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The title "Chinese Reader's Manual" has been 
given to the following work in the belief that it wUl 
be found useful in the hands of students of Chinese 
literature, by elucidating in its First Part many of the 
personal and historical allusions, and some portion at 
least of the conventional phraseology, which unite to 
form one of the^hief difficulties of the language ; whilst 
in its remaiuing sections information of an equally essen- 
tial nature is presented in a categorical shape. The 
wealth of illustration furnished to a Chinese writer by 
the records of his long-descended past is a feature which 
must be remarked at even the moat elementary stage of 
acquaintance with the literature of the country. In 
every branch of composition, ingenious parallels and the 
introduction of borrowed phrases, considered elegant in 
proportion to their concise and recondite character, enjoy 
in Chinese style the same place of distinction that is 
accorded in European Uterature to originality of thought 
or novelty of diction. The Chinese are not, indeed, 
singular in the taste for metaphor or quotation adopted 
from the events or firom the masterpieces of expression 
in the past No European writer — it is needless to 
observe — can dispense with illustrations drawn firom 
a multitude of earlier sources, and in even the most 
&miliar language fragments of history and legend lie 
embedded, almost unperceived. "What with ouraelvea, 



In Part I. of the following work, the designation " In- 
dex of Proper Names " embraces both its principal 
feature as a historical and biographical compendium, and 
also the accounts of mythical beinga and legends connected 
with animate or Loanimate objects which cannot be over- 
looked in an attempt at interpreting the figm-ative language 
or the traditional expressions of the Chinese. In the 
domain of history and biography, it has been sought to 
collect in a form convenient for reference the data 
existing in Chinese literature with regard to personages 
of renown in every epoch and condition, thus assembling 
■what may be termed the component parts of a tableau of 
Chinese history from the mythical period down to the pre- 
sent day. The principal object of the work being that of 
elucidating Chinese thought and expression, the language 
of the original authorities has been followed throughout as 
closely as possible ; and it has seemed expedient only in a 
few instances to enlarge on particular subjects from an in- 
dependent point of view or with a critical intent. In the 
tlBgeati&n of this task a multitude of Chinese works have 
usb^ collated, as no single native compilation unites the ■ 
^^^iidflites demanded by a European enquirer. The author 
Qufifcat the same time sought to remove those diflieultiea 
dictili attend the course of original research, owing not 
carrj^to the absence of an alphabetic system, but, also to 
ino8t\»regard exhibited by most Chinese writers, notwith- 


standing the methodical genius of the peofJe, for the 
Brnaplest expediente of indexing and literary order. To 
dilate in tiaa place upon the toil involved in most instances 
in conaultin^the huge and iU-arranged Chinese repertories 
might bear the semblance of overrating the laboor be- 
stowed on the preparation of the present 'Work ; but it is 
impossible to avoid referring to one of the intricacies which 
a Student must be pr^tared to encounter, in order to 
explain the system that has been devised to meet the 

Afl id well known, every Chinese posBesses, beside his 
Bumame or jKitronymic — j^ — and his cognomen — -g — , 
a literary appellation — ^ — by wMeh he lb most usually 
designated in familiar parlance or in literature ; in addition 
to which he may further adopt one or evm several pseu- 
donyms — ^ gU — ■which are commonly employed as noma 
de -pluTne. Moreover, in accordance with ancient custom, 
posthumous titles, constituting a species of canonization, 
are officially bestowed on persons of distinguished merit. 
Under some of the eadier dynasties, also, the practice of 
conferring patents of nobility with titles of a feudal order 
Upon objects of Imperial fiivour was extaiaively followed- 
It is the practice of Chinese writers to mention individuals 
by one or other of these subsidiuT' epithets ratlin than 
by their surnames — a eustom which adds greatiy^rfiie ■, 
obscurity of such references ; and in order to overcome 
this difficulty, the Index of Proper Names has been ar- 
ranged with a view to readiness of consultation hy^ means 
of the radical Index given at the end, (see Fait IV). The 
somames being arranged alphabetically, according to 
^ki^iah pionunoiation, will be readily foand; and ft^ow- 


ing each are given, first the ordinary name and cognomen 
of the individual, next the literary appellation, preceded 
by an asterisk, and after this the pseudonym, indicated 
by a dagger, when a title of this kind has been adopted. 
In the body of the notice the titks of nobility and canoni- 
zation are further introduced, and all these designations 
will be found iudexed under their respective initial cha- 
racters in Part IV. Through the same medium, proper 
names and phrases which are embodied in the numbered 
pimigraphs of Part I. may likewise be traced. 

In addition to the historical and biographical sections 
of this Part, a limited number of illustrations of a my- 
thological and legendary character are included. This 
department might be increased by many hundred-fold 
without exhausting the material collected in native cy- 
clopiediaa ; but the time has not yet arrived when a Eu- 
ropean compiler can think it necessary, even were the un- 
dertaking feasible, to offer a complete substitute for works 
of this kind in the profounder walks of Chinese study. 
It ifl scarcely probable that more than a fraction of such 
matter as is comprised within works of the kind referred 
to, indispensable though it be for occasional reference, 
can ever be transferred to a European language. Twenty 
volumes of the largest size would barely suffice to contain 
the matter categorically arranged in the most modem and 
usefiil cyclopsedia of literary reference, the Yuan Kien 
Lui San ; nor would a less liberal allowance of space be 
sufficient to meet the wants of a complete biographical 
dictionary ; but the European student, whose researches 
carry him so far as to necessitate minute enquiry wUl, in 
most cases at least, be in a position to avail himself of 


the original authorities. A list is given below of the 
principal works from which the present epitome has been 
drawn. In addition to the storehouses of infomifitioij 
arranged in cyclopBediac form, it has been necessary 
to resort largely to original sources. The Sze Ki of 
SzE-MA Ts'iEN has been analyzed on behalf of Chinese 
history down to the period, about B.C. 100, at which this 
great work was written, and for subsequent history the 
TuTig Kien Kang Muh, with its continuations, has been 
diligently explored. It is only when approaching the 
modern period that original materials become scanty. The 
Chinese have at all times been chary in commenting upoa 
historical events during the existence of the dynasty under 
which they have taken place ; and owing to this chcum- 
stance it has not been an easy task to assemble particulaiB 
relating to the celebrated characters of the last two 
centuries and a half. To the author's great regret, he 
became aware only after his manuscript had passed into 
the printer's hands of the appearance of a work* in 24 
volumes, published in 1869, which is devoted exclusively 
to notices of the statesmen and scholars of the present 
dynasty. Notwithstanding this drawback, however, it is 
beheved that few of the truly eminent names which have 
graced the Manchow dominion in China wiU be found 
wanting from the present record. Individual memoirs 
and collections, such as the ^ |£ '^ and the ^ £ -^, 
together with the ^ip^ and the ^i^lfi, have in a 
measiu^, supplied the want of more detailed and classified 
repertories. Mention must not be omitted here of a 

ii iutroduced uid commended bj a Prelace iron) the pen of the oelabrated Tsin^; Kwoh- 
hx\, a iellow-proviadal of lh« Wltbor. 


little manual wliich has proved invaluable in supple- 
menting one of tlie gravest among the defects that attach 
to all Chinese biographical compilations. In none of 
these works is the period at which an individual has 
flourished indicated more nearly than by mention of the 
dynasty under which he lived. The precision of date 
which a European inquirer considers a prime requisite ia 
esteemed in a different light by the Chinese. Fortunately 
for the author's purpose, the intelligent antiquarian scho- 
lar Ts'iEN Ta-hin, conscious of this short-coming, applied 
himself in bis old age to collecting the dates of birth and 
death of celebrated statesmen and scholars £rom the Han 
dynasty downwards ; and this undertaking, left incom- 
plete att his death early in the present century, was pu- 
blished, with an addendum equalling in extent the original 
work, by a literary esecutor. To this most useful, though 
unpretending, compilation, the author must express en 
acknowledgment of great indebtedness. 

The Nimierical Categories which constitute the matter 
presented in Part II. have occupied a prominent place in 
Chinese thought from the very earliest period to which 
our knowledge reaches. In obedience, it would seem, to 
an impulse the influence of which is distinctly marked in 
the literary traditions of the Chaldaeans, the Hebrews, 
and the Hindoos, a doctrine of the hidden properties and 
harmonies of number imbues the earliest recorded expres- 
sion of Chinese belief. So also, it may be remarked, in the 
teachings of Pyth.\.goras, an abstract theory of Number 
was expounded as underlying the whole system of Exis- 
tence, whence the philosophy of the Western world became 
tinged with conceptions strongly resembling those which 


BtLU prevail on the Bame subject in the Chineae mipcL — 
conceptions which, although now wellnigh forgotten, re- 
mained in vigour long after the days of Bacon as funda- 
mental truths. That the views inculcated by Pythaooeas 
were derived firom Asiatic sources is a commonly received 
assertion ; and it may well be that the ideas found cor- 
responding in his philosophy with those of the Chinese 
were handed down from the earliest observers of the 
material phenomena of nature. The dual form of animated 
life, the succession of the seasons, the alternation of day 
and night, the revolutions of the visible planets, may not 
improbably have given rise to a conception of numerical 
harmony obeying some mysterious and unchanging law, 
when contemplated by minds striving after the rudiments 
of knowledge and absorbed in attempts to fathom the 
causes and order of existence. In the *' Great Plan,"* 
which forms one of the most highly reverenced sections 
of the Book of History, we see how profoundly the 
metaphysical speculations of the Chinese had become 
developed on a basis of this description in the most 
ancient times. The cast imparted to the national philo- 
sophy in this ninefold exposition of physical and ethical 
laws, minutely classified in numerical divisions, has been 
maintained unimpaired to the present day, gathering 
strength, indeed, in the course of ages from the subtle 
refinements of Hindoo cosmogonists and religious teachers. 
Tracing in this wise the" tendency of Chinese thought to 
adopt numerical forms of expression from its earUest 
discovered source, it is not necessary to exclaim with the 
polished French reviewer, AmpEre, that " pour saisir 

(*)& Mr Tbe Great Hau, forming Book TV of tb« Shoo Ki«g. Se« Lagge'i 
"^idomCUhId*," Vol m., pp. 321— 3U. 


qtielque chose de tellement Ckinois il fatidratl se /aire 
Chinois soi-m^me, penser et icrire en Ckinois." That a 
logical conception of the Chinese theories of numerical 
concordance may be formed and may even be expounded 
in a European tongue has been shewn by the late T. T. 
Meadows in his admirable though unhappUy incomplete 
dissertation on the philosophy of the Chinese.* No 
faithful ttanslatoT will console himself with M. Ampere's 
dictum for neglecting to render in his own language the 
combinations which form an essential element of Chinese 
style, whether belonging to the domain of metaphysics or 
to the practical details which are equally reduced to 
serial order ; and the undertaking carried out in Part II. 
of the present work is a humble contribution to this end. 
Its basis was provided more than six centuries ago by the 
erudite scholar Wang Yikg-lin, whose desire to afford 
instruction for every age was testified no less by his 
composition of the S ^ i^ or Trimetrical Clasac, which 
is still the primer conmiitted to memory by every Chinese 
lad, than in compiling his great cyclopEedia, the B^ j^, 
a monument of industry and leaming. Annexed to this 
extensive work is a treatise specially devised as a text- 
book for youthful study, entitled the -'J'^ ^ ^ ^. which 
for the first time brought together a collection of the 
numerical categories occurring in every department 
of literature. To this work the author must acknow- 
ledge deep obligations, although subsequent writers 
have improved extensively, both in matter and arrange- 
ment, upon the original manual of Wang Ying-lin. The 
most complete among modern collections of the kind is 

(■) "Tho Cliiiiut nnd their RebeUion^ " diap. 1& 



the work of Ktjng Meng-jen, which will be found men- 
tioned in the list of authorities below. 

In one respect, it should be noted, the author's la- 
bours have been abridged through the appearance, while 
his work waa yet in progress, of the Rev. E. J. Eitel's 
*' Handbook of Chinese Buddhism," which has forestalled 
the task of interpreting the large addition of categorical 
phraseology derived by Chinese literature &om Buddhist ' 
sources. This laboiur having alreiidy been achieved by 
Dr. EiTEL as an integral portion of his most valuable 
compendium, all but a limited number of Buddhistical 
categories, constituting elements of ordinary Chinese ex- 
pression, too noteworthy to be passed over in silence, 
have been excluded from the present collection. 

Part III. consists in Chronological Tables reproduced, 
with considerable additions and emendations, from those 
abeady published by the author.* As students arc 
aware, a number of distinct conditions require to be 
fulfilled in order to supply a complete index of Chinese 
historical dates. In the absence of any fixed starting- 
point of chronology, events are dated usually according 
to the years of each Emperor's reign ; and the Emperor, 
again, may be designated either by the posthumous 
title t conferred upon him by his successor, or by the 
appellation J chosen to designate his period of rule. 
It is necessary, therefore, to fix not only the date of ac- 
cession of the Emperor known by his canonical title, but 

(•jSee "TraniMlioMoftheNortli-GttuiB Branch nf tie R"yal Asiatic Sociotj-," 1667, 
Art. VIIT. Tlie reader miiy be rerarred to tbU urti^IaTor detuile-l iafonnation 
on Cfafneae imperial nomendutttre. 

(t) M SE) '''■ Teciple-tiUa, ■.«. Clis title under vihicb the «OTeraign i> oanoniisd ^a 

ill the ancestral Temple. 
U) ^ SC> l*^- AnnnRl-tilLe, or epochal designation. 

u,,, i.KlbyGOOgIc 


also that of each period of his reign as distinguished by- 
its special appellation. This object is fulfilled in the 
Historical Tallica of Part III., which embrace all tlie 
dynasties recoguized in Cliinese history, with the excep- 
tion only of the minor ephemeral claimants of sovei-eignty 
who have branched off at various periods from the legi- 
timate line. 

Beside these data, however, a farther requirement 
demands attention. From time immemorial, the Chinese 
have employed a combination of two sets of characters, 
numbering ten and twelve respectively, to form a cycle 
of sixty terms for the purpose of chronological notation. 
The period at which this cycle was invented is a subject 
upon which complete uncertainty prevails,* but there 
IB little doubt that it first came into use as a method of 
reckoning years after the reform of the calendar in B.C, 
104. Later historians, nevertheless, have not scrupled to 
refer its usage to the earliest ages, and even to attribute 
its invention to the mythical Emperor Hwang Ti. The 
reign of this Sovereign is stated to have begun in B,C. 
2G97, and the invention of the cycle has been placed in 
the eighth year of his reign. With some writers, the first 
cycle is made to date from the first year of Hwang Ti, 
but the system most commonly followed begins with his 
sixty-first year, or B.C. 2637, and the present tables are 
drawn up in conformity with this plan. Although the 
varying commencements of the Chinese year at different 
periods, and the confusion into which the calendar has 
more than once fallen, make it certain that absolute ac- 

(*) Sm tlia able " IKsrerlation on Ihe A^ranamj of tbs Ancient ChloSM " bj iLe 
Rot. John ClnlmeTa, A.H., iu tbs prul^uuMua to tfaa "Sioo King," Leg^'it 

"Cbii>Mtaas«ici,"Voi. II f., ^ sa 


curacy of comparison cannot be relied upon, particularly 
for tlie period antecedent to Sze-ma Ts'ien's reform, the 
date.? I):i3ed upon the Christian era may be assumed as 
substiLntially agreeing with those of the Chinese cyclical 
period to which they correspond in Tables I. and II. For 
the period preceding the Christian era they difiFer from the 
chronology adopted by the K«v. Dr. Legqe in his "Chi- 
nese Classics " by one year throughout. For the sake of 
reconciling his data with astronomical rules, it would 
seem, the learned translator and annotator of the Classics 
has interpolated a blank year at the commencement of 
our era. In a note on page 167 of hia "Shoo Kirig " Dr. 
Legge remarks on a discrepancy between his own dates 
and those of Pere Gadbil, saying : " There is no real 
difference between him and me, as I do not reckon the 
year of onr Lord's birth, the dates in my scheme of 
Chinese chronology mnniog thus : — A. D. 1 ; A. D. ; 
B.C. 1, Gaubil reckoning : A.D. 1 ; B.C. I, my B.C. 
2158 is with him B.C. 2159." However desirable it 
may have been for Dr. Legge's purposes to pursue the 
method to which he thus directs attention, it would seem 
that in ordinary usage a grotesque effect cannot fwl to be 
produced if the year be introduced at the intersection 
of two eras such as we possess ; and the author has seen"" 
no reason to depart from the more regular course already 
sanctioned by the authority of Gaubil, 

It may be noticed here, in conclusion, that some 
years aft^r the publication at Shanghai of the author's 
Historical Tables, a work * embracing a compilation 

(*; OtsarvatiniiB of Comets from B.C. 611 to AD. 1640, extracteil Trara tlie Chinese 
Antials. B}- Julm WilliAina, F. S. A., I^nilao, 1871. 


almost identical with them in character was produced by 
Mr. John Williams, F. S. A. , who had with great industry 
elaborated a system of chronology from Japanese sources, 
in obvious ignorance that the task he thus undertook had 
been anticipated in another quarter. The author notes 
with satisfaction that an authority on astronomy such as 
Mj. Williams gives countenance to the method he has 
himself puraued in respect of cyclical notation for the 
pre-Christian period. 

The following is a list of some of the principal works 
upon which the matter contained in Parta I. and IL is 
based. Those which have been made use of as standard 
authorities for the biographical portion of Part L are not 
separately referred to under each article; but where it has 
been thought advisable to quote an authority in isolated 
infltances, the' work in question is indicated, for the sake 
of brevity, by the initial letters of its title, and these are 
prefixed to the notices appended here. 

The Mi^^Wn:k^J^^. or Siographical 
Dictionary of Noted Worthies and Distinguished Femcdes 
inaUAges,'m lOOvolumes, pubHshedinl793, by |f ^^ 
is the most comprehensive biographical compilation in 
existence, and is based upon the collections of memoirs 
entitled ^ ^ ^ which have been compiled with re- 
ference to the celebrated characters of successive dynasties. 
The literary execution of this vast work is indifferent, and 
ite great bulk has caused it to be less frequently consulted 
than the following. 

The 1^ :fe^, by J^ff =J^, published in A.D. 1617. 
This work contains in twenty volumes some thousand* of 
biographical notices, under three hundred and eighty sur- 


names. Although labouring under some serious defeete, 
and brought down only to the end of the Sung dynasty, 
this compilation is perhaps the most useful of its class, 
and has been largely avaUed of for the purposes of the 
present work. 

The ^ft^^i^^byH^^, pubHshed in 
1777, in three volumes, is a series of tables presenting the 
dates and leading events in the reign of each sovereigu, 
from FuH-Hi down to the close of the Ming dynasty. 
From the accession of She Hwakg-ti, B.C. 221, a succinct 
notice of historical occurrences is arranged under each 
year, for which purpose the headings of the ^ ^ jfH @ 
are made use of ; and the work accordingly constitutes in 
some measure an epitome of that great historical record. 
Upon it, and the ^ 7C iSI of ^ ^IS ^ published early 
in the present century, the dynastic tables given in Part 
III, are based. 

Them^m by Sl^fljf. and theJS^|»^ 
^y ^i^> published in 1818, are the two works furnishing 
the dates of birth and death of celebrated persons which 
have already been referred to above. 

The ^ f^I -flF in two volumes, A collection of po- 
pular legends relating, principally, to the characters of 
Taoist mythology. 

K. C. The ^^^m^^J^BWi, fonuing vok,- 
76-78 of the 3E'/$ cyclopsedia. This classification of 
the numerical categories has been referred to above. 

Ch. Eep.— The Chinese Repository, 1832-1851, 
twenty volumes. A well-known and valuable collection 
of papers on Chinese subjects. , -, , 

JNTRonucnoN; xixj 

E. S. — Handbook of Chinese Buddhism. By the 
ItEV. E. J. EiTEL, Hongkong, 1870. 

F. K.— The Ji^^jM^. in thirty volumes. By 
H&^- A rearrangement of the T'un^ Kien Kaiig 
Mvh,vnih. additional introductory matterand an appendix 
by a later hand fiimiehing the annals of the Ming dynasty.- 

F.S. T.~The JBL^MH, by ffll S}, of the Han 
dynasty. A collection of misceUaneous notices to "which 
their high antiquity gives great value. 

H. — The writings of Hwai-nan Tsze j^d ^ ^^ 
the celebrated mystic philosopher and alchemist of the 
second century before Christj His treatises on the pheno^ 
mena of nature, and on ethics, collected under the title 
Wl SS ^' occupy five volumes of the ^ ^ ^ §, some 
of the minor works of which collection have also been 
largely consulted in the preparation of the present vcdumei 
H. M. — Manual of Buddhism, by R Spence Hab- 
DY. London, 1853. 

J. C. L.— The B ^ ^ by W jS^ St.— an extensive 
collection of jottings on classical and antiquarian subjects 
by an authority of the highest order. 

K. D,— The M^^^> "r I>ictionary of the 
Chinese language compiled by order of the Emperor 

• E. F. L.— The ${i^, by Nfg. One of theear- 
lieet bic^phical compilations, dating from the beginning 
I of the 5th century A.D. 

i' K. t. W.-The gl if *) jfe by H Jer 5B. of the 

I Ming dynasty ; in thirty-two volumes, containing fifty 
f jfcMon. PuWkhed about A.D. 1607. X collection of 



extracts from ancirait works, many of whicb are no longer 
aeparately in existence, arranged under classified headings- 
HigUy valuable as a repertory of information, especially 
with reference to mythological and legendary subjects. 
K. S. L. — The ^ ^^^j^, a modem extension of 
the Sze Lui Fu, see below. 

K. Y,-The K ^ »,# by » » A highly rae- 
fill collection of miscellaneous notes, in eight volumes, 
comprising forty-three hiian, published at the close of 
the last century by a dietLDguished scholar and critic 

L. C. — The Chinese Classics, translated and anno- 
tated by the Rev. James Legge, D. D., Hongkong, 

S. K.— The i6 m of ^ J^^- Historical records 
from the reign of Hwang Ti to that of Wd Ti of the Han 
dynasty, second century B.C. 

S. L— The fUg Ji^ by Jft^, in thirty books, a 
compilation dating from the end of tenth century. Under 
a series of classified headings relating to animate and in- 
animate nature the author drew up appropriate sentences 
in rhythmical prose, concisely illustrating the subjects 
dealt with under each heading, in quotations extracted 
from earlier writers. His work has been continued and 
enlarged under the title M^$^K^- ^ above, E.S.L. 

T. K.— The ^MMU' or SynopsU of History, 
arranged by Chd Hi on the basis of the great compilation 


T, S. K,^HSKttg5 by §r Wt:. mfi%-four 
iuan, published in 1707. A collection of the numerical 
calbtgamB, referred to above. , - i 


W. N. — Notes on Chinese Literature, by A. Wylie. 
Shanghai and London, 1867. 


can. = canonized. ■ k. = kOan. 

enn. = ennobled. q.v, = quod videae. 

phr. = phraee. 9. v. = sub voce. 

met. = metaphorical j 

N.B. — ^For the sake of brevity, the dynaaly to which 
an Emperor has belonged will be found referred to with 
the name of the dynasty in capitals, thus ; Haw Wu Ti. 

The dates of birth and death of each personage are 
in all cases given, when ascertainable, immediately fol- 
lowing the characters of his name. "Where only the year 
of birth or of death is assigned, the distinction is noted 
by the letter B. or D. The years of the Christian and 
pre-Christian era are indicated in the usual manner as A.D. 
or B,C. respectively. 

by Google 



Page 23, No, 72, for " 

read " 

"1797" „ "1697." 

„ 35, „ 112, „ "Tttn" „ "Sun." 

„ 45, line 7, „ "the fathers" „ " their fathers." 

„ 63,^0.194, „ "the preceding" „ " Hu San-sing." 
„ 66, H ^^ '^^ " Hii Shen," for present paragraph sabstitule 
the following: — 

"A pupil and aswatant of Eia Ew'«, q. v., at the close of the 1st 
centary A. D. Held office as an examiner of literature. Compiled a 
lexicon of the Chinese charactere, in the " lesser seal form," to which he 
gave the tiUe U 3; )S^ ^ Shwoh Wm KM Taa, which, after his Tt- 
tiiement from public life, waa laid before the Emperor Ngan Ti in A.D. 
121, by his son HU Ch'ung ] ^tji. (Cf- Preface to edition of 1773, by 
Oha Yim ^ 3§> — The original work was scarcely more than a LlbI of 
characteTB, some 10,000 in number, accompanied in some iostaDces by 
concise remsrks- Later editors added explanatory notes and indicatjom 
of the sounds ; but it haa been principally ivithin the last two centuries 
that the work has been made Ihe basis of profound etymolt^cal research. 
The edition of Twan Yu-tb'ai (see No. 694), in 16 volumes, was re- 
pnbliahed in 1668, at the expense of the high officials of Eiang-su." 
Page 75, No. 235, for " Kowh " read " Kwoh." 

79, „ 248, „ "Cnn" 

„ " Ch'u." 

87, „ 275, „ "KoShn" 

, " Koshu." 

., » « ,, " Ngan-ln-ehan " 

, "Ngan La-*han." 

92, „ 295, „ "eqnatic" 

, "aquatic." 

100, „ 318, „ "T-an" 

, "Fan 

105. line 9, „ " prescription " 

112, line 9 from below, for "patent " 

, "latent" 

114, No. 340, for "fc.16" 

, "k. 28." 

129, line 6, „ "Hi" 

, "Hi." 

136, No. 425, „ "ffl" 

- "m" 

, "awarded." 

153, „ 494, „ "Suh" 

, "i-Au." ' 

166, „ 582, „ "there" 

, "then." 

172, „ 564, „ "TanUa" 

, '* Taotra." 

205, „ 672, after Empresa dtle comn 




241, No. 801, for 




252, „ 

846, „ 




259, „ 

864, „ 




266, „ 

881, „ 




267, „ 

887, 3id line from Wow, for " 

»arw" read " 

290, „ 

962, for 



" Chwano." 

296, „ 

19, „ 

" noTtliem " 


" soothern." 

297, „ 
800, „ 

28, „ 
43, , 




802, „ 

63, line 


etc. read "3S ^■ 

Che, by Cheng Triao." 

S06, „ 

84, for 




316, „ 

144, „ 


" Beguktoni." 

838, „ 

251, „ 




810, „ 

261, „ 




The 7*aiij 

852, „ 305, „ "lagandlfg",, "^^%^T.A^%%r 
354, „ S09, againat No. 12 read " ^ or ^ " ; againot No. 13 

read " jft." 
8fil, 2Dd line from below, aft«r ** Epoch of" insert Ho-loh. 
363, 3rd line from top, for "Yung Choh" read "Choh Yang." 






1 . — A-FAKQ Kmia ^W''^- A vast pakco built by Sbe Hwnng- 
ti, B.C. 213, neai tho city of Hien-yang, hia anoestral capital. It was an 
enlargement d a priw edifice, to wbkh the name p^ ^£ ^ had been 
^ren. Tbe palace was erected witbin the park or hanttng-gronnd 
called Shang Un TUan J^ jj^ ^^ and 700,000 ctiminala and priaonen 
were employed at foroed labour in ita conatroction. Tbe central ball waa 
of nch ^m^iaiona that 10,000 peiwna oonld be aawmbled within it, and 
banners axtj feet in bw'gbt nii^t be unfurled below. Vast as it was, tbs 
■on and Bnoaenor of tbe fbnnder oommenced hia loief reign, in B.G. 209, 
I^ adding to its inagnifioence. 

8.— A KrAO 1^ f^. The infantile name of one of tbe consorts at 
Him Wn TL It is related that Uie future emperor, wben a child, waa 
nated one day on the knee (^ one of the Princessea, his aunt, wbo asked 
bim Unghlng^y whether he would like to be married, and pointing to A 
Eiaos whether he wonld wish her to be his wife. The child replied i " If 
I could possess A Eiao as my wife, I would have a golden honse to keep 
1>^ "> 1§r J^ :^ S 1^ ^ ' " ^^ expremoD has become prombial 
tot doling lore. 

8. — AMan])^^. Tbe infantile name of two celebrated pergonsget, 
y'a., T^ao TcTao and Mng Hwang of the T'ang dynasty qq. tj 

4. — A Tow |(^ ^'. Tbe infant name of tlie child of liu Pei by 
feit GOBBort 8an Fu-jSu, and Afterwards his aaccesor, A.D. 223, on the 


throne of Shiili. In the memorable root of Ct'ong-fwi K'iao, AD- 208, 
the cbikl was saved from filing into the hands of the enemy by bebg 
carried from the field in the bosom of hia father's faithful adherent Cbao 
Yioi q. V. 

S, — Ghano Cuuno^ Pp, 14th centnry A.D. The secular name of 
a Taoiat priest who is mentioned among the adherents of the founder of 
the Ming dToastj- He bore the dewgnation of ^ ^ ^ ^, the 

Iron-capped priest. 

@. — Cbahq Chuno-Eien I^ -f^ ^, ?(h century A.D. A noted 
adherent of the fonnder of the Tang dynasty. From his flowing beard, 
like that attribnted to the "homed diagoo" j[[,, he receired the appella- 
tion of " the dragon-bearded worthy " ^[^ J^ ^, During the inUstine 
troubles which ushered ht (he close of the Sai dynas^, atcA A.D. 615, bts 
patriotic a^iratioos brought him into contact with la Tmng, whose 
beauteous concobioe Hung Fu Nti q. v. claimed him as her brother. 
After the eetablishment of the Tang dynasty he led an expedition to the 
Gonntiy of Fn-yii ^ ^ ^ i put of modem Corea, which he omquered 
and took poesesiiion of as King. 

T*.— Chano Ch'aso 5:^ (Ifc. * "?■ J^, 1st centnry B,C. Cele- 
brated as an official under Ham SUan TI for bis skill in repreesmg diBordm 
and the brigandage then prevalent. While Prefect of King-chso, J^ 
76 ^"i '" ^■^' ^^> ^ BeiitH some noted robben, who, nnder promise of 
on amnesty to themselres, ddivered their accomplices into the hands <^ 
justice by the following stratagem, which he soggested. Assembling their 
comrades at a feast they made them drunk, and marked the clothing of 
each man with a spot of ochre, by which the wearers were afterwards 
detected and captured. Although, owing to his vigilance "the alarm 
drum was not strack for nine years," be nevertheless fell into disgrace, and 
Qoe of his Hubordlnales, triuraphing in this event, spoke of his chief a 
^ Q J^ ^{^ — Prefect for five days more ; but Chang Ch'ang, hearing 
of this slight, seized and executed the offender, as a proof that even in the 
few remaining days of office he neglected no duly or prerogative. The 
phrase has become classical in this sense. Dismissed and degraded, B.O. 
53, for alleged offences, the immediate increase of disorder which ensued 


pTomptad the EmperOT to recall him to office, and be waa advauced to tbe 
Qovemor^ip of Ei-chow. 

8.— Chang Cu'b gg |^. * 2jfc ^. t ^ ^- A.D. 1133— 
1181. One of the celebrated philoMophcra of (he Song dynasty, a friend and 
disciple of Chu Hi. Son of Cbaog Siln. Aatius of divcis commentarJca 
on the claidcs. Can. aa j^. 

e.-cuAKo fa-nWm 58 ^ ^. • ^ a. 1 1? *. 

A.D. 1007 — 1091. DistinguifiLed at aa early age by precDcnoiiB genius, 
and renowned as one (£ the most eradite Bcholars aud upright officiala of bis 
time. Among hit titles to distinction is recorded the service he rendered 
to literalnre and to tlie State in recognizing the worth of Su SUn and bli 
■ODB Su She and Su Ch^, qq. v., irhom he raised from obscurity while 
governing the province of Shnh, and introduced U> the Emperor's notice. 
Author of numerons works. 

lO.— CsANa Fo ^ ^. ■ ^^. D. A.D, 220. Bosom friend 
of Ewau Yd, the famous champion of Liu Pel qq. v., and with him 
celebrated as a leader in the wars of the Three Kingdoms. Uo is 
reputed to have poiBued tlie trade of hutcher and wine-seller, from which 
be emerged, A.D. 184, to join the alwe-aamed heroes in their martial 
enterpriaee. He perished at length, after performing many heroic exploits, 
by the band of an asBasBin named Fan Eiang ^ |^. 

1 1.— CiiASQ ttij :5 ^'- Abbreviated for Tai Chang and Shu 
Hat. See T'ai Chang, 

XS.— CitANa Hag 5^^. • ^ ^. A noted writer oflhe 
Sang dynasty, area AX>. 1200. 

13.— Chako IE:no5^% * ^ ■?■ A.D. 78— 1S9. Grand 
Historiographer — "^ ^ "^ — hi the reign of Hah Shun Ti, and 
celebrated for bis nniversal knowledge, bal more particuhirly for bis mastery 
of aatronomical science. He oonstmcted an uranoflphere, which he called 
ffl ^ "M (cel'^B^ globe), and greatly advanced tbe sciences of as- 
tronomy and mathematics among bis countrymen. In A.D. 133 lie 
incurred his sovereign's dis^Jeasore tbroagh the fearlessness of his counsels, 
fi,nd was eborlly afterwords denounced as a mngiuian and disgrnoeO. Author 
pf several woiks, including a trealiso on osLronomy entitled ^ ^. 


14k — CHAiiQHiRiaHin<o3^j^j^,9tIiceotiu7 A.D. Afuncw 
conUfsan, celebrated by ber moucal talent. Her junging attracted the 
favour of llie famoua Boldi^ Wei Ts'ing qi t., wbo made ber bis concntuoe. 
Sucb was ber skill in mndo tbat, nhen placed babind a sown wbOe » 
new air was being played, she scored the notes on a board with beans, and 
was able to repeat the air as soon as the performer had cuiolnded it. The 
Empenx King Tsang took ber into bi^ own harem, where, bearing one day 
of Wei Ta'ia^s death, ahe saddenly expired from grief. Fostbumoni 
honours, as to a Princess, were decreed to her. 

IB— Chano He 5§ jg, • YS 1^- ^*"y- T'ang dynasty. 
One of the Eight Immortals of the Wine-cup, celebrated in the poems of 
Tu Tsze-mei. He was distingnisbed also as a calligrapher, and dsshed 
off highly jvized inscriptions in the coruve hand while in bis aiost exalted 
stalas of inebriety. 

IB.— Chang HwA 5^1^ • JEf^. A.D. 232— 300. Mm- 
ister of State under Tsin Hwei Ti. Author of the ^ ^ j^. He 
was ptit to death by the Prince of Chao ^ ^, when the latter took up 
arms to extinguish the tyranny of the empress-consoit Kia ^ ^, wboN 
cause Cbaug Hwa refused to abandon. 

3. v.— CtiANG I Je^ ^, Aih century B.C. A native of the Stata of 
Wei ^^, celebrated as an advcnturoiu and subtle polllictan. Was in 
early life n felloiv-student with Sn Ts'in q. v., at the feet of the mystic 
]^)hilosopher and recluse called Kwei-kub Tszo q. v. The two asprants 
fiv [xilitJcal fnme, after peifecling themselves in the recondite lore of their 
instructor, sought for cmploj^ent as counsellors or diplomatiste^ after the 
manner of the age, in the service of one or other of the then crattendiDg 
States. Of Chang I it is recorded ut pc^olar literature that having been 
unjustly aconaed of theft and beaten almost to death, on returning to bis 
home be said to bia wife: "lixik, and tell me whether my tongne is still 
in itfl place 1" On receiving an afSrmative reply, he exclaimed s If my 
t«igue is still there, I have enough left to me I " Su Ts'in rose eariy to 
distioction and power, whereupon Chang I, it is said, inspired by feelings 
of jealousy, chose the opposite side to that embraced by bis fellow^tudentj 
and enlerwl, circS B.C. 330, the savtce of the ruler of Te'in, then already 


ftdTanoing id a caner of aggreasioQ agfunst ibe States nhicb AiU owed a 
nonun&l allegiance to the tottering dynasty of Chow. la B.C. S29 
Chang I was iovesled with the title ^ ^p|), or "aliea ^imter," aod led a 
aacaeflafal camptugn against bia own native State. In tbe coarse of a 
oheqoared career he incurred at timefi the displeaenre of his adopted rulers, 
and in B.C. 323 be reentered tbe service of his onn lawful sovereign ; but, 
after living to vitnesa the downfall and assassination of his fortoer comrade, 
he erentoally rvtumed to tbe post be had held in ibe govemmeDt of Ts'in. 
GhiDcee ucxvlists Uame tbe laxity of principle evinced in his cbangeM 

18.— Cbano K'aMgg:^. • -^^t- 2nd century B.C. A 
IGnister of HiN Wd Ti. Golebrated w tlie firet Chinese who penetiated 
to iJie extreme ref^ns of tbe West ; whence bo is spoken of by tbe aiH 
<ueQt historians aa baring "[nerced the void" ^g ^. Sent us an envoy 
to tbe Ttleb Ti or Q«t» ^ ^, he was taken prisoner by the Hiang-nn, 
and detuned a prisoner in their country for many years. Being at length 
zdeased, he was again despatched as envoy to the Kingdom of Ta Tiian 
^^ ^g (Fergana), fxcm whence he is said to have brougbt the coltivated 
gnpe-vine to China, introdudng to the knowledge of lus countiymen the 
nine made by tbe Ferdans frem its fruit In B.C. 123, was sent to 
negotiate treaties with tbe Kingdoms of 6i Yil @ ^(— the preseikt 
TnrlteBtan— and by B.C. 115, a regular intereoarse with tbe tbirty-ax States 
of this K^aa had bectxne establisbed through his eSurts. He is reputed 
the disoovaier of Ibo louroBs of the Yellow Kiver, which before his time 
vas believed to flow direct from the verge of Heaven, and to be a 
contJnoatioD of the ^ ^, Celestiar River oi Milky Wa/. See K'ieo 
NIu. Was ennohled aa ^ ^ j^. 

18. — Chamo.Eioh ^I^ y^, 2Qd century A,D. A n&tiveof North- 
eastern China, who, having obtained a great following during many yeare' 
practice of tbe occnlb arts of Taoism, raised the standard of rebellion in 
A-D. 181, in conjunction with his brother Chang Pao JS Jf. and in tbo 
space of a single month gained possession of all the Northern provinces; 
His adberents, divided under 30 commands, were distinguished by yellow 
tnrbaus j^ \\l, and for a time they carried all before tham; but after 
xnne ouxiths of sanguinary warfare the insntrectioa was suppressed and il* 


leaden were slam. With this rebellion the downfall of the Han HynaAj 
was virlually Dieted in. 

SO.— Chano KnxH'tHQ 5g ^ ig. • -y-|Kl- A.D. 1092— 
1159. A cdebraled Bcbolar anil official; renoivucd foe liia uprigbtnesa 
and Ilia paLronage of indigent students. Incurring the resentment of Ts'iii 
Kwei q. T., whose peace policy be diaapproved, be was baniabed ^ many 
years to a Hubordinale poet, wUere be gave himself wholly up lo study. 

SI.— CuAsaKiu-UNQj^ ;^^. * ^^. A.D.673— 740. 

A minister of State under T'akq Hlian Tsung (Miag Hwang), with 
whom, alone of all the uoiutieis, be ventured to renionslrate respecting bis 
licentlousuees and mUnile. In AD. 736, on the occasion of an Impenal 
lurthday, when others prt»ented rare and coetjy gifts, including mirrore 
obtained at great expanse from distant lands, he, on the oantrary, ofieied 
his liege lord a treatise ho had compiled, containing admonitions which be 
had ransacked history to bring together. This he called the "Golden 
Mirror for the Sovereign's birthday." Although respected for bis integrity 
and bolilneai, Ills connseU were but little heeded. He sought, but ineffec- 
tually, to awaken the Emperor to the treasonable desagns of Ngan Ln-aban ; 
but afler the rebellion of this pampered favourite bad actually coioe to 
pass iu the sovereign's declinlog years, HUan Tsung bethought lumaelf of 
the counsels given biin by bis &utbful minister, and ennobled bim posthum- 
ously with the title ^ ^ 'fj^. Was later canonized as ^ ||^. A 
contemporary writer records that be was accustomed to divert bimsclf 
in corresponding with bis friends by means of carrier-pigeons, which be 
denominated ^ jR — "jing slaves. 

SS. — Cii/isa EwoH ^ ^. One of the Eight Immortals of (he 
TaoisLt Said to have flourished toward the close of the 7lh and middle 
of the 8tb century. Leading an erratic life, he performed wonderful feata 
of necromancy. HIh constant companion was a white mule, which carried 
him ihousands of miles in a day, and which, when he halted, he folded up 
and hid away in his tiallut When he again required Its services he 
spirted water npon the packet from his mouth, and the beast at once 
resumed its proper shape. According to Taoist tradition, the Emperor 
Uing Hwang q. v, repeatedly urged him to vbilt bis Court and to assume 


tbere a priesUj office, but the uc«tic wandenr spDroed ever; tempting 
offer. He was, however, invested hj the nveiago with the title ^R JK 
TC ]|v yZ 7Z' -^^"t A.D. 74(^ the Emperor oDce more Eammoned 
lum to hia Court, bat the mewage had scaicely reached the sage when he 
CX^Hied, or, as the Taoiata anot, entered on immortality without suSeriug 
bodil; diBSolution. The Emperor erected In his bmoor a fane which he 

S S. — CoAtK) Et)M-Jui jl^ ^ ^n- ^sto of the famous romanoo 
called the Bi Siang Ki ^ ^ gQ, and favoured lov«r of le'm Ting q. v. 

34.— Chano Lr-HWA S^ M ^> o' C'^*^ Kwei-fei S^;^^. 
The favoarite prinoen of the last nler of the Ch'Sn dToasty, A.D. S8S — J89. 
See Ch'£a Sfauh-pao. 8he was renowned for beauty, and in paiticniar for 
ber long and ^o«7 bair, which was said to be lerien ftet in length. In 
A.D. 661, tlw imperial vduptuary devoted his whole ene^y, and appn^ated 
vast sums of IfBasuTe, to the couettuiitioD of three magnificent towers within 
the grounds of hia palace, to which tha names of ^ ^ ^, j|g j^ 
^, and 3^ l|l| ^ were given. In these alxxles of pleasure he dwelt, 
» slave to licentioos enjoyments, with Chang li-hwa and his two other 
favonred conmUnes, E'ung Ewei-fei and Enng Ewetfei ( ^ jj/^, 
S9 jlBi ^t wbcJly abandoning the duties of government to ennuchs and 
unworthy courtiers, until ruin and dethronement supervened. Chang Li- 
hwa was also styled Chang Ch'ang-ngo, a title of admiring endearment 
givwi her by her consort, in allusion to the lady of the Moon. See Ch'ang- 

S6. — Chans Li-p*n< §^^^, otherwise callad A-yOan |(^7^, 
a famous beauty of the harem of the last Emperor of the Mongol (YUan) 
dynasty, A.D. 1333, celeln^ted for her elegant erabnudeiy. 

S0.— CiUNO LuNo ^%. * ^M- O. B C. 189. One of 
the earliest adherents and afWrwatds chief counsellor of the founder of the 
Han dynasty, whose cause he embraced in B.C. 208, when Liu Fang, slJR 
known only as " Dnke of Fa," had raised the standard of revolt agunst 
the successors of the House of Ts'in. His eagacily contributed in a 
powerful degree to the triumph of Liu Fang, who ennobled him with the 
title ^ j^. Almost immediately after the proclamation of bis patron 


u £iDperoT, tie alleged lua htflimiUee as & motive for withdraniag from the 
world, and declined all sufcetantial rewards, remarking that since with 
"three inches of tongue" he had attained the dignity dS oocmaellor to his 
nverugn he demred no further glor^r. la ranked vnUi Ch'Sn Fing and 
Han Sin qq. t. u one of the ^ {^ or Three Heroes. 

Taobl legends have been bnsj with the name of Chang Liang, 
who ii represented aa one of the earliest patriarchs of the society of 
rayslics. It is related of him that in early life he eaoonntered me day a 
pool and aged man, iriioBe sandal had dropped inm bis foot, which Ohang 
ptoked np and restored to lum. As a reward for this serrloe the old man 
bade him meet him fire days later at a oartain place, and after thtice post- 
poning the promised rerelatwo, beeaose each time Ohang had failed to 
aniTS respeotfuUy at an earUer hour Uian his strange acqnaintauoe, the cdd 
man, satisfied at length, drew from his lobe a vdnme which he beetowed 
upon him with the wwds: He who studies this book ahall bec4»ae a 
Eing'B preceptor V He added that in thirteen years' time Chang Uang 
wonld meet him once more in the shape of a yellow stone j|f ^Q at Eoh 
Oh'fing. This prediction was verified by the finding of a yellow Blone at 
the time and place as prophesied. IVom the mysterionB treatise tliiiB 
obtained Chang Liang derived the wisdom which distinguished his counsels. 
At the dose of his ofScial career he renounced the nse of food, and proae- 
fiUted the search for the elixir of life nnder llie guidance of the supematurat 
being Cb'ih Sang Trae q. v., but foiled to obtain immortality. 

ST.— OhanoNoan-she jlg^-ftf;. i).B.C.62. Aministerof 
State under Has Wn Ti and his successor. Distinguished by his wealth 
and magnificence. 

SB.— Chako Sae-ch'eho 5^ i §ft O. A.D. 1367. A famous 
rebel leader, who, In A.D. 195S, fomented an insurrection against the last 
Emperor of the Yuan dynasty and struggled for the mastery of China 
during a number of yeara with Chu TUan-cliang q. v. and other insurgents. 
In 1357 he captured P'ing Kiang (the modem Soo-chow), and in 1363 pn>- 
vlaimed himself there as King of Wu ^ ^E' ^*> '■^^ ^^ length over- 
thrown in 1337 by the victorious arms of the founder of the Mmg dynasty. 
S3a.— Chab« SH£-iaEHgilM:l|l ^- A-D. 1279. One of tile small 


body of faitUfiil BUfasiuen and ccaomandoca wbo straggled to the Ust on 
bebalf of the house of Sung Againil the iovasioD of the S^gols. Jcintly 
iritb Loh Sin-fii q. v. lie shared id the last aUnd that was made at Tai 
Shan oa the coast of Kwanglung ; and, aAec tlis final defeat, iled vith » 
fiingte junk in which he oodeavoured to CBR7 off the Empress dowager to 
ToDqum. On hearing of the death of her son, however, the Kmpresa cast 
herself into the aea, and Chang She-kieh sLottty afterwards perished with 
all on board his vessel in a typhoon which overlook it near Ual Ling 
Island % ^ \\\, 

30.— GiiA]iioSHOw-EWEiS^^^,7thoenUii7A.D. A bold and 
skSfiil oranmandcx. Was governor of Kwa-choir on the Tang-lsaa when 
thn city was beleagiuired, uircA A.D. 730, by the Kkan (Nortbcm Tartan), 
at whoso approach the slender garrison became moch diebeartenod ; but 
Chaog mvitad his officers to a feast the mirth and moac of which, reacluag 
the enemy's bearing, gave them such an idea of lbs strength aod 
iiooonceni of the Chinese, that they ntreated. Hereapon Chang pnisoed 
them with his fiirces and routed them beavOy. The Emperor was so mndi 
overjoyed wilb this sticcess that he would have made Chang one of his 
chief ministerB ; bnt Chang fflu-ling q. v. remonstrated agwnet this, saying : 
**If for repelling tho Tartars yon make Lim minJEter, what reward wil! 
remain for bim if be vanquishes the Turks ( Tn-kUeb ) T " Faib'ng to 
condnue his career of snccess, he was dif^raced m A.D. 739. SiiuH-YEu 5^^^. *1^i^. iJ. AD. 1127. 
A millUary cgmmander of the reign of Suko K'in Tsung, and celebrated hy 
the devotion he disi^yed when that sovereign was redoced to the lowest strait* 
by the mvaqioi^ of the Kid Tartars. He raised a body of 30,000 troops 
nndoi an luteal to arms of the most presoiig nature for tbo soveieign's 
rescue (j|j(( ^) in AD. 1126, and hurried toward the beleagnered ca[Htal ; 
bat, being ordra«d bi enter the city with his forces, his ^orta at relief weis 
neutralized ; and in the fuUowiog year be shared the emperor's captivity. 
On being earned away prisoner to the North he committed siucide 00 
leaching the frontier. 

3i3._CiuNoYijEa5Sift- ' M8I. A.D. 667— 730. States- 
man and schtdar. Minister of State under T'ako Hiian Tsung. Was 
distingoisbed as a painter. 

b,,, ,...,,, Google 


33. — CuANU 81EN ^ Ijlj- A dmnh)' oTtkraUfnl origin, estencavdy 
wonliipped during lie Sung dynasty by WOTnen desirouE of ofeprii]^. A 
legend reapecUog this mythical being lefcn the belief in bis existence to 
an iDcuknt in the bistory of Hwa Jai Fa J6n q. v^ who, when brongbt 
from Shab to grace the boiem of the founder of the Sung dynasty, circft 
A.I>. 960, b said to have secretly pitaerred tho pof^it of ber fommr lord, 
Ibe Prince of Shuh, whom amaorj sbo pasEnmately oheriahed. Joaloaaly 
qoeaUomd by ber new consort respecting hor devotion to tbts picture, site 
de<^red it tu be the representation of a divine being, called Chang Sion, 
tlie patron of ohild-beariDg women. Altboagh the geDoineneaa of tba 
Segend is open to qnestion, it comprises all that ig knoini reepecting the 
inttuduotion callus lume into tbe Cbinese paotbeoa. Cf £. T- k. 85. 

34.— CiiANO sen S^;^. • ^^. T>. A.D. UH. Celebrated 
aa a adtolar and statesman. An ardent antagonist of I^'b Ewei q. v., 
whose policy of peace with the invading Tartan be bitterly oppcmd, and 
whom hs Bucceeded, after T-i'm Kwei's death, in the office of prime mi- 
nister EnnoUed as Pg § ^. A distingnisbed autbor as weD aa 
stalesman, he produced a work wbicb gained Ugb repute under tbc title 
" ExplBnationa of tbe Rre CanonicBl Booka" 

SB.— Chano Tao-usg 5^^[^. ' ff '9|, ^- A.D. 34. Swd 
to bave been a descendant in the 8th geoeralioD of Chang Liang q. v., 
and celebrated as one of ibc Sien 'f^|, or Immortalized Beings of the 
Taoist mytholt^ and tbe patron of thb sect. He ia repnted as having 
been bom at l!*ien Mnb Sbaa ^ ^ |JL|, in tbe nxxlem provmce of 
Cbekiang, and is said at tbe age of seven to have already mastered the 
writings of Lao Tsze and the nxst recondite trcatisea relating to the 
phUoeopby of divinalioD. Devoting himself wholly to study and meditation, 
he steadfastly declined the offtrs made bim by tbe Emperors Ho Ti and 
Chang Ti, who wished to attract him into tbe service of the State, The 
latter sovereign ennobled bim, from respect ibr hu attainments, with the 
title PI )P^ ^. Betiring to sedusicn in the mountain fastnesses t^ 
Western China, be devoted himself there to tlie study <f alchemy and to 
cnltivating the virtues of purity and mental abslractioo. His search for 
the elJ^ur of lifo was successful, tbanks to tbe instnictioit conveyed in a 
mystic treatise supernaturalty reuAved from (he bands of Lao Tsse himself. 


Tbe UtCT years of ibe iiiTBtic's eanlil; expctknco were opent; at U)e moan- 
Uin cailod Lang Hn SUan q- t. in KiaDg-«i, and il was beio tliat, at lite 
age of 123, after compotinding nnd swallowiiig tbe grand elisir -y\^ ^, 
he ascended to the lieavcns U) cnjnj lbs bli» <^ immortality. Before 
taking leare of earth he bequeathed Ijis secrete \a his aon, Cbang Huog, 
5^ ■(^I, and lbs tradition of his attainments cotitinned to linger abont the 
place of his abode nulil, in A.D. 423, one of his seclotles^ earned E'ow 
K'ien-cho ^§ ^^ ^, was prodnimed as his Euccenor in the headtihii) 
of the Tavist fraternity and invested Tiith the title of T'ien She ^ p)^ 
(the piece^jtor of Henven), i^icb was reputed as having been conferred 
npon Chang Tao-Iing. See T. K. ^jt^'^' ^ '^. 8th year. 
In A.D, 748, Tano Hllan Tsiing confirmed ihc hereditary jaivilcges of the 
eago's descendants with iha above title, and in lOlG, Sunq Chen Tsimg 
cnfet^ed the existing representative nith ta)^ tracta of land near Lung 
Hti Shan. The Mongol emperors ivere also liberal pnUtins of the family, 
who have con^ned, nntil the present day, to claim tbe headship of the 
Tawat aecL In imitalioD, probaUy, rf the Tibetan doctrine of beiraliip by 
metempsyehceB, the siiccession is perpetuated, it is said, by llw transmigra- 
tion of the soul of each succewor of Chang Tao4ing, on his decease, to the 
body of some infant or yonthfnl member of tbe family, whom honfaip is 
flDpemalurally levealed aa soon as the miracle is eSecled. 

3Q. — Cmno-r'Ai Lni ^ S ^ — ^ ^*^y ^™ ^ ChaDg-t'ai 
(a district in the city of Cfa'ang-ngan), of whom a romaotlu bistwy vas 
narrated nnder tbe T'ang dynasty. She is stud to have been bestowed In 
mairiage npon a pucff but f^ftcd scholar named Hnn Tiii ^ ^ by hia 
patron, a wealthy man named Li, whose concubine she wa& Having be- 
come separated from her hnsband during the troablons period, drc& A J). 
736, ebe took refuge in a nonoery. During her aoclusion she leodved » 
poe^ca] apostrophe from her sotniwing partner, in which (with reference to 
the sigrdficalion of her name, Ua — iciUow), he lamented (hat the willow 
branch he had cherished was oxpceed to be mdely plucked by anolher'B 
band. She replied in a similar strain. Eventually, after having been 
forcibly taicea to wife by a Tartar chicflain, she waa restored by an Im- 
perial order to her lawful spouse. 


■^ 1^- One of tlw famons ichoolinen nf tbe Sung dynastj, ootnmonly 
cftlled Chan" Tbzc | -^ or Uic Diilosoi'ticr Chang. Can. u |Q 

38, — CiiANo TsuN 5^ '^. An official of bigh repute during tbe 
reigns Soso K'in Taiing and Kao Tsiing. Held various military cora- 
mandi and was snccessful on several occauons in cliecliitig the incui^ons 
nf the Kin ^ Tartai^, notably ia A.D. IllS and 1126. Ennobled aa 
£c @i '^' ^"^ oAerwards miscd to tlm rank of Prince, \i\\i\ the titio 

39._GnANG Ylno 5^ ^. * ^^, A.D. 946—1015. A 
noted scholar and statcfluan. Held office aa Viceroy of SI) ub (SzecliVan), 
nbcre bis beneficc-nt rule is still lield in Tcneration. 

S9a.— CnA»G-Bira Wl-ki ^ -^ ^ M • ^ ^ ^- AD. 
G.59. Was a comrade of Li Sho-min during the struggles which ended by 
placing the latter's father on tbe ihrune of China. Li Slie-min married 
bis dsler, vrbo became Empress on her husband's acccsGion to tbe throne 
A-D- 627. Cbang-sm was made llinisler of Stal« in tbe same year, despite 
tbe obJecUous of his sister, who apprehended danger from the elevation of 
her kindred to exalted poets. Her fears prored unlbunded, and he con- 
tinued for many years n faithful and tnistcd servant of T'ai Taiuig. On 
the latter's death, be lefl bia brother-in-law as guardian, conjointly witli 
Oh'n Siu-Iiang, to tbe young aovereign, his lieir and succeaaor. This 
prince, however, at the instigation of his consort Wu How q, v., disgraced 
and degraded tbe loyal minister, and finally doomed him to death. Was 
a biBlorian of mnch merit. 

4O-CiiA0 Cii-u-sa-Kwon ^%®. " J^ -^ -»■ B.C. 52. 
A nulitary commander during the rcigna Ha!( Wu Ti, CUao Ti, and Siian 
Ti. In B.C. 99, be broke through iJie belcag^iering army of the Hiung-nii, 
who had gotroiinded the forces of Li Kwang-li, q. v. and in B.G. CI, 
when more tlian 70 years old, be was consulted respecting tlie meaeurcs 
Uiat should be taken to lepel an incursion of tike Tibetans (Kiang). He 
replied @^ f^ ^ ^fl — Wi — "once seemg is better than a hundml 
times heormg," and proceeded himself to tlia frontier to dicect ibe move- 
ments of the army, which, under ha pnident strategy, achieved a ugnal 
triumph. Was ennybleil with Ulc title ^ ^ ^. By his advice, a 


body of Inx^ were pwmanently BUtioned on tite frontier as military settlen, 
and the pncdue of allotdng tracts of land to tbe sappnrt of EUttionary 
ganisona (T£ 09) is attriliated to ibia origin. 

41.— Chao Fei-yes ^ ^ jp^, 1st ceiitiiiy B.C. A famous 
boauty. Danghter of a inuaiijian named i'tng Wan-kin ^^ ^ ^. Sbe 
was trained as a daadng-girl, and from ber grace and lilhcnoa received 
tbe appellation Fei Yen (Hying swallon). Left wJtb her sister, Ilo-tSh, 
nnprotected on tbeir fatber's deatb, the tiro girls, adopting tbe Eiimame 
Cbao in Twu of their own.foond tbeir way to tbe capital, wbere, after main- 
taining tbemselves ioa a. lime as courtesans, they attracted the notice of the 
Emperor Ch4ng Ti, B.C. 18. wbo took tbem into his seraglio and made 
Fd Yen bis bvoQrit« concubine with tbe tilJe ttieh-i/a |^ f^ or iady-tn- 
waiting. Her skill in the art of dandog (posturing) was Bucb that it is 
said of her she conM dance on tbe patm of a band or in a bowl. In B.C. 
16, the Emperor, infatuated wiUi Iiis new fHvaurite, elevated Iici to the rank 
of Empns Consort, conferring tbe rank of ^ 'g| or Lady of Honour 
npon the yonnger sister. Was driven to commit Biiicids in E.G. 6, after 
the decease of Ch'€ng Ti, through the machinations of bis successor's 

42.— CiiAO Ho-TEH ^ -^ ^. Bee the preceding. 

43 — Cbao Kao ^^i 3rd century B.O. Ennnch in tbe servico of 
Ts'in She Hwang-ti, on wboee death, B.C. 2]0, bo conspired with the 
Minister Li Sxe in fabricating a &lse testament, l:^ which tbe xovereignty 
of the Empire was heqacatbed to tbe Emperoi^s secood son Hn Hai ; the 
beir-appnrent, Fn Su, qq.v., having previoudy been sent into banishment. 
Cbao Kao ingratiated himself with his Imperial prot%^ by yielding bound- 
lea compliance with ibc latter's wishes, but bin ambition still aimed at a 
more entire control of power. Id furthernnce of tbts secret design he sought 
to remove from his path nil poewblc antagocists, and iu order to discover 
wbo were behest among tbe conrti<« he, on one occasion, presented a stag 
to the young sovereign, sajing " Tliis is a hOTSo for your Majesty." Some 
iif tbe conrliets, on being askal by the Emperor what the animal was, 
remained silent ; others replied " This is certainly a stag." Of all these, 
wlioai lie regarded as daring to opirase bis will, Oliao Kao S[>eedily efleclMl i 


the deslructii>n. Trusling at lenf^ Iii ha Bnpposecl power, ho deposed Um 
Emperor, B.C. 207, and pul bim to death, btit vm aliortly aflenraidB as- 
sassinated by tiie youUiful licir to tlio Tlirone, Tsze Ying q. v, t'rom the 
inoidenl above nairated comes iJio Baying ^ J^ "jl^ ,^ — " to call a 
htag a iwrse," in ibe eeiise of wilful misrepresentation. 

4-i— CiiAO K'l ;^ ll^. ' ^ ^. Died A.D. 201, aged 
about 93- A nephew by marringo of llie celehrated ficlwilar MJi Yung. 
and himself one of the moat rononned among the commentators on tlie 
clasaica. He held varioiB offices of stale, hut was long involved in diFgrace 
nnd trouble during tlie factions slniggles vhidi ndieicd in the downfall <^ 
the Han dynasty. In early lifu big name {■^) was ^, and Iiis literary 
de8i"TLation (^) ^jff. but being obliged to laltc refuge in concealment 
he changed iLese appellations for tlie characters above, by ivbieh bo is 
known in history, \Vhilo biding in obscurity, he prepared a commentary on 
the book of McdcIub which is still regarded as a slandatd aiithoriLy. 

4e.— CHAO Kits fl3 W [winiamed J]. A famous heroine of 
romance. Said lo have been taken into the harem ofHAH Yiino Ti, B.C. 
48, where, however, she was secluded from the notKe nf her Impedal lord 
through the malice of his treacherous minister Mao Yen-ahow. The latter, 
acoording to one version of a romance whiuh is variimaly related, had been 
commissioned to bring her lo the palace, on a report of licr heaiity reach- 
ing the court, and she was found by him to be of surpasnng lovclineas, the 
danghter of poor but worthy p.trents. Her father refused to pay a sum . 
demanded from him u a bribe by Moo Yon-diow, who, in revenge, pre- 
sented to the Emperor a portrait so little like the original that his Mnjesty 
conceived no wish to see tlie new addition to his seraglio, and slie lan- 
gnished in oWivion for years niitil chance threw the Emperor across her 
path, when he at once became enamoured of her beauty. The fiiitble«s 
Minister, his wiles discovered, lied from Court and took refuge with the Khan 
of the Hiung-DU, to whom he shewed the real portrait of Chno Eun. The 
Khan, fired by tlie Iwpa tS obtaining possesskm of so peerfeas a beauty, 
Inraded China in irre«3tible force, and only consented to retiro beyond the 
Wall when the Lidy was surrendered t'>him. She accompanied hersavaga 
captor, bathed In tears, untjl the banks of the Amur (Hch-hmg Kiang) 
veie roocbed, when, ralhi^ than gj beyond the fatal bottndary, she plunged 


into (be watetB of liio Blreftin. Ht^ coipm was inlerred on the bantiB of 
the nw, »id it is Kpkted that tlie limmloa nised ftbove her grave le- 
nuuDcd covered with nndying rerdnie (whence the tomb is called Ts'iiig 
Ch'ang j^ ^$0- ^The hiEtor; of Cbao Kiin fonns tbo bauB of a drama 
— tU ^ I I — tandated hy Sir John Davie, with tbo tide "Tho 
Sorrows of Han." The actual historical tact, as narrated in tbe Tvng 
JCien Kany Muh, is that, in B.C. 33, the Emperor cemented an nlliaDce 
wUh the Kh&n of the Uinng-nii by bestowing upon him in marringe, on 
Lis visiting the Conrt, lb« lady H|E ^k- t^'*'^ ^^° ^<^> "'"^ <"> 
reaching the oouulfy of her a doption, become recognized as queen (^^ ^) 
nith the UOo Ming Hii ^ 1^. 

4e.-CnAoM.yG-rr j^^M, ' ^ H- t ^ S" 
AD. 1254—1322. A scion «f the Imperial house of Sung, and digtuiguifhed 
as a Bchc^r, painter, and calligraphei. His wife, the lady Kvran, ^ y^ 
^, was abo distingiildied as a painter. 

4'7.— CnAo KVasg-yln ^ ^ j^ A.D. 917-975. Fotmdct 
of the Sang dyaasly. Was descended from a line of distingtiiiihed officials 
of iho T'ang dynasty and their slKirt-Jived bucccssots. His Liclh is said to 
have been ushered in by numeroiu portents, and be rose early to renown 
as a warrior in the service of the HonEe of Chow. On the itccesdon of the 
youthful ruler Kung Ti, A.D. 960, at a time when the Empire was in 
disorder and wlien invasion by the Tartars was imminent, Cbao Kw'ang- 
yin was d[;spali;hed as generalissimo to lake command of the army. The 
soldiery, dissatlsSed with their prospects under a weak boy-ruler, and im- 
pelled by sundry current piophacies, determined to malce the general their 
monarch. Wlule haling at a post called ibe Bridge of Gk'i^n ^ ^^, a 
resolution was taken, and the tent of the generalissimo was tumaltaonsly 
surrounded at midnight Overcome widi wine, the oommandcr was deep- 
ing sotmdly when he was aroused to receive tbo news cf bis proclamation 
as Emperor, and before he could say Yea or Nay, a yellow mantle was 
tbrown over him, and be was bailed as the Son of Heaven. He reigned 
nxteen years, and is known in history as T'ai Tsii 'j^ ^_. 

48.— Ch4o Kwo j^ >^ 2nd century B.C. A public oflSoial, 
cn{loy«d by Ha!1 Wu Ti as St^eriotendeDt of Agriculture, and reputed 

16 CniSESE REAliEtrH MANUAL. Pi. I. 

as the inveatoT of the art of ploagfaing vitii oxen, in lieu of liiinuiD luboor. 
Tiie credit of this idea la deniei him, however, by Kveral hiatonotd cxilks. 
Cf. K. T. k. 19. 

4@.— CiiAo Shbh ^ $ 3Td centary B.C. A funclioDsry of tin 
State of Choo, nhom tJie lord <^ Fing TOaa (see Na. 563) lecommeDded 
for employment as tte^ anl of the rcveniKS of the IciDgdom, in conseqaenco 
of llie wise iidvii» that he had tendered. The armies of the nnscnipuldiu 
nnd aggressive soveroigQ of Ta'iD having ivantonly invaded the territory of 
Ohao and seized a poeition at Yen-yil P^ S^ the prince took cotmsel 
with his ministers respecting the poesibility of dislodging the enemy. His 
diief oonuaellor, Lien Fo ^ g^, gave an aafavoiirable reply; but Cbno 
ShSh volunteered (o nadertake the task, aod moved with an army against 
the inrodein, nDdismityed by \btir numbers or by the difBonltJee of the 
monntainous regkm in whivh Us fiehl of operations lay. By the maio- 
Umance of severe discipline and of a Falnan cotuse of policy, remaining 
firmly behind bis entrenchments, (whence the expression ^^ ^ haa 
taken rise) until the proper moment for action arrived, he lulled the hostile 
foroes into a fatal self-conGdence, and eventually routed them wilh great 
slaughter. For this triumph he vae invested with the title of ,|^ fff^ '^. 
He died circH KG. 260, leaving a son, Chao Ewoh ] ^, who aspired 
to cooUnoe the paternal honoais. On a renewed outbreak of hoetUitiea 
between Ts'in wul Chao. Uie sovereign of tlie latter Slate was peisuadcd 
to entnist the command of his forces to Chao Kwob, notwithstanding 
the warning uttered by iJen P'o and his coUt^agiie Liu Siang-ju q. v., who 
urged that the son bad no idea beyond adhering hiindly to the records of 
his father's poUcy, and was incapable of adapting himself to ciieumstanceE. 
As the sovereign nevertheless peisisted In his design, Chao Ewt^'s mother 
[>rescnted a memorial in which she set Ibrth her Icnowledge of her son's in- 
capacity for the post of commander, but without effect. FincUng that the 
appoinCxaent was irrevocable, ^ again addressed the Prince entreating 
that at least she might be spared from undergoing pnnishmeot on account 
of tiie failure which she foresaw her son was about to incur. Chao Kwoh, in 
fact, WAS disastrously routed and sbin in bis firat engagement wilh the army 
of Ts'in. His mother was exempted from the penalty that would have bc- 
McD her had she not Eoagfal to expose Lis lack of ability. Cf. S. K. k. 8L. 


SO._Chao Tu ^ -f^. B. circa B.C. 240. JJ. B.C. 137. 
Celebrated in hialoiy as Prinoe of Yfleh j^ ^. Wsb a, native of Chan 
Tiiig ^ ^^ in Northern China, aod commenced bU career in the 
eerrice of tbe fonnder of the Tu'lii djmafit;, She Hwang-U, who 
Kppuinled him B.C. 215 to a command under J€n Hiao q. v., vben 
the latter vaa occupied in snl^ngaling tho wild Soatbem borders of 
tlie Empire. He served under this commander for some jeai-s 
witli tho tille of Governor of Lung Cli'wan flg )\\ ^. When 
snmmoned to hb superior's deathbed to receive from him the Viceroyally 
tif Nan Hai, the dying Viceroy a<lviscd liim to carve out a princi- 
pality for himself amid the disorder cooseqnent on the death of 
their lato despotic sovereign. Chao T'd proQtcd by these connselii, 
and on tho downfall of the Ta'iu dyimsly ho proclaimed himself Prince 
of Soathem Yuch, with tlie title Wa (martial). His rule was, wikbont 
difficulty, extended over the wliolo re^i 'n at present conslitiitbg the 
provinces oi Kwang-tung and Kwang-si. In KC. 106 Han Kao Ti 
despatched his milliliter ^Liih Eia to negotiate with Chao T'o, wlio 
consented to iccognixe him as his lioveroign. Undue tlie regency i>f 
tbe Empres Lil q. v. lioslilities broke out bL'twcen the Empire and its 
feudatory, during which his power became uKtendcd over t^c present 
Province of Hu-nan ; but, in the sncceeding reign, the breach was healed 
aud Lnh Kia again visited his Couit as envoy. Chao T'o was the virtnal 
founder of tha city of Canton, whem be was the first to construct a fortifieil 
poffltioQ. Dying a centenarian, he beqiieatlied his fiirone to a grandson, 
who, however, was speedily overthrown by an invasion on Wis part of llie 
armies of the Han dynasty. 

In allusion to his early tiiTe as A'f« //iii Wfi ^ ^ ^t ^^ "* 
freqiienlly referred to as Wei T'o, i. e. Viceroy T'o. 

SI.— CiiAoTs'ui {^^ " "5F" ^- Chief among the trnsly 
adherents who shared the exile of Ch'ung t'rb (see W&i Knng) in B.C. 
654. T^ banished prince having taken rtfLige with the chief of the Ti 
barbarians, the latter bestowed upon bim his two daughter& of wbom the 
yonnger, known as ^p |% was given in marriage to Chao Ts'ui. 8lie 
gave Inrth to a son named CMiao Tan, q- v. By a former wife Chao Ts'iii 
bad three sons, named respectively l''nT)g |^, Ewob J^, and Ting-ts'I 


9 |SF> *^° *'^ ■''^■'t ^■^' ^^- t^ Tu-ngaii Ka.) On Uie prince'i 
retacn frcxai exile Ciiao Ts'ui ftccompanied bim and becnme hn prime mrnister, 
in nbich capaoit7 be directed wilb conaaminale eliill tlia affun of Tun. 

eS— Chao Tun ^ ^. * ^- Son of Cbao Ts'ni, and bis 
■aceeSBor in the ofBce of minister. Tbe sovereign nbom be serred, Duke 
Ling of Tsin, (B.C. 620—607), offended by his holdneas in offering reproof, 
Gongfat to liATp bin) aEsasBinated by tbe band of an emissary named Tni Ni 
f H ^S, bnt the latter, rather than becume ibe murderer of a Tirtnoot 
minister, dnsbetl out his own brains against a tree. The prince next con- 
trired an ambush in nbicb Chao Tnn was to be wnylaid when n.-tnm]ng 
in his cn{» from a state banquet ; but tbe Minister, forewarned by She Mi- 
ming fH^ j^ ^, a man whom he bad once resciitrd from sUn-ation, left 
tbe table soUx, and escaped tbe ambush. Hereupon a ferocious mastiff of 
the breed called Ngao ^&, was let loose against bira, but the dog was 
killed by She Mi-ming. He hereupon tock to flight, but was speedily 
tecalled by bis brother Cbuo Gh'wan, | ^, who slew Duke Ling in his 
peach-garden ^^ ^. The son of Chao Ch'wan, named So, vaa after- 
wards slain by T'n-ngan Ku q. v. 

eS.-Cuo Tin ® g. -U & t K * AD. 
1727 — 1814. A noted writt-r and hJEtorical critic. 

04— CiiAoYUNjgp. " -^§1. Z).A.D. 228. One of the 
heroes of tbe wan nf tbe Three Kingdoms, and a cliampion of the cause of 
Lia Pei q. v. DisUnguisbed by unusual stature and great beauty. At the 
rout of Ch'nng-ran K'iao. ^ ^ ^, A.D. 208, where Liu Pei fled willi 
a few trusty followers before iLe forces of Ts'ao Te'ao, be carrie)} the in- 
fant son of his cliienain bidden in bis bosoiir diiring the huiried flight In 
admiration of iho bravery displayed by bis trusty champion on this and 
other occasions, Liu Pei exclaimed -f- 1^ '^ ^ ^ -^ f^ — His 
whole body is one mass of courage Oil. gall) 1 

6C — Chao TkiN ^ ^T. The name borne by a famons courtesan 
of the lllh centuiy AD. whose wit and beaoty caused ber society to be 
sought by tbe poet and sUtesmen Su She. An allusion is conveyed in 
tbe chamctcrs of (be name to the incident immortalized in the poems of 
Sung Yii. !Sce Wu Sban. 

P(. /. CmSESE RRADKhrS if.iSUAL. tft 

Ce.— Chao Yuno ^ #■ Stw Wm Urh. 

Of. — Che ^P. A plant said to be of Hnpematnral growth nnd 
aoBpicioDs omea In the gft 3v D'cUonary it is termed a "divine plant" 
IfBfi ^^, and it is said to be produced whea virtiiuoa monarcbs are about 
to reiga Its seeds woro reputed by the mystics of the Taoist sect as the 
food cS the genii, and it is nymbolical ia general of all that is bright and 

OS— CiiBn Teh-siu ^ ^ ^- ■ M 7C- t ® Ui- 
A.D. 1178—1235. A celebrated suholar and disciple of Cha Hi. Anthor 
of commenlaries on the Ta Hio and other works. 

Oe.— GHeNoHiiAN^:^. • j^ J^ AD. 127— 200. One 
of the most ceteWat^xl amoag tho scliolara of the Han dyiiMly. Was a 
.papil in earlj life of Ma Ynng q. v , who confessed, nhea his disciple even- 
tuadj left him, that a greater than himself had arisen. Founder of an 
aatborilatiTO school of criticism on Ibe Confucian classics, which he edited 
with commentaries. "When intestine di »inlera broke out in the Empire, 
circft A.D. 168, ChSag Hiiaa secluded himself willi bis books in his native 
place, but such was the respect he gained througli the celebrity of his 
leamiDg that the ferocious Yellow Turlian rebels spared the place of his 
abode while devastating the country ronnd about. Like other scholars of 
bis ^oM, he was famed also as a lorer of nine and was capable of drink- 
ing iD(»diDttl« quantities without succumbing to iotoiication. 

30. — CsfiKs Tan p5 ^- -^ famous beauty, said to have been 
p-esented to the harem of the Frince of Wu at the same time with Si 
She q. T. 

ei.-OHENaTs'iAoilti. -^^ t ?fei§- A.D. 
1108 — II62. One of the most eradite and renowned men of lett«T8 of 
the Sung dynasty; dtatinguished by almost nnivenal knowledge. The 58 
works he composed conrist in treatises npon nearly every subject within 
(he range of Chinese literature. During the reign Shao Hbg be held office 
M one of the Imperial historiographers. 

S3.— Cheng Tuan-yeo ^ TC Ife' " 5^ ^ A.D. J292— 
1964. A man of letters Dodei the Yuan dynasty. 

eSa.— CBtNQ Che-lum Hi^ H- * 5^ M- -P-A.D. 


1661. A nalivt) of die proTioce of Fukien, who, Iiavbg, n^e<1 at the 
Jap&DCBe seltletnent on the island of Fonoosa at the close of the Hing 
(lynaaty, roae to a position of great eminence and power ihnragh his in- 
fluence OTer the people of the eeaboani After e, daring career at a 
piratical freebooter, he <Ievated hU energies to the service of the Emperor 
ia his B'mggle against the iuTading Manchus ; and at the same time 
promoted the rolonizatton of Formosa by the destitute masses of hia Dntire 
Frovinoe. By a Japanese nife he was father of CbSng Ch*6ng-kaiig I 
Wd 5?' *'"' eclipsed even the paternal renown by his exploits at sea and 
as ruler of F.-nmofia, whence he eitpelletl Iho Dntch who liad formed Kltle- 
menta there, with the otgect of constituting himself ruler of the entire island. 
Throagh the Portognese, bis name has been traveetied into Kozsliinga. 
The father, having fallen into the hands of the Hanchu conqncrois, was 
execat«d at Peking \n 1661 ; and Koxsbingn himself died in the fo)Io\ving 
year, aged 39. 

3.— Clio Mow J^'^. ' -? J^ D. A. D. 28. A func- 
tional; of State during several reigns, and at one time chief minister 
nikter Has Kwang Wn Ti. Beloved for bis int«^ity and diarluble 

S4.— Cho Wrs-kAx, see WCn Knn. 

66, — Cnow ^^ or Sue Ciiow ^ | . A reputed historiographei 
of the rrign SU&n Wang B.C. 827, who ii said to have inrented the an- 
«ent form of written character called tlie greater ckuxm y^ ^. (See 
No. 596.) 

66.— Ciiow ^. The tjile aararoed B.C. 1327 as the deetgnation 
tA bis principality in tlie Wect by Tan Fn ^ ^, (See No. 666), also 
known «s Ea Enng "^ ^, (the ancient Dnke), cm being invested wiUi 
the feudal lordship of K'i ^. He was the father of Ki Li ^ ^. 
wboae son Cb'ang ^ became known in history ai the great "chief of tba 
West" and virtual founder of the Chow dynasty. (See Si Peh.) Tan Fa 
had three sons, named or known as Tu Peh 'Jsi Yfl' Chung Tiuig -ftp 
^, and Ki Li ^ fiS. (See .ffV Z>'. ) 

Q'7.—Cnow KuNO ^ ^ — The "Doke of Chow," by which 
title Tan J9,. the fourth son of Cb'ang, chief of the West (see Si Pel^L 


Mtd jonngpr brolLer oS Wu Wang, the first sovereiga of ibe Clww dytidsty, 
ia known in hiBtorj, when he is ranked in virtue, CTicdom, and honoara, va 
yielding; place only to llio great rulers of nntiquitv, Yso and Shun. That 
this statesman actually eusted at the period anigned to Lim is probablj 
Dot to bt) doubted, but table aod exaggeration have largely cootribnted to 
the portraiture under which he is reverecl as one of tlie heueficeDt fonndets 
or the Chinese polity. On the death of Si Feb, B.C. 11S5, on the pve of 
triainpb over the cmel deapotlsm against ichicli he had taken np arms, 
'i'an was left by bim as assistant and coiinnellor to bis elder brother Fa, 
whose establishment on the throoe as gitccessor to tlie dynasty of Yin be 
inaterinlly asusCed. Throiighont the reign of his brother aod a part of 
that which next ensued, Tan, noir knowD as Duke of Chow, acted as 
goardian and presiding genius of the newly created line. He drew np 
tlie ordioances of the Empire, directed ila policy, and sought to pnrify the 
murals of tbo people from the depravity into which tbey had fallen under 
tlte bite tyrannous nile. The principality of Lu ^ was conferred upon 
him by his Imperial brother, but the services be rendered to the faoDse of 
Chow cansed the more significant title Chow Rang to remain permanently 
connected with bis name. Acconling to a l^nd devised in after years, 
be is repnted as the discoverer of ihe mar:ne.''s compass, bting credited 
with the inrention of a " Sootb-pointlng chariot" ^ ^g ^ to serve as 
* guide in returning to theii homes for the envoys who came B.C. 1110 to 
offer homage from the regions now known as Tonquln. For an investiga- 
tion of this fable see Legge, Sboo King, Part II, p. 1345. He died, full of 
jre&rs and honours, in B.C. 1105. 

S8. — Cuow HiXG-szB j£| j^ 1^. * ,@v ^ 6th centary 
A.D. An ofGcial dislJngniKbed by literary atnlity circtL A.D. 502. The 
celebrated penman Wang Hi-che having written 1000 separate cbaraclen 
on as many slips of paper tot the Emperor Lu!(0 Wu Ti, that eorore^ 
directed Chow Hing-ase to arrange them in rhymed senteoces lo convey a 
nieaQiag. This task was accomplished in a ung^ night, but such was 
the mental efibrt that the compiler's hair and beard were tamed completely 
wbite before morning. His work is known as the ~j^ ^^ y^ or ThoQ- 
■BOd Character Composilion. 

e©.— Chow Pr-TA ^ JJi^ ;;^. • ^'^. A.D. 1J26— IHM. 

- .--wgic 


A celebrated scholar and fanc^narj. Held niimenma high offiooi, but m 
chiefly rraiosfued through his writings and erudition. Canonised as ^C 


'70._Ciiow Po ^ ^. D. B.C. 176. Prominent among the 
fla[iportei8 of the foander of the Han dynasty, irbom he largely asweted in 
obtaining the control 6i the Empire. On the outbreak of tlie treasonable 
conspiracy headed by the kinsmen of the Empreaa LU q. v. (^ § ), 
after Kao Ti's death, lie hastened to a<eume connnand of the army and 
Bonght to ascertain from the first moment the sentiments of the troope. 
He put forth an order saying : " Let all who are for the family of Lli bare 
their right arms ; and those who are for Lin (the Emperor's Euraame) bare 
the left I " The soldiery responded to his appeal by baring their left 
arms euthnsiastically, whereopon he at once fell upon the tmitois, whose 
forces he ronted, and having seized and executed the Lil princes, he pbced 
tiie rigbtfal heir (WSd Ti) npoD the tlirone, B.C. 179. He was mfide 
iniaister <rf State conjointly with Ch'Sn F'ing, and ennobled as J^ ^g ; 
bat shortly afmwards fell into unmerited disgrace, and died in retirement. 
Can. «. SC •^■ 

•7 1.— Chow Sw J^ ^. The historical title of Show ^, the 
abandoned tyrant whose downfall brought the dynasty of Shang (or 
Yin) to a close, B.C. 1123. Wild extravagance, unbridled lust, and the 
most ferocious cruelty are enumerated among his vices. To please his in- 
famoas concubine T'a Ei q. v. he constructed vast palaces and pleasnre 
grounds called the Luh T**! q. v. where wild forms of debauchery were 
continually practised. According to the legends, he formed a lake of 
wine " at bis pttlace of Sha E'iu, caused the trees to be hung with viands, 
and set men and women, naked, to chnse each other before his eyes. The 
category of his offences agaiust Heaven is summed up in the Great De- 
claration " of tbe Shoo King (Cf. L. C. Ill, p. 2SS et seq.) The moat 
celebrated instance of his wanton cruelty is tha treatment be uidnlged in 
toward his kinsman Pi Kan q. v. To satisfy the vindictive T'a Ki, Chow 
Sin cansed bis relative to be disembowilk-d, saying ; " I ha^e heard that in 
a wise man's heart there are nine openings ; we will now see whether this is 
true I " The Chief of the West— see Si Pth^aX length undertook to nd 
the Empire of this monster, and, after a cntdiing defeat of his forces near 


" dw fold of Hfiog," ^ ^ the tynat fled to hii pklace at Lull T'ai 
and periibed in tbe flames with which he canaed it to be destroyed. 

•73.- Cnow Teh-wei M^Wi- * ^ jM ^- AI>- 918- 
A renowned commander in the service of the last torereign nf Ihe T*arig 
dynasty, to wboee canse he remained faithful aAer the Empire liad pnscd 
to the nmrping boaae of Liang. Greally Bkilled in the art ofBtrategy 
and "military divination," he Bii[iported ibe cause of the Prince of Tm 
^' ^ in a long etniggie ngainet the newIy-fonnded dynasty, and gained 
nnmeroas Bnccesses. At length, in a decinive battle, waged contrary (o 
bia earnest ad* ioe (the scene of action being in the heart of the territory 
owning the Bway of Liang), the Tain troops were routed, and Cbow TSh- 
«d with his son were t^^ther among the slain. The battle takes its 
name from tbe biU called 1$Q ^ @£ (T. K. ^ ^ J|H Itb year). 
The Prince, who afterwards founded the dynasty of tho Later Tang, A.D. 
923. beatowed higb poethnmous honours npon him. 

"73.— Chow Tl-n-i M ^ 5^ ' ^Sfe ^ A. D. 1017—10:3. 
Commonly designaled Chow Tsze, or the Philosopher Cbow, and ranked 
second cmly to Cha Hi in literary repnte. Held various high offices of 
State, and was for many yeara at the head of a brilliant gnkxy of scholars 
who Bonght his instruction in matters of philosophy and research. Author 
of the 235^ @ @ g^ and other works. Posthumously created ^ § 
.^ and can. as 7^ ^^- From a favourite place of abode he adopted ttie 
disgnation (^ij ^) of j^ ^ -^ ^, by which he i> commonly 
iderred lo in literature. 

74.— Chow Ya-to ^^^ D. B. C. 142. Scm of Chow 
Pt^ q. V. and distinguished like his father by faithful service of the Em- 
peror WSn Ti. Governor of Honan B.C. 174, at a time when the Hinng- 
nn iovaded the Empire in immense force, he was made generalisumo of the 
anny moved forward to repel them, and the strictnes of his disciplhte was 
strikingly manifested. The Emperor himself vi^ted his camp <m the 
frontier^ but was refused admittance at the gale nntil the order to c^ien it 
was ^ven by Chow himself — his lieutenant saying : " in the army we 
know only the general's command ; the Emperor's decree is not for our 
earsl" Wgn Ti highly praised this firmucss, and the conduct of the 


troops in the dxy of battle cornqMivlcd to tlw temper of tb«ir coninunder. 
In tlie reign of King Ti was sent as generalignmo to subdae the lebeUiooa 
Slates of Wii and Ts'a. Wilbdrew in bia last yeais from Court, on bis 
counsela being disreganled by Ibe Emperor, nbo peiri&tcd, deepito bis 
advice, ID bestowing tJtles of nobility on fire (railois wbo bad fled from tba 
Hiang-nn to tbe Cbinese Court. 

•76 — Cnow YU ^ ^, • <^ Jf A A, D. 210. Oneof the prin- 
cipal adherents <^ the hau»e of Wu, oneof ibo Three Kingdoms which divided 
the empire of the Han dynasty. Sun Kien q. v. on his taking up arms 
to oppow Tung Cbo, abode fur a lime in Chow Yii's naiive pla(«, u>d 
his son Sun Ts'db, wbo was of tlie same age nith Chow Yij, became tbe 
lattisr's boRom friend. On tho death of Sun Tit'fih, be attached himself to 
the second son, 8an E'iUnn, whose trosled counsellor he remained during 
tbe bog struggle which ensued between ibe house of Wu and tbe two 
rival States. Was distingaisbed by learning and wil, as well as by martial 
prowess and political wisdom. 

78. — Ciiu i^. Tbe Pearl. Many legends are related in con- 
nection with this gem, wjiicb from the earliest tinieo bas been prized I^ 
the Chinese. In the time of the Han dynasty pearls were produced in great 
abundance on the coast of IIo-p'u {a. dislrict in the modern Xiien-chow Fu 
in Kwaogtung, near Hainan), and here Ibe virtues of MSng Ch'ang t\. v. 
were attested by a plentiful barvest of pearls. — The wife and family of ao 
official named Wang Chang J ^^. on his being thrown into prison 
uiijoslly in the reign of Has Cb'&ng Ti, B.C. iii, were Iianished to Ho Fii, 
and on being jiermitted afterwards to return from exile, came back lo tlieir 
home laden with riches of their own githering— a presumed recompense from 
Heaven.— A pair of pearls of groat size were f.iimd on tbe bank of the 
Kw'Sn Ming Lake, in fullfilmcnt of a dream experienced by tbe Emperor 
Wu Ti of tbe Han dynasty. — ^Ma Yiian q. v. was unjustly accused afUr 
bis death of having secretly brought back a great hoard of pearls from his 
conqni'Sta in Cochin China. — It is related of Wfiu Ti of tbe Wei dynasty 
that a pearl of one inch in diameter having been apoaUnoonaly offered him 
as tribute by tbe ruler of a State in Central Asia, tlie aovoreign took coun- 
sel with bis adviser Su Tseh i|^ ^J about sending an euvoj- to seek lo 
pnrchnsc others like it- His co.iuscllor j-eplied : *' It is Bomcthing to be 


|gnnd of that nioh a peul ilKuld oome uDson^t iema bejtHid Uie nndy 
wastes ; but if obtained I17 bdag aougfat for vherefoie lUonld it be {xized t " 
Tbe Erapeoror ackaowledgul tbe wisdom of tbia remark, wbiuh bistory 
has commended. — Tbe ancient fabulists are fuU of ibe wcmders oppBrtain- 
iog to tko nature of the peari, wlucli they taj ia the cog aete eeaence of tbe 
moon , distilled lliroug^ the secret wakings of the Mooadat? principle (^) 
in Katun within the Adl i^ the muasel vrbich prodacci it Hence the 
pearl acts as a charm agaiast fiie, the derelopment of tbio active or pri- 
mai; principle.— The Tatniit in;rBtic6 hare ascribed many wondroni stories 
to the same gem, and iti their vrilings the yeh miag chn ^ ^ ^|( or 
" night-shining pearl" id firtt beard of. Tbe powers of illaminatiiHi ascrib- 
ed to this jewel recall the notitns aacienlly entertained among Western 
nations with reference to tbe cafbuncle. 

'7'7.—0b\: Fan ^ f|. Prince of Wn, B.C. 560—548. 

T'S.— CnoFuTBZB:;^^^-^-. SeeChaHi. 

■78.-0™ Hi :^ ^. • 7c-^ a^-i # B|. t B| ^■ 

A.D. 1130. — 1200. Tbe most eminent among the later Chinese [^ito- 
sopheiB, and expoander of the doctrines fi)nued by the schoolmen of the 
Song dynasty (^(J iS^' ^"^ ™ Fii-kien, where his &ther (a native 
of Ngan-bwei), waa in officid employ, he disj^yed in early childhood 
iignB of a precocious intellect, and was able to take his second degree at 
the literary examinations before readiing his SOth year. Afler receiving 
an official appointment he devoted himself for some years to the stody of 
Baddhism and Taoism, bnt idiandoning after a time tlteee heterodox 
[^losopfaies, he threw himself with ardour into the woric of critidsm and 
e^MuUon of tite elhi(;al writings upon which the Confucian system is 
baaed, and which for nearly a century before bis time had been stndied in 
a new light by tbe famous schdais Chow Tmi-i, tbe brotliers Ch'dng, 
qq. V. and their discifJes. While bedding various povincial dfices he 
dOigently pursued lus metaphyseal speculations, and the renown of his 
audition and jadgement reaching the Emperor's ears, he was more than 
onee summoned to Court and coiiaalted as an adviaa in literary and 
political sffuiB. In 1180, be waa appointed Governor of Nan-K'ang (in 
modern Eiing-si), where, by ^iplying the t^fiician priacipks of paternal 


^Tovment and ngid adherence to the ndes «f noaal order be eonght to 
work amendment in the relaxed ootkUtion of the pabKo morak. While 
holdiDg office here he built for bimeelF a retreat at the Q j^ f[^ or 
White Deer GroUo in the billa near the Po-yang Lake, whither he waa 
aocuDtomed U> retire for intervals of meditation. With tlie aEeistaoee of bis 
piipib, many of whom were themselvea eminent scbolate, be recast the great 
faiiloiical work of SK-ma Ewang, and hie recoDstniction of theeo annala 
under the title ^^ ^g j^ § faas continued, with ita nnmerotu com- 
mentaries and addenda, to hdd its place as the standard History (d* China. 
His fame is, however, still more closely connected with the metaphysical 
^eoulatiMiB m which be eongbt to elucidate the doctriDcs of Confucius and 
MeDciiia with reference to the natore of man, the origin oi good and evil, 
and tlie principles of creation. He maintained the ortiiodox doctrine that 
the nature of man is by i\3 origin entirely good, and nought to explain the 
mystery lefl unsokcd by the ancient sages, viz^ the source and prevalence 
of evil. From this central point bis throries, aniplifying those of his im- 
meiUate predecessor^ extended to Uie widest Geld of metaphysical specula- 
tion, his views in resiiect of which have continued to the present day to be 
almost universally received, and have been stamped witli tlie approbation of 
successive dynasties. His commentaries on the classical writings have 
formed for centuries the lecognizeil standard of orthodoxy, but within the 
last hundred aixl fifty years critics have arisen who have vigorously 
impugned the doctrines of bis school— Gf, L. C, I., prolog., p. 25. Among 
the various literary [jseudonyms he adopted from time to time are the 
following: {^^ -.^ iM'M^\W ^M \-> a>iatis study 
he designated as ^ ^ ^. Was canonized aa'^^. Cf. W. N, 
p. C8 ; and Meadows' The Chitiese, chap. X8. 

SO. — C'hu Li K'&h ^ ^ ^. The pearl-booted retaincts — a 
title given to the nnmerons band of adherents who thronged the halls cif 
Ch'un Shan Kun q. v., from the practice which then prevailed of embroi- 
dering boots with pearls. 

8 1 . — Chd Show-ch'anq :^ ^ ^ , " J^ ^- An official temp. 
Sung dynasty, celebrated as a pattern of Glial piety. His mother having 
been divorced during his enriy youth and having disappeared, be ma<1e a 
vow that (m iMching manhood he wonld aearcli for Iter and devote himself 


to Berring her. Tlug be at length Roccecded in aooomplahiiig after a 
aep&talioB of more (han fifty years. 

as.— Cuo TiH ^ g,. • # ^. ^. B.C. «1. Celebrated as 
a atatcsmaa and patron of ruting talcot. 

1629-1797. A celebrated acboiar and commentator. 

S4.— Cod Tdan-cbamo ^jf^*^^- ^- ^^- ^398. 
The celebrated founder of the ITing dynasty. Bom of obsctiro parents In a 
liomble village, he vba left an orphan witboat means of support at the age 
of seventeen, and eotered the BiiddbiEt priealbood at a monastery called the 
^^ ^ ^- After spending some years in this retreat, be was attracted by 
secidar ambition, and joined the forces of the insurgent leader Kwoh Tsjer 
bing, who, in the midst of the troables then udiering in the downfall of tba 
Mongol usnrpeni, proclaimed himself in A.D. 13S3, Prin(» of Chu-yang 
in Northern An-hwd, ^^ \fg ^. The commanding ability displayed 
by the yoong adventurer ^edily raised bim front the poution of a simple 
soldier to that of leader of a vast host of jnsui^nts, witii whom, in 13o5, 
he crossed to the south bank of the Yang-tsze, and captured Nanking, 
whereapon he proclaimed himself Duke of Wu ^ ^ ^. On the 
death of his early patron he became recognised as the foremost claimant 
iat the throne of China, and attracted to his standard a numerous band 
of ardent warriors, with whose aid be overthrew the Mongol dynasty, and 
proclaimed himself Emperor in 1368, taking the title Hung Wu '^ ^. 

SG.— Cduh Lin Tb'i Hien 'W^-t ^. The Club of Ihe Seven 
Worthies of the Bamboo-grove, — an aasociatioo of convivial men of letten 
drc& A.D. 275, who were accustomed to meet for learned disconiona and 
jovial relaxation in a grove of bamboos. See the following: Hiang Sin, 
a K'ang, I^u Ling, Sban T'ao Yuan Hien, YUan Tsi, and Wang Jang. 

Se.— Chdh YiiN-MiNG Ift ^ IB- ■ # ^- A.D. 1460^1626. 
A scholar and poet ; renowned also as a calligrapber. Is one of the three 
Dot«d artnta of tbo Ming dynasty. See T'ang Yin and W^n Ch6ng-ming. 

8*7. — Chuh Yuno J5^ ^. A I^ndaiy being, reputed the fourth 
among the Sbc Ministers of Hwang Ti, B.C. 2607, who made him Hnler 
aS the Ronth ; and siibn-qitenllv metamorphoned into one of tbe control^ng 


spirits of the luuvose. Accotding to another renaoo, was a eon of tba 
emperor Chwan HU, aod called ^^. As a deity, be gwemi the eoalbwD 
regioni, b the god c^ Fire y^ J0^, nnd b repnsented wkh the bod; of 
an aoimal aod a iJnraaa face. Two dragons are his chargers. Ha is also 
called the Red God of the Soolhem Begions l^^^'^o'^'^ 
^ Lord of the South. Xnother appeHation given bim in the Tainst 
mythology is ^S? >^ ]^ "f ■ See Oh'tti Tsing Tiiie, and Chong-li. 

BS.— Chu-ko Liano ^ ^ ^, * ^ ^ A.D. 181— 
234, The great counsellor of Liu Pei q. v., who owe<l to the sagacitj 
and military skill of Chu-ko Liang bis success in establishing himself npoa 
the Throne. When sought out by liu Pel, whom his fame for wisdom 
had reached, he was found (AD. 207), inhal»tiiig a but (breeds, aiid was 
with difficulty peraiiaded to abandon bis hermit's life for a career in camps 
and courts. After serving Liu Fei until the tatter's death with unbroken 
fidelity, he conUuued to be the counsellor and generalissimo of the deceased 
sovereign's son and sucocssor. Beside conducting glorious campaigns 
against the rival dynasties of Wu and Wei, he led an army in A.D. 225, 
to the Willi and unexplored regions now forming the northern portiwi of 
Ttiu-nan, where he subdued a powcrfiil chieftain. Many legends are 
narrated of this campaign, in which the Chinese arms are reputed (« have 
been carried as far as the heart of BurmaL The celerity ^of Cbu-ko 
Liaug's movements and his careful provision for the wants of bis army 
gave rise to a story that by means of magic arts he employed in his service 
*'oxcn of wood and mechanical horses" ^ ^ ^ ,^, which some 
writera have sought to identify with the Kheelbarrowa used as means of 
transport. He invented a formation of troops which be denominated /V 
1$ iS ^^ ^^ tactics of eight linee of battle, which have been the subject 
of much disquisition. (Cf. T. K., '^ ^ i, ^ Pt, 12th year). 
While conducting a campaign agaiust the army of the rival Kingdom of 
Wei. be died of sickness in bb camp. See Sze-ma I. Having been 
cTBatsd 3E^ 1^ ^, be was poetbumoueJy can. as ^ ^. 

Se.— Chc-ko Km ^ :g J^. • -^ ^. Brother of the 
preoeding, bnt a supporter and general of the House of Wu, the rival and 
antagonist of Liu Pei. His son, Chn-ko k'io ^ !@ f^, also ran to 
bigb dis&cUon as a statesman and general „ 


eo._CHONa-u K'Hx« ^ S5^ n. • 5K 1:, t IB^ -f^ ™d 

^ M >fe ^- Tha firat aod greatest in the category of the A f|l| 
or Eight Immortals, — BBid to have lived temp. Chow dynasty, vrhen he 
attftioed to posacsBion uf the elixir of iinmortaltly. Many narvellons par- 
ticnlAra arc narrated respecting bis birLh and suheeqnent career, in the 
course of which he is said U> have enconntered Tung Hwa Eung, the pat- 
riarch of the Senii, who rerealed to him the mystic formula of longevity 
^^ g^ ^ ^( and tho secret of the powder of transmutation and of 
magic cxaft. He eventoally became admitted among the genii, and has 
appeared from time to time thereafter on earth as the messenger of Heaven. 
See LU Yen. 

QOa. — Chunq KVei ^ ^. An itnag^'nary being, believed 
to wield powers of exorcism over malignant demons, and frequently de- 
picted as an aged man, clad in ra^cd apparel and attended by a .bat (the 
iymbol of ^ or happiness). According to Chao Yih, the legend dates 
from tlie days of the Tang dynasty, when the above characters were 
Bubstiiuted for their bomouyms j^ ^^, the name of a leaf to which magic 
lirtnes of a like kind were attribated. This latter idea again ia traced to 
the Dame* borne by Yao Slian ^ Q^. a commander of the 5th century, 
who also bore the name Yao Clmng-kafei, with the ^ or appellation ^^ 
^^ (signifying exorcism). It is SDggetted that from the connection here 
implied the legend grew into shape. Cf. K. Y. k. So. 

91.— CmunoYeo-I^^. "^i^. B.C. 543— B.C. 480. Com- 
monly called Tsze~lii. One of the moel celebrated among the disciples of 
Confucius, who highly extolled bis wisdom; The devotion with which he 
embraced the latter's inBtructions, which first led bim to appreciate the 
advantages of learning, was miintenrnpled throughout a long career of 
of&cial duty, and ho was deeply beniounied by the sage when be fell in 
battle in an attempt to snpptess a rebellion. His martial tendencies are 
acconnted for by a legend which relates that his mother bore him after 
conceiving throngh the influence of the Sprit of Thunder. He is pre- 
etdoent among iJm examfJes of filial piety from the eflfectionate remem- 
brance of bis parent* wbkih he manifested In the midst of official faonoua. 
A saying of his is ncotded to the e^ct that ; " In the days when I was pocM' 
I caoiad ice upon my bac^ for the npport of thooa who gave me birth ; 


And now, for all that I would gladly do so again, I cannot i«call ibem lo 
life I "—For notices of Ta-ie-lu cf. L. C, L, proleg. [f . 87 and 116. 

0S. — Chwano Chow ^E ^^ commonly called the Pbiloaophet 
Cliwang I -f; or Chwang ShSiig | ^£- A native of tlie Stale of 
liang, circa B.C. 330. From early youth devoted himself to Biudy of tha 
doolrinca propounded by Lao Teze, Like the latter, although said to have 
hiild an official post, be refused all offers of advnucement, conteninmg tbe 
avocations of praclioal life as nnwortliy a philoeopher's attention. Al- 
though believed to have been cootemporary witli Mencius, the teachings of 
neither, although diametrically opposed to each other, appears tu have at- 
tracted the other's attention, and it is surmised that tmly In later ages did 
tbe mystic speculations of Cliwang Tsze obtain any couGiderable following. 
The latter'g preference fur retirement and the synical view of life, and of 
human nature avowed by him gave a marked direction to the early school 
of Taoist philosophers, and his writings ruee to high repute under the pat- 
ronage of T'anq Htian Tsung (Ming Hwang) during the eighti century. 
Various legendary anecdotes are preserved relating to his caustic wit and 
cynical disposition, which were prominently manifested In bis dying mo- 
ments, when he forbade bis relatives to weep for so slight a matter as tbe 
taking leave of life. He likewise forbade them to give his corpse Inter- 
ment, saying; I will have Heaven and Earth for my sarcophagus — the 
son and moon shall be the insignia where I lie in state, and all creation 
shall be the mourners of my fimeral." When his relatives remonstrated, 
saying that tbe birds of the air would tear his corpse he replied i " What 
matters itT Above there are the birds of the air, and below there arc tbe worms 
aodanta; if you rob tme to feed the other, what injustice is there donet" 

03.— Ch'ai Show-u ^ ^ ^. 10th century AD. Brother- / 
in-law of Chow Kwo-wei, founder of the Posterior Chow dynasty. The . 
latter, baving no children of his own, adopted Ch'ai Show-li's eon, who . 
eventaslly succeeded to tbe Throne A.D. 934, and is known in history ai;. i 
She Tsung. 

©4.— Ca'A»o-»oo $ft ^ Tbe My, wife of How Yi, q. -^4, 
who is fabled to have stolen from her husband tbe drug of inunortalil toi^ 
fli^ ?E -S Id" ^^^^ ^^ l**" P*«° '*' *>'" ^ ^' Wnng Mn, andlTT 


bftve taken to flight with (bo preciooB booly, with which she sought rcfnge 
in the moon. Hera slu became changed into Um ch'cm-ch'u ^ ^^ oi 
frog whose ontllne is tntced by the ChineEO on the tooon's siitfuce. Tliia 
legend is found in the worka ot Hwai Nan Tste and Chang HSng, q. r,, 
but the ingenuity of coinmeDtatora lias been expeiided iruitleesly in the 
attempt lo ezpUin its origin. See Notes and Queriet on C/a'iia and 
Japan, Vol III., p. 123. 

Q5. — Ca'ANG TsB J^ ^. A recluse who, with bis companion 
£ieh Ni, was at work in the fields 0^ ^\) when Confucius peescd by, 
and sent hia disciple Tsze-Iu to Inquire the whereabouts of a ford. Ch'ang 
TsU, recognizing the sage, morosely answered: "He knows the ford;" 
and his companion, on being questioned, replied only with an outburst 
upon the disordered state of the world, advising his qoesliooer to follow 
those who had withdrawn from all commerce with it ; and proceeded with 
bis work. The pair are looked upon as examples of simple pessimiBm. 
C£ L. C-, I, p. 197. 

©Q. — Ch'ao Fn ^ '^. A legendary being, reputed as having 
lived a hermit's life in the ^me of lite emperor Tao, B.C. 2357, making 
hia nest in a tree, whence the name (nest-father) attnbuted to him. Is 
said to have been the friend of US Yeo, q. v., and to have encouraged 
tlie latter to scrupulous purity of conduct hy his own example. "When 
HU Yeo informed him of the offer he had received from Yao of the 
government of the Empire, Ch'ao Pu " washed his ears and bis eyes " in 
Mder to cleanse himself from the taint of worldly ambitions which had 
invaded his senses. 

©*?•.— Ch'ao Ts-o-jftCorH,]^. D. B.C. 155. A coume!' 
lor of Han W^ Ti. Having been raised in B.C. 165 to the office of 
privy counsellor, he presented a memorial urging the soveicign to abolish 
the system of feudal dependencies which at [hat epoch threatened the 
staUlity of the Empire ; hut bis counsels were unheeded. After holding 
office for a number of years, during which time ho repeatedly urged tlie 
nme advico, be saw his predictions of disaster verified In B.C. 155 in the 
attempt at shaking off the Imperial nite which was made by a confederacy 
of seven of the great vassals, descendants of the fomider of the dynasty, 
who aimed at establishing their independence. The league was headed , 


by P'ei, Prince of Wii ^^ t§ nai Mow, Prince of Ts'n, ^ ^ 
JT^, the fonner of whom prdened, through bis agent Yii.-in Y&Dg, in a 
Becret interview with the emperor King Ti, that his only object in taking 
up arms was to seek revenge for a long-etanding grievance agiwnst Ch'ao 
Ts'o. Upon this the emperor basely couB^ited lo older his faithM 
coutiadlor to immediate execution. This concession, howerer, dirt not 
disarm the iosurgent princes, whose rebellion was only supprefised tbrongli 
the skill and valour of Chow Ya-fu, q. v. 

98. — Cii"b I J^l ^. Tlie name of a Wrd, by some believed to 
be identical wilh the owl. Also the name anciently applied to leathern 
wine flaaks. | | -f" ^ waa the pseudonym adopted by Fan Li, 
q. v., when he withdrew from public affairs. Some commentators ex- 
plain this na an allnaion to the wings of the hfii — others as a comparison 
to the wine-veasel, which, when empty, will float, as Fan li did when be 
embailced on the Plve Lakea. 

e©.— Ch'^n CmiNG ^ g. See Lci I. 

1 OO.— Cu'fiH Fan ^ H, • fft :^. d. A.D. 168. A sUte^ 
man of the Han dynasty, diEtingiiished by his integrity and devotion to 
duty. He was aasodated wilh Tow Wn q. v. in the attempt to extirpate 
ttie cabal of eunauhs by whom tlio afiaira of State were controlled in the 
reign of Hwan Ti, but fell a victim, with his colleagno, to the counterplot 
organizeil by the cnnucliB iJiemsdves, and was put to death with Tow Wn, 

lOl.— CH'fiNHfiNO ^ jM- An officer of the Duke of Ta'i, 
whom he assassinated, S.C. 479. Confucius, hearing of this act ot 
regicide, was deeply moved by it, and mgftd hb own sovereign, the Duke 
of Lu, to take up anas to avenge the crime. Cf. L.C., I., p. 148. Before 
the interview in which the sage preferred, though fruilleaaly, this solemn 
leqnest, he "bathed himself" aa though before proceeding to a aacrifioe. 
The incident is celebrated aa ty^ying both the ceremonial condnct of 
Confucius and bis horror of regicide. 

lOS.—Cii'fiN Fwo ^^. • ^■^. D. B.C. 178. Aceiebrair 
ed adherent and afterwards tninister of the fonndcr of the Han dynasty. 
Occupying in early life a station at the homblest sort, be raised himself I7 
devotioa to atndy and his superior talent to the leodenbip in hia native 


vllUge, whwe » man of wealth roluotarily bestowed bis daughter upon 
him in mnrriage. fbe duty falling upon him ofdividiug among his fellow 
vilkgers the llesh of ihe aoimals slaughtered (^), he performed Qih Ijisk 
with snch imparUal justice as to evoke the wish on their part that 
foe might rise to be the chief minister (^) of the Empire. Afier a pctioi 
of service andti Hlaug Yii q. v., lie cEjiousod the caaso of Liu Pang In 
B.C. 203, and by his wise coimsels iDateiiaily nideO llie latter in achieving 
his triumphs. On six great occaaiuns in particular he came forward with 
a maeter-atioke of policy (-^ pq "^ uT^- ^"^^ ®^ *^^^ *'"* *"> ^"^ 
occaidoii of the treason of Hati Sin q. v. Is oue of the Three Heroes (— - 
^). Was created t^ ^ ^ 

103.— Cii'fis Shiow 1$ ^. • ^ S^- A.D. 233.— 297.- 
Author of Ihe standard History of ibe Thre*^ Kingdoms (~ ^)- Wbs 
a subject of the dynasty of Shuh (recognised as tbe legitimate successor to 
tbe House of Han — see Liu Fei), but, under the influeDce of disappoint- 
mmt in his hopes of promotion umler its auspices, he sought in his worlc 
to aulbenticsite tbe claim of the House of Wei — see Ts'ao Ts'ao — to 
the rightful succeesiun ; and hence is considered as having betrayetl Iiis 
duty as a historian. 

104— Oh'bs Shuh-pao ^M:fi- ^- ^•^' "iO]. T!w last 
ruler of the dynasty of Oh'Sn, benco commonly known as How Cbu ^ 
^_ ; an infamous debauchee. He succeeded to the throne in A.D. 563, 
when be commenced a career of Ilceiilious extravagance wbicb was speedily 
terminated by tbe overthrow of his guwer. See Chang Ll-hwa. In A.D. 
589 the foroes of Yang K'len, (fonuder of the Sui dynasty), commanded by 
Han K'in-lra ^p ^| ^^ crossed the Yang-tsie and captured Kien K'ang 
(Nanking), the seat of gireeminent of tbe sovereigns of Ch'Sn. \^TiRn llie 
victoriooa invaders burst into the palace at the Chu-ts'Io gate 7^ ^ f^, 
the wretched poltroon, disregarding tbe rcmonstraaces of his reuiaining 
oourtietB, caused himself, with his favourite concubines, to be lowered intit 
a well, whence tliey wera atterwanls dragged up by one of tlie victors. 
His life being spared by the ci>nqneror In ijtter contempt, bo retired to a 
private atatjon and spent his remaining d.tys in drunken debaucliery. 

X04a.~Ca'fiNTw'AN ^ ^, ' H M t # M- i>- 
circa A.D. 990- A celebrated Ta-.iM iibllusophcr ;in1 rcltise, «hodvioted 


hiouelf to the study of the arti of BublimaUon and ilic occult philoeophy 
of the Yih King. He is recogaiied "by Gha Hi as'h&ving founded the 
raodera school of int^jprt'talion of the Byst^m of the diagrami. Having 
been enmnioDed U) Court by T'u Teung, the second emperor of the Sung 
dynasty, for tlw pnrposc of inatructing the emperor in the mysteries of this 
study, the sovereign himself bestowed upon him the ap^iellnlioD (hao) given 
above, by which he b chieily knotvn, la allusion (o a mystic pasage in ibe 
vrork of Lao Tsze. 

106_Ch'£n YEo-LiANG^;^|i|f, D. A.D. 1S63, Famous 
among the insurgent chieftains who struggled with Chu YQan-chang <{- v., 
for the mastery of the Empire on the downfall of the Yiian dynasty. 
Proclaimed himself Prince i^ Han 'g^ ^, but was vanquished and slain 
by Chu Yiian-chang in a decisive battle ou the Po-yang Lake. 

iOe.— Cues YOAs-u:Na ^ 7G JH* ^ [^' A.D. 1652— 
1736- A fuDclionnry and well-known author. 

107— Cir^NG Hao ® f^. • -fg i^ t ^ ^ AD 1032— 
10S5. A cclebrntcd scholar and commentator. One of moat famous of 
the schoolmen (^ ^) of the Sung dynasty. As an esiMMtor of th« 
laws of morality ia declared second only to Monciiis. Was one of Uie most 
prominent opponents of the policy advocated by Wang Ngan-die. Can. am 

I08.-Cn'eso I ig 65, • jE *t. t ^ ill- A.D. 10S3— 

II07. Younger brother of the preceding, whose Hlcrary fame he eqaalled 
if not Burpat>8ed. His crilicisnis on tho classics opened a now era iu Chinese 
jihiloaopby, and were reverently adopted by his great snccessoT Chu Hi. 
^Vholly absorbed in philosophic researches, he relucUnlJy acceded bte in 
lift! In an official post. Can. as jE ^. 

1 09.— CH'tNG Lc P'AN if: S ^- The Dew-receiving Vase 
— said to have beeii upheld by a statue of bronze erected in liie palace tit 
Has Wu Ti, BC. 115. The Emperor, in his ardent pursuit of the mystic 
studies of Taoists, was 1«1 16 hope that by dritjking the dew he might ba 
assisted to attain tho elate of immortality. 

109a.— Cn'ten Ki-azt J^ ^ ,©. — Tho Chincw ren- 
dfiiiig of [he title Genghis (or Jingliisl, lUc famous Khan ^ of tli« 


tiaogfAit, b; wliom tha oonqiiest of Chins wu commenced. He nu tbe 
too of Yesuku -t^ j£ ^. (snmamea E'i-wo-«eD ^ |^ ^, a 
Mongol chieftaiii. Bom AD. 1162, the fbtnra conqoerof received tbo 
appeUatlon fggj^ ^ ^^ Temudjin, by wbich he vol known anLil htiiled 
bj hia vasuls aa Oenghig, tbo Greatest of tbe Great, after conqnesU 
which hiid tbe fbimdations of tbe Mongol power. This event is referred to 
A-D. 1206, liDin wLich pc-riod bia reign orer Chinese lenitor^ ii da(<<d. 
He died AD. 1^7, and was nicceeded 1^ bis bwi Ogdai, — see Ka SOT. 

1 1 0.— Cii'fiKo HiAO g ^. * 7C^ 2iid centnry B.C. 
Sftid tu Lave been an offlcial under Ts'in She Uwang-U, and having been 
cost into prison for some oHenoe, to Lave occupied bia tyne during a oon- 
flacmeot of ten jeais in inventing a new form of writing. Ho modified 
tbe " lesser seal character " /J^ ^ into a simpler form which he called 
the ^^ ^' or ofiluial haod. Hia invention tieing laid before the Emperor 
led (o his being pardoned and raised to high office. 

XXI. — Ch'iu IIei ^ ^, A designation adoptnl by the 
brigand-cbief Fan Ts'ang ^ ^^ when ravaging northwestern China 
oirc& AD. 30. It is said that the leader, with Lis whole army, adopted 
the {uuotice of dying the eyebrows blood-colonr, in order to bcreaae tbe 
tenat their appearance inspired, and hence the above title. Aflcr setting 
up a temporary claim to tbe nv^iguly, Fan Ts'ung submitted to Kwang 

1 XS. — Ou'iu Pi ^^ ^. Tbe ancient name of a locality on 
tbe Tang-tne Eiang, eastward of tbe modem Hankow, at which a cele- 
brated battle waa foaght AD. 208, between the combined forcu of Liu 
Pei and Tnn E'iilan and tlw army of Ts'ao Ta'ao, when the latter was 
deflBated with great kes, 

X X3. — Ch'ih Suno Tsae ^"^ -f"- According to the ^ 
'^1| fl^ this was the deaignation of a rain-priest In the time of ShSn 
Kong. He insfmcted the empenv in d!vets magic aria, and eventually 
Asappeated to join SI Wang Mn in her grottoes among the peaks of 
KVAq Lnn. Hither he waa followed by a daugliteT of the emperor, who 
ms adnutted through his aid into the ranks of the genii. See also Hwang 

'^''■''■"S- „ _,ooglc 


1 14— CiriH T'd Ma ^ _^ %. The " red Lsre charger," 
» Bleed renowned for ila awiflness, said to have been poaessed by Ltt 
Pu, q. V. 

1 lO. — Ch'ih Yeo ^J "/Q. a legendary being, reputed aa a 
piince contemporary wilh Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697, and by some aci'ouDla 
represented as one of the Uttei's Ministen. All traditions unite in Uie 
statement tbai he was tbe fiiBt great Tube), and tbat having soogbt to 
overthrow the power of Hwang Ti he was defeated by the latter in battJe 
at Cbo-luh ^ j^ ; but while <ne version lepreaents him as havbg been 
■lain in this figbl, other legends represent him as having yielded submission 
' and entered the service c^ the great emperor. According to the ]|g ^ 
I/rT fin* ^^ ancient collection of l^nds, be was the bead of a confederacy 
of 81 hrothera, who had the bodies of lieasts, but human speech, with fore- 
heads of troo, and who fed on the dust of the earth. They fabricated wea- 
pons <^ war and c^resaed tbe people, until Hwang Ti aroee to chastise 
and Bnbdiie them. When the day of battle came Cb'ih Yeo called mmn 
F€ng Peh—the Chief of the Wiiid— and YU She— the IVIaster of Bain, 
qq. V. to aid him, and a mi^ty tempest arose ; bnt Hwang Ti sent one 
of his attendants, the daughter of Heaven (^ "^0 to qiieU the storm, 
and he then seized and slew the rebel. Cf S. K. ^ '^ 4C ^- Ch''l> 
Teo is reputed as the inventor of warlike weapons and of tJie art of astro- 
It^. His spirit is believed to reside in the jJanet ^ ^^ (Mars), which 
bfluenoes the conduct of warfare ; and he is also said to have been the 
embodiment on earth of Uie planet itself. According to a passage in 
the Book of History, the "teachings of ancient limes" repre8eDl«d Ch'ih 
Teo as " the fiid to produce disorder." Of. L.C., III, p. 590. 

1 IS— Cn'o Kid Cbe Kuo ij^ ^ '^ ^. An alloaon to 
the frieDdship which was cemented between Wu Yeo q. v. and the poor 
■liiolar )^ 7^, vfao, being without means to pnreua his studies, took 
service in menial disguise in Wu Yeo's househutd, and ponnded rice ibr 
humble wages. His learmi^ was, however, betrayed by an accidmtttl 
renoontre, and Wu Yeo adopted him theocefbrvard as bis iiiend, liking 
iiim&inn tbe "peatleand mortar" —cKukiu. 

1 IT".— Ch'h Sui-uahq If ^ K- • ^ W- ■*'^- *^^— 


658. A faitdiM miniBtur diiriug iiMny yean of the ivigii of T'asci Tai 
Tsnngt ^boi <>■> ^'^ duaiii bed lell Lira, conjobitly nilh Cbang-san Wa-hi, 
&s gaardtfln of the heir to the Throae. Fell into diagracA nith Kao 
TsQDg, A.D. 655, owiog to his Tomonstrancea against the elovation of the 
lady Wu (see Wn How) to the rank nf Empress. Ahhoagh niLhstaad' 
ing the deroand urged by his enraged faTouiile that the bold conDsellor 
ahonM be hnrried to instant death, the Knpemr d^raded and baniriied 
him to a provincial office, in which he ahonly aflerwaida died. 

lis.— CH'uYa4.N|f ^. ■ ^ 0. AD. 435— 482. A 
prominenl Eopportei of the Northern Sung dynasty, wbo, nererlbeleGB, past- 
ed without besitaLion into the serrico of the sutceesful intriguer by whom 
the dynasty of Ts'l was founded upon the niins of the fonner. Was load- 
ed with honours and ODDobled as ^ ^ ■^ ; but his eldest son, more 
steadfast to lus allegiance than bis father had been, declined to accept the 
inberituice of (ha dignity and the eotatea which acoompaoied it 

1 10. — Cu*vi ^. One of the Ministera of Shan, who appoinled 
him to the office of ^ I or Minister of Wwka. Cf. L. C, III., 
p. 45. 

1 SO.— Ca'ra-Yii I f|t ■^ j^- S. B.C. 205. An, official 
temp. Han WSn Ti, having charge of the public granaries in Ts'i, and 
hence entitled ^J[^ ^ 4c- Sze-ma Ts'ien relates that he devoted 
himself to study of the art of medidne, in which he altaioed to wondrous 
skill, bnt having drann upon himself itsentmeiit by refusing his serricee to 
nek peisons he was denounced to the throne as a defaulter and was 
Kulenoed by the emperor to undergo the peniJty of matilatlon j^ ^. 
EVom ibis fabj be was rescued by the courage ot his daughter T'i Ying 
q. T. Cf. 8.K, k. 105. 

12 1 . — Cn'ma-Li £ ^. A being identified with the Qod of 
Fire. The deagnatjon is traceable to the ^ g^, where (jqg ^ |§t) 
the following account is given : ' The emperor Gbwan Hli, grandson of 
Hwang Ti, begot Ch'Sng ^, who begot K'iian Chang ^ ^, who 
begot Ch'uDg Li. Ch'ung Li served Ti Kiih as dbrectw at the element 
Fire (^ J£). He was greatly effloaoions, and was able brightly to 
Olnnilno ail beneath Heaven, and Ti Kah gave htm the name Chnh Tnng 

38 CtiiyKSt: HKAO/CKS MANUAL. Pi. I. 

WL m^ (^'bicli the comineiitAUm cxplftiii aa Bignifjing Great Br'iglitnen), 
■ee No. 87. VVLen Knng Kimg created duonlere, Ti Kuli comnumded 
Gb'ung Li to put bim to deatb, but he did not complete the vork. TIkt^ 
fora Ti Knb on tbe ^ ^ day put Lim to death and made his brolhor 
^ [P] hia successor, placing him aba in tbe poet of director of Fin vilh 
the Ulle Gbuh Yang. Wu Kvrei b^ot ^ j^, and Luh Chung begot 
six SODS, who were bronglit to birth by bciog cut from their mother's 
womb." — On Ihe forgoing panage Sxe-ma Ch^og comments to the 
effect that Ch'ung and \k were in reality two persona, who were entrusted 
with the vic^rencc of Heaven and Earth (^ ^ 3^ i^). Ch'ung tbe director of the element Wood, and Lt of the element Fire. See 
Chiih Yung. Cf. L. C, III., p. 503. 

122. — Oo.vpuciua. See K'ang K'iu. 

123.— FaHien j^^ Tbe monastic title of a Buddhist priest, 
originally sumamed Eung ^, who left Chia» for India B.C. S99, and 
Bfli.T an absence of fifteen yean at length ivtiimed to his country, bringing 
with him copies of the socrod writings of the Buddhists. He wrote an 
acco:mt of his travels, ander the title Fuh Kuvh A'l -^ ^ gg, tntula- 
iMm of which have been made by A. Hemusat and Bev. S. Beal. 

1 24.— Fan Chuno-ven ^ # ^ ' # 3t- A.D. 989- 
105*2. Celebrated as a scholar and statesman. From a condition of tbe 
humblest pov-erty he raised himself as a youth, by hia talent aod application, 
until be attained the highest ofBces of State. He conducted several cam- 
paigoi ag^nst the itiTading Tartars of tbe Kin dynasty. A noted opponent 
of tile doctriues of Buddhism. Can. as 5t W' 

1 2&.— Fan Ki ^ j^. The consort of Chwang Wang of 
Ts'u y^ ^E £< renowned for the reproof she administered to her lord. 
He was ardently devoted to hunljag, for which he abaudoned the cares of 
State ; and finding that be tamed a deaf ear to her remomtrances, hjs 
consort abstdned during two entire years from all animal food, unUl the 
prince, touched by her determination, abandoned bis devotion to the chaM. 

1 20. — Fan Ew'ai ^ P^. In early life a dog-butoher, wht 
became one of tbe adbermts and eubeequently a Hinitter of Han~ Eao Tsa, 
whose relative he became by maTri^;o. It is recorded in history that n 

■Pt. I. CaiSESE REAOfKS iUyUAL. sn 

B.C. 196, vrlieu Uie emperor in liia oIJ A£e began to give way to telf- 
indalgence and shut himself up for many days in Uia private apartments, 
forbidding all accen from without. Fan Kw'ai ot length forced bis way 
into the Imperial cbamber, and Ending lua sovereign reclining tbore with 
his head {ullowed upon a ennucb's body, Qpbniided bim fearlessly and 
indaced him to come forth. Was created ^^ ^^ ^^. Having be«n 
placed at the bend of the army tu suppress a rebellion BhorLly before llie 
BImperor'B death in B.C. 195, suspidons of bis fidelity arose, and the 
etuperor in his last moments commanded tlie crafty minister Cli'en P'ingto 
recaQ him and put bim to death. Tbe Miiibter, bowcTer, (x-udently be- 
thinking bimaelf of Fan Kw'ai's relatknuliip to the Empress, disobeyi-d 
tluB order, and merdy iBmovtjd tbe geaeral from hie command. His wis- 
dom was attested by the act of tbe Empress, nlio pardoned and rciustalcd 
Fan Kw'oi immediately allcr her consort's decease. 

IS?.— FanLi ^ {(§. " ^i^ Minister of Kow Tsicn, 
Princa of ^'^iieh q. v., wliom bo aided toward the overthrow of the rival 
kingdom of Wu, tbe final victory over wbicli, after 50 years' warfare, noi 
Acbwved 1! C. 473. ^Vhen Fan Li lind witnessed the complete success uf 
lib master, lie determined U])od withdrawing from nil hJs dignities and 
emoluments, saying that bia Prlncj was oik: with whom truublcs migbt be . 
i&itvd but not victory enjoyed m fellowship. Des^'te the entreaties of 
Kow Tsicn, he left tbe oonrt of Ttleh B.C. 472, carrying with liim his 
portaUc treasures, and embarked for the state of Ts'i ^, where he took 
np bia abode under tbe fanciful pseudonym ^| ^ -^ ^ (See Ch'e I). 
Occnpying himseir with hie son in commerce, be speedily amassed great 
riches, and the nih'r of Ts'i made him bis miniBter. Fan Li, bowerer, 
refused to tempt Fortune too long, and after a brief period of magnifi- 
cence be reiiJgned the seal of office, distributed all his wealth among his 
friends, and ag:un embarked as a wanderer across tlte Five Lakes of 
central China. Arriving at tbe district of Tao |$i^ (the modem Ting-T'oo 
Rien, In the S.W. angle of Shantung), be chose it as a favonrabk< place 
of R^dt-Dce, owing to its central position, and here, assuming the designa- 
tion of Tao-chu Eung ^ -^ ^, he again applied himself lo .the 
pursuits of agTiculture and commerce, in which be once more amassed 
riches to a faljulons csli-nt. IIi;ni:c, the name be last assumed, as also ll!<[,|,. 

to Cm^iEUE READERS MAXL'A/.. Pi. I. 

pUrase £ }j^ ^ J^ — "tlie fuoleteps of Lini mLo mys*^ ibe Bre 
Lakes" — is synonjinoaa with wealth and good fortune. Among the 
ineanB by wbiub be amassed hia ricbcs the reariug of fish in ponds is liaiJ 
to have liad a place. 

1 S8.— Fan Su ^ ^. A concubine of the poet Feh KU-i. 
Of herself and ber companion Siao Man he writes : Cherrius — Ibe lips 
of Fan Sii ; willow — the waiat of Siao Man ! " 

IS©.— Fan Sn ^fl^. • :;^. One of the adventnrous 
politicians of the closing periud of the Clioiv dynasty. It is relaUrd of bini 
that in early life he served under Stt Kia ^ ^, Minister of his nativu 
State (^), but having been Bent on a miasion to the State of Ts'i he 
accepted raloable presents from its niler. Tliis coming to the knowledge 
of Sii Kia on hi? retam, the htlter caused him to be aeveiely beaten and 
left for dead. Fun Sui, however, secretly escajjcd and entered the service 
of the Trincc of Ts'in ^^ in B.C. 270, having ingratiated himself with 
the latter by a pretended revelation of treacliery on the part of the Prince's 
JEuistcr, the Lord of Jang, f J ■^. Having been at first invested T\ilh 
the title ^> ^1 — "guest, or alien, minister," he wna raised, B.C. 267, to 
the dignity of chief minister of State, and in this capacity directed tho 
fortunes of Ts'in in ite riiing career of conquest. 

1 30._F« T.»-,0 ?S 11 S, • ^ ^, t is R. A.D. 
1041 — 1008. A noted scholar and public functionary. Aided in the 
compilalbn of Sze-ma Hwang's History. lYom a dream hie mother Lad 
before his birth he was also called ^' ^ — the " dream-given." 

1 SI. —Fan Yeu ?E ^, " ^ ^. n. 5lh century, A.D. 
Authjr of the History of the After Han dj-nasty, (A.D. 25—220). 

1 32.— Fasg CuANCi ~)j 5t- 0"s cf '■lie Three Isles of lira 
Genii. See FSng Lai. 

ISS.-Fano HiJAN-u-va ^ il ^. ' ^ ^^. A,D. 578- 
648. For many years one of the chief Ministers of T'ang T'ai Tsung, and 
eminent as a scholar and historian. Can. as ^ ^3- 

1 34. — FliNG J^. A fabubuB bird, of wondrous form and mynlio 
nature, the second among the four supernatural creatures ([(^ ^). Very 
early Icgenils iiarrafwl llial this bird niide its api)caraDcc as a presage^ of 


the adToit {^ iriitaons rnloe, whose presenoe it also gnced u an emUem 
<^ thdr aoHpidons govemment One writet daoribeo it sb having the bead 
tS a pheasant, the beak of a swallow, the neck of a tortuse^ and the out- 
ward nmhlBDCB of a dragon ; to which another venicm adds the tail (^ 
& flah ; bat >d [aatorial n^oceraitations it ii naiiall^ deKneatod as a com- 
poond between the peacock and the pheasant, with the addition cS many 
gorgeooB colonis. It sate in the conrt of Hwang Ti, wfaik that SOTerdgn 
obaetved the oeremonial &bU ; and, accradiDg to the Shu King, it came with 
measnred gamboIIingB to add splendour to Hie miBDcal peifOTmances oon- 
docted by the great Shnn. (Cf. L.C^ III, p. 88). The female ii called 
jg[^ huxmff, and (his name, comlnned with that of the male, forms the 
compound FSng-fmxmg, which is nsnally employed as the geoenc designa- 
tion for the wondrons bird. It is translated phoanix " by many writem. 
Anumg the marvels related respecting this creatnre, it is said (liat each of 
the five radooiB which embellish the JSnff'/neang's ptamage is typical of one 
<tf the car^nal lirtnes ; and a nune is given Xo eaah of the many intona- 
tions ascribed to its voice. {Cf. 8. L.). i&i poetry, many covert alltuionB 
to saxnal painng are inlhnat«d by reference to the' inseparaUe fetlowEhip 
of tha/Snff and the huamg. 

1 36.— F£va How ^ J^.- The fifUi among the Six mimsten 
of Hwug Ti, B.O. 2697- His special fimctions are variondy described 
b; the I^iends, but he is nsnally represented an having knowledge of the 
system of Heaven vf^ yz ^i which is interpreted as ugnlfymg that he 
was versed m astronomy. Tt je related that Hwang Ti dreamt he saw a 
mighty wind (JB^) driving beibre it the dust of the 6arth f^), where- 
upon he consulted oracles, and thereby obtained the eerrices of an assislant 
snpematnrally voachsafed to him, to whom he gave the name FSng How 
in ccxomemoration of his dream. Feng How is sud to have asdsled tus 
master in labdning the rebellion of Ch'ih Yeo ; and a cabalistic treatise on 
the art of war is attributed to his pen. 

3.8S._rfiNol!;||;^*.^.^. i). A.D.S4. A famous com- 
mander under Hah Ewang Wn, and renowned &r modesty and dislike t^ 
oslentaUtxi. He quelled the insarrection of the Ch'ih Md brigands. From 
bis habit c^ raring to sit beneath a tree for the purpoae of solitary self-corn. 

^ he was called by his soldiers "i^^^l^j^.- Ennobled as £|^^. 


and gacoenfiilly unnged t«nin of peace b? which the Chinew wen 
allowed to reUin the coveted Prariocn on pajmeut of an increaaed uib- 
ridy. In subKqnent yean ho repeatedly hdd high offioee, hot ha at length 
retired &om public life in ditgnst with the politdcftl iunorationfl of Wang 

144,— Fo Sd ^ jl^ ITie eldest son of Ta'in She Hwang-^ 
to whom he addressed a remonstrance (« the destmction of the Iit«iiU. 
For this ofience his father bamahed him, B.C. 211, to the anny serring 
agamst (he ffinng-nn under the command of MSog Tien, where he was 
murdered in the fdlowing year by command of the minieter li Bee, in 
(xdw that bii yonnger and weak-minded brother might be pat apdk'^tfae 
thmne. Thos, say tbe historians, the downfall of She Hwang-tTs line, 
whicb was to endure for ten thousand agee, bat wliioh actoally came to an 
end with Hu Hai, tbe younger brntber rf Pa Sn, may be traced (o a 
£iect connection with the crime committed in destroying the literati. 

1 46.— Fu Tin f5 ^. 7th century A.D. An imperial hisloric^- 
rapher under T'anq Eao Tan, and one of the most determined adversaries 
of the doctrines of Buddhlim. He presented a memorial to the Einperor, 
«i(rcating that the leligitHi be |daced under ban, dedtlpnebig especul^ its 
tenets of celibacy and withdrawal from worldly dntiee and snbjection to 
the aathority d* princes. He held a diiputalion on tbe sukject with^iao 
E'U ^ {f|, a defender of Bnddhiem, whom be vanquished by asking 
him bow it ooald be that he who was not (like I Tin q.v.) bora from 
a hdlow molberry," could act as a cliampioa to a religion which commands 
zenunuiation of par^tage. His views [vevailed with tbe emperor to tbe 
extant of causing a reetriotion in the number of 'petsons alloweB to' entw 
the Bnddhist priesthood. 

14S.— Fdh-hi f^ j^. The legendary founder of the Chinese 
polity, as saccessor to tbe divine beings who are reputed to have reigned 
during conntlesa ages before human society was at length constitated. The 
period usually assigned to Fuh-hi is that from B.C. 2852 to 27Sa His 
name (j|^) is sud to have been Feng ]^ (tbe wind), but be was also called 
dbC W^- ^^'^ i^ interpreted as meaning the Gtreat Heavenly One, and 
he B reputed as having been the ofl^>ring of a miraculous otnoeplion on 
tbe put of his toodier, wbo became {segnant by tbe in^iration of Heaven. 


Km bora him at Ck'So; Ei J^ §g, in tbe region of Hn-a Su ^ ^, 
(pUoed bj tbe oommeDtatcxB Tteftr the modem Si-Dgan Fu). Tlw period 
of gestation he naderwent endued for twelve yean. He established hia 
•OTweigntj at Ch'Sn ^ (the modem K'ai-f3ag Fu), and ingtracted tbe 
people in the arts of hnnUng, fishing, and paatarage. Before his lime tlie 
people were like unto beasts, clothing themselves in skins, and feeding on 
raw flesh, knowing thnr raotben but not Ibe fathers, and pairing withont 
decency. To further Ing efforts, tt was so ordered hj Heaven that a super- 
natural being oalled the dragon-botse, rose from the watere of the Ho (Yel- 
low River) at Fnb-hrs feet, and presented to hia gaie a scroli upon its back 
ioacribed wiA mystic diagrams. From these, and from the movements 
of tbe beav^y bodies be decif her^d the system of written characters, wiib 
which he superseded the method of keeping records by means of knotted 
«»^fP^^Jit'f^i^iSli-(See L,mg). Having formed the sU 
classes of written obaractere (^ ^^t ^^ invented tie system ef horaiy and 
cyclical notatltm (^ ^^)i ^°^ regulated tbe seasons. He established 
the laws of marriage, and oonstmcted the musicnl instrnmenta called the 
lim and n ^^ |^. He gave tbe title " dragon" h> his officials, in 
commemoration of the dragiw which bore tbe mystic writing to hia feet, 
and dying bequeathed his govemmeat to his successor Sh@n Nung. 
He is known, also, as Pao Hi J^ f|{ ^, which name is interpeted as 
"tlie slaughterer of beasts," and ia explained with reference to his serrices 
to manKnd in teaching them to cook the fleah of leasts for food. (Cf T.K., 
Wai Ki). 

l'<4'7.— Fim SHfiNQ -f^^or | ^ An aged man to whom 
is attributed tbe preservation of the text of the Shu King during the dL»- 
t4>pearance of the ancient records, which was caused by the ' burning of 
the books" at the command of Ts'in She Hwang-ti in B.C. 211. Fiih 
Shfing having preserved in bis memory the text of the Shu Eing, was 
discovered in the reign of Han W€n Ti, at the age of upwards of 90 
yean, and repeated it lo the officer who was sent to take down from bis 
mooth the words of the lost classic. (Cf. UC, III. proleg., p. 16). 

i4S._m,j„:»* •tJrff. tW*. aA.D. 

1587. A native of K'iuig-duui in the Island of Hainan, celebrated as a 
Bcbolar and atatesmaii. iCa learning was equalled by Iris rnifliDching , 


Han r'Sng of hk nife, 9, fittDooB beantf, uid cast him into {vison, friiae 
be committed snicide. Tbe widowed victim, on being invited by tbe 
tyrant to walk wilb bim rm tbe summit of & bigb tower, pupcsely diessed 
herself in fragile apparel, »nd radd^y cut benelf dawn firan the bdgbL 
Tbe Prince endeavoured to save her 1^ gnuping her robe, bnt it gkve 
way in his hands, and hei puipoea was fulfilled. When her lifdeas body 
was raiBcl from the groqnd, a letter was found in her girdle ezproKing 
tbe prayer that one grave might receive ber remains and thoae oi the 
hnsband she loved. Tbe enragied tyrant nevertheleeB caoaed the bodies to 
be mterred at a distance from each other ; bnt to tbe anasement cf all, the 
two coffins sprouted into growth, the vanlla became nnited in one, and 
over the branches of tbe tree which grew np frtKn tlie tocnb then hovered 
perpeLaally two birde like tbe Yuan-jang q.v., noging a £^ in bannnu- 
ons choruH. (^ ^ |£>. 

1 S-aa.— Han SnE<;inraG 5$ ift ^ 'HE- »• A.D. 
1151. A celebrated soldier and statesman, holding high office in the 
reigns Suno K'in Tsung and Eao Tsung. He coSperated with Y(^ Fei 
in the tatter's campaigns, and vainly endeavoored to avert from bim tbe 
fate to wbidi he was doomed by the unscmpulous action of Ts'in Ewd. 
Having been removed from office owing to his remonstxancee with the 
lalter, be ended hs days in reliremcnt. Can. as ^ ;p^. 

100.— Ham SuNr, Tsze ^ ^ "5^. One of the Ei^t Im- 
mortals of Taoist faUo. According to the legends, he was a grand- 
nephew of Han Tii, q. v., and an ardent votary of tianacendeotal Etndy. 
Lii Tung-pin, himself one of the immortals, a(^>eared to bim in tbe body, 
and made him his pupil. Having been carried up to tbe sapenuttniil 
peach'trc« of tbe genii (see T'ao 7^Q he fell from ita branches, and, in 
descending, entored upon the state of immortality. 

IBS.— Han Sin ^■^. iJ. B.C. 196. Orandaon of the prinee 
of Han, whose territory was conquered by the founder of tbe TsTb 
dynasty, and, b his yonth, reduced to such a state of poverty that he ? 
compelled to obtain sustenance by angUng for fish in the moat (f tuB si 
oestral stTongbiJd. His distraai so moved tbe pity of a poor fcoman wno 
■lecpod her flax hard b^, that she charitably ministered to bii suppon 


Was eariy filled witb ambitioaa desires, tsA took tip arms while bUO 
a TOQth in the s^rioe of Hiaog Tsi ; hat kxhi eeponsed the cause of Liu 
Fang, the founder of the Han dynasty, nhoeQ armies he shortly conunaod' 
ed, salgiisating one jmncipality after another in rapid suceeeaon. Was 
created Prince of Te'i T^ ^^ in B.C. ^&, having conquered this impor- 
tant territory, and, after further victories in die foUa^g year, nas created 
Prince of Ts'n J^ ^, the region comprising his ancestral domain. Here 
he sought out his eaijy benefactress, and recompensed her with 1000 [neces 
i£ gold. He also enqnbied for and attached to his service (me who as a 
yontb had challenged him, as an eshilution of trae courage, to creep be- 
tween his legs in the puUic marketplace. Scarcely seated in his new 
govemmeot, be waa secretly denounced to the newly established Emperor 
as barbonring tn^torons dedgns, and Kao Tsn determmed to seise apon his 
person ; but by the advice of the crafty Ch'Sn F'ing stratagem was etn~ 
ployed itft this purpose. The Emperor gave out an intention of yisitiog 
in stata the Lake of 7&n-m6ng, and assembled under tlus pretext a vast 
onioonrse of lus vasaels, who were iben set in motion against Han Sin. 
This expediUtm is termed in history, tbs feigned vidt (o Tfin-m&ig f^ 
^K ^? ^^- ^^"^ ^^ expecting to be condemned to death, is related 
to have mtxalized on bta fata in the following pithy saying : " When the 
canning hare is caught, the fleet hound goes into the cooking pot ; when 
tbe soaring Hrd is shot, the trusty how is liud afdde \ when the foe is 
TMiqiusbed, tbe wise counsellor is forgotten. The Empire ii now eetab- 
lishedg-^t is right that I should go into the the cooking pot." He was, 
however, amnestied, and remitted to the government of T'si Yiian, with 
tbe title Jf^ ^ '^ ; but was shortly afterwards again accused of treason 
and was seized and eiracnted by older of the Empress Ltl. Is one of 
the Three Heroes ^ ■^. 

l-CT*. — Han Ykn ^ ^^ A descendant of Han Sin q. v., and 
kog a favoored minion of Han Wu Ti, circft B.C. 150, having been a 
companion of the empeior in his boyish days. It is recorded of turn that, 
having amazed great wealth and being an ardent himtsman, he was ac' 
oortomed to ose none bnt golden pellets for his cross-bow, and as numbers 
of these preciouB missiles were lost during a day's sport, it became prover- 
bial in tbe capital (Cb'ang-ngan) that the pocn and needy shonld follow 

60 usmesk sjtAiktifs MAfrvii. pt. i 

Sad Tdiii wbeil be sallied toi^ ofi A tdfiUtig etctot^. fie tiVenta&H; 
t<M f&voof and Was pat to death. <C£ g.K., |^ |§ ^J {0^ &nd S 

isa.-HAKTB^lJ. •S&;t tBS^ A.i).»68- 

624 FoiBiQcet among the itatesmeii, philosophefi, and poets of tlie T^ang 
dyoastf, and one of the most venerated naiacs ia Cblneee lilentiire. 
Eotered the public Berrlce at an early age, and gai&ed great dtBtlnc^on in 
nameranB officea. Was a diligent student of the Coufocian elates, hk 
TtewB t^oD which weie aocqited aa the baus of a new Bcfaool of criticino. 
He advanced a new theory npon tJie conetitulicm of man's natnre, in 
lAich he sought to haimonize the conflicting doctrines of Uencins and 
8Ad Tsze^ and to pmve that bntnan nature is divided into tbree Hanun, 
viz., ihat in which ionaiU goodnen prevaila, that which is innately evil, 
and a third which oocnjoeB a middle poalion, sharing the qnalitiee of t^s 
other two. Ttus doctrine was largely accepted, nntil nipeneded at length 
by the Qieories cf the sdioolmen of the Snng dynsity (see Cbn Hi), tn 
A.D. 819 he preseiited a remonstraDee to the emperor Bien Tsong agwoit 
the public honoms with whicti he had caused an alleged relic ef Baddks 
to Im conveyed to the imperial palace. The text of Han Yu'b diafiibs 
ag^QBt the alien snpeTBtitlon is still renowned as one ef the most cde* 
brated of state papers ; but its <aity e&ct was to aiouae the emperor's wrath 
agunst its aathor, who was lianisfaed to fill the poet of governor in the 
remote and then semi-harbarous legion of Gh'ao^ow (in the modem 
Ewang-tnng). Here he actively devoted himself to civtHzing the nid« 
iuhalntants, among whose descendants his efforts am ^mbolized in m 
legend that he expelled from their rivers a monBtrous crocodile ^^ j§^ 
which was then devastating Uie land. He was eTentually restored to high 
office, and on his death was can. as y^. Hence he is commonly spokem 
rfasHan W8aKni% | ^ 4V- 

1C3^-Hao Show SHo-SBtoia flS^ # 1^ i^- Tlw IwwT- 
beaded studenti In the kingdcan cf Wo there Was a cefUin schokr who 
was At the head<^aIa^a8Bemli^ofttud6n1a,biitwhoone daysaddenly 
dlsaj^ieared. Subeequer^y, a man of the net^boQrlKiDd, while hunbling 
amoug tLe hiUs on the 9lh day of the 9th mooD, wandered neal an ancieOt 
Icoab, trhenbe he heatd the huia of v<»tM proceeding. Co approach- 

91. Jf mm^M *B^-P^ff* M4ITPM- « 

fag A« apot, )w a»v ft tw^ rf &xm wmpw »w«y, with the esc«ptioa 
of ano ^d fixe, t1i9 dJHioied buoKlf »B the otining schoUr, stating that oa 
^imwome h« M bwp tnuufonoed ipLo the abxpe f)f a ibx. (^ j|9 
ig). 809 aa, 

ieO^HiORDNa^#. A Mptfed donendut of Ewug 1% 
«bo fa Hid to h«ve been DfnotOT of CfauioU luida- Yii d» Gnat, and 
to have been the flnt to tm^ bourn in dmn% ounagM-i-omjfl 204 
oentair B.C. 

3.01.— Hi Tb*!^ ^. SontrfDnkeHIenafUiibj'hitcon- 
■ort li Ei, q.T. Placed era the throne as his father's eaccenor in B.C. 6S1, 
wUle itin a mora \toj, he wy mES^eivd im me^ atdy after hia ttoeemiaa hf 
dw hOnlstei Li K'eb £ ^ 1 aad when (he loyal Stta Bi ^ jll, hereopm 
pioolained the miifderad lUoce's bvothec J^ (lead Tao) as his BQCoe«(^, 
the L^tar was UknriBe pat to death t^ the ambj^om MJnistfli. A third 
tfothef, I' Wa p^ ^, ihen socoeeded in satabliAitig himaslf apm the 
thntBB, and vaoaed li K'fih to mffsr Ae pen^ of hm cziaiea. After ■ 
nSgn ef fboTteea yean be mu ffoeeeaded, after a brief inteiral, in B.C. 686, 
by his half |mtb«r CVong TJih, who beaame the bmoaa WOog Knng, q.r. 

130._HuNa Ijusa i^ ^. i^. B.C. 206. A native <^ the 
State of Tb'o, vbo Tose, B.C. 209, in insamotion agunet the dynasty cf 
T^u^ And, in oonjnnction with lus nephew, Hiang To, succeeded in gaining 
tompwary contnd of the Empire, bat was shortly allerwaida elain in 

163.— Hums Sic ffil ^. * ^M A member of Oie 
«hib of the Seven Worthiee (see Chnh Lin Ts'i Hi^w). 

IQ^^L— Hum To ^^- A lad <^ebrftted in the I^endai^y 
b'Btoiy pf Ccpfociiie as hftvi^ afforded admonition to the ^age himself. 
I^ i^ idated thftt Con&duB, when rambling one day with his diBcij>Ie^ 
nwt a £ivap of children In the mad, all of whopi were at play bat one. 
The latter gave answera of EQiprising wisdom to the qnesfjons pot to him 
by tbewgo. (see Ch. Eep., Vol. x., p. 614). 

lee^HuKO To J^ H. • M -O- B-C- 201. Nephew 
9f Hiwg liang, and noted tnm his yonlh 1^ hig gre«t datnre And mailis| 
Snmm pa;(heJwnfMIef tbehovMf^^^D^fTodain^jiinMlf^^ 


of the weBtern pTovinoe of T^n (coimponi^g to the modem provincea rf 
Ho-D&n and oorthem Ngan-hweO, vbenoe he is known aa ^ ^^ jp[ 
^. In B.C. 206 the armlM of Ts'in, to the namber rf 200,000, 
Bnirendered theniBelves to bim, and he is gaid h> have butohered them to 
the last man. He also put to death Tsk Ting, the rightful niocwsor to 
the throna In B.C. 205, be nmilarly murdered the puppet sovereign 
Sg^ 'f^, bat upon this his powerful all^, the eelf-fltyled Piince of Han (see 
Im Fang), declared war against bim, and aftw a long and tangainai; 
stru^o effected bla complete OTenhrow. When all waa loet, he commit- 
tod suicide at Kai Hin l^ |^ (in modem Ngan-hwei). 

168.— HiBH Yuan Tbi $f ^ ^. The name or tide attri- 
buted to a famooa thanmaturgist who is said to have appeared in tbe r^n 
of Tahq SQan Tsung (A.D. 847), and who was then repoted to be man; 
centuiiee old, altbou^ he retained the blooming appearance of yoath. 
When waodoing !n monntun BoUtades in Bearch cS Am^ tbe fiarcesfr beaatg 
of the forest attended his footsteps as it were to gnard him from harm, and 
with the herbs be gathered be wrought many miracolouB cures. His cruse 
<^mediciDe was mexhausdUe, and he had tbe gift f£ appearing in many 
places at once. When summoned before the Emperor, and mooked at bj 
(Hie of the ladies of the Court, he caused her to be transformed &om a lovely 
damsel i^ sixteen into a bent and wrinkled harridan, but on ber entreatjng 
pardon for ber fault he caused her to resume ber wonted shape. (^Q yfi\ 


le*?.— HiNoPiNaJfR^. • ^^. A.D. fl»2— 1010. A 

c^brated commentator of tbe Clasics. 

ISS. — Ho ^^. Tbe Crane, {Qrui jnontiffnesia, Bonaparte; the 

Manchnrian Crane of ornithologists). Next to the P^, q- v., this bird is 

the motft celebrated in Chinese legends, in which it is endowed mth many 

mythical attributes. It is reputed as the patriarch of tbe feathered tribe, 

and the aerial coarser of the immortalaj There are said to be four kinds 

of ho, viz., the black, the yellow, the white, and the blue, of which the 

black is the longesUlived. " It reaches a fabulous age. When 600 years 

dd, it drinks, hut no longer takes food. Human bangs have repeatedly 

been changed into its shape, and it constantly manifests a peculiar interest 

in bumBQ affidis." Cf. S. U F., s. t. The ftdlowing an KmaDg tba 


bgeods retating to this bird. It ig recorded that I Kung f^ .^, Prince 
of Wei Un^. Chow Hwei Wang, B.C. 676, wm so much attached to one 
of the species that he took it to the field of battle in his own cbariot, 
whilst engaged in wai&re against the Northern barbarians, nbeo bis troops, 
disoonraged by this infatnation on the part of tbeir chief, lost heart and 
were defeated- The battle is said to have been "lost by a crane" p^ 
I J^. — A proof of the wisdoni of the bird was given in the rrign of 
Sm Tang Ti, A.D. 605, when, tbat tyrant having required a vast supply 
of featben fer adorning the coetnme of his gnards, birds were pnisned 
with tmrelentiDg figoar on every side. A crane nested apon a high (me, 
fearing injury to her brood if she were attacked, lore oat her owd feathers 
aod threw Uiem to the ground to satisfy the wants of the bnntera. Phr. 
JH. ! W :^— Sm Fa Kien. 

lee.— Ho Chmham ^^W-'*^^- ^- AD. 659. Date 
of death nnknown. A minister of Tans Hlian TsoDg, celebrated as a 
lover of dissipation and joviality. Was at the same time a patron of the 
poetic ait. The renowned Li Peb oiled to him his introdaction to the 
Imperial lavoor. He is Imown by the sobriquet of p|^ ^ :}£ ^j' — 
the nutdcap <rf 6i»-inii)g, having spmng irom a family dwelling in the 
district of that name (near tbe modem Ningpo) ; and also as ^^ 5&' <" 
Bo tbe Devil, an appellatian given to him by his imperial master, 

leea.— Ho K'B-p'mo ^ "^ ^- D. B.C. 117. Celebrated 
as a c<HnmaDder in the service of Hak Wn Ti, wboae armiee be led !n 
repeated campaigns against the Himig-na. In B.C. 123, he gained bril- 
Bant victcsKB, in concert with Wei Ts'ing, over the barbarian hosts, and 
was ennoUed as ^ J^ ^ ; and in B.C. 1 21 be led an anny to a dis- 
tance of 1000 K beyond Yen-che ^ j^, the modem Karasbar in Tnr- 
kestan, from which campaign he brongbt back as a trophy the golden 
image naed in worship by tbe Hinng-na sovereign, Hiii-cbn y(i ^ (w 
Hin-t'a). Chinese critics are tempted to believe that tbis was an image 
<^ Baddba, and infer that a knowledge of Buddbism may have been intro- 
dticed thns early into China, the golden man " of this era having, perhaps, 
mspired tbe dream of Mag Ti in A.D. 65. See Ts'ai Ym. 

ITO.— Ho KwAHo S ^, • -^ ^. -D. B.C. 68. Tbe gtMt i . 

H CWUffSX mADEBf9 UiiWAJ^ ^ I. 

"idng-sMker'' of tlw Hw dynat^. BJtlf faratlwr of lli« ynott^a^ 
ICouteT of Wa Tt in tbe but 7Mn of bis nign, Iw wiu tj^xnnted by that 
aovengn ftt big dtiath, B.C. 87, ag geDera]JBei[i>o (^ lh« SmpM ^A^inF^' 
and i^ief of the coanoil of regnMy on bebalf of bu yoattifvl «», PrioM 
Fob-ling ^ 1^, who nigoed f(v a bri<f pwiod indw Qo Evang'* ftyi' 
All tal«lagft On the deatb of tbw BOTCnign (CbM TO B.O. 74, tbe awv 
eonon wai thrown into disccder, bnt at J«Dgtb Ho Ewnog decided upop 
ninng to (be tbrmte a gTsndBon of Wa Ti, wbft on being pwjoUlnwti 
ISmpeior, inaeLed opm bis raining tbe Kfttam dine^oa oS i^Saim, ^O 
Kwang's adraialntioa «m nuiked by integri^ and legwd fiv tbe weUbn 
of tbe pet^ wbora be nlWred frwn (be eiae^ora entaHed b; Wo ^« 
warlike nndertakingaaad extmngaoee ( bnt bia wife animated by vnUUow 
deairea, reaolred that her dangtiter aboDld be Mated upon iIm ^tfooa, aa4 
to effect tbia object, aha caosed polaon tO be adminsteied !n B.Q. 7 ^ to the 
consort of tbe reigning eomreign, wbo In tbe fdloiriiig year waa induced 
by bw to make her dangbler bia EmpreaL 'Ba Ewang died, it is asserted. 
En ignorance of the guilty part Ua wife bad played in this transaction, 
which did not go long nnpnnidwd. A palace levolotion was attempted 
fn B.O. 66 under the instigation of tbe two ambition^ women, which t«r^ 
minated diaastroody for tbemselTei^ wberenpon the Empress, hnrled from 
bet position, ctMnmitted nilcide. 

171.— Ho-iif WiMQ BQ ^ £■ Tbe title nndar wbidi 
Ewang ^^, Prfnoe of Wn, is known in history. He reigned from B.O. 
514 to 496, dnrfog wfatcb period be temond tbe eaptal of Wn from Uei-t 
Jfi^ J^ (near tbe modem Ob'ang«bow Fs) to a new die bow oe ew pled 
by Ae city af Sooc^ow. He Ixro bwlt the famooa Urxa eaSed En 8a 
^" ^ iif S' ^'^^ *^B sammit of wUcb a tIbw of 100 mila in exteat 
was commanded, and from wliiob 4be pieaettt elty on the same ^rat d ori rei 
ha nama Was mcceeded 1^ bis son Fn Ch** q. w. 

172.— Ho Feh ^ -fg. The rirer-lord at dile(— a dlrtnlly 
anciently worebij^^ed as god of tbe TeOow River. The myth oonnectod 
with this ima^*nary being baa been inveetigated by En Yen-wn, who ad* 
dnces passages from tbe chroiucle of tbe Bamboo Books, the {Jj }$ |^ 
the writingB of Chwang Taze, and antdent poetry, in wbicb, with aome 
dfMM{MUM}r ia raipMt «f dMVMtan «i^?lojyd> KtagI IS^ |$ iigino 


MlhblUUHi^lhsgoA. B7«AH writon tUlliMki,on the other hand, 
M hfeTs bm& thb nauie tt hii ftuale oantat. Cf. Q ^ ^, k. SS. 
ehHtu Ta'loi iri&IM ihM in tlu rafgnt^'W^eu How of Wd, RO. 434, « 
{KlMtugS MUMtd St'tb&i Fu S P^ j^ wu govanor cf Teh |^ (Um 
tmdcM ObMg-Uh I^ In Kmuh), tnd, on uUng t^ot, karat tbM what tb« 
[KUp]* cbMljr mBhud from In hil dtettfet wu tbo {HMtioe at annnallf 
*eiviiigttw)febi»uiIagetotiiert*«r-god*'^j!^fg$^. The nling 
ddUB wfeM ftoonHoliMd evet; y«ar to levjr enomoua tana from the foagib 
Hbdw thil ^te&M, ittd in cotnort vltfa tbft lootfanTieiB, mab and f«niah^ 
to ieleot a well-favoiiied maiden, who, after a period of sacii£cial mgka, 
mH ncUy attted U a hr^e and caat into tU rirw to meet ttte embraces 
of tha g(A Sl'bwR Pao put an end to this siiiiEtei {Motice by cwting 
tha chief |)iiMtaH and •omo of hwanodatea into tha ri?ei wbaa the thoB 
iiaitaatifaMfi^theaHtSDoivcatDeroaBd. G£ S. E. L 126. 

1. T&j^H.() SsAm KvNQ fs^ _t ^ or Ho giuiia Obanq JAM 
I I 3t A- ^ my^foal bebg, i^mkI to TmIm legenda as one of 
Ihe patriarcfa (^ the fleet Wa ptaipet BMnB Imm nmi^Ded nnknown, and 
tlia deriguattixi atttftnited to him trim to the sita of Ui bomilage on the 
ttanka oF tlw Teliow Blver. Tmdilion b««1s that he reow?ed and 
petpetoated Um wHtingti of Ido Too, whan docttfaiea be tranmiUetl 
^KH^ Ut popl ISgn K'Mitiitg q. v. AoxR^ng lo otbtf Ii^ends, 
however, he fired Kl a lat«f p«iod tbon ttM assigned l« Us alleged ds- 
ca^letaDd bebabidteUMflcnrisM i»tbe]gtMiitU7S.G. Gf. S^, 
k. 80. 

X7<^ — Ho ^tB Jl ;^. A TOOAger fantber of Kwu Shob 
■nd IVai Slmh, te wboae wditiaa nwemant w the aDeanaD of thor 
yoaag nniiliew to tiw ttmne, KO. 1116, he jiutiupated. 

XVC.— tto "Smi !Kv 'ff i^ j^. lie xm^den itmnctftal, iwmecl 
Ho, cM of ibe Ktgfat .GenfL She % sidd te hare tees fte daughter of 
OM Bo Tti "^ ^ a man of *(^g-ch'gDg 1^ ^ near Canton. At 
the iislAitt of bei )S/ib, rix faidtB were seen growing co the cronn (tf her 
luead. When ftattwn Teais did, sbe dreamed that a ^nrit gave her in- 
■TodiOD hi the alt oFohtaimng hnmortaSty, to achieve wTnoh die was to 
eat the powder of inather-o''-peari. She complied with ttds injnnctiDn, and 
mwed hera^ U a 13b of vi^sk;. Her Aaiya ncre thenceforth patted in 


BoUtorj wauderiiigs among (he lulH where she paaeed to txA tta as tboogb 
OKlowed with wiogB, retmning to her liome at ni^t wiUi tba herbe Eiho 
gathered during her lonely pQgrimagM, She gradually renounced the ase 
of the ordinaiy food of moftalf ; and the fame of her wondroua mode of 
life haviog reached the Etnprwa Wu q. v^ that aoreieign nimmoned bw 
to the Conit ; but while jonroeying thither Bhe anddeoly diea[^)eared iiom 
mortal Tietr. She ia said to have been seen onoe mote, in A.D. 75(^ 
floating upon a cloud of many colours, at the temple of Ma En q. t., and 
again, some years latar, ihe was reiealed to human ught in the tuty tX 

1 ^e.— Ho Tsra -^ ^. Z). A.D. 189. BroUitr of the lady 
Ho, who, having home a son of the Kmperor Ham Ling Ti, was elevated 
A.D. 180 to the rank of Empress. Through her influence be was raised 
to high office, and in A.D. 184 was made generalisamo. On the emperor's 
death, AJ>. 189, he sought to snatch the supreme power from the hands 
of the palace eunuohB, who had (br many years controlled the Coort and 
its surrounding Summouing the army commanded by Tung Cho q. r., 
to the capital, he cansed the Empraa to isane a decree abolishing the 
State offlces of the eunuchs ; but scarcely had this been promulgated wboi 
the eunuch Chang Jang ^ ^, with a numerous following mvaded the 
palace, slew Ho Tain, and carried off the Empreae with the yoothfiil bdr 
to the throne to a distanoe from the capital IJee Yiian Bhao. 

1 7"7.— Ho T'n LoH Shu ?pr H ^ S"- '^^^ V^"^ <« ^^ 
gram) of tlie Yellow River and the writing (or book) of the Biver Loh. By 
this phrase are designated the systems of diagrams and arrangement of 
the ordinal numben, which, acoocding to ancient IratUtion, wen revealed 
to the sages Fnh-hi aod Tli qq. v., in a sap^natoral maimer. The kgend 
which has become developed on this anbject attaches itaalf to a few obscore 
tests of antiquity, and notably to a passage in the commentary of Con- 
fuciaa on the Yik King, where the Master declares that J^ (j^ ^3 ^ 
[T[ ^'— the " Yellow Eiver gave forth the plan, and the River Loh the 
scroll," which the sages of old, be add^ looked to as tbeir pattern ; and the 
belief entertamed by Confucius in this respect is further attested by hii 
exclamation recorded in the Lun Ya, (Cf L.C., I., p. 83) that " the Biver 
no longer gives forth its plan I " In the ^ §£ it is further stated that 


JSf tij 1^ Hi " tlie Kiver gave forth the Aorse's plan," and, followbg this 
indi(»tioD, wiih other traditions, now, no longtr prewH'ed, K'nng Ngan- 
kwoh q.T., gave final shape to the legend by decUiing that a "dragon- 
horee " emerged from the waters of the Yellow River and presented on its 
back, an arrangement of symbola, whence the divine ruler elucidated the 
system of tlio Eight diagrams, (see Part II, No. £11). K'ung Ngan-liwoh 
adds further that whilst Tii was engaged in draining off fLe floods, a 
"dirine tortoise" presented to his gaze a scroll of writing upon ila back, 
composed of the numbers from one to nine, which the sage interpreted and 
made the basis of his nine-fold exposition of philosophy. By this last 
named undertaking the ^ f^ or Nine Divisions of the ' Great Plan " of 
the Book of History, (cf. L.C., Ilf., Part V.) are indicated ; and a super- 
OAtural revelation is thus asserted, by means of the plan '* and the 
writing," for the two great sources of Chinese material and moral philo- 
sophy, the diagrams of Fuh-hi and the elementary categories of the Great 
Plan." The scholars of every ago since the revival of Chinese learning 
under t^ Han dynasty have busied themslves with hypothetical restora- 
tions of these Iwo mystic diagrams, in the actual existence of which, but 
one celebrated scholar, Ow-yang Sin, has ventured to express disbelicfi 
whilst, from the supposed principles horded by the two mysterious reie- 
latioQS, the schoolmen of the Sung dynasty of the period of Cbu Hi devoted 
themselves to elabomling an entire system of ontology, int^moven with 
the philosophy of divination and numbeis. It is admitted that until the 
reign of Sung Hwei Tsung, (A.D. 1101 — 1125), no ttdiueation of the j^ 
jig was made public ; but at this period and during the b-ucceeding aga 
philosophers were busy with its form, and divers arrangements of its sup- 
posed seri<^ of numbers were proposed by the students of the Book of 
Changes. Of these the most authoritative is the scheme adopted by Shao 
Tung and elaborated by Ts'ai Yuan-ting, as follows : — 



oo o o o o o 

• » 

••••• o 


• ° 

O O I o 

o ooo " o 

o .. o 



• •••• 


• • • o • 

The total number of spots or markings fiereJn delineated is fifty-fivo^ 
wliereof the ^ odd nnmbew — ^1, 3, S, 7, and 9, making tbe mm total of 
25 by additioa together, are the "numbais of Heaven*^ ^ |g(, and 
hence called the ^ nnmbere; and tbe fP| even numbers—^, i. 6, 8, and 
10; makiDg the snin totaT of 30 by addition, are tbe " nnmbers cf Earth *^ 
Iffi %K <^ ^S niunbers of tbe Confoclan commentary. By a Bynthel4c«I 
procea based npon tbe dicta of the 7ih King the nmnbeia couslitntjng 
this plan are reciHiciled with ^e eight diagranu, and still farther nith Ae 
&n elemoiils (see Part It, No. 127) which furnish a starting point for Ihe- 
eotire ChiiHse theery of nature. 

IVm YiiaiH^ng is also the nnlbor of the accepted dramng ^ tbe fgf- 
9, which be ddiuoated as fcJIowa >— 


• • 





o o o 


o o o o o 


O o o 


• • • 

Here Ike nmriben eu and eight were «n €he feet of Uie tertdse, two 
And fimr at the Bhoolden, nine at the head, three left aod seven ti^t, 
^th five occupyiug ^e centre. The airangement thna formed gives a 
snin total of fifleen by addition croesnise or diagonally dther way. By a 
pzooeii of Teconcilement aimilaT to that puisaed in Teference to the }^ jjg 
tbe nnmheiB aie identified with the diagrama, the Five Elements, and aU 
lbs powera and phenconena which reaolt iiom lluee. Gf. L.C., III., p. 
^1 i and aathoritiea adduced in Part IL Ko. 241. 

l'?8,— How I JB^, (1). The Archer Lord, — a name or 
title attribated to a chieftam in th« semca of tb« empeior Eiih, B.G- 
2435, and again to his desoendant, who poformed wonders of archer]' in 
the serrice of Fao, B.C. 2357. Of the ktt«r, tradition relates that he "shot 
arrowa into the Aij to deliver the moon " daring her eclipse ; another 
Tenion of which story is to the effect that when ten suns appeared togelhei 
io tbe beavenB, caanng conioiaoD and death upon earth, How I was com- 
manded bj Yao to ehool arrows at the &lao lominariea, which stTug^lway 
disappeared. He was the htubaud of the lady Ch'ang-ngo, who fled t« 
tbe moon, q. v. 

61) OHiyESE READER.H MaNUM. P,: /. 

1*79— Howl ^^, (2). The tide borne by a vasMl of 
T'ai Kang, the 3nl ruler of tbe Hia dynasty. Cbwang Teze rel&tea tint 
he waa descended from tlie grand arclier of Yao (see above) ; and that be 
gradually usurped ibe powers of the Slate, but abandoned the duties- of 
gDvemraerit for the pleasures of the chase. He employed a auballero 
named Han Cho |^ )'J^, who in B.C. 2139 treaeberously mnrdered him, 
Han Cho then took his consort to wife, and the offspring of his uaion with 
her was a son named Ngao ^. History records that in B.C. 2170 How 
I rebelled against Tai Ivang, and drove him from his capital, seizing npon 
the conntry north of the Ho, which he held fo.' twenty-seven years, nntil slain 
by Han Cho- Acconling to a received tradition, Han Cho, who is also 
called P'ang Meng ^g ^^, slew How I from a motive of jealou^ of the 
latler's skill in arohery, and with the desire lo be himself repnted, after 
How I's deceasf, as the first bowman in the land. Cf- L. C, IL, p. 2W. 

ISO,— How Tbi ^ ^. See Tsi. 

ISX.—How T"u ^ i. Was the axth of the Six Mnistere 
of Hwang Ti, q. v. Hia name is alleged lo have been Kow Lung ^ 
|[g, and he is reputed as the son of Kung Kung q. v. The region allot- 
ted to hia rule was the North, and he was endowed with power over water 
and earth. The title given him by Hwang Ti waa Li ^, which is 
interpreted na identical with Li 3^, to put in order. He became deified 
wiUi the title ShSh jp;, as the tutelary genius of the soil, over wtuoh he 
still presides. Cf. K. P. W. 

1 8S. — Hi; ^. Tlie tjgcr — a beast of many mythical at- 
tributes. According to the astrologers, the star i^ (a of Ursa Major) 
gave birth by meUinorphosis to the firat beast of this kind. Ho is the 
greatest of fonr-fooled creatures, representing tlw masculine principle of 
nature, and is the lord of all wild animala [Jj gK ^ ^- He is also 
called the King of Beasts ^ FJ? I' ""^ '^^ character ^ (King), is 
believed to be traceable npon his brow. Ha is seven feet in length, 
because seien is the numtier appertaining lo Yang, the masculine principle, 
and for tlie same reason his gcalation endures for seven months. He live* 
t(i the age of one thousand yeare. When five hundered ^eare old, his 
colour changes to while. His claws are a powerful talisman, and asbea 
prepared fiom his akin worn about the person act sa a charm agwoBt 


Bickness. PeA JTu, ^^ the White Tiger, ia the Dame given to the 
neatem qu&drant of the Uranoepbeie, and melAphoricnlly to the West b 
general. — Phr. ^ ^ ^ ^, wgnifyiog a perilous ponlion, (as of one 
treading upon a tiger's tail or walking over iue in Spring). Cf. L.C., 
in., p. 579. 

183.— Hu iBt or Hi)-Li J J^. The fos, — a beast whose 
nature is highly tinged with Eupematural qualities. He has the power of 
transformation at his command, and fVeqncntl; assiiniee ihc human shape. 
At the age of 50, the fox can take th? form of a woman, aud at 100, can 
assume the appearance of a young and boautifol girl, or othenvisa, if bo 
minded, of a wisard, pocseBMng all the power of magic. When 1000 yeats 
old, he is admitted to the Heavens and becomes the celestial fox." (y^ 
V nB^- '^^ Celestial Fox, is of a golden colonr and poGSesses nine 
tails ; he serves in the balls of the Sun and Moon, and is versed in all tbs 
secrets of nature ("^ l|^). The Sfaoo W^n dictionary states that the 
fox ia the courser upon which ghoetly beings ride ; he has three peculiar 
attributes (^), vijs., in colour he partakes of that which is central and 
baimoninng (i. e. yellow) ; he is small before and large behind ; and at the 
moment of death he litis his head upwards. The :^ [Jj gg. sUtes that 
the fox was originally a lewd woman in times of old. Her name was Tsze 
j^, and for her vices she was transfomned into a fox. Hence foxes in 
homan shape frequently call tbemEelves A Tsze |^ | • (K. S. L ). 
Phrase )£ jf^ ^= cantion or distriistfiilneaa as that of a fox, which is satd 
to betray this quality in an eminent degree, as shewn in its listening to the 
sound of the ice under its feet when crossing a frozen expanse (f^ pjC 
ffo ^@ ^)- H- ia believed that down of peculiar fineness grows npon 
the ibs's ribs, and that thb may be collected to form garraenia of fiir of 
surpasmng warmth and lightness. Hence the phrase ^ ||0^ Q^ f^ J^ 
^^, employed metaphorically for any colieclion of small items or contribui 
tioQS to form a considerable total. "Many a mickle makes a muckle." 

1.S4. — Hu Hai "^ '^. The second son and successor of Ta'ra 
She Hwang-tl. AAer the banishment and death of the rightful heir, Fa 
Sa, he ascended the throne as Urh-she Hwang-.ti Zl ftf; .M. W' "' ^°'' 
pens in the second generation (of the ten thousand to which hb ambitiotn 
&tber had looked forward), bat was murdered B.C. 207 bj Obao Eao q.v. 


1 Se.— H« Kmo ^ ^. The old Man of the Pot,— Ae title 
given to a luagituan endowed with vcnAniaa powers of heiiliiig, to nbom 
8aDdi7 treatisps on the arts of necromaDcy wete attributed in the 3rd and 
itii centuries A.D. It ia related of him tbat the vast auna whidi he daily 
received in pajnient of bis miraculous cures were forthwith beatotted in 
charity upon the poor and needy. He disappeared At night iiom mortal 
view, and his retreat was a mystery (o all until discovered by a man uamed 
Fei Ch'ang-fang ^ ^ ot. who, spying from an upper window, found 
that it was the leech's practice to withdraw at eunaet to the interior of a 
hollow gonrd which hung suspended from a doorpost. Oh'ang-fang became 
his disciple and acquired rrom him the secraU of his art (JP$ fjlj ^). 

1 Se.— Ho KWANO ]^ P, * -fid i&- O- A-D 172. A states- 
man of unrivalled distinction and expetience under the Han dynasty. He 
filled one or other of the chief ministries of State during upwards of thirty 

187.— Hu KwANG t^M'' ^iK- A.D. 1370—1418. 
One of the most prominent among the acholan of the l£ng dyDHsty, under 
which he held high ministerial ofSces. In 1414 be was placed nt the head 
of the imperial commission charged with the duty of editing and revising 
the classical canon and the collecled works of the schoolmen of the Sung 

is8._H« L™-«n ii # B- ■ sa*. t is 2:- a.d. 

1812 — 1861. Noted as a public official of high integrity and administra- 
tive ability. Was a native of Hu-nan, and for ranuy years Governor of 
the province of Hu-peh, in which post he ditd, having signalized himaelf 
throughout his tenure of ofSce by his earnest devotion to the Imperial cause 
during tLe Tai[)ing rebellion. Can. as ^ ^. His official writings have 
been collected and published under the title l^^ ^ j®. ■^ ^ ^- 

X89,-H» NoAN-Kwo,, ISS ^ H. • JK ft. t S H- 
AD, 1074 — 1 138. One of the most celebrated scholars of the Sung djnnsty. 
Author of numerous historical commentaries. Can. as ^ ^^. 

190._Hu-n-rjEH ^. )}£,* .^.— Knblai, the name (gf) of tha 
first acknowledged sovereign of the Mongol dynasty in China. Son of Tnli 
j^ fi*. and grandson of the greatOengfaii, (gee lOSa), he ncoeeded to 


the sovereign power as Khui of the Mongols, lUready occupTing a large 
pcvtion cf Northero China, id A.D. 1260, the style of his reign being pro- 
dumed m Ghiueee u Fp ^f^. Thin desgDatioD was exch&nged in A.D. 
12G4 foe die tiUe ^ 7C> ^hich condDaed m iwe duriog the renisiniiig 
tluity-one years trf his leign. In A.D. 1271, bs arms having already been 
carried over half the poesessiMis of the Cbinese empire, he assumed a dy- 
nastic title by the advioe of bis comiseUor Lin Ping-chung ^ ^^ tfT, 
who selected for this purpose llie character YQan y^ (sign^tng Srst 
and greateet) with reference to the combination ^ y^, deBignatiug the 
fiiEt d Lb« diagrams of the Tib King. In A.D. 1279 the empire finally 
pased mtdei his undivided sray. He died at the age of 80 in A.D. 1294- 

Xei.— HoBAU-araalSgH-if.'j^-Sl- A.D, 1230-1287- 
Celehrated aa a hifllorical cominentator. 

iea._Hu- Wo 15| vi, • W W, t m tft A.U. 1633- 
1714. Celebrated as a commentator on the Shn Kbg, and author of 
fuimerons treatises on classical Eubjcct^ which are held in high repute. 

1 83.— Hu Ykn |ai -jg. a faithful adherent of Wen Kmig of 
Tan q.T., who took his daughter in marriage. Together with Chao TsVii, 
be was the prince's connsellor and gaide during many yeais of exile and 
of snbseqaeot power B.C. 650 — 628. 

Xe4._HD Tin i5g ^, • ^ #, t fi^ ^- EWest son of 

the preceding, and also celebrated as a bistoncal writ«r and critic 

19e.--Hc HcNO ^ ^, • ■(=: #, t i A|^- Brother of 
tbe preceding, and like him celebrated in literature. 

180.— HoNG-Fc m l^^-i^- Was handmaiden to Tang" 
Su, the oelebrated diampion of the Sni dynasty, circJL A.D. 615. TUhe 
leader Li Tsing q. v., wm on one occasion admitted to a colloqny wilb 
Yang So, while still unknown to fame, and attracted tbe gaze of the- 
damsel, as riie stood behind her loci, holding in hei hand the "ted fly- 
fiap" which has given her a name. Tbe same night she secretly penetrate 
ed in man's attire ta the lodgibgs of Li Tsing, to whom she disclosed the 
fumoa the bad conceJved &r him, sa^ng : " of the xtany men who have 
paned befoM my eyes, there are noae who can eompaK with yon, my 


18l) ; but no tatidaetorj ezpl&na^on is prea by cotmnentabn widi n- 
AraMO to tlie " red riKep." One attempt at identifying the meaidng ii 
given in tba gaggeatxia Ihxt the cyclical ngm ^ "T ooneapond to tba 
•oloQT rtd, and the ngn 5)c ''> '^'9' > ^^ ^ conolneion that in a year 
dcBgnated by the comUnatian ~J' ^ diiaiter mu [cediuted for the ^ 

aOS^.—m BBfyt if ^. ' :^ S- Celebrated » a flcbdar 
&>&ig the re^ of Hah Hiaa Ti, A.D, 190 — 220, and eqieciaHy leDown- 
ed as a mbe of clawdcal enidi&in. Antlior c^ the dictknaiy enti Jed tha 
ShaA W»t 1^ ^, the Snt lexicon ot the Chbese hngnage, produced 
nioft A.D. 200 j and also of vai^ias oommentariiM apoD the Clanios. 

SOS.— Hm Bck if JS- • Ift ^- Commonly designed g^ 
9( ^t cr th» Immortalized! One of the patriarchs and isnadmg genn 
c^ the Taoist sect. The I^ends relate that his mother, who lived b A.D. 
340 at Nan-ch'ang Qa modem Elang-sO oonceived in couBeqaence d a 
dream, b which it seemed to Iler that a golden /Aig bird dropped a pearl 
fiom its month npoa the palm of her hand. In his yontb the child to 
whom abe gave Urth pamd a carslen axiatence, nntil one day Lis tbongbis 
wcEB diami fiom the enjoymeola of life by Uw following incident. Whilft 
htntGing^ be fanxi^t down a tvm with wi arrow from his bow, and fi» 
was greatlp moved by the sight of U» dMrew the oreatnre'a mother 
displayed, ae she stood licking its lifelen body. The lad at onoe destroyed 
%ia bow, and gam binuelf wholly np to study and ascetic poreolts. Under 
a» re^ of Ten Wn Ti (AJ>. 265), he was made Oovernor of a Distnot, 
and showeied benefits npcui the people beneath his role, healing diaeaan 
by meaoa of oocolt preparations and aadMing the needy with gold whieh 
he poaened the power OT transmatiD^ from inferior metals. Dtuing m 
Bfctime, praloi^ed br beyond the natural ^mui, he wandered fiom provime 
to province, sabduing noxious reptiles and performing innrlmenUe- 
miraola. At one point he oansed water to gush &om a rock, and at 
another he oonfojed on the honsebold oi a devout believer perpetoal 
seonrity from ham tgr pa&ttiiig a pinetiee on the waQ of th^ dwelling. 
At length, wboi 136 yean old, be was caught op to Heaven with all 1» 
&n!ly, and even tba "dogi abd poultry " of ^ boose tdtared in tl» 

"^ - --^8l^ 


J304.— H9 Teo §f ^- a l^endoty eharMteE, Kpntad u hav- 
iog been the coimseUcff of the great Yao, B,C. 2357. Ii commonly nSemA 
to aa an example of elevated purity in conjanotiaii witb hia friend Gh'ao 
f\i q. r. When Yao offered to resign to him the govtcnment of hii 
flm[nro, HU Yeo declined to be iafloenced by voildly amlatdoo, and 
". washed hii eara " in order to remove from tbem any lingering taint of 
defikment through liHtemng to the offer. Being oooiutonud to diinh only 
(g the water frooi the brook which ran near hia bermitage, which he ru» 
ed in the hollow of his hand, eome charitable person preaenled bim witli 
a gourd to serve aa a diinking-veael. Thii ha siupended from a branch 
hard by hia hat, bat aa the wind in whiapenng in the gonrd prodnced a 
aoond which was pleaaiDg to his aensea, he threw the gourd away in ords ' 
to avoid even this contamination. 

SOS. — HSan Ho j@ j^. Met. for eloqaence— &om an ex- 
presion osed by an admirer of Ewoh-Siang ^ J§i, a renowned scholar 
of the Tain dynasty. It was said of hhn that hia conversation was like 
the flow of a riv^ snspeuded from on high " — "^ ^^ | | . 

803.— HiiAK Kin JlH ^. A challenge to cridcun — Sea 
JA Pa-wo. 

SOT.— HB« Nfl ^ :^. ' The Sombre Uaiden — aoeoidiBg 
to ancimt tradition, &» daughtw cf Heaven ^ "j/^, who waa Mnt to tba 
«d of Hwang Ti q, v^ when ragaged tu his contMt wilh Ch'e Yao, wboa 
riM anJated him in overthrowing. Poet-Boddbiat legenda a(ipeai to faaw 
identified this mythical beingwith IfartchI Dera $ >N ^ ^> "t^ 
peiaonification of light, o^nng of Bmbrnft " (Eitd, Htmdionk of Cldam 
BuddMsm), vrbom they worahip nnder the daignation £{" |^. (Cf. jH 

308.— HwA Jot Fu-lftN ^^^ A-— The Lady Flower- 
cup. I. An appellation given to each of two celebrated beaatiee, caDed 
Ta and Sm> S& Fei ^f^^h^fUSi' concnbinta of Wang Kien J "^ 
founder of the sovereignty of Shnh ■^, A.D. 918~92a U. The appelW 
tion conferred opon the lady Fei ^, the cherished concubine of HSng 
ai.'ang ^ ^, last sovereign of the pcetericv dynasty of Shah, A-D. 
905—964. A legend reapeotii^ the fidelity of tbia lady to the atetnuy of 


her (XHujort afW his downfall is related in canuecticm vitb thfl T&oirt 
dividty Chang Sieu q. t. 

SOe.-HwA To 3|B [Jg, • 7C 'ft- 2nd Mutnry A.D. A 
renowned physiciftn of the third century, the Esonkpiua of China. AH 
that is known respecting biB career is derived from tradition and romance, 
in which his marrctloas skill and attainments are widely celebrated. He 
Ib said to have been vemed in all the secrets of Taoism, and to bare been 
especially sncceSifal in snrgioal operations of a very marvellons descriptioD. 
He is reputed to have relieved the great Ts'ao Ts'ao of a cerebral disease 
t^ meaoB of acupnnctnre, in the practice of which he was wondronily 
skilled. Is reputed to have alWwards fallen a victim to political intrigue^ 
and to have perished by Ti^ao Ts'ao'e command. 

SIO.— HwAi Nan Tsze ^^^. H- B.C. 122, The lilM^ 
aiy psendoaym of Ltn Ngan, (Prince of Hwal-nan) q, v. 

Sll.—HwiN, DckeopTs'i^ :^ .^. /). B.C. 648. The 
tide in history of Si«o Peh /J^ ^ ruler of the State rf Ts'i, and tha 
most celebrated among the five Pa "jg or foiemoet cbiefiains who engnssed 
the power of the Chinese empire daring the greater portion of the 7tli 
century B.C. On the mmder of his father, Duke iSiang, by the latter's 
neiibew Wu Che ^ ^eH in B.C. 666, Siao Peh was asBsted in pUdog 
himidf apon the throne by his lamons counsellor Ewan Chung; to whow 
advice and statesmanship he owed in a great meaaore the sncoees <A \m 
Bobaequeiit career. During thirty-nine yean he was the Acknowledged 
head of the confederacy ^§, of States which mled the internal affairs of 
China under Um nominal sovereignty of tiw boitse of Cbow, and battled with 
the barbarian tribes on Ha norlhaii and western irontiers. His last yean 
were, however, given up to immoderate sensuality, and history pcnnls a maral 
by recording that while Duke Hwan neglected his three legitimate, bot 
childless wives for the fascinationa of sx favoured concubines (among many 
otJier inmates, male and female, of his seraglio), the five son^ who were tlie 
issue of these latter, disputed the suocesaon among Ihemselves cm thnr 
father's death, while his body remained yet unburied, and involved the 
Btale he had foonded in ruinous disorder. 

J319^-HwakTow|!^ §1^. Ad anwortfayndniMsraraw 



Tao. He Tecommended Kwen q. y. for emploTineiit in draioiug off the 
floodi, aod was eventiutnj Knt into baQisIimeDL Cf. L.O^ IIL, p. 89- 

S 1 8._HnANa Oh'ao J|^ ^. A noted ioeni^nt leader at Hm 
cIoK of the Tang dynasty, A discontented candidate at the literary es- 
aminatioDB, be fathered together a band of rebels in the region of modtiin 
Kwang^, and ravaged at their bead the major portion of the Empire. 
In A.D. &S(i, he captured the Imperial residence, Cb'ang-ngan, nheoce 
tbe Emperor bad fled, and [Soclaiined hinweir mlet of China, wiUi the 
dynastio title "j^ J^, but in 884 be vbb defeated by tbe aid of Ibo 
•nxtliary troops called in tnm tbe Tartar nations adjmung tbe Cbinese 
frontiCT, and was slain by bis own adberals. 

S14.— HwANo Ch'o-p'ing fBf ■^ ^- One of the Sien or 
Immortals, said to have flourished on eartb in ibe fourth century A.D. 
At the age of 15. it is related, be led a flock of sheep into tlie Kin Hwa 
mountains to feed, and bimwtf entered a cave among tbe rocks, wbere be 
Kmafned for mwe tbsn forty yews. At length his brother one day met 
a wandering prtest, who satd to bim : There is a sbepherd-Iad among tbe 
monnlaint I " Divining that Ibis was the relative whose lose had been 
vainly deplored, tbe brotber made search, and at last discovered Hwang 
Ch'n-p'iog seated in bis cave, snrronnded by Uooks of white stone. On 
being aaked where wwe bis sheep, the recluse uttered a sonnd, and Ibe 
blocks of stone became at once transformed into a vast flock of liring 
sbeep. Hwang Ch'u-p'Iog is reputed to have been an incarnation of Cb'ib 
Snng-tsze q. v. 

SX6. — Hw4Na Fan-gh'o ^ ^ j{^. An iDstractor of (bo 
actors of the Court temp. T'amq Hiian Tsino A.D. 75i. Tbe insnrgent 
Ifgan-lu-shao put him to death on bis refudng lo renounce his allegiance. 
He was celebrtited by his dramatic skiQ. With bim perished bis aa«ociate 
King 8in-mo ^ ^ ^. 

i3ie.— HwANt^FuMi^'^^. • i^- A.D. 215-, 
282. A celebrated scbolar and ezpoator of the ancient wriUngs, classical 
and historical- From bis ardour in study and researob he received tbe 
^pellation ^^ )^, — tbe "book-debauchee." 

:ai7.— HwAKoHuNall^,-'^^ One of tbe fatnoM 


^pea of filial devoljon. HiB mother died when be waa bnt seven ytxa M, 
and from this moment lie gave himBctf up with imneared devotion to 
minielering to his father's well-beiog. Id eummer he fanned his btber'a 
pillow," and In wioter he lay domi himself to nann hia father's coach " 
before his parent retired to rest. 

91S.~HwANoHiEH K^- 2). B.C. 287. An adberaitof 
the Princ« of Tb'u ^, who, on sacceeding in B.C. 268 to his falh^s 
Ihrone, rewarded hia services witli tiie office of chief Minister, and cmferred 
upon him the UJe of Ch'on 8h^ Eiin ^ ^ ^, with tfa« goveninMnt 
of the region, North of the Hwai In B.C. 246 lie removed the capital <^ 
tJiis prinuipalily to the site of tbe modern Soocbow, then known as the town 
lof Wu -^, (see Ho Lti Wang), of wbidi be became tbe seotwd fbimder. 
In Older to contfibute to tbe wealth and magruGceoce of bis chcieen city, ha 
defined and enlarged tbe oonise of the river Shfin EJang ^ JQC or ^ 
^^, which, now known as the Hwaog-p'u as it flows past Shangliai, ia 
aaid to derive its name from blm. He owed his downfail to a family 
intrigae, and he perished, B.O. 287, by the hand of an assasin named li 
Tton $ H. 

century A.D. A public official and celebrated scholar. His worth was 
so highly appreciated by Cho Hi that tbe latter gave him his daughter in 

SSO— HwANO Ki;h Ko H 5^ ^. The lament of tbe Yellow 
Heron, — tbe name given to dirges ascribed to T'ao Fing and Wn-sun 
Knng-chu qq. v. The }Iwang Kuh ie described as a bird which the genii 
emi^oy aa their a^al courser, and in this sense Its winga were wished f(ff 
by the distreesed ladles wbo gave its name to tlicir poetical laments It ts 
wrongly confounded with the ^^ or crane (K.D.) 

221.— HwAKO Lao ^ ■^. The dootiinea of Hwang [1^ 
and] Lao [Tsze} .Are referred to under tbia comUnadon — a aymbol for 
Taoist mysticisra. 

S03 _HwAKa Pa Jf ^, • ^ ^i-- D. B.C. 51. Benowned 
as a Bngacions and benign administrator. Held many high offices, in 
whidi he was distingiiiibed by his c»re for Uie people, mi m S.G. 65 wu 


nuKle ckief ICniater <^ Stete by the emperor Siian H Waa etmobled M 

SSS — HwAKO She Euiki ^ ^ ^- — The Tellow-fltoiie 
Elder, a legendacy being, rcpaled to have appeared at variooB epochs nitii 
demoDStratioDS of Btq)emataral poneis. He waa id particukr ihe patron 
ftud iDstraclor d Chang Liang q. v., aod sondry mysLic treatises are at- 
UibQted hy the Taoists to his anthtmibip. 

S24— HwAHQ Tao-Fo ^ ^ ^. The reputed iostmctres 
<tf ibe people of Ceatnl China hi the art of ^liiining and wearing oottoa. 
She is said to have beao a native of Yai Chow (Hainan), who migrated to 
Ksng-nan about the comniKtoement uf Ilia 14lli cenlnry, after the cotton 
plant bad been tntrodnced from Turkeetan, uid to have made known the 
process of mannfactora a> practised in the extietoe sootb, wbilber it had 
been tronght, preeomably, from the Halay aichipelago. (Cf. ^^ |^ 
^, t 24). 

Si36.— HwAHQ l"! 1^ ^. Tbe YeDow Emperor, B.C. 2697. 
The legends relating to this Bovereign, altbougb agreang in their geaeral 
(oDor, are diverse as regards their or^n and in maoy details. Thoee 
vhioh may be locked npon as poasesing ^e highest sanction are contained 
in the &e J^ .£ ^ of Sis-ma Ts'ien, where Hwang Ti is placed at 
tiie bead of IIm list of the Five Ti or sovereigns vho bore mte at the dawn 
of hiriMy. Tbe C/a-onoloffical Arniab of the Bamboo Booh partake of m 
laore fabalou character than this compilation, bnt form the second re- 
cognind sooroe of inlbrmalion teapecting Hwang Ti's reign. Legendary 
vrilers bare bronght forward niimerons details, which are fiised into a eon- 
■ected account in the introductory portion of the T'wig Kien Kmtg Mvh 
From these toorcea we learn that Hwang Ti was tbe oflfrprmg of a mita- 
cnlooB conception on the part of bis mother Fu Pao ^ ^. (See Bambov 
Annala, L. C. III., prol^. 108), and thai being bom near the river Ei j|S 
due title was taken ai bis surname, to which the name Hien Yllan P^^R 
wu added with reference to a hill near which he dwelt (Another legend 
attiibotes tbe mine Hiod YOan (o Ibe fact of bis being the inventor of 
wheeled vefaieln.) He waa also snmamed Kong Sun ^ -^ in virtne of 
bw descent; i^ilst, from the fact of his inhevituig tbe principaJity of Nai 
iH^-^e Bm> Co(MDtr3^|— be waa alw denominated :^ 1^ ^. Wh«» 


Gh'ih Yeo rcee in lebellion and overthrew the emperw Yii Wuig J^ fS^, 
the princes of the land elected Hien Yttan to fill the throoe, and after 
Tanqniabiog the rebel at Oho Luh, (see Gh'ih Yeo), he ascended tbe 
throne. Reigning nndei tbe influence of tbe element Earth, be became 
knovn by the designation of Its allotted colour (Yellow). He obtained 
tbe services of six great MiniEters, vie., FSng How, T'ai Cb'ang, Eow 
Lung, Chub Yung, Ta FSng, and How T'u qq. v., and two Recorden, 
namely, Ts'ang Hieh, and Cli'ang Tsu qq, v. Under bis inEtmction, Ta 
Nao ^ ^ arranged the cyclical period called Ida tate ^ -^j and 
Yung Ob'^g ^ ^ constructed astreDonrical inetrnmenls and composed 
a calendar. Li Show ^^ gf inrented for him the art of mathematical 
calculation, and Ling Lnn ^ "fji by bis order obbuned bambooe frcm 
the country lying on the West of Ta Hia ys^ J^ and arranged llie system 
of modulated soondsi Yung YUan ^^ ^^ was commanded by him to 
niake twelve muncal bells for denoting tbe seasons, and Ta Yimg "y^ ^b 
composed tbe mosical air to which tbe title Hien CKt ]^ f^ was given. 
Hwang Ti regulated coetnme, taught his people how to manufaotnre nlen- 
nls of wood, pottery, and metal, commanded Eung Ku ^^ ^^ to bnild 
boats and wheeled vehicles, oonstruoted a Palace ualled -^ g , which is 
by some held to have been tbe first royal t«sidence, aod by othera a templo 
for the worship of Gk>d jp£ _t '^. and invented a meiUum of cnrrwwy. 
Grieving over the early death of lib people from many kinds of sokoess bs 
studied tbe operatioiiB of tbe opposing principles of nature and the consti- 
tution and functions of rarious remedies, and thereupon composed tbe Nui 
^'"ff ft *5 (Treatise on the Interior) with the aid of the sage phywcian 
K'i Pell ll^^&. Through tbe studies be pursued, aided by K'i Peh, I^ 
Kung J^ .iSf, and other asnstanta, he was enaUed to prolong the span of 
human life. He mapped out his £mpire in provinces and divided tbe 
land Into legnlar portions ; and afi«r seeing his benefidtd rule illustrated 
by tile appearance of tbe ausptcions /ing kwang and k'i-lin qq. v., in hm 
oourt,'he died at the age of 111 years. His prindpal conecot, Si-Ung Sb« 
q.v., fir&t instructed the people in tbe art of rearing alkwonns, and bis 
BBcMid consort, Mo Mu q.v., regulated his household virtoonsly and well. 

The above compHse what may be termed the hirioncal beads of 
tradition nsapecting Hwang Ti's reign, together with tiie naraca aaigDod 


to lua cbief iMtntinti in the art of gOTernrnent and the civQiution he is 
nputed to have fnatignnted for the Cbiaese people. The kgeiids and 
ftblo beyond number whi^ have been reared on this basb are collected 
in wo^ Bodi aa the Lu She j^ 1^ of Lo Pi, (cf. W. N., p. 24). 

SSe.— HwAKQ Trao-KiEN H M ^' • ® S> t UJ ^■ 

A J). 1045 — 1105. A celebrated poet of the Snng dynasty. Iv renowned 
among the ezamiJea of filial poty ka iba derotbn he displayed toward his 

SaSa. — Hwbl tcH [s| ij$. A name given Ui the god of fire 
in the State of ChSng H^ where propiliatoty Bacrifices were offered to 
this ddtj (Tto Gbwan — K. D.). The name is perbajs derived from a 
ntaVbiaGoa of the loaiKls attributed to the oanies of the descendanli! of 
Chung U q. t. 

SS'?'.— Hwm YDam IB^ j^. The deBignAtton adopted by a 
Taoitt TBclnae and myitio of the third century A.D., who ia said to have 
att^Ded the atate of immorlality. See Liu I-mia. 

i3Sa.— I J4K ^ X- -O- B.O. 247. The yonthfiU name of a 
prinoe ofT^in, giandBon of Ohao Siang Wang ^ jj T. and the central 
fignre in a ramwkaUa historical episode. WhQe dwelling ai a hostage 
ia the stale of Cbao j^ be was encountered by an ilioeranl merobaiit named 
XiB Pu-wei q. v., wbo, recogninog in bim remarkable qiialitiee, resolved on 
attacbhig himself to the Prince's fortnnee, obserting jit ^ [^ ^ M 
" thb u roercdandize worth setting store by I " Learning that the prince, 
ifaongh son of the heir to tbe thrme of Ta'in, was the offspring of a concu- 
bnK named Eia Ei J^ jpCj. and bong one of many brothers, bad small 
proqiect at snocesion to the throne. althoDgh tbe 1igi(imate Princess, ^p$ 
[y ^ /^, was cbildlesi, be devised a plan for ingratiating I J€n with 
the latter, wUch proved snccenfol, and in B.C. 297 he contrived to lestons 
the prinoe to hs home aod to c4>tain his adoption as tbe recognized heh-. 
Hit tnttj Bchemn did not end here. Himself, the husband of an attractive 
WMoan, known uitP]|^ ^.\) on the latter dedaiinghenelf pregnant, 
be ooD^ved that Ae Bhactd inqur^ Ihe Prince with a desire lo take her to 
himnlf' to #ifo ; and giving op his consort with feigned reluctance, htf 
bad the satiafactiDQ in the cruise d Ume of seemg bis own o^^ring 


■nwiqiectiiigtjr Aclcnowledged u tbe boq of the heir BXpecUot to iba tltraoa 
of Win. The Ftioce, who bad exuhangod hia luune USn fix- that oTT^a 
^, ascended the throne on the death of bii bther in B.C. 250, and ii 
koowQ in history as Cfawang Siong Wang ^t j|| ^E' H** F<>t*tin 
■on (the ofispiing of Lti Jo-vei) to whom the name,Ch6ng j^ iras given, 
sacceeded him od tbe thioae in B C. 246 and became the fonnder of tbe 
famooi dynasty of TsTn,-^-flee She Hwang-tl. 

S33e^-l K'l ^ JSX- A mmame and name altnboted (bat, 
accofdJng to the ^g ^, enoDeotHly), to the Emperor Yao q. v. Tbs 
names are sometiDiee written | ^. Wa mother is said to bare borne 
tbe somame ^T. 

S30.— I Ti -|^ lit. ThefaUediaveatoiofwine. Mtbatv 
known of this peraanage is contained in a legmd obtained in the ancient 
work entitled ^ ^ $ (W.N., p. 25), to the following effect: "The 
Emperor's daughter commanded I Ti to make wine, and if was good. 
She gave of it to Yil ^, who, when he had tasted of it, poorcd the Eqnid 
npon the gronnd, and seot I Ti into banighment, and forbade the knowledge 
of wine." Gommentaton npm ibis paMage have presnmed &om (ha mai- 
tlon (rf Yti that the "emperor's dangfatcr," mnat have been m dangbter uthar 
of Yao or Shan, bat the <mgin of tba myth ex tia^fon mnuBS nndisaonnd. 

•33 X. — I Ts*! ^ ^^. A combination in^cating Peh I and 
Sbnb Ts*! qq. ?. 

2S8_I Wu H ^. 1. One of tbe sons of Hieu Kong of 
Trin B.C. 672, and hrotber of the famoiiB WSn Knng q. v., like whom b« 
lired for many years in exile, fs knowD in biMtory as Hwd Eang ]^ 
.gf. 2. The secondary name of Kwan Chung, q. v. 

883.-1 Ynt ^ ^. Chi^ Minister of ^ang, the desboyw 
of the Hia and founder of the Shang dynasty, B.C. 1766, to irboia be was 
"almost what Sbon bad been to Yao and Yfi to Sbon, and Tih to YtL 
l&ncinB gives him bis place &m<»ig aage miuiMai and coatMeKom as tha 
'one most inolioed to Uk« (^oe.'" (Cf. Xi.C, IIL, p. 19l). Many 
legHids are narrated cf Uus as itf all otbn- oeWosled charactan of antiqiu- 
ty, and the accounts of his origin are ineooDcileaUe. Tbe jc hC g^TCS 
his nams (s^, as baiiiig bsea A-htne ^'^,batiim l«ra, ooomibw 


in the Shn King in connection with his BcrriceB, b by some commenUtota 
Bet down bs tiie title of his office ; &nd his lenl name is asserted to have 
been Chih 1ft, the designatJon I having Iwen given to Um in cooseqnence 
of hn birth near the ^ riTer, whilBt ^^ is looked npon as his lue oi 
weanAKCj Appellation. Lleh Tsze reooants that " a woman of Bin ^ (in 
modun Ho-nan), was gathering mulberriee, and in the hollow of a tree 
rite iband an infant, wfaicb Ae reared and named I Tin." Hence it is 
ooEBiBonljr Bud of this pereon^e that he was ** bom in a hollow mnllKny f 
but (he more sobw oommentatora declare tb« statement t« be a myth 
deriTed from Ibe &ct that .^ ^ was tbe name of his birth place. The 
JC §B< {MU^AUy adi^ a legend U> the effect that being aaxiom to enter 
tbe serricfl of Prince Tang, be ingratiated himself with the latter by wait- 
ing npon lum with saTOOiy viands ; bat Uienatis, among other writers, denies 
tiut I tin owed his elevation to mere skill in cookery. Hanng been 
adopted, B.C. 1789, by T'ang as his tmstcd coansellor, Le continued during 
many years to act as tbe rigbt band of this sovereign and his succesaoni, 
dying B.C. 1713, in the reign of Tu Ting, who made his son I Chih pr 
{^, the inheritor of hia father's office. 

S34k— J«M Huo -^ ^. A general in tbe service of She 
Hwang^i, B.C. 22a He was created ^ |^ ^ or Viceroy of the region 
of tbe SoaUuTB Sea (oorTe«pc»)diDg nearly to the modem Ewaugtnog), as 
aoocMSor to T'a Hwei in B.C. 215, and moved 50(^000 military colonistf 
from tbe North to complete the Bubjagation of the new domiiiion. He took 
np his re^ence on the side of the present city of Canton, where already a 
■ettlement existed. See Chao T'o. 

i335.— JiH H. The Sou— defined by the ^ ^ as corres. 
ponding to f| — that which is solid or complete, and hence the ^mbol cX 
die sovereign upon earth. The great luminary is represented as the ooo- 
creted essence of the mascnline principle in natore i§^, and Uie sunroe of 
aB brig^ness. From it emanate tbe five otdoars. It is 1000 li in diame- 
ter, SOOO H bi oiremnference, and suspended 7000 li below the arch of the 
firmafoeni The [Jj }t^ j^ asserts that the Son is the o&piing of a ' 
female named Hi-lio ^^ ^fip ; and Kowh Fob, in his giosgniy, derives 
fiom Ail designation the titles gp'ven by Yao to tbe officers whom he 
nmderMgelMtottcf die iK^am (Gf. L-C, III., Canon of Yao.) Hwal , 


NftD Tsze devotta a higfaljr all^orical chapter of tus Goaoiio PhiloKipby to 
tbe movemGnte of Ute sod, from whence most (^ the ptBr&iltng notioas on 
the subject are derived. He writes as follows: "Tbe boh rivee in ^^ 
^ <the Bright Valley, Cf. L.D., Ift., p. 18), bathes in )^ % and 
passes over ^ ^, to accomplieh his rieiag ^ ^ . Ascending above 
Fu-eang, and commencing hia journey, he is said to have conu /ortA in 
ImglOnen ^[i{ ^. He reaches ffi ^, and is then said to be bright on 
the haiion S. ^' He proceeds to ^^ ^^, and has reached the rtage 
of the morning meal ^ ^ ; and goes on to ^ ^^, which is tmned 
tbe meal in repose ^ ^ ; proceeds to ^ ^, which is the centre of 
the angle f^ Ffl, and arrives at ^ ^, which is called the eaaet (xotre 

(the South) He finally arrives at ^ 1^ and pasdng ^ |9P 

(tbe West) decends into ^ ^." (Gf. H., Book 3). He adds that when 
the sun's last rays fall upon the roots of tbe trees, they are sud to be Sang 
Yu q. V. He also asserts that there is a " Urd with three legs " in the 
sun. Other mystics allege that a spirit residei in the Sun who is named 


S3S.— Jo Shvbi ^ifi. Tbe Weak-water, a river &bled as 
issuing (rom tbe Ibot of the EwSn-Inn Mountain and oicirdittg tbe abode 
of Si Wang Mn qq. t. The legwd ivriteiB deoUre that it owes its name 
to the pecaliar nature of its water, which is incapable of supporting the 
wei^t even of a feather — ^y) ^ W 1^' ^^ name occurs in the list 
of rivera given in the Tribute of Yu (L.C., III., p. 128). 

SST.— Ju..BiJ Wu ^ ^ ^. A line of embankmmt thrown 
np in A.D. 212, at tbe month of the river Ju-sil near Lu Ghow (modem 
Eiang-d), by Sun K'Gan at the advioe of LQ U3ng. in order to enaUe bi> 
army the better to witlutaud a threatened onsknght ^ the forces <£ 
Ts'ao Tafao. 

238.~Ean T'ang -y* ^. Met. for tbe Teneration exptesMd 
toward a beneficent ruler, Beferance is here made to the respeM irtiidl 
' the solfjeats 4^ the wise and virtooos Sbao Knng q. v., mamfeated fat the 
T(mg tree, beneath which it was his custom to sit when di^vensing jnstioe. 
One of the odes of the ^ i^ makes mention of the Kan-tang in a stanxa, 
the first line of wbioh pi^ be tnuidatsd alsxsl litanlly h; the bn^iM 


wtsdi: "OwoodnMuI npue that tn»— Toaobnot ft nogie boagfal" CC 
L.C, IV., p. 36. 

S8e._KAM IViUAH Kuira "y* ^ ^. A celebrated pokes 
of tbe Han djfnasty aitQaled upon ot near a moaDtain of the same name 
<Jk. Sweet FonntaiD), at a diataooe oF 100 or 200 li from Ch'ang-ngan, 
It was originally foonded aa a aammer retreat by Sbe Hirang-ti, was 
rinted m B.C. 177, by Han WSn Ti, and greatly enlarged by hia eac- 
cessor Wa Ti, who made it the aoeoe of itaiq.w>qs ieligioi)s oeMm(»itee 
under tbe gnidanoe c^ hia TaoiBt iiKtnicton. 

J340.— KAoI^-ew^jIS ^ i A.D. 684—782. Waa one 
of tbe chief eutiQcha and pHvy ooanaeDor of T'aro HUan Tmnig. and con- 
temporary with the Umisteis Cbang Eio-Ung, LI Lin-fb and utheis. Uih 
Um the last-named, he sored his Imperial master with unvarying fidefity, 
throng good and evil fwtime; hot he ii nerertbelesB reprobated in UBtcry 
as (ne of tbe too oom^iant nnniiterB to that sovenig^'s vdnptaoiisneai and 
wanttKi miiFTile. On HHaa Tanng'a acoenioDi A J). 713, he made Kao 
I^«e steward of bis faoosdiold, aod &om that data nntil the Emperor'i 
dethronement in AD. 756 tbe futhfnl serraut seldom left his side. Wbok 
Li Tu-peh was royally entertained in the Imperial palace, tbe dn^ nt 
relieving tbe poet of bis boots was, acoording to tradiUco, lajd upon E40 

i341.— KAoSaa-K'i jlS i "SS"- * i® A- A.D. 1645— 
1704. A miBcellaneoas writer. 

S4S.— Rao Tao ^ ^. The moii oelelvated ammg tbe 
ministen wbmn traditira aaigna to the Empen^ Sfaun, B.O. 2866, tha 
glories of wboee reign are attributed in great meBSure to bis fbtnea and 
energy. Shnn is represented in tl|e Bhu Eing as cbatging him, in the 
capacity of Minister tS Crime, with the control of the barharoos tribes of 
die frontier and of criminals and insorgeots. (L.C., III^ pp. 46 and 69), 
His death is recorded to have taken [dace m B.C. 2204. 

i34Sa.— Ei TsEB ^ ■^. Tbe Vlsoonnt or Chief of El, ooe of 
tbe nobles of tbe Empire dtmng the retgn of tbe tyrant Chow Sio B.C. 
1164. In ooDjnnclion with Wei Tne ood Pi Eao qq. v., he vunly 
might to torn tb» KeeatiMW mmMb ftom lua erfl imjt, and ms out , 

". .-- -'Uglc 

78 CBUteSB SBADBSrS MAtftTAt. A. /. 

into prinn, from wluch tbe viotoricna Wu Wang njeand Um on tlw 
dowD&U of ihe tyrant B.C. 1132, He tben retired to tbe conntry now 
forming the kin^am of Corea, dedaring diat hii loyalty, dti^rito lA aof- 
feringh forbade hia ackDowIedging tbe lovereigDty at one whom be 
T^arded aa an uanrpor. (Cf. L.C., IIL, pp. 269, 815). Tba aatbon% 
i^tbe "Great Plan" ^$1$, omof Oiemort Important Ndtioos of tba 
Sba Emg, ie attriboted to lum. 

i343.~.Ki Gba ^ ;|^ A descendant m tbe SOtb degree ftom 
Tw Feb ;j^ 'fj^. tbe fbonder of tbe State of Wn, and fourtb and 
favoaitt« eon of Show M^ Prinee of Wn, B.C. 585. Tbe lattw denred 
to estftbliBh him as hia gucocmcv, deeming him anperior in Tutoe and 
ability to bia elder brotben. Ki Oba, however, dedtned to rob his brotben 
of their birthright, and conlinned to adorn an inferior station by nuuiy 
traits (^ probity and wisdom. 

044.— Ki HwAM TszB ^ ;@ -y-. A oontamporary with 
CSonlbenis, and duef of the most poweriiil family of noblea in Ln ^, the 
•agt^B natira atate. 11 was to him that the PHooe of Ts*! inridiofnly 
tranenitted a present of (tngrng-gitts and boTSes, the acceptance of whicji 
bj the Dake of Ln oaiBed the reliremeDt of Confncios from his ofBdal poeL 
Cf. L.O., 1, p. 196. 

246 .~Eu I ^ IS. S. circa B.C, 200. A celebrated scholar. 
When little more thui twenty yens of age be was recommended for em- 
ployment, B.C. 179, to Han WSn Ti, and in Itss than one year's time «aB 
[wcoioted to tbe rank of privy connseltcv. He IntnidQced sumefoiia reforms 
fn the Inititations cf Btat«j and was active in eetabliihlng Ae Ittenry canon. 
Sone of bis wriUngS are slill in existence. 

S4e.— Ki K-Aso l^M- ' M^- A.D. 223—262. A 
celebrated funcUonary and man of letters, bnt equally renowned as a lover 
of the wine cup and a moucian. He was at tbe same lime an ardent 
devotee of tbe study of alchemy, which he practised under a willow-tiee. 
The wilbw is frequently referred to, in. cogcqaence, as BKcred In this 
puTsdit. Hence bhe phrase ^ ^ ^ 'j^. Was one of tbe Seven 
Worthies of the Bamboo Grove (See Chnh Lin, Sk.). Incarring the 
dkfkaMon gC S»4Ba Ohao, sfeaif ITwiOTr of lb* Iwt' Kivw^ of the 

pt A cantsss headebs uANUAt. » 

booM of Ws, he wu (Ouonted m « pn^MigstDr of ikugic hits and bentioal 
doclrinei. Bis cooIoon sod outcgapt for death w«a inuiifeeted, m he 
walked to tlte place of ezeoaticHi, I17 bb tnaiog hii gmUr is hie last 

ia^7.— Ei ]J ^ ^. B.a. 1284—1185. Hh third an ctf 
Tut E^ q. v^ and fiither of Ch'a^, the edetnted Si Peh q. r. 

84S.— Ki Hma Ghu Kwan fi| I!I| [ij M- Phr. The itrfr- 
tagem of "obtainiDg pMsage onr the border hj mwiu of cock-crow." It 
ie related of Prince 1^, eoa of Tao, that vhen fleeing from Conrt he 
sniTod at the fiotilfer at mtdnigfat, bnt by fanltatiiig the orow of a oook be 
caused all the neighboariiig obantiuliera to strike op in concert, wbereapcn 
the gnards, thinUng that day bad dawned, thretv open the gate. The 
■ame ttory h UiA of other hgitlves- 

04©.— Ki Shao $S JlS, • ^ JK- /'.A.D.304. Son of the 
preoeeding. Fell in battle while defending the person of Thin Hwei TE, 
wboae robe was be^nttered by bis brave enppoHei's blood. Tbe sorerdgn 
comtpanded that the stain be religiooely preserved ad a memento of tbe. 
devotion diepUyed by Ki Shao. 

' SeO.— Kl Yen ^ ^. - ^.S|. Celebrated ae a coonselloi 
tS Han Wa Ti, B.C- 140. - Was empbyed ia nnmeroiu high offioeS) and 
it capedally renowned by bis policy of "goveraing by letting tlunga 
•Icate," or hj means of inacUoa or qraetiam. — Jj^ ^ ^ ^. He was 
ooe 4^ the eaily f<A>wen of the doctrine inculcated on this sabject by 

S61.— KuKw-hR^. » jR--f9. A.D. 80-«l. Aa 
eminent aoholar, eontemporaiy with Ae Lbtorian Pan Kn. His wwk 
v^aa the writings of Tso K'io-nung was rewarded by official pramaioD. 
Was entitled ^ '0B, or tin Univena] Sobolu. 

S36S.— EiA Sbb^ao S 'iBl ^' ^- A.D. 1276. A Mnirier 
ct the emperor To Tynng, who ife execmtej in luslcvy as tbe sltiU agent 
in the dowo&Il of the Snng dynasty, having kept that sorareign in ^no- 
raoca of the dtaaaten daily aecamtilating thioogfa the growing tacceas at 
the sutroadiing Mmgola, whose viotoriei he diswrnbled, and baving 
ahoasd bis trrat for the satiifiMtion of ^ oapiitity and lore of easa. I>i»' 


graced aiW Tn Tvaa^t destb, bo vu pat to death In th« ftdlowjng jvu 
by A petty official into wbom custody be had been giren. 

S03.— Kui Chbw'oi it ^^ One of the fiuthM ad- 
herents of Ch'nng Urb, Prince of Tain (eee Wfin Snng), whose exile he 
shared hi B.O. 654. It fa said that Us proper name was ^ ■^. On 
the prince's letom and antnnpticin of power nineteen yean afterwaide, K. 
BteodfaaUy declined aH 4>Sen of nwatd, and, in order to avoid the prince's 
nigeooy, he withdrew &oUi the Court, accompanied by lus mother, wkh 
whom he disappeared in the forests of j^ _t |JLf* According to the 
j£ ^ and ^ ^^ the Frinct^ after a vain search, gave his tiosty 
adherent up for lost, and in honour of bfa dev(4ion changed the name of 
the moautatn-range to ^f ^J ; hot a later legend dedared that, in order 
to fbroe K. from his retreat, the Frinoe had canaed the forest to be burnt, 
whm the determioed fugitive, rather tbaa come forth, clasped hands with 
his mother about the trunk of a tfte and perished b the flames. In com- 
roemoratioa of thjs event, it is Asserted, the singular custom prevailed in 
North-weeierD China of ahetaining thioaghout the whole of the third month 
in each year, (that being the period in which (he incremation was said to 
have occuiied), frOm the nse of fire, and as all food was then consequently 
eaten cold, the phictice took the name of }^ ^ ot |^ ^, and of ^ 
jj^ (interdict of smoke). At this (inje eggs d^ed m diven colouia were 
nniversally eaten ; and willow twigs were placed aWe the doorways. The 
usage of alMvning fnKn the employment of fire was found to canse so 
much injury to health that, in the 5th centary A J)., the emperor Wsi Wa 
/n forbade the continnanoe of the practice by a special edict. 

S04L— KiANo How ^ J^. Ti'ha consort of Caowauan Wang, 
B.C. 827, who publicly reproved her bosband at a banquet for his love of 
ease and dissipation. Then, divesting heiself of the royal insignia, die 
offered herself in sahmtsson to pnnisbmeitt for the temefity she had ^ewn ; 
but hm' reproof wm accepted and led to good results. 

SBS—KuNO Km '^ JjjL, " -^ ^fe. A soholar and puHic 
servant of the TsTi dynasty, ciicA A.D. 490, distingnished by bis learning, 
liprigfatncM, and fiKal deTo^on. In early youth, during the disturbances of 
that troublous age, he rescued bis mother from a band.of brigands by 
carrying hw many milea upon bis back. HImesIf Uken prisoner on one 


occasion l>y tlie faces of tlie Kingdom of Wei, he lefosed to abjora his 
allegiaDce and whb «Ibwed to return to his own Court with uatarniehed 

i363._EiANa She j^ ^. One of the paUerns of filial piety, 
said to have flonridied temp. Han dynasty. In conjunction with His wife 
he devot«d himself to waiting upon his aged mother, in order to gratjfj 
whose fancy he went duly a long distance to draw drinking water from a 
river and to obtain fish for her table. Thin deTotedness was^worded by 
a miracle. A spring buret forth cloee by his dtrallbg, and a pair of carp 
were daily produced frcon it k> supply his mother's wants. 

307. — KiANo TazB-YA ^^ -f ^, td. Kuno Lu-sbaho, etc' 
\ 3 t^, and 'j^Si^- Is reputed to have been a counsellcn- of 
Si Peh (J. V. I'ith century B^C. Legends relate that when Si Peh was 
abont to undertake his campaign against the western barbarians, intending 
to divert himself one day wlih a hunt, he inquired of an oracle what his 
Inclc would be, and was told that the trophy of his chase would be neither 
tiger Dor dragcH), beare nor leopards, bnt the counsellor of a King. In the 
course ot his exciirdoa he acconlingly encountered an aged man wlio was 
fishing in the river j^, whose oonvosaiicHi proved so sage and Imprewve 
that the prinoe b«f^;ed him to eater his servise as Minister, saying: " My 
grandsire told roe that when a wise coanaellor should join himself to Chow, 
the fotanea of Chow would Soiuiah^— and yon are be for wh<an my grand- 
Bie looked 1 " HeBoe be" gave bis new-foond adTiset the natile of ^ .^ 
aB ("grands're's expectation.") The venerable sage was in reality sur- 
oatned LU§ and named Shang {jS}, whence he further received the title 
Father Shang JF^ -^ ; bnt his patronymic was abo Eiang, his descent 
bung derived from Hwang Ti. Many fables are narrated of hfa exploits, 
and concerning bis virtue it is related that this was acknowledged even by 
the fishes for which be angled. Although he used but a straight piece of 
iron, they voluntarily impaled themselves thereon. Aib^r serving Si Peh 
and his son dnrttig twenty yrars, he is said to have died aged ninety iu 
B.C. 1120. 

SOS.— KlAO TcH 3^ ^. D. B.C. 2»8. A mhilon of Lu Pn- 
wei, when Minister lo Prince Cheng of l^'in. Lti Pu-wei, bdng engaged 
iD an illicit comiezion with (he fVboe'a mother, (his own former lm^|^' 


cn^nne. — See I JSn), and fearing future diaoorerjr, cmnsed Eiao Toti to 
be placed in attendance upon her aa an emincb. As a leanlt oi the 
position thus obtained, two children were bone to E. by the princev, and 
the inflnenoe be wielded became Beeond only to that of LU Pn-weL When 
the priace arrived at manhood he dcicovered the natnre of his motbei'* 
intrignea, and, afLer an inefiectoal attempt at laigiDg a nvolt, Kiao Tnb 
was pnt to death, with the two children of which he was the father. Tba 
adnlterons [yincesa was committed to baniahment. See Lii Pa-weii 

S50. — KmH 5^. The posthnmous designation of Kwei ^^, 
the abandoned tyrant with whose reign the Hia dynasty came to its end* 
B.C. 1766. During many years he opprened bis subjects wM an iron 
despotism and the most aavage brutality. Having become posaeaed <£ 
the beantiful Mei Hi q. v., and made her his consort, ho indulged in ez- 
tnuHdinaiy fixma of senaoal gratification for bet enjoyment. Treasures 
were laviabed in providing her with a aplendid palace, and in the park 
that surrounded it a lake of wine was formed at which " three tbouaand 
men drank at the sound of a dram," while the bees were hnng with dried 
meats, and " hills c^ flesh " were piled op. At Imgth Prince T'ang q. r., 
took np arms to fiee the land from ils opptoBor, and liie icsorgeDt onny 
proved victorious amid mighty portents and convnlsitms of nature. The 
tyrant, dethroned and made captive, was sent into banishment As one of 
the types of vicJona rulen. he is ranked with Chow Sin q. v. ; whilst in 
the phrase ^ | ^ ^, a degree of wickedness beyond the power of 
imagiRation to enhance, is implied. 

f3SO.— KiBB Lmf^^. This is said to be the name of the 
spirit or genie d the Moon, who is olno called ^ "^ at the Old Man d 
the Moon. He is repated to influence matrimonial relations, and to tie 
together with an invisible red cord infanta who are desUned by fate to be 
joined in future wedlock. See Wei Eu. 

23 1. — KiEH Ni ^ ^. The reclose who, with his oomrade 
CSi'ong Tsu q.v., was plonghing when interrelated by Confucius coocernmg 
a ford. Id comtMuation, the names Tsn and Ni aie used n met. its 
devotion to ros^c pnitoits alone. 

SeS.— KnH T^AO Sh&i |£ ^ |$. The spirit d^ te^ 


the gnu togather. Beferenc« » bora made to a legend relating to Wri 
Eo 1^ ^. a oommaiider of the State of 'Ttin, 6th centDry B.C., whooe 
father, in ha lut ntoOKiits, beMD^t him to take to wife a coooulnna 
whom the dying man had dearly loved. Wei Ko obeyed hii fathei'i wid). 
8«ne time afterward when engaged in batUe with Tn Hwei i^ [p], h« 
defeated the latter and took btm prisoner, thanks lo an old man who ap- 
peared oo the field and bound the steme of graa together eo firmly as to 
proTS a bairier against fli^t The old mao afterwaidi appeared to Wd 
Eo ia a dreau and said t. " I am the father of the coneafaine whom 70Q 
dntifblly married ; and I have thus rewuded yon 1 " (6.T.) 

033.— KiBH Te'Ao Kien Hwan jj^ ^ ^ ^ Met. for 
Gratitade, with referenco to the above legend and to tliat nanated rw 
pecting Tai^ Pao q.v. 

Se-^— KftNO Ki-Bow ySli^^- ■"- ^^- l^'l- One of the 
kadeiB among ihe Noithem Chineee adherents of the Hanchow invaden of 
China. Accompanied bia father, ESng Chung-ming [ ^ 1^ A.D. 
1649 in the campaign which the latter ' imdbrtook for tbe pnrpoae of nib- 
jagating tbe poTince of Kwangtnog, and in 1651, after bis father's death, 
was created ^^ ^^ ^. He cooperated with Shang E'o-hi q.v. in 
eSecting the capture of Canton and other cities, and was subsequently 
tiansfeired to Fakien, wbeie he extiognisbed the last attempte at reaatance 
to the new sovereignty. 

see.— Etao Tsaw-cauKo Bfc ^ >©■ Bonofthepreoedlnft 
and bis socoenor as Viceroy of Fukien and T»mg Nan Wang. In 1674 
he was induced by Wd San-kwd q.v. to job bidi in his attempted rerdt, 
and for a few mootbg hs threw off hia alkg^nca and declared himsdf 
hldependent mler of Fnkien ; hot he shortly aflerwardi gave in hie ndt- 
iiiililliiii to the Hancbow dynasty, and was rtfidmitted to favour. 

SQQ, — Kin 5g, — a generic term for tbe metals, of which (be 
CUnene enumerate five, viz. : yf ■^ , gold ; Q -^P . sQver ; 0^ ■^ , 
copper -, j^ ^^, lead ; ^ 4^ t ^^n. In gt^ceral, ^^ designates gold, 
which is looked apon as the most valuable prodnction in nature after the 
jadcslone. Like tbe latter, it has baeft made the topio of endlea mystica] 
9, and fnm tbe days g€ Wn Ti of tbe Bn dynuty (B.O. l«f), 


downwardly the powder of (nnnnntation, whereby olhec metab m miner&l 
BabaUnces may be changed into gdd, baa been eagerly aonght After. See 
■fj". According to Hwai Nan Tsxe, tbe nataral growth of gold Ukes place 
by slow but progreasive evolutions, commendDg with the Lmmaterial princii^ 
of creotiun, and passing through silver np to the prectons metal itself. Another 
mystic aoserts that gold is the perfected essence of moanUin rock, which 
after the lapw of one thousand yeais is converted into qiiicksilvOT. The 
latbir substance, being vallud into existence by the female or lunar principle 
in nature, is accordingly fluid and iuoapabte of ocmoretion until acted upon 
by the pure mascaline ot xiu [Kinoiple, )JVQ ^ ^ ^, whcin it becomes 
transmuted into gold. Tbe Chinese alcLepiiBta taught that the seme com- 
poaod, variously treated, adod as tbe powder of transmutation and the 
elixir of life, whence the latter is freqaently spoken of as ^ ]^, tlie golden 
draught See E'iung and YU. A belief in tlie power of effecting the 
transmutation of metals was highly prevalent nnder tlie Tang dynasty, 
and was again onconraged l^ more than one of the supersUtiouH sovereigns 
of the Sung dynasty. 

SQV— Kin Jih-ti ^ H ^. * ;fet^. ^- B.C. 86. Was 
of Tartar origin, a son of King Hiu-chu of the Hiuog-nu, and having 
been taken prisoner by Ho E'u-p'ing in B.C. 121, was made a slave and 
employed in tending the Imperial horses at tbe palace gate. While thus 
occupied his unusual statnre and noble demeanour attracled the notice of 
the Emperor Wn Ti, who raised Lim to the office of Uaster of the Horse, 
whence he was advanced to pMtM of the higliest dignity. In com- 
memoration of tbe * golden iinfige, captured from bis &tber (see Ho K'ti- 
p'ing), Wu Ti invented him with tbe sumame ^ ; and on his deathbed 
the emperor appointed him one of the tbtee Regents who were to watch 
over (he youthful heir. On the tatter's aoceasion, he was ennobled as f-^ 
^|. and dying tbe same year be was cart aa ^^. It is related of him 
that he slew wiih his own hand one of his sons, a favourite of the Emperor, 
who disgraced himself by lewd behaviour in tbe palace. He acquired 
great riches and waa famous for the magnifioenoe of bjs dwelling and 
attire, in which be rivalled his colleague Chang Ngan-ibe. 

SaS.-rKiN Lien Chuh ^^ ^—Tbo goldtn-lily cande- 
Uhn, » tern ap^ied to the lights of the Impeml paUoe. With theae, 


more than one honoated MiniateT or maa of lettera has been «8C0tt«d to 
bis rewdence at night | | | ^ ^ ^> notably Ling-hu T'ao b; 
Tamo Silan Tsnng, and Su Tung-po by the EmpreaB of Sung Jfin l^ng. 
Foot other ioBtances are likewise recorded (B,.Y.). 

Se©.— Km Ma Mes ■^ || f^. The Gate of the Gblden 
Horaee, in tbo palace of Wei Tang Kung. The entrance to the cabinet 
of Han Wu Ti was thus entitled from (he bnHue efii^es of horaee which 
were placed there, the work of a Rtatuary, who is said to have modelled 
them from chai^rs brooght from the oontines of Persia. On these Sgcres 
being erected at the gatewajr^ its name was changed from Ln Pan M6n 
^S WL fj' ^ ^^ above. Enng-BUn Himg and others, who in B.C. 
ISO were called to Conrt to glre counsel without being placed in any 
defiiute pnUio employ, were said to await the Imperial tnaodate at the 
CaUnet door ! ^ g^ ^ g^ P^. and the expreBaon entered thence into 
common nse to designate candidates for official posts or Imperial notioe. 

B. A-D. 1627. D. ciroft A.D. 1665. An erudite scholar and accom- 
plished writor. During the tfoublons period attending the fnetallation of the 
Manchow dynasty, he devoted himself to the study of the imagiuative 
literature, which, brought into favour under the Mongol conquerors and in 
TOgne unce the 14th century, hud been, bnt little prized before his time. 
He fomid, however, great beantira in the romantic drama entitled @ ^ 
§2, and in seve.-^] romances of which the ^ gg ^ ^ ^ occnpied, 
in his estimation, the highest place. These he edited and annotated, his 
criticisms giving extensive currency to the works he extolled, and remaining 
to this day acknowledged as the perfection of literary skill nnd diecrimina- 
lion. His soifiocted political tendencies bronght htm under suspicion 
shortly after K'ang-bi had ascended the ibrone, and be was arrested and 
executed with sixteen other men of letters by a GoTcmor of Eiang^n, 

ST Oa.— Kino Fans j^C #, ' ^ ^- 1st century B.C. A 
philosopher and astronomerdeeply versed in the science of the Yih King and 
the planetary revolutions, which he had studied under Tslao Ten-show ^j^ 
jjfe, ^^. The latter predicted that his pupil would surpass him in know- 
ledge, but that his Boienoe would lead him to destmction. This prophecy 
was verified, oiroA A,D. 30, when King Fang, being denoanced foe disobe. 


dience U> aa edict pmbitnliog tb« praolioe of occult calcoIatioD^ ww pat 
to death. The diriaioa (tf the Tear into 72 periods (^) U attribated to 
a coDceptJoQ on tua part. 

S^X,— EiNQ K'o^^. D. B.a 227. A dtnoua maury 
empbyed by Tan, Prince and heir-apparmit of the Slate of Yen, Sot tbe 
purpose of aasUBinaUng the ruler of Ts'iD (afUrwards She Hwang-tO wbeD 
threatening the bdependeooe of Yen. Having secrellj iodaoed King K'o, 
a brawling but courageona adfentnrer of the time, lo accept this dangerooi 
misnon, the Prince commistioned him as a pretended envoy, ohaiged with 
presendog to the ruler of Ts'ic his tender of allegiance, accompanied by 
jdang of the territoiiea of Yen, and the head c^ a military commander 
obnoxioos to tbe Intended viotim. The prince and a few of hla conGdantB 
eaoorted King K'o to the frontier, tbemeelves attired in motuniDg garb, and 
lbs eaUmajj here took leave of lus boon-oompanion Eao Tnen-Ii ^ ff[ 
f^ in an elegy chanted in so moomful a strain as to draw tears from 
tbe eyes of the prince and his party, who gazed horror-stnick at tbe 
departing figure, their hair bristling within their caps." ^g ^ ^^ ^^. 
Having reached tbe capital of Ts'in and gained access to the sovereign, 
King K'o unfolded his pretended mi^on, and seized an opportunity of 
striking at his victim with a dagger, but missed bis aim and was himself 
despatched atUr a stmggle. C£ S.K., k. 86. 

{37 0.— Eiu ^. The pigeon or dove. (See " Chinese Notiocs 
about Pigetnu and Doves" by T. WaU«rs, Tran. Shanghai Branii R.A. 
S., 1867). I^it-ehang \ ^, a symbtd of protracted kmgevily, IVom the 
coatom which prevailed under tbe Han dynasty of beetowing npon persona 
abuve the age of eighty a jade-stooe staff ^ ^, upon which the figure 
of a pigeon was engraved — tbe pigeon being b^teved to have peculiar powui 
of digesting its food, and a wish for nmilai Btrength on the recipient's part 
being thus symbolized. 

ST-S.— Kin Cnow Cap T\«a jlf^^^- Met for hope- 
lessoeRS or irremediability. It is said that an error once committed cannot 
be blotted oat tbou^ "all the iron of the nine ^orioces of the em^re" 
were gathered together and molten Ux tbe pnrpoee. 

374.— Ko HcNo ^ ^- * H }\\- Fourth century A.D 
One ef tbe most celebrated amcng the docton <S 'EvAssa and adapts in 


the «rt and psclice of Klcbemy. He adopted the deBi'gnittion Pao F'nh 
Tsze ^ ^1* -^, noder vbich title his ezpoeiliooB of the transc«iul«ita] 
philinopby of the later mTatica and on the secret praceBsee of tranBinatatioii 
have been handed down. He is lepnted to have attained to the elate of 
Immortality, and his disappearance from eaith at the age of 81 ia referred 
to the reign Hien Ho of the Tain dynasty, A.D. 326—334- He ie 
laid to have bequeathed the secret of his art to hia discijJe Hwang Teh 
JSn j5 ^f /^, who, after swallowing the elixir of life, continued to 
hannt the recesses of the Lo Fow HoaDlaioB jg| ^ (Jj, as one of the 
genii of earth. 

S3'7a.—Ko Shd Han ^0^- D. A.D. 756. Eighth cet- 
tury A.D. A famous commnnder in the service of T'ang Hlian Tsang, 
descended from Tartar ancestry. In A.D. 747, was appconted Viceroy of 
Ngan-si ^^ ^, a region comprieiog a great portion of modem Turk- 
estan. In 756 was called nilh his forcu to defend the failing Imperial 
cause against the attack t^the traitor Kgan-ln-fihaD, and advised that the 
defiles which guarded the approaches to Ch'ang-ngan on the West ebonld 
be defended in lien of advancing to meet the enemy in the level conntiy. 
HSs counsel b«ng ovemiled, be gave battle at the foot of the monntains, 
and was disastjoosly defeated. See Ling Pao. After falh'ng into the 
bands of tbe triamphant rebel, he was executed by lite biter's command, 
altbongh be vainly soogbt to ocuciliate bis oouqneror'e good will by atgeot 

S'?'©.— Kow TaiEK 4j ]^. Prince of the State d" TUeh j^, 
occupying that part of China now forming the province of Cbekiang and a 
portion of Fokien. Succeeding to the throne B C. 496, he maintained a 
warfare of twenty years' duration with Fu Ch'a, prince of Wu, whom he 
at length defeated KG. 474. He thenupon annexed Uie slate of Wn 
(o his dmninions and tendered hia allegiance to the dynasty of Chow, then 
roUng on the oottb of tbe river Yai^-lsBe. (See Fan Li). 

ST"?*.— Kow Wn 4p i^. The name atlribnled lo the region 
(mw forming the provinoe of Klangsn and part i^ the adjacent territories) 
which was taciatA into a |siocipality by T'ai Feb ^ -fj^, eldest sun of 
tbe Duke of Chow, droft B.O. 1280, {^ |g. See Wa T'ai Pdi). The 


word Row is said to have been used as a prefix id tlie language of the 
barbarous aborigines of this rpgion. 

a'T'S.— Kow Yra Fu Jfis ^ -^ ^ X -» B.C. 88. The 
tide given to ihe lady Cbao, «bo, wbile filling an official post in the 
Beragtiu of Han Wu Ti, attracl«d by ber beauty lie nolice of that sovereign, 
and was raised by him to a podlion of supreme favour. From the office 
conferred npon her she received the title Tsieh Yii (^^ ^; 5^) and 
apaitmenta were assigned to ber in the Kow Yih Pavilion, whence the 
designation by which she is referred to above. In B.C. 94 she gave birth to 
a son, who received the oamo Fuh-ling ^ |^, and the aOection lavished 
upon this child by the Emperor icefnred her with the ambition of settjng 
aado iu liis favour the recognized heir to the throne. By a dark intri|fue 
she succeeded iu implicating the heir apparent in an accusaliun of sorcery 
and of parricidal designs, and so well did her plot sncceed that the Emper^ 
was persuaded to doom bis son to death wilb thousands of other innocent 
peraom. The infant on whose betialf tliis conspiracy was undertaken was 
then recognized as heir to the Throne, to which he actually succeeded in 
B.C. 86 ; but before this event occurred the Emperor Wu Ti had disoovered 
the falseliood of the statemenlA imposed upon him, and iu B.C. 88 the 
the lady Cbao died by the hand of the executioner. 

2*7*9.— Kd Sow ^ ^. The father of the graat emperor 
6han, B.C. 2255. Tbe name is variondy interpreted, — by some taken 
in the scuse of phyucal, by others in that of moral, Uindnees. He U re- 
presented as having been a hanh and unfeeling father, and as having 
sought, in aonjoQction with hb second wife and son, to cause the death on 
repeated occasions of tbe vurtuouB and dutiful Shun, heSfXv the lattet'a 

3SO._Ku Ybh-wanb -gj W i- • ^M- A.D. 51*- 
581. Celebrated as a eaholar of almost universal learning. Was author 
of the dicticauiy called JQ j^, &t^ o^ sundry historical commentaries. 

S81._Kr Ten-ww ^ j^ B^. * ^ A- t ^ #- AD. 

1613 — 16S2. One of tbe most distinguished scholars and authors of the 
present dynasty. His commentaries on classical and historical snhjecto 
are highly i^Eed. 


J38S._KuE-uA«Q 3huh ft ^ ilt or I \ ^ * jt 
^^. According to a tradition, n>u a pcpil of Tsie Bi», from whom be 
B repaled to hare received tbe text, orally condgned to bim, of ibe CKun 
Tiiv, tbe annals of the 8tat« of Ln compiled by ConfuctDS, opon which be 
prepared a comiuentary. This work, transmitted tlirougb a wriea of 
diaciptee, was brought to light in the reign of Han Stiati 11, who, in B.C. 
51, stamped it with bis approval during the great fiternrf revival which 
took place under hia aoepices. (T.E. an, cit). See She E'ti Eoh. Cf. 
WJJ., p. 6. 

J383.— EuNO En ^ ^. One of the Anistanta of the Em- 
peror Hwang TI q.v, B tpnied as tbe fiist constmotor of boala. 

S84— KoMG Kuira ^ JH. (l) A legendary being, respecting 
whose epoch and peiaooality much diffei^nee of opnion e^sta, tbongb all 
traditionB concat in reprewntiog bim as baring been the leader of a t^niu 
rebellion in limes of old, wheli be well nigh overwhelmed tbe earth witli a 
watery delage. £iy some writers he is said to have been a minister of 
Fnh Hi. B.C. 2852, snd by others a vafaal of Shto Nnng, of Chwan Hfl, 
or of others among the ancient mlera One vernoa represents him as 
having rebelled against Chwan Hii, and bronght floods npon tbe Em- 
pire uDttt defeated and made prisoner ; whilst anolber aeconnt states Ibat 
when ifu Ewa q.v. tbe sister of Fuh Hi, ascended the tlirone, Enng Enng 
tiEUsed a revolt and lifted ap a Bood of waters to ovenvhelm the hnd. Kii 
Ewa marshalled an army against tbe rebel, whom she oveieftme and slew. 
Lieh Tkeb enlarges npon this tradition by relating that Kong Eimg " stnck 
with his head against the Imperfect jUoantain !^ ^ \\\, and cansed it 
to cramble down. He broke tbe pillars of Heaven and destroyed the snp- 
4>orts of tbe comere of Earth, He fought with Chub Tdng q.v., and was 
vanquished by Kd Kwa.^ From these traditions, the saperstkroni of later 
agee have invested Enng Kung with tbe atlribntes of the god of Water 
;flC Jl^l. (2) TBb premmed title of tbe "Minister of Works" nnder tbe 
Emperor Yao, who haniBhed him for permittitag innndatioos to gather head. 
Cf. L.C., III, ip. 23, 39. 

*3S^— KuNO-WiiNFnH-JAo^lij^gJ. 6lh century B.C. 
AnoWe, ointempoiary with Confucius, and governor of the district of H 
©. At a ikne wbea be was hesitating in his loyahy and dispcsed to 


jmo in die sedition of Tang Ha q. v , he Addrened an tiiTitatton to Con- 
fiicias, (Ifturing the latter (o visit bim. Cf. L. 0., I., p. 1S8. The sage 
was inclined to comply with the suinmooa, beliering Uiat be might he 
iostnimenCal in effeoting a political reform, bat did not fulfil thii mtention. 
For the cognomen Fuh-jao, the ^ ^, has Pu-niu ^ ^. 

S8S.— KusQ 8n |B[ )|^. Ist century B.C. Governor of Po 
Hai ^^ i'9' ^ region of North-cast«m China in the reign of Han Stian 
Ti, B.C. 73-47, in which post he greatly distinguished himself hj his vigour 
and prudence in the eappresdon of disorden. He o&red liberal amneetiee 
to l^e brigands who icfeeted his territory, and by his couneels induced 
them to tarn tlieir hands to honest labour. From the admonition he con- 
rinntly gave, that his people should sell their swords and daggers to pnr- 
chase heifers and ploughing oxen, the saying arose that under his govern- 
ment men " wore oxen at the waist and carried helfera in their bells " — 

38*7.— KoNQ-auN Hl-ns Sf^^L- * ^- D. b!c. 122, 
Famous as a minister of Han Wu Ti. He first rose into not« B.C. 130. 
when the scholars and functionaries of the Empire were called npon by 
their sovereign for advice respecting matters of State and counsel based on 
the teachings of antiquity. The bomily tendered in reply by Eung-sun 
Hung, an obscure scholar, who had been a swineherd in his early years, 
was approved beyond all olheis, and its author, having been invested with 
the title ^^ ^, was commanded to " await the Imperial mandates at 
the Oale of the Qolden Horse" (See Kin Ma Men). He was afterwards 
made Privy Councillor, and in B.C. 12i was raised to the rank of chief 
minister, which post he held niitil his death. Was ennobled as T^^'^- 

288, — EuNO-suN Luna ^ .^ Hg. A Taoist philoaopher, who 
flourished aroor^ the adherents of P'ing Yuan Eiin, RC. 298. His skill 
in. argiunent is described by Sze-ma Ts'ien, in tiie phrase 'S^ Q ^ 
^^; but (his dictum, the precise meaning <£ which is disputed, has been 
subsequently explained as a tbeory to the effect that the attribolce of 
material objects, snob as hardness and colour, are separate existenoes. Cf. 
W.N., p. 126. 

SSe.— El-nq-sun Tanq ^ -^ SK;- Bee Wei Twog. 


J330.— KLUKi-YAKa Kao ^ ^ j^. Ssid to h&ra been a 
nktive of Ts'i aod a pupil of Taie Hia, ftvm wIkhb be received the text (f 
the CS'un Ts'w, (tba CoDfucian AnnAle). "Bis commentaiy oc tins work 
nuiks anumg the canouical wriliogB. 

<38X.-~Ei) E'uo ^ ^. Tbe store house of grain prepared 
by the tyrant Chow Sin q. r. lis contents nere distributed among the 
people in B.C. 1123, on th^'r deliverance from the oppreesor by Wn 
Wang, the great fonoder of the Cbow dynasty. 

260.— EWAM CaANO |g gg. Abbr. for Evan Yil and Chai« 
»M q. T. 

S93. — EwAN I-wu OT KwAN Chcno ^ ^ ^ or | -(^1*. 
D. B.C. 64J!. One of Uie most renowned etatesmen of antiquity. A 
native of tie Sute of Ta'i ^, he was in yonth the boeom-friend of Pao 
Shnh Ta q. v., and the latter, being in the eerrice of the prince who afier- 
wards became Dake Ewan of Ta'i, (eee Hwan Enng), recommended 
Ewan Ghmig to hb master as the most fitting person for the ofBce of chief 
Mniater. In B.C. 685, be was accordingly raised to this poet, in which, 
by his prudent counsels and jnst administration, be powerfully contiibated 
to the aggrandisement of Ts'i. During a long series of yean, he directed 
the alliances and campaigns in which bis master took the headship, and he, 
at the same time by, developing tbe commerce of Ts'i, both by sea and 
land, raised tlie comparatively petty State to equality with far larger and 
more populous rivals. A philosophical work on government and legislatitxi, 
the alleged prodoetinn (£ his pen, is still in existence, and his name k 
enrolled m the lint of sages under Ihe title Ewan Tsze ^ •f'. Tbe 
friendship which subsiBted between Pao Sboh and himself was referred to 
in his saying: Uy puente gave me birth, but Pao Shuh [alone] knows 
my feelings," and the names of the two friends are celebrated with B 
repate similar to that which pert^na to Damon and Pythias. 

S&4.— Ewan Shdh Sibn ^^^. The third son of Si 
Peh q. ri, and yonnger brother of Wu Wang, who conferred upon him the 
principality of Sien (whence the appellation above) after bis establiabment 
Upon tbe throne B.O. 1122. la later yean Ewan and bis brother Tb'«I' 
(or Ts'ai Shah Tn), became involved in iotrignas against their nephew,, 
th« yoothfol Im of Wn Wuig, then reigning nnder the guaidianship of 


Chow Enng. llie latter look up arms B.C. 1116, to repien tlw sedituHi 
tnolted \>j tJia Uotli^n, vgA put Kiran to death. 

SBfi._EnrAN Tail || ^' The title Assigned to the flrA Ode 
of the She King, in wbich the luippy anion of a pnnoe wHh a gentle and 
hartDonions consort is celebrated. The first stanu idiu asfoltovs: ^ 

«»*». «w2wi. Wium*. #^^ffis- 

Here the biida dengnated as bH km, Bonndiiig their notes in uniwm t/et 
opart from e leh other, in the JEJela of the river, are made to Bjinbolite the 
modeatj and purity of the virgin who is about to become the fitting cou- 
■ort of the prince, CommentatorB are at variance with each other 
rsqwcting the bird that is intended to be described b; tlie charaotets tta 
Hu, and notwithstanding the saggestiveneBB of 7^ whiub deems to imply 
■ome qK>cieti of dove, yet, as Dr. Le^p^ points oat, the Chinese tbemselves 
pnfer to insist on a different meaning, and consider that some eqiiatjo 
iHid is referred to. Dr. Legge, seee reasons for iDtrodncii^ the Ode with 
the anpoetical translation : " Xwan-kuxm, go tbu ospreyB-" Cf. L.C., IV., 
1.— By metonomy tbe expremon Kuxni-ua, is freqnently employed to 
symbolise virtuous oonrtship and ba^^y onion. Tbe ode, as a wbole, is 
declared to be emblematical of the virtaes of a Prince's consort, ^ jf^ 
>Cl IS) ^*' ^7 some aqthoritJ^ the signification c^ Ktoan is reduced to 
y^ Sp -rr the sound of harmony. 

886.— EwAN Ts'ai ^ ^. Abhr. fiv Ewan ^nh ESen and 
Tiffti Shub Tn qq. v. 

SSSV— KvTANYtt||i^.«S^;^. -O. AD. 219. Designated 
I ^^. and (ieitied as Ewan Ti H <$* or V^*^, ibe God of War. 
A native of Kiai Chow /^ jf| in Shan-d, who rose into celebrity toward 
Un dose of the second orntury ihrongb his alliance with Liu Pei and Ghnng 
Fei qq v., tn tbe straggles which nsbered in the period of tbe Tbree King- 
doms. He is reputed to have been In early life a teller of bean-card, hut 
to have enbaeqiiently applied himself to etndy, nntil in AD. 184 be casually 
encountered Lia Fei at the time when the latter was about to take up 
anns in defence of tbe boose of Han against tbe rebellitm of the Yellow 
Tnrbans. He joined Liu Pel and bis confederate Cbang Fei in a Kilemo 
ostb. whicb was sworn in a peacli-orcliaTd belonging to the latter (JPC'fyS 
69 ^ ^^ ^"^ *^ inx^ fight tbttioeforwaid side by side and livo 


u>d die ti^etlwr. Tbe fidelity of Ev&n Yt) to hit adopted leader remained 
nn^aken daring a long eeries of ^ears in despile of njany trials ; 
and BimilATly his aUachment to Chang Fei continned throughont tlieir 
liras. At an early period of hia career he was created a t'ing how (baron) 
by the regent Ts'ao Ts'ao q.v.. with tbe litte '^ |^ ^ '0| ; and at 
ibis epoch a celebrated incident in his history took place. DesiKHis, it is 
■aid, to tiun (i)e hero from his fealty toward Liu Fd, whose (wo nivea, 
the ladies Eaa and Mei ^' ^^ Z^ 7Z /^ ^^ tnlka into bis power, 
Ts'ao Te^oo caused Ewaa YU to he sliut up at night in the same apart- 
ments wi^i tbe two imprisoned ladies ; but the trusty warrior preserved 
tfaeic reputatioo from inueudo and proved bis on'n fidelity by mounting; 
goard in an ant«cb)unbet tbe livelong night with a liglited laniem in his 
hand. To Ibis event aHuskih is made in the phrase : ^ jtQ ^ M. ^ 
Wn ^^ ^€' ^^ Uaitinl prowess shone con^iciiiiiiEly in the many cam- 
paigns «bich were waged by Liu Pei before his throne as sovereign of 
8buh became anared ; but be fell a victim at last to Ihe superior force and 
strategy of Sun K'ilan q.v., who tnok him prisoner and caused bim to he 
beheaded. Long celebrated as one of the most renowned among China's 
heroes, he was at length canonized by tbe Bnperstitious Hwci Tsiing of Ihe 
Sung dynasty, early in the i2th century, with the title ^ ^ ^. In 
1128 be received ibe still higher Utie of ^ j^ j$ ^ ^, and after 
many sabeequent alteratiims and additions he was at lengtli raised in 1594 
by MiKO Wan Li to the rank of '^ or Ood, n'nce whii^b date, and espe- 
oally since the aeccasion of the Manchow dynasty, his troislu'p as the God 
of War has been firmly established. 

S98.— KwANO Ch'Eng Tbze || ^ ■^. A supernatural 
being named by Chwang Tsze, as contemporary with the Empera 
Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697, who is said to have visited him in the grotto among 
tbe Enng-t'ung monntains where be led an ascetic life, and to have 
received instnctiim from bim respecting the mystic pursuit of immortality. 
The imperial votary was enjoined to ciiltivste ccmplete serenity of mind 
uid tranquillity of body, to disregard external sensations, to contemn world- 
ly knowledge and pursuits, and to vrilbdraw bimself from human joys and 
sorrows, as the means by which the mortal frame may be mblimated into 
ft perpetual Iwgevity <^ fllj ^). Aocordiag to Uler (^kait he was 


one of the inoamaUons awimed by Lao Tate, before hia appearance at 
tlie Court of Chow. 

S83. — KwEi ^^. The Tortoiae — one of the foar divinely otm- 
atituted or aupematural creatnres, (see Part II., No, 94), There are snid 
to he ten deBcriptiooa <£ thii aoimal, of which the first and greateet is the 
Jl^ I or Divine Tortoise, which presented to tlie gase of Tti the mysUo 
writing of the river Lob, whence he deciphered the bans of moral teachings 
and the secreta of the nDseen, (see tmfa, No. 177)- An astroli^ical legend 
reprcsenls the divine tortoise as having been an embodiment of the star 
Tao Kwang ^ '^ in Uraa Major ; and from the divine tortoise is said 
to have apmng the ^ [ , the member of the enpematiiral group refetnd 
to above. Another account alleles, on the contrary, that from the " fint 
■^i!'™ " Til Wg sprang the Great ^n 7|^ ^^, and from this the 
divine tortoise, which gave Inrth to the tortoise tribe- At a very temota 
period of Ohmoie history the shell of the tortoise woa one of die chief 
elements in the art of divination — Cf L. C-, III., p. 8S5 tt. at., and i(a 
presence 'vae considered as exeroinng an anspicioua influence on the loc&- 
liUes it freqnenta- IMvers marvelloua tales are narrated with regard to ita 
fabulous longevity and its facnity of IranaTomiation. It is said to conceive 
t^ thunght alone, and hence the progeny of the tortoisej" knowing no 
bther, is vulgarly taken aa a synonym for the baittard-bom. A species of the 
tortoise kind is called /neA ^g, the largest form of which is the yOan "^j^, in 
whose nature the qnalities of the tortoise and the dragon are combined. This 
oreature is the attendant of tlie god of the waters f^ f |^ ^^ ^S' ^"^ ^ 
has the power of assuming divere tramtTormations. In the shape of the 
tortoise is also depicted the pi-ta jfi^ ^^ a god of the riven ^ j|QI, to 
whom enormous strength ia attdboLed ; and this supernatural monster is 
frequently sculptured in stone as the snpporl of huge monnmental taUeta 
planted immovably aa it were, upon ita steadfast back. The conception 
ia probably derived from the same source with that of the Hindoo legend 
of the tortoise supporting an elephant, on whose back the existing world 

SOO.— Etm ^. The caaeia tree, to the leavea and bark cf 
wUch high medicinal virtues were attrilmled by the early physiciana. 
Taoiat l^nds appropriated this tree to the gaideiis of Si Wang Ma q. v. 


where the 35 ' or cama tree of judfrotone grew — aeeTu. DoTiDg the 
Tftng dyRMt^ it was i«coant«d that a oassia tree grows in the Moon, thia 
notion being derivud apparently from an Indian Boaroe. The »dl tree ^^ 
jl^ {aJuirea robueta), one of the sacred treei of tbe Buddhiats, naa said 
daring the Sung dynasty to be indentioal with ^ Pfl ^ the ciuua tree 
in the moan, (cf. -^ j^ ^^ ^g k. 41). The Innar hare is said to iqnat 
at the foot of tbe caaaia tree, ponnding lis dmgs for the g^il See T'u. 
The casaia tree in the moon is aaid lo bo especially visible at mid-autamn, 
and hence to take a degree at the EzaminatiooB which are held at this 
period is described as ^f* \ ^^ — plackUig a leaf from the casaa. 

8 1 .— KwBi £dh Tbzr J§^ ^ -f: — The dedgnation aonmed 
by an ascetic philceopher, said to have been named Wang Htt q.r., who 
gave instractioQ at his retreat in the momittan dell called Kwei Knh to a 
select body of diaclplra, among whom Chang I and 8u Ta'in were the 
most famoas. He is claimed by the Taoist as one of their patriarchi ; bnt 
the doctrines he is said to have profeaaed were rather of a kind applicable 
to tbe condnct of the political intrignee and negotiatxniB of hu epoclt (4tli 
centnry B.C.) 

30S.— KwfiN Up, The officer who, according to legendary 
history, was app<nnl«d Minister of Works ^ j^, by tbe emperor Tao in 
B.C. 2297, and directed to dnun off the waters by which the land was 
overflowed. He laboured for nine years, hnt withont snccen, and was 
finally baniabed for life to Monnt Yu j^ [jj, whilst hia fanctiona were 
entrusted to his son TQ q. v. 

803a.— EwoR Ewoh FiKffiN ^ ^ ^ \. Toangest aiater 
of Tang Kwei-fei, and consort of the kttsr in Ibo leraglio of T'ako Hilan 
TsuDg, by whom (hIa title waa eouferred npon her tt^ther with vast 
estAtea. She was tbe most beanteona of the tbn» frail usters who shared 
between tbeog the Emperor's &vonr. See Yang Ewei-fei. It was aaid 
of hw: ^^^'^ ^^ ^, ahe was beauty itself; needing no 
advnjnent to etdiance her charms. 

S03.— KwoHK'a IP g. • '^^ One of the patterns 
cf filial ptHy. Is said to havs lived in the second ccntnry A.D., and to 
have bad an aged mother to snppcsl, beside his own wife and childreii. 
I^idtQg that be had not food snfflcioit for all, he propcaed to his wife 


Uiat thcf alionld bniy their infant child in order to have the oiore &r 
their mother's wants ; and this devotcdnees wu rewarded by bis disctiver- 
ing;, wbile engaged in di^og n pit for thia pnrpoae, a bar of solid gold 
which placed him above the reach of poverty, and upon which were 
inscribed the words ; " A gift from Heaven to Kwoj K'ii ; let none 
deprive bim of it " ! 

S04.— KwoH FoH I^J ^. " :P-)jifi- A.D. 276— 324. A 

famous scholar and commentator, and expositor of the doctrines of Taoisl 
transcendental] Bra. It was narrated of him that when a youth he received 
from a BiipernntLiral being a " green satchel " J^ ^^. containing a 
treatise in nine bouks, which indoctrinated him in tlio hidden mysteries of 
alchemy and snblimntioQ. He annotated many of the ancient wiitinga, 
and is ranked among the highest authoriUts on antiquarian, as well as 
mystical Bnbjecta. * 

30S. — ^KwoH TazE-HiNa |ip ^ ^S-. A miliUt; oommando' 
at the close of tbe era of A£>ngol supremacy, who, in A.D. 1853, raised 
the standard of revolt and attracted to bis service the young Buddhist 
monk Chu TUan-chang, afterwards founder of the Ming dynasty. He 
assumed the title of J^ ^ ^, shortly after which he died, consignmg 
his forces tu the leadership of the young aspirant for power, to whom he 
had given in marriage his adopted daughter. The latter, eventually 
known as the Empress Ma, was. during many years, the fondly-loved con- 
sort of her adventurous lord. 

30e.— KwoH Tsffi-i m •?• "ii- AD. 697—781. One rf 
llie most renowned among Cliinew generals, and greatly distinguished by 
his services to four successive enipeprs uf (be house of T'ang. The discsden 
which broke out in the declining yeara of Hlian Tsnng were repretaed 
chiefly through bis vigour and determination, and he wrested province after 
province from the hands of insurgeato. Was fiinobled as Jt ^ ^ 
and canonized after his death at an advanced age with tiie title j^ "J^ 
He was bleBKd with an almost innumerable pn^ny, tbe o&pring of his 
eight sons and seven sims-in-Iaw, all of whom occupied high official posts. 
The Uessings whiub he enjoyed, mtmely, honours, tidies, and longevity, were 
attriboted by a popular legend to tlie interposilion of the star-maiden Chih 


Nil, (sBe E'ien Niu), who u mid to have &i^)eared to him onoe <m the daj 
•padkU; ccosecnted as ber fteliTal and promited bim these rewards. 

807.— K'l ^. A BOD of the Emperor E'uh, and " MnisteT 
of Agricaltare " under Shnn, B.C. 2255. The princes of the line of Chor 
derived their descent from him, whence he is also spoken of as ^ | . 
He bora the title Tsi ^ or How Tw ^ | , — the fonnei, it is said, in 
refurence to hia fuDctloaa as director of agricaltnral pDnnits, (n (millet) 
being the name of the best of the fire priocipal kinds of grain ; and the 
title hoio with refwence to the principality of which he inherited the lord- 
ship. See Tb. Cf. L.C., 111, pp, 43, 44. 

SOS.— K'l Jfct Tew. Tien Ck'ui :fB A ffi ^ ^- The 

man of K'i, who lived in dread of (he Heavens falling: — met. for exa^ 
gerated apprehension, foolish foreboding of evil. The phrase is derived 
Irom a passage in the allegorical writings of Lieh Tszo. 

SOe.—E'i Lieh Shan ^ J^ U|. The range of roonntaiiu 
which fonned the centre of Ibe country of Ibe Hiiing-nn ^ sffL ui whoae 
language JCi-lun signified Heaven. Identified with the Tien Shan ^ 
lij or Celestial ItlounUins of Central Asa. See T. E. Hah yf^ ^, 
2nd year. 

810. — E'iFeb ^fl^. One of the asmstants of the empaor 
Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697. Was the emperor's tsAor in medical investigations 
and tha repnted fonodpr of the art of healing. Hence the phrase [ J^ 
fl^, — the science of EH Feb and Hwang Ti, met for medical skill. 

31 1.— E'ira Nro §^ ^. The Cow-herd— a peendonym attri- 
bnted to one of a ftronp of stars near the Milky Way, identified by some 
with that called ^ j^ (3 7 AquUa) and by others with the constellation 
^^ (comprimng portiuns of Cnpricomus and Sagittiriufi). A lemaiiaUe 
l^end connects the * cow-berd " with Cbih Nii J|^ J^, the Spinning 
Damsel, a Lyra. Hwai Nan Tsxe first gave cnnenoy to a romantic idea 
on tlie snl^ect by dedaring that the two are separated all the year lonnd, 
except on the seventh night of the seventh month -^^^ , when "magtoES 
fill ap tlie Milky Way and enable the spinning-damsel to cross over." 
fVom this obscnre passage a legion of poetical a1Iumi»s have egnag, dia 
most iiamoas (rf whicli is a stansa Xfj the emmror Wn Wto Ti (Ts'ao F«), , 


nho refers to the [snppoeedl Bepnrated lovera gazing at each otlter fnmi 
•'"-I F HkiC^M-m.- Th.'|:|ife;J,ha.aleg.»dto 

the eSect Ihat when Chang E'ien q.v. was sent to discover the sources of 
the Yellow Biver, which was believed to be the couUnuation on earth of 
the ^ fR]^ (Milky Way), he sailed op the stream for many days nnlil he 
reached a city where he saw a woman Bpinning and a young man leadiog 
an ox to the water to drink. Gb&ng K'ien asked what place this was, 
and in reply the woman gare him ber sbullle, telling him to Ebew it when 
he retamed to bis own country to the star-gazer ^ ^, who would know 
from it where he bad been. Accordingly, when the shuttle was shewn to 
Kiin F'iug, the wise man referred to bis ealculations, and found that the 
day and bonr when Chang E'ien had received the shuttle corresponded with 
tbe moment when he bad ottserred a wandering star intrude itself between 
the portions of Cbih Nil and K'icn tfiu. It was accordingly inferred as 
certain that the voyager bad aclQally sailed npon the Ixwom of the Idilky 

8 IS, — K'ra ^. "nifl Chinese lute, a stringed instrument, 
considered as yielding tbe pnrest strains of harmony. Its invention is 
ascribed to the ancient emperor 8hCn Nung. Combined with the sfh |^ 
or harp of many strings, it constitutes an emblem of harmony, which the 
She King repeatedly adduces. Thus the lines quoted by Confucius : ^^ 
"? itf "0*0 ^ ^ 1^ ^' — "liappy union ''it'i wife and children, 
is like the music of lutes and harps." Cf. L.C., I., p. 260. Again, in 
the celebrated Kttan Ds'a Ode, (see ante, 2D5), the bappy agreement, 
free from feelings of jeatousy, which reigns in tbe well-ordered female 
apartments of a prince, is typified in the verse : ^ ^E Hst lAo ^ 1^ 
^ ^. Hence ^ H^ <1 ^i — the string of the lute and harp, — 
is an expression commonly naed as an emblem of matrimony; and j^ 
^g, a derivative of the same idea, metaphorically implies a second mar- 
riage. Beside the harmony of married life, the friendship of either sei is 
equally rpnbolized by the concord of sweet sounds proceeding fiom these 
iDBtramentfi ; and in another acceptation, parity and moderation in official 
life are nnularly typified. In allusion to the lettered functionaries of old, 
who, without thought of worldly lucre or tmwortby intrigue, contented 
themselves in recreation with their favourite lutes, the abode of a virtuous 


ofSatl is desigfD&ted ^ ^, the Lat»4ia]I, and the approach to Ilia 
Uibanal, oa [ ^ the stK^B leading to the Into. See T'ao TUan-miug 
and TE^ai Yang. 

3 1 S._K'iN Si ^ J^. 7th centniy B.C. An official of the 
State of Ts'in, who reuommemted Peh-li Hi q. v., to Duke Mnh for em- 
ploTtnent. When the Duke rcfbsed to accept the Bervicea of thia wise maD, 
K'in Si, doTotedly resolved to effect his purpose, stopped his nastefB 
chariot and, exclaiming : " Since I can be of do use to my country, it is 
better I should die " I dashed out hia brains against the side of the vehicle. 
The deep impreesion created by this act of devotion had the desired effect, 
and Feh-Ii Hi was taken into Duke Muh's counsels. 

314.— K'raa KwoHK'iNa Cu'fiNG "15 H I tK— The van- 
qaisher of states and cities, — a hyperbole derived in part from the She 
King, and employed by Li Yen-nieu q. v., in a Gtaoza which he sang 
before Ha!1 Wu Ti, with hidden reference to the beauty of his Nster, the 
lady Li, Hence met. for the power of female loveliness. 

31S.— K'iuJan Kunq ^[^<^. See Chang Chung-kien. 

3ie._K'ioTsoN J^J#, •#'^. A.D. 1420— 1495. A 
native of the island of Hai-nan (K'inng Chow), and celebrated as a scholar, 
poet, and statesman. Was one of the continaatora of the Tvng Kien Kang 
Mah, and aathui of numerous philosophical treatises and commentaries. 

8 1 7. — K'lusa 3Eg_. A synonym for the jade-stone (chrysoprase), 
the rarity and valne of which have led to its being adopted as the symbol 
for all that is most beauUful and precious. In the She King the expression 
k'iung Aura | jy is found as a synonym for gems or precious stones. 
According to the g^ 5C Ditlionary, I'iiing was the name of the red jade- 
Slotts ^fi ^4. bnt the commentary on the Book of Odes, in which the 
character occnrs, (L.C., IV, p. 152), declares that it signifies the "finest , 
kind of jade-atone." The poet Sze-ma Siang-jo, in the 2nd century B.C., 
spoke of 'chewing tlie blossom of the l^iuug," and thia was expldned by 
his commentator Cliang I ^ ^, with reference to the legend which 
placed the k'iung tree — the tree of life — among the wondera of Mount 
Rw'^n Lun, q.v. He says that the b'iung tree was 10,000 cubits in height 


and SOO arm-epuiB in cironmference, ttai that ita blooom, if eaten, confer 
led Ibe gift of immartality. AnolLer writer Htatcs that the name of tbe 
tree was | 7^, and that it was composed of the gem called 3^ ^. 
(Of. £. D. tn verb). From the period above cited, tbe Khaig tree was 
oontiauallj extolled as tbe eapeoial property of the goddes Si Wang Ma 
q.v^ who beatowi^ ita leaves and bloBeoms upon bor Totaries ; and tbe ex- 
praaaion became natnralized m the myetic langnage of the TaoisfB, who 
constant]; nude aaa both of this word and its eynonym T^ . (see Til] as 
symbolisms in oonnectioa with the sccreta of a1i:hemy or tbe wondrons 
glories of the ttansmnndane Bpheres. Hence J^iung tan | fj in employed 
as a generic term &r the ocuolt prepiiTations vi\\vAi constituted the dr.inght 
of immortality or tbe powder of transmot/ition. (See Tan). In poutry, 
k'iatig is naed as a convertible l«rm with ^^ jade-etone, and ako, in alln- 
sion to the milk-white parity of one of the most Iiighly prized vaiieties of 
the gem, as a synonym for whiteness or spotleEsiieES. The radiant face (d 
the moon ia described as | f^, the lake of k'iurtg, 

SIS.-K'owChun ^2p. "^-(tj*. /). A.D. 1028. A 
celebrated statesman and Fcholar. Notwlihstanding his integrity and 
devotion to the service of tbe State, he fill a victim 1o the iii^gnes of 
eaemies jealous of bis power, and notably the cotiitjer Wang K'in-Jo. 
While attending tbe emperor ChSn Teung, in an aggressive campaign 
undertaken in A.D. 1004, agwoHt the Ki-tan TarUts, with the object of 
recovering a part of tbe territory they bad seized npon, be connselled Um 
oonclosion nf a treaty with tbe enemy, on tcrma ofibn.'d by tbem at F'an 
Chow )M ))f|i perceiving that disaster was ineritablo anless their offers of 
peace were acceded to. The emperor unwillingly accepted bis advice, but 
in later years was eaaly persuaded by K'ow Cbon's enemies thnt be bad 
act«d a traitorous part on this occasitHi. He erentnally baniebed tJie ill* 
judged ooansellor, bnt was shortly afterwards obliged to recall bim. After 
years of alternate favonr and disgrace, the Minuter was banished ones 
more to Lni Chow (in modem Kwang-tung), where ho died. 

3ie._K*raGKni^£, •#M- B.C. 551— 479. The 
foregoing are the names borne by the revered sage who is known In En- 
topean literature as Confudos. The inflacnce exerted daring a period 
almost co^tensive with the Christian era by the repatation of bis teaduoffi 


oA eiampfe has been vdl-iugb abeolato ovei the Cbinese n^, \eA \ef 
insmnble st^s to clerst^ the philosopbei into a model of ideal perfeoUon. 
For manj cenlmies put, and hj nnaDimouB consent, Coofnciiu haa been 
vetmated as Um one being apoa earth who was endowed with wisdom 
nnalloyed; wbo, without anjr claim to divine inapiiation or reliance npon 
■apemetnral powers, had an intaitive knowledge of Tigfatconanen ; wbow 
tiferf word waa a priceless inheritance, and ererr aotJon a " pnltem lo the 
succeeding f^et." Snch baa been the judgement of posterity, commwicing 
from a period about two centuries and a half snbsequet illy to the Sago's 
death, but even during Lis bfetime he was undoubtedly reverenced as a man 
of tnrpaSRing wisdom and eminent goodness. His falher K'ung-filinb Liang- 
liSb ^ :^ ^ )j^ was a military offiL-er of the State of Lu ^ (occu- 
p^g part of the modern province of Shau-tnng), a man of great personal 
proweoa and nnusual strength and stature. This warrior wan the son of 
Peh Hia -fj^ g, wboen father, K'ung Fang^huh ^ 1^$^ :;^ Imd 
migrated into La from his native conutty, the state of Sung y^, in (xAxt 
to escape from the enmity of a powerful hereditary foe. This [)erIod, with 
the centuries immediately preceding and ensuing upon it, waa the feudal age 
oFChina'abistory, when tlu sovereignty of the emperors of the Cbow dynasty 
bad become reduced to little more than an empty pageant, and the actual 
foncUtwB of government had wholly passed into the bands of a varying 
oumbcT of vassal princes, wlio ruled their reactive territories or Slates 
(^) with all the attributes of sovereign power. History recoids lliat the 
soldier Shub Liang-b§h had married in early life a lady named She jfQ^ 
^, who borebim nine daughters, ami a concubine by whom he liad a son, 
a cripple, wbo waa called M^g F*! ^ ^. When more than seventy 
yean of age, yearning for direct o&pring, bo sought in mairlage one of 
the three dnngliteis of the Ten family |^ ^, of whom the youngest^ 
ChSng Tsai ^i( ^ by name, espoused him iu dutjfnl obedience lo her 
fathei's command. The ofispring of this nnicm was a son, wbo received tba 
name ^'xn, in consequence, it is related, of a remahsble " bill-like " protu- 
berance of his ibrehead the place of his birth being Tsow, [^K' a city in the 
district of Ch'ang-p'ing ^ ^, ibe site of which is placed in the modem 
£ttrictofSEe%nifH;;!|CiaShsn'(aDg. When three years ohI,K'nngK'ia 
was Uk an orphan by tbedeatiiofhisbtlKr, and his BUtlMt sabseqiuatl^ i»- 


moved nidi him lo the district of K'ii Fow ^ -^ where hia home became 
eatablislied in a. village to which the same name, — |^ 1^, — waa 
eventaallf giveD, as that home by his lurth plaoe. The fabulists of later 
ages have reconled a multitude of EDpematntal or marrelloas occmrencca 
whiuh heralded the birth of the sage, and attended his growth in yean ; 
bnt these are merely transparent imitations of the Hindu legends relating 
to the D&tivity of Shakyamoni, (Buddha), and are considered as mere 
romance by the Chinese themselves. They may be foand dwelt npon at 
some length in the " Life of Confucius " contuned in chapter V. of Vol. L 
of the Chinese Classics, by the Sev. James Legge, D.U., to which leference 
must be made for anythmg more than a summary of the leading facts in 
the Sage's career. These — as distrngnislied from later embelliEhments — 
are narrated by the historian 8ze-ma Ts'im, whose work, composed about 
B.C. LOO, already asugns a promiDent position to the Sage, with a pro- 
phetic sense, it is contended, of the glory that was held in store for his 
reputation. Of his early years, little is recorded beyond the fact of his 
displaying a temperament uuusoally sedate and prone lo ceremonial usage. 
At the age of nineteen he mamed, and in the following year his wife gave 
birth to a son (see K'ung Li). About this period ho is found engaged in 
official duties, as a comptroller of the pablic granaries, and shortly afl^- 
wards he became surrounded by a school of yonng men, who enrolled 
themselves as his pnjals ia the study of morality and the teachings of the 
ancient sages, which he had made the field of enthusiastic and reverent 
research. It is owing to these disciples tjiat the greater part of what is 
known respecting the Sage and his teachings has been transmitted to 
posterity. Confiicios himself composed no doctrinal work. An assidnooa 
student of the Uien existing records or traditions coneeming the great 
dynastic foundcns of the Chinese polity, he held np fur the admiraUon of 
his pnpils and his countrymen at large the virtuous endeavours of these 
wise mlera, and the principles upon which under their government the 
Empire was ordered. The lessons which he drew from these sources and 
inculcated in his conversations or by his example, are preserved in the 
collection of notes or discourses, ^p ^ which, (translated by Dr. Legge 
under the title of Confucian Analects), forms one of the Four Books ^ 
^ constitutmg the most sacred portion of the Chmeec canon of philoBu- 


phy luid iostractioii. In these dialogues lie b seen ffltpounding hts views 
npon the duty of mnn, in which obedimce to paieata and to rulen, humi- 
lity and contentment, a revereibce for onliqaity and strict adherraice to the 
tradiUonal osages of ceremony, occupy the principal place. The Book 
which coDtaios this embodiment of t^e sages' lessons is coDsidei«d aa 
having been the joint production of some of bts chief disuiples; acd his 
teachings were ampURed and consolidated in otlter treatises, the ~^ ^i 
and Fp ^^, which ctmsUlnte, with the above-named, the so-called Con- 
fiician Books. When at the zenith of his repute as a teacher, he repaired 
to the imperial capital, the' city of Loh ]C^, (near the sito of the 
modem Eo-nan Fu), with the intent of studying there the records of 
antiquity. This Tint has been rendered memorable by an interriew wbich 
is said to have taken place bet^reen Confucius and the founder of a school 
of thought entirely opposed to his own, the pbiloeopher Lao Tan or Lao 
Trae q.v.; but the narrative upon which this incident in die life of Confucius 
is based la drawn from the wrilinga of Chwang Tsze, a disdple of Lao 
Tan, and Is discredited in consequence by the followers of the orthodox 
Bilge. Their reluctance to accept the story of this encounter, although 
supported by the authority of Sze-ma Ts'ieo, arises from the fact that Con- 
fucins is reprasented in the legend as having been disconcerted by the loAy 
specuIationH and bold language of the Taoist pbiloeopher, nho did not 
hesitate to evince coulenipt for the petty maxims with which his comtem- 
porary songht (o regulate the relations of human society. Betuming to 
his native stale Confucius was made chief magistrate of the tovni of ifT 
^^, where, by applying in practice the principles of government he had 
already tanght, he wrought, it is said, a marvellous reformation in tbe 
manners of the people. The rnler of Lu, Duke Ting ^^ ^, raised him 
from this position to the higher office of Minister of Works nj /^, and 
subseqaently to that of Minister of Justice o\ 7^, during his occupancy 
of which posts he became the idol of the people, and flew in songs through 
their mouths," (L, C, I., proleg. pp. 74, 75). The regard of his sovereign 
became, however, aUenated from him through tbe intiigue of a neigh- 
bouring Prince, the Duke of Ts'I, who grew jealous uf the prosperity 
which nnder his renovating influence the Stato of La had attained. In 
cxder to divert the nund of Dnke Ting from serions thoughts he sent to, 


that potanUte a present of dgfaty of the most beanteooa damaeli (rf Ts'l, 
trained to tb« perfonuBDcn of mane and dancbg, togellier irilh 80 ipaiui 
(1^, comprising fonr each) of the finest hones. The enjoyment derived 
from iheso acquiwlionB cansed llie itI» miniBter U) be ne^ected by his 
■overeign, and Confucius, now in ha 57th year, withdrew from his office, 
tntsting, bat in rain, Uint this act would prove a warning to Duke Ting. 
During the remainder t£ hb life he travelled from State lo State, receiv«d 
in some places with Itononr, in othen left wholly neglected, but always 
attended by some of his fkiUiftd dbciijles. Duriug tliese years of leianra 
be tnmed lo account his lifelong stady of the reconls of antiqnity, and 
rendered services which have been dochued inertimable by posterity in col- 
lecting and arranging the basis of tbe wcrks which now, nnder the title of 
King ]^, form llie second portion of the canonical Scriptures. In B.C. 
481, he undertook the corapodtjon c^ the only original work derived from 
his pen, a chronicle of the history of his native State, commencing with 
tho year 722 B.C., lo which he gave the name Ckvn Ta'iu ^ ^^ 
(Spring and Antiimn), with reference, it is presamed, lo the succeenon of 
the seasons. In this work be nought especially to make tlie facts of 
history a vehicle for incnlcating the principles maintained in his teachings 
Wliile engaged in its cranposiu'on, news was brought to him that a 
marvellous beast had lieen captured during a hunting expedition of Duk« 
Ngai of La (to which Slate Confucius had now rctomet]), and this beast 
the sage at once recognized as the superaataral lin j^, tbe sppearauca 
of which at a time when disorder univeisally prevailed he looked upon as 
of evil omen. Profoundly afiected by the occurrence, he exclaimed that his 
end was drawing near and his teachings exhanBled ; and with tbe recrad 
of tlib event he closed his historical labonr. Two years aflenvard^ he 
breathed his Inst, and was interred in immediate proximity lo his itimily 
residence. His dtsuples reared a tomb over his remains, which coiitinnes 
venerated to this day, as a sacred ^t, adorned and enriched hy sncoeasive 
dynasties, and which even the most lawless rebels Iiave treated with re- 
spect. (Cf. Williamson's Jtna-na/s m ffmth China, Vol. I., p. 224). By 
this tomb llie main body of his pupils mourned during three years, bat 
tlie devoted Tsie Eung dwelt in a hut beside it for three years longor. 
The memory of the phikxupher was venerated and his toMhiags wore 


haodod down during the owuDg ages, by a Bucccaaon'of disciples, but it 
was not until iteariy tliree handred years after bis decease, when tbe feudal 
qvtem was on the point of dtoappearing and a general reform in the priu- 
d{^ of gownment was introdDced nnder the neirlj-fouDded dynasty of 
Han, thai recognition was accwded to his memoi; by Imperial command. 
Eao Tbu, the first sovereign of the Han dynasty, viuted his tomb, and offered 
a aacriSce before it ; and the recovery of the canonical texts in the reign of 
]uB snooenora, who diligently endeavoured to repair llie losses caused by 
the preeoription of andent literature dnring the reign of She Hwang-ti q.v., 
stimnlated a fresh and increaung veneration for a teacher who coustjtnted a 
prominent link with the glonona past, and whose doctrinu were enUrdy ao- 
oeptable to the potteoBon of absolute power. His deecendanl^ were employed 
in honcmraUe poets, and in A.D. 1 the emperor P'ing Ti caoaed a temple 
to be erected in which sacrifioea woe to be offered to his manes jointly 
with those of the model he venerated, the Duke of Chow, (see Chow Euiig), 
aitd the title ift ^ '01 ^ ^ .^^" illustrioas Duko Ni, loid of 
completed praise," was attributed to Coniuciaa Daring some centaries, 
the sage was consequently referred to as ^ ^, or ^ ^, but in A.D. 
789 the empercv Hilan Tmng advanced him to a position of higher eancUty 
than that of the Dake of Chow, and canonized him as y^ ^ ^ — 
Prinoa of IDnstrionB Learning nnce which date be has been recognized as 
the chief national object of aacrificial hoiiouTB. At the same time the snb- 
ndiar? tide of ^f[^ ^^ or "sage of antiquity" was attributed to him 1^ 
the imperial will ; and in A.D. 1012 the empetoT Sumo Cb^ Teung sub- 
stitoted for this, the epithet ^ ^ or Most perfect Sage, ^^biub tbs 
mandates of succeeding sovertngns have conflnned. The designation Tsze 
"^ with which Confucius ^las hononred in his lifetime is considered to 
have been identical with the fourth rank of nobilJty, which had come 
dnring bis epoch to bo applied not only to ibe higher functionaries of etate 
bat also to tbe teachers or " Sfasters," nho were resorted to as sources of 
inabructioo. Hdding tlie poeiUon of Ta Fu "J^ ^^ or "high officer," his 
fbn htmorary designation was y^ ^ -f; whence bo came to be called 
S'mg Ta-txBB, aOd this appellatitxi, laluuwd by the Jcenit tramlatcaB, 
hi> tabu the ktm in which bia name is known in Kniopean Kterature. 



SJ30.— K'ujK. U^i^. • i^'B. B.C. 532— 48S. S«i 
of CoDfaduB. It is receded that bis &tber gave him the ct^nomet] Li, 
(carp) iQ celebration of a prtaent he had received of a pair of fish of this 
kind from Uie sovereign of hie native State. No particolare of his life are 

SSl.—K-UNO Ki IL -fiS. • ■? JB Son of the preceding 
and grandson of Confncius, of nhose doctrines he became one of the meet 
conspicuooa expoeitoie. Bom about B.C. 500, he lived Xa Uie age of 63, 
according to 8ze-ma Ts'ien, or to upwards of 100 years, as other writers 
muntaiD. (Of. LC-i I-, prolt^, p. 37). The instruction he recaved 
from bis illnstrious grandaie became fruitfully developed by bis own 
philosophic mind, and took shape in the tieaUse entiUed Fp J^, the 
Doctrine trf the Mean," whicb embodies Uie Confiiciaa ethics in tb^ 
higbeet formi He is canonbed as one of the ^^ BC or four assomtcs 
of the Sage, and enjoys the title of ^g ^ ^. 

3SS,— ffuNO Fu ^ fe^. " -^ J^. D. circft B.C. 210. A 
descendant of Confudus in the ninth degree, and eminent as a Scholar. 
Holding office under the destroyer of literature. She Hwang-ti, he is 
reputed to have preeerved the text of the chief canonical woAb by secret- 
ing them in his house, whence they were eventually recovered. He is also 
looked npon as the anthor of a collection of memoiis of his famous 
ancestor and of the tatter's grandson, Tsze-sze, fragments of whidi are still 
preserved nnder the literary pseudonym ^\j ^^ -f", whicb is said to 
have been adopted by himself. 

3S3. — K'dsq Ngan-kwoii ^ ^ ^. " -^ ^. A descend- 
ant of Confucius in the twelAb degree. Held high office under the leignB 
of Hah Eing Ti and Wu Ti, in the second centnry B.C., and waS 
principally lostrumental in tbe task of deciphering ihz ancient tei^ of the 
Shu Eing, when recovered circ» B.C. 150, from the place where It had 
been concealed during the proscription of lileratiire by She Hwang-ti. (Cf. 
L.C., I., prolog, p. 12.) Was author of traatjiea in elucidation of tbo 
dassic of filial [wty ^E ^^ and the dialogaes of Confucius. 

3i3-i,— K-OKG TiMo-w H ^ ^ • # 3^ A.D. 574— 
648. A descendant of Confiioius in tbo d2i>d degree^ and a dirtingoisbed 
sdiolar and public functionary. 

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Qiaes.—K'uKo Tmo |L Rft. ' ^ ^- -o. a-d. 208. a 

cele1jTftt«)l scholai and public functioiuiry, but famouB alio as a lorer (f 
coDTiriality and boon companioD of the eiratio genioa Ta'ai YuDg. Held 
office ai Oovemor of Peh HaL :f (j ^, and was for a time io high favoor 
aa a couoBellor of the last emperor of the Hao dynastv ; but as an opponent 
of the Bcbemes of Ts'ao T^ao he incnrred the enmity of that arbitrary 
nnupw, and was at lengtb executed as a traitor by the tatter's command. 

SSS.— K'i* YflAK Jg ^, also named K'i) Fino | ^. Waa 
a pivy counsellor of Prince Hwai, of the Stale of Ta'n 3@ "f^ ^ ciruft 
RC. 314, with whom he stood high in &vonr, until ousted Erom bis pocdtitm 
"bj a jealoos rival, who unjastly denounced him to the soveiei^. The 
disgraced minister, oonscions of his own integrity, foimd solace in the com- 
poatioo of « poem which he entitled [^ I@-~<^ g"^f dispelled — and in 
which he sought to convey instruction to his eovereign's mind by clothing 
tb« lenons of antiquity in a lyrical form. Finding his appeals disregarded, 
and the condilioD of his countty becoming desperate, ha resolved to bid 
&iewell to li^ and betaking himself to the bank of the river Mi Lo Vm 
^^, afler levealing his distress and his final resolntion to a fisbemuui 
whom he enoonntered, he clasped a stone to his bosom and plunged boieath 
the waters of the stream. This suicide took place on the 5th day of the 
6th moon, and, in commemoration of the statesman's heroic death, the 
people of Tb'ii were accustomed on that day to hold an annual festival, 
when offerings of rice were cast into the river, to propti&te, it was said, 
the wateispirits, as was done when attempts were made to recover the body 
of K'ii Yiian. This festival is still celebrated in Southern China, under 
the name of the feast of dragon-boats, and a pecnltar description of rice- 
odce, enveloped in the leaves of the water-Sag, is eaten in commemoration 
of tbeevenL 

3S'7._K'UAN Teh-yU ® ^ ^. • ® JS- A.D. 759— 
818. A distinguished sfatwinan and schdar. 

3S8.— Kw*4i Ga'ta |^ #■ ' ^ |M- A politician of 
the ent preoediog the foondation of the Han dynasty, and counselled, 
among othei^ cJ Han Sin q. v., nho rdied greatly npon his sagadly 
and prudence. 

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320.— Kw'Ei ^. The name Attributed to one of tLe Nine 
KuiiBl«n of Shoo, B.C. 2266. He wai charged vith the direotion of th« 
State mnsic. 

S30. — Kw'fiN LuN ^ '^. A monntain of Central Asia 
widely celebrated in Chinese legends. The actoal range of monntatua to 
which this name is a[^]ied is identified by modem geographers with the 
Hindu EnBh, but it is chiefly in ancienl fable and Taoist mythology that 
men^on of it occurs. The name is found in the 8hn Eit^, in the ancioit 
record entitled the Tribute of Tti (^ ^, Xi.C, III., p. 127), where it 
is spokeo of among the spots whenoe the wild tribes of the West (^ ^^ 
bronght haircloth and skins j bnt at a very early period the connogotiiBla 
and mystics appiar to have elevated it to the poeition of the ccntnl 
mountain of the earth and the source whence the fonr great riven" 
take their rise. Thus in the Shan Kai £ing, it is alleged ibaX "Uoont 
Ew'en Ltin is 10,000 It in circumfereDce and 11,000 H in height Aronnd 
its base flow the blue river, the while river, the red river, and tlie Uaok 
river." Lieh Tsze, in his allegorical ihapsody, baied on the l^ond of 
Cuow Mu Wang, dOated on its marvels as the reaidenoe of the queoi of 
the genii, Si Wang Ma q.v., and from hie day taiwaid the fabuliats ban 
vied with one another in iantasUc desoriptioos of the wcoders of this &iry 
abode. Hwiu Kan Tsze, with his accustomed wealth of deltui, pertrayv 
the mountain and its accessories in terms which have given Ixrth to coimt- 
lees later Actions. He says : " It has walls piled high in nine-fold grad»- 
li°™ ^ ^ JL S< rising to the height of 11,000 H, 114 paces, 2 feet, 
and 6 inckies; and upan it there grow trees and grain. On the vest, 
there are tlie tree of pearls i^ i^, the tree of jadeatone B& | t the tne 
of the siltm gem J^ | , and the tree of immtatality ^ ^ | . On 
the east there are the sha-t'ang y? jf^, and the long han 3^ rf j Ofi 
the south there is the kiang tree j^ \ , and on the itorth the pi ^ 
and the yao ^5 trees {difierent forma of chrysc^mtse or jade). At its 
foot flows the Yellow Water, which after three windings rrtnnu to its 
source. It is called the Tan water 7T j^ and tJioBe who drink f£ it 
escape death. The waters of the Ho (the TeUow Eiver), flow fiom the 
mountain, and the Weak Water ^ ^JC (See Jo Shnei), isKUS fion m 
hollow rock and flows into tlie Vovii^ Sands ]^ ^^.^ iDwrnunUi 


oUm mairafa an related cJ the moontaiR and iU apporteoanoet, ihe source 
of iriiiob may be traced tliioag^ mora than one indioation to the legendi of 
tba Hindu nTtbology. Tfans in the fff j^ rQ *^ itat«Bwnt ooonra 
that "Honnt KV&i Lon fa called in the W«t Hoont Su-ml ^ ^** 
—the well-known Chinese eqniTalent fcr Samem, the abode of Indra 
and hia conaott, with whom there is oooBeqnently grooad kr idendijing 
Tnng Wang Kong and Bi Wang Mn. Tb* deKaiption wfabh is appended 
to this maHioa of Hoimt K«'€n Lon bears moreover a striking re- 
nmUance to many of the featnrei at the Hindoo legends The monntMn 
b said to be peopled with genii, who cnhiTaled nprai its terraces the ' fields 
of aeaamnnt" ^ Q and "gaidens of coriander" ^ Q, (seeds which 
are eaten in Ilea of ordinary food by the votaries of longevity). Beside 
these stand twelve gemmeons towers ^^ £, al! bmlt of the five-coloared 
jade-atone. Here, according to another collection of Taoist fables, the 3a 
^ -f^ 9^, dweDs the goddess Si Wang Mu, at the head (^ her faity 
hffoaa, and here grow the forests of chrysoprase ^ jpf,, and the great 
tieeof jade-Btone 3^;|^ which is thelree of life. (See K'inng). At its 
fixit lies the ^^ JQ/ or Lake of Oetna. It was in ibis marvelloos abode 
that the goddess feaated her Imperial vidtcr Hab Wang of Chow q.v. 

331.— Kw'fiNKiNGGn'E ft ^ 'j'^- The name given to an 
artiScial lake fiinned B.C. 120, near Ch'ang-ngan by Han Wa Ti, for the 
porpose of eserrasng his forces in nautical evolutions, prior to the oonqnest 
which he nndertook of the barbarons tribes inhabiting tba conntry of 
Ew'Sn Uing, (in the re^on of modran Sze-ch'wan). Chao Ti afterwarda 
converted the lake into a fish-rearing establishment, whence the sacrificta] 
sappBes were drawn. The sniplns prodnca was sold at a low rate to 
the poor. 

838.— Lah E'lAO ^^- The Indigo bridge, at the ancient 
capital of China, Ch'ang-i^n. It is celetrated both as the Isidge nndei 
which the steadfast Wei-sheng Eao q.v., lost his life (K.Y.), and still more ' 
as the foene (^ the nkarreDooa adventnre c^ Fei Hang ^^ ^fl„ & scholar 
of the T'ang dynasty, respecting whcun the following romance is narrated. 
Fanng thk l»idge one day on his way to hb native place, and being 
atfa&st,he mtenda hot where an old oone gave him to drink &oma vessel 
^deh she snmmcoed her dag^ter to bring. Hie fpA di^Iayed featnni 


of marrdloiu beauty, &nd in reply to the flchola^a inquiry stated (bat she 
was called YUn Tiog '^. ji^, — a name of which he had been warned ia 
a dream. He foithvith aiked her hand in marriage, bat her mother re- 
plied that his Koit could be eutertaioed only on ihe condition U!at be should 
produce a pestle and mortar of jade £ if^ ^ , for the pnrpoee of pound- 
ing cert^un magic drugs bestowed upon her by a genie. After a month's 
search, the sobolar fonnd the required articles, and obtained bis bride in 
CKohange for them. He was afterwards admitted with her into the ranks 
of the genii. From these two stories, the name of the Bridge has become 
symbolical of lover's trystfl and betrothals. 

883.— Lan T'lNO fl ^. The Epidenarnm pavilion, the 
reodeETous in the 4th century, A.D. of a convivial and literary club of 
distinguished scholars, whose compoeitions in prone and veise were written 
ont by the band of the celebrated calligrapber Wang Hi-Che q.v. Fac- 
similes of his texts have been engraved on slabe in successsive ages, and 
nibblDgs of these inBciiptions are linown by the name of the pavilion 
whence their orig^Is emanated. 

334 — Lan Ts'ai Ho ^ ^ ^. A legendary being, one of 
the Eight Immortals (/V lllj), and of nncertiun seit, but nsualty reputed 
M a female. The 'JSi ^Y" jS 3& Btatea that she wandered abroad clad 
in a tattered blue gown, with one foot sboeltiss and the other shod, wearing 
in summer an inner garment of wadded staff, and in winter choosing snow 
and ice for a sleeping plaoe. In Ihis guise the weird being begged a liveli- 
hood in the streets, waving a wand alott, and chanting a doggrel verse 
denunciatory of fleetJog life and its deln^ve pleasures. 

386.— L&HO Ya Til ^ iJH ^. A tower said to have been 
built in B.G. 282, by Ts'm She Hwang-tl It was an edifice in many 
fltoriee, crowning the summit of Mount Lang Ta, whence it overtopped all 
the Bunouading bills and commanded a view of the Eas(«m sea. Its site 
is placed in the modem district of Chu-ch'@ng, on the south of the Sban- 
tuDg Peninsula. 

33Q. — Lao Tszb ^ ■^. The founder of the Taoist system 
of philosophy. He is said to have been sumamed Ia ^p, and naoted -^, 
with the cognomen fj^ ^, or £ i^; and Tan ^, is also said to 


have been one of the dcBignations he bore. Wa hittory » almost alb^ 
getber l^^daryj bat amid tbe dood offaUea nairated concenung hnn, hia 
Inographj, as given by Sze-ma Ta'ien, coDtaina some particolan nhicih may 
he r^arded aa perhaps authentic. According to this account, he was a 
keeper of the recnds at Loh )^, the capital of the Ghow dynasty, aboat 
tbe doee of the szth century B.C., and pr(J!e«ed a doctrine of abstraotioa 
from worldly caree, baaed npon apeonlationa conoeming Too ^ and Teh 
^g, (see post), which excited tbe carioaity of the sage Confocina himaef 
and led lo an bterview between ihem, from which the orthodox philf^ 
BOpher retired disctHioerted with the bold flights of imagination he en- 
ooantered in Lao Tsze, "soaring dragon-like above the donds to ^aven." 
Donbt is, however, cast npon tbe veracity of this legend, which is derived 
from the writings of Ohwang-tsze, blms^ a follower of the Taoist 
patriarch. After a long period of service, Lao Tsze retired {rom hia 
employ, fbrixeeing the decadence of (be botMe c^ Cbow, and bettxik himself 
toward tbe Weet, On reaching the tontier pa« of Han Knh ^^ ^Q- 
P^, the governor of tbe gate, Tin Hi, besought him to incUte his thoughts 
in writing before retiring firom the world, and the pbilosc^er accordingly 
prepared a wuk in two secticffi^ treating of 7W and Tih, after committing 
which to the care of Tin Hi, he disappeared fknn mortal ken. To this 
brief record » later tradition adds that Yin Hi, a vcbolar versed in the 
secrets of astrokigy, was warned befbtehand by sopematnTol appearances 
of tbe sage's coming, and after obtuning from bis pen the psecionB 
trea^se, departed in his company for the deaerts of tbe West, riding apon 
a car drawn by black oxen. Tbe later mystics improved npon the carrent 
legend by assigning a period of fabuluos antiquity and a mintculous concep- 
tion ihroagb the inflnence of a star to Lao Tsze's birth, alleging him to 
have been the inoamalion of the supreme celestial entity which they named 
^ _t ^ § or the Venerable Prince [of] the Great Sapreme, whence 
he is also entitled Lao Kiin. AixcxHmg to the faboloos account given in the 
^ fli] ^, ho became incarnate in B.C. 132], and was born of a woman 
in ^ ^ J^ a village of the State of Ts'n. His mother brought him 
forth from her teft ade, her delivery taking place nndcer a plom-tree ^pfH, 
to which be at once pointed, saying I take my Bmname (viz., Li) from 
thjp tree I " ^Vheu first bom, his bead was while and his countenance aa 


that of *» *S^ '"■'*• ^o™ whkfa ciraomsUncQ he dcaired hii dwigniHon 
of Zoo Tatt — Uie Old Child. He ia fottber repnwDted u hanng Mrrod 
Wa Wang, ths foondei of the Cbow dTDutj, B.O. 1122, u keeper of the 
leoords, and Ui have wandered to the ftutheat extremilieB of «vth," in- 
do^Dg the countriM called Ta Ts'in -f^^ kdA. T^ £'ien M ^, 
where he ctxiTerted meoi to bis doctrines, and again letomed to Chhia to 
nndeigo the e|)iBode of bJs rencotUre with the kee|)tt t^ the gate, the date 
i£. which ia (daoed in B.C. 10S(X As this l^«ad is obrioosl; o£ an epoch 
posteiioi to the introdaoUiMi of Buddhinn in China thoe is eyfsrj reason to 
bdieve U an inventioa based en the aecomitB of BhakTamoni's nativi^, 
and designed to ris with the martels narrated oonceming the laUw. Hm 
IcaigOTitj asoribed to \asa is only irtiat should faa expected of the patrfaieh 
tA a sect ffhoae chief aim ia afW ages became the aohievement of eor- 
poTeal itnmortaUty. No eomitenance la given, however, in the wiilingB 
ascribed to his pen to marvels of this kind or si^mnataraliu rf any 
deacriptiOD. The ideas wbieh can be aotoallj traced in his ^IVeatise 
on 7*00 and TA (the ^ ^$^)inar be samtned up as follows : Ctm- 
tkm proceeding from a vast, intangible, in^ienanal Unt IVndple, self- 
existent, self-developing, the mother of all things. The operation of this 
creative principle fnlfiUed in the natoie of man, the bigfaest development of 
whi<^ agwn is to be soi^t for in a retom through "qmetiem" uid "noo- 
aotiim " to the mother jninci^ The higbeat good, aoondinglj, ii to ba 
eDioyed in a transceodeatal abstraction from woridl; cane, or (inedom from 
mental perturbaUon. In a doctrine enoh as this it is not diffioalt to 
trace at least a superQeial likenna to the theories of Brahmanim, 
and whether originally derived from Htndn thoaght or not, it is pn>- 
baUe that the cultivation of Lao Tue'a teachings liad a patent inflnencs 
in preparing the way fis an inflnx cf the metaphysical speodaticoa 
of Indian pbiloeopbers, to Batisfjr a menial (having not provided f« in 
the aimpk materialism wluch ConfutuDi expounded. At least, the latitude 
aUowad by the vagnenesB of Lao Tsw's writings both enabled aad oi- 
cooraged his so-called discip^ and adherent^ to graft npon the leading 
notioQS of bis text, an entirely adventitiaaa code of natural and p^hkia] 
pLiloaophy, which, <hi the one hand, expanded into a sfstem of rdigioas 
belief a nrnple travesty of Boddhism, and on the other became devdoped 


into a school of m^cisoi, foanded apparently upon the eariy eecreta of 
the [ffofessiaiiB of healing and divination, from whence it rose to occntt 
leeearoheB in tbs art of transmntbg metala into gold and ensoriog longevi- 
tj 01 admisnon iolo the ranks of the genii, (see Tan 77* .and li Sbao- I 
kOn). To all these {trofeanons and pretensions the title of the religion 01 ' 
teachings of Tao was given, although they were in reality in no wise 
oomiteDanced by the doctrines of Lao Tsze himself. His profeEsed diadples, 
I^h Tsze and CUwang Tsm, in the 4th cei^my, and Hwai Xan Tsw, 
in (he 2nd centnry B.C., progressively developed the mystic element thna 
introdaced, and a notable impetus accrued Id it from the superstJIioas beUef 
with which the pretensions of the alchemiits wej« teceived by tbe omperw 
Wu Ti, from whose period onward the revefeuce paid to the fonnder of 
the sect b^n to assume a divine character. The emperors of tbe T'ang 
dynasty in e^iecial delighted in exalting bis memory by means of spritnal 
attribates. In A.D. 666, Eao Tsnog canonized him with the title "Jj^ X. 
S^ TC ^ '$'r ^™ ^o^ ^s ^^ ^■ti^ he was ranked among tbe gods, 
as Qreat Supreme, the Emperor (or Imperial god), of the Dark Fint Game. 
In A.D. 74S, this title was elill farther enlaced by the atdeot Totaiy <^ 
Taoism, Hilan Tsong, and b A.D. 1018, ihe-thle ^ Jt ^ ^1 
(already referred to abovft), was added by Impolal o<munand lo tLe 
preTHNiB lieL (Cf. $ 4^ gjj ^). UJs w<ak, tfaa Tao Tik King, baa 
been trenslated Into French by H. Stanislas Jnlien,' itito Bn^iili hj the 
Ber. J. ChalmeiB D.D., and into German by V. voEi Stranaa. 

83T.--LA0 tjAi TsZe ^ ^ ■^. A legendary character sud 

to have flonrished onder the Chow dynasty, and celebrated among the 
models of filial piety. It is said of him that at the age of seventy, he 
still made atteudaace on bis parents (who were still living in extreme (Jd 
age), tbe chief oaie of his life, and, in order to entertain them in their 
cUldisb dotage, he ifsed to dress himself in a fantastic garb, and gesticulate 
before them withotit a thought for bis own years. 

33S.— Li ChSm ^ ^. Seff-styled A W- ^ Taoat doc- 
tor of the Sung dynasty, circA 11th centnry A.D., who gave oat that be 
had Hved on earth for eight hundred yean, and h^ice amomed the de- 
■^natlon Li Pa-peh. He is said to bave led a wandering life, pioftceiiig 


to be AD adept in the mjatorKS of tranimiitation, uod finally to bave paaed 
awA7 fTom earth nithont nudet^mog bodily deceaw. 

QSe^Li Cno-wn ^ ^ ^. />. cireft A.D. 1610. An 
eccentrio character, widely knonn at the cloee of the 16th centnry, when 
he gave up an official position to adopt the life c^ a Bnddhis& devotee. 
HIb name baa been made use of by the anthon or editon of popolar ro- 
mances and prefixed to the eulogisljc notes or commentariee which ate 
inter^iersed throngboiit the text of many of thtte wotfai. 

34tO.— Li Fahq ^\ ^. The name awgned hy a Baddhist 
tradition to the Indian prieet who ia said to have come with seventeen 
oompanions from India to China in the leign of Ts'in She Hnang-ti (di- 
G&, B.C. 220), introducing the sacred writings of the Bcddhist faith. 
(Fa Yuan Chu Lin, Cf. K. P. W., k. 16). The legend appears to have 
no htCorical baa& See Ts'ai Yin. 

a41_Ij Turn ^ EJF, • ^ S^. A.D. 92S-996. Mindte 
of State in the leign of Sono T'ai Taang, and celehrat«d hy hii «ncU- 
tioB. Wat chief director in eeveral literary n&dertakings institnted bf 
Imperial commaod. 

S4J3.— Li Pu-ofts ^^ \. A favoarite cownbine of H« 
Wn Tl, and lister of Li Ten-nien q. r. Her beaaty wat hyperbdinJly 
described by the latter in a stana mng to tbe emperor, — see K'ing 
Swob. Henoe the phrase gg Q, m a aynonym for ftmale lor^iocn; 
Tbe emperor was inconsolable at his ftivonrite's death. Ee cnoeed her 
portrait to he enshrined in tbe Kan Ts'tian palace ; and was granted a 
glunpse of her ^irit throngh the art of one of bis ma^ians. 

Q4l3.—U Fu-kwou ^ $1 [S- ^- -^^' ^^- ^ «i»>«h of 
the honsehold of Tang Hiian Tsnng, and the latter*! most tmeted ooonnl- 
lor dnring tbe dosing years of his reiga When Hiian Taang abdicatod 
the throDO in favooi of his son, the emperor Suh Tsang, the latter was 
similaHy led to repose nnbonnded oonfldence in Li Fn-kwoh, nnder whose 
infinence he raised to tbe rank of Empress tbe lady Chang, one of the duef 
innuttee ot bk eera^io (AD 757). From tJiis period the control of State 
a^TB was almost whdiy engrossad by Li Fu-kwoh, who was advanced to 
tbe post of Minister, and for a time his influence with tba ElmpMia ({^ 


fS\ ^'x* virtna]); niled tho State, wai anbonnded. She began, however, 
to weai7 of hh dktalMNi and son^t to oompaaa hia death ; bat her conaort 
died before liie was aUe to aceompGsb the project^ and in the enming 
eooTogion, U Fa-kwoh caoaed tbe Empreaa herself to he put to death in 
her own i^HUtmenta Oq the acceenon of the heir aj^tarant (the £iiipax)r 
T« TonngX Li Fn-kwoh waa for a time treated with marked reaped; and 
eontinned in the Recharge of hn high hnctjons ; bnt the Emperor, fearing 
hia enofooching dtapoeitJon, caoaed him dH»tl; afterwards to be secretly 

S44.— Li Hiem-chuno ^Wl^*^^ ^- ^-D- 1178. 
A leoowned militaiy champion of the dynast; of Sung. His father LI 
Timg-tfi 5p y^ •^, was hereditary govenior of one of tbe northern 
fioBlier districts which, in A.D. 1138, were occapied by the encroaching 
Tartats of the boose of Kin ^^, wheD, scorning to l)e vassals of a bar- 
batian vaetay, Li Bfae^ ( | 'fn; ||p), aa he was then called, togedier 
wftb hb lather, made an attempt at escape, in which be with a few 
fi^weia ancceeded, his fadnr and the greater part <^ bis kindred being 
overtaken and alarn. T\m yontbfnl Li She-fh, aSUsr taking refuge for a 
time among the Tartars of Hia ^, made lua way into China proper, 
aod oSiMd his serrioea to the emperor (Eao Tsnng), who rewarded him 
--..widi a mlitaiy command and Invested him with the cognomen nien- 
JilfMff, (Lojahy made manifest). Be guned tugh distinction in manj 
, ,y- ox^fKpia against tbe Tartar hiTadcm Can. aa ^ |^ ^. 
\ 346. — Li HwK ^ ^. A minister of Prince W6n of Wei, 

Wi >C ^< 'f^P- Contending States. Foresedng that his conntiy 
woold be iuTolred m ardnons warfare, and anxious that Vbe people dioDld 
he perfected in the nse of the bow, he oamed it to be ptoehhoed, that in 
all fotore eases of litigation the deokion shonld be refared to tbe ordeal of 
arobeij. In oEmseqocnee e£ thia mandate, every one diB[^ayed grcMt 
eagemeai in the praotioa of shooting, with each excellent results, that wbcK 
tbe day of battle at kngth anired, the foicee oT tbe riv«l SUte ofTsIn 
^ ware easily ranqnished by tha bowmen of Wd. 

34S._Li Kasg ^ jm. • |g jjlg. A.D. 1085—1140. A 
fotictiiHmy of high merit and ^stiaction daring several reigns of the 
Snng dynaaty. Was chief Mmister of E'in Teong at the time of lbs 

" — Joglt' 


krupUon made bj the Em Tartan into the central prDrmcea of China, 
and TaUantly cimdooted the defence of Fien King fp ^, the then 
capital (the modem K'ai-f€ng Fd), in 1126, but iras diamined from office 
in Older to conciliato the enemy on sabmiggion becoming inevitable. En- 
nobled a> |g| ^ ^. He was afterwards restored to bis pott, and 
oontiatiod to ui^ redBtance to tbe invader, in conueqnence of which he 
was remitted to an mferior pott ; and vaa finall; digmiaaed from bid fimc- 
tions on the aooeasion of Kao Tsan^ in A.D. 1127. Was can. as 

34*7.— Li Ki ^ US- One of the " fatal beauties " of Chinese 
histcHj. She was the daughter of a uhieftnin of the Jui^ barbarians on 
the west of China |§ ^Ki ^'^ having been captured in B.C. 672 by an 
eiqtedition undertaken agunst her tribe by Duke Hieu of Tun ^ ||\ 
.gy, she was taken bf bim to wife and became tbe favoorito among many 
couoa1:Hn«e. She gave birth, in B.C. 666, to a god who was named Hi 
Ts'i ^. ^f, in whose favour (be birth right of several elder balf-brotbeis 
was set aside. (See W€d Enng). The prince being made heir to tbe 
throne through his mother's infloenoe^ not only met an nutimely death, but 
involved his country in a series of aangninary dtaordeiB. See Hi Ts'i. 

848. — Li KUam JH ^. A celebrated beauty of tbe harem <^ 
Har Wu Ti, B.O. 14D. Tbe exqniuto delicacy of her complexiaa at tbe 
age of fourteen was Boch that bej Imperial lovei dreaded, it is said, Ifst 
the mere contact of a silken fringe shoald cause her injury. The emperm 
playfully expressed tbe fear, iiKHeover, that the ze^iijt, however gently 
bktwing. might carry her away from earth. 

34Q. — Li EwAiro ^p ^. A rmowned commander In tbe 
sernoe of the empeiora W6n Ti and Wu Ti of the Han dynasty, second 
otnimy B,C. Was victorious in opwards of seventy eugagementa with 
the ^nng-na, and in B.C. 119 was sent as second in command of a vast 
host spociallj equipped for th» oompleto annibilaUon of these restless foes 
of the Gtunees. The army of the Hiang-na was actoally routed, bnt their 
Khan (a^cm-yti ^. 'j*) escaped, and JA Kwang, having answered for 
hit certain capture, committed suicide npon the field of battle. He was 
(le^7 bentoumed by his troops &r whose welt-beiog he bad oonstanlly 
shswn a peculiar cato, 

- .--'O^lc 


3SO. — ^Li EwAKO-u ^ ^ ^. A military commander of 
the rolgD <tf Han Wq Ti, nbo deepatcbed him im RC. 104 at the head of 
an anny agairat the kjogdom of Ta Yflan 3^ ^g, aknated on the con- 
flnee of Penia, on the pretext <tf aatgogattng the dty of Urh She ^ ^, 
iriuoh hud ^ed in paying a [xoniiaed. tribnte of faoisee- Atthoagh at- 
tended with enOTmooH Ion t£ life to hia aimj, in its passage aoraa the 
trackles waatea of Central Asia, the expedition was aocoeniiil, audita 
leader was haQed on his ntom with the title of ^ ^ ^^ J^, or the 
[oonqiieriDg] Gieneral of Urh She. In B.C. 101 he effected the uonqaect 
<d Ta Yuan, and was ennobled aa 7$ '^. The Emperor took hia 
(rirter into the seraglio, and this alliance awakened In the favoured ^^leneral's 
mind an ambitiooa derign of seating ita oflqving npon the throne ; hut 
hif plana baring been delected in B.C. 0(^ dnring hia absence on a cam- 
paign against the Hiung-nn, hia &mily was Beixed and placed in dotance. 
Upon this be look refuge with the enemy, who invested him with high 
bononrs, and he eventually became anited in marriage with a diraghter of 
1^ Binng-nn Ehan. 

3B1.— LiKwANO-pi^3t;5Jg. Z>. A.D. 764. A statesman 
and commander daring tlie tionbloue period at the olote of the reign of 
T'ahg Silan Taung; and a'faithful cbampi(»i of the imptrilled dynasty in 
conjunction with the renowned Kwoh Tsze-yi. His strategicai skill enabled 
him in particular to combat and defeat the deeperate efforts of the insor- 
gent She Sze-mtng to gain the control of the Empire in AJ). 755 — 760, 
Was ennobled aa ^ ^ ^ and can. aa ^ i^ 

36^. — Li Ewei-hieh ^p Q^ ^. * ^:. A mnncJan and 
inatmclor t^the theatrical performers of the £t' Yuan, q. v., in tbe reign of 
T'ang HUan Tsung. He was one of three brothers, all of whom wen 
fomouB for their muaical talent They aconmnlated a vast fortune and 
erected a family man^n at the capital which was said to vie in magnifi* 
cence with tbe Imperial palaces. The two younger brothers were named 
leepectively ^ #, and ^ ^. (^ M # ^^■ 

sea.— Li Kwoh ^ HJ. Abbr. for Li Kwang-pi and Kwoh 
Twyi, qq. V. 

3B4._Li K'ta-TTONCt ^ ^ fl|. D. A.D. 908. A renowned 
eomroander of the lattw years of the T'ang dynasty. His father wssa chief. 


taia of the Sba T'o '^ Jfl^ tiibe, « Voacb of tb« Ta-kOeb, otsoappng & 
region neiur I^ke Balkaah, who waa <sigiiullf named Cha-jwh Gh'ilHin ^^ 
J^ ^ jO. utd who in A.D. 847 took miliUir earrice with the CUikw 
and aided in n^lmg an invaaon ot the T'a-bn (HbeUua). In A.D. 
869 the Empenn I Tsong TQwarded hii envicea b^ beitowing apon liui 
foreign anxiliaiy the larDame borne hj the Imperial bone itself vie, li 
^p, to wbiob be added the oognomen Kwoh-Ch'ang |g ^. Although 
at a later period ungaged in a lerolt, Li Kwoh-ob'aug and bis Boo wen 
aoK»g the foremost dcfendera of the boUBe of T'ang in its gatlxring 
tcoabko, and the lattar rendend valiant aerTicefi in auppt u tti ng Ihe nbdfion 
of Hwang Gh'ao. For then be was ennobled as ^ £. He excelled 
in aToWj', an art which be had practised in his Toath among the fearless 
bonstmen of his native wilds, and marvelloaB tales are nairated ot his AiH. 
Having lost the sight of one eye, he Iwcame known as the ooe^iTed disgon 
— ® B& fi' ^^^ Ts'un-hU, bis son. 

36C. — Li Li ^5 |^. A Ujnigter of Jnstice under WSn Enng 
of Tsio, B.C. 630, who, acooidiog to the legend told concerning him, waa 
so deepl; grieved by the frequent initiDUon of oapatal pmiisbment at tbe 
■mlenoe of bis sabordinatce, that he reeolved to pot an end to hb own 
existence ; and turning a deaf ^ar to tbe penmHouna of bia sovereign, be 
fell upon his sword and died. 

see.— Li Lm-Fti ^ |fc ff . D. A.D. 752. Tbe ICnislei 
execrated in bistoiy as tho chief agent In prodacing the disastets which 
befell China in tbe second half of the reign of T'apg HUan Tsung, whose 
anworthjr favourite he was. A supple and ambitions coarlJer, he secretlj 
encouraged the di^;ast wbidi the Emperor began, after many years of 
leign, to feel for the sternly aprigbt coansels of Chang Kiu-h'ng q. v^ and 
aeixed an opporttmity in A.D. 734, of discrediting the latter and in rising 
to sapreme poweir as chief tCnister, in which capacity he oontimied nntil 
his death. Bent npon retaining bis position and inflnence, he raiconraged 
the excesBea to wbiob the Emperor had manifteted an inelination ; en- 
couraged the tenet deore iriiich the latter manifested in A.D. 787, to 
order the execution of three of hie sons ; and actively furthered tbe sham»> 
fnl lioense which waa displayed in the devattoo of Uie lady Yaag (see 
Ya^ Ewtt'^o), and ber two mttn (o tba beif^t of bnperial fiwnur. His 


wu ennobled in A,I>. 7S7 u ^^ Q -^t > diitiDctkiD cooi^Ted npra 
him by tbe Empenw ostenabl; w a nward fi» tb» good gorenunent cf 
the Empn, vhioh wm alteited by a report received from tbe chief oiminal 
jodge, 8a E'iao ^ |l^. This fanoUoouy addnesed tbe Throne itatiiv 
that DO mwe than 68 caan of capital puniihrnent had (akea [^oe during 
the Tear, and that as a conaeqaenco c^ the diiniDBtion in the "emanation 
of death" which bnng aioond the great piitoo, magjaai (Urdi of good 
omenX had been seen nesting in tbe treei which on^ong it, and which 
hithorto had been ifaunned by all the birds of Heaven. In A.D. 747| the 
Eroperw beatowed npcoi his favoorite the paUee reTenne of an entire year, 
having long left tbe datiea of goveniineDt altogether m his handa A 
celebrated phraae describes him ai "having on his lips honey, hot in his 
faeart a sword." He died preoisely at the moment when retribati(»i was 
abont to &I1 iq>on the sovereign whom he had misled. 

Se?._Li JjOO d^ ^. arandK>n of Li Kwang, and like the 
Utter a ctMBBtander m tbe service of Bam Wa Ti. Placed in cconmand 
of ta azsaj in B.O. 99, for the pnrpoee of attacking the Hiang-na. be was 
allowed, on bis own confident tepresentalion, to advance far into their 
territory with a light colanm of 5000 foot soldien, leaving the nuuo body 
of his forces at a great dfattuioe behind. Althongh victotioos at tbe ontset, 
he was speedilj oDtnttmbered, and his tnx^ suironnded on all sides, 
wwe cat to pieces not more than 400 of tbem returning across tbe 
frontJer. Not daring to face bis Imperial master's wrath, Li Ti'i g 
volantarilj became a prisoner. In accordance with the cmel osage of 
Eocoe^ve dynasties, his entire family was berenpon doomed to destinction, 
notwithstanding tbe defence attempted on bis behalf by Sse-ma Ts'ien, q.v. 

368.— Li Low ^ H, (or Li Gho | ^). An anotsnt 
worthy, repnted as a conlempwa^ of Hwang Ti, whose powns of viaon 
were so aonte that at the distance <^ 100 paee% he ooold disHngnish a 
iingle hair. (^ =f-). 

309,— Lilb^Kf. -j^^. D. A.D.618, A celebrated 
•dberud irf the fbmdw of the T'ang dynasty. Was distingnubed at 
an early age bolli by his martial aptitnde and his love of stady. It is 
related of Inm Uud as a lad he was once riding npra an ex's back, and 
while dririiig tbe fatast was deeply abswbed in pernaing the birtory of tba 


Ham dynastf. In this attitttde be wits mel by tbe famons statesman 
Tang Sn q. v. In tbe iDtestine disorders which eiwoed npoD tbe decline 
of tbe Sui dynasty, be fongbt his way to emineoce, and was ennobled as 
^\ @ -^> ^7 ^< Yfian, hia cboeen leader ; bnt on tbe eve of the letter's 
success dissenuons broke o«t between them, and Li IC was sltun by an- 
other partisan of ^e boose of T'ang. 

3SO.— Li Moh ^ ^. D. B.C. 229. A famous commander 
in the service of the State of Chao, in the period preceding its extinction 
by tbe dynasty of Ts'in. In his capacity as warden of the northern 
frontier he snccussfully repelled the annual incureions of the Hiung-nu, and 
for his service received the tjtie and fief of jf ^ ^. In later years 
be maintained a bold defence against ibe invasion of bis country bj Uie 
forces of Ts'in, and the latter owed its final victory to a BtraUigem by 
which tbe dreaded cbampion was removed. The prince of Ts'in prevailed 
upon a mimon of the prince of Obao to peisnade his master that Li tloh 
entertained a treasonable design, and he was consequently gnpeiseded in 
his command. On bis refusing to obey the mandate he was seised and 
pnt to death, whereupon the armies of Ts'in at once invaded Chao and 
e^led its odnquent 

3ei.— Li Pbei ^ fi, • :Jfc fi. t W M- A..D. 699—762. 
The most widely celebrated among the poets of China, — a disttncUon 
earned no lees by his erratic geiuns and romantic career than by his powers . 
of veraflcatJon. Bemotellf connected by descent with tbe sover^gns of the 
Tang dynasty, be was bom and broaght up in a remote dbtrict of the 
extreme Wo9t — the modem Sze-ch'wan— where his family had been settled. 
It is related of his mother that before giving birth to her child she dreamt 
that tbe planet Venus {Tai-peh, also called ^ ^^ ^), ^ot dovm firom 
heaven and entered ber bosom, from which circumstance tbe intnre port 
derived his o<^non]en and designation. At a very early age li Peh betrayed 
signs of remarkable talent, and on being brought nnder ihe notice of tbe 
Imperial courtier Ho €he-chang tbe latter was so much impresed by his 
ability diat he exclaimed : " This is Indeed an Immortal banished to 
garthl"— ■?■ ^ "ftll A "tfei-^The onrioBity of (be Emperm- Hfian 
Tsung was exdted by the reports he heud of the ytmng man's talent, and 
he sDmmooed the poet to an interview id lus palace, where he was entn^ 


tuned vilh «zaggtt'ated honoDRi. The Emperor himsalf banded dubes to 
him at a, banquet, required his favorite and haaghty ooDCubioe to attend 
the poet nitb the materlala of writing, and called upon bis chief eunuch 
Mid priry counselloi Kao Li-sze to divest him of ius boots trbeo overcome 
witb wiDB. The hcBtility of the Emperor's female favourite barred (bo 
doors of official promotion against him, in revenge for some satiiical atln- 
rioDS delected iti hia vases, and be led for the remander of his life a wan- 
dering existenoe, celebrating in continual fligfata of verse tbe praisee of 
bacobartallan snjoTment aitd of tbe beauties of nature in tbe varionfl 
looalides he vidted. Towards tbe end of his career he became involved 
in more than one of tbe sediliotm movementa nndenaken against tlie 
government of Hfian Taung, and twice or thrice narrowly escaped tbe 
penalty dl death, which on one occasion was commuted f(» bam'shment to 
tbe wild r^ion borderii^ on modem Yiin-nan. Believed from p^oecription 
in bis dd age, he retired to a refuge afforded him by a kinsman, Li 
Tang-ping ^p ^0 pjC, tbe governor of Tang-t'u )g ig, (near modem 
Hanking), under whose protection be died, and who colleoted arid edited 
bis poem 

3SS._Li FfiH-TO ^ "g* ^. Seventb oentdry A.D. A 
dlstingaisfaec) scholar, and author of tbe 'SaMrj of the IJortlMni Ts'i 
dynasty. ISed oircft A.D. 6S0. 

333.— Li Mi ^ ]^ • ^ ^. A.D. 722—789. ftenotni- 
ed aa a man of equal gefiind and Integrity, the BiDgblaHy-chosen confidant 
of Tjmq HOan Tsung. At tlie age of severi bm precocity of talent led to 
hh I)ebig summoned into tbe Imperial presence, wiiere be excited wonder 
hy his qoicknesi of poetical repartie, and be was honoured by tbe notice 
vS tbe great minister Oliang Eiu-ling, wlio gave him tin title of /ft "^ 
a Little EVend. He was made companion to the heir apparent, and in 
later life was kept by the empenx's tide as one of bis most tmsted ooonsel 
Ion, ahbongb be steadfastly rdneed to accept dfScial rank or title. On tbe 
afSnemaa of Sub Tanng, he was [jaoed ia the firU rank of imperial 
«nuisdlot&, and in 786, was made chjpf Minister. Was ennobled as 

3e4._Li 8»»«o-m. ^ ^ ||. * ^ [Ij' AD. Sid- 
9S&. A poet and mlgoeUaiiist 


See.-Li SiUo-KBs ^^M. 'WM A P">f«« of 
mapo Mta ftt the oommencemeDt of the leign of Has Wn H, <*ai B.C. 
Iti^ «nd one oT the earliest ttmoog the pretended adepts in the myBteries 
of alchemy and the prodacUni c£ the elirir of longevitj. He was in- 
trodooed Into the preeense of the Empeioi, to whoe mind he imparted the 
Btroiig flavour of sapematnraligm which left a maiked impren upm the 
eveuta of hia reign, and Bocoeeded in permading Wn Ti, that he had 
become ponesBed of the aecrets d tranamntation and imlWtalit; by a 
(encontre with the mystic being Ngan K'i-aheog q. »■ ^ is said to have 
depiotod bis neonunantio powers in the Mowing strain t "I know how to 
harden mow and ohange it into white alver : I know how cinnabar tTans- 
ktma its natare and passea into yellow gold. I can rein the flying dragcn 
and Tint the extremities of earth ; I can bestride the hoary crane and soar 
above the nine degrees of Heaven" 1 Wn Ti, was long absorbed in the 
occult studies prest^bed to him by this piofMsed mogidan, to whan be 
paid exalted honomv. 

see.— Li auB-HW ^ tB: S- -O- AJ). M9. Better known 
M T'ano T'ai Tsong. Waa leader of the iosarrection against the licentious 
Tang Ti of the Sai dynasty, and having seated his Ut&xt npon the throne 
after bringing his undertaking to a snocesafnl rcenlt, he saooeeded the 
latto in A.D. 626, when he commenced a reign ansinpassed in MUiara^ 
and gl<»y m the en^ annals of China. 

33*7. — Li Sbow |^ '^. Que of the Assiat&ntB of the Empenr 
Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697, aod reputed as the Inventor of the art rf notatiwi. 
He is said to have drawn np the ^ ^, or Nine sections of the science 
(^ maLhemaUct. 

8e3._Li Sat ^ ^. D. B.O. S08. Originally a hnmUe 
scholar of the SUte of Ta'a ^ li Sie entered in early life the snrice of 
the conquering princes of Ts'in, and was for upwards of twenty years the 
counsellor and tor a Imglh of time the prime minister ^ ;^ of She 
Hwang-ti, the ibnnder of Iha Win dynasty, whose ej^o^rdinary act, the 
a nnihila tiwi of Uterstnre, was ondertakeo by \m advice. Sw'saA Ts'ien r»- 
latea that, in B.C. 213, at a great festival held by the triumphant oonqnenr, 
afler an address had been presented to him by one of his marsha^Xbow 
Ts^ng Chfio ^ 1^ ^, in which the sovereiga was ccmgratulated 


npoQ luB coDTonioa of tbe feadsl priDcipalltUs ioto fstriots goremed by 
■imple offioUli, tbe MTnuter of Learning. Ch'an-jU T«eli f|C "^ j@ took 
exoeptJCHi to UiU eulogy, ixA Taminded the monaroh that in abolohiog tbe 
Bjtuaai of feod^ depMideDues he wbb deputing traai the ancient methods 
«>d modeU i£ gorermenL Hii prDpoaitknu were remitted to the oonodl, 
and were Rtiongly oondemned bj Li Sie, who advocated ■ complete rap- 
tme with the part ; and oonunenling npon tbe obstinate adheranoe diewn 
\ij the etMiaUed nholars or literati, to ancient [wecedenta, regatdlese of 
preset needs, he recommended that all poMeaaore of tbe writii^ handed 
down from antiqmty, inclnding the books of History and Poetry, be requir- 
ed onder severe penalties to Barraoder them in order that lliey might be 
destroyed. The only exemption granted was in favonr of works relating 
to medicine, dinnation, and agrioultore. This plan was carried into effect 
with aosparing rigoar, and in tbe following year some 460 recalcitrant 
ScholarB were pnt to death. Xotwithitanding this proscription, however, 
oojnes (£ tbe chief works of antiquity, more or less mntilated, were even- 
toally reooTwed in tbe following centary. Li Sse was himself a well- 
iMght Bchdar, and is the repntad inventor of tbe form of writing known 
as the /)> U^ or lessv seal character. On tbe death of his imperial 
Butter in B.C. 210 he beoame a partner in tbe conspiracy which seated 
the onworthy Hn Hai upon tbe tbione ; bnt he was not long permitted by 
Obao Kso, the amintions ennacb, to oontjune in the position of chief 
minister, and \ifsaig bncled irom power by the latter's intrigues, he was 
at last pat to death in pnllic witli ftightibl barbarity. 

see.— Li azE-YiiAN ^ l^ ^. (Ming Tnmg of the After 
T*ang dynasty). D. A.D. 933. Originally a deserted orphan, the child 
of unknown parents heloaging to a tribe of tbe Tn-lc'iieh, he was adopted 
by 1& E'^b-yang, q. v., and invested with tbe latler'd Bomame. He rcee 
to perform twOliant serrices on behalf of the dynasty fonnded by the son 
of Ij K'*-ynng, on whose death hi A.D. 925, amid threatening disorden 
be proolumed himself Regent, pat the Emprem to death, and shortly 
altcrwards sscended the throne, becoming known in history as ^ ^^. 

S'yo.-LiTEH-yU^^^. • ^1^. A.D. 787-849. 
A minirter of high repoto daring several reigns of the Tang dynasty. 

37 1.— Li Tibh-kw'ai. See Tieh-kw'ai. 

". -- ->ogk 


STB.— LiTm^JKI. A-D. 594— 669. OriginaUy named Stt 
She-tsi {^ jA^ ^, and a lirol of Li TSan in the contest for the maatery 
of the Empire on the downfall of tho Sai dynasty, he tendered his allegi- 
aoce to the lising house of U in A.D. 617, and was invested with its 
soroame. He serred Li Yuan, and his two *[icoe»»> on the Thiono m 
various high capadtiee, with gieat distinctioa ; bat contribnted toward » 
disastrous poKcy by supporting the deago of Eao Tsnng, to raise the lady 
Wu, his father's late cononlnne, to share tis thiona. See Wn How. 

3'?'3.— Li TsiNO (1) ^ ^. See No Cha. 

SV^^—Li TsiNG (2) ^ if . • H gip A.D. 671—649. A 
military adventurer who rose to distinction in the troubles which marked 
tlie closing years of the Sui dynasty. He served at the outset ti his 
career under Yatsg Sn q. v., but eventually jtnned ibe ipsnnection headed 
by the founder of the T'ang dynasty, one of whose principal BU|^rtera 
and l^nisters he became. Was ennobled as )^ ^ ^^. 

3'7'e.— Li Ta-UN-HU ^ -S* J!f- ^- A.D. 925. Son of Li 
K'^-yung q. v., and one of tbe heroes of the protracted contest vrhich 
ushered in the period of the Five Dynasties on tbe downfall of the honse of 
T'ang. Ou the final extinction of this dynasty, he proclaimed himself 
Emperor, and is known in history as Cbnapg I^ung yjt. jf^ t£ tbe Ailer 
T'ang dynasty. 

3'7'e.— Li Van ^ ^. See Lao Tsze. 

Q'yy. — Li Yen-iheh ^p ^^S^. A famous mioloa i^ Hah 
Wu Ti, B.C. 140. He was one of a family of actoai, and having com- 
milted some ofience was subjected to tbe penalty of castration ; but his 
sister having been introduced into tbe Imperial seraglio, be was himself 
raised to a posilJon of high favour, and was long one of the EmperoPs 
chosen companions. His talent for music rendered him highly acceptable 
near the imperial vdnptuary 's person ; but after the death of his sister he 
fell into di^ace and he finally perished at the hands of the executioner. 

3'7'S.— Li Ybn^how ^ ^^ #, ' jS (|&- -»■ cireft, A-D. 
650. An erudite scholar and functionary ; chiefly distingniibed as aallwr 
of tbe Histories entitled ^ ^ and :|B ^. 

u,., ,...,,, Google 


Q?©.— Li Tew i^ fl|, * 7C H* ^- ^^ ^^^- ^ celebrated 
■tftteman of the Han dynarty. His lUni integrity Mosed him to be 
equally Tenerated by the people and feaied by the compt ofScisls of the 
day. In A.D. 166 he feH a victim, with many otben, to a cabal organized 
by favoaritea of the EmpeioT Hwan^iy wd was cast into priaoD. Hs 
waa BhoTtly afWwards liberated and allowed to r^ire into priTale life, bnt 
in A.D. 169 (he emmchg by whom his oveiihrow bftd been achieved, 
noderad af^trehennve by the esteem iu which his name was nnivosally 
bdd, csoied bim to be seized and put to death, with many others. 

380._Li TuNo ^^,'^$fa.^itM ^-^ 678-747, 
A ftmc^onary and celebrated poet of the reign of T'ang Hiian TBimg. 
Having incamd the nsentment of the all-powerfhl Li lan-fii q.v., be wu 
[ot to death by the latter's order. 

38 1 ._Li YOah ^ ^, • ;^ |g. t bE H -O- A.D. 626, 
CTai Tsa, founder of the T'ang dynasty). Was titnlar Dake of Tang 
ro 9 "^ ^^^P- ^""g Ti, the debaacbed tyrant who hastened the 
downfall of the Sd dynasty, and whose power was overthrown mainly by 
the exertions of Li She-min, q.v., second son of Li YUan. The latter was 
proclaimed Emperor in B.C. 61^. 

3Sf3. — Li Yuan |j^ ^. The name given to a portion of the 
Imperial domain at Cb'ang-ngan temp. Han dynasty, which became die 
ate in A.D. 71S of the Kiao Fanff ^ j^ or Imperial dramatic coU^f 
iostitated by T'iJio Hnan Tsung. This sovereign, s lover of (be stage 
and of mnsio, became the fbnnder of a vast institnlJon nnder the above 
name, where hundreds of male and female performsrs were trained for his 
delectation. These became kno?ni, from the ule of the college, ss the 
^^'f'^^OT Yonng Folks of tbe Pear Garden, and this title hag 
Goodnned to be claimed by actors until tbe present day. 

333.— LuMoHcHa^^'-fj^^. A scholar (^ the Han 
^naaty— chiefly renowned as the husband of Mdng Kwang q.v. 

38-i— Lujw Ki ^ ^. • -fj^ ^. D. A.D. 159. Bon of 
Liang Shang J |^, whose danghter was elevated, in A.D. 182, to the 
nnk <rf EmpKfli <^ Hak Shmi Ti. Throogfa his sistet's inSeenoe, Liang 
Ei was qieedily raised to pcntions of the higfaert dignity and bftienoe. 


In A.D. 1S6, he became got-ernor of Honiut, ftnd in A.D. 141, m bii 
fttlm'B death, he received the title of gennaliHiiiio "y^ Jf^ ^£. In 
A.D. 146, on lii« aooenioD of a joatb aged baiel7 fifteen to the thraas^ 
Liang Ki poiBOned tbe unfintanata eoveirign, and plaoed tbe gOTanuncM 
In the handi of hii nter, as Begeot on behalf of another yoBthAil vion of 
the house of Han, known in \atar3 aa Hwan TL A aeoood rirtec waa 
ioatalled in the pontion <tf fimpreB, and freab hononii vera gn^wd bf 
tbe amlutioQi and ouBcrapDlou Liang Eit nlio, afla wieltUog the 
dwtiniea of the State for veil nif^ twenty yean, at length fell a viotim to 
a palace conspiracy, and vas ezecnlcd with many of hia adberanti. 

SSe.— Lu(vnim 8mi |g ]^ ^.— The [whit»{)eaded], [rigt 
(rf Uao-tong, a prorerblBl expreoaion, loniewhat nmilar in meaning to 
"carrying coals to Newcastle." It b recorded in the Hstory of tlie 
Eaatem Han dynaa^, Uiat P&ig Oh'un^ ^ ^, an official of the reign 
Ewang-wn, having manlfeeted a desire lo soe his talenfi rewarded, hk 
friend Gha Few "^ ^^ wrote to lura saying : " There waa ones a low It) 
Liao-tnng, (where all {ngs are black), wbicli gave birth to a litter oS young 
ones with white heada. Tbe owner ihongfat they were worthy of being 
ptesented to Hia Utyesly, and proceeded with them toward tbe Court; but 
on leaching the region of Ho Tang j^ ^^, he fonnd that all the [^ 
there were white, and wended hia way back much disheartened. So 
would it be were yoar iadindnal merila to be apoken of at court I" C£ 
K. 8. L., Mt. «A«. 

38Q.— LiEH TazB. See Lioh Tu-k'ow. 

3S7.— IjEti Tfl'K'ow ^ ^ ^, commonly called IMi Tna 
I -f: A tnetapbysiolan whose period is assigned to tbe age immediatdy 
flDoeeeding that of Coniiiaias. Hia writings, forming a nnall colleatlon «t 
historical and philoao^ical disqiiisitiDns, strongly thiged with allegory, wem 
edited in the 4th century AI>- by Chang CHian §^ ^, a fimctioDary of 
the Tnn dynasty, andandused in Ta(»stIittfaUirewilhtlMMeef Ofawang 

SS8.— Lm Cm Ho Pi JSi^-^ ^ — Pearisstnmgtogsthw 
' aad tbe gem-tally united. — ^Uet. for brSliaocy and concord; used also with 
^edal rduieaoe to UtQ winter solatiee, when, aaeocdbgte aa aadent iniUr 


CO utiDnoray, the ana and tho moon sUad opponte to web o&a Hke the 
two ooneaponding ndM of tha ofStual token pi^ uid tho five pl&neti tn 
eoBJoiiied like k drdet of peoris. The expnmn ii derived train the 
tsditioa of the Bamboo Booki^ where it is nooided that thk awpidone 
eoqJDDctioii took pUoe whKi the great Tao had ootn^eled Utt 70th jrear (tf 

830. — ^Lnt 0lf. One <rf (he four mpeniatund cKBtnKB of 
Ohineoe tradition, end resided ae a happy portent, on its alleged ap- 
pearance, of the advent of good government » the birth of nttnona mien. 
Tha male beast Is denominated t'i ff^ and ^e female Im, whence the 
genaiia deaigna&n .onall]' employed fa the compotmd epithet Ifi-Uit. 
AocoT^ng to tho lH ^^ It baa the body of a deer, the tail of an to, 
and a nngle htan. IVu Tang aaerta that it ii the inoamate enenon of 
the five primordial dements {3l^ tT^' ^^ '^ "^ ^ attain the age of one 
thooaand yean^ and to be the nobleM form of the animal ereatiOD ; the 
enblemi of perfect good. Keverthelen, the apparition of one of these 
auuvelloiie beasts was regarded as an omen of t^ipraaehing evil by Con- 
facia^ aa it did not harmaiiiie with the patent disorder of his times ; and 
he conoladed the lustory of his natire state with the reocod of this eveoL 
Sea taUe, K'ong Wm, and cf. L. C. I, poleg. p. 86. 

S©0._Ln( KiMV # A iS. * ^ 5;- A.D. !68^-l«» 
A poet in h^ lepnta. 

80 X, — ^Lm Lnro-sn ^ ^ jf^. A fomons preteiKleT to 
magical powera in the rdgn <rf Suno Hwei Tnaig, the ndBfortaneB of whose 
rdgn are attribntad to the infiitaatiiMi with whbh he became engroeaed id 
TacM snperstititms. In AD. 1116 lin Lingnni was preeented to the 
Emperor as aa adept in snpematnral myBteries, and was hooonred witli 
imotediata notice, reoeiTing the thle of ^^ ^ S S !7b ^ 1 ">^ 
nnder his goidenoe the emperor embarked in extravagant and coatly fcdfie^ 
abandomng himself wholly to the worship <J imaghtary deitin invented by 
the Ta(^ sect, fcs whose doctrines, be established a q>ecial ocdiege, 
Brfon bis clevatitai to this height of ImpHal bvoar, Im Ling-en had 
been a member of the Boddhist priesthood, having left which, he led for • 
time the Hie of a wandering menHUoaDt, profeenng alnlity to ooBusaBS 
i at wHI; and on atbuning a poaition of eommaDdiDS 

". .-- -'Uglc 


influence, he aaed everf means in hia power for destroying tbe BuddUat 
religion, and Bubatituting for it tile fantutic Pantheon of the so-called 
Taoists. He ia lepnted to have oonlrived tine death of Wang Yim-ch'6ng 
£ "fCi ^- ^ "v^' thanmaturgist, and at length, fitiling in A.D. 1120, 
to relieve the capital of ianndations, he fell into disfaToor and vas banubed 
from Court The TaoiaU maintain that he waa adnuUed mio the ranks 
of the genii The worship of the Taoist god Yii Hwang-t! jfi ^ W> 
dates from hia period, having heen inaogarated in 1116, tinder bis aaspiooi 
by an Imperial mandate. Cf. T.E., an. ciL 

3ef3.— Lin SnfiN Li Po S@ 'i^ @ ^.— Met. f<»- cantion, 
ap[ffehenGive care, delicate tact; an elliptical alliidon lo the following 

«™, or ih. s*. «»!, : ® a iK iSt *i iS * JB, in H Ji 

{^C- — " We ahould be apprehenrnve and cautions, as if oo the teink of a 
deep galf or troading m ttun ice," Cf L. C, I-, p. 72. 

S98._-LiN SuNQ-ro ^ :fg ^. 3rd century B.C. A naHre 
of the State of Clwi ^, and employed as conneellor by its sovereign, ^ 
^ ^ (B.C. 298—266), when threatened by the encroachmente of tlw 
rising honse of Ts'in. The prince of Tim having demanded tie Barrender 
to him of the famoiia jewel known as 5fO ^ ^ ^g , (see No. 551), 
which bad passed into the pcesesrion of the ruler of Chao, and for which 
be offered lo give fifteen cities in exchange, Lin Siang-jii oonnselled com- 
pliance with the demand, bnt, by his subsequent coorage and firmness in 
presence of the ruler of Ts'in, he lecoverad the gem fur his master, when 
the deUveiy of the promised exchange of territory was sought to be with- 
held. Hia boldness elicited the adiniratioa even of the potentate whom 
he withstood, and the Utter honourably aent him biiok nnhairoed Ift hig 
own country. 

3©4.— IjN TsfiH-sb # lllll^, * ^5 Si and ^ 1^ A.D. 
1785—1850. A native of the '^ ^ district (Foo-cbow). Graduated 
in 181 L as a tan-Kt ; was shortly afterwacda advanced to several important 
an] ofBcee, and in 1839, i»i the detwminalJon bnng formed by the govern- 
meot of the emperor Tad-kwang to grapple aeriooaly with tlie opom-lnffio, 
was appointed Imperial Comntisenoner in Eiruig-tdng, and in the foUowiog 
year, Governor-General of the Two Kwang provinces. Recalled and dis- 
graced on tbe declaration of war by Great Britain aa a resnit of his 


ena^lic bnt unjnstifiable proceedings, he uevertheless remained in the 
proTiDce, uDtil the rapture iS the Bogiie Furts by the Briliiih forces ex- 
tiagtiished the last ho[ies of succc^iil re^staiice in that quarter. Having 
beeu transferred in a EubonVmale cajmcity lu the [irovinue of Chekiang he 
van nihseqnently still further degriuled and scnteneeJ (o dtportatioD to 
Hi; but this aeiitence nas not carriinl into edk:t, nnd after a short period 
of diflgrace, hia reputation for integrity and administrative Bliill eaeured his 
return to office. Appointed to tlie post of coramandcr-in-chief of the forces 
assembled in Kfrang-si for the purpose of opposing the Taiping rebels, he 
died at Cb'ao-chow Fu, ivhilc on his nay to assume the dutius of this post. 
Can. as jfc ^. 

395.— LiNG-Hc Te-f£n ■^ ^ ^ ^. A.D. 5P3— 6CC A 
celebrated scholar and bibliographer. Author of the ^ _§£. 

39e.— L1.NC1-HU T'*o -^ $fi ^. ' ■?■ It!- Held the post 
(^ chief Minister to Taug Siian Tsung, AD, 80O. IL is rewrded of him 
that having been detained in the Imperial cabinet until fnr in the liight 
on one occasion, ho wag seut back to his home in one of the imp<'ria1 
chariots, and lighted on his way by the " golden lily candelabra " ■^^ ^g 
•/Sf, from the emperor's own apartmeots. Can. as ^^ ^ ^. 

3©'?'.— Luo LuH f^ -fft. One of the reputed AssisUnts of the 
Emperor Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697, and the founder, according to tradition, 
of the art of music. 

398.— Lino Pao J| ^. The name of the district lying to 
the north of the defile called T'ung Kwan J^ |^, in modem Shen-ei, 
where the Imperial fwces under Ko-ahn Hao, q. v,, were defeated in A.D. 
75^ by the army under the insurgent Ngan-lu-shan. 

3©©.— Lino T'ai ^ ^. The name bestowed by Si Peh 
q.v., Dpon the domain and palace founded by him in B.C. 1100, which 
be Hnrronnded \tj a park entitled Ling Yeo [ [Q, nhece animals of 
many kinds were preserved. 

4OO._LiN0 Wi; ^ ^. The name of the dbtrict in which 
the foreea of the house of T'ang were reorganized in A.D 756, after the 
abdication rf the emperor Uuan Tsubg. The army which restored his 
■on to power, under the getieralship of Kwah Tsze-yi, is consequently 
referred to as | I ^ 5- Situated in modem Kan-snh. , 


'^Ol— Lino Yes Koh ^ @ ^. A tower wilbin Ihe pnlaoe 
of T'asq Tai Tsung, where, in A.D. (iOfi, the portraits of emineot «(atia- 
mea and commandera who had supported the djnasty sioce its fonodalioii, 
were iofslalled and their memuirB provided wiUi a resting place. 

40S.— LiHG V«N Tai ^ ^ $. A celebrated tower erected 
at Lch Yang by Wei W^n Ti. It was 23 chmig in height (aboat 250 
feet), and from its Bommit lie tower of M^ng Tdn ^ ^ [ could be 

403.— Liu-HU HwEi DP "7^ M' ^''^ designation UBnally 
giren to Chan-hwo ^ ^, poslhiimoiisly can. as ^, " ^. An official 
in the state of Lu in the age preceding that of Confacitis, by whom ho 
was often referred to in terms of coniniendatjon. He is said to have been 
invested with the district of Lin-hia as his fief nnder the dncal government 
of Lu, whence the above designation arose. (Cf L. C, I., pp. 163 and 195 
and IL p, 83.) The allnsion in the phrase ife ^ ^ jft ;2: P ~F 
)g is indicative of his upright character. It refers to the following ind- 
dent. A man of the State of I,ii dwelt next door to a yoting widow, 
whose house was one night destroyed by a tempest of wind and rain, and 
who besought her neighbour to take her Into hts dwelling, which be nfiiBed 
to do, The woman entreated him saying, dost thou notremembw Hwd <d 
Liu-hia, to whom no one imputed evil though he held a woman in hia lap t 
The man replied : " Hwd of Liu-hia might do this, bat I cannot." 

404.— Liu Hiang 'SA'^,* ^^ B.C. 80—9. One of 
the most celebrated among the philosophers and authors of the Han dy- 
nasty, with which he claimed kindred by descent fkim its Founder. At 
the age of twelve was appointed one of the Imperial pages, and conlinned 
through life to hold various officer of 'trust under the reigns of SUan Ti 
and bis two successors He occupied a leading place in the coatmision of 
scholars who were employed by command of Silan Ti in the tAsk of ei^tlng 
and elucidating the text of the ancient clasraca ; bnt, notwilbstanding hia 
erudition in the orthodox literary canon, his mind displayed a strong 
leaning toward tlie more imaginative speculations of the Taoists, and his 
mclination toward a belief in the supernatural has caused hia name to ba 
aseodaled with sundry laarvellous stones. Thus it is recorded that tho 
apparitbn of a venerable being, clothed in a yellow robs, nrpraed Lm 


Hiang while nbaorbed one night in his studies, and revealed to him tie 
mysteries of creation and the evolution of the principles of nature, which 
are expounded in his troaLise on the 3E. ^ or ^''^ primordial elements. 
The mystjo being, before he vanished from sight, declared himself U) bo 
the Essence of the Great First Caose ^fc i ?fi? "tfei- ^''^ Hiang was 
author of the Hietorj of the Ban dynasty, io which he became the fonnder 
of the modern style of historical compositon ; and also of a collection of . 
anecdotes respecting virtuuus women, wliicb likewise became a recognized 
model (^ style. 

•40S. — Liu His ^ ^. Sffli of the pivceding, and like him a 
distingatGhed historian. He aided his father in the labour of arranging 
the literary treasares recovered from the proscriplion instituted by She 
Hwang-ti, and in B.C. T, afler his father's death, was made a privy 
coansellor and placed, under the patronage of Wang Mang, at the bead 
of the literary commission of (he She K'ti Koh q. v. He classified the 
erisling body of literature under seven heads, and further arranged the 
writings of the so-calldd ^, or philusophera in nine divisions. (See Part 
IL, Nos. 227 and 280). 

40e.— LicHow^Bj^. The Empress Lin. See Wang Ts'Sng. 

40*?.— Lit! HiiAN ^J 3£. A scion of the house of Han, who 
took up arms in A.D. 23, to retist the usurper Wang Mang, and pro- 
claimed himself emperor under the title Jg ^ ; but after holding a 
nominal sway for two years was constrained to abdicate in favour of his 
kinsman Liu Siu, who ascended the tiirone under [be title ^ ^ "j^ 
and fonftded the second or Eastern dynasty of Han. 

408.— Liu Lmis ^ ^ £^. Second century A.D. One of 
the revered patriarchs of the Taoiat sect. With Hwei Yiian q. v., and 
others he formed the fraternity of the White Lily, comprising 18 members, 
who made a temple upon the Lu Shan ^ |Jj, (in modem Kiang-ei), 
their retreat. 

40e.-Lm K. gj ». • -fe ffi. t W ffl- AD .3..^ 

1375. One of the most celebrated among the adherents and counBellors 
of the fonnder of the Ming dynasty, to whose service, in his stniggje for 
the atWhiav of the Miwgol sovereignty, he brought not alone hi^ 


seller of straw-Bhoes, by whicb he gained a liTing in his early ye&ra, to 
commaDd a body of Tolimteera engaged ia oombating the lebellkMi d the 
Tellow Turban inaargeuU, A.D. lf)5. In company witli his funon; 
brolhers-in-anns Chang Pei and Kwan Y'\i qqv., he speedily rose into 
note, and in AD. 191 fongbt under the kaderahip of YUas Shao agaiost 
tbe usurper Tang Cho. He Temained for a (Jnie eubjeot to the infinence 
of ttie ambilioas statosman Ta'ao Ts'ao, but on the latter's iilteri(» dengns 
to iuur|i the throne becoming revealed, be declared an c^n enmi^ against 
him, and in virtne of hia dynastic kinship eet up a claim to the heritage of 
tbe huuae of Uan. Establishing himself in the West of China (tbe modem 
Sze-cb'wan), he maintained a lifelong warfare against Ts'ao Ts'ao and the 
rival bouse of Wu, (see Son K'ilan), and on the final extinction of tbe 
Han dynasty in A.D. 220 he proclaimed himai'lf emperor, having up to 
to that period borne ibe tjlle of "1^ Cp ^ ; and is known in bisUiry ai 
fl3 ^ ifl'- '^^^ dynasty which be fomided, styled that of ^ '|@|, it 
considered the legitinuEe successor to the line of Ham Kao Tan, although 
Ibe larger portion of Empire continued divided during bis reign and that 
of his son and sole successor by the rival honsee of Wei and Wu, thus 
cunslitatiug the epoch of the i:^ ^ or Three Kingdoms, Much of the 
success which attended the eSbrta of Liu Pei is attributed to the sagacity 
and prowess of bis great coansellor Cbn-ko Liang q.v. 

4ie.--LitiPiA0^^. •;^^. 2>. A.D. 20a A distant 
kinsman of the imperial house of Han, who, during tite tronblons period of 
the reign of Hien Ti, took up arms as a military adrentnrer, and having 
gathered to his standard a nnmber of robber bands, couverted tbem into 
soldiery, and subdued a largu extent of country on the soolh bank of tbe 
Yang Tsze. In A.D. 190, He was nominated by 'IVng Oho governor <rf 
this region ffij jfj. and for a numtier of yean he continued to wield an 
alm'jst independant sovereignty, suooesfully resisting tbe attacks of Ti^ao 
Ta'fto until death removed him from the scene. 

41T.— Liu Sho ^^, •^^. A.D. J 052— 1078. A 
celebrated historical writer, asociated with Sze-ma Kwang in tbe prodoo- ' 
tion of the latler's vast work, tbe annals of China, tbe introdnotion to 
which, entitled ^|> ^, or the Legendary Period, is atttibatsd to 



■418.— Lw 8ro ^ ^. JO. A.D. 67. The fminder of the 
second or Enstera Han djnast?, known aa 3U 1$ '■p'- ^^ ^''^ 

41©.— Liu TscNa-YOAN W^^Tt ' -^W- ^-^ "*— 
819. One of the celebrated poeU and esBayiBte of tbe T*ang dynasty. 
Wu famotiB alaD as a calligrapber. Aft«r holding many high offices ha 
became bvoltwl in political disgrace, toward the dose of his career, and in 
A.D. 815, he was banished to occupy tlie governorship of Liu Chow, in 
vhich poet he died. He is henoe freqiKutl; designated |}p ^ ^. As 
A poet, he is placed on the same loTel with the renowned Han Yii. 

4SO._Ln: Yen SS # * i ^- -» AD. 780. Famous 
as a scholar and a pablic adminislrator. Brotigitt into notice at the early 
age of eight, 1^ a ceremonial address, which he composed on the occasion 
of the solemn worship of tbe Tai mountaic by tbe emperor Hflan Tsnng, 
be rose to fill the highest offices of State, and was highly snccessful in 
restoring by sagacbos measures tbe pmrperity destroyed by the rebelliona 
which Uid waste the empire from AD. 756 to 762. In 763, be was 
named chief Minister. He at Iiaigth fell a victim to the enmity of hn 
political adversary Yang Yen, and was pnt to death by (be emperor's 
command. When the order to confiscate his prope.rty was put in ex- 
ecutioo, it was foimd tkat be had died poeaessed of no other eflecls than a 
few books. 

4S1.— Liu YcNo 'thWi'^fX^ A.D. 1719—1804. A 
pobljo functionary of hi^ n^pnte for integrity, and at one time a Uinister 
of State. Was famous in his old age for his catl^aphic skill, specimens 
of which are in high peqneet 

4SS.— Liu YU $|| ^, • ^ ^. D. A.D, 422. The founded 
of the Sung dynasty of the Sth centnry. . Originally a eellfr of straw san- 
dals, ha meo by military service to higli rank, commencing his career in 
A-D. 401 by saccesses against the ret>el Sun Ng^n ^^ j^. Af(«r serving 
the last emperors of Tan dynasty for a number of years in divers capa- 
cttiea, and bemg invested in A.D. 416 with tbe title of ^ .^ together 
with tbe office of chief Minister of State, be csneed the feeble emperor 
Kgvn Ti to be pat to death in A.D. 418, and after [facing for some ^me 


ft pappet sovereign on tbe thnme, at length declared himself emperor in 
A.D. 420. 

433,— Lid Yu-81 ^ ^ ^ * ^t^- A.D. 772—842. 
A celebrated poet, contenipra-ary with Haa YU, aod Liu Tsnng-jiiaD. 
Held office as Governor of Soo-cIjow, bat fell a viclim tn A.D. 815, lo the 
same political complicatkna that eotailed the disgrace of Lia Tsang-yiiaji, 
simultaneondy with whom he was banished to a distant govemnicnL 

4S3a.— Lo CtfANO KUNO-CHU ||§ § -^ i- The Prince* 
of Lo Chang, danghter of tbe last riiltr of the Ch'€n dTnasty, A.D. 687. 
She was married lo SU T^b-jen ^ ^[ ^, being Eeparatod from whom 
in the disordere which eiuned upon the downfall of tbe Imperial fortunes, 
she broke a minor in twain and gave her husband half, keeping the other 
portion herself, with the engagement that on a certain future day she 
would expose it for sale in the capital, as a means of letting her where- 
abouts be known. The lady was compelled to enter tbe seraglio of Tang 
Su q. v., but contrived to have her token conveyed to the public market, 
where, on the appointed day, her bosband recognized it and paired it with 
his own portion. Yang So, on learning the history of the mirror, caused 
tlie husband and wife to be reunited. 

4S4.— Lo Mi ^ '^. • ^ ^^. A celebrated scholar of tbe 
Sung dynasty, and author of the compilation entitled j^ ^, a ooUecti(» 
of fabulous and legendary notices relating to prebistorio times. 

435— Lob PiNo-cn'ANQ ^M'^^'Mf^- ^-D, 1798— 
1867. A native of Fatahan near Canton, who in 1850 became Govenx^ 
(^ ^£) of Hn-nan, attd gained great distinction by his efforts in coping 
with the Ta'i-p'ing rebels. His subordinates, carefully selected and trained 
by himself, have in many cases risen to occupy leading podtionB in the 
Empire, — the most notable among thetn being TsSng Kwo-fan. In 1860 
was appointed Viceroy of Sse-ch'wan, and in tbb ofBce be died. Pcs- 
thunious honours of a high degree were rewarded to bim by Imperial 

43Q.— L(.H SHto jig- ^. The fairy ladiee of the rivM- Lob— 

a creation of the poetic fancy of Te'ao Chih q.v., who, in his poem entitled 
^ ^ ^' ^^"'u'^ 'ipon peopling tbe river Loh with a race of biry 

A. f. caiitESM s£Aj>ers uanvai, nr 

«)aDiitai, ai . b^lit and entioing aa tlie doad-boin leanty of Uooot Wd, 
<IM Wn Shan Siea ini) ivmortalibBd in tlis atanna </ Sdi« YO. 

487.— Lu Chuno-uen ^ ^ j£. A miuater of llie State of 
Tail circft B.C. SOO. At a time vbra the victorions IbrceB of Tii'in ven 
Uiteatenii^ tbe power of ihig state «ad ita allies vTtli orarthiow, be was 
n^ed to nuike BabraUon to Uie KiveRigDtf of T^'m, bat finutjr rrfued, 
and by his detanranatiini infiaod freab spuit via tiw weskar oombatanla 

438.— Ld Hwn-NtBO Jt iR %- ^^- 638—713. Known 
aa -^ m or tbe Sixth Pabiarch (of Uie ChinesB Bnddbiato), and tbe laat 
of tbe Easlera apootoUte ^ jjj^, to irbom tiie wuxxaaoa of tbe ttrant; 
dgbth and hat of Ibe Indian pntnaRha (^ 0, Boddbidhanna), wu 
(canmiUed. (Sea Part H., No. 215^ A native cf Su Cbaw ^ ;f^, 
in Ncttbsm China, ho became a convert to Enddhbrn b ratty Tife, and 
ma iovealed by the fifUi patnarc^ with tbe monastic gatb and with the 
■endioant's bowl of the ladiaa apoatle ; aAer receiving which be led a 
wandering, ascetic life in various parte of China, spending some years, at 
Kwang-iiiew {Caiton), and abo «t Ts'ao Ki ^ j^, in tbe moontainous 
iq;ion on tbe Vnden of Kwang-tang and EiaDg-oL He eventoally reU*ted 
la bis native ^aco and died in the aKmaBtery called §§ J^ ^, «t Sin 
Chow. The tliree oJties which had been hii favourite places of abode 
contested Ibo bononr of receiviag fais reniaina, and his body was finally 
interred at Ts'ao ffi. He named no sacoesBor in tbe apostolale, and tbe 
bowl of Boddbidhanna was buried beside faiv. 

43©.— Lu NiM-TBZE U Jl -y-. ThetnprighJmanofLn— 
i t. lia Hia Hwei q.T. 

430.— Lu Pad 10 ^ or j||^.— I^ rftbe Stale (tf Lo, tbe cog- 
Mi^ attiibited U Kong-shn Tb» -^ 4^ "^ a InmoU mecbaciclan 
of tbe State ef Ln, said to have beon oonlempwaiy with Codfiieina. He 
is mentjoiied by Henoina (Of. L.C., II., p. 461). Wonderfnl dwies an 
nlated of bis ingenuity ; aniMig oUwrs, it is said that lus father having 
been pnt to death by the men of Wn yf^, be carved ia ^gy in wood of 
a genie whose band pointed in tlie direc(i(»i of Wn, where, in craaseqnenc^ 
a dreiigfalprevuIedfcr^Bptoe of three yean, On recemi^sapplioatlona 
and laigesB fttUa the nea of Wn, be est «ff tbe YfuA «f the figure^ whea. 


M <mnrE^.M£ADKB!8 KAStTAL. A I. 

ndn at odm ML He it now wonAi 'iy ed as ibe patron firaiitj of ouptn- 
ten ami m aaw. The ptorerb ^ f^ f^ ^^—"^ exUlA drxterilr 
with the aie in Ibe booie of VmoT m ocariy pqDiralait to tliat of " carrjr- 
fpg coab to XewcaHlc" It k need of an exlubitioM of a smalUrir^ of 
koowIeiigB h tbe preeence of a sonDd acholar. 

<k31.-LtJ-Fo-TtH^^^. 2ndceitbii7BC. OneofUw 
eeletinlfld geonak of Ibe Han Ajv»^. Comnuinded in Ibe ezpedilK«a 
under Ho K'tl-p'ing, and vm ennobled mi^^^. ia B.C. liO be 
was de^lcbed in coneert with ttireo other generals lo invade Ibe \m*- 
loriea of Nan YUeb ^^ jQ^ (ibe modeTD Ewanglnng and Ewang^iX 
wblch he ccHiqtiered od bc-balf of Wn Tt, soppnaiing (Ite soTcn-ignljri 
fouodod by Cbao T'o q.v. On lliis cipedhion be was inveB(«d witli Uie 
title X^ ^ ^ ^ or genera^Bsimo mMner of ibe waree, wbitli wag 
revived in tbo eneoing centurjr to deeignato the fainoos cnptain Ma 
Tilan q-v. 

438. — L^ SBfiira ^ >^. A professor of ibe art of aldiem; 
and a pretended adept in the secrets of the genii, vbo wag patroniznl \fj 
Sha Hwang-ti B.C- 220. He it said to tiave ai^companied the expediiion 
of SH Sbe q.v., and, according to tbo |$ fflj f|f, was the first to 
Imbue tlie emperor witb bulief id the exislfuce of the Ibles of the genii. 
(See Feng Lai). 

438._H) T'Al S JE- TIw Dew Tower, a building tlie 
areotionof ^ihicb was planned \>y Han Wan Ti (BC. 179—157). bnt 
wbiuh In TorrAineil from conislrncting on finding its coet ralculnlal flt 100 
bara of gold. Wltli (lie nioderaliiin and nni>eHl4inet8 nbich nrc n)>p](ind- 
ed in bis character be ex(.4nimi-d : 1 niTl not spctirl on this building nhal 
would funibJi tm iHiiiseboUi witb a iurtiinc*'T Henco the pbrafe: '|^ 
I I 'S n ^E' I" '^ aymbol of wise fingnlltj': 

434.— Loi j^.— Plir. :tfj | % ^. See CUo Kao. Phr. 
y^ I . — M^L fur ttw duwnrHD of a df nasCj', witli reftmncv to thr ftJIm^ 
Ing phniae ascribe<1 in the ^ ^ In Kw'.ni Oi'eli •^•^^^% 
T ^ a ;2: ^ tt" * ^ ^ '■•■ "The honse of Te'in kM it. 
doer, antl Ihe wlnle empire pnrsiied it— the ntuat gifted muhed it firsL" 
Hen tbe pasaewm of poner by the sovereign «f Ts'in u i^boliatd bj 
te ter wfakh wu pkmd btfa* Un \fj Cbao Ea«^ 


480.— Hjh CHm I^ ^, • Ut 0|. A.D. 76J— 806. A 
faithful and pWnap(>kcn miniater of Pans Tab Tninj;. Hfa iDenmtalt 
liaro lieea faaniM dvwii to poiteritf as nodefa of stj-la and iutrioaia woitb. 

43e.— LuH Ki ^ ^, • i ^. A.D. 261—808. The 
dosoeclitnt of % line of iltatingitisbeiil fnnctionariM, partiaaiia and kinsmea 
cf tliQ boDM of Wu during the atnif^Ies uf the Tliree Kingdoms. Held 
liigb militarj comsund, and ^loiie abo as a comiucnlator and poeL 
He fell a Tictim at tengtL Utpnlitical intrigue and waa unjiiatly put lodrath. 

437 — Lull EiA ^ ^. A IntBtad fnncliotiniy In the emplcrr 
of the fonuder of the Han djnruty, who deepatched bim, drc£ B.O. 300, 
as his envc^ (o Chao To q v., for tlie purjwse of ohtninlng tlw alkgiance 
of tba Iiitier afliT his ossninplion of iii3 tiile of Prince of Yfteh, Journeying 
to the Sodih, Lnh Kia readted iho Court of Chao To at tlx' rite of the 
noJent Canton, and ruonvcd fniit hira the deobration of his fenliy to ttw 
hrnne of Hnn. Hu remained for some y lare in tlie Soulii, and was made 
by diao To hia dik-f ininistPr. Hin memory n slill [mecived at Oaaton 
by teinples crecteil in his honour, ((^ y^ ^ ^}. On Lis return to 
Nortlicm China \k niole an oci'uunt of liii travfla in the tlien wild and 
diui'y knonn Southern Rflginns; and on the aecewonofthe Emperor WSn 
Ti, B-C- 179, 1» vas n^am dnpatuhed on a minion to tho ixiUntate of 
TUeh, who gave into Lis hands hia sulHuinuon to Uu nuonunty of Un 
Han dynasty. 

43a.-r^ Km YUA^ 1^ A ^. • ^- ». t ^ UJ. A.D. 
' 1110—1192. I'he mmt distingniJied among a family of five btuhen, 
who attained gnnt celebrity by their genins and learning, and v\yo w<re 
among the favourite fvllow Esiidente of tlie illiistiious Chu HI. Was at 
the bead of a nnmennia dan of d'tsciples, who attended hia metaphyBical 
teaiihingB ; and famonFi also as a poet. Can. as ^ ^. 

4:3e.— Llti Umo-k'i ^ IM ^- * HIE #' AJ). 1630— 
1692. A celebrated scbdar, distuiguiahed by Uie especial patronage of 
the Emperor K'ang-hi. 

4>40.— Lua MiMj J^ f9|. The bsaii« of tbe deer ) the title o 
an Ode of the 5A« Kii»s, <L.C. IV., p. 216), whioh, in conformity irith an 
imperial AaUMa, is sang at *ha oomuaial &aBt-# ^ ^ giye^to^g |i^. 


gradottlM ftt tlw Fvoviadal Extuiimatbii& tliis bfttuiaet it UBaMpHud; 
dengnatod Luh Mmg Tat. 

4f^l..—hua Sam |^ !^- * -^^ ^ A.D. 1477—1614. A 
£ltingiUEhed icbolar end an^ior, 

-gt4!3 — Lira 8n>FU ^^^. J>. AD. 1279. One «f tin 
most ccmaUiit and deroted among the Minister! wbo Bceompankd tin lad 
•clots of the Song dynast; ki tbA sonliiwaTd ntreat Itefore tie conqnev 
iog Hoii^r^ and partook in tbw final catastropbe. Waa rakily emplojed 
in aadmvouting to' arrange t«nni of peace, and at lengtlt, after a brief 
period of nnnwiited disgrace, rallied the last renuunkig forces of the 
imperial cause at Tai Sbaa ]^ |Jj, an inland o^nNle the weBlera estnai; 
of the OanloD Kver, nher^ for a few montha, the lAadow of anthority waa 
inalittatDed under hie gmdance. At lenglk even thin laet iMreat vaa 
elormed \>3 the fincts of KuUai, and in a great naral action the impaial 
flotilla vaa ntterijr deelroTed- When all waa loat, Loh Kn-fo, baring 
fint c«KnpelIed hia wife and cbildien Mb precipitate thetnBelvw into the gea, 
bbanlf Glaq>ed the bc^-empeic* in bie arms and le^ beneath the wavis. 
Tha peiiAed the dyoaaty of Sang. 

448.— U-H 8» ^ )g|. * ^^. iBt centory A.D. One 
of the exaiD[ie9 of filial piety. Holding office under Han Ubig Ti, he 
vas imprisoned oning to bb complicity in a political intiigne, bnt guned 
the admvation of hia jailer to ancb au extent liy the derolim he shewed 
for hii mother dnt be was set at liberty. His name ia freqneBlly con- 
fooDded whb Ibat «r Lnb T« ^ j^. an official » the Krvioe 61 Ifaa 
boon of Wi^ lUrd eentaiy A.D., who abo gained a b%h ibpnto lor fi&l 

444.— LdH TiBM 1^ ^, * H ^. A.I> 1(M2— 1108. Ad 
•nayiat and commenUtor. 

44S.— LuH Tai J^ £. Tbe Deer Tower, cr palace of plea- 
Biim eotntraded by the abandoned tyrant Chow Sin, where he ^sported 
with Ta Yi, the infamooa coascnt for whooe delectation his salijeolB were 
opppreasel Heie at length he perished in B.C. I123,aft«r tbedefeatof hie 
forceeby Wa Wai^, itbo "dtoiboled among the people" tbe aoonfflnlaled 
traamni of tlus abode of magni&iaDoe and wealth. C£ LC, HI., p^ 816 


44e.— Ldb Tso ^ j|$; * i$ IK- AJ). 1125-.lSia A 
4iiriii|gliiilnd fiiiiotioBai7, poet, wA hntotical wrilet, 

447^Li]B Tflx 1^ ^ * :i: H. AJ).262-aoa. BioUmv 
of Lull Sj q.v, wbcw npatatitm ind «TmtiuJ fata ho shued. 

4E48.^Iin I Hf ||g. An in^Tidaal nud to h»re End dish^ 
d» nign of Had Shnn TE (A.D. 126—144), ud to have been deeply aU 
tachad to hia Mend Ch'te Gbnog ||[ £, in outupanj w^ wbwn be 
wprtad at the liteiaiy exanunations for Ihe degree ef ]g[£ ^' I>b™% 
eairiad o& wUah hooonr, be endeaToured to yield k on behalf of his fiiead. 
Ob flu ocoaoDt of the offloiah bw^ refdaed, be feigned madneaB, tearing 
ha h^, and wandering abooL in a&cted fKtxtf. Hb a tt a chme nt to 
Oi6a Gkmg beoame at length bo fasiona that his viah was at ki^ 
mn than gimtifled, the coretad d^fiee bebg ooniKred on both alike. The 
fBBolMg o£ the pu^ as renowned as that of Damon and Fythias, is 
mvdad in the ptoraUal sayingi P^g^M. 7$n9 


44^9.— Ltn Eniia f^ ^. One of the sages employed by the 
gnat Hwang "R, B.C. 2697, in his Uboen cm behalf oi mankind. In 
company with K1 Feb q.T. and Tu Fu -^ [^, he was engi^ In 
{nrcadgadng Uu poises and in ptvfecUng generally the wt of healbg. 

460.— Lin Tk.J[^ jjg. The name attribnted to the Prinoeai, 
who^ as consort of the Empenu Hwang Ti B.C. 2697, is said to have been 
the inetnctKM of the people in the act of rearing the nlkwono. See Si 
Ling She. 

4SX. — Ijusq ^, (1). The Dragon, — chief among tbefonr 
av&dy-oonslitnled beasts (see Fart IL, Ko. 94); a legendary monster 
de[A9ted by Chinese tradition as a four feotod reptile reaombfii^ in il» 
Aaft the hoge ssoriaa which palaecmldogfBts have brooght to Ught in 
reoeHt years. AeemUng to the Tib King the symbol chin ^, coi- 
reqKHi4ng to the thttd tt the fonr primary der^pmeats of tiie aWtin 
mfineno^ it synoaymoas irith hatg, the dragon ; ^d, in oonfmni^ with 
Uw^hUnf the powns and Amotions cf natore go<ren>ed hj the fames Ihsa 
ndieated, each as the East, Sfnn^ etc., are ranked aaSta the symbd ^ 
^g, die Asnre D|«gDn, whinb also dei^oateB the ose te m qnadrant t^ the 


araoo^jbcre. The ^ >^, dictkuiary (A.D. 200), ttatn tbat <^ &» S60, 
BpcKiea of scaly reptiles, ihc dragiin b the diief, — il wieMs liio power of 
tnieloniration ami tlia gif^ of nndering itedf vnnblt] "or^ inrisiUe at 
pIcBwrt-. In llie aiiring it asceiKta to Uie elcics and In niitiinm it bnries 
itself ill tbo watury deiilhs Kvnn Tsm (7tli ceutnry RC ), dedares tliKt 
*' tlie dragnn becumes at. niU redwx-d to tbe »m of a EEilkworra or siToIIen 
till it fiUn the ppace (if Henven .ind EnHh. It deslreu to moaiil, — und it 
tites iiiiiil it afTriHila the cKuUh i^ ^^; (o iitok, — mid it dwwDds nnlil 
hi Men below the fonnUtiiiii of the dei-p -yt ^." Ttie'walrry jmodple 
of tlio almoapliere a pivdraiitenllj tuaocintiid wiih the lung; but its eon- 
guner the k^i'o or kijo Img |^ ffg, is hweparnble Ihau watcra gailwred 
upon tin rai'facL'of Uio earth. Thtis San K'ing eaya: " Wben «aith is 
piled up ill tnmintnuui, •am\ nnd rain arise ; and nhen water comes ti^stker 
iti Gtrenms and lakus tht; Hjo luntf, coinea into Imng." Tiiu enrly onsno- 
gonlsU eniai^l upon the imoEpnary data of Guch wri<en us thuae abovo 
quott^, and d(\:lured that there are foar kinds of l«ig, of w1it(ji mnny 
difit^nt acununta are given. Thus it is Said, — there it the tt:Ie£tlal 
dragon ^ | , nliich guards tlic maiiBions of Ibe gnls nod tn|^orts 
ibcni so tliat (bey do not full; the ^'ritasl dragon ffil^ \ , wliich causes 
tlie winds to blow and produces rain for tlio beneRt of mankind ; the 
dragon of cHrtli, which marks out the conraes of rivers and streams, 
and the dragon of ibe bidden treasures "jf^ ^Q^ | , i\']ik:h watcUeu 
over tlie weaJth concenlod fiom mortals. Modem snpctEtition has furlher 
originated the idea of four Dragon Kings | J, each bearing rale 
over one of the four seas which iitrm the border of the habitable earlh ; 
and the palaces wliicb fonu their respective abodes are Bamed as fol- 
lows: in the eart spa, ^ |^ ^ ; in the Bonth sm. ^ lil W ! ■» 
tlie west sen, ^ ^ ^ ; in t:^e mrAi wa, 7^ ^ ^. (T. 8- K. L., 
b. i'i). "BeBile the Jauo-lanff, the p'lM-lttni/ H^ | is aim 'desctitied as 
a denizen of the waters, and is iu particular the dragon vbicb don not 
monnt to hearen. The homlcat dragon is called Hiflmg Sfr 1 ■ Tbe 
Yellow Dragon ^ | is the most lioDonifid t>f the tribe ; and this it was 
which emo^^ from the waters of the rii«r Loh and preaeoted the elements 
of writing to tbo ^es of Fnh-fai q.v. The dragon, as (lie chief among the 
bdngs divitwly-oomtituted, is pecoUaily ^mMioa} of all that potaiu to 


lb« Sod of Hmv«d— the Empmr, vhtmo thmao b entitled lauff vel | 
"py. lJli»i1n^n4nAt.and nlrae f^ioeiadcKribwln^llieilTiignD-^fniiiliiuince 
luag t/tii I J^. ao tillusiun i1mni) froni tbu j^ ^, in wUicL it Uraid 
Uutt Eao Tsii, tiw fiiniHlcr of tliu Hnn ilvnasty , pasBessed lliifl altiibutc 
A peuiiUv (lescription of peaii, poeseaing magic Tirta») in eaU to le 
carried by the dragon npon its Cxtrlieod. 

403— Lung ng(-) Oneoflli«lEnist«r8orSUnn,TTli(iiipp(Mriled 
hitn to the oiSco of Na Yen |pp|| ^ or Comtiinnii*ator — the mouih-iiieco 
IwtireL-n llie «)T«reign an<] tliine below. Cf L.C, III., p. iO. 

4S3._H,-xG Hu Pano ^ ^ i^. The name gii-en to tbo 
pnblisbed list of gnuluatus nt tlte Eeuoiid and tliini EsaminnlioiiB (for la-Jen 
or Uiii-tte). The list is plncarded on a day, the Gyinbol of nhich is eitlier 
lung (die drngnn) corres|>oiHting to the cyclicftl tlisracter J^ or hti (ilie 
tiger) correiponding to iho charauler J|[. The ilnvgon and tiger are rcspec- 
lirely (he emblems of tbe BOTen;ign nnU liis ministers. 

454. — txan Hu Shan gi Jj^ JjLI-. A mountain situated in 
the prefettiirc of Kwany^in ^ -^ j^ in ihe province of Eiang-Ei, the 
abrvle during lifo of llw Tnoisl i>8lriarcli Ghnng Tao-ling and of hisrepntol 
descendants to ttic present iDiy. I'he pnlriaich's Tesidence nt this tpot is 
known by llio title of h ^ ^. 

4SS — LlTjo Mu ^ ■^. TIk Dragon Mother— a deifiud being, 
wnnihi)i|)e() at a celebfated teinplo sitnaled ncai (he town of YUeh Ch'^Dg 
Y^ ifi on the West Kivet in Knangtnng province Ft is rairated that 
tiw object of this uipeiUiiion jim li vilhige crone who gained lier Ilrtbhood 
by fiabiiig at this nxA in llio ivign of She Unnng-ti (B.C. 2il), and who 
one day nuriud ti> litr htimc an cnormoni e^ iJia bud fiiimd oa \\ui l>nnk 
of thu river. From ibis t-gg a creature was hatilipd wbiLh rema:ii«I fsklt- 
fnity attached U> her person, and aidixl her incatdiing iiab. Ooo day, the 
old noraan nuui^emnlly lopped nS a portion of the crcalurt's tail, nbeifr- 
npon it left her; but after a lapite of some j-eare it returned in a shape of 
Hiob splendour that she nt once nKt^iKed it as a dragon. Snamoned to 
Court to givo tui acwmnt of her marvellous adventuree, bIiq bad tnadu lialf 
the jonmey when «he waa overcome witli a longing for her hoine, nh(s«- 
190D tlia dnfoa at oocea^eued and taMported heo' in an inutaat to tl^, 1 . 


banki of her' dbUtu Btnuu. In Ular igei Aa beoun mend m k A 
Turiiy, the pAtnmen of tUT^ton upon the Wett BiTar (@ ZLX hf 
whom ^e is sUQ wonfaipped. 

46S.— Ltnni Yano EOm ^ |^ ^. The title gireo to a 
bronrite of the Prince (^ Wet |2|| 3E< '=>'^ **^ omfary B.G. It h 
rdat«d of him that when angling one dtj with Iub patron he oan^t a 
nnmfaet ot flue fidi, but of a mddeo bant into tean. When atfaed lbs 
cuue of bii grief he confeaMd th«t he had vept on nfleetu^ that eadi fidt 
he suM^eanvely can^ seemed fina* than the pnTiow one, vtodi be waa 
read; tbetenpon to throw away { aod soob be feaied woold be bia own &te 
at iome newer object of likbg pneented itaelf to bia Bovere^'i fasof .— 
In common pariance, the name Lmig-Tang KUn ia given to aodomotes. 

467.— Lfl 3— Chb LU ^ I . The faction coDairtiDg b 
Ibe brothen and nephews of the Bnpren LU, (see La How). 

4S8.— LU How 3 Jg. The Empns Ln— amwrt ot Kao 
Teo, the fonnder of the Han dj'naet;, whence the ii a)eo dengnaled ^ 
J5. Her cognomevi is said to bare been jQ {[fij. LtKig eiyojii^ the 
nndi?ided afiections of ber lord, tbe became imbittered In his later yean 
by the prefeience he evinced for a yontbTnl copcaliHiie named Ta'i Jg^ ^ 
^ ; biit notwithstanding ber fears in this reqiect Ao saw the sncceeslcn 
to the Throne bequeathed, on Kao Tsn'a death, to her own mo, iAo 
rdgned seven yean under ber tntelage, during whtdi potod (Jm engroaed 
the entire nntboiity cf government. Developng an msn^xcted maEgid^ 
ot natnre,-Bbe poboned the yonthfnl bod of ber Iiated rival, Ibe kdy TH, 
who bad been created Prince of Ghao jjQ^ ^ ; and cannng die mihappj 
lady benelf to be aeind, abe cnt off ber hands and feet, pat oat her eyaa 
and destroyed the oigana (^ bearing and of speech, and thai, oaating tha 
stiS living ricUm of ber rage npon a dnng^tll, she bade the Empenr ber 
Bon go to inspect what abe termed the " baman sow." The yoong tor- 
ereign, driven into an agony of terrcff on reoc^idng tn tbls ftigfatftd 
qnctacle the former light of bia fatbet^a seragliot kat cawrnnn gw and 
remuned imbecile nntH bis death in B.O. 188. The Empnaa baeopoa 
aiTogated to beraelf the aapreme (%nity, and wielded the aoverdgn pom 
nntH ber reign waa cut short by death in B.0. 18(X Bbe confened high 
offioea npon a md^tade of bra idatioD^ and ahned, It ia Mmd|. a| anSn^ 

Pt. r. CBINESM JtBADER'S MAIfffAt. 145 

one of her own rnmll; npon tlie UmiDe lu ber snoocMcr, but notwttbsUndmg 
a despemte attempt on the part of the LU princes to establish tbeb 3d- 
minirm after her decease, their forces were dispersed bj Chow Fo q.T., 
and a son of Kao Twi b; the ladj Po ^^ jE. who bad hMierto main- 
taioed hinuelf in obacurity as Prince of Tai J^ ^, was elevated U> the 
Throne in her stead. Hers is the onlj reigii of a female sovereign to 
which Ghmese history acvotda a Ic^timate title ; and the crimes which 
di^raoed H pdot a significant wanting against female rale.' A 3 S ', 

4ese._Lu HwEi S ^- • fit ^- ^- ^D- 1*"^- ■*■ 

statesman of the reign of Sl'nq ChSn Tsung, and one of the foremaat 
among the denonciators of the reforms advocated by Wang Kgan-ahe q.T. 

-aeo.— Lu i-Kffis S H flB- • S ^. -d. ad. i(M4. 

One of the most celebrated among the scholars and statesman of ibe Snng 
dynasty, and the progenitor of a nnmerons race of dietinguisbed men. 
Was a cdkague in office of Wang Ts'Sng. £nnobled as g^ ^ ^ and 
oan. as ^ DJ^. 

4©!.— LU Koso-cmi S ■^^- * ^ ?^. D. AD. 1069, 
A SOD of tbe preoedliig, luid oelebrnted like his fkther boUi in politics and 
Istlers. His three brothets formed wit4i bimseir a galaxy of brilliant 
nbolarship. Held office conjointly with Sze-ma Kwang, in the chief 
Ifintstfy of State, and was highly venerated for bis integrity and wisdom. 
Caa as IE lit- 

4Q3.— LO MteM HW'^^ ^- ^"- 210 One of 
Ibe heroes of the stra^le between the fonnders of the Three Kingdoms on 
the downfall of ibe Han dynasty, and an adherent of Sira K'iion q- v. 
At the outset of his career an illiterate soldier, he devoted bimseif to stndy 
at the instance of hia chief, and rose to high distinction In literatim) ns 
well as in arms. His troops achieved the victory which led to the capture 
and execntitm of the great Ewan yti, and he died in the hoiir of his 
greatest trinmpb. 

4e3._L3 MesG-cuEsa S ^ !£■ * ^ 5&- D. AD. 
1011. One of a brilliant line of slalesmen and men of letters, nnd himself 
a functionary of the highest distJoction. Ennobled as §^ Bg -^, and 
c«n- " ^ ^ I 


4S4.— LU Pu S =f^. D. A.D. 198. A military oommandBr 
in Um aernaa of the laat emperor of the Han dynasty, onder the patroosge 
of Tung Gho qv., vhom be was inatigatod to mnrdei A.D. 192. After 
wielding anprame aulbority in iho Court itx a brief period, he was otistad 
from his pontioii of influence by the riung fortanee of Te'ao Ts'ao q.r., 
agwtst whom he took iip aims with a soccen which proved but mumen- 
laiy. Compelled at length to smreDder h!ms^ ■ {nsoner, he was put to 
death by Ta'ao Ta'ao, at the advice of Liu P^ who insisted on the 
neceeeity of lemoTkij; from the world ta formidable an antagonist. He is 
represented as Uie type of a feaileas wanior, bat devoid fS uimning ix 

466.— L9 Pu-WM @ ;:;^ :$:. i^. B.O.287. Famonsasthe 
virtual founder of the fortunes oS the Te'in dynasty, and said to have been 
in fact the father of the Great She Hwong-ti. Originally a travelling 
merchant of the State of Ts'iu, he encoantered the prince I J€n, and at- 
tached himself to the lattefs fortunes — see I JSn. On the death of the 
latter in B.O. 247, he left his putativo son, aged thirteen, to the guardian- 
ship of the youthful Prince's mother and of LS Pn-wei, to whom, in ad< 
dition to the title of notntity ^ ^ ^ which had been conferred upon 
him, tlie horiorary de^gnaUon 'jtfl ■^j^ was attributed by the youthful 
sovereign. During Uie ensning decade, LU Pu-wei oondacted the govern- 
ment and oonaolidftled the power of the house of Ts'b ; but (accon^ng to 
a received tradition) bo was not deterred by the altered pootion cf his 
fi>rmpr concubine (now dowager queen) from cmtinuiDg an illicit inter- 
course with Ibis lady, until in B.C. 237 the intrigue being disoovered, he 
was dismissed irom his functions and sent into baniEhment, shortly after 
which lie died. The work entitled ^ ^^ ^C i^ collection of quasi- noticcB, although nominally his prodaction, was compiled under 
his direction by an aseemblage of scholars It is recorded that on ita com- 
pletion lie 6iiHpende<I 1000 piect^ of gold at the gate of his palace, aud 
oSl'red this sum as a reward to any person who could suggest improvement 
in tlio work bv niMing or expunging a ringle vatd. Hence the pbraw 

1I3T — IISl. One of the most renowned among the schoolmen of the 


Sung dyiuBt7, k oontemiiDrarf axA Mow labourer with Gha Hi, whom 
offidal patron he became. His opinions occapy a leading place, beeide 
Iboee of Cha Hi and Cbaag Cb'e, in the philoeophioal syBtem matored at 
this brilliaDt period c^ Ghioeae stndy. 

^S?.-!. T™ g ^. • iH f[. t IW » ■?. B. A.D. 
755. One of the moet prominent among the later patriarcha of the TaoiBt 
sect, of wboee doctrines be was an ardent votary. While holding ofBce 
as magittrate of the dkttict of Tgb-hwa (in modem Kiang-m), be en- 
conntered, it is said, the immntallxed Chung-li K'iian q. v., among tbe 
lecetees of the Ln Shan jOf^ UJi *°^ "** Inslnicted hy him in the 
mysteries of alchemy and the magic formula of the elixir of life. It in 
related (in a legend ohvioasly bcOTOwed from a Buddhist prototype), that 
wb«t tbe mystic bnng declared to him who he was, saying : I am ^S 

)f yti Hr.i Lii Ten ezpreseed an ardent desire to ftilfil the mission of con* 
verting his fellovrmen to the trne belief, but was [iTeliniinarily exposed to a 
Bsriee of temptations, t«n in nnmber, all of which he Biiucessfully overcame ; 
and berenpon be was invested wiih tbe formalas of magic and a sword of 
eapematoral power, with which be traversed the Empire, slaying dragons 
sod ridding the earth of diveis kinds of evil, during « period of upwards 
of four bnadred yeois. la the 12th century, temples wixe-erected in his 
hoDoor, and were dedicated to his worslnp under tbe designation Ch'un 
Yang j^ 1^, which he bod inade hia own. He is also called Lii Tsn 

S fflS.' "^ ^^ FatriaKh LO, under which designation he is f*^ some 
obscare reason wotshipped by the fraternity of barbers. 

-aea.— Ma cbow ^ ^. " ^ J. a.d. 6oi-€48. a 

fearless minister and censor of the early reigns of the T'ang dynasty. He 
rose by merit from a humble statiiin, and he eharee a reputation for wisdom 
and virtue with bis wife, whom be e said to have recognixed as a woman 
of superior worth, while sbe occnpied the lowly station of a cake-vendor. 

4ee._MA How ^ Jg, (I), n. A.D. 79. The emprcm 
consort of Han Ming Ti, and dai^hter of the celebrated general Ma Ytian 
q. T, She beara tbe title in hietory of Ming T61i Hwang How ^ ^ 
M. /Si s°i1 Is celebrated for her high iiilelliKence and virtue. She was 
childless, bnt tbe emperw, who was fondly attached to her, desired her to 
adopt as her own his son by a concnbine nnnied Kia, ^ ^, a cousin of 


tbe £mpreBs, nnd it is recorded that the can And affecticm ehs bestowed 
upon the child (afWnards tbe Emperor Chang Ti), exoeeded that of 
mothers Id gcDeral toward their own (Spring. 

470.— M.^ How ^ Is, (2). />. A.D. 1382. The empress- 

oonaort of tbe founder of the Ming dynaily. S«e Kwo Teze-bing. 

4V 1 , — Ma Ku |§|L ^. One of the female celebrities of Taoist 
fable. She is said to have been n sis(«r of the immortal lied soolliMjer 
Wang Fatig'p'ing (see Wang Tiian), and Itke him to have been admitted 
into tbe ranks of the genii. It is related that once when Fang-p'ing 
revealed himself in presence of Ts'u Eing ^s jj^, whom be chose as his 
disciple aod taught, hj corporeal sublimaUun, to free hicoself fnim tbe 
bonds of death, the genie was accompanied by bis sist«r Ma En, irho ap- 
peared in the semblance of a damsel of eighteen or twenty, array«d in 
gorgeous apparel, and who wailed on her brother and liig pupil wilb strange 
viands served in platters of gold and chrysopraBe. I'be wife of Ts'ai 
Eiog bad been nen'ly delivered of a child, seeing which Ma Ku took same 
grains of rice and threw them on the groond, where they at once became 
transformed into cinnabar (the magic metal of tbe alchemists). Fang-ping 
seeing this exclaimed with a smile ; Sister, do yoo still uidiilge in child's 
play I" to which tbe damsd replied: "Since I have been yom handmaid, 
thrice has the eastern sea become fields wbere tbe mulberry grows I " ^ 

e#Jia5Rit;»H:)S# ffl -H«=. lb. pbr.» jt * 

<1 §p, ngnifying the cyclic revolutions of nature and cataclyEms occur- 
ring upon the earth's surface, such as brings of immeasiireable longevity 
alone are privileged to witness more than once. 

4'7S.— Ma KiJN ,|| ^. 3rd century AD. A celebrated 
mechanician, who Soumhed at tbe court of the Wei ^^ dynasty. He 
constructed a number of highly ingenious machines, both for utility and 
diversion. K. P. W. k. 35. 

4*7 3— Ma Lln ^ '^. 2nd cenlnry A.D. Daughter of Ma. 
Yung and wife of Yli.'^n Wei i^Q^. one of the warriors of the clcslng period 
of the Han dynasty. Celebrated for her virtuous conduct and be» wiL 

'l'?^— Ma She Hwano .|| 0$ M- ^ legendary characteft 
said to have been one of the physicians who flourished under Hwang Ti 


B.C. 2697. He was an adept Id the conatitatioti and diEGasee of tlie 
hone. On ooe occaakHa, & dngm presented itself befbre-him, with drooping 
ean and opened jaws. The wise iihyucian perceived at cHice the ailment 
imder whioh the moiwtoi was raffering, and performed the operation of 
acnpanctDie <w ils ihroat, administering at the same thne a poUtm of street 
herbs, wluch oared Uie disarder forthwith. The gratefiil dragon then car- 
ried offhis preserver upon hie back to enter the rt^ons of bliss. 

-irS.— MaSui^^,*^^. 2>. A.D. 796. DisLingnishecl 
M a military commander in sereral camp&igns against the invasions &om 
Tibet. Ennobled ^Ht^^ 

4'7'e.— M4 TwAN-UN J^ iffi BS> ' M H- "■ C'™^ AI>- 
1325. A Bcholat <^ nnrivalted erudition, the results of which are embodied 
In his great work, the AnUquarian Researches eotltled 3C SX ^£. ^f- 
Son of a high official in the service of the la^ Emperors of the Sung djmuty, 
he paned his life in stody during the troublons period which ushered in the 
Mongol conqnest, leaving at his death Ihe manuscript of his great work, 
which was published in AD. 1319 by Imperial command. Cf. W.N., p. 
55, and B^mosat, Notwellet M4lange» Amatiquet, T., II, p. 16C. 

4*7"?.— Ma WfiN-BHtoia ,^ 3t #. * S H- ^- ^^- 1510- 
A distinguished functionaty of the Miog dynast}', celebrated as a military 

4*78.— Mi Yuan ^ ^, • 3t ^- D. A.D. 49. A renowned 
commander. Employed from early youth In military affairs, he was sent 
b A.D. 36 to repel an iticnrsion of the Tu-fan (Tibetans), whom he 
drove back across the Westera ttontier. In AD, 41, when already more 
than seventy years of age, he was despatched at the head of an army 
eqnrpped for the suppresa'on of an attempt made in Eiao Che ^^ gti 
the modem Tonquin, to ehake off the Chinese yoke. The riMng was 
beaded by a female chiefl^n named ChSng Ts^h ^{ ^, but proved 
nnsnccessfaL Embarking part of his army in the Canton river Ma YUan 
marched another division across the moontains of the south-weet frontier, 
and wholly routed the insuigent tribes. Taking the intrepid chteftainess 
«nd her aster Cheng Urb ^|[ ^^ prisoners, be put them to death ; and 
in token d his victory he erected a i^llar of bronze on the extreme 
■ottUKTO border <^ l^e " lull-coQatry" |^ ^^. 


During tLis campaign he bene the tilJe "f^ QJl ^^ ^ or QeneralieriiDo 
Queller of (be W»c8 ; and fm hie serrioes was ennobled as ^f Jg^ ^^. 
His daiigbter traa given in marriage b> the heii-apparent to the Throne — 
see Ua Hon. Scarcely rutiiroed from his Southeni caiDpiugn,-he found th« 
Hurdiem frontin threatened by an invasion of the Hiong-na, (A.D.45), 
whereupon, d<?^ii(e hia age and inflrmiiies he besought perniiatton to tak« 
the field once more. Tn pmre that hii) rigour had not left him, and to 
testify his readiness to incnr the risks of aerviiie, he raised himself erect in 
the saddle in pieseoce of the Emperor, exulaiming ; " It ia more meet that 
a commander be bronght to his bomd as a corjise wrapped in a horse's hide 
than that be die ui his bod snrronndcd b,v boys and girls I" Upon this 
the sovereign exclaimed admiringly: ^^ ^jlj ^^ ^ ^ "Ah I this old 
man I how etnlwart And lighUonio he is I " In A.D. 44, on a nnng having 
taken place on the part of the barbarous tribes of Wu-ling J^ |g^ gf 
(in modem Hii-nan), lie wn^ placed at his own request in command of 
an amy of 40,000 men who were deepaCobed against tliem ; and in tha 
following year he died in tbo field. No sooner was his death made known, 
than his adrenaries at Cunrt spread abroad a calumnious mmour to the 
efiect, that on his return from Tonqitin he bad secretly broogfat back a 
vast board of pearls and ivnry whiuh sbunld have been sunendered to the 
Stale. This allegation, it is said, was based on (he fact that he had brought 
with him one chariot-load of seeds of the grain called ^^ ^, which he 
had discovered during his campaign and which was believed tocoostitute a 
remedy against infections diiiease. In a spirited Memorial, his widow 
met and refuted the accuasliuns levelled against the deceased hero. 

•47*0.— Ma Yu-ua .|| ^, • ^ ^. A.D. 79—166. One of 
the moat euiineiil among Chinese scholars. Held various political ofBcea, 
but is chiefly oelebrattid from his labours in arraogement and exposition <rf 
the classics and the teachingB be inculcated upon a namerons band of pu- 
pils. His most celebrated disciple was OhSng Hiian q.v,, whose name b 
coupled with that of his master in the phrase ,^ ^^ forming a com- 
pound synonymous with learning and literary authority. 

480.— Mao On'xsa % ^, A scholar of the 2nd centory 
B.C., to whom is attributed the text of the ^ j^ or Book of Odes «a 
handed down to the present da;. Cf. W.N., p. 3, and L.C., iv., prol^. p. 11. 


4B1 -Mao Ki-umo ^ ^ ^,' i%'}^,i JS ^- AW. 

1623 — 1713. A celebrated scholar aad oommenutor. ConBidered aa tba 
fbremofit modern aiithorit; on tbe sabject of (he classes, with reference to 
whicli he impugus lUe views fotmtd b; tlie metapbyaical Gcboul of Chu HL 

483. — Mao Tbuo ^ ^. An intrepid coiineeUor of She 
Hwang-ti, B.C. 237, who, despite ttie penalty of death threatened against 
all who BhonlU oiler TeTnonstrance, interceded with the monarch for the 
b'fe of the latter's mother, when uondeiniued to execution on the discovery 
of her adnlteroos iulrigaes, and was sncaessful in obtaining mercy. 

483, — Mao Ts'iano ^ J^. A fainons beanty, said to have 
been one of the ornaments of the seraglio of tlie Prince of Yiirb B.C. 465, 
and a contemporary of the peerless Si She q.v. Chwang Tsze says : 
"Mao Tsiang and LI Ki qv, were of all mortals the mo6t lovely. When 
the fish saw them tbey dived deep nnder waiter, and birds, when Lbey saw 
dieiu, soared high in tbe airl" {K. S- L., art J^ _^). 

484— Mao YBN-siiovif ^ ^ |^. Tbe reputed author of the 
woes of Chfto Kiin q.v. Having been commissioned hy Tiian Ti of the 
Han dynasty, to paint the portraits of the beauties of his barem, he is said 
to have falsified the lineaments of the lovely Cliao Kiin on being dented a 
bribe ; and subsequently, on the lady's real beauly being discovered by the 
Emperor, to have Sed witli her portrait to tbe Khan of the Hiung-nn, 
whom he instigated to demand her surrender to become the barbarian's 

480.— Meh Ti (or Mm Tmn) ^ ^. Alao designated Meh 
T«!a I -f'. A celebrated pbilueopber and founder of a school in me- 
taphjncs. His precise epoch is uncertain, bat it is commonly asngned to a 
period intervening between the ages of Ccnfucius and MencJus, or between 
the 4th and 5lb centuries B.C. He propounded a celebrated doctrine 
■oramed np in the ivonis "^ ^g, or "universal love," which is vigoronsly 
attacked by M.-ndns. Cf. L.C., il, prcdeg, p. 103 et atq. 

480.— Mef ^. ITie plum; eqnally priced for ila fruit and its 
blosBoms. Tbe fragrance and snowy purity of the latter have been cele- 
brated in numtwrlesB verses. Tbe quotation ^^ | ^1^ f3> l^tbirst 
qiiencbed by bnging for a phim-ttee), is derived from an incident related 


of Wu 'K St '^. ^« foniider of the After Wei djnasty, A.D. S86— 394 
His troops, during a toilsome campaign, being exhaneted and faintiog 
with thirst, bo encourAged lliem to etniggle forward by announcing tbat a 
little farther on tbey would reacti an orchard of plam-trees laden with 
jaicy fiuit On hearing this Uie mouths of his aoldiera watered, aflbrding 
finch allevialiou as to enable Uiem to conlinae their march. ' 

48'7.— Mei Flh ^ iS- • -^ 31- One of 'lie Taoist patri- 
archa. He held office as gotemor of Nan Cb'ang, during the reign of 
Han Cli'eng Ti (B.C. 32 — 7), hut gave up his post in di^urt with the 
disorder of (he times. It is recorded that in B.C. H, he vainly endeavour- 
ed to call attention k> the ambitious projects of Waog Mang, q. v. SDhe&> 
quent legend! declare that having betaken himself to a life of meditation 
among the monntains of the South, ho attained to a knowledgo of the 
eecti^ of the genii, including ihe formula by whidi immortality is enenred. 
Having drank the magiu elixir, he revisited bis natjve place. Show Ch'un, 
whence shortly afterwards he was caught up to Heaven upon a gorgeous 
Iwan bird y^, (a fabulons creature depicted in the likeness of a peacock), 
attended by a bevy of celestial yoiilha and maidens. In the reign Sltw 
Tuan F6ng (A.D. 1078—1085), lie was deified with the title ^ ^ 


■iSB.-MBi Wfc-Ti»D ^ at JflJ. • ® ^. t ^ ^- 

A.D. 1643 — 1722. Celebrated as a mathematician during the leign of 
E'ang-hi. Author of nnmerong works. 

48© — Mbmcius. See MSng K-o. 

40O._MliNa Ch'ahg ^ ^, • fft ^ Celebrated for hk 
probity as a, Magistrate during the reign of Han Shun TL Appmnted 
goveruor of Ho I''u -^ y^, a region bordering on the Tonquin gul£ 
be found the people siifiering under the exactions of his predecessor, and 
afflicted by the disappearance of the peaH-mntsel from the beds m which 
they had been accnstomed to carry on a valuable fishery. Ko soonei^ 
however, Imd Meng Cli'ang commenced his virtuous rule than, as if by ■ 
specialmanifestatiouof HeBven'sfavour, the mussel -beds agtun became filled. 

-IQl.— MftNo Cii'ano-icBm ^ !§=^. Z". BO. 279, The 
title enjoyed by Tien W5n P3 vC' »"> of " powerful vassal di the Prince 


oS Tb'i, And one of the leaden in the pending contests oS his age. The 
nmnbor d partisuia attracted by his liberality waa so great that hia abode 
recdved the dcs^nallon /fv ^ ~j\ "Yho little Empire. Driven from 
Ts*! daring a poriod of reveme, he became chief minieCeT to the prinoe of 
Wei 1^, on whose behalf he warred sncceofnllj agiuoEt hia native State. 

493.— Mtoo CHE-stAna ^ ^ jp^ i>. A.D. 935. A general 
of the Foeterior T'ang dynasty. Waa proclaimed Prince of Shnh !^Q ^^ 
in A.D. 933, and in the following year aasamed the title of Emperor. In 
the ensaing year he died and was succeeded by his ton M€ng Cb'ang | 
^|. The \atta reigned as independent prince of Bhnh (the modem 
Sze-ch'wan), hdUI AD. 965, when he sabmitted to the aims of the Snng 
dynasty. ' 

433.— Utaa H&CH)AH £ ^ ^. A.D.688— 74a A cele- 
Inated poei. 

404— MiNG K'o ^^. • -^JiljorMengTsie | -^, 
dw Philosopher H@ng, latinized as Mencins. B.C. 372—289. A des* 
oendant of one of the noble bmiliea of Lu, the same State of which 
Confnclns waa a native ; and second only to the great Master himself in 
repntatjon and anlhority aa a moralist and pbiloeopher. The record of big 
teacbtnga and conversation with princes who songht his counsel, or c&ciples 
who gathered aronnd him for inslniction, fonns tie fonrth of the Suh or 
Canoiucal Books; and npon the principles they incnlcale, a great portMn 
of the orthodoxy of China in matten relatbg to etbica and social order is 
directly founded. With reference to the personal hisloiy of Mencins few 
details have been preserved; but of his early life a familiar tradition 
records, that having been left an orpJian in childhood by tie death of his 
father, he wae educated with tender, bnt wise Bnlicitnde by his mother, — 
see M€ng Mu. In later years he stndied, it ia said, nnder disciples of the 
renowned Tsze-sze (see K'ung £i), becomiog thus a direct inheritor of 
the Confucian doctrines, which he expounded dnring-the peripatetio career 
of fats subsequent life. Gf. L.G., II., proleg, obap., II, Section I. The 
record of his teachings was first made the subject of profonnd stody and 
daborate oommentary in the second century AD. by the erudite scholar 
Chao K'i q. v., who designated lum by the honorific epithet .^ ^, or 
"Sage Second" (to Gonfacius), and this has since lemained as the plulo- 


■opher'9 distinctive title. Id A.D. 1083, the emperor Smw SbSn Tnu^ 
confened npm him the zetmpeotire honour of devatim to the rank of Up 
@ 'Sit or Du^ of Ttt>w, and he wai daand amintg the most hmoiued 
i^ tbe dJBoiidei of ConfncnM. Bx r^ntaUon gai&ed bala liutte from the 
diaqnisitioiia of the schoolmen of tlua period, and in A.D. \W0, an impanal 
decree inrated him nidi the additional title of ^ £ ^. The sage's 
tomb is still rererentl; guarded near the city cf Tsow Hien, in Shantanfr 
Gf. " JonmeyB in Xortb China" .by iha Bev. A. WOIiainBon, Vol. It, 
p. 2M. 

486,— UftMQ EwAMQ ^ ^, * ISI lIS- A rirtaona bnt iO- 
fitTOOted munan, whose tustcry Is narrated in the Records of the Han 
dTDasty, mder which she fa said to hare Somfshed. Near the abode of hsr 
parents lived the wise sdiolar liang Hnng q.r., who leftised to man; as 
be found no woman to his liking; and Mgng Kwang, also steadfiutly 
renuinbg angle ontil her thirtieth year, declared to ber pannts th at the 
only man whom she rejected safficMntly to mate with was Uang Hong. 
The scholar heard this, and wedded her. As coaise-featiiisd as ^e was 
idtOQg in mind, ber bodily strength was soch that she could Bft a rioe> 
ponndiog mcrtar fiom the grotmd ; bot the scholar was displeased after his 
mairinge, on finding that his bride bad bedecked herself in the nsoal 
ibtmnine flneiy which bis soul abhorred. Learning the caose of her Iwd's 
^^leasure, M3ng Ewang instantly donned a Boit of homely apparel, and 
continued tbrongh life to manifest a mmilar spirit of obedience and inodera- 
tloo. She dweh otntoiledly in a lowly itaticai, and was aocostomed to 
testify the ret^eot In whidt she held ho; hosband by "laiung the rice bowl 
to a kvd with ber n^brows" when she sat down with him to meat Such 
at least is the ex^anatitm devised &r the ^^anaa ^t f^, upon wluch the 
ingennity of many oommentatoiB has been exercised. Gl -^ ^fjf^ 

4ee.^UtHaMt) £#. Tbeniotbezofl[eno!as,(seeMSng 
K'o^ revered as one 61 the chief pattens of mat^nal wisdom. Having 
beoi left bis siJe gnardian, it is related, tbnragh the dea^ of bis fathw, 
when tbe future phikaophar was still a ohUd, die devoted the most sednlooi 
care to her son's tnunin^^ and " thrice changed her abode " ^ "^ 7^ 
^. in «dei to guard his ednealion from bortfiil iaOoencee. Having 


dffdt at Bnt near a boiUl pUoe, and again near a marked nben tbe bt^ 
was led io ndmio the weoM he nw enacted, she was not otsitait tmtil die 
had faond a bmne adjacent to a eohool. At a later period ahe deMn^ed 
iril}i a knife a web oi eloth oa yiiuA she was engaged, aa a practical 
hsBon to her aon, who diewed a diapoaitloa to liffle in the nddit (f hi* 

-a©"/.— MflNfl Tim §|g ift. D. B.C. 210. General of U» 
forces of She Hirang-ti, the fbander of Uie Ts'in dynasty. In B.C. 214, 
be was sent at the head of an aimy of 800,000 men to combat the Hinng- 
nii, and on the following j'ear employed a vast hoet in the oointraction of 
the rampart of defence on the northern frontier known as the Great wall. 
On the death of his imperial master and the marder of the heir to the 
thronev (see Ya So, Ha Hal, and Cbao Eao), he committod eoL-Ida. TnuU- 
tion oonneda his name with the invention of the Chmeee writing-l»Tul>, 
which he is sud lo hare been the first to introdace in its modem fonn. 

4eS.— MfcNG ro ^ ^. • -(^ H- A person^e chiefly 
noted as the object of a satirical conplet from the pra of Bu Tnng^'o. 
TSa flooiidied at the close of Lbe 2Dd century A.D., and in retnm for a jar 
of wine freaeoted by him to the Coort enooch ^^ |g, he is sud to bare 
beeo made gorenor of Liang Chow ^ j^j. His good-luck was con- 
trasted by the poet with the inadeqnat« rewards which a "hero of a 
hundred flghls" might expect for his serviceB. 

49S._]|£ANa TsDsa [^ ^- * 4^ St" ^ "^"^ ^ ** 
Tan dynasty 8rd centni; A.D., who is enrollsd among the examples of 
filial piety. It is related of him that oa one oocaw»i, during winter, on 
his mother expresnng a longing wish for some bamboo shoots, he weot 
into the woods bewailing the misfortune that the delicacy could not be 
obtwied at such a seaMn : when soddenly, as a reward for his fifial ngai, 
the bamboos aronnd b!m b^an to pat forth their sprouts. 

BOO.-MI Fo ^ ^. • ycM ^^ »0«— HOT. A 
celebcateil uitiqnary and oonn(»aseur. 

601.— Hi Low J^ ^. The Maae, — a palace built by the 
tloenlions deepot Tang Ti of the Sni dynasty, amongst the labyrinthine 
intricacies dt which, it wae swd, eren the immortals might loee their w^. ■ 


COS.— Ml TazB Hu ^ -^ ^. A peTsonsge leferred to in 
llie writtngB t^ H&n FoL He was a fnvoored minkm of one of ihe princes 
cS W« ^, among whoee Uwa it waa enaoted that lo ride without per- 
miiucm, in ooe of the n^al cbariots should be punished by chopping off 
the ofitmdeE'e feet, Notwitlistaiidiiig this, the &vourite hanng beard one 
night that bis toother lay ill, took the prioce'e chariot in oider to hasten to 
her dwelling ; and for this act of filial devotion his master commended in 
Ueu of punishing bim. At another time, when walking with the prince in 
an orchard, be tasted a peadi, and finding it sweet gave the remainder of 
the fruit to his royal patron. The latter, iodignant at this freedom, cansed 
him to be put to death. This incident is refetied to in the phrave v. 1. 
^^fel^f-. SeeS.K,k.68. 

e03,— MinSon BI ^. * -f-^- One of the diBoipfca of 
Conbcios, included also among the models of filial piety. His stepmother, 
it is recorded, having two children of her own, used bim ill and clothed 
him only in the leaves of plants. When this was dlacorered by his father, 
the latter became wrotb, and would have put away the harsh Btepmotb«r, 
butUinSon entreated him saying: It is better that one son eboald 
Buffer irom cold than three children be motlierleiss I " His maguanimoua 
conduct BO impteased the mind of his stepmother that she became filled 
with affection toward bim. -,-, -. ,- ' 

604t.— MiNfl HwANQ ^ ^. D. A,D. 762. The Utle under 
which Httan Tsang of the Tang dynasty, is commonly referred to — an 
abbreviation of hts poMhumons designation, viz : s^. ^V ^ S f^- ^^ 
reign, which extended over the long period of 44 years, is one of the meet 
celebrated in Chinese luEitory, owing to the splendour of its commencement 
and the disaat^re which marked its close. lu many respects the career of 
this famons sovereign beara a likeness to that of Louis XV. of France, A 
grandson of the Emperor Kao Tsong, the young prince Lung Ki gg ^E, 
born AJ>. 685, was not the direct hdr to the throne, but having dis- 
Unguisbed himself during the brief reign of Jui Tsung, in A.D. 710, by 
Buccesslally combating the attempt made by the kindred of the empress 
Wei ^^, to overthrow the dynasty, he was recogniied as heir-apparent 
and invested with the title ^ 3E- Sncceeding to the throne in 718, he 
togk the designation ^ J^, as the title of his r»gn, and for some time 


gave {ffomiae of great aaridnity and moderation m hla goveinment. In 
hia second jrear, be tnned a sumptuary decree prohilHting tha extravagant 
ooB^iDen of apparel whidr vaa in faBhicm, and set an example by oaoung 
a bonfire to be made in his palace of a vast beap of embioidwed garmenta 
and jeweliy. Uoder the influe&ce of the wiae cooneele of Gbang Ytleb, 
Chang ^u-ling, and other ministeTB, hie adnuiuBtration cf the empire 
prospered, and divers reforms were intfodnced ; bat aa time toQed on, tliB 
emperor, satiated with the pleasorea of rule, lapsed by d^rees into a 
craving for ease and eensnal enjoyment The crafty cooitier Li Lin-iii, 
encooraged these longings with a view to his own aggrandizement, and 
the pa^on which the emperor conceived in 784, for the princess Tang 
the consort of one of bis sons, marked the commencement of an era of 
infamy and extrftv^ance, which led at length to universal disorganization. 
In 742, the dedgnation ^ ^, was adopted aa the tide of the 30lh 
year of the emperor's r^gn, aitd about tbis time a Torkldi minion of tbe 
court, named Ngan Ln-dian q. v., grew into high favour. The govern- 
ment was soon abandoned into hia bands, and wielded under the influence 
of tbe three sisters Tang, who with their brother Yang Ewoh-chang, had 
obtained complete control over the emperor's enfeebled will. See Yang 
Ew^-fei. A revolt was at length undertaken by Ngan Lu-ehan, and tlie 
em[Mre was abtvtly in a blaze of insurrecUon, the aged author of these 
calamities being driven from his capital and forced to take leftige in the 
extreme West of China, ondei^ing the misery of sewig his male and 
female favourites butchered before hia eyes (A.D. 756). He hereupon 
abdicated in &vour of his son, who became the Emperor Snh Tsung. 

60e.— 5Ifflo Tang ^ ^. Tbe Hall of Brightness, — or 
Light, the name given to an edifice reared by tbe early sovereigns of tbe 
Chow dyrtasty for the preformance of ceremonial ritea in connection with 
the daties of government, the audiences of vassals, sic. In its form and 
dimensions it was typical of the attributes of heaven, earth, and the planet- 
ary bodies- In the reign of Ham Wu Ti, the same name was given to an 
Imperial Cidlege or lostitnta for the general direction of tbe Arts and 
Ceremonies, and under the T'ang dynasty, a coeUy palace was reared with 
this appellation for the practice of sacrificial rites and Tamst worship. 

&08._i|(lo Hi ^ ^. The favourite, execrated in history, ot 


'&» (yiant Eieh q. t, to whom she was presented in B.C. 1786, u a 
pTO[atiatot7 oSering b^ Che oonqaered ohiefbun of 8hs '^ g^. Fcr the 
delectation tS ihi* beautiful bat abandoned ofxsarl, Kidi embotked in the 
extraragant exceoMQ whidi at length arooeed a deUverer foe the Erainn 
in the ahape of the conquering T'ang, q. v. 

OO?, — Mow I ^ ^. The fabled inventor of arrowe, temp. 
Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697. 

BOS, — MuH Kruo ^ ^, According to TaoiBt l^nd, ono 
of the fiist beings evolved from chaoB, by the apontaneoue volition of 
llie primordiftl principle, was Hub Eimg. The |@ gQ asaeitA: "lluh 
Kang was bom apon tbe Azure Sea ^^ ^p, and govwns the inflnenceK 
of Tang t^ and Ho jfii (i«. mnb'ght, ipring, life, harmony, the eaetem 
heavens, etc). He nJee in the East, and is also entitled Lord King fX 
the East ^^ 3E S^t" ^is b«ng is represented as the male patiiarch of 
tbe genii and as husband of Si Wang Mu q.v., the queen of the immortal 
tribe. It appears probable that tbe original conception of such a penon- 
age arose from the desire to find a mat« for the mjstic female divinity, 
whose Dame occurs in tbe earltest of Chinese traditions, whilst round the 
pair there eventually became grouped a crowd of fanciful attributes, 
borrowed most probably from Indian sourceE^ aud arranged in imitatioa 
of the legends relating to Indra and bis consort. 

B09. — MuH Lan ^ |||. A heroine famous for her filial de- 
votion and masculine courage. It is related of hfst that \xst father, when 
summoned in the time of the Liang dynasty, about A.D. SOO, to his post 
as a soldier upon the frontier, was snfferiug under grievous sicknesB ; where- 
upon Mub Lnn, In order to save her parent from distress or punishment, 
donned bis military garb and personated him m the ranks of (he army^ 
where she served for twelve years without betraying the secret of her sex. 

610. — MuMuj^"^. According to legendary history, the fourth 
in rank among the wives of the Emperor Hwang Ti, — a wise though 
ilI>favoured woman, who ruled tbe imperial household with great sagacity. 

eil.—MuH Wang of Chow ^^i. -D. B.C.M7. The 
fifth sovereign of tbe Chow dynasty,— ascended the throne B.C. 1001. 
His rrign is celebrated throng traditions whidi relate iuoidents of the 


inltfOOorM witii the Weat and Ifae vast jonrn^B imclertakeii bj this adven- 
buDOB nxHUioh. It is noorded Uutt be coodacted great campaigns against 
the nbelltoiis barbarian tribea on bis Boothem and westera froutiera, and 
vas driven bj bis cbartoteffi Tsao Fn, with his /V USE i^ eight famous 
honee " wbcrever irhed-mts ran and the hoofs of hc«Bes had trodden." 
The Armaii of the Bamioo Books relate that in his 17th {fear he beaded an 
expedition to Alonnt Ew*&>-1dq q.v., and visited Si Wang Mn q.T. (Cf. 
L.C. nr, pideg., p. 150), and this tradition has been amplified in the 
mjstical treatise (£ Lieh Tsse into an imaginative deaoription of the revels 
with trhich tlie Qneon of the Genii entertained ber imperial visitor. A 
&bnIoiiB narrative of the joomeys of Mah Wan^ Kititled §| ^ -f' ^^ 
■a bdieved to date &oin the second or third centnrj B.G. Gf W.N., p. 16S. 

eia._NAH Ki Fo-jta ^ @ ^ A- The Lady of the 
extremity of the South — the fonith among the fury daughters of Si 
Wang Ma. 

613.— Nan Ko OebMImo ^ :^ ;^ ^. A dream,— th« 
" baaekes fabriu of a vision," in allnsion to a celetroted historiette of the 
Tang dynasty, by Li Kang-tso ^s ^ ^_. In this tale it is narrated 
that a certun military reveller, named Ch'nn-yfl FSn ^ -^ ^, vho 
was accixtomed to take his potaUonf under the shade rX a spreading hwcn 
tree ^ "il^ ^ ;^, fell asleep in his ctipe one day and dreamt that he 
was muted npon by sapematural beings wbo beeougbt bhn to proceed with 
them to the country of ihar king. Leading him tbroagb a cave below the 
tree, these messengers introdnced him to scenes of regal ^)Iendonr in a land 
the name of which was^^-^ 3- Tbekingof this coantiyentert^ned 
him royally and made him governor <f bis province of Nan Ko {Ut. south 
tsanch), where he lived for many years. On awaking, the dreamer found 
that he had oompreGsed these imaginary experiences within the space of a 
few moments ; but on inspecUng the interior of the tree an ant's nest was 
found in a hollow of the trunk wilii a gallery leading to a branch ti the 
tree oa the eoath, shewing a nngnlar correepcmdence with the events of'his 

&1^ — Nam Trze ^^ -f: A meretricious contemporary of 
Ocmfocms, — nster of Ch'ao ^, a noble of the Stale, of Simg, with whom 
she had an incestnoos connection. She became the wife of tlie Duke of 

-. ,^.^.oglc 


Wd ^^ ^, and C(Hifnciiiii, when Bujonming in Ibat Stata loward die 
dose of faia career, was blamed by luB diicipte Trae La for pennilting 
himEelf to be seen in hei company. Cf. L.C., l, 57. 

eie.— Ni HtNo BB ^. • IE ^- second ceatoij A.D. 
An erratic and impracticable pbilc(H>{dier, highly esteemed by K'aog Tqd^ 
who brought him to t^ notice ct Ta'ao Ts'ao daring tlie letter's regency. 
He apiiroed, however, tie offers made bim of official employment, and 
delighting chiefly in ntoao, asked and obtained the poet of chief drnmmer 
at the State banqnets. On one occasion of special solemnity, when called 
upon to doff his nsnal atlJre and appear in a different garb, he complied 
with the order by Btri[fiing himself naked, and in this condition gravely 
perfonned on the inslmmcnt confided to his charge. After passing from 
the employ of one patron to another, the half-sttnc half-buffoon was at 
length put to death by a grandee whom he bad annoyed by impeitinence- 

BIS.— NiES KfiNO-YAo ^ ^ ^- S. drcd, AD. 1665, D. 
A.D. 1726. A high ofHcial during the reigns E'ang^bi and Ynng-chSng. 
Was Buccesively Imperial Commisaoner, Governor of Hn-nan, and Viceroy 
of Sse-ch'wan. Altbongh highly esteemed by (he empertv E'ang-hi, he fell 
into disgrace early in the ensiung reign, and charges were brongh^ against 
him of harboming rebellious dengns, in proof of which he was accused of 
amasung Ireasore and munitJons of war. He was accordingly seized and 
pnt to death as a traitor. 

CX*?. — Kma T'ai J^ ^ Seventh century B.C. A poor but 
sagacious philosopher of the State of Wei ^^, who was compelled 1^ 
necessity to earn bis bread as a waggoner. Driving hia cart through the 
tenitoiy of Ts'i ^ be chanced to stand feeding his oxen at a time when 
Dnke Hwan passed by, and the prince was struck by the ringular air with 
which he chanted a ballad as he careleasly drammed on the boms of one 
of his oxen. The Duke sent Kwan Chung q.v. to invite the humble wan- 
derer to enter his empby — an ofler which was joyfully accepted, and he 
rose to he one of the chief counsellorG of State. It is narrated that Kwan 
Chung, pnzzled by the enigmatical address with which Ning Ts'i received 
him, chanting the words iin ift^^ "^ W W '^' ^' l^rootliiig OT" *^ 
mystery as he sat at meat on his retnro home ; but his perplexity was 
relieved by the acntenew of one of his handnwdens, who induced him to 


deolan its cusc^ and yiho Inteipreted tbe obnare BentoDoe hj a nf^cnoe 
tothaBookofOdeB. Bee ^ Ta. 

6 1 S.— Niu Lang % ^ See Klen Kia. 

ei©.— NiuSiEN-K'te4^-ftIl^. i).A.D. 742. An official 
famous principally thioagh bis connection vith Li Lin-fu q.T. at tlie 
taming pmnt of the reign of Tanq Hiian Tmmg, HaviDg distingnisbed 
himself bj his careful administiation of the province of Ho Si, the 
emperor propoeed in A.D. 736 to his faithful connsellor Chaog Eia- 
ling that he ihould be lused to the Ministery of State. Chang Ein-ling 
opposed this idea, bat it was eagerly seconded by Li Lin-fu, who eaw in 
it a means of ingratJating himself with the sovereign ; and on bis advioe 
being accepted he waa advanced to the coveted post of minister, in which 
he aoociated himself with Niu Sien-k'6h. The latter was created ^ ^ 
^^ and remained contentedly till bis death tbe tool of hie wily colleagne. 

eaO.-So CHAiJItRt or Prince No Cha | \ ^^,» 
vimoi dnty, apparently bonowed by the Tatnst mylholt^en from Indian 
sonroes, and made the sabjeot of a fantasUc legend, tinctoFed (o a great 
extent by Baddbst traditions. He ia worshipped, like the majority of the 
Tacast divinities as a "stellar god " ^^ ^S> ^''^ '^ rejKsented sa having 
passed through an earthly career, assigned to tbe period in which the 
dynasty of Tin was oveithrown by the fonnder of thft Chow dynasty, (12th 
centary B.C.). He is said to have been brought to birth in tbe shape of 
a "ballof fiesh" by the wife of Li Tang ^^ ^|> '^ warrior of that period, 
and to have deve1q)ed marvelloas supernatural powers in the contests then 
pending ; bat this legend, populariEed in (he romance entitled y^ J^l ^ 
^^ is a traveBty <£ the Baddhist version of his history, which repreeenfa 
him as the son of tbe god of die thnnderbolt or vajra. According to the 
V& W ^y* WSt< "ben the Bopreme d^ty 3k ^ ^p* denred to bring 
the entire army of demons (^, the Buddhist moras) to submieuon, ha 
caused one of his attendant spirits to become incarnate as tbe third son of 
^ 9^ 3^ £ — *^ " pagoda-bearing god," corrssptrndiog to tbe Indlnn 
Vajrapftni, the jagged tbunderboli hdd in Um hand of (Lb deity being 
apparently mistaken by the Ohineae for a pagoda, n4iicb iit their drawings 
be is represented aa wielding. When, bat five days old, the diild No Cha 
invaded tbe balls of the dragon-king of the Eastern sea and slew one of bis 


dngoU'WaiTkurs, incensed at which the dngtm4dDg Gon^lained to the 
■npMiDe deity, uiA the lallieF cS No Cba wized the diQd utd put bim to 
death in expiation. He afteiwards sapeniataially reftppeared, when he 
" cat off hn flesh to make restitn^oD to hia mother, and disBerered his hones 
to retnra them to his father ; " after vhich he took refbge in spirit besde 
the tbiDoe of Bnddba, nho gave him a new body, compoeed in its vaiioas 
parts of the stalk, leaves, flower, and fnut of the sacred lily, and confided 
to his charge the " wheel of the law" (the propagation of the Baddhist 
doctrine). He ia at tlie same time represented as having been invested 
with ^ght amtB, and the wheel of Buddha ]^ |p is exchanged in the 
popular legends for two " fiery wheels " ^ fg open which he ia [uctared 
aa riding through the skies, brlng^ bis mighty influence to bear npon the 
contests in which he was engaged. He is said to have had two brothers, ^ 
P-^ and /^ P^, in whose names an astronomical tinge is also apparent 

eSl. — H6 Kwa;^^. One of the Una of mytiuoal sovereigns, 
sajd to have been the raster and successor of E^di-lu, B.C. 2738. A, casual 
mention occurring in the writings of Ghwong Tsze and lieh Tazo is ex- 
panded in the "^ ^ ^^ ^ of Hwang-fu Hi and umilar works into 
the statement that NU Ewa, also entitled NU Hi ;;^ ^ had the body 
of a serpent and the head of an ox, and assisted her brother Fuh-hi in 
invocations to the gods, heuide which she instituted the ordinances of 
marriage and thus regulated the rdationa of the sexes. An obscare 
legend of a ^fleient characlei represents NQ Kwa as having been the 
creator of human beings when earth fint emerged Jiom cbaoa. She 
(or he) " moulded yellow earth and made man." Cf K F. W., k. 9, p. 18. 
Sze-ma Ch^ng, in his introduction to the ^ ^, gives the following 
account of Kii Kwa : — " Fuh-hi was succeeded by Nil Ewa, who like 
him bad the surname j||[. Nli Swa had the body of a serpent and a 
human head, with the virtuous endowments of a dime sage. . . .Toward 
the end t^ her reign there was among the feudatory princes Knng Eong 
^^ 31> whose functions were the adminiBtralioa of punishmenL Violent 
and amUlioas, be became a rebel, and sought by the inSuence of Water to 
overcome that of Wood [under wbicb Nil Ewa reigned]. He did battle 
with Chuh Yung, but was not victorious ; whereon he struck with his head 
against the Imperfect Mountain ^ ^ [Jj and brought it down. The 


pUIara of Heaven were brolcen and the oofoeiB (A Esrth gave way. Ha»- 1 
upon Nil Kwa melted' itonee of the five coloon to lepair the HeavenB, 
and cnt off the feet of the tortoise h> aet apright the four extremitiee of 
Earth. Qathering the ashee of reeds ibe stopped the flooding waleiB, and 
thna iwcued the land of Ki ^ J^ (the early seat of the Chinese save- 
lognty)." Chineae cominentatoTB abandon all attempt at expluniag the 
significance of than Ic^ieods, but Ghao Yi points ont (E. Y. k. 19, p. l) 
that there is not sufficient ponnd for maintiuning that Nii £wa was a 
female personage, as the traditional sound NQ may have been impropwlj 
represented b; the character ^^ on the sabeeqnent invention of written 
symbols ; and an ingemoos attempt is also made to interpret tite phrase j^ 
3l "^ -S JIsi ^ ^ by the BQggefllion that the character ^ may 
signify " to supply a deficiency " as well as " to rcpiur," and that read in 
this sense the cianse may mean that Kii Kwa sopplemented the light' or 
warmth of Heaven by the combostitm of mineral aubetances. 

62S.— Nil YiNQ -^ ^. One of the two dusters of the 
emperor Tao. With her a^xa Kgo Hwang q.v. beoame Ihe wifa of tlie 
virtnouB Shnn. 

683.— Naui-R'i SHtHO ^ ^ ^' One of the legendary 
Tatust patiiarchs. According to the ^ "JZ 'f# he passed a wandering 
life on the ebores of the eastern (Yellow) Sea, where he hawked about 
drags f(H sale, in the r^gn of She Hwang-ti B.C. 221, enjoying the 
r^utaljon of Laving fived 1000 years. The great monarch bims^ anm- 
moned the itinerant sage to bis presence, and conversed with him upon 
the mysteries of Tao in an interview which lasted tbree days and mgbts. 
In taking leave of the emperor be bade bis majesty look forward to a 
renewed meeting in the Isle of the Glenii, (see P'eng Lai Sban). It vaa 
in conseqnenoe of this bidding that She Hwang-ti sent an expedition nnder 
Sn She and Lu Ngao qq.v. to search for the isles of ibe bleat Other 
traditions asert that Ngan-k'i Bhgug enconotered Li Shao-kun q.v., in 
the receases of Monnt Tai ^^ |jLf and havkig owed him of dokneai 
ad(qited bim aa his pajnl in the mysteries of sublimaLion, and wandered in 
\m company to all parts of the Empire. On reaching the Lo Fow mono- 
tains ^1 ^^ [jLf in Kwang'tnng, Ngan-k'i ShSng confined Lis diet to 
the tfalks of the ^ ^ or reeds growing in the water-<»ntses, by which. 


be SnaUy beoama emanctpoted from (iie dioat id eartb, sod aBOeadiog the 
nunmit of tin White Clood moimtuu Q ^ \\\ be moiuited to heavoi 
before the ey«e of bis compaiutMi. 

034— Nqas Lo Kcno Cec ^ |{$ ^ i- A danghter <rf 
rina CLuDg TBang, who, with ber afeler the Frincen T'm Fing ~)si ^ 
■^ i ^^ permitted, in A.D. 706, by that monarch to engrosB the 
entire direction of State affaiis. She accnmiilated vaet rasooicee by the 
■ale of offices and of pardons, and gathered a strong body of adherents, 
whom she raised to various pceltions of dignity. Married, in the first place, 
to a relative of the Empress Wu (see Wu How) named ^ ^^ ^, who 
was executed shortly after tbeir anion under a charge of treason, she cast, 
after some years, a favoorable eye upon bis brother ^^^, and married 
him In A.D. 711, afW having conspired with the Empress Wd to ofet- 
thiow the dynasty, and havbg been privy to the mnider of her father by 
this ambitiooB woman. She fell t, victim at length, to the reaction beaded 
by Prince Lung Ki, (see Ming Hwang), *h(^ after tiiampbing over the 
Wei cooapiraoy, pnt herwlf with ber bnsbaitd and muy of hw pattinnB 
to death. 

Q26.— Noam Luh-bium ^ H U|. D. A.D. 757. A miUtary 
oommander in the service of T'ANa Hiian Tani^, whose fovonred minitm 
be became. He was of Torkidi or Tartar descent, and originally named 
A'loflhan |fif J^ [JL|. bnt on his mother's sacond marriage he adiqited 
Ibe samame of ber fausbuid. In 786 he was defeated In an e^ndhkm 
against die E'i-tan Tartan, and was sent Iot jndgnnent to the ca|ata), 
where Hilan Tsnng, taking a &Doy to the prisoner, pordoDed him in de»- 
jHt« of the advice and pn^nostioations of Chang Kin-fing- A few years 
later he was raised to high ct^nmaad and soon beoame the empcRv's 
Insefwrable oompanion, sharing hii revels with the faeanteons ocmcnlune 
Yang Kwd-fel, who laoghin^ called him bw son. In person be was vS 
gnat Etatare, but remarkably ubese, irth a ooontenanoe the vacancy of 
whioh served ai a mask to hide a crafty and amliutlons diipositioo. Haced 
at the bead of a vast army for (^lerations against the Tnrldsb and Tartar 
nations on Ibe northwest frontier, be at length disclosed his secret deogns, 
and in 755 proclumed his independence, and declared war upon hfa fanperial 
patron. Forces weie asumbled against him hi baste, and the oa^ntal vas 


dafbadad bf Ihe valkut genenls Kwo Tne-I, Li KwftDg-pi, and Eo-shu- 
tuD ; but ntewiwbjla iDKnreotian broke ont on evei; nde, the etupeior wu 
driven &om his ca^atal, and the nagntofnl rebel wu itill in the foU tide of 
toccees nlien be waa MBaannated hj \m aon ^gan K'ing-efi ^^ j^ jj^, 
who fearad lent tlie o%pring of a favonied coocDtone ahould be allowed to 
npplaat him in hia heritage. 

eae._NoAO Tbdh Ca'dM Ti Hg ^ :^ Jft. supporting 
the earth with the feet of the Tortdse. Sea Nii Kwa. The nguo is aaid 
to be a " huge torliniet which aupporta niooiiUiiis on ils back. It is 1000 
/t in dronmference." 

eS'?'_Not» Yoita Yen J^ $ ^ The banquet gifen at 
VAing to the gradoatea who have paaud Ute ezuuinatioQ for the j|g. T 
degree. See Luh Ming. 

68S.— Nao Hwang ^ ^. BbtM of Nfl Ying. with wbtxn 
■he woa given to ihe vittnona ^on to wife hj her father, the EnipRx>r 
Yao, in B.C. 2288. A pleaaiog Iradib'oD relatee that the two eKter-qneeiii^ 
banug acctHnpanied their lord aa his jonmey to the South daring 
which he died in the land of Ts'aiig-wn J^ 7^, wept uDceaainglj aa 
the^ bent orer bia tomb ; and tlieii leara falling on the stems of the bam- 
booe around, became tranaformed into the spota which adorn the variegated 
ipecin of thia plant. The monarch's grave waa near the river Song, and 
hence the spotted bamboo Is colled pQ ^, and the two priucceaes have 
become deified nndra the title Siang Fn-jSn q.v. 

eSe.— Ow-YANa Siu ffe H -g^, • ^ ;fe. A.D. 1017— 
1072. Celebrated among the fbremast Btatenuen and scbolors of the Song 
djnastj. Was a ooUeague of Han E'i A.D. 1061 in the chief Mitustery 
of State. With Sui% E'i, composed (be " New History " of the T'aug 
dyoaaty, wtuoh woa anbatfiotad for the " Old Hiatoty " b; Sieh Ea-cb6ng, 
and wa^ in addition, author cS the Hiatory of the five DjiutBtiee, togediez 
with nnmeroQB poetical and oritioal compotdtions. From hia birthplace, is 
^t-*"^ ffi ^ -^ Canas^t^^ 

BSO.-0w-YANa SUM gt HIS, • -^ 2^. A.D. 557-6«. 
A odebrated u^tisj and colligTai&iflL Woa m eorij life a friend of the 
GKUiiibr of the Tang djnaaly who, on acceding to the Impwial dignity, 

". .-- -wglt 


raised bim to the pocatiim or Tntor to the heir apparent, wiA the title ef 
^ J^ '^. The Btjle zS characlere be jntrodDoed wm employed n 
■ome celebrated nKXHuuental inscriptioiiB. 

031.— PaK'ow WuKiA A P ^1^- Met The extreme 
of mberf or want : a family <£ eight pereons [mouths] without a home^ 
The last emergency. Beferenoe is here made to a passage in tbe wriUnga 
of Menraoa. Gf. L.C, n., p. 25. 

C53S.— Pa-sze-pa G JS Q- D.kJi. 1279. Basbpa, a 
l^bctan lama of tbe hereditary sect or priesthood of Ssakia, who became a 
conRdential adviEer of Euhlat Khan during tbe latler's career of conquest 
in China. In A.D. 12C0 he was named ^ 0$ Preceptor or Hierarcb 
of tha State, and recognized as bead of the Buddhist Church. In 1269 be 
constmcled an alphabetic system for the Mongol language, whicb there 
Gist Ixcame committed to writing. In reward for bis services be lecaved 
the exalted titlu of ^ ^ j^ £ or Prince of Ihe Great and Precious 
Law [of Buddha]. 

033,— Pan Puo ^^,'-^^. A.D. g.— 54. A historical 
writer, but chiefl}' noted as father of tbe historian Pan Eu. 

034.— Pan Ko ^©," ^^. O. A.D. 92. Son of tha 
preceding, whose historical laboura he continued in early life, collecting tbe 
chronicles of tbe fiist or Western Han dynasty in succession to tbe great 
historiographer Sze-ma Ts'teo. His undertaking having been brought nnder 
tbe notice of tbe Emperor Ming Ti, the latter bestowed npon it bis approval, 
and appointed tbe author to the post of imperial historiogtapher for th» 
pnrpose, of compiling his work from tbe archives of tbe State. (Cf. ^ ^1^ 
K. 46.) Fan En was author also of a treatise displaying much lustorical 
and pbiloeopbical lore, wbicii, ^m the name of the imperial library in 
' which it was composed, he entiled Q ^ ^^ ; bnt before hii History 
' was brought to completion he became involved in tbe overthrow of ths 
party of Tow Hien q. v., and being cast into prison, died there. Tbe em- 
peror Ho Ti subsequently entnuted the nnfioished work to Cbao, Pan 
Eu's gifted sister, by whom it was concluded. 

ese.— Pas Chao^ ^, * ^ ^. Sister of tbe preceding 
Hairied in early life to the functionary Ts'ao Show ^ f^, Imt bong 


left « widow bj the latter'a death i^ boned hetself wilh lilanuy Uboois, 
WDoiig Um fhiit of nhicb wm a vork eolitled " Lemau fw the Female 
^^>" I^ 9r> vhich attaiDcd great celebiitj. On bra biothei'B death ebe 
was oommanded b; the Empeior to contiaue and com|jete bis work. She 
H oatned also Ts'ao ]'a Ka ^ 3^ |^ oi Ibe hdy Te'ao (jCia nad as 
£u), uoder which dengnation she waa admitted after ber widowhood into 
the palace as a Udy-ia-WMtiDg to the Empiea. 

SSe.— PANCH'AO^@,»-fi|lff'. A.D.32— 102. Tonnger 
brother of Pan Kn, and famooa as a military commasder. In early yonth 
he manifeetod an ambitioD of great achievements, bnt owing to tbe poverty 
to wbidi bis faiiuly were ledaced, he was compelled to earn money as a 
scribe for lus motber's support. One day, laying down his pen ^ j^, 
he bniBt fitftb with an irrepiearible Iiwging that he might be at tbe work 
of heroes, and earuing, as he exclaimed, " like Cbaog Eieu and Fa Kiai- 
tsze, the patent of an earklom with the swcrd," latber than \a pass his life 
in the drudgery of a copyist. Uig lelativea laoghed him to scorn, bat a 
soothsayer, on observing bis physiognomy, predicted great things for liis 
fdtore, and he ere long socceeded m obt^ning military empk^ment. In 
A.D. 78 he was sent \ij the general Tow Ku q.v., on an embaac^ to the 
ffing of ShSn^gn ^ ^, a small state (£ Turkestan, near the modem 
Fidjan. Here he signalized himself by attacking in his camp and patting 
to death an envoy who bad been secretly despatched by the Eban of the 
Hiong-nn to inflDence the King of 8b&ii-Bh§n against the Chinese 
ambassador, and the rosolt of this aadacioos action was, as he bad auLi- 
eipated, the complete mtimidation of the petty Coarl, to nhom he forebade 
fhrther intercoorse with tbe Hiimg-nn. On his return to Court Pan Ch'ao 
was warmly ap^aoded by (he Empercv (Ming Ti), who i^in despatched 
him on an embasy to the important kingdom of Eboten ^^ jS' ^"^ ^°' 
some years he remained as the guiding spirit of tbe half-warlike balf- 
diplomtUio relations between China and tbe kingdoms of Turkeetan. On 
the death of Hing Ti, the Himig-nn tot^ advantage (£ a period of wenk< 
QSBS and disorder to overrun, with th^ alUes, tbe countries which had 
owned allegiance to China, bnt Pan Ch'aO) although called home by the 
Imperial cooacil, acceded to the urgent reqnestB of tbe Kings of ShSu-dito 
and Kboten, and remained to support their independence agunst the 


Biong-no. la A.D. 80^ be vat plooed at the hwtd of a fireib expedition, 
M^th wbicL he recovered the Imperial prestige, and in 68 be nrrad 
nndei Tow Hira q.v., in the Iatt«r's Tictorions broad upon the HinDg-Dn. 
Between thii period and the cloee of the centory be cMiiedthe Imperial 
armi to the bofden of the Caa^un, Bending one d hia lieatenanta^ Ean Ting 
"^ ^^ it li 1^, on an embaasy, (which was not carried into e%ct) 
to the Roman Empire ; and at lengLh in A.I>. 102, feeling lumaelf vara 
out with age, he requested permi^on to retnin and lay hia bones in bia 
native country. He died shorty after reachbg China. Was ennobled 

637.— Pah Ma ^ ||. Bo- Fan Eu and Sm-tm Ts'ien, the 
two fonndeiB of the ait of historiography. 

C53S.— Pm TBTEH-yiJ ^ M^ ^- ^ '"^J <>f *» serag^ 
it»ieh-ydi of Hah Ch'fing Ti, and an attached adherent of the Empi«M 
B*l §^ JSi whose downfall she shared B.C. 18. 8be is noted for (I» 
bold reproof with which, while stiil enjopng the Imperial faroor, ibe 
checked an inclination toward license on tbe Emperor's part, and the 
sagacity with which she defended herself agunst the accasalions of nsbg 
magic arts levelled against bei by her SQcoeesfi]! rival Ghao Fei-yen. 

eSe.— Pao Ch'Shq ^^ *^iZ.I>. A.D. IO62. a cele- 
brated statesman and scholar, renowned by the integrity of his condact 
while holding snndry provincial offices and ministerial poeitiona 

040.— Pao Shdh-ya ^ ^ ^. Minister of Hwan Kung of 
Ts'i q. T. B.C. 686, in which capacity he became tiie patron of his frimd 
tbe celebrated Kwan Chung q. v. 

641.— Pao Seb $ ^ Tbe favouitte ctmsort of Teo Wang 
of the Chow dynasty, B.C. 781—771. It is related (^ ha that havfaig 
ftJIen into a melancholy mood, she oonid not be induced to smile nntil it 
was suf^estAd that for her cUveiaon, tbe fendatory priives shoold be som- 
mtmed to the capital by a false alarm. Hereupon tbe beacons were lighted, 
and tbe great raanls homed with tbeic forces to Ibe rescue, whoi, at sight 
of their emharrasament uid sniprise, tbe favoniite's defoeonoo raniabed in 
an oatbortt of laoghlei. 8he is also repnled to have declared that notlung 
would reUeve her ennui but the sound of rending dlken fabrics ; and in 


thft whim her iinpeiul conacct alio indnlged bar >t a rut tMfmiitan. 
Ese long, tba c«{ital being threaUoed in eonieat, tha bMoon-Bra wwe ohm 
•lore lighted, but this timo no heed nu giren to the Hgoal, and tha 
hwbwJM bgrdee triumpbed over the ondefended Borereign, irho^ wilh fak 
mhai^ bvoorilet M bu> Ibeir bandi and perilled. 

64S.— Pte I Ig H. (I) The Baion I, mm of tb« nine IkGuit- 
ten of Bbm, B.C. 2255. Ea filled the office of ^ ^ or «Rang«r <if 
the Ancestral Temple. Of. L.C., m., p. 47. 

e4S.— Pfai I -fg H. (2) Named YUn ^. One <rf the oele- 
brated pair of biotheni, reDowned foi stem btegrity and nnfliDdiiDg faitb- 
fbikesi. Wi& hii brothsi Sboh Ts'i (oamed Che ^) floorUiea, ac- 
oording to legendaty hotoiy, toward the dooe of the 12th centui; B.C., in 
the mall state of Kn Chnb (fonniiig part c^ iDodein Cbih-U) of which 
thdr father was jmnce ^ ^ ^. The prinoe deaired to make tlw 
yooDger b^er, Shah Ts*!, tua saccenor, but the tatter refDaed to dif)rire 
the first-born d hia beiitaga, and od hie father's death fled from the prin- 
dpallly after vaiidf endekvouiiog to indoce bis btotber to accept tbs 
buFBtdp. PQi I, declariog that he wotdd not ran ooantei to his fat^ei'i 
will, also withdraw, and, leaving the thrtme to a third brotber, retired with 
Shah Ts*! to a life of ofascuritj. The brothers emerged from their retreat 
in thor old age to seek an abiding place with Ch'ang, the chief of the 
West (see Si FebX but, on reaching bis domain, they found that his death 
had taken plae% and (hat bis son, haTisg orartbrown tha dynaaty of Tin, ' 
was produmed emperor, as foundw of the boose of Chow. Deeply grieve^ 
and refiiang to change their allegiance, they declared that th^ would not 
■ofqwrt their life with Uie grain of CUiow," utd, renting into the receVM 
of Uoont Show Yang "^ ^ (in modem Sheose), they Bubmsted for «: 
tiioe hy gathering wild seeds ^ ^§ nntil death removed them Irom tha 
wixld (S. £., k. 01). Bolh Cot^auus and Ueocint extolled their sleadiast 
parity of miod. Cf. L.C., i., p. 45. ' 

644.— Pkb E-i 3 ^ Z). B.C. 25?. A celebrated otmimandtr 
of tha Btate of Ts'in, and leader in many memOTal:^ campugns, commen- 
cing with B.C. 293, when be fwgbt against a conEedwal« attadc npon tha 
letiitraiei of Ts'Id. In B.C. 280 be defeated the armin ctf Chao ^, and 
recared m reward the title ^^^, with the fief of Wn Ngan. Ibi , 

m CBisesB ReAZ>s»s uanoal. Pu i. 

B.G. ttOhe B(fcriy J»fcaladd»fi»wtrfCa»ot«Bdfawidtobwg put to 
daMh 400,000 (n»pi^ aftei noehrii^ tbeir nimoder. Tint nnmber of \m 
fiotiva !■ wen itatcd at & laiger ■momit, HidlkBdaed ia bImhiI with UmH 
if ffiuig Td, q. V. who popelnled half t, oentoy kUr a ibiiiUr hntohetT; 
Notwithatftodhig hk cmiaeBt •etfioM, ha M into dfaf&TOW irilh Fraea 
M |lfc thtt inlar of Ti^ who|«aathim islo ptiKm B.C.2S7, whan ha 

C4S^~ PiH E'm fg ^. Z>. BO. 106S. ISdart nn of ihe 
Dnka dl Chow (sea Chow Knng), iriio mrcatad him h B.C. II16 wiOi 
fbe flef of Ln Q, which had ben origtnally conf^nd npoa hkoadf hj fati 
brother Wd Wang. He ceUbGdwd hia nsMence at K'llh Pow, ft ^ 
hi modem Shas-tnng, which thm became tho ancleni of the anst ancient 
and diHtingTrUied among the feudal etatea owning all^ianee to the home of 

04e^PBH K9-Tm Q Jg^ • ||§ 3^. A.1X 772—846. Ona 
of the moet Cunooi among the poeta d* Hie Tvag dysaatj. Held abo 
nriotiahi^(dBce^amongtIiemtiiatofg(werDor of the modem Hang^how, 
where he oooatnoted one of the great enbaiikmenli of the heanlifnl Si Ho 
iS ^ Ijike. This ia atHl known, &om hia names as the ^ ^. Hia 
▼cnea resemble in thoir tdiaiaottf those of Li Feb, and, like the ktta, ha 
luaetof the« 

e-a?.— PsH-u Hi "g* M ^. 7th omlniy B.C. Celebrated 
as a wiK oomuellor of Dnke Mah of Ts'in |J|^ ^ ^. Originally a 
adnistsr irf the petty prince of Ta )^ ^, he became a fogltiTe when 
npwaidb (^MTenty yean old, circ&B.C. 655, on the downfall of hie matter 
ooonrring through an miwise coune of poGcy againit whit^ he had felt 
Umself powerien to struggle. He M into- the hands cf the men of IVn, 
from whom, knowing hii W(»lh, Doke Huh c^ TVin ranaomed him at the 
price of five nm'a skina £ ^^ ^^ J^ o&ering no bigber nnsom leat 
the oapton abould daon their priae too valualila. Haling been made 
KniMer tS State ba aided the Doha with ooonaela so pnidcstt as greatly 
to further die kt»isla of T^in. Dotii^ one of the eiwodea of hia eatlj 
K^ Bah-Ii Hi had onployed Umaalf as a herdrauD, and h«nce the Iqead 
fttobfMeodw. Cf L-O^ il, p. 243. Of. S.K.,k.5. 


643,—Pu LuMH Til. ^ 1^ S- A pidM» MwUd )xj Hi* 
Wn 'R, EC. lis, for die praMontira uf hit biwnito atadJai ia «alnl(0 
•Dd lu^. It 1i nid thftt Hb Iieuu wan af oed&r (wh«ica its dt«igiatioo) 
■ad that tlw waiU of the wood wai ptieqiljbk at • diitMoe cf tnHf 
miW litoruj gathering! of munetit scbolan wen luld ia thia paiM% 
bat it WM deatrojed bj fice aftu 4 brief eiiitepoe ia B.C. IM. 

648.~FBa tm -fg M- ^' ^D. ISM. BajaD, m Maa^ 
noble Mid gidMal, enntadly diief ICaiMer, oi KobUi Ebw, and tte 
prfato^ iaitmaant ia e6GKtiiig the JaUw'i eonqneM of Cfaiia- HmIiw 
eanSad Oie Twtv acM to tbe baab of tbe Yaag^M, h««KMnd Ifaat rinr 
■a 1374, and o^itiiiiiig Ngov Cbow (Uw modem WiHsh'aiig Fu ia Ka- 
pdi^ be bunod wotmrd to attack tbe muiuag etioiBibofda of tbe Sdi« 
djDiity. Wm titiooam eMBpaigna wen ia gaDaral wyiaiiwH b; polttlp 
larieocj toward Ao oMiqiieted Gbinws, b«t, aogend bj iba lUibbani 
iHMtanoe be met with at Ch'aag-cbow 'fg y^ (ja modem XiMig-m) in 
A.D. 1X75, he gave bjhuubI lioeraw to his poUieO' wbaa tbe cHf was at 
hngth t^ea by tbatm, and tnfisnd tbe entirs population I0 be pnt lo tbo 
sword. Jm tbe feDowing year Hai^^ow (tbe Ein-aai ]^ |^ of Maioo 
Fdo) inrreiidered to hini, and ibe imperial coort fell into fais bandi^ tha 
emperor alone baring KH>e^ aa&ly in flight, and a few yeara mote aaffloed 
for the complete Kil^g'^'''^ ^ ^^ I^mplre, 

660.~P« Tb K'ao -fg g ^. Eld^ ion d Ob'ang, tha 
"duefof the Wtat," aeeSi Feb; bat aet aaidain favour of bk jamgfg 
brodMr Fa, wbo beoame fbnodcr of the Gbow djnaity. 

CSX.—PiKtHo -f: ^fn. 8th oentwr B.G. A maa of the State 
of IVa, w^ diKvtWDd a blook of >i^Btone m (be naontaiM of Xiag 
Shan aod haateDad to poaent it to Ua aoveaaigD. The Mom ffaa dfaland 
not to be gHHiine, and ite Snder waa aentenoed to be d^vied of hti ri^ 
fbot, aa an impoatcr. On tbe aooearioo of tbe neit avme^ be agwn 
paaented tbe gam, but it ma onoe men igeoted, and bii left fixA vai 
diepptd off. When a third aovereign came to the Throne, Fien Ho wept 
at Ui gate ; and on being aifced bis maaou be asswered that be wep^ not 
on aceonnt c^ fail own mutilation, bat beoanae a tine gem had been rejected 
as fictitiona, and a loyal sul^ branded aa a dooeinr. The Ptinoe bere- 
npon caoaed a bpidary to teat the iton^ when it was fcnnd to be a jade- 


■tone of tlia pnrast water. It nceivad the designation ^^ ^ ^ ^g , 
Aod its finder waa offered a title of not^ity as 1^ ^ ^, bat be declmed 
tbe honoar. From the above legend oomes the proverbial exprMMQ '^ 
HR ^ ^ ^ lU 5E — havbg eye^ yet not recognisog tbe jadeitoDe 
of King Shan. See No. 393. 

BBS, — Pi Kak )^ ^. A relaUre of the tyrant Chow-etn, 
with vbcM» downfall tbe dynuty of Sbang vbb ended, B.O. 1138. Pi Kan 
h allq^ to have renuaiBtrtited with tbe imperinl debandtee) wtio, io 
mockery of his warnings, ezokimed : ** Tbey aay that a Sage hai uma 
orifioes in bis heart — let nsaee if tbia is tbe case with Pi Kan I " and bera- 
npon, to tbe delight of tua inbmoffi corMort Ta Ki, be ordered hie kinaman 
to be pat to dea& and tbe heart, torn from bia body, to be laid befen 
kim. When the tyrant was overthrmm l^ tbe arnia of Wa Wang, the de- 
&*»ier ^ raised a tumnlua over tbe grave " of I^ Ean. CC li.C., Ol, p. 816. 

6BS.— FiEN Ta'uoj^ ^. <l) Tbe dealgnadoQ 'attributed to 
one (^ the pbyricians of Hwang TI B.C. 2697. (2). Tbe title given to a 
famooa physiclaji who is said to bare Bouiished in tbe State of Cboo aboat 
tbe sixth centniy B.C. His name wai Te'in YCeh-jSn ^^ J^ J^, and 
he ia laid to have been tbe keeper of a bosteby, where one day a aage 
poaaeesed of magic poweia called Cb'ang Sang Efin ^ ^ ^ took ap 
bJB abode. Tbe tatler, recognizing nnomal qnalitiea bi his entertainer, 
bistracted him in the myaUc art of healing. In tbe investigation of bis art 
ba dinect^d tbe human frame, and gained a knowledge of its internal parta^ 
and of tbe channels by which the blood ia cntdncted Ibrongh tbe body. 
The theory ti the poises ia derived from bi» dieoorerieK Gf. S. K., k. 105. 
Acooiding to otiier vertdoDs, he wasooe of three brcdien, all of whom wen 
skilled in difiemnt department! of the healing art Having taken B^ Ina 
abode m the State of ^ be is also called | f|jf or tbe Leech ofLa: 

B6-1.— Po K-CMO ~^ ^. D. A.D. 774. A BmgbaleM Bod- 
dbist, whose name ( AmOgfaa, lit not bollow) waa rendered into Cbtneae 
by tbe above oharaotera. He came to China in A.D. 788, and waa held in 
bigfa veneration at tbe tbe conrt of aoccenive aovereigns of the T'ang • 
dynait;. Under his inflaence tbe Tanlaa doctrines, dealing with talia- 
maiuo forms and prdMoni of mpematnTal power, firat gained cnrreney 
in China. Gf. E. H., p. 8. 


OOS._Pra[ Shako h M * •?■ S' ^- '^^- ^- **°« '^ 
tba diaciplea of Confai^oB, whoee doctrinee, after the sage's death, tw aided 
ia ti&nBmltting to posteiit; thiongfa faia own papils. Ha lived to a great 
a^ and is vald to hare lost his sight by weef^g for the death d hii son. 

S5Q. — Fan Fei j^ ^. A coccobina of Tung Hw&i How, the 
last of the sorereigiu of the IVi dynasty, A.I>. SOI. She is celebrated for 
herbeantjT and gTaoe,aDd itis related of bertbatoDUiitrtuitvoTtiiygioandB) 
that the practice <rf artificially cramping the &et was inlrodnced under her 
anspioes. See Tao Niang. Her imperial lover is said to have uttered 
aaa day, when gaang at her perfonnanoee in the dance upon a [^Atform 
ornamented with golden lilies the rapturons expression ; Erery footstep 
makes a lily groir 1 " and hence the term ^^ ^^, metaphorically tued for 
the feet of vomen I b said to have taken ila rise. In allDsion to the same 
tradition, the ex^nmoa ^ y^ (li^r hook) is also applied in celebrating 
this charm of Troman-kind. 

OC?.— Pan Fekibn ^ ^ \. The lady Fan, nhoae father, 
an enemy of Snn K'Uan, foonderof Wu (see No. 632), had been condemned 
to death, became in consequence immured in the prince's weaving-halls^ 
where her beaaty attracted oniversal admiration. The roler of Wu, 
hearing of horloreliness, ordered her portrait to be painfod for his inspection, 
wherenpon the virtuous lady, in order to avoid attracting his regard, re- 
sorted to starvation with the deagn of impairing her good looks. So 
beantifnl did she rem^ nevertheless, tliat the prince, on perceiving the 
portrut bronght to him, struck the table with his amber sceptre \^ JK 
3$ ^ !@C Wi ^< exclaiming: "This is indeed a goddess I" and 
raised the lady to a portion of high CiTonr in hia sen^llo. (K. S. L. and 

S68. — Pak Ec ^ '^. A mythical being, allied by the later 
oompileiB of legendary history U> have been the Gist development out of 
chaos. It is said in the j@§ ^ that " when the great first principle had 
given bitth to the two primary forms, and these had produced the four 
..secondary figures, the latter tmderwent trangformations and evolutions, 
whence the natural objects depending from their respective inSuencea came 
abondantly into being. The first who came Ibrth to rule the world was 
named Fan En, and he was also called the 'Undeveloped and^ITn^^l^j 


ligbtaned' [>.«. tlw EmbiTo] J|t ^ ^." Tbe pbtlettyhioH] vriten of 
tl» Sung dfiuuty we not ashamed to adopt the l^^d of P'au Kn, wluk 
ftdmittiDg tlut tbe enrl; Ulslwiuuk tnolnduiK Sae-mft Ta'ttti, wj ooUung of 
Im eidBtence. Thus Ha JSa-diiuig remuki : " P'ao Kn camo into baog 
in the grent Waste — his beginning is nnkoowa. He nodetsteod du ways 
of Heaven and Earth, and comprehended the peimntations of the two prin- 
dples of Natnre, and he became the chief and piince of the Three Poven 
-— y]'. HereupoD development began fnnn chaos." Another writer dedans 
that Heaven was bin father and Earth bis mother, and that be was cinse- 
qaently named ^ -f; tbe Son of Heafes. (F. K., k. I.). The aonaogoniil* 
have improved upon this ropieaentatioa of a YitA Beiag with warveUoDa ad- 
ditionfJ embelMunentB. Fan Kn, it is said, gave birth in dying to the ezistii^ 
material aniverae- 1^ breath was tranaaiuted into the vrind and the doudii 
his voice into thunder, his left eye into the Sun, and his right into the Mocn ; 
hisfoar limbs and five extremiUea into the four quarters of the globe and the 
five great monntalns, his blood into the rivere, his mucles and vmni bio 
the strata of the earth, hla flesh into the schI, bis hair and beard into the 
GODslellations, big gkin and the hairs thereon into planta and treea, hia 
t«eth and boaes Into the metals, hii marrow into pearls and precious stmei^ 
tbe sweat of his body into rain, and the parasites upon him, imjffegnated 
by the wind, into tbe haman epedei. (Of 7C ^ 1^ ^ ^ ^- ^~i ^ ^^^ 
Other legends relate that he had the head of a dragon and a serpent's body, 
and that by breathmg he caoGed tbe wind, by opening lus eyea he created 
Day, ScQ., &c. 

GSe.— F£no Lai Skan ^M\U- OneofthethieeUMof 
tbe genii ^ 1|1| (Ij or Fortunate Islands, wbioh it was believed under 
the Te'in dynasty, 3rd century B.C., were to be foand in the Eastern flea, 
oppodte to the coast of Cbma. The names ^ j£ and ^ ^ wen 
also given to this island, its neighboDrB being respectively caDed Fang 
Ohang and Ying Ohow. They axe all inhabited by genu, whose InstroDS 
forms are nourished upon the gems which lie scattered upon their shores, or 
with the fountain of life (see Ying Chow) wbidi flows perennially for thdr 
enjoyment. Ts'in She Hwang-ti despatched an expedition b seardi of 
these abodes of bliss. See 8U She. 

630 — F£Ha NiAo £| ,|^. A fabulous bird, declmd fn lbs 

ft. J. CBINEat READSieS UANUAL. 175 

D^ittaal witogB of Chwaog IW to be of moutnoi liw, viih wii^ liln 
dw donft of facftven, vith which at everf iKOop it ipnda upmrds a diatanos 
<f 3000 Ik Chwang Tne also iimiIii that it comte into bung b^ metam- 
flcpboM from tbe Ew6ii fi^ ;|^ » mooater of the deep. Th* flight <rf 
Uui C&bolom Inrd is nudB qmboliea] of impA advaneemeBt ia ititdy, at 
indicated in (he phiaaei { ^ ^ £• 

CO 1 .— PfefO Tho ^ jlS- a niTthical b^g, wbo ia reputed 
to haTe attained a bbolons longevi^. Acc(»iiing to ibe ^ \fl\ yj^ Lis 
■unuune was T^ien j^ and hfa name K'tog ^2. He nai a great 
grandKHi oS the ancMiit enqierar Ghimn Hd, aod had attained &a age of 
787 7e«n when tbe Tin djnae^ oame to an end i^JC. II23). He ii 
hwribed in tame applicable to the Taoiat aeeken t&a longerit; in later 
agei, and ii a>ud — tik« tliOD — to bare DonrialMd bioBelf open the pcnrder 
<£ mothei-o'-peaH and ainnlar nbatanoca. He ii aaid to hnve declared 
to a disciple that he had been left an orphan at the age of thres, and 
oiringlo an incursion of the Dog Barbarians ^^3%^*^^'^^^'^ ^ ^ 
weetem regions for more than one hnndred years, etc., etc According to an- 
other legend be owud hia tide FSng Tan or the Patriarch of F€ng lo tbe 
fi^ of ^^ jW bestowed upon him by the Emperor Tao^ lo iriKun be 
presentad a "bowl of pheasant-broth." He is repDted to have diaappeaied 
into tlie West, and is \y some regarded as one of (he inoamattons of Lao 
Tsse. According lo Taoiat legenda, he had two ecus, named lespectiTel; 
$^ and ^, who retired to a hermit life in the monntains of modem Far 
Uen, which derire from them their name of | | |Xj. 

see.— Fm Ei SzE CH-fa 4t H ^ ft- Uet lor female 
rale or " petticoat goreramMnL" Lit Tbe ben anuoancea dawn [in Hen 
of the coohj. AUnoon ia here made to the apeech of Wn Wang, who 
declared to hia followers : " llie ancients have aaid. ' The lien does not 
annomice the mtming. The crowing of a ben indicates tbe snbTersitHi of 
.&may'" I \ ZWiM^Zf^ Cf.L,C.,m.,p.802. 

eeS^FiKo TfiAS KflK ^ M ^. -D. B.C. 250.. Prince 
of Ping YSan, — the title conferred npmi Cbao Sh&ig ^ ^^ younger 
brother of the r^nii^ aorer^^ of tbe 8tal« ct Cbao. He took a leading 
part in the atnigglea whiuh preceded the final triumph d* lh« house of 


Ttl'm over Uu feocUI Staler and wu lepekUdl; at tbe head d vaHike 
kdA dipbm&tic ocanbiiutignB formed with a view to reaiatance a^inet the 
encroaching invader. He is one of die Fonr Leaders p^ y of the 
period ; and like hia contemporaries was at the head of a large band of 
tniBt^ rataineia. To gralify the reeeatment of one of these, a hompbaok, 
he pat to death a faTooiite concubine nho had laaghed at the defbnnitj. 

6e4._FEi Tu 1^ Jg, • f^ it- D- A-D- 839. A celebrated 
stateaman of the later period of the T'ang d^naBty. EnnoUed as j^ ^ 
■SJf for distingaiehed mih'tary serricea. Can. as p^ ^^. 

eee.— Fet Y™ |^ JH- a circa, A.D. 4S0. a man of letleti 
and Mie of the principal commentaton of the ^ ^. His father Fei 
gong-cbe | i^ <^ {D. A.D. 4Sl) was diatinKniiihed aaa public fiino- 
tiooarj and historical writer ; and bia son, P'ei Tsze-jeb | ^' ^Sf abo 
became celebrated ciic& A.D. £00 in the same walk of literature. 

638. — F'u-SA Man ^f ^ ^^. The name g^ren to a musical 
drama performed at (he court of T'ang HUan Tsung (Ming Hwang) and 
■nbseqoently nsed to designate a class of masical aiis. The last character 
is often, bnt wrongly, written ^^. The term is explained with reference to 
tbe fanoifu] head dresfl worn by the performers, leeembling the decorations 
attribnted to (he p'ttsa (boddhis&itwas) of the Boddhist pantheon. 

eer.— Fu SuKG-mo M 1^ ^' * I? '^- ■* ■'*'^" <* 
Shantung daring the seventeenth century, who althoagh a profound soholai, 
rose to DO higher office than that of a petty director of edacatioa Solac- 
ing his disappointed ambition in literary pureoita, be composed, ciTcft A.D. 
1710, a collection of marvellous legends, which, under the title J^ ^fg f^ 
^. have gained great celebrity by their contents and style. 

BBS.— Sako Tij ^ j(^. Met. for the "evening of We," har- 
iDwed from the assertion of Hwd Nan Tsze that the spot at which the 
sun descends in its daily cooiEe is so named. See Jih. 

BSe.-^ Ling She @ |^ ^. The dea'gnadon of Lni Tan, 
empress (7C ^) of Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697. Si Ling is said to have been 
her lurthpJace. She is said to have taught the art of reaiiog the silkworm 
to the people, and she is ccmwquently deified and woabipped noder ths 


RVO.—81 P«H B§ -flJ. B.C. 1281— 11S5. The chief of Um 
West — the title bome daring life by Ch'ang g, duke of Chow, aflerwards 
can. aa ^ ^ and recognized as virtnal foonder rf the Chow dyotuity. 
He wai hereditary chieftain of the priocipality of K'i (^ (in the territory 
of modem Shen-ei, See No. 666). Succeeding to his iather'a throne in 
B.C. 1169, the dutce of Chow maoileBted himself aa a pattern of priocel; 
virlaee, and was resorted to hj multitndea who eagerly enrolled tbemsiilrefl 
among his sabjects. In B.C. 1144 he was denounced by Ha, the how or 
earl of Ts'ung ^^ '^ ^^ to Chow Sin, the debauched tyrant then 
seated on the throne of the Yin dynasty, aa dangerooa to the latter*! power, 
whereupon Chow Sin a^zed him and cast hiia into prison at Tew Li ^^ 
J^. Here during two years he remained in durance^ occupying his leimne 
in compouDg an airangement of the symbols of the ^^ or Book of Changes. 
Th/B people lamented his miafortunes, and prevailed upon (he tyrant to release 
him by obtaining for Chow Sin a bvely concubine from ^ ^ and horses 
fi^im the barbarous tribes of the West E^ ^^ Chow Sin, on setting 
him at liberty, gave him a commisBion to make war npon the frontier 
tribes, bnl paid no heed to the remonstrances with which the Chief of the 
West Bonght to tnm bim from his course of llcentiouscees and cruelty. 
Dying on the vei^ of 100, the chieftain bequeathed his title aud the 
command of his fbroea to tus son Fa, by whom Chow Sin was overthrown. 
See Wn Wang. 

6*71.— Si She H J£ or Si Ts7ji ® -^. Thewplumara 

of lovelineea in Chinese tradition. She was, it is narrated, the daughter 
of humble parents at ^ ^ in the kingdom of TUeh J^, during the fith 
century B.C., and gained her livelihood in washing silk, or, accoidbg to 
another account, in selliug firewood ; bnt, a report of her consummate 
beauty having reached the ears of the Prince of Yiieh, through his conn- 
sellts' Fan lA q.v., he saw in this circumstance a hope of achieving the 
deetroction of his fictorioas rival the Prince of Wu — see Fu Ch'a j and 
canmng Si She to be tiuned in all the aecomph'shments of her sex and 
dreesed in gof^^eons apparel, he sent the fatal beauty as a ^ft to the prince 
whom he dedred to mm. His stratagem was succesBful, and Fu Ch'a, 
abandoning himself to lustful dalliance, was ere long ddeated and crushed 
hj hit wily nei^bour. It is said 1^ Si She, that thinking her beauty was 


wbanced by ftn air of neUnctioIf , ohe vw OMd to knit her bfovB u 
dioDgli in pKin, and this derice, adding, rb it did, to her ftttractJTencs^ vju 
oopied by kU the rival beauties who vniuly soagbt to equal her in chsnni. 

673.— StWangMo gg 3E "^^ The Western Eoyal Mother, 
or King Mu (Mother) of the West — a fabulous being of the female sex, 
dwelling upon Mount Kn'€n-lun at ihe head of the troops of genu, and 
holding from time to time interconrEe with favoured imperial votaries. 
Such ii the legend which has grown np in the conise of ages from the 
■lender basts afforded by the occurrence of the name ^ ^ "^ in very 
early traditions. The apochrypbal ^ ^^ or Books of Chow, which 
probably date from aaam ccnturiee before the Christian era, contain an aenr- 
tion that the emperor Muh (see Muh Wang), in bis famous joumeyings (B.O. 
9B5) was entertained 1^ Si Wang Mn at the Lake of Gems in the West; 
and a similar etslement occnrs in the Annals of tbe Bamboo Books. (Cf. 
[i C, m., [Toleg-, p. 150). An obecnre reference to Si Wang Ma is also 
tobefound in thai^Aon^at fm^; and upon these ancient noUces the 
phUaaopher Lieh Tsze based, m the 5th ceotary B.C., a fanciful and per- 
haps allegorical tale of the entertainment with which King Mub was 
faonoiu^ and enlbraUed by the supmatiiral being. In later ages, the 
superstitious vagaries of Han Wu Ti gave rise to innnmorable fables res- 
pecting the alleged visits paid to that monarch by Si Wang Mu and her 
fulry troc^ ) and the imagination of the Taoist ^vriters of the ensuing 
feqtmies was exerdsed in glowing descriptions of the magnificence of her 
monntatn-palace. (See Kw'fn-lunX Here, by the borders of the Ijaks of 
Gems v^ y|g/ grows the peachtree of the genii, fjjj 7^. (See T'ao), whose 
fruit confers the gift of immortality, which the godden bestows npon the 
faToored beings admitted to ber js^sence; and heuoa she despatches the 
azote winged birds (see Ts'ing Niao) who serve (like the doves of VeniB) 
as her atteadanls and messengers. In process of time a oonsort was found 
for her h> Ihs pentm of Tung Wang Etmg ^ £ .^ (see Muh Kon^, 
tbe Eastern King Lcrd (or Father), whose name is designed in obvioos 
imitation of ber own, and who appears to owe many of his attributes to 
the ]ffindoo legends respecting Indra. By the time of the Song dynasty, 
(lOtJi eentory A.D.), a highly mystioal dootrioe respecting the pair, is- 
pnseated u the first created and creative results ^ the powetg of nature 


in Hmr pifmu^ prooes oT ^ek^ment wu eUbonted in flw j[| ^. 
The more wber research of modeni writen lesda to the anggteticn that 
W&ng Ha was the name «th« of a. r^ioa w of a Mverri^ in tbe anoieat 
Welt. (Cf. E. T., k. 34). See Tang ghvang Ch'di^ Ti^ii^ Kiao, aod 

e'TS.—Sr Tfliw @ ^. The paA of forest of pleaflnre Iwd 
out b; Sui Yang Ti- It was 200 U ia circuit, and " eidtaosted tlie almost 
degrees of splendour and beaatj." When the foliage became decayed asd 
f^ it was leplaced npoD the trees by leaves of oik. Here the imperial 
debauchee was accostomed to ride on moonlit lughts, accompanied by a 
cavalcade of tboniaDds of the insuites of liia sera^o. 

S7<4. — SiANQ ^. The muighleous brother <A tbe great and 
TtrtuooB Shim q, v. 

6*75. — SUNa ^ or She SiaDg ^ \ . The " moflc master " 
renowned as having given instruction lo Confucius. Cf. L. C, l, proleg. p. 63. 

C^O.—SiANQ Fu Jto ill ^ A- The lady [or ladiej of the 
river Siang, popularly identified v^ilh Kti Yiag and Ngo Hwang, qq. v. 
the empresses of Shan. It is related in the S. E. that in B.C. 219 She 
Hwang-ti, when making tiho tour of lus empire, met irith a shrine near 
the Pnng't'ing Lake at vrhich a deity lumed- Siang Kiln ^ ^'vm 
irorahipped, and in answer to bis inquiry he was informed that this was a 
designstltHi of the conswt of Shan. Hlodem commentators incline to the 
belief that Siang El)n was won^ipped rather as the tutelary god of the 
river Siang, and the Pu Jen as his female consort, without any oonnection 
origin^ly with the ladies of Shun. 

677'.— Swo Hies MfS^'^^-^^- 48ft— 537. A kins- 
man of the Imperial lineage of the Ts'i and Liang dynasUes. Authcv of 
the history d" the Sonthera brandi of the Ts'i dynasty, A.D. 479—501. 

678.-31*0 Ho If ■^. D. B.C. 193. One of the adletenti 
(XlAa Pangq. V. iobisstni^B tbr the Empire, and subaeqoenily one of his 
ciiiaf MiniilerB. He is renowiKJ by the care he displayed on the capture 
of Hien Yang, the seat of govermmunt of the Ts'in dynas^, in searcliitig 
oat and rescuing from destruction the ofBcial archi"eii by the preaervation 
of wfaiah he averted mndi calamitous disorder. 1 be transfer of the im- 


peiial icaidence to Ch'aDg-Dgan, was efieoted by Hb advice, as a means of 
bfeaking tbe more readily with the traditioiu of the hated dynasty which 
the house of Haa supplanted. He became clae£ Minister of State, ^ 
m, and was ennobled as ^ ^. 

67©.— SiAo Man /)■» ^. The name of one of the hand- 
maidens of the poet F6h Kii-yib, who celebrated her elender waist in the 
followiDg line: ^ I9P I [ ^, — " willow-like, the waist of SUo 
Han." The poet also gave the same bncifn] name to a drinking-goblet, 
and hence the designation has passed into poe&al usage as a synonym ht 
the wine-cnp. 

680. — SiAo She ^ ^. A petsonage poeseasitig marvellons 
■kin in p^orming npon the flate (whence the title by which alone he is 
:aentioiied). Duke Muh of Ta'in (6tJi century B.C.) gave him bis danghtcf 
Lung Ttl ^ j^ to nife^ and he instructed her in the practice of his 
own faTODTite art. The harmocy iLey together [ffactiaed " drew phiEnixea 
~Kim the skiea." Eventually, husband and wife were caught up to heaven, 
'he one by a dragon and the other by a pbcenlx. (^ ^|1| ^). 

581.— SiEH ^ One of tbe nine Ministers of Shun, a half- 
brother and coUeagne of E'i.— See Tia. Cf. L. C, m., p. 43. 

682. — SiEH J&H-KWEI ^ ^ ^. Seventh century A.D. A 
general of the T'ang dynasty, employed as commander of an army sent 
agiunst the Tibetans in A.D. 670, where he was defeated with great Ion 
In ^82, he SQccessfully repelled an invasion on the part of the Tu-kUeb. 

BS3.— SiBHKB-cHftNQ^JgiE"'^^. A.D.912— 981. 
A histmcal writer. Author of the " Older " History of tbe T'ang dynasty. 
■" 684.— SiEH NoA-N i^ ^, • ^ ^- A.D. 320—385. A 
celebrated staiesman and man of letters. Although a member of a dis- 
tjngmsbed family of publio servants, he manifested in early life no ioclina- 
tion to take office, and reached the age of forty without consenllDg to 
amerge from a private station. Yielding at length to the importunity 
jf bis wife, he accepted an official potil^ and rapidly advanced to tbe 
iiischarga of tbe highest functtoos of State under the reign of Tain Hiao 
Wn TL In the midst of the cares of office be constantly preserved a 
Lindly and equable dispodtion, and by his undisguised prefoenoe for a life 


oT eue aod elegant leoreittion he earaed the sobriquet of JS(, |gf^ ^ i(^ 
— the Prime Mioister of enjoytaeiit. It is related of him that At the dme 
when the capital was menaced by the adrancing forces of Fa Eien q.v., he 
sat one day over a game of chess with a friend, when a despatch was 
handed to him, which he calmly read and then continaed the game. On 
being asked what was the news he replied : It is merely an annonnce- 
ment that my young people have beaten the enemy." The intelligence was 
in fact that of the decisive rout of the invaden by the atmy under hia 
leather Steh She and his nephew Sieh Hilan. Only when retired within 
the seclosion of bis private apartments did he give lumself op to an oat- 
hnrst of joy. 

SS6.~SiBH T'ao ^ ^' A 'celebrated coortesan of Shnh 
(the modem Sze-ch'wan), during the 9tb century A.D. EzcelHog as a 
female wit and vereewritor, her name was given by her admirers to tha 
ornamented paper on which the produotiona of her pen were inscribed ;• 
and hence | | ^, has become a ^yniXiym for noto^per adorned 
with fandfnl desgns. 

SSe.— Sm Lraa KAn -^ ^ ^. -»• B.C. 244. The feudal 
title conferred upon Prince Wa-H of the State of Wei |ffi ■^ "^ ^ 
JS;, one of the leaders in the contests which preceded the triumph of the 
dynasty of Ta'in. He is one of [he ^ ^ or Fonr Chieftains of this 
qnch, and like his compeers maintained a large host of warlike adherenta 
at his beck. In early life his love of equity was highly praised, and was 
manifested, according to a pleasing legend, in nngllng ont and slaying a 
hawk which had killed a dove that had taken refnge firom pnisnit in bis 
chamber. Toward the end of his career he retired in di^nsl from war 
and politic^ and his last yearn were paaed in wild debanchey. 

OB*?.— SiiAM T'AO UJ ^ ' g ^. -8 circA A.D. 206. D. 
cu«& AD. 285. A Btaleeman under Liaso Wu Ti, and diBtingnished by 
the patronage he extended to risiiig talent ; hot more famous still through 
his membership of the association called the Seven Worthies of the Bamboo 
Grove (see Ohuh Lin). 

ess.— Sb4M-tO Tai H. ■^^ ft. The Tower of the -SAon^yO 
(Khan) tit the Hiong-nu, nlnated to the north of the Great Wall, and 


ptoadlj ocu^ied by Hah Wii Ti when, ta tbe vrinter of B.O. 110, be 
indulged iu an Imperial progreBs along the aortbem fnHitier of his domt- 
luons. He passed b rerie^ an tamy of 180,000 men at &\a spot, and sent 
a challenge to tbe Uiang-oa Toler u> oome fi^th and fight or t«uler his 
BubnuBoaii to tbe house of Httn. 

680— Sbang K'o-in l?ij PT ^- D- A,D. 1676. A native 
of liao-tnng, who passed from the military service of the Ming dynasty 
A.D. 1635, into that of the eacroaching Manchow Tartars. After the 
establishment of the latter in the soTereignty of China, he was created 
A.D. 16*6, ^ ^ £E) OT Prince Padfioator of the South, and carried 
tbe arms of the newly foouded dynasty into tbe province of Ewangtmig. 
la tbe epnng of 1650, be laid si^e to Caoton, and took the city by storm 
a&er an investment of ten month's dnratioQ. He was hereopon appcsnted 
a SmSafary of the Empu%, with t^e tatle ^ ^, (frontier-Prince), and 
continaed until 1674 to govern Kwang-tnng on this footing. The at- 
tempted reb^ion of Wu San-kwei q.v., led to the abolititxi of his ffef, and 
he received in lieu of it tbe more subordinate title of Viceroy, Kotwitb- 
Btanding all temptations, be remuned unshaken in his loyalty, bat Ibe 
allurements held oat by Wu Sou-kwei, sacceeded in gaining over bis eldest 
BOD (see below). On learning tbe Utter's defection, the Viceroy com- 
mitted suicide. 

O0O.— SHANfl Cm-fliN ^ !l^^ D. A.D. 1680. Eldest son 
of tile preceding. After revolting in 1676, he resumed his allegiance, and 
in 1677 was appointed saocesBor to bis father and confirmed in the title 
borne by tbe latter. He was, nevertheless, shortly afterwards denounced 
as a traitor, and in 1680 the impwial government Ibund iteelf strong 
enoogh to etnp him of his rank artd aatbority, permitting him, as a special 
act of grace, to pensh by bis own hand. The vast wealth be bad aaassed 
by extortions and illegal levies was confiscated. 

091.— feANaKflsj^^, otSiunoYaso | '^. SeeWd 

6SS. — SaiHO Lin YHas Jl i^ ^. The park ot hnnting^ 
groands witbio wbicb Blie Hwang It built bis celebrated palace A Fang 
Kong, near tiie city of Hien Yang. On tbe same ate Hak Wu Ti fertned 


« VMt [leasaiince, wbwe, n B.C. 138, be aaembled a coDcoinB of nhd- 
U8 aad poeU who QBtNtained him irith tbni diequintioDs aod recitatioiiB. 

603.-.^Bio Evm -^ ^. The duke of Sfaao. By tius tiUe 
Ej She jfK ^, a kinsnAn of Wn Wang, the ibnndei d[ the Otow 
dynaslf , IS known in lustorj. Wu Wang invested bim irith the piiooipali- 
tj c£ Ten ^, oom^ng a portion of the |«eMi)t praviDce <J Chih-IL In 
virtoe and niidom he was a worthy rivid of tiia great (Jbaw Eongi with 
whom he is dajsed ae one of the hnmortal pattetns for aU sooMeding 
genffiatims of rulen. The date of fail death is acri^ted to B.C. 105S. 
See Ean T'ang. Cf. L.C^ m., p. 421. 

O0-Jt_8HAo YcHG aP J|. ■ ^^ t Jitfi A.D. 
1011—1077. Called | -^, or the Philowpher Shao. One of tha 
fonoDS edioolmen of the Song dynasty. His meet celebrated work was a 
oommentai? npon the Yih King, which was continned 1^ his son Shao 
Peh-w6n \ i&^- * ^i- A.D. 1057—1134. 

eSeS.^HE Chao ^ ^, • -^ ^. 11th centnry A.D. A 
sobolar of high lepnte, and author of one of the commentaries on Sze-ma 
Ewan^H MiiToi of Higlory. 

693.— She Chow ^ |||. lEepnted as the inventor of the an- 
oent form c^ wnting known aa the y^ ^ or Greater Seal character. 
The period at which he floniiahed is referred to the leign of Chow Biian 
Wang, (B.C. 827—782). 

Oer.— SaB HwAsa-n ^ M *$*• B.C. 269—210. The title 
aseomed \fj ChSng j^, the great sovereign who founded a new and 
homi^neoiia empire on the ruins of the Chinese feudul system. Eepnted 
aa the son of Chwan^ Siang Wang, soveieign of Ta'in ^^ (see I 
JSn), bnt actually — according to a leceived tradition — the ofispring 
d a t^ior anion between the latter's conwrt and bis Minister LU Pa- 
wd g.v., he sacceeded to the throne of Ta'in at the age of 13, in B.C. 
247, and remained for some years nnder the tutelage of Lii Fn-wei. The 
latter actively pursued the aggreeaive policy direct«d against the remaning 
fendal States owning alliance to the house of Chow, which had for many 
years been followed with growing snccesa by the princes of T^in, and the 
mrear of o(niin«t Ibos initiated was eagerly pnimed by Prince Ch&ig 
after be bad asnmed the full coatnA of his government. In B.C. 221, the 


26t.h yeu of bii reign, he was enabled to declare bunself sole maEter of the 
Ghiiwfie Empire, extending &om the pUins of Yen and Cbao (the modem 
Ho-nan and Cbih-li) to the banks of the Y&ng-tsze and the hills of Ytieh 
(ihe modem Ghekiang^ and from the lake of Tung-t'Iug (o the Kastem Sea. 
Wisely resolvbg to break with the traditiona of the paEt, when ezpeiwooe 
shewed tJtem to be inimical to progress and to aubataDtisl imperial conlrol, 
ha swept away the fendal institationa by means of which the sorereigiiB of 
Chow had divested themselves of the caves of government, and divided the 
Empire, including tbe vast extenoons he had annexed towazd (he Sonlh, 
into 86 govemmeuls or provinces ^^, ihos effecting a revolution which, 
after a lapse of 2000 yean, history has seen repeated in Japan. At the 
same tune be decreed a change is the imperial title, abolishing the practice 
of bestowing poethomons dengnatioos ^^ ^ upon each ruler !n SDCce»- 
non. Combining the appellations ^_ (sovereign) and '^ (divine roler or 
deity) which historical legends attiihated to the Three Ilwanff and Hve Ti 
of ancient limes, he assamed the title She Hwang-ti (the Fint Hwang-ti), 
as his own unalterable designation, ordaining that his successois should ba 
known as tbe Second, the Third, and so forth ' even to the ten-lhousandlii 
generation." From this period, hiaUxy records a life of resLleeB nctivi^ on 
bis part, becoming more and more marked by vast, ambitions imdertakings 
(conquest of tenltory from the Biung-nn, erection of the Great Wall, ehi. 
See MSng Tien), and deeply Unged by sapeistition. (See Sli She). Id 
B.C. 213, at the instance of his minister Li Sm q.v., be issued an order tor 
the destraction of the anraent literary records, failure to comply with which 
was pnnbhed in the following year by tbe execution of some hundreds of 
the impracticable literati. Impressed, it is related, with a pophecy which 
was repeated to him, diat his empire should be endangered by Hu p^, be 
devoted ouapariog energies to protecting his northern frontjer against iba 
barbarian tribes (Au ^) of the Hiung-nu, but the prophecy was anezpect* 
edly fullfilled in the mtn which befell tbe newly founded dynasty in tlie 
person of his unworthy son and sncoessor Hu Hai q.v., who was proclaimed 
emperor to the exclusion of the rightful heir, on tbe death of the mighty sove- 
r«gn, which took place in B.C. 210 at Sha K'iu ^J^ (in modemChih-li). 

598.— She Juiwmiahg IS P| ^. * fi^ S- A.D. iei8— 
1683. A c^braled scholar and funotranary, in high repots as a poet. 


S90.— SnE LuB ^ jj^. An official employed B.C. 230, as a 
lieutenant of the general T'u Hwei, in tbe campugn andeitakeo iot the 
subjugation of the southern regions to the Empire of She Hwang-ti. He 
cut the fiiBt canal constructed in the territory sonth of tbe mountains (the 
modnn Knang-tung). 

eOO— Sue Kino-t'ano Jg^ ^ i^- D. A,D. 943. A com- 
mander in the service of the Posterioi T'ang dynasty. HcJding tbe office 
of generalissimo when the downfall of this bouse became imminent, be called 
in the northern Tartars (Eitan) to his aid, and'with their auBtance, 
proclaimed himself Emperor in A.D. 9SC. He thus founded the ehort- 
livod sovereignty called the Posterior Tsin dynasty. 

©OI.—SheK'u Kon ^|^^- Tbe Slone-comluit Hall,— 
a building erected at Ch'ang-ngan by Siao Ho, for the reception of the 
records of the extinct Ta'in dynasty, cireft B.C- 200, It derived its name 
from a conduit of stons which was carried beneath it In B.C. 51, the 
emperor Siian Ti, appointed a commission of scboLtrs to assemble in this 
building for the purpose of completing the revision of the claGaical 

SOS.— Shb SzE-mra ^ JS W- ^- ^^' "^1- ^ <;elebrated 
insnrgent leader who, m the closing period of tbe reign of T'ang Hiian 
Tsiing, made himself master of a great portion of nortb-eastem China, 
where be proclaimed himself sovereign with the title of flf^ ^^> He was 
eventually overthrown by the imperialist commander Li Ewang-pi, and 
perished by the hand of bis eldest son She Chao-i | ^ ^^ in revenge 
for the prefereitce shewn to his younger brother. 

e03.— She TiEN-TBeH i& ^ )||- ' j^ iST- AD. J202— 
1275. The most prominent among tbe natives of Northern China who, as 
vassals of the Mongol invaders, cooperated in the cBtablishment of the 
sovereignty of Euhlai Khan. Be was one of the hitter's most trusted 
oounsellors, and is highly renowned for integrity and wisdom. In A.I), 
1260, he was elevat«d to the poet of chief Minister, and he held this and 
anaI(^;ous offices until his death. With his latest breath he entreated the 
conqueror to abstain in \ha hour of final triumph, then fast approachingf 
from butchery and [nllaga. Can. as ^ ^. 


0O4.— She Yes-nien ^5 ^ ^. " ^ ^. A.D. 994:— 
1041. A scholar and poet, renowned as aa artistic connoiBseur. 

606. — Sata JfT. The spirit or spirits of the land- According 
to some commentators, the deified being Kow Lung (see fio. I8l), is the 
nniveisal tutelary genias of the land, and hence he is also endowed with 
the deeignation ^X W&- "^^^ '^ inleqtreted as signifying the "sprit (or 
god) of the «oil " fltt ^ ^ it /^ Wflt «™i was consequently worship- 
ped hj the ancient emperors as the patron and symbol of th^ earthly 
aoverdgnty, Cf. L.C., ui., p. 151. C(Hnbined with Td (see How T*u), 
)D the compound | ^|, the spirits cf "the land" and "grain" are 
indicated, or the chief prewding influences giweming the well-being of the 
Empre. These are worshipped with sacrifices in the first month of 
Spring, in conformity with traditions of the highest antiquity. A popular 
snperstitioa attributes tc Ihe male spirit | ^, a, female consort, called 
I tJi (mother spirit of the land), and it is said of them that they "do 
not drink old water," whereby is signified tlie belief that rain, — the 
vivifying showers of Spring, — invariably falls on the day assigned for the 
offering of sacrifices at their altar. 

©O©.— SiifiN Chow ]^M>'WC M A.D. 1427—1509. A 
noted pauiteT. 

©OV. — Sues Fu ^ "^. The combined namei of two heroes 
of the reign of Chow Slian T^ng, B.C. 827. Sh6n Peh | fg, was the 
father-in-law of that monarch, and Chung-ehao Fn -((Jl |lj "^j a relative 
and colleague m the service of the State. En one of the Odea of the She 
King, their nrtues and piowes are celebrated in the following lines; ^^ 
1^ ^ Wo 9b * ^ W ■ — ^^Tien the great mountains send a sphit 
down to earth they give birth to [such men as] ShGn and Fu. Cf. L-C, 
IT., p. 535. 

©OS.— Ssto Klso E^ ^. B. ciroft B.C. 222. D. drcft B.C. 
135. A celebrated scholar and pbiloeopher, — the teacher of a numerous 
body of disciples, who attended his instructi<His in the lore of antiquity and 
eqiecially with reference to the Book of Odes. A vcr&on of this clawic is 
rocognixed as proceeding from his band. When upwards trf* 80, be was 
■ommiwed to the capital, in tlie first years of his reign, fay Ham Wu Ti, 


«bo wns ftiixioua to pn^t bj ihe wisdom and erudition attributed to the 
sage; but tbe Empress-mother, imbued with the opinions of the TatUBt 
school, hafing discouraged tJie bouoan paid to orthodoxy in tbe p«reon of 
the aged scholar, he relapsed mto obscnrily, and shortly aiUrwards died. 
Cf. L.C., IT., p. 8. 

e09.— Snfis Nirso |9 ^ The Diyine Husbandman— Uw 
title attributed to the successor of the great B\ih Hi, B.C. 2737. Ac- 
cording to the '~. ^^ 5J1C ^ he wau the son of a princeas named Ngan- 
teng ^ ^, who conceived through the influence of a heavenly dragon 
and bore her child, the future Boveieign, near the river Kiang ^ ^FJC, 
from whence he derived his Bumame. Ho is likewise called ^ \\\ ^, 
from the mountain Lieh Shan, wliicb ia said to have been bis habitation ; 
and the cognomen ^ ^ is also assigned to him. He "reigned by the 
influence of the element Fire," and is consequently enU'tled Yen Ti jj| '^. 
He fii^t fashioned timber into ploughs, and taught the people the art of 
husbandry. He discovered the cnrative virtues of plants, and instituted 
the practice of holding niarketfi for the exchange of commodities. The 
ext^naon of the eight diagrams of Fub Hi to the number of nxty-four 
symbols A? -f" P3 S* '■ likewise, by some anthorities, attributed to his 
inventive genius. 

e 1 0._SiifcN Pao-su ^ -^ ■^. A high official of the king- 
dom of Ts'u and friend of Wu YUn q.v., B.C. 520. When Wu YUn, 
baming to avenge his father's deatb, resolved npon invoking the assistance 
of the prince of Wu against bis native State, ShSn Pa<v6il repaired to the 
capita) of Ts'in and besought the aid of its rnler. It is related that for 
seven days and nights he wept, leaning against a pillar and lefuBing all 
BQstauance, until his importunity prevailed, and [he asustance of T^in waa 
secured. Hence -Q ^}/^ 9v ^^ become a phrase denoting entreaty 

1 1.— Sh£n Po-iui (p ;^ 1^. i>. B.C. 337. Commonly called 
^ -^ or tbe Philosopher Sb€n. A philosopher of tbe State of ^ and 
one of the earliest among the promulgators of the doctrines of Lao Tkk. 
In B.C. 351 the prince of Han ^ made him ACnister of State. 

612. — Siifis SciENQ ip ^, Son and heir-apparent of Duke 
Hien of l^rin. He was put to death In B.C. 654, by his faUiet's command, 


ftt th« foft^ation of Li Ki q. *^ «bo laltelj pcmuded her in&tiikled 
cMMCXt that the prince bad put poison b his Gxid. 

018.— Sirfcf Y<rti tfc ^' ' -flC ^. AD. +11—513. A 

»tat««niaii an<I Bcliular etD[>Io7e>l DndKr the Song and Liiug dynasties. 
Autiir^ of the Hwlorj of the funncr of these. He is repoted as (be 
diMX)vcrer nf tlie Fuur Tones In Chinese proDDndalion, which be is sud 
to have boen the first (o claisify ; bat this daim on bis behalf h dispaled. 

Q 14,— Snow M£no ^ ^. -D. B.C. 561. ITie dynastic Ude 
of Hti'^ng ^, prince of the dominion of Wii, to the sovereignty of which 
be suRCcedcil on tlie death of bis father ^ ^, in B.C. Sm. He was 
the l!hh in direct descent from Chung Yung -^ |^ (see Wu Tai PSh), 
and was ttie tint to osEUcac the title ^Ei "'' sovereign Prince, entering at 
tbo lante tlrao into relations with the emperor Eien Wang of the Chow 
dynasty. During hia reign the semi-civilized population of Wn, at that 
time still ranked among tlio barbarian tribes ^^ ^, were trained in the 
art of wnr, and proctised in its vicissitudes during a contest of many years 
durutlon witb tbo adjacent Statu of Tb*u 3^- ^^ ^'^ succeeded on his 
duccnw) by his uldcHt son Cbu Fan (or Eb ^), whose younger brother Ei 
Oliii q. v., ilei'llnod the suoocesioa to which Show Meug desired to 
advance biin. 

3 ICS. — iSmtu IjOW JQ ^. The name given to a swoid poe- 
lOBReil by Fii Cii'a, IVinco of Wu, who (according to the Tuo Chwan), sent 
it to Ilia fiiitlifiil adherent Wu YUn q. v., when be detreed that tbe latt^ 
slumld iH'risli by his own hand. Honce lbs phrase ^^ ^ \ \ , b 
iibihI io sigtiily ihc issue of a maodato of eelf-immdation. 

©1©.— Sunr Yii -^ ^. Tbe younger brolha- of Cnow 
ChVng Wiini;, wtu^ Invested him in B.C. 1107, with the fiefc^ T'ang, 
whoww ho Waiiic OTitiilrtl /g'^. AccoirIingtoSie-niaTs'ien,theyonth- 
fVil Hiftvivlitn was one day ami«ng tumaelf witb his brother, and cutting a 
UtrtMtitt Wf f^ ^. into the li«iu of a token of nnk, playfatly banded 
It Io i^huh Yit saying: "With this I invest you 1" An aUendant coon- 
wlli* berviii«w j^ravely rrqnesled that the day might be appointed far 
<x^ui|itelii% dw i'«ivUM>ny of im^stitun; and in reply to tbe yoot^ 
ntottwch'a tdvarrntioo that he bad be«i merely jestiiig. tbe mitiiEter n- 


minded bim that a sovereign can nttet no imiacaniiig won]. This legend 
is, however, rejected \>j later commentalois, 

017.— Sura ^ B.C. 2317—2208. TLe Bucoessor chosen lo 
oocnpj hia throne by the ancient emperor Yao, and revered with tlie latl«r 
as une of the paUems of regal virtue. Tradition is extremely dlsuordant 
with reference to his origin and descent. According lo the ^ J^ 2(SC 
^, his personal name was Cb'ung Hwa Q ^^, and he was (be son of 
Ku Sow ^ ^^, a reputed descendant nf the emperor Chwan Hii. He 
had also the demgDation YU ^, which is by some referred to a region in 
modem Ho-nan, but by others to the territory of Yii Yao ^p J^t' 'i 
modem Chekiang, with one or the other of which it is sought lo connect 
him. His father, Ka Sow (lit. the "blind old man"), on the death of 
Shan's mother, took a second wife, by whom he had a sou named Siang 
^ ; and preferring the oftspring of bis second union to his eldest son, be 
repeatedly sought to put the latter to death. Shun, however, while escap- 
ing this fate, in no wise lessened bis dutiful conduct toward his father and 
Etepinotber, or his fraternal regard for Siang. He occupied himself in 
plonghing at Li Shan ^ JJLf, where his filial piety was rewarded by 
heastB and lards who spontaneously came to drag bis plough and to weed 
hia fields. He fished in the Lui Lake fg j|p, and made pottery on the 
banks of the Yellow Kiver. Still bia parents and his brother sought to 
compass hia death ; but although they endeavonred to make him perieh by 
setting fire to hii boose and by causing him to descend a deep well, he was 
always miracnlously preserved. In his 20th year, he attracted by bis filial 
piety the notice of the wise and virtaons Tao, who bestowed upon him later 
bis two daughters in marriage (see Nu Ying), and diedDberited his son Cbn 
of Tan 77* "^i, in order to make Shun his successor npon the throne. Id 
the Tlst year of his reign (B.C. 2287, cf. T.E.), Yao aesodated his protege 
with him in the government of the empire, to whicb the latter succeeded 
on the death of Yao in B.C. 2258. He mourned bis predecei«or during 
three years, and his reign is therefwe actoally dated from B.O. 2235. He 
adopted the great Yii q.v., as bis siiccesBor, and left the Empire to him ou 
hie death, which is said to have taken place at Ts'ang-wu "J^ ^^, in the 
Bonthem regions of his Empire. 


8XS. — Su SiAo SiAO il^ /)■» yj^, A famous coniteBan of 
HsTigcLow, 11th century A.D., aod a contemporary and favourite of tbe 
poet Su She. Sbe wns equally distjo^ished by viM and beauty, and took 
a brilliant part in the literary and poetical gnllicrings in which her famous 
patron delighted. Tlie tomb of Su Siao Siao, near the banks of the Si 
Hu at Hangchow, was long t!ie object of poetical pilgrimages. 

e le.— Su H^vBT iP M' " ^ M- '^^^ ^"« of Tow Tao 
W VQ' ^^° "^ governor of Ta'in Chow at the close of the 4tb centory 
A.D., and was banished by Fu Kien to the desert of Tartary. Hie wife, 
perpetually bewailing his absence, occupied herself in embroidering a poetical 
lament in an intricate circular scrollwork flB) "^^ upon a piece of saUn, 
which she despatched to her absent lord. The compaction extended to a 
length of 840 characters, and is celebrated as the ori^nal of many anbse- 
qnent attempts in the same style. 

eSO.— Su Hwang ^ ^. Elliptical for Su She and Hwang 
T'ing-kien, two celebrated poets, qq.v. 

eSl.— So SiiuN-K'iN ^^^, • -^ H. A-D. 1008— IMS. 
A celebrated poet. 

eSS.-Su SiiN i^ ^, • ^ :^, t^ ^«. s«ond t M Uj. 
A.D. 1009—1066. A native of Shuh (Sze-cb'wan), who roee to high 
celebrity during tbe reign Kia Teo of the Sung dyoasty ihrongb his 
literary merit, nnder the patronage of Ow-yang Siu. Father of ibe two 
celebrated men of geniue Su She and Su Cbeh, and hence called ^^ | 
or the Elder So. 

ess.— SuSiieI^H. • -^li, t ;^^- AD- 1036—1101- 
A celebrate statesman, poet, and commentator ; eldest son of the preceding. 
Employed from an early a^ in public offices, and distJiiguiahed from a 
youtb by rare ability. As a elatesman, be was prominent among the 
Btrennoaa opponents of Wang Ngan-shih qv,, and having fallen into dis- 
grace on this account be was dismissed in 1079 from his Ministerial office and 
degraded to the govemorahip of HwHngchow (in modern Kiong-si), where 
he abode for some Ume and where hin poetical geniiis was largely ejercised. 
On tbe commencement of a new reign, in 1086, he was restored to favour, 
but in 1094 he again incurred ibe Imperial displeasure, and was lianiBhed to 


Hweichow in Kwangtang, whence his enemies secured hts still further re- 
moval to hold ibe petty office of sub-Prefect in the remole and semi-barbarous 
Mand t^ Hunan (Yai Chow). Here he abode for Bome j'eaiB, and succeeded 
in diffumng a love of literature and cultivation among the youth of the 
Chinese coast-Bettlementd, who had hitherto been strangers to socb infiuencee. 
He died shortly aft«r bang permitted to return from banishment. Among 
tlie anecdotes related of him it is said that the empreBS-conBort of J€n 
Tsung so highly esteemed his literary achievements in the fiiBt flush of his 
youthful promise, that she caused him to be entertained in her own apart- 
ments, and sent him to his home at nightfall by the light of the imperial 
lampe ^ ^ jBq ^ ^ ^ — a traditional honour, reserved foi the high- 
est merit alone. As Govemor of Hangchow (in modem Che-kiong) in later 
life he added largely to the architectural glories which adorned the beautdfnl 
natural surroundings of that city. He was can. as 3v j@>* 

eJ34._SuC..fiK^ii:- •^^. t|l,^- AD. 108&- 
, 1112. Younger brother of the precedlnpij, nnd celebrated like him aa a 
poet and publio functionary. Can. as ^ ^. 

326. — Si] TsLN ^^ ^'. Distinguished during the middle period 
of the T'ang dynasty, by precocious talent and in later life as an enidite 
BchtJar. He is ranked among the Eight Immortals of the Winecup." 

eSe._SD Ts'iN ^^ D. B.C. 818. A statesman of re- 
nowned capacity, prominent in Uie turbulent era of the ^ ^, or 
Contending States. In early life he studied under the mystic philosopher 
Ewei Kuh Tsze, together with Chang I q v., and became the Intter's rival 
in (be school of diplomacy or wily intrigue, which, at that period, offered 
the readiest means of advancement in public life. 8u Ts'in was a diligent 
student of the political doctrines to which the name tsung heiig j^ ^^, 
or combination and opposition" was given, and thette be carried into 
practical efiect in B.C. 333, when he succeeded in forming a league of the 
«i great States into whieh the Empire had become divided, viz., Ten, 
Chao, Han, Wei, Ts'i, and Ts'u, to resist the mcDacing growth and en- 
croachments of the State of Ts'in, already grasping at universal dominion. 
For a time he successfully condueted the affaiis of the confederation, now 
at the Court of one of the allied princes, and now the trusted confidant 
of another; but internal faction ere long destroyed the combinalicm (^ 


j^), be hftd formed, and he peiiebed nt length by asaasBination. He is 
Ibe most fitmouB among the political advcntuiera J^ ^ j^ ^ of his 
period. His brother, Sii Tai J ^\f took also a. promioent part in the 
poL'tical mancenvres of the age. To one or other of these craflj poh'ticiam 
are aUribuled several of the pithy sayings which are still employed in the 
familiar language of the Chineee. Such is the proverb : ^ ^ ^^ IH 
yy* T^ ^r ^R' '' ^ better to be a foil's beak than the binder parts of 
an ox {atd CcB^tr wtt nuUm), n'hich 8u Ta'in is gai<1 to have used in ad- 
dressing Prince Uwei of Han. For Su Tai's apologue of the Idttern and 
ibe mussel see No. 033. 

eST'.— SuT'Ai^^orKuSuTAiJjSr f |. The Tower 
or palace of pleasure built by the Prince of Wu (see Fu Ch'a), for the 
delectation of his lovely concubine Si She. It was eiecl«d near the site 
of the modem city of Soo-chow, which takes its name from this traditional 

ess.— Su Wc ^^,'-^^- 2nd centniy B.C. A cham- 
berlain of Han Wu Ti, by whom he was sent, in B.C. 100, on a mimion to 
the Kban of the Hiung-nn. While at the latter's Court the envoy sought 
to compass the death of Wei Lii ^ ^, a Chinese renegade who stood 
high in favour with the Hiung-nu niler, but, bis plot being dieovered, he 
was cast vritb bis folloivers into confinement, and called upon as the price 
of hie existence to abjure bis allegiance to the bouse of Han. This he 
steadfastly lefused to do, and he was then immured for many days in 
a prison without food or water, hut was enabled, it is said, to sustun life 
byTOlMling the moisture ci^Jf^ j T*^LJbe rain and anow which soaked 

Balk»J,, where he tondud the Hinng-nu Jocke fo^Si?" ^""' '' ' 
narrated of him that he elung tte.dM, d,.ring Ihi. pTiSlIt;;!" '"'' "' 
offlee, a. a .y„hol of hi. „M„„-„g |„y.,iy, .^ ^ j ^ ^X^'' 
crook. At length, oode, a ne, ,.,,., i, .„ te„^ ^.^..^ ;7%(|;' 
h.m to ,oto„ to China, and h. arrived in B.C. 81 a g„y he«lrf Jk 
»an«th.C„.rth,h.diefti..hep,i„.ofM. ,..„. He waa orea-jT 
fH PJ m and .nveeW in the office entitled * g g or Chanrf.r 
of th. riauo™ with dependent Sut«. A, he brenght l»ok »ith hie. a 
Htaog-nn wife .nd ^ „ „j „, j,^„^ ^ ^^^.^^ ^^ ^ ^^ 


th&n it IB de[MctBd u having been ; bat he is eitcUed u t. pttUern of nn- 
chftQging Gdelily. Acoordiug to a papolar legeiv], he oootrived, aftei 
many yean of detention, to inform the Emperor of bis wheteabouts hj at- 
taching a minive to the leg of a wild goose nhm cotumendl^ ilA eoathward 
Bight. Tbe Iwl «aa ahot by the EmpeiOT, It ii related, while hunting in 
Us pleaanre-gminds, and the oaptirity of Su Wu thna beosme known, 
vfaersnpon al«i» were taken to effect his relea«e. 

©S©.— Sun Hao ^ ^. D. A.D. 283. Tbe last representa- 
tive of the sovereignty of Wn, fonnded by his grandare Sun E'aan q. v. 
He ascended the throne in a period of aaivereal confusion and warfare, but 
neglected all the dntiea of goveininent in the indnlgence of his licentious 
and crad inclinations. In A.D. 280, the founrlcr of the Tain dynasty 
extingniehed his authority, and reduced him to tbe rank of a mere nobte, 
villi the title ^| ^S ^f- His concubines and female attendanl«>, fn tbe 
nrnnW of fire thousand, were taken into the conqueror's seraglio. 

G30.— SiifKiKN •^^. D. A.D. 191. One of the gcoup of 
rival poIUioiaDi involved in the contests which ofliered in the downfall nf 
the Han dynaa^. As Qovemor of Cb'ang-sha in A.l>, 190, he <^>posed 
the OBorpation of Tnng Cho, and was slain in battle in the followiiig year, 
leaving fom sons, of whom two rose to a foremost rank in the ensmng 
straggles. ThfflT dster, known as the Lady Son | ^ /\^, became the 
wife of Lia Pei q. v. 

Q81._Sra IVte %%,.*i^ ^. A.l>. 175—200. Eldest 
son of the preceding. Succeeded hb father in command of tbe farces raised 
to oppose tie ambitions deaigns of Tnng Cho, after whose downfall he 
BSEUmed a [«ominenl part m the pendbg Htruggles, He fought as a 
Bentenant of Ts'ao Ts'ao q.v., against the rival (hieftain YHan Shnh ^ 
^, and was invested, in A.D. 198, with the Utle ^ ^, or Marquis of 
Wn, having been previously created govonor of the reg^n coMtituting in 
andent limes tbe stale of that name (the modem Kiang-sa and part of 
Gbe-kiang). Dying, lA an early age, of a wound treacherously inflicted 
npoa him, he bequeathed the command of his troc^ and a brOIIant prapect 
of ummate sovereignty to bis brother. 

eSS.-SusK'BAN^^^. --fillll. Z). A.D. 251. Brotlier 


and snocenor of Ae preceding. Sbortbf after reodvlDg tlie cbarge com- 
mitted to him on hb brother's deaitli, be threw off the show of Babmuvon 
to Ti^ao IVao, which hod hidterto beeo muutiuned, and aoeited aa 
independent position. He snocenfuDj repelled the attempts both <tf Ts'ao 
Wao, and oi his own sister*! hnsband Liu Pel, to onnh hii rinng power, 
and by degrees established his authority along the entire coarse of the riw 
Taogtsae. In 208, his lieutenant C3iow Tit, defeated the f<Moee of lia 
Fd, in a memcxuble battle at Ch'ih PI ^ ^, (near the modem Kin 
Eiang), and in 212, having now cemented an dliance with Lin Pd, ha 
established the scat of his goveraoMQt at the site of the modem Nao- 
tsng, giviog to the city which he there founded the name of Kien Yeb J^ 
j^. In 215, hii fences were defeated b; those of Tn'ao IVao in a great 
enconnttf at Ho Fei -^ ;|E3> (near the modem Hwai-ngan Fn), bat ha 
nevertheles nuuntatned his groond, and in 221, tmdeiing his all^giaiioe to 
the dynasty of Wet. fbnnded by the eon of Ts'ao Te'oo, be was invesled 
with the rank of ^^ ^q, ae Prince of Wu. After virtnally reigning as 
an ind^iendent soverei^ for some years, he at length assumed the ^tle of 
Emperor in 229, sud thns fbnnded the dynasty of Wa. He is known as 

e33._Sos8HE ^f|. • ^^. AJ5. 962— 1088. A 
celetvated schcbr and statesman, whose views on the interpretation i£ the 
classics rank among the iugbest anthoritiu. Can. as _g_ -S^, 

eS4^ — Sl-n Szk-vuo 4^ j@, j^. An erndite scholar, deeply 
versed in Taout ks« and in the art of healing, who floorished at the oom- 
mencement of tlie 7th century A.D. He was induoed droA A.I>. 630, to 
leave his mountain hennitoge for tJie conrt of T'ang TaX IVang, where he 
perfcffmed many miracles. 'Sx is worshipped in the State temples among 
the dtvinilies of the healing art 

6S6.— Sdm Wu -^ ;^. Commonly caDed Son Tsie | ^. 
A native of the State of Ts'i, 6th centnry B.O., who coodncCed nnmerons 
campugns as a c<Hnmander in the service of Ho Ln, prince of Wn. A 
fiunoos treaUse on the art of war is ascribed to fa» anthcrahip, and bis 
name is associated with that of Wa E"! q. v., as the two maatoi of the 
science of tadici and strategy. 

". .-- -uglt^ 


338.— ScN Wd ^ ^. 8ns Wn ud Wn E'L Sea above. 

©S*?.— SuNQ HoNO ^^ * ^ -^- Irt century A.D. A 
Minister of Han Iffing Ti, dittingDisbed by his HDflincliiDg proHty. The 
EtnpeiYff wished at one time to give him big Kimt, the FriDcen of Hu-jang 
n9 W "^ £' ^^ ^'^ ^"^"^ ^ '^ widow, in marriAge, and loanded 
the Ifniiter on the ml^ect wtthin bearing of the Fiincea. In reply to 
Hbg TTi qaeetioD wbrtber it were not bis opnion that a man of wealdi 
ifaoold change bis eacSw asodationB cS fiiendjbip, and that ooe who haa 
attuned to high digmtiM ahodd enter mto new matrimonial bonda, Snng 
Hung replied : " Let not the wealthy man iixget the ftiendBhipi of hfa 
days (£ poTOty, nor the man of station pat down from her place the wife 
who baa ahaied with him the rice-dtstiHei'B lefnse and tbe bneks of graJn.** 
Offif ^ ^ ^)- Aftei healing ttus monition, the Empercr tamed to 
the FiinoeM Mying : '* Oar scheme is a fulnre I " 

e3a.— Sdno EUM tIc 1:^ * ^^- l»t oentniy A.D. A 
tneritoiions official, in eaily life em[Joyed ai a inboT^nate of Ha Yflan, 
and Biilaeqnently i^sed to high civil employ. As QoTemw c^ ^ fX, 
(in modem Ngao-bwei), he fcond hi> prorinoe in&ated with t^en, and the 
people, altboo^ oominally exonaed frixn taxatioD on thia aocoont, nerer^ 
thelees exposed to Kvere oppietrfun by the offioen who were let over them 
to extirpate the wild beaata. On taking office be aboliabed the oomipt 
praotioea be fonnd prevuling, deolaiing that, vrlule wild beasts were the 
natural prodnct of a monntainoua coontiy, nusgoremment ooold be prevent- 
ed by homan eSirt ; and en long the dreaded animala left the oonntiy of 
thor own accord. He waa a vigorooa opponent of the pretenDona atiogaled 
by the Tamst necmmancen of the day. la A.D. 64, he waa appointed 
one of the Imperial Seoretariee. 

eS8.-^ciiia K'l tIc SB- • "T" ^- ^D. 998—1061. Younger 
bothct of Song Sang (see bdow), and knows aa /}^ 5tCr °* the Tmwna 
Sni^. A oelelxated sobblar, poet, and atateaman. 

eSea^Suw Im ^ ill- ' M iW- ^^- ISIO— 1881. 

Ooe of the fonemoat among the men of ednc&tion and pontion who rallied 
to the oanee of the foonder of the Mmg dynasty. ASbea serving the latter 
fat many yun daring the period of hia atnigi^ ha waa rewarded by lu^ 


office OD the flstaUiahmant of tha new B0veraignt7. IMingtddMd m a 

daadcal commentator. 

e40.— Slno Sjano pIc ^- " -^ ^- 11th cenlnry A.D, 
SULesman aod Bchotai ia the reign of Suno J6d Tmng by wboee com- 
mand he changed his cognomen from Kiao <ff^ to Siaog. His aprighLnen 
and compaodonate diapositioD are highly extolled, and the latter quality 
was evinced in the following manner. Seeing one day an ant-biU ia dangn 
of buDg flooded, be placed a slip of bamboo to servo as a bridge, by nhich 
the anU were enabled to escape ; and this act of charity led to a prophecy 
by a Buddhist priest, which experience proved to be amply fulfilled, that 
be should be recompensed by the highest bonoms. Is known aa 'y^ ^f^ 
or the Qrcaler Sung, in contradlstiuction to his younger brother (see above)' 

e41.— ScMO Wu-Ki -^Ic tS -&■ 4th century EO. A myrila' 
philosopher, the reputed disciple of a legendary pencaiaga named Sieo- 
mgn Teze Eao ^ p^ 'f' ^. He gave himself out as an adept in the 
art of sublimating the human &ame and as capable of aasaming Iransform- 
ations at will. The Princes of Tb*! and Yen, are said to bare been persuad- 
ed by bim (o send messengers across IJie sea in search of the isles of tbe 
genii ; and the belief in supernatural powers and localitJet of this kind was 
professed by his disciplea in the following century, when She Hwang-ti, 
dcepatcted Sii She q. v., on a similar expedition. Taoist legends identify 
bim witli the Genie who dwells in tbe Moon ^ tp llll ^, and he in 
also said to be tbe Spirit of EVe ^ jQ. C£ T. K. Ts'in She Hwang- 
ti, 28Ui year. 

e4i3.— SuHQ yiJ ■tIc 35. a poet rf the State of Ts'n, circft 
B.C. 300. He was a nephew of the statesman and poet E'tl Ylian, and 
like the latter held office as a Minister. He is one of the aathors of the 
class of elegiac poetry known as j^ ff^, of which the ode entitled ^^ 
^ f^, has ^ven rise to the famous legend of the fyries of Mount Wn — 
Bee Wu 8ban. Cf. W.N., p. 181. 

043. — Sa HtKG-ju J^ ^ ^. An insurgent leader, and 
repnted as the finUider of the secret so^ety of tbe White Lily ^ ^ 
whi^ ottAined to formidable proportions in ibe North of China A.D. 
He produmed himself Emperor ander the Ucle ^^ ff^ ; but mm 
and sUin after a^ pnAtwited atroggle. 


e44.-^» KwAM ^ B$- * ^ f%- A.D. S62-~42fi. An 
«iaditescbi^, author of nQmenxis oommentuHS and hiBtorical works. 

e4e.— S3 Kwano-k'i ^^^ ' TCM -^■^' i^^^— 
1633. A celebrated scholar and Minister of State during the reign of 
Hnta Wan Li. Hie interest in scientific inqairy broaght him ioto contact 
with the Boman Catholic mianonarieB at Peking, ^hom he warmly BU|r- 
ported. Can. as X ^■ 

643.— Sa MiAo f^ jfi- • :^ Uj. Srd oentury A.D. An 
o£Qdal in the iervice of Ts'ao Ta'ao, and a contemporary widi Ts'al Yung, 
and other oelebrated scholarH, whose love of wbehibbing and epicurean 
gaiety he shared. 

e-^V.—SB 9m ^ rtr. otherwise called SU Fuh | j@. A 
profewoT of magic arts in Ts'i (the modem Shan-tung), who, in B.C. 219, 
annonnced to She Hwang-ti, when that monarch was engaged in Tisiling 
the provinces of his newly-founded Empire, the existence of the fairy isles 
of the Eastern sea ^ ^ \l], (see P'6ng Lai), which be begged per- 
mission to vint. He was placed at the bead of a large troop of yonng 
men and maidens and nndertook the voyage, hnt the expedition, although 
it steered within sight cf the magio islands, was driven back by contrary 
winds. It is Gonjectnred that this legend has some reference to attempts 
at oolonliing the Japanese idands. 

648.— SuTa^^. i). A.D. 1S85. The most daring and 
snooesifiil among the oommandeis who Fought in the oauce of Gha Yiian- 
chang q. v., and who sssisted the latter to his establishment on the throne. 
Tlotorioas in many seges and engagements with the forces of the Uixigoli^ 
he at length entered Peking (;^ ^), in Irinmpb m 1308, when he dis- 
liDgnished bioMelf by the energy wttli which he rtstiained hts troops from 
pillagB and his sc4idtada in afibrding protaodon te the inmatee of the 
imperial senilis. It is said of him ^ -^fffl ^t — lie rivalled the 
gods in the direolloa of hit armies- Caa as |^ ^ >^ 

646.— fifiK EWano^}^, orSOuE'iDg | ^commonly 
called I -^, or the Phikw^her Siin. A pnbUc o£Scer of the State of 
Cbao, Bid century B.C., who, having taken np his abode in 'JVi, heoame 
ihs ftoDdor then of a miboA of etUos in oppositin to tite dootrines pro- 


pounded by the foUowere of Uenciti& He m^t^ned tbe UhbIs that 
human nalnie m originally «tU, And that all Ila goodnen ii the resnH d 
cultivation. Ct L.G., n., proleg. 81. According to Sze-ma Ta'ien, be 
was made governor of Lan-ling |^ [^, by Ch'on ShSn Eiln, and bad 
the celebrated Li Sze among hie pupils. Hia samanM was temporarily 
proscribed, and Sou .^, was substitnted for it during the Han dynaaty, 
Siln ^pf being tbe cognomen bone by tbe Emperor SUan Ti, and (ben- 
foTS held sacred. 

eeo.— SUN shwang ^fi'M^ A-D. i2&-i9a a 

celebrated scholar. One of the eight sons of S(in Sbnh | ^, (Z>. AJ). 
149), all of whom were distinguished by their altainments, and who wen 
familiarly termed the Eight Dragons /\ Jf^, of the booae (£ Siln. 
Against his will, he was compelled to take office ander the usurpation tX 
Tang Cho q. v., and was raised within ](}0 days, from a private staticxi to 
the rank of Minister. He joined in tbe conspiracy of Wang Tlin q. t., 
bnt died before its accomplishment. 

eSl.— StfNYltBH ^t3;- * ^^ A.D. 14&— 209. A 
grandson of Stin Sbob, and nephew of tbe preceding. Held office as a 
publio functionary, but was chiefly renowned by his erudition, which 
obtained for biu high honoun at the hands of the emperor Hi^ Ti. It ii 
said that on one occasion when departing from tbe latter'a .presenoe he 
accidentally let drop the implements of writJng he carried in his girdle; 
whereupon tbe sovereign ordered his chief attendant to pick them ap and 
restore them to the scholar. 

ess.— SiiN Ta ^ ]^. • ^^. D. A.D. 212. A 
grandson of Siln Shnb, and highly dtstinguished as a sobdar and aUta*- 
maru He became the tinsted connedloT of Ts'ao Ta'ao, bat opposed tbe 
lattei's ambitious project when fnlly disdoaed, and oommilted sdoide oo 
finding his admiKiitions disregarded. 

©BS.— SZ&-HA CsftNG ^ ill ^. • "T'iE- An offidal 
tm^. Takq HSan Tsnng, avA A.D. 720. He is called (from bis Imth 
place), j^ ^ ^ i^ and having made tlte " Historical Becordi " of 
Bze-ma Ts'ien the study of his life-time, he compoaed an introdaction to 
this wo)^ embnoiog tha &bnloiiB period of Foh-bi, to wbiob be gave Um 


ttum of H M iB- ^^ '""^ oelebnted work is the j^ ^ ^ ^, 
cr ElDoidatlon of tha HiHtaioal Records ; Mid this production, oomUued 
irilh tbe troatiw ct \m pred o eBwo t Pei T^ q. v., has been made tbe bosu 
of alt nbaeqaeat ediiioQi (X the original wcvk. He called himedf /p | 
I , — tbe Lener SiHna. 

66^— 8»«A CH'iMo-cEtftNa '^ l| ^ j|£l- A TacHrt lecrnm 
iriio^ In Qie d^lli centnry A.D.,- gained a iride repntation ibr visdom and 
npematnral power. In A.D. 711, be was induced to kare his hennitage 
io the Tien Tu monntaiDB ^ "^ [Ij. (in modem Che-kiang), in 
crdw to pay a visit t& tbe conrt of Tasq Jui Tsnng. He astoniatied ihii 
monaich by tbe proAindity of his philceophic maxima; bnt, refusing tbe 
poet <rf£gnil7 itbioli mu o&red to him at oour^ be reUred again to hii 
nonntam bennitage. 

©ee.— SzfrMA I ^ %^ ^. AD- 251. One of the early 
pnt^ga of tbe nenrper Ta'ao Tb'so, who in A.D. 208, advanced bim to a 
post of trait and snbaequently raised him to high offloe. In later years, 
be rose to sapreme command lA tbe aimiea of tl)o bouse of Wei, and was 
long engaged in warfare against the rival dynasties of Wa and Shnb. It 
was said of him by tbe historian of tbe Three Kingdoms that he ^ -^ 
j(tl ]^l, — led his armies like a god ; and he proved no nnworthy an- 
tagonist to the famoos commander Chn-ko Liang q. v. In AD. 234, llie 
latter oc»froiried Sie-ma I with bis troc^ in an attempt io pnsb an invasion 
&ito the territories of Wei, bnt by standing on tbe defensive See-ma I 
mMntuned bis groond, unmoved by the provocations to battle repeatedly 
sent by his antagonist. Tbe latter at length despatched to his camp a 
bead-dieaa sncb aa was w(»n by ladies of the CoDrt, with the taunting 
intimation that such was the apparel befitting his uautions enemy ; and on 
this "affiYKitof the bead-dres" tfl 't@ ^ ^> 8«>-i°« I was moved 
to make a show f£ lequeeting his sovereign's permisaicm to give battle ; bnt 
■bottlj afterwards, Cbi>ko Liang himself died, worn ont by years and 
laboois. Daring a number of years, and nutil the time of his death, the 
government of the affairs of Wei rested wholly in Sze-ma I's hands. 

eoe._&™Kw™,^ iB* ■ S W t if *. 

A.D. 1009 — 1086. One of the nu»t prominent among the statesmen and 
■ of the Sang dynasty. In eariy childhood he was distingn)eA>ed by 


preoocKKiB intelEgrauw, <^ wfaidi the fblloviiig ti^ has been banded dowD. 
Whilst pl&ying one daj vith some boyish companions, he leant with (hem 
orer tlie rim of a larga vessel in which some tarns fish were kept, when 
one (^ the chfldfen, oTerbaUnoing himself, fell into the water sod was h 
imminent dangn of being drowned. The other boTi zan scnaming b 
tenor away, bat 8»-ma Ewang, taking up a large stone, dadted it 
agvast the jar, which he thns broke, letting the water escape, and by this 
means saved his playmate's life. This incideiit, in conjoDdJon with a 
nmilai instance i^ presence of mind on the port of WSn Yen-po, a oon- 
tempomry statcaman (who, on a ball having been dropped Into a wdl, 
threw down stones and thus raised the water to ha owu leveD, is refcned 
to in tbe familiar phrase : QS ^ ^ ^- Employed at so eaiiy age in 
sundry important posU^ be rose to occnpy the highest office* in the MiDisUjr 
of State under Sum J8n Tnmg and Shte Tsang. In pubUe life be was 
noted as a strenuons adveisaiy of the innovations proposed by Wang 
Ngan-shib, q.v., and by tbe fearlettnees of hia connsels to (he Soverdgn. 
The Idsnre of many years was devoted by him to the compilation of a 
gynopsts of tbe national Histories, from the Chow dynasty downwards, to 
which he gave the title of |^ J^ ^ ^, or Comprebenuvo Mirror for 
the wd of Government This work was completed A.D, 1084. He was 
created jg ^, and can. «i'^^. 

367.— Sz&^KA Fuo ^ .H J^ * j(IS $£ ^I>- S4O-806. 
A historical commentator. 

e68.~SzE-HA SiASG^ ^ -^ :*B ^ • ^ ^ 2J. B^. , 
126. A DRtivo of Cb'fing-tQ in Shah -^i (the modem Sze-oh'wan), who 
■ in early life rcee to distinction as a scholar and poet. He held office in the 
reign of Han King Ti (B.C. 166), and mbsequently, retiring to bis native 
place, ciiltiTated the acquaintance of a wealthy man named Cho Wang- 
sun ^ ^ ^i, whose daughter, Wgn KUn, a youtbfol widow, was 
fascinated by the scholar's performances upon tbe lute. Having thns stirred 
her mclinationB J^ f^ \^ ^^ ^^ by bis musical skill, be induced her 
to elope with hini ; when, being cast off by her angry father, she assisted 
her adventurous Ecdocer in gaining a liv^ibood hj dii^naing wine to 
CD8(omen at the tavern be opened. Beoonciled at length to the father <£ 
W@D KUn, and plaoed in poneesioD of Iier fortune, Sie-ma Siang^ju again 


toMto note Mod enjo^ the p&tron&ge of the Emperor Wa Ti, who 
onploTed him in vwioiu political aad literary oapAoities. Cf. 8-K, 
k. 117. ^ 

eC58.— jSzB-iu Tan ^ .^ |K. D. B.O. 110. A deecencUnt 
of Ute bereditarr Recotdera or biBtoriograplwra and Bstronomers of (he 
Chow djantlj, who traced their descent from the Gb'ung and Li (see 
Ch'nng-Ji), of antiquity. He held office as ;^ J^ "^j or grand Bpoordei 
ander Han Wa Ti, and coramenued the historical compilaljon which was 
completed by bia son, the famoos Sze-ma Te'ien. Cf S.E., k. 130. 

eeO.— SziMti Ts'iEM ^ ,^ 3i- • ■7'M- Coramcmly 
called '^ ^'^. B. circft B.C. 168. £>. dreft B.C. 85. Son of the 
preceding. According to his anlotnography, with whicli his work, the ^ 
PQ. at " Hktorical Beoorda," is conclnded, he was born at Lung MSd ^ 
^, (in modem Ho-oan), and was deroted to study in early yonlb. At 
the age of 20, he entered npon a course of travel to all parts i^ the Km^are, 
and in later lib became a subordinate official, nntit, on his iather's death. 
he took ap the lattei's work as recordnr and astronomer, after the expiy of 
three years, devoted to mourning, In B.C. 98, he Incurred the displeasare 
of Wa Ti, by exlenoalbg the conduct of Li Ling q. v., after the tatter's 
defeat by the Hinng-nii, and history records that he was berenpon thrown 
into pr'tron and subjected to the pnaisbment of castratioti. Doring ei^ 
years subsequent to this disgrace, he occupied himself with the completion 
of hii historical nodertaking, which he is believed to have concluded in 
B.C. 91. This celebated work, the Bret attempt at a comprehenave 
survey of the history of China, extends from the mythica) reign of Hwang 
Ti, to the period B.C. 104. Cf. W, N., p. 14. 

ee X.— SzE-114 Ten ^ ^ jj|. D. A D. 290. Grandson of 
8ze-ma I, and bod of 8ze-ma Chao | | ^, wbn, as AEnister of the 
third Sovereign of the Wei dynasty, was created Prince of Tsin ^ 3E* 
On the latter's death in A.D. 265, his son sncceeded to bis tJUo and 
digniUee, and in the same year placed himself upoD the throne, becoming 
fonndei of the dynasty of Tshi. 

Q&fZ.—TA ^, see T'ai, and Index of characters. 

QQ3._Ta» :^, or Kin Tan ^ | , the EUKir of Gold, lapit , 


phSosophonim, the mjettcal compound by means of which the TmM 
alcbemislfl professed IhemBelves able to produce gpid and to confer the ^ of 
immorlAlity. These preteusionfi existed aa earlj as ihe third cetHnrr B.C. 
(see Ln SbSog, Li Shao Ktin, and Lia Ngan), and were lai^ielj developed 
io the centuries immediately succcediug the Christiao era. It seems 
probable that the science of alchemy was originally derived by the Ants 
Jrom a Chinese soorce, and that the Kin tan is the trae [ntigenitor of the 
philoeopher'a stone or powder of transtuQlation sought after by enthoslasls 
in all the lands of Europe. (Cf. P/uises in the developement of Tawrnn, by 
the Ber. JoHeph Edkins, Art. IV., Trans, of the Honglcotig Branch of the 
Boy&l Asiatic Society, 1855). Beside its speciSc meaning, Tan was employed 
in the mystical langoage of the Taoist philosophers to denote in general all 
the proceOMS, both psychical and physical, which they inculcated. They 
named the material substance conBtitnling their elixir ^|t -^ vxd tan, 
(external), and the mental process of sublimation by means of whiob tlie 
body became freed from all the impurity of earth and worthy «f admiasitBi 
uncHig the immortal ranks of the genii, y^ -ff (internal). The proces 
in sillier caae was termed JB^ ^. This term refers to llie mineral which 
Ibrmed the basis of all the magic compounds prepared by the Taoiit 
doctors, viz., iSae t<m tha ^ "^ ot '^^, which is identified with 
dnnabar oi red sulphuiet of mercury . (Cf. Hanbury, Notes on CUnai 
Materia Medioai. The /V ^ ^ was said to be composed of this sub- 
stance together with realgar or red sulphnret of arsenic JS^ ^, sulphur 
'gS ^, potash M>B'^^ (rock-salt or borax T), yellow sulphnret 
of arsenio (orpiment) jK^ ^, mother-o' -pearl ^ "f^^, and ^ ^ (.!). 
Among the conntlees mysdcal phrases connected with the preparation d 
the elixir one of the most frequeot is lie following: ^ ^ j^ -ff, — 
the drug produced (returned), aller nine revolutions- This is explained as 
denoting the gradual evolution of the elixir during nine BUcceesive montii 
of preparaUon. (Cf. T. S. K., k. 43 p. 15). According to the !^ ^ of 
T'ao Hnng-king q. v., the divine elixir of nine revoliilioDS yi, |$ JP$ | , 
caused those who swallowed it to become transformed into white cranw- 
(See Ho). It is also said that the Uin produced by "seven returnings" 
-\u ^S' ^'^^ *^^ periods favourable to its composition), an<3 "nine leTolo- 
tioQs" constitutes the potent drug which, if uno-tu^of its hulk be 

7 ^^ 


twallowcJ, conletB perpetual longevity on earth, wbllat the entire quantity 
girea at once the power of ascending on high among the genii. 

©94.— T4N Chu ^ ^. Chu, Prince of Tan, son of the 
Emperor Tao B.C. 2857. Owing to his nnworiiy conduct, the Empertff 
deprived him oF his heirship and made the vlrtaoue Shim q.v 
Ct. L.C., ni., p. 84, Accordinjt to a legend preserved in the \ 
Tao dedgned the game called ^ ^ as a method of inEtruutJng his son. 

eee — Tan, Princb of ^eh ^^^ ^. D. B.C. 226- 
Son of Hi ^, the sovereign Prince of the Slato of Yen, whose indepen- 
dence Prince Tan vninlj struggled to maintain against the encroachments 
of Han hooK of Ts'in. He vba detained as a hostage in the lermtory of 
the latter Kingdom, and according to a legend, was mockingly told \ij its 
sovereign, Ch0ng (She Hwang-li) that he should go free "when the skies 
pom down grain, cmivg have white heads, and horses groir horns." These 
marvels actually came to pass, and the Prince escaped in B.C. 230, regain- 
ing his natjve State, where he at once hegan to contrive resistance against 
Ts'in. His faithful enussary King K'o qv, undertook the aU«mpt to 
jusassmate the Sovereign of Ts'in ; but, on this fuling, the forces of Ts'in 
were directed against the State of Ten, whereupon the father of Tan, in » 
rain endearonr to conciliate the enemy, put his son to death. From the 
miracle above narrated, the phrase ^ SM. «^ n — crows [with white] 
beads and horses [with] homa, has come to ngnify regaining liberty." 

eee —Tan Fu ^ ;3i;. The " old Dnke"-^.^,«bo called 
Hj^ ^f (ancestral Prince) who was prc^nitor of the honse of Chow q v., 
in the 14Lh century B.C. He traced his descent from K'i ^ q.v. and 
was a successor of Kuiig Liu .^ ^ in the Principality of Kn ||I9 (the 
modem Pin Chow j^JT ^^ '" Shen-si), whence, however, being greatly 
troubled by exactjons of tribute on the part of the northern barhariana, 
the Ti ^, he removed his residence in B.C. 1327 to E'i d^. Be here- 
upon changed the name of his Principality to Chow ^ . He died in B.C. 
1231, and was succeeded by his son Ei Li. In allusion to the removal 
tmdertakea by Tan Fu, the filf^bt of an Emperoi from his capital before a 
foreign invader is deecrilied as ^ 3|^ ^ j]^. 

eeea.— Teso to ^ ||. • # H- A.D. l— Se. a oele- 


brated military commander of tbe EaEtem Han dynasty. He jtnDed Ltd 
Siu (aftenrarda the Emperor Kwang Wii), id bia contest wiUi Wang MaDg 
in A.D. 23, and two yeara later gained a decinve victoiy over supt'iitn' 
nnmben of die opposing forceB, having given battle in opposition lo tite 
entreaties of his Biibordinate commanders. Was ennobled ae j^ ^§ ^^. 
His name lieads the roll of ibe ZT. -|" /V ^, or Twenty-eight Com- 
manders who aided in establishing the dynasty, and whose portraits were 
placed in A.D. 60, by order of the Emperor Ming 71, in the tower called 
TUn T'ai ^ ^, in hie soDthem palace, ^ ^. 

eeV.-TiJto-KiEH Ifc-frfll. • ^5^. />. A.D. 700. 
Minister of tJie Empress T'aug Wu How, in whose eervice, although sop- 
porting the cause of an usurper, he is acknowledged to have faithftiUy 
discharged big duty to ibo State. He commanded armi(« nitli distinction 
and filled tbe highest civil offices fur many years. Ennobled as ^^ U 
^, and can. as X M' 

eeS.— Ti Ts'iNfl lit ^. • iH g. n. A.D. 1057. A 
renowned commMider. He headed campaigns against the Si Liao 
(Tartars), and Ibe Cochin Chinem, and was distiogtiished alike by pereon«l 
braveiy, and by the strictness of his discipline. 

609.— TiAO Cii'an fg ^. A singing-girl represent^'d in the 
historical romance called the Scm Kwoh Che :^ ^ Jgl, as having been 
made an instrument in the plot formed by Wang YUn, for the dcelrnctioD 
of the asnrper Tung Cbo q. v. 

3*70.— TiNQ L*N "7* 1|. One of the Ksamples of filial piety. 
He flonrishod under the Han dynasty. After bis motber's death be 
preserved a wooden efiSgy representing her figure, to which be offered the 
same forms of respect and duty as be had observed toward hb parent 
dnring life. One day, while ho was absent from home, bis neighbomr 
Chang Shuh j[^ y^, came to borrow some household article, whereupon 
his wife Inquired by the divining-slips whether the effigy would lend it, and 
recdved a negative reply. Hereupon the neighbour angrily struck tbe 
wooden figure. When Ting Lan returned to his home he saw an ex- 
pression of digpleaaure on tbe features of bis motber's effigy, and on learning 
from his wife what had passed, he took a Btick and beat the aggresKV 


severely. When be wu apprehended for Lliis deed the finite waa seen to 
■bed teaiB. and tbe (acts Uihb becoming known he receivt^l bi^-h hnnonre 
from tbe State. Another \eg&aA stateB that it was hu wife who otnick the 
image, vrbereopoa he divorced her. 

0*71. — TiNG-LiNQ Wei "]" -^ ^. A legendary bfing. rejiuled 
by Taoiat tradition to have floiirish(:d in the n'gion of the Ijino (wliere a 
Tartar tribo bwe the designation Ting-ling) at a period of remote Riiiiqiiity. 
He was trausfonned into a crane, but at the expiry of 1000 years revibiled 
earth in hanian ehape, when be ntlered a lamt^nt on the changes that time 
had wrongbt Dpon men and nations (^j f|l{ ^). 

07*3. Tow HiEN ^ ^. D. AD. 92. Nephew oftliewcond 
Empress. Tow, who, when acting as regent on the death of ber consort 
Chang Ti in A.D. 88. raiseil hira from the post of charaberlnin to that of 
Captain-general .^ j^ ^ ^, and sent him at the bead of an army 
against the Hiung-nu, oominally as a punishment for a murder commilled 
by him at Oonri, immediately after tbe Emperor's death. With Pan Ch'ao 
q.v. as his depQly he achieved a signal victory in Central Asia, and canned 
a memorial of his triumph to he engraved on a roclc at Monnt Yen Jan 
^^ j^ MJ' 1^'' the scene of hia victory. On reentering China be waa 
loaded with bononrs, and he met his consin the young Emperor (Ho Ti) as 
an eqaaj T&tber than in tbe guise of a Bnbject. His ambitions demeanonr 
alarmed the youtbfol Sovereign, a boy of barely fonrteen, and as tlie Minis- 
ters of State responded heaitatingly to hia enquiry for coansel, the Emperor 
aecretlj arranged a plan with the aid of lus chief ennncb, in acoordance 
with which the aspiring general, with a number of his kinsmea and ad- 
herents, was sorronnded in (be palace and despatched by a chosen body of 

073.— Tow How ^ ^. No 1. Tbe empress Tow. Consort 
of Han W6n Ti. B.C. 179. 

Na 2. Consort of Han Chang Ti, A.D. 79. 

No. 3. Conscst of Han Hwan Ti, A.D. 165. 

No. 4. Consort of T'anq Eao Tin A.D. 618. See Tow I 

e'?*'i— Tow I M ^- • :A: ^ eih century A.D A man 
at note in the torbolmit period pieoeding the downfall of tbe Sui dynasty. 


His daaghter became (Ikj wife of Li Yiiaii, luid Qventully Empren (Tow 
How No. 4), aader the following oironnutanoes. Maniieating as a girl • 
Btogular degree of intellect and reeolatioa, her &tfaer determiued that h« 
marriAge shauld be decidod by means rf aa radeal that AaaiA teat the 
martial skill o^ her snilors. Paintiog two peacocks apcm ft screen, bo 
(uiDounced that the youth who was able to lodge an arrow in the eye of 
one of the birds shoald become his daughter's husband. Li Yilan was the 
last of a nnmber of caadidates, and abot an arrow into the eye of wdi <£ 
the two birds 

ST'O.— Tow Kc 1^ ^. lit centoiy A.D. Graadacm of Tow 
Yung q.T. and hia enccessor in the command of the militsry ganisoDa on the 
northwest frontier. In A.D. 72, he was commisBoned to nudettake offensira 
operalions sgainst the Eiang-nn, and carried the Chinese arnu into tiie 
heart of the terrilory occuped by this luUJon, taking poensnon cS I-Wu-la 
W n jSR' ^^ modern Haml From this point ^e adventurous espeditioni 
of Pan Ch'ao q.v. were pushed forward. 

eT'S.— Tow KwANG-KwoH H :3fe ®. • ^ ^. 2Dd 
oentnry B.C. A brother of tfab EmpreoB Tow (Ko. 1). 8ie-nia Ttrien 
relates that he was stolen as a child and sold eventually aa a iemmt to 
charcoal burners. Making hia way eventually to Gh'ang-ngan, after many 
adventures, he succeeded in establishing his idoitity as the long loet brotbv 
of the Empress, who emlraoad him with tearful adbcUon aod caoasd him to 
be raised to high dignities. He was ennobled as ^ gf ^^. 

eT"?.— Tow Wd § jit' • SI ^- ^- AD- 168. Great 
grandson of the [receding. His eldest daughter became Empress-consort 
of Han Hwao Tt, and having been placed bi the position of r^ent In B.C. 
167 by the Emperor's death, his heir bdog a boy c^ twelve, she made ha 
father generaliasimo in addition to the high ministerial functions he had 
discha^ed with unblemished integrity during the late reign, with the title 
f^ ^L- ^. One of his fltst acts was to doKiDuce the inlrignee of the 
pow^ul eunocb TVao Tsieh ^ ^, bat the latter anticipated the fate 
in store for him by oanaing Tow Wu to be aaasiDated, and proceeded 
forthwith to depose the Empress from her functiona. She died in A.D. 172. 

erS.-Tov.YnM'g^. • ifli. C. B.O. 181. Son of 

Pt. I. cnmess rsadebts atASUAJU tor 

ttiQ pRoediog. Held offiw « IGniateF under Ham King Ti, wbo created 
him ^^ ^ ^^ Hia palaoe wu the nsut of a nut conroorw of ichoUra 
from mil parte of the Empn^ whom b« njnced in enteiUiiiing. On the 
wyoimaoa c£ Wn Ti, he held office for a few mouthi as joint Ifioiater with 
Piea Fan Q9 &' ^' ^ '^^ dialaToar, and waa at length pnt to death, 
altboagfa lelind bom paUio lifb^ at the inatigation of hia former coUeagne. 

e*/©.— Tow Traa ^m* M ^ ^- -*"D- 62. Viceroy 
of the re^ West of the TeUow Rlfer f^ ^ (Tangat) circft A.D. 23. 
When urged by the amlntiociB chieftain Wei Hiao to assert his indepen- 
denoe daring the tronbloiia period snming on the nsnrpation of Wang 
Uang, he declined this oonise, and gave in his all^'ance to the fonoder of 
the Eastern Han dynasty, vho oved hia saccen in a great meaanre to this 
adheniMi. Waa created Vioooy of liang Chow j^ ^|| and ennobled as 
^r B^ ^V' ^^ grand-dao^ter became the second Emprpn Ton. 

eaO^Tu Fd ;(tt ^. • ^^. A.D. 712—770. a cele- 
brated poet, contemporary with and second only in fame to Li Feb q. t. 
He was a native of Tn Ling ^tC [^. and is consequently referred to 
nnder tbb pseudonym. IHgh honours wwe lavished npon bim dnring bis 
life time, in recognition no lea c^ his leanung than (£ bis poetical genius. 
"Ba died at length of a sarfeit brought on by eating heartily after having 
been cnt off fnwi a sapply <^ food for ten days by a flood. Is called tbe 
Eldor Tn :^ ^. 

OSX^To MijH tfc4^' '44^- AI>- 803—852. A 
odete&ted poet, distingaisbed ftcxa Uie prece^ng by the title ^ J^, or 
dm Yoanger To. 

083.— To E'amo ^I J^- -^ legendary penonage, reputed as 
one of the early distillen of wine from tite grab of rice, and hence classed 
with I Ti q. T. His name is sometimes oonfomided with that of Shao 
K'ang ^ J^ of the Hia dynasty B.C. 2079. 

ess.— Tu Tkw ;^ ^. • ^ ^ 9th oontnry A.D. A 
Boholar of profound erudition, holding high offices of State under T'ako 
T3i Tsung and Hien Tsung. 

e84— To 70 ;(tt 3g. • 7C 1^. A.D. 222— 28*. A ccle- 
Imted iclioUr, statesiDan and commentator. Althoagh engaged in official 


pannitfl, the study of the ancient ctueicB waa an abBorUiig pwnon with 
him, aail bis derotJon to tbe commenlai; of Tso K'ia'ining wu snch that 
he is uid to have described hiinaeirto Tarn Wa Ti aa "afflicted vith lbs 
Tso Ckwmt mania " — |^ ^ "^ ^ p|. Snch, however, was his 
repntatioD for siiill and nagacily that the great atatennan and commander 
Tang Ho q. v , entreated on hia deathbed in A.D. 278, that his fmKtkmi 
as Viceroy of King Chow, and generaiwsfmo abould be entmitod to no 
other than Tu YU ; and the latter, placed in this impariant charge, effected 
in the two following years, the complete eubjogation of the territories held 
hy the Sovereign of the Wn ^^ dynasty. Hence he is sometimea styled 
ilE ^> ^ith reference to his warfare in the South. 

685 —Tu Y« ;(tfc ^. A legendary nilar of Sbuh ^ (the 
modem Sw-ch'wan) during the period of the Chow dynasty before the 
incorporation of this region with the Ghineae Empire. He la iud to haTe 
bi«n styled ^ "X^; and according to a legend, his territoriee haviog bera 
overwhelmed by a fliwd, he owed the recovery of dry land to the exertions 
of a personage named Yi Ling ^^ ^. who cut a river pacBSge through 
the moiintnin range of Wu Sbao q.v., whereapoa he abdicated the Uirone 
in favoiv of this deliverer. He reliied to a monastic retreat, and finally 
ascended bodily to heaven. He is also said to have been ttsnefonned into 
A Urd. 

QS©.— Tima Wa-no Kuho. See Muh Knng. 

eS?.— Ting Oho ft^- " #0- O. A.D. 192. Thiacele- 
hrati'd usurper first rose to disiiiiclion aa a military commander during die 
troublous period which ushered in the reign of Han Ling Ti. In A.D. 167 
he beaded an expedition despatched to repel an inctueion of the Tibetans 
(Kiung), and fur many years afterwards he held important commands. 
In 180 he whs Euinmoned to the Cnpital wiLli his forces by Ho Tsin q.v^ 
in order to assist in llie revuliition projected by the latt«r ; bat on the mur- 
der of Ho Ti^n talcing place^ he stepped into the foremost poeltion in con- 
trol of the affairs of State, and having recovered tlio youthful Emperor and 
hia brother from the hands of Ibe ennuohs (see Yiian Shao), he deposed the 
boy-sovereign, declaring him nnfit to govern, and proclauned in his atead 
the still younger child, the prince of Ch'fin Lin ^ ^ ^. His next 
step was to pat tu death iba Empua-dowsger, whoae morder was followed 


in tbc «iiBning year by that iif the deposed Snvoreign. Wielding the 
npnme power in tbe Dame oT the bo; he bnd placed on tbe Uirotie (Hien 
TiX be indnlgad ia arbitrary exacUona and nnrelentiDg criieUy, tlie moet 
extiaoidinary iniitance of which was tlie enforced lemoval of the pqialn- 
ttUD of tbe imperial Capital, Lob^yang, nnmbering, it is Baiil, Ee*eTaI mil- 
lions, to Uw city (J Gb'ang-ngan, Loh-ynng itself being iitUrly dettrojetl 
by fin in obedience to his command. Tlie ttai palaces occiiped \xj a 
Itmg line of Sureivigns and d wellmgS cuTertng a space of ground fifly miles 
in oironit are said to have periiihed on this occaraon. A conspiracy wib, 
bowerer, formed against bim by Snn Kien and Yuan Shuh, and while 
tlieir arms were threatening his tenure of power he fell a victim to assas- 
Hoation at tbe hand of Lil Fii, one of his most Iraated military 

3SS. — TuNo CHtiNO-smi J£ ^ ^. Snd ccntnry B.C. A 
celebrated scholar and stateEinan. From early life be was a devoted 
student of the Confucian writings, especially, the CKua 2'a'iu ; and on the 
acceesion of Han Wu Ti B.C. 140, the couriKlii which be tendered in 
leeponse to an imperial mandate brotiglit him into high favour with the 
ytmng Soveidgn, who, although pnisiiing a courae ividely diverging from 
that uicnlcaled by his adviser, raised bim to high office and frequently bad 
leconTK to his connsels. He strennonsly oppoeed the mystics and cbarlnlans 
with whom tbe Emperor delighted to Biirronnd himself 

eSe.— Tusa-7AN0 So ]^ ;;5f" 1^- * :§ fil- 2nd century 
B.C. One of t^ favonrite assodates and advisers of the Emperor Han 
Wn Ti, into whose service he entered B.C. 138, when the young Sovereign 
called f'C tlie attendance of the most gifted ncholara and men of genins 
thronghout his dominions. He is represented as bnving excelled in witty 
aignment, and to hare encournged the emperor's leaning to a belief in tbe 
snpemataral and his love for the introduction of new and occult religious 
ceremonies. Hence legends of a mnrvelloiis nature Rpeedily grew np 
concerning him, thu more readily InHnnnnch ns his birth and parentflge 
•vvn clouded in mystery. It was rolatcd of btra that his mother wss a 
widow named Chang, who, having become pregnant by a miraculous 
«ODoep^on, removed firam her home to give birth to her child at a place 
farther to tbe eastward, and hence he roceivcd the name ^'ung Fang. 


Le3B ihnn a century after his dea(& the foUonmg mnrvellous v^non of his 
history WAS coirent: "AocoHingto GomnHm lepnte, TuogFang Sovu 
the embodiment of the planet Veotis. In the reign of Hwang Ti, be was 
iTioaiDale as PSng How ; in the time of Tao as Wn Ch'6ng T^ Jj^ J[^ 
'^p ; Qodw the Cbow dynasty aa Lao Tan, in tlie kingdom of Tiieh aa 
Fan Li, and in T^i aa Cb'e I Tsie V\. He was reputed as posseKed cf 
divine irisdom, and capacity to e»tAl)Iish the state of kings and gov«raoi8 
of men, and to have ttte power of effecting transformations d( shape in 
defiance of the ordinary laws uf natnre." (F. S. T., — where, however, 
the tme hititory of the subject of this fiction is added in coTreation of Lha 
pc^Iar account). 

Q90.— Toko Shwako Cii'fcm H ff J^. The first of the 
fonr fairy handmaids ^^ Jl^, who are said in tlie gj| ;^ yj j^ to 
have attended the goddess Si Wang Hu q. v., on her vigiu to her imperial 
votary Hah Wn Ti. The remainder rf the celcBtial bevy were named 
Hu Fei-k'iung ^ ||% i^. Wan Ling-hwa ^ ^ |^, and Twan 
Ngau-hiang JgJ ^f §J. They poured ont the wines with whiuh the 
feasting couple were regaled, and discouised strains of divine melody during 
the banquet, aided by the two fairy youths SIio Eung-tfxe ^ ^ ^' 
and She Fan-cb'Gng .^5 ?E ^ 

e©l.— TuNO Tuso H ^. One of the patterns of filial piety, 
who is said to have fkmrlshed circil A.D. 200. On the death vf his father, 
having no means of fulfilling the duo funbreal rites, he borrowed 10000 
cash on the security of his own person rs a lx>nd -servant, and proceeded to 
accomplish the interment of his parent When returning to Iiis home, he 
met a woman who offered herself as his wife, and who repaid the loan he 
had incurred with 300 webs of cloth. The pair lived tiappily together for 
a month, when the woman disclosed tiie fuel that she was no other than 
the star C/u'h NH (see K'ieti Niu), who had been sent down by the Lord of 
Heaven her father to recompense an act of filial piety; and saying this de 
vanished from bis d^t 

33S. — ^TuNfl KwAit Kon jj^ |^ ^. A pavilion in the palace 
t£ t&e Han dynasty at Loh-yang, employed as a State library and [liaoo 
of stndy. 


ees.— TwAN cu-teMHi ^ jA ^ * ^ lUr ■ ^- Aj), 

863. A noted -mUet. 

ee-i— TwAN mowVano S S !fi!- " 3S IK a.d. nss— 

1815. A profonnd sdiolar, critic, and etymotogiBt 

Q0C— T'a Ki JB El- The eoncobme of Cbow Sin, last niler 
of Um Stutng dynasty, and branded in bbtoiy as tbe moat liccnUoiu soA 
inhnman of her nex. According to the acoeptetl I^enda, she was a 
danghUr of the chief of Sa ^ jfl^ ^, and camo into Cbow Sin's ponea- 
noa as a prize of war In B.C. 1146. A history similar in all leapeds to 
that of Kieh and Mo Hi qq.v., is nairated respecting the enonnitiea in 
which tbe debauched tyrant and his consort indulged. Tbe people were 
oppreaeed in order to increase the tieasurea heaped op at Lob l^ai, and 
tbe grain with which Ka K'iao, was slocked. At Sha E'in j^ &., (in 
modem Chih-U), a pleasaunce was laid out, where a Tsst menagerie of 
beasts and Inrds was formed, and where "fbresls of meat" were saepended, 
■mid wUivU naked men and women gare ohaae to each other. At the 
same place was a lake of wine," And here drinking-bonts lasting from 
night until morning were held. To wreak vengeance open tbe great 
vassals who murmured at the dissolute extravagance of their Sovereign, 
T'a Ei contrired a novel form of punishment, which she called " the Boaat- 
'"g " jsfl fv -O tW' *!0">i8ting in a tnbe of copper covered with grease, 
which was laid above a pit of burning charcoal, and upon wliich the 
victiniB of opprenion were made to walk until they slipped and fell into tbe 
fiery pit. Tlie abandoned woman at length shared the downfall which 
ber consort brought npiin himself by his misgovemment, and baring been 
taken prisoner after the victory gained by Wu Wang, was put lo death. 
A legend relates that nlion sentenced to execntion, T'a Ki slill retained so 
irresisiiblo an influence through her peTBonal charms, that none conld be 
fbnnd daring enough to dent the fnlal stroke. At length Tm Knng, tbe 
i^;ed and sagacious coimsellur of Wu Wang, covering bis visage, stepped 
forward and laid the enohiuitrMs low. 

QQS.—T'ai Cmano ^ ^. According to Hnai Kan Tbm, 
tbe great Yil (B.C. 2205), employed bis nssisUnl, T'a! Chang. !» pace tbe 
eaitb ftom Its «Mt«irn U> its wealem honler, aud Shu Hai ^^ ^t to 


perform tbe same tu^ from iioitli to ioqUi, bj vhtcb means its lenglh uid 
breadth were ascertained 

Ser.— T'ai Ch'aso 3Jfc '^. Tbe second of tba rix JCnisteiB of 
Hwang Ti. Ho " inresUgaied tlie ooiifignratwii of ibe eartfa." 

eea.— 1"ai CufiN Fu-JfiN ^ 51 ^ X- Tl»Iady(rf«alled 
sublimity,- — tbe name attributed \a> the youngest of tbe fitiiy daughlMB of 
Si Wang Mn q v. 

ese,— T'ai Hung -j^^ The fiflh among tiie ax Ministen 
of Hwang 'J'i, He inveiAigalcd tbe Western r^on," And wh alao 
invested iridi tite litk of Hj ^. or Minister of Instruction. 

'T'OO.— rAi Jes -^ -fi- The wife trf Ki Li, and motha o 
tbe great Ch'ang (see Si Feb). 

■701.— T'ai KiANfl -^ ^. Tbe wife of Tan Fn, dolce of 

Chow q. v., and mother of Ki Li. A wise and riitnoua FrinOMB. 

TOS.— T'AI SzE -^ y^. The wife of Ob'ang (Si Peh). Of 
ber ten sons, the second was Fa (Wu Wang, tlie foooder of the Chow 
dynasty B.C. ]l-22). 

•yOS.^rAi TiKG Ku-NG Ciiu jk ^ ^ i- The princess 
T'ai P'iiLg, one of tlie two dangbtera of T'ano Cbung Taung, to wbcnn 
ttiat weak and slotlifiil monarch abandooed the entire control of State 
aSairs. Afbr the murder of Cbung Tsung AD. 710, 1^ bis Emprew, 
Wei How, t!tc Princess bet:ame privy to the ndng nnderlAken by Frioce 
Lang Ki (see Ming Hwang), and enjoyed for a time tbe summit of favour 
and influence after the Kmi^eror Jui Tsung, had been placed on the tbtooe. 
On the hitter's death, liowever, in 713, she was accused of treaacniablfl 
intrigues nnd was put to death by order of tlie Prince with wlwrn abe bad 
lutely conspired, almost immediately after liia siccesslon to the thnHW. Sea 
Ngan Ixi Knng Chu. 

'7'04.-r.*N.T'A.Mmii-MiNGi§fi Jt^. • ^M ^ 
B.C. 513. One of tlie disciples of Confucius. According to Sze-ma Ts^ien, 
bis outwant appeamnce was so ill-favoured (bat the Sage at Itnit despised 
liitn, until further n<-qiiaintance revealed the scholar's high degree of mental 
excellence. After studying under Confiioioa be trsv^ed ioath«rud U> t^ 


B^D^ (ruig4B»), and becnme the bead of a school of SOO dtaciples. 
Conracina ia sud to have remarked of him : ^ )^ ^ ^ \, yz ^ 
^r 3^) ^^^ IB iiiLeipreted m vgnilymg " Had I been guided in my cbdue 
by outward appearanoe I ghocdd iMve unssed Tiize TU. (Cf. S, K., k. 67); 
Imt doubt exieta with reference to this sapag. A fMilastic legend ia nar* 
tmted in the ^ ^ ^, to the efii«t that when Tan-t'oi waa on one 
oecarion <ninug the YeUow Biver, bearing with bim a gem valued at 
1090 piecea of g<Jd ^ -^^^^ the god of tlie watm ^ -^ 
oanaed the billowa to rite and two rit-er^ragoiia 1|^ |fg to aasail the 
Toyager'a bark. Upon this Tsze Yu, exclaimed : " I am one who may be 
beannght witb reason, but not bereft by force I" ^^ \^^^ ^o ^ 
W J^ Wit ^V' — ^"^ drawing bis airord he slew the dntgcna, wbei«- 
upon the wavee at once became atill. Then to manifeat his lofty indiffer- 
ence, the Bage threw the gem into the walera, but tbrice it leapt back hito 
kis boat ; notwithstanding which he at lenglb cmshed it in piecea and 
threw the fragmenta from him. 

TOO— T'anq I^, or Ch'fing Tang Jgg | . _ T'ang the 
Completer, the daagiiation bome by the Prince of Sbang. who overthrew 
Ibe tyrant Kieh q-v., in B.C. 1767, and became founder of the Shang 
dyaaity, restoring humane and viitiious government to tbe Empire. Cf. 
L.C., in., p. 178. 

•7oe.-r.K„ Tu, S«. • ^ ft. t ffi E AD- 

1470 — 1523. A celebrated Hcbdar and artist, llie moat renowned among 
(he pdntos under tbe Ming dynasty, me genins and bigb attainments 
ven marred by a love of diaeipaiioD, aiHl lie aficcted a haughty contempt 
for the reBlrictioBS of cturtoin and fw the prixes ordinarily coveted by men 
of leanuDg. 

'?0'7. — Tao >^.— Tbe Peat'h Irw, an emMem of marriage and 
^mbot of longevity. Mncb of the all^irical tbamcter with whidi this 
tKS iff invested is derived from an Ode of the She King, commencing with 
Ih. Mctas «..«.: ^ 2 3i 3i. *() i|[!j * H. 2 ^ ^^ 
wBa S ^* Ss. ^^' — " Graut'lid, graceful yon peach ti«e stands, 
BkMming and bright are its bloffiom^ This maiden comes to ber (buB- 
band's) ab^e. Well will she orllcr ber linuse and home 1 " Here tbe poet, 
«etebraling tbe virtues <rf a Prince's well chosen consort, lihras ber in grace 


and pratDise to it Uoasomiag peach-tree ; and commantatm add Uud iff^ 
^, die hloondng elegance (f tbe peach, symboIiEea Jg J|Q ^ ^Q. Uia 
virtues of the Friooess. From tbe above qootation, Cbinen usage baa 
adopted tbe phrase "^ ^ to denote ibe raarriage of a bride. Still mora 
prominent is Uie paction given to the peiwh tree in tbe myBtioal fanoes itf 
tbe Taoutit. The moat uicient anpeiBtitiont of tbe Chlneee attributed 
magic virtnea to the ttvigs of the peach (tee Tu TQ) j and tbe fatulEslfl of 
tbe Han dynasty added many extravRgant details to tbe Ifgends already 
extslJng. They deecribed tbe ]P$ | , or peach-tree of tbe goda as yidd- 
ing the fruit of immortality ; and eepaciaHy was ihie tbe case with tbe Ine 
which grew near the palace of Si Wang Un q. v., and vhoee fmiL ripened 
but once in SOOO years. Tbe fairy queen bertowed its prodaue only upon 
Bod) favonred mortals as her imperial votaries Muh Wang and Wn Ti 
qq.v. One of tbe later panaceas of the TaoistB was said to be composed of 
tbe gum of tbe peaoU-lne mingled witb the pondered ash of tbe mulberry 
^^ which not alone cured all diseases but also oonferred the boon ti 

TO&.—Tao Y(JA.v i^ ^. Tbe peadi-garden tn which tbe 
ofttb of brotherhood was cemented betweea Liu Pel, Kwen Til and Cbang 
Fei qq, v. 

'TOS.— T'io Criu Kdno. See Fan Li. 

-^XO.—T'ao HuNQ-Kma |f|l^ ^ ^. • ^ ^. AD. 452— 
536. One of tlie most celebrated adepts in tbe mysteries of Taoism. He 
b said to have been pnsuonately devoted to study from chitdbood, having 
b^nn at the age of four or five to practise writing in a bed of ashen witb a 
pencil he ha>1 formed from a reed-stalk ^. Having become ponesKcl, 
when ten yL'ara old, of the writings of Eo Hung, he evinced an ardent 
desire to devote himself to tbe snblimaUon of tbe corporeal frame whk^ 
formed tlie chief desideratnm of tbe Taoist sages, and he therefofe gave 
himaelt wholly up to a life of aacdtic medilatioo and perpetoal etody. Made 
preceptor of the im[)erial Princes by Th'i EaoTi, be did not long Nnain ft 
deoisen of Courta, but striping off bis stale apparel be ietu>ed into eecIunoD 
among tbe recessts of tbe Kow K'lih Uountains ^ ^ \\\, wIkto tbe 
eighth of tbe baanted grottoes j'^ ^ of the TaoistB waa siuiatffd. £Vobi 


the DMiM <f UiiB repated abode of tiu genii, he derived tbe appellatioD 
Hm Tang CMn Jgn |p |^ ^ ^. The EmperOT Lusr. Wu Ti, nsa 
tX one time amung Ihe nnmbei of his diKiples. K^ua aoce^g to the 
QuDiw this Someigu endeavoored in vain to attraot liim into public life, 
and was aocoHtomed to oonault hitn in hi* retreat in all important junctorae. 
Henoe be beaiB tlie sobriquet of [Ij Fp ^ jf^, tlie piims minibter in the 
hilla. He died at length at the age of ei^^-Sre, without liaving mani- 
fested U17 ngn of Btcknees or decay. 

•7 1 1.— rAo K'ak Pl| -flit- • d: ff AD. 259—384. A 
celelffated stateanan, renowned bj the sagacity he displayed in the govem- 
laent of various proTinoes. It is related of liim (hat as a boy, when fisyng 
in the ^§ ]S Lake, his net brongbt up a weaver's shnttle, whicb he 
carried to hia home and hung np agunst the wall, bat which immediately 
was transformed into a dragon and disappeared. As a yonng man, liring 
with bis notbvr in a ^te of .poverty, he was much einbairassed by the 
arrival one day of a grandon who claimed shelter and refreshment under bis 
ro(^; and he was enabled to shew hospitality only by the aid of his 
mother's devotion. She cot off her hair and sold it to obtain a jar of 
wiue^ and cut up the straw matting of the Louse to feed the visitor's horse. 
This L'iicuui stance becoming imown, led to his advancement Shortly 
before entering public life, he dreamt tliat he scaled tLe heights of heaven 
with tbe akt of eight wings, and passed through ugbL of the celestial doors^ 
bat was driven back from tbe ninth by the warder, who cast bim down to 
earth, where the wings on bis left uide were broken. This dream was 
subsequently held to have been realized by his filling (Jie post of Governor 
of ^ghl provinces. Before attaining to lii^L office, lie was at onetime 
BQpenntendent of public flsbponda, and be then sent to his mother a present 
of dried &h from this snerce j but she retnmetl it with a rebuke for bis 
breach of trust in sending her the properly of the State. When governor 
of Ewang Chow he was accostonjed to occupy a portion of bis leiBure in 
carrying a Iiundred bricks morning and evening to and from his study ^ 
$2 ^ ^ ^^ ^p, etc., to keep, as he said his bodily powers in exercise, 
in order that his luenlal faculties might continue unimpaired. He string* 
ently Forbade the officials within his jurisdiction tbe indnlgmce in winelob- 
bmg, idknesB, and gainmg to which they bad been accostomed, and caused 

^■.. .^.^-ogL' 


tbetr winroQps to be cut into tlie rirer. With eqiial KTerily, he prolubited 
the study and practice of the Taoist phlloeoiJiy. 

TIS ^-Tao Tslng-i ^^%' ' X^ 14th centnTT 
A.D. A man of letters and iinblic fiinctionaty nnder the Mongol dyniwlj. 
In his later yeArs he retired from olfice ftnd betook himself to a life of 
■tad; combined with agricaltiiral piiniiitn. IIm woik by which be h 
diieRy known, entitled i^ |^ ^, was written in A.D. 1868. 

7 1 S.— r Ao Ts'iEN P?5 i©- • 7C ^- See Tao TUan-ming. 

"714.— T'AO Ym ^ ^. Accoiding to the ^ :^ ^ a 
widow of the State of Tju §, wlio, being oarly deprived of ber bnebutd 
and impoitaned to noccpt a second marriage, declined to be len faitbfnl (o 
the memory of her Iat« spmise tbnn is tlie wild heron to its departed mate. 
She gave vent to her Ironbled feelings in an elegy which bean the name 
of the song of the Yellow Heron |$ £| ^. K- 8- L., k. 34. 

•7 le-T-AO YOan-minq p(| ^ ^- • Tt ^- AD- 865- 
427. Gh^at-grandson of T'ao Knn. (On the accession of the Sung 
dynasty, he chanf^l his c<^om<:n ^^, lo Ts'if'n. See above). A scholar 
and dfelettante, celebrated by bis distaste for official cares. When appcunled 
Magistrate of F5ng TsPb ^ j^. he occupied his post for barely 80 
dnys, and resigned his seals in preference to 'bending the back" on the 
urival of a superior functionary, teinarking that it was not worth while lo 
cnxJt the loins JffX ™ fo' the sake of five measure§ of ric« ^ ^ ^j^. 
Betiring into a private station be adopted the deeigna^on of 3l ffp "TCi 
■T. . from five willows which grew before his door. Veruilication, the 
pleasures of the wine-cup, and tlie harmony of bis lute occnpied the re- 
mainder of his days. 

7* le.— T'e-nq Wano Koii |§ i ^. A pavilion erected by 
the Prince of T'<^ng, one of the sons of Tang Cao Tenng (Tth centnry 
A.D.), in the city of Nan-ch'ang (in modem Eiangsi). A poetical feait 
was held here on one occasion at the antiimn festival of the 9lh day of the 
9th moon, when the poet Wang Po q. v.. improvised some of hiB meet cd^ 
brated veieea 

7 1 v.— T'i Yisio |;| ^. Danghter of Ch'un-yU I 4. v. Whrn 
ber father incnrred in B.C. 157, tba displeasure of Han Wen Ti, and wm 

ft. X GBorssm axAXtxata makual. rt 

miteooed to notego the penftltj of tmUIation, he beirailed bk bard lot in 
baviog no nub ohiU to MriM Urn in bk nxtramlty, wbweapon Tt 'fing, 
one of hu five dftogbten^ bnnij procecdecl to Ch'ang^gm wilb her &tlier, 
and iramted t, memoiul to the EmpeiOT entreftling tfattt d» utgbt be 
parmttted to beoom« & public bmdBanAat ia e^jiftUoa of her fstber'a of- 
feooe. Her boldneai and filial devotioii ao toacfaed the Etnptrcr that be 
pardoned Oh'iiii-711 1 aod abolubed tba peiudty of tnntilaUoa, the injustice 
of vhicb, as niged hj the intiepid muden, irae for the fitet lime reuagniMd 
and condemDed. 

718.— T'miEwuSiEtMHlHe JH^^^. Om of iha 
l^endai; palriarchi included bj the TMirt nrhen in the oatc^oty <tf tht 
/V l|l|) or Ei^t Immrvtak. No [neoiae period is atsigned to his exiitenoe 
upon earth. He is said to have been named Li ^p, and to hare bera of 
commanding itatare and digmfied mien, devoting bimstlf wholly to the 
Stod^ of TaoUt lore. Id this he was inetructed by the sage Lao Tize him- 
self, who at times descended to earth and at times was used to snmmoo bis 
paint to interriewB with him in ibe celestial spheres. On oue occaaioD, 
when about to mount on higb at hiB patron's bidding, the pupil, before 
departing in spirit to vojage through the air, left a diedple of his own to 
watch over his material soul (fi^), with the command (hat if, afler seven 
days had expired, his spirit (>|^ did not lelnm, the malerial enenoe 
might be dismissed into apaoe. Unfortunately, when sis days bad expired, 
the watcher was called away to the death bed of his mother, and his trust 
being neglected, when the disembodied spirit returned on the evening of the 
seventh day, it found its earthly habitation no longer vitalised. It there- 
fore entered the first available refuge, which was the body of a lame and 
crooked beggar wboee spirit bad at that moment been exhaled ; and in this 
Aape the pkiUmphet ctrntinoed Ug exlglence, supporting his balthig 
footsteps with an Iron staff. 

r 1 e.— I-IKN Ch'ano B9 ^- a noble of the State of Ts'i, 5lh 
oentiFy B.a. In B.C. 481, be pat to death the teeing SovetelgiT, Dake 
^^° ffi '^> '^ placed the lalter's son (^ ^), npon the thione, 
i^Dg the govenmflnt into hb own hands with the title of cbt^ Minister. 
H« at die Bame time assumed a fief which gate to hhns^ ko& Mi 
dBMeiidMiHa tbe chief control over the entire State ; asd !n KO. 939, bb, 

ns CBOfBSM BBAomea manuax^ pu i. 

gtandsoQ Tien Ho \ ^, took the IWtfacir step of deptmng Um kst scion 
of llie leigning hooM^ Dake K'ang ^ ^, and Bested bimeelf npan iIm 
throne, thus becoming fonnder of th« later lineags ot Ts'i. 

•7SO.— TiBM LcH KoH ^ il^ ^. A parflion in the pitUee 
of the Hsu ijiaaif at Gh'sog-ngan, employed as a depcntoiy of tho 
imperial aichi?es and a place of stndy. 

T21.— Tier Sun ^ ^. 1. A title ffven to the Tai Shan 
^^ Lmi the chief among the Five Sacred Hountains of China. The j^ 
^ 4^ allies that it u yeritably ^ 'i^ ^ -^i — the grandson (rf 
Ute god of Heaven- 2. A title attribnted to the star Onk m (see E'ien 
Nin), which ia said to be the grand-daoghter of the god of Heaven. 

■703.— Ties Tan E9 JP-- ^ n»t'»'8 of the city of Lin Tbm 
(in the modem Ta-nan Fn in Shantung). When the tenitory ot Ta*! was 
Invaded B.C. 2M, by the armies of Yen (see To t), the only cities that 
remained aocaptored were the two named Lil g and Tsi-m£h SP gg, 
the latter of which elected "Fien Tan aa general of its forces. When tlie 
time seemed favonrable for striking a blow at tbe beleagnering anny, in 
B.C. 279, be had reconree to an elaborate stratagem foi the enemy's 
destraction. Collecting a host of oxen within the city he fastened swords 
to their horns and tied bnnches of reeds greased with fat to their tails ; 
wberenpon, setting fire to the reeds, he snddenly drove them against the 
besiegers, who were rooted in great confurion. He followed up this success 
80 vigoTonsly as to recover llie whole of the terriloiies of Ts'i, and having 
installed the rightful Sovereign on the tlirone was rewarded with the fendal 
title of^2p#. 

7SS.— Tien Ting ^ ~f. Phr. To become the fatbw rf a 
man-child. The ezpreesion is attributed to Lu T'ung ^Q^ ^, a poet of 
the Tang dynasty, who rejoiced that he had " added a snlgect " to tha 
Elmpiie, capable of rendering body-service to bis Sovereign. 

VS^.— To y§f. The Hare, {Lq»u tineruu). This animal is 
lepnted as deriving its origin from the vital essence of the Moon, to tba 
ioflDenoe of which luminary it is conseqaeuUy subject Chang Hwa, in 
the ^^ jpj j^ aserta that the hare conceives by gazing at the Uoon; 
tbongh eulier writen have alleged Uiat the female hare beoomes with 

A. z . caouw BBAboes manual. tvt 

yoDi^ by licking the for of the male. She is nid to prodDoe ber young 
fKOa the moalh. Like the fox, the hare attaios tbe age of 1000 yeats, 
*nd becoDMB white when half that period ii cumpleted. Tbe fed bwe 
^ I ia a npcoaatnnl beaat of aoipioiow otnoi, whiofa appears wben 
Tirtnoos nilera govern the Em^are. Tradill(n earlier than tbe period of die 
Han dynasty anerted that a hare iofaalulud tbe snrface of the Uoon, sod 
tat«r Ta(H«t fable depiat«d thin animal, called ^ | the genuneoua bate 
i/tn Yli), as tbe eerritor of (be genii, who employ it in ponoding tbe dmgs 
wb«ii ooBpoee the elixir of life.— -T'a Yiian | ^, tbe Hai* Garden, 
vaa tbe name ^ven by Prince Hiaci of Uang to tbe pleamte ground in 
which he aonght recreatioD Borrounded by a retinae of scholais. Tbe con- 
nection eetablisbed in Cbioese l^enl between the bare and tbe moon is 
probably traceable to au Indian original. In Sanalcrit imcriplkma the 
Moun ia named Saaon, from a fanded lesemUance of ita apota to a leretet ; 
and pandits, to whom maps of the Hoon'a Bor&oe have been abewu, have 
fixed on Looa Puivdoaa and Mom Porpbipita or K^Unu and AritloTchiu 
for tbe ^otfi which they think exhibit the similitade of a har& (H. T. 
Colebnmke, in Aaiatto Beatartha, VtJ. IX., London 1S09, p. 404). Ao- 
COTding to De Gubentatis {Zoetoffieal Jfytkoto^, VoL II., p. 76), "tbe 
mythical hare is undoabCedly tbe moon. In Sanskrit the ^aegi meana 
propcHy tbe leaping one, as well as tbe hare, the rabbit, and the spots on 
the moon (the tallimt\ which suggest tbe fignra of a hare." Cf. also H. U. 
p. 42S, for a mention of the bare in the moon in Buddhist legends. From 
these it doubtbw pamed into the Taoisi repertory as mentioned abore.— 
I^- ^^ 'f9C ^t .%> '''■ ^t^ting besde a stomp on the watcb for a 
hare. This proverbial expression corresponds to tbe Latin saying SutlioM 
ea^pectat Aim d^uat anrnii, and is based on the following le^nd narrated 
by Han Fei-tsze q.v. A husbandman of tbe State of Sung, was plonghii^ 
CHie day when be saw a bare dash itself against a stump which stood in 
bis field, and Immediately fall dead. The foolish peasant, bereopon, 
abandoning his plough, seated lumaelf beeide tbe stump to wut lor Another 
bare to come and do likewise. 

786.— m Tah ^ 0.— Tbe "Butdier Bazaar," — a naaia 
girsD by tbe duxJutc ruler with wlnae- reign the Ts'i dynasty oame to an 
«ad, A.D. 500, to an aiMuament ba deriaad, which eoimtad in rwatdiag 

". —-ogle 

ao (miNssE aKADSxe MAauAt. ru t 

Willi fail lovely ecncnbine Fan Fa, over * buur wttHJihtd fai his 
nnglio. "WhSe the imperial debanchee pUjed Um put ctf s tntdier, 
wrigbing out meat to tbe buyera, P'on Pei nld wine to ooitoiMn rqff^ 
■ented I7 tbe sonnafai uid pagei t^ tbe palaoa. 

V Se.— fu^sGAs Ko ^ ^ If. HiDfater of ibe Btate of TA 
^, 6.C. 697, wbo, accordiiig to a l^;eiid of 6cmbtfnl aotbentlcftf, i))otted 
tbe complete extirpaliot) of tbe race of Cbko Ti'tii q. <r^ in order to eecnre 
bis own aggrandkement He aocoidiogly fell upon and dew tbe tluea 
■ons of Gbao T^ui, and their nepbew Ckao So ^ ff^, but tbe latte^a 
wife, a daDgbter of Ibe dncal botise of IVn, baring given birtb to a 
poatbnmoDB cbild, escaped witb ibe infant into tbe pakce, wbere she waa 
■creened from pnrsnit. Ae tbe marderer wai known to be etill bent on 
completing his derign. two faithful adherents of Chao So, named Ch'tog 
Ting ^ ^, and Enng-eDn Ch'n-kln ^ ^ ^ ^ , eooapnA to 
ddhat bis object hy a noble self-sacitfice. Under {cetence of betraying ha 
tmst, &o (brmer gmded Ta-ngan En, to a spot iriwie Gb'n-k^ was 
bidden witb aa Infant which he declared to be tbe h^ ; and tbe hUhM 
eerrant waa at oaoe mmdered It^ether wflh tbe child; the tne "orphan 
of tbe honse of Gbao " j^ ^ ^ ^, befaig meanwhile safely concealed. 
On growing to manhood he avenged his wn»gi by dayittg "Pn-ngan Kn. 
Of. S.K., k. 48 and K.Y., k. S. 

727.— Td 8a ^ flf|. A general employed by She Hwang- 
ti B.C. 220, and app(»oted Cfovemor of the newly-annexed region of Nan 
Hai(tbe modem Ewang-tung). Was dab BC- 218, near tbe preeent 
dte o! Canton In battle with tbe abofigincs, hy whom hii troops wen root- 
ed with great slangfater. 

738— T'u TU ^ ^. Tbe elder oftwo brolbets, ot whom 
the younger was named Yli Lai ^^ ^g, renowned for th«r magic control 
over evil apirils. According to tbe fenff Sn T*ung the Books of Hwang 
T\ j5 v^ ^r> '"''"'•'t *''*'• t*"** brotbere were endowed willi tbe power 
<f inimm<»ing all disembodied spuita 5& before them, and having pasKd 
the ghostly legions in review beneath a peach-tree on monnt To So ^ 
jjQ, they took all (hon idiEch wkkedly wroogfat evil against mankind and 
having boand them with withes of reed ^, («wwb phti^miei% th^ gav« 
them as food to tigen. In memoiy of this it was onstotury (adds lb* 

A. £ amNMSM umuasBa lutrviz. m 

•bovt authority), for tba offloiab on Um nigfat of the bat daj of the year, 
to hava figana cot in paacli-woad moDDted apon leed^ and to paint tbs 
ikanew of a ti^ oa tha doonraya, aa a lalinuu agaiut evU.— At 
inmit, Iba namu of tlia tvo brotfaen, wrhlen on two large sqnans of 
paper, are pasted od the autranae-doon vS datume houMS on [be nig^t 
bdbre New Teat, to guard tb« dwelling fram harm. The elder of Ihe two 
hotben is ako calleJ Shfin Tn |$ ] . 

Tmoe -^.— For proper' nwew comnMncing wiih tliia ehancUx, 

VS©.— Tbib HH Tkk -^ Jj^ -^.—An expr«lon nped in 
ril«ratDTe tn denote an imaginary penonsge or character of fiction. Wn 
She Enng "^ ^ ^, h another ezpreanon of the same kind, and the 
two an freqnently need in oooibinatioa 

730.— Ito Ctf*N -y- ^. Tlie appellation borne by Knng- 
nn E'iao ^ ^ 7g. of Tang-li ^ |^, a younger son of Duke 
Oh'fing (^ Ghdog 9K J$ iV< (mgned B.O. 6M— STl), who was made 
chief Hinisler of Ifaat State at a time when UwIeenreM and disnrder 
prOTaitsd. HisyirtnoB and wisdom were etieh that a progrenive conrae of 
impnmniunt aet in at once. When he had governed iho State during 
three year*, to great waa the change effected tltat f ^ ^T ^ ||. j^ 
7 t& S> — "*^° ^'"^ ""'^ '"'^ kicked at night, and loet artivlea 
were not [wiked op fiom the highway." The whole of the people were 
bathed in tears when his deatli took [Jace, and women laid aside Ibeir 
oniaments for a space of three montha (S.K., k. 119j. Confiicina wept 
when he heard the news of his death. Cf. L.C, i., p. 42. 

T31.— TgzK Ybh -y- ^. The individual name of one of Ibe 
flovereigne of tha Noithen Sang dynasty A.D- 465, — a Biooiter of 
cruelty and lost He >s known in history as ^ "$', or the Drpoeed, 
baring been torn from bis throne and pot to death beftm accomplishing 
the first year of hie reigo. 

•73a.— TsM Tiso -y- ^ (Tbe Inbnt), »n of rl ffi M 
'S^, the eeccoH and last Sorereign of the Ts'in dynasty. On the latter 
being put tn death ia B.C. 207, by his Minister Ghao Kau, the miiid««d 
Sotwngn'i MD WW pKnUanad bf tbe IniM in bin Hxmi, with lb> lilln 

an qautMSE asAimaa manual a. /. 

^PF X i ^^ ""'^ '^ ^^ ^'^ ^^ ^'^ ^ revenge his father's death by Uw 
ossassiDatioa of Cbao Kao. In the Mlowing year, he rdantuily tendered 
BobmisaioQ to the fimnder of the hoow of Hkq, Un Faog, u> whom he 
g&TO up Um Imperial seal of State. A few days afterwuda be mi 
mnrdered by the bloodatained diiefUin Hiang Yii. 

733.— TszK She MtH ^ ^ f^- The Loadstone Gateway, 
repnled as haviDg formed the Weskra entrance to the palace called A 
Fang Enng q. v. Through this gate the " barbariuM" from the WMt 
were admitted to the Court, axA any weapons that might be concealed 
upon their peraons caased them, throngh the inflnenoe of attcactioa, (o be 
drawn to the aide of tlie gateway and prevented irom adraDcing. Etenoe 
the gate was idso called the 2P ^^ f^, or bwbarian-repelling gal«. 

'?'34.— TszB Wbi Fmch 5t ^ ^ A' One of the dangb- 
ten assigned in Taoiat legend to 6i Wang Hu q. v. 

TSe.— Tbzb Toan Fu-Jta {(^ 7C ^ A- A danghta, Uke 
the above, of Si Wang Ma, alao called Nan Ki Fu-jen, q. v. 

73S.— TswYlJ ^■^. • -y-^- Oneof thediKipiearf 
ConfnciuB. He wae fluent in speech and dtilfnl in argnnwnt, but Mi 
oharacl^ fell dmrt of Uie standard of rirtue established by the Sage's 
preoepla. Confuctna observed conoeming him : ^^ J^ ^ J^ '^ ;5c 
^ ^p ^, — "In choosing a man by his speech I bare failed in Tsid 
Yu." Cf. the correspon^g remark with reference to Tan-t'ai Ifieh-ming. 

TS"?.— Ta*o Fu ^ ■%. The charioteer of Mob Wang of 
Chow q. v., B.C. 1000, whose eight steeds he drove on the Sovereign's 
famooB journey to the West. 

•?3a.— TsiNoKwoH-rAN-^^ 15- * iftlft^. a A.D. 
1807. D Uarch 12tfa, 1672. The most celebrated among recent Chbese 
■talesmen. A na^ve of the provhice of Hanan, he paned into pnUic life 
at the-age of 32, after taking his degree si f^ ~J^, and first distinguished 
hunself by the a4dtvity ha diqilayed, while in retirement \d his native 
province in 1862, in raisir^ a body of volnnteeis to combat the Taipmg 
iasnrgenCa. From this period onwards his name was Sneepantbly connected 
with the movaiMDls mWkrtahsH k offgaMoa to tfaii ibmidaUa mhelltoB, 

A. /. caiNBaa muia»a manoai. im 

and ID omcert with Ha lin-yib q. r., ^nd a few other o&n>eet k&d Mslin 
frntctioiuuipa he m^nUinBd tbe Impeiul oann in the TftUej of tlia Ting- 
loe dtving ft prolnugad itni^le ukI agiinct itmrj diaeodragMiMiti. 
Hftving riieti to the pnoUion of Gonmoi^aitnl of Ih« Two Kuuig 
piovlDOM, h« ooddncled dte oprntttooa haviitg for their object the recomj 
of NanUn^p, utd ftt length entered the SMfc of hii goverDment «Aer iti 
oaptnre in 1864, <aae No. 201). Unoh teveied bj> the Chieeie for the 
wisdtxn Mid potriolHm bellered to actnftte ha coodnet, EnR^wwia had 
TSMon to heKeve him Intpdred b; faelings of boaUlit; toward tberaeelTee; 
but these t^inioAa woe modified on dthei huid b^ the ooarae which he 
panued when sent, in hit oapacitj of Oovemor-Geoeral of the Province 6( 
Cbih-li, to t4ke action »t Tientidiig in 1870, with lefBrence to the niuncre 
of FraoiA Bubjeebi perpetrated tliere. He died snddenl; while hcjding the 
office of Gofenur-Geoend cf the Two Eiuig FtsTince* in 167S. Can. 

739._TeftHaSHfiN 'f"^ • -^m. ABC. 508. One 
of the chief aniong the diecipks of CoofuciiU) of wboee doctiineii he be- 
entne the expoeittw ei\es hia master's death. He ranks second among the 
pt) BEi w Four AttenoiB of Confociiia, and enjoys the title of -^ ^. 
A portion of the ulasrio entitled ^ >^. — The Great Learning, — is at- 
tribnted to his aathotehip. Cf. L. G, I., proleg, p. 119. He is eon- 
^icnously noted among the examples of filial piety, and nnmerona incidenta 
are reooanted in illaBtratioD of this virtnons irait iu hie character. Thus 
it is relatpd that when a boy he was away frotn home, gathering firewood 
in the hills, when his mother snddenly required his presence. Unable to 
make him bear her call, she lot her finger, whsenptS) a sympathtiio twicgs 
of pam at onoe annoanoed the fact to the youth, and be bent hb steps 
hoDMwud. After the death of his pamta, he w^ wbenevn be read the 
rhee of moomii^. 

740. — T«i ^. The title atIribDl«d to an offlce exercised nnder 
the emperor Sbnn, B.C. ^253, the fnnctfone of which were the Bnperrinon 
of agricdltDre. 'Ihe holder cf this poet was K'l ^, of whose origin the 
Cntlowii^; aocotmt is given by Sn-ma Ti^n. Kiang Yuan j^ ^, the 
Piinceaa ooaaort of the' Emperor Enh, B.G. 2485, baring met with a giant'i 
fiR)Me|» while walUng abcoa^ haoMPe with cltild through ibe m( of mU 


M onnasa aBAoaa manuai^ a. l 

&>g ber foot within the impnnL The oftpiing of tfaii conceptioD A» 
Eonght to deettoy, as k thing of iU-onwn, ftod out tits child nmmj lim* 
»Ha tlnw, bnt each tiioe it wu mincnknaly praMrred fron bann, evm 
nikler the feet of hone* And oxen- She therefore took \»A tlie chBd wad 
hsving remrad it gave it the name of E'i (ths Caatamtj), fai n u Mory of Ito 
adreotnrM. In his eariieflt youth, the boy toc^ delight in plasting mm 
and Dsefal regetabks, and on gnitrii^ to ni&nliood he devoted himself to 
the pannit* of boebandry, leadiing the people bow to plongh and recp^ 
Upon tliis, tbe EmpeRM- Tao made hhn j|| ^, JUnaUx of Hoabandrf, 
ami Shun inrested him with the ftef (rf Tm ^^, whence be detWed the 
title of " Lord " and became known aa How Tii J^ | . Hia lineet 
desoendant in a^er agei was Tan Fa, the {HogenitOT of the Prioeea «f 
Chow. AlW hii deoeaae, be became wonbipped aa the detfled patton of 
agriaillure. In meoenion to Obn jff_. a sod of tbe Emperor 8bSn Non^ 
who bad filled the office of 1^ j£, mider tbat primeval ruler.— {|ae 8b&^ 

•3'41._TBU0HuvQj|gJ^. • ^^. AD. 1541_1620. 
A Rlatesman and scholar, diatingurslied by a marked leaning (oward Tnoist 
apeciilatJona: He held and exponnded tbe doctrine (^ metempsycboris. 
Among the official poets be tieTd was at one ^me that of envoy to tbe 
Korean Sovereign. 

742 —TsiAO Sdi ^ ^. 8tb centmy A.D. A noted hunonriot, 
and one of the convivial band known as the Eigfat Immortala of tbe Wine 
Cop- It ia said of bim diat during bis rare intervals of wbriely he was 
doll and cUent, but so soon aa be fell the enlivening influence of wine be 
excelled in a flow of language and po'neis of iDi|a>ovtMtion. 

74b8.— Tan; Tif ttav ^ ^. Tbe name givm by Hui Wn T1 
to the leiritory added to bis doi^iura in B.C. 10% by fts ccflian fim 
the Eban of tbe Hiung-na. This tegioa cotte^icHidB with a poitiaa nt the 
modem Suh-cbow m Ean-eub province, and is said to have derived ilmame 
' from a spring of sweet wat^, iraanbling wine in ita flarooc, which was 
discovered nraz tbe prinapal ciiy it contained. 

744.— Tao K'lMdiw ^B^Vfi. AhUhx of the oomnwiUiy 
entitled tbe ^ ^. an exposition of tbe Ch'tM 2Vni of Confncios. He 
is aioked anuog the diae^)iea of tbs Sage, bat nothing has bee* bwM 


down recpecting his bUtorj', nor is tbe preciaa period at wfaich be lived 
known with certAioty. He is not bi be confounded with a worthy of tbe 
same name who is menlJoned in the Coiifncian dialc^es. CT, L. G^ I., 
p. 46, and v., pnleg, p. 23. 

'746.— Tso Ts'zE ;4 i^. • 7C Jfc- ^^ century AJJ. A 
professor of tho art of magic higlily favoured and often conenlted by tbe 
usurper Te'ao Ts'ao, on whoee behalf big Biipematnral powers were fre- 
quently put forth. Among the instances of his necromantic ability it ia 
related that when sapping once with liia powerful patron he heard the 
latter express a regret that one rJelicacy ivas wanting from the feast, viz., 
carp from the river of Sung-kiang; wfaercupou tbe Borcerer called for a 
brazen lavatory, and having tilled it with water onci baited a hook, be 
drew from the receplacle fiah after fish of the desired kiod. He could 
aarame at will any Iransfonnntion. or rcndtr himself invisible in tbe midst 
of a crowd; and in this manner he escaped on one occasion from ibe 
resentment of Ts'ao Ts'ao, who bad ordered him to he naWsA and executed. 

'74Q. — Tsow Ten ^ ^ A pliilosophcr said to bave flourish- 
ed in the Itli century B.C., ami lo linve c'ini|H)M.'d treattseH on cosmogony 
and on the iufluunccs of the £ ^ fire ruling elements. He is believed 
to have annolatcd tbe ^^ )|^, and there are indications which point to a 
probability that he had access tit a knowledge of tike teachings of Hinda 
oosmc^niats. Cf. T. S. K, k. 3. art ^ J^L jfl- According to Sa&- 
ma Ts'ien, he was a yonnger contemporary of Mencius, and a native of 
tbe stale of Ts'i, where his brother, Tsow Ei | ^^, stood high in favour 
with Prince Wei ^ ^ of that State (A.D. 378), and held office as ihe 
latter'a Minister. Cf, S. K., k. 71. 

T^T. — Tsij SuKC '^ ^J, A legendary personage, said to 
have filled tbe ofiico of Rc-conler imder the ICmpcror Hwang Ti, and to 
bave aided Ts'ang Hieh q. v., in the iuvenljon of written characters. He 
iliarefl the dinne honours paid to the latter, as joint founder of the art of 

'?'48.-Ts'AiGH'fc.^iJe. • #S|fc. t A^- AD. 
1167—1230. Son of Ta'ai Yttan-liitg, whoso tame ns a scliolnr and 
melaphyalcian be even snrpassed. Chu Hi, ivliose inbtnictions lie long 


followed, proclftime<l him in his kter ye^ra, as iJie destined ezpoeitor of bis 
philofiophy, and thia Irast wae discharged by Te'ai Ch'Sn, m tbe works 
now bearing his name. 

■749.— Ts'ai King ^ ;;^. D. A.D. 1126. Minister of Soio 
Hwei TstiDg, the disasters of wliose reign are in a great tneiisure attribated 
to the laxitj of this personage, who encouraged Ihe vagaries in which the 
Emperor took delight, and overthrew the system of government matured in 
tbe pravions reign by 8ze-ma Kwaiig and bis colleagues. .Af^er tbe 
dostriiution of the power of (be Sung dynnsty, by Lhe Ein invaders, he was 
dt^nded and banished to Yai-cbow, but died on bis way tbitber. 

TSO.— Ts'ai Lin ^ "li^. ' ^^. A chamberlain of the 
Emperor Hah Ho Ti (A.D. 89 — 105), and reputed as the inventor of the 
art of paper-making, for which purpose ha is paid to have einiJoyed tbe 
bark of trees and the cordage of fiBbiiig-nets. Ennobled as §g ^^ ^. 

T*© 1 .— Th'ai Shuh Tu ^ ;^ Jg. Tbe fifth son of lhe " Chief 
of the West" or Si Peb q. v., named Tu, an<l deriving tbe title ^s'lii from 
tlie fief conferred upon bim by his elder brother, Wu Wang, BC. 1122. 
In B.C. 1115 he joinci] liis younger brother Kwan Shiib Sien q. v., iti a 
seditious movement against Wii Wang's son anil successor, upon which 
he was deposed from his fief by Chow Kung. tlie guardian of the youthful 
Sovereign {his own elder brother). 

750.— Ts'ai Shuh ^ )^. • "^ ^. Celebrated as an 
example of filial piety and tender devotion to his mother. Tbe same story 
is told of bim as of Tseng Shcn q. v via., tliat be was recalled from a 
distance by a aensntion of pain which vitdte<l him when bis mother bit her 
own finger. During tbe troubles ensuing upon Wang Mang's usurpation, 
A.D. 25, when a stale of famine prevailed, Iw nourished his motber with 
wild berries, retaining only tbe unrii« ones for bis own sustenance. On 
her death, while mourning beside Iier coffin, be was called away by al> 
tenilnnts who e:(claimed that the bouse was on fire; but lie refnsed to leave 
tbe spot, and his dwelling remaincil unharmed. As his motber bad been 
greatly alarmed, in her lifetime, whenevtr lliiinder was heard, lie made it 
his duly, after her death, to rejiair to iier grave during thunderstomis, and 
to cry out : B« nut afuid, mother, I am here 1 " 


•7e3._TH'Ai W8NKi^3ti|S. 'w'Ta'AiTEN | Jj([. 2nd 
cenlnry AD. Dfagbler of Ta'fti Yang q. t^ and inberitor oT Im fatWs 
genius in literatiue and art She became epeciaUjr reitowned by ber >kill 
JD musk:, and it ia nUled that as a child her acnteneas of ear and mmlcal 
knowledge were such as to enable her to t«Il b; its sound the namber of 
i)ne of the strings of ber father's lute which snapped while he was jilaying. 
Was married to Tung Sze j£ ffiE< shortly after which event, circH AD. 
19i, iihe was made prisoner by tiie Hiung mi during one of their inroads 
and detained by lh<-ir Soveieign, who took her to wife and had two snns by 
her. She was at length ransomed by Ts'ao Ts'ao q. v^ for 1000 pieces 
cS gold, and was lennited to her lawful spoose. 

"754— Tb'ai Yra 1^1 f|f- The Imperial messenger who, ac- 
companied by Ts'in King ^ ^, Wang Tsun ^ ^, and fil^een 
otbecB, was despatched to India by Han Ming Ti in A.U. 65, to search 
for and bring back a golden image the existence of which, tradition aseerU, 
had been revealed to the Etnperor in a dream. The envoys returned with 
the sacred writings of the Buddhists and accompanied by Indian teachers, 
by which means the Buddhist doctrines became known in China. 

V64a— Ts'ai YiiAS^NG 3§| 7C ^ " ^ jfi t E§ UJ- 
AD. 113d — 1198. Celebrated among the schoolmen of the Sung dynasty 
by his erudition in, and notably of bis labours in elucidation of tlie 
te.xt of the Yih King. Was highly revere<I by Ohu Hi, whose friend and 
cbrrespondeiit he became, and who in turn bestowed inslmction on Lis son 
Ts'ai Ch'en, — see No. 718. 

VeS.—Ts-Ai Yl-no ?^ M,- • f& ^ AD. 183—192. A 
politician and man of letters, nlioao genius illumined the turbulent epoch of 
the cloee of the Han dynasty. From early life he devoted himself to tlie 
study of the classics, and notjilly tlie Books of Odes and History, upon 
which he wrote a commentary. In A.D. 175, be was employed in Ftiper- 
intcnding the wj^rk of engraving on stone ibe autborized text of the Five 
Classics. In puUio life, he opposed the usurpation of Tung Cho, who 
ncvcrtbeless prevailed upon him to take olTice ; in ceDsequence of which, on 
the usurper's downfall, he was cast into prison, where he shortly aftciwarda 
died. His fame as a humourist and wine-bibber is scarcely inferior to bis 
1il«rary renown. It is related of liim that he ooidd consume atim d nme 


(«boiit 130 [nnts) I per diem, ud froin bis fondnen for liqnot he derived 
the (obriqaet ai ^^ ^S, or tLe Dragoa tS Wuw-bilfbiffg. Ai a mDaaan, 
also, he poswased extraordinarj skill. It is recorded tliat once, while a 
Tefiig«e in the State of Wa ^, and while eeatti] b; the finode of an 
cmteitBiiHtr, bis atl«utiofi was attracted to the soDnd emiUed b; a fraement 
of T'ling wood {tterculiai f^ >fiC, which laj burning on the hearth, and 
declaring thai its tone gave prooiiBe of rare excellence, he converted it icto 
the body of a lute. As the handle of this instruiuent ittill retained eigni of 
■corcliicg, it gave rise to the name of ^ ^ ^, or (lie Lute with the 
scorched Handle. On another occasion, aeeing a lance made with a slender 
shaft of foang bamboo, be broke il in two and fashioned a portion of the 
stem into a flate. These varied qualities have caused Ts'ai Ym>g to be 
extolled aa the prince of convivial scholais 

•76S,— Ts'ANO HiBH -^ ^. otherwise called ^^, — the 
recorder-sovereign. Replied as the inventor of the art of writing, in the 
mythical period of antiquity. According to certain legendary writers, he 
lejgaed as Emperor in succession to Fuh-hi (28th century B.C.), and 
bavbg ascended a mountain overlooking the river Loh ^f^, he was 
presented by a Bapemalnral being in tbe Bhape of a tortoise, rising from 
the waters, with a view of tbe mysterious tracings upon ils back, whence 
he was enabled to lay bare the permutaligns of nature and to devise a 
system of wiitteu records." Otbar fables represent him as having been a 
Uinlster under Hwang Ti, distinguished by possessing four eyes and the 
coimtcnanco of n dragon. He is said to have elaborated tbe ari of form* 
Ing written characters by imitating tbe foot-prints of birds, Qpon which 
achievement being acconspliabed, according to an ancient mystical treatise, 
" Heaven caused showers of grain to descend from on high ; the dis- 
embodied spirits we[it in tbe darkness; and the dragons withdrew 
thein*-lvea from nigbt." (^ |^ 7C "n^ @*- ^"'"™ ^^ '^''''°*' 
inv«ition took place, tbe only method of recording events and governmental 
nrdinanues was by means of "Knotted cords" )^ J^S- C*^ stated in the 
uomnientary of Confucius uiwn the Yih King ^ i^ ^ ^)' See 
Tsii Sung, conjointly with whom Ts'ang^Hieh is worshipped as'^- ]pp, 
tbe God of Writing. 

TC?.— TB'iNo Sang-che Pien ili" ^ ^ @- *^'^fff,|^ 


tbe &oe of nature pcodaced by CBUclyamal convulsions or the h-px at 
lime. Tbe i^raae w deiived from iLe ex|>re-«ion aiicnbe<I to Ma Eu q. v., 
in tbe ^ -fill ^' Cf. T. K. Tano Cbang Tsang, Utb year. 

•703.-18' Ao Chao ^f flg, or Tb'ao Ta Ku I ;^ ^. Bee 

•70©.— Tb'ao CinH W Ifi " ^M A.D. 192—232. 
TWrd son of the gnat nsurper Ts'ao Te'ao q v. UieUngabbed by pre- 
couioos talent and poetical genios, he devottil LtmEelf wholly to literary 
direraoin aiid kept aloof from tbe political inlrignea and coDvoUioiiB of 
bis time. His elder brother, having ancceeded to tlie throne from which 
Ts'ao Ts'ao bad ousted the Han dynasty, watt. It is said, jeabus of the 
poet's talent, and wilb a desire lo brbg him to confusion coumanded him 
one day to compoae an ode while taking seven paces. Complying with 
this order, Ts'ao Chih took the prescribed number of steps and iDiprovised 
a satirical qiiatrahi as follows : — 

" A kettle hud beans insiJe,. 

FVom this incident tbe poet was said to compose verses in seven paces 
Tj ^ W W (*'«"* i'^f'if ''" ""o)- He was raised to the rank of Prince 
cf Ch'Sn ^ ^, and can. as ^ ^. Literary tradition inclades his 
name among the seven Geniuses of the reign Eien Ngan ^^ ^ -(^ 

"760— Tb'ao Fuh-wso W ^ #t- Thin! century AD. A 
&iiKHn painter, temp. Vfv Snn K'iiaii (A.D. 240). Having painted a 
■creen for this Sovereign, he carelessly added tlie represent a tlon of a fly (o 
tbe piotnre, and so perfect was tbe illnmon that on receiving tbe screen 
Sod K'ilan, raised his hand to brush the insect away. A pctnre of a 
dragon (the mler of Ihe watery element), painted by him is snicl to have 
been preserved imtil the epoch of the Snng dynasty, when, during a 
protracted dionght, it wm brought forth and placed on the sarface of a 
fake. No aotxier bad Ibia been done iban doods began to gather and rain 
lell in abundance, as Ibougb evoked by a living dragon. 

■701.— Ts'ao How "flf )§. D. A.D 1079. The EmpresB 
Ts'ao, niutber of Sunq Ting Tsung, who snccecded U> the l^uone A-D. 


1063. Ha?iiig fallea daQgerousIj ill a month or two after his accewion, 
he Domiuat«d his mother as E^ent on hu behalf, whereupon, * seated 
behmd a cnrtaia," the Eiii[)reGS tntiisact«d btuinea with the Ministen of 
Stat« —- ^ ^ ^g i§(, an expreswon which has become typical of a 
female regency. The wisdom and reclJtude of Lhe Empress Regent were 
highly extoUed, but her reluctance to part with the authority entnieted to 
her aroused anger at length in the Erapena's mind, which was, however, 
dissipated on her yielding to the persuaKions of Han E'i q. \. and his cd- 
leagites, and surrendering her functions of govemmeiit- 

T'eS.— Ts'Ao KwEi If ;^j. B.C. 684. A native of the State 
of Lti ^, who, thoiigh a simple peaGant, gained liigh repute by ibe advice 
which he tendered in military matters. Duke Chwang ^£ 4^. being 
abont to lead his army to do battle wilh the forces of Ts'i, Ts'eo Eirei 
inusted upon an audience, and chewed himself so wd! qualified to act aa 
counsellor that he accompanied the duke iu his chariot and contributed 
toward winning the viulory of Ch'ang Clio ^ ■^, in whith the forces of 
Ts'i were wholly routed 

'J'SS.—Tb'ao Kwom-k'iu W S M' Reputed as a son of 
Ts'ao Pin and brother of the Eiopresa Ts'ao How q. v., but this circnm- 
Btanoe is as doubtful as the remainder of his history. He is enumerated as 
one of the Eight Immortald /\ fllj of Taotst fable. 

TQ"^ — Ts'ao N(io ^ J^. A maiden rendered famous by her 
(ilial devotion. Her father, a wizard by profeesioD, was drowned, according 
to the legends, on the 5th day of the 5lii moon in the year B.C. IW, and 
hie body could nowhere bo found. Ts'ao Ngo, at this lime aged only 
fonrleen yeax% wandered in a disconsolate state foreeventeen days along 
thu banks of the river (near the modem Shao-blng Fu in Ohc-kiang), 
where her father had met his deatb, and finally cast lierself in despair into 
the waters. Befure many days had elapsed her body rose to llie sorfoce, 
and the admiruig multitude saw that she waa clasping Uie remdns of her 
&tber in her arius. A State funeral was decreed in ber honour and a 
tem^Je was erected to her memory; 

'7'Se.— Tb'ao Pin "g^ :^ * ^ ^. D. A.D. 999. A mil- 
itary commander wht^ on the downfall of the sbort-livMl dynasty of the After 


Ohow, trarLiferred his alleglitnce to the fnuniler of the Sung dytiasty, and 
aided inaturially in consolidating the tatter's power. Id A.D. 964, he 
served under Wang Ts'iian-jiin ^^ -^ J[||, in efFecting the sabjngation 
of tlie independent sovereignty of Shah, which had been funned in Ibe 
region of modem Szo-ohVan, and dh^nguiebed birogelf in this campugn 
botli by martial Bkill and by the xeal with wliich be anught [or hooka and 
records while others were intent only on plunder of a richer kind. In 974, 
he swept the Yang-laze with a fleet, white engaged in the final operationi 
destined to complete the mastery of the Hoooe of Sung ; and in ordei to 
transport an army from the North to complete Ujo investment of Nanking, 
then held by the pretender Li Yu ^p ^§. he threw a bridge of boats 
across the river at Ts'ai She 7^ ^^. When alt preparntions for an attaok 
had been completed, he can^ his Enbordinate commanrlera lo lake w^mn 
oatlis that on the morrow they would not needlewty slay a single adver- 
sary, and tl>en gave the signal for the assault. His merciful intentions 
were rt:^Ta^ded by the blixxUess surrender of the city, nherenpon be 
conrtcoialy received the submission of Li Yii, and sent liim with all reapect 
lo tie Emperor. Waa ennobled as. ^ .^, and postbamously created 

'?'ee.— Ts'ao P'ei ^ 2- D. A.D. 239, Son of Ts'ao Ts'ao 
q. V. On his father's death in AD. 220, lie adrainintered the govc-mment 
for some months in the name of the Emperor Hien Ti, under the titlo of 
Prince of Wei ^^ ^, whub be inherited from his father ; and on the 
death of tlte imbecite and helpless monarch, he seize'l the Throne and 
pn)claiin«d himself Emperor, adopting the title Wei as tbo appelleUon of 
his dynasty. 

'T'S'?.— Ts'ao Ts'an '^ ^- D. B.C. 190. One of tic early 
Bnp[>orters of the founder of the Han dynasty, and ranked with Siao Ho 
q. v., among the wisest of bis counsdlors. When Siao Ho felt bts end 
appToacbing, in B.C. 193, he rejoiced to learn that his functions as Prime 
Minister were entniEted (o Ts'ao Ts'an, who continued to b^ild them until 
his death. Ennobled as ^ ^ -0^. 

VeS.— Ts'ao Tb'ao W '^^ " ^ 15S ^- ^'^- 220- The 
most prominent character in the great drama of history forming the epoch 
known as Uiat of the Three Kingdoms. The son of a military ofBtnal of 


obscare origin, he rose to notice tbrongh Krricea rendered in A.D, 184, in 
a CRtnpaign sgainsl tbe Yellow Turban inmrgenta ; and like tbe other 
leaders of the day, be speedily carved out a [Mvitioii for bimeelf, jvoclaiming 
himself Governor (in A.D. ]92). of the provinces occnpyiDg tbe region of 
modem Shantung, whence he b«d expelled the insnrgenl armiee. In ibe 
interim be had joinL-d Yiian Shao, q. v., in declaring war againit tbe 
UBiirper Tung Cb'^ aod on the tatter's asBaesination in A.D. 192, be bddly 
aimed at tlie poaseRsion of aupreme power. Supported by nnmeroiu forcei, 
he defeated one after another the chieflains who stood in hie way, and 
having put to flight the fomidahlft Lii I'u q. v. in A.D. 195, be matched 
tbe reins of govemiucnl from the hanils of the Ministers who imronnded 
tba imbecile Knijieror Hien Ti, and renftved the latter to a state of Tirtnal 
confinement Declnrin;^ himself generalissimo of the Empire ^^ jfT' T^i 
he assumed the title ^ ^ ^, and in A.D. 21S, further added to his 
dignity by proclaiming himself Duke of Wei ^g gg ■^. Bis usurpation 
was meanwhile imintenniLtingly contested by Liu Fei q. v., and tbe Tatter's 
kinsman Sun E'iian, of whom both were aspirants to universal dominion. 
Ho nevertheless continued to add. by slow b«t sure degrees, to bis qnasi- 
Impcrial power, and in A.D. 214, tbe ambitions defcigna be harboured 
became avowed in bis treatment of tbe Emperoi'B oomort, tbe Emprea 
Fuh JJ^ J0. This lady having songht to indoce her kindred to organite 
reaiatance against the usurper, he despatclied one of hia adherents to make 
her a priMner. The unliappy Empress was SL'ized in tl)e hiding place to 
which she had retreat«d, dragj^ed barefoot throagh the palace, and cast 
into a dungeon, where she shortly afterwards died. Her two sons were at 
tbe same time put to death. Ts'ao Ts'au'a dangfater, who bad been 
introduced in the Imperial harem, wna hereupon proclaimed Empms. Soon 
afterwards he assumed royal dignities, with tbe title Prince of Wei, but in 
A.D. 220, be succumbed to sicicness, leaving Ibiir son^ of whom the eldest 
Gucceeded to his funclions and title. See Ts'ao P'eL 

■7es_T,-,K,-™«o«^*. • TClR. t *» 

D. circi A.D. 1600. A famous military commander of the reign Miso 
Kin Tang. In A.D. 15G3, he succefflfully combated an invasion of Fu- 
kiea by the Japaneiie, as lieutenant of a senior and likewise celebrated 
general, Yu Ta-yeo "gj -^ ^ ; aubtequently to which he gained hi^ 


diatinclion in defending the coast line of Cbekiang against a renewed 
iocnnflOD. Was styled the "hero of a hundred fights;" and is grealij 
efltwmed as a writer on tootios and loilibu; cnfaniatioa- Can. as S^ 

770.— Tb'iao Kwo Fu-jfj! H @ ^ A- The lady Si ^ 
^, widow of Fang Pao ?,|| Jf , a man of greal inflnence in the sonthem 
portion of the present province of Kwang-tung at the close of the Ch'6n 
dynasty. When the armies of the (bonder of the Sui dynasty advanced 
in A.D. 590, to suhjngate the province, then almost entirely In the hands 
of a leader of (he aboriginal tribes, the lady Si equipped a force of her 
retainers to coSperale wiih the Imperial army in redadng the city of 
Kwang-chow. Her auxiriary forces rendered suhetantial eervices nnder 
the command of her grandson ¥&Dg Ngang i^ ^t, and they were 
inipirited to deeds of valour by ber own presence among lliem in full 
paiwply of war. For her eminent services she received the title of Duchess 
of Ts'iao (as above), the title (^ Dnke bemg posthumously conferred upon 
ber late husband. 

V"? 1 .— Ts'iEN Kesa ^18 See Ffing Tga. 

•TTS.— Ts'iES Kuo ^ If . • ^ ^. A.D. 861—982. A 
native of Hang^bow in modem Ohekiang, who rose to power ftotn a 
bumble station during the epoch of the downfall of the T'ang dynasty. 
Enown in early life as a desperado at the head of a band of salt-smaggten^ 
he was attracted into the pablic serrice, and after successfnlly oombating 
the rebel Hwang Chao q. v., he was made governor of hia native region. 
In A.D. 89^ wag raised to the rank of tributary Prince, with the title ^^ 
3E- In A.D. 907, he was proclaimed Prince of Wu and Yiieh, ^ ^ 
-r . and for many yean he continued to reign with great splendour as a 
vassal of one or other of the epbemeral dynasties which Bpt&ug up at this 
period, having his capital at Haiigcbow. It is related of bin) that, having 
built a great embankment to gnard against the inandations arising from 
the tidal waves in the river Ts'ien-L'ang, the work was at one IJnie 
endangered by a sudden rush of ffal«r8, whereupon he commanded a body 
of archers to shoot th«r arrows at the flood, which retreated on receiving 
this diHha^. Was can. as y^ ^. 


-ryS.— Ta'iEH YDan-kwan ^ TC H- " ^ ^- ^ AD. 

941. Son and sDCcesior of Ibe foregoing. During his reign he bhewed 
himself a liberal pation of literature and the arts. He died of grief, it is 
said, oa the destniotioD bj lire of a palace he bad built Can. as ^ ^p. 
"Sa was nicceeded by his bod Ts'ien Hung-tm 3g| ^ '^, a joutb, wbo 
died after a few years reign, and was inomenlarilf replaced by bis brother 
Ts'ien Hnng-ain | ^A W- He however, with a second brother, was 
Bet aside by the military chiefs into whose hands the govemmenl had 
fallen, io fa?oar of his younger brother, — see below. 

'7'74.— Ts'ien Huso Shuu ^^ Jlf, ' '^^. Brother 
of the preceding. Commenceii to reign A.D. 947. He continued to govern 
the principality founded by hia grandfather until A.D. 971, when bo 
resigned bis funclionB into the hands of Ihe now firmly established dynasty 
of Song. Can. as ^^ ^. He left seven sons, of whom the youngest, 
named (see No. 775). 

•7rB.— Ts'iBN Wei-yen ^ ^ 'J^^- ' 8i0 |g. (see No. 774X 
Was distinguished as a scholar and poet. 

VTS.— Tb'ikn WI;n-f£no ^ IS^ ^ * ^ ^ A grandson 
of Q'e'ieD Eiao, and cue of the most accoDplislied men of the Utl) century. 
Was disUngai^ed do less by skUl in the martial arte than by bis profound 

rrr-T.'™ T».,„» a ;^; B;f . • *«. t Kft. 

A.D. 172B — 1804. A distinguished scholar and anliqnarian. 

•7'78.— Ts'ra Chung ^ -(t|t. D. B.C. 821. Chieftain of the 
territory of Ta'io during the reign of Cuow Siian Wang, in whose seivJce 
he conducted a victorious campaign against the Hien Yun |@ jj^* ™ 
barbarous tribes of the North-west. In a subsequent encounter with the 
Jung 5p& "" *^ Western frontier he fell in battle. 

TT'e.— Ts'in Hio ^ ^. The fires of Ts'in, — i. e. the con- 
flagration in which, by the advice of Li Sze i}. v., the exieling literature of 
China waa destroyed in B.C. 213, with the exceptJon of "works on 
medicine, divination, and agriculture." 

"780. — Ts'isi Kino ^^ ^. A magic mirror which, according 
to traditioD, waa poswawd by tlra Sovereigns of Ta'in, and whieh bad tlie 


properly of reQccting the inv ard parts of those who looked upon it and 
KVQnImg the seats of disease. Hence used as a metaphor Tor persptcoons- 
IW6*," "eearcbirti intelligence," .,in the phrase | [ ^ !^, which 
further refen to the legend that when Eao Tsu, the fonndei of the Han 
dynasty, entered llje capital of Ts'ln in B.C. 206, this valnaUe trophy, 
suspended high on the palace wall, fell into hia, handa. Cf. K. S. L., k. 
28, art ting. 

•7Sl._Ta'jNK'iuNa ^3g, ' ^ ^. 7lh centaiy A.D. 
A soldier nnd^r the So! dynasty, who cast In Lis lot with the foonder of 
the House of T'ang, AD 618, and rose to high distinction. His achieve- 
ments were rewarded hy the giFl of a golden vase from his Imperial matter 
and his portrait vae added to the Ung Yea Eoh, or gallery of Heroes. 
It is commonly alleged that one of the figures painted on the entrance- 
gates of all piibtiu offices in China is a representation of this personage. 
The other fignre is said to be a portraiture of Yii-ch'ih King T6b, — see 
7li-cb'ih Kung. The practice of depicting these heroes as keeping watch 
and ward over public afiaiis is ascribed to T'anq Huan Tsung, who 
believed that the spirits of these champions of bis ancestral line were 
enrolled as his invisible defenders against the powers of evil. 

78S._T<'m Kw«« ^ g. • i^U t i:S- AD- 
1019 — 1100. A poet, contemporary with So Tung-p'o, under whoee 
patronage he rose to high employ. 

rSS.—Ts'iN KwEi ^ f I- • # :^. D. A.D. 1156. A 

statesman of tiie reign of Sung K'in Tsnng, and Kao Tsong. Having 
been taken prisouer by the Kin Tartars when Northern Cbina fell into ih^ 
hands, circ& A.D. 1126, lie remained for some years a nominal captive 
among the invaders, who, however, entnigted him with important official 
functions. In 11S4, when the Emperor Kao Tsnng was flying from his 
newly-constilated capital at Hang-chow, Ts'in Kwei suddenly made his 
appearance on board the vessels that were conveying the Imperial cort^, 
declaring that he Iiad escaped by stealth from bis imprieonmeDt and Itad 
hurried to offer hia services anew to the Stale. He implored his Sovereign 
to consent to a peaceable division of the Empire, ceding the northern half 
<^ Chma to Ibo o(»iqaeiing Tartars. The Soverragn gave ear to thMSy 

, ,, , ^,r,j be tendered to bim, and ander liia 

i, „ . ,Minrtd and relatHms of Baperficiu amity 

fnwii ao^icea pence WW r«K>reu r j 

irt-StiraW with itt, DorUwm uiva<1ei«, who delisted from fortberencroach- 
tfWDta. For (Ilia polili'o ainducl, in aiumelling peace with (he bar- 
tMtrisH, ih» name of T^ia Kwei, haa been covered with perpetual obluqny 
M anreasoDing nt>d m&Jigiiant bislonans. It aeireB eveu at the preeent 
Atj as an o[)pri>brioiiB fijnonj'm for rach among Chinese Miniotera or 
l,ablic functioiiarics in groeral as have shewn a diGpotu'lion to deal amicablf 
«ith KuropeooB. An undoutdied blot on the repiilatioa of Ts'in Ewei, ii 
(lie animowty he displayed Inward Yoh Fei, the renowned general, whom, 
pB the intraetable foe of the Tartare, he caased to be iuiptisoncd on a shal- 
low pretext and put to death. In A.D. 1142, be was invested with the 
title of Jj^ ^ ^, and the supreme direcUon of affturs remained in his 
bands almost nntil the moment of hia death. 

'''34. — ^Tb'im Ch'Skq Shan ^ $£ [Jj- A monnt^un near 
Cb'Sng-tu Fd, the capital of Sze-eh'wan. It is termed the chief peak of 
the Min Shan (l^ [Jj range, and is reputed in Taoiet legend as one of 
the saDctiuuiee of the genii. It is said to possess seventy-two caves, cor- 
responding With the 72 teasons (^) of the year, and eight larger caverns, 
corresponding with the tight divisiora Cffl) of time. The Taoist booke 
call this mountain (he Fi^ Cave-Heaven £ f|^ ^, and describe it as 
the general place of assemblage for the gods and genii. T. K. T'anq 
Cbwang Tsuog, Tung-kwang, 3rd year. 

78C. — Ts'iNO Nang Shu I^ § ^. The Medical treatises 
of the Aznre fiatchel. It is related thtU a venerable adept in the mystic 
arts bestowed itpon Kwoh P'oh q. v., a satchel containing nine volumes 
fiQed with records of ancient loie, whence the phQoeopher drew his stores 
of knowledge. The books were at length stolen from Ew<^ P'oh, by his 
papil Clioo l^i ^9 ^, and shortly afterwards aacidentaliy burnt Met 
for tii0 seoreta d" medical science. 

TSQ. — Ts'nm NiAO |^ ,|^. The two azure-winged birds of 
Si Wang Mu q. v., whose atrial messengers O'ke the doves of Venus), they 
were. Hence the depositaries of secrets and in particular the bearers tA 
amati^ correspondence are metaphorically indicated by this terra, with 
reference principally to a legend relating that when the goddess was abcnt 


to pay one of her accustomed visits to Wu Ti of the Han dynasty, two 
biids Bew in from the WuGt and perched before the Emperor. 

78*7. — Tb'ino YflN 1^ ^. The axon clonda Ta'ing y&n eke 
*^ 1 I -Cl J^ "^^ ''"' ■•nbiiion (Feaching to the Heavens). Thia 
Baying; was employed by T'ao Hnng-king q. t.. and ia af^h'ed to Um 
diligence that elioald be nsed by a^iranls for literary dbtinotion. 

TSS. — Ta'iu Hao ^^ ^. Tlie bure'sKlown of aalnmD, — met 
for rbat wlilch is moet delicate and imponderable j the infiDileeimally emalL 
Cf. Menciiis, L. C , it, p. 17. Wang Hi-clie relates in his TrcatiM on 
Pencils tliat in times of old, when an examination was held of tlie material! 
mint Biiitnljle fi>r the manafactnre of pencils, the flne hair of tbe hares of 
Chao ^ ^ ^ ^, gathered in autumn, was fonnd to be the beet. 

789.— Tb'i;i Hao ^'^. ' i^ '^. 5th centory A.D. A 
celebrated statesman and author, famed for the feminine beauty of hit 
countenance almost equolly with his erudiliun. Was especially devoted to 
antiquarian studies and Tao'isl mysticism, but detply learned, at the sbbm 
time, in clasaical literature. After holding high office at the Court of (he 
Wei dynasty, he becnme involved in political disgrace and was put to 
death circ£t A.D. 43S. 

VeO.— Ts'ui Hao -g ff . ^ A.D. 755. A celebrated poet 
of the T'ang dynasty. His ode entitled ^ ]^ ^^, or the tower of the 
yellow crane, written at a building of tliat name in the city of Han-yang, 
is said to have provolied such admiration on the part of Li Feb, that on 
perusing it the latter declared he would indite poetry no more. 

781.— Ta'ui Sn-Hixa -^ -^ ^. A pnblio official and poet 
in t^e reign of T'ano Tai Tsung, A.D. 627 — 650. His birth, whiuh took 
place on the 5th day of the 5th Moon, was heralded by the singing of 
unknown birds, an omen which was inlerprete<i as betokening futnie literaiy 
enuneoce but lack of official distinction. He ruse indeed into high npiite 
M a poet, bat was Dol«d cqnally fur his vanity and boastfulnesa. The line 
commencing one of liis odee fSL ^? ^^ ^X i^ , wax vaunted by himself 
as tbe bei^t of literary excellence, but on bis being requested by a con- 
temporary named Cli^ng She-i ||p T^ ^, whom he once encountered 
while royagbg by river, to allow him to peruse tbe eodie itaaza, \m mti, 


after reading the venes, contain ptiiDtwIf threw tbe scrull iolo tlie stream, 
exclniming ; 0f ^ !^ fm p}f p^, — wlut I have seen does not come 
up to what I have heard ; and tbeteupon pursued liis journey. 

73 la. — Ts'li She -g ^. Dislingnisbed as the Bolitarj female 
among the Tweutj-four examplea of filial pietj. It is related of her tJiat, 
her motber-in-law being old and lootbh^ she nourisbed ber villi milk 
from ber own breast, by which means she infased new life and vigour into 
the frame uf her adopted pa^nt. 

'J'QS. — Ta'ui YiHG -^ ^. A celebrated heroine of romance 
whose furttines are recounted in the drnnia entitled ^§ Tm g^, a work 
of the 14th century, wliicb ia. however, based on a novellette entitled ^ 
^^ bC' compoHed some four hundred years earlier. I'he grountJ work of 
the story in either case consists in an amour between Ts'ai Ying, and a 
young student named Chang Eiln-jui, by whone eSorts the lady and her' 
mother are saved from fnlling into the hnnda of brignndn while dwelling at 
a moDHtitery styled the ^ ^I^ ^. The hcMine's waiting-maid, Hung 
Niang, is the type of nigitiah go-betweens in Chinese fiction. 

TQSa.— WiN FfcN I i§| ^ — - One in ten thousand, — 
something exceedingly slight ; iufiniti»iroal ; a hare possibility j (elliplically, 
^ — ). Derived from a metaphor employed in a speech attributed to 
Chang She-che §§ ^ ^, a councillor of Han W6n Ti (T. K. Wfin 
TI,3nl year). 

793.— Wan Urni ^ |^. The infantile name of a celebrated 
female genius of the T'ang dynasty, dangbler of an official named Shang- 
kwan Jt ^, by his wife, the lady CliJ»ng ^ ^. While pregnant 
with this child, the lady dreamt tliat a supernatural being preeentid her 
with a btlanee. saying : " with this you may weigh the Empire " — -f^ 

Jlfc ^ ^ ^ ^ 1*- '^t«n ^^ "'■"'l *« *'w"'' "■« """*'' °'''' 
the mo^er a:dted it playfully: '"Is it yon are to weigh the Empirel" 
The iD&nt lespouded with an inartiunlale sound. At the age of fourleen 
the gu4 was unequalled for intelligence, grace, and wit; and having at- 
tracted tlie notiue of the C»nrl ebe was placed in tlie Inipcriat hansm as a 
lady of honour. In AD. 708. the Euipemr Chung Tsung raised her to 
the rank uf Chao-yung Q^ ^, and submitted for & length of IJine to hw 


"794.— Wano CinH ^ fj. One {rf" tbe patriorchs of tbe Taoist 
■ect. It is recorded of biiu th&t he flounKljeil ntiiler the Tsin dynasty, 
and having wandered in ibe mountaiEu of E'ti Cbow ^^ jf|, to gather 
flrevood be entered a groUo in nhicb nome aged men were Healed intent 
npon a game at chun. He laid down bii axe and looked on at their 
game, in tlie oonree of which one of tbe old men baTidud to liim a thing in 
shape and size like a date-rtone, t4r]ling him to put it in bb moulli No 
sooner bad be tasted it than be ' became oblivlodii of liunger and thirst." 
After some lime bad elapsed one of the players said ; " It b long unoe yoa 
came here ; yon should go home now I " whereupon Wang CLib, proceeding 
to pick np his axe, fonnd that its handle bad mouldered into dust On 
repairing to bis home he found ibat centuries had pnieed since the time 
when he hail left it for tbe mountains and tliat no vestige of Iijs kinsfulk 
remained. Retiring to a retreat among tbe hills, be devoted himfielf to tbe 
tiles of Taoism, and finally attained to immortality 

^ee.— Wang Ch'dno ^ ^ " fl' fi. a circiAD. 19. 
v. ciruft A.D. !}0. A philosopher, perliape tbe most original and judicious 
among all tbe metaphysicians China has produced. He attracted nntiiM 
while occnpying an olisuure statitm by the extent of bis teaming, acqnirt^ 
in despte of poverij ; but tlie views he expounded were too coiiepicnonsly 
opposed to the superstitions orthoiloxy of the learned clnsie^ to meet with 
gtmcrnl acceptance or to gain for bim official favoar. Hin life wag conse- 
quently passed in tbe discharge of petty functions. In tbe writings derived 
from hin pen, forming a work in thirty books entitled Critical DtEqnifdtions 
In ^^' ^^ handles mental and physical problems in a style and with a 
boldness nnparallelled in Chinese liUrrature. He exposes tbe exaggera- 
tions*' (j^) SD<] "inventions" (^) of Confnuianbts and Taobls with 
equal frMiIom, and evinces in the domain of Datnral philuaophy a strange 
superiority to tbe fantastic belicra of his oonnfrymen. A grudging 
recf^ition of bis worth is accorded in the Imperial aitiiioffue rmemwee of 
Kien-lnng, where, while sdmitiing the tniMi of liis attaclts upoD snpersti- 
Uous notions, tbe orthodox compilers reprebi nd bis excess of teal and in 
particular his ' boundless audacity " in the chapters which he entitles Inter- 
rogatiotia of Confunins and Criiicistns upon Mencius. Altbongb littla 
known in its original text, hia work b sxteunTely quoted in oyulopMdiw 


and other poropilnlions. It forms part of the great collection of writers of 
tbe Han and Wei ilvnaslics. 

"783.— Wako Hi-che 3E Igf ;^. * ^ ^. A.D. 321— 
S79. A public official of diBtinction, bat principally celebrated for his ikill 
in penmansbip, tbe modem principles of which lie in great meaaare in- 
stitated. Tlie invention of llie style of writing called Kini->hji jfg §, ii 
altributMl to him. From the title of liis office, >^ 5 ^ S-- *■* " 
frequently Teferred to as ^ ^Ff ^^. Was father of seren eons, among 
whom those named ^ ^, ^^ ^, and ^ ^, all rose to dis^nction. 

79*7.— WAsa HrENKiiE Hit i^l- * "?■ i^- ^^- ^— 

888. Toungest son of the foregoing, and celebrated like his father aa a 
scholar and calligrapher. 

•798.— Wang HiJ ^ ^. A mystic recluse of the Taoist sect, 
who is said to have received the teachings of Lao Tsxe himself, and to 
have dwelt in the 4th ixntnry B.C., in a mountain-retreat called the Demon 
Valley ^ ^, whence be became known as Ewei Huh Tsze. 

799,— Wato JuKO i^K • i§#- 8rd century A.D. 
One of the Seven Worthies^ — see Chnb Lin. He held office as a 
MinisttT of TarN Hwei Ti, hut ia repnihaled in hiHtor; as linving abandoned 
the discharge of his duties to underliuga while be gave himself up to a life 
of pleasure and extravagance. He was distingiiiKheil by a commanding 
appearance and a piercing gate. Ennobled as ^ ^ ^. It is related 
{q illostration of the graEpng covelousncss whidi characterized him that he 
kept daily tally of the income derived from the enormous estates h« poe- 
■eesed all over the Empire ; and thHt, having a rare and valuable groKth 
of plums in hia orchards he caused the stones of all tlie fruit to be removed 
before being sent to market, lest the growth should he propngatcd by others. 
Hence the expression ; fS ^p f^. to indicate miaeriy or srlfieh precautioo. 

SOO.— Wasq Kino ~Jc.Wc- * W^ ^ philosopbor and 
man of lettets circft A.D. 60. Studied astronomy and divinatioa. In 
A.D. 58, was einpbyed by Han Ming Ti to regulata the canals and 
iiTigxtion coursef, which had fallen into decay. When anbseqiKlitly 
holing tbe post of Governor of Lii Eiang, he introduced, it b said, tbe nv 
a£ oxen in ploughing init«Kl of homao labonr. 

". .-- --uglc 


■ SOI.— T.!>o Viu, J ^, or Wixo-ro, K'.ao ( ^ 
1 , — flaid to have been lie designation of Prince Tain + ^ ^, a 
■on of Chow Ling Wang, B.C. 671. Aceorfing to the legendi he 
abandoned his heritage and gave himseif np to a wandering life, diverting 
himaelf by playing npon Ih, Jnte. Having been initiated into the 
iiiy*«ti<» of Taoism by Tow K'io Knng, he dwelt with thii sage ibr thirty 
yean npon the How^he Mountun |g .^ [Ij. On. day he «nl a 
n««age to hia kindred desiring that they Bhonld^moel him on the Tth day 
of tho 7th Moon, at the summit of this mountain ; and at the thne 
appointed he was seen riding thmiigh the air upon a white crane, from 
wboM baoli he waved a 6nal adieu to lie world as he ascended to the 
reahns of tho genii. (J^) f|l| ^). The eipceeuon # # ;g ^, i, 
intorproted aa aignifying "longevity snch as that of [Wang], K'iao and 
ECh'ih3 Sung [laze] q. v. 

803._W«orm*5|^^, nA.D. 1025. Acooriie, 
and high official during the reign of Sum Ch«n T.nng, who«i superslilimi. 
vagaries he encouraged, enjoying in return the higl,o,t Imperial favour 
and bounty. To his inlnguc, tho nprighl Minister K'ow Clou owed his 

S03._Wa» Ln» i -(ft. z). A.D. 1I«. Hepeatedly 
employed a. an envoy ftom S™o Kao Tseng, to the Sovereign of the Kin 
Tartars m tie conduct of the negotiation, carried on under the an.picn, of 
Ts-in Kwei. Alier the eonelnaion of a tm.ij „f il. Tartar Sover- 
eign sought to ntain Wang Lun in hi. servieo The envoy refused, 
however, to aceept (ho prolfered .p[„int»ent, whereupon in a fit of irritation 
the barbarous ruler ordered him to be strangled. 

aO4_Wu,0lUao J^. B.C. 3S.-A.D. 23, A nephew 
of the Eopr,« of m„ Yuan Ti, di,tiogniJ..d in early life by g„..t 
«tell«.tnal powerii and by a notable degree of afction f„, hi. „„,b„ 
EnuoMed in B.C. 16 a. ff fi ^, h, p,^ ^^y,^ ,^ ^__^ ^ ^ 
office to an«b»- aod.graduall;«l toward ,he po»».i„„ „f „ ' 
P.™r, In B.C. 6, be was created ± ^ ,5, „, Ge„e,.Ii..i„o. On 
the toth of the Emperor Ngai Ti in B.C. 2, the d.w.ger Emp™., aeliog 
» B.»«.^ milled him in the dit^barge of tl. principal function, rf 


gorenimeiit la A.D. 1, received tb« title of ^^ ^ S^ or Duke 
Protector of the House of Han. In A.D. S, be mkde Iiia dangb(«r Empren 
by marryiiig her to Fiog Ti, whom, in A.D. 5, (afler introdmbg tnnaa- 
0Q9 innovations in the laws and ejitem of gianrraatBO, be itmani bf 
means of poisoD.* He then c^iued hia daughter the Empress ""^ 'M 
childlev^ to name aa Emperor an infant of two jean old, one of ibe linekl 
deecerkUnts of the former Sovereicrn StUn Ti, whilst be himielf wai 
nominated to act aa Regent (J§ ^), mi behalf of the iofant 8ov<cteign, 
wbo waa etjied ^ ^ ^. In A.D. 8, be declued himMlf Emperor, 
under the tiije ^ ^ '^, degrading tbe in^t Soreieign to tbe rank of 
duke nith the title ^ ^ ^, and rel^ating him to a etate of Btiict 
oonfinenient in whiuh he grew np witboot even being taogfat tbe nae of 
articul&te soonds. Waa eventnally driven from power after a prokmged 
contest with Lia 8iu and otlier insnrgenla ; and having been defeated ia 
battle after battle be finally periabsd, A.D. 23, in a revolt of bit Kinaining 
troops. Hia corpse was lorn in pieces bj tbe aoldierj after hia bead had 
been slniok from bia ahoulders hy a trader named Ta Wu Jpi ^^. 

SOe.— Wako MftNQ I ffi * # B^. /> A.D. 876. The 
able and Irneted Minister of Fa Kien, q. v. Having bran leconmended 
to the Utter by a patron who discovered bis superior talents whilst still in 
an cibscnre station, he rapidly roae to high office and was ennohled as If^ 
fpi -01. In A.D. 359, he waa made Governor of King Cbao [^ ^ 
y^, — the metropolitan department, and in A.D. 872, waa named prime 
Hinister. When shortly afterwards overtaken by mortal sickness, Fn Kioi 
himself implored Heaven with solemn sacrifices at tbe State temple to 
spare tbe life of his faithful servant. Wang Meng, rebnked his Soverdgn 
for this act, and shortly afterwards died. Can. as "ff^. 

80ea.-_W4»(a NaAi 3E S' One of tbe pattsins of BM ^etf, 
said to have lived during tbe Wei dynasty. After bis rootber'a death, be 
was accusUimed, in tender commemoralion of tbe terror she felt when alhe 
on tbe occurrenue of thanderstorms, to proceed on all SDcfa occaaon to 
her tomb and to screen it from tbe elements nntH the storm bad oeand. 
In memory of hia father, who was alaio by robbers, he is reputed to have 
burst one day into tears on reading tbe verse of tbe Book of Odea whkh 
commenoee with the words |S^ ^ ^ ^< «nd in wfakh i^mim i 


aude to Lbe death of parcntB. From that b'me forward lie ever refnimd 
from pronoDndog tlis Terse in Lis reuitatJons. Gf. L.C., iv., p. 350. 

SOe — Www NoAN-KWo i ^ g- • ^ #. nih centory 
. A.I>. A brother of Wang Ngan^ih (see below), and like liim a cele- 
brated KbolaT, bat an lUMompromiBing t^poDent of the tatter's innoTatioiis. 

SOT— Wang Noas-shih ^ ^ ^S- » if fS t ^ Uf • 

A.I). 1021 — 1086. A oelebrated scholar, poet, and stateamaii, who power- 
fully inflaenced the fortunes of China nnder the Sung dynasty. HaviDg 
attracted by his literary merit the notice of Ow-yang Sin, q. v., he was 
adTaoced by this Minister to a jadicial office, and after serving with dis- 
ttDotion in variooB posta be was raised in A.D. lOGO, by an Imperial 
Maudate to one of the principal offices in connection with the administra- 
tion of jnstice. Although more than once summoned to Court by Ibe 
Emperor Ting Tsnng, he constantly excused himself as being unworthy to 
oBei advice to the Sovereign, — an excess of humility the sincetity of 
which is donbled by historians. In 1067, having been appointed Prefect 
of Eiang-niug, he was for the firet time presented to the Emperor ; whose 
soccessor, ShSn Tsuog, on ascending the Throne in Uie following year, 
.Imoit immediately chose Wang Ngan-slilh, as his most intimate eomiseltor 
and placed him a few montlis afterwards at the bead of affairs. The 
theories on government which Wang Ngao-sbih bad elaborated daring 
many years of study now received a rapid development, and be wae hailed 
for a time by all but a few cautions politicians as a heaven-Bent regenerator 
of society. Tlie Emperor, adroitly flattered by compnriBons between him- 
self and (he wise rulers of antiquity, allowed Wang Ngan-sbib, to 
mooopolite authority and to introduce his administrative schemes de^te 
aD oppoeition. The ground work of his theory of government appears to 
have consiBted in an extension of the duties of administration to a degree 
perionsly tmknown in the Chinese system, but justified, in big eyes, by 
the political institntions recorded in the ^ l|f§, or State Kegnlatjooi of 
the Chow dynasty, which he adopted as bis model. Under his influence, 
a commisston was appointed to draw np a fresh edition of the classical 
texts, with the object of substituting for former commentaries tbe views 
which Wang Ngan-shih was desirons of supporting ; and at the same lima 
now d e p a r t n ae n ts of govenrnMot were created to carry into effect tbe 


political charges he introdnced (|§P ^f ^), Among these the mort 
far-reaching and eientvinllv iiijnriwB "ore the method of State advancee to 
culiivaturs of tie land ^ pg ^, and a s^teui of imiversiil miiitia 
enrolment ^ Pp ^, by which the wIii>1b population was rendered liable 
to service as an armed cooatabulary. Whatever benefit might hare 
aocrued to tlie agricultural clnwa from the system of government loanB) 
was wholly neutralized thiough the rapacity and villany of ibe underlings 
and satellites into whose hands the disbuteement of the advances and ibe 
collection of interest lapsed, distress and impoverishment taking the place of 
the expected advantages to tbe people ; whilst on the part of the State, 
vast sums were irrecoverably test The enrolment system, also, speedily 
proved a burden through the exactions to which it gave rise, and the 
injustice frequently entailed l>y the responsibility for the offences of otLen 
which was laid collectively upon all the members of each ^ or tjthing. 
These and other revolutionary Bchemed were vigoiioualy opposed by the 
great Minister S%-ma Kwang, allliough at the ualaet he had been blinded 
(ii Wang Ngnn-shih's faults by the brilliancy of his genius, as also by Sn 
She, Han K'l, and oiher statesmen ; but he nevertheless continued to wield 
an almost boundless influence throughiint the reign of Sh6n Tsung, No 
sooner had the latter, however, vacated the Throne (A.D. 1085), than Sm- 
ma Kwang rose iniu poiier, snpereeding Wang Ngaii-shih, and shortly 
before tlie ex-Minister's death he saw ihe whole of his system of legislation 
ccmdenined and repealed. Duiing life be shone, on the confession of bis 
most vigorous opponents, as a poet and autlior of rare genius. He was 
ennoblal aa ^J § ^, and can. with the title ^. 

BOS — Wano Pa ^ ^. (I.) • -gg i^. 1st cenUiry A.D. 
A scliolar and official renowned for uprightness and unflinching loyalty. 
On the usurpation of power by Wang Mang, he cast off his robes of office 
and withdrew into a private staUon. After the accession of Ewang Wu 
to the throne he was persuaded to return ta office, but on finding bii 
motives mbblerpreled he threw np his appointment and retired 'nntb bii 
family to a humble cottage where he passed the remainder of his days- 

SOe.—WANQ Pa J ^. (II.) • 7C fg. A oonUmporary 
with the foregoing, and one of the commanders who aided Liu Sin in \m 
struggle for empire. He is diiefly remembered by r stratagem with which 


he encminv;^ the ingnrgent army lo press forward to a nVer wlien pnrRned 
by a larf^r force, by nsstirino; ihem tliat Mie elreara wan (nilidly fiitzen over. 
TliM auiirniice, altboiigh unfiniindctl wlien pVen by Wang Pa, was verified 
as IboQgU by a toimcle wheti tbt> army reached the bankn of Ihn rivL'r, the 
ice ^ving way so aoon as the troops had crossed. Created )^ ^ff ^^. 
810.— Wako Fa ^ ^. (III.). An Alchemist of the sizOi 
century, who dii^nsed in anstinted charity among the poor of the region 
of np (the tnudern Piil^ien), t^e gnM his art ennbled bim to prnduoe. 

sii.— w*Ko peh i^g • # ;5l- t #^- 13tl> 

oentary A,D. A sdiolar of high repute, anil a fellow-worker with Chn 
Hi, in the domain of philoGO)<by. Can. ss 5C ^■ 

SIS.— Wano Pi i 5B? " si i^- ^ A J). 226. iJ. A.D. 
249. A cel<^bnili-d scholar under tlie Wei dynasty. Was deeply versed 
in the mmtic lore of tlie Yih King, and notwithstanding the early age 
(twenty foHt>, at which he died, his emdiiion was such as to cause him to 
be looked upuD in Rub^eqtieiit ages as the founder of tlje modem philoRophy 
of divination. Ria llieories on ihtu subject remained unchallenged until 
the period of the Sung djuasty, when a fresh school was founded by CU'Sn 
Hi-i, (see No. lOia). 

S13.— WanoPo itft. • ^ ^. A.D. «8-«75. A 
brilliant and precouioos scholar. His poetical talents and erudition gained 
nniversal applanse, and bis instnu'tion was cagiTlj auaght by crowds of 
stndentF, bat he was aiirortnnalely dmwued at the early age of twenty- 
eight while crosmng a river. . His younger lirother, Wang Shao ^q f^, 
was author of a History of the Siii dynasty. 

8 14.— Wano P'l; i y^. " ® i^. A.D. 9^2—982. A 
celebrated scholar and pnblic official. Distinguished as the accumulator of 
a vast collection of books. 

8ie-W*»,a-™„ ijgp, • 76® A,0. 1584- 
1610, A Minister of State and dbtinuoished scholar. 

Sie.— Wano Siano i^ • ■^^. A poblio official 
nnder the first Sovereign of the Tsin dynasty A.D. 2C5. His fame rests 
chiefly upon an innident which illuBtrntfs his devotion to fliini duty, and 
which has given him a plaoe among tbe rect^tsed example* of thn virtoe. . 


His steptnotlker expreanng a wish one Any during vlnUr to obuin some 
freuii Ml, altbuiigli all [he nvere were froun, he lay down opoD Ihe Bnrface 
of a elieet of iuo uniil the wanotli of bis body canwd it Lo melt, bj irbich 
mesiiB he was enaUed lo lake a pair of carp and to present them to his 

A.D. 1626 — 1590. A celebrated icboUr aitd historical compiler. 

818_Wang SiiowviftN i ^ -t. • Y9 ^ t H 1^ 

AD. 1472 — 1528. A distingniBhed pnblic uffitial ai>d celebrated writer. 
Was Qoreraor of sevOTal Provinces in EnccPEnon, and in this capacilj 
gained high renown through bin conduct of military affaire. In 16IA, be 
sobdued an iusurrecljon in Eiang-tit and in 1527, conduoteil a campaign 
against the wild tnbes of the mountainotu r^:ioii8 In norlJioro Ewnng-d. 
Can. M 3t JS^ 

A.D. 1634 — 1711. A dblingniahed statesman ani) patron of letters. 

8SO,— Wakq Suh I ^ • ^ HI- CelebraUd as a stotes- 
man and eubolar duriog the Wei dynasty, circ& AD. 240. Antboc of 
divers historical cominentaties. Can. as ^ ^. 

Sai.—WANo T*« i Ji.. • ^^. A.D. 967-1017. 
Celebrated aa a Htateaman and acbolar. Hdd office as one <rf (he oliief 
Hiniiters of tlie Erapeiur Slnq Sbfin Tenng. Whs oira of three brotbtifet 
the torn of Wang Yeo ^ -^ (Tsze ^ J^). a statesman i^ bigli repute. 
The latter, rejoicing in the promise (^ distinction given hy bis oans, 
predicted thai they would rise to fill iJie poets of the Three Uinittera of 
government (^i ^\ and planted bef<:«e bis door three hwm trees (iopAora 
japottiat), as emblems of the united grandfur to which be tnisk-d bis eons 
would rise. Henue the family became snbeequently known as the :n ^% 
T ^> and lo this incident some writers have traced the origin of clan 
or family designations (^ ^). Wang Tan waa ennobled as J2| ^ 
Si ; And can. aa y^ J£. His brothera did not rise to special dlstjactiixi. 

SSS— WangTao il!|. " S^5i' ^- A-D, 389. A 
poUia offitaal of h^h repute oitdei! the Tain dynaa^* Hii italeaiBUMlup 


woD fi)t Wm th« Ud« (J jtC ^ 9§ ^. — 'lie I-wo of Ei»Dg-tso (Iii» 
Mtlivie region.) (I-wo, — see Kwan Chung). 

SS3.— Wano Tsien £ j@. a general in the service of She 
Hwftng-d, in irboM cawe he attacked and sabjngated tbe Slate of Ghao^ 
B.C. 3S9. When ^m conqaering Sovereign was about la ntdertalte tha 
■abjection of tbe Stale of Tii'u, he asked his general Li Sin ^^ ^. how 
targe an army he required, to wfaicb ibe latter replied tbat £00,000 ineii 
would nffice. Wang Tnen demanded 600,000. and the campaign woi 
entmated to liii leai cautiuoa rivAl. Tbe latlcr having b(«n dtaaatroa^ 
Tq)alBrdi Wang Trien was songfat at his b<ime by Sbe Uwnng-Li, in petaon, 
and entreated to take the command, witli the number of Irimps be had at 
first named. To this he consented, but with the mndilion that large 
estates should be conferred upon him for Llie benefit of his cbitdren. 
Having taken the field, 6 G. 223, he wore out tbe patience of his adver* 
sariee by remaining tfeadfastly ensconced behind his entreni:hmente, and 
finally, taking tbera at nnawares, fell upnn them and utti-rly routed tbe 
forces of Th'u. He took captive the Piince of that Suie Fu Te'o, ^ 
^y, and «lew bis general Hiang Yen ^ f^ 

Sa^— Wang Tatoo I "S"- ' # :Jt D- A.D. 1088. A 
distingnisbed ettt«sman of the reign of Stmo Chen Tsang. and hti suo* 
tseraat. When the Kmprefs of Ch6n Tsnng. Liu How j^ j§, asaumcd 
the reins of government after her consorl's decease^ A.D. 1022, Wang 
Tafing, then filling one of the chief Uinistiiee of 8tat«, was the on); high 
official who ventured to hold an independent toTie. He vainly endeavoored 
to induce the Empress, a daring and ezlmvagant woman, to yield the 
direction of afliiirs to her eun, who, although young, had reached an age 
whidi entitled him to assume ttte supreme control. When tbe vast and 
costly temple built by Gh^ Tsung and designated the Yu Tslng, Chao 
Ting Kuiig q. v., was destroyed by fire in A.D. 1029, the Empress took 
advantage of tbe calamity to degrade him from his post, to which he was 
leolofed, however, after aome years of ^^ace. Ennobled as TpX B Si^ 
•»d can. as ^ ]£. 

SaC5— Wano Tb'an 3E ^ • # ^- AD. 177—217. 
A poet and scholar of deep erudilinn. One of the Seven Qeniuses of the 
■Mga Eie&-i^a% — see T^ao Chih. 


SSS— Wang T'l-no ^E |£. • -(ill :?![. A. D. .583— 617. A 
celebral«(l man of lelttrs, whose leacliinga weru attended by » muldliule of 
Bubulats. Autbor of divers classical commenUrics. 

SSV.— Wano Wki i #i. ■ ^ ^. A.D. 699— 759. 
Ono of tho foremoel among the poets of ibe Ttag AjOMtj, and celebrated 
also as a scholar and aitist. 

SS8._Wan« WfcN-CHB I ^ i^- • ^ ^. t ^ ft. 
A.U. 1730—1802. A noted public official, celebrated as a master of tho 
art of cnlligraphj'. 

SSS— Wang Ykn-chano J ^ 5- ' ^ ^. D. AD. 
923. A military commander in the Bi-riiee of tlie After Liang dynasty 
A.D. 907 — 915. Distiuguislied equally by immense strength and great 
daring. He wielded in battle a pair of iron lances, each weighing one 
bandre<! catties, of which one rested upon his saddle while he bore the 
other in his hnnd. Hence he was sljli'd J ^ ^, or Wang of the 
Iron Lances. Afler maintaining for many yuiirs a contest agninst the 
rising power of the founder of the After T'ang, he was finally defeated, 
wounded, and taken prisoner at tbe battle of CLung Tu tfl ^|). The 
oonqneror rainly endeavoured to gain his allegiance, and be submitted to 
elocution in preference to transferring bis fealty to a new Sovereign. 

Q30._Wang Tino-lin I S ^. • -ffl J?. A.D. 122*— 
1296. A celebrated scholar and author. 

S3X.— Wang Yi>AN 3E »E ' >^ ^- *■ Taoist astrologer 
and soothsayer, said to have bi>en high in favour with the Emperor Han 
Uwau Ti A.D. 147 — 167. It is related of him that the divine sage Tjao 
KiiQ (Lao Tsse). bestowed on him a thaumaturipc formula called the 
Charm of the Nine Itevolntioni Jl, t^ ^ ^^, and placed him in 
authority over 15,000 genii. 'Ihe female genie or fairy Ua Eu q. v., U 
■aid to have been his sister. 

S3J3.— Wang YDn I ^ " "? gj^. Z>. A.D. 193. An 
officer of the Court of Han Ling Ti, who, remaining secretly unshakea 
in bis loyalty during tiie nsurpation of 1'ung Cho, at length fwitiived Uie 
assassination of the latter at the hands of LU I'u. He himself wa> 
murdered in the following year by political opponenla. 


838.— Wb Chao ^ ^. Srd centary A.D. A fnnctionary 

under ttie Wa djnasty drc4 A-D. 275, and celebrated as a historical 

834— Wei Ch£kg WkW^ ' ^ ^ ^ A.D. 666. Famooi 
aa the Mlnis'^i' and tmsted concsellor of Tm l^ng, the meet able and 
powerful among the Sovereigns of the T'ang dynasty. Wm wisdom and 
integrity have made him revered aa a model to suhecqnent agee. 

SSe.— Wei Hiao Bft |||. D. A D. 33. An insargenl leader 
and competitor with Han Kwang Wa fur possession of the Empire on the 
downfall of Wang Mang q. v. He inninbained for some years an in- 
dependent Sovereignty in the Western prorincee of China ; hnt was 
attacked in A.D. 32, by Ewang Wa with all his forces, and having been 
reduced (o great straits died whilst beleaguered by the Imperial army. 

838.— Wei How ^ ^. Emprefs Consort of T'ang Chung 
Tsung, whom she poisoned in AD. 710. Her endeavonr to usm^ the 
supreme power wsa, however, defeated by Prince Lung Ki, (see Ming 
Hwang), who took np arms against her in the following year, with complete 
BucceHs, n[un which the Empress nu'I ninny nf her adherents were put 
to death. 

837.— Wm Kao ^ ^. ' tffi SC- ^- A.D. 805. Cele- 
brated as a statesman and administrator. A|ipointcl in A.D. 785 to the 
government of Sbuh ^^, he victorioiisly repeikil inciireions of the T'o-fan 
from Tibet, and during the twenty years enduing, uutil the time of bis 
death, continued to govern bis [xovinra with rare ability. By bis sagacions 
and humane administration prosperity and pence were ensured to snch a 
degree that he was worshipped for many centuries as the guardian genius 
of the province. Ennobled as '^ J^ J, and can. as jg, jff . It is 
related of him that, when an oljscure stuiient, ho espoused the daughter of 
a functionary named Chang Ten-shang g^ ^t ^, who, blind to bis 
son-in-law's merits, was accustomed to treat him with great contumely. 
Having risen to distinction in later life, Wei Eao was sent to supersede his 
father-in-law in the office which he held as a provincial governor; in dcnng 
which he travetled under the feigned name of Han Ngao 35 j«j, and 
overwhelmed his father-in-law with confiisioD when his identity becanw 

""'•^- „, ,^,ooglc 


Q3S. — Wei Ku .e^ ^. A hero of legendary romance, enid 
to bave fioiirifheil under tlie T'niig dynasty. Pafdng une day iLrougb (lie 
tonn of Sung Cb'^ng y^ }^, be baw an old man titling by tnoonligbt 
engaged in tumiog over Ihe leaves of a book, who, in reply to his inquiry, 
told him (hat (hia volume contained the niatiimonial destinies of all man- 
kind. Taking from bis wallet a red cord ^p /^. the old-man said : 
With this curd I tie togt-tber the feet of husband and wife. Though 
liom in bostile bonsebolda or widely sundered countries, their fal« is inevi- 
Ubiy fulfilled at last. Your wife, I will tell you, is tbe daiigb(er of an old 
woman named tih'en, who sella vegetables in yonder shop." Having 
heard this, Wei Eao went next day to look about him, and Ban tbe 
woman carrying in her arms an ill-favouretl cbild of two years old. He 
secretly biretl an assastiin (o murder tbe infant, and ibis nian dealt a blovr 
at it accordingly, but missed bis aim and only left a scar upon its eyebrow. 
Fourteen yeara later Wei Eao, became the husband of a beautiful girl, 
whom after marriage be observed wearing a patch upon ber eyebrow, and 
on making inquiries, be fnund that she was tbe identical {>erEon whoso 
union with bim bad been foretold. — This kgeud, recounted under tba 
T'ang dynasty, is prubnbly the earliest enibodiineiit of tbo Cbiuefie belief 
in the existence of an invisible link (tyjjilied by tbe red vortl), between 
bride and bridegroom, aud expressed in tbe saying: If? @ ^ J|Jt„ j^ 
Vt ^ !^- — Jlattbes are made in Heaven, and tbe bond of fate is fore- 
cast from tbo Moon. See YUeli Lao. 

830— Wei PEii-YASfi ^ ffi ^. A native of Kwai K'i ^ 
JJ^, temp. Han dynasty, celebrated as a Taoist pbilosopher and ntcbemiut. 
Author of a professed commentary on tbe Vib King, entitled ^ |^ ^, 
which is, at the same time, reputed as treating allegorically of (he elixir 
of life. The %^ '(ll] ^. relates of bim that having devoted himself in a 
mountain -retreat to tbe preparation of the elixir of immoitaliiy, he at 
length completed tbe magic powder, which, by way of ex[K!riinent, at tbe 
advice of his eldest briitber, he administered iu the first instance to a dog. 
Tba animal Instantly fell dead, but, undismayed by this, Wei Peh-yang 
himself swallowed a portion of the drug, and likewise expired immefliat4'ly. 
His elder brother, still confiding in the virtues of tlie elixir, next swallowed 
a dose, with tlie same result The third brgtber, observing to hintBcIf thai 


if this were the remit of liie search nfter immortality, it gwmed better to 
lesvu tlip qiu«t alimp, went ti» prepare lor tlie intc-rnient oftliK txKlies. He 
bad scarcely inniHl liie back «lien Wei rdi-jang arose, ami (-oni|Jeling 
tlie inixtnre oi Jiis dnigs. plHCWl a jwrtion in tl»e oioulli of bia brother sikI 
the dog, boUi of wliom at oni^e reiiviii. Tlie two brcitlifR and tho dog 
forlbnith enterwl upon imniorlaliiy anil bivaiiie enrolled anumg llie ranks 
of llie genii. 

840.— Wki Sue-ill ^ ^- • ^ M- ^■>- A D. 1 IGi. Cele- 
brated as a military commniidcr. wlio firi^t raiisfd liimiielf from an obtcurs 
positinn by enrolling a boiiy of triNips wjili ulioni iiu tt-caj^tiired Hai Cliow 
^ ^-j. from the Kin Tartais in AD. Ufil. In ilie following year, lie 
BQCccsffiilly defended tLe saiae city agaiiiNt a renewed atlemjit at Bcizing 
iL Two year§ later he full in battle. He is said tu have been the RrKt to 
employ gunpowder in warfare; but tlio cxjJosivo componnd be used ap- 
pears to have ci>n»sted rntber in a species of Gn^k fire llian a propilsive 
agenL (Cf. Journal N. C. B. Royal Asiatic Society Shanghai, 1872, 
Art v.). llis skill in strategy and bia iurentive g'-nius introduced maoy 
Dew tactics and impIcmonU of warfare in tlie CLincsu aruiir-s. 

S41.— Wei SiifcNG Kao ^ ^ ^, or [ | . A leg- 
endary chantcler, referred to in ibe works of Cbwang Tsae, and other 
early writers. He is extolled as a model of Bleadfaslness and constancy, 
as in (he phraRe ^ ^ | [ , Having a readesivouB with a woman 
whom b? was to meet under a bridge (said U> have been Ibe Lan K'tao 
q. v., at Cli'ang-ngan), he was overtaken by a sodden rising of tbo waters, 
when, rather than abandon Lis tryst, he stood clasping the wooden support 
of ibe bridge until overwhelmed by llie flood. He is refcrrt^ (o, but in a 
depreciating tone, by Confucius, — see L, C, i-, p. 44. Cf. K. Y. k. 4. 

S42.— Wei Snow M '\j^- * 1& ^- A.D. 506—572. 
Author of the History of the Wei dinasty A.U. 38(1 — 5,i6. 

843.— Wei Ts'ino % W- " # ^- i>- B.C. IOC. A 
favoured minion and Bnbsequently general of Has Wu Tl Shortly after 
the lattera accession to the throne he raised to bis seraglio a singing-girl 
named Wei Tswj-fu ^ -j- ^, from the boiisebold of hie sister, anil 
installed her in tlie pwition of prime favourite. Tliroiigli Ler iiistru- 
iDentality Wei Ta'iDg, ber ill^ilimat« brother, was iutrodiii;«d to tbe 


Emperor's notioo, and in B.C. 189, ha was raised to the tank <J grand 
chamberlain "^ ^f ^ ^- Waa mbseqnenlly ennobled as ;^ 2J£ 
^^, and ein|)lo;ed in high military cotnmaQda, gaining disUnclion on 
repeated' occasions in campaigns against the Hinng-tin. In B.C. 119, 
after the defeat and death of Li Kwang, was created joiDt-geueralinimo 
1^ o\ ^, in conjanction with Ho K'ii-ping q. v. Can. u ^)|. 

844.~Wki Tbzb ^ •^. The risconnt or Chief of Wei, a 
principality under the dynasty of Shang. He waa named E'i ^, and 
was a kinsman by lite mother's side of the Uoentious tyrant Chow-sin, 
whose misrule and craelty he reprobated in consultation with two other 
nobles, B.C. 1122. Cf. L. C. i., p. 273. From the resolution he formed 
to withdraw from the dominions of the tyrant comes the phrase | | 
^ ^. See Ki Tsze and Pi Kan. 

845.— Wei Tanq ^ 1|Jt, —'properly Knng-sun Tang 4^ ^ 
^, of the State of Wet, circa B.C. 370. While still a young man was 
raised to the post of Roister to the ruling Prince of Wei, to whom a 
counsellor is related to have said : " Wei Tang has marrellons talents, — ■ 
if he be not employed in an official post, it were better (hat he be pat to ' 
death, lest another kingdom obUiin his services I " In B.C. SGI, be was 
allnied into the employ of "Sp -^, duke of Ts'in, who had proclaimed 
oOera of high reward to men of ability from other Staties, and was created 
Lord of Shang f^ ^'. As an administrator of the criminal laws he 
was severe lo the verge of cruelty. When standing one day by the banks 
of the river Wei j^ -J^, he spoke, it is said, of criminals, whereupon the 
waters of the stream, as though anticipating bis judicial verdict, turned to 
a blood-red colour. On the other hand, during the twenty four yearn of hia 
rule so great was the respect for the laws instilled by his severity that 
property dropped on the highway was picked up by none but the rightful 
owner, brigandage disappeared, and order reigned throughout the land. In 
B.C. 338, notwithstanding, the people of TtTin rose against him and put 
him to death. 

846.- WEi-YANO KiiNG p(f ^ 4^. The palace erected at 
Ch'ang-ngan by Siao Ho q. v., for his Sovereign, the founder of the Han 
dynasty, B.C. 202. The Emperor, amazed with its magnificence oa first 
belwldiog it, asrerely reproved the de&igner for bis lavish expenditure. 

". —- --uglc 


847.— Wei Wl-ki |£ ^ M- -O- B.C. 244. TonngeBt son 
of Prince Chao ^ 3E °f ^*'f ''7 wliom he was created lord of Sin Ling 
^ I» ^' ^^"^ ""* ^ '^ f**"^ leagnets or cbieflains who banJed 
togetlier to resist the encroachments of the House of Ts'tn, over whose 
forces he gained a brilliant but tran»torj EUCceGS in B.C. 347, at the head 
of the forces of Gve allied, principalities. 

848.— WSn Kuno o? Tbin ^'^^. B.C. 696— C28.-The 
historical title of CL'ung XJrh ^ -^> "''*> BiK;<*eded to the throne of the 
Stale of Tein in 13.0. G35. Daring his tenure of power he shone as a 
wise and hjimane ruler, effacing the evil results of the previous jears of 
disorder (see Li Ki, Hi Ts'i, and Cbao Ts'ui). He attained, also, to the 
leaderehip in the confederacy of Princes knows as that of the Five Chief- 
tains ^^ 1^, by whom the Empira of tbe Chow dynasty was long swayed. 
His early life wag a career of mingled romance and hardsbip. Dreaded 
by bis father's ooncnbine, tbe beaatilnl Li Ki, who feared lest he shonld 
deprive her son Hi Ts'i of the wiccession, he was compelled in B.C. 654, 
to % from his city of P'u ^, whitbcr at the instigation of Li Ki, his 
father bad despatched a eunuch to take bis life. Accompanied by Hu 
Ten, Cbao Ts'tii, and a few otlier faithful ndherenls, he look refuge with 
tbe chief of the Ti 3^ barbarians, wbo bestowed upon him bis two 
daugUlets. The elder of these, known as Sbuh Wet -^ ^. he took to 
wife, giving the younger in marriage to Cbao Ts'ui. After nineteen years 
of exile, tlie Prince was finally enabled to reenter his native State and 
assume its government. 

849. — WftN Ch'ano y^ Q. The name of a constellation 
(forming part of Urea Major), tbe stars composing whicli, six in number, 
are enumerated under distingnisbing names by Sze-iua Ta'ien in his "^ 
g § (S. K., k. 27); and are jmpularly believed to constitute tbe abode 
of the god of Literature, called 3^ S 'ill' ^- <Cf- Journal N. C. B. 
Boyal Asiatic Society, 1872, Art. II). 

850.— WtNCiifiNG-MiNG ^^^. '^-jlll. AD. 1470— 
1359. A noted scliolar and famoua master of tbe art of calligrnpby. 
Specimens of bis handwriting are still in existence and are highly prized. 

SSI.— Wen Ki ^^t ^- The household name of Ts'ai Yen q.v. 


863.— WfeN KiiN '^ ^. 2^1 century B.C. A lady famed 
in verse «nil slflry. the daiigliter of Clio M'ang-suD, ami wife <>f Sw-nm 
Siang-jii q V, by wln»e seiliiclive miisio t>be wsa beguiled iulo na 

863.— W£n Ti '^ ^. D. B C. 157. Son of Kan Tsu. the 
fonnder of the Han dynasty, by a concubine named Po Ki |H jjj. He 
succeeded to ibe ibrone in B.C. 179, afier the usurpation by ibe Empiees- 
dowager Lu How. Wfin Ti is Cflrbrated in history as a pmdt-nt and 
hninane Sovereign, whose regard for liiH peojjie led him to incidcale nnd 
practise the striutcsl economy. Hu in a1s>) renowneil for the filinl devotion 
he displayed as & yoinh towanl his niulher. During & sickness which 
lasted three yeai^ it is said, he never left her apartment nor changed Lis 
apparel. The title 3C H' ' '"' ^^ '^^ literature ih alKO attributed to the 
Btar Wen Ch'ang, — see No. 819. 

864-WBr„..„,™ * 35 j#. • a » t 5R« 

AD. 1236 — 1282, A MiniaUr dislingiiisliMl by liis unshaken fidelity lo 
the Inst Sovereigns of the Snng dynasty. Was one of tho email band of 
slaleemen who, afler the downfall of the execrated Kia Sze-tjio, struggled, 
altliough vniiily, to retrieve the Imperial fortunes and resist ihe progrets of 
'the Mongol encroachments. In AD. 1276, he was sent as nmbnssa'lor to 
the camp of Bayan (I'eh-yen, q. v.), the lieutenant ■■f Kidilai, lo negotiate 
terms of peace, but was detHined as a prisoner. Effecting his ewniie «]iile 
being sent toward the North, he mado his way by sea to rejoin the fugitive 
Court, and for a year or two longer continued the hoix-Iess elni^n'le against 
the invaders. In 1277, he made a stand with the Imperial forces at 
Chang Chow ^ ^"l. in modem Fukien, where lie put to death an ufGciat 
named Wu Sun ^ )^. who, having himself Bubmitled lo the invadcre, 
came to advise Wfin T'len-siang, to adopt a similar couree. After Bomo 
transient sacceeses, he was defeaiod by Li HSng ^p "JQ, an adherent of 
tlie Mongols, at Hing Kwoh J^ [py. and coTii[>elled t« retreat toward the 
South-east coast. The Emperor Twan Tsung, having died in his obscure 
refuge at Yai Shan |^ (i|, on the coaKt of Kwang-tung. A.D. 1278, 
WSn T'ien->iinng wan named grardian ^^ ]^, of ihn youthful lieir, with 
the titio Ijg J^ -if. M.ide priwiner shoitly aftcnvanla on the final defeat 
^nd deeliuetioR of the Imperial force, he was gent in custody h> the Conit 


of Eablai. where be resiated all pemnasioD to change his allegiance, and 
ufUT a oaptirity of some yean' duiatiim was final]; put lo deatli. 

SBB— Wto Yen-po ^ ^ ill- ■ ^ :^- A.D. 1006— 
1097. A oelebraterl statesman, colleague with Fq Pi, and other MrniaterB 
of (he retgna Sung JSn Tsnng and Shen Teung. Created X^ ^ ^. 
For an Inetanca of his precocidus intellect sec No. 656. 

8GQ..— Wfix TVa-nq yl^ 3E' "^^ ^'^'^ of canonization postham- 
ously conferred on the " Chief of the West " (see Si Pch), bj- liia bod 
Chow Kung. 

SBT, — Wu ^. The name of nn aDcient division of China, 
occupying the region Ijing immediately to the south of (be river Tang-tsze 
and eKtending from the sea to the Po-yang Lake. The moilem Eiang-sn. 
Used in componnds of proper names, as ^ ^p 7^ Wu Ki-cha, (see 
Ki-cha), etc. 

SeS.— Wu Ce'6 ^ ^. MtL for collections of books. The 
Baying is derived from Ohnang Tsze, who wrote concerning a certain 
scholar that blB books anioiinted (o five cart-loads. Hence Tn Fu, in one 
of his poems, wrote : ;^ ^ ^ ^ | | §■ 

see _w„ c„vv« *■»•«/ ffl. « ffi «■ t ^ tt- 

A.D. 1249 — 1333. A celebrated bcholar, author of miraerouH treatises and 
commentaries. Can. as y^ |p . 

SeO.— Wu Fan i^ fg. • ;^ ^l]. 3rd century A.D. A 
famous professor of the art of divinadon. He attached himtelf to Snn 
E'iian, q. v., whuee fntnre grenlness he foretold, when the latter was at 
tbe (mtset of bis Etnigglu (iir power, and Iwcame the trusted counsellor of 
this martial hero. Ennobled a^ ^> ^ ^. 

SSI.— WuHiEM M ^- Rei'iittd, on (he aotWity of tbe 
Shu King (cf, L. C-, iii, p., 478), as having been a Minister of the 
Sovereign T'ai Mow. B.C. IC37; but in iho same passage a sUteinent 
occurs that Tsu Yih. Id ]{.C. 1525, enjoyed the seivicea of Wu Hien /^ 
^. (Dommentators have difiered wiiltly in the interpretation of these 
names. Some argue that the charnctcr vnt | represents wmply an 
iudividual name; wbilst others are of opinion that It uusl be taken here as 
ekewhere in tbe sense of "ptiest" or "diviner." Hence tradititoi baa 


BBsigned fo the person or pereons mentioned as above the invenlion of Bnn- 
dry prmx'sses of divinalioii, and the name has heen carried back to the days 
of Hwang; Ti atul of Tao, whose physician Wu Hien is asserted to have 
lieen. According to the ^ gQ. ha waa ao astrologer in Ihe KTvice of 
Hwang Ti. C£ J. C- L. k. 25. 

8QS.— Wu now ieC ^. The Empress Wa, by whom the 
government of Chma was usurped during; the latter half of the seventh 
century. Originally named Wu Chao | Jj^,, the daughter of a man of 
low station, slie hecame one of the inferior concubinea ,^ yv of tlie 
Emperor T'ai Tsung of the T'ang dynasty, on whoee death in A.D. 649, 
she retired to a Buddhist nunnery, wlierc, still at an early ago, she asnmed 
the monaslio garb and vows. Here, a fetv years later, E^he was observed 
by the Emperor Kan Tsnng, ivho had already noticed her while an occupant 
of his fnlher'a seraglio. Kao Tsung's Empress, anxious at the time to 
destroy the iiifluenee of a favoured concabiue, and having disoorered her 
consort's fancy for the youthful nun, took the latter from her retreat and 
introiluceil her into tlic palace. Once reestablished at Court, the adr 
ventnress G^iccilily contrived to engross the monarch's admiration, and in 
A.D. 65 1, she was miseil to tlie rank of Chao I ^ '^, and recognized 
as prime favourite. In llie following venr the Empress waa deposed in order 
to make way for her quondam |irotegre^ and from this moment the tatter's 
iufliiencc o\-er the Emperor and \n St^to affairs continued only to increase. 
To gratify her vindictive desires more than one of the most eminent public 
servants WAS sent to execution, and clinnges were liberally introduced to 
suit her lasles in llie hii^lLlulioas and ceremonial of the Empire. In A.D. 
074, she ral-it^l her tiephcw \Vu C'liVng-fize ^ y§(. ^, to tLo rank of 
Duke of Ciiow ^ ^ ^, nliilsl tlie Emperor and herself assumed rc- 
speciivfly llie titli-s ^ 1^ .ind ^ ^0 or Emi"eror and Empress of 
Heaven. On the death of Tfung in A.D. GS^, he was succeeded by 
one of his Si>ns. a feeble youth (known in history as Chnng Tsung), who 
contenlcilly ri-siguod the [xiwcrs of p'ven.menl into the hands of the 
EmpTifS-dowa^'r a moinh after liia aii-.-ssion to the throne. The Empress, 
ivlegiilinjj ilie aclnal S.>vi'ri'i:rn to a siaio of cocGncment, with the 
tilli- of Prince rf I.u Ijug ^ j^ 3E. horcuivn assumed the full at- 
tributes nf SDiveme power, which she coDlianed to wieU triumphantly foe 


nearly twenty -jean. Her deapotic rule wna mftintalned with pitiless cruelty, 
EtatesmATi ailer atatefiman falling a victim to her resentment or cnprii;e ; 
but &t the same time ahe was can-fiil to nphoM the external interests fX 
the Empire, the buiindariea of which alic enlarged whilat gftinhig a fresh 
holi] on the allegiance of the neighbonring nations. Itegardleis of remon' 
stranoe, ahe Introduced aweejnng dianges in tlie ofdinances and [itaotice of 
government, and eren aoiigfat to signaliEe her reign by altering the form of 
aoiDO of the mofit familiar written characten of Um langnage; whilat her 
oont«mpt for criticiam was manifested in the free access to her prirats apart- 
menta which she granted to the Buddfaiat priest Hwai I '^ ^g. Aftet t 
course of action extending over many yeara which gave rise to the soft- 
picion that ahe cheriahed a deaign of totally snpplanting the dynasty of 
T'ang,*Bhe at length threw off all diagniie, and having pnt to death a 
great number of the ofT-flhonts of the Imperial family, ahe proclaimed herself 
in A.D, 690, " EmperOT " ^ *j^ of the Chow ^ dynaa^. She at tb8 
nine time adopUd one of the Impetial Princes aa her heir, ^ving him her 
own surname, Wn, and assnnted the full attribates recoguEftd as pertahili^ 
to a change of dynasty. It was not mitil the infimiUa of age had over- 
taken the vigorous frame and sapped tiie commandthg intellect (J thii 
extraordinary woman that any effectoal attempt was made to snbrert her 
power. After anme years of threatened renJt, a mlBtary conB[nracy was 
at length ot^niied, which, in A.D. 706, sncceeded in wresting the gotem- 
ment from the hands of ihs Empress, wherenpon the rtgbtfnl Sovereign wai 
called from bis seclnsion and placed npon the Throne. Erea in her down- 
fall, however, the Empress retained a portion of the influence and respect 
Am bad been habituated to command. She was endowed with a palatial 
residence, and the title ^l] 3^ ;;^ ^ M. ^ ^^ assigned to her, 
whilst for the few rematoing montha of her life she was treated with high 
coonderation by the Sovereign whom she had so long diaposBessed. Her 
death took place in the same year with her depoaitioD. From the titis 
conferred upon her (see above), she is frequently designated Wn Ts&h-t'ien 

eeS.— plAs] Wo Ti ^ SC •^. /).B.C. 87. son of King 
Ti, and fourth Sovereign of the Han dynasty. Acceding to the throne in 
B.C. 141^ his reign of 54 years' dnration was both (he longest and the . 

368 :CBmMSS RS4DS»S SfAltUAL. Pi- J. 

moA qtleodid of the mUra Hook of lin. Tha jonDifiil Someign ngiwliwd 
die GomnMnoemiDt of ha leign bj an flnthOKuUc pftUcuwge of literatmc^ 
wd ondtK lua anpicw Uio newlj ncovend Coofociim wriUngs v«r» 
^igwtly Mudied I7 Tang Clnuig-«ba q. v^ wd hU oollesgiies. In BO. 
18Q» the Snt lit«nrT degrwt werq iuBtitatad, wiih tb* title £ ifS ^ 
^ ; wbUst Kt ibo Huoe qioch the inllQcnce of tb* Empire begui to nMl(« 
itteU f^t WDoiig the fierce Domsdi of the Northern ^tvlter vA at t^ 
Comt of tbe then indapeDtleiit rolei of Sonth-ewtvm Cbiiu. Kotwitb- 
ttoPdiiic Iw wi^ proc^Ttties in &voar of the Coofiteian lilaMloie, Wn Ti 
qieedilf betMyej a )esDli« tovaid the ptofei«otB of magic and npentiliaa* 
litei^ — c£ Nnmben 36<S and 342 ; and Muttial puncHi was at the eaaie 
time indulged with more than ordinary Hcenae. Thjt tvofbld denlopBient 
9f the Impeiial chancta gave vm, most probabl j, to the tradjUow - whkh 
W a nbseiiDept age reoosuted the amonn of Wq Ti nitb his f^ vtaitor, 
Si Wong Mo, t^ T. A galaxy of ooungeona and enterprising generala 
carried the anm of Wa Ti into the heart qf Central Aaia, — cf Ij 
|^7«Dg-lt, Chang K'jen, ete. ; and with nntdi; vwisiitadei, the foroidaUe 
Bion^pq, vera enoeeeafnllj held in check on the northnetfera fiontierf. 
lo B.Q- ISf^ the tnbes occnpTing the region of modern Yiin-nan were also 
toot^;fat imdw salfjectkiiv In B,C. VA, a change of calendar, in accord- 
ance itith th9 calcalatAoqv of Sae-ma T^ien q. v., was introdaced, and 
fonni the epoch with which the tnodem period of Chinese efaronology 
begins. The oonclading yean of Wa ll'a reign were distingaiahed b; a 
•erie* (^ gorgeom Imperial joDmejSi haviog a> their olgect the performance 
vf aacrifidal rit«« at dtfiareiit maantaiiHihrinee ; and they wer« alia die- 
graced by the proecriptious aod jcdicial maiden initigated by the Piincew 
Kow ■^h, — tee No. 278. In B.C. 87, the Ewpeiw, while lying 00 hie 
deathbed in the £. ^ ^, beqaoathed hia chilJish heir prince Fnh-ling 
to Ihe care of Ho Ewang and Kin Jih-ti (jq. v., whom he nominated 

eeSa.— [Liang] Wc Ti ^ SC I^- ^- K6: 549. The title 
pOBthamonaly aesigned to Siao Ten ^ |^, the fonnder of the shortlived 
dynasty of Liang. A oonnection and subordinate fonctionary of the 
Emperon of the Ta'i (lyaaaty, he gradually rose to inpreme pover nnder 
the Inel feeble reprmentatLTee of that line, and in AD. 502, he seated him- 


adf apon the throne, pntting hii {H^eceasor and other ecioiia of the home 
of Tsl to dntb. A Urge portioa of the ngrthwestcni tenitory cf CUnft 
leaained at thia time, u for MVeral ceotiiriea prenotulf , in the poner tf 
the Wei dynastj, aad despite oootlnual warfare, Wn Ti waa onaUo to 
extend his sovereignty in that direction ; but from Eien Ei'aDg (the modem 
Kanking), he mled with great ability and spleadonr over Sonthern and 
EaBtern China. He profeesed an ardent rerereooe foi the tenets d Bnd- 
dhism, and extended warm patronage to the profenora d thu foltli, 
inclnding inis^onariel who during his reign vera attracted from India to 
his donuntons. On npeatad occasionB, he took np Ui abode in Bnddhtit 
raonasleriee and asBumed the religious garb. Toward the md of a long 
•nd glorioaa reign the fimperor*! power began to uffer attack on the part 
of uuurgant ohieftaiiw, and bis lineage wm «Xtiqgniibed W3 AatXj kftec 
his deoeaae. 

88-4.^Wl Kim j^ 10.— Tbe Uan in the l&xm. Aooordmg 
to a tradttitm pieaeryed in the (9 H* jfifl ^1 & ^nvk of the T'ang 
dynast;, Wn Eang was an adept in the adt of the gmil, whc^ having 
committed an oQenoe agaiut the sapenial powers, waa banished to th« 
moon and ooudemned to laboor in hewing down the cinnamon ttee whlok 
groin there. As fast as he dealt hbws with his axe, the traak of dM tiw 
closed again after the incision. Cf K 8. L. art. ^. 

SeB.—WuKui ^^ • ^^. A.D. 109&— 1189. A 
celebrated commaiidw of the reigns Sotra E'in Tsnng and Eao Tsung, 
Famous for his achievements against the Ein Tartan, whose attempts at 
gaining posMSuan of the province of. Shah (Sse-ch'wan), he SDooessfally 
oombatted. On one oocanon, when the oit? of Han Yang, was menaced 
by the invaders, he rode with bfa cavalry 100 miles in a ringle lught to its 
relief. On nearing the foe he sent a basket of oranges to the Tartar com- 
mander, with the message that he sent the fruit to lilake his (hint aRer so 
long a joamey from home ; and thereupon falling upon the hoalile troops, 
he routed them nUerly. Having fallen sick at Ihe eaHy age of 47, the 
Imperial physicians were despatched to attend bim, bat without avaO. 
Can. as ^ ^. His brother Wn Lin | ^ {D. A.D. 1167), likewise 
rose to high dtstino^on as a statesman and commander. He was can. as 

u,., ,. ,,,^ioo^k' 


oQQ. — Wc K'l -j^ ]@. A celebrated commaiider in tbe 
serrice of tbe Stale of Wei, nt the bt^nning of the 4th ceotnry B.C. In 
B.C. 887, he entered tbe Berrice of Ta'n ^, and bdng ordered \a lead an 
army against Ta'i jf, of which State his wife waa a native, be dew ber 
ket sbe sbould exercise an influence over bia actiona. Although piljleaely 
Kvcre, be gained the affection of his troopa bjr Bbaring everj bardtibip wilb 
(hem in the field. Was author of a treslixe on the inilita[7 art, which is 
■till liigbly esteemed. He is hence known as ^ ^, in reference U> Lie 
autboTsbip. Having fallen, in B.C. 381, into tbe bands of the people of 
Ts'i, he was pnt to death bj tbom. 

SQ"?.— Wd L*o i ^. The Hive Old Men, who, aceorfing ' 
to tbe chronicle of the Bamboo Booki; were Ihe spirits of the five planets 
y. ^^ ^ y^, and appoared on earth 'in the da^rs of Yao, walking 
among the islets of the Ha Cf. L.C., in., pruleg, p. 113. Tbe ^ ^ 
PQ, fuaetts that they made their aj^iearaitce at Court in the t«nth year of 
tbe mign of Shun, whom they assisted with their counsels until he abdicat- 
ed tbe throne in favour of Yu, when they disappeared. Shun thereupon 
eiecl«d a temple dedicated to tbe five planets, at which be ofleied sacrifices 
to them; and on tbe same night Sve long stars" appeared in the 
beavens, with other aospicions signs. Cf. E. P. W. k. 2. p. 37. 

SSS.— Wu MftsQ ^ ^, One of the patterns of filial piety, 
who is reputed Ui have lived under tbe Tsin dynasty. When plagued by 
miKquitoea, he refrained from driving them away from his own body lest 
they should annoy his parents In later life he became an adept in the 
secrets of necromancy, which were imparted to bim by the wizard Ting I 
J 3g^. Being hindered one day from crossing a rivet by contrary winds 
he waved over tbe surface of the water a white feather fan and was by 
this means wafUd across. He is said, with the help of bis brothers, to 
have slain, circ& A D. 312, a huge serpent which at that Ume devastated 
the region of '^ ^, (the modem Kiang-ai). Hu Ch6n Kiin q. v, be- 
came his pupil, and both attained to immortality at the same moment. In 
Ihfi r-Inn nii-'Fip U-) nf llip dvnisly, lie whs invwted «ilh ihe tide 

^1)1 ^i UK- Hi. ,i.„^!,t,.,.. i-.i i.»,.n ;(as:i'-- ■■"'^■>^"' 

adept in the secrt^ts of Taoism, thniugh the instructions of Siu Ying y^ 


^, Ting I'e daughter. She wU tnuried to WSn Siao ^ j|fj^, vith 
whom Bbe was eventually caught np to Heaven, each ridhig upon 
a tiger. 

see.— Wc NoAN KiiN bC ^ #. A feudal title heatowed 
by the Prince of Chao on Li Mu, and by the Sovereign of Ta'in <m Ptti 
K'i q.q. v. 

870.— Wu Viva M ^. A phyuoian in the aerrKe of the 
Emperor Tao, B.0- 2357. 

871.— Wu San^wei ^ H ^- O- A.D. 1678. A native 
of lie province of IJao-tung, employed during the cWng years of the 
* Ming dynasty, as a commander of the forces engaged in recasting the 
invaitionu of the Mancbow Tartars. Whilst at the head t^ his troopB ia 
AD. 1643, at a pwiit near the frontier, he received intelligence of the 
capture of Peking by the rebel Li Tsze-cli'^ng ^p g JjJJ, and tbe 
snicideof the Emperor (Te'nng Cheng), upon' which he concluded a treaty 
with tbe Uanchow Sovereign, wbnse aid be invoked for the expulsion of the 
insurgent leader from Peking. Tbe resnlt of this cotnbinntion wa« the 
establisibment (probably not unforeseen by Wu San-kwei), of tbe !tIandiov 
dynasty on the throne of Cbioa, after tbe recapture of Peking, by tbe aid 
of tbeir forvee ; and upon this Wii San-kwei was loaded with houonrs and 
subetantJal rewards. He received the title of ^^ ^ ±_, ot Prince 
Pacificator of the West, with the viceroyalty of Tiln-nan and Sze-cb'wao, 
becoming tbe most powerful of the ^ ^ J or Three feudatory Princea 
(see Shang K'o-sin and Keng Ki-mow), to whom for a time tbe govers- 
ment of Southern Clitiia was given over. Afler many yeare of rule as a 
somi-iudependciit vassal, during which period be reduced tbe whole of the 
Western regions of China to submission and carried his arms across the 
Burmese frontier, Wu San-kwei by degrees evinced a design of asserting 
an independent sovereignty, whii.'b at length he carried into effect In 
AD. 1671, he threw off his alK-giance, at the same time stirring np rebel- 
lion on (he part of tlie princes uf Kwungtung and Fukien j and for some 
years, his insurrcctiim menaced tJie newly-established Manchow power wilh 
OTiTihriiw. Kis n'soiirces were, however, iineqtial to the etniggle, and his 
di'a'Ii, nliirli liHik plai-e in ICTf*, »nticipaie<l by a few months only the 
final triumph of tbe Imperial forces, supported by the arUlIery which v» 

att cBmesE readsrs msnuau pt. z. 

m&naboturoj fbr lliom bylha Jesuit mfssumanes at the Court of E'&ng- 
bi, over his bnvo bnt ill-umed suppoilen. 

8'?S.— Wo-BCN KuNQ Cht ^ ^ ^i- i- D. B.C. 49. The 
frincesa of Wn-iun, n lady of tba kindred of Han Wn Ti, named 8i Kun 
1^ ^. She was beatowed in matriftge, B.C. 105, on the Prince of Wn- 
Biin, a stat« in Central Aua near the modem Hi, as the price of an 
Mltianoe by whicb China gained sapport fa her external oomlnnatians 
against the Hiung-nn. Her hartjarian coDsorl, an aged Prince dengnated 
Ew'Sn-mo ^ ^, allowed her to live in solitude in the remdfflioe prepared 
for her occupation, where he visited her hut onoe a year; and after hii 
decease the Prioceas was taken in marriage bj his grandson. The nnhqipy 
ladf, yeamiug in exile for her native land, Is said to have composed an 
elegy known as the chant of the Yellow Heron f^ ^ ^. In BC. 51, 
■be besought permiseioa to oome and lay her hones in Chinese aoil, which 
having been granted, the aged lady was escorted to her home with the 
honours due to an Imperial Princess. She is said to have introdnced into 
China the musical instrument known as the p'i-pu ^£ ^^, a species 

878. — Wu 8>UH ^ [Jj. The name of a range of mounlahis 
throogh a prolonged defile in whidi the npper waters of the Tang^tae 
force thwr way, in the province of Sze^h'wan- The three eaccessiTe "gaps" 
«r defilei tl^ fiirmed by this range are said to be two hnodred miles in 
length ; and the Twelve Peaks of the Wu Shan \ \ -^ *"■ ^, the 
most lofty among the sncceesive elevations here encountered, are widely 
famed among the wonders of Chinese scenery and mystio legende. The 
ancient poet Sung YU q. v., made them the home of a sapemataral being, 
the Fairy of the Wa Sban, } | fll] :^, who has occn^Hed in aQ 
Bubseqnent ages a prominent position in poetry and romantic alloraon. K 
is related that nhen vtEitJng the Ton-er of Yiin-meng ^^ ^ ^, in 
company with Prince Siang of Ts'u, Sung Yll was asked by the Prince to 
explain the meaning of some clouds of marvellous shape, which be noticed 
driving in constantly changing forms acroes the sky. _ The poet re[Jied 
that what he saw was ^ ^, the clouds of the morning, and added that 
in times of old a Prince who had visited the mountains of Eao T'ang ^ 
^, fell asleep under the inBuenoe of fatigue, whereupon a beaut«oiii 

fit. r, camssB beaubxs manual. m 

dunael vwted him in bia dreams, &nd sang : " I am the lady of Monnt 
Wn, a wayfaiei of Eoo Tang. Hearing [hat yon, v\j lord, bare visited 
tkb spot, I fain woald ipread ics joa the mat and pillow." TIm princQ 
shared hia conch with the heavenly njoiph, who, ai ehe afterwaidi bad* 
litrewell to her royal loypr, dlenppeared singing: — 

"Mj home ie on l}ie annlit uda of Hoiint Vu, 

Aud I dwnU on the peaks of Kao Tang ; 

At dawn I uiarshol Ihe morning cloudi, 

And al niglit I suiDmon tlie isui. 

Zivrj mam aiid every iitKht, at the BrightTcwBr'i foot." 

(From tl)b legend, (he phnuw ^^ ^, " clouds and rnin " has acqnired 
the stgniGcaUon of sexaat intercoorse. The eipresrioD Q^ ^, or Ur^t 
Toner is interpreted in the ^ pjf, as the title of one of tlie heavenly 
spheres, a resort of the gf^nii). According to the pjC ^ 'fj^ the lady 
of the Wu Shan was a daughter of the Lord of Heaven, and ww named 
lao ^ ^. Cf. J. G. L. k. 25. 

S-r^.— Wu Such %^. ' IE M" ^- ^^- ^"- ^- ■^■^■ 
1002. A celebrated scholar and aaihor. 

S'?©.— Wu Til Pto ^ 3fc -fg. B. circa Ka 1290. Eld^ 
■on of Tan Fn, the duka of Chow (see Chow), and known from his nni- 
ority in birth at FSh or T'ai P6b. His individual name is nnknown. TaQ 
Fo manifested a desire tti make bis third son, Ki Li, q. v, his snceevor, 
getting aside T'ai PSh and a second son named Cbang Tnng ^p j^ } 
wbeienpon the two elder brethren, like the renovsed I'^h I and Shah Ta'} 
of an earlier age, resuTved that they wonld not tnter into competltioQ with 
their Other's chosen heir, and withdrew into the wilderness lying to the 
south of tlie river Yang-tsxe. Here they took np their abode among the 
barbaroas tribes called King Man ^J ^J, and fnnnded a dominion U> 
which they gave the name Kow Wu ^ J^, — a designation preeamablj 
derived from sounds in the aboriginal tongue. Tbe residence adi^ited by 
T'ai Peh was Uei Li '^^ J^ near tbe modem Ch'ang^Aow Fn in 
Kiaogsu. At his death he was micceeded t^ hii brother, who baean« 
ancestor of the FruMes of Wo. According to Sse-ma Ts'fen, when Wn 
Wang, the founder of the Chow dynasty, had completed tbe foundation ti 
bli Empire, he sought ont bis distant kiramen, circft RG. 1129, and db- 
eovered the progeny of Chang Tnng, lo oonnst in two brothers^ mmeJ . 


Chow Chung ^ ^, and Ya Chnng ^ •^. The latter he invested 
with a fiof in Northern China, leaving the elder brutlier nt iLe head of Ihe 
government of Wu. Sotne confusion esi?ta, however, with refi^rence U> the 
name of YU Chunft. which is in sortio pnssageB ajiplied to the younger 
brother of T'ai FSb, mentioDed above as Chung Yung. Gf. L. C, i., p. 
200; and S. K. k. 31. 

87*6,— Wd Wano ^ 5- RC. 1169—1116. The posfhu- 
moQB title of the founder of the Chow dj'nnaty, — named Fa ^J, son of 
Ch'ang, Chief of the West, (see Si PSh), whose undertakingB lie continued 
and carried to a glorious end. Id B.C. he took the lead in a vast as- 
sembly of the nobles and people of the Empire, with whom he crossed the 
Hwang Ho, at the ford of Meng ^ '^, and engaged the forceii of Chow 
Sd q. v., Intho plains of Muh ipf ^, completely overthrowing Lhe tyrant 
and his dynasty. The victorious Prince hereupon ascended the throne. 
Cf. L. C, m., Part v. 

STT.— Wu Ym NiJ ffi||:iC- 'A he wise but fll-favonred 
woman of Wu Yen, named Chung-U Ch'un ^ Kit ^ She was 
lepulfHve in every feature, and had aUailied the age of forty without 
finding any one to take her into favoiu-. At length she demanded an 
aadience of Prince Soan of Ts'i ^ ^ L (B.C. 842), and being 
admitted to the royal presence despite the laughter of the courtiers she 
made such an impression by ber mental qualities that she was taken to 
wifi) by the prince (^ ^f flf ). 

S^S.— Wu Ybo ;^ ^. • ^ ^. 2nd century A.D. A 
public ofiScial of the Han dynasty, who rose from poverty to high dignilJeB 
in virtue of his reputation for worth and ability. Having remonstiated 
against the disgrace of Li Ying q. v., he was driven firom office -by the 
tatter's enemy, Liang Ei. 

STe.— Wo YtiN ^ ^. • -^ •^. Yonuger wm rf Wu 
8b€h, ] ^, Prime leister of the 8tat« of Ta'u, circft B.C. 520, 
who, with his elder son Wu Shang | |^, was put to death at tb» 
instigation of a rival statesman. Upon this Wn YUn took lo flight, 
and sought lefuga at the ndghbouring Contt of Wu ^, in the 
•errice of which State he rcse to eminence, and conducted oxpediliona 


Bguoat his native conntr;. AA«r serring vitb great fidelity the Princes 
Liao and Ho Li), he conlanoed bis care^ in the service of thdr anccessoi 
Fu Oh'a, the last and iU-hted scion of the house of Wn. Having 
landed this Soverdgn at length by the btJdnem with which he renuot- 
stzated agtunst the debauchery and extravagance preferred by Fa Ch'a to 
the toils of government, he was disgraced and sentenced ciroft B.C. 475 to 
perish by hia own hand. After the act of snicide was accom{dished hii 
corpse was sewn in a leathern wine-sack, and cast into the river near the 
present city of Sooohow. In later years temples were dedicated by the 
gratofal people to his memory ; and in process of tjme the fact of his 
remains having recdved a wat«ry grave led to his being deified as the god 
or spirit of the waters. 

aSO.— Yang Ch£n ^fi*i^ f& I>- A^D- 124. Son of 
Yang Fao, i^.v. and famous as a man of learning and upright functionary. 
His scholarship and integrity gained for bim the epithet of ^^ ^ ^[^ ^, 
■— tho Confacius of the West (his native region). He roea to occnjiy 
high official positions, but nevertheless continued poor to a degree which 
excited the remonstrance of his children. In reply to their entreaties 
that he would seek to foand an eetate he replied that if he gained tho 
title of Ih Q ^ — the pure official, — this would be a snffiwently rich 
inheritance to bequeath to them. Refamng on one occasion a thank- 
oGfering of ten bars of gold, which was piened upon him by a protege 
under cover of night, he refused the ^ft, saying in reply to the assurances 
of the would-be giver : " Heaven knows it, earth knows it, you know it, I 
know it: how say yon that none will know iti" Having been appointed 
one of the Ministeri of State in A.D. 123, be Temoustrated inefiectually 
with the young Emperor Ngan Ti against the abuses which were en- 
couraged by the latter's foeler-molher Wang 8h€ng ^E ^B- ^^ ^^' 
daughter Feb Yung ^Q ^. Besigrung his seals in consequence of the 
disegard with which bis warnings were rec^ved, he committed suicide in 
the folbwing year. 

881._Y*Na Chu ^^ '^ M ^ philosopher of the 
fourth or fifth century B. C. By Chwang Tsze be is said to have 
been a disciple of Lao Tsze, but this is doubtful. His doctrines 
are chieSy known through the vigorous condemnation they received 

m vamBSB ^eadbks masvau pt. /. 

kt''tlie hands of Henoiiu, who wu tbnr iiiiq«riag enemy. In tlwff 
general ohantcler they greatly rammUe the ethia of bis eontetnponuy 
Epicnnia, with whom be agrees in pieaohing a ioliJime bdiArenoe t4> 
Eb and death, and a regard for ectf in ptefennoe to the oaae of oUum. 
Thiu Uencina ri^Uy duracterieea hie pMoK>[Ay at that of " ■nHMww"' 
— ^ ^ S il- Cf. L.C., n., p. 188, and prdeg, p. 95. 

88i3. — Tang Hjaw i^ $. One of the pattema of filial pie^. 
He ia Bwd to have lived nnder the Had dynasty. When fixiiteen yean 
old be uw bia fitther pounoed npcxi by a tigei, vbeiecpon be threw himidf 
nndn the tilone of the beast and tbw enaUed bU father (o enape wilk 
t£e iaoiifioe of Ub own Hie. 

S8S.— TiiM HiDWo ^ 1^. • -y- H. B.C. 58.— A.D. 18. 
A [Aitoaopber and Ibimder of a sobool of ettuca. Hb docttinee witb 
lefaenoe to m(»al action are baaed apon a comprontise between the antaj^ 
onialio prinoipiee of SCsncias and BUn Tne, qq. v., — maintsiniDg that 
hmnan natnie ia ctHnponnded originaDy of both good and eril, He con> 
tended tlnrefore that tbe resulta developed in bidiTidnnl cbaracter depend 
wholly on edaoadon or controlling drcamstancca, and are not predetennined 
fir innate. Having held office under tbe Emperor Ch6ng Ti, and bis 
Kxaemx*, he aoeepted the poet c^ Hiuister in the servicti of tbe omrper 
Wang Hang, for v^cb be ia severely blamed in bistoiy. 

884.— Tato Hn I^ jl, [or Ho ^]. 6tb centor; B.C. As 
officer of the State of Ln contemporary wilb Confecioi. He was an 
adherent fX Ei Hwan ^p J^, tbe ebief of one of tbe three lamiliee related 
to the dncal kindred by whom ibe government was controlled, but rebelled 
agunst him in B.C. 60S, and held him prisoner for a lime. He wished 
to see G(«lii(]iua, but Confucius wonid not see bim." Of. L. G , i., p. 181. 
He was eventually fdled in his ambitions designs and compelled to fly 
tk State. 

88S.— TitKO Hn ^ iJ. * ^^- O. A.D. 27a Ad 
adherent of Ss»-ma Yen SJ J^ ^' *^^ fonnder of (he T^n dynasty, 
and famooB ai a statesman and commander. The hcmonrs <^ a dis- 
tingniahed aueestiy were enhanced by bis martial skill and by tbe virtaea 
be displayed in dvil office. Created ^ ^ ^, and subeequently 
kiTCMd with the great flef of K jSI 9K- lil^°7 otl»r Fro^ered rewards 

1%. t ciuNMss BEAiaaea hasvai. jh 

Iw imute modMtjr [mi^>ted him to decline Aa gorcmn gf Bjng Chow 
^1 Tij in hk letter yean, he paved the my fcr ihe final orwthiDW of 
the nval dynaaty of Wo. 

SSe.—YANo I ^ It- ' i^^- A.D. 074— 10». A 
«elebnled loholar, dndngnlabed by hii precodena 'geDioB. Can. aa 3C' 

88T.— Yang Kwei-fbi ^ ^ ^. The PrhicMa YaiiR 
celebrated as the All-powerful fsToniite of Ming Hvang (the Emperor 
T'ang Hitan Tsimg) q.v. She was tLe daaghter of Yang HQan-yen 
I £ jfn^ a native and petty fontionary of ^ ^ in Weston China, 
and bore in childbold the name YU Hwau Ba 3j|- Having attracted 
Dolioe by her sarpacong beauty and accompliBbments she became, in A J). 
785, one of the conoabines of Prince Show, |P ^, the Emperor's dghU 
eentb eon. Three years later, on the death of the then Imperial favonrit^ 
the miniitere to Miog Hwang's pleasarea cast their eyes upon the lorely 
Frinoesa Yang. No sooaer had the Emperor obtained a aght of his dangh ter- 
in-law than, violently enamoured, he caused her to be enrolled among tha 
ladies of his seraglics bestowing in exchange attother consort on hii kid. 
The TatHst fancies in which the voluptnana monarch took deligbt wen 
manisfested in the devgnation he besKnred upon bia new favoorite, wbo 
ms henceforth named the lady Tai ChSn "J^ ^, in reminisceiMe of one 
«f the daughters aaagned in mysUo fable to the goddeat 81 Wang Via. 
Before a year had elapsed, so great an ascendancy had been gained in 
the harem by Yang l"ai-chSn, that she obtained from the entire Court 
«Qd from the Emperor himself demonstrations of reelect such as justly 
Appertain to none but the Empress Consort. In A.D. 745 she was raited 
to the rank of Kwei Fei "^ j/j^ a title second in dignity to that of 
Empress only, and year after year saw the Emperor more and move deeply . 
«mk in the toils of amorous dalliance. In this pemtaioas <KnitBe be waa 
eucoaraged by the ctvmpt lUnisten and amster faToorilei nnder whose 
influence the afiaiis of State bad passed ; and with tbdr consent the entire 
fiiDuly <£ Yang Ewei-fd participated in die faToim that were poodigally 
larished upon herself. Her father was raised to bigb office, and a brother, 
a oonrs^ nnedocat«d volnpAuary, Domtnally discharged fcv a time the 
(onctiont of chief KCnister of State. Qrowing more and more iiliiiiimliiw 
in the iudulgenoe of his paasion, the Empeior bttodooed into hii hanm 


the three sisten of Yang Kvu-fo, ruaing (hem to tiie rank of FrinoeaBva, 
and endowing them with valuable £«fs. From the territorial poaaeasioni 
thug bestowed upon (hem, the sisten took the titles lespectively of Han 
Kwoh Fu-jen ^ S :^ A> Kwoh Kwoh Fu-jen ^ H ^ A* 
and Ts'iD Enoh Fu-jen ^^ |^ ^ A- ^^ outlay was spared in 
gratifi'Ing tbe caprices or the coretouaoes of this family of favourites. 
Tribotary kingdoms were ransacked for gema to enhance the adonunents 
they displayed at innumerable feetirala, and whole diatricts were wrong 
with cxacUuns for the purpose of meeting tbe frequent demands made by 
the Princesses and their connexions on the palace treaanry. For the 
delectation of Tang Kwei-fei in particular, relays of couriers were employed 
during tbe early summer in transporting to Ch'ang-ngan from the southern 
provinces supplies of the fniit called the li-che ^^ ^, of which she was 
immoderately fond, and in this duty great numbers of the serfs who were 
employed as rnnnera fell victims to excessive exertion. The Emperor's 
unworthy minion, Ngan Luh^ban, q. v., was admitted to participate in the 
revels of the Emperor and his bevy of concubines, nor did the scandals 
which hence became bruited abroad in any degree abate the Emperor's 
infatuation. These days of licentious enjoyment were at length terminated 
by the disorders which ensued upon Ngan Lnh-shan'e rebellion. In the 
hurried tliglil of the Court Ix-fiire the advancing insiirgenls ui A.D. 756, 
the Imperial corti^ having baited at the entzenched position of Ma Wei 
Wi ^' ^''*' beaten and famished soldiciy rose in revolt, and satiated their 
vengeful feelings in the blood of the Imperial minions. 'VVilh unutterable 
anguish, the still fondly-enamoured muuarch was constrained to order his 
fcuthful attendant, the c(nuvb Eao li-sze, to strangle the Princess Yang, 
whilst the latter's brother Yang Kwoh-chung and her sister Ta'in Kwoh 
' Fu-jen, were torn from tbe Imperial presence by the revolters, and publicly 

8©©.__Yano Kwoii-cuiHO ^ ^ ;^. l>. A.D. 756. Brother 
of Yang Kwei-fei, — see above. Originally named Yang Chao | ^|, 
he exchanged the latter deaguation for tbe flattering designatioQ invented 
for him by the Emperor his patron. 

88©.— Yarn Kr«N ^ ^. n. A.D. 604. The founder of 
the Sat dynasty, and known in history as Wan Ti ^C W- Ori^nally 


a fbnotjoiiary in the Rervice of the ephemeral dynasty of Chow, which 
diluted the Empire with the Ch'Gn dynasty, he rose to high iiifiiience in 
the State on hia daughter being made Empress in A.D. 676, and was 
invested with the title of ^ -^ Duke of Sui, which he shortly after- 
wards exchanged for that of Frince. Three yeaia later he deposed the 
Sovereign of Chow from bis Ihrone, and proclaimed himself as Emperor in 
his stead. Having siihsequcntly extingiiisliod sundiy competitors for power 
he oveilhrew the last ruler of the OU'en dynasty in A.D. .589, and thence- 
foiwacd reigned as Sovereign of China, until murdered by his Eon (see 
Yang Ti), in A.D. 605. 

8©0.— Yang Pao ^ §. Father of Yang ChSn q. v. It is 
related of him, as an instance of the merciful disposition by which he has 
beooma famooa, that when nine yeais old he rescued a wounded bird which, 
havmg been etnick down by a kite, waa bdng devoured by ants. Having 
nursed it tenderly for a hundred days and upwards, until perfectly restored 
to strength, he allowed it to dy away. The same night he was visited I7 
a youth clad in yellow garments, who presented him with fonr aimlets of 
white jade Q £ ^g, saying ; " Let these be emblems of the ^tlees 
virtue and the exalted dignities of your sons and grandsons 1 " 

8© 1 .— Yaho P'u ^ J^. D. A.D. 938. Biotbei and suocesBor 
of Yang Lung-yen | |^ >Jp|, a military adventurer at the close of the 
Tang dynasty, who obtained control of the region lying to the north of 
the embouchure of the river Yang-tszc, where he proclaimed himself Prince 
of Wu i^ 3E' "" ^I*' ^If*' On the death of Yang Lung-yen in A.D. 
921, be was succeeded by Yang P'u. The latter subseqnenlly aasnmed 
tho title of Prince of Hwai-nan )f^ ^ ^, which he bore until dispov* 
sessed of his sovereignty in A.D. 9SS, by the Sovereign of the AiW Tang 

89S._YANa P'u ^ ^- " ^ ^. A.D. 1372— U«. A 
celebrated scholar and statesman. Known as ^ ^, to diEtingmsh him 
bom his contemporary Yang Yung q. v. 

8e3._T„o Sue >g #. • ((1 i: t a Ul A.D. 
105^-1135. One of the most celebrated among the metaphysiciaDS of 
the Simg dynasty. Was a pupil of the brotheiB Ch'^ng, and snbseqneDtly 
lumself the head of a large whoiastia following. As a public fonotionary, 


be dietJDguiBhed himself by the zeal irltli which be oppoKd the iaaovaltioDM 
of Waog Ngan-abe. Can. ai ^ ^. 

894— Yahq SfltN. ^ 1^ * M #• A-D. U88— 1559. A 

jtatinguished scholar and [Ailoeophical writer. 

8eS.— Yamg Su ^ ^. • ^ ^. D. A.D, 606. A celebrated 
vtatesmaD and commander daring tiie ragne of WGn 11 and Tang Ti of 
the Sui dynast}', with whose lineage he was connected. He bore a prominent 
part in the political and military movements which placed Yang Kien q. v. 
on the throne as successor to the dynasty of Ch'Sn, and coudncted in 
Wen Ti's service numerous campugns against t&e frontier Ungdoma and 
internal opponents. When WSn Ti lay on his deathbed Yang Sn 
ingratiated himself with the Emperor's son, Prince Ewang (we Yang Ti) 
hy a timely hint respecting fais father's condition, and was rewarded on ibe 
Prince's accession to the throne by a continaalion of his lugfa fnDctiDii& 
The new Sovereign's favour was not, however, of long contimiance, and 
finding himself neglected and in danger cf degradation, Yang Sn pined to 
death in tbe following year. Was distingnished by sc^olaiiy atlunmento 
and a love for study. Ennobled by WSn Ti as Duke of Yfleh j^ ^. Hit 
eon Yang Hlian-kan | J^ f^ was the first to nuse the standard of 
revolt against Yang Ti, but his attempt at huuirectiou was qmokly snp- 
pressad, and be peiished with the defeat of his forces in A.D. dlS. 

S9Ba.— Yanq Sze-k'i ^ i ^ * M M. A.D. 186S— 1444. 
A statesman and man of letters in high repute during the early reigns oF 
lie IVDng dynasty. From the situation of his birth-place in modem 
Eiangra he received the distinguishing appellation of ^§ ^ — the Westera 

8©S.— Yang Ti jt§ ^ D. A.D. 618. One dS the most 
infamous among the Sorerigns of China. Was named Yang Ewang ff^ 
gf , and was son of Yang Eien q. v., the founder of die SuI dynasty. 
While his father lay upon bis death bed In AD. 604, he eond an 0|k 
portunitj of debauching bis parents £tToarit« concubine, and finally, in 
order to ensure to himself the siioceanon, be oaoaed poiK» to be adcrunistered 
h) tbe dying Sovereign. Having ascended tbe tbione he indulged in 
wanton extravagance and luxury to an extent previonily nndieamt o^ 
undertaking works of fabulous oost for bis private delectation, in tbe axmb- 


tion of vlucli many thonsanJs <^ hn subjects perished. Even women wew 
{feesed into flerrioe for the exovatioD of the canals be caused to be dag, 
at an immeuse expeoditore of homan life, to connect the YaDg;-tBze nitb 
the T«Uon Bitot, which in hter agea became develt^ied into the ezistbg 
Qraod Canal ; whilst at the same time palaces, parks, and fronlier-walls 
in emnlation of tbe works of She Hwang-ti were nndertaken on evcsy side. 
His haiem wm thronged with lovely ooDcntHoes, obtained from erery 
qnartar, whilst fts thi'ir amasement netv-foruiB uf diveiKbn and enjoyment 
were continDally bfotigbt fmward by asaidnoas conrtiers. The apparent 
qdendoot of Yang TT^ reign was enhanced by embasEies ironi Japan, from 
Goclun Cbma, and from the nations of Central Awa ; and large accesdons 
cf tarritoiy wen obtained by anneialwQ on the Wesl«m frontier. In the 
latter years of his reign the natnral reenlta of miegoTemment made 
tbemselTOS f^ in rebellimis of increasing magnitude, until at length barely 
• shadow cS power remained to the abandoned monarch. Anticipating 
the Cute that awaited him he only gave himself up the more wildly to 
drankenneB and debauchery, notjl at length seiied and pat to death by a 
band of conspirators. 

8©'7.— Yakq Tb'dm-Chuno ^ ^ F^. • jE W- ^- ^^D. 1166. 
A celebrated oommander, renowned ^ his immense strength. He dis- 
tingnished lumadf in early life in the anppreaiDn of brigandage in the 
eastern provinces, and was loaded with hononts for the services be had 
rendered to the State. Dnting many troublooB years he whs one of the 
fixremost champions of the Emperon of (he Sang dynasty in their domestio 
contests and tlieir warfare with Ibe Ein TartaiK He is said to have 
Ibagbt in ntwe than 200 batlUs, and to have borne tbe scars of upwards 
(rf fif^ wonnds. 

898.— Yano Yen ^ jj^. 2). AD. 781. A floanoial reformer 
«f the rrign T'ang TSh Tsang. The latter on his accession to the 
Throne, in A.D. 779, raised him from an inferior poet to the Ministry of 
Btat^ and in the following year introduced, on Yang Yen's proposal, a 
lOTolntionary change in the system of taJtation. The three existing 
Cvms of DKHietary and personal obligation toward the Slate, known res- 
pectively aa f^ land-lax, J^ statntory laboor, and ^ payment in kind, 
VMB abolished, and in their stead a semi-annual collection of money-lax 


^H T% ^'^ mtroduced, an enUrely new aGseeament tliroDglionL tlie 
Empire forming its basis. Tlie Imperial favour was nol, however, i^ long 
dontion, Tie isduence of Tang Yen was secretl; imdermined bj his 
colleagne Lu E'i ^ >|^, and in the following year he was degraded and 
ordered into bacisbment at Tai Ghow, (Hainan), but was strangled l^ 
Imperial order before reaching his distinntjon. 

80©.— Yano Yuno ^^ *Mi^- AI*' 1371—1*40. A 
celebrated Btatesman, known as ^ | , in contrftdistincUon from Yang 
Fa, q. V. 

&OQ. — Yao ^g. The designation of the great Emperor who, 
with his successor Shan, stands at tbo dawn of Chinese history as a model 
of all wisdom and sovereign virtue. Tbo Shu Ein (Book of History) 
commences with the record of his life and achievements (see L.O. in, p. 15) : 
bnt to the terse statements of this comparatively antbcnUc chronicle num- 
berless fabulous details are added in legendary records. His snmame is 
said U> have heen Ei j^ and his name Fang-Lun, J(^ j^. Yao is 
considered as bis dynastic title, although this, like the remainder of his 
history, is wholly donbtfal. Ho is said to have been a son of the Emperor 
Ti Euh, who invested him with the principality of T'oo p9|, whence he 
subsequently moved his residence to T'ang ^, from whioh region he 
took the deeignalion of ^ 0^. The two localities have jointly given 
him the title of pSJ ^ ^. On ascending the throne in B.C. 
2857 he commenced, according to the chronicles, a course of wise 
and beneScent government the result of which was universal coq- 
oord." Under his direction, the astronomers Hi and Ho j^^ ^Q (sud to 
have been brothers) were commaiuled to observe the planetaiy revolutions, 
and the Empire was redeemed from the innndations . by which its surface 
was covered through the laboura of KwSn and Yli. AfUr occapyiog the 
throne for 70 years (or 9S years) he set adde his unworthy son Tan Chu 
q. V. and selected the virtuous Shun as bis successor, giving bim his two 
daughters in marriage and thereupon abdicated the throne in his favour. 
The virtnes and prosperous government of the two celebrated Sovereigns 
are commemorated in the phrase ^ ^ ^P Q : Heaven [favonring 
as in the days ()fl Yao and the sun [resplendent, or days prosperous as in 
the lime of] Shun. 


©OL-TAoCrfAjJI^. * -fdiP- A.D. 683-608. An 
enidita mAxAm, tiatbot of a poitiw of the HiHorf of the LIuig ijiualy, 

eOi3.— Tao Cu'AKa 3% ^. i>. A.D. S93. A nuUuiy 
adventurer and fbooder of the ephemeral dTsaatj c^ the ^^ ^^ or After 
Te'in. Having entered the Kfvice of Fn Eien q. r. in AJ). 357, «fl«r tbe 
OTerthron of his elder brother Yao Siang | J^, viho bad Btmggled with 
the latter for the mastery of ibe vetsLem [XMiiaQ of the Empire, he aerved 
for maoj jear^ a* a commander, ontjl the decay of Fn Kien'a pover 
emboldened him to graep at the sovereignly. In A D. 385 he defeated 
Fn Kien and pnl bim to death, thereup(» establiibing himaelf at Gh'an^ 
ngan, where he continued to maintain hia tovneignty nntil bia death, ad- 
ding even a porUon of the present province of Sze-ch'wan lo the dcaninkm 

80S.— Yao Cu'e ^ ^ The Lake of Oema, which wioda, 
according to the TaoiRt legends, od the lefl <rf the iuiy abode of Bi Wang 
Mo, at the foot of the Tortoise Uounltun j£ \i^, in the fabnlooa Ewbt 
Lnn range. 

804.— Tao Kien Mfl^ * &M ^th qentnrr AD. Son 
<^ Yao Ch'a, whose historical writings he oontloned and comjJeted. 

©OO— Tao Kwam-hiao j^ M ^ ' J&f i^ Religiwu 
name ^ i^ A.D. 1335 — 1418. A Bnddhist priest, wbo, drawn mto 
poblio life dnring the contests with which the Emi»rB was distiacted at 
the close of tiie YUan dynasty, rose into high ropnte as one of tba comi- 
sellots of Chn Yiian-cbaT%, the fonnder of the dynasty of ICng. lie 
latter invested him with high dignities and gave him the title of g^ fff 
or State Preceptor. 

©Oe._YA0 NiANO ^ ^. The lovely concnbine of Li Ytt- 
^P ^&' "*'''' whose downfall in A.D. 975 the ephemeral dynasty of 
Eiang-nan or Ihe Sonlfaem Tang ^ ^ came to an end. Acccuding 
lo poetical tradition, Ler feet were " cramped in the semblance of the new 
moon," and hence the practice of cramping the feet of women is, by some 
writos, allied to have oiig^ted with her example. 

©O^.-YEH-LtHViPm-Ai ^ ^ H :^. • Wlftt AJX 
1190—1243. A remote scion <^ d>e Sovoeign honse of Xiao |^ tlw 


Taitu dynasty sapplautcd in Northern China during Uie ttrelfUi centtuy 
1^ the rival dynut; of Kin •^ , in whose oervice he held poblio empiaf. 
On the overthrow of the 'Em Tartars by the mvading Abmgola he paned 
into the servioe of Qengfais Khan, and snbeequently of the httEer's boo, 
Ogdai Eban, whoee trasted coansellor he became. Wu devoted to lilsraiy 
pnTEiiitH, and promoted the stndy of Gbineae literature in the conqnered 
provinces evea dming this turbalent period. At an early period of hli 
career he was stationed in Turlieetan, and he is said to hare held the poet 
of Govem<» of Samarcand. In A-D. 1220, it b reuorJed, he introdoced a 
calendar for the Dse of the nolettered Mongol conqnerora. In A.D. 1231, 
he was rabed to the rank of Minister of State ; and to him is dne the credit 
of the title of hononr bestowed m A.D. 1233 on tlie ttien living represen- 
tative of tho lineage of Confucios, who was created a Dnlie, with the title 
Vf IS -&- '^^'^ i^sue of paper-moDey, undertaken by the MongcJa in 
A-D. 1236, is also attributed to hie advioe. He repeatediy remonstrated 
with Ogdai against the use of intosicaUng drinks, to which this Sovereign 
was addicted; and, after the latier's death in A.D. 1241, the Bajacme 
power falling mto the hands of his Queen Tu-Ii-ki-na ^ £ ^ )j|^ a 
Prinoen of the tribe of the Ma-chSn |^ 9%) ^^^ displayed a tendency to 
abuse ha authority, he died of a mckness preciintated by his patriotic 
sorrow. Waa anthor of Utstoriee of the Tartar dynasliet. Can. aa 

0O8.— Tbh Lahq ^ ^. The name of a tribe of aborigines 
OOCQpying dnrii^ tite Uan dynasty the region now forming the frcailaers of 
the provinces of SEe.«h'wan and Yiin-nan. They were first Itfoug^t nnder 
Chmese rule m the reign of Han Wn Ti (2nd century B.O.). The phraao 
IIS y'v "^ metaphorically for "ignorant pTesnmptJon " originates 
with an anecdote recounted by Sze-ma T^ien to tiie effect that when the 
envoy of Wu Ti vi«ted the chief of this tribe, the latter asked his goat 
whether the Chinew Gmperur or himself ^exe the greater potwtate. Of. 
8. K. k. 116. 

@O0.~.Yen ^ The wild gooee. Baid to he peonliarly the 
Inrd of the yang (^ J/jf) or principle of light and mascaliuly in nalnie. jg 
It fbtluns the sun in his wintry comse toward the Bouth, and shows ns in ^ 
htstkictivs'knowledge of the-time*aJidgea40Q>initasiigr»(ionB. Italwa^ 

A. i. cbujbsb rsadbrb uasval. m 

fliM fai pifai^ tod heoee is empbyed u an emUem of tbe nnnM state. 
la the tftnal at (be Ohow Ajau*y it wu Mcordinglj enntnemted txtxmg 
belrotbiil pnuabi ; and beooe tin phnie ^ | (see TtiX 

Hie 1^ or wild ma b conddered a largei' cwigctm (tf tbe w3d 
gooM^ wbioh it Ii Aid to aooompaDj In ita fllgbta 

©IO.-Tkn CntVn IB ;5: It- ' "^ #■ -a A.D. 531. 
A diidngniabed scbolar. Held ofGce under tLe Chovr and Baldynastiea. 
Antbw cS an eliiioal work still held in high repute. Gf. WJT., p. 127. 

e 11 ^Tkn CHtH-K'iHa SS ^ ^ * f($ H- A.D. 7(»— 785 
An offldal of the Tang dynaatj, renowned by his probity and devotion 
DO leM than by his learning. When acting ai Censor in the r^ion of 
modem Shansi be set at liberty a nmnber of penooa who bad langmshed 
fa) unmented coBfinement, and no Booner had this been done than rain, 
which had long been anxiously looked for, at lei^;th deacoided. The 
nj<^ing people called it the Censor'a Bain. He ,was appdnt«d later to 
the high ofBoe of ^ Sj^, and waa one of tlie few poblto aervanta 
ooorageoos enongh to oppose the progren of the rebd chieftain Ngan 
Lah'sban q. t. In extreme old age he waa finally mnrdered by the rebel 
li Hi-GA ^ ^ ^- ^u cskaUA Duke of Ln :@ g .^ and 
oan. as 3C J@>' ^ celebrated amoi^ the callignphen of Cluna. Ao- 
oording to Taoist I^enda he became enrtJled after death in Hie ranks dt 
the genii, and has been seen in the guise of a venerable elder among the 
teceaea of the Lo Fow monntuna. 

©Ii3.— Ten Chow §9 ^. * ^ '^- Seventh century A.D. 
One of the chief Imperial Secretaries daring the firat two reigns of the 
Tang dynasty, and a acbolar of profound erudition. ~He was entrusted 
with the task of editing and annotating tbe Histories of the Han dynasty, 
and also the entire body of canonical writings. His ehctdationB of these 
ancient records have been received as a standard anthority. Owing to 
some doubt respecting his name 2^ and deeignalion ^^, he is usually 
referred to by the Utter, as Yen Sbe-ku. 

©13.— TenHwei JUfgJ. • "5^^. BC. 514— 483. ^m 
of Ten Wa-yao | jf^ ^^ and a kinsman of Confucins, whose favourits 
disciple be was. He suruaased all the puiuls who gathered round tbe gnat , 


Master in vrudom and qnicknen of percepUon. At the age of 29 hiB 
hair bad groffn vrlu'te, and at 32 he died. He ranks fret among the 
Four AataaoTB of the Sage. The hisb^an Sse-ma Ta'ien obaetre* of him 
tliat, although earnestly devoted to atady , he owes hii gplendid repntatitn 
to his olose connection with Confacins, ezpreMcg this dictam in a hoinely 
phnne which has become proverbial, vii : ^ ^ ^ tfO ^ ^ &(, 
i. A clbging [as a flyl to the awifl couraer's tail his progrcBs was thereby 
Uie more brilliant. 8- E. k. 61. Under the T'ang dynasty he was can. 
«■ ^ g .^, and under the TUan as ^ ^ .^. 

eX4.-TEN Jo-Kii S ^ if- • "g ^ t fi i$- A.D. 
1636 — 1701. One of the most dislingnished among modem Chineee 
scholars. He bestowed great labonr npon critical study of the text of the 
Claracs, and in particular npon the Book of History. In 1698, be published 
the first portion of his dissertations on the topography of this ancient record. 
C£ L.C, L, prolog, p. 204. 

81.4a.~TBN She ^ fSS- "^^ reputed inventor of pnppet- 
dancer^ <urc& B.C. 1000. According lo Iiieh-teie q. v. when theEmperor 
Huh Wang of the Chow dynasty undertook bis travels in the Weet, a 
skilful mechanician of this name was brought before him, who prepared for 
tbe monarch's amusement a dance performed by automaton figures, capable 
not abno of executing rhythmictJ movements with their limba, but also <tf 
accompanying the dance with songs. At the close of the performance, 
which was witnessed by the inmates of Kiih Wang's seraglios the puppets 
oast glances at the ladies, whose consort hereupon, greatly angered, com- 
manded Yen She lu be put to death. Tlie mechanician, however, ripping 
ogea bis puppets, showed that they were merely artificial objucts, and 
lecdfcd permiuion to repeat the entertainment 

9 X fi.— Ten Ti ^ '^. See Sbfin Nnng. 

©XS.— Yek Tsze j^i] -^ The name attributed to one of the 
examples of filial piety, who is said to have lived ^'"p. Chow dynasty. 
His aged parents having expressed a desire for tlie milk of a doe, Yen Tsxe 
^^tsed himself in a deer's E^in, and waited in the forest nntil he waa 
thns enabled to mbgle with a iierd of deer and obtain the draught Us 
panots kiQged £:». 

A. £ CSmBSB SXADXara l/ANUAZ. I7r 

e 1 •7.—Ym Tina 1^ 5^ ' ^ # D. B.a 493. A eelebaled 
BUtennui id the nrrioe of iho Duka of Ti^i, Tenowned by hie wise ad- 
miniBtration and hia lore of economy. H« is olamed by Sze-mft Ts'ien 
with Ewan Cbutig (whence the combmation *^ Sf Swan and Yen) aa 
a model of stateemanship. Sepnted as llie author of a biBtorical wmk 
bearing tus name, which, honever, ia buUeved to be the piodnction of an 
anonymous writer. Of. W.N., p. 8- 

& 1 8,— Yko Hms-CHB Shr IQ ^ ;^ ^. CommiaBoners at 
envoys travelling in light chariotii, — said by Ying Shao in tbe Fnng So 
T'nng, to have been aent in ancient times on an annual drcnit of the 
Empire during the eighth moon of tlie year, to gatber reports with reference 
to local coBlonu and fcams of speech. Hence met. applied to envoys 
despatched on any mifeion involring travel to distant parts. 

91©.— YeoMow;^^, • ^;^. 12th centmj AJ). A 
pnblio functionary, noted as tin poesewor of one of tlw moat extensive 
private libraries known in China. 

9SO.— YiH ^. One of the Kine Mjnieten of tbe Empen* 
Shan, and repnted as having held tbe office of Director of Engineering 
laboDTS, nnder the title Yu ^^. He is said to have acted as an asMstant 
of the great YQ. His name is also written with the character ^[ ; and 
from hia rank as "cbief be b also designated 'jQ ©. The later 
falmliHla have ascribed to him tbe invention of wella, hydraulic wheels, die 
He is identified with tbe ^r Wl ^^ Sze-ma Ti'ien, who states that tbis 
was tbe title given .to Ta Fei y^ ^. a deecandant of the Emperor 
Gbwan Hii, who acted as assistant of the great Yii in combating tbe watera 
and as tamer of birds and beasts for tbe Emperor Shun. His descendants, 
dispersed abroad and partly among tbe frontier tribee, became tbe foanden 
of tbe dynasty of Ts'in. Gf. 8. K., k. 5. 

8S1.— YiH Haim — ^. D. AD. 717 (Tbe idigioos deaig- 
natioQ assumed by Cbsng Sni ^ ^g, on Va entry into the Boddbiit 
priesthood). Was deefJy versed in tlie sciences of astronomy and mathe- 
matics, by the aid of which he reformed the Chinese calendar. Several 
works on the above-named scseoces proceeded from his pen. 

". .-- -wgic 

trs <mtss8X axADEKS uaxvaj* a. /. 

eSO— Tn l^%. TtIw repnted bnada of wbaekd TeUdw 
in Ote idgn oTHMng 11 B.C. 8697. 

333.— Tin Hi ^ !|^. One of tlie pAttbrdiB of tbe Tw^ 
sect. Acoordii^ to cue of tbe legendi he lived B.C. 1078, and waa 
coDt0mporarj with Lao Taut who is lud to hsve then oommeooed his 
ouew (aoDM fin contoria before the date historically aodgned to it). 
Having aoqiured forakoowledge of the fact that a ^vine teacho was about 
to pass acrosathfl&oalier and batak« himself to the Weat,TiD Hi todinp 
Us abode at the firoilier-^ of Han Eah ^ ^ ||. and prayed that 
be tdgfat he inlbnaed if any penon of remarkable appearance demanded 
egcesa tbera. In B.O. 1080, the sage Lao Tsie arrived at the gate, riding 
in a wfaite obariot drawn \ij a black ox ff ^p. Tin Hi solimted ths 
•age's mslraotioDS, and waa indoctrinated by him in all the myitArieB ut 
Too, \a additim to wluoh ha was entmsted with the text <£ Lao Tne'a 
work, the Too Tth Kmg. This he gave to the woi4d after the Bage had 
taken tJs departnie to the onknown legioni of the Weat (^ ^ ^^. 

0S4.— Tin Ei-ni ^"^"f^- ^ Minister of Chow Stlan 
Wong, B.C. 827—782. Two of the Odes oHhaShi King an attribtilad 
to his p». See ShSn Fa. Cf L. (X, iv., p. 595. 

936— TnoCuowJS |^. One of tbe H "ftlj Ul o' ^"ine 
Isles rf the Geiul. Aooording to the ~f~ ^ ffi it » "atoated Eutho 
Eastern Sca ; its extent b 4000 ti sqnaie, and it liee neoriy oj^KWte to 
Hwei Ei (die modon Kiang^. It b 70,000 U &lant &om the hmd oo 
the West Upon It there grows tbe ^ cha pUnt cf the genii, and there is a 
rook of jade-stone 1000 chang m hoght, whence flows a spring reaemhhi^ 
wina Its Bavonr is iweet, and it is called the sweet-wine fimntun of jade 
^ S ^' Whoso qna& a few meagona of this beverage beoamefl 
aaddenly ioefariatad, and eternal life is given by the dnngfat On the 
island are many mannons of the ganlL Its manners resemUe these of the 
bhabitants oi Wa j^ and its hills and riven are Bke those cJ Chhia.'' 

esse.— Timi Fc $( ^, abo called fS.^- ^ miUtaiy ad- 
ventnta of the 3nd oentory B.C. According to B»-ma Ts'ien, his 
snniame*waB exchanged for the sobriquet King (or " Brand-marit ") with 
nfitenwtothefiujttf his having been bunded m the dtedc aaamab- 


facto* in early life. Being Mt to labour ^di other (^miiMlB at the aitiflelal 
hjll ooMtnoted by She Hvuig-tl, he efiected hie escape In B.C. SOS, and 
gatberiog a large baod of ontlam joined tn the Kditiona movcmente then 
in [vognsB. In B.O. 206 lie was inverted by Eiang Tri with the title of 
^ jX. 3E' Acoompanied by a fief at the month (£ the river Yangteb 
He duHly aftcnrards trandeiTed hie aUegianoe to tl» riting hooee ti Han, 
in whoK oaoie be fought ; hot having lebdled in A.D. 196 he waa oon- 
qaued and pnt to deatli. 

eS7.— Yim Suo jg 3J. • # }f « ffl j[g. Sod oenlory 
A.D. A nholar and pnbUc functionary of the le^ of Han Shan T\, 
A.D. 126—144. Antiior of a oelefarated antiqnarian treatlae entitled 

8SS.— ToH Fei ^ fjl^. ' mi $. A.D. llOS— lUl. (Me- 

biated aa a c<»nmander dnring the Btrn^ea of Hie ragn cf Sum Eao 
Tating agaioat intemal revolt and the eDcroaobmenta of the Tartan <4 the 
Sin dynaaly. He was inflexibly oppoaed to the pdicy rf making paam 
with the *'bftrt)arlan(^" and tba trait in bii charaetw it extoDed hy Ohineae 
Unoriam eqoally vriih hie conrage and military aldll. He fint toae to 
^Mfaictfaak in A.D. llSl, ai a lientenant of Chang TbUq q. v., and fw hii 
•erricci in indodng a fonoidaUe leader of brigandi to eabn^t to Imperial 
anthorilj was raited to the rank of Uentenant-general "j^ ^. In Um 
fidlowing yewe tie reoovend a Urge extent of territory from the hands of 
variona Inarugent leaden; and hi 1136, soaght penni»on to make an 
attempt npon the Cbioese provincee then held by the TarUr mvader^ but 
the Imperial aaneUoa was withheld ftom this inpoaal at the advice dt 
IVin Ewd. Binding Yoh F«'b patriotic devoticn an kunpcroUe (dataola 
lo the pwoe n^otiatioiie upon which he waa bent, Ti^in Evrei at bnglli 
praoned hit removal to a lower offioe, and ductly afterwards oonoocled aa 
aconaation of tieasiHiable intentions against the boo and his son Toh Tlin 
I ^. Both were committed to the State prison and sal^jected to * 
trial whiofa only served to denxnstnle the &Iaity of the charges bno^t 
agvnst them. Nevertbelei^ and in deqrite of tibe Mmrastnncea cf Han 
SbMshong and other statesman, Ti^in Ewd snoceeded in obtaiui^ aa 
Impesial mandate (or the execution of Toh Fei, which was ibtthwilb 
cazried into efieot Tlua sot bai been attended t^ the ondyini eXMntion 


of hwtoriaiis and <rf tbe Cbinese people. In A.D. 1179, Tob Fa wnt can. 
0* vt ^P- '"^ ^ ^^' 1204, he received Lhe posLhamona title of Prince 
<X NgD ^ 3E- SouM years later hb title Xsj oanonimtion was changed 

©S©.~YoH K'o -^ ^ 12th oentnry A.D. A grandswi of 
Toh Fei, and distinguished as & scholar and author. 

630. — Yo I ijj^ 1^. A cdebrated politjdan and oommandN 
t^the period of the Contending States. After serving in anccesBion the 
Princes of Wei and Chao, he became connsellor to Prince Cbao of Ten 
ffll Mn BE' *^ '^^ ^'"'^ smarting under defeat and Epolialion nndergone 
at (he hand of the Prinoe of Ta'i. The skilful diplomacy of Yo I enabled 
him to cement an. alliance betneen tbe state of Yen and four otiier king- 
doms, at tbe Lead of whrae (btcee be invaded tbe territoiy of Ts'l in B.C. 
284, and overran the entire State, with the exception of two dUee wluob 
were bravely defmded by adhereuls of the legitimate Sovereign. Yo li, 
having by this conqoeat added more than seventy towns to the dominions 
of his master, governed (he newly^acquired territoiy with great ability 
until tlie death of Prince Cbao, in B.C. 279, when, conscions of tbe dislike 
with whtob the beir to tbe throne regarded bim, be fled to the Gontt of Cbao^ 
and upon this, the territory, be bad conqneied was reoovered by the 
Sovereign of Tb*!. The Piince of Chao conferred on him tbe feudal title 
of a^ ^ ^. in exchange for that of ^ ^ ^ which he bad home 
Id Yen. 

©31.— Yd j% or ^ I , YU tbe Great. Eepntad as a 
descendant of tbe Emperor Hvrnng Ti, and son of Kw&i q. v., tbe h>rd of 
Tt'nng, ^^ "fn- ^ ^ *'^ Sia-ki '^ ^, who is at tlie. same tims 
reputed as having ^ven Inrtb to him after a miraculous concepticm cansed 
by her aedng a falling star and swallowing a divine pearl. Tbe name 
given to bim at lurth was Wen Hing '^ ■^. Cf. L.G., pruleg. p. 117. 
When Kw€n bad failed in his attempt to coiitjol tbe waters and recover 
tbe territories of the £mpire from tbe floods by which they were covered, 
Shun, the rirtaons SDOceseor clineen by tbe Emperor Yao, tecommended Yli 
as a fit poHH) to undertake the work. Ho tberenpon succeeded in B.C. 
2286, to the labonre commenued by his father, and by means of oonstaut 
•■idQity he tocoeeded, in the qsue of idne yean, in brit^iDg (he watesi 


mxler oontnL So devoted was he to his tuk that he took heed of neither 
fxid HOC olothing, Kod thiioe puaed by the door of bis home without stop- 
ping to «iter, aJthoogfa be heatd the wiling of his iufaat son from within. 
In B.C. 3S78, be raported the completioD of hii kboiuB uid the demaica- 
tioD of the Em[ue into ^ ^ Nine piovmoas. (Gf. L.G., m. Fart i, 
tiia " Tribute of TU ")■ In the ftdlowing year, he wu iDvestod nith the 
piiicipaliQr or chieftaimhip of Hia, deririi^ thence the title of ^ 'fn ^ 
^f ^. According to later legend^ be engraved a reccid of hia achieve- 
nmla apm a tablet of itone npon one of the peaka of SSoiiDt H6ng (in the 
modon province of Hapeh), hut the story ia regarded as apoobiyphal 
(C£ L.0-, HL, proleg, p. 67 j and JotuTial N. C, B. Uayal Asiatic Society, 
1868). He rendered faithM aerrices to tbe Emperurs Tilo and Shan, of 
whom tbelattot, in B.C. 2224, raind Iiim to tbe podtitm of joint legeut 
of tbe Empire, and reot^ized him ai bis successor to the oxcluaton of bis 
own Bona. On the death of Shun in KC. 2208, TU observed a three 
yeai^ period of monraing, and in B.C. 220o, commenced to rdgn, be> 
ooming foander of the dynasty of Hia. Hence he is also spoken of as 
S JB- ^ ^ eighth year of his reign bo made a royal pn^rett 
thioi^ his dominiotw, and held a grand assembly of bis subject nobles at 
Kwu E'i '^ jpg, (in modem Che-kiaQg), where he put to death the 
chief of Fang Ftag ^ Jn^ ^, who arrived afler the appointed time. 
Among the most marrelloDB of tbe achievements ascribed to the handiwork 
<rf Yu is the opening ct a passage for the Western waters through the 
pcKnt defile <rf Wn Shan q. v. To this defile the term j^ 3^ Cave 
or Excavation c£ 7u, used by Sie-ma Ts'ieu in the description of his 
jonm^B, is believed to apply. 

93S. — Yij ^. The gpneric designation for fish. From tbe 
reacmblance in Btructnre between fish and birds, their oviparous birth, and 
thdr adaptation to elementn differing from that of other created licings, the 
ChineM believe the nature of these creatures to be interchangealile. Many 
kinds (^ fish are reputed as tieitig transformed at stated seasons into birds- 
According to Ma Yung, the scaly armour of the fish indicates it as a 
symbol of martial attribuUs. — Phr. ^ j@ ^^ ^. Dhe ilelight ex- 
perienced by], a fish retomeil into water, — a qnotalion from the writings 
<^ Chwang Tsze. He narrates that vhcn Kwan Cbiing was sent by Duke 


Bmn of Ti'i to in*it« NiDg l>i q.v^ to enter his Bervice, the l&tltf 
nplied l^ chantii^ tbe wOTds, T^ff fgf -^, ^ ^ -^, which tbo 
phSoiopher vas at a loai to intcipret. Oa retnnuDg to hig home and 
monng in vain ovar tbe Miigmatical vwda, Kwan Ghmig wai at leogtb 
relieved of hs bevildenDeut b; a olever hMidmoiden, who ra^eried that ft 
reference was intended to a hne in tbe book of Odea, where jTgJ and ^f 
occnr in ihe dgnificaUon of the aea ^ and ita prodnce ^. By hia 
exeUmatMxt Nmg Ttd bad intended to eonie j that what ii natarally joined 
■hoold not be kept asnnder, or in other w<xda, that be longed for the bli» 
ti marriage. From ths incident the phrase baa paaaed into use aa % 
metaphor for the joys of union, eepeciallj of a aezoal nature, flab are 
Ekewise reputed to awim in pain, and hence they eeire aa an emblem of 
marriage.— Fhr. ^ ^ ^ ^, (punng to and fro like the fiah aad 
the goose), — met. for epistolary correspondence. Beference ii is here made 
to varioaa l^ends relaUng that missives have been foond m Hba beiliea of 
fishes, and to the tale of 8a Wa's letter whnh was conveyed from Tartary 
by being Ued to tbe foot of a wild goose.— Phr. 1il|£ |S^ 'ft (inna- 
f<vmatJon of fishes into dragons), met fat snccessful graduation at the 
Titomry examinations. This contains an aUorion to the l^end narrated 
in the "pj^ if^ that tbe sturgeon of tbe TeUow Biver make an aaoeaA d 
the stream in tbe third moon of each year, when Iboee which oacceed u 
pasdng above the rapids of tbe Lung M€n ^ f^ become teansibrmed 
into dragons. — Phr. ^ p^ signifies to penecute or oppfeBS—-/^ [to 
tieat as} tbe flesh of fish. Perhaps derived from a saying of Fan EVv, 
who, when menaced by Hiang Yli q.q. v., rejoined that althongfa pat 
under the cliopper and minced like fish he woold not depart from hit 

e33,_TBf| TbeBiltonl Phr. | !# « # jl A 
1^ 5pJ) when the bittern and tbe mussel fall ont, tbe fisherman gains 
a prize. Reference is here made to a fable ascribed in the Narratives of 
the Contendmg Sutes ^ $. to Sn Tai, brother of Su Ts'm q. r. 
Acting as counsellor of the Prince of Cbao, and nrging nnity among tbo 
c^iponentJj of the riung power of Ts'in, be illnstrated his argument by 
saying: "A mussel was simniog itself by the river bank when a bittern 
came by and pecked at it. Tbe muEsel cloecd ile shell and nipped the 


biid's beak. HerenpoD Ihe bittoni nid : ' If 70a doa't let me go to4a7, if 
70a don't let me go to-morrow, there will be a dead mnesel.' The shell- 
fi*b answered ; ' If Z don't come out to-da;, if I don't come ont b>-monoW| 
tbero will aanAj be » dead lattera I ' Just then a GifaermaD came by and 
■died the pair of them-" This is perhaps Ihe earliest Bpeokuai of a 
complete fable on record in Ghineae litaratare. 

334.— Ttt She ^ 0j0. The Master of Raui, — a dlrinh; 
identified I7 the ancient ccamogoniits with a eon (J Eang Rang, bearing 
the name s^ ^i (aomtn«-dark). Sacrifices hj burDtH>flianng wne of- 
fered to him >n aooordance with the Bitual of the Chow dynasty, under 
which he was identified with the constellation ^ (Hjades), and held aa 
peiBoniljjng the aqneons inflaencca of the abncapbcro. The a^nrit ap- 
pot^ing to the cyclical charsotw ^ is also identified wilh this divinity. 
Cfc F. a T. 

83e.--Tt) HwA Tai ^ :^ fi^. A pagoda bmlt at Kin 
tJng ^^ |^< ^^ modem Nanking), by Liang Wn Ti, who was persnad- 
ed by one of his Boddbist instiQctors that floweiB bad descended in a 
dMwei &om Heaven to celebrate bis leign. In hononi of this event the 
building was erected. 

Q30,_Yii PI] p'o k'wai fIS 7 1$ ^- An expression at- 
tributed to Tang Chong^sbn q. v He is reputed to have said that in 
limea of peace and prceperity the rain that falls is so gentle that it doea 
not "break the clod." (^ ]^ j^ ^). 

SST, — To 5 — the jadealone, or Dephril«, the gem moetvalaed 
hj the Chinese. From a period of high aniiqalty ila rarity and costlinen 
have caoaed it to be held symbolical of all that is supremely excellent and 
of the perfection of horaan virtne. (^ "?" ]5^ ^ Jt 1^. " tlw 
pfaTsae itsed on this sabjeot in the lA Ki). Its nature was accordingly 
linked with that of the higheat forms of matter. Tbns in the commentary 
on the Yih King entitled ^ Jgft, the aatbonihip of which is attributed to 
Ghoi^ Kang, it is allc^ that ^ ^ B& ^ ^-^ £*»») or Heaven 
being symbdized by the jadestone and gold, a combination of tlie ht^est 
strength with the pnrest efiiilgence. To this an ancient commentary adds 
that it is the " most perfect development of the masculine principle in na- 
ture |" and the Tooist pbilospheis, enlarging upon these texts, attributed 


Kl an eitriy period divera magical Tirtnea to tbe gem. F«) Piili Taa 
(Eo Hung, q.v.) aUeges tiiat from tbe monntaiiia piodnciiig jtA^^Laaa • 
liquid flows which, ten U)oaeand jeaii after EwDtng from iho rook, beonnn 
coagulated bto a mbstAiioe clear aa crjital. If to thia be added an ap- 
propiiate beib it agun becomee liqaid, and a draaght of it oonfen the 
gift of living for a tboUBand years. Tbe same writer obKrvet that y^ 
^ (lie "great and piire") is another name for the jade-stDoe; and 
that by HwaHowiag a portion of it men may attain to the elate (tf)Doa^ 
porealily and tbe power of soaring through the lit — ^ ^{ ^( ^f^ 
According to general Taoiet legwid, the ntystio tica t isw,of the inmiortals 
are inscribed npon tableta of jade £ |^ ; and henoe Ifaese prie*- 
lew secrets, not seldom confided to tbe gaie of mwtali who derote tbam- 
selv«8 to the accompliBbraent of transcendental perfection, are called dS 
7^ and ,^11 ^^ (jade-talismans). In tbe langnage of alchemy, man- 
orer, 3& fK "^ beverage of jade, was tbe name giTea to the npreme 
elixir which combines tbe virLuee of tbe drangbt of immortality and tbe 
pliilosophet's stone. See K'itmg. 

ess.— Yu M£k Lah She rB f^ H ^. Tbe portal said in 
Taoist legends to stand in tbe centre of tbe _t H? » > °' P"^ enptfua) 
mansion, the alode of the higbeit among the immortals. 

©3Q. — Yij Nil i JC- The fairy attendants who act « 
handmaidens Lu Si Wang Uu. They are also called ^fif y^. Thne is 
one for each point of the compass, and their designations correipmd with 
the colonrs altrihiit«d to the respective five points. T. 8. K-, k. 43. 

B4tO.— YS 8iEN 3£ fll|. The dedgnatioii proper to a oeitMn 
race of Immortels or genii, who have eaten of the leavea of the Ine caCed 
K'ien ^^ or ||^ ^, which grows within tbe Blooo, wher^ it is aud, 
eight trees altogether flourish. The remit of ths food is that the bo£M 
of those who eat of it become pellnoid as crystaL E. P. W., k. 1. This 
notion appears to be derived, in part at least, from tbe Bnddhirt Milne, 
where a tree called tbe ^ £ ;^ i^, (the tree of the King ei Drags^ 
is said to grow on tbe Himalayas, and to posBssa such ma^ vbtoti that 
whoever smells, toncbes, or taatea it is iramediatdy healed of aB dim 
(ft «l^± »!■■') 


941.~-Til Tadq £ ^. Tbn designatioa giran to a hall in 
the paUoo of the Emperon of the Han dynuty. Daring the T'ang 
dynHty tba teim mi used to detignate tbe offlcial board whence Imperial 
dsona wen bmed ; and in tbe i«gn Suho YUan-fSng (A.D. 10;&— 1086), 
it wai appUed aa a dengnalion of the Hsn-lin college, to which it hai 
riooe remained aUatdied. A common bat nnautbentioated explanation of 
tbe title refers it to tbe faot Ibat magnolia* JB H* °''°^ P^'" ''^ ^^^^ °^ 
the gateway of tbe College. 

042— Tti TuNO 3^ ^, and Yu Lang £ ^— ^engnaUons 
ffma in Tatwt Jegende to tbe attendants npon the immortals, eaob of 
wbom are repteeented at being waited npon hj youthful serviton. 

048._Tii Ti'Eita BE. ^- A mountain in Heaven where, 
according to Tatwt tegenda, tbe five reverend immortals £ ^^ Jq ^ 
have their abod& 

©4-i— Ti) Ta'nra Chad Tino Kmc 3E ^ flS I® ^. The 
title given hy Sumo ChSn Tsong to tbe vast and costly temple be caoaed 
to be erected in his palaoe for anceetral worihip and the cdebration of 
TatHst rites. Having been carried on day and night for seven years, the 
work <^ conatnioting this edifice was completed in A.D. 1014. An 
inadonlable amonnt of (leasnre waa lavished npon this undertaking, from 
which *'V^T"i'"f date tbe commencement of tbe Snog dynasty's decline, 
^e attire sbrnotore was destroyed by fire in A.D. 1029. 

046.— Tfl-CH'B KuNO ^t 5M ^- • ^ ft- 7th century 
A.D. A hero t^ the wars which secured poesession of the throne of 
Chma to tbe fbmidei of die T'ang dynasty. His skill in managing the 
lance waa unequalled, and his prowess was attested in many battles^ 
Was treated ^ ^. Tratn his alleged foreign (Tartar) descent be is 
|re(jnently refered to as Ha Kng-t€h ^ \ \ • It is related of him 
that at a lime when the apartments of tbe Emperor T'amq T'ai Tsong 
were grievoiisly haunted l)y evil Bpirits be kept watch and ward with lus 
odteagne TVin E'iung and preserved the Sovereign from harm. In com- 
memoration hereof the Emperor caused the portraits of the two worthies to 
be painted on his palace doors, and this cnstom has been continued to 
the present day, the two heroes becoming venerated aa tbe yj 
Jj^ or divine goai^ana of the docf. When their painted eSi^ 


are not depicted in fall, the characlen ^ ^^ and "jj^ ^J are written 
ioBtead apon aqnares of led paper which are pasted npon the doors (^^ 
)PV ^^ wSt^- ^ ^°- ^^'i v^OTe a different venion of the legend ii 
given. Tii-ch'e £ung is said to have been in early life a blackHnith, 
and he is worshipped to this day aa the guardian s^arit of blachimith'B 
shops, as La Pan is b; carpenters. 

04e.— TU Fan j^ f^ • 'fkfl ^. AD. 104—233. A. 
scholar and statesman in the serriue of San E'Uan, founder of Ae dynastf 
of Wuj Falling into disgrace, lie waa banished to Kwang-chow 
(Canton), where he died. He toolc ap hb abode at the plaoe <^ his exile 
in a ^Moions mansion, the nt« of which he converted Into a park, to wluch 
from tiie trees it oonttdned, the name ^ jpf^ waa given. After his death, 
his family converted the property Into a Boddhist roonaBt«ry, and snch it 
remains to the present day, nnder the name of j|^ ^^ ^. Dnring 
Ttt Fan's exile he occujaed himself in compomng treatise^ ^terwards 
highly celebrated, on the -fize-ma Ts'ien'a History and the Confucian 

847. — Y? BiuNO J^ ^. A pbilooopher, commonly called 
Tfi Tsze, J 'f; who ia reputed to have flourished B.C. 1250, nod to 
have been the instmctor (rf the " Chief of the West," see B\ Peh. A 
treatise still in existence is ascribed to his pen, but with the exception of 
some fragmentary passages, it is believed to be of comparatively modon 
oripn. Cf. W. N., p. 125. 

©48— Yfl Hil J^ ^, ■ 5F ^ A public fanctionary of 
great merit and distinction during the rragns of Han Ngan Ti and Shun 
Ti. In AD. 110^ waa appointed governor of the province of Chao Ko 
^ ^< (i» modem Ho-nan), whence by his wise measures and skilfol 
stratagems he succeeded in wholly extirpating a oamerous band of brigands^ 

8<t8. — Tu HwA ^ ^. A fabulous being said to dwell withm 
the Snn. Cf. T. S. K., k. 2. On the other hand, accoidbg to the ;^ 
7n >n^< ^^ name of the Sun itself in the language of Taoist mysticism, is 
Yii I I ^^, correspondiug to Eieh Liu J|^ j^, as the name of the 
Moon. Cf. K. P. W., k. 1. 

9CO.— Yu K'uiN-Low ;^ BBl Jl- O™ of tie patterns of 


filial ptefy, Hud to have ftnriBhed noder the Tb*! dynaaty, A.D. 500. Difi- 
tit^niBbed bj devotion to oare of bia father during nck&es. 

OBI. — Ta K'lNO ^ ^ The title given to a political ad- 
venturer 28^ f^ ^ db> of tbe eia of the Contending States, whoae 
actnal natne baa not been preserved. Having ofiered bia eervvxa as a 
Gonniellor to Frioce ^ao Gli@ng of Ghao, B.C. 265, ibe latter waa ao 
deeply impneaed mth his worth that at his firat inteniefr be preeeoted 
faim with one bimdred iogota of gold and a pair of jade-stone taUets. At 
his KooDd aadience, the Fnoce conferred npoa bim tbe fief of Yli, whence 
his appellation is derived. Eis connseli were followed by the Prince in tba 
latler'a warfare with the State of TVin. Gf. S. E., k, 76. 

OCJ3.— Yli K'fl ^ @. A minater of Hwang Ti, B.C. 2697. 
who (according to Sze-ma Cheng), was entrusted with the duty of observing 
the motions and porl«nta of the stars in concert with Hi Ho ^^ ^ftl, and 
Gb'ang I ^ ^, who respectively observed the Sun and tbe Uoon. 

©S3.— Yii Lm ^p ^. See T'u Ya. 

©04._Yu Pao ^ ^. 4lh centnry A.D. A writer of the 
reign of Tbih Yuan Ti, A.D. 817— S23. Friocipally known as the repnted 
author of a ct^eclitHi (f l^ends entitled ^ If ^. Cf. W. K., p. 154. 

©50.— Yo YilN-wtet H ^ ;^. ' ^Ht- A.D. 1110— 
1174. A celebrated statesman of tbe rugn of Suno Kao Tanog. In A.D. 
II61, he was appointed GomptioHeT of the army at tbe oatMt of the 
campaign undertaken for thff defence d Nanking and the south bank of 
the Yang-tsze ag^nat the mroada of tbe Em Tartan. He iuflicted a 
severe defeat upon the enemy at a spot near Nanking, called ^ ^. He 
mbaequently held office as chief SGuister of State, and died while occupying 
the pest of Viceroy of Shah. 

©Be.— YSeu 1% or Fn YAeh ^ \ . The MiniBter who, 
accoiding to tbe legend preserved in the Sht King (Cf. L.C. tti, p. 248) 
was awgned by Heaven in a dream to Eing P'an-ESng (14th century 
B.C.) An image of the figure revealed to the Sovereign in his dream 
was circulated thronghoal the Empire until the indlridnal indicated in the 
dream was discovered. 

". .-- -wglt 


067. — ^TuEB ^, the Mood, reimaetitiDg th« ooncTeted CHeaea 
of the feminine pimoiple in Nature, u the nuucnllne priiwipte ia embo^ed 
in (lie Son. The lUbon n conawinently regarded as cfakf and diteote dt 
everything Habjeot in the cosmic Byeton to tbe Tin ^ principle, ncfa aa 
darkness, the earth, female creatnres, water, Sua. Tbia Pao Puh Tsn 
declares with reference to the tides; "The vital eaeuce j^| of tbe Moon 
gorems Water ; and hence, when the Moon is at its brighfeet, tbe tidei 
are high." As tbe San directs and symbolizes (be lovwdgti inler, to the 
Moon is an emblem and director of his consorts andjot^tfen. The 
Emperor is txA to "call the Son bis dder brother and tbe Mooa hb 
At*'" A i it i!P ^ (Cr.S.L.F. artjrtieW. In the writinga 
of Hwai-naa Tsze Uie presiding gaoina of the Moon is said to be named 
Wang Shn H ^ or Sieu O i{^ |!(f . Chinese and Indian legends 
agree h no respect more strikingly than with regard to the creatnrei by 
which the Moon is sakl to be inhabited. These are the bare J^ — ne 
No. 724, and the firi^ or toad, Ckarirchu, |^ ^ — the second diaracter 
being variously written |p and 9^- According to De Qnbemati% 
{Zoological Mythology, Vol. n, p. 375), the frog, which in certain hynuu 
of the Big Veda typifies the clouds, is " ak) identified with tbe plovial 
Moon." The earliest Chioese mythological writers convey a similar idea. 
Chang H@Dg q.v., in his work entitled Ling Hien, narratea &at " When 
How I (see No. 178) beeonght from Si Wang Mu tbe dmg of immortality, 
H€ng Ngo (see No. 94) stole it and fled to the mansion of the Moon for 
refuge, where she was transformed into a frog {Chtm-cha). Sundiy marvel- 
lous stories are narrated by Pao Fah Tsze and other fahnlists of tbe lou- 
gKvity of this creatine, its altribntes, &c ; and a further approximatimi of 
the Chinese to the Hindoo or Aryan myth In thia respect is to be noted 
in the name which has been ascdgned to it. Whilst tbe cbaraoter, rank- 
ing under the radical ^, saggests to the eye an association with what we 
term tbe insect tribe, the Urh To, tbe moet ancient of Chinese dictJonariea, 
describes the chan-cfai as a creature like the liia-mo 9^ {^ or frag, and 
this latter we find classed m immediate relationship with the cricket and 
the grasshopper. Here we encounter the notion expreesed, according to 
De Gubematis, in tbe Latin proverb rana mm grylb ; — the ir^ and tbe 
grasshopper bang identified with each other "on acconnt of Ibeir shrill 


nimt, tbrnr batat of tu^pin^ and tbeir mTthical coaoecitkiD with the 
leB|nDg Hood." The Mocn, it ti elsewbera gtated, (p. 47), " it called the 
kapei or bogpa, a noctoroal locust." Id the illaBtrated editico of the Vrh 
To, wud to date fnaa the Snog Ayoattj, while the Ani-nio ii figaied among 
iuecti, we find the chan-chu lepiewnted ooniiBtakeabl; as a toad, and 
plaoed, together with drawiogB of a &og and of tadpoles, among the fishea 
and cheUmia. The Bugulai fbnn of development undergone hj the fing, 
resemUing that of certain apedea of insectB, ma7 hare gpven rise to this 
confoscm; bat tlie divenity with which the sound chtm-ehu (or tui, is 
repreaented afibida reason to mopect that lla i»igtn was foreign. It can 
scarcely be doubted that the legend presented bj Chang HSug in the Ist 
cenluTf B.C., was derived from the same eonrce with that esisting among 
* the ancient Hindoos. A caesia-tree, ^ is also said to grow within the 
UboD, and a man named l^a Kang q. v., is alleged to have been con- 
demned to the endka task of hewing it down. Immortality is conferred 
upon those who eat of the learss of this tree (See Yu Sien and Ewei). 
From the foregdng legends, the Moon ia metaphorical!; referred to as 9^ 
Jg and ^$ jf . The old man of the moon {^ ^■), is popularly said j 
to tie together with an Inviuble cord the feet of those who are predestined j 
to a betrothal. See Wei En. * 

868.— ToAN 7C- This character has been subetitnted in recent 
times for Hflan St., in consequence of the latter having formed part of 
the name of the second Emperor of the present dynasty (E'ang-hi). 

9B©._Yi3AN Chao ^ $■ A hero of one of the Tales of the 
G€aui. It is narrated that during the reign of Han Ming Ti (A.D. 58 — 
75), when rambling with his fiiend Lin Ch'un §|y ]^, among the T'ien- 
t'ai ^ Q IJ4, the two travellen ket their way, and after wandCTUig 
abont for many days, were at length guided by accident to a fairy retreat 
among the hiDs, ^lere two beauteous sisters feasted them on the seeds cS 
the Au-ma |||| J||| (hemp-plant), and adnutled them to share their couches. 
BetoRung at lei^tii to tbeb hiMiies, after what Lad seemed a brief period 
of dalliaacef, they found with dismay (hat seven generations had elapsed 
liDce they left their homes (^ f|I| ^). 

0©O. — ^YUAH CmtN tC ^. A synonym in the language of 
Taoiit myttiolun for £ ^ the jaclestone, q.v. 



©ei.— YBan CHia 7C IM ' ffi ^- A.D. 779—831. A 
noted author of tlw period of the Tsng ijnuAj. 

90S.— Yuan Chwan TC ^ [or .& | ]. The reKgioiu de«- 
IgnatioD of a Buddhist prieit, Baroamed ^, who left China hi A.D. 
629 for the pnrposa of vidthig India m folfilment of a vow. Aflv an 
abaence of Kveiit«en yean he returned, in A.D. 645, brioghig back with 
him 657 vohmies of the Bnddhid seiiptnrea, berade nameroag sacred relict. 
The record of bis trarala, entitled ^ ^ @ Jp| gQ has been Iran^ted 
by Prof. Stnnislas Jalien under the title of Hietcnt dt la vie de ISmen- 
2^cmff etdetea Vogagei dma tJnde, Paris, 1853. 

eeS.— YUAN HiEN ^ )^ * # $■ Third centoj A.D 
A nei^w of Y^An Tsi q.v. and one of the Seven Worthies of tlie Bamboo 
Grove. Famona as a lover of mnac and wine, and as a pbiloeopber study- 
ing content and moderation in preference to the ways of ambition. 

ee4.-Y0AN li^M^' -^^ 1 ^^- A-D- 1718 

— 1797. A scholar of the Han-lin decree, holding office at Nankinj^ 
where he gdned high repute as a poet. 

©ae.— YtJAN NOAMO M&'^ ^- BC- 1*8- A celebrated 
sddier of the reigns of Han Wgn Ti, King Ti, and Wn Ti. like Ch'ao 
Ts'o q.v., be advocated the suppreaBion of the tbea existing Ss&, the dangen 
threatened by tyhioh he foresaw ; but having been bribed by the Prince <^ 
Wu he evratually penuaded the Emperor to doom Ch'ao Ts'o to death as 
a means of conciliating his rebeUiotui kinsman. He perished Snally by 
the hand of an assassin, 

©33. — YtiAN P'u JQ Q. A name attributed to gardens in 
Monnt Ew'€n-lna q.v., where the genii are said to hold their assembliea. 
The term is also applied metaphorically to collectiona of literature. 

©ST.— YoAK shao :^ j^. • :4c^- ^-a.d. 202. a 

military commander at the close (^ the Han dynasty, when lor a time he 
served uaitsr Tung-oho q. v., and co&perated with the latter in A.D. 189, 
when the youthful Emperor and hb brother ware abducted &om the capital 
l^ the faction of eanacha. Furstimg the latter with bis troops, he recover- 
ed the princes, and put the oonspiratoie to death ; but on the anpreme 
power being graaped by Tung-cho, he joined Ts'ao Ts'ao in oppoung the 


Tmrper, and vu recognized in^A.D. 190, u leader of the confedeiac;r 
formed for this porpoee. From tUs penod nntil hii death be led a career 
flfTaried incidenl:, now fighting a an allj witii Ti'no "N&o, and agiun as 
ono of lua exponents ; bat hia CTa was cat Hhort before be socceeded in 
acbieving a pontion of real eminence- 

eeS.— YUAN Til ^ j|i| • ll^ ^. A.D. 210-263. A 
cdebiated acboUr uid funcLionarjr, piindpally TCDOwned by hia habits <X 
eccentricjt; and his lore of mnsic and wineblbbing. Was one of seven 
congenial spirils nbo held revd togelber in a grove of bamboo — see Ghuh 
Lin. Ha profeaed adherence to the dootrineB of Lao-tsae and Chwang- 
tsie, piefetriDg the qnletisiii Uiey preached to the more toilsome dnties of 

930.— TilAtt Tanq ^ ^. The male and female reflectively 
<iS anaa galericaitOa, commonly called "bj Enropeatn the " matidaria duck." 
These Iwautiful waterfonl manifest, when paired, a alngtilar degree of at- 
tachment to each other, and they have heoce been derated into an emblem 
of oonnntnal affection and fidelity. 

©TO.— Y^AN YOAM ^ 7C • fl 7C- ^^- 1768—1850. 
A public fiinctionary of high distinctim], and celebrated as a generoaB and 
enlightened patron of Uteratnre. Was Governor and Oovemor-Generel 
of several proriDces. Beade numerous varks tS his own on clasdcal and 
antiquarian sabjects, he published a great number of treatises, the works 
of anthorv whose means were insufSdent to meet the cost of printing. 

871.— YuNa Ch'Sno ^ J^. Beputed as one of the Assistftnls 
of the Emperw Hwang Ti, for whom be Is said to have related the 
calendar and to b»ve conatructed a celesti&l globe. 

073.— YuNQ YBan ^ 5^. Said, like the preceding, to have 
been an Aaistant of Hwang Ti, and reputed as the first constructor of 
mnmcal bells. 

973.— TttN HwA FiHJBN ^^ ^\. A daughter of Si 
Wang Un q. v. She is reputed to baont the peaks of the Wu Shan q. v., 
and ii said in Taoiat legend tii have Ealnted tbe great Yti while engaged 
in bis etviQeering labours. i 


e74.-.TiJN T'Ai ^ fi. A HbO deTOt«d bj Hw ICng Ti 
(A.D. 58 — 75), to the iecepli(»i <€ poitnuts of the ^unoiia itateKiieQ who 
eerred hii pn^emlts Emug Wa Ti. The original nombez eoahiined Ihcro 
waa 28, to whiuh fooi were BabaequeuUj added- 

by Google 






1. — m ^. The Two Philosophers named Gh'Sng. 

1. Ch'eng Eao. See Fart I., No. 107. 

2. Ch'Gng I. See Part L, No. lOa 

0, — ^ S - The Two imtaent £niper(»B (with whom civilizatioQ 

1. Fnh-hi. See Part I., Ho. 146. 

2. Shfin-nnog. See Part I., No. 609. 

3. — ^ ^. The Two Primary Fonog or lymbob i^ieMiitiiig 
the two primordial eSBences. 

The equal dlviuoni, oi positive and n^stiTe enenceei evolved by \bo 
"fe ^B. or Ultimata Pniidple of being. These dirigioni are entitled (l) 
^ff and (2) f^, and are represenled by the fdlowing symboLi, iiom a 
repetition of which m divers combinations the /V ^ or Eight Diagrams 

1. I — . A GOntinons straight line, called \^ ^^, or the 
symbol of the Tariff principle, corresponding to light, Heaven, 
masmlinity, &e. 

2. ^^ ^^ A broken Una, called ^ ^^, or the symbol of the 
Tin princijJe, corresponding to darkness, Earth, feminaly, Ac. 
See No. 241. 

4. — Z^ ^. The Two Primary Enenoee, — the Yans and Tin 
piindpUfc Seeabove. .,,,,-.. ^.OOqIc 


O. — ZL ^. The Two Venoat^ ttsa who btuled ibe advent of 
the Chow dynasty. 

1. Tai Kong. See Part I, No. 257. 

2. Feb I. See Part L, No. 543. 

Q. — ZL ^. The Two EmperoiB of antiquity. 

1. Yao. See Part I, No. 900. 

2. Shan. See Part I., No. 617. 

Also, tbe God of War Hl^, (iee Part L, No. 297), and the God of 
liiterature ^ i^, (eee Part L, No. 849), who are worshipped conjointly. 

*?■— — -f^. The Two First DynaitioB. 

1. J. Tbe dynasty of Hia, B.C. 

2. j|{. Tbe dynasty of Yin, B.C. 

S— — IBS- The Two Captala of the Han Dynasty. 

1. ® I , Ihe Western Capital, ^ ^ Ch'ang-ngan. 

2. ;^ i , the Eastern Capital, ^ jjg' Loh-yang. 

©.— Zl @. The Two Luminaries, — the Sun and the Moon. 

XO.— ^ ^. The Three Penal Sentence. (Promulgated l^ 
the foander c^tbe Han dynasty, B.C. 202, who abolished tlie enactments 
of Ts'in She Hwang-U and prodwned the following in their stead : Life 
shall be given lor life ; compensation shall be given for wounds : imprison- 
ment shall be tbe penally for robbery). 

lOa.— ^ JE. The Three Correot Coursea [or Blueings of 
the Year]. 

TtuB phrase, 'of doubtful meaning in the Shi King ( Speech at Kan,** 
cf. L.C. ni, p. 153), is employed to dedgnate the three sncceenve changes 
in tbe commencement of the year. Under tbe Eoa dynasty tbe year 
began in the fint month of spring, or J^, under tbe Shang in tbe twelfth 
month, or -ff . and under the Chow dynasty in the eleventh m<»ilb or -f". 
On the reform of tbe calendar in B.C. 104 the usage of tbe Hia dynasi? 
was reverted to for tbe commencement of tbe Chinese year. 

1 1.— r: HC- The Three Veblckd « Craveyaooei (Sanskrit 


Ti^/daa), and the respedin dootrioes and degrees of siuatsbip appertaia- 
ing thereto. 

1- ^ ^* Saukrit Srdvaia Qii tboee wbolisteo.) 
2. |y ^. S&iukrit/>-ai^/«iaJ9udiaa (lit. those wbo have perfect- 
ed mtelligenoe.) 
&. ^ 1^. Sanskrit Bddhisaitioa (^ one whose essence has be- 
come inteUigenoe.) CI E. H. 8.v. 
la.— ^ ^. The Three Commentaries (on the ^ ^^ or 
Annals d Confaoius). 

1. The Commentary of Kong-yang. See Part I., No. 290. 

2. The Commentary of Tso E'in-ming. See Fart I., No. 744. 

3. The Commentary of Kuh-Iiang. See Part L, No. 282. Cf. 
WJI. p.5. 

1-3. — ^^ Jlj. The Three principal riven of Northern China 
(during the Han dynasty). 

1. ?@r } the YbMow HiTer. 2. ^,--the river L6b. 3. -^; 
the river I. 

14.— H ^ ^- The Three Tribunals of Judicature. 

•% These are the ^ n^, Board of Punishments ; the -^^^, 
or Court of Judicature ; and the ^ ^ 'fff^ of Censorate, whidi unite to 
fonn a Bupieme court of revision. 

1 B, — ;:i pp. The Three Prefectures, — snirounding and oom- 
prifliiig the Imperial city (Ch'ang-ngan), during the Han dynasty. In the 
reign of Wu Ti, B.C. 14(^ they bore the follomng names : — 

IQ. — ^^t ^(. The Three Forms rf I'axation in vogne unlil 
A.D. 781. (See Yang Yen, Part I., No. 898). 

1. TPh,- Land tax. Levied at the rate of one pical of grain for 

each [}) adult male tenant 
2- ffl- State labour (corvee). Twenty days tn each year. 
8. ^. Tribute on produce in kind. 
l"?.— H^- The Three Paternal Relationships besklo that 
o£ Father, 

1- [^ J@ ^ ^- Stepfather b whose boosehold one lives. 


2-7 1 I I f ' Stepfkther in whoM honaehold om doM 

not lire. 
3- ^ Hi "^ fS^- HiubsDd of a Btepmotlier into vhoee 
houwbold one removes. 
•'• For (heee degrees of reUtionahip apecial lawa exist in rderence 
to motiniiQg. 

18,— H i^- The Three Deoadee of Heat. 

1. ^ I . 2.rp \. a ^ I . 

•*• Id the Ghioese caleodar, three periods of ten dayi each are 
deeignaled as above. The first conmienoes on the third day eorreeponding 
to the sign ^, in Uie cycle of ten "stems" (see No. 29<S), after the 
" lummeT soklice " ^ ^ period ; tb« second oq the fourth similar day ; 
and the last on the first ^^ day after the "commenoement c€ autunm" 
"ir ^K period- Duiiag these iuterrala, lite |nacipIo <£ ocdd f^ b hdd 
to be " in suppression," whence the nee of tlie term "f^. 

IS.— ^ ^ The Three EeglMB of Han, — a tractrfcoimtty 
now fbnniDg the northern portion of Corea, and divided daring the Han 
dynasty into three liingdoms or principalities, called ^ f , )^ | , 
and^ I . 

SO. — ^ |1^. The Tliree great River Defiles. 

1- M ^ If!^- 'Tbe Defile of the West Hiver (j® ji), ia 

^- M [ij i- The Defile of the Wn Shan on the Yang-tare, see 

Part I.. No. 873. 
3. H 1^ I . The Defile of Si ling, on the Yellow River. 
SI.— ^ 1^. The Three Gr^at Rivers (of ancient China). 
1. f^ ^, the Yellow River. 2. jf^ | , the river HwaL S. 
fg* I , the river Lob. 
Also, the Tliree Regions adjacent to the Ydlow Biver, temp. Han 
dynasty, vi.: 1- JBT ^- 2. JST ft- ^ M % 

33.—^ •^. The Three Powers nnited in Nalure. 

1. ^. Heaven. 2. j^, the Tang principle. 3. ^, the Tin 
(winciple. (see ante, No. 3.) 
Of these the ancient piukec^y (^ the Taoistc dechtred that nutber 


m bj itself the pofrer of gifing Efe. The omon of the three alone 
embodies creative force. 

Alio, uffietoned as the aoioa of the Thiee Fowera — see poet, No. 64, 
aod Adopted in this senae u the denguation of the secret aociely knoirn u 
the ~ '^ ^ or Triad Araodation. 

S3.— H l0. The Three Chief BalerB under the Emperor 
Shun. (K.F.L.> 

1. Feh 1 ; see Fart I, No. 543. 2. Tii ; geo Part I., No. 931. 
3. Tsi; see Fart I., No. 740. See also jA. 1^- 
S4.— H M. The Three Primordial SovereignB. 
1. Fuh-hi ; see Part I., No. 146. 2. Shen-nnngjeee Part I., No. 
60&. a Hw«ng-ti ; we Part I., No. 225. Cf. also Part III, 
In trod action. 
SB. — ~, ■^. The Three Good or CompaamoDate Men £of tlie 
Yin dynasty, B.C. 1180.] 

1. Wei TBze ; see Part I., No. 844. 2. Ki Tbm ; gee Part I., No. 
242a. 3. Pi Kan ; ko Part I., No. 552. Cf L.C. i, p. 104. 
Se.— H j^. The Three Cardinal Objects of Ihity. 
The SoTereign ia the object of a subject's duly, the father of a BOn'i, 
«nd the husband of a wife's. 

S"?.— ^ .|SL (I. of the Taoisto). The Three Regions [of 
ExislMioe]. 1. ^. The Heaveoa. 2. jlffi. The Earth. 3. ^ 
The Waten. ^HieBe are BomeUmn indicated by the expreesion _J^, tff, 
1^, or above, the middle, and below. 

Sa.— H # (U. of the Buddhble). The Three RegioDS [of 
SQCcerave Existence-] Sanskrit Tr/Ulokya. 

1. ^/[ ^. Sanricrit Kdmadhtita, the region of desire or earthly 

2. "E I ■ Sanskrit liApMlluila, the region of form. 
3- wR El I • Sanskrit Ar/qHuUnUic, the region of fonukssnesi. 
Cf. E. a p. 147. 
39.— H il. The Three Rivers [of Yang-ylow]. 

1-^^;^. %mm I- ^m^ \ (t-s.k., 

k. n). 

m catNESE RSADSBfa MAltVAt. Putt. 

The aboTQ coiutitutes one of the numeionB ezplanatioiui prewDted by 
Gbmese Bcbolaia with refcrenoe to Lbe —_ j^C, nhioh ue mentiooed in tlw 
" Tribat« of Tu," uid the dispates oonoemiog which " are endlea." (Of. 
L. (X, m., p. 109). In general, iJie eT^aaaoa deDote the siKueDt moatia 
— frh&lever may hare been their real coone — of the rivet Tang-tne. 

So. — —, ^. The Three Bjntema of Doctrine (or Religion). 

1. ^Q I . The ayEtem ctf the Uterati (Confiiciaiiinn). 

2. i)$ I . The BjBtem of She (Shftkyamani, t. e. Baddhivm). 
8. ^ f . The B^Btemt^ Too (Taoism). 

The above conatilate the reoogniwd eyitems of religion, philosophy, 
and ethks among the Ghineee. 

81, — ^ fl|. The Three Heroes or ChampiouB (of tie founda- 
tion of the Han dynasty, B.C. 206). 

1. Chang Liang; see Part I., No. 26. 

2. Han Ba ; see Part I, No. 156. 

3. Ch'dn Fii%; see Fart I<, Na 102. 

Note. For tlie last-named in the above list, Siao Ho (see Fart I., 
No. 578), is BubHtJtutod by the K F. L. 

Sa.— ~ -j^. 'the Three Ages or Periods of antiquity. 

1. The age of Fnb-hi, B.C. 2852. 

2. The age of Wfin Wang of Choir, B.C. 1150. 

3. The age of Confodna, RC. £57. 

Q3._H Jtt, «■ H ^. The Three Leon ICniBlMB rf State 
(onder the Chow dynasty). 

1. ^ ^. The Junior Tutor. 

^' d^ 19- "^^ ^"^'^ Aoristant. 

3. ^ ^. The Jonior Guardian. G£ L. C, in., p. 627. 

S4.— = jtS A\ ^ The Three daaes rf Fomafc Devoteea 
and the six kinds of Old Wives. 

1. ^ ^. The Bnddhlst nna 

^m t 

The Tawat nnn. 

The female professor <^ the art of divination. . -<» Tht 

The teilcereB. 

The marriage go-between. JtA that nalbat 


6. 011 I . Tbe {oofeEBor of ^iritual manifeetaUone. 

7. ^ 1 . The profesmoiift] praying-woman. 

8. 1^ I . Tbe female beibalist 

9. ^ I . The midwife. 

•*■ According to the author <^ the ^ |^ ^ (A.t). 1866), ** who- 
ever has these misobief-maken sboot his hoaae ii nire to meet vilh tronble." 
SS._= ^. The 'Huee Chief Mmistfln of State under tbe 
Cbov dynasty. 

l.-j^^ ThM OrsBd TiKor. 
^■^W "^^ ^^^^ Amstant 
8. ;iC ^ The GraiKl Qoar^an. Cf. L.C. ui, p. 627, 
Under the Han dynasty, the above titles were sepplanled by the 
ft^owiog : — 

1 :^ ^ IS ^ -kn&- ^-k'Sim 

Of Ihese, the fint was changed vUh the direction of all military 
«£^n, tbe KOHid with tbe snpeivision of public works, and the thiid vrith 
that <^ all tnatlen relating to civil office. 

8S.— ^ If. The Three Hosts or Armies. 

Under the Chow dynasty, a feudal etate of the fiist clam was entitled 
to maintain three boats or bodies of troops each namberiogB 2500 men. 

SV.— H W-- Identified with Nb. 76, ;»flt 
« 3S.— H ^. TIm Three Lnminaries. 

1. The Sun. 2. ^ The Moon. 8. g The Btars. 

S3.— ^ ^. The Tht«e Eefnges. CSanskrit TrUharatiai. 

Tbe Buddhist profeEtnoD offsith.conBistingin the formula ^-^^^ 
I take refuge in Buddha ; | | j^ I take refuge in Dharma (the 
religions law) ; \ | ^Q I take reinge in Sangha (die priesthood or 
cbufcL) Cf. E.H. p. 1.51. 

40, — ^ g. The Three Kingdoms or Dynasties — established 
on tbe downfall of the house of Han, A.D. 220. 

1. |J£. Wei ; see Ts'ao T^ao, Part I., No. 766. 

2. .^. Shub ; see Lin Pe!, Part I., No. 415. 

^ 8. ;S^. Wn; see San E'Sao, Fart L, No. 632. 
tl41.— Hifi- (I-) Tt-Threefiwniofaaorifice. Q^ 1^, 


1- ffifi ^ )W- The worahip addnewd to iha spirita of Heaven. 

2- ^ itb )^' '-The worship addresed to the apirita of Baidi. 
3. ^ ^ ^. The wcasbip addrened to the spirits of Ueo. Gf- 

L.C. m, p. 47. 
4i3.— H |§. (n.) The Three Bitimb. 

1. -^ I . The Decorum Rttaal. 

2. ^ I . The Ritual of Chow. 

3- ^ k The Recorf of Riles. Of. W.N. p. 4. 
43.—^ ^. The Three SpiritnaJ Inflnencea. 

Tlie epiritual influences appertaining to ihe Throne Powera, ra. 
Heaven, Eaith and Man. 

44.—^ ^. The Three EpilomeB of tJio Art of War. 

The ancient treaUse on the art of war, entitlecl J^ ^^, and ascribed 
to the pen of Hwang Shih Eiing (see Part I, No. 223), la divided into 
three BectionB, called _t | ; t' I i °-^^ |* 1 ■ 

45,— H^- (D- The Three PrecionaOnea. (Saiukril Trraftia) 

The Trioitj of the Buddhist belief, connsting in Boddbai Dbanna 
(the law) and Sangha (the congregation of believers). These three con- 
ceptions are Ejmbolized by imagus to which worship is addressed id 
Buddhist temples. Cf. E H. p. 150. 

46.—= ff . (II.) The PreciouH Things of a Ruler, 

1. i 1&, the territory, '2- K^^ people, S. ^ ^ 
the affairs of government. (Mencias.) Cf. L.C. 11, p. SG8. 

4*7.—= llj. Three Three Isles of the Genii. See P'Sng-lai 
Fang-chang, Ying-chow, Part I. 

48.— H, ^- The Three Texts of the Book of Odea. 

1. ^ I , The Odes as preserved by Uao Ch'asg ; see Fart 
I,, No. 480. 

2. @ { . The Odea of the Sute of Ln. 

3. 5Bf I . The Odes of the State of Ts'i. C£ W. N, p. 3. 

4©.—= ^. The Three Begiiktors of Time. 

1. 9 . The Btm 2. ^ . The Moon. 3. ^. The " Badiel ;" 
a part of the conateUation of Ursa Major, anciently bdieved 


to indicate, in its periodic levolation, the connes of the EeaEonB. 

N<Ae. The abore phrase is alio nsod inleroh&Dgeably nith ^. 

^, see aiOe, No. 38. 
BO.— H tt- ^''f' '^^^ Sacrificial Animals. 

1. ^. The Ox. 2. .^ The GbaL 3. ^. The Pig. 
ei.— =^. The Three Holy Men. 

1. Yaoj see Part I., No. MHX 2, Shun j see Part I., No. 017. 
3. Yli ; Bee Part I., No. 931. 

According to Mencioi^ the Three Holy Ones were 7ti, Cliow Enng, 
and Gonfnciiu. 

Another ennmei'aUon accords the title to WSn Wang, Wn Wang, 
and Chow Kung. (T. S. KA 

S3.— = Jip. The Three Foiros of Obedience. 
1' p£ I Wf- ^^ snbjects to the sovereign. 
2- "T* I i^- The son's to the father. 
8. ^ I ^. The wife's to the husband. Of. mUe, No. 26, 
63.--= ^ The Three Uental Qnslificalions of a Student. 
^- Si I ' Power of application. 

2. ^ I . I&morf. 

^' ^ \ ■ UnderataDding. 
04:—^ ^. The Three AnspiciotiB SUrs. 
^- JM §.- '^''^ B'^ "'^ happiness. 

2. ij$ I . The star of emolument. 

3. fP ] . The Etai of longevity. 
OB._^ 1^ The Three Great Men named Sn. 

1. Su sen, called ^ f or the Elder Sn. Bee Part I., No. 622. 

2. Sii She, called ;:3^; ( or the Greater Su. See Part I,, No. 623. 

3. Su Cheh, caUed J-^ | or the Lener Sq. Sae Part I., No. 624. 
■ GQ. — ^^ ^. The Three dynasties of Antiquity. 

1. g. The dynasty of Hia, B.C. 2206 to 1767. 

2. ^, TorHJ]. The dynastyofShang or Yin, B.C. 1766101128. 
S M The dynasty of Chow, B.C. 1122 to 25a 

S?.— H ^. The Three Terraoes, 



Six Btara fbrmbg put of the cotwtcllatioii Una Hajw ue thn 
deaignaled. Thej are depicted in three piura, forming suoce«ire an^ea 
below that portion of tbe consfeDation which is called the ■^. 

BS.— El S- The Throe Snpreme Boards or Conncib. Under 
the Kan dynaetys— 

1. pp I , compriaed the ^^ §, or Chief Fimctionariea of Ad- 
mi nistralion. 

2. ^ I t compriaed the ^) jg, or Becording GoonseUois. 
8. ^ I , oomprised the ^ ^, or Imperial Ghamberituns. 

Under the Siii dyDosty. 

1- €8 ^< Of Imperial Chamberltuns. 

2. ^ ^t, or High officers of QovemmooL 

8. wl ^^, or Imperial CounsellorB. 
09.— ^ ■^. The Three Iilea of tbe Genu. See aw/e, No. 47. 
SO. — }^ ^. The Three kinds of Abundance to be nisbed for. 

'■ $ iW' Abundance of good fbrtnoe. 

2. I ^f. Abundance of yeara, 0'>ngevity). 

8. I ^. Abundance of male ofispring. 
Q 1. — ^ ^. The Three recognised Capitals, (up to Uie period 
of tbe Sung dynasty). 

1. ^ ^. Ch'ang-ngan. 

2. % %. I^-yang. 
3- f^ ^ Pien-Iiang. 

Q{3.— — ■ ^. The Itireo Inferior paths of Transmigration. See 
jioA, No. 207. 

eS.-E£M- The Three Cyclopaedic Works. 
1- S ^- The Twij; 2»n, by Tq Too. 

2. I ^. The T\mg Eien, by Sze-ma Kwang. 

3. I ^. The Twig ICao, by Ma Twan-Iin. 

S4.— ^ ;J*. The Three Powon of Natnre (also called | ^ 
and I -1). ^^ 

1. ^, Heaven. 2. *^, Earth. 3. \jtS^ 
Tbe uniTene, or creation in general, •"•^Iio the E^rstem c^ ontology 


bused apon tlie DUgrama of Fnh-hJ, Heareo is held to be typified by tbe 
npper Itoe, Euth \ij the lower, and Man by tbo middle line of the 
^ or trigram. 

&&.——_ ^ (I), The Threefold Cnnon of the Buddhist Scrip- 
Uuea. (Sanskrit Tf^pitdia, lit. three baaketa). 

1. ^ ^ JSi- ^'^ Satraa, or docbinal records. 
^' lUu &' '^''^ Vinftya, or writings on disciplbe. 
9. p^ Uql ^^. The Abiiidbamin, or writings on uietapbyuca. 
Ct E, H., p. 150. 

6S.-H ^, (II). The Three Divisions of Tibet. 

1. "^ I . Anterior Tibet. 2. Pjl | . Central Tibet. 8. ^ 
I . Ulterior Tibet. 
Q"?*.— = ^. The Three DiviiionBof the Stale of Ts'in (par- 
oelled ont by Hiang Tu, ~ see Part I., No. 166). 

08.— H ^. The Throe Provincei of Ts'u {2nd Mntury B.C.). 
1. ^ I , ot jtL ^. Fart of modern ELiaiig-ei and Ngan-hvreL 
^ Sti I > O*" ^- F^ of modern KiaDg-nan. 
3. @ I , w ]|^ !{£. Part of modem Ha-peb, &o. 

Q9— H j^. The Three Desreca of Kindred. 

According to tbo ^ ^, theue are One'e-self, Father, and Son. 
The correct ennmeralion was in later ages considBred as embracing Father, 
Sons, and Grandchildren. Under the Han dynasty, the term was inter- 
I»eted as signifying blher, mother and wife^ with their respective kmdred. 
T. 8. E., k. 28. 

•70.—^^. The Three Degreoi of DepHidenoe befit&ga 

1. I ;^. Upon her father. 

3. I y^. Upcm her husband. 

3. I -5^, Upon her son. 
'7 X . — .^ ^, The Three Fonndem of the Anraent Dynnstiea. 

1. Yii. 2. T'ang. 8. Wgn Wang. Cf. L,C. n, p. 313. K.C. k. 5. 
"73 — H %• The Three Diviwona of the Kmgdoni of Wu. i 


AJ«o designated ^ \ ,^ | , and @ | . 

'73.— H M) The Three Systenw of the Book of Changes. 

•'•. The above are the destgnatioiw of lhie« snccMEnve Rjstemi of 
divioatloD and philogophy irhtch are believed to have beeB developed al 
different periods from the diagrama of Fnh-hi (lee post, No- 241), but of 
which only tlie last-named has beun preeencd. B7 HOme witen, Lien 
Shan ii looked upon au a designatiua of the Kmpeiar Bhan-nong, whoee 
system is laid to have Ixirne this nnme undct: tlie Ilia dynasty, and Kwd 
Ts'ang of the Emperor Hwang Ti, whose system the Shaog dynasty 
followed. By others again, following the lJL| '(^ j^, Lien Shan is 
regarded as a title of Fuh-hi. A third explanation (Gf. W.N. p. 2) 
represents Lien Shang as eignifying, literally, United Hills," with re- 
ference to the hexagram l^ - ^ with which its order of arrangement 
commenced (the ^ or " mountain " diagram), and Kwei Ts'ang as 
" Reverting D^wsit," owing to ito commencement with the symbol i^, 
earth. Both these systemi, togellier witli that of the ^ ^, are believed 
(o have lieen in exis(«Doe under the Chow dynasty., bat tbey Hie now no 
longer linown. 

'74.— H S- The Three Stellar Gtooups. 
1. ^ ^ (Ff) I ); comiming IS starsi The nortJiem Cir> 

cnmp(^r group. 
^- ^ \ • ^-t. 1 ^1 oofflprlsing 10 ttam ; spaoe within Ctan 

in Leo and Virgo, with Coma Berenices, Ac. 
3. ^ 1^. Cy^ I ) , compriung 22 stais ; ipaoe bounded by 
Serpens, dro. Of Obifrvationa of Chineae Comets, ^., by John 
Williams, F.S.A., London, 1871. 
yS.— ^ j^. The Throe PrinoipahtiaB of TDeh (second and 
first centuries B.C.) 

1. J^ t - "^^ modem Eiangsa and part of Ghe-kiai^. 
3. ^ f . 7he modem Fakien and part of Ch&4iuig. 
3. ^ \ . The modem Kwang-tung and part of TtHiquin. 
'7Q.—'~ 7^. (I). The Thrw Primordial Powers r«Mgniaed 


by tbe Ta<uit philoi^y, ra. Hmvea, Sarth, and Water, otbt each of 
whldi a qpAiual deity ptaddei. See oite No. 27. 

??— ^ TC- (n). The Three Oreat Period of Time. Ao- 
oording to Kune d the GIuihk cbrondo^stei, time la divided Into thiee 
rait btemls or cydes, termed 7C< ^"^ emlmcing 24,192^000, yeara. 
They are dengnated Jl |' ■ ^ t • 1^ I ■ '^^ ^^^ deognatioiui 
ara likewin af^iEed to the following periods of the year, vis : the 5th of 
tba fint, Beremh, and tenUi mocaL 

7S. — ^ ^. The Foot Bkmboa of the Hnman Ji^me. 
^ ^, — The anna. ^ ^, — The Legs, 

TS.— pg ^. Tbe Four Cardinal Pdnti. 

North, South, East, and WceL (The term is sometimee empli^ed to 
de^gnate all those parta ot the wld lying ootaide China, which la tfl, 
the Centre). 

80.— ^ j^. The Foot Metiopotitan Piefectnres of the T'ang 

1^ ^m,(ji«)Sf). 4.m(isr*)flf)- 

61.— Q y$. The Foni Seas (beliered to form the limit (^ 
the parallelogram which ocnutitntefl the habitable earth, aooording to 
Chinese notion* ; and hence oaed as a synonym for the Chinese EmpireJ 
82.—^ ^. The Fomf Haitial Leaders oT the era of the 
CoDtendii^ States. See Mteg Ch'ang Etin, Sm IdUg Ettn, Ping 
TOan EUd, and Ch'nn ShSn Ktln, Part I. 

8Q.- ^. Tbe Poor Beelose Qreyheade. 

l.| ^.namedHlClW- 

2. 1 St, namea -^ ||. 

* i TC^ named ^ ^. 

Of tbeae foni worthies il is related tiiat toward the dote of the rdgn 

ei Ti^in She Hwang-ti tx circa B.C. 212, in deepur with the tronbkma 

times and the diaordets of the State, tbey retired to a hennit life in the 

motmtnins of Shang ^, whence, however, tbey came forth after the estab* 

". —- -^'gl^- 


fiehment of tbe Han dTiiastj, taking oerrice, aboot B.C. 190, nndef the 
Empres Lu. It has been snnniaed tfaat tbe witbdnwal of Iben incliT^ 
dnals iroai the world ma; biTe bran doe to the exbortaliou ef earlj 
Boddhist msnanaries. 

Q4._|^ ^ (or Q f^). The fixn giwt CiUntfa cf Ami- 

1. Hwan Tow, m Part I. No. SIS. 2. Entig S&i% bm Pert 
L No. 284. 3. KwSn, see Part I. No. 802. 4. ^ ff , 
Tbe chief of the San SCao tribe. Then penong were eeverallj 
banished or oiminaUy deall with for tb^ reapective ihoTtoom- 
higa hy tbe Emperor Bhntig. C£ L.C. dl, p. 89. 
SO.— ig ^. The Four Great Hiven of Northern OUna. 

66. — ^ p^. Tbe Barbarians generaSj' : from the fbnr qnar^ 
len. Cf. L.G. m., p. 6S. 

8*7.-0 S' The Fonr Polar Extremitieg of Earth, (jil^gj 

1. Sontb, called j^ '^ where tbe sun take* reet 

2. North, called ^ 1f^, over which tbe pole-star stands, 
ft. East, called ^ ^, the pcnnt where tbe san rise*. 

4. Weet, oolled -^ ^, the pmit whew the nn seta. 
88.—^ U^. The Foot Indies Proper to Woman. 

1. ^W Bi^BehaTfoor.vJii to be ofaaite and docile, J^0. 

2. j ^. P/oper Speech, gfl ■^. 

8- I Sff-. Ptoper Demeanoot, vU] to be pleaong and ■sbmb- 

«". ik ^■ 

4. I ^. Proper EmpIoTment, «ii : bandhnak {lit. dk and 
thread). H Jg. 
88.— |y jgg. The Four OlaMfcs (aa arranged nnder tbe Han 

'- £ ^- '^'li^ Commaitary oS Too K'ia-ming. 
^ ^ ^- 'Fiio Cwunenlary of Enh-fimg. 
3 "^ ^ ^ S^. Tbe Old Text of tiie Book at Hiatory^ 
4. ■^ ^. Tbe Odee ooileoted by Mao Ob'ang. (T.&K.): 
eO.— yy ^. The Four DirisionB of the Imperial lilmrjr, 

pt. a. tmmeas bmadsrs uanuai^ aor 

ioMatnted tutd«r tbe Tsng dyotety. CoRaqmndin^ vrilli tjw foot cate- 
gorioioflitentiue; ne f!9 np- 

ex.— |F9 ^. Tbe Foar QnadrBnts, cr IMrkions c( liiQ 28 

1. 1^ [or ^] ^. The kxan Dngon — tu tbe East 

2, ^ ^, Tbe Sombre Warrior— on the North. 

8 -:^ >^ [or ^'] 'I^ VenniHon Bird — on the Bontb. 

^- S ^ '^^ White Tiger— on dw Wrat. See port, Na 81Sl 
eS.— 1[9 ^. The Foia rriuoes of the era of the Contend 
States. See anU, No. 82. 

@ 3.— ran . The Foot great FnnUer FuMt (^tbe Tsng dynari;.' 

l-®^..f The Eastern Paw, ifljfcffl- 

2. ^ I . Tbe Sonthem Paw, in ^ | . 

S. ^ i . The WestOT Pwb, in fi ^ J^. 

4. if I . The NorthMB Faaa, in ^ ;^. 

®^— £ ^a ^<"" Snpematiiral [or BidritaaBy-eDdowed} 

1. IP. Tbe £m ; we Part L No. 389. 
i.S^ Thei^^; ae^FartLNo. 1S4. 
A. 1^ Tbe Tortdw ; see Part I. Na 399. 
4. fg. TbeDr^jwif ■eePaitLKo.451. 
eS^_^ |jf . Tl» Four Tiwhum [cJ the writing taUeO- 

1- si. Infc. 2. IK, Paper. 3. ^ PeooU. 4 ^ Ink-«U}). 

06. — ^ SE- "^^ ^oir Sages atseociatod vith ConfooInB. 
1. Yen Hw^ see Part I., No. 918. 2. Tefii^ ^an.oee Part 
L, Na 7S9. 3. Toe Sn, lee Fart I., No. 321. 4. HSng 
K'o (HsDoiDs), aee Fart I., No. 494- 
Tbe above four wcrthies ai« asBooiated in (he next rack to Confndoi 
in tbe arrangement of memorial taUete and of sacrificial worehip in tbe 
State temples. They are named by Legg« the four Asbgwots." 

87— Q ^. The Poor Borders of IbeEmpre. (T. S. E.) 
1. ^ H, on ^ East 2. ^ ^, on the Sonth. 3. ^ 
^, on the West. 4. ^ ^, on tbe Nvtb. 


88^-|!9 ^. The Four Qtiag/xtm d lilcntim (ananged 
under the Taag dynulr). 

1. ^ "9, cmqnBDg the Cli^n j^ ^ oontumng 11 nb- 

dmtiaoa ^. 
8. ^ I , onrnpTKng the {DrtariUM jj^ | , oaotaunii^ 18 

8. ^ I , comprint ihe PbDon^un ^ \ , ooiiuiiiiii:^ IT 

4. "J* I , oompiWDg the Poeti and MaoellaniBts ^ | , cm* 
bdniog 8 ■Dbffirwcoi ^. T. & K^ k. 81. CT W. N 

bitndnction tB. 
ee.— Q ^. a) TIw Fou ronons rftiie Bw^ of Oto. 

1. S j . The OdM of Ti^L 

2. S j . The Odes of Ln. 
8. QI I . The Odea of Had. 

4- % i - "nie Odea (J Iilao Ch'ang. T3.K. k. 81- «'■ W. 
lOO.— ^ ^. (n.) TheFonrDhwonioftlieBcKAorOdai. 
1. jili,. BtdladB of tho Vniloas States. 
2- ^ ^ Greatei Enbgks. 
8- '^ ^- IJener Enlogies. 
4. ^. Bongt of Homi^. Gf. W.N., p. 8. 
lOX.— ^ 1^. The Four Snt Imperial Beooidm. 
1. Ttfang Hieh. Bee Put I., Na 756. 2. Tall Snog. See Fart 
L, No. 717. 3. Li Show. See Fart L, No. 867. 4. K'ni^ 
Eia, a minister of Hwang TL 

1 OS.— {fy K >£■ The Foui FooUleps or modes of acquir- 
ing mpematDnl powers. (Sanskrit ^dd^pdddd. Cf. E. H., p. 104. 

103.— ^ ^. The Four Tones of Ohioeso Fronnnciidi(ni. 
(Ananged by ShSn Yo, see Fort L, No. 618). 
I . The even Xaoa. 
I . Ute ascendmg lone. 
8. ^ I . The reoediog tone. ' 

4. A I . The entering tone. ^-~ . 

' D,a,i,z.:ibyGoogle 



104. — Q ^. The Foot Hdy Men cc preeminent Bageg. 

I. Shun. 2. YtL 8. Chow Enng. 4. Confudns. 
X06.— ^ 9. The Four Ganomcftl Books (as uraoged by 
Ch'eog I and Ghn Hi). 

1. ^ The ;^ f , or "Great Learning." 

2. J^. The Ffl I , OF " Doctrine of the Mean." 

. ft. 1^. The I ^, <x " CoDvena&ma of Confucrtu." 

4. ^. The Sayingi of Ifencios. 
103, — yy^ ^j^. The FonT Aooomplishmenta 01 snljects of 
Btndy (CoofBcian Pmod). 

1. ^. The Book of Odes. 2. ^. The Book of History. 
& ig. The Record of Sites. 4. ^. The Book of Hosio. 
107.— H ffi. The Foot [Secondary] Figures of the Eight 
V/^ffKot, dedooed from the Two Primary Symbols (See Noe. 3 and 341.) 
/ 1- Zmrr Two Unes, caUed -j^ ^. 

-V /*"■ — . Two Unea, called ^ ^. 

^ JT. Two lines, called ^ ll'. 

2 X — — Two Ikiea. called ^ ^. 
These figtms are held to syntheuze with the powers and phenomena 
cf Natnre Id tbe foHowiiig manner: 

tfo. 1, I'm' 7a«g, ooneaponds with tbe sun, heal, the mental dis- 
pcsilion "pfe. the eyes, that which la fitst or greatest y^ and 
that wbloh is imperial ^ . 
Na 2, rod Tin, corresponda with tbe dkxxi, cold, the pasBi(mB^||, 

Uie ears, (liat which miitcs ^, the divine soverHgn y^. 
"So. 3, iS^ FoRf , conreeponds with the stars, dayligfat, the ont- 
ward fbrm j^ the Tioee,TevoIviiigmo(ioD, a riglitial prince 3E- 
No. 4, Shao Ym, correeponds with ^e planets, night, the bodily 
frame ^gi the month, ancoesnve generalJons, nsnrplng or 
belligerent ralen |{|. T.S.E. k. 1. 
108.— Q -j^. The Vaai Elements (of the Bnddhist Phi- 

1. Earth. 2. Water. 3, Fire. 4. Air. 
The Ta<Htts ose llie same e^>renion, but with refercnee to a passage 


in the TJjo ZK Kistg <ch^ 25^ where Lao Tos ieoiaxte Ih^t "Tao b 
great ; Hearan is great } Euth is great ; the Sovereign is greaL" 

lOSa.— -^ ^. The Four Great OontJnenti (Bnddhirt). 

1. SffmCor^^^. Jamhidwlpa. 

2- ^ ^ ^. C" S i^ ^' ^fi*"* « PQmrideha. 

S-pHPffi-CMSKMl- GMhaaya or Aparagodana. 

^- ft M ^' f" P H 3®- Knrudwipa or DtUraknru. 
•*a According to the cuemagODj of liie Bnddbnt SQtnus, the above- 
named four contlneota [or islaads], lie mpecUvdy Sonth, Eae^ North, 
and West of Mount M€ni, the sacred moantain fbiming the centre of Ibis 
nnivene. India, China, and the adjacent coantries are comprwed within 
the limtti of Jambndirlpa, which takee its name from the gKeAjambu treo 
growing at \tit mntiiem extremity, (cf. ^ ^ ^ JJL. H- Ct E. H., 
pp. 36, 11, 100, 168. 

XOe.— ^ ^. The Four Fans (^ tlie Homan Frame. 
1. ^. The Head. 2. ^. The Trunk. 8. ■^. The 
Arms. 4. ^. Tba Legs. 
1 lO.— ^ J. The Four Heavenly KingB (Sanskrit 

1- tS ^ ^ 0^' ScmsiHl DhritarSshtra. 

2- tSt ^ if iL Smshit Vir&dhaka. 

S. Htt IS *$ X> Sansirii Yir&p&keha, called ^ M ^ 


^ ttt ill^ ^) SansLrU V^gravana, called ^ |^ the Mnch- 


These four celestial potentates are faUed, in later' Bnddhist tradition, 

u rrding (he legions of sapanataral beings who guard the elopes of 

Paradise (Uoont MSni), and (hey are wombipped as the protecting deities 

of Baddhiit Banctnariea. Pq K'ang (see Part I. Nol £54) \a said to have 

introduced their worship into China in the ^ century AJ>. Cf. KT. t 84. 

1 1 1.—^ ^, The Foot Oieat StieaioB of anolent China. 


l.'JI,. The Tangtsze Kiang. S. |f^. TheHwat 8. J^T- 
Hx TaUon BiTsi. A ^. Tha X<L T.S.E. k. 11. 

Pi. ir. cnntESB rsadebts manual. ni 

1 X S. — ^ Hjjl. The Fonr FnnduDental PriDcipke. Accord- 
ing to l^ncins, these &ra the poSoj of oonHninratkm, the feeling of 
ahame and dislike, the feeling of modesty and oampEaiBonae, and the 
feeling of approving and diBapproTing," which form leapectively the prin- 
eiplea of the four virtues of benevolenee^ lighteoascen, projrietj, and 
knowledge." See 3E. '^. Cf. L.C. n. p. 79. 

IXS.— ^'9. The Four HuiKtriu of State (iusatatodudw 
the leign of Han Ch'6ng Ti.) 

I. ^ -^ r ' '^^° Minifitiy of the Presence or Conncil. 
i. IZ^ ^ I ■ The MiniBlry of Civil Adminlttntlon. 
S. £^ I . The HiDLBtry of the Icteriffl'. 
4. ^ I . The IGnistry of Fmaga AffatiB. 

1 14.—^ ^. The Fonr St«Uar InQoencee ruling the Q ^ 
q.v., and dmilarly named. 

1 IG.— ^ m, (I). The Four Comen of the Earth. 
The four mtenoediate points of the oontpais, vit ; N. £., S. K, 
N. W., S. W. 

1 1€.— Q ^, (n>. The Four Sapporti of a State (accordins 
to the philosopher Cfavrang Too). 

I. jjj§, Dccomm. 2. ^, UprightoGss of nuud. 8. ff^, Bonesty. 
4. Q&, A senoa of honour. 

1 1 '5'.— ^. The Fonr Sacied Mounteins. 
I. tS- 2. li. 8. ^. 4. jg. Cf. L. C, m., p. 55. 

See i ^ iwa^ No. 176. 

1 1 8,_ ^ ^. The Five Constitnenta of Worth (or CoMtant 
Virtoes, ^q)la7ed, according to the teachings of Confacitts, hy the perfect 

1. ^1, Benevolence. 2. ^, Upri^tnnB of mind. 3. |§, 
Ftoiniety in demeanoor. 4. ^. Knowledge, ct enUgbtenmeDt.. 
6, -jg, Good Faith. 

1 ie._3t $. See Part L, No- 86a , ,,b GoOqIc 

m caiSESB RBADBtea uakual. pt. it 

1 so.— £ g^. Tbe five Great HiiiiBten of Shun. Bee fL 
^, poA, No. 276, (Not 1, 2, 3, 4, 6). 

1331.— £ ^ Thel^ve Fnsdial or Guardian MonnUiu. 
1- 2^ UU in ^ :Hi> (Shan-tnug), cn Ibe Eait 
2. # i^ Ul in j^ :HI> (Che-klangX on the South. 
3- H Ui >° # :HI* (Hoann), on the GeDtnx 
*■ =^ UJ i" m Wi. (Slwn^-X on the Wert. 
5' ^ ^ UJ io @ it|. (Chih-li), on the North. 
Tbe above emuneralitm waa that devised tmder the T'ang d;naitT, 
when sacriGceB were ofiered to ihe goaidion hOla, with lefetoioe to ths 
preoedent recorded in the Book of Hiitory. — Cf. L. C, m, p. 38. 

iaS._^^. The Five Prfnto, via. North, South, Eaa^ 
Wwt, and^Centifi, i. «., Q "jj, q. v., and tfl •^. Eenoe naed to 
denote China (the centreX and the remainder of the iv(^d, i^1|^f^tpa^^ u 
lying on tti four borders. The whole world. 
1 S3.— ^ |g. The Five BlessingB. 

1. %, Longevity. 2. ^, Bicbes. 3. J^ ^, Feaorfnbwea 
and Serenity. 4- 'ftS^ ^ |fe The love of Virtne. 6. $^ 
9T ^1 ^ ^^^ crowning tbe life. Gf. L. C, m., p. 39. 

1 S4.— £ 1^ (I.) The Elve Degrees c^Moon^ Cm nfeienoa 
to conungaiiuty.) 

^' 9r 9i: Moaming for parents. 

2. ^ I . Uouming for grandparenta and great grandpuentl. 

3. ~^ ^ . Mourning for brothers, siaters, ^A. 

4. j\t ^J. Mooming for uncle^ annt^ ixi. 

5. Jf|g JP^. Mourning for distant relatives in line of deacent or 

1 26.-— £ j^. (n.) The Five Dimons or Tmarta of the 
Empire under Vao. 

1- '^ Wl- The Imperial domtun. 

2. '^ I' . The domain ot the oobleB. 

3- l§r I • ^lie peace Gecuring dontdn. 

4. §^ I . Tlie domau of rwtraint. 

S.ySc, I . The wild domam. Cf. L.G. in., p. 148. , 

•■■ —• ->"gk 


103.— £^, The Five ^nua of Taxation (nndei the 

^ Q I ■ BenbJ of Goremment lands. 

^^ I J . Land tax on prirale estates. 

yft 1^ f . HoQBe Ux in citiei and toirnB. 

j{|| 1^ I . Taxes on produce and manofaelures. 

7* P ! ■ Pdltar in grain. T.8.K. k. 86. 
lS'7._3£fj. The Five Elemente or Primordial Eaencea: 
(ako called 3l #, 3l IH. 3l H, and S. M'> 

1. ^ Water. 2. ^. Fire. 8. ^. Wood. 4. ^. 

Metal. 5. ^ Earth. 
Upon these five elements or perpetnally active principles of Nature 
tlte ^hiAe scheme of Chinne philosophy, as originaled in the '^ fQ or 
Great Plan of the Shu King, is baaed. Cf. L,C. m. p, 825. The later 
■pecnlatioQs and reflnemenls concerning their natare and mntnal acdon an 
derived from the disqairitions of Tsow Yen (see Part I., No. 746,) follow- 
ed by the £ ft ^« <^ ^u Hiang and the ^ || ^ ^ of Fan 

laS.—^ J^, (I>- The Five FtmishmetitB (under the Chow 
and Han dynastka). 

1. ^g. Branding on the forehead. 

2. ^. Cutting off die uoee. 

8. Jjlj. Muming (cutting off the ear, the hands, ot the feet). 
i. ^. GB«tistioii. 

ISS.— i Jfj, en). The Five PuuishmenU (as at piMeni 

1. ^- Bambooing — compriaiig five degrees of severi^. 

2. ^t^. Baatinadoing, — comprising five degrees of severity. 
8. t^- Banishment, — comprising five degrees of duration. 

4- ^ (^ ^- Transportation for life. Comprising 3 degrees 

of ^Btanoe. 
6. ja^. Death. Divided Into two ulanes, viz f— 

1. jg^. BtratigKng, 2.^. Deoapit«tion. Cf. ^Ac ^ ^ fBf 

, - .-->o^l^- 


130.-IJ|g. Thi n™ I*k<»(T.BX) 

2- ft I ! W 5 I • ■■*« IVbg-tfio lik.. 
11 iS I I :«■ W I ■ Th. T.o.j«,g Ul». 
* SB I I IHB I . Tl»Tn.g<b.gLJa. 
5 H I I * J- TI»r«Uk.. 

The above are onundered u the ffro great Lakes i^ tnoden tinm ; 
but in the opbion of some anthiaitiea tlte £ ^ of antiquity weM ora- 
flned to Ihe Exiidiig T'ai Ho (Ka 5 above) ud adjaceitt iheeta of water. 
13X.— 3£ JSI, (I). The Hve Anipoioai Sigas oi Omni, 
nuuiifestfid by the Boddhtiattwni when aboot to become ineamaU uid t» 
nnderUke the Boddha-ehip. 

180._£ 3ljg, (n). The IVe Gen-dgnalB bestowed by tb» 
Empeior Shim npoD hia feadatory vawaU. Cf. L.G. m, p. 84 ; and 
Uedhnrrt, Shoo King, p. 18. 

1Q3.— £j^ The I^ve AiraDgementi. 
1. ^. Tbeyear. 2. ^. Themonth. 8. Q. The day. 
^- £ :J^- "^^ ■'*'■ ""(I pluKla and ibe n&eal ligmL 
S. IP Hit- '^^ calendario oaIculati(H». Gf. I^G. SL, f. 
The interpratatLOD given in the Ka» Cha is at MIowb. T&e yea^ 
the nm (or day), the moon (or nuHith), the tieavcoly badioi^ t&e eatmdariff 

134.— £||. (L) The Five AtmeqbMi* Inflnenoa; 

1. ^. Bain. The iDflnence of ^ tin eleMrat wood. 

2. ^. Yiao Weather. The Infloenoe of ^ tbe eleoMnt bmuI. 

3. j^. HeaL The inflnence of *AC the elemeat bs. 

4. ^. Cold. The inSoonoe of ;iC the dement wateri 

5. J9^. ^^d. The iiAKDee of X *^ elsment earth. 

The above are claalSed as ^pertaining to ^ Heaven, whilst thh 
f^veTastee— eee £^-~appertiAito|fbKaith. Seeabo<Mf«,Nd.lS7. 
136.— £||^. (II). TbeNatoieeoftbeFiveEleBmla. 

1. 2g. Genial Uildnm-ofWoodL. 

2. J^. CooloMS— of Uetal 

Digmzed by Google 



Cold— of Water. 
Inflammability — of Fira 
6. ^ HuiBtnn— of Earth. 
Indtridoala bom under tbo signi of tlie rec^iectlTe demeDts, paitake 
of or an Influenced hj the appropriate ^ u above emimaatod. T.S.E. 
XSe.— i^. The Free Precepta. 

The kwoni of duty le^Kotiiig eadi erf the caidioal telatioiui of man- 
kind, t»po^ No. 149. Cf. L.G. iiL, p. 44. 

3.87.-£^ TheSlveFtreoepti (aaiabitiWAi rdumon;.) 
1. Slay not that irUch bath life. 
S. Steal not 
8. BenotlntfbL 
4- Be not Ug^t in omvenatkn. 

S. IMnk not wine. T.B.K Cf. E.H. p. 89 ; and H.U. p. 460. 
188.— £:^. The Five Boots of Liie (» M>»al Poweis. 
(Saniktit i^mcAa&tfryo.) 

L Parity. S. Penevering Exertion. 8. The aeoertainment dS 
Truth. 4 IWtqdUitf. 5. ^ndom. C£ H.M. [k 498 ; and 
E.H. p. 47. 

18©^aL^ The Five Metah 
1. ^. Gold— of which the cdonr la TeDow. 
S. dS- saver— of wUch the ccdoar is WUte. 
8. 1^ Gof^nr— oT which the odonrb Bed. 
<- ^ fSli- Lewi and Tin— of which the ooVmr ii Bine. 
t. fl|||. Inm— of wMch the oolonr ii Black. 

140.— i |g. The Kve CanOTiioal Books called Ko^ 
. ^. The Tih Kinff or Book of Ghangea. 
The £%e £mp or Book of Odea. 
Tbe Shu King <a Book of Hiitory. 
The Li Ki a Canon of Bitea. 

The Ch'm Ts^iun or Annala of GonTaciui. 
The above arrangemeot was perfected imder tbe Ban dynastj, 
tPith the Four Books enbseqnently dasnfied, thc^ conatitate the sacred 
oanon ot Chineae orthodoze j. 



141.— i ^. The Five Escnlenis or GrainB. 
1. JR. Hemp — coirespoods witb ^ metal 
% ^^. Milletr— coirespondH nitii ^ 6k. 

3. ^^. Rice — cofreqxmdB with ^ earth 

4. ^k. Gora^-correqxmdB with ^ wood. 

5. ^. Pulse— coTTsBpondfl wilh y^nater. 
143._3t_ 1^. The Five Kinda of FrnJt. 

1. ij^l. The Peach, 2. $. The Plum. 3. :^. The 
Apricot. 4. ^. The CheBtnaL 5. ^. The Jiijnbe. 
144.— 3l ^. The Five E^iUtiona of the Bodily AcOons, 
or SeDsee (EDnmerated by Siin Taze). 

1. The ear. 2. The eye. 3. The nose. 4. The moatb. 
6. The body. 
14e.—3L ^. See Part I^ No. 867, 
l<tS.— £ Ig. I^ Five extern of Gmmonial Observance. 
1. ^. In Rejoicing. 2. p£|. In Moommg. S. ^.. In 
IGIitary Affairs. 4. ^. la Hoepitslity. £. ^. Id 
Festive Rites. Cf L.C. lu., p. 37. 
l-^?.— 2l ^. The Five Snpematural Creslmw. The 
I , and with them the astroDomical ^ j^ or White Tigar (ate ante. 
No. 91). 

148.— 5£ ^. The Slve UnuntBtn-raiiges, Eonaing the 
Soatbem boundary of the ein[nie at the aooesBion of the Ts'in dynasty, 
B.O. 221. 

1. yt^ ^. The range between the modem Kangsi and 
Kwang tung. 

^- ^tn ^' A continnation of the above. 

3. ^ ^. The range between Hiinan and Ewanglnng. 

4- iS liv'' The range north of Ewangsi. 

^' ^^ V' "^^^ range between Fu-kien and Kwangtnng. 

140.-3^ i^- ^lie Five Cardinal Rdadtms among Mankind. 

1- ig ^' Between Sovereign and sulject. 

2. ^ ■^. Between Father and son. 

3. Jf^ fp. Between Elder brother and yonogen 

Pt n. camsBE readers manual. ut 

4 ^ S^. Between BodHUid and wife. 

5. J^ ^^. Between IViend And friend. 

XSO.— £ H^. The Five Comd FottkinBof the Body. Tbe. 
bead, the two elbows, the two knees. 

Id ,— £ pg. The Rre Dragooa — n t«nn ap{died to tbe five 
diaUngniBhed sons of ^ !^ |^ of the Han dynasty. (E.F.lO 

IBS.— 5t ^ or YQ- The Fin Princta or Leaden of tbe 
Empire ('f^^'Wl ?7> ^ ntaintainer of tbe government of the Son of 

1- 9F 'S ^- ^^^ Hwan of Ts'l D. B.C. 648. 

2- W 3t •^- I>iA9 WSn of Tain. Z). B.C. 628. 
8.^^^. DukeBiangofSnng. AB.C.637. 

*• ^ wE i- P"™« Chwang of Tm. a B.C. 691. 

6. |^$[jP].^. DakeMnhofTs'in. i>. B.C. 621. 

Tbe period of the 3£ jp ^ oonsidered as oommencing in B.C. 685, 
when Doke Hnan b^an his reign, and terminating in B.C. 591. 

163.—^ ^. The Elve Banks cv orden of relationship. 
(Identica] with ante No. 149 q.v.) 

le^;.—^ ^. The Fire GlaMesofthe Art of Aichery. 

IBS. — jEt )if ' The Five Spiritnal Beings (oorresponding 
with the five F<nntB ante, Ko. 122, Ac.) 
1. ^ B- Geiiins of Spring. 
2- J^ i^- Cfenina of Samnoer. 
8. ^ ;i^. Goniis of Mid-year. 
4 .^ 'pC- Genius of Aotamn. 
'^- TC ^t- Genius of Winter. 
iee._^ ^. Beej)«rt, No, 176. 

XS7.— 5E; 0. The PennntationB of the ^ ^ in gnoccs- . 
sively overcoming or sncoeeding eadi other, hb laid down I^ Tsow Ten. 
Thns JjC water is said to overcome ^ fire and bo forth. Each dynasty 
is believed to be snt^'ect to the infloence of the dement which overcomes 
that prev^ing with the previoofl dynasty; and all htunan aSafn are 
referabk) to the eame occnlt infloence Cf T.S.K. k. t. 

u,., ,...,,, Google 


1 68.— £ <^. The Five Saorifidal Beuta. 
1. ^. The ox. 2. ^. The goat. S. ^. The pig. 
4. :^. The d(%. 5. ^ The fowl 
ISO.— £ m^. The Five Decimal Nnmben. 

One, Ten, One Handred, One Thoosaod, Tea Tbonaand. 
1 eO.— =£ ■^. The Elve Coloare. 
1. f^. Btaclc 2. ^. Bed. 3. ^. Arore (Green, Bine, 

or Black J 4. ^. White. «. f^f. TeHow. 
131.— 5E. -f[[|. The Five Clusei of Genii or Bapematnra] 
Beingi (according to Tatuat iny thology.) 

1. j^ I . Disembodied Spirits, having no resdug plaoe in the 
alwdes either or maufcind or the happier immortala, denied aUke 
metempE^hooa and elemal bliss. 

2. ^ I . Genii of haman kind — men nho have eacceeded in 
frenng themaelves firom pertorbalwHi of i^irit and the infirmitieB 

3. J^ I . Genii npon earth — hnman beings who have atlaioed 
to immoiiality in the existing ^orld. 

4. ]|P I . Deified genii — Immortaliied spirits vbo have tudden 
fiuewell to o&ith and have departed to roenn among the Tbiee 
Islands of the Blessed. 

5. ^ I . Celeedal gods — tiioae who have attained to coiw 
sninmate parity and perpetual life b Heaven. Cf. T.S.K. k. 43. 

leS.— ^ ^. The Five Planeto. 
1-^M- Venus } also called 3JfcS. or ^^, and ^^, 

2. ;^ I . Jupiter t abo called ^ M' "^ W t^- 

3. ^ I . Mercniy } also called ^ \ . 

4. *^ j . Horsj also called ^;^. 

5. ^ I . Saturn; alsocalled^^ori^'^.aDdj^^. 
The Bynonymi attributad lo the fiv& planets are said to have been 

beelovred for tbe most part by the astronomer Cbang HSng — gee Fait I., 
Nol3. Cf.^i^5^^fc.5. 

103,-^ ^. The Five Bunneasu. 

Demeanour, Speech, Seeing, Hearmg, and Seeing. Cf. L.O. in., p.329 


1Q4.— 3t=^. The Kve Imperial Conrta. 
1- 'A iil ^- '^^ ^^0°^ <^ Jndtoatare. 

2. ^ ^ ^. Tbe Court of Beligioae CenemotiUl 

3. ;j^ '^ %. The GrsDd Eqoeirr'a Court. 
^■^Wk^- "^^ Banqaetiog Coail. 

5. ^ ^ ^. Tho Court of EnlortainmonL 
•'• Tbe forgoing coi^titate five departmeole of Stale in existeiKM . 
under the pneent dynasty and presided over by bigb fonctioDarieH who 
are tnoally at the eame time connected with one or other of tlie Six Boards. 
Ab Preudent of one of the Courts, they bear tbe title y^, derived from 
the ofBcial twmenolatnre of antiquity. Cf. poet. No. 274. 

leO.— ^ j^. (I.) The Five Beigns of AntiqiMty. 
1. Hwang-ti. 2. Tao. 8. Shan. 4. YtL 6. T'ang. 
CE Part I., 9.T. 
XG&.—^^. (11.)"^. The Five Dynasties before the T'ang. 

1. ^. Sang. A.D. 420—478, 

2. ^. Tb':. A.D. 479—501. 

3. ^. Liang. A.D. 502—556. 

4. ^. Cb'en. AD. 567—587. 

5. 1^. Sui. AD. 5S1— 618. 

IS*?,- ^ f^. <III.)^. The Five Dynagtie* after the Tang. 

1. 5^. LUng. A.D. 907— 922. 

2. ^. Tang. A.D. 92*— 935. 
8. ^. Trin. AD. 936—946. 

1. ffi. Hon. A.D. 947—950. 

6. Jl^. Chow. A.D.951— 969. 

168.— £ ^. (I.) The Fire Ancient Erapeiws (woiBbipped 
as deilles correepoDding with the Five Poiota.) 

I.*». 2.^*. SS*. l.d'ft. 

^' ^ ^- ^^- ^^^ °'* ^troducdtxi. 
lee.- i ^. (n.) The Five Planetary Gods. 
I' W *$* • cofrespoudii^ with Jnpiler and c-alled ^S ^ Yf- 

2. ^K I , correHponding with tSaa and called ^^ ]^ j^. 
t. J^ I , corr«eponding with Saturn and call«d -^ f^ j^ 


1. Q I , oorreqxmdbg with Vetitia and called Q ^ j^. 
^- nn I < corFeqtoDdiiig with Uocai; aod called ttj ^ JK- 
TLe above tiUei occar fint in the utToDomical treatiBa <f the Han 
dynasty — their origin and meaning lemaiD involved In obacuiity. Cf. L.G. 
in., prol^. p. 97. 

1 70.— £ 1^. The live Congtituenta of the Human Frame. 

1. ^. The Maaclea. 2, ^. The VeiDB. 3. 0^. The 

Flesh. 4. *^. The, Bonea. 5. J^ %. Tlie Skin and 


In the terminology of the Buddhist^ the | | are defined as the 

head, (he hands, and the feet. 

171.— £^. The Five Dutiea, identtctd with the £ 'f^, 
onfe, No. 149. 

1*73.—^ ^ The Five Inwaid Parts, or Viscera. 
1. /ClV The Heart 2. fff . Tbo Liver. 3. ||l. The 
Stomach. 4. ^. The Lnngs. 5. ^. The Kidneys. 
1 ■J'S.—i |g. The Five Degrees of Fendal Bank (iaatilaled 
by Yao and Shun). 

1. &. 2. ft. 8. ft. 4. ^. 5. H. 
The above are commonly tranalaUd duke, raarqoig, earl, visctnnt, 
baron. Cf. L.C. m, p. 34. The same grada^craa of mvcaUture exist in 
name at the preMnt day. 

1 '7'4.— 3£ 5(5. The Five Taata or Flavouia. 

1. H^. Salt. 2. ^. BitUiT. 3. ^. Sour. 4. ^ 
Acrid. 5. •^. Sweet Cf. L.C. in, p. 326. 

1 70.—^ ^. The n»e Notei rf Harmony fonning tbo 
Chinese musical scale. 

1. gT- 2. ^. 8. ^. 4. %. (chih.) 5. 3JJ. C£ L. 
G. in., p. 48, note. 

l***©.— ilSt. The Five Sacred Momitaini. 
'^■fk I • ^ UJ in Sban-tQDg. 

2. ^ I . ^ f in Hn-nan. 
S. i§ j . ^ I in Shen^u. 



^* 4* I ■ ft t '^ Hoaan. 
177.— £ f^. The Fin ClaaMS of the Ait of Chuioteenng. 

178. — £^- The Bevolntion of tlio Fve Elements, la 
Aoeardanoo wit& the STBtera of the £ ||^ q.T^ ante, No. 157. 

179; — 3l ^- The Hre Coloured Clouds, oroeiiB, when seen, 
of good car erfl foitiiiie- 

1. yq. Gieen ^^ j^ betokeiu a plagtie of creeping things^ 

2. ^. White I J§ betokens moaming. 

8. ^i- Bed I ^ jj^ betokens warfare ond de&iniction. 

4. M. Black I ;^ betokens floods. 

5. ^. TeDow I Q betokens abundance. 

ISO.— J. jjg. The I^ve Atlribntee or Ablegate Character' 
istict of Being. (Sanskrit Pancfu Skandhai. 
\. "Q {RQpcb ontivard form. 
2: @ (FSUbruf) Ftfoeptkm. 
8. Jni ('So'it^^) Befleotion, consotonsnees. 

4. ^^ (f cBina) AotiM. 

5. ^ (Fn^ffona) Knowledge. Cf E.H. p. 129. HJl 399. 

181. — '^ ^. The Six Dynasties [between the Han and SiU) 
all eataUiabed at Eten-yeh, the modem Nanking.] 

A.D. A.D. 
L ^. Wn. 220 to 280. 

'( ^. The Eastern Tan. 317 to 419. 
C- Sung. 420 to 47a 

f. Ts*!. 479 to 501. 

c- Liang. ' 502 to 556. 

6. ^. Ch'fin, 557 to 587. 

18i3.— y^.^. The Six Forms of WorUIy Envircamient 
Hit. doBt), or Perceptions rf Sense. Snn^rit. IkViyn Ayalcmn. 
1. ^. Sanakrit Ajw, Fom. 


2. ^. Satukrit Sadda, Sonnd. 

3. ^. Sandiit; Oandha, Boent. 
i. ^. Suiskrit Aim, Taste. 

5. Jl^. Sanakrit Puttabha, Tandi. 

6. ^* Samkrit Z>Aarfna. The penxptioii of chantotor or kind. 
T.S.K k. 42. Cf. E.H. p. 106, and HJt p. 404. 

183._^^. The Six kmdfl of Domntio Ammolg. 
1. j^. The boree. 2. ^. The Ox. 8. ^. The goat 
4. ^. The pig. 5. y^. The dog. 6. ^ The fowl 
X 84l — -^ ^. The Six Duties « Gounes of Conduct incnm- 
bent npon man (^ |9.) 

Filial Severance. * 

Sincerity ia EViendahip^ 
_ EindlineaB. 
jj^. Love of Kindred. 
ff;. Endaranoe od behalf of otbere. 
6. (jjil. Charitablenes. 
1 85— 1^ -^. The Six Cardinal Pointo. 
North, Soiith, East, West, Above, Bdow. (Hence, Heaven and 
EarUi, or the Univerae.) The same term ■ alao applied to the oollocalion 
by twoe of the twelve cyoUcsl ugns. See pMf, No. 801, ibnnnig nx com- 

1 83.—'^ ^. The Six Arts or D^artmmls of Knmledge. 

(^ )i§)- _ 

1. i|g. Ceremonial oheervanees — see the 5 ) . 

2. 1^. Mnsic— aee the 6 | . 

3. 5t- Archery— 5 | . 

4. ^. Charioteering — see the 5 | ■ 

5. ^. Writing— see the 6 | ■ 

6. m^. Mathomatios — see the 9 f . 
187.— -^ ^. The Six Simaitades of Life. 

1. A dream — the baseless fabric of imagiaaUon. 

2. A mirage — which beginBbyrevoi«ngthetrDepotitionofot)}eotJi. 

3. A biiblile — whiuh has l>ut a moment's dwatioD. 

™ .-.oogic 



Q ante No. 

4. A ahadow— wluch fleet* away. 
& A dewdn^) — ^vhloh disappeaa Id the sanli^L 
6. A lig^Hiing fluh — which paaev swifU; oul of Iwng. From 
t^ ^ M iS- l^'S-^ 1^ ^^• 
188.—-^ ^. The Six Oigaiw of AdmitUsoe oc Bodily 
Somtiou ; abo called -^ ^. Baodmt C&i>i%KiAma. 
The Eye — which admila fbnn. 
The Ear — ^which aAwita sotrnd. 
The Noee— which admita soeut. 
The Tongne — whioh admits savour. 
The Body — which admits Beiuatios. 
The Mmd— wluch admits perception. 

T.S.K. It. 42. Gf. E.H. p. 29, and B.M. p. 403. 
168.— ^t; :|g. The Six Roola of gensation. 
The Perceptive operations of the Senses, vii. raght, hearing, emel&g, 
taidng, toacbing, and mental psceplion. Bee y\ yV> ""^ No. 188. 
T. S. K^ fc. 42. 

ISO.— ;^ ;g, (I). The Six Dmtis of Space. 
The Zenith, the nadir, and the four cardinal pointa 
101 ._;^ ^ (n). The Six Extiemea (of Mitery). 
AGafbrtnne ahortening life; dckness; wmtdw; poverty; wickedne«; 
weakoen. Cf. L.G., in., p. 99. 

108.—^; ^, (D. The Six Breaths or InSaencM of Heaven 

The Tin prindple, corresponds to ^ Metal. 
The Tanff prinnple, ^ ^^ changes not. 
. H,. Wind, oi»r^>on& to ± Earth. 
. ^. Bain, c(»ieepoada to ^ Wood. 

DarknesB, oorrespoDds to ^^ Water. 
Lights cwreapoods to y^ File. 
From the opeiadon of these tix influence, the five tastec^ five colonrs, 
etc., proceed. T. B. K., k. 2. 

1@3.— ^^(UX TheSixIiiflaeiictt[oftlts7m«idr<av 

u,., ,...,,, Google 


1. % Cold. 2. #. Heit 8. j$. DryiK«. 4. %. 
Mtnstora. 6. A. Wind. 6. iXC- E^ T. 8. K, k. 3. 
1 04.—^ J^. The Six CaiuHucal Woifa (reoognind duiii^ 
tfae Tmga rS Wa TI of the HaD djnaaty). 
1. ^. Tbe Book (rf Changes. 
2.^. TbeBookofHiitorr. 

3. ^. The Book rf Odes. 

4. |g. The Beocnl of BiUs. 

5. |g. The Book of Hdoo. 

6. ^ Ifc. The Aimala rf ConfiioiaB. T. 8. K, k. SI. 
195.—^^ The Six HiidBtera (^ the Chow d^nuty. 

1. §y( ^. The prime minister. 

2. ^ ^. The ministtf of ingtniction. 

3. -jfi YR- ^^ minister of ceremonies (religion). 
4- ^ il§- ^I^ miniiter of vu. 

5. ^ ^. The mhiiater of crime. 
& ^ ^. The minister of woAs. Gf. GJj. m, p. SSa 
lee.— ^ ^. The Six Degrees of Literur Bank (onder 
the T'ang AjiaAf). 

' m^t 2- W «• S. Ji ±. 4. « ft. &S- 

•'• The y^ ^pf of the present day ore six deputmenla soboi^nata 
to Iho Tribnnal of GenBotB IflS ^ ^ tbo cbiels of wbiob, entitled ||^ 
^ (f1, act re^iccUvcIy as Superviaora of the bumoees of the Six Boards 
— eeapoat. No. 206. 

X0'7'.— ^ jg. The Six Kinds of Grain. 
1. |g. Rice. 2. ^. Millet. 8. ^. Pabe. 4. p. 
Wbe&t and Badey . S. ^ A species t^ JdillQt. 6. ^. 
A species of AGlleL T.S.E. Gf. L.C. m, p. 14. 
IBS. — ^ Q. The 8ix States Cm alUanw togtfber, Srd 
(snUuy B.C.] 

1. SF 2^- 8.^. 4.®. 5.S|. 6.®. 
].e@.— -^^ ^. The Six Upper Musical Acooidi. 
1. ^ ^. The yellow tabe. 

. - .-->ogle 


3- M ^ '^^ ^7 bathing. 

4. {^ ^. The flouiiUDg gnvt. 

5. II ijy. The fofe%D Uw. 

6- ^ IH"- '^^ °°B^ '^"ow. See Note to Ko. 200, below. 

SOO.^l; g . The Six Lower Kimxl Aoootds. 

1. ^ 3 . The great qdoe. 

2. 3l^ JH. The double tabe. 
8. -^ 3- '^^ mAdie epine. 
4 i^ ^. The forest tabe. 

5- ^ 3 - "J^ flouthem spme. 
^- ffli SS' ^^^ reepoDove tabe. 

•*• The two diviriona above eDomented compcee the ~p* ^ ^^, 
Of twdva regulators of muuc which, aooording to tradition, were devised 
by meaOB i^ tabes of bamboo, by ling Lun (see Part I., No. 897), for the 
Empcnv Hvmng 'H. Gf. T. K jT^ ^. The i«nderitig d the respective 
dodgnadona set forth above is bcurowed fh»n Hedhurtt's Shoo King, pp. 
20, 21, note, where the aygtem is elaborately deeoiibed. The first six are 
B^ hi be subject to ihe influenoe of the ^ principle, and the last ux to 
be subject to diat of the ^ principle. The Emperc? ShuD is represented 
«■ having "regulated" or "rendered nnifomi" Cbo notes of mnoc con- 
■titaled by these tubes. G£ L.G., in., p. 36. T. 8. K., k. 4. 

001.—-:^; ^. The Three Divisions and Three Styles of (he 

1. %,. Ballads. 

2. ^. Eulogies. 

S. ^^. Songs of Homage. 

4. ^. Allusion. 

5. ^. I^tapbor. 

6. ^j(. Deecripldon. 

SOS. — y^i 1^ The Six Senses or Organs of Knowledge. 
Sanskrit Vifytiana. 

1. Bpc f^. The sense of the eye. 
^ 2. ^* I . The sense of the ear. 

8. M. I . The sense of the ooge. ^ , 

' DigilizedbyGOOgle 


4. ^ I . The Benee of tbe tmgoe. 

5. -^ \ . The Dense of tlie body. 
6- ^ f ■ '^B sense of the mind. 

From (heee prooeed Oie -^ ^, see ante, No. 182. T. S. K., k 
.42. Cf. E. H, p. 168. 

0O3.— ^ ^. The Six GIbcbcs of written Ghtincten. 
1. f^ -f^. BepteseotationB of otgeots, Bach aa Q the son, ^ 

tbe moon, &e. 
3. ^ ^. Indications of sctiona or etatee, as _t above, 'J* 

hektyf &c 
8. ^ ^. Combined Ideas, or Sog^eetive canpounds, as x(, 
a warrior, c4»npofied of tbe rodicab ^j^ and jS^ ; ^f, tnst, 
good fi^tb, conasting of ^ and ^. 
4- ^$ Sc- Pbooetio aggregates, as ^, a rirer, based on the 
eoand I., and J^, based en tbe somid '&[. 

6. '1^ ^. AmbigooDs (UL borrowed) figures — cbaraotets )»▼• 
ing diverse meaninga, as ^^, ^^ &o. 

6' ^ 1^' UutaUe signifioatioDB, as ^, wberec^ the sonnd a 
variable, (fun cr tttO and tbe sense diSeia accordingly. 
T.aK t 82. 

S04._-^ iHQ. The Six Mmsters of Hwang-ti. 

1. Fnng How ; see Part I., No. 135. 

2. Tai Ch'angj see Part I., No. 697. 

3. Sb€h Lnng; see Part I., Na 605. 
4 Chnh Tang J see Part I., No. 87. 

5. T'ai Hung; see Part I., No. 699. 

6. How Ta J see Part I., Ka 181. 

aoe.— '^ JSt JIS %■ ^I^ Si)' P&ramitas, or "Uaans of 
Fasnng to the other Shore " — ■'. e. of reaching the state of Nirvdna. 

L Charity. 2. Observance of tbe preoq>te. 3. Patoence. 
4. Energy (in rcEgioos devotion.) 5. Tranqaillity in mecUtaticn. 
6. Wisdom. T.S.K. k. 42. Cf. E.H. p. 90. 
803.—-;^ n^. The Six Boards of tbe Central Adminbtntku 
At Peking. 


1. ^ 



2. ^ 

TheBoud ofBerenoe. 


The Boarf of Ceremonies. 



s « 



The Booid oT Woita. 


^. The Six Pathfl or ConJilioQs of Ejistenco 

iJso caHed ^^ )^. 

Bftosltrit ff<i(i. 


Dg>xi. Tha Bpirita of Heaven. 


Mamhip. Men. 


^jWYa Titanio dcnioQs. 


JWtt Famiiied derik 


TUn. EnlelKaetii. 

6- ^W^ Naraka. Hell(tbepIaceofUiewiokecL} G£E.H.p.4I. 

208.— -^ ^. The Six Chaptora on Uie Art of War. (A 
work ascribed to Kiaug Lu-wang, soe Fart I. No. 257). These chap- 
ters an severaUj dedgnated by the following namea: Kg; ^; ^; 

The Sis Virtnet or Happy Esdowmenta. 

2. ^. Humanity. 3. JEg. WBdoni. 
[xigldjiMS. 5. Ffl. UodoiatioR. 6. ^^ B&- 

^ ^, (I). The Six Forms of Writing. 
The Chuxm <h Antiqno, called the " Seal " ebancter. 
The Anoieot official text. 
The patten or plain character. 
The cnrsive or mnning character. 
The "gras-text" or rapid hand. 

Tlie Sung dynasty text, or printer's style. Gf. Fart I., 
Noa. 110, 36S, aud 596. 

i3 1 1.— -^ ^, (n). The Six Fotbm of Writing (rccogniied 
Hnd^ the Han dynasty). 


1. "iff ^1 The ancjent last, as in the books fbuitd ooocealed 
in the wall of the K'nng funily'i nutDnooi 0£ L. G^ t, 
pioleg. p. 12. 

Ezoeptiomd oharactere interming^ nitli tho above. 
The Chuxm or " wal " ohaiacter. 
The official text. 

The angnlar nnd ooutOTted seal cbaracterc 
The reptHo-fOTin character. T. S. K., k. 32. 
SIS.— ;^ Jg. Tie Bix PasBagea or F&nunitas. See auto 
No. 206. 

SIS.— '^^. The Six Saperoatunl Faonllies. Sandoit 

!■ yC ttPt I ' • "^Q diyine eye, — vleion ezten^ng hi the most 
remote regions. 

2. ^ ^ f . The difine ear, — bearitig QnobBtmcted 1^ 
intCTveniog barriera. 

^- ^fSi W^ I - "^^ ^>^7 ontrammded, — power to more 
at win through space. 

4. jSi J(!^ I ■ [Knowledge] of the minds of others,— ^mireisBl 
pwception of the thoughts of others. 

5. 4g ^ff I . [Knowledge] of the deedniee of the pasL 

6. jP^ ^ I . Perfect knowledge concening aH ages. 

The above qnalltks or fiwnltiee were poteessed by Shakyamaai, and 
characterise thoee who attain to the d^iee of Aihftt T.8.K. k. 43. 
Cf. E.H. p. 2. 

S14.— ^ f^. The Six Enemies of Han (Baddhism). 
The eyes, the eais, the nose, the tongue, Ihe body, the mind, — ^ 
whence proceed the sis senses, — see ante. No. 162. 

S 1 6.—^ j|g. The Six Patriarchs in China of the Bnddhbt 
^' ^E ^' Bodbidbarma — an Indian wmoDBij (£ wyai 

descent, who reached China in A.D. 626. 
2- IS W- Hwel K'o. S 

8.ft#. SengTs-an. '.^ 

DigiiizedbyLTOo^lc ■,; 


^- M ^- ^«> S'»- 
S. 5i ^ Hang J6n. 

6- ^ ^- Hwd Nfing ~- caUed ■i^^,Om Sixth Palriareb, 

see Part I., No. 428. T. 6. K., k. 42. 

S13.— '^^. The Six Honoared Ones, or Six Superior Powers. 

Of these mjileriona objects of wcmhip, to whom sacrifice waa offered 

dnriog the Chow dynasty, the actual nature is a dieted point By siime 

writers they are held to be tbo ' six sods 'of Heaven and Earth," vie 

water, five, wind, thunder, hitle, and lakes. Cf. KG. k. 9. By others 

the term is interpreted as ngnilying tho sun, the moon, and the stars 

(in HeaTCn), and rivers, seas, and monutains (on Earth.) Gf. L.G. ni, p. 

4,* and proleg, p. 193. 

SlQfc— ^-y-OT^i^ t I . The "Six children" of 
Heaven and Earth (conecponding in all to ihe Eight Diagramp, ox set 
forth in the g^ ^ of Confucins). 

1. ^ is ;^ the Father, also called )|l$ H" or the unalloyed 
Male principle. 

2. J:^ is -^ the Mother, also called j|$ ^ or the nnalloyed 
Female [ainciple. 

3- ^ >a ^ Jl the EldeM Son. 4. H is ^ ;^ the Eldest 

5. |j^ is F}1 JI the Middle Son. 6. j$(| is tff :^ the Middle 

6. ^ is ^ JI the youngest Son. 8. ^ is ^ :;fc the 
Tonngest Daughter. Cf. post. No. 241. 

SI"?.— -^-{ior I ^. The Six Stations or Linesof tbo 
Bexagram — 2 S*- 

•*■ Each line of the symbol formed in tlie system of the 64 hexsgrame 
(see pogt. No. 241) is designated ^[_ or 3C ^ above. The lowest 
line is entitled ^ \ or the first station ; (he highest J^ | or the 
highest station ; whilst ibe intenuudiate lines are indicated by the numbers 
2, 3, 4, and 5, coanUng from below. 

318.—^^. The Six Descriptions of Music [anciently 



1. ^ fj. Tbe Mnsic of ibo Emperor Hwang-ti. 

2. ~)^ J^. The MuBJc of the Emperor Tao. 
3- ~)^ IS' Music of the Emperor Shmi. 

4. ;;^ 5- ^''^ '^>'^*' **f '*'* Emperor YU. 

5. ~)^ {^ The Magic of the Emperor Taog. 

6. ^ jit The Mq«c of the Emperor Wu Wang. T.S.K., k. 4a 

SI 3. — ^jg^. The Seven DiTectora, or Rulereof the One* 
d seEUonB. 

The Sun, the Mood, and the Rve Planeta. Cf. L.C^ ni., p. 88. 
SSO.—- 1;; yj. The Seven Grounds for Divorce. 

1- #E^ "T*- OhihUesnesi. 

-■ (^ ^- Wanton condnct. 

3. !!^ ^ H ^. Neglect toward hnaband'a parents. 
• ^ . ShrewiahneeH. 
; ^. Robbery or thievishness. 
' ,K- Jealousy and Ol-wi'U. 

i^, Malignant disease. 

SSI. — b If. Tbe Seven Aairtanto of tbe Emperor 
Hwang Ti. 

These were JIL ^ (aee Fart I., No. 1S5) and ox other mythical 
pereonogce, who aided Hwang Ti in the government of bis Empire. Several 
different veiainns exist with reference to the nanNS and functions of tbe 
fiiic. K.F.L., and T.S.K. k. 22. 

2SS. \^ ^. The Seven Bnddhas who preceded ShAkyamunL 

Sanskrit SapUi UucW>ii. T.S.K. 42. Cf. E.H. p. 122. 

2S3.— -{;; £^. llie Seven Martial States [of the third century 

l.m 2 Ji- ^W- 4- it 5.^. 6. H. 7-81. 

SS4. tt in 1^ Tbe Seven Tathftgata or Baddhas. 

Cf. E.H, p. 122. 

SS©.—- tl ^. The Seven Causes of Divorce. See flnft, No. 22a 
SS3. (;; ^f>r t SI- The Seven Apertures of the Head- 


l-2,theean; &-4, tbe eyas ; 5, the month; 6-7, the noetrils. 
SS"?. — tl B&- The Seven DepartmenU or Epitomes of Liler- 
Atme (classified by Liu Tin, B.C. 7.) 

1. f^l I . Compriang the classici or canonical wortcs. 

2. ^-^ ^ I . Cooipriaing works on tho mx arts, 

3. ^ -y" I . Compriang writings of philooopliers or niela- 

4- ^St fVk I ' Comprising pocUy. 
^' :^ ^r 1 - Comprising writings on the art of war. 
^' m KK 1 ■ ComjHising divination and nnmbcis. 
7. ^ J^ I . CompnBing medicine and Eurgery- 

aaS. \^ ^. The Seven PrecioOB- Things. Sanskrit Sapta 


^^ Pg. The golden wheel or disc. 
Tt Jl^. Lovely (gemmeous), female conaorts. 
^. Horses. 
. ^. Ele^^ante. 

'- ^ 1% JIW' I^'^ne guardians of the trcasnTy. 
1. ^ ^ g£. Ministere in command of armies. 
I J^ ^K- ''^''^ wonder-working pearl. 
Tbese are Uie paraphernalia of a chah-avartCl, or universal sovereign, 
according to Baddhist legends. Of. E. H., p. 122, and H. M., p. 126. 

Another enomeration of the Seven FrecioDH Things, not necesearily 
appertaining to a chahmvart&, comprises gold, silver, emeralds, crystal, 
znbiee, amber [or coral or the diamond], and agate. Of. E. H., p. 122. 

SS9. 1; ^, The Seven Primary Notes of Music. 

The i #, with ^ ^ and ^jfJE, (two semi-tones). Of. ^ 
^ )S£ ^> ^' '^' ^"'^ L- ^-> "^'> P- ^1 

S30. b 'fl^- Tli^ Seven C!enii or EisM (Immortals) of the 


TX 'Pf' I I ■ '^^^ Seven Immortals of tho Bamboo Grove. 
See Part I., No. 85. 

S3 1 .— b §.. The Seven Stars of the ^ Tme ConstellafcB 
j(p«rt of Ursa Hiyor). 

". .-- -wgl^- 


1' ^ IS- I^^e- 3 I ^- Henoh. 8. \ ^. Pbad 
4. I ^. Megrez. 5. ^ ^. AEoth. & || ^. 
■^^ ^:)t- Benetnaah. 

i33S. In; ^. The Seven Organs or ApertQRs of Fofception. 

SeenrUe, No. 226. 

^33. — \^ /J* -^. The Seren Men of Genuia of the R<%d 
^^{A.D. 190— 220). 

1. ?L ^- See Part I. No. 325. 2. gf ?t|C. 8. 3E # 
See Part I, No, S25. 4. ^ #. 5. ^ J^. 6. Jg 

Cr. T.S.K. k. 21. Mure than one version prevail! regarding tbe 
membore of thia category. _ See Part I., No. 759. 

®3^- — -t Tra' "^^ Seven Emotions or Passions. 

1. ^. Joy. 2. jfe. Anger. 8. %. Grief. 4. (g- 
Fear. 5. ^. Love. 6. ^. Hatred. 7. .^. Deaire. 

SSS. \^ ^. The Seven Luminaries. 

The Snn, Tlie Moon, and the Five Plants. 

S3S. tl JC' The Seven Friends of the Emperor Bhun, who 

accompanied him on hia journeys through the Empire. (K.F.Ii) Also 

23'?,— /V i^. The Eight objecla of Government. 

1' ^. Food. 2. '^. Commodities. 3. ^ Sacrifices 

4. ^ ^. The minister of works. ~ 5. ^ ^. The 
minister of instruolion. 6. S] ^^. The minister of crima 
7.^. The entertaitunent of guests. S. Si6- The army. 
Ct L.C. in, p. 327. 
SSS.— A ^- Tbe Eight Rnles for removal from PiibHu 
Employ d'e. ShoH«omings). 

I. ^. A grasping dispo^tion. 2. j^. Cmelty. 3. ^ j^^ 
ffil ^^. Indolence and inactivity. 4, ^ gg. Tnattentioa 
to doty, 6. ^ ^. Age. 6. ^. Sickness. 7. j^ 
1^. Indeconne behaviour (levity). 8. >^ ^ ^^ ^. 


J3S9.— /V ^. The Eight groonds of DisUncUon or Privilege. 

1. ^. Imperial Connection. 2. ^. Long Seirice. 3. ^. 

Meritotioog Service. 4. ^. Wisdom and Virtue. 5. 

Abi%. 6. Hd. Zeal on b^ttlf of tile State. 7. ^. 

Exalted official rank. 8. ^f- Descent from privil^eil 


•*• The fote^Qg, derived from the iueUtntions tecoided in the 

j^ ^, form put of Hm statate law of the Existing dynastj. 

i340._/\ Ig. The Eight Harmonious Ones (.^IfUl 

The eight 8onB,-or descendanla of the emperor Cbwsn Ktt ({^ ^ 
p^ B.C, 251S, who, with the/V 7C ^■'- "'^^ ^''"" '" ^ government 
of the Emjnre. Cf. 8.K. k. 1. 

241.— /V ^' The Eiglit Diagrams (« Symbols. 

The combinatioM of triple liaea, believed to have been developed by 
Foh-hi (see Part I, No. 146 and 177) by aid of a f^an or arrangement of 
figuree revealed to him on the back of a " dragon-hone." They conmst in 
t^e following delmeatjons: — 

1. 2. 8. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 

These fignies or trigrama, coosisling alternately of nhole and broken 
lines, are reducible to tbe Fom- symbole, (see ante, No 107), which conuet 
in bat two lines eaob, and these ogahi to their two primary £Drms (see ante, 
No. 8), which repreeent the Gist diviwoo or development of the Yin and 
Tar^ from Unity or tbe Ultimate Principle. According to the Chinese 
belief, these eight fignres, together with tbe sixty-four combinations to 
whiob (bey are extended (see below), accdmpanied by certain presumptive 
expIaDalJona attributed to Fuh-hi, were the hasis of an ancient system of 
pbiloeopby and divinatitHi during tbe centories preceding the era of W«i 
Wang (12Ui centaiy B.C.), but of which no records have been preserved 
b^ond tbe traditional namou of its schools or diviaoDS. (See ante. No. 73.) 
WSn Wang (see Pait T, No. 856), while nndergoing imprisonment at the 
hands of the tyrant Show, devoted himself to study of tbe diagrams, and 
dt^nded to each of them a short ezplaoatoiy te:ii These explanalioDS, 


en^tled ^^, with certaia fiirLher olserv&UonB on the strokes of the figures 
t^rm^ ffit which are attributed to Chow Enng, the bod of Wfin Wang, 
cnnstitnte the work known as ^ ^ or the Book of changee of the Chow 
dynasty, which, with the commentary added by Confucins, fonns (he Tik 
^«'9 M'^' ^^ "oet venerated of the Chtnesa clasKcB. (Cf W.N. p. 1.) 
In this work, which enrves aa bans foi the ptiiloBophy of divination and 
geomancy, and is largely a{f)ealed to as contuQiog not alone the elements 
of all metapbysioal knowledge bat also a cine to the secrets of nature and 
of being, the eight diagrame upou which the entire system reposee are 
named aa follows, accompanied by indications of their alleged relation 
to the elements or c«}nstitaent parts of existence : 

1 . ^, corresponding to Heaven, the celestJal expanse ; and, bdng 
entirely composed of w/iole lines, to f^ }^ or the iinaHoyed 
male principle. 

2> jSi correeponding to vaponr, watery exhalotioDS, lakes. 

3. ^(l, corresponding to fire and beat, light 

4. ^^, corrcipoDding to thnnder. 

5. ^, corresponding to wind 

6. ^, corresponding to water. 

7. p^, corresponding to monnlaJns. 

8. 1^, corresponding to Earth, or terreatri^d matter ; and, bdng 
wholly composed of broken linee, to pQ ^, of the Doalloyed 
female prindple. 

A ceaseless process of revolntjon is held to be at work, in the conise 
of which the virions elements or properties of nature indicated by the 
diagrams motnally eztingnisb and give birth lo one another, thus prodniang 
the phenomena cf enslence. The following plan, devised by the philcs- 
opberaofthe Snng dynasty, represents the supposed natural order (Jt 
■fft), of arrangement which the diagrams occnpy as indicalcm of the 
unseen rerolntion of the powers of nature : — 

by Google 



To thtH airaogement, coDiidered as rapnMnting the icheme imaj^ned 
bj Fuh-hi, ibe title >t ^ u giveo, io aonfonnity with the teachingB of 
Gh'&i Tw'u) (aee Fait I., No. 104a) ; whilst a dtferent atdet of KiiooMritxt, 
imagiDsd bf Sbao Yang (see Fart I., Ko- 594), as that iadioated by the 
teachingH of Wto Wang, is designated ^ ^, these temiB, iatdying at 
onoe priority and consecntiveneB m date and a difierent poel^on of the ^^ 
ajmbol, having beea adopted from a passage in the Confuciao ctanmeDtary. 
Tlie ^^ ^ PB, 01 Doeterior ammgement b as foOowa :~- 

Upon the proceraon and introaction of the diagrams in one or other 
of these orders of airaDgement divensysteoiBof divinationaDdmelaphTsIcal 
exegesis have been based. The qnalities attributed to each of theelemen- 
tary princlplea represented by the diagratns play au important part in these 
BpecalaUons, They are described as follows : ^ is @ — strong ; i^ is 
IP — complaint ; jf^ is g^ — mobile ; ^ is y\ — penetrating ; ^ 


IB Pg — Uiat whuh sinkB down ; [QI is j^ buotifol and tsigbt; ^ ■ 
Ir — sUlionwy; ^ ie ^J — pleamog to tie oatvard Btnae. By » 
piocew of comparison, a oertata anima!, ifpifyijig these qualities, b anagned 
to each diagram (tee 'p(Ml, No. 259). 

In addition to the aeriee of ^gtit trigramB described above, Fiih-hi, or 
some one of bis Eocooswin, ii held to have enlaf^d ibe basiB of calcolalioo 
by multiplying the original nnmber eig^l&M, tbue creating the ^ ~|" 
PH ^ — Sixtyfour diafjnLiiifi or Hexagranis. This is accomplished by 
dnpliuating each of the on'^nal tligrams with itself and the remaining 
■even, forming combinations aiich as the following -.-^ ^^^s ■ 

and BO on to the end. A sixfold nultiplicaljon of these agdn gives the 
384 ^(, completing the number to which the diagrams are practically 
carried, althoagfa it is maintained that by a Farther {vocess of mnltiplicatKU) 
ascries of 16,777,316 diOerenl G>rms may be prod need. 

and ^ Q ^ 1^ by Hn Wei, passim). 

S4S.— /\ 1^, The Eight Sacrifices of the Ck«e of the Tear 
(ofiered, according to tradition, by the ancient Sovereigns). 

1- ^ ^- '^t> l^lie firat husbandman (Shen Nnng). 

2. ^ I . To the director of husbandry (How Ts). 

3. ;H. To the coliiTation of tie earth. 

i- W^^ DM- "^^ ^ ^atch-toweis of the fields. 

^' Wi mi- ^° ^'^ animals. 

6. J^. To ponds and dykes. 

7. p]C ^' To walercomses. 

8. J^ A- To the insect tribe. T. S. K., k. 39. 

243. — /V ^. The Eight Calendaric systems, sacceBsively in 
vogne under the Tang dynasty. 

S44.— /V IK- The Eight Dragons, — an epithet bestowed 
on the family of eight distinguished sons of ^ ^p ^<D. in the 3rd 
century A.D. 

S40._/V ^. The Eight Tribes of the ifan, — a generic 
designation for barbarians from the different poinla of the cotapaea. 

S4S.— /\ -fpr. The Eight Degrees of Maternal Relationship 
bandc tbat of Molhcr. 

". .-- --uglc 


1. ^^ I . Adoptive motber (who Iiaa bronght up a cbld not 

of tier owD hoamhold). 
^- 3ii I ' "^^ relation in which a. wife stands to the obildnn 

of her htisbsDd's coDCabine. 

3. i^ 1 . Slepmolber. 

^ ^3 I ' Foster- molher. (A concnbiue who brioga up the 

child of the principal wife), 
fi- j^ f ■ Own motlier (on her secood mairiage, after father'* 


6. [i{ I . Divorced mother. 

7. J[Er { . A mother who 'a a concalnue. 

8. ^ I or J0 I . Footer (narcing) mother. (A coDcnbine 
who gives the breast to an infuit of the principal wife). Cf. 

S^V. — /V ^. The Eight Exlremitiea of the Empre, conw- 
ponding with the four cardinal points and the fonr inlennediate angleg. 
The frontier id general. 

S4S._/V, ^. (r.) The Eight Masters or MinisterB of tb« 
reign of Shan. (E.F.L.) 

1. Ya, see Part I, No. 981. 6. P«h I, see Part I, No. 642. 

2. Tm, see Part I, Na 740. 6. Ch'ni, see Part I, No. 119. 
8. Sieh, see Part 1, No. SSI. 7v Tih, see Part I, Na 920. 

4. Kao Yao, Bee Part I, No. 242. 8. Kw'ei.see Part I, No. 329. 

®4e._A 0$. (II.) The Eight Instractore or Warnings. 

1. Thou Bhalt not kifl. 2. Thon sbalt not steal 3. Thou 
Bhalt Dot commit lewdness. 4. Thou shalt not bear false wit- 
ness. 5. Thou lihalt not drink wine. 6. Old age. 7. In- 
fimuties. 8. Death. 

®® O.— /V ^. The Eight Gods — to whom sacriflces were 
offered by She Hwang-ti. 

1. ^ ±. The lord of Heaven. 2. J^fc ^. The lord of 
Earth. 3. ^i. Thelorfofwar. 4. || ^. The 
lord of tlie Tan? principle. 5. ^ ^. Tl^^ l<»d of^.^m ,. 


IHincipIe. 6. ^ d^. The lord of the Moon. 7. ^. 
The loid of the Sua. 6. ^ ^ ±- The lord of the Ibtu 

SGI.— /V f|I|. The Eight Immort&b venerated b; the Tftoirt 

1. Oimig-Il E'Dan, aee Psrt I, Ko. 90. 

3. Chang Ewoh, see Part I, Na 22. 
8. Lfl Tnng-pn, see Part I, No. 467. 

4. Ts'ao Ewoh-k'in, see Part I, No. 763. 

5. Li T'ieh-kwai, eee Part I, No. 718, 

6. Han Siang-leze, see Part I, No. 155. 

7. Lan Ts'ai-ho, oee Part I, No. 834. 

8. Ho Sien-kn, see Part I, Na 175. 

•"• According to Chao Yih (K.T. k. 84). the legends relaUng to 
the above pOTSooagea as oonstitnting a defined aEsembUge of immcvtalized 
beings is traceable to no higher antiquity than the period of the YOas 
dynasty, altbongh some if not all of the members of this group had been 
prerlonaly celebrated as immtalals m tlie Taoist legends. 

S6S.— ^ tfl A 'Oil- The Eight ImmoiUla of the IVIne 
Cop (Celebrated wine-bibbere of the T'ang dynasty, to whom Ta Fn In 
hii poenv gave this designation.) 

1. Ho Ohe-chang, see Fart I, No, 169. 

2. Sn TsiD, see Part I, No. 626. 
8. Li Feb, see Part I, No. 36'l. 
4. Tsiao Sui, see Fart I, No. 742. 

6. 3E 3^ Wang Tsin. 

6- -S ^ 5l- Ta'ni Tsung-che. 

7. ^ ig ;$;. Li Bbfr^e. 
6- S^ M- Chang-hU. 

SeS.— /V "i. The Eight Officeta of the Chow dynasty. (K. 
F. L.), Cf. L. C, 1., p. 202. 

Se4.— /\ -fi;. The Eight Dynasties of Antiquity. 

Thone of the Five Emperors (see frnfe, No. 168), and the Three 

(see (uitt. No. 71). 


PlO. caiKSSB RBADSaa MAKUAt. tt9 

266.— A 'f|!- Tbe Eigk Perioda of tbo Tear. 

^' -U. ^P- ^'^ oommeiicaiiieiit of Spring, — ion in Aqnuiv. 
2. ^ ^. The venial eqainox, — mn id Arin. 

5. j£t^ ^. The oomineaoeineiit of Siunmo', — un in Tuiria. 
4. ^ ^. Tbe nmmer solstio^ — nin In Cancer. 

^- ^iL ^K- 1^ commenoemeiit <tf Aatmnn, — nm in Leo. 

6. ^^ ^p. The aotamnal eqninnz, — snn iu Libra. 

7. ^ ^^. Tha eommeacMDent of winter, ~ nm in Bcoqda. 

8. ^^ ^. Tbo winter Bobtice^ — nm in Oaprioom. 

see.— /\ J^. Tbe Eig^t Ooorsen of Mnh Wang rf tbe 
Chow dynasty. 

With theae eight atoecb, eadi of wfaiob boie a distlngmBhing name, 
King Hub was driven bj bis chariotett Tsao Fa (see Fait I., No. 737), (« 
iMJonmeTB tbrongfabi* Empire. C£ T. S. K., t 53. 

367*.— A ^. The Eight Cyelioal oharaotwt appertaining 
to the boar of a penon's birth, viz : those reqwctivel; of the ^ year, ^ 
month, Q day, and ^ hour. 

•*• Th«aa are cotnmanleated between the partwe to a betrothal and 
ooaasuiQally ain between boaom-fKeodt of bwmd tsotbatB — hence oaDed 

»68.— A .5f* ■?■■ TJx Eight GiRed Ones. 

Identical with Uie A ffi (*ee anfc, No. 240,) and A 7C> 0«^ 
No. 261). 

069. — A 4^' '^^ Eight Greatnrea, — ooireeponding with 
the signs of the Eight DiagramB, A ^' (^ ^ '°'^ 'i^ '^ IS ^ 
<^ Confudni). 

Tbe Hone, conetponds to ^. 

2. ^. 

The Ox, coneeponda to T^. 
Tbe I>agon, correaponds to ^. 
IIm Fowl, corresponds to ^. 
The Swine, corraaponds to ^. 
Tbe Pheasant, corresponda to ||^. 
The Di^, corrGq>onda to J 

& i^ Tbe Goat, conemoods to ;^. T. 3. E., k. 58. , 


aeO._A ^. TLe Eight Kinil ot MmoJ Soond, ,od 
beno« llie Eight Iniirameou capable of producing th« «uiie, node of lh« 

foDowiDg materials : 

1- fS- The gonrd or calabash. 2. J^. Earth. S. S. 
le^er. i ^. Wood. 5. 5 Stone. 6. ;^. MetJ. 
I. iS. salt, a yf. Bamboo. Of. L.a in, p. 41. 
^^^—Ajt The Eight TitBon! Ones (^=^.) 
The Eight 8oim (or dMcendante) of the Emperor K'ch (J^ ^ ^) 
who aided Shnn to the goveniineiit of the Empire. Cf. S,K. k. 1. 

^® — 7t ^. The Nine Sectiona of the Science of Nambe« 
or mathematics. 

1- ^ BJ. Plane MenanraUon. 2. ^ ^. Proportion. 3. 

^ ^. Felioffshiit 4. /J-» ^. Evolution. 5. |^ jj[. 

Solid HUnanralion, 6. i^ 1^. A]lIg„io„. 7, g Jp|. 

a^lus and Defeieney. 8. ^ g. Eqoation. 9. ■^. 

^. Trigonometry. 

••• AlKoniiog to fegendaijhislorj, the nine Sections of Arithmetic 

were demised for the Emperor H«ing Ti by Li Show (see Part L, No. 

867.) The reepectire icndering, above given are laten from an eshansliv. 

attiele on the subject by Mr. i Wylie, published in the .SSo.jfcf At„^ 

for 1853, and lopinled m the Chiuu mdjapama Mtpmars for May, 1864. 

■^/L TTI- The Nine Provinces into which the Empire 
was divided hy Yu. 

1- S I . K'i Chow. 2. ^ I . Ten Chow. 3, * | . 

Ts'i^Chow. 4. ^I.SUChow 5. S I . YangChow. 

«• Wl I ■ King Chow. 7. gS I . Til Chow 8. J| | 

Liang Chow 9. Jj| | . T„„g Chow. Cf. UC, .n., p. 92 

^^^^—X !#. The Nine Divisions of the ;^ fj or " Qreat 

Plan " of the Book of Histoiy. Cf. L. C, m., p. 323. 

see.—;/!, S. He Nino Celestial Stages or Oiblls ; accord- 
ing to the vulgar belfef and in the kng.age of Taoi.t fable, nine suce»»„ 
gradatiomi or sphere, of the Heaven,. The Heaven, in Ben.r.l. 8« 
fwit, No. 289. 


J36@._^ H^ Tbe Nioe Berolulions — a myatic phnue of 
Taoist alchemy, written Iq full | | ^ Tx, and explained as fflgoifyiiig 
the nine monthly revoluliona or Bacoesai/e transformationB of gubstaDce 
leqnired for the matariog and fructifying of the magica] eompoand vhicb, 
wben broaght to perfection, united in itself the vittueG of the dixir vifa 
and the powder of projection or " philoeopher'a Bt<H»e " C£ T.S.K., k. 48, 

SQI*.— ^ )\\. Tbe Nioe Blvere regnlated by Tu. 

8- ^ i ■ T. a £., k. U. Cf. L. C, ni.. pp. 77, 141. 
SeS.— ;^ Jft.- The Nine Tenures or Domwns. (^ jfj^). 
1' 'p^ JK- The domain of feadal service. 
2. "^ [ . Tbe doQiain of royal lands. 
8. Jl I . Tbe dom^n of nobles. 
4. ^^ I . Tbe domain of public fnncliotiarieB. 
^^ I , Tbe domain of irontier defi-noe. 

Tbe domain of tribes of Mm barbarians. ' 
The domain of tribes of / barbarians. 
Tbe domain of military gaaids. 
I . The dotniua of tbe outer irontier. T. 8. £,, k. $. 
Cf L. C, m., p. 149. 
S©0. — Jl, §. The Nine Musical Airs performed ou Slate 
occasions nnder the Chow dynasty (fl^ i^). Each of these had a 
distinguishing appellation. Cf T. S. E., k. 40. 

S'T'O,—;^ ^. The Nine SUges of the Heavens. Identical 
with jl g. T. S. K., k. 2. 

3*71.—^ 1^. The Nine Marches or FixmtJers irf the Nine 
ProviBces. Cf K. D., a v. 

3*7*2.—;^ JX.- The Nine Affluents or BraDchea of tbe Kiang 
(Tang-tffle). Cf L. C, ni., p. 113. 

*•* A variety of explanations are hazarded by difierent commentatora 
with respect lo these nine streams. In adtliUon to tlioeo mentiimed by 
Dr. Legge (see above), the following enumtration is given in T. 8. K., 

u,., ,...,,, Google 



The Cfa^ KiaDg. 

8. :g ^ 1 . The r»g-lo. King. 

8.^8 . 

Tha Song Kumg, 

4. -^ 

TiM Wa Kiang. 

5. ^ 

TheTa'u Kki^. 

6.iw . 

The Siang Eui«. 

'■« ■ 

Hu King ffiaog. 

^m i. 

The Han EUog. 

^m \ 

Tha Nan Eiang. 

aVQ.-;fL^. TheNineCUdfciof 

»•©■ 6-jiiB- siftg. 

K. 0, k. I. T. S. K, k. 31. 
3374.—;^ ^ Tbe Nioe HbiBtea of the Ckow ijwuiy. 

• 5. « a. 

9. W) ^.J 

**« The Nine Ministers | \ o{ the prennt daj are Uie foDction* 
aries, bearing the title f^, who preeide over the Firs Imperial Cotii1& 
See ante Na 164. 

S37o, — ^7(j ^1^, The Nme Mansions (arrangeTDenta of oolonr in 
accordance with the divniong of the drcle appertaining to the E^iit 

1. White— lie North. 6. "Whita—the North-wert. 

2. Black— tbe Sonth-wcet. 7. Bed— the Wert. 

S. Sea-green— the East. 8. White — the North-eub 

4. Dark-green— the Sontb-east. 9. Pnrple— the Sontli, 

5. TeUow-^the Cetitn.-. C£ T.S.K. k. 1. , . , 


076.—^^. TbeMineOfflo»Iieniploycai»yaie«mperorShnn. 

1. TU; KB Partly No. 931. 6. Ch'ui ; see Fart L, No. 119. 

2. K'i J eee Part I, No. 307. 7. Feb I ; Me Part L, No. M2. 
8. Sieh ; iee Fart I., No. 681. 8. Lung ; tee Part L, Na 453, 
4. Eao Tao ; aee Part I., Na 242. 9. Kw'ei ; see'part I., No. 829. 
6. ■Rh J Boe Part I., No. 920. ^ Of. L. 0. m., p. 42. 

S77.— ^ g. (I.) Tho NiM States of the Confaoian Period. 
1. If. 2. ^. 8. ^. 4. ^. 5. ^ 6. 1^ 
7. ^. 8. ^. 9. ^ Uj. 

^'y&^jl ^. (IL) Tb« Nine Fendal Priocipantiei imdv 
the Handynaat;. 

1.^. 2.JI. 8.^ ^m- 

tZT&.—Jl ^- (IIL) The Nine Minor States or Dynasdea 
between the Tang and Sung dynasties. 

1. j^H- A.D. 937 to 975. 6. '^ J . A.D. 904 to 971. 

2. 1^ ^ A.D. 875 to 978. 7. ||. A.D. 892 to 944. 
8. llf §1- A.D: 891 lo 925. S. ^. A.D. 896 to 952. 

4. ^ I . A-D. 925 lo 965. 9. ^. A.D. 937 to 975. 

5. ^ [or 41;] *^. A-D. 961 to 979. 

The aboTe were for the moet part contemporary with the £ J^ 
or Five DynaBtiee who Bnooeauvely claimed the Borereignty alW the down- 
fall of the T'ang dyoaBty, and wore gradaally aheoibed by the Honn of 


Jteratnre and Philosophy 

>mmi 1 

ift 1 1- 

^«i 1 

6.^1 1. 

■'■mm 1 

»«!» ■ 

Hm Nine Schods among the profeswn of 

The Confiician wJiool. 

The Taoist Mhooi. 

The seliool of Diviiiation. 

The school of writers on Law. 

The school of writers on official StaUon. 

The school of Meh Tsa. (See Fart I, No. 465) 

The school of writers on Polities. 

The acbool of miHeBaneoos wrilen. 

nun. I 


8- :S I f • The Bcbool of writerB on Agrioullare. 

•*• This olaaaficaLicni was maJa bj Ltii Yia B.C. 7. 

iZQ±.—jl j^. The Nine BonJera or Marches (of the Nina 
^OTiDceB, — Bee ante, No. 263). 

280.—^ ^. The Nine Degrees of OfScUl Rank. 

«"• These are eajd to have been first introdaced hj ^ ^ in the 
first year of Ibe reign of Wen 11 of the Wei dynasty, A.D. 220. Cf. ^ 
1^ ^ J^ B. IV. According to ibe T.K. the division of official 
fnnctionariea into nine ranks is traceable to n decree issned in A.D. 5S4 b; 
'^f ^p* of 'he Posterior Wei dynasty, who promnlgaled a Btatiit« insti- 
tuting nine lists or rolls JJ^ ^^, based upon tbe Nine CommlieioiiB ^ 
"^ or degrees of aathority mentioned in the Ritnal of Cliow. 

Under the present dynasty, eacb |}p or degree of rank is divided 
into Ip and ^^ or fint and second clas, under one or other of which all 
offices are distribated. Abont the year 1730 each class became penna- 
oentiy distinguished by a ]^ or button, in aucordance with tbe regulaUona 
established a century previously by the Manchow Sovereign Ts'ung-teh 
before the final conquest of China. 

033.—;^ mt- ^^ ^^ Processes of Nnmeraticm. 

The numbers 1 to 9. A1m>, a iTDonym for the Nine Divisions of 
ArithmeUc, see ante, No. 262. 

iSQ-^^jl ^. The Nine Gifts of Investiture, — symbols of 
authority anciently bestowed upon favoured KCnisleis or powerful vasals. 
The nature of these emblems varied with different epocbs, but the foUowing 
are recognised as bearing tbe stamp of clancal auUiorily. 

1. A chnrint and horses. 

2. Robes of SUte. 

&. Mnsical Instruments. 

1. Vermilion-coloured entrance doors. 

5. The right to approach ihe Sovereign by tbe central path. 

6. Armed attendants. 

7. Bows and arrows. 

8. Battle-axes. 

9. Sacrificial wines. CI T. K., ^ ^ ^t yC j^ ^ ^■ 


HQG.—jl ^. ITw Nb6 Heaven* 
A poetical term. Stapost, No. 289. 

S8S,— ;^ ^. The Nine Subjecti for Thonefctfol CouMder- 
t&aa, -^ referred to I7 Confacius. Cf. L. G^ l, p. 176. 

S8'?._;/t %. The Nine Imperiftl Courts (of the Tang 

^' jS^ tS I ■ ^^ <^°°'^ '^ Sacrificial ceremoniea. 

8- ^ iE i • The ooirt of Family Reg^Btere. 

3- ^ iJS I ■ 'The Banqueting Conrt. 

4. ^ l^f I • The Court of Eqaipmenls of the Guaia. 

6. jk ■^ i . The Imperial Stnd Conrt 

^ ^ ^ I • The CoQTt of Judicature. 

7- j'^l M I ' The Court of Entertainment. 

a '^ ^ I . The Conrt of Granaries and PsAb. 

9. ^ ^ I . The Treaonry Court. 
The above cdTeeponded to the J^ ^^ of the Han dynasty. Bee 

atOa, No. 164 and 274. Cf. T.S.E. k. 35. 

. The Nme Paths of the Uoon'a Orbit 
The Black path, on the north <A the ecliptic. 
The Bed path i^o Eqoinoctial), on the south of 

The Wlute path, to the west of the ecliptic. 

The Amie path, to tbe east of the ecUptic. 

The Tellow path. The Ecliptic. 
* Cf. Medhorat'B Shoo King, p p. 207—208, where the following 
s are given i The nine-fold course of the Moon appean to 
refer to the. incllaatiou of the lunar orbit and to the ascending and 
descending nodes, vhere they cut the ecliptic." The ecliptic is described 
as tbe middle path of the sun, and each of the first four paths of the 
Moon Is consideted aa a donble Une with reference to its two Euccessife 
passages of the ecliptic. 

38©.^7tt ^' The Nine Heavens, or Nine Divirions of the 
O e larti al S[duan. See the foUowtng diagram. 


1. f|l ^. The Centre, designated ^ ^ 

2. ^ ^. The East, designated ^ | or ^ f ■ 
3' ^ ^b- The Noith-«aat, duigoated ^ \ ■ 

^- A^ ^- The North, deflignated ^ j . 

5- ^ ^- The NorUi-west, dewgDated ^ | . 

6- ® ;^- The Wfflt, designated ^ J or JgJ^ ] . 
7' S9 ^' The South-west, dedgnnted ^ \ . 

8. ^ ^. The Sooth, designated jJc I «' 5^ I ■ 
^' !^ ^- The South-east, designated ^ | ■ Cf. E.C., k. I. 
a** The above divisions appear to correspond with the j]^ ^( or 
Nine Fields of Heaven of which Hwai-nan Tsze apeakB. The nine 
Heavens of the Baddhists and the later scboo] of TaMsta vreie conceived 
as sQCcesaive gradations, cv sphere above sphere, to eadi of which a fancifol 
designation is given. Gf. T. S. E.,.l£. 43. 

S©0.— ^^. The Nine Tripods of Yu. 

According to a tradition preserved in the J^ ^^, after the great Ttl 
aiceoded the throtte, tribute of metala was presented to him bj the chiefs 
of his nine provinces, with which he maoufautured nicie vases or tripods 
bearing deliueations of all the objects of nature H 4ft RH ^ ^2 flff' 
The object of these figares, it is there alleged, was the iDstmction of Ins 
people, in oriier that they might know the gods and evil spirits, and he dO' 
longer assailt'd by terrors in tlio forests and by the lakes. Tn the _^ ^ 
and the lli^Lory of the llan dynasty, on the contrary, the nine tripods are 
stated to Ii.'n'c borpo delineations of the provinces tliemselves, with record* 
of the population and the divisiou of properties and fiele. Later com- 
inentatON bavo insisted that the latter is the more reaaonsbla niaon of 


the biBtoTf of the tn'pods. Gf. T.K. "^ '^. The date there asigned 
to tha fabrioaUon of the Iripode is the 4th year of Yu'a leign, B.C. 2202. 
Acooidtng to the ^ ^^ they were removed by Wo Wang to bis city 
of Lohjf^ g^, which he founded after the overthrow oftheShangdynaaly 
B.0. 1123. In A.D. 1104, the Emperor Ewd Tsuiig of the Sung dynaaty 
ma pennaded by an aatiologer to Doderuke the reconstnictioD of Uie 
nuisioal soak as the baais of a reformed notation, and lo commence his 
lecttGoalioa <^ the established {nacti^eii by fabttcatJDg Dioe tripods in 
imitation of those of Yu. Cf. T.K. 

09 1 —JL ^- The KuiQ Degrees of UelatioDRbip. 

^- ]S M' Qfeat^reat^andfatber. 

2. "^ 1 . areat-grandfather. 

8- f^St Grandfather. 

4. ■^. Father. 

5. g,. Self. 

6. ■^. Son, 

7- ^ -^- Grandson (by wife, not concnbine.) 

8. "^ I . Great grandBon. 

9. TC I ■ Great-great-graDdson. 
2eS,_^^. The Nine Lights of Heaven. 

The san, the moon, and Ihc seven stars of ihe ^ eonstella^n 
(Ursa Major.) 

S93.— -|- ^. The Ten Wise Ones— Disciplee of Confocioa 
specially commended by the Sage himself. 

The above form the first class (^}-)| distinguished fat "virtoons 
principled and practice." 

The above fwm the leauid class, distJogui^ed for atulity is 

The above form the third class, distijignished for aJnitfriUMk' 
(ire taJeata." 


The aboTQ form the fourth chs^ dirtii^^tMied for "Ktnuy 


Cf. L. C, I., p. 101. 

■*« The Ten Win Ones oro wonbic^ ta tbe CoofMua tamiJa^ 
where a pcdtion is assigned to them next to thm of Uw Foor Ammuh 
(see ante. No. 96). Yen Tttan (No. 1 above) having been r^ed to the 
rank of one of the Foar, bis place among the Ten is now ooonpisd bj 
Taze Chang ^ gg. Cf. T. 8. K., k. 31. 

S94,~--p -^, The Ten Pomta of Directaon. 

The fonr cardinal and four inlennediate pointe, together with r. 
above, and "[> below. 

20B.— -p ^ The Ten Gbmmentariea {lit. Wings), on th» 
text of the Till King. 

•*• Tbese are the work of Confncins, who set forth m ten sectioM 
his elucidaiion of the t«xt of the Book of Changes as it came &om tbe pen 
of wen Wai^. Cff. W. N., p. 1. 

03©.— -f- ^. The Ten Stems (Cydical Signs). 

■ J^' \ oontapond to the element 'ffi. 

2. i(. Yih i ^ '^ 

5. j5. Ping ■) , .1, 
1-- Y correspond to the element y^. 

4. J ■ Ting i 

6. X%. Wu \ corteqmnd to the elemoit i. 

6. 2c Ki > 

7. H|. Kflng 1 ctnreapond to the dement ^. 

8. ^. Sin ^ 

^' "ir- ^^ \ oorre^nd to tte clement yfC 
10. ^. Kwei > 
•*■ The above signs, in conjnnotion with the twelve " bramho "— 
BOB pott No. 301 — formbg a cyole of sixty combinations, bare beat 
empliqwd by the Chinese from a period of remote antiqni^ for the parpoae 
of designaUog saccessive daj/t. According to the ^ -^ ^^ {jj, form- 
ing part of the Record of Bites, the invention of this system is doe to 
Ta Nao (27th centwy B.C. see Part I, No. 225,) who "stndied th» 
l^c^pertieB of the five elementt and calcnUted the nvdving motiou of tlw 

Pt. IJ. 


^f* conslellatitm (Una Major),'' and Lljereiipon devised the oombiiuitJons 
aboTO^iamed for the pnrpoBe of giving names to days. By joining tha 
fint of the twelve to tbo first of the ten signs, the combination ^ -^ is 
formed, and ao od is anccesnon nnti] the 10th sign is reached, when a 
fireah ootnmeDcemsDt ia made, the llthoftheseries of twelve ' branches" 
bdng next appended to tbe sign Wfti The slxtj combinations which are 
thus formed recave (he name ^ "f" or ^ ) | , list of the Ida tata 
characters, from the initial combinaUon of tlie series, and are commonly 
known as the Cycle of Sixty. It was not until the period of the Han 
dynasty that this invention was made applicable to the numbering otyean, 
and Cbineae anthun have attriboted tbe commencement o( snob a practice 
to the period of Wang Masg (see Part L, No. 804,) but traces of Ma em- 
pb^ment at a Bomewhat earlier date have been discovered. Cf. E.T^., k. 
W ; and L.C , in., proleg, p. 96. The cyclical signs play a great part in 
Chinese divination, owing to tbeir snpposed connection wTth the elements 
or essences which are believed to exercise inflnence over them in acoordanoe 
with the Older of sncceedon represented above. 

3©T.— -f- ^. The Ten ClasBios « Canonical Works, as 
isoogniied under the Snng dynasty. 

~ '^. The Book of Changes of W6n Wang— TO .8"% 
fc The Bo<4 of History— ^Au King. 
. ^ ^. TheBookofOdesaseditedbyMaoCh'ang— SAeifVij. 
g. The RecordofBiUa— Zi" A't. 

^. The Officers [or Ritual] of tie Chow Dynaety— 
ChotB Kvxtn. 
'■ ^ iJlS- ^^ Decomm Bilnal— 7 lA. 

5^W^- '^e Annals of Confacias — CKun Tim, and 
'■yV. W- The Commentary by Tso K'in-ming — 2%o CKwan. 
The Commentaty by Kong-yang. 
The Commeiilary by Enh-liang. 
I The Conversations of Confbdos — L«a Tt, and 
The Book of Filial Piety— ^wo Kin§. 
a. KC. k. 4, and T. S. K., k. SI. 

— -J- ^. The Ten Heinous Offenoea. 
L HE K- Bebtdlion. 



2. ^^^- L^Majeate (acoiHfiiiCTagtdDrtllieBo?erHgn'B 

8- ^ ^ Treason, or Serolt 
^- flS^ ^Q* P'Tricide and amiiar crimM. 
6. ^ ^. Inliamanity (compriung wilful miudar, nnitiladat for 

nefimoua porposea, ^.) 
«■ :A: ^ ^- Sacrilege. 
T.'^^ Dnfiliol Condaot. 
8- ^ ^' . ]:>)Bcord. 
^- '7 ^' InBubordJnab'oD. 
10 ^ ^- ^(>°«t- <^f A M ^ {^> ^i>^ Stftonbu's iVnal 

(7«fe, p. 8. 
038.— -f' jg. The Ten CSrcmts or PnvuHMe << the T'ang 

>Mj%. <j^:lt; 7.«« 9«im 

•*• One of the first aots of T'ai TaoDg, ihe Koond Soraeign of Hm 
T'ang dynasty, after ascending the throne in A.D. 627, waa to map oat 
the Em[ure into ProTinces aa ennmeraled abore, within which the 358 
existing yl\ ^ departments and prefectnrea were compiiaed. From 
this has sprung the Provinoial system of the preeent day, the term jg) 
having become exchanged for ^ under the Tlian djuMty, iu the 14tb 

SOO,_-f- ^ 'Jl^ ^. The Ten great Cave-Heavens (of 
Tacnst mythology). 

•** These oavce or grottoes serving as dweUing (daoM of the genii 
of earth, are situated in ten of the mountains cf China, and each of them 
is presided over by one of the immortalized voterieB of Tat^sm. There are 
Biud to lie thirty-OS smallcT " cave-heavens," utuated in c4her moontaim, 
and a host of legends are narrated oonoeining these n^stio abodes of the 
immortals- Cf. T, S. K., k. 12. 

X"W"J=lI-i Vi!- 

301.— -|-^ j^. The Twelve Branohw (or Dnoduiair 
Cycle of Symhda). 

". .--^81^ 


For ftn ODiimenUiini <f tbose aw post. No. 802. For the comtMnation 
of^twdTB ''branobes" wilfa Uie ten "sterna" to ftvm the cycle cf 
Sixty, Bee ante, Na £d& 

When mppEod to the htttwrj periode of the day (the ^^ of 1^ 
Ohineee, com^ion^ing to two boon acooiding to Earopeaa notalioa), the 
•ymbol ^* ootreepoDda to tbe period froin 11 p.m. to 1. B.m. tmd bo on, 
tenninfttiDg with ^, which repreaenta the period ftom 9 to 11 p.m. The 
12 poiDtB of Um Chinese compass Are also indicated by the satne Bymhok 
of which -^ eocresponds to the Notth, JCjp to the East, -^ to tbo 8onth, 
and @ to the WeeL 

sola.— -|- H ^. The Twelve Divisions of the Ecliptic. 

»l** ■!««■ 'WM loMiffi. 

s i*- s-^'k «-±'k- ii-Tctf 
'•iu- 6«* »■«* i2*iit. 

These divisions or mansions mark the twelve places in which the 
Sonand M(x»i come into conjunction, and are tbns, in some degme analo- 
gfXB to onr signs of the Zodiac." (Cf. Obaeniatioiu of ChiatK Comets, by 
John Williama, London, 1871.) 

SOS.— -p H ^ [or ;tg jQ.] The Twdve Animals of Uw 
Duodenaiy Cyele. See anU Ko. 301. 

1. ^ appertains f^ to JK, the Rat. 
S. ^ a{^>eituns.B to ^ the Ox. 
^ r appertains jQ lo ^ the Tiger. 
. ^P appertains J^ to J^ the Hare. 
J^ appertains J8 to ^ the Dragon. 
Ci appertaitip j|§ to BE **>0 Serpent. 
. ^ appertains gj^ to ^ the Hotse. 
, 5lC appertains J@ to ^^ the Goat 
I apperUine JQ to |^ the Monkey. 
_f appertains ^ lo ^ the Cock. 

11. j^ ^tperUins J§ to 7^ the Dc^. 

12. ^ appeituns J|| to $ the Pig. 

•% The aDtmah named above are heliered lo exadta an influence, 
according to the attritntes aecribed to each, over the bonr, day, or year to 
whitdi, throng the dnodenaiy cycle of aymlxdi, they respectively appertuiL i . 


The Usage u admiUedly of fiweign origin, and is traoed to mknonrse witlt 
the Tartu lutiona. Tbe fint eiplidt mcmlim of tbe practice of denatiiig 
y«are hy Ae names of aninuda as above ia found in the history of the Txog 
dynasty, where it is recorded ^lat an enToy frun the nation of tbe ^^ ^^ 
Jfff (Ki^hia T) spoke of events ocairing in the year of the hare, or of the 
hoTW. Cf. K.Y. k. 34. It was probably not until tbe era of Hongid 
ascendancy in China that the usage became popular ; but, according to 
Gbao Tib, traom of a knowledge of this metbod of compntatioii may bo 
detected in literature at diffweni inlerralB as far back as the periud of die 
Han dynasty, or 2nd century A t>. Tbe same writer Is ot o[rinion tliat 
tbe system was iutrodoced at that time by the Tartar imnugralkin. KY. 

303.— -f- Zl B3 iMt The Twelve Causations — tbe con- 
catenation of cause and efiect Sanskrit, NidAia. Cf- E-H. p. 84. 
H.1I- p. 391. 

304.— -f- m ^ ^. Tbe Symbols appertwnJng to the 
Twelve Uonths. 

1. ^. 4. |£. 7. g. 10. i^. 

2- iK !tt- S ^- 8. 11. 11. fl|. 

s.^. 6.®. a.m 12- KB- 

•*■ These symbols form part of the seriea of Hiztyfonr—- see ante. 
No. 241, and are employed to dedgnate tbe months in the order abovs 

SOe.— -p H ^- The Thirteen Canonical Works. 
•*■ These are the same as tbe Nine enamerated above (tee No. 
273), with the addition of the following Books, viz : ^ ^, ^ ffjb 

SOS.— 'g| -f- H 'SR- Tbe Thirteen Provinces of the Han 

l-^»lt^$lt »P. [ft^nfl Co»pr!itogtli.Nodll. 

wesJera part of modem Sben-d. 
^' ft ^ j|9J i& ^- Comprising tbe modem Ho-nan. 

3- M iil I I I ■ Comprising part of tbe modern Skao- 
tnng and Club-li. 


4. ^ iHI I I I * C^ompnong put of tho loodem Bhw- 

tnng and Chih-K. 
£. 1^ ]ff) I I I . CompriBi'Dg pkrt of ills modem Bhon- 

tong and Eiftng-en. 
^- W iHI I I I - GompiUng Cbe eaabim put of llie 

modem Shut-tung. 
7- ^ iHI I I 1 ■ Cotnpriniig the modem Ha-peh mud 


^ ^ ifH I I T - (^wnprUng >!» modon EJuig-n, 

Eiang-fii, uid Kgao-hvd, 
3' ^ ]H1 I I 1 ■ Oompriniig put of the modem Hs-pdi 

and Sze-chVan. 
^^- ^ ifH 1 I I • Ci»ipriiiDg part of the modem Sbeif 

ei and Koa-enli. 
^^- ^ iW it I I ■ Gomprimng the modem Bbainn. 
12- ^ ;H{ I I I ■ Compricnng part of Uie modem Club> 

U and Liao-tnng. 
^- ^ ]Hi I \ I - Con^^u^S tli« modem Ewang-tauf^ 
Evangfli, and Tonqdn. 
•*• Id B.C. 106, the Emperor Haa Wn Ti, distiiboted the dbtdclB 
at that tjme compodng the Empire under &ie jnrisdiclion of tbirteen in- 
qaidtora or trarelliDg snperviacvs Jf^ jg, — the fbrenmnos of the modnn 
BTBtem of pTDTindal govemora- Some fears later, on the occunence of 
the Bo-called " cootpiracy of the magic epells," the firet-named province in 
the above liat, within which the capital lajr, wa> placed onder the joriadic^ 
ticm (rf'the ^ ^ ]|$ j^t, or Metn^Iitan QoretiKir. 

Sit] V2£<I 'X'USXT. 

807'.---f- -t ^- The Serenteen HktoriaM. 

•*• These are Ibe standard hiatoriee of preceding dynatlio panoda 
irhioh were in ezisLence at the time of the Song dynast;, c<»amenc]ng with 
the ^ ^ or Historical Itecorda of Sie-Iiia Ti/len and termhiatmg with 
Ow-yang Sin'e £ 'H^ j^ or Hiatory (£ the Fire Dynaatiea. To tlwae 
have sahaeqoently been added the Histories of the Song, Uao, Ein, aad 
T9an dynaatiea, making the ^ -f" — \ or Twenty one Hiifa»im.g|.. 


SOS.— -p A 1^ M- ''^ EigUeen Arh&i. SanskiiL 
Arhdn or Arhat. 

Eighteen of tlie immediikte disciples of Baddha (— <n&if,=E=deaervii)gg 
worthy : in Cbintee, ^ ^f). Their images are placed in altesdance 
upoD tbooe of Buddha in Ghineae temples. Cf. £.H. p. 12. 

3O0.— -f' A -^- The Eighteen PioviDces of modem Chitut. 




1. aih-11 



L Governor Generalsbip. 

2. Kiang^ 

3. Ngan-hffd 

4. Kiang-Bi 


Govcmoi Qeneralship of 

S. Bhan-lung 






7. Ho-nan 



8. Sh8D-« 



Gov«mer Generalship of 

9. Kan-Buh 






11. Cfa6.kiBng 





i } 

Qtwernor Gfsierakhip of 




U. ^.ebVan 



IS. KwangJuDg gl Jt 


Oownx* Qenenklsbip of 

16. Kwang-d 



17. Yiin-nan 

^ w 

i } 

Governor Generalship of 


M w 


* The tnodenk dtngion of the Empire into- Provinoee ^ dates, 
fMctacally, fiom the Yunn dynasty 04th centnry), nhen IS Governor- 
ship dcflignatvd 4* S ^ -^< ^<™ etlahMed. Tbe Hing dynutj 
ma&itaiiiad ifae laise tTatem with triffing altention, changing, hotrever, 
the title of the provincial govemoro la the flnt iiisUace to 7)] ]§( '^c 
^, wko he«ame supernded later by the ^ ^ or govemorR of th« 
p rem rt day j and tethw^ istbe IMi onuiry. QovemoiB-Gwietai jlfry- 



b^lMi to be add«d. The thirteen Frorincei of the Hibg dynAS^ into 
Sban-tnng, Bban-ai, Bcmud, Sbeo-ei, Fuh-^Mtt, Ohd-kiaog, Kiang^ Hb- 
knaog, (Noa. 12 and 18 above), Sze-ch'wan, Effang-tnng, Kwm^^ Ttitt- 
IMD, and Ewei-cbow, to wbicb ture to be added the tno metropoRtaii'' 
provinces, Gbib-li (or Feb Cbib-1i) and EiaDg-oan {ca Nan Cbib-li), Nob. 
3 and 3 above. In tbe reign of E'&ng-bi of tbe present dynasty, the 
|>T0Tince8 of .N'gan-bwei and Kan-euh were created by a partilitm of 
EJang-nan and of Sbeo-» respectively, and 3n Ewang was ^vided Into 
two provinces (Nos. 12 and 13 above), increaBing tbe number of Province! 
to eighteen. They are divided into 182 ^ <a Prefectnree and 1279 t^ 
or Districts, .besides other divisions of leSi impcntance. The archaio or 
literary designaliooa appended in the above list are derived from ancient 
territorial nomenclatnre, and are nsnally employed in Elerary compontion 
u Bynonyms for the Piovmcial names. 

310.— -f- A )^^. The Eigbteen PlacM of Torment 
(Hells) Mtoaled below tbe Sarth. Saukrit Naraka. Cf. E.B. p. 81. 

311 ._— -p |[| ^ The Twenty-four Examples of RIW 



See P«it I. 

No. 617. 


See Part I., No SOS. 


See P.rt I, 

No. 853. 


SeePartl., No. 882. 


See Pull 

No. 739. 


See PartL, No. 752. 


See PartL 

No 503. 


SeePartl., No. 44S. 


See Purl I 

No. 91. 




See Part I. 

No 337. 


See Part I.,lSta. 499. 


See Parti 

No. 916. 


See Part I. 

No 691. 

ll ^ ^ 

SeePartl., No. 791.. 


See Part I. 

No. 255. 


SeePartl, No 256. 


See Part I. 

No. 217. 




See Part I. 

No. 816. 

See Part I.; No. 81. 


See Part I 

No. 868. 


See Part I., No. 226. 

31S.— :n-f'{!9 ^' The Twenlj^our Soltf puiodi (W 
breaths) of tLe yeal. 

•"■ The GbiMOe year ti dnided into 21 puiodi^ cotrei^ojadiiig to 


tlw daj aa w}uoh the Kin enten the fint Mid fifteeoth degree of one of the 
ndiaosl ngoB. To each of then kd appropriate name is ^ren, ai j|^ 

8 1 3.—^ "h A ^- T'w Twenty-eight Constellatloni or 
■tcOar Manaona. 

I. '^. The horn, condedag of fonr stara in the fonn of a cron, 

vix., Spica, Zela, Theto, and Iota, about the skirta of Virgo. 
i, JXj. The neck, (»)Dnsting of four stars, in the shape of a hent 

bow, viz., Iota, Eappo, Lambda, and Bho, in the fbet of Virgo- 
8. ^. Thobottom,oonnBtingoffouretaTs,btheBhapeDfaineaeDre, 

Tis., Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Iota, in the bottom of Libra, 
4. ^. Tba mota, consistrng of fimr stars, nearly in a straight line, 

viz.. Beta, Ddta, Pi, and Nqn, id the head of Sccxpio. 
6. Ji^. The heart, oon^ting of three stars, viz., Antarea, Sigma, 

aod Tan, in the heart of Scorpia - 
fi. ^^. The USi, connsling of nine stare, in the shape oi a hook, 

viz., Epeilon, Mim, Zeta, Eta, Theta, Iota, Eappa, Lambda, 

and Non, in the twl of Scm^Io. 
7- ^p^. Tbenero, ctmmstingof fbDrBtaT^intheformor&rieve,vis. 

Gamma, Delta, £pdk»i, and Beta, In the hand of Sagittarius. 
9- ^- The measore, consieting of six stars, in the shape of a 

ladle, like Ursa Major (^\^ J^) vix., ICm, Lambda, Rho, 

Sigma, Tan, and Zeta, in the shoulder and bow of Saggittarins. 
9; ^. The ox, oonsisting of six stars, viz.. Alpha, Beta, and 'f% 

in the head of Aries, and Omega, with A and B in the hinder 

part of Sagittaiiqs. 

10. "jg^. The ghl, courasting of toax stars, ,in the shape of a ^ere, 
vlx., Epeilon, ISm, Nan, and 9, in the left hand of Aqnarios. 

11. g^. EmptineH) conusting of two stars, in a strait line, vis., 
Beta in tlie left sbonlder of Aqnarios and Alpha in the ftaebead of 

12. j^. Danger, oui^Bting of three stan, in the shape of an 
ofatme-ang^ triangle^ via.. Alpha in the right shooldei of 
A^aaritH^andEpvlonorEoi^aDd Thetainlbeheadof F^asoi, 


13. ^. Tbe honee, coniusting of tvo rtais, k a rig^t line, T&, ' 
Alpha w Uukab, In the head of tbe wing, and Beta, or Scbeat, 
in tbe leg of Fegaane. 

14. ^. The wall, condsttng of two stars, in a right line, viz.. 
Gamma, or Algeoilj, in the tip of tbe whg of F^mdb, and 
Alpha in the head of AndromedA- 

13. ^^. Astride, ocHtsbting of asteen stars, said to be like a person 
■triding, viz.. Beta, or S^rao, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta, Eta, 3£im, 
Nno, I^, IQ ADdiomeda, and two Sigma^ Tan, Nod, Pbi, Chi, 
uid Psi, ID Pisces. 

)6. j^. A moond, consisUng of three atan, in tbe shape of an 
isoecelea triangle, viz., Alpha, Beta, and Qaniina, in the head of 
Aries. [Borealia. 

17. ^ . The stomach, conastlng of three priDcipal star^ in Hosua 

18. ^. Constata of the seven stars in Pteiadea. 

19. ^^. Tbe end, consisling of tax slan in Hyades, with l£m and 
Nan of Taurus. 

20. ^^. To bristle up, coDsistiDg of three atan, vi&, Lamlida and 
two Phi, in tbe head of Orion. 

21. ^:. To mix, consisting of seven stare, viz., Alpha, or Betelgenz, 
Beta or Kigel, Qamma, Delta, Epeilon, Zeta, Eta, and Kappa, 
in \he shoulders, belt, and legs of Orion. 

22. ^p. The well, consialing of eight stars, viz., four in the feet 
and fbnr in the knees of Gkmini. 

28. ^. The imp, consisting of foujr stars, viz.. Gamma, Delta, Eta, 
and Theta, in Cancer. 

24. ^p. Tbe willow, consisting of eight slorB, viz.. Delta, Epdlon, 
Zeta, Eta, Theta, Rho, Sigma, and Omega, in Ejdra. 

25. ^. The star, ooDsists c^ seven stars, viz. Alpha, Iota, two Tans, 
Kappa, and two Nuns, in Ihe heart of Hj'dra. 

26. ^. To draw a bow, consisting of five stare in tbe Tixm of a 
drawn bow, viz., Kappa, Lambda, Uim, Nan, and Fid, \a tbe 
second coU of Hydra. 

27' ^- The wing, conffists of twenty-two stars, in the abape of « 
wing, all in Otaler and the third coil of Kydrft. ■ 

see cBmese readers manual. pt n. 

2B. ^. The caraas-bu of a oBiriage, connrtmg of fonr stan, vii. 
Beta, Gumaa, Delta, kad E[jeilan, in Conoa. 

It niR appear from the nbove that the Chineee oonstellationB do not 
at all correspond with onr ugns of the ZodUc, nor indeed are the; all 
included within 23 degrne nortb or eouth tA the ecliptio. As for the 
groiipiog of theii stars, and the names assigned to each group, thongb 
arbitrary, they cannot be deemed more arbitrary than the syeLetn which 
has obtained in western nations, and which has as litllo foundation either 
in reason or nstnre aa tiie Chines: arrangemeDt. 

•"• The foregoing list and observations, are borrowed from " The 
Shoo King," translated by W. H, Medhnrst sen., Shanghai, 1846, Appendix 
A. (p. 399.) wheie much information with regard to Chinese astronomy is 
assembled. Gf. also the tables of staia and constellations by John Reeves^ 
appended (o Monro's Chinese Dictionary, Part II. It should be noted 
thai the 26 characters representing the constellations as above enninerated 
are applied in regular and recnrriog order to the days of the month. 

Note. The 28 constellations, mention of which occnts first in the 
^ 1tS.t "'bere the term ^[_ is employed as thdr designation, si« enamer- 
ated as above in the ^ pQ and are further divided into four sections 
P9 S ^*^ ""'*' ^^- ^^' *' quadrants, whereof No. 1 — thoazure dragon 
— comprises Noa. 1 to 7 in tlie above list, Na 2 — tie sombre warrior — 
compriaea Nos- 8 to 14, No 3 — the white tiger — comprises Noe. 15 to 
21, and No. 4 — the vermilion bird — comprises No. 22 to 28. In the 
$, rB- Sze-raa Ts'ien employs the term ^ instead of ^, and both 
these expressions are Interpreted as signifjing the resting-places" or 
nvinaiona of the sun and moon in their revolutions. It Is further to be 
noted that in modem Chinese calendars (lie constellations ^ {Ko. 4) ^ 
<No. 11) ^ (No. 18) and ^ (No. 25) invariably correspond with the 
Christian Sabbath or Saoday, and are denoted by the character ^§. 
They are further expticitly dedared, in the imperial mannal of astrolc^, 
toreprasent thedaya of the san, p, "called in the language of the West, 
nuh, the ruler of joyful erenta." (Cf. an article "on the knowledge of a 
weekly Sabbath m China." by Mr. A. Wylic, in CMmm Secorder, 
Foochow, June-July, 1971.) The sound ^ has been traced to the 
Peiuaa imfro and otber cognate soanMS ; and lber« can be little doubt 


tlutlhe prMdeaofmftiUDgtlw " daji rf the Sun * hu crept ioto CSiimsft 
okromdogT fioni a Westom qDu(«i. 


Q14t— H + Zl 3te. Tbt Thirty-tTO Signs. Saukrit 

■*■ TtwBB, aeoDidiiig to Boddbistu legend, coobbA in diffea«nt 
narkB or characteristJc beautieB disjjiajed io the persOD of every Bnddbk, 
commencmg wiUi a ateady level in the Bole of the foot and ending with 
a loRy protuberance at the crown of the head "—Of T£.K., k. 42 ; K.H. 
p CI, and H.M. pp. 335, 867. To the above are added the /V "f" @- 
}tr ^ eighty tinda of excellence {Pali Amam/anjana-lahhana. Cf. p. 
S67), comRiencing with nnrivalled length of nails and coding nilh the 
^ ^ ^^ ' '^o thousand ' oi tvasHSia upon the braasL" Gf. £.H. p. 139. 

SS'VSX'] '±' V -"i" W O- 

S 1 0, — -t + n -01^ The Seventy-two Terms « periods of 
the Tear. 

•*■ The year is divided into aeventy-lwo pwioda of five days each, 
— an arratigement traced to the per'od of the Chow dynasty. To eaob 
period an appropdate derignation is given, with leJWrence lo the natural 
phenomena beUeved to occur at the respective seasons. Cf- T.8.K. k. 3. 

0!£TS i-i I r M I ^ f*rpfrh 

•*• Used generici^y for " a great ntimber "—^ 3&. cf E'ang- 
hTs Dictionary s-v. 

3ie.— '^^. The Body of PubBo FanctioDariea. (1&. tho 
hundred officer*) Cf. L.O. m., p. 64. 

3 1 7. — "g" j^. The People in ge&ertd (lit. the hundred snr- 

•*• This expres^oD occuts repeatedly in the Book of History, where 
it appears first in the " Canon of Yao," Cf. L.C. m., p. 17. lie ordinary 
significatbn is considered as equivalent to the tenn £^ or " the peo^ " 
in a general sense j and somo commentatoia have been led to assert that 
on the first mraDtHm *jS bmily nanies the nunber of tkvK was restricted 


to cMie handred. This is fantaaticall j explained by s rappoaed uitfamelical 
procev, tbe 5 c<H)stant TUtoea (see No. 118) being multiplied bf the 5 
note* (^ bamuHij (see Ko. 175^ and tbe piodact again by Uie 4 teaaoni, 
giving the total nm required. The oniyfoandatlon for this theoi; appeus 
to eust in tbe &ot that the Chioeae Tatnily Damet have been groaped 
according to thw tone of jmminiciation under the five notes. The nnni- 
ber of cbanotora actnallj in nm as surnaines ia between issoi and fiva 






WKh rafereuce to the object azid atopa of the Chronological TaUaa praseii(«d bwa, 
the reader U reqneatad to coiunlt the obBerratiDiia oOered ia the tnCndnotiaii. Tlia tird 
taUea of the Chineie cyulee, anterior tni posterior to tin Cbristisn tn, fiinush Sm 
meaaB of rsoonciling an; cyclical date iiith our own notntiou of tiioe. Eaub table I* 
iliviJed into tvo pordbna m order to briog it withui the limit! of an or^at; page ; but 
the leader will perceive n-ithont difficulty that the cyclical cbBractera and the omw- 
poudiug date* fi^oiT each other in r^clar mccetaioD. The abort ooIoDuis at the bead 
of the taUea contunthadate orcommeiKwnientofeach (7^0, in rotation, followed below 
by the yean in soocenie order. Thus, foe instance, ^ ^ ww the otnnlwiation 
danotinglhe years A. D, 1, 304, 6(M, &o., down to 1804, and the iiJlawing oomUnatim 
Zi i corrgBponda to A.D. 6, 305, 666, to., down to 1806. In the next ccdnmn * 
Mcond period ia commenoed, comprising all the oycltB be^nuing witii the yean shown 
In l]ie iadexcolniiui at the lop. For example, if we denre to ascartain the dats 
■ccradingto oat era of an event occurring "in th« year thy An t ^S of Vv ^ of 
(bt lUn Dynsity," we find on ooneoltii^- the biatoiind lablee that Wa TP« r^gn eooh 
manced A.D. 265, and taming to the table of cydee, it ii finmd that a cydical pedod 
oomiuenced in A.D. S44 and mmt tliare&re have embraced within its oonrse the reign 
ofWull Fising A.D. aes, the first of hia reign, aa tba year y> jreo ^ "g" of tha 
cycle, we feUow the colnmn of diarecten down until we reach ting hai, and tt ouc* 
identify this combiDBtion, on rslerence Co the column of jean, as A.D. 287. On tlM 
other hand, in the courte of Chiueae reading a reference may be icet with entwGug tba 
Tsrificationofthe "Srdyenr of Wn 11 of the TBin dj-naaty." On turning to the paga 
of the TablsB compriung tbe T»in Dynasty, A.D. 365 is found to be the £nt yeai of 
Wa TTs reign, and it tiecbnies obvioua timt the 3r>l year corre^ads to A.D, 367. I^ 
however, in lien of reterriog to Itis sovereign by hii miao hao or poalhumoua title the 
Chiaeu histmiari bag iipolcen of liie "3rd year orT'ai She of (he l^in dynasty," iCwill 
be found on consnltitig the Tables thnt T'ai She was the first of three sacceaive n'ol 
Aoo or epochal deajgoations lulopted diuing the coune of V/a Ti'a reign, and that tbe 
jear 267 ia stilj mdiealed. 


Comparative Table of the Chinese Cycles Anterior to the Christian Era. 

[Ofclei 1 to «4, or B. 0. M31 to A. D. S|. 









B. C. 

B. c. 


B. C. 


B. C. 

B. C 

















































1657,1617 1677:1787 1797 

1667:1617 1677 1737 




1867 1917I1977 2037 



2217 2277 2337 2397 


2277 2337 23971 


2517 2577 2637 






























R* 25 












































































i?j»; 18 











¥fii " 











£E' 16 










n u 




















«# 13 











SHI 12 











««l 11 











*g; 10 

i¥ 9 





















Si' 8 











vn 7 





iff: 86 





^m 6 





S«i 85 





HS 5 





Til 84 





TB 4 





«¥i 33 





«^j 3 





esi 32 





a* 2 





«K 31 





«♦; 1 





^W 30 










SR 29 










SE 28 










•r «, W, n, rt«d A. D. 1, 9, I. 


■CoFuparative Tabia of the Chinese Cycles Posterior t« th« Christian Era. 

[Cjole* W tQ 70, or A. D. 4 to IK3]. 

D. &■ D. { A. D. A. D. ! A. £ I 

4 6i\ 
04 364! 124 
G04 6641 424 
904, 964 724 
1204 12641024 
1S04 1564 13241 
1804 1864 1624 

184 24 
484 54 
784; 84 
1384 144 
1684 174 















41264 1024 1084 1144 
504 1564|l324;]de4 1444 
804 1864|l624 1684 1744 



























































It 13 probable that ancient Chinese writen, of a period antecedent to 
the foanclalion of the Han dynasty, indulged an exaberant fancy in the 
enameraCion of long lines of dynastic rulers, to occnpy (he myriads of ages 
which, it was fabled, had elapsed UDce the powers of Heaven and Earth 
had first united to prodoce Man as the possessor of Qie soil of Cldna. 
Specnlations of this natore, embodied in works such as the "JJ^ ■^J -^, 
now no longer in existence, were reprodacedin the Chronology of the Han 
dynasty, *^ ^^ j^, where il ia asserted that " irom creation to the 
captore of the tot ia the days of Confudns (B.C. 481) a period elapsed 
cf 2,267,000 and odd years, divided into ten ^ or epochs." In a still 
bter age the number of years embraced by this period was stated (in 
Bze-ma ChSng's commentary on the Ste Ki) as extending to S,276,000. 
The ten epochs are ennmentted as follows .- — 

1- ^MjffiioJsoten^edll^ AMj^"'d^^»AiPijffi■ 
(Epoch of the Three Soverwgna — Nine Sovereigns — or Nine 

. Epoch of the Five Dragons. 

. Epoch of Sheh-t'i ; 59 generations (^.) 

. Epoch of 8 generations. 

. Epoch of Licn-t'iing: 6 generations. 

. Epoch of Su-mijig ; 4 generations. 

. Epoch of Slln-fei. 

. Epoch of Yin-t'i. 
I . Epoch of Sban-t'nng. ] 

10. ^ i^ I . Epodi of Suh-yih. 
Of the fiiat of the above epochs it is narrated that the founder of the 
Une of rulers was P'an Ka, the first created being, (see Part I., No. 672), 
who was followed by a line of descendants constitutiDg three families or 
brotherhoods, viz., ^ ^_ ^, the family of sovereigns of Heaven, — 12 
hnrthers; )^ ^ ^, the family of soverdgns of Earlb, — 11 brothen; 
'^ ^ S. ^1 ^ family of soverdgns of Humaohind, — 9 brotbera; 
who separately raled over the Nine Divimons [of the Empire]. The Sve 
rulers of the 2nd epoch are severally designated as ^ ^f g, | ^, | 
^, I ^, and I ^, (i. A, eldest, second, third, fourth, and youngest 


gOTereign), wbo have ia addition a doable gel of Appellaliooi^ following the 
five notes of (lie Hnuical Bcale, u ^ |[g, ^ ^, etc, aud the list of 
Om five planeU, aa -^ i\^, ^ fllj, etc. Of ibe Srd, 4tli, 5th, and 6th 
c^nohs it ia Blated that no record exists of the rulen' names. The 7lh 
epoch oomprised twenty-two soreteigne, whose rirtne wan so suhstaDUal 
that men followed after (^) their example with cekrily like trnto tbat 
of flight," — whence the designation of tlie epoch. Their titles have been 
handed down, hot not the number of thdr gsDeratioDs. The 8th epoch 
comprised thirteen •OTereigns, in whose times institDles were founded ^Xi 
"W $1 T^' ^^'('h posterity could follow (p^) with benefit to t^ world. 
The second mier of this line was Shiih Shan ^ |Jj, (Monntain of Shnh), 
wbo niled over the region of Shah (the modem Sze-ch'wan), and tangfat 
the people to cultivate the produce of the Bilkworm which abounded in its 
forests. He ia worshipped under the title of ^ i^ )|^ or Spirit of the 
Black [bine, or green] Sobe. After a vast intervening period, Qie sover^gn 
power was wielded by the following rntets, with whom the lees fantastic 
portion of the fabubns period is reputed to commence: — 

^ ^. Tew Ch'ao (the Nest-having), 2 generations. 

35E ^- Soi J6n (the Rre-producer), 4 generations. 

Jm J^' ^onS'^t^'^ng (Service-completed), 8 generaUons. 
Succeeding tLe above came the 9th epoch, deriving its title from the 
virtne of banding over the throne to a Kuocesc», which stands in relation 
with the principles of heaven." The first soveragn of tLia line is represent- 
ed as having been named Hien YUan ^f ^, the second Tung Chuh 
1ft ^> the third Fnh-hi f^ ^, the fourth ^ ^, inventor of the art 
of wri^g, and so forth for many generations. The 10th epoch owed ita 
names to its &cnlliee of prophetic knowledge and of pronouncing jodge- 
ment. It is represented as commencing with ^^ '^ Hwang Ti, and is 
variously made to end with Hia How (Yii) B.C. 2198, or with the Chow 

No actual weight is attached even by CThinese writets to the stale- 
menls, of wUcb the above is a condensed summary, banded down by the 
fabnlists of antiqraty regarding prehistoric epochs and dynastic lines. It 
is only in the next grand division of legendary record — the age of Yao and 
Shun and thoir succeawis — that a claim to anvthbg resembling authentioi 

mnrtssts usaders uanual. 

it; ii aet ap ; Mid er^i ben the itenwr raqnireinents of Eivopean crilt- 
cigm demand proofs wbich na&ye hiatoriaiw are cootent to foi^;o. It it 
ooDTedent, norertluJea, foe chionological purpose^ to accept the teatk 
«nd last of thft Une of imagBiaiy epoohi aa that with whicb the legoodai^ 
— 4S dktinct from thepnre); m7thical— period of Chmeoehtatory mayba 
daaned lo Goromence. With Fult-fai, the reputed founder of tbe CiHucaB 
polily, and wbaee reign ia placed in B.C. 2852, the ^|> gQ oi Legendary 
History whioh aerrea ai an inUodnutioB to the ABoals {Twig Sim) of 
Sea-ma Kwang, ia made to opm ; and with him the ao-called line or aga 
cf the £lve Rolos la conmadf held (o hare began. Thie peried ii 
represented in the Ibllowing table, in conformity with what may be cooai- 
dered the establiibed vieffa of Ghineae ohnmologisla. * 
Trk Lkqendiby Pbriod, 
3l ^ jffi — The Ago of the Tin BnleriL 

oatMOO AwrEUMBoa, 

a j5t '^' "^"^ ^'■ 

«. ^ Pt Sh«> H«>. 
t. ^ S. Chwu E9. 


""i, T'Mg TiYiO. 

^ ^, Fao-hi Sbe. 
^ I , 8b€n-naDg She, or 
^ ^4 I , Ueh-flbAD Stw. 
I ,Yew-ii.iSbeotJf 

j , Hien-yi 
I , Kin-t'i< 

Eao-yang Sbe. 
Kao-ein She. 

^ J , T'ao-t'ang8he,died 
B.C. 2258, and wftaaooceeded 
by Shun after three yeartf 

in ^ ^ TU Ti Shuk. 2253 ^ SI ! . ^e^-J" She. 
{*) NdidM'oqi diuuulUr icbeiiiu of cbnmolagj' luTe b«aa prapcmnded by historioa] oon- 
pien, nboM mataollv uitBgi^Distic Tiewa nufGcienllj attcat tbe unTenlil; or the data fbc 
(h«ir q>«ci]latioiu. In place of the [nvEhi'nl uioccuLan of " Borgniigns of Heaven, 
^ith, and Hunun-kind " clu**i] in ths j^ |£ atider Hia title of ^ ^ or Hum 

(Wstsii XEABtsa lusnit. 

£ j£ Tin Ria DynMty. 





The Great Yu 


called g Jg Hia How. 


T'.i KTang 



CUnng K'ang 





Inten^nnm of fixtj yents)^ 


JPeriod of How I and Han 



1 Clio— «» Part I., No. 179. 


Shao K'ang 























E'nng Eia 











^ ^ tip U^ 3^ The Shang Dyna-y. 
bIki ckUed tbe Tin DjnaEt;. 

[Called Ch'engT'kug.t 
\ the Completer. 

jSt ^ rang 1766 

;;^ ^ rai K» nss 

1^ T Ta Ting 1720 

jfc ^ Tw K«Dg 1691 

/ft ^ 6Uo Eia 1666 

Sorar^ni (an abcn-s), Moie writen otsign this dengnatlDD to Foh-hl, Shia-nnng, and 
HTtng ti, bd4 oomEieiKM tbe ipocb of the Fire Ru)«n witli Shoo Um. Othan agun, 
*ucb u Ud Hinng, lepnMnt tbe Throe Sovenigui ai hiiing been Fnb-hi, SbhMiiing^ 
•nd Cbuh-Tmig ; whEln, Sit thelmt iiaiuod paamagt, No Km («n PaitL, So. 521) 
ii ubstituftd by Cliciig Kand-cb'iug. ■ 


tmtAmc im* 





B. C. 






Chung Ting 



Wai J6n 


W IE ^ Ho T.n Ki. 



T.U Yih 



Tbq Sin 






Tbu Ting 



Km K@Dg 






Fan Keng 


t fo>m Shang to Yin. 








Vfu Ting 



Tan K6ng 





Lin Sin 



Keng Ting 






T'ai Ting 



Ti yih 


(Named ^ Sbow ; periflhed 
1 B.C. 1122. 


OLov 8in 


Tub Sem HwroatCAc and Historical Feriod. 
^ ^ The Chow Dynasty. 







n + 






[Called the 18th year of "Wu 
Wang, {dating from liia a«eeB- 




imumC TRLK 





















Hifltorioal Period commanoM. 







































^Si Cheng The 





a ?lt I ™ Lith 











tt tS i Shon Tsing 


fBaigned 59 years. In B.C. 256 
Ithe ruler of Te'in. 





I* TungCIjowKiin. 


NominaUy reigned until B.C.249. 

^ M. 'ITm Te'in Dynulj. 

« T /^i t.' m 1 »ce 1 /Tlie 02ud Tear of hiareign »■ 
I J; 01>ao Siaiig Wang 255 IJ ,^,, „, a,J s„tn,( j,.^. 


^ ^ i Hiao W6n Wang 
^ ^ 5 Chwan Slang Wang 
^ i§( Princo GhSng 

Beigned onlj Utreo day*. 

]g| i£ The R>n D^diH; ; iln itykd # ]SI °' '°™* ^^^ 

and ^ '^ or Weiteni Hon, from the Ida of 

its oepitol at Ch'ang-ngML 



u OF mm 





0.1 Nil 





K»T,,o, 1 
K«DTi« J 

rClwmed the Empire from 
\ B.C. 306 ! «tn»Uy weend 
led the Throne B.O. SOS. 






Keo How 7 
LU Shib ) 













Chang TiioQ 












Tann KwMg 
















r.i Ch'n 






Tei Sh. 






imx OF KBOH 

S- '% 



OK m 






Cheng Ho 

a. o. 


How Yam 


ai* Oh«.Tl 






YBm Fens 





aig- s-an 



pen She 






Yuan K'ang 



ShCn Tiio 





Kan La 


Hwang Long 


7C* YlWTi 



Ch'n Yuan 








Khig Nhij 


Jftlg- Oh'«.«Tl 






Ho Fing 



Tang So 











St* NpuTl 

A. D. 


Yuan Show 

A. D. 







Oh'n Sho 










-'_ „^ 








OB Mil 


T ^WaDg^MuigCcDDt] 




Hwai Tang Wang 
Tl Euan 



E@ng She 


^ 'gl j|£ Th> LiUi Has D:r<i»t; ; 


or Eastam Han, from its capital a 











Ming Ti 



Tung F'iDg 



Cbuig Ti 






Tiixn Ho 



ChaDg Ho 









TUan HiDg 



fihang Ti 



YeD FIng 






YuDg Ch'u 



Yiiang Ch'D 



Ynog Ntag 



Kien Ewang 



Yen Kwang 






Yang Ejen 



Yang Eia 



Ynng Ho 



Han Ngui 



Kien K'ang 












P6n Ch'u 






Klen Ho 



Ho Fiog 






Yung Wiag 



Tung Show 



BiKimc mix 


■ OF Rnen 




OH ma 


*. O. 

%'S^ HminTiCoonO 


Ten HI 



Yung K'ang 


H'^ Lin(!Ti[lnA.D. 




189 the yonng prince ^ 





Kifung Ho 



Chnng F'ing 


brief ipeao «ith the title! 


tin lame year the tiOw 


by hii inco««r] 

Jt^ Hie«Ti[J»myl- 



Ch'n Fing 










Yen K'ang 


Epoch or nm Threk Einoimmb. 

I. ^ ^ j£ Tho Minor Han Dynut;, esUbliahed 

in Shnh (Sae-oh'wanX 

SSm'^ Chao tieh Ti 


^ ^ Chang Wn 

^^ How Chn 


^ j^ Kien Hing 
j^S Yen Hi 
mm KingYao 
jj^^ YengHing 


Ot * Wen Ti 220 

H^ Hwang Ch'n 

^ ^ Ming r, 221 

;:(CifP T'«Bo 

WM Ts'ingLung 

gr^ KlngOh'n 

tmimas uuDots iusval. 



TRu or Bm 


<« »n*o BAO JH SC 


«s vn 


3 1 

s* FriTidiaE 

«. D. 





yf] <isi«»<d A.D. 2H. 




JC^g- Sh«>Ti[g» 









TC* Y«»"Ti 








m. *i(eTh.w.Dp».». 

■JiH^ T.TiCIliMnot 





until A.D. 229 that Tm- 





Kb Ho 


mmed by the founder of 


Oh'a Wn 




r«i nu 










Wn y«iig 





ft* BngTi 





** "fcTitji,^ 





-0^}— depued A.D. 260. 
















T'ien Si 






eileni IW Djnuty, 

i^* W^Ti 














umisiio inui 










)i 11^ H™-Ti 



Tung Hi 

A. !>. 





Tilui ffrng 



Tung STsng 


[M.B. Id AJ3. 801 the mf» 

Tong Sieg 






|^(2j wwnmonMBtarilj 

Tung Hiog 





K^ H«ITi 



Tnng Eia 


^« »b>Ti 


Eien HIng 



7B If Tom Ti 





[imond ll» oaplul lo ^ 


T.i Hiog 



Tung Ch'ang 


«« ifeg-n 

flg* WfcgTl 



T'J Ntog 








at* E'««TI 





11$ UihTi 






SMng P'ing 


B* N8»TI 



Long Ho 











Hien Ngan 


apSt^ Hi«,W,Ti 








9(^ Ng«.Ti 




















^ 'fjj' Ngan Ti [contj H ^ 1 Hi 405 

$ ^ Krnie Ti 419 7C !?fi ^««» Hi 419 

Epoch of Division Between Nomu Aim Sooth. — ^ :((J ^. 
^JtRIB- TheSaii8DjiiaMy(Hoo»ofIiii). 

St ^ Wo Ti 



Tmg Ch'n 

J*- J? Blmo Ti 




Jf^ W8.Ti 




#Se* Hi«,W.Ti 






Tnog Kwmg 

)g f- F.i Ti [^ IKl 



^ '^ Mmg Ti 



Tai Sliili 






^ g.^ OUii Li 

)i§^ ShooTi 



6heng Ming 

If jjE Tlie Ts-i Dynuty. 

IB'S' K«.Ti 



Kien Ttiaa 

(C fS- Wu Ti 



Yung Ming 

<i # I Y« Li" Wmg 



Long Ch'ang 



Yen Hing 

ggf- ICgTi 





Ynng T'«i 

^■#^ Tong Hwgn How 



Yung Yuan 

3^ ^ Ho Ti 



Chung Hing 

® iffi Tb. Limg Dyiuty. 

^■S- W»Ti 



T'ien Eien 



T. rnng 



vraufna titlb 


xmx or BKUui 





jt ^6" W" Tl UnL] 

A. Ik 


A. D. 


±n T.r.,« 




jkfl! T-aiWing 


fBi** KienWSn'R 


:^a T.p» 




35 IE rien Cheng 


TBig- TOMiTi 


j^ B a'eiig sbtDg 




^ JS T'ien Ch'tag 


IR^ Ki.«Ti 


)g34^ sh».r.i 


:*2p MPiDg 


(tig' WnTl 
3i:^ WenTT 

H j^ Tha Oh'^n DTnast^; 


E3E Lin Hai Wang 
i* SiianTi 



Tung T3ng 


T'ien E'ang 




Ch&ag Wag 

House of To-p> or Tobn). 

^ j( ^ Too Wu Ti 

[ jfe ^1 In A. D. 

420 the Northern Wei com- 
meocw to be grouped with 
the Nortbem and Son then 
dynattio group. 


TSng Ewoh 
Hwang She 
Tien Hing 
Sh€n Jd 
T*^ Gb'ang 





TTTLB OP waas 1 









Sbe Ewang 






Yen Ho 



rai Yen 



T'fli Fiog "1 
Ch6n Kfin J 



Ch@ng Fing 





Ch'Sng Fing 





Hing Ngan 



Hing Kwang 



T*ai Ngan 



Ho Fing 








Hwang Hing 


# 3t ^ Hiao W8d Ti 



Yen Hing 



Ch'fing Ming 



T'ai Ho 


if :rt 'S' Wi, Ti 



King Ming 



Chgng Sbe 



Yung Fing 



Yen Cb'ang 





Hi Fing 



Shen Kwei 



CbSng Kwang 



Hiao Gh'ang 


ESd^BE Lis T'ao Wug 



Wu T'ai 


^^"^ HuoChwiogTi 














Kien Ming 





Tain '1-ai 





Chung Hing 



o.°.^o™o m « 




♦ St^g-HkoWuTi 


:feg ratCl»»g 
^#t TmgHtog 


;S: * Wen Ti 
^ j|)C Ti K'in 
^ ^ K«ng Ti 

Tlie Western Wei »1 jnsBtj. 

^ (^ T. T'mg 
[dynasly lermiDAled AJ). 

!K 381 fc Tlie EMtera Wei ajoMty. 

' Hiao Taing Ti 
tidgn ftnd dyiuety terminal 
ed A.D. 550]. 

%^ T'ienP'iog 

Igt 5fn Hing Ho 
SC fe W» Ting 

4(1 ^ jffi- Tl^ NorUwrn Th"! dynarty. 

Srlt 'S WSn BOan TI 
«* F«Ti 
# S3 $ Hiao Oh»o Ti 
'k.^W WaCfSogTi 

JS .^ wen Kiag 

^f^|=ENg»n Teh Wang 
^ ^ Tew Chn 

35^ Tien P«> 

|£ ^ E'ien Ming 

^ ^ Hivang Eien 

J:f raining 

jg fli Ho Trfing 

^ is T'ien Tnng 

St -^ Wn Fing 

^k VL Lnng Hwa 

ffi g Teh Ch'ang 

.^ 3fe Ch'eng K»ang 

ikt ^ jffi- Tl» Northern Chow dynaaty. 

i^fe^*^ HiaoMinTi I 567 — — 

95^ MingTi 557 St)S Wn Oh'Jng 

it ^ Wn TI 1 J61 ^ ffi P«o Ting 


OTnunc mi» 


TTiLB OF maas 


OK HUO lUO Jti tt 


0. ™. .» * « 


l( ^ Wo Ti [cont.] 


^ 5fn T'ien Ho 


^ ^ Kin TSh 


gig' Btanri 


B ili: Suan Cheng 


■^^ T.Ch'&g 


ai^ig' T«»gTI 


:^^ T,Si.n8 


^ 3£ T» Ting 


(g jfi Tb« Soi DjoMty. 

S ift K.0 Ita, or * 



K'ai H«aiig 

•^ W«n Ti [oUimod tho 


Jen Bhov 

Empire from AJ). 581}. 

)^ ^ Tang TI 











g| jK The Djn««,J. 

gliia KaoTan 




]g ^ KaoTnolig 


Ch«i)g Kmn 







Long So 


K'ien reng 


Taung Chang 


Hien H6ng 



I FSng 



Yong Long 








DTiuMm ima 










fp ^ Chong Tsang , 



B^ Shang' 


4t ^ Jii Timg 



wen Ming 


^ © Wo How 



Kwang TeSh 


[The Empna Wn,who Bet 


Choi Enng 


idde the rightfol wvereigo, 


Tung Ch'ang 


Jnl TsDog, «nd omrped th« 


Te'ai Ch'« 


TfaioDe for tweoty yeei^. 

Adopted Oh dynuUc title' 





T*uig from lUe date. j 


Jn I 



Ch'ang Show 








ova Wm Sd J 


sa*s w„] 



ing rien J 


ghen Emig 







^ ^ 



:M ^ 

Ch'ang Ngan 


Ijj-S OhrngTOTg 


Sh«n Ung 


[reminBd the Throne] 


'King Long 


;»^ JoiTenng 








Ton Ho 


jfe ^ HlUo Tmng 


n 7C 

E'ai TUan 


r.tpra»nt™ittn JC ^ 










tw BiBj. HAO #: il 

Hflan TBangTcontinned] 

A. n. 


T-ien Pao 



8a Tgnng 



Che Teh 



K'ien yuan 



Bhang Yiian 






T.I Tsnng 


Kwang T«h 












Kien Chung 



HiDg YUan 



Cheng Y«an 


£ *^=* 




Yung Cheng 


Hien Tsnog 



Yuan Ho 





Ch'ang K'iDg 


King Tsaog 





Wen Tanng 



T'ai Ho 



K-ai Ch'eng 



Wu Tsnng 



Hwei Ch'ang 


SUan Tsang 



T'ai Chung 






Hien T'nng 


Hi TsQDg 



K'ien Fa 



Kwang Ming 



Kwang K'i 






Cbao TBUsg 






Ta Shnn 






K'ien Ning 



Kwang Hwa 






T-ien Yew 

.,,..„, Go 



mntAsno mxB 


tlW-a Of BEMH 


CS Ml 

iO UAO JS flE 


OK MIEH lUO if. Ht 


±. D. 

^ Cliao Sflan Ti 


3586 ■TtoTew 


Ngai Tsung] 

Epoch of the Fits DTN&snGg ^ 'f^. 

.1- #JRjffiTh.P«t™»Li.„BDj.«,. 




H ^ K'.i Ping 






aqS ChengMtog 



Elta W>Dj!] 

US LnngTffi 


H- ||ffiffiTb.P<«»ter»gDja»lT. 




[^ 3t T'ung Kwang 



Ming Tsiioe 


3^ JS T'len Oh'Sng 
^ ^ Ch'ang Hlng 





JilB rmgShnn 





fli* MngT'ai 




m- ^ ^ ^ TIm PMterior Tsb Dynastj. 


Km Tm 1 936 1 ^ jg T'Ibd Mi 



T.'i Wang 1 943 ' H £ K'.i Tun 
IV. #8|iffiTheP<» 



Kao Tbu 947 

^g T'toFnli* 


g;S6 K'imT™ 





a 16 K'i,nT.w 



^- ^ M jffi The Poelerior Chow Dynaaty. 
|g Tai Tbu { ^^1 I M f^ Ewnng Shun j 951 

^ Shili Tenog 954 N^ ^ mtn TSh 954 

^ Enng Ti ' 960 I J^ ^ Eien Teti ' 900 

cominancetnsDt oF IiIb raigii fnnn the firrt 

tIc jffi The Sang Dynasty. 











jfeia ™t», 



Kien Lnng 



K'im Teh 



K'ai Pm ■ 


;*^ ■r.iTm.g 



T'.il«tog 1 
Hing Kwoh J 



Yang Hi 



Twan Kung 



Shun Hwa 





%^ Oh«i.T»Dg 



Een FIng 


ffing T6h 



Ta Chnng "1 
BiaiigFQ J 






K'ien Ping 


-fr^ JtaTmg 



T'iea ShSng 






King Tew 


• tc 

Pao Ylian 



K'aag Ting 



K'ing Li 



Hwang Tew 



Che Ho 





%^ Yi.gT»ag 





Ml ^ Oh& Tmng 


Hi Ning 



Yuan Feng 


If ^ CMh T«ug 



Yuan Yew 



Shao 8b€ng 










xor ttxm 

1 ^ 


.0 .uo * « 


»»»... iH« 


Hnrei Tsuiig 



Kien Chnng "1 
Tsing Kwoh J 

B. C 



Ts'ong King 



Ta Kwan 



Cheng Ho 



Chnng Ho 



Siian Ho 



K'in T.QDg 



Tiing K'ang 


m ^ 351 

J^ ^ Kao Tsnng 
^3jt Hiao Trang 


Kwang Tsiing 

Ning Tsnng 

Li Tsnng 

Tn Tsnng 
Enng Tl 
Twan IgODg 
Tl Ping 

The Sonthera Snng 

lira I K* 

I Mm 
1 1190 1 ^ m 

I 1195 jg 7C 

i iKa 





1265 )ti . 
J"' ^j 
1276 ^ : 
1278 : ^ i 

Kim Yen 
Bbao Hing 
LiiDg Hing 
K'ien T»o 
Sbun Hi 
K'ing Yean 
Kl« Tai 
K'ni Hi 
Kia Ting 
Fao K'ing 
Sbao Ting 
Twan Ping 
Kia Hi 
Sliun Yew 
Pan Tew 
Kai K'ing 
King Ting 
Hien Sbni 
King Yen 
Siong King 


7C jffi The TUan Dynaaty. 




rauT,o mL. 




on UiO uo « K 





ism r.iTB 


Named Temnchin or Gengk 


jk^ r.iT».« 


Named Ogdai 

Jgg Ti.gT,u.g 
^^ HimT,u.g 


Named Gajuk 


Named Uangu 

{H; Hi Sh> Tn 



Chung Tang 


[EDblu^Uull; mlcdl 

on the throne of China from S 


Cho Yean 


A.D. 1280]. J 

JiS ^ Ch'tog Tmng 



Yuen Cheng 




SCS WuT.nng 





■(r S Jen Trang 



Hwang K'ing 



Yon Tew 


?S ^ Ting Trang 



Cho Che 





Tai Ting 



Che Ho 


W^ MtagTenng 


35 )f 

Tien Li 


St '^ wen Tl 



Tien Li 



Cho Shnn 


H'^ ShnnTi 



Yuan T'nng 



Cho Ylian 



Che Cheng 


99 T^ The Ming Dynftsty. 

;:fc|ft T'aiTei, 
Jg '$' Hwei Ti 

Cii'fing Tsu 
JSn Teiing 
SHsn Tsung 
Ying Tsung 

I 1368 j ^ ^ Hung Wd 

1399 ' ^ ^ Kien W^n 

1403 fH ^ Yimg Lob 

! l-»25 I ;^ ffifi llung Hi 

I Ji26 ! g ^ SUan Teh 

' "30 i XE ^ Chftig T'ung 

j 1425 
i 1426 
1 1486 





^ )^ T'uin ShuD 

jS-ft; Oh'«ngHw. 

^ is Hang Che 

JEffl ChSogTih 

^ ^ Kin Tang 

1^ ^ Lnng K'ing 

^ g Win Li 

^ g Tai Gh'ang 

^ at T'i.n K-i 

# iirti T.'nng Chtog 








rien Ming 



Tisn Tmng 


Wong TMi 




SIiiis Cbe 

-f*; ^ Tui Tmng "I 
:i* Ki.gTi J 

in ^ Ting Tmng | 

^ ^ Hi.n Tinng 

^ ^ Hioo TBung 

^ ^ Wu Taung 

■(H: ^ 8be Tnung 

SP ;n7 Miib Tnnng 

10 S Shto Tinng 

3fe ^ Kwang Tflung 

JS ^ Hi Tmng 

:^flK Th.T.'ingIljni«lj. 

Chao Tan Yiian 
Eing Tsn Chih 


King Tsn Tih 
Hien Tbu 8San 
Tai Tsa Kao 
Tai Tffling W6q 

She Tbu Chang 

' TIiMe were la reality merely Manchow cliieftttius, upon j/hom titular htmonn 
wetv owfemd W thsir dssMmUnd ofUr tbe conqoait of Cliiiia. , 




Shfing Tsn JSn J 

She Tflnng Hien J 

Kao Tming Sbun J 

J8n Tsung Jui J 

SiJan Tsung Ch'fing J 

A^Kfi* ] 

Wgn Taiing Hien J 

The reigning Sovereign 1 

[ended his mmorily 1873]/ 

Jle ^ K'ang Hi 

%. iE Y™g chfiDg 

^ {^ K'ien Lung 

^ @ Kia K'ing 

^ ^ Tao Kw»Dg 

)^ jg Hien Feng 

^ jj§ T'ung Che 

The Tabtak Dyn.isty. 
^ j^ The Liao Dynaoty, (^ ^ K'i-tan Tartare). 


T'si Tm 





T'.i Trang 



T'ien Hien 

[Assumed dynastic litlel 
IMo in A.D. 937] J 


Hw« T'nng 


3b. Tmng 



T'ien Lnh 

Muh Tmng 




Ktog Tmtig 


Pao Ning 

K'ien H«Dg 


Sheng Troog 



T'HDg Ho 
K'ai T'ai 





5 i 





SbSng TfiDDg [continued] 


Tai P'ing 


i^^ HiDgTsnng 





Ch'ung Hi 


ii^ TaoTB.u.g 


M w 

Ts'ing Ning 



Hien Tung 


zA; J$ 

Ta K'ang 






Show Lung 


%^ T'ienCU 



K-ien T'ung 


[SubmUted to the Kin") 
aynaBty A.D. 1125] J 

T'ien K'ing 


^ i Mo Chn 

S % jffi '^e AVodeni lino DyDusty. 

^ ^ The Kin Dynasty, (^ $| NU-chSn Tartars). 
:teia r.lT.n 

jfc ^ T-ai Tinng 
S ^ Hi T.ung 

[reckoned Ihe yeara of] 
his reign from his {fedecea- } 
■of'a accession]. j 



LB 0)f BHOH 










Tien T6h 



Cheng YiJM 



Ch&.g LoDg 

J 156 

■fH: ^ Sbe Tnmg 
^^ OhuigLa-g 





19 3 

SCog Ch'ang 



Ch'eng Ngan 



T'^ Ho . 







Ta'nDg K'ing 



Che Ning 


atS SO«.T«.i.g 



ChSng Yew 



Hing Ting 



Yfian Kwang 


:gC^ Ng.iT„.g 



Cheng Ta 



rien Kng 



E-ai HiDg 


** M«Ti 



ShgDg Ch'ang 




-^ EADICAL 1. 

if 1 is «i3, 1 * « s 


ling 1 •! f^ 

^ 1 *K8, 1 Si 1 « 
m; ] H SH; \ S 
108, 415; I fil 102, 
156; I M lU 617; 1 

«ixA i«; 1 m 

,»SJ 1 :e 798; 1 S-tsOl; 
1 1& 2i5; 1 # 16 
592; 1 iff 9 454. 

•J 1 » 285; 1 S 465: 
1 S 551; 1 S 611 
> M 111 284;S1; 1 
S 48 330. 

H I g! 20, 1 « SH; 1 
JS 866; 1 i& 15tm; 
I Riffl; I is 817. 



,2,5 1 )ill319; I S 310,829; 
1 :i561, 893. 


5 I * 617, 664; I * 
830; JK 1 663; AW 
a I 668;iS*-p 1 



'Sr 1 W 2S3, 910; 1 

^ Part II,, 11. 


S" I * 20, 712; 1 •21; 

1 a I 926; I » 
748; 1 W iBl; ] M 
438; 1 W * tl ZI3; 



„,,, „„ib,Google 


Part n., 1C3. 

1 * 4 « 184. 

1 16 201 bi I liS707i 
I 9 536. 

I i»it«»127; I » 

193, I *867i \n 

. **517i IttJtft 

715; 1 2t«71,5i 1 

» • 858, 1 m% 

781 ; I # g 803. 



^ I H: 479. 

1 S494, 1 *7 
-^ RADICAL 8. 

I « Ji- 720. 

1 «549, 1 iflSj* : 
SB 1*7. 
1 #283. 

Mn 1 ^ 66, 666. 


jh 1 8 270. 

« I ^ HI, 1 111 253, 

1 ff 807. 
/— Part II., 25. 

J»» 1 Jt582, IS 667; I 

ff 195. 
/[It 33. Part II., 161, 230, 
n«« 251, 252. 

I % 519; I «t 972; 
m I 361; 1 iljSl75. 
7J^ Part n., 7, 56, 165, 166, 
Li 167, 254. 
I I 458. 

/'V I iK 395. " 


«"? I W 189. 

1 Se, 118614,875; 
1 ^319; 1 ^79; 
1 IBsi: 813; 1 ft 
124, 826; 1 ^321 
1 8 427, 1^465 
I S5S6; 1^ 637 
1 ft 795 ; 1 il 666* 
1 SK748; 1 ^800 
1 it 632 , 1 JX 651 
1 *100, la 946 
I 8927, laC92T 
I II6S7; I 688: 


1 3i[ 82S ; 1 ^ 316 ■ j 
1 mmS; 1 lU «! 
968. j 

I W 229; I # 229, 609; | 
I F 238 i 1 n 108 i I 


Sj I H 169a ; 
I %816; 
1 M WO. 

^ P«itit, IS. 

>» I JS 768 i 

481, 478. 

1 11* 235! 
I ^6l3i| 


1 it 252. 
1 » 225. 
1 J«.-,12, 

«39i t a 

I )fi,32(»i 

t S 15; 

1 ftl346j 

I tt411; 

1 MiW; 

1 *5-)5; 

1 Sl09, 
^ 550 ; I 
•S755i 1 
M 789; ) 
fllSSO; 1 
II 920; 1 

1 BS 336. 

\ 842, 880 

j I f* 107 

i I X 319 

1 * 383 

I S 466 

IK 498 

1 R 649 

S»4; I B 

S^631; I 

JSvOC; j 

«818; 1 

S859; I 

S901; I 


i&lSS; I ; 
U 578: 
». 1*175, 
/^ Part IL, 217; 

i^ Part II., 22^. 

>V 1 B IS latf. 

t^ 50, 498. 

S 1 ¥ ft 807. 
/^ 156, 828. 

T IBa854; i«791i 
1 * 530; 1 It a 
586, 847 

^ 1 W 449; 1 * et 

"'""y i IS 756. 

J^ Pan 11, SIS. 

"^^ \ % 394. 

<&■ 397,468,760,795. 

1.™ i..^.. ,,n 

l tl931. 




^201^; 1 -ft 209; 

S 1 6JiA»«n»\ 

1 «745; l*fi569i 

- 888. 

1 4^713,716; 1 A 

H « 1 HI 

646; 1*817; 1 ft 

809; IStSIS; 1 » 

r? 1 S914. 

600; 1 ®769; 1 ft 

773; ia684; 1 M 


937, 968 ;! « 379 ; 

1 ISlOe; 1*754.; 

'!? 1 Bt 956. 

1 16 62; 1*6 282. 



iS 1 ■ 1 »»"• 


1 B 40. 

^ Fart n., 12. 



1 S319; I X 669. 
1 M 364. 

S 1 «l!»156. 



^ F«l 11,81. 

1 H724. 




1 8^913. 


171, 493. Part n., 38. 


1 m 676; 1 8 645; 

^E 1^- 

1 *I87; 1 88 851; 

"T 1 » 2S0. 
^ 1 + 808. 

1 K «4I8. 

7^ eadi<:al U. 



Part u., 188. 


Wp 882. 

<£ I «)i86i 

1 M39I, 1 

1 (.'Ban 

1 « 706. 



:=. 968, TO. 
i^r. 261. 

I «78, 

1 « 

84, 1 



l'B338i mi 650; 1 


1 *110! 1 

1*1 88; 1 DjiXsSl. 






1 »428i 1 ffl^WI 





Part u., 85. 



1 a ms, 1 i 

225, 287, 726 

; 136, 


iW, IttllO 

1 31 


Part n.. 84. 

461 1 IK 'm 

1 ffi 

518; ] )?610 
75 , 1 111 285 



Part n, 220. 

^ 430. 


1 S45. 


I l284i IS 

Part n., 171. 

t 225, 


1 S ■ 886. 


7J Ij RADICAL 18. 


1 m B 628. 




I is @l 35. 


Part rL, 128, 129. 
1 ■ & 859. 


f* RADICAL 14 


1 l>$ 340. 

I 'mmm,. 


1 SP 214. 



1 #1 391 ; 1 7 86S. 

1 *253. 


1 =f 916. 

1 «498. 





1 m 148. 

1 «45Ii 1« 



1 m tS 401. 

1 S 824; 1 Jl 959) 


I 96172; 1 i 

& 770; 


1 « ■(• 190. 

1 « 770. 


„,,, „„ib,6t3ogle 


^ RADICAL 19. 


^ 1 ±240. 

W S I 952. 

s; i 1 818. 

-f- RADICAL 24. 

W" 1 t899i ! SI 819. 

•mI 1 19948. 

Ij, 70,813, 

^ , , 


A. 1 Ul 807. 

". 1 Wwai 1 ^f 689, 

^ 161,687. 

A 1 »SS9i 11111658. 

H^ 147, 840. Part «., 157. 
fl« t 1 S72. 


S 1 B481, 1 fsU; 

]tfS; 1«76», 1 



«aii8, 1 KX 

"<: 1 1 81. 

887, 1 **«87i 

1 a* A 612; 1 

■'J RADICAL 20. 

ni:» 619. 


'S' ! ± 287; 1 II 481; 
1 S m 18. 

*»i 1 a277i lift 111 710. 
pao 1 W 610. 

f> BADIOAT. 25. 

^ ,^ 


i>'»> 1 1(809. 


t RADICAL 21. 




JtiL Part IL, 241, 804. 

f<< 1*980! I ¥$475, 





^ ,. 

*S, 1 ft 47. 

w™ 1 *121. 

'■"■' '" '"' "^"-■■-•t^"^ 


*■" 1 SB n 738. 


1 Hisi. 

jrtit 951. Part n, 195, '£74. 



1 S 796, 928. 

f RADICAL 27. 


Part II, 57. 





r^ 1 III 442, 864. 


1 a .M8. 


1 S 659 ; 1 .!5 iR 885. 

J, HABICiL 28. 


Part n, 22, 185. 

ea 1 ^ 169a; ] 9f 614. 

1 S225; 1 ti42; 1 

if 490; 1 K6S2. 

^ 767, 739. 

1 B 589. 

% EADIOAL 29. 

58a Part II., 101, 307. 

-jfc- Pari n, 286 

1 ^756. 

>:. I KlOS. 


Part n., 23. 

i^ 71. Part n, 188. 

1 ± 181; I a 740; 

1 » 178. 

•U 1 W )67i 1 « 267 1 


1 * 92*. 

1 » 202 i I ff 540 ; 



1 (iSSlp 1 A 583; 

1 «31, 246; 1 St 



616; ] ^ 636; 1 

* 104; 781 ; 1 IK 



848; 1 ■? 885; ! 

m & 319. 

Fart II., 92. 


1 « 666 ; I a 23 ; ! 
W" 752 ; 1 !9 683 ; 1 

■±■558. Partii, 82. 
*. 1 a 66, 666; 1 Jl 390. 

M 270.; 1 ^811; 

1 «S44. , 

". .-- -Wgl 


m m. Part 11,72. 

^ 606, 685, 928. 

^ 1 128, 1 0121 i 1 

^ 866 ; 1 fie 681 ; 1 

»&M; I it 854 ; 


1 »«. 2J8, 1 A 

■Am ' 

* 682 1 1 i H 97 i 

**« ) 9S 369 ; ] ^ 9 

1 H I 772. 


ti 467. Part n., 20a 

» 1 « 257; 1 6e458, 


1 ^467. 

S *J- 



«• I *.t B 398,551. 

^ 1 i 413. 

8S p«»,™- 

H 66, CO, 468, 606. 

•to" I a 679i 1 • 875; 

|R 234, 635. 

1 m 307, 1 ■ & 

802 i 1 WE 368. 


ft P«rtD., 153,282. 


^ 861, 963 
S 1 jb 225. 

pq 1 KsS6, 1 K 
S 1 «a«169. 


". 1 «f 275. 


A"**. I IK 226. 

g Part a, 298. 

p:;' l«P.rtn,30S. 


gl 534, 672, 838. 



^ 1 S606. 

; BH Part n, 40, 198, 277 


1 9 84, 1 n 


>hw,g ] g 845 ; 1 Ifc 592- 

905, I ^ 354, 


738; 1&888, 


1 KS64. 

i 763; 135 201, 


S 1 ft 188; ^= I 801 

765, 1 6 342. 

B 1«664. 

t « 2 « 801. 

g Part II, 182. 

I ft 104.. 
i; HADICAL 82. 


1 « 

Pan u, 810 



1 * 



Pwt n, 



1 K 




Fart 11, 

I T 


rf'» 1 IHI8t761. 

r^ I 3ce H700i 1 * 

594 ; 1 Hi; 90a. 
Et HI, 630, 889. 
t*"*" 1 S 49. 


-U 1 ? 485. 

± BADICAL 38. 
_1- Part n, 253. 
«• I 11 436 ; I M 447 ; 
I fT711, 1 M28, 
1 ^ 241 ; 89Sa ; I 
« 216 i 420 1 1 M 

^ ^^' 

.*•» 1 l887i 1 l81i ! 

» 614, 1 #«A 


«. I Sl85. 

it, BADICAL 3.;. 
■M Part II, 269. 

^ Ifissii Ifflosii I 

M 228| 1 H) 01 136. 

^ EADIOAI. 36. 
^ Part n, 60. 

5j iwa76. 
1 a; 6 :^ 908. 

■"ft? ] ^ 180, 428; ] 9 





^ RADICAL 87. 1 

III 654,959; 1 B A 
35; 1 IIIS72O; 1 

P.rt 11, 108. 

i^ 854; 1 iR 721; 


I I Put H 110. 

225 ; ] $ 739 ; 1 SE 


596 ; 1 ?^ 350 ; ]M 

1 ^319; in 189. 

225 i 1 5R 610 i ins 


98. Part II, 86. 

648 ; 1 BIT 777 , IS 
225 i 1 *886i 1 S 
769 i I5E75S; 1 * 

1*231; I B 161, 232, 
293 ; 1 in 460. 

319i \ ikf 319, 

1 iS 61. 

108«412i 1A« 


746 i 1 in * 170, 



384, 768 ; 1 3. H 


804, 843 J 1 ffl W 3t 


186; H«ftl5S2; 

I tt 481 ; IBS 

1 « P«n ". '08.. 

109,.; IfltW* 228. 


» I « tt « 146. 

1 ^ 146 i Ufl 66, 243, 

875; 1 I 666; 1 tt 



100; 1 11701; 1*9 

702; 1 * 887; 1 * 



690 ; 1 (llf 697 ; 11* 
699; 1 »a; 1 fi 
361 ; 1 S! 782 ; 1 Z. 

IS 1 879. 

i»404, 1 S*659; 


1 A a «6o i 1 1 a 


618; H^SSOI; 1 


1 ^ 161, 847 ; 1ft 

is* 336; 1 ± 


*8336; 1**A 


693, 633. 

698; 1 ¥»±524, 

70S i 1 + ;A * 843. 


Part 11, 289. 

1 ^ 862; 1 g 862; 


1 I 201 ; 1 ^ 558: 


1 10 521 ; 1 % 521 ; 

1 Alls, 207; 1 3 

1 %522. 

608 ; 1 H 311 ; 1 111 


Pait 11, 187. 

809 ; 1 » .504 ; 1 ■& 


depart 11, 224. 


I^l 1 © 254 i IS 740. 

J J Pmt 11,84. 

>• 1 SXni. 

mo 1 «506. 


'■" 1 a 694. 

AA Part n, 229. 

^ I I 746. 

»m I H 149. 

•>« I S 923 1 I M 458. 

2!? 1^793, 1»«69< 


-*. lust 300.. 

Jjg 900,225.. 

H I WS93. 


4B 348 

M I » 538. 
^ Piit 11,34. 


I H 510. 

c*'"!? ! 94. 
i^ I n450. 
^ 1 41258. 

18 678, 714, 917. 
y"! I H 51. 

■f EADICAi 39. 
. Fait n., 216a, 236. 

I X 780, IN tM, 
739; 1 M 503) t 
JF257i I B91; 1 
i9 441, 913; IX 
565; 1 S 736; 1 
tl 704 ; I JB 321 ; 

I S 26 ; V jt 759 ; 

is 883; I £660; 

m 879 ; 1 » 732 ; 

I iW; 1*7,641; 

Ilis4; 1*69; 1 
«81S; 1*781; I 
It 820; \ m 462, 
821, 829; 1 Ik 621. 
680; 1 S!i89; I IK 
6;!3; ! ib 624; 1 

INDEX OF cbiufsb characters. 

» 438 1 1 )( 37, 


Part ir, 33. 

419 ; 1 S 832 r 1 

1 ttS 543. 

JS46; 1 ^639i 1 


a: 594i \ 9 910; 

1 ? 635 ; If. 422. 

1 * 964 i 1 St 797 i 

I * A 630. 

1 ^51; 1 63; 



1 fl 163; I£l70; 

1 ? 102 ; 1 ? S 804. 

1 W 305 ; I fR 306 ; 

1 il 322 ; 1 ■ 323 ; 

»^ RADICAL 40. 

1B396; 1 8 404; 

1 JE 653 ; \B 881 ; 


412, 584. 

] 1? 563 ; 1 ¥ 583 ; 

] Si 9 ; 1 1ft 27, 413 ; 

1SR595; 1P9 628; 

1 S 153, 189, 323, 

t « 487 ; 1 S ? 

806 1 1 ^ 584, 807 ; 


1 #690; ta 609; 


P.rt 11, 226. 

l«£523; \m& 

t W 88 i 1 ffi 24 i 1 

804 ; 1 ^ S 722 ; 

• ?322; 1«S19. 

I SSI 676, 677, 799 ; 


Part u., 267. 
1 »756. 

1 m^i. 624, 1 


1 a 875 ; 1 + 897. 



Pul n 311. 


18 30; 1 t818; | 


1 S 845; 1 ft 824. 

a 93;H*»a 





1 ?494, 1 «=* 


496; 1 & 319; I^ 

13422; 1S1838; 1 

492; 1 »46; 1 M 

11 107; 1 NB854. 

534; 1S768; 1* 



S<91i 1 » 71, 876; 


1 $1892; 1 *710. 

1 »X402. 




1 a 319; |«aa40j 


1 B CO; 1 fi 244. 

1 A 488 , 1 a « 

884 ; 1 BISl; 1 » 


169; 1*878; Ifi 

499. P.irt n., 216. 

479; 1 a 764.; 1 


1 S633; IS 419; 1 


« 712 ; 1 « 789.. 


Part n, S7, 144, 2V6, S16. 

»>* l!8l7, 129. 



1^319; 13C319; 1 

a 633 ; II 871. 
Part II, 91, 275, 301a, 813. 




I ill ± 35. 

I %90. 




1 A 281 ; 1 iSa 45. 

Hfil79; I It 253. 

I i .108. 

i 1 ^ 855. 
770, 890, 954. Part ii, 45, 
46, 95, 228. 

■^ BADICAL 41. 
=U: Part n, 164, 287. 

^4^ Part n, 154. 

I is 045 J I fe 50. 


/h RADICAL 42. 

»™ 1& 211 ; I5fe639; 1 
8(579; 13E368-, ] 
^ i^ 653. 

^|> part II, 33. 

sA™ I S 365, 676 , 1 te 
127; IS 394; 1 I^ 
782 ; j ^ 854 i 1 SI 

aAiinjf I :X 257; 1 & 598. 

^ RADICAL 43. 


/* RADICAL 44. 

1 £ a! 841. 

*■■ I ^ 326. „ , 

„,,, „„ib,Google 



a Part n, SO. 

" I « 804i 

1 a 



1 1E53 


'S IS 478. 


dm 1 a 403. 

f" "'"'"'■ 


^ 1 IR 726 i 

-8 . „ 

I # 


^ Part n, 117, 176. 

r 1 « 854. 

Ji , 

({{ RADICAL 47. 

Si 1 m 615. 


j|| Part n, 18, 267. 

~ ft 1 299. 

JJl Part 0,263. 


3S iKM- 

ijj Part n., 47. 
■'" 1 S226i 

I >(•*« 



ikt 44, 66, 570, 
« I fS 225, 

te sio. 


H 1 91 587. 


I « 


™. I III 784. 


y.A I a 928. 

li: mniii*87s. 

Il* Part 11,20. 


■'■"J 1SS570 

; liD 



^ 1 S 1 882. 

1 JII524 

; U6 




!»•<. 1 4) 330. 

ffi 1W.;2:«655. 


f -. 

„,,, „„ib,Google 






¥ 1*124, 1686, 1 

g 664. Part II, 212. 
-V 1 * 728. 

!B!80| lt639j 1 

Si, I S 616, 900, 1 ■ 

9E10U; lasii. 

JK Put n, 6, 168, 169. 

a S81. 

1* Part 11, 90. 

djg P.rt n, 248, S49. 

5S 1*912, l«775i 1 

S 246. 
ei, 1 fi81, 1«|189, 1 


I» 719. Part n, 248. 249. 
iS, 1«24,»4, )«9S2. 

JA 69 , 1 H 694. 

nw I S226. 

II , 

TZ =f ! 707. 


^ EABICAL 51. 

ff 1 «49, 1 »776. 

:£. Part n, 296. 

3^ 102, 326. 

^ 1H504; IT IS, 1 
W 806 , 1 # 818, 
917 , 1 S S 669 1 1 
»«! 287; 1 « I 
589, 1 » « 767, 
1 BI871. 

B& 219. 

^ EADIOAL 62. 

j«. 1 » 869. 

;*" EADIOAL 53. 

f«, 1 (I K 146. 

187, 849, 644. 
^g \ ¥) 860, 1 # 905; 
1 R 106, 1 R S 
412; 1 J*? 298. 

a 1 « 781. 

T 1 III 408, 467 ( I 8 I 
. 862 , ) » * 529 , 


>: I it 249; I • 270., 
678, 484 ; 1 H 887 , 
1 »524; 1*877, 
604 , 1 ^ 919. 

". .-- -wglt 


. RADICAL 59. 

S 1 »632; 1 S-t* 

* ,. 

^ 759. 

S 1 S619. 

J" 1 * 829 ; 

I«840; 1 


1 118. 

j\r KADICAL 65. 

f .■■ 1 K 955, 

^ ,,: 


iw 1 I 580, 

"« I * 868. 

^ BADIGAL 57. 

f'^ 1 at 561 ; 

S I «19; !3sa 

13715; I 


a 561; 

1*352; 1 

I a 176, 498 1 


± 792.i 1 a 

317 J 

^ 533,657. 

IfiS43; IS 



i«670; lar 



X 1 a 285 i 1 « 76 

- \ K 129. 

i 1 

St 170, 278. 

;f RADICAL 00. 

a/ 287, 637. 


S 1 «£ 773, I ffl 77 

i 1 

*•■» 1 * 684. 




J» 1 * 236, 330 i 1 g 

•« 1 ffi 208 , 

tie356; 1 



m 143,812. 

;;» Part 11, 199 


™ 1 -r 502. 

«g Put n., 7a 


® 1^39; 

a. RADICAL 68. 


* , 


' 1»82. 

961; 1^841.. 



Part n., 209. 
I £31, 1«72, I 

%S70; ll|49S,1 

S395; 1 If 423.. 

)£319; \Kin; 1 

K478; Iff 658; 1 

1 i 796. 
/(J RADICAL 61. 



1 SC 154a ; 306 ; OOS ; 
837; 928; 1 ;£346; 
413; 1*148; IB 
197 ; 1 91 297 ; I IK 


I <& M 190. 
Part I!, 286. 

1*68, IttlSO, I 
19 602 ; I X 904 ; 1 
S 634 ; IS 759. 
Fart II, 53. 


















1 M455. 

Avti 1 $ £ 393 ; 1 535. 

«ri I 8(773. 
l|^ Part a., iU. 



iSi. Part IT., 240. 

A>«<{ t ift227; 1 16438. 
i-g 202, 894. 

1 W650. 



& . 



^ 1 8 S!S. 


"Ot I ^ 

.#- BACIOAt 64. 

r-j 1 Hsso. 



Put IL, 64. 
1 .f Part n, 888, 25a 

S 1 jl 862, 1 3^ 



1 »3eis2o. 

1 I «J. 


M" 1 ft 206,' 465 i 


1 Bl90. 

t m 




1 * 235; 1 S 144; 

*S: 655. 

^ 1 a 168. 

1 «B6. 



1 *5S6. 




I #1=274. 

^ 1 % 62>; ) B 146; 

I S693, I as 

109., 190. 

I it 108; 1 K S«2, 
1 « 654, 1 ■» 



j^ P«IH,137. 


51, 49. 

g2 »"■ 

•W 1 *A458. 

S 1 1626, 1 1 


1 A « 67, 1 K » 




S «i 1 97. 


^ BADIOAL 68. 



m '."»' 



„,,, „„ib,Google 


819-, ll570i IS 

124, IS8, 848 5 I ^ 


652; 1 A- 931; 1 IS 

774 ; 1 iffl 478 ; IS 

828; 1 #477; \M 

SS 1 ±796. 

488; IS 217; 1» 

776; 1*811; IS 
852; IV 868; \9 
326; 1 M860; IS 


943 ; 1 a 79 ; \& 


69, 188, 394, 564, 623, 
911; 1 It 21; 1 Ig 

Jt Part 11., Ml. 

133; ) jft 893; \M 


667 ; 1 £ 189, 624, 

Jt RADICAI( 66. 

645; t jE 738, 821, 
824, 859, 907 ; 1 jfi 

328; 18370; 1« 

438; I«460; 19 

Jng 1 fg 900. 

463,773; 1^316; 

1 ^ 818 ; 1 iiS 753 ; 

Jfe Part It, 219, 237. 
rf% IE I ! 597. 

1SXS19; l«e| 





S Hg945, USooOi I 


!|4S5; \i. 203; I 

ilf*215; Hi|"750l 

4- KADICAL 68. 

^ Part n., 30, 88, 136. 



S 1 gf 382. 

lit 207. 


'" 1 H 73. 

ft RADICAL 69. 

Jfr Part n, 159, 283. 



;^ BADICAL 67. 


1 m 905. 



1 ft«l478; Msn 

« i«853i 1 a»s 

804. „„„„„GoOgk- 


■jf RADICAL 70. 


535, 661, 758, 835. 

IS 45; IX 847, 930; 

Htt Part 11, «, 122, 294. 

1 * 56, 793 ; 1 4t 

fi, 1 ap 9, 831 ) I * 182. 


H 1R819. 

1 n « 415. 


■». Part n, 69, 291. 



a ■ 





R 235. 

S 1«267iAiai 


1 ft 235. 




1 ic&Bis, 1 m& 

g 601 67, 821. 

356, 564; 1 I 72, 

"Z. 1W235. 

354, 66] ; \0 865, 


907; 1 tt^347; Ht 
f 1 801. 




».* I S 285 i I S 872 i I 


W jil 831. 

^ Pmii.TS. 

1 •79, 1»79;1 

M 570. 



JSs 1 * 158 i 1 ¥ 319 i 1 




-i"5 1 * 505 J I * 778 1 1 

H 1 951. 



a 62; IS 107 i 1 

1 fS 198, 251 ; 1 ?f 

♦fr 194i 1 it 341, 1 

416; 1 K 577; 1 

*622i 13 504; 1 

Iff 805 ; t & 821 ; 

a£^469; t « 

I III 646 ; 1 tt 304 ; 

S J. 297. 

1 S 820 ; 1 S 198 , 


1*198; 1 S 58; 

«*■"" 1 ^B"] 20, 218. 

1 m 689.. 

^ Fartu., 54, 162,281. 


m»9 I B' 620. 


1 VI 443. 1 



» ,« 

jMiT 1 ^ 235. 

w , ^ 

«" I m 777. 
1^ Put IL, 243. 

M^ Part n., 9, 235, 292. 



ffi I .$. 819; 1 W 235; 
1 tfi 336; I Si 

^ I id 407. 
^ P»rtn., 105,203 
.1. 1 is 216. 

«<>; I JS 285 ; 1 ■ 3S 201. 

Awri ] ;£ 783, 811 ; 1 IS 

— I ^689; 1 !i604. 
ffl Partn., 113. 
>•'•• I SS 428; IS 677; 
I S 535 ; 1 :<: I! 
535; I © 761. 

s«d' ] M 260, 957; 1 £ 
18; 1 + tllj A641; 
1 ^ Fait Q, 804 

»" 1 * 506; t # 570; 
1 MR est; 1 X 

ma Part IL, 124, 125, 268. 

/« 1 ^192, »36. 

«"">? 1 ff 957; 1 ^ 666; 
t IK £ 930, 1 111! 

-gn Part n., 181. 
choc 1 S 55, 873 ; \ H^ 
""''' 948; < I ||602;<1 

S 150. 

:;fC RADICAL 75. 

KwA I & 508; t P£ 520; 
) « 509; 1 « JHC 


^ 1 *^ 
>«* ] SkfS 8«. 

* ,- 

f<" I W 967. 

„,,, „„ib,Google 



l«ni04; IS385-, 

! as * j6 S54. 
181, 336. 

1 W S36; I $! 3S3; 
I ii 218; 111854; 
1 * A 342 ; 1 
823; 1 ^ {£ 513; 
1 S 765, 906; 1 
B Jj 8?1; 1 «Sl 

I # 689 ; 1 S 428 ; 
I a 730, 895«; 1 
j£ 623; 1 ^ 192; 
1 ^ 892; 1 %466; 
1 Xa 508; I e 



I A 308. 

1 M 680; I n 2C2; 
I ^804. 

«■ 1 » S56 ; 1 S 188. 

I 0^*116; I a 

726; 5 1 832. 
22. Part n,, 143. 


1*46; li 566; 1 
ft 567; mM.* 

**» 1 ^693; M I 618. 



:^ Pftrtn, 68. 

"■" 1 #907; tS 156; I 

I ;« 97 ; 1 « ^ 

326, 414. 

T«l 1TIS403; ]iW4l9i 
£13^4715; im 
& St 246. 

4A 811. 

P«* 1 » * 648. 

ii»y 1 H & 667 s 1 K * 

»-S ] 3? 235 ; 1 ft 568. 
»■«, 1 H 52, 297, 708; 1 

i 3= ?t. « IKS 

602 ; (IS 1 572. 

t»« I H 957 ; fl >(• 1 309, 
957; ^ 1 S 300. 


I'm? 1 ?f: 745 ; 1 % 616. 
A»an 1^244; 1 S 211. 
"« I S 171, 875. 

Part n., 138, 189. 

I m 261. 

Part n., 87, 190, 191. 
*1 Partn., S. 

' * 1 892 ; H 1 895a j 

I II 896, I s m 


" 1 8 225. 
*w ] H 798. 

^ H : 807. 

I 3c 546 i 1 & 9 i I 
g ^ ± 423a. 

I«H518i l«51Si 
= 11*821. 




»•'" M 1 832. 

«^ 1 ii 87. 
m 164. 

^ RADICAL 76. 
(#•« ] a 222. 
M- JOS. 

"- I H 52S. 

it BADICAL 77. 


'*-) 1 S 515; 1 It 461 i 
1 £l08; IS 108; 
la 874 ; 1 ff 897. 
^ 628, 677, 805. 
>» 1 K 478; ] M 189, 
561; II 876; 1 
* 297, 868; 1 B 
946 ; 1 B 70, 

19 865 
In 772 

1 Hi 381 ; 
1 ^ 866 ; 
I a 851, 


jii. BADIOAL 85. 

928 ; 1 X T6S ; \M 

Hse:, 1 )B«|8S, 

1 ^ S 860, 546, 
W. 869; a» 1 «I 
297; ] 8 & 769; 
I 2p ft 768. 

« I 111 617. 

MS P«mi, 39. 

*»« i ft- ft 629. 
^ EADICAL 79. 

WOT 1 S # 690. 
^ 674, 930. 

-ff EADICAL 80. 
40. Fait n., 246 

^ EADICAL 81. 

J>i 1 T 552. 

% EADICAL 82. 

i" S 1 788. 

^ EADICAL 84. 
^ Part II., 4, 184, 135, 192, 
yV 193,312. 

ywjr ] P 141 ; 1 ^ 844 ; 
I K529. 

I Xl48. 

th^ 1 m 284. 


jr Part n., 29, 272. 
kiimg 1 2c 31 S 822. 
2:tL 109a. 


'H , » 

"■< 1 11320. 

•>• I S 597, 695; I R 
354; I S 116; 1 
%380; ft ] 380. 

Vi& 1 n « 824. 

.«. I »l806. 


^ 1 111721; I *380. 

JjjT Part n., 21, 85. 

V 1 a 311; I ffi 172, 
299; ]i.& 178; 1 
St 299 ; 1 ± 3t A 
173; IB jSd77; 
1 i^ 19 IS 653. 




363, 424. 

1 S US 250. 


I • 467i I X 710. 
Part a, 300. 

Put n., 23a 

1 ± S59i I W. Purt 

n-.14- 1 li 123. 
I K84. 

) M 426. 

1 % 656. 

1 1*5175 I «!493. 

I ^475. 
Part n., 280 

! *74S. 

^ Part n, 81. 
W 81 I 286 ! 1 Hg 3S0. 

}|C , . 

•^ I A 35. 


«■■"»? 1 i^ g 805; 1 is 12; 
I 6'£ 880; I S 
911 ; 1 Sr » I 38. 

*■" 1 Kfl 412, 891; I 
Itf? 412; I ttei 
156; I H SI 809. 

Jft 34,854. 


jJhjl 282, 650, 874. 

fim 1 T 723. 

120} J ^ » 513; 
1 ^ J30. 

»™y 1 :g 576; 1 ■? 155; 

1 ft 528. 


/» 1 jlSI 296. 

?;,, „„ib,Google 


^ BADICAL 88. 
-«^ 9& PMt n., 17. 

^ BASICAL 89. 
.» Part a, 817, S«. 


claeeaff \ S 297. 

^ KABICAL 93. 

~ # 1 286;* 1 811. 


7s I « « Jl S62. 

3; ! 5(307. 
*hT Part n., 239. 

iR 360. 

»»A 1 # 876; ] ;t 661. 

riUfc Fart II., 30, 158. 


it EADICAL 94. 

*•«-. I 5*661, 
li JB I 666. 

>■ IB 183; IS 183; I 
% 183. 
yS 805, 868. 

«ra 1 W459; 1^797; 1 
a 347. 

3g BADICAL 96. 
.^^ 59, 140, 407, 968. 
"« 1 S 934 ; 1 A 834 ; 1 
>*- * 207 i m 415 ; I 
It 133; 1 <895; I 
3)1 887; IK 962. 

•*"oi 1 E 530. 

q: Part n., 71. 
<«»; IH'?90;IM45; I 
S«765; I« 76; 
1 tt 208 ; 1 91 658, 
678 ; 1 i: N 391 ; 1 
at 754. 
IE 642,937. 

B« 1 A $391, 520; I -A 
929; IK 942; IS 
941; IX 280; IS 
887, 890 ; 1 fit 272 ; 
I #B 332; I m 
695; 1 nill£938; 


in* 925, lima 
s is 9u. 

H; '^' 

<iir I JBSSO, 1 01930. 

P" lRs37i 1 Jliff 538. 

la«g \ ^ 317, 330; ] ff 

*■«. i? 1 656. 


:rtg 148. Part n., 131, M2. 

». 1 a » * 5S7. 

Jl'ia 1 S 116 ; £1 1 I& K 
^ 658; I S S12; 
! B 312. 

5 ioa 1 ¥312, 

r'i ] 8 878. 
3^ '5- 

ptfi 1 JVsos. 

^ 880: 

J" 1 ill 330, 672j 1 * 

830; 1 S 330; I 

IS 873. 

X 1 M3S*. 




ea 898,551. 
? I' ft 2 1 704. 
|a 817, 781. 

('"^ I m 330; t ft 317; 
]«317i Iflsi?) 
lib 317. 


BffOK I fli 53. 

j-'i a 1 711. 
uny H ] 656. 


-g- EADIOAl 39. 

IX 238; IillS289; 
I *r * A 297; 
I * 5SG. 

u,., ,. .,,-iOO^Ic 


^ BADIOAL 88. 


^ 96. Put n., 17. 

<" 18183; I«183il 


J» 805,86* 

3t EADIOAL 89. 

■^ Part n., 217, iil. 






yi BADIOAL 90. 



if 1^«9; 14:797; I 

^ RADICAL 88. 

:fe EADICAL 95. 

"ht ff I 286 ; $ 1 811. 

•^ 59,140,407,968. 

»*- 1 S 984 ; 1 J* 884 ; 1 

**" A 207 ; 1 11 415 ; I 

7^ 1 « (9 Jl 562. 

ttl33; K895; I 


%8S7; )K962. 

i I « 307. 

.ta«i Im530. 

^ P.rtn., 259. 

^ 360. 


«<«A 1 !f 876 i 1 i 681. 

jtt Pan IL, 50, 158. 
^ 87- 

■:f Part n., 71. 

"»jr 1iyi^90;l«t45; 1 

S St 766 ; 1 • 76 ; 

1 tt 208 ; 1 a 658, 


678; 1AK891;I 
is 754. 

2 642,987. 
^ 14*391,520; 1* 

a EADICAL 91. 

929; las 942; IS 

:^ ,^ 

941 ; I « 280 ; 1 31 

*■«- 1 5*561. 

887, 890 ; 1 tt 272 ; 


1 #QSS2, l« 

695; 1 nils 988; 




JJA 1 »S08. 


f ■ 

^ 33a 

^ 1 ill 380, 572i I # 

m ^ 

SSO; 1 « 830i 1 


« 873. 



■A 1 «»80, 1«830. 

X 1 W38.. 


f ''• 

P" iSsSTi 1«9 588. 

m , 

gi »«• 

taj 1 S 317, SSO 

1 « 




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Jl 393,551. 

^ '=■■ 



^ 317, 78L 
"'^a I SssOi 1 it 817i 

1*317; Ifl 317; 




^ us. Pmt n, 131 




S 1 « 5S. 

<• 1 a n X SS7. 

^ I Sue, a 1 

p' a 1 711. 


;J: 658i 1 e 

812 i 

••J » 1 656. 

1 PS 812. 

^ *S! 1 ¥312, 

•fl- H4DICAI, 99. 

W 1 §878. 

*" 1«288! mSiSSt 

* '^ 

1 «=*A »9T, 



1 3^ 636. 



4 EADIOAI, 100. 
fli RADICAL 101. 

y«»s I fl! 894; 1 R in it 
648, 655. 

<■"" I S 491 i I i» 678 

1 ft 719. 
rfl 91, 204. 

*" I ^ 225; I S 146. 

■»■■" 1 # 607 ; MS 607 ; 

1 a 608; I -foil; 

1 a 218; lit 218. 
m Part IL, 27, 28. 

"" I ^26; ! 111567. 

^ Part n., 18S. 

ra 136. 

i* 1 A 228. 

m* Part n., 44, 227. 

pi 1 S 934. 
1^ Patt Q., 264. 

^ BADICAL 105. 

""J IS 117. 


a Ml- 

^^* I I® 546 ; 1 ^ 182 ; 

* I 361 ; 1 X 970 ; 

IS III 523; ISS 

890; 1 ^iB79; I 

ii It 643. 

ril' 1 a* 547; I B^ 

in — .£ 40; 1 ^ 

914 ; 1 jg 362. 
& Part n., 2, 24. 
'""K 1 ff 216 ; 1 Jl # 84. 
rid; 197, 629. Part n, 88. 
•» 1 W £ 159. 


'■"5 1 a 361. 



Jn. KADICAL 108. 

3t RADICAL 111. 



»« ffl 1 920 i 1 H a 38. 


1 »l69i 1 i»J92. 

J^ 770, 965. 

5 EADICAL 112. 

m , 


P-- 1 672. 


1 n 391 ; 1 X ffi 601 ; 

g RADICAL 109. 


<«» 1 *219. 

^ HADICAL lis. 

4H Part n., 204, 314. 

»i<'»g \ jtD 393, 658; I B 


1 it dl 309. 

678, 1 J|. P"l "■ 





1 a 605 ; 'I II 605 ; | 

'S 1 01622,* 1 111. 

S 1 "W 605. 






m S38. 

S 1 a 203 , 1 » 911 i 




I -m 772. 


^ P.rt n, 809. 


Part n., 102, IM, astt 


IX609i IX 728; 1 


M » A 868 i IS 

JH 129,727 



Part n., 102. 



1 It 87, 121. 


Part n., 215. 

fa. I ffi 279, 617. 

ISlSOs IK 466. 



» ,« 

**! SK478. 




"8 ''"■„„ „,,Google 


^ Part tt, 1. 
dChg I S 726. 

|g 487. Part n., 123. 

'S' I a 387. ■ 

jgS Fart a, 41, 42, 146. 
1^ EADICAL 111 

j« :*: I 931 i 1 S 931 i 1 

A 423 ; 1 !0 828. 
^ 403. Part n., 302. 

5(C EADICAL 115. 
5& 163,418. 

'S' 1*442, 1*868,1 
^ 201 , 1 jR 201. 


<■» 1 81 267. 

"■« I * 788. 

Part n., 196. 

^ 597. 626. 

^ 11732, 1ft 778, I 
X779, 18 780,1 
S £ S47 , I ;lt 754 , 
1 H A 553 , IB 
* A 887. 

■^ 1 J* 

« IW31. 

c»« ] ^ 151 ; 1 Jll 274 ; 
1 #199. 

^ 1 S 439. 

oi 1 iE740,©!s07,740. 

3ft Part n., 141, 197. 

hA 1 K 282. 

•«»* 1 £ 511 ; ] 2i- 547. 


I R 129. 
J^ EADICAL 116. ; 

*'««y 1 # 233. 

yoo 1 WE 906. 

^ 62. 

aE 295,312. 

^ 295,312. 

«C Fart n, 226. 

'•» I © 673 , 1 IB 619. 


it BADIOAL 117. 

^ Put n, 101, 262. 
'<^ 1 ^ 11 ; I S 3 

a«9 I A X 2e<. 

™» 1 U 176. 

it RADICAL 118. 

]m m82! Itt-CKes. 

(■A 1 £ 386. 

> 1 Hi ft J31. 

^ 137. 
« I ^212.; 1 A 

«•"■ I T 293 5 1 * 296 i 
1 «» 294, 1 * 
A46i ! *917. 
•aK 677. P«t n., 2J5. 


^ 16S. 

cAoiK R 1 65, 596. 

1 R425. 
. ^ RADICAL 119. 


tnng \ jg, 265. 

<«"> 1 W ::£ C 637. 

^ RADICAL 120. 
Ki's ] S20Ib; 1 lft20U; 

I Ml 200; 1 Jjk:^ 

196i 1 ftU; i ^ 
ft 2010. 


I # 









1 a 


1 H 











Si 1 » s 79 ; I s n 

733; I ft 784; 1 



I *311. 

S., I « 90» " 



4a 249, 967. 
E 1 te 667. 

'^ 1 «l235i 1 S973. 


t iM!21S. 




1 S 264 ; 1 X 769. 

^> 1 it 260; t H 146; 


1»IH24, t«M 


I B957. 

262; 1 9!g3l2e3. 


^ RADICAL 122. 


1 JH Part n., 806. 

ift 827. Part a, H5, 116. 

1 ff Hi 138, 274, 523. 

*Bf Part n., 89, 140, 194, 273, 
^ 297,305. 

^ RADICAL 123. 

W«>W 1 fi! 70 5 ! * 330. 






1 S740. 

^ 346. Finn., 26. 

I a 570. 

.~J 1 «t 626. 





« 1 S717. 






JS 1 Jl lU 258. 

1 « 165, 414, t 111 

Me B 1 ' Fart n., 309. 
tI' 1 « 111 801. 

364 ; I K S 142 ; 9 



1 ^ 516. 

BiDss or (miUBss oBdjuorats. 

M '^ 

^ RADICAL 127. 

^ I ft 236, 

90O, 952 i 1 

i ,*95, 



^ . .^ 

7*- I«53. 

ra 166,297. 
f 1^236, 

1 IIJ39S. 

I^ RADICAL 128. 

^ 178, 179- 





f H«4.. 


S 1»«677. 


m 880. Put a, 5j, lot 

^1 1 a 463 , t tR 270. 


]g Part a, 103, 156. 




t^ BABKUf. 129. 

is-> SI 887. 


.*. ill 201. 

S ^*' 

jg 63. F«ln,,295. 


?? I«10. 


^ 92a 

S t»618. 


gt Partn., 78. 


^ EADWAl »23. 

5 I 1 ? 517. 

JB. P.itil,5, 
^ 1TM6 


f 1*184,597, t«tl; 

1 a 

680 ; 1 IR 

945, \m»n; I 





) yH 141. 

Part u., 124, 125. 

lAta I S 448. 

1^ % M & \ Si- 


g BADICAL 181. 
g Part a, 120. 


™ 1 *li 24i 1 »I 
351 ; 1 mSM 392. 

Ji BACIGAL 183. 

'<• I S 819. 

eft. 1 S 194. 

f Part n^ 68. 

g RADICAL 134. 
M I S 49S ! jR I 937. 


«l"» 1 H 68 ; 1 • 643. 


»A« ^ ] 275. 

^ EADICAL 136. 

.4™ 1 £![ 621. 

-• IBS 126. 
■ft EADIOAl 187. 

r^ 1 PJ 430. 

Si BADICAL 138. 

ii^g 1 E 154a. 

■g, EADICAL 139. 
■ffi Part n., 160 

Pi -H- RADICAL 14fl. 

f67, 925. 
I R62.I I e83( 

'•" I B ^ A 208. 


1 tt 478. 

I Jift 090; 1 i 


M '* 


"«. I ft 16 ; 

1 «73; 1 


lit 528. 

i. 390] 

1 ii 822; 



I mess. 

I Wl46; 1 »130; 1 

f '■ 

»*A710; 1 M 
* A228. 






J' 1 n 619; 1 3S 270; 
1 S9U. 


i»-r92., 1 ma 






I ■? 92; ]& 762; 1 

^ .^ 


*» 1 W 946. 




^S« 1 m 671. 



Ji^ * 1 868. 


I « 753. 



IJE463, l$235. 

'<■•» 1 < 859. 



f I ft 887. 

1KX751; 10 471. 

* IS 728. 

1 m 848. 

ii 1«.60 

416, 1 ft 



875; I lUi551i ] 


m a 807. 


ia«idftl 556. 

* . 


•^ l£.161, 

1 9S 649. 


1 ^ 528, 617. 

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$ RADICAL 169. 
I Part a, 119. • 
* 1 JB iW as 672. 


Akx 1 G^ 225. 


^ 1 :t, 327. 

^ Port IL, 16, eO, 221. 

^ 1 H 813, 1 ■ S43; 
1 JisS; 1 fl|39a. 

1^ Part n., 150. 

»" I ff ± 16 918, 

ftS Put n, 266. 

^ BADICAL 160. 

A 71. 

™ I ffi 777. 

^ Part n., 49. 
A^ I ^ 2S5. 

"? I M 444, 740. 


.M I S321. 

f'"» I »179. 
i^ 19a 


I « SOI. 

^ I i 158. 
i^ Put n., 62. 

^ 826. Part B., 63, 213, 
^S 1 • 25l! 1 n 710; 
] S a S 391. 

SS !K7«7. 


Am IS-&SS88. 
ja I * 796. 

}i "•■ 


^ Part IL, 2OT, 288, 2M. 

>» I RSS; 1 W32; 1 JR 
417; 1 S 224 I 10 
SOS; 1 ■& 73; I 
S S 336 ; I 7 A 
it 730. 

m 6H 

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880, 7M. 

*? I»«8. 


«e 286,748,921. 

^ IHin. 


1 P6 520. 

is ^'*- 




1 W44i 1 JH666, 




S IU378. 







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1 ■* A228, 

^ »"■ 




1 W744. 

^ 660. 



«.. 1]IC«386, 


1 »907. 

m ""■ 



% I 640. 




< U408. 


Pari n., 8, 61. 
1 ¥ SI 860. 

'^ mSKeee. 


1 tt 201.; 1 ft 20 

1 ""■'*''■ 

Fart n., OS, 206, 306. 

m P.rtii., 281. 


1 l928| 1 a 945 

g, RADICAI, 163. 

1 H & 494. 

g 82. 


^ ISSm. 


1 KK410. ^, 

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^ Part n., 119. • 

^ 1 JBKX672. £ 1 9321. 

^ Part n., 36. 

£ I 6: 

■S 1 4 327. 
^ Put IL, 16, 60, 221. 
A 1 WSIS; 1 ■ S4S, 
] JS 35 ; 1 ttl 39a. 
*K Fait a, 150. 

1 ff 4«918. 
' Part u., 266. 


A 71. 

~ I m 777. 

$i BASICAL 16 
^ Part n., 49. 
e*^ 1 W 235. 


>■"? ] fiS 444, 740. 

r'-w I «179. 

* 1 « 501. 

^ 1 i 158. 

f& Part n., 62. 

|S 826. Fart n., 68, 218. 
S> 1 11 251; 1 n 710; 
1 ««ll891. 

is ]«787. 

Vr 1*796. 

{« 176. 

Part a, 207, 8«8i 2M. 
I K3S; 1 9f32; \S 
417; I S224; |ffi 
905 ; 1 ■ & 73; 1 
fi S 336 ; 17^ 
8 730. 




t 380, 7«. 

>. 1»428. 
ae 286, 742, 921. 

^ IRm. 

'f' I tt 378. 



•® Part n., 178. 
» 831. 

'"" 1 ]K 35 385. 



I R 408. 

110, 646. 

g, EADICAl 163. 
g 82. 
»" 1 M 922. 

M 1 P^ 520. 


r^ I !B44; 1 «6 


a™ I Wd« a 228; 

*•" I W744. 

*eA 1 # 907. 

^ Put u., 8, 61. 

<• 1 9 fli 860. 

hpoh \ H 201s J 1 ft 205. 

:*ff Part n., 98, S06, 306. 



"yff 1 il 928 ; 1 & 945. 

"™ I H » 494. 



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1 8 802. 

I Jl«a750. 



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^-"1 1 ^ 578. 




® RADICAL 164. 


^ ,« 

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".i I III 755. 
ga Part It, 06. 


Its 291 I 1 ^ ft 885. 



;^ RADICAL 165. 


! If « » * * 22. 


Part u., 284. 

* ,« ,^ 

ISsiSi 1 B82, 

»■•• 1 SB 543 ; 15 955. 



•'• 1 i. 792.. 





" IS 161. 
•^ 99. Part iL, 265. 


1)1190, llll»877. 
Part n., 121. 

£,1*6171,1 «m; 
■»'■"» , 1 » 336, 848. 


1 SS 72 ; 1 £ 50. 

^ Patln,289. 
S<A 11 280 ! 1 15 614. 




^ RADICAL 167. 


1 l«S29i I«|j6 4 

^ 267. Part n, 139. 

718, laaAsi 1 

Im 1 Bl 935 i 1 It 520 i 1 

* * 109a. 


I * S 799. 

=*""? 1 R 250; 1 is 363, 

^ 39a ; ' 1 59 658 ; 

1 S a 553 1 1 * 
^ 843 ; I ^ 762 ; 

I S.m'Am. 

P^ RADICAL 169. 

w^n 1 i# 945. 
jw. ] JS 598.' 
*•" 1 7C 504 ; 1 B S- 344 

y^ 1 it 45 ; I * 49. 

»• 1 H I m. 

^ I £319. 

MPul 11,93. 
. 1 m 292i 1 IS 295; 
1 « 297 ; ! S S 


#■ ff RADICAL 170. 
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yany 1 flt 559 ; 1 A 319 
1 a a 931. 

" 1 9r 233; 1 5C 25; 
l*Bl; 1 jglSS; 
1 m H 525. 
|te 209. 

I »225, I «,@ilif 
fi- S R 913. 

" 1 A*137i !8l 
|Bf 233. 


* 1 51; « 1 848 


I 8 501; I is 891. 


1 »J5 9ooi I «a 

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SI 687. 


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S 1*439; IW»346. 

^ EADIC4L 171. 

« 1 » 225, 367, I » 

•^ RADICAL 172. 
•m 883. Part n., 223. 

u '"■ 


M I a 295. 

IS 326, IKV 


ir I P4llil«248,*a 




tkuapy 1 ift 690. 

^ EADIOAL 173. 

^ 1B9S4,«1 873, 1 
7E X 935. 

1 % 332; 1 # S59 
1 X 365 ; IS 297 
1 S 399, 666a, 974 
»X87S, I @£ 
A 79, 1 «*A 


S225; IS 617. 

■J IB SI 551. 
@ 201a, 880 

^ Part n., 285. 

Aa l£tn4. 

lu 1 S 433. 
a» 222, 80& Part n., 152. 


Sg Part n., 43, 94, 147. 

^ 1 * 398 i 1 * 891 i 

1 <t 399 , I H 399 ; 

1 iKl3. 

^ KADICAL 174. 
^5. 668, 843. 

Ss 1 * 45; IS 304, 
785; IS 787; 1 
e 368 , 1 % 361 , 
1 B 409, 11^923! 
1 A 786, 572 , I S 
i!£807, 1 Mill 784. 


^ ?.^ 


!*.» 1 B I 264. 


*S PmI o., 114. 

J^B ., 


P'« K 1 49, 

^ EABIOAL 175. 

i ™- 

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y'!7 1 a 324 i IS 624, 

^ RADICAL 177. 


^ 255. 

fflS 202. 




® ,. 


J- 1 JE 319. 

$ RADICAL 178. 


^ ,» 

m ""■'»■ 

"■i I ©836. 


as Part n., 19. 

''"" I ii^ 104 i lif 837 ; 

ffi ^"' 

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1 BSA887. 


^ Part 11., 208. 

JE "*■ 

/% 1 Jn 135; 1 65137; 1 

■gf EADICil, 180, 

« 137; 1 «¥* 

^ Part n., 175, 260. 

584; 1 l|-»*141, 


^ BADIOAL 183. 

5i EADICAL 181. 

as 10,928. 

^ 1!S21; liR41, 1 

•• 1 i»380. 

a 690; 1*137; 1 

«i^» I iS823. 

■f( EADICAL 184, 

I|B 762. Pmi,.,52. 

# . 


" '*«it,-.,C,oogl 


■gr EADIOAL 185, 
-» 367. 
S. 1 mill 543, 

§ RADICAL 186. 
as 217,882. 

S^ RADICAL 187. 

1 * 907 i m 887 ; 1 
Si479i IKS 49. 
Part II., 177. 





1 ,S 71C. 
1 «940. 

1 ^ 570; 1 )8 347. 

It 1 « 918. 

fl* RADICAL 188. 

Fart ir., 109, 170, 210, 211, 

]g RADICAL 189. 
^ 43, 290. 

*<» 1 jS 873; 1 ^ 458; 
I S R G42; 1 (^ 
^66Ca; I if Ml 271. 

i^ RADICAL 190. 

^ 1 « J»'SE 271. 
Ig RADICAL 192. 


»« 1 tl 235, 949; 1 a 
728; I S 949; 1 
^ 947. 

^ RADICAL 193. 

ya I + 949. 

% RADICAL 194. 

i«o I »798. 

^ 1^ 

"ri I i 131, 456, 766; I 

» 514; I B 262; 

I %S 586; I * 
S678; 1 Sft345; 

1 B & 34, 151, 648, 
768, 783, 821. 

^ RADICAL 195. 
^ I ««32i 1 »ffi* 






1 S 8*932. 

l« 1 «S 430 

i I It 226 1 1 


1*928; 1 AseO; ) 


; 1^765; ! 

fit S S 560. 


421 i \ mst 








1*852, Hl»188i 

sa '■ 








M ''^■ 

1 * 969. 


J8 KADICAL 198. 

"po I ft 158. 


1»«5,*I 434;© 

1SS43, 1 «SS 

S I)i68S 


I «24; I «25, 

,% EADICAL 196. 



§ 1«272. 


319, 889. 

/^y 1 m 817. 

id RADICAL 200. 

5? IJI98, 



1 « 471. 

ja 909. 


gf KADIOAL 201. 

^ «1 220, 

714, 872. 


1 * 225, 1 * 2«lw 





1 5 20; 1 m 19; 

1 l¥ A 274 ; 1 ftS 
• 790; 1 KRZZO, 
714, 872. 

^ RADICAL 202. 

I % 9S0. 

1 ^ 92C. 
1 RADICAL 205, 

• 1 £ I? It 526. 
jfl) RADICAL 200. 
I Part II., 29a 

i l#814i IgS 211 j 
1 a I 877. 

■0 RADICAL 211. 

fg RADICAL 212, 

3f 288,451. Partit,1.51,244, 
"4 11451, ]fi451; 1 
ffi451; I Jl|'»50, 
1 n 660, 932 ; I ¥ 
fil750i I AS 456; 
1 ft lU 454, 1 )ft 

a "'■ 

Im, 1 JB 24. 



iw" # ] 299 ; ) lU 893, 
903 ; ] #^ 352. 




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