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"In the original plan of the work, it was intended 
that Chinese characters shonld be foUoived by the Ro- 
manization in parentheses. In some instances, in the 
early pages of the book, this order has been inadvertenth^ 
reversed, the Romanization standing first, followed by the 
Chinese characters in parentheses. This is especially 
trne in the articles on Aconitum and Acorns. The 
names of the natural orders should appear in Roman 
letters ; a few are in Italics. When used adjectivally, 
these should 7iot begin with a capital letter." 

The above is from Dr. Stuart's own pen. Would 
that he could have completed these Hrrata that the}^ 
might have been more perfectly' done. 

A table of errors, excepting the ones mentioned here, 
is placed in the back of the book following the indexing. 

Both wprds'of Customs Lists ; the first word in botan- 
ical names of more than one word ; the first word in the 
Romanization of Chinese terms, and the word Appendix 
should always begin with capital letters. 

A few other mistakes in the use or nonuse of capitals 
will be noticed. Szechuen should be Szechuan. Caret e 
should alwa3's be found in Li Shih Chen. Parentheses 
marks and punctuation marks are not invariably.' correct. 

A. G. S: 





ABRUS- PRECATORIUS.— ;f0 ,g ^ (Hsiang-ssu-tzu), 
^X M. (Himg-tou), 423. This is a twining shrub, growing to 
the height of several feet, and found in the south of China 
and parts of the East Indies. The first Chinese name given 
above, meaning "love sick", refers to the legend of a man 
who died by the side of one of these shrubs, and his wife sat 
beneath its shade and wept until she died also. The bright 
scarlet seeds, of the size of large shot, with a black spot at the 
hilum, are used as beads by children. They are said to be 
slightly poisonous (emetic) and to have the power of preventing 
Baroos camphor from evaporation when they are kept with it. 
When taken as medicine, they are said to "permeate the 
nine cavities of the body" and to "expel every sort of evil 
effluvia from heart and abdomen", to be diaphoretic, ex- 
pectorant, antiperiodic, and to "destroy every sort of visceral 
or cuticular worm". The Pentsao gives in this connection 
what is regarded as a reliable prescription for the destruc- 
tion of a "cat-devil". " If a cat-devil has been seen or 
its cry heard, use Abriis precatorhis^ Ricimis communis^ Croto?i 
tiglmm^ of each, one bean ; pulverized cinnabar and wax, of 
each, four shit; make into pills the size of a hemp seed and 
administer at once. Then surround the patient with ashes and 
place before him a cinder fire. Spit the medicine into the 
fire, and as it bubbles up, mark a cross on the surface of the 
fire, when the cat-devil will die". 

The root of Abriis precatoruis is long and woody, pale red- 
dish-brown externally and yellowish internally. It has a thin 
bark, a peculiarly disagreeable odor, and a bitterish acrid 
flavor, leaving a faintly sweet after-taste. It is used in India 
and Java as a substitute for licorice, but is not employed medic- 
inally by the Chinese. Waring directs an extract to be pre- 
pared in the same way as the Extractum Glycyrrhizse of the 


British Pharmacopceia. The leaves have been found to contain 
a sweet principle similar to that of licorice. The wood has an 
excellent grain, but as the plant is small it is not of much value. 

One of the Abrus berries is said by Dr. Williams to be the 
unit of weight employed by the Burmese. From the fact that 
these berries are red, and look something like " crab's-eyes " 
(a concretion found in the stomach of Astacus fluviatilis, and 
on account of its comparative rarity counted among precious 
stones), some persons have given them this name. Under the 
name oi jeqiicrity^ this substance, or its globulin Ab^-iii^ was 
formerly recommended in Europe and America for the treat- 
ment of granular lids and corneal opacities ; but on account of 
its action being beyond the control of the surgeon, it has right- 
ly fallen into disuse. Abrin is a tox-albumin similar in its action 
to Ricin and C^-oiin. 

Tatarinov and others have fallen into the error of con- 
founding Abrus precaiorhis with a genuine species of bean, the 
Phaseolus radiatus^ perfectly distinct, and separately described 
under the division of grains as ^ ij> ^a (Ch'ih-hsiao-tou), or 
"red small bean", 141. Other Chinese names given in 
various books for the Abrus precatoruts are ;fg ,g, ^ (Hsiang- 
ssu-tou), 423, and H fij- ^ (Ma-liao-tou), 804 ; but the two 
given at the head of this article are the only ones authorized by 
the Pentsao. 

ABUTILON INDICUM.— According to Ford and Crow, 
the seeds sold at Hongkong as ^ ^ ^ (Tung-k'uei-tzu), 1393, 
are so identified. But in other parts of China the article so 
sold seems to be the seeds of a Malva^ which see. 

ACACIA CATECHU.— §i 1^ (Erh-ch'a) ; 288 ; ^ 5i ^ 
(Hai-erh-ch'a) \ % ^ 'i^ (Wu-tieh-ni). The names given in 
the Pentsao to this drug are partly founded on the old notion 
that it was an earth or a preparation of tea, and partly are an 
imitation of the Bengalese word khaiar and of the Hindu word 
teni^ by which the drug is known at the place of its origin. 
The same idea is perpetuated in the old pharmaceutical name, 
Terra Japonica^ when the "earth " (in Chinese ni') was brought 
from Japan. The account in the Pentsao is to the effect that 


Java, Siam, and the countries of the Indian Archipelago furnish 
a drug prepared by putting fine tea dust into a bamboo tube, 
which is then closed up at both ends and buried in the wet mud 
of a sewer for a long time. It is then taken out, the juice 
expressed and boiled down to a thick syrup, which when cold 
forms the extract. The country of the Laos tribes living between 
Yunnan, Annam, and Siam, and a district in the north-west 
part of Yunnanfu, are said to have formerly yielded this drug. 

The catechu entering into the world's commerce is largely 
exported from Calcutta and from Pegu. Since much of it 
comes from the borders of the Gulf of Cutch, the substance is 
often called aitch. Or, this name may come either from a 
corruption of the Malay name cachu or of the Indian name kiitt. 
Dr. Williams says : " That brought from Bombay is friable, of 
a red-brown color, and more hard and firm than that brought 
from Bengal. The cakes resemble chocolate, and when broken, 
have a streaked appearance. Good cutch has a bright uniform 
color, a sweetish astringent taste, and is free from grittiness". 
He suggests that this variety may indeed be pale catechu, or 
gambler ; but it may be a kind of Acacia catechu which is 
manufactured in Northern India, in which the process of 
evaporation is stopped before the liquid becomes too thick, thus 
resulting in a paler and clearer preparation. There is a black 
catechu, the Kassa of Persia, which occurs in round, flat cakes, 
from two to three inches in diameter and from a half an inch 
to an inch in thickness, having the properties of Acacia catechu 
extract. It is the product of the betel-nut {Areca catechu^ 
which see) and is prepared in India, where it is known 
as catta-cambu. It does not appear in commerce, and is not 
known in China ; unless, indeed, the Ping-lang hsin (;^ |g|J )^>), 
1026, or Ping-lang-kao (;|ffi \% ^), 1027, ^^^ ^^^ article. 

Chinese medical works recount the astringent, antiphlo- 
gistic, styptic, and corrective properties of this excellent drug ; 
but at the present time it is mostly used as a detergent, 
stimulating, styptic, or constringing application. 

ch'iu-shu). This, the "thorny catalpa ", from the resemblance 
of its leaves to those of Catalpa kcempferi^ is a tall tree, with 


grey bark mottled with yellowish-white, and having thorns 
on the branches. The bark and leaves of this tree are recom- 
mended for insecticide purposes and for the treatment of skin 
disease and all sorts of ulcers and infected sores. The Customs 
Reports say that the substance known as ^ ;j^ ^ (Hai-t'ung- 
P'i)' 357' or ;j:ls) J^ (T'ung-p'i), 1402, is probably in part the 
bark of this tree ; that exported from Ningpo being so con- 
sidered, while that exported from Canton is thought to be the 
bark of the cotton tree. See Bovibax malabariaun and 

ACANTHOPANAX SPINOSUM. — 35. *n (Wu-chia), 
5. 5^0 i^ (Wu-chia-p'i), 1449. This is probably the proper 
identification of the shrub or tree which produces this drug. 
But, without doubt, the product found upon the market comes 
from a number of Araliaceous plants, allied to angelica, 
spikenard, and sarsaparilla. So we find it classed by Tatarinov 
^S'^ylralm pahttata^ and by Henry identified as Eletttherococctis 
He^iryi and Eleutherococcus leucorrhizus ; and, in addition to 
these latter the Customs Reports mention Elciit/wi'ococcus 
senticosus. Indeed, in the Chinese books it is described by 
some as a tree or shrub, and by others as a climbing plant. 
One observer wisely says that the plant which grows in the 
north in sandy soil is a tree, while that which grows in the 
south in hard soil is an herbaceous pla-atj^ The Pentsao^ 
following the Peiitsaoching of Shennung, classes it among 
the trees. 

The part used is the cortex of the root. It is found on the 
markets as yellowish-brown quilled pieces, odorless and 
tasteless. It is specially recommended in rheumatism, general 
debility, and for the cure of tertiary syphilitic manifestations. 
It is usually prescribed as a tincture. 

ACERANTHUS SAGITTATUS.— f^ ^ ^ (Yin-yang- 
huo), 1536. This is identical with Epimedinm sagittattiDi . It 
is a Berberidaceous plant said to have strong aphrodisiac 
properties. Goats eating the plant are said to be incited to 
excessive copulation, hence the Chinese name. It is commonly 
called lilj ^ flf. (Hsien-ling-p'i), and grows in mountain valleys 


throughout China. The root and leaves are parts used in 
medicine. It is prescribed in sterility and barrenness, and is 
said to have great virtues in these conditions. In decoction it 
is used in corneal affections and ulcerations of the eye after 
exanthematous diseases. 

ACER TRIFIDUM.— £ '^ M (San-chio-feng). It is 
uncertain whether the leaves reported in the Customs Lists are 
from this tripartite maple, or whether they are the leaves of 
the Liquidamber forfiiosana {orientale). There is not much 
uniformity of classification of this substance at the different 
ports; at one place it being called "oak leaves", which, to 
say the least, is a bold guess. The Chinese names for Acer 
trifidiim^ in addition to the one given above, are |5 ;fH 1^ (Ya- 
feng-shu), 1481, and IH jfj[ i^ (Feng-hung-shu). Bretschneider 
and the Japanese have been followed in the use of the term 
placed at the head of this paragraph. This tree is not mention- 
ed in the Pentsao^ and what its leaves may be used for (if, 
indeed, it is the leaves of this tree that appear in commerce) 
it has not been possible to learn. The supply reported by the 
Customs came from Anhui and Kiangsu. 

ACHILEA SIBIRICA.— ^ (Shih). This is a common 
plant in the mountains of Northern China, and is so identified 
by the Japanese. Legge calls the Shih plant milfoil. Wil- 
liams, in his dictionary, says it is a sort of " syngenesious plant 
resembling the Ayithcmis or mayweed, the Ptarniica sibcrica^ 
which grows around Confucius' grave in Kiihfeu, and as was 
done in ancient times, is still sold there in parcels of sixty-four 
stalks for divination ; the stems were once used for hair-pins". 
In the Historical Record (^ |5) it is said that a hundred stalks 
of the Shih plant come out of the same root. "Where this 
plant grows neither tigers, wolves, nor poisonous plants are 
found." The Shuo-wen (^ "^ says : "The Shih is a kind of 
Hao (^' Artejnisid). The plant will yield, when a thousand 
years old, three hundred stalks. The lengths of the stalks 
used for divination were : for the Son of Heaven, nine feet ; 
for the feudal princes, seven feet ; for the high officers, five 
feet ; and for the graduates, three feet." 


The use of this drug is said to benefit respiration, to in- 
vigorate the skin and muscular system, to brighten the eye, to 
promote intelligence, and if taken for a long time to prevent 
hunger and tissue waste. It is prescribed for dyspepsia and 
dyspeptic constipation. 

This is an Amarantaceous plant, with greenish-purple stems, 
having large joints resembling the knee of an ox, whence the 
Chinese name (ox-knee). The product sold under this name 
in the Chinese drug shops is not always of this species ; other 
products of the same or allied genera being included : as 
Achryanthes aspcra^ Amarantus^ and Cyathiila. Tatarinov has 
wrongly identified this as Pupalia^ in which error he was 
followed by Porter Smith. 

The product of the shops varies considerably in appearance, 
as might be expected from the number of different species of 
plant used. The best quality, which comes from Huaiching- 
fu in Honan, occurs in straight flexible roots of the size of a 
small quill, wrinkled longitudinally, and of a brownish yellow 
color. The taste is bitterish and somewhat acrid. This is 
probably the true "ox-knee". Another specimen of the root 
is of a bark brown or yellowish color, twisted, knotted, 
irregular, light and open in structure, with fibrous rootlets 
attached, of a dirty-white color in the interior, and with very 
little flavor. A coarser variety, known as )\\ ^ jj^ (Ch'uan- 
niu-hsi), 2452, differs in no material respect, excepting size, 
from the last. One ancient observer says that the plant with 
the large purple joints is the staminate one, while that with 
small green joints is pistillate. The former is the best for 
medical purposes. The stalk and leaves are also used in 
medicine, being regarded as having virtues similar to those of 
the root. The shoots of all of the different varieties are edible. 
Anti-rheumatic and anodyne properties are among the chief 
ones ascribed to this drug. It is also said to be of use in ague, 
fever, urinary difficulties, puerperal and cutaneous diseases. 
So persistently is it recommended in labor and puerperal 
conditions, that it might well be worth while to investigate its 
virtues in this respect. The stems and leaves are especially 


recommended in chronic malarial and palludal poisoning. In 
India diuretic and astringent properties are attributed to 
Achryanthes aspera. 

ACONITUM. — A great many species of Aconite are met 
with in China. Maximowics met with nine in the Amur 
region, fonr near Peking, and three in Mongolia. Doubtless, 
if all of the wild and cultivated varieties of Szechuan were 
enumerated, the list would be very much enlarged. It is also 
probable that several drugs prepared for the market are derived 
from the same species, being altered in appearance by cultivation 
and domestication. Identifications are exceedingly difficult, 
and it is only necessary to go through the list of those already 
attempted to see the hopeless state of the subject. In Peking 
a specimen with a blue flower called ^ '^ gg (Ts'ao-wu-t'ou) 
is identified as Aconitum kiisiiezoffLi. Tatarinov identified 
another, called ]^ ^ (Ts'ao-wu), from specimens of the root, as 
AconituDi japo7iicii))i. Among other identifications are ^^ -^ 
(Fu-tzu), a blue flowered kind, Aconitum fischeri ; a green 
flowered plant, ^ ^^ (Wu-t'ou), Aconitum lycoctomini ; and 
Henry called the wild ^ ^ (Wu-tu), which grows in the 
mountains of Hupei, Aconitiiju fischeri. The principal names 
under which the article appears in commerce are [^ '^ (Ts'ao- 
wu) and [^ '^ HI (Ts'ao-wu-t'ou), 1353 ; ]\\ % (Ch'uan-wu), 
262, %^ ,1^ (Kuang-wu), 655, and ^ |^ (Wu-t'ou), 1472 ; and 
pf ^ (Fu-tzu), 343, 5^i|(T'ien-hsiung), 1291, |?(:f j^ (Fu-p'ien), 
337, and Jll Iff (Ch'uan-fu), 243. Of the three groups, the 
Customs Lists classify the first as being derived from Aconitiivi 
kusnezojfii at Newchwang, and from other ports, Aconitum. 
volubile and Aconitum unciatum ; the second, possibly Aconitum 
napellus ; and the third, Aconitum fischeri. The jiff ^ (Fu- 
p'ien) is sliced aconite root, probably of the last named 

The statements of the Pentsao in regard to the derivation 
and classification of the drug are interesting, if not accurate. 
T'ao Hung-ching, the compiler of the P^ntsaoching^ says 
that Fti-tzu and IVu-f^ou are names applied to the root of 
the same plant. That taken up in the eighth moon is called 
Fu-t2U^ while that dug up in the spring, when the plant 


begins to sprout, and resembling a crow's head in shape, is 
called lVu-i''oi{. That with a pedicle like an ox-horn is 
called Wu-hui (,^ P^). The inspissated juice is called ^J [^ 
(She-wang). The T'' ien-lismng resembles the Fu-tsu^ but 
is more slender, and from three to four inches long. The 
Tse-tzti (tpj] -^j is a large lateral horn of the Fii-tzu. All 'Of 
these names refer to the root of the same plant. Another 
author considers them to be applied to different plants, each 
of them growing in a different locality. Li Shih-chen, the 
author of the Pentsao^ however, makes a statement similar to 
that of T'ao Hung-ching's. Among other terms applied to 
aconite by the Chinese are ^ ^ ^ (Lou-lan-tzu), which are 
said to be the smallest lateral tubers ; ^ Bg 1^ (Liang-t'ou- 
chien), which is a synonym for Wn-hiii ; fj" f^ ^ g^ (Chu- 
chieh-wu-t'ou), which is synonymous with Ts^ ao-ztm-f on ^ or 
the wild species ; |!t ^ (Keng-tzu), ^ 7^ (Tu-kung), and ^ |^ 
(Ti-ch'iu). A kind known as j^ !% ^ (T'u-fu-tztl) is specially 
spoken of as furnishing the arrow poison. 

It may be said in regard to this matter of identification 
and classification, that as all of these varieties contain either 
Aconitine, Japaconitine, Pseudaconitine, or possibly Delphin- 
ine, so far as the pharmacist and physician are concerned, the 
distinction becomes of less importance. Varying strengths of 
the alkaloid represented in different specimens of the drug 
would be the only question of importance to the dispenser, and 
under the new methods of drug assay this can be readily 

The so called Ch'uan-wu-t'ou {)\\ "^ g|) and Kuang-wu 
(5iu %^^ ^s they appear in commeice, are top-shaped, tuberous 
roots, from one inch and a quarter to one inch and a half in 
length, and rather more than half an inch in thickness, 
according to the number and size of the dried rootlets which 
project irregularly from the surface. The external cuticle is 
irregularly rough and hard, and of a brownish-black color, while 
the interior structure is firm, amylaceous, and of a dirty white 
color. The taste is bitter, acrid, and benumbing, the tubers 
being seldom worm-eaten. The drug is highly poisonous. The 
Pentsao gives the following description of Ch'uan-wu (/I| %\ 
which it makes identical with Wu-t'ou {% Bf ) and Ts'ao-wu- 


t'ou (^ ^ Ig) : "The leaves and the flowers come at the same 
time, appearing in the first moon. The leaves are thick, the 
pedicle square and hollow. They are similar to Artemisia (^) 
leaves. From the fourth to the eighth moon a juice can be 
expressed from the stalks, which may be evaporated 'o make 
anow poison. This, when placed upon arrow tips and used for 
killing birds, will produce death in a bird so shot in the time it 
would take one to walk ten steps. If men are shoe with these 
arrows, they will also die." "^oth the Piivsao and the Customs 
Reports give the origin of this drug as the province of Szechuan. 
The drug called Ts'ao-wu (^. ,^) and Ts'ao-wu-t'ouC^ % 
^), ns found in the Customs sheds and native drug stores, is 
somewhat different from that just described. It consists of 
mixed tuberous roots, evidently of more than one species of 
Aconitum ; that coming from Manchuria being classified as 
Aconitiim kusnezowii^ and that from other ports as Aconitu^n 
volubile and Aconitum iinciatum. It is possible that Aconitum 
ferox may be included in the list. The specimens, therefore, 
vary a good deal, being sometimes ovoid, oblong, and tapering 
to a point, or bifid, or even rounded at the extremities. They 
vary from three quarters of an inch to one inch and a half in 
length, are covered with smoothish or wrinkled, dark cuticle, 
and are frequently worm-eaten. Internally they are whitish and 
starchy, having very little odor, but the taste is very acrid and 
benumbing. In Manchuria a sun-dried extract of this aconite 
is said to be prepared, the deadly properties of which have been 
confirmed by the experiments of Dr. Christison. Hanbury says 
that equal parts of Ts'ao-wu ([^ %)^ Ch'uan-wu \]\\ %\ and 
• Nao-yang-hua (j^J i^ ^), in powder, is used to produce local 
anaesthesia. The moistened powder is applied to the surface of 
the part to be operated upon for two hours previous to the 
operation, by which means, it is alleged, insensibility to pain 
will be produced. The last substance above named is probably 
Hyoscyamus niger^ although it may be a Datnra. 

Fu-tzu (jff ^) is probably best classified as Aconitum 
Jischcri. The Pentsao makes this an inferior or unripe (•^) 
sort of Wu-t'ou {% pj, which is called f^ -f #• To 
distinguish it from Pai-fu-tzu {^"^ ■?), a plant of the Atiim 
family, it is sometimes called Hei-fu-tzu (M ^j ^ ). It is said 


to be cultiv^ated upon a large scale in Changming Hsien, 
Lungan Fu, Szechnan. An elaborate work on its cultivation 
was written in tlie Sung dynasty, from which it appears that by 
the use of pig's-dung, and a long period of domestication, this 
species of aconite, and perhaps Acoiiitum napellus^ have been 
rendered much less poisonous. The plant is made to develop 
very many appended side tubers, which, when gathered in the 
winter, are prepared by steeping in vinegar and salting them, 
and afterwards treating them by a process best known to those 
engaged in the trade. The tubers with numerous radicles are 
the most esteemed. As found in the drug shops, they are larger 
than the roots of the Ts'ao-wu (U^ H^), but otherwise very- 
similar in appearance. Fu-p'ien (|f| Y^) is merely the tubers of 
the Aconitum Jischeri stripped of the cuticle, after soaking 
with vinegar, dried thoroughly, and cut into slices, which are 
brittle, curled, translucent, white, and exhibit the concentric 
arrangement of the vascular bundles which traverse the root 
lengthwise. It is but very slightly acrid, as might be expected 
from the action of the acid on the root, in which it is macerated 
for a week. Another drug, said to be derived from the small 
side tubers of the Aconitiun fischeri^ is called Tse-tzii (/jB,!) ■^). 
The first character in both Fii-tzu and Ts^-tzu are properly 
written with the grass radical {f^ and ^). 

T'ien-hsiung (5c 11) is by some classed as Aconitum 
variegattnn. But, judging by the description given in the 
Pentsao^ it would almost appear to be a stameniferous or sterile 
variety of the Aconitutn Jischeri^ cultivated in Szechnan and 
altered by domestication. The prepared tubers are top-shaped, 
ovoid, measuring one inch and three quarters long by one inch 
and a half in breadth, of a black color externally, and often 
encrusted with a saline efflorescence. Several tubercles emboss 
the outer surface, more especially at the upper part. The 
interior is of a blackish-brown color, moist and greasy. In some 
fresher specimens the color was lighter and the texture more 
amylaceous. The taste is saltish, followed by the characteristic 
sensations caused by aconite. 

The Pentsao considers all of the various forms of aconite 
to be the same. That is to say, each is a different stage in the 
growth or cultivation of the plant. A number of explanations 


are quoted from various authors. As, for instance, one says 
that the product of the first year of the plant's life is called 
Tse-tzu (H!) ~f ) ; that of the second year, Wu-hui (^ P^) ; the 
third, Fu-tzfi (fJff •^); the fourth, Wu-t'ou (J^ gf) ; and the 
fifth, T'ien-hsiung (^ ^|). A sixth form is spoken of, which 
is called Lou-lan-tzu (|)§ ^ ■^), and is considered to be an 
immature form of the aconite plant. But as Mu-pieh-tzu 
(TfC ^^-p) is given as another name for it, and as this is probably 
the fruit of the Momordica cochinchinensis^ the terminology is 
here probably at fault. 

The P^ntsao also says that an arrow poison is prepared 
from a plant growing in some country west of China ; the plant's 
name being ^ j^ ;^ (Tu-pai-ts'ao). It says that this is an 
aconite, but not the Ch'uan-wu (Jlf ,^). This probably is 
because aconite is practically the only substance that has been 
used as arrow poison in China. The "western country" drug 
may as well have been Strophanthtis ^ or some allied plant of the 
digitalis series. As the substance is not readily found in the 
drug shops, and its exact place of origin is not known, it has 
not yet been studied. Another very poisonous substance, called 
% ^ (Lang-tu, "wolf's-bane") and %%l^ (Lang-tu-t'ou), 
693, is possibly Aconituvi lycoctonum^ but more probably 
Aconituvi ferox. The roots are large and starchy, and are often 
much worm-eaten. It is used as a sedative and in violent 
coughs. It is the common article for poisoning birds and 
beasts whenever this is done. 

The Chinese do not seem to have considered any of the 
aconites as edible, but the Pentsao speaks of one variety as non- 
poisonous. This is ^ ,^ (Niu-pien), which may be the 
Aconituvi septc7itrioiiale, used in Lapland as a potherb. It is 
entirely probable that the edible varieties indigenous to India, 
such as the Aconitiim multijidum and the Aconiturn rotundi- 
foliinn, are also found in China. The Niu-pien (^ j^) is only 
used as a lotion for ulcers and as an insecticide on cattle. 

All of the drugs included in this list of aconites, so far as 
they are used by the Chinese, are only employed after they have 
been prepared in various ways so as to diminish the poisonous 
properties of the plants. This explains the almost uniform 
practice ot soaking the tubers in vinegar for a longer or shorter 


period before tliey are placed on the market. As is the case 
with most drugs having strong physiological properties these 
aconites are prescribed for the widest variety of bodily disorders. 
A simple list of the diseases for which they are recommended 
would include most of the disorders to which flesh is heir. 
They are considered to be stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, 
arthritic, sedative, alterative, and deobstruent. They are 
accordingly used in fevers, ague, rheumatism, nervous disorders, 
neuralgias and all sorts of painful conditions, dropsy, cholera, 
and are considered to be specially efficacious in the many forms 
of dysentery found in Chinese nosology. Conditions considered 
to result from the disturbance in the balance between the dual 
principles are differently affected by the different varieties of 
this plant. For instance, if the " yin " (|^) is deficient, or the 
" yang " i[JJ) in excess, Wu-t'ou {^ B^) is the one to be 
employed ; but if the opposite condition exists then T'ien- 
hsiung ( 5c ^) should be administered. This seems, at least, to 
be in harmony with the sexuality of these plants. 

ACORUS. — The character ch'ang (^") is applied in China 
and Japan to the genus Acorics^ of which several species, 
including the common sweet flag (Acorns calamus)^ are found 
in Eastern Asia. The character p'u (-/[If) is defined by Kang 
Hsi as "a rush suitable for making mats". This character 
might be suggested as a distinctive term for the order of 
Juncacecs. Owing to the aquatic habit of the principle rep- 
resentative of the genus both the Pentsao and Kang Hsi classify 
the Acorns with the rush family. Hence Ch'ang-p'u (^' y^), 
" Acorus rush ". Of the different varieties oi Acorns the two 
characters ^ y|f, 29, seem to be reserved for Acorus terrcstris^ 
while the Acorus calamus is shui-ch'ang-p'u (jjIC ^ fif j and the 
Acorus graminens is shih-ch'ang-p'u {^S M W\ ii39- Another 
variety known as ch'ang-jung (^ ^), 28, ^^ Acorus okra''\ and 
pai-ch'ang (j^ ^) is the Acorus spurius. The leaf of the 
latter is described as without a raid-rib, which probably means 
that it does not have the elevated ridge on the leaves common 
to the other varieties. Its rhizome is not considered to be 
edible, and it is used in medicine only as an insecticide and an 


It is probable that the Acorus terrestris and the Acorns 
gramineus furnish the greater part of the product to the 
commerce of China, although it is reported as Acorus calamus 
from several ports. The provinces from which the larger part 
comes aie Szechuan, Kuangtung, and Kuangsi ; while 
Chekiang, Anhui, and Honan are mentioned as additional 
sources of supply. The plant is artificially cultivated to supply 
the demand for its sword-like leaves, which are hung up at the 
Dragonboat festival on the fifth day of the fifth moon of each 
year. (See the article on Ariefuisia. ) The drug is met with 
in the form of brittle, brownish-yellow, broken rootlets, 
irregularly ridged, and not inaptly compared by the Chinese to 
whip-cord. They have an agreeable smell, and the interior is 
white and starchy in texture and of a sweetish aromatic flavor. 
As the rhizome proper is a more efiicient drug, it is probable 
that it is also employed, although it is not so often found in the 
samples passing through the Imperial Customs. Stimulant, 
tonic, antispasmodic, sedative, stomachic, diaphoretic, anti- 
periodic, and other properties are referred to this drug, which 
has some excellent virtues, as confirmed by many trustworthy 
observers in India and Europe. Its insecticidal and insectifugal 
properties are understood by the Chinese, who refer its 
prophylactic powers to some such influence. It is worth while 
remembering that in Constantinople this drug is largely eaten 
as a preventive against pestilence. The powder, the juice, and 
a tincture are the favorite methods of exhibition with the 
Chinese, who use it in haemoptysis, colic, menorrhagia, and 
other fluxes, and apply the juice or coarse powder to carbuncles, 
buboes, deaf ears, and sore eyes. It is said to be antidotal to 
the poison of euphorbiaceous plants. The leaves are used to 
wash pustular eruptions and leprous sores. The prolific 
flowering of the plant is said to betoken large harvests. 

ACTEA SPIC ATA.— Under the Chinese name of ff- % 
(Sheng-ma , 1132, the roots of a number of Ranunculaceous 
plants are found in the markets ; such as Actea spicata^ Astilbe 
chinensis^ Astilbe thunbergi^ Ciniicifuga dnurica^ Cimicifuga 
foetida^ and Cimicifuga japonica. Porter Smith, following 
Hanbury, who in turn had followed a wrong identification by 


Siebold, calls this TJialictrum rubclluni. While these may all 
be similar in physiological action, it is scarcely probable that 
they are of equal value and medicinal strength. The identifica- 
tion of the various species remains yet to be done ; while, if the 
drug has the medicinal properties ascribed to it by the Chinese, 
the comparative value and action of the various kinds is still to 
be ascertained. According to the Chinese books the chief 
source of the drug is the mountain ravines of Szechuan ; but 
the Customs Reports, in addition to the province already 
mentioned, give Manchuria, Shensi, Chekiang, Kuangtung, 
and Kuangsi as sources of supply. It is possible that the 
various provinces may furnish roots from different but allied 
genera and species. The superior quality of the drug is called 
^ Hi I^ (Sheng-ma-jou), 1133, while the inferior is designated 
5^ ISI, li (Sheng-ma-t'ou), 11 34. The commonly used variety 
of the plant most nearly resembles Actea in the descrip- 
tion given in the books, so this article is written under this 

Marvelous properties are ascribed to this drug in Chinese 
medical works. It is regarded as " a corrective for every form 
of poison, preserving from old age and preventing death ; a 
prophylactic against pestilence, malaria, evil miasms, and the 
ku (^) poison". One is reminded that forty years ago 
Cimicifiiga raceniosa was held in almost as high repute by a 
certain school of physicians in America. Whether the Chinese 
drug is as inert as the American product, remains to be 
considered. To say the least, it is remarkable that empirics 
separated by wide oceans and by reaches of time, should have 
come to practically the same estimate of what is apparently so 
worthless a drug. In addition to its use in miasmatic and 
infectious disorders it is prescribed in nervous crying of 
children, in skin diseases, in the treatment of malignant 
tumors, in aphthous sore mouth, and in post-partum 

ACTINIDIA.— ^ % (Ch'ang-ch'u). This is the classical 
name. The Shuo-wen says it is the -^ ^^ (Yang-t'ao). It is a 
climbing shrub with edible fruit about the size of a plum. 
There seems to be two varieties, which have been identified as 


Actinidia chinensis (:^ \% or -^ |IB, Yang-t'ao) and Actinidia 
rufa (^ \^ f^^, Mi-hou-t'ao). In the south of China the char- 
acters ^ ^t'^^ are used for the fruit of the Averrhoa carambola^ 
1497, or "Chinese gooseberry" as it is called by Europeans. 
But this usage is evidently only a local one, and the plant so 
designated by the Pentsao is certainly not the carambola, but 
Actinidia. It is described as a clambering plant, growing in 
hilly districts, with a round, furry leaf and a greenish fruit 
about the size of a hen's egg. The fruit is edible, and in the 
mountainous districts of Shensi, where it grows plentifully, it is 
greatly relished by the monkeys. Hence the name by which 
it goes in the north. The bark is used to make paper, and 
when removed in one piece from near the root and placed in 
hot ashes, it is converted into a firm tube, which is used for 
pencils. The fruit is useful for quenching thirst, and this and 
the juice of the stalk are of some repute in the treatment of 
"gravel ". A decoction of the branches and leaves is used for 
the cure of mange in dogs. 

ADENOPHOR A.— Several Campanulaceous plants, the 
roots of which bear some resemblance to ginseng, and for which 
they are sometimes fraudulently substituted, are found among 
the flora of China. These are Adenophora verticillata (^ ^, 
Sha-shen), Adenophora polyviorpha^ var. alternifolia (^ ^ \»^ 
^, Hsing-yeh-sha-shen), Adenophora tracheloides (^ ^, Ti- 
ui), Codonopsis laticeolata (j^ ^ ^1 T'u-tang-shen), Glos- 
socomia lanceolata (^ ^, Yang-ju), Platycodon grandiflormn 
(1^ SI) Chieh-keng), Wahlenbergia marginata (|g ^ tl^ ^, 
Hsi-yeh-sha-sheu), and others. 

The Pentsao counts Sha-shen (j^? :^) among the five gin- 
sengs ; the other four being Jen-shen ( A ^)} Hsiian-shen (^ 
§>, Tan-shen (^fj ^), and K'u-shen (^ ^). It also says that 
it is white in color, from which it gets the name of Pai-shen 
(fe ^\ £^nd grows best on sandy soil, from whence its principal 
name {^ •^). The juice of the root is milky, and is vulgarly 
called ^ 1^ 15 t Yang-p'o-nai), "sheep mother milk". This 
root is also sometimes called ^ |L (Yang-ju) and Jfe ^ (Ti- 
hwang). It occurs ( 1078) in tapering pieces, from four to eight 
inches in length, with a whitish-brown, wrinkled exterior, and 


is much lighter and bulkier than ginseng. The interior is 
spongy and of a yellowish-white, and the cross-section shows a 
cunou'^.ly plicated arrangement of the tissue, the folds radiating 
irregularly from the center to the circumference. As the stem 
grows older, thi'^ arrangement is less distinct. The taste is 
bitter-sweet, sligntly cooling and demulcent. It is used largely 
in pulmonary diseases, especially those attended by fever, and 
as a general tc-'Ac and restorative of bodily vigor. The books 
say the Jen-shen (A ^) is -^ restorative of the " yang " prin- 
ciple, while Sha-shen (fp ^) restores the " yin ". 

Haing-yeh-sha-shen (^ ^ fp ^) is considered to be iden- 
tical with Chi-ni (^ j^). The Pentsao says in regard to this 
latter that the root is like Sha-shen k^ ^) and the leaves are 
like the apricot ; therefore, the people of Honan call it "apricot- 
leaved sha-shen". The plant contains a large quantity of 
juice, which is called ^ ^ i^ ^ (Chi-ni-nung-lu), "chi-ni 
thick dew ". The Chi-ni (^ ^) is Adenophoi^a remotifolia^ the 
common harebell. The properties of this root are sweet and 
cooling. It is reputed as an antidote for all kinds of medicinal 
poisons. It also is said to be efficacious in the bites of poison- 
ous insects and reptiles, as well as to overcome the effects of 
arrow-poison. Virulent ulcers, poisoned wounds, and the kii 
(jS) poison are also said to be benefited by it. As the drug 
seems to be a simple demulcent, one does not understand how 
it can have secured a reputation in such a wide range of 
poisonous affections. Ti-ni (^ '^) is given as a synonym of 
the above, but it probably is distinct, as indicated at the head 
of this article. Similarity in general appearance of the 
root and in medical properties may account for the Chinese 

Tang-shen i%^ ^\ 1251, is classed by the Phitsao with 
true ginseng. The name comes from J: %, fShang-tang\ the 
ancient name of Lu-an-fu in Shansi, from which one of the two 
principal kinds of ginseng originally came. For this reason 
the complete name is J: ^. A # (Shang-tang-jen-shen). But 
at the present time at least Tang-shen represents Campanula- 
ceous roots, and sometimes goes by the name of Bastard Gin- 
seng. These roots are much more open than even the worst 
specimens of ginseng, all of which have a much sharper 


and more aromatic flavor. The Customs Lists classify Tang- 
shen f^, ^) as Canipanumoea pilosula^ and it is possible that 
the T'u-tang-shen (i '% #), mentioned above, is not the same, 
although supplying a root similar in appearance and quality 
to the former. It is met with in long, slender, tapering, pale 
yellow pieces, slightly twisted. They are about five inches 
in length, much smaller than Fang-tang-shen (|J5 % ^), 
which they very much resemble, being wrinkled or furrowed 
longitudinally and transversely. The interior is brittle, brown- 
ish-yellow, open in structure, and with a lighter central pith. 
The taste is sweetish and slightly mucilagenous, resembling 
that of malt. The Customs Lists also give Ming-tang-sh8a 
(B^ % ^), 853, and say that this is the Chi-ni (^ ~^, and 
that it is quite different from Tang-shen (^ ^), 1251. On 
the supposition that Tang-shen is from a species of true ginseng, 
this would be correct. But even these lists give the origin of 
Tang-shen from the CampanulacecB ^ and, if there is any dis- 
tinction, it would be between the different genera or species 
of this order, e.g., Codonopsis lanceolata and Ca7npa7iunioea 
pilosula. Ming-tang (Bfl ^), or ''clear ginseng from Shang- 
tang," is found in hard pieces of four inches in length, taper- 
ing at both ends like a cigar ; one end being truncated and the 
other pointed. The cuticle is of a yellowish color, stained 
with reddish points, marked with fine lines or furrows, and 
the interior hard, white, porous, and easily separated from the 
translucent cortical part. Tang-shen (^ ^) is distinguished 
in commerce by several special designations, indicating its 
source or the manner of packing. Among these is Fang-tang 
(§5 ^)» ^Iso called Fang-tang-shen (jJJ ^ ^) and Fang-feng- 
tang-shen (|55 M %. #)• This is the kind that comes from 
Hupeh, and is described by Porter Smith as follows: "This 
is a drug met with in bundles of long, tapering, angular 
pieces, of dirty-brown color, marked with wrinkles and fissures, 
or transverse rings. They average about a foot in length, and 
are more or less tough or brittle, according to age. There 
are remnants of the radicles at the thicker, or lower ends. 
The cross section is of a lighter color, showing the same open, 
plicated arrangement of the woody tissue as the Sha-shen 
{W ^)) with a firmer central pith of a yellow color. The two 


drugs resemble each other a good deal, but the one under 
consideration is much larger and darker, and marked ex- 
ternally with dark patches of the dried juice. It has a sweet, 
mucilagenous taste, and is used as a tonic like ginseng. It is 
used in syphilis, just as the Campanula glaiica is amongst the 
Japanese." Ch 'nan-tang (/![ ^) is from Szechuan, and is in 
large dark pieces, resembling Sha-shen (^ ^); Hsi-tang 
(H ^.) is from Shensi, Lu-tang (^{^ ^) from Luan prefecture 
in Shausi. Pao-tang (-gj ^) is the drug in bales, Hsiang- 
tang (^ ;^i is that in boxes, while Feng-p'i (H, ^), or Feng- 
p'i-tang (HI, ^ ^), or Hung-tang (ifl %) is the substance in 
bundles fastened with red cord. Tatarinov thought to identify 
Tang-shen (^^ i^) as a Convolvulus^ but there is no doubt that 
this is a campanulaceous plant. 

Chieh-keng k\% ^), Platycodon grandifiorum^ is a red 
stemmed genus of the Campamilacecs. The Pentsao savs that 
it is like the Chi-ni (^^), the latter being sweet, while the 
former is bitter. Like others of this order, its roots are used 
to falsify ginseng. It is brought from Szechuan, Hupeh, 
Honan, Shansi, and possibly from other provinces of North 
China. It occurs in short, dark-brown pieces, much shriveled 
and wrinkled, and sometimes moniliform, varying in size from 
that of a little finger to a writing quill, or even smaller. Its 
taste is said to be slightly bitter and demulcent. Its ascribed 
medicinal qualities are many, among which the more important 
are tonic, astringent, sedative, stomachic, and vermifuge. It 
is specially recommended in bloody fluxes from the bowels. 

ADIANTUM. — The substance spoken of in the Customs 
Lists as T'ieh-sien-ts'ao (||j H :^), 1281, is given in the List 
of Chinese Plants known to Linnaeus as Adiantuni fiabellatum^ 
and is also included in Loureiro's Flora Cochinchinensis under 
the same classification. T'ieh-sien-ts'ao 1^ |f^ i^ ), as given 
in the Pentsao^ seems rather to be a Polygonum^ and is repre- 
sented to be the same as Pien-hsli {% H), Polygonum avicu- 
lare. The part used is the root, while the product appearing 
at the Customs is the stalk and leaves. Further identification 
of this substance is necessary. The drug spoken of in the 
Pentsao is used in the treatment of colds. 


Adiantiim monochlamys^ Shih-ch'ang-slieng {^ ^ ^), 
is a true Filix. It is found in mountainous districts, growing 
upon the edge of cliffs. The root is the part used, and its 
taste is said to be salt}', slightly cooling, and the drug is 
somewhat poisonous. Its properties are febrifuge and para- 
siticide. It is recommended in parasitic skin diseases. 

^GLE SEPIARIA.— In the Customs Lists fa (Chih), 
133, 137, is so identified. But the preponderance of authority 
seems to be in favor of considering this as Citrus fusca. or 
Citrus trifoliata. (See Citrus. ) 

^SCUIvUS CHINENSIS.— 5fc U ^ (T'ien-shih-li). The 
fruit of this sapandaceous plant is but little different from the 
common horse-chestnut. The Pentsao says that it is found only 
in the mountains of Western Szechuan, but it is said also to 
come from the province of Hupeh. The name is derived from 
51 5c Bifi (Chang T'ien-shih), a famous Taoist priest, who 
dwelt at Ts'ing-ch'en {% ^\ a city situated in this part of 
Szechuan, and studied "tao. " It is probable that this is the 
same as ^ j^ -^ or ^ ^ -^ (So-lo-tzii), as given in Tatari- 
nov's list. The fruit is also compared to the acorn. The 
hilum is large and the integument of a dark, reddish-brown 
color. The bark of the tree contains a crystalline, fluorescent 
principle, and some species of this genus are poisonous, but 
these nuts are sweet, and are merely credited with being 
useful iu cases of contracted limbs from palsy or rheumatism. 
The fruits selling at a valuation of threepence each in Hankow, 
induces the Chinese to put some faith in them, for they usually 
value a remedy in proportion to its cost. 

Another representative of this genus is the ^sculus tur- 
binata (^ ^ jg^, Ch'i-yeh-shu\ It is so classified in the 
Japanese lists, is not mentioned in the Pentsao^ and may not 
be found in China. 

AGAVE CHINENSIS.— J: U ^ (T'u-ch'en-hsiang), 
1365. This amaryllidaceous plant is not mentioned in the 
Pintsao, but is apparently met with in Formosa. The Agave 
Americana {Bi 9^ Mi Lu-sung-ma), is said by Mr. T. Sampson 


to have been introduced into Canton province from Manila ;' 
at least the fibers, sometimes called Pita-fiax^ are said to be 
employed in the manufacture of mosquito netting. This fiber 
has, however, been referred by French botanists to Chamcsrops 
excelsa (:j=^ f^, Tsung-lii), the coir-palm. The hemp has also 
been called Po-lo-ma (JS^ %.\ but it is more probable that 
this latter is the Chinese name for Corchoriis or Triumfetta^ 
tiliaceous plants, which see. The Agave Mexicana has been 
confounded by Professor Neuman with the ^ ^ (Fu-sang), 
which is evidently a malvaceous shrub, the Hibisnis rosa- 
sinensis^ and upon his identification he has grounded a pre- 
sumption in favor of an early discovery of America by the 
Chinese. The land named after this plant, which was seen 
growing in profusion there, has been identified by Klaproth 
with Saghalien ; by Leland with a part of the American 
continent, and by others with Japan. The Fu-sang, of which 
the ancient Chinese books speak, was not the Hibisais rosa- 
sinensis^ but it was the name of a fabulous tree, behind which 
the sun was supposed to rise. The Agave Mexica^ia has been 
naturalized in India, and is largely cultivated there. Indian 
experience has confirmed the anti-syphilitic properties assigned 
by the Mexicans to this plant. Dr. Hutchinson, of India, cut 
the large, fleshy leaves into thin slices, and used them as 

AGLAIA ODORATA.— H ^ H (San-yeh-lan), %-^M 
(Mi-sui-lan). The flowers of this meliaceous plant are used to 
scent teas. The dried buds are called M iTt ^It (Lan-hwa-mi), 
691. The leaves and root are well worth trial as tonics, as 
Canella and other excellent tonics are referred to this order. 
The tender leaves are eaten as a vegetable. 

AILANTHUS GLANDULOSA.— ^f fCh'u), otherwise 
know as ^\% (Ch'ou-ch'u) and J^ ;j§ (Ch'ou-ch'un). The 
Pcntsao includes this and Cedt'ela sinenses under the common 
heading of ;j^ |g (Ch'un-ch'u). Although these belong to two 
distinct orders — the Ailan thus to the Sunarubacecs and the 
Cedrela to the RiUacece — it is well known that there is a strong 


'resemblance between the trees and shrubs of the former order 
and the Rtitacccs xanthoxylecs ; so it is not surprising that the 
Chinese should have classed these together. Several species 
of both genera yield timber of various qualities, but the 
red, fine-grained, mahogany-like wood of the Cedrela is 
far superior to the coarse, white, open timber of the 
Ailanthus^ much used as fuel. Other species of trees, similar 
in general appearance to the Ch'u i\%\ and having leaves 
giving off odor, are classed in the Phitsao with this ; an 
effort being made to distinguish the different kinds by the 
odor. Reason for this may be found in the fact that the 
Ch'un (|§) has fragrant leaves that can be eaten, and is there- 
fore sometimes called Hsiang-ch'un (:§; ;].^), while the Ch'u 
'^%) has leaves with an offensive smell, and therefore not used 
as food. The leaves of the Ailanthus are large pinnate, from 
one to two feet long, and are very similar to those of the 
Cedrela^ both of which trees grow in profusion in the neigh- 
borhood of Peking. On close examination, however, the leaves 
of the former are easily distinguished by the two little glands 
near the basis of each leaflet, to which the species name 
'■'' glandulosa " refers. The Ailanthus grows very easily and 
rapidly, and its wood is used only for fuel. In the phrase 
\%^ i.'^ it becomes, classed with the scrub oak, a figure of 
speech for "uselessness." The leaves are used to feed silk- 
worms, and in times of scarcity are eaten as a vegetable, 
though, on account of their offensive odor, not from choice. 
They are said to be very slightly poisonous, and are used as 
astringent, anthelmintic, and deobstruent remedies. They are 
given in diseases of the lungs, dysuria, menstrual diseases, the 
kan (^) disease of children, spermatorrhoea and fluxes in 
general, and a wash is made to promote the growth of the 
hair and to wash parasitic ulcers and eruptions. In most of 
the cases, the bark both of the tree and of the root is used, 
having precisely the same properties. The name Ch'u-p'i 
(1# i^)) o^ ^s in the Customs Lists Shu-pai-p'i {\% H j^), 1168, 
should be confined to the bark of the Ailanthus ; while 
Ch'un-p'i (;ji ^), or Hsiang-ch'un-p'i (f: # i^', 275, 415, 
is more correctly applied to that of the Cedrela. See Cedrela 


AKEBIA QUINATA.— 7tc jg (Mu-t'nng). A drug 
obtained from a Peking drug shop, bearing this Chinese name, 
was sent to Kew and there examined. It proved to be Akebia 
quinata. It was in thin slices, evidently the transverse 
sections of a ligneous stem, half-an-inch in diameter ; the 
marrow showing small holes like a sieve. In the Customs 
Lists, 878, the drug is said to be derived from various species 
of Clematis; "the export from Newchwang is probably 
Clematis heracleoefolia^ that from Hankow is Clematis grata^ 
while that from Ningpo and Canton has not yet been 
determined." Loureiro and Faber identify it as Clematis 

It is a climbing plant, with a jointed, woody stem, varying 
in thickness from that of a finger to about three inches in 
diameter. The wood is yellow, and is arranged in vascular 
plates, leaving tubular openings large enough for air to be 
blown through ; hence the Chinese names, % jj (Mu-t'ung)and 
j§ !^ (T'ung-ts'ao . This latter name, however, is also some- 
times applied to Fatsia papyrifera. The twigs and fruit are 
used in medicine. The fruit, which in the south of China is 
called ipt ^ ^ (,Yen-fu-tzu) and .^ ^ ^ (Wu-fu-tzii), is from 
three to four inches long, has a white pulp with black kernels, 
is edible and of an agreeable, sweet taste. The wood is bitter 
to the taste, and is pronounced to be a stimulating, diaphoretic, 
laxative, diuretic, stomachic, and vulnerary drug, quickening 
all of the senses and faculties. The fruit is said to be tonic, 
stomachic, and diuretic. 

ALBIZZIA JULIBRISSIN.— ^ f; (Ho-huan), 373, -^ ^ 
(Yeh-ho). This is one of the leguminosae of the suborder 
MtmosecB^ and is also called Acacia julibrissin. Loureiro 
calls it Mimosa arboi-ea. It is sensitive, the leaves folding 
together at night, as the Chinese name implies. It is probable 
that in this sense another name given by the Phttsao^ namely, 
^ ^ (Ho-hun), "uniting dark," is more nearly correct than 
the first given above. It is considered to be an auspicious tree, 
promoting agreement and affection, and therefore is given a 
place among domestic shrubbery. Its leaves are also edible. 
The parts of the plant appearing in the Customs Lists are the 


flowers, but the portions recommended to be used by the 
Pintsao are the bark and wood. On account of the auspicious 
character of this tree, its use in medicine is also thought to be 
attended with the happiest results : " promoting joy, assuaging 
sorrow, brightening the eye, and giving the desires of the 
heart." In the treatment of disease, it is regarded as tonic, 
vulnerary, sedative, anthelmintic, and discutient. A gummy 
extract is prepared and used as a plaster for carbuncles, swell- 
ings, and as a retentive in fractures and sprains. 

ALEURITES TRILOBA.— :& ^ (Shih-li). This eu- 
phorbiaceous tree is either closely allied to, or identical 
with, the Aleiirites riwluccaiia^ or Candle Nut tree of India 
and the Pacific Islands. It is also closely related to the 
Excoecm-ia sebi/era (,^ 1^ 7fC, Wu-chiu-mu), or Tallow tree. 
It bears an acorn-like fruit, called by the Chinese "stone 
chestnuts," which is the meaning of the term given above. 
It is a native of Annam, or Cochin China, and was known to 
Loureiro as a species of walnut, just as it is called in India 
Belg2ia77i^ or Indian walnut. It is incidentally mentioned in 
the Pentsao under the head of "chestnut," as growing 
commonly in the south of China, but it is not considered to be 
a chestnut. A fixed oil is expressed from the kernels, which 
is reported by Dr. O'Rorke to be superior to linseed-oil as an 
economic substance. He finds its medicinal action to be 
similar to that of castor-oil, but it does not cause nausea or 
pain, and is free from any unpleasant smell or taste. Neither 
the fruits nor the oil appear in the Customs Report, which 
seems a surprising fact when their reputed usefulness is 
considered. The tree abounds in the Moluccas, where the 
fruit is eaten as an aphrodisiac, and is met with in the island 
of Tahiti ; a gummy substance which exudes from the bark 
being chewed by the natives. The name Shih-li (^ ^) has 
been incorrectly given to the fruit of Qiierais cornea. 

KLiQf]^. — \% "%. (Hai-tsao), 355. The character ^ is used 
for all sorts of aquatic plants, and the name above given could 
almost be limited to marine algse. ^- '% (Hai-ts'ai) is also 
used for the same purpose. Several kinds of algse are used 
by the Chinese both as dietetic articles and as medicinal agen^g^ 


Specimens of the Hai-tsao obtained from Tientsin and identified 
by Professors Agardli and Gobi, proved to belong to Sargassum 
siliquast7'tim. The proper Chinese name of this is j!§ j^ (Hai-lo). 
The large sea-weed which is so commonly used for food in China, 
and called by the common name of ;^ ^ (Hai-ts'ai), comes 
from the coast of Manchuria and Korea, and is Latninaria 
sacchaj'iiia ; the correct Chinese name being |^ ^\ (K'un-pu) or 
3^ ^ (Lun-pu). Several species of Laminaria^ Rhodymetiia^ 
Alaria^ h^idcea^ and Potaviogeio7i are found in the Chinese 
medicine shops. Their identification is very uncertain. The 
names \% |^: (Hai-tsao), ^ ^ (Hai-tai), 354, \^. || (Hai-yiin), 
and ^ ^ (K'un-pu), 677, are applied rather indiscriminately to 
these specimens. '-'•Agar-agar^'' is made of Gracilm-ia licJie- 
noides^ Gracilaria spinosa^ Gigartina teiiax^ and Sphisrococcus^ 
which grow upon the shores of most of the islands of the 
eastern sea. Nostoc edjile is another form of edible sea-weed. 
In colloquial, however, these are all called ^ '%, (Hai-ts'ai). 

The Pentsao recommends all of the medicinal algse in the 
treatment of goitre. Under the name of Gilhir-ka-putta^ a 
dried sea-weed, assumed to be collected near the mouth of the 
Saghalien river, is highly prized in upper India as a remedy 
for bronchocele. K'un-pu is recommended in dropsies of all 
kinds, and Hai-tai is prescribed in menstrual disorders, and is 
said to have the power of increasing the action of the uterus 
in difficult labors. The Chinese regard a diet of sea-weed as 
cooling, but rather debilitating if pursued for a long time. A 
fine quality of sea-weed, which has been cleansed and bleached, 
is imported from Japan and sold under the name of ^ |j^ 
(Yang-ts'ai). It is called isinglass in the table of imports. 
Among fresh water algse, the Phitsao speaks of, || ^ ^ (Lung- 
she-ts'ao), 790, "dragon tongue," which is specially recom- 
mended as an application in the treatment of mammary abscess 
and cancer. We cannot agree with Faber in classifying ^ 25 
(Shih-jui) among the algae ; it is a lichen. 

ALISMA PLANTAGO.— ^1 \% (Tse-hsieh), 1354. This 
is the common water plantain, which in Northern China grows 
plentifully in ditches and ponds. Other names given for it in 
the Phitsao are ^JC \% (Shui-hsieh;, J^ J^ (Chi-hsieh), % {g 


(Ku-hsieh), ]g ^ (Mang-yii), and ^j ^, (Yii-sun) ; this last 
name being in honor of the Great Yii, the reputed founder of 
the Hsia dynasty, who drained the empire of the great flood 
that had prevailed up to the time of his reign. In the classics 
the plant is called ^ (Yii) and ^ (Hsieh). In the Japanese 
list it is called y^ -^ \% (Shui-tse-hsieh). The supply of the 
drug passing through the Customs comes from Fukien, Che- 
kiang, Honan, and Szechuan. The Pentsao recommends that 
which grows south of the Jii ('^) river, which is a tributary 
of the Huai. The parts used are the leaves, which are 
gathered in the fifth moon ; the rhizome, gathered in the 
eighth moon ; and the achene, gathered in the ninth moon. 
The rhizome, which is the part most frequently employed, is 
globular, or ovoid, and fleshy. The drug is generally met 
with in the form of thin, circular sections, from one inch to 
one inch-and-a-half in diameter, of a pale yellow color, mealy, 
'slightly bitter in taste, and often worm-eaten. The fresh 
rhizome is somewhat acrid. Tonic, cooling, diuretic, arthritic, 
stomachic, astringent, galactogogue, and discutient properties 
are attributed to this plant. In fact, any disease of the nature 
of a flux or dropsy, or disease of the hydrology of the system, 
is supposed to be benefited by this water plant. "If taken 
for a long time, the eye and ear become acute, hunger is not 
felt, life is prolonged, the body becomes light, the visage 
radiant, and one can walk upon water." It is also said to 
render labor easy, to stimulate the female generative apparatus, 
and to promote conception. The leaves, in addition to their 
other properties, are reputed to be serviceable in leprosy. The 
action of the achene is said to be similar to that of the root, 
even to the production of visual radiance, but its use is said 
to produce sterility. 

ALLIUM ASCALONICUM.— ^ (Hsieh). This is the 
ordinary garden shallot ; the slight variation from the European 
variety being produced by the different method of culture 
employed by the Chinese. It is indigenous to China ; the wild 
variety being readily found in the Lii mountains of Kiangsi. 
The seeds are usually planted in the autumn and the small 
bulbs separated and transplanted in the spring. It is used .as 


a vegetable, though not so highly prized as the native leek 
(Alliu7n odorn7n). The small bulbs, called ^Jj! ^ (Hsieh-pai), 
449, are pickled, as in Europe, and they are also preserved for 
medicinal use in alcohol. Tonic, nutrient, astringent, and 
alterative properties are attributed to the plant, and the bruised 
bulb is applied as a discutient or vulnery remedy. Combined 
with honey, it is said to be a useful application in burns. 

ALLIUM FISTULOSUM.— ^ (Ts'ung). This is the 
Chinese onion, or ciboule, native to Siberia and Mongolia. It 
is largely cultivated in several parts of China. It differs from 
the common onion (Allium cepa) in never forming a globular 
bulb. The common onion is largely cultivated in Southern 
China and Cochin China, but it probably is of foreign origin. 
It is called ^ ^ Hu-ts'ung) and [el 7^ (Hui-hui-ts'ung) ; 
this latter term, "Moharaedan onion," indicating its deriva- 
tion from the West. The Chinese onion, belonging to the 
class of nitrogenous foods called ^ (Hun i, is much used as an 
article of diet. It, together with other vegetables of its class, 
constitutes a large proportion of the poor man's "meat" ; 
being eaten with rice, millet, or bread, together with succulent 
and green vegetables. Several varieties are cultivated, and the 
article is as much used as its prototypes are in Spain and 
Portugal. A large, coarse variety is called Tfc ^ (Mu-ts'ung), 
or "tree-onion" (Alliuvi cepaproliforu77if). The wild onion, 
§ ^ (Ko-ts'ung) or ^ ^, (Shan-ts'ung), {Allium victorialis?)^ 
and the foreign onion are specially mentioned in the Pentsao. 
It says that the latter are indigenous to the mountains of 
Szechuan, but we have not been able to verify this. Onion 
tea is given to persons suffering from catarrh, fever, headache, 
cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery, urinary affections, and rheumatic 
disorders. It is also used as a sedative in children's diseases. 
The persons in charge of life boats on the Yangtse depend, in 
cases of drowning, upon strong onion tea to excite vomiting and 
reaction. Onions are applied to the noses of persons who have 
attempted to hang themselves. Buboes, abscesses, and frac- 
tures are poulticed with the bruised bulb, or annointed with 
the juice. Every part of the plant is supposed to have some 
special therapeutic property. 


ALLIUM ODORUM.— Ml (Chiu), 203. Other names for 
this seem to be Allnim uliginosum^ Allium tuberosum^ and 
Alliu7ti senescens. It is indigenous to Siberia, Mongolia, and 
the whole of China ; is a common plant in the mountains of the 
north, and is cultivated everywhere in gardens. The Chinese 
eat the whole plant, it being specially relished when it is in 
flower in mid-summer. It somewhat resembles the leek^ but is 
much smaller. The leaves are ligulate, and the bulb flat and 
continuous with the stem. The Book of Rites calls this plant 
^ 7(S, feng pen (the rich root), when it is used for the sacrifices 
in the ancestral temple, and it is also used in other sacrifices. 
It is raised from the seed or from the transplanted bulbs ; 
patches of the fresh vegetable being kept ready for use during 
the entire year in Central China. It is supposed to nourish 
and purify the blood, to act as a cordial, and to in every way 
benefit those who are ailing. It can be partaken of freely and 
for a long time. Special diflSculties for which it is regarded 
to be eflScacious are poi.'^onous bites of dogs, serpents, or insects, 
hemorrhages of every sort, and spermatorrhoea. For this 
latter the seeds are considered to be especially useful. 

The wild leek, lU ii (Shan-chiu), also called ^ :^ Ml 
(Chu-ko-chiu), is considered by Faber to be a distinct species, 
Alliuvi japonicuni. It is specially mentioned in the Pentsao^ 
and is thought to have special action in promoting excretion 
and in the flatulent dyspepsia of elderly persons. 

ALLIUM SATIVUM.— IJ. (Suan). Garlich?.^ been known 
to the Chinese from a very early period ; it being mentioned in 
the Calendar of the Hsia, a book of two thousand years before 
Christ. It is now called )\\ |,^ Hsiao-suan) to distinguish it 
from Allium scorodoprastivi^ which is called -^^ ,^ (Ta-suan). 
The Erh-ya relates that when the Emperor Huang-ti was 
ascending a certain mountain, some of his followers were 
poisoned by eating the ^ ^ yu-yii (probably an aroid plant); 
but by eating the garlic, which was also found there, their lives 
were saved. From that time it was introduced into cultivation. 

The Phitsao gives thirty-two varieties of vegetable under 
the classification oS.%% (hun-ts'ai). In addition to alliaceous 
plants, there are mustard, ginger, and the like ; all seeming to 


be characterized by the presence of a volatile oil, carminative 
and stomachic in its action. Consequently some of them are 
used as condiments, and all are used to give flavor to the 
amylaceous basis of the ordinary Chinese diet. The character 
^, however, is applied as well to all kinds of nitrogenous food ; 
the 21 H being the five kinds of food forbidden to the Buddhist 
priesthood and to fasting persons generally. These are the 
flesh of the horse, dog, bullock, goose, and pigeon. The 
geomancers enumerate as the |^, garlic, rocambole, leek, rue, 
and coriander ; the Taoists, leek, shallot, garlic, rue, and 
coriander ; and the Buddhists, rocambole, garlic, assafoetida, 
onion, and scallion. Among the common people, however, ^, 
while including these articles, more properly refers to animal 
flesh ; the lean parts being termed ^ |^ and the fatty parts 
f^ ^. Chinese patients usually request directions as to the 
eating of these various kinds of food. 

The medicinal virtues of garlic are considered to be many. 
It is thought to have a special influence upon the spleen, 
stomach, and kidneys, acting as a sedative and removing 
poisons. It is supposed to correct the unwholesomeness of 
water, to destroy the noxious effect of putrid meat and fish, 
and to prevent goitre and pestilential diseases. 

ALLIUM SCORDOPRASUM.— ;^ ^ (Ta-suan), ^ ,^ 
(Hu-suan), jSjj (Hu). The rocambole^ according to the Po-wu- 
chi and the Phitsao^ was introduced into China from the West 
by Chang-ch'ien, a famous general of the Han dynasty. The 
Arabic name (Soin) resembles the Chinese word S2ian^ but as 
both names date back to the earliest period of written history, 
it is difficult to say whether one was derived from the other, or 
both came from a common source now unknown. This plant 
is considered to be slightly deleterious, and if eaten for a long 
time the eyesight is thought to be affected. It is recommended 
as a digestive and for expelling poisonous effluvia. In 
combination with other drugs, it is used in the treatment of 
hemorrhages and fluxes. 

ALLIARIA WASAHL— i^ % fHan-ts'ai). One of the 
Crucifercey closely allied to Sisymbriicm [Hedge viustard). It 


has white flowers and a characteristic foliage, and the plant 
has an alliaceous odor, from which fact it derives its name. 
It is recommended as an appetizer and digestive, giving a 
pleasant sensation of warmth to the stomach and acting as a 
carminative in flatulent dyspepsia. 

ALOCASIA MACHRORIZA.— ?^ ^ (Hai-yii). This 
aroid plant is so named in the Japanese lists. The Phitsao 
calls it also H •^ jH (Kuan-yin-lien), which in the Japanese 
identifications is Lysichihnn camtschaieiise. Also, a small 
variety, named ^ ^ ( Yeh-yii), is by them classified as 
Richardia africafta. The Phiisao seems to regard these as 
identical. The original habitat of the plant under considera- 
tion is said to have been Szechuen, but it now is found in 
various parts of the empire. It grows up in spring with a stalk 
four or five feet high and with leaves like the taro. In the 
early autumn it blooms with a sessile flower like the lotus petal, 
jade colored, and with a pistil which resembles the image of 
Kuanyin. Hence the common name for the flower is 
*'Kuanyin lotus." The plant is said to be exceedingly 
poisonous, and is highly recommended in the treatment of 
miasmatic poisoning. 

ALOE VULGARIS.— l: % (Lu-hm\ 765. Bretschneider 
says that this Chinese name is so applied in Canton, and that 
the plant that Loureiro describes as Aloe perfoliata is the same. 
The name is probably a transliteration of some foreign name, 
as other names similar in sound are also given, such as ^ -^ 
(Nu-hui) and fft % (No-hui). The drug is also called ^ |§ 
(Hsiang-tan), "elephant's gall," in reference to its bitter flavor. 
The Phitsao describes it as the exudation from a tree which 
grows in Persia, and says that at that time it entered China only 
at the port of Canton. It admits, however, that it is uncertain 
whether the substance, which it describes as a resin or extract 
(W)> is the product of a tree or of a smaller plant. The sub- 
stance sold under this name is met with in irregular pieces, 
about one inch in thickness, of a coal-black color, slightly 
porous and marked with brilliant crystals on the broken 
surface. One surface is usually marked with the impression 


of a gramineous leaf. The taste is bitterish and cooling, and 
it is not regarded as being poisonous. Althelmintic, stomach- 
ic, and laxative properties are referred to this drug, which 
would seem to have been formerly much used in the worm- 
fever and convulsions of children. It is now used mainly as 
a wash for eczematous skin affections, being combined with 
licorice for that purpose. Since in the treatment of worm 
affections it is always combined with the fruit of Qtiisqualis 
hidica^ it is very improbable that in itself there are any anthel- 
mintic properties. 

ALPINIA GLOBOSUM.— S ^ (Tou-k'ou), 1314, % S 
^ (Ts'ao-tou-k'ou). This is the Amomwn globosum of Lou- 
reiro, and described by Hanbury as the large 7'ound Chi?iese 
cardamom. The cardamoms are well known in commerce, 
but the plant from which they are derived, does not seem as 
yet to have been carefully identified by botanists. Hanbury 
says that it is a native of the south of China and of Cochin 
China. The Phitsao refers its origin to Hainan, which name 
in this w^ork often refers to any country in the seas south of 
China. At present it is said to be found in all parts of Kuang- 
tung and Kuangsi, as well as in parts of Yunnan and Fukien. 
The plant is said to resemble the Myristica in appearance, and 
bears a red, changing to yellow, flower in the axils of the 
leaves, which has some likeness to the Hibiscus. The leaves 
resemble those of the wild ginger ( jl] ^, Shan-chiang), and 
are sometimes gathered in the immature state in a similar 
manner to tea buds. The large globular capsules furnish the 
large round cardamom of commerce, and also the small round 
Chinese carda?nom described by Guibourt. This latter is 
simply the unripe capsule, and therefore devoid of much flavor, 
but used as a salted condiment by the Chinese. Guibourt 
describes it as follows: '* Capsules nearly spherical, from 
seven to eight lines in diameter, slightly striated longitudinally 
and much wrinkled in all directions by drying ; it is probable, 
however, that the fruit was smooth when recent. The capsule 
is thin, light, easily torn, yellowish externally, white within. 
The seeds form a globular coherent mass. They are rather 
large and few in number, somewhat wedge-shaped, of an 


ashey-grey, a little granular on the surface, and present on the 
outer face a bifurcate furrow, shaped like a Y. " To this Han- 
bury adds: "Compared to the large cardamom, the capsules 
in question are more wrinkled in a net work manner, more 
fragile and thin, and much less adherent to the mass of seeds ; 
they are more globose, not triangular at the base, but flat, or 
even depressed like an apple. Their color, in all of the 
specimens I have seen, is a brownish yellow." The large 
capsules are oval, or globular, pointed at either extremity, 
with a tendency to a triangular outline, especially at the base. 
They are sometimes attached to a long pedicle. The pericarp 
closely invests the mass of seeds, is brown, and strongly 
marked by interrupted longitudinal ridges. In taste, it is very 
slightly aromatic. The seeds are found in a coherent three- 
lobed mass, light greyish-brown in color, somewhat oblong 
and angular, with a deep furrow on one side. They have a 
slightly aromatic odor and taste, somewhat resembling that 
of thyme, although very much weaker. In size, these capsules 
vary from three-fifths of an inch to over an inch in length. 
In the Chinese shops the cardamom is usually found deprived 
of its husk. 

The cardamoms and the flowers are used in Chinese medi- 
cine. The latter are employed as a carminative and stomachic 
remedy, and are reputed to counteract the effects of wine on the 
system. The seeds, in addition to the properties possessed by 
the flowers, are used to correct offensive breath, in the treat- 
ment of malarial disorders and fluxes, to counteract acidity of 
the stomach, in disordered menstruation, and in the treatment 
of various kinds of poisoning. 

ALPINIAOFFICINARUM.— ^HM(Kao-liang-chiang). 
Faber gives [[] ^ (Shan-chiang), but this is probably a variety 
known as Alpinia japonica^ or wild ginger. The plant under 
consideration produces the ^'- lesser galangal r-oof'' of commerce, 
and it is from the Chinese name for this plant that the 
commercial term '''' galangaP"* is derived. Owing to the fact 
that Wildenow gave the name of Alpinia galanga to the plant 
which produces greater or Java galangal, botanical terminology 
in this case became separated from its point of origin. The 


Cliinese name is derived from ^ g, which was formerly 
the name of j^ >}]] }(f Kao-chon-fu in Knangtung province. 
The plant is sometimes called ^ ^ (Mau-chiang), or the 
*' ginger of the Man-tzu," aborigines of the southwestern part 
of China. The Phitsao says that the plant is now found in 
every part of Southern China, and extending into Szechuan. 
Galangal root is about two inches long, less than half an inch 
in diameter, externally of a rust brown color, longitudinally 
striated and transversely marked with the remnants of the leaf 
sheaths. Internally it is greyish-brown, and breaks with a 
fibrous fracture. It has an agreeable aromatic odor and a warm 
aromatic taste, resembling that of mingled ginger and pepper. 
Stomachic, carminative, sialagogue, tonic, and antiperiodic 
properties are the most important of the effects ascribed to this 
drug, which has from ancient times, as at the present time, 
been held in much esteem by Chinese physicians. 

The seeds of this plant, ^ H K •? (Kao-liang-chiang-tzu), 
3&! S ^ (Hung-tou-k'ou\ 537, 1091, are the '•'• Galanga Carda- 
viovi " described by Hanbury. The capsule is about half an 
inch in length, oblong or pear-shaped in form, and prominently 
crowned with the remains of the calyx. Some are shriveled 
on the outside and some are smooth, apparently depending 
upon their maturity at the time of gathering. The pericarp 
also varies as to thickness and color, in proportion to the 
maturity of the fruit ; in the less mature being pale and thick, 
and in the more mature of. a reddish-brown and thin. The seeds 
are in a three lobed mass ; each lobe containing two seeds, placed 
one above the other. The seeds are ash-colored, flattish, and 
somewhat three-cornered, and have a large hilum. They 
have a pungent, aromatic taste, and an odor resembling that 
of the root. 

The seeds have much the same properties as the root, 
being given in pyrosis, cholera, diarrhoea, toothache, ague, and 
diseases arising from damp and chills. They seem to have the 
virtues of cardamoms and ginger combined, and may be 
suggested for more general useas a stomachic and general tonic. 

In the Customs List there seems to be considerable 
uncertainty as to terms and classification. In 713, "% ^ 
(Liang-chiang; is used for Alpinia officinorum. It is probable 


that this term is sometimes so employed, but it is also employed 
for the Liliaceous Polygonatum sibiricuni. In 1091, other 
characters approximating ^ in sound are used for this 
character. It is probable that these are wrongly written. In 
several other places there are variations, unimportant in 
themselves, but which evidently need correction. 

ALTH^A ROSEA.— ^ ^ (Shu-k'uei). This name 
means "mallow from Szechuan." Another name, formerly 
used, is ^ ^ (Jung-k'uei), which means "mallow of the 
wild tribes of the west." These two names are probably 
identical with each other. Tlie term used in the classics is ^ 
(Chien). It is the common hollyhock^ which may have 
been originally introduced into China from some Western 
country. It is cultivated plentifully in Chinese gardens; its 
flowers somewhat resembling Hibiscus syriaais (7^ j;^, Mu- 
chin). The parts of the plants used are the shoots, root-stalk, 
and seeds. The properties ascribed to the shoots are stomachic, 
regulative, and constructive. They are used in fevers, 
dysentery, and to render labor easy. The root-stalk is con- 
sidered to be diuretic, and when bruised, is applied to all sorts 
of ulcers. The seeds are put to similar uses. 

Under this head the Phitsao mentions another plant, 
which it calls ^ ^ ^ (Wu-k'uei-hwa), and which, while it 
is identified as the same as the sJm-lcHtci^ is made out to have 
medical properties sufficiently distinct from those of the latter 
to render it probable that this is at least a different variety. 
Its taste is said to be "saltish and cold" (|g), while that of the 
shu-k^tcei\s "sweet and cooling " (j^). Its action is tonic to 
the heart and antiperiodic. It is used in the eruptive and 
intermittent fevers of children, in dysmenorrhoea, difficult labor, 
and the bites of poisonous insects. 

AMARANTUS.— ^ (Hsien). This term seems to be a 
general name for Amarantus. With qualifiers, it is also by 
some applied to Chenopodium and Euxolus. At Peking 
Amarantus blitum is so called, and Faber calls this ^ |g 
(Hsien-ts'ai). The Phitsao says that there are six varieties of 
this plant, viz., # Er 6 E, A M, ^ M, £ ^ E and .^ 1;. 


These terms, together with §f "^ and ^ -^ ^, are applied to 
dififerent plants in different parts of China, as well as in Japan ; 
so it is almost impossible to fix identifications in any of these 
cases. Faber gives J^]] ^ (Chih-hsien) for A7naj'a7iius 
spinostis^ which is probably correct. Han Pao-sheng says that 
the fruits of only the |^ ^ and the A M ^^^ "^^^ ^° medicine. 
They are said to have great cooling properties. They are also 
considered to have the property of brightening the intellect, 
assisting in the excretory processes, and benefiting the virile 
powers. The use of the plant itself is considered beneficial in 
fluxes, while the root is used in '*cold indigestion" and in 
toothache. The ^ ^ is said to be a small variety, also called 
|g ^ and ^- ^, and is good for feeding pigs. Some varieties 
of this plant are much cultivated and eaten as pot-herbs. 

AMBER— ^ JQ (Hu-p'o), 488, ^ H (Chiang-chu). 
According to an old saying, when a tiger dies, its spirit enters 
the earth and becomes transformed into stone of the form of 
this substance. Therefore it is called Jf^ ^ (Hu-p'o), "tiger's 
soul." The last character was afterwards changed to J^ i.P'o) 
to distinguish this substance as a gem. It is supposed to be the 
resin of an extinct species of Pimts^ for this reason given the 
name of Pittites succinifcr. As it is closely allied to ordinary 
resins, such an origin is very probable. It is worthy of note 
that, equally with Pliny and many modern observers upon the 
subject, the Chinese say it to be the resin of a pine which has 
"laid in the earth for a thousand years." An inferior 
quality is found in Yunnan, especially near Yungchangfu. 
Burmah, Cambodia, Korea, and Japan are said to yield 
supplies of the substance. But the market, formerly supplied 
by the overland trade routes from Asia Minor, is now supplied 
from the south, coming by the way of the Indian Archipelago, 
and, according to Dr. Williams, from Africa. The Sanscrit 
name is given in the Penisao as p^ f^ jp J^ ^ (A-shih-mo- 
chieh-p'o). Pieces containing insects and other bodies are held 
to be specially valuable. The best pieces are made into beads 
and ornaments, which are worn by persons of rank. Much. of 
what is oflfered for sale is fictitious, being made from colophony 
and copal. Its reputed medical properties are very much 


mixed up with certain transcendental powers wliich it is sup- 
posed to possess. But in addition to the many fanciful ones, 
it is credited with being useful in the treatment of catarrh of 
the bowels or the bladder, the convulsive disorders of children^ 
and as a tonic and alterative. 

Another form of amber, darker in color and more like 
jade, is called ^ (Hsi). It is said to have been brought from 
Turfan, where it was found among the black rocks. It is 
considered to be an older form of the amber, having laid in the 
ground for two thousand years, instead of one thousand. Like 
the Hii-p''o^ the Phitsao suggests that it may have originated 
from the {^ ;^, Fu-ling {Pachyma cocos\ found growing like a 
fungus from the roots of fir trees, or from |^ '^^ Chu-ling, a 
tuberiform fungus found growing on liquidamber roots above 
ground. Its medicinal virtues are regarded as correspondingly 
higher than those of amber. 

Two special formulae are given in the Phitsao in which 
amber is considered to be the chief ingredient. One, called 
Jj^ Jfl ^ (Hu-p'o-san), is composed of amber, the shell of 
Trionyx sine^isis, the roots of Cyperus rotiuidus^ the tubers of 
Corydalis ambigiia^ rhubarb, and myrrh. Its use is considered 
to be beneficial in all of the vital functions and to promote 
nutrition. It is specially prescribed in circulatory disorders 
after labor. Other formulae are for urinary disorders, injuries, 
and certain nervous diseases of uterine fetal life. 

AMOMUM AMARUM.— g ^ ^ (I-chih-tzu), 543. This 
is the bitter-seeded cardamom^ the origin of which has not yet 
been fully studied. The classification is therefore still doubtful. 
It has been referred to Zingiber nigrum^ which is identical 
with Alpinia allughas^ but is considered by Pereira and Han- 
bury to be a totally different species. The term was introduced 
by Porter Smith, who is followed by Faber. The Chinese 
term is also referred to, Nephelitim longan^ but later writers re- 
strict it to the bitter-seeded cardamom. The Phitsao says that 
the fruits come from Kunlun and Lingnan (Thibet and Cochin 
China). They are also said to come from the island of Hainan 
and from Kuangtung. According to Hanbury's description, 
" the capsules are mostly oval; some ovate-oblong and a few 


nearly sphetibal", t)oint&d'at the extremities, 6 to 10 lines long. 
The pericarp is of a^l deep dusky-brown, coriaceous, devoid of 
hairs, beset longitudinally with interrupted ridges usually about 
18 in number ; it has an agreeable aromatic smell and taste. 
The seeds are obtusely angular and adhere firmly together ; they 
are distinguished by an aromatic, bitter, myrrh-like taste." 

^^he drug is considered by the Chinese to benefit the 
KOitiaQl:^nd>spleen,j&nd therefore to "increase knowledge;" 
tBe disposition and wits of the individual being considered to 
largely reside in these organs. Tonic, stomachic, cordial, 
pectoral, and astringent properties are ascribed to these fruits 
in the Phitsao^ but the principal use to which they are applied 
at the present time is in the treatment of incontinence of urine, 
nocturnal emissions, and flooding after labor. 

AMOMUM CARDAMOMUM.— ^ S ^ (Pai-tou-k'ou), 
964. This is the ro2ind^ or chistei^^ cardamom^ and is a native 
of the East Indies. It was evidently imported into China about 
the eighth century, as it is first mentioned by writers of that 
time. It is said to have been produced in a country called 
•ftll 1& !^ (Ch'ieh-ku-lo), evidently a Buddhist country, where 
the drug is called % ^ (To-ku). It is also known under the 
name of ^ Jg g. ^ (Tung-p'o-tou-k'ou), after the celebrated 
poet Su Tung-p'o, who, towards the end of the eleventh century, 
lived for some years in the island of Hainan and wrote notices 
of useful plants. The Afalabar cardamom^ which is sold to some 
extent in China, and which is similar in odor and taste to this 
cluster cardamom, also goes by the name of |^ ^ ^ (Pai-tou- 
k'ou). The Thibetans call it sukmil^ which resembles the 
Sanscrit ^ ^ 5^ ^ JlPI (Su-chi-mi-lo-si). 

This evergreen plant, said to resemble the banana, now 
■ grows in Kuangtung province. The capsules are round, 
globular, smooth, ribbed, obscurely triangular, and of a brown- 
ish-white color. The seeds are packed together in a globular 
mass, easily broken into three portions, and have an aromatic, 
terebinthinate flavor. The seeds are used in pyrosis, vomiting 
and dyspepsia, in pulmonary diseases and in general debility. 
It is said to be serviceable in ague, in cases of films over the 
eye, and in disorders arising from drunken dissipation. 


AMOMUM MEDIUM. ^:f:|| (Ts'ao-kuo), ' 1347. This 
is the ovoid China cardamoii of Haubury, as was first described 
by Loureiro. It is described in the Phitsao together with 
Alpinia globosiim^ from which it is with difficulty distin- 
guished. It comes from Kuangsi and Yunnan. The elongated, 
oval capsules are compared by the Chinese to the fruits of 
Ter7ninalia chcbida (M ^ ^). They vary from sometjiing 
less than an inch to an inch-and-three-quarters in length, and 
exhibit externally some indication of the three-celled character 
of the fruit. Long coarse pedicels are frequently attached to 
the capsules. The pericarp is of a reddish or greyish-brown 
color, closely corrugated, moderately thick and brittle, with a 
whitish bloom on the surface in many instances. The taste 
is woody, or but very faintly aromatic. The mass of large, 
hard, angular, reddish seeds is but loosely attached to the 
internal surface of the pericarp by membranous adhesions. 
The seeds have a warm, terebinthinate flavor, and the odor, 
when fresh, is said to be strong, like that of the Telini-fly 
(Mylabris cichorii). The small unripe fruit is called f,| ^ ^ 
(Ying-ko-she), or "parrot's tongue." The drug is used in 
much the same cases as the Amominn globosum^ to which it is 
preferred in the treatment of the various forms of dyspepsia. 
The seeds only are used, and are given in the form of a 
decoction for affections of the stomach, or as a tincture in ague, 
catarrh, or other systemic diseases. It is said to have been 
formerly much used as a condiment or spice. 

AMOMUM MELEGUETA. — As is well known, this 
plant, together with Amomum granutn-paradisi furnish the 
^■^ grains of paradise^'''' or " Guinea grains ^''^ of commerce. 
These plants are native of Africa, and have been transplanted 
in the West Indies. So far as known, neither are found in 
Asia. Notwithstanding, Porter Smith has the following to 
say about these "grains:" "These are the aromatic seeds 
of the Amomum xanthoides and the similar fruit of the 
Elettaria cardamojnum^ or at least, according to Dr. Waring, 
of the Ceylon variety of the Malabar cardamon. Dr. Wil- 
liams gives their Chinese name as f0 ^j; ^ (Hsi-sha-tou) 
and their botanical source as Amomum grana-paradisa.^'' The 

38 chinksf: materia medica. 

name given is g'f^ ^^ fz (So-sha-jen), in which tliere is a pal- 
pable mistake made in writing the first character. It is possible 
that under certain conditions the seeds of Ainojnwn xanthoides 
are used as a substitute for those of Amo^innn melegzieta^ but 
they are not the true ''grains of paradise." 

AMOMUM VIIXOSUM. — 11 ^ ^} (Yang-ch'un-sha). 
This seems to be a Cochin-Chinese species of Amo7mim^ 
which has been introduced into China, and is largely grown 
in the district of Yang-ch'nn, in the western part of Kuang- 
tung province. From this latter fact, and because the Chinese 
regard this drug as identical with Amomuni xanthoides^ it 
receives its Chinese name. It is not described in the Pentsao. 
According to Hanbury's description, the scape, which wheu 
perfect, is about three inches long and reclinate, bears as many 
as eight capsules on its superior extremity. The capsules are 
from six to eight lines in length. In the dried state they are 
oval, occa-^ionally nearly spherical, more or less three-sided, 
bluntly pointed, with a scar at the summit, rounded at the base, 
and attached by a pedicel one to two lines long. The pericarp 
is externally dark brown, marked with obscure longitudinal 
striae and covered with asperities, which, after soaking with 
water, are seen to be short, thick, fleshy, closely-crowded spines. 
The pericarp and seeds have a warm, bitter, aromatic flavor, 
tarry or camphoraceous in character. They are usually found 
on the market admixed with the seeds oi Aniomian xanthoides^ 
which latter are easily distinguished by their plump and 
bloomy-white appearance. The same tonic and stomachic 
properties are ascribed to the seeds of this plant as to those of 
cardamoms in general. A product found in the Customs Lists, 
276, known as .§ .|lj; 1^ (Ch'un-sha-hua) and # tl ^ (Sha- 
jen-hua), is considered to be the product of this plant. 

AMOMUM XANTHOIDES. —^ ^p ^ (So-sha-mi). 
This is the so-called '-'• Bastard cai'damow.''^ It is a native of 
Burma, where it was discovered by Wallich in 1827. It was 
afterwards found by Schomburgh in Siam, and is said by Han- 
bury to occur in Cambodia and the Laos country. The Pen- 
tsao says that it originally came from Persia and Asia Minor, 


but that it is now found in the marshes of Lingnan. The 
product appears in the Chinese medicine shops in two distinct 
portions, which are prescribed in different affections. The 
one most commonly appearing in commerce is the capsules, 

# t ^ (Sha-jen-k'o), 1076, which Hanbury describes as 
follows: "These empty capsules are mostly attached to a 
common stalk, which, when perfect, is about five inches long 
and beset with remains of sheathing bracts. The superior 
portion, which is much stouter than the rest, bears the fruits 
closely crowded together on short bracted pedicels. The 
capsules, having been deprived of seeds, are shrunken and 
compressed, but after soaking in boiling water they acquire 
their proper volume, becoming nearly spherical and about 
three-quarters-of-an-inch in diameter." These capsules are 
parched, pulverized, and prescribed in ulcerous affections of 
the throat and mouth. As they are practically odorless and 
tasteless, and the process of parching would probably drive 
away any volatile substances they might contain, it is likely 
that any other kind of charcoal would serve in these affections 
equally well. 

The oblong, triangular, compact masses of the seeds of 
these capsular fruits are sold as |f^ ^j; tl (So-sha-jen), or simply 

# t (Sha-jen), 1075. They vary from four to six lines in 
length, and are covered with a white membrane, which when 
removed discovers the small black seeds. They have nearly 
the same flavor as that of the Amo^niim villosiwi^ and are said 
by Hanbury to be substituted in the London market for those 
of the officinal Elettaria (or Malabar) cardamom. The Chinese 
consider the Amomimi cardaDwmiim^ Amovium villosinn^ and 
Amom7C7n xajithoides to be similar in composition and virtues, 
and this is probably the case. But as they almost invariably 
prescribe the drug in the form of a decoction, and as its 
medicinal virtues depend upon a volatile oil and a resin, it is 
doubtful if this substance plays any very imporant part.iu their 
prescriptions. Tonic, stomachic, astringent, carminative, seda- 
tive, and tussic properties are referred to the seeds. They are 
used as a preserve or condiment, in flavoring spirit, and are said 
to hasten the solution of copper or iron cash, fish bones, or 
any other metalic or foreign substance accidentally swallowed. 


AINIYGDALUS COMMUNUS.— It is pretty certain that 
this plant does not occur in China. Porter Smith and the 
Customs Reports erroneously identify this as ^ (Hsing), but 
this is the apricot, the kernels of which, together with those 
of the peach and other such fruits, are used in China as a sub- 
stitute for almonds. The true almond, brought into China 
from the West, goes by the name of 2» ^ ^ (Pa-tan-hsing) ; 
the E, 0. referring to some country in Asia Minor, possibly 
another name for Persia. (See Pru7ius.) 

417. This, as identified by Loureiro, is a fragrant grass used 
in baths. It grows in Fukien, and is also called ^ ||jji, (Hsiang- 
ma) ; its common name being ^ ^[1 \^ (j\Iao-ju-ma), "hemp- 
like grass." The grass is dark in color, and bears a white 
flower. It is also said to be found in Shensi and Kuangtung. 
There is an Anamese variety, called ^ ^ ^ (Pai-mao-hsiang), 
which is used for the same purposes as the other. Besides its 
use in scenting baths, in which it is considered to have a bene- 
ficial influence in curing eruptions of the skin, it is used 
internally in digestive troubles, being regarded as a bland, 
stimulating, and carminative remedy. 

mu). This is a liliaceous plant found growing plentifully in 
the Peking mountains. The rhizome is the part used. This 
is said to resemble the rhizome of Aconis. It has but little 
taste or smell. The flowers resemble those of the Allhun 
odorjim. The plant is found in nearly all of the provinces north 
of the Yangtse ; but the Customs lists (136) give Chihli as the 
source of supply for commerce. The drug occurs in irrregular, 
flattened, twisted, shriveled pieces, from two to three inches in 
length, and generally covered with reddish or yellowish-brown 
hairs, which become scaly at the distal extremity. The smaller 
pieces are usually much wrinkled, scarred, and nearly free 
from hairs. The interior is yellow, spongy, or mealy, and the 
whole drug has a slightly bitter taste and an agreeable odor. 
Cooling, lenitive, expectorant, and diuretic properties belong 
to this rhizome, which is used in precisely the same cases for 


which squills is commonly prescribed, and for which drug it 
would make a very good substitute. 

Other names given by the Pe.ntsao for this drug are 4l§ ^ 
(Ch'ih-mu), M # (Huo-mu), j^^ ^ (Ti-shen), ^ # (Lien-mu>, 
=g= id, (K'u-hsin), % % (Erh-ts'ao), and tJc ^ (Shui-shen). 
The term j^ ^ (Chih-mu) is also used as a synonym of ^ ^ 
(Sha-shen) for Adenophora verticillata. In the Japanese lists 
it is also used for Chclidoiimm mahis^ but we cannot find that 
it is so used in China. 

ANEMONE CERNUA.— 1^ ilfi ^ (Pai-t'ou-wgng). Such 
is the classification in the Japanese lists, and the Phttsao 
description answers pretty well to this identification. But 
Bretschneider says that at Peking this is Eupatormm kirillowii. 
The Customs lists {965) say that the supply comes from Hupeh 
and Kuangtung. The root and flowers are used in medicine. 

Judging from the variety of affections for which this 
substance is recommended, one would feel assured that it must 
be Pulsatilla^ and that Chinese physicians had gotten their 
estimate of this drug from Galen. The following is a partial 
list of the diseases for which it is held in repute. Fever, 
insanity, ague, obstruction of the bowels, swelling of the neck 
from anger, to promote the circulation of the blood, abdominal 
pain, wounds from cutting or stabbing, nasal polypus, virulent 
dysentery, "red" dysentery, toothache, all of the forms of 
rheumatic pain, scrofulous glands, all forms of miasmatic 
poisoning, hemorrhoids, and favus. 

ANGELICA ANOMALA.— ^ 12 (Pai-chih). Porter 
Smith has identified this erroneously with Iris florenti7ia and 
with Opopayiax. Other terms given by the Pentsao are j^ ^ 
(Tse-fen), ^ -^ ^ (Pai-chih-hsiang), ^ ^ (Pai-ch'ih), ^ § 
(Fang-hsiang), and ^- g| (Fu-li). The Customs lists (940) give 
Szechuan, Hupeh, and Chekiang as the sources of supply. 
The roots vary in size, are brownish externally, marked with 
wrinkles and ridges and with resin dots in the bark. In- 
ternally it is yellowish-white, and contains small points of 
resinous or oily secretion. The odor is aromatic and the taste 
somewhat pungent and bitter. It has long been a favorite 


drug with the Chinese. In ancient times they wore it, to- 
gether with other fragrant drugs, in their girdles. It is specially 
considered to be a woman's drug, and is therefore prescribed 
in a number of female affections, as well as being a favorite 
cosmetic substance. In addition to menstrual and other female 
complaints, it is prescribed in a large number of other disorders, 
such as urinary difficulties, nasal polypus, various skin 
affections, cuts and wounds, and certain catarrhal conditions. 
It is used as a sternutatory, and of the leaves of the plant a 
wash is made for the relief of pimples and prickly heat. 

ANGELICA DECURSIVA.~-t ^ (Ch'ien-hu). This is 
a common plrnt, growing in damp soil in Central and North 
China. The fragrant young sprouts and the leaves are eaten 
as a vegetable. The drug is met with in brittle, branching, 
irregular, tapering pieces of a root, resembling that of Angelica 
qfficuialis. The external surface is brown, much wrinkled, 
with hairy rootlets at the growing top of the root-stock, to 
which a portion of the stem is sometimes attached. The 
interior is of a dirty white color, the taste being bitterish and 
aromatic, and the odor agreeable, but not very strong. The 
root is compared in the Phitsao to that of the Bupleiirtwi 
falcatum. The drug entering foreign commerce comes from 
Szechuan, Chekiang, and Kuangsi, ii8. Shensi, Hupeh, Hunan, 
Honan and Anhui are also sources of supply for the native shops. 
The drug is said to be tonic, stomachic, expectorant, carmina- 
tive, and lenitive. It is used to quiet nervous irritability, as in 
asthmatic attacks, fretfulness of children, and irritable uterus. 

APIUM GRAVEOLENS.— ^ ~^ (Han-ch'in), or simply 
J^- (Ch'in , or j^ 1^ (Ch'in-ts'ai). The character '^ is variously 
written ^ and f^. This character is also applied to cress and 
parsley. Unfortunately it is also used for certain Umbellif- 
erous plants allied to water hemlock. In Japan 7K 1^ (Shui- 
ch'in) is CEanthe stolomfera. But the plant referred to under 
this name in the Phiisao is certainly not considered to be at 
all poisonous. The only poisonous variety there given is the 
^ ll (Tzti-chin) or :^, '^ (Ch'ih-ch'in), which is the Corydalis 
incisa (which see). That 7IC ^ (Shui-ying) is used as a synonym 


for Shui-ch'in may indicate that under some conditions or in 
some places the Ch'in may be considered to be deleterious, as 
^ is usually referred to the Solanacese. At any rate, the red 
varieties of celery offered for sale by the Chinese ought to be 
eaten with great caution. There is the greatest difficulty in 
harmonising the statements of the Phitsao in regard to the use 
of the above characters. After the Shui-ch'in, which is also 
called ^ If (K'u-ch'in), the plant g (chin) is treated of, and 
^. "^ (Han-ch'in) given as a synonym. But in the Erh-ya 
and classics, as well as in Japan, this cliaracter refers to a Viola^ 
and judging by the uses to which it is recommended in the 
Phitsao^ this is its proper classification. (See Viola. ) 

Celery is a common vegetable with the Chinese. They 
sometimes eat it raw, but they usually take it about half cooked, 
which certainly would be a hygienic safeguard, when we 
consider their manner of using fertilizers in gardening. Its 
properties are considered to be digestive, cooling, quieting, 
alterative, and tonic. It is recommended in menstrual !■ :xes 
and in digestive troubles of children. The expressed juice of 
the bleached stalk is the form much used medicinally. 

APLOTAXIS AURICULATA. ^ 7fc # (Kuang-mu- 
hsiang), 860. This is identical with Aplotaxis lappa and 
Aucklandia costus. It is sometimes carelessly written /fc ^ 
(Mu-hsiang), as is also Aristolochia., but the true viu-hsiaiig is 
Rosa banksia (which see). Enormous quantities of this root 
are collected in the highlands of Cashmere, whence it is 
conveyed to Calcutta and Bombay, from where it is shipped to 
China. As it probably originally entered at the port of Canton, 
it was given the name it now bears. It is said that there is a 
root produced in Kansuh and Honan called Kuang-hsiang, 
which may be this same drug. Other parts of India and 
Syria also produce this drug, which in Sanscrit is called kiishta^ 
in Arabic and Persian knst and in Bengal patchak. This last 
name is imitated in Cantonese. The drug is met with in dry, 
brown, broken pieces, having much the same appearance as so 
many old broken pieces of bone. The smell is very fragrant, 
resembling that of orris root, and the taste bitter, pungent, 
aromatic, and slightly mucilaginous. It is used in making 

^4 chinesp: materia mkdica. 

incense in the south, or to preserve clothes from the attacks of 
moths and other insects. It is said to have the power of 
turning gray hair black. Carminative, stimulant, antiseptic, 
prophylactic, astringent, sedative, and insecticidal properties 
are referred to this remedy. Indian experience seems to 
suggest the desirability of trying this root when powdered as a 
substitute for opium in obstinate cases of opium smoking. 
The Chinese apply it with musk, which it resembles in odor 
and properties, to aching teeth. 

APOCYNUM VENETUM.— ^ ^ (Tse-ch'i). Such is 
Faber's classification. The Japanese call this Euphorbia 
helioscopia^ and the figure given in the Phitsao looks like 
Euphorbia. On the other hand, the figure given in the 
Imperial Encyclopedia is that of Apocynum. Evidently 
Chinese observers have confounded two diflferent plants under 
this name; for some say that it is "not poisonous," while 
others say "slightly poisonous ; " some say that the leaves are 
edible, while others deny the edibility of the plant. It is also 
confounded with ^ ^ (Ta-chi), which is certainly Euphorbia. 
So, for the purposes of this work, j^ ^ will also be considered 
under Euphorbia (which see). 

AQUILARIA AGALLOCHA. — ?^ ^ (Ch'en-hsiang). 
This is the substance which is variously called agallochum, agila 
wood, eagle wood, calambac, garoo wood, aloes wood, lign- 
aloes, and is supposed to be the "aloes" of the Bible. The 
tree belongs to the natural order of Aquilaracecs. According 
to Loureiro, the substance is also derived from the central part 
of the trunk of Aloexylon agallochum^ of the natural order of 
Leg7i7ninosccs^ sub-order Ccssalpina. An equivalent term given 
in the Pentsao is ^ % (Mi-hsiang), and the substance is 
described under two different headings ; the reason for so doing 
not being very apparent. The tree is described as being like 
the Cedrela^ and is found in Hainan, Kuantung, Cochin China, 
Cambodia, Assam, the Laos country, India, and Persia. The 
Persian name, ayalur chec^ is represented by the Chinese ^pj |^ 
(A-chieh i ; while the Sanscrit agjiru is represented by |5pJ 5^ pg 
(A-chia-luj. The wood of the sound tree is light, pale, and 


very slightly odorous, being used to scent clothes. Various 
names are given to the drug, which seem to refer to its form 
or the part of the tree from which it is taken. These are 
M 5f f= iMa-t'i-hsiang), H # ^ (Chi-ku-hsiang), ^ M ^ 
(Ch'ing-kuei-hsiang), and ^ %- (Chan-hsiang). The product 
of the root is called %^ ^ :^ (Huang-shu-hsiang). After the 
tree has been felled for some months or years, a dark, resinous, 
aromatic juice is met with in the wood, mainly deposited in 
certain portions of the vascular tissue, more especially of the 
heart of the tree. This valuable heavy wood is called ao-?ir, a 
name also applied to the drug in Bengali. The trees are some- 
times buried in order to increase, or to facilitate the removal of 
the prized oleoresin. The coarse, reddish-brown wood, sold 
under the name of j^L ^ ;^ (Ch'eu-hsiang-mu), and used in the 
making of incense, has an odor similar to that of sandal-wood, 
and a faintly bitter taste. It is very hard, and being capable 
of a very high polish, is carved into ornamental articles, as well 
as being burned in the form of incense sticks. Paper is said to 
have been formerly made of the bark of this tree. The drug is 
placed by Dr. Williams among Chinese imports, but it is not 
noted in the Customs lists. Much interesting information in 
regard to this substance can readily be found in Hanbury's 
"Notes" and Royle's Illustrations. Tonic, stimulant, carmin- 
ative, aphrodisiac, and diuretic properties are ascribed to the 
drug, besides which it is supposed to possess certain occult 
virtues, making it useful in getting rid of evil spirits. 

ARAIvIA CORDATA.—i l" If (T'u-tang-kuei ). Such 
is the identification of Faber and the Japanese. Siebold says 
that this is the same as Aralia edulis. It may be an Angelica. 
Its uses in medicine are not great ; it being considered carmin- 
ative and slightly stimulating. The young stalks are used 
as a vegetable. According to the Customs Reports, the root 
of this plant is imported into Shanghai from Japan under the 
name of '^ |f (Tang-kuei), 1250. 

ARCTIUM LAPPA.— ^ ^ (Wu-shih). Other common 
names are -^ ^ -^p (Niu-p'ang-tzu), 906, and :h ^ ^ (Ta-li- 
tzii), 1226. This is the common burdock which grows plenti- 


fully in North and Central China. It has a large number of 
vulgar names, of which the Phitsao gives the following : ^ ^ 
(Niu-ts'ai), -^ ^ ^ (Pien-clvlen-niu), ^S ^ HI (Ye-ch'a-t'ou), 
U^XkM 'Pien-fu-tz'u), ^ Wi % (P'ang-weng-ts'ai), and %^%^ 
(Shu-nien). The seeds, stem, and root are used in medicine. 
It is said that in former times the leaves were eaten as a vege- 
table. The taste of the seeds is said to be slightly pungent, 
while that of the root and stem is bitter and cooling. The 
drug is considered to be alterative, depurative, diaphoretic, and 
diuretic. The seeds are usually taken in decoction, or with 
honey and wine ; the root and stalk in decoction or tincture. 

ARECA CATECHU.—^ % (Ping-lang). This is the 
Araca Palm which bears the so-called Betel Nut used by the 
Malays in betel chewing. (See Chavica betel.) The Malayan 
name is Pinang., and the Chinese name is suppc^ed to be a 
transference of the sounds of this word. But Li Shih Chen says 
that ^ ^1) means "an honored guest," and these characters 
are used because of the practice of setting the betel box before 
guests. Both explanations are ingenious, to say the least. The 
Areca Palm is indigenous to the East Indies, where it is 
extensively cultivated, as also in the Philippine Islands, 
Hainan, and the south of China. Mr. Sampson reports that 
the best nuts are produced in the south of the island of Hainan. 
According to the Phitsao there are several sorts, varying 
according to the height of the tree and the size of the fruit. 
The nuts vary a good deal in size and quality, being from three 
quarters of an inch to an inch in length. They are brown in 
color, conical at one end and truncated at the other, which is 
marked by a depressed, whitish scar. The taste is bitter and 
rough, varying in different specimens. According to the 
analysis of Morin, these nuts contain a large proportion of 
tannic and gallic acids. In India, a kind of Catechu is pre- 
pared from them, which is known as catta-carnbii. It does not 
appear in commerce ; and, unless ;j^ % ^ (Ping-lang-hsin) or 
^ % W (Ping-lang-kaoi, 1026 and 1027, are this article, it is 
not known in China. Waring says that it is as good as the 
Black Catechu obtained from the Acacia catechu; but, inas- 
much as the Areca nut does not contain any Catechin, this 


catechu is usually regarded iu the West as inferior. Tonic, 
stomachic, astringent, antiperiodic, detergent, and anthelmintic 
properties are assigned to the fruit, which, as a tea, was lormer- 
ly used in the south as a prophylactic against malarious and 
mephitic vapors. One of the synonyms used in the Phitsao is 
^ iS ^ (Hsi-chang-tan), " antimalarious panacea," and 
indicates its repute in this direction. The powdered nut has 
long been in use in China as an anthelmintic, and the expul- 
sion of tape worms is its chief use in the West. An alternative 
way of writing the first character in the Chinese name for the 
plant is ;^. One of the varieties of Areca catecJm is known as 
:^ ^ ^ (Ta-fu-tzu) and |t ^f\ ^^li (Chu-ping-lang). The bark 
of this tree enters commerce under the name of ;^ ^ ^ (Ta- 
fu-p'i), 342. It is a rough, dirty, tow-like substance, which is 
used for very much the same purposes as the Areca nut, such 
as choleraic affections, and for flatulent, dropsical, and obstruct- 
ive diseases of the digestive tract. An ointment and a wash 
are prepared for use as detergent applications to fistulous sores 
and to scabious, impetiginous, and other eruptions. 

ARGEMONE MEXICANA.— ^M^(Ivao-shu-le). This 
spinous plant, belonging to the PapaveracecB^ is met with in 
the south of China. The seeds are said to be expectorant and 
sedative. They yield a fixed oil, which has long been in use in 
the West Indies as a purgative, and has since been recommended 
by Dr. Waring as a mild, painless purge in constipation and 
colic. The oil is said to allay the irritation of herpes and many 
other eruptions of the skin. The name is applied to Spinifex 
squarosis and to Acanthus ilicifolius. 

ARIS^MA JAPONICUM.— 5c ft M rT'ien-nan-hsing), 
1297. This was identified by Loureiro and Tatarinov as Arum 
pentaphylhivi^ and by Kaempfer as Arum t7'iphilum. The 
Chinese have not distinguished between this and Ariscsma 
thunbergii. As the Pentsao discusses this drug under the latter 
heading, we will refer to that article for the medicinal virtues 
and uses oi AriscBtna japonicu77i. 

ARIS^MA RINGENS.— i 111 (Yu-po). This is said 
to grow in forests. By some it is considered to be the young 


root of Ariscsma tJmnbergii. The tendency of the Chinese is 
to refer the less frequently used species of a genus to the one 
most frequently employed, especially if the medicinal virtues 
coincide. In this way most of these aroid plants are consid- 
ered to hold some relationohip to either AriscBjna tJmnbergii or 
Pineilia tiiberifera^ which bear the highest reputation medici- 
nally of this class of plants. This drug is considered to be 
alterative and febrifuge. It is not much used. 

ARIS3MA THUNBERGIL— ;^ % (Hu-chang). This 
plant is found in different parts of the central and northern 
provinces of China. Tho supply comes for the most part from 
Shensi, Szechuan, Hupeh, and Anhui. The tubers are the 
part used, which from their shape slightly resembling the paw 
of an animal, receive the name of "tiger's paws." They 
resemble those of the allied species Pineilia tziberifera^ Ariscs- 
ma japojiicujUy Ariscsma ringens^ and Conophyhis konjak. 
Indeed the distinction between some of these tubers is difficult 
to make, and is probably not made by the Chinese druggists. 
So the description of the drug as found in the sliops must have 
an element of uncertainty about it. In general, however, they 
are hard, yellowish-brown, or whitish, flattened, round, general- 
ly divided into small branching tubers grouped around the 
central portion, which is umbilicated and marked with pits and 
tubercles. The cicatricial remnant of the stalk is often seen in 
the umbilicus of the tubers. The interior firm, starchy, white 
substance has a considerable of acridity when chewed for some 
time. The drug is considered to be exceedingly poisonous. 
Alterative, deobstruent, expectorant, diuretic, discutient, and 
vulnerary properties are attributed to it. It is recommended in 
Chinese medical practice for apoplexy, hemiplegia, epilepsy, 
and many other diseases supposed to depend upon the presence 
of phlegm. It is pounded and mixed with vinegar or oil, and 
applied to small tumors or swellings. Having a somewhat 
benumbing influence, similar to that of aconite, it is sometimes 
used as an ingredient in certain local ansesthetic compounds, 
which are applied to painful growths, or to abscesses previous 
to being opened by those who are bold enough to venture upon 
such a surgical procedure. 



cli'ing-inu-hsiaug). This plant is found at Peking and north- 
ward. It is described in the Phitsao under Aristolochia 
kcempferi. Whetlier the drug met with in coninierce is tlie 
product of this plant, of Aristolochia ko^nipfcri^ or of Aristolo- 
chia recnrvilabra^ is uncertain, with a probability in favor of 
the last named. 

ling), 813. Called by Faber % |^ (Ton-ling), Aristolochia 
ichilis. The drug conies principally from the northern prov- 
inces; some being exported (possibly re-exported) from Foochow. 
It consists of dry, oval, pediculated fruits of one to one-and- 
three-quarters inch in length when whole. But thev are 
usually broken, showing a division into six thin, papery valves, 
inclosing flat, obtusely-triangular, winged seeds. Some say that 
the Chinese name of this plant, "horse bell," refers to the 
shape of the leaf. As the open, cellular structure of these fruits 
is considered by the Chinese to resemble the human lung, 
they are strongly recommended in all forms of pulmonary 
affections. They have very little taste or smell and are not 
poisonous. Other diseases for which they are prescribed are 
hemorrhoids and ascites. One of the fruits burued over a lamp, 
and the charred remains taken with wine, is considered a sure 
cure for heartburn. 

mu-hsiang), 192, [|j jf^ (Pai-shu), 961. These are the identifica- 
tions of Hance. The latter is cultivated in Shaohsing prefecture, 
.Chekiaug province, and large quantities are therefore exported 
from Ningpo. The plant resembles the birthwort, and evident- 
ly belougs to this genus. It is said to sometimes be substituted 
for Indian putchuk. The various kinds of the drug are known 
as 2j5 ;|f; (P'ing-shu), /^ )\c (SUieng-shu), ^ ;[t (Tung-shu), ± H 
(T'u-shu), % -)\c (Wu-shu), 7^ )\l (Yiian-shu), >], % )% (Hsiao- 
yiian-shu), and ^ % (Yiin-shu). Besides the province of Che- 
kiang, Kiangsi, Anhui, and Yunnan are sources of supply for 
the drug. The best kind is said to be produced at %\ iff (Yii- 
chien) in Hangchow prefecture. Of the former, the sources 


of origin are Szechuan, Hupeh, Chekiatig, and Kuangtung. 
The root of the Pai-shu is said to resemble old ginger root, 
dark colored without and white inside. It is considered to be 
constructive, alterative, tonic, and diuretic. It is a highly 
valued remedy, being prescribed in combination with such drugs 
as ginseng and China root. It is used in digestive disorders 
and chronic fluxes, especially those of women and children. 
It is regarded as being especially useful in summer diarrhoea 
and in chronic diarrhoea and dysentery. Under the designation 
^^ M ^ ^ (Tu-hsing-kenX the root of the Ch'ing-mu-hsiang 
is prescribed in similar cases. But in addition, this is 
regarded to be especially efficacious in expelling the ^ (Ku) 
poison. So highly is it valued for this purpose by the in- 
habitants of Lingnan that they have given it the name of 
H "5 M f^ 1^ (San-pai-liang-yin-yao\ " three-hundred-taels-of- 
silver-drug." It is also considered to be a good remedy for 

ARTEMISIA ANNUA. —f; :j^ ^ (Huang-hua-hao). 
Also called ^ ]^ (Ch'ou-hao, "stinking herbage," and "^ ^ 
(Ts'ao-haoy, " grassy herbage." It is not eaten on account of 
its unpleasant odor. The leaves and the seeds are prescribed, 
the former for children's fevers, and the latter for consumption, 
flatulence, dyspepsia, night sweats, and to destroy noxious vapors. 

ARTEMISIA APIACEA.—f^f^-(Ch'ing-hao), i86. This 
is probably identical with Artemisia abrotamim^ or southern- 
wood. Other classifications have been Arte^nisia draainculus 
and Artevtisia desertorimi. This plant, when coiled into ropes 
to be burned to drive away mosquitos,, is called ^ ^ (Hsiang- 
hao). This is also the term by which it is known, at Peking. 
In the spring, when the leaves are very tender, they are eaten 
as a vegetable. Very early in the spring the shoots are used 
medicinally. The leaves, stalk, root, and seeds are all used in 
medicine. It is prescribed in a large number of affections, 
among which may be mentioned consumption, chronic dysen- 
try, malaria, nasal polypus, hemorrhoids, wasp stings, etc. 

ARTEMISIA CAPILLARIS.— "^ H % (Yin-ch'en-hao), 
r532. Lotireiro- calls this Artemisia abvotamim^ but the plant 


he describes is not this species. This is a perennial artemisia, 
coming up year after year from the same roots and preserving 
its foliage green during the winter. Hence the name ^ ^ 
(Yin-ch'en). It is a mountain plant in its natural habitat ; that 
coming from the peaks near Hochou, in Auhui province being 
called ^ ■© ii^ Shih-yin-ch'en), or "stone artemisia." The 
best quality is thought to come from the sacred Tai mountain, 
in Shantung. There is also a cultivated variety, which the 
Phitsao distinguishes both as to appearance and medical uses. 
Under the common method of preparation, the substance of 
the plant is converted into a downy mass, which is called 
|(t) "!§ liH (Mien-yin-ch'en). The leaves and stalk are used as 
a febrifuge, a diuretic, an antispasmodic, aud an antiperiodic. 
It is recommended in the treatment of jaundice, dysmenorrhoea, 
ague and ephemeral fevers. 

ARTEMISIA JAPONICA. — {fi % (Mou-hao). Also 
called ^ Hg -^ (Ch'i-t'ou-hao). Classical name, j^ (Wei). It 
grows in fields and waste lands. Li Shih-chen says: "Its 
leaves are flat, narrow at the base, broad and lobed at the end. 
The young leaves can be eaten. Deer are fond of the plant. 
In autumn it bears small, yellow flowers. The fruit is as large 
as that of the Plantago major^ and contains minute seeds, 
hardly distinguishable ; wherefore the ancients asserted that 
the plant had no seeds, and called it the male southernwood." 
It is reputed to promote the digestion of fat, and is therefore 
used to produce plumpness of figure. But it is advised not to 
use it very long at a time, as its prolonged use is deleterious. 
The expressed juice is employed as a local application in 
vaginitis. In combination with elecampane, it is considered a 
sure cure for ague. 

ARTEMISIA KEISKIANA.— H j^ (An-lii). Also called 
^ ^ (Fu-lii). These names come from the fact that the 
stalks of this plant are useful for thatching village cottages. 
The seeds are the part employed in medicine. Their use is 
supposed to prolong life, and they are administered in cases 
of impotence, amenorrhoea, post-partum pain, and to remove 
extravasated blood aud prevent the formation of abscess. 


(Pai-hao), Classical names, ^ (Fan) and i^ (Lii). It is 
considered by some ancient authors to be amphil)ions in its 
habits, but it is probable that there are two distinct but 
closely related species. Indeed Su Sung (nth century ) says : 
" In ancient times the people used the leaves of the Pai-hao for 
food. Now they employ for this purpose the ^ j:^' (Lii-hao), 
which some authors have erroneously identified with the 
Pai-hao." Faber calls this Lii-hao A7'teniisia giloescens. It 
shoots up in the second month, and the very tender leaves and 
the crisp white or reddish roots are used as food by the people, 
being eaten raw or cooked. This plant is regarded as useful 
in flatulence, colds, as a stomachic, to promote the growth of 
hair, and as a nervine and promoter of the mental faculties. 
Externally, a decoction is used as a wash in ulcerous skin 
a£fections. It is probably indigenous to China, being found 
in most parts of the empire, and it may be the same as the 
Arabic Artemisia Jierba-alba. That form which grows on 
uplands is not used as food, and but rarely in medicine. 

ARTEMISIA VULGARIS.— 3^ % (Ai-hao), or simply ^ 
(Ai). Also called Ariejuisia indica^ Ai'teinisia cJiincnsis^ zxi^ 
Artemisia moxa. This plant is tlie common mugzvort^ and 
is found in most parts of China ; the trade supply of the drug 
coming from Hupeh, Anhui, and Fukien. The best quality, 
known ^s ^ ^ (Ch'i-ai), comes from Ch'i-chou (^ ]\\\ in 
Huang-chou-fu ',w jij ifj^), in Plupeh. Bretschneider says that 
this is the same as ^ ^ >^ (Ch'ien-nien-ai), and is Tanacctinn 
chinense. Faber calls the Ch'ien-nien-ai Artemisia viclgarisy 
and Ai (^) he calls Artemisia indica. But from a medical stand- 
point, these distinctions are unimportant. Another variety,^ 
known as ^ ^^ (Tzu-ai), reddish in color, comes from L'ung- 
yang-fu, in Anhui. Common names by which the Artemisia is 
known are ^ '^ (I-ts'ao, " vulnerary herb "), ^ ]^ (Chih-ts'ao, 
" burning herb "), and i^ I^ (Chiu-ts^ao, " cauterizing herb "). 
In commerce thi? article appears principally in four forms. 
Ai-yeh C^ ^), 7, is the dried leaves of the plant, while Ai- 
t'iao C^c ^,^)., 6, is the dried twigs done up in bundles. Ai- 
jung (>c Wi'h 3) is made by taking the best leaves and grinding 


them up in a stone mortar with water, separating out the 
coarsest particles and refuse and drying what remains. Ai- 
mien (^ |^), 4, is the Ai-jung picked to pieces by hand. This 
latter is principally used as a stamping-ink pad for seals, being 
mixed with vermillion and castor oil for that purpose. 

The Ai-jung is used as a moxa (^ >X\ ^otli for cauterizing 
purposes and as a counterirritant. A small portion is rolled 
into a pellet the size of a pea, placed upon the ulcer or place 
to be cauterized and ignited. The preferred method of igniting 
the moxa is with a burning glass or mirror. The number 
of pellets used depends upon the effect desired. If it is used 
for the relief of pain, the process is continued until the pain is 
relieved, or until more than ten pellets have been used. If for 
the cauterization of an ulcer, or for the loss of sensation in a 
part, its application should be continued until acute pain is 
produced, or ten or more pellets have been used. This treat- 
ment is recommended and practiced indiscriminately by native 
doctors for nearly all of the ills to which flesh is heir — from itch 
to sterility. It is reported to have fallen somewhat into disuse 
in some parts of tlie empire, but in Kiangnan it seems to be 
as much employed by the native faculty as it ever was. 

The number of diseases for which Artemisia vulgaris is 
prescribed, is very large. It is regarded as having haemostatic, 
antiseptic, and carminative virtues. Therefore it is prescribed in 
decoction in haemoptysis, dysentery, menorrhagia, post-partura 
hsemorrhaoe, snake and insect bites, as a wash for all sorts of 
wounds and ulcers, and to allay the griping pains of indigestion, 
diarrhoea, or dysentery. The expressed juice of the fresh plant 
is employed as a haemostatic, for tape worm, and as a carmin- 
ative. A tincture, made up in native spirits, is used as a 
nerve sedative in abdominal j^ain and in labor. The leaves are 
also steamed and used as a poultice for the relief of pain. This 
is called Ai-pa (^ ^). 

As this plant is so frequently used as a charm, and is held 
in a measure of superstitious veneration by the people, it is a 
little difficult to determine just where its remedial use in native 
therapeutics begins. At the time of the Dragon Festival (fifth 
day of the fifth moon) the Artemisia is hung up to ward off 
noxious influences. This is done either together with a Taoist 


charm, in which case it is called ;^ ^ (Ai-fu), and is hung 
at the head of the principal room of the house, or together with 
the Acorns calamus (g" f[ff, Ch'ang-p'u) at the door ; the leaves 
of the latter being formed in the shape of a sword (called fjjj ^, 
P'u-chienj and placed over the door, while a stalk of the 
Artemisia is hung on each door post. That this was efficacious 
in at least one instance is attested by the fact that the famous 
rebel, Huang Ch'ao (g ^), gave orders to his soldiers to spare 
any family that had Artemisia hung up at the door. The 
moxa is employed by Buddhist priests in initiating neophytes; 
three rows of three, four, or five scars each being burned on 
the crown of the head with this substance. Many also use the 
moxa on a three days' old child, burning one or more scars on 
the face; this being supposed to insure the child's living through 
infancy. The places for burning are between the brows, on 
each cheek a little distance beneath the eyes, and at the root 
of the nose on the upper lip. 

mi). This is the Jack, Jak, or Jaca fruit. The Annamese name 
is ^ (ijil ^ (Nang-chieh-ch'ieh) ; the last two characters being 
pronounced "chiaket" in Annamese. The first name givea 
above is the Sanscrit name, represented in Chinese characters. 
In Persian it is ^ ^j) '^ (P'o-na-sha), and in the language of 
the Nestorian country of ^ i^ (Fu-lin), it was called 1^ ^ 3I| 
(A-sa-t'o). It is a member of that very interesting natural 
order of Dicotyledonous plants, the ArtocarpacecB^ which fur- 
nishes the bread-fruit, caoutchouc, the cow-tree, the deadly 
Upas, the sack-tree, the Trumpetwood which is used for cordage 
and for musical wind-instrumeats, and the valuable Snakewood 
of Demerara. The Jack-fruit is said to grow in several parts 
of Southern Asia, being found in China in Lingnan and Yun- 
nan. The pulp and seeds are considered by the Chinese to be 
cooling, tonic, and nutritious, and to be useful in overcoming 
the influence of alcohol on the system. 

AS ARUM FORBESI.— ;^ % (Tu-hengV Other names, 
± IB $ (T'u-hsi-hsin), j^ |^ (Tu-k'uei), and the T'ang Phi- 
tsao calls it ,E| J^ ^ (Ma-t'i-hsiang), on account of the shape 


of its leaves. It is found in rocky ravines anywhere between 
the Huai and the Yangtsze, and probably any place else in 
Central China. Its continued use will give a fragrant odor to 
the body. The root is the part used, and it is prescribed for 
fevers, coughs, goitre, and for intestinal worms. A caution is 
offered in regard to a plant called Tfc i^.g ^ (Mu-hsi-hsin), which 
is considered to be poisonous, and the similarity of names to 
the i i|0 -^ (T'u-hsi-hsin) might lead to error. 

ASARUM SIEBOLDI. — $m 5^ (Hsi-hsin), 388. This 
drug seems to be confused with the last in commerce. It, 
however, is a northern plant, being found principally in Korea, 
Manchuria, and the extreme northern provinces of China. 
The Chinese name refers to the fibrous character of the roots 
and their extreme acridity. The dried root appears in the 
shops in the form of fibrous radicles, having a strong, aromatic 
smell and a subacrid taste, having lost some of the acridity of 
the fresh root in the process of drying. The Pentsao assigns 
to this drug emetic, expectorant, diaphoretic, diuretic, and 
purgative properties. It is prescribed in rheumatic affections, 
and in epilepsy. It is used in powder in the treatment of nasal 
polypus and in deafness, and in strong decoction or powder ia 
the treatment of ulcers of the mouth. 

ASCLEPIAS.— ^ % % (Pai-t'u-huo). This seems to be 
a Sarsa-like plant, both as to its form and as to its reputed 
medicinal virtues. It is said to grow in various parts of China, 
such as Kuangtung, Hupeh, and Shensi. Its species is not 
determined. It is considered to be a counterpoison, and is 
recommended in the treatment of insect and animal stings and 
bites, to counteract the ^ (Ku) poison,- and to destroy the 
eflfects of poisons that may have been swallowed. 

ASPARAGUS IvUCIDUS.— 5; P^ % (T'ien-men-tung), 
1301, 1302. Other names, ^ % (Men-tuug), %^ 1^ (Tien-le), 
and M ^M (Wan-sui-t'eng). This is said by the Pentsao to 
be a creeping plant with prickly leaves. In the region of 
Taishan, in Shantung, is the mkDst famous place of its production. 
But it is cultivated iu and around Peking. The Customs Lists 


give Szecluian as the source of the commercial supply. It is. 
doubtless fnuud in other parts of China. The tubers are the 
part used, and they are described as being spindle-shaped, 
fleshy, translucent, of a reddish or yellowish color, and varying 
from two to five inches in length. Some are much older and 
more woody in structure. They are flattened, contorted, 
furrowed longitudinally, and have a central perforation in 
many cases, showing that they have been strung on a cord for 
purposes of drying. They have no decided odor, but the taste 
is something like that of the squill. They are considered to be 
expectorant, tonic, stomachic, and nervous stimulant. Their 
prolonged use is recommended in impotence. The root is pre- 
served in sugar as a sweet-meat. 

Ivoureiro calls this plant Melanthuini cochinchinense^ and in 
this he is followed by Tatarinov, Guager, Hanbury, and Porter 
Smith. But Hance and Henry, wdio studied the plant in its 
natural habitat, identify it as Asparagus lucidiis^ as do also 
Miquel, Faber, Bretschneider, and the Japanese. 

ASPIDIUM FALCATUM.— 1; ^ (Kuan-chung\ 647. 
According to M. Fauvel, this term is so applied in Shantung. 
According to Henry, in Hupeh Kuan-chung is IJ^oodzvardia 
radicans (wAnchste), and ^ ;p[ ^ (Mao-kuan-chung) is Onoclea 
orientalis and A^cphrodiiiin filix mas. In Japan these charac- 
ters indicate Loinaria japojiica. 

ASTER FASTIGIATUS. — -k '^ (Nii-yiian). Other 
names are ^ ^ (Pai-yuaii), M ^ $^ (Chien-nii-yiian\ and 
25c \%. (Nil-fu). This plant grows in the north of China. In 
the Peking mountains this name is applied to Plectranthiis 
glaucocalyx. The root is the part used in the treatment of 
fevers, plague, dysentery, epileptoid conditions, and it is espe- 
cially recommended to be used to allay the results of overfeast- 
ing and wine drinking. 

ASTER TATARICUS.— ^ '^(Tzti-yiian), 1422. This is 
Faber's identification. The plant grows plentifully in Northern 
and Central China, and resembles the last so much that they 
are often confounded. Another name for it is :j^ ^ -^ (Ye- 


ch'ien-niu). The root is the part used, is fibrous, of a reddish- 
brown color, has a fragrant odor and but little taste. It is 
used in the treatment of pulmonary affections, in hoetnoptysis, 
hematuria, puerperal hemorrhage, and dysuria. It is also 
considered to be quieting to the nervous system, and is there- 
fore used in the restless crying of children. It is also regarded 
to have some tonic virtues. 

ASTER TRINERVIUS.— .B| ^ (Ma-lan), 803. Also 
called ^ ^ iTzu-chii), "purple chrysanthemum." It grows 
almost everywhere in marshy places and on the borders of 
lakes. The flower has an unpleasant odor. The root and 
leaves are used, and are recommended for the treatment of 
hemorrhages, all forms of animal poisoning, and in malaria. 
It is especially recommended in that mysterious disorder called 
by the Chinese (Sha). 

ASTRAGALUS HOANGTCHY. — ^ ^ (Huang-ch*i), 
510. Name also written ^ ^ (Huang-ch'i). The first name 
is sometimes written ^ ^ (Huang-shih), but this is incorrect. 
Large quantities of this drug pass between the ports of China ; 
it being produced in Manchuria, Chihli, Shantung, Szechuan, 
and Shensi. Several varieties are distinguished, being named 
for the places from which they come. It is possible that the 
root of a Sophora is included among these. The roots are 
flexible and long, as large as a finger, and covered with a 
tough, wrinkled, yellowish-brown skin, which has a tendency 
to break up into wooly fibers. The woody interior is of a 
yellowish-white color, and the whole drug has a faintly sweetish 
taste, somewhat resembling that of liquorice root. It is in 
great repute as a tonic, pectoral, and diuretic medicine. The 
diseases for which it is prescribed, therefore, are almost num- 
berless. Every sort of wasting or exhausting disease is 
thought to be benefited by it. Like most of the tonic and 
diuretic remedies, it is prescribed in malaria. 

ATRACTYLIS.— 7f[; (Shu). Hance has identified the j^ 
;7fL (Pai-shu), which is so largely grown in Chekiang province 
and exported from Ningpo, as Aristolochia reairvilabra (which 


,/ -oce). It is doubtless true, however, that some of the Pai-shu 
which comes from other parts of the empire is Atractylis. 
According to Hoffman and Schultes, ^ ~f^ (Ts'ang-shu) repre- 
sents three species of Atr-aetylodes, namely, Atractylodes lyrata^ 
Atractylodes lancea^ and Atractylodes ovaia. Siebold, as if it 
were one species, calls this plant Atractylis chinc7isis. The 
places of origin of this drug are (1330) Manchuria, Chihli, 
Shantung, Szechuan, Hupeh, Anhui, and Chekiang. The 
roots are met with in finger-shaped, roughly-moniliform pieces, 
occasionally branching, and varying from one to three inches 
In length. The cuticle is rough, brown, or blackish, and 
sometimes bristled with rootlets. The cut surface is of a dirty 
white color, with a yellowish cortical layer. The structure is 
very open, and some of the* interstices are filled with an orange- 
colored resinous substance, which dissolves in strong spirit, 
making a yellow tincture. The smell is somewhat aromatic 
and the taste warm and bitter. The drug is a warm, stomach- 
ic, stimulant, arthritic, tonic, and diuretic remedy, used in 
fevers, catarrh, chronic dysentery, general dropsy, rheumatism, 
profuse sweating, and apoplexy. It enters into the composition 
of several of the most famous prescriptions in use among the 
native faculty. Among these may be mentioned the I^ M ^J^J- 
(Ku-chen-tan), "strengthening virility elixir;" the yf "^ j^ 
(Pu-lao-tan), "elixir of longevity ;" and the ^ -^ j^ (Ling- 
chih-tan), "elixir of felicity." To enumerate all of the 
diseases for which the drug is recommended, would require a 
tolerably complete Chinese nosology. ^ Tft (P*ing-shu) is a less 
pungent quality of the drug, but whether this is due to its 
being a different species, or to a difiereut mode of preparation, 
does not yet appear. The whole matter of classification of 
these substances is in a very unsettled state. 

ATROPA. It is exceedingly doubtful whether this genus 
is found in China. It is introduced here simply to call atten- 
tion to two substances which may be included under this 
classification or that of some allied genus. The first is ^ jjn 
(Tien-ch'ieh), a term used by Dr. Williams in his Syllabic 
Dictionary for belladonna-like plants of the Solanaccse. It is 
also said to be written 5; jjn ■? iT'ien ch'ieh-tzii), and this term 


is assigned to Solamim nigritm. But neither of these terms is 
given in the Phitsao^ or in any other Chinese work examined. 

In the Pentsao^ under the head of an unidentified Solana- 
ceous plant called ^^^ (Tso-na-ts'ao), there is an appended 
account of a similar drug called ^Ip ;j; ^ (Ya-pu-lu), the effects 
of which resemble those oi Atropa mandragora. It is said that 
after the administration of a small quantity of the tincture, a 
profound anaesthesia was produced, during which operations 
might be performed witli perfect freedom from pain. The 
effects of the drug lasted for three days. The drug is said to 
have come from the country of the Mohammedan tribes north 
of China, and is thought to have been the drug used by the 
celebrated surgeon, Hua-t'o, in certain operations upon wound- 
ed intestine. There is no description of the plant, so its 
identification awaits investigation. 

AVENA FATUA. % ^ (Ch'iao-mai), ti ^ (Yen-raai). 
Oats is seldom cultivated in China, although this wild variety 
is sometimes collected in times of dearth and used in making 
bread. The grain is considered to be nutritious and demulcent. 
A decoction of the shoots of growing grain is given to parturient 
women to excite uterine contractions, as in retained placenta. 
This action may be due to the growth of an ergot upon the 
shoots. In Japan the above terms are used for different 
gramineous plants; the first being Bronnis japoniciis^ while the 
second is Brachypodium sylvatiaim. The Avena fatua is 
called ^ ^ (Yen-mai), but in China this first character is only 
a varied way of writing ^. 

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA. 35. ^ ^ (Wu-han-tzu), 
56. ft •? (Wu-leng-tzii), p^ )(% (Yang-t'ao), The second charac- 
ter in the first name is in the south a colloquial substitute for 
the second character in the second name. The meaning of this 
name is "five ridges," and refers to the shape of the fruit, 
which is compared to that of the stone roller with which the 
Chinese farmer rolls down his fields after sowing grain. This 
fruit is the so-called "Chinese gooseberry," which is met with 
in the southern provinces of Fukien, Kuangtung, and Kuangsi, 
but is scarcely known in the north. In its natural habitat it is 


also known as p^ ^jfe (Yang-t'ao), variously written q^ ^ 
(Yang-t'ao). On this account, Legge has erroneously identi- 
fied the carambola with the ^ ^ (Ch'ang-ch'u) of the classics. 
This latter is Actinidia^ and Chinese writers have not con- 
founded the two, although there has been some local confound- 
ing of the colloquial names. The fruit, when ripe, is three or 
four inches long, yellow, marked by five prominent longitudinal 
ridges, very juicy, and rather sharp to the taste. The odor is 
aromatic, but rather disagreeable to some persons. Its action 
is to quench thirst, to increase the salivary secretion, and hence 
to allay fever. 



BALANOPHERA.— II ^ (So-yang), 1189. Whether 
this is a correct identification, or whether it is an Orobaticha^ 
is not quite certain. The Chinese make it out to be a kind of 
^ ^ (Ts'ung-yung), which is Orobancha. The Pentsao S2iys 
that it grows in the country of the Mongol Tartars, and comes 
up in places where the wild horse and scaly dragon have 
dropped semen, which sinks into the ground and after a time 
springs up in a form like the bamboo shoot. The upper part 
is succulent and the lower dry. It is covered with scales and 
resembles the penis. It is said that lecherous women among 
the Tartars use it for the purpose of masturbation, and that 
when the root comes in contact with the female organ it 
becomes erect, as in the case of the organ it is said to resemble. 
It is a remarkable fact that an allied species in America goes 
by the vulgar term of "squaw root ; " a similar reason for so 
calling it being there adduced. The drug which enters the 
Chinese markets probably largely comes from Mongolia, but 
the Customs Reports credit Szechuan and Hupeh with being 
its places of production. The root is fleshy, reddish-brown in 
color, having a more or less wrinkled surface. In accordance 
with the Chinese ideas as to the origin of this root, it is con- 
sidered to be aphrodisiac to women and to promote the secre- 
tion of semen in men. It is also thought to be stimulant and 
tonic to the intestinal tract. 

879. The name is also written ^ |^ ; the first character in 
each case being said to be a transliteration of the Sanscrit term. 
The drug originally came from Persia, and was said to resemble 
benzoin. Its mode of collection, as given by Li Shih-chen, is 
by incision of the bark of the tree and collecting the exudation 
as it congeals. It is reddish-black in color and more or less 
admixed with other substances. The product, as found in the 
Chinese drug shops, has a bitter taste and but little of the smell 
of genuine myrrh. It is said now to be produced to some 
extent in the south of China. Its medical uses are considered 


to be identical with those of olibanum. It is regarded as an 
alterative and sedative, and, as formerly in the west, is used in 
the treatment of wounds and ulcers. It is thought to be 
especially useful in uterine discharges and in vicious lochise ; 
also in the treatment of a disease resembling hysterical mania. 
Loureiro mentions a j^ ^ fjlj (Mu-yao-yu), "oil of myrrh," 
which is used in Cochin China for the dressing of ulcers. It 
is reddish in color, and has the smell of myrrh. It does not 
seem to be known in China. 

There is also found in the drug shops of China a substance 
called f|?| ^ ^ (Chia-mu-yao), which is East India Bciellhim. 
This is supposed to be the product of Bahamodendron iimkiil^ 
or Bahaviodendroii roxburgJin. It is imported into China 
from India, and Dr. Williams says that the drug appearing in 
the Chinese market is much adulterated. According to Dr. 
Waring, good Bdelluun occurs in roundish, dark-red pieces, 
softer than myrrh and much less agreeable in taste and smell. 
It does not respond to the tests for myrrh, but is said to answer 
all of the purposes of that drug. It is an excellent stimulant 
for the chronic ulcers so commonly found throughout the east. 
Its Indian name is giigul. 

B AMBUS A. — The number of species of bamboo to be 
found in China, included under the genera Bambiisa^ Arundi- 
naria^ and PJiyllostachys^ is doubtless very large. Riviere 
enumerates twenty-three coming from the region of Hongkong 
and Canton alone. The largest bamboos are found in Hupeh, 
Szechuan, and Chekiang. Marco Polo made mention of the 
large ones of the last named province. An interesting bamboo 
is the Phyllostachys nigra^ which is a dwarf and has a black 
stem. Attaining to not more than the height of a man, it is 
cut down and used for walking-sticks and parasol handles. 

Owing to the fact that the bamboo flowers and fruits only 
once in from thirty to sixty years, very little has been done in 
China as yet towards its systematic classification. Rather more' 
has been done in Japan, but even there this work is still far 
from complete. The fj" |f (Chu-p'u, "Treatise on Bamboos"), 
which was published in the 3rd or 4th century, is an interest- 
ing and tolerably complete account of the bamboo, the names 


by wliicli it was known in the classics, and the uses to which 
it was put from most ancient times. Allowing for changes in 
customs, we find that these uses were very much the same 
as at the present time. Besides the purposes for which the 
bamboo is employed in medicine hereafter to be mentioned, 
the sprouts are eaten for food, and the wood is made into 
mats, baskets, hats, musical instruments, bows and arrows, 
pillows, chairs and stools, tables and book-shelves, fences and 
screens, house frames, cash boxes, tallies and token money, 
as a substitute for paper, and the thousand and one varied uses 
to which one sees it put at every turn as he goes about the 
country. The bamboo grows as far north as the Yangtsze valley, 
from which point it is for the most part replaced by Pragmites 
and other reeds. Of the various kinds of bamboo mentioned 
in the Chinese books we have several interesting specimens. 
The JJi fj- (Pau-chu), or "spotted bamboo," said to be mark- 
ed by the tears of Queen Siang, is found in the central prov- 
inces. The Spiny Bamboo, j^lj ft (Chih-chu), attains a very 
large size, and is said to be capable of resisting the onsets of 
burglars, pirates, and the like, when formed into stockades. 
The \%\^ (Tsung-chu), or "coir bamboo," is nearly solid 
stemmed, and is used in the manufacture of fans. Bambusa 
amndi?tacea is called ^ f^" (Lu-chu) by the Chinese. 

Of the many varieties of bamboo found in China, but a 
possible six are mentioned as being used in medicine. These 
are : ^ ft (Chin-chu ), \k ft (Tan-chu), ^ ft (K'u-chu), "^ ft 
(Kan-chu), ^ ft (Kuei-chu), and ^ ft (Tz'u-chu). The parts 
used are the leaves, 222, the rhizome, the thin outside skin 
(ln> jii) properly written ^), 212, and the sap (i^, li). The 
leaves of the Chin-chu, which is a large southern variety, are 
said to be tussic, tonic, anthelmintic, stomachic, and car- 
minative, while the root is considered as cooling, tonic and 
alexipharmic. The sap is used only in rheumatism. Of the 
Tan-chu {Bambusa piLbenda) the leaves and the root are pre- 
scribed in the form of a decoction in all diseases supposed to de- 
pend upon a collection of phlegm. A wash is also directed to 
be used in cases of prolapsus of the womb. The leaves of the 
K'u-chu (,7/7///^//>/^?;7rty'^/)6'///h7) are considered to be stimulant, 
tonic, anthelmintic, and anti-vinous. A wash is used in favus of 


children and other eruptions. The root is cooling and is nsed 
in fevers. The Lark is used in decoction for the cure of hem- 
orrhage from the bladder, while the sap is used in ulcerated 
sore mouth, ophthalmia, and toothache. The Kan-chu root 
(species unknown) is said to quiet the uterus and to be useful 
in post-partum fever. The bark of the Kuei-chu is the only 
part used, and this only in decoction as a febrifuge. The sap 
of the T'zu-chu is also used in fevers and rheumatic affections. 
The sap is prepared by heating short pieces of bamboo, when 
it exudes from the cut ends and is collected. All the forms of 
bamboo shoot are considered cooling to the blood. It is said 
that if they are eaten together with sheep's liver, blindness will 
result. They are given to suckling mothers to increase the flow 
of milk, and some kinds are thought to increase all of the secre- 
tions of the body. The shoots from two kinds of bamboo, the 
t^^ ft (T'ao-chu, "peach bamboo") and the ^J ft (Chih-chu, 
Banibtisa spinosa\ are considered to be slightly poisonous. The 
first is used as a wash for maggots on cattle and the second has 
no medical use, but when eaten it is thought to cause the hair 
to fall out. 

The excrescences which grow on the bamboo are mentioned 
in the Pentsao. One comes upon the T'zii-chii in the form of 
a deer horn, is called f^ ^ (Chu-ju), and is edible. The other, 
which grows upon the K'u-chu, is called fj* j^ (Chu-ju), and is 
considered to be very poisonous. This latter looks like a 
lichen, and is anthelmintic. The former is used in dysentery. 
The first leaves (called ^, t'o) of the T'zu-chu are used in 
decoction as a wash for scald-head and other ulcerous eruptions 
of children. A small mountain bamboo, called jlf |^ fj 
(Shan-pai-chu), is incinerated and the ash used as an escharotic 
in cancer. Exploding bamboos by fire is used to drive away 
evil spirits and mountain sprites. The fruits of the bamboo 
enliven the animal spirits and benefit the respiratory organs. 

The silicaceous concretion called Tabasheer^ found in the 
joints of large bamboos, is also used in Chinese medicine. It 
is called ft k (Chu-huang) and 5c ^ M (T'ien-chu-huang), 
211. The Chinese did not probably derive the substance 
originally from India, but it is possible that the knowledge of 
its medicinal uses were derived from that country, where it has 


been held in high esteem from very early times. Hence the 
second name given above. It is met with in hard, broken, 
angular pieces, usually opaque, as smooth as porcelain, of a 
whitish or bluish vitreous color, easily broken, and usually 
scented with some perfume. It absorbs oil, and thereby be- 
comes transparent. When the oil has been again driven away 
by heat, the internal structure of the concretion becomes 
apparent, showing it to be most beautifully veined. Tabasheer 
has the lowest refractive power of all known substances. It is 
made up almost entirely of silica ; there being sometimes a 
varying amount of potash, lime, iron, and vegetable matter. 
It can therefore have practically no medical virtues. But the 
Chinese, true to their ideas of its mysterious origin, prescribe 
it in acute choreic, convulsive, and epileptiform diseases of 
children, as well as in apoplexy and paralysis. In India it is 
believed to have stimulant and aphrodisiac qualities. The drug 
is usually adulterated in China with bone earth and other 
substances. A similar substance has been fouud in jungle grass. 

BARKHAUSIA REPENS.— ]^ % 5S (Hu-huang-lien), 
482. This is the identification of De Candolle, Loureiro calls 
it Picris rcpens. It is a foreign drug, coming from the 
country of ^ (Kiikonor), where it is called %i^%\^ (Ko- 
ku-lu-tse). As is usually the case with foreign drugs, T'ao 
Hung-ching says that it comes from Persia, which is the source 
of many, though not quite all of the drugs introduced into 
China from the west. Li Shih-chen says that the best quality 
of the root has a top resembling the bill of a bird, and when 
cut, the cross section resembles the eye of the niynah. He 
also says that the shooting plant resembles that of Brunella 
vulgaris. The dried root, as met with in the shops, is ia 
irregular, tapering, contorted pieces, varying from one to two 
inches in length and about the size of a lead pencil. The 
cuticle is dark brown or blackish, having tubercles, and other- 
wise irregularly wrinkled and marked. It has a hay-like 
odor and an exceedingly bitter taste. The Pentsao says that 
if the drug is true, a smoke-like dust should come from the 
interior of the root when it is fractured. The drug is now said 
to be produced in Nanhai, and also in Shensi and Kansu. 


Tonic, astringent, antiperiodic, antifebrile, alterative, and 
resolvent properties are attributed to this drug, and it is 
special})' recommended in the f^ (Kan) disease of children, 
which is struma or marasmus due to exhausting discharges. 
As an external application, it is usually mixed with goose gall, 
in which form it is applied to every form of hemorrhoid, as 
well as to cancerous sores. It has a great reputation in the 
treatment of dysentery. 

BASELLA RUBRA.— J^ ^ (Lo-k'uei) and ^ ^' (Chung- 
k'uei). It is also called ^ ^(T'eng-k'uei), " twining mallow," 
and its common name is ^ ^ JJ^ (Hu-yen-chih). The Bud- 
dhists call it :f^p ^ (Yii-ts'ai). In the Erhya the names are 
^ ^ (Fau-lu) and ^ ^ (Ch'eng-lu). Other names are ^ || ^ 
(Jan-chiang-tzu) and ^@ ^ % (Yen-chih-ts'ai). At Peking 
the plant is cultivated under the name of 33 J3h Jl (Yen-chih- 
tou). The plant is largely cultivated, and the leaves, which 
are cooling and mucilaginous, are eaten with fish and other 
meats. The berries are purple in color, and have a red juice, 
which is used as a rouge for the faces and lips of ladies, and 
also as a dye. The medicinal virtues are not great ; the leaves 
beinjr used as a demulcent in intestinal troubles, and the berries 
as au emolient, and a pigmentary addition to facial cosmetics. 

^% % (Ch'iu-hai-t'ang) and § \% % ( Ch'un-hai-t'ang\ 
Another name given is ^ U| ij^ (Tuan-ch'ang-ts'ao), but this 
is more especially used for Gchemmni elegans (which see). 
The description given in the Pentsao of this " foliage plant" 
is a fairly good one. But in regard to its medicinal properties 
it says that inasmuch as the plant grows by preference in cool 
shady places, therefore its nature must be cooling, and it is 
specially recommended for fevers. The juice extracted from 
the leaves and flowers is considered emolient, and added to 
honey is used as a facial cosmetic, and as an application to 
ringworm and other parasitic diseases of the skin. The juice 
expressed from the stalk is used in sore mouth and throat. 
Any use of the root has apparently not been thought of by the 
Chinese ; they having had their interest attracted by the fleshy 


and showy leaves and flowers ; the latter being equally used 
with the former in the preparation of pomades. But inas- 
much as the root has properties similar to those of rhubarb^ 
it has been suggested that it may be used as a substitute 
for this drug. 

BENINCASA CERIFERA.—^ S (Tung-kua). Other 
names, ^ jEL (Pai-kua), 7j< ;^" (Shui-chih), and \% ^ Ti-chih). 
This is the large White Gourd of India, which is much 
cultivated throughout China. Its surface is usually covered 
with a waxy exudation, by which it is distinguished in name 
in nearly every language. The flesh, the pulp, the seeds, and 
the rind (1392) are all used in medicine. The flesh is con- 
sidered to be sweet and slightly cooling. It is recommended 
tor the relief of thirst and as a diuretic. It is considered cool- 
ing in fevers, and if "prickly heat" is rubbed with a freshly 
cut slice of this substance, it is a sure relief. The pulp is 
regarded as demulcent both for internal and external use. It 
is added to baths for the treatment of pimples and prickly heat. 
It is also regarded as diuretic, and is used in the treatment of 
gravel. The seeds, 1391, of which the kernels only seem to 
be used, are regarded as demulcent, and under prolonged use 
are thought to be tonic, preventing hunger and prolonging 
life. They are also used in cosmetic applications to the skin 
in simple eruptions. A famous prescription is the use of these 
seeds incinerated and taken internally for the treatment of 
gonorrhoea ! The incinerated rind is administered in case of 
painful wounds. 

BERBERIS THUNBERGII. — >J. ^ (Hsiao-po). It is 
also called -^ ^ (Tza-po) and ^ ;^ |JiJ (Shan-shih-liu), 
"mountain pomegranate." It has a bitter yellow bark and 
red berries. The branches are used for dyeing yellow. The 
root does not seem to be used for this purpose, although 
doubtless it is as well adapted as the European Berberis 
vulgaris. The bark is the part used. It is regarded as very 
cooling, and is therefore prescribed in fevers. Its anthelmintic 
and antiseptic properties are also highly esteemed, and it is 
prescribed in menorrhagia. 



BETA VULGARIS.—^ ^ (T'ien-ts'ai), ^ ^ ^ (Chiin- 
ta-ts'cii), and S^ % (T'ic;i-ts'ai), 1340 (?i. This is the ordinary 
white sugar beet which grows in China. It is not mentioned 
in the Phitsao^ nor does its medical virtues seem to have been 
studied. This seems surprising, considering the fact that its 
saccharine qualities are indicated iu the name. 

BETULA ALBA.— If % (Hua-mu) or \% % (Hua-mu), 
498. This is the White Birch tree which grows commonly 
in the mountains of Northern China. The bark is used by 
Chinese saddlers, shoemakers, cutlers, and candle-makers, who 
turn its tanning or fatty principles to account in their several 
trades. The bark may also be used for torches. The drug is 
used iu decoction for jaundice and bilious fevers, and the 
incinerated bark is used as an application in mammary cancer 
and rodent ulcer. It is also one of the substances used to dye 
the whiskers, which, developing late in life iu the Chinese, are 
apt to soon turn grey or reddish-brown. 

BIDENS PARVIFLORA.— ^ 1^ -$. (Kuei-chen-ts'ao). 
This "imp's needle grass" is a species of '•''Spanish needles.'''' 
In the south it is called %, %X (Kuei-ch'ai), " imp's hairpin." 
The only purposes for which this is prescribed, are in bites of 
spiders, snakes, and scorpions, and in the unhealthy granula- 
tions of wounds. The juice is expressed from the fresh plant, 
and both administered internally and applied externally. 

BIDENS TRIPARTITA. — H ^ ^ (Lang-pa-ts'ao). 
The characters are also written % ^. This has three-lobed 
leaves and a two awned achene. It grows in the marshes of 
elevated regions. It affords a black dye, which is used for 
coloring the whiskers. A decoction of the plant is specially 
recommended in the treatment of chronic dysentery, aud as a 
wash to the skin in the treatment of chronic eczema. 

BIGNONIA GRANDIFLORA.— ^ ^ (Tzu-wei), P^ ^ 
(Ling-t'iao\ and ^ % {^ (Ling-hsiao4ma). This is a beauti- 
ful climbing plant, which is much cultivated in gardens 
throughout China. At Peking it is known by the last name. 


It is the same as Teconia grandiflora and Loureiro's Camps is 
adrepens. The flowers, leaves, stalk and root are all used medici- 
nally; the first named having the preference. It is most largely 
prescribed for the menstrual diseases of women, and the ansemia 
and marasmus which often attend these. Prolonged post- 
partum discharge also conies into this list. It is also used 
in fevers, and in combination with Gardenia florida for the 
treatment of " wine nose." 

BLETIA HYACINTHINA.— 1^ ^ (Pai-chi), 935. This 
is an orchid with violet flowers, cultivated at Peking under 
the name of ^ f^ (Lan-hua). The bulb is quite mucil- 
laginous, and a thin paste made of it is sometimes mixed with 
India iuk to give a gloss to writing or drawings done with it. 
It is also used in the preparation of a secret ink ; the paper 
which has been written upon being afterwards dipped into 
water and held up to the light. It is also used by the manu- 
facturers of china and of "cloisonnes." The rhizome is 
met with in the shape of flattish, irregularly oval, hollow 
disks, umbilicated on one surface, and having projecting rays at 
the circumference. The lower convex surface is pointed by a 
central tubercle and marked with rings. A great variety of 
irregular, tri-radiated, and other shapes of these tubers are met 
with in some samples. The interior is amylaceous, translucent, 
Lard, and white in color, and has a gummy, bitterish taste. 
It is considered demulcent, and is used in the diseases of chil- 
dren, especially those of a dyspeptic character, as well as in 
dysentery, hemorrhoids, and ague. It has much repute in the 
treatment of burns, wounds, and other injuries, and also in 
various kinds of skin diseases. 

BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA.—^ i^ ^ (Ai-na-hsiang\ 
This is the identification of Faber, although the account given 
in the P^nisao is not clear in many particulars. The plant is 
not described, and what is said evidently refers to the steareop- 
ten. It is recommended in the treatment of fevers and as a 
corrective of miasmatic vapors. Anthelmintic qualities are also 
ascribed to it. 


Under the name of '"'• Ngai-campJior^'''' a steareopten, 
isomeric with Borneo camphor, is said to be extracted from this 
plant. The greater part of this snbstance which appears in 
Chinese commerce, seems to come from the island of Hainan. 
It is but little used in Northern or Central China, probably on 
account of its cost ; its valuation at Tientsin being placed at 
five hundred Haikuan Taels a picul, while that of ordinary 
laurel camphor is only twelve Taels. It comes in three forms : 
^ 1^ (Ai-fen), 2, which is the crude product ; '^ j=|^ (Ai-p'ien), 
5, the refined substance in cakes ; and '^ ^] (Ai-yu), 8, a by- 
product of distillation. It is used in the south-eastern provinces 
as a febrifuge and carminative, and is held in higher repute 
than laurel camphor for all purposes for which the latter is 
used. Hanbury has an interesting note on this substance in his 
Science Papers, in which he says that it is not only used in 
medicine, but also in the manufacture of the scented kinds of 
Chinese ink. 

BCEHMERIA NIVEA.— ^ )g (Ch'u-ma\ This is the 
plant from which is produced the " grass cloth," so extensively 
worn throughout China, the finer qualities of which are not 
despised by ladies of Western lands. In the classics the charac- 
ter is written f,f Chu). Prior to the eleventh century there is no 
record of where it was produced, although it was known from 
ancient times as a textile plant. Su-sung, who wrote in the 
eleventh century, said that it was at that time grown in 
Fukien, Szechuan, Chekiang, and Kiangnan. Lu-chi, who 
lived in the third century, and wrote a book describing the 
plants and animals mentioned in the Book of Odes, said that 
the government then raised the plant in gardens. He also 
described the manner of preparation of the material. An iron 
or bamboo knife was used to strip ofi" the bark. After the thick 
outer bark was removed, the soft, tough fibers of the inner 
bark were taken and boiled, after which they were twisted into 
thread and this manufactured into cloth. At present the fibers 
of the stalks are soaked in a solution of native soda, beaten 
and broken up with a rake-like tool, and heated in a dry 
boiler. This is then twisted and manufactured into cloth, 
which the Chinese call % ^ (Hsia-pu), " summer cloth." In 


Canton, silk is mixed with the fiber in various proportions, 
making different qualities of cloth. Three crops of the fiber 
are said to be gathered in a year. 

Medicinally, the root and leaves are used. The former is 
reputed as quieting to the uterus. It is recommended in 
threatened miscarriage. It is also considered to be cooling, 
demulcent, diuretic, and resolvent. It is used in wounds from 
poisoned arrows, snake and insect bites, and in decoction for a 
local application in rectal diseases. The leaves are used in 
wounds aud fluxes as an astringent. 

BOMBAX MALABARICUM.— Tf; t,?j ^I (Mu-mien-shu). 
The Pentsao with difficulty distinguishes between this tree and 
the cotton plant, for the reason that it produces its cotton in a 
sort of boll. But it is a large tree, with a red flower like that 
of the Camellia. The fruit has a white, silky down covering 
the seeds, which may be used to stuff cushions, and is said to 
be capable of being worked up into a rough cloth. This down 
is called % ;|^,f, f^ (Mu-mien-hua, 870. The root, 871, and 
leaves are for sale in the Chinese shops, as is also the down. 
This latter is burnt, and the ashes given in menorrhagia, and 
used to staunch the blood of wounds. What the other parts 
are used for does not appear. The Customs Reports say that the 
substance known as \% |[^ ^ (Hai-t'ung-p'i), 357, and |I^ ^ 
(T'ung-pi), 1402, as exported from Canton, are the bark of this 
tree; that exported from Ningpo being probably the bark of 
Acafithopanax ricmifoliu77t (which see). The bark of the cotton 
tree is said to be emetic and astringent. It could probably be 
substituted for that of Aca7ithopanax. 

BOSWELLIA. — According to Hanbury, the olibanum 
produced in India, which is probably the only sort that finds its 
way to China, is derived from Boswellia glab^'a and Boswellia 
thtirifera. The Chinese name of the drug is ^ j^ ^ (Hsiin- 
lu-hsiang) or ^ ^ (Ju-hsiang), 563. The second of these 
names either refers to the nipple-shaped pieces which part of 
the product assumes, or else is a translation of the Hebrew 
term Icbonah^ signifying "milk." In Buddhist books the 
olibanum is called 5c ^ fr (T'ien-tse-hsiang), ^ ^ -^ ^ 


(To-chia-lo-hslang), tt f'f ^ (Tu-hi-hsiang), and Jp 1^ ^ 
(Mo-le-lisiang). The second of the above terms may be the 
Chinese equivalent of the Sanscrit fog-ara, meaning "perfume," 
and the third an adaptation of the Sanscrit ktindtirti^ which is 
the term by which olibanum was known in that language. 
Li Shih-chen says that it is sometimes adulterated with storax^ 
but at the present time that is not probable, as olibanum is 
much more plentiful, and therefore cheaper than formerly. 
That it has sometimes been confounded with, and possibly 
adulterated with sandarac^ is well known to Western pharma- 
cists. The drug, as it appears in the Chinese market, is in the 
usual form of pale yellow, oval, partly opaque, brittle tears, 
having the bitter, aromatic taste, and balsamic smell character- 
istic of this substance. Very inferior kinds are also found in 
the shops. It is used in the manufacture of some sorts of in- 
cense. Carminative, sedative, tonic, stimulant, alterative, astrin- 
gent, and diuretic properties are referred to this drug, which is 
used to some extent in making plasters and salves for dressing 
carbuncles and foul chronic sores. It is used internally 
in leprosy and struma. Indian practitioners have largely 
used it as a remedy for carbuncle, as an internal agent 
in the treatment of gonorrhoea, and as a fumigation in lung 
affections. Some of the older writers recommended it for 
spermatorrhoea, and for certain vesical and urinary disorders, 
for which it is worth a trial. 

^ ^ Vi. (Wu-chu-yu), 223. This is a small tree or shrub, 
bearing small, purplish-red flowers and a fruit which at first is 
yellow, but when it is ripe, turns to a dark purple. The Pentsao 
says that formerly the tree was planted at the side of a well, so 
that the leaves might fall into the water. To drink of the water 
was considered to be prophylactic against contagious diseases. 
The fruits were also hung up in the house to ward off evil 
spirits. The fruits, leaves, branches, and root with the white 
rind, are all used in medicine. In the case of the fruits as found 
in the markets, the small black carpels are usually separated 
from their pedicles, are five in number, closely connected and 
mixed with the scabrous stalks of the umbellate inflorescence. 


They have a warm, bitter, and aromatic flavor. The medical 
properties attributed to these are almost innumerable, amon 
which may be mentioned their use as stimulant, carminative, 
stomachic, deobstruent, astringent, and anthelmintic remedies. 
They are even recommended for sterility and barrenness. A 
piece of a branch is used as a suppository in obstipation. The 
root and bark are used as astringent and anthelmintic remedies, 
and in the treatment of rheumatism. 

BRASENIA PELTATA.— ^(Shun). Called ^|^ (Shun- 
ts 'ai) in Kiangnan, where it is eaten as a vegetable. It is also 
called 7jc ^ (Shui-k'uei), *' water mallow." The stem is 
purple and mucilaginous, aud it and the leaves on the under 
surface are covered with a viscid jelly. It bears yellow flowers 
and a greenish purple fruit. The plant is good for feeding to 
pigs, and is therefore also called |f ^ (Chu-shun). Although 
it is not regarded as at all poisonous, its continued use is thought 
to be deleterious, injuring the stomach, destroying the teeth and 
hair, and producing caries in the bones. If eaten in the 
seventh month, when it is liable to be wormy, it is thought to 
produce cholera. As the Chinese eat it raw, or but slightly 
cooked, and as it grows in filthy ponds and streams, some of 
these evil effects, said to arise from its ingestion, can easily be 
accounted for. Its medical qualities are considered to be 
antithermic, anthelmintic and vulnerary. It is recommended 
as a local application in cancer, favus, and hemorrhoids. 

BRASSIC A.— Notwithstanding the fact that this genus 
contains some of the best known and commonest garden plants 
of China, the identifications and nomenclature are in a very 
uncertain state. This is probably due to the fact that cultiva- 
tion has changed the species in many particulars, and also that 
many of the varieties found in China are distinct from those 
found in the west. Brassica chinensis^ ^ H (Pai-ts'ai), called 
^ (Sung) in the PentsaOy is a most common variety of Brassica 
oleracea. This vegetable is considered to be cooling aud anti- 
vinous. Its prolonged and excessive use is thought to be 
slightly deleterious, causing an itching eruption and retarding 
recovery from disease. Ginq^er is antidotal to its deleterious 


effects. Its medicinal use is recommended in fevers and to 
quench the craving for wine. It is also considered to be 
laxative and diuretic. The seeds are used to arouse a "dead 
drunk/* and the oil expressed from them, when rubbed on the 
scalp, is thought to promote the growth of hair. 

^ ^ (Yiiu-t'ai), otherwise called ^ ^ (Yu-ts'ai), is 
undoubtedly Brassica ?-apa^ which produces the ^"^ -^ (Yu- 
ts'ai-tzii, "rape seed"), from which the |^ \^ (Ts'ai-yu, 
"rape-seed oil") is manufactured. It also is called Brassica 
chinensis., possibly on account of its economic prominence in 
this country. The plant is thought to have originally been 
brought from Mongolia, and for this reason is also called ■^ '%, 
(Hu-ts'ai). The oil and its manufacture are of great com- 
mercial importance to those portions of China in which this 
plant is cultivated. Until the introduction of kerosene, this 
oil was the cheapest and best illuminant known to the Chinese. 
Its culinary use was very great, being considered inferior, 
however, to sesamura oil for this purpose. The vegetable, 
eaten in the spring, was regarded as acrid and cooling. Under 
certain conditions its use was said to be slightly deleterious. 
In some cases it produced stiffness of the knees, and those 
already afflicted with difficulties of the back or feet were made 
worse by its use. The Taoists count it as first among the five 
^ (Hun). The expressed juice of the stalk and leaves is the 
form in which it is used medicinally. In this way, and also 
sometimes as a decoction, it is applied to foul sores, caked 
breast, cancer, and such like. The expressed juice is also 
administered in dysentery and bloody stools. 

^ W (Wu-ching), otherwise known as g ^ (Man-ching), 
is Brassica rapa-depressa^ the rape-turnip. In the classics this 
is called ^ (Feng\ The root, leaves, and seed of this plant 
are all eaten. The Chinese have not improved this turnip 
much by cultivation, as both root and leaves remain bitter and 
pungent. The continued use of this vegetable is considered to 
be less deleterious than the yim-t'ai^ and many of its medicinal 
uses are identical with those of the latter plant. Its properties 
are cooling and anti-vinous. The seeds are considered to be 
diuretic and constructive. Women are especially recommended 
to use them. The oil expressed from them is added to cosmetic 

vegetable: kingdom. 75 

applications for the face, and applied to the hair restores its 
color and vitality. ^ ^- (Man-ching) in North China is the 
kohl-rabi, Brassica oleracca caulorapa. It is also snggested 
that ^ ^ # (Chieh-man-ching) ox ')^'^ (Ta-chieh) may be a 
Chinese variety of the rutabaga, Brassica canipestris 7'iitabaga. 
The mustards, although of identical genus with the 
cabbages, will be considered under the alternative term Sinapis 
(which see). 

(Ku-shu). This is the paper-niulberiy ^ a very common tree in 
China and Japan. It is of quick growth, has a soft wood, which 
is used to make vessels of various sorts, and bears a globular 
red fruit, which is sometimes eaten by children. The acheues, 
which are small, round, seed-like bodies called ^ ^ -^ (Ch'u- 
shih-tzii), 224, are of a bright red color, and as found in the 
shops, are much broken. They are mucilaginous to the taste, 
and are believed to be tonic and invigorating. They are also 
called ^ ^ (Ku-shih) and ^ \% (Ch'u-t'ao). The leaves are 
regarded as diuretic and astringent. They are recommended 
in fluxes and in gonorrhoea. A decoction of the twigs is used 
in eruptions, and the juice extracted from these is given in 
anuria. Decoctions of the bark are used in ascites and 
menorrhagia. The resinous sap found in the bark is used as a 
vulnerary, and in wounds and insect bites. Coarse cloth and 
paper are made from the liber of this tree. 


(Hsia-ku-ts*ao). This is the common '-'- heal-alV of Europe 
and America. It grows in swampy and wet places, has a 
nearly square stalk, grows about two feet high, and bears a 
small, pale-purple flower in spikes. The stalk and leaves are 
the parts used, and the drug is considered as cooling. It is 
therefore used in fevers, and also as an anti-rheumatic, altera- 
tive, and tonic remedy. 

BUDDLEIA OFFICINALIS.—!^ ^ 1^ (Mi-mgng-hua), 
843. This is a shrub of the natural order ScropfmlarinecB^ 
which bears a most beautiful flower, called by the Buddhists 


?ti ll ^ (Sliui-chin-hua), or "watered-satin-brocade-flower." 
It may be that this is identical with Biiddleia neemda of India. 
It is said to grow in the river valleys of Szechuan, and the 
commercial product comes from Kansuh and Shensi. The 
flowers are prepared by being soaked in a mixture of wine and 
honey for three days, and then dried. They are used almost 
exclusively for the treatment of diseases of the eye, especially 
opacities of the cornea. Whether the beauty of the flower 
determines this use or not, it is hard to say. They are also 
thought to affect the liver. 

BUDDLEIA CURVIFLORA.— P .« % (Tsui-yii-ts«ao), 
1357. Also called ^ ^J^ (Nao-yu-hua). As its name implies, 
it is used for stupifying fish, and in this respect resembles 
Daphne geiikwa (which see). The flowers and leaves are 
used in medicine in tbe treatment of catarrhal difficulties, fish 
poisoning, to dissolve fish bones in the throat, and for chronic 
malarial poisoning with enlarged spleen. 

OCTORADIATUM.— '^^ ^ (Tz'u-hu) or ^ ]^ (Ch'ai-hu), 16. 
Both species have yellow flowers, go by the same Chinese 
names, and are not distinguished in the Chinese books. ]^ is 
said to be an ancient way of writing ^. The plant is found 
principally in the northern provinces. Young white shoots, 
which spring up in the spring and autumn, may be eaten. The 
old plant is used for fire-wood. The root-stock is the part 
used in medicine. Its medicinal qualities are considered to be 
essentially febrifuge, deobstruent, and carminative. It is used 
in flatulence and indigestion, in colds and coughs, muscular 
pains and cramps, amenorrhoea, thoracic and abdominal 
inflammations, puerperal fevers, and in acute diarrhoea. 

BUXUS SEMPERVIRENS.— ^ ti % (Huang-yang- 
mu). This is the ordinary boxwood^ which is used for making 
combs, wooden bowls, and printing blocks. The tree is of 
very slow growth, is evergreen, and the wood is so fine grained 
that it may be considered as almost grainless. It is said not 
to grow during the intercalary moon of the Chinese year. A 


softer kind of wood, called vimigo-zvood^ is used by Ningpo 
carvers for the fine image work which they do. It may be 
from this tree, or from a different species. The original 
habitat of the tree is not recorded, but it is now largely 
cultivated both for commercial purposes and for ornamental 
use. The leaf is the part used in medicine. As the plant 
is said to be free from the element of fire, the leaves are 
assumed to be cooling in their nature. They are prescribed 
in difficult labors, being supposed to induce expulsive efforts. 
The ordinary toilet combs of women, being made of this wood, 
are often turned to account as a ready domestic remedy ; the 
incinerated wood being used in the same way as are the leaves. 
The powdered leaves are rubbed on prickly heat and summer 

»— «OOOf< »- 



C^SALPINIA MINAX. — ;5 jf (Shih-lien\ This is 
the classification of Hance and Faber. The plant has not 
been found mentioned in the Pentsao or any other Chinese 
work consulted. Its seeds appear in the Customs lists (1153) 
as an article of commerce ; but what their medical uses may 
be, we have not been able to learn. 

huang-ch'ang), 304, ^ HI, ^ (Chin-feng-hua). The first term 
is given in the Customs lists for a root that is produced in 
Kuangtung. The second term is a Japanese identification. 
The plant has not been found mentioned in the Pentsao, Its 
medical uses have not been ascertained. 

C^S ALPINIA SAPPAN.— ^ \-% % (Su-fang-mu). This 
is the tree which furnishes the Sappan wood, Sappan zvood^ or 
Bukkum wood to commerce. It comes largely from the island 
of Sumbawa, which belongs to the East Indies lying east of 
Java. The island also produces the most valuable teak tree, 
as well as the tamarind. The Chinese name of the wood 
under consideration, as well as the word sappan, are doubtless 
derived from the name of this island. The wood also is 
imported from Siam, Malaysia, and India, and is said to have 
been grown in Kuangtung and Kuangsi. Its common name 
is ^ /fv (Su-mu). It contains much gallic and tannic acids, 
and is an excellent substitute for logwood, although much 
weaker. An extract may be made from it. The form in which 
the substance appears in the Customs list is that of a coarse 
powder or saw dust, called ^ 7fC ^1 (Su-mu-k'ang), 1201. 
Since it dyes a red color, the Chinese consider that it has a 
special affinity for the blood. It is therefore prescribed in 
wounds, hemorrhages, and disturbances of the menstrual 
function. It is also recommended as a sedative and in fluxes. 

C^SALPINIA SEPIARIA.— g |f (Yiin-shih). This 
is a climbing shrub, and the Chinese recognise its close 


relationship to other Cacsalpinioc by calling it ^ (or yfC) % ^, 
"wild (or water) honey locust." Other names for the fruit 
are 5^ g CT'ien-tou) and ^ M. ( j\Ia-tou). The stem is hollow 
and spiny ; it bears yellow flowers in racemes and a pod about 
three inches long, containing five cr six dark colored seeds, 
which have an unpleasaut odor. The seeds, flowers, and root 
are used in medicine. Although the Pcntsao discusses this 
among the poisonous drugs, it is not considered to be poisonous. 
The seeds are said to have astringent, anthelmintic, antipvretic, 
and anti-malarial properties. They are said to be used for the 
most part in the treatment of ague. To the flowers are 
attributed certain occult properties. If one ingests a quantity 
of them and then sees a spirit, he is driven mad. If burned 
they will drive away evil spirits. In former times their use 
was supposed to produce somatic Icvitation, but this is now 
denied by Li Shih-chen. The expressed juice of the root is 
used to assist in the removal of a bone from the throat, and it 
is also thought to be anodyne in such cases. 

CAJANUS INDICUS.— iJj IX\ ^ (Shan-tou-kC-nV This 
genus seems to be confined to Eastern Asia. The common 
name adopted by Europeans is "pigeon pea." The East 
Indian names are cajan and dahl ; the ]\Ialay name, clichang. 
In the Phitsao it is also called JH ^ (Chieh-tu) ; and on 
another page an almost identical description is given under the 
heading of ^ ^ -^ (Chieh-tu-tzii). This may therefore be 
regarded as identical with, or very closely related to, the Shan- 
iou-ktn. In both cases the root is the part used in medicine 
(1104). This appears in the Chinese shops as a woody root, 
varying from the size of the little finger to mere rootlets ; the 
whole being connected by a knotted root-stock. Rats and 
mice are said to be fond of this root. It is considered to be the 
counter-poison par excellence. Anthelmintic, sedative, ex- 
pectorant, and vulnerary properties are also referred to it. 

CALAMUS DRACO, —lit ^ % (Ch'i-lin-chieh), also 
called j^ J^j (Hsiieh-chieh), 477. This tree, growing in 
Sumatra, Java, and other countries to the south of China, is 
said also to be met with in the southern provinces. The 


names given for it in the Phitsao are ^ ^ (K'o-liu) and fg ^ 
(K'o-ping), which are probably transliterations of some foreign 
term. The tree is said to resemble the Balsanwdendron 
myrrha. The above Chinese names refer to the gum-like 
substance derived from the tree, which is known in commerce 
as " dragon's blood." The tree is said to be chopped to yield 
the gum, but the most common form is that which covers the 
fruits, which is obtained by beating and shaking these in little 
bags or baskets, when the gum-tears drop off, and are allowed 
to conglomerate into masses in the sun, or are softened by hot 
water and formed into sticks. Dr. Williams describes the drug 
as "in drops of a bright crimson color when powdered, and 
semi-transparent." That commonly found in the Chinese 
shops is in large dark-red, friable masses, which have evidently 
been packed in matting. It makes a deep blood-red, gritty, 
almost tasteless powder, soluble in spirits of wine. Since the 
drug produces such a brilliant red color, it may be readily 
surmised that the Chinese would use it in the treatment of 
wounds and hemorrhages. And this indeed seems to be the 
principal purpose for which it is used. It is also thought to 
have some sedative and tonic properties. 

Dr. Williams erroneously identifies H ^ ^ (Lung-hsien- 
hsiang) with this substance, but this is Ambergris. 

CALENDULA OFFICINALIS.—:^ ^ 1^ (Chin-chan- 
hua). This is the common maHgold. It is only prescribed in 
obstinate bleeding piles. 

CALYSTEGIA SEPIUM.— :^ ^ (Hsuan-hua). This is 
a Convolvulaceous plant, for which a large number of synony- 
mous names are given in the Penisao. Among these is ^ ;^ 
Jff J5* (^Ch*an-chih-mu-tan), which is Convolviihis Japonicus. 
The root, which from the shape it sometimes assumes, is also 
called ^]^ S§ i^ (Tun-ch'ang-ts'ao), " sucking-pig's entrail," is 
edible, and is said to have a pleasant sweet taste. Tonic, 
nutrient, demulcent, and diuretic properties are attributed to 
it, and it is also said to have the power of cementing bones and 
tendons, if diligently applied as a poultice. On account of 
this last named reputation, the root is also called 1^ nh ^ 
(.Hsli-chiu-ken), "healing tendon root." 


CAMETJA JAPONICA.— :^-j^(Ch'a-hua), 12; also writ- 
ten ]^ |2 (Cha-bua), 10, which seems to be a palpable mistake 
in penmanship. This is the dried petals of this species, and 
also of an undetermined species of Camelia which flowers in 
the spring. The Chinese have, from very early times, classed 
the Camelias with the tea plant, doing so under the generic 
name of ^(Ch'a). Since the dried petals and leaves of the 
Jap07iica are sometimes brewed as tea by the natives, one can 
see how they stumbled upon this classification. The tender, 
young, needle-shaped petals of the spring blooming variety are 
most esteemed, while the older ones of the same variety and 
those of the Japonica are held in less repute. The twigs of 
the latter are also used under the name of ^ ^ \^^ (Ch'a-chiu- 
t'iao); the leaves also furnishing the ]ljlj ^ (Tz'ii-ch'a), so 
called on account of the spiny leaf of this variety. 

Therapeutically, a decoction is used in haemoptysis, 
hsematemesis, and intestinal hemorrhage ; or the petals are 
powdered and mixed v/ith ginger juice, child's urine, and wine 
for the same purpose. The petals, powdered and mixed with 
linseed oil, make au application considered excellent for scalds 
and burns. 

Two other probably identical species, Camelia sasanqtia 
(^ ^ 'j^> Ch'a-mei-hua) and Camelia oleifera ({Ij :^, Shan- 
ch'a), furnish the " tea -seed-cakes " (^ -^ %^ Ch'a-tzu-ping) 
and much of the so-called "tea-oil" (:^ ^, Ch'a-yu) of 
commerce. Large quantities of these products come from the 
hilly districts of Kiangsi and Hunan. Of the two, a decoction 
of the former is sometimes used as a demulcent and expec- 
torant, and it is said to take the place of soap in washing oily 
clothes. The latter is used as a food and in lamps, and as it 
is a bland, non-irritating oil, it might be used as a substitute 
for olive oil in dispensary practice. Shen Tsu-hsi, in his 
appendix to the Pentsao^ says that the '^ fffj (Ch'a-yu) of 
Fukien and Kuangtung is not Camelia oil at all, but a product 
of Corylus nuts, and it therefore ought to be called " filbert-oil." 

CAMELIA THEA or Camelia iheifera,—^ (Ming). By 
many botanists, the tea plant is considered to belong to a genus 
distinct from the camelias, to which they give the designation 


Thea. These generic terms will be used iiidiscriminatelv in 
this article. It was formerly supposed that black and green 
tea were derived from distinct S[>ecies of the tea plant, which 
were then known as Thea bohca and Thca viridis respectively. 
But it is now known that both kinds are made from the same 
plant ; the difference being in the process of manufacture. 
The essential difference in this respect is that black tea is 
allowed to ferment before firing, while the green is rapidly 
dried and fired. It is probable that there were originally 
only two distinct species of the tea plant; these being 
Thea sinensis and TJiea assa?)iica^ or the Chinese and the Indian 
species, and that .the other varieties are due either to hybrida- 
tion of these, or to changes produced by adaptation to 
environment, and to cultivation. The Indian species, however, 
makes the better quality of black tea, while the Chinese 
produces a better green tea. The Chinese do not speak of 
black tea, but on account of the color of the infusion which 
this kind produces, call it "red tea" (,fX '^i Hung ch'a). 

Among the Chinese terms for tea J^ (Ch'a) is the generic 
one ; but in the colloquial this al\va\-s refers to the infusion, 
while the article itself is spoken of as :^ ^ (Ch'a-yeh). The 
character ^ (Ch'^a) does not date beyond the Han dynasty. 
Before that time the character used for tea was ^ (T'u); 
but a prince of that dynasty ordered that this character 
should be no longer pronounced /'?/•, but ch'-a. Afterwards 
the stroke in the middle part of. the character was left out, 
thus distinguishing it from the old term. We have a relic of 
this old word in the Amoy pronunciation of :^, "t^, " from 
which we have our present English word, which originally 
was pronounced "tay." The term ^ (T'u) is now used for 
the sow-thistle {Sonchns oleraceoiis). In proper parlance, the 
early pickings of the tea leaf are called :^(Ch'a), w.hile the late 
should be designated ^* (Ming). This latter is the term for 
tea used in the Pentsao^ as well as for the most part in the 
classics, and it may frequently be found on tea boxes. The 
character ^(Ch'uan) is used for the old leaves of the tea plant, 
which are made into an inferior quality of tea. The name 
-^ ^ K'u-t'u), or ^ :^ rK'u-ch'a) properly denotes the 
chicory-leaf, although there is some confusion upon this point. 


Other plants, like the || (Chia) and the |g (She) cannot be 
confounded with tea. For while infusions of the leaves of 
some of these are sometimes used as a beverage, they are not 
regarded by the natives as a substitute for tea. The same may 
be said of the willow (-ffj flij Yang-liu), except that the leaves 
of this tree and those of the white poplar are sometimes used to 
adulterate tea. 

Wild tea, ^ ^(Yeh-ch'a), is regarded by the Chinese as 
the best, especially that growing among the disintegrated stone 
of the hill sides ; that growing on clayey soil being not regarded 
so highly. Whether tlie tea plant is indigenous to China, or 
whether these are "volunteers" from some forgotten tea 
plantation, is uncertain. vSuffice it to say that these shrubs 
are found growing plentifully upon the hill and mountain 
waste lands of the tea producing districts. 

The action of tea upon the system is never cousidered bv 
the Chinese to be anything but beneficial. In the words of the 
Psntsao^ "it clears the voice, gives brilliancy to the eye, 
invigorates the constitution, improves the mental faculties, 
opens up the avenues of the body, promotes digestion, removes 
flatulence, and regulates the body temperature." Clear water 
is but little drunk in China, the common beverage being tea. 
Yet, although the Chinese are thus drinking tea continuously 
and in large quantities, it does not seem to have the deleterious 
effect sometimes observed, especially in America. This may 
be due to the fact that the Chinese do not steep their tea, but 
only infuse it, preferably in a covered cup, but often in an 
earthenware pot. Or, what is more probable, tea in China is 
purer, containing no salts of copper and other such deleterious 
substances as are frequently found in teas imported into Amer- 

The various names and brands of tea have reference to the 
place from wdiich it conies, to the time of picking, to the 
character of the leaf, and some are merely arbitrary trade 
marks. In the order here given are Ningchow, from I-nino-- 
chou in Kiangsi ; Hyson, from {IJf ||^ (Yti-ch'ien) "before the 
rains"; Pekoe, from ^ ^ (Pai-hao), "white down", 
referring to the white down on the young leaves of which 
this brand is made ; and Oolong, from ,^ f | (Wu-lung), ' ' black 


dragon". The Chinese pay but little attention to these 
"chops" and brands. Tea stores that profess to sell the best 
quality of tea, always put Kf |^ (Yii-ch'ien) on their sign boards ; 
but its use in this case does not indicate any special brand, but 
only that the best qualities are offered for sale ; that is, what 
the people like best, the early or first picking before the 
summer rains have set in. These teas are all green, as com- 
paratively little black tea is used by the Chinese themselves. 
Among the few who distinguish between brands, that known 
as 11 ^ (Lung-ching) is considered to be the finest among plain 
teas. Scented teas are made by mixing the petals of certain 
flowers, notably the J;^ "^ (Chu-lan) or Chloranthus^ and the 
^ ^^ (Mo-li), or white jasmine {Jasniiniim sainbac)^ of which the 
former is the one preferred, with the tea leaves until these 
have acquired the aroma of the flowers, then sifting out the 
petals and quickly packing the tea in air tight boxes to 
preserve the flavor. These teas are not so popular with the 
Chinese as has been commonly supposed. 

Brick tea is made in China, at present principally by 
the Russian tea packers, for the trade of Central Asia. It is 
usually the older leaves, stems, and broken tea that are 
o-round, steamed and compressed by machinery into bricks of 
various sizes. These are wrapped in paper, packed in boxes, 
and shipped to the northern ports, thence to be sent by camel 
or mule train across the mountains and plains to their destina- 
tion in the heart of the continent. By the tribes inhabiting 
this large tract of country, including much of Siberia, it is 
consumed leaf and all, being by some dressed with milk, salt, 
and butter, and eaten as a vegetable. Inasmuch as tea con- 
tains a large amount of soluble nitrogen, it would seem that 
the use of the leaf as a food would be a rational procedure. 
Whether caffeine and theine are physiologically identical, is still 
undecided. To say the least, the much feared deleterious 
effects of theine are not very apparent, either upon the Chinese 
tea drinker or the Central Asian tea eater. 

While but little attention is paid by the Chinese to the 
brand of tea used for ordinary consumption, it is quite other- 
wise when it comes to the domain of native therapeutics. 
Here, the place of origin, the time of picking, the mode 


of preparation, or the condition of the substance is important 
in determining its efficacy in the treatment of disease. Without 
doubt, in some instances the difference in the species of the 
plant from which the leaf is obtained, will explain the apparent 
difference in physiological action, but often the distinction 
made by the native doctor is merely empirical or imaginary. 
Some of the more important of these " medicinal teas " are 
here given. 

^ i'5 ^ (P'n-erh-ch'a), 1052, comes from P'uerhfu in 
Yunnan. The genuine article is in the form of a ball, about 
the size of a man's head, containing approximately five catties. 
On account of its shape and size, it is also known as "man 
head tea" (A Bl ^)- I'he commonest kind of so called P'u- 
erh tea, however, is in the form of a cake about the size of a 
breakfast plate, and comes from Southern Szechuan near the 
borders of Yunnan. There is little difference in the quality 
of these, although that in the ball form is the more highly 
esteemed by the Chinese. This tea is regarded as an excellent 
digestive, assisting in dissolving fats, neutralizing poisons in 
the digestive tract, besides being deobstruent and promoting 
secretion. Marvelous stories are told in regard to the solvent 
action of this article ; it being said to dissolve even metals, like 
gold and iron. If to a pot in which a fowl or piece of meat 
is being cooked, is added a portion of this tea, flesh, bones, and 
stock are converted into a most nourishing broth. It is pre- 
sumed that the pot must be of earthenware, else an undue 
proportion of iron would be added to the mixture. 

11 ^ ^ (Lung-chi-ch'a) comes from the province of 
Kwangsi, and is sometimes made into brick tea. It is reputed 
to be good for the treatment of malaria and all forms of toxae- 
mia. It is also used in dysentery and diarrhoea. 

^ fij ;^ (An-hua-ch'a) is from Hunan. The leaves pro- 
duce a tea rather dark in color, and of a sweetish bitter taste. 
Its use is that of ordinary tea, but as its tonic and strengthen- 
ing properties are considered to exceed those of the common 
article, it is held in high esteem in sickness, fatigue, or bodily 
weakness. One brand of this tea, known as ffg ^^ i^ 
(Hsiang-tan-ch'a) is all sent to the imperial capital for the use 
of the emperor, princes, and high officials. 


^ :^ (Hsiieh-ch'a) is the leaves from a rare plant growing 
on the mountains of Lingchiangfn in Yunnan province. It is 
said to be found within the snow limit ; hence the name, 
"snow tea." It is very difficult to procure samples of it, and 
it commands a high price. The plant is said to resemble the 
tea plant in appearance, and if of the same genus, shows the 
great range of adaptability of this plant to wide differences of 
climate. The method of preparation is similar to that used 
in preparing ordinary tea. This tea is considered to be warming ; 
it being said that if a cupful is drunk on a cold day the 
internal organs are pervaded by a sense of warmth, " as if a fire 
had been kindled therein." Therefore it is regarded as most 
excellent for colds. By those who spit blood, who sometimes 
do not relish ordinary tea, this is considered to be a grateful 
drink. It is also used for the cure of dysentery. 

^ ti^ ^ (Lo-chieh-ch'a) is named for a man of ancient 
times, who at Changhsinghsien, on the west side of the 
Wutung mountain, at the rear of a wayside shrine, raised 
most excellent tea. The leaves of this variety are at their best 
at the time of the summer solstice, and as the plant grows only 
in mountainous districts, it is therefore held in high esteem. 
Medicinally, it is valued most highly in the treatment of 
pulmonary troubles and dropsy. That which comes from the 
province of Kiangsi is considered to be inferior in quality, and 
is only used as an aid to digestion. 

^ Pb ^ (P'u-t'o-ch'a), so called because it conies from 
the small island of Pootoo in the Chusan archipelago, is 
quite scarce, for the reason that a very small amount is 
gathered. In the mountains of Tinghaihsien on the large 
island adjoining Pootoo, quantities of it grow ; but the natives 
do not gather it, possibly because the demand for it is small. 
It is said to be useful in hemorrhages, as in haemoptysis or 

^^'^ (Wu-i-ch'a) is from the Wu-i hills of Fukien, from 
the name of which is derived the foreign term Bohea. This tea, 
when brewed, is rather dark in color, and the taste is described 
in the Ch'a ching("tea classic") as sour (f^). It is said to 
be peptic, carminative, and to counteract the effects of wine 
drinking. It is also used to check dysentery. 


^ fP j& ^ (Sluii-slia-lien-ch'a) is said to grow in the 
forests of Formosa, amidst the dense undergrowth, where its 
leaves never see the sun. It is considered to be cooling, and 
is adminstered in fevers. It is also given to bring out the 
eruption of small-pox. 

Tea leaves that have been brewed, are sometimes put into 
an eathenware jar and allowed to stand until decomposed, and 
then used as a medicine. The older and more decomposed 
they are, the more highly are they esteemed in the treatment 
of all sorts of ulcers and swellings, dog bites, old burns, and 
bruises, They are applied as a poultice. The old leaves of 
the tea plant which have been frost-bitten are regarded as 
highly efficacious in the treatment of epilepsy. They are 
powdered and mixed in equal parts with crystal alum, and 
administered in doses of three mace. Infusion of the root of 
the tea plant is also sometimes used as a beverage, and in 
strong decoction in the treatment of sore mouth. Ordinary 
tea is constantly employed instead of water for washing 
wounds and sores of all descriptions, and as an eye wash in 

A few other things used by native doctors under the name 
of "^//'rt'," but which are derived from plants other than the 
tea plant, may be mentioned at this point. Some so designated, 
will also appear under other articles. ^ jjjij :^ (Chio-tz'ii-ch'a) 
is the leaves of Argenione viexicana. The supply comes 
from Huichou in x'Ynhui. It is carminative and stimulant, 
and it is said that by its use conception is prevented. ^ '^ 
(Lnan-ch'a) is derived from the Ko'elrenteria patiiculata. 
Others say from a species of Rhododcndroji. It is used for 
headaches. ^ '^c '^ (Ylin-chih-ch'a) is made from a lichen 
which grows on the rocks in Shantung, principally in Meng- 
yin-hsien. It is regarded as universally applicable in the 
treatment of all diseases. ,^0I ft ^ (Hung-hua-ch'a) comes 
from Kiangsi, and consists of the tender sprouts of the Hibiscus 
rosa-sifiejisis. It is regarded as a fitting present for a friend. 
Medicinally it is used as a digestive and anti-miasmatic. 

CAMPHORA OFFICINARUM. — Z^?/r//5 camphora, 
Lin. Cinnamomum ca7nphora. Nees. — ^ (Chang). The 


Chinese name is said to be derived from j^ j^ (Yli-cliang), an 
ancient name for Kiangsi, because the tree grows large and 
abundant there. But it may as well have come from Chang- 
chou-fu (f^ jj\ J^) in Fukien, as large quantities of camphor are 
produced in that prefecture. The parts of the tree entering 
into commerce are the twigs (Chang-ch'ai, ^^ ^), 22, the bark 
(Chang-mu-p'i, f^ /f; j^), 23, an-d the seeds (Chang-mu- 
tzu, f$ Tf; ^ ), 24. 

The part most largely used in Chinese medicine, as else- 
where, is the steareopten, called ^^ fjj|^ (Chang-nao) when crude 
and in flakes, or ^ |j^) )|: (Chang-nao-p'ien) when refined and 
in cakes. Other names for this substance are j^ 1)^ (Ch'ao-nao) 
and §3 U^ ( Shao-nao); these two terms being used in the north, 
because the product came from Chaochoufu and Shaochoufu 
in Kuangtung. It is produced by chipping the trunk, root, 
and branches of the tree and boiling the chips in a covered 
vessel lined with straw. The sublimed camphor condenses on 
the straw, and is gathered in these impure flakes. Most of 
what is found on the market in China is of this impure kind. 
The Japanese camphor is purer than the Chinese, and is usually 
packed in tubs for the foreign market, while the Chinese 
article is packed in lead-lined chests. This latter is met with 
on the market in granular lumps or grains of the color of dirty 
snow, and having a strong terebinthinate odor, and a warm, 
bitter, aromatic taste, with a somewhat cooling after taste. 
It is not so strong as the foreign-prepared drug, but is more 
volatile. It is employed by the Chinese as a diaphoretic, 
carminative, sedative, anthelmintic, and anti-rheumatic remedy. 
It is used on decayed and aching teeth, and is put into the 
shoes to cure perspiring feet. Mixed with a species of 
Za7ithoxybim called 1^ \)^ (Hua-chiao), and made into an 
ointment with sesamum oil, it is used in the treatinent of favus 
in children. It is also used in the manufacture of fire-works, 
and to preserve clothing from the attacks of insects. However, 
for this last named purpose it is not altogether in favor, as the 
Chinese think that it injures the texture of fabrics, rendering 
them more liable to tear. For Borneo or Baroos camphor, 
see Dryobalanops camphora ; for ' ' Ngai ' ' camphor, see Bliimea 

vegetable; kingdom. 89 

CANARIUM.— :^ If (Kan-Ian), 578, ^; ^ (Ch'ing-kuo), 
.H Si (Wu-lan). This is the so-called "Chinese olive," 
which has, however, no affinity with the true olive, belong- 
ing to the natural order BiirscracecB^ instead of to that of 
the Olcacccc^ as does the latter. The first two Chinese names 
given above apply to Canai'ium album {Pimcla alba)^ while 
the last is Canariinn pimela (Pinicia nigra). The first is 
also distinguished in the Pentsao as |^ |^ (Lu-lan), "green 
pimela." These fruits grow upon a small tree or shrub in the 
south-eastern provinces of China and in Cochinchina. The 
tree is said to be something above ten feet in height, and to 
yield good timber. The fruits are oblong and pointed, either 
green or shriveled, being often preserved in salt, or added to 
wine to medicate it, or to counteract its effects. They vary 
from one inch and a quarter to an inch and a half in length. 
When the pulp of the drupe is removed, there remains the large, 
dark, pointed, polygonal, or triangular stones, having three 
apertures at the upper end, where they often show a tendency to 
split into three portions, disclosing the three celled interior. 
These hard stones are frequently beautifully carved into beads 
and other ornaments. The fruits are said to be stomachic, 
sialagogue, antiphlogistic, alexipharmic, anti-vinous, and astrin- 
gent. The pits, incinerated and reduced to powder, are thought 
to have the power of dissolving fish bones accidentally swal- 
lowed, and are used in a similar way in the treatment of fluxes 
and the e^ruptive diseases of children. The bruised kernels are 
used as a poultice in herpes labialis. This latter appears in com- 
merce (692), as do also the leaves of Cafiarium pimela (1462). 
The appendix of the Pentsao also speaks of the kernels of this 
species, assigning to them stimulant, tonic, and corrective 
properties. Two other kinds of Chinese olive are mentioned 
in the Pentsao under the names of ^ ^|f |^ ^ (P', 
"Persian pimela," and 'jz f^ (Fang-Ian), "square pimela." 
What these are is uncertain. The former may indeed be the 
Syrian olive. It is not native of China, but is said to now be 
grown in Kuangsi. 

A soft, sticky, dark, resinous mass, compared to cow-glue, 
and having a strong aromatic odor, is prepared from the 
Canarium pimcla. It is mentioned in the Pentsao., but no 


uses are given for it. It resembles, and is probably identical 
with Manila Elcmi^ which is thought to be the product of 
Cajiarhnn commune. The Chinese product is called ^ § 
(Lan-hsiang). It may be used as a substitute for black 
dammar. When heated with the leaves and bark of the tree, 
it produces a tarry mass, called ;^ |J| (Lan-t'ang), which is 
used in caulking boats. 

CANAVALLIA ENSIFORMIS.— 7J S (Tao-tou), 1256. 
This legume is said to be native of the province of Kuangtung, 
but is now extensively cultivated throughout the empire. It 
is generally known among foreigners as the " broad bean ; " 
the pod being one and a half to two inches broad and nearly a 
foot long. They are much relished as an article of diet by the 
Chinese ; the pods, while still tender, being fried and eaten 
with soy or honey, and the beans, when riper, being cooked 
with pork or chicken. They are thought to benefit digestion, 
to strengthen the kidneys, and to be constructive and tonic. 
They are especially reconamended in cases of weak digestion 
during convalescence from acute disease. 

CANNABIS SATIVA.— i; |^ (Ta-ma). Also called 
^ % (Huo-ma), 541 ; % % (Huang-ma); ^ % (Han-ma), 
''Chinese hemp," to distinguish it from ^ ti (Hu-ma), 
"Scythian hemp;" the staminate plant, ^ ^ (I-ma), and 
the pistillate ^ %, (Chii-ma). The flowers at the time of 
pollenization are called Ijil ^ (Ma-p'o), and j^ ^ (Ma-fen) is 
used for both the flowers and the seeds, although it probably 
should be restricted to tlie laiier. 

Hemp has be'^n known from most ancient times in China ; 
there being a tradition that the Emperor Shen-nung (28th 
century B. C.) taught the people to cultivate it, as he did also 
the mulberry tree for raising silk worms. On the other hand, 
flax was unknown to the ancient Chinese, and even at the 
present day the plant is only cultivated for its oil. At Peking 
the hemp plant is called >J^ ^ (Hsiao-ma), while ;^ lie is 
incorrectly applied to the castor oil plant. 

Every part of the hemp plant is used in medicine ; the 
dried flowers (^), the ach'enia (^)., the seeds {%\, ^\ the oil 


(lH '^^ the leaves, the stalk, the root, and the juice. The 
flowers are recommended in the 120 different forms of J|L (Feng) 
disease, in menstrual disorders, and in wounds. The achenia, 
which are considered to be poisonous, stimulate the nervous 
system, and if used in excess, Vv'ill produce hallucinations and 
staggering gait. They are prescribed in nervous disorders, 
especially those marked by local anaesthesias. The seeds, by 
which is meant the white kernels of the achenia, are used for 
a great variety of affections, and are considered to be tonic, 
demulcent, alterative, laxative, emmenagogue, diuretic, an- 
thelmintic, and corrective. They are made into a congee by 
boiling with water, mixed with wine by a particular process, 
made into pills, and beaten into a paste. A very common 
mode of exhibition, however, is by simply eating the kernels. 
It is said that their continued use renders the flesh firm and 
prevents old age. They are prescribed internally in fluxes, 
post-partum difficulties, aconite poisoning, vermillion poison- 
ing, constipation, and obstinate vomiting. Externally they 
are used for eruptions, ulcers, favus, wounds, and falling of 
the hair. The oil is used for falling hair, sulphur poisoning, 
and dryness of the throat. The leaves are considered to be 
poisonous, and the freshly expressed juice is used as an anthel- 
mintic, in scorpion stings, to stop the hair from falling out and 
to prevent it from turning grey. They are especially thought 
to have antiperiodic properties. The stalk, or its bark, is 
considered to be diuretic, and is used with other drugs in 
gravel. The juice of the root is used for similar purposes, 
and is also thought to have a beneficial action in retained 
placenta and post-partum hemorrhage. An infusion of hemp 
(for the preparation of which no directions are given) is 
used as a demulcent drink for quenching thirst and relieving 

Another Tiliaceous plant, the CorcJionis capsularis^ is 
identified by the Japanese as ^ %l^ (Huang-ma), which is one 
of the terms at the head of this article. It is cultivated for its 
fibre (ji'tc) in South China and other parts of tropical Asia. 
It is not known to be used in medicine. It may be that in the 
Pentsao and other Chinese medical works it is regarded as 
identical with ^^ |j^. 


common name is ;J.^ ^fv ^ (Ti-mi-ts'ai). Its frnit is called 
^f (Ts'o-shih). This is the common "shepherd's purse," 
which is eaten as food by many of the poor people of China. 
It is both wild and cultivated. The explanation of the first 
character in the Chinese name is given as |tt ^ I^ (Hu-sheng- 
ts'ao), " protecting life plant," because it is said to drive away 
mosquitos and other nocturnal insects. The root and leaves 
are used in medicine, and the plant is thought to have a 
specially beneficial influence upon the liver and stomach. 
Incinerated, they are prescribed in fluxes, and pulverized, are 
used in the treatment of sore eyes ! The fruits are used for 
similar purposes, and if used for a long time are thought to 
clear the vision. The flowers are said to destroy certain kinds 
of parasitic worms, and to be useful in dysentery. 

CAPSICUM ANNUUM.— II ^^ (La-chiao\ 685. Several 
species of this Solanaceous plant are met with in China. In 
addition to the one above named, Capsiaini fnttescens^ 
Capsicum baccatinn^ Capsia^m fastigiatuni^ and Capsiciini 
sinense are mentioned. They are largely cultivated in all of 
the central provinces of China, and are eaten green, ripe, and 
after having been dried. They are used as a condiment or 
relish with other food, and at the season when they are ripe 
and in market are seldom absent from the table. The less 
acrid kinds are used as a vegetable, and if deprived of their 
seeds they do not purge. The smaller and more acrid varie- 
ties are sometimes dried and pulverized, making a sort of 
cayenne pepper. They are not mentioned in the Phitsao^ but 
the Chinese rightly consider them to be stimulant to the 
digestion and derivative. They are sometimes used to j)roduce 

CARDUUS CRISPUS.— fl It (Fei-lien). This com- 
posite plant (Cynaroid division) is found growing plentifully in 
Manchuria and the provinces of North China, including 
Szechuan. It has incised leaves w'ith winged petioles. The 
root is straight, with dark colored skin, and white flesh marked 
with black veins. The root aud flowers are used in medicine. 


The root is first prepared by decortication, and tlien soaking in 
wine over night. After this, it is dried and pnlverized for use. 
It is said by some to be slightly poisonous, and by others to not 
be so. The effectiveness of the twelve hours' soaking in 
wine would probably explain the difference in these observa- 
tions. It is considered to be alterative and anodyne. It is 
used in the treatment of rheumatism, both articular and 
muscular, and is thought to have special curative properties in 
the kan disease of children. Epithelioma and rodent ulcer are 
amongf the thing:s for which it is recommended. 

CAREX MACROCEPHALA. — |^- [f (Shih-ts«ao). 
Called also |£j ¥^ "^ (Tz'u-jan-ku), " sponlaneous grain, " and 
•3i ^ 'fl (Yii-yii-liang. ) It is not to be confounded with the 
so-called eagle stonc^ which bears the latter name. It is an 
edible grain-fruit, growing in the eastern islands, but not found 
in China. It ripens in the seventh month, and is gathered by 
the people until winter. It is considered to be very nutritions, 
and is recommended as a constructive food in malnutrition. It 
is said to prevent nausea, and is recommended in anorexia. Its 
prolonged use produces great bodily strength. 

CARICA PAPAYA.— This, the papazv or tree melon, 
which is native of tropical America, has been introduced and 
is now cultivated in South China and other tropical parts of 
the Far East. The name by which it has been called at 
Canton is /fc JIS. (Mu-kua), which is a translation of "tree 
melon." But this is the name which is used in the Pentsao 
and classics for the quince (Cydonia sinensis). lyoureiro found 
that the papaw was also called ;^ ^ |^ (Wan-shou-kuo), 
"longevity fruit." Another name by which it is sometimes 
known in the south is :g^ JR (Fan-kua), "foreign melon". 
Still another name is ;^ /£ (Shu-kna), which is an alternative 
way of saying "tree melon." Certainly 7l^ J^ cannot be used 
for it in the north, where the quince, which has no other 
designation, is so extensively grown. Although so recently 
introduced into China, the Chinese, where the papaw is grown, 
have learned to appreciate its property of rendering meat 
tender, as well as its alimentary and medicinal qualities. 


ming-ching). The seeds are called 'j^i ji]^ (Ho-sliih), "crane's 
louse," 375. Other names are M -g- (Shih-shou) and ^g M 
(Chi-ki), both meaning "pig's head," ^ rff^ #i (Chan-chu- 
lan), and the people in the south call it jiji ^ (Ti-sung', 
" ground cabbage," and Ji^ ^-^T'ien-man-ch'ing), "heavenly 
rape," for the leaves resemble cabbage or rape leaves, and are 
of a sweet pungent taste. The seed has a bitter, pungent taste, 
is slightly poisonous, and is reputed to destroy insects. The 
plant is added to the water in which silk cocoons are boiled, 
presumably to kill the pupa. The plant bears small yellow 
flowers, and is quite common in South and j\Iid-China. The 
achenia which bear the seeds are awned, causing them to 
adhere to the clothing of persons and the fur of animals in a 
manner similar to the beggar tick. The leaves, root, and seed 
are the parts used in medicine. The two former are regarded 
as non-poisonous and as being identical in medical properties 
and uses. They are employed as astringent, alterative, anti- 
scorbutic, diuretic, expectorant, anthelmintic, vulnerary, and 
discutient remedies, in conjunction wnth the young shoots. 
They are specially recommended in bronchorhcea, haemoptysis, 
and ague. The seeds, which are regarded as being slightly 
poisonous, are principally used as an anthelmintic. They are 
also highly recommended in ague. 

hna). Other names, ^X ^ (Hung-hua) and ^ ^ * Huang-Ian), 
although this latter is possibl}' a confounding this with Crocus 
sativus. The commercial designations are ^X ^ (Hung-hua), 
-X^^^o, and ^ 4^ (Yao-hua), 1510 ; the former being the best 
quality usecJ^ for dyeing, and the latter an inferior kind used as 
a drug. The natural habitat of this plant, which is safflower^ 
was regarded by the Chinese as Thibet. It is now extensively 
cultivated throughout China. The famous traveler and general, 
Chano' Chien, brought the seeds from Turkestan. The flowers 
are extensively used for dyeing purposes and in the making of 
rouo-e. Medicinally, they are regarded as having stimulant, 
sedative, alterative, emmenagogue, and discutient properties. 
On account of their red color, they are thought to have an 


especial value in affections connected with the blood. They 
are also used to cause abortion and to expel a retained placenta. 
The shoots of the young plant are eaten in times of scarcity. 
The seeds are given as a lenitive or purgative in apoplexy and 
dropsy. An oil obtained from the seeds is used as a lubricant. 
It is also used in candle-making. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AR0MATlCUS.-7t iTing-hsiang), 
T "? ^ (Ting-tza-hsiang). The Chinese say that the clove 
tree is dioecious, and that the pistillate plant is called |,f) -g- ^ 
(Chi-she-hsiang), the "chicken tongue" referring to the shape 
of the dried immature flowers of this variety. As this tree is 
not indigenous to, nor is it much grown in China, the distinction 
here given was probably a shrewd guess based upon different 
qualities of the drug appearing in the market. These " chicken 
tongue spice" cannot be the so-called "mother cloves," since 
the Chinese know of these also, and call them -^ f ^ (Mu- 
ting-hsiang\ which is an exact translation of the common 
English and German terms. The properties of this variety 
are considered to be similar to those of the ordinary cloves, 
but are especially recommended in combination with ginger 
juice as an application to prevent the hair from turning gray. 

The place of origin of this drug, as given by the Pentsao^ 
is the islands and countries of the East Indian Archipelago, 
Cochin China, and Polo Condor. The cloves found on the 
Chinese market do not differ in any material respect from those 
found in the shops of the West. They are regarded as having 
warm, stimulating, carminative, corrective, stomachic, tonic, 
anthelmintic, and derivative prop^rtie^ They are prescribed in 
cases of offensive breath, diarrhoea, cholera, intestinal disorders 
of infants, uterine fluxes, sterility, and many other diseases. 
They are held to be especially efficacious in nausea and 
vomiting. The drug is also used in various ways in the 
treatment of nasal polypus, ulcers, cracked nipple, carious 
teeth, scorpion stings, and to prevent or render pleasant 
offensive perspiration. The bark, somewhat thicker than 
cassia bark, is used in toothache and as a substitute for the 
cloves. The twigs and root, although regarded as inferior, are 
also used for similar purposes. In the Appendix to the Pentsao^ 


the clove oil is mentioned as a foreign product, and traders of 
Macao are credited with having introduced it into China. It is 
now manufactured in the south, and has become an article of 
export. Its use as a substitute for the crude drug, and especially 
its application to aching teeth, is well known and appreciated 
by the Chinese at the present time. 

CASSIA FISTULA.— Du Halde, who never was in China, 
but who wrote his work on things Chinese, drawing all of his 
information from letters of the Jesuit missionaries, says that 
this tree was found in the province of Yunnan, and was called 
^ ^ -^f 3^ (Ch'atig-kuo-tzu-shn,. It is said that the pods are 
collected in Kuangsi and exported. Dr. Williams gives 
^itt tt W (Huai-hua-ch'ing) as the name of the fruit. He 
describes the pulp as "reddish and sweet, and not so drastic 
as the American sort ; if gathered before the seeds are ripe, its 
taste is somewhat sharp." No other authorities are found for 
this plant occurring in China, and it is not mentioned in the 
Peiifsao. The Customs Lists do not mention it ; so, if exported 
as Williams claims, it must be by land routes. The subject is 
worthy of investigation. Waring, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
India, quotes Dr. Irvine as stating that the root of this tree 
acts as a very strong purgative. 

CASSIA MIMOSOIDES. — llj H S (Shan-pien-tou^ ; 
Cassia occidcntalis, g? ^ ft (Wang-chiang-nan) and ;5" ^ BjJ 
(Shih-chlieh-ming); Cassia sophcra and Cassia tora^ ^ 0^ 
■ Chiieh-ming) and :^ ^ 0J3 (Ts'ao-chlieh-ming), 1341. With 
slioht exceptions, the Chinese make no distinction between 
these species. The Pentsao uses Ts'^ao-cJiiich-viing for Cclosia 
argentea. At Peking, Wang-chiang-nan is a common name 
for Cassia sophera. Another name for the Cassia viiniosoides 
is |£ -^ •% 0J (Chiang-mang-chiieh-ming. ) The proper way of 
writing the character Chileh is as above, although it is most 
frequently written \^. Kanghsi's Dictionary also uses ^ % 
(Chiieh-kuang), a synonym of ^ BJ- ^ ^ "J is also used for 
the shell of Haliotis funebris, 1144. 

Hupeh and Kuangtung are given by the Customs Lists as 
the sources of the drug, Shensi, Kansuh, and Hunan are also 


said to yield it. The long, reddish pods contain very many 
dark brown, shining seeds called ^ B^ -^ (Chiieh-ming-tzu), 
1341, of an irregularly compressed, cylindrical shape, about 
three lines in length, and marked with two light stripes on 
opposite sides. They are pointed at one end, and truncated 
or rounded at the other, and have a bitterish, mucilaginous 
taste. It is said that if eaten on an empty stomach during the 
day, on the succeeding night articles will appear as if 
illuminated. The drug is therefore considered to be of especial 
use in diseases of the eye, being used both internally and 
locally in their treatment. It is also recommended in herpes 
and furunculoid sores. The Phitsao says that the leaves 
can be eaten as a vegetable. This must refer to the Chiang- 
mang^ which may be Cassia aicriailata^ an edible species 
of India. The leaves of Cassia tora are said to be used by 
Indian physicians as a substitute for senna. Another name 
for the Chiieh-ming is ,^ Sijj ^ ^ (Ma-ti-chlieh-ming), so 
called from the shape of the seeds. The Pentsao also speaks 
of another plant, apparently of this genus, which it calls 
«^ fljj ;^ (Ho-ming-ts'ao). It is as yet unidentified. In 
addition to its other virtues, it is considered to be diuretic. In 
China, as in India, a spirituous liquor and a leaven are made of 
the Cassia tora^ by the addition of some starchy or saccharine 

CASTANEA VULGARIS. — ^ (Li). This is the 
common chestnut^ of which several varieties grow in China. 
They are cultivated throughout the empire, and are used as an 
article of diet, being most frequently cooked with chicken. 
However, they are thought to be somewhat diflBcult to digest, 
and are therefore not recommended to the sick as food, or to 
those suffering from deranged digestion. They are among the 
fruits considered suitable to be presented to the Son of Heaven, 
and by the ancient Chinese were used as a present of in- 
troduction by women. Owing to the similarity of the leaves 
and fruits of some varieties to those of certain kinds of 
QuercuSy there is a certain amount of confusion among th€ 
Chinese in regard to these plants. Of the different kinds of 
chestnuts, the Phitsao mentions a large, smooth, flat variety, 


which grows plentifully in the central provinces, and is called 
"j^ ^ (Pan-li) ; a small, round variety known as [Ij ^ (Shan- 
li), of which there is a pointed kind which is called §| ^ 
(Chui-li) ; a small one shaped like an acorn called '^ ^ (Hsin- 
li) ; a still smaller one, like a hazelnut, called ^ ^ (Mao-li), 
which in the Erhya is called Ijjf (Erh), The Sanscrit name of 
JH 5|U (Tu-chia) is also given. 

The tree of some varieties is quite large, and some have 
very large leaves. The smallest varieties are very delicate 
little shrubs. They grow in all of the provinces except the 
two south-eastern ones ; there being no chestnuts (^) there 
except the ^ ^ (Shih-li), Alciirites triloba. The best 
chestnuts come from Kiangnan and the north. Several parts 
of the chestnut tree and fruit are used medicinally. The fruits 
themselves are considered to be saltish and cooling in their 
nature. Children should not eat them much, either raw or 
cooked. Their use is thought to hinder the development of 
the teeth. They are considered to have a beneficial action 
upon the "breath," stomach, and kidneys, assisting in endur- 
ing hunger. Masticated into pulp and applied as a poultice, 
they are recommended in muscular rheumatism and extravasa- 
ted blood. The crushed fruits are also used as poultices in bites 
of animals and virulent sores of various kinds. The septa of 
the involucre, called ^ ;^ (Li-hsiehi, is considered to be 
especially efficacious in muscular rheumatism and to promote 
the circulation of the blood. The tegmen of the seed, which 
is known as ^ -^ (Li-fu), is pulverized and added to honey as 
a cosmetic application ; it is thought with the effect of improv- 
ing the completion. Incinerated and powdered, it is used for 
removing a fish bone from the throat. A decoction of the 
hulls is recommended in nausea, thirst, and bloody stools. A 
decoction of the spiny involucre is said to be useful as a wash 
for inflamed ulcers. The flowers are used in scrofula, a 
decoction of the bark of the tree as a wash in poisoned wounds, 
and the root in hernia and hydrocele, between which difficulties 
the Chinese do not clearly distinguish. 

CATALPA BUNGEL— fft (Ch'iu). Classical name, ^ 
(TztJj. Catalpa k(zmpferi^ the same Chinese name or H Ht 


(Cliio-cli'iii). The names are confounded by both Chinese and 
Japanese botanists. Li Shih-chen says there are three varieties, 
and then proceeds to name four ! That with a white veined 
wood is the tsii^ that with a red wood is chHu^ that with a 
beautifully veined wood is ^ (I), while a smaller variety is 
called \'%_ (Chia). This last character is also written \% but 
this seems also to be used in the Erhya for the tea plant. 
The characters \% and |g refer to the fact that the leaves of 
this tree fall at the end of summer or the beginning of autumn, 
and during the Tang dynasty the leaves were worn cere- 
monially at the time of the autumnal equinox. 

Thecatalpa is a large tree with very excellent wood, which 
is used for buildings of the better sort, for making chess-men, 
chess tables, weighing-scale frames, and printing blocks ; in 
this last replacing the more expensive boxwood. The white 
inner bark and the leaves are the parts used in medicine. 
This tree is said to have been formerly in much repute as a 
remedy for surgical diseases. The bark is considered to be 
stomachic, anthelmintic, and very useful as an ingredient in 
lotions for stimulating wounds, ulcers, cancer, fistulse, and 
other indolent or obstinate sores. An extract is prepared from 
the bark, and the leaves are reputed to be very efficacious in 
the treatment of carbuncles, swellings, abscesses, struma, 
porrigo, specks on the cornea, and the like, and are given in 
bronchitis and emphysema. The leaves are used in treating 
eruptions on hogs, and these and the leaves of Aleurites 
cordata are fed to pigs to fatten them. 

Lists 1637) this is given as the identification of ^ @ :^ 
(K'u-teng-ch'a, by which is evidently meant ^ ^ (K'u-teng) 
and ^ f ^ (K'u-ting-ch'a), the second character of which 
should be written ^. It is described in the Pentsao under the 
heading of ^ ^ (Kao-lu), and is also called S M (Kua-lu). 
It is said that the people of the Kuang provinces call it A''«- 
teng. The leaf of the shrub is said to be very much like the 
tea leaf in shape, but considerably larger. Its action is con- 
sidered to be very much the same as that of tea, quenching 
thirst, brightening the eye, quieting the nerves, and acting as 


a diuretic. If taken in excess, sleep will be prevented. No 
authority is given for the above identifiction ; the plant is not 
mentioned in the Index Florae Sinensis, nor has it been found 
in any other work consulted. 

CEDRELA SINENSIS. — ;j$ (Ch'un). In the classics 
the character is written (j^. The Pentsao includes this with 
Ailant/ms glandulosa under the common heading of ^ \% 
(Ch*un-ch'u). External resemblances led the Chinese to con- 
found these trees of perfectly distinct orders. The leaves of 
the Cedrela are edible, and on account of their fragrance the 
tree is sometimes called ^ ^ (Hsiang-ch'un), while the 
Ailanthus receives the name of ^ ;|^ (Ch'ou-ch'un) because of 
the bad odor of its leaves, which for the same reason are not 
eaten. The wood of the Cedrela resembles mahogany, and is 
used in cabinet work. The parts of the plant entering 
commerce are the twigs (^ ;j^ ;f^, Hsiang-ch'un-chih), 409, 
and the root (^ ^ :|^, Hsiang-ch'un-ken), 409. 

It is evident that the Chinese regard the medical properties 
of Aila7ithus and Cedrela as similar, if not identical. There- 
fore it is a little difficult to determine if either is put to any 
peculiar use. Reference to the article on Ailanthus glattdnlosa 
is made for the general uses of these drugs. The tender leaves 
of the Cedrela are in the spring boiled and eaten as a vegetable, 
and are regarded as carminative and corrective. They are also 
fed to silkworms. In combination with the leaves of Caialpa^ 
they are decocted and used as a remedy for scald head and 
baldness. The inner bark of the trunk and that of the root are 
used in the treatment of the % (Kan) disease of children, 
intestinal fluxes, menorrhagia, and post-partum hemorrhage. 
It is also used in gonorrhoea in both male and female. The 
fruits (5^, Cilia) are regarded as astringent, and are used also in 
aflfections of the eye. 

CELOSIA ARGENTEA.— ^ 5^(Ch'ing-hsiang). This 
is also called ^ %^ (Yeh-chi-kuan), "wild cock's-comb," 
and %^ ^% (K'un-lun-ts'ao), "plant from Kunlun." The 
seeds are called [^ ^ nj (Ts'ao-chueh-ming), and are therefore 
both theoretically and practically confounded with those of 


Cassia tora ; the former being frequently found mixed with the 
latter in the shops. The plant is found throughout the country, 
but the drug supply comes principally from Fukien and 
Kuangtung. It is a troublesome weed among the farmer's 
crops, but the common people gather it and consume it as a 
vegetable. The stalk and leaves, bruised and applied as a 
poultice, are used in infected sores, wounds, and skin eruptions, 
and the juice, taken internally, is considered to have special 
virtues in pestilential difficulties. To the seeds are attributed 
cooling, anti-scorbutic, anthelmintic, vulnerary, and tonic 
properties ; and they enjoy an equal reputation with Cassia 
tora in the treatment of afifections of the eye. Three-tenths of 
a pint of the juice of the seed forced into the nostril is 
considered to be a sure cure for epistaxis. 

CELOSIA CRISTATA.— 'lil^(Chi-kuan\ 'X^\\\s cock' s- 
comb^ which by some is regarded as a variety of the last, is a 
common weed in China, although it is also extensively culti- 
vated as a garden flower. The prevailing colors of the flowers 
are red, yellow, and white, and the seeds are flat, black, and 
glossy. The red flowered variety is the one preferred in medi- 
cine, and consequently is fancifully supposed to benefit all 
diseases of the blood, such as hemorrhages, fluxes, piles, 
menorrhagia, and deficiency of the lochia. The young shoots, 
the flowers (50), and the seeds (51), are the parts used. 

CELTIS. — According to Henry, Celiis sinensis is ;f|» 
or ^ (P'o). In Japan -f^ is Celtis muku ( Homoioceltis aspera)^ 
and ;;|;^ is Celtis sinetisis. These do not seem to be mentioned 
in the Pentsao. In Japan ^ |§ (Sung-yang) is also Celtis mnkie 
or Ehretia serrata^ which is a synonym. But Sjing-yang in 
China has been indentified by Henry as Cornus inachrophylla 
(which see). This shrub bears an edible fruit, and it has been 
suggested that it may be a Prunus. As for the i^ (P'o), it is 
possible that this refers to the /p ;^[* (Hou-p'o) of the Pentsao^ 
which is extensively used in medicine, and is Magnolia 
hypoleuca (which see). 

CERCIS CHINENSIS.— ^ fj (Tztt-ching), 1408. This 
is the Judas tree or Red bud^ of the order of Legufninosce, 


The character |fi|, however, is usually applied to diflferent 
species of the Vitex of the natural order of VeT-benacecs. 
Similarity of foliage and general appearance has again led the 
Chinese to confound plants of two distinct orders. On account 
of its beautiful purple flowers, this tree is much cultivated in 
gardens. The whole tree, including the wood, is beautiful, 
and adds much to the ornamentation of any place it occupies. 
The wood and bark are used as medicine. "The kind that 
is as bitter as gall is the best." They are employed in the 
treatment of bladder disease, and a decoction is used both 
internally and as a wash in mad dog bite, intestinal parasites 
of all kinds, vicious post-partum discharges, bleeding piles, 
and similar difficulties. 

CHAM^ROPS EXCELS A.— i^ |f (Tsung-lii), \^ 1^ 
(Ping-lli). It is probable that Chaniisrops fotiinei is either 
very closely allied to or identical with this. It is also by some 
referred to the genus Trachycarptis and that of Caryota. This- 
is one of the coir palms, producing that useful fibre which is 
made into cordage, clothing, trunks, brushes, and the like. It 
is found in the south of China, and formerly extended as far 
north as the Yangtsze. The tree grows to a height of more 
than thirty feet. The fibrous integument is annually gathered 
and steeped in water, to separate the fibres for use in manufac- 
tures. Excellent matting is made from the bark, combined 
with more or less of the fibre. The large leaves of this palm 
are made into fans. The young flower buds, which are likened 
to fish roe and therefore called ^ @ (Tsung-yii), also called 
^ ^ (Tsung-sun), are eaten, although by some considered to 
be more or less deleterious. Steeped in honey and soaked in 
vinegar, they are used as votive offerings by the Buddhists. 
The buds, flowers, and seeds (1350) are recommended in 
fluxes and hemorrhages. The bark is prescribed in similar 
cases, but as only the ash or charred remains, after incinera- 
tion, is used, it is probable that its only action would be to 
check fermentation. 

CHAVICA BETEL.— ^ ^ (Chii-chiang), ± ^ ^ (T'u- 
pi-po), and the vine is called i^ ^ ± H ]^ (Fu-ya-t'u-Iii- 


t'eng), which is probably a reproduction of the Malaysian 
name for this plant (vettila). The Pentsao gives several 
other names of somewhat similar sound, which it says have 
not been explained, and which are probably local variations of 
the same name. The leaves (called ^ ^, Lli-yeh) of this vine 
are spread with chunam and wrapped about a slice of Ai'eca 
nut, and the product is chewed by the Malays. It produces a 
species of intoxication, which is probably the result of a 
substance developed in the combination, as none of the com- 
ponent parts taken alone has any such effect. It is now said 
to grow in South China, as far north as Szechuan. The 
leaves are used in Yunnan as a condiment. The root, leaves 
(695, 696), and fruits are employed in medicine, being con- 
sidered to have carminative, stimulant, corrective, and pro- 
phylactic properties, and they have some reputation in the 
prevention and treatment of malaria. In the appendix to the 
Pentsao an oil, called ^ fjfj (Lii-yu), is mentioned, and is said 
to be made from the leaves of this plant. It is highly 
recommended as a counter-irritant in swellings, bruises, and 
painful sores, as well as to reduce enlarged glands. 

CHAVICA ROXBURGHIL— ^* ^ (Pi-po), 1008. This 
is the long pepper^ the Piper longuni of Linnaeus. A number 
of combinations of characters, having approximately the same 
sound, are given in the Pentsao for this plant. This shows 
that the name is of foreign origin, and inasmuch as it approxi- 
mates the sound of the name for this article found in other 
languages, it is probably of identical origin. The Sanscrit 
name was pippala^ which is approximated by ^ |^ ^ (Pi-po- 
li), given in the Pentsao as the name in the language of the 
country of ^ ']^ P'£ (Mo-chia-t'o), or Magadha, which became 
the Pali of the Buddhists. In the country of Fulin the drug 
was known by the name of ppj ^ |rJ' p'£ (A-li-ho-t'o). Many 
countries of Southern Asia, from Persia eastward, are given as 
the places of origin of the drug, but the principal supply is 
shipped from India. Points of similarity to other peppers, 
especially to Chavica betel and Piper 7iigruin^ are noted by 
Chinese authors. The spiked fruits, sold under this name on 
the Chinese market, average more than an inch long, are 


cylindrical, generally pedicellated and slightly tapering at the 
point. They are darkish-grey in color and studded with 
spirally arranged eminences. The taste is hot, pungent, and 
slightly aromatic. Stimulant, stomachic, carminative, cor- 
rective, and astringent properties are attributed to the peppers, 
which are given in various combinations for coryza, pyrosis, 
dysentery, cholera, violent fluxes, enlargement of the spleen, 
menstrual disorders, and toothache. They are used in India 
in the treatment of beri-beri. 

A derivative of this plant, called ^ ^j| ^ (Pi-p'o-mu), 
which is probably in imitation of the Hindustani name of 
the root, peepla-viool^ is spoken of in the Pe?itsao under the 
heading of this same article. Its qualities are much weaker 
than those of the fruit, but it is reputed to have the same 
stimulant, tonic, and peptic properties. It is a much vaunted 
remedy in the treatment of "cold" viscera and diseases 
resulting from this condition. Barren women, whose wombs 
are supposed to be cold, those suffering from "cold indiges- 
tion," and certain kidney and urinary difficulties which are 
regarded as "cold," are all to be benefited by administering 
this drug. Dr. Waring reports its use in Travancore for 
expediting the expulsion of the placenta. 

CHENOPODIUAI ALBUM.— J^ M. (Hui-t'iao), ^ ;^ 
(Hui-hsien). There is the same uncertainty in the identifica- 
tion of the Chinese names for the Chenopodiacccc that there is 
of those for the AmarantacecB^ and for the same reason, viz : 
the names are not uniformly applied to the same plant iu 
different parts of China. ^ is a general term for Chenopodium, 
and throughout the north of China Hid-f'iao is undoubtedly 
Chenopodium albiun^ which is a very common weed there. 
The ^ (Li) of the classics, and also the ^ (Lai), are thought 
to be the same. It was evidently the plant which Fohien 
saw when he returned from his journey to the Buddhist ^ 
countries. In the account of his journey, it is said that when | 
he landed in Shantung and saw the 1^'^% again, he knew 
that this was the land of Han (China). The plant (stalk ; 
and leaves) is thought to have insecticidal properties, and j 
is used iu cases of insect stings and bites, and the expressed 


juice in freckles and sunburn. The seeds are eaten as an 
anthelmintic remedy. 

In Japan, CJiciiopoduun ambrosoidcs is called Ji ^ ^ 
(T'u-ching-chieli) ; whether this includes the variety anthel- 
mintiaivi or not is not stated, nor has it been possible to discover 
whether or not zvormsecd is met with in China or Japan. 

]^ 'fS ^ (Huang-mei-hua). This plant has several common 
names in Chinese. It blooms in the Chinese twelfth moon, 
and its flowers are strung on fine wire and made into hair 
ornaments, which are much worn by the women. They have 
a very pleasant odor, and their color and texture are also 
pleasing. The bark is also fragrant, but not so much so as 
some other shrubs of the same order, the bark of which is 
sometimes used as a substitute for cinnamon. The Chinese 
soak the wood of this tree in water, and then polish it by 
rubbing to a brilliant, black surface. The flowers are used in 
medicine as a cooling and sialagogue remedy. 

^ .T^ ^ 'f-E (Chi-chao-lan-hua). In Japan this is called 
^ J^ ^ (Chin-su-lan). The flowers of this plant, which is 
of a tropical genus, are used to scent tea, which is consequently 
called ^ '"^ i^ (Chu-lan-ch'a). Directions are given that, 
after having imparted their fragrance to the tea, the petals 
should be carefully sifted out, as their use is considered to be 
deleterious. Among scented teas, this is in most favor, 
although that scented with the petals of Jas7ninuin sanibac is 
preferred by some. The bruised root is recommended as a 
poultice in boils and carbuncles. Its action is sudorific and 
stimulant, and its use is suggested in malarious fevers, since 
according to Blume, the root of a very similar species is 
extensively used in Java in the intermittent fevers of that island. 

. CHLORANTHUS SERRATUS.— ^ S (Chi-chi). This 
is the same as ChlorantJms japonia/s and Tricercandra 
quadrifolia. Its leaves are said to be of the shape of a deer's 
ear and its root like that of Asariim. For these reasons it is 
called 3^ iPl Is ^ (Chang-erh-hsi-hsin). It grows in shady 


mountain valleys, shooting up in a single stem, at the top of 
which come out four leaves, and bearing white flowers which 
appear between the leaves. The root is dark in color, bitter, 
and poisonous. It is used, chiefly in decoction, externally in the 
treatment of parasitic skin diseases, and in infected ulcers and 
sores. It has also some reputation as an anthelmintic, 

hao), 3^ "^ (P'eng-hao). The Pentsao makes these two 
identical, although the character 3^ also refers to Erigeron 
and Conyza. Because the plant is said to bear some 
resemblance to Artemisia stelleriana^ it is classed by the 
Chinese among the Artemisics {^). While it is not considered 
at all poisonous, its excessive use is said to result in a species 
of intoxication. Its action is considered to be sedative, and 
its use is thought to benefit the digestive and vital functions. 
It is not employed in any particular class of diseases. 

227. The character ^ is a general name for several kinds of 
Composite plants, but is applied particularly to this one species, 
which is indigenous to China, growing in a wild state in 
several parts of the empire, especially the north. It has also 
been cultivated from very ancient times as a favorite winter 
flower, very many varieties being found in the Chinese gardens. 
The wild plant is small, seldom exceeding one foot in height, 
and late in the autumn bears small flower heads, the florets of 
the disk being yellow, while those of the ray are rose colored. 
A yellow flowered variety is also very common, is called at 
Peking *]^ ^ ^ ^ (Hsiao-yeh-chii-hua), and may be Chrysan- 
thenium indiaim. The Phitsao gives a large number of 
alternative names, but the one at the head of this article is the 
one by which the plant is universally known. The varieties 
entering commerce are the ^'%1)c (Hang-chii-hua), or variety 
from Hangchou ; the ^ ^ :i^ (Huang-chii-hua^ which by 
some is considered to be Anthemis ; the tl" if ^ (Kan-chii-hua), 
or "sweet chrysanthemum ; " and the ^^'^ (Pai-chii-hua), 
or "white chrysanthemum." 

Some difference is made by the Chinese in the medical 
uses of different varieties, although their therapeutical action 


is regarded as practically identical. The use of the ordinary 
cultivated varieties is thought to benefit the blood and 
circulation, and to preserve the vitality. The flowers are 
prescribed in colds, headaches, and inflamed eyes. Pillows are 
recommended to be made of the flowers or leaves for the 
treatment of these difficulties. The white variety is considered 
to be especially useful in preserving the hair from falling out 
or turning grey. The flowers are soaked in wine, producing 
a ''chrysanthemum wine," the use of which is considered 
beneficial in a great variety of digestive, circulatory, and 
nervous difficulties. The use of the dew gathered from the 
flowers is also held in much repute in preserving and restoring 
the vital functions. Of the wild variety, the whole plant is 
recommended to be used. It is thought to be slightly 
poisonous. It is employed in decoction in the treatment of 
retained menses, and as a wash in infected and cancerous sores, 
and as a fomentation in enlarged glands. Anti-vinous properties 
are also ascribed to this plant. Any of these varieties, and 
especialy the Kan-chit^ will make a good substitute for 

CICHORIUM. — It is uncertain whether this genus in 
found in China, although Loureiro mentions it. The plants 
are generally referred to the related genera of Sojichiis and 
Lactuca (which see). 

CINCHONA.—^ II ^ (Chin-chi-lo). In the appendix 
to the Pentsao it is said that the foreigners at Macao introduced 
this drug in the fifth year of the reign of the Emperor 
Kiaching (1801). Its specific action in the cure of malarial 
fevers was soon recognized, and the bark was long used before 
the introduction of quinine. Dr. Hobson did not seem to be 
aware of this fact when he coined his term for Cinchona. Its 
use was also highly recommended as an anti-vinous remedy. 

CINNAMOMUM CASSIA.~;g(Kuei), J(±?g(Mou-kuei), 
^ ^ (Ch 'iin-kuei). The cinnamon tree is a native of Kuang- 
si ; the best quality being still produced in the prefecture of 
Hsinchou, where it was found by Martini in 1645-1655. It is 


now grown in other parts of Southern China, as well as in 
Cochin-China, often giving a name to the political division in 
which it is produced ; as, for example, Kuiyang, Kuilin, and 
Kuichou. The mou-kuei ("male cinnamon"), which is also 
called TfC /^ (Mu-kuei, "wood cinnamon") and ^ ;^ (Jou- 
kuei, "fleshy cinnamon"), is the unscraped bark of the larger 
cinnamon tree. The scraped bark is called j^ ^ (Kuei-p'i). 
The difference between the 7mi-ktiei and the joii-kiiei is that 
the former is taken from the larger and older branches, and is 
therefore more woody and less pungent, while the latter comes 
from the smaller and younger branches. This latter is also 
called ^ ^ (Kuei-chih), and after being scraped, is called ^ i(^ 
(Kuei-hsin). A very inferior kind of cinnamon, which has 
but little aroma, but which is also found on the market, is 
called 1!^ ;|^ (Pan-kuei, "board cinnamon"), because it is in 
unrolled, flat pieces. This is probably the thick inner bark of old 
trees. The most delicate young shoots of the cinnamon twigs 
are called ;^ /^ (I^iu-kuei, "willow cinnamon "). The ch'-un- 
kuei is a smaller tree bearing a thinner bark more like that 
from Ceylon, As it quills more readily than the other, it is 
called ^ >^ (T'ung-kuei, "tube cinnamon"). Another name 
is >]> j^ (Hsiao-kuei, "small cinnamon"), evidently referring 
to the size of the tree. The finest qualities of the bark of this 
tree are the ^ i§ /^ (An-pien-kuei), a highly valued kind 
brought from Annam, and ^ Sit i|| (Chiao-chih-kuei), probably 
the same as or similar to the last, but on account of its great 
repute these characters are often found on the sign boards of 
Chinese medicine shops. 

In the Phitsao, at the close of the article on ChHln-kuei^ it 
is said that there is a tree much cultivated in China, and bears 
the names of ^ ;^ (Yen-kuei) and if, H (Mu-hsi). There are 
three varieties named according to the color of the flowers they 
bear ; the white being called |^ ^(Yin-kuei), the yellow ^ %, 
(Chin-kuei), and the red ^ j^ (Tan-kuei). The flowers 
appear in the axils of the leaves, are very fragrant, and are 
used for scenting tea. The common name used by the flower 
gardeners, who cultivate it extensively for sale, is ;^ ^ CKuei- 
hua, " cassia flowers " ). It is the Olea (OsmnntJms) fragranSy 
and has none of the properties of true ciuiiamon. jj j^ (Tan- 


kuei\ however, is also used for a red kiud of true cinnamon 
bark, which comes from a variety of tree found most largely in 
the province of Kuichou. A similar kind is known as ^ ;i^ 
(Yao-kuei), and conies from the country of the Yao tribes. 

Another kind mentioned in the Pe.ntsao is 5^ ^ ;)^ (T'ien- 
chu-kuei). Porter Smith, on the supposition that the first two 
characters meant India, identified this with Cimia7nomum 
tamala. But Li Shih-chen says that it is so named from a 
place called T'ien-chu, in the prefecture of Taichou, Chekiang, 
where it grows plentifully. It is a large tree, bearing abundant 
flowers and a fruit the size of a lotus nut. The Buddhists 
regard it as identical with the ^ j^ (Ylieh-kuei). In Japan it 
is called Cinuauiomtini japoniciun^ which is the Cinnafnomiwi 
pedunculaturn of Nees. Its fruits are called j^ -^ (Kuei-tzu), 
as are also those of the Yueh-kiiei (see Litsea glauca\ and the 
immature flowers of the Cinnamonmm cassia; although the 
proper name for these last is ;^ 'J' fKuei-ting), according to 
the appendix to the Pentsao. 

The parts of the cinnamon tree now found in Chinese 
commerce are the bark (557, 659, 667, 668, and 672); the 
twigs (658, 660) ; the buds (,673) ; the peduncles (671) ; and the 
oil (558, 669). The leaves are not found as an article of com- 
merce, but the Chinese use the bruised fresh leaves in water 
for cleansing the hair. The oil is manufactured in Canton and 
exported, but much of that now found in China comes from 
abroad, as it is of superior quality to the Chinese article and 
sells as cheaply. It is used as a perfume and flavoring in- 
gredient, and also as a substitute for the bark in medicine and 
cookery. Dr. Williams says that the j^ ^ (Kuei-chih) are the 
"extreme and tender ends of the branches" of the cassia tree, 
such as are used in distilling oil at Canton. The leaves are 
sometimes used in combination with these twigs for distilling 

Kiiei-pH is met with on the Chinese market in half quills 
of a foot in length, half an inch in diameter, and one-twelfth 
of an inch in thickness. It is darker, closer in the grain, 
thinner, and much less pungent than the Joii-kuei. This 
latter, which is the "cinnamon" of Dr. Williams, is met with 
in close, perfect quills, of the same length as the Ktiei-pH^ but 


much stouter and thicker. The texture is more open, of a 
lighter color, and the inner surface is more distinctly striated. 
The external surface, like that of the Kuei-pH^ is variegated 
with lichenous patches. The taste is exceedingly pungent and 

Cassia is more often used by the Chinese as a condiment 
than as a medicine, being employed as a flavor for pork and 
other meats. Stomachic, stimulant, carminative, astringent, 
sedative, and tonic qualities are attributed to this drug. It is 
especially recommended in colic and excessive sweating. Post- 
partum difficulties and retained foetus are among the troubles 
for which it is prescribed, as also are snake bite and rhus poi- 
soning. The prolonged use of the better qualities of cassia is 
thought to improve the complexion, giving one a more youth- 
ful, rubicund appearance. ^ Pao P'u-tzu said that if cassia was 
taken with toad's brains for seven years, one could walk on 
the surface of the water and never grow old or die ; and Chao, 
the hunch-back, took the drug continuously for twenty years, 
with the result that hair grew on the bottom of his feet ; he 
was able to walk five hundred li (200 miles) in a day, and lift a 
weight of one thousand chin (1,333 pounds). 

CITRULLUS VULGARIS. — H % (Hsi-kua), % JDi 
(Han-kua), ^ -^ jji (Yang-ch'i-kua). This is the ordinary 
watermelon, which is very extensively grown in China, and is 
eaten as a cooling fruit in very hot weather. It was introduced 
from Mongolia in the tenth century, having been brought 
there at an earlier period by the Kitans from the country of the 
Uigurs farther west. This is the reason that it is called 
"western melon", and not as some have supposed, because it 
was introduced from what is now "the west". The Chinese 
melon is not so large as the ordinary American variety, and 
not so sweet or so fine flavored ; but it is very juicy. Several 
varieties are grown ; some having white pulp, some yellow, and 
some red. The seeds of these varieties are of different colors — 
white, red, brown, and black. The black seeded variety with 
red pulp is usually the finest flavored. Melon seeds (S ^, 
Kua-tzu) are extensively eaten in tea shops, and in fact are in 
evidence wherever tea is formally or socially served. They 


are prepared for this purpose by salting and parching. In 
eating, the shells are cracked with the teeth and the kernels 
extracted. To crack the seed, extract the kernel, and spit out 
the shells without using the hands, is an accomplishment that 
is considered to evidence the good breeding of the gentleman. 
The melon grown to produce these seeds is of a special variety, 
evidently the result of a long period of selective development. 
It is not so large as the other varieties, contains but little pulp, 
and is a mass of seeds. The pulp has little or no taste. The 
kernels are said to be demulcent, pectoral, and peptic. Much 
of their good effects, however, may be attributed to their 
saltiness and the masticatory effort made in eating them. The 
Chinese consider that sometimes the eating of melons produces 
fluxes, and even Asiatic cholera. But as liquid night soil is so 
largely used in their cultivation, and as they are usually left 
lying cut open in the markets, it is probable that the infection 
comes from the outside of the melon. It is well to wash the 
melon thoroughly before cutting. The rind of the melon is 
dried and incinerated, and after being finely powdered, is used 
in the treatment of aphthous sore month. 

CITRUS.— fl (Chii). This term is practically generic, 
as well as being used with qualifiers as a common term for the 
fruit as it appears in the market. There are several species, 
with many varieties, all apparently indigenous to China and 
the East Indies. Indeed, it is probable that this is the natural 
habitat of the orange, from whence it has spread to other 
parts of the world. After discussing the general subject of 
these fruits under the term above given, the P^ntsao describes 
five species, viz : (i \^ (Kan i or Citrus nobilis, the tajigerine 
and mandarin orange^ also called ^ /fjj; \% (Chu-sha-chii) ; (2) 
fg (Ch'eng) or Citrus aurantimn^ the coolie orange^ also 
called ^ \^ (Kuang-chii, "Canton orange") and ^ Jj (Chin- 
ch 'iu, "golden ball"); (3) ^ (Yu) or Citrus decumana^ the 
pumelo or shaddock ; (4) i^ ||| (Kou-yiian) or Citrus medica^ 
the citron^ of which there are some peculiar varieties (see 
below) ; (5) ^ \% (Chin-chii) or Citrus japonica^ the cumquat 
ox golden orange^ also called ^ S (Chin-tou, "golden beau ") 
and ^ |§ (I^u-chii), after the Cantonese sound of these char- 


acters '''• lonnnt''\ although this term is more often applied to 
the pipa {Eriobotrya japoiiica). 

The fruits of all of the different species and varieties are 
considered by the Chinese to be cooling. If eaten in excess, 
they are thought to increase the "phlegm", and this is 
probably not advantageous to the health. The sweet varieties 
increase bronchial secretion, and the sour promote expectora- 
tion. They all quench thirst, and are stomachic and carmina- 

The peel of the ripe fruit is found under various names, 
of which the Pentsao gives ^ ^t i£ (Huang-chli-p'i), jfX ^ 
(Hung-p'i), and ^ ^ (Ch'en-p'i. The Customs lists also 
give 1^ ^ (Kuo-p'i) as an equivalent for the last (39), and says 
that at Canton it is the peel taken from the mandarin orange. 
It ifl (Chii-hungj or ^ ifX (Chieh-hung) is another term for 
the peel coming from Fukien and Chekiang, while ||[ jj 
(Chii-p'i) or fo .^ (Chieh-p'i) comes from southern Fukien and 
Kuangtung. Although citrus fruits of many varieties are 
exceedingly plentiful in China, very little of the peel of these 
fruits is thrown away ; servants, children, rag-pickers, and 
others gathering it all up, drying it and selling to the drug- 
gists, who use enormous quantities of it in the preparation of 
medicines. The coolie orange peel is especially esteemed, and 
sells at a higher price than the others. The peel is regarded 
by the Chinese doctor as a panacea for all sorts of ills. Among 
the many qualities attributed .to it are stomachic, stimulant, 
antispasmodic, antiphlogistic, and tussic. The difficulties for 
which it is recommended also include marasmus in children, 
dyspnoea in the aged, fish and lobster poisoning, pin worms, 
and cancer of the breast. It is administered both in pill and 
decoction, together with ginger and other carminatives. 

The peel of the unripe fruit is called W <# >^ (Ch'ing- 
chii-p'i), or simply % ^ (39). At the present time the 
immature or unripe fruit is often dried whole or in slices. 
Other names found, therefore, are >J. % ^ (Hsiao-ch'ing-p'i), 
W >S ^ (Ch'ing-p'i-tzu), and ^ "k \% (Ch'iug-p'i-ho). When 
fresh, it is very fragrant, but seems to soon lose its aroma and 
become of little value. Its virtues are regarded to be for the 
most part carminative. The virtues ascribed to several decoc- 


tions for external application must be purely imaginary. A 
sort of a spirit of orange, made with hot wine of the membrane 
covering the pulp, is regarded as a sure remedy for nausea. 

Orange seeds, (225, 235), deprived of their husks and 
rubbed up in a mortar, and then decocted with wine, are 
prescribed for urinary difficulties, "wine nose", varicocele, 
and buboes. The expressed juice from orange leaves is also 
used as a carminative, to promote menstruation, and as a 
dressing to ulcers and cancerous sores. The dried leaves (236) 
are also used in decoction for the same purposes. The chalaza, 
t^ 3^ (Chii-lo), \^ 1^ (Chii-pai), is employed in the treatment 
of menstrual disorders. , 

Citrus 7iobilis is considered to be stimulant to digestion, 
corrective, and diuretic. The peel is used as a carminative 
and in alcoholism. A hot, strong decoction is used in feverish 
colds. The peel of the wild variety is considered efficacious 
in sore throat. The seeds are used in the preparation of 
cosmetic applications, and a decoction of the leaf buds iu the 
treatment of otorrhcea. 

Citrus aiirantiiim is considered to be similar to the shad- 
dock. Its special properties are thought to be corrective and 
deobstruant. The sour juice is rejected, and the remainder of 
the pulp is mixed with honey for the treatment of indigestion 
and flatulence. It is also used as an antidote to fish and 
shrimp poisoning. The seeds are bruised and applied to the 
face at night for pimples and freckles. Excellent marmalade 
(^ ^) Ch'eng-kao) may be made from this orange. 

Citrus decumana^ the sJiaddoch^ pumclo^ or pompehnoose^ 
is a large, thick skinned, yellow fruit. It has been known 
since the days of the Great Yii, who mentions it in his Tribute 
Roll. Other names given in the Pentsao are j^ (T'iao), ^ |jj- 
(Hu-kan, "jug orange", from its occasional shape), % fg 
(Ch'ou-ch'eng, "stinking-orange", from its strong odor), and 
^ ^ (Chu-luan). An ancient way of writing the character 
commonly used for the pumelo is ;f^ (Yu). This fruit flourishes 
throughout south China, and is especially found in the Amoy 
region, which is famous for its pumelos. The flowers of the 
tree are very fragrant, and the fruit, when stripped of its thick, 
spongy rind, is of exquisite taste. It is frequently grafted upon 


other species of Citrus, and considerable improvement in flavor 
has resulted therefrom. The fruit is considered to be digestive, 
corrective, antivinous, and is specially recommended for the 
use of pregnant women. The peel is bitter, but very aromatic. 
If enough is used, it makes an excellent stomachic. The 
Chinese use it in coughs and dyspepsia. The leaves are bruised 
together with onions, and applied to the temples for headache. 
The flowers are used in cosmetic preparations. 

Citrus inedica in China, as in southern Europe, is rep- 
resented by many varieties. The most common one is that 
of Citrus chirocarptis^ ^ ^ \^ (Fo-shou-kan), 323. The fruit 
is formed by the natural separation of its constituant carpels 
into a form somewhat resembling a hand with the fingers laid 
closely together longitudinally. Why it should have been 
called Buddha's hand is not clear. The Jews carried the 
citron (ethrog) in the left hand at the Feast of Tabernacles as a 
sacrifice of a sweet smell, and possibly the Chinese name of 
this denotes some similar practice connected with the worship 
of Buddha ; or it may have been thought to resemble the hand 
of Buddha's image. The tree grow's near the water in all of 
the southern provinces. The leaves are long and pointed and 
the branches prickled. The yellow fruit attains a very large 
size in some cases, and is much prized in Central and Northern 
China, where it is carried in the hand, or placed on tables, to 
give out its strong and delicious perfume. In the south, where 
the fruit is plentiful, it is also placed in clothes-presses with 
the same object in view ; and it is made into a preserve, or the 
juice is used to wash fine linen. The product is found in 
commerce principally in the form of the dried peel, -j^ :^ ^ 
(Fo-shou-p'ien), 325. This occurs in fine dried slices, thin 
and shrivelled, the greenish-yellow cuticle fringing the white, 
inert, cellular tissue which forms the greater part of the drug. 
The smell is citron-like, but faint, and the taste aromatic and 
bitter. Some of the drug met with in the drugshops is very 
dark. Stomachic, stimulant, tussic, expectorant, and tonic 
properties are attributed to this drug. ^ ^ |£ (Fo-shou-kan) 
is simply the whole fruit dried, and does not differ in use from 
the peel. The root and the leaves are used for the same 
purposes as the peel, and the flowers appear in commerce, but 


are not mentioned in the Phitsao. It is probable that their 
uses are the same as those of other species of Citrus. In 
Barbadoes, citronella is prepared from the rind of the citron, 
and it is shipped from there to France and used to flavor 
brandies. This term, however, is given to several products, 
such as : a perfume prepared from Melissa officinalis^ an oil 
produced from Andropogon schcB)ianthiis^ and in France the 
term is applied to Artemisia abrotanum. 

Citrus japonica has, in addition to the names already 
mentioned, several others by which it is known. The Pentsao 
gives ^ If (Chin-kan), ^ |§ (Hsia-chii, ** summer orange"), 
llj (t (Shan-chii, "hill or wild orange"), ^%^ (Chi-k'o- 
ch'eng, "give-guest orange"). When dried, it has some 
resemblance to a nutmeg, and is therefore called "nutmeg 
orange." It is used as a dessert, or garniture, at weddings, 
and is made into a conserve. It is regarded medicinally as a 
stimulant, carminative, antiphlogistic, antivinous, and deodoriz- 
ing remedy. This "golden orange," in dwarf variety, is 
grown in pots, and when the plant is covered with green 
oranges, or after they have begun to turn yellow, is used as a 
present to friends or guests. 

Another form of drug, described by Porter Smith as 
Citrus aiirantiidu^ var. scabra^ is found at Hankow, and is 
called ^ 1^ ifX (Hua-chii-hung). It is probably a different 
form of Chli-hung (228), which the Customs lists give as 
coming from Chekiang and Fukien. Braun, in the Hankow 
list (1909 revision), gives its origin as Szechuan. In regard 
to the former. Porter Smith says: "The dried peel of this 
immature orange, a variety of the sweet orange, is brought 
from Huachou in Kaochoufu (Kuangtung) and sold at a very 
high price in Central China. It is externally of a dark brown, 
or blackish color, and covered with a yellowish bloom, which 
is seen, by means of a glass, to consist of short hairs. The 
inner surface is of a dirty white color. As usually sold in the 
shops it is put up in the form of a six-rayed star, made by 
dividing into six parts the fruit or rind, from nearly the apex 
to the bottom, and doubling the segments of the peel upon 
themselves into a flat star. The whole fruits have their rind 
thus treated, the pulp being taken away, and the two star-like 


pieces bound together in the centre with red silk thread. 
These sell for about a tael a pair." (Braun says that they 
sell for five cents a pair in Canton.) "The pieces vary from 
two inches and a half to three inches and three-quarters in 
diameter ; the smallest pieces fetching the highest price. It is 
made into a tincture, and is much esteemed in the central and 
northern provinces as a sedative, carminative, stomachic, and 
expectorant remedy." The appendix to the Pentsao describes 
this Hua-chou-chii-hung i ^fc j^^ ft ,fl) in very much the same 
way as does Porter Smith. It makes it out to be a hairy orange, 
taken in the immature state and split into a stellate form of 
seven rays, and after being dried is tied in pairs with red cord. 
The same orange is sometimes candied whole, or compressed 
into a cake and then candied. 

Citrus fiisca^ or Citnis ti'ifoliata^ :^n (Chih). This seems 
to be the best identification attainable. Loureiro, Fianchet, 
and the Japanese all so regard it. Siebold and Hemsley call 
it ^gle sepiaria. Other names which the Japanese apply to 
the same plant are ^ f§ (Kou-chii) and ^ |^ (Ch'ou-chil), 
but the Pentsao discusses these two latter under a heading 
separate from the Chih. Bretschneider says that one of the 
plants thus confounded may be Triphasia trifoiiata^ a thorny 
bush indigenous to China as well as to Japan and cultivated at 
Kew. There is no doubt that the products appearing in 
Chinese medicine are from a Citrus. The most common form 
is called ^a ^ (Chih-k'o), and consists of the fruits cut in half 
and dried. It is in circular discs of one or two inches in 
diameter, nearly flat on the cut side and rounded on the other. 
The peel is firm and very thick, forming about half the 
thickness of the specimen. Externally it is rough, of a 
reddish or blackish-brown color, and internally it is bufi". 
The taste is bitter and agreeably aromatic. Whether the 
form known as |n ^ (Chih-shih) is the same fruit gathered in 
a more immature state and dried, or whether it is the product 
of a different plant, is not clear. The Pentsao says that both 
are gathered in the ninth and tenth moons, and while the 
larjguage is not clear, the place of collection would seem to be 
somewhat different. The principal sources of supply for both 
drugs is Szechuan and Kuangtung. The properties ascribed 


to both are stomachic, cooling, deobstrnant, and carminative. 
They are both prescribed for a very large tnimber of exceed- 
ingly dissimilar maladies, and seem to be in very great favor 
with the Chinese in all sorts of prescriptions. The rind 
of the fruit, the bark of the root, and the young leaves are 
all used ; the latter being recommended in place of tea in 
colds. A wine decoction of the root bark is recommended ia 

Of the 1^ |§ (Kou-chii), which indeed may be ^gle 
sepiaria^ the leaves, thorns, seeds, and bark of the tree are all 
used in indigestion, fluxes, and dysentery. The flowers and 
fruit of this, while resembling those of the orange, are not 
fragrant. Porter Smith calls this Citrus bigaradia. 

The ^ ^^ (Hsiang-yiian), which is very common in some 
parts of China, is a variety of citron, not so large as some others. 
Its pulp is very sour and somewhat bitter, resembling in taste 
the linie^ although the fruit is larger than that of Cit7'2cs acida. 
It may be regarded simply as a variety of Citrus medica. The 
lemon has been called by the same name by foreigners in 
China, as well as by the names % f^ (Ning-meng) and ^ ^ (Li- 
meng). But it is pretty certain that the lemon does not grow 
in China proper, or at least has been but lately introduced, and 
therefore it is not named. The Ktiang-chihi-fang-pu refers to a 
small species of Citrus under the last name given above, as 
having very acid fruit, but no medicinal properties are referred 
to it. Mr. Eitel gives Jl ^ -^ (Tan-pu-lo) or "g^ ^ ^ (Chan- 
p*o-lo) as the Chino-Buddhist name of the Citriis acida. 

CLATJSENA WAMPI.— ^ ^ =P rHuang-p'i-tzri), 519. 
This is a Rutaceous plant, yielding the delicious yellow-skinned 
fruit called jr Jf^ ^ i Huang-p'i-kuo) by the Chinese, and by 
foreigners wampee^ It is common in southern China and the 
Indian archipelago. The Pentsao gives its origin as Huang- 
chou in Kuangsi, but says that it is also found in Kuangtung. 
The fruit is sour, with a yellow, furry skin, and whitish pulp 
surrounding several greenish-black seeds. If one has eaten too 
many licJiis^ the wampee will counteract the bad effects. Lichis 
should be eaten when one is hungry, and wampees only on a 
full stomach. Their medical properties are stomachic, cooling. 


and anthelmintic. The root of the plant also appears in com- 
merce (520), but the Pentsao does not mention it. 

CLEMATIS GRAVEOLENS.— ^ |^ ^ (Huang-yao- 
tzu), 524. Other names are /fv ^ -^ (Mu-yao-tzu), ^ ^ (Ta- 
k'u), :^, ^ (Ch'ih-yao), and J^I ^ -^ (Hnng-yao-tzu). The 
Pentsao says that the plant bears some resemblance to both 
Glycyrrhiza glah-a and Mentha piperita^ but that it is neither. 
It grows to the height of two or three feet, with a jointed stalk, 
large leaves, white or pinkish flowers, and has a long root, 
yellow in color. The root is the part used in medicine. Its 
taste is exceedingly bitter and somewhat cooling. Its action is 
regarded as antiseptic and cooling. It is prescribed as a gargle 
in ulcerated throat, as an application in dog and serpent bites, 
and to be taken in cases of hemorrhage from the stomach or 
throat. Clematis florida (|^ |^ j||, Tieh-hsien-lien) is not 
mentioned in any of the Chinese medical works consulted, and 
neither is Cle^natis pate7is{^ ^ jH Chuan-tzu-lien). Loureiro 
calls /f; 3iJ (Mu-t'ung) Clematis sinensis^ but the drug selling 
under this name has been identified as Akebia qjiinnta (see 
p. 22). The plant producing the drug, however, still needs 

CLEMATIS MINOR.— J^ ^ flJj (Wei-ling-hsien), 1443. 
This plant grows in the northern provinces, especially in 
Shensi. It bears jade-like white flowers in a panicle, and has 
a long blackish root, which turns quite black when dry. Roots 
of a lighter color are not regarded as genuine. The taste is a 
sweetish-bitter. Its action is considered to be antimalarial, 
diuretic, and antirheumatic, and is prescribed in all sorts of 
muscular rheumatism, constipation, and difficulties due to 
catching cold. 

CLEMATIS PANICULATA.— filj Ai^ (Hsien-jen-ts'ao). 
A decoction of this plant is used to wash scrofulous sores in 
children. It is reputed to be an antidote in vermillion poison- 
ing, and the expressed juice is used in the treatment of corneal 

CNICUS JAPONICUS.— >I> fi (Hsiao-chi), 433. This 
is the identification of Maximowicz and the Japanese. Siebold 


calls it Car dims acaulis. Henry claimed that in Hupeh Cnicus 
japonicus is :fe DJ (Ta-chi). There is very little difference 
between the two. Another name for this is || ||] (Mao-chi, 
*' cat thistle " ). The root, which has a sweetish pleasant taste, 
is the part used in medicine. Very remarkable virtues are 
ascribed to it, such as building up the animal spirits and 
restoring the blood. It is therefore prescribed in hemorrhages, 
wounds, and bites of poisonous reptiles and insects. It is also 
said to have tonic and febrifuge properties. The shoots of 
the plant are also used medicinally, but will be referred to 
under Cnicus spicaUis. 

CNICUS NIPPONICUS.— =^^ ^ (K'u-yao). This was 
also called by Maximowicz Cniais sinensis. Other names for 
it are ^ ^ (Kou-yao) and ^ 1^ (K'u-pan). This is the 
ordinary thistle found throughout the central provinces. The 
shoot is the only part used, and edible. It has a bitter, saltish 
taste, and is thought to promote respiration and to cool the 
blood. A decoction is highly recommended for washing bleed- 
ing piles, and the ash is used as an application to wounds. 

CNICUS SPICATUS.— :;c m (Ta-chi), 1216. Other 
names are J^ UJ (Hu-chi, "tiger-thistle"), ,i^ IJJ (Ma-chi, 
♦♦ horse-thistle"), fi] ^\ (Tz'u-chi, *'thorny thistle "), llj '^ H 
(Shan-niu-p'ang), %, '^^ %. (Chi-hsiang-ts'ao, ''chicken neck 
grass", from the character of its stalk), ^ '^^ (Yeh-hung- 
hua, "wild Carthamus)^ and -f- |f :^ (Ch'ien-chen-ts'ao) ; the 
last being the name by which it is called in the north. The 
root, which is the part used in medicine, is tuberous, and in 
the south is called i A # (T'u-jen-shen, "native ginseng"). 
The plant grows from four to five feet high, and has wrinkled 
leaves. In the Peking mountains the people apply the name 
Ta-chi to Cnicus pcndulus^ which grows from five to six feet 
high, is very spiny, and has enormous purple flower heads. 
The use of the drug is thought to promote plumpness of the 
body. It is prescribed in menstrual difficulties, irritable 
uterus, and in hemorrhages. The leaves are also used for 
similar purposes, and as a diuretic. Bruised, they are applied 
in scaly skin diseases. In many cases, little distinction is 


made between this plant and the Cniais japoniciis^ as the 
Chinese regard the latter as simply a small variety of the 
other. Generally speaking, the Hsiao-chi is used internally, 
and the Ta-chi is the more frequently recommended for external 

CNIDIUM MONNIERI.— $^ "^ (She-ch*uang), 1114. 
This is the Selimim ^nonnieri of Linnaeus. The classical name 
is g^ (Hsii). Other names are ^ ^ (Hni-ch'uang), % ^ 
(Ma-ch'uang), ^ % (She-mi 1, ,g, g (Ssu-i), ifl ^(Sheng-tu), 
^ ]^ (Tsao-chi), and ^| ^ (Ch'iang-mi). It is a fragrant 
umbelliferous plant, the seeds of which are used in medicine. 
It is found in nearly every part of China, but the product 
coming from the region of Yangchow is considered to be the 
best. The drug has very little odor, but a warm taste. It is 
said to act on the kidneys, and to be aphrodisiac, antirheu- 
matic, sedative, astringent, vulnerary, and discutient. Washes 
and ointments are made from the crushed or powdered seeds 
for bathing prolapsus recti, piles, anal fistula, and leprous or 
scabious sores. Li Shih-chen makes the very appropriate 
remark, that although we are familiarly acquainted with our 
own indigenous plants, we are apt to neglect them in search of 
far-fetched drugs of no better quality. 

COCCULUS.— 155 a (Fang-chi), 291. This identification 
is somewhat doubtful, but is from Hoffmann and Schultes, 
who follow Siebold. They give ^H |JJJ £, (Han-fang-chi) as 
Cocaihcs japoiiicus^ and /fC ^ £^ (]\Iu-fang-chi) as Cocciilus 
Thiinbergii. Faber gives Fang-chi as Mcnispervium dajiri- 
cuvi^ and a Japanese identification is Stephania herjiandifolia. 
The Chinese books describe only the root, so it cannot be 
decided from these what plant is meant. Henry says that 
Cocciihis Thunbcrgii is known by other Chinese names in 
Hupeh, but he does not say what these are. Other names 
given by the Pe.ntsao are ^ f|fl (Chieh-li) and ^ ^ (Shih- 
chieh). The drug is a brown, bulky, amylaceous, tuberous 
root, split longitudinally into two or four pieces, and showing 
on its cross section something of the same radiated disposition 
of the vascular tissue as is met with in Adenopiiora and other 


of the CampamdacecB. The smell is agreeable, and the taste 
bitterish and mucilaginous. It is used in fevers, dropsies, 
rheumatism, and pulmonary diseases, and is also said to be 
diuretic. The diseases for which it is to be prescribed are all 
of a grave character, and include cholera and pulmonary 
hemorrhage. When the innoccuous character of the drug is 
considered, one wonders how it secured such a reputation, even 
in China. The fruit is used in prolapsus recti. 

COCOS NUCIFERA. — 15 ip (Yeh-tzu). Also called 
^ H M (Yiieh-wang-t'ou, " hornbill head") and ^ ff; (Hsii- 
vii). In regard to the first of these two names, the Pentsao 
says that the king of I was angry with the king of Yueh, 
invited him to be his guest, made him drunk, and took off his 
head and hung it in a tree, when it turned to a cocoa-nut. 
So it seems that the slang phrase "my cocoa-nut," referring 
to the head, has its origin in ancient Chinese legend. This 
tree is met with in the island of Hainan and on the adjacent 
mainland of the Kuangtung province, as far north as latitude 
21°. The albumen of the drupe is eaten by the Chinese, and 
is considered by them to be very beneficial, promoting a 
healthy plumpness of figure and face. The juice or milk, 
called ^\ J^ ^ ( Yeh-tzu-chiang), is considered by some to be 
cooling and by others heating. This discrepancy is probably 
due to the fact that one is speaking of the fresh juice, and the 
other of that which has been fermented. The intoxicating prop- 
erties of the latter are recognised, and it is said to increase 
thirst instead of relieving it, as the un fermented juice does. 
This juice is said to be nutrient and serviceable in hematemesis 
and dropsy. It has lately been recommended in India as a 
remedy in phthisis, debility, and cachexia. The bark of the 
root of the tree is recommended as an astringent and styptic 
remedy in hemorrhages and fluxes. The shell of the nut, 
which is sometimes carved and polished to make drinking 
vessels and ornaments, is incinerated and mixed with wine, 
to be used in the treatment of secondary and tertiary syphilitic 
manifestations. The collection of the sweet juice of the 
flowering branch of this and of the Palmyra palin^ is alluded 
to as having been known in China since the Han dynasty. 


The Palmyra palm, Borassus flabelliformis^ is called the |'^ ^ 
(Pei-shu), and it yields arrack and a kind of white sugar called 
jaggery in India. The tree is said to grow in the southern 
provinces. Dr. Waring speaks of a toddy poultice, made by 
adding the freshly drawn juice of the cocoa or Palmyra palm 
to rice flour till it has the consistence of a soft poultice, and 
subjecting this to heat over a gentle fire until fermentation 
commences. This poultice, applied after the manner of the old 
fashioned yeast poultice to gangrenous sores, carbuncles, and 
indolent ulcers, is said to be very useful. The fibers of the rind 
of the cocoa-nut, and the brown cotton-like substance from 
the outside of the base of the fronds of the Palmyra palm, may 
be used to staunch wounds. 

COIX LACHRYMA. — ^ ^ t (I-i-jen), 547. Other 
names, ^ ^ (Chieh-li), "g; ^ (Chi-shih), ^ % (Kan-mi), 
H] TJt (Hui-hui-mi), and ^ 3^ ■^ (I-chu-tzu). This grami- 
neous plant grows in marshes, as well as on the plains and 
fields, to the height of several feet. It is said that the famous 
general Ma Yuen (A.D. 49) introduced the plant into China 
from Cochin China. It does not flourish so well here as it does 
in the Philippines, where the Chinese settlers make a kind of 
meal of the seeds, which is very nourishing for the sick. The 
seeds are hard and beadlike, and are somewhat like pearl 
barley, for which they are sometimes mistaken in the Customs 
lists, and for which they make an excellent substitute. How- 
ever, they are larger and coarser than pearl barley. The un- 
huUed corns are often strung by children as beads, and priests 
are sometimes seen using the largest ones in their rosaries. 
The seeds are considered by the Chinese to be nutritious, 
demulcent, cooling, pectoral, and anthelmintic. Given either 
in the form of soup or congee, it is highly recommended by 
native doctors. It is considered to be especially useful in 
urinary affections, probably of the bladder. A wine is made 
by fermenting the grain, and is given in rheumatism. The 
root of the plant is said to be an excellent anthelmintic. The 
leaves also, gathered in the summer month and made into a 
decoction, are said to benefit the breath and blood. A new born 
infant, washed in this decoction, will be preserved from disease. 


COLOCASIA.— ^ (Yii), ± ^ (T'u-chih). This is the 
same as the ^aro of the South Sea Islands, which is cultivated 
for its edible roots, known as ^ ^M, (Yii-t'ou). But the name 
taM or kopeh is also applied in New Zealand to the root of 
Pteris esadenta^ an edible fern. Several species of Colocasia 
are cultivated in China. It has been known since before the 
Han period. The seeds are used in medicine, as are also the 
leaves and stalk. The former are considered to be somewhat 
poisonous, and are recommended in indigestion, flatulence, and 
in disorders of parturient women. A decoction is prescribed 
as a wash in pediculosis. The leaves and stalk are recom- 
mended in similar cases and as an application in insect bites 
and other poisons. 

COMMELYNA POLYGAMA. — H % % f Ya-chih-ts'ao), 
ft ^ ^ (Chu-yeh-ts'ai). This is an identification of Tatarinov 
adopted by Porter Smith, who says in regard to it: "This 
'duck's- foot-grass,' with its flat narrow leaves and herbaceous 
calyx, is considered to be related to the bamboo. The flower of 
this Spider-wort is compared by the Chinese to a moth. The 
plant is much cultivated as a pot herb, which is eaten in the 
spring, and the juice of the flower is used as a bluish pigment 
in painting upon transparencies. Demulcent, diuretic, and 
lenitive qualities evidently reside in the herbage of this plant, 
which is taken internally in cyanache, fevers, dysentery, 
abdominal obstructions, and dysuria, and is applied topically 
to piles, abcesses, and bites. Dr. Hasskarl, of Java, has pub- 
lished a valuable monograph on the Commelynacese of India 
and the Indian Archipelago. In some countries the rhizomes 
of Comviclynas become very starchy, and are eaten. Com- 
melyna rumphii is used in India as an emmenagogue." 

ch'iungi, 469. This is a Japanese identification. It is an 
umbelliferous plant, resembling Angelica. The common 
name by which it appears in commerce is ]\\ ^ (Ch'uan- 
hsiung), 247. Other names are ^ |f (Hu-ch'iung) and ^ ^ 
(Hsiang-kuo). The leaves are called ^ M (Mi-wu), which is 
given a special article in the Pentsao. Faber calls this 


SeliniLm. Li Shih-chen says that the drug was called H ^ "^ 
H" (Ma-hsien-lisiung-ch'iung), from the resemblance of the 
root with its joints to a horse's bit. It was also called ^ iPf t? 
(Chiao-nao-hsiung), when coming from Kuanchung, on account 
of the compact masses resembling the brain of a bird. This 
latter is also called % ^ (Ching-hsiung) and W ^ (Hsi- 
hsiung). The Chekiang variety is called -^ "^ (T'ai-hsiung), 
and that from Kiangnan is called ^ f^ (Fu-hsiung). The 
drug is cultivated in some parts of China, and the cultivated 
varieties are regarded more highly than the wild ones ; these 
latter often being small in size, and having a bitter pungent 
taste. The parts used in medicine are the root and leaves. 
The former is recommended for a large variety of difficulties : 
such as colds, headache, anaemia, menorrhagia, retained 
placenta, sterility, pains and aches of all kinds including 
toothache, hemoptysis, phthisis, strumous difficulties, rheu- 
matism, and fluxes. The leaves are said to .be anthelmintic, 
and are also used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery. 
The flowers of the plant are used in the preparation of facial 

CONOCEPHALUS CONICA.— Jl| ^ if (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao). 
This is Faber's identification. But this name is given in 
the Phitsao under the article on ^ Q: ^ (Chi-hsiieh-ts'ao), 
which is Nepeta glechovia^ under which title this will find 

CONOPHALLUS KONJAK.— ^ ^ (Chu-jo). This is 
an Aroid plant, so identified by the Japanese. Other names 
given in the Pentsao are ^ 5^ (Jo-t'ou), % ^ (Kuei-yii), and 
J^ 0^ (Kuei-t'ou). It is said to grow in moist and shady 
places, principally in the mountainous regions' of Szechuan 
and Fukien. The root is the part used, and it is considered 
to be very poisonous, being said to produce hematemesis when 
ingested in sufficient dose. Its medical uses are not clearly 
stated. Being a virulent poison, it is recommended in such 
difficulties as cancer, rodent ulcer, lupiis, and the like. The 
only medical property mentioned is that of relieving thirst, 
possibly due to a sialagogue effect. 


CONVOLVULUS. — The common representative of the 
Convolvulacese in China is the ^ ^g (Hsiian-hua), and this is 
Calystegia sepium (which see). Another is ^ ^ -^ (Ch'ien- 
niu-tzu), which is IpomcEa^ and will be referred to under that 
title. At Peking Convolvulus arvensis is found under the 
name of fi '^'\^ (Ta-wan-hua) and ^2 ^ (Yen-fu). Another, 
identified by Faber as Convolvulus japonicus is ^ ;^ ^f jij 
(Ch'en-chih-mou-tan). None of these latter, however, is 
specially mentioned in the Pentsao^ and they are not considered 
as differing materially from the principal members of this 

COPTIS TEETA. — m 51 (Huang-lien), 516. The 
different names given for this drug in the Customs lists refer 
to different qualities and places of origin. The Pentsao gives 
as additional names 3£ ^ (Wang-lien) and '^ 5^ (Chih-lien). 
The plant grows extensively throughout China, but the best 
comes from Szechuan, where it is cultivated. It is a 
Ranunculaceous plant, and the root has sometimes the 
appearance of a bird's claw. Two kinds of roots are described 
in the Chinese books : one being hairy (fine radicle fibers) and 
the other coarse and knotted, forming a series of united tubers. 
Large quantities of this drug are shipped from China to India. 
Siebold identifies it as Coptis an<zmoncsfolia^ and the Japanese 
describe a three-leaved and a five-leaved variety. Porter 
Smith wrongly identifies Hiiang-lien as Justicia. The drug, 
as it appears in the market, is in short branching pieces, one 
or two inches long, of a yellowish-brown color, and often 
bristled with radicles. The interior is hard, the cortical part 
being dark, and the central portion being pierced by a pith of 
deeper shade. The color of the main portion is a deep, rich 
yellow. The taste is intensely bitter, but aromatic. The 
more brittle the root is, the more highly its reputed virtues. 
It is regarded by Chinese doctors as a sort of a panacea for a 
great many ills. It is supposed to clear inflamed eyes, to 
benefit the chest, to combat fever, and to act as an alterative 
or alexipharmic drug. Its use in all forms of dysentery is 
specially recommended, and in diabetes to relieve thirst and 
reduce the quantity of urine. Various poisons, especially that 


of the Croton bean, are said to be antagonized by it. Most 
midwives insist upon every infant swallowing a dose of this 
drug, mixed with borax, soon after birth. This is said to 
prevent apthse and to eliminate or counteract all syphilitic 
poison. The drug closely resembles the Creyat^ or Kariat of 
India in its action, which is the same in general character as 
that of Chiretta. The leaves and stalk are not used. The 
^ (Kan) and other infantile disorders are treated both 
topically and internally by this drug. A tincture may be 
made to be taken as a "bitter," by digesting three ounces of 
the sliced root and two ounces of coolie-orange peel for a week 
in a pint of brandy. This is of some use in indigestion in 
cases where bitters are sometimes prescribed. 

CORCHORUS PYRIFORMIS.— ^ ^ (T'ang-ti). Dr. 
Morrison gives this as the name of the Chino-Japanese species 
of Cor chorus which with Triumfetta^ another Tiliaceous plant, 
yields the hemp-fiber called Po-lo-ma. The SJmow^n makes 
the above characters to be only a various writing of J^: ;j^ 
(T'ang-ti). Chinese writers describe this tree very differently ; 
some making it out to be a sort of plum or cherry, while 
others think it to be an aspen or poplar. Li Shih-chen says 
that it is the same as the ^ \% (Ch'ang-ti), which is identical 
with the IR ^ (Yii-li), Prunus japonica. ^ ^ (Ti-t'ang) is 
Kerria japonica. 

CorcJioriis capsiilaHs is also identified by the Japanese as 
^ % (Huang-ma). It is cultivated for its fibre (jute) in 
south China and other parts of tropical Asia. It is not known 
to be used in medicine. It may be that in the Pentsao 
and other Chinese medical works it is regarded as identical 
with j^ %. 

CORDYCEPS SINENSIS. — H ^ ^ ^ (Hsia-ts'ao- 
tuug-ch'ung), 287. This fungus, described by the Chinese as 
a plant in summer and an insect in winter, grows upon the 
pupa of a kind of caterpillar as a parasite. It is said to be 
common in southern Thibet, but the Pintsao says that it 
comes from Szechuan, and this is the source of origin given in 
the Customs lists. It is not so rare nor so much thought of as 


in the days of Duhalde, who praises it immoderately. It 
belongs to the class of drugs called //^ f^ ^ (Leug-tan-huo), or 
things uncommon, but not in great demand. It is sold in 
bundles weighing two mace (ii6 grains Troy) each, or there- 
abouts. The bundles are three-quarters of an inch in diameter 
and from three to three-and-a-half inches in length. Each of 
the many pieces forming the bundles consists of two distinct 
portions : one, which is the larger and belonging to the insect, 
being more than an inch long and of a yellowish-brown 
color, and showing the rings, joints, and more or less of the 
characteristic structure of the grub ; and the upper fungus 
portion, consisting of a spurred filament of a greyish-brown 
color, flexible, more or less twisted, and internally of a lighter 
shade. It is said by Duhalde to be found in the province of 
Hukuang, answering to Hupeh and Hunan of the present time, 
and it is entirely probable that it can be found in other parts 
of China. The Pentsao compares its action to that oi ginseng^ 
and it is said to be worth four times its weight of silver. It is 
considered to be restorative and tonic, and is used in jaundice, 
phthisis, and in cases of injury of any serious nature. Taken 
with duck, its virtues are very much increased. If a drake is 
taken, prepared for cooking, the head split open and the 
cavities filled with this drug, while cooking the aura of the 
medicine will spread to the whole bird permeating every part, 
and thus increasing the potency of the medicament. It is said 
that one duck thus prepared will be quite the equivalent of an 
ounce of the best gmseng. 

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM.—]^ ^ (Hu-sui, ^ ^ 
Hsiang-sui) ^ ^ (Yiian-sui ), and 7^ ^ (Yiian-sui), 1565. 
The root and leaves are used in medicine, as well as the fruits. 
The former, although sometimes used with green vegetables, 
is considered to be slightly deleterious. Carminative, correct- 
ive, and quieting properties are ascribed to the plant, and it is 
recommended in ptomaine poisoning as well as in the treat- 
ment of the ^ (Ku) poison. The fruits, deprived of their 
husks, can be eaten, and have carminative and corrective 
properties. They are specially recommended to be used freely 
in fluxes. 


CORNUS MACHROPHYLLA. — ;^ )^^ (Sung-yang). 
Henry so identifies this. But in Japan Siing-yang is Celtis 
iniiku or EJirctia sen'ata. Another name given by the 
Pentsao is ||[ -^ /jv (Liang-tzii-mu). According to the Erhya^ 
1^ (Liang) is the same as \% (Lai). This is a tree of some 
proportions, growing in Kiangsi, bearing a small edible fruit 
called ^ ^ 1^ (Tung-ch'ing-kuo), and having a reddish 
colored sap. The wood is thought to be efficacious as a 
constructive remedy, probably on account of the color of the 
sap. It is said to destroy bad blood and to build up good 
blood, quieting the uterus, relieving pain, and nourishing the 
body. The bark is i3rescribed in all forms of dysentery, prob- 
ably being astringent in character. 

CORNUS OFFICINALIS.— il] ^ ^ (Shan-chu-yii), 
1094. Other names, ^ ^ ^ (Shu-suan-tsao) and |^ ^ (Jou- 
tsao). This is a large thorny shrub or tree, growing in the 
mountainous districts of China. It bears white flowers, resem- 
bling those of the apricot. The drupe is red, enclosing a 
stone which is retained in the prepared drug. It has a sub- 
acid taste, and contains considerable of oil. It is the only part 
recommended in Chinese medicine, although the bark of all of 
these dogivoods has excellent tonic and astringent properties, 
as well as some anti-malarial virtues. Various medical quali- 
ties are ascribed to this drug, among which are diuretic, 
astringent, tonic, anthelmintic, and antilithic. It is recom- 
mended for menorrhagia, impotence, and the urinary difficul- 
ties of the aged. 

CORYDALIS AMBIGUA.— 5E ^ % (Yen-hu-so), 1529, 
S 1^ ^ (Hslian-hu-so). The tubers of this Fumariaceous 
plant are met with as small, firm, brownish-yellow, flattened 
pellets, with a depression on one of the surfaces, giving them 
some sort of resemblance to the tubers of PineUia hibcr^ifera. 
They are from four to six lines in diameter, and are marked 
externally with wrinkles or reticulations. When broken, they 
present a horny, semi-translucent, yellow or greenish appear- 
ance. The flavor is bitterish and bean-like. The Pentsao says 
that it comes from the country of the Northeastern Barbarians, 


and this is confirmed by Hanbury, wlio says that it is 
indigenous to Siberia, Kamtchatka, and the Amur region. 
The Corydalis goviana of India, and doubtless this species also, 
contains, according to Sir W. B. O'Shaughnessy, the crysta- 
line principle corydalia^ discovered in Corydalis hibei'osa by 
Wackenroder. This active principle is suggested in the Phar- 
macopoeia of India as an antiperiodic. Whether it has proven 
of any value or not, or whether such use was only suggested 
by the intense bitterness of this product, it has not been 
possible to learn. To the drug itself, as appearing in China, 
is ascribed tonic, diuretic, emmenagogue, deobstruaut, astrin- 
gent, alterative, and sedative properties. It is much used in 
prescriptions for post-partum difficulties, hematuria, and other 
bloody fluxes. 

CORYDALIS INCISA.— ^ ^ (Tzu-chin\ ^. j^ (Ch<ih- 
ch'in), ^ -^ (Shu-ch'in), ^ % (T'ai-ts'ai). This marsh plant 
grows in Central China, where the shoots are used in the 
spring as food, although they are considered to be slightly 
deleterious. The flowers, dried and pulverized, are used in 
prolapse of the rectum. 

CORYLUS.— ;ji (Chen). Two species abound in the 
mountains of Northern China ; the Corylus heterophylla and the 
Co7'ylus mandslmrica. The nuts of both are edible and are to 
be found in the markets. The first named has a spreadmg 
involucre, resulting in a flattened nut, while that of the latter 
is contracted and prolonged beyond the apex of the nut, pro- 
ducing a pointed shape. The hazel has been known from very 
early time in China, and is mentioned in the classics. The 
eating of the nuts is considered to be in every way beneficial, 
benefitting the breath, relieving hunger, and giving strength 
for locomotion. They are not prescribed for any particular 
diseases, but are thought to improve the appetite and aid in 
digestion. They appear in commerce as ;f^ -j^ (Chen-jen) and 
;ji ^ (Chen-tzu), 38. 

CRAT.^GUS.— If (Cha). This character serves as a 
generic name for hawthorne^ which in China, as elsewhere, is 
represented by several species. The [1] ;[| (Shan-cha) is 


CratcBgus piniiatifida^ and Cratcegus cnneata is llj ^ ^ 
(Slian-li-kuo). The fruit of these commonest kinds is scarlet, 
or dark-red, and almost as large as the frnit of Pyrus speclabiiis. 
The frnit, when ripe, is sour and of a pleasant flavor, and 
upon the addition of sugar is most readily converted into a most 
delicious jelly or jam. The jam is a common article of sale 
in the shops under the name of jl] |^ |j£ (Shan-cha-kaoi, 1084, 
01' iJj it ff (Shan-cha-ping). The flesh of the fruit, after 
the skin and core have been removed, is also sold under the 
name of IJJ |f |^ (Shan-cha-jou), 1082. The fruit, sliced and 
dried, is called jlj ;^ |^ (Shan-cha-kan), 1085. The whole 
fruit is preserved in sugar and candied, and then strung upon 
straws or slips of bamboo, and peddled upon the streets by 
sweetmeat sellers, under the name of |f ^jj ^ (T*ang-liu-lu), 
H % (T*ang-ch'iu), and [ll ifS ^ (Shan-cha-ch'iu). 

Another species, which is named !^ ^ ^ fCh'ih-chao- 
tzu), is probably CratcBgus inacracantha. It grows in vShan- 
tung to the height of five or six feet, and has a five pointed 
leaf and thorny axils. Early in the spring it bears a small 
white flower, which is followed by the pome ; this attaining to 
the size of a small date. Another kind is known as ^ '^$. 
(Mao-cha), *' reed haw ", or ff^ |^ (Hou-cha), " monkey haw ". 
This tree grows to the height of several feet, and there are two 
varieties ; one bearing a red fruit and the other a yellow. 
The M. jyt (Shu-cha), "rat haw", and the "monkey haw" 
are so named because the wild animals on the hills like to eat 
them. The rat haw is also known, especially in the north, 
^s ill H ifl (Shan-li-hung), " red-on-the-hill ". Another 
kind, having a very large, pear-shaped fruit, is known as ^ \^ 
•^ (T'ang-ch'iu-tzu), and is probably Cratcegus Jiava. The use 
of the character ^ may have been suggested by the resem- 
blance of this fruit in appearance to Pyrus fruits, as this character 
is almost a generic term for Pyrus. This latter species is not 
used in medicine, but is employed in making the confection. 
From another kind, called ^ |^; ^ ( Yang-ch'iu-tzu), which 
is possibly Cratcegus parvifolia., is obtained a greenish or 
yellowish fruit, which is not fit to eat until after it has been 
exposed to frost. It is not used in medicine. The character 
f^ in this name is also written \ji in the Pentsao^ but this 


latter character is more properly applied to the Myrica riibra^ 
or a PrniiHs. 

Antiscorbutic, laxative, stomachic, deobstruant, and altera- 
tive properties are ascribed to these fruits. The juice is 
used in lumbago, diarrhoea, to stop the itching of ulcers, and 
to bring out the rash in the exanthemata of children. It 
is considered to be peptic and stimulant, and is employed 
in scrotal hernia and prolonged lochia! discharge. The 
confection is eaten to assist digestion and to promote the 
circulation of the blood. As the fruit is constantly used 
as food, its physiological effect upon the system cannot be 
very powerful. The seeds are recommended for hernia, difficult 
labor, and swelling of the genitals. The wood of the -^ ^ 
(Ch'ih-chao) is used in decoction for pruritus. The root of 
the different species of haw is recommended for nausea and 
vomiting. A decoction of the twigs and leaves is employed 
in varnish poisoning. 

CRINUM SINENSIS.—^ J^ H (W8n.chu-lan). This 
beautiful amarillidaceus plant is confounded by the Chinese 
with orchids, and is not specially mentioned in the Pintsaa. 
It is cultivated in China, India, and Japan, and is met with 
in Cochiuchina, the Moluccas, and in Ceylon. Four or five 
species are said by Burnett to be found in China. In India 
the bulbous root, which has a terminal, stoloniferous, fusiform 
portion issuing from the crown of the bulb, as described by 
Dr. Waring, has an unpleasant narcotic odor. It is there 
used in fresh slices as an emetic and diaphoretic, or the 
root is carefully dried and reduced to powder as a substitute 
for squills or ipecacuanha. It is said to contain a principle 
analagous to scilitin^ the active chemical ingredient of Scilla 
viaritima^ which so far as at present known is not met with 
in the Far East. Dr. Waring bears testimony to the efficiency 
of this drug. The classification is given on the authority 
of Dr. Morrison. 

CROCUS SATIVUS.— # jfl -^ (Fan-hung-hua). Ac 
cording to the Pentsao^ this was brought from Arabia by 
Chang Chien, at the same time that he brought the safflower 


and other Western drugs and plants. Another name given 
is ^ fi ^ (Sa-fa-ang), which is evidently a transliteration 
of the Arabic name Zafardii. The last character is sometimes 
written ^ and |p, but this does not have the proper sound, and 
is probably wrongly written. Still another name is f)^ ^ ^ (Po- 
fu-lan), which is also probably a transliteration of some foreign 
term. Saffron is said to be stimulant, carminative, and 
antispasmodic. It is thought to have a beneficial action upon 
the blood, and to be quieting in cases of fright. At the time 
of the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty these flowers were used in 
cooking. ^ ^I f2 (Tsang-hung-hua), " Thibetan safflower ", 
is given by some foreign writers as another name for saffron, 
but this has not been found mentioned by any Chinese writer. 
However, it may be found in Tibet, although this has not yet 
been confirmed. 

CROTON TIGLIUM.— E. s (Pa-tou), 933. The first 
character of this name refers to a country which was included 
within the boundaries of the present eastern Szechuan. The 
second character was used because of the resemblance to the 
soy-bean. This is one of the five principal poisons mentioned 
by Shen Nung, so the plant is probably indigenous to China. 
The Arabic name is baioo^ which was probably derived from 
the Chinese name. One of the Persian names means '•*■ Ricimis 
from China," so that it is quite possible that the original 
habitat of this plant was here. The Patoit is properly a fruit. 
It is oblong, obscurely triangular, about three-quarters of an 
inch in length, three-celled, and of a yellowish-brown color. 
Each cell contains an oval, flattened, or imperfectly quadran- 
gular seed, resembling a coffee bean. The dark brown testa 
encloses the yellowish albumen, within which is the large 
dicotyledonous embryo, often much shrunken. The taste is 
very acrid. The fresh fruits, the oil, the testa, and the root of 
the tree are all used in medicine. The drug is recommended 
for a very large number of difficulties, but, generally speaking, 
the Chinese doctors are afraid to employ it on account of the 
exaggerated notions of its poisonous properties, which were 
handed down from very ancient times. It is recommended as 
a revulsive in colds aud fevers, for obstinate diarrhoea and 


dysentery, in delayed menstruation, and similar troubles. It 
is also adaiinistered in ranula, apoplexy, paralysis, toothache, 
and affections of the throat. Externally it is applied in com- 
bination with rape-seed oil in various skin affections. The 
seeds in coarse powder are also recommended in various kinds 
of drug poisoning. The oil is used in much the same classes 
of cases, as well as being used for very much the same purposes, 
as it is employed in the west. The testa is only recommended 
for fluxes. The bruised root is applied in carbuncle and 
cancerous sores. 

CRYPTOT^NIA CANADENSIS.— f" |f (Tang-kuei), 
1250. Faber identifies this umbelliferous plant as the ordi- 
nary ho)ieyzvort of North America. Hanbury identifies it errone- 
ously with Aralia edulis^ and Tatarinov as Levisticiim. The 
Japanese make it to be Ligitsticiim or Angelica. The root of 
this plant represents the drug, which is held in very high repute 
among the Chinese. It ranks next to licorice in frequency of 
use in prescriptions. It comes principally from the three 
western provinces, but is also prepared in Shansi, Shantung, 
and Chihli. It is met with in the form of brown, fleshy root- 
stocks, branching and dividing into a mass of large, close, 
pliant rootlets, something like gentian root. The interior is 
soft, sometimes mealy, and of a whitish or yellow color, or 
sometimes much darker. The odor is very strong, resembling 
that of celery, and the taste is sweetish, warm, and aromatic. 
Names by which it is also called are ^] ]|jf (Shan-ch'in) and j^ 
^ (Pai-ch'in*, which mean "mountain" or " white celery," 
and it is compared to Aphnn graveolens^ and, indeed, is said by 
Siebold to be eaten like celery in Japan, though we do not find 
that it is so used in China. The drug is much used by medical 
men in China in the treatment of the menstrual, chlorotic, and 
puerperal diseases of women. It is used in hemorrhages of all 
kinds, colds, fluxes, dyspeptic complaints, ague, and a large 
number of other difficulties. Its name is said to be derived 
from its asserted power to make the female "revert" to 
her husband, and much of its employment is probably to be 
referred to the wish of Chinese women to stimulate their 
generative organs, in order to increase their opportunities of 


bearing children^ at present their only fnnction in Chinese 
society. According to Henry, Angelica polyniiorpJia is the 
source of the drug Tang-knei exported from Ichang and 

CRYPTOMERIA.— >t^ (Shan). This name is nowadays 
applied to this and perhaps to other coniferous trees. Henry 
claims that in Hupeh some of the many '■'■ Shan'''' trees 
are undoubtedly Cryptomeria japoitica^ and in Japan this 
character is used for CryptomeHa. But the Shan tree of 
the ancient Chinese authors, and the one which is particularly 
discussed in medical works, is CuniiijigJiantia si7iensis^ and will 
be referred to under that title. 

CUCUAHS MELO. — t JR (Kan-kua), ^^ )^ (TMen-kua), 
^ JK. (Yiieh-kua), |g JJSL (Shao-kua), and % JJS;. (Hsiang-kua). 
%. (Kua) is a general term for the fruits of cucurbitaceous 
plants. The Chinese divide these into two classes ; one called 
H JK. (Kuo-kua), including musk melons and water melons, 
and the other called ^ ]%, (Ts'ai-kna), comprising cucumbers, 
squashes, pumpkins^ gourds, and the like. This plant is 
probably indigenous to China, and the first name above given 
is the old name, which has been superseded by the second, 
which at present is more colloquial. The third name 
indicates the probable original habitat of the plant, the present 
province of Chekiang. Several varieties are found in different 
parts of the empire ; some being almost mealy when ripe, while 
others are firm and more like a encumber in texture. None 
are so juicy as the western kinds, but all have more or less 
of an aromatic flavor and fragrance. Some are quite small and 
egg-shaped, while others are longer and more cucumber-like. 
The skin varies from a bright yellow, through greenish yellows, 
to a pure green, being sometimes striped in darker shades. In 
accordance with the Chinese classification, and on account of 
the variation of these melons in texture, the Pentsao discusses 
these under two separate headings : the |§ jrjj^ (Yiieh-kua), under 
the classification of vegetables, and the $^ ^ (T'ien-kua), 
under that of fruits. The eating of these melons is regarded 
by the Chinese as somewhat deleterious. As they usually eat 


them before they are ripe, and as the melons are opened amidst 
the dust and filth of a summer street, it is quite probable 
that they do not entirely deserve the reputation they have 
secured. Notwithstanding their slight fear of these melons, 
large quantities are ingested every season by all sorts and 
conditions of people. The YiieJi-Jziia is not much used 
medicinally, but is considered to be cooling, diuretic, anti- 
vinous, and peptic. The incinerated ash is used in sore mouth. 
The pulp of the T'-icii-ktia is regarded with more favor 
than that of the Yiieh-kna. But if eaten to excess, it is 
thought to cause pimples, to bring on ague, and to produce 
general weakness of the body. Its action is said to be cooling, 
diurectic, and resolvent. If eaten during the month of great 
heat, sunstroke will be prevented, as it is regarded as decidedly 
cooling. The kernels of the seeds, JK. *jF fl (Kua-tzit-jen), 
are highly regarded as a stomachic, peptic, and constructive 
remedy. They are prescribed in cancer of the stomach and 
purulent difficulties of the digestive tract generally. They 
are also used in menorrhagia, after the oil has been extracted. 
The peduncles, ^§ jK. ^ (T'ien-kua-ti), 1293, also called 
=^ "J* ^ (K'u-ting-hsiang), are vaunted as a remedy out of 
all proportion to their importance. General anasarca, the 
worst forms of intestinal parasites, and acute indigestion from 
the ingestion of too much fruit, will all yield to this 
remedy. It is also used in the treatment of nasal polypus, 
jaundice, acute coryza, and colds of every kind, and mixed 
with musk and Asarttm sieboldi will restore a lost sense of 
smell. The vine (^, Wan) of the melon is prescribed, together 
with Quisqiialis indica and Glycyrrhiza glabra^ in suppressed 
menstruation. The flowers are used in refractory coughs. 
The expressed juice of the leaves is thought to promote the 
growth of whiskers in those who have none, and when made 
into a tincture with wine, will disperse the blood from bruised 

CUCUMIS SATIVUS.— ^ E (Hu-kua), % JR (Huang- 
kua). Chang Chien, the noted legate of the Han dynasty, 
seems to have brought this plant from Central Asia to China, 
as he did many other useful plants. It is largely cultivated. 


and the fruit is eaten in the raw state and as a pickle. Its use 
is considered to be slightly deleterious. Its reputed virtues 
are cooling and diuretic. A sort of cucumber salve is recom- 
mended for skin diseases, and for scalds and burns. The 
expressed juice of the leaves is used as an emetic in acute 
indigestion of children. The bruised root is applied in case of 
swelling from the wound of a hedgehog quill. There is the 
same danger of severe diarrhoea resulting from the ingestion of 
the Chinese varieties of this vegetable as in the case of those 
from the west. 

CUCURBITA MAXIMA.— The Chinese do not distin- 
guish clearly between the mammoth winter squash and the 
larger forms of gourd. The former undoubtedly is grown in 
China, but it is known by the names of ^ ^ (Hu-lu), ^ ^ 
(Hu-lu), and ^ (P'ao). These all refer to the gourd (see 
Langeiiaria V2ilgare\ and medical properties will be discussed 
under the latter title. 

CUCURBITA MOSCHATA, Cnairbita pepo.—i^ S 
(Nan-kua). Several varieties of this are found in China, 
Cticurbita maxima may also in some cases be included with 
this product. In any case its medical properties would be 
similar. A crook-necked variety is called ^ )^ (Wo-kua, 
*' Japanese gourd"). Another variety is the ^i JJJL (Fan-kua). 
Ivi Shih-chen says that the natural habitat of this genus is the 
south ; hence the name. The Chinese compare the flesh of 
this, when cooked, to the sweet potato. It is especially 
esteemed when cooked with pork. When prepared with 
mutton, it is considered to be deleterious. Squashes are pre- 
sented with great ceremony, on the evening of .the mid-autumn 
festival, to married, childless women, being considered propi- 
tious for the speedy production of offspring. A similar custom 
prevails in India where, to insure prosperity, the tallow gourd 
is presented to the newly married pair at their wedding feast. 
The seeds are sometimes used salted along with melon seeds. 
The medicinal use of this plant and its fruit is not great. It is 
not recommended in any particular class of diseases, but its 
action is considered to be beneficial to the viscera and breath. 


CUDRANIA TRILOBA.— ;{::5 (Che). This tree is of the 
order ArtocarpecB^ and is sometimes mistaken for Morus or 
Broussonetia. It is said to grow commonly in the mountains, 
and to have a finely grained wood suitable for manufacturing 
utensils. Its leaves are used for feeding silkworms, producing 
a quality of silk that is especially esteemed for making lute- 
strings. It bears a fruit somewhat resembling the mulberry, 
of which the birds are very fond. The wood is used in prepar- 
ing a yellow dye, which is employed in dyeing the imperial 
garments. The wood, the white inner bark of the tree, and 
that of the eastward-extending root are used in medicine. The 
taste is sweetish and cooling, and it is prescribed for menor- 
rhagia, malarial fever, debility, and wasting. An infusion of 
the wood is used in weak and sore eyes. An epiphyte growing 
upon the tree, called %-^ ^ (Che-huang) and |5 5 (Che-arh), is 
used in consumption. Of a thorny variety of the tree, called 
^ 15 (Nu-che), the thorns are used, in combination with other 
drugs, in decoction for the treatment of constipation and 
obstruction of the bowels. 

CUNNINGHAMIA SINENSIS.— ^f^ (Shan), Q? % (Sha- 
mu). This tree grows in the southern, central, and western 
provinces of China and in Japan. It is the common pine 
of China, and is found in many varieties, one of which is 
said to have been introduced from Japan. The color of 
the wood in the different kinds varies from red to white ; 
the former being tough and resinous, while the latter is 
of a looser structure, and when dry becomes beautifully 
veined. Its short, stiff, pointed leaves, and its avoid- 
ance of the sea-coast, have been remarked by Mr. Samp- 
son as distinguishing features of this tree. The timber is 
much valued for making coffins, flooring, furniture, and 
house-frames, as it is less liable to the attacks of insects than 
the Pinus sinensis 1;^, Sung), but is not so suitable for piles 
as the latter, as it rots easily if exposed to continual dampness. 
Charcoal for making gunpowder has been usually procured 
from this wood by the Chinese. A decoction of the wood is 
said to be a sure remedy for varnish poisoning at every stage. 
It is also used for bathing fetid feet, and is taken internally for 


flatulence and choleraic symptoms. Also, in combination with 
other things, it is used in purulent expectoration and as a 
wash to chronic ulcers. The ash pf the old bark is a common 
application to wounds, scalds, and burns. The leaves, decocted 
in wine together with Conioselinum and Asar'nm^ iare used in 
the treatment of worms and toothache. The seeds arfe Employed, 
one to be ingested for each year of age, for the treatment of 
hernia. The epiphyte, called >^ ]^ (Shan-chiin), is considered 
to be antispasmodic and carminative. 

CUPRESSUS.— tfi (Po). This is Faber's identification, 
and Henry says that at Ichang the Po is Cupressus funebris. 
Dr. Williams sets the %_ ffi (Pien-po) down as Cupressus thy- 
oidcs. But undoubtedly in the north, as also in Japan, Po 
refers to Thuja {Biota) orientalis. Discussion of this plant will 
therefore be reserved for this latter title. 

CURCUMA LONGA.— ^^(Yii-chin), 1545, 1546. The 
first character of this name refers to a fragrant plant which, 
in the classical period, was mixed with the sacrificial wine 
called 1^ (Ch'ang), prepared from black millet. The whole 
name refers to the yellow tubers of the plant, described by 
Hanbury as being "oblong or ovate, tapering at either end, 
from three-fourths to one and a-fourth inch in length, covered 
externally with a thin, adherent, brownish-grey cuticle, usually 
(but not invariably) smooth. When broken, they exhibit a 
shining fracture, and are seen to consist of a hard, semi-trans- 
parent, horny, orange-yellow substance, easily separable into 
two portions, an inner and an outer. The tubers have an aro- 
matic odor, and a slight taste resembling turmeric, and contain 
an abundance of starch." In Japan this plant is considered to 
be a variety {machrophylla) of Curcuma loyiga. According to 
the Pentsao it is indigenous to the country of ;^ ^ fTa Ch'in), 
which comprised parts of what is now Kausu and Shensi prov- 
inces, or possibly was Syria. It is also found in Szechuen and 
Thibet. The root, which is one of the many forms of turmeric 
found in commerce, is used for dyeing women's clothes. It is 
employed medicinally in all sorts of hemorrhages, such as 
hematuria, hematemesis, hemoptysis, post-partum hemorrhage, 


and wounds. It is also recommended in primarj^ syphilis, 
mania, and "worm poison." Excessive sweating, arsenic 
poisoning, and the distress attending hemorrhages are said to 
be reliev^ed by it. It is also used in veterinary practice. 

Another variety (possibly species) of Curcu)na is known 
by the name of ^ ^ (Chiang-huang), 75. Chinese authors are 
not clear about this product ; some saying that there are three 
forms of the root — yellow, black, and white — while others claim 
that these are three distinct varieties. Ch'en Ts'ang-ch'i (8th 
Century) says that the root of the Yii-ching is bitter, cooling, and 
red in color ; the Chiang-huang is acrid and warming, and the 
color yellow ; while a third kind, called \^ ~^ (Shu-yao), — see 
Kicmpferia pioidurata — is bitter and black in color. Other 
varieties are said to be brought from Persia and other western 
countries. The dried root stocks, which are the Chinese turmeric 
of commerce, are met with in hard, irregular, tuberculated 
pieces of a light yellow color externally, and internally varying 
in color from orange to saffron-yellow. The smell is aromatic, 
and the taste agreeable, with a bitterish after-taste. In the 
south a sliced form of a larger tuber, known as '^ ^l j^ 
(Chiang-huang-p'ien), 76, is found. This may be the so-called 
Cochin tur}neric of commerce. These products are, for the most 
part, exported to India, as the Chinese do not use them much 
as condiments. They employ them to some extent as a dye 
and prescribe them in colic, congestions, hemorrhages, and as 
an external application to some intractable diseases of the skin. 
They are especially recommended in cancerous discharges. Dr. 
Waring advises inhalations of the fumes of burning turmeric 
in coryza, and approves of a decoction of turmeric as a wash 
for eyes suffering from catarrhal and purulent ophthalmia. 

The plant spoken of at the head of this article is evidently 
mentioned in the P^nisao under the title of i^ ^ @ ( Yii-chin- 
bsiang). Other names are |^ j;^ ^ (Tzu-shu-hsiang), ^ ^ § 
(Ts'ao-she-hsiang, "vegetable musk "), and ^^g J^ (Ch'a-chii- 
mo) ; this last being a Buddhist name. It was formerly sent as 
tribute by the ^ (Yii) tribes, and from this the present f| ;^ 
(Yii-lin) in Kuangsi derives its name. Ch'en Ts'ang-ch'i 
says that it comes from the country of ^ (Ch'in), and bears a 
flower like the safflower. Li Shih-chen says that besides being 


fouud iu various districts in western Kuangsi, it comes from 
the countries of ^ ^ (Ch'i-pin) and -j^ ^ (Cb'ieh-p'i, Kapila- 
vastu). It has leaves like the Ophiopugon spicatus and flowers 
like those of the Hibiscus mutabilis. The flowers are very 
fragrant, and can be smelled for a long distance. An empress 
of the Chin (^) dynasty wrote a poem in praise of this plant, 
in which she extols its sweetness. Medicinally, it is used to 
correct foul odors and bad breath. It is also used as a perfume. 
The plant is not yet identified, but is probably not Curcuma. 

CUSCUTA.— Faber identifies |g % (T'u-ssti) as Oiscuta 
cJn}ie?isis and -^ ^ (Nli-lo) as Ciiscuta japonica. According 
to the Pentsao the latter is the same as |^ ^ (Sung-lo), which 
is Viscum. It is possible that those species growing upon 
herbaceous plants are also sometimes indifferently called Nil-lo. 
Under the heading of T^ic-ssu the Pentsao gives a number of 
alternative names : -% ^g (T'u-lil), ^ ^ (T'u-lei), % ^ (T'u- 
lu), %, % (T'u-chiu), % m (Ch'ih-wang), ^ ^ (Yii-nii), ^ ^ 
(T'ang-meng), >AC^ i^ (Huo-yen-ts'ao), ^ ^ i^ ( Yeh-hu-ssu), 
and ^ ^ ^ (Chin-hsien-ts'ao). It will be probably found that 
some of these names refer to. different varieties, if not to 
different species, of the dodder. The seeds ^ i^. -^ (T'u-ssit- 
tzu), 1382, are the parts used in medicine, and these are also 
found in commerce in the form of cakes, known as ^ i^ ^ 
(T'u-ssu-ping), 1383. They are met with as roundish bodies 
of the size of black mustard-seed, and of a brown color, with 
little or no taste or smell. Diaphoretic, demulcent, tonic, and 
aphrodisiac properties are ascribed to these seeds, and they are 
administered in gonorrhoea, incontinence of urine, leucorrhoea, 
and as a nostrum in cases of cross birth. If taken for a long 
time, they are thought to brighten the eye, enliven the body, 
and prolong life. The young shoots of the plant are used 
externally in cosmetic washes, for favus, and for sore eyes. 
Hanbury says that the plant was formerly officinal in Europe 
as a purgative, under the name of Herba cuscutcB majoris. 

CYCAS REVOLUTA.— ^ Ci ^ (Wu-lou-tzH). This is 
Faber' s identification. In the Pentsao the following names 
are given for this product : =f- :^ ^ 'Ch'ien-nien-tsao), ^ ^ 


^ (Wan-siii-tsao), f^ ^ (Hai-tsao^, -^ fijf ^ (P'o-ssu-tsao), ^ 
^ (Fau-tsao), ^ |^ (Chin-kuo), and IL ;1 |E (Feng-wei-chiao, 
"phoenix-tail-plantain.") In Japan the tree is called M J^ ^ 
(Feng-wei-sung), in which the first character is probably 
improperly written. In the Customs Lists we find ^ ^ ^ 
(Feng-wei-ts'ao), 318, where again the first character is improp- 
erly written, and also probably the last, ^ (Tsao), being 
intended instead of ^ (Ts'ao). The wood is known as ^ ;j^ 
(Hai-tsung). Although western works on botany ascribe the 
natural habitat of this tree to Japan, the Pentsao refers it to 
Persia and the East Indies. It is not said to be found iu 
China, but both the fruits and the wood are said to be brought 
to this country iu ships. The fruits are the part used, and to 
them are ascribed expectorant, tonic, and nutritive properties. 
If used for a short time they are said to produce plumpness. 

CYCLAMEN.— In Faber's lists this is given as ^ ^ 
(Hai-yu). But he also gives the same Chinese name for 
Alocasia macrorhiza^ and without doubt the name should be 
referred to this aroid plant, instead of to the primulaceous one. 
(See page 29.) 

CYDONIA SINENSIS. {Stt Pyrus cathayensia.) 

CYPERUS. — The Pentsao describes two cyperaceous 
plants, under the names ^ [^ (So-ts'ao), § ^^ ^ (Hsiang-fu- 
tzQ), and ^\\ ^ ^ (Ching-san-leng). There seems to be the 
greatest confusion in regard to the identification of these. 
Faber makes the first to be Cyperus iria and the second and 
third Cypems rotiindus. The Japanese agree with the first 
identification, call Hsiang-fu-tzii Cyperus rotiuidusy Ching- 
san-leng they call Scirpiis jnaritinms^ and what is given in the 
PSntsao as a synonym of the last, i^ H '^ (Ts'ao-san-leng), is 
assigned to Cyperus serotmtis. Porter Smith calls Hsiang-fu 
Cyperus esculentus^ and with some show of reason, as the 
description of the Pentsao more nearly coincides with this 
identification than with any other. These sedges are all used 
for making hats, matting, and rain coats. They grow almost 
every place where there is moist or boggy ground. The tubers 
of the Hsiang-fu-tzYi^ 412, have a strong odor, and are very 


much in request as a medicament. Stimulant, tonic, sto- 
machic, sedative, astringent, and other properties are believed 
by the Chinese to reside in the drug, and it is prescribed for 
fluxes of all kinds, colds in every organ, post-partuni difficulties, 
boils, abscesses, felons, and cancers. The shoots and flowers 
are also used, being regarded as tonic and sedative to the 
nervous system. The tnbers of the Ching-san-l^ng^ 1062, as 
they appear in the market, are top-shaped, pointed at one end 
and hard, and have, apparently, been cut and trimmed with a 
knife to separate them from the running root which connects 
them together in the growing state. The internal texture is 
hard, yellowish, and woody. The taste and smell are, to some 
extent, aromatic. Emmenagogue, galactagogue, stomachic, 
tonic, deobstruant, and vulnerary qualities are ascribed to the 
drug. It is not in as much favor, however, as the Hsiang- 

CYTISUS SCOPARIUS.— ^ '^ (Chin-ch'iao). It is also 
called M ^ -j^ (Huang-ch'iao-hua). The papilionaceous flower 
is aptly compared to a bird by the Chinese botanist. The 
leaves are said to be salted and made into a tea. The root, 
which is said to be covered with prickles, is used in medicine. 
In decoction, it is used as a fomentation for bruises, and it is 
also extracted with wine for this purpose. It is also prescribed 
internally in coughs and colds. A decoction of the flowers is 
said to bring out the eruption in small-pox. 



DALBERGIA HUPEANA.— =jf (T'an). The P&ntsao 
describes this as a tree with finely veined, hard wood, and 
leaves resembling those of the Sophera. The flowers are 
yellow or white, and there is said to be a purple flowered 
variety. This plant is not to be confounded with ^ ^ (T'an- 
hsiang), which is Santaliim albinn. ■|f ^ (Ch'ing-t'au) is said 
by Henry to be a name for Celtis sinensis. The bark of both 
trunk and root is the part of Dalbergia used in medicine. It 
is considered to be slightly poisonous, but mixed with elm 
bark and pulverized, it may be used as food in time of famine. 
As an external application (presumably in the form of a poul- 
tice) it is used in scabies and parasitic skin diseases. 

DAMNACANTHUS INDICUS.— {/c ^ tS (Fu-niu-hua), 
)j^ ;$lj (Hu-tzu), 1425. This is a rubiaceous plant, found grow- 
ing in the marshy river valleys of Szechuen, having a small 
deep green leaf, a thorny stalk, and pale yellow flowers in 
clusters like apricot flowers. Another kind of similar shrub, 
which goes by the second name given above, is said to be 
evergreen. Of the former, the flowers are used in medicine for 
rheumatism, headaches, and bleeding piles. Of the latter, the 
root and leaves are used in the treatment of dropsical swellings. 

DAPHNE GENKWA.— |g:j!g (Yiian-hua., 1561, fiLIBI^ 
(Men-t'ou-hua). It is also called % @^ (Tu-yii, " fish poison "), 
since, when thrown into ponds or streams, it poisons the fish. 
Another name is H^ '^ (T'ou-t'ung-hua, " headache flower"), 
as the odor is said to give one a headache. The name Yiian- 
hita is applied in the Peking region to a plant having small 
yellow flowers, which has been identified by Tatarinov as 
Passerina chamcBdaphne^ Dunge (Wickstroimia chajucB daphne^ 
Meissn.). The Daphne grows upon a perennial root Its 
leaves are at first green, but as they grow older, they grow 
thicker and darker in color. The flowers are purple, red, and 
white. Flowers, leaves, and root are all used in medicine. 
The flowers and root are employed in the form of tincture in 
the treatment of coughs, as a cordial, tonic, and antifebrile 


medicine for tlie cure of malaria, especially in its chronic 
forms, and in mushroom poisoning. The leaves, as well as the 
flowers and root, are used bruised in the treatment of buboes, 
ulcers, favus, and other skin diseases. The leaves are said to 
have a special action on the uterus. They are mixed with salt 
and used to color preserved eggs a reddish-brown. 

DAPHNE ODORA.— ^ ^ (Shui [Jui]-hsiang). This 
very fragrant plant grows everywhere throughout the southern 
provinces. Several varieties are distinguished by the Phiisao^ 
some of which are cultivated, being dwarfed or deformed by 
gardeners for the purpose of producing ornamental shrubbery 
for lawns and conservatories. The root and leaves are both 
used in decoction in the treatment of sore throat, as a wash for 
small-pox pustules, and in caked breast. 

DAPHNIDIUM CUBEBA.— it Jg ^ (Pi-ch'eng-ch'ieh), 
1006. It is probable that the Chinese use this term for the 
true cubeb (Piper ciibeba) as well as for this article. Loureiro 
first described the tree, under the name Laurns cubcba. Nees 
afterwards transferred it to the genus Daphnidwm. The drug 
consists, according to Hanbury, of "one-seeded globular ber- 
ries, attached to a pedicel sometimes half an inch long ; at the 
base of each berry traces of the perianth are visible. The 
pericarp is thin, fleshy, and in the dried state, corrugated. The 
seed is globular, with its cartilaginous, shining brown testa 
surrounded longitudinally by a narrow ridge." The berries, 
therefore, have only a superficial resemblance to cubebs. The 
plant is native of Cochin China, and is grown in South China. 
The product is shipped for the most part to India. The berries 
are agreeable in odor, and have a warm, aromatic, bitterish 
taste. Carminative, peptic, stomachic, tonic, and expectorant 
qualities are reported to reside in the fruit, which is given in 
cystic, bronchitic, dyspeptic, and choleraic affections. Hanbury 
quotes Loureiro to the effect that the fresh fruits are used for 
preserving fish, and that the bark of the tree has properties 
similar to those of the berries. Another name given in the 
Pentsao is ffljt |>^ ^q ^ (P'i-ling-ch'ieh-tzu), which is said to be 
of foreign origin, probably an East Indien term. 


DAPHNIDIUMMYRRHA.--,^|||(Wii-yao), 1478. Also 
called Lindera strychnifolia^ which is probably identical. In 
Japan this last is distinguished as 5c "a .^ 1^ (T'ien-t'ai-wu- 
yao), which is also known as Daphnidium strychnifoliiim, 
Tatarinov called this tree DapJinis viyrrha^ but like many 
of Tatarinov' s identifications, the term is open to doubt. The 
tree grows to the height of ten or more feet, and is found 
in the provinces south of the Yangtse, and especially in 
Kuangsi. The drug is usually sold in the form of thin slices 
of the dried root, which are of a whitish color, and have 
an aromatic odor. Tonic, astringent, carminative, stomachic, 
and many other properties are assigned to this root, and it is 
prescribed in indigestion, malaria, fluxes, hernia, urinary 
difficulties, menorrhagia, and gonorrhoea. Mixed with lign- 
aloes, ginseng, and licorice, it forms a famous prescription, 
which is used as a tonic and sedative. The leaf buds of 
the plant may be used instead of tea as a stimulant and 
diuretic. The seeds are used in cases in which the yin is 
in excess producing fever. They are bruised and decocted, 
and the decoction freely drunk, which will induce perspira- 
tion, when the yang will return in full force and the patient 

DATURA ALBA.— ^ P£ ^ (Man-t*o-lo). In India the 
Sanscrit equivalent of this Chinese name, Mandara^ refers 
to E}'ythrina indica. Hoffman and Schultes have identified 
the plant so called in China as Datura alba^ although Eitel 
(Handbook of Chinese Buddhism, p. 71) also refers the name 
to Erythrina fiilgans^ or Erythrina indica. The leaves of 
the plant contain the alkaloid daturia^ which is similar in 
physiological action to atropia, but much stronger. In India 
the plant is called Dhatura^ from which name the generic 
term is derived. The plant was said to have been rained down 
from heaven at the time when Buddha promulgated the law. 
The Sanscrit term means ''variegated,'* evidently referring to 
the color of the flowers. Names given as equivalents in the 
Phttsaa are Jg, ^ 5£ (Feng-ch'ieh-erh) and [Ii jfjfi % (Shan- 
ch'ieh-erh). It is certain that the Chinese confound the 
different species of Datura^ and that the first ©f the latter 


terms refers to the Datura stramonium, Hoffman and Scliultes 
have assumed f^ jja !§i (Fo-ch'ieh-erh) as the name of this 
last, but such a name has not been found in Chinese books, 
does not seem to be known in Japan, and is probably a 
mistake for Fcng-cW'ieh-erh. In the Customs List the first 
character of this last term is wrongly written ^ (Feng), 302, 
and the drug is considered to be identical with j^^j ^. 1^ (Nao- 
yang-hua), 894, which is there identified as Datiira alba. 
Without doubt this last term is sometimes referred to Datura 
metel,, but it also refers to Hyoscyamzis niger (which see), and 
it is discussed in the Pentsao under the article ^ Si5 E^ (Yang- 
chih-chu), which certainly is Rhododeiidro7i {Azalea) sinense 
(which see). The ericaceous and solanaceous plants seem in 
some cases to be nearly related in the physiological action 
of their active principles, as well as being similar in external 
appearance. Hence the ease with which they have been con- 
founded by the Chinese. 

The flowers and seeds of the Man-t^o-lo are used in 
medicine as a wash for eruptions on the face, oedema of the 
feet, and prolapsus of the rectum. They are prescribed also 
for colds, chorea, and nervous disorders, and their use as an 
anaesthetic is also mentioned. Their delirient action is also 
spoken of, being said to produce laughter or dancing move- 
ments (1^). If equal quantities of this and of Cannabis 
saliva are gathered in the seventh and eighth moons, dried 
in the shade, pulverized, and digested in wine, the prepara- 
tion, when ingested, will produce a narcotic anaesthesia that 
will enable small operations and cauterizations to be done 
without pain. 

DATURA METEL.— I^J ^ 1^ (Nao-yang-hua), 894. 
This species of Datura is included in Burnett's list of the Flora 
of China, and this name is assigned to it by Dr. Bridgeman 
in his Chinese Chrestomathy. Parker makes it identical with 
Datura alba. Tatarinov calls it Hyoscyamus. Hanbury says 
"flowers of Rhodode^idi-onl'''* As this Chinese term is in- 
cluded in the Pentsao as a synonym of ^ ^ f^ (Yang-chih- 
chu), discussion of its medicinal uses will be referred to that 
article (see Rhododendro/i sinense). 


DATURA STRAMONIUM. — IL ff ^ Feug-ch'ieh- 
erh), 302. The Chinese do not distinguish between this and 
Datura alba (see that article for medicinal uses). The term 
f^ ^n 3i (Fo-ch'ieh-erh), which was used by HofFman and 
Schultes and is given in Giles's Dictionary, was not found 
in any Chinese or Japanese lists consulted. It is probably a 

DAUCUS CAROTA.— i^ H ff (Hu-lo-po), The carrot 
is well described in the Pentsao. The red and yellow varieties 
are there spoken of, and the names ^I ^ ^ (Hung-lo-po) and 
^ II ^ (Huang-lo-po), which are in common use, refer to 
these. This vegetable is one of those which are said to have 
originally come from the country of the Western Tartars. 
The seeds of the plant probably appear in commerce under the 
name of ^ ^j tl (Lo-po-jen), 751. The root is considered to 
be in every way beneficial to the digestive tract, increasing the 
appetite and acting as a carminative. The seeds are used 
in chronic dysentery. There is a wild variety, known as 
^ H M (Yeh-lo-po), the hispid fruit of which is used by 
the Chinese as the basis of the vermilion-pad for their seals 
and stamps. 

DAVALLIA TENUIFOUA.— .^ ^ ( Wu-chiu), This is 
a fern, to which the following alternative names are given : 

;5 f^ (Shih-hsii), IS ^ (Shih-i), ;5 ^ (Shih-t'ai), :s ^ (Shih- 

hua), ;5' % ,l|g (Shih-ma-tsung), and % ^ (Kwei-li). Some 
of these may refer to different species, or even to different 
genera. This plant is said to resemble Lycopodium. It grows 
among the stones in mountainous districts, and is considered 
to be nou-^oisonous. Cooling and demulcent properties are 
ascribed to it, and it is prescribed in feverish conditions, 
bladder difficulties, as an application in burns, and to promote 
the growth and preserve the black color of the hair. 

DENDROBIUM NOBILE.— ;^ ^ (Shih-hu), 1148. 
China is very rich in orchidaceous plants, of M^hich this is one 
genus. The above is the term given in the P^nisao^ under 


which doubtless several kinds of these plants, as well as Tritiaim 
repens are described. It grows upon stones, is sometimes 
called ^ I^ (Huang-ts'ao\ and is cultivated in Szechuen for 
use as medicine. It is found in nearly all of the central and 
southern provinces. An epiphytic variety, found growing 
upon the root and trunk of oak trees, is called -^ f4 (Mu-hu), 
and, on account of its yellow color, ^ ^ (Chiu-hu). These 
plants are all remarkably tenacious of life, recovering after 
having been dried. Other names by which they appear in 
commerce are .ft 7f^ M (Kan-mu-hu), 580, «^ ^ ^f (Hsien-hu- 
tou) 452, and ^ %% (Chin-ch'ai), 145. These all have straight, 
jointed, solid, cylindrical stems of a yellow or golden color, 
and often deeply striated or furrowed. Parallel-veined leaves 
are attached to some of the stems, which commonly have traces 
of their roots. These stems are said to be quite green when 
freshly gathered. Under the name of |^ ^ (i\Iai-hu) there is also 
described a drug which is in all probability the tuber of Tritiaim 
repens. Hanbury ( Science Papers, p. 262) mentions a drug under 
the name of \\\ ^ §51 (Hsiao-huan-ch'ai) which is also probably 
Shih-hiiy although this term is not given in the Pentsao. ■^ ^ 
^ (Chin-hu-tou), 152, and ^ ^ (Ya-tou\ i486, are other 
names by which the drug is known, but why the Bj- is used in 
the first case does not appear. In the last case it may be a 
substitute for ^, which is properly written ^. The drug is 
of a sweetish taste, and is non-poisonous. It is said to have 
tonic, stomachic, pectoral, and antiphlogistic properties. Two 
peculiar difficulties for which it is prescribed are entropion and 
insects in the ear. 

DEUTZIA SIEBLODIANA.— '^ 1% (Sou-su). Identifica- 
tions are doubtful ; this term being applied in Japan to Deutzia^ 
Staphylea^ and Philadelpfms. We here follow Faber. Li 
Shih-chen seems not to have recognized this tree, although he 
gives what was said about it by older authors. The tree is 
about ten feet high, and bears reddish berries, similar to the 
fruit of the Lycitmi. The bark is white, and is the part used 
in medicine. Its properties are said to be cooling and diuretic. 
It is prescribed for the thirty-six diseases of the lower abdominal 
region (f ^%) in women. 


DIANTHUS CHINENSIS.— ;5t't(Shih-clui). This, the 
common Chinese pink, is not distinguished in the Phitsao 
from the next, and, in fact, the two are often confounded by 

DIANTHUS SUPERBUS.— ^ ^ (Ch'li-mai), 237. This 
is the same as DiiDitJius fischeri. The seed resembles wheat, 
whence the name. The dried flowering plant is sold in 
the medicine shops, being found in large, yellow bundles. 
The flowering heads and leaves of these plants are used in 
medicine, and very remarkable and dissimilar virtues are 
ascribed to them. The former is said to be diuretic, vul- 
nerary, abortifacient, to relieve opacities of the cornea, to 
check post-partum hemorrhage, alleviate fluxes, promote the 
growth of hair, and is used also in the treatment of gravel, 
amenorrhoea, and as a resolvent for incipient abscesses. The 
latter is used in hemorrhoids, bloody diarrhoea, luinbricoid 
worms, of)hthalmia, as well as in buboes and venereal sores in 
women. Also such difficulties as bones in the throat, bam- 
boo splints in the flesh, and wounds with knives or scissors 
are treated by the internal administration of a decoctiou of 
this plant. 

DICTAMNUS ALBUS.— ^ W^ (Pai-lisien), 947. This is 
a white root with a strong odor, which resembles that of the 
goat ; hence the name, also written ^ f^ (Pai-shan). It is a 
common plant in Mid-China. It has flowers resembling those 
of the Althea^ and the root is like a small turnip. The fruit 
consists of several carpels like the Zanthoxylon^ and is there- 
fore called ^%^\^ (Chin-ch'iao-erh-chiao), "golden-bird- 
pepper." The root is the part used in medicine, and to it is 
ascribed tonic, sedative, antipyretic, and tussic qualities. It is 
also recommended in post-partum difficulties and the nervous 
crying of children. 

DIERVILLA VERSICOLOR.— li |1 (Yang-lu). This 
is the same as Weigela japonica. It is also by the Chi- 
nese confounded with Deiitsia sieboldiana. It is a shrub, 
or small tree, used in making hedges, and its seeds are 


borne in a pod. The leaves, which are said to be slightly 
poisonous, are recommended in decoction as a wash for viru- 
lent sores. 

DIGITALIS. — Roots of an unidentified species of this 
plant are said to be brought from Honan under the name of 
^ iife M (Mao-ti-huang). As j^ ^ (Ti-huang) is ReJnnarmia 
ghitinosa^ and as the leaves of this latter are also downy, identi- 
fication by this means would be uncertain. It is said that 
the roots of the former are smaller and more fusiform than 
those of the latter. But this also would be an unreliable 
method of identifying so active a drug. It is doubtful if 
Digitalis purpurea is found in China, or if found it has not 
yet been identified ; so it is unfortunate that "^ \%'^ (Mao-ti- 
huang) has been adopted iu pharmacy as a Chinese equivalent 
of the name of this drug. 

t'angi. This is Faber's identification. The Japanese call it 
Caryopteris divaricata. It is also called ^ )/i| (Yang- ma), 
since both horses and sheep eat it. It is said to have a 
very vile and persistent odor, which is mentioned in the 
Tso-chuan as an illustration of the persistence of evil. It 
grows in marshes, has long leaves and a jointed stem. It 
nmch resembles Potomogeton^ and has by some been so 
identified. The root is the part used iu medicine, and is 
prescribed in infusion as an eye and ear wash, for fetid feet, in 
dry coughs, and to relieve thirst. 

DIOSCORRA.— § ^ (Shu-yii), ill % (Shan-yao), 1108, 
^ '%. (Pei-hsieh), 988. Shan-yao is nowadays the common 
name in north China for the cultivated yam, Dioscorea japonica. 
In Hupeh it is Dioscorea qidnqueloba^ and in other parts 
of China Dioscorea batatas. The Japanese lists distinguish 
Dioscojea japonica as ^ llj ^ (Yeh-shan-yao', Dioscorea 
qninqneloba as ilj ^ ||(Shan-pei-hsieh), and Dioscorea saliva as 
j\\ ^ ^j| iCh'uan-pei-hsieh). Faber makes the first two names 
at the head of this article to be identical, and assigns them 
to Dioscorea qninqneloba^ while the third he assign to Dioscorea 


sativa. To Dioscorea japoiiica he assigns the names ^ ^ 
(Huang-tn) and ^ ^ (T'li-yii). The Phitsao gives the last 
under a separate article and considers it to be related to 
Colocasia. It has leaves like those of the bean, and eeg-- 
shaped tubers, which are the part used in medicine. These 
have emetic properties, and are used for this purpose in cases 
of poisoning. The Hankow list mentions a '/^ |1] ^ (Huai- 
shan-yao), 503, which is said to come from Huaining in Honan, 
and which it describes as follows : "It occurs in long tuberose 
roots about a half a foot in length and two inches in circum- 
ference, and when divested of its rind and the ends are 
trimmed, it has a perfectly white surface and interior. It is 
brittle, has no smell, and is tasteless." This does not answer 
to the description of the tuber of Dioscorea sativa^ and may 
be Dioscorea japonica or some unnamed species. The Pinisao 
also gives an article on the capsules or berries of the yam, 
which it calls ^ f^ -^ (Ling-yii-tsu), mentioning several 
varieties, and claiming for them stronger medicinal powers 
than is possessed by the yam itself. Tonic and restorative 
virtues are ascribed to them. To the tubers of the several 
kinds of yam mentioned in the Peiitsao are ascribed coolino- 
and tonic properties. They are said to benefit the spirits, 
promote flesh, and, wheu taken habitually, brighten the 
intellect and prolong life. Astringent properties in diarrhoea 
are also ascribed to them, as well as some virtue in polyuria. 
As a poultice they are applied in carbuncles, boils, and incipient 

DIOSPYROS EMBRYOPTERIS.— 1^ \% (Pei-shih), f^ 
\% (Ch'i-shih). The Chinese call this the "green persimmon," 
from the fact that the fruit, when fully ripe, is of a dark 
yellowish tint. The fruit is of the size of a large plum, 
or small apple, eight-seeded, and contains a glutinous, very 
astringent juice. It is said that it cannot be eaten in the 
unripe state, and that it cannot be dried as other species 
of persimmon often are. The medicinal properties ascribed 
to it by the Chinese are somewhat remarkable. It is said 
to be antifebrile, antivinous, and demulcent. Its astringent 
properties, which were noted by Dr. Waring, and on account 


of which he recommends the employment of an extract of 
the fruit in diarrhoea and chronic dysenterv, and as a basis of 
vaginal injections in gonorrhoea, have been lost sight of by 
Chinese physicians. A sort of extract, or oil, is prepared 
from this fruit b> crushing and pressing. In this way a dark, 
resinous, thick juice is produced, which makes an excellent 
varnish, used in varnishing paper umbrellas and fans. It is 
cheaper than wood-oil. 

DIOSPYROS HIRSUTA.— ^ jp (Mao-shih). It is not 
certain that this tree is found in China, but the probabilities 
are in its favor. The wood, called Calamander Wood (probably 
a corruption of Coramandel Wood), is met with, and is used as 
a substitute for ebony. 

DIOSPYROS KAKL— |i5(Shih), |Jc ^ (Juan-tsao). The 
fruit of this tree, which is common in China and Japan, is the 
persim?}iofi^ a large, thin-skinned, juicy fruit, of an orange or 
yellowish color, and having a sweet taste when fully ripe. 
The taste of the unripe fruit is exceedingly astringent. Traces 
of the eight-celled character of the fruit, which presents a 
great variety of shapes, sizes, and tints, are sometimes met 
with. The Chinese ripen the fruits artificially by inserting 
one or more splints of bamboo into them by the side of the 
stem, which hastens the process of softening. These, however, 
lack the fine flavor of the naturally ripened fruit. The 
persimmon appears in several forms in Chinese medicine. 
There is an artificially ripened fruit, called '}^ \% (Hung-shih), 
which is produced by placing the unripe fruit in a vessel con- 
taining leaves and allowing a process of fermentation to go on 
until the fruit is ripe. It is said to become as sweet as honey 
under this process, and is used as an antifebrile, antivinous, 
and demulcent remedy. Another form is called ^ \^ (Pai-shih) 
and \^ ^ (Shih-shuang). This is prepared by taking off the 
skin of the fruits, and then exposing them to the sunlight by 
day and the dew by night until they are dry, when a whitish 
powder will have gathered upon them. The persimmons dried 
in this way are called \^ % (Shih-ping), 1157. The medicinal 
properties of the persimmon are thought to be much enhanced 

vp:getablk kingdom. 153 

by the process employed in the preparation of this product. In 
addition to the properties already described, anthelmintic, 
restorative, expectorant, and anti-hemorrhagic virtues are as- 
cribed, and it is recommended in virulent sores and ulcers. It is 
also said to be an antidote to wood-oil poison. Another form 
of the dried fruit is the ^ |^ (Wu-shih), which is prepared by 
drying in the heat and smoke of a fire. This is not to be 
confounded, as does Porter Smith, with ^ /JC (Wu-mu), which 
is Maba cboios (see that article). This form of the persimmon 
is prescribed as an anthelmintic, in wounds as an anodyne, to 
check fluxes, and to prevent nausea after taking other medi- 
cines. |f|[ \% (Lin-shih) are preserved persimmons, and are of 
two kinds : those kept over by being simply covered with water, 
and those preserved in salt. The former are considered to be 
cooling, while the latter are said to be sligiitly poisonous. 
They are regarded as being beneficial to the spleen and stomach, 
and to dissolve stagnant blood. Persimmon confection, [^ %% 
(Shih-kao), is made by beating together one peck of glutinous 
rice and fifty dried persimmons, and then steaming the mix- 
ture until it is cooked done. It is recommended to be eaten by 
children in cases of autumnal dysentery, as well as in other 
forms of flux. The fruit calyces, \^ '^f^ (Shih-ti), 11 59, are 
prescribed in decoction in obstinate cough and dyspnoea. The 
bark and wood are prescribed as astringents in fluxes and as 
styptics in wounds and ulcers. The root is recommended as a 
universal astringent, la ^^ 5^3 (Chen-t'on-chia) is said to be 
the INIongolian (Turkic) name for the persimmon. 

DIOSPYROS LOTUS.— g- jl J- (Chiin-ch'ien-tziis ^ 
^ (Suan-tsao), 1205, M ^ (Hei-tsao), 368, |j: ^ (Juau-tsao), 
^ ^ ^ ( Yang-shih-tsao), In the case of some of the foregoing 
names there is uncertainty as to whether D/os/>yros or Ziziphus 
is meant. The Pentsao gives a number of other names, which 
refer chiefly to the shape of the fruit. It also says that the 
fruit resembles the date, but that the tree is like the persimmon. 
The fruits are considered to be antifebrile, and are also used 
to promote secretion. They ward oflf evil influence, and when 
eaten for some time, give a pleasing appearance to the coun- 
tenance, and strength and lightness to the body. 


DIPHYLLEIA.— ^ ^ (Kiiei-cliiii), ^ Ijtfl -;§ (Tn-chio-lien), 
A f^ j^ (Pa-cbio-lieii). Faber identifies the first as AHscsma 
heterophylla^ and in Hiipeh the second also signifies Ariscema. 
Henry found the last to be Podophyllmn versipelle^ while Bret- 
schneider found that plants raised from Tn-chio-lien seed pro- 
cured at Peking proved to be Typhcniium gigantenm. It is not 
quite clear whether Kjiei-chin is Diphylleia or Podophyllum. A 
large number of names are given in the Pentsao as the equiva- 
lents oi Kuei-chin^ but it is probable that several different plants 
are confounded in these names. The plant described grows 
in shady places in mountains. It seems to be akin to the North 
American "umbrella plant." The root is perennial, and each 
year sends up a stalk, which on dying at the end of the season 
leaves a depression, or "eye," which is likened to a mortar 
f3). Anthelmintic and antiseptic properties are ascribed to the 
drug, which consists of the root of the plant, and it is used in the 
treatment of coughs, malaria, cancerous sores, snakebite and 
arrow poisoning, retained dead foetns, and pernicious janndice. 
That the root itself is regarded as poisonous may be inferred 
from the variety of virulent diseases for which it is prescribed. 

DIPSACUS.— If if (Hsii-tuan), 474. At Peking this is 
Dipsacus japoniciis^ but at Hankow it is Dipsacus asper. In 
Japan it is Laviiiim album. It is also called ^ ^ (Chieh-ku), 
as it is considered capable of joining together broken bones. 
The roots are met with in commerce in short pieces, very hard, 
brown, and wrinkled, and of a dirty white color in the interior. 
The taste is sweetish, mucilaginous, and with a bitterish after- 
taste. The root is the part used in medicine. It is considered 
to be tonic in exhausting diseases, wounds, tumors, fractures, 
and ruptured tendons (as its names indicate), suppression of the 
secretion of milk, dysmenorrhoea, hemorrhage, and is employed 
in hemorrhoids, cancer of the breast, ante- and post-partum 
difficulties of every kind, incontinence of urine, and threatened 
abortion. The best quality of the drug is called ]\\ ^ ^ 
(Ch 'uan-hsii-tuan). 

DOLICHOS CULTRATUS.— 1,| S (Ch'iao-tou). This 
is a Japanese identification of a bean similar to Dolichos lablab^ 
but black in color, with a white line through the hilum, on 


which account it receives its name of "magpie bean." 
Bretschneider says that it is the same as the ^jj- ^ (Liao-tou) 
mentioned in tlie Customs Lists, 718. Tiie Pentsao does not 
distinguish between this and Dolichos lab/ab, and does not 
assign to it any special medical properties. 

DOLICHOS LABLAB.— ^ £ (Pien-tou), 102 1. Com- 
mon names are y^ ,|| ^_ (. Yen-li-tou), "fence-climbing bean," 
from its climbing habit, and 4J? ^ Jl (E-mei-tou), from the 
appearance of the seed. The young pods of this bean are 
eaten as a vegetable, and the ripe seeds are also eaten boiled. 
The seed is, according to variety, black, white, red, and 
variegated. Only the white bean, 957, is discussed in the 
Pintsao^ where it is said that those suffering from fevers should 
not eat it. It is tonic to the viscera, and if eaten habit- 
ually, will prevent the hair from turning gray. Taken with 
vinegar, it is used in cholera morbus. It relieves flatulence, 
is anti-vinous and antidotal to fish poison, as well as to every 
form of vegetable poison. It relieves diarrhoea, reduces fever 
heat from sunstroke, and quenches thirst. The flowers are 
prescribed in menorrhagia and leucorrhoea, besides being recom- 
mended in the same diseases as the beau. The leaves are also 
employed in similar cases, and applied as a poultice in snake 
bite. Even the vine is used as a medicament in cholera. 

DOLICHOS SINENSIS, Dolichos umbellatjis.—^ ^ 
(Chiang-tou). This is a cultivated bean, found in several 
varieties ; the pods varying in color. The virtues ascribed are 
those of "controlling the viscera, benefiting the breath, restor- 
ing the kidneys, strengthening the stomach, harmonizing the 
abdominal organs, subduing the passions, preserving life, in- 
vigorating the marrow, quenching thirst, preventing nausea, 
checking diarrhoea and frequent urination." 

DRABA NEMORALIS.— p ^ (l^'^g-li), 1307. The 
plant to which is applied this Chinese name is evidently a 
crucifer, with the probabilities in favor of the above identifica- 
tion. Tatarinov called it Sisymbrium ; Lonreiro, Lcpidiu7n 
petresuni ; and in Japan the name is applied i'j Nasturtium 


pahistre and Arahis perfoliata. The classical name of the 
plant is '^ (Tien). Other names are ^pj r^ (Kou-chi;, •}^ '^ 
(Ta-shih), and ;f; i^ (Ta-shih). Th.e plant very much resem- 
bles mustard. The seeds are small, yellow, and very bitter- 
Li Shih-chen says there are two kinds of this product — the 
sweet and the bitter — and that the former is called jfij ^ ;,Kou- 
chieh), "dog mustard." The seeds are the part used in 
medicine, and are boiled with glutinous rice for this purpose. 
They are said to act as a demulcent, laxative, and deobstruant 
drug, and are given in dropsy, dysuria, amenorrhoea, coughs, 
and fevers. Externally they are used for decayed teeth, tinea, 
and poisonirrg from horse sweat entering a wound (possibly 

DRYANDRA CORD AT A.— ^^ -^ \^ (Ying-tzu-t'ung). 
This is the same as ElCEOcocca verrucosa. ^ ( Ying) is an earth- 
enware jar, carried by a string rurr through the ears. This 
character is here used in allusion to the shape of the fririt. 
The same character is used in the name for the poppy, in 
reference to the shape of the capsule. Another name for this 
tree is jr^ -^ '^ (Hu-tzu-t'ung), "tiger seed t'ung," in ref- 
erence to the violently poisonous character of the seeds. Still 
another name is f3£ '^ (Jen-t'ung), from the shape of the seeds 
being similar to a bean called by this distinguishing character. 
Then, finally and commonly, it is called fflt tlsl (Yu-t'ung), 
"oil t'ung,', from the fact that from it is produced the oil 
known as ^[5] •^ ^| (T'ung-tzu-yu ), " t'ung-seed-oil." This 
tree is extensively cultivated in the Yangtse valley, and is also 
well known in Japan. The Phttsao says in regard to it and its 
product : " It grows in the hills, and the tree is like the Steradia 
piatanifolia. That of which the people in the south make oil 
is the f^ )^ (Kang-t'ung, " ridge-t'ung "). The seeds are 
larger tharr those of Sterciilia. In the early spring a flower is 
produced, in color a pale red, and in shape like a drum. The 
flower changes into a tube, in which are found the seeds out of 
which the oil is made." The above are quotations from ancient 
works. Li Shih-chen says: "Ridge-t'ung is a purple flowered 
Pixiiloiviiia. The branches, trunk, leaves, and flowers of the 
Yu-t'ung are similar to the Ridge-t'ung, but smaller. The 


tree grows more slowly, and the flowers are slightly redder. 
But its fruit is large and round, and in each fruit there are two 
or four seeds, as large as those of the ;/y; ;fg ^ (Ta-feng-tzu, 
Gvnocardia odorata^ Lucrabau seeds). Internally they are 
white, the taste is sweetish, and the action is emetic. It is 
also called ' purple-flowered-t'ung,' and is extensively cultivated 
by men, who plant and collect the seeds for the business of 
oil-making. The oil is used by painters for oiling and caulking 
boats. It is often adulterated, but if a bamboo-splint ring 
will pick it up like the head of a drum, it is genuine. The 
oil is sweetish, slightly acrid, cooling, and very poisonous." 
Its action is emetic, and, strange to say, alcohol is considered 
to be antidotal to its action. It is applied externally to parasitic 
skin diseases and wounds, as well as to scalds and burns. Its 
emetic action is taken advantage of in asthma and coughs. 
Wine-nose and broken chilblains are also treated with it. The 
oil also enters into the composition of nearly all of the ordinary 
Chinese plasters. 

DRYMOGLOSSUM C ARNOSUM. — !Ji|, ^ ^ (Lo-yen- 
ts'ao), iMM ^ (Ching-mien-ts'ao). This "snail-shell grass," 
or " mirror- face grass," is a fern which grows in rocky places, 
and is of a reddish color. As a poultice, or in decoction, it is 
applied to swellings, fetid feet, and the like. It is also taken 
internally in hemorrhages, such as hematuria, hematemesis, 
and nose bleed. It is used principally, however, in felons and 
animal bites. 

pJiora. This tree is found in the islands of the Malaysian 
archipelago, and is also said to be found in Kuangtung and 
Fukien, although there seems to be no Chinese name for it 
recorded in the books. The steareopten derived from it, which 
is similar in composition to camphor, is known in commerce as 
Borneo, or Baroos, camphor. The name most commonly 
used for it in Chinese is -/X Yx' (Piug-p'ien), 1029, ^^"^ there 
are several names for this product, such as, fl (I^} ^ (Lung- 
nao-hsiang), |^ fg )^ (Mei-hua-p'ieni, || ^ ^ f^ (Chieh-p'o- 
lo-hsiang), and ^ f|: # (P*o-lu-hsiang). ^ |J^ (Mi-nao), 


jg B^ (Su-nao\ and ^ ^]^ )]^ (Chiii-chiao-uao) are mentioned in 
the Pentsao as names of varieties of this drug, brought from 
the Indien archipelago. ^ -/J^ )^ (Ch'ing-ping-p'ien) and 
JtJL 7K )r 'Ni-ping-p'ien) are names given by Dr. Williams to 
indicate the two sorts, clean and dirty, brought to the Chinese 
market. ^ f| )f^ (Ts'ang-lung-nao) is the name of a very 
pure, greyish, crystalline variety, said to be much stronger than 
any of the other sorts. This steareopten is a natural product, 
found in the cellular space of the wood. The most common 
port of shipment of this valuable substance is Baroos, on the 
west coast of Sumatra ; hence one of the English names. The 
tree is straight, with a tall stem sometimes twenty feet thick, 
overtopping with its huge crown other large trees to the extent 
of some scores of feet. The natives describe three kinds of 
this tree, named the Mailangnan^ Markiii tiiugan^ and the 
Mar kin targan^ all distinguished by the mere color of their 
bark. The dark-green, oval, pointed leaves are tough and 
camphoraceous. The acorn - like fruit, compared by the 
Chinese to that of the cardamom, is eaten as a relish, or as a 
sweetmeat by the natives. The trees are cut down in April 
or May, while fruiting, and the whole of the immense trunk 
is split up and sacrificed to find the grains or flat pieces of 
crystalized camphor, the largest of which rarely exceeds half 
an inch across. They are met with in crevices or cells in the 
body of the tree, and more frequently in the swellings of the 
branches as they issue from the trunk. One tree may yield as 
much as a half pound. It is met with in commerce in crystal- 
lized, reddish-white grains, which upon closer inspection are 
seen to be mixed with particles of a purer white color. Large 
colorless crystals are seldom met with in the north. Hanbury 
says that it "has the odor of common or laurel camphor, 
mixed with something that has been likened to patchouli. It 
is less volatile than laurel camphor, and has a greater specific 
gravity, so that it sinks in water." Its composition is C,oH,80, 
that of ordinary camphor being C10H16O. It is isomeric with 
Ngai camphor (see Blinnca balsajnifcra). 

This drug is considered to be poisonous, and is little used 
as an internal remedy. It has been used by persons attempting 
suicide, but it is doubtful whether it will destroy the life of a 


healthy person, and would not commend itself to many for 
this purpose on account of its high price, being wortii its own 
weight of silver. It is said to have diaphoretic, sedative, 
stimulant, antispasmodic, arthritic, anthelmintic, and escharotic 
properties. It is applied as a powder to chancres, buboes, 
carbuncles, and eczematous sores. It enters into the composition 
of the better class of dusting powders, so agreeable in prickly- 
heat and other eruptions. It is also applied to opacities of the 
cornea, polypus of the nose, ranula, fistula, and to any disease 
affecting the five senses or any of the apertures of the body. 
Many of these recommendations are based upon merely theoret- 
ical grounds. The petty chiefs of Sumatra are said to embalm 
their dead with this costly substance. 

There is also an oil which exudes from the wood when the 
tree is felled and split up, and in Sumatra this oil is very 
cheap. It is not indentical with, and is superior in value 
to the ordinary Oil of camphor^ which is an uncrystallizable 
residue exuding from the freshly sublimed laurel camphor to 
the amount of three or four per cent. It might be suggested 
that either of these oils, and preferably the former, would 
make a cheap and excellent embrocation. 

i »u B a o o o fc^ ^" 



756. Another name is |Jj^ ]^J (Yeli-laii), wild EupatoriiDH. 
Also 5^5 '^y\ XCliia-hao), arteniisia with pods, 011 account of 
its resemblancfe to Artoiiisia. Still another name given in 
the Pcnlsao is ^ ff{i ]^% (Kuei-yu-ma), but this is, in all prob- 
ability, another plant, may be Syphonostcgia. The identifi- 
cation used here is Faber's, but without doubt the Chinese 
confound several plants under the above names. The plant 
is said to have a general resemblance to Arteuiisia.^ Iiicar- 
villca^ and Sesaniiini ; so it is little w^onder that the Chinese, 
with their lack of any definite system of classification, should 
have confounded these. The plant has a quill-like stem, 
and grows to the height of four or five feet. It bears yellow 
flowers, and fruits in a pod. When dry, the pods, as well 
as the whole plant, turn very dark, almost black in color. 
Various parts are used in medicine, but the P^ntsao mentions 
particularly the root and shoots. The root goes by the name of 
M ^ft ^ (Lu-li-ken). It is considered to be a very efficacious 
and beneficial remedy, and is prescribed for virulent ulcers 
and sores, failure of secretion of milk, to check exhausting 
discharges, as an anthelmintic, and it is recommended for 
use in the bath. 

ECUPTA ALBA.— il I| (Li-ch'ang% #. -f ^ (Han- 
lien-ts'ao), 359. A number of other names are given in 
the Pentsao for this plant. Its identification is tolerably 
certain, although Braun in the Hankow list called the product 
'■^ dried lilies^\f The plant when broken exudes a black, 
sticky juice, on which account it is called ^ ^ (Mo-ts'ai), 
"ink-vegetable." It grows in damp soil to the height of 
one or two feet, has a white flower, and seeds like the Inula. 
A yellow flowered kind is spoken of, but this is confounded 
with Forsythia. The medicinal action of the plant is said to 
be astringent, checking hemorrhage and fluxes, and it is used 
to blacken the hair, tighten the teeth, and in all sorts of eye 


EL^AGNUS LONGIPES. — ^ H ^ (Hu-t*ui-tzii). 
This is an evergreen tree or shrub, growing in northern China 
and Mongolia, bearing a drupe similar to that of Cornus 
officinalis. Besides several names which are possibly translit- 
erations of Turkic or Mongol names, it is called ^ §1 @^ 
(Ch'iao-erh-su), '' bird-cheese," because the birds are fond of the 
fruit. The parts used in medicine are the seeds, the root, and 
the leaves. The fruit should not be us:d in fever, and is 
prescribed only in watery diarrhoeas. The root is used in 
decoction as a wash for foul sores and itch in man, and for 
sores on dogs and horses. It is also administered as an 
astringent in hemoptysis. The leaves are prescribed for coughs. 

EL^OCOCCA CORDATA. See Dryandra cordata. 

(Ch'ih-ch'e-shih-che). This is a red leaved, red stemmed, 
purple rooted plant, growing in the central provinces, and 
belonging to the foliage plants. The root is the part used. It 
is acrid, bitter, and poisonous, and is prescribed for colds, 
worm poison, and flatulence. It is said to improve the flesh 
and the color of the skin, and is probably stomachic and tonic. 

ELSHOLTZIA CRISTATA.— :f ^ (Hsiaug-ju), 413a. 
This plant occurs both in the wild and the cultivated states, 
and seems to have its natural habitat in the central provinces. 
It is grown in gardens, and is used as a pot-herb or condiment. 
It is carminative, astringent, and stomachic, is prescribed in 
fluxes, dropsy, and nausea, and if taken during the summer 
months is supposed to ward off fevers. Nosebleed and burning 
of the feet are treated with it. The plant has several other 
names given to it in the PSntsao. 

EPHEDRA VULGARIS.— it % (Ma-huang), 801. This 
is a common plant in north China and Mongolia. The prin- 
cipal supply of the drug seems to have come from Honan 
province. The plant, with its leafless branches, has a slight 
resemblance to Equisetmn^ and in Japan as well as in China 
has been confounded with this latter. It bears yellow flowers, 
and produces red, edible berries, which have been likened to 


the raspberry. Pistillate and staminate flowers are borne on 
different plants. The drug consists of the yellow, jointed stems 
of the plant, tied up in bundles, or the stems from which the 
joints have been rejected, cut up into a chafF-like mass. The 
reason for rejecting the joints is because they are considered 
to have a medical action differing from, and in a measure 
counteracting that of the stems. The action is represented 
as decidedly diaphoretic and antipyretic. It is prescribed in 
fevers, especially malarial fever, in coughs, influenza, and 
post-partum difficulties. Its use should not be long continued, 
lest it weaken the body. 

The root, which is also known as ^ i^ (Kou-ku), together 
with the joints, is considered to have an action directly opposed 
to that of the stem, and is therefore prescribed in profuse 
sweating, either critical or natural. It is used as a dusting 
powder, applied to the whole body. Although it probably has 
some astringent property, it is not recommended for any other 
difficulty, or to be used in any different way. The fruit is 
mucilaginous, with a slightly acrid or pungent flavor, and is 
eaten by the Chinese. 

EPIG^A ASIATICA. — llj ff^ (a (vShan-p'i-p'a). There 
is no description of this in the books, and Li Shih-chen only 
says that the charred twigs, pulverized and mixed with honey, 
are very efficacious in the treatment of scalds and burns. The 
ideutificatiou is Faber's. 

EPIMEDIUM SAGITTATUM. See AccrantJms sagit- 

EPIPHYTES. — The Chinese do not distinguish between 
epiphytes and parasites. Nearly all proper epiphytes %o by 
the name of ^ ^ (Chi-sheng), to which is prefixed the name 
of the tree upon which they are found. The medical prop- 
erties of the epiphyte in most cases are supposed to be some- 
what similar to those of the plant upon which it grows. 
There is therefore no sort of classification of these plants. The 
only ones especially mentioned in the Pentsao are the mulberry 
epiphyte^ the peach epiphyte^ and the willow epipJiyte^ and 


these are classed along with such things as Aindera.nd Pachyma 
cocos under the general heading of ^ /fc (Yii-mu), "dwellers 
on wood." These epiphytes have been identified as varieties of 
Lora7itJms and Visciim^ and will be treated of under those titles. 
(See also Dendrobiiim^ Fiingi^ Mushrooms^ ari Packy7?ia.) 

EQUISETUM ARVENSE.— Pp! fll (Wan-ching). This 
is spoken of in the Pentsao under the next article, from which 
it does not seem to be clearly distinguished. It is said to grow 
in Hi by the side of streams, to have a shoot similar to that 
of Eqieiseium hyemale^ and on account of its peculiar jointed 
appearance, it is sometimes called ^ |i ^ (Chieh-hsil-ts'ao). 
It is prescribed in decoction as an anodyne and carminative. 

EQUISETUM HYEMALE.— Tf; US (Mu-tsei), 877. This 
is found in Kansu and Shensi growing in watery places. It is 
likened to, and perhaps sometimes confounded with. Ephedra. 
It grows to considerable length, and, on account of the large 
amount of silicious material which it incloses, is used to 
polish wood. The drug, as used by the Chinese, consists of 
the leafless, striated, fistular stems, deprived of their cuticular 
sheathes, and reduced to a coarse powder. It is used as an 
astringent remedy in a variety of difficulties, such as ophthal- 
mia, fluxes, menorrhagia, leucorrhcea, epiphora, various 
hemorrhages, and prolapse of the rectum. It is also recom- 
mended in irritable uterus during pregnancy, and as an anti- 
dote in case of having swallowed copper cash. 

ERANTHIS KEISKIL— ^ ^ (T'u-k'uei). This is a 
Japanese identification. It is not certain that this may not 
be an Anemone^ a Hibiscus^ or a Malva. The figures and 
descriptions given in the Chinese books are not clear. It is 
also called ^ ^ (T'ien-k'uei) and ^ % '^ (Lei-wan-ts'ao). 
It seems to be a small Malva-like plant, bearing a white flower, 
and with thick green leaves, slightly purplish on the under 
side. Its habitat is said to be Szechuan. The medical use of 
the shoot is as an antilithic, and it is said to be antidotal and 
anodyne in case of animal and reptile bites. The shoot seems 
to be the only part recommended for use in medicine. 


ERGOT. — As rye does not grow in China, true ergot is 
not found. A decoction of the shoots oi Avena fatua (^ ^, 
Ch'iao-mai) is given to parturient women to excite uterine 
contractions, and it may be surmised that there is an ergot- 
like growth on these shoots. The Pentsao describes a growth 
appearing on the heads of wheat and barley when the grain is 
nearly ripe, which it calls ^ ^ (Mai-nu). But this is prob- 
ably a rust or smut, as no special action upon the uterus 
has been discovered under its use. (See Avena fatua^ HoV' 
deu7n^ Triticum^ and Zea mays.) 

ERIANTHUS JAPONICUS.— •£ (Mang). This is a 
grass, also called "g "^ (Pa-mang) or "^ ^ (Pa-mao), and used 
for making screens and fences. In Hupeh it is called A i ii^ 
(Pa-wang-ts'ao). It is also used to make ropes, boxes, and 
shoes, and the awns are used for brooms. The stem is used 
in decoction, or the juice of the green plant is employed, as a 
dressing in animal bites and to promote the absorption of 
extra vasated blood. It is claimed that worn out boxes made 
of this grass may be employed in the preparation of the decoc- 
tion with wine, equally well as the plant itself, and it is there- 
fore to be presumed that old shoes and ropes made of the 
substance would be found similarly useful for this purpose. 

is the same as Erigeron acre. It is a very common weed of 
north China and Mongolia, but strange to say it is not de- 
scribed in any of the Chinese medical works consulted. In 
Japan the same character is used for Coiiyza atnbigua. This 
being a "tumble weed," blown about by the winds, it is to 
be presumed that the Chinese would have thought it useful 
to quicken the circulation or give sprightliness to the muscles, 
or something of thatsort. 

ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA.— tifc fa (P'i-p'a). This is 
the "loquat," or Japanese w^'^f^/^^r. Its Chinese name is said 
to be derived from the shape of the leaves, which are likened 
to that of the Chinese guitar, || ^ (P'i-p'a). The term 
joquat, however, is a transliteration of the Cantonese sound 


of J^ ;f^ rLu-cliu), which is another name for the *' cumquat,*' 
or golden orange. Just how this name came to be applied by 
foreigners to the fruit of the Eriobotrya is uncertain, as the 
Chinese books do not indicate any such use. However, it 
seems that this term has gained currency in California, where 
this fruit is now extensively grown. The fruit, leaves, flowers, 
and inner bark of the tree are used in medicine. The fruit, if too 
freely eaten, is thought to injure the spleen, and if taken with 
roast meat and hot bread will produce jaundice. Medicinally, 
it is employed to relieve thirst and nausea and to palliate 
cough. The most important medicinal virtues are ascribed to 
the leaves (1012). In decoction, they are used to relieve vomit- 
ing and cough, as well as in local application to ulcers, nose- 
bleed, wine nose, chapped face, and smallpox ulcers. The 
flowers are used in coryza. If the bark is chewed and the juice 
swallowed, it is said to relieve nausea and vomiting. 

ERIOCAULON.— ^ ^ % (Ku-ching-ts'ao), 619. Sev- 
eral species of this genus go under the same Chinese name. 
That mentioned in the P^ntsao is a troublesome weed in fields 
springing up after the grain has been harvested, and supposed 
to be produced spontaneously from the aura of the grain ; hence 
its name, "grain essence grass." It bears small leaves and 
tiny, star-shaped flowers, and in reference to this last fact it 
receives several names. The plant is fed to horses, with a 
view to preventing or curing intestinal worms. The flowers 
are used in medicine, especially in hemicrania and other head- 
aches. They are also used as an astringent in nosebleed 
opacity of the cornea, especially that following smallpox, and 
as an anodyne in cephalic diseases and sunstroke. The drug, 
as described in the Customs list, comes in bundles of the dried 

ch'ang-ts'ao). This is the same as TrigoiiHis pedtmc7ilaris. 
It is a common plant in gardens and courtyards. Children 
express the juice of the plant and mix it with spider web to 
use for catching cicadas. When chewed, the plant produces 
a very viscous juice. It is used in medicine as a diuretic, and 


as an emollient application in wounds. It is also recom- 
mended as a bland remedy in diarrhoea and the dysenteries of 

EUCOMMIA ULMOIDES.— ;^ i^ (Tu-chnng), 1362. 
This tree is found in Hupeh, Konan, Shensi, and Sliansi, and 
has been so identified by Oliver and at Kew. In Japan it is 
Eaonymiis jap07iiais. Another name is Tf; f^ (Mu-mien), which 
is the same as that of the cotton tree, Bonibax nialabariciim. 
This name refers to the fact that on breaking the bark, and 
drawing the fractured edges asunder, a delicate, silvery, silky 
fibre is seen, which may be drawn out to the length of almost 
an incli without breaking. The leaves of the tree are eateu 
when young, and the wood was formerly used to make pattens. 
The bark is the part used in medicine, and is met with in 
quilled or shrivelled pieces of four to five inches in length. 
The brown, roughened cuticle is often removed in greatest 
part, exposing the dark brown liber. The flowers, fruit, and 
wood are astringent, and may be used in medicine. The action 
of the bark is considered to be tonic, arthritic, diuretic, and 
depurative, and is especially prescribed in difficulties of the 
liver, kidneys, puerperal diseases, and excessiv^e perspirations. 
The use of the young leaves (called ^ ^, Mien-ya) as food, is 
thought to promote the elimination of poisonous effluvia, and to 
prevent hemorrhoids. 

875, 1305. See Ca}yophyllus aroviaticus. 

This is the same as Etioiiymus alahis. Other names for it are 
^ ^ (Kuei-chien), "devils' arrow," and %^ ^ (Shen-chien), 
"angels' arrow." It grows in the mountains, and is a shrub 
with quadrangular, winged branches, and is known where it 
grows by the name of jzg |^ © (Ssii-leng-shu), "four-angled 
tree," and also as :^ ^ ^ (Ch'a-yeh-shu), "tea-leaf tree." 
An infusion of the flowers is used as a substitute for tea. The 
wood of the tree is called fSj ^ (Kou-ku^, "dog's bone," and 
is used only for fuel. Apparently the branches are the part 


used in medicine. Astringent, anodyne, anthelmintic, and cor- 
rective powers are ascribed to the drug, and it is especially 
prescribed in menstrual and post-partum hemorrhages, and iu 
pernicious malaria. 

EUPATORIUM.— ^ m (Tse-lan), 1355, ff ]^ Han- 
ts' ao). Faber makes the latter of these to be Eupatorium 
lindlcyanuni. The species of the former is unidentified, and 
the term may refer to more than one species. In the Pentsao^ 
which discusses the two under separate headings, a large 
number of synonymous names is given in each case ; in some 
instances the same name being found under both headings. Li 
Shih-chen says, " TheZ^/z-Z-yV^and the 7j-<^-/«;7 are two species 
of the same genus, and both grow on the borders of water 
courses or in swamps. They have perennial roots, purple, 
branched stems, with red joints, and opposite, slightly serrated 
leaves issuing from the joints. But the Lan-ts^ao has a round 
stem, long joints, and glabrous leaves, whilst the Ts^-Ian has a 
nearly square stem, short joints, and leaves covered with hair. 
The flowers are in spikes, and are reddish-white." The parts 
used medicinally in each case are the leaves. Diuretic, anthel- 
mintic, and restorative properties are ascribed to the leaves of 
the Lan-ts' ao^ and they are used in colds and general debility. 
They are also considered to be antidotal to various poisons, 
and when made into a pomade will promote the growth of the 
hair. The leaves of the Tse-lan have similar properties, and 
are used, as well, as an anodyne and nerve sedative in the 
disturbances of pregnancy and the puerperal condition. They 
are highly recommended for their constructive properties. The 
roots, which are called j^ ^ (Ti-sun), and are sometimes 
eaten for food, are considered beneficial to the circulation, and 
restorative to women after child-birth. The seeds are prescribed 
for the thirty-six diseases of women. 

EUPHORBIA HELIOSCOPIA.— P f^ (Tse-ch'i). This 
is the same as Euphorbia liumlata. The Chinese name means 
"marsh varnish," and refers to the white, viscid juice which 
the plant contains. It is a common wayside plant in mid- 
China. The floral leaves are round and yellow, resembling the 


pupil of a cat's eye, and for this reason the plant is called |g 
51, IIS 3h ;^(Mao-erh-yen-ching-ts'ao). On account of its green 
leaves and green flowers it is also called ^ M M ^ M (Lh-yeh- 
lii-hua-ts'ao). The stalk and leaves are the parts used in 
medicine. They are prescribed in fevers, dropsies (especially 
anasarca"), malaria, and as an anthelmintic. The young shoots 
of the plant are sometimes eaten as food. 

EUPHORBIA HUMIFUSA.— Ji^ M (Ti-chin). This 
plant has a large number of common names, referring to such 
thino-s as its nocturnal blooming habit, the form of its flower, 
the use to which it is put medicinally, and the like. It is a 
very common creeping plant, found in fields and gardens, has a 
reddish stalk, and bears a reddish-yellow flower. The whole 
plant is employed in medicine ; its chief uses being that of an 
anthelmintic remedy, and in menorrhagia, dysentery, corroding 
ulcers, hematuria, and hemorrhages from the bowels. All 
sorts of discharging wounds and sores seem to be treated with 
it. It is also used topically in decoction for the treatment of 
impetigo, scabies, and other skin diseases. 

EUPHORBIA LATHYRIS.— if ^ (Ui-ju). In Japan 
this is Euphorbia sieboldiana^ and another species which is 
given in the Pentsao wvl^^x. this same title, and called i^ ]{|] ^ 
(Ts'ao-lii-ju), is there EupJiorbia pahistris. In the Customs lists 
(115) is given a product called ^ ^'^ (Ch'ien-chin-ts'ao) for 
which this identification is suggested. The plant is mentioned 
in the appendix to the Peiitsao^ where its resemblance to the 
spurges is pointed out. The flowers, seeds, and herbage are 
all prescribed in diarrhoeas. There is also another mentioned, 
called ^ p^ !^ (P^'ei-yang-ts'ao), 299, identified as Euphorbia 
pihdifera^ but this has not been found in the books. The Lil-jii is 
a common mountain plant, growing from two to three feet high, 
and has a large long root like that of the radish, sometimes 
forked, with a yellowish-red skin, and white flesh containing 
a yellow sap. The stem and leaves resemble those of other 
spurges, and when broken they discharge a white sap. The 
flowers are purple, the fruit the size of a pea. The root is 
the part used in medicine, and is thought to have slightly 


poisonous properties. It is considered to be antiseptic and anti- 
putrefactive, and is used in decoction as a wash for foul ulcers, 
gangrenous throat, and skin diseases. It is not much used 

EUPHORBIA PEKINENSIS.— :^ $^ (Ta-chi), 1215. 
In Japan this is Eiipharhia lasiocaiila. It is a common marsh 
plant, growing to the height of two or three feet, and having 
a hollow stem. The stem, when broken, discharges a white 
juice. The purple plant of Hangchow, 539, is considered to 
be the best for medicinal purposes. The root is the part used 
in medicine, is thought to be poisonous, and has a bitter acrid 
taste, causing a sensation of scratching in the throat. It is a 
favorite remedy with the Chinese for the kit (^1 disease, 
dropsies, persistent nausea and vomiting, and for diarrhoeas. 
It is thought to have specific action on the bowels and kidneys, 
and to quiet the uterus in pregnancy. A number of popular 
prescriptions contain this as the principal ingredient. The 
acrid juice secured from the stem of the plant is said to cure 

EUPHORBIA SIEBOLDIANA.— # 51 (Kan-sui), 584. 
This is a Japanese identification, which Faber follows. Henry 
called it Wickstrcemia^ which again Faber adopts. Tatarinov 
considered it to be Passerina^ in which he is followed by 
Porter Smith. This plant is also a common weed found grow- 
ing in mid-China, especially in Shensi and Kiangsu. The 
stem and leaves contain the same kind of milky juice as is 
found in other spurges. The root has a reddish skin and white 
flesh. It is cylindrical, or eliptical, in shape, and smells some- 
what like ginger. As sold on the market, the tubers are 
usually separated, and as a rule much worm-eaten. They are 
administered in anasarca, ascites, tympanitis, hernia, hydrocele, 
and dysuria. The drug is also applied to aching parts to 
relieve pain and numbness, and is thought to relieve deafness. 

EURYALE FEROX.— ^ ^ (ChMen-shih), 125. Tlais 
plant, of the order of water lilies, has, like the lotus, been 
cultivated throughout China from remote antiquity. Its fariu- 


aceons seeds are i\sed as food. The popular name is '|f g^ (Chi- 
t'ou), from the resemblance of the flower to a cock's head. A 
number of similar names, having reference to the shape of the 
flower, are given in the P^ntsao. The whole plant is covered 
■with prickles, and has large leaves, with prominent, spiny 
veins. It is much cultivated for the sake of its stems, rhizomes, 
and seeds, all of which contain much starch and are used as 
food. A kind of dry biscuit is often prepared from the meal of 
the kernels. The large, pear-shaped, indehiscent fruits are 
many celled and filled with the oval seeds, which are compared 
by the Chinese to the eyes of fish. These seeds are of a 
reddish color, mottled and veined with a whitish marbling, 
and are pale at the hilum. The interior is white, hard, and 
starchy, and has a roughish taste. All parts of the plant are 
used in medicine, and are considered to be tonic, astringent, 
and deobstruent in their action. They are recommended in 
polyuria, spermatorrhoea, and gonorrhoea. The biscuit are 
fed to children suffering from the kan (^j disease. 

EVODIA RUT^CARPA. See Boymia riitcecarpa. 

EXIDIA AURICULA JUD^.— /f; 5 (Mu-erh). This 
is the same as Hii'iieola polytricha and Peziza auricula^ and 
is a common mushroom, or lichen, growing upon trees. The 
Chinese choose those which grow upon five kinds of trees — the 
mulberry, the Sophera, the paper mulberry, the elm, and the 
willow — of which that growing upon the mulberry is considered 
to be poisonous. The other four are used as food. Their 
action upon the system is considered to be very beneficial, 
giving lightness and strength to the body and strengthening 
the will. They are thought to aid in the cure of hemorrhoids 
and to prevent other hemorrhages. The mulberry epiphytes 
are considered to be especially useful for this purpose, and 
are prescribed in all sorts of hemorrhages. Those growing 
upon other trees are thought to have medical virtues some- 
what similar to those of the tree upon which they are found, 
but these will be mentioned under the appropriate article in 
each case. 



FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM.— ^ ^(Ch'iao-mai), 87. 
Other names are '^ ^ (Cli'iao-mai), ,|^ ^ (VVu-mai), and :j^ ^ 
(Hua-ch'iao). It is sometimes called vulgarly ^^ ^ (T'ien- 
ch'iao), "sweet buckwheat," to distinguish it from ^ ^ (K'u- 
ch'iao), "bitter buckwheat," spoken of in the next article. 
Buckivheat is an important crop in the central provinces of 
China, being much depended upon as food. It is therefore 
classed by the Chinese among the cereals, although it is a 
polygonaceous plant.- The small, triangular, uut-like fruits of 
this plant are very sweet and oily. When ground they make 
a very nourishing and digestible food. Pastry made from the 
dark colored dough of this flour is commonly sold in the streets. 
The crop must be cut before the frost, as the plant is very 
susceptible to cold. The use of buckv/heat as food is considered 
to be highly beneficial to all of the viscera, giving spirit and 
strength to the body. It is recommended as a diet in colic, 
choleraic diarrhoea, fluxes of all kinds, and abdominal obstruc- 
tions. Gravel, gonorrhoea, and eruptions in children are also 
thought to be benefited by its use. It is supposed to affect the 
growth of the hair, and a poultice of the meal is very effica- 
cious as an application to abscesses, carbuncles, and the like. 
The leaves and the stalks are also used in medicine ; the former 
being considered to be carminative, but, if taken in excess, to 
produce an eruption. The ashes of the latter are used in combi- 
nation with lime as an application to virulent sores, unhealthy 
granulations, and to the relief of centipede bites. 

FAGOPYRUM TARTARICUM.— ^ ^ ^ (K'u-ch'iao- 
mai). This "bitter buckwheat" is similar to Fagopyrian escu- 
leniujUy but is considered by the Chinese to be slightly poisonous, 
injuring the stomach and producing jaundice, if taken in 
excess. Its only use is found in the scraped bark being taken 
in combination with beau hulls, the seeds of Cassia tora^ and 
orange peel for making a pillow. This pillow, being habit- 
ually used on the bed, is considered to have a beneficial action 
on the eyes. 


FALLOPIA NERVOSA.— p ^ % (Hsieh-pao-yeh). A 
plant described as a tall shrub, found growing wild at ?^Iacao 
and Canton, and furnishing a tea leaf, is thus identified by 
Loureiro and Bridgeman. It is not found in the Pentsao. 
The name, f^ [Jj :^ (Hou-shan-ch'a), which is also given to it, 
is probably local, and does not iudentify it with the ^J )^ 
(Shan-ch'a), Camellia oleifera. 

FARFUGIUM K^MPFERL— ^ ^ (T'o-wu). This 
plant is so identified in Japan, but is described in the Phitsao 
under Titssilago farfara^ and is not discriminated from this 
latter. Its medicinal uses, therefore, will be referred to the 
article on Tussilago. 

FATSIA PAPYRIFERA.— jf ^ % (T'ung-t'o-mu), % 
;^ fT'ung-ts'ao), 1405. The second name given above is the 
common name of the plant, but it is also the term under which 
Akebia quinata is described in the Pdntsao. To prevent con- 
fusing these, this fact must be borne in mind. This aralia- 
cious plant, which is the same as Aralia papyri/era^ has been 
identified by Sir W. Hooker as the source of the rice paper 
used by Chinese women in the making of artificial flowers. 
This paper is also used by Chinese artists, who make brilliant 
paintings upon it. The plant is herbaceous, but some- 
times has a tree-like appearance. It grows plentifully ia 
Formosa, and has been found in Hupeh and Szechuan. Diu- 
retic, pectoral, galactagogue, anthelmintic, deobstruent, and 
antidotal properties are attributed to the plant. A decoction 
is used for washing sore heads. The pollen found upon the 
flowers is considered to be a specially efficacious application to 
infectious sores, hemorrhoids, and in consumption. The 
broken rice paper, called 5^ !^ ^ (T'ung-ts'ao-p'ien), and 
the rice paper cuttings, called jii ]^ ^ (T'uug-ts'ao-sui;, are 
used to absorb discharges from wounds. 


FERNS. — A large number of different kinds of ferns is 
found in China, but they have not been much studied, and 
only a few are mentioned in the Pe?itsao. Under the name 
of ^ (Chileh) and ^ (Wei) the Pentsao discusses the more 


common kinds, which are Pteris^ Osniunda^ and Jlncetoxicum^ 
and they will be further discussed under these titles. The 
young shoots of some kinds are eaten, and a kind of arrow-root 
is made from the rhizomes, which, after proper washing and 
cooking, are also eaten, in spite of their bitterness. Of course 
these things are only used as substitutes for food in times 
of famine, which is an index of the sad distress of the country 
at such times. Demulcent, diuretic, soporific, and vulnerary 
properties are ascribed to these roots. 

FERN and LYCOPODIUM SPORES.— 5^ ^ i<I? (Hai- 
chin-sha), 344, ft S '^- (Chu-yiien-sui). The fern which pro- 
duces these spores is found in all of the Yangtse provinces, 
from Szechuan to the sea. The fern grows in hilly districts 
in shady places, preferably among trees. Hence the second 
name above given, "bamboo garden coriander." The product, 
which is commonly called by the Chinese "golden sea-sand," 
is an exceedingly light, fine, reddish-brown powder, which 
burns almost as readily as Lycopodium powder. Its medicinal 
action is considered to be diuretic, antilithic, and sedative, and 
it is given in fevers, dysuria, hematuria, and other urinary 
disorders. It is suggested that it might be used as a substitute 
for lycopodium powder in pill making. 

FERULA.— M II fA-wei), ^ ]g (A-yii), ^ 1 (Hsiin- 
ch'ii), P^ # 't/g (Ha-hsi-ni). The Pentsao says that the first 
character given above is the equivalent of the interjection 
"Oh !" supposed to be uttered over this stinking gum resin. 
The second name given is the Persian equivalent, while in 
India it is called ^ |g (Hsing-ch'u), Sanscrit Hingu ; and 
another name said to be used in western Asia is ^ ^ (Yang- 
kuei). The last name given at the head of this article is the 
Mongolian, or Turkic, equivalent. The countries of Central 
Asia seem to be the source of supply, but it is said to be found 
growing also in the Kunlun mountains. As is the case with 
the European supply, the drug is probably derived from Ferula 
narthex and Ferula scorodosma^ as well as from other species. 
A very good description of the drug and its preparation are 
given in the Pentsao^ where the rarity of the genuine article 


is also spoken of. There is a saying to the effect that "of 
assaf(vfida there is none genuine ; of skullcap (a common herb> 
there is none sophisticated." Garlic, together with the pla- 
centa of a lying-in woman, or a dead foetus, is actually boiled 
in water and evaporated to produce an abominable compound 
as a substitute for this stinking drug. The Mongols use as- 
safoetida with meat as a condiment. The drug is said to be 
the exudation from both an herb and a tree. That prepared by 
pounding and boiling down the root is deemed superior to the 
simple exudation of the cut root. The yellow grained samples 
are said to be the best. Siamese and Sumatran assafoetida are 
said to be collected Wke ga>nboge^ with which they are perhaps 
confounded. Several tests for proving the genuineness of the 
drug are given in the PSfitsao ; one being that it should leave 
a white mark on a copper vessel after being kept in it over 
night. Deodorizing, anthelmintic, carminative, cordial, altera- 
tive, antispasmodic, deobstruent, alexipharmic, and antiperiodic 
properties are ascribed to it. It is said to assist in the diges- 
tion of every kind of meat, and to correct the poison of stale 
meats, meats of animals that have died of disease, and of edible 
mushrooms and herbs. Possibly one of the ascribed virtues 
which would prove most useful to ordinary humanity is that 
of suppressing the devil and driving out evil. The Pentsao 
does not say whether this is a result of the odor, or of an astral 
aura emanating from the second character of the name. This 
character is properly written ^ (Wei). It is possible that 
galbanum is also sometimes confounded with assafoetida. 

FICUS CARICA.— ^ -^ ^ (Wu-hua-kuo), R^ B :|| 
(Ying-jeh-kuo;, @ # i^ (Yu-t'an-po), PnJ |a (A-tsang). The 
first two names given above are the common names of the 
ordinary Chinese fig, and the third and fourth names are said 
to be those of the Cantonese and Persian varieties respectively. 
The Chinese fig, the natural habitat of which is probably the 
Yangtse valley, is a small, irregular shrub, bearing a fruit very 
'much smaller and inferior in quality to the Persian variety. 
'" In the article on this subject in the Pentsao^ three other fig- 
like plants are spoken of. One, the '% % %. (Wen-kuang- 
kuo), Faber identifies as Xanthoceras sorbifolia. Another, 


called ^ f[[i ^ (TMen-hsien-kuo), is Firus erecta ; while the 
third, whicii is unidentified, is called '^ )§, -^ (Kii-tii-tza). 
Stomachic and corrective qualities are ascribed to the fig, 
which is sometimes called ufc |g ^ ( Mu-man-t'ou), as is also 
the fruit ot Ficus pumila. The leaves, which are thought 
to be slightly poisonous, are recommended to be used to 
steam painful and swollen piles. Mr. Eitel (Handbook of 
Chinese Buddhism) gives ^^^>^i^ (Yu-yiin-po-lo) as the name 
of a tree, the Udumbara of the Buddhists, which is Finis 
glomerata. This may be the fig referred to by the third name 
at the head of this article. 

FICUS PUMILA,— ;fC ^ (Mu-lien), ^ ^ (Pi-li), /f; || p| 
(Mu-man-t'ou), % |^ B| (Kuei-nian-t'ou). Tlie Chinese names 
given to this plant are also applied to other plants. The first 
above given is used for the Magnolia^ while the third is equally 
applied to Fiats stipiilata^ and probably also to Ficits carica. 
Probably the most distinctive name is the second. The leaves 
are large and round, and if bruised, exude a white juice, like 
varnish. This suggests its similarity to the Ficus indica^ the 
source of guyn lac. The plant is a creeper, and bears a hollow 
*' fruit " of red color. This product is much esteemed by the 
birds, which eat of it with great avidity. The leaves are used 
in medicine in the treatment of dysentery, hematuria, and 
locally as an application to carbuncle. The juice of the vine 
is also employed in the treatment of skin diseases. The whole 
plant is thought to have a beneficial action upon the virile 
powers, and is therefore used in the treatment of spermator- 
rhoea, and as a galactagogue. The plant, when eaten, is said to 
remove pain in the heart. 

FICUS RETUSA.— ;^ (J"ng). This is the Banyan tree, 
of which the adventitious rootlets, called |^ ^ (Jung-hsii), are 
used in medicine. The Pentsao speaks of the varnish-like 
juice which exudes from the tree, but does not mention its 
being used in medicine. The tree is found in China inost 
plentifully in the province of Fukien. A good description is " 
given in the appendix to the Pentsao. The only use to which 
the rootlets seem to be put is in the treatment of toothache, 


for which purpose they are mixed with salt, thoroughly dried 
and powdered, and applied to the decayed or aching tooth. 
They are considered to be a sovereign remedy. 

FICUS STIPULATA.— ^ ^ ^ (Ai-yii-tzu), 9. The 
^ (Ai) is a delicate climbing plant of Formosa and the south- 
eastern provinces, which bears a fig-like fruit. The plant is 
not mentioned in the Pentsao^ nor in any other medical work 
examined. Kanghsi's Dictionary mentions it, but is very 
indefinite in its description. That mentioned in the Customs 
lists came from Formosa and was exported to Java, Porter 
Smith describes the exported article as hard, dried, woody, 
immature, tasteless fruits, generally attached to their stalks, 
or sometimes separated, and cut into two, showing the charac- 
teristic fructification of the genus. The fruits are also called 
11 M ^ (Man-t'ou-lo) and /JC ^ 5f (Mu-man-t'ou). To what 
use they are put does not appear, but it has been suggested that 
they may be employed in decoction as a fomentation for painful 
piles and ulcers. 

FCENICULUM VULGARE.— -^ M. ^Shih-lo), % fl fj 
(Tzu-mo-lo , >J> "^ ^ (Hsiao-hui-hsiang), 438. The first of 
the names is from the Persian sila^ or zira. The second is also 
of foreign origin, but from what language is not known. The 
third refers to the origin of the drug from a Mohammedan 
country. The stalks and leaves of the plant are eaten in 
China, and the seeds are in frequent demand as a condiment. 
The fennel is sometimes confounded with star-anise. The 
fruits, commonly called seeds, are greyish-brown, slightly 
curved, beaked, with five prominent ridges, and have the 
characteristic aroma of the fennel. The shoots of the young 
plant are considered to be carminative and respiratory. The 
fruits are prescribed influxes, dyspepsia, colic, and other abdom- 
inal disorders of children. Made into a Spirit of Fennel., it is 
used locally for backache and toothache. The leaves and stems 
may be similarly employed. A number of other fennel-like 
plants are mentioned in the Pentsao under this article. Some 
of these are used for food in their natural habitat, and the me- 
dicinal virtues of all are regarded as similar to those of fennel. 


FORSYTHIA SUSPENSA.— jg % (Lien-ch'iao), 719. 
This is spoken of in the classics as jg (Lien) and ^ ^ 
(I-ch'iao). In the Erhya ^ 'M ^ (Han-lien-tzii) is given 
as a synonym, but this is also given in the Pentsao as a 
synonym for Sf !j§ (Li-ch'ang), which is Eclipta alba. ^^^ 
(Han-lien-ts'ao) is mentioned in the Customs lists (359), but 
this probably refers to Eclipta alba or IVedelia caleiidiilacea. 
Strange to say, Braun, in the Hankow list, identifies this 
latter with dried lilies. In this he has probably been misled 
by the first two characters. Another name given in the 
Pentsao for the Forsythia is |^ $ (Lan-hua), which is 
properly a name applied to several orchidaceous plants. 
The Peilu also gives H jH (San-lien), and the root is called 
5^ ^g (Lien-yao) and ft j^ (Chu-ken). This shrubby plant 
grows in marshy places. There is also said to be a smaller 
variety which grows on high mountains. The fruit is a cap- 
sule, and it is the valves of this which appear in commerce. 
These are little, boat-shaped, brown bodies, a half to three- 
fourths of an inch in length, with a thin longitudinal parti- 
tion. They originally contained a few dark, pendulous seeds, 
which have an aromatic taste. The seeds are not mentioned 
in the Chinese* medical books. The valves are reputed to be 
antiphlogistic, antiscrofulous, laxative, diuretic, and emmen- 
agogue. They are prescribed also for deafness, and as an 
anthelmintic in pin-worms. The stalks and leaves are thought 
to be antifebrile, with special action on the lungs and heart. 
They are used in poultice as an application to ulcerated 
glands and piles. The root is regarded as slightly poisonous. 
Besides its antifebrile action, its use is thought to have an 
exceedingly beneficial influence on the circulation, improving 
the appearance of the body, and giving life and force. It is 
also prescribed in colds and jaundice. A decoction of the root 
is used for washing cancerous sores. 

FRAG ARIA INDICA.— gg ^ (She-mei), ^ ^ (Ti-mei). 
Both names refer to the creeping habit of the plant. It is 
quite common \\\ neglected gardens and along the roadsides. 
It bears yellow flowers and a bright red fruit, and the leaves, 
together with the root, are used in medicine. The fruit is 


also thought to be slightly poisonous, and the juice is taken in 
fevers and to counteract arrow poison and snake bite. It is 
considered to be antiseptic, and is therefore applied to aphthous 
sore mouth and fever sores. 

FRAGARIA WAIvLICHIL— M ^ ^ (Ti-yang-mei). 
This plant grows north of the Yangtse in moist, shady places, 
and in the fourth and fifth months there is fruit. Nothing 
farther is said in regard to it in the Pentsao. The stem of the 
plant is used in dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. 

FRAXINUS PUBINERVUS.— ^ ^ (Ch'in-p'i), 172. 
The first character is properly written :j^ (Chin), Another 
name is ^ :^ (K'u-li), but this name is applied in the Peking 
mountains to Fi'aximis Imngeana^ which is one of the plants 
upon which the wax insect lives. The ChHn-pH is a tree with 
a green bark. It is not distinguished by the Chinese from 
some varieties of Querais. The bark, when steeped in water, 
is said to produce a bluish indelible ink. The common name 
of the wood is j^ ;j^ /fc (Pai-hsiin-mu). The bark is the 
part used in medicine, and its virtues seem in the main to be 
those of an astringent. It is prescribed in catarrhal fever, 
inflamed eyes, fluxes, and in decoction to wash snake and 
insect bites. It is also regarded as tonic to the genito-uriuary 

FRITILLARIA ROYLKL— ^ # (Pei-mu), 993. This 
liliaceous plant grows in different parts of China. It is culti- 
vated in Chekiang and exported from Ningpo. It is also much 
cultivated in Szechuan, and this variety is regarded as much 
superior to any other. The Reports of Trade for 1869 and 1880 
give interesting notices of this drug. The Hankow reports for 
1879 also speak of the Szechuan drug. Father David mentions 
the Pei-mu as growing in the high mountains of Thibet, having 
yellow flowers, and the corms being used in medicine. That 
growing in Chekiang has grayish-white flowers. According to 
Henry, the name Pei-imi is applied in Hupeh to an orchid, 
which is not the same as the Szechuan drug. Porter Smith's 
identifications of this drug are all wrong, unless that of Uvu- 


laria grandiflora may be correct in some parts of China. These 
genera are closely allied and somewhat difficult to distinguish. 
The classical name of the plant is '^ (Meng) or ^ (Meng). The 
first character of the common name is also written ]^. This 
name has reference to the bulbs resembling a bunch of cowry 
shells. The corms are dug up in the spring and autumn, so 
that the difference in size depends not only on the difference ia 
species, but also on the stage of development of the corm. 
Those coming from Chekiang are usually as large as a good 
sized marble. The Szechuan variety is smaller and held in 
more esteem than the others, and commands a higher price. 
These corms are naked, of a white, or yellow color, and may 
be broken into two or more segments, disclosing the central 
shoot. They are easily crushed by the teeth to a white, 
starchy, and almost tasteless powder. The likeness of this 
product to the oriental Hermodactyls and Colchiciim is suggest- 
ed. The corms are used by the Chinese in medicine, and are 
prescribed in fevers, coughs, dysuria, hemorrhages, deficiency 
of milk, threatened mammary abscess, lingering labor, rheumat- 
ism, and diseases of the eye. They are regarded as having 
specially favorable action on the viscera and the bone marrow. 
They are also highly recommended in spider, snake, and 
scorpion bites. 


FUMARIA OFFICINALIS.—^ I^Ji \% T (Tzu-hua-ti- 
ting), 141 1 ( ? ). This is a common roadside weed in China, 
described in the Pentsao as of two varieties : one having purple, 
and the other white flowers. The herbage of these plants is 
used in decoction as an application to glandular swellings, 
strumous sores, carbuncles, and every kind of abscess. It is 
also taken internally for jaundice, and to remove wheat awns 
from the throat. 

FUNGI.— ^* ffi m (Chih-erh-lei). Fungi growing on 
trees (TfC 3, Mu-erh, "wood-ears") are preferred by the 
Chinese to the more delicate mushrooms. Many of the latter 
are apparently poisonous, and some of the more delicate varie- 


ties are not grown in China, which facts lead the Chinese to the 
same result. See Epiphytes^ Dcndrobiuin^ Exidia^ Loraiithus^ 
Miishrooms^ Pachyma cocos^ and Viscuni. 

FUNKIA SUBCORDATA.— ^ ^ (Yii-tsan), j^ t| 1il| 
(Pai-hao-hsien). This is a common cultivated plant of the 
Chinese gardens, growing to the height of a foot or so, having 
large, round leaves, which are dark on the under side. The 
stem of the plant is bracted, and the flowers grow in the axils 
of the bracts. They are white and pearly, giving origin to 
the Chinese name. The root and leaves are used in medicine ; 
both being regarded as poisonous. The expressed juice of the 
root is considered to be a connter poison to infectious abscesses 
and cancerous sores. It is prescribed in the early stages of 
cancer of the breast, abortion, to overcome cantharidal poison- 
ing, and as an anodyne in fish bone lodged in the throat, 
fractures, and the extraction of teeth. The bruised leaves are 
applied in insect bites, and a spirit is taken or applied in car- 
diac pain. The flowers are now distilled and a perfumery made, 
which is used in cosmetics. They are also prescribed in sup- 
pression of urine or dysuria, as well as being added to prescrip- 
tions for the treatment of skin diseases and wounds. 

■ >.i<* eo o *>i ' <« 



GALANGA. — See Alpinia oficinariim. 

Gx\LBx\NUM. — It is entirel}- probable that this drug is 
imported into China, as it comes from a region which supplies 
many such products to the Chinese markets. But under what 
name it may come has not yet been ascertained. It is possible 
that in some cases it may be confounded with assafoetida. 

GAUUM APARINE.— It f^^^(Chu-yang-yang). This 
cleavers is thus identified by Faber, but it is not found in the 
Pentsao. The Kua7ig-chihi-fa7ig-pii places it among green vege- 
tables, but nothing is said in regard to it except that pigs are 
very fond of it, and that it is used as a vegetable in the spring. 

GALLA.— |ffi % ^ (Wu-shih-tzii), t^ ;& •? (I\Iu-shih- 
tzu), 874, M S" T^ v-Mo-shih-tzii), Jp ^ ^f (Mo-t'u-tse). The 
most of the names above given are attempts to reproduce the 
Persian name Mazii. Efforts to explain the Chinese names in 
any other way are scarcely warranted, however plausible some 
of these explanations may seem. The description of the tree 
given in the Pentsao is very vague, and the Chinese seem to be 
ignorant of the origin of these galls, which they suppose to be 
a fruit of the tree alternating with the proper fruit. Those 
coming from Persia and Arabia have long been prized in 
China. These galls are not essentially different from those 
found in the European markets, as they practically come from 
the same place. The Chinese books direct that the galls shall 
be pierced, and dried in a sand bath until they assume a 
brownish-black color, when they are ready for use in medicine. 
Their use in making ink seems to have been formerly known 
in China, as also their use as a hair dye. They are powdered 
and given in dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, nocturnal sweating, 
seminal emissions, toothache, and the kan (^) disease in 
children. They are applied to sores and skin affections as a 
stimulant and astringent. Galls have been successfully em- 
ployed in some parts of India in very mild and chronic forms of 


inteniiittent fever. Modern Chinese seem to understand the 
antiperiodic effect of this drug, although the Cinchona salts 
have superseded all other forms of treatment for malarial fevers. 

GALIvA SINENSIS.— S ^ ^ (Wu-pei-tzu), 1466. 
These are the galls that are produced upon the leaves or leaf- 
stalks of Rhus semialata by an insect, which is probably an 
aphis. The tree is of the same genus as that which yields the 
Chinese and Japanese varnish or lacquer. In India the excres- 
cence is called Kakra-singie^ and sometimes attains to the size 
of a man's fist. The galls are usually met with as hard, brittle, 
oblong, horn-like, contorted bodies, about an incli and a half 
long, and resembling a seashell. They are pointed, or taper- 
ing, at either end, or triangular, irregular, and tuberculated. 
The outer surface is velvety, of a yellowish or light brown 
color, the thin walls somewhat translucent, and the interior 
smooth, and occupied by the remains of the insect. They 
contain between seventy and eighty per cent, of tannin. They 
are collected for the most part in Manchuria and the province 
of Szechuan. There is a Japanese kind which is smaller, and 
that from India, produced upon the Rhus succedanea^ is more 
cylindrical. These galls are used by dyers and tanners to pro- 
duce a black color, or are mixed with cochineal and other 
coloring substances (according to Dr. Williams) to produce grey, 
brown, and fawn tints. They are the principal ingredient in a 
kind of imperial electuary, which is very highly rated and only 
obtainable as a gift from the throne. The Chinese use them 
medicinally as an expectorant, astringent, and corrective 
remedy, and they are applied topically to chancres, swellings, 
and wounds. The second character in the name at the head of 
this article is properly written |§ (P'ei). 

Faber speaks of the Galls of Celtis smettsis^ which he calls 
Tic t^ 5i (Mu-t*ao-erh), but these are not mentioned in the 

GAMBIR. — See Ar'eca catechu and Uncaria gambir. 

GARCINIA MORELLA.— fi % (T'eng-huang). These 
characters are sometimes wrongly written |jg ^ (T'ung-huang). 
This is the same as Garcinia hanburiiy and the drug produced, 


which is the inspissated juice, derived from incisions made into 
the bark of the tree, and collected in a hollow bamboo, is the 
Siamese gamboge of commerce. The tree, which is common in 
Hunan and Shensi, is called ^ ff (Hai-t'eng). When the 
juice exudes from the bark and drops upon the stones, it is 
called ^ ^ (Sha-huang). That which exudes from the tree 
and congeals on the bark is called )||j i^ (Iva-huang). We are 
indebted to Hanbury for his careful observations upon this 
substance. A full account will be found in his Science Papers, 
page 326 et seq. Gamboge, as it appears in the Chinese mar- 
ket, consists of short cylindrical pieces of the shape of the 
bamboo tube in which it has been prepared. Irregular masses 
are also found. Chinese draughtsmen use it as a pigment. Its 
medicinal use is limited to external application ; its purgative 
properties either not being known, or else considered of too 
violent a character for safety. The Chinese regard it as very 
poisonous. It is used both alone in powder, and as an ingre- 
dient in a large number of prescriptions, for the treatment of 
wounds of all kinds, cancerous sores, and to cause decayed and 
painful teeth to drop out. Its irritant and stimulant action 
upon the skin is fully taken advantage of in the treatment of 
indolent ulcers. 

GARDENIA FLORIDA.— ;jf ^ (.Chih-tzits 639. There 
are several kinds of this shrub in China, and these have been 
divided into species by various observers, such as the one here 
given. Gardenia radica7is^ Gardenia grandifiora^ Gardenia 
rubra^ and the like. Btit great confusion exists in regard to 
these identifications, and as the uses of the various drugs 
derived from these plants are practically the same, and as the 
Phtfsao discusses them all under one head, they will not be 
separated here. Generally speaking, two kinds of dried fruits 
from these plants are found in Chinese medicine. One, the 
larger, is called simply 1^ ^ (Chih-tzu), while the other and 
smaller is called ill ^ ^ iShan-chih-tzu). The larger occurs 
as a smooth, oblong, orange-brown, or yellowish, imperfectly 
two-celled berry, from one to two inches in length, strongly 
marked with six ribs which terminate in the superior perma- 
nent calyx, which generally crowns even the dried fruit of the 


shops. The pericarp is fragile and horn}', marked internally 
by two narrow, projecting receptacles. The seeds are numer- 
ous and embedded in a dark orange pulp. The smaller fruits 
are met with as ovoid, smooth, six-ribbed, light or dark brown, 
or even black berries, crowned with more of the calyx than are 
the larger fruits. They vary from one-half to an inch or more 
in length. These are the berries which are more frequently 
used in medicine than are the large ones. In the Customs lists 
several different kinds of the drug are mentioned as appearing 
in commerce. M M "? (Huang-chih-tzu), 512, is given as the 
principal term for this product, while ^ ;|^ (Chien-chih), 103, 
is a kind from Chienchang prefecture in Kiangsi. The name 
^ iiJi ■? ' Huang-chih-tzii) is not found in the Pintsao^ but is 
mentioned in other Chinese medical works. It seems to be 
identical with the common ^ ^ (Chih-tzii). ill t^ -? (Shan- 
chih-tzU) and jjj M ;|^ (Shan-hei-chih), 1092, are given as 
names for the variety yielding the small fruit. The Hankow list 
speaks of the ^X Wi 'P (Hung-chih-tzu) as a species of Gardenia 
from Szechuan. All of these fruits are used for dyeing pur- 
poses, producing a beautiful yellow color, but there is some 
difference in the value of the different fruits for this purpose ; 
the Szechuan variety producing a reddish yellow or orange color. 
The flowers of the plant are very fragrant, and are used for 
flavoring tea and in cosmetic preparations. In the season when 
they are in bloom, they are much Avorn by Chinese women as 
hair ornaments. The medicinal uses of the smaller fruits are 
various ; they being prescribed in fevers, fluxes, dropsies, lung 
diseases, jaundice, and externally as a vulnerary remedy. The 
larger fruits are more particularly used externally ; the pulp 
being applied to swellings and to injuries, and to such diffi- 
culties as wine-nose, dog bite, slight burns and scalds, and the 
like. Other names given for this plant are Tf; j^ (Mu-tan), ^ |)B 
(Yiieh-t'ao), and ^ -^ (Hsien-chih). In the Customs lists the 
root of this plant, |)| -J* ;^ (Chih-tzu-ken), 140, is spoken of as 
an article of commerce, but this is not mentioned in the Pentsao. 

GASTRODIA ELATA. — 7^; ^ rCh'ih-chien), ^ % 
T'ien-ma), 1296. This orchidaceous plant, called "red- 
arrow" by the Chinese, grows in the plains of the central 


provinces. Pao P'o-tzu says that the plant moves even when 
the air is still; while T'ao Hung-ching goes one better, and 
says that it is not moved by the wind, and moves only in still 
air ! The central root is large, and it is said to always have 
twelve smaller tubers of the size of a hen's egg on the side. 
These tubers are much used for food, both raw and steamed. 
The best sort comes from Shantung. It is worthy of note that 
an Australian species of this plant, Gastrodia sesamoides^ has 
a root which is full of starch, and which is used as food by 
the natives. The tubers, dried and shrivelled, are found in 
the Chinese medicine shops. They are in the form of flat, 
yellowish-brown pieces, irregularly oblong, and measuring from 
two to two and a half inches long by one inch and a half 
broad. This drug is considered to have very beneficial prop- 
erties, expelling all kinds of poisonous effluvia, giving strength 
and virility to the body, improving the circulation, and strength- 
ening the memory. It is prescribed in rheumatism, neural- 
gia, paralysis, lumbago, headaches, and other neuralgic and 
nervous affections. The stalk of the plant, which is called 
^ M "? (Huan-t'ung-tzu), is also considered to be tonic and 
aphrodisiac. The plant also produces a fruit, which becomes 
yellow and ripe as the leaves begin to shrivel up and fall ofif. 
It contains seeds, the kernels of which are starchy. 

GELSEMIUM ELEGANS. — fi^i |^ (Kou-wen). This 
identification is not quite certain. Faber uses this same Chi- 
nese name also for Rhus toxicodendron. But in an article on 
Chinese Drugs, published in the China Review (Vol. XV, page 
214), it is proved that the plant Kott-wen of the Pentsao is 
Gelseniiu7?i elegans. It is known at Hongkong under the 
names of ^ ^ 5g (Hu-wan-ch'iang), %%%. (Tuan-ch'ang- 
ts'ao), and ;/c ^ ^ ^ (Ta-ch'a-yeh-t'eng), the two former of 
which are names found in the Pentsao 2iS synonyms oi Kou-w^n. 
In Japan it is Rhus toxicodendron^ but K '^ ^ ^Al P^ (Huang- 
tsing-yeh-kou-wen) is given as an equivalent term, and this is 
also assigned to Croomia japonica. The extremely poisonous 
character of this plant is well recognized by the Chinese, and 
one of the names given to it is ^ j^^ (Tu-ken), "poison root." 
Li Shih-cheu says : "When people happen by mistake to eat 


the leaves mixed with vegetables, they die in the course of 
half a day." The plant is also called g^ Hi ^ (Tuan-ch'ang- 
ts'ao) and -^ f|§ i^ (Lan-ch'ang-ts'ao), because when it comes 
in contact with the bowels of man or beast, they become black 
and gangrenous in a short time. The younger leaves in 
spring and summer are especially dangerous. The old leaves 
in autumn are less injurious. The counter-poison recommend- 
ed by the Phiisao is the blood of a white goose or duck. 
Medicinally the root is used, and it is recommended for 
wounds, caked breast, perspiring feet, and skin eruptions. In 
these cases it is presumed that it is used locally. It is also 
said to be useful in coughs and poisonous effluvia, as well as 
in difficulties of the vocal organs. How it is administered in 
these cases is not mentioned. The substance is also used for 
killing birds and other animals. So exceedingly fearful are 
the Chinese of its poisonous properties, that full directions are 
given for counteracting its effects. It would seem that fuller 
directions as to its administration and dosage would have been 
equally advantageous. 

GENTIANA SCABRA.— M ^ (Lung-tan), 791. ^ ^ 
(Ling-yu) is another name. The first Chinese name is used 
for more than one species of Gentiaji. Indeed the Index 
Florae Sinensis enumerates fifty-seven species of this genus, 
many of which are called by this one name. Morrison, in 
his dictionary, applies this name also to Dictamnus albiis^ and 
according to Porter Smith, this substance has been found iu 
the markets under this Chinese name. The plant is common 
in mid-China, growing in mountain valleys. It has a blue, 
bell-shaped flower, and a perennial root, which in the recent 
state is almost white. As it appears in the shops, it consists of 
long, reddish-brown, numerous rootlets, attached to a short, 
twisted rhizome^ which is seen on section to be much closer and 
more of a brown color than the European gentian root. The 
taste is agreeably bitter. It is prescribed in fevers, rheumat- 
ism, poisonous effluvia of the viscera, fluxes, and general 
debility. Its use is thought to benefit the liver, strengthen the 
memory, and give lightness and elasticity to the body. It is 
used locally in skin diseases and ulcers, and iu affections of the 


throat. Its anthelmintic properties are also recognized. It 
is specially recommended in nocturnal sweating, hematuria, 
and ophthalmia. 

GERANIUM NEPALENSE.— ^ ^ (Niu-pien). This 
identification is exceedingly doubtful. The Japanese identify 
it as Aconitu7n lycoctomim^ but Faber identifies that found here 
in China as this cranesbill. The plant grows in marshy places 
in river valleys ; the leaves resembling aconite leaves. Both 
the leaves and root are used in decoction for washing sores, 
and especially for destroying lice and maggots on cattle. The 
plant is not poisonous, although the root is considered to be 
slightly deleterious. The Pentsao speaks of another plant 
under this head, which is also used for killing pediculi. This 
is called %^'^%. (Shih-chien-ts'ao). It has not been identified. 

GEUM DRYADOIDES.— ^ ^ (She-han), ^ fg (She- 
hsien), f| \^ (Lung-hsien). This plant grows in mountain 
valleys and on stony ground. It has small leaves and yellow 
flowers. It is said to be cultivated in Szechuan for medicine. 
Snakes are reported to dislike it. The stem and leaves are 
used medicinally. It is regarded as a special drug for children, 
and is even recommended to be taken by the mother during 
the foetal life of the child. It is prescribed in convulsive dis- 
orders, nervous irritability, and as an anodyne in wounds and 
sores. The fevers of children are specially susceptible to its 
good influences. It is prescribed for the bleeding of wounds, 
obstinate skin diseases, and the bites of centipedes and 

GEUM JAPONICA.— 7^ % |i$ (Shiii-yang mei), % ^ 
(Ti-chiao). This is a variety of the well known water avens. 
It bears a fruit, shaped like the pepper fruit ; hence the second 
name. It does not seem to be used internally as medicine, 
although it is not regarded as poisonous. The fruit is applied 
externally to boils and abscesses. 

GINKO BILOBA.— 1^ ^ (Yin-hsing), j^ % (Pai-kuo), 
952. See Salisburia adiantifolia. 


GLEDITSCHIA CHINENSIS.— ^ 'M (Tsao-chia), ^ H 
(Tsao-chio), 1331. This leguminous tree is met with through- 
out China and Cochin China. It bears a pod which in some 
specimens attains to a length of fully two feet. This is thin and 
knife-like in appearance, and contains many flat, brown seeds^ 
which are used in bathing and in washing clothes. The tree is 
thickly beset with thorns, which are called ^ T (T4en-ting). 
At the proper time for the seeds to drop, the people surround the 
tree with bamboo baskets, and all of the seeds are said to fall 
from the tree in one night, Li Shih-chen says that sometimes 
when a tree does not produce fruit, the people bore a hole in 
the trunk, fill it with from three to five pounds of cast iron, and 
cover the opening with mud. Then it will bear fruit. At Peking, 
this beautiful tree is called by the second name given above. 
It bears small, greenish-yellow, scented flowers, and is much 
prized as a lawn tree. The medical uses to which the Chinese 
put the dififerent parts of the tree are very numerous. The pods 
are considered to be expectorant, emetic, and purgative. They 
are prescribed in coughs, flatulence, chronic dysentery, and 
prolapse of the rectum. The seeds and pods are used in the 
form of a bolus as an antidote in case of metalic poisoning. The 
coarse powder is blown into the nostrils, or put into the rectum, 
of the victims of accidental drowning and hanging. It is said to 
extract the water and to open the passages of the body. Various 
other difficulties, remarkable in their character, are treated with 
these seeds, such as difficult labor, dribbling saliva in children, 
decayed teeth, chronic consumption, and cancer of the rectum. 
The thorns are used as an anthelmintic, in decoction as a wash to 
ulcers, skin diseases, caked breast, and retained placentae. They 
are also used as needles in opening abscesses, and as counter- 
irritants in tumors and growths. The bark of both the stem and 
the root is used as an anthelmintic and antifebrile remedy. The 
leaves are used in decoction for washing sores. Another species 
or variety of this plant, called ^ ^ ^ (Kuei-tsao-chia), is men- 
tioned. It is used for the treatment of ulcers and skin diseases. 

GLEDITSCHIA JAPONICA.— It ^ ^"^ (Chu-ya-tsao- 
chia), ^ ^(Ya-chia), ^ j| (Ya-tsao), 1487. This a Japanese 
identification of a species of Glediischia differing from Gledits- 


chia chinensis in some respects. In the Pentsao^ Sukiing says 
in regard to it : "It is an inferior sort. The pod is crooked, 
thin, uncomely, and not succulent. When used for washing, 
it does not remove the dirt. The pods, which are two feet 
long, are coarse and dry. The best are those which are only 
from six to seven inches long." Hanbury received some of 
these pods, and he described them as follows: "They are 
from two to four inches long, and from 3/10 to 5/10 of an inch 
broad, more or less sickle-shaped and compressed, their upper 
edge prolonged into a narrow wing. The anterior extremity 
is pointed, the posterior attenuated into a short stalk. The 
pods are indehiscent, and have thick, pulpy valves, which are 
extremely smooth and of a deep brown. The substance of the 
pod, when chewed, even in very small quantity, produces an 
extremely disagreeable sense of acridity in the fauces." He 
suggests Prosopis as an identification. The medical uses of 
these pods are not distinguished from those of Gleditschia 
chinensis^ although they are regarded as inferior to the latter. 

GLYCINE HISPIDIA. — :1c % (Ta-tou), :^, |^, and ^ 
(Shu), ^ W, (Jen-shu), ^ H (Jung-shu), J\ j£ (Shih-tou), 
H % (Hei-tou), '% "^ (Huang-tou). This is the same as Soja 
hispidia and Dolichos soia^ and is the Chinese and Japanese 
soy bean. It has been known in China from ancient times, 
and has always been considered by the Chinese as the most 
important of the cultivated leguminous plants. A very large 
number of varieties is found throughout the Empire, especially 
in the north. The name "great bean" applies to the plant, 
not to the seeds, as these are quite small. It is employed in 
China and Japan in the preparation of three products which 
are of almost universal use in oriental cookery. These are 
"beau oil," "bean-curd," and "soy." There are many varie- 
ties of this bean, which the Chinese distinguish by the color 
of the seeds ; these being black, white, yellow, gray, azure, and 
spotted. The black sort is used in medicine, and the yellow 
is specially valued in the preparation of bean-curd and soy. 
The black kind is not much used as food, as it is thought to 
render the body heavy. The Chinese regard those things 
which give lightness to the body with more favor than those 


which promote flesh and sluggishness. The characters ;^, ^^ 
or ^^ (Shu) are the classical name, while ^ ^^ (Jen-shu) and 
^ M (J^^"g-shu) are equally ancient compound names for this 
plant, sk al (Shih-tou), *' bean-relish bean," indicates its 
use in making the bean relish and soy. 

Medicinally, the black beans are considered to have much 
value. Their frequent use is thought to have a most beneficial 
effect upon the body, giving strength and vigor, albeit with 
heaviness. This latter fact is the only objection offered to the 
use of these beans. They are regarded as an admirable counter- 
poison against most of the vegetable poisons, such as Aconite 
and Croton iiglii. Carminative and quieting properties are 
also ascribed to them. They are pescribed in a large number 
of difficulties, notably post-paitum and sexual disorders ; but 
as they are always in combination with other active drugs, it 
may be readily supposed that the beans play no very important 
part in these prescriptions. The green bean hulls, 1317, 
chewed into a pulp, are applied to smallpox ulcers, corneal 
ulcer, and the excoriation produced in children by urine. The 
bruised leaves of the plant are used as a local application in 
snake bite. The flowers, 13 10, are used in blindness and 
opacity of the cornea. 

The bean sprouts^ called ::^ ^ H ^ (Ta-tou-huang-chiien) 
and ^1^ (Tou-nieh), are also mentioned in the PS fiisao. Bean- 
sprouts {^ ^'', Tou-ya) are a common article of diet with the 
Chinese, but these former are made of the black bean, and are 
especially used in medicine. Li Shih-chen gives the following 
mode of preparation : "On a water day (^ ^ H j soak black 
beans in clear water, and after the sprouts have grown, take 
off the hulls and dry the sprouts in the shade." Their 
medical properties are considered to be laxative, resolvent, and 
constructive. They are reputed to have special influence upon 
the growth of the hair, and to be curative in ascites and 

The yellow variety of beans is also given a separate dis- 
cussion in the Pentsao. As was before said, these are used for 
the most part in the preparation of bean oil, bean-curd, and 
soy. The beans and pods of this variety are larger than those 
of the black kind, and in the green state they are highly 


esteemed by the Chinese as an article of food. But they are 
also considered "heavy/' and if partaken of too freely they 
are thought to produce jaundice. They are considered to be 
carminative and deobstruent, and are recommended in ascites. 
Locally they are applied to smallpox ulcers. The ashes of 
bean stalks are specially recommended as an application to un- 
healthy granulations in hemorrhoids (possibly fungous growths 
of the anus). 

The oil, ^ f^ (Tou-yu), is considered to be very slightly 
deleterious, and is used as a local application to ulcers and 
skin diseases, and for removing bandoline from the hair. This 
oil is maniifactured in large quantities, especially in Manchuria, 
and is shipped to every part ot China. It is used as food, 
chiefly by the poorer people, and was formerly used as a burn- 
ing oil ; but kerosene has now almost superseded it for this 
latter purpose. It is usually dark colored, and has a not very 
pleasant odor. 

Bean relish (Salted Beans)^ "5^ % '^ (Ta-tou-shih), 
1318, is a product much valued by the Chinese. The mean- 
ing of the character '^ (Shih) is difficult to render in English. 
It refers to salted and fermented beans, and is applied to both 
the prepared beans themselves and to other preparations made 
from them, some of which are in liquid form. For this last 
reason, this character is sometimes thought to refer to "soy." 
But the term "relish" will be used for this product to distin- 
guish it from soy, which will be found described a little later. 
Tao Hung-ching (V Century) says that Puchou (-^ ]\\) in 
Shansi and Shenchou (^ jlj) in Honan were places noted for 
the excellence of this product. He says that at Shenchou 
there is produced a liquid bean relish which in ten years will 
not spoil, but for medical purposes it is not so good as other 
kinds, as no salt was used in its manufacture. On the other 
hand, Meng Shen (VII Century) says that the Shenchou liquid 
bean relish is better than the ordinary kind. He gives its 
composition as follows: "Use Hispidia beans which have 
been fermented, first steaming them soft. To each peck add 
of salt four pints, pepper (|^), four ounces. In the spring 
time, let stand three days ; in summer, two, when it will be 
half ripe. Then add five ounces of ginger {^ ^), and let 


stand to clarify. Use only the clear part," Li Sliih-chen 
says : "All sorts of beans can be used in making this product, 
but that made from the black bean is used in medicine. There 
are two kinds of this relish : one called insipid relish (Tan- 
shih, f^ s^}, and the other salty relish (^ ^, Hsien-shih). 
The liquid form of the former is the one most used in treating 
diseases. To make this, in the sixth month take two or three 
pecks of the black Hispidia beans, wash clean and soak in 
water over night. Drain off the water and steam soft. Spread 
out upon matting, and after it has become slightly cool, cover 
with artemisia stalks. Examine it every three days to note 
the process of fermentation. The layer of Mycoderma which 
grows on top should not be allowed to become too thick. 
When sufficiently fermented, take out and dry in the sun and 
sift clean. Use clean water and mix into a half-dry-half- 
moist condition, just so that the juice will exude between the 
fingers when the material is squeezed in the hand. Put into 
an earthenware jar and pack firmly, cover with a layer of 
mulberry leaves three inches thick, and seal up with clay. 
Set the jar in the sun every day for seven days. Then take 
out and dry for a little while in the sun, and again moisten 
with water and repack in the jar as before. This do seven 
times, and then boil again, spread on matting, dry with fire, 
pack again into the jars, and seal up for future use." 

"The method of making the salty relish is as follows: 
Take one peck of Hispidia beans and soak them in water three 
days. Wash, steam, and spread out in a store room, and when 
they have fermented, take them up, sift them clean and wash 
in water. For every four catties take one catty of salt, half a 
catty of shredded ginger, and of peppers, orange peel, thyme, 
fennel, and apricot kernels, a sufficient quantity. Put all into 
an earthen jar and cover with water to the depth of an inch. 
Cover with bamboo skin, and seal up the mouth of the jar. 
Place in the sun for one month, when it will be finished. 
To prepare the liquid bean relish, between the tenth and 
first moons take three pecks of good salted beans. Boil fresh 
hempseed oil until it smokes ; then put in the beans and 
cook thoroughly. Spread the mixture out on matting and 
dry in the sun. Wheu it is dry, steam again. Repeat this 


process three times, and then add a peck of white salt and 
pack all well together. Pour on hot water and percolate 
three or four gallons. Put into a clean caldron and add 
pepper, ginger, onion, and shredded orange peel, and boil all 
together until it is evaporated one-third. Then put into a 
whole vessel and let stand, and it will develop an exceed- 
ingly fine flavor." In addition to the beau relish several 
other kinds are made, such as bran relish, melou relish, 
and soy relish ; but these are for food and are not used in 

These salted beans and their derivatives are used medic- 
iually in various ways. The insipid relish is used in the 
treatment of colds, headache, chills and fever, malaria, noxious 
efflnvia, irritability, melancholy, decline, difficult breathing, 
painful and cold feet, and for the destruction of poisons in 
pregnant domestic animals. In the treatment of fevers and 
perspirations, it should be cooked into a paste. For driving 
away melancholy, the uncooked article should be made up 
into pills and taken. For chills and fever, colds on the chest, 
and for ulcers, it is boiled and eaten, as it also is in the 
case of dysentery and colic. It may also be used for the 
treatment of ague, bone disease, poisons, marasmus, and dog 
bite. It is useful in expelling gas, benefiting the internal 
organs, treating colds and cold poisons, and for nausea. 

The Puchou relish has a very salty aud cooling taste. 
It corrects irritability, fever, poison, cold, and decline. It 
benefits all of the internal organs, is diaphoretic, opens up 
the passages, destroys astral influences, and clears the breath- 
ing ("opens up the nose"). The Shenchou liquid relish 
also allays irritability and feverishness. These are employed 
medicinally in obstinate dysentery, hematuria, locomotor ataxia, 
(^ SH ^ jE) Shou-chio-pu-sui), excessive hemorrhage in abor- 
tion, threatened abortion, difficult labor, tinea, venereal sores, 
stings of insects, scorpion bites, horse bites (anthrax ?,), wiue 
drinkers' diseases, foreign objects in the eye, and thorns in 
the flesh. 

Bean Ferment. — ^ ^ (Tou-huang). This is the 
fermentation pellicle {Mycodcrjua) which forms on the top 
of fermenting beans, as the mother-of- vinegar forms on the 


top of vinegar in its process of preparation. The pellicle 
contains, in addition to the viycetes of fermentation, various 
kinds of moulds and mildews, and its composition is probably 
not at all uniform. The method of preparation is given 
as follows: '*Take a peck of black beans and thoroughly 
steam them. Spread upon matting and cover with artemisia 
stalks, as in the process of preparing soy. When the pellicle 
is formed on top, take it off, dry in the sun and powder, 
when it is ready for use. The taste is sweet and cooling, 
and the substance is non-poisonous. It is specially recommended 
in the treatment of rheumatism, especially that of the knees, 
for the insufficient action of the five viscera, spleen, and 
stomach, giving strength to the body, lubricating the muscles 
and skin, improving the complexion, invigorating the marrow, 
and toning up the system generally, enabling one to eat 
fats. It is sometimes combined with pork fat and made 
into pills for producing flesh. A hundred pills should be 
taken at one time. Fat people should not use this substance. 
Chewed into a paste and applied to eczema, it proves very 

Bean Curd. — ^ ^ (Tou-fu). The method of making 
bean curd had its origin in the Han dynasty, during the 
reign of Huai Nan Wang (A.D. 23), at Liuan. All sorts 
of black beans, yellow beans, white beans, clay beans, 
green beans, and peas can be used in its preparation. The 
process of manufacturing is given in the Pintsao as follows : 
*'Wash the beans and crush them in water. Skim oflf 
what floats, and boil. Make a natron solution, or a decoction 
of the leaves of Shan-fan ( |lj ^), Symplocos pruiiifolia^ or 
use sour soy vinegar, and add to the beans. Heat all together 
in a caldron. Afterwards pour into a large jar in which 
has been placed powdered gypsum and mix well together. 
What will be produced is a saltish, bitterish, sour, acrid mix- 
ture, and what congeals upon the surface of the compound 
is to be taken out and dripped clean of the other solution. 
This is bean-cicrd.''^ The taste is sweet, alkaline, and cooling. 
It is considered to be slightly deleterious. It is thought that 
the ingestion of bean curd prevents the curing of diseases, 
but if carrots are put with the bean curd, this action is pre- 


vented. It is reputed to be beneficial to the internal organs, 
inproving the breath, harmonizing the spleen and stomach, 
removing flatulence, and expelling evil gases from the bowels. 
Used warm it disperses subcutaneous hemorrhage. It is 
prescribed in chronic dysentery, ophthalmia, swellings, and 

Soy. — !§p (Chiang). Common names are ^ f^ (Chiang- 
yu) and ^ fjj[j (Shih-yu). Li Shih-chen says that the Chinese 
name indicates the power of this substance to counteract the 
poison which may exist in food. Several forms of soy exist, 
such as flour soy, made of wheat or barley flour ; sweet soy, of 
similar composition, but varying slightly in the method of 
manufacture ; and bean soy, made of various kinds of beans, 
but more particularly of the Hispidia bean. One method of 
manufacture is as follows : " Take of Hispidia beans three 
quarts, and boil in water. Mix with twenty-four catties of 
flour and allow to ferment. To every ten catties of the 
mixture take of salt eight catties, of well water forty catties ; 
mix and allow to stand until it is ripe.'* Several other 
methods of manufacture are given in the Pintsao^ differing in 
various respects from this, but the method here given will 
sufiice to illustrate the mode of manufacture. Soy is a black, 
thin liquid, having an agreeable saltish flavor, and frothing up 
of a yellow color when even slightly shaken. It is the univer- 
sal sauce of the Chinese and Japanese, and is largely exported 
to India and Europe as a convenient menstruum for other 
flavoring substances used as condiments. In China it is both 
made in large quantities by shops and in smaller quantities by 
domestic manufacture. It is considered to provoke the appetite 
and to correct any injurious qualities of food. It is laxative, 
cooling, and antidotal to various poisons, according to Chinese 
estimation. It is often applied to burns, scalds, eczema, and 
leprous sores. Its use is considered beneficial in threatened 
abortion and the hematuria of pregnancy. Two other kinds 
of soy are mentioned in the Pentsao^ both made from the seeds 
of the elm (apparently of two different species). One is called 
lit in '^ (Yu-jen-chiang) and the other ^ H ^ (Wu-i-chiang), 
In regard to these two terms for elm, see the article on Ulmus. 
Both these kinds of soy are considered to be laxative, diuretic, 


and anthelmintic. They should not be used to excess, as they 
are considered to have some deleterious properties. 

GLYCYRRHIZA.— -H* ^ (Kan-ts'ao), 587. Other names 
are ^ t (Mi-kan), ^ ^ (Mi-ts'ao), ^ ^ (Mei-ts'ao), t^ ^ 
(Lu-ts'ao), g 5I (Ling-t'ung), and p ^ (Kiio-lao). This last, 
name is applied to the plant on account of its great virtues as a 
remedy. The drug is very highly prized by the Chinese, and 
enters into the composition of very many prescriptions. The 
most common species that supply the Chinese h'corzce root are 
Glycyy'rhiza echinata and Glycyrrhiza glabra^ both of which 
are found growing plentifully in northern China. Quantities 
are also brought from Mongolia, especially from the region 
about Kokonor. In fact, the plant seems to grow extensively 
throughout all the region of Central Asia. The root is com- 
monly sold in long pieces, dry, wrinkled, and red on the surface, 
and yellow, fibrous, and tough in the interior. The taste is 
disagreeably sweet and slightly mucilaginous. It stands next 
to ginseng in importance in Chinese pharmacy, being the 
great corrective adjunct and harmonizing ingredient in a large 
number of recipes. Like most celebrated Chinese drugs, it is 
credited with the property of rejuvenating those who consume 
it for a long time. The roots, twigs, and efflorescence are used 
in medicine. Tonic, alexipharmic, alterative, and expectorant 
properties are ascribed to the drug. It is used to allay thirst, 
feverishness, pain, cough, and distress of breathing. It is 
specially prescribed for children, and is used in a large number 
of their maladies, but as it is usually exhibited in combination 
with other drugs, it can readily be understood why purely 
imaginary virtues should be ascribed to it. Locally, it is 
applied, mixed with honey, to burns, boils, and other sores. 
The properties ascribed to the twigs and flowers do not differ in 
any essential respect from those ascribed to the root. 

heterophylluni). — 7|C |^ (,Shui-sung). The P^ntsao says that 
this grows on the shores of the southern seas in tlie water, and 
looks like a pine. Hence the name. It is prescribed in animal 
bites and in the dropsy of pregnant women (hydropsaninion ?). 


GNAPHALIUM MULTICEPS.— 1| m ^ (Shu-clm- 
ts'ao). Other names are M 5 (Slin-erh) -^ 5 i^ (Fo-erli ts'ao), 
320, ^ ^ (Mi-cbli), M t^^ ^ (Wu-hsin-ts'ao), ^ ^ (Hsiang- 
mao), ^ ^ (Huang-hao), and ^ # (Jiing-mii). This is an 
artemisia-like plant, growing principally in northern China, 
with a whitish, hirsute leaf, and bearing yellow flowers. Hence 
one of the names, "yellow artemisia." The medicinal action 
of this plant is regarded as decidedly anti-malarial and anti- 
febrile. It is also prescribed in coughs and diseases of the 
lungs and air passages. 

ts'ao"). This is a fragrant plant with sessile leaves, both the 
■white flowers and the scabrous leaves having fragrance. For 
this reason it is much cultivated in gardens. The odor is very 
persistent, and it is said that fleas, lice, and moths do not like 
it. Because of this latter fact, the plant is frequently put under 
the bed mats and into books to drive these insect pests away. 
No medicinal properties are ascribed to it. 

GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA.— "^ jfl (Pai-jih-hung). 
No part of this beautiful tree seems to be used in medicine. It 
is much cultivated in gardens as an ornament, and the name 
refers to its long period of flowering. The flowers are small, 
red, and fragrant. They are sometimes called "^ ^ ^ (Tiug- 

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM.— :t $$ (Ts'ao-mien), ^% 
^ (Mien-hua). This malvaceous plant, which yields the 
cotton wool, and which is the same as Gossypitim indiaim^ is 
not distinguished in Chinese works from the sterculiaceous 
Bombax malabaricu7n^ the cotton tree. The reason for this 
probably appears in the fact that the cotton tree was known in 
China from very ancient times, and its cotton was used by the 
Chinese in the manufacture of cloth before the introduction of 
the cotton plant, which probably took place about the XI 
Century, coming by the way of the south, either by foreigners 
trading with the Chinese, or by the Mongol conquerors of 
China, who about the same time brought it from the west and 


south-west, or by both of these factors. The plant is now 
grown in all parts of southern and central China. Under the 
title of TJC :|,^ (Mu-mien) the Pentsao discusses this plant and 
gives -^ ^ (Ku-pei) and -^ i^^ (Ku-chung) as synonj^ms, saying 
that the former refers to the tree, while the latter refers to the 
plant. The Sanscrit names given are ^^ ^ (San-p'o) and ^ 
J^ ^ |)J. (Chia-lo-p'o-chieh), the latter of which may be an 
attempt at transliteration of the Indian name Karpasi. Kao- 
chang, the country of the Uigurs, is named as possessing a 
cotton plant which produces a textile fiber, called |^ ^ (Pai- 
tieh). The Kiiaitg-chun-fa7ig-p7i gives full directions as to the 
growing of cotton, and names the various varieties raised. 
The Chinese card cotton by means of a bow, producing a very 
light floss. Usually the Chinese cotton fiber is short staple, 
but they have one kind, called j^ j^ (Ssti-mien), which is very 
silky and of great length. They consider the foreign cotton, 
which they have had to buy so largely of late years on account 
of the failure of their own crops, as inferior in warmth to their 
own staples. The cotton plant does not seem to be used in 
medicine. The fiber, both in the raw state and after having 
been incinerated, is used to staunch wounds. The seed, |^ ^ 
•^ (Mien-hua-tzu), ^ f^ t (Mien-hua-jen), 848, are employed 
in the manufacture of cotton seed oil^ which was formerly used 
in villages as food and for lamps. Its taste is very unpleasant, 
which fact is due to the Chinese roasting the seeds before 
expressing the oil. It is used medicinally as a demulcent, and 
is applied to leprous, scabious, and other forms of skin disease. 

chia). This is a leguminous tree, similar to Gleditschia. It 
was for some time supposed to be a CcBsalpinia^ but it was 
later found to belong to Gymnocladus^ and the above designa- 
tion was assigned to it. It is a large tree, growing in central 
China, and bearing white flowers. Its pods are collected for 
the market, and are met with as greasy, fleshy, yellowish, or 
reddish-brown legumes, three or four inches long, and about 
one and a half inches broad. They abound in an acrid, deter- 
gent, fatty principle, so that when the pods are roasted and 
pouuded into a pulp, they may be kneaded into balls. These 


are usually as large as children's marbles, and were formerly 
much used for washing clothes and the body. They are called 
BE ^ ^ (Fei-tsao-t'o), and are not allowed to be used in public 
baths, as they have a strong smell. Foreign soap has now 
taken the place of these, having even taken the name of this 
plant for its common name in Chinese vernacular, ^ ^ (Fei- 
tsao). The seeds are black and smooth, and are called BE ^ i^ 
(Fei-tsao-ho), Sfi ^ ^ (Fei-tsao-tou), and BE .1: ^ (Fei-tsao- 
tzii), 298. They were described by Hanbury as being three- 
fourths of an inch in diameter, of a compressed spherical form, 
each furnished (when perfect) with a large, rigid, persistent 
podosperm. A transverse section shows a pair of plane cotyle- 
dons, between the flat sides of which and the thick, hard testa 
lies a layer of black, horny albumen. These are edible after 
roasting, but are more frequently used by the makers of 
artificial flowers with which to wax- their threads. The pods 
are the parts principally used in medicine, and are prescribed in 
rheumatism, dysentery, and hematuria. They are applied to 
eczema, favus, and venereal sores. It is said that if the pods 
drop into water which contains goldfish, these latter will die. 
The seeds are reputed to be carminative in their action. 

ts'ai), ^^ ^ (Hou-k'uei). This is one of the marine algae, found 
all along the coast of China south of the Yangtse. It grows 
to the height of three or four inches, and looks like a stag's 
horns ; hence the name. It is of a purplish yellow color, and 
is gathered by the natives as food and for medicine. Its taste 
is very mucilaginous, and it is easily converted into a gelatin- 
ous mass by cooking in water. Women sometimes use it as a 
bandoline. It is used medicinally, principally as a demulcent 
in fevers and colds, and it is said to be very useful in cinnabar 
poisoning. Its demulcent properties would surely commend it 
in catarrhal aSections of the bowels or bladder. 


ts'ao). This is a fern which is found growing in old wells, or 
in other damp places where there is more or less constant shade. 
The sori, which are found on the fronds, are often exceedingly 


numerous, and are said to look like snake's eyes ; hence the 
name. True to Chinese therapeutical principles, this plant 
is used only as an application in cases of snake bite. 

GYMNOTHRIX, Alopeciinis. —^ ^ ^ (Lang-wei- 
ts'ao), ^ (Lang), ^ fj (T'uug-lang), ^ ^ (Ivang-mao), ;£ 
(Meng), ^ 13 ^ iSu-t'ien-weng), ^ [g ^Shou-t'ien). In all 
probability these terms may not all relate to the same species. 
The second term would seem to be generic, while the first is a 
very good translation of the English name, "fox-tail." This 
grows in China, as it does in other parts of the world, in damp 
fields. The seeds are used, though scarcely medicinally ; as 
they are said, if used as food, to prevent hunger .' Under this 
article in the Pentsao a related plant is mentioned, which is 
called pj ]^ (K'uai-ts'ao). This is Scirpus (which see). 

hua-ts'ai), ;^ ^ ^ (Yang-chio-ts'ai), This is a cultivated 
vegetable of the gardens. It is described as having a weak 
stalk, spreading out in branches with pinnatifid leaves. In the 
autumn it bears a white flower with long petals, and produces 
a small horn about two or three inches long (the seed capsule ?). 
The seeds are black and tiny, and are gathered for use as 
medicine. There is also a yellow flowered kind. If taken in 
excess, the drug produces flatulence and a sense of oppression 
in the stomach. Medicinally, it is used as a carminative, and 
the decoction is employed as a wash for piles and for rheumat- 
ism and malarial disorders. 

GYNOCARDIA ODORATA.— ;J^C M, •? (Ta-feng-tzu). 
These seeds are imported into China from Siam. The large 
tree which yields them is common in Cambodia, Siam, the 
Indien Archipelago, Malaysia, Assam, and other parts of 
Eastern India. The whole order (Bixineae) to which this tree 
belongs is tropical and poisonous. The large, round, indehis- 
cent, succulent, capsular fruits, compared by the Chinese to the 
cocoanut, contain very many matted, ovoid, irregular, com- 
pressed, grayish-brown seeds. They vary from a half to seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and consist of a hard, woody testa, 


to the surface of which portions of firm dry pulp, or of the 
rind of the fruit, are often adherent, sometimes to the extent of 
uniting two or three seeds into one mass. The albumen is oily, 
and incloses large, heart-shaped, leafy cotyledons. The Indian 
nuts are somewhat different from the Siamese samples, the 
testa being smooth, thin, and fragile in the case of the former. 
Chaiilmugra and Petarkiira are Indian names for the drug. 
The seeds are likened by the Chinese to Mylitta lapidescens 
(^ ^) Ivci-wan). The method given in the Peiitsao for pre- 
paring the oil is as follows: " Use three catties of the seeds, 
remove the hulls and skins ; grind up in a mortar very fine. 
Pack into an earthen jar and seal up tightly. Put the jar 
into a pot of boiling water and seal the pot, so that no steam 
can escape (possibly for increased heat under pressure). Steam 
it until the oil assumes a black and tarry appearance. This 
is the 'chaulmugra oil' " (;^ ^ ^, Ta-feng-yu), 1221. This 
is an extract rather than an oil, although it probably contains 
all of the latter found in the seeds. Both the seeds and 
this oily extract are used in the treatment of leprosy. Indeed, 
the name of the drug is derived from its reputed qualities in 
the treatment of this disease (;^ J|[ ^, Ta-feng-cli4). Sophera 
fiavescens^ Momordica cocJiiuchincnsis^ and calomel are various- 
ly used in combination with the oil or seeds in tlie internal or 
external treatment of the disease. The drug is also recom- 
mended for impetigo, psoriasis, syphilis, scabies, and parasitic 
pediculi. Some of the chaulmugra seeds found in Chinese 
shops would seem to be from Hydnocarpits veneiiattis^ of the 
same order an Gyiiocardia^ which has been found almost 
equally as useful as the latter in the treatment of leprosy. The 
Indian name of this is Neeradimootoo. 

GYNURA PINNATIFIDA.— £ \, (San-ch'i), 1059, [Jj 
j^ (Shan-ch'i), :^ /fi f^ (Chin-pu-huan). This scitamineous 
plant is named from the irregular arrangement of the leaves. 
The Chinese say that there are three on the left side and four 
on the right ; hence the first name. lyi Shih-chen says that 
this is probably not true., but that the first name is a corruption 
of the second, which means "mountain varnish." This name 
refers to its property of causing the edges of wounds to adhere 


tog-ether. From its extraordinary reputation amongst military 
and figliting men, the root of this plant is very costly. The 
last name, "gold no recompense," refers to this fact. The 
drug comes from Kuangsi and Yunnan, where it is cultivated. 
It occurs in tapering pieces of from three-quarters of an inch to 
an inch in length. The yellow external surface is wrinkled, 
marked with small nodules and ridges, and the interior is of a 
pale yellow color. The taste is bitter and slightly saccharine, 
something like that of ginseng, to which it is likened by the 
Chinese. Vulnerary, styptic, astringent, and discutient prop- 
erties of a very high degree are attributed to this drug. It is 
recommended in all forms of hemorrhage and wounds, includ- 
ing tiger and snake bites. The leaves have similar properties, 
and are often combined with the rhizome. 


mao-yii-feug-hua). This orchidaceous flower blooms in the 
autumn, and has a waxy petal which is likened in shape 
to a bird. It has an appearance of being very light, and 
this light, waxy, bird-like petal is indicated in the name 
by the three characters, ^, 2g, aud ^. No medicinal prop- 
erties are assigned to the plant. 

HALYMENIA DENTATA.— H gjp i^ (Chi-chio-ts'ao). 
This is a fresh water alga, a species of dulse^ which grows 
in marshes and ponds. It has a red stalk and opposite fronds. 
The shoot has a bitter taste, and is used in fluxes that have 
a tendency to become chronic. A decoction of the root is 
employed in lepra-like difficulties. 

HAMAMELIS JAPONICA.— ^ j^ |# (Chin-lii-mei). 
The Kiiang-chun-fang-pu describes the beautiful thread-like 
petals of this shrub, which flutter gracefully in the wind. 
The plant is very similar to Haviamelis virginiana^ but 
does not seem to have been used medicinally by the Chinese. 

HELIANTHUS ANNUUS.— 1^ H ^ (Hsiang-jih-k'uei), 
M ^ (Chao-jih-k 'uei). Although the sunflower is extensively 
cultivated in gardens and fields throughout China, and the 
fruits are used as food, it is not clearly mentioned in the 
standard works on medicine or botany. On account of a 
reference in the classics, the meaning of which is anything 
but clear, this plant has been confounded with the malvaceae. 
The above names are the common designation by which 
the plant is known in Japan and China. The fruits are 
also fed to fowls, the leaves are made fodder for cattle, and the 
stalks and roots are used as fuel. The oil, H ■? f^ (K'uei-tzu- 
yu), is also known to the Chinese, but does not seem to 
be much used. Aside from the nutritive properties of the 
fruits, no medicinal qualities have been found ascribed to 
this plant. 


HEMEROCALLIS.— ^ if (Hslian-ts'ao), 476. The first 
character is written =^ (Hsiian; in the classics, and is defined by 
»S ffi (Wang-yu), the plant of forgetfulness. The common 
name is H ^ (Lu-ts'ung), because the plant is like the onion 
and deer eat of it. Still another name is 5|^ ^ (I-nan), because 
it is said that if pregnant women wear the flowers at the 
girdle the child will be a male. There are several species 
of this genus found in China, mostly having orange and 
yellow flowers. The names given in this article are variously 
referred to Hejnerocallis fiilva and Heniorocallis minor. The 
dried flowers are largely consumed as food by the Chinese, and 
are called ^ ff* ^ (Chin-chen-ts'ai) and ^ ^^l ^ (Huang-hua- 
ts'ai). The article appearing in the Customs list, however, does 
not consist alone of the flowers of this plant, but also of other 
species of lily. They are used both as medicine and as a relish 
with meat dishes. They consist of inferior, tubular perianths 
of the unopened flower, enclosing six introrse stamens, with 
the three-celled, superior ovary, and simple stigma characteristic 
of lilliaceous plants. They are twisted, or wrinkled, so as 
to give a length of four or five inches, the color being of a dark, 
brownish-yellow, translucent, and covered with a whitish mould 
or bloom. The odor is agreeable, and the taste sweet and 
mucilaginous. Medicinally, they are used together with the 
shoot, and are considered to be antifebrile and anodyne. Some 
intoxicant or stimulant properties seem to belong to these 
drugs. The root is diuretic, and is given in dysuria, lithiasis, 
.dropsy, jaundice, piles, and tumor of the breast. 

HEMIPTELEA DAVIDIAN^A.— |g (Ch'u). This is a 
small ulmaceous tree, provided with large thorns, and found 
in the northern provinces. It is described in the Phitsao 
together with the elm^ and its medicinal virtues are uot 
distinguished, from those of the latter. 

HEPATICA.— M ^ (Ti-i), "earth clothes," also called 
% H i^ (Yang-t'ien-p'ij and i^ "Ji ^ (Chli-t'ien-p'i). The 
Pentsao does not give much description of this plant, but 
what is given is characteristic. The taste is bitter, cooling, 
and slightly deleterious. Its medicinal virtues are said to 


be anodyne and antifebrile, and it is prescribed in angina 
and sunstroke, and also as a local application in smallpox 

HETEROPOGON CONTORTUS.— t^fe ^ (Ti-cbin), 5^ 
i^ (Cbien-ken), ±^ ^ (T'u-cbin). This is a grass with a 
hirsute root. It is nearly related to Imperata arundinaceay 
both in appearance and in medicinal virtues. The root, shoot, 
and flowers are all used as a demulcent and antifebrile remedy. 

— H ^ ^ (Huang-shu-k 'uei). The identification of mah^aceous 
plants is exceedingly uncertain. The Chinese names are often 
used interchangably for different genera and species, and even 
for plants of other orders. The descriptions also lack in 
definiteness, so that it is safe to say that different plants are 
often confounded. The one under consideration represents one 
or more edible species, which include that furnishing okra. 
However, it is sometimes mistaken for Althea rosea. It is 
grown extensively in China as a garden flower, as well as a 
vegetable, and it comes up from year to year as a volunteer. 
It bears a six-celled, conical seed pod, about the size of a 
thumb, and the seed capsules are arranged spirally in the pod. 
The seeds are black. The stalk grows to the height of six or 
seven feet. The bark is used for making rope. The flowers, 
seeds, and root are all used medicinally, and they are con- 
sidered to be diuretic and demulcent in their action. They 
are prescribed in difficult labor, and as a local application to 
various kinds of sores, wounds, scalds and burns. The root 
is mucilaginous, and decoctions of this, as well as of the seeds, 
are used in sizing paper. 

HIBISCUS MUTABILIS.— ^ % % (Mu-fu-jung), also 
J& ^ ^ (Ti-fu-jung). Other names are given, but are not 
especially distinctive. The last two characters are usually 
applied to Nelunibium and Papaver soniniferum^ and are used 
in this case on account of the resemblance of these flowers to 
those of the lotus and poppy. This tree grows readily almost 
everywhere in China. The prevailing color of the flowers is 


red, but several colors are mentioned. The bark, as in the 
case of many malvaceons shrubs, is used for rope making. 
The leaves and the flowers are the parts used in medicine, and 
they are evidently demulcent, and are by the Chinese con- 
sidered to be expectorant, cooling, antidotal to all kinds of 
poison, and anodyne. They are prescribed in old coughs, 
menorrhagia, dysuria, and wounds, especially burns and scalds 
that are slow in healing. Another name for this plant, as 
given by Faber, is ^ ^ (Chiu-k'uei), but what is said about 
this name in the Chinese books does not clearly indicate what 
it is. It is stated that the (Chiu-k'uei) is planted in the 
autumn and the ^ ^ (Tung-k'uei) is planted in the winter. 
For this last see Malva verticillata. 

saug is mentioned in the ancient books as the name of a 
fabulous tree behind which the sun is supposed to rise. It 
also refers to the name of a country where the plant grows, 
and which has been variously identified as Saghalien, Japan, 
and America. Professor Neuman confounded this plant with 
Agave niexicana^ and upon this identification built up a hy- 
pothesis of the discovery of America by the Chinese, The shrub 
grows to the height ot four or five feet, and the flowers show 
red, yellow, and white varieties. The red is called Jc ^^S (Chu- 
chiu) and ^ ^ (Ch'ih-chinV A wrong writing of the first 
name is ^ ^ (Fo-sang). A name common to this and other 
malvaceous plants is Q ^ (Jih-chi). The leaves and the flow- 
ers are. used medicinally only in combination with other drugs, 
beaten into a paste and applied as a poultice to cancerous 
swellings and mumps. 

HIBISCUS SYRIACUS.— 7|C \% (Mu-chiii). It is also 
called ^ (Jih-chi), because the flowers open in the morning 
and fall off before evening. Another name is ^ H ;^ (Fan-li- 
ts'ao), because it is used for making hedges, being cultivated 
for this purpose. It bears beautiful red flowers, much resem- 
bling those of Althea rosea. The bark and root are used 
in medicine. The taste is mucilaginous, and they are used as 
demulcent and antifebrile remedies in diarrhoeas, dysenteries, and 
dysmenorrhoea. Locally, they are also applied in all sorts of 


itchy and painful skin diseases. The flowers, 858, are similarly 
employed, and are sometimes made a substitute for tea. This 
is called -fX '^ :^ (Hung-hua-ch'a), and comes from Kiangsi. 
They are considered to be quieting to the stomach and diuretic. 
The seeds are employed in headaches and colds, and are also 
used, combined with pig marrow, as an application to discharg- 
ing ulcers. 

HIEROCHLOE BOREAUS.— j^^^ (Pai-mao-hsiang). 
This grass is said to have its habitat in Annam. The Taoists 
use it as a bitter herb. It is to be distinguished from Audro- 
Pogon^ Heteropogon and Imperata, The root is the part used 
in medicine, and it is said to give a fragrance to the whole 
body and to be warming to the viscera when taken internally. 
Mixed with peach leaves and made into a decoction, it is added 
to bath water for the treatment of skin diseases in children. 

HIRNEOLA. — See Exidia auricula judcs. 

HORDEUM VULGARE.— :A: ^ (Ta-mai). The classical 
name is J^ (Mou). Notwithstanding the fact that this cereal 
was known to the Chinese from very early times, it has not 
for a long time been much cultivated by them. They do not 
seem to have esteemed it highly as food, and have not used it 
extensively in the manufacture of spirituous liquors ; millet and 
rice being most frequently used for this latter purpose. An- 
other name by which it is called in the Chinese books is |^ ^ 
(K'o-mai). Several varieties of barley are grown, and these 
seem for the most part to be divided between two species, 
namely, that given above and |^ ^ (Kung-mai), the so-called 
^^ Hacked barley^'''' which separates from the chaff in the same 
manner as does wheat. Another possible species is spoken of, 
on account of its glutinous qualities named ||| ^ (No-mai). 
This has not been identified, but is used for making wine. 
The Kting-viai is grown in Szechuan and Shantung as food 
for men, but for the most part either kind of grain is used to 
feed horses. It is probable that formerly the grain was of 
much more importance than it is now. As found in the 
market, the kernel is longer and not so plump as that found in 


western countries. But this is true in regard to all of the 
cereals raised in China, and is due probably to long years of 
inbreeding, failure to rotate crops, and lack of proper condi- 
tions of soil. Barley is considered by the Chinese to be very 
nourishing, preventing fever and giving vigor and strength to 
the body. Continual use of it as food is said to prevent the hair 
from turning grey. It is used for making poultices for ulcers 
and as a dressing for burns. The shoots of the plant are used 
as a diuretic and as an application to chilblains and to frozen 
extremities. A mildew or rust found on the awns about the 
time that the grain is ripe, and called -j^ ^ j^ (Ta-mai-nu), is 
considered to be antifebrile and antidotal to poisonous drugs. 
Jkfa/i or Barley Sprouts^ under the name of f^- ^ ^ (Kung- 
mai-nieh), or ^ ^ (Mai-ya), 817, is prepared by moistening the 
grain and allowing it to germinate. It is then dried in the 
sun, the sprouts rubbed off, and the grain is ground into flour. 
It is considered to be peptic, stomachic, lenitive, demulcent, 
expectorant, and abortifacient. This last property might indi- 
cate the presence of an ergot. It is much prescribed in puer- 
peral and infantile affections, and its reconstructive properties 
are well recognized. For this purpose it is recommended in 
phthisis and the kan y-^) disease of children (tabes mesenterica ?). 
It is also said to have the power of suppressing the secretion of 
milk in women whose children have suddenly died after birth. 

HOUTTUYNIA CORDATA.— ^ (Ch'i), ^ % (Chu- 
ts'ai), ^^ §1: ]|[ (Yii-hsing-ts'ao). This plant grows in damp 
shady places in mountainous districts. It has a heartshaped, 
succulent leaf, green on one side and red on the other, 
and is good for feeding to pigs. Notwithstanding the fact that 
it has a decayed fishy smell, to which the last name above 
given refers, it is sometimes eaten by the Chinese as a salad. 
It is a piperaceous plant, and was formerly pickled. When 
eaten in excess it is said to cause shortness of breath, and is 
therefore considered to be slightly deleterious. Its ascribed 
properties are in the main antidotal and astringent, and it is 
therefore prescribed in poisoned sores, infectious skin diseases, 
piles, prolapsus ani, pernicious malaria, snake bite, and the 
like. The juice of the fresh leaves is most frequently used. 


HOVENIA DULCIS.— tn ^ (Chih-chii), 129. This is 
a rhamnaceous tree yielding fruit-like, thickened branches, 
of a russet color, and filled with a pleasant, yellowish, pear- 
like pulp, which is cooling and laxative. Near Peking it is 
miscalled \P^ ^ (Chih-tsao) in imitation of f.| ;j^ ^ (Chi- 
chao-tzu, which is a common way of saying ^ Jf^ -^ fChi- 
chu-tzii. In south China it is miscalled f§ jj^ (Chieh-kou), 
^ ;j^ (Chi-kou), and t^ |f (Chi-chil) in imitation of its proper 
name. Other names are ^ -^^ ijl;^ (Mi-chih-kou), ^ J^^ ^ (Mi- 
ch'ii-lii), Tf: ^ (Mu-mi), 7|C i| (Mu-hsing), and :^ J|!|] J^j (Mu- 
shan-hu). The names given to the wood are |^ ^ /fc (Pai- 
shih-mu), ^ §Ji "^^ (Chin-kou-mu), (^ |Jfc (Ping-kung>, and 
^ ^3 :Ht (Chiao-chia-chih). The tree is met with in all of 
the eastern provinces, and probably some of the central and 
western. It is also found in India and Japan. The real fruits 
of the tree are small, dry, and pea-like, and are pendent upon 
the fleshy peduncles, which greatly increase in size at the 
time of their maturing. They contain a flat, shining, dark- 
red seed, resembling that of Linum usitaiissimum. The seeds 
are sold under the name of \^^ \^ ^ (Chih-chii-tzii), 129. 
Both the fruits and the fleshy peduncles are considered to be 
antifebrile, laxative, diuretic, and quieting to the stomach. 
Remarkable antivinous properties are also attributed to them. 
It is said that after the ingestion of large quantities of alcohol 
the use of this drug will prevent any intoxicant or poison- 
ous action. The bark of the tree is used in diseases of the 

HUMULUS JAPONICUS.— ^ :![ (Lii-ts'ao). This is 
properly called ^ ]^ (Lei-ts'ao), because the plant is covered 
with fine prickles which chafe (i^) the skin when they come 
into contact with it. Another name is ^ !^ [^ (Lai-mei- 
ts'ao). This is the common wild hop of China and Japan. Its 
medicinal action is considered to be diuretic, tonic to the 
genito-urinary organs, and constructive in chronic fluxes. It 
is prescribed in lithiasis, nocturnal emissions, chronic dysentery, 
chronic malaria, and typhoid fever. This is one case in which 
the Chinese have reached about the same conclusions as have 
been reached by western physicians. 


HYDROCHARIS MORSUS RAN^.— ^ ^ (Pai-p'iu). 
The Pentsao does not distinguish this from the ^ (P'in), 
Marsilia quadrifolia and 7J1C vi=" (Shui-p'ing), Lcmna minor. 
It cannot be the former, as it bears small white flowers in 
summer and antnmn, and Marsilia is a cryptogamons plant. 
This is a Japanese identification. See Lemna and Marsilia. 

HYDROCOTYLE ASIATICA.— ^ ^ -^ (Chi-hsiieh- 
ts'ao). This is Faber's identification, after Thunberg. But 
Bretschneider thinks it is Nepeta glcchoma. Why the 'labiate 
Nepeia should be confounded with the umbelliferous Hydro- 
coiyle is difficult to understand. But "when doctors disagree, 
who shall decide?" In the Pentsao^ under the Chinese 
name given above, is also discussed ;J^ M ^ (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao), 
which Faber makes to be Co7iocephalus conica^ and SS ^ !^ 
(Lien-ch'ien-ts'ao), which in Japan \s Nepeta glechoma. The 
medicinal virtues of all three will be discussed under Nepeia 
(which see). The Customs lists give ^ ;^ ^ (P'eng-ta-wan), 
looi, as a term for Hydrocotyle^ but this term has not been 
found in the Chinese books. 

HYDROPYRUM LATIFOLIUM, Zizania aqnatica.^^ 
(Ku), II ^ (Chiao-ts'ao), ^ % (Chiang-ts'ao). This is a tall 
grass, much cultivated throughout China on account of its 
young stalks, called ^ j^ (Chiao-pai), which are eaten as 
a vegetable. Porter Smith evidently confounded the characters 
1^ (Chiao) and |= (Ling), and mentions this • under Trapa 
bicornis. The plant grows commonly in rivers, lakes, and 
marshes, and the leaves make excellent fodder for horses. The 
young shoot looks something like a bamboo-shoot, and it 
is eaten both raw and cooked, having an agreeable, sweet 
taste. It is called ^ ^ (Ku-sun), ^ ^ (Chiao-sun), ^ ^ 
(Chiao-pai), and ^ ^ (Ku-ts'ai). The central mass of the 
shoots, which is likened to a child's arm, is considered separate 
from the shoots, and in addition to the two last names above 
given is called ^ :^ (Ku-shou) and ^ fg, (Chiao-pa). These 
are both considered to be extremely cooling in their nature, 
and thin blooded people are recommended not to eat of them 
too freely. They are prescribed in fevers for their diuretic and 


thirst -relieving properties. The root is also considered to 
be cooling, and is used medicinally in similar difficulties to 
those in which the shoot is recommended. Incinerated and 
mixed with chicken excrement, it is applied to burns. The 
leaves are said to benefit the five viscera (heart, lungs, liver, 
stomach, and kidneys). 

The seeds, which in the Choitli were included with the 
six grains (since reduced to five), have apparently fallen into 
disuse, and are now gathered only in times of scarcity. They 
are called ^ ^ (Ku-mi), ^ ^ (Chiao-mi), and ^ ^ (Tiao- 
hu). They are nearly an inch long, have a grayish cuticle, 
but a white starchy interior. Tbey were formerly made into 
cakes and eaten with fish. They also can be used as a 
substitute for rice. This product is similar to, if not identical 
with, the Indian rice {Zisania aquatica) of North America, 
which is much used as food by the American Indians. Its 
virtues are said to be about the same as those of other parts of 
the plant. 

HYOSCYAMUS NIGER.— It is probable that this plant 
is found in China, but identifications are uncertain. Henry 
found a plant cultivated in a mountain garden in Hupeli which 
proved to be Hyoscyamus. It was called ^ ^ (Lang-tang), 
but elsewhere this is Scopolia japonica (which see). Tatarinov 
gave this identification to |ftlj :^ :j!g (Nao-yang-hua) and i^ ^, S^ 
(Yaug-chih-chu), but these have later been determined to be 
Rhododendron^ or possibly Datura. If henbane grows here, 
its proper name has not yet been found, or it is confounded by 
the Chinese with other things. It is entirely probable that one 
or more of the above names is sometimes applied to this 

HYPERICUM CHINENSE.— ^ ^, % (Chin-ssu-ts'ao), ^ 
^.\% (Chin-ssu-t'ao). The eliptico-lanceolate leaves, lanceolate 
sepals, pentafid stigma, and woody, round stem of this beautiful, 
flowering plant, distinguish it from other species of 6"/. /<9/^«'.y 
wort. It is frequently used as an ornamental plant. It is 
credited with astringent and alterative properties, and is also 
prescribed in miasmatic diseases and snake bite. 


HYPOXIS AUREA.— Ill] ^ (Hsien-mao), 453. The 
Pentsao says that this grows in western countries, but it 
is found in Hupeh, Fukien, and Kuangtung. Another name 
^s M ^ PI ^ (P'o-lo-men-shen), or " Brahiuinical ginseng," 
on account of its being brought from India and of its recon- 
structive properties. A Sanscrit name given for it is fpj ^ ^ 
P^ (Ho-lun-lei-t'o). The root is the part used in medicine, 
and its properties are similar to those ascribed to ginseng. 
These are reconstructive, rejuvenating, aphrodisiac, and tonic. 
It is prescribed in wasting diseases, dyspepsia, lassitude, 
impotence, wounds, and diseases of the eyes and ears. 



ILEX CORNUTA.— ^i^J "f (Kou-ku). Another name is 
i^ 3!, M (Mao-erh-t'zu), "cat-thorn." It is said to resemble 
^ M (Nli-chen), LigusU^iim lucidiim. It is described ds 
having leaves of a beautiful green color, thick, leathery, and 
evergreen ; each leaf having five angles terminating in spines. 
It blossoms in the fifth month, bearing small white flowers. 
These are followed by the fruit, which, when ripe, is of a dark 
red color, having a thin skin and being of a sweet taste. The 
kernel consists of four parts. Of course, this refers to the four 
seeds which are usually joined together. The wood is white, 
and resembles that of Buxus sempcrvirens. The bark is boiled 
to make bird-lime. The bark and leaves are used in medicine ; 
the former being considered to be tonic, while the latter is used 
in decoction in intertrigo. A medicinal tea, called ^ ;$!] 1^ 
(Chio-tz'u-ch'a), is made of the leaves in the Kiangnan 
provinces. It is said that if women drink of it they will not 
become pregnant, and it is regarded by the Chinese as the 
most efficient preparation for putting a termination to preg- 
nancy. Its abortifacient properties are spoken of in almost 
extravagant terms. Other properties attributed to the tea are 
those of a carminative and for purifying the blood. The 
common names for the holly in Kiangnan are ^ |^ $lj (Lao- 
shu-tz'u) and ^ J^ $lj (lyao-hu-tz'u). The wax insect is some- 
times found growing on this tree. 

ILEX PEDUNCULOSA.— ^ ^ (Tung-ch'ing\ Con- 
fusion reigns supreme in regard to the use of this Chinese 
name. It is most frequently confounded with Ligustrum 
lucidiim (which see), on account of the fact that the wax insect 
is occasionally found growing upon this Ilex. The name 
is also written ^ ^ (Tung-ch'ing). Both of these names 
are used in the sense of "evergreen," and are therefore 
applied to several non-deciduous trees. For this reason con- 
fusion arises in their use as a distinct term for a genus or 
species. The term is also applied to Xylosina race7nosa^ while 
^ ^ S W (Hsi-yeh-tung-ch'ing) is referred io Ilex integra. 


In Manchuria the mistletoe is called ^ ^, but here again its 
general sense of "evergreen" is meant. The wood of this 
Ilex is white, beautifully veined, and was formerly used for 
making the ivory-like tablets which officials held before their 
breasts at Imperial audiences. It bears small white flowers, 
and red berries of the size of a pea. The leaves will dye a 
dark red color. The young shoots are sometimes used for food. 
The seeds, bark, and leaves are used in medicine. The two 
former, digested in wine, are used as carminative and tonic 
remedies. The ashes of the latter are used in skin diseases and 
poisoned wounds. A spirit prepared from the seeds is highly 
recommended to be taken in hemorrhoids. 

ILLICIUM ANISATUM.— A ^ B ^ (Pa-chio-hui- 
hsiang), 928. Star afiise is confounded with ^ ^ (Huai- 
hsiaug) in the Pentsao. This latter is an umbelliferous plant, 
most probably Pijnpinella miisiwi^ with which the description 
in the Pentsao agrees. The plant which produces the star- 
anise does not seem to have been very well known to Chinese 
botanists, and their identification of this drug seems to have 
depended largely upon the characteristic odor. It is brought 
in sea-going junks principally to Canton, and for this reason is 
called Ifl "@ ^ (Po-hui-hsiang). It is presumed that it comes 
from the East Indies or Japan, although it is said to grow in 
Kuangsi. All that is said about the plant is that it is different 
from the native "gf ^ (Hui-hsiang) in every respect except the 
odor. In the Appendix to the Pentsao^ where it is called Tfc 
/\ % (Mu-pa-chio), a tolerable description of the shrub is 
given. It is likened to Hibiscus vmiabilis in appearance. 
The seeds are recommended in constipation, and as a diuretic, 
in lumbago, hernia, extrophy of the bladder, and the like. 
There is a [^ A % (Ts'ao-pa-chio) which seems to be a 
smaller variety of the shrub. It certainly is not an umbellifer. 
The star-anise fruits, as they appear in commerce, present 
the radiate, star-like arrangement of the eight folicles, from 
which appearance they receive their name. Each of the 
folicles is compressed laterally, boat-shaped, roughened, and 
opens more or less at the top, disclosing a shining, yellow, 
ovate, solitary seed in the smooth cavity. The fruits vary 


from one inch to an inch and a quarter in diametei. One 
or more of the carpels is often abortive. Within the brittle 
testa is a pair of shrunkeu, oily cotyledons. The pericarp has 
a strongly aromatic, faintly acidulous taste, and an odor like 
that of aniseed. The seeds have a sweeter flavor. There 
is an oil, called A H flfl (Pa-chio-yu), which is said by Dr. 
Williams to be made by distilling the fruit in small retorts ; a 
picul producing about seven catties of oil. It is sent to 
Europe and America in tin-lined cases. The oil is pale, and 
warm or sweetish to the taste. It becomes solid at about 
50° Fahrenheit. 

IMPATIENS BALSAMINA.— 1. f|lj (Feng-hsien). The 
Phitsao gives a good description of this "touch-me-not ; " the 
irritable character of the seed pods being admirably expressed 
t>y ^ "^ -^ (Chi-hsin-tzli), 46, a more common name by which 
the plant is known. In the north of China this plant is used 
in combination with alum as a finger nail dye, and for this 
reason the name ^ ^a ^ !^ (Jan-chih-chia-ts'ao) is given to it. 
For the same reason it is called f^ ~^ (Hai-na), evidently in 
imitation of the Arabian /lenna. These latter, however, 
properly refer to Lawsonla alba (which see). The tender 
stalks are said to be eaten after having been soaked in 
wine for one night. The plant does not breed worms, 
and insects are said not to visit it. This last statement prob- 
ably refers to the structurally upside-down character of the 
flowers. The seeds are thought to injure the teeth and the 
throat, a property also referred to the root of Fiinkia siibcordata. 
The powdered seeds are mixed with a small quantity of arsen- 
ious acid and applied to carious teeth, when these are easily 
removed. Dysphagia and cases of fish or other bones sticking 
in the throat are treated with them. The powdered seeds are 
directed to be taken in difficult labor, the soles of the feet being 
rubbed at the same time with as many castor beans as the 
woman is years old. The flowers are mucilaginous and cooling. 
They are used in snake-bite, lumbago, and intercostal neural- 
gia. They are thought to improve the circulation and to 
relieve stasis. The root and the leaves are considered to be 
slightly deleterious. They are prescribed for all sorts of foreign 


bodies in tbe throat — copper coins aud other metals that have 
been inadvertantly swallowed — as well as in thorns and splinters 
in the flesh. It is said that if the white flowers are mixed 
with the leaves and root, and all beaten into a pulp and rubbed 
into the four canthi (^) of a sick horse's eye, the horse will 
break into a sweat and immediately recover. 

Shih-chen says : " This plant is short and small. In the third 
month it bears panicles of white flowers, followed by the 
fruits. The root is white, very long, flexible like a tendon, 
provided with joints, and of a sweet taste. The common 
people call the plant ^ ^ (SsH-mao), 'floss grass.' It is used 
for thatching houses. It furnishes the drug ^ ;j<^ (Mao-ken), 
spoken of in the Penching. Ki night the dry root gives out a 
light, and after decaying, changes into glow worms." The root, 
^ j^ (Mao-ken), 825, is used in medicine. To it are ascribed 
restorative, tonic, hemostatic, astringent, antifebrile, diuretic, 
and antivinous properties. It is prescribed in fevers, nausea, 
dropsy due to weakness, jaundice, asthma, hematuria, nosebleed, 
and the like. The sprouts of the ptant which shoot forth in 
the spring are likened to needles, and are therefore called ^ ^ 
(Mao-chen). These are regarded as solvent to other food and 
thirst relieving. They are also prescribed in hemorrhages and 
wounds. The flowers are similarly regarded. The rotted grass 
from a thatch is boiled with wine and used in the treatment of 
hemoptysis and the bites of poisonous insects. It is also pre- 
scribed in vaginismus, obstipation, and other urgent difficulties. 

INCARVILLEA SINENSIS.—;^ % (Chio-hao). This 
is named for Father Petrus d'Incarville, who lived at Peking 
from 1740 to 1757, during which period he did much research 
in the flora and fauna of China. This is a beautiful bignonaceous 
plant, with large scarlet flowers, found at the end of summer 
in the mountains and plains near Peking. The seeds are angular, 
black, and resemble those of Silejie aprica. The leaves resem- 
ble those of Cnidium 7non7iieri. The plant is considered to 
be slightly poisonous. It is prescribed for every form of skin 
disease or ulcer, and for spongy gums. 


INDIGOFERA. — A number of plants producing indigo 
are found in China, nearly all of which go by the common 
name of ^ i!^ (Lan-ts'ao), ''blue plant." Other Chinese 
names are used, but their specific application to genus or 
species is not always clear. Faber calls ;^ ^ (Ta-ch'ing) 
Ifidigofera ti^ictoria^ and such is also the identification of the 
Customs lists, 121 8. In Japan the plant with this Chinese 
name is Justicia crinata^ but the description in the Pentsao 
does not agree with an acanthaceous plant. However, it may 
be the plant which Fortune describes as being extensively cul- 
tivated in Chekiang province for producing indigo, and which 
he called Rtiellia itidigotica^ being the same as the Strobilan- 
thes flaccidifolitis of Nees. The Pentsao does not mention -j^ 
^ as an indigo bearing plant. It says that it is a common 
plant, growing to the height of two or three feet, having a 
round stem, leaves three or four inches long, dark green on the 
upper side and paler underneath, and placed in opposite pairs at 
the upper joints of the stem. The flowers are red, small, and 
arranged in corymbs. The fruit is at first green, but afterwards 
turns red, and resembles that of Zanthoxylmn. The stalk and 
leaves are used in medicine, and they are considered to be anti- 
febrile and antidotal. They are employed in all sorts of febrile 
epidemics, including typhoid fever and epidemic dysentery. 

Another name assigned to Indigo/era tinctoria is ^jc ^ 
(Mu-lan). This is a leguminous shrub cultivated in the south 
of China and India. It is described in the Pentsao as having 
leaves resembling those of the Sophera^ with pale red flowers, 
followed by pods an inch or more long. ^ ^ (Sung-lan) is 
Isatis tinctoria^ the woad of western dyers. In Japan there is 
another species called \L^ 'h% (Chiang-nan-ta-ch'ing), and 
judging from its name, to be found in China also, which is 
identified by Franchet as Isatis japojtica. There is also ^ ^ 
(Liao-lan), which is Polygonum tinct07'ium. These three are 
the source of most of the indigo produced in China, and are 
described under the general term ^ (Lan) in the Pintsao. 
Two other kinds are mentioned, called ^ ^(Ma-lan) and ^ ^ 
(Wu-lan), but these are probably only varieties of the others. 
The fruits of these plants are used in medicine. They are 
considered to be antidotal, anthelmintic, and restorative. Con- 


tinued use prevents the hair from falling and rejuvenates the 
body. The juice of the bruised leaves is considered aiitidotal to 
medicinal poisons, wolf-bites, and arrow wounds. It is also 
applied in insect stings, cantharidal blisters, and arsenic cau- 
terizations. The ^ ^, stalk and root, is recjmmended in 
menstrual difficulties, and the i^ ^ is considered to be an anti- 
febrile and antidotal remedy, being prescribed in much the 
same difficulties as the ;^ ^ and the ^ ^. 

Indigo itself is called ^ J^ (Lan-tien), or more properly ^ 
1^ (Lan-tien). According to the Pintsao it is prepared by 
throwing the plants into pits dug in the field, macerating them 
in water for one night, after which lime is added and the whole 
well beaten up. The water is then drawn off, leaving the 
thick, dark blue indigo paste at the bottom to dry, preparatory 
to being placed in bamboo baskets. It is then ready for the 
dyer's use. The froth rising to the top of these pits is collect- 
ed and made into an extract, called %% ^ (Tien-hua) or ^ |^ 
(Ch'ing-tai), 194, in imitation of the true indigo formerly 
brought from Persia. Indian indigo is also imported into 
China, as is likewise Manila liquid indigo. The Formosan 
product is an excellent aye, but is frequently much adulterated. 
In the province of Chihli a very good dye is made and sold 
under the name of 3^ f^ (Ching-tien). Liquid indigo is called 
■jJC tiH (Shui-tien), dry indigo J; %i (T'u-tien), and indigo dye 
^ ^ (Tien-ch'ing) or ^ ^ (Ch'ing-tai). The indigo trade is 
a profitable one in China, since the prevailing color of Chinese 
clothes is made with this dye. Although aniline dyes, on 
account of their brilliancy and cheapness, are having quite a 
vogue in China, they will with difficulty supersede indigo, 
which on account of its ease of production, its long use by and 
adaptability to the tastes of the Chinese, and its durability as a 
pigment, will continue to hold a strong place in Chinese textile 
manufactures. Medicinally, the common indigo is thought to 
have similar virtues to the plants from which it is derived ; that 
is, of an antifebrile, auti-poisouous, astringent, and anthelmin- 
tic remedy. 

The ^ ^ (Ch'ing-tai) or ^ :l^ (Tien-hua), also called ^ 
ia ^ (Ch'ing-ko-fen), originally came from Persia, but it is 
now made in China, as indicated above. Its medicinal action 


is the same as that of the plants and the common indigo, but it 
is held in rather higher esteem than the others. Swellings, 
bruises, stings, strumous glands, and tumors in general are 
treated topically with this remedy. Fevers, fluxes, worms, and 
infantile disorders are treated internally with it. It is a re- 
markable fact that the Chinese recommend it in convulsive and 
nervous disorders, when we remember that it had quite a vogue 
among western physicians some years ago for this purpose. 
Also, the domestic use of the bluebag in western countries for 
stings of insects, is paralleled by the Chinese recommendation 
of this substance for the same purpose. 

Mixed up in the Pentsao with the discussion of these indi- 
goferous plants, is mentioned "jj ^ (Kan-Ian) or ^ ^ (Lan- 
ts'ai), which is a variety oi Brassica oleracea^ much grown in the 
Yellow river plain. Its use as a vegetable is regarded as highly 
beneficial to the body, giving strength and vigor to the vital 
organs, and brightening the intellect. It is recommended to be 
eaten in jaundice. Soporific qualities are attributed to the seeds. 

INULA CHINENSIS.— :^ H 1^ (Hsiian-fu-hua), 475. 
This seems to be the same as Inula britanica^ or English ele- 
campane. It is indigenous to North China, Mongolia, Man- 
churia, and Korea, and a variety is also found in Japan. The 
Chinese name should not be confounded with that of Calys- 
tegia. Other names are ^ ii ^ (Chin-ch'ien-hua) and ^ 
^ ^J (Chin-ch'ien-chii), applied most properly to the cultivated 
plant, which much resembles Calendula. Other names refer 
to the color of the flowers, or to its resemblance to the chrysan- 
tkenium. The flowers are the part chiefly used in medicine. 
Tonic, stomachic, alterative, deobstruent, carminative, and 
laxative properties are ascribed to the drug. Sometimes the 
whole dried plant, including stalks, pappose fruits, and roots 
are found for sale in the shops. The stalks have a bitter 
aromatic taste. The leaves and roots are considered to be 
vulnerary and discutient. 

IPOMCEA AQUATICA.— ^ % (Yung-ts'ai). This is 
cultivated as a garden vegetable in central China. It is grown 
either in water or on marshy ground. A small raft of reeds 


is made and floated on the water. Seeds are dropped into 
crevices in the reeds, and the plant grows thus directly from 
the water. The plant is said not to have much taste, but is 
cooked with pork, and is relished in this way. It is considered 
to have a beneficial influence upon the body, and is used as an 
antidote to poisoning by an unidentified plant, called ^ ^ 
(Yeh-ko) or ]§5 ^ :^ (Hu-wan-ts'ao). It is also recommended 
in diflficult labor. 

IPOMCEA BATATAS. — t ^ (Kan-shu), llj ^ CShan- 
yii). The Chinese do not distinguish clearly between taro, 
the yanty and the sweet potato. The second name given above 
is properly Batatas ediilis^ but in the Pentsao it is included 
with ^ ^ (Shu-yli), which is Dioscorea quinqtieloba. The 
plant under discussion is much cultivated at the south and its 
tubers used as food ; sometimes to the complete exclusion of 
rice or other cereals. It is considered to have a good efiect 
upon the body, giving strength, and especially benefiting the 
spleen, stomach, and kidneys. However, those who live largely 
upon these and yams do not seem to be so well nourished as do 
those who live on rice. 

IRIS ENSATA.— ^ % (Li-shih). This name is also 
written |^ g (Li-shih), and the plant is mentioned in the 
Liclii under this character. A common name is J^ ^ (Ma- 
lin), 805, which at Peking is Iris oxypetala. Porter Smith, 
following Tatarinov, wrongly writes this ,^ "^ (Ma-lan), but 
this is the aster. This plant has blue or white flowers ; the 
fruit is a capsule, and the seeds resemble those of the hemp. 
The leaves resemble those of Allium^ but are longer and 
thicker. The root is long and fibrous, and the Chinese use 
it to make brooms or brushes. For this reason it is called 
^ ^ '1^ (T'ieh-sao-chou), "iron broom." The fruits are 
prescribed in fevers, rheumatism, hemorrhages, post-partum 
difficulties, and fluxes. They are considered to be diuretic, 
stimulant to the appetite, astringent, and antagonistic to vege- 
table and animal poisons. To the flowers, leaves, and roots are 
ascribed similar virtues, and they are specially recommended 
as anthelmintic remedies. In Japan ^\% % (T'ieh-sao-chou) 


is Lespedesa juncea^ a leguminous plant, and drawings in some 
Chinese works seem to agree with this. 

IRIS SIBIRICA.— ^ H (Chi-sun). The Chinese do not 
distinguish this from j^ ^ (Pai-ch'ang) or jifc ^ fit (Shui- 
ch'ang-p'u), Acorus calamus^ and it is described in the Pentsao 
under this title. All that is said is that there is one kind 
found in eastern China in rivulets and swamps, which is called 
by this name. In odor and color, its root is said to resemble 
the ^ ^ (Ch'ang-p*u) which grows among stones {Acorus 
gra?mneus)y but its leaves have no central ridge. It is not 
eaten, but is used as an expectorant, and is also employed for 
destroying insect vermin. 

IRIS TECTORUM.— j^ Ji (Yiian-wei). Another name 
is ,^ H (Wu-ytian). The root is called j^ gf (Yiian-t'ou). At 
Peking it is cultivated as an ornamental plant under the name 
of ]^ 3^ '^ (Ts'ao-yli-lan). The root is said to somewhat re- 
semble galangal root, having a yellow skin and white flesh. 
When chewed, it gives a scratchy sensation to the throat. The 
taste is bitter, and the drug is slightly poisonous. Its medicinal 
properties are regarded as being somewhat transcendental, 
being chiefly recommended for driving away evil influences 
and miasms. It is used in marasmus and wasting diseases. 

IXORA Sp.— ^ ^ 51 (Hu-huang-lien). This identifica- 
tion is suggested by Faber. See Barkhausia repens. 

IXORA STRICTA.— ^ ^ % (Mai-tzu-mu). The name 
is also written ^ •? ;?t; (Mai-tzu-mu). It is said to come from 
the mountain valleys of Lingnan, and has a leaf like that of 
the persimmon. It grows up with a slender shaft to the height 
of about seventeen feet. It has dark green leaves from one to 
two inches long, and its branches have a purplish color. The 
flowers are red and in clusters. The seeds are black and 
shining, and resemble Zanthoxylmn seeds. The stems are the 
parts used in medicine, and are recommended in bruises, ex- 
travasated blood, and wounds. The drug is said be beneficial 
to the bone marrow, to be anodyne, and quieting to the 
pregnant uterus. 



JASMINUM NUDIFLORUM.— M ^ :j!g (Ying-ch'un- 
hua). This is cultivated everywhere in gardens. It is the 
same as the Jasmimun sieboldianufn. The Chinese name is 
also applied to the Magnolia conspicua. It flowers very early 
in the spring before the leaves come ; the flower somewhat 
resembling that of the Daphne^ and being yellow in color. 
The leaves are used in medicine as a diaphoretic in fevers 
and wounds. 

JASMINUM OFFICINALE.—^ ^ (So-hsing). In the 
Phitsao this is described in a foot-note to the article on [as- 
7nimiin savibac^ where it is stated that the plant is of foreign 
origin, and is also called ]|I5 ,^ ^' (Yeh-hsi-ming) and ^ jg ^' 
(Yeh-hsi-mi), either of which is a good transliteration of the 
Arabic yesmiii or the Persian yasinin. The flowers are of 
two colors, white and yellow, identified by the Japanese as 
JasmimiTTi grandiflorinn q.w6. Jasjuimun fioridwn respectively. 
The Oil of Jasmine is expressed from the flowers of this, a's 
well as from those of Jasminu77i savibac. The medicinal uses 
are not distinguished from those of the latter. 

JASMINUM SAMBAC— ^ fl[ (Mo-li). This plant is 
now well known in China, but is of foreign, probably Persian, 
origin. This is indicated by the fact that a number of very 
different characters of similar sound are used for the name of 
the plant, all approaching in sound those given above. So 
it is probable that they are all transliterations of some foreign 
name. The plant is exceedingly popular on account of the 
fragrance of its beautiful white flowers, and it is therefore 
cultivated in all pleasure gardens. A song, the tune of which 
is probably the most popular among Chinese airs, was com- 
posed praising the fragrance and beauty of this flower. Any 
Chinese will play or sing this air, if asked for the '■'■ Alo-li- 
hua.'''' The petals of the flower are used to scent teas and to 
prepare cosmetics. They are also used, together with those of 
Jasmimtm officinale^ in the manufacture of the Oil of Jasmine. 


The Phitsao says that there is also a red kind, called ^ 1^ 
(Nai-hua\ but this is the night-bloomi)jg jasmine or NyctantJies 
arbor tristis, the m?isk flower of eastern India. The roots of 
the jasmine are said to be very poisonous. A tincture made 
from them is said to have very powerful sedative, anesthetic, 
and vulnerary properties. One inch of the root extracted 
with wine will produce unconsciousness for one day, two inches 
for two days, three inches for three days, and so on. The 
bruised flowers of this jasmine are strongly recommended 
by Dr. Waring (Pharmacopoeia of India, p. 137) as a remedy 
for arresting milk abscess, or as a galactagogue. 

JATROPHA JANIPHA.— ^ % ^ (Pai-fu-tzii\ This 
is the identification of Loureiro, whose description agrees very 
well. The resemblance of the root to that of aconite gives it 
the Chinese name, but the Phitsao says that this does not 
indicate any relationship. It seems to have come originally 
from Korea, but is also found in Manchuria. Porter Smith 
took it to be an aroid plant, and the Customs lists classify it 
as a species of Arisisma^ 944. The tuberous, oval, elongated 
roots sold under this name vary a good deal in size, being 
from an inch to two inches in length. The epidermis is of a 
brown color, mottled, withered, and reticulated. The interior 
is pure white, starchy, and firm in texture. The plant grows 
in sandy soil, and is evidently slightly poisonous, although but 
a slight degree of acridity seems to exist in the tubers. The 
dififerent varieties of South American cassava also vary in this 
respect ; some retaining more of the poisonous juice than do 
others. It is said to be useful in apoplexy, aphonia, wry-neck, 
paralysis, chorea, heat-stroke, and similar diseases. At the 
present time it is chiefly used as a face powder to remove pock- 
marks, stains, and pigmentary deposits. 

JUGLANS REGIA.— ]^ ^l (Hu-t'ao), ^ }^ (Hei-t'ao), 
377) ^ ^I^ ^Ch'iang-t'ao). The seed of this tree was brought 
to China by General Chang-chien, of the Han dynasty. In 
the Pintsao its habitat is given as the Tangut country, about 
Kokonor. The second character in each of the names given 
refers to the resemblance of the green fruit to the peach. The 


tree is said now to grow in nearly all of the northern provinces. 
The nuts are not regarded as being very wholesome, but this 
is due to its supposed alchemic relations ; nevertheless, the 
effects of the nuts when ingested seem to be rather good than 
otherwise, being said to produce plumpness, strengthening and 
lubricating the muscles, and increasing the blackness of the 
hair. They are also considered to be diuretic, antilithic, aud 
stimulant to the kidneys and lungs. They are recommended 
in heartburn, colic, dysentery, and intestinal intoxications. 
The oil of walnut seeds is used as an anthelmintic and as an 
application to several kinds of skin diseases, including eczema, 
chancre, and favus, and is applied to the hair as a pomade. 
The pericarp seems to furnish an oily juice, which is used 
as a hair and whisker dye. The bark of the tree and root, as 
well as the hard shell of the nuts, are used as astringent rem- 
edies, and also for dyeing the hair and whiskers and summer 
grass-cloth. Another species, called ill ^ ^fe Shau-hu-t'ao), 
is spoken of under this heading, and is not distinguished from 
the other in its medical uses. This '\sjuglans sieboldiana. 

JUNCUS COMMUNIS, >««^^ e^usus.—^ ^ -^ (Teug- 
hsin-ts'ao). This sedge grows plentifully in the marshes of 
central China, and is used for making mats and lamp wicks. 
Its appearance when growing gives rise to its common name, 
J^ ^ :^ (Hu-hsii-ts'ao), "tiger-beard-grass." The stalks are 
steamed and the cuticle peeled off, leaving the central white 
pith, which is sometimes used to keep fistulous sores open in 
order to make them heal from the bottom. It is also much 
used to prepare a menstruum for other drugs. It is said to be 
antilithic, diuretic, pectoral, lenitive, sedative, derivative, and 
discutient. The ashes of a lamp wick are placed upon a 
mother's nipples, and thus administered to a nursing child for 
the relief of night crying. The Chinese watch the growth of 
the flower-like snuff of lamps and caudles, and draw ominous 
conclusions from its appearance. 

JUNIPERUS CHINENSIS.— ;ft (Kuei). This is a tall, 
straight tree, very common in the northern provinces of China. 
A remarkable thing about this tree is the dimorphism of its 


leaves. Generally, tbese resemble the leaves of the common 
cypress, which are scale-like and appressed, but frequently on 
the same tree will be found spreading, acicular leaves, and in 
rare instances the tree has only this sort of leaves. When it has 
only such leaves, it is called f§ (Kuai), The wood of the 
tree is quite resinous and the fruits are globular, constituting 
the juniper berries. The Chinese do not distinguish this 
tree, at least in its medicinal virtues, from Thuja orientalis 
(which see). 

JUSTICIA GENDARUSSA.— ^ % (Ch'in-chiao), 170. 
This identification is exceedingly doubtful. The plant described 
in the Pentsao is in all probability one of the Acanthacese. It 
grows in the mountain valleys of Szechuan. The root is of 
a dark yellow color, twisted and contorted, and about one foot 
long. The leaves are said to resemble lettuce leaves. The 
root is the part used in medicine, and it is very bitter in taste. 
It is boiled in milk and given in rheumatism, dysuria, fever, 
carbuncle, jaundice, and diarrhoeas. Diuretic and diaphoretic 
properties belong to this drug, as well as cooling and anodyne 

JUSTICIA PROCUMBENS.— ll^(Chio-chuang). Other 
names are given to this creeping plant, among which is ^ 0^ 
^ # :^ (Ch'ih-yen-lao-mu-ts'ao), "red-eyed old mother 
plant." It grows in the river valleys of Central China, in old 
fields and waste places. The odor is unpleasant. The whole 
plant is used in decoction in backache, plethora, and flatulence. 
In Japan this Chinese name is applied to Mosla punctata^ a 
labiate plant. 




KADSURA CHINENSIS.— 3£ P^ ^ (Wu-wei-tzu). 
Properly these Chinese characters are applied to ScJiiza7idra 
chinefisis^ and the plant will be described under that title. 
These magnoliaceous genera are so nearly alike that the Chinese 
do not readily distinguish them. The Kadsiira is found in 
Japan, where it is distinguished as ]^ 35. PJ: (Nan-wu-wei), 
referring to the fact that it is found in South China, while the 
Schisandra^ being found most plentifully in North China and 
Korea, is called :}b £. 5|; (,Pei-wu-wei), 1477. 

K^MPFERIA GALANGA. — ilj ^ (Shan-nai), 1063, 
llj M (Shan-lai), ^ ^ (San-nai). The fragrant, warm roots of 
Aipinia and Kczmpferia are grown in the south of China, and 
exported under the general name of Capoor CtitcJiery^ which 
is not a very happy alteration of the Hindustani name of this 
drug, kafur-kiichri^ "root of camphor." The root is met with 
in shops in flat, oblong, or round disks, from a half inch to an 
inch in diameter. Externally, they are covered with a reddish- 
yellow, shriveled epidermis. Internally, they are white. Some 
of the pieces are very irregular in shape, and branched. The 
odor is camphoraceous, but pleasant, and the taste is warm and 
aromatic. The plant is likened to ginger, and the root is eaten 
as a relish. It is credited with stimulant, stomachic, carmina- 
tive, prophylactic, and similar properties. It is principally used 
as a remedy in toothache, or as a wash in dandruff or scabs 
upon the head. It appears to destroy lice and pediculi. Dr. 
Williams says: *'It is exported from Canton and Swatow to 
India, Persia, and Arabia, where it is used in perfumery and 
mediciile, and also to preserve clothes from insects." It is some- 
times identified with ^ ^ (Lien-chiang), which is a somewhat 
similar scitamineous root, used in the south as a remedy in 
pyrosis. The character |^ is sometimes improperly written |^, 
and it is properly written ^. The country of Fu-lin, which is 
probably Syria, is said to have a plant yielding a root like 
that of Kccmpfcria., from the flowers of which is produced 
an oil used for anointing the body in febrile difficulties. 


K^MPFERIA PUNDURATA.— ^ %\ ^ - (P'eng-o- 

mou). Another name by which it is known in the Customs 
lists is j^f]i|^(P'eng-o-shu), 1003. An alternative name given 
in the Pentsao is ^ |^ ( Shu-yao). The drug comes from the 
East Indies and the southern provinces of China. The Pentsao 
says that tliere are two kinds, a poisonous and a non-poisonous, 
and that the method of testing this matter is to offer the root 
to a sheep, and if the sheep will not eat it, it is rejected. The 
root is specially prepared for medical uses by digesting in 
vinegar, as is sometimes done in the case of aconite. Carmina- 
tive, stomachic, peptic, emmenagogue, and cholagogue proper- 
ties are atributed to the drug. 

KERRIA JAPONICA.— 4^ % (Ti-t'ang). This is the 
identification in both China and Japan, but the Chinese term 
is almost uniformly confounded with ^ \% (T'ang-ti), or ^ ;^ 
(Ch'ang-ti), which is another name for ^fj ^ (Yu-li), Primus 
japonica. The Kiiang-chiin-fa^ig-pu makes the distinction be- 
tween these clear, and gives a very good description of this 
plant. It is much cultivated in gardens, and is prized for its 
golden yellow, polypetalous flowers, especially as it blooms 
with such magnificence in the early spring. The plant is used 
medicinally in the diseases of women. 

KOCHIA SCOPARIA.— M 1 (Ti-fu), 1263. This plant 
grows in marshes and fields. It is also cultivated in gardens, 
the young tender leaves being used as food. The old plant is 
used for makino brooms, and its common name at Peking is 
^ ^ !^ (Sao-chou-ts'ao). The seeds, shoots, and leaves are 
used medicinally, and to all are attributed diuretic and restora- 
tive properties. The seeds are prescribed in fevers, colds, 
intercostal neuralgia, hernia, dysentery, and incontinence of 
urine in pregnant women. The shoots and leaves are pre- 
scribed chiefly in dysentery and diarrhoea, and in digestive 
disorders generally. 

The Pentsao describes this as a tree growing in Central China, 
the leaves of which resemble those of Hibiscus syriacus^ 


having yellow flowers and a fruit like that oi Physalis alkckengi. 
The fruit capsules of this tree are bladderlike, and contain 
black seeds, the size of a small pea. The flowers are used for 
dyeing yellow, the leaves for dyeing black, and the seeds are 
made into beads. The seeds are called ;^ ^ •? (Mu-luan-tzii), 
but at Peking they are miscalled %W^^ (Mu-lan-tzu), and 
the tree /fc ^ :^ (Mu-lan-ya). The flowers are the parts used 
in medicine, in epiphora and conjunctivitis. The drug seems 
to be employed only as an eye medicine. 

KYLLINGIA MONOCEPHALA.— ^ ^ if (Chin-niu- 
ts'ao), 155, is the identification of the Customs lists, but upon 
what authority does not appear. The Hankow lists call this 
Ardisia japonica^ which in Faber's list is ^ ^ -^ (Tzu-chin- 
niu). What is spoken of under this term in the Pentsao does 
not answer well to the description of Kyllingia^ or indeed of 
any cyperaceous plant, but does approach that of a myrsinaceous 
one. So its medicinal virtues will be mentioned in the Ad- 
denda under the title of Ardisia. In Japan Kyllingia vio7ioceph- 
ala is 7jC %. ^ (Shui-wu-kung), and in the Appendix to the 
Pentsao is mentioned $^ $ii f^ (Wu-kung-p'ing), "centipede- 
like duck-weed," which from the description is evidently a 
sedge, and may be Kyllingia. Insects do not like the odor of 
this plant, so it is dried and burned in bed-rooms and about 
beds to produce a smoke, which is said to drive away all sorts 
of parasitic insects. 

■-ju e e oooepee^ 



LACTUCA.— ^ H (Pai-chii), ^ H (Shih-clui), ^ ^ 
(Sheng-ts'ai). The Pentsao says that ^ "^, ^ H (K'u-chii, 
possibly Cichormrn endivia), and ^ "^ (Wo-chii, Lactiica sativci) 
should not be cooked, but should be eaten raw with salt and 
vinegar. For this reason they are called ^^ "raw vege- 
table." The name t^^ (Pa) is also given for this plant, but 
this is an error ; it should be ^ (Chi). Faber calls q ^ 
Lactiica albifiora^ but this does not agree with the Penfsao^ as 
the plant there described bears yellow flowers. The *' white" 
refers to the leaves, which are slightly hirsute. Two crops 
are grown in the year: one being sown in the first or second 
moon, and the other from the eighth to the tenth moon. Two 
other varieties are mentioned, called ^ '^ (Tzti-clui) and ^ "i^ 
(K'u-chii) respectively. The former is sometimes mixed with 
clay in making pottery, producing an imitation copper. These 
are both probably only varieties of Lactuca saliva. The 
action of this lettuce is considered to be highly beneficial, 
toning up the sinews, dispelling flatus, aiding the circulation, 
strengthening the intellect, correcting poisons, relieving thirst, 
and opening the emunctories. The expressed juice of the 
stalk is instilled into the interior of a bubo after it has been 
opened and the pus removed. 

In the article on f^ ^ (Wo-chii), also called 1^ -% (Wo- 
ts'ai) and ^ ^% (Ch'ien-chiu-ts'ai), and which is also Lactuca 
sativa^ the Pentsao says that it was brought to China from a 
country called ^ (Kua, i§ Kuo ?) in the time of the Haa 
dynasty. The envoys who brought it received such a rich 
reward that the plant was called ^ ^% (Ch'ien-chiu-ts'ai), 
"thousand ounces of gold vegetable," from this fact. It is 
cultivated in the same manner as the j^ ]g, and is found in 
two varieties — the white and the purple. The seed stalk, when 
it first shoots up, is eaten under the name of ^ ^ (Wo-sun). 
It is consumed raw, and its taste is likened to that of the 
cucumber. The action of this plant upon the body is con- 
sidered to be identical with that of Pai-chii, but it is more 
highly regarded as a diuretic and parasiticide. Insects do not 


seem to like the juice, and if it is dropped into the ear when 
an insect has entered that cavity, the insect will be driven out. 
The seeds are considered to be galactagogue and anodyne. 
They are prescribed in swelling of the genitals and to make 
the hair grow on scar tissue. 

Another article in the Peiitsao gives us ^ '% (K'u-ts*ai), 
^ (THi), -^ -^ (K^i-chh), -"B ^ (K'u-mai), it ^ (Yu-tung), 
% "g (Pien-chli), ^MM (Lao-kuan-ts'ai), and ^ '^ M (T'ien- 
hsiang-ts'ai) as more or less synonymous terms. Here we have 
a thorough confounding of genera, as well as of species ; at the 
least Ctc/iormm, Lactiica^ and Soiichiis being in all probability 
included among this large number of names. These genera 
are very similar, resembling each other in their general appear- 
ance, inflorescence, and milky sap, as well as in the more or 
less bitterish taste of most of the species. ^ "^ and ^ ^ are 
probably Cichoi'i^nn endivia or Cichorium intybiis. Henry says 
that in Hupeh K^'n-ts'-ai is Lactuca squar-rosa. ^ Cr'u) seems 
to be uniformly referred to Sonchiis oleracciis^ and in Japan 
K''ii-ts'-ai is used as a synonym. This last term is frequently 
used in the sense of "bitter vegetable," so cannot always be 
considered as a distinctive term. According to Li Shih-chen, 
the leaves of this plant clasp the stem, and this would indicate 
that wdiat he meant was a Sonchus. The action of this vege- 
table upon the body is much the same as that of the last, but 
its medicinal virtues are considered to be much greater. Pro- 
longed use is thought to be highly beneficial, preserving youth 
and vitality. The expressed juice is much regarded as an 
application to boils, abscesses, and carbuncles, and if put upon 
warts will cause them to drop off. It is also used in snake 
bite and bleeding piles. The root is prescribed in fluxes and 
hematuria. The flowers and seeds are used as an antifebrile 
and quieting remedy, and in jaundice. 

LACTUCA DEBILIS.— M If Hx (Chien-tao-ku). This 
is another kind of lettuce that is eaten raw, and is also made 
into pickle. No medicinal virtues are ascribed to it. 

LACTUCA DENTICULATA.— 7K "B S (Shui-k'u-mai). 
This is a Japanese identification. Other names are |§J ^ || 


(Hsieh-p'o-ts'ai) and ^ ^^ llj (Pan-pien-shan). The root is 
used ill medicine for the treatment of fevers and sore throat. 

LACTUCA STOLONIFERA.— ^ ^ jg (Hu-hnang-lien), 
482. This is a classification suggested by Faber. (See Bark- 
haiisia repens). 

LAGENARIA VULGARIvS.— ^ M, (Hu-lu). These char- 
acters are sometimes written with the grass radical, ^ ^. 
Other names in the classics are ^ (Hn), |^ (P'ao), and fU 
(P'iao). These names all refer to the shape of the gourd and 
the uses to which it is put, and the Chinese authors try to 
distinguish different varieties by these names. In the north 
#E ■? (Hu-tzu) is applied to a long, club-shaped gourd. It is the 
pear-shaped, or double-bellied, bottle-shaped gourd to which 
the name HiL-hi is most properly applied. The young leaves 
of this plant are sometimes eaten. The gourds are used for 
a variety of purposes, as formerly in America, such as cala- 
bashes, dishes, beggars' collection boxes, musical instruments, 
drug bottles, floats, and the like. The pulp of the fresh fruit 
is sometimes eaten like the squash, but if taken too freely is 
liable to cause vomiting and purging. It is considered to be 
cooling, diuretic, and antilithic. The prickly cortex of the 
vine and the flowers are regarded as counter poisons, while the 
seeds are taken together with AchryantJies bidentata for diseased 
and aching teeth and gum boils. 

LAMINARIA.— ft (Lun). See Alg^. 

ts'ai), ^ ^ ^ (Huang-hua-ts'ai). This grows wild in moist 
fields, resembles wild mustard, has a slightly bitter taste, and is 
used as a pot-herb. It bears a yellow flower and small seeds like 
rape seeds. The rural people sometimes eat these seeds as a sub- 
stitute for rice. The use of this plant and of its seed is regard- 
ed as beneficial in all cases of feverishness and lack of vitality. 

LATHYRUS DAVIDIL— ^ •£■ J^ Pj^ (Chiang-mang- 
chiieh-ming). This is a Japanese identification. (See Cassia 


LATHYRUS MARITIMUS.— |f "^ S (Yeh-wan-tou). 
In the Pentsao this is discussed under the term f^{ (Wei), and 
part of the description evidently refers to a leguminous plant, 
although this latter character is more properly applied to a 
fern {Osmunda regalis). In Peking the same term is used for 
Vicia gigantea. In Japan the classification at the head of this 
article is the recognised one, although ^ f§ (Ch'iao-yao) is also 
called Lathyriis inaritinms and Vicia hirsuta. In the Pentsao 
the plant under consideration is said to grow by river courses 
and on marshy ground, although there is said to be a highland 
variety. It is used as a pot-herb, and upon prolonged use it is 
said to be very nourishing and to greatly benefit the intestinal 
tract. It is also thought to be tonic to the urinary organs. 

LAWSONIA ALBA.— ^ ^a f ii^ (Jau-chih-chia-ts'ao), 
^ \i^ (Hai-na). The leaves of this lythraceous plant, which 
grows all over South China, is used by women and children as 
a finger-nail dye ; hence the Chinese names, the second of 
which is in imitation of the Arabian henna. In the Pentsao 
these Chinese names are mentioned under the article on Im- 
paticns balsamina^ because in North China this latter plant is 
used in combination with alum as a finger-nail dye. But no 
description oi Lazvsonia is there given. In India the 5'ellowish- 
white flowers of this plant are used, together with the leaves, 
in preparing an extract which is used as a remedy for leprosy. 
The leaves contain gallic acid, and are therefore astringent. 
They are used by the natives of India for making a poultice 
to be applied to bruises and "burning feet." It is probable 
that the plant was introduced into China from India or Arabia 
at a very early period. The plant may indeed be Anchusa 
{Alicanna) tinctoria. 

Under the name of jp" ^ ^ (Chih-chia-hua), the Pentsao 
mentions a plant which it says resembles /f; 1^ (Mu-hsi), 
OsmantJms fragj-ans^ in odor, and which bears yellow and 
white flowers, and is superior to Pnpatiens balsainina for dye- 
ing the finger nails. This may refer to Latvsonia. It is men- 
tioned in the Pentsao in a foot-note to the article on Jasmiimm 
officinale. In the K^iang-chiin-fang-pit it receives a somewhat 
fuller description as a shrub, growing to the height of five or 


six feet, and as having been introduced from a foreign country, 
probably Syria or Persia, during the Liang dynasty. Its 
flowers are as white as snow and very fragrant. 

Henna. — The practice of dyeing the finger nails, and 
of using similar pigment upon other parts of the body, prevails 
to some extent in China, especially among women and children. 
In the south Lawsonia alba^ and possibly AiicJmsa iinctoria^ 
are used, and in the north Impatiens balsamina in combination 
with alum. The flowers of a ternstroemiaceous plant, called 
5!^ /K ® (Shui-mu-hsi), are also used to some extent for the 
same purpose. A red or yellow dye is imparted to the nails, 
which needs daily renewal. Practice varies as to the number 
of fingers treated in this way. A circular spot of rouge or 
henna is often to be seen between the eyes, or upon the cheeks 
or forehead, of Chinese children, especially girls. There is a 
tradition that this mark was originally a sign of the separation 
of women during the " uncleanness " of menstruation. In 
Egypt the Laivsonia is collected and used ^s a dye, and is 
exported to Turkey, where it has similar uses, and is farther 
employed to stain the manes and hoofs of horses. 

LEAVEN.—^ (Ch'ii), commonly written %%. Distiller's 
leaven is largely used in China in domestic operations. This 
is called }@ g| (Chiu-chiao), and is the residum left after the 
fermentation process preparatory to distilling spirits. Several 
kinds of leaven appearing under the name given at the head 
of this article, and that of 'Jg ^ (Chiu-mu) are described in 
the Pentsao as being made of barley, wheat, or rice. The 
process ot manufacture is about the same in each case. The 
crushed grain or flour is mixed with water, kneaded into dough, 
wrapped in the leaves of the paper-mulberry and hung in the 
open air for from five to ten days. In one kind the wheat- 
flour is mixed with kidney-beans, the juice of Polygonum (^, 
Liao, "smartweed,")and apricot kernels. It is made during the 
dog-days (£ {/c 0, San-fu-jih). This is called % |i (Mien- 
ch'ii). Besides this there are >]> ^ ^ (Hsiao-mai-ch'ii), ;f,; ^ 
^ (Ta-mai-ch'ii), and % || (Mi-ch'ii). 

The peptic and nutritive properties of these are well 
recognised in the Pentsao^ as well as an abortifacieut power. 


They are used largely in digestive disturbances. A preparation 
called jp^ ^' (Slien-ch'ii), 1126, or " spirit-leaveii," is described. 
It is to be made on the fifth of the fifth moon, the sixth of the 
sixth moon, or during the dog days, and is composed of white 
flour and the juices of wormwood, Phaseolus mungo^ apricot 
kernels, burweed, and wild Polygonum^ compounded together 
with the geomantic influences of the white tiger, the azure 
dragon, the scarlet bird, the black footstep, the hidden path, and 
the wingless dragon. It is wrapped in the leaves of the paper 
mulberry and hung up in the same manner as other kinds of 
leaven. It comes in yellow cakes, two inches and a half long 
by one inch and three quarters wide, packed up very neatly, 
two in a box. They are used as a peptic, stomachic, and cor- 
rective remedy in dyspepsia, colic, dysentery, the kan disease 
of children, and in difficulties following drunkenness. It is said 
to have the power of repressing the milk of puerperal women. 
Its action is very similar to that of malt. Another kind of 
leaven is called -fx, 1^ (Nii-ch'ii), and this is simply fermented 
grain. Its virtues are said to be the same as those of the other 
forms. Still another kind is known as ,fX |^ (Hung-ch'ii), This 
is made of non-glutinous rice, whicli is washed clean, mixed 
with " mother-leaven," and by a complicated, slow process of 
fermentation, made into a very efficient form of leaven of a 
red color, which is much used in fermenting grain for distilla- 
tion. Its medicinal properties are the same as those of the 
other forms, but it is specially recommended in post-partum 
difficulties and the dyspeptic conditions of children. 

LEMNA MINOR.— 7jC ^ (Shui-p'ing), \^ # (Fou-p4ng), 
327. In the Peiitsao three plants are more or less confounded 
under this title : a large one called ^ (P'in, Marsilid)^ an in- 
termediate one called ^| (Hsing, Limnaiithe7mini)^ and the one 
under consideration, which is the smallest of all. There is also a 
kind with leaves green above and reddish-purple beneath, called 
^ ^''[l (Tzii-p'ing), which in Japan is identified as Salvinia 
natans. Henry says that a sample of the drug FoiL-pHng from 
Hongkong, which is found in the Pharmaceutical IMuseum in 
London, is Pistia stratiotcs. In Peking the plant known by 
this name is Le^nna minor. Cooling, diuretic, antiscorbutic, 


astring-ent, and alterative properties are ascribed to this plant. 
It is added to the bath for tlie treatment of prickly heat, and 
the expressed juice is thonpht to promote the growth of hair. 
The juice is also applied to syphilitic sores and to carbuncles. 
The diied plant is used to drive away mosquitos. 

LEONURUS MACRANTHUS.— g^(Tsau-ts'ai). This 
grows in shady places in Kiangnan, and resembles the next, 
having a square stem and a whorl of white flowers at the 
joints. The Erhya calls it |^ (T'ui), and a purple flowered 
variety is called j?g (T'ui). This last character, however, is 
also used for a Rtimex. The shoots of this plant are used as a 
vegetable ; hence the character |^ in the name. The medicinal 
action is vitalizing to the blood, and it is used in post-partum 

LEONURUS SIBIRICUS.— 5g j^ (Ch'ung-wei), 283, 
^ -f^ (I-mu), 550. The ErJiya also gives the name |^ (T'ui) 
for this. The second name above given is applied also to 
Leoimrus macrani/ms, and in Manchuria to Lycoptts bicidiis. 
This plant grows near the sea shore and on the margins of 
pools and marshes. It has a square stem, trilobed leaves, and 
the flowers are red, tinged with white, and arranged in a whorl 
around the stem at the joints. The plant has a disagreeable 
odor, and was called by some ancient authors ^ ^ (Ch'ou- 
wei). The name I-niii is explained by its seeds being used in 
women's diseases. This plant is collected by poor people and 
dried, and sold to the medicine shops, where it is met with in 
bundles. The odor is not strong, but the taste is bitter. Li 
Shih-chen speaks of two varieties of the plant : one with purple 
and one with white flowers. The latter is I-tmiy while the 
former is called ^ "^ % (Yeh-t'ien-ma). The seeds are con- 
sidered to be constructive and aphrodisiac. They are prescribed 
in fevers, post-partum hemorrhage, menorrhagia, and loss of 
virility. Prolonged use promotes fertility. The stalk is used 
in baths for eruptions on the body, and the juice is employed 
in dropsies, death of the foetus, diflacult labor, dysmenorrhoea, 
fluxes, constipation, and locally in boils, cancer, ear abscess, 
serpent and insect bites, and it is added to cosmetic applica- 


tions. An extract, called ^ -^ ^ (I-mu-kao), 549, is prepared 
and used in cases of difficult or complicated labor. 

LEUCOTHOE GRAYANA.— 7JC ^ ^ (Slnii-li-lu). This 
is a shrub with leaves resembling those of the cherry, but 
narrower, longer, and much wrinkled. In the fourth moon 
it bears a small yellow flower, followed by the fruit, which is 
of the size of a small pea. The taste of this is bitter and acrid, 
and it is poisonous. It is used in the treatment of itch, ring- 
worm, and as a general parasiticide. The Chinese name indi- 
cates that this is regarded as a species of Vei'-atnun growing on 
moist ground. The root is also said to be used, possibly being 
in some instances confounded with Veratt'wn root. 

LICHENS.— The characters ^ (T'ai), ff (T'an), and ■% 
(Hsien) are used to denote these plants, as well as mosses and 
algae. The different kinds are not clearly distinguished. Most 
lichens are regarded as cooling, astringent, prophylactic, and 

LIGUSTRUM LUCIDUM.— ^ ^ (Nli-chen), 913. In 
the Shan-hai-ching the second character is wrHten |^ (Chen). 
It is also called ^ ^ (Tung-ch'ing), in reference to its being an 
evergreen (see Ilex)^ and ||, ^ (La-shu), in reference to the 
fact that it is the tree most commonly inhabited by the wax 
insect. This tree, with its evergreen leaves, is regarded as an 
emblem of chastity; hence the name, *' female chastity." 
The tree is most commonly known, however, by the 
last name, "wax tree," because the cultivation of this 
tree for the production of the white wax is an extensive and 
profitable business in some parts of China. The similarity 
of this tree to Ilex pedunculosa is noted by Chinese 
authors, and the fact that % ^ (Tung-ch'ing) is used 
as a name for both serves to cause some confusion between 
these. But it is pointed out that the leaves of the Nil-chhi are 
oblong, from four to five inches long, and its fruit is black ; 
whilst the Tioig-cJi'-ing has roundish leaves and red berries. 
The flowers of these trees are very much alike, those of the 



Tiing-cJiHng being white, and those of the AYt-c/ien greenish- 
white. The fruits enter into commerce under the name oi -Ir 
j^ ^ (Nii-clien-tzu), 913. The taste is bitter. "It is tonic 
to the centers, brightens the eye, strengthens the ytn, quiets 
the five viscera, nourishes the vital principle, makes vio^orous 
the loins and navel, expels the hundred diseases, restores grey 
hair, and if taken for a long time will increase the rotundity 
and firmness of the flesh, giving sprightliness and youth to 
the body." The leaves are prescribed in colds, congestions 
swellings, dizziness, and headaches. It is probable that 
other species of Ligiistrnm are known by the same Chinese 

Insfxt Wax.— ^ ^ i| (Ch'ung-pai-la), 953. Li Shih- 
chen says: "Previous to the Tang and Sung dynasties the 
wax used for making candles and in medicine was all bees- 
wax. From that period, however, the insect wax began to 
be known, and it is now an article of daily use. It is found 
in Szechuan, Hukuang, Yunnan, Fukien, Lingnan, Kiangsu, 
Chekiang, and Shantung provinces. That from Yunnan, 
Hengchou (Hunan), and Yungchang is the best. The wax 
tree, in its branches and leaves, is classed with the ^ ^ 
(Tung-ch'ing), in that during the four seasons its leaves do not 
fall. In the fifth moon it bears white flowers in clusters and 
chains of fruits, about the size of those of ^ ^ij (Wan-chino-^ 
Vitex incisd). When fresh, these are green in color; when ripe 
they are purple. Those of the Tting-ch^mg are red." It 
seems that Ilex is here referred to. "The insect is about the 
size of a louse, and after it has been propagated it remains 
upon the green branches of the tree, eating its sap and giving 
off from its body a secretion which adheres to the fresh stalks, 
gradually becoming changed into a white cere which congeals 
to form the wax, appearing like frost upon the branches. 
After the period of great heat {^ ^, Ta-shu, about July 23) 
it is scraped off, and is then called i^l ^ (La-cha). If it is 
allowed to remain until the period of white dew (|^ p, Pai-lu, 
about September 9), it adheres very firmly and is with difBculty 
scraped off. The crude wax is melted and purified or steamed 
in a retort, in order to get rid of the impurities, and is then 
poured into moulds to cool. This forms the white wax of 


commerce. The insects produce tlie wax while they are young 
and of white color. When they are old, they are reddish-black 
in color, and form balh upon the branches of the tree, at first 
of the size of a grain of millet, but in the second spring they 
o-row 10 the size of a cock's head, are piirplish-red in color, and 
closely encircle the branches, appearing as if fruits borne upon 
the tree. The insect deposits its eggs, making a cell that 
much resembles a chrysalis, which is called ^^ ^ (La-chung) 
or ^^ ^ (La-tzu). The eggs within this cocoon are like small 
silkworm eggs. In each bundle there are several hundreds. 
At the opening of spring they are taken down and wrapped in 
bamboo leaves and hung upon the tree. The insects gradually 
batch out and come out of the envelope and adhere to the 
under side of the leaves and the other parts of the plant, where 
they begin the manufacture of wax. The ground beneath the 
tree must be kept very clean, lest the ants eat the young 
insects. There is also a tree called 7]C M ^ (Shui-la-shu, 
Lig^tstriim ibota)^ the leaves of which somewhat resemble those 
of the elm. This may be used for breeding w^ax insects, as can 
also the ^ i|§ (TMen-chu, Qucrcus sckrophylla.) " 

The insect which produces this secretion is the Coccus 
Pc-Ia of Westwood, otherwise known as Coccus siticnsis. It is 
whitish in color w^hen young, but becomes of a dark brown 
color at the end of the season. The male insect is described 
in Hanbur)'s Notes (Science Papers, p. 271) as having large 
wings, a body of a dark red chestnut color, an elongated anal 
point, and reddish-brown legs. The body of the female seems 
to develop in such a way as to envelope the twig upon which 
it grows. The account given by L,i Shih-chen, as quoted 
above, seems to be fairly close to the facts, as these have thus 
far been gathered by foreign observers. 

The trees upon w^hich the insect grows have been much in 
dispute as to their identification. For the most part they 
belong to the Oleacese. Without doubt the insect will thrive 
upon several different species, such as Ligtistrum^ FraxhiuSy 
Ilex^ Qitercits^ and possibly Rhus. But it seems now to be 
well established that Ligustrum lucidum (^ _^, Nii-chen and 
^ ^ Tung-ch'iug) and Fraxinus sinensis (^ ^, K'u-li) are 
the principal trees employed for this purpose \ the former for 


the most part in the western provinces, and the latter in the 
eastern. Ligustruvi ibota makes a good third in the list of 
wax trees. The Kuang -dm n-fang-pu gives ^ ^ (La-shu), 
"wax tree," as the alternative name for the A'u-cheii^ and 
while it also gives Tu)ig-ch''ing as a name, it seems to use this 
more in the sense of "evergreen." The trees are usually- 
planted upon d5'kes between fields, and more rarely in clumps 
or orchards. Few engage exclusively in this business of 
producing the wax. It is usually one of the many activities of 
the Chinese fanner. 

In commerce the wax appears in cakes of varying sizes ; 
the usual one being of a diameter of about thirteen inches and 
about three and a half inches thick, with an oblong hole in the 
center for ease of handling. It texture it is highly cr\staline 
on its broken surface, much resembling spermaceti, but con- 
siderably harder. When pure it is almost colorless, inodorous, 
and tasteless. It melts at a temperature of about 180° F. , and 
chemically seems to be a ceryl cerotate, its formula being 
C27 Hjj, C27 H53 Go. It is very sightly soluble in alcohol or 
ether, but very soluble in naphtha. It is used in China to 
some extent for making candles, being rarely used pure for 
this purpose, but sometimes combined with softer fats. It is 
more particularly used for giving to the ordinary tallow candle 
a hard coating to prevent its guttering and wasting. For 
this purpose it is usually colored red with alkanet root, or 
green with verdigris. Latterly the analine dyes are being used 
to produce other colors. It is used in the trades for polishing 
the edges of books, the edges of the soles of shoes, polishing 
eartlienvvare, and the like. Medicinally, the Pentsao says that 
it makes flesh grow, stops bleeding, eases pain, restores strength, 
braces the nerves, and joins broken bones together. IL is 
regarded as a valuable remedy for wounds and all sorts of 
external difficulties, being used together with the bark of Al- 
bizsia julib7'issin for this purpose. It is also considered to have 
anthelmintic properties when taken internally, and is rubbed 
into the scalp in cases of favus and alopecia. Pills are some- 
times coated with this wax, and it is used for rubbing up 
with india ink in printing Chinese visiting cards of the better 
quality. Grosier says that public speakers sometimes swallow 


it to the extent of an ounce at a time as a stimulant to the 
voice. A large pill, made in Canton, and which is called 
^ ^ % (Pai-la-wan), 687, is considered to be a very good 
vulnerary and pectoral remedy. 

<^ LIIvIUM BROWNII. — ^ "5 -^ (Yeh-pai-ho) ; Lih'nm 

tigriniim. — % "g" ^ (Chia-pai-ho). The first term also includes 
other wild growing species. In fact, the name "Q^ -^ (Pai-ho), 
945, is applied to a number of species of lily, the bulbs of 
which, resembling onions, are used as food. Several other 
names are given in the Pentsao^ some of which refer to this 
resemblance to the onion or garlic. Another name applied 
to Liliiim tigrinnm^ the description agreeing very closely, is 
^ ^ (Chiien-tan), which refers to the way in which the flowers 
roll up as they fade. The domestic varieties of this plant are 
raised by manuring with the droppings of fowls. The wild 
tinds are preferred by some. The bulbs are considered to be 
tonic, eliminant, carminative, quieting, and expectorant. They 
are used also in epiphora, suppression of milk, post-partum 
neuroses, and externally in swellings and ulcers. The flowers 
are dried, powdered, and mixed with oil for the treatment of 
moist eczema and vesicular eruptions in children. The bulblets 
in the axils of the leaves are steeped in wine and used in the 
treatment of intestinal disorders. The dried bulbs of these 
lilies appear in commerce as U '^ f^ (Pai-ho-kan), 945, while 
the fresh bulbs are called g$ "H ^ (Hsien-pai-ho). A sort of 
starch is also made out of the bulbs, which is_called "5 -^ ^ 
(Pai-ho-fen), 946. 

LILIUM CONCOLOR. — llj ^ (Shan-tan). This is also 
known as -foi "§" ^ (Hung-pai-ho) and ^ :^ % (Hung-hua- 
ts'ai). The term ^ f} (Chiian-tan) is sometimes applied to 
the flowers of this species, but it properly belongs to Lilumi 
tigrimun. In the case of this plant the flowers are eaten as 
well as the bulb, which latter is smaller than that of the "Q" ^ 
(Pai-ho). The bulb is sweet and cooling, and is recommended 
in uterine fluxes, choreic afifections, ulcers, and swellings. 
The flowers are considered to be invigorating to the blood, and 
are applied as a poultice to boils aud loul ulcers. 


ts'ai). According to the Book of Odcs^ the first character is 
also written ^. Another name is ^ ^ (Fu-k'uei), which Li 
Shih-clien says ought to be written ^^ ^, He also says that 
the plant is the same genus with ^ (Shun, Drassenia pcltatd). 
It is therefore also called if, ^^ (Shui-k'uei), " water mallow." 
Legge confounds this plant with Lcmna minor. But these all 
belong to different natural orders ; Lcmna being the type of the 
Lemnacese, while Brassenia is a nymphaceous plant, and 
Lim7tanthe)mim an aquatic Gentiauacea. The plant grows in 
water, the stem being so proportioned that the leaves may float 
on the surface. The leaves are peltate, purplish-red in color, 
and about an inch in diameter. The inferior part of the stem 
is white, and is sometimes eaten as a green vegetable. The 
flowers are yellow. True to Chinese ideas of the virtues of 
aquatic plants, those supposed to reside in this one are thirst- 
relieving, antifebrile, and diuretic. The expressed juice is 
used in fevers, and the bruised plant is applied to swellings, 
burns, rodent ulcers, and snake bite. 

Other names are 7kI%,% (Hui-t'iao-ts'ai) and ^ |i^ 5^ (Chin- 
so-t'ien). The peltate leaves of this plant bear the hook-like 
appendages characteristic of this genus, and are also covered 
with a white, powdery efilorescence. The stalk and leaves are 
highly esteemed as a pot-herb. It bears a small white flower 
and produces a globular fruit containing seeds which are also 
edible. The stalk and leaves are bruised together with oil and 
applied to ulcers and insect bites, and in decoction they are used 
as a wash for scaly skin diseases, boils, sudamina, and all forms 
of parasitic skin difficulties. The kernels of the seeds are made 
into cakes and eaten to destroy and prevent intestinal worms. 

LINDERA GLAUCA.— lli ^ \^ (Shan-hu-chiao). This 
is a Japanese identification. It is spoken of in the Pcntsao in 
a foot-note to the article on Daphnidium cubeba. It has a 
black drupe, the size of ZantJioxyhim berries ; hence the name. 
The taste of the drupe is acrid and warming, and it is used as 
a carminative and gastric stimulant. 


LINDERA SERICEA.— 1^ ^ (Tiao-chang), also called 
1^ W (Wu-chang). The Chinese liken this tree to the cam- 
phor tree, claiming it to be a dwarf variety of the latter. The 
root is likened to that of Daphnidmm myrrha. It is a 
laurinaceous tree, allied to Benzoin. The leaves are some- 
what hirsute, and resemble those of Persea nanmu. The root 
is used in medicine, especially its bark, and is prescribed as a 
hemostatic in wounds, an astringent in fluxes, and as a wash 
in skin diseases. The branches and leaves are placed at the 
doors to ward off miasmatic and evil influences. 

LINDERA STRYCHNIFOLIA.— ,1^ ^ (Wu-yao), 1478. 
See Daphnidium myrrha. 

LINDERA TZUMU.—t^ (Tztt), /fc J (Mu-wang). Bret- 
schneider at first classed this as Catalpa biutgeana^ but in his 
latest work he says that there can be no doubt that it must be 
referred to Lindera. In Japan it is Rottlera japonica^ and in 
this Faber follows. Bretschneider being so wide and careful 
an observer, he will be given the benefit of the doubt, and this 
tree will be here described. The Chinese also confound this 
with Catalpa {\^^ Ch'iu). Some confusion also exists with 
this and Acanthapanax., and even with Panloxo7iia. This is a 
tall, graceful tree, which on account of its great height and the 
usefulness of its timber is called by the Chinese Tfc 2 (Mu- 
wang), "king of trees." It is said that a house built of this 
timber is never struck by lightning. The white, inner bark 
of the tree is used in medicine, and is considered to be anthel- 
mintic and parasiticide. It is used in decoction as a wash in 
scabies and pediculosis in children, and in ophthalmia. It is 
also prescribed in nausea and vomiting, and is thought to have 
some antifebrile properties. The leaves are fed to hogs, and 
are said to be very fattening. They are also bruised and 
applied in the skin difficulties of these anirnals, as well as in 
sores on the hands or feet of mankind. 

LINUM PERENNE.— 35 E (Ya-ma). This plant is 
grown largely in Shensi for the oil of its seeds, which was 
formerly used in lamps. It is not eaten on account of its bad 
pdor and taste. It is applied in ulcers and scaly skin eruptions. 


LINUM SATlVUxM. — il] W ^ £ (Shan-si-hu-ma). This 
plant seems to have been unknown to the ancient Chinese, and 
it has probably been a comparatively recent introduction into 
China, It is cultivated in the north for the oil of its seeds, and 
its use as a textile does not yet seem to be appreciated. Its oil 
is not distinguished from that of Cannabis^ Sesa?}t2cm^ or of 
other species of Limnn. It is employed medicinally in the 
same manner and for the same purposes as these other oils. 

LINUM USITATISSIMUM.— JJ^ % (Chih-ma). This 
is thoroughly confounded with Cannabis and Sesamiim. The 
term is found in the Pcntsao under the latter article, and the 
name ^ %, (Hu-ma), 486, is without doubt applied to both 
genera. The plant is evidently of foreign origin, although it 
is extensively cultivated in China for the oil of its seeds. The 
medicinal uses of this plant and of its oil do not differ from 
those of Sesamum (see that article). 

LIQUIDAMBAR ALTINGIANA.— This is a tall tree of 
Java, the Malay name of which is rassamala. It has a fra- 
grant wood, which when incised yields a sweet scented resin 
of about the consistency of honey, and which hardens ujxjn 
exposure to the air. This substance, which is found in Chinese 
drug shops, goes by the name of ^^ f^ (Su-ho-yu), 11 96, 
or ^ -^ ^ (Su-ho-hsiang). The substance is very similar to, 
if not identical with, the Liquid Storax derived from Liqiiid- 
ambar orientalis of Asia Minor, The term '■'' rose-maloes,^^ 
by which this substance is sometimes known, is probably 
derived from the Malay name for the tree, Garcia says that 
*■'■ Roca'7nalha'''' is the name by which it is known in China, 
but this has not been confirmed by any Chinese work con- 
sulted. According to some early writers the substance is 
produced in the country called 1^ ^ (Su-ho), from which fact 
it receives its name. What this country may have been is not 
known, but it may suggest Sumatra. The present source of 
supply for this drug to China is uncertain. The account in 
the Pentsao suggests Annam, Sumatra, Central India, and 
Western Asia. This renders it probable that both the product 
of Liquidavibar altingiana and that of Liquidambar orientalis 


are found. One is Rose-maloes and the other is Liquid 
Storax. Western observers are said to have found both of 
these products under this Chinese name in different parts of 
China. Dr. Bretschneider suggests that the Balm of Mecca^ 
a. product of Balsamodcndron opobalsamum^ and Miikiil^ 
obtained from Balsamodendro7i niiikiil^ may also be found in 
China under the same name. The Sanscrit name of the drug 
is |I{U i^ 3^ ^ij (Tu-lii-se-chien). Its medicinal action is anti- 
dotal to noxious poisons, antimalarial, anticonvulsive, and 
constructive. Its prolonged use is said to give vitality and 
lightness to the body and to prolong life. A famous nostrum, 
called 1^ ^ ^ ;/'L (Su-ho-hsiang-wan), and whose principal 
ingredients are Rose maloes, Benzoin, Atractylis, Cyperus 
rotundus, Aristolochia, Santalum album, Lign-aloes, Cloves, 
Musk, Piper longum, Terminalia chebula, Vermillion, Baroos 
camphor, and Olibanum, is used in the treatment of malaria, 
epilepsy, and several other serious di faculties. Dr. Waring 
mentions two substances as obtained in Burma : oue a light 
yellow balsam and the other thick, dark, and terebinthinate, 
which correspond closely to descriptions given in the Pentsao. 
He found these of little use as expectorants, which is the 
principal property of storax. 

(Feng) is applied to this, to PLatamis^ Acer^ and Gy/iocardia. 
But the description given in the Pentsao refers to the one 
under consideration. It is a very tall tree, with rounded, 
dentate, three-cleft, more or less peltate leaves, which have a 
peculiar fragrance. The leaves flutter in the wind much like 
those of the aspen, and being such a large tree, this fact 
becomes particularly noticeable. It is said that the com- 
position of the character ^ is explained in this way. The 
branches are long and supple and wave gracefully in the wind. 
In autumn they are covered with the beautifully colored leaves, 
which gives an exceedingly attractive appearance to the tree. 
On this account, many of these trees were planted in the 
Imperial palace grounds at Peking by an emperor of the Han 
dynasty, and the palace from this took the name of ;^ ^ 
(Feug-chen), and the city was called i^ (^ (Feng-pi). The 


wood of the tree is considered to be especially appropriate for 
making idols, being thought to ^ (Ling, "spiritualize ") more 
easily than any other. This is probably due to the fact that 
on account of the free movement of its leaves and branches in 
the wind, the tree top is thought to be the abode of various 
sorts of spirits. The tree bears a white flower, and its fruits 
are said to be as large as a duck's egg. It produces a resinous 
extract resembling Rose-maloes and Liquid Storax^ called 
!^ ^ Ha (Feng-hsiang-chih), that produced from the fruits 
being called {g /jp ^ (Pai-chiao-hsiang). Indian and Sanscrit 
names for the substance aie given as ^ Uf ^ ^ ^ (Sa-chih- 
lo-p'o-hsiang) and j^ ID ^ ^^^ (Sa-she-lo-p'o-hsiang). This 
gum-resin is of a pale yellow color, and is said to resemble 
frankincense. Its medicinal action is that of a hemostatic, 
astringent, anodyne, and corrective remedy. It is used in all 
sorts of wounds, skin affections, and ulcers. It is combined 
with two sorts of RJiammis berries in preparing a suppository 
(^g it'i^. Ting-na) for the treatment of chronic constipation. 
The bark of the tree is employed in fluxes and as an astringent 
wash in skin diseases, while the leaves and the root are used in 
cancerous growths. The Erhya says that Liquidamhar resin 
which has been buried in the ground for a thousand years 
becomes amber. An unidentified excrescence found growing 
on the tree, which is said to somewhat resemble the form of 
the human body, and which is reputed to grow to the length 
of three or four feet, is called IE "F ^ (Feng-tza-kuei) and 
IE A (Feng-jen). It is said to be poisonous, and to produce, 
when ingested, a laughing delirium which is persistent. 
Faber gives jj[j \%^ (Shan-ch'iu) as a term for Liqiiidambar 
forniosana^ but Chinese botanical works do not seem so to 
recognise it, but on the other hand identify this with Catalpa^ 
as the name implies. 

ZON).— ^ % (Tza-ts'ao). Other names are ^ ^ (Tzu-tan), 
% ifil (Ti-hsiieh), and || ^ :^ (Ya-hsien-ts'ao). The Erkya 
writes the first character jfjj (Tz'u). This plant is indigenous 
to the central and northern provinces of China. It is cultivated 
for the purple dye yielded by its root. This is dug up in the 


spring before the plant has flowered, at which time the color- 
ing matter will be found to be very bright. If gathered after 
flovvering, the color has become deeper, and is considered to be 
inferior in quality. The root is the part used in medicine, 
and it is said to act on the blood, to be derivative to the skin 
and all of the passages of the body, especially the intestinal 
canal and urinary tract. It is also prescribed in skin affec- 
tions, and especially in eruptive fevers, being supposed to 
bring out eruption and to neutralize the poison. 

LITSEA GLAUCA.— ^ i^ (Yiieh-kuei). There is an 
old tradition that this tree grows in the moon, and that its 
fruits fall to earth and are found on the ground. This legend 
dates from the Tang and Sung dynasties. The Ta7ig History 
says that in A.D. 868, at Taichow in Chekiang, these berries 
fell during a period of more than ten days. Also during the 
Sung dynasty, during the reign of T'ien-sheng (1023-7032), 
at the monastery of Lingyin at Hangchow, the berries fell 
during fifteen moonlight nights. Li Shih-chen gives a 
number of other legends in regard to this tree and its fruits. 
In the Taoist books it is called /f {}$ ^ (Pu-shih-hua), and it 
is not permitted to be offered in sacrifice. The only difficulty 
for which the seeds are recommended to be used is as a local 
application in ringworm of the scalp in children. 

LOBELIA RADICANS.— if^ Jt % (Pan-pien-lien), 974. 
This is a small plant growing in moist ground, having small 
leaves and flowers ; the latter being reddish-purple in color. 
The juice is expressed and used on snake and insect bites, and 
the plant is used in decoction in the treatment of fever, asthma, 
ague, and the like. 

LONICERA JAPONICA.— S, ^ (jen-tung), 555, ^ ^ 
1^ (Chin-yin-t'eng), 162-165. Li Shih-chen gives a good 
description of this Chinese honeysuckle^ or woodbine. The 
first Chinese name refers to the plant not withering during 
the winter, and the second to the fact that the flowers, which 
are at first white, afterwards become yellow, and as they do 
not fall early, the plant bears both colors at the same time. 


T.he flowers, vine, and leaves are employed in medicine. Pro- 
longed use is said to increase vitality and to lengthen life. 
Antifebrile, corrective, and astringent properties are ascribed, 
and it is used in the treatment of all sorts of infections and 
poisons. A wine (fg, ^ }0, Jen-tung-chiu) and a plaster (^^, 
^ W» Jen-tung-kao) are officinal. The dried flowers in the 
Chinese medicine shops have a smell resembling that of some 
kinds of tobacco. 

LOPHANTHUS RUGOSUS.— H ^ (Ho-hsiang), 371. 
This plant does not seem to be indigenous to China, being 
referred to Annani, India, and other parts of Southern Asia. 
A number of Sanscrit and other foreign names are given in the 
P^ntsao for it. The plant is cultivated in Lingnan. The 
branches and leaves are used in medicine ; their principal 
virtues being considered to be carminative and stomachic. 
They are also used in cholera and as a deodorizing mouth 
wash. The nausea of pregnancy is another difficulty for which 
they are recommended. It is possible that Bctonica officinalis 
is included under this term. If so, it is interesting to note that 
this remedy is recommended both in the Herbarium of Appulius 
aud in the Pentsao as a remedy for the consequences of the 
excessive use of wine. 

LOPHATHERUM ELATUM.— ^|^ ft % (Tan-chu-yeh). 
This gramineous plant is found growing plentifully in wild, 
waste land. Its leaves somewhat resemble those of the bam- 
boo. The root is dug up and mixed with fermenting cereals 
in the production of wine, giving to the latter a peculiarly 
agreeable aroma. The leaves are antifebrile and diuretic. 
The root is said to be a certain abortifacient. For this reason 
it is called ^% ^ (Sui-kuTtzu), " bone-breaker." 

IvORANTHUS.— The term ^ ^ (Chi-sheng), 58, 1320, 
properly means an epiphyte ; and without doubt the Chinese 
include under this term species of Lora7iihus, as well as of 
Viscum. It is used to explain the terms '% (Niao) and -^ ^ 
(Nii-lo), which respectively are the mistletoe and dodder. The 
distinction betweeu Loranthns and Pisciun is not clearly made, 


but in some cases ^ ^ ^ (Sang-cbi-sheng), 1067, is Loranthus 
yadoriki and ^j ||£ (Sung-lo) is LoraiitJius kccmpferi. The 
former is most highly valued in medicine. It is described as 
being two or three feet long, having round, thick, soft, green 
leaves, white flowers, and yellow fruit. The medicinal action 
of the plant is regarded as anodyne, and quieting to the preg- 
nant uterus. It is employed in puerperal difficulties, threatened 
abortion, menorrhagia, and insufficient secretion of milk. It 
is also considered to promote the growth of hair. The fruits 
are regarded as vitalizing in their action. The i^ ^ (Sung- 
lo), which is also called -^ || (Nii-lo), and which grows prin- 
cipally upon the pine and fir tree, is thought to be antiseptic, 
antimalarial, diuretic, and somewhat soporific. It is also used 
in scalp diseases and difficulties of the" external genital organs 
of women. 

LOTUS CORNICULATUS.— -g U ^ (Pai-mai-ken). 
This product comes from Kansu and Northern Szechuan, is 
said to resemble lucerne^ has a yellow flower, a root like that of 
Polygala japonica,, which is gathered in the second and eighth 
moons and dried in the sun. Its action is carminative, thirst- 
relieving, antifebrile, restorative, and tonic. It is administered 
in tinctures, decoction, pill, or powder. 

LUFFA CYLINDRICA.— ff, JR (Ssu-kua). Other names 
are ^ lifi S (T'ien-ssii-kua), 5^ ^ (T'ien-lo), ^ Jl (Pu-kua), 
and ^ JfJS;. (Man-kua). It was unknown in China prior to the 
Tang dynasty. Now it is grown in all parts of the empire for 
use as a vegetable. It is planted in the second moon, and the 
vine is trained over bushes, bamboos, or houses, or a frame- 
work of reeds or bamboo poles is made, over which it runs. 
The leaves are about the size of hollyhock leaves and hairy. 
The expressed juice of these will dye a green color. The stalk 
is angled. In the sixth or seventh moon there is produced a 
five-parted, yellow flower, slightly resembling that of the 
cucumber. The pepo is something over an inch in diameter, 
from one to four feet long, deep green in color and mottled, 
and when it is fresh it can be baked, stewed, or otherwise 
prepared as a vegetable food. When old and ripe, the fibrous 


structure of the pepo renders it useful as a sponge for washing 
vessels. For this reason villagers call it 5£ fi| ^ JfJi (Hsi-kuo- 
lo-kua). The flowers, buds, and young leaves can also be used 
as food. The ripe pepo is incinerated and pulverized, under 
which circumtances the medicinal virtues ascribed to it are 
something extraordinary. It is reputed to be carminative, 
pectoral, cooling to the blood, antiseptic, anthelmintic, emme- 
nagogue, quickening to the circulation, galactagogue, and is 
also used in the treatment of hemorrhage from bowels or 
bladder, hemorrhoids, menorrhagia, jaundice, hernia, orchitis, 
cancerous swellings, toothache, smallpox, and scarlet fever. 
Mixed with vermillion, it is nsed to dry up smallpox pustules. 
The fresh pepo is considered to be cooling and beneficial to the 
intestines, warming to the stomach, and tonic to the genital 
organs. The leaves are prescribed in skin diseases and orchitis, 
the vine and root in decayed teeth, ozoena, and parasitic affec- 
tions. The fibres of this gourd are found in commerce under 
the names of |$ JlEL ^ (SsS-kua-lo), 1190, and i^ S 'ilj (Ssii- 
kua-pu), 1 191. 

LUISIA TERES.— .IX ■? 35 (Ch'ai-tzu-ku). Also called 
^ I'X WC (Chin-ch'ai-ku), but it must not be confounded with 
Dendrobhun nobile, which is ^ |)( 1^]^ (Chin-ch'ai-hua). This 
orchidaceous plant grows in the south and resembles Asanitn. 
It is a much vaunted counter-poison, especially against the 
^ (Ku) infection. It is also prescribed for carcinoma, malaria, 
and to counteract all sorts of medicinal poisons. 

LYCHNIS.— IJ % (Chien-ts'ao), 112, ^ ^ ^ (Chien- 
ch*un-lo), H ^lH (Chien-hung-lo), ^ ^^ (Chien-ch'iu-lo), 
M^-VL (Chien-lo-hua), ^ ^ ^ (Chien-chin-lo;, ^ ^^ %^ 
(Chien-hung-sha), These all seem to be species and varieties 
of this genus. Faber also gives i^ H A (Yii-mei-jen), but 
this is not given in the Pentsao^ and according to other 
observers is identified as Papaver rhceas, with which identifica- 
tion the description in the Ktiang-chiln-fang-pu agrees very 
well. The only terms mentioned in the Pentsao are the first 
two, with the third as a synonym of the second. The descrip- 
tion of the first is not at all clear, and as Faber makes it 


identical with J^ H A (Yii-mei-jen), the likelihood of its being 
Lychnis is small. It may be a rubiaceous plant, as the Pentsao 
likens it to ^ (Ch'ien), which is Rubia. The root is used as a 
tonic, anodyne, parasiticide, and hemostatic remedy. The 
S § H (Chien-ch'un-lo) is undoubtedly Lychnis grandiflora. 
It is a very popular garden flower, having fresh green leaves 
and beautiful red blossoms. ^ ^X ^'^ (Chien-hung-sha) is 
probably only another name for this. The leaves and flowers 
are crushed together with honey and used as an application in 
herpes zoster. 

LYCIUM CHINENSE.— ta ^ (Kou-chi), 607, \^ % i^ 
(Ti-ku-p'i), 1267, 1384. It is also called |§ % (T'ien-ts'ai), 
1300, which is the leaves, ^ ^ (Yang-ju), the fruit, and 
fill A /^ (Hsien-jen-chang), the stalk. This was erroneously 
identified by Porter Smith with Berberis lycium. It is not a 
berberidaceous plant, but a solanaceous one. It is a common 
shrub in the northern and western provinces, has soft, thin 
leaves, which can be eaten, and small reddish-purple flowers. 
The fruits are small, one-celled, red berries, having a sweet 
but rather rough taste. The root is met with in light, 
yellowish-brown, quilled pieces, having very little taste or 
smell. The general action of the plant is considered to be 
tonic, cooling, constructive, prolonging life, improving the 
complexion, and brightening the eye. The shoots or young 
leaves are recommended to be used in all forms of wasting 
disease. Used in the form of a tea, they are recommended to 
quench thirst and to remove the unpleasant symptoms of 
pulmonary consumption. The root is supposed to have special 
action on the kidneys and sexual organs, as well as those 
virtues ascribed to the leaves, and is used as a hemostatic in 
bleeding of the gums and wounds. The seeds are similarly 
used. There are a number of officinal preparations, such as an 
extract, pills, tinctures, and the like. 

LYCOPERDON.— .^ ^ (Ma-p'o). This is the ordinary 

pnj^-ball. It is of a purple color, hollow, and soft, growing 
on decayed wood in damp places. When ruptured, it discharges 
its spores in a fine powder. It varies in size, up to that of a 


peck measure. The reddish-brown, powdery spores are used as 
a dusting powder for all sorts of ulcers. Mixed with honey 
or water, they are used in sore throat, as well as in fever and 
diseases of the lungs. 

/\ ^ ^ (Liu-yiieh-shih). The tomato is not indigenous to 
China ; but, as the name indicates, is of foreign origin. Just 
when it was introduced is uncertain ; but, as it is mentioned 
in the Kuang-chihi-fang-pu^ this occurred before the beginning 
of the XVIII century. It is not yet much cultivated, as the 
Chinese do not seem to have learned its value as a vegetable. 

LYCOPODIUM. — Several species of this genus are found 
in China and Japan. 3g ^ (Yii-po), for which ^ ^ ;fQ (Ch'ien- 
nien-po) and ^ ^ :^ (Wan-nien-sung) are given in the Pen- 
tsao as synonyms, is Lycopodiuvi japonicti^n. This grows 
among stones to the height of five or six inches, and has a 
purple " flower." The stalk and leaves are employed medicin- 
ally. Their use gives lightness to the body, benefits the breath, 
and quenches thirst. J^ ;^ (Shih-sung), 1158, is Lycopodium 
clavatmn. It also grows plentifully in all mountains to the 
length of one or two feet. The stalk and root are used in the 
treatment of chronic diseases, and they are supposed to restore 
health and vigor, moistening the skin and improving the com- 
plexion. The Chinese do not seem to have learned to use the 
sporules of these plants as dusting powders. In Japan, ^ ^ 1^ 
(Ch'ien-nien-sung) is Lycopodium cernuimi^ and Faber identi- 
fies Jili A 19 (Hsien-j^n-t'ao) as Lycopodium sieboldi. The 
last character in the latter name is a way of writing f^ (T'ao). 
This does not seem to be used in medicine, but is described in 
the Kua7tg-chtin-fang-pu . The Customs lists give ^ |^ ^ 
(Sheng-chin-ts'ao), 1131, as a term for Lycopodium^ but upon 
what authority does not appear. 

LYCORIS RADIATA.— ;^|^ (Shih-suan), ^3lw (^-ao- 
ya-suan), — ;{^ ^ (I-chih-chien). In Japan this is called 
^%i^\ (TMeh-se-chien), and this term is also found in the 
Phitsao. It is an amaryllidaceous plant, the ^ (Suan) in the 


Chinese name referring to the resemblance of the roots, and the 
^ (Chien) to that of the stalk. The plant is commonly called 
7K ft (Shui-ma), and grows almost everywhere in swamps. 
In the seventh month, it produces a red flower with yellow 
sepals. The root has a purplish skin and a white cortex, and 
is the part used in medicine. Its taste is acrid, sweet, and 
cooling, and it is slightly poisonous. It is applied to swellings 
and ulcers, and administered internally in decoction and tinc- 
ture to counteract the poisoned phlegm supposed to accompany 
abscesses and ulcers. It is also used in the nervous affections 
of children. 

chu-ts'ai), also written flL J^ || (Chen-chu-ts'ai). This plant", 
with its filamentous stalk and leaves, is found in moist ground 
in Szechuan. As it is used as food, it is probably also culti- 
vated. It is fragrant and succulent, and in the fresh state is 
highly esteemed as a pot-herb or pickle. It is eaten with 
honey, or with a piquant sauce called ^ (Hsi). Its use is 
regarded as beneficial, but no medicinal properties are ascribed 
to it. 

LYSIMACHIA SIKOKIANA.—^:f(P'ai-ts'ao). It is 
also called ^^ i^ ^ (P'ai-ts'ao-hsiang) on account of its great 
fragrance. It grows in the region of Lingnan, and the root is 
used to correct fetor of the breath. The Customs lists give 
^ fr ]^ (Ling-hsiang-ts'ao) as Lysijnachia grcECum^ 
but this is not found in the Pentsao^ nor is any authority given 
for the identification. 

vp:CxETable kingdom. 253 


MAB A EBENOS.— ,% y\z (Wu-mu). Other names, .% f § TfC 
(Wu-men-mu) and J^ 3JC /f^ (Wu-wen-mu). This comes from 
Hainan, Linguan, and the Indian Archipelago. It is also said 
to be brought in junks from Persia (probably, rather, India). 
Its heavy, hard texture and black color are mentioned in the 
Pin/sao, as well as the fact that other heavy woods are some- 
times stained black to fabricate it. The tree is not a large 
one, being said to seldom exceed ten feet in height. The wood 
is pulverized and digested in warm wine, and administered in 
poisons and cholera morbus. 

(Kuei-tu-yu). This is somewhat confounded in Chinese works 
with Pycnostelma cJiinensis^ an asclepiadaceous plant, and with 
Gastrodia elata^ an orchidaceous one. But this plant is one 
of the Compositse. It sends up closely set shoots of one stem, 
which is surmounted by a whorl of leaves like an umbrella. 
The root resembles that of Acryanthes bidentata^ but is smaller 
and without filaments. The flowers, which come out among 
the leaves, are yellowish-white. The taste of the drug is 
bitter, and it is somewhat deleterious. It is recommended for 
the treatment of an evil disposition, vicious effluvia of the 
heart, and the hundred poisonous essences. It is also used in 
malaria, to give power to the loins and legs, and to benefit the 
muscular strength (-^ ;^, Lii-li) generally. 

M^SA DOR^NA.— jrt % ill (Tu-ken-shan). This is a 
mountain plant, growing to a height of four or five feet, with 
leaves like those of Sonchus arvensis. It flowers in the autumn, 
and towards winter it bears a fruit like that of Lycinni chi- 
nense^ but larger and white in color. It is used for malarial and 
other fevers, headache, and nausea. Digested in new wine and 
administered, it will cause vomiting, which clears away the 
phlegm and relieves the worst symptoms of febrile attacks. 

MAGNOLIA CONSPICUA.— ^ H (Hsin-i), 464. Be- 
cause the unopened flower is globular, not unlike a young 


peach, it is called |f^ i^^ (Hou-t'ao). When the flower first 
opens it resembles a Chinese pen, and for this reason it is called 
/^ ^ (Mu-pi), "wood pencil." Since the flowers appear 
very early in the spring, the tree is called jfg ^ (Ying-ch'un). 
This must not be confounded with Jasminuvi midifiorum. The 
white flowered magnolia is called ^ '^ (Yii-lan), and has been 
by some botanists designated as Magnolia yiilan. These names 
are all used for this species of magnolia, and usually indicate 
varieties. It also is called /fC j^ ^^ (Mu-lien-hua), because its 
flowers resemble those of the lotus iyNelnmbium speciosum). 
The tree flowers twice a year : once in the early spring and 
once in the autumn. It is much cultivated in gardens, and 
the flowers are usually purple or white. It rarely perfects its 
fruits. The unopened flower buds (^, P*ao) are the parts used 
in medicine. This is one of the many drugs reputed to give 
lightness to the body, brightness to the eye, added length of 
life, culminating in a green old age. *' It warms the centers, 
lubricates the muscles, benefits the nine cavities, opens up the 
nose, expells mucus, relieves swelling of the face and tooth- 
ache, mitigates cart and boat vertigo, promotes the growth of 
whiskers and hair, and expels white worms." It is prescribed 
in headaches and all diflSculties of the nose, in which latter 
case it is especially recommended if combined with musk and 
onions. The flowers appear in commerce under the name 
of ^ :j^ (Ch'un-hua), 272. 

MAGNOLIA FUSCATA.—- g- ^ (Han-hsiao). This is 
the same as Michelia fiiscata. There are said to be two kinds : 
the large and the small ; and flowers of two colors : white and 
purple. It is a southern species, not being found in the north- 
ern provinces. It flowers in every season, but is most prolific 
in summer. The flowers are very fragrant, reminding one of 
Jasminuni sambac. It does not seem to be used in medicine, 
but it is possible that its buds are sometimes substituted for 
those of Magnolia conspicna. 

MAGNOLIA HYPOLEUCA.— Jf ;f;h (Hou-p'o), 381. This 
tree is cultivated in the upper Yangtse provinces for its bark, 
which on account of its extensive use as a medicine is quite an 


article of commerce. The wood is dark colored and the bark 
white. It has very large leaves, and there are two varieties ; 
one with red and the other with white flowers. The drug 
consists of the rough, thick bark, rolled into large, tight 
cylinders, from seven to nine inches long, and very thick. 
The outer surface is of a greyish-brown color, rougliened with 
tubercles and marked with lichenous growths. The inner 
surface is smooth and of a reddish-brown color. In the coast 
provinces there seems to be some confusion in regard to the 
drug ; an inferior product, which is probably the bark of a 
different tree, appearing in commerce (see Customs Lists, 1040). 
There is some confusion of Chinese terms between this and 
Celtis siitetisis. The taste of the true bark is aromatic and 
bitter, but some of the drug found in the shops is almost taste- 
less, and is probably inert. Its medicinal properties are deob- 
struent, tonic, stomachic, quieting, and anthelmintic. It is 
prescribed in diarrhoeas, flatulence, amenorrhoea, pyrosis, and 
a variety of dissimilar difficulties. The fruit is said to be 
called 5^ 1^ (Chu-che), but whether it is the fruit of this or 
of Eucommia tdvioides^ the Pentsao is not quite certain. It 
cures ulcers, brightens the eyes, and benefits the breath. A 
foot-note to this article in the Pentsao speaks of J^ jt^ ^ ^ 
(Fou-lan-lo-le), which in Japan is a variety of Magnolia 
hypoleuca. It comes from Samarcand, and is used as a deob- 
struent and tonic remedy. 

MAGNOLIA OBOVATA.— :?fC % (Mu-lan). This tree is 
indigenous to China, being found in the mountainous districts 
of Szechuan, Hunan, and Shantung. It is a large tree, grow- 
ing to the height of fifty or sixty feet. The wood is a useful 
building material, being fine grained, and having a yellow 
heart. Because of this last named fact, it is sometimes called 
^ *& (Huang-hsin), " yellow heart." Its flowers resemble 
those of the lotus, and for this reason it takes the name tJc j^ ^ 
(Mu-lien-hua). The flowers are red, yellow, and white. The 
tree receives its principal name from the odor of its flowers, 
which resembles that of the orchid (1^, Lan). The bark is 
considered to be deobstruent, constructive, diuretic, and tonic, 
and it is prescribed in fevers, sudamina, dropsy, mental 


disease, and alcoholism. The flowers are included among the 
drugs liaviiig the reputation of dissolving bone and metals 
lodged in the throat. 

MALT. — ^ ^ (Nieh-mi). The grains of ordinary millet, 
spiked millet, glutinous millet, rice, barley, nacked barley, 
beans, and wheat are all malted by the Chinese. The grain is 
moistened and left to sprout, and when this process has gone 
on a sufficient length of time, it is dried in the sun, the sprouts 
are rubbed off, and the grain is ground into flour for making 
into cakes or bread. The malted millet is called H ^ (Su- 
nieh) or |S| ^ (Su-3'a), and is considered to be cooling, carmina- 
tive, and stomachic. Mixed with fat and applied to the face, 
it makes the skin soft and glossy. Malted rice is called ^ || 
(Tao-nieh) or ^ ^ (Ku-ya), and is considered to be peptic, 
carminative, regulating, and constructive. The nacked barley 
is the kind of barley usually malted, and this is called ^ ^ ^ 
(Kung-mai-nieh) or ^ ^ (Mai-ya), and is considered to be 
peptic, warming, stomachic, and abortifacient. It is prescribed 
in cholera, as well as in intestinal indigestion due to over- 
eating. It is also used in post-partum difficulties and to 
suppress the secretion of milk in women whose children have 
died at or after birth. Other kinds of malt or sprouted grain 
are found, but their general uses do not diSer from those given. 

MALVA. — The character ^ (K'uei) is applied to very 
many malvaceous plants and to several others. Abutillofi^ 
Althea^ Anemone^ Basella^ Eranlhis^ Heliattthiis^ Hibiscus^ 
Malva^ Qiantlie^ and Pcucedamim all find it used as a dis- 
tinguishing term for one or more species ; for this reason it is 
sometimes difficult to distinguish between plants of these differ- 
ent genera. |^ ^ (Chin-k'uei) seems to be regarded by most 
observers as Malva sylvestris. Malva vej'iicillata or Malva 
pulchclla is assigned to ^ ^ (Tung-k'uei). Ford and Crow 
called ^ H ■? (Tung-k'uei-tzu), 1395, at Yioxi%Vow% Abiitilloji 
indiaim^ but in the north this term seems to refer to a malva. 
Faber makes Malva verticillata to be 3^ H (T'ien-k'uei), but 
the Pentsao gives this as a synonym of ^ H (T'u-k'uei), which 
in Japan is Anemone or Eranthis. Li Shih-cheu says : " In 


ancient times the K'-iiei was a common food, and was ranked as 
the first of the five vegetables, but now it is not much eaten. It 
was then called ^ ^ (Lu-k*uei, ' dew mallow'). Now it is 
also called ff- ^ (Hua-k'uei), but it is not much cultivated. 
There are two kinds, distinguished by the color of the stem 
which is either purple or white. The latter is the best. It 
has large leaves and small yellow or purple flowers. The 
kind with very many small flowers is called || gjj! ^ (Ya-chio- 
k'uei, Muck's-leg mallow'). The fruit is of the size of the 
end of a finger, and flattened, having a thin skin, and the seeds 
are light and resemble those of the elm. That sown in the sixth 
or seventh moon is called j^ ^ (Chiu-k'uei), that sown in the 
eighth or ninth moon is called ^ ^ (Tung-k'uei), and that 
sown in the first moon is called ^^^ (Ch'un-k'uei). Thus 
the plant can be used all the year." The shoots and leaves 
are eaten, but they are not considered to be very healthful. 
If eaten raw, they are especially harmful, and the heart of the 
shoot is positively injurious. If a person who has been bitten 
by a mad dog, although cured, eats of these, the disease will 
return. If eaten with garlic, the poisonous action is not so apt 
to show itself. It is the spleen vegetable, and any advantage 
accruing from its use is gained by that organ. Its mucil- 
aginous qualities recommend it as a demulcent in stomach and 
intestinal troubles. Its use is also said to lubricate the passages, 
and thus to render labor easy. The ash is used as a styptic in 
wounds. The decoction is recommended in vermillion and 
other mineral poisons, and the seeds are similarly used. The 
root is employed in foul ulcers and as an antilithic, diuretic, 
and thirst-relieving remedy. It is recommended for difficulties 
similar to those for which the stalk and leaves are used. 

MANDRAGORA.— ^ % (Lang-tu), 693. This is a doubt- 
ful identification. The drug seems to be a very ancient one 
with the Chinese, as it is mentioned in the Shhinicjig Pintsao 
(XXVIII Century B.C.) as one of the five poisons ; the others 
being Crotoji tiglmvi^ Veratriim^ Aconitiim^ and cantharides. 
Ma Chi (X Century) classifies it with the "six old drugs;'* 
the other five being Ephedra^ orange peel, Pinellia Itiberifcra^ 
Citrus fusca^ and Boymia rutCBcarpa. There is not much 


description of the plant. Its leaves are said to resemble those 
of PJiytolacta or Rheitvt^ and both these and the stem are 
hirsute. The root externally is yellow, but within is white. 
It is exceedinly poisonous, and is used to destroy birds and 
beasts, especially rats and other vermin. Its medicinal action 
is that of a sedative in coughs, angina, and colic. It is 
also used as a parasiticide in the ^ (Klu) disease and in 
parasitic skin diseases. Combined with another unidentified 
plant called |^ '% (Yeh-ko), it is used in the treatment of 

MANGROVE BARK.— The RhizopJtora 7nangle does not 
seem to grow in China ; but, according to Bowra, the bark is 
imported from Siam and Singapore, and is used to dye or 
tan the sails, cordage, and nets of sailors and fishermen. 
The name given is f% ^ (K'ao-p'i), but this first character 
evidently refers to an upland tree, and it is made identical 
in the Pentsao with Ccdrela si)icnsis. Another suggested 
identification is Platycaria strobilacca. In the Customs Lists 
^ ;^ (K'ao-hua), 591, and ^ ^ (K'ao-kuo), 592, are given, 
but no identification is suggested. A name given for man- 
grove bark in Giles' Dictionary is ^ ^ (Ch'ieh-ting), but 
from what source this term is derived does not appear. It 
is not known that the Chinese use the bark for any medic- 
inal purpose, although both it and the fruits are excellent 

MANNA. — ^ % (Kan-lu) is a term that is used in Chi- 
nese translations of Indian books to express what is meant by 
the Sanscrit word anirita\ the food of the Devas, and it is 
used in China for manna-like substances, of which there are 
several. One is produced on a coniferous tree, and resembles 
the manna of Brian9on. A similar substance, called "tt ^ ^* 
(Kan-lu-mi), is described' as occurring on a small plant in Sze- 
chuan, Samarcand, and Arabia. Under the head of $^ "^ 
, (T'zn-mi) or '^ "^ (Ts'ao-mi), a clear, honey-like substance 
is spoken of as coming from Tangut, and produced upon a 
leafless plant, called ^ $l] (Yang-tz'u). The Turckic tribes 
are said to call this substance % '|fc -^ (Ghi-p'o-lo). The 


Tamarix manna is called ;j;^ ^ (Ch'eng-ju). Similar properties 
to those set down in foreign works are referred to these 
saccharine substances. Some of the mannas are believed to 
be produced by an insect, probably the Coccus manniparus 
of Ehrenberg. The term y* ^ -^ (Kan-lu-tzil), applied to 
Stachys sieboldi^ should not be confounded with this, as in the 
former case it only refers to the taste of the drug, as it also 
does in the case of an unidentified climber called "jt ^ ^ 

MANGIFERA INDICA.— "^ ^ % (An-lo-kuo), % |f 
(Meug-kuo). The first two characters of the first name are a 
transliteration of some Indian name, as is also 1^ J|i ^ ?SS H 
(An-mo-lo-ka-kuo), probably of amra^ one of the Indian com- 
mon names for this fruit. Another name is ^ ^ (Hsiang-kai). 
The Indian origin of this fruit is indicated by the names and 
spoken of in the books. It is now cultivated at Hongkong, 
Canton, and throughout the south-eastern provinces. The 
Pentsao says that the man^o can be eaten very freely, with no 
fear of injury. It is thirst relieving, and promotes the circula- 
tion of the blood and assists in menstruation. The leaves are 
also accounted as cooling. According to Lindley, the root 
bark is an aromatic bitter, good for use in diarrhoea and leucor- 
rhoea. He also reports the seeds to be anthelmintic. Dr. Waring 
recommends the powdered seeds as an excellent remedy in 
lumbricoid worms, and says that strongly astringent qualities, 
dependent upon the presence of a large proportion of gallic 
acid, recommend this powder for use in menorrhagia and 
bleeding piles. 

MARLEA PLATANIFOLIA.— :^ ^ (Ta-k'ung). This 
is Faber's identification. In Japan this shrub is called 7\ % :^ 
(Pa-chio-feng), 930. The Pentsao says that another name is 
^ ^ (Tu-k'ung). It is described as a small tree with large, 
rounded leaves. The bark of the root and the leaves are used 
as insecticides. Faber calls the root ^ M M (Pai-lung-hsii), 
but upon what authority does not appear. The Pentsao 
describes this as an epiphyte growing upon some one of the 
many ij^ (Feng) trees. 


MARSILIA QUADRIFOLIA.— .^ (P'in). There is some 
confounding this with Hydrocharis^ Lenaia^ and LimnantJie- 
mtwi^ both in China and Japan. This is a larger plant than 
the others. It has leaves about an inch in diameter, which 
float on the surface of the water, while the root is at the bottom 
of the pond. The leaves are arranged in a quadriform manner, 
and for this reason the plant is called ^ ^ (Ssu-yeh-ts'ai) 
and £3 ^ !i^ (T'ien-tzu-ts'ao). Marsilia is a pseudo-fern, and 
has no flowers, and so when Chinese writers speak of white 
and yellow flowered varieties, they confound this with Letfuia 
and other plants. The drug is considered to be cooling, 
diuretic, resolvent, and constructive. Its juice is applied locally 
to snake bites and ulcers. 

MATRICARIA INDICA.—gi ^ ^ (Yeh-chii-hua). An- 
theniis^ Calendula^ and Chrysanthevium are not clearly 
distinguished from this by the Chinese. Another name given 
in the Pentsao is ^ ^ (K'u-i). It grows plentifully in waste 
land. In Japan it is identified as Pyrethrinn indicurn. The 
whole plant is used in medicine. Administered in decoction, 
it is considered to be resolvent, but it is used principally as 
a fomentation to swellings, boils, tuberculous glands, and 
inflamed eyes. 

MEDIC AGO SATIVA.— -g #" (Mu-su). This is one of 
the plants said to have been brought to China by General 
Chang Chien of the Han dynasty. Its foreign origin is in- 
dicated by the fact that its Chinese name is variously written 
with characters of similar sound. It also has a name derived 
from a Buddhist book, in which the characters ^ jft i;^ jfe (Sai- 
pi-li-ka) evidently stand for an Indian name, possibly sibarga^ 
which is the common name for Trifoliiiin gigantetim in Kabul. 
Medicago saliva is there called rishka. In Europe the flowers 
of this plant are usually purple or blue ; but here they are 
yellow. For this reason the plant is sometimes thought to be 
Medicago denticidata. Faber identifies this latter with ^ 0^ 
(Ts'ao-t'ou), 1351, ox ^'l(jc,% (Chin-hua-ts'ai), 153. Neither 
of these names is found in the Phitsao. He also indentifies 
Medicago lupulina with ^ :g ;j^ (Niu-yiin-ts'ao) or ^ ^ 


(Hnang-hua), and according to the description in the Ktiang- 
chun-faiig-pit^ this is probably correct. The Ma-stt is included 
among the vegetables, and was formerly extensively cultivated ; 
and in some parts of China, is still grown. It is found, how- 
ever, growing almost everywhere of its own accord. It is not 
much valued as a vegetable, as it is almost tasteless. It is 
considered too cooling to be eaten very frequently, and it is 
thought to make one thin, which is always carefully avoided 
by the Chinese. If eaten with honey it is said to cause 
dysentery. It is thought to benefit the intestines, and to be 
generally depurative. The root is prescribed in feverish and 
high colored urine. The expressed juice is reputed to have some 
emetic properties, and is administered in gravel to relieve pain. 

MELIA AZEDARACH.— ^ (Uen), =g= ^ (K'u-lien), 
^ i^ (Sen-shu). The fruit is called ^ ^ ^ (Chin-ling-tzu). 
The species from Szechuan called ]\\ \^ ^ (Ch'uan-lien-tzli), 
251, and which is Melia toosendan^ is considered the best. 
The Chinese do not distinguish clearly between these two 
species. The fruits of the latter consist of a fleshy, globular 
drupe, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, covered 
with a shining, yellow skin, and usually much shrivelled. It 
is larger than that of Melia azcdarach^ and probably cor- 
responds to the nim or margosa fruits of India. They yield 
a bitter oil, and both in India and China are used as an anthel- 
mintic remedy. At the time of the Dragon Festival (fifth day 
of the fifth moon) bamboo sprouts and rice cakes are wrapped 
in azedarach leaves, and tied with silk thread of five diflerent 
colors, and these parcels are thrown into streams to propitiate 
the spirit of the waters. The phcenix and the unicorn are 
said to eat the fruits of this tree, but the dragon abhors them. 
The tree grows very rapidly, and at Canton its timber is called 
^ 7fC (Sen-mu). Always remembering that the Chinese do 
not distinguish between the two species of Melia^ the medicinal 
properties ascribed to the fruits may be said to be those of an 
antifebrile, quieting, anthelmintic, and diuretic remedy. These 
fruits are a five-celled drupe, yellow when ripe, and dark and 
shrivelled when kept any length of time. The azedarach is 
much smaller than the Ch'^uan-lien-tzu^ measuring about half 


an inch in diameter. They contain a stone, furrowed longitu- 
dinally by five or six ridges. The taste is bitter, and they are, 
like the leaves, said to be deleterious, but driving away infec- 
tion. The leaves are used in decoction for the relief of pain in 
hernia. The flowers are used for prickly heat, and are put 
under bed mats to destroy fleas and lice. The bark of the root 
and tree, 633, is anthelmintic and parasiticide. It is highly 
valued in intestinal worms and parasitic skin diseases. The 
root, 632, and seeds, 634, are mentioned in the Customs Lists, 
but are not specially noticed in the Pentsao. 

MELILOTUS ARVENSIS.— i;:f (Hsun-ts'ao), ^g$ ^ 
(Ling-ling-hsiang). This is thought by several observers to 
be the labiate Or/>;//^w <^^«7/«/;?;^ / but the weight of authority 
seems to be in favor of identifying it with this fragrant legum- 
inous genus. It is quite possible that Chinese botanists often 
confound it with Odmum^ both on account of its fragrance and 
of several other resemblances. H (Hsiin), ^ (Lan), and H 
(Hsieh) are characters which have passed into classical litera- 
ture as types of fragrance and refinement. The ancients used 
to burn the Hsi'in plant as incense to make the spirits descend, 
and when worn in the girdle it is said to dispell noxious in- 
fluences. The plant seems to have been first grown in ^ |gf 
(Ling-ling), the present ^^ ^)\\ J^ (Yungchoufu) in southern 
Hunan. It grows in moist ground, and is found throughout 
the Yangtse provinces. On account of its fragrance, the plant 
is used for making mats, pillows, and mattresses. It is also 
employed in cosmetic applications. Medicinally, it is regarded 
as carminative, calmative, anodyne, and astringent. It is pre- 
scribed in flatulence, colds, muscular rheumatism, polypus of 
the nose, and toothache. When ingested, it is said to have 
the property of imparting its fragrance to the body, a thing 
much desired by the Chinese in the absence of soap, as was 
formerly the case. The fruits are regarded as tonic. The 
mucoid sap found in the stalk and root is used in colds and 
influenza, and is regarded as an excellent local application in 
piles, prolapse of the anus, and seat worms. 



MENTHA ARVENSIS.— ^ ^ (Po-ho). Also written 
^ 1^ (Pa-ho) and ^ fg (Fan-ho). The plant grows almost 
everywhere, but the drug coming from Soochow is regarded as 
the best. On this account it is called ^ |^ ^ (Wu-pa-ho), ^ 
being the old name for Soochow. In the south the plant may 
be confounded with Dryobalanops aroma/ ica., as it is there 
called f I IM ^ 1^ (Lung-nao-po-ho). Two other species or 
varieties are mentioned in the Pattsao^ one called i§Q ^ ^ (Hu- 
pa-lio), and the other ^ ^ 1^ (Shih-po-ho). The latter grows 
in uplands, and is smaller than the ordinary species, while 
the former seems to be of foreign origin. Pcppenni)it is 
cultivated much in gardens, and is used with other vegetables 
to give flavor. Carminative, antispasmodic, astringent, sudorif- 
ic, and alexipharmic qualities are ascribed to these plants. 
They are prescribed in fevers, colds, nervous disorders of 
children, nosebleed, fluxes, snake and insect bites, and diseases 
of- the nose and throat. An oil is spoken of in the Customs 
Lists, 1035, and also menthol^ ^ <^ ^t (Po-ho-ping), 1033, 
but these are not mentioned in the Paitsao. They are brought 
from Canton, and are probably of quite modern origin. 

MENYANTHES TRIFOLIATA.— ^ % (Shui-ts'ai). 
The Chinese point out very clearly the slightly narcotic prop- 
erties of this plant, both in their description of it and in the 
various names applied to it. It is also called ^ ^ (Ming-ts'ai), 
^^ % (Cho-ts'ai), and ^ [^ (Tsui-ts'ao). It grows in ponds, 
has a leaf like the MonocJioria hastata^ and a root like that of 
Nehimbium speciosiivi. The people where it grows pickle it, 
and use it to promote sleep. Its only medicinal use is as a 
hypnotic in fevers. 

ts'ao). This euphorbiaceous plant is not described in the 
Chinese books. It is prescribed in all sorts of rheumatic 
difficulties, contracted tendons, and perspiring feet. Combined 
with Sophei'a flavescens^ rhubarb, and flowers of sulphur, it is 
used in a bath in the treatment of obstinate skin eruptions 
(possibly scabies or ringworm). The patient is directed to 
remain in a close, hot room, until the perspiration falls like 


rain, and then to bathe in the decoction. It is also recom- 
mended in combination with other drugs in nausea and vomit- 
ing, as well as in dropsy. 

(Huan-lan). The fruits of this creeping plant have several 
fanciful names, such as ^ ^(Chio-p'iao), :^ ^ ^ (Yang-p'o- 
nai), ^ ^ 1^ ^ H (P'o-p'o-chen-hsien-pao), and ^ ^ §^ g ^ 
(P'o-p'o-chen-tai-erh). It is a climbing plant, the stalks of 
which, when broken, exude a white juice. It is cultivated, 
and the leaves are eaten both raw and cooked. The fruit is 
green, and from two to four inches long. On account of its 
shape, it is also called ^ ;^ |j| (Yang-chio-ts'ai). The plant 
belongs to the natural order Asclepiadacese, and is found in 
north China, both wild and cultivated. The seeds are the 
parts used in medicine ; but the virtues of the leaves are con- 
sidered to be identical. They are thought to be tonic and 
constructive. The crushed seeds are applied to wounds and 
ulcers as an astringent and hemostatic remedy. They are 
also applied to all sorts of insect bites, and if frequently used, 
are thought to have some escharotic properies. 

MICHELIA CHAMPACA.— Porter Smith gives the fol- 
lowing characters for the Chinese name of this magnoliaceous 
tree: gf \% (Chen-po), ^ ^ (Chen-p'o), t5 ^ ^ (Chen-p'o- 
ka) ; but the source from which he secured these has not been 
found. From whatever source they may have been derived, 
they are evidently an attempt to transliterate the Indian name 
tsjampac^ or tchantpaka. It is said to be found in China, but 
perhaps is only cultivated here. It has very fragrant yellow 
flowers, and an edible fruit. Its bark is used, with that of 
other magnolias, to adulterate cinnamon. It has been used in 
the Mauritius, with some success, in the treatment of the low 
intermittent fevers of that island. 

MIRABILIS JALAPA.—^ % ij (Tzu-mo-li), Hi fit 
(Yei*chih). This is described in the Kuaiig-chiin-fang-pu. 
The flowers are only used for cosmetic purposes. Faber also 
gives >Aj ^ # ^ (Huo-t'an-mu-ts^ao) as a name for this Marvel 


of Pcni^ or Foiir-d^clock^ but the description in the Pcntsao 
does not agree. The second name above given simply refers to 
its cosmetic uses. Other plants also bear this name in some 
form (see Basella rtibra and Chenopodhim albtwi). Another 
name sometimes found used for it is ^ ^^ :^ (Hsi-tsao-hua), 
because it blooms at the time of day when people usually bathe. 

MOMORDICA CHARANTIA.— ^ JTR (K'u-kua), 628. 
Also called %W) ^ (Chin-li-chih) and ^ ^ ^ (Lai-p'u-t'ao), 
from the warty appearance of its fruit. The plant originally 
came from the countries south of China, but is now grown in 
the southern provinces. It is likened in appearance to the 
wild grape vine, but is smaller. The pepo varies from two to 
five inches in length, is of a green color, and the skin is 
marked with longitudinal rows of oblong tubercles, with the 
intervening space crowded with smaller tubercles. In this 
tuberculated appearance it is likened to the lichee, and from it 
takes the second and third names given above. When it is ripe 
it is yellow in color, and it eventually bursts open, exhibiting 
a beautiful red pulp enclosing the seeds. The pulp is sweet 
and can be eaten. The seeds are the shape of squash seeds, 
and are also tuberculated. The fruit is considered to be cool- 
ing and strengthening. The seeds benefit the breath and 
invigorate the male principle (p^, Yang). The dried fruit in 
slices, ^ S 1^ (K'u-kua-kan), 629, and the peduncles, ^ jK. 
^ (K'n-kua-ti), 630, are mentioned in the Customs Lists, but 
they are not spoken of in the Pcntsao. 

pieh-tzQ), 872. Also called % ^ (Mu-hsieh). These names 
refer to the form of the seeds, which are likened to a turtle or 
crab. The plant is a cucurbitaceous one with a perennial root. 
It is described as coming up in the spring in the form of a 
vine or creeper, having a five pointed leaf resembling that of 
Batatas edttlis^ green and shiny. In the fourth or fifth moon 
it bears yellow flowers, followed by the fruits, which resemble 
those of Tricosanthes multiloba^ but larger ; first green in#olor, 
and when ripe yellowish-red and covered with soft prickles. 
Each fruit contains from thirty to forty seeds, flat, and of the 


peculiar shape indicated by the name. In the south the youno- 
pepo and the leaves are said to be eaten as a vegetable. The 
seed is of a light to dark brown color, having a double row of 
tubercles at the margin, and the testa fragile, roughened and 
sometimes coarsely reticulated. They vary from three-quarters 
to one and a-quarter inches in diameter, and contain two large, 
oily cotyledons, green on the outside and yellow internally. 
These cotyledons are used in medicine, but the oil for the most 
part is first removed. Their action is considered to "be con- 
structive and resolvent, and they are prescribed in strumous 
swellings of the neck, mammary abscess, mesenteric enlarge- 
ments, bruises, wounds, swellings, and ulcers. They are 
recommended in chronic malaria, enlarged spleen, and fluxes. 

MONOCHORIA HASTATA.— ^ ^fi (Tz'u-ku), 1426. 
This is also called 7JC v'ji (Shni-p'ing), thus confounding it with 
Lemiia and other species of Monochoria. The shoots are called 
55[ JJ "^ (Chien-tao-ts'ao), The principal name is also written 
i^t: ^ (Tz'u-ku), and this is not distinguished from Sagittaria 
sagittifolia^ being the latter in the north, and Mo?iochoria in 
the south. (See Sagittaria sagitti/olia.) 

MONOCHORIA KORSAKOWIL— ^|i (P'ing). This has 
the same Chinese name as the Lcmna viinor^ and is therefore 
not distinguished from the latter. (See Lcvina minor.) 

MONOCHORIA VAGINALIS.— ^^ ^ (Fou-shih), il!| fj- 
;^ (Ya-she-ts'ao), 1483. This "floating polygonum", or 
"duck's tongue", is likened to Braseiiia pcltata. Like all 
water plants, it is considered to be cooling. 

MORUS ALBA. — ^ (Sang). The mulberry tree is prob- 
ably the best known tree of China. Its cultivation can be 
traced to remote antiquity. According to ancient tradition, 
Si-ling, the empress of Huangti (B.C. 2967), taught the people 
how to rear silk worms, using the mulberry leaves for that 
purpose. The tree is cultivated in all parts of the empire, 
being found in several varieties. Cultivation and the constant 
denuding the tree of its leaves has resulted in greatly modifying 


the plant as found in the orchards of those engaged in sericult- 
ure. The stalk is stunted and gnarled, while the leaves are 
large, green, and succulent, round in the south, and lobed in 
the north. Some of the varieties are indicated by the names 
1^ ^ (Pai-sang), ^ ^ (Lu-sang), ^f ^ (Chi-sang), -^ ^ (Nii- 
sang), iLl ^ (Shan-sang), j;^ ^ (Ti-sang), fij ^ (Ching-sang), 
^ ^ (Chin-sang), and \% '^ (I-sang). The ]^ ^ (Yen-sang), 
which is probablj^ identical with ^J -^ (Shan-sang), is Morns 
indica. The fruits are called ^: (Shen). This character is 
commonly but wrongly, written |g (Chen) ; and this mistake 
in writing is made even in the Book of Odes. When the 
fruits are black-ripe, they are called |^ (Hsiin or T'an). They 
enter into commerce under the name of -^ '^_ ^ (Sang-shen- 
tzu), 1066, and are made into a jam called ^ ^ W (Sang- 
shen-kao), 1065, which is the form in which the fruits are 
preserved for medicinal use. The bark of the root, ^ ^J!^ ^ J[^ 
Sang-ken-pai-p'i), 107 1, is also used in medicine. There is 
a persistent opinion among Chinese observers that any portion 
of the root which is above ground is poisonous. The drug 
is considered to be restorative and tonic, and it is prescribed in 
in weakness, menorrhagia, plithisis, and all sorts of wasting 
diseases. It is also thought to have anthelmintic and astrin- 
gent properties. The juice of tlie fresh bark is used in epilepsy 
in children and in dribbling of saliva. For nervous disorders, 
the bark from the root extending toward the east is considered 
especially efficacious. The milky sap of the tree is used in 
aphthous stomatitis in infants, and in incised wounds, snake, 
centipede, and spider bites. The fruits are thirst relieving, 
they benefit the internal organs, promote the circulation of the 
blood, pacify the soul, energise the spirit, increase mental 
vigor, and prevent the signs of old age. The juice is anti- 
vinous, and when itself fermented, benefits the water passages 
of the body. The leaves, 1073, are considered to be slightly 
deleterious. Their action is diaphoretic. INIade into strong 
decoction, they are used for sweating feet, dropsy, and for 
intestinal disorders. The bruised leaves are used in wounds 
and insect bites, and are thought to promote the growth of 
hair. Tlie twigs, 1068, are given about the same properties as 
the fruit, and they are considered prophylactic against all forms 


of cold (^, Feng). They are also diuretic and pectoral. A 
lye made of the ashes of mulberry wood is used as a stimulant 
and escharotic in scaly skin diseases and unhealthy granula- 
tions. The bark of the tree is sometimes used to dye a brown 
color. The Chinese claim that the seeds procured from the 
excrement of fowls and ducks which have been fed upon the 
berries, produce plants that are more likely to grow to leaf 
than to fruit, and are therefore more suitable for silk worm 

MOSLA GROSSESERRATA.— ^^ (Chi-ning). This 
is a labiate plant, which, on account of its foul odor is called 
^ i^ (Ch'ou-su), and on account of the color of its leaves is 
called ^ ^ ^ (Ch'jng-pai-su). It is likened to Stachys 
aspera. It grows almost everywhere on plains, and has a 
hirsute leaf with a bad odor. The poor people eat it, but the 
taste is not very pleasant. The stalk and leaves are used in 
medicine, are considered to be carminative and warming, and 
are recommended in heart-burn. 

MOSLA PUNCTATA.— Jg ^ p (Shih-chi-ning). In 
Japan "^ ^ (Chio-chuang) is given as an equivalent for this 
plant, but this name applies properly to Jtisticia prociivibens. 
The drug is used as a warming and carminative remedy, and 
in decoction as a wash for parasitic skin diseases. It grows 
among the rocks in mountainous districts to the height of one 
or two feet. It has small leaves and purple flowers. The hill 
people employ it as a substitute for the last. 

MUCILAGE.— 7K If (Shui-chiao). Chinese mucilage is 
very good, and is usually made from seaweed, to which is 
added a little alum. Other substances are also used : such as 
some of the raalvaceous plants and fruits, the bungtali fruits, 
the gum from the peach tree {1^ ^, T'ao-chiao) and that from 
the plum tree i^ fl^, Shu-chiao), all affording excellent 
material for making mucilage, and being used as demulcent 
remedies. But the thing most commonly used in China, both 
for suspending insoluble drugs and as a paste for adhesive 
purposes^ is rice congee. It is an efficient instrument, usually 


ready at hand, or very easily prepared. The Chinese literary 
man usually depends upon a few grains of cooked rice left 
over from his last meal, for sticking together paper surfaces. 

MUCUNA CAPITATA.— ^ ^ (Li-tou), |i ^ (Li-tou), 
J^ ^ (Hu-tou). This is a Japanese identification, and it is not 
quite certain that this is the plant mentioned in the Pentsao. 
What is there described is a leguminous plant bearing a hairy 
pod, having a purple flower which resembles that of Dolichos 
umbellatus^ while the leaves resemble those of Dolichos lablab. 
The beans are of the size of those of Cmiivallia eiisiformis^ 
and are mottled with black. They are very good eating 
when cooked with pork or chicken. They are considered 
to be slightly deleterious, and medicinally are warming and 

MULGEDIUM SIBIRIACUM.— "g'® (Chii-sheng). This 
is confounded with Sesamiun by Chinese botanists, and is 
mentioned in the Pentsao under that article. However, this 
present identification is very uncertain, although the seeds 
(H ^ ^) Chii-sheng-tzn), 234, answer tolerably well to this 
description. Strange to say, the Customs Lists identify them 
with the seeds of Impatiens balsanima. As described by 
Braun, they are yellowish brown in color, oblong, and have all 
the appearance of fennel seeds. Those found in the shops of 
Peking are of two kinds, black and yellowish-white. What 
the black are is very uncertain. The others were regarded 
by Maximowics as seeds of Ixeris or Mtdgedium. The med- 
ical action of these seeds is said to be tonic to the viscera, 
respiratory, and strengthening to the sinews and bones. The 
drug will also dissolve cinnabar. 

MURRAYA EXOTICA.— :fL M 1= if (Chiu-li-hsiang- 
ts'ao). No description of this plant is given in the books. It 
is prescribed for abdominal abscess. 

MUSA SAPIENTUM. — t % (Kan-chiao), "g; % (Pa- 
chiao). Also commonly called ^ -^ (Hsiang-chiao). A good 
description of this plant is given in the Pentsao^ but no dis- 


tinction is made between the plantain and the banana {Musa 
paradisicd). A number of varieties are mentioned, such as : 
^I % (Hung-chiao), 7K % (Shui-chiao), ^ % (Ya-chiao), ^ ^L 
^ (Niu-ju-chiao), 1§^ % (Pan-chiao), f^ ^ ^ (Fo-shou-chiao), 
^i •? ^ (Chi-tzu-chiao), H A ii (Mei-jen-chiao), and If f^ i|^ 
(Tan-p'ing-chiao). The plant is met with in Szechuan, Fu- 
kien, and the southern provinces. It grows in the Yangtse 
provinces, but seldom ripens its fruit. The fruit is considered 
to be very cooling, and should not be eaten in excess. When 
eaten in the raw state, it relieves thirst, moistens the lungs, 
purifies the blood, heals wounds, and is anti vinous. Steamed, 
it promotes the circulation of the blood and enriches the 
marrow. The root, 84, is considered to be antifebrile and 
restorative. Bruised, it is applied to wounds and ulcers, and 
the juice is administered in jaundice, influenza, and post-partum 
difficulties. The viscid sap of the plant, which is called ^ jjlj 
(Chiao-yu), is procured by thrusting a bamboo tube into the 
stalk and collecting the sap in a bottle. It has the antifebrile 
properties of the other parts, and is specially recommended in 
epilepsy, vertigo, and to prevent women's hair from falling, 
to increase its growth and to restore its color. The bruised 
leaves are particularly recommended as a poultice in incipient 
abscesses. The flowers are used in cardialgia. 

MUSCI. — ^ CT'ai) is almost a family name for mosses^ 
but is not confined to these, being also at times applied to 
algcE^ fiingi^ and some aquatic spermaphytes. Several mosses 
are mentioned in the Pentsao. {)'.$ ^ (Chih-li), which is 
variously called jrjc ^ (Shui-t'ai), 7JC ^% (Shui-mien), and ^ % 
T'ai-ts'ai), is probably Ccraniimn rubrum. It was formerly 
used for making a kind of paper, and is still gathered and dried 
for food under the name of ^ )]ij) (T'ai-fu). It is considered 
to be very nourishing. Its medicinal action is cooling, peptic, 
and emollient. It is used in fluxes, influenza, and cinnabar 
poisoning. The moss growing in old wells, ^ 4* o" (Ching- 
chung-t'ai), is of repute in the treatment of wounds, scalds and 
burns, and is considered to be an antidote to several vegetable 
poisons. That from the bottom of boats, ^ ]^'^ (Ch'uau- 
ti-t'ai),- is prescribed in hemoptj'sis, gravel, and influenza. 


is. 3^ (Yuan-i) is a kind of moss which grows on house roofs 
and stones. In the latter case it is also called ^" ^ ^ (Cli'ing- 
tai-i). It is prescribed in jaundice, coughs, fever, flatulence, 
wounds, burns, and nosebleed. It is considered to be tonic, 
respiratory, and constructive, and is said to improve nutrition 
and color. 

MUSHROOMS.— A class name for these is ^ i(^ (Chih- 
erh). Another common name is "^ (Chiin), and still another 
is ^ (Hsin). Mushrooms growing on hard ground are called 
1^ (Chiin), those on soft earth are called ^ (Chih), while those 
growing on wood are called |jjn or j^ (^rh). The ^ (Hsin) is 
more fleshy than the "^ (Chiin), and is probably referred to 
Boletus or a fleshy Polyporiis. Some of the mountain varieties 
are deleterious. Other terms used for mushrooms are ^ (Kai) 
and ^ (Ku), but these refer to a few specific specimens. ^ 
(Chih) is defined in the classics as the plant of immortality, 
and it is therefore always considered to be a felicitous one. It 
is said to absorb the earthy vapors and to leave a heavenlv 
atmosphere. For this reason it is called ^ '^ (Ling-chih.) It 
is large and of a branched form, and probably represents 
Clavaria or Sparassis. Its form is likened to that of coral. 
There are very many varieties ; one author says one hundred, 
but the principal ones are represented by what are known as 
the -^^ -^ (Liu-chih), or "six mosses;" namely: the ^ '^ 
(Ch'ing-chih) or §| '£ (Uing-chih) ; the % It (Ch'ih-chih) o'r 
^ 2 (Tan-chih) ; the fr j^ (Huang-chih) or ^-^* (Chin-chih) ; 
the ^ 2 (Pai-chih), ^^ ^y (Yii-chih), or ^ ^ (Su-chih) ; the 
^ 2 (Hei-chih) or ^ ji: (Hsiian-chih) ; and the ^ ^£ (Tzii- 
chih) or /f; ^ (Mu-chih). These are all non-poisonous, edible, 
and are considered to be highly beneficial. The first comes 
from Taishan, has a sour taste, brightens the eye, strengthens 
the liver, quiets the spirits, improves the memory, and prolongs 
life. The second grows on the Hengshan, has a bitter taste, 
acts especially on the heart, and has the tonic and quieting 
properties of the first. The third grows on Sungshan, is of a 
sweet taste, acts specially on the spleen, and is tonic and con- 
structive, as in the case of the other two. The fourth grows 
on Huashan, is of a pungent taste, acts specially on the lungs 


and air passages, with beneficial properties as before. The 
fifth grows on Changshan, has a saltish taste, acts specially on 
the urinary organs, and is of equaly general value with the 
others. The sixth comes from the Kaohsiashan (location not 
known), is of a sweetish-cooling taste, acts on the bones and 
ligaments, and has the general constructive properties of the 
others. It is also recommended in deafness and hemorrhoids. 

Tf; 3 (Mu-erh) has been identified by some observers as 
Exidia auricula judcs^ but the probability is rather in favor 
of its being Auriciilaria^ even as its name implies, belonging 
to the order of Auricular iales rather than to that of Tremal- 
lales. Five species have already been mentioned in the article 
on Exidia. Three others are given in the Pentsao, That 
growing upon Ciidrajiia triloba^ X^ "^ (Che-erh), is employed 
in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory organs, especially 
hemoptysis and fetid expectoration. The one growing upon 
Diervilla versicolor )^ j^ '^ (Yang-lu-erh), is employed to 
scatter ecchymoses, and has the reputation of rendering the 
blood fluid. The one growing upon Cunniiighamia sinensis 
•)^ ^ (Shan-chiin), is reputed to relieve cardialgia. Still 
another, growing upon Gleditschia chinensis^ !^ ^ W- (Tsao- 
chia-hsin), is of high repute in scattering incipient abscesses 
and in the treatment of diarrhoea due to cold. 

The ^ ^ (Hsiang-hsin) grows upon the Pa?ilownia, the 
willow. Citrus fusca^ and Hovenia diilcis. It is of two colors ; 
the purple being called ^ ^ (Hsiang-hsin) and the white 
I^ ^ (Jou-hsin). The latter is the fleshy sort, and is probably 
Boletus. They are said to benefit respiration, cure colds, and 
purify the blood. A kind growing upon the pine tree is used 
in the treatment of gonorrhoea. Another mushroom, known 
as :^ :^ ^ (Ko-hua-ts'ai) and :^ ^ (Ko-ju), is red in color, 
with a large, flat hymenium. It is used in the treatment of 
excess in wine. A mushroom known as ^c 'i^ ^ (T'ien-hua- 
hsin) and 5c ^ ^ (T'ien-hua-ts'ai), is fragrant, white in color, 
and is regarded as a finely edible variety. It is considered to 
be respiratory and anthelmintic. Another fleshy mushroom, 
known as ^& ^ ^ (Mo-ku-hsin), grows upon the decaying 
\vood of the mulberry and the paper-mulberry. It is tw'O or 
three inches long, conical, small at the base and large at the 


upper extremity, white in color, exceedingly fragile, and 
hollow internally. Owing to its shape, it is commonly called 
% ^MM (Chi-t'ui-mo-ku). This is probably one of the 
Clavariacese, and may be Pistillaria. Its medicinal action is 
upon the intestines and stomach, and it is also said to dissolve 
phlegm and benefit respiration. A club-shaped mushroom, 
called % if (Chi-tsung) and % "g (Chi-chiin), is found in the 
sandy plains of Yunnan. A similar kind, called ^ "^ (Lei- 
chiin), conies from Kiangsi. Both of these are used as food, 
eaten with tea or cooked with meat broth. They are thought 
to benefit the stomach, invigorate the spirits, and to cure 
hemorrhoids. A form growing upon the rudders of old sea- 
going ships is called from this fact j|g || (To-ts'ai). It is used 
in the treatment of goitre. 

The poisonous varieties of mushroom go under the names 
± f (T'u-chiin), i % (T'u-hsin), % % (Ti-hsin), ^ ^ 
(Ku-tzu), % W. (Ti-chi), and Jt ^ (Chang-t'ou). These, 
the more common forms of wild growing mushrooms, or 
toad-stools, are well described in the Pentsao as to their 
coarser characteristics. Medicinally they are used, after 
having been incinerated, in the treatment of ulcers, scaly 
skin diseases, and foul sores. Another poisonous variety 
is called ^ a^ (Kuei-pi), on account of its pencil-like form. 
It is also used in the treatment of skin difficulties, especially 
those of a parasitic nature. Two non-poisonous varieties of 
common field mushroom are the ^ ^ (Kuei-kai) and ^ "^ 
(Ti-chi n). These are used in the treatment of nervous diseases 
of children. The former is found in yellow and white colors, 
and the latter is ephemeral, coming up in the morning and 
fading by noon. A horn-shaped kind, found growing upon the 
bamboo, or in bamboo groves, is for this reason called fj" ^ 
(Chu-ju) and f5" I^ (Chu-jon). It is highly esteemed as a 
vegetable and in the treatment of poisonous effluvia. A mush- 
room found growing in ponds and marshes, called ^ "^ (Huan- 
chiin), is very irregular in shape, and was said by one ancient 
observer to be the metamorphosed excrement of the heron, 
and for this reason the first character in the name should be 
written ^| (Huan). It is slightly deleterious, and is therefore 
not used for food. It is esteemed in cardialgia, insect and 


reptile bites, intestinal worms, favus, and internally as an 
anodyne in colic. A prickly variety, which may be referred to 
Hvdnum^ is found in Szechnan, and is called ^ ^ (Shu-ko). 
It is non-poisonous, and is used in the treatment of fevers and 
menstrual difficulties. One called j^ [^ (Ti-erh) is evidently 
an auriculariaceous form, as is also that called jg" !|p (Shih- 
8rh). The former is eaten, and is said to brighten the eye, 
benefit respiration, and promote fecundity. The latter is also 
edible, and has all of the good qualities of the ^ (Chih), being 
also used in the treatment of gravel, and being said to benefit 
virility. It is specially used in hemorrhage from the bowels 
and prolapse of the rectum. While the name of this would 
indicate that it was one of the Auriculariales, the fact that the 
name ^ ^ (Ling-chih), 731, is also given to it might place it 
among the Clavariaceae. It is not fully described, so that there 
is no way in which the matter can be determined except by 
observation of specimens. 

MYLITTA LAPIDESCENS.— ^ % (Lei-wan), 699. This 
is one of those growths the nature of which has not yet been 
accurately determined. Some observers consider it to be the 
result of one of the parasitic myxomycetes attacking the 
roots of certain trees, developing in them, and from their sub- 
stance, these tuberous bodies, as is well known in the case of 
Ahms in America. In this case the tuber leads an independ- 
ent, though parasitic, existence. Others regard them to be 
the result of the mycellium of sorne parasitic fungus penetrat- 
ing the inner bark of the tree-host, and producing from the 
tissues of the root itself and the sap of the tree these bodies. 
In this case the growth is a pathological excrescence. "They 
occur in the form of small rounded nodules, varying in weight 
from five grains to nearly a half an ounce. Their exterior 
surface is of a dark brownish-grey color, and generally finely 
corrugated ; their inner substance has a granular appearance, 
is of a pinkish-brown color, and of almost stony hardness. A 
microscopic section shows that the tissue is divided into areolae, 
after the manner of that of the truffle and other underground 
fungi." They have a slight pedicle attached to one or both 
poles, and are sometimes met with joined together like a roll 


of imperfectly divided pills. Tbey have little smell or taste, 
as they appear ou the Chinese market. Similar substances are 
dug out of the chalk beds of Travancore and Tinnevelly. 
Those produced on the root of the bamboo are edited fj" ^ 
(Chu-ling). The tubers are said to be produced by the thunder- 
clap metamorphosing the subtile vapors of plants. In the fresh 
state, they are bitter and cooling in taste, aud slightly poison- 
ous, and are among the large number of drugs reputed to 
be prophylactic and antifebrile, are said to benefit the male 
but not the female, and if taken for a long time result in im- 
potence. They are recommended in epilepsy, chorea, and 
other nervous affections of children, and are used for pin worms 
aud maggots in the fi-esh. 

MYRICA RUBRA.— j^ ;f§ (Yang-mer), \ji J- (Chiu-tzu). 
This tree is likened to Nephcliii7n^ and its fruit to that of 
Broiisso7tetia papyri/era or Frag aria. Foreigners call the fruit 
the " Chinese strawberry.'''* There are three principal varie- 
ties, determined by the color of the fruit — the white, the red, 
aud the purple. They are esteemed in the order here given ;. 
the purple being considered to be the best. They are sour and 
cooling in taste, and are som~etimes salted or preserved. In 
this form they are considered to be pectoral and quieting to the 
stomach. Taken with wine, they prevent the nausea from 
wine drinking. They are also said to be carminative, aud 
useful in digestive disturbances, including diarrhcea and dysen- 
tery. The kernels of the seeds are used in sweating feet, and 
the bark of the tree and the root are employed in decoction in 
the treatment of wounds, ulcers, scaly skin diseases, and arsenic 

MYRIOGYNE MINUTA.— ;& j^ ^ (Shih-hu-sui). This 
is a minute plant, growing in the crevices of stones and in 
moist places among rocks. It is also called 5c ^ ^ (T'ien- 
hu-sui). It is not edible, and although it is more or less an 
aquatic plant, geese will not eat it, and for this reason it receives 
the name ^ ^ ;^ ]^ (E-pu-shih-ts'ao): Its medicinal action is 
upon the respiratory passages, including the nose. It cures 
films ou the eyes, hemorrhoids, polypus of the nose, and 


relieves swellings aud deafness. It is also recommended in 
malarial fevers. 

MYRIOPHYLLUM.— 7J1C ^ (Sliui-tsao). Several halora- 
geous and naiadaceous plants are described in the Pentsao 
under this term. The larger kind, with leaves like those of 
Peril/a^ is called by the name given above. This is Myrio- 
phylhnn spicatum. Another, with leaves like the Chrysanthe- 
mu7n coronarhmt^ is called |^ ^ (Chii-tsao). In Japan this is 
Ceratophyllum deinerswn. It is also called 7]^ j^ (Shui-yiin), 
lis !l^ (Sai-ts'ao), and ^ ;^ j^ (Niu-wei-yiin). Bht these are 
probably quite different plants, being referred to Myriophyllnm^ 
HippJiris^ and Zostera. Still another mentioned is ^ ^ (Ma- 
tsao), which is usually referred to Potaniogeton. All of these 
plants are considered to be edible, and are used in medicine ; 
the last named being considered to be the best for this pur- 
pose. The taste is sweet, very cooling, demulcent, and the 
plant is non-poisonous. It is prescribed in fevers, to relieve 
thirst, and in fluxes, especially those of children. Faber also 
identifies ^ ^ (Shih-fan) as Myriophylhmi^ but the Pentsao 
describes this, as a seaweed allied to Sargassimi^ or may be to 
Glyptostrobus. It is used in decoction for the treatment of 

MYRISTICA MOSCHATA.— i^ S ^ (Jou-tou-k'ou), 
559, 1314. This Chinese name is that of the mitmeg. An- 
other name is |^ H (Jou-kno). Mace is called I^ ^ ^ (Jou- 
tou-hua), 560, and I^ H :^ (Jou-kuo-hua). It is not produced 
in China, but is brought from countries to the south, where it 
is said to be called ^SS 1^ ^ (Ka-kou-le). In this the Chinese 
probably confound the nutmeg with the cardamom. The 
nutmegs found in China are usually olive shaped, dry, and 
worm eaten. They are used principally as a warming, car- 
minative and astringent remedy in all sorts of fluxes, especially 
those of children and of the aged. They are very seldom 
employed as a spice. Mace is used medicinally equally with 
the mutmeg. The Customs Lists speak of 1^ S. ^ (Jou-tou- 
ken), 561, which seems to be the root of the tree. This is not 
mentioned in the Pentsao. 



NANDINA DOMESTIC A.— ^ j^ (Nan-clui), ^ % ^ 
(Nan-t'ien-chu). This is a berberidaceous shrub, with ever- 
green leaves and, in the winter time, beautiful red berries, 
making a good substitute for Christmas holly. The generic 
name is taken from the sound of the first two characters in the 
second name given above. Fortune, from the error of suppos- 
ing that the last character in the Chinese name was fj- (Chu), 
translated the supposed name ^C ft (T'ien-chn) into '''• Heaven- 
ly bainboo^^'' a name which the plant still retains among 
foreigners. But this combination of characters is not found 
in the Chinese books. The berries are called ^^ '^ (Hou-shu), 
"monkey beans," by the common people, and the plant also 
goes by the name of ^^ M^ (Wu-fan-ts'ao), because the leaves 
are used in preparing a kind of rice congee called J^ ^ (Wu- 
fan) or 1^ jf^ 1^ (Ch'ing-ching-fan). The shrub grows on 
the hills, but is also cultivated on account of its glossy, 
green leaves and red berries, which are much used as winter 
decorations. Medicinally, the branches and leaves are reputed 
to check discharges, drive away sleepiness, strengthen the 
tendons, benefit the breath, prolong life, prevent hunger, and 
keep off old age. They are also prescribed for colds. The 
seeds, 883, have about the same virtues, and they are said to 
strengthen virility and improve the complexion. The congee 
made with the leaves, as mentioned above, has similar virtues, 
to which are added the nourishing qualities of the rice. 

NARCISSUS TAZETTA.— 7j»: Jilj (Shui-hsien), ^ ^ ^ 
j^ (Chin-chan-yin-t'ai). This "water-nymph" is much cul- 
tivated in China, being found in nearly every home at the 
New Year's season, growing in specially prepared dishes in 
which the bulbs are set in clean water among clean pebbles 
or shells. The fiowers are white or red, with yellow centers, 
and surmount a greenish white stem ; hence the second name, 
"golden-bowl-silver-stand." They are exceedingly pleasing, 
both on account of their beauty and fragrance. The bulbs 
are used medicinally as a poultice to swellings, and as a 


demulcent bolus to carry bones out of the cesopbagus. The 
flowers are used cosmetically, and are thought to benefit the 
hair. The plant is regarded as a woman's remedy. 

properly belongs to India, is found in the province of Yunnan 
and on the western borders of Szechuan, but whether indigenous 
or transplanted is uncertain. Its product. It |^ ^ (Kan-sung- 
hsiang), or true spikenard^ is found in the medicine shops of 
China. A name for this, taken from a Buddhist book, is ^ ^ 
^ (K'u-mi-ch'e). This is probably a transliteration of some 
Indian name. Spikenard is classed together with lign aloes, 
cloves, sandalwood, and Aglaia odorata^ as one of the five 
odorous plants. The rhizome is used as a deodorant, carmina- 
tive, and stimulant. A decoction is used in various skin affec- 
tions and in the bath to give fragrance to the body. It is 
used in India in hysteria, epilepsy, and other convulsive 
diseases. The root is sometimes confounded with sumbul root. 

NASTURTIUM PALUSTRE.— ^ M (Ting-li), see 
Draba nemoralis. 7JC j^ (Shui-ch'in), see CEanthe stolonijera. 

NAUCLEA GAMBIR.— See Uncaria gambir 2.\i^ Acacia 

NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM.— :it (Ho), ^ % (Pu-ch'ii). 
This exceedingly popular and very useful plant has a distinct 
name for its every part. Its stem is called ^ (Ch'ieh) ; the 
rootlets on the lower part of the stem or at the top of the 
rhizome are called ^ (Mi) ; its leaf is called 5g (Hsia) ; its 
flower is called ^ "^ (Han-t'ao) ; its fruit jH (Lien) ; its root 
^ (Ou) ;■ its seed |^* (Ti) ; and itS' caulicle ^ (I). In some 
parts of the country the flowers ate called ^ ^ (Fu-jung). 
However, the common names now in use are limited for 
the most part to jg 1^ (Lien-hua), 722, for the flower, |^ ^ 
(Ho-yeh), 729, for the leaves, and ^ (On), 923, for the root. 
Such is the arrangement in the Pcntsno, which discusses the 
plant under the term ^ || (Lien-ou). The seeds, called ^ ^ 
(Lien-shih), 726, and ^ jl -^ (Shih-lien-tzii), or more com- 
monly %. ■? (Lien-tzu); are usually found in the hard, dry state, 


having a black testa and a reddish tegmen. These are removed 
in preparing the seeds for use, and the fleshy cotyledons 
are boiled or ground into flour, and in either case form the 
basis of a very palatable food. The fresh cotyledons are 
also much relished in the raw state by the Chinese, being 
peddled on the streets in their receptacles in the season. 
In any form they are considered to be very nourishing and 
highly beneficial in preserving the body in health and strength. 
They are refreshing, preventive of fluxes, promote the cir- 
culation, strengthen the virility, and "the more you eat, the 
more you want of them." Their use is recommended in 
leucorrhcea and gonorrhoea. Although the plant grows amidst 
the filth and slime of ponds, it is considered to be an emblem 
of purity, and for this reason the different parts of the plant 
are thought to purify the body of noxious poisons and evil 
conditions. The seeds must not be confounded with tliose 
of CcBsalpinia fninax^ which are also called ^ '^ "f" (Sliih- 
lien-tzu), 11 53. Li Shih-chen utters this warning, but says 
that he does not know what these latter seeds are. The 
root-stock is jointed and fleshy, and when cut across shows a 
number of cavities in the tissue, concentrically arranged, and 
terminating at the joints, which interrupt them at every foot 
or less of the length of the stock. These are boiled and sold 
in slices on the streets, forming a sweet, mucilaginous food, 
looking like the sweet potato, and very much relished by the 
Chinese. The joints of the root-stock are considered separately 
under the name of || |iJ (Ou-chieh), 923, and are thought to 
be hemostatic in hemoptysis, and also in post-partum hemor- 
rhage, hematuria, and bloody stools. Two kinds of arrow-root 
are made of the root-stock, one called ^ ^^ (Ou-fen), 924, from 
the fleshy part, and the other called gij ^ (Chieh-fen) from the 
joints. The latter is far the more expensive of the two, and 
is made in the region about Huaian, Kiangsu. The mode of 
manufacture in either case is to crush the root and wash out 
the starch with water. After subsidance, the water is drained 
off and the starch left to dry. The taste of the Ou-fcn is 
sweetish and somewhat aromatic. It is considered to be 
nutritious, stomachic, tonic, increasing the mental faculties 
and quieting the spirits. The taste of the Chieh-f^n is somC' 


what bitterish and acrid, and it is thought to have special 
action upon the circulation, and is recommended in hemor- 
rhages. The ordinary Oii-fen is a reddish-white, glistening, 
unctuous powder, making a very tenacious jeHy of a dark 
color when boiled with water. It answers all the purposes of 
the best arrow-root, and is of great value in the treatment of 
diarrhoea and dysentery. It is given in diseases of the chest, 
and is an important ingredient in the article called H '^ ^ 
(San-ho-fen), used in the rearing of hand-fed infants. It also 
is a chief ingredient in a nourishing pudding specially prepared 
for the weak and ill-nourished, and called A jllj ^ '^ (Pa- 
hsien-ou-fen). This arrow-root, as found in the shops, is so 
frequently adulterated with leguminous starches that many 
families endeavor to make it for themselves. The caulicle 
of the seeds, called j^ ^ (Lien-i) and j^ -^ *C» (Lien-tzii- 
hsin), 728, is bitter in taste, relieves the sense of thirst after 
hemorrhages, and is used in the treatment of cholera, he- 
moptysis, and spermatorrhoea. The stamens of the flowers, 
called }^ ^ H (Lien-jui-hsii), 721, and fjjj |^ ^ (Fo-tso-hsii), 
purify the heart, permeate the kidne5's, strengthen the virility, 
blacken the hair, make joyful the countenance, benefit the 
blood, and check hemorrhages. The flowers, 722, are recom- 
mended as a cosmetic application to the face to improve the 
complexion, and it is said that in cases of difiicult labor a 
single petal is taken, the father's literary *' style" is inscribed 
thereon, and then swallowed by the woman, in which case the 
labor will be made easy. The seed pod or receptacle is called 
jg % (Lien-fang), 720, or jg ^ f: (Lien-p'eng-fu), 725. After 
the seeds have been removed, it looks something like the nozzle 
of a garden sprinkler. Its medicinal action is regarded as anti- 
hemorrhagic, and it is also employed to promote the expulsion 
of the afterbirth and in watery decoction to counteract the 
poison of deleterious fungi. The leaves, |^ ^ (Ho-yeh), re- 
ceive various names according to their age or position. The 
very young ones are called ^j^ %% (Ho-ch'ien), those lying upon 
the water |^ ^ (Ou-ho), and those extending above the 
water ^ ^- (Chih-ho). The dried leaves are sold to grocers, 
who use them for wrapping up some of their goods. The leaf 
stalk is called % ^ (Ho-pi). The medicinal virtues of the 


leaf are considered to be antifebrile, antihemorrhagic, con- 
structive to the blood, promotive of labor and the expulsion of 
the afterbirth, antidotal to poisonous fungi, and useful as an 
application in eruptive fevers and other skin diseases. Some 
of these properties are attributed to the leaf stalk, and it is said 
to have the special quality of quieting the pregnant uterus. 
Two lotus-like flowers, brought from some foreign country, 
and called i^I ^ jH ^ (Hung-pai-lien-hua), are spoken of in 
the Pentsao. The prolonged use of these drives away old age 
and gives a fine complexion. They may be Nymphaese. 

NEPETA GLECHOMA.— i^ @ % (Chi-hsiieh-ts'ao). 
Because this plant has leaves like Chinese copper coin, it is 
also called %^'^ (Ti-ch'ien-ts'ao) and % ^'% (Lien-ch'ien- 
ts'ao). On account of its fragrance it is called ]|^ |^ i^ (Hu- 
po-ho). It grows in the river valleys of the central and 
northern provinces, and is the well known ground ivy. The 
stalk and leaves of the plant are used in medicine, and their 
chief virtue seems to be that of an antifebrile remedy. They 
are also anodyne, and are prescribed in every form of fever and 
in all sorts of spontaneous pain^ including toothache and 

NEPHEUUM LAPACUM.— IS ^ (Shao-tziS). This 
grows in Lingnan, resembles the lichee^ and is esteemed as a 
fruit. It is recommended in severe dysentery and as a warm- 
ing carminative in " cold " dyspepsia* 

NEPHELIUM LITCHI.-||;^ (Li-chih), 700, ^|| (Tati- 
li). Many of the sapindaceous plants are poisonous, but the 
Nephelmm fruits are an exception, being much esteemed both 
in the fresh and in the dry state. These grow throughout 
China, but are only found in their perfection in the southerti 
provinces ; those from Fukien being regarded as the best. The 
fruits are dried in the sun or by artificial heat, and are used 
as a sweetmeat at feasts, and often given as presents to the 
newly married. They are not regarded as entirely without 
deleterious propertieSj and when the raw fruits are partaken of 
freely they are said to produce feverishness and nosebleed. 


Partaken of in small quantities or in the dried form, they are 
thirst relieving and beneficial to nutrition. But they are 
specially recommended in all forms of gland enlargement and 
tumors. The seeds, 701, are regarded as anodyne, aud are 
prescribed in various neuralgic disorders and in orchitis. The 
leathery external tegument of the fruit is used in decoction in 
the distress caused by small-pox eruption, and also in fluxes 
from the bowels. The flowers, bark, and root, 702, are 
employed in decoction in angina and quinsy. 

NEPHEUUM LONGANA.— fl 0^ (Lung-yen). A num- 
ber of other names are given for this plant, which resembles 
the lichee^ but is smaller. On account of this inferiority it is 
called ^ ;|^ ^ (Ivi-chih-nu), "slave of the lichee." Because 
it is supposed to benefit the understanding, it is called g ^ 
(I-chih), but it must not be confounded with Aiuonnim 
amarum. The fruits are supposed to be counter-poison, 
anthelmintic, and constructive. They act specially upon 
the spleen, improve the mental faculties, and are regarded 
as generally beneficial. The seeds are used in excessive 
perspirations. The flowers, 793, and leaves, 794, are sold 
on the markets, but are not mentioned in the Pentsao. . 

NEPHELIUM Sp. — H tl (Limg-li). This grows south 
of the Meiling, and as its name implies, resembles both the 
lichee and the lungyen. It is slightly poisonous, cannot be 
eaten raw, but is cooked and used as food. If eaten in the 
raw state, it produces a sort of frenzy, and causes one to have 
hallucinations. This shows the narrow line between the 
poisonous and non-poisonous Sapindacese. 

NEPHRODIUM FILIX MAS.— According to Henry, in 
Hupeh ^ ^ ^ (Mao-kuan-chung) is the name for this viah' 
fern^ as well as for Onoclea orientalis and Woodzvardia radi- 
cans. It is not distinguished in the Pentsao from ^ ^ (Kuan- 
chung). In Shantung, according to Fauvel, this last name is 
applied to Aspidium jalcatiim ; while, according to Franchet, 
in Japan it is applied to Lomaria japonica. Several Chinese 
names are given in the Pentsao for this plant, among which 


is H. Jl ^ (Feng-wei-ts'ao), or "phoenix-tail." It is probable 
that a number of species of Aspidhitn^ as well as of other ferns, 
is included under these names. The root-stock is gathered 
twice a year, in the second and the eighth moons, and dried 
for use as medicine. Its virtues are considered to be anthel- 
mintic and corrective. It is also used in wounds and hemor- 
rhages, such as epistaxis, menorrhagia, and post-partum 
hemorrhage. It is employed in the treatment of the diseases 
of swine. Flowers are spoken of, which would indicate that 
Osmunda is sometimes confounded with this. These so-called 
flowers are employed in foul ulcers, and are said to be pur- 

NICOTIAN A TABACUM.— '^ % (Yen-ts'ao), fc -^ 
(Jen-ts'ao), ^ ]^ (Yii [Yen]-ts'ao). This is one of the evil 
gifts of the new world to the old. It seems to have been 
introduced into China about the year 1620 A.D., and prob- 
ably came by the way of Manila. The plant has no proper 
name in Chinese, being known as j^ [^ (Yen-ts*ao), "smoke 
weed," and j*^ £, ^ (Tan-pa-ku), which is variously writ- 
ten, and which is probably a transliteration of the West 
Indian tabacco. There is no evidence to show that the plant 
was known in Mongolia, as claimed by some, although the 
Mongolians are said to have smoked the leaves of Lobelia 
injiata^ as did some tribes of North American Indians. The 
plant seems to have been first introduced into Fukien, and 
this province has maintained its preeminence in producing 
the kinds which find the most favor with smokers. It is 
now grown in almost every part of the empire, and almost as 
many species and varieties are found in China as in America, 
although the Chinese do not use the care in cultivating, curing, 
preserving, and manufacturing the products as is the case in 
America and other countries where it is grown. Various 
qualities are indicated by such terms as ^ ^ (Kai-lu), g^ ^ 
(T'ou-huang), H ^ (hrh-huang), and the like. These refer to 
the time and effects of curing. Little care is taken by the 
Chinese to preserve the leaf from dampness, as it is usually 
shipped in open boats, only covered with matting, or thatched 
over with straw. Consequently it loses much of its flavoj: and 


strength, and often becomes mouldy. The prepared tobacco, 
as formerly almost universally smoked by the Chinese, was 
called ^ 1^ 'j@ (Chin-ssH-yen), and was manufactured by 
tightly packing the leaves with yellow ochre between, and 
cutting into fine threads with planes. Tobacco is considered 
by the Chinese to be antimalarial, and to increase this effect, 
arsenic is sometimes mixed with the leaves before cutting. 
The deleterious effects of tobacco are fully recognised by the 
Chinese, f^ Difi ^^ jJl (Hao-fei-sun-hsiieh), "wasting the lungs 
and injuring the blood," are the unequivocal terms in which 
they describe its evil effects. Another author uses |^ ^'(^^ (Sun- 
hsin), "injuring the heart," which certainly describes the 
effect well known to Western observers. It is also said to ^ § 
(Sun-jung), "injure the features," referring to the 
and dry skin produced in excessive smokers. In addition to its 
use as a prophylactic to malaria, its decoction or oil is used to 
destroy insects, in parasitic skin diseases, and the prepared 
tobacco is used to staunch the flow of blood in wounds in the 
same way as " fine cut" is sometimes used in the rural districts 
of America. "^M'^ (Hu-huang-lien) with tea, or the Chinese 
black sugar, are regarded as antidotes to the poison of tobacco. 

The flower stalk of the tobacco plant, 'i@ ^ (Yen-ken), is 
considered to be more poisonous than the leaves. It is said to 
be used for stupefying fish. For this purpose it is chopped 
fine and bruised together with green walnpt hulls and thrown 
into the pond, when the large fish will be stupefied by it, the 
small ones will be killed, as will also all shrimps, turtles, 
■<sl?ell-fish, and other animal life found in the pond ; and the 
author goes on to say that although it thus shows itself to be 
deadly poisonous, yet men prepare it for smoking ! The 
powdered tobacco leaf is recommended as an insufflation in 
nasal catarrh (DH t^, Nao-lou). This disease is said to be pro- 
duced in some people who smoke what is known as ^ ij!^ jtQ 
(Lan-hua-yen), which is made by adding Eupatormm seeds to 
the tobacco, in order to give it fragrance. The expressed juice 
of the fresh leaves is combined with pine resin, and the vapor 
inhaled to benefit the blood vessels in defective circulation. 
The bruised leaves are also applied in snake bite, and the 
dried leaves sometimes put into beds, or burned under the bed, 


to drive away Cmiex lectularius and his progeny. An old 
tobacco pipe stem, jtS i^. (Yeu-kan), and the deposit in its 
interior, i® if^ fttf (Yen-kan-yu), are regarded as sovereign 
remedies for the bite of venomous snakes. One that has been 
in use at least forty years is considered the best, especially if 
it was smoked by a man rather than a woman. The remedy 
is both administered internally and applied locally. It is also 
used in menorrhagia. The substance from the interior of pipe 
stems, as well as the water from a water-pipe, goes by the 
names jtS ^ (Yen-kao) and jtg f^ (Yen-yu). It it said to be 
the emanation of the five elements (water, fire, wood, metal, 
earth) developed in the process of smoking, and is therefore 
sometimes called 55. fr fj- (Wu-hsing-tan). It is used to kill 
insects, to cure parasitic skin diseases, snake and centipede 
bites, and the like. It is also sometimes secured from the 
metal tops of ordinary pipes. 

Snuff, ^ jtS (Pi-yen), was formerly quite extensively used, 
but, as in Western countries, has largely fallen into disuse. 
A few officials and wealthy people still employ it, but seem to 
do so rather to make an exhibition of their costly snufF bottles. 
The collection of these snufF bottles, which are made of jade, 
lapis lazuli, chrysoprase, and other precious stones, in many 
artistic and beautiful designs, has become a hobby with pur- 
chasers of bric-k-brac. Snuff-rubbing, as formerly practiced 
in some parts of America, does not seem to have ever gained a 
foothold in China. Foreign snuff was introduced through 
Macao, and was considered to be superior to the native product. 
This latter was composed of Angelica anovtah^ Asarum ne- 
boldly Gleditschia officinalis^ Mentha arvensis^ Baroos camphor, 
and prepared tobacco ('JtS J^,)- The water tobacco jjc i% (Shui- 
yen) comes from Lanchou in Kansu, is also called "jg ^ (Hsi- 
yii), and is highly esteemed as a tussic remedy, and also in the 
treatment of snake and scorpion bites. It is probable that 
this is Lobelia^ rather than Nicotiana^ as the leaves are likened 
to those oi Eriobotryajiaportica. 

The use of tobacco has undergpne pppsiderable change in 
China within the last few years. Formerly it was smoked in 
small quantities at a tipie, and almost universally with a water 
pipe or a long-stemmed bamboo pipe, either of which reduced 


the absorption of nicotine by the lungs to a minimum. But 
since foreigners have become so largely identified with the 
tobacco trade, the use of cigars, and especially of cigarettes, 
has not only largely driven out the former and less deleterious 
methods of consumption, but has also vastly increased the per 
capita amount of tobacco consumed. The modern Chinese 
student, clerk, or coolie is seldom seen without a *' coffin 
nail" between his lips, almost uniformly inhaling the smoke 
and blowing it out through his nostrils. If this manner of 
consumption goes on at its present increasing rate, the Chinese 
people will soon demonstrate to the world whether or not 
nicotine has any specially deleterious effects on the race. This 
will be especially true in this case, since the women use cigar- 
ettes almost as freely as the men, and youths and even small 
children of both sexes are frequent consumers. 

NITRARIA SCHOBERL— Under the title ;|;^ i^ (Kou- 
chi), Li Shih-chen describes a globular, red, edible berry, 
which he says grows in Kansu. It is certainly not Lycium^ as 
this is not edible. It seems to correspond to a plant described 
l^y Przewalski, the Nitraria schroberi of the order of Zygophyl- 
lese, the berries of which form an important article of diet to 
the Mongols and Tangus of Gobi, Ordos, and Tsaidam. The 
name of the plant in Mongolian is khai-myk. It is a crooked 
shrub, having dense foliage and small thick leaves. It blooms 
profusely in May, the flowers being small and white. These 
are followed by the fruit, which consists of small, dark-red 
berries, ripening in August and remaining on the tree until 
late in the autumn. The people collect these berries on the 
twigs when fully ripe and put them away for winter use. 
They are soaked and boiled in water to soften them, and eaten 
together with barley meal. The water in which the berries 
have been boiled is also used as a drink. Bears, wolves, foxes, 
and birds also feed on the berries. Their medicinal properties, 
if any, can scarcely be the same as those of Lycium. 

589. Henry says that in Hupeh the drug is derived from 
J^igustiaun sinense. The root is said to resemble that of 


Conioselinum. Mnivittatiim^ but is lighter and less juicy. The 
plant has small, bipinnate, entire leaves. As found in the 
shops, the roots are yellowish-brown, branched and nodulated, 
with small rootlets and portions of the stem attached to them. 
They have a sweetish and somewhat acrid flavor. Stimulant, 
antispasmodic, arthritic, deobstruant, alterative, and resolvent 
properties are attributed to the drug. It is especially recom- 
mended for women, and is also employed in congestive affections 
of the skin. It is added to cosmetic preparations, both on 
account of its good influence on the skin and of its fragrance. 
The seeds are employed in rheumatic aflfections of the extrem- 
ities as a resolvent. 

NUPHAR JAPONICUM.— f4i ^ ^ (P'ing-p'eng-ts'ao). 
This is also called 7JC Jg (Shui-su), "water millet," on account 
of the resemblance of its seeds. It grows in the southern 
provinces in marshes and ponds, the leaves resembling those 
of Lijyinanthenium nymphoides. It bears yellow flowers, and 
has a root-stock like that of the lotus, which in famine years 
is eaten. Its seeds are borne in a capsule about two inches 
long, and they resemble poppy seeds. They are also edible, 
and are made use of by the people living in the marshy country 
in which the plant grows. The flavor of the root is compared 
to that of the chestnut, and for this reason the plant is some- 
times called 7JC ^ -?■ (Shui-li-tzu). The king of Ch'u ferried 
the river and found the fruit of the ^fi (P'ing), large as a peck 
measure, red like the sun, and sweet as honey to the taste. 
This quotation from the Book of History is supposed to refer to 
this plant. The seeds are supposed to benefit the spleen and 
intestines and to satisfy hunger. The root is regarded as 
constructive and tonic, benefits the digestive organs, and in- 
creases the bodily strength. 

j^^f5" (Hung-mo-li). This is the ^^ night-blooming JastJiitie''^ 
or musk flower of Eastern India. It is called hursinghar in 
India, and is used both in China and in India as a red dye and 
as an ornament It is not distinguished in the Pentsao from 
lasmtnum sambac. 


NYMPHiEA TETRAGONA.— ^ jf (Shui-lien). This 
is spoken of in the Ptnt&ao under the article on Nnphar 
japonicuvi. Its leaves resemble those oi Limttanthemum nymph- 
oides^ but are larger. Its flowers spread above the leaves, and 
during the summer open during the day, closing at night and 
withdrawing beneath the water, to appear with daylight the 
following morning. It is not distinguished medicinally from 



OCIMUM BASIUCUM.— ^ ^ (Lo-le), ^ ^ (Hsiang- 
ts'ai), 426. The common name at Peking is ^ f§ (Ai-k'ang). 
Because it is used in the treatment of opacity of the cornea it 
is called ^ ^ ^ (I-tzu-ts'ao). The plant is found every- 
where. The P^itsao distinguishes three varieties : one resem- 
bling Perilla ocytJtoides^ and one has large leaves and is very 
fragrant, its perfume carrying to a distance of twenty paces, 
and the third can be used as a vegetable. The plant is recom- 
mended to be extensively sown in gardens to overcome the 
bad odors due to the use of fertilizers. Peptic and carminative 
properties are ascribed to it, and the decoction is used as a wash 
for ulcers. It is prescribed in vomiting, hiccough, and polypus 
of the nose. The seeds are specially prescribed in diseases of 
the eyes, are said to remove films and opacities, and to soothe 
pain and inflammation. They are also recommended for rodent 
ulcer (^ J|| ^ ^, Tsou-ma-ya-kan). The Customs Lists give 
% ^ i^ (Chiu-ts'eng-t'a) as a term for Ocimum^ but this has 
not been found in the Chinese books. 

CECCeOCLADES FAECATA.— Jt H (Feng-lan), ^ || 
(Tiao-lan). This orchidaceous plant grows suspended from 
rocks in mountain gorges of the southern provinces. It 
resembles Dendrobium^ and has been confounded with it. 
Faber calls it Angr(^cum falcatimi. It has a drooping stem 
and leaves, and the latter are flat and two or more inches in 
length. When once rolled up they do not open again. Thfe 
people place the plant in bamboo baskets and suspend these 
from the eaves of the house, where it grows and blossoms, 
drawing its nourishment from the air. It is said that if this is 
suspended in the room in which a woman is going through 
parturition, the labor will be hastened. 

CEN ANTHP: STOLONIFERA. — tIc M (Shui-chin). The 
name is commonly written 7]C '^ (Shui-ch'in). It is described 
in the Phitsao under the title ^ Hf (K'u-chin). Other names 
are j^ % (Ch'in-ts'ai), -^ % (Shui-ying), aud % ^ (Ch'u- 


k'uei). There are two kinds : the white, of which the root is 
used in medicine, and the red, of which the leaves and stem 
are eaten, either pickled or in the fresh state. This is an 
umbelliferous plant, much resembling celery. While the 
white varieties are most commonly eaten, some of the red 
kinds are considered to be non-poisonous. Caution has to be 
used, however, as in the case of the red varieties of celery, 
because these are often deleterious, resembling water hemlock. 
The properties of the drug are considered to be cooling, 
strengthening, hemostatic, and antivinous. It is prescribed 
in choleraic affections of children, urinary difficulties, colds, 
and hematuria. The seeds are recommended in plethora. 

Under the article on Ra7i2inaihis scleraltis is also men- 
tioned 7JC ^ (Shui-chin). The characters ^, g^, and ^ are 
used more or less interchangeably, and serve to confound 
CEnanthe^ Nastiirtm7n^ Aconitiini^ Rajinnaihis^ and other 
genera. However, QLuajithe is most commonly referred to 
when the character tJc is prefixed to either of the three char- 
acters. In the article to which reference is here made the 
plant is recommended to be bruised and applied to horse 
bites, snake bites, scorpion bites, and cancerous swellings. 
Administered internally, it has the reputation of causing resolu- 
tion in scrofulous swellings, curing choleraic affections, and 
the like. It is said to be emetic if taken in large quantities. 

OINTMENTS. — Aside from the very much overworked 
term ^ (Kao), the Chinese have no term for ointment as that 
is understood in the West. Foreign physicians have prefixed 
the characters ^ (Mo) or ^ (Ch'a), "to rub on," "to smear," 
in attempting to distinguish an ointment from an extract or 
plaster. A better character would be ^ (T'u), as that is the 
one universally used in Chinese medical works to indicate the 
smearing on the skin of unctuous remedies. The most com- 
mon vehicle for applying drugs to the skin is the % ffff 
(Hsiang-yu), "fragrant-oil," or sesamum-seed oil. Lard comes 
next, and it is often mixed with vegetable wax, beeswax, or 
white (insect) wax. Pomades and cosmetic applications are 
many, and are called §'3 J3g (Yen-chih). While there are few 
formulae of ointments in the Chinese books, unctuous applica- 


tions to the skin are very extensively used, although a favor- 
ite way of treating skin diseases among the Chinese is the 
medicated bath. One or two special ointments are mentioned 
among the Plasters (wliich article see). 

OLE A AQUIFOLIA.— Faber gives }^ % (Kou-ku) for 
this, but in Q,\i\\\d. Kou-ku seems to be//^ji: cormtta (which see). 

OLIBANUM.— H H ^ (Hsiin-lu-hsiang), |L # (Ju- 
hsiang). See Boswellia. 

ONOCLEA ORIENTAUS.— This is one of the ferns 
confounded under the name %^ -^ (Kuan-chung). See Nephro- 
diiim filix mas. 

OPHIOPOGON SPICATUS.— ^ P^ ^ (Mai-men-tung), 
816. Two species are described, one with large leaves, which 
is this, and the other with small leaves, which is Ophiopogon 
japonica. A large number of names are given for this plant, 
most of which refer to the similarity of its leaves to those of 
Allium odo7-um. The plant bears blue, globular berries in 
winter. The root is the part used in medicine, and as it 
appears in the drug stores, consists of shrivelled, pale yellow, 
soft, flexible tubers, from one inch to an inch and a half long, 
tapering at either end and traversed by a central thread-like 
cord. The taste is sweet and aromatic, and the smell agree- 
able. It is non-poisonous and is edible. The plant is specially 
cultivated in the province of Chekiang. The drug has some 
of the properties of squill^ for whicfh it may be used as a sub- 
stitute. It is supposed to benefit the dual principles, and is 
therefore tonic and aphrodisiac, promoting fertility. It assists 
the memory and promotes the secretion of milk. It is con- 
sidered as one of the very important remedies. 

OPUNTIA FICUS.— ttli A %. (Hsien-jen-chang). This 
"fairy palm" is the well known cactus of the plains. It is 
found in the wilds of Szechuan and Hupeh. It is prescribed, 
together with licorice, in piles and diarrhoea, and is dried, 
powdered, and mixed with oil to be applied to favus an 


ORITHIA EDULIS.— ilj M ^ (Shan-tzu-ku), ^ »1 
(Chin-teng). This plant grows iu moist places in mountain 
valleys, and resembles Sagittaria. It is valued for its flowers, 
of which there are white, red, and yellow varieties. The 
small, shrunken, horny, irregularly ovate bulbs of the plant, 
with a mass of fibrous, tangled rootlets attached to each bulb, 
are sometimes called ^ ^ (Mao-k'o). The hairy rootlets are 
detached from the bulb before the latter is used in medicine. 
Slightly deleterious properties are attributed to the drug, and 
it is used by military doctors in the treatment of strumous 
diseases, specific diseases of the blood, carbuncles, injuries, 
hydrophobia, and any disease requiring the exhibition of 
alteratives. It enters into the composition of a famous nos- 
trum prepared by the Chinese, called the "Universal Counter- 
poison" (M ^ ^ # ^» Wan-ping-chieh-tu-wan). The leaves 
are used externally as an application to buboes, abscesses, and 
diseases of the breast. The flowers are said to be eflficacious 
in urinary disorders. This is the same as Tulipa graminifolia. 

ORIXA JAPONICA.— ^ llj (Ch'ang-shan), 30. Also 
called ^ ^ (Shu-ch'i), " Szechuan varnish," If il] (Hen- 
shan), and g '^ (Hu-ts'ao). The Pentsao classifies this plant 
among the poisonous drugs (^ ^ |^, Tu-ts'ao-lei), and says 
that it comes from the provinces of Szechuan and Yunnan, and 
especially from Chentehfu in the former province, where it 
grows in the mountain ravines. It is also found in the forests 
of -the Yangtse hills. It is described as having a round, 
pointed stalk, and being not over three or four feet high, with 
opposite leaves shaped like the tea-leaf. In the second month 
appears a white flower with green carpels, and in the fifth 
month a fruit, green and round, and with three seeds in each 
receptacle. The dried leaves have a greenish-white color 
when they are fit for use, but if they turn black they are 
spoiled. The leaves are collected in the fifth or sixth month. 
One author says that the Szechuan varnish is the stalk of the 
plant, and that it is gathered in the eighth or ninth month. 
This plant is also said to be brought from "Hainan," which 
probably means Cochin-China and other places in the south. 
The only places from which it is reported as coming in 


the Customs lists of 1885 are Canton and Hankow, and the 
following record is found : ''Several plants supply drugs of 
this name, which are used as febrifuges, as Dichroa febrifuga^ 
Lour, Hydrangea sp., and an unknown herbaceous plant." 
By referring to Loureiro's list, we find a plant, the name of 
which Romanized according to the Cantonese dialect is chant 
chan (the Chinese characters are lacking), but which presum- 
ably is this same plant, and is called by him Dichroa 
febrifuga. As Loureiro's work was wholly done in Cochin- 
China, the plant he thus identifies is presumably indigenous to 
that country. Whether it is the same as the Szechuan plant 
described by the Pentsao remains to be determined. Tatarinov 
makes Ch'^ang-shan to h^ Lysiniachia^ and i ^ llj (T'u-ch'ang- 
shan) is also a Hydrangea. In addition to the leaves and 
stalk, the shoot and roots are used in medicine. The drug is 
steeped in a decoction of licorice root to correct its nauseant 
properties. The tincture, or the dessicated drug, is not 
strongly emetic, but if prepared with vinegar its emetic proper- 
ties are increased. All forms of the drug are used in fevers, 
specially those of malarial origin. There is no form of this 
latter disease for which it is not recommended. The leaves 
are used in goitre. 

OROBANCHE AMMOPHYLA. — |^ |g ^ (Jou-tsung- 
jung), 1359. Tsung-jiing is a name of several orobancaceous 
plants. Another variety, or possibly species, of the one under 
consideration, is called ^ ^ ^ (Ts'ao-tsung-jung) or ^ij ^ 
(Lieh-tang). The ancients thought that this plant sprang up 
from the semen dropped on the ground by wild stallions, 
somewhat similar to the supposed origin ,of Balenopheray 
another orobancaceous plant. The growing plant is scaly, has 
a scaly root, and both the root and stalk have the appearance 
of flesh, from which fact it receives its name. Both the plant 
and root are eaten either raw or cooked with meat. The root 
is salted, or dried in the sun, for use as medicine. It is first 
cleaned, soaked in wine, and the central fibres rejected. 
These latter are considered to be deleterious. Its virtues seem 
to be tonic in all of the wasting diseases and injuries, as well 
as aphrodisiac, promoting fertility in women and curing 


impotence in men. It is used in spermatorrhoea, menstrual 
difficulties, gonorrlioea, and all forms of difficulties of the 
genital organs. The Lieh-tang has similar virtues, but is 
specially recommended in impotence. 

ORYZA SATIVA.-fS (Tao), f§; (Thi), ff (No), f^ 
(Keng), fill (Hsien). These characters and several others 
are used in the classics and other ancient works for 7'ice. 
Originally, Tao was equivalent to No^ and was used for the 
glutinous variety, while Keng referred to the non-glutinous 
variety. At present Tao is a general term for rice and 
includes both kinds, but refers for the most part to the 
non-glutinous, while the glutinous is known only as No, 
K^ng is also written f/^ (Keng). |,^ (T'u) is a very old 
name, and is no longer in use. The common name now 
in use is /jt (^li), which refers more particularly to the hulled 
rice. In fact, every stage in the growth and preparation of 
rice gives it a distinctive name. The young shoots are called 
jf^ (Yang), that growino in the field is called |Q (Tao), the 
unhuUed rice is called ^ (Keng), the hulled rice is called -)^ 
(Mi), the hulls are called %% (K'ang), the cooked rice is called 
|g (Fan), and the rice congee is called 5f5 (Chou). The gluti- 
nous rice is described in the Pentsao under the term jfg (Tao). 
It may be used for distilling spirits (J@), for pastry (^), for 
sweet-meats (|^), for dumplings (|,:^), and as puffed-rice ^\} %. 
AH these are quite common uses of the No-mi. The dump- 
lings, under the name of f^ -f (Tsung-tzii), are made at the 
time of the Fifth Moon Feast and consumed in large quantities. 
They are also made of glutinous millet, and sometimes are 
stuffed with meat or sweet-meats. The puffed or parched rice 
is sold at all times of the year, and is largely consumed by 
children and persons of weak digestion. It also serves as a 
foundation for candy balls, which are made by sweet-meat 
makers, and which vary in size from that of a marble to balls 
a foot or more in diameter. A sticky confection is also made 
of this rice and sold by street vendors in strips or cakes. The 
rice is considered too heating as a constant article of diet, and 
it is said to produce paralytic symptoms in men, cats, dogs, 
and horses, if consumed for some time (beri-beri ?). It is consid- 


ered to be constipating, and therefore is recommended to be 
used in diarrhoeas. Cakes made of this rice and fried in camel's 
fat are used for hemorrhoids. The congee is used in fevers as 
a diuretic, and both internally and externally as a demulcent. 
The Chinese often heat the water in which the rice is to 
be scoured, and after thorough washing the water is called 
^ '^y- (Mi-kan). This is considered cooling as a drink, is 
administered in fluxes from the bowels, and used to wash foul 
sores. The rice flowers, ||| f^ :^ (No-tao-hua) are dried and 
used as a dentifrice and cosmetic. The root, ||| f^ j^ (No- 
tao-ken), 912, is not mentioned in the Pentsao. The green 
culm or stalk is recommended in biliousness, and the ash of 
the straw is used in the treatment of wounds and discharges. 
The awns (^ ,^^, Ku-ying) are also recommended in jaundice. 
The ashes of the hulls are used to clean discolored teeth. 

The non-glutinous kind is described under the title ||? 
(Keng). There are two varieties : the 7]<C ^ (Shui-mi) and the 
^u ^ (Han-mi), or the water-grown and the upland varieties. 
The former is by far the more common. The Chinese regard 
rice as the best food, and their term for the prepared article, |g 
(Fan), has about the same signification that the word "bread" 
had to English-speaking people of the time of King James ; 
that is, a term signifying food in general. Their estimate is 
very nearly correct, as rice is the one cereal which comes 
nearest having all the elements necessary to sustain life. It 
is said to benefit the breath, remove anxiety and thirst, check 
discharges, warm the viscera, harmonize the gases of the 
stomach, and cause the growth of flesh. If taken in the form 
of congee, together with Euryale ferox^ it will benefit the 
vital principle, strengthen the will, clarify the hearing, and 
brighten the eye. If one constantly eats the dry cooked rice, 
he will not have hiccough. The second water in which non- 
glutinous rice is scoured is called J|f [H \'^ (Hsi-erh-kan) and 
%. V§ (Mi-shen), and is regarded as cooling to the blood and 
diuretic. It is given in hematemesis, epistaxis, and in cases in 
which medicine has beeu taken in excessive doses. Parched 
rice broth, 'j:j; % (^ (Ch'ao-nii-t'ang), benefits the stomach and 
drives away the vicious humor produced by eating too much 
farinaceous food ; but if the element of fire is not driven out of 


tile preparation, it will produce thirst. The rust sometimes 
found growing on the ears of rice, called f H ^ ^ (Keng-ku- 
nu), is administered in acute paralysis of the fauces. The 
lixiviated ash of rice straw, ^ f^ (Ho-kan), is used as an 
antidote in arsenical poisoning. 

Another sort of rice is described under the term fjli (Hsien). 
It was brought irom Cochin-China (i5 M W) ^Y ^^^^ Fukienese, 
and is therefore called ^ |Q (Chan-tao). It is an upland rice, 
and as it ripens earlier than other varieties it is called ^ |g 
(Tsao-tao). Its qualities are the same as the ordinary rice. 
The lixiviated ash of the straw is used in nausea and to destroy 
stomach worms. The Chinese dry boiled rice in the sun and 
then grind it into flour, called ^ ^ (Mi-fen). This is used 
for making gruel to feed dry-nursed infants and invalids. 
It also makes an exceilent poultice. (For malted rice see Malt^ 
and for Congee see that article in the Addenda.) 

OSMANTHUS FRAGRANS.— 1 1^ (Yen-kuei), % ^ 
(Mu-hsi). This tree grows on cliffs ; hence the first name. It 
is spoken of in the Pentsao at the close of the article on 
cinnamon, where it is said that there are three varieties : one 
with white flowers, called ^ j^ (Yin-kuei), one with yellow 
flowers, called ^ j^ (Chin-kuei), and one with red flowers, 
called ^ j^ (Tan-kuei). There are some varieties that flower 
in the autumn, some in the spring, some each season, and some 
monthly. The bark of the tree is thin, has not the properties 
of true cinnamon, and is not used in medicine. The flowers 
are very fragrant, are employed for scenting tea and wine, and 
an oil is distilled from them, called i^ ^* f^I (Kuei-hua-yu)^ 
662. This tree is much cultivated in China for its fragrant 
flowers, which appear in great profusion in the axils of the 
leaves. These are used semi-medicinally as a flavor for other 
medicines, to disguise foul odors, as a tussic remedy, and in 
cosmetic preparations for the hair and skin. The plant is the 
same as the Olea fragrans of Thunberg. 

OSMUNDA REGALIS.— ^ (Wei). This is a Japanese 
identification, but without doubt the same term is sometimes 
applied to this fern in China. However, the plant described 


in the Phttsao under this title is a leguminous one, probably 
Vicia gigantea or Lathyj-ns maritimus. But in the same 
article the character is made to refer to j^ ^ (Mi-chiieh), which 
under the article on ^ (Chiieh), Pteris aqiiilina^ is described 
as a "flowering" fern, thus evidently referring to Osmunda. 
But it is not distinguished medicinally from Pteris. 

OXALIS CORNICULATA.— g| ff (Tso-chiang), ^ ^E 
(Suan-chiang), 1204, >]■» |^ ^ (Hsiao-suan-ts'ai). This well 
known small plant, with its ternate, sour leaves is found in all 
parts of China. Children like to eat the young fresh leaves. 
In the fourth moon it bears a small, yellow flower. It 
is confounded with Rumex japoniais. Cooling, anthelmintic, 
emmenagogue, diuretic, lithontriptic, astringent, and styptic 
qualities are referred to the plant, and the juice is held to be 
antidotal to mercurial and arsenical poisoning, as well as bene- 
ficial when applied to burns, insect and scorpion bites, and 



PACHYMA COCOS.— :gl^ ;^ (Fu-ling), 332. This is a 
fungus growth upon the roots of fir trees, and is used by- 
the Chinese both as a food and medicine. It is met with 
in the form of large tubers, having a corrugated, blackish- 
brown skin, and consisting internally of a hard, starchy sub- 
stance of a white color, but sometimes tinged with pale- 
red or brown, especially towards the outside. The tuber is 
sometimes perforated by an irregular channel lined with 
red membrane, marking its attachment to the root. The 
tubers vary in size from that of a fist to that of a peck 
measure. The smaller ones, and especially those which cling 
to the root, are called {^ jpi^ (Fu-shen). They are met with 
on the sites of old fir plantations, or actually connected with 
living fir trees. The Chinese suppose these tubers to be pro- 
duced either from the metamorphosed resin of the fir tree, or 
from the spurious vapors of the tree. They do not easily 
decay, and are said to be found unchanged after lying in 
the ground for a period of thirty years. The Chinese con- 
found them with the genuine root of the Smilax pseudo- 
China^ and the two substances are exported to India or else- 
where as China-root. The hardest and whitest is the best. 
The substance probably consists largely of pectine, and is 
free from smell or taste. A similar substance is found in 
Japan and in America, in which latter country it is called 
Indian-bread. In China it is ground up, mixed with rice 
flour, and made into small square cakes, which are sold hot 
by hawkers on the streets of most cities in the Central prov- 
inces. Medicinally, it is considered to be peptic, nutrient, 
diuretic, and quieting, especially in the nervous disorders of 
children. It is prescribed in wasting diseases. The red 
variety is specially recommended in diarrhoeas and disorders 
of the bladder, while the skin of the tuber, 333, is considered 
useful as a diuretic in dropsy. The smaller and younger 
varieties, {% %^ (Fu-shen), are considered to be superior as a 
nerve tonic and sedative to those which are older and larger. 
The portion of the root of the fir tree which is encircled by 


these growths is called fii^ Tf; (Shen-mu), and is prescribed ia 
contractions of the tendons and convulsive disorders. (See 
articles on Smilax and Fungi.) 

PAdMftfilzUS THUNBERGIANUS.--:^ (Ko), 599. 
This is a wild growing creeper, of the order of Leguminosse, 
furnishing a textile fiber of which a kind of cloth is made. 
The cloth somewhat resembles in texture that made from 
Boehmeria iiivea., and is also called grass-cloth. The Chinese 
name for this cloth is % ^ (Ko-pu) or ;^ ^ (Kung-pu), and 
it is of a yellow color, very fine and durable, and is much 
prized by the Chinese as a summer cloth. The root of the 
plant, 600, 601, is used both as food and medicine, although 
that portion which is above the ground is considered to be 
somewhat poisonous, having emetic properties. The plant is 
much cultivated both on account of its textile fiber and of its 
root. The latter is considered to be thirst-relieving, antifebrile, 
anti-emetic, and counter-poisonous. It is prescribed in colds, 
fevers, influenza, dysentery, snake and insect bites, and to 
counteract the effects of croton oil and other poisonous drugs. 
Externally, it is applied in dog bites. The seeds, '% ^ (Ko- 
ku), are prescribed in adults for dysentery and in alcoholic 
excess. The flowers are also prescribed in the latter difficulty. 
The leaves are applied in wounds as a styptic. The shoots 
are used in insuflScient secretion of milk, as an application in 
incipient boils, and in aphthous sore mouth in children. 
Every part of the plant is also used in the treatment of skin 
rashes. The root is made into an arrowroot-like preparation 
called % % (Ko-fen). 

P^DERIA FCETIDA.— ^ % (Nii-ch'ing). This plant 
is also called ^ % (Ch'iao-piao), "sparrow's calabash;" the 
latter character indicating the shape of the fruit, and the 
former its small size, which is about that of a jujube. The 
stem and leaves have an ofi'ensive odor. To the root is ascribed 
remarkable virtues in driving away the Ku poison, expelling 
foul gases, destroying evil demons, and curing ague. It is 
used in virulent epidemics, and is said to restore to life those 
who are already in articulo mortis. 


P^ONIA ALBIFIvORA.— ^- ^ (Shao-yao), 143, 11 12, 
959. Properly speaking this Chinese name is generic ; there 
being two kinds described in the Pentsao: one with white 
flowers called ^ ^ |^ (Chin-shao-yao), which is Pisonia albi- 
flora and the other with red flowers called Tfc Sj ^ (Mii-shao- 
yao), which may be Pceonia officinalis in some cases, while in 
others it is confounded with PiBonia niotctan. The plant is 
found growing wild in Anhui and Honan, as well as in Sze- 
chuan. It is also cultivated in Kiangsu for its root, which is 
used in medicine. It is a drug much prized by Chinese doctors, 
who use it as a tonic, alterative, astringent, and general remedy 
in diseases of women. As found in the shops, it is in hard, 
heavy pieces, tapering, of the size of the thumb or middle 
finger, and from four to six inches long. It is of a pinkish- 
white color on the outside, and marked with scars and tuber- 
cles, and is whitish, or brownish, and semitranslucent in the 
interior. It is said to be anodyne, diuretic, and carminative. 
It is specially recommended in the diseases of pregnancy and 
all forms of puerperal difficulty. It has also special action 
upon the spleen, liver, stomach, and intestines, and is pre- 
scribed in nosebleed, wounds, and other hemorrhages. 

P^ONIA MOUTAN.— iH::J5-(Mou-tan). This is known 
as the tree pcaony^ and is also called 'j^ 3E (Hua-wang), "the 
king of flowers," and U fg ^ (Pai-liang-chin), "a hundred 
ounces of gold." This latter name is given on account of the 
value in which the Chinese hold this exceedingly popular flower. 
It is a plant which is always discussed at length in all Chinese 
works on botany ; more than thirty varieties being described. 
By long care, the plant has been rendered suffructicose. It is 
grown in Szechuau, where it seems to have been indigenous, 
but it has been cultivated for such a long period that the wild 
variety is no longer valued. During the Han dynasty, Lo- 
yang in Honan was famous for its nioiitan flowers. The bark 
pf the root, 857, 1245, i^ ^^^ P^^^ Vi^t^ in medicine, and is met 
with in quills three or four inches long, dark brown on the 
putside, aiid of a purplish color on the inside and on the broken 
surface. It has a warm flavor and but little smell. It is pre- 
scribed in fevers, colds, nervous disorders, hemorrhages, head- 


aches, and menstrual difficulties. Its prolonged use is supposed 
to give vigor to the body and to lengthen life. The root of this 
paeony, fj* ^ (Tan-ken), 1242, and the small rootlets, jf ^ 
(Tan-hsii), 1241, are mentioned in the Customs list, but do not 
appear in the Pentsao. 

PALIURUS RAMOSISSIMUS. — & ^ (Pai-chi). This 
is a rhamnaceous shrub, found in the south of China growing 
to the height of three or four feet. The wood of its stem is 
very white, which distinguishes it from the jujube tree. It 
has rather long, straight spines, and the branches and leaves 
are more or less tomentose. The drug seems to consist of the 
spines, and for this reason they are by some said to be the 
spines of the jujube tree, and it may well be that these are 
sometimes substituted. They are prescribed in spontaneous 
pains, neuralgias, "stitch in the side," and the like. They are 
also said to increase virility in married men and to benefit the 
genito-urinary system. The ashes of the twigs, mixed with oil, 
are used to cleanse filthy hair. Here the Chinese came very 
near to making soap. The flowers are used as an application 
to discharging wounds. The fruits are said to be cooling and 
diuretic. The leaves are applied in chronic ulcer of the leg. 

PANAX GINSENG.— A # (Jen>shen), 554, jjii^ :^ (Sh8n- 
ts'ao). This, with the Chinese, is the medicine /ar exccllance ; 
the dernier ressort when all other drugs fail ; reserved for the 
use of the Emperor and his household, and conferred by 
Imperial favor upon high and useful officials whenever they 
have a serious breakdown that does not yield to ordinary 
treatment, and which threatens to put a period to their lives 
and usefulness. The principal Chinese name is derived from 
a fancied resemblance of the root to the human form, and to 
certain astral influences said to be derived from the constel- 
lation of Orion. It is related that during the reign of Wenti, 
of the Sui dynasty (581 to 601 A.D.), at Shangtang in Shensi, 
at the back of a certain person's house, was heard each night 
the imploring voice of a man, and when search was made for 
the source of this sound, at the distance of about a // there 
was seen a remarkable ginseng plant. Upon digging into the 


earth to the depth of five feet the root was secured, having 
the shape of a man, with four extremities perfect and complete; 
and it was this that had been calling out in the night with a 
man's voice. It was therefore called i |f| (T'u-ching), "spirit 
of the ground." It is said that the best ginseng formerly came 
from this Shangtang, but at present no true ginseng is 
produced in that part of Shansi ; on the contrary, the place is 
famous for its production of "bastard ginseng" from Adeno- 
piiora (which article see) and other campanulaceous plants. 
The ginseng which is considered to be the best is the wild 
growing variety of Manchuria, and the next in repute is that 
coming from Korea. The former is practically all reserved 
for Imperial use, while the ordinary qualities of the latter are 
the best that appear on the general market. Japanese and 
American ginseng are also found in quantities, but these, 
especially the latter, are considered to be much inferior to the 
Korean kind. American ginseng is considered by Western 
physicians to have no medicinal virtues worth mentioning, 
and is thought to be a superfluous member of the Pharmaco- 
poeia. But entirely apart from ideas of its astral relations, 
true Chinese ginseng is persistently held by the Chinese to 
have stimulant, tonic, and restorative properties, which give it 
its high place in their pharmacology. It is probable that the 
Manchurian drug has not been carefully studied by any Euro- 
pean observer on account of its scarcity, the Imperial mo- 
nopoly, and its exceeding high price ; this best quality being 
valued at Taels 6,400 a picul, and the superior sort costing as 
much as 250 times its weight in silver. For these reasons 
also only two or three complete herbarium specimens of the 
Manchurian wild ginseng plant are to be found in the 
museums of Europe. The ordinary ginseng of the markets 
has been studied and has not been found to possess any impor- 
tant medicinal properties. But the Chinese describe cases in 
which the sick have been practically in articulo mortis, when 
upon the administration of ginseng they were sufficiently restored 
to transact final items of business. Much of the ginseng on 
the market consists of campanulaceous roots, substituted for 
those of the araliaceous Panax. The former roots, while in a 
general way resembling those of the true ginseng, are more or 


less hard and woody, and free from worms; while the latter is 
succulent and very liable to be attacked by insects. That 
prepared for Imperial use is carefully cleansed and dried, 
wrapped in paper and sealed up to preserve it from dampness 
and worms. It is said to have an aromatic, sweet taste, with 
a spice of bitterness. It may contain, therefore, in its fresh 
state an essential oil and a small amount of alkaloidal or other 
principle. The Chinese count five kinds of ginseng, viz., the 
one under consideration, which they consider to be the true 
ginseng, acting on the spleen, which to them is the center of 
life ; the ^ ^ (Sha-shen), Adeiiophora^ which operates upon the 
lungs ; ^ ^ (Hsiian-shen), ScropJnilarin^ which acts upon the 
kidneys ; ^i ^ (Mou-meng), Polygomim bistorta^ which oper- 
ates on the liver; and ^ ^ (Tan-shen), Salvia mnltiorrhiza^ 
which acts on the heart. Each of these is described under its 
appropriate title. The true ginseng plant has five parted, palmate 
leaves, bears minute flowers in an umbellate form, and has red, 
berry-like fruits. It somewhat resembles the American Aralia 
qiiinqiiefolia^ but is not the same. In Manchuria and Korea 
it is usually found growing in the shade of trees, notably 
that of the \f^ (Kia) Tilia (?) or Paidownia (?). This tree 
and the ginseng plant are thought to have mutual sympathy, 
and whoever would find the latter must look for the tree. 
The root is dug up both in the spring and the autumn. It is 
said that in order to test for true ginseng two persons walk to- 
gether, one with a piece of the drug in his mouth and the other 
with his mouth empty. If at the end of three to five li the one 
with the ginseng in his mouth does not feel himself tired, while 
the other is out of breath, the drug is true. The Manchu- 
rian root is carefully searched for by the natives, who boast that 
the weeds of their country are the choice drugs of the Chinese. 
The drug is yellowish, semitransparent, firm, somewhat brittle, 
and has a sweet, mucilaginous taste, accompanied with a 
slight bitterness. It is usually prepared by steaming and dry- 
ing in still air, so as to make its appearance approximate the 
accepted standard of clearness. Fabulous stories, similar to 
that above given, are told of the finding of special deposits of 
this root, associated with guiding voices, stars, and other good 
omens. The drug is sometimes prepared for use as an extract, 


or as a decoction, silver vessels usually being employed for this 
purpose. Medicinally, the Chinese claim it to be "a tonic 
to the five viscera, quieting the animal spirits (H jjii^), estab- 
lishing the soul (^ 1^), allaying fear, expelling evil effluvia, 
brightening the eye, opening up the heart, benefiting the 
understanding, and if taken for some time it will invigorate the 
body and prolong life." Alterative, tonic, stimulant, carmina- 
tive, and demulcent properties are the ones principally ascribed 
to it, and it is prescribed in nearly every kind of disease of a 
severe character, with few exceptions, but with many reserva- 
tions as to the stage of the disease in which it may be 
administered with the greatest benefit and safety. All forms 
of debility, spermatorrhoea, the asthenic hemorrhages, the 
various forms of severe dyspepsia, the persistent vomiting of 
pregnant women, chronic malaria, continued fevers, exhaust- 
ing discharges, old coughs, and polyuria are treated with this 
drug in confidence of relief and cure. The leaves, ^ ^ (Shen- 
lu), are sold in bundles of the green, fragrant, excellently 
preserved foliage of the shrub. They are used as an emetic 
and expectorant remedy. 

PANAX REPENS.— i ^ (T'u-shen), 1380. This is 
given in the Customs lists as an article of commerce, but it is 
not mentioned in the P^ntsao. The Chinese term may also be 
applied to native ginseng, referring to that produced within 
China proper, as distinguished from that brought from other 
places. In Szechuan wild Panax repens is known by the 
name ^ ^C (Sau-ch'i), 1059, but in other parts of China San- 
ch^i'\s Gynura pinnaiifida, 

PANICUM CRUS CORVI, Paniann cms galll—1^ 
(Pai), % % (Wu-ho), m ^ (Shui-pai), ^ ^ (Han-pai). This 
panic grass takes the place in China of taj'cs and cheats in 
western countries. It grows plentifully in a wild state almost 
everywhere, and is found in fields of millet, wheat, and rice. 
The seed is said to be found in thrashed millet sometimes to 
the amount of three-tenths of the total bulk. The grain, 
although somewhat bitter in taste, is edible, and indeed is 
sometimes used in times of scarcity as a substitute for other 


cereals. Its use is said to benefit the breath and to act on the 
spleen. The shoots and roots are used bruised as an applica- 
tion to wounds to check hemorrhage. 

PANICUM FRUMENTACEUM.— ff -^ (Shan-tzu). It 
is not certain that this is not Elcusinc indica^ the '•'- raggi'''* 
of India. Both were found by Staunton in Shantung, the 
former cultivated and the latter wild. It is also called || ^ ^ 
(Lung-chao-su), " dragon's-claw-millet," and f||| /I^ |^ (Ya- 
chao-pai), *' duck's-claw-tare," on account of the shape of its 
head. It grows in moist ground, and somewhat resembles 
Paniann cms corvi^ having a grain like Pmiicum miliaceum^ 
but smaller. It is cultivated in Shantung and Honan. The 
grain is red, and has a rough taste when prepared as food. It 
has no particular medicinal uses, but is considered to be tonic, 
nutritious, and strengthening, preserving health and warding 
off disease. 

PANICUM MILIACEUM.— ^> (Chi) seems to be a 
general name for the species while ^ (Ch'i) seems to refer 
more properly to the non-glutinous variety. ^ (Shu) is the 
term for the glutinous variety. ^ (TzQ) is another common 
name for \\\^ panicicd viillet. This comprises two of the 31 ^ 
(Wu-ku) of Shcnnung, the others being rice, wheat and barley, 
and the soy bean. Of the six grains of the Choiili^ it also 
forms two, the others being rice, Setaria italica^ wheat, and 
Hydropyrum ,• and of the nine grains enumerated in another 
part of the C/iouh\ it again forms two, the others being Setaria 
italica glutinosa^ rice, hemp, soy bean, Phaseoliis beans, 
barley, and wheat. Both varieties have been known and 
cultivated in China from the earliest times, and are probably 
indigenous, the characters being exceedingly ancient. The 
first character refers to the necessity of careful plowing for the 
grain (^ and 7^), the second to a grain suitable for sacrifice 
(tj^ and ^), while the third is a grain for the manufacture of 
spirits by fermentation (^ \ 7JC). The fact that the Chinese 
distinguish so clearly between these two varieties of panicled 
millet has led Legge, Biot, and other translators of the classics 
to translate 1^ by ''rice," "sorghum," and other similar 


attempts at keeping the translation of this character and ^ 
distinct. At Peking the non-glutinous millet is commonly 
called ^1 ^ (Mi-tzu). This character is also written j^. ^ /i^ 
(Huang-mi) is another common name. There are several 
sub-varieties, producing red, white, yellow, and dark colored 
grains. This is considered the chief of grains, and as the 
chiefest and best should be offered in sacrifice, it is the proper 
sacrificial grain (^). If eaten exclusively it is said to predis- 
pose to the twenty-six "cold" diseases (including marasmus, 
ague, paralyses, and the like). Its use is considered strengthen- 
ing and nourishing. It is cooling, and antidotal to the 
poisoning by cinnabar or Momo7'dica charaiitia. Its action 
upon the stomach is considered to be demulcent and beneficial. 
It should be eaten with mutton. The cooked mass also makes 
an excellent poultice for boils and abscesses. The root of the 
plant is used in decoction for pyrosis and difficult labor. 

The glutinous variety (^) has also several sub-varieties. 
The red is called ^ (Men) also written ^ ; the white "g (Ch'i); 
the dark colored fg (Chii) ; and a kind said to contain two 
seeds within one glume is called f^i (P'ei). Prolonged use of 
this millet as food is said to cause fever and discomfort, to 
produce in children and animals which eat it continuously 
incoordination of voluntary motion, and to predispose to 
infection with pin worms. The former condition is probably 
due to the presence of some parasitic growth upon the grain, 
and the latter is probably a co-incidence, nematode infection 
being exceedingly common in China. Its ordinary use as food 
is considered to be nutritious and strengthening. If inciner- 
ated, mixed with oil and applied to venereal sores, they will 
heal without a scar. If chewed and the juice applied to gaping 
sores of children, it is considered to be a sovereign remedy. 
The red variety is especially recommended in coughs, fevers, 
fluxes, to restore the yin principle in males, and to prevent 
jealousy in females. The stalks and root are considered to be 
slightly deleterious. A decoction is prescribed in Momordica 
poisoning, and is used in the bath for prickly heat and skin 
eruptions. When taken with Phaseolus beans, it is diuretic. 
It is also administered in the hematuria of pregnant women, 
and in sprains it is used as a fomentation. 


PAP AVER RHCEAS.— M § :f (Li-ch'un-ts'ao). It is 
probable that J^ H A (Yii-niei-jen) is the same, but this is 
considered to be a species of Lychnis. It is also called f|I] 2^ ^' 
(Hsien-nii-liao), or "fairy artemisia. " Its habitat is said to be 
the mountain valleys south of the Huai river. The flower and 
root are used in medicine, and are prescribed for jaundice. 

PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM.— ^ ^ H (Ying-tzu-shu). 
It has a jar-shaped capsule, and seed like those of Sctaria 
viridis ; hence the Chinese name. Another name, ^^p %, (Yii- 
mi), was derived from the tact that the grain was paid as 
Imperial taxes. The plant was originally grown on account of 
its beautiful flowers, and both the young plant and the seeds 
were used for food. The poppy seed oil is also spoken of, and 
was used in medicine. The seed was employed in the treat- 
ment of nausea and vomiting, fluxes, and fever. The capsule, 
1359, was prepared by washing, removing the outer skin, dry- 
ing in the shade, slicing, and digesting in rice vinegar or 
honey. It was used in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, 
prolapse of the rectum, spermatorrhoea, old coughs, and for 
the relief of spontaneous pains everywhere. It was specially 
recommended in all kinds of fluxes. 

Opium.— pnj ^ ^^ (0-tu-jung), ppj y^ (0-p'ien), ^ ^ 
(Ya-p'ien). The poppy does not seem to have been indigenous 
to China. Evidence goes to show that it was introduced 
during the Sung period. But even then the preparation of 
opium does not seem to have been known. Li Shih-chen 
mentions its appearance just prior to his time (end of XVI 
Century), and quotes a contemporary work, which says that it 
came from 5c 3fr P (T*ien-fang-kuo) ; for this reason it is also 
called PpJ "^ (O-fang). The method of piercing the capsule 
and scraping off the inspissated juice that oozes out, as prac- 
ticed at the present time, is described in the Phttsao as the 
method introduced from ^C ")$• The author of the Appendix 
to the Pentsao^ who wrote in the Chienlung period, mentions 
the prevalence of the opium smoking habit, and describes the 
manner of preparing and smoking the drug. He speaks of 
the opium dens, and says that after one has smoked a few 
times the habit becomes established. As a result of this there 


is physical and moral deterioration, insomnia develops, sexual 
degeneracy supervenes, and there is lack of moral control. 
The drug is here said to have been brought from p^ 5$i] P£ -^ 
(Ko-la-pa-hai), "Arabian sea" (?), and was said to be produced 
in ^ Bg PE (Chiao-liu-pa) and g ^ (Lii-sung), the Philip- 
pines. Although it was a prohibited article of commerce, 
there were those who insisted upon having it, claiming that it 
increased strength and promoted sleep. As a consequence, con- 
sumption was then on the increase. Some had smoked to the 
extent that they had ^^^ $!( (P'o-chia-shang-shen), " broken 
up the home and destroyed the body." The confirmed opium 
smoker is described as black-faced, weak-voiced, watery-eyed, 
with prolapse of the bowels, and prospect of an early death. 

The Chinese names at the head of this article are all 
intended to imitate the Arabian name, ajioiim^ or the Persian 
ajioun. It is said that the resemblance of the flower of 
the poppy to that of the Hibiscus^ '^-^ ^ (Fu-jnng), gives 
cause for the use of these two characters in transliterating. 
The drug seems to have first come from Arabia or Persia, 
probably at the beginning by overland route through India. 
The extension of its use seems to have been more or less 
gradual. In the Ming dynasty it came into general use in 
medicine. It was then given as an astringent and sedative in 
dysentery, diarrhoea, rheumatism, catarrh, coughs, leucorrhcea, 
dysmenorrhcea, and spematorrhoea, but generally in combina- 
tion with other drugs. At the present time this practice has 
largely ceased, and the drug is branded with all the infamy 
and illegality which belong to the habits of opium-smoking 
and opium-eating. From the researches of Mr. Hobson, made 
in the sixth decade of the last century, it appears that opium 
was a recognized product of the prefecture of Yungchang, in 
the west of the province of Yunnan, in the year 1736, the 
beginning of the reign of Chienlung. Growing the poppy for 
the proditction of opium in the central provinces did not take 
place until about the middle of the XIX Century, and the 
popular story in Szechuan is that it was introduced there from 
India and Thibet towards the end of Chienlung's reign (say 
about 1780). Fully one-half of the best arable land in Sze- 
chuan is believed by ]\Ir. Hobson to have been given up 


to the bearing of an annual crop of poppy. And he found 
that probably seven-tenths of the dwellers in towns in 
Szechuan were habitual opium-smokers, and that more than 
one-half of the country-people had fallen victims to this 
seductive and injurious habit. 

Foreign opium has a number of names, the principal of 
which are ^ tg (Kung-yen), ^ ^ (Kung-kao), ^ j; (Kung- 
t'u) or ^ jfiE i (Kung-pan-t'u), from the Chinese name for the 
East India Company, ^ Ijtt (^ (Kung-pan-ya). These terms are 
also used for Patna opium and for the "first-class" quality. 
Another name for Patna opium is ^^ j;^ (Ta-t'u), while the 
Malwa is known as >J^ i (Hsiao-t'u). jt0 ± (Yen-t'u), '^ ± 
(Yang-t'u), and ^ j; (Kuang-t'u), "Canton-earth," are com- 
mon names for opium, while M ^ (Hei-t'u), "black-earth," is 
a slang term for it. The commonest colloquial-term of all, 
however, is -{^ jiQ (Yang-yen), "foreign-smoke." The foreign 
drug is still considered the best, and is not noticeably replaced 
by tiie native article, although this latter is considerably cheaper 
than the other. The increase in the opium trade is explained 
by the wider prevalence of the habit and the ever increasing 
consumption on the part of each indivdual smoker. Hence, 
although there has been a greatly increased production of the 
native drug, there has also been a substantial increase in the 
foreign importations. In the light of this increased consump- 
tion, it is small wonder that the Chinese government and people 
are anxious to prohibit the production of the native drug and 
to get rid of the traffic in the foreign article. The Szechuan 
opium is called Jl[ j^ (Ch'uan-t'u), and in favorable years can 
be produced at about half the cost of the Indian drug. It is 
made to imitate Malwa opium, and Dr. R. A. Jamieson found 
it to contain 6.94 per cent, of morphia. It is sometimes 
adulterated with mud, sesamum and hemp seeds, and an 
extract from the fruit of SopJiora japonica^ but it is probably 
not tampered with more than is the foreign drug. More extract 
for smoking is said to be got from Szechuan opium than from 
the Indian product. Yunnan opium, and that from Kiieichou, 
are called ]^ j^ (Nan-t'u), while that from Kansu, Shensi, and 
Shansi is called "g" j: (Hsi-t'n). These all represent a good 
quality of the native drug. According to Baron Richtofen, a 


large quantity of opium, some of it of a very inferior kind, is 
produced in Honan province, and is, for the most part, consumed 
locally. Other provinces, including Manchuria, have produced 
smaller quantities of the drug. In fact, no part of tlie empire 
has been entirely free from the scourge of its growth. 

The prepared drug is called jtS ^ (Yen-kao) or ^ 'Jtg (Shu- 
yen), and is prepared on a large scale by mixing the ashes from 
opium-pipes with the raw opium, which facilitates the making 
of the watery infusion. This is further filtered and evaporated 
to the consistence of a thin extract, which is combustible in 
the opium-pipe when held in the flame of a small lamp. 
Water dissolves from one-half to three-fourths of ordinary 
opium, but nothing is lost by the Chinese practised manipu- 
lator. The extract is usually made by the keepers of the 
opium-joints, but rich people and Buddhist priests usually 
make their own extract. The burning of this extract in an 
incomplete manner, as is practiced by the Chinese, yields a 
smoke containing sundry empyreumatic compounds unknown 
to the chemist, but producing by absorption into the pulmon- 
ary vessels a stimulant, or some perfectly indescribable effect, 
unknown to all but the actual smoker. Of the effects of this 
habit one has heard all but too much. The positive necessity of 
improving, or increasing the quantity of, the extract used, leads 
to the loss of the volitional, digestive, and sexual powers, or in 
other words, to the gradual degradation of the man. That the 
habit may be suddenly and permanently broken ofif is a fact of 
frequent experience. But the failures are far more frequent 
than the cures, from the fact that it requires great will power 
on the part of a weakened and enslaved will. The use of tonics 
and stimulants, under careful supervision, combined with the 
provision of good food for body and mind, with restraint and 
disciplinary measures in certain cases, will greatly aid in curing 
the habit. The substitution of decreasing doses of morphia 
may also be practiced, but should only be done under the 
supervision of a competent and conscientious physician or 
dispenser, lest a morphia-eating habit be substituted for that of 
opium-smoking. The indiscriminate sale or distribution of 
anti-opium pills, most of which contain morphia, is reprehen- 
sible, not to use a more severe term. 


PARDANTHUS CHINENSIS.— |j- ^ (She-kan), 1120. 
Other names for this are Be/amcanda chinensis^ Ixia chviensis^ 
and MorcBa chinensis. It is one of the Iridaceae. and is erown 
in gardens. It resembles Iris tectorum in its leaves, grows 
two to three feet high, has orange flowers, and black, berr\-like 
fruits. It has a number of other names ; a common one being 
^ fj- (P'ien-chu). It grows wild in the Peking mountains, 
but the wild variety bears white flowers {PardantJiiis dicho- 
ionms). The rhizomes are used in medicine, and as found in 
the shops they are very hard, bristled with rootlets, and of a 
chrome-yellow in the interior. The taste is acid in the fresh 
state, and the drug is considered by the Chinese to be delete- 
rious. It is described as having expectorant, deobstruent, 
carminative, and diuretic properties, and seems to have some 
special popularity in diseases of the throat. It is prescribed 
in amenorrhoea, malaria, dropsy, cancer of the breast, arrow 
poison, and a number of dissimilar difl&culties. 

PARIS POLYPHYLLA.— ^ {jfi (Tsao-hsiu). This plant 
has a solitary stem, bearing at the top two or three whorls of 
7 or 8 leaves each, with yellow and purple flowers. The leaves 
are of a reddish-yellow color, and run out into gold-colored, 
drooping filaments. The fruit is red, and the root has a 
purplish-red skin and white flesh. The plant is likened to 
Euphorbia sieboldiana^ and is somewhat confounded with it. 
The root is bitter and poisonous. It is prescribed in nervous 
aflfections, epilepsy, chorea, mania, puerperal eclampsia, and 
ague. It is also a counter poison against snake, insect, and 
rat bites. It is administered in the form of an aqueous extract. 

PARIS QUADRIFOUA.— I ^, (Wang-sun). This grows 
in the river valleys of Kiangsu. In is similar to the last, but 
the whorls have only four leaves. The root resembles that 
of Nehimbiiim speciostim^ and is bitter, but not poisonous. It 
is prescribed in rheumatism, and is considered as a sort of 
general prophylactic and preservative of life and black hair. 

PARMELIA Sp.— ;j5 g (Shih-erh), 1146. Faber is 
authority for the identification of this gymnocarpous lichen. 
Another observer calls it Leptogitun fuliginosiun. The plant 


is not described in the books, and without observation in its 
habitat nothino^ more definite can be said. For its medical 
uses, see the article on Muslwooms. 

PATRINIA SCABIOS.EFOLIA.— lit ^ (Pai-chiang.) 
Faber also gives ^ ^ (K'u-chih), but this term is also applied 
to Physatis cDigulata and to SopJiora Jiavcsccns. The root of 
the plant smells like spoiled soy, hence the Chinese name. 
The plant is quite common, and is sometimes called ^ ^ 
(K'u-t'u), because the aborigines eat it. In the spring, when 
the plant first comes up, the leaves lie on the ground. They 
appear four in a whorl. The stem attains to the height of two 
or three feet, and is jointed. The white flowers appear on the 
top of the stem in an umbel. The root is the part used in 
medicine, and its properties are considered to be counter 
poison, resolvent, anodyne, and astringent. It is prescribed 
in abscesses, post-partum pain and other puerperal difficulties, 
various poisions, and parasitic skin diseases. 

PAULOWNIA IMPERIALIS.— tisl (T'ung). This is also 
known as ^ \^ (Pai-t'ung), ^ Wi (Huang-t'ung), J^ ^ (P'ao- 
t'ung), II tisl (I-t'ungj, and :^ ^ (Jung-t'ung). Li Shih-chen 
gives the following description of the tree : "It has very large 
leaves, of various shapes. The bark is of a dirty white color, 
and the wood is light and not attacked by insects. It is used 
in making various utensils, and is also very good for posts and 
beams in building houses. It bears flowers in the second 
month, resembling those of Ipomoea hcderacea^ of a white or 
purple color. The fruit is more than an inch long and as 
large as a jujube. Within the capsule are the seeds, which 
are light, flattened, and winged like the seeds of the elm tree. 
When ripe, the capsule bursts, and the seeds are carried away 
by the wind." The leaves are used in decoction as a wash 
for foul sores, and to promote the growth of the hair and to 
restore its color. The wood and bark are used as an astringent 
and vermicide, in ulcers, in falling of the hair, and are admin- 
istered in the delirium of typhoid fever. The flowers are 
considered to be a good remedy for skin diseases of swine, and 
if fed to these animals will fatten them three-fold. They are 


also given to those who are suffering from hallucinations, which 
would indicate that the fattening of the pigs could not be a 
hallucination ! 

hao) ; properly ^ ^ 7^" (Ma-shih-hao), because the herbage 
has the odor of horse excrement. It bears a reddish tinted, 
white flower. The herbage is gathered in the second and 
eighth moons and dried for medicine. It is used in fevers, 
rheumatism, leucorrhoea, sterility, urinary difficulties, and in 
decoction as a wash to foul sores. This plant is confounded 
with Ayic}}iisia japoiiica and Incarvillca sinensis. 

(Lin-hao), f^ '% (0-hao). This is a Japanese identification, 
and somewhat uncertain as to the Chinese plant. It grows in 
swampy places, and can be eaten raw or cooked. It is fragrant. 
Its properties are considered to be resolvent and carminative. 

PERILLA OCIMOIDES.— ^ jf (Tzu-su), 1417. Li 
Shih-chen distinguishes two varieties of this plant, the purple 
and the white, g |^ (Pai-su), according to the color of the 
leaves. The young leaves are eaten as a vegetable, also 
pickled with plums. They are used to prepare a fragrant 
beverage. The seeds, 1202, grow in capsules, and are about 
as large as mustard seeds, and an oil is expressed from them 
called ^ -^ fft (Su-tzii-yu). The seeds are also fed to ducks 
under the name of ;^ ^ (Kuei-jen). The stalk and the leaves, 
1203, are used for driving away colds, as a stomachic and 
tonic, in cholera, and to benefit the alimentary canal. They 
are considered to be diaphoretic and pectoral, and antidotal to 
fish and flesh poison. The seeds have similar properties and 
uses, and are also thought to be highly nutritious. They are 
also prescribed in rheumatism, seminal losses, asthma, and 
obstinate coughs. 

PERSE A NANMU.— fi (Nan). The character is more 
commonly written \^. This is a large tree found in the 
province of Szechuan, and furnishes the highly esteemed 
nanniu^ a tough wood which does not easily rot, and which 


for this reason is much used for buildings and furniture. The 
tree has reddish-yellow flowers, and a fruit resembling cloves, 
green in color, but which is not edible. The tree grows to the 
height of more than a hundred feet, and the wood is red in 
color in the best varieties. The white wood is more brittle 
than the red. The root is called ^ ^ |"^ (T'ou-pai-nan), and 
is used for making utensils. The twigs of the tree are used in 
decoction for the treatment of choleraic difficulties, and as a 
fomentation in sprains and swellings. The bark is similarly 
used, as well as in infants that vomit up their milk. 

1364. Faber also gives 'fjlf ^ (Ch'ien-hu), but this is Angelica 
refracta (which see). The Chinese name is derived from the 
belief that the plant is not moved by the wind, but that it is 
self-moving when there is no wind. For this reason it is 
also called Jg ^ ]^ (Tu-yao-ts'ao). Another name is ^ fg 
(Ch'iang-huo), 81, but this is said to indicate another species 
or variety. As this latter name indicates, the plant is found 
in Thibet, Kokonor, Kansu, and now in Szechuan ; that from 
the latter place being more distinctively known as Tji-huo. 
There is a difference in the appearance of the drug between 
these two kinds, the Tu-huo coming in long, twisted pieces, 
deeply marked both lengthwise and crosswise with ribs or strise, 
with portions of the crowning leaves of the root-stock sometimes 
still attached. The exterior surface is of a dark or yellowish 
brown color, and the interior is open in texture and is of a 
dirty-white. The ChHang-huo is much darker in color, and is 
marked off into short internodes of nearly three quarters of an 
inch in length, by rings or ridges of tissue which indicate 
joints. This is less apparent in some samples, which are 
probably mixed. The interior, yellow, woody tissue is very 
brittle, and loosely arranged in wedge-shaped masses, a thick- 
ness of red cortical fibers intervening between the vascular 
bundles and the epidermis. Both drugs are similarly prescribed 
as stimulant, arthritic, antispasmodic, and derivative remedies. 
They are administered in catarrh, colds, rheumatism, apoplexy, 
leprosy, post-partum difficulties, dropsy of pregnancy and other 
dropsies, and in headache. 



PEUCEDANUM JAPONICUM.— jSjJ ^ (Fang-k'uei). 
The root and leaves are like those of Malva, and tlie flowers, 
seeds, and the odor and taste of the root are like ^ |^ (Fang- 
feng) (see the next article), hence the name. The plant has 
palmately three-divided leaves, and an umbelliferons flower 
head with white flowers. The drug, which is the root, easily 
decays. It is tested in water ; if it sinks it is good, but if it 
floats it is decayed. Most observers regard the root as non- 
poisonous, but by some it is considered to be slightly delete- 
rious. Its properties are represented as eliminative, diuretic, 
tussic, nerve sedative, and if taken for some time is thought to 
benefit the marrow, increase the vitality, and give activity to 
the body. It is prescribed in constipation, suppression of 
urine, various mental and epileptoid affections, delirium and 
hallucinations, nocturnal polyuria, malaria, and typhoid fever. 

PEUCEDANUM RIGIDUM, Pencedamun terebintha- 
ceuni. — ^ ^ (Fang-feng), 292. At Peking this Chinese name 
is sometimes applied to the former species, and in the mount- 
ains of Hnpeh it represents the latter. But it properly refers 
to Slier divaricatiini (which see). 

PHARBITIS HEDERACEA.— See Ipomcea hederacea. 

PHASEOLUS MUNGO.— i^ 1; (Lu-tou). Vicia saliva 
is known by this Chinese name in Hupeh. This is a small 
bunch-bean, the stalk growing to the height of a foot or more, 
and having small, roundish, hairy leaves. It is grown exten- 
sively for food, the bean being made into a congee, or only 
cooked soft. It is also ground into a meal and used as a 
porridge or pancake, and it is used for distilling into spirit. 
It is also sprouted and the sprouts used as food. The beans 
are largely fed to horses and cattle. Prolonged use of these 
beans as food is thought to produce billiousness. The bean is 
recommended to be used together with its tegmen, and is 
considered to be a resolvent, carminative, antifebrile, and 
counter-poisonous remedy. It is prescribed in the sequelae to 
smallpox, obstinate dysentery, bladder difficulties in the aged, 
and all sorts of poisons. The bean meal, 778, is similarly 


used, and is highly esteemed as a poultice in boils and abscesses. 
It is also regarded as an antivinous remedy. The tegmen, 
781, alone is considered as an antifebrile, and is used in opacity 
of the cornea. The pods are used in obstinate dysentery, the 
flowers to counteract the effects of wine, the sprouts are con- 
sidered to be countervinous and antifebrile, and the leaves are 
steeped in vinegar and used in cholera. 

PHASEOLUS RADIATUS.— ^, >J. ^ (Ch'ih-hsiao-tou), 
14I) 5^1 Ja. (Hung-tou). The leaves are called ^ (Huo). On 
account of the second name, the Chinese sometimes confound 
Abrits prccatorins with this, and Tatarinov and other western 
botanists have fallen into the same error. This bean is largely 
cultivated north of the Yangtse. The plant, in its character 
and growth, is very similar to Phaseoliis nmngo^ of which it is 
sometimes considered to be a variety. It is considered to be 
good food for donkeys, but is too heavy and heating for 
mankind. Medicinally, it drives away dropsy and scatters 
carcinomatous and purulent swellings. Otherwise, its proper- 
ties are similar to those of Phascolus vmngo^ and it is prescribed 
in even a larger number of similar difficulties than is this latter. 
Threatened abortion, menstruation during pregnancy, diffi- 
cult labor, retained placenta, post-partum troubles, and non- 
secretion of milk constitute a series of obstetrical difficulties for 
which its use is recommended. The leaves are recommended 
in fever and urinary difficulties, and the sprouts in threatened 
abortion whether from an abortive tendency or from injury. 

^ H (Huang-po). This last is also wrongly written |^ || 
(Huang-po), 518. Loureiro calls this Pterocarpiis fiavus., 
and F'aber calls it Pterocarpiis indiciis. But Henry has shown 
the identification at the head of this article to be the correct 
one. The root is said to be called ;j;^ ^ (T'an-huan), and it is 
covered with nodular masses resembling Pachyma cocos^ which 
are probably fungoid. The tree grows to the height of thirty 
or forty feet, having a whitish outer bark and an inner yellow 
one. The latter is used in dyeing silk yellow, as well as iu 
medicine. The drug, as it appears in the market, is in square 


or rectangular pieces, from three to five inches long, rough on 
the outer surface, and smooth, or striated longitudinally, on 
the inner surface. The interior is of a deep yellow color, and 
the taste is very bitter. It varies a good deal in thickness, 
that from Hupeh province being the thinnest. It is regarded 
as tonic, diuretic, alterative, aphrodisiac, and antirheumatic. 
It is prescribed in jaundice, hemorrhoids, fluxes, menstrual 
difficulties, chancre, sexual incompetence, intestinal worms, 
nosebleed, dysuria, and favus. This list only includes types 
of difficulties for which it is prescribed. To see the complete 
list as given in the Chinese books, one would be led to think 
that it was a universal panacea. The root is said to be taken 
for medicinal uses only when one hundred years old. The 
therapeutic virtues ascribed to it seem to depend upon some 
mysterious power connected with age and geomantic aspect. 
It is said to relieve the hundred diseases of the heart and 
abdomen, to quiet the soul, to relieve hunger and thirst, and if 
taken for a long time to prolong life and permeate the spirit. 

PHOTINIA GLABRA.— ^^ :^ ^ (Ts'u-lin-tzu). This 
evergreen tree, with its luxuriant foliage, is said to grow on 
the hills of Szechuan. It bears white flowers in early summer, 
and in the winter becomes covered with bunches of red berries, 
much resembling cherries in appearance. These are dried in the 
shade, or are pickled by the natives for food. The leaves are 
sour in taste, and are pickled and eaten with fish. The fruits 
are recommended in obstinate dysentery, piles, intestinal worms, 
and jaundice. The pickled fruits are said to be appetizing and 
peptic, but if taken in excess will make the mouth and tono-ue 
rough and crack open. 

PHRAGMITES COMMUNIS.—^ (Lu), ^ (Wei), ^ 
(Chia), also known as Arinido phragmites and Phraginites 
roxburghii. The flowers are called ^ ^ (P'eng-nung), and 
the shoot ^ (Ch'iian). Of the names given at the beginning 
of this article the third is said to indicate the young plant, and 
is explained by ^ H "excellent ;" the first refers to the stage 
before blooming, and is explained by ^, "black," denoting 
its color; the second refers to the reed when it is fully grown, 


and is explained by •^ "strong, fine-looking," This plant, next 
to the bamboo, is one of the most nsefnl plants in China. 
Indeed, north of the Yangtse it in a large measure takes the 
place occupied by the bamboo in the southern provinces. The 
shoots are eaten like bamboo shoots ; the stalks are used for 
building the hovels of the poor, for wattled fences, for mats, 
screens, and blinds, and as the principal kitchen fuel of the 
Yangtse, under which circumstances it is known as ^ ^ (Xn- 
ch'ai); the large, long leaves are used as wrappings for the 
glutinous rice dumplings so largely consumed at the Fifth 
Moon Feast, and the broken leaves and autumnal sweepings 
are used for bedding ; and lastly, these leaves and tops, when 
boiled in water and the water afterwards evaporated, yield a 
dark, glutinous, sweet substance, used as a substitute for sugar. 
The whole plant is used as fodder for cattle, and the stalk, 
roots, leaves, tops, old house and fence wattles, broken screens 
and blinds, and the rakings of the reed fields and cattle yards, 
are all added to the pile of kitchen fuel. The portion of the 
root growing in the mud is also in times of scarcity used as 
food ; that above the ground being bitter and unpalatable. The 
plant grows in river valleys at flood water, and in marshes. It 
is almost the only thing one sees sailing up the lower Yangtse 
in August. Medicinally, the root, 768, is regarded as cooling 
and diuretic. It is administered in nausea and vomiting, 
"internal" fevers including typhoid fever, hiccough, and 
fluxes. The shoot is slightly bitter, and is considered cooling 
and counter poison, and is highly recommended for choleraic 
difficulties and various kinds of flesh and medicinal poisons. 
The stalks and leaves are used in cholera and fetid bronchitis, 
and the ash is applied to foul sores, unhealthy granulations, 
and the like. The use of the plant which grows in the waters 
of the Yangtse by married couples is supposed to conduce to 
harmony in their sexual relations. The flowers are made into 
a strong decoction in water, and administered as a very effica- 
cious remedy in cholera, fish and shrimp poisoning, and the 
ashes are used for checking hemorrhage. 

PHYLLANTHUS URINARIA.—^ 3^ i^ (Chen-chu- 
ts'ao), 37. See LyswiacJiia eleutheroides^ also Spoiidias amara. 


PHYLLOSTACHYS.— ^ ft (Tzii-chu), i^ ft (Shui- 
chu). See Bavibitsa. 

PHYSALIS AIvKEKENGL— |$^(Snaii-chiang). This 
is a common plant, its habitat being the provinces of Hukiiang; 
but it is also grown in fields and gardens in other parts of the 
empire. The plant resembles Solanum 7iigrum^ bears small 
white flowers, and a reddish-yellow, cherry-like fruit, enclosed 
in an inflated calyx. On account of this bladder-like calyx, the 
plant is called '^ || :^ (Teng-leng-ts'ao), "lantern plant". 
The fruit is edible, bat does not have much taste. The seeds 
are sour and the shoot is bitter. A smaller kind is called ^ Ij^ 
(K'u-chih). This is Physalis angiilata. The shoot, leaves, 
stalk, and root are used in medicine, and are considered to be 
antifebrile, diuretic, and expectorant. They are prescribed in 
a number of feverish conditions, especially those of children. 
The seeds are also used, and besides the properties ascribed to 
the other parts, they are said to promote easy labor, and to 
specially benefit children. 

PHYTOLACCA ACINOSA.— •^- ^ (Shaug-lu), iiii. 
This term also evidently includes Phytolacca dccandra. Two 
kinds are described ; one with white flowers and a white root 
which is edible when cooked, and the other with reddish- 
purple flowers and a purple root which is poisonous. The 
former is cultivated in some parts of the empire for food. The 
toxic action of the drug is said to manifest itself in bloody 
stools and hallucinations. It is prescribed in dropsy and as a 
counter-poison, especially in abdominal parasites. Externally 
it is used in foul sores of all kinds. The flowers, called ^ f^ 
(Ch'ang-hua), are prescribed in apoplexy. 

PICRIS REPENS.— j^ ^- ii (Hu-huang-lien). See 
Barkhaiisia repens. 

PIERIS OVALIFOLIA.— f,i % (Li-mu). No description 
is given of this tree, except that its wood is veined in dark 
green, from which fact it receives its name. A tincture (of 


what part is not nieiitioued) is recommeuded in wasting, and 
is said to benefit the male principle and to act as a tonic to the 
loins and legs. 

PILEA. — yfC ^ (Shui-ying). There is not much descrip- 
tion of this plant, and it is confounded with QliiantJie stolojiifcra. 
It grows in Szechuan, and is there used for the treatment of the 
form of rheumatism known as >^ JU, (Ku-feng). 

PILLS. — This is a favorite method of exhibiting drugs 
among the Chinese. But the remarkable diflference between 
the Ciiinese and western practice in the use of these, is that the 
former never use this form of preparation for the exhibition of 
cathartics. iV pill with the Chinese usually means a tonic or 
astringent rem,edy. The general term for these is '^ (Wan), 
although ^ (Tan) nearly always refers to a similar preparation, 
while '% (Kao) frequently refers to a pill-mass, rather than to a 
medicinal extract. In regard to the character ^ (Tan), it refers 
to what is considered to be an efficacious drug compound, 
usually exhibited in the form of pill or pill mass, and almost 
seems sometimes to have been miswritten for %^ (Wan). Pills 
are usually made up with honey as an excipient, but if they 
are to be eaten fresh, they are prepared with rice-flour or 
wheat-flour paste. Those which are not desired to dissolve at 
once in the stomach are usually made small and coated with 
wax, Pills are made of all sizes, from that of a millet seed to 
that of a pigeon's ^^^^ and are most frequently not swallowed 
whole, but are chewed up in the mouth and swallowed with 
some approved decoction, with spirits, or with meat broth. 
This explains why patients in mission hospitals are sometimes 
seen to chew up the sugar or gelatine coated pills given them 
by the dispenser. Sometimes the pill mass is not made up 
into pills or bolu^s, but the patient simply helps himself to a 
piece as large as he likes, and eats it as he would confec- 
tionery. There is a very large number of formulae extant, 
and we give below the most famous of these. 

Accumidation Pill; ^ >^ ;^ (Chiao-chia-wan). Atractylis 
sinensis, Zanthoxylum, Psoralea coryli folia, Phellodendron amu- 
rense, fennel, and honey. This causes water to ascend and fire to 


descend in the bod}', and therefore is a good remedy in almost 
any disease. 

Anti-dysentery Pills ; ^ ^\ ^ % % (Chih-li-hsiang-lien- 
wan). Aristolochia recurvilabra, Coptis teeta, and honey. 

Aphrodisiac Pills ; ^ ]^ :f5* (Chiao-kan-tan). Cyperus 
rotundus, Pachynia cocos (the kind that encircles the root), and 
honey. For impotence in middle age, and to prolong virility 
into old age (fifty -one to eighty). Another formula is as follows : 
Atractxlis sinensis, Zanthoxylum, fennel, and paste. Tonic 
and strengthening to the virile powers, producing fertility. 

Apricot-gold Pills; '^ ^ ^ (Hsing-chin-tan). The for- 
mula of this pill reminds one of those of the old alchemists. 
It is made entirely of the kernels of apricot seeds, but there is 
a long process of preparation, extending to the selection during 
the winter of a tree having auspicious surroundings, the use 
of geoniantic influences, the combination of the various ele- 
ments, water, fire, earth, and frost, the collection of the 
kernels, giving preference to those seeds containing double 
kernels, the use of south-flowing water for the digestion of the 
kernels, followed by a process of fermentation, decoction, and 
mixing with the pulp of dates to form the pill-mass. It is said 
that Chaos i^^. ^) took these pills and for long ages did not 
die. Hsia-chi (^ ^[ij) took them and attained to the age of 
seven hundred years, and afterwards became an immortal. 
"The people of the world will not believe this, but their 
unbelief is due to their unwillingness to purify their hearts." 

Atractylis Pills; ^ yft; \ (Tsang-shu-wan). These consist 
of Atractylis sinensis and black sesamum seeds. The former is 
prepared in a special manner, mixed with the latter and made 
into pills with flour-paste. For rheumatism and malaria. 
There is another formula, into the composition of which 
Atractylis sinensis, Zanthoxylum, fennel, Psoralea corylifolia, 
and Ipomoea hederacea enter. These are said to give strength 
to the eyesight. 

Asnre-excellent Pills ; ^ ^ ^ (Ch'ing-6-wan). These 
are composed of Psoralea corylifolia, walnuts, and licorice, and 
are regarded as tonic, reconstructive, and diuretic. 

Barkhausia Closijig-passages Pills; ^ ^ ^ ^ % (Huang- 
lien-pi-kuan-wan). Barkhausia repens, pangolin scales, Ca.ssia 


occidentalis, piS Jjfil ^ (T'niior-hsiieh-lisiang), and flowers of 
Sophora japonica. These are for the cure of excebsive dis- 
charges of all kinds. 

Beating Age Pills ; :^J ^ ^ ;/{, (Ta-lao-erh-wan). Cotton 
seeds, walnut kernels, and congee paste. Said to be preserva- 
tive and rejuvenating. 

Blac/c and White Pills ; M ^ ;jlL (Hei-pai-wan). Volunteer 
(wild) black beans and white Tribulus terrestris. Peptic and 

Cannabis Kernel Pills ; |^ -^ fc j^ (Ma-tzU-jen-wan). 
Kernels of Cannabis seeds, Pseonia albiflora, Magnolia hypo- 
leuca, rhubarb, Citrus fusca, apricot kernels, and honey. Used 
in constipation and profuse urination. 

Checking Ague Pills ; ^ % % (Chieh-nio-wan). There 
are a number of formulse for these, the principal ingredient in 
all, and the only active one in some, being Orixa japonica. 
For ague in all stages. 

Cinnabar Five Odor Pills ; ^^^ %^ % (Ch 'en-sha-wu- 
hsiang-wan). These are made of cinnabar from Chenchou in 
Hunan, dragon's blood, olibanum, myrrh, Corydalis ambigua, 
Huachou orange flowers, and honey. They are carminative, 
anti-spasmodic, and anti-emetic. 

Citrus- Atractylis Pills ; |a -^ \ (Chih-shu-wan). Citrus 
fusca, Atractylis ovata, Pterocarpus indicus, and honey. 
Peptic and digestive. 

Controlling Saliva Pills ; ^ }^ j^ (K'ung-hsien-tan). 
Euphorbia pekinensis, Euphorbia sieboldiana, white mustard 
seed, ginger juice, and paste. These check phlegm and 
salivation, and relieve rheumatic and sciatic pains. 

Cotton Seed Pills ; % T^ ^ X (Mien-hua-tzu-wan). Cot- 
ton seed, Eucommia ulmoides, ginger juice, Lycium sinense, 
Cuscuta chinensis, and honey. Tonic and constructive. 

Cutting-away Pills; j^ || ;^ (K'an-li-wan). Atractylis 
ovata, Zanthoxylum, Psoralea corylifolia, Schizandra sinensis, 
Conioselinum univittatum, Pterocarpus indicus, and honey. 
Considered to be peptic, digestive, and antirheumatic. 

Date a7id Ghiseng Pills ; ^ ^ % (Tsao-shen-wan). 
These are made of large southern dates and ginseng. They 
are strengthening to the respiratory organs. 


DiagJiostic Pills ; ^ '^ \ (Fen-ch'ing-wan). Euryale 
ferox, Pacliyma cocos, yellow wax and honey. For gonor- 

Dissolving-poiso7i Protccting-infant Pills ; ^^' ^ {^ ^ i5* 
(Hsiao-tu-pao-ying-tan). The vine of a creeping bean with its 
beans, both the red and the discolored, the flesh of Crataegus 
fruits, Cimicifuga davurica, Rehniannia glutinosa. Salvia 
plebia, Siler divaricatum, Peucedanum decursivum, licorice, 
Pseonia albiflora, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Forsythia suspeusa, 
Coptis teeta, Platycodon grandiflorum, Arctium lappa, ver- 
niillion, and Momordica charantia. These pills are intended 
as a preventive of smallpox when it is epidemic. They are 
considered not only to prevent the disease, but to make it 
lighter in those who have already become infected. 

Driving away Boils and Saving-life Pills ; '^fs ^^ ^ 
(T'ui-ting-t'ao-ming-tan). Siler divaricatum, green orange 
peel, Peucedanum decursivum, Coptis teeta, red Paeonia, 
Asarum sieboldi, silk worms, cicada exuvia, Eupatoriura 
flowers, Lonicera chinensis, licorice root, Diphylleia, Paris 
polyphylla, and ginger juice. These are only used in the treat- 
ment of boils, abscesses, and carbuncles. 

Everlasting Spring Pills ; -g. % \ (Ch'ang-ch'un-v^^an). 
Fish-glue, powdered oyster shell, cotton seed, lotus stamens, 
Rosa laevigata, Dendrobium nobile, Tribulus terrestris, Lycium 
sinense, deer's horn, and honey. Tonic, diuretic, and cooling. 

Eye Medicitie Pills ; ^^^ % (Yen-yao-wan). Volunteer 
(wild) beans, cicada exuvia, Equisetum hiemale, Cuscuta 
chinensis, Anthemis, white Tribulis terrestris, and honey. To 
be used in eye diseases. 

Fairy Flat-peach Pills ; f[Ij j^ $t^B % (Hsien-ch«uan-p'au- 
t'ao-wau). Cotton seed, red dates, Achryanthes bidentata, 
Lycium sinense, Orobanche ammophila, Cornus officinalis, 
Cuscuta chinensis, isinglass, Pachyma cocos, and woman's 
milk. For all sorts of weaknesses and injuries. 

Firm-true Pills; WiM^^ (Ku-chen-tan). The two charac- 
ters probably refer to the name of one of the ingredients. 
Atractylis sinensis, Zanthoxylum, Melia azedarach, fennel, 
Psoralea corylifolia, and paste. Antirheumatic and diges- 


First Quality Pure Pills; J^ '^ ;|vL (Shang-ch'ing-wan). 
Soochow peppermint, white borax, black plums, Fritillaria 
Toylii, Terminalia chebula, mixed with honey, for the treat- 
ment of syphilis. 

Five Tiger Pills ; ^^f^ (Wu-hu-tan). Aconite, ginger 
juice, wild sesamum seeds, dragon's blood, flowers of sulphur, 
and scaly ant eater skin. For wounds, boils, and colds. 

Fotir Essences Pills; j^h ;^ (Ssu-ching-wan), Urea, 
Pachyma cocos, Euryale ferox, and lotus root. Anaphrodisiac, 
and iised in polyuria and spermatorrhoea. 

Four-precious Great-spirit Pills ; ^ ;/v iP^ :f5* (Ssu-pao- 
ta-shen-tan). Volunteer (wild) beans boiled in the bath water 
from a public bath house (t^ ^), Astragalus hoangtchy 
cooked in woman's milk, Cryptotaenia canadensis washed in 
spirits, and Rosa laevigata soaked in child's urine. These are 
said to be tonic, and to one who is able to swallow them they 
should prove to be so. 

Four spirit Pills; ^f ^ (Ssu-shen-wan). Lycium 
sinense, spirits, Zanthoxyhnn, fennel seed, sesamum seed, 
Melia azedarach, Rehmannia glutinosa, Atractylis ovata, 
Pachyma cocos, and honey. For kidney and eye troubles, as 
a tonic. 

Gastrodia Pills ; "^ ^ %i (T'ien-ma-wan). Gastrodia 
elata, Conioselinum univittatum, and honey. Tonic and con- 

Helping the Yin atid Bringing back the Soul Pills ; ^ 
1^ M ^ f3* (Chi-yin-fan-hun-tan). These are made of the whole 
plant of Leonurus sibirica, dried, powdered, and mixed with 
honey. They are said to have preserved the lives of many, and 
are specially recommended in the difficulties of pregnancy and 
of the puerperal state. 

Hundred Felicities Pill ; W H # (Pai-hsiang-kao). These 
are simply the red sprouted Euphorbia lasiocaula, thoroughly 
cooked in starch water, and made into a pill mass, or rolled 
into pills the size of millet grains. They are used in coughs, 
nausea, and smallpox of an irregular type. 

Hypoxis Pills; Jifj ^ % (Hsien-mao-w^an). Hypoxis 
aurea, glutinous rice, Atractylis sinensis, Lycium sinense, 
Plantago major, Pachyma cocos, feunel, kernels of Thuja 


orientalis, Rehmaiinia glutinosa, spirits, and paste. These are 
a tonic, reconstructive, and aphrodisiac remedy. 

Jadc-lock Pills ; 3£ ^ f^ (Yii-so-tan). The joints of lotus 
root, stamens of the lotus flower, lotus arrowroot, Euryale 
ferox, Dioscorea quinqueloba, both kinds of Pachyma cocos, 
Rosa laevigata, and flour. This a famous prescription for 
seminal losses and gonorrhoea. It is aphrodisiac and strength- 
ening to virility. 

Long-life Pills ; ^ '^ % (Iving-chih-vvan). Atractylis 
sinensis made into a pill mass with date pulp. These give 
virility and strength. 

Lwig-tonic Pills ; ^ IJijj \ (Pu-fei-wan). These consist of 
apricot kernels soaked in child's urine in summer seven days, 
in winter twenty-seven days, and then decocted until sott. They 
are used for coughs. 

Man-red Pills ; A ifl % (Jen-hung-wan). That which is 
called A t|, "man dragon," which is nothing more nor less 
than a tape-worm, is washed in child's urine, pulverized, and 
mixed with red dates, radish seeds, Rehmannia glutinosa, 
lotus arrowroot, and Melia azedarach. These are used for 
marasmus in children. 

Magnolia Decoction Pills; ^ ^Y M ^ (Hou-pu-chien- 
wan). Decoct the bark of Magnolia hypoleuca with ginger 
and licorice to dryness. Mix the extract with dates and make 
into pills. These are carminative, stomachic, and astringent. 

Moistening the Passages Pills ; ^ T At (Jun-hsia-wan). 
Ripe orange peel, licorice, and honey. They dissolve phlegm 
and cool fever. 

Most Virtuous Pills ; S ^ j^ (Chih-sheng-tan). Former- 
ly croton beans were used under this title, but they were found 
to be too drastic, especially in cases in which the patient's 
physical strength was very much reduced. Latterly, the seeds 
of Sophora kronei have been substituted, and are considered to 
be equally efficacious and less dangerous. They are used in 
chronic dysentery and chronic intestinal discharges of all kinds. 
Diuretic properties are also ascribed to them. 

Myriad Diseases Pills ; "^ "% % (Wan-ping- wan). One 
has heard of nostrums regarded as panaceas for all ills, and 
here we have one of these. It is composed of the kernels of 


apricot seeds boiled in child's urine until soft, mixed with 
honey, and again steamed in child's urine until of a pill mass. 
This may be eaten ad libitum by those suffering from any 

Myriad Harmonies Pills; ^ ^ j^ (Wan-ying-tan). 
Human urine sediment, spirit leaven, white grapes, withered 
carrot root, lign aloes, and honey. Used for jaundice and all 
billions difficulties. 

Nine Dragons Pills; \ f | j'} (Chiu-lung-tan). Lycium 
sinense, Rosa laevigata, flesh of Crataegus fruits, stone lotus, 
lotus stamens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Euryale ferox, Pachyma 
cocos, CryptotcCnia canadensis, and honey. For the treatment 
of venereal diseases and as an anaphrodisiac. 

Nine Fairies Life-saving Pills ; :/L Jtlj 3^ '^ j^ (Chiu- 
hsien-t'ao-ming-tan). Cinnabar, flowers of sulphur, olibanum, 
myrrh, Baroos camphor, dragon's blood, sulphate of copper, 
copperas, musk, burnt alum, bear's gall, yellow^ lead, centi- 
pedes, earth worms, silk worms, plum flowers, cow bezoar, 
toad spittle, white jade dust, borax, tree grubs, and snails. 
For the treatment of all sorts of infected sores and boils. 

One Grain of Gold Pills ; — ^1 # sFJ (I-li-chin-tan). 
These are made of opium and glutinous rice, and are for the 
relief of pain and for the purpose of checking discharges. 
They are taken with a variety of teas and congees for various 

One Sort Pills ; — p^ % (I-p'in-wan). Cyperus rotundus 
is boiled, dried, powdered, mixed with honey and made into 
pills. For the treatment of hemicrania and other headaches. 

Penetrating-bones Pills; ^ ^i' fj (T'ou-ku-tan). Azalea 
sinensis, distilled spirit, child's urine, olibanum, myrrh, musk, 
and dragon's blood. Broken bones, rheumatic pains, diseases 
of bones, and the like, are treated with this remedy. 

Pepper-red Pills ; -jifjj ^ % (Chiao-hung-wan). Zanthoxy- 
lum pods and Rehmannia glutinosa. Injuries to the viscera, 
eyes, and ears are treated with these. They enable one to 
do without sleep, and still preserve his health and strength. 

Physalis alkekengi Pills ; |t ^ m. X (Suan-chiang-shih- 
wan). Fruits of Physalis alkekengi, of Amarantus blitum, 
Valeriana villosa, white elm bark, Buplureum falcatum, 


Scutellaria macrantha, Tricosanthes multiloba, Euphorbia 
lathyris, and honey. As an antifebrile remedy, and in difficult 

Pbim-floiver Pills ; \^ \% ^ (:\Iei-t'ao-tan). Plum flow- 
ers, peach kernels, cinnabar, licorice, and Luffa cylindrica 
pulp. To bring out the eruption in smallpox. 

Plum-fltnver Lozenge' Pi Us ; )^ {^ 1(5 § :f5- (Mei-hua-tien- 
she-tan). Olibanum, pearl bean flowers, woman's milk, and 
toad spittle. These are both swallowed and allowed to dissolve 
under the tongue, for all sorts of sores and abscesses, especially 
those in the mouth. 

Preserving Youth Pills; ;i[; :^ ^p} (Pu-lao-tan). Atracty- 
lis chinensis, Zanthoxylum, Polygonum multiflorum, black 
beans, red dates, Lycium sinense, mulberries, and honey. 
Benefits the spleen and kidneys. Those taking these pills 
will retain their youthful appearance until seventv. 

Prophet's Print Pills; M ^ T^ :^ (Yu-chih-tzu-w^an), 
These are made of the kernels of an unknown plant called 
fl ^ ■?) Pachyma cocos, Lycium sinense, Acorns calamus, 
kernels of Thuja orientalis, ginseng, Polygala sibirica, Dios- 
corea, Polygonatum multiflorum, and honey. They are used 
in nervous affections, insomnia, mania, physical debility, and 
the like. 

Protecting the True Pills ; ffc ^ :^(Pao-chen-wan). Rosa 
rugosa, Psoralea corylifolia, Atractylis ovata. Astragalus 
hoangtchy, Scutellaria macrantha, Cuscuta japonica, Coniose- 
linum univittatum, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Paeonia albiflora, 
Rehmannia glutinosa, walnut kernels, Eucommia ulmoides. 
Allium odorum, and honey. These are a blood remedy, and 
are prescribed in all diseases of the blood vessels, hemorrhages, 
and the like. 

Protecting Pregnancy Pills; ^^ |^ % (Pao-t'ai-wan). 
Pachyma cocos, Atractylis ovata. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, 
myrrh, Cyperus rotundus, coriander, Leonurus sibiricus, and 
honey. These are to prevent threatened abortion and to render 
labor easy. 

Protecting Health Pills ; %%^ (Pao-yiian-tan). Poly- 
gonatum multiflorum, Lycium sinense, must, yellow spirits, 
decocted together. This decoction is to be drunk by the 


cupful, aud pills made of the lees by addiug waluut keruels, 
large black dates, aud dried persimmous. For colds, seminal 
losses, gouorrhoea, difficult labor, and failure of smallpox 
eruption to appear. 

Psoralen Pills ; % % ^ %. (Pu-ku-chih-wan). Psoralea 
coryli folia, dodder seeds, walnut meats, olibanum, myrrh, lign 
aloes, and honev. Tonic, and healing to wounds and injuries. 

Purple Clavaria Pills ; % -'± % (Tzu-chih-wan). Purple 
Clavaria, Dioscorea quinqueloba, Aconitum fischeri, kernels of 
Thuja orientalis, Polygala reinii, Pachyma cocos. Citrus fusca, 
Rehmannia gluLinosa, Ophiopogon spicatus, Schizandra chi- 
nensis, Pinelia tuberifera, Aconitum variegatum, Pseonia 
moutan, ginseng, Polygala sibirica, fruits of Polygonum 
hvdropiper, Alisma plantago, kernels of melon seeds, and 
honev. This remarkable array of drugs, all of which the 
Chinese regard as being tonic, and especially since the plant 
of felicity is included as the principal ingredient, can only be 
regarded as a most wonderful touic and reconstructive remedy 
in all wasting diseases. 

Purple-gold-creeper Pills ; % ^M% (Tzii-chin-t'eng- 
wan). The principal ingredient in this pill is the bark of an 
unknown creeper called ^ ^ gi and ^ It %■ The others 
are Polygala reinii, Boymia rutacarpa, galangal root, cinna- 
mon, salt, and paste. Its virtues are highly extolled as a 
strengthening remedy in "cold" uterus, menstrual difficulties, 
and deficiency in the vital and virile elements. 

Purple-gold Pill Mass; %^i% (Tzu-chin-ting). Ver- 
milion, Euphorbia lasiocaula, Sagittaria sagittifolia, ^ ^ .^, 
powdered oyster shell, Paris polyphylla, pearls, amber, flowers 
of sulphur, Baroos camphor, best quality India ink, plum- 
flower stamens, ox gall, musk, and rice flour paste. This pill 
is for tuberculosis and tuberculous like sores. 

Reducing the Yang Pills; *p ^ -^ (Shao-yang-tan). 
Atractylis ovata, Lycium chinense, mulberries, and honey. 
Taken according to directions for one year, grey hair or 
whiskers will turn black, and if taken for three years the 
countenance will become rubicund like that of a youth. 

Preventing Epidemics Pills ; ^ ^ :J5* (Pi-wen-tan). Red 
dates, Artemisia capillaris, rhubarb, aud benzoin. This is 


beaten into a pill mass or confection, and eaten when epidem- 
ics threaten. 

Relieving the Centers Pills ; '^ f\f ;^ (K'lian-chung-wan). 
Orange peel, Atractylis ovata, spirits, and paste. Warming 
and carminative, 

Returjiing Youth Pills ; jg 'J? j5" (Huan-shao-tan). Plan- 
tago major and Cyperus rotnndus, prepared by a complicated 
process described in the Pentsao. Marvelous properties are 
ascribed to these. If the aged (80 years) use them, the hair 
and whiskers will again turn black, and the teeth, if they have 
fallen out, will be renewed. If the young use them, their 
strength and virility will be preserved to old age. 

Rhinoceros Pills ; ^ ]^ -p^ (Niu-hsi-wan). Conioselinum 
univittatum soaked in millet congee for two days, dried, 
powdered, and mixed with the brain of the musk-ox and 
rhinoceros skin, and boiled in honey to the consistence to 
make pills. These are considered to be depurative and 

Rice Crust Pills ; i^ ^^ \ (Kuo-chiao-wan). The rice 
that is baked on the pot in the process of cooking is called 
^ ^^. This is taken and mixed with cardamoms, chrysanthe- 
mums, the flesh of Crataegus fruits, lotus seeds, chicken skin, 
sugar, and ground rice, boiled together, and made into cakes. 
They are considered to be very good for children who are 
weakly or ill nourished. 

Rose-maloes Pills ; j^ -^ ^ ;^ (Su-ho-hsiang-wan). Rose 
maloes, benzoin, Atractylis ovata, Cyperus rotnndus, Aristolo- 
chia recurvilabra, sandalwood, lign aloes, cloves, musk, Ficus 
religiosa, Terminalia chebula, rhinoceros horn, Baroos cam- 
phor, olibanum, and honey. An antispasmodic in all nervous 
afifections, ague, cholera, and obstinate dysentery. 

Seven-precious Handsome-whiskers Pills ; 't ^ ^ ^ ^ 
(Ch'i-pao-mei-jan-tan). Polygonum multiflorum, black beans, 
Pachyma cocos, lign aloes, woman's milk, Achryanthes biden- 
tata, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Lycium chinense seeds, Cuscuta 
chinensis, Psoralea corylifolia, black sesamum seeds, and honey. 
Tonic, constructive, preserving life and youthfulness, which 
last is marked by the flourishing state of the health and dark 
color of the whiskers and hair. 


Siegsbeckia-Dryandra Pills ; i% ^ % (Hsi-t'ung-wan). 
These two substances are powdered and mixed with honey, 
made into pills, and used for rheumatic affections. 

Skivimia Pills ; %^ \ (Yin-yu-wan). Leaves of Skim- 
mia japonica, Coix lachryma, Prunus japonica kernels, Ipomoea 
triloba seeds, and honey. For colds and constipation. 

Strengthenhig the Vitality Pills ; %%^ (Ku-yuan-tan). 
Atractylis sinensis, fennel, salt, Zanthoxylum, Psoralea coryli- 
folia, aconite, i\Ielia azedarach, alcohol, vinegar, paste. For 
all sorts of wasting difficulties, especially those of sexual origin. 

Ten-parts Perfect Pills ; ■\^ ^ % (Shih-ch'iien-wan). 
Musk, Aplotaxis auriculata, dragon's blood, flowers of sulphur, 
sesamum seeds, Strychuos nux vomica, maggots, centipedes, 
and honey. This is for the curing of wounds, of cancerous 
sores, and as a tonic. 

The Tartar General Rcsiimcs the Battle Pills ; 7^ j^l ^ 
1^ f5" (Chiang-chiin-fu-chan-tan). Soak wild sesamum seeds 
in child's urine for four times and in distilled spirit for three 
times. Dry and add olibanum, myrrh, and dragon's blood. 
This is for wounds and broken bones. 

Thousand-li-pium-flower Pills ; ^ ^ f# ^ A* (Ch'ien-li- 
mei-hua-wan). Eriobotrya leaves, Pachyrhizus augulatus, 
black plum flesh, wax plum flowers, licorice, and honey. To 
be used by travellers, but for what is not stated. 

Three Flozvers Pills ; H ^ ::^ (San-hua-tan). Plum flow- 
ers, peach flowers, and pear flowers, made into a pill and 
coated with flowers of sulphur, is taken in a congee of Phaseo- 
lus and black Hispidia beans for smallpox. 

Three Tonic Pills ; H H ^ (San-pu-wan). Coptis teeta 
and Pterocarpus indicus, mixed with honey. Tonic and 

Three Yelloiv Pills ; H M ^ (San-huang-wan). Scutel- 
laria macrantha, rhubarb, and Coptis teeta, mixed with honey. 
Tonic and corrective in men and women. 

Twenty Pearls Pills ; ;^ |^ ^/-L (Nien-chu-wan). Benzoin, 
seeds of Nephelium longana, and yellow wax. For hernia, 
orchitis, and the like. 

Two AurcB Pills ; ~ ^ ;^ (Erh-ch'i-wan). An umbil- 
ical cord is said to represent the aura of the abyss, while 


the plum flower represents that of nature. These two things are 
therefore combined in this pill, which is used as a prophylactic 
of smallpox. 

Uniting the Viscera Pills; H jS :^ (Tsang-lien-wan). 
Take Barkhausia repens and j§ jfiL ^i place in a pig's large 
intestine, cook, and put through the process described in the 
Pentsao. For hemorrhoids of all kinds, prolapse of the 
rectum, and the like. 

Universal Conntcrpoison Pills / II 5|^ HI ^ j^ (Wan-ping- 
chieh-tu-wan). Orithia edulis, Galla sinensis, two Euphorbia 
products, Potentilla cryptotaenia, and musk. Geomantic 
influences and auspicious days are observed in the preparation 
of this pill, and many details and conditions are regarded as 
necessary in its administration. 

Vegetable Resurrection Pills ; !^ ?!; j5" (Ts'ao-huan-tau). 
Cornus ofhciualis, Psoralea corylifolia, Cryptotaenia canadensis, 
musk, and honey. This acts on the foundations (;^) of health 
and life, and is tonic and restorative. 

VValmit Pills ; ^^\ (Hu-t'ao-wan). Walnut kernels, 
Psoralea corylifolia, Eucommia ulmoides, Dioscorea sativa, 
mixed and made into a pill mass. Tonic to the blood, liga- 
ments, bones, muscles, and preventive of fever. 

PIMPINELLA ANISUM.— ^f % (Huai-hsiang), ff # 
(Huei-hsiang), A >^ 1^ (Pa-yiieh-chu). The Chinese confound 
aniseed, fennel, and star-anise. But what is described in the 
Pentsao is an umbelliferous plant, and since fennel is distinct- 
ly described in another place, and as the odor of this is said to 
be similar to that of star anise, it is entirely probable that 
aniseed is referred to under this title. The leaves and seeds 
are likened to coriander. The plant bears umbels of yellowish 
white flowers, followed by the fruits. It is cultivated in 
gardens for the seeds, which are used as a condiment. The 
stalks and leaves are also eaten in Szechuan. The plant is 
said to grow wild in Kansu. The seeds are considered to be 
warming and stimulant, being prescribed in choleraic affec- 
tions and flatulence. They are thought to be a stimulant to 
the kidneys and warming to the pubic region. Some anodyne 
properties are ascribed to them, and it is probable that in the 


description of their medicinal uses they are not discriminated 
from star aniseed. The stalks and leaves when eaten are 
considered to be chiefly carminative, relieving flatulence and 
griping in the bowels. 

PINELUA TUBERIFERA.— .^ ^ (Pan-hsia), 975. 
This aroid plant is found in the northern provinces, notably 
Shensi, Shantung, and Kiangsu. It is cultivated in Szechuan 
and Hupeh. The plant has tripartite leaves of a light green 
color. In preparing for medicinal use, the tubers are soaked 
for seven days in warm water and dried. After slicing, 978, 
they are mixed with ginger juice and kept for use, or else 
powdered, 977, and mixed with ginger juice, dried, and 
repowdered. This last is called ^ M W (Pan-hsia-fen). Or 
this is made into cakes, ^ ^^ (Pan-hsia-ping), or the powder 
mixed with ginger juice and alum, made into cakes, wrapped 
in paper mulberry leaves, and preserved in salt, is called ^ ^ 
fll (Pan-hsia-ch'ii), 976. There are a number of other 
methods of preparation, in which it is mixed with other sub- 
stances besides ginger, and these are more or less carefuly 
distinguished from each other as to their uses in medicine. 
The simple prepared drug is called J^ ^ ^ (Fa-pan-hsia), 
978. The drug, as met with in the market, consists of the 
tubers in the form of small spherical bodies, either flattened on 
one side, pyriform, or ovoid, which are from three-tenths to 
six-tenths of an inch in diameter. The surface is white, or 
yellowish-white, and for the greater part of the tuber is dotted 
over with little, dark pits, and these are more especially found 
around the umbilicated depression which marks the flat surface. 
The interior of the tubers is white, dense, and amylaceous. In 
the prepared state they have little smell or taste ; but in the 
fresh state they are said to be bitter, acrid, and poisonous, pro- 
ducing vomiting and diaphoresis. The prepared drug is said 
to be antifebrile, tussic, counter-emetic, ecbolic, antimalarial, 
astringent, and slightly laxative. It is administered in fevers, 
influenza, jaundice, coughs, constipation, gonorrhoea, leucor- 
rhoea, and seminal losses. All diseases attended by "phlegm" 
(^) are particularly its therapeutic field. The number of 
difiiculties for which it is recommended is very large, and 


includes a great variety of very dissimilar troubles. That the 
prepared drug is comparatively inoccuous is proveu by the fact 
that in some mission hospitals it has been substituted for 
sulphate of potash in the preparation of Dover's powder. The 
viscid sap of the stalk of the plant is said to restore fallen hair 
and whiskers. 

PINUS SINENSIS.— ;^ (Sung). This character includes 
Pinus^ Abies^ and Laj'ix^ but refers most specifically to this 
species, which is the same as Pinus massoniana. Other species, 
some of which are mentioned in the Pentsao^ are g j^ (Pai- 
sung), Plnus bungeana ; H ^ (Hei-sung), Pimis thunbcrgii ; 
■^ ^ (Ch'ih-sung), Pinus doisifiora ; and \% i^ (Hai-sung), 
Pinus koraiensis. This last bears large seeds, called \% ^ ^ 
(Hai-sung-tzu), 1214, which are included among the edible nuts. 
They are also called ilf ^ ^ •? (Hsin-lo-sung-tzu), as they come 
from the country of Hsinlo (southern Korea), although they 
are also brought from Yunnan. They are like the ordinary 
pine-nuts found in other countries, three-cornered, and contain- 
ing a rich, aromatic, meaty kernel. They are considered to 
be very nutritious, improving the flesh, prolonging life, curing 
constipation and coughs. Of the other species of Pinus a 
number of products are mentioned, the first of which is ^ ^ 
(Sung-chih), resin, also called ;^ ^ (Sung-kao), ^ "^ (Sung- 
fang), ;^ ^ (Sung-chiao), and most commonly ^ ^ (Sung- 
hsiang), 121 1. This, if it lies in the ground for a thousand 
years, becomes changed into amber. It is administered inter- 
nally, and is said to be carminative and antifebrile. But it is 
used for the most part externally in various skin eruptions, 
old ulcers, and indolent wounds. It is considered to be bene- 
ficial to the tendons, eyes, and ears. It is administered in pill 
in leucorrhcea. The joints of pine twigs, called ;^ f^ (Sung- 
chieh), 1 2 10, form another product used in medicine. They 
are prescribed principally in decoction, in colds, rheumatism, 
toothache, and vomiting. ^ fp (Sung-i) is an extract prepared 
by roasting the twigs of the pine (turpentine ?). There is no 
description of the process, and the product is employed in 
ulcers, itch, and the skin diseases of horses and cattle. The 
pine needles are also used in medicine ; decocted, or chopped 


fine and mixed with meal, they are administered iu rheumat- 
ism, evil diseases, and intestinal parasites. The decoction is 
also used externally. The white bark of the root, 12 13, is 
considered tonic, while the bark of the tree is healing to 
wounds, astringent, and parasiticide. The flowers, ;^ :f^ (Sung- 
hua), 12 1 2, also called ^ ^ (Sung-huang), are considered to 
have especial action on the heart and lungs, and to be astrin- 
gent. They are distilled into a sort of "wine," which is used 
in "fullness in the head" and post-partum fever. 

PIPER NIGRUM.— ]^J lli (Hu-chiao). This is said to 
have originally been brought from Magadha, where it was 
called ^ ^ j^ (Wei-fu-chih), possibly the transliteration of 
an Indian name. It is now imported from the islands of the 
East Indian archipelago. Black and white pepper are both 
used as a condiment by the Chinese, but not so exclusively as 
in the west. Capsicum and Zajithoxyhun are so plentiful and 
cheap that they are used rather than the more expensive 
pepper. It is said that some attempts have been made, though 
rather unsuccessfully, to domesticate the pepper vine, which 
ofrows indiojenous on the island of Hainan. Prior to the 
coming of Europeans, the ground pepper was apparently not 
known in China ; the pepper-corns being either used whole, or 
crushed as required. Carminative, warming, and eliminative 
properties are ascribed to the drug, and it is administered in 
cholera, dysentery, vomiting, summer diarrhoea, and dysuria. It 
is said to correct fish, flesh, shell-fish, and mushroom poisoning. 

PIPER LONGUAI.— H % (Pi-po), 1008. See Chavica 

PISTACIA VERA.— PpJ ^ \% ^ (O-yiieh-chun-tzu), ^ . 
^ ^ (Hu-chen-tza), 3^ ^ -^ (Wu-ming-tzu. ) This is of foreign 
origin, and the first Chinese name is said to be in imitation 
of the Persian. There is no description of the tree, although 
it is said to grow in Lingnan. The kernels of the nuts are said 
to be good for dysentery, and to be very nutritious, promoting 
the growth of flesh. The bark of the tree is said to be 
strengthening to the female principle, and is used in decoction 
iu pruritus of the genitals. 


PISUM SATIVUM.— H^S (Wan-toii). ^ ^ (Juiig-sbu), 
W *h 3- (Ch'ing-hsiao-tou). Peas are of foreign origin, but 
are now extensively cultivated in China. They are planted 
in the autumn, and the young stalks are used for food in the 
spring. The peas, both green and dry, are much relished, 
and they are also ground into flour and used in this way as a 
sort of gruel or porridge. Peas are thought to promote 
flatulence. They are considered cooling, and are recommended 
in feverish conditions, fluxes from the bowels, nausea, urinary 
difficulties, to promote the secretion of milk, and to increase 
the flesh. 

PLANTAGO MAJOR.— $ ti (Ch'e-ch'ien^ 34. This, 
the common plantain^ is as much of a pest in China as it is in 
other lands. It grows at the roadside and in dooryards, and is 
exceedingly prolific, springing from both seeds and roots and 
killing out all other grass. P'ormerly the plant and the seeds 
were eaten, and in rare cases this is still done. The seeds, 35, 
are mucilaginous, and have a sweetish, cooling taste. They 
are considered to be quieting, diuretic, antirheumatic, and tonic. 
The drug is good for wasting diseases in male and female, 
promotes the secretion of the semen, and therefore conduces 
to fertility. It nourishes the liver, assists in difficult labor, 
and cures summer diarrhoea. The plant and the root are used 
as astringents in wounds, nosebleed, hematuria, and other 
hemorrhages, as a diuretic, in seminal emissions, and in gravel. 

PLASTERS.— The character ^ (Kao) is used for these, 
as it is also for medicinal extracts, ointments, fats, gelatinous 
and cereose substances. In order to distinguish plasters from 
these latter, medical missionaries use B,^ % (T'ieh-kao) for the 
former. The Chiijcse do not have a very large number of 
these preparations, but they use what they have in season and 
out. An adhesive plaster pure and simple is practically 
unknown, unless the common compound of resin and wood-oil 
can be called such, ' Even this is not often used uncombined 
with other drugs. But all sorts of gaping wounds are often 
plastered over with some of the medicinal plasters. A 
Universal Plaster Basis ^ called "% M- ^ (Wan-ying-yu), is 


made in the following manner : Take of fragrant sesamiim oil, 
sixteen ounces ; peach twigs, willow twigs, Sophora japonica 
twigs, mulberry twigs, cinnamon twigs, and Allium fistulosum, 
of each one ounce ; male hair (?, ^ ^), four ounces ; Zan- 
thoxylum bungei, half an ounce; castor oil bean, two ounces ; 
Strychnos nux vomica (? ^ ||^), four ounces ; Chavica rox- 
burghii, half an ounce ; and Angelica anomala, two ounces. 
Soak the drugs in the oil in the winter seven days, in the 
summer three days, and in the spring or autumn five days. 
Then boil until the drugs are withered and dry, when the oil 
should be drained off and boiled until it is reduced to eight- 
tenths of its volume. It is then ready for use. 

Baroos Camphor Plaster; ^ ^ ^ |^ (Ping-p'ien-kao- 
yao). This is an expensive warm plaster, at present in much 
repute among the Chinese. Its composition is not given in 
the books. 

Dissolving Abscesses Plaster ; \^ -^ ^ (Hsiao-chii-kao). 
This is made by crushing nine kernels of the castor oil bean, 
and beating up with this three-tenths of an ounce each of pine 
resin, white lead, and finely powdered Luan tea leaves. If it 
is too dry, a little sesamum oil is added, and it is then spread 
on a piece of cloth, applied to the abscess and the whole covered 
with a layer of cotton paper. It is said to heal in seven days. 

Four Perfection Plaster or Ointment ; Q ^ :f3* (Ssu-sheng- 
tan). Incinerate forty-nine peas, three-hundredths of an ounce 
of hair, and fourteen real pearls. Beat up the ash with oily 
cosmetic to a paste. This is for vicious smallpox eruption in 
children, in those cases in which eight or nine out of ten die. 
Use a hair-pin and press out the bad blood ; and then apply a 
little of the paste to the sore, when it will turn red and healthy 
in appearance. 

Healing Ringworm Plaster ; ^ ^ % — ^ J5*(Chih- 
hsien-ti-i-ling-tan). Crush to a pulp three-hundred day lilies 
(Funkia subcordata), and add cloves, six ounces ; lign aloes, 
four ounces ; Baroos camphor and musk, of each three-tenths 
of an ounce ; pulverized city wall brick from Shansi, twelve 
ounces. Boil all in three and a half catties of sesamum oil. 
Mix with charcoal dust, and drop into water to form pellets. 
Place in a porcelaiu jar and seal with yellow wax, and then 


bury in the ground for twenty-one days. Take out and apply 
to the ringworm, and this will soon be cured. 

Healing Abscess Plaster ; '/p M" $ '^ (Chih-chung-tu- 
kao). Mix four ounces of Siamese gamboge with eight ounces 
of white wax. Boil thoroughly twelve ounces of sesamuni oil, 
and add the above mixture. Keep in a porcelain bottle with 
a little sesaraum oil on top to preserve it. This is to be 
applied to any sort of abscess or sore. 

The Chin Family Plaster ; ^ "^^^^ % (Chin-shih-li- 
tung-kao). To five ounces of Universal Plaster Basis add of 
Siamese gamboge, one and a half ounces ; yellow wax, two 
ounces. Boil to a dark brown color, spread on cloth and 
apply. Said to be a sure cure for varicose ulcer. 

PL AT YC ARIA STROBILACEA.— jf % (Huai-hsiang), 
^' ^ M fr (Tou-lo-p'o-hsiang). This is described as a small 
tree, growing in the mountains of mid-China and used for fuel. 
It has long, pinnate, green, fragrant leaves, serrated, and 
resembling thistle leaves. The root resembles that of Lyciuni 
but is larger and is very fragrant wlien burnt. It is used in 
the bath to give fragrance to the body. The root is used 
medicinally only in the preparation of an ointment to be 
applied to sores on the scalp. \^ (K'ao) is also suggested for 
Platycaria^ but it is also used for Mangrove bark. 

keng), 89, 94. This is often confounded with Adenophora^ and 
the latter is sometimes called ~B %n^ (K'u-chieh-keng). The 
young plant is eaten as a pot-herb, and is considered to have 
vermicidal properties. The root is of a yellowish-white color 
and is about as thick as a little finger. It is one of several roots 
that are fraudently substituted for true ginseng. Its medicinal 
properties are given in the article on Adenophora. The stem 
and the leaves, ^ fi^ (Lu-t'ou), are also used in medicine, and 
are prescribed in decoction in dyspeptic vomiting of mucus. 

^iu)> ^ ^ fe (Lo-han-sung). The fruit of this tree, which 
is said to resemble the pine, is given in the Customs Lists 


under the term of ^ ^ ^ (Lo-han-kuo), 749. But there has 
been no description of the plant, or of its medicinal properties 
and uses, found in the Chinese books. 

lien). According to Ford and Crow, this is the identification at 
Canton. This Chinese name, however, is used for different 
plants in different parts of China. For description and medicin- 
al action and uses, see the article on Diphylleia. 

This is not distinguished from CJiIorantliiis and other orchida- 
ceous plants. 

POLLIA JAPONIC A.— ;y: ^ (Tu-jo). Another term 
given for this is ;^ ^j (Tu-heng), but this properly is Asariim 
forbesii (which see). It is also much confounded with Aipinia 
offLcinariim^ and the descriptions of the plant given in the 
Pentsao are almost inextricably confused with Alpinia and 
other zingiberaceous plants. The root is the part used in 
medicine, and is considered to be carminative, sedative, stim- 
ulant, and tonic. Taken for some time, it benefits the animal 
spirits, brightens the eye, and strengthens the memory. It is 
administered as a warming remedy in colds and fluxes, in 
dizziness, and as an aromatic in foul breath. 

POLYGALA REINIL— G ^| 5c (Pa-chi-t'ien), 926. 
This is a polygalaceous zvintergreen^ and is therefore also 
called ;^ (^ ^ (Pu-tiao-ts'ao), and was by Loureiro called 
Septas repens^ and by Bentham Herpestis moimiera. The 
description in the Pentsao is not clear. The root is used in 
medicine, and is considered to be warming and tonic. It 
strengthens the bones and sinews, quiets the five viscera, is 
tonic to the centers, increases the will power, and benefits the 
breath. It is specially beneficial to males, preventing seminal 
losses and nocturnal pollutions. 

POLYGALA SIBIRICA, Poly gala tennifolia.—'^ * 
(Yiian-cliih), 1557. A classical name is ^ ^ (\''ao-jao), and 
a .common name is i\\ ^ (Hsiao-ts'ao). There are two kinds, 


a large leaved and a small leaved, as indicated by the botanical 
names given above. There is not much description of the 
plant ; but the drug, which consists of the root, and is called 
j^ J^ j^ (Yiian-chih-jou), is brought from the northern prov- 
inces, especially from Shensi and Honan, and is found in 
contorted, quilled pieces, larger tlian a lead-pencil, marked 
transversely, and of a brownish-yellow color. It is sometimes 
quite tubular, the central vascular portion of the root having 
been removed. The taste is sweetish and somewhat acrid. 
It is supposed to have special effect upon the will and mental 
powers, giving strength of character, improving the under- 
standing, strengthening the memory, and increasing the phys- 
ical powers. It is prescribed in cough, jaundice, hysteria in 
females, infantile convulsions, mammary abscess, and gon- 
orrhoea. The leaves are also recommended for spermator- 

ching), 514. This Cliinese term is applied in different parts 
of tlie empire to Polygonatum macropodum^ Polygoiiatii77i 
chinense^ Polygonatum giganteum^ and Polygonatum mnlti- 
florum. Tatarinov erroneously identifies it as Car ag ana 
flava ; but the plant is liliaceous, not leguminous. The plant 
grows in the mountains, and its leaves so much resemble those 
of the bamboo that it is sometimes called "hare bamboo," or 
"deer bamboo." The leaves also resemble those of the R/ms 
radicans^ and the plants are sometimes confounded, disastrous- 
ly if the RJins is substituted for this. The root, leaves, flowers, 
and fruit are all eaten. For medicinal use, the root is steeped 
in wine, or administered in powder. The Taoists make much 
of this plant, and call it the food of the immortals. The 
following legend is found in the Pownchi (111 Century) : "The 
Emperor Huangti once asked one of his councilors if he knew 
of a plant which, when eaten, would confer immortality. The 
reply was that the plant of the great male principle {-jx, f^, the 
sun) which is called Hiiang-ching^ when eaten, would prolong 
life. On the other hand the plant of the great female principle 
(:1c ^1 t^^^ moon) which is called ^ijj !% {Rhics)^ when it even 
enters the mouth produces death. The root of the Hnang- 


chijtg is prepared for food by steaming and drying. In this 
condition it may be used as a substitute for grains, and is 
called ^ If' (Mi-pn). The root is the part used medicinally, 
and is met with in the sliops in flat pieces, from one to two and 
a quarter inches long, having a greenish-yellow color, with a 
varying degree of translucency and flexibility. The outer 
surface is marked with small circular cicatrices, tubercles, or 
transverse lines. The inner surface is paler, and shows signs 
of having been attached to the stalk. The taste is sweetish 
and mucilaginous. The drug is regarded as chiefly tonic and 
constructive in its properties ; but it is also regarded as 
demulcent, arthritic, lenitive, and prophylactic. It is also 
administered in confirmed leprosy. 

f^ (Yii-chu), 1547. The first character is also written ^. The 
leaves resemble bamboo leaves; hence the second name (jade 
bamboo). The leaves and root are edible. It is a common 
plant in the mountains of northern China. The drug as found 
in the shops consists of pale yellow or brown, brittle, semi- 
translucent, twisted pieces, pretty evenly jointed, and varying 
a good deal in size, length, and hygrometric state. The taste 
is sweet and mucilaginous, and the odor something like that 
of newly baked bread. It is very liable to become mouldy. 
When macerated in water the roots swell up again to their 
original dimensions, and are three or four times as thick as in 
the dry state. Cooling, demulcent, sedative, tonic, antiperiod- 
ic, and arthritic qualities are attributed to the rhizome, and 
it is prescribed as a wash in ophthalmia, to be taken with 
peppermint, ginger, and honey in muscse volitantes, in other 
combinations for gravel, the fevers of influenza and caked 
breast, and in the anaemias of epileptic children. 

POLYGONUM AMPHIBIUM.— 5^^ (T'ien-liao). This 
is given in the Pentsao in a note to the article on Polygonum 
orientale, and the plant is not clearly distinguished from this 
latter. The root and stalk are bruised, and the juice taken 
and employed in the treatment of foul sores and rheumat- 


POLYGONUM AVICULARE.— ^ ^ (Pien-hsii). This 
is the ordinary knot-grass^ or goose-grass^ growing by the 
road-side and spreading out so as to cover the ground. The 
stem is covered with a white powder, and on this account the 
plant is called ^ |^ ]^ (Fen-chieh-ts'ao). The whole plant 
is used in medicine and its juice is prescribed in itching affec- 
tions of the skin, venereal sores, especially in women, and as a 
diuretic and anthelmintic remedy. Piles is one of the diffi- 
culties for which it is specially recommended. 

POLYGONUM BISTORTA.— ^ ^ (Tzu-shen), ^ ^ 
(Ch'iian-shen), ^^ ^ (Mou-meng). These are not identified 
with each other in the Pentsao. Neither is described in any 
detail, and all furnish a dark purple or black root. That from 
the first is considered to be antifebrile, diuretic, and laxative. 
It is prescribed in hemorrhages, wounds, tumors, anemorrhoea, 
ague, and fluxes. It stirs up the dual principles. The second 
is used in dropsy. 

POLYGONUM BLUMEL— J^ p (Ma-liao). This is 
also called ^ ^ (Ta-liao). The second character is generic 
for Polyg07iiiui. The plant grows to the height of four or five 
feet, and the leaves are marked b\- a black splotch in the 
center. It is the same as Polygoinun Persicaria. The stalk 
and leaves are used in medicine as a vermicide. 

POLYGONUM CHINENSE, Polygomnn cyvwsiim.—^. 
%M (Ch'ih-ti-li). This is the ilj ^' ^ (Shan-ch'iao-mai), 
or "hill-buckwheat." It grows in mountain valleys, has a 
red stem, green leaves, and bears a white flower, followed by 
greenish seeds. The root resembles that of Smilax^ has a 
purplish-red skin and a yellowish-red interior. It is adminis- 
tered in all sorts of fluxes, as an anthelmintic, in insect and 
scorpion poisoning, for this last both internally and the bruised 
plant is applied locally. 

The stem of this is covered with spots, and for this reason 
it is also called Jg )^ (Pan-chang). The plant is some- 


■what prickly, and its leaves resemble those of the apricot. 
It grows plentifully in waste places. The root is the part 
used in medicine. It is recommended in menstrual difficulties, 
as an antifebrile and diuretic remedy, in post-partum troubles, 
and to scatter swellings and ecchymoses. It is also used as a 
prophylactic in epidemics, 

POLYGONUM FILIFORME.— ^ 1^ ^ (Chin-ssu-ts'ao), 
'^ W: ^ (Chin-hsien-ts'ao). This is confounded with Cusatta 
and Hypersiciun. It grows in niountain valleys, and the whole 
plant is used m hemorrhages and fluxes. 

POLYGONUM FLACCIDUM.— 7jC % (Shui-liao). This 
is also known as |^ ^ (Yii-liao) and -.^ ^ (Tse-liao), "marsh, 
or water, smartweed." It is probably the S2i\n& q.s Polygonum 
hydropiper. It grows on the margin of ponds and in other 
damp places, and has a red stem. One variety is cultivated, 
and is called ^ ^ (Chia-liao). It is used in the preparation 
of one sort of leaven (lllll). Medicinally, it is used in snake 
bites, bruised and applied locally ; and also in blistered and 
swollen feet. 

POLYGONU:\I JAPONICUM.— ^ H ]g (Ts'an-chien- 
ts'ao). This is Faber's identihcation ; but the species is not 
mentioned in any other works consulted. It grows in wet 
erouud, and has a red stem and white flower. It is bruised 
and applied to caterpillar stings and to ulcers. 

This is a hairy-leaved Polygomiin growing in mountain valleys. 
The plant is applied to tumors and foul sores, and is considered 
to be antiseptic and healing. A decoction is also used to 
wash sore feet. 

wu), 376. The Pentsao describes this plant as being dioecious. 
It grows principally in the Lingnan region. The root, wiien 
old, is said to have mysterious properties. At fifty years it is 
as large as a fist, and is designated " mountain slave " (|Ij ^), 


and if taken for a year will preserve the black color of the 
hair and moustache ; that at a hundred years is as large as 
a bowl, is called "hill-brother" [\\] If), and if taken for one 
year, a rubicund and cheerful countenance will be preserved ; 
that at a hundred and fifty years is as large as a basin, is 
called "hill uncle" (ll] fg), and if taken for one year the 
teeth will fall out and come afresh ; that at two hundred years 
is the size of a one peck ozier basket, is called "hill father" 
(ill m)i ^^^^ if taken for a year the countenance will become 
like that of a youth, and the gait will equal that of a running 
horse ; and that at three hundred years is the size of a three 
peck ozier basket, is called "mountain spirit" ([1] jf^), has a 
pure ethereal substance, and if taken for some time, one be- 
comes an earthly immortal (|^ Jllj). Therefore, wonderful 
restorative and reviving powers are ascribed to the ordinary 
root, and it is also prescribed in tumors, piles, post-partum 
and menstrual difficulties, colds, and diarrhceas. Its use is 
also said to promote fertility. It is commonly sold in flat, 
oblong or round pieces, often of a very irregular shape and 
thickness, their outline being for the most part crenated, 
showing a tendency to the distribution of the vascular tissue 
into five concentric portions around the central mass. The 
cuticle is shrivelled, and of a dark, reddish-brown color, and 
the interior woody structure is of a rufous tint. The taste is 
rough and bitterish. The stalk and leaves are used in decoc- 
tion in scabious and itching skin diseases. 

Faber also identifies ^^ M ^ (She-chien-ts'ao) as Poly- 
gomiui multifloi'um, but this cannot be confirmed from other 
observers. It is described in a different volume of the Pentsao 
from the last, is said to have leaves like the Colocasia^ and red- 
jointed stems. Snakes are said to avoid the plant. The root 
and leaves are bruised and applied to snake and scorpion bites. 
If they are proving efficacious, the wound will discbarge a 
yellow serum. 

POLYGONUM ORIENTATE. —|E % (Hung-ts'ao). 
There are said to be two kinds of this plant, that growing on 
dry ground and that growing in water ; the latter being called 
5c ^ (T'ien-liao). But this is Polygomim aniphibiuni. The 


leaves are large, pinkish in color, and the plant grows to the 
height of several feet. The stalk is as thick as a thumb and 
hairy. The plant bears reddish-black seeds with white kernels, 
which when steamed or roasted can be eaten. They are said 
to relieve thirst and fever, brighten the eye, and benefit the 
breath. They are prescribed in tuberculous swellings and 
flatulence. The flowers are said to thin the blood, remove 
obstructions, and ease pain. 

POLYGONUM Sp.—W- (Liao). In addition to those 
already given, the Pentsao speaks of others under this title. 
It is probable that the term more particularly refers to Poly- 
gonum hydropiper^ Polygonum persicaria^ and Polygonum 
bistorta ; but there are others mentioned, such as -^^ (Ch'ing- 
liao), ^ ^ (Hsiang-liao), and ^ ^ (Ch'ih-liao), including 
Polygonum barbatum and other edible species. They are 
somewhat pungent in taste, but used for food. The seeds are 
considered to be stimulant, carminative, and diuretic. They 
are also used in scalp eruptions in children. The shoots and 
leaves are carminative, warming, and anthehnintic. They 
are prescribed in the cramps of liver diseases and cholera, in 
dysentery in children, and for mad-dog bite. 

POLYGONUM TINCTORIUM.— ^^(Liao-lan). This 
is mentioned in the Pentsao under the article on Lidigofera Sp. 
(see that article). No medicinal properties are therefore dis- 
tinguished from those belonging to the latter. 

Another tinctorial plant is mentioned in the Pentsao under 
the name ^ '^ (Chin-ts'ao). An identification of Phalaris 
arundinacea has been suggested for it, but the plant described 
in the Pentsao is not Phalaris. The description corresponds 
more to that of the Polygonaceae. Its common names are ^ ^ 
(Lii-ju) and ^ ft (Lu-chu), and it is used for making a 
greenish-yellow dye for cloth. It is used medicinally in old 
coughs, asthma, tremor, itch, tinea, as an insecticide, in fevers 
of children, and as a wash for foul sores. 

POLYPODIUM BAROMETZ.— ^ ^ (Kou-chi), 606. 
This is Loureiro's term, and is the same as Cibotium barometz 
of J. Smith. The plant is found extensively in eastern Asia, 


including the whole of China, Annam, Cochin-China, the 
Philippines, and the islands of the Malaysian Archipelago. 
The Chinese name, "dog's spine," refers to the form of the 
root, which suggests the appearance of a cadaverous dog with 
its spine showing, and especially the kind covered witn yel- 
lowish root filaments suggesting the ordinary, nearly starved 
Chinese wouk, with its bristly hair. There is some confusion 
of this with other kinds of ferns ; but not so much as is usually 
the case. The drug, as it has appeared in the European 
markets, consists of the stipes of the fern so thickly covered 
with golden-brown hairs as to suggest the skin of some animal. 
The native names under which this appeared were penghawar 
djambi and pakoe kidang. According to the authors of the 
Dutch Pharmacopoeia, this plant is identical with the so-called 
Agnus ScythicHS^ or Scythian lamb^ which in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries was regarded as a sort of plant- 
animal, springing from a seed, attached to the earth by a root 
like a plant, while it had flesh and blood like an animal, and 
fed upon the herbs which surrounded it until they were all 
gone, after which it starved to death, because it could not move 
from its place. Adam and Eve were said to have been aston- 
ished on seeing this vegetable lamb in the Garden of Eden. 

In Chinese medicine the drug is considered strengthening 
to the spine, antirheumatic, stimulating to the liver, kidneys, 
and male generative organs, and is recommended as an old 
man's remedy. General tonic properties are also ascribed to it. 
In Europe the hairy filaments from the stipes were recommended 
as a hesmostatic in wounds, and this use is also mentioned in 
the Appendix to the Pentsao. Their action seems to be purely 

POLYPODIUM FORTUNEI.— -i-^IKKu-sui-pu), 624. 
The name of this was originally ^ ^ (Hou-chiang), but the 
Emperor Kaiyuen (713 A.D.), because he considered it capable 
of mending broken bones, commanded that the former name 
should be given to it. It grows in the shade of trees, about 
the roots and on stony ground. The rhizome, 11 25, is said to 
somewhat resemble ginger, and is filamentous. Its taste is bit- 
ter and cooling, and it checks hemmorrhage and heals wounds. 


It is prescribed in wasting diseases, ulcerations, gangrene, 
toothache, failing of the hair after sickness, and ear difficulties. 

POLYPODQ:,! lingua.— :5^ (Shih-wei), 1161, ^^ 
;j^ (Chin-hsing-tsao). Tiie second name applies wiien the 
plant is spornlating. It is also called ^ j^ (Snili-p'i), on 
account of its b'^^-'t of growing on rocks and its leatherv leaves. 
One kind which grows on old brick walls is called ^ :^ (Wa- 
wei). This is Polypodiimi lineare. It is useful in the treat- 
ment of urinary calculus. The leaves of the Shih-zvei are 
gathered in the second moon and dried in the shade. "The 
best kind is that which grows in places where neither the noise 
of water nor the human voice is heard." The drug is consid- 
ered to be diuretic and tonic, and it is prescribed in gravel, 
urinary difficulties, menorrhagia, hematuria, wounds, aud 

The Chin-hsing-ls''ao^ or sporulating plant, shows fronds 
two or three feet long, with star-shaped spore cases on the 
back arranged iu pairs. The fronds and root are both used 
medicinally in carbuncle, carcinomatous ulcers, scrofulous 
glands, brimstone poisoning, and digested in oil as an applica- 
tion to make the hair grow. It cools the blood and promotes 
the excretion of water, 

POPULUS ALBA.— ^ }^ (Pai-yang). This Chinese 
name refers to both the poplar and aspen^ the name of the 
latter being more specifically \^ ^ (I-yang). There is little 
discrimination between Popiilus alba^ Populus treniula^ and 
Populiis siiiiveolens. The last has a smaller, green leaf, aud is 
called H j:^ (Ch'ing-yaug). A name common for this and 
other species of Populus^ refering to their moving leaves, is ^ 
^ (Tu-yao), '* self-moving." The bark of the tree is con- 
sidered to be antiseptic and astringent, aud is prescribed in colds, 
hemorrhage, fluxes, the bloody stools of preguant women, and 
as a local application in goiter. The decoction in water, wine, 
or vinegar is the preparation usualy exhibited. The twigs are 
used in colic, herpes labialis, enlarged spleen, and to clear the 
complexion. A decoction of the leaves is used in decayed 
teeth and necrosis of bone where there is a sinus. 


POPULUS BALSAMIFEPA.— f# m (Hai-tHing). Also 
called $l] ^ (Tz'ii-t'ung). This is Faber's ideiitificatiou, but 
the descriptiou in the PSu/sao would rather indicate Acantho- 
panax (see p. 4). It grows in the south near the sea, has 
leaves as large as a hand arranged ternately, a firm white 
bark which can be made into ropes that do not rot in water, 
and bears a red flower. It is possible that two or more genera 
are confounded under this name. The bark is used as an 
astringent in cholera, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, dis- 
charging skin diseases, decayed teeth, inflamed eyes, and as an 
anthelmintic and parasiticide. The flowers are used as a 
styptic in wounds. 

POPULUS TREMULA.— ^^ % (I-yang). This is de- 
scribed in the P&ntsao under the term ^ \^ {^\\-\)^ and the 
name ^ -^ (T'ang-ti), or more properly % ^ (Ch'ang-ti), is 
given as a synonym. In Japan ^ \^ (Fu-i) is the Chinese 
term for Aronia asiatica^ a small tree of the order Rosaceae, 
with white flowers in racemes, and bearing a fruit like the 
P7'Uiius japonica. There seems therefore to be some confound- 
ing of names in the P^ntsao^ but the description given evidently 
refers to a Populus. The bark is bitter and considered to be 
slightly deleterious. It is used for aflfections of the feet, one 
of which answers pretty well to the description of gout. It 
also is regarded as anthelmintic and is highly esteemed in 
profuse leucorrhcea. 

PORPHYRA COCCINEA.— ^ % (Tzu-ts«ai). This algal 
plant is a sort of laver^ which is green when in the fresh state 
and purple when dry. It grows on the sea shore of south 
China, and the Fukienese gather it and press it into cakes. It 
is not poisonous, but when taken in excess produces colicky 
pains, flatulence, and eructation of mucus. It is recommended 
in diseases of the throat, especially goitre. 

PORTULACCA OLERACEA.— J^ ^ % (Ma-ch'ih- 
hsien). The purslanes and amaranths are rorifoanded in 
China, and very naturally so, since the plants resemVtif each 
other in general appearance and habits, i^ (Hsien) refers for 


the most part to Amarautus^ but in this case it seems to be 
applied to the common purslane. There is a fairly good 
description in the Pentsao. The pl?ait is said to contain 
mercury. It is eaten as a cheap, cooling, spring vegetable by 
the Chinese of all classes. Cooling, lenitive, antiscorbutic, 
alterative, vulnerary, and discutient properties are ascribed to 
it, and the plant or its juice is recommended to be used in 
ulcers, tumors, indigestion, leucorrhoea, nausea, gravel, wounds, 
herpes, anthrax, eczema, colds, dysentery, colic, intestinal 
worms, aud pruritis of the genitals. The seeds are considered 
to be tonic and constructive, and are prescribed in opacities of 
the cornea and to benefit the intestines. 

POTAMOGETON.— ^ (Yn). This spadiceous endogen 
is well described in the Penisao. Horses and goats are 
exceedingly fond of it, and it therefore has names referring to 
this tact. It has a very foul odor, and the name above given 
is said to indicate the fact. The Tsochnan says : " There is a 
fragrant herb and a stinking one, and for ten years the stench 
will remain" (— H — l§ + ^tp3®^ ^)- The root is used 
in medicine. It is considered to be tonic, giving brightness 
to the eye and acuteness to the hearing. It is also considered 
to be antifebrile and diuretic. Faber gives 0^ ^ |^ (Yen-tzu- 
ts'ai) as a term for Potaniogcton pol\gonifolins^ but this has not 
been found mentioned in the Chinese works consulted. ,^ ^ 
(Ma-tsao) is usually considered to be Potamogeton oxyphyllns^ 
but this is not distinguished in the Pentsao from Myriophylluni 
spicahinc. See Digitaria sanguinalis. 

The plant grows in the provinces north of the Yangtse, and 
the root, which is officinal, is said to resemble the tooth of an 
animal ; hence the name, "wolf's-tooth." It is very poisonous, 
and is prescribed in some of the M. (Feng) diseases, foul sores, 
and intestinal worms. Venereal and rodent sores, arrow wounds, 
and snakebites are also treated with it. 

POTENTILLA DISCOLOR.— |i ^ if (Fan-pai-ts'ao). 
This grows to the height of seven or eight inches, has a firm, 
thick, .serrate leaf, light colored on the back, rather small, and 

vegetabi:k kingdom. 349 

lanceolate. It bears a yellow flower, and the root is about the 
size of a finger, with a red skin and white flesh. The seed is 
shaped like that of coriander. Tlie root is eaten both raw and 
cooked, children preferring it in the former condition. Its me- 
dicinal properties are those of an astringent, and it is prescribed in 
hematemesis, hematuria, menorrhagia, malaria, and carbuncle. 

See Geum dryadoides. 

POTERIUM OFFICINALE.— ji^ It (Ti-yii). This is 
the same as Poteriian sangiiisorba^ the common biirnet. Its 
leaves slightly resemble those of the elm and spread over the 
ground, and these facts give rise to the Chinese name, "ground 
elm." The root is long, tough, wrinkled, and fibrous, brown 
externally, and of a pink or yellowish color internally. It is 
astringent and slightly bitter to the taste, and is u.sed as a 
styptic, astringent, vulnerary, and anodyne remedy. It is 
prescribed in post-partum difficulties, wounds, ulcers, dysentery, 
hemorrhages, snake and insect bites, and skin diseases. 
The leaves are used as a substitute for tea, and are considered 
to be cooling in fevers. 

POWDERS. — The Chinese use anumber of these; some for 
internal medication, some for external use, and one for insuf- 
flation into the throat. They nearly all go by the name of ^ 
(San), and consist of one or more drugs specially prepared, 
dried, and thoroughly powdered. The following are a few of 
the more popular. 

Amber Powder ; i^l; JQ ffc (Hu-p'o-san). It is made as 
follows : Take of amber, one ounce ; turtle shell, one ounce ; 
Cyperus rotundus, one ounce ; Corydalis ambigua, one-half 
ounce ; myrrh, one-half ounce ; rhubarb, one-fourth ounce. 
These are to be all heated together and beaten into a powder. 
The drug is considered to be styptic and tonic, and it is used 
after labor with a view to restoring the normal circulation of 
the blood, in whicli case the rhubarb is left out. 

Atractylis Powder ,- ^ yft ^ (Tsang-shu-san). Atractylis 
ovata is dried and prepared by a complicated process, the value 

350 CHiNEsr: matkria medic a. 

of which is not very apparent. The powder is administered 
in rhev.:ncitic difficuiLies. 

Brassica Pozvder ; ^ '^ ^ (Yiin-t'ai-san). Use seeds of 
Brassica juncea, Cryptotsenia canadensis, cinnamon heart, and 
Pseonia albiflora in equal quantities, and beat into a powder. 
It is used in indigestion, vicious lochia, and all post-partum. 
difficulties. It is said tliat the first three days after labor can 
not safely be passed without using this remedy. 

Five Yellows Powder ; 3L ^ Ht (Wu-huang-san). Take 
of rhubarb, brimstone, flowers of sulphur, turmeric, and gam- 
boge equal parts ; powder finely and mix with rape seed oil, to 
be applied to scaly skin diseases. This is really an ointment, 
but has the name of being a powder. 

Four-coynpound Fai?'y Atractylis Pozvder ; M fill ^fc "Si^ 
(Ssu-chih-hsien-shu-san). Use Chekiang x-Vtractylis sinensis, 
four ounces ; divide into four parts, and decoct one part to- 
gether with Astragalus hoangtchy ; combine one part with 
hornet's stings(?) and roast dry ; bake one part in bran until 
dry, and combine one part with Dendrobium, Mix these four 
portions together and powder. Tiiis is valued in the treatment 
of profuse perspiration. 

Fungus Pozvder ; /fC i5 ^ "^ (Mu-chan-ssu-san). This 
contains a substance called TfC t5 ^ (Mu-chan-ssu), which 
is described as a fungous growth on the camphor tree. Equal 
quantities of this, of licorice, Magnolia hypolenca, Asarum 
sieboldi, Tricosauthes multiloba, Siler divaricatum, ginger, 
ginseng, Platycodon grandiflorum, and Patrinia villosa are 
powdered together. It is useful in carbuncles and in all sorts 
of carcinomatous and infected sores. 

Glycine-malt Powder ; :^ fi H ^ (Ta-tou-nieh-san). This is 
made of malted hyspidia beans, roasted and powdered. It is used 
in marasmus and like difficulties, and is considered to benefit 
the five viscera, increasing secretion and making pliant the skin. 

Gourd Peduncle Powder ; J^ ^ ^ (Kua-ti-san). Take 
gourd peduncles browned to a yellow color, and Phaseolus 
radiatus, equal parts, and powder. This is used for the same 
purposes for which melon peduncles are recommended. 

Green Plum Powder ; ^ ^ ^ (Ch'ing-mei-san). Use 
the kernels of green Canarium seed, seven in number, dry and 


powder fine without either roasting in fire or washing in water. 
Also take twenty-one of the jade-butterfly plum flowers, ex- 
cluding the peduncles. Mix the powdered kernels and the 
flowers with two teaspoonfuls of white honey into a confec- 
tion. Tliis given to a child will prevent smallpox, or if already 
infected there will not come out more than two or three small 
spots of eruption. 

Headache Poivder ; gg il. JP at (T'ou-feng-mo-san). 
This is for external application, and consists of aconite root, 
pulverized, mixed with salt, and finely powdered. It is either 
rubbed directly into the temples, or mixed with oil and made 
into a pomade for the same purpose. 

Insufflation Powder ; P^ P^ ^ (Ch'ui-hou-san). Take 
large black dates, remove the pits, and put inside a Chinese 
nutgall, after having removed the worms from the latter. 
Add Fritillaria bulb, removing the heart, and wrap in a layer 
of mud, baking until dry. Then powder finely and use as an 
insufflation powder for all diseases of the throat. 

Jade Dragon Powder; ^ ft ^ (Yii-lung-san). Use 
Funkia subcordata flowers and snake skin, of each one-fifth 
ounce ; cloves, one-tenth ounce, and powder. This is used in 
suppression of urine. 

Mux vomica Powder ; J^ ~^ ^ (Ma-ch*ien-san). Take 
half an ounce of Nux vomica seeds, place in an iron vessel and 
roast in a sand bath until yellow ; then beat up in a mortar, 
and sift out all particles. Also of wild sesamum seeds, 
removing the husks, a half ounce ; olibanum and bamboo 
leaves roasted dry, a half ounce ; powder all finely together. 
This is for cancerous sores and abscesses, and for the relief of 
pain. The dose is, of course, very limited in quantity, on 
account of the poisonous character of the Nux vomica seeds. 

Permeating the Spirit Powder ; %, %% ^ (T'ung-shen- 
san). Use Phaseolus mungo husks, white chrysanthemum 
flowers, and Eriocaulon australe, of each equal parts. This is 
to be powdered and boiled together with dried persimmons and 
millet, and used in the treatment of eye 

Protecting the Heart Powder ; % i(^ ^ (Hu-hsin-san). 
Use Phaseolus mungo meal, one ounce ; olibanum, one-half 
ounce ; mix together and powder. This is to be taken with a 


decoction of licorice in cases of abscess and wasting due to 
discharging sores. 

Rubbing Bright Pozvder ; ^ ^%% (Mo-kiiang-san). Pre- 
pare a powder of the wild water chestnut by a process similar 
to that used for preparing arrowroot powder. Also take equal 
parts of Coptis teeta, Pterocarpus indicus, Scutellaria mac- 
rantha, sweet chrysanthemum flowers, and peppermint. First 
steep in water and evaporate the decoction, and then 
steep in child's urine and evaporate in the same way and 
mix the two powders ; also take a pearl and enclose it in a 
piece of bean curd and boil, after which powder finely. Take 
one ounce of the water chestnut powder, one-half ounce of the 
second preparation, and three-tenths ounce of the pearl powder ; 
mix, powder finely, and put into a porcelain bottle and cork 
tightly. When about to use, add a little Baroos camphor and 
drop the powder into the eye. This is considered to be a 
remarkably efficacious remedy in all forms of opacity of the 

Salvia Pozvder; j^ -^ "^ (Tan-shen-san). This is simply 
Salvia plebia washed clean, cut in slices, dried, and powdered. 
The dose is a fifth of an ounce to be taken in warm wine for 
all menstrual difficulties, whether early or late, too much or 
too little, or in pregnancy to quiet irritation in the last weeks, 
or to correct the discharges after delivery. It is also good for 
all forms of backache and pains in the bones and joints. 

Seven Candarin Pozvder; ^ ^ ^ (Ch'i-li-san). Use 
dragon bone (|| »^), borax, dragon's blood, catechu, Cannabis 
indica, and Forsythia suspensa, of each equal parts ; powder 
finely. The dose is seven candarins, and is used in the treat- 
ment of wounds as an anodyne. 

Seven Fairies Powder; ^ \^ ^ (Ch'i-hsien-tan). As- 
tragalus hoangtchy two ounces ; ginseng, one ounce ; licorice, 
one-half ounce ; Paris polyphylla, one ounce ; plum flowers, 
one and a half ounces ; Monochasma savatieri, one ounce ; 
human skull bone {^ g ^), one piece ; all powdered together. 
This is a remedy for preventing smallpox and for modifying 
the eruption. 

Seven Precious Powder; 't ^ ^ (Ch'i-pao-san). Use 
dragon bone, elephant's .skin, dragon's blood, ginseng, Gynura 

veg?:table kingdom:, 353 

piiinatifida, olibanum, myrrh, and laka wood, all powdered to- 
gether. This is thought to promote healing in wounds, and 
is a military men's remedy. 

Tzvo Floivers Poivder; Zl f^ ^ (Erh-hna-san), Take 
yellow plum flowers in any quantity and peach blossoms dried 
in the shade ; Crataegus fruits, remove the seeds, roast, and 
powder ■, a small L,ufFa cyiindrica, dried in the shade and 
powdered \ orange peel, ginseng, Astragulus hoangtchy, lico- 
rice, vermilion, Paris polyphylla, Monochasma savatiera, 
scaly ant eater, a human tooth, piece of skull, all powdered 
together. This is one of the many remedies used in the 
treatment of smallpox. 

PREMNA JAPONICA.— If ^ (Fu-pei). This term, 
** worthless slave-girl," is applied to the flower of Phaseolus 
nuDigo^ that of Pachyrizus thuiibeygianus^ and to a small tree 
which grows near the sea-shore. This last has a crooked stem, 
bears a yellow flower, and has a fetid smell. It is not quite 
certain which of these three is the drug mentioned in the 
Pentsao. Flowers are evidently referred to in the discussion of 
medicinal uses. Ague, fever, fluxes, alcoholism, and hemor- 
rhoids are treated with it. 

PRUNELLA VULGARIS,— H % 'W^ (Hsia-ku-ts'ao). 
See Briuiella vulgaris. 

PRUNUS ARMENIACA.— ^-(Hsing), H fg (T'ien-mei.) 
The apricot is said to have been indigenous in Sliansi. It is 
now cultivated in many parts of the country. There are 
several varieties, as ^ ^ (Chin-hsing), 7^ '^ (Mu-hsing), ^ ^ 
(Shan-hsing), g ^ (Pai-hsing), ^ ;^- (Sha-hsing), |g ^ (Mei- 
hsing), * ^ (Lai-hsing), and |^ ^ (Jou-hsing). These are 
all distinguished from each other in the Pentsao. The fruit 
is regarded as being somewhat deleterious, and if eaten in 
excess is thought to harm the bones and sinews, to promote 
blindness and falling of the hair, including that on the eye- 
brows and the e\e-lashes, to benumb the mental faculties, and 
to injure parturient women. It is considered to pertain to the 
heart, and therefore should be used in cases of heart disease. 
Dried and eaten, it is thirst-relieving and antifebrile. The 

354 chinesp: materia mrdica. 

kernel of the seed, 466, has been mistaken for the almond. 
But the fact is that the kernels of the apricot and of the peach 
are used in China instead of the almond, which is more or 
less rare. The kernel is considered to be somevviiat deleterious, 
and it is said tiiat a double kernel will kill a man, and may be 
used to poison a dog-. Ordinarily, the cahx of the apricot 
flower is five-parted, but it a six-parted one is found, the seed 
will contain a double kernel. Sedative, tnssic, antispasmodic, 
demulcent, pectoral, vulnerary, and anthelmintic properties are 
ascribed to these kernels, and a number of nostrums are 
prepared with them, and they are prescribed in a great variety of 
difficulties. A kind of fatty confection, called ^ gf;; (Hsing-su), 
is made from the kernels, and they are also used together with 
peach and other kernels in producing a kind of bland oil, called 
-rf fc ?Hl (Hsing-jen-yu). One form of the confection, in which 
oinger and licorice are combined with the kernels, is used 
as a tnssic and expectorant remedy, while the other, which 
is prepared by a process of fermentation, is more especially 
used as a prophylactic and tonic. A decoction, called :^ {z '/# 
(Hsing-jen-t'ang), is made by crushing the blanched kernels in 
boiling water, with the addition of other drugs and flavoring 
ingredients. This is sold in the streets of some Chinese towns, 
much as sassafras tea is in European cities, as a kind of ptisan. 
It is given in coughs, asthma, and catarrhal affections. The 
juice of apricot kernels is added to rice-congee, and given in 
hemorrhages, the kernels being sometimes parched beforehand. 
They are also crushed and made into a paste, which is applied 
to the eye in inflammations of that organ. Apricot flowers are 
considered to be tonic and are a woman's remedy, promoting 
fecundity. They are also used in cosmetic preparations. The 
leaves are recommended in decoction for plethora, the branches 
in injuries, and the root is said to be antidotal to the poison of 
the kernels. This latter illustrates a popular belief of the 
Chinese doctors, who regard the root of a plant as the polar 
antagonist of the stem and all that is borne upon it, so that if 
one is poisonous, the other will furnish the antidote. 

PRUNUS COMMUNIS, Amygdala communis. — '^ _£ :^ 
(Pa-tan-hsing). This is brought from Mohammedan countries, 


but is said now to be grown in Kansu and Mongolia. The 
tree and fruit is fairly well described in the Pentsao. The 
kernel is used in coughs, flatulence, and heartburn. 

PRUNUS JAPONICA.— 15 ^ (Yu-li), 1551, % )^ 
(T'ang-ti), '^ |^ (Ch'iao-niei). Tlie second name is also 
written H kt (T'ang-ti) and ^ \% (Ch'ang-ti). This is a 
small tree, six or seven feet in height, growing in the mountain 
valleys of Kiangsu, bearing a small, red fruit, like a cherry, 
having a rather harsh, sour taste and edible, but not much 
used. It is sometimes made into sweetmeats, and for that 
reason, and for the kernels of the seeds, the tree is cultivated 
in some parts of China. The kernels are either dried, or put 
lip in a sort of confection with honey, and used in medicine. 
They have a bitterish-sour- taste, and demulcent, diuretic 
lenitive, and deobstruent properties are ascribed to them. They 
are given in dropsy, rheumatism, fevers, cardialgia, indicres- 
tion, constipation, and mixed with Baroos camphor are used in 
ophthalmia. The root of the tree is used in affections of the 
teeth, constipation, fevers of children, and to destroy pin worms. 

PRUNUS MUME.— 1^ (.Mei). This is said to have been 
indigenous to Shensi, but is now found in many of the prov- 
inces. There are a great many varieties, both wild and 
cultivated. There are also several kinds of the prepared 
fruits. If plums are gathered half ripe and smoked, they 
constitute what is called ^ |g (Wu-mei), "black-plums ;" if 
the green ones are pickled in brine and then dried, thev are 
called g ^ (Pai-mei) ; they are also made into a confection. 
The ripe plums are put in a press and the juice expressed, to be 
used as an addition to water for a cooling summer drink. 
Plums, if taken freely, are not considered to be entirely free 
from deleterious effects. They are said to injure the teeth, 
harm the tendons, corrode the spleen and stomach, and inflame 
the diaphragm. The "black plums" mentioned above are 
considered to be carminative, antifebrile, and antispasmodic, 
and they are recommended in fluxes, malaria, choleraic 
difficulties, nausea, intestinal worms, fish and sulphur poison- 
ing, and poisoning from the bite of a horse. They are soaked 


in water and tlie infusion given in typhoid fever to relieve 
thirst. The 'Svhite plums/' also known as "-salted plums," 
are much relished as a savory pickle, aiid will be found at most 
Chinese feasts, under the name of ^ |^ (Ch'ing-mei). Tliey 
are crushed and applied locally as a styptic in incised wounds, 
in cancer of the breast, and are taken internally in epilepsy, 
fluxes, and choleraic afFectioiis, menorrhagia, and the like. 
The kernels of the seeds are considered strengthening and 
cooling, and are crushed, mixed with vinegar, and applied 
to a felon on the finger. The flowers are added to various 
congees and other preparations, and are thought to iniprove 
the strength-giving qualities of these. The leaves are nsed in 
fluxes and menorrhagia. The root is prescribed for colds and 
fluxes, and it is taken, together with that of the peach and of 
the domestic plum, and decocted in water for a bath for a new 
born infant, with the result that the infant will remain free 
from prickly heat and boils. 

PRUNUS PERSIC A.— I'^ (T^ioj. The peach is indigen- 
ous to China, which is also show'n by the character represent- 
ing it being one of the few ancient, unchanged characters. 
The wood of the tree is used in fortune telling, and this is 
indicated by the composition of the character ; the right hand 
part meaning " omen^' and the left meaning *'wood." It is 
also suggested that the right side of the character means a 
million, and that this refers to the prolific character of the tree 
as to leaves, flowers, and fruit. The varieties of peaches in 
China are very numerous, and marvelous stories are told in 
regard to the size of some of the friiits. Also, there is an account 
of having grafted the peach upon persimmon and plum trees, 
and prod\icing a modified fruit. In the former case it is called 
^ ^j^ (Chin-t'ao), and in the latter ^ ^fc (Li-t'ao) or ;fg ^ (Mei- 
t*ao). It is said that the fruit is heating and produces fever 
if taken in excess. It improves the complexion, and as a fruit, 
belongs to the lungs and should be freely used in diseases 
of that organ. The late variety, known as ^ t^fe (Tung-t'ao), 
is recommended for the feverishness of work or anxiety. The 
kernel of the seed, 1257, is often combined with, or substituted 
for, the kernels of the apricot seed, and it is these which have 


been mistaken for almonds. They are recommended for 
conghs, blood-diseases, rbenmatism, amenorrboea, ague, post- 
partum hemorrhage, and worms. Crushed and mixed with 
honey, tliey make an application for keeping the hands smooth, 
if applied at night. The hairy pellicle of the .skin of the fruit 
is used in hemorrhages and eval effluvia. The fruit which 
bangs on the tree all winter and is gathered in the early 
spring, is called f^^ ^ (T'ao-hsiao), 3^}£. f^ (T'ao-nu), and ijil^ f^ 
(Sben-t'ao). Another name means " demon's skull." These 
are regarded as slightly deleterious, and have the power of 
overcoming every kind, of demoniac influence and of relieving 
many sorts of neuralgic and rheumatic pains. Profuse sweat- 
ing in children, hemorrhage in pregnant women, ague, scald- 
bead, and sickness from the over-ingestion of peaches are all 
treated with these. The flowers of the peach tree are supposed 
to have some supernatural power in driving away the demon 
of ill health, giving a good color to the complexion, and rejoic- 
ing the countenance. They are regarded as diuretic, vermi- 
fuge, and quieting, and they are applied locally in favus and 
acne, and as a cosmetic. The leaves, 1259, are regarded as 
parasiticide, antifebrile, and astringent, and are prescribed in 
typhoid and other fevers as a diuretic and corrective remedy, 
and in cholera. The bark of the tree and root, 1258, are both 
used, but preference is given to the latter, and especially to 
the bark of that root extending toward the east. Only the 
white inner bark is employed. It is considered to be pro- 
phylactic, parasiticide, and quieting. Extreme jaundice, 
epidemics, and dropsy are special indications for its use. The 
peach gum (f^^ fl^, T'ao-chiao) is also used as a sedative, 
alterative, astringent, and demulcent remedy. Peach-wood 
slips, l^^fe ^ (T'ao-fu), are used as charms against evil spirits. 
These are sometimes affixed to the lintels of the door, or the 
lintel is made of peach wood. Posts of peach-wood, called 
^ Wi (T'ao-chueh), are also set out about the house for the 
same purpose. The epiphyte growing on the peach tree, ^^^ ^ 
^ (T'ao-chi-sheng), is said to partake of the medicinal prop- 
erties of the tree, as do also the grubs, )|?|^ -^ (T'ao-tu), which 
infest the wood. The f^ felt (Yu-t'ao) is the nectarine, and 
^ ij'Jfe (Ping-t'ao) and [g; t^fe (Ho-t'ao) are the names of a flat 


variety, of excellent flavor and of foreign origin. The peaches 
of Honan province are especially of fine quality and flavor. 
The difficnlty is that the Chinese almost never allow the fruit 
to ripen on the tree, but pluck and eat it quite green. Former- 
ly a sort of vinegar was made from the pulp of ripe peaches. 

PRUNUS PSEUDO-CERASUS.— ^ f;!lS (Ying-t'ao). 
This, tiie Chinese or bastard-cherry, is very similar to the 
European kind, but differs from it in having its flowers grow 
in racemes, instead of in fascicles, and in the stems being 
hairy. The classical name is ^ \^]^ (Han-t'ao). The large, 
sweet cherries are called H ^ (Yai-mi). The fruit is said to 
harmonize the centers, to benefit the disposition, and to give 
a good complexion and a hopeful will. It prevents the loss of 
virility and checks fluxes. The leaves of the tree are bruised 
and applied in snake bite. The root on the east side of the 
tree is good in pin worms. The twigs are rubbed together 
with Sa/viiiia na/ans^ Gleditschia officinalis^ and pickled plums 
([^ ;f^), and used as an application for freckles. Tiie flowers 
are also used as a cosmetic. The fruit of the cherry is often 
preserved with honey and used as a sweet-meat. 

PRUNUS SPINUL03A.— 11^ zf: (Lin-mu). This is an 
identification of Faber's ; but upon what authority he does not 
state. The Pentsao givc^ little description of the tree, except to 
say that it is a large tree growing in the mountainous districts 
of Central China, that it bears a white flower, and that its wood 
is used in dyeing brown, and the leaves are sometimes distilled 
with spirits. Rice is cooked with the lye from the ashes of 
this tree, and eaten to cure dyspepsia and intestinal worms, 

PRUNUS TOMENTOSA. — ^J if 'ik (Shan-ying-t'ao\ 
^ \% (Chu-t'ao), ^ \% (Li-t'ao), fg fg (Mei-t'ao). This cherry 
does not have a good taste, so it is not much eaten. It has 
the same qualities and medicinal uses as the ordinary cherry. 

PRUNUS TRIFLORA, Prumis domcstica.—^ (Li), B M. 
^ (Chia-ch'ing-tzu). Although the character for this plum is 
very old, the tree is not mentioned as being indigenous to 
China ; but on the other hand the equivalent Sanscrit name of 


!^ ^M 'M (Cliii-liiig-chia'> is given, indicating that it may have 
been inlroduced from India or Persia. There are very many 
varieties oi" these plums in China (Li Shih-chen says nearly a 
hundred) varying in size, color, shape, and flavor. INIost of 
the finest varieties are found in the northern provinces. Those 
plums which do not sink in water are considered deleterious, 
and should not be eaten. If eaten in excess, they are thought 
to cause dropsical swelling. There is also some suggestion of 
them causing choleraic difficulties. When eaten dried, they 
are thought to drive away chronic di.sease and harmonise the 
centers. They pertain to the liver, and should be eaten in 
diseases of that organ. The kernels of the seeds are used in 
sprains, bruises, injuries to bones, in hysterical phantom tumor, 
and in dark spots on the face (ff). Their ingestion is said to 
improve the complexion. The white bark of the root is 
considered to be very cooling, and is therefore used in thirst 
and febrile difficulties. In decoction it is also used in ulcers, 
toothache, fluxes, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, and fevers of 
children. The flowers are added to cosmetic preparations. The 
leaves are used in intenuittent fever and epileptoid affections 
of children. The gum of the tree is recommended in pannus, 
to stop pain and relieve swelling. 

PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA.— ^ f- flg- (Pu-ku-chih). 
^ Ik !^fi (P'o-ku-chih), 1042, ^ El |& (P'o-ku-chih). This 
drug is said to come from Persia, and the above names are prob- 
ably transliterations. The plant is now found in Lingnan 
and Szechuan. The flat, oval or slightly reniform, black one- 
seeded legumes are about two or three lines long, and often 
retain the persistent, five-lobed calyx. They have an aromatic 
odor, and a bitter, aromatic flavor. They are regarded as 
highly aphrodisiac and tonic to the genital organs, and are 
prescribed in all forms of sexual incompetency. Threatened 
abortion, the discomforts of piegnaucy, insufficient erections, 
polyuria, and incontinence of urine in children, are difficulties 
for which the drug is administered. 

PTERIS AQUALINA.— fj (Chiieh). The diff"erent 
kinds of ferns are not clearly distinguished from each other. 


But the description given in the Pentsao answers well enough 
to PU'7'is. There is some confounding of the genus with 
Osmtinda, The thallus and root-stock are both eaten and used 
medicinally, and they are sweet, mucilaginous, and cooliiio-. 
They expel fever, benefit the water passages, and promote 
sleep. Tonic properties are also ascribed to them. d|. p 
j§ % (Chiug-k'ou-pien-ts'ao), E >i ^ (Feiig-wei-tsao), ifj; ^ 
:^ (Hung-mao-ts'ao), and 4^ 'fej^ [^ (Wu-kung-ts'ao), 1461, are 
other names for Pleris^ but are not distinguished in the Pentsao. 
7JC ^* (Shui-chiieh) is Ccratopteris thalictroides^ and is much 
esteemed as a food. The root-stock has a sliohtlv bitter taste, 
and it is regarded as eliminative and is used in constipation. 

This is described in the Pentsao under the article on Santalum 
album. The Chinese do not distinguish clearly between this 
7'ed saimders and sandal-wood. It is not grown in China, but 
comes from the region of the Kunlun mountains, and is not 
fragrant like the sandal wood. Mr. Eitel (Handbook of 
Chinese Buddhism) gives tailaparni or rakta tchandana as 
Sanscrit names of this wood. He also speaks of a kind of 
copper-brown sandal-wood under the Sanscrit name o{ s^osirclia 
tchandana., which is rendered into Chinese as ^ ft j^ fg (Niu- 
shou-chan-t'an). The saunders wood being of a red color is 
considered a blood remedy ; therefore it is used in wounds, 
ulcers, and the like, to check hemorrhage and suppuration. 
It is not used for anything else. 

PTEROCARYA STENOPTERA.— <i (Chii), \% ;^p 
(Chii-liu). Henry thus identifies this tree as it grows in 
Hupeh. In other parts of China and in Japan the first name 
is applied to an elm-like tree, the wood of which is highly 
valued for making boxes and tables. In the latter country 
this is identified as Ulmus keaki or Ze/kowa keaki. The seed 
vessels of this look like small coins, and the country people 
use the leaves as a substitute for tea. The description in the 
Pentsao is very faulty, and does not distinguish between these ; 
so the identification of Henry is here adopted. The bark of 
the tree is used in medicine, and it is directed that it shall be 


taken from the west half of a tree over twenty years old. Its 
action is said to be antifebrile and astringent, and is prescribed 
in dysentery, anasarca, and conjunctivitis. The leaves are 
used locally in eroding ulcers. 

PUERARIA. — H (K^o)- See Pachyrhizus thunbergianus. 

PULSATILLA. — See Anemone cerjiua. 

PUNICA GRANATUM.— ^ ;5 ^ (An-shih-liu). The 
pomegranate is not indigenous to China, but was introduced by 
the famous general Chang Chien (circa B.C. 120), from Kabul 
or Parthia, as indicated by the first two characters. The last 
character is explained by ^, a tumor or wen, and refers to the 
appearance of the fruit when burst open. Three kinds are 
spoken of in the Penisao^ a red-flowered, a yellow-flowered, 
and a white-flowered, bearing sweet, sour, and bitter fruits 
respectively. The last is called llj ^ ^ (Shan-shih-liu), 
whicli name is also referred to under the article on Rhododen- 
dron indicum^ and may refer to that shrub. Several varieties 
are also mentioned, and the plant is much cultivated by 
Chinese gardeners for its flowers ; some very beautiful ones 
being produced, among which is one bearing large white 
flowers. The red fruit, bursting open and revealing its 
numerous seeds, is compared to a grinning mouth showing the 
teeth. The fruit is much relished by the Chinese, who 
always seem to have spare time enough to devote to the 
ingestion of pomegranates and melon seeds. The sweet 
pomegranate, if eaten in excess, is said to injure the lungs. 
It is thirst-relieving, and is prescribed in caked-breast and 
worms. The fruit of the sour kind is used in fluxes from the 
bowels, colic, menorrhagia, and leucorrhcea. The peel, 1155, 
is astringent, and is used in dysentery, seminal losses, paralyses, 
incoordination in the muscles, intestinal worms, prolapse of 
the rectum, and fluxes of all kinds. The eastward-extending 
root is anthelmintic and astringent. It is used in diseases of 
the month or gums, in the diseases for which the peel is used, 
and in dyes for the hair or whiskers. The flowers, 1154, if 
dried, pulverized, mixed with iron, and taken for a year, cause 
the hair to turn white. They are also styptic and astringent. 


PYCNOSTELMA CHINENSIS.— 1^ ^ fp (Hsii-cli'ang- 
ch'ing). This is confounded in the Peiilsao vvilh Macroclini- 
dium verticillattun ; but the latter is a composite plant, while 
this is an asclepiadaceous one. The name of the plant is 
properly the name of a man, a famous physician for whom the 
plant was named. The description is not very character- 
istic. The root is said to resemble that of Asarnju sieboldi. 
The taste of the drug is acrid and it is somewhat deleterious. 
It is used in driving away evil effluvia, in the treatment of 
marasmus, and for the purpose of quieting nervous affections, 
and is also recommended in car and ship sickness (vertigo). 

PYROLA ROTUNDIFOLIA, Pyrola media. — "^ 1% ^ 
(Lu-ti-ts'ao), 764. This zvintergreen is found in similar 
localities in China to those occupied by it m America. There 
is not much description of it. The plant is bruised and 
applied to wounds to staunch hemorrhage, and it is also 
applied to serpent, dog, and insect bites. 

PYRUS BACCATA.— ^ % (T'ang-li). Also called 
Pvriis betiilisfolia. This is a small coarse pear, originally 
growing wild in mountainous districts. It is net fit to eat 
until after heavy frost. There are two varieties, a sweet and 
a sour, bearing white and red flowers respectively. The wood 
of the red variety is also red, and is good for making bows. 
The leaves of this tree are sometimes pickled and eaten, or 
used as a substitute for tea. The flowers also can be roasted 
and eaten, or ground up and made into cakes. These are 
said to benefit the muscles. The fruits, if baked, are said to 
cure mucous diarrhoea. The twigs and leaves are prescribed 
in cholera and choleraic difficulties, including cramps and 
colic, and in vomiting. 

PYRUS CATHAYENSIS.— Tfc JR (Mu-kua), 866. This 
is the same as Cydonia sinensis. The Chinese term is used in 
the south for Cat'iea papaya. But in the north the name is ap- 
plied to the qnifice^ and the description in the Pentsao evidently 
refers to this fruit, although some of the varieties mentioned 
may refer to Carica. An ancient name for the quince is 

vp:gktable kingdom. 363 

If]' (Mou). The tree is found in Persia, Nepal, the Himalayas, 
and North India. In China it is found chiefly in the Yangtse 
provinces, especially Anhui, where it is largely cultivated ; 
that from Hsiianclien, in Ningkuo prefecture, being considered 
the best. The sour fruit is well described in the Pentsao^ and 
it is sliced and dried, 868, and used in medicine. It is pre- 
scribed as an astringent in choleraic affections, and is thought 
to quiet spasm. Digestive, thirst-relieving, and diuretic prop- 
erties are also ascribed to it. The seeds are prescribed in 
choleraic troubles, along with warm water, probably for their 
demulcent properties. The twigs, leaves, bark, and root are 
used in similar difficulties, presumably as astringents. The 
flowers are used in cosmetic preparations. 

Another kind of small quince is described under the name 
of tl 1- (Cha-tzu) or % ^ (Mu-t'ao). The first character 
refers to CratcEgiis : but in Japan, and probably in China, 
these terms are applied to Pyrus japonica^ var. pxgrncea 
i^Cydonia japoniai). They are specially grown in Mengchou, 
Honan. The color is yellowish, the taste sour, and the fruit 
is smaller than the ordinary quince. It has a coarse peduncle 
and core, and the seeds are round. If eaten in excess these 
fruits are said to injure the teeth and tendons. They are 
recommended in dysentery, pyrosis, and choleraic affections. 

A third kind is described under the terms ^ |g (Ming- 
cha), Tf: ^ (Mu-li), and Tf; ^ (Mu-li). This is known in 
Japan as Pynis chiticnses or Cydo)iia vulgaris. It is a very 
large quince of a yellow color. The Taoists take the expressed 
juice of the green fruit and mix it with powdered spikenard 
and ScropJmlaria root, and make an incense which is said to be 
very agreeable to the gods. The action of the fruit is considered 
to be antivinous, resolvent, antacid, and astringent Soaked in 
oil and used as a bandoline, it "cures" grey or red hair. 

A fourth kind is called \^ \^ (Wen-po). This is a very 
small variety, and the fruit is often mistaken for that of 
Cratcsgits. The tree resembles that of Pyrus maliis^ and bears 
a greenish white flower. Faber calls it Pyrus cydonia^ as it is 
also called in Japan. The taste is between sweet and sour, and 
is cooling. It is peptic, carminative, astringent, and antivinous. 
The bark of the tree is used in ulcers, probably as an astringent. 


PYRUS MALUS.— # \% (Lin-ch'in), ^ (Nai), ^ ff 
(Lai-ch'in), ^ ^X (Hua-buiig). This is discussed in the Pentsao 
under two articles, to which are attached the first and second 
terms respectively. The Lin-chHn is also called ^ ^ ^|) :^ 
(Wen-lin-lang-kuo), because it is said that a man named Wen 
Lin-lang found a tree floating in the river, and took it up and 
planted it, producing this fruit. In the south it is con- 
founded with the tm ^# (VVen-po). There are two varieties, 
a sweet, ripening early, and a sour, ripening later. There 
are also several varieties distinguished by the color of the 
fruit. The ripe apples are crushed, dried, pulverised, and 
made into a decoction called ^ \% ^ (Lin-ch'in-ch'ao), which 
is used by Buddhist priests. These fruits are also sometimes 
confounded with CratcEgiis. If eaten in excess, the fruits are 
said to depress the circulation. Medicinally, they are said to 
dispel gas, dissolve mucus, and cure fluxes. The root is con- 
sidered anthelmintic, thirst-relieving, and sleep promoting. 

The Nai is also called ^ ^ (P'in-p'o), which seems to 
represent a Sanscrit name, but is also said to be used in the 
north. The fruit is found principally in the northern provinces, 
is larger than the Lin-ch''in and is fouud in white, red, and 
green varieties, and also a winter variety, which is pearl colored. 
The fruit is considered to be slightly deleterious, producing 
flatulence and consumption, aud if eaten by the sick increases 
the difficulty. Tonic, antifebrile, and constructive properties 
are attributed to this fruit. Pynis tomentosa is included 
among these. PHn-p''o is also applied to Sterculia lanceolata^ 
and ^ ^ (P'in-kuo) is a term applied to the large, green, 
cultivated apple. 

PYRUS SINENSIS.— 14 (Li). This is the common 
Chinese pear, which is very similar to our Pyriis conitmmis. 
There are many varieties, of which the best is the j^ % (Pai- 
li) or white pear. The fruit is small, globular, yellowish- 
white, and has the appearance of an apple. It is very savory. 
A large white pear, the size of a fist, is called f^D ^ (Yii-li), 
"Imperial pear," has a crisp flesh, is very juicy, and is of 
fine flavor. The j^ ^ (Sha-li) is a coarser kind, but in much 
favor with the Chinese in all parts of the empire. It bakes 


well, but is scarcely fit to eat in the raw state. The pear has 
been known in China from very ancient times, and is probably 
indigenous. It was introduced into India and J'^pan from 
China, and may have been earned to other parts of the world. 
The characters ^ (Li) and ^ (T'ang) are generic, and the 
former is very ancient. The eating of the fruit in the cool 
weather is thought to produce weakness ; and those suffering 
from wounds, nursing women, and the anaemic should not eat 
it. It is considered to be antifebrile, peptic, quieting to the 
nerves, and lubricating to the lungs. The flowers are used 
in cosmetic preparations, the leaves are astringent, and the 
bark is antiseptic. 

A kind of wild pear is called jg ^ (Lu-li), ^ ^ (Shu-li), 
and ]l\ % (Shan-li). The fruit is as large as an apricot, the 
leaf looks like a tea-leaf, and the root is about the size of a 
thumb. The fruit is used in dysentery, and the bark of the 
root is used as an astringent in wounds and itch. 

Another kind is called ^ '^ ^ (Sha-t'ang-kuo). It grows 
in Lingnan, bears a yellow flower and red fruit, which tastes 
like a plum, but has no pit. The fruit is recommended for 
* 'water" diseases. Still another is called :^ •? (Shan-tzu), 
and it grows in Kiangnan. The fruit does not ripen until 
winter, has a sour taste, and the seeds are quite hard. If eaten 
raw, it cures diarrhoea, and when ripe cures cough. 

PYRUS SPECTABILIS.— ^ ^ (Hai-t'ang), ^ ,fl (Hai- 
hung). This fruit is said to come originally from Hsinlo 
(Korea). Szechuan furnishes large quantities ; but the best 
kinds come from Kiangnan. It is a long stemmed crab-apple, 
red and sour. It bears a beautiful red flower. Its medicinal 
uses are limited to being recommended in fluxes. 



QUERCUS. — More than forty species of Qiiercus have 
been found in China, but identifications of the Chinese names 
are exceedingly unsatisfactory. %^ (Tso), ^ (Li), \% (Hu), f|t 
(Chu), and ^ (Hsiang) are all characters specifically applied to 
this genns ; but they are often used in combination with each 
other, and with other characters in different parts of the empire, 
to indicate different species. The first character is generic, 
but not common. The second is referred to Quercus scrrata ; 
the third to Qiicrcns dcntata ; the fourth to Quercus scleroph\lla 
and Quercus glanca ; the fifth is Quercus sinensis^ but is 
also applied to the acorns of the ^ (Li). Other characters 
applied to this genus are \^ (Yii), ^^ (P'o), % (Hsii), ft (Chu), 
\% (Ch'iu), It (Su), S (Chiang), tt (Yu), |^ (Chou), ^ (Fou), 
and |p[ (Ko). This array of characters indicates a wide range 
of terminology, if only they were specifically assigned to 
definite species. Since identifications are so difficult, it will 
only be possible to follow the Pentsao in its various accounts of 
the trees of this genus and their products. 

^ ^ (Chu-tzti). This is an evergreen oak, smaller than 
the ;jf< (Hsiang). There are two kinds, the bitter and the 
sweet, and the latter is edible. The leaves are like those 
of the chestnut, pointed, thick, and shining, with deep serra- 
tions. The sweet acorns are smaller than the bitter, and 
the o-rain of the wood is fine and the wood white. The 
acorns are called ^ |g| (Mien-chu), Quercus gla^ica (?). In the 
case of the bitter variety, the grain of the wood is coarse and 
red, giving the name j^ ^ (Hsiieh-chu), Quercus actita (?) ; 
or black, when it is called %% fit (T'ieh-chu). The wood 
is used for making pillars for houses and coffins, because 
it does not easily decay. The ingestion of the acorns is con- 
sidered to be highly beneficial, being nourishing, relieving 
thirst, and checking diarrhoea. A decoction of the bark and 
leaves is used to check hemorrhage in puerperal women, 
and tender, young leaves are applied to chronic ulcers. The 
sweet acorns are also called |^ |g (Kou-li) and ^ fqj ^ (Ch'ao- 


^t ^ (Hsiang-shili) are said to be the fruits of the |^ (Li), 
which is made to be identical with the :^^ (Tso). The fruit is 
also called ^ ^ (Tsao-tou), because of the shape of the 
cupules and the fact that they are used to dj-e black. There 
are two kinds of the Li\ one which does not bear fruits (sterile 
flowered), which is called |^ (Yii), and which has a red lieart 
wood ; the other bears fruits (fertile flowered), called ||5 (Hsii), 
which bears the acorns referred to in this paragraph. The 
people in the mountainous districts where these acorns grow 
eat them cooked whole or ground into meal ; when they are 
very plentiful they are fed to pigs to fatten them. The young 
leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tea. The acorns 
are recommended in fluxes and as a nourishing food. The 
cupules, powdered and decocted, are used as an astringent in 
fluxes, menorrhagia, and prolapse of the rectum. As a black 
dye, they are sometimes used to color the whiskers and hair. 
The bark of the wood and of the root is used as an astringent 
and cleansing dressing in foul sores, in flnxes, and as an appli- 
cation to promote absorption of tuberculous nodules. The 
cupules of the acorn are called ^ /j^ -^ (Hsiang-wan-tzti). 

11^ ^ (Hu-shih). The //// is a common tree in the 
mountains. It resembles the Lt\ and is therefore called ^ 3^ 
i^ (Ta-yeh-li), Qiiercus aliena (?). Other names are )^\ ^ 
(Hu-su) and :j^ ^ (P'o-su). The acorns of this species are 
small, the wood is also inferior, and is not used by mechanics, but 
is employed tor fuel and for charring. As known in the north, 
this tree has obovate, sinuate leaves, with a very short petiole, 
and on young trees they attain to enormous size, being often 
as much as two feet long and correspondingly broad. The 
acorns of this tree have the same medicinal properties as those 
of the % (Hsiang). The leaves, called \^\ ^ (Hu-jo), are 
astringent in hemorrhoids, dysentery, and hemorrhages, and 
are considered thirst-relieving and diuretic. They are also 
applied to the face, in decoction, to relieve congestion and 
erythema. The bark of the wood is said to be anthelmintic, 
and is used in decoction as an astringent in excessive dis- 
charges, foul sores, enlarged glands, and dysenteries. 

|pj" ^ (Ko-shu) is identified as Quercus cuspidata. It is 
said to grow in the mountainous districts of the Kuang {^ 


provinces, and its wood was said to have been used by the 
Persians for making ships. The bark is used medicinally, and 
is considered to be slightly deleterious. It is regarded as a 
drastic, and is used in ascites. 

QUISQUALIS INDICA.— -^g:? (Shih-chiin-tzu), 1145. 
It is said that a famous physician named f [5 -^ S (Kuo Shih- 
chiin) made a specialty of treating children's diseases, and 
extensively used this drug for the purpose ; therefore it was 
given his name. It is a combretaceous plant which originally 
came from the south, but is now grown in Fukien. It is not 
difficult of cultivation, is a climbing vine growing upon trees 
or poles, and has green leaves resembling those of Acantho- 
panax. In the fifth month it bears a bnnch of fifteen or twenty 
red flowers. The fruits are about an inch or an inch and a half 
long, oblong, pointed at both ends, with a slight obliquity, and 
sharply pentagonal. The pericarp is smooth, hard, thin be- 
tween the ridges, of a dark brown or black color, and enclos- 
ing an oily seed with two cotyledons, which should be of a 
yellow color. The taste is by no means unpleasant. Fruits 
showing any signs of dehiscence, or at all worm eaten, should 
be rejected. The principal property of the drng is that of a safe 
and efficient vermifuge. It is said to cure the hundred diseases 
of children, of which it is safe to say that in China from seventy 
to ninety are due to animal parasites. The ^ (Kan) disease 
(marasmus), and the ^ ^ (P'i-k'uai), enlarged abdomen in 
children, both of which are due to intestinal worms, are 
successfully treated with it. It is also given in the diarrhoeas 
and leucorrhoeal discharges of children, which likewise are 
frequently due to nematode infection. Macerated in oil, it 
is applied to parasitic skin diseases. Four or five seeds, 
roasted and eaten on the first morning of the month before 
taking food, is the usual method of administering the drug to 
Chinese children, and this seldom fails to expel worms. Few 
children are brought to the mission hospitals for simple worm 
infectious. There are two reasons why this is so : namely, 
that the Chinese have such an excellent vermifuge in these 
Quisqualis fruits, and because they believe that worms are 
necessary in the process of digestion, especially to voracious 


and omnivorous children. The creeper is the lianc vermifuge 
of the Mauritius, where the drug has caused spasms and 
other ill effects when given in quantities of more than four or 
five fruits. According to Dr. Waring's account in the Indian 
Pharmacopoeia, in the Moluccas the drug has long enjoyed a 
high repute as an anthelmintic. He says that the scandent 
shrub is met with in Burma, the Malayan archipelago, and in 
gardens in India, where it is called the Rangoon creeper. He 
recommends that four or five of the seeds be bruised and given 
with honey or jam, as an electuary, which suffices to expel 
the worms of children, especially lumbrici. The drug is cheap 
in China ; but will scarcely supplant the more convenient and 
equally effective santonin in hospital practice. 

-*— 00c— «- 



RANUNCULUS ACRIS.— ^ ;g (Mao-ken). It is also 
called ^ §^ (Mao-chin), because it resembles aconite or CEji- 
antJie^ but is hairy. This grows by water courses and is 
said to be eaten by crabs. If men eat it by mistake, it pro- 
duces a sort of maniacal delirium. The leaves and seeds are 
used externally as blisters and counter-irritants, in foul sores, 
caucer, and as a derivative in inflammation. It is applied as an 
epispastic to the back in ague, in men to the left of the spine 
and in women to the right, as the "door of life" (-^ P^) is 
supposed to vary in this way in the sexes. It is bruised with 
ginger root, and the juice applied to the abdomen in colic. 
It does not seem to be used internally. 

RANUNCULUS SCLERATUS.— ;5 f| ^ (Shih-lung- 
jui). Also called ^ g (K'u-chin), "bitter aconite." It grows 
in hilly country to the height of about one foot, is usually 
found by water courses, has ternate, dissected, glabrous leaves, 
and bears small yellow flowers. The fruit is green, as large 
as a bean, and resembles an unripe mulberry. For this reason 
it is called % |i (Ti-shen), "ground mulberry." The young 
leaves of the plant are sometimes eaten as a vegetable. The 
seeds are used in medicine, and are considered to be tonic. 
They are prescribed in colds, rheumatism, spermatorrhoea, and 
general debility. 

RANUNCULUS Sp.— |^ j^ % (Yeh-ch'iu-ts'ai), ^ % 
(Lang-tu). Different genera of ranuuculaceous plants are often 
confounded by the Chinese, and we see these terms applied to 
Aconitum^ Actea^ Heleborus^ and Rammciilus^ as well as to 
solonaceous plants, Apium, and Cicuta. The first is also iden- 
tified as Cardamine hirsiita. See Apium graveoleus^ Cory- 
dalis incisa^ and Mandragora. 

RAPHANUS SATIVUS.— M il (Lo-po). This is the 
common name for the radish, but includes all napiform roots, 
including beet root. The old name is ^ jjg (Lai-fu). The 


plant seems to be indigenous to China, and to have been 
cultivated from remote antiquity. Judging from the similarity 
of the names by which it is known, it seems to have been 
introduced into adjacent countries from China. In Annam 
and the Malay peninsula it is called lobac ; in Thibet, lapJing ; 
and in Mongolia, laopang and lobi)i. In Persia it is called 
turicp^ and from this our English word turnip is probably 
derived. The Pentsao gives a good description of the plant, 
and notes its resemblance to the ^ ^- (Wu-ch'ing), rape. 
Many varieties are found in China, most of which are sweet, 
but some are coarse and acrid. The use of the root as food is 
regarded as carminative and corrective. The Chinese cook 
radishes with stale meat, and claim that it prevents ptomaine 
poisoning. Radishes are crushed and applied locally as a 
dressing or poultice to burns, scalds, fetid feet, ecchymoses, 
and the like. The seeds, 688, are considered to be expector- 
ant, peptic, diuretic, carminative, and corrective. A decoction 
is used to bring out the rash in eruptive fevers. The flowers 
fermented in wine are taken to produce brilliancy of the eyes. 
Another kind of sweet radish, which is specially relished in 
the raw state, is called 7JC || ^§1 (Shui-lo-po), and is found in its 
best state in the province of Shantung. 

RKHxMANNIA GLUTINOSA.— J^^ ^ (Ti-huang), 1264. 
This is a common plant in North China, said to resemble 
Plantago in some respects. It was at first called Digitalis 
ghitinosa., but was found to represent a different, but related 
genus. It is probable that the mistaken identity of Digitalis 
ptirptira as ^ j^ ^ (Mao-ti-huang) arose from this fact. The 
scapes and leaves are covered with hairs, the flowers red and 
yellow, the fruit a capsule, the seeds small and greyish-brown, 
and the root large and juicy, especially in rich soil. The 
root is prepared for medicine by washing clean and drying 
in the sun, when it presents the appearance of dark, soft, 
wrinkled, spindle-shaped masses, sometimes more or less flat- 
tened, from two to five inches long, black in color, moist in 
section, and having a sweetish taste. In this state it is known 
as ^ i^ ^ (Kan-ti-huang). Sometimes part of the juice is 
first expressed in a wooden mortar, or the root is soaked several 


times in spirits, and then dried ; but this last process partic- 
ularly must detract from the medicinal activity of the drug. 
The root is largely prescribed as a cooling and purifying drug, 
acting directly on the blood as an alterative and tonic. It is 
said to heal broken bones and tendons, to prolong life, "quiet 
the soul and confirm the spirit," benefit the eyes and ears, and 
is prescribed in fatigue and injuries of men, hemorrhagic dis- 
charges in women, hemoptysis, nosebleed, and fevers. The 
drug in the fresh state, ^ J^ ^' (Sheag-ti-huang), is considered 
to be more active than in the dried. It is prescribed in the 
same cases as above, but more particularly in active hemor- 
rhages and acute difficulties. A preparation, called ^ i'^ ^ 
(Shu-ti-huang), is made by taking juicy roots, washing in 
spirits, filling with the seeds of the bastard cardamom, steaming 
on a willow frame in a porcelain vessel, drying, and resteaming 
and redrying nine times. This is thought to harmonise, 
increase, and cool the blood, and to strengthen the marrow. 
It is considered highly tonic, and is used in all wasting dis- 
eases and weakened conditions of the body. In diseases of 
pregnancy, puerperal difficulties, diseases of children, and 
wasting discharges, it is specially recommended. The leaves 
are bruised, and used in scaly eczema. The fruits, powdered and 
taken with water, have properties similar to those of the root, 
as is also the case with the flowers. Another plant, said to be 
similar to Rchviannia^ grows in Lingnan, and is called %%'^ 
(Hu-mien-mang). It is mentioned in the Phttsao in an ap- 
pendix to the article on Rehmannia. It has a sweetish cooling 
taste, and is non-poisonous. It is taken in decoction in 
dyspepsia, flatulence, and colic. It is also found in Japan. 

REINECKIA CARNEA.— •§ ff ^ (Chi-hsiang-tsao). 
This is Faber's identification. The term means "plant of 
felicity." Chen Tsang-chi says that it grows in western 
countries and was brought to China by the Tartars. It is sweet 
and cooling in taste, and non-poisonous. It brightens the eye, 
strengthens the memory, and is tonic to the heart. Li Shih- 
chen says that there was a plant cultivated in China during his 
time, which was called by the same name, the leaves of which 
resembled those of the '-^ B (Chang-Ian), an orchid, and it 


remained green thronghout the year, bearing purple flowers in 
panicles. He says it is not the plant to which Chen Tsang- 
chi refers. 

RHAMNUS CHLOROPHORUS, Rhamnus tinctoriiis. 
This is a tree of Chekiang province, called by the natives HI ^ 
(Lii-ch'ai). There are two kinds, one growing wild, which is 
known as the white, and a cultivated kind, called the yellow. 
A brilliant green dye is made of the bark of these, by boiling 
together thoroughly that of the two varieties in an iron pan. 
It is left to stand for three days, after which it is placed in 
earthen-ware vessels, and cotton cloth which has been previous- 
ly prepared with lime is immersed in it five or six times. The 
coloring matter is then washed from the cloth with clean water, 
and is again placed in the pans and boiled. Cotton yarn is 
then dipped into the solution several times, which takes up the 
coloring matter, which is again washed off with water, and 
placed on paper to dry. The process of drying is completed 
under the full rays of the sun. In order to dye with it, three 
parts of carbonate of potash are mixed with ten parts of dye. 
It is very expensive, and so is used sparingly by dyers. Grass 
cloth, on account of its rough texture taking up the color most 
easily, is the principal fabric upon which it is employed. It is 
a very permanent color, and consitutes the sap-orccn of water 
color painters. The Chinese call the pigment ^ ^ (Ivii-kao) 
and |§^ ^ (Lii-chiao). It appears on the Chinese market in 
thin, dry, bluish scales, which when rubbed up produce a 
bluish-green pigment, and is used by the Chinese to color 
shark-skin for covering spectacle cases and the like. It has 
the purgative properties of the buckthorn, in the crude state, 
and when mixed with lunar caustic makes an excellent indel- 
ible ink. 

RHAMNUS JAPONICA.— ^^ ^ (Shu-li). The same 
name is also applied to Rhammis arguta and Rhamnus virgata. 
Other common names are -^ ^ (Niu-li) and llj ^ (Shan-li). 
The tree, which is t:ommon in the provinces north of the 
Yangtse, grows to the height of eight or ten feet, has leaves 
resembling those of the common plum, and bears fruits that 


are black in color, containing a purplish-black juice. The 
branches of the tree are used for dying green. The fruits are 
recommended in fevers, scrofulous sores, ascites, small-pox 
eruption, scabious sores, and sores on horses and cattle. The 
bark of the tree is similarly used. 

RHEUM OFFICINALE, Rheum paimatum.—^^^{T2i- 
huang), 12C5. This is also called ^ ]g (Huang-liang), 
"yellow efficacy," and ){f !g (Chiang-chiiii), "Captain- 
general," both referring to the esteem in which it is held 
as a drug. It has been known in China since the time of the 
Five Rulers (circa 3000 B. C.). The Emperor Shennung and 
Leikung, who is said to have lived in the reign of the Emperor 
Huangti, considered the drug to be poisonous; hence it is 
classed among the poisons in the Pentsao. It is produced in 
the north-western provinces, but that coming from Kansu is 
considered the best. The plant grows six or seven feet high, 
and the stem is brittle and has a sour taste. The stalks were 
formerly eaten raw. The leaves are coarse, long, and thick, 
and the flowers vary in different varieties, being yellow, green, 
or red. The root in the fresh state is red, bowl-shaped, and 
nearly two feet long. It is pulpy, and is easily attacked by 
worms. It is usually cut into slices, placed on heated stones 
and partially dried. Afterwards it is strung together on 
twine and dried in the sun. Sometimes the drying is com- 
pleted by artificial heat, and in this case the drug is not so apt 
to become wormy. A kind of rhubarb, called i # :^ M 
(T'u-fan-ta-huang), comes from Thibet or Turfan. Another 
called i ::^ ^ (T'u-ta-huang), and which is found in the 
north-eastern provinces is Rheum rhaponticiim ; but in Japan is 
a Rumex. Good Chinese rhubarb is of a reddish-yellow color, 
variegated or mottled, and firm in texture, showing evidences 
of considerable deposits of raphides in its structure. The 
pieces should be dry and not too light. When chewed, the 
root should grate upon the teeth, have a bitter and sharp rather 
than smooth flavor, and color the saliva with a deep yellow 
tinge. Boracic acid should not color the external yellow 
surface a dark brown. The purgative properties of rhubarb are 
not made so much of by the Chinese as they are in the west. 


It is regarded more as a general eliminant and tonic to the 
digestive tract. Depurative properties are also ascribed to it 
in a marked degree. It is recommended in diseases of women, 
especially those attended by congestion of the pelvic organs, 
such as dysuria and dyspareunia. It is also used in malarial 
fevers and the fevers of children. 

(Tu-chiian), m ]\i U (Ying-shaii-hung), ^XM^ (Hung-chih- 
chu), and ^X. ^ hI (Hung-tu-chiian) ; Rhododendron {Azalea) 
sinense^ ^ -^ §| (Huang-tu-chiian) and ^ ^ ^ (Lao-hu- 
hua). These are all given in the P^ntsao under the title ^ ^ 
^ (Yang-chih-chu), which seems to be a sort of generic 
name, and derives its meaning from the fact that when sheep 
eat of these plants, incoordination of the muscles is produced, 
and the animal staggers and falls. For this reason it is also 
called ^ ;f; :^ [^ (Yang-pu-shih-ts'ao). Other names are 
given, and other species of Azalea are evidently referred to, 
such as ilj ^) g^ (Shah-chih-chu), which in Japan is Rhodo- 
dendron snblanccolatuni ; j^ i^ ^| (Pai-tu-chiian), a cultivated 
kind with white flowers, Rhododendron leiicanthiim ; and ^ j^ 
3I (Yeh-tu-chiian) Rhododendron dauricmn. In addition to 
these, the term ^ ^ i^ (Nao-yang-hua) is also given, which 
has been variously referred to Datura metel and Hyoscyamits 
niger (see these articles). The number of Rhododendrons and 
Azaleas to be found in China is very large. Bretschneider 
gives a list of 132 names in his '^History of Botanical 
Discoveries in China," and when varieties are counted the 
number will probably exceed this. The flowers are used as a 
sedative in rheumatism, neuralgias, contractions, and bron- 
chitis. Upon the principle of ^' similia siviUibus ciirajitiir ,^'' 
the Chinese regard these very poisonous substances as admir- 
able counterpoisons to the most virulent forms of toxjemia. 
Mixed with aconite it is used in toothache, and with Ariscsma 
thunbergii as an application to painful abscesses to benumb 
them, or previous to opening them by those who are bold 
enough to do such a thing. The Shan-chih-chu is said to be 
non-poisonous, and children eat the flowers. The yellow 
flowered variety is deleterious. The Yang-pn-shih-ts^ao grows 


in Szechuan, and is also said to be non-poisonous. It is con- 
sidered to be tonic and eliminant. These two are probably 
not Rhododendrons. 

nan). This is a Japanese identification, in which Faber con- 
curs. It is probable, judging from the conflicting descriptions 
given in the Pentsao^ that several plants are known by this 
name in China. In Kueiyang it is called j|[ ^ (Feng-yao), and 
taking the place of tea or steeped in wine, it is used as a cure 
for headaches. This tea is called ^ :^ (Luan-ch'a) by the 
people of the southern provinces. Fortune described a Rho- 
dodendron found growing in the province of Chekiang, which 
on that account is called Rhodencndron fortiinei. This is also 
found in the Yangtse provinces, and is called |^ \^ jE. (Yeh- 
p'i-p'a). This may be the same as the Shih-nan^ as the latter 
is described as having P'z-/'rt-like leaves. These leaves, 
which are used in medicine, are acrid, bitter, and slightly 
poisonous. They are said to strengthen the kidneys, cure 
internal injury and weakness in the yin principle, and to 
benefit the bones, sinews, skin, and hair. Females should not 
continue to use the drug, as it has excessive aphrodisiac prop- 
erties. It is also prescribed in fevers, colds, and intestinal 

RHUS SEMIALATA.— ^ ^ ^ (Yen-fu-tzu). The tree 
is called ^ /f; (Fu-mu), and it is confounded with Broiissonetia 
papyrifera by the Chinese. Another name for the tree is ^ )^ 
(Fu-yang); but this is not found in the Pentsao. This is the 
tree upon which is borne the Chinese nut-galls, 5& f§ "? (Wu- 
pei-tzu). Several names are given in the Pentsao for the drug, 
referring to the sour and saline taste of the leaves, seeds, and 
bark, all of which are used in medicine. The Pintsao has a 
very fair description of the tree, and mentions the fact that its 
reniform seeds are sometimes eaten by children. There is also 
mentioned a || 2]^ ;^ (Hsien-p'ing-shu), said to be used by the 
people of Cambodia a& an acid condiment ; |^ H (Suan-chio), 
which is said to resemble Gleditschia, and to be used in Ling- 
nan as a substitute for vinegar ; and H '^ (Hsien-ts'ao), which 


comes from a woman's kingdom, located east of the country of 
Fu-lin, and wliich is fragrant, saline, and eaten as a vegetable. 
These are all said to belong to the same class (possibly of 
plants having a sour and saline taste). The seeds of the Yen- 
fii-tzu are said to cure malaria, rheumatism, jaundice, epidemic 
fevers, coughs, and dysentery. The bark of the tree is astrin- 
gent and anthelmintic, while that of the root is considered to be 

RHUS SUCCEDANEA.— ^ (i (Huang-lu). This grows 
in the mountains of Shensi and Szechuan. It has a round leaf 
and yellow wood which is used in dyeing yellow. It is consid- 
ered to be antifebrile, anti vinous, cholagogue, and is used in 
ophthalmia and as a wash for varnish poison. 

RHUS TOXICODENDRON.— In Japan this is §^ a^g 
(Kou-wen) and ^ '^j (Yeh-ko), and Faber also gives the 
former name as an equivalent. There is little doubt but that 
the plant described in the Pentsao under this title is Gelsemiiim 
elegans (which see). The title refers to the plant and the 
second term to the root. It is quite possible that this Rhus 
and Gelsemiiim might be confounded by the Chinese, since 
both are climbers and have a very superficial resemblance to 
each other. That the Pentsao does not mention any peculiar 
poisonous action on the skin, would be presumptive evidence 
against the identification as Rhus. Nothing is said either of a 
resinous juice. 

RHUS VERNICIFERA.— f^ (Ch'i). The proper way 
to write this character is ^ (Ch'i), which represents water 
dropping out of wood, referring to the sap oozing out and 
running down. This is the Chinese lacquer tree, found in both 
China and Japan. The character refers to the varnish and 
gives a name to the tree. The |t f^ (Kan-ch'i), 62, is used in 
medicine. This i§ the juice of the tree dessicated and pulver- 
ized. It is considered to be tonic and stimulant, and is pre- 
scribed in coughs, intestinal worms, amenorrhoea, and ecchy- 
moses. The leaves are used in wasting diseases and intestinal 
parasites, the seeds in dysentery, and the flowers in the swelled 


belly of children. A number of remedies for varnish poison 
are given. A prophylactic is to chew Zanthoxylum piperitinn, 
and apply the resulting saliva to the face, when the poison 
will not act on the skin. A decoction of the wood of Cnn- 
nmghamia sinensis, of Perilla ocymoides, of Sagina maxima, 
or the broth of crabs, if applied to the inflamed skin, is reputed 
to be very efficacious. The remedy giving greatest relief, 
however, is hot camphor water, frequently applied. 

RHYNCHOSIA VOLUBIUS.— j^ ^ (Lu-huo). Also 
called ^ a (Lu-tou), ^ ^ (Lao-tou), and ^ Ws. (Yeh-lii- 
tou). It is a wild leguminous plant, found growing in wheat 
fields. Both the plant and the seeds are eaten either raw or 
cooked. The latter are sometimes ground into meal, from 
which cakes are made. They are recommended in the Ku 
poison, scrofulous glands, backache and abdominal pain in 
women, and headache. 

shih). This is an apocynaceous plant, allied to Nerinm, found 
clambering over rocks. It has small, thick, firm, green leaves, 
white flowers, and bears a black fruit. It is evergreen, and 
therefore is called |jj- ^ (Nai-tung), "enduring the winter." 
The stalks and leaves are used in medicine, and are non-poison- 
ous. They are considered to be restorative and tonic, and are 
a medicine especially adapted to the aged. Gonorrhoea, car- 
cinomatous growths, sciatica, viper bites, and wounds, are 
some of the difficulties for which it is recommended. 

RICINUS COMMUNIS.— E ft (Pei-ma). The first 
character is properly written ^ ; both having the same sound 
(Pei or Pi). The character is explained by ^ (Pi), a cattle 
tick, which the seeds are said to resemble. The plant is of 
foreign origin, having been introduced from Tartary, where 
it is extensively grown. In China it is cultivated for its 
shade, as an ornamental plant, and for its seed and leaves 
which are used in medicine. It grows in a short time to 
a height of more than ten feet, having a woody stem, 
which never survives the winter of central and northern 
China. There is a red-stemmed and a white-stemmed variety, 


but the former is the more cotniuou. The tricoccous, spiny 
fruit contains the seeds, one in each cell. There is a species, 
or variety, said to have smooth fruit, and to be non-poisonous. 
An oil is extracted from the seeds of these and used in cooking. 
Information is still lacking as to what this plant may be. The 
castor oil seeds, 990, are oval, slightly curved or compressed, 
grey, shining, and striped or mottled with blackish or reddish- 
brown stripes or spots upon the outside. They vary from four 
to five lines in length, are three lines in breadth, and are 
marked with a ridge runnino- down the inner or under surface 
from the larger end to the prominent liilum. On breaking the 
hard and brittle seed-coat, the oily albumen is seen to be 
covered with a delicate membrane. The mass of albumen and 
cotyledons is easily crushed, yielding the acrid, purgative oil, 
992, upon which their properties depend. The cruslied seeds are 
used in Chinese medicine as an outward application in a large 
number of diseases, combined with the oil of the seeds, or the 
pulp is taken internally as a remedy, the effects of which must 
be very similar to those of the pure oil. The pulp is rubbed 
into the temples in headache, into the palms of the hands in 
palsy, is introduced into the urethra in stricture, and is rubbed 
into the soles of the feet of parturient women to hasten the 
birth of the child or the expulsion of the placenta. It is 
stufied into deaf ears, rubbed over the top of the head in 
cases of prolapsus uteri, and is applied to burns and scalds. 
The seeds are chewed in .scrofula, and the pulp is used in a 
variety of skin affections, dog bite, and wherever a lubricant is 
needed. Tlie leaves, 991, are applied in swellings as a discutient 
remedy, and are given internally as a tussic and expectorant. 
The oil is expressed by the Chinese, but was not especially 
used in medicine apart from the pulp ; its special use being to 
mix with vermillion for stamping ink. In a note appended 
to the article on Ricinus, there is another plant spoken of, 
called \%^M (Po-lo-ch'iung), the stalk or leaves of which 
are said to resemble Pei-ma^ having a hollow stem that when 
blown through will produce a sound. This, when broken, 
exudes a yellow juice which is exceedingly poisonous. It 
grows in mountain ravines and is probably a Rhus. It is con- 
sidered to be an efficient counter-poison to virulent infections. 


ROSA ANEMON.^'^ORA.— j^ ^ :jS (Ylieh-chi-luia), 
M M ^X (Yiieh-yueh-hiiug). This is the Chinese montlily 
rose, a variety of the j^osa sempervirens^ a common scrambling 
shrub, bearing a profusion of red flowers, mostly barren. It is 
supposed to act on the blood, reduce swelling, and destroy 
poison in ulcers. The flowers are said to encourage the 
breaking of stumous abscesses when taken internally, after 
having been prepared according to very disgusting process 
suggested by an ancient formulary. 

ROSA BANKSIA.— Tfc ^ (Mu-hsiang). This is not 
described under this term in the Peiitsao^ what is there said 
referring to Aplotaxis and Aristolodiia (which articles see). 
Li Shih-chen speaks of a kind of rose (^ ^) being called AIu- 
hsiang^ but no further reference is made to it. 

ROSA INDICA, Rosa imtltiflora.—% ^ (Ch'iang-wei). 
This is a geneial name for the species. Tlie fruit is called '^ 
^ (Ying-shih), and the plant ^ ^ (Ch'iang-mi), "wall-rose." 
One kind with very large flowers is called ^ %^ (Fo-chien- 
hsiao), "Buddha sees and smiles." It grows wild in the 
forests and on banks. In the spring, children strip tlie bark 
and spines from the young shoots and eat these latter. The 
flowers have yellow anthers and pale or pink petals. Cultivated 
varieties have white, yellow, red, and purple flowers. The 
fruits are used in wounds, sprains, injuries, foul sores, and are 
said to be anodyne. The root is considered carminative 
and astringent, and is used in fluxes, ulcers, wounds, skin 
diseases, and polyuria. The leaves are applied in ulcers. Li 
Shih-chen speaks of a perfume found among the ^ # (which 
may refer to any place outside of China, and whose people 
approach China from the South), called ^ f i ^ (Ch'iang-wei- 
lu). This may refer to Attar of Roses ; or this latter may be the 
^ IE tI^ (Ch'iang-wei-shui), brought to Canton and Fukien by 
Arabian traders, and referred to in the annals of the vSung 
dynasty, quoted by Dr. Bretschneider in a series of articles of 
great interest in the "Chinese Notes and Queries" for 1870. 

ROSA L^VIGATA.— ^ fi ^ (Chin-ying-tsu), 166. 
The second character should be H (Yiug), as its seed capsule 


is the shape of a water jar, Pyrus uialiis also has this same 
Chinese name, as does also Rhododendron sinense. This rose is 
found everywhere. It bears a white flower, a yellow capsule, 
and small seeds, which are hairy aijd aromatic. These seeds 
are carminative, astringent, and diuretic. The flowers are also 
used in dysentery, and to restore the color of hair. The leaves 
are famous as a vulnerary remedy. Dried together with the 
leaves of the mulberry and of Boehmei'ia nivea, and all pow- 
dered, they form a renowned vulnerary called ^ 4* *"* iii^ ^ 
(Chiin-chung-i-nien-chin), "a pinch of gold in the army." 
The root, 169, is anthelmintic, and the bark of the root is 
astringent, and is used in diarrhoea and menorrhagia. 

ROSA RUGOSA.— li: i% 1^ (Mei-kuei-hua), 834. This 
is the cultivated species of rose, with red and pink flowers, 
which is so highly prized by the Chinese. Purple and white 
varieties are also found. This rose is fragrant, its nature is 
cooling, its taste is sweet with a slight bitterishness, and it 
acts especially on the spleen and liver, promoting the circula- 
tion of the blood. It is prescribed in the form of an extract 
for heinateniesis, and the flowers are used in all diseases of the 
liver, to scatter abscesses, and in blood diseases generally. The 
petals are used as tea, fj: i% :^ (Alei-kuei-ch'a), to soothe the 
liver. The Atiar of Roses is also said to be called l^ 1% ^ 
(Mei-kuei-yu), and a scented liquor is called J^ i% ^ (Mei- 
kuei-lu), ' ^Dew of Roses. ' ' 

lisiang). This was brought from the bounds of the Roman 
Empire during the reign of Wenti of the Wei dynasty (452 A. 
D.). It was valued for its delightful fragrance. It is used to 
make fine odors, as a perfume, and when burned will drive 
away demons. Mixed with Pencedannm decursiviun^ it is 
burned to drive away mosquitoes. 

ROTTLERA JAPONICA.— i$ (Tzu). See Cataipa 
kcB7npferi and Lindera tzYimu. 

RUBIA CORDIFOLIA.— ii [^ (Ch'ien-ts'ao), 126. A 
very luxuriant variety of the plant is called f§ (Ch'ien), and 


the root is called '^ (Sou). Other names are j;^ jJl (Ti-hsiieh), 
^ Ij^ ^ (Jaii-fei-ts'ao), and J^ ^ f^ (Hsiieh-chien-ch'oii), 
478. The first of these terms, as well as the character ^ jnst 
above, refers to the belief that the color of the plant is due to 
transformed human blood ; the second to the use of the plant 
in dyeing a deep red color ; and the third means " when blood 
sees it, it is shamed," referring to the color produced by it. It 
is the Indian viaddcr plant, and is very similar to the European 
madder. It is a creeper, growing to a length of several feet, 
has a square, hollow stem, covered with small prickles. The 
leaves are in whorls of five, scabrous and dark on the 
upper side. The root is purplish-red. In the Historical 
Records it is said that he wdio plants a tl:ousand nioii with 
this plant and the Gardenia^ is considered to be equal in 
wealth to a nobleman who has control of a thousand households. 
This shows the importance in which these plants are held in 
the estimation of the Chinese. The root is used as a red dye 
not only in China, but also in Japan, and is called miinjette^ 
or viandjiichaka in Sanscrit. Tonic, alterative, astringent, 
vulnerary, and emmenagogue properties are ascribed to the 
root, and it is used in rheumatism, jaundice, hemorrhages, 
fractures, and all sorts of exhausting discharges. 

At the close of the article in the Peuisao^ a creeper called 
jJl 1^ (Hsiieh-t'eng), 479, is spoken of, and is probably a 
rubiaceous plant. It is yellow, and is used as a blood remedy. 

RUBUS CORONARIUS.— l^li(T'u-mi). This is a fra- 
grant bramble, similar to, or possibly identical with, the Brier 
Rose. Its only use is to scent a kind of wine called ^ |]| 'J@ 
(T'u-mi-chiu). The characters are sometimes written ^ ^. 

RUBUS INCISUS.— ^; 1^ ^ (Hsiian-kou-tzu). This 
is also called [jj ^ (Shan-mei) and ;fc ^ (Mu-mei), ''wild or 
wood berry". The berries are rather sour, but quite edible. 
They are counter- vinous, refreshing, and expectorant. The 
leaves are used in dysphagia. The bark of the root is used in 
case of the death of a fetus which has not come away, in 
menorrhagia, chronic dysentery, and chronic discharges of all 


RUBUS THUNBERGIL— $i fi (P'eng-lei). H (Piao) 
is a name for berries like the blackberr)^, raspberry, or straw- 
berry. Under the present article in the Pentsao a number 
of species and varieties of Riibus are mentioned, such as 
1^ g ^ (Nou-t'ien-piao), which is Riibus pai'vijolius ; ^ -^ 
^ (Hao-ying-piao), Rnbits tn'Jidus ; % ^ (Han-mei), Rubiis 
buergeri ; J^ ffl ^ (Ch'a-t'ien-piao), Riibus corcanus ; and 
^ ^ -^ (Tung-piao-tzn), Riibiis ichaiigensis. The general 
description given in the Pentsao is quite characteristic, but 
detailed account of the various species is so incomplete that 
identifications are difficult. Nor is this necessary, since all 
are used medicinally in the same way. These fruits are 
said to quiet the five viscera, strengthen the virile powers, 
increase the yin^ give force and vigor to the body, and 
promote fertility. They improve the complexion, promote 
the growth of hair, and cure fevers and colds. The shoots 
and leaves are used in the same cases as those of the Fii- 

RUBUS TOKKURA.— ^ ^ ^ (Fu-p'en-tzii), 335. 
Ancient writers did not distinguish this from the last. The 
Chinese name, meaning "a turned-over bowl," refers to the 
shape of the fruit. A number of other names are given, some 
of which evidently refer to a foreign origin for the plant. 
Some of the names given in the last article are also applied to 
this. This is the common Chinese wild raspberry, resembling 
the American Rubiis sij^zgosus. It is found in the uplands of 
the central and western provinces, and the fruit is not much 
used by the Chinese, especially in the fresh state. It is some- 
times dried or made into jam. The fruit is bruised, made into 
cakes, and dried for medicinal use, or it is made into a conserve 
with honey. It is supposed to benefit respiration, give vigor 
to the body, and prevent the hair from turning grey. Tonic, 
restorative, and aphrodisiac properties are ascribed to it, and it 
is recommended in phthisis, wasting, diabetes, impotence in 
the male and sterility in the female. The fresh leaves are 
bruised and the juice employed in ophthalmia, especially the 
infectious kind. The root is used in decoctiou in ophthalmia 
and opacities following smallpox. 


RUMEX. — Docks and sorrels are common in China, but 
the identification of Chinese names is difficult. The same 
names are used for widely differing plants, and as descriptions 
are incomplete or confusing, definite identification in many 
cases is well-nigh impossible. :^ ^ (Ko-ts'ai) is sometimes 
used as a term, but this first character is properly applied to 
Pachyriziis. ^ ^- (Wan-ching) is also used for Rumex^ but 
what is described in the Pentsao under this title is Brassica 
tapa. Another terra is ^ :^ ^ (Tzu-hua-ts'ai), and this 
properly refers to RapJianus or Brassica. In Japan i :^ K 
(T'u-ta-huang), or ;p± :fe ^ (Tu-ta-huang), is identified as 
Rumex aqiiaticus, and it is probable that there is some con- 
founding of genera by the Chinese, but the latter do not 
distinguish this from Rheum. In the Peking mountains a 
Ritmex goes by this name. 

Rumex aceiosa is ^ ^ (Snan-mo). This is confounded 
with Oxalis corniculata and Physalis alkekengi. Other names 
are ^ i^ 1% (Shan-yang-ti), [Jj :/c M (Shan-ta-huang), and ^ 
•^ (Suan-mu). This last is Physalis. One kind that resem- 
bles i^ 1E§ (Yang-ti) and is sour, is used in the treatment of 
itch. The plant has a reddish-yellow root, and the juice of 
this and of the leaves is used to correct the poison of corrosive 
sublimate. The leaves are sour and the root slightly bitter. 
Taken internally it is regarded as antifebrile and carminative. 
Externally it is used for parasitic skin diseases and freckles. 
Another name for this plant in Hupeh, according to Henry, 
is 4^ ^ gf (Niu-she-t'ou) ; but at Peking this is Rumex cvispus. 
It is a water dock having a leaf a foot or more long, according 
to the description given in the Pentsao. The fruits of this are 
considered tonic and constructive. These fruits are called ^ 
-g* (Shih-shon), "hog's head," and the leaves ^ 5 (Niu-erh), 
"cow's ear." Another kind of water dock, called |g ^ (Chiin- 
she), is highly recommended in choleraic affections. 

RUMEX JAPONICUS.— -i^ 1% (Yang-ti). Another name 
given for this is ^ g (Kuei-mn), which is also a name for 
Tcchoma graiidi flora, the seeds of Solanum dulcamara.^ and a 
sort of Amoiuum, also called ^ g (Lu-mu), found in Lingnan. 
So this name is not very distinctive. Other names are 4^ § ^ 


(Niu-she-ts'ai), ^ H (Tu-ts'ai), ^$%±^ (Yang-ti-ta-huang), 
and the seeds are called ^ |g ^ (Chin-ch'iao-mai), "goldeu 
buckwheat." At Peking this is Riimex crispus. It grows in 
marshes and at the side of water courses, to the height of three 
or four feet. Its leaves somewhat resemble those of Lactuca^ 
but are darker in color. The stalk is purplish-red, and it 
bears a greenish-white flower. The seeds are borne on a spike, 
and are three angled. The root is reddish-yellow, and resem- 
bles that of Rheum. It is used as a parasiticide, insecticide, 
and antiseptic remedy in skin diseases, ulcers, and the like. 
It is also used internally in constipation. The leaves are used 
as a demulcent food, and are recommended in diarrhoeas and 
intestinal worms. The seeds are used as a demulcent and 
carminative in dysentery and flatulence. 

RUTA GRAVEOLENS.— :g ^ % (Yun-hsiang-ts'ao). 
This grows in Yunnan. Two kinds are described, one with 
five leaves (compound), and one with leek-like leaves. Its 
action is considered to be counterpoisonous, and it is recom- 
mended in malarial poisoning. The name is derived from that 
of the resin secured from Syniplocos priinifolia^ to the odor of 
which that of this plant is likened. 

■ 1 — m n ■■ ?■ I 



earliest account of the sji^ar-cane in China dates from the 
second century before Christ, and the characters were then 
written ^ H (Kan-che), the radical indicating the sweetness of 
the plant. The name is also written ^ ^ (Kan-che), referring 
to the reed-like character of the stalk. In the Shiiozven it is 
termed ^ (Che). Under these characters are included both 
Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum saccharatitm. The 
Chinese distinguish several kinds ; such as fi ^ (Tu-che) or 
ft ^ (Chu-che), which is used for making sugar ; W |^ (Hsi- 
che), also used for making sugar ; ^ ^ (Le-che), i^ ^; (La-che), 
or fj^ ^ (Ti-che), which is Sorghum saccharatum ; and ^X ^ 
(Hung-che), % ^ (Tzii-cbe), or E ^ ^^ (K'un-lun-che), 
which is used principally for chewing in the fresh state. The 
sugar-cane is grown in Kiangsi, Szechuan, Hunan, Chekiang, 
Fukien, Formosa, and Kuangtung, largely as a substance for 
chewing, but also for the manufacture of sugar and treacle. 
This latter use has been much on the increase as foreign inter- 
course with China has developed. The ingestion of the cane 
with wine is thought to increase phlegm, and if eaten in 
excess it is said to produce feverishness and nosebleed. The 
use of the juice is considered to be cooling, tussic, stomachic, 
and anti vinous. The bagasse, ^, is incinerated and mixed 
with black juniper oil, % |^ fffj, as an application to the sore 
heads of children. 

Raw sugar is called ^ |§ (Sha-t'ang) or ^ |^ (Tzii-t'ang). 
The second character is now more commonly written |lg 
(T'ang). The name is derive'd from the fact that in the Tang 
(jife) dynasty, during the reign of the Emperor Tai-tsung, the 
method of boiling the juice of the crushed cane was introduced 
into Szechuan and other parts of China from Turkestan or 
Central Asia. Hence the term for sugar is made up of the 
character for the name of the dynasty combined with the 
"food" or "rice" radical. The method of manufacture as 
first introduced into China is given in the Pentsao. The 
character |,^ (T'ang) is also used, but it is probably a wrong 


way of writing 1^ (Hsing), "sweet-meats." A number of the 
various products of the process are named, such as ^ ||p 
(Ch'ing-t'ang), which is a pasty mass, produced by boiling and 
partly clarifying; and several clarified and crystallized products 
are called ;g' "^ (Shih-mi), 7X It (Ping-t'ang), and ff ^ 
(T'ang-shuang). Figures of men, birds, and animals have 
lonof been made of the coarse sug:ar for cliildren and for use 
at feasts. A preparation made up with refined sugar and cow's 
milk is called ^ if| (Ju-t'ang), and it much resembles in 
appearance the sweetened condensed milk now on sale in 
China. The refined sugar, which was called ^ ^ (Shih-mi) 
and 1^ j^ |1| (Pai-sha-t'ang), is considered to be a remedy for 
the spleen, and is prescribed in fevers, lack of secretion, dry 
cough, and like difficulties. At the Yangtse ports sugar is 
sometimes called '^ |^ (Yang-t'ang), from the fact that it is 
brought in foreign steamers. 

The making of sugar in Szechuan has been much inter- 
fered with by the cultivation of the poppy, so that the Yangtse 
provinces which used to draw their supply from this source, 
now receive sugar in large quantities from Swatow, Canton, 
and Hongkong. The provinces of Hunan, Kueichou, and 
Kiangsi are still able to supply the greater portiou of what 
they consume, although the imported sugar is considered 
better, and in the end cheaper. The sugar-cane is largely 
cultivated in Chekiang for chewing, although the manufacture 
of sugar is on the increase from year to year. It is to be 
remembered that the embassies, of 1792 and 1816, which visited 
this province, found sugar very extensively manufactured there. 
According to Mr. Bowra's account in his Customs Report of 
1869, intinerant sugar-boilers go about through the Chekiang 
sugar districts, carrying with them an iron cauldron and a pair 
of cylinders. The sugar mills are of the rudest kind, being 
set up in the midst of the cane plantation, and are sometimes 
rented out. "The juice having been boiled and partly clarified 
is transformed into ^ H (Ch'ing-t'ang) or ^ ;^ (Wu-t'ang), 
a green or black sugar of a pasty description." In some places 
a good sugar is produced by the claying process. " iVs in the 
case of black sugar, the cane is ground and the juice is partly 
clarified, and having been boiled to a certain consistency, is 


transferred into earthen-ware vessels of a conical shape, 
the article being then known as |)| H (T'ang-ts'ai). These 
cones being inverted into empty vessels to drain, in a short 
time an article known as J^ ^, t| (Chi-ch'ih-t'ang) is formed 
and partly dried in the sun. In refining, moist clay is placed 
on the base, renewed as required, and in due course removed, 
when the sugar, on being shaken free from the cone, is found 
to consist of three or four grades, that at the apex being coarse 
and moist, known to the trade as |^ ^ (Lou-wei), the next in 
order being fg |f (Chieh-t'ang), the next |^ If (Yang-t'ang), 
and above all x ^ li (Kung-fen-t'ang), which is the whitest 
and best." The molasses is treated afterwards to make the ^X 
H (Hung-t'ang), an article which the Chinese use as a laxative 
remedy. Steam mills and refineries have been introduced into 
the south, many of which are the result of foreign enterprise. 
These are supplying much better grades of sugar at such cheap 
rates that local manufacture is being driven out. It has not 
been possible to learn whether the sugar-beet is yet cultivated 
to any extent in China. Barley sugar is manufactured in 
Fukien under the name of 7X H (Ping-t'ang). A sort of 
dextrose is also made in many parts of China from the ||| ^ 
(No-mi), glutinous rice. Sugar is often found adulterated in 
China, as elsewhere, with sand, ricemeal, and the like. The 
same ideas about the damage to the teeth and digestive organs 
by sugar prevail in China as are entertained in Western countries. 
It is frequently used as an application to wounds, ulcers, boils, 
and inflamed eyes. It is noted that both barley sugar and 
rock-candy are called 7X H- 

S AGIN A MAXIMA.—^ ^ ^ (Ch'i-ku-ts'ao). This is 
a Japanese identification. It is given in the Pentsao under the 
article on ^ :¥^ ^ (Shu-yang-ch'iian), which in Japan is 
Solanum lyratimi. Three distinct plants are described, the 
third being called ^ ^% iS Bf ^ (Lao-ya-yen-ching-ts'ao), 
which is the same as the f| ^ (Lung-k'uei), Solanuin nigi'tmu 
These descriptions are very much mixed ; but there is no 
doubt that one of them refers to a Sagina^ and that this is the 
one most commonly called ChH-ku-ts'-ao. The name is said 
to be derived from the fact that the plant is regarded as an 


antidote to varnish poisoning. The juice of the plant is nsed 
in fevers, foul sores, and all sorts of parasitic skin diseases, 
decayed teeth, vaginal injuries, nervous difificulties of children, 
to promote the growth of hair, in varnish poisoning, and inter- 
nally in jaundice. Just which of these virtues is ascribed to 
which plant is not made clear. 

1426 ; also written ^ ^ (Tzii-ku) and ^i M (T'zil-ku). Other 
names are H ^ (Chieh-ku), 1% ]^^ H (Pai-ti-li), and 7JC {^i 
(Shui-p'ing), for the bulb, while the stalk is called M* JJ ^ 
(Chien-tao-ts'ao), and 3pt j^ [^ (Yen-wei-ts'ao), referring to the 
shape of the leaves. This is confounded with Monochoria 
hastata^ and indeed this latter is called by these names in the 
south. As one of the Chinese names indicates, it is also 
confounded with Lemna. It is also said to resemble Alisma 
plantago. It grows in shallow water, and is also cultivated in 
ponds and irrigated fields. The arrow-shaped leaf is well 
described in the Pentsao. In the fall and early spring the 
tubers are dug up and steamed for food. The tender stalk is 
similarly used, and a sort of arrowroot is made of these products. 
The herbage is somewhat acrid. The ingestion of the tubers 
in the raw (cold) state is considered to be deleterious, producing 
fluxes, weakness, and hemorrhoids. Pregnant women should not 
eat of them. They are recommended in deficient lochia, and 
in retention of the placenta, as well as in gravel. The bruised 
leaves are applied in foul sores, snake and insect bites, and as 
a powder to itching diseases. 

SAGUS RUMPHIL— jif U (Kuang-lang); 6"^:^^?^^;'?^^ rum- 
phii, jp Tjc (So-mu). The first character of the latter name 
is properly written ^^ (So). The former is also called |i§ -^ 
(Mien-mu), referring to its starch, and ^ i^ (Tieh-mu), refer- 
ing to the hardness of its wood. The tree grows in Lingnan, 
and it is cultivated. The description of the fecula and the 
mode of obtaining it is given in the Pentsao. The bark is used 
for making ropes, and the fiber for making a coarse cloth or 
matting. The fruits resemble those of Areca catccJm^ and are 
supposed to render fluid the blood and disperse ecchymoses. 


The sago, called \% |5|5 Pt (Kuang-lanor-mien), is considered to 
be very nutritious and strengthening. The second above named 
is an allied kind of palm found growing in Annam, and called 
^;g yfC (Hsiang-mu). The tree is somewhat taller than the other, 
and grows on mountain ridges. It resembles the coir-palm, 
but furnishes the fecula which yields sago. There is no appar- 
ent difference in the product of this tree and that of the other. 

6 ^ (Pai-kuo), 952. This tree grows south of the Yangtse, 
and is said to be found at its best in Hsiian-chens^-hsien in Nine- 
kuofu, Anhui. It grows from twenty to thirty feet high, with 
thin, vertical leaves resembling a duck's foot (triangular-fan- 
shaped). In the second month the tree blooms with a greenish- 
white bud, which opens in the night and quickly drops off, so 
that men rarely see the flower on the tree. The fruits are 
borne prolifically on the branches, and resemble lotus seeds. 
They ripen after frost. The seeds are pointed at the extremi- 
ties, and are marked by two or three longitudinal ridges. The 
Chinese say that the three ridged seeds produce staminiferous 
plants, and the two ridged pistiliferous ones. Care should be 
taken to plant both kinds of seeds together. This tree is the 
Ginko biloba, the generic term being derived from the Japanese 
pronunciation of the two characters |^ ^ (Yin-kuo). It is a 
tree of great beauty, and has been successfully transplanted to 
Europe and America, growing quite well even in the north, 
and the fruits ripening in the warmer latitudes of the south. 
These are resinous, bitterish, and astringent. The Pai-kuo, 
* 'white-fruits, " of the shops, consist of the nut-like seeds, 
which are from three-quarters of an inch to one inch long, and 
have a brownish-white, smooth, hard shell. The kernel 
consists of two yellow, mealy cotyledons, covered with a beauti- 
ful, thin, reddish membrane. The Chinese consume these 
nuts at weddings, the sheil being dyed red. They are also 
much used at feasts, and are a fair substitute for lotus seeds. 
They have a somewhat fishy taste, and are supposed to benefit 
asthma, coughs, irritability or the bladder, blenorrhoea, and 
uterine fluxes. Eaten raw, they destroy -cancer and are 
counter-vinous. Cooked, they are said to be peptic and 


anthelmintic, and are similarly used by the Japanese to promote 
digestion. In some cases they appear to cause peculiar symp- 
toms of intoxication, and occasionally to destroy life. They 
are sometimes used to wash clothes, and are di-ested in wine 
or oil to make a kind of detergent cosmetic. This detergent 
action is dependent upon a peculiar, crystallizable, fatty princi- 
ple which the pulp contains. The wood of the tree is made 
into seals, which are used as charms by quacks in the treatment 
of disease. The trees sometimes grow to a very great size ; one 
of the famous "big trees" of Ruling being of this kind. 

SALIX BABYLONICA.— :f^^ (Liu), >J, ^ (Hsiao-yang), 
11 W (Yang-liu). Several kinds of willow are included under 
these terms ; but the most common Chinese willow, and the 
one that is planted extensively in all parts of the empire, is 
the Salix babylonica. Of this there are several varieties, some 
with the long pliant branches characteristic of the weeping 
willow, while others have shorter and less pliant limbs. The 
tree is well described in the Chinese books. The cottony 
down of the seeds is called \% ^ (Liu-hua) and ^\ ^ (Liu-hsii) ; 
but this may also include the catkins. This product is recom- 
mended in jaundice, rheumatism, hemorrhage, fever, and 
locally in foul sores and ulcers, cancers, and perspiring feet. 
Decoction of the leaves, 741, is used in ulcers, skin diseases, 
varnish poisoning, and internally in rheumatism, gonorrhoea, 
ephemeral fever, and carbuncle. The white bark of the twigs 
and root, 746, is used in the bath for parasitic skin eruptions, 
and internally in decoction for jaundice, gonorrhoea, and rheu- 
matic swellings. A kind of tea, called |5t :^ (T'ien-ch'a), is 
made of the leaves of this and other trees of the willow family, 
and they are sometimes used to adulterate tea. The gum from 
the willow tree, called \% flf (Liu-chiao), is applied to foul 
sores. The willow epiphyte |5P ^ ^ (L-iu-chi-sheng), is a 
species of Visacm, and is sold in the shops as a dried, yellow, 
flowering plant, with the leaves attached. It is used as a 
carminative, antispasmodic, and sedative. 

SALIX PURPUREA.— 7jC \^ (Shui-yang), M 1511 (P'u- 
liu), ^ II (Ch'iug-yang). This is a willow with leaves that 


are rounder and shorter than those of the last, and short, stiff 
branches, with reddish bark and wood that is fit to make 
arrows. Possibly more than one kind of willow is included 
under these terms, as the fjff |^ (P'u-yang) is said to have long 
leaves and pliant branches suitable for making baskets. The 
twigs and leaves, 746, are used in chronic dysentery, cancerous 
sores, and as a dressing to smallpox ulcers. The white bark 
of the tree and the root, 741, is used in similar cases and as 
a styptic and anodyne in wounds. 

SALVIA JAPONICA.— M Ji ^ (Shu-wei-ts'ao), 1171. 
This plant takes its name from its flower spikes, which some- 
what resemble those of Plantago major. It is used for dyeing 
black, and for that reason is called ^ ^ (Wu-ts'ao). It grows 
in marshes, and is therefore called 7JC % (Shui-ch'ing). There 
are two varieties, one with red and the other with white flowers. 
The flowers and leaves are used in medicine in struma, 
fluxes, and discharges. "The white-flowered kind is good for 
colorless discharges, and the red-flowered for red discharges." 
It is also used in ague and dropsy. 

SALVIA MILTIORRHIZA.— :f5- ^ (Tan-shen), 1246. 
This labiate plant is grown in Shensi, Shansi, Shantung, and 
in the Peking mountains it is a common plant. It has from three 
to seven hirsute leaves and large violet flowers. The root is 
red externally and purplish internally when fresh. It is sold 
in short, shrivelled pieces of a bright, brick-red color, some- 
times branching or twisted, and generally bristling with radi- 
cles. The interior is soft, and the taste of the whole is 
sweetish, resembling that of licorice. This root is one of the 
five astral remedies, 5S. ^ (Wu-sheu'), which are thought to 
correspond to the five colors — yellow, white, black, purple, and 
red — and to the five principal viscera — spleen, lungs, kidneys, 
liver, and heart. This particular one belongs to the heart, and 
its red color suggests the blood. It is credited with alterative, 
antispasmodic, arthritic, tonic, sedative, astringent, and vul- 
nerary properties, and it is highly recommended in all blood 
difficulties, hemorrhages, menstrual disorders, and miscar- 


SALVIA PLEBIA.~fJ :^ (Ching-chieh), 175. This 
Chinese name is nsed for various plants, such as Nepeta temii- 
foliay Molsa lanceolata^ Origanum viilgare^ PhtheLrospermum 
chinense^ Elsholtzia, and Melampyriim. It is described in the 
Peiitsao under ^X j^ (Cliia-su), Teiicriun stolonifcruni (which 
see), and is not distinguished medioiually from it. At Peking, 
however, Ching-chieh is Salvia plebia. 

SALVINIA NATANS.— ^ vf. (Tzu-p'ing), see Lemna 
minor. Salvinia vulgaris^ ^ ^W^ (Huai-yeh-p'in), see Hy- 
drocharis morsiis rams and Marsilia quadrifolia. 

SAMBUCUS JAVANICA.— f^ -^ (Lu-ying). The de- 
scription of this plant in the Pentsao is very vague, but its 
identity is sufficiently established by observation. The leaves 
and root are used in medicine, and are regarded as non-poison- 
ous. It is prescribed for all diseases of bones, pain and numb- 
ness, and rheumatic difficulties generally. 

SAMBUCUS RACEMOSA.— ^ f. % (Chieh-ku-mu), 
90. This is the same as Sanibitcits sicbaldiana^ and is a real 
woody elder. Other names are ,^ *^ /fC (Hsii-ku-mu) and 
TfC M ^ (Mu-so-t'iao). It grows extensively throughout 
China, and is a small tree from ten to fifteen feet high, and 
has a hollow .stem. It is sometimes cultivated. The juice is 
acrid and slightly emetic. It is used in broken bones, sprains, 
colds, and carious teeth. The bark of the root is used in 
dropsy, ague, and suppressed lochia. As it is emetic, care 
.should be exercised in its use. The leaves are used in ague 
fits, when adults use the juice of seven leaves and children that 
of three leaves. This produces emesis, which is supposed to 
break the attack. 

Also called ^ % '^ (Chieh-ku-ts'ao), 90. This is the same as 
Sambuciis chinensis. It is a half-woody, half-herbaceous plant, 
and grows quite commonly in waste ground. It has five- 
parted leaves, white flowers, and berry-like fruits which 
become red when ripe. The leaves, stem, and root are nsed in 


medicine, have a sour taste, and are poisonous, beinp^ emetic. 
They are used in decoction in the bath in the treaunent of 
itchy, scaly, and parasitic skin diseases. They are somewhat 
used internally in obstinate agues, suppressed lochia, and 

SANDARAC. — It is not known that this substance 
appears by itself in Chinese commerce ; at least no name has 
been found for it. Porter Smith gives ^ ^ (Yiin-hsiang) as a 
term for it, and this term is indeed found in the Penisao refer- 
ring to an herb [Ruta graveolens)^ and as one of the names of 
Symplocos prnnifolia. Under this last article there is a refer- 
ence to a resin coming from Khoten which is called ^ ^ ^ 
(Yiin-hsiang-chiao). It is used in polishing jade. It is quite 
probable that olibanum is sometimes found with an admixture 
of sandarac, as often happens in that found in western phar- 
macies, and it may even be that the pure sandarac is sometimes 
confounded in China with olibanum or storax. Porter Smith 
did not claim to be able to procure the drug in Hankow, but says 
that it is somewhat whiter than mastich and is used in much 
the same way as the other resins: i.e.^ as a stimulant, sedative, 
and deodorizing drug. It is often put into clothes-trunks to 
keep away moths. Gtinda birosa is the Indian name of a 
drug resembling sandarac. 

Poteriuin officinale. 

SANTALUM ALBUM.— ^ @ (T'an-hsiang). This is 
somewhat confounded with Dalbergia Jmpeana and Plerocar- 
piis santaliniis. But it is distinguished as the M ^ (Chen- 
t'an), "true fan," and |^ ^ (Chan-t'an), which is in imita- 
tion of the Sanscrit chandana^ the name of the sandal wood 
in India. Another n ime is ^ j5^ ^ (Pai-chan-t'an). The 
principal name is explained by its phonetic g (Tan), which 
means "true," "sincere, ' and refers to the use of the wood as 
incense for worship. Tlie wood originally came from the 
countries of the Buddhists and Mohammedans, but is now 
grown in Lingnan. Medicinall)^ it is regarded as carminative 


and corrective, and is used in hiccough, vomiting, and choleraic 
difficulties. It is mixed with mucilage and applied to acne 
ot the face and to aching parts. The sandal-wood tree grows 
under the protection of the British government in Mysore, aud 
in some cases is allowed to attain to the height of twenty-five 
feet. The trees are usually cut down when twenty years old, 
and the wood is chopped into billets for sale. The roots and 
heart-wood yield a fine, yellow, clear oil, which is imported 
into China, 1249, and is much valued for its fragrance. Other 
woods used in the carving of fans and like articles are given a 
coating of this oil to make them appear to be genuine sandal- 
wood. This oil is mentioned in the Appendix to the Pentsao 
as a carminative remedy ; but modern Chinese doctors have 
learned to use it in gonorrhoea also. 

SAPINDUS MUKOROSSL— |ffl^ % ^ (Wu-huan-tzu), 
;fC ,f, ^ (Alu-huan-tzu), 865. Other names are j\^ Jjj •? (Fei- 
chu'tzu), i[(i ^ ^ (Yu-chu-tzu), ^^ it ^ (P'u-ti-tzu), and ^ 
^ ^ (Kuei-chien-ch*ou). The first two refer to the oily 
nature of the seeds and their pearl-shape, while the third 
means dod/ii seeds, and is used by the Buddhists, and the fourth 
is used by the Taoists and refers to the benign influence of the 
seeds in exorcising demons. The tree is a large one, bearing 
seeds resembling those of Mclia azedarach, which are some- 
times used for making rosaries. Notwithstanding their 
acridity, they are roasted and eaten by the Chinese. Tiie dark 
kernels were formerly made into a tincture, which was used as 
a corrective and eliminant remedy. The globular fruit outside 
the seed is used in medicine under the name of TJC ,^, (^ (Mu- 
huan-jou), 863. It is considered to be slightly poisonous, and 
is cleansing to the skin, removing tan and freckles. The 
cotyledons of the seeds are recommended for bad breath and 
gum boils. The root, 864, is also used, probably in the same 
way as the fruit and seeds. 

SAPONARIA VACCARIA.— i T* ^ fr (Wang-pu-liu- 
hsing), 1440. Other names are %^\ ^ 1^ (Chin-kung-hua) and 
^ ^ ^ ^ (Chin-chan-yin-t'ai). The plant i:^ irequciitly 
met with in the fields, and grows from one to two feet high. 


It has bell-shaped flowers, with an inflated calyx enclosing the 
seed capsule. At Peking, Silenc aprica is called by this name. 
The plant is slipper}^ and unctuous, and when trod upon is apt 
to cause a fall. Hence, one of the princes forbade its being 
allowed to grow in the palace grounds. From this arose tiie 
two principal names. The seeds are dark red and round, 
resembling turnip seeds. The root, shoot, flowers, and leaves 
are all used in medicine and are said to be vulnerary, styptic, 
diuretic, galactagogue, discutient, and solvent. They are a 
soldier's remedy after receiving wounds. 

SARACA INDICA.— M -^ -^ (Wu-yu-hua). The 
flowers of this " sorrowless " tree upon which the mother of 
Sakyamuni Buddha is said to have laid hold in the pangs of 
the birth of her son, are barely mentioned in the Kuang-cJii'tn- 
faug-pji. It is a leguminous tree, and the legend is that it 
always bursts into flower when touched by a woman. It is 
therefore a woman's remedy. 

SARGASSUM SIUQUASTRUM.— f^ -^ (Hai-tsao). 
See Algcs. 

SAURURUS LOUREIRL— H j^ If (San-pai-ts'ao). The 
Customs lists give H T J5u (San-ya-hu) H T ^ (vSan-ya-ts'ao), 
1064, but from what source these are derived has not been 
found. The plant grows in marshy ground, has a stalk that 
resembles Folygonimt^ leaves that resemble those of Celosia 
argcntea^ and in the fourth month the three terminal leaves 
of the plant successively begin to turn white. There is a 
common saying, "one leaf white, eat wheat; two leaves 
white, eat plums and apricots ; three leaves white, eat 
millet." In the fifth month it bears a spike of small, white, 
slightly fragrant flowers, followed by small, one-seeded berries. 
The root is white, elastic, jointed, and covered with bristly 
rootlets. The plant is to be distinguished from Polygonuin 
persicaria^ which has black spots on the leaves. The flowers 
and root are used in medicine, and are considered to be slightly 
deleterious. Eliminative, antimalarial and parasiticide prop- 
erties are attributed to it. 


SAXIFRAGA SARMENTOSA.— j;^ 5 :f (Hu-erh-ts'ao). 
This grows in inoist, shady places, and is also cultivated on 
stony ground. It has a creeping stalk, and sends up leaf-stalks 
to the height of five or six inches, the leaf-blade being rounded, 
hairy, and shaped like a tiger's ear or lotus leaf. For this 
last reason it is sometimes called ^ ^ ^ (Shih-ho-yeh). The 
flower, which opens in summer, is pale red. The drug is used 
in clioleraic difficulties, vomiting, discharges from the ear, and 
piles. In the last case, the plant is dried in the shade and then 
set fire to in a bucket, and used to steam or smoke swollen, 
painful hemorrhoids. 

SCAPHIUM SCAPHIGERUM.— ^^ ^ f$ (P'ang-ta-hai), 
^ ^ ^ (An-nan-tzu), ^^ -^ ^ (Ta-t'ung-kuo), :k W "P (Ta- 
hai-tzii), 1223. This drug comes from the Tatung mountain 
of Annam, where it grows in the darkness of the juugle. It 
is described in the /'^y^/j-^'^ as follows : "The fruits resemble 
dried Cnnar/ufu fruits, have a yellowish black skin very much 
wrinkled, and when soaked in water the layers swell up into a 
cloudy mass. But in the middle is a soft shelled seed contain- 
ing the cotyledons, the taste of which is sweetish." The drug 
is also found in Siam, where the tree is called Boa-tam-pai- 
jang^ Poi{}igfarai\ and Bungtalai. The leaves examined by 
Hanbury were about five inches long, simple, entire, ovate- 
acuminate, and glabrous on both surfaces. The fruits are about 
an inch long, ovoid, and without a pedicle, the cicatrix left by 
the dark-brown, deeply-wrinkled fruit being very conspicuous 
and curiously oblique, with a kind of spur. The thin, dry 
epidermis being removed, reveals a dry, black mesocarp, within 
which is the central seed, consisting of the two shrunken 
cotyledons. When the fruit is put into water for some few 
hours, the thin epidermis peels off, and the dark mesocarp 
swells up into a very large, tasteless mass of gelatine showing 
all the wrinkles of the fruit, and imparting a dark tint to the 
water. This is due to the bassorine contained in the pericarp. 
Sir R. H. Schomburgk was told that where the trees grow by 
a roadside and the fruits drop on the road abundantly, after a 
hard rain there will be such a mass of glutinous jelly formed 
that the passage of the road by travellers is a matter of dif- 


-ficulty. Extravagant properties are attributed to the drug. 
Said to grow in the shade, it is a remedy for "fire" in the 
system. It is used to bring out the eruption of smallpox, to 
cure all fevers, phthisis, hemorrhage from the nose, stomach, 
bowels or bladder, to counteract poison, sunstroke, ophthalmia, 
toothache, intestinal worms, hemorrhoids, dry cough, fever in 
the marrow, all sorts of ulcer, "and it is difficult to enumerate 
all of its medicinal virtues." Some years ago it was introduced 
into France as a certain specific in diarrhcea and dysentery. 
Its virtues were probably due to being a mucilaginous drink 
substituting all other medication, thus affording rest and an 
opportunity for the diseased organs to recover. The jelly is 
sweetened and eaten, but its principal use is as a domestic 
cooling, demulcent, and laxative remedy. 

SCHIZANDRA CHINENSIS.— 5. P^ ^ (Wu-wei-tzu), 
1477. This is confounded with its allied genus Kadsiira^ and 
in Japan Kadsiira japonica is |^ 35. 5^ (Nau-wu-wei), and 
Schisandra chinensis "i^ "^ %, (Pei-wu-wei), 996. The drug 
is said to have five distinct tastes. The skin and pulp of the 
fruit are sweet and sour, the kernels are pungent and bitter, 
and the whole has a salty taste. This gives rise to the name, 
"five flavors." The plant is a climber, and the fruit is a 
berry, being black in the case of Schisandra nigra^ and red in 
that of Kadsiira and Schisandra cJiiiicnsis. The fruit and 
branches contain a great amount of viscid mucoid material, 
and the Japanese women are said by Siebold to dress their hair 
with it, it being also used to size the Japanese mulberry-bark 
paper. The specimens of the drug generally contain portions of 
the stalks of the berries, which are collected in a head as they 
grow upon the trees which support the trailing plant. Tonic, 
aphrodisiac, pectoral, and lenitive properties are ascribed to 
the plant, although the Chinese unwisely reject the branches, 
which yield a mucilaginous decoction, efficacious in dysentery, 
gonorrhoea, and coughs. The plant is believed to contain the 
quintessence of the five elements as the basis of its properties. 

SCIRPUS CYPERINUS.— fj % (K'uai-ts'ao). This is 
mentioned in the Pentsao in a foot note to Gymnothrix 


japonica. It is said to have a shoot like Imperata^ and can 
be made into matting and ropes. The seeds can be eaten as 
a substitute for rice. 

SCIRPUSTUBEROSUS.— ,^ ^ (Wu-yli), ^ ^ (Pi- 
ch'i), ^^ ^ (1^i-li), K V^ (Fu-tzn). The second name is usual- 
ly wrongly written ^ \^, and is properly pronounced P^o-chi. 
The tubers are like taro and black ; ducks like to eat them, 
hence the first and fourtli names. This last is the proper name, 
according to the books, while the second is the common name. 
The plant is the same as EleocJiai'is tiiberosiLs. The tuber is 
eaten both raw and cooked, and is liable to produce flatulence. 
It is largely cultivated and sold as a food all over China. In 
some parts of the country, especially in the Yangtse valley, the 
plant grows wild, and is therefore not specially cultivated. 
The tubers are sweet, juicy, and somewhat resemble the chestnut 
in appearance rather than in flavor, and are therefore called by 
the foreigners "water-chestnuts," although the Chinese call 
them "ground-chestnuts" (j^ Jjl). They are considered to be 
cooling and beneficial to the breath, and are used in fluxes 
and poisons. A starchy preparation is made from them, known 
as ^ ^ ^ (Pi-chi-fen), which is considered very nourishing 
and beneficial to the digestive organs, and is given to children 
when they .swallow cash or other metallic substances. In the 
Customs Lists it is called J^ \% |^ (Ma-ti-fen), 8ii, but upon 
what authority does not appear. 

SCOPOLIA JAPONICA.—]^ ^ (Lang-tang). The 
plant described under this name in the Pentsao does not seem 
to be Hyoscyanuis Jiiger^ although Henry found a plant called 
by this name in a mountain garden in Hupeh, which proved 
to be Hyoscy amies, and Bretschneider says that at least two 
species of Hyoscyamus are found in North China. He does not 
give any Chinese name for these. The plant described is hir- 
sute, has leaves resembling those of ReJmiannia, white or 
purple flowers, urn-shaped calyx, persistent and enclosing the 
seed capsule, which contains greenish-white seeds. These seeds, 
when eaten, produce madness. For use in medicine, the seeds 
are prepared by digesting in vinegar and then in milk, and 


afterwards drying in the shade. In this way they in a large 
measure lose their poisonous properties. Anodyne, construct- 
ive, tonic, diuretic, and tussic properties are attributed to the 
drug, and it is prescribed in dysentery, coughs, mania, epilepsy, 
dropsy, toothache, cancer of the breast, and prolapse of the 
recinin. The root is used in pernicious malaria, and in parasitic 
skin diseases. 

SCROPHULARIA OLDHAML— ^ # (Hsuan-sheu), 
1563. The first character is also frequently written jf^ (Yiian). 
The plant is also called M ^ (Hei-shen) and ^ /J^ jg (Yeh- 
chih-ma). It has opposite leaves, which are long and seriated. 
It grows four and five feet high, has a slender stem of purplish- 
green color. It bears greenish, purple, or white flowers, and 
black fruits. The stem, which is square, and the leaves are 
covered with hairs. The roots, which represent the drug 
proper, are about three or four inches long, and nearly an inch 
in diameter in the middle, tapering off to either end. They 
are brown externally, and very irregularly furrowed and wrink- 
led. They are fleshy and dark internally, and moist in fresh 
samples. Some of the roots are branched and jointed. Al- 
though this is said to be used by inpense-iyakers, it has very 
little smell, and the taste is raw and sweetish. It is very 
liable to be attacked by worms. It is regarded as cooling, 
diuretic, tonic, and restorative, and is prescribed in fevers, 
malaria, typhoid, scrophulous glands, galactorrhoea, and leu- 

SCUTELLARIA MACRANTHA.— ^ '^ (Huang-ch'in), 
513. This name seems also to be applied to Scutellaria visci- 
dnla. This Chinese skullcap is a common plant in nearly 
every part of China, in ^Mongolia, and well into Siberia. It 
grows about a foot high, has small, lanceolate leaves, and 
bears blue flowers. Other species, which are also used, bear 
yellow, or purple, flowers. The root, which is usually cut 
into slices, is light, spongy, yellow in color, slightly bitter, 
and mucilaginous. When it is fresh and solid, it is called 
•^ ^ (Tzu-ch'in), and when old, broken, and full of holes, 
it is called ^ ^ (Su-ch'in). This old root, from being 


hollow and black within, is sometimes called ^^ ^|f (Tu-fu), 
"jealous woman;" such a person being supposed by the 
Chinese to have the typical rotten, black heart. This thing 
is said to equalize the vital principles, to be tonic to the 
bladder, quieting to the pregnant uterus, stimulant to the 
respiratory organs, anodyne, and astringent, and it is prescribed 
in fevers, jaundice, diarrhoeas, ulcers, colic, amenorrhoea, 
fluxes, boils, carbuncle, and cancer of the breast. A famous 
prescription is known as the H ^ A» (San-huang-wan), 
"three-yellow-pill," and is composed of this root, rhubarb 
(^ ^), and Cflptis tceta (^ j^). It is regarded as a tonic and 
reconstructive remedy in weakness of sexual origin in men and 
women. The seeds are also used to cleanse the bowels of 
blood and pus. 

It is not certain that this plant in China is not SempervivuTn 
tectoriini. It has a large number of names meaning "to 
protect from fire," as it is supposed to have this quality, 
and is therefore planted in pots on house tops. It is also 
much cultivated on artificial rocks in gardens for ornament- 
ation. The stem is tinged with red and yellow, the leaves 
are pale green, shining, soft, spoon-shaped, thick, and not 
pointed. They have a bitterish-sweet taste, and can be 
eaten after scalding. An allied species, called A ^ 52. 
(Pa-pao-erh), is very beautiful and is commonly cultivated. 
It is probably Sedinn alboroseiim. The leaves are considered 
to have antifebrile properties, and are prescribed in all forms 
of fever, wounds, and inflammations. The flowers are used 
in fluxes from the vagina, the nervous aflfections of children, 
in opacity of the cornea, and in prolapse of the genital 
organs after labor. The juice of the leaves is a common 
domestic remedy in eruptions, as well as an application 
to burns. 

SEDUM LINEARE.— f^ f % (Fo-chia-ts*ao). It is 
said to resemble purslane, to be four or five inches high, and 
to have a brittle stem with fine linear leaves. It blooms in 
summer wijth a yellow flower, is cultivated on stony places or 


old walls, and is thought to have some mysterious power of 
preventing famine. It is slightly poisonous, and is used as a 
local application in the treatment of burns and scalds. 

SEDUM Sp. — ^ ^ (Shih-sung), 1158. In most places 
this is Lycopodium clavatjmi (see the article on Lycopodiu7)i)^ 
but Faber also gives this identification. 

SELAGINELLA INVOLVENS. — 1 \^ (Chiian-po). 
The Customs Lists, 1438, confound this with "% ^ % (Wan- 
nien-sung); but this is properly ^ ^^ (Yii-po), or Lycopodium 
jap07iiciim. Bretschneider says : '' This curious plant of the 
order Lycopodiaceae, is very common in the Peking mountains, 
where it grows on stones and rocks. It has the fronds curled 
in and contracted when dry, in which condition it is of a 
yellowish-brown color, but it expands immediately and assumes 
a fresh green color when put into hot water. Its common 
name at Peking is ^ ^ ^ (T'ang-t'ang-ch'ing), which means 
it becomes green in hot water." The plant is also found 
plentifully at Nanking, and wherever there is rocky, moist 
ground that is allowed to remain undisturbed. It is also called 
:^ ^ /?» ^ !^ (Ch'ang-sheng-pu-ssu-ts'ao), as it is thought 
to have the property of prolonging life, when administered 
medicinallv. It is prescribed in coughs, prolapse of the rectum, 
gravel, amenorrhcea, and hemorrhage from the bowels. The 
power of driving away evil spirits is also ascribed to it. 

Two other lycopodiaceous plants are spoken of under this 
article. They are called % f^ (Ti-po) and ^ ^ [^ (Han- 
sheng-ts'ao), respectively. They are like Selaginella^ and the 
first is used in hemorrhages. The second comes from the 
country ot the red-socked nomads in Kokonor, and is used in 
difficult labor. 

SELINUM MOiMNIERL— 3£ ^ (She-ch'uang). See 
Cnidium nionnicri. 

SELINUM Sp.— ^ M (Mi-wu). This is Faber's identi- 
fication ; but Li Sliih-chen says that this name stands for the 
young leaves of Conioselimim univittatum^ an umbelliferous 


plant Another name given is j^X ^ (Chiang-li), "river 
sedge ;" bnt these characters, if properly applied to this plant, 
evidently do not have this meaning. The plant was much 
cultivated formerly, and may yet be, for its fragrant leaves, 
which seem to have inspired poets to write about them. 
These leaves are used in medicine as a tnssic, carminative, 
nervine, antiseptic, and anthelmintic remedy, and they are 
prescribed in colds and diarrhoeas. The flowers are used in 
cosmetic preparations. 

SENECIO CAMPESTRIS.— ^bJ ^ M (Kou-she-ts'ao). 
This plant grows in Szechuan in moist ground. It has a leaf 
somewhat resembling that of Plaiitago^ and bears a yellowish- 
white flower. It is regarded as slightly poisonous, and is only 
used as a parasiticide in skin diseases and on the clothes. 

SENECIO PALMATUS.— li ^ (Wei-hsien). There 
are very many species of Senecio in China, and this name prob- 
ably refers to more than one kind. Other names given are 
]^ Hj (Mi-hsien), j^ '^ (Lu-hsien), :^ H ^ (Wu-feng-ts'ao), 
% i& % (Wu-hsin-ts'ao;, 4j£ ^ (Wu-tien), 5^ g| (Ch'eng-chi), 
and ^ ^ (Ch'eng-kao). It is said that deer, wlien sick, eat 
this plant and then recover ; hence the name Lii-hsien. It has 
hairy leaves, a red stem, and bears yellow flowers. It is said 
not to move in the wind, but to be self-moving in still air. 
The stalk and leaves are used in rheumatism, epilepsy, can- 
cerous sores, and general debility. It is said to prevent concep- 
tion, and a decoction is employed as a wash for foul sores. 
The Wei-hsien-ts'^ao is considered to be tonic, and astringent 
and carminative in diarrhoea. 

SENECIO SCANDENS.— ^ 1. ^ (Ch'ien-li-chi). Also 
called -f" M :3£ (Ch'ien-li-kuang), 199. The other plant spoken 
of in the Customs Lists, ;^ _g. BjJ (Chiu-li-ming), 199, is an 
allied species. Cineraria repanda. But this German ivy is 
well described in the Pinisao. The flowers, when produced, 
are yellow, and the seeds seldom come to perfection. The 
stalk and leaves are regarded as an efficient remedy in eye 
diseases. The plant is regarded as slightly poisonous (emetic). 


It is used ill all sorts of epidemics, jaivndice, malaria, and snake 
or dog bites. Decocted with licorice, it is used as an antifebrile, 
and with >J^ ^ (Hsiao-ch'ing), Ardisia japoiiica ( ? ), for the 
tenesmus of dysentery. 

SERISSA FCETIDA.— ^ |i5:^(Ch'u-chieh-ts'ao). Other 
names are "^^ ^ ^ (Liu-yiieh-lingj and 7^; ^ ^* (Liu-yiieh- 
shnang). These last, however, are considered to represent 
Euonyniiis. This plant resembles Solidago virgo mirea^ but 
is greener and more brittle. Its flowers resemble those of 
Mentha arvenis. The stalk and leaves are used in carbuncles 
and cancers. 

SESAMUM INDICUM.— ^ Jj| (Hu-ma), % R (Ch'ing- 
jang). This latter is said to repi'esent the leaves of the former. 
The character m is properly applied to plants yielding textile 
fibers, as CoTchoriis^ Bcemeria^ Lintiin^ and as ancienth-, to 
Cannabis saliva. But hemp seed has been from ancient times 
an article of food ; so it has not been surprising that the term 
should be applied to Sesamum^ which is commonly called ^ 
^ (Yu-ma), although this latter term also includes one or more 
species ol Linwn. The famous general, Chang Chien, brought 
the seed of these oil-bearing plants from the West when he 
made his famous tour in the time of the Han dynasty. For 
this reason it gets the character j^ (Hu), "Scythian," in its 
name, as do the most of the plants brought from abroad 
by this observant traveler. The account in the Pentsao 
thoroughly confounds Sesamiini^ Limim^ and Mnlgediiun ; so 
medical uses are not clearly defined. The fruits are dark 
brown, or black, four-angled capsules, two-valved, and about 
a quarter of an inch long. The taste is sweet and aromatic. 
They are used as cooling, emollient, pectoral, laxative, and 
uterine remedies. The seeds are distinguished between black, 
^ rft H (Hei-yu-ma), and white, ^ ^% (Pai-yu-ma) ; and 
while the medicinal properties are necessarily very much alike, 
the Chinese make certain distinctions in their use. Generallv 
speaking, they regard the seeds as emollient, constructive, and 
cooling. The black seeds are specially used in labor, to pre- 
vent catching cold, and the raw seeds bruised are employed 


as a sort of poultice in the sore heads of children and in 
venereal sores in women. The white seeds are eaten by 
nursing mothers to prevent colds and convulsions in their 
infants. The oil, very naturally, has similar properties 
and is used as a bland emollient internally in diarrhoeas 
and externally in all sorts of sores. Its ingestion is also 
thought to facilitate labor. The dregs of oil from an old 
lanip are considered to be specially efficacious. The oil-cake, 
Hi ^li fl (Ma-k'u-ping), is used to fatten fish and to enrich the 
fields. It is also used as food for human consumption, and is 
employed to clean the teeth and blacken the hair. The Cli'^ing- 
jang^ which is the foliage of the plant, is also considered very 
beneficial when eaten, having qualities not much inferior to 
those of the seeds. A strong decoction is recommended in 
dysmenorrhoea. The flowers are thought to make the hair 
grow after favus, and to promote the growth of the eyebrows. 
They are emollient to the intestines, and are used as an 
application to warts and other excrescences of the skin. The 
stalks are incinerated, and the ash used on hemorrhoids and 
in purulent otorrhoea. 

SESELI LIBANOTIS.— 5fI5 % (Hsieh-hao). This is an 
umbelliferous plant having a general resemblance to Artemisia 
apiacea^ but it does not have the offensive odor of the latter. 
The leaves and root are both edible. It is carminative and 
corrective, and is recommended in flatulence and indigestion, 
A decoction is used to wash foul sores. 

SETARIA ITALICA.— ^^^ (Liang). This is the common 
spiked millet^ which is so extensively grown for food in the 
north of China, where the popular name of the plant is ^ -^ 
(Ku-tzu), and of the hulled grain is \\\ % (Hsiao-mi). The 
character designating this grain is explained by ]g (Liang), 
"excellent grain." Another explanation is that it originally 
came from "^ ]\\ (Liang-chou), formerly including parts of Sze- 
chuan, Hupeh, and Honan. The character |j| (Su) is sometimes 
applied to this form of millet, but belongs rather to another 
variety. Three varieties of grain are distinguished: ^ ^ TJt 
(Huang-liang-mi), yellow, j^ Mc: 5i^ (Pai-liang-mi), white, and 


W y^i ^^ (Ch'ing-liaug-mi), green. It is possible that the last 
is con founded with Setaria viridis (see below). The yellow 
grain is considered as constructive, as well as emollient and 
astringent in diarrhoeas and choleraic affections. The white 
is cooling, and is therefore recommended in feverish and 
choleraic conditions. The green has about the same qualities 
as the other two, but is also diuretic and strengthening to 
virility. All are used in the form of congee. 

is the glutinous variety of the spiked millet. It is not much 
used as food, as it is thought to obstruct the viscera ; but it is 
extensively used for the distilling of spirits. Three varieties 
are mentioned: \ellow, red, and white. It is rt-commended in 
feverish conditions, as a local application in varnish poisoning, 
mixed with white of egg in boils and abscesses, and in dog 
bite. It is used in a congee with Astragalus hoangtchy by 
pregnant women who have a discharge from the vagina. 

SETARIA VIRIDIS {Germamca).—^, (Su), ||Ii J| 
(Hsien-sn). Anciently ^ (Su) was a general name for millet- 
like grains, including ^, ;^, ^, and %ii, ; but later this term is 
applied to a non-glutinous variety of the spiked millet, distin- 
guished by short spikes and short bristles. This is also com- 
monly called >J> % (H.siao-mi) in the north. There are green, 
red, yellow, white, and black varieties. The grain is regarded 
as beneficial to the kidnevs, lungs, stomach, bladder, and liga- 
ments. It is recommended in cholera, nosebleed, vomiting, 
and claw wounds of bears or tigers. 

SHORE A ROBUST A.— ^' J^ -^ (So-lo-mu). This is 
a coniferous tree of India, described in the Kitang-cJifiii-fang-pUy 
and which furnishes a sort of frankincense^ called j^ |i =§= 
(Tu-nou-hsiang). It grows in Cambodia, and the resin is 
white and translucent. That made from the bark by roasting 
is dark in color. Another kind is called ^ A ^ (Tan-pa- 
hsiang), and is produced by a maple-like tree in Cochin- 
China. The resin is used in a cosmetic preparation made 
with this substance, Jatropha janipha, the kernels of the seeds 


of Benincasa cerifera, and pomegranate bark, digested in 
spirits for three dnys. Applied to the face after first washing, 
and doing this for some days, tlie skin will gradually assume 
a lustrous appearance like jade. 

SIEGSBECKIA ORIENTALIS.— |i 1^ (Hsi-lien), 395, 
It « # (Chu-kao-mu), j^ # (Hu-kao), |S| ^ (Kou-kao), |^ 
W\ '% (Nien-hu-ts'ai). This composite plant is said to smell 
like a pig and have an acrid, bitter taste ; hence the principal 
name. The third and fourth names are derived from the fact 
that wounds by dogs and tigers are treated with this drug, 
and the last name from the use of the plant as food after 
boiling, which removes the bad odor and taste and produces 
a mucilaginous pot-herb. It is probable that a number of 
varieties, species, or even genera, are included under the 
several names given for the plant in the Pentsao. Li Shih- 
chen gives a lengthy description of the diflferences, but in 
general characteristics the plants seem to be very similar. 
Some are regarded as being slightly deleterious (emetic), while 
others are thought to have no untoward properties. It is used 
in worm fever and loss of appetite, in wounds to relieve pain, 
as a mild stimulant in ulcers, in chronic malaria, dog and 
tiger bites, spider and insect bites, and numbness of the extrem- 
ities. Two other similar plants are mentioned in a footnote 
to this article, called |^ ^^ (Lei-pi) and q^ M ^ (Yang-shih- 
ch'ai) ; but these are not identified. The leaves of the former 
are used as a tonic, and those of the latter to treat cancerous 
sores. The root of this latter may be used to poison fish. 

SILER DIVARICATUM.— pj^ Jt (Fang-feng), 292. 
This is an umbelliferous plant, and it is not quite certain 
whether the name refers to this, to Peiicedarnim rigidtun^ or 
to Peucedanii7fi ferebinthaceum; possibly to all these, as well 
as to others. There is not much description, and that given 
is very unsatisfactory. The plant is found in most of the 
central and northern provinces. It is compared to the fennel 
plant, and is eaten as a pot-herb. The best root is sold in 
long, brownish-yellow, irregular, branching pieces, having 
some of the stem attached to the root-stock. It has a sweetish 


aromatic taste, and is given in all difficulties due to damp and 
chill, including the thirty-six varieties of JU, (Feng), diseases of 
the circulation, and general debility. The leaves are used as 
a diaphoretic in fevers, the flowers in circulatory disturbances, 
and the seeds in obstinate colds. The root is regarded as au 
antidote to aconite poisoning. 

SINAPIS.— ^ (Chieh). The mustards grown in China 
are mostly varieties of Sinapis jiincea. In the PeJilsao 
there is an article on the general term given above, and one 
on ^ ^ (Pai-chieh), 96, or j|g ^ (Hu-chieh), which is probably 
Sinapis alba. Li Shih-chen speaks of the following kinds : — 
^ ^ (Ch'ing-chieh), also called %\ ^ (Tzu-chieh), which 
from his description seems to be Sinapis nigra / ;:^ ^ (Ta- 
chieh), which is either Sinapis ijiicgri/olia or Brassica cani- 
pestris rutabaga ; .1 ^ (Ma-chieh) ; ^ ^ (Hua-chieh) ; ^ ^ 
(Tzu-chieh) ; ^ ^ (Shih-chieh), which is also called || ^* 
(La-chieh), ^. ^ (Ch'un-chieh), and ;g ^ (Hsia-chieh), accord- 
ino- to-the season at which it is planted and eaten. Of these 
varieties, w'hich seem to be iudigenous to China, the stalk 
and leaves are used as a pot-herb, having carminative qualities. 
The large leaved kinds are eaten, while the small leaved are 
considered harmful. jNIedicinally, they are recommended as 
corrective, digestive, and expectorant remedies. They are 
also used as a stimulant application in toothache, varnish erup- 
tions, and ulcers. The seeds have about the same properties, 
and are used by preference as being more convenient. The 
Pai-chieh is also called ^ ^ (Shu-chieh), because it was 
introduced into Szechuan from Mongolia. It is extensively 
cultivated for its stalk, leaves, and seeds. The stalk and 
leaves are carm>inative. The seeds, as indeed the whole plant, 
have about the same qualities as the other varieties have ; but 
the Chinese endeavor to distinguish in favor of this. A strong 
decoction of mustard, called ^ ^ (Chieh-chiang), was nrade 
to be eaten with meat, and was much relished, as the Euro- 
pean eats prepared mustard with his corned beef. 

Artemisia keiskiana. jf Jt (Lou-lu), 756, see Echinops sphcerp' 


oceplialiis. But under this last title is given another plant 
called % f^ % (Kuei-yu-ma), which seems to answer the 
description of Siphonostegia. iVnother plant, which seems to 
be Siphonostegia^ is called [# ff ^ (Yin-hsing-ts*ao), but this 
is not found in the Pcntsao. Tatarinov thought to identify 
§1] ^ & (L/iu-chi-nu) as Siphonostegia chinensis ; but he was 
evidently mistaken, as this is a composite plant, in all 
probability Solidago virgo aurea (which see). 

SISYMBRIUM SOPHIA.—^ j^ (Ting-li), 1307. See 
Draba ncmoralis. ')% % (Lin-hao) is Faber's identification. 
Under this title in the Pcntsao the term % ^ '% (Pao-niaug- 
hao) is given, and this is thought by some to be Sisymbrium. 
See Pedicularis sceptruni cariolinuni. 

SKIMMIA JAPONICA.— -g :$ (Yin-yii). The second 
character is also written ^'. This is an evergreen shrub, 
which bears fragrant, reddish-white flowers. It is considered 
to be poisonous. Another species, known as Skimniia for- 
tiineiy is smaller, has dark green, lanceolate leaves, hemaphro- 
dite flowers, and bears dark crimson, obovate berries. This 
probably is also known by the same name. Still another 
species, to which the name Skivimia reevesiana has been given, 
is called by the Chinese ^ llj ;^ (Wang-shan-kuei), has finely 
scented white flowers, glossy evergreen leaves, and bears in 
the winter bunches of red berries, resembling those of the 
common holly. It is a very desirable garden shrub. The 
stalk and leaves of the Yin-yi'i are considered to be tonic and 
restorative. A tincture, composed of this and eleven other 
drugs, is used in atrophy of the muscles. There is also, a 
compound pill, employed for a similar purpose. 

SMILAX CHINA.— |g % (Pa-ch'ia). The second 
character is also written ^;^J^, and the plant is called ^ HlJ 
j^ (Chin-kang-ken), i% ^ % (T'ieh-ling-chio), and i ^ [^ 
(Wang-kua-ts'ao). Li Shih-chen says : "It is a common 
mountain plant, which sometimes climbs, but its stem is 
strong, hard, and covered with spines. The leaves are large, 
round like the hoof of a horse, and shining. In the autumn 


it bears yellow flowers, followed by red fruits. The root is 
very hard, and is covered with bristle-like hairs. A decoction, 
which is sour and harsh, is made of the root. The aborigines 
gather the leaves and root and use them as a dye." It is 
commonly supposed that CJiina root is obtained from the 
Smilax cJiiiia^ but this is not the case (see Sviilax pseudo- 
china and PacJiyma cocos.) The root is tonic, diuretic, and 
antimalarial, and it is used in colds, menorrhagia, gravel, 
fluxes, and debility. 

SMILAX PSEUDO-CHINA.— i ^ ->^ (T'u-fu-ling), 
1368 (see also 332). Other names given are $lj |^ J^ (Tz'ii- 
chu-ling), /-^ is H (Leng-fan-t'uan), "cold rice ball, and 
|lj M :^ (vShan-ti-li), "mountain ground-chestnut." It was 
called -J^ f^ |i (Yii-yii-liang), because once when the Great Yii 
was traveling in the mountains and ran short of food, he had 
this root gathered and used as a substitute. Li Shih-chen 
says that the plant grows plentifully in Hukuang and Sze- 
chuan. It is a climbing plant, having a spotted stem ; and 
the leaves, which are not opposite, somewhat resemble large 
bamboo leaves, but are thicker, more glabrous, and five or six 
inches long. The root somewhat resembles that of Smilax 
china^ but is round, and consists of a conglomeranon of 
tubers of the size of a hen's or duck's egg, being found at 
varying depths in the ground. The flesh is very tender and 
can be eaten raw, and there are two kinds: one red and one 
white. The latter is used in medicine. This is the principal 
substance known as China root^ although Pachynia cocos is also 
included under this name, and it is sometimes difficult to 
separate the two products or distinguish them on the market. 
The latter is usually much larger, and in China proper is more 
common. Rut the Snii/ax root is exported to India and 
Burma, being called in the former country Chob-Chiiia^ and in 
the latter Tsein-apho-taroup. It is met with on the market in 
the form of brown, irregular, nodulated, branching, tuberous 
roots, with wiry radicles of some length attached to them. 
The interior is white and starchy, and sweet to the taste, with 
patches of yellow near the surface. It can be used as food, 
strengthening the body, and assisting in keeping one awake on 


journeys prolonged into the night. It is regarded as tonic, 
astringent or corrective in diarrhoeas, and curative in ulcers 
and mercurial sores. But its use par excellence is in syphilitic 
difficulties, especially the secondary and tertiary manifestations. 
Dr. Waring found the large tuberous roots of the Burmese 
variety, the Smilax prolifera of Roxburgh, very useful, in the 
form of a decoction of the fresh root, in secondary syphilis, 
cachexia, and chronic skin diseases. The sliced root, i 1^ ^ 
^ (T'u-fu-ling-p'ien), 333, 1369, is also found on the market. 

SMILAX SINENSIS.—^ p (Pei-hsieh), 988. Other 
names are % fg (Ch'ih-chieh), "red-joint," and ^ %% (Pai- 
pa-ch 'ia), ' 'white smilax. ' ' The root resembles that of Smilax 
china^ but is larger, is yellowish-white, and has many joints 
which are purplish in color. The account in the Phitsao is 
not clear, being confounded on the one hand with Smilax china 
and on the other with Dioscorea. But it is said to have a hard 
root with a bitter taste. It is regarded as tonic, and is specially 
recommended for the aged. It is also warming and quieting, 
and is used for nocturnal polyuria and all forms of gonorrhoeal 
difficulty. See Dioscorea. 

SOJA HISPIDIA.— ^ S (Pai-tou). Also called |S S 
(Fan-tou). This is a small bean, a variety of Glycine hispidia^ 
the stalks of which, when young, are eaten as a pot-herb. The 
bean is sometimes used to make soy and bean-curd, and is eaten 
both boiled and as a congee. It is considered to belong to 
the kidneys, therefore those suffering from diseases of this organ 
should use it. The bean is regarded as very nutritious, and 
both it and the leaves benefit the viscera. 

SOLANUM DULCAMARA.—^ ^[f (K'u-ch'ieh), ^^ 
^ (Shu-yang-ch'iian). The former is described as a small, 
prickly, wild shrub, found in Lingnan. It may be that this is 
the plant which supplies the ^*q ;^ (Ch'ieh-chih), 100, of the 
Customs Lists. Its berries are mixed with vinegar and used as 
a local application to cancerous sores and other swellings. 
Tiie root is used in decoction for the same purpose, and is also 
recommended in malarial poisoning. Slm-yang-ch'-iian was 


identified by Porter Sinitli as Solamim dulcamara^ but on 
what authority he does not mention. The Japanese identify it 
as Solamim lyratum^ which is a variety of Solanum dulcamara. 
In the Pentsao it is confounded with Sagina maxima; but 
although Li Shih-chen notes the confusion in these very 
different genera, he does not attempt to clear up the matter, 
but adds further confusion by likening both to Solamim 
nigrum. See the article on Sagina maxima for medical 

Another plant identified by the Japanese as Solajmm 
dulcamara is j^ ^ (Pai-ying), The young leaves of this are 
whitish and can be eaten. The flowers are small and white, 
and the fruit, which is called ^ @ (Kuei-mu), is at first 
green, but turns dark-red when ripe. This, however, is not 
the only use to which the name ^ g is put. The root 
and shoot of this plant are considered to be cooling and con- 
structive, as are also the leaves, which are used in chronic 
malaria and fev^ers of children. The fruit, besides its cool- 
ing and nutritive properties, is considered to be a useful 
remedy for the eye. The whole plant is used as a counter- 

SOLANUM MELONGENA.— )][f (Ch'ieh). This is the 
brinjal^ ambcrgine^ or egg-plant of western countries. Another 
name is -^ ^ (Lo-su), which is said to be wrongly written 
for 1^ ^ (Lo-su), referring to the resemblance of the fruit to 
a ball of cheese. Still another name is ^ -^ /JS. (K'un-lun- 
kua), " Kunlun melon." . There are many varieties of the 
egg plant ; the fruit varying in color — white, yellow, azure, 
and purple. These fruits are not regarded by the Chinese as 
being free from deleterious properties ; prolonged use being 
thought to produce digestive troubles and to injure the uterus. 
They are regarded as cooling, and are used bruised with 
vinegar as a poultice to abscesses and in cracked nipple. The 
peduncle, incinerated, is used in intestinal hemorrhage, piles, 
and toothache. The root, loi, and the dried stalk and leaves 
are used in decoction for washing sores and discharging 
surfaces, and as an astringent in hemorrhage from the bladder 
and other hemorrhagic fluxes. 


SOLANUM NIGRUM.— 11 ^ (Lung - k'uei). Other 
names are ^^-^ (T'ien-ch'ieh-tzu), ^ yig^ (T'ien-p'ao-ts'ao), 
and ^ 5,1 [Ig Hf ;^ (Lao-ya-yen-ching-ts'ao). There is a fair 
description of this plant, with its small white flowers and black 
seeds, in the Pentsao. There is some confounding with Sagina 
viaxwia and Solamini dulcamara^ also with Altliea rosea. 
The young shoots are eaten, after boiling, and are considered to 
be corrective, cooling, and tonic to men (virility) and women 
(menstrual disorders). The stalk, leaves, and root are used 
in decoction in wounds, cancerous sores, and as an astringent. 
They are also thought to have diuretic properties. The seeds 
have about the same properties and uses as the young shoots. 

Another plant is mentioned, called H 3^ (Lung-chu) and 
"^y J^ (Ch'ih-chn), which is said to be the Liing-k'-jiei with 
red seeds. It evidently is another species or variety of Solamim 
nearly allied to SoLaiium )iigrum. The shoots and seeds of 
this are said to have about the same qualities as those of the 
Liing-k'^uei^ except that while the latter promotes sleep, this 
plant promotes wakefulness. 

Another plant mentioned in this connection is -^ >£> ^ -^ 
(Niu-hsin-ch'ieh-tzii). It grows in the island of Hainan, and 
it is said that if one fruit is swallowed, the person will quickly 
die. It is only used for outward applications, and should not 
be taken internally. There is no description of the plant, but 
its action may suggest Atropa bclladona.^ Atropa >na?idragora^ 
or Hyoscyamiis niget\ 

SOLANUM TUBEROvSUM.— i ^ (T'u-yii), ± % 
(T'u-luan). This is more latterly called 'j^ ^ (Yang-shu), 
because it has been reintroduced, at least in eastern China, by 
foreigners. It was known and eaten by the people of the 
Liang dynasty. Faber calls "^ ^ (Huang-tu), which is given 
as one of the synonyms for this, Dioscorca japonica. Without 
doubt there is some confusion in the Chinese books, as one 
author claims for the tuber emetic properties, while others say 
it can be freely eaten, and claims that it is very nutritious. 

SOLIDAGO VIRGO-AUREA.~|il ^ ^ :^ (Liu-chi- 
nu-ts'ao), 739. The identification of this golden rod is Japan- 

414 chinesp: materia mkdica. 

ese, confirined by Faber. Tatarinov calls it Siphonostegia 
chincnsis^ but the description in the Pciitsao indicates a 
composite, not a scrophulariaceous, plant. The Chinese name 
is probably derived from the name of a person. There is a 
legend to the effect that in the reign of one of the Emperors of 
the Sung dynasty a man whose surname was Liu Yli, and 
whose "small name," was Chi-nu, while cutting down a f^ 
(Ti) plant, saw a large snake and killed it with an arrow. On 
the next day he went there and heard the sound of mortar and 
pestle. When he searched for the source of this sound, he 
saw several youths dressed in green robes in the hazel thicket 
bruising this plant for medicine. When he asked why they 
did this, they replied that their master was shot with an 
arrow by Liu Chi-nu, and that they were now preparing 
medicine to cure the wound. So the. Chinese have ideas in 
regard to the healing properties of this plant similar to those 
which gave the botanical name to this genus. The seeds are 
officinal, and are said to dissolve the blood and expel flatus. 
If taken too long, they produce hemorrhage of the bowels. 
They are used in hemorrhages, wounds, menstrual disorders, 
cholera, diarrhoea, and hemorrhage from the bladder in chil- 

SONCHUS OLERACEUS.— ^ (T'u), § ||(K'u-ts'ai). 
See Lactiica. The first character, which originally was the 
name for tea, is now generally referred to this genus. The 
second name is also used for various species of Lactuca^ as 
well as other plants used as pot-herbs, such as some of the 

SOPHORA ANGUSTIFOLIA.— ^ ^ (K'u-shen), 635. 
This is the same as SopJiora flavescens and SopJiora kronci. 
Other Chinese names are ^ ^ (Yeh-huai), fY. ^ (Shui-huai), 
and \^ j^ (Ti-huai). Other names are given, referring to its 
dwarf and herbaceous character as compared to the Sophora 
japonica. Tatarinov, following Loureiro, called it Robinia 
amara. It is a very common plant in mid-China, bears 
yellowish-white flowers, a siliquaceous pod, and a long, 
yellowish, exceedingly bitter root, which last is the part used 


in medicine. The best comes from Juuingfii in Honan. It is 
one of the five ^ (Shen) enumerated by T'ao Hung-ching. In 
the list of Ivi Shih-chen, however, ^ ^ (Tzu-shen) takes its 
place. The drug is given in fevers, jaundice, dysentery, 
leprosy, scrofula and many other important maladies. As a 
bitter tonic and stomachic, it probably is of more value than 
the true ginseng, for which it is named. Anthelmintic pro- 
perties are also ascribed to it, as are also those of an astringent. 
The fruits, called "t^ # ^ (K'u-shen-shih) or ^ # ^ (K'u- 
shen-tzu), 636, have properties identical with those of the root, 
and are considered restorative and tonic. 

SOPHORA JAPONICA.— 1^ (Huai). This leguminous 
tree is very common in China, growing in all latitudes from 
Kuangtung to INIanchuria, and is a frequent ornament of the 
streets, courtyards, and parks of Peking and other cities. 
The leaves are elliptico-lanceolate, and greyish on the under 
surface. The legumes are wrinkled, fleshy, and moniliform, 
often containing only one seed, or the pod is lengthened so as 
to have from five to seven seeds, and by a constriction of 
the pod at various places, these are grouped into twos or 
threes. The pods containing one or five seeds are rejected by 
the Chinese, and those containing groups of two or three are 
employed in medicine. The pods are used in peparing a 
yellow dye. In order to prepare them for medicinal use, they 
are first broken up with a brass pestle, and then soaked over 
night in the milk of a black cow, and steamed and dried. 
These legumes are considered to be tonic, to preserve the 
freshness of youth, and to be astringent and styptic in wounds 
and hemorrhoids. Difficult labor, abortion, venereal sores, 
profuse salivation, and milk fever are treated with them. They 
are called |^ ^ (Huai-shiii), 504, and }% "^ (Huai-chio), 501. 
The flowers, which are usually gathered in the immature state, 
and are called :^ ^ (Huai-hua), ;^ ^ (Huai-mi), and }% ^ 
(Huai-tzu), 502, are greenish-yellow, and are used in dyeing 
cloth a yellow color, or for changing the color of blue clotli to 
green. They are astringent, anthelmintic, and cooling, and 
are employed in loss of voice, hemoptysis, epistaxis, and 
menorrhagia. The leaves seem to resemble senna-leaves in 


their action, and have been used in India as a purgative. In 
China they are used in convulsions and epilepsy in children, 
post-partum difficulties, and as a wash in scabious skin affec- 
tions, tor which last the stalk and bark are also used. The 
twigs, 505, are decocted for the treatment, as a wash, of all sorts 
of skin difficulties, piles, sore eyes, and discharging surfaces. 
The bark of the tree and of the root is used for similar purposes 
and is specially recommended in orchitis, gonorrhoeal dis- 
charges in women, and in the bath to improve the skin. The 
eum which exudes from the tree is given several fanciful 
virtues, the principal use being that of an application in skin 
affections. An extract made from the leaves and the fruit of 
this tree is used to adulterate prepared opium. The wood was 
formerly employed in making primitive fire drills, and was 
also used as a cautery or form of the moxa. 

SORGHUM SACCHARATUM.— fj^ M (Ti-che). This 
is included under the article on Sacchariim saccharatum (which 
see). In Japan -^ ^ (Shu-shu) is used for this, but in China 
this term refers Lo Sorghum vulgare. 

SORGHUM VULGARE.— g ^ (Shu-shu). The com- 
mon name is ^ ^ (Kao-liang), or "high-millet." Other 
names are ^ J| (Lu-su) and % %_ (Ti-liang). This is one of 
the three "millets" so extensively grown in northern China 
as food for man, provender for beasts, and for distilling spirits, 
the others being Panicum uiiliaceiivi and Setaria italica. The 
seed of this plant was brought from Szechuan, but whether 
indigenous there or originally coming from further west is not 
now known. There are glutinous and non-glutinous kinds, the 
former being used for distilling spirits, and the latter as food 
and provender. The stalks are used as reeds in the construction 
of fences, wattle houses, mats, and the like, replacing the 
PJiragniitcs reeds of the Yangtse valley. The grain is regarded 
as warming, nutritious, and beneficial in fluxes. The glutinous 
kind can be used as a substitute for the glutinous panicled 
millet. The second and third names at the beginning of this 
article distinguish between the yellow and black varieties 


SPINACIA OLERACEA.— ^' ^ ^ (Po-leng-ts'ai), f^ ^ 
(Po-ts'ai). The seed of this plant was brought from India by a 
Buddhist priest in the Tang dynasty, and the herb is extensively 
used b}' the bonzes as one of their ^ (Su), lentenfare. As the 
Chinese have a tendency to attribute everything that conies 
from the south-west to Persia, we are not surprised to find this 
called -^ Sjf :^ (Po-ssQ-ts'ao), "Persian vegetable." Another 
name is '^, i(j^ ^ (Ch'ih-ken-ts'ai), "red-root." The dioeceous 
nature of the flowers in this genus is noted by the Chinese. 
The herbage with the root is regarded as a cooling, carmina- 
tive, antivinous, thirst-relieving vegetable. No special medici- 
nal uses are noted. 

SPIRITS.— M (Chiu). The character is explained by M 
(Chin), since the action of this drug deternnnes (j^) the good 
or evil (^ ^) in the disposition of men, referring, it is sup- 
posed, to the varying action of alcohol in producing different 
types of intoxication. The clear spirit is called ^ (Niang, 
which also means "to ferment") ; the turbid is called ^ (Ang); 
the concentrated is called g| (Shun); the dilute is called @^ 
(Li); the double fermented is called |"^ (Ch'ou); "one night 
wine" is called ^ (Li) ; good wine is called gff (Hsii) ; the 
unpressed is called @§ (P'ei); red wine is called |i; (T'i) ; the 
green is called |f (Ju) ; and the white is called |1 (Ts'o). Spirit 
is made from the various kinds of millet and of rice, from 
honey and from grapes. In all except the honey and grapes, 
yeast is used to produce fermentation. Glutinous rice is said to 
make the best spirits, with panicled millet next, and spiked 
millet poorest of all. The invention of spirits is ascribed to 
^ PC (I'ti), a daughter of one of the legendary emperors who 
presented it to the Great Yii. The Shuo-wen says it was 
invented by >j; ^ (Shao-k'ang), otherwise known as ;^ J^ (Tu- 
k'ang). Others still put it as early as the reign of Huang-ti 
(circa 2700 B.C.). The spirit derived from fermented grain 
may have been the kind the use of which resulted in the curse 
of Canaan and the incestuous origin of the two troublesome 
tribes of Moab and Ammon. Originally, all forms of spirits 
were made by the fermentation process, as distillation was not 
known until the Mongol dynasty. The only methods of puri- 


fication and concentration known to the ancient Chinese were 
decantation and refermentation of the dregs. The rice spirit 
was the principal one recommended in medicine. They said 
that its prolonged use injured the mind (ipi^) and shortened life 
(^), weakened the bones and ligaments, produced flatulence, 
and when complete drunkenness was frequently produced, mania 
would result. A drunk person should not take a cold bath, as 
it was certain to result in rheumatism. Neither should a 
drinker take cinnabar and other mineral drugs, nor ginger, as 
these tended to the production of cancerous troubles. Spirits 
and tea taken together are said to injure the kidneys and pro- 
duce dropsy. The treatment of all poisonous difficulties is 
made difi&cult by the ingestion of spirits. The antiseptic and 
stimulant properties of spirits are recognized, especially the 
stimulant action upon the circulation and apparently upon the 
brain, but the incoherence of thought produced by its action is 
also noted. It is thought to prevent the action of various 
ptomaine poisons, and is often taken with meals on the chance 
of the food not having been perfectly fresh. 

fi IR ?@ (Tsao-ti-chiu) is that which has stood on the dregs 
for three years. It is stomachic, digestive, and corrective of 
vegetable poisons. 

^ JS (Lao-chiu) is that which is made in the twelfth 
moon, which is said to keep for several years. It is said to be 

^ Jg (Ch*un-chiu) is that made at the time of the Ching- 
ming Festival, and is also said to keep good for many years. 
Its habitual use is said to produce obesity. 

The sacrificial wine left over from the altar jH: Jt^ ||i ^^ Jg 
(She-t'an-yii-t*so-chiu) is used in stammering of children, in 
deafness, and is squirted into the corners of the room to destroy 

The spirits found in the pipes of the vat, |g ^ fi 4' ?5 
(Tsao-sun-chieh-chung-chiu), is said to cure nausea, if taken 
with milk, and is rubbed locally on urticaria. 

^ F# ^ (Tung-yang-chiu) is the same as ;^ ^ J® (Cliin- 
hua-chiu), made at Kinhuafu in Chekiang. It is used in the 
compounding of medicines. It is thought to bring out the 
virtues of the medicines digested in it, and to enhance their 


remedial action. It is used externalh^ in all sorts of sores, and 
especially to harden the skin and protect it from chapping or 

A kind of spirit prepared after a special process is called 
"M. 'M M (Yii-nio-chiu), "curing ague spirit," because it has a 
reputation in that disease. 

M ^ '^ (T'u-su-chiu) is made after the formula of the 
famous physician Huato. It is considered an infallible remedy 
in epidemics, especially those of a virulent character. It 
therefore receives the name "killing-and-reviving-spirit," i.e. 
killing the demon of disease and reviving the patient. It is 
composed of red Atractylis, cinnamon heart, Siler divaricatuni, 
Smilax china, Zanthoxylum piperitum, Platycodon grandi- 
florum, rhubarb, aconite, and Abrus precatorius. These are 
digested in spirits, both cold and hot. It is kept cool by 
hanging in a vessel at the bottom of the well, and used as a 
prophylactic at times of epidemics. 

A compound spirit, made in a very fanciful manner, is 
called ^^ '^ M (Chiin-hsiiu-chiu). To it is attributed remark- 
able virtues in the treatment of rheumatism and as a life 
preserving and health promoting remedy. 

Honey spirit, called ^ jg (Mi-chiu), is made by mixing 
glutinous rice congee and yeast with honey, and fermenting in 
a sealed jar for seven days. It is used in the treatment of 
eruptive fevers. 

Distilled Spirits, called -^ ?@ (Shao-chiu) and i^ fg 
(Huo-chiu), was unknown in China until the Yuan dvnastv, 
when the large contact with the Western world had by that 
Tartar dynasty, which conquered so large a portion of Central 
Asia and threatened to overrun Europe, served to convey 
from the west a knowledge of the process of distillation. It 
is a remarkable fact that this Tartar invasion of all parts of 
the civilized world, which served to carry the germs of so 
many useful inventions and industrial arts into Europe, 
should have been the instrument of conveying to the Far East 
the first knowledge of the triple curses of ardent spirits, opium, 
and tobacco. Proof of the foreign origin of the process of 
distillation is given in one of the names of its product, PnJ $|J "^ 
(A-la-chi), which is a transliteration of the Arabic ara^. The 


process of distillation is described by Li Shi-chen In the 
Pentsao. ji^ H i@ (Hsieu-lo-chiu), "Siamese spirit," is the 
triple distilled H j^ (San-shao), or samshu as it is called by 
foreigners. It is sometimes colored and flavored with charred 
sandal-wood, after which it is sealed up in jars and buried in 
the earth for two or three years to ripen. Several kinds of 
distilled spirits are found on the markets. \^ 'J'g (Fen-chiu) is a 
kind that comes from Fenchoufu in Shensi. The common 
name for the sort most generally consumed at the present day 
is ^ M (Huang-chiu), which is of about the strength and 
appearance of sherry wine. ^ ^ t@ (Ylian-hua-chiu) is a weak 
white spirit, flavored with the flowers of the Daphne genkway 
and said to be tonic. |f y^ fg (Kuei-yiian-chiu) is a red wine. 
^ ^ iM (Pi-lu-chiu) is a greenish spirit, made in several 
places in the north. But the most famous spirit is the $g fi Jg 
(Shao-hsing-chiu), made in the province of Chekiang, having 
a sour flavor and ^^ellow color. It would seem to be a purer 
ethyl spirit than samshu and other forms, as it does not have 
the delirient action possessed by many of these, which seem to 
contain large percentages of methyl spirit. A common saying 
with the Chinese is: 

"Shaohing is the polished scholar, 
"Samshu is a rowdy." 
The Chinese always consume the spirits warm, and they very 
soon redden the face. As their wine cups are very small, 
holding only about a dessert-spoonful, and as they do not 
usually drink many of these, drunkenness is not common, and 
liver diseases from this cause are infrequent. The Chinese 
seem to have the same ideas of the virtues of the samshu that 
many Europeans attribute to whiskey, using it wdienever there 
is attack of choleraic or indigestive trouble. Ague, hiccough, 
and general feeling of illness are troubles for wdiicli recourse is 
had to the wine-pot. 

The mask of fermenting grain is called f* (Tsao) or fg 
(P'o), and the wort is called ^ (Nieh). For this latter, see 
the article on Malt. The mash for preparing spirits is made 
in the twelfth moon, at the Chingmiug festival, or the ninth 
of the ninth moon festival. It is used unpressed, because if 


expressed it has no taste or virtue. It is said to warm the 
digestive organs, promote digestion, destroy putrefaction and 
vegetable poisons, give a healthy appearance to the body, and 
benefit all of the viscera. It is used externally in bruises, insect 
and animal bites, chilblains, and sunburn. Fermented sweet- 
meats, called f^ || If (Kan-hsing-tsao), are used in nausea 
and vomiting, and as a digestive and stomachic. 

SPONDIAS AMARA.— ^ Jf ^ (An-mo-le), f ^ t ^ 
(Yii-kan-tzii). The first name is in imitation of the Sanscrit 
Antala^ and another form of the same, or similar name is ^ jp 
^ 3^3 :^ (An-mo-lo-chia-kuo). The second name refers to 
the taste of the fruit, which at first is bitter, but leaves an 
increasingly sweet taste in the mouth. It is similar to the 
hog-plum of the West Indies. The fruit is sometimes con- 
founded with the mango. It grows in Lingnan, and has fine 
leaves, like the Albizzia julibrissin^ yellow flowers, plum-like 
fruits, greenish-yellow in color, with a six or seven angled, 
round seed, the kernel of which is also used in medicine. The 
tree grows to the height of ten or twenty feet, and has pliant 
branches. The fruits are reputed to be tonic, pectoral, and 
alexipharmic. Their ingestion is regarded as highly favorable 
to long life, health, and the preservation of a youthful ap- 
pearance. It is also said to be antidotal to mineral poisons, 
especially of vermillion and sulphur. A pomade made of the 
crushed fruits is used to promote the growth of hair and pre- 
serve its black color. It is not stated for what the kernels 
are used. 

SPONDIAS DULCIS.— A W ■? (Jen-mien-tzu). This 
comes from the south-seas ; the tree is like the cherry. The 
fruit has not much taste, but if stewed with honey it is relished. 
The seed looks like a man's face, with eyes, nose, and mouth 
well marked. It is often used as a plaything. The kernel is 
brittle and pleasant flavored, and is sometimes added to tea to 
give it a fragrant, mucilaginous, sweet taste. The medicinal 
qualities are considered as alexipharmic and cooling. It is 
recommended in bad cases of itch, and to be taken internally to 
prevent extensive ulceration. In cases of difficult labor, if the 


parturient woman will hold one of the seeds in her hand, on 
the Of'd days in the right hand and on the even days in the left 
hand, delivery will soon be accomplished. 

STACHYS ASPERA.— 7jc ^ (Shui-su). This is also 
called ^ ^ (Hsiang-sn) and f| |f^ ^ ^'uj (Lung-nao-po-ho), 
"camphor-mint.'* It is a common plant growing in moist 
ground, and is sometimes eaten as a vegetable. It is some- 
times confounded with Mosia grosseserrafa. The stalk and 
leaves are used in mtedicine as a carminative, deodorizing, and 
astringent remedy. Taken with hot spirits it is recommended 
for colds, very much as hot mint-juleps have been recommend- 
ed in domestic practice in the west. 

STACHYS SIEBOLDI, Stachys tuhcrifcra.—% 1^ E 
(Ts'ao-shih-ts'an), % % (Ti-ts'an),' if ^ ■? (Kan-lu-tsu). 
This tuber named "ground coccoon," and "sweet dew,*' is the 
''''Crosses''' of France and other parts of Europe. It was 
first cultivated in Europe by Mr. A. Paillieux on his estate 
"Crosnes," from tubers sent him from China by Brelschneider. 
Kan-lu is used in the Bible to translate the word manna be- 
cause the same characters ai-e used by the Chinese for antrita^ 
the food of the devas ; but this product must not be confound- 
ed with manna. The similarity of this plant to StacJiys aspera 
is noted in the Pentsao. The tuber is soaked in wine and 
taken for colds, and when dry and powdered is considered to 
be anodyne. No matter how prepared it is considered to have 
a beneficial influence upon the body. 

STEMONA TUBEROSA.— •§• ^ (Pai-pu), 958. It is 
likened to Asparagtts liicidiis^ and is sometimes called wild 
asparagus. The root, which is the part used in medicine, 
consists of a central mass with ten or more tubers attached, 
long, pointed, hollow, and sweet. The stetn is sometimes 
eaten when young as a pot-herb. As sold in the shops, the 
drug is in the shape of brown, dried, shrivelled pieces, from 
two to four inches long. It is given in coughs, as a carmina- 
tive, anthelmintic, and is used as an insecticide. Old coughs 
of thirty years standing are reputed to be cured by it. 


STELLARIA AQUATICA.— ^^ f^ (Fan-lii). This is 
confounded with Artemisia stelleriana vesiculosa ; and it is 
Lilso called |§ j}§ [^ (Chi-ch'ang-ts'ao), but this is Eryirichium 
pednnculare. Another name is H §^ [^ (^-ch'ang-ts'ao). 
This plant grows commonly in damp places and on margins of 
ditches and cannals. It has a twining stem, containing a 
viscid sap, which, when the stem is broken, draws out in silk- 
like filaments. It is used as a pot-herb and is sweet and tender. 
It has small white or yellow flowers and bears minute seeds, 
resembling those of Sisyvibrium. The whole plant is used in 
medicine, and is said to have a sour taste. Its action is con- 
sidered to be solvent to the blood, increasing secretion general- 
ly. For this reason it is used in the treatment of ulcers, hem- 
orrhoids, insufficient secretion of milk, and scanty urination. 

1475. This is one of the many T'^iino- trees. It is an ornamental 
tree and is frequently met with in the courtyards of Chinese tem- 
ples and houses, its large leaves affording an excellent shade. 
It may be readily recognized by its panicled flowers with colum- 
nar stamens, and the peculiar tendency of the follicular carpels 
to put on a leafy form, bearing the seeds on their margins. 
The seeds are oily, and hence the tree is called after the wood- 
oil tree, which is the Dryandra eordafa. The wood of the tree 
is regarded as very good for coffins, and the seeds enter into the 
composition of the moon cakes, eaten by the Chinese at the 
Autumnal Festival of the eighth moon. There is abundance 
of mucilage in the young branches. The leaves and liber are 
used to make a hair-wash and a soothing lotion for carbuncular 
and other sores. Cloth and ropes arc made from the inner 
white bark of the tree, and this bark is used in preparing an 
astringent lotion for hemorrhoids. The seeds are crushed and 
the juice rubbed into gray hair, with the reputed virtue of 
causing the gray to fall out and the new hair to come in black. 
The same preparation is used in apthous sore mouth in children. 

STILIvINGIA SEBIFERA.— ,^ |g (Wu-chiu). This is 
the tallow tree. The Chinese name is derived from the two 
facts that the birds like to eat the berries and that the root of 


the tree is used for making mortars. Ttie tree is quite com- 
mon throughout central China and somewhat resembles the 
Azedarach, or Pride of India. It varies a good deal in size in 
different provinces, and is readily known by its aspen foliage, 
which is permanent, but becomes a brilliant red color in autumn 
and winter. The leaves yield a black dye with sulphate of 
iron, thus demonstrating the large amount of tannin contained 
in them. The berries are three-seeded, and dehisce when ripe, 
disclosing the kernels enveloped with a coat of the vegetable 
fat which renders the tree so valuable. Dr. Williams says that 
the tree is called fip ^ (Ch'iung-shu) in the neighborhood of 
ISIacao. The white bark of the root is bitter and considered to 
be .slightly deleterious. It is diuretic and derivative in its 
action and is also used in the treatment of snakebite and skin 
ulcers. The leaves are used for a similar purpose and are con- 
sidered specially useful in the treatment of boils. 

Vegetable Tallow. — |g ffy (Chiu-yu). The tallow 
yielded by tallow berries is made by the following process. 
The ripe nuts are bruised and the pericarp separated by sifting. 
They are then steamed in wooden cylinders with numerous 
holes in the bottom, which fit upon kettles or boilers. The 
tallow is softened by this process, and is separated from the 
albumen of the seeds b\' gently beating them with stone mallets, 
when the tallow is effectually removed by sifting the mass 
through hot sieves. The tallow still contains the brown testa 
of the seeds, which is separated by pouring it into a cylinder 
made up of straw rings, laid one on top of the other, in which 
it is put into a rude press and the tallow is squeezed through in 
a pure state. A picul of seeds yields from twenty to thirty 
catties of tallow, besides the oil ^ ^ (Ch'ing-yu), which is 
obtained from the albumen by grinding, steaming, and pressing 
it a second time. The tallow is of a whitish color, hard and 
tasteless. It melts, according to Dr. Macgowan, at 104°, and is 
composed mainly of tripalmatine, a substance which, saponified 
by alcoholic potash, produces palmitic acid. It is largely used 
in candle making, being mixed with white insect wax, in the 
proportion of three ounces of wax to ten catties of tallow. 
These candles as especially used by the Buddhists. The tallow 
has been exported to Europe and would doubtless make a good 


lubricant for railway axles, for which purpose it has been used 
in India. The tallow tree is not the only one producing a vege- 
table tallow ; other kinds coming from Singapore and other 
places in the Far East. But strange to say, according to Mr. 
Sampson, this tree yields no tallow in Kuangtung province, 
where it grows so generally. Large quantities of vegetable 
tallow are exported from some of the Yangtse ports. It is 
sometimes used as an ingredient in ointments, and the yellow- 
ish mixture procurable from the candle-makers is useful in 
making up suppositories. Medicinally is is used as a pomade 
for the hair, being said to change gray hair to black. It is 
also applied to all sorts of sores and skin eruptions. Taken 
internally, it is believed to be emetic, purgative, hydragogue, 
and antidotal. Cases of poisoning, in China, are generally 
treated with a dose of the tallow, or the oil of the albumen, 
and it is generally useful for this purpose on account of its oily 
nature and its not violently emetic properties. 

STRYCHNOS IGNATIA.— g ^ ^ (Lii-sung-kuo). 
This is mentioned in the Appendix to the Pentsao, There is 
not much description of the plant, but what there is is suffi- 
cient to identify this Strychnos philippmensis of Blanco. JJu ^ 
^ (Chia-wa-lung) is given as the Bisayan name of the fruit. 
The bitter and poisonous properties of the fruit and seed are 
pointed out. The drug is highly valued medicinally, and the 
seeds are called ^ j[ (Pao-tou), "precious beans," either on 
account of this estimate or on account of their cost. They are 
used as a counterpoison in ague, intestinal worms, in post- 
partum difficulties, and epidemics. 

STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA.— # -^ || (Fan-rau- 
pieh), J^ % (Ma-ch'ien), 798. The second character of the 
second name is properly written |^, as referring to the "cash" 
on a horse's bridle ; but it is commonly written as above. 
Other names are ^ jj ^ S (K'u-shih-pa-tou), "bitter-seeded- 
Persian-bean," and "K^M^t^ (Huo-shih-k'o-pa-tu), which 
seems to be a transliteration of a foreign term. This drug is 
now found in Szechuan, but it originally came from some 
Mohammedan country. As the bright red fruit oi the plant 


resembles that of Moniordica cocJiin-cJiinensis^ it is sometimes 
confounded with that innocuous plant. The seeds are common- 
ly used to poison dogs, and are forbidden to be sold to strange 
persons. A considerable amount of uncertainty exists as to the 
identification of this substance as found in the shops ; for while 
the above statement, as to the poisonous properties of the seeds, 
and caution in regard to their sale, is given, the kernels are 
still said to be non-poisonous. These kernels are said to be 
useful in the treatment of the one hundred and twenty 
diseases, and are especially recommended in fever, throat 
affections, ague, and abdominal enlargements. They are 
powdered and enter into the composition of ointments for the 
dispersion of swellings, and the powder is blown into the 
throat in the treatment of cynache. Made into a mass, it is 
sometimes introduced into the vagina to produce abortion. 

STYRAX BENZOIN.—^ ,t, # (An-hsi-hsiang). The 
Sanscrit name is represented by \^ ^ ^ ^ (Ch'u-pei-lo- 
hsiang). This drug is said to be used by makers of incense, 
but on account of its cost it is probable that very little is so 
employed. According to Dr. Williams it is imported into 
Southern China from Borneo and Sumatra. '\:\\^ Aii-hsi^ in the 
Chinese name, probably refers to the Parthians, or Persians, 
whose country together with Anam, Sumatra, and Central 
Asia, is said to have yielded this foreign drug. The tree is 
said to have evergreen four-cornered leaves and to resemble 
the ]\Ielia azedarach. Disinfectant, deodorizing, carminative, 
cordial, stimulant, arthritic, and sedative properties are 
ascribed to the drug. It is prescribed in worms, griping pains 
in the abdomen, and other diseases of children. A very 
curious and amusing test is given for ascertaining the purity 
of this drug ; if genuine the fumes from burning this substance 
will attract rats and mice, and is also said to drive away devils 
and attract good spirits. However, this should not be adduced 
as a proof that the Chinese consider rats to be good spirits. 
The drug is recommended in spermatorrhoea. 

Liquid benzoin. — ^ ,f, filj (An-hsi-yu). This is men- 
tioned in the Pentsao as a treacle- like oil with all the properties 
of the gum benzoin. It is sold in small bottles in the large 


medicine shops ; but is ranch adulterated, having the same 
dark brown color as wood oil, but usually not so much of the 
odor of the drug as it should have. Rose-maloes is apparently 
substituted for it. This is the same drug as that described by 
Hanbury under the name of ;JC ^ ,%> ^ (Shui-an-hsi-hsiang). 
His sample was enclosed in "small globular, wooden shells, 
apparently the pericarp of some fruit, about one and three- 
fourths inches in diameter, closed with wax. The Chinese 
assert that they import it by way of the Indian archipelago ; 
but I have not been able to trace it either there or in Siam. 
It is curious, moreover, that this fragrant resin, even to the 
shell enclosing it, is extremely like that kind of balsam of 
Peru, which was brought to Europe long ago in the capsules 
of Lecythis and naturally supposed to be a product of South 
America." The virtues of this product are extremely like 
those of gum benzoin, but it is more highly valued as a 
medicine because of its scarcity and high price. 

SYMPLOCOS PRUNIFOLIA.— ill ^ (Shan-fan). Other 
names are :g: ^ (Ylin-hsiang) and ^ 1. ^ (Ch'i-li-hsiang). 
This tree grows throughout the Yangtse valley to the height 
of ten or fifteen feet, having leaves resembling those of the 
Gardenia. These are used for dyeing purplish black and do 
not need a mordant. This explains the Chinese name 
'-'-mountain a htm.'''' It bears a very plentiful supply of 
beautiful white flowers with yellow stamens and is very 
fragrant. The seeds are as large as pepper corns, and when 
ripe can be eaten. The leaves are also used in the preparation 
of bean curd, and are used mixed with tea leaves to give the 
latter a flavor. They are also eaten as a pot-herb. They 
have a sweetish-sour taste, and are used in chronic dysentery, 
to relieve thirst, and to kill fleas. For the latter purpose, 
about thirty leaves are decocted with three slices of ginger 
and the decoction used as a wash. 



TAMARINDUS INDICA.— ^ ^ ^ (An-mi-lo). This 
is a Buddhist transliteration of the Sanscrit name of the 
tamarind, amla^ and is only met with in Buddhist books. See 
EitePs Handbook of Buddhism, pages 7 and 8. Faber is 
wrong in using "^* ^ ^ (An-lo-shu) for this, as these char- 
acters refer to the hog-plum and majtgo. See Mangifera mdica 
and Sp07idias atnara. 

TAMARIX CHINENSIS.— ti H (Ch'eug-liu). Other 
names are ^. ff (Ch'ih-ch'eng), \% ^ (Ho-liu), m U ^ 
(Ch'ui-ssu-liu), 270, and '^ ^ ^ (Kuan-yin-liu). The com- 
mon name is H ^ 150 (San-ch'un-liu). The resemblance of 
the flowers of this genus to those of the willow has caused the 
Chinese to class this with the latter family. It has a dark red 
bark, its leaves resemble floss silk, it is not injured either by 
frost or snow, and it knows when rain is approaching and 
indicates this fact by its moving leaves. It is called Sajt- 
ch^2i7i-liu^ because it flowers three times a year, in pale red 
spikes three or four inches long. The tamarisk wood is used 
in medicine in the treatment of sores due to horse or donkey 
blood getting into a wound (anthrax ?). The twigs and leaves 
are antivinous, carminative, and diuretic. Tamarix manna 
is called tl ?L (Ch'eng-ju), and is used as a vulnerary remedy 
in wounds. 

TANACETUM CHINENSE.— ^t ^ (Ch'i-ai). See Arte- 
misia vulgaris. 

TANARIUS MAJOR {0/ Sumatra). I^ M ^ (Chiang- 
chen-hsiang). This botanical name follows Dr. Williams ; it 
has not been found elsewhere. The product is known as laka 
wood. Other Chinese names are ^ ^ ^ (Tzu-t'eng-hsiang), 
in which it is confounded with Wistaria.^ and i| "^ ^ (Chi- 
ku-hsiang), 48, in which it is confounded with lign aloes. It 
is said to come from Syria, and its odor is likened to that of 
sappan wood. It is said now to be found in Kuangtung, 


Kuangsi, Yunnan, Szechuan, Hupeh, Cambodia, Siam, Borneo, 
and Liuchiu. That coming from abroad is preferred to the 
native article. It is met with in bundles of long, rough pieces, 
of a reddish-grey color on the outside, and of a deep magenta 
red on the broken surface. Rotten portions of the wood are 
sometimes found in its substance, having lost more or less of 
their color. The grain is very hard, the odor fragrant, but the 
taste is very slight. The wood is used in dyeing, and is 
powdered and mixed with other substances to make incense. 
Is is used in medical practice as an astringent, as a wash to 
cleanse sores and excite granulations, and as a deodorizing or 
disinfecting agent. 

TARAXACUM OFFICINALIS.— if ^ ^ (P'u-kung- 
ying), 1055. This common plant has a large number of names, 
such as 1^ f]| j^ (Chiang-nou-ts'ao), "plowing-and-hoeing 
weed," ^ ^ '^ (Chin-tsan-ts'ao), "golden-hair-pin weed,'* 
^ -^S i& T (Huang-hua-ti-ting), "yellow-flowered earth-nail," 
h ^M (Kou-ju-ts'ao), "dog's milk weed," and ^ fj^ fX (Pai- 
ku-ting). The plant is found generally in all parts of the 
country, north of the Meiling range, but is most common in 
the Yangtse valley. It is fairly well described in the Peiitsao. 
The tender shoots are eaten as a pot-herb. Tonic and alter- 
ative properties are ascribed to the plant, and it is prescribed 
in all sorts of abscesses and swellings, carious teeth, and snake 

This identification is somewhat doubtful. It is counter-poison, 
cures ascites, and hastens labor. 

TECOMA GRANDIFLORA.— ^ ^ (Ling-hsiao), 733. 
See Bignonia grandiflora. 

is not quite certain if this is not Salvia pi ebia. ^ij ^ (Ching- 
chieh) is given as a synonym, and at Peking this is Salvia 
piebia and Nepeta ieiiitifolia. As usual where there is con- 
founding of plants in the Pentsao^ there is not much descrip- 


tion, so that it is difficult to distinguish. The stalk and the 
flower spike of the plant spoken of is used in medicine, and 
they are both eaten as an herb, and an infusion is drunk as a 
tea. Tonic and alterative properties are ascribed, and it is 
recommended in fevers, in abscesses and swellings, after labor, 
in menstrual difficulties, in headaches, indigestion, and as an 
astringent in hemorrhages. 

TERMINALIA CHEBULA.— M f: f^ (Ho-li-le), fpf ^ 
(Ho-tzu), 379. The identification is not quite certain, as the 
fruits described in the Penisao are six-angled, while all the 
TermiJialia fruits are five-angled. Emblica officinalis may be 
suggested as an alternative. The fruits of this tree, as well as 
those of the Tcrtniiialia bellcj'ica^ have been long celebrated 
in European and Indian medical practice under the name of 
myrobalans. The first name is an imitation of some Sanscrit 
name, the drug having been brought by T'ien Wang from 
India. According to Chinese account, the tree grows in the 
Kuangtung province and resembles Sapindiis chine7isis. It 
belongs to the order Combretacea;, and produces in India a 
peculiar gall-like excrescence upon its leaves, the result of the 
deposition of the ova of some unknown insects. These are 
called Kadii-kai-pK. in Tamil, but are not known in China. 
They are astringent and very useful in infantile diarrhoea. 
In former days Cochin-China, Persia, and Arabia supplied the 
myrobalans to China. As they are placed in the P^ntsao'ywsX 
after galls, and not along with fruits, it is possible that the 
galls of the tree were imported along with the fruits. The 
tnyrobalan fruits are deeply furrowed, wrinkled, oblong, and 
pointed at the lower end. They vary from one inch to an 
inch and a half in length, and are of a reddish or greenish- 
yellow color. The interior is hard and woody, and the taste 
is bitter. They are used in China as a mild laxative, deob- 
struent, tonic, carminative, and even astringent remedy va- 
riously combined with other drugs to determine its action to 
the lungs, stomach, and intestines. In India it is used as a 
topical and general astringent drug, highly extolled by the 
natives. Twining has found the fruits serviceable in enlarged 
spleen. Curious accounts are given in the Pcntsao of ships 


unable to move at sea through the slippery mucus of some 
great fish, being able to get away after pouring overboard a 
decoction of the fruit. Hair dyes, diet drinks, and charms to 
drive away all diseases are spoken of as made from them. The 
seeds are mixed with white honey and used in eye diseases. 
They are also used in coughs and dysentery. A decoction of 
the leaves is carminative, demulcent, and astringent. 

THALICTRUM RUBELLUM.— ^ jg (Sheng-ma), 1132. 
This is properly Aciea spicata (which see). These root-stocks 
are met with as dark-brown, irregular pieces, bristled with 
rootlets, and having more or less of the stems attached to them. 
The taste is bitterish. The Indian Pharmacopoeia quotes the 
native account of Thaliclrum foliolosuvi^ which is called Pilci 
jari^ and which is a tonic and antiperiodic remedy, combining 
some aperient properties, which are found in the root when 
administered as a powder, or as an extract, prepared as is that 
from gentian root. 

THEA.— ^" (Ming), :^ (Ch*a). See Camdia thca. 

THERMOPSIS FABACEA.— ^ ^ (Huang-hua). One 
four-parted flower with gamapetalons corolla to each stalk. 
The frost colors the flower more deeply yellow. The fruits 
(pods) are the parts used in medicine for diseases of the mouth, 
throat, and teeth. 

THLADIANTHA DUBIA.— 2 )^ (Wang-kua), ± ^ 
(T*u-kua), :^> ;^ (Ch'ih-pao). This is a climbing plant, with 
roundish leaves, small, yellow, five-cleft flowers, red fruit 
which gives the name "red hail-stone" to the plant, and 
a tuberous, starchy root. The young plant and root are both 
used for food, and the root and seeds are used in medicine. 
The former is considered to be alterative, cholagogue, galac- 
tagogue, and diuretic, and is used in jaundice, urinary diflficul- 
ties, constipation, alactia, amenorrhcea, fluxes, pimples on the 
face, and deafness. The raw seeds are said to be tonic to the 
heart and lungs and good for jaundice, and when roasted are 
used as an astringent in fluxes and to relieve nausea and 


THLASPI ARVENSE.— 7^ ^ (Hsi-raing). Another 
name is ;;^ ^ (Ta-chi), "large shepherd' s-purse." It is akin 
to Capsella biirsa-pastoris^ and is larger and more hirsute. It 
is also likened to Sisymbrium. The shoots are said to har- 
monize the internal organs and brighten the eyes. The seeds 
are considered to be tonic and constructive, and are used in the 
treatment of lumbago and eye diseases. 

THUJA {Biota) ORIENTALIS.— ^fi (Po). The Chinese 
do not distinguish clearly between Thuja and Cupressus. In 
fact, Abies and Jmiiperus are sometimes called by this same 
generic name. The arbor vitse is ^ \^ (Pien-po). Other names 
for Thuja are m \^ (Ai-po) and % ig (Ts'e-po) ; but this last 
sometimes refers to Jiiniperus chinensis. All other trees face 
east ; this alone faces west, and therefore it is an emblem of 
chastity. These trees furnish the cypress-wood much used by 
Chinese furniture makers, and Chinese and Japanese gardeners 
delight to dwarf and train them into all sorts of shapes, of 
animals, baskets, and the like. The leaves are used as decora- 
tions and garnitures tor presents. The fruits, called f& ff (Po- 
shih), and the kernels of the same, called t& •? t (Po-tzu-jen), 
Q^o, 968, are used in medicine. The nuts are considered to 
be very nutritious and fattening, and they are said to benefit 
the respiratory organs and to check profuse perspiration. 
They also act on the liver, and are prescribed in convulsive 
disorders of children. The leaves, 1019, 1039, are used in 
hemorrhages, and also in colds. A decoction of the joints of 
the branches is used in colds, rheumatic difficulties, and locally 
in parasitic skin difficulties. The resin is mixed with pine 
resin and plastered on tumors as a resolvant. The white bark of 
the root is powdered and called f 6 ^ # (Po-hsiang-sui), 1936, 
and it is used in an ointment made with wax and lard to 
cure burns and scalds and to make hair grow on the cicatrices. 

TILIA MIQUEUANA.— :^ ^ ;^ (P'u-ti-shu). This is 
purely Japanese. In China the three characters refer to the 
Ficus religiosa, the sacred Bo tree of Buddhism. This must 
not be confounded with ^ |i •? (P'u-ti-tzu) which are the 
fruits of Sapindus mukorossi. See Ficus religiosa and Sapin- 
diis mukorossi. 


TILIA CHINENSIS.— tp^ (Tuan). This character is 
also written j^x (Cliia) in the Erhya^ and it is not quite certain 
whether two different trees are confounded, or two characters 
are not clearly distinguished. At Peking Ttian refers to the 
linden or Iwie tree. It is described as having very large 
leaves folded together like a fan, and the bark furnishes textile 
fiber for making fish nets. No medical uses are given for any 
part of the tree, 

TINCTURES.—^ %\ (Chiu-lei). , These with the Chinese 
are usually fermented spirits, made by macerating the drug in 
a mixture of grain (usually rice) and leaven during the process 
of fermentation for producing spirits. In some instances the 
prepared spirit is used, but at tlie time most of the formulae 
were prepared distilled spirits were unknown. In the native 
medicine shops the old process is still in use, although in those 
cases where the prepared spirit is directed to be used, distilled 
spirits are now employed instead of the old fermented spirits. 
A large number of these preparations is found in the books of 
which the following are the principal ones: 

Tincture of AcantJwpanax spinosiivi / 55. ;5fP ]^ ?@ (Wu- 
chia-p'i-chiu). A decoction of the bark is fermented with rice 
and leaven. It is used in colds and is regarded as beneficial in 
diseases of the ligaments and bones. 

Tincture of Achryanthes bidentata ; ■^ )}^ 'i@ (Niu-hsi- 
;hiu). A decoction of the drug is fermented with rice and 
saven, and the preparation is considered tonic and useful in 
•hronic malaria. 

Tincture of Acorus calamus ; ^ f|f jg (Ch'ang-p'u- 
hiu). A decoction of the root is fermented with rice and 
•aven, and the preparation is regarded as useful in all forms 
r colds, rheumatic difficulties, and to improve the sight and 

Tincture of Akehia quinata ; %, ^ -jg (T'ung-ts'ao-chiu). 
he fruits of this plant are decocted and fermented with rice 
id leaven. It is used in the treatment of diseases of the 
icera and to improve the circulation. 

Tincture of Allium fistulosuni ,- ^ |^ 'jg (Ts'ung-shih- 
.iu). The onions are mixed with bean ferment and digested in 


Spirits. This is a remedy for fever, headache, and dysentery. 
It is also considered lo be anhydrotic. 

Tinctiu^e of Amoumm zanthoidcs ; |{g ^) jg (So-sha-chiii). 
Cardamon kernels are roasted, powdered, and digested in 
spirits. This is a carminative preparation, used in digestive 

Tincture of Arctium lappa ; -^ ^ if (Niu-p'ang-chiu). 
The root is sliced and digested in spirits. It is used in colds, 
and to give strength to the back and legs. 

Tincture of Artemisia apiacea ; ^ % Jf (Ch'ing-liao- 
chiu). The juice of the herb is expressed and fermented with 
rice and leaven. It is used in general debility and chronic 
malarial difficulties. 

Tincture of Artemisia capiUaris ,- "g |il ji (Yin-ch'en- 
chiu). The herb is roasted to a yellow color, and then mixed 
with rice and leaven and fermented in the usual manner. 
Colds and muscular rheumatic pains are treated with this 

Tincture of Asparagus lucidum ; ^ P^ ^ 'il (T'ien-men- 
tung-chiu). The herb is decocted and the decoction fermented 
with rice and leaven. This is considered to be tonic to the 
viscera and the blood vessels, and quieting in nervous affec- 
tions. It is used in alcoholic poisoning. 

Tincture of Atractylis ovata ; % ?! (Shu-chiu). The 
drug is peeled and soaked in east-flowing water for thirty days. 
The juice is taken and exposed to the dew for one night, and 
then fermented with rice and leaven. It is prescribed in rheu- 
matism and fever. 

Tincture of Banibusa leaves / f^" ^ ig (Chu-yeh-chiu). 
A decoction of bamboo leaves is fermented in the usual manner, 
and used in the treatment of fevers, and to clarify the intellect. 
Tincture of Brasenia peltata ; \^ '1^ }@ (Hsien-mao-chiu). 
The drug is steamed and dried nine times, and then digested 
in spirits. It is considered to be strengthening to the virile 
powers, and is used in the treatment of general debility and 

Tincture of Cannabis sativa seeds ; ^ % ^'^ (Ma-jen- 
chiu). There is more than one formula for this preparation, 
but in the common one the kernels of the seeds are browned 


and digested in spirits. The preparation is used in rheumatic 
difficulties, where there is much pain and inability to move. 

Tincture of CJirysaiitJicnuini sinense ; '^ ^ \^ (Chii-hua- 
chiu). A decoction of the dried flowers is fermented with rice 
and leaven, and if Rehraannia glutinosa, Cryptotaenia cana- 
densis, and Lycium chinense are added, the preparation is 
greatly improved. This is for headaclies, to improve the hear- 
ing and sight, and as a prophylactic against diseases in general. 

Tincture of Citrus acida compound ; "g" ^ J@ (Pai-kuo- 
chiu), "hundred fruits spirit. " Take one each of Citrus acida 
and Citrus chirocarpus ; walnut meats, lungans, lotus seeds, 
and dried oranges of each a half catty ; seeds of Thuja orient- 
alis, four ounces ; pine nuts, three ounces ; red dates, twenty 
ounces ; black sugar, three catties ; dry distilled spirit, fitty 
catties. Digest all together. The preparation is regarded as 
tonic and beneficial to the kidneys. 

Tinctui-e of Citrus fusca; f}J ijp jg (Chih-ju-chiu). The 
inside lining of the Citrus fruits is digested in spirits and 
used for colds and influenza. 

Tincture of Clematis graveolens; ^ |^ Jg (Huang-yao- 
chiu). The drug is cut into slices and digested in spirits. It 
is used in the treatment of goitres and tumors of the neck. 

Tincture of Cocos nucifera; ^ tf 'i® (Yeh-chung-chiu). 
This is the fermented milk of the cocoanut. It is used in the 
treatment of dropsy, hemoptysis, and is applied to the head to 
restore the black color to the hair, which it is also supposed 
to do if drunk habituallly. 

Tincture of Coix lacliryma; ^ ^ tl ?S (I-i-jen-chiu). 
The Job's tears are powdered, and fermented with rice and 
leaven, and used as a tonic and stimulant remedy in rheumatic 

Tincture of Cryptotcenia canadensis ; ^* |§ j@ (Tang-kuei- 
chiu). A decoction of the drug is made, and either fermented 
in the usual manner, or mixed with prepared spirits, and used 
as a tonic in diseases of women and to promote menstruation. 

Tincture of Cudrania triloba I'oot compound ; '^ ^ ^ 
(Che-ken-chiu). Take of the Cudrania root, 20 catties ; Acorns 
calamus, five pecks ; boil in one tan of water to five pecks ; add 
old iron, 20 catties, and ferment the whole with rice and leaveu 


in the usual manner. This is used in diseases of the kidneys 
and the ears. 

Tincture of Cyperits rotiindus root ; >'-}; j^ -jg (So-ken-chin). 
The root is sliced and steamed, and then di^^ested in spirits. 
It is used in diseases of the bladder, and in depression of spirits 
due to any cause. 

Tincture of Dioscorca qninqiieloha; ^ f^f iS (vShu-yii- 
chiu). The tubers are powdered and feimented with leaven, 
or there is added Cornus officinalis, Schizandra chinensis, and 
ginseng, to increase its virtue. It is considered to be tonic, 
strengthening to the virile powers, and beneficial to the spleen 
and stomach. 

Tinctnre of Foenicnbini V2ilgare; '% % i® (Hui-hsiang- 
chiu). The fennel seeds are simply digested in spirits. 
Foreign fennel is most highly esteemed for this purpose. The 
preparation is used as an anodyne and carminative in strangury 
and tenesmus. 

Tincture of Tpomaa batatas; -^ g 'jg (Kan-shn-chin). 
The tuber is sliced and digested in spirits for an indefinite 
length of time. The preparation is considered warming to the 
stomach, astringent in diarrhoea, and aphrodisiac. 

Tincture of Ligustrnm lucidurn baric; ;^ ^ i^ 'i@ (N^h^ 
chen-p'i-chiu). The bark is cut into slices and digested in 
spirits. It is considered as tonic, especially to the loins. 

Tincture of Lonicera japonica; jg, ^ ^@ (Jen-tung-chiu). 
This tincture is prepared by a complicated process which does 
not seem of much importance. Some of the virtues ascribed to 
the preparation are doubtless attributed to the peculiar method 
of preparation which is given in the Pentsao. It is vaunted as 
a remedy in all forms of cancerous and virulent sores, no 
matter upon what part of the body they may be found. It is 
taken internally. The tumor is punctured and some form of 
plaster is applied, in perfect confidence that the disease will 
be speedily cured. 

Tincture of Lyciiim chinense; ^ ;^g, Jg (Kou-chi-chiu). 
The seeds of the plant are boiled soft, the pulp expressed, and 
fermented with rice and leaven. Or the seeds are digested 
together with Rehmannia glutinosa in prepared spirits. This 
is a tonic preparation, and is useful especially in sexual debility. 


Tincture of MouocJiasma savatieri ; j^ ^ -Jg (Lu-jiing- 
chiu). The drug is digested in spirits together with Dioscorea 
batatas. This is used in profuse urination and general debility. 

Tincture of Morns alba ; ^ \% -Jg (Sang-shen-chiu). The 
juice of mulberries is boiled and fermented with leaven in the 
usual manner. It is used in dropsy, and it is .said that out of 
ten afflicted with this difficulty, if they use this remedy, not 
one will die. 

Tincture of Mnlgediiini sibiriacum ; ^ ^ "Jg (Chii-sheng- 
chiu). Two pints of the seeds are combined with two pints of 
the kernels of Coix lachryma and a half catty of the fresh 
root of Rehmannia glutinosa. • These are digested in spirits, 
and the preparation is used in the treatment of debility and 
rheumatic difficulties. 

Tincture of Pachynia cocos ; 1^ ^ 'Jg (Fu-ling-chin). The 
powdered tubers are fermented with leaven and rice and used 
as a tonic remedy. 

Tincture of Panax ginseng ; A :# 'ig (Jen-shen-chiu). 
The root is powdered and fermented with rice and leaven, or 
digested in prepared spirit. It is used as a tonic in all wasting 

Tincture of pitch ; ;^ ^ -Jg (Sung-yeh-chiu). The freshly 
collected pitch is fermented with glutinous rice, and used in the 
treatment of colds and locally in chillblains. 

Tincture of Polygonatuni canaliculatuni co.; ^ j^ M 
(Huang-ching-chiu). Four catties each of Polygonatuni cana- 
liculatuni and Atractylis-sinensis ; five catties of Lycium 
orientalis leaves ; and three catties of Asparagus lucidus are 
decocted, and the decoction mixed with glutinous rice and 
leaven, and fermented. This is nourishing, tonic, aphrodisiac, 
and reconstructive. 

Tincture of Polygonum ; ^ jg (Liao-chiu). A decoction 
of the plant is fermented with leaven and rice, and the prepara- 
tion is recommended as a tonic. 

Tincture of Tree Polygonuvi ; 5c ^ 1® (T'ien-liao-chiu). 
The plant from which this is made is not really a Polygonum, 
resembling that plant only in taste ; but it has not been possible 
to identify it. The bark of the tree TfC ^ ^ (Alu-t'ien-liao) is 
digested in spirits, in the spring and summer for seventeen 


days, andiii the autumn and winter for twenty-seven days. It 
is considered to be a sovereign remedy for all the Feng diseases. 

I'incturc of Popiilus alba bark; |g |^ Jf^ 'J@ (Pai-yang- 
p'i-chiu). The bark of the tree is sliced and digested in 
spirits. It is used as a revulsive and correcting remedy. 

Tincture of Prunus persica bark; \% J|J jg (T'ao-p'i- 
chiu). A decoction of the bark of the peach tree is fermented 
together with rice and leaven. This preparation is considered 
to be diuretic, and is used in dropsy. 

Tinct2ire of ReJimania glutinosa ; ^ ^ Jg (Ti-huang- 
chiu). The root of this plant is mixed with leaven and rice, 
sealed up in a vessel for seven days, and thus fermented under 
pressure. The preparation is considered to be tonic and 

Tincture of Rosa rugosa co.; JH, ^ ^ M (Feng-pi-yao- 
chiu). Use one ounce each of the white flowers of Hibiscus 
syriacus, Rosa anemonseflora, and Rosa rugosa ; one half ounce 
of the flowers of Datura metel ; five flowers of Solanum nigrum, 
and of the flesh of Longan fruits and northern dates, one ounce 
each. All is soaked in spirits and used in rheumatic difficul- 
ties and colds. 

Tincture of Sargassuni siliqiiastrum / ^ ^ ^S (Hai-tsao- 
chiu). The seaweed is washed clean and digested in spirits. 
It is used in the treatment of goitre, and may be considered to 
be a very good way of administering iodine. 

Tincture of Skimmia japonica ; "^ ^ JS (Ying-yii-chiu). 
Skimmia japonica, the three named species of aconite, Justicia 
gendarussa, Polygonatum vulgare, Siler divaricatum, Cocculus 
thunbergii. Rhododendron raetternichii, Rhododendron chi- 
nensis, Asarum sieboldi, and cinnamon heart are digested in 
spirits for a period ranging from three days in summer to seven 
days in winter. This combination of poisonous drugs is used 
only in wasting palsies. The disease being considered to be 
the result of a virulent poison, requires these virulent drugs 
for its treatment. 

Tincture of Sophora japonica ; ^ ^Wi (Huai-chih-chiu). 
The twigs of Sophora japonica are decocted and fermented in 
the usual manner. The preparation is used in the treatment 
of leprosy. 


Tincture of Stemona tnberosa / "g" ^ 'Jg (Pai-pu-chiu). 
The root of this plant is digested in spirits and the preparation 
is used in the treatment of acnte and chronic conghs. 

Tincture of Sterculia platanifolia ; ^ ^ Jg (Wu-tnng- 
chiu). The tops of this tree are used in spring or summer, and 
the root in autumn or winter, together with distilled spirits, 
in the preparation of a tincture, wliich is used both externally 
and internally in the treatment of mammary abscess. 

Tincture of Thuja orientalis leaves ; |Q ^ jg (Po-yeh- 
chiu). A decoction of the leaves is fermented together with 
leaven and rice and used in colds and rheumatic difficulties. 

Tincture of turpentine ; i^ fjj \% (Sung-chieh-chiu). A 
decoction of pine joints is fermented together with leaven and 
rice, or the leaves of the pine may be used in making this 
preparation. It is used, presumably externally, in the treat- 
ment of weak tendons, aching points, and chillblains. 

Tincture of Zanthoxylum and Juniper ; |,^ |^ jg (Chiao- 
po-chiu). Thirty-seven peppers and seven twigs of the juniper, 
taken from the east side of the tree, are digested in prepared 
spirits and used as a prophylactic against miasms. 

Tincture of Zingiber officinale ; ^ jg (Chiang-chiu). 
This is simply ginger root, steeped in prepared spirit, or 
ginger juice fermented with leaven. It is used as a stimulant 
in colds and indigestion. 

TORREYA NUCIFERA.— li (Fei). The character is 
also, but incorrectly, written -^ (Fei) and \^ (Fei, Fei, or 
Pai). The tree is a taxaceous one, resembling Cunninghamia 
sinensis. In fact it is sometimes called ^ ^j;^ (Yeh-shan), "wild 
Cunning It a}niay The nuts of the tree are called |g ^ (Fei- 
shih), 297, \t T- (Pi-tzti), # ^ (Ch'ih-kuo), and 5 OJ '^ (Yii- 
shan-kuo). They are collected and eaten by the Chinese, and 
are much relished as a food and valued as an anthelmintic. 
They are from three quarters of an inch to an inch and a 
quarter long, oblong, pointed at either end, but more sharply 
so at the upper end. The skin is of a reddish-brown color, 
mottled with patches of a darker tint, woody, fragile, and 
marked longitudinally with broad, shallow striae. The kernel 
is much roughened, obscurely villous, and covered with a thin, 


red dish -brown membrane. They have little taste, but are 
repnted to be peptic, anthelmintic, laxative, and tussic in their 
qualities. They contain much oil, and in Japan this is ex- 
pressed and sold on the market. They can be eaten in large 
quantities without fear of disease from their use. The Pen- 
tsao distinguished the \]^ ^ as being slightly deleterious ; so 
sometimes this must refer to the fruits of another tree ; prob- 
ably CunniiigJiaviia. Their only use is as an anthelmintic. 
A product called \% ^- (Pai-hua), and described as flower of 
Torrcya iiucifcra^ is also given. It is said to be bitter, car- 
minative, anthelmintic, and to give a good color. It cannot 
be taken very long without deleterious effects 

TRACHYCARPUS EXCELSA.— fi |i (Tsuug-lii) ; see 
Ch a m cprops c. reels a . 

Ian) ; see Metaplcxis staiDitonii. ^ ^ (Lo-shih) ; see RJiyn- 
cospcrnmm jasiiiinoides. 

TRAPA BISPINOSA, Trapa natans.—^ ^ (Chi-shih), 
^(Ling), 7j< ^ (Shiu-li). This is the watcr-calthrop^ or ivaier- 
chestmit. The common names are ^ Vj (Ling-chio) and ^ ^ 
(Lao-ling). The common kind is the two horned ; but there 
are three and four horned kinds. The first name is said to 
refer to the three horned, while Ling refers to the two and 
four horned. But in central China they are all called Ling. 
The plant is sometimes confounded with Euryale ferox. It 
grows plentifully in the ponds, lakes, and rivers of China, 
has been used from very ancient times as an article of diet, 
and is included among the things to be offered in religious 
ritual. Li Shih-chen gives a very good description of the 
plant, its fruit, and the manner of cultivation. It is said that 
if eaten raw it will injure the digestive tract, producing worms 
and intestinal disorders. This is not surprising, since the nut 
is usually produced in filthy ponds. Boiled, it is eaten in great 
quantities with great relish by all classes of people, especially 
children, and without danger. It is regarded as nutritions and 
constructive, and being a water product, it is thought to 


relieve thirst, reduce fever, and to be useful in sunstroke. 
The flowers and shells of the fruits are used for dyeing the 
whiskers and hair, and as an astringent in fluxes. |^ ^ 
(Fou-ling) is a name assigned to Trapa natans^ and refers to a 
kind resembling the French water chestnut. 

TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS.— ^ ^ (Chi-li), 52. The 
Erhya gives ^ (Tzii) as the classical name. It is the calthrop^ 
and is found in many parts of China. On account of the spiny 
character of the fruit it is called Jt fr (Chih-hsing), "prevent- 
ing walking." There are two kinds, the common kind being 
called ^ ^ ^ (Tu-chi-li) and another kind coming from 
Shensi is called g ^ ^ (Pai-chi-li), 936, or ^ ^ ^ ^ (Sha- 
yiian-chi-li), 1081, from the place from which it is brought. 
The seeds of the ordinary kind are considered to be diuretic, 
tonic, abortifacient, galactagogue, alterative, and anthelmintic. 
They are used in spermatorrhoea, anaemia, in parturition, 
coughs, purulent expectoration, and hemmorrhoids. The seeds 
of the white kind are specially recommended in kidney difficul- 
ties and spermatorrhoea. The flowers are recommended in 
white leprosy, and a decoction of the shoots is used in scaly 
and scabious skin diseases. 

TRICOMANES JAPONICUM.— ,1^ ^ (Wu-chiu). Other 
names are '^ ^ (Shih-fa), '^ ^ (Shih-t'ai), ^ ^ (Shih-i), and 
% j^ (Kuei-li). As usual with the Chinese in the case of 
ferns, there is much confounding of genera and species. It is 
used in fevers, bladder difficulties, jaundice, wounds, menor- 
rhagia, and as a stimulant to the growth of hair. 

TRICOSANTHES MULTILOBA. —1^^ ^ (Kua-lou), 640. 
It is probable that other species are included under this term, 
as Tricosanthes kirilowii Q.n^ Tricosanthes japonica. The plant 
is a sort of bryony, resembling Bryonia dioica. A classical 
name is :^ ^ (Kuo-lo). Nearly every part of this plant is used 
in medicine, but the principal products are the seeds, 640, the 
rind of the fruit, 641, and the root. The brownish-yellow 
dried rind of this fruit is met with in drug shops in broken, or 
collapsed, pieces indicating a globular fruit of some three or 


four inches in length. In the recent state, the pepo has a 
yellow rind, and the globular fruits, about the size of a man's 
fist, hang gracefully from the branches, on long slender 
pedicels. The seeds are large, flat, and brown. The kernel 
in the recent state is green and contains much oil, which is 
sometimes expressed and used as lamp oil. There is little or 
no difference in the medical action and use of the fruit and 
seeds. Both are regarded as nutritious, tussic, thirst-relieving, 
tonic, and astringent in fluxes. They are also administered in 
jaundice, suppression of urine, relaxation of the mucous mem- 
branes, retained placenta, agalactia, and syphilitic ulcers. The 
seeds are found in commerce, under the name of JTCl ^ ^ (Kua- 
lou-jen), 640. 

The root goes under the name of 5c fC 1^ (T'ien-hua-fen), 
1292, and 1^ 1^ (Pai-yao), 970. This is found in the shops in 
irregular pieces, two or three inches in length, and varying in 
size from that of a little finger to a man's thumb. Externally 
they are pale yellowish-white in color, usually marked with 
irregular longitudinal striae, and internally they are hard, 
amylaceous, and white, with yellowish medullary rays passing 
from the circumference toward the center. They are very apt 
to be worm-eaten, when they become reduced to a very fine, 
white, dry powder, compared to snow. This amylaceous 
substance is not found in the root of the growing plant, but is 
deposited as the plant attains maturity, and is therefore ex- 
tracted from the old root dug up in the autumn. This starch 
is considered to be cooling, nutritious, quieting to the centers, 
and healing in the case of wounds. It is also recommended in 
jaundice, polyuria, amenorrhoea, and abscesses. To the stalk 
and leaves of the plant are attributed antifebrile properties. 

TRICOSANTHES PALMATA.— ^ ^ ^ (Pai-yao-tzu), 
970. Such is an identification of Faber. See the last article. 

lu-pa), 485, ^ fi. (K'u-tou). These are the small, pale, red- 
dish-brown seeds of a leguminous plant with small pods, 
introduced into the southern provinces of China from some 
foreign country, and at first understood by Chinese writers to be 


the seeds of a brassicaceous plant. Since it has been grown in 
Kuangtung, however, it is recognized as being of a diflferent 
species. The seeds are furrowed and compressed so as to be 
somewhat angular in shape, and have a peculiar and some- 
what bitter taste. The beans, which have been in use as a 
medicine since the time of the Tang dynasty, are usually 
boiled or parched, and given with lign-aloes, anise-seed, and 
other substances as a tonic, carminative, arthritic and deob- 
struent remedy. Renal diseases, hydrocele, hernia and diseases 
of the hypogastric region are said to be benefitted by this drug. 
It is especially recommended as a demulcent in diseases of the 
bladder, and this seems to be a reasonable use for it, as this is 
practically its only property. 

ch'ang-ts'ao). Sqlq. Eritrichium pedunculare. The name, Oi?- 
ch'-ang-ts'^ao is also applied to Mazus riigosus^ which see. 

TRILLIDIUM JAPONICUM.— ^ ^ (Tsao-hsiu). See 
Paris polyphylla. 

TRISL^RIGATA K^MPFERL— ;& % 1^ (Shih- 
ch'an-hua). This is Faber's identification. Others make it 
^ 4i 1^ (Pi-ch'an-hua), but this is given under the article 
on Commelyna polygania (which see). 

TRITICUM VULGARE.— >J. ^t (Hsiao-mai). An old 
name is ^ (Lai), also written ^ (Lai). The character ^ is 
explained as coming from some place, some say from heaven 
and some say from another country ; by others still the char- 
acter is said to resemble the spikelets of the ears of wheat. 
The learned compiler of the Pentsao gives jjg gi|j |§ (Ka-shih- 
tso) as the Chinese transliteration of the Sanscrit or Pali name. 
As a rule, the grain is sown in winter, although a spring crop 
is occasionally heard of. Wheat is very extensively raised in 
the provinces of Honan, Shensi, Shansi, Shantung, and Chihli. 
It is sown broadcast in the north, but in the more southerly 
provinces where only an inferior grain can be raised, the seed 
is more thickly sown and produces only a precarious crop. 
Setting aside the story of the heavenly origin of this grain, it 


may be assumed that barley or rye (included by Dr. Sclilegel 
under the name of Lai) has been longer known in Sliensi, the 
original home of the Chinese, than wlieat, which "came" to 
them from elsewhere. It is asserted in the Pentsao that if the 
Xanthiiim stniwariujn be cut up, dried, and mixed with the 
wheat it will not suffer from weevils. Wheat is regarded as 
nourishing, but heating in its nature. It is said to be diuretic, 
demulcent, and antihemorrhagic. Its use is also said to pro- 
mote fertility in women. It is recommended to be used in 
gravel, leprous skin diseases, and in wounds of the abdomen. 
The grains of wheat which have not filled out, and will there- 
fore float on water, are called ^ ^ (Fou-mai). They are 
roasted and considered useful in colliquative sweating, espe- 
cially in tuberculosis in women. 

Wheaten Bran.— ^ ^ (Mai-fu), ^ ^ ^ (Mai-fu-tzu). 
Bran is of very good quality in China, the flour not having 
been entirely removed by the rough mode of grinding the 
meal. Nutritive, demulcent, vulnerary, and discutient prop- 
erties are referred to this useful domestic remedy, which is 
made into poultices with vinegar, or into a tea for the suppres- 
sion of severe sweats, bloody urine, or any flux. Barley bran 
is directed to be substituted for wheaten bran in spring and 
summer. A pillow stuffed with fresh bran is credited with 
much the same soothing or cooling effects in smallpox and 
other serious diseases of infancy as the old fashioned hop 
pillow. Bran is not much used in feeding cattle, but it is 
sometimes given to pigs. It is an article of veterinary medicine. 
Wheaten Flour. — % (Mien), ^ |i^ (Hui-mien), ^ % 
(Pai-mien). This is described in the Pentsao as being slightly 
deleterious. If hung up in an airy place for several years, it 
is said to lose this injurious quality and to be suitable for 
medicinal purposes. Formerly, wheat was ground by rude 
handstones of the most primitive character, as in the rural 
districts of China is to some extent still the case. In larger 
towns the millers employ the yellow cow as a motive power to 
grind over and over again the wheat, which yields a coarse 
flour. The '^^M.'^ (San-tao-mien), or "three-way-flour", is 
considered the finest quality which the Chinese can make with 
their rude mills. At present, several flouring mills after the 


foreign pattern have been established in China, and the flour 
from these, together with that imported from abroad, is 
rapidly taking the place of the old style flour. Aside from the 
nutritious properties of this article, a raw paste is used in fevers 
and sunstroke, and is also used as a poultice in ecchymoses, 
and internally in epistaxis and hemoptysis. A variety of other 
difficulties are also treated with flour or its paste, but are of no 
special interest, since the virtues ascribed are mostly imaginary. 

Bread.— >^{ ^ (Cheng-ping), || |i| (Man-tou), fi^ ^ 
(Mien-pao), |^ |^ (Mo-mo). Much more appears to be known 
of Trans-himalayan customs and manners by the Chinese than 
most persons suppose, as many habits known to, or practiced by 
them, in former times, in common with Indo-aryan or Turanian 
races, have dropped out of use and memory. Many words 
have been coined by those too willing for the task, who might 
have searched and found out that the Chinese language at least 
knew of such things. The use ot wheaten bread is very 
ancient and much more general than is supposed by most 
persons. Bread pills are an old remedy with Chinese doctors. 
Stale bread is looked upon as very digestible. Bread is raised 
by means of leaven, native soda, or pearl ash, the small loaves 
or cakes being steamed in a very simple and ingenious way 
described in Lockhart's "Medical Missionary in China." 
Bread and pastry are consumed as the staple article of diet in 
Honan, Shensi, Shansi, and Shantung. A kind of fancy 
bread, shaped like a top, is made in Tien-men-hsien, Hupeh. 
The Mohammedans are the best confectioners. The Chinese do 
not use alum in their bread, and if made from the best quality 
of their native flour, it is very wholesome. Mo-mo is a Honan 
name for bread. Stale bread is recommended in the Penisao 
in diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, pro- 
fuse sweats, and in serious injuries. Burnt bread is mixed 
with oil and applied to burns and scalds. A remarkable case 
of one of the Sung monarchs, in his infancy, having been 
cured of incontinence of urine by the use of stale bread, garlic, 
and beans, is quoted in the Pcntsao with approbation. 

Wheaten starch.— i§ |jj> (Mien- fen). Under this name, 
often improperly applied to the flour of wheat, the Peti- 
tsao gives the starch prepared from bran or flour by washino- 


and separation. It is much used to stiffen clothes. Medicinally, 
it is cooked and used in dysentery, or parched and made into 
a poultice with vinegar to be applied to all sorts of swellings. 

Wheat gluten. — ^ ^ (Mien-chin). This is prepared 
by washing out the starch, and when a small quantity is 
wanted for catching birds, it is only necessary to masticate 
the wheat until nothing else is left. It is used as a nutritious 
article of diet, and is also considered to be antifebrile. 

Wheat dextrine. — ^^ (Mai-ch'ao). This is prepared 
by steaming, drying and powdering the wheat. It is consid- 
ered to be nutritious, antifebrile, and quieting. The young 
sprouts of wheat are considered to be antivinous, constructive, 
and antibilious. A growth upon the wheat ears, evidently 
parasitic in its nature, is called ^ ^ (Mai-nu). For this see 
the article on Ergot. The straw of wheat is burned to an ash, 
and used as a caustic application on unhealthy granulations. 

TROP^OLUM MAJUS.— ^ii^CChin-lien-hua). The 
Kuaiig-chiin-faiig-pii describes fully this flower, giving as its 
natural habitat Wutaishan in Shansi. It is not mentioned 
in the Pentsao^ but the first two characters of the name are 
given under the article on Limnanthemum nyniphoides. 

TULIPA GRAMINIFOLIA. — llj % -^ (Shan-tz'u-ku), 
653. See Orithyia edulis. 

TUSSILAGO FARFARA.— ^ ^ (K'uan-tung), 650. 
This is the common coltsfoot used in popular medicine in 
western countries, and the flowering scapes, with the purplish 
bracts and unopened florets, are used in Chinese medicine. 
Two varietes are met with in China and Korea, one having a 
large flower. A number of names are given for the plant, 
among which is ^ ^ (To-wu), which is Farfitgium kcsmpferi 
(which see). Some of the names given refer to the early 
flowering of this plant and its resistance to cold and frost. 
The principal medicinal qualities attributed to the drug are 
those of an expectorant in apoplexy, phthisis, coughs, and 
asthma, and as a demulcent in fevers. Eyes are bathed with 
a decoction of the flowers in hot water. The flowers are also 
smoked in the treatment of chronic cough in much the same 


way as the leaves of the plant are used as a substitute for 
tobacco in England and America. 

TYPHA ORIENTALIS. — ^ ff (Hsiang-p'u), 420. 
This is a kind of bulrush^ resembling the Typha latifolia of 
Europe, which is also found in the south of China. It grows 
at the side of pools, and its linear, reddish leaves are made into 
mats and fans. The young shoots are gathered in the spring 
and pickled, and may also be steamed and eaten. The 
character % is used to distinguish it from Acorns calmmts^ 
which is sometimes called % f|f (Ch'ou-p'u). The heart of the 
tender plant, which is found at the bottom of the pond in the 
mud, is called fjff ||' (P'u-jo) and ^ ^ (Pai-jo), and is some- 
times eaten raw, after careful cleansing. It is sweet and 
delicate, and the Chinese like it steeped in vinegar. The 
stem of the plant bears at the top a kind of mace, containing 
the jflowers, which is called y|f ^ (P'u-ch'ui) and fdj ^ (P'u-o). 
The pollen of the flowers, which is exceedingly plentiful, and 
is like a fine, golden dust, is called -/Iff ^ (P'u-huang), 1054. 
It is collected, mixed with honey, and sold as a sweetmeat. 
The old root is also edible when boiled or steamed with fat 
meat, or it is dried in the sun, powdered, and made into cakes. 
The rhizomes are also called f|f ^ (P'u-sun), and are reputed 
to be tonic, cooling, diuretic, and galactagogue. They are 
recommended in caked breast, fevers, and dysentery. The 
pollen, which comes mixed with the stamens and the hairy 
sepals of the flowering spike, is a yellow powder tending to 
collect into balls, and resembles lycopodium powder, especially 
in being quite inflammable. It requires sifting, and is then 
used as an astringent, styptic, sedative, dessicant remedy in all 
sorts of hemorrhages, bruises, and ecchymoses, especially those 
occurring after labor. The refuse i^{^ left after sifting the 
pollen, is called f^f ^ (P'u-6), and is browned and used as an 
astringent in dysentery and other hemorrhages from the bowels. 

TYPHONIUM GIGANTEUM. jg il jf (Tu-chio-lien). 
The identification of this plant is uncertain, it having been 
confounded with Ariscsma heterophylla (Henry and P'aber), 
Podophyllujn versipelle (Ford and Crow), and Diphylleia 
(Japanese). See the article on Dithylleia. 



ULMUS CAMPESTRIS.— It (Yli). ^h\s \s U/??n/s sin- 
ensis. x\lso called ^ |;f[ (Ling-yii), and the white variety is 
called |.^ (Fen). Li Shih-chen says that there are very many 
varieties o^ elm. The inner bark, 1554, is used in medicine, 
and for this purpose is dried and »round up into a meal. This 
meal is used for a variety of other purposes, among which is 
the manufacture of incense sticks. A kind of paste was 
formerly made of it, and in times of great scarcity the ground 
bark, the leaves, and the membranous fruit are all used as food. 
Demulcent, lenitive, diuretic and antifebrile properties are 
attributed to it. It is applied with oil and vinegar to various 
parasitic and porriginous eruptions. Poultices are made of it 
also in caked breast, abscesses, and swellings. Advantages 
are taken of its demulcent properties in diarrhoeas, bladder 
difficulties, and gonorrhoea. The leaves of the elm are used 
in the green state as a sort of pot-herb and are supposed to be 
antilithic and counter-poisonous. A decoction is used as an 
application to wine nose, and also in the treatment of bilious 
difficulties. The flowers are used in the nervous affections of 
children and their fevers. The kernels of the seeds are made 
into a porridge and eaten, and are said to promote sleep, to 
control menstrual discharges, and to be anthelmintic. An- 
other kind of bark is found in the Customs Lists under the 
name of ^ |t |^ (Hsiang-yii-p'i), 430. A fungus growing on 
the elm tree, and called |ff '% (Yii-erh), is given in the Cus- 
toms Lists as Iff W (Yii-mo), 1553. The last character is not 
found in any of the dictionaries, and the entry must refer to 
an exidiaceous growth referred to in the article on Fungi. 
If so, it is an edible fungus, and has no special medical 

ULMUS MACROCARPA.— ^ % (VVu-i). The name 
of the tree is |g (P'ien), which has been by some observers mis- 
taken for Lindcra. Li Shih-chen says that there are two 
varieties, but seems to confound one with the fruit of the com- 
mon elm. The fruit of this species is used in medicine, and 


has a fetid odor. For this reason it is sometimes called ^'M^ 
(Ch'ou-wu-i), which is found mentioned in the Hankow List of 
Medicines (p. 7), and is described as "a small lentil-shaped seed, 
of a very disagreeable and strong odor. The flesh of the berry 
generally adheres to the seed." The Customs Lists call the 
lVu-t\ 1457, "a medicine cake," the characters used being the 
same as appear at the head of this article, and also |^ H the 
name of the "Bohea" hills in Fukien. The medicinal prop- 
erties attributed to these seeds are antifebrile, anthelmintic, 
digestive, counter-poisonous, and prophylactic. They are also 
used externally in parasitic skin diseases. 

ULMUS PARVIFOLL\.— Igp It (Lang-yii). The simi- 
larity of this tree to Ulmus campesiris is noted. The bark is 
mucilaginous, and the fruits ripen in the autumn. The bark 
is used as an antifebrile, antilithic, diuretic, soporific, and 
quieting remedy. 

ULMUS KEAKL— ;^ ^ (Chii-liu). See Pterocarya 

UMBILICUS FIMBRIATUS, Cotyledon fimbriaia.—^ 
^ tt Ji (Tso-yeh-ho-ts'ao), % ;^ (Wa-sung), [pj 5c J^ (Hsiaug- 
t'ien-ts'ao). This grows upon old tile roofs to the height to 
a foot or more, and at a little distance looks like a pine 
branch ; hence one of the Chinese names. The plant is 
dried in the sun for medical use. It is used as a styptic in 
dysentery, as an ointment in falling out of the eye-brows, 
as a stimulant in suppressed menstruation, in gravel, and in 
dog bite. 

phylla.—^ ji (Wu-yu), % -^ (Wa-i), % ^ (Wa-t'ai), % ^ 
(Wa-hsien), ff| ^ (Po-hsieh). This is similar to the last, but 
does not grow so tall. Its medical uses are also similar, but 
it is more particularly used as an antifebrile and quieting 
remedy. A decoction, to which salt is added, is used in fever- 
sores of the mouth, gumboils, and nosebleed. It is also recom- 
mended in dos: bite. 


UNCARIA RHYNCHOPHYLLA.— |!j ^ (Koii-t'^iig). 
It is also called ^ ^ (Tiao-t'eug), on account of its hooked 
thorns. It is common in the mountains of Hunan, Hupeh, 
and Kiangsi, and it is a climber, varying in length from eight 
to twenty feet, hollow, and about the thickness of a finger. 
It is said that thieves use this hollow stem with which to 
syphon out spirits from wine jars without having appeared to 
have disturbed the latter. It is the Nauclea sinensis^ and has 
been identified by Tatarinov as the Uncaria gambir. This 
identification is somewhat doubtful. The task set for himself 
by Hanbury, of identifying the various gambir and catechu 
extracts with their respective plants has not, so far as we are 
able to find, yet been accomplished. No mention is made in 
the Pentsao article of any extract from this plant. Whether 
it is that the Chinese have not recognized the identity of the 
plant with that of the Indian Archipelago, from which pale 
catechu is derived, or whether it is really not the same plant, 
has not been determined. The drug is found in China under 
the name of J^ 3^ ^ (Hai-erh-ch'a), or % ^ ^/g (Wu-tieh-ni), 
being confounded with the product from Acacia catechu- (which 
article see). Short pieces of the shrub constitute the form in 
which the drug is found in Chinese comerce, 612. Each piece 
is of a dark, or reddish-brown color, and contains a node from 
cue half an inch to one inch in length, with two sharp stiff 
recurvent stipules. These spines are sometimes found in 
commerce as representing the form of the drug employed. 
The drug is used in infantile fevers and the nervous disorders 
of children. In adults, dizziness, motes in vision, and bilious 
disorders are treated with it. A tincture is made of the nodes 
of this plant, which seems to have the properties of tincture of 
catechu. Another plant is spoken of in the same article in the 
Pentsao called ^J ^ ^ (Tao-kua-t'eng). There is no descrip- 
tion of the plant, except that it grows deep within the mountain 
valleys, has long pointed leaves, and recurved spines by which 
it hangs to the branches of the trees. It is recommended as an 
astringent in all post-partum difficulties. 

Gambir or Pale Catechu of commerce. While it is not 
certain that the plant under consideration is really Uncaria 
gambir^ an account of the manufacture of this substance and 


its appearance in commerce is here given. Dr. Williams says 
that is made "by boiling the leaves for five or six hours, until 
a strong decoction is formed. They are then taken out and 
strained above the caldron. The decoction is evaporated almost 
to dryness, when it is cooled and the water drawn off. A 
soapy substance remains which is dried and cut up." It 
occurs in cubes, or cakes formed by the coherence of these 
cubes. They are about an inch square, porous, externally of a 
brown color, and internally of a brick-red or ocherous color. 
The pieces become much darker with age. Gambir is seven 
or eight times richer in tannin than oak bark, and is perfectly 
soluble in boiling water. The solution is bitter, astringent, 
and its after-taste is slightly sweet. The decoction should not 
be very smooth to the taste, nor should it give a blue color 
with iodine. The drug is imported into China from Singapore, 
principally for dyeing purposes. It is probable that this drug 
is often found mixed with that derived from Acacia catechu, 
Areca cateclm^ and other substances. 

URTICA SCORPIONIDES. %^% (Hsieh-tzu-ts'ao). 
This is a name given by Porter Smith to a Chinese nettle 
described in the Kuang-chiui-fang-pii as being formidable to 
all animals, except the camel, on account of its stings. In 
man the sting swells and turns red, resembling the bite of a 
scorpion. It is not used in medicine. 

URTICA THUNBERGIANA. % % (T'an-ma) ; also 
called ^ 1^ (Mao-hsien). This is said to have originally come 
from the mountain valleys of Kiangningfu (Nanking). It has 
a prickly stalk two or three feet high, and the leaves are 
green, or purplish, and hirsute, and the prickles on the leaves 
produce a sting whenever touched with the bare hand. It is 
said that if these leaves are thrown into water, they will poison 
fish. The taste is bitter and cooling, and the action of the 
plant is emetic. It is used only externally, bruised, in snake 
bite, and applied to pemphigus-like skin difficulties, which it 
is said to cure in one night. 

Fritillaria thunbergii. 



VALLISNERIA SPIRALIS.—^ ^ (K'u-ts'ao). This 
tape-grass^ or eel-grass^ grows to the length of two or three 
feet in ponds and marshes. There is no farther description of 
the plant. It is prescribed in decoction in leucorrhoea, and is 
used together with sesamum to increase the appetite, in which 
case it is made into a tea, or the dry drugs are masticated 

VERATRUM.— ^ '^ (Li-lu) ; also called ^J ^ (Shan- 
ts'ung), "mountain onion." This term also includes Veratntm 
album and Veratrum nigrum. It grows in north-central 
China. The description in the Phitsao agrees with this 
identification. The name in Chinese refers to the black color 
(^) 9^ *^^ root-stock, as does the word Veratrtim (vere-atrum, 
truly black). As found in the market, the drng consists of the 
root-stock, terminated with the radicals and embraced by a 
bundle of hairy, coir-like fibers. The Chinese recognize its 
poisonous properties, and consider it to have errhine, emetic, 
expectorant, evacuant, and anthelmintic effects. It is given 
in apoplexy as a rousing emetic, and is used as an ointment 
for itch and other parasitic skin diseases. It is also used in skin 
diseases of the horse. As an appendix to this article in the 
Pentsao^ there are given three other plants as resembling, in some 
respects, Veratrum. One is jll ]f; J^ (Shan-tzii-shih), which 
by Faber is identified as Tulipa edulis. It is used in menstrual 
difficulties. The second is # H ;|ft (Shen-kuo-ken), which is 
used in corroding ulcers. The third is called Ji ^ i^ (Ma- 
ch'ang-ken), which is used in the Ku disease, the Feng 
disease, and in scabious ulcers. 

VERBENA OFFICINALIS.—.^ %% ^ (Ma-pien-ts'ao), 
807. This is a common plant in low grounds, havi