lectures 
when called for. The afternoons are devoted to rest, 
correspondence and personal work among the thousands of 
pilgrims who come to Nanyoh to worship at the shrines. 
There is a fine swimming pool with sand bottom which 
the men enjoy greatly, and there are pleasant walks in 
various directions. 

This work was begun in rented quarters, but it grew 
so rapidly that we were compelled to purchase a site and 
erect suitable buildings, We now have a grand site and 
buildings which will accommodate live hundred delegates. 



NAN YOU CONFERENCE 179 

Last September, in spite of severe war conditions, 370 
attended the Nanyoh Bible Conference, some of them having 
come from such widely separated provinces as Shantung 
and Kwangsi, Szechwan and Chekiang. 

Nanyoh is a place where Christian workers from 
various fields can meet, talk over their respective methods, 
problems, failures and successes, and unite in prayer for 
the one great work to which they all have given their lives. 
There is no rush at Nanyoh, and there are practically no 
distractions, therefore the visitors have ample time for con 
ference, meditation and prayer. It is a joy to see individuals 
and little groups of men going off to some quiet spot on the 
mountain side, and the songs that come down from one and 
another of these little groups truly stir the soul. 

The last Sunday at Nanyoh is a day long to be 
remembered, it is a practical demonstration of genuine 
Christian unity. 

Missionaries from several lands, and Chinese Christians 
from many provinces of this great land, and from many 
different denominations, come together on this Sunday 
morning and, forgetting all differences of race and creed, 
with hearts truly knit together in Christ, unitedly partake 
of the bread and wine "In memory of Him", the great 
Head of the one body, the Church. 

This article would be incomplete without a 
grateful and loving testimony to the faithful 
friendship, persistent efforts, earnest prayers 
and sacrificial giving of the late Mr. Lyman Stewart. To 
his vision and enthusiasm the work owes its start. Through 
the generous gifts of himself and his brother, the late 
Mr. Milton Stewart, together with the gifts and prayers of 
many loyal friends throughout the world, the work, by 
God s blessing, has reached its present position. 



CHAPTER XXV 

COOPERATION IN THE C. I. M. 
D. E. Hoste 

T f As is generally known, the C. I. M. is 

International -, <. i <> T- 

composed oi workers drawn trom amerent 

countries, denominations and walks in life: in these par 
ticulars, it is highly heterogeneous. That this tends to 
render cooperation between the members more difficult 
may be admitted. On the other hand, if such cooperation 
can be realized, the resultant life and action will be the 
fuller and more complete because of the diversity of the 
component parts. Further, it is good for character to 
learn to adapt ourselves to the habits and thoughts of those 
with whom previously we have had little, if any, contact. 
The prejudices, often mistaken for principles, which 
lead people to over-value their own ways and under-value 
those of others, are generally the result of restricted 
experience and a narrow outlook. Their removal, or at 
least their mitigation, is an essential part of education. 
Hence, what at first sight may appear to be a drawback in 
the personnel of the C. I. M., proves, when taken in the 
right spirit, to be a means of good and of enlargement. 

It is obvious that at the basis of any active 
and Method organization there must be a common stock 
of objective belief , aim and method. In the 
case of missions, the ecclesiastical order and doctrinal 
tenets of a given denomination generally furnish the 
pattern. This means that, in some instances, liberty of 
thought and practice are restricted in respect of ecclesiastical 
order, considerable diversity of theological thought being 
permitted; in others, the reverse may be the case. What 
ever abstract objections may be made to such arrangements, 
in practice they safeguard the convictions and provide for 
the religious liberty of widely varying types of workers. 
If, for example, a member of one denominational mission, 



CONSCIENTIOUS COOPERATION 181 

who embraced the ecclesiastical tenets of another, were, in 
the name of religious liberty, to be allowed to modify the 
church order of the former, the real result would be an 
infringement of the religions liberty of those who started 
or joined the organization on the understanding that its 
church order was to be of a certain type. The one whose 
views have altered is perfectly free to join some other 
organization in harmony with those views, or to work 
independently. He cannot, in reason, expect that the 
convictions of those abiding by the original understandings 
of the mission should be sacrificed on his account. Hence, 
the practical advantage of having a variety of organizations, 
each of which admittedly only covers a limited area of 
conviction and order. The alternative would seem to be 
either a fixed central authority for the whole Christian 
Movement, under which liberty of thought and inde 
pendence of action became atrophied; or virtual anarchy, 
breeding confusion and ending in dissolution. The bless 
ings of cooperation are great and various. They are, 
however, obtained too dearly at the expense of conscien 
tious convictions. It is true, that any form of cooperation 
requires some sacrifice of individual thought and preference; 
but that is a different matter from the stilling of 
conscientious belief. This is not a question of charity, but 
of keeping a good conscience. It is of little use for me to 
tell my friend that the matters about which we differ are 
really immaterial. That may be true enough as I view 
them; but T must, in justice, to say nothing of charity, 
respect his right conscientiously to view them as essential. 

Doctrine ^ n ^ e case ^ ^ ne C. I- M., the foregoing 

principles find their expression in a common 
understanding as to doctrine, which, in the light of present 
day thought and speculation, may be regarded as strict and 
conservative; whilst in respect of denominational tenets, 
it allows full liberty within the compass of the generally 
recognized churches of ecclesiastical bodies of Protestant 
Christendom. The Mission has not a full, comprehensive 
creedal statement of its own. That would hardly be 
consistent with its interdenominational character. It 
simply interprets certain great doctrines of the Christian 



182 COOPERATION IN THE f. I. M. 

Faith, in what has been recognized by all the great 
denominations as the strictly conservative and evangelical 
sense. These doctrines are: 

(1) The divine inspiration and consequent authority 

of the whole canonical Scriptures. 

(2) The doctrine of the Trinity. 

(3) The fall of man, his consequent moral depravity 

and his need of regeneration. 

(4) The atonement through the substitutionary death 

of Christ. 

(5) The doctrine of justification by faith. 

(6) The resurrection of the body, both in the case of 

the just and the unjust. 

(7) The eternal life of the saved and the eternal 

punishment of the lost. 

It may be added that, in view of present day ambiguity 
of thought and language, the directors and councils of the 
Mission have recently thought it well to reaffirm their 
agreement with the strictly conservative and evangelical 
interpretation of the above, as stated by Mr. Hudson Taylor, 
with the concurrence of the councils of the mission, at the 
time of his retirement from the office of general director 
at the end of 1902. 

This feature of the Mission clearly involves a marked 
restriction of its membership in some directions; at the 
same time imparting to it a largely homogeneous character, 
both in respect of doctrinal belief and the type of personal 
piety within it. 

Practical Unit ^ ne Mi ss ^ on being interdenominational, 
the church preferences of its members are 
respected, each worker being sent to a district where 
his views prevail. In this way, Episcopalians, Presby 
terians, Baptists, Methodists and Congregationalists are 
able to work within the fellowship of the Mission without 
compromise of conviction. Experience shows that practical 
unity is best secured by frankly recognizing and providing 
for differences of view. Attempts, however well meant, at 
an outwardly closer union, which either ignore or suppress 
sincere belief, lead, later on, either to disruption or to that 
deterioration, intellectual and moral, due to trifling with 
conviction. 



SPIRITUAL ANJ) PRACTICAL 183 

Most people will agree that, after all, the question of 
cooperation is sometimes most acute as between workers 
in the same station or district. It is, indeed, only in so 
far as the Christian spirit prevails, that these relationships 
can he maintained as they should he. Here, as in other 
matters, it is the spiritual that is the truly practical. It 
is only hy giving secret prayer and the devotional study of 
Holy Scripture their due time and place in the program 
of each day, that a Christian worker can be maintained 
and renewed in that living fellowship with God in Christ 
essential to fellowship with his brethren. We are so made 
that it takes time for us to receive the correction and the 
inspiration which the Spirit of God is prepared to give us. 
The words of our Lord to His disciples, "The Kingdom 
of God is within you," are still true. Perhaps the most 
dangerous result of neglecting sedulously to cultivate the 
personal Christian life, is that the one affected is largely 
insensible to the loss of tone and quality of his personality, 
which may be painfully evident to others. It is a 
commonplace to say that prayer and secret devotion are 
important: too often, however, we virtually contradict 
the words by adding that it is impossible to find time 
for them. This simply means that, as a matter of fact, 
we do not regard them as of the first importance. As a 
rule, we allow at least an hour and a half in the day for 
the nourishment of our bodies. Why should we expect 
our Christian life to be strong and helpful to others, if 
less time is given to secret devotions? "How shall we 
escape, if we neglect so great salvation ?" The more we 
pray, the more we want to pray; the converse is also 
true. This often means cutting out of our schedule things, 
which good in their way, are taking the place of the best 
and highest. Fasting, the need of which was on more 
than one occasion, emphasixed by our Lord, is not 
necessarily to be restricted in bodily food. One of its 
advantages is that additional time is thus gained for 
waiting upon God, and we may be sure that as we thus 
give practical evidence of our desire to draw nigh to Him, 
He, in His grace, will not fail to draw nigh to us. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

CHURCH FEDERATION IN CHINESE CITIES 
J. S. Burgess 

If the national organizations of the church federate, 
but the local churches fail to work together much of the 
national effort is of no avail. Plans projected at national 
headquarters in Shanghai become of little value without 
local organizations to carry them out. This was the 
verdict of the China For Christ Conference in Shanghai, 
in December of 1918. 

Since this Conference it cannot be said that the 
federation movement has grown rapidly. In several 
places, such as Nanking and the Wu-Han district, there 
has been a notable increase of federated activity. On the 
other hand the splendid plans instituted in Tientsin three 
or four years ago have not accomplished what was hoped 
of them. The same is true in Peking. 

The Nanking Church Council is perhaps the most 
successful local church federation. It took shape on New 
Year s Day, 1919, at a missionary prayer meeting. Its 
objective as stated by Dr. P. F. Price, executive secretary, 
brings out clearly the purpose of such federation: 

The closest possible co-operation between the 
evangelical denominations, at the same time respecting 
each other s denominational autonomy. 

"Endeavoring to develop all the latent resources of 
the churches. 

" Endeavoring through mutual consent, to find a place 
in city evangelism for each worker 

"Aiming to be all at it, always at it, unitedly 

at it t , 

The prosecution of a * continuous evangelism 
whether in chapel or church, tent or the open air, 
through public preaching, private appeal, the distribution 
of Christian literature, and through both paid and 
voluntary workers. 



NANKING CHURCH COUNCIL 185 

"Endeavoring to raise to a higher level all phases 
of church life, Sunday School and Bible Class, through 
systematic giving, public appeal, and personal work 

" Endeavoring to reach all classes of society 

including retired and active oflicials, members of the 
provincial legislature, the old time scholar class, the new 
student class, police, soldiers, factory employees, burden 
bearers, jinriksha coolies, patients in hospitals, inmates of 
prisons, refugees, and the down and out , 

"The attacking in a Christian way of great evils that 
oppress, pauperize and degrade the people, such as opium, 
drink, gambling, social vice, graft in public office, 
dishonesty in private dealings, superstition, belief in 
lucky days, cruelty to animals, etc., and co-operating 
with high-minded Chinese in measures for the uplift and 
betterment of the people .... The aim is NANKING FOR 
CHRIST. The method united prayer and effort." 

Dr. Price is assisted by a foreign office secretary, and 
two Chinese secretaries, one for evangelistic and the other 
for literary work. 

Practically every Christian agency in Nanking is 
represented in the Church Council. The distribution of 
Christian literature is vigorously pushed. The Nanking 
Church Council Monthly, sent to all Christian workers in 
the city, gives information which makes it possible for all 
to think in terms of the entire city. The Nanking Bulletin 
of Church and Community, issued weekly, giving local 
notices and items of interest, is distributed to the whole 
English speaking community. Its aim is to create 
community interest centering in Nanking union church. 

The primary purpose of the Nanking Church Council 
is the promotion of co-operation and understanding 
between the Christian workers of different denominations. 
The long list of united activities described by Dr. Price 
includes evangelistic campaigns, famine relief work, 
Sunday School Unions and Vacation Bible School work. 
Under the able leadership of Mr. S. T. Wen, commissioner 
of foreign affairs, a union social service committee has 
opened a small Peoples Park, in which there is a rest 
house for jinricksha men, a public well, playgrounds for 
children, and a model house for a ricksha puller. The 



186 CHURCH FEDERATION IN CHINESE CITIES 

plans of the committee include the establishment of a 
model settlement in which ricksha pullers and their 
families may have small, but clean and neat houses, the 
initial cost to be not over $100, Mex. 

A description of the work of the Hangchow Union 
Committee which for years has been under the leadership 
of Dr. Robert Fitch would fill more space than we are 
allowed. During the last year the principal emphasis has 
been on evangelism and the distribution of thousands of 
tracts. Seven new tracts were published. A new Sunday 
School hymnal is being prepared. An impressive Easter 
Song Service as well as a Sunday School children s party, 
and various union prayer meetings, festivals and song 
services, were conducted by the festivities committee of 
the Union. A full time nurse has been employed to 
conduct clinics in schools. A discussion group on social 
problems to train social service workers led by Professor 
D. H. Kulp, II, of the Shanghai College has been 
particularly valuable. Fifty-eight students were enrolled, 
coming from Huchow, Shaoshing, and Kinhua, as well 
as from the city of Shanghai. 

This committee participated in the movement against 
lotteries in the city and was partially responsible for their 
being closed last year (1923). 

A similar federation is well established in the Wu-Han 
district, all missions co-operating. Its emphasis also has 
been placed on evangelistic work and social service. In 
several cities such as Kaifeng and Moukden there are the 
beginnings of an. inter-church organization without fully 
organized union. In Moukden, we are told, "Everyone 
works together, but we do not bother with any large 
organization." The principal union effort expresses itself 
in the Week of Evangelism and certain projected pieces of 
social service for ricksha coolies. 

In Kaifeng there is a union of four churches known as 
the Ssu Kung Chiao Hui Lien He Hui which is now 
pushing a union program. In Nanch ang, Soochow and 
Tsinanfu they report that they are not formally organized, 
although frequently there are union evangelistic campaigns 
and union weeks of evangelism. 



TIENTSIN FEDERATION 187 

The Tientsin federation, four years ago one of the most 
prosperous in China, by which all the churches and the 
Y. M. C. A. and Y. \V. C. A. were endeavoring to work out 
a comprehensive plan for the whole city, including 
evangelism, mass education, social service and religious 
education, has made no progress recently. A foremost 
evangelistic worker in the city describes its condition as 
follows: 

The Tientsin Christian Union has been organized 
for several years, just how long I do not know. It 
was re-organized five years ago and was on the road to 
doing some good work. A couple of years ago it was 
over-organized and since has lain semi-dormant. I 
think the greatest trouble with us now is that there is 
no one who has the time to follow the thing through 
and put in some real time on the job. 

4 The Union is representative. Each church 
whether large or small appoints five representatives to 
the central committee which is supposed to meet three 
times a year. This committee appoints an executive 
which is supposed to carry on ; and report back to 
the central committee. As for this last year there is 
very little to show in the way of work done. The 
machinery is here but the throttle is c busted I ; 

In Peking after the China-For-Christ Conference a very 
progressive plan was worked out by the church delegates 
who attended the gathering. A large council of one hundred 
people, representing both churches and missions was to 
meet quarterly, while a small executive body of fifteen, 
elected by this larger group, was to work out the program 
for the city. Retreats were held and apparently things 
were going well. Lack of leadership, possibly over- 
organization, and the long distance necessary for persons to 
travel in order to attend committee meetings brought this 
federation to a condition of inactivity. In its place a. less 
pretentious movement, a union oi the representatives of 
individual churches without denomination or mission 
representatives, as such, has grown up. Some of the young 
leaders of the city are active in the movement and it is 
gradually attaining a place of importance. 



188 CHURCH FEDERATION IN CHINESE CITIES 

What are the factors in the success of the movement ? 
One is responsible leadership. Nowhere is such a move 
ment accomplishing results unless at least one competent 
secretary is giving his full time to it. Federations run by 
committees alone do not succeed in doing much work. 
Another is the relationship between the churches and the 
Y.M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. These organizations already 
view the city as a unit. Only by the closest cooperation 
and preferably by the organic union of the program of the 
Associations and the Church can the best results be attained. 
An illustration of such successful cooperation is the 
Student Work Union in Peking. 

Another lesson from a study of these federations is the 
inadvisability of over-organization. Complicated machinery 
is not what the leaders of the Chinese church desire. 
Unpretentious schemes are most likely to find favor. 

The facts of this article are certainly not com 
prehensive. It has been impossible to get reports from 
many large cities, but few as they arc they indicate that 
without close cooperation mnny valuable Christian 
undertakings now projected in China will be impossible. 



CHAPTER XXVII 



DAILY VACATION BIBLE SCHOOL 



S. P. Chuan 

The D. V. B. S. has again had a successful year. Work 
was carried on in fifteen provinces. 1171 Schools were 
conducted by -1,744 teachers in the various centers, in 
which 51,854 children were taught to read the Bible, and 
to follow the good example of the little ones whom they 
discovered through their reading of the Bible stories. 

The National Report of the 1). V. B. S. for 1923 is in 
process of publication. Material has been collected 
from many centers where experienced teachers are found, 
and work begun on the publication of a Chinese Bible 
Story Book. The hope is that by the summer of 1924 the 
D. V r . B. S. teachers will have in this new book a guide as 
to how to tell Bible stories. Two other text books are 
also in the course of preparation. It was hoped that all 
these new publications would be ready for use in 1924. In 
the early spring of 1924 the D. V. B. S. Department 
was busy with the preparation of these new pieces of 
literature. 

The detailed report of the 15 provinces is as 
follows : 

Provinces School* Teachers Students 

1. Fukien 138 487 52G2 

2. Szechwan 24 81 1618 

3. Anhwei 20 11(5 862 

4. Honan 1 16 100 

5. Chekiang 66 298 415L 

6. Fengtien 16 50 544 

7. Hupeh 31 260 2321 

8. Kiangsi 13 17 330 

9. Hunan 35 139 2427 



190 DAILY VACATION BIBLE SCHOOL 



10. 


Chihli 


22 


89 


1395 


11. 


Kwangtnng 


65 


479 


5290 


12. 


Shantung 


520 


1553 


12345 


13. 


Kiangsu 


217 


1138 


14408 


14. 


Shansi 


2 


15 


199 


15. 


Yunnan 


1 


6 


96 



Total numbers 1171 4744 51354 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 

1 923-4 
E. G. Tewksfcury 



Personnel Tne saljiri( ^ stan * f t{l Cliina Sunday 

School Union consists of the General Secretary 
and his Associate Chinese Secretary, the Rev. E. G. 
Tewksbury and Prof. T. F. Pan. Through the courtesy 
of the China Inland Mission, the Rev. Joshua Vale gives 
a large amount of help as Editorial Secretary, and by 
arrangement with the Northern Methodist Mission, the 
Honorary Treasurer, Rev. W. H. Lacy, D.D., who is also 
Secretary to the Finance Committee of the Methodist 
Missions in China, is able to devote a portion of his time 
to the business and financial departments of the Sunday 
School Union. There are two bookkeepers and two men in 
the mailing department. Stenographic assistance is 
available, when needed. 

Finances ^ nc China Sunday School Union receives 

a grant from the World s Sunday School 
Association of $5,000 gold annually. The same amount 
has been granted by the Stewart Evangelistic Fund for 
the last few years. In addition to these grants the; sale 
of Sunday School Lessons and Religious Education 
material brings in approximately &7,000 gold annually, 
which enables the Union to meet its printing expenses, 
postage and bookkeeping expense. 

The General Committee of the China Sunday 
School Union has grown up around the 
Sunday School Committee which was appoint 
ed at the Centenary Conference. It consists of thirty-five 
members, twenty of whom may be elected by the several 
.missions having the largest amount of Sunday School 
work. The Executive Committee of the China Sunday 
School Union consists of those members living in or near 



192 CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION 

Shanghai. Of these three are members of the original 
Sunday School Committee, eight are elected by the 
Northern Methodists, Southern Methodists, Northern 
Presbyterians, Southern Presbyterians, China Inland 
Mission and London Missionary Society, six are members 
of the salaried or honorary staff of the China Sunday 
School Union. Eight members of the Executive Council 
are Chinese. Two of these are secretaries of the National 
Christian Council. There are also Corresponding Members 
in Peking, Hankow, Kaifeng, Moukden, and other places. 
Arrangements are being made by which the China Sunday 
School Union can be affiliated with the National Christian 
Council, certain members of the Committee of the China 
Sunday School Union being directly appointed by the 
National Christian Council, and the China Sunday School 
Union having direct representation upon the National 
Christian Council. 

Literature From its beginning in 1910, one of the 

tasks definitely assigned to it by the Centenary 
Conference was the preparation of Sunday School Lesson 
Helps and Teacher Training literature. For a long period 
the China Sunday School Union has been the only agency 
in China issuing Sunday School Lesson Helps. For several 
years, however, the work of the American Baptist Missions 
has been carried on separately from the federated work 
of the other missions. They have several Sunday School 
experts at work upon Sunday School Lesson Helps and 
literature, and are issuing a Graded Series of Lesson Helps 
based upon the International Uniform Lessons. 

The China Sunday School Union issues sixteen varieties 
of Helps for the International (American) Improved 
Uniform Lessons, and five different Pupil s Helps for the 
International Graded Lesson courses. The circulation of 
the C.S.S.U. Lesson Helps is approximately 180,000 each 
Sabbath. They contain annually more than 20,000,000 
pages of material. They are sent out from the C.S.S.U. 
office quarterly by mail to some 2,000 different Sunday 
Schools. 

The impossibility of circulating publications of high 
cost has made it necessary for the C.S.S.U. to print its 
material on paper of a very cheap grade. The prices per 



LITERATURE 103 

year, postpaid, of the various issues vary from one 
cent to eleven cents gold. Hut, oven with literature as 
inexpensive as this, the Mission Boards of missionaries 
themselves are still obliged to partly subsidise its purchase, 
in the Chinese Sunday Schools. Moreover, the prices 
charged by the C. S. S. U. merely cover the printing, mail 
ing and bookkeeping costs, the expense of the editorial 
work being met from Home organizations. 

As regards Teacher Training literature, there are now 
available in Chinese from different publishers and mostly 
with English translation or original, some twenty Teacher 
Training books and fully as many smaller booklets and 
leaflets. A Teacher Training certificate with detachable 
seals is given by the C. S. S. IT. to teachers who are studying 
Teacher Training books or attending Institutes. 

Emphasis is being given to the preparation 
Indigenous T IT1 1-1 i i ^i 

Literature f Ijesson Helps and other material by the 

Chinese leaders themselves. At present the 
International Uniform Lesson Helps are largely prepared by 
the Associate Chinese Secretary. He is entirely free to use 
for his lesson preparation material in English which he 
adapts, or to prepare original material. 

The illustrative material on the Lesson Helps has for 
a long time contained problems and Chinese style problem 
pictures, which aim to coordinate everyday life with the 
Biblical material. Several hundred such problems and 
pictures, illustrating behaviour situations in Chinese lift 1 , 
are now available. It is expected that these will be grouped 
and issued in a series of lessons, based not on the historical 
or biographical sequences of the Bible story, but arranged 
according to the life situations under which the pupil s life 
is lived. Formerly but two life problems have been offered 
for each lesson one for children, and one for adults. At 
the present time, however, we are able to offer a half-dozen 
or more in connection with each Bible lesson. The 
Training Class is, therefore, able in its lesson preparation 
to select from these life situations those especially fitted for 
the pupils. 

The excellent work in color photography and printing, 
and the kindness of the home publishers, has made it 
possible for Bible Lesson Picture cards to be printed in 



194 CHIXA SUNDAY SOFTOOL UNION 

China,. 50,000 sets of these are now required by our con 
stituency, and we are able to send them postpaid to all parts 
of China at approximately 12 cents gold per set per year. 
Having thus in our own hands the selection and preparation 
of the illustrated material, we can select not only such 
pictures as accurately portray Palestinian conditions, but 
also adapt locally any pictures that may have in them 
elements appropriate to Chinese conditions. We have 
also been able to prepare; Chinese style colored paintings for 
illustrating Bible scones, such as those depicted in the 
Parables of Jesus, etc., using in these Chinese figures and 
scenery. 

Few things are more needed in China than 
Train/n ^ 1C training of teachers. And this applies 

Institutes not on ^J to Religious but also to General 

Education. The holding of Teacher Training 
Institutes has always been a large factor in the work of the 
C. S. S. U. Of late years, however, the increasing demands 
of the Literature Department and the calls for help in giving 
courses on Sunday School and Bible Teaching Methods at 
general Conferences have made it practically impossible to 
hold special Institutes for training Bible Teachers. 

g. .. .. There are no later statistics on Sunday 

School work than were prepared for the 
National Christian Conference and the China Survey. The 
figures for the statistical year 1920, were as follows: 

Number of Sunday Schools 5,698 

,, S. S. Teachers 12,291 

,, S. S. Scholars 259,261 

It must be noted, however, that the definition of 
" Sunday School " is " any group of people, adults or 
children, (1) definitely organized to meet once a week for 
Bible Study, (2) having a class system and (3) following 
regular courses of study." It is practically impossible 
to find a connotation for the term " Sunday School " which 
will be satisfactory to all denominations and nationalities 
and will give adequate statistics of the work which is being 
done by all the nationalities and churches as regards the 
teaching of the Bible. It is, of course, to be understood 
that all converts and children that are connected in anyway 



TEACHING OF BIBLE 195 

with the church centers are instructed in the Bible, this 
being an integral part of the work of a Christian Church. 
In addition to the work for the church constituency, there 
is being conducted in almost every center a work for non- 
Christian children which may take the form of a general 
children s service, and thus not be reported as a children s 
Sunday School. There were also enrolled in 1923 some 
50,000, mostly non-Christian, children in the Daily Vacation 
Bible Schools. Adding to these the classes of adults which 
Sunday by Sunday, in so-called Station and Bible Classes, 
are studying the Bible, the gnmd total for those under 
instruction would of course greatly exceed the Church 
membership, and likely approach that of the so-called 
" Total Christian Constituency, 700,000." 



CHAPTER XXIX 

CHINA CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR UNION 
E. E. Strother 

Christian Endeavor has gone on steadily during the 
year 1923. 

The increasing circulation of Christian 
Literature -n i T.L e j.i 

Endeavor literature is one ot the best 

indications of the vitality of the C. E. Movement in 
China, and it is probable that quite a number of new 
C. E. societies have been organized winch have not yet 
been reported, as it has been found that frequently 
societies are started in inland places through the use of 
the C. E. literature, that fail to send in any reports. 
The books are also used in hundreds of group meetings, 
in which the members take part according to the C. E. 
plan, although they are not formally organized with officers 
and committees. The total circulation of C. E. Topic 
Books and Topic Sheets during 1923 was larger than 
during any previous year, being 105,000 copies, made up 
as follows: Topic Sheets, 50,000, Chinese Topic Books, 
50,000 and English Topic Books 5,000 copies. 

Report cards have been received from more 
Societies . /. 

than a thousand C. E. societies, including 

some scores of new societies, and it is probable that there 
are several hundred more societies that we have not yet 
heard from, owing to the conditions of stress and strain 
under which the missionaries and Chinese Christians are 
living in the midst of brigands and robbers and lawless 
soldiers. A few places have reported that because of the 
looting of their cities and the terrorizing of the people of 
whole districts for many months, the C. E. societies had 
been temporarily discontinued, but in most cases the 
little groups of Chinese Endeavorers have continued to 
meet regularly. Considering the reports received and the 
circulation of the C. E. literature, it is estimated that 



CHRISTIAN ENDEAVOR 197 

there are probably more than 1200 C. K. societies and a 
membership of ")0 } 000 or more, throughout all the 
provinces of China. 

The following are a few typical extracts from reports 
regarding the helpfulness of C. E. methods in different 
districts: 

" C. E. is becoming an ever-increasing asset to the 
church. It strengthens the individual Christian life, 
stimulates evangelism, and trains workers for Christ. We 
have in our field 48 C. E. societies, with 454 men and l^oG 
women. We also have S Junior C. E. societies, 70 boys 
and 4 J girls." 

C. E. books are used in our seventy-two weekly 
meeting places. We see a great improvement spiritually 
in our young people since organizing the C. E. societies 
in our hoys and girls school. The C. E. hooks are a 
great help and the young people 1 ; a,re becoming more free 
in taking part in meetings." 

" Our C. E. is only one year old; but it is doing good 
work; there is much to be encouraged about in it." 

We have two good C. E. societies here in the city, 
and some eight or nine smaller ones in our country 
districts, all using the C. E. literature." 



CHAPTER XXX 

THE EPWORTH LEAGUE 
Geraldine Townsend 

Birthplace Tlle K P wortn League of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church received its name from 
the birthplace of John Wesley, Epworth, England; and 
from a noted statement by this founder of Methodism: 
"I want a league, offensive and defensive, with every 
soldier of Jesus Christ enrolled in it." The Epworth League 
may well be defined as the young people of the Methodist 
Church the world around at work. It is organized at 
present in thirty-one different countries. Only within 
the last few years has any attempt been made to unify 
the work of these various countries by placing trained 
secretaries in charge. The interest of the young people 
of America in this new enterprise goes hand in hand 
with a new interest on their part in the study of Kingdom 
Geography, and is expressed in their slogan of Young 
people s work for young people ! " 

Between September, 1890 and October, 1902, twenty-five 
chapters of the Epworth League in China were officially 
recognized and granted charters by the Central Office 
of the Epworth League in Chicago. No doubt there were 
other Epworth Leagues in the Methodist churches of 
China, but only these were officially recorded prior to the 
opening of the China Office of the Epworth League in 
Shanghai in 1920. 

Nanking According to the Chicago record, Nanking 

may boast the oldest Epworth League in 
China. This Epworth League in the Methodist Girls 
School, one of four chapters to-day in Nanking, is still 
one of the strongest and most spiritual in all China. 
Originally, with no constitution to follow, their activities 
consisted merely of a testimony service on Sunday, an 
Anti -Narcotic meeting once, a month, and a literary 



EPWORTH LEAGUES 199 

pr(gram once :i term. In 1897 a complete cabinet was 
elected. The four vice-presidents then planned work for 
their departments, the literary meetings were held oftener, 
each month a business meeting was held with reports of 
the work presented, and duriitg vacations the students 
went home to tell their neighbors about the Christ they 
had come to know. Since the; Epworth League Ollice lias 
been established in Shanghai and helps have been provided 
in the Chinese language, this Epworth League has aligned 
itself with the centralized program, is working in accord 
ance with the constitution, is using the lessons written 
for China, Malaysia and Netherland Indies, and is trying 
earnestly to become a standard chapter. They have one 
hundred eighty four active members and sixty associate 
members. I hey are seeking to make good their purpose 
as expressed in the Epworth League motto: to "look 
Up" to God and to " Lift Up " their fellow-men. 

a The Hinghwa Epworth League is officially 

the second, and Foochow Epworth League the 
third in age in China. The chapter in Asbury Church, 
Peking, is not only one of the oldest in China, but also 
has the distinction of originating the Chinese name for 
the organization. 

Working without any helps in Chinese, without a 
constitution or lesson-book, or guide of any kind, the 
Epworth Leagues in China, naturally became stereotyped in 
organization and stilted in expression. A hymn-prayer- 
sermon type of meeting was held on Sunday, a collection 
was taken and the money used to help a few poor people, 
but that was frequently the extent of their activities. This 
was especially true in South China where small country 
churches with no genuine constituency of young people had 
their Epworth League. Unfortunately, there it came to 
take the place of the Sunday evening service by the pastor; 
it was not truly ni/niiii(/ people # meeting; and all the church 
members were reported as members of the Epworth 
League. 

TT . The plan for an Epworth League Ollice in 

iicdCj jttrtf r ~ rs .. . , , . ,^ , , 

Shanghai and the appointment ol an Epwortn 

League Secretary to give full time to young people s work 
was part of the vision the late Bishop Lewis had for 



200 THE EPWORTH LEAGUE 

Methodist youth in China. In 1919 Bishop Lewis asked 
Dr. Guthrio of Chicago, the General Secretary of the 
Epworth League, for tin appropriation of $ 10,000 to make 
possible four Chinese field secretaries, and a missionary to 
open up the work. After Considerable interest in the plan 
developed, the Board of Epworth Leagues in America 
appointed Paul llutchinson of Shanghai as Secretary of 
the Epworth League for China, appointed the writer as 
Associate Secretary and made provision for the appoint 
ment of an Advisory Council by the East Asia Central 
Conference. My own State of Michigan, stirred by the 
challenge of helping the Methodist young people of an 
entire country, volunteered to raise the budget, and make 
it their annual responsibility. 

j. ,. Not all has been accomplished yet that we 

desire; to see accomplished, but a foundation 
has been laid. Literature has been provided for the most 
pressing needs; personal contacts have been established 
with the local chapters; more uniformity of organization 
lias been secured; and some of the chapters at least have 
been inspired to greater activity in service and their 
spiritual life deepened. We have worked without the full 
budget; Mr. liutohinson s appointment to Centenary work 
left me with the entire responsibility; the four Chinese 
secretaries have not been found nor could they have been 
financed. We are asking for, and seeking now, at least 
one Chinese secretary; for the work, like any other in 
China that is to make progress, must have Chinese leader 
ship. 



,4\7 v of the four short years I have had in 

clllCl W Or K . . , j i r 

the work since my year ot language study, 1 
have come to regard the place and the work of the Epworth 
League in China, as follows: (l) among the children of our 
church to develop them in spiritual things and to train 
them for future church membership; (2) among the young 
people of our Methodist schools, to solve the problem of 
bringing young men and young women together in a 
Christian atmosphere for normal, social fellowship; (3) 
among the young people who have come up through our 
Methodist schools, who are no longer held by any student 



EPWORTfl LEAGUE 201 

organization whether it be the Association or the Epworth 
League but who must be reached by a church young 
people s society and definitely tied up to its work until they 
take their place as mature church members. 

The Church in China, of any denomination, needs to 
be doing certain things for its young people. It needs to 
transform their mental assent to a doctrine to <t personal 
all?</iittice to Jesus Christ. It needs to break up the tendency 
toward exhorting about Christianity instead of living it out 
in every-day life. It needs to solve the problem, which 
non-Christian forces are making imperative, of bringing 
about normal, Christianized, social fellowship between the 
sexes. It needs to direct to Christian life-service of all 
kinds through summer institutes and training conferences 
as the Student Volunteer Movement is doing for one phase 
of Christian service. Any organization of young people 
working on such a program as this has a place in China. 
The name under which it works matters little. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

THE CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION 
J. Whttsed Dovey 

The Christian Publishers Association now 
includes twenty-one organizations covering 
practically all the agencies engaged in the 
production, printing and distribution of Christian litera 
ture in China. The object of the Association is to 
secure the cooperation of these agencies in a, united and 
progressive policy. For some time past special attention 
has been given to the problem of distribution and vigorous 
efforts are being made to develop plans of mutual 
advantage to the missionary and Chinese leaders as well 
as to the societies concerned. 

Last year the Association was recognized by the 
National Conference and National Christian Council as a 
national organization and entitled to representation as such 
at the National Conference. 

_, _ A quarterly periodical entitled "The China 

Bookman a Bookman " is published through the coopera 
tion of members of the Association and is 
sent free to four thousand missionary homes in China 
and to over two thousand Chinese Christian leaders. Tn 
addition to announcements of new and current publications 
in English and Chinese, "The China Bookman" includes 
reviews and articles on problems connected with the work 
of literature in general. It has proved a most useful 
advertising medium for the agencies concerned. 

Ceo eratron ^ n pursuance of the object of the Association 

to promote effective measures of cooperation 
between the different agencies to their own advantage and 
also to the advantage of the missionary and Chinese 
constituency, efforts are continually being made to improve 
the arrangements whereby one organization may handle 



AGENTS AND STEWARDS 203 

or at least receive orders for publications of other societies 
in order that buyers may be enabled to deal with one 
body only. The question of satisfactory discounts is also 
continually receiving attention. 

p . , , A For some time past there lias been a 

Field Agents . . . ,. ,. , , 

growing conviction that a system 01 rielu 

agents is essential in order to promote the more effective 
distribution of the wealth of Christian literature; produced 
by the various publishing agencies and that there is a call 
for missionaries to be set aside for a time to organize the 
distribution in the same way that workers are set aside 
to prepare the literature. In order to give effect to these 
desires the Association has made repeated efforts to secure 
the appointment of such workers, particularly in West 
China and East China as a commencement, and is hopeful 
that such field agents will be set aside by their missions 
for this work in the very near future. 

In order to increase the effective use of 
literature in connection with the ordinary 
work of mission stations, several missions 
have adopted a proposal made by the Association that 
Literature Stewards should be appointed by the various 
stations of the mission, who should be responsible for 
keeping in touch with the publishing agencies and thus 
ensure that all new publications are immediately known 
to the local workers. As a rule two stewards have 
been appointed for each station, one for women s and 
children s literature, and one for general literature. It is 
hoped that there may be a wide extension of this plan 
in the near future as it involves no obligation on the part 
of the stations. 

~, .r. JT The Classified Index of Chinese Christian 
Classihed Indzx r . ., , ~. 

Literature prepared by Kev. (T. A. Ulayton 

SOUK; five years ago in cooperation with the various 
publishing houses is now in course of revision and it is 
hoped to publish a new edition early in the new year. 
Indust ial At ^ ie liniul:l mootm f the Association 

Conditions ae ^ Ul ^ ll y 1^3. the Association put itself 
on record as endorsing the resolutions on 
industrial conditions adopted by the National Conference,, 
laying down the following standards: 



204 THE CHRISTIAN PUBLISHERS ASSOCIATION 

(a) No employment of children under 12 full years 

of age. 

One day s rest in seven. 

The safeguarding of the health of workers (i.e. 

limiting working hours, improvement of sanitary 

conditions, installation of safety devices, etc.) 
The Association requested all its members to confirm 
their own adherence to these standards in the case of 
those organizations possessing printing plants of their 
own, and also that in the case of printing work entrusted 
to outside presses preference he given to houses adhering 
to these standards. Many of the members of the Associa 
tion have already replied confirming their adherence to 
these conditions. 



Mission Presses ? some ^ {mo P asfc ^uestions ^ve been 
raised as to the status and future usefulness 
of mission presses in view of the growth of commercial 
printing houses. At the request of the China Christian 
Literature Council the Association is cooperating in an 
investigation of the present and future usefulness of these 
mission presses which have done so much for the cause 
of Christian literature in the past, and it is already clear 
that whatever work now undertaken by mission presses 
might be handled by commercial printing houses, there is 
a wide tield of service for the mission body which these 
agencies and no other at the present time can undertake. 



PART V 
SPECIAL EVANGELISTIC MOVEMENTS 

CHAPTER XXXII 

SOME PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK 
1. IN THE CHURCH 

Although the church has worked in China almost one 
hundred and twenty years, its communicants are still 
less than four hundred thousand in number. While we 
may say that it is men who sow the seed hut (rod who 
makes the seed grow, yet we cannot he absolved from the 
responsibility for such insignificant results by saying that 
this number of communicants is just what it should be. 
Lot us single out some of the difficulties. 

The first difficulty is in the men and not in 
Leaders ^he insufficiency of money. We frequently 

hear the cry in the church, " We need money 
and leaders. Some people think that finance is more 
important than men. They assume that when there is 
money there will naturally be men. Some members of 
the church think that because of the small salaries the 
church offers, promising leaders have to leave the church 
for other forms of service. The money they might receive 
from the church is not sufficient to cover necessary 
expenses of living. This argument, though seemingly 
reasonable, cannot bear careful scrutiny. Should we 
decide upon the work of a minister in accordance with 
the amount of money he receives or upon some other and 
better basis? Christ said: "Be not anxious for the 
morrow; sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof." Again 
he said: "All these things will be added unto you." 
From this it may be clearly seen that whosoever is sent 
by the Lord will not suffer for lack of sustenance. The 
Lord will provide all things for him. Moreover, if one is 



206 SOME PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK 

really sent by the Lord, he will never be anxious over 
money. Look at the great work of Isaiah and the other 
prophets, at St. Paul of the New Testament and the other 
holy apostles and note how great their work was. Who of 
them was oppressed by lack of means to sustain his Hfe? 
Who of them failed or left the work of preaching on 
account of money? At present we have men like Mr. 
K. C. King of Kansu; Dr. K. T. Chow who studied and 
graduated from four large universities in the United States 
and who is now preaching at Kutien, Fukien, for thirty 
dollars a month only ; Messrs. Hsieh Meng Tsuh and 
John Li who have travelled far and wide; we also have 
such women in the church as the Misses Miao Ying Tseng, 
Miao An Sing, Wong Be Tseng, and Sa Ju Yu who 
have done evangelistic work in Changchow, Kiangsu: 
according to reports of work their labor has yielded fine 
results. It is a sad tiling that such people are so few-rare 
as the feathers of the phoenix and the horn of the unicorn ! 
The second difliculty is found within and 
Door nofc without the church. Over twenty years 

ago an aged American missionary was asked 
by his fellow countrymen in America whether the doors 
of China were open to the preaching of the Gospel or not. 
His answer was that not only are the doors open but that both 
the doors and walls had been broken down and the whole 
country is ready to receive the good tidings. Present day 
China verifies his statement. The Christian vessel has a 
favourable wind. A certain minister was heard to sa,y 
that he had met but one person in six years who opposed 
the truth and even he did not oppose it strenuously. 
Recently the Presbyterian church sent five or six preachers 
to preach in Tingyuanhsien, Anhwei. They were gladly 
received by people in every walk of life. The word of 
the Lord was certainly fulfilled: "the field is white unto 
harvest 7 . But how many in the church have shown the 
courage of going forth for the Lord to reap the harvest 
which is ready? According to my personal observation 
in many places, the majority of church members are fast 
asleep. They have become lukewarm like those in the 
church at Laodicea ! In spite of the fact that personal 
evangelism, preaching in families, new year evangelistic 



LACK OF LOVE AND POWE1? 207 

meetings, and big evangelistic campaigns have been 
promoted and emphasized, the four hundred thousand 
communicants still remain unmoved in the face of this 
call to go forth to save those who have not had the 
opportunity to return to the Lord. When the Day of 
Judgement comes, will not the people of this generation 
who have not been given a chance to receive the Lord 
into their lives, rise up in judgement against the believers 
in the church ? 

The third difficulty is found in the old 
44 First Love " believers, not in the young believers of the 
church. When I use the term "old and 
" young >; I do not refer to age. T mean the length of 
years during which one has been a Christian. According 
to the opinion of many, new Christians who have just 
joined the church are more enthusiastic and more willing 
to serve, than old Christians who have been in the church 
longer. Those who take pride in their being old church 
members, thinking that they have an older root of the 
doctrine in them, not only do not make progress them 
selves, but at times even prevent others from doing what 
they ought to have done themselves. How can the church 
grow if these people merely grow in years and not in the 
stature of Christ, thereby being unable to bear fruit? 
If all the members of the Church could return to their 
first love and hasten to work for the church in saving 
men, the progress of the church would be very surprising. 

T t p The fourth difficulty is that the true work 

LaCK Ol r OwCr PJI i i T 

01 the church is in receiving and not in 
giving or preaching. Tins Lord said to his apostles that 
when the Holy Spirit would come upon them, they would 
receive power and bear witness for him from Jerusalem 
even unto the ends of the earth. Now within the church 
in China there are about thirty thousand people, both 
foreign and native, who hold some sort of oflioe or other. 
Among them about two thousand people are ordained by 
church authorities. Are they like the Apostles on the day 
of Pentecost, filled with the Holy Spirit and power? If 
they really had this power they could have the same 
surprising results. The trouble is that the leaders of 



208 SOME PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK 

the church now emphasize reason, methods, and forms, 
forgetting the inner chamber and the secret communion 
of themselves with the Lord. When they themselves 
have departed from the source of the living water, how 
can they help to extend the church ? 

TING Li MEI 

2. Or ITINERATION 

. It may be safe to say, that the number 

ofNefd sti]1 unevangelized in China is equal to all 

who dwelt upon the earth when our Lord 
gave the command to evangelize the nations. It is a 
gigantic task to so present the Lord Jesus Christ to them, 
that they can intelligently accept or reject Him. Let any 
one go over the provinces and it is easy to see that the need 
for evangelism is overwhelming. Even where missions 
have been established for years whole cities and countless 
villages seem practically untouched. Though our mission 
(P. C. C.) has been working in North Honan for over 
thirty years, yet two weeks ago we visited a country of 
over nine hundred villages, and could not find a Christian 
in two dozen of them. There are other countries in North 
Honan where the unevangelized conditions are equally 
bad. The recent mission survey laid bare conditions even 
more startling. 

The very accessibility of the Chinese people 
Oen S ^ raakes "r problem all the more urgent. It 

would be hard to find any people on earth 
more open to the Gospel. This is true of scholars as well 
as of the humblest people. During over thirty-five years 
in China I have tried to present the claims of Christ to 
scholars of every grade, and have found them perfect 
gentlemen. Of late, we have found the scholars more 
approachable than ever; the common people also hear 
the Word gladly. r l here is no need to pray for open doors 
in China for they are wide open already. 
Pressin Ne d ^ e pressing need is that the Church of 

God get into close contact with this great 
unevangelized multitude. The evangelistic note must 
ring out more insistently from all hospitals, schools 
and literature agencies. Every local church and every 



SPIRITUAL NEED 209 

Christian should be the radiating centre for the life of 
Jesus. Aggressive evangelistic campaigns should lie 
carried out by every mission. Two years ago the leaders 
of the Changteh field asked my wife and myself, to go 
with an evangelistic band for five months among the 
out-stations; one of the results was three thousand names 
given in as enquirers. Again, this year, we are going 
among the churches with the permanent evangelistic band, 
and we take along a tent that will seat live hundred. 
Hut the Changteh field is large enough to have a dozen 
bands like this going all the time. 

~< c . .. . Mr. Moody used to say that it was better to 

Thi Spiritual 

N eec j get one hundred people to work than to do the 

work of one hundred. There are enough 
Christians in tin; land, Chinese and foreign, to evangelize 
all China in this generation. All that is needed, is that 
each one be endued with power from on high as at 
Pentecost. It is cheering to find among leaders that the 
emphasis is coming more and more to be laid upon the 
spiritual. The secret of evangelizing China lies in a mighty 
outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon those who know the 
Lord. We asked an elder recently how conditions were in 
his congregation, and he replied that things would look up if 
the old church members would Only live right. At another 
place the non-Christians said, " Your Christians here give 
way to bad temper, pride and quarrels the same as the rest 
of us." At still another place, a woman said " There is 
little hope of the cause of Christ flourishing in our 
congregation, until the old church members die off. " 
Alas ! this is only too true of thousands of churches over the 
land, and it can be said of them as of Sardis, ** Thou hast a 
name, that thon livest, and art dead." A few years ago, at 
Peitaiho, a prominent Chinese leader said, " Last year 
26,000 adult converts were baptized into the church of Christ 
in China, and the paid workers Chinese and foreign were 
27,641 not one convert per worker to say nothing of the 
tens of thousands of Church members". Surely, the vital 
need for the evangelization of China is that all her 
church members be mightily quickened by the Spirit 
of God. 

J. GOFORTH. 



210 SOME PROBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WORK 

3. IN RURAL FIELDS 

The purpose of this article is to select some of the more 
outstanding problems of country evangelistic work in order 
to stimulate further thought and experimentation rather 
than to give any final solutions. Lack of space prevents 
the incorporation of many helpful suggestions from workers 
in various missions. Those who wish to pursue the subject 
further should consult The International Review of 
Missions", Vol. XII, pp. 557-579, and S. J. W. Clark s 
memorandum on " The Country Church and Indigenous 
Christianity" (published by the National Christian 
Council). 

What should be the grade of training given 

Salaried Chinese t Chinese colleagues? Since country 

Workers .. , . . J 

congregations cannot pay large salaries, 

should it be comparatively simple, or, as many maintain, 
should it be as high as possible? In the latter case, what 
work is best adapted to the older and less highly trained 
workers ? 

How can w r e make the training of such workers 
thoroughly practical ? Is homiletics, for example, as impor 
tant as religious education? It seems highly desirable that 
students have clinical experience during the course in 
varied forms of practical Christian service and particularly 
in soul winning and that the instructor who superintends 
this work should also supervise their practice work during 
vacations. At least one school gives the long vacation in 
the winter months which are best adapted for vigorous 
evangelistic work. 

When the preliminary training of such workers is 
completed, how may they continue to grow both intellectual 
ly and spiritually ? How may they be raised so far above 
mere professionalism and so filled with evangelistic ardor 
that isolation, privations, and hardships can never quench 
their passion for souls ? Conferences, retreats, frequent 
personal letters from the evangelist in charge, the granting 
of complete initiative in their work all these can be 
made exceedingly helpful in furthering such aims; yet 
burning zeal can be kindled only from hearts that are 
themselves aflame. 



VOLUNTKKR WORKERS 211 

A still more fundamental prol)lem of policy concerns 
the status of such salaried workers. Shall they stand in a 
pastoral relation to definite; Christian communities, or, in 
view of the vast work still to he accomplished, shall they 
he regarded as evangelists-at-large, the various scattered 
congregations heing served hy local unsalaried workers ? 
What shall he the method of selection of 

Chinese thos < wh<) wil1 P rov<J roal J()( nl ^lers? Shall 

Workers they ho trained at outstations chiefly under 

the direction of Chinese evangelists, or, as in 
the Nevius plan, at the central station directly under the 
guidance of the foreign missionary? In any case it would 
seem best that their style of living should he simple and 
that they should not lose touch with their country environ 
ment. Whatever is taught them, practice should accompany 
teaching, great emphasis should he laid upon teaching and 
winning others, and the approved form of phonetic, script 
made a ready tool in their hands. It would also seem wise 
to give instruction in the duties of church officers and 
finance committees. 

As to the functions of such workers, it would seem that 
they should shoulder the responsibility for the conduct of 
the simple services at their center and also ior spiritual 
welfare of the believers in their group, thus freeing the 
the missionary and salaried evangelists for more aggressive 
work in urievangeli/ed sections or for intensive evangelistic 
campaigns among the churches. 

What should be the test of admission to the 
Community church ? Most would agree to stress character 
rather than the mere knowledge of a creed. 
But how obtain accurate information as to the applicant s 
real character ? Other good tests which have been tried 
are that of literacy, which cannot, of course, be pushed to 
the limit, and that of winning others, which has proved so 
useful in Korea. 

Plow can the growth of the church be promoted ? This 
question divides into several others. How may Bible study 
be fostered ? Phonetic script has been a wonderful boon 
here. How may the personal prayer life be developed ? 
Would not a weekly cycle of local and world-wide topics 
for prayer be a help in widening the spiritual horizon? 



212 SOME PliOBLEMS OF EVANGELISTIC WOHK 

What will lead the Christian community to see the need of 
keeping the whole Lord s Day, if spiritual life is to be 
conserved ; discipline, or a constructive program of Christian 
activities? How may Christian parents be persuaded that 
the building of the family altar is an indispensable part of 
Christian nurture ? How may Christian stewardship be so 
thoroughly inculcated that the church will naturally become 
self-supporting ? Here example is even better than precept. 
Lastly, how may the church be so filled with enthusiasm 
for saving men that witness-bearing will become spontaneous 
and the evangelizing of entire districts be begun in earnest? 
Mapping the field, assigning definite responsibilities to 
certain groups and individuals, establishing a friendly 
rivalry between groups all these have their place and are 
very helpful; but they do not entirely solve the problem. 

How may outsiders best be reached ? Is 

Community tnere a prejudice in their minds against 

salaried workers? It has been found a help 

in some places for these workers to be introduced by 

Christians to their relatives, friends, and neighbors. 

What is the best present-day method of reaching the 
masses? Tent campaigns of intensive evangelism are 
reported from various quarters and seem to have proved 
remarkably effective in quickening Christians and in 
winning outsiders. 

Has not the time come when both evangelists and 
Christians should take more interest in the physical and 
moral welfare of the general community ? This is an 
illustration of Christian citizenship and may be the means 
of enlisting the co-operation and friendship of thinking 
men. 

After all, it is not by organization, nor by methods, 
but by God s Spirit that this work is to be accomplished, 
these problems solved. He alone can purge the church of 
unworthy motives, fill it with love and joy, and send it out 
to win the world. 

Wm. A. MATHER. 



CHAPTFR XXXIII 

THE WORK OF THE UNITED METHODIST 

MISSION IN WENCHOW 

Wm. R. Stobie 

The writer s association with this work 

Numerical 1 " (kte * froln th eiul f 1896 The *n 
was started in 1877 when the first missionary 

was sent out from England to work in this district, Rev. 
Robert Exleye, who died after about four years residence. 
Soon after came Rev. W. E. Soothill, the present professor 
of Chinese at Oxford, who, shortly joined by his wife, 
worked and lived in the prefecture for some 25 years and 
for a considerable period of it having no other foreign 
worker with him, so that the "mission" may be not 
unfittingly regarded as a monument to his devotion, 
wisdom, statesmanship, and constancy. In the early 
nineties Rev. J. W. Heywood came fresh from College to 
join Mr. Soothill, but in 1896 he was transferred to Ningpo 
to superintend the mission there. The medical work was 
then in its infancy, the first medical missionary, Dr. A. 
Hogg, who retired in 1901, having begun it about three years 
earlier. In 1896 the educational work of the mission 
consisted of a total of 7 day and Sunday schools with 12 
teachers. These day schools were the then usual small 
village institutions with the old-fashioned and sometimes 
a.ncient dominie not always possessed of much more than 
a nodding acquaintance with some of the classics. Twenty-six 
years ago, besides Mr. Soothill, Dr. Hogg and the writer, 
then a. new-comer with one year s experience of ministerial 
work in the home churches, there was a stall of two 
itinerant Chinese preachers, 57 local preachers (17 of 
whom were paid) 744 church members, (600 on trial) 
14 junior church members, an increase of 109 in the 
year, 6 chapels, 71 other preaching places which were 
either temples, or rooms of private houses freely lent by 



214 THE UNITED METHODIST MISSION IN WENCHOW 

the tenant or owner or in some cases granted on a small 
annual rental, 7 schools, 116 pupils and 12 teachers. At 
the end of li)22 there were 6 missionaries: one, a new 
arrival the first foreign nurse to be sent out ; one in 
England having broken down three years before ; one, the 
college principal on furlough; and one, the superintendent 
of the mission also in England, having broken down under 
the strain in the preceding September. There were 74 
chapels, 1UG other preaching places the majority of the 
latter lent, or rented mostly .for the small annual sum of 
a few dollars, 32 Chinese ministers, 3 evangelists, 278 
local preachers, 3,613 members, (3,012 on trial) 2110 
Juniors, (under 16 years of age) 5,272 enquirers, 7 
elementary schools with 14 ( J pupils and 7 teachers, 4 
primary schools with 20 teachers and 275 pupils, one 
college with 14 teachers and 188 pupils and one girls 
school with 6 teachers and 4iJ pupils. As one of the 
missionaries was a medical and another an educational 
missionary this meant that for four years 270 and 
more churches had to be superintended by two foreign 
missionaries; there never has been more than three. 

It is expedient to bear in mind the 
Geographical p rt . co( lj n g figures to appreciate more correctly 
Topographical what will be said later of the character and 
weaknesses of the work, also to visualize the 
extent and topography of the district. From north to 
south the area worked, i.e. with churches planted and 
resident pastors, is 150 English miles or more and from 
East to West about 110. Wenchow city, 21 miles up the 
river on its south bank from which the; whole area is 
worked and where the missionaries reside, is very nearly 
central as it stands at the outlet to almost the whole 
district. Except for a very narrow strip bordering the 
long coast-line which widens somewhat in the two Southern 
Hsien of Jui-an and P ing-yang, and the almost circular 
bowl-shaped plain surrounding Wenchow city and having a 
diameter, at its widest part, of about eleven miles, the whole 
prefecture is an almost chaotic riot of mountains rising to 
between 3000 and 4000 ft, mostly bare of trees and given 
over chiefly to the cultivation of sweet potatoes and the 
growth of wild vegetation for fuel. Many of the mountains 



WORKERS 215 

arc masses of extremely precipitous cliffs with line eave 
and temple scenery, and frequently taking fantastic i-hapes 
which give poetic names to their neighbouring villages. 
Thousands of rills and rushing streams, leaping cataracts 
and foaming falls intersect the innumerable valleys 
which, while adding beauty to the scenery and bringing 
nourishment to the growing crops, often in their numerous 
Hood-times prevent the pastors and preachers getting to 
their appointments. Many of the churches are situated 
on both hanks of the main river and of its tributaries, 
about a dozen are out at sea, and half-a-dozen in Wenchow 
city, but the great majority are among and on the 
mountains, entailing two and three days journey to them 
by river houseboat, by sampan, by "grasshopper boats " 
a special kind of boat for negotiating the many rapids, by 
sea-going native sailing craft, \>y foot and by mountain 
chair. A small native steamer is helpful now for getting 
to about half-a-do/en churches out at sea, and a small 
canal-going steam launch is available for a few churches 
near the canals. 

The Wenchow mission work (lows over into two other 
prefectures, Chiichow and T aicbow. The churches are 
grouped into two sections, Eastern and Western, each 
having a missionary as general superintendent, with live 
circuits of about 150 Churches in the former, and four 
circuits of 120 in the latter. The China Mission Year Book 
for 1915 gives the average number of Protestant churches 
per missionary as four. In 181)6 the average per missionary 
here was 80; in 1922 it was 135; and from Sept. 1922 
when the superintendent of the Eastern section broke 
down in health and was invalided home and the principal 
of the college of 188 students was on furlough until 
March 1923 when Rev. A. H. Sharman returned to relieve 
the writer of the general work of the mission, the writer 
had to take the oversight of all 270 churches, pastors, local 
preachers, schools, the chairmanship and secretaryship of 
the district, ir.uch heavy financial and accountant work, 
having at the same time the principalship of the college 
which entailed teaching English subjects on six days of 
the week. On the top of this came the worst typhoon 
within living memory which totally destroyed ten churches 



216 THE UNITED METHODIST MISSION IN WENCHOW 

besides serious damage to many more, and to the residential 
property and college and city schools to the extent of 
nearly $20,000: he had to get into touch with the home 
churches for relief funds and start on restoration work 
and repairs. 

Each circuit has one or more resident 
Preahers Chinese pastors, the superintendent pastor 

and Duties of the circuit living at the house adjoining 
the "Circuit Chapel", the assistant pastor 
or pastors in other parts of the circuit on mission property. 
The superintendent pastor receives a foreign grant from 
time to time according to an approximate estimate of the 
preceding year. lie pays all circuit expenses such as 
rents, local preachers, expenses, repairs, lighting and 
heating, caretakers, teachers, salaries etc., and keeps a 
regular account with the missionary for the same. He 
sees that preaching plans are put into the hands of the 
local preachers, arranges for the bi-annual district or circuit 
meetings, reports to those meetings the non-attendances 
at appointments of all the local and other preachers, and 
is chairman of the committee of the Thanksgiving Fund 
of his circuit besides the usual duties of a preaching 
pastor. The qualifications and training of the pastors 
differ greatly, from the pastor of many years standing 
who was appointed by the missionary-in-charge in those 
earlier years for his general Bible knowledge, his Christian 
character, zeal and reputed common sense, to the man of 
the present who lias had three or more years training in 
Nanking Theological Seminary or in Peking. The first 
men to get any systematic training wore three young 
countrymen sent for a year or so to our own college here 
for training under the Chinese master in character and 
literature, and to read some Christian literature with a 
pastor. That was nearly 20 years ago. Then about 12 
years ago six young men were placed for two years under 
the care of one of our best pastors, living with him at 
the circuit chapel, reading Christian literature with him, 
taking lessons in Chinese composition and literature with 
the resident schoolmaster, taking preaching appointments 
at the week-ends in the different churches of the circuit, 
and seeing at first sight the actual working of a circuit. 



LOCAL PREACHERS 217 

Now-a-days there arc: two methods as in our English 
churches; according to the first a. young man who has 
been recommended by his church and circuit meeting, after 
passing the tests imposed, is appointed to a circuit under 
a sui able senior pastor. Certain books are set for study 
for the year and the pastor is expected to supervise h:s 
studies and give him assistance. He is appointed to take 
Sunday and week-night services in the circuit, and near 
the end of the year an examining board of pastors gives 
him a written examination on the books studied; he also 
preaches a trial sermon. Marks are assigned for these 
and if these and his circuit record are satisfactory he 
passes on to his next year. At the end of four years 
probation, if still satisfactory he becomes a junior minister. 
According to the second method the young man is sent to 
Nanking or Peking for training and, as he has before that 
had experience as a local preacher in Christian Endeavor 
or Sunday School work, his record at those institutions is 
accepted and he is appointed as a junior minister. 

The great bulk of the Sunday services is taken by the 
local preachers. In the earlier years of the mission 
these men had practically no special training beyond 
occasional Bible classes of a week or ten days in their 
circuits, generally taken by the Chinese pastor, once; or 
twice in the year. Hitherto the foreign missionary has 
seldom been able to take these classes: such is the acuteness 
of understading, that itineration and general work have 
taken up so much time. For some years besides such Bible 
classes a summer school of four weeks or more has been 
held in the city each year for all local preachers from all 
the circuits who care to come. The foreign funds supply 
a grant-in-aid which is supplemented by generous 
subscriptions by two of the wealthier city members, and 
those who attend make some contribution. Further 
every local preacher is supplied with the Sunday School 
Lessons every quarter, and it is expected that in every 
Church the preacher will take the lesson for the day at 
the Sunday afternoon service. This ensures systematic 
preparation for at least one service on Sunday. 

There are two classes of local preachers: (0 The 
regular men who are paid a sum to cover food and travelling 



218 THE UNITED METHODIST MISSION IN WENCHOW 

expenses according to the distance of the appointment. ("2) 
voluntary preachers who take services which require 
absence from home only for the Sunday morning and 
afternoon. Some of the regular men volunteer one, two, 
or more Sunday appointments per quarter. Every quarter 
a plan of the whole of the services is drawn up, and a copy 
given to each preacher, the churches also being supplied 
with them, near the end of the preceding quarter. 

The limits set to this article allow of little 
Organization ,, . 

more than the merest reierence to organization. 

Circuits have from about a dozen to over 30 churches, in 
the spring and the autumn each circuit has a, district or 
circuit meeting attended by representatives from all the 
circuit and the local preachers. The contributions of the 
Church members are brought by the representatives and 
handed in to the superintendent, the church registers 
are examined, cases of discipline or restoration investigated 
and decided, the church rolls corrected, the state of the 
churches inquired into, appointments of preachers reported 
as to absences and explanations heard, all financial and 
statistical returns required for the annual conference 
prepared, and recommendations for the ministry received. 
During the first half of the first Chinese month of the 
year the annual conference is held, pastoral sessions being 
held beforehand. All reports arc received here for the 
Home Board. The Chinese pastors take their turn with 
the foreign missionary in the chairmanship of these meet 
ings as also at the circuit meetings. At the annual 
conference special attention is given to the reports and 
condition of the different circuit Thanksgiving Fund, each 
circuit treasurer having to give his own report. This 
fund was begun 15 years ago, each circuit having its own 
treasurer and committee one of whom must be the Chinese 
superintendent minister. With the funds land is bought, 
houses built and other investments made, rent and interest 
being added to the principal until $2,000 is reached when 
the income from it goes towards the expenses of the work. 
Two circuits have passed the limit arid one or two others 
are within sight of it. As this is a purely native 
contribution its administration is entirely in Chinese hands 



UNDEHSTAFFINO AND FINANCES 219 

subject to the control of the circuit meetings where its 
officers are elected. 

w , (1) Uridersta fling. With such an extensive 

work and the number of foreign missionaries 
having been perennially far short of anything approaching 
sufficiency, it has been quite impossible to keep up such 
constant direct contact with the majority of the churches 
as is necessary for tutorial work and for intensiveness, 
which latter has had to lie sacrificed to extension. 

(2) The size of the circuits, the long distances and 
generally mountainous character of the country between 
the churches in the circuits has militated seriously against 
the holding of catechumen classes by the pastors, and thus 
candidates for baptism have too often had to do the best 
they could themselves in learning the merest rudiments of 
the faith, a short catechism of which is inserted in the end 
of our hymn-books, or get what intermittent help they 
could at the Sunday or other services from the preacher 
appointed for the day or from other members. Latterly we 
have had copies of Dr. Price s catechisms put into the 
hands of the preachers including the local preachers and 
they are expected to give a little time on the Saturday 
evening or between or before or after Sunday services to 
instruct would-be learners of the same. 

(3) The financial problem presses very hard. The 
vast majority of our people are poor farmers, labourers and 
shop-keepers, and the greatness of the work demands so 
much of the comparatively small home grant that the 
pastors have had to be content with very {-mall salaries, so 
small in some cases that some of them have eked it out by 
selling medicine, or by giving more time to the oversight 
of their paternal acres than is consonant with the proper 
pastoral oversight of the churches under their care. This 
is gradually being remedied, but the evil of absence from 
their circuits has apparently become a habit with not a 
few. This would possibly he more speedily and effectively 
remedied if the salaries were altogether forthcoming from 
the Chinese Christian, but they are too fond of pleading, 
and the plea is to the writer s knowledge nearly o() years 
old, that they are still infants in need of the bottle from 



220 THE UNITED METHODIST MISSION IN WENCHOW 

the mother church in England. It is expected that when 
the Thanksgiving Fund of the circuits has each reached the 
$2,000 mark and interest is being paid into the general fund, 
the salaries of pastors can be more easily increased, though 
it is said among the pastors that the local preachers will not 
consent to this but will expect that the pastors salaries 
will continue to be paid out of the foreign grant. The 
Thanksgiving Fund too occasions no little trouble, and the 
missionary often has to be called in to take a. very firm 
stand against cases of serious abuse of the funds. Not a 
few of the local preachers too while absenting themselves 
from their preaching appointments still claim the amount 
of expenses, and the circuit minister is not always strong 
enough to take a firm stand against the evil. Occasionally 
too, indeed it might be said, not infrequently local 
preachers arrange with each other to exchange appoint 
ments to save themselves long journeys, or they get some 
one else to go for them at a reduced fee, themselves 
pocketing the balance. The number of lapsed appointments 
mostly through flood and stress of weather, though not by 
any means always so, is sometimes quite serious, and may 
have not a little to do with the noticeable decrease in 
attendance. Evidently one or other missionary in charge 
had found the evil so prevalent that he felt compelled 
to bribe the preachers with the promise of a gift of 
literature to each one who fulfilled his appointments for 
the year. 

(4) There are about 5,000 women and girls connected 
with our churches and what little work has been done 
among them (and that only in the city) has had to be done 
by missionaries wives who have had no training and have 
had to pick up a smattering of the language they have 
gained amid the duties of house keeping and bringing up 
of their families. A fortnight ago the first trained lady- 
worker a deaconess from the home churches came to 
engage in evangelistic work among the women and girls. 
For thirty years we have pleaded for such to be sent, and 
it speaks volumes for the simple faith and earnestness of 
our Chinese women, nay it is surely a miracle of faith and 
earnestness, that in spite of such utter neglect of the great 
majority of them by their sisters in the home lands, after 



STUDENTS 22 1 

46 years there should he such a great number. What a 
commentary on the words " The harvest truly is plenteous 
but the labourers are few ;) ! 

Besides the above there is the work of the college with 
213 students, the girls school with over 60 pupils, and 
the hospital with one foreign Doctor, over 36,000 out 
patients, 1,187 male and 492 female inpatients, amongst 
whom Christian work in the form of preaching and teaching 
is carried on in the dispensary chapel and in the wards. 
Formerly to any patient who became interested a note was 
given by the doctor to take to the pastor of the Church 
nearest the patient s home and the pastor was notified also 
so that he could follow up the case. This work has been 
fruitful in bringing many into the church. 

ft may not be amiss here to add that for the further 
help of all preachers the foreign fund stands half the cost 
of books helpful to their Christian work of teaching and 
preaching, and arrangements have been made for some time 
with a large book-store in the city to accept the printed and 
signed slip given by the missionary to preachers for such 
literature, and these slips are brought quarterly and 
payment of the half made in a lump sum. 

It remains to add that last year the most of the $443.99 
subscribed to the Thanksgiving Fund by the Chinese was 
voted by them to typhoon relief, and that when the 
rate of exchange was most adverse, the Chinese pastors 
nearly all subscribed a month s salary or thereabouts to 
help out the stringency. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

TENT EVANGELISM 

Andrew Thomson 

The changed conditions of recent years, and the 
success attending the use of tents by other missions, 
induced us to make the experiment for ourselves. By the 
end of 1923, including both the mission and independent 
congregations, there were eleven tents in use, and we 
expect to add to this number in 1924. 

The tent affords the double advantage of a better 
auditorium than can generally be found ready-to-hand in 
Chinese cities or towns, and of mobility. It can be set 
up almost anj where, in a short time, and is equally 
adapted for village, town or city work. Situated at a, place 
accessible to the general public, furnished with portable 
benches, platform and table, with pictures and hymn and 
text sheets, it releases the speaker from an unequal contest 
with the din of street traffic, and affords the hearer an 
opportunity of listening in comfort and without distraction 
to the message of the evangelists. 

The writer will be pardoned if he confines 
himself to that in his own experience which he 
has found useful. Before going to the centre 
selected for work, we secure a site for the tent, and, as 
near it as possible, quarters for the staff, and issue printed 
notices a. bout the meetings. By first approaching the 
leading men of the place, the site is usually granted free 
and sometimes commodious quarters in temples are also 
granted without charge for the accommodation of the staff. 
Three meetings are held each day morning, afternoon 
and evening the last being the largest, as the business 
and the work of the day being over, all classes are free 
to attend. A part of the tent, with a separate entrance, 
is reserved for the women, sometimes being divided from 
the rest by a partition of straw mats nailed to a wooden 



PREACHING BANDS 223 

frame, sometimes simply by an aisle between the benches. 
A pleasing feature of the meetings is the large number of 
women who attend, especially in the evening. 

The preaching band consists of missionary or mission 
aries, and from three to six Chinese speakers. In addition, 
two men are employed to watch the tent, (they sleep in 
it overnight) sweep and sprinkle the iloor, arrange the 
benches, etc. Local Christians are of service in ushering 
and maintaining order. The program of subjects may be 
arranged in advance, and each speaker assigned his place 
in it. The topics can be .-elected and arranged so as to 
make an orderly development throughout the; meetings. 
Thus, for example, starting with such subjects as (rod, 
Man, one may proceed through the leading events in the 
Life of Christ and Principles of His Teaching, to Prayer, 
the Bible, the Church, the Home, and Society. This 
method permits of each address standing out complete 
and distinct by itself, prevents undue over-lapping and 
repetition, restrains discursive brethren from wandering 
too far afield, and in the course of twelve days or two 
weeks, makes possible an orderly presentation of the 
leading doctrines and practices of the Christian faith. 

While the meetings are in progress, provision is made 
for inviting any interested to retire, usually to the place 
where the staff is residing, where, over the social cup of 
tea, they may ask the questions that the new tilings they 
have heard raise in their minds. Both in the tent and 
the guest room, literature is on hand for sale or judicious 
presentation. 

One problem that arises is, what to do with the 
children. These attend in large numbers, and, unless 
controlled, monopolize the seats and create disorder. To 
expel them is to increase, rather than diminish this, and 
is scarcely in keeping with the object we have in view. 
A plan which has been found quite practicable, and which 
offends neither old nor young, is to announce that a short 
address will be given to the children at the beginning of 
the meeting, let them have the front benches, give them 
their talk with the help of pictures, teach them to sing 
a verse of a hj r mns and then ask them, as they have 



224 TENT EVANGELISM 

already had their turn, and as propriety demands that 
the young should show deference to their seniors, to vacate 
the benches in favor of the grown-ups. 

Our mission is now using several preaching bands, 
each with its own equipment. We have also in operation a 
system of exchanges between the stations, both of foreign 
and Chinese workers. The workers themselves reap the 
benefit of an exchange of views and methods of work, and 
our church members have the opportunity of hearing new 
and fresh presentations of the message. 

Advantages There are some special advantages from 

this method of work which may be noted. 

1. The close association of the missionary and his 
Chinese fellow-workers, the daily united prayer and Bible 
study, the discussion and criticism of the addresses 
delivered in the tent, furnish an admirable training-ground 
for the future leaders of the Chinese Church. 

2. By grouping workers into a band during a part of 
each year, equipped with a tent and furnishings, and by 
going to each man s district in turn, each reaps the benefit 
of the united strength of the whole. 

3. When the tent leaves the place where it has been, 
no church property is left behind to be cared for. 
Premises provided by mission funds are open to the 
objection that they are frequently idle for a large part 
of the year, and become the loafing-place of undesirable 
hangers-on. With the tent it is otherwise. 

Extent to Letters of enquiry regarding use of tents 

Which Used secured answers from fourteen correspondents, 
reporting twenty-seven tents in use, three in 
Shantung, two in Chili and twenty-two in Honan. In all 
cases they have come into use quite recently, the earliest 
date being seven years age. The tents vary in size from 
30X20 to 60 X 40 and one72 X 36 . One tent, foreign 
canvas, made in Shanghai, can be secured in various 
sizes 45 X25 , up to 70 X40 . Two writers mentioned 
quality " it pays to get a really good one/ 
General Method , Jt was evident from the replies received 
that the tents are not used to cover a lot ot 
ground hurriedly, but for concentrated work at chosen 
centres by a large staff over a period from a week up to two 



225 

months. The average period was seventeen days. The 
preaching staff varied from two full-time men with lay 
assistance from neighboring congregations to ten men. The 
equipment included cooking utensils for Chinese staff, table, 
benches, platform, organ, stereopticon, gasoline, carbide 
and kerosene lamps (in the case of one city, electric lights) 
and in one case, band instruments. 

It was also apparent that tents are being used both in 
new districts and also where then; are already well- 
established churches. In some eases the Christians co 
operate both in the preaching and in meeting the expense 
involved. 

^, ... , For children special services were recom- 

Children s , , .., . j . . . 

Services mended, either before the mam service, or by 

having special meetings for them in separate 
tent or building ". 

The replies favored joint meetings for 
men an< ^ women in the tent, with separate 
quarters for receiving women enquirers. 
Unanimously One question was "Do you recommend 
Approved * nis form of work as advantageous?" 
Without exception, the eleven correspondents 
gave a hearty affirmative answer. Here are three: 

Yes, indeed, many feel free to attend tent meetings 
who would never go into a church. 

11 Yes, it is splendid, the people are keen to hear and 
would always have us remain double the time . 

" Yes, it is the best form of evangelistic work ever 
carried out here. Honan village system suited to this form 
of work." 

(For outline of equipment see * Tent equipment " 
Appendices) 



CHAPTER XXXV 

WORK AMONG THE SHANS 
J. W. Lowrie 

o . . A Shan is defined by a standard dictionary 

to be "a member of the group of Mongoloid 
tribes of the Tai stock, physically and linguistically allied 
to the Siamese, found throughout Indo-China." 

The term Shan seems to be a Burmese word whose 
origin is uncertain. It is unknown among the Chinese, 
who call the Tai people " By E ", the word "E ;; meaning 
gentile and the word " B} 7 " being given different inter 
pretations by different individuals. The Chinese also divide 
them into " Han By I-J " and " Shway By E ? , which means 
respectively the dry or land Tai and the water Tai, referring 
in the latter case to their residence in the vicinity of a river 
and their skill in the art of irrigation. The word Tai in 
their own tongue means free. 

It seems that the Tai were a numerous people before 
the Christian era, occupying the northwestern region of 
China but gradually driven southward by the more powerful 
Chinese. 

They established a capital city at Talifu in Yunnan 
Province from which they were expelled by the Mongols 
in the thirteenth century and successively planted other 
capital cities on the Mekong river, at Chiengmai in Siam 
and finally at Bangkok, the present capital of that country. 

In Sin in the race has revealed its capacity to advance 
and to make use of the attainments in science and of the 
conveniences of modern civilization enjoyed by western 
peoples. 

The Tai are found in larger or smaller groups from the 
French territory, Tongking, and Ivwangsi Province in 
China on the east across the Provinces of Kweichovv and 
Yunnan into eastern Burma. 



TAI CHARACTERISTICS 227 

In many of these localities the people) have accommodat 
ed themselves to the ruling race whose language they use 
freely. But in Kweichow there is said to be a large 
population who still speak their native dialect, and in 
southwestern Yunnan there are probably one million of 
them who retain the language and customs of their 
ancestors. 



Cha act isti s ^ 1C ^ tl * P e P^ e have some very attractive 
national characteristics. They are simple and 
natural in manner, fond of flowers and of human fellowship. 
They are much given to laughter; in this respect being 
given the preeminence by the traveler, Geil, over all the 
peoples of the world. The costume of their women is 
tasteful and beautiful. They use small, hollow, half 
spheres of silver which they sew upon their collars and 
jackets in large diamond shaped figures with a striking and 
attractive effect. Men and women are diligent in tilling 
the soil and have become especially skillful in bringing 
water from a long distance for irrigating their rice 
fields. 

In the region where the bamboo is abundant, their 
houses are made largely from its rods and split strips and 
have heavy thatched roofs. In the more northern region 
the people build strong houses of stone with low flat roofs, 
each adjoining that of its neighbor, so that the whole 
village population can circulate freely from end to end upon 
the roofs of their houses, which at the same time are 
impregnable to the ordinary robber bands. 
Re j. . The Tui of the extreme south and west 

of Yunnan Province are Buddhistic, and 
Buddhist temples are found in every large village. Buddhist 
priests enjoy the same reverence and receive the same 
support from the people at large as in the Kingdom of 
Siam where Buddhism as a faith has found its most 
congenial home. 

Missions Christian Missions have been carried on 

amongst the Siamese people since the middle 
of last century by missionaries of the American Presby 
terian Church, and from that mission pioneer evangelists 
followed the Tai communities northward until they reached 



228 WORK AMONG THE SHANS 

the wide area in the extreme southern districts of Yunnan 
Province called Sip Song Panna, which means the twelve 
wide rice plains. 

There on the Mekong river, about 22 N. latitude and 
101 E. longitude, within the limits of an ancient capital 
city of the race, whose traces in moat and wall are now 
barely discernible, these missionaries planted an out-station 
called in the Tai language Chieng Rung (or Hung) but 
called in Chinese Kiulungkiang. At this place resides the 
Chinese ruler of that portion of south China, at present a 
very capable man, who, with perhaps a thousand soldiers 
scattered throughout the whole area, keeps the peace 
between contending Tai communities and makes it possible 
for missionaries from the west to reside there in peace and 
safety. But for this Chinese mandarin there would be no 
regular mail service to Kiulungkiang nor, possibly, would 
the safety of a western family be insured for any con 
siderable length of time, for by his impartiality, kindly 
spirit and manifest wisdom the hostility of the people to 
the Chinese, their conquerors, is much abated, and their 
ever-recurring tribal feuds eliminated. 

The station is twenty-four days journey from Yunnan 
on the north and twenty-eight days from Chiengmai in Siam 
on the south. A dispensary and schools have been opened 
at this point and a little church is planted there where rest 
the remains of Rev. W. C. Dodd, D.D., who loved the Tai 
people with ardent affection and spent the last years of his 
life seeking them out in their scattered dwelling places and 
bringing them to the notice of the Christian world that 
they might hear the Gospel and live. 

The Rev. Mr. Young of the American Baptist Mission, 
a zealous pioneer evangelist, is laboring with success in the 
southwestern section of Yunnan Province in what is also 
one of the most isolated mission centers in the world. 
Particulars of the work of this devoted laborer are not 
obtainable at this writing. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Fullerton, independent missionaries 
located for some years at Szemao, a large and prosperous 
Chinese city in southern Yunnan, are laboring with two or 
three missionary comrades at Menglieh, seven days journey 
east of Szemao, where over a thousand members of the 



PIONEER MISSIONARIES 229 

Lisu tribe have accepted the Gospel. Rev. J.O. Fraser of the 
China Inland Mission is also engaged in a successful work 
among the Lisu in the southwestern portion of Yunnan 
Province near the Burman frontier and has translated one 
of the gospels into the language of the Lisu people. 

Some eighteen days journey north of Kiulungkiang and 
about six from Yunnanfu is the city of Yuankiang on the 
banks of the river of the same name. This river flows 
between two mountain areas that are seven thousand feet 
in height, itself at the low level of but fifteen hundred feet 
above the sea. The river valley is therefore fiercely hot in 
summer and subject to malignant malaria also. So much 
is this the case that the Chinese people fear to dwell along 
the river bank ami have left some thirty thousand of the 
Tai people undisturbed in their tillage of the soil and 
enjoyment of the fruits of the earth. These thirty thousand 
Tai have no political or social relation to the millions of 
their family in the distant south nor are they Buddhists in 
faith, but are pure animists, living in constant dread of the 
evil spirits with which they people the unseen world and 
protecting themselves from the malign influence of these 
spirits by amulets and charms hung at the doorways of 
their houses. 

Two years ago, pioneer missionaries from 
Missionaries Kiulungkiang, speaking the Tai dialect, 
providentially met members of this com 
munity and were received with open arms. The message 
of the One who is greater than the demons and could bring 
peace to their homes and communities was received with 
enthusiasm by hundreds, and at the present time about two 
thousand are studying the Christian faith under evangelists 
brought from Siam and are learning to read the scriptures 
printed on the presses in Siam, whose language is 
substantially the same as their own. The American 
Presbyterian Church has sent four families from its Siam 
Mission to open the new work in China and also seven 
mission recruits from America to push the work so 
auspiciously begun. 




CHAPTER XXXVI 

WORK IN HAINAN 
David S. Tappan 

Hainan Island the most southern part of China, is in 
the same latitude, 18-20 degrees North, as Porto Rico, and 
is about the same size as Formosa. Politically it is a part of 
Kwangtung Province but the Hainanese language in idiom is 
like Mandarin so that Mandarin literature is in common 
use. There are large settlements of Hakkas and several 
large Mandarin speaking markets while many of the 
business men of Hoi how are Cantonese. Many Hainanese 
emigrate to Siam and Singapore in search of wealth and 
returning home find themselves Enoch Ardens. Although 
no census has ever been taken it is estimated that there is 
a population of 2,500,000. There are no large cities, 
Hoihow the chief port, being the largest with about 40,000 



CLIMATE AND COMMUNICATIONS 231 

people. It has no harbor, but an anchorage two miles out 
where steamers from Hongkong take on coolies for Haiphong 
and Bangkok, and cattle, pigs and chickens back to 
Hongkong. This twenty-six hours trip to Hongkong lies 
between Hainan and the rest of the world, and two or three 
steamers a week are the connecting link. 

Climate ^ e tropical Climate is no help as it takes 

away zest for work and prevents Westerners 
as well as Chinese from accomplishing as much as people 
in cooler, more invigorating zones. The new missionary 
needs a steel will to keep at language study during the Jong 
summer days. Four months, December to March, are cool 
and brisk and dark clothing is a welcome relief from the 
common garb of white duck suits. 

The lack of roads and modern means ot 
CommuuiCd- ... IT ,\ i p 

t j ons communication are handicaps to the spread ot 

Christianity. A trip across the island takes 
ton days, a distance, with modern roads easily travelled in a 
few hours. The advantage; of roads, however, is beginning 
to penetrate and the present thirty miles of real road 
travelled by four or five Fords is but the beginning of a new 7 
era. Recently a telephone line twenty-five miles in length 
has been built and the government plans to thus connect 
the thirteen district cities, 
p r . f . Political chaos since the Republic has 

Pomtcs ,11-1 -IT i TV. 

greatly hindered development. Little can be 
done to mine the gold and tin to be found in the interior, 
nor can large tracts of land now lying idle be used as long 
aa cattle thieves and bandits run unmolested. At present 
lottery and gambling are eating into the economic life of 
the people and, with opium, bringing moral disaster. 

Tho scientific world has recently boon attracted to 
Hainan as a Held of research almost new. Now species of 
fauna have been discovered by CliilYml Pope of the Roy 
Andrew s Expedition. F. A. McClure of Canton Christian 
College found seventy now species of plant life. 
Catholic Mission work was opened by the Catholics 

Missionaries m the sixteenth century but modern Catholic 
work began in 1840. At present the work is 
carried on by a few French priests and sisters. 



232 WORK IN HAINAN 

Carl C. Jeremiassen was the Protestant 
Protestant pioneer missionary of Hainan. In 1881 he 
Missionary began work and four years later became 
associated with the American Presbyterian 
Mission. This mission has continued to have entire 
responsibility for bringing Christianity to Hainan Island 
and Luichow Peninsula on the mainland. At present there 
are thirty-four missionaries in the three stations, 
Kiungchow-Hoihow, Nodoa, Kachek. 

r . t .., Because of its isolation, mission work in 

Hainan is at least twenty years behind other 
parts of China. There are only two ordained Chinese 
pastors with two more soon to be ordained. Hence the 
question of Chinese assuming full control is in the future. 
However the Hainanese church is a part of the Church of 
Christ in China, and as such sent two Chinese delegates to 
the National Christian Conference. 

D ,, , T . Hainan Bible Institute was opened Nov. 5. 

Bible Institute . 4rkrt<> .,, , r ni ^r-^ 

192,5, with twelve students. Ihe Milton 

Stewart Evangelistic Fund has made this work possible; by 
a gift of $ 7,000 gold for buildings and an annual appro 
priation for upkeep. It receives middle school and higher 
primary graduates, and prepares evangelists and preachers. 

, ,. In the interior of the island a great 

Lot and Miao . ,. ** 

opportunity tor evangelism has been found 

among the Loi and Miao tribes. The mass movement to- 
wards Christianity among the Miaos has brought whole 
villages to Christ. They have built for themselves 12 
chapels, have ninety pupils in four schools and about 
one hundred and fifty have been admitted into the church. 
The Loi aborigines have five chapels, one school of twenty 
pupils. Twenty have been baptized. 

Church The following figures show the rapid growth 

of the native church. 

1892 78 Christians. 

1900 106 

1909 375 

1917 1,642 

1922 2,890 

1923 3,419 



EDUCATION IN HAINAN 233 



This is an increase of over 18/ in one year. A complete 
system of schools from the primary through the middle 
school is maintained by the mission, but much needs to be 
done for the proper supervision of the country schools. 
Lower and higher primary schools for boys and girls are 
provided in each station. Since 1919 the mission has 
centralized its middle school work at Kiungchow in the 
Hainan Christian Middle School for Boys, and Pitkin 
Memorial School for Girls. The two schools are on 
adjacent property and have a common faculty. 

Boys School ^ ne 0() 3 r s middle school serves the com 

munity and helps to create good will by yearly 
holding the only interscholastic middle school field meet in 
Hainan. On Dec. 14, 1923 all the government schools of 
Kiungchow attended, making a crowd of several thousand 
spectators. 

The Middle school students are being trained in 
Christian service by the Christian Endeavor. Through its 
agency they hold regular Sunday services at the jail with 
a special treat and program at Christmas time. They 
maintain a street chapel in the city of Kiungchow with 
weekly services and last summer conducted four Daily 
Vacation Bible schools. 

n > i t c t. r An unsolved problem at present is that of 
Girls bchool . T i i 5 i i 

the future of the graduates of the girls middle 

school. In the transition between the old and the new their 
changing social position causes blunders. Of twenty-four 
graduates fifteen are teaching, and three are away at school. 
Some have brought disappointment by marrying into 
wealthy families as second wives rather than return to the 
crude homes from which they have come. 

The following figures tell the story of the growth of 
the educational work from the time when ten cash had to 
be paid to each student to attend school, to the present 
when $25,652 was received in school fees during 1923. 

1892 74 students, mostly primary. 

1900 86 

1909 281 

1917 1500 

1923 1742 (middle schools, 150.) 



234 WORK IN HAINAN 

There have been 48 graduates from Hainan Christian 
Middle School since 1920. Twenty-live are attending 
college in other parts of China or in America. Twenty are 
engaged in teaching, .twelve of whom are in charge of 
schools connected with the mission. 

Medical Work Mission hospitals are located in Hoihow, 
Nodoa and Kachek. During 1923 the Hoihow 
hospital treated 15,000 out-patients, 1950 in-patients, and 
430 maternity cases each of a month s duration, besides 
200 severe surgical operations. Dr. McCandliss, who 
founded the hospital over thirty years ago, recently removed 
from the bladder of a patient a gall stone weighing I7J 
ounces, supposedly the largest in medical history. The 
patient recovered and was able to return to his home. The 
hospital has been self-supporting for years and last year 
took in fees amounting to $22,000. 

Nodoa hospital, ninety miles in the interior, four 
days of hard travel, is an oasis of healing. It is equipped 
with an X-Ray machine, electric lights, ice-making machine, 
windmill and running water system. 

Kachek hospital is beginning a new era of work with 
its new building, costing 850,000 Mex., given by the Dallas 
City Temple, Texas, which has also taken over Kachek 
station as its parish abroad. Both Kachek and Hoihow 
hospitals carry on work for lepers in their villages where 
free clinics and religious services are held weekly. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

WORK AMONG TURKI AND THE TRIBES 
IN CENTRAL ASIA 

G. W. Hunter 

The Asia treated below extends from Kashgar in 
the West to Kobdo in the East. In this vast 
territory are to be found Sart Turki, Qazaqs, Khirgiz, 
Mongols, Ton gang, Manehus, and Chinese. The Salts 
occupy the cities and towns on the south side of the T 5 ien 
Shan range, from Ha mi to Kashgar, they are also to be 
found in the towns algng the Sinkiang Thibetan border. 
c , . . The Chinese and Tongans occupy the cities 

Tongans an ( l towns on the North side of the T ien Shan 

from Barkul Hi (Kul ja). There are also 
quite a number of Tongans in Hami, Turfan and Karashar. 

The Manehus are mostly in Hi and Tahchcng 
(Tarbakatai). The Qazaqs and Mongols pitch their tents 
in the valleys on the northern slopes of the T ien Shan and 
also in the districts of Tarbakatai, Altai and Kobdo. 

The Khirgiz are found in the mountains near Kashgar 
and Uch Turfan, and in Karashar is a large tribe of 
Kalmuk Mongols. 

Settled work has been carried on by the Swedish 
Missionary Society in Kashgar and Yarkand for about 30 
years. They have established an orphanage, hospital 
and schools. Naturally their work is mostly amongst the 
Sart Turki as there are practically no Chinese on the soutli 
side of the T ien Shan. The Sarts are amongst the most 
ignorant and bigoted of Mohammedans, but the Grace of 
God has much more abounded and this last summer about 
eight were baptized, followed by bitter protests and 
persecution. The mission has its own printing press, 
and prints tracts, scripture portions and educational books 
in Turki. The four Gospels, translated in the early days 
of the mission and printed by the British and Foreign Bible 



236 THE TRIBES IN CENTRAL ASIA 

Society, were followed recently by the whole of the New 
Testament. A great deal of medical work is carried on 
and the Khirgiz are sometimes visited in the mountains 
near Kashgar. 

Tihwafu About 46 days journey east of Kashgar is 

the city of Tihwafu known by its old Mongol 
name Urumchi, whilst the local Chinese name is Hong 
Miao Tsi (Red Temple). Tihwafu has a mixed population 
of Chinese, Tongans, and Turki, amounting to about 60,000 
in all; in the surrounding mountains are many Qazaqs 
and a few Mongols. 

The China Inland Mission opened a station here in 
1905 and at present there are two resident missionaries. 
The nearest mission station is at Kanchow in Kansu, 42 
days journey distant. 

The work in Tihwa is not easy as the people are mixed 
and very unsettled. In spring thousands of Chinese and 
Tongans set off for the Russian border to plant opium, or 
flock to Altai to dig gold. 

Th W fc r fhe work consists mostly of bookselling and 

street preaching with a little dispensary work. 
In spring a visit is generally paid to the district oKuC ? heng 
Tsi where there are many Chinese. In summer long 
journeys are usually taken amongst the nomad Qazaq and 
Mongol tribes in the districts of Karashar, Hi, Tahcheng, 
Altai, Kobdo, or Barkul. Journeys have also been made to 
K u ch ae, Kashgar and Yarkand, and Khotan. This 
summer a journey was made to Lanchow, 56 days 7 journey 
south east of Tihwafu. 

Literary Work Literary work has not been altogether 
neglected. The Gospel of Mark, The Acts, 
Samuel and a portion of Genesis, " Pilgrims Progress " and 
a few tracts have been translated into simple Turki. 

The Gospel of Mark and the Book of Acts have been 
translated into Qazaq. Several hundred copies of most of 
the above have been printed on a small hand mimeograph 
and distributed amongst the people, previous to their being 
printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 

A Kalmuk Mongol Grammar and Dictionary is also in 
preparation. 



THE TRIBES 237 

^ The Government, which is of the most 

Conditions -, ,. , t , -, , 

despotic, conservative and backward type, is 

anti-Christian. No newspapers are allowed to be printed in 
Sinkiang, and all Chinese, Turki and Arabic newspapers 
are confiscated. A rigid censorship of letters has been 
carried out for many years: native letters are sometimes 
censored twice. 

The people are rough and independent. The Chinese 
and Manchus are addicted to opium. The Turki people 
possess all the immoralities of a debased Mohammedanism. 
The Mongols are drunkards and many of the Qazaqs and 
Tongans are thieves. 

Five Chinese and one Tongan have been 
baptized. The latter, a young man, wrote out 
a confession of his faith in Christ and boldly hung it outside 
the chapel door when we were away from home last summer. 
He has suffered beating and not a little persecution. 

The Turki people who formerly used to burn our tracts, 
etc., in public are now outw r ardly becoming more friendly 
and we believe that amongst them are secret believers. 

No fruit has been seen amongst the Qazaqs or Mongols, 
but a few have heard the Gospel and many gospels have 
been left in the lonely tents between Karashar and Kobdo 
and we believe that God s word shall not return unto 
Him void. 



PART VI 
MISSIONS AND MISSIONARIES 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 

THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES OF THE HOME BASE 
J. L. Stuart 

The experience drawn on for this article is confined 
to the United States, although conditions in Canada are 
perhaps essentially the same, and in Europe at least no 
more encouraging. 

Perhaps the first impression one receives 
is the fad . in g out of the old objection about 
not believing in Foreign Missions. Improved 
facilities for travel, new international relations, the 
after-effects of the Great War, have perhaps all helped 
the churches to realize their obligations overseas. At any 
rate the abstract claims of missionary work seem now to 
be quite generally recognized among religious people. 
These now take their place along with other good causes, 
and require no special advocacy as such. 

Interest in ^ second pleasant impression is the friendly 

China an( ^ relatively well-informed interest in China 

which is wide-spread. This kindly attitude 
among Americans of all classes is somewhat surprising. 
But it is from the missionary s view-point the most 
popular country for which to plead, the easiest for which 
to secure contributions. 

It would seem that these two phenomena encourage 
the hope of constantly increasing support for various 
aspects of missionary activity in China. Such hope is 
certainly justified and should enter into our planning. 
There are, however, certain qualifying factors which 
deserve our thoughtful attention. 



APPROPRIATIONS TO CHINA 239 

... f For one thing, there lias already been a 

Volume of , , -, 7 

Appropriations n o table advanco in the volume of appropria 
tions to China. With constantly higher cost 
of operation and normal expansion, there must be a 
steady increase in annual appropriations merely to keep up 
existing work on its present basis. Can this be looked 
for or have the available resources of the western churches 
been drawn upon to their limit? It is a pertinent question 
involving both economic and spiritual issues. Obviously 
there is only one answer when one sees the enormous 
wealth and the abandon of spending everywhere in the 
States, or when one reminds himself in reverent trust 
that all things are possible with the God we serve. 
Yet, while realizing the rich significance of both those 
considerations, we cannot afford to disregard other factors 
in the present situation. 

B . There has been for several years a business 

Depression depression which, while lifting somewhat 
this year, is still threatening. Many financial 
authorities express the fear that it will return, and will 
not finally clear away until European affairs become 
stable, of which there seems to be slight prospect just 
yet. The heavy taxation, especially on the wealthy; the 
shifts of fortune by which those accustomed to money 
and to dispensing it have in numberless instancies had 
their incomes reduced, and others have suddenly found 
themselves rich but without training in any sense of 
stewardship; the caution which paralyzes the nerve of 
generosity in unsettled times ; the changing standards 
of comfort and luxury and the temptations to reckless 
expenditure these are suggestions of general economic 
conditions which have their bearing on our interests. 
Board Deficits Practically all the mission boards have 
been carrying heavy deficits. Some of these 
have with the utmost exertion during these autumn 
months cleared this off or reduced it. Such conditions are 
symptomatic of something wrong. 

This much at least seems clear, that all the mission 
boards are sufficiently involved to indicate a general condition 
rather than the consequences of an unwise policy on the part 
of any one board, and that for some years at any rate they 



240 THE FINANCIAL RESOURCES 

will all have to put their major emphasis upon adjusting 
their expenditures to their normal receipts rather than to 
any expansion of work. 

The majority of strong denominations and nearly all 
the local churches have adopted a budget system by which 
special appeals are ruled out and only the schedules for 
foreign missions, which can bear the scrutiny of a joint 
council, are approved. This tends to reduce such items 
to the necessary minimum, and permits but small 
enlargement through official channels. 

Philanth Philanthropy in America has become more 

highly organized and embraces a wide 
compass of activities both in this country and in Europe 
and the Near East. The appeals for charity are numerous 
and insistent The very broadening of outlook, which 
has swept away hostility to foreign missions, has opened 
the hearts of our people to humanitarian claims in all parts 
of the world. The response to the earthquake in Japan is a 
striking instance of this. 

The "drives" that were instituted during the war 
have developed a technique for campaigning which is 
relentlessly effective in its methods. Every type of 
religious or social welfare financial appeal either employs 
experts or snatches a leaf or two from their manuals on 
tactics. This generates in turn a protective armament on 
the part of prospective donors. 

There is now a psychological revulsion against the very 
thought of another appeal. Despite or because of it the 
almost uncanny ingenuity of appeals by mail, these are now 
recognised as almost worthless for bringing results. One 
may rejoice in the growing response to appeals, many of 
which are essentially missionary in spirit, while facing the 
arresting thought that foreign missions in the technical 
sense must compete with many vigorous agencies in their 
demand upon the Christian heart and conscience. 
Chinese Support f l" nere another note to which we must 
give heed. People are asking about Chinese 
support of our undertakings. 

American Finally the spiritual condition of American 

Christianity Christianity gives one pause. The theological 

controversy now raging cannot but divert the 



REINFORCEMENTS 241 

interest of many from aggressive financial efforts, shako 
confidence in official boards, and otherwise injure missionary 
support. The revolt of our youth against existing ex 
pressions of Christian faith and activity may mean that 
with the passing of the older generation, there will he a 
weakening of tflie agencies on which we now depend, at 
least until the church and the resurgent spirit of youth 
find a way for adjusting the old doctrines to new demands. 
The break-down of Sunday observance, the automobiles, 
the radio, the movies, are affecting at least the ordered 
forms of church life. One need have no doubt of the 
ultimate victory of Christian faith over all disturbing 
tendencies now manifesting their. selves in American life, 
even though he fears that in the years just ahead they may 
seriously affect the growth in missionary receipts through 
e s ta b 1 i s h ed age n c 5 es . 

j .. .. To sum it all up, hard facts force one to 

the conclusion that wise missionary policy 
will shape its program on the expectation that the income 
from abroad will not materially increase in the near future 
and may even be reduced. 

If this contention is true, it has important implications 
for China mission policy. We all recognise the strategical 
value of more Chinese Avorkers in every phase of the 
Christian movement. This requires increased emphasis 
on the facilities for training such men and women, and 
increased budgets for their salaries and for the plants 
necessary to retain and make effective their services. But 
if we must provide for these and other obviously 
desirable features of a policy that looks to strengthening 
the Chinese contingent in our forces, if we are to concern 
ourselves with higher standards and finer quality, especially 
in matters of Chinese leadership, this can only be achieved 
by resolutely reducing the reinforcements from abroad and 
the maintenance of foreign-manned activities. It would 
seem that we must choose between intensive and extensive 
effort, between more money for developing Chinese workers 
or for bringing over more of our own nationals. 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

WHAT SHOULD BE THE PRESENT CONTRIBUTION 
OF MISSIONS TO CHRISTIAN WORK IN CHINA 

T. K, Shen 

It is said that the last words of St. Francis Xavier 
while dying on the island of San-chan and seeing the great 
mountains of Macao were a prayer that the great rock would 
give an opening to Christ. About four centuries have 
elapsed and we of this day see the opening indeed ! Cities 
are thrown open for Christian missionary work, barriers 
are broken down, homes of the gentry are opened, children 
of the conservatives are tutored. We might say with St. Paul 
that Cajsar s household is beginning to be evangelized. 

The loving labors of faithful pioneers and the liberal 
support of western Christians have borne fruit for which 
the Church in China will ever be grateful. But what we 
call pioneer work is only one aspect of Christian work, which 
is both many-sided and eternal. When one great rock is 
opened we find several staring defiantly at us. Although 
the rocks of ignorance, superstition, prejudice and sin seem 
to be impenetrable, the power of God is overcoming them 
slowly and surely. 

f The author is emboldened to express his 

opinion about "What should be the present 
contribution of missions to Christian work in 
China ", as follows: Better training of leader.- in all lines 
of Christian work, especially in educational, medical and 
evangelistic work. The impetus of the New Thought 
Movement is carrying with it all the educated people in 
China, including the students. The rationalistic attitude 
of many has become a skeptical attitude. The ancient 
reverence for the scholar is transformed into the modern 
thirst for truth and reality. Nothing is taken for granted. 
Past traditions are mercilessly uprooted and reexamined. 
The Christian religion with its various forms of Christian 



OHtfKOII AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS* 243 

work is not accepted on its face value. Under such 
circumstances, anything short of a vital religious experience, 
a thorough understanding of the past and the present of 
the Christian religion, and a modern attitude towards the 
methods and the policies of Christian work, the efforts of 
the Christian workers will fall far short of meeting the 
present needs of Christian propaganda in China. 

This becomes the more urgent when one considers the 
widespread spiritual and moral movements. In fact all the 
new movements are partially ethical in nature, for example 
the New Culture Movement, the Feminist Movement, 
popular education, labor agitation. These all emphasize 
equality, democracy, service, justice etc. Even the anti- 
Christian movement is based on the; "failure" of 
Christianity during the world war. The new Confucian, 
Buddhist and eclectic movements are not started to compete 
with the Christian movement. But they are a sign of the self- 
consciousness of the religious minds of China who want to 
express their faith in works. We need to convert the 
saints and devotees of China. If it were not for some of 
the poor, weak, short-sighted and self-important Christian 
workers, many a Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea 
would have openly confessed Christ. Thus we need better 
trained men, larger men and deeper men. 

This suggests a more thorough and modern education 
in all the missionary schools, especially a more liberal 
theological education, and the opening of more schools for 
women. But higher education alone cannot turn out more 
consecrated lives. Only bigger and deeper missionaries 
will stimulate the production of more consecrated native 
workers. God forbid that we should rest satisfied with the 
evangelization of China; with better trained and more 
consecrated leaders we must also Christianize China. 

, The average citizen or business man in 

theCommunfty China owning the traditional local or 
Life patriarchal government, is more concerned 

with his city or village life than the national 
life. In meeting a person from another province!, muni 
cipal or provincial pride usually exceeds national pride. 
During these years of national humiliation and political 



244 CHRISTIAN WORK IN CHINA 

chaos the press and the seriously minded are re-emphasizing 
the importance of local government and municipal life. 
The social aspects of the Christian religion constitute a 
new appeal, and when demonstrated in institutional work 
it is a resistless appeal to the practical man and to the 
so-called middle and lower classes of the nation. 

Among the more modern minds of China 
the struggles between capital and labor, the 
economic life of the workers, labor unions, 
factory laws, etc., are live topics of discussion. It is most 
opportune for the Christian workers to preach the social 
gospel of brotherhood arid cooperative service. When the 
disturbed state of the country settles down in a decade 
or two, we shall find machinery usurping manual labor. 
Judging from the industrial experience of the West if the 
Christian Church cannot create a public opinion for justice 
and service now, it will be very much more difficult to 
do so later on. 

It should be understood that "indigenous " 
The Indfgeii- , , . . , , T f 

ous Church c oes nofc rnean anti-foreign . It means 
the giving of the best in China to Christ 
even as the Magi presented their gold, incense and ni3 T rrh. 
It is St. Paul s policy of being all things to all men in 
order to save some. It is the fulfilment of the New 
Testament prophecy that all the nations and kings of the 
earth will bring their glory to the heavenly Jerusalem. 
It is the saying of Keshab Chandar Sen, founder of the 
Brahmo-Samaj, that never would India surrender to Christ 
so long as the Savior of the white races appeared before 
her peoples in European dress, (p. 3, " Other Sheep ", by 
Harold Begbie). It means the contribution of the best 
Chinese Christian thought and national genius to the 
Church Catholic, and it is a presentation of Christ to the 
Chinese nation in Chinese form, language, and attire. 
The word indigenous" seems to have special odium for 
some missionaries, but it should be frankly asked if the 
Roman, Greek, and Protestant interpretations of the facts 
of the Christian revelation are final, and if their forms 
of church organization are, adaptable to the whole human 



INDIGENOUS CHURCH 245 

race ? In other words can the Abundant Life of Christ 
be shared only through the denominational churches of 
the West? 

To foster an indigenous church, these are 
anIn"4eno us orae of the conditions :- -(a) The native 

Church ministry should be enlightened, being 

equipped with the best intellectual and 
theological training; it should be unfettered, and given 
its sphere of work in which experiment is countenanced; 
it should be entrusted with whatever the missionary is 
entrusted with, taking it for granted that it is well-trained 
and worthy, (b) There should be greater denominational 
cooperation and mutual understanding. Ecclesiastical 
competition and denominational investment should fade 
before the vision of the Church Catholic in China, which 
is the aim and end of missionary endeavor, (c) The 
Chinese clergy and responsible laity should be given equal 
footing in church matters with the missionaries, for example 
in the making of budgets, and the expenditure of appropria 
tions. To sum up, mission work and mission policy should 
be church-centric, not mission-centric. True accountability 
is not primarily to the feelings of the pious financial 
supporters of the West but to the spiritual well-being of 
the local Christians as well as to the practical efficiency of 
the local churches. 

When the writer suggests these three immediate tasks 
of more consecrated and better trained leaders, a socialized 
Christian work, and an unhindered development of an 
indigenous church, he hopes he is not understood to be 
depreciating missionaries and their work. For what more 
can we expect than generous support and devoted effort? 
But when stress is laid on these tasks, it might be worth 
while to delay some of the expanding work, so that the 
Christian enterprise may be put on the most advantageous 
basis, and mission policy have the right perspective. 
What I mean is that a greater proportion of the available 
funds might be used in the training of workers than 
formerly. God grant that East and West shall both be 
humbled before the altar of a common humanity and 



246 OHKISTIAN WOKK IN CHINA 

shall work for the redemption of the same by means of a 
Catholic Church. Let the feelings of racial superiority 
and ultra-nationalism be melted into a warm zeal for a 
common citizenship in the Kingdom of God. Then and 
only then will mission work approach to the fulfilling of 
the Great Commission of our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ. 



CHAPTER XL 

RECENT CHANGES IN MISSION ORGANIZATION 
James Maxon Yard 

It is perfectly evident that great changes are taking 
place very rapidly in the relation between the missions and 
the growing Chinese Church. Tn fact, one of the major 
problems of missionary work of our day is this matter of 
adjustment between the missionary and his board on the one 
hand, and the Chinese Church on the other. 

Chinese Control ^ missions are at work on this problem, 
some with much more success than others. 
Some missions seem not yet to have sensed the rising tide 
of nationalism in China and the demand on the part of the 
Chinese for a large share of control, even in such matters 
as finance and the question of whether or not missionaries 
should be returned to the field. Other missions, however, 
like the North China Mission of the American Board, and 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, have gone pretty far in 
turning OV<T authority to tin 1 Chinese. 

c , A r Joint committees, one-half appointed by the 

Committees mission and the other half by the Chinese 
Church, are becoming more and more common 
and are apparently meeting with a great deal of success. 
This article deals only with the relation of the missions to 
the churches and does not deal with the question of the 
relation of Chinese to educational institutions, hospitals or 
industrial enterprises. 

In my correspondence in preparing for this 



Chinese 



article I have noticed two movements that 



Financial 

Responsibility have been very prominent during 1923. One, 
the tendency to put more financial respon 
sibility on the Chinese, giving them control over all funds 
except those for missionary salaries; and two, the tendency 
to unite the different denominations. ; 



248 RECENT CHANGES IN MISSION ORGANIZATION 

It is difficult to say just what has occurred during the 
year just passed, for many movements have been under 
way for several years, some of which have just come to 
fruition during the past year and others which have been 
completed in previous years are only now beginning to prove 
their value. 

Union in ^ n South China the Presbyterians, Con- 

South China gregationalists, and the United Brethren, have 
been organically united for five years. This 
union is called the Church of Christ in China, and these 
bodies hope to form a national union. Dr. Fisher says, 
" Practically all the offices of the Church of Christ in China 
are being filled by the Chinese. The executive, consisting 
of eleven, has two foreigners on it. There is one general 
secretary, (Chinese) and one foreign associate secretary 
serving at the request of the Chinese." 

In North China the Kung Li Hui has two 

North. China general secretaries, one foreign and one 

Chinese who has recently taken up his office. 

This new organization of the churches under the American 

Board is making great progress and is most successful. 

A correspondent says that " progress is being made 
toward complete organic union with the independent, 
undenominational Chinese churches and with the churches 
of the London Missionary Society group at the sarae time. 
We missionaries do not feel like pushing too hard on any 
of these movements, though, without exception, we desire 
them. I think a new and larger union will be consummated 
within different sections of our group within a year 
or two." 

An lican There has not been much change in any of 

Missions ^ ne Anglican missions during the past few 

years. The Chinese have very little relation 
to the foreign funds. Tn many cases these foreign funds 
are entirely at the disposal of the bishop. Aside from the 
question of funds the Chinese have a large share in the 
administration of the church. The authority in the Chung 
Hua Sheng Kung Hui is diocesan. In most cases the bishop 
and some of the clergy happen to be English, but as all 
agree, that is a temporary matter. 



CHINESE CHURCH CONTROL 249 

The Church of Scotland Foreign Mission has during 
the last two years been organized into a presbytery in 
connection with the Church of Christ in China, and the 
presbytery of Ichang is part of the synod of Hupeh. As 
indicated above the Church of Christ in China is perfectly 
autonomous. It exercises full discipline over its ministers 
and evangelists apart from any foreign control whatsoever. 

In Szechwan the China Inland Mission, West, has 
recognized during the past year for the first time "a group 
of pastors " with full status and responsibilities. 

The Canadian Methodist Mission has gone 
Chinese forward during the past year in its policy of 

Church handing over control to the Chinese Church. 

11 Until recently the rule has been for all 
estimates, whether for church work or for other depart 
ments, to be made by the Council (foreign). If there is 
any increase in special lines, for example, salaries for 
preachers, the Annual Conference (Chinese) made a recom 
mendation to the Council, and the latter if it deemed wise 
passed on the recommendation to the Home Board. 
Recentljs however, in response to the recommendation of 
the Annual Council, the Home Board has agreed to give us 
lump sums for the different departments of work, and in 
the case of that for church work the lump sum is given 
directly to the Annual Conference. Beginning with this 
year the church work estimates are to come up through 
district meetings to the Conference, and then the latter is 
to apportion the Home Board grant among the districts. 
This will mean that in the future the Council will have 
only an advisory relation in regard to the expenditure by 
the Conference of the money granted directly to it by the 
Home Board." 

The president of the Canadian Methodist Conference 
is now a Chinese, and this year for the first time all the ten 
districts have Chinese as chairmen. These district chairmen 
have general oversight of the work on the district and a 
heavy share of responsibility to see that the funds are 
properly used and also to see that local funds are 
collected. 



250 KECENT CHANGES IN MISSION ORGANIZATION 

Because of the union of the Methodist 
U ni n c . f Church of Canada with the Presbyterians and 

Presbyterians Congregationalists there is a movement to 
ana Congrega- unite those same churches in China. On the 
tionalists other hand " there is a desire on the part of 

some in Szechwari to see a union of the 
bodies that can unite here in West China. I see no 
reason why we might not have at least a federation of four 
or five of our West China churches." 

The Wesleyan bodies report no particular change in 
the relation between the churches and the missions but 
there is a tendency to place much more responsibility upon 
the local churches. 

There is a very interesting forward move- 
Forward ^ ment in the United Christian Missionary 
Christian Society, which organization is almost corn- 

Mission pleted. "In ID2! it was appointed by the 

convention to draft a, new form of mission 
government which should admit the Chinese to fuller 
participation and responsibility in the mission government. 
The report of this committee was adopted in the convention 
of the present year, April 1923. According to this report, 
which was submitted in the form of a tentative constitution 
of administrative responsibility, authority will rest without 
distinction on the Chinese Church which will include both 
the Chinese Christians and the missionaries. They will 
meet annually in a representative convention for fellowship, 
to hear reports of the work, and to make recommendations 
of policy to the administrative body (to be called the Joint 
Council). 

The Joint Council will consist of sixteen members, 
one-half foreign, and one-half Chinese. This will meet 
twice yearly, but will not consider details but rather deter 
mine policies and will instruct the administrative committee. 
This Joint Council is to have supreme authority including 
the control of funds and the calling and recalling of 
missionaries." 

The administrative committee will function con 
tinuously throughout the year. It will consist of three 
foreigners and three Chinese. It will meet as frequently as 



CHINESE CIIimCTT AUTHORITY 251 

necessary, perhaps monthly, and will bo responsible directly 
for nil details of administration." 

The Methodist Episcopal Mission has con- 
tinned during the past year to give financial 
Mission authority to the Chinese Church. The All- 

China Finance Committee, which is made up 
of delegates from all the conferences, is half Chinese. In 
every one of the eight different missions the finance 
committee is one-half Chinese. These committees deal 
with all funds except those pertaining strictly to missionary 
salary, and personal matters. 

At the Central Conference for Eastern Asia held at 
Foochow in November, 1923, the Board of Foreign Missions 
was asked to sanction the formation of an Executive Board 
which will be at least half Chinese and which will have 
authority over all matters such as education, including 
leligious education, medicine, finance, evangelism and 
publicity. 

The Central Conference also petitioned the General 
Conference for power to nominate its own bishops beginning 
1928 (not stating whether these bishops should be Chinese 
or foreign) . 

In all the above nothing startling appears: no revolu 
tionary tendencies are evident, but it is perfectly clear that 
the Chinese Church is developing and that in most cases 
missionary societies are willing to hand over full authority 
to the Church. There is sometimes difficulty in the matter 
of the relationship with the home boards in the matter of 
property and funds. It seems to be more difficult for 
secretaries at home to relinquish authority than for the 
missionaries on the field. 



CHAPTER XLI 

THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY FROM NORTH AMERICA 
Burton St. John 

For the North American Missionary Societies to 
secure each year the right men and women to respond 
to the calls from the various mission fields, is a worthy 
task. In numbers, it is not stupendous. To keep up the 
present supply of missionaries requires only about twelve 
or fourteen hundred new men and women each year. The 
remainder of the so-called Christian world normally would 
be asked to supply no greater number. 

To the Demand Judged by the present trend in mission 
policy it seems not at all likely that the 
demand upon the young life of North America for their 
part of the world task should ever exceed two thousand 
a year. Even at that maximum it requires annually 
only one out of seventeen or eighteen thousand of the 
membership of our churches. 

Reckoned in another way, however, the 

Standards of task is far le3S sim P le than it; would appear 
Requiremznts from a statistical pre-view. The fact is that 
there are still a good many worthy missionary 
societies which do not have a rigid standard of require 
ments for service abroad. There are many others which 
have high ideals as to training but no adequate plan for 
the selection and placement of the persons they need to 
staff their foreign missions. For these reasons, if the 
churches in North America are to supply the type and 
number of missionary candidates needed there must be a 
marked reshaping not only of the standards of requirements 
by many societies, but also by a majority of the societies 
a radical change in the methods by which these societies 
discover and select their candidates. 



SUPPLY AND DEMAND 253 

Records of Without doubt the records of the Student 

Student Volunteer Movement furnish the best single 

Volunteer source for the study of the problem of supply 
Movement n missionary personnel from North America. 
Contrary to the supposition of a good many, the 
membership of the Student Volunteer Movement does not 
supply even a majority of all missionaries going out from 
North America. However if one excepts the wives of 
missionaries, it might be said with assurance that seventy- 
five per cent of the college trained people who are 
commissioned to service abroad under the various mission 
boards are recorded members of the Movement. 

Possibly a parenthesis is not out of place here. A 
hurried but not casual study was made of the personnel 
reported in the China Directory of Missions by several 
missionary societies of varied doctrinal points of view 
and varied emphasis on methods of work. This indicated 
that the members of the Student Volunteer Movement, 
among those recently arrived, are in the minority. In 
every instance after ten or more years of missionary 
service the members of the Movement are in the majority. 

In 1922 the missionary societies generally 
Supply and T , *?-< 

Demand reported an adequate number or satisiactorily 

trained people applying for service abroad. 
In 1923 there has been no evidence of a change in this 
situation. With a very few exceptions appointments were 
made up to the limits of the funds of the societies. 

Two years earlier when the societies were sending 
out the record number of new missionaries this was not 
the case. 

This increased number of calls for new missionaries 
in 1920 and 1921 came at a- time when the normal supply 
was low. It takes from three to six years to mature a 
" missionary candidate crop." The war years were lean 
years. 

The situation at the present time shows an approxi 
mately satisfactory supply of missionary candidates. To 
be sure it is a time of decreased income for the missionary 
societies as compared with the years 1920 and 1921. It 
also is the time at which students who volunteered in 
the years 1918 to 1920 are coming to readiness for 



254 THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY FROM NORTH AMERICA 

appointment. We are now seeing the fruitage in offerings 
of life of the denominational missionary revivals and the 
Inter-Church World Movement. This fact is evident also 
in the phenomenal developments of the Student Volunteer 
Movement during the past quadrennium. 

The question is often asked Where are these 
candidates coining from? 3 It is a fair assumption that 
they come from the same sources as do the membership 
in the Student Volunteer Movement. 

A study of the reports sent in by new 
VoLnteerm volunteers indicates several interesting facts. 
First: the age of volunteering centers around 
the nineteenth and twentieth years and around the 
freshman and sophomore years in college. This is exactly 
what would be expected by any careful student of the 
situation. 

In short the upper classmen and the graduate students 
furnish only a small minority of volunteers. Nor is there 
any patent evidence that this smaller fraction, these more 
mature students, actually yields a larger percentage of new 
missionaries. An established purpose at the normal age 
of decision clearly tends to permanency of purpose. 

The Societies therefore that depend upon 
Source of a rocru jting program that includes only the 

theological and other graduate schools, are 
sure to complain of great difficulty in securing candidates. 
For these the dearth of applicants will continue until 
there is a, new policy which meets students on their own 
ground. It is not difficult to capitalize this early decision 
period, for students are unusually responsive to missionary 
society cultivation. 

Nor should one overlook the fact that this is not 
entirely the result of training received in the first two 
years of college. Far from it. In fact at the present this 
student responsiveness is due less to influences in college 
than it was during the generation just passed. There is 
not the slightest doubt that the wider study of missions 
in the home, in the Sunday school, the young people s 
societies and from the pulpit has profoundly influenced 



THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY 255 

the thinking of students now in college. It is not stirring 
addresses by great student leaders, but information and 
thoughtful guidance which are helping the student to 
decide to give his life to foreign service. 

Synchronizing with this change in initial influences 
has come a change in the region which produces the 
missionary supply. The most productive area in the 
United States at the present time seems clearly to be 
the Mississippi Valley. This is not entirely due to the fact 
that the proportion of the population who attend college 
in the Middle West is increasing more rapidly than in 
the Eastern states. There is something in the attitude 
of life and possibly in the educational principles which 
tend to give the middle Westerner a more outstanding 
desire for world contacts and world thinking. This 
fundamental fact of student religious life has its clear 
counterpart as well in commercial and industrial enterprises. 

Something similar to this is occurring in ( 1 anada, 
though of that it is more difficult to speak with assurance. 
Doubtless, considering the fewer number of students, 
Winnipeg rather than Toronto would lead as the initial 
source of the Canadian missionary supply. 
T of Mind ^ or ^ ^ ^ ie lin der-stafTed and under- 
equipped small college of the West that is 
producing these missionaries. A careful study seems to 
show clearly that the type of mind which is most open 
to the challenge of service abroad is the one which seeks 
training in the best equipped institutions available. 

I am well aware that the records of certain societies 
belie this statement. For an explanation of this fact one 
should look for the cause somewhere outside student life. 

While the middle West clearly leads as the region of 
initial production, one finds that these young people in 
large numbers seek graduate study in the more famous 
Eastern institutions. This is quite in keeping with what 
one understands to be the temper of this generation of 
religiously minded students. 

If, therefore, \ve are to see to it that there shall be a 
continuous ll<>w of missionary candidates of lirst grade, 
we must strengthen those foundations of the Christian life 
and of world information which lie back in the home and 



256 THE MISSIONARY SUPPLY FROM NORTH AMERICA 

in the early church influences. It must become wholesome 
and natural for the finest of our youth to decide for the 
missionary vocation and to do so at the normal age. The 
church through its missionary societies or through some 
other appointed agency must be alert to counsel with these 
young people after the decision and until the actual 
appointment. The church which follows such a plan will 
lack neither numbers nor quality in her missionary supply 



CHAPTER XLII 

THE METHODIST CENTENARY MOVEMENT 
James Maxon Yard 

R . . The missionary work of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church in America hegan in 1819. 
The Centenary Movement which was authorized by the 
General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church of 
1916 and by the authorities of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South was a union enterprise. It was a union of 
the two churches and also a union of Home and Foreign 
Missions. 
Swfve s One of the first things the Methodist 

Episcopal Church did in preparing for the 
Centenary was to order a, complete world-wide survey. In 
every mission field of the Church committees came together 
and surveyed the need and their responsibility. They 
wrote out a careful estimate of the men and money needed 
during the period of 1919-1924. 

These surveys were then sent to the board in New 
York where a staff of men all through the summer of 1917 
studied these reports and prepared them through charts 
and maps and reports for presentation to a committee of a 
hundred which met at Niagara Falls in September 1917 
under the chairmanship of Dr. John R. Mott. 

That committee, composed of bishops, 
Committee ministers and laymen from all parts of the 

church, studied the facts and asked the 
Boards of Missions to go forward with a campaign adequate 
to fill the needs as revealed by the surveys. The initial 
call was for G$80,000,000 which on account of the war 
emergency and the inclusion of the askings of certain allied 
church boards was increased to G$ 105,000,000. 

At the close of the campaign in America 
" th ^ Bishops for China, who had been especially 

enthusiastic about the whole enterprise, asked 
that a man be sent to China to study the whole field and 



258 THE METHODIST CENTENARY MOVEMENT 

inaugurate a great forward movement here. Dr. Ralph 
A. Ward was appointed to the work. 

He gathered a number of Chinese and missionaries 
who travelled with him and Bishop Lewis, from conference 
to conference, studying the whole situation and seeing the 
needs and opportunity of each place right on the ground. 
They all arrived finally at Peking where they spent three 
weeks in January and February of 1920 going over their 
findings and mapping out the China Centenary Movement. 
An executive committee of twenty-one, three 
from each conference, was appointed to carry 
Committee ou t the program. That committee met in 
September 1920 and appointed Mr. Paul 
Hutchinson Executive Secretary of the Movement. He, as 
soon as possible, established the Department of Evangelism 
with Dr. W. P. Chen as secretary, the Department of 
Literature under Dr. R. Y. Lo, a Department of Graphs 
and Statistics under Mr. J. I. Parker, a Photographic 
Department under Mr. R. M. Vanderburgh, and a Lantern 
Slide and Coloring Department under Miss L. Douglass. 
Methods ^ great deal of literature and helps on 

stewardship and prayer have been produced 
and widely distributed. 

Evangelistic campaigns have been conducted in all of 
c*ur conferences and in most of our large cities. 

The Department of Graphs made an intimate study of 
some of our fields and produced maps and charts for use 
both in America and China. 

The Department of Photographs and Lantern Slides 
has gone steadily forward until now we have on file more 
than 7,000 negatives coming from all parts of China and 
representing all types of work. That department is now 
serving people in nearly all the missions of China. Miss 
Douglass trained a corps of Chinese girls who have now 
taken over the coloring work and they are producing very 
excellent colored slides. 

We have produced twenty lectures which have been 
distributed to all of our conferences. Every one of our 
mission stations has been equipped with a lantern. 

The Executive Secretary has given much time to work 
in middle schools and colleges. In 1922-1923 he visited 



METHODIST FORWARD MOVEMENT 259 

Foochow, Peking, Tientsin and Nanking, and held meetings 
for students. He also gave time to evangelistic campaigns 
in the churches in various cities. 

Future Work ^ ie vears f special celebration are about 
at an end but much of this promotional work 
will go steadily forward. Our Literature Department has 
been greatly stimulated. A method of evangelism has been 
discovered and also there has been discovered the special 
need of training church members. Lantern lectures will 
continue to be produced for use in all our conferences. A 
Department of Publicity has been established which aims 
to keep in touch with our constituency in America through 
articles in the church papers and directly through letters 
and leaflets. 

The Centenary office in Shanghai now has a mailing 
list of 50,000 including all pastors of Methodist Episcopal 
Churches in America. This list has grown rapidly in the 
last few months. More than 150,000 letters and leaflets 
were mailed to contributors in the United States last year. 
^1 Thus the China Centenary Movement has 

two aims, one to stimulate the Church in 
China, the other to furnish information to the Church in 
America. 

Mr. Hutchinson went home on furlough in 1921 and 
Miss Helen Griffiths became Associate Executive Secretary 
and carried on the work until May 1922 when James M. Yard 
was appointed Executive Secretary. In addition to the 
things mentioned above his duty was to promote the 
celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the founding of 
Methodist Missions in China. 

The anniversary caused a strong forward 

Forward . /. . i 

Movements movement in every conference, special 

emphasis being placed upon the call to life 
service and the campaign for funds for the local jubilee 
project. The year has been most successful. Hundreds of 
students have pledged themselves to Christian service and 
every conference has more than reached its financial goal, 
e.g. in Central China the goal was $7,000 to be raised in 
two years. At the close of the first year they have received 
in cash almost $6,000. This- money is to be used by the 
Chinese Church in opening work in Anking. 



CHAPTER XLIII 

THE MISSIONARY SITUATION IN GREAT BRITAIN 
Nelson Bit ton 

Five years after the close of war the conditions of life 
in Great Britain in every section of the community remain 
unsettled. In ihe years 1919 and 3920 the immediate re 
action from war gave promise of a better state of things, 
particularly in the life of the Churches. This brought into 
being an optimism later unfulfilled. The burden of extra 
service taken in the years of war was maintained by many 
for the two years following, and the return of many 
Christian and other highminded men and women to every 
day life and work, made available an extra measure of 
enthusiasm for goodness and truth. The war activity, 
however, passed, and as the workers grew tired causes that 
had seemed to flourish in an unparalleled way through the 
years 1919 and 1920 began to fail. There were no dramatic 
signs of collapse, but a general weariness. The promise of 
politicians made in the heat of war-gratitude that there 
should come a new earth, and that Britain must be made a 
land " fit for heroes to live in " became a gibe on the lips 
of the disappointed. The sense of political failure made 
its influence felt in other spheres of life. The inability to 
establish effectively the work of the League of Nations 
reflected a failure of idealism on the part of the superficially 
minded and became in turn the cause of a moral and 
spiritual pessimism in others. The Church of Jesus Christ 
which had seemed to promise so much at the close of war 
went back both in its own grip of the world situation and 
in the expectation of the general public. 

The disorganization of Church life which began in part 
during war when so many hundreds of thousands of 
Christian men were withdrawn from their Church service, 
is still evident. 



SUPPLY OF CANDIDATES 261 

The generation that took an active part in war, and 
which in ordinary circumstances should now be the 
mainstay of the life of the churches is to a large extent not 
to be found within them. It is upon the generation that 
was too young for war that a great deal of the burden of 
Sunday School and similar activities is being placed. 

These younger people are possibly responding with 
greater zeal and efficiency to the religious needs of the time 
than any recent generation. Their strength for the main 
service of the Church is, however, not yet equal to their 
spirit. 

The lack of candidates for ministerial and missionary service 
is one of the results of the spiritual disorganization 
caused by war. From all the Churches, without exception, 
comes the cry of half filled theological and other training 
colleges, and a lack of response on the part of the men, 
particularly those who are now at the age of 25 or thereabouts 
and would normally have been taking up the active service 
of the Church. 

One of the notable difficulties realized by missionary 
societies up to the present time has been the failure to 
secure trained medical men for posts in the mission field. 
In spite of the loyal cooperation and active service of the 
workers of the Student Christian Movement, there are 
notable gaps in British medical missionary service still 
needing to be filled. 

The pressure of family claims upon the life of young 
people in the home land has also borne adversely upon the 
candidate. The call of pleasure and the demand for a 
comfortable life as some compensation for the rigours of 
war service have also been evident, and the comparative 
poverty attached to the service in the Church has been set 
in all the greater contrast by the excesses of widespread 
profiteering. The standards of life and the cost of living 
have heightened far in excess of the ability of churches and 
missions to keep pace with them. The call to Christian 
service both at home and abroad is more than ever a call to 
sacrificial life. 

The problems of Church Finance have in consequence ot 
the higher cost of living weighed perhaps more heavily in 
recent years upon the Christian community than for a 



262 THE MISSIONARY SITUATION IN GREAT BRITAIN 

lifetime past. Efforts have been made to secure from the 
supporters of Christian movements a proportional increase 
in giving in order that the Church might meet without 
loss the new situation. Unfortunately in the absence 
of a widespread spiritual awakening the mass of the 
supporters of the churches have not been in a position to 
advance their gifts in adequate proportion; the result 
has been to place a greater hardship upon the workers of 
the Churches than upon almost any other section of the 
community. The result has been a harassed Church and 
an unceasing stream of special appeals which have partly 
diverted the thought of Christian leaders from the 
programme for evangelistic advance which all agree to be 
the outstanding need of the time. 

Those who have made considerable profits in recent 
years are not in any measure found within the ranks of 
organized church life. The nouveaux riches are not 
particularly susceptible to the ideals of religion. The fact 
that so little of organized Christian effort has wholly failed, 
whilst at the same time a number of new causes are being 
sustained, shews that the standards of giving in Christian 
circles, whilst falling far short of the ideal, has nevertheless 
been well maintained. 

The problem of unemployment cannot leave the Christian 
Church untouched. In days of wide commercial depression 
the unemployed are not, as is sometimes suggested, always 
unemployable. Steady Christian men and women who 
have never known the indignity of receiving support from 
public funds have had to join the ranks of the dole- 
recipients, or face for themselves and their families 
homelessness and starvation. The year 1923 marked the 
highest point of unemployment ever known in Great 
Britain, and that at a time when the cost of household 
commodities and of general home expenditure remained at 
seventy per cent above pre-war figures. 

It is in the face of such conditions that the church 
has had to supply as best it could the clamant needs of 
the world which seeks Christ. The confused international 
political situation has added to the difficulties of the home 
situation. The unsolved problems of Europe touch more 
closely the heart and life of Great Britain than any other 



DIVERGENT SCHOOLS 263 

country in the world. The amenities of life in Great 
Britain depend upon the stable conditions in Europe and 
in the world at large. Staple trades, iron, steel, cotton 
and the like have been almost in chaos as a consequence 
of the unsettlement of Europe, the destruction of German 
credit, and the vagaries of currency in other lands. This 
has begotten a sense of insecurity and a fear of the future 
which have increased the difficulties of Christian service 
and propaganda. Many well-to-do Christian men with 
large and old established business in their hands are 
dreading the events of to-morrow and are praying and 
working for European peace. Their minds are not free 
to deal with the world situation from the point of view 
of the Gospel, although events have been teaching them 
in unmistakable clarity the world s need of peace. There 
are not wanting people who feel that the whole strength 
of the Christian Church ought, for the time, to be brought 
to bear upon a peaceful solution of the troubles of Europe, 
and the application of the Gospel and its message to the 
urgent needs of the Western World. 

The conflict between divergent schools of biblical 
interpretation and theological thought has also handicapped 
in some measure the forward movement of missions. The 
revolt of the ultra-orthodox school of thought within the 
Christian Church against the extravagances of the hyper- 
modernists has in certain instances caused difficulty in 
missionary circles. Practically, all the great missionary 
societies have been subjected to charges of looseness in 
their control of their missionary workers, whilst charges 
in some instances have been definitely made against the 
personnel of headquarters staffs and membership of 
Committees. 

In a time when unity in missionary effort is proceeding 
along a steady and inspiring course of progress, the 
appearance of new lines of cleavage between Christian 
workers is singularly unfortunate. A few extremists at 
either end of the Christian churches can cause a great 
deal of difficulty, and, by their reckless activity, hold back 
the steady advance of the whole body. 

The cooperative enterprises of the missionary societies 
have been more marked than ever. Under the general 



264 THE MISSIONARY SITUATION IN UREAT BRITAIN 

direction of the Conference of British Missionary Societies 
working from Edinburgh House the Home Base Committee 
of the Conference has carried through a most successful 
united Campaign in the district of Colchester in Essex. 
The campaign affected the whole life of this important 
East Anglian city. Plans have been made for a similar 
campaign in a large midland industrial center and 
Leicester will be the scene of a similar effort in 1924. The 
Protestant Churches of Ireland have planned a united 
missionary campaign effort for Dublin in 1924. 

United efforts in the direction of missionary films and 
the steady development of the most effective cooperative 
work of the United Council for Missionary Education are 
other features of successful cooperative activity. 

Through the agency of the Press Bureau the secular 
as well as the religious press has been regularly supplied 
with items of missionary interest and the attention of the 
general public been drawn thereby to outstanding aspects 
of missionary endeavor. 

The year 1923 has shewn a widening interest in the 
work of missions; in official life there has been noted a 
growing appreciation of educational and social service 
rendered by missionaries to the peoples of the world. 
Notably in Africa the problem of education has been 
recognized as having its focus in missionary policy, and 
there has been a growing acknowledgment of the place 
occupied by missions in the uplift of African life. 

The growth of intellectual interest in the aims and 
methods of Christian Missions is notable in student 
circles. 

In the decision of the British Government to remit the 
remaining portion of the Boxer Indemnity to China for the 
purpose of mutual benefit to China and Great Britain, there 
has again been a generous acknowledgment of the place 
taken by Christian Missions in China. 

The educational world is recognizing that the record of 
missionary endeavour is a worthy theme for teachers, and 
education departments have approved of the use of mission 
ary lessons in school textbooks as contributing to the 
teaching of .biography, history, and geography. Much has 
been done to capture the thought of school life for Christian 



COOPERATIVE MISSIONARY POLICY 265 

missionary service. Throe societies have joined hands in 
the publication of a terminal paper for public school boys. 

The meeting of the International Missionary Council 
held in Oxford in the summer of 1923 brought a strong 
delegation from the United States and Canada and enabled 
the Anglo-Saxon representation of Christian Missions to 
take further counsel with the delegates from the Continent 
of Europe. The proceedings of this body have been 
circulated to the mission boards and a detailed account of 
its proceedings has appeared in the International Review of 
missions. 

Undoubtedly there was not only a considerable advance 
made in the understanding of cooperative missionary policy 
during these meetings, but the deepening of international 
spiritual fellowship was manifest and the decision to 
attempt a Universal Day of Prayer for Missions, which is 
being carried through successfully in most of the countries 
concerned, was the mark of a big spiritual advance. 

In conclusion it may be said that a considerable and 
unmeasured development of missionary endeavor through 
the Churches of Great Britain awaits only the coming of a 
deep spiritual revival. Most of the requisite machinery is 
here. Within our churches also there is to be found the 
personality required for the human fulfillment of the Divine 
Will. The kindling of the soul of the Church by the 
breath of the Holy Spirit of God would bring a greater day 
of Pentecost to the Christian life of this country for the 
service of the world of men. 



CHAPTER XLIV 

ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA* 
Eliza L. Roots 

The 1919 statistics of the Roman Catholic Missions in 
China report 1,971,189 Christians, meaning by this baptized 
persons, whether adults or children. In reporting the 
year s baptisms, however, 47 of the 50 dioceses reported 
48,849 adults baptized and 41,662 children of Christians. 
Besides these, 12 dioceses reported 52,735 " enfans de pai ens 
a Particle de la mort " and the others 101,838 " enfans de 
pai ens." Some of these last possibly included children of 
the orphanages for foundlings and children purchased by 
the faithful as a philanthropic act. 

Other statistics are even harder to glean from the 
reports of the several dioceses, since there is no one form 
used by all. Diocesan boundaries sometimes overrun those 
of a given province and most provinces contain several 
" vicariates, 7 as the dioceses are more commonly called. 
Chihli has six and Shensi five, but Kiangsu and Anhwei are 
united to form the diocese of Kiangnan. Macao as a diocese 
is related to the Patriarchate of Goa and not to any 
authority in China. The 50 dioceses are themselves 
grouped into five Regions. Workers and Christians, though 
all known as "Catholics" and all subject, through their 
clergy, to the Pope, are closely associated w r ith the various 
Religious Orders to which they owe their Christian origin. 
The Lazarists, for instance, in 11 Missions, care for 606,425; 
the Jesuits, in 2 Missions for 358,301 ; the Franciscans, in 
10 Missions, for 279,644. While the Chinese priests, 
numbering 942, are also Lazarists, Dominicans, etc. There 
are also secular priests, both Chinese and foreign, and 

* (Based on the 1921 edition of "Los Missions do Chine ct du 
Japon," by J. M. Planchet, of the Lazarist Mission, Peking. 
1923 edition exhausted.) 



CHINESE RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES 267 

professed sisters and lay brothers of many different 
Orders, as well as Chinese catechists, male and female; but 
detailed figures for all these are lacking. 

One finds several interesting articles in the second 
part of the book. Some letters written by missionaries in 
different fields: one from Chihli about the famine; one 
telling the story of the German Missionaries during the 
War, who seem to have been received, during internment 
or travel, with all Christian hospitality by their fellow 
Roman Catholics of French and Italian nationality. And 
there is an interesting story of work in Kansu by a 
missionary who apparently has both apostolic zeal and 
a saving sense of humor. There is an article on "Prot 
estantism in China" which reports such movements, here 
and in the world at large, as had made friendly overtures 
to the Roman Church, tells of evangelistic activity at the 
Peking Union Medical College, and gives certain statistics 
of the Non-Roman churches. There are also Notes on 
political events in the Far East and a list of Chinese 
notables who are Roman Catholics. 

But the article which seems to us to be of the greatest 
interest to our readers is the twenty pages devoted to an 
account of Chinese Religious Societies of lay men and 
women ; not of those Orders brought from abroad who 
admit Chinese to membership, but of societies purely 
Chinese both in personnel and dress and governed for the 
most part by themselves. 17 of the Societies for women 
are described in some detail as well as the only three for 
men which exist at present. 

In these Societies both men and women take certain 
vows, though not necessarily all those which mark the 
monastic system, and live under a rule more or less regular 
according to circumstances. Sometimes and this seems 
to have been the way most of the earlier societies started 
the sisters remain living in their own homes as any single 
women might do, working under the direction of the priest 
of the parish. Again, they arc sent out from a Mother 
House by a Superior whom they have had their share in 
electing, returning thither from time to time for retreats 
and to enjoy the companionship of their fellows. Always 
there seems to have been a preliminary training in a 



268 ROMAN CATHOLIC MISSIONS IN CHINA 

novitiate, longer or shorter according to the work in 
prospect and to the previous education of the candidates. 
As to this last, the faces shown in the group pictures are 
those of women of at least average intelligence, while that 
of the Superior of the "Sisters of the Heart of Mary," of 
the Diocese of North Manchuria, shows a face distinctly 
strong and thoughtful in character. She has held this 
position, by the way, for twenty years, having been annually 
re-elected by her companions during all the time. This 
particular Order has two centres of residence, and the 
missionary of each place is the Director of that centre. 
But there is only one Mother House, where novices are 
trained and from which the Superior administers the entire 
organization of 105 members. Of these, 26 were novices 
and 34 were living in community at the time of writing, 
while 45 were on the field at work in the different villages. 
Of the labors of this Society the writer of the report 
says, "Besides the work of baptizing the children of 
non-Christians at the point of death, they taught the Truths 
of our sacred Religion to 1318 children in the girls schools 
committed to their charge." And he adds, " They are our 
most valued auxiliary, our devoted co-workers. As for the 
Christian communities, the zeal of these sisters in 
the teaching of children and catechumens and their devo 
tion to the sick are often the most substantial support of 
our popularity in those stations where the missionary can 
visit only three or four times a year." In the case of this 
sisterhood the novitiate is of three years, after which they 
don the black veil which, with the crucifix hanging about 
their necks, seems the only thing about their dress to 
distinguish them from ordinary Chinese women of quiet 
habits and small means. The vows then taken are renewed 
every year when they come in to the Mother House for 
Retreat. Their object is stated to be two-fold, to work 
out their own salvation as servants of God in a, state of 
virginity, and to help the clergy to extend the reign of God 
in the souls committed to their charge. At the other 
extreme of organization we have the following from a 
writer in East Honan : "This little Vicariate of about 
350 square kilometres is scarce more than in its beginnings, 
being barely five years old. Up to the present we have 



COUNTRY WORK 260 

been unable, on account of lack of resources, to found in 
the cities either schools for the education of the leisure 
class or charitable institutions. Our whole efforts have 
been turned upon the country, where the attitude of the 
people is generally most sympathetic and welcoming. . . . 
The pearl of our Vicariate is the district of L. , . . . 
there we have a large group of single women living in their 
own families and devoting themselves with much zeal to 
the education of catechumens." 

There are other interesting articles in the book. 
Attention is especially called to this one with the thought 
that in it may possibly be found some suggestions for the 
use in our own missions of Christian women of limited 
education, especially in country districts; this, as well as 
an opportunity for the better understanding of the methods 
and spirit of our brethren of the Roman Communion. 



PART VII 
EDUCATION AND STUDENTS 

CHAPTER XLV 

GROWTH OF UNIFICATION IN EDUCATION 
Donald Roberts 

Unification in education may be viewed from two phases: 
on the one hand in the development of union institutions; 
and on the other in the formulation of common standards 
and a common policy. 

An instance of actual achievement in 
Women s unification of organization is to be seen in 

Medical College ^ ne removal of the Peking Women s Medical 
College to Tsinanfu, to become a joint 
enterprise with the medical school of Shantung Christian 
University. Similarly, Peking University and Shantung 
Christian University united in the summer of 1923 in 
holding a summer session for teachers and religious and 
social workers, and the same plan is to be followed for 
the present year. In Central China one of the most 
noteworthy developments, is the agreement already made 
by the American Church Mission, the Yale Mission, and 
the Wesleyan Missionary Society, toward the establishment 
of an institution to be known as the Central China 
University. It is proposed that the plan go into effect in 
1924, "to carry on a tentative cooperation in the College 
of Arts and Sciences for a period of three years upon the 
grounds of Boone University." Each of the participating 
missions " will maintain a college unit consisting of 
a certain number of professors and a hostel or hostels 
sufficient to house the students connected with that unit." 
The government and discipline of each collegiate unit is 
to be under the direction of the mission concerned, but the 
university faculty is to have full charge of the scholastic 
discipline, each college being free to give such additional 



UNION IN EDUCATION 271 

instruction as it may desire. This plan, which suggests 
Oxford, is a very concrete outcome of the recommendation 
of the Educational Commission of a Christian university 
for Central China. It does not involve the transfer of the 
Medical school of the College of Yale in China, that school 
being continued in Changsha. 

In East China there is the same trend, 
- an(l the establishment of a union medical 

China school seems nearer actual realization than at 

any previous time. The American Church 
Mission offers to loan "the dormitories, lecture rooms, 
laboratories and other facilities of St. John s University 
for the use of the school, and the St. Luke s and St. 
Elizabeth s Hospitals for the clinical work of the school." 
The proposal is that " until such time as other means of 
support are obtained, St. John s University offers to be 
responsible for the running expenses of the school, with 
the exception of the support and housing of the members 
of faculty appointed by other members of the union, and 
of the rental of a dormitory in town. This offer includes 
the purchase of necessary apparatus and materials." 
Cooperation on the part of the Northern Baptist Mission 
is virtually assured. 

The invitation of Soochow University to the other 
institutions of East China to participate in the maintenance 
of the Comparative Law School on a recognized union 
basis is another instance of the tendency of which we are 
speaking. Here, too, favorable action has already been 
taken by missions on the field. Another union experiment 
last summer was the holding of a summer school of the 
East China Christian Colleges at Shanghai College, and it 
is planned to hold the school again in 1924, at St. John s 
University. The school is intended to offer a wide choice 
of courses of college character for middle school teachers 
and for religious and social workers. The use of the 
summer vacation for institutes and summer sessions for 
various purposes is increasing and it is significant that 
the enterprise is in almost every case union rather than 
individual. 



272 GROWTH OF UNIFICATION IN EDUCATION 

The question of teacher training has been 
Training taken np in East China still more definitely, 

and plans have been drawn up and accepted 
by three missions for the establishment of a permanent 
Christian normal school. The Northern Baptist Mission 
has offered its school plant at Huchow, and the Presby 
terian Mission has been asked to release a member of its 
staff to become principal. The standard proposed is that 
of a senior middle school; the instruction to be in Chinese; 
and the course to cover at least two and if possible 
three years. It is intended that the school be opened in 
September 1925. 

Enough has been said to indicate that 
union enterprise, especially in the consolida 
tion of schools for specialized training, has 
received an increased impetus in all parts of China. 
Unification in education is however growing in still other 
ways than those mentioned, and is to be seen in the 
adoption of common standards and a common policy, 
through exchange of opinion on the part of those interested 
in school and college administration and through the effort 
of missions to bring their institutions into conformity 
with the recommendations of the Educational Commission. 
Reorganization is taking place, for example in a number 
of the regional and provincial educational associations; and 
the Advisory Council of the China Christian Educational 
Association at its annual meeting on May 8-9, 1923 urged 
upon the provincial associations as their first objective 
the securing of full-time secretaries certain associations 
having already made this step. With few exceptions 
missions are bringing about a reorganization of their schools 
to accord with the 6:6:4 system recommended by the 
Educational Commission. Questions as to the curriculum, 
textbooks, standardized tests, and supervision have 
received increased attention and discussion. Colleges have 
taken up consideration of requirements for admission, of 
the college budget, of policy in regard to athletics, 
and through consultation and informal agreement have 
benefited each by the others experience. The reorganized 
Association of Christian Colleges and Universities moreover 



273 

held an important Conference at Ginling College, Nanking, 
on February 5-7, 1924. 

Viewing the changes that are taking place one is 
more than ever convinced that the visit made; by the 
Educational Commission and the publication of its report 
were two events of inestimable value to Christian education 
in China. 



CHAPTER XLVI 

GOVERNMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND 

CHRISTIAN EDUCATION 

Earl Herbert Cressy 

During the last few years, in spite of political 
uncertainty and national turmoil, the number of students 
in government schools has been doubled. A few years ago 
mission schools were the outstanding examples of modern 
education. To-day, progressive mission educators are 
coming to think of the place which Christian education 
should occupy in a larger whole. 

Perhaps the first official recognition of this situation 
was the appointment in 1919 of a Committee on Govern 
ment Recognition of Mission Schools by the East China 
Educational Association, following a paper presented by 
Mr. H. S. Redfern. 

This Committee was instructed to study the situation 
and report upon the desirability of seeking for government 
recognition. At the annual meeting in 1920, the Committee 
reported that in its judgment the advantages would 
outweigh any disadvantages, provided always that the 
Christian character of the schools be not abridged in any 
way. This policy has been adhered to up to the present 
time. 

During the year that followed, regulations were put 
forth by the Ministry of Education for the registration or 
chartering of Christian higher educational institutions. 
These regulations imposed no restrictions with regard to 
religious teaching or exercises. The University of Nanking 
made application and the Department of Agriculture was 
recognized by the government. 

In consequence of this situation, the Minister of 
Education, Mr. Fan Yuen Lien, made it known that he 
would accept an invitation to address one or more 



ATTITUDE OP CHINESE EDUCATIONISTS 275 

of the Christian Educational Associations. The Committee 
on Government Recognition extended an invitation 
to him to address the East China Christian Educational 
Association in January 1921. The Minister himself was 
unable to come but sent Dr. TT. C. Zen, the highest official 
next to the Minister in the Department of Education. 
Later the Minister himself addressed the Chihli-Shansi 
Christian Educational Association. 

The friendly attitude taken by the Ministry of Educa 
tion at this time is evident from the following quotations, 
the first and last being from the address of Mr. Feng and 
the other from that of Mr. Zen: 

" Gradually the Chinese public changed its doubt 
ful attitude and became interested in the work done by 
Christians. Therefore, the revolution which took place 
all over China was partly due to the influence of the 
schools and colleges established by Christians. 

"After travelling all over the United States and 
investigating into the reasons for her prosperity, I have 
come to associate Christianity with the conditions 
which I found there." 

" But recently the whole nation has been awakened 
to the necessity of modern education, and schools of all 
kinds have been gradually established. This condition, 
this similarity of aim, has enabled the Chinese people 
to sympathize with the organizers of the educators in 
mission schools. They have changed their attitude of 
indifference to one of hopefulness, their policy of 
laissez faire to one of cooperation." 

" I hope you will be more intimate with the 
Chinese government. I hope that you will be more 
intimate with local educational circles. Education in 
China is still young, and educators have not had large 
experience, but when you are doing a thing, it does 
not matter whether your standard is high or low, if 
you can cooperate together and help each other. I 
hope you will be able to adjust this misunderstanding 
which the Chinese have hitherto had toward Chris 
tian people." 

Earlier in the 3 7 ear, in view of the development of 
interest on the part of the Ministry of Education, the 



276 GOVERNMENT .RELATIONSHIPS 

Committee on Government Recognition of Mission Schools 
of the East China Christian Educational Association came 
to the conclusion that all relationships with the central 
government should be handled by a Committee of the China 
Christian Educational Association rather than by a 
committee of one of the regional associations. 

It seemed to the Committee on Government Recognition 
of Mission Schools that this question should also be 
discussed, and through the good offices of Dr. P. W. Kuo, 
President of the Southeastern University, and Dr. W. T. Tao, 
now Secretary of the National Association for the Advance 
ment of Education, a conference was arranged in Peking, 
at which three of the most distinguished educators in China, 
Fan Yuen Lien, Yuan Shi Tao and Yen llsiu, all of whom 
were former Ministers of Education, were present in addition 
to Dr. W. T. Tao, Dr. Chang Po-ling, Dr. T. T. Lew, 
Dr. Paul Monroe, Dr. Leighton Stuart and the writer. Prof. 
Burton w r as unable to attend on account of illness. 

On behalf of the Committee on Government Recognition 
of Mission Schools, a statement was made to the effect that 
this problem of relationships was for the first time being 
faced by Christian education in China, and the new 
National Committee had requested this conference with a 
view to securing the advice of distinguished Chinese 
educators as to the best method of procedure. An after 
noon was given to discussion. The chief difficulty 011 the 
part of government educators seems to be that of compulsory 
religious exercises and Bible study. Even on this point 
they were ready to consider making some concessions. On 
the other hand, members of the Committee pointed out 
that schools established by churches could not eliminate the 
religious element without cutting off their income. It was 
pointed out that the very purpose and existence of the 
whole system of Christian education was bound up with 
the emphasis on religion. 

As a result of close relationships between government 
and Christian educators in the city of Hangchow, where 
the writer was then located, he was one of the two official 
delegates from the province of Chekiang to the conference 
called to hear the report of Dr. Paul Monroe. The fact of 
a foreigner being present in this capacity aroused a great 



COOPERATION IN EDUCATION 277 

deal of interest, and it so happened that a number of those 
who had been in the conference above referred to, were on 
the committee for drafting the constitution for the new 
Association for the Advancement of Education, which 
was organized as a result of Dr. Monroe s visit. It occurred 
to them that it would be well to make this association 
an opportunity for cooperation between government and 
Christian educators. Membership in the Association 
was, therefore, thrown open to Christian institutions 
and educators, and several Christian educators were among 
the charter members. A number of Christian colleges and 
universities, many Christian educators, and the East China 
Christian Educational Association have since become 
members of the National Association for the Advancement 
of Education. 

This has resulted in very real cooperation along a 
number of lines. In the report of the work of Prof. 
McCall and those associated with him, precisely one-third 
of the educational tests listed bore the name either of a 
Chinese faculty member in a Christian institution or of a 
missionary educator, in some cases as the sole author of 
the test and in other cases as one associated in its making. 

In following up the work of Dr. McCall and his 
associates, the National Association for the Advancement 
of Education asked Prof. E. L. Terman of Peking University 
to take charge of the national survey. 

The work, over a period of two years, of Dr. George 
R. Twiss has resulted in a plan to create a National Science 
Board, and the conference of Christian Colleges and 
Universities, recently held at Nanking, voted to accept the 
invitation of the National Association for the Advancement 
of Education to cooperate in such a board. 

The value of such cooperation is not merely in what is 
accomplished, but it serves a useful purpose if it helps to 
remind Christian educators in China that the work which 
they are doing is part of a larger whole, and that Christian 
education should do more than establish its own system, 
and has a great opportunity to exert its influence upon the 
future of education in China. 

Mission schools can learn from Government educators, 
as well as make a contribution to government education. 



CHAPTER XLVII 

THE PRESENT SITUATION IN RELIGIOUS 

EDUCATION 
William L. Sanders 

The writer of this paper is greatly indebted 
Introduction A . , 

to the following persons who have graciously 

replied to inquiries concerning the present situation in 
religious education: Miss Marjorie Rankin; Professors 
T. C. Chao, B. Burgoyne Chapman, James B. Webster, E. 
L. Ford, Alexander Baxter; Rev. E. H. Cressy, Rev. James 
M. Yard, Rev. A. D. Heininger and Dr. Frank Rawlinson. 

Perhaps the most important factor in religious educa 
tion is the personality of the teacher. This paper does not 
attempt to touch that factor. Rather the technical side is 
stressed, and especially as it applies to the primary and 
middle schools. 

~< ~,. The first thing to be said about the present 

The Situation . , *., . . *L.. . 

situation is that it is unsatisiactory. Ibis is 

not the opinion of one man. Go where you will in China, 
the same answer is forthcoming ... we are not achieving 
desired results. The lack of a well-defined aim ; the chaotic 
state of the curricula; the unscientific methods in use; 
a dead formalism, the very antithesis of a spiritual aware 
ness ; poor teaching of the Bible ; the attempt to do more 
than can be done well: these are some of the reasons 
assigned for the superficiality of much of our work. The 
situation is strikingly put by professor T. C. Chao, of 
Soochow University: " We are putting foreign caps on our 
Chinese boys and girls . . . too few trained Chinese teachers 
of religion . . . our Bible teachers teach like parrots . . . 
too few trained Bible teachers in our middle schools . . . 
too many schools teach nothing but Old Testament ethics, 
which make our young people unfit to live in modern 



RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 279 

society . . . there is not the right kind of religious 
atmosphere . . . there are too few outlets for the religious 
enthusiasms of the students . . . the compulsory nature of 
many religious activities tends to kill true religion and 
place in its stead a kind of hypocrisy . . . the inability on 
our part to meet the Renaissance Movement because we 
do not know what is going on in the religious thinking of 
the Chinese to-day ... a general conception on the part 
of the students that courses in religious education are 
something they must submit to if they are to get an educa 
tion in a Christian school . . . we do not touch the families 
behind the students and their home environment, which are 
actually undoing our work ... we do not follow up the 
religious education started in the school." 

Miss Marjorie Rankin, of Weihsien, Shantung, writes: 
" How much religion is taught in the day schools depends 
entirely on what one s definition of religion is. Through 
our section of Shantung religious education in the lower 
primary schools is almost entirely formal. The children 
memorize the catechism but they memorize it as they do 
their national readers without knowing the meaning. We 
have advanced from memorizing chapter and verses of the 
Bible to memorizing Bible stories. But except for a very 
exceptional teacher it is still a simple feat of memory. 
This is by no means the ideal of the leaders but it is all 
the teachers know and can do. The Bible is always read 
in morning exercises and all are able to get up and pray 
extemporaneously, even to the wee tots. These outward 
forms are insisted on and carried out most scrupulously in 
all schools. But my personal observation would lead me 
to think that they are mere forms the husk of religion 
with very little life." 

One result of this situation is admirably summarized 
by Mr. B. Burgoyne Chapman, Principal of the Central 
China Teachers College, Wuchang: "What seems to be 
nothing else than a rooted idea which it seems almost 
impossible to remove, is that the Bible being " holy " is not 
intelligible, and can not be understood or explained 
intelligently. Students are ready to answer any questions 
that have a holy or sacred sound about them, with such 



280 PftESENT SITUATION IN HELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

words as commit sin, 7 repent, believe in Jesus, 
Babylon, taken captive, received the Holy Spirit, 
preach the Gospel, the Grace of God : any one of these 
answers may be given to any question one asks about the 
Bible. Boys who are capable of thinking well on other 
things seem to be incapable of thinking intelligently about 
the Bible . . . the teaching of Scripture in our lower 
schools and even in our middle schools, must be incredibly 
bad. And inspection confirms this deduction from results." 

c , < The survey of courses compiled by the Rev. 

A. D. Heininger, of Tehchow, Shantung, 
covering eighteen middle schools in north and central 
China, reveals how unbalanced and how really chaotic the 
religious education curricula of many of our schools are. 
For instance, the schools reporting show a total of eighty- 
five courses in religious education. In thirty-two of these 
the Bible is used as a text with a variety of helps. Of the 
remaining fifty-three courses but one book was used as 
many as five times. Thirty-three books were used but once. 
Not only is there a variety of books in use but there is 
evidently a lack of sequence and balance in the courses 
offered. Some begin with the Old Testament; others with 
the New Testament ; and still others with something about 
one or both of these books. In speaking of these courses, 
Mr. Heininger says: " They seem to be quite largely infor 
mational. When we compare them with good religious 
education courses for high school age in America, they 
seem dry and uninteresting." 

That these courses are not satisfactory is shown by the 
widespread feeling that materials should be prepared for 
and adapted to the use with Chinese students ; that, is, there 
is a growing demand for indigenous material. Professor 
E. L. Ford, of the Anglo-Chinese College, Foochow, writes: 
" It seems to me an anomaly that Protestant Christianity 
though it been in China a hundred years, has yet failed to 
get out textbooks to teach Chinese young people the truths 
of Christianity. Texts in English, in science and the 
various other subjects required in the schools have been 
prepared, many of them by missionaries, but China still 
lacks a coordinated and correlated series of textbooks for 



CORRELATION IN RELIGIOUS EDUCATION 2&1 

use either in the Sunday School or in the curriculum 
work." Perhaps this is due, in the words of the 
Rev. E. H. Cressy, Secretary of the East China Christian 
Education Association, " to the disposition on the past of 
the various missions to carry on religious education each 
according to its own denominational point of view ... an 
attitude in sharp contrast to that toward all other subjects 
where there is a universally admitted necessity of getting 
together and securing uniform curricula, textbooks and 
method?." 

Very little has been done in correlating the work of 
the Sunday School Avith the week-day curriculum. Some 
oppose any attempt to do this on the ground that within a 
limited time the mission schools Avill have to go out 
of business owing to the growing number and efficiency of 
the government schools. Where coordination has been 
tried, as in the University of Nanking, a happy solution of 
the problem of slovenly work in the Sunday School has 
been found. 

The increasing number of Christian children enrolled in 
government schools calls for the development, in connection 
with the churches, of a system of week-day schools of 
religion. The Christian forces are just beginning to face 
this problem. 

M f < . The lack of aim; the shortage of trained 

methods i -i < i -i > 

teachers; the lack ot knowledge 01 the pupils 

needs and of organized material with which to meet 
them: all contribute to our unscientific methods. There is 
no clearly defined understanding of the relative importance 
of the pupils needs and the material to be used in his 
religious education. This is frequently demonstrated in 
the misuse of the problem-project method. We begin with 
material and attempt to create problems, which are often 
not problems at all for the pupil. The method thus 
misused makes artificial work inevitable. 

Professor James B. Webster, of Shanghai College, says 
that " the defect is more deep-seated than the matter of 
method, though that is entirely unscientific. For my own 
work, I have decided to stop trying to work on the 
improvement of curriculum based on subject-matter and 
to begin with the fundamental life-needs of the pupil. So 



282 PRESENT SITUATION IN 11ELIGIOUS EDUCATION 

much of the traditional matter as meets these life-needs I 
shall introduce and not be concerned about the rest. In 
this way we may help the Chinese to build up an indigenous 
system of moral and religious education." 
The Outlook Happily some attempts are being made by 
responsible bodies to remedy the defects in 
our present situation. The growing awareness of weakness 
in this field gives promise to the efforts of the following 
organizations : 

(1) THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL, through 
its sub-committee on Religious Education, is attacking the 
problem by bringing together the various groups and 
interests that they may face squarely the situation and, as 
one body of Christian workers, do something more con 
structive. 

(2) THE CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIA 
TION, through its new Associate Secretary, Dr. E. W. 
Wallace, is at work on the problem of curricula. 

(3) THE YOUNG MEN S AND YOUNG WOMEN S 
CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS are making a distinct con 
tribution through their voluntary Bible Study Courses in 
which thousands enroll annually. These courses are being 
enlarged and improved. Perhaps the most significant step 
for the religious education of illiterates is being taken 
by the Y. M. C. A. through its "One Thousand Chracter 
Coarse". 

(4) THE RULING SUMMER SCHOOL OF 
RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, an interdenominational body, 
is seeking to promote a larger understanding of the issues 
and their solution by lectures and courses of study. The 
wide representation at the 1923 session evidenced a new 
interest on the part of the various denominations in the 
problem. 

(5) THE CHINA SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION S 
activities are summarized in its own report in another part 
of this volume. (See section " Cooperative Movements 
in China" Chapter xxviii, page 191) 



CHAPTER XLVIII 

SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA 

George R. Twiss 

Since June 30, 1922 the writer, assisted by Western 
trained Chinese educators as ccobservers and interpreters, 
has visited 21 cities in ten provinces in North, Central and 
Western China, and observed teaching practices arid equip 
ment for science teaching in 187 schools and colleges. 

With the exception of three or four middle 
schools and a few of the universities and 
colleges, the science equipment was found to 
be very inadequate, consisting almost exclusively of demon 
stration apparatus without adequate facilities for individual 
laboratory practice by students. Much of the apparatus on 
hand is of such poor construction or in such bad condition 
that it cannot be used: much is also obsolete. Relatively 
few of the teachers in the middle and primary normal 
schools use effectively the apparatus that they have. Most 
of these equipments were purchased when the schools were 
established from 10 to 20 years ago, and little or nothing 
has been added to them since. With a few exceptions these 
statements apply equally well to missionary middle schools. 
Hence, in general, in missionary colleges the first courses in 
science are of middle school grade, as judged by Western 
standards. 

Ade uate Among the government and provincial 

Equipment institutions that have adequate modern 
science equipment and modern classrooms and 
laboratories designed and maintained according to first 
class standards, are Tsinghua College, Peking, and the 
Middle School of the National Southeastern University in 
Nanking. The Peking National University, The Peking 
National Normal College, Pei Yang University (Tientsin), 
Nan Yang University (Shanghai), the National Southeastern 
University (Nanking) and the First Kiangsu Middle School 



284 SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA 

(Nanking) are representative older institutions whose 
equipments are being brought up to modern standards, but 
whose buildings do not embody all the advantages of 
modern design. 

Among the privately maintained institutions, Peking 
Union Medical College, Peking University, Nankai College 
(Tientsin), Shantung Christian University, Shanghai College, 
St. John s University, Soochow University, Hangchow 
College, Nanking University and Ginling Woman s College 
(Nanking), and Griffith John College (Hankow) all have 
modern equipment and good buildings, designed according 
to modern requirements either completed and occupied or in 
process of construction. With these examples easily 
accessible for inspection, and with their experience available 
for advice, mistakes in construction and equipment that 
have been made in the past, may easily be avoided by the 
managers of other institutions who are planning expansion 
of their building or equipments. Every new building and 
every new equipment outfit should thus become better 
than its predecessors in point of efficiency and economy. 
The recent disastrous fire at Southeastern University in 
which the equipment for physics and biology, a part of 
that for chemistry, and the greater part of the library were 
destroyed, should make evident to every educational 
administrator the folly of placing valuable equipments in 
non-fire-proof buildings. 

The Chinese teachers of the middle schools, 
Teachers normal schools and colleges compare favorably 

with those to be found in similar ranks 
anywhere in point of native intelligence, personality, 
enthusiasm for teaching, sympathetic attitude toward their 
pupils, and open-mindedness toward the possibilities of 
improving their methods of instruction. All these essentials 
they possess to an admirable degree ; all but a very small 
percentage of them, however, lack knowledge of the science 
of teaching and skill in the art of teaching. Most of the 
college teachers have had good training in experimental 
science, but little or none in education, and they lack the 
long experience which has enabled their older colleagues to 
acquire skill in the processes of science teaching. Nearly 
all of the middle and normal school teachers lack adequate 



SCIENCE IN MIDDLE SCHOOLS 285 

knowledge of their sciences, lack skill in experimenting 
and in the use of the scientific method, and are not informed 
on the fundamental principles of science teaching. Con 
sequently, not because of any fault of their own, but 
because of radical defects in their training for their work, 
the great majority of the science teachers in China are not 
teaching in such a way as to infect their students with 
enthusiasm for science and scientific or technical pursuits, 
or to develop their latent abilities for applying the scientific 
method of problem solving to the problems of their daily 
life and conduct. Their own training has been almost ex 
clusively of the formal bookish type, without practice in 
experimenting or inductive reasoning or scientific problem 
solving; and they are teaching as they were taught. It is 
true, as they complain, that they are handicapped by lack 
of proper apparatus especially such as the students can 
use for individual practice in experimenting ; but the 
fundamental difficulty is that they lack the knowledge of 
how to construct or purchase such apparatus, how it is to 
be used and kept in workable condition and how it may be 
repaired if it becomes slightly damaged. Given a trained 
and resourceful teacher, and he will succeed in gradually 
acquiring and building up the outfit of equipment which 
he needs for effective instruction. 

In Middle ^ n ^ ie scno ^ ^ middle grade with very 

Schools few exceptions the teaching consists almost 

exclusively of formal lectures in which the 
ground covered is practically identical with that in the 
textbooks. The students listen passively and usually take 
no notes. Occasionally the lecture is really interesting and 
inspiring in content, is illustrated by rapid and skillful 
blackboard drawing, and also by experiments or by 
specimens, models or charts. Sometimes but not often, the 
teacher is careful that every student shall observe the 
details of the concrete illustrations that he is showing, and 
asks some questions both for the purpose of fixing attention 
and of testing comprehension as he proceeds. Such ex 
cellent technic in lecture instruction, however, is rarely 
found in the middle schools, and is by no means frequent 
in the colleges. Chinese is the medium of instruction in 



286 SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA 

the middle schools as a rule, and English prevails in the 

science instruction in the colleges. 

In Cla s Work ^ n a ^ ^P es ^ schools, and especially in 

the government institutions, recitations and 
class discussions are very infrequent. Blackboard 
demonstrations, topical recitations, and supplementary 
readings and reports are rarely, if ever, required. Questions 
are relatively few and receive short memoriter or factual 
answers coming from a small proportion of the students. 
Occasionally one hears a thought question which usually is 
directed to the whole class indefinitely, and is answered in 
a volley of confused sounds from a few individuals in 
various parts of the room. The answers given are short 
and simple, and of course no one hears any one of them 
distinctly. Memory questions can he used advantageously 
in rapid concert drills ; contrariwise thought questions 
must be deliberately presented, a few moments pause must 
be made so each individual may think out his answer, and 
then individuals must be called on in turn to present their 
answers and defend them by argument or explanation. 
Pj r . Ordinarily even when questions are asked, 

they are sporadic and inconsequential. There 
is no attempt, through questioning, to probe ideas, to 
stimulate and direct thinking, to start an orderly, critical 
discussion, or to bring laggards into action, as should be 
the case. Among all the classroom exercises observed, a 
few outstanding exceptions were noted, in which the entire 
technic and procedure were really excellent, and in which 
the students were responding with enthusiasm, showing 
real self-activity, and thorough preparation. Such class 
room teaching, now so very rare, might become common if 
there were available to the science teachers abundant 
opportunities to supplement the defects in their training by 
summer and extension courses in the content of their 
subjects and the proper methods of teaching them. Such 
courses should give special attention to methods of ex 
perimenting and of conducting laboratory teaching. 

Individual student laboratory experimenta- 
* s carr i e d on in many colleges but is 

attempted in only a few middle and normal 
schools. In the majority of these when attempted it is not 



SCIENCE EDUCATION PROGRAM 287 

thoroughly nor skillfully supervised, and is very imperfectly 
and perfunctorily done. The hope for any marked improve 
ment of the equipment and teaching of science in the schools 
lies with the higher institutions whose professors of science 
have received long and thorough scientific training, and have 
made some study of methods, under Western influences and 
with background of Western educational thought, but who 
also comprehend Chinese conditions. Will the colleges in 
China and the colleges in America in which future Chinese 
teachers of science are being trained awake to their great 
opportunity of service to China, and undertake a rational 
and effective program for the proper training of science 
teachers both prospective and in service? 



CHAPTER XLIX 

THE MOVEMENT FOR THE SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT 

OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

T. T. Lew 

One of the most hopeful signs of educational progress 
in China is the organization of the National Association for 
the Advancement of Education which came into existence 
by the amalgamation of several non-official educational 
organizations as the result of Dr. Paul Monroe s visit to 
China in 1921. This Association is getting the support of 
all the progressive elements of the country, under the able 
leadership of Mr. W. T. Tao, its general secretary. He is a 
Christian, a graduate of a Christian college in China and 
took post-graduate work in the University of Illinois, 
and Columbia. After several successful years in a Govern 
ment University in China he was unanimously called to 
this office by the charter members of the organization. 
Among one of the numerous progressive activities agressively 
carried out, is the Movement for Tests and Measurements 
in China. In 1922 Dr. William A. McCall of Columbia 
was invited, under the auspices of the Association, to come 
to China to be the director of Psychological research. 



Work of Dr ^ r * ^ c Call y P er >t the first half year in the 

McCall South, choosing Nanking as the center for his 

Avork. In the second half year he made his 
headquarters in Peking. Practically all the men and 
women who had been trained in tests and measurements 
abroad were mobilized to work as a national committee. 
There are nearly thirty members of the committee scattered 
over all the important centers of educational activity in 
China. These people, under the leadership of Dr. McCall 
successfully carried out a very ambitious program in which 
was included the construction for China of educational 



EDUCATIONAL TU3T.-5 280 

measuring instruments : the making of related educational 
projects: tho writing of several books on measurement: 
the training of a group of college and university students 
to assist the various members of the committee in carrying 
out the construction of tests: and finally, a national survey 
with the use of some of these tests. The results of the work 
were surprisingly good. There were produced ten different 
kinds of intelligence tests, in seventeen different forms; and 
thirty-two educational tests in fifty-five different forms 
(some of these tests have different forms but belong to the 
same type); fifteen different projects that are related to 
scientific study and measurement of education such as 
standardization of measurement and statistical terminology; 
accumulative record card for standard tests; a slide rule for 
converting the Chinese old to the Chinese new age ; a school 
building score card; and so forth; eight different books, 
elementary and advanced, on measurements and scientific 
study of education ; and a national survey ; all these were 
included in the original plan, and almost all were completed 
by the spring of 1924. 

Workers ^ n ^ s wor ^ the Christian educational 

workers have taken active and important 
parts. Among the thirty members of the committee there 
were eleven missionary educators and several other Chinese 
who are members of the faculties of Christian colleges and 
universities. The China Christian Educational Association 
had a Committee on Standardized Tests, and in the Annual 
Conference of 1923, the following members were appointed 
to the committee: T. T. Lew, Peking University, chair 
man: Prof. S. G. Brinkley, Sooehow University: Miss Alice 
Butler, Ginling College: Dr. Herman Liu, Y. M. C. A. 
Shanghai: Dr. L. S. Lob, Shanghai Baptist College: Mr. 
J. N. Keys, Canton Christian College: Dr. A. PL Bullock, 
Union Normal School, Wuchang: Mr. Ralph C. Wells, 
Point Breeze Asademy, Weihsien: Prof. E. L. Terman, 
Peking University: Prof. C. W. Luh, Southeastern Univer 
sity, Nanking: and Prof. H. C. Cheng, Southeastern 
University, Nanking. All these members were actively 
engaged in the construction of the tests, or the related 
projects during the year. 



290 SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 



Summer 
Institute 



During the summer of 1923 the National 
Association for the Advancement of Education 



conducted a Summer Institute of Educational 
Measurement. Over three hundred people from 13 different 
provinces, among whom were over eighty principals of well- 
known elementary arid middle schools and a number of 
Jocal educational commissioners or secretaries, attended. 
The business management of the Summer Institute was 
under the charge of Dean L. C. Cha of the Peking National 
Normal University. The instruction was given by Dr. 
Wm. A. McCall, the Director of Psychological Research of 
the Association, and T. T. Lew of Peking University. As a 
part of the laboratory work of the Institute, a Survey was 
made of Western Hill s Orphanage, the famous orphanage 
which is under the superintendence of Ex-Premier 
Hsiung Hsi Ling. The orphanage has over one thousand 
children, and the survey proved to be of real value to the 
whole movement. 
Training Class During the spring of 1923, while Dr. McCall 

was supervising the work in North China with 
Peking as its center, a training class for measurements was 
organized by T. T. Lew composed of students from three 
government universities and Peking University. McCall 
and Lew gave the general lectures to the class as a whole, 
Professors Y. C. Chang, L. C. Cha, Y. G. Ch en and C. Y. 
Chang, of the Government Normal University, and Professor 
E.L. Terman of Peking University took part of the sectional 
training in building tests. 

National Among the many projects of the year was 

Survey the plan for a National Survey with two 

general tests. These two national survey 
tests were prepared by Terman and Cha. When Dr. 
McCalPs year of service was over he was urgently needed 
at Columbia, and when efforts to secure an extension of his 
leave of absence failed the National Association for the 
Advancement of Education asked Dr. McCall to suggest a 
man to succeed him in carrying on the work and to conduct 
the National Survey. Terman was chosen. Negotiations 
then followed between the National Association and Peking 
University to secure Terman s service. President J. Leighton 
Stuart of Peking University and Professor Gait, Head of the 



NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 291 

Department of Education, heartily endorsed the plan and 
granted Terma.ii a year s leave of absence to conduct the 
survey. 

The committee on standardized tests of 
National ^} ie China Christian Educational Association 

Educational alized the importance of this National 
Association Survey and its hearing upon Christian 
education, and started negotiations with the 
China, Association for the Advancement of Education to 
make the survey a joint affair. The value to Christian 
education of such cooperation lies in this ; that in addition 
to other advantages the Christian Educational Association 
obtained a set of all the data secured in the survey. With 
the cooperation of Dr. Frank D. Gamewell, secretary of the 
Christian Educational Association, a conference was called 
by the committee at Ruling in August, at which meeting 
the following resolutions were passed: 

1. That the China Christian Educational Association 
cooperate in every way possible with the Chinese National 
Association for the Advancement of Education in the survey 
of schools to be heM soon. 

2. That since Professor E. L. Terman of Peking 
University has been appointed by the National Association 
for the Advancement of Education to direct the National 
Survey, we ask him to represent us as well in conducting 
the survey. 

8. That mission schools in each center be surveyed 
at the same time as the government schools. 
Plans tor "* ^ ^ lt wo approve the temporary plans 

Survey f r conducting the Survey, which are as 

follows: 

a. That an organizing committee of five members 
for each large center be appointed. That this committee 
be made up of both government and mission school 
representatives. 

h. That this committee cooperate with the 
Director of the Survey in organizing a group of 
advanced students (students in education where 
possible "> in advance of the date when the survey is 
scheduled to be held in that center. That this group 
consist of from 50 to 100 students chosen from both 



29-2 SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

Government and Mission schools, and be large enough 
.to survey the large center and the surrounding smaller 
centers in a reasonably short space of time. 

c. That on the date when the survey is scheduled 
to begin the Director shall call a meeting of all 
principals, supervisors and such teachers as may care 
to come to put before them the detailed plans of the 
Survey. 

d. That this meeting be immediately followed by 
meetings of the organized group of examiners, in which 
they receive special training in every step of conduct 
ing the survey. A maximum of three days may be 
spent on this preparation. 

e. That the Survey be then conducted by this 
group of examiners under the supervision of the local 
committee and the Director. 

f. That all the data from each class, school and 
school system be tabulated in duplicate, one copy to 
remain for the guidance of the principals and teachers 
in improving the teaching of the pupils and one copy 
to be filed with the Chinese National Association for the 
Advancement of Education. 

g. That the National Association for the Advance 
ment of Education be permitted to make an appropriate 
summary of all the data filed with it, and to publish 
this summary together with proper interpretations and 
comparisons for the information of the educators of 
China or others who may be interested. 

h. That the National Association for the Advance 
ment of Education be allowed permanent possession of 
the rest of the Survey in order that the test forms may 
be improved and that such systems of education may 
be made as the following: regional differences in 
intelligence and educational status; sex differences in 
intelligence; and educational status of different types 
of schools, etc., etc. 

Accumulative ^ ^hnt all mission educators be urged to 
Record System acquaint themselves w r ith the new accumula 
tive record system for pupils now being 
prepared under, the auspices of the National Association for 



EDUCATIONAL TESTS 293 

the Advancement of Education. This new system may be 
used with standard tests or with ordinary examinations. 

Practice Tests ^ r -^^ afc a ^ educators be urged to adopt 
the new practice tests as the most efficient 
known method for teaching pupils in grades 4 to 7, the 
four fundamentals in integers and decimals. 

7. That all educators be urged to acquaint 
thcm ^lves with the entire list of mental, 
moral and physical tests, which have been or 
are shortly to be published under the auspices of the 
National Association for the Advancement of Education 
and that these tests be made use of as fully as practicable 
for teaching and supervision in accordance with the 
suggestions given in the manual that accompanies each type 
of test and in a book to be published in Chinese now being 
prepared by Dr. Win. A. McCall and Dr. T. T. Lew. 

8. That mission educators be urged to continue their 
present generous support of the efforts being made by the 
National Association for the Advancement of Education to 
develop educational standards and to apply modern scientific 
procedure to the improvement of educational efficiency in 
all schools. 

9. That the China Christian Educational Association 
expresses deep appreciation to Peking (Yenching) University 
for its generosity in lending Professor E. L. Terman to 
direct the work of the National Survey. We are deeply 
indebted not only to Yenching, but also to Professor 
Terman for his willingness to undertake this large and 
important task. 

10. That the Association through its secretary thanks 
Dr. Wm. A. McCall for the aid that he has given to the 
committee and thus to the entire Association by his counsel 
and advice in the meetings of the committee. 

And that the committee thanks the National Association 
for the Advancement of Education for paying his expenses 
to Killing to make it possible for him to participate in the 
meetings of the committee. 

The final schedule of the National 

s"^ Educational Survey was approved by the 

directors of the National Association for the 

Advancement of Education, the committee on Standardized 



294 SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

Tests of the National Christian Educational Association, and 
by the leading educators in both government and mission 
schools. During a period of seven months it was conducted 
in the following centers: Peking and environs, Tientsin, 
Tainan and environs; Tehchow, Taian, Nanking and 
environs; Wuhu, Shanghai and environs; Soochow, 
Hangchow, Foochow and environs; Amoy, Canton and 
environs; Hongkong, Nanchang and environs; Kiukiang, 
Wuchang and environs; Changsha, Hankow, Hanyang, 
Paotingfu and environs; Taiyuan, Sian, Kaifeng, Moukden. 
The Survey was organized and carried out according to 
the following scheme: 

1. A provincial organizing committee of five members 
for each capital city was appointed. The Chinese Secretary 
and the English Secretary for each committee were appointed 
by AV. T. Tao, Director of the N. A. A. E. and Director of the 
Survey. A third member was appointed by the Provincial 
Commissioner of Education and two others might be 
appointed by these if necessary. 

2. This committee cooperated with the Director of 
the Survey in organizing a group of advanced students 
(students of education where possible) in advance of the 
date when the survey was to be held in that center. This 
group of examiners consisted of from 50 to 100 persons. 

3. On the date when the Survey was scheduled to 
begin, the Director called a meeting of all the principals, 
supervisors and such teachers as cared to come, to put 
before them the details of the plan for the survey. 

4. This meeting was immediately followed by the 
meetings of the organized group of examiners, in which 
they received special training in every step of conducting 
the survey. A maximum of three days was spent on this 
preparation. 

5. The survey of the capital city was then conducted 
by the group of examiners under the supervision of the 
Director and the local committee. 

6. All the data from each class, school and school 
system were tabulated in duplicate, one copy for the 
guidance of the principal and teachers in improving the 
teaching of the pupils, and one copy being filed with the 
N. A. A, E. 



NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 295 

7. The cost of each city survey test materials was 
borne by the individual schools or by the city as a whole. 

8. Special duties of each local committee were as 
follows : 

a. Arrangements with the local city educational 
authorities for the survey of all schools. 

b. The filling out the sheet of information about 
these schools. This list was then sent to the Director 
as soon as possible. 

c. Arrangements for a room of sufficient size for 
the meetings of the examiners. 

d. Collection for the test materials used. 

e. Arrangement with outlying centers which 
want to cooperate in the Survey to send principals or 
advanced students to join the group of examiners for 
training. 

Professor Terman and his assistant Mr. 
Dilectlt Ya 6 Chi Ts g ( R - A- ;23, Peking University) 

started in the work in September, and by 
March of 1924 they had trained, according to the process 
outlined above, over a thousand people to administer tests. 
They have tested over one hundred and fifteen thousand 
students, of whom about ten thousand were middle school 
students. About one third of the total number of students 
tested were students in Christian schools. This survey 
covered twenty-four colleges and universities, fifteen of the 
largest and best middle schools and over six hundred 
important elementary schools. 

The expenses wore shared by various parties 
Expanses concerned. The local expenses were borne 

by each survey center. The cost of the 
materials of the tests were paid by each individual school. 
The traveling expenses of Professor Terman and Mr. Yang 
were paid by the National Association for the Advance 
ment of Education and Peking University ; the latter also 
paid Professor Terman s salary during the survey. 

The work \vas a success. 11 has aroused interest in the 
scientific study of education throughout the country. While 
the work is just beginning, and a great deal of care was 



296 SCIENTIFIC MEASUREMENT OF EDUCATION IN CHINA 

necessary to insure scientific accuracy, it has made a good 
beginning. The Survey was limited, but it was never 
theless the largest ever undertaken in China. 

With the interest thus developed by the survey and 
with the follow up work done by a group of scientifically 
trained men in the departments of psychology and education 
in the National Southeastern University, the National 
Peking University and the National Peking Normal 
University, under the able leadership of such men as 
Doctors C. W. Luh, S. C. Liao, J. P. Chn, Professors 
H. C. Ch en, T. Y. Yu and others in Peking institutions 
and in other centers, with an increasing number of 
students trained under them, the movement for educational 
measurement has a promising future which will yield 
valuable results to educational work in China. Thus 
far, the contribution to the movement on the part of 
Christian educational workers has been considerable. It is 
hoped that the authorities in Christian educational work 
will continue their interest and liberally support the move 
ment in the future. 



CHAPTER L 

PRELIMINARY SUMMARY AND REPORT OF THE 
NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 

E. L. Terman 

Date of Survey ^ c D g an the actual survey work in Peking 
according to schedule on the sixth of 
September (1923). The remaining three weeks of this 
month had been set aside for the survey in the capital city, 
and such foresight proved to be extremely wise. 

r \T> st j We left Peking on the last day of September, 
Centers Visited /1r . n .\ 1,1 . i , 

(1924) and then visited twenty one centers, 

in which we delivered 35 lectures, some of which went 
toward the instruction and preparation of 1670 examiners, 
who tested in the centers visited 81,500 elementary and 
middle school pupils. These examiners have in several 
cases gone to outside centers and have with our techniques 
tested 10,000 more pupils, making a total of 104,000 pupils 
tested. Adding to this a possible 18,000 who are in 
scheduled centers at this date January (1924) still to be 
tested and in some centers not on the original schedule but 
who insist upon being included in the survey, we shall 
have a grand total of 10,9,500 pupils tested. 

This includes work in and with 24 of China s 
Visited I colleges and universities, about 50 of her 

largest and best middle schools, and over 600 
elementary schools, many of which were personally visited. 
About 2/3 of these were government and private schools, 
the other 1/3 mission schools. We have seen both govern 
ment and mission schools dressed in their best clothes and 
doing very good work. We have seen them also dressed 
in very poor clothes and doing very poor work. Both 
government and mission schools were wide open every 
where for our work and no question asked anywhere was 
ever left unanswered. Below is a brief summary of what 
has already come out of it or of what will come out of it in 
the immediate future. 



298 NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 



Nation-wide ^ e Merest ^ n scientific measurement in 
Interest education is nation-wide. The following urgent 

appeal to come to Ghangsha is typical of the 
interest shown everywhere. 

"The people here have certainly gotten busy. The 
Provincial Educational Association, the Commissioner of 
Education, and the Christian Educational Association have 
combined in inviting you to come. All the schools in 
the city have been notified and asked how many would 
like to have tests given. Also places near enough to get 
here readily have been invited to come, The Governor is 
being asked to contribute $300.00 for running the local 
survey. (He did it and furnished us first class 
passage back to Wuchang besides.) So you see you will 
just have to come here next week. 5 Educators everywhere 
seem to be glad to find a substitute for personal subjective 
judgement in connection with the results of their work. 
They are anxious to measure the effects of the expenditure 
of their time and effort and money with objective scientific 
standards. This is necessary in every nation but in no 
nation more so than in China. 

A second value of the Survey will be an 

^ enhanced national cooperative spirit that will 

produce better educational work. The 
Survey was welcomed first of all because it was a national 
cooperative project. All recognized that the more each 
center could put into it, the more the nation would be able 
to get out of it. It was perhaps the first national survey 
of education in the history of education and it was possible 
to carry it on only because of the unstinted cooperation of 
each center that had an opportunity to share in it. By 
cooperating in a national project many cities learned for the 
first time how to cooperate within their own walls. In 
many centers city educational associations were organized 
as a byproduct of the survey. 

Sett - Perhaps the largest single possibility that 

Standards w ^l come out of the Survey will be that of 

setting national and regional standards for all the 
various types of elementary schools that exist. Practically 
every city of any size has the provincial school, the hsien 
school, the model school, the normal department, school or 



PURPOSE OF SCHOOLS 299 

college attached practice school, the private school, the 
mission school, the boys school, the girls school and the 
coeducational school. From our data, which represent 
everyone of these types, it will be possible to fix standards 
with which any individual school of any type may compare 
themselves. Not the standardization of text-books and of 
methods but of desirable goals will be the aim. If present 
plans and recommendations work out this will be done not 
only for the elementary schools of the nation, but the 
Survey will also be a stepping stone to .similar possibilities 
for middle schools and colleges as well. 

A fourth possibility of the Survey is that it will 
help in the discovery of newer and bigger and more 
worthwhile goals in our elementary school work. As soon 
as we begin to measure, we begin to inquire into the quality 
and the worth of the thing that we are measuring. It is 
true that to-day for the most part we are only measuring 
the thing that we stress most in our schools knowledge 
and skill. Scientific consideration is telling us that perhaps 
there are other things that arc of even greater worth than 
these. Scientific measurement has revealed other goals in 
the form of habits, attitudes, ideals, interests and apprecia 
tions. We must find methods for attaining these more 
desirable goals in our schools, for soon science will test the 
efficiency of our schools by scientifically measuring them. 
grj , But the fifth and perhaps the most important 

Children of all values of the Survey will be what it will 

do for the individual children of China. Our 
schools exist not for the principals, the teachers, the parents, 
not for good looking plants, buildings or equipment The 
schools exist for the CHILD. The CHILI) is the center of 
all. All that we expend in time, effort and money is for 
him. Anything that we can do that we may better 
understand the children with whom we work is hailed with 
a warm welcome. This after all was the secret of the genuine 
interest in the Survey. The teachers who are working with 
the 109,500 children tested will know them as they 
have never known them before. Because they will know 
and understand them better, they will be able the better to 
guide them in making their best and fullest contribution to 
the social order in which they are soon to be the leaders. 



300 NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY 

A PRELIMINARY SUMMARY TABLE 





Centers 


Children 


Examiners 






tested. 


trained. 




Peking 


7,000 


50 




Tientsin 


7,000 


35 




Tec how 


500 


25 




Tsinaii 


4,000 


50 




Taian 


500 


25 




Nanking 


7,000 


100 




Soochow 


5,000 


150 




Shanghai 


13,000 


210 




Hangchow 


4,000 


200 




Foochow 


7,000 


175 




Amoy 


3,000 


100 




Hongkong 


8,000 






Canton 


6,000 


125 




Nanchang 


2,000 


70 




Kiukiang 


500 


15 




Wuchang 1 








Hankow \- 


4,500 


100 




Hanyang J 








Changsha 


5,000 


240 




Kaifeng 


2,000 


100 




Paoting 


2,000 


100 




Taiyuan 


1,500 


100 


Total 


21 


81,500 


1970 


Outside 








centers 








tested 


11 


10,000 




Yet to 








test 


10 


18,000 





Total 42 100.500 1970 



CHAPTER LI 

STUDENT VOCATIONAL INTERESTS 
A. J. Bowen 

The Chinese college student of to-day is in revolt 
against custom and tradition and against arbitrary authority 
imposed from without, even from parents, in reference to 
his life work, as well as in reference to his thought life. 
His best and mo.-t natural advisers, parents and teachers, 
are therefore, often ignored. 

Change of ^^ vocational choices are thus both made 

Choices difficult and more subject to frequent change. 

His supposedly modern views create many 
difficulties for himself, and the present disorganized 
condition of society and government make the deciding of 
his career no easy task. Also lack of any adequate 
opportunities for vocational experience before student days 
are over, adds to his difficulties. Fancy plays a large part 
in shaping, at least, his earlier vocational interests. 
Statistics Adequate statistics for a study of the 

Inadequate subject, either as relating to government or to 

missionary education, are difficult to obtain. 
Two organizations, dealing chiefly with government 
education, are producing some valuable materials that yield 
data relative to this topic, The Society for the Study of 
International Education, and the The Chinese National 
Association for the Advancement of Education. The former 
has issued a valuable work very recently, "Education in 
China 7 and the latter has issued a series of eighteen 
pamphlets. For data relating to missionary institutions, 
we rely chiefly on published catalogues that also give 
occupations of alumni, on letters and reports of executive 
officers, and in one case on carefully analyzed records of a 
particularly efficient admissions committee. 
Institutions ^ e are cons i^ erm o ^ ne student vocational 

Studied interests in the ordinary college and university. 

We do not consider " vocational " or " occupa 
tional " schools, of which there are all too few, but happily, 



302 STUDENT VOCATIONAL INTEHESTS 

a slowly increasing number, chieily governmental. In the 
case of normal schools, teacher s colleges, Bible and 
theological schools, medical schools, law schools, 
agricultural and forestry schools, engineering and 
technical schools, the vocational interests are in 
general indicated by the number of students in each. 
Bulletin No. 16 of The Chinese National Association for the 
Advancement of Education (1923), gives the following 
results for the 34,880 students in all kinds of colleges and 
universities : 

Statistics Ty V e f N f No f 

Institution Institutions Students 

University 35 13,098 . 

Teacher s College 8 3,093 . 

Agriculture 7 1,271 . 

Technical 13 2,026 . 

Commercial 8 1,890 . 

Medical 7 832 . 

Law 33 10,864 . 

Others 14 1,806 . 




Total 125 34,880 100.0 % 

From " Education in China, 7 it appears that 40 % of the 
students in 14 government universities are studying law 
and political science, that is, are interested primarily in 
politics and government; 15 % are interested in engineer 
ing; 9.1 % in commerce and business; 3.6 % in education; 
1.7 % in agriculture, and .002 % only in medicine. The 
interests of 15,191 students in government "Special Schools" 
in 1921 show the same trend, namely, 61.2 % in law and 
political science; 10.0 % in engineering; 7.3 % in 
commerce and 6.7 % in medicine. 

It would seem, therefore, from this rather 
mea S re ^a that government university 
students are primarily interested in preparing 
for governmental and political positions. How far this 
interest is determined by patriotic motives for political 
reform and betterment, one cannot say, but theoretically, 
at least, judging by magazine articles and the general spirit 
of university students, one would think that this was a 
dominant motive. Scientific engineering is a new 



MISSION STUDENT INTERESTS 303 

interest in China, and here again, no doubt patriotic motives 
stir the interests of students to develop the natural 
resources and to increase the prosperity and prestige of 
their country. Specific school training for business and 
commerce is also a new interest of growing volume. 
Scientific or western medicine does not interest government 
students as much as one would expect. Probably its 
requirements are too exacting and expensive, its financial 
returns loo precarious and its opportunities for patriotic and 
altruistic service too little appreciated. The interest of 
teaching, a calling which is more and more regarded as a 
profession and as an end in itself, for college grade men, is 
still too much regarded as a means, not now, it is true, 
to political position, but rather as opportunity to gain 
experience before going abroad, or if nothing better turns 
up, to a still honored position in society, even though not 
very well paid except for the favored few who teach in 
colleges. 

Turning now to mission higher education 

Students anc * * a ^^ n 8 ^ ne graduates ( >f twelve colleges and 

universities, including one woman s college, 

we get the following very interesting data, which show 
not only theoretical interests, but what mission college 
graduates are actually doing. 

Type of Interest No. of Graduates Percentage* 

Educational work 848 45.6 

Business and industry ... 266 14.2 

Ministry 241 13.0 

Medicine 184 9.9 

Social service 74 4.0 

Government service 67 3.6 

Office work 38 2.4 

Agriculture and forestry... 31 1.7 

Banking 29 1.5 

Engineering 24 1.3 

Literary work 21 1.1 

Law and politics 17 .9 

Journalism 11 .6 

Research 3 .2 

1,854 100.0 % 



304 STUDENT VOCATIONAL INTERESTS 

While these figures do not include all of the Christian 
colleges or even all of the graduates of the twelve yet for 
those considered no doubt the data is fairly full and 
accurate, and the percentages may be relied upon. 

. It is significant that so large a percentage 

Interests ^ olir graduates become teachers, and this 

together with the character of the majority of 
these graduates helps to account for the strong and favorable 
standing of mission colleges. No doubt their influence 
would be still greater if these colleges had given them more 
technical and professional training for the task of teaching. 
It will surprise some of our friends and most of our critics 
to know that the third largest group of graduates are in the 
Christian ministry and the fourth in medical work. 
Eighty per cent of Christian College graduates are in 
work that the Church is primarily concerned with, namely, 
education, ministry, medicine and social service, largely 
the Y.M.C.A. The Christian schools are the only ones that 
definitely train men for altruistic service, ard it is gratify 
ing to know from actual figures that an encouraging 
number are giving their lives to non-gainful occupations. 
It is not without significance that the second largest group 
of graduates are entering business, for the majority of 
these men are Christians. 

We have the vocational interests of 49 
Intei* sis* students who graduate next June from one of 
the mission institutions. Of the 23 agricul 
tural and forestry students, 22 are planning to engage in 
various forms of agricultural and forestry work, while one 
is planning to teach. Of 26 arts and science men, 16 are 
planning to teach ; 5 to enter business or industry; 2 to 
enter the ministry; 2, office work; 1, literary work, and I to 
enter political life; about 40% are planning later to 
study abroad. 

From this same institution we have the 
occupations of 631 parents or guardians of 
the same number of students seeking entrance 
into the University, who give their vocation plans as well 
as the courses chosen. It is interesting to note that 88.5% 
of these students recorded that they had on entering, 
occupational experience. Of course the vocational interests 



305 



here indicated arc rather narrowly limited by the courses 
offered, and the aims and ideals of the institution. 

Occupation of Parent* Vocational Plans 

or Guardian of Students 

Business 30.5%; 10.7 % 

Teaching 30.5% 20.1 % 

Politics or Govt. Service 13.9% 0.4 % 

Farming 12. Y% 12.4 % 

Medicine 0.8% 1.6 % 

Ministry 4.0% 8.2 % 

Unmentioned or Uncertain. 3.0% 21.0 % 

Artisan 3.0% 1.5 % 

Military 0.8% 0.0 - 

Engineering 0.8% 0.0 

Study abroad 0.0% 24.1 % 

100.0% 100.0 % 

Course* Elected by These Students. 

Arts and science 55.5 % 

Agriculture and Forestry 22.3% 

Business 12.9?*? 

Education G.3% 

Pre-med ical 1.4% 

Uncertain 1.6 % 

100.0% 

Plere we have some limited data concerning 
Student student vocational interests as compared 

and ^Parents w ^ ^ 10 ^ r P arcr| ts occupations. In teaching, 
Occupation agriculture and the ministry, the percentages 
hold approximately the same. Less students 
seem interested in business and very few in politics, 
probably because there is considerable depression in both 
and too little to appeal to ideals at present. There seems 
to be more interest in mission schools in medicine than in 
government schools, though it is not so strong in either as 
health and social conditions warrant. Probably if we 
could get the data concerning a similar group of high 
school graduates entering college in America, we would 
find about the same percentage who had no very clear 



306 STUDENT VOCATIONAL INTERESTS 

life-work objective in mind at the beginning of their course. 
The very large percentage, making the most numerous of 
any one group, 24%, looking forward to study abroad, 
indicates a very strong and widespread interest of Chinese 
college students to-day, which one is inclined to think is 
not entirely desirable. 

The interest in arts and science courses, 55.5%, 
outweighs all other interests, and the majority choosing 
these courses go into teaching and business, the ministry 
and social service. 

Of 42 graduates during the past five years of one of 
the best mission woman s college, 38 have their interests 
and work in teaching; 4 in medicine; 1 in literary work; 1 
in Y.W.C.A. work, and 3 in home economics having 
married. All 10 graduates of the class of 1923 went out 
as teachers. 

In conclusion, this partial study of student vocational 
interests would seem to indicate that government students 
are primarily interested in politics and law, mission 
students are primarily interested in teaching and business, 
while the most dominant motive of all is patriotism and 
service. 



CHAPTER LII 

UNION COLLEGES FOR WOMEN 



Matilda C. Thurston 
The 
Epoch"* 



The year 1923 marks a new stage in the 
"* ^ e ^ ^ 10 ull i Q11 colleges for women in 

China, India, and Japan which might be 
called the building epoch. Both Ginling and Yenching 
have been housed in Chinese buildings which have afforded 
fairly adequate accommodation for the work of the pioneer 
period, and picturesque backgrounds for the faculty and 
student life, but have not fully compensated for incon 
venience and discomfort. The need for new buildings has 
been felt for several years and unsuccessful efforts were 
made in the spring of 15)20, in connection with the inter- 
church campaign to get money in America. The women s 
colleges are not yet in a place to appeal to any constituency 
in China. 

Campaign During the fall of 1920 a compaign was 

inaugurated to raise money for seven oriental 
colleges for women under a joint committee which repre 
sented the Boards cooperating in these union colleges. 
Ginling, Yenching, and the Women s Medical College of 
Peking (now affiliated with Shantung Christian University) 
were the China units in the campaign for $3,000,000. A 
pledge of one dollar for every two raised from other sources 
was made by the Laura Spellman Rockefeller Fund. This 
was used to equalize the gifts to the separate colleges. 

The appeal was made primarily to the women of 
America and during the years 1921 and 1922 women all 
over the country were working to raise the money for these 
college buildings. The leading spirit in the campaign was 
Mrs. Henry W. Peabody and her untiring zeal through the 
two years inspired thousands of other women to attempt 
the impossible. " It could not be done, but they did it," 
and in February 1923 a cable was received "Fund 



308 UNION COLLEGES FOE WOMEN 

complete. 77 There was great rejoicing all round the 
world. The colleges are richer not only in money but in a 
host of new friends. 
Ginling Ginling had plans ready in the summer of 

1919, drawn by Murphy and Dana of New 
York and Shanghai. Gifts in pledges to Ginling in 
advance of the campaign were sufficient to warrant making 
a start in the summer of 1921. Within two years six 
buildings were completed and a seventh will be ready 
in the spring of 1924. This group will house 200 
students when residence for faculty is provided. The total 
cost including work on the campus will approximate 
$450,000 gold. 
Yenchin ^ Yenching the buildings for the women 

have gone forward on the new campus 
planned for Peking Christian University. 

f The removal of the Woman s Medical 

Medical College to Tsinan is being made possible by 

College the funds received in this joint campaign. 

Faculty and students are now housed in the 
new women s hostel. Work will be done in connection 
with the Shantung Medical School and the cooperation 
will make for economy in equipment and for better work. 
Shantung is also admitting women to courses in Religious 
Education. Dr. Luella Miner is acting as Dean of Women. 
Both Ginling and Yenching have carried 
Ai h? i t< out the idea of adopting Chinese architecture 

to modern uses. The Ginling buildings are 
of solid fire-proof construction. Within sunshine floods 
the rooms, and every essential requirement of modern 
school buildings has been considered, adopted to Chinese 
needs and ways of doing things. The exteriors are in 
Chinese style. Color has boon used with some restraint. 
The columns of the three buildings of the main quadrangle 
are red, those of the residences are a dark olive green. 
The wall surfaces arc sand-colored stucco and the roofs 
dark gray tile. The buildings stand as a symbol of the 
spirit of lavish giving of which the story of the alabaster 
box preserves the Master s praise. 



CHAPTER LIII 

THE POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT 
J. C. Yen 

Pur ose "^ Makc China s Illiterate Millions 

Reading and Intelligent Citizens JJ is the 
primary purpose of the Popular Education Movement. 
The Classical One of the principal factors that accounts 
Language and for the high percentage of illiteracy in China 
the Literary (where learning and scholarship is univer 
sally reverenced by high and low alike) is 
the extreme difficulty of the Chinese Classical language. 
For centuries it had been the only recognized literary 
medium. To learn to use it with any degree of proficiency 
means a lifetime of study. This at once puts it beyond 
the reach of the common man. 

One result of the Literary Revolution (1917-1910) is 
the substitution of the Pai Hua (spoken language) for the 
classical language for literary purposes. Since 1919 the 
Pai Hua has spread throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. Not only are standard works on philosophy 
and sociology published in Pai Hua, but by virtue of 
its very simple and natural style the number of novels, 
periodicals, weeklies and dailies has been multiplied many 
times. It has practically won its place as the " Kuo Yii " 
or National Language of China to-day. 

The Problem That the adoption of Pai Hua simplifies 
immensely the process of learning the written 
language needs no proof, but the bigger problem of 
teaching the three hundred and t \venty illiterate millions 
to read the language still remains. It is estimated that 
to make education universal throughout China, ten million 
schools with fifteen million more teachers are needed. 
At the present rate of development of educational facilities 
how many generations will it take before even a fraction 
of the illiterate millions have a chance? 



310 THE POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT 

In the solution of this problem successful and far- 
reaching results have been achieved by the following 
methods and in the following centers : 

I. The " Foundation " System. 

The most immediate as well as the most fundamental 
step in educating the illiterate masses was to work out a 
system by which they might acquire a maximum practical 
vocabulary within the shortest possible time and at the 
least possible cost. After years of research conducted by 
the Popular Education Section of the National Committee 
of the Y. M. C. A. and the College of Education, National 
Southeastern University, Nanking, the system finally 
developed was the "Foundation Character" Course, a 
course consisting of one thousand of the most commonly 
used ^ in Pai Hna. 1-ased upon this selected vocabulary 
four Readers called: "Popular Thousand Character 
Lessons" (*p j T- 3* ?$) containing twenty-four lessons 
each were prepared. The time required for the completion 
of this course is four months of classroom work of one 
and a half hours each week-day. Mastery of this course 
gives the common man a foundation knowledge of Pai Him 
and enables him to write simple letters, keep accounts, and 
read simple newspapers intelligently. 

II. Educational Campaign. 

Having developed an Educational System the next 
immediate step was to discover same practical device by 
which it would be put into effective operation. It was 
clearly understood that in promoting mass education of 
this kind no spasmodic or individual attempts would be 
of much avail. Organized and cooperative efforts in the 
form of a city-wide educational campaign have been 
found practical and effective. An adequate educational 
campaign aims at enlisting as many volunteer workers as 
possible and coordinating all the forces available in any 
given community. Responsibilities of finance and staff 
for the campaign are placed entirely on the local leaders: 
for this is a campaign not only to educate the illiterate 
that they may become intelligent citizens, but also one 
to educate the rich and the literate to share their 



CHANDSTIA AND CHEFOO CAMPAIGNS 311 

possessions with their less- privileged fellow-countrymen. 
They may do this hy making contributions to the campaign 
fund and by volunteering to .serve as teachers, supervisors, 
or in other capacities required by the campaign. 

To test the value and the practicability of the 
educational system and the campaign plan, Changsha* 
in Hunan, was chosen for the first experiment. 

The first Changsha campaign (March to 
Jam ai a * Jll]y I922 ^ Pved to be more than a successful 
experiment. The results aroused so much 
enthusiasm that the city decided to continue the schools 
from term to term until the goal of "All Changsha 
Literate n was reached. In September of the same year 
Changsha enrolled over fifteen hundred new illiterates. 
After four months of study of one and one-half hours each 
week-day, another final examination was held and one 
thousand and ten passed successfully, The town once 
more celebrated a big commencement in a typical Chinese 
manner! 

The success of the Changsha campaign gave 
Cam C ain ^ 10 P romo ^ rs encouragement to try experi 
ments in other parts of China. The next 
center chosen was Chefoo in the province of Shantung. As 
in Changsha, the Chefoo Y.M.C.A. promoted the campaign. 
The plan adopted in Chefoo was practically the same as 
that used in the Changsha campaign. A general Committee 
of leading citizens was organized and the same five sub 
committees were elected. 

The whole town was back of the campaign. Shops 
and schools were closed on the day of the opening mass 
meeting. The attendance proved to be so big that it was 
necessary to hold simultaneous meetings in two places, 
the largest guildhall and the largest theater in town. 
The meetings were immediately followed by a city-wide 
educational parade in which 15,000 business men, students 
(both men and women) gentry, scholars and artisans 
participated. 

* For an account of the origin of the Movement and the 
Changsha campaign. See Chapter XXV of the China Mission 
Year Book, 1923. 



312 POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT 

Over 300 high school boys and girls and 
students of normal schools volunteered to 
serve as recruiters. Fifty two teams were 
organized and sent out to canvas the 52districts as mapped 
out by the Recruiting Committee. In two days time the 
boys teams enrolled 1466 boys and men, and the girls 
teams 633 girls and women. Their ages are classified 
as follows: 

{A) Boys and Men: 

From eight to twelve 242 

From twelve to fifteen 392 

From fifteen to twenty 478 

From twenty to thirty 264 

From thirty to fifty-four 90 

Total 1466 

(B) G-lrls and Women: 

From eight to twelve 115 

From twelve to fifteen 230 

From fifteen to twenty 199 

From twenty to thirty 56 

From thirty to fifty-two 33 

Total 633 

The 100 volunteer teachers (70 men and 30 women) 
were recruited chiefly from the faculties of the schools, 
though a good number of them were business people, 
gentry, evangelists and Bible women. These teachers 
likewise received no salary, but $4.00 a month was allowed 
each for ricksha fare. Five men and two women supervisors 
were elected by the teachers. 

Besides teaching these pupils the " Popular Thousand 
Character Lesson," there were a number of supplementary 
activities. The classes were taught the meaning of 
the National flag and to sing the National Anthem. 
Frequently half an hour was taken for a lecture on health, 
morals, citizenship and religion. Monthly socials for the 
students and teachers were conducted, sometimes meeting 
by districts and at other times all coming together. 



CHEFOO AND KASIIING 313 

r Of the 2099 students enrolled over 1600 

Commencement .,, r .. 

attended the classes till the last day. Final 

examinations wen; held July 29th-30th 1923. On 
August 1st. the city celebrated the biggest Commencement 
in all the history of the Province. Mine. Hsiung Hsi Ling, 
wife of the ex-premier, was the principal speaker. All 
the high oilicials, civil and military, and representatives 
of practically every organization in the city attended the 
occasion. The Chinese Police and the American Fleet 
bands furnished the music. Certificates were presented 
by Mine. Hsiung to 1117 candidates of whom 372 were 
girls and women, and 775 were boys and men. The 
presence of so many women graduates was both unique and 
inspiring. First prizes in the form of scholarships were 
given to the three students receiving the highest marks 
during the term. Second prizes were granted to the 
twenty standing next highest, and the three best of each 
class were rewarded with the opportunity of continuing 
their study in the " Peoples Continuation Schools" which 
were established on their behalf. The slogan of the 
campaign was: To make Chefoo 100% literate within 
five years ". 

The Kashin While the Changsha and Chefoo campaigns 

Experiment 8 wore in progress an experiment of great 
significance was being conducted in the 
Kashing High School, Kashing, Chekiang Province. A 
scheme of visual instruction using the stereoption was 
worked out. 

The entire lesson for the evening was thrown on the 
screen. There h rst appeared, to the delight of every eye, 
a colored picture illustrating the character lesson. All the 
ingenuity of the teacher was brought to bear in making 
this picture a part of the pupil s life. Then appeared the 
character lesson which was explained and taught by the 
teacher, sentence by sentence. Finally came the individual 
new characters which were enormously magnified. After 
repeated drills, slide by slide and character by character 
lights were thrown on i or further review. Each student 
began to review the entire lesson (which had appeared on 
the screen) in his text book. Meanwhile slates were 



314 POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT 

brought out and each one learned to write the characters 
he had seen magnified on the screen. 

At the end of the term we are forced to the conclusion 
that not only can large numbers (200 to 500) be handled 
by one teacher but that the work can be carried forward 
on this quantity basis with greater speed and with higher 
grade results than in the individual small class. 

On July 21, 1923, there was held in the Kashing City 
Hall the most remarkable graduation ever seen in this 
little southern town. More than seven hundred people 
attended. The Mayors of KaHhn.ii and Kashing were 
present to give out the diplomas and prizes. 

Inspired by the results of the experiment, the leaders 
of Kashing have since organized a special committee for 
popular education with the richest man in town as chair 
man. 

Under the leadership of the Y.M.C.A., 
H a chow Hangehow launched a city-wide campaign 
Campaign l ;lst September 1923. The campaign plan 
adopted was practically the same as that in 
Changsha and Chefoo. However, in one particular it was 
unique, namely, instead of the College and Middle School 
students recruiting the illiterates, the police force volun 
teered for service. Over 800 strong turned out and 
canvassed the city! 

Over 2000 illiterates were enrolled. One hundred and 
two volunteer teachers taught in eighty-four schools (61 
for men and 23 for women) scattered throughout the city. 
They ranged in age from twelve to sixty: from 12 to 15, 
46%, from 16 to 25, 37% and from 26 to 60, 17%. 
According to occupations, excepting the 339 whose data 
were not available, there were 606 artisans, 208 labourers, 
135 pedlars, 29 apprentices, 14 soldiers, and 274 without 
employment. 

After four months of schooling, 1668 students (1223 
male and 445 female) came and took the final examination, 
and January 20, 1924 was set as the auspicious day for the 
big graduation. Representatives of tho Civil Governor, 
the Commissioner of Education and other leading educators 
and business men of the city were present to witness this 
unusual spectacle of literary aspirants. One thousand four 



FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM 315 

hundred and twenty-nine students, men and women, 
received diplomas from the magistrate at this big Com 
mencement. 

THE FOLLOW-UP PROGRAM 
7. Continuation Schools: 

After graduating the students are given an opportunity 
to go through another four months schooling in the Con 
tinuation Schools where such subjects as civics, geography, 
arithmetic, history, elementary science, ethics and sanitation 
are taught. 

II. Scholarship : 

Among the graduates of the schools there will doubtless 
be found a good number who will be worthy of further 
training in middle schools or even in colleges and univer 
sities. The well-to-do among them should be encouraged to 
go to higher institutions of learning while the poor but 
deserving ones should be provided with scholarships. 

777. Literature: 

Follow-Up Literature on various lines written in 
simple and attractive style is of the utmost importance. 
Books and pamphlets on citizenship, science, sanitation, 
industry, economics, ethics, history, geography and other 
literature like stories, biographies and songs are either 
published or under preparation. The "Commoners 
Weekly " based upon the 1000 Foundation Characters, 
edited and published by the Kashing High School has 
reached its twelfth issue. 

IV. Reading Oluls : 

Reading Clubs are intended chiefly for these graduates 
who are desirous of furthering their education but who, 
for one reason or another, cannot attend school. 

THE FORMATION OF THE NATIONAL POPULAR EDUCATIONAL 

ASSOCIATION (^ ^ ^ R & W f m f ) 
It was natural that the results of these (above 
mentioned) experiments in Popular Education should 
attract the attention of many of the leading educators and 



816 POPULAR EDUCATION MOVEMENT 

.social workers of the country. Among them are Mme. 
Hsiung Hsi-ling, Drs. W. T. Tao, Yuan Hsi-tao, Hu Shih 
and Huang Yen-pei. At the call of Mme. Hsiung, these 
gentlemen, together with several others, met for two 
consecutive days in Shanghai May (1923), to discuss ways 
and means of extending the movement for Popular 
Education throughout the country. As a result of the 
meeting, a preorganization committee was formed with a 
view to establishing a national association to promote 
the work. 

With the cooperation of the National Association for 
the Advancement of Education, a National Convention on 
Popular Education was called by this committee in 
Tsing-hua College, Peking, August 20-25, 1923. Twenty 
provinces were represented. The spirit of unity and the 
earnestness of the delegates was something unknown in 
previous National Conferences. The result of the five- 
day meeting was the organization of the National Popular 
Education Association (# lp ^ Ifc Ifc W f 3t H") which was 
formally inaugurated on August 26th, 1923 with head 
quarters in Peking. The Association has a National Board of 
Directors which is composed of two representatives elected 
from each province. Madame Hsiung Hsi-ling was elected 
the chairman of the Board and concurrently of the 
National Popular Educational Association. 

Unlike most of the organizations formed 
3 th* National no days in China, this National Association 
Association se ^ ^ work immediately. The first working 
center scheduled was Peking, but this had 
to be given up on account of the disturbed conditions 
there. However, under the leadership of Madame Hsiung 
a very extensive campaign was launched last summer in 
Nanking. Governor Chi Hsieh Yuan, hon. chairman of the 
Association, gave 810,000 to the work. There are now 
altogether 120 schools with a total enrollment of 5,000 
students both men and women, boys and girls. 

The first group of the five thousand students enrolled 
had their first graduation on December 22nd last, in the 
Public Recreation Ground. Civil Governer Han Tsz Shih, 
one of the strongest supporters of the Popular Education 
Movement, spoke at the commencement and gave out 602 



WU-TTAX CAMPAIGN 317 

diplomas. Madame Ilsiung was also present to distribute 
the prizes. Over six thousand people attended this 
occasion. 

rt, \<n ^ t h invitation of the leading citizens, 

Campaign 11 Madame Hsiung, Dr. \V. T. Tao and the 
writer helped to launch another campaign 
of far-reaching significance in Wu-Han last November. 

Governor Hsiao Yao Nan gave Si, 000 of his personal 
funds to the Movement and the assembly granted $20,000 
as an annual contribution in order that the work may be 
carried out on a large scale. 

Extensive plans are being made in Shanghai, Canton, 
Foochow, Ningpo, Tientsin, Soochow and Kaifeng this 
spring. Both the National Popular Education Association 
and the National Committee Y. M. C. A. have been invited 
to help in launching their respective eampaigns. 



CHAPTER LIV 

THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHABET AND FOR THE 

SIMPLIFICATION OF THE CHARACTERS 

Yti T ang Lin 

As long as we feel the need of making the spread of 
knowledge more general and the acquirement of it more 
easy for the people of China, so long will the problem of 
the reform of the written language remain an important 
one for all those interested in the uplift of China. But the 
difficulty of the problem has been greatly exaggerated. 
At present there are three parallel move- 

X^ ree ments which all work toward the end of 

Movements , . ,, ... 1 . 7 ,, ., 

making the written language simpler than it 

is now with the time-honored characters. They are (1), 
the movement for the simplification of the characters 
themselves, (2) the movement for the already officially 
promulgated syllabary, i.e. the Chu-yin Tzu-inu t and (8) 
the movement for romanization. Of these three, the 
first and last are comparatively the more recently started 
movements. 

As the prime essentials for the success of 
au al P habetic writing are of course (l) that 
the spoken language itself should be standar 
dized and unified, so that there is something definite to 
alphabetize, and (2) that the spoken language should also 
be accepted as the literary language of the country, for 
there is no sense in alphabetizing a language which no one 
dares to use in writing books and which is only conceived 
to be vulgar. In this connection, it may be noted that even 
advocates of alphabetic writing admit that alphabetization 
of the old literary style cannot be intelligible to the 
reader, whereas, they believe beyond the shadow of a 
doubt that alphabetization of the peh-hua or vernacular 
style can be understood, if it is done properly. 



FUTURE OF OLD CHARACTERS 319 

Happily, the two above-named requisites of success 
for an alphabetic writing in China are well provided for, so 
that we may confidently say now that the way for the 
introduction of an alphabet (or of the Roman letters in 
particular) is wide open. For the spoken language has 
already been accepted as the literary language, and it is 
being increasingly unified and standardized. 

Here is not the place for arguments, yet 

, ,. . ,. ,, , , 

the general bearing this problem has on the 
discarding or retention of the old characters must be made 
clear. The general position of most advocates of romaniza- 
tion with regard to the disposal of the characters may be 
summarized thus: An alphabetic writing of the general 
written language of China is absolutely necessary, no 
matter what else (including the characters), you may have 

besides. 



For some time yet the old characters will 
2?K- !S remain in general use, and to a limited 

OI v^QdfdCier -iii 

extent, they will always remain in use in 
this country. Hence the need of simplifying them and 
making them, as far as is practicable, easy to write. This 
in the main becomes the work of reducing the number of 
strokes for a character. 

The way in which a character may be simplified may 
be (a) to adopt its form in cursive script, (b) to write 
only one part of the whole character, (c) to modify part of 
it, (d) to substitute for it its ancient form, (e) to use a 
simpler phonetic particle, (f) to invent a new form, (g) 
or to make use of the form for another word. The 
distinguishing trait about these proposed reforms is that, 
everywhere, it has been the object to follow the line of 
natural development only, and to give official sanction 
to forms which have evolved themselves on doctors 
prescriptions, pawn-shop bills, etc., which are already in 
current use, but which hitherto have been considered as 
"incorrect . Some examples are: Of the class (a) ^7 
for j$, r for ft; (b) ^ for ^, M for 0: ; (c) & for -^, *i] 
for i], (d) JA for fl, ft for i; (e) 1 for *, $ for &; (f) 
% for ^, & for m ; (g) )l for ^, |p for ft. 



320 THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHABET 

Another proposal to write only the so-called "phonetic 
particle" of a character without the "radical" element 
(which indicates the class of its meaning) the idea of 
Chancellor Ts ai Yiian-p ei, for example seems to have 
much less prospect of public approval. 

. The alphabet of 40 letters (not Roman) 

which is now in current use or at least being 
taught in the schools and elsewhere was 
officially promulgated by order of the Ministry of Education 
on December 23, 1918. It was, however, made already in 
1923 by the Commission on the Unification of Pronuncia 
tion called together under the auspices of the Ministry of 
Education. Previous to this, there had been quite a 
number of attempts at making an alphabet, but only 
by private individuals, (notably Wong Chao and Lao 
Nai-hsiian). In December, 1920, an order of the Ministry 
of Education was issued giving oOical sanction to a 
Dictionary of Standard Pronunciation (Kuo-yin Tze-tien) , 
standardizing the sounds of 8000 characters which had 
been prepared by the above-named Commission. At about 
the same time, a most important ministerial order was 
given for the adoption of textbooks in the * National 
Language" (really the spoken mandarin) instead of in 
the old literary language in the primary schools. An 
attached condition to this order was that the Chu-yin 
tse-mu might be used. As a matter of fact, this system 
of alphabet is being taught in most schools to-day, in the 
middle schools, all normal schools, and the higher normal 
schools and colleges, especially those in Peking. A 
Commission on the Unification of the National Language, 
(Kuo-yu Cung-i Hui) was formed in 1919. This 
Commission had its fifth annual session in the fall of 
1922 and now has about a hundred members, having 
for its Chairman Minister Chang Yi-lin, and for its 
Vice-Chairmen Yuan Hsi-t ao and Wu Ching-heng. 
About a dozen dictionaries are now on the market using 
the alphabet to indicate the pronunciation of words. 

This Alphabet was originally intended to be written 
by the side of the characters and to run from the top 
downwards. It may be however used alone, and has been 
successfully written running from left to right like English. 



MIONKTICS 321 

The 24- Consonants 



Wade 




Remarks 






i < j i 


i P 


P 


in spy 


* p 


P 


in " pie " 


i- in 






u f 






7/ V 






57 t 


t 


" i > ? 
in sty" 


-A- t 


t 


* A 77 

in tie" 


-5 11 


before a, o, u only 


y, 1 






k 


k 


(( , 51 

in sky 


-v - k - 


k 


in "kite" 


71; ng 


ng in "(si)nger 


) " n 

M eh 


) 




< cir 


i 
( 


before i , ii only 


j*~ n 


\ 




T hs 


) 




t! Cll 

-f en 
p sh 


\ 


before a, o, u only ; made with 
the tip of the tongue very 
curled back. 


w .1 




approximately like g in "rouge" 






with tongue curled. 


n ts, tz 




ts in "sits" 


-v ts , tz 




aspirated ts. 


A S, SS 






The 3 Medials 






Wade 




Remarks 


i 


i 


ritwwl l\,r*/-\ir\ 4" Vrk ri i-\ G 1 a ^ 4" l"k lid 




JUsed before tlie " finals ", thus: 
u + ai == uai, i + an = inn 



a. in car " 

for words from Rimes 1$, ; 
ir in " girl." Newly added for 
words from Rimes #&, t& 
example: Wade s " chieh. Only 
after i, and ii. 



322 THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHABET 



ai 


i in bite 




ei 


ay in "pay " 




an 


ou in loud " 




on 


o in " go," but 


with an open o 


an 






ang 






on 


^ used after i, u, 


li to form Wade s 


ong 


] "in ", " ing 


", "un" etc. 



z. 

;L erh - with an opener 6 sound than "ir" 

in "girl 

Unrepresented are Wade s " ih " in shih, and 
"u" in ssUj tzu, where the consonant would 
stand alone representing the whole syllable, 
(thus " tz " to be read as "tzu and " sh " 
to be read as " shih "). 
nff Different types of the (Jhu-yin Tzu-mu, 

LJiiierciii types .. tc 1-5^1 * 5 ji r-\ ;> 

the round/ the squa.ro, the German," 

the "script" type, etc. have been invented. Below are two 
specimens in horizontal writing of the "square" and the 
"script " style respectively: 

A. The sgunTC-" 



hi cx-^is p \ QsqiY PZ tfixhi kxi hi. 
5tF,x ^Y <u P* ^is-jtns hi -^95, ^R ^s-jtris hi 
iy r^ 1 ? ^* nyi^-p* -orxE^crxz: hi MIZCX. Qsqiy 
%d "tcritt" type (for the s.me text): 



. 

*~;X^ 



Although the Chu-yin Tzu-mu has already 
Move- enjoyed a palpable success, it has never been 
Romaoi zation acknowledged as a satisfactory solution of the 
language reform problem. On the contrary, 
it seems rather to represent the half-hearted spirit of the 
*ftage when people do not yet dare to conceive of an 



CHIT-YIN AND ROMANIZATION 323 

alphabetic writing existing for its own sake, and serving the 
entire purpose of written communication?. As the name 
implies, the C/m-?/m alphabet is only to indicate (rhu) tlie 
pronunciation (/////) of the characters. In this spirit and 
primarily for this purpose has this system of alphabet 
been devised and adopted. It was nothing more than an 
interlinear system of pronunciation marks. As time went, 
the original purpose of the alphabet has been shifted, and 
the possibility of its use independent of the characters 
came to represent the turn of specialist opinion. As soon, 
however, as the idea of an independent alphabetic writing 
comes to the front, the deficiencies of the said system of 
alphabet become all too apparent. There is no proper 
provision for indicating the tones; it is not elastic enough 
to represent dialectic differences; its letters are often 
clumsy; they are not made for connected writing, so that 
letters often have to be written disjointedly, entailing a 
loss of time ; they have not been chosen out of practical 
considerations for ease and convenience, but because they 
are remnants of some primeval signs; they mean a 
meaningless and purposeless deviation from the system 
of writing to-day accepted in most civilized countries, the 
Roman letters; they are incapable of transcribing foreign 
names, etc. In fact when one thinks of the problem in its 
main aspect, and if one does not let himself be swayed by 
the very transient and insignificant fact that the Chu-yin 
Tzii-mu has already made some progress, one cannot but 
come to the conclusion that a satisfactory system of 
romani/ation would be the best of all possible alphabets 
in the long run. Misconceptions that these Roman letters 
in fifty years from now will not look as "Chinese" as 
they now look " English ", have of course to be cleared 
away from the people s and even the officials minds. 
Romanratio i ^ ^ le n ^ n <mnual session of the Com 
mission on the Unification of the National 
Language, a resolution was proposed by Prof. Ch ien 
Hsiian-t ung of the Peking National University that a 
committee should be appointed to consider the question 
of Romanization of the National Language (Kuo-yii 
Lo-ma-tze), and after a rather hard fight, was passed by 
the whole Commission. The committee now consists of 



324 THE MOVEMENT FOR AN ALPHABET 

about a dozen people. The results of study by these people 
will from time to time be published in the National 
Language Magazine, the monthly organ of the " National 
Language Promotion Association" a private institution 
established seven or eight years ago. No. 7 of vol. 
I (special number, called " Reformation of Chinese 
Characters ") and No. 1 of vol. II of the said monthly 
(published by Chung Hwa Book Co.) contain important 
practical suggestions on the method of Romanization. A 
definite advance has been made along the line of indicating 
tones by whole letters instead of by diacritical marks or 
by Arabic figures as is done by Wade. Thus it is for 
instance possible to write 

than ttan thaan thann 
instead of t an l fan" t ? an ! fan 4 
or uei, uei ivee.) wey for the four tones of uei respectively. 
Hyphens will be done away with for polysyllabic words, 
whose syllables will be written together to form one 
individual word, as a recognizable unit. These units 
should then be standardized. 

Any doubt about the possibility of romanizing Chinese 
spoken language will be answered by the following short 
formula: Any language which is intelligible when heard 
in speaking can also be made intelligible when seen in 
writing. If the writing is not intelligible, the fault must 
be in the imperfectness of method (such as the omission 
of tone differences and faulty word divisions). 






tJ. 



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TEACHING ILLITERATES TO READ THE BIBLE 



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CHAPTER LVI 

THE STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT 
Jung Fang Li 

The Student Volunteer Movement, as a national factor, 
was formally organized at Tung Chow in May, 1010. The 
purpose of this movement has been for the encouragement 
of young people (women excluded) to take up ministry 
as their life work. So far the movement has been a 
success. In the year 1922 the membership had already- 
reached 1570, of which 130 are actually in the ministry, 
besides many who are helping the church in indirect ways. 
In August, 1922, a National Convention 
Convention. was ^eld at Killing; there were present 
from sixteen provinces, one hundred and 
sixty representatives. The constitution was formally 
adopted; this provides for a National Council with a 
membership of thirty, one third of which shall be students. 
There is also an executive committee of seven of whom 
one must be a student, elected from the Council 

The Constitution also provides for a National 
Convention every three years, for inspirational as well 
as legislative purposes. The basis of membership was 
reconsidered in the Convention. After long deliberation 
and discussion, the Conference adopted the narrower basis 
for membership, namely, that only those who choose the 
ministry as their life work, should be admitted to the 
movement. 

Purpose Soon after the Convention, the secretaries 

made a circular visit over ten provinces, 
where they found that many of the students were not 
clear with regard to the purpose of this movement. These 
may be divided into three groups: (a) those who have 
chosen the ministry as their life work ; (b) those who have 
made up their minds to serve as church workers but not 



BASIS OF MEMBERSHIP 341 

necessarily ministers ; (c) those, who have agreed to serve 
as local preachers but refuse to receive pay from the 
church. 

The secretaries were a little bothered with this 
situation. They sent out a circular letter to each one 
of the members inquiring about his present position. In 
response to these circulars two hundred and seventy-eight 
students from twenty-five schools replied. Among these, 
there were one hundred and twenty -two belonging to (a) 
class, ninety-seven to (b) class, and fifty-nine to (c) class. 

The secretaries set the findings before the executive 
committee, which met on January 26, 1923. After some 
careful deliberation the executive committee again indorsed 
the narrower basis for membership. 

This however did not settle the question 

Membership of the basis for membership. The Chihli 
group, in their retreat at Wo Fo Szu, with a 
delegation of one hundred and three, passed the following 
recommendations : 

1. That the Volunteer Movement should broaden its 
basis so as to include all the vocations which have as their 
sole object the promotion of the Chinese Christian Church. 

2. That women students should be admitted into the 
movement. 

In relation to this, they sent out a circular letter 
stating their point of view. They feel that the Chinese 
pastors have long been under restraint, financially, 
intellectually, and spiritually, and that they have lost 
most of their power of initiative. Moreover the Church 
is so much Americanized or Europeanized, that she is 
inadequate to meet the needs of the Chinese com 
munity. Her barriers are many ; her cleavages great. 
In order to make the church indigenous, some radical 
changes must be made in her organization. They feel, there 
fore, that other forms of service, such as educational, 
medical, literary and social, are equally needed in the 
Chinese Christian Church. Furthermore they feel that some 
ministers should serve the church as lay preachers without 
burdening her with financial obligations. They regard 
the present basis of membership as too narrow to meet 
these needs. Its scope should be enlarged so as to 



342 STUDENT VOLUNTEER MOVEMENT 

include both men and women, whose sole purpose is to 
prepare for the building up of the Chinese Christian Church. 
Women ^ e P s ^ on na s been strengthened by the 

Members White Cross at Canton Christian College and 

the Union Middle School, where they admit 
both men and women, whose sole purpose is for the 
advancement of the Kingdom of God, with no regard to 
their profession. Meanwhile the Shantung group, in their 
retreat this year, admitted two girls schools into 
the movement. These are some of the questions under 
consideration which cannot be settled before the next 
National Conference in 1925. 

The movement at present has: 89 branches, 15 of which 
are of College Grade : 763 members (based on the old as well 
as the new report) , with 

Rev. Z. T. Kaung, Mr. P. H. Tai, 

Rev. J. H. Blackstone, Rev. F. J. White, 

Rev. K. T. Chung, Dr. David Z. T. Yui, and 

Rev. C. E. Patton, as its Executive Committee. 
The secretaries are: 
Rev. Ting Li Mei, 
Rev. Egbert M. Hayes, 
Rev. M. Gardner Tewksbury. 



CHAPTER LVII 

CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD 

Y. Y. Tsu 

The aim of this article is to present n, composite 
picture of the present condition of Chinese students in 
Japan, North America, Great Britain, Germany and France 
and to raise the question, as to what place this group of 
more than 9,000 students should have in our Christian 
programme as viewed from the home hase in China? 

No official statistics of Chinese students 
StuSnts abroad exist. The consulates and legations 
do not know. The educational commissioners 
residing abroad do not know, although it is their business 
to know. The student associations have about the best 
estimates. Just before the earthquake, Japan had about 
2,200 Chinese students, but a number of them have since 
returned to China. The United States has over 2,000 in 
colleges and universities and probably another 1,000 in 
public arid high schools. This does not include those 
in the Hawaiian Islands. The larger groups are, Columbia 
(150), M. I. T. (57), Harvard (50), Chicago (80), Pennsy 
lvania (60), Wisconsin (50), Michigan (60), N. Y. U. (60), 
California (60), Illinois (70). Canada has only about 20 
Chinese university students. In Great Britain there are 
180, mostly in the universities and technical colleges, like 
London (75), Glasgow (I)), Leeds (14), Cambridge (24), 
Edinburgh (40), Manchester (10), Oxford (5). Of the 
2,000 in France, 1,500 are what are known as etudiants- 
ouvriers, who work in the factories in the day time and 
attend school in the evenings. The "Chinese University" 
at Lyons has a hundred or so. Not many are students of 
college or university grade. Germany has approximately 
1,000 distributed as follows: Berlin (700), Gottingen 
(40), Frankfurt (10), Dresden (10), etc. Belgium has 



244 CHINESE STUDENT? ABROAD 

about 75, mostly in the Industrial University at Charleroi, 
the Universite du Travail. Small groups are also found in 
Italy, Switzerland and other European countries. 

Chinese students in America take up 
of StJdy S ^udies of all kinds, ranging from philosophy 

to photography and from economics to 
aeronautics. But the triad of major studies are 
economics, education, and engineering. A lesser triad 
is medicine, physical sciences, and political science. 
A rather thorough search of the American theological 
seminaries in 11)22 revealed the, fact that 20 Chinese 
students were registered in them, of whom just 11 were 
planning to enter the ministry. In other words the 
Chinese churches of the next generation will not be 
manned by men trained abroad. 

In Great Britain the favorite studies are economics, 
medicine and law, the first claiming the largest number 
of devotees. In France the pure sciences, engineering 
and literature seem to be most popular, while in Germany 
engineering, medicine and physical sciences dominate. 
In Japan the major studies are political science and 
education. 

Concerning Chinese students in Japan, an 
Conditions American Y. M. C. A. Secretary who has 

worked among them for a number of years 
wrote: "Because of the poverty of the average Chinese 
student he is forced to secure board and room at the 
cheapest possible place. This condition throws him into 
contact with the lowest class of small Japanese inn-keepers. 
His early impressions of Japan are most unfavorable and 
unfortunate. The majority of the students who have been 
receiving a government grant are short of funds because 
their allowances since June (1921) have been irregular. 
The reason for the destitution is the present unfavorable 
exchange. Another reason is the present costs of all 
commodities in Japan." 
In France ^ ie e tudiants-ouvriers Chinois went to 

France in large numbers in 1920 with 
practically no funds in their pockets but with great hopes 
in their hearts, through the influence of the Socioto 
Fran co -Chinois d Education. Many of them met with 



GERMANY AND AMERICA 345 

extreme hardships after arriving at Marseilles. Mr. W. J. 
Wen, who was there and saw the conditions wrote, "The 
majority were sorely disappointed and had to he content 
to work as manual lahorers with meagre wages which 
harely sufficed for their living and allowed no savings for 
schooling." At present these students have still to work 
in the factories, hut their condition has been much 
bettered. They earn about 25 francs for a 9 hour working 
day. The French people are tolerant in their attitude 
toward foreigners. They show no racial prejudice on the 
one hand and on the other express no particular interest 
in their presence. 

T ~ Chinese students in Germany seem to live 

In Germany . f 7 .., 

in comparative comtort, as contrasted with 

the plight of German students. But in their present 
mood, the German people dislike the presence of foreigners 
in their midst for reasons which can be readily understood. 

In B itlsh Isl s ^ n ^ 1C ^"^h ^ s ^ os ^ 1G ^ nmoKC students 
find a hospitable and congenial atmosphere. 
The majority of them come from wealthy families in 
British colonies in southern Asia. They know the English 
language and manners well and so fall readily into the 
British way of life. 

In America ^ n Am e ri ca 400 Chinese are supported 

by Tsinghua scholarships, 250 by provincial 
scholarships, the rest are so-called private students. Like 
some American students, a few of the Chinese students 
work their way through college, but on account of racial 
differences it is not always easy to do that. Racial 
prejudice is fairly strong in America and Chinese students 
now and then meet with discourteous treatment, but on 
the whole as far as college communities are concerned, 
the people show a cordial attitude. 

Chinese students in America are well 

Student organized. The Chinese Students Alliance 

Urbanizations /" ,. .. , , , , ~, . 

in America (C. S. A.) links together the local Chinese 

Student Clubs (0. S. C.) in a, national 
federation and through the Chinese Students Monthly and 
the Chinese Students Quarterly, published respectively in 
English and in Chinese, and the summer conferences, 
Creates a united esprit de corps among the students. These 



346 CHINESE STUDENTS AJBROAD 

conferences play an important part in Chinese student life. 
Aside from their intellectual and patriotic function, they 
serve the valuable purpose of bringing the young people 
together socially and as a result, many a matrimonial 
venture has its beginning at these gatherings. The 
Chinese Students Christian Association (C. S. C. A.) 
founded in 1909 by men like C. T. \Vang, W. C. Chen, 
David Yui, P. W. Kuo, is another active organization in 
America. Its purpose is to unite Christian and other 
students into a closer fellowship for mutual helpfulness 
in Christian living and services. 

Student ^ n Great Britain the two organizations are 

Organisations the Chinese Students Central Union and the 
in Great Chinese Students Christian Union. These two 

Britain bodies hold a joint conference every summer. 

The tendency to unite for closer fellowship and mutual help 
is not strong among the Chinese students on the Continent. 
The University of Paris has no Chinese Students Club. 

The Chinese students in France have no national 
organization. The Y. M. C. A. des Etudiants Chinois en 
France was in existence from 1919 to 1923 and was 
disbanded when the Y. M. C. A. National Committee of 
China withdrew its support. Berlin with 700 Chinese 
students has a Chinesischer Studentenverein. with its own 
club-house, but there is no national organization for 
Chinese students in Germany. 

The attitude toward Christianity depends 
Attitude upon previous religious training in China and 

Christianity the social environment abroad. Referring to 
Chinese students in France, Mr. W. J. Wen 
wrote, "The Society (Societe Franco-Chinoise d Education) 
declared orally and in writing their anti-religion policy, 
have which makes it impossible for their students to have 
anything to do with any religious organizations, including 
the Y. M. C. A. in France ". Mr. T. J. Cheng, Y. M. C. A. 
Secretary in France, 1919-1923 wrote, "If we neglect it 
(Y. work) we shall probably ha,ve to face a group of 
well-prepared anti-Christian leaders in the future." The 
Catholic type of religious life on the one hand and the 
prevalence of radical thought on the other seem to have 



ATTITUDE TO CHRISTIANITY 347 

exercised an unfavorable influence on Chinese students in 
France in their attitude toward religion. 

Tn the summer of 1923, Mr. Joseph Huang, with the 
help of a few other Christian students and of Mr. 
Leithauser, organized the first Christian conference for 
Chinese students in Germany. But on the whole there is 
pronounced indifference among the Chinese students in 
Germany toward religion, as one Christian student who 
has resided in Berlin for ten years said that he seldom 
thought of going to church and almost never went. 

In Great Britain, the religious atmosphere is com 
paratively more helpful. At different student centers, 
Bible classes are found, and students attend Swanwick and 
other summer conferences. 

Effect of One fourth of the Chinese college students 

Residence in America are baptized Christians. Very 

Abroad on f ew o f them have any church homes. In fact 
the general impression one gets among the 
Chinese students is that they are less enthusiastic about 
their faith and less active about Church affairs in 
America than in China. A few are like the students who 
declared, "I was once (a Christian) but am one no 
longer," "I nearly accepted Christianity as I understood 
it in China, but have changed my mind. I have lost my 
faith in Christianity since coming to America." 

A number of causes have conspired to 
produce this unhappy result. The congenial 
friendships and family and community ties which bind 
us to the church at home are absent. The American 
college youth is in an iconoclastic mood and the Chinese 
student, thrown into his company, concludes that it 
represents the general educated American attitude toward 
religion. The rationalistic atmosphere in American colleges 
has an harmful effect upon those who have been brought up 
in homes and churches of ultra-conservative theology. The 
disillusionment caused by contact with undesirable and 
un-Christian phases of social life in America, such as 
racial prejudice against men of a different color, chills 
the foreign student s religious spirit. The lack of 



348 CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD 

opportunity for self-expression in church life, including 
corporate worship, leads to indifference. 

Inspite of unfavorable conditions, a fairly 
On*s al good number of the students succeed in 

re-adjusting themselves to the new environ 
ment and maintain their Christian convictions and 
relationships. Usually they are the fortunate ones who have 
found good Christian friends, who have been related to 
Christian homes, who have been early in their stay in 
America affiliated with a congenial church, or received 
inspiration at a summer conference. As one student has 
put it, " We are not won by the philosophy of Christianity 
but by its evidences." Another amplified the idea by 
saying, " Christianity is not taught but caught. The best 
thing you can do is to help Chinese students to come into 
contact with the best and truest Christians, so that they can 
get Christianity subconsciously as it were. Then the prejudice 
toward nominal Christianity, will also disappear." From 
a student who joined the Christian Church at a Northfield 
summer conference come these stirring words, " I am 
trying to stand for Christ now and always, and expect to 
Christianize China, America and also the whole world. 
First of ail, America ought to be Christianized thoroughly 
I mean to make every nominal Christian a true Christian 
in his words and deeds. It would be uneconomical in 
time and energy, to wait for China to export Christianity 
to the "Christian" United States. Concerning the 
helpful influence of the Christian summer conference for 
college students, another wrote enthusiastically as follows, 
" The conference lasted for one week only, but its influence 
on me will be life-long ... I can say that the conference 
has brought me back to Christianity ... I know there are 
a good many Chinese students who are dissatisfied with 
the way the Americans treat them. To those students I 
venture to give a bit of suggestion, namely, to go to 
some of these conferences so as to find out the difference 
between the real Christians and the nominal Christians. 
After all there are some thinking Americans who do have 
the welfare of humanity in the depth of their hearts and 
who are now fighting for the good of humanity as a whole. 
Why should we not join our hands with them?" 



ATTITUDE TO DENOMINATIONALTSM 349 

Many an earnest student cannot tolerate 

Attitude to denominationalism though quite sincerely 
Danomina- ,. . r 

tionalism religious, like the one who wrote, 1 am not 

a meniher of any denomination and will not 
be. I believe in the principles of Christianity and am 
trying my best to live up to them. But I will not be 
disturbed by the petty differences of the churches and 
T will therefore ignore all the unnecessary formalities. 
My religious struggle has a long history and up to 
the present has had no outside influences. I began to 
realize how weak we are and how constantly we have 
to come back to our Lord lest we shall go astray in the 
next step." 

Quite a number of the Chinese students abroad 
entertain unfriendly ideas about the missionary enterprise 
as it is carried on in China. Much of the prejudice is 
due to ignorance of the motives and policies of missions, 
much to their bitterness toward foreign aggressions, 
sometimes done in the name of the missionary enterprise, 
and much to nationalistic sensitiveness. Recently a 
caustic article on Missions in China appeared in the 
Nation. It came from the pen of a Christian student, a 
product of one of the very mission colleges which he 
attacked. In a personal talk with him, the writer found 
him not as anti-Christian as that article seemed to indicate. 
In fact, he was quite interested in the future of the Church 
in China, and took an evident delight in telling the writer 
that his youngest brother, the brightest in the family, 
was a student volunteer for the ministry in China. At 
iirst glance, one would naturally be taken aback to find 
a graduate of a mission college in China making a bitter 
attack against it. But may it not be explained as being 
due to some fault in the educational process, which has 
brought on the reaction? For instance, we may honestly 
ask, " Is the compulsory chapel attendance or the require 
ment of a certain number of hours of religious instruction 
in the mission college justified from the viewpoint of 
results and of sound educational principles? Might not 
the compulsory nature of the requirements create 
prejudice and leave a bad taste in the month ? " 



350 CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD 

It will be wrong to conclude that the Chinese 
Missionary student abroad is rabidly anti-missionary. 

Warm appreciation of missionary efforts and 
achievements especially in medicine and education in 
China is freely expressed among them. "I am more 
impressed by the missionary work carried on in China 
than anything else that foreign nations have done in 
China." "Missionaries in China have done wonderful work. 
They have contiibuted a great deal to the modernization 
of the country." "Christian missionaries have wonderfully 
enlightened and helped China. They are getting away 
from the general disfavor arising out of the fact that 
they in earlier times meant (unconsciously) the vanguard 
of foreign imperialism in China." 

The strategic importance of winning 
andthe Chinese students abroad to a reasonable 

Response appreciation of the principles of Christian 

living and thinking and to a friendly attitude 
toward the Christian movement in China cannot be ex 
aggerated. Furthermore, how unstatesmanlike it will be, if 
after having spent large sums and much energy in training 
young men and young women in the Christian colleges and 
churches in China and in preparing them for higher 
education abroad, we should cease to take an interest in 
their spiritual welfare and allow them to drift away from 
.the Christian churches while they are in foreign lands so 
that later they return to China indifferent and cold toward 
the Christian Cause. Sporadic efforts here and there will 
not accomplish anything. A concerted and sustained 
effort in which the Christian forces in China and the 
mission boards and churches abroad are united can 
accomplish a great deal. 

~ At the present time, the different mission 

Contacts . . 

boards do maintain more or less close contact 

with the students of their own denominations. More can 
be done in this respect. The churches and colleges in 
China from which the students go abroad with a few 
exceptions have not ?iven adequate attention to their own 
students away from China. A systematic process of letters 
of dismissal and introduction, and of sustained relationship 
through correspondence should be attempted. The local 



SPECIAL WOKK 351 

churches, associations and individual friends in many 
college communities in America have shown active 
interest in Chinese students. They are entitled to greater 
encouragement and appreciation than they have received 
from China. The Committee on Friendly Relations Among 
P oreign Students of the International Committee of the 
Y.M.C.A. of North America with its annual budget of over 
835,000, and the Committee of Friendly Relations among 
Foreign Woman Students of the National Board of the 
Y.W.C.A., in the United States, have heen of great service 
to Chinese students in helping them to adjust themselves 
to their new environment, in opening Christian homes to 
them, in cultivating friendly relationships, in overcoming 
racial prejudice, and in paving the way for a more 
favorable understanding of the Christian message. Student 
Movements in Great Britain and Europe have done 
similar work. 

A notable example of church work for Chinese 
Students Abroad is the Chinese Church at Tokyo. The 
wisdom of supporting such work is demonstrated in the 
number of earnest Christians it has won among the Chinese 
students in Tokyo and the fine laymen and church workers 
it has prepared for and sent back to the church in China. 

The Y.M.C.A. in China has been of substantial help 
to students proceeding to foreign countries in attending to 
the business arrangements for them, in providing receptions 
and farewell meetings at their departure and in issuing 
introductory letters to Associations abroad. The 
Association also gives attention to returning students 
and helps them re-adjust themselves in the community 
to which they return. 

The most difficult problem in this type of 
Problem student work is to maintain the personal 

relationship which alone is of lasting value. 
Mass or impersonal service is useful in its Place and in 
providing opportunity for the personal contacts. After all, 
no "Student Bureau 7 , or any other official organization, 
can take the place of personal relationships. Such 
relationships exist for instance between the teacher and 
his student, the pastor and his church-member and the 



352 CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD 

* Y." secretary and his Association member. Would that 
every college teacher, every pastor and every "Y." secretary 
in China would maintain friendly relationships with 
his own students, his own church members and his own 
Association members as they sojourn abroad, and take a 
keen interest in their spiritual welfare as parents in that if 
their sons and daughters away from home. Only in 
this way, which involves personal interest and labor, can 
we hope to meet the challenge of the Chinese students 
abroad in an adequate and fruitful way. 

NOTE: The information about Chinese students in Great Britain, 
France and Germany was secured by the writer on his visit 
to those countries in the summer of 1023. The information 
about Chinese students in America comes from his personal 
observations through three years of travelling among the 
colleges of the United States and Canada. 



CHAPTER LVIII 

SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES CHILDREN 
Charles L. Boynton 

Missionaries have generally been regarded as prolific: 
they are by temperament, by conviction and by occupation, 
educationists. It is not surprising, therefore, that they have 
always been keenly interested in the problem of the 
education of their own children, as well as in that of those 
to whom they have been sent. China presents no exception, 
but she has long presented a problem, to which the solution 
is being found with an Increasing degree of satisfaction in 
the last decade. For a century the problem of the education 
of foreign, or non- Oriental children, in China has been 
largely the problem of the education of missionary children; 
as a community problem it began to emerge in the late 
eighties and has become insistent since 1910. 

This is apparent from even a casual survey of the com 
pilation attempted in the Christian Occupation of China, 
which attempted a summary and detailed statement of all 
schools for foreign children in China. (Pp. 4 26-8) Before 
attempting an analysis of that survey and comment on 
more recent progress, a word is in point as to the solutions 
attempted and still in vogue. 

Mother The earliest and still the commonest method 

Teaching f educating missionary children is mother- 

teaching. This is practiced wherever children 
are too few, or parents too limited in means to employ a 
professional teacher for a group. Formerly this type of 
instruction was continued till the first or second furlough 
in the homeland. The possibility of the necessity of 
continuing the method n.ft.er furlough has kept many a 
family permanently in the homeland, and has been a great 
deterrent to second terms, a,nd a greater deterrent to third 
terms in China. It has led to the establishment at the home 
base of "homes for missionaries 7 children 7 adjacent to 



354 SCHOOLS FOR MISSIONARIES CHILDREN 

denominational preparatory schools and colleges. Some of 
our best missionaries in China to-day, of the second and third 
generations, are the educational prodi.ct of those schools. 
So also are some of the bitterest opponents of foreign 
missions, children who felt the neglect of parents interested 
in the children of others, to the exclusion of natural care 
for their own. These homes and schools have served and 
will continue to serve a, useful purpose, particularly for the 
children of "these compelled to serve in lands where it is 
unsafe to bring up " foreign ; children. But they have 
been seen to be only a partial solution. 



The second step, in China, was the home- 

Lrroup frv 

School 



Home-Group group sc } loolj w}u;re the c hil ( ] r(m o f n com 



pound, rather than of a family, have been 
gathered under the tutelage of the better-trained or less 
occupied mothers, until such time as the resources of the 
group has permitted the supplementing of unprofessional 
with professional instruction. No figures have ever been 
gathered as to the rm-valence of this method, but it must 
be somewhat widespread, as at least a score of one-teacher 
(professional) schools have conic to the writer s attention 
during his investigations. This method has usually 
resulted in better discipline and more orderly study, with 
the advantages of social and competitive effort. 

Of late a more highly differentiated and complex type 
of school has come to the fore and at the present time may 
be said to dominate in the education of the children of 
missionaries in China. It lias been found by experiment, 
that with the increase of modern comforts, and the 
multiplication of sanitary precautions, China, at least from 
the Yangtze valley northward, affords several places where 
it is safe and healthful to keep foreign children even through 
the period of adolescence, in other words until the child is 
ready for a college or university training. This is due in 
part also to the very material increase of the foreign 
populations in China, and their improved economic status, 
enabling them to establish and maintain schools worthy of 
the best educated group of people in a single occupation 
in the world. 



AMERICAN SCHOOLS 355 

Of the forty-three schools listed in tho 

W C MI j A survey mentioned, twenty were established 
established ^ * T i r* 

and are maintained by Protestant missionary 

societies, six by Roman Catholics, nine by foreign municipal 
councils and eight are distinctly private schools. Of the 
twenty schools, fifteen gave statistics of enrollment, nine 
American schools enrolling 716 students, four British 309, 
two continental 50, making a total of nearly 900 known 
pupils. It is possible that their present total enrollment 
is nearer 1500 pupils (the Shanghai American School alone 
having increased from 253 to 390 in this period.) It will 
be seen that the problem is one of no small extent. 

During the past five years the American 
School**" schools particularly have felt the need for 
permanent equipment and expansion to meet 
growing needs. The Ruling School was the first to secure 
a dormitory and class-room building, which was completed 
in 1911). The Peking American School carried on a 
campaign in 1920-22 which resulted in gifts of Mex. 
$100,000 and the completion in the fall of 1923 of a 
modern school building which serves also as a community 
center for Americans. Tho most ambitious project is that 
of the Shanghai American School, which began a campaign 
in 1918-19, a second in 1921, and is now engaged in 
a third. 

The first building, a temporary structure in brick and 
stucco was completed in August, 1922, and accommodated 
seventy students in lower grades, while classwork for the 
others was carried on in rented quarters over five miles 
away. In September 1923 three permanent fireproof 
buildings in red brick and concrete were completed on 
the new fifteen-acre campus in the French Concession, 
Shanghai, and were; occupied by over 300 students. These 
included a classroom building for 350 students, with 
dormitories in the attic for four teachers and forty boys, a 
three-unit dormitory for girls, accommodating 61 girls and 
seventeen members of the staff, a dining and music hall, 
with dining space for 200 and four studios and five music 
practice rooms, beside a teachers, reception room and the 
necessary service portion. During the fall the central 
heating plant and servants quarters were completed, ami 



856 SCHOOLS FOTl MISSION ARIES OTTTLDttEN 

a temporary Boy Scout House was erected. An artesian 
well has been bored, giving about 80,000 gallons of water 
per day, a pumphouse, 65 foot water tower, bicycle house, 
and principal s residence have followed in rapid succession, 
and the demands for space have necessitated the renting of 
additional quarters in the neighborhood to house two 
teachers and fourteen boys. The present campaign seeks 
to add another building for instruction, a three-unit boys 
dormitory, a gymnasium and additional living quarters for 
teachers. The total sum expended on this project to date 
exceeds Mex. 700,000, and the immediate campaign calls 
for Gold $275,000 additional. This School has proved a 
new binding force between missionaries and the com 
munity, who share in its support and control on equal 
terms. The majority of the capital funds came from 
non-mission channels. 

p It seems fair to assume that this program 

of expansion and development will continue, 
as the missionary and commercial communities are rapidly 
expanding. It is statistically demonstrable that most of 
these schools will require double their present facilities 
within a dozen years. The larger and stronger schools 
will continue to attract as many students in the upper 
classes as they can accommodate. The larger missionary 
centers will continue to demand and to develop pro 
fessionally staffed soJiools for the younger children who 
can be kept at home. These schools of purely local scope 
will not require dormitories. The largest schools of this 
type at Peking and at Nanking include secondary as well 
as elementary education. 

Coo eration Among the American schools the com 

petitive era seems to be wellnigh at an end 
and the period of cooperation has begun. A year ago an 
Association of these schools was organized including also 
similar schools in Japan, Korea, and India. The second 
meeting of this association is to be held at Peking in 
April. Coordination in curricula, cooperation in staffing 
and in financing, and interchange of experience have 
proved fruitful themes of discussion and correspondence. 



AMERICAN SCHOOLS 357 

It would not bo surprising to see a genuine school system, 
somewhat closely knit together, emerge from these meetings 
and discussions, placing modern school facilities at the 
disposal of most foreign children in the Orient either by 
correspondence, or local, or residential schools. There is 
room for statesmanship here. 



PART VIII 
MEDICAL WORK 

CHAPTER LIX 

THE PUBLIC HEALTH MOVEMENT IN CHINA - J922-23 
John B 4 Grant 

Little markedly encouraging may be noted during the 
year 1922-23 regarding official health work in China; in 
that respect, the present state of national public health 
reflects merely the general disturbed condition of national 
and provincial governments. For public health, just like 
education, is dependent upon government. Previous 
years have seen the dying out of many pretentious 
attempts as a result of governmental chaos. 

Fortunately, in certain areas, industry, education and 
public health propaganda have quietly progressed through 
private initiative, especially in the most stable unit of the 
country the Christian constituency. 

The Central Epidemic Prevention Bureau 
Activities * n Pk m g nas increased markedly in 

efficiency, due chiefly to the reorganization 
effected by Dr. S. H. Ch uan. If left undisturbed by 
politicians, it is on the road to making medicine in China 
independent of Western countries for sera and vaccines. 
This will mean a great saving in money and in life for 
the country. 

The North Manchurian Plngue Prevention Service 
with head-quarters at Harbin, under the direction of Dr. 
Wu Lien Teh, has continued functioning as efficiently as 
in previous years. 

Public health was provided for in 

AcHvftte dctail in the dniwin g UP of theoretical 

government administration following the 

Revolution, In the intervening decade Kwangtung and 



OFFICIAL AND MISSION ACTIVITIES 35 ( J 

Slums! arc the only areas in which serious attempts have 
been made to set up the machinery to carry out these 
provisions. Circumstances have prevented the fulfilling of 
the early promise of efficient health administration in 
Kwangtung. Unintelligent direction has prevented any 
degree of efficiency in the health machinery in Shansi. 

The correlation of efforts hy the Kiangsu Provincial 
Bureau of Entomology, the Southeastern University 
and the Kiangsu Police Department, has resulted in an 
encouraging initiation of fly and mosquito control in 
Nanking. This work may prove of more than local 
importance. The cyanide method devised by Professor 
Woodworth for economic agricultural purposes is described 
in his publications. 

The movement to establish a National 
CWne?e Health Association, sponsored by the Council 

Activities O11 Health Education, in the fall of 1922, 

proved to have been premature. This was 
due to an absence of local organizations upon which a 
successful national movement must depend. Credit must 
be given to the sponsors for undertaking an experiment 
from which invaluable experience was obtained. Especial 
praise is due the fine spirit evidenced by the Executive 
Secretary, Dr. S. M. Woo. 

Several local health movements took place, but 
lack of space prevents giving details. 

It is extremely encouraging to note the 

Activities increasingly prominent place which is being 

accorded hygiene in all phases of mission work. 

The general and rather sporadic health work of the 
past ten years has awakened public opinion to the necessity 
of wider and more specific effort. The period under 
review is important because it has shown this increasing 
crystallization of general ideas into specific activities, and 
permits the prediction of lines which the public health 
movement will take in the coming two decades. 

Medical schools reflect the trend of events in the 
creation of departments of hygiene whose influence will be 
felt both through the graduate trained in preventive, as 



360 PUBLIC HEALTH MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

well ay curative, medicine, and through the experimental 
demonstrations of methods of hygiene application in 
China carried on as extra-mural activities. 

Mission hospitals also are reflecting the spirit of the 
times by evidences of the growing feeling that work limited 
to curative medicine is not as constructive a demonstration 
of modern medical science as would be the inclusion of 
disease prevention. As increasing number of medical 
missionaries are utilizing their furloughs to study hygiene. 
Several of these have returned to full time preventive 
medical work. 

Educators, especially after seeing the present scope of 
health conservation work in schools at home, are returning 
to China with the desire to secure better sanitation, health 
protection and health education for their students. 

Appreciation by mission administrators of the need 
to secure greater practice of preventive medicine is seen 
in the beginnings of systematized effort in the health 
protection of Christian workers. Home Boards are not 
only more careful in medical examinations of candidates 
before they sail but are insisting that this care be followed 
up adequately on the field. This attitude is in turn 
reflected in the steps being taken by the National Christian 
Council for health conservation of its constituency. 

Individual missionaries are undertaking health 
protection to a greater extent. The Killing health survey 
by Dr. Atwater resulted in the community voluntarily 
undertaking the sanitation of that resort to a degree not 
possible ten years ago. 

This growing appreciation of preventive medicine is 
being correlated and led by the Council on Health 
Education. Under the able direction of Dr. W. W. Peter, 
the Council has not waited for a public demand leading 
to the creation of a central organization, but has taken 
a leading part in creating the demand itself. Departments 
of (1) School Hygiene, (2) Child Health, (3) Community 
Hygiene, (4) Chinese Literature, have been created to 
handle more efficiently the diverse demands. 

The varied needs of as large a constituency as the 
Christian bodies in China cannot be met efficiently without 
a central organization with a large and full time staff 



HEALTH WORK NEEDED 861 

like the Council on Health Education. This is because the 
financial and professional requirements for the preparation 
and carrying out of health programs can be supplied 
best through one central body. No single locality or 
organization, not entirely of a health nature, can afford 
to maintain the services necessary to publish literature, 
undertake publicity work or experimental demonstrations 
that are being carried on by the Council on Health 
Education. There is also the necessity for a clearing 
house where specially trained workers can aid local 
communities by bringing them the experience and 
judgment only obtainable through acquaintance with 
activities elsewhere. 

The realization of the value and necessity of the 
Council on Health Education has been illustrated strikingly 
during the past year in several ways; 

a. Five mission boards, despite debits at home and 
consequent curtailment of important field activities, have 
considered it worthwhile to renew their financial grants. 
One other mission board has for the first time given 
support to the Council. 

b. The Women s Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the United Brethren 
Missionary Society, have joined the Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. 
C. A. in allocating full time foreign medical workers to the 
Council s staff. 

c. The China Medical Board has entrusted to the 
Council the preparation and execution of a five year 
program to stimulate interest in medicine as a career, 
at the same time contributing to the Council s general 
activities. 

Summar ^ no Public Health Movement in China 

during 1922-23 in government circles has 
reflected the general political chaos. Exceptions to this 
are seen in such new ventures as the Central Epidemic 
Prevention Bureau in Peking and local health work in 
Nanking. 

In mission circles progress has been satisfactory. 
Out standing advance of an increased health consciousness 
has been seen in those activities focussing themselves on 
specific undertakings. This concentration due to the 



362 PUBLIC HEALTH MOVEMENT IN CHINA 

worker in the field and the administrator at home was 
brought about hy numerous interrelating factors, (1) of 
increased health activities in Great Britain and the United 
States, and to such specific reasons as, (2) the work of 
the Council on Health Education and, (3) to the efforts 
of individuals, such as Dr. Lennox, in showing the necessity 
of health conservation. 

The immediate lines upon which efforts in hygiene 
have developed are: 

1. The establishment in medical schools of separate 
departments to train medical practitioners in hygiene and 
in the undertaking of experimental demonstrations of 
community public health. 

2. The provision for the beginnings of a specific 
program in mission education to train the future adult 
in the maintenance of health, the avoidance of disease and 
the development of a community health consciousness. 

3. The beginnings of more systematic methods of 
health conservation of Christian workers. 

4. The allotment by missions of full-time workers to 
health activities. 

5. The undertaking of specific preventive medical 
work by scattered medical missions. 



CHAPTER LX 

WORK OF THE PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 
Henry S. Houghton 

The Peking Union Medical College was established in 
1900 by a group of missionary societies, three of which 
were British organizations and three American. In 1916 
the China Medical Board, one of the subsidiary bodies 
of the Rockefeller Foundation, took over the land and 
buildings, and reorganized the College, assuming from 
that time the maintenance and new construction costs. 
A Premedical Department was organized, offering a three 
years course in languages and in biology, physics and 
chemistry; English was adopted as the medium of 
instruction. The erection of a new group of hospital 
and medical school buildings was begun in 1917, and 
completed in 1921. The organization of the medical 
department is now practically complete, and classes are 
under instruction in every year of the prescribed course. 

Organization ^ e s kaff nas oocn recruited partly from 
institutions in America, Great Britain and 
Europe, partly from among persons with experience in 
medical missionary work in China, and increasingly from 
well trained Chinese. The staff included in 1928 twenty- 
two premedical teachers, seventy-two teachers in the 
Medical School, thirty-two head and staff nurses, and 
thirty-one administrative and technical officers. There 
were in addition h vc visiting professors, thirty-two resident 
house oflicers, and sixty-four trained nurses. Of these 
one hundred twenty-four are foreigners, representing seven 
nationalities, and one hundred thirty-four are Chinese. 

Pro ram Tlhv primary objectives of the College 

include, in addition to premedical education, 

which is a temporary but important phase of the program: 



364 PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 

1. Medical education 

(a) Undergraduate courses 

(b) Training of investigators, teachers, and 
clinical specialists through prolonged grad 
uate courses and through practical work 
under guidance. 

(c) Brief intensive graduate courses, open to 
practitioners and missionary doctors, both 
foreign and Chinese. 

2. Medical research, especially with reference to 
problems of the Far East. 

3. The fostering of professional ethics through the 
development of character and ideals of service. 

E , . The College admits students of both sexes 

Work to tne Medical School and Premedical School; 

women only are admitted to the School of 
Nursing. The enrolment for the academic year 1923-24 
included sixty students in premedical courses and fifty- 
three in medical studies. Nineteen were registered in 
the School of Nursing. During the past year one hundred 
and fifty-three persons have been enrolled as graduate 
students, a few of whom have been admitted to regular 
undergraduate courses, and a larger number to special 
courses for graduates or to clinics for practical work in 
the various departments. 

Admission to the several educational departments of 
the college is by examination only. 

The course in medicine extends over four years, 
which must be supplemented by one year of special 
work in the laboratories or hospital before the degree is 
conferred. On the successful completion of these live 
years of medical studies, graduates receive the doctorate 
in medicine from the University of the State of New 
York, under which the College is chartered, and a special 
diploma from the Ministry of Education of the Chinese 
Government. 

Grad at Work Exceptional opportunities are available to 
those desiring to do graduate work in medicine 
or to undertake individual research. The China Medical 
Board provides a limited number of fellowships to 
physicians in China who desire to take advantage of these 



RELIGIONS woRiv 365 



opportunities, the sum allowed being sufficient to meet 
the cost of maintenance and tuition fees. During the 
past two or three years the College lias been fortunate in 
having as visiting professors a group of men eminent in 
special fields of medical science in other countries 
who have spent varying periods each year in Peking, 
cooperating in the work of teaching and research. During 
the current year the list includes Dr. W. P. Councilman, 
Shattuck Professor of Pathological Anatomy, Medical 
School of Harvard University, Dr. L. Emmett Holt, 
Clinical Professor of the Diseases of Children, College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, Dr. C. U. 
Ariens Kappers, Director of the Central Institute of Brain 
Research, of Amsterdam, Holland, Dr. Adelbert Fuchs, 
of Vienna, and Dr. W. W. Cort, of the School of Hygiene 
and Public Health of Johns Hopkins University. 

The principal extra-curricular activities of 
Religious and ,1^11 -i a 

Social Work tm; College are centered in a department or 

religious and social work, which exists to 
foster religious life and social interests. The work of the 
department follows two general principles; first, partici 
pation in all activities and exercises is purely voluntary; 
second, the program is planned to develop Christian 
faith and to train in service. The institution is entirely 
non-sectarian in its Christian character. 

The responsibilities of the department cover many 
varied lines of work, and bring it into contact with all 
phases of the college; program. Religious work among 
students includes an intimate advisory relation to the 
Student Christian Association, the conducting of Bible 
classes and of daily prayers in the dormitories, participation 
by student delegates in various summer inspirational and 
training conferences held in North China, and the 
maintenance of a college service of worship on Sundays. A 
Christian Association for nurses has also been established, 
and special Bible classes for this particular group and 
for technicians, conducted in the vernacular, are held 
regularly. 

Evangelistic work in the hospital and 
convalescent hostel is under the direct charge 
of the department, and a carefully selected 



366 PEKING UNION MEDICAL COLLEGE 

group of evangelists is assigned to bedside work and 
follow-up visitation among patients. This is closely 
correlated with the activities of the medical social service 
division, which is a part of the hospital administration. 
In the convalescent hostel, attention is directed also to 
other practical needs, such as manual work and instruction 
in phonetic script. 

The distribution of religious and educational literature 
is another important phase of the hospital evangelistic 
Work. Religious and secular tracts and periodicals, 
weeklies and dailies, are provided for ward patients and 
a small circulating library of 580 hooks is at the disposal 
of those who can read. 

, While the social and cultural activities of 

Associations tne student body are mainly in the hnnds 
of the students themselves, the department 
takes a large part in directing and assisting in a varied 
program. The Student Associations participate in the 
following : 

(1) The Peking Christian Student Union 

(2) The Boys Department of the Y. M. C. A. in 
making physical examinations 

(3) The Students Rural Evangelistic, Band 

(4) Night School for college employees 

(5) Summer Schools for poor children 

In addition to the direction and guidance exercised 
in connection with the foregoing, the department maintains 
other educational and recreational features, such as weekly 
motion picture entertainments, a college lecture course, 
week-end outings for students, a student self-help bureau, 
and until recently, physical training for men and women 
now cared for in other divisions. Social rooms for students 
are set apart in a building specially designed for this 
use, which contains also a specious auditorium, committee 
rooms, a small assembly hall, and other features adapted 
to social and community purposes. 



CHAPTER LXI 

PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS 
IN MISSION SCHOOLS 

S. M. Woo 

Writing on a subject like this presup- 
orm , w 
Method 



No Uniform ^ (} ^ ft know ] (U ] KO gained from a series of 



carefully standardized physical examinations 
of the students of at least a few representative mission 
schools in every province of China. As far as I know 
such knowledge remains to be gained, simply because a 
vast majority of mission schools have not attempted any 
physical examination of their students; and among those 
mission schools that have conducted physical examinations 
of their students, very few did really complete and careful 
work. Moreover, there is no uniformity of method, so that 
the scanty data that are available are not strictly comparable 
with one another. For example, in a table prepared by a 
certain missionary doctor we have the following statistics. 

School* I) border* of Heart Diseases of Lunyx 

Shanghai College 20.4 c /( 20.4 % 

Canton Christian College 13.0 c /c .3 % 

Yale in China .8 % 4.1 % 

It is extremely doubtful that heart disorders in 
Shanghai College were 25 times as prevalent as in Yale in 
China ; and that the lung diseases were 68 times as prevalent 
there as in Canton Christian College. In view of the above 
considerations it must be admitted that the time is scarcely 
ripe for the writing of this paper. But on the other hand, 
the time is ripe for mission schools and hospitals to make 
a start to find out more about the physical conditions of the 
students in their respective missions. 

This paper is based largely on the findings 

Studied of the P hvsical examinations of 3200 students 

in mission schools in Soocbow and Hangchow, 

recently conducted (Oct. and Nov., 1923) by the Council 



368 PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS 

on Health Education in cooperation with the Christiri.ii 
Educational Associations of those cities. No conclusion 
must be drawn regarding the physical condition of students 
in mission schools elsewhere. 

Let us now examine the students physical 

Physkcil Condition as revealed l>y (1) personal history; 

Conditions . ,. /.>\ 

( 2) physical examination; (3) microscopic 

findings; and (4) athletic records. 

1. The physical condition of mission school students 
as revealed by personal histories. The analysis of 2030 
histories of Soochow mission school students showed that 
28 % of the students had had malaria; 21.3% dysentry; 
16.% ascaris; 13.5% typhoid fever; 6.5% diphtheria; 6.10% 
smallpox; 3.2% spitting of blood; 8.10% scarlet fever; 
12.9% of the students had never been vaccinated; 8.4% of 
the students used the old fashioned smallpox inocculation ; 
only 5.6% of them knew how to swim. 



2. The physical conditions of students in mission 

chools as revealed by physical examination. This may 

gain be discussed under the following headings; (a) 

height and weight, the most important indices of nutrition 

and growth; (b) lung expansion ; (c) percentage of various 

defects. 

a. Height and weight. The following tables were 
specially prepared to give some idea as to how the 
average heights and weights of Chinese students compare; 
with the heights and weights of American students of 
the same age. The average heights and weights of the 
American boys and girls were taken from Wood s Height- 
weight table. The data for Chinese boys were taken from 
a table prepared by Prof. Nash of Soochow University, who 
took careful measurement of about 3,000 boys from Chekiang 
and Kiangsu. The data for the heights and weights of 
Chinese girls were taken from our Soochow series. In 
order to make allowance for the inaccuracy in Chinese 
ages, one year is taken out from all Chinese ages given. 
For example, Chinese children of six years-Chinese age-are 
compared with American children of five years, western 
age 3 etc. 



HEIGHT AND WEIGHT 



861) 



Table showing the average heights and 



Height and weights of American and Chinese boys of the 
Weight-Boys 


sr 


mm; a&u , 






Average Height 


Average Weight 


Afje Chinese 


A merican Differ enc< 


, Chinese American Difference 


11 51. 7 in. 


55.5 in. 3.8 in. 


58.9 Ibs. 77 Ibs. 18.1 Ibs. 


12 55.9 ,, 


58 2.1 


64.9 ,, 83 ,, 18.1 ,, 


13 57.5 


61 3.5 ,, 


76.1 ,, 99 ,, 22.9 ,, 


14 59.8 


63 ,, 3.2 ,, 


84.9 ,, 117 ,, 32.1 


15 59.5 


64.5 ,, 5 


90.9 130 39.1 


16 61.5 


65 ,, .5 


91.1 ,, 135 ,, 43.9 


17 61.2 


65.5,, 1.3 


103.4 136 ,, 32.6 


18 64.6 ,, 


66 ,, 1.4 


107.4 ,, 141 33.6 


Average difference 2.6 inches. 


Average difference 30 Ibs. 


Table showing 
Height and j }fc of Chinese 

Weight-Girls 

same atre. . 


the average height and 
and American girls of the 




Average Height 


Average Weight 


Aye. Chinese 


American Difference 


Chinese American Difference 


5 40.8 in. 


42.5 in. 1.7 in. 


35.8 Ibs. 41 Ibs. 5.2 Ibs. 


6 42.5 


44 1.5 


37.7 ,, 45 7.3 ,, 


7 44 


45.5 1.5 


41.2 ,, 48 ,, 6.8 ,, 


8 46.2 


48 1.7 


45.9 53 7.1 ,, 


9 48.2 


50.5 2.2 ,, 


48.7 59.5,, 19.8 ,, 


10 48.2 ,, 


53 ,, 4.7 


53 68 15 ,, 


11 52.3 


55.5 3.2 


60.4 76 15.5 ,, 


12 54.1 


58 3.8 


61.5 87 ,, 25.4 ,, 


13 57.3 


61 3.7 


76.9 102 25.1 ,, 


14 58 


63 5 


81.5 ,, 113 ,, 31.5 


15 60.2 


64,5 4.3 


94.3 ,, 120.5 25.7 


16 58.8 


65 6.2 


93.2 ,, 123 ,, 29.8 


17 59.6 


95.5 5.9 


97.5 ,, 125.5 27.5 , , 


18 59.4 


66 ,, 6.6 


105 ,, 128 ,, 22.5 ,, 


Average differ< 


>nco 3.7 inches. 


Average .difference 18.2 Ibs. 



It will be seen from the above tables that Chinese boys 
in mission schools between 11 and 18 years of age are on 
the average 2.6 inches shorter and 30 pounds lighter than 
American boys of the same age. Similarly Chinese girls 
of mission schools, between 5 and 18 years of age, are on the 
average 3.7 inches shorter and 18.2 pounds lighter than 
American girls of the same age. 



370 



PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS 



(b) Analysis of a part of oar Hangohow 
records shows the following result. 
Age Average lung expansion 

7-9 1.5 inches 

10-13 2.1 ,, 

14-17 2.1 ,, 

were constantly struck by the fact that ninny 
students did not understand how to take a deep breath. 
The average expansion should be about 2 inches for the 
first group, 2.5 inches for the second group, and 3 inches 
for the third group. 
Perceuta es c * ^ ^ e P ercen tflge of the various defects 

may be shown by the following tables , 
Results of school medical examination, Hangchow, 
October, 1923. Total number of students examined. 1181. 
Total number of schools 22, including 1 kindergarten, 11) 
primary schools, 2 middle schools. 

Primary School* 
Number Percentage 



Lung 
Expansion 



We 



Middle Schools 
Number Percentage 



Name of defect 

Teeth ... 430 47.8 50 

Vision ... 322 30. t 123 

Skin 313 34.3 

Trachoma 285 31.0 S5 

Posture 282 31.3 23 

Glands 248 27.5 4 

Nutrition... 241 20.8 

Color 239 20.5 (> 

Nose 230 20.2 9 

Tonsils 217 24.1 53 

Spine ... 114 12.0 13 

Feet 85 9.4 40 

Ears 08 7.5 

Lungs 59 0.5 38 

Heart 15 1.0 24 

Total number of students 
schools 900, in middle schools 284. 

Results Results of school medical examination, 

Soochow, December, 1923. 

Total number of students examined 1980. Total 
number of schools 30, including 2 Kindergartens, 17 primary 
schools, 11 middle schools. i 



in 



19.7 
43,0 

30.2 

8.1 

1.4 

2 

2 

3 
18.7 

4.5 
10.1 

13.3 

8.5 
primary 



DEFECT* 



371 



Name of Defect 


Number 


Percentages 


1. Dirty Teeth 


... 1655 


83.3 


2. Round shoulders ... 


945 


47.7 


3. Pale Complexion... 


... 696 


35 


4. Decayed teeth 


... 587 


29.5 


5. Dirty skin ... 


582 


29.3 


6. Vision 


478 


28.2 


7. Enlarged glands ... 


... 516 


25.9 


8. Enlarged tonsils ... 


475 


23.9 


y. Flat Chest 


... 421 


21.2 


10, Poor nutrition 


363 


18.2 


1 1. Nose discharge 


... 313 


15.9 


12. Flat feet 


... 277 


13.9 


13. Deformed toes 


... 197 


9.9 


11. Trachoma marked 


196 


5.8 


15. Trachoma suspicious 


... 194 


9.7 


16. Pyorrhea 


l!):i 


9.7 


17. Scoliosis 


123 


6.1 


18. Stooped posture ... 


77 


3.8 


19. Anemia 


64 


3.2 


20. Row leg 


57 


2.8 


21. Rales in lungs 


57 


2.8 


22. Hunch back ( Kyphosis) 


55 


2.7 


23. Hernia 


41 


2 


24. Techycardia 


39 


1.9 


25. Scabies 


38 


1.9 


2(>. Pigeon breast 


35 


1.7 


27. Discharging ear ... 


31 


1.5 


28. Tinea of scalp 


29 


1.4 


29. Heart murmur 


28 


1.4 


30. T. R., suspected 


26 


1.3 


31. Bronchitis 


24 


1.2 


32. Lordosis 


21 


1.05 


33. Barrel chest 


14 


.7 


34. Obstruction of nose 


13 


.6 


35. Round feet... 


13 


.6 


36. Lameness ... 


9 


.4 


37. Infected tonsil 


6 


.3 


38. Saddle nose 


5 


.25 


31). (Joitre 


5 


.25 


40. Wry neck 


4 


.2 



372 PHYSICAL CONDITION OF STUDENTS 

41. Irregular heart beat ... 4 .2 

42. All other defects 80 4.0 

P j ts A comparative study of the defects of 

students in middle and primary schools, 
both of the same missions, show the following interesting 
results , 

Percentage of Defects 
In middle schools In primary schools 
Defects of Nutrition... 9.9 40.7 

Color ... 11.6 39.8 

Posture ... 45.6 68 

,, Spine ... 11.1 15.9 

,, Nose ... 4.6 27 

,, Ears ... 2.1 4.1 

Teeth ... 139.1 141.2 

,, Tonsils ... 16.9 21.2 

,, Skin ... 19.4 33.7 

,, Glands ... 10.5 46.2 

Trachoma.. 5.7 18.3 

.The ratio of defects is reversed in regard to extremities 
heart, lungs, vision, and hernia, as may be seen in the 
following table , 



Defects of m id,lle chool> tlwlent* , 

school students 

Extremities ... 28.7 19.9 

Vision 35.6 20.9 

Hearts 5.5 .8 

Lungs 5.6 2.6 

Hernia 3.6 2.0 

3 The Physical condition of students as revealed by 
microscopic findings: 

Careful microscopic examination of 654 specimens of 
stools of college and middle school students by the 
Rockefeller Hookworm Commission shows infection by 
intestinal parasites in the following percentages ; college- 
seniors 36%; juniors 48%; sophomores 49%; freshmen 
52% ; middle school students 65%. 

4. The physical condition of students in mission 
schools a revealed by their athletic records. It scarcely 
requires any data to show that the students of mission 
schools have made tremendous progress in their athletic 



GENERAL NEEDS 373 

ability within the last twenty years. About 18 years ago 
I saw a college man receive the most enthusiastic applause 
for putting the twelve; pound shot a distance of 27 feet. 
To-day the record of the same college is 40 feet for 
shotput, and any man who cannot do 35 feet would 
hesitate to enter the contest. Eighteen years ago I saw a 
man who ran 880 yards in 3 minutes 10 seconds hailed as 
a hero. To-day such a slow coach would not dare enter 
the half mile race. 

Summar ^ realize tnat our knowledge of the physical 

condition of students in mission schools is 
extremely limited. The personal histories of students 
reveal that they have suffered unduly from preventable 
diseases, particularly malaria, dysentery, typhoid fever, 
and smallpox. 

Physical examinations shows that Chinese boys in 
mission schools are 2.6 inches shorter and 30 pounds 
lighter than American children of the same age ! Chinese 
girls 3.7 inches and 18.2 pounds inferior to American girls 
of the same age. 

The lung expansion of mission school students is 
decidedly deficient, averaging about 30% below normal 
expansion. 

The percentages of various physical defects are high. 
In our soochow series each student averaged 4.5 defects. 
J)efectivc teeth, poor vision, dirty skin, faulty posture, 
trachoma are among the most common defects. 

Microscopic examination of stools shows high inci 
dence of worms infection. 

A comparative study of middle and primary schools 
in regard to frequency of physical defects and intestinal 
infections seems to show that mission schools, particularly 
boarding schools, are exerting a salutary effect on the 
health of students. Very much more, however, may be 
accomplished, if the mission school authorities will only 
introduce a modern educational hygiene program. 



CHAPTER LXII 

INTERDENOMINATIONAL AND NATIONAL SERVICE 
OF THE CHINA MEDICAL MISSIONARY ASSOCIATION 

James L. Maxwell 

INTERDENOMINATIONAL SERVICE 

Association holds biennial conferences 



Conferences 

of all the members that can be gathered at 

one time and place. At these such questions as medical 
evangelism, the place of the physician in the spiritual 
work of the hospital, the following up of patients after 
leaving the hospital and kindred subjects are discussed 
and much mutual help in the missionary side of hospital 
work is thus obtained. Nor is the scientific side of 
the work in any way neglected. The Association has 
always stood for the principle that anything less than the 
best in the professional work of the hospitals is dishonor 
ing to the Master in Whose name we undertake this work. 
It seeks in these Conferences to give to the doctor working 
alone and amid many disadvantages the opportunity of 
learning and discussing the best and newest methods of 
treatment. It gives him an insight into the parasitic 
diseases, so common in China, as to their modes of infection 
and methods of treatment. Above all it makes the solitary 
doctor feel that he is one unit of a whole and not a mere 
individual fighting against seemingly overwhelming odds. 
D The great bulk of medical education, 

worth calling such, is in the hands of medical 
missionaries. This work began with the attempt to provide 
Chinese physicians for our mission hospitals. It was 
nurtured in the bosom of the Association and is regulated 
to a large extent by the Association s Council on Medical 
Education. Not only is this work interdenominational in 
supplying Chinese physicians to ail Boards alike, but 
practically all the schools are union institutions and are 
examples of what union work should be. 



NURSES AND HOSPITALS 375 

N Hospitals can no more do without nurses 

than they can do without doctors, and the 
China Medical Missionary Association has for many years 
pled that the Church at home take full cognisance of 
this. But foreign nurses are not enough. As China 
requires a medical profession so she also needs a nursing 
profession. To meet this, and directly from the Associa 
tion s work, there sprang into being the Nurses Association 
of China, now a separate hut very closely allied organiza 
tion doing splendid work in training Chinese nurses. 

The latest work of the Association, and only 
TTfa 1 <a fans n w being organized, is an attempt to meet the 

needs of medical missions of all denominations 
with a supply of trained men for special departments of 
hospital work. The impossibility of getting fully trained 
doctors, for mission hospitals in sullicient numbers, either 
foreign or Chinese, is becoming painfully apparent and 
something must be done to help the physicians working 
alone. Our proposal is to train intelligent young men and 
women by a comparatively short intensive course in one 
special branch, in which they may become proficient and 
then return to help the hospital doctor along that special 
line . . . Such special training will be in bacteriology, 
X-ray work, anaesthetics, pharmacy, hospital manage 
ment, etc. 

The Journal is circulated to members 
Medical* 11 anc ^ sunscr i ers as the organ of the Association. 
Journal ^ helps to keep the men and women of all 

denominations in touch with the progress of 
science as it affects their special work. 

Denominationalism gets but short shrift 
Chrhtian among the members of our profession. When 

Unity union does come, as come it must, it will be 

on the basis of such practical work as the 
members of the Association are engaged in. The collective 
work of the Association in part, at least, supplies this basis 
already. 

NATIONAL SERVICE 
Public Health Perhaps the most striking single example 

of the national service that the Association 
has rendered is to be found in the checking, in cooperation 



376 INTERDENOMINATIONAL AND NATIONAL 3EHVICE 

with the Manchurian Plague Prevention Service, of the first 
epidemic of Pneumonic Plague in 1910. Fifty thousand 
persons lost their lives in this epidemic, but, large as 
this figure seems, it would have been trifling to the losses 
incurred if the epidemic, not checked in the North, had 
swept over the rest of China as in former days it doubtless 
would have done. 

Less dramatic but none the less useful has been the 
steady work of the Association along public health lines, 
first through its own Committee and now mainly by the 
Council on Health Education, of which the Association is 
a constituent part. 

It gives instruction to the people how to preserve 
their health and how to guard against epidemics by 
vaccination. It founds health centres for instruction in 
sanitation and other matters. It seeks to reach the 
mother with that training that will ensure to the coming 
generation a truer and cleaner outlook on life. It goes after 
the boys and girls in the schools to remedy their physical 
defects and place them in more hygenic surroundings and 
it is striving to find the best way of bringing health 
conservation to the Christian workers of all Churches and 
denominations. 

To the Association China owes the fact 
lotm >logy that it hag a scienfcific me( ii c al terminology. 

Publication In the early days the whole of this work was 
done by one of our Committee, and in the 
final phase of an officially recognized terminology our 
Association has played a large part. So also with the 
publication of the medical books that form the basis of 
western medical science in China. The large bulk of 
these have been produced by members of the Association 
and published by its Committee. 

F , T The beginnings of Western education in 

of M/dica7 ei medicine was entirely in the hands of the 
Schools medical missionaries and was carried on 

mainly by the apprenticeship style of training. 
The result was to produce a certain number of very 
capable Chinese doctors, but in the bulk such training was, 
and always must be, eminently unsatisfactory. The natural 
advance was along the lines of providing schools where 



ETHICAL STANDARDS 377 

more thorough teaching could bo given. A few small and 
poorly equipped schools began to spring up in different 
parts of the country, but as to staff and finance the weight 
was too heavy for any one body to carry. Union was 
already in the air and by union schemes a few strong 
colleges have already been established, notably the Peking 
Union Medical College. 

Our national service in medical education has 
been very freely acknowledged. The control of Medical 
Standards in these union institutions is now largely 
vested in the Association s Council on Medical Education. 
Curricula for approved" schools have been drawn up 
and may largely be accepted by Government Colleges as 
well as our own. 

. . It is widely known that the ethical standards 

Standards ^ ^ 10 untrained medical profession in China 

are painfully low, practically non-existent. 
The influence of the China Medical Missionary Association 
is being used to its full extent to establish high standards 
and a Committee of the Association is working on this 
subject nt the present time. 
Research Work China, with its wide area of country and 

its striking variations of climate, is the home 
of a multitude of pathological conditions, a few unique 
and many obscure. To elucidate the problems that these 
diseases bring a Committee of the Association has been 
working for many years, determining the distribution and 
nature of the pathological conditions and investigating the 
physiological standards of the Chinese, a knowledge of 
which must of necessity be a prime factor in all public 
health work and preventive medicine. 



CHAPTER LXIII 

NURSES WORK IN CHINA 
Cora E, Simpson 

Q . . Nurses work has come to China quietly. 

No flourish of trumpets announced the arrival 
of Miss Elizabeth McKechnie (Mrs. C. H. Thomson) in 
1881, as the first nurse to take up work at Margaret 
Williamson Hospital, West Gate, Shanghai, China. Few 
knew of the home coming of Miss Elsie Mowfung Chung 
(Mrs. Bayard Lyon) as the first Chinese nurse trained 
abroad (Guy s Hospital, London) and returned to her 
native land. Many people knew of the massacre of 
Dr. Eleanor Chestnut of Lien chow, Kwangtung, but few 
knew that she was also a graduate of the Illinois Training 
School for Nurses and had almost completed at the time of 
her death, the translation of the first text book on Nursing 
to be translated into the Chinese language, " Principles and 
Practice of Nursing", by Isabelle Hampton Robbs. The 
translation was later completed by Dr. Bliss Boggs and was 
for many years the standard text book of the Nurses 
Association of China. 
Founder ^ r< P^^P Cousland the Physician, 

missionary, translator and writer was the 
" Father of the N. A. C." and its great friend and advisor. 

The Nurses Association was born in 1909, 
Date of Birth . .. 

but little was accomplished until a meeting 

was called on Ruling in 1912, when representatives from 
different parts of China were present and broad plans for 
the future were mapped out for registration of schools, a 
uniform curriculum, national examinations and a national 
diploma. 

Perhaps the first the public knew of the N. A. C. was 
when the first National Convention was held in Shanghai in 
1914. At this Conference Miss Chung recommended the 
word for "nurse" (fi ) which was adopted by the 



CONVENTIONS AND CURRICULA 379 

Association and has since passed into the Chinese language. 
Little attention was attracted in 1915 when the N. A. C. 
gave its first national examinations and issued the first 
diplomas to successful candidates two boys and one girl. 

In 1920 Mrs. Plearn undertook to launch 

Launched tne " Q uarter1 ^ Journal for Chinese Nurses . 

For three years Mrs. Hearn carried the 

Journal and won for it a place among the nurses journals 

of the world. 

The Nurses National Convention was held 

National Hankow in January 1922. The nurses felt 

Convention ,. ,, . 

that the time had come when a lull time 

secretary was needed to care for the interests of the 
Association. The American Methodists granted the request 
and released one of their nurses for the position; other 
missions contributed toward the expense of this forward 
move. 

1922 was the year destined to bring the N. A. C. into 
the International limelight, for on May 22, of that year, the 
Nurses Association of China was admitted to full member 
ship in the International Council of Nurses with every 
privilege accorded to any other nation this is the greatest 
honor and highest privilege that can ever be accorded to 
any nation in nursing. 

The Association has a standard, uniform, 
Curriculum and natl ()na i cmT iculum and system of ex- 
Examination . . , . . 
System animations, issues diplomas to successful 
candidates, and receives its own graduates 
into full membership. There are now more than eighty 
registered schools of nursing located at different places in 
China. More than half of the schools are co-educational. 
About half use Mandarin and half the other dialects of 
China. Co-education has been successfully carried on by 
the N. A. C. for years. If young people can study nursing 
books together they ought to be able to study together any 
other subjects given in common schools. In 1915 three 
nurses were graduated: this year there were more than 
one hundred and sixty. This year also the N. A. C. became 
a member of the Council on Health Education for China. 



880 NimsEs WOKK IN CHINA 



Florence Nightingale s birthday, May 12tli, 

Noises Da has - been ad P te(1 as National "Hospital 

Day " and this Day will be appropriately 

observed in all our Hospitals and Schools of Nursing. The 



colors are " red and gold : the emblem is the " bamboo ". 

Books A fine list of books has been translated. 

This year also all the schools of nursing have 
been re-registered and are being standardized. 

A Committee on Nursing Education has 
Nursing , . , , 

Education charge of all matters pertaining to the schools 

of nursing in the Association. The National 
Conference was held in Canton at the Kung Yee Medical 
College Jan. 31 to Feb. 6, 1924. Our nurses are in 
demand all over China and elsewhere. Some have taken 
up special lines of work such as anaesthetics, laboratory 
work, X-ray, baby welfare, social service and industrial 
nursing. In speaking of the marvelous growth of nurses 
work in China during the past ten years Miss Anna Jam me, 
a former President of the American Nurses Association 
said, " It is a record unsurpassed in the history of nursing 
in any country in the world." 



Support have the loyalty and cooperation 

of some of the great men of China. General 
Feng wants only N. A. C. nurses for his army. Dr. 
Wu Ting Fang, at his own request, was tenderly cared for 
by our nurses at the Kung Yee Hospital Canton until he 
died. After he was nursed through a serious illness by 
Mrs. Chung Lyon, President Yuan Shi Kai was always the 
friend of the nurses. The Governor of Kwangtung paid the 
expenses of six of his nurses to attend the Conference held 
in Hankow in 1922. The Peking officials placed a special 
car at the services of the nurses for the same Conference. 
The Governor and his whole cabinet and staff attended the 
Conference and spoke of his appreciation of the nurses 
work in his province. 

One Governor said to a graduating class of nurses 

When the nurses come they bring a religion we can all 

understand ". The Master said, " He that would be great 



TN CTTTNA 381 

among you is the servnnt of all." Truly no Creator privilege 
has been given to mortals since the days when the Master 
trod the earth than has been given to the nurses of China 
to-day. They, like their Master, come " not to be 
ministered unto but to minister " and to (/ire their lives. 



CHAPTER LXIV 
THE AMERICAN RED CROSS IN CHINA 

China Central Committee, 4 Quinsan 
Red Cr?s C s Gardens, Shanghai. Telephone N. 488; Cable 

Address Amredcross. 

Committee: The Honorable Jacob Gould Schnrman, 
Honorary Chairman. 

Judge C. S. Lobingier, Field Representative. 

Major Arthur Bassett, Chairman. 

Dr. J. C. McCracken, Vice-Chairman. 

Dr. \V. W. Peter, Honorary Secretary. 

Mr. P. P. Whitham, Honorary Treasurer. 

Dr. J. B. Foarn. 

Mr. Carl Crow. 

Mr. Julean Arnold. 

Mr. J. Harold Dollar. 

Mrs. Lansing Hoyt. 

Miss Luella DeLamarter, Secretary. 

This committee acts first as a centrali/ing organ for 
the chapters of the American lied Cross in China, which 
are located at Peking, Tientsin, Hankow, Chungking, 
Foochow, Canton, Amoy, Changsha, Hangchow, Nanking, 
Swatow, Tsinanfu, and Harbin. Its second function is to 
do the local work of a Shanghai chapter, which is not at 
present in existence. While the principal thought of 
National Headquarters in maintaining a China Central 
Committee is that the American Red Cross in China shall 
cooperate with the Chinese Red Cross until it is established 
on a firm foundation, there is much local work to bo done 
among foreigners, for which a permanent organization 
will undoubtedly be maintained indefinitely. Shanghai 
membership in the American Red Cross has grown from 
85 in 1919 to 958 (Roll Call, November, 1923). 

Besides the routine work, which consists principally 
of administering local relief to destitute Americans 
(financed by the American Community through the 



REFUGEES AND CAPTIVES 383 

American Association), the China Central Committee lias 
afforded relief during the past year and a half in the 
following ways: 

The China Central Committee assisted 179 
Re?ief kan Russian residents of Shanghai to send food 

Administration tln( l clothing to destitute relatives in Russia 
through the American Relief Administration 
in New York. The total amount of money sent by the 
China Central Committee was U.S. 89,826.86. 

On August 8th, 1922, the China Central 
Committee sent Doctor and Mrs. M. O. Pfister 
to Swatow for relief work. Altogether a 
total of Mex. 812,015.55 was made available by the China 
Central Committee and the China Chapters for Swatow 
relief work. 

The American Red Cross, through the 
Russian China Central Committee, has spent G. $30,000 

Refugee Relief 

on the relief of Russian refugees in China. 
The greater part of this relief has been carried on in 
Manchuria under the direction of Mr. W. Morgan Palmer, 
formerly of the Salt Gabelle in Manchuria; but nearly 
M. $7,000 was allocated to use in Shanghai and was spent 
on the maintenance of a soup kitchen in the Hongkew 
district and on medical relief at the Shanghai General 
Hospital. 

On hearing of the capture of foreigners by 
OpHves at Chinese bandits at Lincheng on May 6, 1923, 
Linchsng ^ r - Carl Crow, as the representative of the 

China Central Committee, went to Lincheng 
to take relief to the foreigners. He supplied the captives 
with medicine, food, clothing, beds, and other provisions 
asked for. The China Central Committee was authorized 
by Washington headquarters to expend up to U.S. $2,000 
on this relief work, but the delicit which the Red Cross 
eventually met was M. $2,813.65. 
Japan Relief ^ n September 8th, 1923, in response to an 

appeal from the American Consul in Kobe 
the China Central Committee sent a unit of four doctors, 
eleven nurses and one orderly to Kobe. This unit was 
under the direction of Dr. M. J*. Miller of Philadelphia, 
and was accompanied by Dr. W. W. Peter of the China 



384 AMERICAN KED CROSS IN CHINA 

Central Committee. The unit established itself in the 
Oriental Hotel, Kobe, and gave medical care to the 330 
foreign refugees who needed it when they arrived in Kobe 
from Yokohama and Tokyo. The China Central Committee 
also assisted in, making a survey of provisions that could be 
purchased in Shanghai and in shipping them to Japan. 
Contributions for Japan relief from all the China Chapters 
of the American Red Cross were received by the Committee 
and forwarded to Washington. Altogether the American 
National Red Cross spent over ten and a half million gold 
dollars on Japan relief. Large purchases of rice, flour, 
lumber, corrugated iron, medical and hospital supplies, 
disinfectants, clothing, underclothing, socks and simple 
necessities were made in the United States and shipped 
to Japan. 

On November 20th, 21st and 22nd, 1923, 
Annual the Scventh Annual Roll Call was made in 

Roll Call Shanghai under the direction of Mrs. Gardner 

Crane. Mrs. Crane enlisted the services of a 
number of members of the American Woman s Club, and 
the drive resulted in an enrollment of 958 members, as 
against 85 in 1919, 81 in 1920, 479 in 1921, and 583 
in 1922. 

Simultaneously with the Seventh Annual Roll Call 
Junior Red Cross membership was inaugurated in the 
Shanghai American School, a hundred percent enrollment 
being made. 

r- M* T? n f The daily routine work of the China 
Civilian Keliei _ . . f , , 

Central Committee consists largely or the 

administration of civilian relief which, since July 27th, 
1922, has been financed almost wholly by the Shanghai 
American Association. All American seamen or other 
persons recommended to the Committee by the American 
Consulate are helped without further investigation. Other 
cases are investigated and passed on by the Committee. 
The largest expenditures are those for sending destitute 
Americans bank to the United States. Relief is not 
afforded exclusively to Americans, however, and the oflice 
of the China Central Committee daily has visitors of many 
nationalities applying for various kinds of assistance, 
chiefly clothing. 



CHAPTER LXV 

KULING MEDICAL MISSION 

Calvin E. Buswell 

The Killing Medical Mission is unique in many 
respects. It includes four departments: Educational, 
Evangelistic, Welfare, and Medical. 

TJ, Following the opening of Killing to foreign 

residents in 1896, a small mission work was 
started to care for the physical and spiritual needs of the 
Chinese community which rapidly built np just outside 
the entrance to the Killing Estate. 

In 1902 the Killing Medical Mission was organized 
for the purpose of caring for the sick, and of conducting 
regular evangelistic work among the thousands of Chinese 
who went there to administer to the various needs of the 
foreign community. The work at (irst was carried on in 
rented premises and with very scanty equipment. It was 
not until 1^04 that there was a foreign physician in 
permanent residence on Killing. 

Together with the growth of the foreign settlement, 
the Medical Mission grew and prospered, and in 1909 
land was purchased on which three years later a building 
was erected with accommodations for a chapel, a dispensary, 
and for about twenty men patients. At that time a day 
school was conducted in a building opposite the hospital, 
which also had been purchased by the Medical Mission. 
Almost the entire cost of this development was covered by 
subscriptions on Killing. 

A few years later another piece of property was 
secured for a Women s Hospital, and in 1920 a building 
was erected on this site as a memorial to the late (Mrs.) 
Leila Berkin, M.D. who personally planned and carried 
on the work for the iirst ten years of the Killing Medical 
Mission. 



386 KULINU MEDIOAL 

Since the coming of Dr. and Mrs. Venable in ID 1 ( J 
the work of the hospital has grown until it has exceded 
all expectations. New property has recently heen purchased 
for men patients, and as this is now full to overflowing there 
is still need of more accommodation. 

The Killing Medical Mission is under the 

Orpaniration , , r . . , 

control oi a Hoard ot managers appointed 

jointly hy the Killing Estate Council, the Killing Union 
Church, and the Killing Medical Missionary Association. 

c The Killing churches devote one Sunday 

each year to the subject of Medical Missions, 
and the collections taken on that day go to the support 
of the Kuling Medical Mission. The salary of Dr. and 
Mrs. Venable is paid hy the American Presbyterian 
Mission, South, and the salary of Dr. and Mrs. IhisweU 
is paid by the American Presbyterian Mission, North. 
Several other missions contribute smaller amounts, and 
contributions are received from individuals from time 
to time. 

r, , A Christian primary day school is conducted 

education . , , . , . 

on premises owned by the Medical Mission, 

and has an attendance of between seventy and eighty 
pupils throughout the winter. 

Evan elism r l hu Chinese ( hurch holds regular Sunday 

and week day services in the hospital chapel 
throughout the year. A Sunday School has recently been 
organized, and is well attended. Itinerating trips are 
undertaken from time to time, when visits are made in 
some of the villages in the; foot hills. 

A Coolie Shelter is conducted under the 
auspices of the Kuling Medical Mission, 
which furnishes sleeping accommodations free of charge to 
many poor Chinese who come to Kuling for work or 
other reasons. 

Medical , A dispensary is open every day except 

Sundays throughout the entire year, and a 
small pharmacy is also open daily for the sale of medicines. 
A limited number of beds are reserved in the old hospital 
building for the care of non-tuberculous patients. 



KULrXC! IIKALTIf RKSOKT 387 

The great majority of those treated in the hospital 
are tuberculous patients. Kor these it is ;iime<l to ac 
complish three things:^ 

First, to use all of tin available means to assist the 
patients in recovering their health. 

Second, to instruct the patients in the proper care of 
their health so that after leaving the hospital they may 
be ahle intelligently to carry on their work and at the 
same time to conserve, their strength and thus avoid a 
recurrence of the disease. 

Third, to surround all of the patients with a definitely 
Christian atmosphere, that those who are not Christians 
may come to know and accept Christ, and that those who 
are Christians may grow in their spiritual lives while they 
are recovering their health. 

Killing is becoming more and more recognized as a 
health resort, particularly for the treatment of tuberculosis, 
as is shown by the fact that last year patients came to the 
Killing Medical Mission from fourteen provinces of China. 

The patients who come to the Tuberculosis Sanitarium 
are almost without exception educated men and women, 
and about two thirds of them are Christians. Many of 
them are valued and highly trained Christian workers 
who have broken down with tuberculosis and who after 
spending from six months to a year or more on Killing, 
are able to return to their work. 



PART IX 
SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

CHAPTER LXVI 

PRESENT INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITY 

BEFORE THE CHURCH 

Wei Tsung Zung 

It is no longer to be doubted whether or not modern 
industrialism has come to China for it is here. It is an 
imported innovation, but unlike an imported institution it 
is not marked by its twentieth century freshness and 
characteristics. Instead it assumes the unwelcome form 
recognizable only by eighteenth century witnesses. Modern 
industry in its present state cannot very well fulfill its 
purpose, it cannot to any appreciable extent render its 
service to society, in fact, because of its existence, society 
has more problems to face than ever before. 

But the problems in this connection are not insurmount 
able. Although industrially China has made a bad begin 
ning, still she is in the advantageous position of being able 
to learn from the West. In this early stage, if industrial 
questions are properly handled, China may yet avoid those 
mistakes which mar the civilization of the industrial West. 

Many seem to be aware of the situation but 
And Labor" * 1 11O11C were interested to seek constructive ways 
to face it until the Church came forward to 
take a definite stand. On May 10, 1922, when the National 
Christian Conference was held in Shanghai, a minimum 
labor standard was unanimously endorsed as follows: 

* The Church, recognizing the need for a labor 
standard for China, endorses the setting as a goal 
of the standard adopted at the First International 
Labor Conference of the League of Nations, but 



INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS 389 

11 In view of the difficulty of immediate 
application of this standard to the industrial 
situation in China, it urges that the following 
standard he adopted and promoted hy the Church 
for application now: 

" a. No employment of children under 12 full 
years of age. 

One day s rest in seven. 

The safeguarding of the health of workers, 
e.g., limiting working hours, improve 
ment of sanitary conditions, installa 
tion of safety devices." 

After the Conference and hefore the official organization 
of the National Christian Council, the Committee on the 
Church and Economic and Industrial Problems which 
prepared the original report, carried on the work till May, 
1923. The work of the year, May, 1922 to May, 1923, may 
he summarized by quoting a few passages in the report of 
the said Committee submitted to the First Annual Con 
ference of the National Christian Council in May, 1923 as 
follows : 

"In September, hearing of the proposed 

ConTerence visifc of Dr> Sherwood Eddy, this Committee 
got into touch with him and asked him to 
include the promotion of its aims in his work while in 
China. The next step which grew out of this quickening 
of interest in the local communities was the calling of a 
small industrial conference, which assembled 43 delegates 
from 8 of the largest industrial cities, for two days of 
conference in Shanghai early in December. Out of this 
December Conference came the following results: 

1. The Industrial Committee was enlarged, and 
Dr. Frank Hawlinson, Air. M. T. Tchou and 
Miss Wei Tsnng Zung gave part time work as a 
secretariat for the committee. 

2. Industrial church groups have been organized in 
Canton, Changsha, Chefoo, Foochow, Hangchow, 
Nanking, Peking, Shanghai, Tientsin, Tsinan and 
Wuchang. 



390 PRESENT INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITY BEFORE THE CHURCH 

3. To meet the growing number of requests for 
information, counsel, etc. which began at once to 
pour in to the central committee, a carefully 
planned series of leaflets, bulletins and letters have 
been sent out to a large mailing list. 

4. The travel of all such people as could directly 
represent the committee has been utilized to the full. 

5. Action taken in individual cities includes the 
following: The church labor standard has been 
officially endorsed by: the boards of directors of the 
Tientsin and Chefoo Y. M. C. A. s, the National 
Committee and local boards of the Y. W. C. A. in 
Shanghai, Tientsin and Peking, .the Kiangsu Synod 
of the Episcopal Church, and the Chinese Chamber 
of Commerce of Chefoo and Peking. The Chefoo 
industrial group has made a distinct move forward 
in cooperation with the employers; in Peking one 
section of the group is watching the new factory 
legislation and has been asked by the Ministry of 
Agriculture and Commerce to advise and make 
suggestions to them; and Shanghai is working on 
the problem of child labor and questions of 
industrial hygiene and a living wage and has 
actively helped the new child labor commission 
appointed by the Municipal Council to study the 
question." 

In May, 1923, the National Christian 
Commission on Colinc Q appointed a Commission on Church 
Church and ITT 

Industry Jin< ^ Industry to carry on permanently the 

work that had been done by the Committee 
on The Church and Economic and Industrial Problems. 

*This Commission, on September 11, 1923, recommended 
a policy and programme to the Executive Committee of the 
Council which was adopted and endorsed. The gist of the 
Policy and Programme may be summed up in the following 
paragraphs: 

" That the National Christian Council utilize every 
effort at its disposal to promote the three standards adopted 

*See The Chinese Social and Political Science Review, October, 
1923, "Modern Industry in China" by W. T. Zung. 



INDUSTRIAL CABINET 391 

by the National Christian Conference in May J922, to 
coordinate activities of various organizations in local centers 
for bettering industrial and social conditions or relation 
ships; to give advice to those centers where experiments 
are being made for working toward a better social order; 
and to take immediate steps toward establishing a center or 
centers for social and industrial research. 

" Some definite methods are proposed to carry out the 
above lines of service, such as conferences in various places, 
preparation of literature, visits to special centers, institutes 
or summer schools, and courses of lectures. From time to 
time foreign specialists will be brought to China to examine 
into and report on special conditions and problems, and in 
other ways to render expert help as the occasion demands 
and opportunity offers. In order to equip China, with 
specialists in this field, chances should be given to promis 
ing students for techinical training either in China or 
abroad." 

A cabinet of six was appointed by the National 
Christian Council to carry out the work planned by the 
Commission on Church and Industry. The six people are 
Dr. H. T. Ilodgkin, Dr. Frank Rawlinson, Mr. Gideon Chen, 
Miss Mary Dingman, Mr. JV1. T. Tchou and Miss Zung Wei 
Tsung who met three times a week. Miss Agatha Harrison 
was a member of this cabinet until her return home. In 
October, 1923, the National Christian Council sent a 
" Message " to all the national Christian organizations for 
cooperation in a unified effort to secure a Christian 
industrial order. To quote the last sentence of the 
"Message": "in order, therefore, to achieve a united 
Christian approach to this task it is urged that all 
Christian organizations, in developing an industrial policy, 
will look to the Commission on the Church and Industry 
appointed by the National Christian Council, to secure 
adequate unification of policy and effort." 

At the invitation of the National Christian 
Dame Adelaide Council Dflme Adelaide Anderson, late Chief 
Anderson in TIT en * /-* t -r\ *i 

China Lady Inspector 01 factories ot Great Britain, 

came to China in December, 1923. As Dame 
Adelaide has given nearly thirty years service to her 
government in factory inspection it is most fortunate that 



392 PRESENT INDUSTRIAL OPPORTUNITY BEFORE THE CHURCH 

China at this opportune time should be able to secure her 
help and advice on various phases of industrial work. 
The preceding paragraphs give a bird s-eye view of the 
work done by the National Christian Council through the 
industrial committees since May, 1922. It is gratifying to 
note how steadily though slowly the church has taken 
each step for promoting the idea of Christianizing industry 
in China. 

But on the other hand, if the Christian 
Chinese Church itself is considered in the objective we 

Church instantly find that it is confronting more 

Contronts . J . . T ,, 

Problem problems than we casually think. In the 

first place, the attitude of mind on the part 
of the great majority of people that constitute the church 
makes the task difficult. To many honest and good 
Christians, individual salvation will always be the most 
important thing in Christianity, not to be subordinated to 
society which is but the combination of individuals. 

In the second place, a very small percentage in the 
Church is informed on the industrial problem. Owing to 
the lack of scientific research, those who pretend to know 
a little find dissatisfaction in this lack of authority. 

Lastly, the Church, in the position gf an employer, needs 
to learn just as much as any industrial employer the ways to 
fulfil its own pledge regarding the labor standard. In erecting 
mission building*, the Church should see whether or not the work 
is done according to these standards. In employing Bible 
women and village pastors the church should be sure that they 
are paid a "living salary." Can the Church expect non- 
Christian employers to do the ideal thing while it neglects its own 
duly ? 

But the few problems that are facing the church 
to-day are certainly not formidable enough to warrant 
pessimism or discouragement. Modern industrialism in 
China is comparatively recent and its evils are not yet 
deep-rooted. And moreover, despite the fact that the Church 
itself is far from being perfect, it has made it its chief 
concern to see that this progress of the evil industrial 
system be stopped before it has gone too far. If the 
Church stands for love and justice, the Fatherhood of 
God, and the Brotherhood of man, it must utilize every 



INDUSTRY IN CHINA oo 

opportunity and spare no effort in finding ways to face its 
own problems and to overcome ail difficulties in helping 
solve the industrial problems of China. If the Chinese 
Church determines to move forward in the right direction 
China will yet see the day when modern industry really 
fulfils its mission to serve humanity. 



CHAPTER LXVII 

CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES 

Lily K. Haass 

Handwork as a method of self support for needy 
women, and more especially for girls in schools, has been 
used by missionary workers for over twenty years. It is 
only within the last three years, however, that large 
numbers of industries have been started fur the purpose 
of relieving poverty. The famine of 1920-21 gave a great 
impetus to the movement. They are scattered throughout 
all China but are most numerous in central and northern 
China, where an incomplete survey shows a list of 
thirty-two. Practically all of them were instituted for 
charitable purposes, or as a means of general social 
Christian development. One, the Shaohsing Industrial 
Mission, was started to provide a substitute for the making 
of spirit money which seemed to be the only work 
available for both Christians and non-Christians. Some 
have at least as a subsidiary aim the making of money 
to use for general missionary purposes, kindergartens, 
hospital beds, etc. 

K Except in cases where the industry is 

Management , . ., , ; , 

connected with a school, as a sen-help 

department, the industries are with one or two exceptions, 
under private management. Missionary wives, who have 
had to face many cases of need, have taken the lead; 
evangelistic workers and teachers also conduct industries. 
A few, notably the Anking Cross Stitch and the project 
at Ku Lou Hsi, Peking, have made considerable progress 
in shop committees. Only one reported work started and 
managed by a group of Chinese women. There are, to 
be sure, industries initiated and run by Chinese women 
entirely, but more largely as private business enterprises 
than for social purposes. 



WORK, WORKERS, FINANCES 395 

~,, , Twenty-six industries reported a total of 

1600 workers, or an average of about sixty. 
The largest number in any one industry is 200; the, 
smallest less than ten. The greater part of these are 
women. Very few children under fourteen are employed, 
except where children are earning their way in schools. 
Such work is not really to be classed under industrial 
enterprises. Some girls under eighteen are employed, but 
usually they spend half a day or a fair number of hours 
in study. Some of the women are beggars taken off the 
street, and can never become skilled; others had a fair 
degree of skill before entering. 

T t \v t Needle work of all varieties, with an 
Types of work . ,, , . , .. , 

especially strong emphasis on cross-stitch ana 

embroidery, seems to be the chief kinds of work. The 
reason for this is evident ; it does not require a large 
outlay for machinery and other equipment, and it is a 
kind of work the founders understand. 

w f w Where the work is done in the work-shop, 

Working Hours , , . ,, ,. ., . , , , 

nine hours per day is the limit; eight hours 

is the general average, and six hours in work involving 
eye-strain. Some work is done at home, so that it is 
difficult to limit the hour-. The managers, however, 
recognize the dangers of sweat-shop work, and are trying 
not to give out more work than can be done in a reasonable 
number of hours. Many women cannot leave their families 
to go to work, and others live too far away, so that it is 
not always feasible to stop home work, especially when 
facing cases of great need. 

Finances Wages run from $2.50 to 812.GO per week, 

with an average of about 84.00. A number 
state that this is a good living wage in their part of the 
country. Seventeen industries report a total annual 
turn-over of $82,794, or an average of $4,811. They run 
from 8315, as the lowest, to 822,000 as the highest. 
Several are working toward a sound financial basis, by 
laying by a reserve fund or buying property for work 
rooms. Except in one or two cases, no allowance is 
made for managerial salaries of foreigners. Profits are 
being used: 1. For the workers in the form of (a) higher 



396 CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISER 

wages or bonuses; (b) welfare work. 2. For enlarging the 
business. 3. For educational or social work not directly 
affecting the workers, sometimes in connection with 
the mission. 

m it , Great emphasis is put on learning to read; 

Religious Work many are using the phonetic script. Most 
industries have daily prayers and bible 
classes. Others provide opportunity for attendance upon 
religious services without compulsion. Some have Bible 
women who go to the homes of the workers. More 
recent are the health movements, with visiting nurses and 
examination of workers by doctors, with medical care. 
One progressive industry has health and maternity benefit 
funds. Free baths are provided in a number of places. 
Some assume very little responsibility for the children 
of the workers; others have day nurseries for the babies, 
in connection with the work rooms, and see that the older 
children go to school. 

Market Products are sold both in China and 

abroad, chiefly in China. Problems of customs 
duty and selling agents have proved great deterrents to 
business abroad. In several of the larger cities exchange 
shops have been established to handle the goods ; whether 
sold abroad or in China, the goods are made largely for 
foreign consumption. The problem has not yet been 
solved of making articles for which there will be a 
large market among Chinese. Art products of different 
nationalities are in great demand. Some industries are 
interested in the revival of beautiful old Chinese designs. 

In October a conference on mission industrial work 
was held in Peking, and the National Christian Industries 
Association was formed. Committees of this organization 
will investigate markets, methods of evangelistic and welfare 
work, wages and conditions of work. Among the findings 
of the conference were the following : 

That each industry represented in this Association 
be urged to send a special report every year to the National 
Association, indicating the progress of the industry toward 
ideal conditions along the following lines : 



CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIES, ASSOCIATION 397 

1. Working day. 

Eight hours a day, six for fine work involving eye 
strain. That the amount of home work be based 
approximately on the foregoing hours. 

2. Shop conditions. 

Lighting, heating, ventilation (120 cu. ft. approxi 
mately, allowed for each person), seating, working 
apparatus, sanitation. 

3. Wages. 

That the Association recognize its duty to pay 
a living wage, and to find what is a living wage." 

Christian industrial enterprises present the great 
opportunity of demonstrating that industry can be run 
according to Christian principles. Without realizing it we 
have launched out in a project that must be far-reaching in 
its consequences. 



A PARTIAL LIST OF CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES 

Shaohsing Industrial Mission Shaohsing, Chekiang 

Moka Garden Embroidery Mission Soochow, Kiangsu 

Miss Bearder, Anglican Mission, Peking, Chihli 

Miss Gowans, Presbyterian Mission Peking, Chihli 

Miss Berg, American Church Mission Wusih 
Hsi Ku Industry, American Board 

Mission Tientsin 

Mrs. Fred Pyke, Methodist Mission Taianfu 
Miss Berdice Lawrence, Methodist 

Mission Changli 

Baldwin School Self Help Department Nanchang 

School of Many Friends Lintsung, Shantung 
Mrs. V. P. Eastman, American Board 

Mission Lintsung, Shantung 

Miss Lucy Savage Kaifeng, Firman 
Mrs. G. E. Molony, Church 

Missionary Society Ningpo 
Miss Isabelle Phelps, American 

Board Mission Paotingfu 

Blind Girls Industrial Home Mukden 

Mrs. C. W. Troxel Tungchangfu 



398 CHRISTIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES 

Peking Exchange Peking 

Mrs. Hallie Cline Kaifeng 
Mrs. George Davis, Methodist Mission Peking 
Mabel Huggins, American Board 

Mission Techow 
Mrs. Theodore Bliss, American 

Church Mission Wuchang 

Miss Ellen Nielsen Ta Kushan 
St. Agnes School, American Church 

Mission Anking 
Mrs. Charles Reid, American Church 

Mission Anking 

Katherine P helps Anking 

Yale Mission Cross Stitch Changsha 
Anking Cross Stitch, American 

Church Mission Anking 
Ku Lou Hsi Kung Ch ang, 

Presbyterian Mission Peking 

Peking University Peking 

Mrs. F. H. Cruinpacker Sha.nsi 

Women s Industrial School L. M. S. Tingchou, Fukien 
Miss Huggins, American Board 

Mission Tungchou, Chihli 



CHAPTER LXVI1I 

OPIUM AND NARCOTICS 

W. H. Graham Aspland 

China during the year 11)23 cannot have produced 
much less than 10,000 tons of opium, which is equivalent 
to about 3 times the product of the entire world, and in 
spite of cabinet telegrams to the governors of provinces 
ordering suppression, planting of poppy for 1924, is even 
more extensive. Whilst the Central Government has 
declared to the world its opposition to monopoly or re- 
legalization in any form, at least 8 provinces have established 
partial or complete monopolies under military and civil 
authorities. Smuggling combines on a gigantic scale, 
working with official connivance, are known in many parts 
of the land. Heavy taxation on poppy land, transit taxes, 
taxes for sales, permits, opium smoking den licences, and 
taxes on individual pipes in these dens, together with 
heavy lines on those attempting traffic in opium inde 
pendent of the combine: or the local monopoly, make up the 
sources of revenue to support military campaigns, or fill 
the coffers of those righting for personal political ends. 

., Monopolies have engraved stamps for 

Monopolies . , . . * 

transit and duty stamps. Land is taxed 

thirty to forty times the amount of five years ago, and 
compulsorily collected for two and three years ahead under 
penalty of confiscation and imprisonment. Opium must 
be grown, for no other crop would yield (he tax, and in 
some parts opium is so plentiful that the people finding 
it impossible to export to neighboring provinces , where it 
is equally plentiful, have taken to using it as a general 
habit. Churches, missions, district boards, local 
association, guilds and private individuals have protested 
in large numbers and apparently with little result. Unless 
something drastic is done 1924 will exceed 1923 in every 
way. Not a province in China is free from either general 



400 OPIUM AND 

cultivation or general use, except the model province of 
Shansi under the Model Governor Yen Hsi-shan, where the 
latest report shows a %% total suppression in every form. 
Shansi is a convincing proof that, with only a few 
specific limitations, the affairs of any province are in the 
hands of the Governor providing his province is free from 
war. Militarism and opium are undeniably interdependent 
wherever there are interprovincial conflicts, hut the 
Governor of a province at peace, must accept the total 
responsibility for opium use and production. If it is not 
suppressed it is because he wishes to raise funds either for 
himself or for his political enterprises. 

The defense of the Central Government for the 
recrudescence of the last five years has been that opium 
was grown in provinces over which the Government had 
no control; this is no longer a fact for Kansu, Shensi, 
Honan, Anhwei, Hunan and Fukien, owning allegiance to 
the Central Government, are either extensively cultivat 
ing it, or have adopted its general use under taxation. 

All the statements following are extracts 

from reports of foreign missionaries in the 

provinces named: 
y nan The worst opium province in China. 

Poppy is in bloom everywhere. Opium 
smoking fumes are in every street. Eight or nine persons 
out of ten smoke opium. Taxes of $40 to $50 per 100 
ounces of opium are imposed. An Opium Combine with a 
capital of $1,000,000 endeavored to export this year 400 tons 
of opium to north China by way of Tonkin. International 
action stopped the export, but only after 150 tons 
had gone. 
Kweichow Practically the whole of this province is 

given over to poppy, and the people have for 
several years suffered from famine as the result of in 
sufficient land to grow cereals. Large convoys of opium 
under military guards were sent north during 1923 to 
Hanyang and Hankow, for the purchase of arms and 
ammunition. 
S^echwan Opium smoking is worse than in the days of 

the Manchus. Two-thirds of the land is given 
over to poppy. A missionary writes, " itinerating in my 



irUNAX AND ANHWET 401 

h*ien over a distance of 50 English miles, it was a rare 
sight during harvest to see any one doing other than 
gather opium. 

Hunan West and south, poppy everywhere. Opium 

a dollar an ounce. It is found in every home 
except those of Christians. For the past two years 70 to 
100 cartloads pass every week through Liang Tow Tang 
escorted by government soldiers en route for Hankow. In 
Lungshan even young men and hoys arc smoking. I 
counted on one day 400 coolies carrying opium loads 
accompanied by 180 soldiers. The opium traffic is very 
prosperous. At Hung Chiang whole fleets each of several 
hundred Miao boats are bringing down the drug from 
Kweichow. At Yungsui opium is sold at SO a ching 
(between 21-22 ounces). In Shenchowfu people of all 
classes are smoking or eating it. 

A . This province illustrates the financial 

Annwei ,. P . . r ^, ,, TT . 

results of opium taxation. Jn Fu Yang Hsien, 

which has 18 districts, the taxes were imposed and collected 
by the civil and military administration. Chinese members 
of our branch Anti-Opium Association were frequently 
prevented by armed soldiers from taking photographs of 
poppy fields. The Branch report of their investigation 
covers nearly 400 pages, and shows unprecendented 
cultivation and oppressive taxation. 

List of Fu Yang Hsien districts with amount of opium 
taxation during 1923. 

City District 810,000 

East District 1st 24,000 

East District 2nd 10,000 

East District 3rd 48,000 

West District 1st 51,000 

West District 2nd 21 ,000 

West District 3rd 48,000 

West District 4th 31,000 

West District 5th 28,000 

South District 1st... . 40,000 

South District 2nd 44,000 

Southwest District ... 46,000 

Southeast District 10,000 

North District 1st 16,000 



402 OPIUM AND NARCOTIC 1 * 

North District 2nd 42,000 

North District 4th 60,000 

Northwest District 20,000 

East Village 1st 2,880 

Total $563,880 

If this be the result of one hxien what will he the 
total for the Province ? 

Prices of food stuffs have advanced fifty 

per cent. Chung Wei Valley is almost one 
great opium field this year. As far as the eye can 
reach nothing is seen but poppy flowers The crop is so 
extensive that men enough to harvest it are not available. 
Tn ordinary years the fields now in opium have borne 
large crops of rice, wheat, millet, beans, and potatoes. 
This year there will be very little of these necessary 
food crops. 

Hw 2fa Some opium is grown, but the chief evil 

is the big smuggling transactions along the 
river principally at Ichnng and Hankow. 

Ichang reports: To-day 150 coolie loads of opium 
amounting to between 6 and 7 tons passed in lighters 
under military escort to Wuchang to pay for military 
stores. The opium season is in full swing, large quantities 
are being smuggled through this port. During June the 
Customs made no less than 40 seizures varying respectively 
from 600 to over 4,000 Ibs. Opium is sold at $2 per ounce. 

Hankow Custom s report says, "during the year we have 
seized 16,226 Ibs. but what is thus detected represents an 
infinitesimal proportion of what evades detection and 
passes through or is consumed in the district." 
Fukfen Conditions desperate. Land taxed $10 per 

mu. Opium cultivation compulsory. Refusal 
means imprisonment. Petitions during the year have 
been sent to the International Anti-Opium Association 
and by them forwarded to the Chinese Foreign Office, the 
League of Nations, and the U. S. A. and British Ministers, 
from The Church Missionary Society, 

The American Methodist Episcopal Mission, 
The English Presbyterian Mission, 



KIANGSI AND SHEN3I 403 

The London Missionary Society, 

The Fukien Branch of International Anti-Opium 

Association, and ninny individual missionaries. 

Bishop Hind wired November 1928:- Fukien opium 
situation everywhere urgent. Military and naval authorities 
enforce cultivation. People opposed but powerless. Urge 
strong immediate action. 

Fukien Anti-Opium Association has petitioned the 
Foreign Consuls of Foochow, pointing out that the 
military authorities were endeavoring to raise $ 15,000, OQQ 
by opium taxes in five districts of South Fukien. 

The sowing of poppy for 1924 harvest is greater than 
that of 1923. 

Klan s - One of the most daring monopolies exists 

in this province at Lung Yen under the title 
of " Opium Investigation Bureau. The following are its 
regulations: 

1. Opium tax 812 per mu and 85 extra for poppy 
seeds. 

2. Five tenths of the total field area must be devoted 
to poppy cultivation. 

Every planter must be registered. 
Fines will bo imposed if any area fails to devote 
as many mu to opium cultivation as demanded 
by Art. 2. 

5. Secret planting will be punished by a twenty fold 
(hie and confiscation of land. 

6. The head of the Bureau will be rewarded 10 cts. a 
mu according to his efforts. 

Police reports state that there are 800 opium dens in 
Hsun Chow paying a tax of 85 a lamp. 

Sh>nsi ^ ne ^ ^ u worsfc provinces in China. 

Opium is selling at 35 cents an ounce. 
Practically the whole province under cultivation. Opium 
selling is an open business. Wei Nan reports 20 opium 
dens in a single street, all hanging out attractive 
sign-boards. On a three days missionary journey from 
Han Chung in June 1923 poppy was not lost to sight the 
whole way. Similar reports from many other districts. 
To-day (Dec. 6, 1923) General Li Kai-hsien Opium Investi 
gating Commissioner has reported to the Government that 



404 OPIUM AND NARCOTICS 

poppy cultivation has been completely suppressed. It 

always is in the winter. Why further insult our 

intelligence! 

Manchuria Opium is legalized at Shui Fen Ho. The 

stamp tax is $10 per pound. About 100,000 
mu in Kirin district along the sides of the Eastern Railway 
were planted with poppy this year. Land taxes for opium 
growing are paid in opium not cash, except where soldiers 
or brigands seize the whole crop. 

For the last two years Jehol opium has 

been cheaper than any other variety in 
Peking. Military smuggling has been very extensive. 
A September report says "6,000 Ibs. of opium ready for 
military transport." 450 Ibs, under military escort were 
seized at the gates of Peking in September. Owing to 
remoteness and brigandage the opium investigating 
Commissioner found it almost impossible to conduct his 
investigation. 
Shi an No poppy grown, but an alarming traffic 

under taxation, carried on with Kansu and 
Shensi. Even children of 10 years as well as women 
and men have become the pitiable victims of the 
smoking habit. 
TJ Poppy is being extensively planted this 

winter (1923-J924). A November report says, 
" In all this region (southwest) poppy production has 
never been seriously checked. It is now rampant. It is 
responsible for brigandage. Most of the operations of 
Lao Yang-jen during the last three months have been 
looting opium. The average tax is $10 per mu. Every 
package of opium in shops is taxed and stamped on pain 
of confiscation and fine. South arid southeast of Honan is 
in same condition." 

Kwangtun A missionary writes from Swatow, "During 

my thirty odd years in China I have not 
seen the cultivation of the opium poppy carried on to such 
an extent as at present. I am informed too that not only 
are people (farmers) encouraged to grow the poppy but 
are supplied with seed and in some cases compelled to sow, 
otherwise threatened with penalties." 



KWANC4TUNG AND SHANSI 405 

"Largo quantities of opium are carried 

f" DfetHct ne ovt!r lllll<1 fromKweichow and Yunnan. Opium 
Canton smoking has increased in the past two years, 

and opium is about half the price it was a 
year ago. Much of the opium traffic in Kwangtung is 
due to military occupation. Taxation and licensing has 
been enforced to raise funds." 

Other provinces have not been dealt with in detail 
in order to keep this review within limits. Sufficient has 
been written to show that the country is almost back to 
the old days before prohibition, but with this added regret 
that it is now absolutely contrary to law, and that it is 
hourly lowering the prestige of China because of her breach 
of foreign treaties. 

As already stated this model province has 
GIoHous Already eradicated 90% of its opium and 

Exception narcotic evil, and were it not for Shensi and 
Honan on its borders, the remaining 10 % 
would long ago have been wiped out. No poppy is grown 
in this province. Out of the 105 hsiem in the province 
98 have Anti-Opium Societies under the direction of the 
Magistrate. A large number of centers have been opened 
for curing the habit. Over 51,000 persons have been 
treated during the last two years, 3,000 persons have 
been punished as dealers, and 15,000 arrested as smokers. 
During 1922 nearly 40,000 ounces of morphia and opium, 
a quarter of a million Chintan pills, and 18,000 opium 
lamps and pipes were seized and burnt. 

Governor Yen has recently sent protests to the 
Governor of Honan and Shensi, regretting that he cannot 
clear his province, so long as his neighbors allow 
cultivation. 

Under this heading 1923 shows an apparent 
Narcotic ai improvement over 1922. This may be 
Drugs accounted for in two ways. First the increas 

ing control and diminishing manufacture by 
Western nations and secondly that China has abundant 
cheap opium and freedom of use so that morphia is not 
demanded. 

During 1923 not an ounce of British or American 
narcotics has been seized in China. 



406 OPIUM AND NARCOTICS 

Japan shows evidence of fulfilling her obligations to 
the League of Nations and judging by her official reports 
her manufacture and imports of morphia and heroin 
which were 35,000 Ibs. in 15)21 are only about 7,000 Ibs. for 
1922. There is nevertheless much mystery concerning the 
disposal of these large quantities, for her official exports in 
1921 were only 12,000 Ibs and in 1922 less than 15 Ibs. 
The Japanese Delegate at the League of Nations stated 
that the balance remained in bond in Japan. Was his 
information complete? In 1922 over 28,000 ounces of 
narcotics were seized in Shanghai and Tientsin on 24 
Japanese steamers though it must be admitted over two- 
thirds of this amount came from Europe. The largest 
seizure included in the above was that in December 1922 
when 17,920 ounces of heroin labelled "aspirin" and 
manufactured in Germany, was seized in Shanghai on a 
Japanese steamer. 

As a further contrast we note that during the 
September quarter of 1922 over 4,000 ounces of narcotics 
were seized in Shanghai, whilst for the corresponding 
quarter in 1928 only one quarter of an ounce. 

Adding the Customs seizures of 1922 to the 30,000 
ounces of narcotics seized and burnt by Governor Yen of 
Shansi, and 18,000 seized and burnt in Peking, we can 
account for approximately 80,000 ounces, but as we have 
long maintained this should be multiplied by ten in order 
to represent the undetected bulk. 

China has intimated in the press to-day 
J^mn Morphia ( D ecember, 1923) that she will inaugurate a 
Conference Conference with Japan for the discussion 
of the morphia problem, and cooperative 
measures for suppressing traffic. This Conference was 
suggested at the League of Nations Session in June 1923. 
A Special Conference is called by the 
League ol d 5 League for 1924 of all the powers having Far 
Nations Eastern possessions to discuss problems relat 

ing to the foreign monopolies of the East, 
and to advise and assist China in dealing with her home 
conditions. The anticipated results from this and succes 
sive Conferences are so hopeful that Sir John Jordan said 
concerning the League Session at which this was decided 



EASTERN OPTUM MONOPOLIES 407 

" Decisions have been made which I never expected 
during my life time." 

The Internationa] Anti -Opium Association forwarded 
to the League a series of beneficial reasons why this 
Conference should meet in Shanghai, but the League has 
decided that the first meeting shall be in Geneva. 

Concerning the Eastern Monopolies the chief points 
presented for discussion by the resolution of the British 
Government delegate are as follows: 

1. All opium farms to be abolished, and the import, 
preparation and sale be to entirely in the hands of the 
Monopoly Government. 

2. Retailers to be government servants on fixed 
salaries, so as to remove the temptation to push sales. 

3. To fix a maximum yearly amount of opium in 
each monopoly at a rate of x ounces per 1,000 Chinese 
males, and importation to be restricted to this amount. 

4. To discuss the registration of all smokers and the 
introduction of licences. 

5. To fix a uniform selling price of opium, and 
uniform penalties for infraction of the opium laws in all 
monopolies. 

We are not greatly stirred just now by the conditions 
in the eastern monopolies. At most there are only about 
seven millions of Chinese in all the foreign Eastern 
possessions, and whilst we hope and work for opium 
suppression in these possessions, we cannot forget that five 
times this number are being degraded in a single province 
in China. 

The attitude of China as a whole is difficult 

to dofine - If however, China be divided 
Attitude into three general classes, namely officials, 

merchants and people, the attitude of either 
class is capable of demonstration. 
Officials They are officially against opium, whilst 

large numbers are personally addicted to it. 
It is no use mincing matters. Many of the recent govern 
ment telegrams sent out to governors of provinces, and 
re-issued by them to subordinate officials, urging drastic 
measures for opium suppression, are tainted in the hands 
of the very men promulgating them. Peking high officials, 



408 OPIUM ANT) N ATM OTTOS 

members of parliament, police administrators, tuchuns, 
civil governors, and generals are known to be opium 
smokers, and the thoughtful public are not deceived by 
these official declarations. Many officials who do not 
personally use it nevertheless have not hesitated to raise 
immense funds by its cultivation and taxation. One is 
driven by the prima facie evidence of missionary reports 
from all the provinces in China to say officials as a class 
are in favor of opium. There are a few very notable, 
exceptions. 

. As a whole they are indifferent, the 

Murchants .. . . ., , J . . . 

exception being that section of them engaged 

in the traffic. This section however is not a large one for 
the traffic is almost exclusively under military or civil 
government control, except where commercial combines 
have been permitted upon payment of a large sum to the 
licensing authorities. 
p j The Chinese Christians are against opium, but 

the others give no evidence. The hundreds 
of protests sent to the International Anti-Op um Association 
during 1923 only in rare instances primarily refer to the 
degrading effect of opium. They are mostly concerned 
with the burden of unjust land taxation and compulsory 
opium cultivation. It would pay them better to grow 
cereals under the former land tax, and a market would be 
found for their produce. With practically a free use of 
opium throughout China, the number of addicts must be 
phenomenally large, and these added to the hordes who 
profit by its sale, whether in shops or smoking dens must 
represent an opinion in favour of opium which is greater 
than the moral protest of those against it. It ought not 
to be so. 

The International Anti-Opium Association 

has had a Phenomenally busy year of 
Association publicity and protest. The collection of 

materials for the League of Nations; protests 
to the ministers of nations whose narcotics are seized in 
China; forwarding copies of all reports on China conditions 
to the Chinese and Foreign Governments and League of 
Nations; the publication of bulletins, and the Anti-Opium 
Supplement ; and the sending out of information to the 



LOCAL CONDITIONS 409 

Chinese and foreign press, suggest a few of their activities. 
Twice during 1923 a questionaire was sent to the 
missionaries in all provinces for reports on local conditions; 
these have boon embodied in larger reports to governments 
and the League of Nations. During 1923 an investigation 
has been made into the use of narcotics in 100 of the large 
miss ; on hospitals of China. The results have been 
tabulated for the estimation of the amount of morphia 
and cocaine required for medical purposes in China in 
order to meet the requirements of the import licencing 
certificate of the League of Nations. This Association has 
been dealing with the world aspect of the traffic, although 
its 20 brandies in large cities, and scores of sub-branches 
in smaller towns have carried on local propaganda. 



CHAPTER LXIX 

FAMINE RELIEF WORK J921-22 
Y. S. Djang 

To meet the need caused by failure of crops due to 
flood or drought in no less than 12 provinces during the 
second half of 1921 and the spring and summer of 1922, a 
sum of approximately S3, 500, 000 was distributed by the 
famine relief committees under international control. The 
bulk of this money represented the balance left over from 
the administration of surtaxes imposed in connection with 
the maritime customs duties in 1921, and grants made by 
the American Advisory Board, entrusted with funds raised 
in the U.S.A., 1920-21. 

The Committees which handled the relief herein 
described are voluntary organizations composed of Chinese 
and foreign members in equal members and are affiliated 
under a national organization known as the China Inter 
national Famine Relief Commission. 



Province 

Anhwei 

Chekiang 
Kiangsu 
Shantung 
H on an 
Hunan 

Hupeh 



ESSENTIAL DATA 


, 1921-1922 






Cause and 


Amount 


Famine yew 


Description 


dis- ribuled 


Spring, 1922 


Flood, 1921 


$530,000 




Poor crop, 1922 




Spring, 1922 


Flood 


213,000 


Spring, 1922 


Flood 


430,000 


Spring, 1922 


Flood 


700,000 


1921-22 


Excess rain 


767,000 


Spring and 


Drought, 1921 


750,000 


summer, 1922 






Spring, 1922 


High water, 1921 


351,000 



FAMINE PREVENTION POLICIES 411 

Shansi Continuance of drought famine 122,800 

of 1921 and wheat failure; 

Swatow Winter, H) J2, Typhoon 100,000 

Szeehwan 1922 Drought 147,000 

Shensi 1922 Flood, hailstorm 125,000 

Kansu 81,000 

As to the manner in which the benefits were given, it 
suffices to quote the established policies of the famine relief 
commission as follows: 

POLICIES 

I. Grain rather than cash to be given to the 
suffering population in famine regions doing 
away with grain profiteering and keeping the 
prices down to a reasonable level to enable the poor people 
to secure their food at as low a price as possible. 

II. Employment, rather than free grant, to be given 
and paid for in grain. Some constructive work or local 
improvement to be undertaken in connection with the labor- 
relief. Help given in return for labor done, corrects the 
demoralizing effect of dependence upon charity, and 
leaves a permanent improvement which may help in 
preventing future famines. 

III. Grants of relief to be made in the form of loans 
to the local community benefittcd, rather than to give help 
simply out of philanthropic motives. Those loans should 
be granted under easy terms of repayment and may be 
free of interest for the whole or part of the term of 
the loan. 

This Commission, it well be remembered, is a 
federation of the international relief committees, most of 
which were actively functioning during the great drought 
famine of 1920-21 in the northern provinces. Its 
functions are 

(1) To handle relief measures in time of famines due 
to natural causes and, (2) To promote ways and 
means of preventing future famines. 



412 FAMINE RELIEF WOEK, 1921-22 

In the direction of famine prevention, 
Prevention which really is a line on which the Com 
mission aims to specialize, the Commission s 
program is as follows. 

(1) Better controlled natural forces through 
Afforestation of drainage areas of large streams, 
Dredging or deepening of rivers and 

Repairs to or building of important dykes- 
Reclamation ol inundated lands, -Preventing or 
lessening the chances of recurrence of floods. 

(2) Increase of production and profit through 
Improved agricultural methods, -adaption of 
modern farming to Chinese rural conditions. 
Improved method of marketing of farm products, 
etc. 

(3) Broadening of margin of livelihood of the Chinese 
farmers through-provision of rural credit 
system-savings of farmers. 

(4) Better distribution of farming population through 
colonization-development of hitherto uncultivated 
lands. 

(5) Better system of inter-village communication 
through building of highways, incident help in 
marketing of products, and development of local 
commerce. 

Dyke building is especially notable in the work of 
the Committee in Hupeh Province while road construction 
lias been a standing job of the committees in Hunan, 
lion an and Shantung. 

River control is engaging the attention of the 
Committee in Kiangsu (Shanghai) and recently the Shensi 
Committee was contemplating a, large irrigation program. 

The Commission has also appointed a sub-committee 
to deal with problems of rural economy in China. This 
sub-committee plans to introduce the "Raiffeison" banks 
to Chinese villages. Judging from the success attained in 
Burma, India and Japan, these "banks" or societies should 
prove helpful to the Chinese farmers. A few " experimental 
societies " are already in operation in villages near Peking, 



CHAPTER LXX 

THE MORAL WELFARE LEAGUE OF SHANGHAI 
Isaac Mason 

The Moral Welfare League of Shanghai was formed 
in 1918 as the outcome of an earnest desire to promote 
improvement in vice conditions at this great centre. The 
Shanghai Missionary Association and the W. C. T. U. 
first moved in the matter, and on May 16th, 1918 
representatives of seventeen religious and philanthropic 
societies met and organized a " Moral Welfare Committee," 
the name heing later changed to the one heading this 
article. Other societies have joined, and there are now 
26 local bodies represented, comprising British, American, 
Japanese and Chinese residents of the Settlement. Most 
of the societies, as well as many individuals, contribute 
yearly to meet the financial needs of the League. 

~ The Moral Welfare League functions 

Organization , 

through a General Committee composed or 

officially appointed representatives of the constituent 
societies. From this Committee is elected an Executive 
Committee, and the Officers. The League has no powers 
beyond those of any voluntary organization; its principal 
function thus far has boon to provide an avenue for the 
expression of the moral opinion in the International 
Settlement on law and order, in relation to the social evil. 

Hy means of investigations and publicity, 
of oth"r largely through the League s efforts, public 
feeling was sufficiently stirred to result in 
the appointment by the Municipal Council of a Vice- 
Commission in 1919, on which several members of the 
League sat. The Commission s Report was adopted by 
the Ratepayers meeting in 1920. The first provision was 
"That brothels be eliminated/ 7 and as a means to this 



414 MOKAL WELFARE LEACiUE OF SHANGHAI 

end, existing houses were licenses at a nominal fee, and 
one-fifth were to be closed every year, so that in live years 
no licensed houses will remain. Four drawings have 
taken place, and only 98 licenses remain, and these lapse 
automatically in 1925. 

There is fairly general agreement that 
Conditions public solicitation to prostitution, so far as 
Improved Chinese are concerned, is much less prominent 

here than it -was some years ago. While the 
population is rapidly increasing, it is significant that 
police charges for offenses of this nature are less than 
they were before the League was formed. There is no 
satisfactory evidence of any considerable increase of 
"sly" prostitution in the Settlement since the closing of 
licensed houses began. It is said that some displaced 
women carry on their profession in neighboring territory; 
so far as the French Concession is concerned, the official 
figures show a slight decrease instead of an increase; for 
Chinese-controlled territory we have no figures, but 
conditions are not noticeably worse than before. We have 
reason to believe that the closing down results in some 
giving up the business, which is a gain not only to our 
Settlement, but to society in genera,!. 

A monthly average of about 30 women 
Effmt and S irl s ^PP 1 * at the Mixed Court of 

Shanghai, charged with solicitation; it has 
been the custom to impose a small fine, or a short 
imprisonment. The fines have usually been paid by 
the brothel-keepers, or others interested, and the girls 
continue as usual. With the approval of the Court and 
the Police, we have opened a Home to which girls can 
be sent for two weeks or longer, instead of being fined. In 
the four months during which the Home has been open, 
50 women and girls have been inmates, and they have 
greatly appreciated what has been done for them. While 
in detention the girls are dealt with sympathetically, and 
are encouraged to make a fresh start in respectable living. 
A Municipal law provides that no girl can be compelled 
to remain an inmate of a brothel. The problem of finding 
a way of living for those who wish to leave the life is 
a difficult one. But even the short time spent in the Home 



PUBLICATIONS 415 

is well worth while; the rest is beneficial to the girls, and 
they have a chance to catch visions of a happier life. 

Bulletins in English have been issued at 
Publications 

intervals, a series of eleven having already 

appeared, and these, besides printed Reports, have been 
widely circulated. Four publications in Chinese have also 
been sent out. 



CHAPTER LXXI 

DOOR OF HOPE AND CHILDREN S REFUGE 
Ethel Abercrombis 

Beginning Burdened by the fearful lot of the brothel 

girls in Shanghai, live missionary women 
opened the Door of Hope in 1901. The work steadily grew 
until in 1904 a separate department known as the Children s 
Home had to be made to take in singing girls and others in 
danger of becoming prostitutes. The Children s Refuge 
started by a Committee of Shanghai community ladies a 
year before the Door of Hope under the name of the Slave 
Refuge to save ill-treated slaves and famine refugees. In 
1922 the Committee of the Children s Refuge approached 
the Committee of the Door of Hope to amalgamate the 
Children s work of the two organizations. This was 
accomplished in March 1922, the united work they being 
known as Door of Hope and Children s Refuge. 

The policies and development of the work 
1 are controlled by a Committee of ladies 
residing in Shanghai. For 1924 they are Chairman, Mrs. 
E. Evans, Treasurer, Mrs. A. G. Parrott, Secretary, Mrs. 
H. Broomhall, Miss M. Jewell, Miss E. Spurling, Mrs. 
I. Woodbridge (Substitute). The direct management of 
both institutions of the Mission is in the hands of the 
resident foreign missionaries and Chinese assistants. 
Location ^ Door of Hope, Industrial Home, First 

Year Home, Mary Fitch Memorial Sanitorinm, 
Bonnel Memorial Chapel, on the Dong-chi Road beyond 
Tien-tung-an Railway Station, North Szechuen Road Ex 
tension. 

(2) Receiving Home for the Door of Hope and the 
Children s Refuge at M. 396-9 Foochow Road. Easily 
found between Hupeh and Chekiang Roads. 

(3) Children s Refuge, Industrial Department, near 
the Jessrield park, 33 Brenan Road. 



RECEIVING HOME 41? 

(4) Children s Refuge, School, Kindergarten, Jewell 
Memorial Chapel and six cottages at the north end of the 
Kiang-wan village, ten minutes walk from the Kiang-wan 
railway station. 

7 L c ft (0 The Receiving Home gives temporary 

Homes shelter to any women and girls in trouble and 

is the receiving center for the whole work. 

Evangelistic services and a day-school are also held here. 

(2) The First Year Home gives the girls an elementary 
education for three hours daily, and training in sewing and 
household work. Chinese dolls are made and sold in this 
Home. 

(3) The Industrial Home is for those girls who have 
satisfactorily passed through the First Year Home ; em 
broidery and other hand-sewing is made for sale. The 
girls are paid for their work, becoming self-supporting and 
are taught to spend their money carefully. Most of the 
girls leave this Home to be married to Christians. 

(4) The Mary Fitch Memorial Sanitorium has wards for 
tuberculosis, specific and medical cases, besides rooms for 
isolation. 

(5) In the Children s Refuge, Industrial Department, 
knitting of every description is done here for sale. The 
girls are paid for their work and fitted to go into homes of 
their own. 

(6) Tin; Children s Refuge, Kiang-Wan department, 
primary schools arid kindergarten have a curriculum 
correlated with ordinary mission schools and taught by 
efficient teachers, foreign and Chinese. 

Women and children desiring admittance 
Requirements snoll M 8 to the Receiving Home, where at 

any time day or night they will be given 
careful attention. Here eacli case is decided on its own 
merits after proper investigations and transferred either to 
the Door of Hope or Children s Refuge. No charge is 
made for admission but missionaries are expected to help 
bear the expenses incurred. 
Finance ^ no ex l H;n - os "* the Door of Hope for 1922 

amounted to 8 32,866.78 and the expenses of 
the Children s Refuge to $32,630.45, making a total ot 
865,319.23. Municipal grants were given the two Homes 



IKS DOOU OF HOPE AND CHILDREN S UEFtKJE 

of Tls. 4,000 and Tls. 3,000 respectively (80645.29): 
industrial work done in the, homos provided $17,336.16. 
]>ut tlie larger part of the money needed, $38,000, came 
in answer to prayer and faith in God s conditional promise 
"Seek ye first the kingdom of God a.nd His righteousness 
and all the.se things shall be added unto you." 



CHAPTER LXXII 

THE PRESENT SITUATION OF THE 
ANTI-FOOT BINDING MOVEMENT 

Martha E. Pyle 

The early years of the present century found Mrs. 
Archibald Little travelling throughout China in the interest 
of the natural foot. With the hacking of the high officials 
she organized the T ien Tsu Hui, the Natural Foot Society. 

Upon the return of Mrs. Little to Europe in 1907, the 
Natural Foot Society was turned over to the Chinese with 
Mr. Shen Tung-ho as president. 

Probably the revolution that followed in 
No National mi j H; , 2 it} consoauont c } iailgo o f 

Organization 

government frustrated the organization; for, 
so far as investigation is able to discover there is now no 
organized national movement. The movement is carried 
on in somo places by the Tuchun, and at others by more 
or less individual impulse. 

,. I The Province of Shansi seems to lead in 

this matter as in many others. This is from a 

Y.W.O.A. worker in Fenchow: 

Your letter concerning anti-foot-binding in 
Shansi came a few days ago. It is almost past history 
hero, and [ do not know just what is referred to as the 
pri/e system of Shansi. In 11)18 and 11)19 there was 
a vigorous movement and we are seeing the results 
now. We simply do not see hound feet at all, even in 
the villages, though 1 suppose there are some places in 
the mountains where bound feet still e^ist." 

Fenchow, Description of the movement of 1918 and 

si i<)i<) j n Fenchow, Shansi. 

" Every month brings news of some new move 
ment set on foot by the progressive 4 governor of 
Shansi, Governor Yen. The past month has soon the 



420 ANTI-FOOT-BINDING MOVEMENT 

attempt thoroughly to enforce anti-foot-binding laws. 
Last year in Fenchow attempts were made to frighten 
people into unbinding feet by heavily fining all who 
were seen on the street with bound feet. For a while 
women were afraid to leave their courtyards, but 
vigilance soon ceased and conditions were helped but 
little. This spring, working through the magistrate 
of the city, all women and girls of government and 
church schools were asked to join the anti-foot-binding 
society and to take a part in inspecting feet of all 
women and girls in Fenchow. 

" It was gratifying to see the businesslike method 
with which all details were worked out by the govern 
mental officials. Each girl was provided with a badge 
stating her office and a certificate showing her right to 
engage in such a movement. Instructions were given 
as to how to proceed on entering a court, and leaflets 
were given to be read and explained to the women 
telling them how to proceed after unbinding. There 
is no patent corn plaster warranted to remove all 
sources of aches or the unshapeliness of a once bound 
foot, so instructions were of great help. A liberal 
amount of money for cart fare was sent with the 
assurance that more would be sent if this proved 
insufficient. But no pay was offered for the service of 
the inspectors. 

" In inspecting a court the girls and chaperone 
entered leaving the policeman at the gate. The old 
men stood in the court while the girls entered each 
room taking the name, age, and address of any woman 
found still binding her feet. It was not necessary to 
see the bare foot to know its condition. By feeling of 
the instep a person could detect the stiff bandaging of 
a bound foot. The work was carried out most 
systematically, the teams, going out from five to seven 
o clock each day until the task was done. It is 
interesting to know that the hardest territory was 
delegated to the church folk to inspect, which they 
regarded as a compliment to their honesty in not 
shirking an unpleasant task. 



PREVALENCE OF FOOT -BINDING 421 

* When all the ground was covered a complete 
report had to be prepared and sent to the governor. 
This showed 1S80 homes visited by our people and 
about 201)0 women examined. Of this number few 
were; found with bound feet. We are wondering how 
long it will take for the women to bind up their feet 
again after the fear of inspection is safely past. But 
Governor Yen also has thought of this and has set on 
foot a movement whereby all young men students are to 
be exhorted to declare themselves as being in favor of 
women having natural feet. Buttons are to be worn 
bearing the words, " Natural Foot Society :? and, " I 
will not marry a woman havirg bound feet." 

TYPICAL LETTER 

I had shared the general impression that the 
custom had been stamped out in all parts of China, 
because one almost never sees a young woman or 
little girl with bound feet in our cities or towns; but 
I find that in the country places it is still crippling 
and marring the poor little girl, especially those of the 
poorer classes. In the churches it is never practised, 
unless the mother is a non-Christian. As far as I 
am a. bio to iind, there is no organized propaganda at 
present." 

A missionary who itinerates in villages around 
Shanghai and Sungkiang and conducts day schools 
at many points, states that at some villages practically all 
feminine feet are bound, at other villages practically none 1 
are bound, while at still others the proportion is about 
fifty fifty. 

It has been impossible to secure data from the remote 
interior, but from this rather inadequate study, it may 
safely be stated that at present, in cities where the force of 
the former propaganda, of the Natural Foot Society was 
felt, the custom is obsolete. Where some oflicial has 
continued the propaganda the same is true. Tn the 
country and places remote from Chinese modern move 
ment the custom still obtains. 



CHAPTER LXXIII 

YANGTSEPOO AND OTHER COMMUNITY CENTERS 
D. Y. Tsien 

Histor The Yangtsepoo Social Center was founded 

in 19 17 under the auspices of the Social Science 
Department of Shanghai College. The Nantao Christian 
Institute lias just celebrated its ninth birthday. The 
Community Guild in Hunan was started five years ago. 
The new building for the Swatow Christian Institute was 
completed in 1920. Then the Baptist Mission started two 
centers in Ningpo and Hangchow respectively. Tsaokaitu 
Center in connection with St. John s University, Shin Ming 
Sui and Lo Chuin Sui in Soochow were started recently. 
At present there are nine distinct community centers in 
China besides the institutional churches which carry on 
work of a similar nature. 

All the above-mentioned centers are either 
Organization , , .,, ,, . . ,. 

partly connected with the missions or directly 

under their control. 

Though no two centers carry on the same activities, 
nevertheless, the activities undertaken by the various 
centers are somewhat similar in nature and may be roughly 
classified under six headings; educational, medical, social, 
recreational, esthetic and religious. 

TJJ ., The educational work of the different 

Jiducation . ,. . 

centers varies according to the needs and 

conditions existing in the community. Three centers have 
a well organized day school for boys and girls and charge 
high tuitions. Nantao has conducted a commercial school 
and a part time free school with marked success. Nearly 
all the centers have night schools in which are taught 
English, Chinese and arithmetic. There are more 
than three hundred students enrolled in the Yangtsepoo 
night school, most of whom are factory workers. Well 
conducted kindergartens are to be found in Ningpo, Nantao 



MEDICAL AND SOCIAL WORK 

and Swatow. Illustrated lectures on hygiene, civic matters, 
and popular education have been broadcasted from different 
centers many times a year. Reading rooms have been 
taxed to their seating capacities and library books 
borrowed and used extensively. The Yangtsepoo Library 
contains a complete collection of books on social work 
published by the Russell Sage Foundation, New York. 
A class in social work was conducted last year by Prof. 
D. H. Kulp II, in Shanghai and Hangchow and attended 
by one hundred and twenty live persons representing 
college students, preachers, missionaries, and social 
workers of the three centers in Shanghai. It is quite 
encouraging to learn that the tuitions received in many 
centers cover the expenses of the educational departments. 

nit j- r wr ( Communities in China are in great need of 
Medical Work . . . . . . , 

leadership in matters ot health. Social 

Centers cannot contribute much toward the actual healing 
of the sick but they are making great contributions along 
other lines. Perhaps their greatest contribution is being 
made by teaching both individual members and organiza 
tions in the community what their responsibilities are in 
health matters. The large manufacturing interests in the 
Yangtsepoo district have recognized their responsibilities by 
the establishment of the Industrial Hospital at the 
Yangtsepoo Social Center. This hospital and its daily 
out-patient department has been run successfully for four 
years. While administered by the Social Center, it is 
entirely supported by the factories and is exclusively for 
the use of their employees. Various features have been 
added to the Industrial Hospital such as a visiting nurse, 
lectures and exhibits on public health, first-aid classes for 
foremen in the various mills, baby welfare campaigns, etc. 

Nantao, Tsaokaitu, Swatow and other centers also 
are working for improved health conditions in their 
respective communities by free clinics, health campaigns 
and the like. 

S i I W Social work is one of the important features 

undertaken by the community centers. Men 

can no longer live a Robinson Crusoe kind of life. The 



424 YANGTSEPOO AND OTHEK COMMUNITY ( ENTERS 

organized club work for men, women, and children 
in the community meets a distinct need. Hospital 
social work has been introduced by the Industrial Hospital 
in sending investigators to gather the social data in order 
to help the doctors make more correct diagnoses. The 
three centers in Shanghai were requested to help in the 
investigation of the industrial conditions of the sections 
where the centers are situated. Social meetings for the 
people in the community with good attendance have been 
often held. One of the best efforts ever made in attempt 
ing community organization was the inviting of the Street 
Unions in Shanghai to make the Yangtsepoo Social Center 
their headquarters. Special women workers have been 
secured by some centers to go out to the homes of the 
people to obtain closer contacts and clearer information. 
The employment bureau in Yangtsepoo recommended more 
than seventy persons to the factories as skilled and un 
skilled workers. 

Recreation has been recognized as an 
Recreation -IP i -i ii i T 

effective remedy tor social evils like gambling 

which is so common in Chinese communities. Billiard 
tables, ping pong games and chess rooms have been 
provided by many centers for the recreation of their com 
munity members. Playgrounds have been used for the 
children and adults to have group games and calisthenics. 
Lantern slides have been shown in all the centers with 
good attendance. Four centers have already purchased 
cinematographs to entertain the people with regular shows. 



Esthetics f ^ 10 community 

centers is to select the best men or women in 
musical ability to form a club to give entertainment to 
the people in the community. Soochow and Ningpo have 
organized such clubs with great success. 

Religion Religion is the soul of community centers 

and the inspiration of all the department 
activities. The nine centers are either the direct or indirect 
outgrowth of the Christian enterprise. Sunday schools are 
to be found in all centers, regular Sunday service s are held, 
.Bible classes conducted and personal work planned. 
Christian literature is placed in the public reading rooms. 



FINANCE AND SUPPORT 425 

The community center has been considered 

naturally be supported and financed by the 
people in the community. The missions may invest, if 
they wish, in the land and buildings but the running 
expenses should always be met by the community. People 
will give when they understand that the thing is worth 
while. Some of the centers are independent financially and 
a few still receive small appropriations from the missions. 
Thu total receipts of the Yangtsepoo Center during the last 
year amounted to 8 20,631.65 and that of Nantao 818,850.00. 



CHAPTER LXXIV 

WORK FOR RICKSHA MEN 

J. C. Clark 

So far as we know the first organized work for ricksha 
men as a class was started in Shanghai in June 1 ( .)13, by 
Mr. George Matheson. 

The work from the first has been generously supported 
by the public and much appreciated by the ricksha men. 

To quote from the 1923 report of the Shanghai 
Mission : 

The object of the Mission is to uplift and help the 
coolies generally, and to ameliorate, as far as possible, the 
condition of the sick and destitute among them. 
^ ims With the view to obtaining the desired 

results, at least in a measure, the work is 
organized on the lines of Relief work, combined with 
Evangelistic Effort and Elementary Education. 

The past year has been one of great activity in all 
departments. 

Attendance in the halls, where the accommodation is 
always strained to the utmost, includes nightly representa 
tives from many provinces in addition to Shanghai and all 
its coolie section and outlying suburbs. 

Testimony to the influence and far reaching effects of 
the Mission s teachings on the fluctuating masses dealt with 
lias been received from far distant provinces, proving that 
Christianity and enlightenment often travel by circuitous 
paths. 

Instructions in Traffic and other Regulations 

Instruction {irc . ^ ri . von at a11 tho . lar meetings. The 
majority of the men evince great eagerness to 
master the intricacies of the traffic difficulties and 
regulations. 



RELIUION AND EDUCATION 427 

The necessity for the observation of honedy and 
civil-it!/ in all tlieir dealings with the public and the 
maintenance of peace and order at all times, is strongly 
impressed upon the men, and although in so abnormally 
large a flock there must be some black sheep, and some less 
intelligent than others, a generous and gratifying acknowl 
edgement of the value and good effect upon the men of 
such instructions has been received from the Shanghai 
Municipal Council. 

According to the Municipal Council Report for 
11)22, and Budget for the year 1 ( J23, Taels 5,000.00 
was given to the "Ricksha Mission" Building Fund 
by the Shanghai Municipal Council as a recognition of the 
splendid work carried on by the Mission. 

It is estimated that as many as 500,000 different 
coolies pull rickshas in Shanghai in a twelve month period. 

Religious Work Although Church and Evangelistic Work 
are not so prominently in the public view as 
Relief Work and other departments of the Mission s work, 
yet in the Church lies the nucleus of all the work. 

During the past year there has been a steady 
maintenance of the (rospel Work in the halls, schools, and 
open air, which has been accompanied by considerable 
augmentation of membership and increase in organization 
and interest. A larger number than in any former year 
of men and women have been added to the Church. 

Two Sunday Schools, representing an average attendance 
of 800 children, are held all the year round. 

Schools ^ ie ^" ^ a y schools continue to bo very- 

popular institutions. During the past year, 
as in many preceding years, a number of boys, having 
completed our educational courses, have left to occupy 
respectable, and in some cases, very good positions obtained 
for them. Excellent accounts of our boys are received 
from their employers. After years of independence, many 
old boys are still loyal to the Mission, attend meetings and 
help in various ways. The average enrollment at tin- 
two schools, boys and girls, is 200. 

Work Anwny Women is carried on all through the 
yea r . 



425 WORK FOR RICKSHA MEN 

Industrial Work , A , Sm dl l^udrwl Work i* carried or in 
winch tne poorer women are employed in 
making garments for free distribution among destitute 
coolies, 

Statistics for the year: 

Meals... ... ... 95,050 

Special Christmas food parcels ... ... 12,000 

Garments ... 2,750 

Sandals 1,500 

Number-meetings in halls... ... ... 690 

Monthly attendance-halls (average) ... 12,500 
Weekly attendance Sunday Schools 

(average) ... 800 

Summary ^ ne num ^ er ^ ^O^P^l ind Instruction 

meetings held during the year in halls, 
lodging houses, homes and open air, and the approximate 
number of persons reached thereby as bused on record 
books, and the workers diaries are: 

Meetings 11,896 

Persons reached 415,000 (approximately). 

It is a very remarkable fact noted in the Mission s 
work that men who do not need to call on the Mission do 
not come up and take the free meal tickets offered at the 
close of each meeting although they could easily do so. 
Neither do they come to the Mission to sleep if they are 
not really in need of free shelter. Many times have men 
asleep on the iloor voluntarily gotten up to share their 
blanket and place with a more needy man coming in late. 
The Mission s plan of trusting the men and putting them 
on their honor seems to have met with a liner response 
than is some times experienced when the so-called upper 
classes are put on their honor. 

Several other cities beside Shanghai have made a 
start in giving some kind of help to ricksha men. The 
following is all the information we have been a.ble to 
secure;. 

Other Cities Peking Seven years ago a committee raised 

about 82,000 and built nine enclosed shelters 

for ricksha coolies. They kept lire and tea in these 



RICKSHA MISSIONS 429 

shelters. The government now helps and has built some 
twenty shelters. They provide relief for some of the most 
destitute of the coolies. 

Foochow Several efforts have been started but in 
some eases the government interfered and the coolies 
made sport of an effort to teach them to read saying, 
" the new learning would not help them to run faster and 
would be no use unless they changed their work." 

Hongkony Something similar to the Shanghai plan 
is in prospect. 

Canton The Ricksha Mission in Canton was started 
in 11)17 by a Chinese Christian named Cheung Tsoh Kei. 
It has now grown to considerable proportions and has a 
budget of $1,000 per year. There are about 100 members 
in their church and a primary school with forty children 
of ricksha men. 



CHAPTER LXXV 

WORK AMONG THE CHINESE BLIND 
* B. Fryer 



It is impossible to quote; the correct numbers 
of the blind in China, but in :i recent article 
on Trachoma, Dr. Howard of the Rockefeller Foundation 
in Puking, came forward with the startling statement that 
there are at least 3,000,000 who are blind in both eyes: 
6,000,000 who arc blind in one eye, and 20,000,000 who 
have serious diseases of the eye, many of whom will 
eventually be blind or nearly so. 

The chief cause is trachoma. In many 
Clauses ol . . . , ,. , 

Blindness parts of China over thirty-five percent or the 

population are victims of this disease: small 
pox, venereal diseases, dirt and accidents figure largely 
among the other factors. Over sixty percent of the blindness 
in China could have been prevented had simple remedies 
been administered. 

(1.) There are twenty-nine schools and in- 
Agencies at . . , , ,, ;,. , . ,, . , 

W or k dustnal homes for the blind, in thirteen pro 

vinces, with about 1,200 pupils and workers, 
and their spheres or influence. (2.) Various mission 
hospitals and health committees are curing diseases of 
the eye and spreading abroad many preventive measures. 
(3.) Individual missionaries and others are teaching 
many blind to read and work, and become useful citizens 
in their homes. (4.) The special Committee on the 
Promotion of Work Among the Blind in China, organized 
by the National Christian Council, is trying to unify the 
work and assist in the urgent need of expansion. 
Divisions of Educational. The 1)1 in d in the various 

thi Work schools are given as thorough an education, 

as their limited funds allow, which is more 
necessary to a blind man than to his seeing brother. The 
higher educated, the better equipped he is. Graduates are 
teachers, organists, masseurs, Bible-workers and evangelists. 
Two have graduated from St. John s University and at oncu 



LITEKATUKK FOTf 1JLINI> h i I 

found useful and lucrative positions, one as a tonehor ol 
English and the other as a, dicta phono typist. 

Thr Mind an- taught to become as nearly 
Industrial 

seli-supporting as possible. Knitting, weaving 

cloth and rugs, reed rattan and bamboo baskets and 
furniture, hrush making and poultry raising, are the chief 
industries taught which have already proved to he 
successful. 

There is a great need for Braille Literature 

and Text Hooks. A start lias boon made in 
Literature tne printing of text hooks in UNION 

MANDARIN HRAILLE and other literature 
is expected to follow. Now that the Blind can he taught 
to read, reading matter must be provided for them. Nearly 
450 portions of the Gospels and 257 copies of the Primers 
wore sold during the year. 

Promotion of Any 7 \". } l l * ^dinary Chinese 

Home Teaching can ne ^P th blind to read and write. Primers 

have been published with the written 

character over the Braille symbol to facilitate the teacher. 

Preventive ^ 1( nOH P^ a ^ s firo <h)ing valuable service s in 

Work curing those who come to them for help, and 

the Council on Health Education has provided 
literature dealing with the causes and prevention of 
blindness, also lantern slides and posters and has also 
worked out courses of lectures and charts for the use of 
any who may be able to use them. They have also 
organized publicity campaigns wherever possible. 

This extremely useful Quarterly has been 
Mandarin sent periodically to all blind persons who 

Quarterly can roa( * ^ ^t is edited by the Rev. 

Letter G. A. Clayton, and printed in Peking on a 

stereo-typing machine. 

Plans are being formed for a Central Depot 

f?r Sale of PQl whero indu stri!l] work made by the blind in 

Industrial Work China may bo sold. Great difficulty is being 

experienced by many schools and industrial 

homes by not having an outlet for the sale of their work. 

Normal School A norma J sch 1 1 is 1 f lC 1 h " } 1 for tlu 
training ol teachers oi the 



PART X 

LITERATURE 

CHAPTER LXXVI 

BIBLE DISTRIBUTION DURING THE YEAR 
G. Carleton Lacy 

Prfma Task ^ ie distribution of Scriptures is a, primary 
task of the Christian Church, for which the 
Bible Societies have been commissioned. That is by no 
means their only duty. Books have to be printed and 
bound before they can be sold. The type-setting and 
plate-casting and proof-reading process precedes that. 
These in turn must be anteceded by the work of translation 
and transcription. A review of articles in the CHINA 
MISSION YEAR BOOK during the past decade will 
indicate that the Bible Societies have given much time 
and money to this translation work. With the completion 
of the major enterprises committed to them by the 
missionary conferences, the preparation of the Union 
Mandarin and Union Wenli Versions of the Bible, no 
large translation work remains on the boards. The Bible 
Societies will be constantly at work bringing out new 
translations of portions for various dialects, revising 
colloquial texts, and preparing manuscripts and plates 
for various editions and scripts. This leaves the Societies 
free, however, to give their chief attention to the work of 
distributing Scriptures. 

This is not so simple as it may appear. To put 
the books within the reach of everyone, to make them 
attractive, to prevent waste, to insure prompt delivery, to 
create demand, and match it with supply, these are 
some of the simple elements in the problem. Complexities 
enter with the selection and supervision of field staff, 



BTRLE DISTRIBUTION , 

the dealing at long range with a scattered, unknown 
constituency, the constant change in language and literary 
taste, and the attempt of foreign agencies to supply a 
Chinese field with a Chinese product largely through 
foreign channels. 

Throe distinct methods of distribution have 
Distribution , 

been employed by the Bible societies in 

China. Combined, these have resulted during the past 
year in bringing the circulation figure to the unprecedented 
total of 7, -504, 191 volumes. This is rather amazing! 
It lias taken place in a year notoriously tempestuous, 
with warfare and brigandage rampant everywhere, with 
missionary travels seriously interrupted, with colporteurs 
falling into the hands of bandits, with mail and freight 
routes brazenly robbed, and with a fearful property loss 
for the Bible Societies in the destruction of the Fukuin 
Printing Company in the Yokohama earthquake. In 1922, 
when the circulation figure fell somewhat below that of 
the previous year, Dr. Bondficld reviewed the situation 
from his vantage point of long experience, and questioned 
whether the maximum circulation for any one year may 
not have been reached. It was then under the seven 
million mark. The rapid increase in the output of 
other forms of literature placed within ready reach of 
the population in every part of the land, relieved the 
distributor of Scriptures of his former unique position as 
the sole bearer to remote villages of the printed page 
in popular form. The Bible, once the forerunner of 
vernacular literature, has helped to bring about the literary 
renaissance which gives to common folk everywhere a wide 
choice of newspapers, pamphlets, novels, essays and poems, 
written in the language of everyday speech, and sold at 
a popular price. The intrepid colporteur, pushing his way 
faithfully beyond mountain barriers and weary desert 
wastes, is now out-stripped by the mail carrier bringing 
the output of many port city presses way beyond the last 
borders of the country. Yet Scripture distribution goes 
on unabated. 

Colporteur ^ ie t^ne-honored, world-around method 

of distributing Scriptures is by the hand of 
the colporteur. He has been the pioneer evangelist. 



. IUBLE DISTRIBUTION DURING THE YEAR 

Many a now field has been opcrcd to the Gospel through 
his sacrifices. Far and wide he has traveled, humbly he 
has labored. He has been despised and rejected of men. 
Yet ever and from everywhere conn; the stories of men 
gloriously won to the fellowship and service of Christ, 
through the testimony of The Hook first brought by one 
of these humble ministers. During the earlier days of 
missionary work in China, almost the entire circulation of 
Scriptures was secured through those paid colporteurs, 
or through missionaries selling as they traveled. This 
method is still very largely used. The British ct Foreign 
Bible Society alone employed last year between three and 
four hundred such workers. 

Paid colporteurs are under the direct supervision of 
the Bible Societies, reporting in person to the nearest 
sub-agent, and having their work directed by him. Or, 
they are supported by a Bible Society, and work under 
the direction of some missionary in his field. Or, they 
are engaged and directed by a Chinese church, which 
may receive a grant from the Bible Society by way of 
subsidizing his work and salary. Each of these methods 
has its advantages, and is more adaptable than others to 
the type of work and field of labor to which it has 
been applied. 

The reduction in funds which followed The 
Services^ ^ ar compelled a considerable reduction in 
the number of paid colporteurs. Resources 
were to a large extent in the form of book stock already 
in hand, or contracted for with the printers. This led to 
devising new methods of distribution. The voluntary 
services of Christian pastors and laymen were enrolled. 
Grants of Scriptures were made, to be sold by these 
volunteer workers at such time and in such manner as 
might prove feasible. The missionary agreed to report 
on sales, and to see that catalog prices were charged. 
Proceeds from sales were allowed to be retained 10 apply 
on travel or incidental expenses of distribution; or, where 
necessary, to serve as a slight remuneration to those 
carrying on the work. 

This special arrangement, once a necessary makeshift, 
has grown in popularity and success. Nearly 90/ of the 



STORE? 435 



American Bible Society s publications, and a larger 
proportion of those from the National Bible Society of 
Scotland, were put into the field in this manner last 
year. 

Tin; third method used is that of the 
Bookstore . . i T-I 1^-1 i 

bookstore or depot. Each 01 the Bible 

Societies lias a number of subagencies centrally located for 
the distribution of books under the supervision of a foreign 
missionary in the service of the Bible Society. While the 
major work of these men is the forwarding of books to, 
and the promotion of sales in all sections of the surround 
ing territory, and the supervision of colporteurs working in 
that Held, most of them conduct a depot from which are 
sold large numbers of Bibles and Testaments. Growing 
Christian communities have felt the need of a center from 
which could bo secured readily all sorts of Christian 
literature. Many institutional churches have provided, as 
a feature of their equipment, such a bookstore. These 
liiivo become distributing centers for the Bible. Where 
conducted on a business basis, the Bible Societies have 
granted to the; bookstore management a small commission 
on sales to apply toward expenses. The plan has been 
extended in a few cases to commercial bookstores, with 
encouraging results. The bookstore sale of Scriptures, 
especially in cities and large Christian centers, promises to 
be a constantly growing business. 

The large issue of whole Bibles to mission schools is a 
considerable feature in the total distribution of bound 
Scriptures. Compared with the circulation figure of all 
Scriptures for the year, the number of whole Bibles is not 
large. It is worthy of note that this increased last year to 
ocer 7 ,000 volumes. Fukien Province has for years been 
unique in persistently using more whole Bibles than New 
Testaments. 

The year s work in Bible distribution has 
Territories presented two distinct groups of problems. 
One has to do with the reaching of unoccupied 
territories. The reports of advances along the Tibetan 
borders, among the various Tribes peoples, over into 
Kokonor, out beyond the Great Wall, on to tin; vast plains 
of Mongolia, and even in numerous big "spots " within the 



436 BIBLE DISTRIBUTION DURING THE YEAR 

eighteen provinces, are full of romance. These regions 
are being entered by itinerant missionaries and paid 
colporteurs. Travel expenses are heavy. Populations are 
sparse. Languages are strange and various. Temptations 
are severe. Discouragements abound. Supervision is 
difficult. The Bible Societies must have the cooperation 
of missions and churches in securing the right type of men 
for this onerous yet humble calling; in equiping them for 
the enterprise, and in supervising and coaching them as 
they toil. The sales are bound to be few, the outlay of 
money considerable, and the visible returns in kingdom 
building very slow in appearing. This sort of distribution 
is a genuine challenge to consecration and faith. 

The other set of problems relates to distri- 
Areas; bution in so-called occupied areas. It has to 

do with adjustments to keep pace with the 
growth of a Chinese church. The Bible Societies, especially 
since the National Christian Conference, have found that 
their job consisted not only in distributing the Scriptures, 
but in getting the Chinese church to distribute. The 
church is responding. The voluntary distribution already 
referred to is one indication of that response. The more 
general observance of an annual Bible Sunday is another. 
The greater confidence with which grants are made to the 
churches for the employment of their own colporteurs 
expresses the recognition of this advance. Contributions 
from local churches are on the increase. More and more 
orders for Scriptures are coming directly from Chinese to 
the Bible depots, instead of through the missionaries. 
This involves doing office business in two languages instead 
of one. It enlarges the circle of correspondence far beyond 
the reach of personal acquaintance or knowledge of 
conditions of work. It make? more bookkeeping, increases 
risks, dissipates supervision. Yet it is welcome. Within 
twelve months the work of distribution has passed from 
a missionary project to a church program. That this 
transition year has registered the greatest circulation of 
Scriptures in China of any year in history is due to the 
loyal cooperation between missionary agencies and church 
forces alike, through which the Bible Societies have so 
largely functioned. 



BIBLE CIRCULATION 437 

The circulation figures for 11)23 are as follows: 

Statics Bible. ^ Portion, T ffij a T ffi? 

Nat l Bible Society 

of Scotland 2,158 8,1-]; ; 1,8(57,033 1,878,237 1,212,210 

American Bible So 
ciety 22,050 34,380 2,408,575 2,525,017 1,987,320 

British and Foreign 

Bible Society 33,549 52,781 3,074,910 3,101,240 3,190,435 



Grand Totals ... 57,703 85,313 7,411,418 7,501,494 0,389,977 



CHAPTER LXXVII 

THE PRESENT SITUATION WITH REGARDS TO 
CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

Elijah S. Nieh 

To begin with, it may be said, in a general way, that 
Christian literature is in the same situation as secular 
literature. Nearly all of the modern literary men devote 
more of their time to translating than to original composition. 
This hastens the process of bringing Chinese ideas into 
accord with western civilization. 
- i j at< { Christian literature, from the beginning, 

has been in the hands of foreign missionaries. 
It was, therefore, unavoidably mainly a matter of translation 
work. Chinese writers served only as writing machines. 
They had no chance for free self-expression. Occasionally 
one of them could write independently, but their writings 
were not esteemed by the Church. 

New Lit ^ n recen ^ times, Christian schools have 

Talent emphasised more and more the importance of 

studying the Chinese classics, and the Church 
has sent many young people to be educated abroad. As a 
result literary talent is springing up in the younger 
generation. Thus writing done by Chinese is gradually 
coming into prominence. There is a prospect that this will 
take the place of the literary work done by missionaries. 
One thing should be noted here. Though many Chinese do 
write at present-many of them excellently-most of their 
writing is in the form of short articles. The reason for this 
is that Chinese literary training does not teach people how 
to produce bulky works. Writers are led to spend most of 
their time and energy on style rather than on the search 
for material ; consequently, the cry of those who desire to 
write is that they lack a supply of refreshing ideas. To 
amend this lack it is necessary for the Church to-day to 
translate the best western books. 



ADVERTISING CHRISTIAN ROOKS 

Although Chinese writers do not write voluminous 
books, they have found an effective and suitable means of 
literary expression in magazines and bulletins. There has 
never been so many Christian papers and periodicals 
published as at present. About one hundred and thirty 
different ones now circulate in the Chinese Church. Most 
of them are supported by foreign funds; but in the main 
they are edited by Chinese. 

Periodicals Most of these periodicals are denominational 

in tone, and are read largely by members of 
their respective churches. Scarcely any non-church people 
subscribe to Christian papers. Christian literature as a 
whole is not widely read by people outside of the Church. 
This is largely due to the general anti-Christian prejudice 
of the people. 

st , Chinese students to-day are busy with the 

study of philosophy and science, and have no 
time to make inquiry into religion. In the last one or two 
years, they have been more or less carried away by the 
doctrines of socialism, and claim that we have passed the 
stage of superstition and religion. They have therefore no 
interest in religious literature. Of course Christian literature 
does not treat religion exclusively. It also includes topics 
of general interest. Now in this article by, " Christian 
literature", I mean all literature published by Christian 
organizations. The general public thinks that any literature 
published by Christian societies is for purposes of 
propaganda and has therefore more or less of the color of 
religion in it. Many of the students will not for this 
reason look at it. 

AdvertJsfn ^ G ^ tlc ^ ^ P r P er advertising also 

militates against Christian literature. Prac 
tically all the books produced by Christian societies are 
unknown to the Chinese public. These societies do not 
utilize secular newspapers for advertising purposes. It is 
true they are expensive. But the results arc good ! This 
last spring I learned an interesting fact with regard to the 
circulation of Christian literature. Some ten years ago, one 
of the Christian organizations translated and published the 
History of Socialism " by Kerkup. But little more than 
live hundred copies of the book were sold in all that time 



440 CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

About three years ago, the Commercial Press published 
the same book in Mandarin, and in one year sold more than 
twenty thousand copies! In the translator s preface of 
this Commercial Press edition it was said that this was the 
first translation of this work. This incident shows that 
Christian publishing societies should do more advertising. 
St Ie of Christian Decently a prominent Chinese Christian 
Literature writer remarked, that Christianity in China 

has only writings (^ ^) but no literature 
(; i?0 This is another, and the most important, reason 
for the fact that non- Christians do not read Christian 
literature. Christian books will not be appreciated by 
Chinese readers until they have, as Buddhist books did, 
won a place in Chinese classical literature. There is 
general criticism that the style of Christian literature 
is not up to the standard. In early years, the Church, 
in order to have literature which could be understood by 
the common people, adopted the Mandarin, which was 
then regarded by the old literati as the lowest style of 
writing. But now Mandarin is in the first rank of 
literature. It seems strange, therefore, to some of us that 
Christian writings are still being criticised. The only 
reason is that Christian writings, though in Mandarin, 
differ from that used in secular writings. 

., . . The term " Mandarin " is now rather out 

Mandarin , . ,, , , , ... 

of fashion. The popular style of writing 

to-day is called " Kuo Yii Wen 7 (|U !&;#:). People are 
easily misled by this name to think that Kuo Yii Wen 
resembles the common vernacular. But if a close ex 
amination is made of these popular writings we can instantly 
detect that the term does not express this idea. Kuo Yii Wen 
is really something between the common vernacular and 
easy wenli. 

There is another variety of this Kuo Yii Wen. It was 
started by some of those doing translation work. Instead 
of translating the original into real Chinese they followed 
almost exactly the order of the foreign language. Some 
Christian writers have advocated this style. Fortunately 
the Church as a whole has not adopted their suggestion. 
This style has been a snag to the reading public, for it is 
somewhat unintelligible for those who know no English. 



LITERATURE NEEDS 441 

jsj , j It is the general cry of the younger Church 

leaders that existing Christian literature 
cannot meet the needs of China to-day. In former days, 
Christian literature played a large part in instigating the 
revolution to overthrow the old civilization by importing 
western ideas, inventions and discoveries. Therefore it was 
esteemed very highly by most of the educated class. But 
in recent years, people outside of the Church can write just 
as well as those in the Church, perhaps better. Therefore 
the Church devotes almost all of its time to producing 
literature on religion and ethics. The place which was 
formerly occupied by Christian literature has been taken 
from Christian societies by secular producers. Christian 
literature agencies are more than glad to see young China 
take over this burden of importing western civilization. 
But the Church, which seems to be doing a good thing by 
giving up the work of producing books on politics, economy, 
philosophy, and science, has lost her charm as far as 
literature is concerned for the best young men of the 
Republic of China. These men are devout admirers of the 
so called " New Civilization." The Church was formerly 
considered the leader in new thought and new life moulds, 
but now, it is said, she is not even keeping up with the 
New Civilization Movement. 

This criticism, which is made by the new type of 
leader, is more a matter of agitation than of fact. It is the 
result of the Church not making any special effort to meet 
the needs of the intellectual classes as she did in former 
days. The Church has a greater task than just meeting the 
needs of the learned group in the nation. The Church has 
now fixed her attention on the masses, and left the selected 
few to the Chinese to tackle themselves. 

Phonetics ^ ^^ s J linc ture, a word may be said on the 

phonetic movement. There are divided 
opinions in regard to this movement. Some think that 
the phonetic will be the means of unifying the different 
dialects and of simplifying writing. The Kuo Yii Magazine 
devoted one of its numbers to discussing this topic. Others 
think it is not practical to use the phonetic in place of the 
character. During this last summer, the writer met a 
specialist in phonetics, and asked him to translate one of 



442 CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 

the articles which was written in phonetic in the Kuo Yii 
Magazine. It took him more time to do this than if it had 
heen in characters; in some places he had to guess the mean 
ing. The Chinese public is not so enthusiastic as the Church 
in the matter of promoting this system. The Sunday 
School Union may he said to be the most energetic promoter 
of this movement. The New Testament and many other 
popular Christian books have been translated into the 
phonetic. A phonetic paper was published for those who 
cannot read the characters. The phonetic helps to solve, 
to some extent, the problem of illiteracy, but it does not 
help to increa.se the percentage of readers in the whole 
nation. 



CHAPTER LXXVIII 

THE CHINA CHRISTIAN LITERATURE COUNCIL 
H. J. Molony 

OH . n The C. C. L. C. was first appointed by the 

China Continuation Committee in 1918. It 
grew out of the Special Committee on Christian Literature 
of that body, the British and American Conferences of 
Missionary Societies having, in response to Dr. Ritson s 
proposal, decided to organize an International Christian 
Literature Council, and urging that similar bodies should 
be appointed in each of the great mission areas. 
Early Work The Rev. G. A. Clayton brought out his 

" In;lex of the Chinese Literature of the 
Protestant Churches" in 1918, and the Christian Literature 
Council produced an important Report on "the Present 
State and Future Task of Christian Literature in China" 
for presentation to the National Christian Conference in 
1922, but all through these years the Council has been 
restricted in its activities for want of funds. It had been 
hoped that the Missionary Societies at home would set 
apart a fixed proportion of their income for literature 
work, but this help was not at once forthcoming. 

In the year 1920-21 a sum of G. 1000 came to hand 
from the Federation of Women s Board in America and 
was handed to the Committee on Phonetic Script. 

The Council has administered the Timothy 
Richard ^Prizes Richard Bequest, a sum of money left by 
Dr. Timothy Richard for the encouragement 
of Chinese Christian writers by the gift of prizes. The 
Council decided that it would be most in accord with 
the wishes of the donor if the annual prize took the form 
of a scholarship enabling the winner to continue his 
studies at a university. The bequest produces about 
$245 Mexican a year. Scholarships were awarded in 1921 
and 1922 to two students both of whom studied in Peking 



444 THE CHINA CHRISTIAN LITERATURE COUNCIL 

Christian University. One of these decided to take up a 
course in theological training to prepare himself for work 
in Christian literature. 

Towards the end of 1922 grants began 

. . -. &fir\r\ t< i 

to arrive from abroad, G. 8900 from the 
Committee of Reference and Council in New York, and 
215, and later 60, from the Conference of Missionary 
Societies in London. A forward policy was at once started, 
with the two objects of, (1) discovering and fostering the 
literary talent to be found in the general Christian 
Community, and (2) taking up some of the actual literary 
tasks not being attempted by existing Literature Societies. 
With a view to finding and encouraging hidden 
literary talent the Council offered prizes to be competed 
for in Christian magazines. The following magazines parti 
cipated in the competitions: (l) The Y.W.C.A. Magazine, 
(2) The Nii Too Pao, (3) The Young People s Friend 
(4) The Chinese Christian Advocate, (5) Progress, (0) The 
Lutheran Magazine. Three competitions a year were 
proposed with 1st, 2nd and 3rd prizes ranging from 825 
to $5. A total sum of $435 was paid out under this head. 
B Under the heading of definite literary tasks 

Preparation ^he following are in hand: a book of original 

Chinese Hymns, a book of Christian Poems, 
a book of Daily Devotional Readings and a book on 
Christian Evidences. In each case a Chinese Christian 
editor has been selected and is now at work, funds having 
been set aside for such expenses as are likely to be 
incurred shortly on these works. 

Grants are also being made to magazines for 
Magazines t ^ production of articles, and the Industrial 

Commission of the N. C. C. was helped with 
a grant of 8300 to enable it to publish two important 
articles on the subject of Western Industrial Conditions 
in China. 

i r At the first annual meeting of the National 

oiatus 01 council ,-0 . , . f ^ . , . -, ,1 . . 

Christian Council considerable question arose 

as the connection of the Literature Council with the 
National Council. On the one hand it was difficult to 
bind the Literature Council with its broad objects, and 
obtaining its funds from such diverse sources, to a policy 



LITERATURE RETREATS 445 

of only publishing what was within "the zone of common 
agreement" and who was to decide what that might 
mean? and on the other hand the National Christian 
Council would not care to be responsible for reviewing the 
literature produced. At the meeting of the National 
Christian Council in the spring of 1924, the responsibility 
for the Literature Council was turned over to the N. C. C., 
which decided to appoint a sub-committee on literature. 
Retreats Meanwhile the Council has endeavored 

to further its undoubted duty of fostering 
literary talent by gathering in retreat some of the leading 
Chinese Christian writers. The first retreat was held at 
Shanghai in September, 1923, when 11 Christian Chinese 
authors met with Dr. Rawlinson, Dr. Hodgkin, Dr. Leighton 
Stuart and Miss R. Brooks. The report of this gathering 
was most practical arid stimulating, and it was evident 
that we may expect to see the vigorous prosecution of the 
Christian message by a group of Chinese writers. The 
Council asked the same group to meet again in retreat, 
with more Chinese members and the addition of Dr. 
VVillard Lyon. This second retreat duly met on December 
28, 29 and 30th, J923. Sixteen people were present, 
of whom most were Chinese writers. The retreat 
unanimously reached the conviction that a Chinese literary 
organization is needed. A list of objects and activities 
for the new organization was adopted and a provisional 
organization Committee appointed. It is evident that 
the Council s policy of encouraging literary activity among 
the Chinese is to produce important results. 



CHAPTER LXXIX 

THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 
D. MacGillvray 

Q | j The Christian Literature Society was horn 

in 1887. Rev. Alexander Williamson, a 
broad minded, far-seeing Scotchman, had for many years 
circulated the Scriptures in China as Agent of the Scotch 
Bible Society, and out of this atmosphere was horn the 
idea of establishing a Society which would expound not 
only the truth found in the Bible, but all truth as 
revealed without its cover?. Such a mighty task was 
impossible for any one, even a giant, single-handed. 
Accordingly, he sought the cooperation of other mission 
aries, Dr. Young J. Allen of the Southern Methodist 
Church, Rev. Ernst Faber of the Lutheran Church, and 
other writers. But such missionary cooperation alone 
would have been insufficient; he required to obtain the 
sinews of war, and he accordingly sought the cooperation 
of like-minded merchants in Shanghai, and elsewhere, 
sharing with them the direction of his infant society. 
Some of these were attracted by the purely Gospel books, 
while others were drawn to educational features of his 
programme. Then came Dr. Timothy Richard, a man 
fit to be his peer in scholarship, blessed with vision 
and daring adventure. He took from the hand of his 
predecessor the wonderful weapon of Christian literature 
in the new society, and still further expanded the 
principle of cooperation by persuading various home 
boards to join in the good work, on both sides of the 
Atlantic. He was the first to induce boards to lend men 
and women for nation-wide work, a practise which has 
now become so widespread. We used to indicate the 
denomination of each one of the staff on our list of directors 
and letter-heads. We do so no longer a small change, 
but very significant ! 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY -117 

But more, the society is unique in the 
Workers possession of a large body of Chinese workers. 

At the beginning it was impossible to obtain a 
suflicient number of Christian writers, and accordingly the 
Society employed men who were, though not Christians, 
yet sympathetic with our point of view to provide the 
literary dress for the Christian ideas. We have worked 
along, however, to a point, side by side with the growth 
of the Chinese Church itself, at which we have a staff 
which is solidly Christian. There was cooperation from 
the beginning, but now we have reached the point where 
a unity, a fusion which is more than cooperation, which 
might only mean proximity, exists. By united staff 
meetings, united prayer meetings, and the like, the esprit 
de corps of the whole staff has been visibly bettered. 
Of necessity, at the beginning the word "writer" meant 
a more or less mechanical employee. Happily, that day 
has parsed, and we have Chinese who are colleagues, able 
to make a solid contribution to the finished product. 
But better still, there arc some who are themselves able 
to do original work, for long so justly desiderated. But 
now at length they are assuming larger proportions, to 
the great joy of the whole missionary body. When men 
and women of different denominations and from different 
parts of the mission field can combine in one society to 
preach by means of the printed page, surely the day of a 
united Church is not far distant. 



CHAPTER LXXX 

THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY FOR CHINA 
George A, Clayton 

Q . . The Central China Religious Tract Society 

was founded in 1876, and in 1915 united 
with the North China Tract Society, which had been 
founded in 18S3, to form the Religious Tract Society of 
North and Central China, Incorporated. The Chinese 
Religious Tract Society was founded in 1878, and in 1895 
united with the East China Tract Society, which had been 
founded in 1885, to form the Chinese Tract Society. 
In 1920 the Religious Tract Society of North and Central 
China united with the Chinese Tract Society, which was 
to have been called the "Religious Tract Society of 
North, Central and East China". But on applying for 
incorporation, it was found that the title was not 
acceptable to the authorities and it had to be altered to 
"The Religious Tract Society for China". This Society 
has its head depot and printing works in Hankow and 
a depot in Shanghai. The former Manchuria Tract 
Society has ceased to function. The united Society has 
a Board of Directors meeting in Central China (Hankow), 
with Committee in North China (Peking), East China 
(Shanghai) and Manchuria (Moukden). The minutes of 
Board are sent to the members of these committees, and 
these members can ask for the re-consideration of any 
action of the Board. 

The Religious Tract Society for China 

C P*"* ion works in cooperation with the West China 
with Other ,. ,. . , J M . . , . -, 

Societies Religious Tract Society at Chung-king, and 

all manuscripts accepted by either Society are 
available for the use of the other. There are also Tract 
Societies in North and South Fukien doing special dialect 
work, and a Tibetan Tract Society has been formed which 
aims at reaching the people of that lama-oppressed land. 



THE RELIGIONS TRACT SOCIETY FOR CHINA 119 

Distribution During its statistical year, 1922-1923, the 

Religious Tract Society for China sent out 
2,966,37(5 publications of the value of $41,413.06. The 
number of publications thus sent out was less by 167,917 
than the number sent out in the 1921-1922 year, a decrease 
which is easily explained by the state of the country 
during the latter months of 1923. Sixty-five new titles 
were added to the catalogue, and a list of these will bo 
found in the chapter of this book which deals with the new 
publications of the Protestant Churches. 
p The Society owns, free of all debt, two 

large buildings in Hankow. The Depot 
building provides on its three stories for the Depot, the 
offices and the residence. The Press is housed in another 
large three-storied building and, besides facilitating the 
work of the Society, brings in a substantial income. The 
Society now absorbs throe-fifths of the possible output 
from the Press, and the question whether to further 
enlarge the capacity of the Press so as to meet the needs 
of the Missions in Central China or to limit the Press to 
its present capacity and discontinue mission and business 
printing as the work of the Society increases is having 
the careful attnetion of the Directors. At present there is 
no sign that any commerical press doing book work in 
Chinese, will be established in Hankow. 



CHAPTER LXXXI 

CHINA AS INTERPRETED TO THE OCCIDENT 
BY THE RECENT BOOKS 

Kenneth Latourette 

In articles in many periodicals there has 
^ , 111 . i i , i 

Interest been a marked change in the past twelve or 

eighteen months. In much of 1922 journalists 
were primarily concerned with the Washington Conference 
and in the United States at least there was fairly general 
congratulation on the outcome of the gathering and a feel 
ing that China was at last being given a fair chance to work 
out her salvation. There was, to be sure, in some quarters 
an appreciation of the fact that China was still under 
constraint from the powers and that given internal 
conditions as they w r ere no early achievement of an orderly, 
united government could be hoped for. These qualifications 
did not make any profound impression, however, and with 
the news of the increase of banditry, the Linnheng incident, 
the flight of Li Yuan Hung from Peking, and the financial 
condition of the government, there came in some quarters 
what was akin to disillusionment. Instead of the Washing 
ton Conference and its constructive actions newspapers and 
magazines have spoken most of robberies, anarchy and 
revolution, and China has for the moment fallen badly in 
popular esteem. 

Fortunately the books on China which 
General Books , . , , . , , . . 

discuss recent events and w T hich describe the 

country for the general reader suffer but little from the 
current pessimism and some times not at all. Dr. Henry 
Hodgkin has laid us all further in his debt by his China in 
the Famili/ of Nation* (London, Allen and Unwin, 1923). 
The volume is on the whole the fairest and most judicial 
survey of China s recent international relations that has 
appeared in book form and it lias as well thoughtful 
chapters on the industrialization of China, the New Thought 



TRAVEL TN CHINA 451 

Movement, and the contribution that the Chinese can make 
to the world. Professor E. T. Williams, who has spent 
many years in China, first as a missionary and then as a 
representative of the United States government has in 
China Yesterday and Today (New York. Thomas Y. Crowell 
Co., 1923) given to the American reading public a general 
book on the country. The chapters are of decidedly uneven 
merit. Those from three to ten inclusive eon tain part of 
the fruit of the anther s own wide and discerning observation 
and are of real worth. Those on religion are not nearly so 
good and the sketeli of the history of the past century is 
commonplace and lacks proportion. It is all distinctly 
readable, however. H. K. Norton, in The Far Eastern 
Republic of Siberia (London, Allen and Unwin, 1923) gives 
an American s view of a northern neighbor of China and 
is on the whole friendly to the republic ami critical of the 
Japanese. There ought also to be mentioned as a general 
interpreter of China to the Occident The China Journal of 
Arts and Sciences. It is, as all the missionary body probably 
knows, prepared for a more popular clientele than was the 
late New China Review, a publication which came to an 
untimely end with the death of its lamented editor. 
^, Books of travel have been rather numerous. 

There is The Temples of the Western Hills, 
Visited from Peking by G. E. Hubbard (Tientsin). H. A. 
Franck has added to his books of ramblings in various 
parts of the world a well illustrated narrative called 
Wandering in Northern China (Century Co., 1923) in which 
he tells of his journeys in Mongolia and some of the 
northern provinces. Eric Teichman narrates experiences 
of 1918 in Travel* of a Consular Office in Eastern Tibet (Cam 
bridge University Press, 1922). Arthur de Carle Sower by 
tells of interesting expeditions the first one in 1913-in The 
Xatura ist In Manchuria^ vol. 1, Travel and Exploration 
(Tientsin Press, 1923^. The book has many illustrations 
and its chapter on the races the author encountered is of 
especial interest. In somewhat lighter vein is Elizabeth 
C. Enders , Swinging Lanterns (New York, 1923). Books of 
description of more limited areas include G. Bouillard, 
Le Temple du Ceil (Albert Nachbaur, Peking, 1923) and 
j\ volume made up largely of translations from the Chinese 



452 CHINA A3 TNTE-RPBETEP TO THE OCCIDENT 

concerning a garden in Soochow, Kate Kerby, An Old 
Chinese Garden (Chung Hua Book Co., Shanghai, 11)23). 

Was it Lamb wlio in his story of the origin 
of roast pig started the Western writing of 
fiction on China ? It may well have been so, for most of 
his successors have presented China in a rather bizarre 
manner. There have been recently added to the list Silk, 
by Samuel Merwin (Boston, 1923) a tale of the intrigues 
of the Roman Empire to acquire the secret of silk culture, 
and Kai Luncfs Golden Hours by Ernest Bramah (New York, 
1923), a companion volume to the entertaining Wa let of 
Kai Lung of earlier date. 

Americans have in the past decade or more been 
cultivating a gastronomic interest in China. It is a very 
backward city in the United States which cannot boast at 
least one brilliantly lighted " restaurant " inn by Cantonese 
in which a few semi-Chinese lanterns and bills of fare 
displaying chop suey, the various varieties of chow mien 
and in some instances genuinely Chinese dishes attract 
those who are looking for new sensations. It is not strange, 
then, that the year has produced Chinese Recipes : Letters 
from Alice Hfwre to Ethel Mocre Rook (New York, 1923). 
The remark ought also to be made here, although its 
connection with restaurants may seem remote, that with 
the introduction of Mali Jong a large literature has begun 
to appear to offer guidance; to an eager public. 
Interpretations , If fc j ll! average American thinks of China as 
a land 01 laundrymen and restaurant keepers 
who (ind their recreation in gambling at Mali Jong, there 
are fortunately not wanting in the year s output, books 
which will, if he will but take the trouble to read them, 
give him scholarly and sympathetic interpretations of other 
phases of China s life. All Occidental students of Ch : na 
will mark as noteworthy the year that has witnessed the 
appearance of Dr. E. B. Bruce s two volumes on the Sung 
philosophers, The Philosoph;/ of Hvman Natvre: Chu Hsi 
(a translation of portions of his works) and what is meant 
to be an introduction to the former, Chu Hsi and His Masters 
(Probstain and Co., London). These are books which 
every missionary will wish to know and it is a matter for 
pride to all of us that out of our body there are still coming 



INTERPRETATIONS OF CHINA 453 

men who are worthy of the title of sinologue. There are 
those who will find fault with Dr. Bruee s work, partly in 
some of the English words he has used for Chinese terms 
for it is impossible to put Chinese philosophical terminology 
into a European language without long introductory exv 
planatory notes of the connotation to the Chinese of the 
words they used and this the author has not always done 
in a satisfactory manner. A persual of even the first few 
pages of Chu Hsi and His Masters discloses, too, some serious 
mistakes in proof reading which ought not to have been 
allowed to creep in. We should all be glad, however, that 
there has at last appeared in English a fairly adequate 
account of Sung philosophy. Quite as important as Dr. 
Bruce s two volumes is a book by Professor Alfred Forke, 
the eminent German scholar who was for a time at the 
University of California. This, to give it its full title, is 
Me Ti, des Sozmlthikers und seiner Schider philosophische Worke 
zun ersten Male vollstiindig ubersetzt, mit ausfiihrllcher 
Einleitung, erlduternden und textkritischen JSrklarungenversehen. 
(Berlin, 1922) At last, then, we have an adequate work, 
done with all the thoroughness of German scholarship, on 
the philosopher who is being so much talked of in these 
latter days. Other books on the religion and philosophy 
of the Chinese are a popular manual in French, Marcel 
Granet, La Religion des China s (Paris, 1922), a history of 
Chinese philosophy, Storia della Filosofa Cinese Antica, by 
G-. Tucci, an Italian sinologue, a general manual on Eastern 
philosophy, M. R. Grousset, Histoire de la philosophie 
orientate, Inde, Chine, Japan. (Paris, 1923), and anew book 
on the Tao Teh Ching, Lao Tzu, I.e Litre de la Vole et de la 
Vertu, by P. Salet (Paris, 1<)S3). 

Art Chinese art is attracting much attention in 

Europe and America and the demand is 
bringing forth many books on the subject. Since those 
most interested are often wealthy collectors, the volumes 
are frequently in sumptuous form and are sold at a price 
prohibitive to most missionaries. Arthur Waley of the 
British Museum has prepared An Jndex of Chinese Artists 
(London, 1922) and a beautifully printed and illustrated 
Introduction to the Study of Chinese Painting (London, 1923). 
There has recently appeared, too, Agnes E. Meyer, Chinese 



454 CHINA AS INTERPRETED TO THE OCCIDENT 

Painting as Reflected in the Thought and Art of Li Lung-mien, 
1070-1106 (New York, 11)23). There was also published in 
1923 the third edition of Binyon s well known work, 
Painting in the Far East. There is a book, Early Chinese 
Jades by Dame Una Pope Hennessy (New York, 1923) 
which reflects price the of its subject and there are two on 
ceramics, The Art of the Chinese Potter (New York, 1923), 
and the elaborately illustrated Wares of the Ming Dynasty by 
R. L. Hobson (London, 1923). Even if most of us can ex 
pect to see these books only through the generosity of public 
libraries we can at least be glad that there are those in the 
Occident who have the means and are sufficiently interested 
to make them possible. 

Language and KacJl year soes llew l)ooks on tne language 
Literature ^^ literature of China. Those that have 

appeared recently are J. B. Grant, Exercises in 
Translation (London, 1923), a book for beginners; Poemes 
Chinois de la Dynastie Song, translated by G. Soulie de 
Morant (1923); Tsen Tsonming, Essai Historique sur la 
Poesie Chinoi?e (Paris, 1923); B. Kalgren, Sound and Symbol 
in Chinese (London, 1923); Ki Yun, Le Lama Route et autres 
contes, translated by S. 1-C. Tchen-Loh and Mine. L. Paul- 
Margueritte (Paris, 1923); E. T. C. Werner, Chinese Ditties 
(Tientsin); and translations of some Chinese lyric poems by 
Hans Bethqe under the title Pfirsichbltiten aus China (Berlin, 
1922). The last named volume is illustrated with some 
Occidental pictures of a most advanced futuristic type. 
Research ^ n Edition to th ( - volumes so far named 

there are a number which the more serious 
student of China will note with interest and which he will 
wish to examine and, if they suit his special interest, to 
study with some care. Professor Cordier is crowning 
his long life of arduous labor in things Chinese by a 
supplement and index, to his well known Bibliotheca Sinica. 
The second fascicule of the supplement has appeared during 
the past year and we impatiently await the others. 
Professor Giles has brought out a new edition of his Travels 
of Fa-Hsien (A.D. 99-4-14) or Record of the Buddhistic 
Kingdoms (Cambridge, 1923). The older edition is probably 
to be preferred to this new one, for the latter does not 
contain the notes that added to the value of the earlier 



RESEARCH IN CHINA 455 

one. In honor of the veteran Professor F. Hirth whose 
books all careful students of China have long used with 
pleasure and profit there has been published by Probsthain 
and Company (London, 1923) the Hirth Anniversary Volume. 
A Collection of Twenty Kight Contributions towards Chinese and 
Central Asian Art and Civilization. The volume is worthy of 
the scholar in whose honor it was published. An attempt 
on a somewhat now line is J. Rodes, Les Chinois ! Essai de 
Psychologic Ethnographiquc (Paris, 1923), an analysis, as the 
title indicates, of race psychology . There is also E. Schmitt, 
Die Gnindlagen der Chinesischen Kultur. There is a study of 
the Chinese stage which is chiefly of value for its 
illustrations, The Chinese Thcitrc by Chu-chia Chien, trans 
lated from the French by J. A. Graham (London, 1922). 
Henri Cordier has brought out a fourth volume of his 
Melanges d 1 Histores et de Geographic Orientates (Paris, 1922), 
the present one being made up of five articles w T hich have 
previously appeared in various journals between 1883 and 
1918. There is a new study of the T ai P ing Rebellion by 
Dr. Wilhelm Oehler under the title Die Taiping-Bewegung. 
Geschichts eines chinesisch-christlichen Gottesreichs (Giitersloh, 
1923) which attempts a more favorable picture of that 
movement than has sometimes been given. It is unfortunate 
that he could not have seen the still unpublished work by 
Professor W. J. Hail on that subject, for nothing so good 
has yet appeared. Works in European languages by 
Chinese have not been as plentiful as in some other years. 
One must note with gratitude the continuation of the ex 
cellent Chinese Social and Political Science Review with its 
articles, its collections of documents, and its special supple 
ments, such as the study by Professor T. T. Low of the 
treatment of China in the textbooks in use in American 
schools. There must also be noted the Bulletins on Chinese 
Education, 1928, gotten out by the Chinese National 
Association for the Advancement of Education and now to 
be had in a single volume at the Commercial Press. It is 
another of the books that all missionaries should know. 
,, . Of works on missions the year has not 

Missions J ,. , 

seen as many as have some tormer twelitn- 

months. Probably the most notable book on Protestant 
work, and indeed, about the only one, is Dr. James 



456 CHINA AS INTERPRETED TO THE OCCIDENT 

B. Webster s Christian Education and the National Consciousness 
in China. This is an interesting and valuable analysis of 
the educational background of China both old and new and 
of that of the West, with problems arising from the contacts 
between the two and the special contributions which 
Christian missions can make. It is a book which should 
be read in connection with the report of the educational 
commission. The two taken together make an excellent 
and thought-provoking introduction to the entire subject. 
Catholic missions are represented by a most attractive and 
rather bulky volume of letters from the members of the 
newly established American mission in South China, 
Marylcnoll Mission Jitters. China Vol. 1 (New York, 1U23). 
These not only give an intimate picture of Catholic work 
but are one more indication of the increasing place which 
American Catholics are coming to have; in the efforts of 
their church in China. There is, too, a volume on the Paris 
society that has labored continuously in the Far East since 
its foundation in the seventeenth century, l.a Societe des 
Missio ns Etrangeres, (Pari s , 1923). 

In spite of the fact, then, that China has not been 
brought prominently before the world in the special ways 
that it has during several of the past twelve or fifteen 
years, the output of books shows a growing interest in the 
country and, on the whole, the disposition to study the 
land and its people in a scholarly and sympathetic fashion. 
If missionaries no longer, as formerly, take a predominant 
place in the production of these books, they still have an 
honorable part and can be thankful that the interest they 
helped to kindle has spread outside their circles and is 
beginning to reach the West as a whole. 



CHAPTER LXXXII 

SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED 
T. C. Chao 

,, No one can write on the books written bv 

New Thought ~. . , .,, _. J 

Movement Chinese scholars and students without realiz 
ing that a tremendous output has been effected 
during the past two or three years. One thing the New 
Thought Movement certainly did is increase the literary 
activities of Chinese thinkers and writers. We have no space 
to note the numerous magazines and societies of learning 
that have come into being recently. But in passing we may 
mention "The New Man Society, ($? A ifi) , The Coopera 
tive Learning Club (^ $ ft), The Philosophy Club (^ ^ 
jftt), The Young China Association (&j /J> m \<% ft), The 
Science Society (ffi *% ft), Tlio Modern Man Society 
(^ A tO, The Sociology Club (it f & f ), The Society for 
the Study of Modern Literature (# ^ #F 3 ft) , The 
Society for the Study of Chinese Culture (ffl ^ #f ^ -f), 
and a large numl)er of others. We may also mention such 
periodicals and magazines as The Psychological Review 
U>3t^$R), The Critical Review (& f), Science (ft ^), 
The Literary Weekly, (^C 41 M fij), The Effort Weekly 
(3 ;ft 3l Tij), The Solitary Army (ffi jft), The Pacific Ocean 
(Jk ^), The New Education ($r 1^ W), The Sociological 
Review (ft -f -^ |ft), The Young China Journal ( *?- tfi |$) 
and other popular and technical publications. Local papers 
are so numerous that it is impossible to even list them 
here. 

To the casual observer even it is evident 

Write k tnafc a ^ the stuclents wno know how to use 

the pen are anxious to express themselves. 
Their motives are many. There is the desire to tell others 
what one has learned, to translate and to introduce new 
thought. Then there is an enthusiastic desire to tell and 



458 SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED 

compare experiences, and to secure social emancipation 
through the finding of something "common to all" in 
these joyful or painful experiences. The rebellious spirit 
as well as the thirst for the new find vent in literature. 
Individualism on the one hand demands an explanation of 
all things that have hitherto been accepted without being 
summoned before the bar of human reason. And on the 
other hand, the naked individual needs assurance in the 
sympathy of similar individuals. There has been no time 
like this in the history of, Chinese literature. We find 
much indiscreet self-revelation and love, and much 
undefined and unrefined altiuism and selfish benevolence. 
Again there is a rush for science. While it is true that 
many students neglect their studies and show a sort of 
docility combined with limitless and childish foolishness, 
there are many young men and women in our government 
schools that devote themselves to serious study, to science, 
philosophy and art. The love of science, meagre as it is, 
has become a strong motive for the learning and writing of 
many people in China to-day. In addition to all this, 
professors in the various colleges are turning their lectures 
into books. Such men as Kiang Kang Whu (& /C ^), 
Liang Chi Chao (^ Jft g), Hu Su ($ ji) and others all have 
their addresses printed. Finally we find patriotism in the 
growing national consciousness of Chinese thinkers that 
reveals itself in research work in Chinese history, 
philosophy, and present problems. Systematic efforts are 
being put forth for the discovery of China s true past. 
Consequently those who cannot write books 
contribute articles to papers and newspapers. 
And those who are able to write, both translate and create 
books for the small thirsty reading public. Just to give 
the reader some idea of some of the books that these 
authors have written during the last year or so, I shall 
take the books that I have in my study and give them a 
short review. I shall not mention other books recently 
translated and published on such subjects as philosophy, 
psychology, sociology, politics, literature, art, socialism 
and education. There is now literally an army of trans 
lators and reviewers many of whom have thus found a 
new profession and a new way of making a living. 



TRENDS IN CHINESE THOUGHT 459 

Of course the personal library of a Chinese 
student like myself is by no means representa 
tive of all the literary attempts made by the 
Chinese people during recent years. But it will probably 
suggest the trend of the times to foreign readers. Chinese 
who read anything at all read Mr. Liang Chi Chao s 
11 Lectures * in three volumes (J& ft /& $C n % ^ <4 ^- 
These volumes contain chapters on such subjects as " My 
Reflections and Observations During My Travels in 
Europe"; Europe after the Great War "; The 
Awakening of China" ; " In Europe " ; " In London " ; 
" A Bird s Eye View of the Peace Conference at Paris " ; 
" Alsace-Lorraine " ; The League of Nations " ; " The 
International Labour Problem 7 ; "The Beginnings of 
Buddhism in China " ; " China s Returned Students 5,000 
Years Ago " ; Literary Translations and Buddhistic 
Classics" ; "Buddhism and Tibet"; "The Translation 
of Buddhistic Books " ; " Six Long Essays on Buddhism " ; 
* The Philosophy of Lao T/,u " ; " The Study of the Chinese 
People Asa Race As Reflected in Chinese History " ; 
" Chinese Language and Chinese Philology " ; " Education 
by Free Lectures " ; " The Progress of China During the 
Last Fifty Years " ; " The Meaning and Value of Political 
Movements " ; and many others. All these lectures are 
written in simple Kuo Yii which is at once literary and 
easy to understand. The reading of these three volumes 
is in itself an education. Then there are by the same 
author such books as " The Philosophy of Mo Ts/ (^ -J- 
% #), "A Commentary on Mo Tsz " (M ^ tfc flOi "The 
Method of Studying Chinese History " (^ \$ f& & (iff v), 
The Political Theories of Tsin arid Before " (fr % & ft & 
M Jt), " An Introduction to the History of Learning in the 
Ching Dynasty" (! ft * Hf ft ft), and "The Poet, Tao 
Yuan Ming " (p^j JJgj Hjj). In addition to these books Liang 
has two other volumes of "Lectures On Learning" (?& ft 
A ^ ^ H M4 $$) I have learned that Liang has also 
written the first volume on " The History of Chinese 
Buddhism "(^MWt $t&); but I have not as yet seen the book. 
Liang Siu Ming (*fe ^ $t), a young man of 
about tliirty and a professor of Hindu 
philosophy in the National University of 



469 SOME CHINESE BOOKS ItECENTLY PUBLISHED 

Peking has written two well known books which have 
had very wide circulation. The first one is called " The 
Civilizations of the East and the West and Their 
Philosophies " ($ 3t 4b ,& 3 33 30, in which he com 
pares the characteristics of the two civilizations and 
criticizes both in a very audacious manner. The other 
book is called " An Introduction to the Philosophy of 
India " (ep j ^ & Ifa f&) ; this gives an account of the 
history of the systems of thought in India and their 
relation to Buddhist controversy between naturalists and 
idealists. 

During 1923 there was a controversy waged among the 
intellectual leaders of Young-China philosophers psycholo 
gists, historians, geologists, and other naturalists, literary 
men and students such as Hu Su (#J jg), Chang King-wan 
(& ft 1ft), Chen Tu-siu (|$ ffi ^), Ting Wen-kiang (r & ft), 
Wu Shih-hui (^ fit W), Loh Chih-wei fe;-*t), Chang 
Tung-sun (& # ?|) and Chu King-lung (fc & J|), on the 
very important and perplexing problem of "The Science 
and Philosophy of Life " (ft Q $| A 4- t&). Two volumes 
of about two hundred and fifty thousand words have been 
written on this subject in connection with the debate. The 
themes of the contention were * Does a philosophy of life 
based upon mere scientific theories give the true meaning 
or meanings of life ? Is the naturalistic interpretation of life 
a sufficient explanation of life in all its various aspects ? } 
Mr. Chang King-wan started the discussion by stating that 
life, having its idealistic and intuitive aspects (as for 
instance expounded in the philosophies of Eucken and 
Bergson) , is above the domain of science and the mechanistic 
interpretation of phenomena of science which cannot touch 
and should not touch the sphere of values and evaluation. 
Immediately after his lecture in Tsing Hua College, Mr. 
Ting Wen-kiang, himself a geologist, took issue with 
him. Then men like Wu Shih-hui, Hu Su and others 
followed suit. Strong thinkers on both sides contributed 
thought provoking arguments. Since then another book 
has appeared namely the " Battle of the Philosophies of 
Life" (A&M2. i& Jffi). 

Search for Lite While the controversialists are primarily 
interested in the intellectual justification of 



SCIENCE ANl) HISTORY 46l 

their views rather than in the results which naturalism or 
idealism is bound to produce in the conduct and spirit of 
the nation, they nevertheless reveal to us their consciousness 
of the nation s deep seated need of an adequate view of life 
for these times of rapid change. They show also an 
intellectual and practical turning away from the ethical and 
philosophical theories of China s past and an eagerness to 
build a view or a number of views of life on reasonable and 
scientific grounds. They manifest an acquaintance with 
Western systems of thought, which we realize were not so 
prevalent among Chinese scholars a few years ago. Most 
important of all, these men indicate to us two very urgent 
needs of the Chinese people to-day, (i)the need of a spiritual 
interpretation of life at a time when materialism is invading 
our land with such convincing force, and (2) the need of 
inculcating the spirit and methods of science in the minds 
of the Chinese people after long ages of generalizing and 
theorising. Tell them there is nothing beyond the 
naturalistic explanations of science and you will do 
them a lasting good. In all these contentions their 
influence upon both Christian and Non -Christian students 
is very great and should therefore challenge our sympathetic 
and creative thinking on the saint 1 , problems to the end that 
we may present a consistent Christian Philosophy of Life 
to the nation that will be satisfactory both to reason and to 
the whole significance of life. This controversy means a 
very great deal to the Christian Movement in China. 
H j stor Especially notable is Tsiang Po-li s book on 

* The History of the European Renaissance 
($F W 111 Kk $H # ij ft $J &) which opens "a way to those who 
seek the morning light ". Liang Chi-chao has a very high 
opinion of this book. Those who want to understand the 
Chinese Renaissance should read this book which, written 
in the Wen-li, gives hints of the motives behind the Chinese 
New Thought Movement. Then there is Chow Tso-jen s 
(l$ \\i A) " History of European Literature " (R$C $3 . & $L) 
which traces the development of literature through Greek 
and Hebrew strata. Non-Christians understand the Bible 
at times far better than Christians who believe and yet 
do not know. Following these books in the order of 
value are Yih Cliia 1 s " The Western Family " (%, ^ ic 



SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED 

? g m), Hu Su s Essays (#j j # #), and Chen Tu-siu s 
Essays ($} ^3t #). 

T a lat ns ^ s ^ ar as translated books are concerned we 
find Bertrand Russell, Bergson, Dewey, 
Eucken, Einstein, Victor Hugo, Tagore, Tolstoi, Ibsen, 
Marx, Bernard Shaw, Maeterlinck, Driesche, McDovgall, 
Nietsche, Darwin, Ell wood, and a long list of others in 
various lines in the book markets. Startling discourses in 
the periodical literary world are legion. Russian, Japanese, 
French, German, English, and Chinese literature mingle 
on the book shelves of many a reader to-day. All these are 
Non-Christian production?, translated by Non-Christian 
writers, some of whom are veteran scholars while many 
others are talented but amateur lovers of the pen. As it is not 
within the scope of this paper to mention the books produced 
by Christians or Christian literature societies, I pass them 
over without mentioning their contribution which is at 
present comparatively meagre and weak. Not is it possible 
to classify the subjects of the books that are being produced 
and that have been written by those in teaching work. 
Suffice it to say that there are now many books on 
socialism, on the duties of citizens, on labor problems, on 
women, children, and politics, on education, heredity, 
economics, biology, and other scientific subjects. Most 
Chinese colleges have their " Chung Shu " ($t ^). 
TO om 9 Two other things should be mentioned as 

Problems they are doubtless of interest to foreign 

readers. There is now a set of six volumes 
on "The Woman s Problems". These six books are a 
compilation of articles published in various magazines and 
newspapers in the last few years from May 4, 11)20, on. No 
one interested in the progress of Chinese women can afford 
to ignore the opinions and conceptions of the Chinese young 
men and women in regard to the problems of women. It 
is only possible to mention the main topics of the various 
articles published in these volumes. These are "The 
Emancipation of Woman "; " The Education of Women "; 

The Economic Dependence and Independence of Women"; 

The Political Rights of Women " or " Universal Suffrage 
for Women"; " The^ Problem of Child Birth"; "The 
Problem of Sex" Woman arid the Home" " The 



CHINESE POETRY 40, * 

Family "; " Marriage "; " Love " ; " Divorce "; " Celibacy "; 
"The Modesty and Purity of Womanhood"; "Woman s 
Moral Life " ; " The Public Education of Children "; " The 
Problem of Prostitution"; The Problem of Female 
Slaves"; The Mind of Woman"; Hairdressing " ; 
"Biographies of Noted Modern Women". Every one of 
these topics is of great significance to Chinese people at this 
time when old standards and moral sanctions are breaking 
down and new ideals of life have not as yet found clear ex 
pressions in the thought and conduct of the people. 
p oe t r Besides these books on woman and her 

problems, there is another kind in the writing 
of which both men and women collaborate. The Chinese 
Renaissance will miss its real function if it does not show 
creative power in the production of an entirely new kind 
of literature, especially poetry. There are many people 
who have decided, whether they fail or succeed, not to use 
the classical language or iren-li to convey their ideas. The 
pei-hua must conquer through use and through the faith of 
those who employ it for the expression of the best thoughts 
they have. The bone of contention for several years has 
been whether or not the pei-hua is the proper medium of 
poetic expression. Those who believe that no new poetry 
is possible in the wen-ii have made more or less successful 
attempts to put real poetry into the kuo-yu. In spite of 
the fact that most of those who write in the pci-hutt are 
well versed in the classical language they have purposefully 
abandoned the old way and gone over to this new way of 
writing poetry. China to-day is a forest full of such singing 
birds. To mention the most noted volumes of poems 
published recently, we have Miss Hsieh Ping Sing s 
(a graduate of Yen-Ching University Woman s College) 
"Numerous Stars (fit fr *t tfj % M) a book of lyrical 
poems; Dr. C. W. Luh s (a graduate of Soochow University 
and of the University of Chicago, now head of the Depart 
ment of Psychology, Southeastern University) " Crossing the 
Stream" (1$ & & tfj i& ffi} a volume of social, religious, 
philosophical, and lyrical poems the technique of which 
none has yet beaten; Kang Bei Ching s (a graduate of the 
National University of Peking now studying in America) 
"The Grass" (ffi & tit M < &); Wong Chin Tse s (a 



404 SOME CHINESE BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED 

student of The Chinese Public School, Wusung, Shanghai) 
"The wind of Hui " (vf t? ^ tfj |< ift /H); Yu Ping Pel s 
(a graduate of the National University of Peking, now 
teaching in certain schools) " Winter Nights " (fa *p fg ^ 
%- $); Kuo Mu Shih s (a returne I student from a Japanese 
Medical School, now editor in the Tai-tung Book Company, 
Shanghai) " The Goddess" (ftp ft % ft -& jftf) ; Wen I Tu s 
" Red Candle " (ffl fiij & $j) and others. Many are 
attempting to write poetry and while a goodly number fail, 
a considerable number succeed. Of the young poets we 
may mention, besides those already indicated, Hsu Chih Mu 
(& IS #), Tang Shih (jg &), Shen Ying Mu (ft ^ &), Shcn 
Chi Shih (ft ^ ih) , Wong Ching Shi (ft tft 1&), Chow Tsu Jen 
(IB fc A), Chow Tse Kai (ft) ft) , Li Da Tsai (& * &]), 
Yu She (^ jt), Hu Su (^ ii), Luh Yu Pei (&.%.& , Mrs. 
Jen, (Miss Chen Hung Tsih) ([$ $j ^), Miss Huang Wei 
(ft tt), IAI Chia Lun (|p. ^ fj^), Yih Shao Kying (H 13 ^j) , 
Fu Nian Chang (\$ fe |^), Fu Shi Nian (j|/f), Wang 
Chih Sui (EE ;i; J,flj), Meng Suo Tsuan (^ "^ ^), and many 
others. J heir poems have been collected into volumes and 
have also appeared in different newspapers and magazines. 
The " Snowy Morning" (if |fl) published under the name 
of the Society for the study of Literature, and the Year of 
Poems ($? H.V *f- Jg) published under the name of the North 
Club, are typical poetical books ( f the times. 

In addition to books of poetry we may say something 
in passing about books giving results of study of old Chinese 
poets. There are also books of short stories. Such books 
as Yih Shao Kying s " The Grass Man ", " The Diaphram " 
(M ft $/ #j "^ A I? HM US) we quite representative of the 
creative instinct. Then there are Yu Ping Pei s " An 
Argument in Regard to the Dream of the Red Chamber " 
fe ^ fA ^ ^1 t$ & W)> r l he revival of the study of ancient 
literature is characteristic of the Renaissance movement also. 

Let the reader be reminded that the books and authors 
mentioned in this article are those that the writer is 
personally best acquainted with. The list is very incomplete. 
It is all the more so because the writer s interest is narrow 
and selective of subjects. Literary activity together with 
activity in the provinces of science show a growth in the life 
of the nation which is most promising for the peace of the 



PEACEFUL VITALITY 405 

people and of the world in spite of the fact that both Chinese 
politicians and foreign diplomatists are creating situations 
conducive to war, the increase of bandits in China and 
robbers elsewhere;. It is only to be hoped that calamity 
howlers may see something of this peaceful vitality and that 
the Christian church may match this surging life with a 
corresponding activity which will supply a religious motive 
and a spiritual touch to the New Thought Movement. 



CHAPTER LXXXIII 

NEW PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE, OCTOBER, J922, 
AND SEPTEMBER, 1923 

G A* Clayton 

The constant repetition of the same statement gets 
monotonous, and so the reader is referred to the headings 
of similar lists to this which have appeared in "The 
China Mission Year Book ;5 for the reasons why this list is 
incomplete. Even though emphasis has this year been laid 
on the advantage which it is to a publisher to have his 
publications listed here, the necessary information has in 
many cases been supplied in an imperfect form. 

Six years have elapsed since the " Index " was issued 
and a new edition would have been ready now if it had 
been possible for me to find the time needed for the final 
work on the manuscript. It is to be hoped that before 
September, 11)24, the new edition will be on sale and that 
a supplementary list for the 1923-1924 period will not 
be needed. 

In the case of two or three publishers I have included 
in this list books which were not issued during the. period 
under review because their lists for last year arrived late. 

As far as I know no new publisher has commenced 
work since October, 1923. The Methodist Publishing 
House has ceased its work as a Mission Press, but it is 
understood that it will continue as a publisher. And 
probably before another year has passed the Commercial 
Press will have started to issue Christian books as a part 
of its regular commercial activities. 

The Christian Literature Society, Shanghai 

J^IWfW 254pp. Copy, 0.70 

NE\V COMMENTARY ox THE KEVELATIOX OP ST. JOHX. 
J. Leighton Stuart. 

70pp. Copy, 0.15 

COMPARATIVE EELIGIOX, by Kellogg. Trans. W. M. Hayes. 



PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 467 

1 Wpp. Copy, 0. IS 



TALKS FOR THE KING H CHILDREN, by Stall. 

&M%ffi 

How TO STUDY THE BIBLE. 1). MacGillivray. 



CHEKIANG TRACTS. Chen Gin-yung. Fourth series of eight. 

filftidK ...... 12-lpp. Copy, 0.20 

ROMOLA, by George Eliot. Trans. Miss Laura M. White 

itWUft .- ...... -14pp. Copy, 0.12 

Tin-: LIFE op ALICE FREEMAN PALMER. Miss Mary Chen. 

#HfS ...... ... 4Spp. Copy, o.os 

THE UPPER ROOM, by Ian Maclaren. Trans. I). MacGillivray. 

#)$#&$? ... -. ... 234pp. Copy. 0.40 

STUDIES FOR STUDENTS FROM JOHN S GOSPEL, bySpeer. Trans. 
I). MacGillivray. 



SOCIAL PRINCIPLES OF JESUS, by Rauschenbusch. Trans. C. S. ( . 

fct-*f^^Jl** .- * Opp. Copy, 0.40 

THEOLOGY FOR A SOCIAL GOSPEL, by Rauschenbnsch. Trans. 
J. Speicher. 

^^sfeffiRft^ ... ...86pp. Copy, 0.15 

ROBINSON CRUSOE. Trans. 1 Mason. 

^SftilWjMc ...... ... Copy, 0.04 

Nor THEIR JESUS. Chinese author. 

fftMlk ... ... 2upp. Copy, 0.10 

EVANGELISM. 1). MacGillivray. 

IS*f- .- ... < ,4pp. Copy, 0.10 

RELIGION OF THE LORD S PRAYER, by Poteat. Trans. K. ^. 

#*JSS*JBB8 - ...... C^opy, 0.30 

FROM THE SEEN TO THE UNSEEN. Miss L. M. While. 



MANUAL FOR PREACHERS. Evan Morgan. 

fi-W^Ak ............... ... 24pp. Copy, 0.0:5 

THE LIFE THAT WINS, by Trunibull. Trans. 11. K. Wright. 



... ...34pp. Copy, 0.03 

TWENTY-FIVE SOCIAL PRINCIPLES OF THE CHURCH. 11. K. 
Wright. 



QUEST FOR TRUTH. I. Mason. 



... : -)pp. Copy, 0.2 ) 
THE MESSA<;K OF THE BOOK. A pageant, l>y MJ-S. MacGillivray. 



FIFTY SERMONS. Chu Wei-yii 



468 PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 



..................... 98pp. Copy, 0. 10 

ALONE IN LONDON, by Hesba Strctton. Trims. Mrs. Mac 
Gillivray. 



.................. 48pp. Copy, 0.05 

EW METHOD CATECHISM. C. N. Ogilvie. 



5Gpp. Phon. Copy, 0.05 
Man. Copy, 0.10 
A TRUE HERO DANIEL. Mrs. MacGillivray. 

^!t(JOT) ... ............ 58pp. Man. Copy, 0.10 

70pp. Phon. Copy, 0.05 
A GREAT LEADER MOSES. Mrs. MacGillivray. 

^Mt^ ..................... 80pp. Copy, O.fiO 

FLAG PICTURE BOOK. Mrs. MacGillivray. 

)\&m ........................ 100,9.00 

ART CALENDAR FOR 1924. 

Wffift h&^miStfjaLHH ............... Sheet, 0.10 

CHRIST BLESSING THE CHILDREN, by Harold Copping. 

M .lf *n* ..................... 192pp. Copy, 0.30 

A T EW HARMONY OF THE GOSPELS, in Wenli. 



..................... 24pp. Copy, OJO 

THE FARCICAL STATE OF COMMUNISM. H. K. Wright. 



. ..................... 194pp. Copy, 0.25 

OLD TESTAMENT HISTORY for the use of Middle Schools. 
II. K. Wright, 



Man. 58pp. Copy, 0.10 
QUIET TALKS ON LIFE AFTER DEATH, by S. D. Gordon. 
Trans. D. MacGillivray. 

?MM ........................ Copy, 0.08 

ASSURANCE OF IMMORTALITY, by Fosdick. Trans. D. 
MacGillivray. 



..................... 28pp. Copy, 0.08 

LIFE OF ROBERT MATEER. 



... t ............ 188pp. Copy, 0.80 

Civic HYGIENE, or sanitation for town and country. 



..................... 116pp. Copy, 0.20 

Quo VADIS, by Siunkiewicz. Trans. Miss L. M. White. 



..................... 50pp. Copy, 0.10 

CHRISTMAS STORIES, by " Happy Childhood." 



........................ 100,0.15 

Ol)E A(iAIN.ST FOOTBINDIN (;. 



.................. ISpp. 100, 2.00 

STEP LIVELY. A story against loot-binding. 



UNBIND! UNBIND! Anti-footbinding song. 



PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 192:>-192;> 409 

...... ...Man. 40pp. Copy, O.OS 

THE RELIGIOUS PRINCIPLES OF TIIK REFORMATION, by Lindsay. 
Trans. H. K. Wright. 



......... ...Man. :-}Spp. Copy, O.Oh 

ANSWERS TO PRAYER, by Truinbull. 

%.mm% ...... Msm. 102ppl. Copy, 0.15 

QUIET TALKS ox HOME IDEALN, by Gordon. Trans. J). 

MacUillivray. 
jjjfrfl^i ............ Man. KiSpp. Copy, 0.30 

WITH CHRIST TX THK SCHOOL OF PRAYER, by Andrew 

Murray. Trans. Hopkyn Rees. 

AJ.W8? ......... ...... Man. 4Spp. Copy, 0.10 

STUDIES ON THE SERMON ox THE MOUNT, by King. Trans. 
I). MacGillivray. 

H.RS& ...... ...... Man. r,8pp. Copy, O.tO 

LAWS OP CHRIST FOR COMMON LIFE, by R. \V. Tale. 

*fe$ "fffcA Man. 2<>0pp. Copy, 0.45 

ONE HUNDRED FAMOUS MEN. Selections. 

$f$C/Uf. ...... . 100,0.80 

HYGIENE SONGS eight songs. 

S&mffito ...... -Man. G2pp. Copy, 0.12 

CHINA S ENEMIES. Temperance stories by Mi.ss C. 1. 
Tinling. 

Church Literature Committee, Peking and Shanghai 



......... ...... 34pp. W. Copy, 0.10 

CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, by L. A. \Vuigle. Trans. S. C. Yang. 

*7.^tt ......... ... 172pp. \y. ( 1 opy, o.;jo 

SCRIPTURE TREASURES. Sixty sermons by Wang Ping-ji. 

5g0.Ari%r^^j... ... IS ipp. \V. Copy, 0.40 

INTRODUCTION TO TIIK HOLY SCRIPTURES, 2s ew Testament. 
L. B. Kidgely. 

^A^lf -. ...... ... HPl>. M. Copp, O.K) 

THE TROUBLES OF THE RIGHTEOUS, being the book of Job 
arranged by Moulton. AIT. L. H. Eidgely. 

It-m ... ... ... 70pp. W. Copy, O.I 5 

THE LAMHETH CONFERENCE, 1020. Encyclical letter and 
resolutions. 



............... ;;~1>1>. M. Copy, 0.10 

A TRACT ON TIIK LAMBETH APPKAL AND RESOLUTIONS. 



... .. : losj.p. M. copy, o.s 

INTRODUCTION TO THE APOSTLE S CRKKD. Lin Pti-chi. 



^r ............ ... HUPP- W. Copy, 0.30 

LIFE OF CHRIST, by Sunday. Trans. M. II. Throop. 



470 PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 

OTHnfcift .................. 134pp. M. Copy, 0.15 

THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT, by Bishop Gore. 



& ............... 218pp. W. Copy, 0.30 

A SHOKT HISTORY OP THE LITERATURE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

Lin Pu-chi. 



.......... - ... 272pp. M. Copy, 0.15 

A NATION TRIED AND SAVED, bein^ the Book of Isaiah 
arranged by Moulton. Arr. L. B. Ridfrely. 

4M&RW .................. 130pp. W. Copy, 0.20 

THE MINISTRY, by Bishop Slattery. 



The Association Press, Shanghai 

...... 20Hpp. Copy, 0.45 

RELIGION AND SCIENCE. Trans. Timothy Jen. 

WS$M ..................... 49pp. Copy, 0.10 

A DIALOGUE ON CHRISTIANITY, by A. G. Adams. Trans. 
Timothy Jen and Wei Sung-kao. 



110pp. Copy, 0.20 
GOD AND MAX. Based on Swain s "What and where is 
God?" N. Z. Zia. 



3pp. Copy, 0.10 
SHERWOOD EDDY AND THE LABOR QUESTION. Y. K. Woo. 

101pp. Copy, 0.25 
by 



EXPERIENCES AND OBSERVATIONS IN EUROPE. Edited by 
Y. K. Woo. 

138pp. Copy, 0.25 



RELIGION AND LIFE. Trans. Timothy Jen. 

JWIUiil^ 28pp. Copy, 0.04 

WHAT is CHRISTIANITY ? T. L. Shen. 

Wmft^ 32pp. Copy, 0.05 

EVOLUTION, THE BIBLE AND RELIGION. Trans. Y. K. VVoo. 

H IE?.M 38pp. Copy, 0.07 

DAILY BIBLE READINGS. Trans. C. S. Chen. 

$E3*ct@S& 27pp. Copy, 0.10 

INDIA THROUGH CHINESE EYES. T. Z. Koo. 

pHF-iT^J 22pp. Copy, 0.00 

THE FUTURE OF THE Y. M. C. A. Y. K. Woo. 

X^"(i : //fr>jlfH:E g . 20pp. Copy, 0.05 

WHAT rs THE IDEAL LIFE ? T. C. Chao. 

fr/MM 29pp. Copy, 0.05 

THE PROBLEM OF SUFFERING, by Fosdick. Trans. Y. K. Woo. 



PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1D22-192H 471 



Edward Evans and Sons, Ltd*, Shanghai 



Copy, 1.3 



- .- - opy, . 

Civics, PART 1. Recreation, health, protection. I). II. Kulp. 



......... -. Copy, 0.30 

HYGIENE AND SANITATION FOR CHINA, by Rithie-Purcell. 
Trans. V. N. Appleton. 

3tttti* .................. - Copy, 0.40 

GENERAL SCIENCE LABORATORY MANUAL. F. C. Mabee 
and Zee Tsoh-wii. 



China Christian Endeavour Union, Shanghai 

100,0.35 



C. E. TOPIC SHEETS. 

Copy. 0.03 



BEGINNERS TOPIC BOOK FOR 1924. Miss J. Anderson. 

Copy, (i.Oo 



. 
INTS AND HELPS BOOK. J. Vale and Chai Lien-fu. 



Signs of the Times Publishing House, Shanghai 

&tftfc=fe ............. ... .- W. 112pp. Copy, O.ls 

STEPS TO CHRIST, by Mrs. E. G. White. 



The Mission Book Co*, Shanghai 

............... ... Copy, 0.40 

ILLUSTRATIONS FOR PREACHERS, by T. C. Li and K. Y. L<>. 



...... ......... Copy, 0.18 

CHRISTIANITY AND NEW CHINA, by R. Y. Lo. 

Ifrfc-HBfc ............... ... Copy, 0.12 

TEN LESSONS FOR CHURCH MEMBERSHIP, by K. Y. Lo and 
Nelson Li. 



...... Each vol, 0.14 

THE SUPERSTITION SERIES, by T. C. Li and R. Y. Lo. 



No. 1 Fnngslitii. 

2 Soothsaying, 

3 Physiognomy, 

4 Extraordinary Phenomena. 



472 PUBLICATIONS? IN CHINESE 

m*m$ 

BIBLICAL POEM?, by Li Chunn-kiai. 



..................... Copy, 0.25 

THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN CHINA, by Gustav Koll and 
Tai Chun-san. 

MrttIfefctl*>M ............... Copy, o.io 

S()ME FACTORS IN THE EVOLUTION OF CHRISTIAN LOWER 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS, by Ida B. Lewis. 

... -. ^ - , ............... Copy, 0.15 

A STEPMOTHER, by Kwang Yii. 

W^FlWmJl ............ ...... Copy, 0.1 2 

MY SUNDAY TEACHING, trans, from ,1 . R. Lumb. 

............... Copy, 0.00 

by ( hang Chun-dziin. 
..................... Copy, 0.25 

by Chang Chun-yi. 

...... Copy, 0.90 

by Chang Chun-yi. 

......... ... ...... c opy , 0.70 

SUPPLEMENTARY HYMNS FOR THE BLODGET-GOODRICH HYMNAL, 
witli music. 

SSfctfcWIttBfc ..................... _Copy,0.10 

METHODS OF TEACHING RELIGIOUS EDUCATION, by 1). P. King. 



H. C G. Hallocfc, Shanghai 

Copy, 0.50 



FIFTY-TWO SERMONS SECOND SERIES. 

n;n#pj copy, 0.05 

HALLOCK S ALMANAC FOR 1924. 

West China Christian Educational Union, 
C. M. M. Press* Chungking 

W. Set, 0.44 



TEACHERS HANDBOOKS LOWER PRIMARY SCRIPTURE. 
Years one to four, sold separately. Year 1, Hipp., 
0.12. Year 2, 45pp., 0.12. Year 3, 46pp., 0.10. 
Year 4, 40pp., 0.10. 

#W*W-Sm 40pp. W. Copy, 0.15 

SYLLABUS MIDDLE SCHOOL SCRIPTURE. 

f^J hiMMH GPP- W. Copy, 0.04 

SYLLABUS LOWER PRIMARY GEOGRAPY. 



PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 473 

,,1 ... 

SYLLABUS HIGHER PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY. 

11pp. W. Copy, 0.0(> 



SYLLABUS MIDDLE SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY, 1st. and 2nd. years. 

8PP- VV. Co 
E. 

J7pi>. W. Copy, 0.05 



...... - 8PP- VV. Copy, 0.0;j 

SYLLABUS LOWER PRIMARY PRACTICAL CHINESE. 



. 
SYLLABUS CHINESE LANGUAGE. 

ttWEJli ......... - Copy, 0.05 

SYLLABI S ARITHMETIC. 

*#B&f*-3&M-l -. .- pp. W. Copy, 0.03 

SYLLABUS MIDDLE SCHOOL DRAWING. 

-&=*&%&& %{] ...... 1-Spp. \V. Copy, 0.0(3 

SYLLABUS MIDDLE SCHOOL DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

*^ri!fcf.?J4-jg ............... Wpp. W. Copy, 0.05 

MIDDLE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. 

-.- Copy, 0.07 



L;>WER PRIMARY CURRICULUM. 



AVouns AND ACTS OF JESUS Lower Primary Third Year 
Scripture Header. 



ftipP- M. Copy, 0.11 
ird Ye 



... . -"- PP. M. Copy, 0.12 
Ds AND ACTS OF THE APOSTLES Lower Primary Fourth 
Year Scripture Header. 



-. 27pp. M. Copy ,.0.05 

L )\VER PRIMARY SCRIPTURE MEMORIZATION PASSAGED. 



. ... ... ;-J3pp. Copy, o.io 

HIGHER PRIMARY SCRIPTURE MEMORIZATION PASSAGES. 



... 5-1 pp. Copy, 0.00 
SCHOOL (TAMES, by T. P. ("lump. 



... ... .">0pp. Copy, 0.10 

UNCLE liEMus, trans. A. II. Wilkinson. 



- .. :tlpp. Copy, o.ls 

OXE YEAR S EXPERIENCE TV THE DIHVEY PRACTICE SCHOOL. 



-.. ......... 1< S PP. Copy, 0.00 

PHONETIC HEADER FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 



............ ...118pp. Copy, 0.25 

LOWER PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY, by 11. J. Davidson. 



.- ... 15sp p . Set,- 0.70 

MIDDLE SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY NOTES, by II. J. Davidson. 
Two vols. 



...Sheet. Copy 
LIST OF HEROES PROM CHINESE HISTORY. 



474 PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 



133pp. Set, 
FOREIGN HISTORY NOTES, by H. F. Kudd. Two vols. 

!t$tmft .................. l^PP- W. Copy, 0.06 

TEACHING TJLK TEACHER TO TEACH. 

Young Women s Christian Association, Shanghai 

S#S:fcnMJ(5c$fe ...... ......... Copy, 0.45 

How THE BIBLE CAME TO BE, by Daisy R. Brown. 

3Wit ........................ Copy, 0.30 

THE WAY OF JESUS, by Jean G. Paxton. 

^iC/^^l^Ji/r^^Jte .................. Copy, 0.25 

TlIE P .LA CIS OK WOMEN IN EST A BUSH IN({ A NATION, by 

Winifred Jacob. The student s leaflet costs 8 cents. 



c & .................. Copy, 0.15 

KNOWING JESUS AS A FRIEND. 



Each, Copy, 0.09 
STUDIES FOR THE MORNING WATCH, by Winifred Jacob. 
Two vols. 



........................ Copy, 0.10 

GAMES FOR GROUP "RECREATION. Adapted from Bancroft. 

f34Wfr ........................ Copy, 0.70 

GRADED GYMNASTIC EXERCISES. Adapted from W. 
Skarstrom. Edit. Mrs. I). Y. Lin. 

SWifiilllsil .................... Copy, 0.10 

CHRIST AND OUR COUNTRY a pageant by Frances Chang. 

........................ Copy, 0.08 

THE CHRISTMAS STORY a pageant from Ben Hur. 

EHflWi ........................ Copy, 0.15 

THE OTHER WISE MAN a pageant from Van Dyke. 

m?S$fMiJ ......... ......... Copy, O.OH 

AN EASTEK PLAY. 

fa^mk ... ...... Copy, 0.20 

TELL A LOUD TALES. 

lWr)Bffif& ... Each, 20pp. M. Set. 0.50 

STORIES OF WOMEN PIONEERS, compiled by students of 
Ginling College. Eight vols.: Jane Addams, 
Anna Howard Shaw, Kaji Yajima, Florence 
Nightingale, Grace H. Dodge, Catherine Bresh- 
kovsky, Mary Slessor and Mary Lyon. 

West China Religious Tract Society, Chungking 



... ... Sheet. 100,0.15 

SONG FOR SCHOLARS, by Lin I-tien and Lui Chen-dao. 



PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1 H2o 475 

Sheet. 100, 0.15 

SONG FOR FARMERS, by Lni Chen-dao. 

m:rM^m sheet. 100,0.10 

SONG FOR WORKMEN, by Lni Chen-dao. 

Hft itp" . Sheet. 100, O.r> 

SONG FOR MERCHANTS, by Lin 1-tien and Lni Chen-dao. 

PT.1SOT* - Sheet. 100, O.OH 

SONG EXHORTING WORKMEN AND MERCHANTS, by Mao 

Tsoh-san. 

#v^ Sheet. ]<)0, 0.0(> 

Ox LYING, by Mao Tsoh-san. 

2Era$W$ ... .... Sheet. 100,0.15 

ENLIGHTENING THE DECEIVED, by Tang Sao-kwei. 

fcWfcailR Sheet. JOG, 0.1-) 

To UNDECEIVE WOMEN, by Tang Sao-kwei. 

. .- Sheet. 100,0.10 

GOOD NEWS LETTER, adapted from Dr. Mabie by Lni 
Chen-dao. 

-Dt^iffiA - Slieet - 100,0.10 

MEN LIKE SHEEP, by Lni Chen-dao. 

%&%{%] Sheet. loo.O.io 

BEWARE OF GERMS, by C. L. Kilborn. 

i*nm& - -. 8 l>eet. 100,0.10 

AVHAT is SALVATION, based on A. T. Pierson by Lni 
Chen-dao. 

WT-^/x ... .... Sheet. 100,0.10 

THE BEST FRIEND. Story of Damon and Pythias by 
Lni Chen-dao. 

W4#:H8ffc Sheet. 100,0.10 

THE Two PHOTOGRAPHS. Adapted from Dr. Mabie by 
Lni Chen-dao. 

M^ialfc . ... Sheet. 100, o.io 

THE TRUE RELIGION, by Bishop Whipple. Trans. Lui 
Chen-dao. 

|g^/VM ... Sheets. 100, O.r>0 

EIGHT LARGE COLORED PKTUKE TRACTS. Abraham, 

Joseph, Moses, David, Elijah, Daniel, the Nativity 

and the Widow s Mite. 



The Lutheran Board of Publication, Shekow, Hup. 



...... ......... 170pp. M. Copy, 0.30 

BIBLE HISTORY, NEW TEST. FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 
E. Folke. 



470 PUBLICATIONS IN CHTNF03K 1922-192o 

129pp. M. Copy, 0.30 



SERMONS, by T. Baehlin. 



...... 81pp. W. Copy, O.lo 

HISTORY OF THE PREPARATION FOR CHRISTIANITY, by E. 
Sihvonen. 



...... < ......... W. 2 vols. 31Hpp. Set, 0.00 

SYMBOLICS, by E. Sihvonen. 

ffT3Of5M* ..................... Sheet. 100,2.30 

THE LUTHERAN CALENDAR. 



......... ; . -. W. Copy, 0.02 

CONSTITUTION FOR LOCAL CONGREGATIONS of the Lutheran 
Church in China. 



............... W. Copy, 0.02 

CONSTITUTION FOR DISTRICTS. 



...................... Set of 50, 2.00 

CERTIFICATE OF I APTIKM, printed in three colors. 



Kwang Hsueh Publishing House, Shanghai 



H2 PP . w. co py , 0.35 

AN INTRODUCTION TO WESTERN PHILOSOPHY, by J. Percy 
Bruce. 



............... W. Yols sold separately 

A llKiiiER ARITHMETIC FOR SCHOOLS, by Cheng Yii-tzu. 
Vol. 2, 0.40; vol. 3, 0,(>0; vol. 4, 0.40; vol. 5, 0.40; 
vol. G, 0.40. 



48pp. Copy, 0.12 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN ELEMENTARY PHYSIOLOGY. 
Music PUBLISHED FOR THE HANGCHOV\ CHORAL UNION. 
Edit, K. C. Wang. 

Hf^iJjffrSS: .................. 4pp. Copy, 0.10 

The Hallelujah Chorus. 

3iaiii% .................. 3pp. Copy, 0.10 

Worthy is the Lamb. 

.................. 4pp. Copy, 0.10 

lie who slumbered. 

^fJ51i&... .............. 7pi>. Copy, O.K) 

1 am the Resurrection. 

ftMfe>k2M$&J}^ ............... 4 P1 ). Copy, 0.10 

Christ Arose, Onward, Christian soldiers. 

M#;iMfi1^rm ............ 4pp. Copy, 0.10 

Choir Selection, No. 1. Arise Shine, O come all ye 
faithful. 



PUBLICATION* TN CHINESE 1922-192H 47 

Nurses Association of China* 
Kwang Hstieh Publishing House, Shanghai 



Vol. 1. part 1. W. 104pp. Copy, 
PRACTICAL NursiNG, by Anne C. Maxwell .and Amy ."K. 
Pope trans, by K. E. Wood and G. Y. Zwnn. 

mfa.% ............... . ...... 24pp. Copy, 0.10 

STUDIES IN ETHICS FOR NURSES, by C. Aikens, trans, by 
C. Wellwood and K. C. Wang. 

.................. W. T34pp. Set, 3.25 

MATERIA MEDIC A FOR NURSES, by Blumgarten. Trans. 
E. Margaret Phillips. 

&re*jyUi:W#.ffi*a ............ AY. 34pp. Copy, 0.20 

NOTES ox GENITOURINARY NURSING, by K. E. Wood and 
(-}. Y. Zwun with supplement by Dr. Xao. 

S*^ft**RI^ ............... W. 70].],. Copy, 0.20 

(^UKSTIONS AND ANSWERS ON BrXDY s ANATOMY AND 

PHYSIOLOGY, by Mrs. Logan. 

fk&#ffl^ .................. W. 84],]>. (V.py, 0.12 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON FRIEDENWALD AND HURRAH S 
DIKTETICS for Nurses, by Mrs. J. M. Logan. 

.................. W. aspp. (V>py, 0.12 

STIONS AND ANSWERS ON I)l{. Li-Mi s OBSTETRICS FOlt 

NTRSES, by Mrs. Logan. 

^ .- ...... W. 32pp. Copy, 0.12 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON CHILDREN S DISEASES, by 
Mrs. Logan and 8. II. Chen. 

University of Nanking, Nanking 

METHODS OF SILKWORM REARING FOR FARMERS, by Kuli 
Ying. 

HANDBOOK OF SERICULTURE, by Kuh Ying. 
SILKWORM BREEDING, by C. L. Chien. 

Daily Vacation Bible School Movement, Shanghai 

*fcR#li .................. MP1>. M. Copy, 0.20 

TEACHER S MANUAL, by R. (J. Boville. Trans. C. T. Ban. 

it^ ..................... 2()pj). M. o Copies, 0.03 

HANDBOOK. 



:> r >! l>. M.c^py, 0.20 
TEXTBOOK FOR I). V. B. S. 



ft ............ ttjpp- M. Copy, 0.10 

NATIONAL REPORT. 

.................. . r C>pp. M. Copy, 0.30 

MANUAL AND HANDBQOK. 



47 S PUHLTOATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1928 



China Baptist Publication Society, Canton 

PA -TTSPS AND THEIR P>i STNESS, by J. P. (iambell. Trans. 

C. J. Lowe. 
MODERN ECLIPSE OF CHRISTIANITY, by E. Y. Mullins. 

Trans. E. L. Morgan. 

PREACHERS AND MODERN CRITICISM, by I). F. Stainpo. 
THE PRESENT SITUATION IN TiiE< >T.O! ; Y, by E. Y. Mullins. 

Trans. E. L. Morgan. 

THE CREED OF AX EMiNEnt SCIENTIST, by II. A. Kelly. 

Trans. E. L. Morgan. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL NORMAL MANUAL, Trans. Pinston Hsu. 
PAITLST Yorxo PEOI-LE S MANUAL, Trans. Joshua Djaw. 
NEED OF CirRisriAMTv IN THE PRESENT WORLD, by E. Y. 

Mullins. Trans. E. L. Morgan. 

DISCUSSING CHRISTIANITY WITH CHEN AND TSEX, by 
Chang AVen-kai. 



Friends* Council for International Service, 
Isaac Mason., Shanghai* 

M - 2( >- c 



&fSrt*j... ......... - >pp- 

A K \rrii r j o LIVIO i j .v, ]>y G ul i elm a Crosfield. Trans. I. 
Mason. 

^$!R n - ............ . ......... r>6 PP- CJoj.y, O.Of? 

THE C2rEsr I^OR TRUTH, by Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson. 
Trans. I. Mason. 



Religious Tract Society for China, 
Hankow and Shanghai* 



............... 44pi>. M. Copy, 0.08 

A SKETCH OF JEWISH HISTORY TO THE PRESENT DAY, by 
Chai Lien-fu. 



^t ......... - 132pi>. M. Copy, 0.20 

HIDDEN PICTURES, by Miss Habershon. Trans. Harry 
Price. 

5J$cH-WI3l ............... "4pp. M. Copy, 0.08 

TWENTY-FOUR STORIES FOR MASS MOVEMENT WORKERS, by 

G. and M. Ingrain and R. John. Trans. Shen 

Wen-ching. 



NS IN CHINESE 11)22-102. $ 470 



156pp. M. Copy, 0.20 

DEVOTIONAL COMMENTARY ON GENESIS, by G. Thomas. 
Trans. J. Vale and Chai Lien-fu. Volume 3. 

*&9l$SUH-#$- 174pp. M. Copy, 0.20 

DEVOTIONAL COMMENTARY os ROMANS, By. G. Thomas. 
Trans. J. Vale and Chai Lien-fu. Volume 1. 



. ............... pp. M. Copy, 0.20 

How TO STTDY ISAIAH 1 39, based 011 Blake by G. A. 
Clayton. 

BF^&Pim .................. l-^l P. M. Copy, 0.20 

NOTES ON REVELATION, by Adam Grainger. 

3tSt& .................. 24pp. M. Copy, 0.03 

DUTY OF PARENTS TO TJIEIK CHILDREN, by Mrs. Dr. Kip. 

^lUC* ...... ... i pp. M. 10), n.r>0 

Do Yor KNOW ? Trans. J. Vale and Cluii Lien-fu. 

**&** ............ ... 37Spp. M. Copy, 0.00 

DAILY LIGHT ON THE DAILY PATH, EVENING PORTIONS, 
arranged by Mrs. F. A. Clayton. 

g^flltttitfttRtta ...... - 26pp. M. Copy, O.Oo 

ONE A YEAR NEW TESTAMENT AND PSALMS. Arranged 
by G. A. Clayton. 

?6fMiW .................. 11>P- W. Copy, 0.04 

CHRISTIAN ANTITHETICAL Corri.Ers. Prepared by a 
Committee. 

tltl tfjfiSiff ......... r >!>!>- M. 1UO, 0.40 

MANNERS AT (^HURC II, by Miss AViggin. Trans. M. T. 

Liang. 
S*^ftW^tSj5 ......... ...Shoot. Copy, O.or> 

As FOR ME AND MY HOUSE. Written by Shon Gioh-su. 

J^.f^^>feitflfti8ftfB ...... -. . 2pp. M. Copy, 0.12 

JOHN WILLIAMS, THE MISSIONARY BOAT-BUILDER. Trans. 
Mrs. A. Foster. 



...... I0pp. M. Copy, 0.02 

MARIA VINCENT, by Dr, Schofield. Trans. J. Vale atid 
Chai Lien-fu. 



A TRAIN JOFRNKY, by Dr. Schofield. Trans. .). Vale and 
Chai Lien-fu. 



...7pp. M. 101,0.50 
THE CONVERSION OF A CONFTCIANIST. Trans. J. Vale and 
Chai Lien-fu. 

*$tSa ................. -. l>l>- M. Copy, 0.02 

A SCHOOLBOY S EXPERIENCE, by Dr. Schofield. Trans. 

J. Vale and Chai Lien-fu. 

lnj$3T ... 3 ipp. M. Copy, 0.05 

ONE IN JOY, by Miss F. E. Gooch. 



480 PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 

7pp. M. 100, 1.50 



... 

A LOUSE S KEVENGE, by Chai Lien-fu. 



............ . ...... *n>p. w c opy , o.o-i 

LITTLE ANNA MARCK. Trans. Miss L. Borbein and Hsu 
Hsien-yung. 

MA it^^ ............ Each vol. lpp. M. 100, 1.80 

SIMPLE TEACHING ABOUT TEE TRUE GOD, by Mrs. B. C. 
Patterson. Two vols. 



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CATECHISM FOR ENQUIRERS, by C. N. Lack. Phon. by 
E. Weller. 

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R. T. S. PHONETIC HYMNAL, (55 Hymns. 



............... 13pp. M. Copy, 0.03 

OUTLINE HELPS FOR STUDYING THE ACTS, by E. Rowlands. 

rafi_h-K!& .................. 2 PI >. W. Copy, 0.09 

THE FOUR POORS THE ANALECTS. 



.................. 5PP. ^ T - Copy, 0.07 

THE FOUR BOOKS MENCIUS, SHANG. 



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THE FOUR BOOKS MENCIUS, D.IUNG AND HSIA. 



llpp. W. 100, 1.50 
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ANTI-OPIUM BALLAD, by HwAng Shih-gia. 



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THE GAMBLER S HOPE, by Yuan Deh-lin. 



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OD S WAV OK SALVATION, jjy Alexander Marshall. 
Trans. Harry Price. 



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SURELY HE WILL COME AGAIN, by Mercer. Trans. 
J. Darroch. 



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THE ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCE, by Mercer. Trans. J. Darroch. 



... ... 6pp. M. Copy, 0.01 

THE BAMBOO A PARABLE, by Mrs. Woodford Taylor. 

^?KWJA ............ PP. M. 100, 0.70 

THE MAN WHO DIED FOK ME, by Mrs. C. C. Selden and 
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PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 481 

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HERALDS OF TRUTH. SET. L. 

Sin and its remedy. -JS 
Look and live. IUJfijfiS 
The blood of the Atonement. 
Victory over death. ^W 
The place for burdens. 
Christ s rejectors judged. 

ifUUsl/C ...... 7pp. M. loo, 0.00 

THE TRUE FRIEND, by Yang Chi-clien. 



MiI 4.& -.- ...7pp. M. 100, n.(?o 

A CLOSE FRIENDSHIP, by Mi&s E. B. French and Liu 
I)eh-hui. 



How TO WORSHIP THE TKUE GOD, by Dr. 



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. . II. Judd. 



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A SPIRITUAL SIGN-POST, by Rao En-djao. 



... ...Opp. M. 100, 0.70 

ON SEEKING RICHES, by Rao En-djao. 



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WISDOM AND FOLLY, by Rao En-djao. 



... Sheet. M. 100, 0.15 

LORD, OPEN MY HEART. 

J&Mf AURA* ...... Sheet, M. ion, o.;r, 

THANKS BE TO JESUS. 



............ Sheet. M. 100, 0.50 

HKAVEM.Y TEACHING IN OUTLINE. 

Wisest ...... Sheet. M. ]00, 0.35 

HEAVEN- MINE, THINE, His. 



ft &... Slieet. M. TOO, O.L>0 

MORNING PRAISE. 



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482 PUBLICATIONS IN CHINESE 1922-1923 

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J&MA2& ... ......... Posters. M. Set, 0/28 

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Sin and its remedy. SU^jjIfrff ............ <>.()4 

Look ind live. Igifiifg- ............. 0.04 

The 1)1 ood of the atonement. $(Bfirt jlfil ......... 0.04 

Victory over death. ffiWffflfc ............ 0.08 

The place for burdens. IgjlMi JE ...... 0.04 

Christ s rejectors judged. ^MS S ......... 0.04 

Poster. M. 100, 0.80 



SHEET CALENDAK FOH 1923. 



CHAPTER LXXXIV 

BOOKS ON SEX AND FAMILY LIFE 
Elleanor MacNeil 

TOWARDS RACIAL HEALTH. Norah H. March Routledge & Sons 5/- 

" A Handbook for parents, teacher, and social workers 
on the training of boys and girls," written by a teacher of 
wide experience. 

A very useful book, sane in its biology, ethics and 
psychology. The whole subject of sex is presented from the 
racial viewpoint in a way to appeal to children and adoles 
cents. The imaginary conversations in sex education will 
be of value to parents. There is an excellent bibliography. 

SEX. (Jcddes and Turner Home, University Library, Williams 
and Norgate 

A. simple and normal biological presentation with good 
chapters on the Ethics of S>x and Sex and Society. A 
good bibliography. 

SKY AND COMMON SENSE. Author A. Maude .Roy den. Publisher 

Hurst and Blackett London Price 4/(i 

The book comes at an apt moment when questions of 
marriage, morality and birth control are being discussed. 
Never was there greater need for light and clear speaking 
on matters that have been kept too much in the background. 
Miss Royden is not afraid to speak plainly; she has the 
courage to examine, particularly from the woman s point of 
view, questions on which wonnn too long have been silent. 

A strong book, suitable either for the adult or adolescent 
reader, entirely Christian in its treatment of these important 
subjects. 

MEN, WOMEN AND GOD. A. Herbert (".{ray. Association Press or 

Student Movement Press ... ... ... ... ... .75 gold 

A discussion from the Christian viewpoint, frank and 
wholesome, and certain to help a variety of perplexities. 
Chapters such as tlio.se on Involuntary Celibacy, The art 
of being married, A man s struggle, A girl s early days, are 
written with wide knowledge and understanding of people. 
Many critics have pronounced this the best book of its kind 
which has appeared. There is an appendix giving the 
physical facts of sex union which some would perhaps 
consider unnecessary for an immature mind. 



484 BOOKS ON SEX AND FAMILY LIFE 

SEX AND LIFE. Galloway Association Press ... ...$]. 80 gold 

This book treats the problem of sex as a matter for 
intelligent education, and interprets it in its spiritual as 
well as physical values, [t is written specially for men, and 
succeeds in being idealistic without being sentimental. 
THE CONTROL OF PARENTHOOD. Edited by Sir James Mar- 
chant Putnam (>/- 

A symposium by well known people in England, giving 
the arguments for and against birth control, from the 
individual, economic, social and religious standpoints, and 
therefore a help to clear thinking on this subject. 

"RATIONAL SEX LIFE. Author Exner Y. M. C. A. Association 
Press 

An excellent treatise on this subject by a Christian 
physician. Do not send your boy away to college without 
this book, or the information which it contains. 

"OimviTTiNo OUR NERVES." Authors Jackson and Salisbury 
Publisher The Century Co. 

A primer of psychotherapy, providing enough of biolo 
gical and psychological background to make the Freudian 
principles intelligible, and enough application and illustra 
tion to make them useful to the average layman. 

In the experience of one physician this very readable 
and entertaining book has helped many missionaries to find 
health through a restored nervous balance. 

MARRIED LOVE. Marie Stopes. ... ... ... Putnam s Sons (\/~ 

This book deals with the Sex-hygiene of Married Life. 

The Atheneum says "Mrs. Stopes treats with frankness 
and insight of the ideals of perfect companionship and the 
obstacles thereto, of mutual adjustment, healthy married 
intercourse, and the other chief factors in the problem of 
conjugal happiness. Her book is one of the most sensible 
we have met with on the subject." 

RADIANT MOTHERHOOD. Marie Stopes ... ... Putnam s (\/- 

A book for mothers- and fathers-to-be, full of information 
of value, and a help to mutual understanding. 

While Dr. Stopes is well known as an advocate of birth 
control, in which many people will not agree with her, 
these two books have value far beyond her advocacy of any 
theory, and have been widely read and discussed. 

THE CRADLE SHIP. Edith Howes Cassell 

The author uses nature study to give children their first 
information about "where the babies come from." The 
book is charmingly written and illustrated, and will be of 
service to parents who want to teach their children wisely 
and in a way which they can understand. 



BOOKS ON SEX AND FAMILY LIFE 485 

PARENTHOOD AND CHILD NTKTUKE. Adna Dean Parker. 

McMillan $3 gold 

This book has been prepared by an experienced teacher 
specially for the use of classes in Parent Training. It takes 
in the whole life of the child from birth to J2 years of age, 
and gives good ideas about songs, games, stories, etc. There 
are references given for further study, including technical 
books, iiction and poetry, etc. There are also excellent 
suggestions for thought and discussion which a mother s 
club would find very worth while. 

At the request of the compiler of this list Edward Evans 
and Sons have ordered the books named and have them in 
stock, so that they can be obtained without the long wait 
which an order to a home book-seller necessitates. 



PART XI 

MISCELLANEOUS 

CHAPTER LXXXV 

GENERAL YEN AND HIS WORK IN SHANSI 
Paul L. Corbin 

Shansi Province has the smallest number of soldiers 
and the largest percentage of children in schools of any of 
the great provinces of China. These two facts are signifi 
cant and are not without mutual relation. Together they 
are an index of the character and work of Governor Yen 
Hsi-shan. 

In the autumn of 1911 chance made Yen 
Appointment Hsi-shan military governor of Shansi, follow- 
As Governor . I A -IT J.1 > 

ing the revolution. He was not the first, nor 
the logical, candidate. Propinquity, in time and place, 
had as much as anything to do with his selection, after the 
logical candidate had refused. The choice so fortuitously 
made was a happy one for the people of Shansi. General 
Yen has held the office of military governor right down to 
the present time. This in itself constitutes a record. Since 
1916 he has been concurrently civil governor. Gxeneral Yen 
is a native of Wutai in Shansi, and is now 42 years of age. 
He is a graduate of a military school formerly conducted 
in Taiyuanfu, and studied for two years in Japan. 

Coming into his important office without previous 
political experience, the governor took several years to find 
himself. The last five years cover the period of his real 
constructive work for the province. Beginning with such 
a superficial reform as queue-cutting a thorough program 
of social and political changes has been evolved. 

The key to Governor Yen s present method 

Government of government in Shansi is to be found in his 

yu ts ai kuan ( flf # fit) . This is the institution 



OPIUM SUPPRESSION IN SHANSI 487 

in which the magistrates of the 105 hsien ($&) in the province 
are trained. Its work is under the direct personal super 
vision of the governor, who attends the sessions of the 
institution and gives lectures, but is especially concerned 
that the men shall catch his own vision and be in sympathy 
with his plans. This produces a type of district magistrate 
practically unknown elsewhere in China, men who hold 
office with a view to real public service, rather than with a 
view to personal enrichment and aggrandizement. While 
it would be too much to say that the old type of magistrate, 
venal and avaricious, has been eliminated from Shansi, his 
days are numbered unless the present administration should 
be interrupted or overthrown. With this type of district 
magistrate in office throughout Shansi Governor Yen has 
been able to carry forward his program with vigor and with 
great hope of success. The two outstanding features of the 
program are, first, the suppression of opium using, and 
second, the promotion of popular education. 
Q j Shansi has long been known as one of the 

worst provinces of China for the vice of opium 
smoking. A popular saying ran, * Eleven people out of 
every ten in Shansi use opium ! " Enslaved by this drug, 
the scions of the great merchant princes of Shansi have 
allowed their fortunes to be dissipated and their business to 
pass into the hands of others. Opium has been directly 
responsible for far-reaching social changes in the last 
twenty years. The erstwhile aristocrat has been reduced 
to penury and often to actual beggary. His place in society 
is being taken by those who were formerly beneath his 
notice. 

The cultivation of the poppy in Shansi was suppressed 
more than fifteen years ago, under the administration of 
Governor Ting Pao-ch iian. Though there have since been 
sporadic attempts at cultivation, especially in the early 
days of the republic, to the credit of the officials be it said 
that these attempts have failed. But at no time in these 
fifteen years has the growing of opium been prohibited in 
Shensi (fifc H), and of late it has been grown in Honan, in 
Chihli, and in the special administrative area just to the 
north of Shansi, Suiyuan. Thus we have the spectacle of 
Shansi Province, clear of opium-growing, but entirely 



488 GENERAL YEN AND HIS WORK IN SIIANSI 

surrounded by territory in which the growing is not only 
not prohibited, but actually encouraged. Under these 
circumstances the difficulties attendant upon suppression 
of the traffic in opium in Shansi are enormous. That so 
great a measure of success has been attained speaks volumes 
for the courage and probity of Shansi officials. These 
officials have also had to contend with a well-organized 
smuggling of derivatives of opium, especially morphia and 
** chin tan" (& ft) . Much of this smuggling has been 
along the line of the Cheng-Tai Railway. 

Not only has the traffic in these habit-forming drugs 
been prohibited : an effort has also been made in each 
district to cure the victims. The effort has so far been 
successful that we who have been in touch with this 
prohibition movement from the beginning have strong hopes 
of its ultimate triumph, provided Governor Yen s program 
is not interfered with. In some of the worst districts the 
vice has already been reduced by ninety per cent. 

The second outstanding feature of the 
Education governor s program has been his promotion of 
popular education. Except in mountain 
districts where the population is too sparse to meet the ex 
pense of the new public schools, the old-time school where 
the pupils learned the classics by heart has practically 
disappeared. Its place has been taken by the " kuo tnin 
hsueh hsiao" (HI J jf! $0 . Each village is supposed to 
maintain one or more of these schools for boys and one for 
girls. A good many villages arc now finding it practicable 
to have boys and girls studying under the same teachers, 
though with different study and recitation rooms. 

Each of the 105 districts fe) of Shansi is divided into 
three to five " ch ii " (la), or townships. There is a higher 
primary school for boys in each district city and, in theory 
at least, in the head village of each township. In each 
group of districts corresponding roughly to the oldfashion- 
ed prefectures there is a middle school for boys. 

Naturally, one of the greatest problems in the develop 
ment of this educational program has been that of supplying 
qualified teachers. In the beginning the need was met by 
holding short- -term normal classes in eacli district. There 
is now a normal training school in the provincial capital 



FOOTPTNDING AND GAMBLING 489 

for the express purpose of preparing teachers for village 
schools. There are also teachers colleges there for men 
and women, for the equipping of teachers for higher 
primary and middle schools. Their work is supplemented 
in several other normal schools throughout the province. 
That this educational program is achieving success is seen 
hy the remarkable growth of higher schools in Taiyuanfn, 
which has now become one of the most important 
educational centers in all China. 

F ot Bi din ^ ^ l1 ^ r view of Governor Yen s work for 

Shansi would require a volume rather than 
a chapter. Substantial progress has been made in abolishing 
the practice of foot-binding. Gambling is prohibited and 
this regulation is vigorously enforced. (Players of 
** mahjong " in Shansi are liable to arrest and imprison 
ment.) Heal progress has been made in developing village 
self-government. Sericulture and the cultivation of cotton 
are being encouraged. The governor s program dir-ectly 
affects every phase of life in Shansi, except, perhaps, the 
religious. That side of life presents an insistent and 
compelling challenge to the Church of Christ, and an 
opportunity without a parallel in Eastern Asia. 



CHAPTER LXXXVI 

THE SALVATION ARMY 
Francis W. Pearce 

The Fifth Annual Congress of The Salvation Army 
Officers, recently held in Peking, provides a convenient 
occasion for reviewing the progress and work of the Move 
ment during the seven years that have elapsed since 
operations were commenced in China. This period has 
been largely occupied in scouting, and in the usual 
preparatory work. It has been recognized that if the 
edifice we proposed to build was to endure, the foundations 
should be well and truly laid. We have good reason to be 
gratified with the initial progress made, as well as the 
prospects for the future. 

The Officers that have come to us from 
Offtcefs other lands are a striking example of the 

worldwide growth of the Movement, for our 
forces have been made up of workers from Britain, America, 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, France, Holland, Switzer 
land, Norway, Sweden and Finland. At present we number 
a total of 98 Foreign Officers. 

Our Training Home for Chinese Officers in 
Officers Peking has done excellent work in preparing 

our new Cadets for service as Evangelists. 
Including 29 Cadets in training, we now number 129 
Chinese full time workers. These, added to our Foreign 
Officers, make a total of 227 Officers entirely engaged in 
the work. 

c Up to the present we have established no 

Post s ( fewer than 50 Corps or Posts in the Provinces 

of Chihli, Shantung and Shansi. In the great 
majority of these places, meetings, either public or for 
converts, are held every night in the week (excepting 
Saturday), and at least two on Sundays. 



CAMPAIGNS AND SOCIAL WORK 491 

We have made a special feature of irregular 
C* aJ ns Campaigns. These include frequent Open Air 
Meetings on market and feast days. Some of 
these Campaigns within the precincts of Temples on 
occasions when the people assemble in thousands, have been 
of a somewhat daring character. Amidst the motley 
assemblage of showmen and gamblers, buyers and sellers of 
goods of every kind, our Flag has been raised and people 
pointed to the Saviour of mankind. 

During the past year we have sent out a 
Expeditions** Boat Expedition to hold meetings in the 
villages that fringe some of the rivers, and a 
Chariot Expedition consisting of two Peking Carts, manned 
by a Foreign and Chinese Officers, to visit and hold meetings 
in isolated villages. The space allotted me for this article 
will allow of no more than a condensed summary of the 
results of these Expeditions during the two months 
travelling. 

Places visited 137 

Meetings held (Open Air) 226 

Meetings held (Indoor) 56 

Gospels sold 24,981 

It would be impossible to tabulate other results; 
eternity alone can reveal the full fruits of seed sowing of 
this character. 

tyljff tar During the year we have found it necessary 

Converts to institute a Special Roll for Military Men 

who have sought salvation in our various 
stations, but who are liable to be removed to different 
places. Only those who give good evidence of sincerity and 
a desire to persevere are accepted. The Roll already has 
127 names, including eight officers. 

Socl 1 Work ^ ur Social operations have consisted mainly 

of assistance for Orphan Girls and Boys, and 
works of mercy in the interest of the very poor during the 
cold winter months. In several of the larger cities we have 
opened Chou Ch angs for the distribution of porridge to 
thousands of the needy poor. In Peking last winter we ran 
four such places, and distributed on an average 35,000 meals 
per week. This winter we purpose to open five places, and, 
in addition, make some provision for the homeless poor- 



492 THE SALVATION ARMY 

including the beggars, to allow them to lie down at night in 
a warmed shelter. Last winter it was stated in the Press 
that during 20 days in the month of February the police 
were called upon to provide 469 coffins for homeless persons 
frozen to death. We want to prevent the recurrence of such 
a tragedy if at all possible. 

Last winter we sent out five Brigades of men, three 
times a day, to distribute hot tea amongst the rickshaw men 
on their stands. In Peking it is stated there are 80,000 
licensed rickshaws. It is a work of real mercy to alleviate 
the hard lot of many of these poor fellows. 

Our Girls s Industrial Home in Peking now houses 97 
girls. These are being educated and trained to cook and 
engage in useful home crafts. During the year we have 
received over 20 new cases of girls who have been rescued 
before getting into the hands of unprincipled procurers. 

Our Boys Home still remains a small place with but 
twelve inmates. We hope to extend as funds are available. 

The need for some other social enterprises is clamant, 
and as time goes on we shall undoubtedly be compelled by 
the force of circumstances to undertake some of them. But 
in all these works of mercy we shall strive to keep first 
things first, and make them as far as possible finger posts 
to Christ, or stepping stones to salvation through Jesus. 



CHAPTER LXXXVII 

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AMONG THE CHINESE ABROAD 
H. F. MacNair 

Until three quarters of a century ago the Chinese were 
not reckoned among emigrating peoples. In limited 
numbers they have nevertheless emigrated for permanent 
residence or travelled for short periods chiefly for purposes 
of trade in the countries bordering on the Chinese empire 
and in the islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans for 
several hundreds of years. Emigration has been mainly 
from the provinces of Fukien and Kwangtung although con 
siderable numbers have left from Shantung for northern 
places of settlement and commerce. Numbers of Chinese 
are now residing in Japan, Siberia, Russia, throughout 
Malaysia, French Indo-China, the Dutch East Indies, South 
Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Canada, the United States, 
Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and several 
South American as well as European countries. l These 
people may be generally divided into the following classes: 
merchants, free laborers, contract laborers, students, 
diplomatic and consular officers, and travellers. 
Number ^ s ^ ^ ne numbers of Chinese residing 

outside Chinese jurisdiction it was estimated 
as far back as 1906 that they approximated 8,000,000 or two 
per cent, of the generally accepted total of the Chinese 
people. A more conservative estimate is that of Mr. C. K. 
Chen made in April 1919: Taking round figures and 
making allowances for omissions and exaggerations, we may 
say, the total number of Chinese in the United States and 
its territories is about 180,000; the number in the British 
Empire about 1,000,000; the number in Japan and its 
possessions about 4,000,000; the number in Europe and 



For further material on this subject see articles published 

The Chinese ^> 
Weekly Review. 



I. .1- \fl 1UIL11C1 IIUlliU.1 lit I <M1 LI1JL3 i-UU 

during the past and present year in The Chinese Social and 
Political Science Review, and The China 



494 KECENT DEVELOPMENTS AMONG THE CHINESE 

outlying territories of Continental European nations about 
700,000; and in the Central and South American countries 
about 500,000. The total number of Chinese residing 
abroad is about 6,380,000. If we take the figure for the 
total population of China to be 400,000,000 we may conclude 
that about 1.6 per cent, of the total population have 
migrated to foreign countries. 7 " But Mr. Chen did not have 
access to figures for Siam, Burma, Borneo, Sarawak, the 
French over-sea possessions, or Mexico. When these are 
taken into account it seems safe to say that there are at 
least between eight and nine millions abroad. When the 
facts presented here are remembered it at once becomes 
clear that it is impossible in a paper such as this to enter 
into any considerable detail in the discussion of present day 
conditions among the millions of Chinese who are without 
the jurisdiction of the government of China, No attempt 
is made to review the economic, social, or intellectual status 
of the Chinese in the countries here touched upon. The 
aim is merely to direct attention to a few outstanding topics 
of interest which have come up in recent years in reference 
to the Chinese in a very few parts of the world. 
Students During the past few years there have 

developed two interesting aspects of the 
Chinese problem in the United States of America. The one 
has to do with the students, the other with laborers. The 
latter may be first considered. From the days of the gold- 
rush to California, down through the period of exclusion 
legislation there has never been a time when there have not 
been considerable numbers of the laboring class who have 
desired entrance into and residence in the country. To go 
into the intricacies of the application of the exclusion laws 
and consider the cases of injustice which have been asserted 
and protested against by the Chinese would be quite 
impossible ; suffice it to say that during the past few years 
the Chinese have not ceased attempting to enter America by 
both legal and illegal means. There are apparently three 
routes by which Chinese are smuggled into the United 
States at present by " immigration bootleggers ". These 
routes known to " bootleggers " as " selling points " are via 
Canada, via Mexico, via Cuba; the last-named being the 
most important. Secretary of Labor James J. Davis was 



IMMIGRATION BY SMUC1GLINC! 495 

quoted a few months ago as saying: Thirty thousand 
Chinese are waiting in Cuba to-day watching for a chance to 
he smuggled into the United States. They arc willing to 
pay $2,500 a head to one who will accommodate them." An 
account reprinted in the Peking and Tientsin Times of July 
31, 1923, from the New York Times gives in some detail 
a description of the smuggling of Chinese, from, various 
sources into the country. Mention is made, for example, 
of a two-masted Schooner, which was found just outside 
Quarantine, with fifteen Chinese aboard who were attempt 
ing to enter without the necessary papers. The schooner 
had no clearance papers ; but through an interpreter the 
Chinese were able to make harbor officials understand that 
they had obtained passage for the States in the sailing 
vessel for a consideration of 500 each." Secretary Davis 
mentioned also a case, in which twenty Chinese were landed 
by " bootleggers ", on an island off the west coast of Florida. 
These had paid from $100 to $300 a piece. According to 
the Secretary there is an "Underground Railway " con 
ducted along the Mexican border, for the purpose of aiding 
Chinese to cross from Mexico, to the United States. Certain 
ranches are used as " Stations " ; thus a system not unlike 
that, which played such an important part in connection 
with Negro slavery before the Civil War has grown up 
nowadays for different, and somewhat dissimilar purposes. 
In connection with the Mexican aspect of this problem 
it may be mentioned in passing that according to the Census 
of 1910 there were reported to be about 13,200 Chinese in 
Mexico. Later figures report the presence of 9,000 Chinese 
in Lower California alone. The number in this section of 
the country has led to action being taken by the labor 
element in Sonora and Lower California. In the latter 
state in June 1922 it was reported that workers were 
requesting the Government to expel the Chinese and to 
prohibit future immigration. The Mexicans are apparently 
enthusiastic in their aid of Chinese who are trying to cross 
into the United States . Returning to the subject of the 

1. The most recent reference to Chinese in Mexico coming to 
the notice of the writer is a report in the North China, Do/It/ A>w 
for Jan. 21, 1924, of several houses of Chinese beinp: shelled in 
Varadero by rebel pnnboats. 



490 "RECENT DEVELOPMENTS A MONO THE CHINESE 

latter country a good deal of smuggling goes on from 
Canada into the United States in ways somewhat similar to 
those just mentioned. Although the American government 
has inspectors and other officers who catch and turn hack 
numbers of Chinese at points where the main highways 
converge it is nevertheless a fact that many elude the 
watchers and enter. The field staff of the American 
Immigration Service numbers but eighteen hundred of 
whom more than a fourth are stationed at Ellis Island. 
These are not sufficient to prevent smuggling. Not as many 
Chinese attempt entrance from Canada as from Cuba for 
the reason apparently that it is considerably easier to enter 
Cuba than it is to enter Canada, furthermore it is easier to 
enter from Cuba than from western Canada. " Probably 
not over 5,000 Chinese," says Secretary Davis, "are 
awaiting a chance to be smuggled across the line in that 
territory/ 

In 1U20 the Chinese- American Association 
Ri Ihts eaty in Peking, in order to make it easier for 
Chinese students to get practical experience 
and at the same time earn a part of the funds necessarj 7 for 
their maintenance while studying in America, petitioned 
the Department of State for a ruling which would aid boiia 
fide Chinese students. Suitable safeguards were offered. 
The Department of Labor had almost impossible rules for 
such cases. On February 27,1922, Attorney-General 
Daugherty sent to the Secretary of Labor an interpretation 
of the treaty rights of Chinese students based on a long 
succession of cases. His conclusion was as follows: * The 
true rule deducible from the adjudicated cases may be 
stated as follows, viz., that labor is not necessarily incom 
patible with the pursuit of an exempt status, and that 
where the evidence established that the dominant purpose 
of the Chinese person in coming to this country was to 
follow one of the exempt avocations, performance of labor 
as an incident thereto e.g. as a means of providing funds to 
enable him to maintain his student status would not render 
his entry invalid or subject him to subsequent deporta 
tion. ... I therefore have the honor to advise you that 
where the labor performed is only in connection with or in 
furtherance of the maintenance of the status of student 



CHINESE TN AMERICA 497 

there is no provision of law for the exclusion or deportation 
of such Chinese person. The Peking and Tientsin Times on 
August 29, 1928, published a note on the current develop 
ment of tli is matter: The Industrial Student plan of 
placing Chinese students in American industrial establish 
ments for practical training, which was temporarily 
abandoned, is again to be vigorously pushed. 

" New impetus was given the movement by the 
assurance of the Attorney-Genera of the United States and 
officials of the Department of Immigration that Chinese 
students who were receiving practical training would not be 
molested as long as they were bonafde students. 

On the subject of the Chinese in America it 
is worfch w ^ ilft to llote the attempts being made 
by the China Club of Seattle to bring about 
an amelioration of conditions among the Chinese in the 
United States especially those entering American seaports. 
The condition of the Chinese other than the privileged class 
who enter by sea leaves much to be desired and has caused 
a great amount of criticism which is entirely justified. 

During the year 1923 the Museum Association of 
Newark spent much time and energy in gathering materials 
for an exhibition of " China and the Chinese, the Land and 
the People." Many individuals and institutions in China 
were solicited for contribution of materials of interest in 
such an exhibit. The exhibition was opened during the 
past autumn ; the plan is to show the material indifferent 
parts of the United States after the exhibit closes in 
Newark. 

No better picture in brief can be given of the Chinese 
in the United States than that recently drawn by Dr. Fong 
F. Sec of Shanghai in a review of Mr. J. S. Tow s " The 
Real Chinese in America "". Dr. Fong says in part : 
" On my return to the United States in 1922 I was agreeably 
surprised to find that the Chinese there occupied a much 
better position commercially, financially, educationally, and 
socially than when I left for China sixteen years previously. 
In place of pronounced racial prejudice, the Americans 



The Academy Press, New York, pp. 108. 



498 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AMONG THE CHINESE 

have come to know them better and there was mutual good 
will and respect. In Seattle and Portland I found Chinese 
owning business buildings and modern homes in the 
residential districts In Sacremento they had branched out 
into new lines of activity, and I visited a splendid market, 
which handled meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables, owned 
and conducted by Chinese. San Francisco s Chinatown, 
notorious, in the early days, for its squalor and opium 
dens, had given place to wider streets and clean-looking 
up-to-date buildings, some of which, with their pagodas and 
turned-up corners, have an Oriental effect. Modern banks, 
export and import firms, shipping and trading companies 
were among some of the new enterprises. The art goods, 
antique, jewellery, and sundry stores looked more prosperous 
than formerly, though, due to the rigid exclusion laws, the 
Chinese population was steadily decreasing. The Chinese 
schools and churches were housed in better buildings. I 
stayed in a six-story hotel that was up to the minute in 
equipment and appointment, with an elaborately decorated 
tea garden on the roof, which commands a magnificent 
view of the bay. Down in Los Angeles and other Pacific 
Coast cities I found Chinese families, living away from 
China town, and their children going in for higher 
education." 

In Canada the conditions which led to the 
Canada immigration of Chinese were not unlike those 

which prevailed in the United States: gold- 
mining and railroad-building drew numbers of them in the 
seventh decade of the nineteenth century. At first 
immigration into the Dominion, like that into the United 
States, was free and without restriction. In 1886, however, 
a tax of $50 a Chinese head was laid, and other measures 
of restriction were carried out. Despite these conditions 
there were by 190 J almost 17,000 Chinese in Canada; 
accordingly on January 1 of that year the tax was increased 
to $100 a head. And on January 1, 1904, it was again 
raised to $500 ( 100) a head. Daring the three and half 
years between June 1900 and the beginning of 1904 more 
than 16,000 Chinese entered Canada by paying the $100 
head-tax. The effect of the 8500 tax was during the first 
four years to discourage immigration; then suddenly in 



IMMIGRATION LEGISLATION 499 

1908 and continuing down to 19 1G largo numbers of Chinese 
began to enter by paying the tax, high though it was. The 
explanation of this seems to have been that the practical 
prohibition of Chinese immigration created a type of labor 
monopoly for those Chinese who were or who could get in 
to the country. 

These facts may be taken as explanatory and introduc 
tory to those which follow. It is reported that at present 
there are close to 00,000 Chinese in the Dominion of Canada, 
a majority of whom are in the western provinces, particular 
ly in British Columbia. In the lumber mills, in the 
fisheries, in agriculture, and in small retail shops large 
numbers of Chinese are employed. 

In the spring of 1923 a Bill limiting Chinese immigra 
tion to merchants and student- only was introduced into 
the Dominion Parliament by Minister for the Interior 
Stewart. As late as March 192 1 this bill had not passed 
the Senate though the Lower House had passed it with some 
modifications. This proposed measure of the Canadian 
Government reminds one strongly of the Chinese Exclusion 
law in force in the United States by reason of certain 
provisions and general strictness. Great powers are con 
centrated in the person of the Controller; provision is made 
for the appointment in countries other than Canada " for 
the purpose of endorsing passports or performing other 
duties under this Act; ;; the ; 100 head tax is repealed; 
careful arrangements are made for the identification and 
registration of Chinese immigrants, and provisions are made 
for the admission of Chinese students and merchants. 
Diplomatic and Consular officials are, of course, not affected 
by the new law. 

In addition to this proposed immigration measure there 
has more recently been placed before the British Columbia 
Legislature a Bill which, if passed, would make it a criminal 
offence for white girls or Indians to be employed by Chinese 
in restaurants owned or operated by them. Whether this 
measure has been passed is not known at the time of 
writing. The Chinese Consul in British Columbia, Mr. Li 
Pao-heng has addressed to the Speaker of the British 
Columbia Legislature a strong protest against this measure 
on the plea that it is not warranted and constitutes unfair 



500 KECENT DEVELOPMENTS AMONG THE CHINESE 

racial discrimination. It is quite doubtful whether this 
measure would be upheld by the Courts even if passed. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that the immigration 
measure discussed above has received bitter criticism as well. 
In the May 1923 (vol. 4, No. 5) issue of the China Review 
(New York) the editor devoted more than a page to the 
subject of the proposed measure. A Renter s telegram 
was published in the North China Daily News of December 
9, 1923, headed Peking, December 4: "The Government 
has received a petition from Chinese residents in Canada 
protesting against the new Canadian law which, they allege, 
operates harshly against them, and requesting the Govern 
ment to take action to have their positions improved." It 
is unlikely however that China in its present confused state 
can do anything in reference to this matter. 

. By far the most talked of incident in 

reference to Chinese residing abroad during 
the past few months has been the murder of a 
considerable number of these people who were living in Ja 
pan prior to the earthquake of September 1, 1923. Although 
the relations between China and Japan are of old standing it 
was not until after the China-Japan War of 1894-1895 that 
it was estimated that there were as many as 2,500 Chinese 
in the whole Japanese Empire. By 1918 there were a few 
more than 12,000 Chinese in the country. In recent years 
despite the protests of the Japanese laborers small numbers 
of Chinese laborers have gone to work in Japan. The strict 
laws of that land preclude any considerable number of 
Chinese immigrant laborers. 1 

A strict police and military censorship has been main 
tained and only a few facts have come out regarding the 
murders which occurred immediately after the earthquake, 
and during the next few days. As long after the affair as 
December 6 three months the censorship was still 
being kept up as is shown by the obliteration of a three- 



1. For a discussion of this topic cf. " Chinese Nationals in the 
Japanese Empire in The China, Weekly Review, vol. XXIV, No. H 
(April 7, 1923). 



CHINESE IN JAPAN 3 

column account published in the Japan Weekly Chronicle for 
that date. 1 

It has been estimated that from 68 to 200 Chinese not 
to mention a number of Koreans reckoned at 1,500 to 2,000 
were murdered either in cold blood or as a result of being 
mistaken for Koreans. Commenting on this subject Mr. 
Rodney Gilbert wrote at the end of November last: "The 
common Chinese attitude is a very just one. It is rightly 
assumed that during such an epoch of hideous nightmare, 
when all the worst passions of the worst classes in big cities 
are not only unchecked but stimulated by terror, orgies of 
crime are an essential part of the picture. However grue 
some they may be they have nothing to do with politics and 
no bearing upon international relations. 

" While the Chinese at large seem still to maintain this 
attitude toward the killing of their fellow countrymen, the 
officials here (Peking) are apprehensive that Dr. Wang s 
investigations may bring to light facts which will force 
China to take a more serious view of the reported outrages. 
Chinese familiar with Japan who have recently returned 
agree in affirming that the majority of Chinese killed after 
the earthquake were not the victims of panic in the big 
cities but were deliberately killed by Japanese labor or 
ganizations in the smaller manufacturing centres where their 
presence had been for some time resented. It is explained 
that during the past few years Japanese capitalists have been 
importing much cheap Chinese labour and that the Japan 
labor guilds have been sullenly hostile to this competition 
and therefore seized upon the period of chaos following the 
earthquake to wipe out competition in the most direct 
manner possible. If these reports are verified the Chinese 
Government will naturally have to take them rather 
seriously." 

The Japanese government has expressed formal regret 
for the unhappy affair but, according to observers in Japan, 
the Diet, which was expected to register considerable emotion 
was strangely lacking in interest in the whole matter when 



-"). Cf. "How Japanese Police Suppressed News of Chinese 
Murders in The China Weekly Keview, vol. XXV IT, Xo. 7 
(January, 12, 1924). 



502 KEOENT DEVELOPMENTS AMONG THE CHINESE 

it met some months ago. One member of Parliament, how 
ever, is said to have received this reply to his inquiries from 
the Foreign (Mice. If the official report published by the 
Chinese Legation in Tokyo that the Chinese victims of 
vigilantes ; total 68 is true, the number may be taken as 
the outcome of investigations made by the Chinese Legation. 
Consequently, the Japanese government is not in a position 
to recognize the report as authentic. The Japanese 
Government has already communicated a notification to the 
Chinese Government, expressing a sense of profound regret 
at the occurrence of this unfortunate incident. With view 
to learning the truth of the matter, the Japanese Government 
is still strongly pressing its investigations. The authorities 
concerned are not 3 7 et in a position to declare any opinion 
whatever with regard to relief- money to be granted to the 
bereaved families of the victims of vigilantes. 

Early in December 1923, Dr. C. T. Wang who had been 
relieved temporarily of his duties in connection with the 
Commission which is to negotiate with the Kussian Soviet, 
left for Japan to make special inquiries on behalf of the 
Peking Government. He was courteously received by 
the Japanese Government and made his inquiries. The 
Japanese Government has announced from time to time 
curtain results of its own inquiries notably the trials which 
are said to be in progress of certain of those Japanese who 
were accused of guilt in connection with the murders. Dr. 
Wang returned to Peking on January 8. On being inter 
viewed by a Renter s correspondent he said: "Several 
hundreds of Chinese were murdered during the earthquake. 
Some were killed by mistake (the vigilantes taking them 
for Koreans) and others were murdered either intentionally 
or because of hatred." Thus the matter rests at present. 
What the outcome will be it is yet too early to say. 

Time and space preclude a wider survey at this time of 
the conditions among the Chinese abroad. A few considera 
tions may be mentioned breifly in conclusion. It becomes 
quite clear as one studies the facts in reference to the 
Chinese living in foreign countries that they are an 
increasingly important factor in the lands in which they 
reside. From a religious point of view they present a 
challenge to the Christian people among whom they live, 



CIROWINf) SPIRIT OF NATIONALITY 503 

a fact to which the Christians in these countries are paying 
more and more attention. Finally it may be remarked that 
it has taken the Government of China many, many years 
to awaken to its responsibility for protection of the persons 
and interests of its nationals abroad. One effect of the 
growing spirit of nationality which has been growing notice 
ably during the era of the Republic is the interest which 
the people and Government of China are taking in the 
welfare of their confreres and nationals abroad. It is safe 
to say that the next quarter of a century will see even 
greater development than has been noted during the past 
quarter of a century. And this is as it should be. 1 



1. Students interested in the general subject of the Chinese in 
foreign lands may consult further the writer s "The Chinese 
Abroad " published by the Commercial Press, 15)24. 



CHAPTER LXXXVIII 

CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG CHINESE SOLDIERS 

Liu Fang 
r , p Most people have heard that Gen. Feng 

vJCHcf al A C11P[ A ^ i T i i r*i 

Yu-nsiang is deeply interested in Christ 
ianity. He was baptized in the Spring of 1913. He 
studied the Scriptures regularly and devoutly. Since his 
barracks are nine miles from the Church, it requires more 
than two hours ride to attend worship. Yet he attends 
the early " Devotional Service " every Sabbath and calls 
for questions about all doubtful points at the end of the 
service. Sometimes he brings with him his subordinates 
or friends. He keeps the " Morning Watch " at six. This 
indicates his devotion. When young, he was a man of very 
quick temper; but as a result of study of the Bible he has 
become quite a different man, and now wears a look of love 
upon his face. He has grown in Christian experience. In 
Europe, there are chaplains officially attached to the armies, 
an arrangement unknown in China. General Feng, 
however, himself supports four men to preach to his troops. 
Orders in his army are willingly obeyed not because of his 
severity but because of his Christian personality. Confucius 
said, " When a prince s personal conduct is correct, his 
government is effective without the issuing of orders. If 
his personal conduct is not correct, he may issue orders but 
they will not be followed ". This is certainly true. 
General Feng observs and executes the troop orders himself 
as a model for imitation. He instructs his men to be frugal 
and diligent; he has his own uniforms made of the same 
material as that of a common soldier. He gets up very 
early in the morning and works hard from dawn to eve 
every day. Both his residence and food are of the simplest. 
Here is the secret which has raised him to his present 
standing. 



GENERAL FENCES RELIGIOUS SERVICES 505 

Gru*ta\ Fen s ( <-meral Feng often invites both Foreign and 
Troops S Chinese ministers from all parts of China to 
preach to his troops. This he did even when 
his troops were stationed in Szechwan and Hunan Provinces. 
As soon as lie was promoted to the Military Governorship of 
Shensi and Honan Provinces successively, he became more 
fervent. The Rev. Liu Fang has repeatedly been asked by 
the General to preach to his men. When he was the 
Occupation Commissioner in Hunan, the Rev. Liu once 
preached for ten sucessive days. On the last day, eighty- 
nine ollicers and more than eight hundred soldiers were 
baptized. Some of these men are now Cabinet Ministers, 
Vice-ministers, Brigadier-generals, Colonels and important 
officials in other Government departments. 

General Feng pays special attention to the 
( service of song. One of his officers, who 

understood musical notes, was appointed to go 
to the Rev. Liu s home to learn hymns so as to teach the 
other officers, who, in turn, taught the soldiers. Hence all 
the soldiers can sing. They sing not only when worshipping 
and in religious meetings, but also when going along the 
streets: thus the people easily recognize them as General 
Feng s troops. 

At meetings, each man brings with him his own Bible 
and Hymn Book, and many of them take notes of the 
sermons. They hold regular Prayer Meetings. They offer 
thanks to God for every meal. As they are spiritually 
cultured their lives are eminent in comparison with those 
of other armies. They do not smoke, nor drink, nor 
gamble. People love them as their own brothers instead of 
fearing them as vipers. 

Since the removal of the army to Nanyuan 
Servkes ( near p ^ kin g) in ^he Winter of 1922, there 

have been regular " Devotional Services " on 
Sundays. Attendants number us many as thirty thousand. 
The Rev. Liu Fang was once asked to invite ten preachers 
to go from Peking Churches to Nanyuan, every Sabbath, to 
preach at ten different places as the same time. 

February 10-15, 1023, there was a " Special Evangel 
istic Meeting ". The Rev. Liu Fang was requested to 
invite all the preachers of the Peking Methodist Churches, 



506 CHRISTIAN WORK AMONG) CHINESE SOLDIERS 

the faculties of Peking Academy and of Peking University; 
and one choir, totalling altogether fifty two persons, to 
conduct Preaching and Prayer Meetings and Bible classes. 
The preachers were all filled with the Holy Spirit and 
preached the Gospel earnestly and effectively. The hearts 
of the audience were deeply moved. The work of baptizing 
the converts alone occupied the whole of the last day ; 
namely, the loth of February. Those officers and cadets 
that accepted the Christian faith that day numbered as 
many as thirty seven hundred and ninteen. As there is no 
building in the encampment large enough to accomodate 
such a large body of men, the baptismal ceremony was 
held on the drill ground. The converts were divided up 
into squads. Each squad contained fifty men, who were 
baptized individually by eight pastors, whose arms fairly 
ached before the ceremony was over. In the History of 
the Christian Church, I dare to say, that this was probably 
the first time that so many men adopted Christianity 
simultaneously. Even in the day of Penteccost, only about 
three thousand souls were baptized. Therefore, this day 
and and these facts are worthy of remembrance. 

On the tenth of February, 1923, eleven hundred of 
General Feng s soldiers were baptized on the drill ground 
at Tungchow, the east suburb of Peking. Eight pastors 
aided the Rev. Liu Fang in the ceremony. They were Dr. 
George Davis, Dr. Carl Felt, Rev. Hsu Kun Shan and 
others. 

On Christmas Day and Easter Sunday, General Feng 
is accustomed to order all his men to be at the drill ground 
to hold mass meetings. 

General Feng is deeply interested in the 
Communion* Communion and desires to give every Christian 
in his army a chance to take it. As he has 
more than ten thousand Christians under his command, it 
is impossible for all of them to partake of the Communion 
at one time and in one place. So they are divided into 
groups. Each group has five hundred men, and the groups 
attend the "Communion Service by turns, one group a 
Sunday. This plan enables them all to receive the 
Communion easily. 



SUMMER RETREAT CONFERENCES -~>()7 

As to the officers, four special " Communion Services " 
are administered annually. At, each of the services, over 
eight hundred officers take the Communion. They also 
hold ** Summer Retreat Conferences " to which General 
Feng is accustomed to invite both Foreign and Chinese 
Christian Leaders. 



CHAPTER LXXXIX 

"SOME SPECIAL LAWS PERTAINING TO CHINESE 
WOMEN " 

Chit Feng-ch ih 

Since the beginning of the Republic, strife has continued 
incessantly, and the weapons of war have been everywhere. 
Parliamentarians have forgotten their duties with regard 
to what appertains to government, so much so that the very 
root of law and order of the country the Constitution 
has not yet been fixed; so it is not to be wondered at that 
other laws are not yet completed. What are used at present 
are mostly what have been handed down from the laws of 
the Manchu regime. The Supreme Court gathers from the 
laws of all countries and adapts them to requirements; so 
it is difficult to speak with certainty about the laws. 

Our country has differentiated between men and women, 
and the laws have followed custom, and have not always 
been reformed to meet new standards. A woman has been 
under the control of the heads of her family, or of her 
husband, and her rights have been almost entirely taken 
away ; in reality she has not always been treated equitably. 
At the present time civilization is daily progressing, and the 
rights of women are gradually being developed. 

Property 1 Joint Property. 

By the customary practice in China, a woman 
has no independent property of her own; in law the 
property of a husband and wife is considered as joint ; but 
a woman has not the right to dispose of any part of joint 
property. If she wishes to dispose of any, she must first 
obtain her husband s consent, to be in accordance with law. 

(2) Private Property. This may be divided into two 
kinds: (a) the bridal dowiy; (b) presents. The dowry 
given by her parents to a woman on marriage, as well as 
the presents given by relatives and friends, these are the 



MARRIAGE AND " ALLIANCES " 509 

woman s private property, and she has full power to dispose 
of them. 

It should therefore be noted with regard to property, 
that it cannot be said that a woman has no power of 
disposal, only there are limitations to her powers as above 
stated. 

Marria e ^ Betrothal. 

(a) The parents should manage the affairs 
relating to marriage, or if no parents are available, then the 
elder relatives have the power to act. 

(/>) Betrothals should be arranged by "go-betweens 7 
and the two elans and family elders should agree. 

(c) The "Keng t ieh " paper setting forth the 
eight characters of the contracting parties should be 
mutually exchanged. 

(d) There is no fixed amount of betrothal money, 
much or little; tin s should bo arranged by consultation of 
the two families according to wealth and position. 

In some backward places there may be other conditions 
fixed, but the Law looks upon these as bad customs. 

(2) Marriage, (completion of) 

In addition to the conditions of the betrothal papers, 
a fixed ceremony should be gone through. According to 
the old style there is what is called " pai t ang," and in 
the new style is the "enlightened" or "foreign-style" 
ceremony ; these are both according to law. 

There is also the present so-called "free marriage;" 
although the law takes the attitude of non-interference in 
such cases, yet if they come into court, they cannot stand 
as lawful. YOUNG WOMEN MUST BE VERY CAREFUL 
ABOUT SUCH ALLIANCES. 

Divorce ^ n ^ e early days of the Republic, divorce 

was very prevalent, and Shanghai, being a 
great port, was worse than other places. Those who make 
the laws saw that those deficient in morality indulged in 
malpractices and took the opportunity to do evil, so that it 
was necessary to have some severe regulations fixed. 
Divorce can now be obtained for the reasons set forth 
below only. 



510 " SOME SPECIAL LAWS PERTAINING TO CHINESE WOMEN ?; 

According to the Provisional Civil Code, Article 1302, 
cither husband or wife may institute divorce proceedings, 
but only for the following reasons : 

1 . Bigamy. 

2. Adultery on the part of the wife. 

3. The husband having been punished for adultery. 

4. If either party intentionally plans to kill the other. 

5. If either party is so cruelly treated by the other 
as to make it unfit for them to live together, or if 
one suffers excessive insult and shame. 

6. If the wife ill-treats the husband s elders, or 
family, or puts them to great insult or shame. 

7. If the wife suffers ill-treatment or great insult or 
shame from the husband s elders and family. 

8. If either husband or wife, with evil intent, leaves 
the other. 

9. If either husband or wife is not heard of for over 
three years, so that it is not clear whether one is 
living or not. 

It was necessary to prepare these strict laws to prevent 
the springing up of disorders. 

5 . Our country has always regarded the family 

as important and looks upon blood succession 
as still more important. Therefore in regard to the matter 
of succession, the law steps in. If an heir is not of the; 
same blood as the one he inherits from, he cannot carry on 
the succession, for the near and distant must not be 
confused. But the validity of an heir is the same as that 
of a son (whether of the first wife or of any other wife). 
A widow who remains unmarried, with regard to succession, 
has complete power to set up her successor; but if the son 
adopted is not of the closest relationship to the deceased 
husband, the official should bo informed that someone else 
has been adopted. This special right of women with regard 
to the law, is because China has always highly regarded the 
steadfast purpose of a widow who will not remarry, so the 
lawmakers in this way showed special respect to such 
women . 



SONS AND I [KIRS ->ll 

In law, the original intention is not to permit heirs 
having different family names, leading to confusion of 
families and ancestry. An adopted son cannot he recognised 
as an heir in succession; although one has an adopted son, 
yet he should make someone else his heir; but in the 
division of property and possessions, it is allowed by law 
to make fair adjustments. 



PART XII 
OBITUARIES J922-23. 

Ahs, Rev. Julian, 8. M. F., arrived in China 1912, died 

June 2, 1923, at Shasi, Jiiipeh. 
Arpiainen, Migs J. M., F. F. C. (CIM), arrived in China 

1893, died February 16, 1922, at Yungfenghsien, Ki. 
Armstrong, Goo. A., E. P. M., arrived, in China 1902, died 

October 5, 1922, at Kewanee, 111., U. S. A. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, February, 1923). 
Bailer, Frederick William, C. I. M., arrived in China 1873, 

Life Governor of the British & Foreign Bible Society, 

died August 12, 1922, at Shanghai, China. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, November, 1922). 
Blough, Miss Anna V., G. B. B., arrived in China 1913, died 

May 9, 1922, at Pingting, She. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, August, 1922). 
Borjesson, Miss Hilma, S. M. F., arrived in China 1893, 

died November 5, 1923, at Kuling, Ki. 

Conling, Rev. Samuel, M. A., B. M. S., compiled the " Ency 
clopaedia Sinica," died June 15, 1922, in Shanghai, 

China. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, July, 1922). 
Distad, Dr. 0. E., L. U. M., arrived in China 1919, in 

charge of hospital at Sinyang, Ho., died June 12, 1922, 

at Sinyang. 
Bring, Miss Grace, C. I. M., arrived in China 1900, died 

June 4, 1922, at Kuling, Ki. 
Eaton, Miss Delta F., M. E. M., arrived in China 1921, 

died Dec. 10, 1923, at Chengtu. 
Ellison, Rev. E. J., B. Sc., B. M. S., arrived in China 1908, 

died September 3, 1923 at Kuling, Ki. 
Elwin, Rev. A., C. M. S., arrived in China 1807, died May 

1st, 1922, in London, England. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, August, 1922). 
Evans, Edward, arrived in China 1889, organizer of 

"Missionary Home and Agency," died September 21, 

1923, on Mokanshan. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, 

November, 1923). 



OBITUARIES 1922-23 513 

Ferguson, Rev. Duncan, M. A., E. I*. M. , Tainan, Formosa, 

died in the 63rd year of his age at Eastbourne, England. 
Fitch, Rev. George F., D.D., P.N., arrived in China, 1870, 

Superintendent Presbyterian Mission Press, Editor 

Chinese Recorder, died February 17th, 1923 at Shanghai, 

China. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, April, 1923). 
Forsyth, Robert Coventry, B. M. S., arrived in China 1884, 

died December 31, 1^22, at Tsinan, Sung. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, May, 1922). 
Grineli, Dr. A. L., F. M. A., arrived in China 1912, died 

November J 8, 1923, on his 43rd birthday at Kaifeng, Ho. 
Hagquist, Mrs. W. f S. A. M. (CIM), arrived in China 1892, 

died January 22, 1922, at Sianfu, She. 
Hunt, Mrs. Edward, C. I. M., arrived in China 1890, died 

December 26, 1922, at Wenchow, Che. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, February, 1922). 
Keen, Charles Scull, Ph. B., M. A., A. B. F. M. S., arrived 

in China 1902, Dean of the Department of Missionary 

Training of the University of Nanking, died May 20, 

1923, in Nanking. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, July, 

1923). 
Lawson, Edmund Fallows, M. B., C. M. S., arrived in China 

1912, served in the R. A. M. C., died June 11, 1922, at 

Foochow, Fu. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, August, 

1922). 
Lewis, Mrs. G. W., A. 15. C. M. S., arrived in China 1905, 

died October 25, 1922, at Redlands, California. (See 

sketch Chinese Recorder, January, 1922). 
Lindvall, Miss D., S. A. M. (CIM), arrived in China 1891, 

died February 12, 1922, at Sianfu, She. 
Mackenzie, Mrs. Murdock, P. C. C., arrived in China, 1889, 

died 1922 at Montreal, Canada. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, May, 1922). 
Mackenzie, Dr. Marcus, C. M. S., arrived in China 1897, 

served in the R, A. M. C. from 1916, till 1919, died 

June 18, 1922, at Foochow, Fu. (See sketch Chinese 

Recorder, August, 1922). 
Matson, Mrs. P., S. E. M. C., arrived in China 1891, died 

December 29, 1922, at Siangyang, Hup. 
Myers, Rev. Henry Van Schoonhoven, S. T. D., born May 

27, 1842, in New York City, arrived in China 1903, 



514 . OBITUARIES 1922-23 

died June 12, 1923, at Peitaiho. With the American 

Bible Society five years. 
Nelson, Mr. J. G., S. A. M., arrived in China 1891, died 

November 28, 1922, at Lungchow, She. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, February, 1922). 
Nilssen, Jorgen Edvin, M. A., M. D., N. M. S., arrived in 

China 1902, General Secretary of the N. M. S., died 

October 28, 1922, at Stavanger, Norway. (See sketch 

Chinese Recorder, February, 1923). 
Nordlund, Mrs. V. L., S. E. M. C., arrived in China in 

1891, died September 8, 192: . (Sec sketch Chinese 
Recorder, October, 1923). 

Parrott, A. G-, M. R. C. S., L. R. C. P., C. I. M., arrived in 
China 1878, Honorary Medical Officer to the Door of 
Hope Mission, Foreign Women s Home, Blind School 
for Chinese boys and the Chinese Industrial School, 
died May 22, 1923, at Shanghai, China. (See sketch 
Chinese Recorder, July, 1923). 

Pierce, Rev. L. W., S. B. C., arrived in China 1891, drowned 
July 16, 1922, at Soochow, Ku. (See sketch Chinese 
Recorder, December, 1922). 

Reifsnyder, Dr. Elizabeth, W. U., arrived in China 1883, 
first missionary sent out by that Society and started 
first hospital for exclusive treatment of women and 
children. Died at Liverpool, Perm., U. S. A. (See 
sketch Chinese Recorder, May, 1922). 

Schrack, Miss Bertha, S. C. M , Paoning, Sze., arrived in 
China 1901, died March 8, 1922, at Fu-yin tsun, 
Tamingfu, Chi. 

Scorer, Miss H. M., C. I. M., arrived in China 1904, died 
February 14, 1922, at Paoning, Sze. 

Scott, Deaconess Katherine E., A. C. M., arrived in China 
1911, Head-Mistress of St. Hilda s School for Girls, 
Wuchang, died on August 26th, 1923, at Peking, 
China. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, November, 1923). 

Sears, D. D., Rev. William H., S. B. C., arrived in China, 

1892, died August 5th, 1922, atTsingtao. (See sketch 
Chinese Recorder, July, 1923). 

Soderbom, Mrs. Carl G., M. P., arrived in China 1894, died 
April 23, 1922, at Kalgan, Chi. (See sketch Chinese 
Recorder, January, 1922. 



OBITUARIES 1 922-23 5 1 5 

Stunt, Mrs. R, W., C. INT. M. L., arrived in China 1006, 

died May 18, 1928, at Hada, Jehol Territory. 
Trickey, Mrs. E. G. W., C. I. M., arrived in China 1917, 

died April 16, 1922, at Kaifeng, Ho. 
Warner, Rev. Frank Bradford, A. B. C. P. M., arrived in 

China 1914, died June 15, 1923, at Oberlin, Ohio, 

U. S. A. 
Webster, Rev. James, U. P. C. S., from 1910 Foreign 

Mission Secretary in Edinburgh, died at Home, 1923. 

(See sketch Chinese Recorder, July, 1923). 
Wennborg, Mrs. Stina, S. M. P., arrived in China 1907, 

died May 31, 192 , at Kingchow, Hup. 
Wheeler, Miss M. M., M. C. C., arrived in China 1915, died 

November 15, 1923, at Chengtu, S/e. 
Wilson, J. Ward, C. M. M. L., arrived in China 1891, died 

September 16, 1928, at Wellington, New Zealand. 
Wright, Rev. Harrison King, P. N., arrived in China 1902, 

died on July 21th, 1923, at Shanghai. Member of 

staff of C. L. S. 
Young, Miss P. A. M., C. I. M., arrived in China 1899, died 

June 17, 1922, at Wenchow. 
Young, Dr. Andrew, B. M. S., arrived in China 1905, died 

1922, at Tsinanfu, Sung. (See sketch Chinese Recorder, 

August, 11)22). 



PART XIII 

APPENDICES 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

FRANK RAWLINSON, EDITOR, CHINESE RECORDER 
L BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS 

January to December, 1928. 

\. For Reference 



China Mission Year Book 1923. 
Edited by Frank Kawlinson. 
Christian Literature Society, 
Shanghai. Mex. $2.00. 

China Year Book, The Tientsin 



Press Ltd., Tientsin. Mex. 
$12.00. 

Directory of Protestant Missions 
in. China, 1923. Kwang Hstieh 
Publishing House. Mex. $2.30. 



2. Romance and Art 



Chinese Drama, The by R. F. 
Johnston, C. B. E., M. A. 
Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., Shang 
hai. 

Chi nese Niohts En t ert ai n >ne i its 
by Brian Brown. Brentano s, 
Fifth Avenue, New York. 



of China and Japan in 
Nature and Art by V. W. F. 
Collier. William Ileineinann, 
London. 

Work of Li, Po, The Chinese Poet, 
The by Shigeyoshi Obata. E. 
P. Button & Co., New York. 



3. Travel 



In and Around Yunnan Fa by 
Gabrielle M. Vassal. William 
J Leinemann, London. 10/fi net. 



Travels of a Consular Officer^ in 
Eastern Tibet by Eric Teich- 
inan. University Press, Cam 
bridge. 25/- net. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPORTANT ARTICLES ON CHINA 517 



4. Language 



Fire Hundred Proverbs Commonly 
uxed in, ]Vc*t China by Capt. 
A. ,T. Brace, F. It. G. H. Cana 
dian Mission Press. Mex. 

$0.50. 



Supplement to Dictionary of the 
Vernacular or Spf)ken Langua.i/c 
of Amoy by l\ev. Thomas 
Barclay, M. A., I). I). Glasgow. 
Tlie Commercial Press, Ltd., 
Shanghai. Mex. $10.00. 



5. Research 



Chinese. L feraturc,, Notes on, by 
A . Wy lie. P res byte r ia n M is- 
sion Press. Mex. $7.00. 

Chu T/.sv and Uis Matters by 
J.P. P.ruce. Probsthain & Co., 
41 Great Russell Street, British 
Museum, London, W. C. I. 

24/- 

Logical Method in AncJi iit China, 
T n Di ii loptni iit of the, by I hi 
Shih (Suh Hu). The Oriental 
Hook Co., Shanghai. Mex. 

$1.20. 



Mi 7V, 

Seiner 



Dc.fi Social c.thikes und 
Sc ! nder PhilosopJusche 



Werkeby Dr. Alfred Forke. 
Kommissionsyerlag der Yere- 
initrung Wissenschaftlicher 

Yerleger, Berlin. M. 20,000. 
0.8.0. G. $2.00. 

Nt xtorUin Adventure in China, 
My. by Frits Holm. Flem 
ing II. Eevell Co., New York. 
Mex. $7.70. 

Philosophy of Human Nature 
by Chu Hsi. Probsthain & 
Co , 41 Great Russel St., 
London, W. E. 30/- net. 

Tankarc I Det (lamia Kind by 
Erik Folke. Birkagardens, 
Ffirlag, Stockhol. 



6, Religion 



Chinese Superstitions, Researches 
into Vol. VII. by Henry 
Dore, S.J. T ousewei Pross, 
Shanghai. Mex. $4.50. 

l"ra Oxti-nx Rct.il/ioxe. LEV. by 
Karl Ludvig Keichelt. (J.E.C. 



Gade For lag, 
1922. 



Kobenhavn. 



inax Religioner by Karl 
Ludvig Reichelt. Det Norsko 
Missionsselskaps Forlag, Stav- 
anger, 1922. 



7. China Within 

American Un/reno ty dub >n l Ch : m #J^.Mjd(fa^pnffdom, 
China (Papers) George E. 
Sokolsky. Commercial Press, 
Ltd., Shanghai. 



Bci/ond 8:iaii ftia> -by Harold 
Speakman. The Abingdon 
Press G. $2,50. 



The by James Eeid Marsh. 
Little, Brown. & Co., Boston 
G. $5.0J. 
C/iina in tfie Family of Nations 
by Henry T. Hodgkin, M.A , 
M.B. George Allen & Unwin, 
London. 7/(> net. 



518 



APPENDICES 



China To-day Through Chinese 
Eyes Student Christian Move 
ment. 32 Russell Square, 
London, W.C.I. 2/6 net. 

China s Crossroads by Elliott I. 
Osgood, M. D. Powess & 
White, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Chinese Screen, On a by W. 

Somerset Maughn. William 

Hcinemann Ltd. 10/6. 
Economics for China, Readings in 

by C.F. Eemer. Commercial 

Press Ltd., Shanghai. Mex. 

$5.00. 

History, Economics & Public Law, 
Studies in Chuan Shih-Li, 
Ph. J). Columbia University, 
New York. 



Linguist 1923, the Annual Nan 
king Language School. 

Peking Mandarin, the Annual 
North China Union Language 
School. 

Studier Och Bilder Fran Det Nya 
Kinaby Ingeborg Wikand er 
Syeriges Kristliga Student- 
rb relses Forlag, Stockholm. 

Swinging Lanterns by Eliza 
beth Crump Enders. D. Ap- 
pleton cK: Co., New York. G. 
$2.50. 

Tai Race, the-by William Clif 
ton Dodd. The Torch Press, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

Twin Travellers in China and 
Japan by Mary H. Wade. 
Fred. A. Stokes Co., New 
York. G. SI. 75. 



8. Education 



Christian Education and (he Na 
tional Consciousness of China. 
by James B. Webster. E. P. 
Button & Co., New York. 
G. $2.50. 



Education and Chinese Agriculture 
by Kcnyon L. Btitterfield, 
A. M. LL.I). The China 
Christian Educational As 
sociation, Shanghai. Mex. 
$0.30. 



9. International Relationships 



Americans in Eastern Asia by 
Tyler Dennett. Macmillan, 
New York. G. $5.00. 

China in American School Text 
Books by T. T. Lew. Chinese 
Social and Political Science 
Association, Peking. Mex 
$1.25. 

Extraterritoriality Problem, The 
by Jean Escarra. La Librairic 
Francaise, Peking. Mex. $0.60. 

Histoire General de la Chine et de 
Ses Relations Arec Les Pays 
Strangers Depuls Les Temps 
Les Plus Anciens Juxqu a la 
Chute de la Dt/nastie Mandchou. 
par Henri Cordior, Librairie 
Paul Geuthner 



Indiscreet Chronicle from the 
Padfir, A nby P u t n a m 
Weale. Dodd, Mead & Co., 
New York. Mex. $6.00. 

International Development of 
China, The by Sun Yat-sen. 
G. P. Putnam s Sons, New 
York. 

Modern Chinese History by Har- 
ley Farnsworth MacNair, 
Commercial Press, Ltd., 
Shanghai. 

Open Door in Relation to China, 
T ltby Mingchien Joshua 
Ban, Ph.D. The Macmillan 
Co., 1923, New York. 



BIBLIOGEAPHY OF IMPOETANT ARTICLES ON CHINA 519 

JO* The Christian Movement 

Flood-Tide in China by H. P.. ! Missionary Society, 24 Hi- 
Chapman, M. A. Wesleyftn shopsgate, London, E. C. l/- 



II. ARTICLES 

(July 1, 1922 to June 30, 1923) 



C. C. = Christian Century 



C. J. S. A. -China Journal of of Missions. 



Science and Arts. 
C. M. = China s Millions. 
C.M.J.= China Medical Journal. 
C. K. = Chinese Recorder. 



I. R. M. = International Review 



J. R. = Journal of Religion. 
L. A. = Living Age. 

M. R. W. = Missionary Review 
of the World. 



C. S P. S. R= Chinese Social I N. c. R. = New China Review. 

and Political Science Review. , 



E. R.=Educational Review. 

F. E. R. = Far Eastern Review. 



T. D. = Trans-Pacific. 
W. R. = Weekly Review. 



J. Romance and Art 

Chinese Idea of a Garden, The \ Art of Textile Work, Theln- 

Florence Ayscough. C. J., I geborg Wikander. C. R., Oct., 

Page 1/5, Jan., 1928. 1922. 

Poetry of China, 7lii Soong Soc-icil M< xs<iae in Chinv.w Poetry, 

Tsiing Faung. L.A., Page ()<52, The.Hn Shih, (Hu Suh) Ph.D. 

June 10, 1922. C. S. P. S. R., Page (>, Jan., 

Preservation of the Old. Chinese \ 1928. 

2, Travel 

Tihet, the. StH]>:>ndottxX\cn IFed- Yen Tani/ llohert K. 1-itch. 
in. Asia, Page 725, Oct., 112:;. ( . li. ; Dec., 1928. 



3* Research 



Ancient Chinese Philosophy R. 
F. Johnston. C. S. P. S. R., 
Page 142, April 1928, No. 2. 



Italic Philosophy of Confucius and 
It* Later Development, The 
R. Y. Lo. C. R., Jan., 1928. 



520 



APPENDICES 



Brief Account of the Early 
Development of Sinology, A 
Prof. A. H. Rowbotharn. C. S. 
P. S. E., Page 113, April 1928. 

Chinese, Hospitals in Ancient 
Times K. C. Wong. C M. J., 
Page 77, Jan., 1923. 

Clan Customs in Kiangsi Province,. 
Fred R. Brown. C. E., Aug., ! 
1922. 

Introduction to the " Documents 
Chinois Decouverts par Aurel 
Stein dans les Sables due 
Turkestan Oriental " (Con 
tinued) Edouard Chavannes. 
N. C. E., Page 427, Dec., 1922. 



Jesuits at the Capital of China, 
The First Arrival of the- A. C. 
Motile. N. C. E.; Page 450, 
Dec., 1922. 

Tjfu Iliang and Ts ioi on Si /n-Tsz 
E. Ii. Parker. N. C. E., 
Page 443, Dec., 1922. 

Sericulture in Fukien l*rorince, 
Notes on C. E. Kellogg. G. J. 
S. A., Page 59, Jan., 1923. 

Tarhagan or Siberian Marmot, 
TheWu Lien Teh. C.J.S.A., 
Page 39, Jan., 1923. 

Yin-Yang Theory, Ont ie Antiquity 
of the Leopold de Sausstire. 
N. C. E., Page 457, Dec., 1922. 



4. Religion 



Anti-Religion Movement; The 
N. C. S. Chang, S. li. C. Hu 
and Y. T. Wu, C. S. P. S. E., 
Page 103, April, 1923. 

Buddhism in China- A Historical - 
Sketch Kenneth J. Saunders. 
J. E., Page 25(5-275, May 1923. j 

Litholatry in Badi, and Bawang, 
and Some Non-Lamaist Regions 
J. Huston Edgar. C. E., 
April, 1923. 

Religious Beliefs and Practices of 
the Common People of China, 
Study of the Albert George 
I arker. C. E., August 1922, 
Part 2, Sept., 1922. 



| Religious Problems as Viewed by 
Chinese Thinkers Lee ILsi 
Dzen. C. E., Aug., 1922. 

Right to Call the Supreme Being 
"Shangti."/ Is itTi Shan 
Rough. C. E., Nov., 1922, 
Part 2, Dec., 1922. 

Superstitions Common in Kiangsi 
Province Fred. E. Brown. 
N. C. E., Page 493, Dec., 1922. 

Tai Ilsil and Modern Buddhism 
Frank E. Millican. C. E., 
June, 1923. 

Tao Yuan, Th/ V. S. Drake. 
C. E., Mar., 1923. 



5. China Within 



Application of the Federal System, 
of Government to China Dr. S 
Uale Lowrie. C. S. P. S. E,, 
Page 5f5, Jan., 1923. 

Banditry, Bankruptcy or Boxers 
Charles A. Dailey. W. E., 
Page 291, Jan. 20, 1923. 



Band./ try in C/tinu, Tin 1 Real 

Significant 1 !! o/ Charles A. 

Dailey. W. E ., Page 207, Jan. 

C), 1923. 
Banditry Focuses Eyes of World 

on China. W. E ., Page 372, 

May 12, 1923. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPORTANT ARTICLES ON CHINA 



521 



Bandits, "Esteemed ({vests" of 
ttwChinew J. B. Powell. Asia, 
Page 844, Nov., 1923. 

T/t< J. R. Powell! Asia, Page 
914, Dec., 1923. 

Cabinet Government in China a 
Failu re Why ? J. J. Heeren, 
Ph.D. W. E., Page 240, Jan. 
13, 1923. 

Camp ng with Shantung Bandits 
-J. R. Powell. W. K., Page 
447, May 26, 1923. 

Canton s Experiment wiih Com 
mission Government 8. Y. Wu. 
W. E., Page 44, Dec., 9, 1922. 

Cantonese and thi Kuomintang 
Hing Wong. W. E ., Page 382, 
Feb. 3, 1923. 

Central China Fears Foreign In- 
tevention Peter 8. Jowe. W.E., 
Page 14, Dec., 2, 1923. 

Changes in the Christian Literature 
World in Twenty-one Years, 
1900-1921. D. McGillivray. 
C. E., Aug., 1922. 

Chaotic Political Condition of 
China, The-S. K. Yu. W. E. , 
Page 127, Dec., 23, 1922. 

China s Problems, Dr. W. W. Yen 
On Grover Clark. W. E., 
Page 4 10, May 19, 1923. 

Chinese Constitution, Framing and. 
Adoption of the Mingchien 
Joshua Ran" W. E., Page 17o, 
July 7, 1923. 

Chinese Legal System, The 
Leonard \S. Hsu. W. E., 
Page 12, March 3, 1923. 



Chinese, Robbers, In the. Hands of 

W. IE. O.ldfield. C. E., Aug., 

1922. 
( Hr.il }\ <ir, China * Annnal 

Nathaniel PcfFcr. Asia, Pago 

511, July 1922. 
Feast of Cold Food, The Lewis 

Modems. N. C. E., Page 470, 

Dec., 1922. 
Foreign Newspapers and China s 

Progress Harold 8. Quigley. 

W. E., Page 170, March 31, 

1923. 
Historical and Traditional Data 

about Nanchang Francis Clair 

Gale. N. C. E ., Page 474, Dec., 

1922. 
Home Life in China Mrs. Guy 

W. Hamilton. M. E. W., 

June 1923. 
Li.ncJie.ng Outrage, the Death-knell? 

Is theV. P. Ting. W. E., 

Page 37, June 9, 1923. 
Mutiny Cases in China Since the 

Revolution Jameson Y.Chang. 

W. E., Page 501, Feb. 24, 1923. 
New China on The Ways J. C. 

Garritt. M. E. W., Page 22, 

Jan., 1923. 
Personal Story of Experiences in 

Hands of Bandits. J. R. 

Powell. W. E., Page 407, May 

19, 1923. 
Renaissance in China, The, C. C., 

Page 1614, Dec., 28, 1922. 
Szechuan for the Szechuanese, Eoy 

C. Bennett. W. E., Page 444, 

Nov., 25, 1922. 
W>11 the Next Annual Civil War 

Start in Szechuan/ Eoy C. 

Bennett. W. E,, Page 89, Dec., 

16, 1922. 



6. International Relations 



British Chambers of Commerce and 
the Boxer Indemnity, TheC. G. 
Sparham. C. E., April 1923. 



China s Disruption, Our Concern 
in -Upton Close. Asia, Pago 
473, July 1923. 



522 



APPENDICES 



Chinese Jurist s Views on Extrater 
ritoriality, A Francis Zia. 
W. R./Page 167, Dec., 30, 
1922. 

Congressman Dyer s Indictment of 
China. W. R., Page 877, Feb. 
3, 1923. 



Intervention and the Situation in 
China Harold Scott Quigley. 
W. E., Page 38, June 9, 1923. 

Revision of the, Chinese Tariff 
Clarence S. K. Chow. Oi S. 
P. S. E., Page 1, Jan., 1923. 



7. Education 



John Dewey s Criticism of China s 
Mission Colleges Guy W. 
Sarvis. C. C., Page 1449, Nov., 
23, 1922. 

Kwangtung Chinese Receive Liberal 
Education S. Kanai. T. P., 
Page 58, Oct., 1922. B. W. 
Fleisher Publisher & Editor. 

Modern Education in China 
John C. Ferguson. C. E., Oct., 
1, 1922. 



New Chinese School System, The 
Jameson Y. Chang, B.Sc. 
W. E., Page 164, Mar., 31, 
1923. 

New Department in Higher Educa 
tion- II. Balme. C. E., June, 
1923. 

Three Years Experiment in Pupil 
Self Government Lowry Davis, 
M. A. E. E., Page 152, April, 
1923. 



8. Commerce and Industry 



Agriculture in the Economic Life 
of t ! >e New China Julean 
Arnold. W. E., June 23, 1923. 

Chinese as Contract Labourers, The 
H. F. MacNair. W. E., 
Page 449, May 26, 1923. 

Chinese Engineering Development. 
F. E. R., Page 165, Mar., 
1923. 



Economic China of To-day 
Growth and Future. M. T. Z. 
Tyau. T. P., Page 46, Nov., 
1922. 

Egg Production in China A Giant 
Industry G. 0. Levine. T. P., 
Page 67, Jan., 1923. 



9. Reform 



Reform in China ][ aits on the 
Power* Charles Dailey. W. 
E., Page 207, July 14, 1923. 



Working for Social and Culture 
Regeneration of China Ta 
Chen. W. E., Page 220, July 
14, 1923. 



JO. Finance 



China s Financial Problem Has 
Close Bearing on Existence, of 
Nation Hollington K. Tong. 
W. E., Page 6, Dec., 2, 1922. 



China Finances Since, the Washing 
ton Conference Jacob Gould 
Schurman. W. E., Page 13, 
June 3(), 1923. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPORTANT ARTICLES ON CHINA 



China s Future Independence 
Menaced by Debt Problem 
HollingtorT K. Tong. W. R., 
Page 46, Dec., 9, 11*22. 

China 8 Obligations to her Domestic 
Banker* Ilolliiigton K. Tong. 
W. E., Page 90, Dec., 1G, 1922. 

China s /Serious Financial Situa 
tion Hollington K. Tong. 
W. K., Page 439, Nov., 25, 
1922. 

Financial Reconstruction of China 
and the Consolidation of China s 



Present Indebtedness. G. Pad- 
onx. W. R., Page 17, June 
30, 1923. 

Is China on the Verge of Bank- 
ruptcySDr. C. T. Wang. 
W. R., Page 5, June 30, 1923. 

Native Banks of Shanghai, The 
T. S. Hsu. "W. R. , Page 31, 
June 30, 1923. 

Trading With Foreign Mono/ in 
China Roy 0. Bennett. \V.R., 
Page 45, June 30, 1923. 



\ l Social Problems 



Agriculture- in the Economic Life 
of tin New China Julean 
Arnold. W. R., Page 141, 
June 30, 1923. 

Blindness in China C. M. J., 
March-April, 1923. 

Chinese Amended Laws Concern- 
in// Morphta. C. M. J., Page 
184, Feb. 1923. 

Doping of China, TheC. R., 
June 1923. 

Drug Cultivation in China Prof. 
B. E. Read. C. M. J., Page 
147, Feb., 1923. 

Estimate of the Yearly Amount of 
Narcotic Drugs Required for 
Medical Us, in. China, A a 
W. H. Graham- Aspland, M. D. 
Pub. by The International 



Anti-Opium Association, Pe 
king. 

Funeral Expenses in China 
C. M. J., March-April, 1923. 

Op wn.H. F. McNair. W. R., 
June 23, 1923. 

Public Opinion as a Force in 
China Frederick W. Stevens. 
C. S. P. S. R., Page 41, Jan., 
1923. 

Public Opinion as a Force in 
China Frederick W. Stevens. 
W. R., Page 157, March 31, 
1923. 

Seattle Help* China Fie/ /it the 
Narcotic Margart Bunday. 
W. R., Pag 222, July 14, 1921. 

War Against Op um, Tin W. 11. 
Gratiam-Aspland. (J. R., Oct., 

1922. 



12. Chinese Abroad 

China s Nationals in the Japanese | Cliine.se Emigration Prof. II. F. 
Empire H. F. MacXair. W. MacXair. C. S. P. S. R., Page 

R., Page 19S, April 7, 1923. 



China s Students in Foreign Lands 
H. F. MacNair. W. R., 
Page 214, July 14, 1923. 



55, April 1923. 

Cliine.se in t/ie Philippines, T/te 
H. F. MacNair. \V. R., Page 
H8, June IK, 1923. 



APPENDICES 



Chinese Student* in the United 
States, Toward the Redemption 
of the Li Keng-chang. W. R., 
Page 202, April 7, 1923. 

Educating Chinese in America 
Julean Arnold. W. R., Page 
272, April 21, 1923. 

Glimpses of the Chinese Abroad. 
H. F. MacNair. W. R., Page 
81, March 17, 1923. 



Manchus Toward Their Chinese 
Subjects Abroad, The Attitude 
of theH. F. MacNair. W. R., 
Page US, March 24, 1923. 

Relation of China to Her Nationals 
Abroad II. F. MacNair. C. 
S. P. S. R., Page 23, Jan., 1923. 

Status of the Chin exe in Siarn, The 
H. F. MacNair. W. R,, 
Page 302, April 28, 1923. 



13. Sino- Japanese Relations 

Japan s Electric Grip on Penniless . The Shantung Negotiations C. 
China Charles A. Dailey. Chao. C. S. P. 8. R , Page 80, 
W. R., Page 335, May 5, 1923. i Jan., 1923. 



J4* United States and China 



America Changing Her China 
Policy/ IsW. R., Page 4J, 
March 10, 1923. 

American Const/ tut ion and the 
Chinese Republic, The Robert 
McElroy. W. R., Page 337, 
Nov. 11, 1922. 

American Money and Chinese Road 
J3uildingJohn Earl Baker. 
T. P., Page 56, Nov., 1922. 

American Opinion Regarding 
China Has Changed Why? 
W. R., Page 133, June 30, 1923. 

American People Think of China/ 
What do theW. R., Page 167, 
July 7, 1923. 



Chinese, Constitution from the 
American Viewpoint, The Paul 
S. Reinsch. W. R., Page 420, 
Feb. 10, 1923. 

Chinese Friendship for the United 
States? John Hart. W. R., 

Page 20, Dec. 2, 1922. 

Principles and Policies in Regard 
to China Stanley K.Hornb eck. 
W. R., Page 203, April 21, 1923. 

Theory, History and Origin of U. 
#. Extraterritorial Rig/its in 
China. Robert T. Bryan, Jr. 
W. R., Page 33<>, J*an. 27, 
1923. 



J5. The Christian Movement 



Achievement in Self-Support 
William A. Mather. C. R., 
June, 1923. 

Anti-Christian Movement, The | 
V. P. Ting. W. R., Rage 291, 
April 22, 1922. 



Anti-Christian Movement in China, 
T/wH. H. Brayton Barif. 
L. A., Page 198, July 22, 1922. 

Appeal of the Modern Mind to 
China, TheF. E. A. Shep 
herd. C. R., July, 1922. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF IMPORTANT ARTICLES ON CHINA 



11 /hie Distribution and the Chinese \ 
Church Carlcton Lacy. C. E., | 
July, 1922. 

Cheng Ching-yi Chinese Christian. 
(J. G. Sparhain. M. E. W., 
Page 1)52, Dec., 1922. 

Clvnese Church and Country Life, 
The J. Lo.ssing Buck. "0. E., 
June, 1928. 

Christians and Non-C iristians 
Reply to the Anti-Religion \ 
Movement T. 0. Cliao. C. E., ! 
Dec., 1922. 

Christian Church and Rural Life 
in China, The Kenyan L. 
Butterfield. I. E. M., Page 
1S2, April, 1923. 

Christian Dynamic for Ch>na, Tin . 
J. L. Stuart. C. E., Feb., 
1923. 

Christ ian ft if in China, Present and 
Future Milton T. Stauffer. 
M. E., Page 113, Feb., 1923. 

Christians Missions and J/n- 
perialismTylQi Dennett. C. 
C., Dec. 21, 1922. 

Church Union in China P. F. 
Price. (J. E., April, 1923. 

Earliest D(iys of Christianitti in 
China A. H. Eowbotham. 
C. E., T, Jan., 1923. II, Feb., 
1923, 111, March, 1923. 

Extraterritoriality and Mission 
aries in China Tyler Dennett. 
C. C., Page <)2o, May, 17, 1923. 

First National Conference of 
the Chinese Student Volunteer 
Movement, The P. C. Lin. 
C. E., Oct., 1922. 

Forgotten Pay ex in Mission His 
tory James \V. Inglis. C. E., 
March, 1923. 

Great Deliverance, A C. M., Vol. 
XLIX, No. 3, March, 1923, 
Page 40. 



How a Missionary Works in China 
Charles E. Patton. M. E. W., 
Page 97, Feb., 1923. 

Impressions of 8ome Present Tend 
encies in the Christian Move 
ment in China Kenneth Scott 
Latourette. C. E., Nov., 1922. 

New Church in China, The Alva 
W. Taylor. C. (J., Page 1297, 
Oct. 19, 1922. 

New Missionary, The O. J. 
Goulter. C. E., May, 1923. 

New Stage in Missions in China, 
A Kenneth S. Latourette. 
M. E. W., Page 93, Feb., 1923. 

Obstacle to Missionary Work in 
China Rev. T. L. Sinclair. 
L. C., Page 9, May 5, 1923. 

Reaching China s Unenlightened 
If assesEdith M. Heeren. C. 

E., Oct., 1923. 

Recent Developments in the Metli,- 
odist Kpiscopal Church in 
Chi nn Edward James. C. E., 
Jan., 192: ,. 

Social ( iospel in China, The 
Sherwood Eddy. C. E., Feb., 
1923. 

Tlien and Now. Arnold G. 
Bryson. C. E., May, 1923. 

Traveller to the West, The by a 
Traveller. C. E., Sept., 1922. 

Two Hundred Miles of Miracles 
W. II. Oldiield. C, E., I, Feb., 
1923, II, March, 1923. 

Views of a Christian Leader in the 
Chinese Army. C. E., June, 
1923. 

Visitor s Impressions of Ihe 
National Christian Council, A 
-D. Willard Lyon. C. E., 
June, 1923. 

What do St intents in Christian 
Schools Really Think / Archi 
bald Bullock. <J. E., Jan., 
1923. 



526 



APPENDICES 



What the Chinese Are Thinking 
About Christianity G. R., I, 
Oct., 1922, II, Dec., 1922. 

What the Chinese Are Thinking 
Abovt Religion T u Hsiao 
Shih. C. R. , May, 1923. 

Women and the Church Ruth 
Cheng. 0. R., Aug., 1922. 



Work Amongst the Miao in South 
west China W. D. Husneth 
C. R., Nov., 1922. 

Work Among the No-Su, The 
C. N. Mylns. C. R.. Mar., 
1923. 

Work Among the Tribes A. G 
Nicholls. G. R., May, 1923 



TENT EQUIPMENT 

1. In addition to the tent itself, there will be required: 

(1) A tool consisting of heavy iron chisel about 2 long by 
3" wide, with a wooden handle about two feet long for digging 
holes for the anchor posts. 

(2) Heavy wooden mallet about 1 in diameter and the 
same length, with a handle about 3 long for driving the anchor 
posts. 

2. Benches for the audience. 

Each bench is in three parts : seat and the two pairs of legs. 
Seat is 7 x7 l/2"xl 1/2". About 1 from each end of the seat is 
a mortise. This is 1" wider on one side of the seat than the 
other, and instead of being cut on the straight, is cut on the slant, 
which with the slant of the two cleats added, makes a difference 
of 3/4" between the width of the top and the bottom of the 
mortise. Each pair of legs consistes of four pieces ot wood: the 
legs proper, 19 l/2"x2"xl 1/4", one cross-piece, and the top, 
the legs pass through the top and arc wedged secure, so that each 
pair of legs is one solid piece. The top is 1 1/2" thick, and made 
to fit in exactly into the mortise, its ends being ilush with the 
sides of the seat, i.e. one end is 3 3/4" wide at the top and 3" at 
the bottom, broadening to 4 3/4" and 4" respectively at the other 
end. When tapped into place with a light mallet, each pair of 
legs fits into the seat rigidly, and the bench can be moved about 
at will without the legs moving in the slightest degree. Any 
expansion or contraction in the mortise or top of the leys caused 
by changes in the weather, is taken up by the inch difference in 
the widths of the two ends, the legs being tapped in farther, or not 
so far, according as the wood has contracted or expanded. The legs 
are made to go outward at a slight angle, the difference being 
2 1/2". Therefore tho mortise at either end of the seat must be 
reversed,, as to narrower and wider ends, as in diagram, to allow 
legs to spread outwnrd. 



528 



APPENDICES 



In packing the benches on carts, the legs arc tapped out from 
the stats and packed by themselves, the seats are packed in pairs, 
the cleat of one fitting into the mortise of the other, thus saving 
considerable space. A light wooden mallet should be provided 
for setting up and knocking down the benches. 

3. Platform, in two pieces, each about 6 x2 1/2 supported on 
two benches, with knock-down railing on three sides, cloth to 
enclose. 

4. A knock-down table top about o xl 1/2 . 

5. Rack with pictures, hymn-sheets, etc. 

(>. Gasoline Lantern. One is sufficient for tent sq. area 
120(0 sq. ft. 




COVENANT OF THE ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE SALVATION OF NATIONS THROUGH 
CHRISTIANITY 

Tins Association was first organized in Canton about live years 
ago. Most of the Chinese pastors of the Canton Christian Move 
ment wore among its promoters. At first the membership \\as 
limited to Christians. Later this w ? as changed. A prominent 
leader is Mr. George C. Hsu. In addition to many Chinese pastors 
as members, there are a few foreigners. A Sunday Bible class is 
one of the methods used. A weekly known as the Christian 
Uplift" is published. 

General Principles 

Art. I. To believe in God as " Absolute Reality ". 

Art. II. To believe in Jesus Christ as personify ing God. 

Art. III. To believe in the union of man with God. 

Art. IV. To believe in Christianity as the important 
factor in the salvation of nations. 

Art. V. To believe that all nations should be saved. 

Art. VI. To establish the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. 
Art. VIL To lead a pure and noble social life. 

Art. VEIL To rectify all errors and sins, others as well as 
our own. 

Art. IX. To respect the rights of all persons. 

Concerning One s Self 

Art. X. To pray and be conscientious. 

Art. XL To be pure. 

Concerning The Family 

Art. XII. To be monogamus, and to abolish concubinage. 

Art. XIII. To believe in the equality of rights between 
man and woman 

Art. XIV. To limit inheritance to one hundred thousand 
dollars in value. 



APPENDICES 

Concerning Society 

Art. XV. To better the condition of the labouring classes. 
Art. XVI. To promote equality between labour and capital. 

Concerning the State 

Art. XVII. To realize a world democracy. 

Art. XVIII. To respect the right of self-defence on the part 
of the people. 

Art. XIX. To all persons, male and female, to give equal 
and free education of all grades, and to make 
elementary education obligatory for all. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE CENTRAL CHINA 
TEACHERS COLLEGE 

Incorporated 1923 under thi Law of the District of 
Columbia U. S. A. 

The central object of the Corporation is the training of 
Christian Teachers and other allied educational service, and the 
whole title to this property is vested in the Hoard of Trustees, 
whose principal office is in Wuchang. There is no restriction as 
to their nationality. Two are appointed (in a manner, in the case 
of each mission, stated in the By-laws, to be amended only by 
consent of the mission concerned as well as of the Trustees) by 
each mission contributing full share to the union, and one by each 
mission contributing a half-share together with the Principal of 
the College (without vote) and possible co-opted members up to a 
limit of three. 

This Board lias complete power, including control of capital, 
sale of property, disposal of property or funds in case of with 
drawal of a mission or dissolution of the union, appointment or 
dismissal of Foreign Staff (in consultation with Mission Concerned) 
and Principal, admission of new organizations, and relationships, 
financial and otherwise, with home boards. But freedom to 
attend Sunday services and hold special meetings is guaranteed 
the students of each Church. 

Constituent missions with full share ("at least 15,000 Mex.. 
Capital, $1,500 annual grant, and a foreign staff-member or equiv 
alent ") are at present the American Church Mission and Wesleyan 
Methodist Missionary Society, and they have named as their four 
trustees the offical holders of four offices (Bishop, Chairman and 
President and Principal of two colleges in Wuchang. Those witli 
half share ($5,000 capital and $1,000 grant or equivalent) are 
American Presbyterian Mission, London Mission, and Central 
China Christian Educational Association. The annual meeting is 
in September at the College and hitherto one or two additional 
meetings have been held annually. 

Grants of Constituent missions are wholly applied to support 
of their students at the rate of fees in force at the time (and each 
mission now freely gives in addition a smaller upkeep and equip 
ment grant and some a still smaller house-repairs grant.) 

The second seat of authority in the College is the Hoard of 
Directors which consists of five members from every mission 
appointing two Trustees, and three members from every mission 
appointing one. Mode of appointment is stated in By-laws, alter 
able only by consent of Mission and Trustees. They control 



532 APPENDICES 

general educational policy, current expenditure, rate of fees, 
entrance requirements, length of course, opening new departments 
or closing old ones, etc. They have no power to incur debt or 
financial responsibility save as authorised by Trustees. (Hitherto 
Mission appointments have secured that the staff is represented 
on this Board and encouragement has been given to the graduates 
to expect representation when their organization is well estab 
lished.) 

The third seat of authority is the Principal, who oversees the 
property and internal government and is responsible for adminis 
tration, discipline, and curriculum entrance, promotion, and 
graduation tests receiving and dismissing students engaging 
Chinese teachers, fixing salaries, and supervising all instruction, 
and acting as Secretary and Treasurer of the Directors. 

Any one of these three authorities have the right to make 
representations to any other on matters within the other s 
authority. There must also be a regular faculty meeting (or 
departmental faculty meetings) discussing the religious and social 
life, discipline, curriculum, internal well-being and progress of 
the institution and the health, progress, and character of the 
students. .Resolutions of the Faculty Meeting are not operative 
without the consent of the Principal. 

There is no provision for changing articles of incorporation 
but By-laws may be amended (after special notice) by a two-thirds 
vote of those present, provided such vote be a majority of the 
Trustees. Certain other actions, such as sale of property and 
admission of new missions, require similar notice and vote. 

The Capital assets of the Corporation, after deducting 
depreciation, now total over $76,000. The scope of the institution 
includes Practice and Model School and an Agricultural Depart 
ment, and there is a special relationship to the Central China 
Christian Educational Association. 



LIST OF ANTI-NARCOTIC BOOKS 



The War against Opium 



Hearings before Committee of 
Foreign Affairs House of .Rep 
resentatives, On Narcotic 
Conditions in U.S.A. 

"The P.lack Candle " By Judge 
Enithy Murphy (Opium and 
Narcotics in Canada and 
U.S.A.) 

Control of Opium in Japan 

Reports of India Government 
Opium Department 

League of Nations Reports of 
Advisory Committee on 
Opium Traffic 

Questions and Answers 

A short outline for speakers on 
opium and narcotics 

An Estimate of Yearly Amount 
of Narcotics Required for 
Medical Purposes in China 

Speech of Bishop Brent of New 
York at the League of Na 
tions Opium Commitee 

Newspaper Supplement and 
Bulletins on Opium condi 
tions in China 



Peking International Anti- 
Opium Association and all 
booksellers. 

Washington Government Print 
ing Office. 



Thomas Allen & Co., Toronto, 
Canada. 



Japanese Red Cross Society, 

Tokio, Japan. 
Government Press, Allahabad. 

Geneva, 



International Anti-Opium As 
sociation Peking. 

International Anti-Opium As 
sociation, Peking. 

International Anti-Opium As 
sociation, Peking. 

International Anti-Opium As 
sociation, Peking. 



INDEX 



Aborigines; 102; 232. 
Abroad; Chinese students 

342-352. 

Act to regulate trade 48. 
Adoption 510, 511. 
Advancement of Ed n; Ass ii 

for 132; 133; 277; 301. 
Advertising 439. 
Agricultural conditions 412. 

training 122; 130. 
A hung; Influence of 81; 82. 
Alphabet (Chu Yin Tsu Mu) 

318-324. 
American Schools 357. 

Red Cross 382-38-1. 
Animism 08. 
Anti-Footbinding Movement 

419-421. 
Anti-Missionary feeling abroad 

349, 350. 
Anti-Opium Ass n; lntern 1 

408. 

Anti-Religions Move t 52. 
Arabic; School of 78. 
Association for Advancing Good 
ness 00. 
Association for Advanc t of 

Ed n. 132; 277-288; 301. 
Association (Nurses ) of China 

375; 378; 37<>. 
Association Press (The) 470. 
Association for Salvat n through 

Christ y 529, 530. 
Association (Univ l) for Unity 

of Religion 05. 
Autonomy 117; 159. 
Army; The 24-20. 

,, The Salvation 490-492. 
Art ; Recent Articles on, 519. 

,, Books on 453; 510. 

Articles; Kecent 519-520. 

Bandits 7-9; 107; 111; 131; 
231 ; 433. 



Banditry; Causes of 11 ; Effect 

on the Church of 12; 104; 

Effect on the Country of 

22-24 ; Banditry Western 

Opinion of 450. 
Banks ; Modem 33, 34. 

"Raiffeison" 412. 
I Baptism ; 200-208. 
I Baptist Pub n Soc y - 478. 
Bible Conference 178. 

,, Distribution 432-437. 

,, Institute; Hunan 175-180. 

,, Lesson Picture Cards 193. 

,, Phonetic used in teaching 

325-339. 
Bible School; Daily Vacation 

120; 129; 189; 195; 477. 
Bible study courses 282; 424. 

>, Sunday 430. 

,, teaching 1 unsatisfactory - 

279. 

Bibliography 510-526. 
Birth Control 483-485. 
Blind; Schools for 103; 121; 

430. 

Board Deficits ; Home 239. 
Bolshevism 10; 21; 57. 
Book Company; Mission 471. 
Books and Pamphlets, 1923 ; 133; 

510. 
Books; Recent 450-405; Demand 

for 110 ; in Chinese 466-482 ; 

on Sex and Family 483-485. 
Bookman " ; " The China 202. 
Boxer Indemnity Funds 1-0; 

204. 

Braille literature 431 . 
Brothels in Shanghai ; 413. 
Buddhism; Revival of 51; 110. 
,, Liang Chi-Chao and 

159. 

Buddhist Activities 51; 120. 
Buddhists Christian Mission to 

73; 75. 



INDEX 



Building Metliods of the Shans 

227. 
Business Ethics; Changing 55. 



Campaign (s) against vice; 113. 
, , by Salvation 

Army 491. 
Campaign Evangelistic 100 ; 

222-225. 

Candidates for service 201. 
Capture of foreigners 8-1 1 . 
Catholic (Roman) Missions; 231; 

206-209. 

Centenary Movement 258. 
Central China Christ n Univ. 

122; 270. 
Central China Teachers Coll. 

122; 531. 
Challenges to the Christ n 

Move t 95; 110. 
Changes in Industrial life 28- 

43. 
Changes in feeling about China 

4