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presented to 



Xibran? 



of tbe 



of Toronto 



Major Arthur B. Wilkie 





THE 
CHINESE GOVERNMENT 

A MANUAL OF CHINESE TITLES, 

CATEGORICALLY ARRANGED AND EXPLAINED, 

WITH AN APPENDIX. 



BY 

WILLIAM FREDERICK MAYERS, 



Author of " The Chinese Reader s Manual," ttc. etc. 



iTHIRD EDITION. 

REVISED BY 

G. M. H. PLAYFAIR, H.B.M. CONSUL, NINGPO. 



SHANGHAI : 
KELLY AND WALSH, LIMITED, 

HONGKONG YOKOHAMA SINGAPORE. 







f- 







PREFACE TO THE ORIGINAL EDITION. 



THE object with which the present work has been undertaken 
is sufficiently expressed in its title to leave little to be said in 
explanation of its intended scope. A happily increasing interest 
in Chinese studies, and the necessity which is becoming more and 
more widely felt for an enlarged appreciation of the modes of 
action adhered to by the Chinese Government, justify the belief 
that every new contribution to the means of reference will meet 
with welcome ; whilst, in the present instance, the labour of which 
the results are embodied in the ensuing pages has been stimulated 
by an obvious requirement of the public service. The urgent 
need of the key to the designations in use, in both Chinese and 
English, for the titles of public functionaries, which might be 
accepted by translators as a common rule, was represented several 
years ago by Sir Walter Medhurst, at that time Her Britannic 
Majesty's Consul at Shanghai, in an official communication 
addressed to Her Majesty's Minister ; and the writer, who had 
long contemplated the preparation of some such work, owes to 
this circumstance the immediate inducement which has hastened 
the fulfilment of his design. As in many other tasks of a like 
description, however, the plan originally conceived soon betrayed 
the necessity of development in a degree unlocked for at the 
outset ; and a variety of circumstances, besides, have intervened 
to delay its execution for a considerable length of time. A period 
of comparative leisure having allowed the design to be once more 
taken in hand, it has now been carried to a conclusion on a scale 
the tendency of which has been continually toward enlargement. 

A cursory inspection of the ensuing pages will suffice to shew 
that two main objects have been held in view in the course of 
t 



IV PREFACE. 

their preparation. Whilst it has been sought, in the first place, 
to meet the requirements of the translator from Chinese texts, 
the attempt has also been made to furnish explanations, with due 
regard for conciseness, which may be of service in throwing light 
upon the varied details of the Chinese administrative fabric, for 
the benefit of the more general enquirer. The materials which 
have been arranged, with a view to facility of reference, in the 
twelve Parts of which the main body of the work consists, have 
been drawn from the immense stores of information offered by 
the Ta Ts l ing Hwei Tien, or Collected Institutes of the dynasty 
now occupying the throne of China. In the successive categories 
of ordinances and supplementary enactments which constitute this 
enormous work, occupying, when bound in European fashion, no 
less than seventy-six volumes of folio size, every detail of the 
Chinese polity is anticipated and prescribed for. The regulations 
they set forth, extending in date from the middle of the seventeenth 
to the first decades of the present century, form in reality a code 
of law by which every act of the imperial government, from the 
daily movements of the sovereign to the conduct of the lowest 
official functionary, is strictly bound to be guided. The student 
to whom this repertory is accessible will have little difficulty in 
recognizing the fact, which to others may perhaps, though in a less 
marked degree, be made clear by the present work, that the found- 
ations of the Chinese State repose upon an all-pervading officialism, 
a bureaucracy trained through the national system of education to 
apply the maxims of government enunciated centuries before the 
dawn of the Christian era, and impelled by motives of self-interest 
to reject the introduction of all principles at variance with these 
venerable dogmas. An appreciation of this condition of affairs 
may possibly tend to correct the too sanguine views which have 
been entertained of a speedy entrance of the Chinese, as a govern- 
ment and people, upon the path of European progress. In order 
that such a result should be accomplished to any tangible extent, 
it would be necessary that the most cherished principles of the 



PREFACE. V 

national religion should be abandoned, the idols of literary worship 
dethroned, and the recognized fountain of all honour deserted in 
favour of pursuits and doctrines which are now contemptuously 
ignored. A change such as this may, and perhaps will, be pro- 
duced under the pressure of imperious necessity if not as the 
consequence of revolution ; but it would be a delusion to anticipate 
it as brought about by voluntary development. 

The dynastic Institutes being thus recognized as the living 
constitutional law of China, they have naturally been taken as the 
basis for the present work ; but, on the other hand, the divisions 
under which the subject-matter has been arranged have been 
decided upon with reference exclusively to the convenience of the 
European reader. For the explanatory matter, a number of 
authorities have been f elied upon, the most important of which are 
acknowledged in their respective places. The most detailed 
attempts at explanation have been devoted to those branches of the 
subject which are comparatively remote from the beaten track of 
study, and upon which, consequently, a new source of information 
is likely to be the more useful. This has been especially the case 
with reference to the Chinese system of literary examination and 
titular distinctions, as also in connection with the distribution of 
authority in Mongolia, Turkestan and Tibet. In those portions of 
the work which deal more directly with the Chinese governing 
body, it has been the writer's endeavour to supply a want, only too 
familiar to students of the language, in the shape of a systematic 
grouping of the synonyms and epithets of courtesy which are con- 
tinually met with as the substitutes for official titles. A Radical 
Index, at the end of the work, provides a ready means of identify- 
ing any one of these combinations by reference to the numbered 
paragraphs. The Appendix will be found to include explanatory 
notices with regard to the constitution and mode of working of the 
Chinese administrative organization, and also to certain peculiarities 
of the written style in relation to official matters which are invested, 
to an appreciable extent, with political as well as literary import- 



VI PREFACE. 

ance. A concluding section of the Appendix completes the task 
undertaken with a special eye to the requirements of a translator, 
in the list of renderings afforded for such European titles as are 
most generally in use. Many of these renderings are already 
current, and are established by long usage ; others, principally 
those relating to the superior offices of government abroad, have 
been devised by the writer in consultation with scholars to whose 
judgment he has in more than one instance deferred ; and others 
again are suggested by an obvious analogy. 

In conclusion the writer feels bound to express an acknow- 
ledgment of the services rendered to him, in the course of compil- 
ing the materials for the present work, by his two Chinese assistants 
Liu Yiih-ts'ai gl] 3 5f . and Ytth. How-ngan ^J5^ 5 to whom 
he has repeatedly been indebted for the elucidation of difficult 
questions and who have materially co-operated in the execution of 
his task. 

PEKING, November 1st, 1877. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS, 



Page. 

Part L The Imperial Court 1 

II. Metropolitan Administration ... ... ... ... 12 

,, III. Provincial Administration ... ... ... ... 33 

IV. Government of Peking 48 

,, V. The Three Manchurian Provinces ... ... ... 52 

VI. The Manchu Military Organization 55 

VII. The Chinese Army 64 

VIII. Hereditary Banks, Titles of Honour, and Decorations... 08 

IX. Examinations and Official Degrees ... ... ... 76 

X. Buddhism and Taoism 84 

XI. Mongolia and Turkestan 87 

XII. Tibet and the Lamaist Hierarchy 105 



APPENDIX. 



Section I. Chinese Official Ranks 123 

II. The Chinese System of Distinctive Collocation of 

Characters 129 

III. Forms of Official Correspondence 138 

IV. Chinese Renderings of European Titles 142 

Radical Index of Chinese Characters 153 

Alphabetical Index ... ... ... ... ,,. ,,, ... 175 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. 



The lapse of eighteen years since MAYERS' Chinese Govern- 
ment was first published will amply justify the appearance of a 
new edition. Even in conservative China, the changes due to 
mere efflux of time have necessitated a revision to bring the work 
up to date. The form itself has not been touched ; it was excellent 
and could scarcely be improved on. Some corrections have been 
made, not many ; some omissions supplied, also few in number ; 
and new material has been added where it appeared called for. 
The most radical alteration has been in the orthography, the in 
many ways sensible, but unfamiliar, system of the author being 
relinquished for that of Sir THOMAS WADE, and the book 
thereby brought into line with the majority of similar works of 
reference having to do with China. 

G. M. H. PLAYFAIR. 



NINGPO, March 17th, 1896. 



MANUAL 



OF 



CHINESE TITLES. 



PART I.-THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

1. -HuANG Ti J|| *$. The Emperor. Ordinary designation, 
Huang Shang H _fc ; Shcfng . Title of respect, T l ien Tzu 
the Son of Heaven. Popular appellation, Tang-chin Fo Yeh 
f$ jg, the Buddha of the present day. Also Chu Tzu "= ^, i.e. 
the Master, or Lord ; and, in adulatory addresses, Wan Sui Yeh 
M 10% ^ i- e - Lorcl of Ten Thousand Years. 

2. HUANG Hou jf| Jp. The Empress. Lit. designation, 
Chung Kung 4 1 S 5 or when two consorts of equal rank exist 
together, as in recent times, Tung Kung Jfl^f and Hsi Kung 0"^, 
with reference to the "Eastern" and "Western" divisions of the 
Palace allotted to their use. Title of respect, Kuo Mu fj|| fj, or 
"Mother of the State." 

3. HUANG T'AI Hou jg -fa Jp. An Empress Dowager. 

4. HUANG KUEI FEI ^ g ^g. Secondary Consort (Con- 
cubine) of the first rank. Concubines of the second rank may 
from time to time be advanced, by imperial favour, to this grade, 
and from the first rank a secondary consort may be raised to the 
degree of Huang Hou or Empress Consort. 

5. KUEI FEI "ftiR. Concubine of the second rank. 

J- -C >*** 

6. FEI $[J. Concubine of the third rank. 
7. P'IN Jg.Concubine of the fourth rank. (This character 
is also read pin.) 

8. KUEI JEff JJ \. Concubine of the fifth rank. 
1 



2 PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

9. TA YING % Hi and CH'ANG TSAI ?ff ;. Female attend- 
ants of the Emperor. These may be elevated to the rank of 
Kuei Jen. Beneath them, again, is a class of Serving Women, or 
Shih Nil \ jj 2J , who are recruited by annual drafts from the families 
appertaining to the Imperial Household, and who serve for a term 
of years within the Palace. 

10. T'AI Tzu -fa :?. The Heir Apparent. Also called 
Shih Tzu 1 -J. Lit. des. Huang ch'u Jl^H, and Tung Kung j^Cg. 

11. HUANG Tzu Jjl ^f . Princes. The sons of an Emperor 
of the present dynasty are known simply as A'-Jco pif ^ , a render- 
ing of the Manchu word ageh, unless when designated by the 
princely rank bestowed upon them, such as Ch'in Wang JJJ 3E, or 
lower dignities. Lit. des. Wang Ti ] g|$, or simply Ti. 

12. KUNG CHU Q i- Princess Imperial ; daughter of an 
Emperor. See the following ranks : 

13. KU-LUN KUNG-CHU gj jtjfi 2t : Princess Imperial of 
the first rank (daughter of an Empress consort). From the 
Manchu word gurun,=\hQ Chinese Kuo or State. 

14. HO-SH& KuNG-Cnu $D 5| S i- Princess Imperial of 
the second rank (daughter of an inferior consort). 

15. E Fu |g JKJ. Husband of an Imperial Princess. In 
former dynasties this position was designated Fu Ma Iff j. 

16. Fu CHIN jj . Princess Consort (wife of an Imperial 
Prince). 

17. I CHENG WANG !H fl J. Prince Regent. 

This phrase was used to designate the position of Prince 
Kung while Regent of the Empire in 1862, during the minority 
of the Emperor T'ung Chik. When, however, the usurper 
Wang Mang ] ^ held the same relation towards the Emperor 
Ju Tzu Ying jff J- H of the Han Dynasty in B.C. 6, the term 
he employed was Chu She f =jjjf . 

18. HUANG T'Ai.Hou LIN CH'AO Jl ft Jp El |fj- Empress 
Dowager Regent. Her Majesty's act of regency is also described 
by the expression Ch'ui Lien T'ing Cheng ag jj| ^ g^, literally, 
" To drop the curtain and administer the Government," as the 



PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 3 

ministers' eyes may not gaze on the Empress's face. Used during 
the minority of the present Emperor, Kinui-j Ihti. 
Hereditary Imperial Nobility : 

The titles conferred on members of the Imperial House of the 
present dynasty are of twelve degrees. Imperial princes usually 
receive patents of the first or second order on arriving at manhood, 
and their sons are invested with the third degree of rank. Titles 
of the same degrees are also conferred on the princes and chieftains 
of the various Mongol tribes. They are as follows : 

19. i. HO-SHE CH'IN WANG flj Sg $J I. Prince of the 
first order. 

20. ii. TO-LO CHUN WANG ^ H gft . Prince of the 
second order. 

21. iii. TO-LO PEI-LE ^ f| j| ^.Bei-U, or Prince of the 
third order. 

22. iv. Ku-SHAN 1 PEi-Tzu gj [lj J, ^}.Bei-tzu, or 
Prince of the fourth order. 

23. v. FENG-EN CHEN Kuo KUNG ^ ]j || H %. 
Imperial Duke of the first degree. 

24. vi. FENG-EN Fu Kuo KUNG ^ M fl SI Q- 
Imperial Duke of the second degree. 

25. vii. PLJ-JU PA FEN S CHEN Kuo KUNG ^ \ ]\ ft 
IJK H &- Imperial Duke of the third degree. 

26. viii. PU-JU TA FEN Fa Kuo KUNG. ^ \ J\ ft 
U Q ^. Imperial Duke of the fourth degree. 

27. ix. CHEN Kuo CHIANG CHUN |g g| ff$ ^. Noble of 
the Imperial lineage, ninth in line of descent. 

1 Kii-slian repr 'm word Ku-m./, signifying Manner, 

2 The j\.*fr I'*' 1-rtt or I-:i^lit itrivil.'ircd ranks date from tin; rc-iim T'ien 



(A.I). HiU;-l('i2;). \\-\\ct\. ry of the Manchus into China, 

oight uriiiocs. entillcd llo-sht' Ili-i-lr. \verc foi-int-d into a military Council 
Of State. Thf'y wen- invented with an equality <>f rank and dignity, and 
they hence received the, n of tli> i artitioners.'' \Vlien 

the order of precedence, among tli< :ml n.l)ility of the Imperial 

lineage came subsequently to be determined, a line of the distinction was drawn 
at the sixth ran!-: as above mentioned. The princes and nobles who were 

on a par with tli- "right partitiom-rs" had the right of 

the Court on all State occasions. Those below the sixth rank .Dimply took rank 
in their respective banners. [See Ta C/ri/i</ Jtui Tien.] 



4: PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

28. x. Fu Kuo CHIANG CHUN ff g| Jjf 5. Noble of the 
Imperial lineage, tenth in line of descent. 

29. xi. FENG Kuo CHIANG CHUN ^ g| Jjf |i. Noble of 
the Imperial lineage, eleventh in line of descent. 

30. xii. FENG-EN CHIANG CHUN ^ Jg }jf ^. Noble of 
the Imperial lineage, twelfth in line of descent. 

The titles given according to the above list are to some extent 
compounded of Manchu words. Thus, ho-she (originally signifying 
a banner) denotes one of the four divisions of the army or State ; 
and bei-U has the signification of commander or leader. The 
titles conferred in any rank are transmitted in a diminuendo 
scale, a bei-le's son becoming a bei-tzu, and so on, until the son 
of a noble of the twelfth degree would no longer be the inheritor 
of a title. 

An exception to this rule exists, however, in the case, of such 
titles as are conferred "with the right of inheritance for ever" 
Shih hsi wang t'i ifr H ^] ^, and particularly in the case of the 
Eight Chief Princely Houses, the descendants of the Princes who 
served in effecting the conquest of Northern China. These are 
familiarly designated The Iron-capped Princes T'ieh Mao-tzu 
Wang j$ || =f- 3. [See Nos. 49 to 57.] 

31. TSUNG SHIH ^|g. Imperial Clansman ; a descendant of 
the acknowledged founder of the reigning Manchu dynasty, Hien 
Tsu, A.D. 1583-1615. The Tsung-shi/i are entitled to the dis- 
tinction of wearing a yellow girdle, or Huang Tai-tzii ^ ^ ^f-, 
whence this epithet has come to be used as a synonym of the rank 
itself. Individuals who have been degraded for misconduct from 
the rank of Tsung-shih wear a red girdle, and are consequently 
styled Hung Tai-tzil [see beloiv~\. 

32. CmiEH Lo g fg. Gioro, or collateral relative of the 
Imperial house, claiming descent from its early ancestry. 3 The 



8 For fuller particulars relating to the titles and designations of the Chinese 
Emperors and their kindred, see the writer's article on the ' Chinese Imperial 
Family" appended to "Translations of the Pelting Gazette for 1875," 
Shanghai, 1876. 



PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

Gioro wear a red girdle, and are consequently designated, in 
familiar parlance, as Hung Tai-tzu jg ^ ^ . 

33. WANGFu3Jflvf. ESTABLISHMENT (PALACE) OF PRINCES 
OF THE IMPERIAL LINEAGE. 

34. CHANG SHIH jg 5jJ. Recorder, or Remembrancer ; 3a. 4 
35. Ssu I-CHANG ^J <g g. Major-domo ; 4a. 
36. Hu WEI H Hf. Officer of the Body Guard ; of four 
degrees of rank, from 3b to 5b. 

37. TIEN I JgL |||. Assistant Major-domo ; of four degrees 
of rank, from 4b to 8b. 

38. PAO I J j. (Bo-i 5 ) Bondservant ; Serf. 
39. PAO I TS*AN-LING Q ^ ^ f|. Colonel of the 
Bo-i ; 5b. 

40. PAO I TSO-LING &&fc |g. Captain of the Bo-i ; 4b. 
41. SHIH Tzu *{ : f. Son of an Imperial Prince of the 
first degree (before receiving distinctive rank). 

42. CHANG Tzu jj ^ . Son of an Imperial Prince of the 
second degree (as above). 

43. CHUN CHU g[5 H. Daughter of an Imperial Prince of 
the first degree. 

44. HSIEN CHU ^ J. Do. of the second degree. 
45. CHUN CHUN =g[$ g. Do. of the third degree. 
46. HSIEN CHUN $g ff. Do. of the fourth degree. 

47. HSIANG CHUN ^ ^f". Daughter of an Imperial noble 
of the first or second degrees. 

O 

4 Here and elsewhere throughout the following pages an official's rank is in- 
dicated by an Arabic numeral, followed by "a" or "b," according as he is of the 
higher or lower grade of the said rank. Thus, 3a implies that a Remembrancer 
is of the higher grade of the third rank. 

5 The Pan-}, or Jw-i are members of the Eight Banners [see No. 379] who 
are hereditary bondservants of either the Imperial or of one or other of the 
Princely households. They are formed into a separate organization within each 
banner. Some among them, designated the " Corean pao-i" are descendants of 
Corean prisoners taken during the wars of the 17th century. 



6 PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

48. KB KE $j- |>. Daughter of an Imperial Prince or 

noble (colloquial usage, from the Manchu). 'This designation is 

confined to the five degrees above enumerated. The daughters of 

Imperial nobles in the lower ranks are designated Tsung Nil ^ . 

The Eight Chief Princely Families : 

The following are the titles borne by the princely families to 
whom the right of perpetual inheritance is secured : 

49. Li CH'IN WANG jjg H EE- Prince o f Li - 

50. Jui CH'IN WANG Zf $| 3E- Prince of Jui. 

51. Yti CH'IN WANG J| |g . Prince of Yii. 

52. Su CH'IN WANG Jjjj ^ 3-. Prince of Su. 

53. CHENG CH'IN WANG gfl $ 3-. Prince of Cheng. 

54. CHUANG CH'IN WANG $t fg 3-. Prince of Chuang. 6 

55. SHUN-CH'ENG CHUN WANG JlH^fC'SISl- Prince of Shun 
Ch'eng. 

56. K'E CH'IN CHUN WANG 35 t& J$ I. Prince of 
K'e-ch'in. 7 

57. I CH'IN WA^G '( |g 2- The Prince of I. 

This title, although not one of the Eight, is also held in per- 
petuity. The holder descends from the Prince of Hsien, thirteenth 
son of the Emperor K'ang Hi. 

58. TSUNG JEN Fu g? A W- THE IMPERIAL CLAN COURT. 

This department regulates all affairs relating to the Imperial 
Kindred, preserves the Family Roll or Genealogical Record, 
Yu Tieh 5)^' e ^ c - The Prince of the Imperial family who holds 
the presidentship of the Court is distinguished by the lit. des. 
Tsung CKing <lj$. 

59. Fu CH'ENG Jfif gc Vice-Director ; 3a. 

60. Li SHIH KUAN gg ^ 'g*. Commissary ; 5a. 

61. Fu Li HHIH KUAN g|J ^MiPlf- Assistant Commissary; 
5b. 

6 All the above are princes of the first degree, and derive their descent in 
the direct line from sons of the two earlier founders of the reigning dynasty 
T'ai Tsu and T'ai Tsung. 

7 The above are princes of the second degree, descending from grandsons 
of T'ai Tsu and T'ai Tsung. 



PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 7 

62. CHING Li $g Jgf. Registrar ; 6a. 

63. The K'UNG FANG 2g g|. Prison of the Imperial Clan 
Court. 

64. The HUANG TANG FANG ig fg gf. Registry Office of 
the Imperial Clan Court. 

65. NEI Wu Fu fa $fr JjSf. THE IMPERIAL HOUSEHOLD. 

66. TSUNG KUAN TA CH'ES g| g ^ g. Comptroller of 
the Household. 

67. T'ANG LANG CHUNG g|lf[S tft. Secretary. 

68. CHU SHIH J ^, Assistant Secretary. 

69. WEI SHU CHU SHIH || fj = 1^. Deputy Assistant 
Secretary. 

Departments of the household : 

70. KUANG CH'U Ssu ^ ^ g]. Treasury of the Privy 
Purse. 

71. YIN K'u |g |J. Bullion and Jewellery Vaults. 

72. Tz k u K'u $fa Jg. Porcelain Store. 

73. TUAN K'u $g Jg. Silk Store. 

74. I K'u ^ Jj. Imperial Wardrobe. 

75. CH'A K'u 2fe ]$. Tea Store. 

76. CHIH JAN Cut) ^^^- Manufacturing and Dyeing 
Department. 

77. Tu Yu Ssu K5 g| pj. Pay and Commission Office for 
the Household Brigade. 

78. CHANG I Ssu ^ f| ^J. Office of Worship, Ceremonial, 
and Control of Eunuchs. Controls the sacrificial observances of 
the Court. Has under it a large staff of secretaries and under- 
secretaries (lang-chuny, etc. etc.) A sub-department is the Kuo 
Fang ^ or Fruit Office, which supplies the fruit and other 
offerings presented in sacrifice. 

79. SHEN FANG || g. The Directorship of Worship (under 
the preceding). Has a number of grades of employes. 

80. CH'ING FENG Ssu |g H gj. Pasturage Department. 
Manages the flocks and herds maintained for Palace use. 



8 PAKT I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

81. Hui CHI Ssu f* ft pj. Collectorate of rents for 
Banner property. 

82. SAN CH'I CHUANG T'ou CH'U Hffiffi St- Steward's 
Office for Property of the Three Household Banners. 

83. YING TSAO Ssu ff Sj| fj. Office of Works; with 
numerous sub-departments. 

84. SHEN HSING Ssu tj| JflJ pj. Judicial Department. This 
department takes cognizance of all cases relating to the Three 
Superior Banners. 

85. KUAN-HSIA FAN Yi CH'U <g | f| $ gf. Police 
Department (with special control over eunuchs of the Court). 

86. NEI SAN CH'I ftH JS- The Household Division of the 
Three Superior Banners [see the Eight Banners, infra]. In each 
of the Superior Banners a certain number of pao-i or bondservants 
of the Imperial Household [see ante, No. 38] are separately con- 
stituted for duty in this department. They furnish the force of 
three brigades entitled Nei Hsiao Ch'i Ying ffcj || Hf ^, Nei Hu 
Chun Ying ft f| ^L f|, and Nei Cfcien Feng Ying j*J ^ H, 
corresponding to the corps under these designations formed from 
the general mass of the Banner population [see infra]. 

87. KUAN FANG CH'U If g| jg. The Antechamber Office, 
(Controls the personal attendance upon His Majesty.) 

88. SAN YUAN HP& Tne Thr ee Courts (under the Imperial 
Household). These are as follows: 

89. SHANG Ssu YUAN j^ fB ^. The Palace Stud. 

90._Wu FBI YUAN ft fg |%. The Imperial Armoury. 

91. FENG CHEN YUAN $ g %, The Parks and Hunting 
Grounds. This department has the control of the Imperial Parks 
such as the Nan Yuan pg $g, commonly called the Hai tzu $$ ^p, 
Yilan Ming Yuan H| g^ H? CM any Cfcun Yuan ^ ffl, etc. 
etc. 

92. Yii CH'A SHAN CH'U $J ^P^. The Buttery of the 
Household. 



PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

93. SHIH WEI CH C U ff ff? g. THE DEPARTMENT OF THE 
IMPERIAL BODY GUARD. 

This department controls the affairs of the Three Superior 
Banners, which furnish the body guard of the Sovereign. 

94. CH'IN CHUN YING | ^ f|. The Imperial Guard. 

95. LING SHIH- WEI NEI TA CH'EN g fjf fij fa %. g 
Chamberlain of the Guards ; la. Six in all. 

96. NEI TA CH'EN fa ^ g. Chamberlain ; Ib. Six in all. 
Selected from among the San chih Ta ch^en [see below], or Captain- 
Generals of Banners. 

97. SAN CHIH TA CH'EN ifc $fc ; g. Assistant Chamber- 
lain ; 2b. No fixed number. These officers take the duty by turns 
of commanding the Palace Guard. 

98. SHIH WEI PAN LING ffi & JE jig. Captain of the 
Guards. 

99. SHIH WEI SHIH-CHANG fj fg ff- g. Lieutenant of the 
Guards. 

100. SHIH WEI f f. Officer of the Guards, distinguished 
as of the first, second, third or fourth rank, being respectively of 
the superior grades of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th, and inferior grade of 
the 5th rank. Of the 1st rank there are 60, of the second 150, of 
the third 270. 

101. LAN-LING SHIH-WEI fg $Jj f |ff. Subaltern of the 
Guards, wearing the blue feather ; 6a. Ninety in all. 

102. TSUNG-SHIH SHIH-WEI @J |g fj ^. Tsung-sltih 
Gu*rds (consisting of Imperial clansmen). 

103. CH'IN CHUN HSIAO ^ ^ ^.Sergeant of the Palace 
Guards; 6a. Seventy-seven in all. 

104. SHU CH'IN CHUN HSIAO miS^. Deputy Sergeant 
of the Palace Guards ; 8b. Seventy in all. 

105. WEI SHU CH'IN CHUN HSIAO |lliim& Vice 
Deputy Sergeant of the Palace Guards. Seven in all. 

106. Yii CH'IEN TA CH'EN gfl gy ^g. Minister of Presence, 
or Grand Chamberlain; selected from among the Princes and 
Ministers of the Court. 
2 



10 PART I. THE IMPERIAL COURT. 

107. Yu CH'IEN SHIH WEI ffij 18 fl J. Guards of the 
Antechamber. 

108. Yu CH'IEN HSING Tsou g|J ntf 1l ^.Mongolian 
Princes having the right of entree. 

109. Hou Hu TA CH'EN g| jg ft g. Chamberlains of the 
rear-guard (two). 

110. CH'IEN YIN TA CH'EN fj ^| ^c g. Chamberlains of 
the vanguard (ten). 

111. PAO-WEI-PAN Sum WEI *j J% @E f$ ff. Guard 
furnishing the Imperial Escort. 

112. Tsou SHIH CH'U ^ ^ g. Privy Cabinet Office. 
This department, supervised by the Ministers of the Presence, takes 
charge of the communications between the Sovereign and the 
Grand Council, when the Council is not in personal attendance 
upon His Majesty. It is divided into two branches, the one for 
documents in Manchu and Chinese, the other for Mongolian. 

113. LUAN I WEI Ig f| f. The Imperial Equipage 
Department. With numerous subdivisions. 

114. LUAN I SHIH g| "(H f^. Commissioner of the 
Equipage Department; 2a. 

115. KUAN CHUN SHIH gg 2f? f$J. Marshal of the Equipage 
Department; on. 

11G. YtiN Hui Sum f |g fg. Assistant Marshal do.; 4a. 

1 17. Cum I CHEXG J ^ ]. Controller do. do.; on. 

118. CHENG I Til g| f^ gf .Assistant do. do. : 6a. 

Imperial MausffUa : 

III). Ti'NG HST LING ~jfe Q |^. The following aro llio, names 
of tho Imperial Muusolea, situated at the "Eastern'' and "Western" 
Hills, hence known as the Tung Hsi Liny : 

120. CHAO Hsi LING B8 H ^ (East). Mausoleum of the 
Consort of the Manchu sovereign T ; ai Tsung (A.D. 1627-1643). 

121. HSIAO LING ip |s| (East). Mausoleum of Emperor 
Shun Chih (1644-1661). 

122. HSIAO TUNG LING ^' ]jj g| (East). Mausoleum of 
Empress of Slum Chih. 



PART I.- THE IMPERIAL COURT. 11 

123. CHING LING g? gg (East). Mausoleum of Emperor 
K'ang Hi (1662-1722). 

124. T'AI LING ^ $g (West). Mausoleum of Emperor 
Yung Cheng (1723-1735). 

125. T'AI TUNG LING 8i jg El (East). Mausoleum of 
Empress of Yung Cheng. 

126. Yu LING |g |gg (West). Mausoleum of Emperor 
K'ien Lung (1736-1725). 

127. CH'ANG LING H $ (West). Mausoleum of Emperor 
Kia K'ing (1796-1820). 

128. CH'ANG Hsi LING J| @j gg (West). Mausoleum of 
Empress of Kia K'ing. 

129. Mu LING H ^ (West). Mausoleum of Emperor Tao 
Kuang (1821-1850). * 

130. Mu TQNG LING 1 Jfc g (West). Mausoleum of 
Empress of Tao Kuang. 

131. TING LING J2 |H (East). Mausoleum of Emperor 
Hien Feng (1851-1861). 

132. T'AI Tzu LING ft J- ^ (East). Mausoleum of Heir 
Apparent Tuan Hui, eldest son of Emperor K'ien Lung. 

133. Hui LING gjj H (East). Mausoleum of Emperor 
T'ungChih( 1862-1874). 

134._p<g T'o Yii $ fg $$ (East). Mausoleum of the 
senior Empress Regent (Empress Dowager of Hien Feng). 

135. P'u HSIANG Yu -^ jj$ %$ (East). Mausoleum iu 
course of preparation for junior Empress Regent (Empress Mother 
of T'ung Chih). 

NOTE. The mausolea for the two Empresses Regent are 
known, euphemistically, by the designation Wan Nien Chi Ti 
^ fp ^ J'jJ the Happy Land for a Myriad Years. 



12 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

PART II.-METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION, 

The Central Government of China, so far as a system of this 
nature is recognized in the existing institutions, is arranged with 
the object rather of registering and checking the action of the 
various provincial administrations, than with that of assuming a 
direct initiative in the conduct of affairs. The Empire proper is 
divided into eighteen provincial governments, to which are to 
be added the three eastern provinces, constituting the territory 
of Manchuria, and organized on a more or less military basis. 
Beyond the limits of China proper are the subject territories of 
Mongolia and Tibet, and until recently the tribute-paying nations 
of Corea, Anam, Burmah, Siam, and Nepal. On various parts of 
the frontier and scattered over all the southern and western 
provinces are, furthermore, numerous tribes of aborigines, either 
partly or wholly uncivilized, for whose government special 
regulations are in force. Regulations, indeed, of the most minute 
and comprehensive character, are on record for the guidance of 
every conceivable act of administration ; and the principal function 
of the Central Government consists in watching over the execution 
of this system of rules. The bestowal of the higher appointments 
of the civil and military services, and the distribution of the 
superior literary degrees as rewards for proficiency in the studies 
upon which the entire polity of the Empire is based, comprise the 
remainder of the attributes reserved to the government established 
at Peking. The Central Government may be said to criticize 
rather than to control the action of the twenty-one provincial 
administrations, wielding, however, at all times, the power of 
immediate removal from his post of any official whose conduct 
may be found irregular or considered dangerous to the stability 
of the State. The following are the departments of the Central 
Administration : 

136. The CHUN CHI CH'U ^ $g| g. Council of State, or 
Grand Council (literally, Place of Plans for the Army). This 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 13 

department is the actual Privy Council of the sovereign, in whose 
presence its members daily transact the business of the State, at a 
meeting held between the hours of 4 and 6 A.M. It is a Cabinet 
composed of Ministers holding other substantive offices, and who 
are known as Chun Cld Ta Ch'en J|L |$| ^ f?,. Their number is 
undetermined ; but for many years past it has not exceeded five. 
A body of sixty secretaries, Chang Ching 7^; ^, also called 
Hsiao Chun Chi /|> 1p |$| attends to the clerical work of the Council. 
The institution derives its origin from the practice instituted by the 
earlier emperors of the present dynasty of treating public affairs 
on the footing of a military council, whence the title adopted, in 
about the year 1730, for the council as it at present exists. The 
title chang-ching [see above] corresponds to the Manchu word 
chan-yin, signifying an " assistant," in either civil or military 
employ, and is so pronounced. 

137. The NEI Ko jfcj [g. Grand Secretariat or Imperial 
Chancery (literally, Inner Cabinet or Hall). This department, 
which, under the preceding dynasty, was the Supreme Council of 
the Empire, has w r ithin the last century and a half become super- 
seded in active importance by the Grand Council. It now forms 
the Imperial Chancery or Court of Archives, and admission to one 
of the six posts which constitute its superior ranks confers the 
highest distinction attainable by Chinese officials, although with 
functions that are almost purely nominal. The most distinguished 
Governors-General are usually advanced to the dignity of Grand 
Secretary while continuing to occupy their posts away from the 
capital. The constitution of the office is as follows : 

138. TA HSUEH SHIH ^ Jp . Grand Secretary; la. 
Coll. des., Chung T l ang fy^\ Epist. style, Tsai Hsiang Ijs j^) and 
Hsiang Kuo %Q gj. Of the four Grand Secretaries, two are 
Manchus and two Chinese. Each of the four is designated as Ta 
Ilsaeh Shih of one or other of the " throne-halls " or pavilions of the 
Imperial palace. The names of these are as follows : Wen Hua Tien 
m R; Wu Ying Tien Jft jg ; T'i Jen Ko RJ ; 
Tung Ko ^ |g} and W4n Yuan Ko % J$j gj. As a title the last- 



14 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

mentioned was in use under the Emperor K'ang Hi, as may be 
seen from the list of revisers prefixed to his Dictionary. For many 
years it was disused, but was revived in 1895. 

Under the Ming dynasty the Grand Secretaries were familiarly 
designated Ko Lao [&J ^, or Elders of the Nei Ko, whence the 
title rendered by the Jesuit missionaries as Colao. 

139. HSIEH-PAN TA HSUEH SHIH $J g$ ft ^ . Assistant 
Grand Secretary ; Ib. Coll. des., Chung T'aiig [as above] ; Epist. 
style, Ilsleh K^ue'i^ '^^- Of this office there are two incumbents, 
one Manchu and one Chinese. 
HONORARY TITLES : 

140. i. T'AI SHIH ;jfcg|j. Grand Preceptor; la. 
ii. T'AI Fu ;fc f-f . Grand Tutor ; la. 
iii. T'AI PAO ^ f^. Grand Guardian ; la. 
iv. SHAO SHE gjjj. Junior Preceptor ; Ib. 
v. SHAO Fu 'J) f^. Junior Tutor ; Ib. 
vi. SHAO PAO ^j? fjjj. Junior Guardian ; Ib. 
The above six honorary titles correspond to the titles of the 
six highest Ministers of State of antiquity, designated the 
San Rung ^ Q and San Ku ^ $&. 

To these may be added six similar titles in relation to the 
Heir Apparent. 

141. vii. ft-f'ft$SJ Grand Preceptor of the Heir Apparent; Ib. 
viii. ^"PAIS Grand Tutor of the Heir Apparent ; Ib. 
ix. ft-fftiQ Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent ; Ib. 
x. ft J- ^ Hjj Junior Preceptor of the Heir Apparent ; 2a. 
x ^ A "f ^ fiS Junior Tutor of the Heir Apparent ; 2a. 
xii. ^ ^ /J? fjjj Junior Guardian of the Heir Apparent ; 2a. 
Nos. viii and ix are borne by several high officials at the 
present day. The last is frequently bestowed. It entitles the 
bearer to be addressed as Rung Pao ^ fjjj. 

142. NEI Ko HSUEH SHIH fa gj ^.-~ Sub-Chancellor of 
the Grand Secretariat ; 2b. Ten in all 6 Bannermen, 4 Chinese 
acting as registrars of the seals of State and of certain departments 
of the archives ; Lit. des., Ko Hsueh gj ^. 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 15 



143. NCI Ko SHIH-TU HSUEH SHIH 
Readers of the Grand Secretariat ; 4b. Six Bannermen, 2 Chinese. 
They compare the texts of State papers in the Mancliu and Chinese 
language. 

144. NEI Ko SHIH-TU ptllUf^lM. Assistant Readers of 
the Grand Secretariat ; 6a. 14 Bannermeu, 2 Chinese. 

145. NEI Ko TIEN CHI ft gj Jflif|.--- Archivists of the 
Grand Secretariat ; 7a. Six in all 4 Bannermen, 2 Chinese. 

146. NEI Ko CHUNG SHU ft gj Eft (jf. Secretary of the 
Grand Secretariat; 7b. Lit. des., Chung Han fy |. 

147. CHUNG Sou K'o ift^^. The Imperial Patent Office ; 
a sub-department of the Nei Ko. 

148. CHUNG SHU K'o CHUNG SHU fftfjf^jffff. Secretary 
of the .Imperial Patent Office ; 7b. 

149. FANG Lib KUAN Jj ^ fjjjf. The Military Archive 
Office. This department has the special duty of drawing up the 
records of military undertakings and achievements. It is under 
the supervision and control of the Grand Council (No. 133), of 
whom one or more of the members may hold the position of 
President Tsung Ts'ai ^jjfr. The other superior officers are two 
Manchu and two Chinese Proctors T't T'iao Jjlfif, and an equal 
number of Archivists Shou Chang J[$=j|. There are in addition 
three Manchu and six Chinese Compilers Tsuan Ilsiu Hjflj. 

150. NEI FAN SHU FANG ftfrSfHIf. Maiichu-Chiuese 
Translation Office. 

iiduots the translation of State. papor,< from Chinese into 
Manchu. Subject, like the Fang Lio Kuan [see above], to the 
Grand Council. 

151. TSUNQ-LI Ko Kuo SHIH Wu YAMEN HpIg-HV 
%% foJ P]. The Yamen of Foreign Affairs. 

This department, like the Chun Chi Cttu, or Grand Council, is 

considered not so much a separate organization, with ranks and 

promotion specially appertaining to itself, as a species of Cabinet 

onned by the admission of members of other departments of 



16 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

State. It owes its institution to proposals laid before the Throne 
by a special Council convened after the conclusion of peace in 
1860, to decide upon the manner in which foreign affairs should 
thenceforward be conducted. In reply to the memorial presented 
by this Council, headed by the Prince of Hui, a Decree was 
issued on the 19th January 1861, commanding the formation of 
a new department under the title given above. In the same 
decree the Prince of Kung (brother of the Emperor Hien Feng, 
at that time on the throne), Kuei Liang, a senior Grand Secre- 
tary, and Wen Hsiang, a Vice-President of the Board of War, 
were named as the constituent members of the Yamen. In the 
following year four additional Ministers were added to the list, 
and by the year 1869 successive additions had brought the 
number up to ten, at which it remained for a number of years, the 
various members consisting of Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
the different Boards [see infra, No. 152], including a majority 
of the members of the Grand Council. The death of Wen Siang, 
in May 1876, left the Prince of Kung as the sole original member 
still connected with the Yamen ; and in December 1876, the 
Yamen became more closely than ever identified with the Grand 
Council by the admission into its ranks of the two members of 
that body who had not previously been introduced to it. Their 
admission raised the number of Ministers of the Yamen to eleven. 
In 1895 the number of members was eight, three being Manchus 
and five Chinese. It is worthy of remark that for thirty years 
after its institution the Tsung-li Yamen's existence was ignored 
by the u Red Book," which is otherwise a complete record of 
all State departments. The omission was rectified in 1890. 
The members are spoken of collectively as Wang Ta Ch'en 3E 
^ [g, the Prince and Ministers. The departmental work of the 
Yamen is conducted by secretaries, Chang Ching ^^, who were 
in the first instance drafted from the staff of the Grand Council. 
Their ordinary official designation is ssu. yuan fj] J| or ssa kuan 
pj If. The six chief Secretaries, all of whom hold either 
substantive or expectant rank, are usually designated tsuny pan 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 1? 

$8 $? I Q accordance with the scheme proposed in 1861, the office 
of Minister Superintendent of Trade, Tung Shang Ta Ch'en jg jgj 
^ g?, is held at Nanking and Tientsin respectively by the Governor- 
General of the Two Kiang provinces and the Governor-General of 
Chihli. As Superintendents of Trade for the Northern Ports 
(Tientsin, Newchwang and Chefoo) and the Southern Ports 
(including the remainder of those open to trade) respectively, these 
functionaries are commonly referred to as the Nan and Pel Yang 



The Six Boards : 

152 i. Li Pu J |J. Board of Civil Office. Lit. des., 
Ch'iian Ts'ao fg ff . 

153 ii. Hu Pu ^ |J. Board of Revenue. Lit. des., 
Nung Pu jg |5 and Min Pu JjJ |J. 

154. iii. Li Pu jjjff |J. Board of Ceremonies. Lit. des., 



155 iv. PING Pu | |5. Board of War. Lit. des., 
Hsi Pu J^ [5. 

156. v. HSING Pu Jfl] |J. Board of Punishments. Lit. 
des., Pi Pu jfc [5 and Hsi Ts'ao H "ff. 

157. vi. KUNG Pu X 15. Board of Works. Lit. des., 
Shut Pu 7 Jt |5- 

158. Yo Pu ^ IJ. The Board of State Music, a dependency 
of the Board of Ceremonies. [See infra, No. 173, etc.] 

159. HAI-CHUN YAMN $ g fgj pj. Board of Admiralty. 

First instituted in 1890. The leading officials are one 
Comptroller, Tsung-li If, Jj|, hitherto an Imperial Prince ; four 
Associate Comptrollers, Hui-t'ung pan-li H" |gj |/j| J^> one Manchu, 
three Chinese, all four being high provincial authorities ; two 
Directors, Tsung-pan $J|j fj| ; and four Assistant Directors, 
Pang-pan ^ fj|. The last six are all Bannermen. When the 
Chinese fleet was captured or destroyed by the Japanese in 1895, 
there was some talk at Peking of abolishing this department as 
being no longer required. 



18 pART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

# * # The official constitution of each of the Six Boards 
(Liu Pu y^ g5) is, with few exceptions, the same throughout. 
They control, each in its allotted department, the execution of that 
system of minute regulation for the conduct of all public affairs 
which has been mentioned above as the principal attribute of the 
Central Government. The Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the 
Boards, in fact, with the heads of the Ceusorate and the Hanlin 
College, may be said to constitute the Central Administration. 
The following is the staff common to all the Boards : 

160. SHANG SHU fgj ^.President of a Board ; Ib. 
Official des., Pu T l ang [$ jgfj. Each Board has two presidents, 
respectively Manchu and Chinese. 

161. SHIH LANG ff g[5. Vice-President of a Board ; 2a. 
Official des., Pu Yuan [$ ^. Each Board has two Manchu and 
two Chinese Vice-Presidents, distinguished respectively, in each 
class, as Senior, Tso Shih Lang ^f^flR, and Junior Vice-President, 



162. Pu YUAN TA CH'EN g $% ft g?. Heads of Depart- 
ments. This generic designation embraces the Presidents of the 
Six Boards and of the Superior Courts. Presidents and Vice- 
Presidents are further described as T'ang Kuan ^ *j|* or heads of 
departments. 

The following are the literary equivalents for the titles of the 
Presidents and Vice-Presidents of the Boards : 

Board of Civil Office : President, T'ai Tsai fc ^ ; Vice- 
President, Shao Tsai 'J? ^. 

Board of Revenue : President, Ta Ssu T'u^vlffi, ; Vice- 
President, Shao Ssu T'u 3?n$' 

Board of Ceremonies : President, Ta Tsung Po ^ g? f Q ; 
Vice-President, Shao Tsung Po ^^ f. 

Board of War : President, Ta Ssti Ma ^ ^ Jg ; Vice- 
President, Shao Ssit Ma ij? ^J Jg|. 



8 Chinese Bannermen have the privilege of being eligible for either the 
Manchu or the Chinese posts. As a rule, however, it is the latter they are 
appointed to. 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 19 

Board of Punishments : President, Ta Ssii K'ou ^ ff] fig ; 
Vice-President, Shao Ssii K'ou ^ Jg. 

Board of Works : President, Ta Ssii K'ung >Jc pj 3 5 
Vice-President, Shao Ssii K'ung $} fl 2g. 

For the control of the Presidents, each of the Six Boards and 
several of the minor departments (such as the Mongolian 
Superintendency, the College of Imperial Physicians, the Courts of 
Sacrificial Worship, Banqueting and State Ceremonial) would 
appear to be normally provided with a Supervisor [||j Jj! J |J IjJ 
jjj]. Practically these posts are seldom all filled. For instance, 
in 1895 there were such Supervisors over the Boards of Civil 
Office, Revenue, War and Works, while the Boards of Ceremonies 
and Punishments had none. 

163. LANG CHUNG jf|$ rft. Senior Secretary of a Board ; 
5a. Lit. des., Cheng Lang J g|5. 

164. YUAN WAI LANG ^ J BR. Second-class Secretary of 
a Board ; 5b. Lit. des., Fu Lang g[J gg, Chi Lang ff gg. 

| 165. T'ANG CHU SHIH ||!E:jfe Assistant Secretary of a 
Board; 6a. Lit. des., T'ang Chu-cheng ^ ^ |gf . 

166. CHU SHIH ^ ^!. Second-class Assistant Secretary of 
a Board. Lit. des., Chu Cheng gt ; 6a. 

N.B. The four preceding ranks are very largely obtained 
by purchase or conferred as distinctions, without entailing more 
than a nominal connection with the Boards to which they relate. 
The Secretaries in active employment at a Board are generically 
described as Ssii Kuan fij If. 

167. Pu Ssu Ssu K<u $B$ ^ g. Treasury Supervisor of 
a Board or Court ; 7a. 

168. Ssu Wu ^ ^.Steward of a Board ; 8a. 

169. Pu YUAN K'u SHIH g[$ |% Jj ^.Treasury Keeper 
of a Board ; unclassed. 

170. Ssu Yii ?J Hk Keeper of the Prison of the Board of 
Punishments ; 9b. 

171. Ssu CHIANG -g| [g. Overseer of Works, in the Board 
of Works; 9b. 



20 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

172. CHU YIN CHU TA SHIH R ED M ^C fg- Superin- 
tendent of the Seal-casting Department (under the Board of 
Ceremonies) ; unclassed. 

Officers of the Board of Music : 

173. Ho SHENQ SHU SHU CHENG ffl if W If IE- Director 
of the Board of Music ; 6b. 

174, Ho SHENG SHU SHU CH'ENG $] g |f ff gL Sub- 
director of the Board of Music ; 7b. 

175. HSIEH Lu LANG ^ |[J. Chief Musicians ; 5 in all. 
176. Seu Yo LANG gj *g g|$. Band-masters ; 25 in all. 
177. Yo SHENG . Musicians ; 180 in all. 
178. Wu SHENG H . Posturers ; 300 in all. 

179. Ssu Yi-Hui T'UNG KUAN TA SHIH 0J HI ^ I*J gg X. 
f$J. Keeper of the Residence for Tributary Envoys (under the 
Board of Ceremonies) ; 9a. 

180. Ssu Yi Hui T'UNG KUAN Hsu PAN Jj JJ.- 
Ceremonial Usher of Tribute Missions ; 9b. 

181. PI-T { IEH-SHIH ^ |pi5 ^.Official Writer. The title 
borne by the class of Government clerks (with official status of the 
7th, 8th, or 9th rank) attached to all the metropolitan departments. 
Lit. des., Pi Cheng |ji jg. The title is a reproduction of the 
Manchu word bitheshi, or writer. Although nominally charged 
with the clerical duties of the Boards and other Government 
offices, the pi-t l ieh-shih at the present day leave the bulk of 
the work of correspondence and account-keeping, etc. to be 
performed by the permanent staff of hired clerks, shu-pan ^j| fjji 
(officially designated shu-li ^(f J|), who are employed in large 
numbers in every public office in Peking as well as throughout 
the Empire. 

182. SUB-DEPARTMENTS OF THE BOARDS. 

Each of the Six Boards is subdivided into a variety of 
departments, a certain number of which are common to all, whilst 
the functions of others are naturally prescribed by .the special 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 21 

attributes of the Board itself. The following are the designations 
of the departments to be found in all the Boards alike : 

i. TANG FANG j/jj; Jg. General Record and Registry Depart- 
ment. In the Board of Revenue this is divided into two offices, 
the Northern and Southern, each with distinct classes of business 
under its control. 

ii. PEN FANG TfC fif Copyists' Department ; for the pre- 
paration of reports and returns to be laid before the Throne. 

| iii. Ssu Wu T'ING f] J IS, Superintendency of employes 
and current business. 

iv. Tu Ts'ui So (if fUl^f. Control Department ; for ensuring 
the punctual despatch of business. 

v. TANG YUEH CH C U jg ft j. Correspondence Registration 
Office. 

The following departments are common to more than one 
Board : 

vi. CHUN Hsu Cm) 5 f| ^.Office of the Military Chest. 
(Boards of Revenue and of Works.) 

vii. CH'IEN FA T'ANG $|f^3g?. Coinage Department. (As 
above.) 

viii. FAN YIN CH'U fj |g J||. 'Provincial Perquisites Office ; 
issuing the maintenance allowance to members of the Board on 
duty. (Boards of Revenue and Punishment.) 

The amount thus shared, under the name of " maintenance, 
or food, money," is derived from percentages on the revenue 
collection remitted under this head from the provincial exchequers. 

^% The departmental work of each Board is, in addition, 
distributed among a variety of office divisions, the most important 
of which bear the generic designation of CJfing-li Ssti Jjff jj jfj, to 
which epithets, indicating either the names of the provinces 
appertaining to the several divisions, or the character of their 
special business, are prefixed. The most noteworthy of the special 
departments appertaining to each of the principal Boards are the 
following : 



22 PART n. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

ix. HSIEN SHEN CH'U $%. % @|. (Board of Revenue.) 
A special Court for the adjudication of suits among Manchus 
relating to landed property. 

x. SAN K'u TANG FANG H 1$ $1 Bf (Board of Revenue.) 
Registry Office of the Three Treasuries. These are : the Bullion 
Treasury, the Treasury of Silks and Satins, and the Treasury of 
Dye-stuffs and Stationery. 

xi. Wu HSUAN CH'ING-LI Ssu K Jl Jft SE 3- (Board of 
War.) Office of appointments and promotions. 

xii. CHIH FANG CH'ING-LI Ssu J|| ~)j Jf| |g pj. (Board of 
War.) General Conduct Office. Supervises the bestowal of 
rewards and adjudication of penalties ; the periodical scrutiny of 
qualifications, inspection of troops, etc. etc. 

xiii. CH'E CHIA CH'ING-LI Ssu ^UJiSSJ. (Board of 
War.) The Cavalry Remount and Postal Department. This office 
superintends all matters relating to the military stud. Beneath it 
are the following three sub- departments : 

xiv. Hui T'UNG KUAN H" |gj |ff . Imperial Despatch Office ; 
superintending the transmission of the correspondence from the 
Provinces. 

xv. CHIEH PAO CH'U JI $$ ]. Council Messenger's Office. 

xvi. T'l T'ANG g| 9|. The Courier Posts. 

The arrangements for the transmission of Government 
despatches along the lines of post-roads throughout the Empire are 
superintended by military officials stationed at either end of each 
line of communication, and entitled either Chu Ching T'l-tfang 
H: )8 iS !> Superintendents of Posts, residing at Peking, of 
whom there are sixteen, or Chu Sheng T'i-t'ang gj ^ Jg J|f, 
Provincial Superintendents, as the case may be. Under the 
direction of the former are the Pao Fang fg gf , or offices at which 
the Peking Gazette is printed. 

xvii. Wu K<u CH'ING Li Ssu ^ ffi 5f IE SJ. (Board of 
War,) Office of registration for the army and military stores, and 
for the direction of the military examinations. 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 23 

xviii. WEN HsiiAN CH'ING Li Ssu 3 Jg Jf J ft. 
(Board of Civil Office.) Appointment and Transfer Department. 

xix. K'AO RUNG CH'ING Li Ssu ^ Jft ffi g ^J. (Board of 
Civil Office.) Department of Scrutiny ; having the control over 
the rewards or penalties to be awarded throughout the civil service. 

xx. YEN FENG CH'ING Li Ssu fift g jf | S|. (Board of 
Civil Office.) Department of issue of patents of nobility and 
rank, etc. 

183. Li FAN YUAN 3 jg g& The Mongolian Superin- 
tendency. This department, which has sometimes been called 
the Colonial Office, is specially charged with the control of the 
tribes of Mongolia, including the multifarious and complicated 
relations with their princes and various ranks of nobles, with the 
affairs of Tibet, and with the supervision of the Lamaist hierarchy 
in all its ramifications. Until within the present generation it 
also conducted the relations of the Chinese Government with that 
of Russia. Its organization is similar to that of the Six Boards 
[see above], with the exception that it has but one President and 
two Vice-Presidents, who are invariably Bannermen. There is in 
addition a Supernumerary Vice-President, J^|* fj HIS J@-waiShih- 
lang, an appointment conferred on some Mongol Prince. For the 
affairs administered by the Board, see Parts XI and XII. 

184. The Tu CH'A YUAN |g fg gg. The Censorate, or 
Court of Censors. Lit. des., Yu Shi/i T'ai $$ j f=J. 

185. Tso Tu Yu SHIH 8> fflJ ^.President of the 
Censorate ; Ib. One Manchu and one Chinese. Lit. des., 
Tsung Hsien | gf. 

186. Yu Tu Yti SHIH ;g g$ $J $. Associate-President of 
the Censorate ; a title borne by Governors-General of the Provinces. 

187. Tso and Yu Fu Tu Yu SHIH ; gij H? S0 - 
Vice-Presidents (Senior and Junior) of the Censorate ; 3a. Lit. 
des., Fu Hsien glj jg. Two of the first and four of the second rank, 
in each case half Manchu and half Chinese. The title of the junior 
rank is borne by Governors of the Provinces. 



24 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

188. CHI SHIH CHUNG $ 2p Ift. Supervising Censors ; 
5a. These constitute the Imperial Supervisorate, or Office of 
Scrutiny, over the Six Boards, hence called Liu K ( o "^ ^\. In 
each department there are two Chang Yin Chi Shih Chung Jj| f!|J 
$ (I *ft, or Keepers of the Seal, and two ordinary Supervisors. 
Lit. des., Ta Chi Chien ^C|g^. 

189. Yu SHIH gfl ^.Censors; 5b. Lit. des., Shih Yu ffflp. 
Coll. des., Tu Lao-yeli 8>^S. There are 56 in all, distributed 
over 15 Tao Jt|, or Circuits, embracing' the Eighteen Provinces, 
including the Ching Chi Tao j^J |J| Jf|, Metropolitan Circuit. 
Kiangnan Circuit has 8 ; Shantung 6 ; Kiangsi, Chehkiang, 
Fuhkien, Hukuaug, Honan, Shansi, Shensi and the Metropolitan 
Circuits, 4 each ; Ssiich'uan, Kuangtung, Kuangsi, Yunnan and 
Kueichou have each 2, and Kansuh isunprovided with any. Hunan 
and Hupeh are embraced in one Circuit, that of Hukuang ; Anhui 
is similarly included with Kiangsu in the Kiangnan Circuit, while 
the Metropolitan Censors serve for the whole of Chihli. To each 
division there are allotted two Chang Yin Yu Shih ^ [J jjfl j, or 
Keepers of Seal, and two or more Censors, whose duty it is to 
inform the Sovereign upon all subjects connected with the welfare 
of the people and the conduct of government. 9 

In addition to the above, a certain number of the Censors are 
employed as Superintendents of Police for the Five Divisions of 
the city and suburbs of Peking, called the Wu Ch'eng 2 Jjjjj, or 
" Five Cities." These are the Centre, or the environs of the 
Imperial Palace, and the North, South, East and West divisions. 
Others of the Censors are appointed in turn to act as Supervisors 
of the Granaries, or Ch'a Ts'ang Yu Shih g Jf jiffl jg. 

190. The T'UNG CHENG Ssu J| g fj. Office of Transmission. 
Lit. des., Yin T^ai H5 iff. This department had the duty, under 
the Ming dynasty, of opening, recording, and transmitting to the 
Council of State all memorials received from the provinces. At 
present, it takes cognizance only of the t c i pen JJfJ TfC, or memorials 



9 No Manchu Censor is by law allowed to solicit honours for virtuous or 
distinguished females. [See Peking Gazette of June 13th, 1886.] 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 25 

on routine business which are thus received. All memorials on 
special business go to the Council unopened. 

191. T'UNG CHENG SHIH Ssu gf jg fjg fij. Commis- 
sioner of the Office of Transmission, one Manchu and one 
Chinese ; 3a. 

192. T'UNG CHENG Ssu Fu SHIH Jg gfc g] g|J fg. Deputy 
Commissioner of the Office of Transmission, one Manchu and one 
Chinese ; 4a. 

193. T'UNG CHENG Ssu TS'AN I jg gjr J ^ ff|. Secretary 
of the Office of Transmission, one Manchu and one Chinese ; 5a. 

194. T'UNG CHENG Ssu CHING Li j g f] $g g. Com- 
missary of Records of the Office of Transmission. 

195. The TA Li Ssu ft Jf =. Grand Court of Revision. 
This department exercises a general supervision over the adminis- 
tration of the criminal law. 

196. TA Li Ssu CH'ING ft IJ! ^ 1/fjP Director of the Grand 
Court of Revision ; 3a. Lit. des., T'ing Tse g glj. 

197. TA Li Ssu SHAO CH'ING ^ Jf^p ^^IP Sub-Director 
of the Grand Court of Revision ; 4a. Lit. des., Tso Chi f/ ^. 

198. Tso and Yu Ssu CH'ENG 2 ^ =* gt, Secretaries of 
the Grand Court of Revision ; 6a. Lit. des., 1 Ssa | pj. 

199. Tso and Yu P'ING SHIH ^ ^ ff ^.Assistant 
Secretaries of the Grand Court of Revision ; 7a. 

200. NOTE. The three foregoing departments, colloquially 
classed in the phrase Tu T'ung Ta |j|$ jj ^, constitute with the 
Six Boards the Ta Chiu Ctiing ^ ^ ^j, or Nine Chief Ministries 
of State. When the Chiu Cluing are named in decrees without 
mention of the Six Boards, the above combination is implied. 
When the " Six Boards and Nine Ministries " are specified, the 
Hsiao Chiu Cluing s\\ -fa J|p are understood to be referred to. 
These comprise the Censorate, the T^ung Cheng Ssti, the Five 
Courts, or Wu Ssa 3 ^, the Han Lin Yuan, and the Kuo Tzu 
Chien. 

4 



26 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

Besides the u Six Boards and Nine Ministries," there is likewise 
a more select assemblage, which has similar functions in criminal 
affairs, vis. : 

SAN FA Ssu ^ ^ p]. The Commission of Revision, 
consisting of the President of the Board of Punishments, the 
President of the Censorate and the Director of the Grand Court 
of Revision. 

201. The HAN-LIN YUAN ^ $ ^. The College of 
Literature (Han-lin College). 

202. CHANG YUAN HSUEH SHIH ^ fg ^ j^. Chancellor of 
the Han-lin ; 2b. One Manchu and one Chinese. [The post may 
be filled by a Grand Secretary, or by a President or Vice-President 
of a Board.] 

203. SHIH Tu HSUEH SHIH f fg J| -. Reader of the 
Han-lin ; 4b. Two are Manchu and three Chinese. 

204. SHIH CHIANG HSUEH SHIH fj ff| 1 . Expositor of 
the Han-lin ; 4b. [As above. ,] 

205. SHIH Tu fj |j. Sub-Reader of the Han-lin ; 5b. 
\_As above. ~\ 

206. SHIH CHIANG fj If .Sub-Expositor of the Han-lin ; 
5b. [As above.~\ 

NOTE. The above classes constitute what may be called the 
superior hierarchy of the Han-lin College. The following are the 
titles bestowed upon the successful candidates at the triennial 
examinations of chin-shih graduates held in the Palace, and hence 
called Tien Shih, or Palace Examinations. [See Part IX.] 

207. Hsiu CHUAN flf fj|. Han-lin Compiler ; 6b. 

208. PIEN Hsiu HJ fjjs. Han-lin Compiler (second class) ; 
7a. Lit. des., T'ai Shih -j . 

209. CHIEN T'AO fjj fj. Han-lin Graduate of the third 
degree ; 7b. 

210. SHU-CHI SHIH ffi . Han-lin Bachelor, or 
graduate of the lowest degree. [See Part IX, No. 473.] The 
graduates of this class are still held bound to pursue a further 
course of study, which is conducted at the Shu Ch'ang Kuan 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 27 

ffi rf? tlf> a college devoted to this purpose, and are enabled by a 
subsequent examination, held by a special Commission within the 
Imperial palace, to attain the degrees of Pien Hsiu and Chien T'ao 
[as a&oiv?]. They are then said to be Liu Kuan J f|f, i.e. retained 
in the Han-lin College. Those who fail to reach the higher degrees 
are described as San Kuan fffc |f, or " released from study," and 
receive appointments as District Magistrates or Secretaries of 
Boards. 

211. Wu CHING Po SHIH 3 jgg -[g J;. Doctor of the 
Han-lin degree ; 8a. A special distinction conferred upon de- 
scendants of the sages of antiquity, after passing the examinations 
at Peking. 

212. TIEN Pu ifo p. Archivist of the Han-lin College ; Sb. 
Four in all. 

213. TAI CHAO @ fg. Probationer of the Han-lin College ; 
l)b, [As above.'] 

214. K<UNG Mu JL B- Clerk of the Han-lin College 
(lowest grade); unclassed. 

215. The Kuo SHIH KUAN g| S& ft- State Historio- 
grapher's Office. 

This is a department of the Han-lin College, engaged in the 
custody and preparation of the historical archives of the dynasty. 
Its duties comprise the compilation of official biographies of all 
eminent public servants. The following are the titles of its 
functionaries : 

216. TSUNG TS'AI | gg. Director-General. [This appoint- 
ment is usually held by one of the chief Ministers of State.] 

217. T'I TIAO | ||. Proctor; two Mauchu and two 
Chinese. 

218. TSUNG TSUAN |g j{. Historiographer ; four Manchu 
and six Chinese. 

219. TSUAN Hsiu H fig. Compiler ; 34 in all. 

220. The CHAN SHIH Fu Jg ^ /^.Imperial Supervisorate 
of Instruction. This department is specially charged with the 



28 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

direction of the studies of the Heir Apparent, but it has ceased for 
upwards of a century to exercise, even nominally, any active 
functions. The appointments connected with it are conferred as 
sinecure rewards for literary service. 

221. CHAN SHIH Jfl 1}|. Chief Supervisor of Instruction ; 
3a. Lit. des., Kung Chan ^ Jij. 

222. SHAO CHAN SHIH J? Jlj ^. Assistant Supervisor of 
Instruction ; 4a. Lit. des., Shao Yin 4} ^ft. 

223. Tso and Yu CH'UN FANG SHU Tzu R^JglfiB 
: f. Deputy Supervisor of Instruction (senior and junior rank) ; 
5a. Lit. des., Kung Shu g J&. 

224. Ssu CHING CHU HSIEN MA p} $g ^} ft Jj|. Groom 
of the Library ; 5b. 

225. Tso and Yu CH'UN FANG CHUNG YUN ^ :fc 
Fft ^. Secretary of the Supervisorate of Instruction ; 6a. Lit. 
des., Kung Yiln ^ -fa. 

226. Tso and Yu CH'UN FANG TSAN SHAN ^ ^ >jt tyj g 
|J. Assistant Secretary of the Supervisorate of Instruction ; 6b. 
Lit. des., Kung Tsan * J|. 

227. CHU Pu ^ ^.Archivist ; 7b. 
The Four Minor Courts : 

These are as follows : 

228. T'AI CII'ANG Ssu ft ffi ^. Court of Sacrificial 
Worship. 

229. T'AI P'u Ssu ft ^ ^.Court of the Imperial Stud. 

230. KUANG Lu Ssu ^ || ^. Court of Imperial Enter- 
tainments (or Banqueting Court). 

231. HUNG Lu Ssu ^1||^. Court of State Ceremonial 

The officials of the above-named departments, which, with the 
Court of Revision [see No. 195] constitute the Wu Ssii 2 ^F> are 
as follows, the titles in each case being nearly identical, but 
distinguished by the name of the department to which they 
respectively belong : 

232. CH'ING 0p. Director ; 3a. (except in the Hung Lu Ssu, 
which is 4a). The literary designations of the various Courts are as 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 29 

follows : T'ai Ch'ang Ssu, Ts^ Po g? fg[ ; T'ai P'u Ssii, 
Ta Ssu P'u ;fc P] $h Kuang Lu Ssu, Ta Ssii Shan ft f] jg; 
Hung Lu Ssii, Ta Using Jen ^ fj / \. Except in the case of 
the first of the four, the Sub-Directors [see below~\ have the same 
designations, with the character Shao (lesser) substituted for Ta. 

N.B. The Directors and Sub-Directors of the Courts are 
generically described as Ching T l ang jf* ^. 

233. SHAO CH'ING 'J> p. Sub-Director ; 4a and 5a 
(except the Hung Lu Ssii, which is 5b). Lit. des. of Sub-Director 
of the T'ai Chiang Ssu Feng Cttang ^ *$. 

234. -Ssu CH'ENG = g|. Secretary of a Court ; Ga. 

235. Hsu PAN ^ gE. Usher of lhe Court of State Cere - 
monial. 

236. MING TSAN Rg g. Herald of the Court of State 
Ceremonial ; 7a. 

237. SHU CHENG Jg. Superintendent of various depart- 
ments of the Banqueting Court, such as the Fleshers', the 
Cellarage, the Game, the Spices, etc. etc. 
Special Officers of the T'ai Clfang Ssa : 

238. SHEN Yo SHU SHU-CHENG jjjljj |g ^ g IE- Director 
of the Sacred Music Department ; 6a. 

239. SHEN Yo SHU SHU-CH'ENG jf# Kg W S-~ Sub ~ 
Director of the Sacred Music Department ; Sb. 

240. Po Ssu tS . Doctor ; 7a. 

241. TIEN CHI JE j|. Recorder ; 7a. 

242. Tu CHU KUAN jg jjjJJ ^.Reciter of Prayers ; 7a. 

243. Tzu CHI SHU FENG Ssu |i] g H ^ iJJ. Offerer of 
Sacrifice ; 7b. 

244. TSAN Li LANG f H gR. Ceremonial Usher ; 7a and 
9a. Commonly designated by the Manchu title of Hii-la Ed-fan. 

245. HSIEH Lu LANG % ^ gR. Chief Musician ; 8a. 

246. Ssu Yo ^J KJ. Band-master ; 9b. Each court has 
also its Archivist, Sub-Archivist, etc. 

247. The Kuo Tzu CHIEN g ^ g. Imperial Academy 
of Learning. Lit. des., T'ai Hsiieh 



30 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

This, like the Han-lin College, is rather an assemblage 
of titled literary dignitaries than a body of officials with active 
functions. The ''Imperial Academy" has its nominal seat in a 
vast range of buildings adjacent to the Temple of Confucius, near 
the north-eastern angle of Peking, but, like most of the official 
institutions of the capital, it is visited only as a matter of form, 
at infrequent intervals, by the functionaries connected with it by 
their titles. The great quadrangle occupied by the institution is 
bounded east and west by a long arcade within which the 
monumental slabs erected to perpetuate the authorized text of the 
whole of the Confucian Books are arranged in rows. In the 
centre stands one of the most striking specimens of Chinese 
architecture, consisting in a lofty pavilion-shaped building, erected 
upon a platform of white marble placed in the midst of a circular 
piece of water, itself walled in with marble, and across which 
access is given to the building, by four marble bridges at the 
cardinal points. In this building, which represents the Pi- Yung, 
]$ tH or Imperial College of antiquity, each sovereign is held 
bound to enthrone himself once in the course of his reign, to 
preside over a solemn assemblage of all the scholars of the capital, 
in whose hearing a classical essay, nominally composed by His 
Majesty, and hence designated Yil Lun fjjj] fjjjj, is recited. The 
department of study is divided into six classes, Liu T'ang ^ jg[*? 
the students connected with which receive a stipend from Govern- 
ment and are periodically examined. The schools for the instruc- 
tion of Russians and Liu-Ch'iuans in the Chinese language, forming 
part of this institution, have ceased to exist. The Liu-Ch'iuan 
class was known as the Nan Hsiieh jfj Jp. The students of the 
Imperial Academy are designated Chien Slieng ^ , a title which 
is purchaseable throughout the Empire as the lowest literary 
degree. 

The officials of the department are as follows : 

248. KUAN-LI Kuo Tzu CHIEN TA CH'EN f|? *1 g[ ^ jg 
ft {5- Chancellor of the Imperial Academy (a post usually con- 
ferred on one of the senior Grand Secretaries). 



PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 31 

249. Cm CHIU g g|. Libationer; 4b. One Manchu and 
one Chinese. Lit. des., Ta Ssit Ch'eng ^ p\ J$J. 

250. Ssu YEH f|] ^. Tutor ; 6a. One Manchu, one 
Mongol, and one Chinese. Lit. des., Shao Ssu Ch'eny ^ fi] /jK- 

251. CHIEN CH'ENG ig gg. Proctor ; 7a. 

252. Po Ssu "(f . Doctor ; 7b. 

253. TIEN Pu SL ^.Archivist; 8b. 

254. TIEN CHI ift g Sub-Archivist ; 9b. 

255. Tsu CHIAO JJjj fjj;. Preceptor ; 7b. 

256. Ssu SHIH HsuEH-Lu ; |g ||. Registrar ; 8a. 

257. HSUEH Lu *p ||. Sub-Registrar ; 8a. 

258. HSUEH CHENG *p i. Director of Studies ; 8a. 

259. NAN SHU FANG fj ^ g. The Imperial College of 
Inscriptions. 

This is a committee formed by special appointment, at the 
sovereign's pleasure, of an indeterminate number of high literary 
officials, who are said to " do duty " hsing tsou ^J ^ in con- 
nection with the College. Their functions consist in preparing 
transcripts of inscriptions in the imperial hand, for presentation 
to favoured personages, or for bestowal upon temples erected in 
honour of different deities whose supernatural interposition is thus 
from time to time acknowledged. They are also liable to be called 
upon to discharge the duties of a poet laureate, in preparing odes 
or similar compositions which it is intended to confer upon 
distinguished public servants. 

260. The CB'IN T'IEN CHIEN ffc ^ it- Imperial Board of 
Astronomy, with the following staff of officials : 

261. KUAN Li CHIEN SHIH TA CH'EN ^ Ji j 3f? -fr & 
Chancellor ; a special appointment. 

262. CHIEN CHENG g ]. Director ; 5a. One Manchu 
and one Chinese. 

263. CHIEN Fu g g|J. Sub-Director ; 6a. [As above.'] 

264. Tso and Yu CHIEN Fu ^ fg g[J. Assistant Sub- 
Directors ; 6b. 



32 PART II. METROPOLITAN ADMINISTRATION. 

N.B. The Ta Cluing Hui Tien contains the proviso that the 
two above-named posts shall be filled by Europeans [referring to 
the missionary astronomers of the eighteenth century]. 

265. Wu KUAN CHENG 3 If IE- Secretary; 6a. 

266. HSIEH Hu CHENG lp HIE- Keeper of the Clepsydra ; 
8a. 

267. LING T'AI LANG 81ISR- Keeper of the Observatory ; 
7b. 

268. The T'AI I YUAN ft ^.College of Imperial 
Physicians. 

269. YUAN SHIH $g fjg. Commissioner ; 5a. 

270. Tso and Yu YUAN P'AN ft ft ^ ^jj. Senior and 
Junior Proctors ; 6a. 

271. Yu I fJ|J ||. Imperial Physicians ; 8a. Fifteen in 
number. 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 33 



PART IIL-PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

272. SHIH-PA SHENG -p j\ iH- THE EIGHTEEN PROVINCES. 

The modern division of the Empire into provinces, called 
Sheng ^ dates from the period of the Yuan dynasty [14th century], 
when, in addition to the departments of the Central Government, 
which were designated Chung Shu Sheng fft ^j| ^*, thirteen 
provincial Governorships were established, under the title of 
"ambulatory" departments, or Chung Shu Using Sheng ^UJfJitf. 
The Ming dynasty inherited this system from their Mongol pre- 
decessors, and continued it with slight alteration, changing, however, 
the title of the Provinciaf Governors in the first instance to Ch'eng 
Hsuan Pu Cheng Shih ;fc Hi 'ffi Sit fl! wno became superseded 
later by Inspectors or Hsiln Fu ^ JfeE, the Provincial Governors of 
the present day. To these, in the 16th century, Governors-General, 
Tsung-tu | |f, began to be added. The fifteen provinces of the 
Ming dynasty were Shan-tung, Shan-si, Ho-nan, Shen-si, Fuh- 
kien, Cheh-kiang, Kiang-si, Hu-kuang, Ssu-ch'uan, Kuang-tung, 
Kuang-si, Yiin-nan, and Kuei-chou, with the two " metropolitan " 
provinces Chih-li (or Pei Chih-li) and Kiang-nan (or Nan 
Chih-li), in which the northern and southern capitals, Pei King 
and Nan King, were respectively situated. In the reign K'ang Hi, 
of the present dynasty, the province of An-hui was separated 
from Kiang-nan, which thenceforward took the name of Kiang-su ; 
and Kan-suh was similarly formed by the partition of Shen-si. 
By dividing Hu-kuang into two provinces, which received the 
designations Hu-peh and Hu-nan, moreover, the number was 
brought up to eighteen. In contradistinction to the Chung Shu 
SJteng, or Central Departments of State, of the Yiian dynasty, 
the provinces to which the same title was, with a certain degree 
of modification, subsequently transferred, became entitled Chih 
Sheng ]|[ ^, or " departments under government," and by this 
designation they are now generically recognized. 
5 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 



The provinces are divided into Fa J}vf, or Prefectures ; T'ing J|f, 
or Independent Sub-Prefectures; Cliih-li Chou jjj H >/|>|, or 
Independent Departments ; Chou f||, or Departments subject to a 
Fu; and Hsien ^, or Districts subject to a Fu or Chih-li Chou. 

For the three Manchurian Provinces see Part V. 

The following table exhibits the names and grouping of the 
Eighteen Provinces, together with the literary or archaic designa- 
tions by which they are frequently referred to: 



Archaic or Literary 
Designation. 



UJ & 



or 

or 

r 



Present Name. 



Sal 



mm 



hi. Chih-li 

2. Kiaug-su 

3. An-hui 

4. Kiang-si 

5. Shan-tung 
6. Shan-si 
^7. Ho-nan 

8. Shen-si 

9. Kan-suh gjff 

10. Fuh-kien )jfg^| 

11. Cheh-ldangftjfft 

12. Hu-peh j|4fc 

13. Hu-nan MUfH 

14. Ssii-ch'uan 

15. Kuang-tung 

16. Kuang-si 

17. Yun-nan 

18. Kuei-chou 



Title of Governor- 
Generalship. 



Chih-li [separate] 

Liang Kiang, or 
q Kianff Nan. 



None, 
do. 
do. 



Shen-Kan. 
9f Min-Cheh. 



Hu Kuang, or 
Liang Hu. 

Ssu-ch'uan [sep.] 
Liang Kuaug, or 
Liang Yiieh. 

Yiin-Kuei. 



273. TsuNG-Tu If % Governor-General; 2a. Off. des., 
CMh Chiln 3}!]^; Coll. des., Chih-t'ai fjjlj &. Being ex officio 
invested with the title of President of the Board of War, lie 
styles himself Pu T'ang [5 ^fg. Is also ex officio an Associate 
President of the Court of Censors. The Governor-General is the 
highest in rank of the civilian functionaries of the Provincial 
Administration, and is at the same time invested with special 
powers of control over the military forces within his jurisdic- 
tion. In the cases of Chih-li and Ssii-ch'uan he administers 
affairs without the intervention of a Governor; whilst in the 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 35 

remaining cases a Governor-General is placed, as a superior 
colleague, beside the Governors of two, or, in the case of 
the Liang Kiang, of three separate provinces. 10 For the 
administration of his military supervisorate, each Governor-General 
is provided with a special bureau, or Military Secretariat, 
entitled Ying Wu Ck l u ^ $} $jt. His adjutant, entitled 
Chung Chun tjt |g, is the Colonel commanding the Tu piao 
brigade [see Nos. 439 and 453]. He is entitled in addition to 
employ a staff of civil and military orderly officers, entitled 
Wen Ilsiin-pu ^ Jjft fjf, wno are usually officers of the rank of 
District Magistrate (in expectancy), and Wu Usun-pu j^ jjg Jjf , 
of the rank of lieutenant. 

274. HSUN-FU %$ fe Governor; 2b. Off. des., Fit-yuan 
Jjjjt gg ; Coll. des., Fu-t^ai^ ; Style in corresp., Pu Yuan g $% ; 
Epist. style, Chung Ch'eng fy g:, and Fu Chun fjjjE iff. Ex officio 
invested with the titles of Ping Pu Shih-lang, or Vice- President of 
the Board of War, and Yu Fu Tu Yu Shih, or Vice-President of the 
Censorate. Each of the Eighteen Provinces is under the control of 
an officer of this rank, with the exception of the provinces of Chih-li, 
and Ssti-ch'uan, which are administered by Governors-General. The 
Governor is in all cases a colleague rather than a subordinate of 
the Governor-General. Shan-tung, Shan-si and Ho-nan have no 
Governors-General over them. The Governor-General and the 
Governor, jointly, are spoken of as Tu-Fu U JH or Liang Yuan 

Hi gg. 

275. Pu-CH^NG SniH-Ssu ^ffj g fg f]. Lieutenant- 
Governor, or Financial Commissioner (commonly called Treasurer); 
2b. Off. des., Fan Ssa $g f] ; Coll. des., Fan t'ai ^ ; Epist. 
style, Fang Po Jfj? fj^. The head of the civil service in each 
province, and treasurer of the provincial exchequer. Represents 
the earlier class of Provincial Governors as appointed under the 
Ming dynasty [see No. 272]. 

10 A Tsung-tu is not, however, merely a Ilsiin-fu of higher rank. Their 
functions are essentially different, and it is expressly stated, with regard to the 
Governors-General of Ssu-ch'uan and Chih-li, that they exercise the duties of 
Governor in addition to those of Governor-General. 



36 PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

276. AN-CH'A SHiH-Ssu gg ^ |g fj. Provincial Judge or 
Judicial Commissioner; 3a. Off. des., Nieh Ssil Jjji fij ; Coll. des., 
Nieh t'ai ^. ; Epist. style, Lien Fang $ |. 

[JV.J9. The two foregoing officials are frequently classed 
together as Fan-Nieh Liang Ssii $H ;(: Ffjj HJ> or ^ e two Chief 
Commissioners of the Provincial Government.] 

277. YEN YUN SHIH-SSU g| g fg gj. Salt Comptroller; 
3a. Off. des., Yitn Ssti $g gj ; Epist. style, Tu Chuan |ft f|, Chief 
Commissioner of the revenue derived from the provincial gabelle, 
or salt monopoly. For minor ranks see infra, Nos. 307 to 313. 

278. LIANG TAO )g af|. Grain Intendant; 4a. Chief 
comptroller of the provincial revenue from the grain tax, whether 
collected in money or in kind. Distinguished by various titles in 
different provinces, as Tu Liang Tao '$g jj| and Liang Cttu Tao 

[See infra, No. 280.] 

279. NOTE. The " Provincial Government," constituted by 
the above-named high officers, is commonly designated by the term 
Tu Fu Ssii Tao ff ffe 1 Jt, embracing them all. 

The Ssii, Tao, 11 or four high officials immediately below the 
rank of Governor, constitute in each province a Committee or 
Board of provincial administration. This Committee was named, 
during the Taiping rebellion, when its organization first came 
into general use, the Chun Hsti, Tsung Chii J|L f| | J|}, or 
Supreme Military Board; but of late years the title Shan-hou 
Tsung Chil U ^ |g j|}, or Supreme Board of Reorganization 
(Provincial Administrative Board) has been substituted in the 
majority of cases. The phrase shan hou implies the " restoration of 
order/' or pacification, after a state of rebellion or warfare. 

At Foochow, a Board of Foreign Affairs, similarly constituted, 
is designated the T'ung Shang Tsung Chil Jg j^j |g J|j. 

280. FfiN HSUN TAO ^ Jg ^f. Intendant of Circuit ; 4a. 
Off. des., Tao jg; Coll. des., Tao-t'ai Jf ^; Epist. style, Khan- 



11 The term &8 Tao B] aS is also applied in correspondence to such 
territorial Taotais as hold brevet rank as Provincial Judge. Such are the Taotais 
at Chen-hsi in Kansuh, at Newchwang, and, till lately, in Formosa, 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. ? 

Ch 'a g| |g and C/iien Ssii ^ pj. A functionary placed with admini- 
strative control over a Circuit. 12 In virtue of the powers of 
control over the military forces within his jurisdiction, which are 
usually annexed to a Taotai's office, he is officially designated 
Ping Pei Tao J {g J|, a title which distinguishes him from the 
Liang Tao [see No. 278], or the Intendants of the Salt and Tea 
Revenue, Yen Ch'a Tao g J J|f, established in some of the 
provinces. [See also Hai-kuan Chien-tu, No. 324.] There are 
84 circuits in China proper, the largest number, 10, being in 
Kansuh. 

NOTE. All officials appertaining to the above ranks are 
spoken of or addressed in conversation by the title Ta Jen ^ \ 
appended to their surnames ; except in the case of members of the 
Grand Secretariat or titular " Imperial Guardians " [see Part II, 
Nos. 138, 140 and 141]. * 

281. CHIH Fa $D ^f. Prefect; 4b. Off. des., Shou ^; 
Epist. style, Tai Shou ft *& or T'ai-tsun fc Jt- Personal 
designation in recital of titles, Cheng T l ang ]H 3g[. The title of 
the officer governing the largest of the provincial subdivisions, or 
Fu, of which each province at the present day embraces, on an 
average, about ten. There are now, in all, 184 Fu or Prefectures, 
the smallest number (seven) being in Shen-si, and the largest 
(fourteen) in Yiin-nan. The Chili Fu of the present period 
represents the Chun Shou -g|$ Hf of the earliest administrative 
division of the Empire, under Ts'in She Hwang-ti [B.C. 221], and 
the Tai Shou of the Han dynasty [reign of King Ti, B.C. 156]. 
The Prefecture of the present day is frequently spoken of as 
Chun gft, in reference to the ancient designation. The incumbent 
of the prefecture within which the provincial capital is situated is 



12 A Circuit may be limited to a single Prefecture ; it may, and often does, 
comprise not only Prefectures but also Independent Departments, Independent 
Sub-Prefectures and even towns which cannot be classed under any of these 

designations, such as Urumtsi and Murui, included in the C'hen-Ti f|f| jffl Circuit, 

Kansuh ; or Shan-hai-kuan \1\ $f gQ, in the jurisdiction of the Newchwang 
Taotai. 



38 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 



designated Shou Fu |f $f or the chief [head] Prefect [of the 
province]. 

282. T'UNG CHIH [gj %$. Sub-Prefect ; 5a. Coll. des., 
firh Fu 5 Jff ; Epist. style, Ssti Ma f] Jg, or Fen Fu ft Jfif. To 
be distinguished as (a) First-class Sub-Prefect, administering a 
T l ing or Independent Sub-Prefecture, and (7>) Second-class 
Sub-Prefect, holding office under a Chlh Fu. Of this latter class 
there are a variety of denominations, according to the functions 
exercised. Such are: 



Specially appointed 
to control various 
classes of evildoers. 




w 



With military 
jurisdiction. 



JM ^ 
Jjg J 



firt $* In charge of naval 
C construction. 



In charge of water 
communications. 



With control over coast 
and river defence. 



With jurisdiction over 
turbulent populations 
and savae tribes. 



or 



Civil 



A distinct office is Li Shih T'ung Chlh $& 1|| [g] 
Commissary of a Manchu Garrison. 13 

283. T'DNG-P'AN Jg ^jj. Assistant Sub-Prefect; 6a. 
Epist. style, Pieli Chili (J ^ ; Coll. des., *Sa?i Fu H W- Holds 
office under either a Prefect or an Independent Sub-Prefect. 
Distinguished, according to the functions exercised, by titles such 
as: 

13 By exception, the Independent Sub-Prefect of Ting-hai /E *$J" (Chuean) in 
Chekiang uses the " personal designation " CMng T'ang jE ^, a relic of former 
dayg when Ting-hai was a District. 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

mm mm 



mm mi an 

llfi 5H BH SJffi 

284. Cem CHOU $] ffi- Department Magistrate; 5a and 
5b. Off. des., ifw $fc ; Epist. style, Tzu-sliih $!j . Personal 
designation in the recital of titles, Cheng-t'ang JE^- To be dis- 
tinguished as JjJ ff| Jjj|, Magistrate of an Independent Department, 
or Chih-li Chou, i.e. subject to no prefectural control but reporting 
direct to the Provincial Government; and fjfc j|f|, Magistrate of a 
subordinate Department, or San Chou, forming part of a Prefecture. 

NOTE. The Chili Chou of the present period are considered to 
be the counterparts of the Tzu-sluh $|J $* of the Sung dynasty. 
Wu Ti, of the Han dynasty, had in more ancient times given this 
title to Governors of Provinces (Chou). 

285. CHOU T'UNG jty| HJ. First-class Assistant Department 
Magistrate ; 6b. Epist. style, Pieh Cliia jjlj U and Chou Ssu-ma 

mmm< 

286. CHOU P'AN Jff| ^J]. Second-class Assistant Department 
Magistrate ; 7b. Epist. style, Chou Pieh-chia $\ g[J ^. 

287. Li Mu }g g. Department Police-master and Jail 
Warden ; 9b. 

NOTE, The three foregoing offices are common to both classes 
of Departments [see No. 284]. 

288. Tso ERH ^ j. Assistant Magistrates, whether of 
Prefectures, Departments, or Districts. Lit. des., Ctteng Ts'ui 
gt f. To be distinguished from Tso Tsa [see No. 322]. 

289. CHIH HSIEN ^D H- District Magistrate ; 7b. Off. 
des., Ling -$*; Epist. style, Ming Fu ^ $f ^ Yin ^ ^*, and 
17 Tsun ^ ] Personal designation in recital of titles, Cheng 
T l ang J ^. The District within which a provincial capital is 
situated gives the title of Shou Hsien |f !|| to its incumbent. 

290. NOTE. The Fu Chou Hsien Iff >Jf| |$, or Prefects 
and Magistrates of difTerent classes, constitute the general ad- 



4:0 PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

ministrative body of the provincial civil service. They are charged 
with the collection of revenue, the maintenance of order, and the 
primary dispensation of justice, as well as with the conduct of 
literary examinations and of the government postal service, and 
in general with the exercise of all the direct functions of 
public administration. They are commonly spoken of as 
Fu Mu Kuan ^ fij 1f> or officials who stand in loco parentis 
toward the people lit., who are the "father and mother" of 
the people. 14 

All officials in the above-mentioned ranks are colloquially 
spoken of or addressed as Ta Lao Yeli ^ rjg jg. 

291. HSIEN CH'ENG $| ^. Assistant District Magistrate ; 
8a. Coll. des., Tso Tang jg; Epist. style, flrh Yin 

*?* 

292. CHU Pu = g|. Deputy Assistant Magistrate ; 9a. 
Epist. style, San Yin ^ ^*. 

293. HstiN CHIEN j(K /$. Sub-district Deputy Magistrate ; 
9b. Epist. style, Fen Ssii ft f?J. A {Sub-District is called 



294. TIEN SHIH J(L 5j*. District Police-master and Jail 
Warden ; unclassed. Coll. des., Pu T'ing Jjf || ; Lit. des., Yu 
T'ang fc fig; Epist. style, Shoo Yu & g}, Shoo Yin $ ^ Lien 
Pu gg }fl, and Shao Fu 'j? Jjjf. 

295. CHING-LI jj^S!- Commissary of Records, or Secretary. 
Coll. des., Ching T c mg Jg ; Epist. style, Ts'an Chun ^ ^. 
In the office of a Lieutenant-Governor, has 6b ; of a Provincial 
Judge, 7a ; of a Salt Comptroller, 7b ; of a Prefect, 8a. 



14 The appointments of Taotais, Prefects, Sub-Prefects, Department Magistrates 
and District Magistrates are arranged in four classes, called (1) most important, 



. j, (2) important, , (3) medium, and (4) ordinary, 

They are also popularly styled four-character, three-character, two-character and 
one-character posts, No. 1 being distinguished by having the four characters 

Sf'. ffl JE US' "frequented, troublesome, wearisome and difficult" set 
against it, ihile No. 2 has any three, No, 3 any two, and No, 4 any one of these, 



PART III.- PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 41 

296. CHAO Mo JJg g|. Commissary of the Seal, or Corres- 
pondence Secretary. Coll. des., Chao T'ing Jg Jjf. In the office 
of a Lieutenant-Governor, has 8b ; of a Provincial Judge, 9a ; 
of a Prefect or First-class Sub-Prefect, 9b. 

297, K'u TA SHIH Jg % fg. Treasury Keeper. Coll. des., 
K l u T'ing J||f. Jjjf. In office of a Lieutenant Governor, a Salt 
Comptroller, or Superintendent of Customs, has 8a ; of a Taotai, 
9b ; of a Prefect, etc., unclassed. 

298. Tu SHIH ^ Iff:. Assistant Secretary ; 7b. Coll. des., 
Tu Shih T'ing H5 <f H. 

299. Li WEN J! |gj, Law Secretary; 6b. 

300. CHIH SHIH n ^.Archivist; 8a, 8b and 9a. 
Employed in offices of a Provincial Judge, Salt Comptroller, and 
(occasionally) of a Prefect^ 

301. TS'ANG TA SHIH ^ ^ fg. Granary-keeper ; 9a, and 
unclassed, according to degree of jurisdiction. 

302. Ssu Yu gj It Jail Warden of a Provincial Judge- 
ship or a Prefecture ; 9a. 

303. CHI AO SHOU ifc Jg. Director of Studies; 7a. Attached 
to a Prefecture. Lit. des., Kuang Wen ]ff ^. 

304. HSUEH CHENG *fl jg. Director of Studies; Sa. 
Attached to a Department. 

305. CHIAO Yu ffc |g. Director of Studies ; 8a. Attached 
to a District. Lit. des., Fu Yu <jj[ |^, from the full official title 
Fu She Chiao Yu %j[ |g %fr ^, which indicates the " restoration " 
of the office after its temporary abolition in the last century. Epist. 
style, Ssil Chiao gj ^ and Cheng Chai ] |f . 

306. HSUN TAG |JH ^.Sub-Director of Studies ; 8b. Lit. 
des., Fu Hsan ^ f ||, from Fu She Hsiln Too $ |g |j| ^ [see 
above]. Epist. style, Sail H&iln gj f|| and Fu Chai glj Jjf. 

NOTE. The above-named four officials act as superintendents 
and registrars of the candidates preparing for the Literary 
Examinations and as custodians of the Confucian Temples, etc. 



42 PART III.- PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

307. YiJN T'UNG $g |gj. Assistant Salt Comptroller; 4b. 
Lit. des., T'ung-chuan |^J f|. A title frequently bestowed as 
brevet rank on Sub-Prefects, etc. 

308. YtiN Fu glU]. Deputy-Assistant Salt Comptroller; 5b. 

309. T'l CHU jgj||. Inspector of the Salt Department ; 5b. 

310. YUN P'AN Jg^jJ. Sub-Assistant Salt Comptroller; 6b. 

311. YEN-K'o-Ssu TA SHIH jg gg f] ^ f|g. Receiver of 
the Salt Department ; 8a. 

312. P'l-YEN-So TA SHIH #fc $j| #f ^C fg. Examiner 
of the Salt Department H /| ; 8a. Examiner of the Tea Depart- 
ment 2g 51 5 "unclassed. 

313. YEN-CH*A TA SHIH ^ ^ ^ fg. Examiner of the Tea 
and Salt Department ; unclassed. 

314. SHUi-K'o-Ssu TA SHIH jgfc gg gj ^ fg.-Customs' 
Examiner. In a Prefecture, 9b. In a Department or District, 
uDclassed. 

315. HsuAN-K'o-Ssu TA SHIH ^ ^ H ^c fg. Customs' 
Examiner ; 9b. 

316. SHUI-K'O FEN Ssu TA SHIH $t j& ft ^ & f^- 
Customs' Deputy Examiner ; unclassed. 

317. KUAN TA SHIH H ^ fg. Customs' Examiner ; 
unclassed. 

318. Ho Po So JpJvQgf. River Police Inspector; unclassed. 
Coll. des., Ho T'ing JjJ jg. 

319. Yi CH'ENG ^ ^. Postmaster ; unclassed. 

320. CHA KUAN pfjj *^. Sluicekeeper ; unclassed. 

321. CHIEN CHIAO 1^^. Police Inspector in a Prefecture; 
unclassed. 

322. Tso TSA {EH.-- Petty officials. Assistant Magistrates, 
Secretaries to Prefect, and the like, belonging to the eighth rank, 
are designated tso ; whilst minor officials, of the ninth rank, and 
those unclassed, such as Jail Warden, etc. are designated tsa. 
[See No. 288.] 

323. HSUEH CHEING !ig.- Provincial Director of Education, 
or Literary Chancellor. Off. des., Hsueh Yuan 1 gg ; Coll. des,, 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 43 

ffsueh T'ai J^^; Lit. des.,W6n Tsung g? and Tu Hsiieli Shih 
CM If 1 $* g\ Full official title is T'i-tu Hsiieli Yuan fj| ff 
1 |Jg. A special appointment, usually filled by officials of high 
literary degrees who leave Peking for three years to serve in this 
capacity. They preside at the prefectural examinations, and give 
the degree of hsiu ts'ai which admits to the triennial competition 
for the chii-jen degree. [See Part IX, No. 469.] 

324. HAI KUAN CHIEN-TU $| || g f. Superintendent 
of Customs. Of various ranks. At Canton a special officer, 
appointed from the Imperial Household, bears the designation 
Yileh Hai Kuan Pu -If. fg || g|5, or Superintendent of Customs 
for the Province of Kuangtung. Is commonly designated by 
Europeans as the " Hoppo," a term the derivation of which is 
unknown. At Foochow the Manchu General-in-Chief fills a 
similar position. At the Custom House of Huai-an a special 
appointment is likewise made, the three functionaries in question 
being regarded as special purveyors for the Court. Elsewhere 
the office is usually filled by a Taotai, in addition to his territorial 
duties. In such case he receives the designation Kuan Tao |jf| Jg. 
Within recent years a special " Customs' Taotai " has been 
established at Tientsin without territorial jurisdiction. 

325. CHIH TSAO $j| Jfir. Superintendent of an Imperial 
Manufactory at Nanking, Soochow or Hangchow. Specially 
appointed, from the Imperial Household, to superintend the 
manufacture and despatch of silk textile fabrics and other requisites 
for the use of the Imperial Court. 

326. Ho TUNG Ho TAO TSUNG-TU M M M *t ?! 
Director-General of the Yellow River ; 2a. 15 Ordinary designation 
Ho Tao Tsuny-tu. The duties attached to this post have in recent 
years become much reduced in importance, the Governors of Honan 
and Shantung having become the active agents in the conservation 
of the river embankment works. A military division, under the 
orders of the Director-General, is designated the Ho Piao }pj /j 

15 Uo-tung is an abbreviation for the names of the two provinces .ffiman 
and Shairfuny. 



44 PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

It numbers at present about 1,700 rank and file, having its 
headquarters at Chi-ning Chow in Shantung. 

327. TS'AO YUN TSUNG-TU }f Jg || f. Director-General 
of the Grain Transports ; 2a. 

This functionary has the grain transportation system, for the 
conveyance of the rice from the southern provinces to Peking, 
under his control. The Wei fig and So Jiff, or first and second 
class transport-stations, connected with this system, have a special 
military organization of their own. Of late years the introduc- 
tion of steam-shipping, concurrently with the progressive difficulties 
of navigation on the Yun Ho gg }pf, or Grand Canal, has led to 
the larger portion of the grain despatched to Peking being forwarded 
by sea to Tientsin. Of the Hai Yun |jj Jg, or grain transport by 
sea, a part is conducted by the steamers of the Chao Sliang Chil 
%& iJ M> the so-called " China Merchants' Steamship Company," 
which was established as a Government institution in 1872. 

% The above two Directors- General rank with Governors of 
Provinces. Like the latter, they bear the honorary rank of Vice- 
Presidents of the Board of War and of the Censorate. 

328. T'u KUAN J^ If. ADMINISTRATORS OF " NATIVE " 
DISTRICTS. 

The portions of the Provinces of Kuangsi and Kueichou which 
are inhabited exclusively by the Miao Tzii "gf ^f and other 
aboriginal tribes are in some cases organized as Districts or 
Departments under hereditary Magistrates, the representatives of 
ancient independent chiefs. They are generically designated as 
above, but the ruler of each district or department bears the 
ordinary Chinese official title, with the character tfu prefixed, as 
j^ 'J'H an d i $^. In Yunnan, four " native " prefectures, Vu fu 
jt /ff are organized, with four t l u chou, or " native " departments. 
The Province of Kuangsi has 26 "native" Departments and four 
Districts of the same class. The process of exchanging the status 
of a tribe under the direct government of its hereditary chief or 
magistrate for that of the ordinary Chinese population, or the 
" bestowal of rights of citizenship," is described by the phrase 
kai t'u wei liu gfc ffi gg. 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 



45 



There are in the Provinces of Kuangsi and Yiinnan certain 
native Departments (t'u-chou JbifW) a "d Districts (fu-lisien J:^), 
and one instance in Ssii-ch'uan of a Township (t^u-ssti J^ fij), of 
which the administration is confided to hereditary rulers. In about 
one half of these the official is a native of the place, but in the 
remainder the rulers are from remote provinces of the Empire, 
notably from Yi-tu Hsien, which is the head District of Ch'ing- 
chou Fu, Shantung. It is an interesting subject of enquiry how 
these extra-provincials came to acquire hereditary rule over the 
native tribes of the southern frontiers. 

Subjoined is a Table of hereditary jurisdictions in Yunnan, 
Kuangsi and Ssii-ch'uan. 

T.C. = t'u-chou >J>H ; T.H. = t'u-hsien fg ; 
T.S. = t'u-ssit . 



District. 


Rank. 


Province. 


Native Place of Magistrate. 


Chieh-an ^ ^ 


T.C. 


Kuangsi 


Department 


Chtiunfcfa 


5) 


55 





Ihia-lei ~p " 


?) 


55 


55 


Hsiang-um. [p] jj^ 


5 


55 


55 


Lo-yang fg [^ 


T.H. 


55 


District 


Lung-yiny ^ jfc 


T.C. 


55 


Department 


Ming-ying ^ >g[ 


55 


55 


55 


Sstt-ling Jjl []? 





55 


55 


Tu-chieh |fp |^ 


55 


55 


55 


Tu-k'any %j$ jj$ 


51 


55 


55 


Chiu-hsing ^ jj 


T.S. 


Ssii-ch'uan 


Li-yang Hsien, Kiangsu 


Hsin-ch^ng 'J(f ij^J 


T.H. 


Kuangsi 


T'ai-ts'aricr Chou, Kiangsu 


-FW g 


T.C. 


Yunnan 


Shao-hsing Fu, Chehkiang 


JVa-^' ^[J jjj 


55 


Kuangsi 


Chehkiang 


Kuei-t& @j 


55 


5 


Shantung 


Kuo-hua ^ f [^ 


55 


5 


55 


An-p'ing *% ^p 


55 


5 


Yi-tu Hsien, Shantung 


Chiang JX 
CAww^ Jg 


5 

55 


5 


55 
5> 


Lung ^ 


55 





5> 


P'ing-hsiang 5S j^ 


55 


55 





Shang-lin Jh f /^Jc 


T.H. 


55 





*S*fi ^ 


T.C. 


5> 


5 


T'ai-p'ing ~fc ^p 


55 


55 


55 



46 PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 

329. T'u Ssu f). THE NATIVE TRIBES ; AND THEIR 
CHIEFTAINS. 

This is the designation applied in general to all the multi- 
tudinous tribes of aborigines who overspread the Southern and 
Western Provinces, and occupy the border-land between China on 
the one side and Annam, Laos, Burmah and Tibet on the other. 
The most widely distributed and important of these are the Miao 
Tzu "J3EJ ^ of Kuangsi, Kueichou, and Ssii-ch'uan, the Lo-lo 
^ $3; or 3H 38 f Ssu-eh'uan and Yunnan, and the Shans, who 
occupy the southern and western portions of that province and 
the frontier lands beyond. This last-named race, the representatives 
of a once powerful and still widely-spread nationality, whose name 
(as known to Europeans through the Burmese) may be traced in 
the Sien of Sien-Lo yi fg, or Siam, are considered by the Chinese 
as the descendants of the people of Yiieh Shang j jg:, of whom 
their most ancient records make mention. The designation 
attributed to them in Chinese literature is Lao Chua ^ , in 
which an affinity to the Laos of the Burmese and Siamese is 
plainly apparent. The Shans of the border-land between Yunnan 
and Burmah term themselves, and are commonly known as, Pai 1 
JH ^?- Chinese official writers, however, describe them as Lao 
Chua, and the designation Pai I is applied in the description of 
the tribes of Yunnan (Nan Man Chili gj *g ^g, Book III, forming 
part of the topography of that province) to the aborigines of the 
Kuangsi frontier, who are distinguished as han J{L and sliui 7]^, 
or Land and Water Pai I. The government of the semi- 
independent tribes in general is left in the hands of their hereditary 
chieftains, upon whom high-sounding titles of various degrees are 
bestowed, in accordance with a system introduced originally by 
the Mongol conquerors of China. According to the size and 
importance of the territory they rule over, these chieftains 
known to the Burmese, on the south-western frontier, by the title 
of tsaubwa are invested with different gradations of rank, as is 
shown in the following list : 

330. CHIH Hui SHIH Ssu } }f ^ |fj ; 3a. 



PART III. PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION. 47 

331. HSUAN WEI SHIH Ssu g ^ fig g] ; 3b. 

332. HsiiAN Fu SHIH Ssu g ft fg ^ ; 4b. 

333. CHAO T'AO SHIH Ssu Jj || fg ^ ; 5b. 

334. AN Fu SHIH Ssu gc H fjf -p] ; 5b. 

In each of the tribal governments as above, subordinate ranks 
are provided with the following titles : 

TUNG CHIH |^J %ft ; rank varying from 3b to 6a. 

FCJ SHIH g|J fg ; do. do, 4b to 6b. 

CH'IEN SHIH ^ ^ ; do. do. 4a to 7a. 

The following are the titles and ranks in a different class of 
tribal government : 

335. CH'IEN Hu =f- f* ; 5*. 

336. Fu CH'IEN Hu gij =f- f* ; 5b. 

337. PAI Hu ^ ^ ; 6a. 

338. CHIANG KUAN Ssu CH'ANG KUAN g 'g* ^J ^ g ; 6a. 
Fu CH ( ANG KUAN g|J g *g ; 7a. 
CH'ANG KUAN Ssu Li Mu ^ *" ^J |g g ; unclassed. 



48 PART IV. GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 



PART IV.-GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 

339. Fu YIN $f =*. Governor of (the Imperial Prefecture 
of) Shun-t'ien Fu Jl|f{ ^ /Jvf, i.e. the region enclosing the imperial 
capital ; 3a. Lit. des. , Citing Chao jfj jjfc. Besides the actual 
Governor there is a Governor Adjoint, or Chien Yin ^ =p*, 
appointed from among the Presidents and Vice-Presidents of 
Boards, who exercises a concurrent authority. 

340. Fu CH'ENG Jj*f g. Vice-Governor of Shun-t'ien Fu ; 
4a. Lit. des., Fu Citing Chao |!j }f* $. 

341. CHIH CHUNG Jg ty. Sub-Prefect of Shun-Men Fu; 
5a. 

3% In addition to the foregoing officials, the usual subordinate 
ranks appertaining to a Prefecture are also represented within the 
jurisdiction of Shun-t'ien Fu. 

342.- Wu CH'ENG Yu SHIH 2 IS 85 jfi- The Police Censors. 
The city and suburbs of Peking are mapped out into five divisions, 
termed the Wu Ch'eng, or Five Cities, viz. the centre, embracing 
the neighbourhood of the Imperial Palace, and the North, South, 
East and West. [See Part II, No. 189.] One Manchu and one 
Chinese Censor is appointed to control the police and primary 
judicial arrangements of the capital. The subordinate ranks are 
as follows : 

343. PING MA Ssu CHIH Hui | | f] j JJ. Police 
Magistrate ; 6a. One to each of the five divisions of Peking. 
Common des., Ssu Kuan p] / g*. These officials exercise a primary 
jurisdiction in judicial cases throughout the city and suburbs of 
Peking. 

344. PING MA Ssu Fu CHIH Hui & Mi fl @J J 3? - 
Assistant Police Magistrate ; 7b. One to each of the five divisions 
of Peking. Common des., Fang Kuan ; 'g*. 

345. Li Mu |5 g. Police-master and Jail- warden. 



PART IV. GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 49 

346. CHIEH TAO T'ING jg Jg ft The Roadway Office. 
The repair and maintenance of the streets of the outer (Chinese) 
city of Peking are, nominally, cared for by this department, 
which is presided over by the police Censors. The preservation of 
public order is also included among its duties. 

347.__pu CHUN YING ^ ^ ff . The Division of Gendarm- 
erie. 

The police arrangements of the capital are conducted by the 
T l i-tu Yamgn Jg ? P^, or Office of Gendarmerie, under which 
the Pa Chun Ying (a force recruited from the Eight Banners [see 
Part VI]) is placed. The men of this force, numbering from 
15,000 to 20,000, are distributed in squads at guard stations, 
Kuan tfing *j jfjf, throughout the city and suburbs. Judicial 
cases in which Bannermen alone are litigants, are heard by this 
office. Mixed cases, between Bannermen and ordinary Chinese, 
are dealt with by the police Censors. The men of the gendarmerie 
are also charged with the duty of maintaining the roadways of the 
city proper. 

348. Pu CHUN T'UNG LING ^ JJL fa @. General Com- 
mandant of the Gendarmerie ; Ib. Has also the designation T'i-tu 
Chin Men Hsiln Pu Wu Ying jg g % PJ ^ Jjf f officially 
preceding his title as above, with reference to his command over 
the Nine Gates of the city proper and of the Five Battalions of 
Chinese troops forming the police of the city and its environs. 
Hence his common appellation of Chiu Men T c i-tu fa p*j f jf, or 
General of the Nine Gates. The incumbent of the office is usually 
also President or Vice-President of one of the Boards. The total 
number of troops comprised within the Wu Ting, or Hsiin Pu Ying 
$L IS U> is officially reckoned at 4,000 mounted and 6,000 foot 
soldiers. In reality, the force is much smaller. 

349. Tso and Yu Yi TSUNG PING H {g ..- 
Police Provosts, or Lieutenant-Generals, senior and junior, of the 
Gendarmerie ; 2a. Usually hold office also as Vice-Presidents of 
Boards. 

350. Yi Yu H |J. Deputy Provost; 3a. 

7 



50 PART IV. GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 

351. PANG PAN Yi Yu ^ f$ H i}. Assistant Deputy 
Provost; 3b. 

352. HBIEH Yu fg |}. Major of Police ; 4a. 

353. Fo Yti ||J 1J. Captain of Police ; 5a. 

354. Pu CHUN HSIAO $? fli ^.Lieutenant of Police ; 5b. 

355. WEI SHU Pu CHUN HSIAO | |f ^ |j| jg. Deputy 
Lieutenant of Police ; 6a. 

356. HSIN P'AO TSUNG-KUAN fff g$ II ff. Controller of 
the Alarm-signal guns ; 4a. 
Gate Guards: 

357. CH'ENG MEN LING $$ p*] fg. Captain of a Gate; 4b. 

358. MEN CH'IEN-TSUNG P5 =f- Jg. Lieutenant of a Gate ; 
6a. 

359. CH'ENG MEN Li J$ pg J. Clerk of a Gate ; 7a. 

360. TS'DNG WEN MEN CHIEN-TU g 3t P9 5s m'-~ 

Superintendents of the Customs and Octroi of Peking. A Com- 
mission consisting of one principal and one secondary High 
Commissioner, appointed annually. The title borne by them is 
derived from the fact that the principal office of the Collectorate 
is situated near the Ts'ung Wen Gate (Ha-ta U- $H Men) of the 
city. Out-stations are established in a cordon around Peking, 
ranging to a distance of from ten to thirty miles. 

361. Tso and Yu Yi CHIEN-TU ft 11 ic <? 

Superintendents of the Live-stock and House Duty at Peking. 
Two Commissioners, annually appointed, one each for the east 
and west divisions of the city. 

362. TS'ANG CH'ANG ^ :Jg. The Peking Granaries. 

These are controlled by a commission of two officers with the 
rank of Vice-President of the Board of Revenue hence called 
Ts'any Cfrang Shih-lang jj jjjj f*f g[{ ? whose headquarters are at 
T'ung Chou, the point at which the grain from the Southern 
Provinces is landed. Their two principal subordinates are of the 
rank of lang cUung [see Part II, No. 163] with the title Tso Liang 
T'ing ^ m 3f, or Grain Supervisors of the Board of Revenue, 



PART IV. GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 51 

333. PAO CH'UAN CHU gf ^ j|J. The Coinage Department 
of the Board of Revenue. 

364. PAO YUAN CHU R Jg ^. The Coinage Department 
of the Board of Works. 16 

The above are the two departments at which the copper cash 
constituting the currency recognized by the Chinese Government 
is minted. In each case the department is placed under the 
supervision of one of the two junior Vice-Presidents of the Board, 
with the addition of the words Chien Li Cfcien Fa T'ang Shi/i IVn 

*I to his title - &* Piirt n N 



16 The character ^ cli'iian had in ancient times the meaning of the 

comparatively modern character gg| ch'ien, money. The word $5 yuan bore 
a similar signification. 



52 PART V. THE THREE MANCHURIAN PROVINCES. 



PART V.-THE THREE MANCHURIAN PROVINCES, 



365. The TCJNG SAN SHENG }R H , or Three Eastern 
Provinces, comprise the territory originally inhabited by the Manchu 
race, which is divided into three provinces. The most northerly 
of these, Heh-lung Kiang or Tsitsihar the Amur, is organized 
upon a purely military basis, whilst Kirin and Feng-t'ien, the 
southernmost, including the Manchu capital, named Sheng Ching 
or Moukden, approximate partially in their form of administration 
to that of the Eighteen Provinces of China proper. The system of 
government of the Province of Feng-tfien, indeed, was remodelled 
in 1876, bringing it even more nearly than before into harmony 
with that of the rest of China. Its distinctive mark in the past 
was the control exercised by the Five local Boards, corresponding 
to the Boards of Revenue, Ceremonies, War, Punishments, and 
Works, at Peking, over the affairs of the province in general. 
The authority heretofore vested in these boards has now been 
concentrated in the hands of the Military Governor, to whom the 
position and brevet title of a Governor-General [see Tsung-tu, 
Part III, No. 273] have been accorded. 

366. PROVINCE OF FENG-T'IEN ^ J$. Commonly called 
SHENG CHING ^ jfj, from the Chinese designation of its capital 
city, otherwise known as Moukden, from the name it bears in the 
Manchu language. 

367. CHIANG CHUN ffi . Military Governor; Ib. [Since 
1876 invested with the title and attributes of a Provincial Governor- 
General or Tsung-tu.~\ 

368. Fu YIN JjSf ^. Civil Governor [with title and at- 
tributes of a Provincial Governor, or Hsan Fu]. 

369. Fu CH'ENG ffi g. Civil Vice-Governor and ex-officio 
Provincial Literary Examiner. 

370. Fu TU-T'UNG g|J gg $. Military Deputy-Lieutenant- 
Governor ; 2a. Commanding various divisions of the province, 



PART V. THE THREE MANCHUBIAN PROVINCES. 53 

viz. at Feng-f'ien, Chin-cliou $| jfj>| Fu, Chin-chou $ jtyj T'/w0 and 
H sing-clung ffl Jf{ !T e iVi#. 

371. CH'ENG SHOU-YU $$ ^ I*}. Military Commandant ; 
3a. An appointment held under the Military Lieutenant- 
Governors in command of the garrisons of the various prefectural 
and departmental cities. 

372. FANG SHOU-YU |Jg ^ ij 1 - Military Commandant of 
the second class ; 4a. 

* # In addition to the functionaries of the Provincial Govern- 
ment enumerated ahove, there exist at Moukden, farthermore, 
an Intendant of Couriers |S ^ j|| and counterparts (on a 
reduced scale) of the Boards of Revenue, Ceremonies, War, 
Punishment and Works as established at Peking, each presided 
over by a Vice-President who acts, in his own particular 
department, as a colleague of the Military Governor. 

Other appointments assimilating the administration to that of 
China proper, include a Commander-in-chief, T'i-tu J U, 
established 1887 ; a new Circuit, established 1876, with a Taotai 
residing at Feng-huang HI Hi ^' l/? $S an d comprising one Prefecture 
and two Sub-prefectures. Another Circuit, established in 1876, 
includes the Prefectures of Feng-t'ien and Chin-chou and the 
frontier city Shan-hai Kuan. The Taotai, who resides at 
Newchwang, is also brevet Provincial Judge. 

373. PROVINCE OF KIRIN ^g ^f: ^tf. Governed by a Chiang 
Chun, or Military Governor [see No. 367], with Military Deputy- 
Lieutenant-Governors [see No. 370] at the following points : 
i. Kirin Via (city of Kirin) ^ JS M- 
ii. Ningutd g |fj j^. 
iii. Petune f H? gft. 
iv. Sansing ^ jj. 
v. AltcKucu MWl *&$!* 
vi. Hun-ch'un ^ ^. 

There is also one Circuit comprising two Prefectures and 
three Sub-prefectures, and a Superintendent of Pearl Fisheries 
stationed at Ta-sing oola fj ffi J^ K- 



54 PART V. THE THREE MANCHURIAN PROVINCES. 

374. PROVINCE OF HEH-LUNG KIANO M f Jl jlf, or 
TSITSIHAR. Governed by a Chiang Chun, or Military Governor 
[as above], with Military Deputy-Lieutenant- Governors at the 
following points : 

i. Heli-lung Kiang J& ff|| j. 

ii. Merguen g| Hf ;)JJ. 

iii. Tsitsihar ^ ^ R ^f . 

iv. Hu-lan Uf jfjfj. 

v. Hurunpir JJ? ft j|lf. 
There is, in addition, a civil administration at the town of 



375. TA SHENG fj ft. Hunters ; a designation applied to 
the indigenous population of certain districts in the two above- 
named provinces, who are held bound to pay certain tribute of 
animals or furs. 

376. Yu Mu Jj ft. Nomads. The wandering tribes 
existing within the limits of Manchuria are placed under the 
superintendence of the following officials : 

377. Yu Mu CHENG Yu $ffc!E IJ. Chief Superintendent 
of Nomads ; 7a. 

378. Yu Mu Fu Yti $ ffc glj }. Assistant Superintendent 
of Nomads ; 7b. 



PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 55 



PART VL-THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 

379. PA CH'I /\ JJ. THE EIGHT BANNERS. 
The army specially appertaining to the Manchu dynasty is 
known as the Eight Banners, from the organization introduced by 
the early sovereigns of the reigning family. These Banners are 
distinguished by the colours enumerated below, and are farther 
divided into two classes, viz. the Three Superior and the Five 
Inferior Banners, as follows : 

i. Bordered Yellow gg ]gl Jb H ffi 
ii. Plain IE S > The Three 

iii. White JE & ) Superior Banners, 

iv. Bordered ,, j|j 
v. Plain Red TP *1 



vi. Bordered 



vii. Plain Blue j H 



The Five 



Inferior Banners, 
viii. Bordered 

The nationalities composing the Banner Force are three in 
number, vi:. Manchu, Mongolian, and Chinese, the latter known 
as Han Chun jj| jg, consisting in the descendants of those natives 
of Northern China who joined the Manchu invaders during the 
period of their contest with the Ming dynasty in the early part 
of the seventeenth century. 17 Each nationality bears the Manchu 
designation of Ku-sai (written Ku-slian |SJ jl|) ; and as a 
complete division of each nationality exists under the colour 
of each of the Banners enumerated above, there are in fact 
24 Banners, or eight C/t'/, divided into three Ku-sai each. Under 
one or other of these divisions all living Manchus, and all descend- 
ants of the Mongolian and Chinese soldiery of the Conquest, are 
enrolled. Each Banner of the Manchu and Mongolian nationalities, 
again, is divided into a nei ch l i ffcj J8| and a wai ch'i ft jjf, i.e. 
an Inner and Outer Division. The inner division is composed 

17 A peculiarity in connection with Chinese Bannermen is noticed under 
No, 161. 



56 PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 

of the so-called pao-i ^ Jt, from the Manchu bo-i, signifying a 
bondservant, who are especially bound to render suit and service. 
The pao-i of the Three Superior Banners appertain to the 2fei Wu 
Fit, or Imperial Household [see Part I, No. 62], whilst those of the 
remaining five Banners are attached to the various Princely houses 
or Wang Fa [see Part I, No. 31]. 

The Banners constitute, in fact, the population of Peking, 
with offshoots in various provincial garrisons ; and a certain number 
of the adult males of the force receive pay as members of one' or 
other of the military corps into which they have, from time to time, 
been organized, in addition to the pittance they receive as soldiers 
of the Banner. 18 The General Headquarter Office of the Banners 
is designated the Chili Nien Ch'i fjj| p Jeff:, to which one Tu-t'ung 
[see below] from each Banner is annually appointed to do duty. 
All correspondence relating to the Banner Force as a whole passes 
through this office. The official organization of the Banners is as 
follows : 

380. TU-T'UNG ff> gjj. Lieutenant-General ; lb. One to 
each kusai or national division of a Banner. [For the Tu-t'img 
acting as Military Lieutenant-Governors, see Part XI, No. 548.] 

381. Fu TU-T'UNG glj J|$ $g. Deputy Lieutenant-General ; 
2a. [For the Fu Tu-t'ung of the provincial Banner garrisons, 
see infra, No. 427.] 

382. YIN Wu TS'AN-LING pp ^^^f. Adjutant-General ; 
3a. Two to each of the twenty-four Banners (except the Mongolian, 
which have but one). Selected from the Colonels [see below], 

383. HSIAO-CH'I TS'AN-LING g| Hf ^ gf. Colonel; 3a. 
Has the general civil control over a sub-division or C/ia-la Jp jjflj, 
of which there are five in each of the Manchu and Han Chtin 
Banners. In the Mongolian Banners there are but two of these 
sub-divisions. 



18 For a complete analysis of the various forms of the Banner organization, 
with all details of the composition and pay of the forces, as shewn on paper, see 
The Army of the Chinese Empire, a series of articles by T. F. Wade (Sir T. F. Wade, 
K.C.B.), in the Chinese Repository for May, June and July, 1851, Vol. XX. 



PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 57 

With three exceptions all such official posts as are properly 
speaking provincial (as opposed to certain special appointments 
held directly under the Crown) are open to Chinese and Bannermen 
alike. The three exceptions are the position of Commander-in- 
Chief fj| llf , whether naval or military, always filled by a Chinese, 
and of Tartar General and Deputy Lieutenant-General, invariably 
held by Bannermen. 

As regards Brigade-Generals jjjj|j | it is the rule that they 
should be Chinese, but the rule is not hard and fast. For instance, 
in 1879 the Chao-t'ung (Yunnan) and Chungking (Ssuch'uan) 
commands were in the hands of Manchus. The Brigade-Generals 
at Ynng-p'ing Fu (Ma-Ian Chen) and Yi Chou, in Chihli, seem to 
be invariably Bannermen ; and such was also the case, at least 
until lately, at Kashgar in Turkestan. 

In the matter of the* special appointments held directly under 
the Crown, viz. the Superintendents of the Hunting-Grounds 
at Jehol ; of Silk Manufactures in Kiangsu and Chehkiang ; of 
Customs at Kalgan (Chihli), Huai-an (Kiangsu), Sha-hu-k'ou 
(Shan-si), and Canton, the incumbents always belong to a Banner 
Corps and are generally Chinese Bannermen. 

384. Fu HSIAO-CH'I TS'AN-LING U^^^fg. Lieutenant- 
Colonel ; 4a. One to each Cha-la or sub-division [as above]. 

385. YiN-Wu CHANG-CHING flj $fr ^ ^.Adjutant ; 5b. 
Conducts the civil correspondence of the Banner. Although less 
in degree of rank than the tso-ling [see ~below~\ this officer is 
considered as filling the higher post, and is promoted from it 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel No. 384. The term cJiang-ching 
is a corruption of the Manchu word chan-yin, signifying an 
" assistant." [See Part II, No. 133.] 

386. WEI YiN-Wu CHANG-CHING ^ Efl ffi ^ Jg. Assistant 
Adjutant. Appointed from the grade of Hsiao Ch l i Hsiao. 

387. TSO-LING f ^g. Captain ; 4a. Of this rank there 
are, in each Manchu Banner, from 70 to 80 officers, and in each of 
the Han-kim Banners, from 30 to 40, according to the strength of 
the corps. Acting under the immediate command of the ts l an-liny 



58 PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 

[see No. 383] of the cha-la to which he belongs, the tso-ling is 
specially charged with the control of some 70 to 100 of the house- 
holds of the Banner. The tso-ling hold in some cases their 
appointments by hereditary right, either as Hsun Chlu HJ ^ or as 
Shih Kuan { Qf Tso-ling. Those who become entitled to appoint- 
ment by various processes of selection are designated Rung Chung 
% ift, Fen Kuan ft % and Lun Kuan fg ff Tso-ling. 

388. PAN Ko TSO-LING *$ flg f il- Half Tso-ling. A 
title formerly in use but now almost, if not entirely, obsolete, to 
designate the captains of companies numbering less than one 
hundred strong. 

389. HsiAO-Cn'i HSIAO H Uf jg. Lieutenant ; Ca. Officers 
of this grade are drawn upon to fill the post of Pu Chiln Hsiao 
[see Part IV, No. 354]. Their post in the Banner is then filled 
by a " deputy," of lower rank, with the following title : 

390. WEI SHU HsiAO-On'i HSIAO g| g f| Hf ^. Sub- 
lieutenant; 8b. Promoted from the post of pih-tfieh-shih [see 
Part II, No. 181]. 

391. LING-TS'UI ffj||. Corporal (non-commissioned officer). 
Acts under the orders of Hsiao Ch'i Hsiao. 

392. MA CHIA jg ^J. (Manch. Ukesdn.) First-class Private 
Soldier, receiving 3 Tls. per mensem. 

393. AO-ERH-PU ^ ^ ;ftj. (Manch. Orbo.) Second-class 
Private Soldier, receiving 2 Tls. per mensem. Also called Lu- 
Chiao Ping JH j^J ^, or chevaux de frise bearer, from his traditional 
duty on parade and in action. In the Han Chiln Banners only. 

394. YANG Yu PING Siiif!^. Supernumeraries or juniors, 
awaiting appointment to the position of second or first class private, 
as vacancies occur. In all the Banners. 

395. HSIEN SAN [f] |fc. (Manch. Suld.) Bannermen at 
large, without position or pay. 

Paid Forces of the Banner Organization : 

The various corps organized from the Banner population of 
Peking are as follows ; 



PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 59 



396. Hu CHUN YING U ^ f|. The Guards' Division. 
Common des., Ta Ying ft H ( tne ma i n division). This force was 
organized during the early wars of the Manchu sovereigns, with 
the designation Pa-ya-ld, which was exchanged in A.D. 1660 for 
its Chinese equivalent now in use. Admission \fito the corps, 
which is estimated as numbering some 3,000 to 4,000 strong, 
constituted until lately the special ambition of the great mass of 
the Bannermen of Peking, to whom it secured the advantages of 
substantial addition to their pay and prospects of promotion in a 
degree which, until the institution of the Slim Chi Ying [see infra, 
No. 415], was attainable by comparatively few. From the place 
assigned to the two main sections of the Division, on the right 
and left wings of. the Banner force when drawn up for review or 
action, the title " Flank Division " has been given to this corps 
by Sir T. F. Wade in his article on the Chinese army already 
frequently referred to. The principal duty assigned to the corps, 
at the same time, is that of furnishing detachments of guards for 
the Imperial palace. It consists of eight divisions corresponding 
to the eight Banners, each of which is commanded by a T'ung-Ung 
[see beloii\ : 

397. Hu CHUN T'UNG LING g| g $fc $j. Captain-General ; 
2a. This office is usually filled by Princes or other dignitaries of 
the Court. 

398. Ha CHUN TS'AN-LING H 5 ^ f| . Lieut.-Colonel ; 3a. 
399. Hu CHUN HSIAO H jg ^.Lieutenant ; 6a. 

400. WEI SHU Hu CHUN HSIAO | $. Sub- 

Lieutenant ; 8b. 

401. CH'IEN FENG YING fjf ^ ||. Vanguard Division. 

" The Vanguard or leading division is composed entirely of 
Manchus or Mongols of the whole Eight Banners, chosen in the 
proportion of two to every tso-ling ; it is divided into right 
and left wings, each of which is under a t'ung ling." ["The 
Army of the Chinese Empire," see Chinese Repository, Vol. XX, 
p. 264.] 



60 PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 

402. Tso Yi CH'IEN FENG T'UNG-LING and Yu Yi CH'IEN 
FENG T'UNG-LING g |t ^ %& fg. Commandants of the 
Left and Right Wing of the Vanguard division ; 2a. 

403. CH'IEN FENG SHIH WEI |u |f ff. Imperial 
Guardsman of t^Jie Vanguard division ; 4a. 

404.- WEI SHU CH'IEN FENG SHIH WEI g g !9 & f$ ffi.- 
Deputy Imperial Guardsman of the Vanguard division ; 5b. 

405. CH'IEN FENG HSIAO |1j $ $. Sergeant of the 
Vanguard division ; 6a (and Wei Shu, Sergeant of the Vanguard 
division ; Sb). 

406. Pu CHUN YING ^jfL|f . [See Government of Peking 
Fart IV, No. 347.] 

407. Huo CH'I YING ^3Jf|. The Artillery and Musketry 
Division. Consisting in Nei and Wai, or Inner and Outer 
Divisions, of which the former is stationed at Peking and the latter 
at Lan-tien Chiang, or the Indigo Manufactory, a short distance 
from Yuan Ming Yuan. The Nei Huo Ch'i Ying is formed from 
the lo-i of the different Banners [see supra, No. 379]. At the 
present day this corps, like the " Light Division " [see infra, 
No. 411], has but a nominal existence. 

408. TSUNG T'UNG |i $. General Commandant. 

409. Yi CHANG j| g. Brigadier ; 3a. 

410. YING TSUNG H jg. Commandant. 

The remaining ranks as in the Hu Chun Ying. 

411. CHIEN Jui YING @^^ Light Division. Ranks as 
above. Quartered near the Ilsiang Shan Yuan @ [1| %, or Clang 
1 Yuan j|$ g |g|, the Imperial Hunting Park, north-west of 
Peking. 

412. HSIANG TAO CH'U f ^ gt The Guides. A depart- 
ment which furnishes the outriders, etc. for Imperial progresses. 

413. Hu CH'IANG YING fifc |ff *jj;. The marksmen for tiger 
hunts. 

414. SHANG Yu FBI YUNG CH'U g ffi ffl H. 
Imperial Hunting Department. 



PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 61 

415. SHEN CHI YING p f| . The Peking Field Force. 
' This force, comprising the elite of the Banner troops of the 
capital, was organized, in 1862, as a result of the disastrous 
campaign of 1860, with a view to provide for the future defence 
of the centre of government. The title given to the force was 
borrowed from the history of the Ming dynasty, when, on the first 
introduction of fire-arms in the 15th century, the designation 
SMn Chi, or " divine mechanism," was attributed to the new 
engines of warfare. The Field Force numbers some 18,000 or 
20,000 men, including cavalry, artillery, and rifle regiments, all 
of whom are drilled and manoeuvred after the European fashion. 
The instruction of these troops is based upon the lessons in 
European drill which were given to detachments sent to Tientsin 
for the purpose of studying under British instructors in 1862- 
1865. 

416. YUAN MING YUAN PA CH'I (H |J gj AJS- The Yual1 
Ming Division of the Banner Force. 

This is a corps composed of representatives of all the eight 
Banners, forming a sedentary garrison in the vicinity of the 
Summer Palace. 

417. Gnu FANG g g. THE MANCHU GARRISONS OUTSIDE 
PEKING. Divided into three classes, as follows : 

418. (a.) CHI Fu CHU FANG || $$J |g gg. The garrisons 
of the " military cordon," consisting of 25 cities in the Province 
of Chihli, surrounding Peking. 19 The nine garrisons nearest to 
the capital are termed the Hsiao Chlu Ch'u /J> ^ ^f , or Nine Small 
Posts. The organization of these garrisons is the same with that 
of the Peking Banners, of which they are offshoots. 

419. (6.) LING CH'IN CHU FANG ^^gjgg. The garrisons 
of the Imperial Mausolea. In connection with these, also offshoots 
of the Peking Banners, are the following ranks : 

420. TSUNG KUAN | fjf. Comptroller-General ; 3a. Has 
the chief command of the guard of the Mausolea. 



19 See Chinese Repository, Vol. XX, p. 314. 



62 PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 

421. Yi CHANG g g. Brigadier ; 4a. 

422. Ssu KUNG-CHIANG BJ X |- Overseer of Works; 4a. 

423. FANG Yii gg !g. Captain ; 5a. 

424. CHI Ssu RUNG YING KUAN ^ jg $ ( f .- 
Commissary of Sacrifices ; 6a. 

425. (c.) Ko SHENG CHU FANG ^ ^ |J |$. The garrisons 
stationed in the provinces, to wit, at Sui-yuan, Kuei-hua, and 
T'ai-yiian Fu in Shansi, at Ts'ing-chou Fu and Teh Chou in 
Shantung, at K'ai-feng Fu in ffonan, at Nanking and King K'ou 
(Chinkiang) in Kiangsu, at Hangchou Fu and Cha-p'u in 
Cheh-kiang, at Foochow in Fuhkien, at Canton in Kuangtuny, 
at Ch'eng-tu Fu in Ssilch'uan, at King-chou Fu in Hupeh, 
at Si-an Fu in Shensi, and at Niughia, Liangchou and 
Chuang-liang T'ing in Kansuh, beside the garrisons of Urumtsi, 
Barkul, Ku-ch'eng and Turfan, included within the Kansuh 
jurisdiction. 20 

426. CHIANG CHUN Jff 5. Manchu General-in-Chief (or 
"Tartar General"); Ib. Lit. des., Ta Yuan Jung ft ^ ^. 

NOTE. The Chiang Chiin exercising territorial jurisdiction in 
Manchuria and elsewhere are described as Military Governors. 
[See Part V, No. 367.] The Chiang Chun in the Chinese provinces 
ranks with, but before, the Governor-General, although exercising 
no authority except over the small Banner Force at the head of 
which he stands. In Kuangtung and Ssiich'uan he has a 
nominal degree of control over the Chinese forces in addition to 
his own ; but this is not in practice exercised. 

427. Fa TU-T'UNG glj fj|$ |. Manchu Brigade-General ; 
2a. Lit. des., Ta T'ung-chih ft $jj fftlj. Two in each provincial 
command. For the Fu Tu-tfung of the Peking Banner organization 
see supra, No. 381. 

428. HSIEH-LING ffJJ fg. Colonel ; 3b. One to each 
Provincial Banner. 

20 See Chinese Repository, Vol. XX, p. 318 et seq. 



PART VI. THE MANCHU MILITARY ORGANIZATION. 63 

429. TSO-LING -g f|. Major ; 4a. 

[N.B. A position appreciably higher than that of the tso-lincf 
of the Peking Banners, although with equivalent nominal rank.] 

430. FANQ-YU gg ||j. Captain ; 5a. 

431. HSIAO-CH'I HSIAO g| gf ^.Lieutenant ; 5b. 

432. WEI SHU*HSIAO-CH'I HSIAO 31 If IS S? ?K--Sub- 
lieutenant ; 8b. 

433. CH'IEH-FENG |J ^.Sergeant. 

434. LING-TS'UI |g fg. Corporal. 

435. SHUI-SHIH YING 7Jt fflfj ^. Marine Battalion of the 
Banner Forces ; for river service in the various provincial garrisons. 

43G. WEI CH'ANG |gj H|. The Imperial Hunting Reserves. 
A vast tract of country, several hundreds of miles in extent, in the 
region of Jeh-ho, set apart in the early years of the reigning 
dynasty as a preserve for ferge game and as a place for the exercise 
of the Imperial troops in the art of war as exemplified in the chase. 
[&<? Part XI, No. 548.] The guards of the Hunting Reserves 
are placed under the command of the following officers : 

437. WEI CH'ANG TSUNG KUAN g| *j| %$ ^. Chief 
Comptroller of the Hunting Grounds ; 3a. 

438. WEI CH'ANG Yi CHANG g) ^ j| jj. Brigadier of 
the Hunting Grounds ; 4a. 



64 PART VII. THE CHINESE ARMY. 



PART VII.-THE CHINESE ARMY. 



439. Lu YING j$ ^g. The Chinese Provincial Forces; 
designated as the Army of the Green Standard. These troops 
are divided into Lu Lu g| jf, or Land Forces, and Sliui Shih 
?Jt HP* or Marine. The ranks and designations are identical in 
both divisions. The land forces, numbering in all some 400,000 
to 500,000 men, are an absolutely effete organization, discharging 
the duties of sedentary garrisons and local constabulary, but 
superseded, on all occasions when active service is required, by 
the so-called " braves " yung }J|, or irregulars, enlisted and 
discharged according to circumstances. The officers of these 
irregular troops are usually invested with rank as " expectants " 
of appointments to posts in the regular service. The main bulk 
of the provincial forces are commanded by a General-in-Chief, or 
T'i-tu \_see below~], and bear the designation of T l i Piao Jg /fe, 
or T'i-tu's command. A smaller body of men, to whom the 
duty of garrisoning the provincial capital is specially assigned, 
is known as the Fa Piao Jfe /j|, being the command allotted to 
the Provincial Governor ; and a Governor-General has in addition 
a third distinct command annexed to his functions, this division 
receiving consequently the title of Tu Piao =fjf sf||. The forces 
under the command of the General-in-Chief are divided into 
Chen-Piao |g tfji, or Brigades, and these again into Hsieh '{^, or 
territorial regiments. The Hsieh are divided into Ying ^, 
battalions, and the ying is farther subdivided into a right and left 
Shao Rflf, or patrol. The ying is commanded, as a rule, by an 
officer of the rank of Major [see infra, No. 444], although in 
some cases the commanding officer is only a first or second Captain. 
The shao is commanded by a cttien-tsung or lieutenant, beneath 
whom the force is distributed in either two or four sstl pj, 
corresponding to the hsun $(,, or military posts established in 
different localities, at the head of each of which a pa-tsung or 



PART VII. THE CHINESE ARMY. 65 

sergeant is placed. As has already been stated above \_st-e Part 
III, Nos. 326 and 327] the Directors-General of the Yellow 
Elver and of the Grain Transport have each a separate military 
organization under their command designated, respectively, the 
Ho Piao JpJ H| and Ts'ao Piao }jf ||. The division under the 
orders of the Director of the Grain Transport has the duty of 
garrisoning and guarding the stations along the line of the grain 
transportation service at which the squadrons of junks are 
successively loaded, despatched, and discharged in effecting the 
conveyance of the " tribute rice " to Peking. These stations are 
designated wei fjf and so jjjf, according to the class to which they 
belong ; and the officials in charge at these points, ranking as 
shou-pei (second captain) and cftien-tsung (lieutenant), have 
special designations, such as shou-yil *\f ^5 (on service for 
garrison duty) and ling*yun fjf 5J| (charged with the conduct of 
the grain squadrons) etc., prefixed to the titles of their rank. In 
the river-guard squadron which has been organized of late years 
for the patrol of the Yangtsze, under the name of Clfang Chiang 
Shui Shih Ying ;0| j ?Jc g|j ^fj, forming a distinct command, the 
sze of the established land forces are represented by tui $fc, or 
gunboat companies. In other respects the titles employed in this 
organization are the same with those of the regular army, which 
are as follows : 

440. T ; i TU JH llf. Provincial Commander-in-Chief, or 
General-in-Chief; Ib. Common des., t'i-t'ai 8| & ; Epist. style, 
chiln men ^ p^. 

441. TSUNG-PING Jg ^.Brigade General ; 2a. Common 
des., Chcn-t l ai |@ &. Lit. des., Tsang Jung | ^ ; Epist. des., 
Ta Tsung-cldh ^ gg \}. 

442. FQ-CHIANG g|J Jg. Colonel ; 2b. Lit. des., Fa Jung 
1] JJc; Common des., Hsieh-t'ai ^ ^. 

443. TS'AN-CHIANG |jj g. Lieutenant-Colonel ; 3a. Lit* 
des., Ts'an Jung |^; Common des., Ts'an Fu ^ Jff. The 
Lieutenant- Colonel acting as Commandant of a Fu Piao, or 
Governor's Brigade, is colloquially designated Ta T'ing 



66 PART VII. THE CHINESE ARMY. 

444. Yu CHI jg ||. Major ; 3b. Lit, des., Yeo Jung 
Jg J% ; Common des., Yu Fu J6| Jfvf. 

445. Tu-ssu |[5 g]. First Captain ; 4a. Lit. des., Tu 
Kun -ft ffl. 

446. SHOU-PEI TJ* fig. Second Captain ; 5b. Common des., 
S/tou Fu 3f jff. 

447. CH'IEN-TSUNG ^p gg. Lieutenant; 6a. Lit. des., 
C/t l ien Jung ^p ^jj ; Common des., Tsung Yeh gg jfg. 

448. PA-TSUNG JQ |. Sergeant ; 7a. Common des., Fu 
Yeh IIJ gg. 

449. WAI-WEI CH'IEN-TSUNG ^g'f-fj. Second Sergeant; 
8a. 

450. WAI-WEI PA-TSUNG ^ ^ ffi II- Corporal ; 9a. 

451. E-WAI WAI-WEI g ^h ^h 31- Lance-Corporal ; 9b. 

452. YING TSUNG ^ US- Commandant, This title is given 
to the officers in command of special bodies of troops, such as the 
Manchu contingents employed in Suugaria, and the irregulars or 
" braves," chuang yung $ ^, who have superseded the regular 
army organization for purposes of active service, together with the 
divisions or contingents of these irregulars which have been subjected 
to drill and furnished with arms on the European model. These 
are ordinarily designated lien chiln j|f j||, a term which may be 
translated as "field force." 

453. CHUNG CHUN rft jpt Adjutant or Military Secretary. 
This post is filled by an officer of the rank of Colonel, Lieutenant- 
Colonel, Major, or first or second Captain, according to the position 
of the authority under whose orders it is established. The officers 
who serve as Adjutants to Governors-General and Governors are, 
respectively, the commandants of the Governor- General's and the 
Governor's Brigades [see supra. No. 439]. In the general army 
organization, each commanding officer, down to the rank of major, 
has an officer of the rank immediately below him as his adjutant, 
except in the case of the General-in-Chief, who makes his own 
selection for the post. 



PART VII. THE CHINESE ARMY. 



67 



x*^ The two following general terms may also be noted : 
$E f tfung-ling is the Commandant of the Forces in a Military 
District; his army rank ranges from Oommander-in-Chief to 
Colonel ; ^ If ying-kuan is the officer in charge of a Sub-District 
under him, with rank varying from Major to Second Captain. 



68 PART VIII. HEREDITARY RANKS, 



PART VIIL-HEREDITARY RANKS, TITLES OF HONOUR, 
AND DECORATIONS. 

454. CHUEH YIN Hf j^. HEREDITARY RANKS. 

The existing Chinese system of conferring patents of nobility 
and honorary titles is linked by an unbroken chain of descent 
with the history of the feudal states of the sixth century before 
Christ, perpetuating in its nomenclature, on the one hand, the 
titles of the semi-independent Princes of that era, and, on the 
other, the names of official degrees which have ceased for many 
centuries to exist in practical operation. Inasmuch, however, as 
the feudal system has scarcely at any period shewn symptoms of 
revival since it was laid low by Shih Huang Ti in the 3rd century 
B.C., the titles now conferred are not to be regarded as other 
than official distinctions of a peculiar class, and cannot rightly be 
considered as bestowing aristocratic position or privilege in the 
European sense. The nine degrees of nobility, indeed, which are 
conferred at the present day, and which are either heritable within 
certain limits (shih lisi ^ j) or hereditary for ever (shih hsi 
wang t'i if J ^] f)> are granted exclusively as rewards for 
military services. The titles from the highest to the third degree, 
as set forth in the following table, are designated Ch'ao P'm Jg ^J,, 
or " excelling rank " : 

455. SHIH CHUEH j ff . HEREDITARY NOBILITY. 

Banks. 



i. Kung 
ii. Hou 



iii. Po 



Of each of these five ranks, which are some- 
times rendered in English by the titles duke, 
marquis, earl, viscount, and baron, there are 
three classes or degrees. To the titles of the first, 



^ _ second, and third ranks, laudatory (chia ming 
Ijjg ft) are appended, significative of the special 
v. Nan J| j services by which the rank has been earned, 



TITLES OF HONOUR, AND DECORATIONS. 09 

vi. Ch'hy C/M Tu-yil $ fjg if. 
vii. Cki Tu Yii ? f. 



ix. En CKi Yii J 

All the above titles, the ninth excepted, are hereditary during 
a specified number of lives, ranging from 26th for a Kung of the 
first class to 1 for a Yun Ctti Yii. 

The lower titles, beginning with No. 6, have occasionally the 
degree next above them "annexed" (C/tlen jg), the bearer being 
thus enabled to rank " with, but after," possessors of the title 
immediately preceding. 

Any one of the above titles may be conferred posthumously 
(tsvny jjfj") on officers killed in battle, and thus become hereditary. 

Beside this, a form of reward for meritorious public servants 
is provided in the shape f hereditary official rank bestowed upon 
the sons, grandsons, younger brothers, or nephews, with due regard 
to seniority, of the person whom it is thus seen fit to distinguish. 
This form of reward is termed En Yin J23 j|>. By a special 
enactment, moreover, officials who may lose their lives at sea or 
on any of the inner waters whilst engaged in the public service, 
are entitled to 'receive posthumous titles of honour according to 
their degrees of rank, and official rank is furthermore bestowed 
upon the eldest son of any such individual. This is designated 
JS'an Yin j$ jigs (hereditary distinction conferred as a reward for 
suffering in the public service). 

456. FENG TSENG |if gg". TITLES OF HONOUR. 

The system of conferring titles of honour is one of the most 
frequent forms of reward for merit or service, or of Imperial 
bounty on occasions of rejoicing. These titles may either be 
conferred (shou jg) upon an official in person, or bestowed 
(fi n ff id") upon his wife, or his parents or grandparents, whilst 
still living, or, lastly, they may be granted as a posthumous 
distinction (tseng gg") to his deceased progenitors. The patents 
by which these titles are conferred are designated Kao Ming f ^ 
for all ranks from the 1st to the 5th inclusive, and Clfih Ming j|J ^ 



70 PART VIII. HEREDITAKY RANKS, 

for all the inferior ranks. The following are the titles conferred 
upon civilian functionaries or their connections, in the various 
degrees of rank : 

Title of Functionary. Wife's Title. 



la. KuangLuTaFu ft * * ) - & :fc A 
Ib. Yung Lu Ta Fu gg jjj$ ft ^ ( Yi P'in Fu Jen. 

2a. Tzu Cheng Ta Fu M * ^ I ~&*\ 
2b. Tung F6ng Ta Fu jf ^ ^ ^ f rh P'in Fu Jen. 

3a. Tung 1 Ta Fu S| * * I it A 

3b. Chung 1 Ta Fu r}t g| ft ^ f Shu Jen. 

4a. Chung Hslen Ta Fu rf* |j ^ ^ 1 ^g /^ 
4b. CVaoITaFu ^\^^^ Kung Jm. 

5a. ^% C/i% Ta ^w ^ jg ^ ^ | g A 
5b. J^% C/t7i Ta Fu ^ g ^ ^ ' I J * n - 

6a. Cfe W La^ * fi EK \ ^ A 

6b. Ju Lin Lang f|| /^JC g|$ J ^4?^ 7e;?. 

7a. Wen Lin Lang ^ ||J1 ^X 

7b. Cto^ 5/tz7i La?i^ ^ ft ||$ ,/M Jew. 

8a. HsiuChihLang fe ft |R ) /\ fi ft A 

8b. jGTw'M (7A7i 7 50 Law/ f|f ^ ffi IR ' ^a P'//i Ju Jen. 

9a. TengShihLang g ft K I ^L n ffi A 

9b. T 7 ^ 5/iiA 750 Ztfm? gft ^E|S/ C/'? P'/n Jw Je/z. 

NOTE. Officials of the class of Li Yuan ]} J|, z'.^. such as 
have gained admission into the public service, by examination, 
from among the ranks of the clerks (shu pan ^^) in the Govern- 
ment Boards at Peking, may receive the following titles of 
honour : 

6a. Hsuan Te Lang g ^ g[J. 

7a. Hsiian I Lang j|[ ^ g|5. 

The titles exhibited in the foregoing list are set forth in 
all historical State papers and family records, on funeral cards, 
ancestral tablets, and tombstones. They are also frequently 
displayed on ornamental boards placed over the entrances to 






TITLES OF HONOUR, AND DECORATIONS. 71 

dwelling-houses. The patents (referred to above) are inscribed 
on long scrolls of damasked silk, woven in five colours, with 
figures of the phoenix in relief, upon which the particulars of 
grant are inscribed successively in the Chinese and Manchu 
languages. 

Military officials receive similar patents conferring honorary 
titles of a martial character. The first and second degrees of rank 
are invested with the title Cliiang Cliun )}$ jji., to which appropriate 
epithets are prefixed, whilst the lower degrees receive the titles 
Tu Yu H5 gj 4 , Ch'i Yu gjf |}, and Hsiao Yii ge |J with similar 
prefixes. 

457. SHANG RUNG j|'$J. DISTINCTIONS FOR MERIT. 

Although rewards for distinguished service, or marks of 
Imperial favour, the conception of which resembles in some degree 
that of the European system of Royal or national Orders and 
medals of distinction, are to be found in China, nothing in the 
shape of an actual Order of Merit, approximating to the European 
type, has been adopted by the Chinese Government. In Japan, 
on the contrary, as is well known, an Order of the European kind 
was instituted in 1875, with the designation Hsiln Teng Shang P'ai 
Wl ^ M W f r ^3 vai 'ious classes of decoration. The term 
chun p'ai j|| ){^L was at the same time selected to denote the medals 
which it was decreed should be awarded for military services. 
Isolated distinctions have indeed been conferred in China on 
foreigners of various nationalities, principally for services rendered 
in the command of drilled troops during the Taiping rebellion, and 
subsequently in the collection of the Customs' revenue, which are 
known, with reference to the European term "star," by the 
designation pao hsing ^ If* ; but as these are bestowed, for the 
most part, by provincial authorities, and without the sanction of 
any established rule or recognized statutes, such as are required to 
constitute what is commonly known as an " Order," the badges 
thus conferred can scarcely be regarded as having a real value as 
authentic marks of distinction. The Imperial decorations for merit 
established under the reigning dynasty are as follows : 



V2 PART VIII. HEREDITARY RANKS, 

458. HSING KUA fj |^. THE RIDING-CAPE. 

This distinction, the most coveted form of reward for military 
services, is better known as the Huang Ma Kua ]H;$| |8, or Yellow 
Riding Jacket, although this is but one form of the privileged 
style of dress. 21 According to the Imperial regulation, the 
Cape, which is worn only when in personal attendance upon the 
sovereign in the field, or upon journeys, is of the colour of the 
Banner to which the Princes, nobles, or other members of the 
Banner Force upon whom it is conferred, may belong. Officers of 
the Body-guard and Ministers of the Presence are, however, 
entitled to wear a yellow cape, irrespectively of their Banner : and 
in general, at the present day, the Yellow Riding Jacket is the 
form in which the distinction is commonly bestowed. It has been 
awarded to two Europeans, to Lieutenant-Colonel Gordon, R.E., 
for his services in contributing to the defeat of the Taiping rebels 
in Kiangsu, and to M. Prosper Giquel, for his labours in 
establishing the Arsenal at Foochow, coupled with previous 
military services. 

In this connection may also be noted the privilege of " riding 
within the precincts of the Imperial Palace" (Tzii Chin Ch'vng 
net ch l i ma | *j| j$ fa j|Jf ^), the bestowal of which is termed 
shang ck'ao ma H' jji/J J^j. This is an honorary distinction, 
frequently conferred upon eminent public functionaries, who 
become thus entitled to proceed on horseback, instead of on foot, 
for some distance within the outer gateways of the Palace when 
summoned to an audience. 

459. LING CHIH ^ |j|. THE FEATHER, OR PLUME. 

The principal form of distinction for public service under the 
reigning dynasty. It is classed in different degrees, as follows : 

460. (A.) K'UNG CHDBH LING JL ^ gJ.The Peacock 
Feather. 

This decoration is arranged in the following classes : 

461. (i.) SAN YEN HUA-LING H HB 3E fH---Tlie Three-Eyed 
Peacock Feather, a distinction conferred only upon Imperial 

21 Other similar privileges are the use of the Purple Bridle (r^j f^ t 
and of the apricot-yellow sedan-chair (iSf He HI Ilsing-lwang cliiao}. 



TITLES OF HONOUR, AND DECORATIONS. 73 

princes or nobles of the higher degrees, or for the most signal 
military achievements. 

462. (ii.) SHUANG YEN HUA-LING j| Bfi 7b ffl- The Double- 
Eyed Peacock Feather. Conferred upon dignitaries of intermediate 
rank or degree of merit. 

463. (iii.) TAN YEN HUA-LING ^ Rg ?g {$. The Single- 
Eyed Peacock Feather (commonly called Hua-ling ^g $R alone). 
This distinction is bestowed as an ordinary form of reward for 
public service, and during the last few decades has been indis- 
criminately obtainable by purchase. 

464. (B.) LAN LING g fj$. The Blue Plume, colloquially 
termed, from its glossy blue-black tint, Lao-kua Ling, or the 
Crow Feather. This distinction is attributed by regulation to the 
rank and file of the Imperial guards [see No. 98], and is conferred 
as a reward for services upon officials below the sixth degree of 
rank. It is not to be confounded with the sable-tail tiao ivei fg JH 
(often erroneously termed fox-tail) badge which soldiers are 
entitled to wear when employed on active service. This badge is 
stated to have been introduced, originally, as a part of the uniform 
worn on the Imperial hunting expeditions. It is now commonly 
worn by all soldiers as an addition to their uniform. 

465. PA-T'U-LU g g| ||. THE BAT'URU DISTINCTION. 

The Military distinction called in Chinese Pa-t'u-lu (a repre- 
sentation of the Manchu word bdt'uru, signifying " brave ") is an 
institution dating from the early years of the present dynasty, 
and is conferred solely for active service in the field. It constitutes 
an order of merit partaking of some of the characteristics of 
the French Legion d'honneur ; but its special feature of difference 
from a European order consists in the fact that it has no outward 
mark of decoration to be worn by its possessor, in the place 
of which there can only be reckoned the distinguishing word 
(or title) which is assigned to each recipient on the bestowal of 
the order. These specific titles may be either Manchu, Mongolian, 
or Chinese, the Manchu being considered the most honourable. 
Under this system an officer upon whom the distinction is conferred 

10 



74 PART VIII. HEREDITARY RANKS, 

might receive the designation Yi Yung Pa-tfu-lu I^UmEIII' or 
u Bat'uru with the title Magnanimous Brave," and so forth. The title 
carries with it the right to wear the peacock-feather [see No. 463], 
although it seldom happens at the present day that the peacock- 
feather, lavishly awarded as this decoration'has been of late years, 
is not obtained previously to the bestowal of the Bdt'uru ; and the 
allowances of the bearer, when employed on active service, are con- 
siderably enhanced in virtue of his possession of the title. Th.Q Batumi 
has been conferred upon at least one European, Mr. W. Mesny, a 
native of Jersey, for services rendered in the province of Kuei-chou. 

466. RUNG P C AI Tfi Jj$. THE SOLDIER'S MEDAL. 

This is an oblong plate of thin silver, having the character 
Shang jj (reward) embossed upon it, which is bestowed at reviews 
and inspections upon meritorious soldiers. 

466A. SHUANQ LUNG PAO HSING fg f | | Jg. THE ORDER 

OF THE DOUBLE DRAGON. 

In response to a memorial from the Tsung-li Yamen, dated 
October 16, 1881, the Emperor instituted this order, designed 
exclusively for the decoration of foreigners. The original intention 
was to create a distinction which could be bestowed on the 
Ministers of Foreign Powers at Peking, Sir Thomas Wade being 
named as the first intended recipient, but its scope was enlarged 
so as to include foreigners of every degree. 

The Order is divided into the following grades and classes : 
First Grade: 

1st class. For Sovereigns of States. 

2nd class. For Heirs Apparent and members of Royal 

Families. 

3rd class. For Ministers of State and Ambassadors. 
Second Grade: 

1st class. For Ministers Plenipotentiary. 

2nd class. For Ministers Resident, Charges d' Affaires, 

the Inspector-General of Customs. 
3rd class. For Secretaries of Legation, General 
Officers in the Army, Consuls-General, 
Heads of educational establishment?. 



TITLES OF HONOUR, AND DECORATIONS. 75 

Third Grade: 

1st class. For Second and Third Diplomatic 
Secretaries, Consuls, Attaches, Post- 
captains, Colonels, Professors, etc. 
2nd class. For Vice-Consuls, Commanders in the 

Navy, Lieutenant -Colonels, etc. 
3rd class. Consular Interpreters, Majors, Captains, 

etc. 
Fourth Grade : 

Private soldiers and sailors. 
Fifth Grade: 

Artisans, tradespeople, etc. 



76 PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 



PART IX.-EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 



467. K'AO SHIH ^ gj. The Chinese system of competition 
for civil and military degrees, which furnish successful candidates 
with a passport to the public service, is organized in three principal 
gradations, under the following names : Hsiang Shih jj$ |j(J, the 
Provincial Examinations, held as a rule triennially, in the autumn, 
followed by the Hui Shih ^jf ^, or Metropolitan Examination, held 
at Peking in the ensuing spring, and Tien Shih |J |^, or Palace 
Examination, at which the final award of degrees is obtained. 
Special examinations, granted in celebration of auspicious public 
events, are denominated En Shih J23 gjj, or Examinations by 
Imperial Grace, in addition to the regular triennial occasions. 
The " classes " of graduates at the Hsiang Shih and Hid Shih 
respectively are termed k l o ^jf and chia ^, whence the meaning 
of " literary graduation " has come to be applied to these terms 
combined in a single phrase. The following are the ranks 
successively obtained under this all-important system : 

468. T'UNG SHENG ig . STUDENT. 

The students of each district throughout the Empire undergo 
a series of preliminary examinations, before the Magistrate of their 
own district, the Prefect within whose jurisdiction they are placed, 
and the Literary Chancellor of the province, before qualifying for 
entrance at the triennial provincial competition. A certificate of 
merit from the District Magistrate enables the candidate for 
literary honours to term himself t'ung sheng, which may be regarded 
as equivalent to Student. The candidate who is ranked first on 
the Magistrate's list has the distinguishing title of An Shou ^ "jgf. 
A person before competing for the right to term himself t'ung sheng 
is designated, in complimentary parlance, chtin lisiu $| 5f, which 
may be rendered " man of promise." 



PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 77 

469. Hsiu TS'AI 3f ~% LICENTIATE. 

In every second year the Literary Chancellor of each province 
completes a tour of his domain, holding examinations An lin 
Sw at tne different Prefectural cities. Candidates who are 
successful on these occasions obtain their first degree, and become 
entitled hsiu-ts'ai, which may be rendered Licentiate. The highest 
on the list receives in this category, likewise, the title an-shou 
[see above']. The general literary and official designation for 
the lisiu-ts l ai class is sMng-yiian J|. ,Two categories are 
formed by the division of the successful candidates into those 
of the "established list," termed fu sheng Pft &, and those of 
the " supplementary list," or tseng sheng Jf| {-, the first class 
representing the number of degrees accorded by the ancient 
regulations, and the second those who are admitted under more 
recent ordinances, extending, for one reason or another, the 
number of degrees obtainable. 

470. LIN SHAN SHENG jjg jgf ^.SALARIED LICENTIATE. 

A limited number of hsiu-ts^ai are annually admitted to the 
position of lin sheng Jjg , or lin shan sheng , so called from the 
stipends (kao huo ^ ^) which they receive from government 
funds. 

471. KUNQ SHENG Jf ffi-. SENIOR LICENTIATE. 

In addition to the privilege described above, a farther series 
of advantages remain open to the licentiates who fail to obtain this 
position or to pass for a degree at the provincial examinations. 
Special examinations, granted as an act of imperial grace [see 
supra. No. 467], enable a certain number of hsiu-ts'ai to attain the 
position of $n kung-slung J % Jf . An examination recurring once 
in twelve years gives access to the grade of pa kung-slieng ^^^ 
which qualifies for admission to the metropolitan competition. 
Simple seniority admits a certain number of unsalaried licentiates to 
the grades of fu kung-sheng g|J Jf; ^ and sui kung-shtng g| J{ ; 
whilst for meritorious achievements at periodical examinations a 
certain number receive the title of yu kung-sheng @| Jt ^fe- After 
the degree of fu shtng [see No. 469] has been reached, that of 



78 PART ix. EXAMINATIONS ASD OFFICIAL DEGREES. 



fu kung-sh&ng Pfj 1 Jt { or accessory Senior Licentiate may be 
obtained by purchase. 

472. CHU-JEN -J^. PBOVINCIAL (CHU-JEN) GRADUATE. 

This degree, which forms the first substantial reward of a 
student's ambition, is conferred at the Hsiang Shi/i [see supra, 
No. 467]. Lit. des., Hsiao-lien ^^ Licentiates of one or other 
of the primary degrees described above assemble at the provincial 
capital in the eighth moon of every third year (or more frequently 
on special occasions offering), to compete under the auspices of 
the Examiners appointed from Peking' [see infra, No. 479]. Of 
some ten to twelve thousand competitors, commonly described as 
shift tzil J-^ ^p, or scholars, barely 300 at the utmost are admitted 
to degrees, the number of which is limited by regulation. The 
successful graduates, whose names appear upon the official list, 
termed the Lung Hu Pang f| Jf^ ^, are said to have chung cliii 
*ft l|i (attained their degree) and are thenceforward known as 
chu-jen, or "promoted men." Their next step is to proceed to the 
capital, early in the following year, to compete at the metropolitan 
examination for the superior degrees \_see l>eloiv~\. In addition 
to the actual list of graduates, about forty of the candidates, whose 
performances are adjudged as not inferior in merit to those of their 
selected competitors, are admitted to a secondary list, entitled 
fu pang glj f5 a description of proxime accessit by which means 
their names obtain the honour of publicity although they have 
failed to secure the degree competed for. The highest on the list 
of graduates receives the honorary title of chieh yuan f$ T, and 
the four individuals next in order are entitled clang k'uei -jg| j|J, 
while the thirteen next in order are called k'uei $jfr or lisiang fcuei $JS$vt- 
For the encouragement of study, it is farther provided that chii-jen 
graduates who shall have attended three successive examinations 
(san k l o ^ ffi) for the chin shih degree [see leloui] , without actually 
passing, shall be allowed to appear before a Commission of Selection, 
Ta T'iao ^ ^, which is appointed triennially after each metro- 
politan examination. On this occasion, a limited number of 
appointments to the rank of District Magistrate, and some minor 



PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEORBES. 79 

offices at Peking, together with sundry nominations to the rank of 
Chiao Kuan g If, or district officers of instruction [see Part III, 
Kos. 303-306], are conferred upon the most approved candidates. 

Chii-jen graduates are entitled by regulation to an official 
entertainment at which an ode of the Book of Poetry, entitled the 
Lu Ming Jg pj|, should be chanted. The banquet is accordingly 
known by this name. As a special mark of respect for old age, it is 
farther ordained that a chii-jen graduate who shall reach the sixtieth 
anniversary of his examination, thus completing an entire cycle 
according to the Chinese reckoning, shall " repair a second time 
to the Lu Ming banquet" (Ch'ung fit Lu Ming fj| ^ J^ PjJ) 
for which purpose certain ceremonies and imperial donations are 
prescribed. 

The chii-jen degree is also bestowed as an honorary reward 
upon candidates above the age of 80 or of 90, who have presented 
themselves at repeated examinations without passing, and who 
comply with certain specified requirements. 

473. CHIN SHIH jg Jk METROPOLITAN GRADUATE. 

This degree is obtained at Peking, by triennial (or special) 
competition among the chii-jen assembled from the provinces, to 
the number of about six thousand, out of whom some 325 to 350 
obtain a successful result. The provincial graduates, or chu tzd 
Jfl ^p, after assembling at the capital early in the Spring following 
the examinations at which they have severally passed, are required 
to undergo a test examination, fu shih jjj |j(J, which qualifies them 
for admission to the Hui Shih ^ fj^J, or metropolitan competition. 
The successful competitors bear the following titles : No. 1, Hui- 
yuan TC ; ^os. 2 to 5, Ching-k'uei $g $jj ; Nos. 6 to 18, Hui- 
k'uei &f jjgj. The graduates who prove successful at this examina- 
tion become entitled kuny shih jj J^ during the period which 
still intervenes between the publication of the lists and their final 
competition. This takes place within the precincts of the Imperial 
Palace itself, and is hence called Tien Shih jj g^, or Palace 
Examination. The essays written on this occasion are scrutinized 
and classified by a special Commission of Imperial Revisers, 



80 PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 

entitled Yileh Chilan Ta Clfen ^ g ^ g. According to their 
order of merit, as ascertained by this crowning test, the graduates 
now receive, usually in the proportion of about one in three, 
admission into the ranks of the Hanlin, or college of scholars 
par excellence [see Part II, No. 201], The highest in order of merit 
are distinguished by various titles, as set forth below ; and the 
remainder are classed as chin shih of three classes \_chia ^, see 
below]. Some days after the publication of these awards, a fresh 
competition, entitled C/t'ao K l ao ^[J^, or the Court Examination, 
is held in the Palace, a theme selected by the Emperor himself 
being given out for the compositions required. The graduates 
are subsequently admitted to audience, whereupon a certain 
number belonging to the second and third classes of the graduates 
are honoured with the title sliu eld shih, or Bachelor of the Hanlin 
[see Part II, No. 210] ; the remainder, as chin shih, receive 
appointments either to provincial offices, as District Magistrates 
in expectancy, or to minor ranks in connection with the Six Boards 
at Peking. 

474. CHUANQ YUAN $ 75 OPTIMUS. 

The title conferred at the Palace Examination [see above] 
on the most approved scholar among the competing metropolitan 
graduates. The recipient of this, the highest literary award, 
becomes entitled to enter upon the rank of Han-lin Yuan Hsiu 
Chuan [see Part II, No. 207]. To have produced a chuang yuan is 
rejoiced in as a lasting honour by the district whence the fortunate 
candidate proceeds. 

475. PANG YEN $g Kg. SECUNDUS. 

The title conferred upon the graduate ranked second in order 
of merit at the Palace Examination [see supra, No. 473]. 

476. T'AN HUA $g 7. TERTIUS. 

The candidate who secures this distinctive title, together with 
the Pang Yen [see above], becomes invested with the rank of 
Pien Hsiu [see Part II, No. 208]. The two together constitute, in 
company with the Chuang-yilan, the first class, yi chia Ep, of 
the year, and are designated chin-shih chi ti : jf| 



PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 81 

477. CH'UAN Lu jg jg. QUARTUS. 

This title is bestowed upon the candidate graduating at the 
head of the second class, erh chia ^ ^, at the Palace Examination. 
The remainder of this class take rank as Shu Chi Shih [see Part 
II, No. 210]. They are designated chin-shih ch l u sUn J & J^. 
The designation t'ung chin-shih ch'u shen |sj JH db Si ^ i s 
bestowed upon the graduates of the third and last class, of whom 
the highest take rank as Shu Chi Shih and the remainder simply 
as chin shih. 

# % Examinations for military degrees follow precisely the 
same course and give access to the same degrees as those for the 
civil career, with the character wu (military) prefixed. Examina- 
tions are likewise held for Manchus qualifying as interpreters 
(fan-yi $H |p) in the language of their race, and who receive 
degrees as in the ordinary literary course. 

478. HSIAO LIEN FANG CHENG ifl HI ^ iE- WORTHIES 
OF LITERATURE. 

This is an honorary title bestowed by Imperial grace on 
obscure scholars who are specially recommended by provincial 
authorities for examination and the bestowal of official rank, in 
conformity with ancient precedent. 

The following are the most important among the titles employed 
in connection with the Literary Examinations : 

479. CHENG K'AO KUAN jE ^ H*. Chief Examiner ; the 
president specially appointed for each provincial or metropolitan 
examination. For the provincial examinations, Vice -Presidents 
of the Metropolitan Boards or Courts are selected ; whilst for the 
examinations at Peking, a Grand Secretary or President of a 
Board is named as Chief Examiner. Lit. des., Ta Tsung Ts'ai 
^C II S& ; Common des., Ta Chu K'ao ^ ^ ^. 

480. Fu K'AO KUAN gj| ^ If. Assistant Examiner; 
appointed to assist the functionary above named. Lit. des., Fu 
Tsung Ts'ai glj H gg ; Common des., Fu Chu K l ao gj| ^. 

481. -T'UNQ K'AO KUAN |gj ^ If. Associate Examiners ; 
Common des., Fang Kuan 
11 




82 PART IX. EXAMINATIONS AHD OFFICIAL DEGREES, 

482. NEI CHIEN SHIH KUAN j^J jg g^ If. Inspectors. 

483. NBI SHOU CHANG KUAN ^ |gr ^ 'g. 
Examiners. 

The above classes of officials constitute the Nei Lien j^J JH, or 
Inner Precinct of the Examinations. The Wai Lien ty\* Jjj|, or 
Outer Precinct, comprises the following list of functionaries : 

484. CHIEN LIN KUAN jg; gg If. Supervisor. This office 
is filled in the provinces by the Governor, who is said on 
this occasion to ju wei A. BJ> or "confine himself within the 
precincts," i.e. of the Examination Hall. At Peking the office 
is filled by a functionary selected from among the Directors of the 
various Courts. Lit. des., Chih Kung Chu ^Q J| JJj-. 

485. T'I-TIAO KUAN j| f| If. Proctor ; the official charged 
with the general supervision and control of the candidates during 
the examination. 

486. WAI CHIEN-SHIH KUAN ft jg ^ ff. Comptroller of 
the Outer Precinct. 

487. WAT SHOU CHANG KUAN ft jfc ^ If. Receiver of 
the Essays. 

488. Mi FENG KUAN gg |if If. Sealer of the Essays. 

489. T'ENG Lu KUAN gf $j& ^.Transcriber of the Essays. 

490. Tui Tu KUAN jj |f ^.Comparer of the Essays. 

491. Ym CHUAN KUAN fl ^ ^._ Stamper of the Essays. 

The five above-named offices are filled by appointments from 
among Secretaries of the Boards who have themselves taken their 
degree. 

Beside the above, a number of additional posts exist in 
connection with the police and internal management of the 
Examination Halls, as for instance the Kung Chi So |jfc $^ ffi , 
or Commissariat Department of the Chief Examiner during his 
incarceration in the Examination Hall, to which special appointments 
are made, as in the foregoing instances, at each recurring period. 

49 IA. SHAN CHANG \1\ g. President of a College. 

This title is bestowed upon the officials who are employed 
to superintend the studies prosecuted by advanced scholars at 



PART ix. EXAMINATIONS AND OFFICIAL DEGREES. 83 

the various provincial capitals, usually those who have already 
acquired the chu-jen degree, with a view to qualifying for the 
higher examinations. The institutions at which these studies are 
pursued are known as Shu Yuan (| [, which may be rendered 
by the term " College," and each has farther a distinctive name 
derived either from the locality in which it is situated or from some 
classical quotation. The Colleges, of which one or more are to be 
found at each provincial capital, where they represent the position 
assigned at Peking to the Kuo Tzti Chien [see Part II, No. 247], 
are in most cases endowed from the provincial revenues, and 
certain stipends are paid to the graduates who frequent them as 
well as to the tutors who are employed in their instruction. The 
chief superintendents, or shan chang, are frequently retired officials 
of high rank. By a decree of the Emperor K'ien Lung, which, 
however, is usually ignored in practice-, the designation shan chang 
was ordered to be exchanged for Yuan chang gg f|> as a more 
dignified epithet than that popularly in use. 



84 PART X. BUDDHISM AND TAOISM. 



PART X.-BUDDHISM AND TAOISM. 

The [Chinese official system, which allows no condition of the 
body politic to remain, in theory at least, unprovided with means 
for its control, iricludes among its administrative rules a complete 
scheme of ecclesiastical gradations of rank and authority in con- 
nection with the .priesthood of both the Buddhist religion and the 
Taoist order. Whilst refraining from interference with the internal 
organization of either of these bodies, or with the admission of 
members to their ranks, the imperial Institutes provide a frame- 
work in harmony with the all-pervading official system, to be 
grafted upon the hierarchy as it is found in either case developed 
according to its own traditional rules. The complicated and costly 
organization of the Tibetan form of Buddhism, which has been 
created by the emperors of the reigning dynasty, is a subject 
entirely distinct from the more ancient and orthodox type which 
constitutes the religion par excellence of the Chinese people ; and 
the Lamaist hierarchy is left aside in this place, to be separately 
dealt with in Part XII below. For the control of the Buddhist 
priesthood, official ranks are established according to the following 
scale : 

492. S^NG Lu Ssu ff IJ gj. Superior. 

Two office-bearers invested with this title are appointed in 
each district, department, and prefecture throughout the Empire, 
as principal and deputy, the chief being distinguished as Chdng 
Yin JE P^ or principal, and the second in order as Fu Yin gj p, 
or deputy, holder of the seal. The appointment is made by the 
local authority by selection from among the leading abbots {fang 
chang ifj ^) of monasteries, and is submitted for approval, when 
made by subordinate officials, to the provincial government. The 
superior thus appointed acts as the medium of communication 
between the secular authorities and the priesthood, for whose 
general good conduct he is considered responsible, and over whom, 



PART X. BUJDDHISM AND TAOISM. 85 

in cases of litigation among themselves, he exercises certain judicial 
powers. The Seng Lu Ssu of the metropolitan district is a person 
enjoying much consideration and wielding no small a#iount of 
authority ; but the position elsewhere is attended with little respect. 
Distinctive titles are held by the incumbents of the office, according 
to the rank of the territorial division to which they belong. These 
titles are as follows : 

493. SENG RANG f|f gj. Superior of the Buddhist priest- 
hood in a Fu or prefecture. The full title is Seng Kang Ssu Tu 
Rang fjf gj p] fj$ $5|. The secondary degree of the ninth rank is 
assigned to holders of this office. 

494. SENG CHENG Iff 1 j. Superior of the Buddhist priest- 
hood in a Chou or department. 

495. SENG Hui fff ^.Superior of the Buddhist priesthood 
in a Hsien or district. 

Beside the foregoing, a certain number of ranks are provided 
by regulation, apparently for bestowal by way of distinction upon 
deserving members of the priesthood. They are but little, if at 
all, in use at the present day. The following is the list of these 
ranks as officially recognized : 

496. Tso and Yu SHAN SHIH W 1ft- Preceptor 
(principal and secondary) ; 6a. 

497. Tso and Yu SHAN CHIAO fc HJ ^.Preacher 
(principal and secondary) ; 6b. 

498. Tso and Yu CHIANG HING ft ^ $& Expositor 
(principal and secondary) ; 8a. 

499. Tso and Yu CHIAO I g f|. Clerk (principal 
and secondary) ; 8b. 

For the control of the Taoist priesthood a similar organization 
is provided, centreing in the patriarch or hereditary chief of the 
order, the Heavenly Master Chang, or Chang T l ien Shih Jj| 55 Bj}> 
in whose person the spirit of one of the earliest of the Taoist 
mystics is reputed to reside [see The Chinese Reader s Manual^. 11], 
The following are the ranks of the official Taoist hierarchy : 



86 



PART X. BUDDHISM AND TAOISM. 



3E- Superior of the Taoist priesthood 
. Superior of the Taoist priesthood in 



500. TAG Lu Ssu Jg ^ fj. Superior. An appointment 
corresponding in all respects with that of the Superior of the 
Buddhist order [see supra, No. 492]. 

501. TAG Cm jg $g. Superior of the Taoist priesthood in 
a Fu or prefecture ; 9b. The full title is Tao Chi Ssil Tao Chi 

m *B m m *B. 

502. TAG CHENG J 
in a Chou or department. 

503. TAG Hui jg 
a Hsien or district. 

In addition to the foregoing, a number of offices, with corre- 
sponding rank according to the Chinese official scale, are established 
with reference to the Taoist priests who are connected with the 
State temples devoted to the worship of the powers of Nature. 
These are as follows : 

504. Tso and Yu CHENG Yi IE .Director 
(principal and secondary) ; 6a. 

505.- Tso and Yu YEN FA ^ $j| $*. Hierophant 
(principal and secondary) ; 6b. Employed in performing the 
stated acts of sacrifice in the Imperial temples. 

506. Tso and Yu CHIH LING 2 ^& S H- Thaumaturgist 
(principal and secondary) ; 8a. These " miracle-workers " are 
employed at the State temples in services specially intended as acts 
of propitiation in times of flood or drought. A corresponding 
office is filled by priests designated Yin Yang Cheng Shu ^ gl 
j f$| in the temples dedicated to the presiding spirit (Ch'eng 
Huang Miao fgj J5j| Hf ) of prefectural cities. 

507. Tso and Yu CHIH I g ft. Priest of the lowest 
order (principal and secondary) ; 8b. 



PART XI, MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 87 



PART XI -MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

508. WAI FAN #[* $f|. THE DEPENDENCIES OF THE 
EMPIRE. 

Under the institutes of the reigning dynasty, the bulk of the 
tribes composing the Mongolian nationality are primarily divided 
into two great classes, the Nei (^J and Wai ^f Ming Ku ffj ^, 
or the Inner and the Outer Mongols. Both are placed under the 
control of the Li Fan Yuan, or Mongolian Superintendency \_see 
Part II, No. 183], together with the governments of the region of 
Hi, which includes Eastern Turkestan or Kashgaria, and of Tibet. 
Inner Mongolia is that portion of the Mongol territory which 
borders upon China Prope* and Manchuria, along the whole of the 
north-eastern and eastern frontier. Outer Mongolia encloses the 
Inner region with a vast semi-circular sweep, and is itself con- 
terminous on the west and north with the territories of the Russian 
Empire. The Inner Mongols are otherwise known as those of the 
Forty-nine Banners, from the military divisions in which they are 
grouped. They represent, with the Ch'ahar tribe, which forms a 
separate organization [see infra, No. 526], the sections of the 
Mongol race which were foremost in submitting to the Manchu 
invaders of China in the first half of the seventeenth century. 
The Outer Mongols comprise the Khalkha and Kalmuk (or Eleuth) 
and other tribes, which will be found treated of below [see infra, 
No. 516]. 

509. NEI MENG-KU j^j j| . THE INNER MONGOLS. 
The Forty-nine Banners of the Inner Mongols at the present day 
are directly descended from the organization adopted by the 
successors of Chinghiz Khan during their tenure of power as 
masters of the greater part of Asia, and continued by their 
descendants after the expulsion of the Yuan dynasty from the 
throne of China. The Mongols of the fourteenth century were 
organized in six grand divisions, known as the Djirgughan Tumen, 
or Six Ten Thousands, which again were arrayed in two sections, 



88 



PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 



termed the right and left wings, the left occupying the eastern, 
and the right the western, half of the Mongolian territory. 
Apparently, in imitation of this earlier system of organization, the 
Banners of the Inner Mongols are divided into six meng g, or 
leagues (Mong. chogolgdn\ which embrace the whole of the 
twenty-four pu ^, or tribes (Mong. aimak *> JJ| ^) under which 
they are distributed. Before proceeding to elucidate the titles of 
the hereditary or appointed rulers of the Mongol tribes, a list of the 
various administrative divisions must be given. The transliteration 
of their respective namas, as represented in Chinese characters, has 
been undertaken with special, although not invariable, deference 
to the authority of I. J. Schmidt, the translator of the chronicle 
of Ssanang Setzen, whose labours form, with the writings of 
D'Ohsson, the basis of the recent compilation entitled History of 
the Mongols; by Henry H. Howorth, London, 1876, a work which 
may be usefully consulted for detailed information with reference 
to the Mongol tribes. 

510. I. CHERIM LEAGUE fj m 7^ jg. 

1. Khorch'in tribe ffl |}f j>fy. 6 banners. 

2. Djalai -fL 5f 'fS- 1 banner. 

3. Turbet tfc W fS 4S- 1 

4. Ghorlos J[5 fjf |H fiff. 2 banners. 

511. II. CHOSOT'U LEAGUE ^ ^ jg ^. 

5. Kharach'in tribe ng flf lH 3 

6. T'umed 3X4$. 2 
512. III. CHAO UDA LEAGUE ffl ft it BI- 

7. Ao-khan tribe 

8. Naiman 



9. Barin 

10. Djarud 

11. Aru Khorch'in 

12. Ongniod 

13. Keshikhteng 

14. Khalkha (one tribe 
from the left wing). 



*ft 

ES* 



1 banner. 

i 

2 banners. 
2 

2 
1 banner. 

1 
1 



PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 89 



513. IV. SILINGHOL LEAGUE 

15. Uchumuch'in tribe H^SIyfr. 2 banners. 

16. Khaochid feftffi 2 

17. Sunid mfeffi 2 

18. Abaga PUB 2 

19. Abaganar FgfQ^IRW 2 
514. V. ULAN CH'AP LEAGUB J| gg fg ffi ||. 

20. Ssu Tzu Pu Lo tribe ? 15 ^ or 

Durban Keuked 1 banner. 

21. Mow Mingan jrgB8?C * 

22. Urad BM4$ 3 banners. 

23. Khalkha (one tribe l@ If J!g H 1 banner, 
from the right wing) 

515. VI. IKH CHAO.LISAGUE fP^BH^- 

24. Ordos (Ortous) tribe |$ff^$f 7 banners. 
With the tribe of the Ordos there are amalgamated certain 

fragments of the T'umed tribe, occupying the region adjacent to 
Kuei Hua Ch'eng, lying to the north-east of the Great Bend of 
the Yellow River. 

516. WAI MENG-KU ft m ^. THE OUTER MONGOLS. 

Outer Mongolia comprises the territory of the Khalkhas, 
extending from the north-eastern termination of the desert of Gobi 
(Sha-mo j$ g|) to the borders of Russian Siberia, and of the 
Kalmuks, or Western Mongols, otherwise known as Eleuths or 
Oelot. 

517. KHALKHA I fjj fi. The Khalkha nation comprises 
the tribes of the Mongols which, owing probably to their greater 
remoteness, maintained to a much later date than the tribes of 
the Forty-nine Banners, described above, their independence of 
the Manchu sovereignty. They constitute four great pu |5 or 
tribes, three of which are still governed by hereditary rulers bear- 
ing the title Kham (in Chinese, i Han ff). The number of banners 
distributed among the four tribes is eighty-three, beside the two 
banners which, as is shown above [see Nos. 512 and 514] have 
been incorporated with the Inner Mongols. By the addition of 

12 



90 PABT XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

two banners of Oeldts and one of Khoits, the number of the 
banners of the Khalkhas is brought np to 86 in all. The four 
great divisions bear the following names : 

i. The T'ushet'u Khanate Kffl?Fi5l5 20 banners, 
ii. TheTsetsen ^ g ft gg 23 

iii. The Dzassakt'u & fi Sf 15 18 
iv. The Sain-noin tribe H^^SSSIS 22 

The town of Urga, or K'u-lun (Kurun) Jj^, situated within 
the territory of the T'ushet'u Khan, is the administrative centre 
of the northern and eastern Khalkha tribes. It is the residence 
of the Cheptsun Dampa Hut'ukht'u [see Part XII, No. 598], a 
Lamaist dignitary of the most venerated order, through whose 
spiritual influence the Chinese Imperial Agent [see infra, No. 556] 
maintains his authority over the Khalkha chiefs. The Western 
Khalkhas, i.e. the Dzassakt'u and Sain-noin tribes, are under the 
rule of the Military Governor of Uliasut'ai [see infra, No. 552]. 
A chain of frontier posts, known as K'a-lun -fc ^ (Karun, called 
Caron, or Carou by a misprint, in the writings of the Jesuits of 
the last century), runs along the border of the Khalkha territory, 
where it adjoins the Russian possessions, and at each post a small 
military colony under a chief having the title chang clung g JfJ 
[see Part VI, No. 385, and infra, No. 541] is established. The 
line of frontier is marked by piles of stones, called obo |J jij, and 
the space intervening between two such frontier-marks is termed by 
the Mongols sabu || /flf . The khans of the Khalkhas testify their 
allegiance to the Chinese sovereign by an annual presentation of 
tribute, designated as the Chiu Pai ^L Q or Nine White [Animals], 
consisting of eight horses and a camel, all pure white in colour. 

Next in importance to the Khalkhas are the Kalmuks or 
Western Mongols Eleuths, etc. bearing six tribal designations 
as shown below : 

518. i. OELOT (ELEUTH) Jg H ^$, or $| H <jf . The 
Kalmuks or Western Mongols. 

The term Kalmuk (or Kalmuck), by which the Western 
Mongols are known to European authors, is unknown to the 



PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 91 

Chinese, who designate the leading tribes of this once powerful 
division of the Mongols by the name given above. Several 
derivations for the word Kalmuk have been suggested by different 
authors, whose speculations are assembled by Howorth [History of 
the Mongols, p. 497]. In the word Oelot, which the French 
missionary authors of the last century transcribed as Eleuth, the 
Chinese themselves trace an obvious relationship with the Wa-la 
Si Bill (Wara, or Oirad), the designation applied to the leading 
tribe with which the earlier sovereigns of the Ming dynasty 
warred and negotiated. Having overspread the region north of 
the T'ien Shan, including the modern territory of Hi, the chieftains 
of the Oelot tribes founded, early in the 17th century, a dominion 
known as that of Sungar, or Dzumgar, 2p |IJ| f|J, which was 
eventually shattered by the arms of the Emperor K'ang Hi, and 
finally overthrown by tne invasion of their territory (Sungaria) in 
1757 by a Chinese and Manchu army despatched against them by 
the emperor K'ien Lung. During the period of its independent 
existence, the Sungar nation was divided into four tribes, known 
to the Chinese as the four Weirad f|f J)${| fj (Mong., Durben 
Oirad, said to signify the Four Allies) in which the perhaps 
derivative sounds of the Oelot or Oirad form of designation may 
clearly be recognized. Without entering here upon an enquiry 
into the dispersion and gradual reassembly of the Oelot tribes, a 
task more appropriately and fully dealt with elsewhere, the follow- 
ing 'enumeration of the remaining divisions of the Kalmuk tribes 
is proceeded with : 

519, ii. TURBET (TOURBBTH) ^fc f|f f|J fj. A division of 
the Kalmuks or Oelot, now organized in two clwgolgdn or leagues 
[see below] . 

520.- iii. TUBGUT (TOURGOUTH) {fc HI JS % Tm 's large 
division of the Kalmuks is declared by the celebrated Chinese 
Minister of State, Sung Yiin, in his work [dated A.D. 1823] on 
the Mongol tribes, to be identical with the Turbets [see above'] and 
to represent one of the four tribes or Weirat of the Sungar nation 
[see No. 518]. The Turgut now form five clwgolgdn or leagues. 



92 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

521. iv. THE KHOSHOIT fp Jg ?$. A southern branch of the 
Kalmuks, whose principal seat is in the neighbourhood of Kokonor, 
although a part of them are found at present, constituting one 
chogolgdn, on the north-eastern frontier of China. 

522. v. THE KHOIT ^ %. A small tribe associated with 
the Khoshoit. 

523. vi. THE CH'OROS $p $| jjft. The sixth and last of the 
divisions of the Kalmuk tribes. 

524. CH'ING HAI MENG-KU Jf jg m , THE MONGOLS OF 
KOKONOR. 

The disintegration of the Western Mongols, as a result of 
the wars of the last century with Tibet and China, has caused 
repeated displacements to befall the various tribes, and has led 
to their being distributed under several distinct jurisdictions. 
Twenty-nine banners, all but one of which are of Kalmuk origin, 
are now seated in the region of Kokonor and on the northern 
borders of Tibet, in the territory anciently known as Tangut. The 
following is the list of the tribes of Kokonor, who are placed under 
the sway of the Imperial Controller General at Si-ning [see infra, 
No. 562]:- 

i. Khoshoit ... ... ... ... 21 banners. 

ii. Ch'oros ... ... ... ... 2 

iii. Khoit ... ... ... ... 1 banner. 

iv. Turgut ... ... ... ... 4 banners. 

v. Khalkha 1 banner. 

525. ALASEAN MENG Ku. pj jfc U H . THE MONGOLS 
OF ALASHAN. 

These are the tribes settled in the region north of Ning-hia 
in the Province of Kansuh and along the Western Bend of the 
Yellow River, extending as far as the western extremity of the 
Great Wall and the desert of Gobi. They are Kalmuks by 
descent. Four tribes, of those already enumerated above, have 
formed offshoots in the region tributary to the Prince of Alashan 
P6F Ji H $8 :> constituting 34 banners in all, distributed as 
follows : 



PART XI, MONGOLIA AND TUBKESTAN. 93 

i. Hsi T'AO OELOT HS)S^iF- The Oelots of the Western 
Bend of the Yellow River. 

ii. EDSINE TURGUT |g ^ fg ft jg ffi. The Turguts of 
the river Edsine or Edsinei. 

iii. TUBBBT Q: H $g ffi.A portion of the Turbet tribe. 

iv. KHOSHOIT fp flg % . As above. 

526. Yu Mu g| ffc. THE HERDSMEN TRIBBS. 

Under this designation the Chinese officially class the Mongol 
tribes who are placed under the direct government of the high 
authorities of the frontier, and especially the Ch'ahar, to whom 
the territory lying in immediate proximity to the Great Wall, and 
nearest to the imperial capital, was assigned after they had sub- 
mitted themselves to the Manchu conquerors of China. Unlike 
the Mongols of the Forty-nine Banners, they are denied the 
privilege of being ruled by titular elfin wang or Princes, but on 
the other hand they are organized under eight Banners on the 
same footing as the Manchu military forces. Their distinctive 
title of yu mu, or "nomade herdsmen," is derived from the 
interdict against engaging in agricultural pursuits, and their 
restriction to the pasturage of flocks and herds, which was imposed 
upon them by their new masters. Within their territory are 
situated the imperial pasturages, or mu cttang !$ Ijjf, upon which 
the herds and flocks specially pertaining to the imperial house- 
hold and the stud department are reared. A recent enumeration 
has given the number of about 100,000 horses, 7,000 camels, 
200,000 sheep, and 12,000 horned cattle, upon these pasturages. 
The following are the tribes coming under the category of the 
nomade herdsmen. 

527. CH'AHAR fg H jg.The Ch'ahar (or Chakhar) tribe. 
[See supra, No. 526, and infra, No. 550.] 

528. BARGU Q Hf Hf. The Bargu tribe. This tribe 
has been incorporated with the Ch'ahar, conjointly with whom, 
and a portion of the Oelb't and T'umed tribes, who have similarly 
been annexed to the Ch'ahar, they are placed partly under the 
control of the military Lieutenant-Governor residing at Kalgan 



94 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

[see infra, No. 550] and partly under that of the military Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Jeh-ho [see infra, No. 548]. 

529. URIANGHAI ,ft U $$. The tribes of Urianghai or 
Uriankai, the territory occupying the extreme north-west of the 
Chinese dominions, now placed under the administration of the 
Military Governor of Uliasutai [see infra, No. 552]. 

530. MINGAD gg Rg ^p. The Mingad, a small tribe of 
nomades, occupying the region north-east of Uliasutai. 

531. DJAKCH'IN L P Jft. The Djakch'in or Dzakhach'in 
tribe, a remnant of the Sungar nation, associated with the fore- 
going. 

532. <HASAK H $| *%. The Khassak (Cossack) or Kirghis, 
identified by the Chinese with the K'ang-kii |f| Jg of antiquity, 
and probably the same with the Kankal or Kankar of western 
geographers. In 1757, the Khan of the Kirghis tendered his 
allegiance to the sovereign of China, on the annexation of the 
territory of Sungaria being completed. Sung Yiin, in the work 
already quoted from, describes the region inhabited by the Kirghis 
as bounded on the north by the Russian possessions, and on the 
south-west by the land of the Buruts /f|j ^ <fj (known as the 
black Kirghis). They own allegiance, he farther observes, to 20 
ot'ok |1|5 fg jg, or chieftains. Their rulers are known as pi (pili) 
JJj, which he identifies with the term fj jjj or Beg. 

533. BURIAT flf Ifi Jf| 3$. The Buriat Mongols subject to 
Russia. Sung Yiin, in the work above mentioned [vol. i, p. 22], 
observes that the Buriats owning allegiance to Russia resemble the 
Khalkhas within the Chinese border. His remarks indicate an 
appreciation of the fact that Russian civilization had already in his 
time begun to take root among them. To the west of the territory 
occupied by the Buriats, he farther states, lie the Khariat H^ 1 |g 
Jf $j (? Kerait), who are of the same stock with the T'ang-nu 
Urianghai of the Chinese territory. 

534. DAM g| /. The Dam Mongols, occupying a portion 
of the frontier between Kokonor and Tibet, known as the 
region of Taaidam ^ gf 7^. This semi-savage branch of the 



PABT XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 95 

Moogol race, occupying in scattered settlements the northern 
fringe of the territory of Tibet, is probably that which is designated 
by the Tibetans " Sok-pa," or the people of the pastures (the Chinese 
yu mu). In this word "Sok" it might perhaps be possible to trace 
a relationship with the mu su or muk suk }=f ^J, the sweet clover 
or lucerne upon which the horses of Fergana were pastured, 
according to the reports of the earliest Chinese explorers of Central 
Asia. Ssu-ma Ch'ien, the father of Chinese history, relates that 
the seeds of this clover were brought back to China by the 
imperial envoys. 

,% The outline of the geographical distribution and political 
grouping of the Mongol tribes, which has been given as concisely 
as possible above, is intended to serve as an introduction to the 
list of titles by which their princes, nobility and other rulers are 
distinguished. For mo're minute details, the Institutes of the 
Reigning Dynasty p^jfif j^Jpl [Books 49 to 52], which have furnished 
the groundwork of all that precedes, may be consulted. Articles 
entitled the "Topography of Extra-provincial China," in the Chinese 
Repository [Vol. xx, p. 62] and "The Army of the Chinese Empire" 
[zfr., p. 336] have also been placed under contribution and are 
deserving of careful study. The following are the offices and ranks 
established among the various Mongol tribes : 

535. MENG CHANG SI j^. Captain-General of a chogolgdn 
(m&ng) or league [see ante, No. 50i)]. This office is bestowed by 
imperial appointment, on the recommendation of the Mongolian 
Superintendency. Each league of tribes is placed under the 
supreme control of such an authority, selected from among the 
leading chieftains (dzassaks) of all the tribes of the confederation. 

536. -Fu MENG CHANG glj g| g. Deputy Captain-General. 
One to each chogolgdn [as above]. 

537. DZASSAK ^ jgf j^J. CHIEFTAIN. 

This title, pronounced in Southern Mongolian as Djassak, 
appears to be a derivative from the Mongol verb dzassakho, to 
regulate or govern. With the exception of the tribes or portions 
of tribes, such as the Ch'ahar and the T'umed, as noted above, 



96 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

which are placed under the immediate government of Manchu 
generals, each Mongolian banner is ruled by a chieftain or noble 
bearing this generic designation. Among the Inner Mongols, the 
dzassak are classed in six ranks, commencing with that of Clfin 
Wang gj I, or prince of the first order, and identical in nomen- 
clature with the six highest ranks of the imperial nobility [see 
Part I, No. 17]. Among the Khalkhas and other tribes of the 
Outer Mongols, the dzassak of a banner may be of any degree of 
the six ranks above named, or merely a daidji^ or noble [see infra, 
No. 538]. The position is in some cases hereditary, in others 
conferred by imperial appointment. 

538. T'AI-CHI ^. Noble (Daidji). The daidji are 
hereditary nobles claiming descent from the founders of the 
Mongol sovereignty or from the Khans or titular " princes " and 
" dukes " of the various tribes. They correspond, consequently, 
in some respects, to the tsung-shih or imperial clansmen of the 
Chinese [see Part I, No. 29]. Among the Oelot tribes, the title 
tsai-sang ^ jjji was employed in the place of daidji for their 
hereditary nobles. Another term, noyen or noin g]J |, with the 
same meaning, was also heretofore in use among a small number 
of tribes. Four classes of the rank of daidji are recognized, of 
which the highest is on a par with the first of the Chinese official 
ranks, and so on in each class. A daidji of the first class may be 
the commandant or chief of a banner, in which case he is entitled 
to prefix the term dzassak [see above'] to his title, and he is invested 
with a seal of office issued by the imperial government. Daidji 
who are not endowed with official seals are subject to the authority 
of the dzassaks or chieftains of their respective banners. 22 

539. T'A-PU-NANG ^ ft ijf. Noble (Tabunang). This 
designation is confined to a portion of the T'umed and Kharach'in 
tribes alone, among which it stands as the equivalent of daidji 
[see above~]. 

22 A-ta-ha-haJan $$ j|f & P f||, meaning "hereditary official," is an 
honorary title given to Mongol and other non-Chinese functionaries as a reward 
of merit. [See WATTERS, Essays on the Chinese Language, p. 366.] 



PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 97 

540. HSIBH-LI T'AI-CHI {g J]| ^ . Administrator. This 
dignitary acts as assistant to the dzassak in the administration of 
the affairs of the Banner. Appointments are made to the position 
from the superior nobles of the Banner. 

541. KUAN CH'I CHANG CHING gf jg J ^.Adjutant. 

542. KUAN CH'I Fu CHANG CHING gfJJfglJJE SJ. Deputy 
Adjutant. 

The above offices are filled by selection from among the daidji 
or nobles of each banner. 

543. TS'AN-LING ^ g. Colonel. 

544. TSO-LING f fjt- Lieutenant-Colonel. 

These ranks are likewise filled by selection from among the 
daidji. The tso-ling has 150 adult males under his command, of 
whom 50 are reckoned as ma-chia j ^ or horse-soldiers, and 100 
as hsien san [#] ffc or unemployed. 

545. HSIAO CH'I HSIAO j& KF *. Subaltern. 



546. LING-TS'UI fg fjj. Sergeant. Six in each tso-ling's 
command. 

547. ORBADU f J ^f Q g. The bulk of the Mongol 
population is thus designated. All families are arranged in groups 
of ten, under a sliili-cliang ff ^, or decurion. For each group of 
three ting ~J~, or men of military age, one soldier's allowance 
(clda ^) is issued. 

Tlie Frontier Commands : 

The following are the titles of the chief authorities ruling the 
" extra-provincial " administrative divisions, under the supreme 
direction of the Li Fan Yuan, or Mongolian Superintendency [see 
Part II, No. 183]. At their head may be placed the "three 
Military Lieutenant-Governorships," of which two are associated 
with the Province of Chihli, being subject in civil matters to the 
control of the Governor-General of that province, and the third 
(Urumts'i), forming part of the Hi command, is similarly associated 
with the Province of Kansuh. They are as follows : 

13 



98 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

548. i. J_ HO TU-T'UNG gft M 85 $. Military Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Jehol. This large tract of country, embracing 
the easternmost region of the Mongol tribes, is organized in its 
southern section on the footing of a Chinese administrative division 
of the first class, under the name of CKeng-te Fu ^ |jg JjSf. An 
immense tract of country, several hundred miles in length, on its 
western side, is designated the Wei Cfcang |g :||, or Hunting 
Reserves, also called Mu-lan 7JC SB or muran, which during the 
earlier reigns of the present dynasty was periodically visited by 
the Emperor with a large military retinue, for purposes of the 
chase and martial exercises [see Part VI, No. 436]. Of late 
years, a population of Chinese squatters has largely encroached 
upon these reserves. The civil administration of the territory of 
Jehol, apart from the Prefecture of Ch'eng-te Fu, is conducted 
under the Military Lieutenant-Governor by secretaries of the 
Mongolian Superin tendency, entitled Li Skih Ssil Yuan 3:f!l|$fJJ J|, 
or Civil Commissary, and Li Using Sstt Yuan glJflJ p] H, Judicial 
Commissary. Sub-Prefects, or T'ung P'an [see Part III, No. 283], 
have of late been appointed for the control of the Chinese squatters 
in the Hunting Reserves. Secretaries of the Mongolian Superin- 
tendency are also employed as Collectors of Customs at four 
points (ssti shui |7t| U) on the Jehol border-line. 

549. ii. CH'AHAR TU-T'UNG H H ^f ffl $. Military 
Lieutenant-Governor of Ch'ahar (or Chakhar). This officer, 
residing at Chang-chia K'ou jj s|c P> the gate-town on the line 
of the Great Wall, commonly known as Kalgan, from the word 
kalga, or gate, in the Mongol tongue, conducts, with the assistance 
of the Fu Tu-t'ung, or Deputy Lieutenant-Governor, his colleague, 
the government of the Mongol tribes whose territory extends west- 
ward from the Great Wall to the desert of Gobi and northward to 
the land of the Khalkhas [see supra, No. 526]. The nomade 
herdsmen of the Ch'ahar and other tribes in this region are entirely 
subject to the rule of the Tu-t l ung ; but in civil matters relating to 
Chinese affairs within the Lieutenant-Governorship, as has been 
observed above, the Governor-General of Chihli exercises u 



PART XL MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 99 

superior jurisdiction. The Prefecture of Hsiian-hua Fu, lying 
between the Inner and the Outer Wall, is nominally part of the 
Ch'ahar command, but in practice it is administered on the 
ordinary Chinese territorial system, under the supervision of an 
Intendant bearing the title of K'ou Pei Tao p 4fc 3^f, residing at 
Hsiian-hua Fu. Three Civil Commissaries, Li Skill T^ung Chili [see 
Part III, No. 282], stationed respectively at Chang-chia K'ou 
Tu-shih K'ou, and To-lo-no'rh (Dolon-nor) on the Mongolian 
plateau, are jointly subject to this functionary and the Military 
Lieutenant-Governor. 

550. A-L-T'AI CHUN T'AI Rjf |J) ^ . The Military 
Postroad. The t Military Lieutenant-Governor of Ch'ahar is 
ex-officio Controller of the postroads, for the conveyance of govern- 
ment despatches and the transit of officials, which extend from the 
Great Wall to the Altai (RJ fj or fgf gf > Mountains, to 
K'urun, Uliasut'ui, etc. These roads, divided into c/ian j^, or 
stages, are served by detachments of Mongol tribesmen who take 
turns of duty at the chiln t'ai jf^c?, or military posts, established at 
each stage. To these posts, officials throughout the Chinese 
Government service are liable to be banished as the penalty of 
misconduct, but the service they are nominally required to render 
in expiation of the offence committed is in most if not in all cases 
commuted for a money payment, designated as t'ai fei Jf, the 
amount of which is fixed by law. The Mongol tribes along the line 
of route are required, in addition to detachments of guards, to 
furnish the necessary quota of animals for the post-service to and fro. 
Officials proceeding on duty beyond the Wall receive posting- 
orders, entitled K^an ho jg| 'g-, or tally-slips, from the Board of War, 
under whose general superintendence the courier service is placed. 

551. iii. URUMTS'I TQ-T'UNG ^ H 7^ ^ |f, gg Military 
Lieutenant-Governor of Urumts'i or Urnmch'i (Oroumchi). 
Subject to the control of the Military Governor of the Hi region 
[see infra, No. 557]. 

552. ULIASUT'AI CHIANG CHUN & g Jf U ffi 5. 
Military Governor of Uliasut'ai. This region, the seat of govern- 



100 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

ment of which is the town of Uliasut'ai in the territory of the 
Sain Noin Khalkhas, is the principal centre of the imperial 
authority as exercised over the Khalkha tribes. The Military 
Governor is invested with the special title of Ting Pien Tto Fu 
Chiang Chun / ^ {] Jjljf jji, which may be translated Vice- 
Warden of the Marches. In addition to the subordinate function- 
aries placed under his command [see below^ four Deputy Military 
Governors, entitled Fu Chiang Chiln g|J J|$ J|L, in the persons of a 
prince of each of the four tribes of the Khalkhas, assist the chief 
authority in the affairs of his government. Each of the four 
Mongol dignitaries takes a turn of residence, for three months at 
a time, at Uliasut'ai. 

553. ULIASUT'AI TS'AN-TSAN TA CH'EN ,ft SUfl H & ? 
5ft ^ 15 Military Assistant Governor. The Military Governor 
of Uliasut'ai is assisted by two subordinate functionaries under the 
above-named title, one of whom is appointed from among the 
Manchu dignitaries at Peking and the other from the Khalkha 
nobles. 

554. TING PIEN TS'AN-TSAN TA CH'EN g? g ^ g ^ g.- 
Assistant to the Warden of the Marches [see supra, No. 552]. 

555. K'OBDO TS'AN-TSAN TA CH'EN ffl ffi ^ ^ Jf ^ g. 
Military Assistant Governor, commanding at K'obdo. The 
Urianghai tribes of the Mongols are placed under the above 
jurisdictions, subject to the authority of the Military Governor of 
Uliasut'ai. 

556. K'U-LUN PAN SHIFT TA CH'EN Jj lira il # ^ g. 
Imperial Agent at K'urun (Urga). Associated with this high 
officer, usually a Manchu lieutenant-general from one of the 
Peking banners, is a Mongolian Pan Shih Ta C/Mn with co-ordinate 
authority in matters relating to the Mongolian tribes. The 
Imperial Agent at Urga is specially charged with the control of 
the frontier town of Kiakhta f^ ig @ and the trade conducted 
there with the Russians. The Manchu term ainban, equivalent to 
the Chinese designation Ta Ch^en, or High Officer, forming part of 
the title borne by the Imperial Agent and other functionaries of 






PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 101 

similar position, is frequently applied by European writers to the 
Chinese representatives in Mongolia and Turkestan. 

557. ILI CHIANG CHUN fj* *$ gf 5. The Military 
Governor of Hi. This title, to which a regard for analogy 
requires the above rendering to be given [see Part V, No. 367], 
would be more correctly translated by the term Governor-General, 
or Viceroy, of Chinese Turkestan. 23 The region of Hi is, properly 
speaking, the territory formerly occupied by the Sungar nation 
[see supra, No. 518], the final conquest of which dates from 1759, 
when the arms of K'ien Lung completed the destruction of the 
Kalmuk sovereignty and established his supremacy on either side 
of the T'ien Shan mountains. The territories of Sungaria, on 
the north, and of the Mahommedan cities (or Kashgaria) on the 
south, of this great range were divided into two vast provinces, 
entitled respectively, wUh reference to their position north and 
south of the mountains, the T'ien Shan Pel Lu J$ ill 4b IS an( l 
T'ien Shan Nan Lu ^tlj^SS, and designated generically as Hsin 
Chiang $f f{j, or the New Dominion, the supreme control of which 
was placed in the hands of a Military Governor. The first 
appointment to this post was made in 1764. Large bodies of 
Manchus were transferred to the Hi region as military colonists ; 
and a fortified town, adjoining the site of Kuldja on the river Hi, 
was built for the residence of the Military Governor and his 
troops. The name of Hui-yuan Ch'eng Jj[ Jf jfjj was given to 
this place. Five divisions (tui $fc) of military colonists were 
established in the Ili region, drawn from the following sources, 
viz. Manchus from the capital, Solon f| ^ Manchus from the 
region of the Amur, Sibe Hj fj Mongols from the Jehol region, 

n The whole of Turkestan has now been brought under ordinary civil 
administration, though to some extent the former military rule still exists. An 
Administrator has been appointed, who is at the same time Governor of Kansuh 
and resides at Ti-hua jfi f L Fu. There is a Provincial Treasurer resident in the 
same city, and Intendants of Circuit at Chen-hsi $J} H T'ing (who is also Brevet 
Provincial Judge), at Aksn Pgf ]g $fc, Kashgar $j \ f Rf| SJ and Ili $* 3$, 
having jurisdiction over two Prefectures, ten Independent Sub- Prefectures and 
four Independent Departments. There is a Commander-in-chief at Urumts'i and 
Brigade-Generals at Ili, Akau and Pa-li-k'un. 



102 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

Chahars, and Oelots [see supra, No. 518], each under the com- 
mand of a divisional General or Commandant [see infra, No. 559]. 
Toward the close of the reign of K'ien Lung, a large influx of 
population into the region of Sungaria was secured by encouraging 
the migration of Chinese from the provinces of Kansuh and Shensi, 
to whom extensive tracts of land were allotted. The majority of 
these settlers were of the Mussulman religion, which had taken 
root in Western China at a very early date, owing to the influx 
of Persian and Arab immigrants ; and they eventually formed in 
the Hi region a distinct nucleus of population, known to the 
Chinese simply as Hui Min gj J, or Mussulman subjects of the 
State, but designated by their neighbours of the Turki race by 
the name of Dungan or Tungani, a term the origin of which 
has not been ascertained. In the neighbourhood of Hi itself 
there further dwells a population of Mahommedans, known as 
Taranchi, the descendants of colonists transplanted from Kashgaria. 
This part of the population still retains its Turki language and 
other marks of alien extraction. The name Taranchi is said to be 
derived from taran, millet, and hence to signify a millet-grower 
or farmer. The Dungan or Chinese Mussulman immigrants, on 
the other hand, found their way not only into Sungaria but also 
into the region south of the T'ien Shan, where they mixed but did 
not harmonize with the indigenous population. Although pro- 
fessing the same religion with the Chinese Mussulmans, the 
Mahommedans of Kashgaria were descended from a different stock, 
that of the Turki or Uigur race. From this medley of nationalities 
have grown the conflicts of the last fifteen years, in the course of 
which the Chinese occupation of both Sungaria and Kashgaria 
became extinguished, Hi falling to the share of Russia, and 
Kashgaria being erected into a Mussulman Kingdom by the 
prowess of Yakub Khan, an adventurer from Kokand. He, with 
his adherents, became known to the Chinese by the name of " the 
Andijani," An-chi-yen g H Jig, from Andijan, the city of 
Kokand with which the most frequent relations have customarily 
been maintained from the side of Kashgar. Notwithstanding the 
expulsion of Chinese authority from the territories on either side of 



PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 103 

the T'ien Shan, ideas of reconqucst have never been abandoned, 
and a partially successful attempt in that direction has occupied 
the imperial forces for several years past. The following are the 
ranks of the military administration subject to the control of the 
Chiang Cliun of Hi : 

558. TS'AN-TSAN TA CH'EN J ^ ft g. Military Assistant 
Governor. One at Hi, one at Tarbagatai, one at Yarkand. 

559. LING Tui TA CH'EN PJ? ;fc g. Commandant of the 
Forces, at Hi, Tarbagatai, Ush, Yarkaud, Urumts'i Turfan, 
Guchen, and Kurkara Usa [see supra, No. 557]. 

560. FAN SHIH TA CH'EN i?#;JcI5- Agent, at Kashgar, 
Kharashar, Kuche, Aksu, Khoten and Hami. [See also No. 556.] 
561. HSIEH PAX TA CH'EN fg f$ ^ E5 and PANG PAN 
TA CH'EN |f gjf ^ g. Assistant Agent. At Ush and Hami. 

562. TSUNG Li CH'ING HAI SHIH Wu TA CH'EN | $ ff- 
|g *jj$ jjfr ft g. Imperial Controller-General of Kokonor. 
Invested with the control of the Mongol and Tangutian (fan |H) 
tribes of the Ch'ing Hai or Kokonor region. 24 [See supra, No. 524]. 

563. PO-K'E ff 5^. Beg. This title, universally in use 
among the followers of Islam, is employed among the Chinese 
Mahommedans of Turkestan and the region of Hami as a generic 
designation for the local chieftains. The legs under Chinese 
authority are classed in five degrees of rank, ranging from the 
third to the seventh degree of the Chinese official scale. The 
Mahommedans of the Hami and Turfan region, who are of Mongol 
descent, are distinguished by an organization similar to that of the 
Mongol tribes. Their chiefs are invested with the designation 
dzassak [see supra, No. 537], in addition to which the titles of 
Wang, beile, etc. are conferred upon them, as is the rule among 
the Mongols proper. The Mahommedans of other than Chinese or 
Mongol descent are commonly known as ch'an t'ou Hui-hui g 
Hit IU 5 or " turban-wearing Mussulmans." 

24 There is nlso an Imperial Commissioner for Mongolian Affairs resident at 
Niug-hsia * Ml in Kansuh, with the title tK 



104 PART XI. MONGOLIA AND TURKESTAN. 

The following are the most important among the titles and 
attributes of the Begs of different classes in Kashgaria : 

i. AK'IM BEG PJ irf TjvfiiJ 55- Local Governor. 

ii. ISHKHAN BEG fj^ff i^ fg }. Assistant Governor. 

iii. SHANG BEG BSffij5-~ Collector of Revenue. 

iv. KATSANATCH'I BEG Rf$l$R?i!f (&] Same as above. 

v. 'HATSZE BEG P&Kffijg. Judge. 

vi. MIRABU BEG J g$|| ;flj fg[ ^- Superintendent of Agricul- 
ture. [See M i jg (Description of Turkestan), B. VII.] 



PART XII TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 105 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

564. TIBET, or Thibet, which the progress of events during 
the last two centuries has converted into a dependency of the 
Chinese Empire, is known to the Chinese of the present day by 
the name of Tsang ^ or Hsi Tsang g|j |g. This appellation has 
superseded the term U-ssu Kuo J| flff g or U-ssu Tsang, by 
which the country was known under the Ming dynasty, from the 
indigenous designation Us Tsang, or U Tsang, signifying Central 
and Pure, at that time applied to it. The native sound of U 
appears farther to have been corrupted by the Chinese into Wei, 
whence the designation Wei Tsang jff jjfc has come to be used as 
the general geographical title for the entire country. The limits 
at present assigned to the* territory of Tibet occupy only a part 
of the ancient region of T'u Fan P ^, the people of which, 
known also by the name of Hsi Fan gg fg and T'ang-ku-te" f ^ 
^ (or J|* ~f ^J) i.e. Tangut, were for many centuries the dreaded 
enemies of the Chinese. The name Tibet, by which, since the 
days of Marco Polo, the country has been known in European 
geography, is represented in Chinese by the characters T'u-po 
T'e m fj[ ^J (T'udbod), intended probably to reproduce the sound 
of the appellation given to it among the Mongols. The Tibetans 
call themselves Bod, and their country Bod-jul (the land of Bod), 
a term the derivation of which has been variously interpreted by 
European writers, but which the Chinese appear to identify with 
Fo Kuo ffi @ (the land of Buddha). According to the legends 
preserved by indigenous records, the first germs of enlightenment 
and order were introduced into Tibet by offshoots of the race of 
Sakya, from which the founder of the Buddhist religion had 
himself earlier derived his descent ; and Srongtsan Gampo ^ $ 
JiJC ^ ^fjj, whose lineage is traced through seven generations to 
the first of the semi-mythical sovereigns of this line, became in 
the seventh century of our era at once the first acknowledged 
ruler of the entire land of Tibet, and also the introducer and 

vigorous patron of tho Buddhist religion among his subjects. He 
11 



106 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

took to wife, on the one hand, a daughter of the sovereign of 
Nipal Pal-pu Q 3l\ or Pa-pu-le Kito g ^|j ^J] gj, i.e. the 
Parbuttiya Kingdom and, on the other, the princess Wen Ckeny 
3C$S' daughter of the Emperor T'ai Tsung of the T'ang 
dynasty in China. This last-named alliance was contracted in 
A.D. 641. For many centuries his descendants, with the title 
of Gialbo in Chinese, Tsan-p'u ^ ^ continued to rule over 
Tibet, although in the course of time the temporal authority 
became encroached upon to a large extent by the pretensions of 
the Buddhist hierarchy which had gradually come into being. 
In the course of the eleventh century, in particular, the superiors 
of a religious association known as the Sakya in Chinese j^| jl/Jl 
monastery, originally founded under the patronage of a royal prince, 
began to usurp the exercise of exclusive powers of government ; 
and for some centuries later this priesthood appears to have 
wielded a predominant influence in the affairs of Tibet. Known 
at that period as at present by the name of Brugpa in Chinese 
written /ffj ^ T^ J the Sakya priesthood is also distinguished 
by the title of the Red Church Hung Chiao U Ifc from the 
colour of the vestments and headcovering they adopted. The 
primitive doctrines of Buddhism, already largely corrupted in 
Tibet, from the earliest period of its introduction, by Hindoo 
and especially Sivaitic forms of worship, were farther perverted 
among the Sakya priesthood by a deliberate departure from the 
rule of celibacy. Marriage was permitted among them with the 
avowed object of securing an hereditary transmission of power ; 
and magic arts in infinite variety and with unbounded pretensions 
to efficacy were professed among them as a means of ensuring 
their supremacy in the popular mind. A revolt against the 
corrupt and licentious rule of the Sakya priesthood took place at 
length in the fifteenth century of our era under the leadership of 
a reformer named Tsongkhaba in Chinese ^ B J born at Hsi 
Ning in A.D. 1417. The history of this earnest innovators 
career may be read elsewhere ; 25 for the purposes of the present 

25 See Die Lamaisclie Hierarchic vnd Kirclie, by C. F. KOEPPEN. Berlin. 1859, 
p. 109 et seq. 



PART Xll. TUiKT AND THE LAMA1ST HIERARCHY. 107 

sketch it suffices to observe that he preached with success in 
various parts of Tibet the necessity of a return to the primitive 
doctrines and observances of the religion of Shakyamuni, as an 
outward and visible sign of which he insisted on the adoption of 
the yellow robe and hat (yellow, or the colour of gold, being 
assigned in early legends to the founder of Buddhism) in lieu of 
the vestments of red which distinguished the ruling hierarchy. 
The preachings of Tsongkhaba were attended with remarkable 
success, and before his death, which, according to Chinese accounts, 
took place in A.D. 1478, he found himself widely acclaimed as 
the spiritual leader of the Lamaist majority. His reforms were 
welcomed and supported by the emperors of the Ming dynasty, 
who saw in them a means of extending their influence over the 
Tibetan people, more especially as the now discredited Sakaya or 
Red hierarchy had been staunch and favoured supporters of the 
descendants of Kublai, lately supplanted on the throne of China. 
The reformer left behind him two eminent disciples, upon whom, 
in the words of a Chinese chronicler, he u laid commands, enjoining 
" upon them that they should be born again, generation after 
" generation, as i lnd>il i han Uf- Jpt ^] ?jz, to practise the doctrines of 
" the Great Conveyance (Ta Ch'eng, Sanskr. Afahdydna, the esoteric 
" form of Buddhism)." The word ^hubil^lian signifies in Chinese 

/ O 

hua shen ([$ Jj. (i.e. transformed body, transformation, re-embodi- 
ment). The two disciples were called respectively Dalai Lama 
and Panshen Lama. 

From the period referred to above, the spiritual and a large 
portion of the temporal authority in Tibet, which had previously 
been engrossed by the Red hierarchy, was wielded by the succes- 
sive " re-embodiments " of Tsongkhaba's disciples, whose identity, 
on their reappearance in human form, has been merged, according 
to the legends that have subsequently arisen, in the personality 
of the two most exalted and revered of the divinities proceeding 
from the essence of the Buddha himself. In the senior of the 
two, the Dalai Lama, the BoJhisattwa Avalokiteswara (the 
Chinese Kuan Yin), is believed to appear on earth ; and in the 
person of the second the Bodhisattwa Manchusri is recognized, 



108 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

this deity having preliminarily occupied the form, it is also fabled, 
of Ts.ongkhaba himself. The second in succession of the Dalai 
Lamas, in the course of a long career, laid the foundation of the 
existing hierarchical system in Tibet, establishing his seat of 
ecclesiastical rule at Lassa, and organizing a body of lesser spiritual 
dignitaries, under the designation 'hut'ukht'u [see infra, No. 589], 
who, like the two supreme religious chiefs, were to be continued 
by a series of re-embodiments. Like the Dalai and the Panshen 
Lamas, these spiritual chiefs of the Tibetan priesthood became 
popularly known as " living Buddhas," in Chinese huo Fo }g $jj 
a term by which they are at present commonly designated. 

In the course of the latter half of the 17th century, the 
authority of the Dalai Lama having gained entire predominance 
throughout the greater portion of Tibet, the gialbos or descendants 
of the ancient kings appear to have gradually faded into insigni- 
ficance, whilst at the same time, under various pretexts, inter- 
ference in Tibetan affairs on the part of a succession of ambitious 
Mongol princes grew more and more direct. Already, at a some- 
what earlier period, Gushi Khan, in Chinese designated as gj $j ff, 
the reigning prince of the Khoshot Mongols, had supported the 
Dalai Lama of the period against the claims of the temporal 
sovereign, and had been rewarded for his fidelity to the hierar- 
chical cause with the title of Nomen 'Han Hf ff^ flp, or prince 
(Khan) of the Religious Law, an equivalent to the Sanskrit 
Dharma Raja. By the influence of Gushi Khan, the Dalai and 
Panshen Lamas were induced to despatch an embassy, in A.D. 
1642, with professions of respect and tenders of allegiance to the 
court of the Manchu sovereign, whose forces were then on the 
eve of effecting the overthrow of the Ming dynasty in China ; and 
from this period relations of intimacy took their rise, developing 
themselves in time into the assumption, on the part of the Chinese 
emperors, of the sovereign tutelage of the Buddhist papacy in 
Tibet. This consummation was hastened by the wars undertaken 
toward the close of the 17th and in the early part of the 18th 
century by the Sungar chieftains [see Part XI, No. 518] for the 
Subversion of the authority of the Dalai Lama. The temporal 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 109 

administrator who, as a regent under the Dalai Lama, had long 
conducted the government of Tibet, with the title of Diba, in 
Chinese ^2 or M E (** ru ^ er or chief) was invested by 
K'ang Hi in A.D. 1694 with the title of T'u-po-M Kuo Wang, 
or King of Tibet ; but the authority thus established was ere long 
attacked by an invasion of the Sungars, and the Chinese armies 
which were despatched hereupon for the liberation of Tibet 
remained as conquerors of the country. After an interval, during 
which the Government remained in the hands of puppet nominees 
of the Chinese sovereign, an outbreak directed against one of 
these gave the pretext for the appointment of two High Commis- 
sioners to control the affairs of Tibet on behalf of the Chinese 
government. This took place in A.D. 1725. Further attempts 
at revolt led, in A.D. 1750, to the entire suppression of the 
temporal sovereignty in ^Fibet, and the government of the country 
was placed, thenceforward, in the hands of the Dalai and Panshen 
Lamas, aided by a council of four laymen, entitled Kalon or 
Kablon, i.e. Ministers of State, under the direction in chief of 
the two Imperial Commissioners or Residents appointed from 
Peking. The government has from that time forward continued 
to be conducted upon this basis, the authority of the Chinese 
administration being rendered the more complete by the long 
minorities which are entailed at each successive "re-embodiment" 
of the two supreme ecclesiastical dignitaries. The territorial 
divisions, or provinces pu |J at present established, are four 
in number, and are named as follows : 

i. CH'IEN TSANG fltj JlJc, or Anterior Tibet. This section of 
the country, the easternmost, and therefore nearest to the Chinese 
frontier, is also known as K'ang jff , written by some geographers 
as Kham, and also known as Chamdo |pt fa ^. 

ii. WEI f|J or CHUNG TSANG rft jjgg. Central Tibet, contain- 
ing the seat of government, Lassn J $j, and the residence of the 
Dulai Lama, the great Monastery of Potala /ftj j|t J. 

iii. Hou TSANG ^ JJ3J. Ulterior Tibet, or simply Tsang, 
containing the seat of Government of the Panshen Lama, at 
Teshilumbo or Chashilumbu J(j ff- 



110 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

iv. NGARI pnf jg. Western Tibet. 

The following are the ranks and offices which remain to be 
considered : 

Chinese Administration in Tibet : 

565. CHU TSANG TA CH'EN g jgf ^ g. Imperial 
Resident in Tibet. With this high officer a colleague or Assistant 
Resident is associated, distinguished by the title of Pang Pan Ta 
Cfren ^?$ff;*:15. Both Resident and Assistant Resident are 
commonly selected from among the superior officers of the Manchu 
Banners, and are placed under the direction of the Li Fan Yuan 
or Mongolian Superintendency [see Part II, No. 183], but with 
the duty of memorializing the Throne direct on all questions of 
importance. They likewise correspond on a footing of equality 
with the Governor-General of the adjacent Chinese Province of 
Ssiich'uan, whence the troops constituting the Chinese garrison 
and the officers of the Chinese civil administration in Tibet are 
detailed. The provincial exchequer of Ssuch'uan is charged, 
also, with the expenses of the Chinese occupation and government 
of Tibet. Among his other duties, the Imperial Resident acts as 
the medium of relations between the Chinese Government and 
the Court of Nepal, which is known to the Chinese as |!ft fjf R |3, 
or the Kingdom of the Ghorkhas, the people and products of the 
country being at the same time designated Pai-pu Q ^jj or Pa-pn 
E / ftj> i" t P&rbuttiya. For the conduct of correspondence with 
the Tibetan and Nepalese authorities, he has on his staff a u Secre- 
tary for Native (lit., barbarian) Affairs"- 7 Cluing Chang-clung 
J(f *|R ]JL JrJ ' Appointments to the principal civil and military 
offices of the Tibetan Government and Hierarchy are made on 
nominations submitted to the Throne by the Imperial Residents, 
who are also invested with the supreme command of both the 
Chinese garrison troops and the Tibetan soldiery, or Fan ping fH . 
The Imperial Institutes provide for a corps of about 1,500 officers 
and men, detached from the provincial forces of Ssuch'uan, 
who are distributed at various points in the Tibetan territory. 
The Tibetan soldiery, consisting principally of village militia, 
undrilled, and armed only with the most antiquated description of 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. Ill 

weapons, is officially reckoned at a force of 64,000 men, of whom 
14,000 are described as cavalry. For the commanders of these 
forces [see infra, Nos. 579-583]. Through the four Ministers or 
Kalon [see infra. No. 567] the Imperial Residents control the 
entire Tibetan administration. 

566. LIANG T'AI |^f. Commissary. Of this rank three 
Chinese officials, belonging- to the class of Sub-Prefect or Assistant 
Magistrate, are stationed at Lassa, Tashilumbo, and Ngari, where 
they act both as paymasters of the Chinese forces and as deputies 
of the Imperial Residents in all matters concerning Chinese 
interests in Tibet. They are relieved, according to regulation, at 
the expiry of two years' service. 

Secular Administration in Anterior Tibet: 

567. KALON (!YABLON) fij| /fjf ^. Councillor of State. 
The secular affairs of Tibet are administered by a Council com- 
posed of four Ministers under the above title. The majority of 
the incumbents of this office, who act under the immediate 
supervision of the Imperial Residents, are laymen, receiving their 
appointment by decree from Peking on nomination by the 
Residents, and becoming ex-ofido invested with the third degree 
of Chinese official rank. The superior officers of the Tibetan army 
are eligible for the post of Kalon. The Council Chamber is 
designated Ka Hsia Jig Jjf. 

568. SHANG SHANG ]gf . The Treasury. This depart- 
ment, presided over by the Kalon [see above], has the supreme 
control of all matters relating to the collection of revenue and 
secular affairs in general in Tibet. 

569. TSAI-PENG ff ^.Councillor of the Treasury (first 
class). Three in number ; invested with the 4th degree of Chinese 
official rank. 

570. SHANG CHODBA jgj ^jL & E- Councillor of the 
Treasury (second class). Two in number ; rank as above. 

571. YERTs'ANGBAUBf^EJ. Controller of the Revenue. 
Two in number ; 5th rank. 

572. LANGTSAIHIA gR ff $g'. Controller of Streets and 
Roads. Two ill number ; 5th rank. 



112 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

573. HIERBANG $ Hf ^. Commissioner of Justice. Two 
in number ; 5th rank. 

574. SHEDIBA S| $$ gj. Superintendent of Police. Two 
in number ; 5th rank. 

575. TAPENG g| J$. Controller of the Stud. Two in 
number ; 6th rank. 

576. CHUNG Yi rft pp. Secretary of the Council. Of 
two ranks, having the characters ta ^ (great) and hsiao /J> (lesser) 
respectively prefixed the title. Invested with the 6th and 7th ranks. 

577. CHONIR tji /g fjf. Secretary (second class) of the 
Council. Three in number ; 6th rank. 

578. DIBA ^ E or ^ B-~(a). Commissioner. This 
title, signifying in Tibetan one who rules or is chief, was borne 
during the 17th and 18th centuries by the secular delegate of the 
Dalai Lama, in whose name he wielded the government of the 
country. (&). District Governor or Headman. Thirteen func- 
tionaries of this description are recognized in the Imperial Institutes. 
They are divided into six classes, each with special functions, such 
as superintendents of revenue, of cattle, etc. etc. 

Military Ranks : 

579. TAIPENG ] Jf. Commandant. Six in all. This, the 
highest military position, is invested with the 4th degree of 
Chinese rank. The sound was formerly denoted by the characters 
ftl 3$ tai-pSn. 

580. JUPENU #fl ?$. Commander of 200 men. 5th rank. 
Twelve in all. 

581. KIAPENG ^ i^. Officer of the 6th rank. Twenty- 
four in all. 

582. TINGPENG g* 2^. Officer of the 7th rank. One 
hundred and twenty in all. 

583. FAN Mu ||| @. A generic designation for Tibetan 
officers of all ranks, both civil and military. Appointments of 
officers to the subordinate military ranks are made, according to 
regulation, by selection from among the scions of the ancient 
native nobility or aristocracy ^ ^, known by the name of 
Tongkhor )g ^ fg. [See * ffi * A * ffi, Book 741.] 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 113 

The Lamaist Hierarchy : 

584. LAMA JifjJ (jjjSjc. This designation, applied to all members 
of the priesthood observing the forms of Tibetan Buddhism, is 
derived from a Tibetan word which, according to the Chinese, has 
the meaning of ivu shang $& ,h, i.e. " unsurpassed " or '* without 
a superior." 

585. DALAI LAMA g| jgf pflj U$c. One of the joint pontiffs 
of Tibet \*ee belong. The word dalai or tale in Mongolian signifies 
''Ocean," and corresponds to the Tibetan word Djamts'o or 
( Aamfc'o, which, in the combination Cheptsun Djamts'o Rinpoctte, 
or Venerable Ocean Treasure, constitutes the proper title of this 
dignitary. As already remarked above [see supra, No. 564], the 
Dalai Lama is regarded as the re-embodiment which is assumed 
by the spirit of one of Tsougkhaba's two disciples, and at the 
same time as an incarnation or Avatar of the Bodhisattwa 
Avalokiteswara. Having engrossed in their own hands, as already 
narrated, the temporal power in Tibet, successive Dalai Lamas of 
the last century were recognized by the emperors of China as the 
supreme pontiffs of the Yellow Church OfSfiifclf H), and the 
utmost veneration has been manifested toward their successors 
up to the present moment. Their residence is fixed at Mount 
Potala ;ftj g| ^ (one of the three sacred mountains of this name, 
the original being situated, according to Buddhist legends, in 
India, and the third, known in Chinese by the name of P'u-t'o 
Shan^p^jjj, forming the well-known island of monasteries on 
the coast of Chehkiang), near Lassa pfj ^|, the chief city of 
Anterior Tibet. At this place, the ancient capital of the kingdom, 
are situated the Ta C/iao ^ g{ and Hsiao Chao >J\ gj> or Greater 
and Lesser Temples (c/tao in Tibetan signifying monastery or 
shrine), which date from the period of the Chinese alliance in 
the seventh century. Ta Chao, in particular, is celebrated 
as containing a famous effigy of the princess of the house of T'ang, 
now worshipped, together with her consort from Nepal, among the 
chief divinities of the Lamaist pantheon. [See supra, No. 564.] 

The succession to the office of Dalai Lama occurs, as already 
mentioned above, by a process of " re-embodiment." For some 

15 



114 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

centuries, and until within comparatively recent times, the rela- 
tives or surrounding of each successive pontiff contrived, by 
more or less open acts of fraud, to indicate after his decease the 
individual whom it suited them to select as the new Avatar. In 
order to obviate proceedings of this kind, which had more than 
once brought forward persons distasteful and dangerous to the 
suzerain power, the Emperor K'ien Lung ordained, in A.D. 1792, 
that for the future both the succession to this august office and 
also the appointment to other spiritual dignities of a similar 
nature [see infra, No. 589] should he determined by the drawing 
of lots. At the decease of each Dalai Lama, accordingly, when, 
like all members of the class endowed with the privilege of 
successive births, he is said to have " entered upon the perfection 
of repose" (yuan chi |J] ^), enquiries are made by the priesthood 
with reference to miraculous signs (ling i f|||S|) which may have 
been observed in attendance upon the birth of children at about 
the same period. Particulars of the required kind are always 
duly procured ; and these are transmitted in proper form to the 
Imperial Residents at Lassa. After scrutiny of the documents 
and report being made to Peking, a certain number of the children 
are brought with their parents to Lassa. Here, on an appointed 
day, their names are inscribed on slips of wood, which, after 
being carefully sealed, are deposited in the "golden urn" (chin pen- 
pa p'ing $* 7JC (3 j$0> prescribed by the regulation instituted by 
K'ien Lung. The name drawn forth from the urn is hailed amid 
universal rejoicing as that of the new incarnation, and the Dalai 
Lama is declared to have " come forth in re-embodiment " (cA'w, 
'Jntbil'Jidn JJJ Of |J! ^Jj^p, from a Mongol word signifying "bodily 
transformation " or metamorphosis ; in Chinese hua slicn f^ ^). 
After a short period of instruction, the newly acclaimed pontiff, 
at the age of perhaps two or three years, is solemnly enthroned 
(tso ch'uang ^g $fc), and during his long ensuing minority he 
remains, as a matter of course, a puppet in the hands of the 
Chinese Imperial Residents. 26 

26 For a detailed account of the selection and enthronement of the Dalai 
Lama reference may be made to a paper by the author, entitled " Illustrations of 
the Lamaist System in Tibet," in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. IV, Part I, 1869, 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 115 

586. PANSHEN ERDENI LAMA Jg p jf |jf ^f, Jg flfl] !$.- 
One of the joint pontiffs of Tibet [see above]. Joint heir with 
the Dalai Lama of the spiritual inheritance derived from Tsong- 
khaba, the Panshen Erdeni is believed by the Tibetans to be 
worthy of the higher degree of adoration, his office and functions 
being less contaminated by worldly cares and influences. To him 
is confided the maintenance of the purity of religious doctrine, 
as to the Dalai Lama is attributed the temporal governance of the 
Tibetan realm. His title signifies "The Precious Teacher" 
(Panchen or Banshen=the Indian Pandita, and Erdeni in Mon- 
golian being the equivalent of the Tibetan word Rin-po-cht, 
signifying Treasure). His residence is at Tashilumbo ^ ff" ^ ^|J, 
or the Mountain of Blessings, a city lying at a distance of 700 li 
or about eight days' journey to the westward of Lassa. Here the 
Panshen Lama presides pver an administration entirely composed 
of ecclesiastics, sharing with the Dalai Lama the headship of the 
Yellow Church, but mixing little, if at all, in questions of secular 
administration. Succession is contrived, at each ensuing decease, 
by the same device which is applied in the case of the Dalai Lama 
[see above]. The sixth in succession of the Panshen Lamas, 
Lobtsang Tanishi by name, was persuaded by the Emperor K'ien 
Lung to undertake the journey to Peking, in order to take part 
in the festivities on His Majesty's 70th birthday, in A.D. 1780 ; 
and it was for this dignitary's special reception that the vast pile 
of buildings at Jchol, the emperor's summer retreat, was con- 
structed on the model of those occupied by the Panshen Erdeni at 
Tashilumbo. An attack of small-pox carried off the illustrious 
visitor toward the close of the year ; and whilst his remains were 
solemnly escorted back to Tibet, a magnificent mausoleum was 
erected within the precincts of the temple he had inhabited during 
his stay at Peking, in which the robes of the deceased pontiffs are 
enshrined. 

587. NOMEN 'HAN fg fiJ ^.Regent, or Dharma Raja. 
This is a title which, with sundry distinctive epithets, has long 
been customarily bestowed upon eminent supporters of the Lamaist 
hierarchy. The expression is rendered in Chinese by the charac- 



116 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMA1ST HIERARCHY. 



ters Fa Wang 3l, or u Prince of the [Religous] Law, or True 
Faith " equivalent to the Sanskrit Dhdrma Raja ; and the first 
recorded instance of its bestowal was in the case of Gushi Khan, 
the celebrated Khoshoit sovereign, who placed, in A.D. 1613, the 
Dalai Lama in possession of the temporal sovereignty of Tibet 
[see supra-, No. 564]. The Imperial Institutes record numerous 
instances in which this title was conferred, in the course of the 
18th century, upon a succession of ecclesiastical dignitaries, under 
whose direction the Tibetan Council appears to have been placed 
during the repeated minorities of the Dalai. It became customary, 
also, to bestow a mimj hao fa 8' or t^le f honour, such as that 
of Galdan Siret'u Rj|lff ;fHi Pf H|, together with the office of 
Bakhshi J 5^ fj* (in Mongolian, Teacher or Preceptor, the 
Chinese Shih ffj|j, or Samadi Bakhshi (apparently from the Sanskrit 
Samadhi, absorbed in contemplation), upon the Regent thus 
appointed. The power which was consequently wielded by 
successive dignitaries of this class led to their receiving in popular 
parlance the title of Tsang Wang 9@S3i, King (or feudatory Prince) 
of Tibet. The appointment of functionaries of such elevated rank 
as this at length terminated in 1844, when the Regent, shortly 
after the visit to Lassa, which has been graphically described by 
the Abbe Hue, was accused of treasonable designs and lawless 
conduct in many respects, and, having been made a prisoner, 
degraded, and unfrocked by an imperial decree, was banished 
to the Amur. Allowed to return to his native place, on the 
borders of Kansuh, he died in 1854 ; and an application lately 
made for the recognition of his " re-embodirneut," said to have 
appeared on the spot in the person of a lad now aged 17, has 
been negatived in pursuance of the decree of 1844, by which he 
was " forbidden forever the privilege of appearing again on earth 
in human form." [See Peking Gazettes of July 25th, August 
29th, and September 7th, 1877. See also infra, No. 595.] 

588. K'AN-PU Jg ;$. Abbot. The title bestowed upon 
the chief ecclesiastic of all Lamaist monasteries. By a decree 
of A.D. 1792 it was ordained that in the case of all K'an-pu 
enthroned (tso ctiuang ^ JJC) in the larger class of monasteries 



PART XII. TIBitT AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. lit 

appointments should be made by the joint authority of the Dalai 
Lama and the Imperial Residents ; the smaller class alone were 
to be left to the appointment of the Dalai Lama himself. An 
envoy, with presents by way of tribute from the Dalai and Panshen 
Lamas, who is sent annually to Peking, is selected from among 
the k l an^pu of the Tibetan monasteries. He is designated in 
Chinese by the title Erch'in gg f$f jify a representation of the 
Manchu word signifying Envoy. 

589. 'HuT'UKHT'u Df EH 3j5 E]. Saint. This class of 
dignitaries, to which the Dalai and Panshen Lamas themselves 
belong, may be said to constitute the most marked and essential 
feature of the Tibetan form of Buddhism. Derived from a 
Mongolian word which is interpreted in Chinese as signifying 
tsai lai jen fj 3| A> *'* one wno returns again, an Avatar the 
'hut'ukht'u supply, in thejir successive re-embodiments, that trans- 
mission of authority in safe or chosen hands which the enforcement 
of a strict rule of celibacy might otherwise render impracti- 
cable. Confined, at the outset, to the territory of Tibet proper, 
the appearance of 'hut'ukht'u rulers has gradually overspread, 
with the Lamaist form of worship, the whole of Mongolia. 
According to traditional theory, the spirit of each 'hut'uif /it'll 
reappears, on his decease, in the person of some newly-born infant, 
and thus " comes forth re-embodied " (ch l u 'hubil'han), as has 
already been described above [see supra, No. 585]. The number 
of 'hut'ukht'u recognized in the Imperial Institutes, and registered 
by the Mongolian Superintendency, is 160 in all. These are 
distributed as follows : in Tibet, 30, including 12 who are known 
by the distinctive appellation of shaburung J^J ^(3 || ; in Northern 
Mongolia, 19 ; in Southern Mongolia, 57 ; in the Kokonor region 
of Tibet, 35 ; and in Chamdo, on the Ssuch'uan border, 5. At 
and near Peking there are, finally, 14 representatives of the class. 
The special token by which they are identified, at the time of 
their re-embodiment, is the faculty of recalling events or of recog- 
nizing objects connected with the history of their preceding 
existences. With one exception, that of the Ch'akhan Nomen 
'Han [see infra, No. 595], the system of drawing lots from the 



118 PART XII, TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

golden urn (chin p'ing <j* )fjj), according to the politic rule introduced 
by K'ien Lung [see supra, No. 585] is enforced in the case of 
each succession. The 'hufukhtfu are familiarly known as huo 
F VS 0P/ or living Buddhas. 

590. SHABINOR J$ H %$ |ff .The designation applied 
to members of the Lamaist fraternity, undistinguished by any 
special rank. 

Ecclesiastics of the Government of Ulterior Tibet: 

591. CHI-CHUNG LAMA ffi fft pj] P$C. Chief Councillor. 

592. SUI-PENG LAMA g| 3$ jj$j| nj$c. Lama of the second 
degree. 

593. SHEN-PEN LAMA |ji ft gj 5$. Lama of the third 
degree. 

594. CHONIR LAMA Jp, /g Iff 8$J 5. Lama of the fourth 
degree, 

# '% The above ranks are filled by the appointment on the 
part of the Imperial Resident, on nomination proceeding from 
the Panshen Erdeni Lama. The functions discharged by the 
respective individuals are not specified in the Imperial Institutes 
['/ * ft t" ft 9 ffl, B. 742, p. 18]. 

595. CH'AKHAN NOMEN <HAN @ ^ |g fj ^. The title 
enjoyed by the hereditary chieftain of one of the banners of 
the T'umeds, claiming descent from Manchusri 'Hut'ukht'u, a 
spiritual counsellor sent by the Dalai Lama, about A.D. 1580, to 
assist his warlike patron, Altan Khahan (Khan), the celebrated 
chieftain of the Ordos tribes. This dignitary and his re-embodi- 
ments were long established at Koku 'Hotu, the modern Sui-yiian 
Ch'eng, where they enjoyed, with reference to the colour appro- 
priate to the Bodhisattwa Manchusri, the above title, signifying 
White Prince of the [Religious] Law, rendered in Chinese as 
Pai Fo Q f$, or White Buddha. The policy of the early 
sovereigns of the present dynasty led to the displacement of this 
spiritual potentate, who was compelled to remove with his tribe 
to the region south of the Yellow River, and to pass under the 
control of the Imperial Commissioner of Kokonor. Attempts on 
the part of the Ch'akha'n Nomen 'Han of the period to recross 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 119 

the Yellow River in 1820-1821 rendered military operations 
against him necessary, and since that period the tribe has con- 
tinued submissive, its ruler wielding great influence at the same 
time over all the Mongol and Tibetan population of this wild 
region. A decree of A.D. 1794 makes an exception in favour of 
the Ch'akhan Nomen 'Han with regard to the principle of re- 
embodiment, which is allowed, in his case only, to be restricted to 
members of the same family, on the alleged ground of his being 
a dzassak, i.e. wielding temporal as well as spiritual authority. 

596. CHEPTSUNDAMPA 'HUT'UKHT'U ff >$ 9 ft* B Bf~ H 
3n HI- l' ue ti^ assigned to the Metropolitan or Patriarch of 
the Khalkha tribes, ranking third (I.e. next to the two joint 
pontiffs of Tibet) in degree of veneration among the dignitaries of 
the Lamaist church. The title takes its rise from the 'hut'ukht'u, 
commissioned in A.D. ^1604 to take up his abode among the 
Mongols of the North-west, where his authority was transmitted 
by re-embodiment in the person of a younger brother of the Khan 
of the T'ushet'u tribe. In A.D. 1688, at a time when the 
Khalkhas felt no longer able to contend successfully against their 
adversaries the Suugars [see supra, No. 564], it was proposed in 
council to seek refuge under the Russian sovereignty. The 
'Hut'ukht'u, on being appealed to as umpire, decided against this 
proposal, in view of the fact that protection of the Yellow Church 
was not to be looked for in that quarter : and the Khalkhas upon 
this tendered their allegiance to the emperor K'ang Hi, by whom 
territories were assigned to them and rank and titles were bestowed 
upon their chiefs. [Sung Yiin, Vol. I, p. 19.] Since this period 
the successors of the Cheptsuudampa 'Hut'ukht'u have been 
treated with high respect by the Chinese Court, although measures 
were taken, during the reign of K'ien Lung, to forbid the con- 
tinuance of the succession as an appanage of the family of the 
T'ushet'u Khan. The residence of the 'Hut'ukht'u, whose authority 
is recognized as supreme by the T'ushet'u and Tsetsen Khanates, 
is fixed at K'urun jjji f^j (Urga), where he acts as the spiritual 
colleague of the Chinese Imperial Agent [see Part XI, No. 556]. 
The title he bears is derived from the Tibetan words Cheptsun 



120 PART XII. TIBKT AND THK LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

(venerable) and Dampa (sacred). To this the Sanskrit appel- 
lation Taranatha, signifying " resplendent divinity," is added, 
whence the title of Taranatha Lama is derived as a common 
substitute for the official designation. By the Mongols the 
patriarch is also frequently referred to as Maidari 'Hut'ukht'u 
(from Maitreya, the Messiah of Buddhism). He is likewise 
described as Gheghen (i.e. the Great) 'Hut'ukht'u. 

597. CHU CHINO LAMA g ft Jj$i] 5g. The Lamaist Or- 
ganization in and near Peking. 

In furtherance of their policy of ensuring the control of the 
Mongolian tribes by means of ecclesiastical influences, the Chinese 
sovereigns of the reigning dynasty have been profuse in the 
establishment of Lamaist places of worship and official dignities 
in Peking and throughout the adjacent region. The emperors of 
the Ming dynasty had indeed set an example in this respect, 
introducing the indecent Sivaitic effigies worshipped in Tibet, 
which are known to the Chinese as Huan-hsi Fo fpj g $$ (i.e. 
Buddhas of Delight), into the palace itself ; but the patronage 
extended to the Yellow Church by K'ang Hi and his descendants 
is conceived upon a far more extensive scale. Vast Lamaist 
communities have been founded at Jehol and Dolon Nor Jn 
Inner Mongolia, and at Wu T'ai Shan in the province of Shansi, 
where a famous temple dedicated to the Bodhisattwa Manchusri 
attracts annually crowds of pilgrims from all parts of Mongolia, 
as well as in the imperial capital itself. At the imperial mausolea, 
likewise, lamaseries are established, at which services are con- 
tinually performed in honour of the deceased sovereigns. The 
following are the principal dignitaries and other members of this 
branch of the Lamaist Hierarchy : 

598. CHANG-CHIA 'HUT'UKHT'U ^ ^ Df ffl }E -~The 
Metropolitan. This dignitary is the acknowledged re-embodiment 
of a 'hutfukht'u despatched, under the same title, to represent 
him near the Chinese Court toward the close of the 17th century 
by the Dalai Lama of that period. Received with profound 
respect by the Emperor K'ang Hi, he was assigned a residence at 
Polon Nor ^ Jg (or fg f$f), in the territory of Jehol, with 



PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 121 

powers of spiritual control over the Mongols of Ch'ahar ; and he 
enjoyed the special favour likewise of the prince who afterwards 
reigned with the title Yuag Cheng. This sovereign converted 
the palace appropriated to his use whilst heir apparent into a 
vast and gorgeous monastery, which still retains its name of 
Yung Ho Kuny ^| ^p ^, conferred upon it during his occupancy ; 
and, by decree of the Emperor K'ien Lung, the successor of the 
original Chang-chia 'Hut'ukht'u removed his residence from Dolon 
Nor to this place. Here the ceremony of drawing lots from the 
golden urn is performed in the case of all such 'hufukWu us do 
not fall within the jurisdiction of the Tibetan government ; and 
State services are performed under the direction of the Metropo- 
litan, who is said to chang chiao ^ |?J, or wield supreme religious 
sway. The principal 'fyutfukkFu of the metropolitan organization 
are enumerated below, in the order assigned to them by decree 
in A.D. 1786 : 

599. MlNCHDR 'HUT'UKHT'U gfe f Df g| ^ H. 

600. GALDAN SIRET'U 'HUT'UKHT'U fig |fj ft ] |g ng ij 

#%< 

601. CHILUNG 'HUT'UKHT'U jg g Df H 3t> IB- 

*%The foregoing all take rank in precedence of the tsung 
k l an-pu {g ^ ^jf, or abbots-in-chief of the imperial lamaseries. 
Eight other dignitaries of the same class, headed by the Tungkhor 
M ?4 Hf *Hut'ukht c u, are enumerated as dwelling at or near 
Peking, beside two at Dolon Nor. [^ } ^ J(L, B. 52, p. 25.] 
The remaining ranks of the Lamaist Hierarchy are as follows : 

602. CHANG YIN DZASSAK TA LAMA ^ PP fL @ ^g ^ 
ifU ft- Grand Chancellor of the Lamaseries [with seal of office]. 

603. Fu CHANG YIN DZASSAK TA LAMA ||J ^jt ftj ^ 
^H 5S ^C ffil 5^. Vice-Chancellor [as above]. 

604. DZASSAK LAMA fti @ ^ ^Ij !$. Rulers or Superiors 
of lamaseries. N.B. Dzassak signifies a ruler or chieftain [see 
Part XI, No. 537]. 

605. DA LAMA g| jj$|j IJ]J. Prior of a lamasery. This 
dignitary is invested with the control over the management and 
16 



122 PART XII. TIBET AND THE LAMAIST HIERARCHY. 

services of the monastery to which he belongs, subject to the 
commands of the dzassak lama of the locality. 

606. Fu DA LAMA g|J g| gj ft. Vice- Prior. 

607. HSIEN SAN LAMA gj ffc !$]J ft. Lamaist clergy 
[without special office, but ranking above the grades mentioned 
below] . 

608. T:E-MU-OH<I jg ?[C ^. [Mong. dimch'i.] Steward 
of a lamasery. The dimcfri lama, subject to the authority of the 
prior [see above] attends to all the secular affairs of the monastery. 
Also written ^ TfC ^ 

609. KE-SSU-KUEI |g. Jg Jg,. [Mong. Gitkhui or Gibhui.] 
Precentor. Conducts the choral services. 

610. KE-LUNG |. R. Gileng (Gylong). Priest of the 
first order. 

611. PAN-TI g ||. Bandi. Priest of the second order. 

612. SHA-PI 4. Shabi. Novice. 



123 



APPENDIX. 



SECTION I.-CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 



THE present work would be incomplete without some general 
outline, at least, of the system under which the ranks of the 
Chinese official administration are organized. The bureaucracy 
which forms the most active and important element in the national 
life of China is a subject, indeed, not easily to be dealt with in a 
narrow compass. As the outcome of the history of two thousand 
years, and inspired with traditions descending from periods of 
fabulous antiquity, the huge fabric which is revered as the 
depository of all honour and all authority may well be thought 
capable of defying attempts at analysis on any but the broadest 
scale. Such particulars, at the same time, as are needed for a 
general comprehension of the methods pursued in the existing 
organization, the results of which it has been sought to elucidate 
in the preceding sections of this work, may nevertheless be briefly 
assembled. The Chinese official hierarchy, as it is found esta- 
blished in the Ta Ts l ing Huei Tien, or Collected Institutes of the 
Empire, is in all its leading features a continuation of the system 
gradually established under the Ming dynasty, whose tenure of 
power was marked, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries of our 
era, by the introduction of the principle of universal competition 
for literary degrees as the means of obtaining access to rank and 
office, and by the mapping out of the territories of the Empire in 
the divisions which still, for the most part, subsist. In Part IX 
of the present work the method by which advancement is obtained 
in the various degrees at the official Examinations is categorically 
set forth ; and it now remains to elucidate, with the help of the 
details afforded by the Institutes, the system of classification 
ordained for the ranks of the public service. 



124 SECTION I. CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 

Under the head of shih chin ft jf| or the "official career," it 
is laid down that the privilege of ch'u shen JJJ Jj^, or " advance- 
ment " in other words, of public employ may be obtained from 
eight different starting-points, which may be enumerated as follows, 
with references appended to those passages in the body of the 
present work in which they have been severally dealt with : 

\.-Chin Shih Jg . Metropolitan Graduate. [See Part IX, 
No. 473.] 

ii. Chu Jen ^ \. Provincial Graduate. [See Part IX, 
No. 472.] 

iii. Kung Sheng jf . Senior Licentiate. [See Part IX, 
No. 471.] 

iv. Yin Sheng JH . Honorary Licentiate. 
The holder of a certificate granted in consideration of services 
rendered to, or suffering undergone on behalf of, the State by a 
progenitor of the person thus distinguished. According to the 
circumstances of the case, the holder of such a certificate is termed 
either 6n yin sheng gi Jfc fe or nan yin sheng |g Jj [tee Part 
VIII, No. 455]. 

v. Chien SMng jfjj fe. Collegian of the Imperial Academy 
[see Part II, No. 247]. Distinguished as fin SMng Jgl , 
receiving the degree after an examination, and Li SMng fJJ , 
obtaining the same privilege by purchase, according to the now 
almost invariable usage. 

vi. Sheng Yuan Jt~- Licentiate. [See Part IX, No. 469.] 
vii. Kuan Hsueh Sheng If /. Pupil of the Banner 
Schools pertaining to the Manchu military organization, or of the 
schools established for the benefit of imperial clansmen. 

Yiii.JK !. Government Clerk. [See Part VIII, No. 456, 
Note.] 

The two higher classes of graduates, the chin-shih and chu-jen, 
are collectively designated as k l o chia ch'u sMn $& 9 ffi it \. 8ee 
Part IX, No. 467], and these, with the two next following classes, 
take rank in what is officially designated the cheng t'u j J*js, or 



SECTION I. CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 125 

" proper path," i.e. the duly constituted avenue of advancement. 
By courtesy, also, the remaining classes, candidates from which 
obtain employment through the system of pao chu -JJjJ J^, or 
" recommendation," i.e. selection by competent authority, are also 
recognized as having entered the public service on a similar 
footing. A subsidiary means of obtaining rank and office, the 
dittan shu fj| ft or purchase-system, which has now almost hope- 
lessly overshadowed the "proper path," although recognized in 
the Institutes and periodically resorted to since the days of the 
Ming dynasty, owes the prodigious development it has now arrived 
at to the necessities imposed on the Government by the first war 
with Great Britain and, a few years later, by the outbreak of the 
Taiping rebellion. The year 1843 saw the introduction of a sale 
of official titles, to a limited extent, which furnished a precedent 
for the extension of the system throughout the Empire by a decree 
dated December 13th, 1850, sanctioning proposals to this effect on 
the part of the Board of Revenue. 27 Immense sums of money 
have been obtained, since that period, by the sale of patents of 
rank or of steps of advancement in actual employ ; and although, 
as a result of this policy, the Empire has been flooded with hosts 
of titular officials, beyond all proportion to the needs of the public 
service, it is undeniable that in some respects advantage has 
accrued from it to the public interest. The purchase-system, 
whilst admitting thousands of corrupt and incapable persons to 
official positions, has at the same time opened avenues of advance- 
ment to a class which is unfettered by literary traditions and 
prejudices, and has tended to weaken the hold of the narrow 
maxims of antiquity upon the conduct of public affairs. 

In continuance of the regulations enacted under the Ming 
dynasty, the existing system classifies all civil and military offices 
under nine degrees of rank, or, more properly, under eighteen, 
inasmuch as each rank or class (pHn ,g,) is divided into principal 
(cheng j) and secondary (ts'ung |). To these must be added a 

27 Ch'ou Hsiang Shih Li || ||jjj ^jj ^J j Memorials and Regulations of the 
Board of Revenue, 1860. 



126 SECTION I. CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 

nineteenth, or supplementary, class, embracing some of the lowest 
offices, to which the name of wei ju I'm ^ A. 8E (^- " the 
stream-not-yet-entered ") is assigned. A distinction, something 
analogous to which may be discovered in the Russian institution 
of the trhin, is drawn between rank, thep'in jg, as above mentioned, 
with its accompanying office, or chili J$j|, and the actual post or 
official charge, jen f, to which appointment may be obtained. 
Although the three conditions are co-ordinated, in theory, by a 
series of minute regulations, rank and official employ are practically 
distinct and may be held irrespectively one of the other. The 
rank prescribed by regulation for the incumbent of each separate 
office is indicated as concisely as possible, in the body of the 
present work, by combinations such as la, Ib, and so f6rth, for 
the t principal " or " secondary" degrees of each of the nine 
classes. For the nineteenth or supplementary class, referred to 
above, the equivalent " unclassed " has been adopted. 28 

Once invested with office in any degree of rank, as the result 
of competition or purchase, a Chinese official is placed upon the 
list of candidates for employment in the category to which he has 
been admitted, unless, indeed, as now habitually occurs, he has 
purchased a simple brevet (lisien Hf) without pretensions to official 
employ. Whether admitted to his official position by competition 
or by purchase, the candidate is required to seek presentation in 
imperial audience (yinchien | JjJ) before his claim for employment 
is recognized by the Board of Civil Office or of War, as the case 
may be. This formality having been accomplished, the candidate 
takes his turn in the periodical " drawings" which are held in 
the course of each month at the offices of the Board, when the 
province of the empire in which each individual among the succes- 
sive batches of candidates shall serve is determined by lot. When 
nominated in this wise to a provincial staff, the candidate, be he 
District Magistrate, Sub-Prefect, or Prefect by rank, on presenting 

28 Besides the nine buttons in common use there is a tenth, called Pou p'in 

ting tai n& Itt Y|f ^ or highest of all, bestowed on eminent officials. The 
*^*% (JM '->* 3%*y 

possessor, it is said, wears a red button of the 1st rank without the usual silk loop, 



SECTION I. CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 127 

his credentials to the local government, is enrolled upon the list 
of "expectants " (the hou-pu-pan $5||jj JJE), and resigns himself to 
a period of unattached service which may last for a considerable 
number of years. During this period of expectancy, however, a 
variety of forms of temporary employment, in connection with the 
judicial or revenue administration or upon special missions, are 
accessible to the class of unattached officials, who discharge the 
duties confided to them in this manner under the generic designa- 
tion of wei yuan ^ J|, or delegates. From this expectant stage, 
the duration of which may be abridged by purchase or by recom- 
mendations on account of special services, the candidate at length 
emerges into substantive employ, which is prefaced by a year of 
probation (s/iih yung ^ ffl)> ma ^e obligatory in all ranks from 
that of Intendant of Circuit (Taotai) downwards. Above the 
rank of Taotai, beyond which the operation of purchase scarcely 
extends, the system of " expectancy" ceases to operate, officials of 
the higher grades being either in continuous active employ or in 
retirement. This last-named condition is frequently brought about 
by means of a striking peculiarity of the Chinese system, in 
accordance with which every official is liable to be withdrawn 
from active service by the death of either of his parents. On the 
occurrence of such an event he is required by a stringent regula- 
tion to retire at once for the observance of the mourning rites 
(ting yu ~~f g) during a period of nominally three years, in reality 
twenty-seven months. On the part of Manchu officials, the national 
custom restricts this period of mourning to one hundred days. 

Among the many devices which have been introduced in the 
Chinese system, with indifferent success, to provide a check upon 
corruption and misconduct, two may be especially noticed here. 
One of these is the rule prohibiting civil employes of whatever 
degree, with the exception of the local directors of instruction, 
from holding office in their native provinces ; and another is the 
practice of vacating office by the junior of two relatives who 
may be brought into contact with each other, within certain 
prescribed limits, in the same provincial area. This is designated 



128 SECTION I. CHINESE OFFICIAL RANKS. 

hui pi 33 5H, "respectful withdrawal" in the presence of a 
superior. 29 When to these checks upon the tenure of office is added 
the virtually uncontrolled power which is wielded by the provincial 
governor over his subordinates of the class of ti-fang kuan jjj J} 
1=f, or "local authorities," i.e. the Prefects, Sub-Prefects, and 
Magistrates or Assistant Magistrates of various degrees, in the 
exercise of his functions of "impeachment" or "denunciation" 
(ts l an lie |j| ^jf), as a result of which wholesale removals or 
degradations continually occur, it will be seen that the position of 
a Chinese official, especially in the lower ranks, is at all times 
eminently insecure. 

With the foregoing particulars respecting the structure of 
the public service in China, the indications embodied in the several 
parts of the present work may be found the more readily avail- 
able. For a host of questions relating to minor details, such as 
cannot fail to suggest themselves to the student's mind, there 
can be no escape from the necessity of consulting the stores of 
information classified in the Ta Cli'ing Hui Tien and its vast 
appendices. 

29 The junior of the two relatives is customarily transferred to an equivalent 
post in an adjoining province ruled by the same Governor-General. [See Peking 
Gazette. April 25, 1895.] 



DISTINCTIVE COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 129 



SECTION II. THE CHINESE SYSTEM OF DISTINCTIVE 
COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 

AN element of Chinese composition, due in part to the structure 
of the language itself, and in part to the rigorous formality of 
its written style, is the " elevation " of characters by different 
degrees as a means of indicating respect or reverence in varying 
gradations of importance. This graphic expedient takes the place, 
in fact, of the employment of either capital letters or a more 
conspicuous form of type in alphabetic languages, for the repre- 
sentation of honoured names or ideas ; and, whilst its significance 
is infinitely more extended than any of the devices in vogue for 
the expression of respect, either at present or in past times, in 
Western countries, the* system is applied under circumstances and 
subject to rules which cannot be safely ignored by any student of 
the language. 

The canon according to which the elevation of the written 
character is regulated is laid down with much minuteness in the 
K l o Cfcang Tiao Li ^ ^ ^ {ft, or Kules for the Literary Ex- 
aminations ; but it is needless to undertake, for the purposes of 
the present work, any more than a condensed analysis of these 
prescriptions. The principle upon which the system is based 
may be most readily explained by premising that, as the ordinary 
method of writing in Chinese consists in the arrangement of 
characters, one after the other, in vertical columns, each column 
being, under ordinary circumstances, complete from top to bottom, 
respect is indicated by the elevation of certain characters to the 
top of the column next ensuing after the context, or to still higher 
positions above the general level, as the case may be. Passing 
over, for the moment, the most ordinary token of respect or 
courtesy that of position two spaces above the general upper plane 
the official system of elevation is found to be divided into three 
categories, indicative of as many degrees of respect or veneration . 
The three categories thus formed are distinguished as those of 

17 



130 SECTION II. THE CHINESE SYSTEM OF DISTINCTIVE 

te single," "double," and " three-fold" elevation, these terms 
denoting the height above the ordinary level of the column to 
which the character is raised. Respect for the person and 
attributes of the sovereign and religious veneration for super- 
natural powers may thus be indicated, as also the sentiments of 
the same nature which are cherished on the part of imperial 
personages themselves with reference to their ancestors or elders 
and to the powers of Nature and the deities whom they worship. 
The several categories, collectively designated as t'ai hsieh } J|J or 
Vcd t l ou J^ g|j, may be described as follows : 

I. TAN T'AI J f^. SINGLE ELEVATION. 

The raising of the character by one space above the general 
level is employed in referring to the abodes of Majesty, the Imperial 
Court, the attributes of government, proceedings by which the 
sovereign is addressed, and supernatural powers or beings of a 
secondary order of importance, together with the places at which 
their worship is conducted. The following examples are selected 
for the purpose of illustrating each of these subdivisions of the 
present category, the syllable representing the character elevated 
being printed in small capitals : 

i. The Abodes of Majesty : 

CH'AO f The Court. 

CH'UEH |J The Imperial palace. 

CHINQ Shih ]g gfi The Imperial capital. 

RUNG g The Palace. 

RUNG men g PJ The Palace portals. 

TIEN T'ing )g g The Halls of the Palace. 

_ r f The Examinations held in the Palace 

TiEKShh |g I* { [, Part ix, No. 467]. 

TAN Pi ^ 131 Tne Throne and its approaches. 

FENG Ch'en ffi Jg The Dwelling-places of Majesty. 

SHENQ Ching g ^ The capital situated in Manchuria. 

Tzu Chin Ch<en* 3fe&J The Red P rohibited Cit ^ < the 

23 ^*i> XJTv s4Ai i i . \ 

i Imperial precincts). 



COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 131 

YuAN-ming Yuan |U gfj g| The Summer Palace. 

ii. Attributes of Government : 
RUN Chia [g % The State. 

TT- mf I=FI a fThe constitution, or dignity, of the 

J\.UO _L 1 UyCi HE* *\ 

\ State. 

Kuo K'o g yfL The revenue. 

KUNG Ling Jft <> The laws. 

iii. Proceedings addressed to the Sovereign : 

CHIN jg To offer, present. 

CHIN Kung Jf| J{ To make tribute-offering. 

KUNG W u R $J Articles of tribute. 

m 4 p g ^, f To report (in a certain prescribed 

* t form). 

Tsou J To memorialize, report to the Throne. 

# % With reference to the character tsou, it should be noted 
that, when used in combination with the character teen ^, forming 
a compound signifying "to report for the sovereign's information," 
its position is a matter of some uncertainty. The character wen 
being naturally raised by two spaces [see Shuang T l ai, below], 
the tsou which precedes it is seen by some writers to be singly 
elevated, as usual, whilst others leave it undistinguished in the 
column (chili hsieh jj| g). The following examples, taken from 
different memorials in Peking Gazettes published in close succes- 
sion, will serve to illustrate both this anomaly in actual practice 
and also the system of elevation itself: 

n H 

* m m m m 

si mi 

mi i 

i i 

i i 



When used in connection with the character ming, to form 
the compound verb tsou ming j| fj)], signifying " to make report 
to the Throne," no elevation is given to the character. 



132 



SECTION II. THE CHINESE SYSTEM OF DISTINCTIVE 



iv. References to Supernatural Powers : 



SHEN 



jjjf 



CHIANG Shen ft jjjjf 
Huo Shen Miao ^ W M 

SHIH Ying Rung BJ H| *g 



NIEN Hsiang 



The gods or spirits. 

manifest interposition of the 
gods. 

The God of the River. 
Temple of the God of Fire. 
( The (imperial) Temple of Season- 
\ able Response to Prayer. 

To offer incense. 
It should be farther noted that in all reproductions of or 
quotations from imperial decrees of a reigning sovereign, the text 
of the decree is raised by one place in the document in which 
it is embodied. For the text of decrees of deceased Emperors, 
see below. 

II. SHUANG T'AI f| jg. DOUBLE ELEVATION. 

This distinction is allotted to characters which refer to the 
person, attributes, or actions of the reigning sovereign or his con- 
sort, as will be seen from the following examples : 



TA HUANG Ti 
HUANG Ti 
HUANG SHING 
SHANG 
HUANG Hou 
SHENG KUNG 
T'IEN YEN 



jg 






-A 



SHANG Yu 
HSUN SHIH 
Yu YUN 
Yii LAN 



H. M. the Emperor. 
do. do. 

do. do. 

His Majesty. 

H. M. the Empress. 

The imperial (sacred) person. 

The celestial countenance. 
/ The celestial favour, His Majesty's 
1 grace. 

^ n Imperial decree. 

Imperial instructions. 

His Majesty's assent. 

His Majesty's perusal. 
f An expression of the imperial will 
1 a rescript or edict. 



COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 



133 



CHU Pi 

P ; i CHUN 

MING 
WEN 

CHAO CHIEN 
Pi CHIEN 
Pi T'zu 

CHIN 
CHIN CHIEN 

CH'IN P'AI 

CH'IN CH'AI 
P'AI CH'U 

WANG MING 



a* 
stm 



MM 



(The Vermilion Pencil equivalent 
* to the u sign manual." 
f Assent, or ratification, by the sign 
I manual. 

His Majesty's commands. 

His Majesty's information. 

To summon to audience. 

To have audience. 

To have audience on departure. 

{To have audience (when coining 
from a distance). 
As above. 

Imperially appointed. 
An Imperial commissioner or envoy. 
To appoint. 

| The sovereign's mandate (i.e. 
\ death-warrant). 



By means of this double elevation of the character, the same 
effect is arrived at in Chinese as is produced in Western languages 
by prefixing honorific epithets to the title employed. Thus huang 
sliang j|l J^, written simply in the ordinary column (as is the 
case in decrees issued in the names of the Empresses while acting 
as Regents), must be translated simply as " the Emperor ; " but 
Huang Shang, elevated according to rule, is fully equivalent to 
" His Majesty the Emperor. " 

An application of the same system, practically established, 
although not recognized as yet by any formal canon, is employed 
for the purpose of designating with a proper degree of respect the 
countries with which China is now in diplomatic relation. Thus, 
Yiny Kuo j$u Q, set forth in the body of the column, may mean 
England, English, British ; but Ying Kuo or Ta Ying Kuo ft 
3^ PU, elevated two places above the line, in correspondence with 
Ta Citing Kuo ft j|f gj, the designation of the Chinese Empire, 
conveys the meaning of Great Britain as a sovereign state, or 
" the British Government." 



134 SECTION II. THE CHINESE SYSTEM OF DISTINCTIVE 

It is important to observe that the double elevation of the 
character set forth above, and others of the same class, is confined 
to references to the reigning Sovereign or his consort, on the part 
of those from whom a token of respect is due. Such characters, 
when used in decrees of the Emperor himself, with reference 
to his own person or acts, or in decrees issued by Empresses 
Regent, are not exalted ; but when employed in decrees with 
reference to his Majesty's predecessors on the throne (to whom 
reverence is due even from the Emperor himself) they are elevated 
three spaces, in conformity with the principle upon which the 
following and last remaining category is based. 

The character Ch'in ^ is not elevated in the combination 
CA'm T'2w$(|{fc, which is appended with the signification " rever- 
ently this [received] " at the conclusion of all rescripts or decrees 
when copied out by the clerks of the Grand Council of State. 
The phrase forms no part of the decree itself, and should not be 
translated " Respect this ! " as is often erroneously done. 

III. SAN T'Ai^JS- THREEFOLD ELEVATION. 

The respect which is due from the sovereign himself toward 
his ancestors or predecessors of the Imperial line, and their places 
of sepulture, his guardians during minority, and the powers of 
nature and other objects of imperial worship, together with the 
temples or altars at which this worship is celebrated, is typified by 
the exaltation of characters to the third degree above the general 
plane. The following are examples of this form of usage : 

i. Imperial Ancestry and Places of Sepulture : 

LIEH Tsu ^Ij jjffl The earliest Imperial ancestors. 

LIEH TSUNQ ^lj jfj The Imperial ancestors. 

SHENG | His Sacred Majesty. 

HUANG K'AO Ji| ^ IMy] Imperial father. 

( To " ascend upon the dragou to be 

LUNG Yu SHANG PmUBLfcSi < a S uest on hi ^' t said on the oc ~ 

I casion of an Emperor's decease] . 



COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 135 



T'AI SHANG HUANG ft ^/ His Ma J est ? the Em P eror who has 

( abdicated the Throne. 

HUANG T'AI Hou g ft Jg H. M. the Empress Dowager. 
Tzu KUNG ffi g The Imperial sarcophagus. 

LING CH'IN g ^ The Imperial mausoleum. 

Hui LING g ^ / Name of one of the Im P erial 

I mausolea [see Part I, No. 130]. 

ii. The Powers of Nature and Places of Worship: 

T'IEN 5^ Heaven. 

Ti jfo Earth. 

f The five Temples at which imperial 

CHIAO T'A $K M J sacrifices are offered to Heaven, 

Earth, the Sun, the Moon, and the 
L Spirits of the Land and Grain. 
T'AI MIAO fc ^ The Imperial Ancestral Temple. 

f The Temple of the Great Exalted 
One [the chief place of worship 

for th <- e divinities p of the Taois ;; 

(^ pantheon]. 

,% All those characters having reference to the Emperor's 
person, acts, etc., which, when used in connection with a living 
Sovereign, are doubly elevated, are honoured with threefold 
elevation when used with reference to a deceased sovereign. 



RESPECTFUL ELEVATION IN CORRESPONDENCE. 

Distinct from the official categories of elevation, and yet 
partaking of the same nature with these, is the system pursued 
in forms of courtesy in correspondence, whether public or private, 
between individuals. Respect is shown in correspondence of this 
kind by elevating the name or attributes of the person addressed 
to the second space above the general level of the column (shuang 
t l ai). Persons of rank superior to the writer are similarly 
honoured when referred to in correspondence. 



136 



SECTION II. THE CHINESE SYSTBM OF DISTINCTIVE 



A practice has grown up in the semi-official correspondence 
between the Chinese Foreign Office and the representatives of 
foreign Powers, in view of the constant occurrence of passages 
requiring respectful elevation, in accordance with which all 
references to the individual addressed, on either side, are merely 
raised to the head of the column (p'ing f'ai *p JjJ). The following 
is an example of this method : 



- A 






ft 



Both in this style and in that of ordinary correspondence all 
references to the person or attributes of a Sovereign necessitate 
elevation in accordance with the usual r,ules. 

In the issue of Proclamations, characters referring to the 
imperial person, court, etc. are similarly elevated in accordance 
with the rules set forth above. References to superior authorities 
are dignified by elevation to the head of the column (p l ing t l a 



An additional token of respect for individuals of superior 
rank is found in the practice of leaving a blank space, equivalent 
to one character, immediately following the name of the official 
referred to, when this is raised, with its accompanying title, to 
the head of the column. In cases where respect in a modified 
degree may be due to any official person, whose name is not 
entitled however to actual elevation, the desired result is obtained 
by leaving a blank space above the first character of his official 
title in the body of the column. 



COLLOCATION OF CHARACTERS. 137 

In printed books, where it is important to economize space, 
the degree of "elevation" to which a character is entitled is fre- 
quently indicated by a blank space extending over a corresponding 
number of characters within the column. The courtesy of 
" elevation, " it may also be noted in conclusion, is not extended 
to the sovereigns of dynasties preceding that which is actually 
upon the throne. 



18 



138 SECTION III. FORMS OF OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 



SECTION III. FORMS OF OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

As in all other matters connected with the public service, the 
forms of correspondence between officials is the subject of minute 
and rigid regulations. The executive body is subdivided, as with 
western nations, into two great categories Civil and Military. 
The relations of civil officials with civil officials, of military 
officers with military officers, of civil with military and of military 
with civil, are all carefully provided for, as well as the intercourse 
between higher and lower functionaries of the same category. 

It is only, however, the written communications of one with 
the other that are here to be considered, and it may be useful to 
catalogue briefly the forms these written communications assume, 
Officials of whatever category occupy between themselves three 
positions ; they are either (A) Equal in rank, when the equality 
is perfect, as Governor-General and Governor ; or (B) Sub-equal, 
when the difference in degree is too slight to be taken advantage 
of, as Brigade-General and Colonel ; or (C) Subordinate, when 
either the lower official is under the direct orders of the higher 
or is of decidedly inferior status, as Provincial Treasurer and 
Prefect. 

A. (1) The form 1-wen | <$ is used between the following : 
Governor- General and Governor, or vice versa. 
Commander-in- Chief and Brigade General > or vice 
vers. 

Lieutenant- Colonel and Major, or vice versa. 
First Captain and Second Captain or vice versa. 
Lieutenant and Ensign or vice versa. 

(2) The form Tzu ^ is used between :- 

Tartar General and Commander-in-Chief, or vice 
versa. 



SECTION III. FORMS OF OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 139 

B. (1) The form Chao-hui Jg f? is used from : 

The Six Boards to the Provincial Treasurer or the 

Provincial Judge. 

Assistant Salt Comptrollers to Prefects and Magistrates. 
Brigade-Generals to Colonels, not under their 

command. 

Colonels to Captains under their command. 
Lieutenant- Colonels and Majors to Captains not 

under their command. 

Captains to Lieutenants not under their command. 
Prefects to their Secretaries and Archivists. 
District Magistrates to District Jail Wardens. 

(2) The form Tzu-ctteng ^ gl is used from : 

Provincial Treasurer or Provincial Judge to the 



Colonels to Brigade-Generals, whether their com- 

manding officers or not. 

Majors to Colonels, if not their commanding officers. 
Captains to Lieutenant- Colonels or Majors, if not 

their commanding officers. 
Lieutenants to Captains, if not their commanding 

officers. 

(3) The form Shou-pen ^ $ is used from : 

Assistant Salt Comptrollers to /Safa Comptrollers or 

to Departments of the Six Boards. 
Colonels to Majors not under their command. 

0. (a) Superiors addressing Subordinates : 
(1) The form C7ia ^w gj -fj is used from :- 

Provincial Treasurers to Prefects and Magistrates. 

(2) The form Ku-tieh gfc is used from : 

Provincial Judge to Prefects and Magistrates. 
Prefects to the Commissary of the Seal and to 

Officers of Education. 
Magistrates to Prefectural Jai7 Wardens. 



140 SECTION III. FORMS OP OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 

(3) The form P'ai-piao ^ ^ is used from : 

Prefects to Department Magistrates. 
Department Magistrates to District Magistrates. 

(4) The form Kuan-wen [fj| 5j is used from : 

Prefects to Subprefects. 

District Magistrates to Subdistrict Magistrates. 

(5) The form Tieh J^ is used from : 

Prefects to Assistant Subprefects. 

District Magistrates to Deputy Assistant Magistrates. 

(6) The form P'ai ^ is used from : 

Commander s-in- Chief to Colonels and lower ranks. 
Brigade- Generals to Colonels and lower ranks under 

their command. 
Lieutenant- Colonels and Majors to Captains under 

their command. 

Captains to Lieutenants under their command. 
Lieutenant- Colonels, Majors and Captains to all 



) Subordinates addressing Superiors : 
(l)--The form Tieh-cJMng ^ S is used from : 

Prefects and Magistrates to a Provincial Judge or to 
an Assistant Salt Comptroller. 

A Commissary of the Seal to a Prefect. 

Officers of Education to Prefects and Magistrates. 

Prefectural JaiV Wardens to District Magistrates. 

(2) The form S^rc TFen $ is used from :- 

Prefects and Magistrates to a Provincial Treasurer. 

Department Magistrates to Prefects. 

District Magistrates to Department Magistrates. 

(3) The form C'<% 4g is used from : 

Secretaries, Archivists, Deputy Assistant Magistrates^ 
Subdistrict Magistrates and District Jail 
Wardens to Prefects. 



SECTION in. FORMS OF OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. 141 



(4) The forms Hsiang Wtn p $ or Ch'eng Wen g $ 
may either of them be used from : 

Colonels and lower ranks to Commander s-in- Chief. 
Lieutenant- Colonels and below to their own Brigade- 

General. 

Majors to their own Colonels. 
Captains to their own Lieutenant- Colonels and 

Majors. 
Lieutenants to Lieutenant- Colonels, Majors or their 

own Captains. 
Ensigns to superior officers from Captains to Lieu- 

tenant Colonels. 

It was stipulated in the Treaty of Nanking that foreign 
officials addressing Chinese officials of equivalent rank should use 
the form Chao-hui flg |^, but that when corresponding with 
authorities of a higher degree than themselves should employ the 
form Shen-ch l en ^3 |^ . By an arrangement resulting from the 
Chefoo Convention, this implication of subordination was abandoned, 
and the Chinese Government agreed that Consular Officials should 
in future address and be addressed by all Chinese officials, irrespec- 
tive of rank, in the form Chao-hui. It will be seen from the 
information given above that the Chao-hui form does not imply 
absolute equality; it will be noticed further that none of the 
Chinese officials using this form are similarly replied to by the 
persons they address. The conclusion to be drawn is that though, 
by purely native use, the desired equality is not understood, still 
.the practice which prevails in this country of both giving and 
receiving the Chao-hui form of communication virtually secures 
to the foreign official the equality in question. 



142 SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 



SECTION IV.-CHINESE RENDERINGS OP 
EUROPEAN TITLES. 



I. Titles of Sovereigns and Rulers. 30 

QUEEN OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. Ta Ying \_Kuo] 
Ta Chim Chu ^ ^ [@] ^ g" . [In the Treaty of Nanking, 
1842, and the Treaty of Tientsin, 1858, the term Ta Ying Chim 
Chu ^ jj ?f i was employed as the equivalent of Her Majesty's 
title ; and this precedent, as introduced in the rendering of the 
Treaty of Nanking, has been followed in the translation of the 
words " King " or " Queen " in the majority of the treaties 
negotiated with European Powers. In order to bring the title of 
Her Majesty more into harmony with that of the Emperor of 
China described as Ta Cfcing Ta Huang-ti ^ jf| ^ H ffi the 
phrase was slightly altered in the rendering of the Convention of 
Peking, 1860, thenceforward standing as it is given above, i.e. 
with the addition of the word Ta or "Great" to the characters 
Chun Chu.] 

EMPRESS OF INDIA. Yin-tu Hou Ti p g Jp ^, [Creden- 
tials of Kuo Sung-tao, Envoy Extraordinary to Great Britain, 
October, 1876.] 

EMPEBOR OF THE FRENCH. Ta Fa Kuo Ta Huang-ti ft 
& H Jt H: *$? [French Treaty of Tientsin, 1858.] 

PRESIDENT or THE UNITED STATES. Ta Met Kuo Ta Po- 
li-hsi-rien-tS ^ | ^ ^ f 3} || ^ =& [Additional Articles 
signed at Washington, 1868. The rendering of " President " by 
the phonetic compound given above was originally adopted at the 
negotiation of the first United States' Treaty with China in 1844, 
and it has continued subsequently in use as the recognized equi- 
valent for the title of the elected Rulers of republican (min chu 
Si i) communities. The designation selected for the United 

10 These are invariably elevated by two spaces above the general level (shuang 
t'ai). See Part II, ante. 



SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 143 

States, in the Treaty of 1844, was Ho Chung Kuo & Jg gl,- 
a term adopted with the view of expressing the Federal character 
of the United States' administration ; and in the Treaty of Tien- 
tsin, in 1858, the rendering was expanded into the following 
characters : Ta A-mei-li-chia Ho Chung Kuo ^ 5S St 31 Si 
& ?$. H- This unwieldy compound has now, however, been 
abandoned in favour of the designation employed in 1868.] 

CZAR OF RUSSIA. Ta Ngo-lo-ssii Kuo Ta Huang-ti ^ fj| 
$! S? OH ^C i?. *$' [Treaty of Peking, 1860. In the translation 
of the Treaty signed at Tientsin by Count Putiatin, in 1858, the 
term employed is Tzii Chuan Cliu Q jj ^f, by which, apparently, 
" Autocrat " is meant to be rendered. In the concluding article 
of the same Treaty the expression Sheng Chu Huang-ti I8| ^ JJI 
^ (Sacred Lord and Emperor) is applied to the sovereigns of 
both the contracting Powers.] 

GERMAN EMPEROR. Ta Te Kuo Ta Huang-it ^ ^, g 
^ Jfl *flf. [Employed in correspondence since the assumption of 
the above title by the King of Prussia. The character Te Jg, 
adopted as the national designation for Germany, is an abbrevia- 
tion of Te-i-chih ^ ||f J[g, employed as the phonetic rendering of 
the word Deutsch (German) in the Treaty signed at Tientsin in 
1861. In this instrument the King of Prussia is designated as 
Ta Pu Kuo Chun Chu^^^^^ .] 

EMPEROR-KING OF AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Ta Ngao-ssu Ma- 
chia Kuo Ta Huang Shang ^cftS?^SuH^:^. [Treaty of 
1869. In this instrument the compound " Ma-chia " is employed 
as an equivalent of u Magyar-orszag," or Hungary.] 

KING OF DENMARK. Ta Tan Kuo Ta Chiln Chu ^ ^J g| 
*S. [Treaty of 1863.] 

KING OF THE BELGIANS. -Ta Pi Kuo Ta Chiln Chu ^ jfc 
S ^C S i- [Treaty of 1865. In this instrument, Pi-li-shih 
ib jfl) H$ is adopted as the rendering of Beige or Belgique.] 

KING OF THE NETHERLANDS. 7 a Ilo Kuo Ta Chun Chu 
I ; 1? : [Treaty of 1863. In this instrument the 



144 SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 

older designation Ho-lan ffi jfjtf, formerly in use as the equivalent 
of " Holland," was superseded by the character given above.] 

KING OF SWEDEN AND NORWAY. Ta Jui-tien Kuo No-wei 
Kuo Ta Chun Chu ^ $g J& g| gft g g| ft %* ^. [Treaty of 
1847.] 

QUEEN [or KING] OF SPAIN. Ta Jih-ssii-pa-ni-ya Kuo Ta 
Chun Chu ;*; H $f B /g 3 a ;*; ^ . [Treaty of 1864. 
According to this instrument the name Lii-sung Q JfJ, from 
Lugon, the native designation of the Philippine Islands, which 
is commonly applied to Spain itself by the Chinese, should be 
abandoned.] 

KING OF ITALY. Ta / Kuo Ta Chun C7m ; H m ;fc fj ^. 

[Treaty of 1866.] 

MIKADO OF JAPAN. No title for either of the sovereigns of 
the two contracting Powers is employed in the Treaty concluded 
between Japan and China in 1871. The Treaty runs in the name 
of the two countries, Ta CUing Kuo ^ Jj| pH and Ta Jih-p$n 
Kuo ft Q fc |j||. The equality of the two Powers is fully expressed 
in the position of the characters and in other needful respects.] 

PRESIDENT OF PERU. Ta Pi Kuo Ta Po-li-his-t'ien-te ^ $$ 
H ^ ffi SI B ^ S- [Treaty of 1874. In this instrument Pi-lu 
jjjf ^ are the characters employed to represent the word Peru]. 

II. Designations of Governments, Departments of State, 
and Public Functionaries. 

The Government [head of the State]. Cfrao Ting |g |g, 
or Kuo Kia ^ sfj. 31 

The Government [Ministers of State collectively. Ch'ao 1 
Ta CIMn |9 H ft g, or Ping Ck'uan Ta Ch ( en f| $| ^ g. 
Also, Ting Ch'en $ g. 

31 It should be noted also that the word Kuo H alone is not unfrequently 
used in the sense of " Government," in which case it is elevated (tan Vui) by one 
epace above the general column level [see Part II, ante}. Thus, in the combina- 
tion Ting Kuo ^ Hl|> elevation as above stated would convey the meaning 
" British Government ; " whereas, when employed without elevation, the same 
characters would signify " England " (or Great Britain), " British" or (i English," 
without reference to the Sovereign or the Government. 



SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 145 



The 'Imperial Parliament [of Great Britain and Ireland]. - 
I Cheng Kuo Hui fg g g f\ 



The Upper House 
The Lower House 
Member of Parliament 
The Privy Council 
Privy Councillor 
Judicial Committee of 

the Privy Council 
Cabinet 

Premier 

Treasury 
Home Office 
Foreign Office 
Colonial Office 
War Office 

Admiralty 
India Office 



Shang T'-ang 
Hsia 'Pang 
Kuo Hui Wan I 
Chung Ko 
Chung Ko Wan I 

< Chung Ko Tsung Fa Clfi 

Shu Mi Yuan 

( Shu-mi Yuan Shou 

I Hsiang 
Tu Chih Yilan 
Nei Cheng Yamen 
Wai Cheng Yamen 
Fan Ch6ng Yamen 
Ping Cheng Yamen 

C Shui Shih Ping Cheng 

f. Yam$n 

T Tsung Li Yin-tu Clieng 

\ Wu, Yamen 
Shang Cheng Yamen 
Yu Cheng Yamen 



Board of Trade 

Post Office 

Local Government Board Hu Cheng Yamen 

Office of Works Rung Chfag Yamen 

High Court of Judicature Tung Fa Ssu 

TJ,. fTu C/ii/t Yuan Sho 

I irst Lord of the Treasury \ 

I Hsiang 



Cabinet Minister 



Ch'eng Hsiang 



Chancellor of Exchequer 

Lord Chancellor 

Judge 

Under Secretary of State 

ni , ,, 

Clerk of a Department 

19 



. 
Tu Chili Yuan Shih 

Lii Fa Ta Hsileh Shih 

Nieh Ssu 

Hsieh Li Ta SlMn 



{ Ssft Kuan *j 

1 

(. i sung Pan 



or 









146 SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 



Chancellor of University Chang Yuan Hsi'ieh Shih 

Chieh Tu Shih 



Lord Lieutenant 
Lord Mayor 



< Chih Nien Shou Shih ft^Ii^lfr 



Alderman 

Justice of the Peace 

Barrister 

Police Magistrate 

Police 



1 Shen Ch'i 

Shen Ch'i 

Chang Fa Shen Shti 

Lu Shih 

Pu Wu Chia Hui 
(Pu Yi or 

1 Ch'a Chieh Ping j 

III. Diplomatic and Consular Titles. 






Ambassador 

Envoy and Minister 
Plenipotentiary 32 

Minister Kesident 
Charge d'Affaires 



f Ton teng Ch'in Chai gg 

1 Ta Ch'en 

^ Erh teng Ch"in Ch'ai ~ 

J Ta CMn 

f San teng Ch'in Ch'ia H 

t Ta Ch'en 

Shu Win C/Sai Ta Cl 
( Ts'an-tsan H; (in dif- 
I ferent classes, as 1st 

Secretary of Legation <J Secretary, Tou teng 

j Ts'an-tsan gg ^ |g ^, 
l^and so on). 
Han Wu Ts'an-tsan g| 

\Han Wen Fu Shih ^ 

{ Ling-hsiu Ling Shih 
I Kuan 
Tsung Ling Shih Kuan 



Chinese Secretary 
Assistant Chinese 
Secretary 

Senior Consul 
Consul-General 



or 



32 The full title assigned to Her Britannic Majesty's Minister Plenipotentiary 

in China is as follows: * % fCM EflJ * ^ M g ft # * S- The 

ordinary designation employed in conversation and correspondence is cliu clung 

ta cU'en K^^CES- The expressions kung sli-lh Q f^ and shili cli'en f|^ E 
heretofore often erroneously used in correspondence, have been formally aban- 
doned by the Chinese Government. 

* This rendering is adopted in lieu of the expression Han Wen Cheng Shih 

S3C IE flcj formerly employed as the equivalent of " Chinese Secretary.'' 



SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDBRINOS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 147 



Consul 
Vice-Consul 
Interpreter 
Consular Assistant 
Student Interpreter 
British Supreme Court 
(Shanghai) 



Ling Shih Kuan 
Fu Ling Shih Kuan 
Fan Yi Kuan 
Fu Fan Yi Kuan 
Fan Yi Hsueh SJieng 

Yamen 



Assistant Judge 
Law Secretar 



Fu Nieh-ssu 

Ssn-li Hsieh-shen Kuan ' 

IV. Indian and Colonial Titles. 



a. INDIA 



Viceroy of India 

Lieutenant-Goveruor 
Commissioner of a Fro- 
vmce 

b. HONGKONG. 
Governor 

Lieutenant-Go vernor 
Executive Council 
Legislative Council 
Colonial Secretary 
Chief Justice 
Puisne Judge 
Registrar-General 
Harbour Muster 
Superintendent of Police 
Colonial Treasurer 
Auditor-General 



V 
\ 



Yin ' tu Y Chi Chieh 
Tu Ta Wen 

Hsieh-li Ta Ch'en 

I , 

> Tsung-li Ta CWen 

Tsung-tu 

Fu Tu Hsien 

1 CMng Chil 

Ting Li Chil 

Fu Cheng Ssn 

An-ch'a Ssu 

Fu Nieh Ssfi 

Hua Min Citing Wu Ssfi 

Ch'uan Cheng Ting 
Ihiln Pu Kuan 
K'u Wu Ssii 
K'ao Shu Ssu 



34 The foregoing titles, from " Executive Council " downwards, are taken from 
a list officially published by the Government of Hongkong, in Notification No. 210 

of December 28th, 1874. The word c/i'ttlH, it may be noted, would be preferable. 
in substitution for di.il ^jjj in the rendering of " Council." 



148 SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 



Postmaster-General 
Attorney- General 
Police Magistrate 
Coroner 
Sheriff 

Justice of the Peace 
c. SINGAPORE. 
Governor 
Colonial Secretary 
Resident Councillor 
Colonial Treasurer 
Auditor- General 
Colonial Engineer 
Magistrate 
Protector of Chinese 
Postmaster-General 



Yi Wu San 

Kuo-chia Lu Cheng Ssii 
Hsun Li Fu 
Yen Shih Kuan 
Ch'uan Piao Kuan 
Shfa Shih 

Tsung-tu 
Fu Cheng Ssu 
Ts'an Ch$ng Ssa 
K l u Wu Ssa 
P'-an Shu Ssa 
Ying Tsao Ssii 
Hsun Li Fu 

Hua Min Cheng Wu Ssii 
Yu Cheng Ssii 



Inspector-General of Police Tsung Hsiin Pu Kuan 



Master Attendant 
Chief Justice 
Puisne Judge 
Attorney-General 
Sheriff 

d. NORTH BORNEO. 
Governor 
Deputy Governor 
Secretary to Governor 
Treasurer-General 
District Officer 



Ch'uan Cheng Ting 
An Ch'a Ssu 
Fu An Ch'a Ssii 
Lu Cheng Ssii 
Ch'eng Fa Kuan 

Tsung Tu 
Sltu-li Tsung Tu 
Wen Hsun Pu 
Pu Cheng Shih Ssu 
Chih Hsien 




. ~ ( Tsung Pan Shui 

Superintendent of Customs] . 

Shih Wu 



Resident 
Judge 

Postmaster-General 
Harbour Master 
Protector of Chinese 



Chih Fu 

An Ch'a Shih Ssa 
Tsung-li Shu-hsin 
Chilian Cheng Ting 
Hua Min Hu Wei Ssa 



SECTION IV. CHINBSB RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 149 



Superintendent of Gaols Chien-lao Tsung-kuan 

Superintendent of Police Tsung Hsiin Pu 

e. MACAO. 

Governor Tsung Tu 

Colonial Secretary Ta Hsieh 
Superintendent, Public 

Works 

Treasurer Pu Cheng Ssu 

Postmaster-General Shu-hsin Kuan Ta Pan ^fgff ^cjfl: 

Chief Judge An CKa Ssa Scl^SI 

Captain of Port Ch'uan t'oa Kuan SttSH^ 

Superintendent of Police Ta Ping T'ou 
f. SAIGON. 

( Tuna-liana Tsunq-tfunq 

Gouverneur-General ' _ ' ' 

I Ch ( uan-chilan Ta Ch'en 

Gouverneur de la Cochin Nan-ctti Tsung-f'ung 

Chine Ta CVen 

Procureur-General Chang-li Fa Lu Hsing ^M^^^flJ 

Administrateur Ts'an-pien Kuan ^J^'g' 

Chef de Canton Kai Tsung |($g 

Mai re Ts'un chang WS 

V.~Military and Naval Titles. 

a. ARMY. 
Commander-in-chief, or \ Ping Ma Yuan Shuai or ^UTtJfJl or 

Field Marshal J Ching Liieh 

General Chiang Chun 

j Tou-teng Ti-tu C/iun- 
Lieuteuant-General 

*- men. 

Major-General T'i-tu Chun-men 

Brigade-General Tsung-ping 

Colonel Fu-chiang 

Lieutenant-Colonel Ts'an-chiang 

Major Yu-chi 

Captain Tu-ssfr ^fpj 

Lieutenant Shou-pei 



150 SECTION IV. CHINESE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 



Sub-lieutenant 
Sergeant 
Corporal 
Private 

Cavalry soldier 
Artillery 
Infjantry 
Engineer 



Chtien-tiung 

Pa-tsung 

Wai-wei 

Ping-ting 

Ma-ping 

P l ao Ping 

Pu Ping 

Chun Rung Ping 



1.1 -T- 

5TI 

KT 



Military Secretariat ; and , ^ ^ 

Military Secretary J 



Military Secretary 

Adjutant 

Aide-de-camp 

Surgeon 

Commissariat, and Com- 
missary 
b. NAVY. 

Commander-in-chief 

Admiral 
Vice- Admiral 

Rear-Ad mi ral 

Commodore 

Senior Naval Officer 

Post-captain (senior) 
do. (junior) 

Commander 

Surgeon 

Lieutenant Commanding 

Lieutenant (senior) 
do. (junior) 

Sub-lieutenant 



Yi Chang 
Chung Chiln 
I Kuan 

Liang 



Shui-shih Tung Ling 
C Tou-teng Shui-shih Ti- gfji 
I tu Chun-meti 
i Erh-t6ng Shui-shih Ti-tit^i 
\ Chun-men 

J San-ting Shui-shih Ti- ^i 
I tu Chun-men 

Shui-shih Tsung-tfung 
(Ping-lun Tang (or &1j&ffi[Wm 
\ Shou) ling 

Tsung-Ping 

Fu-chiang 

Ts'an-chiang 

1 Kuan 

Yu-chi 

Tu-ssti 

Shou-pei 

Ch'ien-tsung 






mm 



15 The ordinary colloquial designation for an Admiral is Shui-thih Ti-tu. 
The title Chun. Mhi is employed only in correspondence. 



SECTION IV. CHINBSE RENDERINGS OF EUROPEAN TITLES. 151 



Engineer Officer 

Midshipman 

Warrant Officer 

Petty Officer 

Seaman 

Marine 

Secretary to an Admiral 

Flag Lieutenant 

Surveying Officer 



Ssu Lun Kuan 
Hsileh Sheng 
Ch'ien Feng 
Ling-ts'ui 
P'ao Shou 
Pu Ping 
Ying Wu Ch'u 
Chung Chun 
Ts'e-laing Kuan 



ftftt 



VI. Imperial Maritime Customs. 



Inspector-General 
Chief Secretary 

Chinese Secretary 

Commissioner 
Deputy Commissioner 
Assistant 

Divisional Inspector 
Harbour Master 
Tide Surveyor 
Examiner 
Tidewaiter 
Berthing Officer 



Tsung Shut Wu Ssti 
( Tsung Li Wen An Shui 
4 Wu Ssu 
f Kuan Li Han Wen An 
\ Shui Wu Ssu 
Shui Wu Sst't 
Fu Shui Wu Ssu 
Pang Pan 
Hsiln Kung Ssu 
Li Cttuan T l ing 
Tsung Hsun 
Yen Huo 
Ch'ien Tzu Shou 
Chili Po So 



[Wl 






INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS, 



KADICAL 1. 



A 45G ; 



476. 



E&373, iii, H 






itt 

* 



HS 139; 
H ? 292 

BH A 82 ; 

SSI5 517; 

gf 182, x; 
200. 



11 ffl 

89. 



283; 

86 ; 

139; 



; 



A A 55- ->-,-";. 



, 41; ifrgM55; 
454; -jl^ 58?,; 



387. 



288, 



[ RADICAL 2. 



'2 ; 
147 ; 



138 ; 

148 



456 ; 

tj* gt 274 ; Ij* fj ^ 
272; Ift 5 273, 453; 
Ffl |f 576. 

RADICAL 3. 



RADICAL 5. 



A 456;^ & 517 
J RADICAL 6. 



RADICAL 7. 



; 111477 *1 

A 456. 



3 = 200, 231 ; S g ffl 
211 ; 5 t E 2C;> ; 



18J, 342, 



20 



154 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 8. 



fc 339. 
A RADICAL 9. 

ft & 547. 



ff m 569. 



289. 



ting 

& 



557. 



V fA455; fg^g, 532, 563; 



387, 



288 ; 
429, 544. 

9. 



g99; fBR 161; $ 
205; ft Si 203. 



chnn 



hou 

/jit 

hung 



468. 



to 



355. 






207; f!|]|!HB 456; 
ll ffi BIS 456. 



362; ft 

379. 



iv tt 477 - 



334. 



fl 



ff II P! 492; ft 493; 
ft ]E 394 ; ff f 495. 



RADICAL 10. 



456. 



455. 



RADICAL 11. 

H ? ^ 86 ; 

g86; pJ^ 

ftjffl 137 '^) 
142; ^ffl^ 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



155 



ftpl45;ft^U 



483; ft JRS If 483; 
ft it f 482. 



*1 



RADICAL 12. 



Att379;AfiA456. 



S 28, 455; Si 1*5 

t 387. 



A? SB 152, rf *>?. ; 
247 ; A 188. 



344. 



tie,, T A ^37; ft $212, 253; 
A H 145, 241, 254; 
A 294. 



'chien, $fc 455 ; ^ ^* 339. 

*-> RADICAL 14. 



7J RADICAL 18. 

* 

r 7^> *M 9 



293. 



glj U 283, 285, 286. 



/.SV/l 



273 ; 



273. 



... 

05 ff 433; UK 

401 ; a5 B 564. 



f!87; MJfe 334; gf 
^ 340 ; glj K ^ 
471 ; gl) Jl 



370, 381, 427 ; 
f 442; gl] 3^442; 



f- p 336 ; glj m 
472 ; glj IR 164 ; glj g 
f 338; glj m 378; glj 
X 306 ; glj 5fe^ 480; 



480 ; glj 



RADICAL 19. 



1^255. 



439, 465. 



156 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



kung $J $$. 400. 

ft 

Iff an Htfl & 550. 



387. 
/ RADICAL 20. 

2 >K 38, 379; ft 



RADICAL 21. 



+ RADICAL 21. 

** -t A S 272 - 

447.' 









Tj 182, 



577 ; 
594. 



chun 



t 



_ 



139; 1^1 
12H39; 

ffl428; 



175,245; 

?4^;m 
} 352 : m- 



247 



259. 



240, 252. 
RADICAL 25. 



to ^^517. 

n RADICAL 26. 



J7 RADICAL 27. 

Jg ^ ^$ 518. 

X RADICAL 28. 

^ ^| 39, 382, 383, 384, 

443 ; S }c E'^58. 
3i RADICAL 29. 

Jft ^ 149, 483, 487. 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 30. 

* 



187, 274; 



294. & 



fj 293, 439 ; fj fa 282, 
284 ; S f 151, 166, 
343 ; g] M 131 ; m fy 



35; HE 171; g] 
IS 422 j^JKc 305 ; 

lS 182, iii; Si 



246; lit 170, 302; 



224; ^ 

250 ; ?J I* 167. 



ho 



a 

<* 



585. 



IfiBll 282; |B] ^f 481; 
IB] ft 307 ; ft Ji 
85 ^ 477. 



yuan 



shao 






* 



152; 3 ^ 456; 
@ 287, 345. 



585 ; Bf 



157 



589. 



1, 19 5 fflJKJP * 

173; 5fDS WSS 
174; fQ ^52.1, 525. 



^ 533 ; tig- gf 360 ; 
BC fS JS 563. 



439. 
*584; 



85. 



596. 

564. 



R514; 

512 jig 



496. 



if fl- 

600 ^ 

567. 



279; g 1ft 



587, 

567:11 



158 



379 ; 



;* ; V 3* 1H 47 



H 91 ; HI 88 H 

416 ; IB Jg 585. 



RADICAL 32. 



^ 328 ; W 
328; m 329; 

511 ; Vt 



fang 



357 ; 
^ 

PI m 5 6 - 



162 ; ^ IB tft 67 ; 
68, 165. 



glS2,xvi. 



IN>EX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 31. 

Iffc 

_ ... 588. 

256 ; 0J H f- 
514 ; fft 548. 






RADICAL 33. 

ft H 439, 452. 
^ RADICAL 36. 



487 ; $r|> ^ f fl 
449 ; ^ m JB H 450 ; 



il 21 ; ^ ft 598. 

RADICAL 37. 



_JU 



162; ^^, 
fj ft 162 ; 



196 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



159 



2825 



832;* 



140 ; 



281. 



456 ; ^ 



129; 



456. 



RADICAL 38. 
580. 
4, 5, 6. 



pin 



* 






390, 432 ; g 
tt400;g5| 

if 404. 

7. 
RADICAL 39. 



455. 



a B 214. 



478. 



It.siieh ! 



258, 304; 

^ 323 ; )p - 
lg 323. 

RADICAL 40. 



323 ; 



439 ; *J 281. 



. 

557 ; % A 



*i R nfe 

5 T^: A m 



ItJO 



x 

% jea**E554; 



TNDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

/J, RADICAL 42. 



582. 



A 456. 



I I 



SI -881 ; 
gS 

* ffi 315. 



Hung 



tsai 



& 223. 
W 138 ; 



538. 



549; 



527. 



V 

tui 



m ^ 363 ; K ; 

364 ; g g 457. 

f RADICAL 41. 
^ ^ 198, 234. 
if 456 ; ^ M 456. 



5 27 to 30, 367, 426, 
456, 557. 



mm 1-490. 



'> S S 136 ; /> ^L 
418 ; /J> ^L P 200. 



162 ; Jj? a 140 ; 
' 



233 ; ^ 222 ; 
222, 294 ; ^ fj 



RADICAL 44. 



g Ji 17. 

^ RADICAL 46. 

Ul 

,JU III ft 491. 



^ PH E =^ 460 

C f-J J. S 

RADICAL 47. 



272, 284:^^11285; 

m n 286 ; ffl glj K 
286 ; 285. 



ch'ung 






t 293 5 a n 

X RADICAL 48. 
X 15 157, 



TXDKX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



161 



E 






ch'ang 



p*ff 



/ft W 290 : Jff ^ 339, 
068 ; jff 272, 281 ; /ft 
2g 59, 340, 369. 



225; 



ni 



- 504; 



507 ; A^fS 

RADICAL 49. 



E ft 465 ; B 
565 5 E 3 ft 587 

RADICAL 50. 



? $ H 297. 
272. 
^ 210, 473 ; 






MX 803; 



RADICAL 54. 



70. 






w 

RADICAL 57. 



9. 



^ 51 if ^488. 

^f RADICAL (>0. 



561, 564, 565 ; ^ ^ IS 213. 



RADICAL 53. 



180, 235. 



hou 
A> 



109 






21 



162 



US 306. 



ft K 456. 



* * 608. 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

*m * ] j=5 RADICAL 63. 



tf 



510 



. 

rti4, 5S6; 



RADICAL 61. 



J 556. 

M " '" 

en ,@, Jt *fe 471 ; 






tt W ^C tt 312. 



455; ! 



* 5^ A 456. 



liui 



R 133 ; 1 
It W ^ 84. 

^ffi!29;3 



557. 



i 272. 

K^ 

P *G 41 448. 

f 

i M 



333. 



J30. 



IE 266. 



I 380. 
RADICAL 62. 

579. 



283; Jig 274 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



163 



hick 



t'n n 



182, xv. 



RADICAL 66. 
U9, 483, 487. 

@ 855 328. 



472, 303 306. 



if 599. 



* ft ft 456. 






512, 



I* "8. 

RADICAL 



gj 182, xvin ; ^r j 



EADIOAL 70. 

fi 275 ; ^ J& If 149 ; 



RADICAL 72. 



cVang H $ 127 ; 



289; 



128. 



H K 1 

512. 



AH 99 




134 - 



g 123. 
ch'ang WSt&M 91. 



1JJDBX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 73. 

fJS 

475. 

U$M56; (& ^ 
491. 



It 179, 182, xiv ; 
ft; ^TC 473; fir 

V**;frinM 

RADICAL 74. 



'jo 



tang 



158;|| 

W 1^2, i. 
1* 209 ; * 



321. 



456. 



RADICAL 75. 



tt 

tt W f6 @ 510, 519 ; 



^456. 
X RADICAL 76. 

260. 



138; * 



189. 



RADICAL 77. 



iE^ 377 ;3E 

281, 282, 284, 289 : 
IE 9! 379; JE a 379; 



479 ; JEPP 492. 



347, 406; 
348; 354. 



182, xi; 



273 - 



592. 



S*L 



Jft 612; 
; 
516. 



ff, 

Aa^i t 



yen. 



f 

s 









1 24 ; 



125. 



W- 

fy 719 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

Q RADICAL 7 ( J. 

t& jaj 467, 473. 
Jfc RADICAL 81. 

Jfc 532; Jfc*|5lf)rt. 

^ RADICAL 83. 

7/>t ^^ J5 152. 

7k RADICAL 85. 



165 



505. 



a 182 ; 
524, 562. 



601 ; 



591- 



> 377, 378. 
RADICAL 86. 



, 

ssi; A MAR 



# 



166 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



Ill 
chao 



296 



296. 



M 



548. 



H 379, 439; 
452 ; ^| 1? 453, 

RADICAL 87, 



454. 

RADICAL 91. 



4- RADICAL 93. 
ft 284. 



9 155. 

RADICAL 94. 



im 



3g RADICAL 96. 



it 



31 IS 299; 39*13531 

282 ; 31 1H |gl 



yu EE Bi 58 - 

& RADICAL 100. 



ft 469. 
RADICAL 102. 



581. 



liu 






m 210. 

3*0M 

182, v. 



5 RADICAL 106. 
" fi595. 
ff ^ 337. 



183: 



INDEX OF t'HlNESK ('HARACTERS. 



it; 7 



RADICAL 109. 



366. 



m 






hsiantj 



251; KM 2G3. 2G4; 



RADICAL 109. 



W 272 ; 

L'84. 



135. 



ffl 272, 



273, 43SI ; 



RADICAL 113. 



239. 



243. 



424. 



%L 1 49 ; m m 

RADICAL 115. 



ft Pp 467; ft W ft 510; 



tm 3 



g 314; 
316. 



RADICAL 111. 



JS281; $n ^|284; 
IS 289; 531^300; 

^ $ 484, 

RADICAL 112. 



RADICAL 116. 



RADI( ^ AT 117 



^ 136, 385, 517: 

IS nf H 3S H r > 98 - 



t'ung 



468. 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 118. 



g e 578. 



to i0 m y - 

* ft IS it S ffi ^5 ; 



Hang 



chi 

m 



ching 



lu 



tuan 



RADICAL 119. 



324 



' ** ** /?? /< * 
t'ung ffii ^g 4JO. 



452. 



477. 



563. 



RADICAL 120. && 

i fru 



472 ; 

58 295. 



439. 



pien 



208. 



^;*t/i 



huna 






272, 289, 



151, 159 ; | Ji 159 ; 
SBS 186; &ff40, 
437; 8| ft 408,; g % 
149, 216 ; g m^m 



218. 



4ft ft tt 

458. 



557. 



458 



RADICAL 122. 



104. 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

KADICAL 124. 



weny 



IS* IS 201. 



$3 ft 459. 

rg RADICAL 125. 



182, xk. 
RADICAL 128. 



RADICAL 129. 



52. 
RADICAL 132. 



niek Jt SI 276 ;.$. 276. 

RADICAL 134. 



Jg A 472;^^ 473. 
fa RADICAL 136. 



178. 
ljii|i RADICAL 140. 



22 



54. 



135. 



276; 



169 



fl 



455; Mm 455. 



564; 
RADICAL 141. 



RADICAL 144. 



4 f?^ 259; ft $[.458. 

dfcfeA fSit^346. 



'!? ffi 564; ^ff 439,327; 
t 518. 



170 






JM)EX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 

RADICAL 145. 23g 



1? It 126. 

gj RADICAL 146. 



RADICAL 147 
1,19,49; 



RADICAL 148. 



RADICAL 149. 

;*? itiBi64. 

306. 

np PR 456. 
vfy J*lr489. 






/w 



;< " 



396 



397. 



398; 



clian 



lf 220 ; g # 221 



s-A/A 



467. 



587. 
RADICAL 151 



456. 
RADICAL 153. 



K 



kung 



RADICAL 154. 



f- 

kuei 



tsan 









INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 171 

^r RADICAL 162. 



; 



456. 



RADICAL 156. 



RADICAL 159. 



182, xiii. 



454. 



RADICAL 161. 



ar 3 190 ; 

191; a*BJ8l 192; 

f;*:E 151; iiSfe 
HI f 193: iiP^Jll 



.194; 

^ 

456. 



" ' 



ffi4 

476. 



/f 444; 
5*26. 



376-378, 



SI 277; 5g|s]307: g 

BIJ308; aW 31 0;8 

ST 327. 



522. 



RADICAL 160. 



^280; i 

m 500; Ji |G i>01; 
JE502: J- 503. 



534; 
; 
J$ 575. 

RADICAL 163. 
289. 



45; 



281. 



172 



.INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



8BS: 160, 273; SHE 161, 



EH 



yin 



538. 



547; 
517. 



I>1^: 200; 



445; 



, _ 
8KB 



elien 



lisiang 



380; 



% SKiZI 53. 

ffl EADICAL 166. 



RADICAL 167. 



190; 18*71 



rfWl52. 



luati 



cha 



, vn. 



557. 



27; 1111439; 



379; 



mm H3; m- 

114. 
RADICAL 168. 

2; S|&34; 
KB 339. 

RADICAL 169 

I 358. 



yfc IBI HIT 395, 544 ; 
607. 



320. 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHAKACTKRS. 



173 



j - 

I! 



m 



|5 RADICAL 170. 



372. 



11; P 
512: fpj 

B* i 

MT 513; 



550; 



525; 



538. 



RADICAL 172. 



t'i 



fan 



RADICAL 173. 



BIS 267. 
RADICAL 180. 

S!t412. 
RADICAL 181. 

339; 



546, 434 ; 



439 ; 



II ft ft ft *B 95- 



15 ; SJ 



451 



183. 



574. 



RADICAL 184. 



182, viii. 



,ir 



If RADICAL 185. 



Mi; 



174 



INDEX OF CHINESE CHARACTERS. 



J RADICAL 187. 



>>j 

ma 



458. 



392,544; $15 



'> 



182, xvi; 



if 182, xvi; 417 

419,425; 
565. 



W KU455;Bt456. 



/<*/* it H ft 389, 545, 431 ; 
383. 



319; s 372. 



RADICAL 196. 



RADICAL 188. 



ffl 138. 



RADICAL 197. 
Llf^Hl 277; Bj 



RADICAL 198. 



RADICAL 201. 



RADICAL 202. 



374. 
RADICAL 210. 

374, iii. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



NTf* 

AN 



AO 



CHA 



CH'A 



CHAN 



W 



No. 

538 

563 

11 



557 
^334 
456 
267 
469 
468 



31)3 



537, 604 
320 



7o 
312 

J8 ( J 
595 



221 
220 



CH'AN 

i FP! loi 



CHANG 

amfi 

5 ED ft ft SS 
Sffifl 

I CH'ANG. 

g a * BP s 



CHAO 

MW 

a w si 



No. 
563 



585 
598 
602 
189 

78 
202 

91 
598 

133, 152, 
517, 541 



i) 

439 
338 
338 
34 
42 



296 
296 
327 
333 



176 



CH'AO 



mm**. 

CHE 



CE'E 
CHEN 



CHENG 



IE 



3Efi. 
JE- 



*HJ 



CH^NG 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. CHI 

454 
473 

456 ft SB 



596 



182 



27 
439 
441 



479 
305 

281,282, 
289, 284 

App. 1 
App. 1 

504 

118 

163 



272 
456 
288 
456 
506 
357 
359 
371 



IB iK M fir 



CH'I 



CHIA 



CHIANG 



IS 



CHIAO 



CHIEH 

mmm 



No. 

188 
418 
164 
591 
601 
424 
249 



455 

456 



547 
383 

581 



498 

367, 426, 
456, 552, 
557 



472 
303 
305 



182 
346 
472 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



177 



CHIEN 



ljE 

mm 



** 



CH'IEN 



fjf 

titfftt 



CHIH 



No. 

321 

209 

262 

251 

263, 264 

484 

247, App. 1 
280 
455 
339 
411 



.334 
433 
405 
403 
402 
401 
110 

?>?>:> 

447 
447 

182 



341 
117 
343 
330 
273 
273 
284 
281 
289 



CHIH 



CH'IH 

k 

i 
CHIN 



CH'IN 
L& 

k 
* 

CIIING 



mm 



No. 

484 
300 
506 
507 
76 
325 
284 
272 
379 
App. 1 
182 



456 



473, App. 1 
477 
476 

589 

585 



260 
103 
94 
11, 537 



411 
339 
232 

59,194,295 
295 
472 



23 



178 



CH'ING 



mmmm 

CHIU 

*w 



CHO 



CHOU 

nn 
9M jgg E 
9ft 10 & 
mm 

CHU 



ffi 



CH'U 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. CH'UAN 

80 

196, 232 

455 CHUANG 



200 
348 
456 
517 



577, 594 



286 
286 
285 
285 



172 

166 

277, 292 
68, 166 
1 

597 

182 

417 

182 

565 



477, App. 1 



CHC 



CHUAN 

JM fra 

CH'UAN 
CHUEH 

mm 



m m 



CHUN 



as 



No. 
477 



452 
474 



472, App. 1 
473 

17 



App. 1 



153 



32 

499 
454 



136 
136 
440 
282 
457 
182 
279 
550 
281 
43 
45 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



179 



CHUN 



m 



CH'UN 

m%*& 



CHUNG 



CH'UNG 



No. 

281 
468 



225 
223 



146 

456 

472 

2 

273, 453 
*147 
148 
272 
272 
576 
456 
138 



472 



183 

451 

588 

15 



455 

471 

App. 1 



AH 



ERH 

KJ9 

^ 

FA 



FAN 



SB 

av 
mm 



FANG 



BSH 



FEI 



No. 

467 

455 

App. 1 



477 
456 
282 
291 



587 



565 
583 
477 
276 
275 
275 
182 



149 
275 
481 
344 
372 
423, 430 



180 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



* A UBS 



FU 

!!!* 

BtSfflftfiS 

BIS IT 



SII22 



No. 

282 
387 
280 
293 



456 

456 

233 

91 

456 

456 

29 

23 

24 

30 



542 
603 
338 
344 
480 
187 
442 
480 
471 
340 
384 
164 
61 
536 
472 



FU 



mm 



mm 



s K 



HA 



No. 

334 
606 

370, 381, 
427 

306 
442 - 
336 
480 
448 

353, 378 
15 

59, 340, 
369 

339, 368 
471 
469 

28 
274 
439 
274 
274 
290 

16 
306 
306 
305 
305 
473 



532 
533 
563 

360 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



181 



HAI 



m 



HAN 



HO 



www 

WW 



HOU 



HSl 



fH 



HSIA 



No. 

282 
324 
327 
159 



201 
379 



173 

174 

14 

19 

318 

318 

326, 439 
326 



455 

App. 1 

109 



2 

156 
155 
557 



379 



HSIANG 



mm 
mm 

SlIlX 

mm 



HSIAO 



** 



HSIEH 



HSIEN 



DBft 



No. 

47 
467 
412 
411 
138 



389, 431, 
545 

383 
456 
472 
478 
585 
418 
200 
136 



266 
439 
139 
540 
428 

175, 245 
561 
139 
442 
573 
352 



329 
395, 544 



182 

HSIEN 

BBftMft 

if 



HSIN 



HSING 



HSIU 



HSU 



HSUAN 

;*wi 

MSB' 



HSUEH 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. HSUEH 

607 

App. 1 

182 

291 

44 

46 



358 



156 
458 
259 



469 
456 
456 
207 



235 



332 
315 
456 
331 
456 



323 
258, 304 



HStTN 



mm 
m^ 
mm 



mm 






HU 



nf 



HUA 



fbW 



HUAN 



HUANG. 



JO 



No. 

257 
323 
323 



387 
467 

272, 274 
293 
348 
306 
439 

399 
397 
398 
396 
36 
413 
154 
564 
589 



564 



597 



458 

31 

64 

2 

10 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX, 



183 



HUANG 
ft*B 



HUl 



^IU 



HUNG 



HUO 



JEN 



ff 



No. 
4 
1 
3 

18 
1 

11 



473 
81 

467, 473 

182 

557 

App. 1 



231 

564 

32 



407 



17 

198 
74 
451) 
563 
565 



App. 1 



JU 



Sf A 
AW 



JUNG 



KA 



K'A 



KAI 



K'AN 



KAO 



K'AO 



si 



No. 

580 
456 
456 

484 



456 



567 
567 
563 
600 



517 



328 



550 
588 



456 
470 



182 

467 



184 



Kft 



K'O 

K'OU 
Pftil 



KU 






K'U 
** 

KUAN 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. KUANG 

609 
48 
610 
425 
138 
142 



467, App. 1 



549 



379 
22 
13 



297 

297 



87 

App. 1 
347 

85 
541 
261 
248 
280 
317 
324 
115 



fit fin 

KUEI 



mm 

ftA 



m 



K'UEI 



KUNG 



K'UNQ 



?LB 



KUO 



No. 

230 

456 

70 



5 

8 

472 

491 
471, App. 1 

473 

157 

23-26, 455 
12,13 

387 

466 

456 

221 

223 

226 

142 

225 

214 

460 

63 

78 

215 

2 

247 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



185 



mm 



LA 



LAN 



LANG 

BRffH 

LAO 



LI 

at ffi ia 
m ij pj 1 



LIANG 



a a a w 



No. 
584 



464 
101 



163 
572 



329 



282 

183 

548 
60 

548 

282 

App. 1 

287, 345 

152 

154 
App. 1 



274 

278 
283 

566 

278 



LIEN 



Ji 



LIN 



LING 



LIU 



LO 



LU 



No. 

276 
294 
452 



470 
470 



289 
95 



391, 434. 
546 

439 
459 
419 

267 
585 



188 
247 
210 - 



329 

329 



393 
472 
439 
439 



186 

LUAN 



LUN 

LUNG 
I 
MA 

MEN 



&m 

MI 

**1B 



MIAO 



MIN 



MING 



MU 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 
NA 



No. 

114 

113 

387 
472 

392, 544 
358 
535 



563 

488 



329 



153 
599 



587 
289 
236 

284 
548 



NAN 



mm 



F8 

mm& 



NEI 



wffl 

fa gg rfi ff: 

WB* 
ftfflfifffl 

ft ffl A ff 

NIEH 



NO 



NUNG 



No. 

538 



455, App. 1 
455 
247 
329 
151 
259 
151 
91 



150 

86 

86 

379 

482 

137 



14 -' 



143 



27G 
276 



564, 587 



153 



ALPHABETIG'AL INDEX. 



187 





15 1S 
IB IS EH 



PA 



BSff 



AS ffllA 
A 2 

PAI 



PAN 



aeiRiBitiie 

PANG 



PAO 



M 



No. 

517 
547 



587 
465 
448 
456 

25 (note) 
379 
471 



329 
595 
337 



388 
560 
611 

585 



159 

561, 565 
351 
475 



457 
363 
364 
111 
182 



PAO 



ft* 



fi 



PEN 



PI 



P'l 



PIEH 



P1EN 



P'lN 



PING 



PING 



No. 

App. 1 
36, 379 
39 
40 



182 



156 
247 
181 

181 



312 



283, 285 



208 



7 
App. 1 



343 
280 
155 



199 



188 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



PO 



m 



PU 


w a es 



ros 

SBES 



ffl&iifi] 



SA 



SAN 



HS 



No. 

240, 252 
455 
563 



275 
564 
167 

160, 273 

161, 274 
169, 
162 
283 
294 
348 
347 
354 

25 
26 



564 
517 



200 

283 

. 472 

82 

142 

182 

141 

App. 2 
461 
292 



SAN 

IT B* 
I*7C 

m m 
mm " 

SEN 

SfiNG 
ft ' 

! 

SHA 



SHAN 



UJS 



SHANG 



ffliJs 



No. 

88 
284 

97 
210 

593 

494 
495 
493 
492 



590 
612 

589 

491 
279 
496 
497 

160 
1 

379 
89 
414 
458 
457 
570 
563 
568 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



189 



SHAO 



SHEN 

mm 
* 



it m 



SHENG 



SHIH 



No. 

222 
294 
140 

197, 233 
140 
140 
250 



162 
162 
162 
162 
162 

222, 294 
294 
439 



79 
415 

238 

231) 

84 



469, App. 1 



99, 547, 
583 
387 
454 



SHIH 



ifB 
ftii 

r^. | rr-f 

m ffl 



fifHJ 



ttffim 



SHOU 



SHU 



No. 

30, 454 

455 

10,41 

App. 1 

App. 1 

9 

206 

204 

161 

205 

203 

100 

93 

98 

99 

189 

574 



149 
456 
446 
446 
439 
289 



181 
181 
491 
210 
210 
237 
104 



190 

SHUI 

* #1 m *n 



SHUANG 



*& 

so 



ssu 



mm 



SJ 



HI 

HE 

3 ^ 



sift 



App. 2 
462 
466A 



327,439 
557 

256 
548 
180 
179 

293, 439 
305 
224 . 

151, 166, 
343 

422 

306 

171 
168, 182 

250 
35 

246 

176 
170, 302 

151 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. SU 

282 
157 
439 
435 
314 
316 



TA 



** 

*13 



T'A 



No. 

564 



585 
479 
232 
280 
188 
290 
195 
232 
232 
249 
162 
162 
162 
162 
472 
443 
441 
479 
289 
396 
426 
135 
200 
162 
575 
585 
605 
375 



539 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



191 



SoJf 



* 



* ^ 



TAI 


No. 


T'ANG 


No. 




579 


gi^ 


165 




579 


SUf 


162 




213 


m$# 


67 


T'Al 










281 


TAG 







228 


a 


189, 280 




140 


^ %JF * 

il Jt 


502 




247 


51 ^ 


503 


>% 


268 


31 ^2 


501 




140 


ii^ pi 


500 


d 


229 


it-& 


280 





208 


' 






140 


TE 






281 
162 
10 


1*1 


608 
608 


* 


140 
538 


TENG 




* 


550 
140 
140 


gftSK^ 


456 
456 
489 


^fC i& 


140 






!J?ffli 


140 
140 


TI 

i 




TAN 


App.2 
463 


1 B 


App. 1 
564,578 
11 


T'AN 


476 


T'l 


190 


TANG 




S^ 


182 


s 


1 
182 


f 

H i 


149, 216, 
485 




182 


tt 


309 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



T'l 



TIAO 



TIEH 



E 



T'lEH 



TIEN 



Aft 



T'lEN 



TING 



T 
T 



T'ING 



No. 

439 
440 
440 
323 
347 
138 



464 



564, 578 



30, 49-57 



212, 253 

35 
294 

241, 254 
467, 473 



582 

547 

App. 1 



196 



TO 



T'OU 
iS Ii SG 

TU 
iHW 



M 



T'U 



m 



TUI 

Sir 



No. 

20 
21 

App. 1 

242 

277 
445 
189 
298 
298 
445 
200 

380, 548, 
549, 551 

77 
274 
279 
323 

278 
439 
182 



328 
328 
328 
328 
329 



490 
439, 557 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



193 



TUNG 



SC 



T'UNG 



pj 



a * * 



TSAI 



TSAN 



No. 

583 
135 
2, 10 
365 
119 
468 
601 



453 
190 
191 

. ^ 
456 

456 
283 
151 
279 . 
481 

282, 334 
477 
307 



:>69 

138 
538 

589 



244 

226 



TS'AN 



TSANG 

4t 

TS'ANG 



TS'AO 



m 



it 



TSfeNG 



TSO 



No. 

295 
443 
App. 1 
193 
543 
564 

553-4-5 

558 

443 



362 
301 



439 
327 



469 
455-6 

223 
225 
187 
197 
264 
361 
402 
349 
199 



194 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



ISO 



TSOU 



TSU 



TSUAN 



n 



TSUNG 



as* 



a0rn 

mm 



mm 



No. 

161 
198 
291 
185 
322 
288 

387, 429, 
544 

585, 588 
362 



109 



255 



149, 216 



185 

601 
66, 420 

441 

159 

562 

151 

159, 149 

349, 441 

272-3 

408 

218 

447 



AJff 



TSUNG 






B 






TS'UKG 



TZU 



T'ZU 



WAI 



* 



WAN 





No. 

58 
564 

48 
232 

31 
102 



360 
App. 1 

455 
456 
458 



284 
154 
243 

458 



508 
379 
486 

483 
516 
487 
450 
449 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



195 



WANG 



WEI 






WEN 
** 

X 51 Jf S ^ 



wu 



aausssa 



No. 

33 

152 

11 



App. 1 

518 

327, 439 
436, 548 

438 

437 

69 ' 
390, 432 

400 

355 

404 

105 

386 
App. 1 



138 
182 
456 
273 
323 
138 



584 
178 
90 
138 
182 
182 



WU 



YANG 
YEH 

E 

YEN 



91 



am 



YI 



fi * A 



YIN 



No. 

273 
189 
342 
211 
265 
200, 231 

394 
571 



505 
182 
313 
280 
311 
312 
277 



289 
319 

409, 421, 
438 

350 
476 



3i a 



372 



506 
App. 1 
App. 1 



190 

YIN 
ffiJ* 

mm^ 
fflMjn 

YING 



YO 



YU 



UK 



YU 



m 



$. 



YUAN 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 

No. YU 

71 
190 
491 
385 
382 



439 
83 

410, 452 
273 
453 

158 
177 



92 
271 
247 
189 
184 
108 
107 
106 

58 



225 
223 
187 
264 
361 
102 
164 



ISffi 



YtTEH 



Yt)N 



Kffi 
YUNG 



439 



CR 
-4161 
M3 
1897 
cop. 2 



3d ed 



government 



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