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FROM MAY 1836, TO APRIL 1837. 

DislTibution for Nonh. 
Central and South America 



^A /a, / (^ ) 


EdidoQ exclusively for North, Central amj South 
America. Accourding to an agreement with Kraus 
Reprint Ltd., Vadiu, the export to all other 
coiutries is prohibited without previous consent 
hy Maruzen Co., Ltd., Tol^o 

Reprittted in Japan 



FROM MAY 1836, TO APRIL 1837. 






Abdalt,*h, a MohimmcilBa 37!),3S7 
Abon in A'sim, tribei of - S 
AcconU, acute and grave 
Ai^hUffhlagi, the wkite-cappci 

Alanaf(-pfaura or Alompn, king 
Alcohol, its canstitDent parta - 

Almaatci of India and Cbii 
Americuii ship in Cbina, fint 
America with China, relation! 

the U. a. of • - 31S,336 
America with Cochinchina, rela- 

tioM of the U. 8. of - 
Amir of Bokhara - 
Andrem, vocabniarjr of Rev. h^ 
ADglochineee eolle^, R"po(t i^ 
Angoching mountaiM 
Anaon, Lord, interviRW with the 

^veraor ol' Canton 
Aracan, the province of • 73,9 1'2 
Ar^, a king's ihip, meatured 
Armenian apothegmi 
A'lim, ^iKTal dMcription of 49,71,97 
A'liniese, tribes of 
Aaiatic Joornil, ermra of 
Aawciations and aset* denounced 94 
Aaylani at Peoanj, orphi 
Aairlnra, the Paripattan 
Aokad, tho dtMrint of - 37t3]7 
Anmngsib, the Indian eonquerar 
Aiuomoal aaaiieB - ■ • 44,47 

Ba'aca, prince of Kokan 
Biineter, the conduct of 

hahluw in the LAina countrj - !t3 

Balkh, the imvioce of - - aOt 

Banditti in Fuhkeen, aeiiure of, t 
Bankok, the cltj, Uc ■ - Stfti 

ft^nkniptcy of a mercfaiDt 9 

Ba^abdng, province iu Kambqa S 

BaUvti, nilsiion at - B8,33S,2€4 
Buttaka, nnnie and character of 3:13 
Bjujin, Uabek envoy to Pckin;; ViV 
BB(r«, the Hohamrnedao - 37>,<t34 
Beldestan, or Iskardo, state of 'MS 
Bedfurd, captiiin, in A'sain - 51 
Benevolences of government - 93 
Biography of eminent wuinen - B.1 
Bojrue, forta at the, &.c. 340,288,349 
Bokhara, aute of - - - 368 
Bombay, mission to - - 91 
Boroeo, a voyage to - - 331 
Botany of the East - - 118 

Bradley, Report of Dr. Dan B. 444 
Brahinms, their conduct 103,915 

British commerce - - 537 

British Commission in Canton 431,576 
Britixh relations withCbina 1-^3446,433 
Brown in A'sam, the Rev. Mr. 104 
Bud ikshnn, a small state 
Budhiat p'iest, s swindler 
Biig^. th^'ir n4nie - 
Buiri Dihing, a river - 
Bi'iri Lnhlt, a river 
Bariimh, miasion in 
Bonnah, aitHBtion of 
Burmana, the chancier of the 

CxBu'i-, iu relation to Bokhiuu 
Calsndar, Chineee Ciun 
Canal* of the Siamese • 
Cannon of the Chineso - 
Caps, order for changii^ 
Capsing moon, position of 
Cirey's translation of Scripture 
Ciribari bills in A sjtm. 
Cash, their reduced value 
Cashmir, the state of - 
Catty, the Siamese 
Caum Hoba rained, bia hiatorj 
Chaogling, reward* given ta 
Ohulton, Ilsntmu 


Cbem puoji matnibiiiN - 53,101 

ChMtan, Rev. Mr. of Core^ - 147 
Chinngmai, the city of - - 105 
China, A Abelhft da, newapaper 154 
China, the lija oT • - • 513 
Chios, places on south coaet of 337 
Chinese, mode oTtcichinff - f" 
Chines? boohs in Enitlnnd - 2 
ChiusM Chronicle. Mubccti . ] 
Chinosi' piTiudical lilr'nture • 
Cliiii?s<; otudentB, foreign - 1^ 
Ciiiiia«i; Ropositarf, No. of copies ]> 
('hitral, the slate of - - 2 
T'.'lioo footaze, the philoaoplier I 

Circulnr, Cnntun Court • % 

CoaJ found in A'aam - - K 
Cout, description of the Kiulhem 3! 
Cochinchina, the Peacock at - 5' 
CorJiinchiai. Clnaeso frontier of 340 

College for Chinese in Peninif 147 
Commerce, the bong merchaats' 

Commerce, the foreijini - 

Conmereidi aftentJ in Caoton, 4'J9 
CoDsopiQt^ how used • 37,68.7.'! 

Consuls in Canton, foreiftn - 431 

Consuls of the U. S. in Canton 318 

Consuls in CiDton.Freocb - 132 

Conta, the bishop of - - 147 

Council of state, the Goneial 6 

Crimiaala ahsconding - • 93 

Criminal's heads exposed • Sti 

Daviss, Rev. Evan, PenanK - 88 

D*»w' BCCOUDt of China, J. F. S80 

Davis' opinion ofopinm - • 571 

Dayak's coveoant by blood - £U 

U>iyak8 of Borneo - - 3$) 

Deb r>jd, terriloryoflhe - 53 

decapitation of criminals - 48 

PtiscriptionoI'Miimpiir - - 2IJ 

Ue;:shDion,orSiibathil - 311 
Uhurairi river - - 50,105 
Dibitu, the river - - - 54,99 

Discritical marks, use of - 34 

Diard, M., a French naturalist Wi 

Dikho, thrf riser - - - 50 
Disasseiofthe eves (see hospL) 34 

Distnrtnnces in Hoonan - M9 

Dollaia, their cireui«Jwi - 419 

Dollars, their ireiebt - - 431 

DtiruDg. district of - - 50 

Duties, IllartratioD of - - 308 

Pyet. tltc Rev. S. at MnUcca 88 

EvuciTTOT See, HorriMm, Z)8,-')73 

Elducation, remarks on - - 576 

Eityptian inecriptions - - 981 

lUs, city and state of - - 370 

Elephants, the white - - K)8 

Elptiinstone's opinion at Canton 345 

EHeutha, ■ race of Tartan ■ 371 

Embassies, remarks on - - 513 

Emperor's family - 576 

Eoglishman kills a Chinese - 331 
Envoys, imperial - - 144,339,384 

Exaininitions, triennial - - 576 

Eiecutioos, capital - - 340 

Fi.iar lost, the British brij: 388,336 

Fathom of the Siamese - - 57 

Ferghana [see Kokan) - 369 
Fires in the city - 48,96,3tB,3:l6 

Fire at YueDminff Yuen - 4iU 

Fir»-eDgines tiir Hoonan - S88 

Flint, the treatment of Mr. • 138 

Flora Cochinchinensis - • 118 

Foreigners about Eoko-nor • 9 
Foreigoets, expulsion of !J'K,.')84,SS8 

Forts of the Chinaee - - 167 

Foreigners in Caoton - • 436 

Fraternity of great elevation - 10 
Fi«e intercourse between Chin* 

and Christendom - 341 

Free trade, the system of - JS7 

French relatione with China - 133 

Fuang, a Siameae weight - 60 

GaLta, sevnre ... 193 

Gambling in the imperial palace 9 

Garbawat, district of . - 31 1 

Gnrpons or officers - - 310 
Garo, ridge [and state) of -30,103 

Gaudiuna, a deity - - - 35 

Gaum, or chief of the Meiie • 51 

Gaonia or clane in Aaam • 317 

Gazette, London IJtcrary - 383 

Genghis khan - - . 373 
Gernaert, French consul at Csaton 136 

Gilgit, name of a sUte - . 3K8 

Glasgow Ea«t India Association -331 

Goilpiia, town of - - 50 

Golflb Singh of Jundm of Tibet K7 

Gordon, captain • - - 54 
Gordon, Hr., of the tea committee 100 

Government, the Chioete - J 78 

Govindali, an image . - 314 

Grant, major • - • ,14 

Gangiit, the state of - - a«S 
Gunpowder by the Chineee, 



1 V^nOO'^IC 

lUiMK, the wlind oT - - 340| 
Hftll, tbe coIbffMta - i7| 

Ham:. 'Um mniy deaatt - - 970 
Htwuitn ltngii>g« ' - 13,7B 
tlortcbet, on toanda Sir John, 68 
Hener wlutdi^ occamncM in 43 
Himmalara DMHinUiM - 50,]37;i]n 
HiDdwUn - ■ ' - B7 
Hinddinti - • - - 103 
Hismr, the ■tata - - - 363 
History among the ChioeM - 106 
Honz-merchtDta, lift of • 432 

HotMwhiiii, (a Huitohoa ?) - S73 
Uoppo proDMs* to visit tM Oph- 

thaliDM Hospital - - 41 
Hoppo in 1703 . - - 135 
HoTsbtugb, obitnaiy of captaia 381 
Hotvburgh'i opinion oTopiom 570 
Hoq>ital in B^nkok - - 444 
Hospital, Opbtbalmic 33,185,333,456 
HoapiUl for aeamen - - 373 
HMpiUl, the fonndlin; - • 47,05 
UU^l'a rint, the banm - 

Idol woaasir 

Idolatry of Chioeee offieeia 

Imporial adieti — the tenn, 

Indi&Dsof North America - 73,9Q 
lodisD Archipelago, trade vith 43t 
Indo-Chinese languages "" 

Indo-Chinese Repualtorj 
Indn nJB - - - 
Inititatea, Sicrificial 
loatructor. Juvenile 
Ineurrectioa in Hoonan • 
Insanaction in Kirangee 
InaairectioD in Shense - 44,145 

Intercourae witb China 343,353,;«i5 
Intonations, how osed - - ■ft),74 
MwUi, the nver ■ - < 100 
laaae {laxhk), H<Aam. prince 340,353 
[akardo, state of . - - 3G8 
lapitte, town of - • 970,313 

lAC^DiwoifT, the triTeler 
Ja^lai Hobammediaa - 
Jaiuaaries, their dastraction 
Japanaae in Canton, 
Jaul>(orT^ka?) - 
Jebangir, the chieftain 973,316,351 
Jenkins in Aa4ii, Captain . 4(U)8 

•- Janka of the Chinese 


Kslden, khanortheGlentbs • 973 
KaliDoks, roving tribas of - 909 
K4kiW, tribas «? • - - Sifi» 
Kamboja, king (on of - 55 

Ksntwhiag, tribe of white capped 

UohanuiiedaDS - 353 

KhojeborebiaforEleatlM ■ 373 
Kboten, population of • - 353 
Kirghia, a triba - - 908,35] ,353 
Eokan, state and pcqmlstioa of 9S8 
Kokphaya, temple sod to«n 58,163 
Kouche, popnlatioo of - - 971 
Koorkhars^iaii, s Roaaiau town 971 
KrutxeDttain, a Russian 66 

KabUi khan, the Mongol 904 

Kaehangs, a rode tribe - - 316 
Knllang river in Aaaan - 50 

KomaiDg Moon anchorage 336,347,538 
KdndiUnlla, ... S3 
Kiindik, town of - - - 9t>a 
Kopaja, a rode tril>e - - 316 
Kuttbdng, province of Kamboja, 55 
Knteh Behar, frontier of - 07 
Kyondyeo, a river . - • 913 

L'Aniot, account of • • 9C8 
Ud&kh, chief of - • - 970 
Udkkb, state of • - - 367 
Uma eoDntiy, upper A saoi 53,100 
Laaaiain, its character - - 103 
Unchang, capital of - - 105 
Idngnages, Eeyptlan and Chinese 981 
Lantao. island of - • - 348 
Laos, the countiv of - ' 56,73 
Lasss in Tibet, city of, - - 47,9H7 
hot Neu Chnen, a classic • 63 
lieh, capitil [misprinted Scb) 316,3(18 
Lew Heknir's wntiniis, a clnasio 83 
Leyden's Malay Annuls - 553 
Lindsay, letter of iU. H. H^ 94« 
Linguists, list ofthrir nantes - 4:9 
LishatCharrapilnji, Mr., - 103 
Literary chanceUora censured, 45 
Literary pincy rep.'ehended - 95 
Ljnngetedt, death of Sir Andrew 334 
Loamag ayetem in China . 93 
Loekwood, at Bstavia Rev. H. 88 

Loloa, a nee of Shana - - 9C9 
Loiireiro, J. de, his work. • 1 17 
Low's grammar of the Tai, Capt 78 
Ludiana, English agent at - 368 
Lohchow'a essay on commerce 433 
Lumpli, a walled city - - 160 

MicMSTAlmpurcial, newBpaper 153 
Macao, Chronica do, newspaper 183 


Hacto OuettP, i ncwflpaper - 
Mncto, ffOTerninent of - 
Hhcbo, fiiatoricat tccount of - 
Macao, DO opiam to be in 
Macniab oo opium 
Uadraa Journal, character oFthe STI 
Haemae-chiliK near Riimia - 207 
Magazine, erron of the Peooy 154 
Magazina, New Monthly - 280 
Magazine, the Chinese - 575 

. M^a Chakrapat, prince - i&i 
Halacci Observer, newepaBcr ]47 
Hnhy Ann'ila by Dr. Leyden SM 
Malaya of Borneo, character of 331 
Hana* or Bonaali rWer - - 50 
Manipdr, deKription of - 21^ 

Manipiir, kiDgilom of - • 49,97 
Haoipdr vaJlsy, length of - S4 
ManipilrU, their criractsr - 54 
Hiqji (Mniiee)iii«outh oTCbina 204 
Maontariyae, trihea of - - 51,101 
Hanma, a tribe of - - 216 

Hartaban, the city of - - 59 
Ma aieyay'a poetry - - 190 
Manhman on tonea > 76 

Materia H^iea of Le Sfaechio 139 
Mdtheaon, on free inurcoane 

Mr. Jamea, - - • 243 
Maweralachar, atate of • • 268 
HayeDg wat, Siameae temple- 60 
Medburet at Batavia - 88 

Heria, wild tribea - 51 

HiliUfy akill of tbe Chinea^ • 161 
Mir of Kiindilz, - - - 268 
Miaenor, Mr., chieroftheF^ctory 127 
HiMiooaries to the eaat, - 385 
Modem Cbina, 202,?67,1I6,357 

Mogaong, capital of Tai 7J,7:l,IO'J 
Hobamnied Ah, pacha ofEgypt 534 
Mongola fkvor foreigDem - 204 
Uoorcroft, travela ol - 31 1,36H 
' Hotgong, town of - - 51 

Mumy'a Account of China - 391 
Musulinduw - ' ' - 112 
Mutaka, tribet of - - 51,98,103 

Na'oA tnbea • - 53,316 

Nagoh-baadi aect, the Ak Tak 352 
Nakaang, prince of Laoa • 5B 

Napier'a conduct, raniarka on 3ii0 

Naaal aounda, reniarka on - Q5 

Nature, the gift of heaven - 8:1 

Navigitear, crew of the ahip . 13*2 

Navy, the imperial - - ]73 

Negraia, capft of • - - 213 

Nppal, Uic kingdom of - • 52 

Now-year'e day. ... 15S 

Newapapera bi>yond the tJangca 145 

Ningthi, river of • ■ . S13 

Noa Dihing river - - - S3 

NowchoiT, port of - - 343 

Nuraeiy leaning, • - 83 

Odes, the Book of • - 308 

OfTciuive proclamation iaeued 336 
Office, dlamisaal from - - 461 
OScera, appointment of deputy 7 

Omar, khan ofKokan - - 274 
OortungB, or atagoa • - 372 
Opium mania, a caae dearribed 36 
Opium, Heu Naetse'a paper on 139 
Opium, governor Ting'a report on 259 
OpiuiB, memoriala on - - 390 
Opium for Cbina, preparation of 595 
Opium, hiatory of traffic in, &,c. 546 
Opium trade 354,397,367,407,560 

Opium trade, propoaed regulatiooa 

of the - . - 336 

Opium trade, premium for an 

esaay onlhe - - 417,524,573 
Orenburg, a Ruaaian town - 309 
Oroumchi, preaidency of - 270 
Orthography propoaed for Chineee 

worda - - 22,66,481 

Ottoman empire, ita condition 530 
Ouahi, population of - . 271 
Oxue, Jihon, or Amoo, river, - 2(18 

PtiR*M, in Siam, town of, - 105 
Pikoag, prince - - - 58 
Pallaa' viait to Kiakhta < ■ 307 
Pamer, the plaina of . 3(!B 

Panton, captain, hn eondoet - 130 
Parker's Hotpital reporta . 32,333 
Patini, the atate and Iown.of 5U 

Peacock, UM. aloop of war 44,3118,543 
Pegu, the king of - - - 160 
Peking OiEettea, character of 6,44 
Pemberton, discovery by capt 7H 

Pemberton in MinipOr, capL 313 

Penan^ Gazelte, its character 146 
Periodical literature of China 2 

Periodical Miscellany • 150,477 

Periodicals in tbe East. European 145 
Petition presented to government 48 
Phraklang, a Siamese officer - IGl 
Phukbauunz, a wit or temple, 59 
en in Cocltinchina - 544 

, . krik, a Sianwae, • 55 

Pickering, worka of Hon. John 7.| 
Picturea, admonitory - - S71 
Pigou, opinion of Frederick - IW 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

PintM, esecutioii of - 384 

Ptuits, euphort)iac«atu - - 437 
Poljrneaian langtugei origin of IS 
Polypi, MM of nanl - • 39 
Fopnlitioii of Elfl - - 271 

Poppy, eultintion of thn - 470 
Porti^Me, &nt Mttlement of 346 
Port, delay of the ChidBM 47S 

PreminmofflOO - 413,573 

^leai is Dot ftee in China - 11 
Praaa, the Canton, nonpaper 196 
Primuy Leaeona, a eiaanc 61,30S 
Printing, imrantion of - - 153 
Printing in China, cod of - 158 
PabUc wo^ repun of - 94 

Pi^lo NiM, miaaion Ur - - t47 
Pnniahment, inMuicea of 75^96,193 
Piraokeqna, • hongtnerchtnt ' S47 

Bai at Gowmbiti, Rev. Mr. '03 

lUjitirat, - - - 57,lWi 

Riiflu, the Badha, < • 5? 

Reckoninff, triennial - EI3,576 

Refonn of abtwca, governmental 341 
Repater, the Canton, nawapkper 154 
Review, PoreigD QAtiterly • 281 
RitM,BookofraelaMic. 83 

Roberta in Aonam, EdmoDd • S43 
Robertaon, Hr^ agent in Ae4in 96 
RomaniziDg ayateoi in Indie, 73 

Rml Aaiatic Socie^, - 476 

Rubmqnie, D«, embuaadot - 964 
Rule*, Oiinaae DomeeUe, • 306 
Rnlei, Chineee Sacrificial, • 319 
Rumidii n^ Herb viam Ambmrienael 90 
Runn Gora, town ' SI 

RuiyU Siurii, prince • 368 

Rnaaian influence eaatwaid - 311 

Sadita Klntva Gohain, the - 53 
Sadiya, a town in Aeam 40,50,71 
Bait, manufacture of - 343^50 
Sandwich bland Gautte 
Sandwich Iilioda, langaa^ of 
Schoola at Halicca 
Scboolo, in China character of 85,147 
Scientific inatitutiona in Bengal 374 
Scott, Ur. David • - - 97 
Scott; Sir Walter, line* on - 31 
Scotttah Chriatian Hsrald - 984 
Sea-hor«a, the Brilisb frigate 130 

Seaoo HeA, a classic - - 87 
Seamen, rules for admitting - 374 
Secta and aasociatkme - M 

Seika, their power - 31 1 ,aS7,!!68 

Sen, Siameee mcunre - 58 

Seylax, navigator oftbe Indus 113 

Sbana, their origin - - 71 

Shaw's sccoont of viait - - 219 

Bhioh sect, its character - St<8 
Ships lost in the China tiade 191^38 

Slam, late bishop of - - 147 

Siun, mission to - - - 937 

Siam, origin of the name - 71 
Siamese hiaten • 55,105,160^ 

Siamese ena defined 55 

Efiameee orthogrsphy 56 

Siaroeae type* newly prepared 91 

Siamese snip-buitding ■ 335 
miasioDsry djspensary 

Sickness ofofBceia 


Silhet, the town - 


Silk-weaver, fall of a 


Singapore Free Pro*, k 

wapaper 151 

8 e schools 

- 937 

S umbhir, king of 

Manipilr 214 

8 rinco Runjlt, 

- 368 

S tribes ■ 

- 53,9» 

8 country - 

- 310 

S n.orJ«xartes 

- 279 

S ict • ■ 


Sisin, a Sinmeee hero 

- 106 

Skottowe,tiie conduct of captain 139 

SUve trade, the Chineee 


Slung, a Siamese coin 
Sl^-pos in Siam 


BronggleiB eaplnred 



ataunton'a,remirf(aof8irG.T., 948 

Student's Munual, ancient claaaic 86 

Siinite creed 

- 968 

Sutlej river • 

■ 311 

Tai language, its character - 
T&Jiks, or aboriKinala 
Talt sk, nagaah-bandi sect 
Tab kura, kadariee, a sect 
Tallow tree, SliUvigiii mhiftra 
Taoukwang's biith-day - 
Tarifi^ conreapondence ( 
Taitsry, north- western 
Tattooed cruninals 
Tawadis, imagoB of 
Tea found in A'sim 
Tea tjade with China 
Tea tree in Singpho 
Teas, to Englatuj exporta of, ■ 
Temperance shipe, cWacler of 

;. V^nOC^IC 

Temoova, bxi SMCUtion 

«ofL«M 56 

Tbalein, a river 306 

Tlwft in Peking - - 2» 

Thaion p4ni nrer 59 

Thunder aUinnt, aeveitt 44,537 

Tibet, ehtngea in - - 47 
Tienptik, notiice of town of 343 

Tones, bow owd in apeekinf 29,76 

Toplia'i peciGeator - - 165 
Tnwti, dietribuiion of - !W7 

TradejipiMioiN wiU bclp 356 

TraDWxiuia, atate of 3tid 

Tteasnre, deapotch of - - 96 
Troopa, reriew of - 4S,47,3a6 
Trou^ton, plunder of barque, 
TauDffliag TDountaioB 
Tna HeK, writing! of ■ 
Tsie Bxc, writingB of 

Tilrkertan, prince Isaac in 340,368 
Turkey, or Ottoman empire 530 

Ti^kmans, their chancter 369,530 

V»»i, or Turki ■ " ■ »B 
Uaeful Know!. Socie^'a Report 507 

Xm>ng, • king, or deiqr - - 57 
Utoaglan, a young pnnce 56 

Vad^vkuh, earliest French Conaul 
at Canton - - •' 

Vigne, Mr^ a tBTeler - 
Vincennea, the V. S. ahip 
Vocabulary, Indo-CSiineM 



W*Di,Mr. hta report - 317 

Wakhan, state of ■ - - 308 
Wallich, researches of Dr. - 100 
Win Wang - - - - 84 
Water-whMl, dsseripUoD of a 494 
Wathen, uoticaa of Mr. 373,331 

Wata, or teraples, in Biam 
Weapons of war - 
Westmacott, captain 
Wltampoa, boepital ahip at 
Whampoa, ahipping at - 
Wbeitatone, professor • 
Wiang chan, sonlh Laos 
Wilcox, captain - 51,100 

Wilson, Re». J, "' 



Woaaheih, (Oushi) frontier town 317 
Woo Wang, tbe nuutial king 84 

Xatiis's death, place a! 


Yaon, prince 

Yarkand, Yarkund 211,! 

Y&td-lsangpii, river ofTibet ■ 

Yellow river - 


Yn, praiaee <f 

Ynen Yuen againrt opium 

Yunnan thnm^ Bnmab, accev to 38^ 

Yutij4, its ?tnoua niuies 5g 





Vol.. v.— May, 1836.— No. 1. 

Art. t. PtriodUal Simhm: Chuuu Abunuui; imptriat Court 
Calatdart t!U prtvittidaJ Court Cirailar ofamtm: the Ptkhig 
Oaxettt; with nmarkt on the emiditim offkeprets in Gana. 
PuuoDiCAi. IttMitura fbnns c prominent chuacteriBtic of the pre* 
•ent m. Witbin the lut few yean it has multiidied many-fold, and 
ia TUidly increuing. In iu Tiriotu fbnna of Annuals, Quarterlies, 
M<»thlies, R^orta of scientific and benerolent institutions, and other 
puUicvtions of a similar kind, men and means to a vast amount are 
Gooatantly erai^oyed. Arts, sciences, pditics, religion, and the like, 
are all l»Diu[bt within its sphere ; and atscoveries, occurrences, opin- 
ions,— «U mat men do nnd say, being carefully recorded, are borne 
quickly through a thousand cbanuels from oue extremity of the earth 
to the other. Difficulties also, which only a few years ago invariably 
led to an appeal to arms, are settled by the batteries of the press. In 
this way, truth triumphs orer error; reason, oTer brute force; know- 
kdge is diffiised ; and rifht principles, established. The conduct of 
rulers and the wants of the ruled, the will of the few and the wishes 
c^tbe many, are made known simultaneously ; freedom, liberty, duty, 
and obligation, are mwe clearly defined and better understood ; and 
the debates of contendi^t parties, duljr controlled, lead to results 
most safe and salutary. ¥ar whateyer is prored to be good, is com- 
mended to notice ; snd eril, seen to be such, is rejected. Thus the 
press becMoes powerfiil, often irresistibly so. Before it, ignorance 
gires way ; superstitions vanish ; folly stands ashamed ; and tyranny 
trembles. Through the medium of the press, when its freedom u 
Bufficiently guarantied, errors and abuses are disclosed; improve 
ments and nSontm, suggested; and multitudes, stimotated to noble 
enterprises. And thus tne condition of the press and the character 
at its productiona in any country, (bnn a criterion by which we may 
Terj aafely estimate hs rank in the scale of nations. 


9 Periodical Literature. Mat, 

The periodical literature of China and the neighboring nations, if 
it deserves such a name, is very meagre ; and tne European publi- 
cationa, on this side the Ganges, ire »b yet few and of recent origio. 
Our remarks in the present article wilt be confined to the periodical 
publica^na of the Chinese; on another occukm, thoee of Europeins 
wilt form a proper subject for conaideration. For the present, it is 
not in our power to give any well-authenticated information respecting 
this kind of literature in the neighboring nations. We shall fed 
greatly obliged, however, to any ofour correspondents, who may hap- 
pen to be in Japan, Lewchew, Cochinchina, Siam, Burmah, Aaim, 
Nepil, or elsewhere in the unexplored regions of the east, if tfacT wiU 
furnish us with information on this subject, — or on any other, suitable 
to our pa^i. And for the trouble and expense which they may incur 
in BO domg, they shall be fiilly entitled to the same compensation 
which we ourselves receive, — Uie satisfaction of acquiring and oata- 
municating useful knowledge. 

Annual reports of public institutions — such as literarr. scientific 
and benevolent societies, hospitals, asylums, and the like, ars not 
known among the Chinese : at least, we hav« not been able to find 
any such. Indeed, so limited are the institutions of this kind among 
the people of this country that they are scarcely worthy to be reported^ 
In order to guard the morals of their subjects, the officers of govern- 
ment send forth annual proclamations, admonishing all pec^ie to be 
good, and threatening transgressors with condign punishment. These 
periodicals relate to Qiefls, robberies, gambling, commerce, agricul- 
ture, fisheries, and the preservation of property ^ora fires, inundations 
uid the like. For many yean it has been the usage of his excellency, 
the governor, to issue one of these stale papers, in reference to 
foreigners, " in order to show compassion to the distant barbarians." 
Specimens of these have been translated and published, and need not 
be here introduced. There are also, we believe, some other works 
which come out annually, in the form ofliterary and moral essays; 
but these scarcely fall within the prescribed limits of this article. 

Almanacs and calendars seem to be in universal use aniong the 
Chinese, though they are very poorly fitted for any useful purposes. 
The Friend of India, speaking of a native almanack in that country, 
justly remarks i " It is a common and not altogether unfounded com- 
plaint that Europeans know but little of the native character. This 
Ignorance arises in some measure from the slender means we enjoy 
of acquiring a knowledge of those observances by which the national 
character has been moulded. To supply in some small measure this 
deficiency, wo have thought that a review of the native almanac of 
the ypar would noi be unacceptable to our readers. The Tarious 
rules and observances enjoined in it. will serve to show more accu- 
rately than elaboratf disquisition or Ipanicd research, the numerous 
links of supcrstitioii by ivhicb ihe votaries of Hindfiism are bound. 
This almanac will afford abundant scope for ridicule to those who 
are disponed lo luiigli al the follii's of mankind ; and matter of deep 
and painful reflcciioii to those bIio arc anxious to secure the liberation 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1636 Periodical IMfrattirt. 8 

of the country from these degrading influences." ( See volume i. 
No. 14.) These remsTks apply in all their force to Chinese ilma- 
nacs, one of which it was out intention to review in this ^ace, but 
our limits and the nslure of the subject require us to postpone it fi>r 
a sepirate article. 

The Court Calendar, published quuterl; at Peking, is a more 
io^MTtant work. It reMmblea the national Calendars of wcflteni 
countries. The title of the work will be found explained in our lait 
Tolume. Though not published under tho direction of ffovemment, it 
contains a valuable collection of information, in six small volumes, tw« 
of vhich are occupied solely with the names and titles of the officers 
who constitute the imperial army. The other volumes, which Uw 
compiler says are drawn from the beat authorities in the empire often 
and thoroughly reTised, relate to revenue, agriculture, granariea, 
schools, etc. They are, howeTer, by no means free from error, or 
executed in a manner which does much credit to Chinese typography. 
Not noticing punctually the changes which are made among the ot 
ficoTSof government, is one of the ODief defects of the work, — it being 
understood that the compiler always desires to have those who havA 
been prranoted, or transferred in the government from one part of the 
empire to another, give notice of the same by sending to him auch 
presents aa are worthy of their rank and emoluments; and if they 
tail to do this, it usually happens that he slso fails to make the proper 
changes in the Red Book. 

This provincial Court Circular, as we have ventured to designate it, 
is called ytten mun paou, "a report from the gates" of the chief pro* 
vincial officers. It consists of a small sheet, printed &om waxen 
blocks and only on one side, and that very illegibly. A few extracts 
wiU affind our readers some idea of the contents of these papers, 
which are published daily and without the sanction of government. 
Ob the evening of each day, the publisher obtains the " matter" for 
his paper from clerks, who are stationed at the gates of the governor 
and fooyuen, and whose duty it ia to record the visits which their ex- 
cellencies pay and receive. The Circular ctHnes out early on the 
following morning. The first extract which we give is from the first 
paper issued after the Chinese new-year; the other is an entire paper 
of a later date. 

1. " Taonkwang, 16th year, Ist moon, 20tb day (March 7th, 1836). 
Hb excellency, govemw ^''^ng, at eight o'clock a. h., under a sahUe 
of ^ns, opened the doors of his office, entered the great hall of 
audience, and turning his face towards the palace of the omperor did 
him reverence ; he then " opened the seals " of his office, and all his 
clerks and attendants came forward in their order, prostrated them- 
selves before him, and offered their congratulationa ; the doors were 
then closed, and he received and issued official documents. All the 
high functionarieB and literary gentlemen of rank directed their subal- 
terns to send messengers to present their congratulations." * * * 

2. " Taoukwang, 16th year, 3d moon, 13th day (A]»il37th, 1836) 
His cicellency, governor Ting, went to the office of the fooyuen and 

;. V^nOC^IC 

4 Periodical LUeraturt. Mat, 

joinsd him in the exuniDUioD of a crinuDBl cue ; afterwards he waited 
OD Hftng, lieut-general of the brigade statioaed in the departntenti of 
Nanbeung and Shaouchow ; then he returned to hia own (Ace, and 
received and inued official papen. Hln^, the lieat<geoeral, Mnt a 
tceUeacy fix- hia visit and to return his (the 

_ T to thank his exceUeacy fix- hia nsit and to return his (the 
goremw's) card, Choo, the actii^ magistrale of Kwangcbow feo, 
rmorted to the gorenioT, that on the 13th of the bkxxi, under a salute 
of fODga and guns, he should go to the colk^ate ball to attend the 
third examination of the literary undergraduates of Nanhae and Pwan- 
yn, together with those of the eight buuers. Lew, the acting ma^^ 
Irate of Nanhae, reported hinuelfby card at the goremor's office. Lew 
KeenkSng, candidate for the district magistracy, reported that the 
Kwan^bow fbo had directed him to attend the examination at tlte 
collegiate hall. Sun, late acting magistrate of the district Cbehing, r» 
pMted hia Birival-harins retired &^tbedutiesofhis office, requested 
an audience, made a declaration respecting hia genealonr, and stated 
that harin^ heard of the death of his father he wss withdrawing fron 
puUic duties. Ting Ekuh, an aiddecamp of the goremor, presented 

hia thanka for having been anointed tempvary superintendent 
the salt works at Kanpih. Woo Yunjrtseang, who bas been , 
mitted to fill the clerkship in the district of Hwa, reported that be 

had received orders to join the jailor of Kwangcbow toa in guarding 
the degraded officer Loo Yin^lseiing. Keang Seuene unMrmagis* 
trate of Keangtaun, in the dlitrict Shnntih, repcHled hia arrival witli 
five criminals, Keiing Hwuytae and others, for the autumnal astixc, 
and took leave to return and bring more priscmers. Le Beihahow, 
candidate for the office of assistant district magistrate, reported that 
the period few which he had obtained leave of abnnce on account of ill 
health had expired, and that he was again ready to attend to the duties 
of hia office. Chang Kingwan, sent by the Board of Office as a can- 
didate for the secretaryship in the departmental magistracy, rmorted 
his arrival from Peking, and presented hie com{^iments. Chang 
Seihsboo, the deputy appointed to oversee the cruisers about Canton; 
and Lin Weie, joint-deputy over the custom-houses on the east of tiM 
city, reported that they had examined the boats of Chang Chaou, who 
ctHivers to Peking the fifth dispatch of maritime revenues, and that 
be had no contraband salt on board. Wang, the nganchi sze; Choo, 
the acting Kwangcbow foo; Lew, transferred temporarily to the ma- 
gistracy of Nanhae ; Sen, the magistrate of Pwanyu ; Kw5, acting 
colonel of the regiment in Kwangcbiiw fbo; and Ying, the It-colond 
of the fboyuen's right battalion, — together reported the execution of 
a criminal (YS Ashun). 

" His excellency Ke, the fooyuen, received and issued official docu- 
ments. Ah, the pooching sze, and ^an^, the nganchft sze, requested 
an audience, reported that they were waiting bis excellency's pleasure 
to attend the trial of a criminal case; presented to him their thanka 
for his call on them, and returned to him the cards which he had left 
u'lih them. Lc, commissioner of salt, recently promoted to the office 
of nganrha sec in Shcnae : Cbing. the rammissionrr of grain; and 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

Tjiliiiiiig ; Wug Luuin, waiting to fill a diitrict magistracy ; Heu 
Hunglio, waiting to be employM in the district magiHracy ; Leu 
Ttnggmr, a candidaic for ute aame ; Fah, sub-colonvT, having tcm- 
poruujr cramnaiid (^ the gorernor's tTOops; Kw&, sub-colonel of the 
nooaa in the department m Kwangchow loo, ; and Ying, It.-coloncl of 

1686. Ptriedieal Literature. 5 

Woo, direetor of the circuit which inclutteH the dcpartmraUi of Kaou- 
cbow and Leiincbow; these together preNenied thankf to the fboyuen, 
nturned his cards which he bad left with them, and informed him 
the; were waiting his {Measure to attend the trial ofa criminal. Cboo, 
the acting Kwangchow fbo : Shoou, an assistant departmental ma* 
giftraic ; Hoo, an asaistuit magistrate in Kwangchow Ion, stationed 
at Tieenshan Deai Macao ; Choo, of Yacchow, ready to be an aasis- 
Unt in the departmental magiatracy ; Ying, a departmental magistrate ; 
Clioo, waiting fitr the aame appointment ; Y6, candidate for the do- 
MTttnetua] magiatraey ; the chief magiairates of the two districts 
Nantaae and Pwanyu ; Le, the acting magistrate of the district Singan ; 
Too, iMiqiorahij perinroing the duties of magistrate in the district 
* ' ' *" F IiBnsin, 1 '"' ' "" - '- — ■-.-----. " 

g to be eo 

ididaic for 

id (^the go 
lioofw in the department 6( Kwangchow iaa, ; and Ying, It.-coloncl o 
the fooTuen's right battalion ; tMse, with all the subordinate civil 
and military officers at pnaent in the city, reported to his excel- 
lency, the fooyuen that they were waiting his pleasore to attend 
the trial of a criminal. Cboo, the acting magistrate of Kwanechow 
bo, sent a messenger to report that on the 13th, under a sdnle of 
gans, he should go to the uNlc^ate hall to attend the third examini^ 
tton of the nndergraduatei of Nanhae and Pwanyu, ttwether with 
Ihoae of the eight banners. Yae, the acting magistrate orthe district 
Woodmen, permitted to perfnm the duties of the same office in the 
diHrict Pingyuen, r^iorted his arrival and [vesenled hie complintenls. 
Chaou Wanneen, a candidate for the d^tartmenta] magistracy, 
fec«otly aent on public business to the district Yingtih, hariog 
letnmed, reported that he had completed the duties of his misuon. 
Keing Seoene, undermaffiatrate of Keangtsun, in the district Shuntih, 
reported his arrival wiUi Ave prisoners, Keiing Hwuytae and others, 
whixn be hod received from the district magistrate of Heang- 
ahan for the autumnal assize, and having brought them to the city 
took leave of absence. Le Chookwon, underma^;istrate of Shinngan, 
in the district Nanhae, reported his arrival with eleven prisoDers, 
Chin Aee and others, whom he had received from the magistrate of 
the district Haepine for the autumnal assize, and having brought them 
to the city he took leave to return. Too Chin, on expectant of the 
■ecretaryship in the departmental magistracy, reported that he had 
diseharged the duties assigned him in ue examination of the streets, 
and preaented his tbanka w a temporary a[^ntment to be an assistant 
nagtstnta in Singan district Hu excellency, governor Tftng, arriv. 
ed to jmn (the fooyueii) in examining a criminal ; and at eight o'clock 
A. M., under a aalute of^guns the doOTs of the great hall of audience 
were thrown <^n, and their exeellencica (the governor and fooyuen) 
took tbeir seats, supported by all the other fimctioaaries assemUed for 
the occasion. The polic»oSic«rs of the nnocha sze were then di- 
rected to Iwing forward the prisoner Yt Auiun, a native of the diMrict 


6 Prriodira/ Litfraturr. M/i,V, 

'rsingyonii '■ li^ H'S-'' fortlnvith brought in, tried, uid led out. Tht 
tboyuen then rnqupstcd the imperial deatli- warrant, Knd sent i. (Ie> 
putatioit of olTio^rs to coaditct the criminal to the matketrplace (just 
without the gales of the city,) and there decapitate him. Soon 
atler the ofTicers returned, restored the deal 1 1- warrant to it3 {dace, and 
reported that they had executed the criminal. 

The Peking Gazette, or as called by the Chinese more prooerlv, 
Kiag Ckaou, " transcripts from the Capital," is a much more valuaue 
production. In the provinces, it always appears in manuscript, being 
transcribed &om documeuta which are made public in the emperor's 
courts at Peking. This, however, if we are rightly informed, is not 
done by persons under the immediate direction of government, as 
we formerly stated (vol. i. p. 506), but by booksellers at their own 
expense. Only a very few copies of the Gazette reach Canton, some 
of which are thought by the imperial couriers, and others by private 
conveyance ; and the- latter usually arrive first. From the few co- 
pies, many more are transcribed. These transcripts are circulated in 
various forms, according to the wishes of those who seek for them. In 
their best style they form a daily manuscript in small octavo of about 
forty pages ; but in an inferior style, they appear only once in two days, 
and then do not contain more than fifleen or twenty pages, and oflen 
not so many. 

As a q>ecimen of that form of the Gazette which ^ipears in 
Canton once in two days, we will here introduce a translation of an 
eDlire number, the 175th for the 15th year of Taoukwang, purporting 
to be for the 13th and Ulh days of the 13th moon (Jan. SOth and 31sl 
1836). It contains fifteen separate papers, which for convenience of 
reference we have numbered. The edicts are called shang yv, " su- 
preme (or imperial) edicts;" and are prepared at the emperor's di- 
rection by the Inner Council or by members of the Imperial Academy. 
However, if written, as they sometimes are,' in the imperial presence, 
at his majesty's dictation, they are then called choo peih "writings in 
vermilion," being executed with red ink. All edicts and replies 
received th>m the emperor, are closed by the words kin tsxe, " respect 
this," which none except the one man may use. — The "imperial 
pleasure" is obtained in the following manner. Daily at an early 
hour in the morning, the General Council of state assembles in the 
hall of audience, where the emperor comes forth to meet his ministers. 
Memorials are then presented. Usually, these have been previously 
opened, and answers to them prepared, such as it is presumed will be 
approved ; and sometimes two, three, or more answers are attached, 
when the subject admits of being answered in so many different 
ways. The answer which is approved by his maje.ity is marked in 
red ink, with a heavy stroke of the pencil. This is called r.he, " the 
imperial pleasure," and with the origins! document, (copies having 
been first taken.) is returned to the memorialist whether in Peking or 
in (he provinces. In case no one of the previously prepared answers 
is approved of, another is written by the officer in waiting at the em- 
peror's dictation; this is called ehoopr, "reply written in vermilion," 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1836. Ptrimiical Littrature. 7 

uid is also returned to the iDBinorialiirt. The appointment of officers, 
being ^enerallj niAde in answer to either written or verba] repreaenta- 
tions, la likewise styled ekt, " the imperial pleasure." The answers to 
memorials are usually brief, as " it is known," "let the apprt^riale 
Board be informed of it," " another decree (or expression of the imperial 
jrieasure) shall be given." " It is known," is a reply given to a do- 
cnnMBt of mere Ibrm, which requires no further notice. "Let the 
appnpriate Board be informed of it," is applied to those state ^P^^s 
wbich need only to be placed in the archives of that Board. There 
ia another form in which replies are frequently given to memorials, 
and in which caae they are called imperial edicts. This is when 
the emperor, giving the substance of what has been represented 
in a memorial, issues an edict thereon. When this ia done, the 
emperor'a edict is first published ; and hence, afUrwards, when the 
memofial appears in the Gazette it ia stated fungeht e btk, '*the impe- 
rial pleasure hereon has been recorded." With these explanations we 
present (o our readers the " Peking transcripts," No. 176. 

I. " Imperial edict The censor Chang Kin has presented a report, 
requesting that instructiraiH be issued, prohibitory of excess and n^li- 
gence in the awoiutment of deputed officers in the provinces, ancTof 
the practice of forcing the aervicea of private literary attendants on 
newly appointed magistrates. In all the provinces, the number of 
e^iectant magistrates and of subordinate unemployed officers being 
great, and there being much irregularity in regard to their various 
degrees of rank, there must unavoidably be both good and bad indi- 
viduals amone them. If they be indiscriminately and in excessive 
numbers emjuoyed on deputations, a rapid growth of offenses and 
negligences wilt be the result. With regard to those private literary 
frienas whose duty it is to assist in preparing the originals of 
official documents, it ia essential that they should be confidential and 
trust-worthy persons, tried and well-informed : then only can they be 
adequate to die task of affording assistance. On no account may 
thef be allowed to dictate to the higher officers, or, presuming on their 
pootion, urge them to recommend their fiiends to newly arrived 
magistrates, whereby detriment to public affairs may be occasioned. 

" According to this memoriiU it appears, that it has of late been 
the practice in all the provinces, to appoint very numerous deputa- 
tions, under a variety of names, but chiefly under that of * winter 
deputations ;' that, while yet uuaF^inted, the sole aim of the aulv 
ordinate officers ia to gain an appointment on such a deputation ; 
that, -frequently, when an appointment has bern obtained, all that 
they do is to send away a follower to collect the fees and presenttt, 
and as soon as that is effected, to report that the object of the 
appointment liaa been accompliuhed ; that, moreover, some even go to 
the extent of carrying goods with them, in order to evade the custmn- 
house dues, intrusting them afterwards to others to sell for them 
at high priceti. It appears, also, that when newly appointed magis- 
trates arrive in the provinccii, it is common for men of letters to repair 
secretly to the literary assistants of the higher officers, and to induce 

;. V^nOC^IC 

6 Ptriodieat Literaturt. Mat. 

tbew to urge the hi^ier 'offiMrn to recommend them lo the qcwIt 
•iriTed magiatrUea; that if ttieoe mogutrates are men who pay much 
regard to puUic afTuirs, tbey uaualty engage other literary ftienda 
tbemsdvefl, while those who have been recommended to them by the 

a her <^cerB receive limply a aalary, and hold suiecures. Such an 
iKriminate and excessive appointment of d^Hitaiimu, and these 
fcxced recommendati<»)s of literary aasistants, cannot but have a bad 
influence aa the civil administration of the country. It is indispensable 
that these practices should be tboroushly reformed. 

" Let general ordera be given to the goveriKffs and lienL-govemon 
of all the provinces, that every deputed officer is to be carefully 
selected, and not appointed indiscriminately. And whenever any 
prerioua offense is discovered, let his appointment be immediately can- 
celed, and proceedinffs commenced against him. With regard to the 
literary aasistaiits or magistrates, let each magistrate have perftct 
freedom of selecuon; and let bo one rely on his situation to fbree 
them in making their selection. Thus may civil administration be 
reformed, and tbe grand nlcs of gotremment be duly revered. Let 
these general cwnmands be made known to all. Re^>ect thia." 

3. " Imperial edict. The censor Fuhchang has reported, that 
in the department of Sbtinteen foo, there are stilT subwdinate officers 
appointed to the acting charge of district magistracies; and he tbere> 
fere requests, that our pleasure be declared, and an investigation com- 
manded. Let the chief magistrate of Shunteisn foo make investigatkui, 
and report the facta. Respect this." 

3. " Imperial edict Ching TsoolA, ( governor of Fuhkeen and 
ChSkeang,) has fijrwarded a report respecting the seizure of certain 
banditti, and re()nests therefore the remission of faults marked, m 
account of former negligence, a{;Mnat the officers concerned in their 
■eizure. TsSng Apaou and Cfam Chebeaou, bandits on the rivers 
and lakes of Fuhkeen, havmg plundered and held in terror the whole 
department of Yenping foo, IWang Se, the director of the circuit, took 
meaaures at his own coat which have resulted in tbe seizure of a 
hundred and seventy-three persons ; he has also tried and convicted 
criminals in eleven hundred and sixty distinct cases. He has thai 
been enabled wholly to exterminate those who have for years been 
noted as bandits. Let our favor be manifested to him, and the Board 
of Civil Office take tbe reward of his merits into consideration. All 
the officers, who, having before. been guilty of neglect, have in this 
instance aided in the seizure of the criminals, may be remitted their 
former demerits, as these are in a measure balanced by their pre- 
sent merita. Choo Pingheuen, the magistrate of Kecnyang, having 
seized thirteen criminals convicted of capital crimes, and having also 
had some little merit in the seizure of Ts&ng Apaou and his ftJiowers, 
may be remitted the faults marked against him when formerly acting 
in kooteen district. Respect thia." 

4. " Imperial edict. Oorkungft, (lieut.-^emor of ChCkeiing,) has 
presented a memorial, re<(ucsting permission Ich' a district magistrate 
to change bis lino of official cm^oyment. Win Tingheen, waiting 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

18il6. Perivdicttt lAttraturt. 9 

for ■HNUDtment to a district iDBgiBtrtcy in Chikeang, uis man of per- 
vertad tftlenta and but very imperfect knowledge, and is unfit for the 
remonsible -duty of go*eming the petite and having charge of a terri- 
loria] district. That officer, however, formerly gradaated aa tsinsze, 
and hia literary talents are otill vigfoous ; let him be permitted there- 
fwe, to take an office of inatructioD corresponding to his present rank ; 
and let the Board of Civil Office nominate him to an appointment 
accwdingly. Respect this." 

6. " Imperial odict. Cbing Tsoolft and his colleagues have re- 
ported reapecting the seisuie ofa swiiuIIh, noted for several years past, 
and have ofiereathe result of their deliberations as to his punishment. 
This ia a oase of a Budhist priest, Shinling, of Shanghang district, in 
the department of Tingchow foo, in Fuhkeen, who has been guilty of 
illicit intercourse with married and unmarried women, of sharing in 
the produce of thefl and plunder, of extorting ranscnns ibf persons 
ondei threats of depriving them of sight, and ofinvolving and troubling 
man; by falsehood and lies, with numerous other trausgieseioiu <^ 
the laws. The magistrate of the said department, having of his own 
accord ^tprehended and brought him to trial, let all demerits marked 
against him on account of negligence be remitted. Respect this." 

6. "Imperial edict. Shootunpih, (commissioner among the Mongols 
of Kokonor,) has reported the particulars of a calamity which has be- 
bllen Bcmte of the foreign funilies, and requests to know our pleasure 
as to the measures to be adopted. On this occasion the Kerghi and 
other tribes, eleven in number, suffered from a falling in of the earth, 
owing to which a heavy weightofsnow was thrown upon them, where- 
by many of ^lose foreigners were kilted and wounded. The circunt- . 
stances are such as to awaken deep commiseration. Let our grace be 
manifested, by the perpetual remission of the regular pecuniary tri- 
bute, as respects those foreigners in whose families deaths have been 
occasioned by the calamity; and by the remission of the same tribute 
for three years, as regards those who, while they have lost their herds 
and flocks, have themselves escaped with all their families : after the 
three years, let these last resume payment Thus shall our compassion 
be shown to them. Let the said commissioner cause this edict to be 
printed, and published everywhere, iu accordance with our extreme 
desire to show commiseration for such as have sufiered by great ca- 
lamities. Respect this." 

7. " Imperial edict. Let Ts&ng Wangyen fill the office of vice- 
president of the Sacrificial Court. Respect this." 

8. " The imperial pleasure has been thus declared : Let Seu Sze- 
fun fill the office of shootsze in the Hanlin Academy. Respect this." 

0. "The imperial pleasure has been thus declared; Let Choo 
Chow fit! the office of hedsze of the Inner Council, and ex-officio 
shelang of the Board of Rites. Respect this." 

10. "The imperial pleasure is thus declared: Let Linkwci be 
a tungching sze in the Court of Representation. Respect this." 

1 1. " The imperial pleasure has been thus declared : In this case, 
Kew He assembled people to gamble within the palace of the Chwang 

1 V^nOC^IC 

10 PeriiMliral -Litrraturr. May, 

ti-iiiu'nng, Yeihshan, and conUiiued to do so for more than a month, 
without beiue discovered by the tsinwang. This b not a mere ordi- 
nary caae of negligence; let ibe tsinwang be there &»« subjected to 
a court of inquiry of the Tsungjin fbo. Respect this." 

12. " The imperial pleasure has been thus declared : In this case, 
Salingah the lieut.-ffeueral of the brigade stationed in the departments 
Nanlwung, Shaoucnow, and Leencliow, in the province of Kwangtung, 
from tlie time that he waa raised to that station, has left all things to 
fall into neglect and disorder, and haa shown himself inadequate to 
the poet aligned him. Ife haa not, however, been guilty of scheming 
for his own personal advantage. Let the punishment of NkrkincSi 
who recommended him lor ^ipointment, be changed to a degradation 
of three steps in rank, but without removst from office, — Wan 
Yung, lieut, -general of the Kaouchow brigade, when before in com< 
mandof the Keeiichang brigade in Szechuen, combined with his sou 
to advance their own interests illegally; and he has thus shown most 
clearly that it was his deliberate purpose to deceive. Let the punish- 
nnnt of Oshan, who recommended him for promotion, be changed to a 
degradation of four steps in rank. Let neither of these degradations 
be redeemable. In the case of Wan Tsuniing (the son ofWan Yung) 
changing his registry of birtb, [so as to appear not to be the son of 
Wan Yung,] Oshan, inasmuch as be did not discover the deceit, 
haa incurred only the punishment of an ordinary case of negligence; 
let him be for this degraded one step, as the Board of Civil Office 
suggests, and let iiim be permitted to redeem it, 

13. " Presentation B. The Board of Civil Office introduced into 
the imperial presence Kwo, a censor capacitated to fill a departmental 
magistracy; Chin, a langchung; Hwang, a choosze whose period of 
mourning was accomplished ; and Lin, an expectant of the office of 
choosze ; when the imperial pleasure was thus declared : ' Let the 
names of Kwo Mingkaou and Chin Yen be recorded for employment in 
difficult departmental magistracies; let Hwang Beangchc receive the- 
earliest promotion, — it is unneceHsary that he should complete the 
period of remaining In a subordinate office; let Un Szetsin fill the 
office of choosze of (he department for the ijiveittigatian of merits in 
the Board of Office, R«spect this.' " 

"The same Board also introduced iuto the imperial presence Shin, 
undermagistrate of Keating foo in Szechuen ; Seu, district magis- 
trate of Nanmang hecn in Honan, Chow, removed from the district 
magistracy of Hwuy heen in Honan into Keaiiigsoo, and Kwo, an ex- 
pectant of a district undermagistracy ; when the imperial {Measure was 
thus declared : Let Shin Yun and Seu Yun both return to their present 
offices; let Chow Cboohwa be retained in the office of district magis- 
trate, and be sent to Kcangsoo to wait for an appointment; let Kwo 
Kingwan be sent into Kirin for employment. Respect this," 

14. "Supplementary memorial of Keshen, governor of ChcilUe pro- 
vince. In the case of Suhlaou a second time propagatuig false princi- 
ples of the fraternity called the ' ^ct of great elevation,' the Board of 
PuuiBhincnti- having investigated llic ca«^, thoM; officers, both civil 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

!«». PmotlUal LiUratHrt. II 

Hul military, who hatl failed lo discover what was doing were several- 
ly degraded, as is on recoril. On the piesent occasion, since tlw! 
coaunencement of the rise of Le Jooling, the officers have in no 
insunee failed to iavestigate ; and when (hat ofiender concealed him- 
sdf in the adjoining districta of Shantung, (he local officers united 
in diaoofctine bis retreat. They also discovered the banished cri- 
minal Uanyuli, and immediately apprehended him. Their merits 
seem adequate (o balance tbeii demerits. I therefore present a sup- 
plementary memorial, to solicit that I may supfriicate the imperial 
UTor to be shown to them, in restoring them to rank and remitting 
further punishment in order that they may be excited to future effints. 
The imperial pleasure declared hereon has been recorded." 

15. " Supplementary memorial of Ching Tsoolo, governor of Fuhkeen 
and Ch&keiing. Before, on the firat arrival of Yungnn, the newly 
selected magistrate of Kwanglsih heen, he being inexperienced in the 
affairs of civil administration, I and my colleagues reported that un 
had temporarily appointed him assistant to tlie departmental magis- 
trate of Fuhchow too, to enable him va gain experience by practicn. 
In answer lo this we received your majesty's reply — ' he must be eithrr 
capacitated, or incapncitated ; let him not be intruded on a situation 
for which he is unfit. Respect this.' We find Yiingan to be a 
man of a robust and vigorous age, and not wanting in intelligence. 
During the few past months he has ac4]uired a considcralile degree of 
knowledge and experience in judicial cases. He is also disposed lo 
exert himself tn investigate and examine closely. And the magistrncy 
of Kwangtsih lieen is one of hut ordinitry importnncc ; it is not a 
difiioilt post. Wlien the said officer first arrived in tlie province, the 
district happened to be laboring under a debt to the government 
which rendered it such as a newly appointed magistrate could not 
well manage ; therefore we feared to send him at once to his oflicr. 
But the debt is now cleared off, and Yungan by his detention at the 
capital of the province ha^ actiuired sojne months' experience, and 
appears now capacitated for the post. It is right tliat we slionid forth- 
with send him to fill it, that he may feel the weight of responsibility. 
While giving him directions accordingly, we also, as the rules enact, 
forward this supplementary report. The imperial reply received i.x, 
' I( is known. Respect this.' " 

These papers, with tlie remarks we have already made, will enable 
our readers to furm an opinion of the periodical literature and the 
condition of the press in this country. It has been said, by high au- 
thority, tlie Ixindon Quarterly Review (vol. iii, p. 291 ), that " the press 
in China is free lo every one:" mid that "the printer and the vender 
have only to be careful not to oficnd the government, and they may 
sin with impunity against di'cency and morality." The last pnn of 
ih» declaration is most palpably true; but the first part needs to be 
very much qualified. It ia iwrrect, we believe, as stated in the Quar- 
terly, thai " no previous license is demanded, no Imprimatur k requir- 
ed, as the passport lor a literary work :" but, on tlir^ other hand, can 
license be given? Do the laws .ifTord any protorlion or security to 

1 V^nOC^IC 

12 Poij/Htfimt Langvagf. May. 

the presst Not to mention politics and religion, we ask with nif- 
rence to " all the other thoiumd fields of literary exertion, — all art, all 
science, all criticism, all history, all philoec^hy, all political economy, 
all the ' high heaven' of imagination, all the compoeitiona devoted to 
the instruction of youth, all that is instructive in morals, edifying in 
inety, or elevating in devotion," — is there even one subject on which 
any liberty or freedom is guarantied to the press? If there is, we are 
ignorant of it. Indeed, so far as we know, ireedom and liberty, as 
underslood by the people of Christendom, are ideas for which the lan- 
guage of this country has no apon^riate terms. A writer in the Indo- 
Chinese Gleaner, for April 1819, says; "China has always been 
subject to an absolute monarchy; and the press has not been free." 
And he adds, "nmdern books in China, indicate no efibrt of the hu- 
man intellect to enlarge the ^here of knowledge; they are mostly 
compilations, made in obedience to the command of the sovereign, or 
the collections of industrious individuals; they are production b of the 
hand, rather than of the mind." It is even so. The press, in any 
proper sense of the word, is not &ee. It is lolerated, and that under 
a surveillance which paralizea the soul. Witness the Canton Court 
Circular; no sentiment, no opinion, ever comes forth in it. So in the 
Peking Gazette; no thought, no word, except such as his majesty has 
made public, goes forth in that puUication. No more life is seen 
through all "these thousand fields of literature," than appeared to 
the prophet in the valley of vision: like those bones, the w«ks here 
are indeed very many, "and, lo, thej are very d^." And until 
siHne new spirit — some pure breath of life divine and of hallowed 
freedom — come over this land, these desolations will remain, and 
these death-like slumbers be perpetuated. 

Art. II. Remarks on Ikt HmemioH diaitet of the PotynestoM jon- 
gvage; prepared for the lOpotitory, by the Rev. Lomn Andrews, 
of the High School, Lahainaluna, February, 1636. 
The origin of the language of the Polynesians, divided as it is into 
several different dialects, is buried in deep obscurity. The pec^le 
themselves know not whence they are, as the fabulous accounts of 
their own origin sufficiently testify ; and yet, on the slightest inspec- 
tion and comparison of ttie different dialects, it cannot for a moment 
be doubted that they had one common origin. And a singular cir- 
cumstance is, that the people at the extreme parts of Polynesia speak 
dialects of the general language the most resembling each Mher. 
It has been said thai the diuecta of the New Zealanders and the 
Hawaiians resemble each other more nearly than any of the other 
dialects. (See Grammar of the Tahitian dialect, p. 4.) But whence 
came the inhabitants of Polynesia? How did they come, or get poH- 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1836. Poli/nfiian Laitguagf. |il 

•ession of DO many islands sc&itere<1 over (tuch a vnoi extent of nceuiT 
What did they come ? And \eky did Ihf^y come T are qaeMions that 
ctDnot now be answered without much conjecture. Yet, no donbt 
a carefii) and thwcHuh examination of the several dialects, and a 
comparison of one with the other with a view to ascertain the grouuil- 
wori of the general lansusge, and a corapariaon with the lanniages 
of the neighboring contments, would not only be a subject of mquiry 
full of interest, but would go far to indicate the probable <H-inD of 
this people. It is to be b(^>ed that the moral and intellectual damieaa 
that has long brooded over the islands of the Great Pacific, w31 ere- 
looff give [dace to-tight, and that ample data fen- such an investigation 
will exist. 

The following observations are not intended aa a philosophical view 
even of the general principles of the language, but merely as general 
hints fiv those who would become ■c<|uuiited with it. Much time 
has been kat to all fbreigners who have attempted to acquire even 
a smattering of the language, to sa^ nothing of the danger of mistakes 
which long experience and practice only can rectify, for want of a 
few general principles relating to the idiom and grammatical atmc- 
ture of the language. 

The first and most important thing to be attended to in studying 
Hawaiian, or indeed, almost any foreign language, particularlj if it is 
designed to be written or qtoken, is the idiom, or the manner of expres- 
sion peculiar to that language. The definition of words is a matter of 
minor importance. Hence it is well in the outset to divest ouraelvea 
of the idea that the language we are about to study can be constructed 
or written or analyzed entirely on the princijdes of our vemaeulai 
tongue \ and that we have nothing to do but to acquire the definibcms 
of a new set of words, and then be in the possession of anew language. 
It should be remembered that different people have difierent moaea 
of thinking and speaking, according as the objects with which they 
are daily conversant, and about which they think and speak, are 
difierent Hence the idioms of no two languages can be expected 
to be alike. In order to secure a competent knowledge of the idiom of 
a language it wotdd be well to commit to memory the various forms 
of simple and compound sentences, particularly the idiomatic expres- 
Mons. These will serve aa a nucleus around which the excepticms 
and niceties of the language may be made to adhere, when ttnre is 
leisure or a diq>oeition to secure Ihem. 

Languages, like men, may, as it regards their idiom, he divided 
into difierent classes, and these again may be subdivided into lesser 
ones. Most of the languages of Europe, for instance, including the 
ancient Greek and Roman, may constitute one great class. The 
general rules of construction are similar. The ancient languages of 
theweslempartsof Asia, the Arabic, the Armenian, the Hebrew, dtc, 
may constituta another class. And so of other parts of the world. 
Now whoever shall attempt to write, apeak, or resolve, one of these 
classes on the principles of the other, will find himself involved in 
inextricable difficuttiefl. Take an example of two languages of the 


H Paffur^iitM hanguagr. Mav, 

Mime general rlns^. Suppose a lyro in I^tin, having mastrred the 
gronuDar of hit< own mother tongue, English, but not having yet leun- 
•pA that the different languages are to be resolved ou different prin* 
cipkea, comes to this phrase in Latin, Eit mild Hbtr, which means, 
he ma; be told, / have a book. But in poning it b; hui English 
syntax, he will be liable to two grand inistalfes: for lie would, as a 
matter of course, call miAt the nominative case, and ett the first person 
of the verb, to say nothing of the wrong idea he would attach to the 
verb ett as A verb of possession. Every philologist knows tliat there is 
something exceedingly stubborn and unyieldmg in tlie laws of Ian- 
guages; they will submit to be governed only by their own laws, they 
will yield wfllingly to no other. Hence those laws munt l>e understood 
before one can yield obedience to them either in writing or spnaking. 
It would be easy to sliow that the ^rand principles of the Poly- 
nesian languages differ more, both in idiom and in syntax from the 
European, than the European do from the Asiatic. The facts, bow* 
ever, corroborative of this opinion cannot be introduced here, as it 
would extend these remarks beyond the limits prescribed. It should 
be remembered, however, that in comparing one Innguage with 
another, particularly in comparing a barbarous lai^uage lately reduced 
to wriUng, and while but few of its words are in daily and common 
use, with a language with which we are well acquainted, and which 
it has been the object of able and learned men to improve for 
centuries, we are liable to be led to false conclusions. To compare 
the Hawaiian, for example, with the English, would be like compar- 
ing a new born infant with a giant of mature age. If «p wish to 
do this, we should take the English as it was when the country 
was invaded by Julius Cesar. Indeed it is questionable whether a 
vocabulary made out in the days of Alfred the Great, after the lan- 

Euage had been enriched by a host of words from the Saxon, could 
oast of more words than could be collecti^l were a full vocabulary 
made of all the words in good use in the Hawaiian. But the English 
has grown by culture into an extensive and rich language, and so 
may the Hawaiian,- and still retain its own idiom in all its purity. 

There is no probability, as there is no evidence, that the Hawaiian 
language has undergone any material changes for many generations. 
The melfs and krnios (songa and legends) of the ancients are under- 
Mood and recited by the people of the present time. It is bIko well 
known that uiiwritieii languages are less liable to changes than writ- 
ten ones, as there in no method of spreading innovations to any ex> 
tent even if they were made. The cultivation of the language is not 
the first thing attended to, even when a nation ia disposed to emerge 
from a state of barbarity to afitate of civilization. Bni in tlir usages 
ajid arts of civilized life, the Hauaiiaiis had made no progress whrn 
letters were introduced among them a few years ago. 

There is not, indeed, a perfect uniformity in every particular in the 
use of the language from one extremity of the isliind ti another, but 
frttll there arc no such variuiions as would deserve the name of 
dialects. They may, perhaps, be termed prminrialisms. These may 


1830. Piili/nnsitiH Language. 15 

Lie teduci»l lu two general headii ; tlie variations lliut arise Irotn tlie 
enunciation of single sounds, or as itiey may now be termed, the 
pronunciation of single letters; and the use of liiffcrcnt words lot 
the same thing. As to different enunciation, the Iluwaiiiin original- 
ly, that m, until otlier sounds were introduced, had but two mules 
in their language. One of these would answer to the English b and 
p, the other to k and t. The p sound is the common one in dbtinc- 
' ■ ■ d the Ha% ■ ■ ■ 

tion &om that of t> ; indeed the Hawaiians themselves never give to 
any letter the strong sound of the English 6, but when any letter is 
thus sounded by foreigners, they cannot distinguish it from p. With 
regard to the other sound there is a great difference of usage. Some 
pronounce it with the middle or root of the tongue, when it becomes 
k; others with the end of the tongue, when it becomes t; nor can 
their ears perceive the slightest difference. For tlie remaining 
English mute d, the Hawaiians have no equivalent, except in a few 
words, when it is difficult for English ears to determine wbeth^ it 
should be represented by d, I, or, r. Thus tlie proper name, Hilo 
has been written by foreigners as they supposed they heard it, Hilo, 
Hiro, and Hido. As to the k and ( sounds, liefore the conquests of 
Kamehameha, the former was prevalent on Ifawaii, and the latter on 
Kanni. Since that period there has been such an amalgamalian of 
the people and so many removals, thai the pronunciation is no longer 
marked by geographical divisions. It is not known exactly to what 
extent provincialisms exist, which consist in the use of different words 
for the same thing ; probably to a considerable extent, but still not so 
great that tlie words, tliough nut commonly used, are uniutelligible 
(o any. 

It has been supposed that the chiefs speak a different dialect Irom 
the common people, or that ihey could do so when it was necessary. 
This is a mistake. In all despotic governments, like the ancient 
government of these islands, lliere is kept up between the chiefs and 
common people as broad a distinction as possible. Indeed it was sop- 
posed, until lately, thai tlie chiefs and people were distbct racca of 
beings. It would not be wonderful, therefore, that the chiefs should use 
some words and phrases that would not be entirely familiar to the com- 
mon people. It IS so in all countries where an aristocracy of any kind 
exist!!. But in view of all that can be collected from tho^e who have 
held a middle rank between chiefs and common people, and who have 
had intercourse with both, it does not aj^ar that the difference is 
greater than il is bctivccn the higher and lower classes in other 
countries. The Hawaiian language was first reduced to writing 
in the latter part of the ycnr 1821 ; and soon aflor, schools were es- 
tablished nvcr the iBland!<, and multilndei< acquired the first principles 
of written language. From the time the chiefs and people became 
acquainted wilh the art of writing, or marking characters representing 
articulate sounds, they have generally used this method of conveying 
ideas to each other. Many legal proceedings have been wriilcn, 
and ne(v? circulated over the islands by meaiii- ollctters wrilleii by 
the common jx-'ople. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

16 Polgtutiait LuHguagr. May, 

A giaud ptunt in reducing a barbtToiis luiguagc to writiug should 
be Bunplieity. Two rulee ahould be obeerved; 1st, the (^uactera 
should be sufficient to express the simple sounds; utd 2d, ifpoonUe, 
there should be no Bupernuous letters. Thereductkmofthemwiiiin 
language to writing was not a hasty procedure. The above rules a^ 
pear to have been Kept constantly in view, though it was difficult at 
first, in many cues, to distinguish between a simile and a compound 
sound. Two points, however, were readily ascertained ; 1st, that 
?owel sounds predominated to a considerable extent abore thooe of 
etHiKHtants ; 3d, that, to an English ear, the language was very mo- 
notonooB. Five vowels and aeven consonants, were all the sounds 
that could be recognized. Reference is not had here to all those nice 
shades of distincti(«, which are found in every language, and which 
it would be impoesible to find characters to express. Sot such abound 
in the Hawaiiui; but reference is had to such sounds as are com- 
monly expressed in the European languages by written characters. 
With all the possible combinaliona of so few letters, a language must 
be monotonous. The Hawaiian is restricted to less than half the 
number of the Eudisb letters; and it was fbund to be a fundamental 
rale, that every s^labie must end tetth a vowel It was very impor- 
tant, therefore, that the vowels, upon which so much depended, 
should be represented by such characters as would express them with 
the greatest simplicity and precisioR. It has always been considered 
a desideratum rather than an event to be realized, that in a written 
language the vowels should have but one imiform invariable sound. 
Thou^ this point has not been completely gained in respect to the 
Hawaiian language, yet there is a near af^noach to it. 

It has been objected to the orthograph}^ adopted in writing the Ha- 
waiian language, that it gives to vowels different sounds from those of 
the English, and this has been considered of course a needless inno- 
vation. It hss been called in an English Review, on affeetatwn of 
ItaHeiting, ^c, and the question has been asked, why toe sounds of 
the vowels were changed from those of the English ? But it should be 
remembered tliere is a previous question to be settled; Why did the 
English, in adopting the Roman alphabet in preference to the black 
letter, give their vowels the sounds they did, in apposition to almost 
all the other lanffuagee of Europe ? It is well known that those 
who speak the English language, stand alone in the sounds they 
give to the characters representing the vowels. Almost all the 
nations of western Europe at the present day either use or can use 
the Roman characters in writing their languages, and prettv uniform- 
ly have given to all the vowels, except perhaps o, sounds different from 
those ofthe English. And it is well known too that the Italians, Spa- 
nish, French, and GermaiiH, laugh at us for it. Now it may be asked, 
why is this innovation upon the long '^iitablished customs of so many 
nationsl To what shall it be attributed 1 When these questions shall 
be answered, those who reduced the Hawaiian language to writing 
may be ready with llicir Hnswer. Bui ihey need not wail so long, for 
there arc other obvious and sulhcieut reuHonx at hand. 

1886. Polj/nttim LmgMgt. IT 

1. Th« ortboarq>h]r uUi|Med fully uuwer* Um iNirpoM or txfnm 
wg the Bounds ofUw langu^. K«feraiio« ia hu here ooJ^ to the 
vowel aounds. It wu mentioaed befive u deurable if poouble that 
voweb abould have but one aound, uid that thii bad id a good degree 
been weured hy the orthography adopted. 

9. The MMinda given U> the Towela id the Bugliah langnage would 
not anawer to expreae the Hawaiian rowel tounda without an utter 
taerifioe of aimpticity. Thua t in Hawaiian, khumIs like tt in Eagliah. 
Now the daas of wtmla requiring the reduplication of i ia numerous; 
Ihns ^t, to ascend, in English dress, would need to be pe«Ui hi, to 
bold in the arms, would be hettt; tUHi. small, would be UtuUtee, &c. 
Again, m in Hawaiian, sounds like oo in ess ; benoe kti, to stand, wooM 
be Iteo; snd kmm, to let go, would be written itooee; miitK, small, 
wonld be itoookoo; and mtu to stammer, would be oooooo! And the 
same of others. In using the English vowels, therefore, to write 
Hawaiian it would be neceesarv to use the above oii\)ori»phj, or to 
introduce a series of pmnts airailar to the Msaoreuc if not quite as 

It is not denied that there are some fermidatde diffioulties in the 
way to a tbufough knowtecU* uid investigation of the Hawaiian lan- 
gnage. Such are the fUkiwing. 

1. The want of a full sup^y of documents written b* natives 
themselves, as reference or authority in matters of etyroology i 

syntax. Though the means in this respect sre increB«ng, yet nilbw- 
to they have been too few to determine fully the unu wguendi of 
the language. 

2. 1^ great flexibility of the language itself in regard to fonas of 
exjHeasion. This has been, and is stiU, the cause of much dispute 
among those engaged in writing the Hawaiian language. One, lor in- 
stance, happens to hear a particular set of form <u words used to 
eiqireas an idea, he remembers it and reduces it to practice both in 
speaking and writing, and when he supposes himaelf fully master of 
langna^ sofficienl to express that idea, be finds that another, in 
expressing the same idea, makes use of a set of w<»ds entirely dif- 
ferant, or if not different, he alters the position of them so much 
in the sentence that it seems an entirely new form. But as the 
former, after taking much pains, has not so lesrned it, he is ready to 
dispote the cisssic purity of the latter, and as authorities are scarce, 
except such ss each one can summon from his own stock, to sustain 
bii own course, the dispute ia likely lo be protracted ; whereas they 
may both, at the same lime, be subMantially correct. 

3. A still more fi-nitful source of difficulties consists in the inv 
bihty or unfaithfiilness of those natives lo whom application is made 
for fwlp. Some sre so unaccustomed, though they may be masters 
of their ovm langna^, lo the business of correcting others, that they let 
any thing pass which they themselves understand, however awkward 
it may be when compared with the real purity of their language. 

4. The disposition of the Hawaiians to accommodate thmnselvet 
lo the ignwance of those who consult them, is a difficulty in the way 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

18 Polynesian Language Mat, 

of gMting pure expresBions. When coniulted rupecting tny word 
or phtue, Uwir object seems to be to find out how much the pemm 
UHUulting them knows respecting the point himielf. And if he 
•ppean to know oRvfAiitf they will tell him he knows twrything. 
Or in giving & definition, the; will give such u the person understuids 
«s synoajmous, without much regard to precision or definiteneas in 
the cue ; uid it is only by a long series of queatioiia that the desired 
infi>rmatton can be obtained. They are exc^dingly load of introduc- 
ing and nsing tbreigo words and fiireign expresstons, even to the 
czclnsion of ^eir own words and idiom. 

The sources of good authority for the use of Hawaiian words may 
be classed thus. 1. The letters, or other documents, which one chier 
writes to another. It is well known that a person is more carefiil of 
his words, when he aits down to write, than when be speaks. And 
one chief writing freely to awrther would be under no temptation to 
accommodate his lanzasge to the capacities of those whom be might 
suppose would not understand. 2. The nufej, ketmkoHi, kaaos and 
moootdoi of ancient time written down by natives themselves. The 
only mistakes to which these would be liaUe would be in the omissitm 
of words and the orthography of vaix words. 3. The language of 
chieb as written or spoken in their laws, charges, or commands to the 
ootataoa peiqJe. 4. That of the common people in their addresses, 
letters, or writing of any kind, designed for the ears of the chieft. 
They may be expected, in such cases to use their best language. 5. 
The language which the common people use in corresponding by 
letters with one another. Such letters exist in great abundance, and 
on almost every subject, and exhibit a great variety of style and forms 
of expression. 6. The letters or other documents of chiefit written 
Ibr the perusRl of foreigners. Perhaps these ought to be placed higher 
in tho catalt^ue of authorities. The reader will judge for hinuelf 
7 The letters, &.C., of the common people addressed to foreigners, 
8. Lastly, the writings of foreigners reviewed or corrected by natives. 
This species of writing is liable to two errors ; a failure of the best 
selection of words to express the idea, and s liability to Anglicisms 
or idiomatic expressions of other languages in distinction from die 
pure Hawaiian. 

The poeby of the Hawaiian language has been but little examined 
by foreigners. The form in which it is generally exhibited — the 
scenes of the hula, the monotonous unmusical character of the music 
with which it is connected, and its being entirely unintelligible to for- 
eigners, give it a forbidding aspect. But if we may reason from those 
<)ualities deemed essential or generally connected with the existence of 
good poetry, viz. strong passions, a flexible language, a congenial 
climate, the existence of ware and milituy exploits, the intrigues of 
love, &.C., we might expect a language adapted to poetry. And so 
we find it. It will be sufficient here to introduce two or three short 
specimens of Hawaiian poetry to show what the language actually 
contains and of course is capable of expressing It should be pre- 
fuised, however, thul genuine Hawaiian poetry knows nothing of what 

IftW. Palynnian Lanf;ungr iO 

is termed rhyme in Engliah poetTy, uor does it consist in any definite 
niimbei of syllables in a line, but in a eettain lerMness orexpressicHi, 
■bruptness in changing from thought lo thought, coaciaeneiKi, gene- 
rdly impasdioned and highly figur&tive. 

The following is a specimen of the simplest kind of kaitikm or 
Elegy, with a literal translation, tt was lirst taken down by Mr. Ellis. 

VtfVtfUa make kuv alii Alaa 1 ilu ! dead is my chief, 

Vm make htu hdku a kau hoa. Dead is my lord and my friend, 
KtmlioailtaiM okavi, Hy fnend in the sf-ason nfftmine, 

Kan htm i vaa ka aina. My friend in the drought of the laiid. 

Xuu hoa i liuu Uihune, Hy friend in my poverty, 

Kitu hoa ikaua oka makaui. My fnend in the ram and the wind. 
Xuu kaa i ka loela o kala, Uy friend in the he&t of Ihe sun. 

Xuv iuta i ka anu o ka mauna. My friend in Che cold of Ihc mountain. 
Xuu Koa i kaino My triend in the atomi, 

Ktm ko» J km malie. My friend in the calm, 

Kuu hoa i max Jfcot eioaiu. My friend in the eight test : 

Ve, ve, ua hiUa kuu hoa, Alu! alasl gone is my friend, 

Aohe e koi haa mai. And will return no more again. 

The following is a couple of distichs of an Kegy on love, 

HoAahi ito inoa, o ke Aloha la, One only name he had, and 1 hat waa love. 
He alohl leaU no kojia alelo. And love only was all his talic : 
A ka iRoittui he mat i honau mai, From sleep, his parent, was he bom. 
He kaiim<a ke kvko, he mihi ka Lust waa hia brother, and grief hii 
ma nao. thought. 

The following is a scrap of a mele oi Soug on the creation of Hawaii. 

Vaham*itkaJiiBkH Bum was the island, [and eipanded ; 

A JcwM, a la*, a loa, » mo, a nuo, [I budded, lenped. iiicreued, Bonriah'd. 

ABkatat iioht ilaaa a HnBaii It bJossomed on the log., 'twas Hanaii. 

Await Ml » Its mailm. This Hawaii whs nn island. 

HtpaUtaka aiiu. henaka ftaatiH. UnilahleWHstbilindJremiilnuaHatraii. 

EU0*iealtatianaikalaiti.lttcakmii: Waving in (he air; waved thg earth, 

/fyi Aiea Ha faiOHoM. fram Akea 'iwai faiten'd Ingnlher. 

MoHm ikeaaoka taokii mtka ktnaa, t^uicTliy Iherootslhii island and the Isiid 

Paaia ■ ka Uioa latani i ka fiirto n^u o It was lasl in th* air by lh« rifiht hand nf 

PaaHaienila.alaa. [Abee, Fast was llawi^— decreed.— [Akca, 

Hawaii la i iktt he itaht Hawaii appeai " an island. 

It is not known that there are any long tneles in the language aimi- 
■at to Homer or Virgil; but of shorter pieces, ^cimens might be col- 
lected in abundance that would not sufier by comparison with pieces 
of the same class from the poets of antiquity. Nor would the system 
of mythology, or the rites and ceremonies of their ancient reli^n, 
impure as they are in point of morality and decency, fall ahort c?the 
renowned systems of the learned nations of Egypt, Greece or Rome. 

The difference between the poetry and the prose of the Hawaiian 
language coaaiBts; 1, In a different selection of such words, as are 
leas commonly used, tn poetry, loo, may he found moet of the dyesy- 
labic roots, or the aimpleat forme of words in the language, though, 
when the sound requires it, they do not hesitate to reduplicate or 
repeat (xie or more of the syllables several timi^s. 2. In conciseness. 


20 Poli/ntiim lAingnag*. Mat, 

The UawaiiuiB are profuse in the use of words in conversation, and 
in writing they appear to be much more so ; but when the; ait down lo 
fit their wotcU into poetry, it seems to be an object lo employ aa few 
aa will poaaibly aoawer the purpose. Hence the poetic license is car- 
ried lo a ^leat extent Many lines together, thoogn the principal words 
are ftmilitr, yet for want of their common adjuncts and e<»nmon col> 
loeatioD, are unintelligible in poetry. 3. Abrupt and sudden changes 
in the figorea. The languwe admits of a figurative style to a very 
great extent, hot the figurea of poetry come unexpectedly lo the reader, 
aa for eiu»le in the song aa the creation of Hawaii. The first line 
represents Hawaii as being bom, the next as growing and flouriahing 
like a plant and increasing to a tree, and in a line at two more it ia a 
tremuloos unstable mass. 

There has not been discovered the least vestige or aign of a written 
luguage having existed among the Hawaiians, anterior to the com- 
BMOcemeDt of our miseion. In this re^>ect they were (ai behind the 
ancient Mexicans and even many tribM of Indiana on the American 
continent, who though they did not know the use of letters, yet did 
actually convey ideas by visible representatioDa, such as strings with 
koota, oelts of wampum, dbc. 

It will be seen by reference to the Vocabulary and to the books that 
have been printed in the Hawaiian dialect, that aeversl more lettera 
have been introduced than were absolutely neceasary to represent 
sounds purely Hawaiian. This was necessary, to some extent at least, 
uoee the language of the Hawaiians was utterly destitute of all worda 
for repr eae nwig many ideas reelecting the Christian religion, morals, 
•oeia] duties, terms of science, &c. It has been neceasary, therefore, 
lo introduce new words. All languages do this to aome extent, even 
the German, though it ia avoided Uiere if possible. The English have 
no scruple on this head, but have received with open anna ever; new 
wcHrd or term that offered itself from any language. They have even 
borrowed from the Hawaiian ; and this too when synonyms of the 
same already existed. With these words, loo, the English have bor- 
rowed several letters such as z, z, the hard eh, the French ck, and the 
Greek ph. Thus the number of sounds are increased in the language, 
and thus the words are readily recognized by the eye as taken from a 
foreign language. So it lias been necessary to do in the Hawaiian, 
for without it more confusion would be made than benefit gained. 
Thus the foreign word mart, to marry, in pure Hawaiian orlhagraphy 
would be mah, to expectorate. Rama, rum, would be lama a torch. 
But the confusion would be more particularly manifest in proper 
nunes; thus Ttula, Ruth, in Hawaiian orthography would be Lvka 
Luke ; Sara, would be Kola, name of a man, &c. Though these 
foreign letters are necessary, yet it is not necesnary to introduce everf 
letter, ma even every syllable, of a word that may be brought into 
the language ; only a sufficiency to show that the word is of foreign 
extraction la all that is requisite. 

With regard to new words in a language just reduced to writing 
and where improvemeutn, or what is the same thing, where new ideas 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1836. Pol^Kfnm LcnguOgt. 21 

tre brought in, there are two methoda of proceeding. One i& to intro- 
duce n«w words Irom other languages lo espreaa new ideas: the other 
is, to give D«w delinitions to woTd« already in use. Both of these 
metboos have been pursued in the Hauaiian. New worda have been 
introduced as noticed abave. Caution however will be necessary lest 
words sbotUd be unnecessarily introduced, at such aa are no more 
significant than some that are already in the language. The number 
oftbe words to which new ideas have been attached u not ytt large, 
but will [HobaUy be greatly increased when mora), reltnous, uul 
scientific studies shall be more extensively and system aticalfy pursued. 
Natat the heart, f^umt the soul, and Akua Ood, and several other 
words, have ideas attached to them now in the minds of the more in- 
iel%ent natives that they had not a few years ago. The iangnage 
of ue Hawaiians, though very flexiUe, that is, capable of a great va- 
riety of forme in its expression, is nevertheless very regular in its con- 
struction, particularly m its syntax. The general rules are, perhaps, 
teas often violated than in raoai other languages, and when violated 
are as quickly delected. 

It is evident from the fbresoin^ remarks that (he language ought to 
be carefully cultivated. And it is hoped that it will be a poiut aimed 
at by all who become residents, patiently to study the ancient customs, 
histmy, laws, political maxims, and literature of the Hawaiians, that 
they may know where and bow to apply the helping hand. Com- 
paring the circumstances of this people and of enlightened nations 
there is yet very much, that is deficient and erroneous ; much to be 
lamented and deplored in a moral, social, political, aiid religious view. 
But to stand still, and look cddly on and censure, is not tike best way 
to cause a reform. It is a truth, and an afiecting one too, that the 
state of the nation, and of the people individually, calls loudly for the 
sympathy of the benevolent, the prayers of the good, and the ener- 
getic aid of the philanthri^ic. The question will probably in a few 
years more be settled, whether the nation shall continue to exist 
or whether the people shall become extinct. And this question, under 
Ood, u to be determined mostly by foreigners now resident at the 
ialaitda. Let it not be thought that this has no connection wit!i the 
language of the nation ; it has much, and before much can be done 
for the thorough improvement of the people in arts, in taws, in morals, 
in wholesome regulations, those who would do them mod mjBt become 
mne thcwoughly acquainted with them and with all that sppcrt:iins 
10 their present and future welfare. It remains to be seen, whether 
the hand of men from Christian countries shall be stretched out lo aid 
the people of these islands; or whether the hard hand of extortion and 
oppression, of violence and passion, shall continue to be laid upon 
them tmtil all that constitutes a nation shall be gone, and fiiture nis- 
toriana shall say the nation has perished, — the inhabitaDts have gone, 
with those who might have sav«d them, to the awards of eternity \ 


Orlltogrtijikji gf Chintit Words 

Art hi, S^ittm of OHhogrtyki) for Chinut umrdi: — thtU of 

Morrison's dictionary imperfect; imsuitablauM of fng-AiA, and 

suitiMentss of Italian vomli, for an accvratt orthographical 

sj/stan ; ^pUcation of Ikt Roman afyhabet, as used in Italy, 

with tome modifications, to tht Chinese hmguagt. 

Ok a fbnneT occasioo, whan treatiog of the Chinese written language, 

we gave our readere some explanation of the sounds most gener^ly 

attached to the characters of which this language is composed, that 

is, of the sounds exieiing in the court dialect, or general language 

of the empire. In so doing, we employed the system of oitliograph)' 

which had been adopted by Dr. Morrison in hi.* dictionary, except in 

one or two mmor cases where it seemed inconsistent with itself. Thia 

we did, noi because we regarded that system as in all respects the 

best which could be employed, but because we judged it inexpedieal, 

until a well tried one W)uld be adopted — one which had stood thet put 

of experience — to deviate from thai which had been employed in a 

work of such great value to every Chinese student, aud which had in 

contequence already been brought into common use. 

But in the system of orthography adopted by Dr. Morrison, there are 
other inconsistencies besides those to which we have already alluded, 
inconsistencies which it must be inexpedient to amend unless the 
whole system be revised and altered. There are also a few cases in 
which that system is little adapted, if not wholly unsuited, to re- 
present the sounds of some of the provincial dialects of the Chines* 
language ; and on this account it was in a measure altered and 
modified by Dr. Morrison himself in his Vocabulary of the Canton 
dialect. Unfortunately, however, these alterations having been made 
without a revisal of the whole system, ihcy have given rise to still 
greater irregularities. These consider at iom< have rendered it highly 
desirable, if possible, to adopt an orthographical system better ntted 
to be employed uniformly in all the dialects of the Chinese language. 
In the following pages we hope to show that to attain this is not im< 
possible, thai on ihe contrary it is to be attained with ease and with a 
great degree of simplicity In taking up the subjeci at the present 
time, we have been in a great degree influenced by the efforts now 
making in India to render general, throughout the eastern territories 
of Great Britain and in the adjoining countries, the adoption of one 
uniform system of orthography, suited to represent clearly and defi- 
nitely the sounds of words in the Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, and their 
cognate languages. 

It is a common error in adopiing an orthographical system, to en- 
deavor to employ such modes of representing sounds as will be > at 
first sight' intelligible lo a reader, a method which would undoubtedly 
be good were it not in several respects impracticable. But as in this 
method no provision is made for new sounds, foreign to the language 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1836. Orlkogrophy of Chinrst Wordf. W 

whose orthography i» employed, such sounds can br but v^ry imper- 
fectly TepreMDted by it. And no regard having been paid to the ele- 
manta of sounds, or of spoken language, each orthoepist will probably 
adopt a diSerent mode of repreeenling them. It is plainly impractica' 
ble so to represent tbem, %b that no explanation will be required. This 
is more particularly the case with the English vowels, with respect to 
which all rules are set completely at defiance, so that there is not per- 
hape a single vowel sound in English which cannot be expressed in 
several different ways. Sir William Jones gives an instance of this 
in the sentence, "a mother bird flutters over her young," where the 
same sound is represented in six different ways ; namely by a, t, i, 
o, K, and OM, to which may be added the sound of ea, in heard I This 
is an extreme case, but it would be easy were it necessary to show 
that every vowel sound may be expressed in English ortbography in 
two or Uiree different ways. 

If then it be impracticable to adopt a system of orthography which 
will at once exhibit to the eye of the uninstructed all the true sotmds 
of a foreign language, and if it be in a niMe especial manner impos> 
sible to frame a simple and definite system of orthography, in accor- 
dance with the sounds most usually attached to the letters in the 
English language, why should we not have recourse to the less «m- 
barrasaed and better understood systems in use on the continent of 
Europe, rather than restrict ourselves to an orthography which is 
acknowledged to be the worst that can possibly be found T For the 
English orthography is characterized in a peculiar degree by the two 
ffreatest defects of a written language, the application of tht same 
letter to severai different sound*, and of different Utters to the same 
sound. But that precision in regard to the vowels, which we in vain 
seek for in English, we find in the Italian ; and the consonants with 
a few exceptions, are nearly the same among most European nationa. 
The Italian language, excluding the peculiar sounds of some of it* 
consonants, has therefore been made the foundation of several of the 
most approved systems adopted in various parts of the world, — by sir 
William Jones and many other literary men in India, and by the 
missionaries in the South Sea islands, among the American Indians, 
and in other places. The orthography of Uiese several syslema dif- 
fers in hardly any respects; in its vowels it is fundamentally the same 
as in Spanish and Portuguese, and varies but little from the ortht^ 
graphy of Germany and Holland : it is therefore well understood in 
most parts of the continent of Europe. By the literary gentlemen of 
India it has been shown to be well adapted to exhibit in a clear and 
lucid manner most of the sounds of the Sanskrit, Persian, and 
Arabic languages; and entire works have been published in the Ro- 
man character, conformably to this orthography, in several of the lan- 
guages of India. Is then this system (the system, as it has commonly 
been called in the ea£t, of sir William Jones,) adapted to represent 
to European readers the sounds of Chinese words? For if it is, a 
great advantage will be gamed in point of sirnplicily, by assimilating 
the orthography of China to that of India, and of the Indochinese 


'U Orthography of Ckinest Wwii. Mir, 

oa^iu. After > careful exunination, we ue of opiDun that it ii u 
adapted, and that it ia ttw beat which can be employed to indicate the 
Boundsof Chinese worda. We will proceed, therefore, lo repreaeat 
the manner oi applying it, and the invari^e aovnda given to each 
vowel, diphthong, and couaonant, not taking into account those rarr 
■light variatioaa which are common in every language, and which it 
wonld be vain to attempt to distingniah, 

Ab, however, the number of vowels in the Roman alphabet ii leM 
than the number of vowel Bounds, we are obliged occaaionally to have 
recoarae lo diiMcritieal marki ; and it will be well in the firat place lo 
point oat in what manner ihme are uaed by us. Aa a ffeneral rule, a 
short vowel is left without any mark over it, while a filler eonneiation 
tiS the same or nearly the same vowel ia diatinguiahed by the aooie 
accent ( ' ) over it ; thus a is short aa in quota, and d long as in calm. 

' Perpendicular mark. Both the long and short vowels are often 
pronounced with an abrupt termination of them, either by aimply 
ceasing at once to utter any sound, or by suddenly stopping the voice 
formpassing out, and thus producing one of the three mutes, it, p, ot 
t. To mark this variation, we use a imall perpendicular mark ( ' ), 
Mther on ot after the vowel or diphthong ao enunciated. 

' ^ Acute and grave accents. The same letter has •ometimee lo 
be used (at two different long sounda, in which case we use the acute 
accent (' ) over one, and the srave accent (' ) over the other; thus 
we have two long sounds ofe, marked i and i, the first as «' in 
neigh, and the second nearly as t'c in ne'er. 

" Disreais. To distinguish that sound of the vowel « which ia 
commonly known as the "French u," we use the diaresis; thus, 
l\M is proaounced like Fmu ih French. 

' Apostrophe. To mark some peculiar sounds which appear to 
arise from attempted enunciationa of ccmaonants without the interven- 
tion of vowels, we use the apostrc^he ( ' ) or mark of omission. The 
ayllables in which thia occurs are three ; namely, 'm, 'itg, and n'. The 
sound of 'm is produced by simply closing the lipe, and causing the 
voice lo pass into the nose, and thus producing the nasal at, with- 
out having previously uttered any vowel : the sound oi 'ng, b aln 
produced by the passage of the voice into the nose, but with the 
Umgue raised towards the back of the palate; it is nearly the same 
as Uie sound uttered by a sulky child when whining: the sound ^tx' 
it produced by endeavoring to change the hissing aotind of s into thai 
of X, by endeavoring to slide from the hiaeiug sound of i to the more 
vocal sound of 2. The apoatrophe ia alao uaed as the mark of onission 
before vowels, to show Uie dn^ping either of the noaal ng, or of <e or 
y. The nasal may be dropped before most vowels, the te only before 
■I and it, and y only before 1, i, and it. 

' The apiritus asper of the Greeka is employed to mark the inter- 
vention of an a^irate between a conaonont and a vowel, or be t wee n 
a ctmeonant and a half-vowel : it is not used before any word, but onlr 
after the consonants, ck, k, p, t, and ti. The aspirate befinr a word 
is represented by k. 

' In ihe dialect of Fuhlu-'Cii. a slruug iiaul enuttciaiiuii uf llif vun-> 
cli is common, not quite uuouniing to Ihe pr«lix or fathx. of a nwal. 
bill produced m if by the utterance of the vowel ooutul throu;^ llic 
nose, without the eacapc of voice tlirougb the mouth. To represent 
this sound, Mr. Hedhurst has used a raised > before, or V after the 
vowel ; but. titi a diacritical mark will be both more convenient in 
use and less awkward in appearance, we have adt^ted a mark (*) 
resembling the ang oz aniu-Mxf ra of the Indian languages, altbougli 
in (bese the ang M^fKua to represent a more distinct nan! utlerince. 

The vomh of the Chinene language now demand our notice, fn 
OUT explanations of these, we shall not attempt to point out the minute 
Eihades of difference, often oboervable in the pronunciation of Home of 
tliein; but will give what, after & careful examination of the airangr- 
ment of them in Chinese rhyming dictionaries, and a close aitenlioii 
to the utterance of them by the living voice, appear to be their nunt 
correct sounds. Tlte different sounds to be represented may be shown, 
as occurring in English words, in the bUowing manner, bng and 
short enunciations of the same soiuid being regarded ai but one vouc I. 

- ., bnlii ..-..- .. pat .. - .. 
laigfa .. policB .. lord .. cold .. rvda . I'une .. allnre. 

If this arrangement be correct, tlicre are in Chinese ten vowels, 
which we will proceed to explain or dcAne more minutely. 

a represents a sound very frequent in English, in which language 
it is expressed in seven or eight dif!erent ways, but most iisuBUy 
by short w as in but When represented by a in English, it is never 
accented; in Chinese on the c<mtrary it often is. On this account 
we anticipate many objections to our use of a to represent this vowel. 
Such objections have occtirred lo ourselves; but we have been una- 
ble to find any other letter which can so well re|»esent it in every 
poeition. If we were to adopt m in [dace of a, we have already three 
sounds attached to that letter, which can be represented by no other 
single letter; nor would k, as in shun, give always the true pronuncia- 
tion of it, as any one may convince himself by a careful examination 
of the sound enunciated in pronouncing the last syllabic of the word 
American with a heavy stress on it. This vowel is sometimes pro- 
nounced nearly as if it were a rapid enunciation of the a in calm. 

d, with an acute accent, is invariably long, as in balm, calm, 
father, approaching sometimes to the a in want. 

e, is nearly the same as in whet, yet, men, and if u Mund which 
does not often occur in Chinese. 

t, with a grave accent, is like the e'e in np'er, or an a in share : 
it is often protracted till it assumes almost the sound of a in ant, 
into which sound it is sometimes altogether changed. It has been 
suggested, that, when thus protracted, there may be a short f, as in 
men, preceding it; but we are doubtful if this suggestion be correct, 

6, with an acute accent, is invariably ti a.i in neigh, or ay in ln\. 

I, is invariably as in pin, pit, and nevn as in pine- 

q,,r rb/GoOt^lc 

26 Orthography of Chinese Words. May, 

i, with &D acute accent, is the same sound prolonged, as in ma- 
chine, police, or as M in feel. 

o, is pronounced as in lord, or as a in ball, or me in awlul; o, 
short, as in lock, lot, does not occur in any dialect of the Chinese 
with which we ore at present acquainted. 

6, with an acute accent, is pronounced as in note, sometimes a 
little more protracted as in roll, cold, or even as if followed by the 
(10 in foot. 

u is pronounced a^ in' pult, push, nevei as in pure, nor as in flush. 

//, with an acute accent, is pronounced as in lude, rule, or as m 
in rood, fool. 

a, with a grave accent, is pronounced as in illumine, allure, a 
sound intermediate between a in rule, and the French u. 

u, is pronounced as in French, in the words tune, vser, &.c. 

The following diphthoagi, formed by the combination of the above 
vowels, arc found in Chinese. 

at, is pronounced a» in aisle, or as the English t in white, line. 

ot, is pronounced exactly as the word aye. 

an, K pronounced nearly as ow, in how, or ou in our, but is some- 
what more slender. 

du. If a similar tiound, but broader, being compounded of the d in 
calm and U in put, or & in rule : it is broader than any similar sound 
in English, but comes nearest to the ow in howl. 

el, IS pronounced nearly as ey in bey, dey, and is produced by a 
combination of the short vowel e and the short t, nearly the same a* it 
would be in the word weight, v^ere that word to be pronounced with a 
greater degree of stress on the ei than is usual. It is often confound- 
ed with the long i of machine. 

iu represents a peculiar Chinese sound, produced by a distinct 
enunciation of the sounds of i long oj ay, and ofu short as in put, 
or sonielimes perhaps of a short, in cmota, the stress being laid on the 
long e. This is a sound which it is aifficult to acquire correctly. 

iu is a sound not differing much ^m the English ew in the words 
few, pew; but in Chinese more stress is usually laid on the f than on 
the u, and the latter vowel is nearly the same as in allure. 

at is pronounced nearly the same as in the French word g6itre, the 
o as in note or as in lord, and i as in pin, being both preserved distinct. 

6u is a very lengthened sound of the o in roll, which seems to Im; 
followed by the sound of short u in put; the distinction between this 
and the sound of a protracted o is considered doubtful. 

HI is a combination of the sound of the short u in put, or of the 
French U, with short i, nearly as in fluid, or as in the French word 

iii, is a similar sound, the short u being changed for ihe long 0. ur 
fio in fool. 

ttf, is comjKKsed of the short a in pui, before the short i; in men, 
ni»kiiig a sound which seems to resemble ii protracted sound of the 
short a in qiiolu 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1836. Ortiography of ChineM Woriii- ^ 

na, w composed of the short ii in put, before the »horl n in quota, 
making a broader sound than the preceding^ the two, howi^vcr, are 
in some syllables very much confounded. 

There are some othei: combinations of vowels which it will be 
sufficient to enumerate, the sounds of them being apparent from the 
letters of which they are composed ; viz. a abort i as in pin, befcve 
another vowel or diphthong. These arc ia, t&i, tdu, », ik, to, im, 
and inc. 

Being thus able to represent with clearness and precision the sounds 
of all the vowels and diphthongs in the Chinese lat^age, we proceed 
now to the eoitMmumts, taking first those which can be represented by 
single letters of the Roman uphabet. 

6, aa in bunn, hard, is a sound unknown in most parts of China, but 
is frequeni as an initial iu the dialect of Fuhkeen, the nasal m being 
interchangeable with it. In (he north of that province, however, the 
sound is changed either intoji or m. 

/, as in far, fast, is a frequent sound in Chinese : in the dialects it 
is often changed into an aspirate or vice vers<l. 

g, hard, aa in give, get, never occurs except in some of the 
dialects. Whenever this letter is found in European dictionaries of 
the general language as an initial, the nasal ng should supply its place, 
or an apostrophe marking (he omission of that nasal. The same re- 
mark aj^lies for the most part to the dialect of Canton. 

A, as an aspirate,- is very frequent in Chinese ; it is generally a 
stronger aspirate than in EngUsh : in the dialects of the south it is of- 
ten changed into/, in the north into s, or sk. To mark an aspirate 
after a coiiMHiant, we use the Greek spiritua asper in preference to A. 

j, as in jeet, or as ^ in gentle, is a sound which does not occur, 
unless perhaps in some of the dialects. Correctly speaking, it is not 
a simple consonanf, but is competed of if and the French J, or zh. 

j', aa in the French jamais, or as s in pleasure, occurs m Chinese, 
but with a tendency to change, as in German and Dutch, into the 
liquid sound of y, and rnto ng. We' affix a mark to this letter to 
distinguish it from the J in jeitr the mark should rather hav^ been 
altacl^ to the latter j, which represents a compound sound, had this 
not been already so generally adopted without a mark, in the Indian 
and Indo-Chinese languages. The use of the two letters th to express 
this simple sound, when so easily to be avoided, appears particularly 

k, as in kite, or as c in card, is a very frequent sound in Chinese, 
not only as an initial, but also in the dialects, as a Anal : as an ini- 
tial, it is often confounded with the strong aspirate h. It sometimes 
receives an aspiialioh after it, being then pronounced as k'h in the 
compound wwd, pack-house. When thus strongly aspirated, it is then, 
often changed, in the northern pronunciation, into cA. 

/, as in lame, is a frequent sound; it is often confouuded with'n. 

m, as in maim, is also of frequent occurrence aa an initial, but a.s a 

final, in the dialects only : in these it often takes the place of the final 

;. V^nOC^IC 

28 Ort\ogT<^3 of Ckiuesf Warttt. . Mat, 

n, M also of tlie initial w. In the didcctti of FubkecB and Canton, 
tliis aound sometimes occurs as a word by itself, unaccompanied by 
any distinct vowel sound. 

n, exactly as in nun, occurs frequently in Cbinese both as initial 
and final. 

j>, as in pin>in, u also a sound of frequmt occurrence in Chinese. 
In some syllables it is often confounded with /. It somethnes re- 
ceives an aspiration after it, when it Is imHHHinced as p'k in the 
compound word, hap-bazaid. It is then represented by a Greek 
aspirate after it, as in p'an ; for want of which we are obliged to 
use the inverted c(Mnm&. 

r, as a vibratory sound, is foreign to Chinese : it occurs, however, 
witliout any vibratory motion acc(»nptnying it, being then preceded 
by an indistinct vowel, i» by the a in qnoU. This somtd has been 
written uri and euOts the tatter is plainly incorrect, the sound which 
it is in^nded to rejtresent being enunciated, as we have said, by 
framing the mouth to express the sound of r, but wHbont a vibratory 
motion of the tongue. We have never beard this sound changed M 
all mto I; but in the dialects it itt altogether transmuted, being pro- 
nounced the same as i long in machine. 

5, OS in sit, occurs as on mitial only : it is often confounded with 
sh, a sound which the pe<^le in smne districts cannot pronounce 
at all. This sound never changes, as in Englidi, into that of %, but 
it is combined stmietimea with z, unaccompanied with any distinct 
vowel, forming a peculiar souud which can be caught only from 
the living voice. 

t, as in title, occurs often as an initial, and in the dialects is fre> 
quently a final also. It swnetimes receives an aspiration after it, 
when It is pronounced as the f A in ant-hill, and written with a Greek 
aspirate following it, as in fan. 

V, as in rerive, is a sound which does not exist in the general lan- 
guage of China, but it supplies the place ofw in some of the dialects. 

w, as in wuit, is a frequent sound : it is pronounced precisely as in 
the Ekiglish word wen, and if preceded by an k, precisely as in when. 

y, as in yet, is also a frequent sound : it is pronounced precisely 
as in yet, yard, and similar English words. 

z, as in zone, is a sound never used but in connection with n. 
Bee under 5, and below under sx. 

The only cimJnnaiiiins ofeonsoiunUi occurring in Chinese are. r.k, 
he, ng, nu, sk, sz, ts, and tn: of these, Hg and sk, although reprenenl- 
ed by two letters of the Roman alphabet, are indivisible soundn. 

ek is an initial, pronounced precisely as in the H'ord church, or as 
tch in French. This somid sometimes receives an axpiration after 
it, and is then ptonounced as ek'h in the combined words church-hill ; 
to avoid lh(> repetition of the k, we write this with a Greek aspiTat«> 
following tlx! th, as in ch'an. The aspirated h, is often turned into 
tk, particularly in the northern prominrialion. 

me, is precisely the ?iame' as wA in English, in the word, when. 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

IKW. OrtieerapAi/ of Ckiarsf Wordn. •}» 

na, an ill aiiigiiig, occiito in Cliiue^ both u aii initial and final : ax 
an iuilial it i^ ofteii diffiirull for a Btiropeaii to pronounw it correctly ; 
bill it may readily bt- acquired by raising the root of the Umgue lo- 
wardit llie palate, and at thr Mine time r.auNiiig the voice to paaa into 
tlie noiic. ThiK initial is often nitogetlier dropped, and an apostrophe 
or mark of anhclntioii k then uaed bv uk to Rupply its place. 

Rjr, or tlie Spanish liqnid n, occiirx in ('hinese, but is the correct 
pronunciation only of tno or tlnee vordM. It ix ofton used in place 
of the French^', uui incorrectly. 

sk, u precisely as in the English word ship, and occurs only aa in 
initial; it is often used interchangeably with k, and somatimea with 
A, when that letter is followed bv i or f. 

tz, is a peculiar sound, ctHuuting in a sudden change irom the 
enunciation of the hissing sound of s, to the more vooal sound of z ; 
it occurs only in one syllable, which, being usually pruKninced with- 
out any distinct vowel sound, we write sx.'. 

tt, is pr<Hiounc«d as in the words wit's end, suppoaingthe ti remov- 
ed from the end of tiie first, to the beginning of tbe second word. It 
sometiroee receives an aspiration after it, and is then pKHiounccd as 
in die wwds Scou's bouse, removing the fs of the first word to the 
beginning of the word bouse. 

tsx, is the preceding sound placed before s, in the sariK manner as 
has been exfAained with r^ard to » above. 

The use which we have made in this systcin of diacritical marks 
renders stune change necessary in the mode of designating the toius, 
or inflections of voice, of the difCr^rent syllables. Wc have formerly 
explained the nature of these tones, as applied by tbe Chinese to dis- 
tinguish words which are otherwise protMMinced atik«; and on tliat 
occasion conformed to the mode of noting them previously adnited 
by the cathoHc missionarieB, and after them by Dr. M(»Ttson. Per- 
I the same marks may be used as formerly, with tbe diffenncr 
ofplacing them after the words, rather then over the voWels. It 
IS our purpoen to revert to lliis subject at another time. 

We have been particular in defining the soundR which it has been 
our abject to lepresenl, in order that we might prevent the possibility 
of being mistaken. And our purpose in publishing the above scheme 
at tbe present time, is to invite all our friends and correspondents 
to favor iia wiih their opinions thereon, that with the different views 
of many lo assist im, we may be'enabW before the close of tbe year 
to consider the subject more maturely, preparatory lo introducing an 
accurate system of ortht^raphy in rair neici volume. 

ham thi 
only off 


*) Orthography of (yhinne Wor^s. Mav, 

Tlw following statement will nhow at one view the lett^m and 
marks which we have adopted, and iht^ noundfi they are intmded 
tft represent. 

Diatritical markf. 

<ii, the same lengthened ; shui. 

' Mark of abrupt termination ; as 

ue, asuinput,andeininen:yuen. 

in chi. 

na, ns u in put, and a in quota; 


' ) long soundfl; y6, y^n. 


* Mark of nasal enunciation i as 

b, as in bard; ba, b6,t 

in chw'«.t 

/, as in fan; fiin, fung. 
g, as in give; gii, gak.t 
A, as in have ; hang, hung. 
j, as in jest; uncertain if the 


a, as in quota; examples, tang, ta 

a.asincalm; ying. 

sound exist in Chinese. 

(!, as in men ; chck* 

i, as eV in ne'er; shfn. shj. 

i, as «' in neigh; cM.bM. 

/, as ID jamais id French; iing. 
A. as iD kite; kung, kii. 
/, as in lame ; lang, ling. 

t, as in pin; ping, pi. 
i, as in machine; p€. 

m, as in maim; man, mung. 
n, asin nun; nun, nung. 

0, as in lord ; po, pong.* 
tf, asin note; pa. 

p, as in pippin; pan, pung. 
r, u in after ; ar. 

N, asin put; pu. 

i,, as in rude; pt, pung. 

a, as in allure; Idn. 

ii, as in Tune in French; lii. 

s, as in sit; sin, sing. 

(, asin title; ting, ti. 

B, as in revive; provincial for te. 

w, as in want; wan, wiin. 


y, as in yet; ying, yfen. 

m, as in aide; example, hai.* 

*, as in zone ; does not occur. 

&i, the same as aye; hii. 
ou, as ou in our ; hau. 

Cctabintd consonaats. 

&K, asw, in bowl; hiu. 

eh, as in church ; ching. 

«, a»ty in bey; mei, wei. 

kw, as wA in when ; hwang. 

tu, as ay in la;, and u in put ; 

ng^, as in singing; nging. 


»y, as m in onion ; nyiag. 
sh. asinship;shin,sfaing. 

iu, as no in pew; chiu, siu. 

01, as in gditre; loi. 

«, a peculiar sound; «'. 

6u, lengthened sound of o. 

ti, as in wits' end; twn, tsing. 

ui, as in fluid ; lui. 

Isz, a peculiar sound ; tsz'. 

* SounJs occurring in th» Canton iji 

■I«ct, not in the lencral lanniRee. 

1 Rounihoi:rurriiiginlh»dialfrtofFiilikern, ' " 


elir WaUtr HkiOt. 

A«T. IV. LtHei " torittm on seeing sir Walter Scott embark for 
ScotUmd tN a mtlanekoly ilale of debility." 

it will 

pcared in jKiDt, ue sent for useition in the Chineoe Reposilon', — if thou^ 
watby ofapkce there i—Bj k FiieDd. Ciatoa, May 17th, 1636." Sure^ 
the Great Unlukown, in all hu muunga, never could have dmuoed that hia 
praisee would so aooii be puUiabed in the celestial empire. Should any of our 
gentle naden not think the « lines " the best ever written, nor perceive 
their brarin^ oa ihe otnecla of our Joianal, yet doubtless, they will find them 
a pleaiing mteriude betwe«i descriDtioas ri" 'acceiita,' 'aspirates.' and 
'nanb,' on the one nde, and of 'aln^oB.' 'entnqiia,' and the Uke, on the 
other. We ieare it with critics, without apcdo^y or prologiM, to determine 
the meiita of the lines, mly " presuming " as the Chinese say, oreepectfiitly 
to request our fiiendB to bestow ■ gluce upon them."] 

What car is that the cautious sailms seek, 
So silentlv to hoist upon the deck ! 
What feeuB form therein extended lud, 
By every eye so cautiously surveyed 1 
Pressed by a throng — all eager, yet not rude, 
Anxious to scan, yet fuaring to intrude — 
Wdl may tbey patise and gase intenUy. Here 
No vulgar cause excites the unbidden tear : 
At this aad scene may sorniw well break forth. 
B^dd the mi^ty Alinetrel of the north < 
Those paDid lips, which now so feebly move, 
Sang lumuion's valor and de Wilton's love ; 
Sounded Clan Alpine's gathering cry to aims, 
And sweetly whjspered gentle Ellen's charms. 
That ftding eye in dying dimness qu^cd, 
What biillunt visions hath it race behdd ! 
The court, the camp, the cottage, and the bower, 
Alike were pervious to its searclmw powers 
As oft, enraptured, it read nature o^r, 
FVoro Scotland's crtigi to Syria's buriiinff shore. 
Whilst by the Bard I now admiring stai^ . 

And sadly maik that scarcely living- hand. 
The creatures of its skill appear to me. 
Glittering in every bright variety. 
The fiery chieftain, his devoted clan. 
The gallant Graham, the stem Puritan, 
The virtuous Jennie, and frail Effie's grief,' 
The gipsy Sybil, wiae beyond belief. 
The princely Richard of the lion heart, 
The rival Soldan, greced by every art. 
The atalety TempUr, and the Prior vain. 
The Norman noble, and the Saxon Thane, 
The bold freebootera of the olden time, 

And Judali'g maiden, simple yet suUime ; 
All these, and more, now rapidly flit by. 


Ophthalmic Hospital at Canton. 

RcBected in ibe ^aas ofmemMy. — 
Ne'er ahtll tin i%et number you *g«uii 
Tlie wiz^^ unki altLo' hk ipellN remain ; 
To Moth him now Iww little tbev avul, 
Lew thui to Rboderick the old Ha^mr'a t«lc. 
And (0 exhauated will he braTe the sea. 
smi Caledonia, still he turns to thee, 
DraflS hiB bint footsteps from a foreign etnnd. 
Ana dying eeeka hii> own, hie native land, 
8i^ for thoK scenes his genius first made knowit. 
And there, content, will draw bis parting gioan. 
What tbo' we ffrieve at thjr approaching tomb. 
Can Fancy's s^f pwtray a bn^iter doom, 
A course inore glorioun than 'twas thine to ruu, 
Ddighting nations, yet oAnding none 7 
Ne'er swayed by envy, eager to commend. 
Thy only rival proud to be thy triend ; 
Unchanged bv all the flattery of fVine, 
The both applaudiug wwlds extol tliy name ; 
With satire's venom, ever uniinbued. 
So simply great, so eminently good, 
Childhood wia cltanned, and sober age approved. 
Admired by aU, by uU admiring loved. 
, 1633. J. D 

Art V. Opktkalmc Hospital at Canton: fteond Quarttrlif Report, 

from the 4M of February to the ith of May 1638 ; by the Kev. 

Peter Parker, m. d. 

[ Some rspain of the haapilal. which were much needed at Ihc end of lbs 

tecond term, made it nacenary to cIok the door for ■ few dayi, — during 

which, Dr. Parker i> enjoying a vtiit at Macao. His KepoR. which he prepared 

before leaving Caaton, loei to preu during bi> abtwuce : and in a few inilaiice* 
we have abrii^d the MS., it aiceeding cunaidersbJy the ipace alloted for il 
The exnentr* of the term were S441,9tt. The minin art now nearlr completed, 

,.1 'j -II , .' 1 Tl.. .:1L , L. .- .L- l.C_!.^, 

. reftpened. The lilk weaver, brought lo the bospitai 

on (be 12th itiitant, continues to improve, and has a fair proipect of a speedy 
recovery. May 24 ] 

The whole number of paticnL^ on the records of the hospital is now 
1'283. There were iLdmitied during the term 358, of whom 282 were 
males, and 76 femitles. In this number, those who remained on thn 
list at the end of the last term, with thoite who, having been cured 
and discharged, have had a relapse or a new attack of diseaw, though 
numerouK, arc not included. Had the object been to swell the ca- 
talogue of [Hitiruls ri-ccived, and wore the atreugtli of an individual 
^iflicieiit for the ta^^k of an adequate attendance, the aggregate mighl 
hate beeti lllU1l.-'»tld^. The diliicnlty has been in avoiding applica- 
tions. ratlH-r ihiiu in tilxaintng putimts. For nearly a month, ihc 


1836. Ophtlialmie Hosj^itat at Cmtm. 33 

doors were nominally oloeed ■gainst new af^icanta, and at least one 
third of tbe new patients have gained adniitlanee by importunity and 
the combined influence of ibeir friends, when Ibere were already as 
many in the bo^ital as coald be faitbfiilly attended. The young man 
(a Uiineae, born at Malacca and educated at the Anglochinese col- 
le^,) wbo rendered me essential assistance during the first quarter, 
having returned to Singapore, and a European sutwequently employed 
in his place having returned to England, tbe doable task of prescribe 
ing and conqMMinding medicines and administering tbe same devolved 
upon me, eioept as I have availed myself of the assistance of untaught 
CJbinese. Thos the labors have been more arduous than during the 
first term, though tbe number of new patients admitted to the ho^ital 
It would add very much to the efiiciency of tbe in- 

stitution, if the ctmstant services of a few well^ducated native youtb, 
anxious to become masters of the healing art, and {weparedtogo 
throiuh a thorough course of instruclicHi, could be secured ; and the 

benefits, which would accrue to such young men, would by no 
dieans be inconsiderable. 

The Buoeesa, too, of the second term calls equally with that of the 
first for gr&titute of heart to Him who has given it, and equally in* 
spires fi^b courage to entet upon the fiiture. Tbe following details 
will show that the institution has attracted more and more \ht atten- 
tion of those who might be expected to be most unfriendly to it. Offi- 
cers of government have in several instances personally countenanced 
it by ^>|riiealion for medical caie, and in their gratefiil acknowledg- 
ments of benefits received have exhibited no less wsrmth than their 
countrymen, in tbe humble walks of life, whom they have met in large 
numbm npcm the same floor. Ten officers of government with more 
than twice the number of their attendants (private secretaries, clerks 
in the puUic officesf dbc.,) have visited the hospital as patients. On 
one occasicm I rec<dlect as many as fire of these official gentlemen 
sitting around me at one time, with seventy-five or a hundred other 
patients seated about the room. An elderly man, who has filled 
tbe station of provincial judge, in one of the northern province, 
(the rank of which is indicated by a blue button,) has condescended 
to be enrolled among the patients of the hospital. Another gentleman 
resigned for a time nis office as district magistrate, fcv the same pur- 
pose; and the magistrate of Nanhae heiin, or tbe western district of 
Canton, sent in his card with a request that I would treat an afflicted 
child of his relative. 

The arrangement adopted in the first report will be followed in 
this; — first, presenting a tabular view of the aiseases, and then in the 
second [dace, giving in detail a few of the more important cases 
which have been under my care. The taUe showing the ages of the 
patients i> cnnitled. The diseases of the ear have been so numerous, 
titat h seemed desirable to class them together, as has been done. 
A few of tbe patients have been afflicted with more than one disease, 
in which eases each is numbered in the tabular form. The coses 
detailed, though few, must serve as ^tecimens of the whole. 

VOl^ V. NO. I. A 


Opithalmic Hospital at CeaUon. 


Diseaaes presented during the 
the ear, and 3dly, miscellaneous. 

1st: Amaurosis - - 13 

Acute ophthalmia - 34 

Chronic ophthalmia - 11 

Purulent ophthalmia - 15 
Rheumatic (q>hthalmia S 
Ophthalmitis • - 2 

Ophthalmia varicria - 1 

Cimjunctivitis - - 3 

Hordeolum - - 6 

Cataract - • 34 

Entropia . . 14 

Trichiasis - - 6 

Pterygium - - 11 

Opacity and vascularity 

of the cornea - 36 
Ulceration of the cornea 7 
NebulE . - - 9 

Albugo . - - 33 
Leacoma - • - 4 

Staphyloma - - 16 
Staphyloma aclero^ca. 3 

Onyx ... 3 

Iritis ... 3 

Lippkudo . - - 8 

Synechia anterior . 13 

S" nechia posterior - 3 

yoeia . . - 2 

Closed pupil with deposi- 
tion or lymph - 3 
Procidentia iridis - 3 
Glaucoma - - 1 
Efophthalmia - . 2 

Atr^hy - - - 13 
Hypertrophy - - 2 

Complete l<»s of the eyeu 16 
Total loss of one eye (i 

Injuriesof the eye - 2 

Obstruction of nasal duct I 
Weak eyes - - ^ 

3d : Abscess of the ear - 2 

Otorrhea - - 12 

Deficiency of cerumen 3 

Deposition of cerumen 5 

No. 844, February Isi. Ascilc 
niitiea. Oun lleong, aged thirteen 

piliil a few times lu^t term, attd wa: 

Aiiilicil |i' ftltll a." ba< ,. heiomc i-Iavi 

quarter ; Ist, of the eye, Sdly, of 

Nervous afieetions of the 

MalibrmBtion of the meatus 

aaditoritw - - I 

Enlargement of meatus 1 
Deafiiess with enlargement 

of the bones of the ear 2 

Deaibess - - . 4 

3d: Abscess of Parotid gland 1 

Psoas abscess - - 1 

Anasarca - - - 3 

Cancer of the breaat - 1 
Disease of the lower jaw 

with great tumefaction 1 

Ranule ... 2 

Benign polypi of the noife 3 

FistiSn in ano - . I 

Amenorhixa . - 2 

Chronic cystitis • 1 

Abdominal tumors - 3 

Sarcomatous tumors - 5 

Encysted tumor - 1 

Tinea capitis . . 3 

Scrofula . - - 3 
Indolent ulcer of the loot 

with elephantiasis I 

Asthma ... 2 

bronchitis - . 1 

Bronchial flux - - 1 

Pneumonia . . 4 

Ichthyosis. - . 2 

Impetigo ... 1 

Broncbocele . . 3 

Croup ... 1 

Opium mania* - 9 

Inguinal Hernia - 3 

Paraplegid - . 1 

Paralysis ol the aim . I 

Hydrocephalus . - 1 

with anasarca of the lower extrc- 
This little girl came to the hos- 

tlicn abMcnl till March. When 
1 lo the VLtt of -(h',' tIriiE " 

, V^nOO'^IC 

1836. Ophtitdmie Hospital at Canton. 35 

Bh« entered the hospital, she appeared more like a moDRter than a ^irl 
of thirteen. Her abdomen was greatly distended, her legs lhre« or 
ibur time* theii natural size, and her face very much bloated ; pulse 
from 190 to 130, respiration difficult ; severe and protracted cough at 
night with fever. The disease was making rapid progress, insomuch 
that -1 feared a fatal result, and told her friends they must eithet take 
her away, or be suiafied, if, afler the beat I could do, she should die in 
tlie hospital. Thej were urgent she should remain, promising to make 
no difficulty. Calomel, jalap, and cremor tartar were first administered 
for a few days. Blisters were applied to the legs with manifest advan* 
tage. Afterwards a pill of caktmel, gamboge, and pulvis scilln (A. cal. 
gr. jss. pulria gamb. gr. j. pulvia scilln, gr. ij.) was taken every tiight. 
Of par. elixir and spts. nitr. ether, each two drachms, and of tinct. 
digitalis twenty drops daily. This treatment was continued till the 
1st. of April, when absorption commenced and advanced most rapidly. 
Half a gallon of fluid was evacuated daily; the abdomen and lower 
extremities soon returned to their natural size; the fulness of the 
cheeks disapipeared : pulse 90, and the child, cheerful and light, 
could walk about the ho^ital. The same treatment was still conti- 
nued, till she seemed to have nearly recovered her usual health. 
Thinking a change of air might be serviceable, she was permitted to go 
home for a week, receiving strict charge as to the diet and medical 
treatment in the mean time. The day after her return, she came 
back to the ho^ital dressed in line clothes and painted like a doll, and 
with her a box of tea and other presents were sent 'from her master. 
But my pleasure was far from being unmingled. I had reason to think 
that the little child, instead of being recovered from a premature grave 
to be useful and respectable in life and happy beyond the tomb, was 
spared to be a source of gain to her master when of a suitable age to 
be sold for a concubine. And to add to this, in consequence of not 
adhering strictly to the directions given at her leaving, she returned 
in about ten days with a partial relapse, and has been put upon the 
same treatment again. 

No. 926. Gunshot wound. February 17th. Acheen, aged twenty- 
one. This youuff man unfortunately burst a matchlock in his hand. 
A servant in the factory came to roe in great agitation saying that 
a man wa« shot, and that he would request me to see him. I ordered 
the man to be carried to the hospital, where I would dresa his wound. 
I found both him and his friends who came with faim in great alarm 
test the wound should prove fatal ; but I soon found their alarm to 
be groundless, and they were pacified when assured of the patient's 
safety. The thumb was blown off from about the middle of the first 
bone, the portion that remained dislocated, the fractured end turned 
back to the wrist, and kept in that position by tendon and skin, with 
the muacles forming the ball of the thumb torn up to the wriat. Pre- 
paration for putting the wound in a proper state was commenced by 
removing with the knife the dislocated piece of bone, the shreds of 
skin, also the cartilage of the metacarpal bone, then cleansing the 
wouud, the edges of which were supporl<;d by Hdhctiivc straps, and 

1 V^nOC^IC 

36 OplUluihnc Nospitai ai Ctmtm. Mat, 

over these, large poultices were apj^ied: in & few days, healthy gra- 
nulations came on, and at the end of three weeks, the wound was 
quite healed. The patient was able to make conaiderable nae oTthe 
preserved portion of the thimib. 

No. 930. Encysted tumor. Pebruarr 24th. Pang she, a young 
widow, aged 30, from Tungpo, had had for many years an encysted 
tumor upon the head, situated poeteriwly and saperioriy to the mas- 
uad process, of an ova] form, a little flattened; its length about Uiree 
inchea, and transverse diameter two and a half inches. It was nic- 
cesBfullj removed. Its contents, after evacuating a wine glaaB of 
fluid, were of the consistency of thick dough, and of a browntut g<^. 
In abont twenty days the incision was entirely healed, and the pa- 

No. 931. February 36th. Asthma and c^ium mania. Asay, aged 
44, father of Akwei, the lad with imperlbrate meatus auditorius men- 
tioned in the last report. This man had been afflicted with asthma 
from youth and had long addicted himself to the excessive use of 
opium. On account of his father's illness and expected death, die 
lad was unwilling to remain iH the hospital, and after beingpermitted 
to return home became very irregular in his attendance. The father 
was brought in a boat cqiposite to the factories, where I was requested 
to see him. The alarm of friends was well grounded reelecting him. 
He was very languid, tn^athed with great difficulty, and had general 
(edema throughout the system. Being unwilling to prescribe fer him 
without seeing him daily, and being desirous also thu his son should 
remain longer under my care, the uther was received into the bo^i- 
tal, his health began in a few days to improve, and strong Hopes were 
entertained of his recovery. When sent for one meaning to see him, 
as he was thought to be worse, I went directly, but found, to my sur^ 
prise that he had been some time dead. Probably there was an effii- 
sion into the thorax. The other patients were inmiediately removed 
from the room and the door closed. Patients were received during 
the day, the fricndii were apprised of the event, and requested to 
come in the evening and remove the corpse. 

The occurrence waa regarded and treated as an event in Provi- 
dence, and there was no disposition on our part to conceal the event. 
The corpse was removed and no difficulty ensued. A few days 
afler, I was informed that Akwei must attend to the fiineral cere- 
monies and could not come any more for the present. I explained 
to him the necessity of the case and objected to hia leaving. He 
absented himself, however, and I heard no more of him till some weeks 
subsequently, when being in the part of the city where he resided, I 
was recognized by the grandfather and invited to the residence of 
the deccaMid. The car had been neglected and the orifice nearly 
healed up, having a depression in the situation of the foramen. 

No. 962. March 5th. Di.>vase of the Antrum maxillare. Ashun, of 
Ko Ion;;, aged 34, a carpenter. The disease commpnced a little more 
rhan a yM ago. Formerly il communicated both with (he mouth 
)iid nosf, and dischargod yrllowifh fluid. On a former occasion. 

leea. Opitkalmu Hospital at Cmtm. 37 

being ac^ainlM) with the use of tocds, he periwined an operation 
upon himsetr. With the aid of his knife and a looking-glaas he eva- 
cuated itn contents ; but the dieeaae returned, and, having heard of the 
foreigner, he preferred a three days' journey to the perfonnance of 
a aecond ixieration by his own hand. When he came, the face wan 
ninch BWoUen, and painful, and in the mouth was the appearance of a 
tumor from tbe gum. Il was evident that there was a depositmn of 
fluid. I lanced it in the mouth and evacuated two fluid ooncee re- 
BemUing gall, i afterwards passed a probe into the antrum, three or 
lour inches in several direction!, without pain to the patient. There 
was a tooth slightly defective t^iposite to it, which appeared to be an 
effect rather uan a cause. I encouraged tbe patient to eipect only 
temporary relief. He returned the same night with a promise to 
etxne ^oin in three days, his business not allowing him to remain 
ibr further treatment As I have not since heard from him, I pre- 
sume that the fluid has not^again ccdlected. 

No. 967. March 7th. Hypertrophy of the right eye with deep opa- 
oity of tbe etnmea. Sze koo, aged 33, of tbe [wovince of Nganhwuy, 
daughter of Chaou K«u, a district ondermagiatrate in thie province, 
who had sent his card, a few days previously, with a representation of 
her case, of which a translation by Mr. Honison is 8ub)oined. 

■• I herewith prearat a statement respecting the a^cttcm of the eye under 
which Am suSws, reqnestin^ iiutruction. Hy young daughter is upward* 
of 30 yean (4d. In her nght eye a coveting (cataract) bas grown up, 
■hading the pupil, which araae from a diseased state <rf'the ixnrelB, when she 
was between five and six yeais dd. A covering rfakin has grown over tbe 
•ye so thst she caiUMt see ai^tluiig with it, and althai^ she has been under 
nwdieal treatment, tbe sigfat !■■ not been improved, but she. can stiU perceive 
light fan a bri^ day }. Probably tbe pupil is not injured, but only covered 
over tiy tbe cataract (uterally, whitescreen). I have beard oT Dr. Psrfcer, 
a second Mwato^ and desire to solicit that be will lotA at the eye and take 
her ntdsr his care. 1 reouest him to couch the cataiact, and though she should 

)t be able to aee, I shall be satitfed. I paiticukrly entreat bun to adopt a 

' ik and ea^ method o^cnre. If he can indeed cure bei, ahe shaD go on the 
1 instant to scdicit hiacaieof her, and I beg that be i^ either give her 
medicine, m ad<^ seme other good mode of treating her, permitting her to 
return the same day. If it be necessary to remun from hMne, itwDlbein- 
cmvenient. I trust he will inform me whether this be right or not. And I 

qidck ai 
20th in 

By repeated puncturing of the affected eye and evacuating tbe 
aqueous humor, it has been reduced to nearly its natural size, so that 
the lids cover it, which is all that she or her friends were encouraged 
to expect when I " took her under my care," and with which tfiey 
are well satisfied. Of the affection to which the father attributed the 
lossof her eye, she has also been relieved. Naturally amiable and good 
looking, neatly dressed, with less rouge and artiliciat flowers than 
many of her countrywomen employ to improve their beauty, she seem- 
ed only to need intellectual and moral culture to fit her to he an 
agreeable member of any good society. Her father, two brothers, and 
a tittle sister, an interesting fumily, hare all been my patients during 

1 V^nOC^IC 

X* Ophthaimie Hospital at Canton. Mat, 

No. 1017. Mkrch 12th. Sarcomatoua tumor. Also;, aged 14, of 
Paksha. This tumoT commenced two j^ears since, situated beneath 
the light eyebrow. One part extended ap upon the forehead two 
inches, the other downwards so as to conceal the eye. The lad, un- 
usually sprightly and pleasant, consented readily to have it extirpated. 
This was done on the 17th, when I found it to originate much deeper 
in the orbit of the eye than I had hefore supposed. I found it attached 
at its base near the orbital foramen by a kind of peduncle, into which 
passed an artery, that was furnishing it with mil nutriment. Two 
arteries required a ligature. The eyebrow was not much disfigured 
by beiiig divided. The parts were united by a suture, the power of 
the lid was preserved, and the eye, before nearly useless, was again 
equally valuable as the other. Judging from the size it had attain- 
ed in two years, and the supply of blood it was receiving from tite 
artery, it must have become a great evil. The wound healed kindly 
by granulations, and in three weeks the patient was discharged. 

No. 1077. March 28th. Sarcomatous tumors. Asoo, aged 21. 
This young woman hod a tumor firom the pendulous portion of each 
ear, both about three fourths of an inch in diameter. March 31st, I 
removed the tumors by a double incision, in the form of the letter V 
inverted, and with sutures brought the lips together. Her first inquiry 
after the operation was if she ever again could wear ear-rings. The 
wounds healed by the first intention, and in a little more than a week 
the patient was quite well, and the natural shape of the ear perfectly 
preserved. — One other patient with a similar aflection of one ear has 
I presented. Probably these tumors were originated by wearing 
of great weight and of improper composition. 
I. 1114. Nervous affection of the ear with malformation of the 
meatus. Le Kingko aged 67, of Fuhshan, the provincial judge or 
ngancbtiBze before alluded to, came to the hospital on the 6th of April, 
desiring treatment for an affection of his ears. He complained of 
deafness and a noise in his ears. I found the meatus auditoiius very 
irregular, preternaturally enlarged both internally and externally 
though too smalt centrally. Externally, the orifice was nearly trian- 
gular. Pulse 84, foul tongue, and costive. He was informed that the 
malformation wai irremediable, that his general health might be im- 
proved, when probably the noine he compfained of would subside, and 
his hearing might be also benefited though not completely restored. 
Treatment : Syringed the ears and introduced cotton, and gave of 
calomel and rhubarb each eiglil grs. at night, and an omicc of sulphate 
of magnesia in Ihe morning. Applied blisters behind each ear. April 
Ihli. Left ear better, the noise nearly .subsided. Gave of romp. ex( ofco- 
locynth twenly grains, ton to be taken at night and the remainder in 
tweniy-fonr hours. Syringed the ear, dressed the blisters with basi- 
licon, and direct)^ him to come again in two days. April 12th, 
(■vidont improvement in his hearing and general health, and the old 
gentleman expresM>d himself much pleased with the benefit received. 
I introduced a little len-binlh roraio diluted, and the same treat- 

1 V^nOO'^iC 


1836. Ophlhalmie Hospilal at Canton. 39 

No. 1343. April ttOtb. NasoJ polypi. Tingqu&, aged 6S, a nativs 
of Fubkeen, aaa partner of one of the senior hong merchants, bad 
been afiicted br live years with nasal polypi in both nostrila. The 
fitM I aUempied was completely removed in half an hour, and with 
little loM of blood. The old gentleman proposed that I should remove 
the other also, which was elected in fifteen minutea. This ptdypuii 
came away entire, bringing with it a piece of thin bone, one third 
of an inch long and one eighth wide. The pavient endured the ope- 
ration as if insensible to pain. I have repeatedly seen him since. 
With one nostril he can breathe as freely u ever, the other will 
require a further operation. Previously to operating upon Tingqua, I 
had been called to h)B house to visit his wife, who has long been a& 
flioted with chronic iritis in both eyes. Her sight is now sensibly 
improved, but as she is still under treatment, I defer the particulars 
of her case. I have had other patients from the same family. 

Among the several cases of nasal pc^ypi presented, I may here 
mention another. This patient had also a polypus in each nosttit, 
and when I first saw them I judged them to l>e of a malignant cha- 
racter, as they were inflamed and bleeding, and the least violence 
would excite hemorrhage. 1 immediately pronounced them of a kind 
not to be interfered with, and the patient went away. But his unfor- 
tunate condition was still revolving in my mind. I sent fbi him in 
a few days thai I might again examine his case. 1 then abraded a 
a small portion of one polypus and waited to see if it healed. There 
was some hemorrnage. In a little time it healed kindly, and inferring 
from a rart what, might be true of the whole, I proposed to remove 
them. They adhered firmly around nearly the whole circumference 
of the anterior nares, but how far back they extended I could not 
determine. With a small scalpel, as the fbrc^ were inapplicable, 1 
dissected out both. Fortunately they were limited within the anterior 
naree. There was rather more than usual hemorrhage, but I have 
n(H seen a case in which the result was more satisbctory. 

During the quarter, a larger proportion of cataracts have been 
presented than in the first term. Upon a child five years old, who 
had been partially blind from cataract in both eyes for three years, 
succeeefiil operation has been performed. The difficulty of confining 
the little patient so as to couch it in the ordinary way rendered it 
necessary to introduce the needle in front, through the cornea and 
break up the lens. The next day I could not perceive where the 
puncture had been made. The wound healed and the absorption 
was rapid. I have since operated upon the other eye, but before the 
absorption will be complete, expect to introduce the needle again. 

Within the last fortnight 1 have operated upon hve children ( the 
eldest thirteen years old,) for staphyloma. In two of these, tlie eye 
protruded ra far aa to render it impossible to cover it with the lids. In 
each case the removal of the protruding portion wa.s attended with no 
unpleasant consequences. In one case the excision let) llii' len^ m) 
that its capsule or a new deposite over it prei^ntcd tlir appcuraiice uf 
a new cornea, the patient still insensible to light, but much improved 

1 V^nOC^IC 

40 OfNUAobwe Hoipitcd at Caxlon. Hav, 

in appeiiuice, aod relieved of a khitcc of perpelutl inconTenience 
ind pain. 

No. 137». Hay 3d. Ininry by fall- Yeiing she, aged 34. A 
ailkweaTer. Oo the afqmMcb of a very severe thunder atwm that 
occurred on the 3d instant, this woman went to take in some clothes 
from an upper loft, and in her haste to return fell bwa a ladder, a 
distance m twelve feet, upon a perpendicular piece of bamboo one 
inch in diuneter and three feet high. It entered deep in the centre 
of the right ann-pit, came out above the shoulder beneath the clavicle 
which it fractnied, reentered the side of the neck, and passed »p- 
parently through the pharynx and cesophagus, rent the soft palate of 
the mouth bim the faucee to the nose, and was arrested only bj the 
base of the cranium. About eighteen hours had elapsed from the 
time of the accident, when I first saw her. The wounds ha«l been 
covered over with some Chioeae plaster. The patient had a high 
fever, hot and dry skin, pulse 126, and local inflammation about the 
wounds. Fluids taken into the mouth came out at the side of the 
neck, and the atr also passed on respiratimi. Treatment: Dressed 
the wounds, applied poultices to the ton and inflamed parts, abstracted 
nearly fourteen ounces of blood, and gave her a cakHnel and rhubarb 
cathartic, half a drachm of Dover's powders to be taken in five grain 
doses hourly, and in the evening a|^ied one dozen leeches about the 
ciavidealongtbe course ofthewoond. May 4th. Patient as comlMta- 
Ue aa could be e^qmcled fitMn the nature of the case. Pulae 106. Free 
alvine evaeuatiooi, indicating that a large quantity of blood must 
have been swallowed. Fever of the systein much abated as well as the 
local inflvnation.. She had expectorated about half a pint of thick 
lumpy sputum (sIk had previously a catarrh,) during the night. The 
pounicea and Dover's powders were continued, with the addition of 
fifteen grains of carbonate of ammonia taken during the day. 

Hay 5th. Symptoms of the patient as favorable as on the preceding 
day. I found the external jugular had been just avoided at the place 
where the bamboo reentered. Slight fetor from the wounds, though 
the edges of them appeared well. FatieDt could swallow more easUy, 
some appetite and less thirst than before. Dressed the wounds, inject- 
ing them with a adution of nitrate of silver, ten grains to the ounce (tf 
water, and continaed the treatment with addition of an ounce of sul- 
phate of magnesia, which was rejected. May 6th. No material chuice. 
Same treatment continued, and all the wounds' were cleansed with a 
solution of chloride of lime. il. tincL rhubarb drachme iij. Hay 7th, 
pulse 100; orificesof the wounds appeared healthy; the patient could 
swallow more easily than on any preceding day, but complained man 
than ever of debility. ConaideraUe coma, with stertorous breathine. 
Perceiving some discharge from the fractured end of the clavicle, I 
examined it more particularly , and traced with my probe and directory 
the passage of the bamboo from the shoulder to the entrance of the 
axilla. 1 drctufcd the wounds as usual, and as there had been no eva- 
cuations, gave four grains of calomel to be followed by half an ounce 
of tinci. rhubarb, and thirty drops of laudanum to be taken at night. 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

ItSH!. Opklkolmic Hii-^j>ilal at Couton 41 

Directed the pttient to lii: m much u powiblv on the afiecled side, to 
prevent efiiuuon of putt into the thortu- Tlie ducharffe rrom the 
mouth being airollu' to that exteruolty, it appeared probable iliai there 
was a coinmimieation with the lungu. I had but lilUe expectatton of 
liur recovery. May 6th, pulse 106. Expectorated dukcoaaula of blood, 
and I removed aome alao from the wound in the side of the neck. In 
much better ^irits, ehe had little pain, less comatoee, no evacuuion, 
and the mouth slightly aore. Dressed the wounds, save a gargle of 
laudanum, one drachm to four ounces of water. Ordered to be taken 
alternately every hour, rectified spirits of etlier, and q>irits of ammo 
nia, a drachm of the former and twenty drops of the latter. Also to 
iuhale the aame and ^^ly spirits of ether to the temples. Hay 9th, 
much better. Pulse 9D, more natural. Bowels free: appetite not 
good : countenance much better : wound is healing : and tne patient 
expectorates easily and less than before. Swelling and emphysema 
about tlie fractured bones subsided. Bandaged about the chest, and 
drew the parts together, placed cushions under the arms, adhesive plas- 
ter to close the orifices, and poultices over them. Carbonate of ammo- 
nia as before. May lOih, much better; pulse 90, rather feeble. Less 
nocturnal fever, slept quietly. Wounds still appear healthy, granula- 
tions commenced. Treatment, easentially the same. The patient at 
her request was allowed to eat broth and a little fresh fitih. May 11th, 
pulse 90,'and all her symptoms favorable. Proposed that the patient 
be removed to the hospital to-morrow. May 12tli, tihe was ^ble to be 
brought to the hospital, and all the wounds apparently healtliy. Not 
much fatigued. Same general treatment coutinued. 

The ease of Ping, hojtpo of Canton, claims a remark or two in this 
place. Some time in the month of March, one of the linguists came 
and informed me that the boppo " had something the matter " with 
his eyes; but as the " great man " did not like to come to the boo- 
pital, tlic linguist wished to know if I would meet him at the Compa- 
ny's factory. As I had no right there, I preferred he should come to 
my own residence, the next day or at any time he chose, or if he pre- 
ferred I would go to his house. With this, the linguist was pleased, 
and said he would brins a reply the next day. He did eo, informing 
me that the hoppo had looked in his hook, and fbimd that the ISth 
of the moon was an auspicious day, and that he would then come. 
Before it arrived, however, I was informed, that as he had some extra 
business, it would not be convenient, but he would see me before he 
returned to Peking. This, however, he has not done. Aa he was soon 
to present himself at the imperial court, it might not have been miim- 
portant if I could have been instrumental in amtrding him an obvious 
benefit ; but, from all I could learn of the nature ofhis disease, tlieTe 
was little chance of reudering much assistance by merely seeing him 
once or twice, 

I eannot close tliis report without adverting to the encouragement 
afforded by the generous donations of friends and the kind sentiments 
that have uniformly accompanied titem. The amount of donations re- 
ceived now exceeds 91400, of »hich <i particidar acknowledgement 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

42 Rrligivia iHttUigemet- Ma\ , 

will be given at ilie expiratiou of the y«ar. lu the nicaii time, I 
desire to eKtweaa sincere thanks in behalf of the hoodredB, rceipieuls 
or their muniliceace. It ia an encowagemenl, a generoaity, the 
more aensibly appreciated as it baa been unexpected. I wish also to 
acknowledge the unremitted kindness of Dr Cox, who has continued 
lo awist me weekly upon the day fiv operations. 

In this haaty report it ia impossible to con?ey to the mind of a 
stranger an adequate idea of the interesting scenes of the past three 
months. To do this he need imagine an assembly areraging &om 
Kventy-Rve to a hundred of the unfOTtunite in every rank. He need 
see the man or child lately groping in darkness now rejoicing to be- 
hold the light ; here the fond mother, her countenance overcast with 
gloom at the apfH'ehenttcHi that a darling child must soon die, pre- 
sently wanting terms to express her joy as she sees that child prat- 
tling around her, insensible to the danger from which it has been res- 
cued; and again he should wiutess the gratitude of those whose pfx>- 
tracted afflictions they had supposed would terminate only with life, 
in a few days restored to health ; and as he beholds considerable num- 
bers who never again can see the light, think of a still larger com- 
pitny, who bui for the timely relief horded would have become alike 
unfortunate. Were it 'all of life to live,' were there no hereafter, the 
condition of man being as it is, there would exist no higher privilege 
than to be a physician, rendering advice and assistance and dispensing 
mtdiciiies gratuitously. But the reflection perpetually recurs, it is not 
alt of life to live. Beyond the limits of man's earthly being, the soul's 
cxislcnce is cicrnni, and as the duration of the tatter exceeds that of 
ihe ibrnier, so is its welfare more important and desirable; and the 
perfection of earthly felicity would be to labor direetlg, to labor long 
and successfully for it, and especially among those whose immortal 
happiness has so long been neglected. But since this is in a measure 
impracticable, and by the Chinese as a nation unappreciated, it in 
just or.CBsbn of thankfulness lo God that tho»e means can now be 
employed, which, in themselves most desirable, are chiefly important 
as priparatory to their reception of his most valuable gift lo man, 
the Uospet, which in destined ultimately to bring into Ihe Ibid of (he 
Keitccnicr an innumerable multitude frocn the inhabitants of thib 
unique and populous empire. 

Art. VI. Religious inttUigtiirt : tiaiuliBuh aud Herpty tslaiufsf 
Hatania; Singe^re; Molucca; Ptnang: Siiim; Burmak; and 
Within a few days, It^ttersi have conif into our hands from ihc several 
plnceH specified above. Among the i-ommunicatioiis from the Sand- 
wii;h Isbinds. wa» the second article in our previa number, with 
VunoUM s|)<7ciincn^ of new works which Imve appeared in the Hauaiiaii 

183a Religious JnUUigmce. 4.t 

lu)gntg«. For these ravors we feel much nbli^ed to tlrone friends 
who hare conferred them, and hope our obligations may yet be still 
greater. The "Vocabulary" shall soon be noticed. 

In k letter inm the Herve; Islands, dated Raiotgna, December Stii, 
1834, by Messrs. Pitman and Buzacott, it a[^ars that wars, pesti- 
lence, fire, and hurricanes, have been experienced in that place. The 
three following extracts are from the letter before us. 

" Through the ' tender mercies of our God ' we have been spared 
to labor in this part of his vineyard for rather more than seven yean 
and a half, during which period we have experienced a diversity of 
changes. Two native teachers from the Society Islands preceded us, 
by whose labors idolatry had been abolished and their temples des- 
troyed. The conduct of one of them, however, was so very incon- 
sistent Ihat we were compelled to deprive him of his ofSce, which has 
not been restored, As we acquired the language, we found the peo- 
ple to be in a wretched state of ignorance, hut willing, and apparently 
denrmu of instruction. At Avarua a very large chapel was erected, 
three hundred feet long, where the people formerly worshiped. Bui 
just before our arrival they had removed toanother part of the island, 
Gnatagnia. Here we erected a building for the worship of God, one 
hundred and fifty-fijur feet by fifty-six, which was well attended. We 
Boon found the expediency of the people being divided and of residing 
within the boundaries of their re^>ective leading chiefs. Three set- 
tlements were consequently formed, in each ot which was erected a 
chapel and school-house. * * ' 

"But faith and patience were yet to be put to the test A few 
months passed away when we were reminded of the instability of all 
things temporal, by the visitation of a most destructive hurricane, the 
sea at the same time over-stepping its usual boundaries. In accom- 
plishing its appointed work no time was lost. All our chapels, school- 
houses and nearly every dwelling bouse in the island, in a few hours, 
were leveled to the ground ; trees of many years growth were torn 
up by the roots ; hundreds of our valuable bread-fruit and other trees 
destroyed ; in fact, scarcely any food waa left for our poor afflicted peo- 
ple. For several months afterwards they lived upon the roots of the si 
and plantain trees. As soon as practicable we reerected our chapels 
and dwelling houses, which was a work of great labor. 

"In each ofoursetdements those who voluntarily attach themselves 
to us are divided into classes ; and as the people forsook their evil 
practices, and agreed to the rules of our society, they were admitted. 
By this means we become more thoroughly acquainted with thei 
private as well as public character. Our chiefs, though constant 
their attendance on divine worship, and always ready to assist us 
any f^oposed undertaking, did not, for the most part, unite with us ; 
conscious, probably, that their private conduct did not correspond 
with the rotes of our society. A very great change, however, has 
now taken place, and we scarcely know a chief on the islands but 
has voluntarily attached himself to the cause of truth. Our chapels 
are crowded every Lord's day; and two evenings in the week our 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

44 Jottnud of Ocatrraues. If at, 

congregations are tctj luge. Our schools also are well attended, 
and the children take great pleasure in learning : we have about 2S00 
under a course of dailj instruclitHi. A rery great spirit of inquiry at 
present prevails, and man; profess lo be sertoasly impressed witk the 
word of Ood. Several hare B[^ied &r baptism and admission to the 
Lord's table. Churches have been founded at each settlement; mem- 
bers in the whole about fiHty-eight; we have also several candidates." 
Ncu. Fur waul o( mam «« *n ohiiged to poMpone the JDlelligenee frua 
BalavM, Singipore. JUIacca, Fenang, Bumub, ind Bomhuj. 

Art. VII. Jounul of Occttmnea. Peking OauUe; Ptking; 

ShoHse; Hooitan; Tibet: imptriai commiisiimers; CmtoH Court 

Ths eitiacti which we have made from the Gnrelle nnd Conrt Circular, will 
indicate the Kate of psblk ifTiin butb el Peking and Canton. The " eatnmual 
•Mite*," mentioned in the Court Circular, ere lo called became, thiHigh ad- 
jud^d now In the provincei, the chmiDiili, or reneienlBtioni of ihur caeai, 
are In aitfinta to come onder the coniidenition of his mi^jeitj, who will Ihea 

CDOuncB (he irrevocable aentenee. During the month, a malignant dneete bat 
n prevalent nmong the Chineu, in and ■bant the provincial citj ; and death* 
have boen frequent and Hidden. The fall of rain ha* been abandant; and in mvm«1 
instance!, il hai been accompanied with heavy galea, thaader, and ligbtoiag, 
wmelimes terrific. The proipeeti for good crops of rice, itik, Af., are lair. 
Within a few day*, arrivals (of foreign venels) have been numernua. Among 
them are tnrooftbe U. 8. navv: Ihe sloop Peacock, C,K. BtribllnEi eiqaire, com- 
manderi and th« schooner LnlerprUe: from BaiavU, Siam, and Coehinehina. 
The Peacock, we undereland, bean the broad pendanl of commodore Kennedy. 

TJk Pdtimf GaxMa. The prcu of other matter his made a* rather behind- 
hand in oureitracl) from Ihe» documeats, (he principal source of general infor- 
mation respecting China which we poiseu. An account of (he manner in which 
the Gaaettes are compiled and pobliihed has been given on the tilth pare of 
the Repository for the present month, accompanied hy a translation of a iA<de 
aainbar ai a spedmen, — a specimen, however, mther more favorahie than ii 
usually in be met with, the chief contents often consisting of long docaments 
KSpeetiBg an«aii of duty, nerlecls of form at literary or military eiaminalions, 
details rieometrUingcnminarcBse at Peking, or iveommendationi of officers for 
soma not very important district magislraRy. Through much uninteresting matter 
of this nature tnuil we wede. in order (o ivoid missing ohjecls of a more inte- 
resting characlnr which we often End. Henco it must frequently happen that, 
for want of leiture sufficient to translate many document!, we are com|>elted to 
limit OttnelvBS to a summary of their ooutentl. Such a sumniarTi however, at 
the least, we hope that we shall be able to give our readers regtilaiHy from month 
lo month, beinf; convinced that we shall thereby famish them with mora vaJaable 
informiilion on many points Ihan we can possibly do hy any labored articles. 
Our present flie reaches back to the beginning of November last, and extends lo 
the end (ifKebruiry: hnl we have aitracU respecting changes of appointments, 
degndatinns. and !0 forth, as well as of (be more interesting documents, of a 
month's later date. We will arrange our summary with reference to the order 
if the different provinrci. placing every thing of a mora general nature under the 
heed of Peking 

Pehing. Several im|ierial edict! have lately appeared which are sddreqcd to 
■h'. whole empire We puhli^hrd. lajt month, one on the subject of negllgencr 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

IN3!>. Journal of' Offurtraer. 

in nililxry unpoiiitmciiti; nnd on ■ 
trantlatinn t» KDOtbcr Ki^inal the pn 
■ecretuiM, of hi^ officen in (ho go< 

in nililiuy tii>poii)tinciiti; nnd on ■ preceilini; pu« lA unr prcu-iil nnnilwr ii 
trantlatinn 01 KDotbcr K|^ifi9i the pnictieM of me 'lllrniy uaMaiiii,' itr privt 

R or dutnct, leil tiw mlimalr 
1 (II theie individuib ^ould divert thitm froo) Ihit impartiality and 
iiprightneu which ought lo cbaracteriae the awisluiiU ufofficKra whoia doty il is 
iu decida OD the literary msrits of antneroui candidatea. The other edict id re- 
ference Lu literary officen, is prohibitory of their receiving any kind of fuel or 

Ano^er genorvl edict il in reference to the negligence with wliich the reviews 
of the military in til the provinoei are for the mnl jtarl conducted ; Ihia ii oeea- 
Moned l»y the repoK given by Bhin KeheSn, the newly appointed lieut.-governor 
of Hhanie, u to the «lal< \m which he find* tlie military in that province. In Ihia 
iaMance, hii miJMly it tiM mora ioiUgDaDt, inanniich as high military officen h«d 
oa aeveral occwmm been wHt into that province to revtew the troops. After 
rvpnmanding tbeaa. hts Bajesty conclades in the followil^ terms : "Hereafter lei 
■II the govemon and lieat.-govemon act with renl mbI lor the proper discipline 
of the army and for the maintenance of correct principles in it; and let IhoM 
bin)) officen wlia are spectally appointed by us to review (he force*, lay aride hII 
nndiw rennl for otbers. and dis(jnguiiili wi(h a perfect regard to justice (he sev- 
eral menti or demerits of those nubmitted (o (heir inspec(ion, even as if we 
wweonrselfpntMt to review (hem. By thus acting, they will not fail offuJGII- 
ln|lhe Im^MTtut duties iotnisted to (hem." 

Ofaainular chaiwiter with tbia is another general edict, occasioned by the 
careleM OMnnec in which Wanfoo, one of the first ministers, performed the dntlei 
of ■ mission on which he was sent to a RIongol tribe. The object of the mission 
was to lnvestiga(e (be conduct of (be bead of the (ribe. It ippean that in his 
report on this subject, Wanfoo absurdly repreaented the prince ai baving, on one 
occasion (we know nothing beyond what is here staled,) gone to a hunting 
nrty seated in a sedan: on which his m^eitv indignantly ramariii: "ivbat 
bnntlttg IS It possible for him to have there ! and who ever beard of going to a 
hunting parly in a chair ! How could Wanfoo insert in a memorial ■tatements so 
plainly talslned 7" Exulted by tbii and other feults in the memorial, hia majesty 
Inms his attention lo the whole empire, end eiolalms: "A thousand parts of tlie 
maohinery daUy demand our care, and if onrtboagbts wander from them in the 
least degree, eicess or defect in one quarter or another b inevitable. Have all 
oar servants, the recipients of mnUlplied favora, never heard that rule which a 
thoniBnd ages have ratified, that 

"Hieir merits, to their prinoe tliey owe. 
'Their faults themselves must bear?' 
FoTxatfnl of this rule, they all screen one another; and to free Iheinselves 
from the impotatiou of error they make their sole ohject. In what way on 
th^ *V^y to tbemseivea ■ the constant toil — the ill-report ' which it spoken td"? 
Hweaher, then, lei them make it their anxious endeavor (o rouse Ibenselves 
(ram all tlotb and indolence, and rid Ibemielvei of every had habit. — Let this 
be made known at an edict ad dresMd toil!. Respect this." 

■Wants. The late ditturliances in Bhanu formei) one of Ibe niori prominent 
topics in the gaaettes at the close of the last year, bavincby their nearness tA 
Peking eieited more pari iculariy his majesty's attention. Tbb intnrrectJon com- 
mencwl In April 1836, and was not entirely suppressed until after three months 
bad elapted. We have given all the information which the Peking gnaette af- 
fords relativa to its commencement in our number for June last year, and this is 
all we bear of it nntit tome time after, in a gaaette of the latter end nrJaly,.of 
which we have bnt lately obtained a copy. It coDtaini a report from Oshnnan. 
the U.-gDVBmar, of the disturbance having been entirely anppreiited. On this 
occasion, hit majesty, pleased to hear of the entire ditpenion of insurgents, ap- 
proved of what Othunan had done, and waived (he inquiry into his condnrl 
which (be laws ordinarily rander necetiary. A nephew, ye( under age, of (he offi- 
cer, who wHh all bis household had been uwnaered by the innurKents, was declar- 
ed heir to (be title which hail been granled to (be deceased olEoer, and It was 

1 V^nOC^IC 

46 Journal of Oramrtirfn. M*v, 

direclcd thai 'on altainine liis majorily lie ihould hr presented fur iiivestilure. 
Viriou) officrn who lind been active in Ihe conteit received prnmiMian, and Ibr 
people who had (ulfKred. and tlioae wlio had subtcribed toward the pipermct of 
the conteit, were in varioui wayi made Ihe recipienia of imperial favoRi. 

But ■ roeniber of Ihe cenwirate had meantime twen making inquiriei. and dii- 
covered Ihal the false doctrines which the iiistirator of the disturbances had dii- 
leminated had their origin as far back as 1822. This he Immediately represented 
to the emperor, accompanying his representation with a request that the officen 
who bad (ailed to discover this fact, from that period onwardi, should be suhject' 
ed to inquiry. His majesty now discovered that Oshtinan had allowed half • 
year to elapse since the suppression of the disturbance, without having nnt in 
any statement in refard to Ihoee olEcen who had neglected their duty, that nn 
the fxintrary he had stated the case of some of thete in the most favorable light, 
and that his recommendations of olhen. had been chiefly confined to Ihe civil 
branch of the service. His majeslv now found thai since hli appointment to the 

fore degraded, and sent in a subordioale capacity iulo Mantthon Tartary. Aher 
this, a long list appeared of the officers who had since 18^ occupied the principal 
sttitionsin llie proiince, all of whom have been punished by degradation of rank in 
their various atations. Finally, another allegalion having been brought against 
Oshunan. he was ngaln condemned and degraded, and seiil as aHislanl resident 
into Tibet, to reside a( ChBalii-lounhou. 

lbcmo». We mentioned last month a vaeue report of disturbances In Hoonan ; 
this report has been fully confirmed; the duturbancM are not, however, among 
the mountaineers as then Hated, bat among the people of the plains, who asteiD- 
bled in the mountaini until they were sufflciently prepared for an attftck. We 
have before us a dispatch to Ihe emperor, from Woo Vnngkwang, the fooyuen 
or lieut .-governor of the province, when on the point of proceeding in person 
to the scene of action, the substance of which we subjoin. The first informa- 
lion which the lieulen ant-governor received of the alTair was a dispatch from 
the chief officers, civil and mllitnnr, in the frontier department of Paonking foo, 
adjoining Kwangse on the one aide, and Kweichow on (he other. This was on 
the Z7th of March. Their dispatch was to the effect that on Ihe 12th of the same 
month Ihey had apprehended an individual on whose person tliey discnvemd a 
aeUoiD flag and papers of a traitorous nature; that this individual divulged Ihe 
fact that a party of insuivents was assembled in a mountainous recess in the dis- 
Irirl of Sinning hel^n, and that they were planning an insurrection : that anolber 
person was also apprehended, having about him Irailorous documents, and that 
he confessed that the bead of the insurrection, named Lan Chingtsun, had filed 
Ihe following day (March 9Sd) for an atiack onihe city of Woohang; and that in 
consequence of these circumstancei, the chief magistrnle of Paouking fuo had 
colleried the military, and was proceeding at their head la the relief of llial city. 
The I ieut .-governor was still engaged io attention to IheiB dispatches, when a 
further dispatch of the 33d March reached him, representing that Ihe iniurgenti 
had made an attack on 'Wflokang. and requesting Immediate reinforcement. 
• During the perusal of thia dispatch,'' says the aealous lienl.-governar. " my 
hair brcame erect from the force of my indignation and rage, that the rebel Lan 
Chingtsun should have the extreme audacity to break forth into open iniurrec- 
(ion in the broad light of day, and should with an auembled multitude have 
Bltacked a walled cily. A crime so great, an oBTense wo flagrant, demands the 
speedie:' and moat severe punishment." 

The lieut .-governor, being under wntcnce of degradaiion, proceeds to point 
nut (be impossibility of waiting th« arrival of his auccessor. and to represent what 
it was his immediate intention to do. Expecting that Ihe governor was already 
on the way from Hoopih. Ih« northern portion of the goveminent, as he had pre- 
viously notified his intention Io visit the south at that period, it was his intentian 
to eipedite thai ofllicer's movementa, and also to write to the newly appointed 
fnoyuen and pnochinguse, urging both of them to haaten Io their new appoint- 
ments. He was at the same lime Bending to Wookanfr. no immediate reinforce- 
ment of 800 men. whom he would soon follow ;- and the chief civil and military 
uflirers of Peouking. baring left thai cily for Wookang. he would send JOO 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1636. JmrHol of OccurrtHcn. 47 

other ITDups for llie dafeiiN uf the funneT jUIiod. Before concluding hi^ 
dkpatcb, be received further informBlioii, Ibiil the iniurgenti, who ware from two 
to three thouund strong, had been repulneil in their attack on Wookanf : and that 
beaides twenty ilain in the oniel. they bad lost maiiy in their retreat, in con te- 
quence of being driven icroo a river. This laliifaclorily proved to the lieut.- 
govemor that they H-ere yet but a haaly atsemblege, as it were e fli|ht of crows, 
and that hy Bccompaayiiig bis military maiueuvres with a proclamatioa proiDinng 
forpvenew to those wlio would at once submit, he should be able to soppresa the 
HMineoUoa iuuMdiatel]'. If tbe latest rumon be correct, he bas been dis- 

■ Iwi. 

and tsiialanl reaident in this colony have been lalety 

Jled to Pe ' 


■ppointed in this •ipeclatioa. 

™*. Both like rasideol am _. _ _ _ __ 

chaagMl. Wnnwei, the late t«sident, bos been recalled to Pekiii|, and KinEJuh 
nd Oshilnaa has bean appointed assistant rerident, 

■tationed at Cbasbi-lounbou. 

7^ imftriol eoiwii i iitwwn who have lately arrived from Peking are. Amning. 
apreildent of the Board of Kitn, and Chaou Shiogkwei, a vico-preaident ofthe 
Board of Punishments. Tbey are atteoded by four wbordioate officert, one from 
the former, and three from tbe latter, Board. The Itnmediate object of their com- 
miaslon is a case of mutual accusalioa and of appeal to Pehing on the part of two 
officers, now degraded ; one a chief maeiitrate in thii province, and the other 
employed in one of the Boards in PeEing. The appeal tiy the mother of the 
latter involves the comraiasionert who were hare in 1634, (see vol. Hi, pp. 192, 
StSG, 344,] of whoB one only, SaMbaogah, now survives. We defer Ifae [MUtlcu- 
lan of the affair until Ihe inveatigatloiu are at an and. 

Hu CtMeu Omrt fiiiafiii oontaJM the following Items of intelligence, since 
Ihe !!7tb ultimo ; a tmndalioa of (he Circular for that day will be found on page 
third of this number. 

^rH 28lk, 13tk of iMtSd moon, l^eir excellencies the govemar end foovDCn 
issued and received official papen; paid and received vidli of ceremony, a. B. 
Then visits, forming a* they do a part of the routine of every day, with little va- 
rialion, need not, ordinarily, be noticed — Fnng Vaoulsoo reported that he had 
received orders to distribute clothiag to the chndren bI the iDundllng htwpital. 

AfFil 2IM. Le, commiBioner of salt, recently promoted to the office of 
ngaachlsie in Ihe province of Sheuse. reported to the governor that he should 
deliver over the seals of his office no the morrow. — In consequetMe of this change, 
Cbiag, the directorof the oommissariat, will retire from the duties of tliat office, 
to disdiarge tamporarity those of the «alt department ; and he will be loccaed- 
ed for the HnM bui^ by Hung, who la waibag for a dhvclorship. Bii 
nals were brouriit to the city for the autumnal assiiea. 

k. tL 

Afril 20A. Their eicellencie* went early in the morning to Ihe temple of the 
g«d of war, and offered incense ; and then repaired to the " halt of tea thousand 
yean" (consecrated to the worship of the emperor), and there attended to tbe 
readiag of Ihe Sacred Edict. Seven criminals were brought in for Ihe assiiet. 

JHsy 1st. The governor paid Le a parting visit, as that officer leaves the 
city to day, to proceed to Sbense, of which province he has been appointed a 
ngancbliae or commissioner. 

jtoa 3d. The governor went nut of tin north gate of the city to review troops 
in archery; and On reluming, went and congialulated Chiug, acting comniis- 
-'""ir of Salt, — it Iwing his birth-day. Five cnminals aH"-'' 

under a salute of gongs and guns, to the collegiate ball, and attend thr fourlh 
of the undergramiatei. Wang Chinkaou, major of the lefl batta- 
gtion of Hesngshan, reported that be had captured a smuggler with 

„ . The officers who had been sent to accompany Le, the late commi>- 
!T of salt, beyond the bounderiea of Kwangchow fou. on bis way to Shensc, 
reported their return. Five crimiaali arrivefT 

May M, 20cA ef the 3d mam. Wang, the nganchSsic of the province, came 
in person to request the ^vernal to attend tbe assizes : and ( according to cus- 
tom ) sent a srcind and (hii-d deputation to repeat the i-nqiiesl. .At 8 a. h.. 
the doors of '!;: frcylien's great hall were thrown open ; the governor and all 

1 V^nOC^Ic 

"IH Journal of Otfirrrmeti. 

Ilic ulber high iificen look (hco-icati; one hnndrwi bhiI iDT-five criniaab li>r 
the autauin^ UMCCm Here linMi|^ ia, JudgBd, aBd led uat: the (boyacB dindeJ 
ihc iinul pmcnl* of caih. fuH, and cake*, to tw pven to Ihe niniaaia, and tkeo 
urdend tbein to ba reuuuideil lo piiiuii. Tlie huug BCnJiant* npOiUd Ibat Ihey 
•rcra ffttii% la Bwcl Ihe ntw hopiio. 

Jfiqi tU. Piiioiien ware leiil back from the city U> the eoantry. OSettts 
wcra MDt to hmoI the coniiniwioncw from rckin|. Chingliih rajiotted Ike 
caplDra of two aamg^Mtt Joaded nrHh nil. 

JKqtSd. Ho PuigyoD reported that h '-^ 
and DgaoclilMw lo cuiidDct the priioncr . 

Jfny I lit. The governor went euiy 
Kuyw* buigi one of tbe princiiial temulei of Ihe citj' : and tbaD attended the 
icvww of Um regiiBeal ob Ihii italiou. Iim chefoo re|iorted 
would altend llie Uth eiauiiaation at (he eoltegiale bait. 

TiuVllk. Hii eiceHeacji the (ovenior, •rent lo the mat laodiog-place and 

- -■ — 1 .1. . 11^^ hoppo, Win, and inquired of him after Ibe repo6e of nil eacred 

emperor. Two Tartar priaonen, formerly employed ai officen. 

were put into the cuftody of the district maciftnte, 

JVey ISCt, IX dug of At Vk mmk. Hieir fticelleiiciet the goveraor and foo- 
yncn, went to the temple of the god of lilenlure. and oSered iDceDsei tber afler- 
wardi repaired lo the Rreat landiiig^pluce, look leave of Pine, the late hoppo ; 

it l>y him their wiihes for the rrpow of hii nered majesty. 

'-d Ihal to-morrow hf wouli" -" — ' "•- -=-"• -' 

1. at the clmncellor'K ball. 

cbelbo, reported Ihal to-morrow br would attend the liith eiammation of the 
^■oualei. nl ' 

onder-cmdualei. at the clmncellorK ball. 

Tkt illk. Their eicelleocies, tliB pivemor and fooynen, went out of the cily. 
beyond the great weitem gate and ulTered lacrificei to the god* of the hill* 
and the riverii tliey (hen repaired lo tlie grrat landltig'|)taGe, received tbe two 
imperial commkauonen. and uii)uired after the repote of hi* ncred mqjetty. 
The i(il>-uiaciilrale of Haefung brouglil to the city a female criminal, Chingliu 
■be, aod delivered her over to llie custody of the nganchasze. The magislrate of 
Naiihaa reported that ai S o'clock this moruing, a dre broke out in the wetteni 
Miburin of the city. In a rooney-cbnnger'i shop, which wai consumed, and two 
other bnildinga wen lom away, to extinguish ibe fii«. 

Tht I61A. The tWD senior bone merchants, pia kme tt ■ pia, ■ proslrMed 
th emse I ve* (before Ibe governor) and presented a petition of the aarbariBni.' 

Tht IHtt. The guvemor arrived at the oOce of Ihe fooyuen, and the duon of 
his graal hall were thrown npcii under ■ ulate of pin*. These nficert and Ibe 
other chief functiniiariei of Ihe province arranged fhemselvei for Ihe trial ; Ihe 
two robbers, CIihoii tleungwln and Chin Checlie, were brought in, joined, and 
led out; Ihe foii^en reiiuesled the dealh-warranl; and sent a <le[Hilalioii to 
roiiduci Ihe crinjinnls li> the mBrkKt-[iliice. without the southern gate, and there 
lo eieciile llieio. It was done accordingly, and tiie dealh-narrant relnmcd 
lo lu place. 

ThK-iOtk. The magistrate of Nanlioe reported Ihal yesterday at 1 o'clock r.a.. 
a fire broke oat in the western suburb* i one bouse was destroyed, end one 

Thf 22i{. Loo Kekmtng (Mowqna Jattior) reported his return from ttie (Kmn- 
Iry. Tniy KwOcbe. one of tlin tiKisiHiit maeistiMe* in the diilrict of Pwanyu, 
reported tlial 11 lire hnjtte iml at -i o'ctork thi< morninf; in llie siiliiir4ii on Ihe 
•oiilhea.ilof IbRrilyilivenly-tlin'uhnildingin'iTebuml, nnd six v-r-rc li.rn diiwn. 
Pourleen mnrderrrs were liniuglii i« the ciiy fmm Ibe dialrici of Tnn^kwRu 
An iiicendiarv wa< taken n»il hnnilnd ov-r ii> ih^ proper Hiithoritirs T'lririsl. 

Tht S4n(. Keiing Souene, siili-.nnKi<ir:ilR of Shuntih. l>ro<it:hl elmpn criTninnl) 
lulliccily. Fung ViiMgfnti re|iorteil Ibe seixure of a Ihief. An exeLuiion took 
place Jiiniig Ihe Jay with Ihe iisuhI rnniialiiici. 

Tkt 25f*. Wang Yukinf reporteiJ Ihnl h» had b«-en ilir'ct»<l tn gn with H.-^ 
maRi*lnila of Nanhae, and di>irihutr Ihe guvemmcnlRl gintnily among Ihe blind 
|ie'>|)l« at ta^nA at. nne "f tlie ifinpka of Die city. 

'f%e 361*. The chefoo >e>it a mns'^enger In report thai lo-rlay be will miend 
the oxnmiiialion iif the nndergiHilnntes from all l!ie (fourtren) di^^iric'? of 
KMangrhow fu" 



Vol. V.^Jone, 1836.— No. 2. 

Art. I. A d^criplimt of As&m: exteitt andboundaria of its thret 
principal dtviaions ; with notices of tAe sfotej and tribes bordering 
on the north and south. 
In presentiDg & description of A'aAm, we f«el a little embuTUsment 
at weminff to inform our readers on a subject with which we are aware 
some of them must be much better acquainted than ourselves. But 
the growing importance of tbe country, u connecting the dominions 
of Great Britain, Burmah, and China, and the recently discovered 
fact that the tea shrub is growing indigenous in it, wilt excuse our 
attempt to extend the interest we feel in this bordering state. Much 
of our knowledge reqiecting it is derived from a series of excellent 
articles in the Friend of India, and the Calcutta Christian Observer ; 
to which Tslusble periodicals we coufidentlj look for further authentic 
information, both respecting this aud other parts of southeastern 
Asia. In the present article we shait confine ourselves chiefly to a 
description of the country and its adjoining tribes, leaving an account 
of its government, productions, and prospects to a future number. 
Respecting its history, it will be sufficient for the pres nt to observe 
that it wss annexed to the British territories in 1625, as a conse- 
quence of the Burman war. Since then successively the kingdoms 
or districts of Jynteah, and K<ich»r, have been added; and Mauip>'ir 
is much under British influence. Thus the British guvernoieiit 
have under their immediate dominion or influeuce, an extent of 
lerritory on the eastern border of Bengnl, more than three huiiderd 
miles in length and two hundred in breadth. So far us we uiiderstsnd 
the political relations of the government, lieutenant Charlton is the 
resiJeut at Sadtya; major White, as political agent, usually resides 
ill Upper A'sim; but the authority of captain Jenkinii, the governor 
"eneral's commissioner, is psramounl throughout ihe whole couniry. 
They are nil apparenily pursuing a liberal and entigliletied course of 
policy (oivardb ihe natives under their contrd. 


50 Vcii riplimi of Aiam. JiVC 

A's^m is separated from Tibet on the north by wild hill tribes and 
bv the lofty Himalaya mountains ; on the eaut a narrow strip only of 
the Biirmsn terriory divides it from the Chinese province of Yiin- 
nnn ; on the south, it borders on the Burman empire; and westward is 
Bengnl. From the point where the united waters of the Ganges and 
Brurohaputra pour into the bay of Bengal, if we ascend the latter 
river in a direction rarying from norihwesi to northeast, till we reach 
the latitude or26° ICN., and the longitude ofSO" 30' E., we find the 
town orQoalp:ira. This town situated on the left bank of the river 
is reckoned the western extremity of A's^m. From Goalpnra it 
stretches with the river in a northenst direction, occupying the whole 
valley of the Bramhapi'itratoSadiya, in latitude27° 50,'and long. 95* 
45/ This valley is closed in on the north by various ridges connected 
with the Himalaya mountains, and the Gfiro, Khdaiya, and Jynteah 
ridges on the south. These limits include a territory full three hun- 
dred miles in length, and though its breadth is not quite uniformor 
entirely defined, it may be set down at a rough average of seventy 
miles. Within these bounds, thus generally stated, lies that country 
(if great fertility, and as it would seem, of almost unparalleled advan- 
tages in situation, which we now briefly describe. 

The whole territory is divided into three portions, Lower A'sAm 
Upper A's^m, and the country of Sadiya. Lower A'sAm extends on 
both banks of the Brsmhaputra from Goalpara northeastward to the 
junction of the Dhunwrt with the great river, above the town of Bish- 
wanath. In a straight line this is a distance of about oue hundred 
and seventy-live miles; and the whole extent is strictly under British 
rule. Through its whole length, Lower A'sim is divided nearly in 
the centre by the Bramhapntra. The chief tributaries received in 
its passage through this division are the Manas or Bonaah which 
cornea down from the north, and joins it near Goalpara; and the 
Kullung, if it be not more properly a part of the river itself, whiob 
leaving the Bramhapiitra near Biahwanath and rejoining it near Go> 
wahili, forms no inconsiderable island. On the north bank of the river, 
the principal divisions noticeable on the map are, K4mrup, and Du- 
ruiii{. Gowah:iti, the usual residence of the commissioner, stands on 
(he left bajih, seventy miles in a straight line east from Goalparu. This 
latter town is described as fast rising in importance, and as a mart for 
exchanging the produce (if the » hole surrounding country. Gowah.iti, 
the capital, is well hiid out, and liiis become a populous town. 

Upper A'sAm extends in the line of the river, on its south bank, 
from BiHhwan.'ith to the junction of the Dikho with the Bramhapi'ttra; 
and OH the north bunk Mumewlmt higher. In a direct line the length 
may be eighty or ninety rnile^. For the chief part of its course through 
this portion, the Bramhupiitra is divided into two main branches or 
chinnels, the northern nf which is called the Bi'>ri Lohit, and the 
southern which has the largosl volume of water, the Dihing. These 
hrnnclies inclose the hirge isi.iiid of Mnjulr, about sixlj miles in 
Irn^rlli. iiiid from Kii to fiHeeii in breadth. This tine island, which 
runa aliiiDal itic uliuli; kiijjth ul' t'j'pur A' dim, was ouce well inhitbiled 

lf>36. Dtteriptim of At&n. 61 

■ihI citllifaled, hut is now mostly n wildemcM. About twentf miles 
below the upper extremity of this iatatid, the Dikho Tallfl into (he south- 
ern branch of the great river, after running a short course from th« 
hills on the southeast. Its banks are marked with ihesiteBof Mveral 
<dd forts. A few miles above, the Disung after a longer course from 
ihe east joins the BramhapTitra. The tract lying between these two 
branches, though beiirtng numerous traces of former inhabitants, ia 
now entirely overrun with grass jnd forest jungle. The next branch 
is (he considerable river Bi'iri Dihing; rising among the mountains 
southeast of Sadiya, it flows westward, throwing off a branch to the 
north which joins the Bramhapfitra opposite Sadiya, while the rest of 
its waters pass on and intercept the great river seventy or eighty miles 
below, in latitude 27° 15,' and about twenty miles above the Dikho. 
Thus its two branches, it will be seen, include an extensive plain, 
adjoining thecountryof Sadiya, and bounded on the west by the Bram- 
hapiitra. This plain is almost entirely covered with grass and forest 
jungle, but is sparsely inhabited by the people called Mutaks, or 
Maomariyaa or Mo.iri8, of whom we may speak hereafter. Their 
principal town and the residence of their chief is Runga Gora, on 
the small branch Dibi'irii, along which is the chief part of the po- 
puUtinn. Thus far upon the southern bank of the river. 

Proceeding in tlie same manner on the north side, tieginning at the 
western extremity of Upper A's&m, we find first the district of 8isi, 
now in a state of great desolation from the ravages of wars befwe it 
came under British rule. The next are the Meris, a rude tribe total- 
ly diftering from the A'sSmese, and thinly inhabiting the northern 
bank below the Dihong, The largest of their villages is Motgong, 
where the chief or gaum resides; he has renewed allegiance to A'sim 
and sought protection fur himself and for some of the Abors who 
possess the hills on the north of them. The river Diboug is an ob- 
ject of interest, because of the large volume of water it conveys, and 
the uncertainty that still hangs over its origin. Coming down from 
the north from the mountainous district where the British and Tibetan 
territories are conterminous, it falls into the Bramhaputra about Ihe 
latitude of 37° 46' and the longitude of 95° 25. Insuperable difficulties 
in the channel and on the banks have hitherto prevented its survey 
to any extent by Europeans. According to measurement by captain 
Bedford io ie25,theDih(>ngdischarges5S,2tiU cubic feet per second; 
the BramhapGlra near Sadiya, 19,U58; and the Dibong, 13,000. Be- 
low the junction of these three rivers, the estimate was 120,176 feet 
per second. Since then the volume nf water in ihe Dihong is nearlv 
treble of that in the Bramhsp'Hra at Sudiyn, it cnnnnt be supposed t< 
have a short course; and it may be believed with captain W 
that it receives the greater pnrt of its waters from the Y in'i taanp'' of 
Tibet, though it also bringslhewatersof the true Brambakund. The 
Dfbong Irora the mountains in the northeast falls into the Dihong 
near its mouth; the low triangular tract between these rivers is a 
perfect wilderneiis without inhiibitiitils, hut the highlands to the north 
Q^ it are thinly occupied by iribev lif AUits. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

SSt Dttrriptiom of A tarn. JrKR, 

The coQDtry of Sadijra proper, tt-bich forms ilie third portion in the 
general diriiion gireti aboVe ia a nat plain, baring the Dihong fw its 
western boundary, the Bramhapfitra for its aoathern, and on the north 
and eaat is eloeed in bj the same mountain rangea which terminate 
the rallef of the Bramfaaputra. " The town of Sadija itself stands 
on a amail etream called the KCmdll nulla, about six miles from its 
junction with the great rirer. About twenty miles esstward of Sa- 
dija, OR the Bramnapulra, stands Sonapur, formerlj a strong frontier 
post of the A's&meae gorerment ; hejond which the river is navi- 
gable onlj for the canoes of the country. The Badija district has a 
rich alluvial soil, low and well watered, exceedingly well adapted to 
the growth of rice and other crops, of which it produces two harvests 
annually." But only a small part of it is under cultivation at pre- 
sent, though i( is expected that the continuance of peace, and of the 
present enlightened policy which the British authorities are here pur- 
suing, will soon work a favorable change. The district of Sadiya waa 
formerly subject to A'sJm and peopled from ibence, but its present 
inhabitanta are ehiefiy refume Kbamptfs and Halaks, who were driven 
from their own abodes to the southeast, by the Sinn^Kie, about fifteen 
yenrs ago; but during the civil wars, these refugees passed over 
and took possession of Sadiya, and when the Burmaos invaded the 
country took part with them. They are subject to a Khampti chief, 
who assumes the old A'simese title of the Sadiya Khava Gobain. 
He has fully submitted to the British authority. 

Our survey will be completed by noticing the plains on the south 
bank of the Bramhpiitra, opposite the district of Sadiya. These 
plains are terminated by mountainous ranges ra the south and east ; 
are intersected hy tworirere.theNoaDihing, and the Theinga pAni; 
and chief of the peculation is found on the bsnks of the tatier river. 
A'n'meRe nuhjects once possessed these plains ; then the Sinj^thoe uid 
Ki'ikiie, who were frequently ravaging A'sAm with fire and swurd, not 
only plundering property, but carrying off the people for servitude. 
Many of these wretched captives were restored to freedoiu when the 
British troops expelled the Burmans from the country. 

Ill order to present a connected view of the georaphical position 
and advantages of this country, we omit fur the present other interest- 
ing topics, and proceed to notice the adjoining states and territories. 
The long and narrow kingtiom of Nipil, which skirts the south side 
of the Himalaya mountains for several hundred miles, does not reach 
to A's'im, hut appears to be bounded on the east by the independent 
kingdom of Bhutan Thislatter country running the same direction and 
in shnpe resembling Nipul, by an undefined boundary, is conterminous 
with the northwest part of Lower A'sAm. Next on the enst in the 
same line is the territory ofthe Deb rija, the relations of which with 
Britain we are not well informed of Occupying the mouutalnous 
ridtre.o iminedialply to the north and wett of Sadiya are various tribes 
of wild Ahors. This name is given to a number of tribes of the same 
origin, InnsuHge, and cjstoms; it signifies independent, and is well 
applied lo these unsubdued and almost ankuown mounlainefirs. 

1836, Dfseriptim of A' aim. fiiJ 

Mnny parliculara ralalire to tbem we ihull menUon in nnotbcr plare. 
Further still towirds the nurtheast, among the higb«r rangea of iba 
mooDtaiDs, are the Bor Abon, or Great Abort, who are both more 
powerful and mora ciTJlised than the other IribM of the Nme name, 
"nie Miahmls are inlerminnied nnMng theoe, bat appear to be of an 
inferior race and in a aubonlinate condition. It ■■ an important fact 
(hat the Sadiya Kh&vaGohain powaowca over them all sufficient influ- 
ence to be able to give a aafe pnaiport to pil^ima journeying by the 
way af Sadiya to the Lima country. Tbe journey from Sadiya to 
Rohemah ia aaid to occupy twen^ dajra, eight of which the traveler 
is in (he country of tbe Miehmis and Abor*, aod ou the sizteenlli 
be reaches Bahlow, the frontier poet of tbe Lima country. <• Rohe. 
mah, the fint important town in that country, ia reported to be a very 
fine city, with brick houses three stories high, having judges, collec- 
tors, and the apparalua of a civilized government." 

Returning now to the south of A'siun, and beginning in tbe same 
manner as before, from the west, we shall roeotion in order the chief 
dependent or contiguous states. These are the Giroe, Kh^yas, Kfi- 
ch4reae, and (he kingdom of Manip6r. Southward of Upper A's4in, 
and of Sadiya, are the Nig* hilli^ occupied with various N j«a tribeK, 
which seem to acknowlet^ more or less allegiance to the British or 
Burman governments^ though, if we are rightly informed, chiefly 
attached to the latter. These several states lie along in a single tract 
of country, which includes the whole space between A'sim on the 
rmrth and Silhet and Biirmah on the south. The river Siirma rise^ 
in ManipOr about the latitude of 25° oorlb, and the longitude of 04° 
east, and running a general westerly courae through three degreen, 
after paning Silhet turns to the southwest, and empties into the 
BraiohapOtra in lat. 24°. Between this river and the almost parallel 
valley of A's&m on the north is tbe tract in question, of a breadth from 
seventy.five to one huridred and twenty miles, and in length extending 
through three or four degrees of longitude. The G&roe occupy the 
north west^n port of this interjacent tract, that part formed by the 
great bend of tbe Bramhap6tra to the south, after passing through 
A's&m. They are now confined to the hilly island district, and eit^r 
are or once were fdmmts for their ferocious conduct and manners. 
We suppose their reputation in this respect ia already much improved. 

Next to the G&roe eastward and southward, are the mountains of 
Cherra and the various Kh&siya tribes. According to the Friend of 
India, from which we have derived most of the preceding facts, the 
tribes that inhabit theae mountains, of which the Khiaiyas are (he 
chief, are a free, bold, robust race, fairer than their Bengili neigbbot*, 
and greatly their superiors in personal strength. They live in com- 
munities which we term villages, bat which have no reaemUaoce to a 
villsge in Britain. Kach has a chief over it, who has counselors to 
assist him in the administration. Of these Kh^iya communities there 
are a considerable number scattered among (he mountains, and the 
population cannot fall short of a hundred thousand inhabitants in all. 
Though once decreasing, while under the oppressions of the Burmans, 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

^4 DnKriftian of Atim, Jbih, 

ihey mii«l now increase in the quiet aeciired by th« Britbth rule Avor 
thorn. Tne most notRd mountain is that called Chem, or Cherra p6ni' 
jt, which ia, however, only five thousand feet hi^h, while the higliMt 
riae aeven Ihouaand feet. This has been well known as a sanatariuro, 
and grateful retreat for invuljd« from the burning heat of Bon([Bl ; bur 
we cannot be suppoaed to enter into this di^Mitcd subject with all the 
zeal that characterizes our Indian friends, jynteah, which appears to 
be either a part of Khisiya, or another name fur it, baa very recently 
come wholly under British control. 

Tlie little luDgduiu of K^chir, or Hinimblia, lies nest westward of 
Kh^iya, with A'aain on the north, Silhet on the aouth, and Mitnipur 
on the eunt. Extending from 21' to 37° north latiludp, ai)d fiom l>2° 
to 94° eoal longitude, it is just within the temiterate zone, and pnidu- 
cea every thing neresmrv for the comfort of life. Within the last 
three or four years, this country has lieen taken who)ty under British 
government. lis aged rAJD, whom the British had reinstated in his 
dominions by driving out the Burmana, was murdered, and as it was 
supposed by the instigation of the raja of Hnnipur. On this event, 
aivd to prevent the latter reaping the reward of his wickedness, K&. 
chftr was immediately placed under the British jurisdiction. An 
account of Hirunibha, published sorne years ago, estimated tho 
families it contained to be 80,000, which would probably give a 
population of near half a million. 

We have now gone over the territories which are wholly and pro- 
fessedly under British rule, and last we come to the important stule 
or kingdom of Munipur, which is little less than under the British 
protection. Many most interesting particulars relntive to the govern- 
ment, language, and rt-ligion of the Msnipurls are detailed by the 
English officers, major Grant, and captain Gordon, in the Calcutta 
Christian Observer ; some of which we may present our readers here- 
after. According to (he former gentleman, the whole length of tho 
Hanipfir valley is about sixty mites, lying between Sf and 25° of north 
latitude, at an elevation of about three thousand feet above the sea. 
The climate is considered as higblv salubrious ; and the natives of 
Manipi'ir more healthy and robust tlian he had seen in any other part 
of India. Superior rice is raised in the valley; cotton and camphor 
on ttie hills, the former to a considernble intent. A great variety of 
fruits grow in Manipfir, but few of them, with the cultivation which 
the Manipurfs wilt bestow on them, coote to any degree of perfection 
llinduiiiin became the established faith only a little more than half a 
century since, at the command of the r&ja ; and it seems to have 
but a alight hold on the minds of the people. « The ManipOris are 
eminently distinguished above the natives of western India, by a live- 
lineaa of disposition, a quickness of |>erceplion, an aptitude in recoiv. 
ing knowledge, and a spirit of inquiring curiosity, which in the Euro, 
pean character are hailed as proofs ofn fertile soil, requiring only tho 
imnd of careful and judicious culture- " It is an im|>orlanl fact, that 
llie present infant rija is beginning a uourae of English educntion, 
designed to be cora|>leled in the best manner that India alloivs. 

I83(t. Siamete Hhlory. 55 

Oaptain Gordon, the present reaident at Hu)ip6r, well sware of the 
importance of this step, is eucouragmg others of the better clua of 
M«iip<iri« to engage in the same stud; ; and tq^ara well disposed 
to advise and aid in every proper meana of elevating the people. No 
missionary, so far as we know, has yet entered that field. 

in the language of the Friend of India, after reviewing the whole, 
we eoncludei 'thus a portion of territory full three hundred miles 
in length aud nearly u much in hreadth, has fallen under tbe care 
and protection of the British government witboat any preooncerled 
plan ofconquest, and almost without the knowledge of the inhabitants 
of our Indian metropolis. On the soatb, nothing separates us from 
Burmah but the little state of Maniptir, recovered and preserved by 
British power ; on the esst, thirty leagues of Butmaa territory may 
intervene between us and the Chinese province of Yunnan ; but if 
we go northward through territn-y whcdly our own we cobm directly 
to Tibet, which is completely under the Chinese governnMnt.' 

Art. II. Siatfust Hittorv : dittinctiom oftacred and eamman tras ; 
loith iislaricaliwticetfi-om a. d. 1351 to 14£1, the eighth caUvrg 
of tht Simtest era. From a Correspondent. 

Occasional statements drawn frcm personsl inquiry and joumsls 
of personal observations during a limited residence in Siam, have 
frequently been published. Hitherto the accounts which the Sisjnese 
have recorded of themselves have been inaccesiible to foreigners. 
The jealous eye with which they have always looked upon foreigners, 
has induced them studiously to conceal their national history; and 
it was not until after numerous protracted and unsuccessful eHbrts 
that I was fortunate enough to get poeaession of the first ten volumes 
of it. It ia written on the blaclt books in common use in the coun- 
try, folded backwards and forwards somewhat tike a fan. The whole 
history is said to be comprised in about twenty-five volumes. 

The Siamese have a sacred and a common era. The former 
commences with the death, or, as they say, the annihilation of God- 
sma, and dales at the present time (1836) 2378 years. This is 
used in their religious writings and sasred edicts. The latter, dates 
from PhyA Kr*k, a man of distinction at Kiuabong, (nnw called Ba- 
tabong,) a province in Kamboja, respecting whiise exploits the Kam* 
bojans relate many marvelous stories. Of this era, the present year 
it the 1197th. Thia is used in their hislnry, and in the transaction 
nf all ordinary business. Wherever, therefore, the Siamese common 
era occurs, we have only to add 639, and it gives us the Christian 
era. This, however, is not perfectly accurate, inasmuch as the Siam- 

1 V^nOC^IC 

5(i ffiauuit tiietarfi. Jt.NC, 

ese year coinnienu«B the liet of March, or iti the uiouih of April, 
instead of January. It is my purpose in a aucceMioD of papers to 
preMut you the substance of the history above mentioned, without at 
all restricting myself to a rigid traiialatioii. 

When these hiatorical facts are placed before you, I propose to add 
some such speculations as I may be able, regarding the literature 
and religion of the country, It will be necessary as I proceed lo 
add occasional notes for the elucidation of some facts which will be 
stated. It will be perceived that the history gives no account of the 
origin of the Siamese; but commences in the year 712 of their era, 
A. D. 1351. Their pride forbids that they should dwell much on 
that subject. It may be necessary therefore to remark, what is quite 
evident from various authentic sources, that the Siamese did not 
exist aa an independent people long before that period. Kamboja 
was a large and powerful kingdom, and included south Laos (now 
called Wiang Chan,) and Siatn as tributaries. The total dissimilarity 
of the Siamese common language from that of Kamboja militates 
against the idea of the Siamese having sprung from a Kambojan 
source. On the other hand, the agreement of the Siamese and Laos, 
or Wiang Chan, languages, in all their mo«t important- terms, forms 
a strong presumptive evidence in favor of their having originated from 
the Laos. There is abundant evidence from the Siamese writings 
thai the Laos were formerly called Thai Yai, or the Great Siamese, 
which would be a very natural appellation if Ihey were their progeni- 
tors. This name has now gone into desuetude, since the Siamese 
have become so great as lo be unwilling to speak of others as great 
compared with them. Perhaps this subject may be alluded to again 

As various names must necessarily occur in these papers, to which 
ihe public are not accustomed, it may be here remarlced that 1 adopt 
the fdlowing system of sounds to express them. The consonants are 
generally as in English. 

a as in America. o as in note. 

A ss in father. o ss in long. 

e as in they. u as in ruminate. 

€ as ay in mayor. u same lengthened. 

i as in pin. au like the English <m in how. 

f as in marine. 
The first century, from 713 to 812 of the Siamese era, is more 
barren of interesting incidents than those which succeed it. 

Siamese era, 712. On Friday, the 6th day of the waxing moon, 
5lli month, at 3 o'clock and 50 minutes, the magnificeiit and sacred 
city Sia Vutit/A' was founded. This hsd previously been declared 
propitious by Brahmans. There pnlaces were erected on the occasion, 
and his lordship Utditg was crowned as king, to whom the Burmans 

• Thii if the city r^minonly called Yuthis, Yondia, tnd by Ihr Burmann 
.J... -. V..J.... J, ^„ t],e ciipiKl of the CQUntry till deiUoyed by Ihc 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1836. aiamtt HUlory. 57 

gBVB the nooM, « mighty, supreme king Rfimi the Budho, who go. 
vpnu the magnificent country Sis Yutiyi, which sbounda in all the 
coramoditiea of earth." At that time, the king sent his ton R&mme- 
■ftwsn, to govern the province of Lopburi. And then, ekto, the 
governors of the fcdiowing countries were considered ss tributsries, 
vis., Malsccs, Java, Teoasserim, Sidamtnar^t,* Tavoy, Marlabao, 
Haulmein, SongkU (Singora), Chantapurf, Pitsanulok, Sukkboly, 
Siiwannalok, I^chit, Kampingpet, and Sawanpurt. This year, (he 
king sent an army of 5,0VO men to attack Kamboja. They were 
defeated ; but being reinforced, were victorious and brought back 
to Siam a great many Kambojss prisoners. f 

Yfa' 716. On 'Diurs fay, the 1st of the waxing mtt^n, 4th month, ^t 
two o'clock and forty minutes, the king laid the foundation of a tem. 
pie or wal4 called the wat of the heavenly Budha of Siam. A mare 
had a colt with one head, two bodies, and eight legs. A hen hatch- 
ed a chicken with one body and two beads ! 

Year 735. The king's two sons died of the nmall-pox ; and he 
had a wat erected over their renains, called the « Crystal Forest." 

Year 731. King Rimi died,6 after a reign of twenty yesrs, and 
his son Rjunmesawan returned from his provincial government and 
succeeded his father. 

Year 783. The prince R&jittrit came dewn from Supanpuri ; 
Rlromeeawan resigned the sovereignty to him, and returned to govern 

Year 733. R&j4tirit marched and subdued all the northern 
Year 734. This year is signalized by the suhjugatien of Panklft 
and Singsiau. 

Year 735. The king made an attack upon Chakangraii.l The 
l^vernois, Chaikiu and Komhfing came forth to tlio contest; the 
former was slain, and the letter with his forces returned home. I'ha 
king's army also returned to Sia Yutiyii. 

Year 736. The kin^ out of reverence (o the duties of religion, 
rounded the wat called Mahadhalu, nineteen fathoms," with a spire 
three fathoms high. 

* I Bin nnabletotcll what or where tbiicountrr i*. The lituMiDn of Malaeea, 
J»va,TeDa>«eriin,T4Ta7, SoDgkU, &nd CbiDtipurt, are w«llknoirn; the ntlieri 
Me N. and N. W. of Ban^ok. Moat of the nainei haveipeciflo meaii'm|a,|iven 
oriiinallj, withont donbt, fVom Mine production or qualit; in which eujh pine* 
■bound*. T'hiu Churtapnri (ignifiei " the coaotrj of nutnirgs ;" SawMltikInk 
"the haaveDly world;'* Kimpenspet, "the wall of preaioui itonea," and Bs- 
wanpori, " the beavcnlj connlr;. 

I The«e were moitly made liavei, of coDne. 

t A wat lipiflei a temple, of rather colleqliuB of temple* and prieit*' houM*, 
liell'hoiuei, tanki, gantena, ^., and rather memblei amonailerj' than a temple; 
1 ihall th«iefora retain it in theae paper*. 

\ TbeSiameaeword here rendered," died," iBMi)*"iBmedaBide to heaven." 
Tbev eoDiider it aa a great want of loyalt; to anppnae, maob mure to aaj, that 
the king ean die. Ptteat* are aaid to "retnrn;" onmmon people "die." 

1 The aittiation of the three place*, Paagkll, B^ngaiaa, and Chikangraa ia at 
present unknown. 

** A Siamase fathom i* 4 cnhita of 19^ Gngiiib inehea each. 

vol.. T> MO. 11. 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

56 Siameu Huterf. Jlnb, 

Yeu 73T. Tl>e Icing captured Piliuiulok mud its governor Siin- 
kiv, together with a nNiltilude ms priaonerfl of war. 

Yeu 738> The king went and took Cbikaograu and the goveriior 
Kamh^ng ; pursued prince Pikong and his arm;, took him and hia 
officers and returocd. 

Year 742. He nurched to Chiangmai,* but being unable to enter 
and plunder the city Limping, the king seat a roewage requiring the 
govenor to come and pay his respects, and returned. 

Year 744. lUjiitirit deceased after a reign of thirteen years, 
and bis ion (Jtonglan, then a hitle child, aacemled the throne and 
reigned aeven days, when Rjimmeeawan came down from Lopburi, 
entered ibe paUce, seized Utoi^lan, and had him killed at the wat 

Year 748. lUmmenwan equipped his army, msrcbed (o Chi. 
BBgmai, built a royal fortren near the nuMt of the city, at the distance 
of 140 aM.t Bud canaed his officera to build forts round about him, 
and get every thing in readiness for plundering the city. The front 
rmnka fired their cannon and broke down the city walla five fathoais 
in length. The king of Chiangmai then ascended tbe ramparts, hold. 
ing a large fan, and caused a soldier to fasten a letter to an arrow and 
■hoot it down into the Siamese camp. The purport of tbe letter was 
this; 'We beg you to refrain about seven days, and we will bring 
forth presents to confirm our mutual friendship.' 

The Siamcae king asked his nobles, what it was best to doT 
They replied, it was probable that the Laoe king was adopting a alr«. 
tagem to gain time; tbey therefore b;ggEd him vigorously to pro- 
secute hi* design of plundering the city. The king replied, that such 
a procedure, under existing circumBtancea, would not comport with 
royal dignity, but that if the Laos king did not regard his eogagement, 
iMre was nc possibility of his escaping the power of the Siflniese 
army. The I^os in the mean time exerted themselves to rebuild 
their shattered wall, and when the seven days were past; did not 
appear with their presents. The Siamese officers began to complain ; 
rice was ten tlungs for a cocoanut shell full, and they had no means 
to h«y it4 They therefore implored the king to proceed vigorously and 
plunder the city. The king accordingly in hia compasaion gave or- 
ders to proceed and plunder in earnest, and on Monday, the 4th of the 
waxing moon, 4th inunih, at 6 o'clock and 20 minutes p. ■., just as the 
moon was seftinK, ihe iwrsona designated, fired their cannon, took 
scaling ladders and ascended the walls ; the Laos king could not re- 
sist them, but fled with his family, and at 6 o'clock in the morning, 
the Siam'-'se soldiery entered the city, and apprehended Naksing, 
the son of the king, wliom they prpsented as a trophy of victory 
to bis Siamese mnje-eiy. He tuld Naks&ng, that had his father 

* Till* !■ the coantr; generallr known ai north Lsa«. The inhabiUnri diOc'r 
fl-om that of Wiuig Chan, cr Soulta Lww, in Iheir language, •everalcnitom*, 
aad a ditliict nrcminent. 

I A ten ii !» fathoiiia or )30 feet. 

I A ilun; !■ 15 cenlH, nt J of abaht or tical, which is generally valued at 
l>U ceiiU ut'ii Spuii^uh duJlur. 

1836. Siamtse Hittory. Sd 

regarded his pledge, it hail been hit intention to confinn him is hia 
government. He then made Nalu&ng take the oath of allegiance 10 
hilt), and leaving aa many of the people as he thought proper, took 
the rest as captives and made Naksing escort him down as fhr as 
Sawanburi. From thence he was sent back to govern Chiangmai. 
The king of Sism proceeded to Pitsanulok, vhere he spent seven 
days at a religious festival, mahing ofieringa to Budhn. The Laoa 
captives were distributed, some to Patalung, some to SongklA, some 
to Dbammarit, some to Chantaburi.* As the king was returning 
on his elephant, about 4 o'clock one morning, he ctst bis eyes to 
the east, and preceived a relic of Budba, calling on him to changa 
his residence. He turned aside and set up a temporary monument 
over the place where the relic had appeared, and afterwards founded 
there a wat, Maha Dh ilu, or the " Might Relic," subsequently to 
which, be made a festival of joy throughout his dominions. 

Just then, the king of Kamboja marched into Chonhiiri and Cban. 
taburi and carried captive men and women to the number of more 
than 6,000< His Siamese majesty, on being informed of it, sent 
his general to attack tbe Kambojans, who were defeated in the first 
tencoiintre. The Siamese ^>ent three days in building stockades, and 
then renewed the contest, and drove the Kambojans into their own 
quarters : meanwhile ibe Karabojun prince saved himself by flight, but 
bis son was taken prisoner, and the Siamese general Chainerong was 
left with 5,000 men to k%o the country in subjection. Tbe king of 
Siam returned home. After a while, the Cochinchinen came to 
attack Kamboja ; while they were few, the Kambojans could resiM 
them, but when they came in large bands, raising great lumtilts, 
Chainerong sent letters to Siam, whose king ordered him to sweep 
upf all the inhabitants and bring them to Siam. On Uieir arrival, he 
made a great festival throughout the country, and rewarded iiis prin- 
cipal military officers. 

Year 740- The wat Phukhautong (or tbe golden mountain) 
was founded. As the king was riding his elephant, prince Mola, 
who had been long dead, made his appearance in the middle of the 
road before him, for a short time, and then diiappeared. Rimme. 
sBwan deceased after a reign of six years, and his son succeeded and 
reigned fourteen years. 

Year 763. King Ram was angry with one of bis nobles and order- 
ed him to be apprehended. He fled and gained an asylum at Patak. 
khuchim, from whence he sent an invitation requesting an interview 
with Indra rAjS, the governor of Supanbnri. Assisted by him, the 
nobleman entered and plundered Siam, and then invited Indra riji 
to assume the government, and sent the ex-king to govern Pat&khlj- 
chim. Indra r4j4 gave the nobleman a royal wife, a golden betel 

■ It will ba penieiTMl Ihtt the tenrinition or these wordi ii ■omstimea writlan 
with f, «nd Kimatiniei witb h. It ib the nme in its oririn >nd dm, ■■ poie, par, 
poor, and pure, in Indiui wordm : u Chiipors, &C.. bat th« SikmeH «■« h. 

t Such i* lit«n1ly the SiimeM eiprcBfiion, and > Tery >pl one it ia Tor their 
manner of devuuting a country, u «'U prOTOd recentlj in Ibe case of Wiang 
Chan and Paiisi. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

60 Siamese Hulorif. Jdnk, 

case, two gilded aelTerai a gold goglet, a royal iword) and aooie other 

Tear 785. Newt of the death of the governor oS Piuanulok ar- 
rived, and that all (he northern provinces vrera iu a state of anarchy. 
The king immediately marched to Piab&ng to settle afiain. The 
giivernor treated him so reapectfuUy that he soon returned and sent 
bis eldest son to govern Supanburi, and hia second to govern Preksi, 
and his third to govern Chain&t. 

Year 7S0. IndrB r4j& died afler a reign of fourteen years. His 
Ivo eldest sons returned to Sia Yutiyt and fought for the throne ; 
they encountered with spears, cut each other's threats, and both died 
together. Tlie nobles then repaired to the third son and told him all 
tlie particulars. He sseumed the government under the title Rlj4- 
tir&t. He had the bodies of his two brothers burned at the wat of 
the Mighty Relic, where he erected to their roeiuory two sacred 
spires, and changed the name to • Ruyal Fortune.' 

Year 783. Rijitirit came down from Cbainit and took pea- 
session of the roynl city Sia Yutiyi, where be appointed his son 
Pranalih6n Indra king. RAj&tirit brou^t with htm images of cows 
and various other animals and deposited aonie in the wat Mighty 
Relic, and some in the wat Sanpet. 

Year 766. Wat Mayeng was founded by. Rijitirit. Hia son 
R4minesBwan went to Pitsanulok. At that time, the lettrs fell from 
the eyes of the image of Budha and appeared to be blood. 

Year 786. The royal residence was destroyed by fire. Yfar 789. 
the three cornered throne was burnt. Year 890, Rijilirit sent 
an expedition against Chiangmai. He was unable to enler and 
plunder it, and being laken sick, mturaed. In the year 792. he started 
anolber expedition to Cbiangmai, and took 120,000 caplivus and 

Year 7flS. The R&j&dind afler s reignof sixteen years, and his son 
RarnmcAiwan succeeded him, assumed the title ^tromntri'Inkanit, 
(ihe dejiendence of heaven, earth, aitd hell,) turned his palace into 
a wat cjilled Sisanpet, and went and lived beside the river. He then 
built two palaces, made a total overturning of officers and ofBces, 
founded cities and wats, and changed the namf« of old olies. 

Yfar 602. The ravages of the small-pox swept away multitudes. 
In the year 80S, an expedition was fitted oot afiainst Hnlacca.* And 
in 604, an expedition was started against Sisopturn, and Ihe srmy 
being reinforced pitched at a place called Don. 

Yi^ar ^O'"^. Paddy was a tvang^ for a cocoanut shell full, and a 
kianX was 'ISA ticals. in the year 608, great pains were taken to ad- 
vance the Budhist religion, and S50 images of Budha were cast. In 
608, a memorable festival in honor of priests was kept. At this time, 

■ Cirawfiird'* Indian Arcbipelipi «yi. that in a 
ihin tbli dan-), the king at M^uca sngftEad in wu 
killed in ■ Hibinqiipn' Intlle. 

t Till* fume if 1 of > lical- 

I Tliio ix > meuure in Siua cosxiiling of ei^btj bukota of twcBtj-fivc eoeoa. «1h'U« ri>n. 

183A. Modf of leaching ike Cktnesi Lamguage. 61 

Chnliang committod trMsoD and withdrew many people Trom the 

Year 809. Cballang made an asMult upon Pitaoulok, but did 
■Mrt succeed in plundering it tn any great extent. He then proceeded 
to Kamp^ngpet and continued his siege eevea days without success. 
Buroawtrylokanil and Indra r&ji marched to the aid uf Kamp^ng. 
pet and arrived in season to save it Indm riji routed Phyi Kfan, 
got wounded in the forehead by a gun-shot, and the Lane retreated 
home. In SlO, BoromatTylokan6t built the wat Chulamani. Aod lo 
BIl, he became a priest for eight months. 

[HMt. Both in eomiNliiig Um fint artiela in onr prasant mnnlMr, tnA in oorreet. 
\n% the proor* of the pnacot ona, wb twTO (bond mueb diSoullj in tlw ortbogn. 
phy of the ntmei of plaeai, &e. To those who tn fimiliw with the sffiiira of 
iDdiB. the STSkt mnd nnmeroue dieorepanciei which now eiiat me; not cenae enj 
paipleiitj. Gut tllej will etweye oonfose end diecnet tboee who are not intiinatel]' 
■eqntlDted with the hMorj »nd present atate « that eoontiy. If an; aisniiMnla 
of oqr could have iDdnenea b thia eaae, we woold raoommand alnmf ^ llwt a 
oonTBDtion of literaiy ^niteiiKa, from the Tsriaaa parte of tke Brituh enptre in 
India, be imiDBdiatafj convened, to adopt a ayaton, wUch sbould aene ea a 
Btandird. The *' iTatani" of oni Corraapondcnt >a ymj Ineonplete; and in pr1> 
*ste lettera fnm Siam, we find an arthogiaphy which ia atill woreei with diaeridoal 
naike intnduoed wilhont any key or eipluiatioB to Ihem, mahli^ a comfdeta 
■biaasdabfB. Hie liat of Tuweli end diphthonga ia very imperfect; and the 
conaonaata, Ihonvb " gsnerally ■■ in Engliah," are moat aarely not alwaya lo. 
"Hie mode of writing proper nance too, ie eabeble of liFtn{[ improred. R^itirat, 
written alao B^t tkit, we anppoae lo be btanded for the r^i Tirit, beiof the 
nunc and title of an indiridnal. And ao of /sAv r^fs- For prince William, we 
never write Prtscnailb'sM. We deem it anfficient aimply lo turn the attention 
of onr CorretpoDdant to theea poiota, aaanrad he ia able lo pnt the whole matter 
in a clear light. Hia aecond oonmaoieation baa reached na, and eball apprar in 
oar next nnmher. laatsKd of writing Lophiri and Loppnri, H annild be well, we 
think, to write wiilbrmty pui or pfir, the Siameee h notwilhslanding.] 

Ait. III. MoSe of teaehmg the Chinae Imgvage; StfetU ef the 
pretad method; dfriraHenett of a new one, with tvggeiliona 
retpeetiag it* iatrodiictioii. 
Is a former number of the Repository (vol. iv., page 167), we oScred 
some remarks on the drsirmUeness of having an alphabetic language 
employed by the Chinese instead of that now in use among them. 
Our opinion of the importance and practicability of this ia strength- 
ened by every hour's additional reflection on the subject. We hope 
it will be done soon. Yet us we cannot expect that it irill come into 
general use for some years, it is desirable, in the mean time, lo make 
the best use we can of the cumbrous medium of communication, 
which their present charHcler affords. Wo intimated in the article k- 
ferred to, that we believe the language might be acquired in much less 

;. V^nOC^IC 

62 Mode of ttacki*g tkt CVijmm LmgMogf. Jt-NR, 

time (han is nnw occupied by Cbineie boys in teaming lo read. We 
bare (bought on (he 3ubjcc( since, and vill now give a brierontline of 
the plan of education to which our raflectionii have led ua. It is 
fitr rrom being completed, but thcte nay be advan(ageH in giving it 
early pttblicatioti, that others may think on the subject, and duviae 
something belter adapted to accmnplish the end in view. 

The two great deTecta of the present mode (X teaching in Chinese 
schonla, are. Is*, that it is Dmrbanical, and does not aim at, nor Affect 
the education oF the mind ; and 2d, that it reqiiiree too king lime to 
enable a scholar to read. The new system of instruclioD sbnuld 
aim at the correction of these two evik. The first would be correct- 
ed by causing the pupil to understand the mcaniiw of every charac- 
ter, and every pbraM and sentence, be reads. The second would 
1^ remedied, in some degree, bv the same means, and still farther by 
leaving the practice of committing (o memory so much as they do, and 
directing the scholar to aim a( the knowledge <^tbe characten, in. 
stead <^ seeking (o be able meirly to repeal the sentences, and, when 
be has made some progress by teaching him to exercise his mind 
and to use a dictionary instead of following implicitly and inactively 
in the steps of bis tutor. 

Were we lo undertake the teaching of Chinese childmn, we would 
have hrtjad sheets prepared with pictures of olgecls, and (be chanclera 
used to denote them placed in juxtaposition, in the following man- 
aer; except that we ra*istilute the meaning of objects instead of 
their pictures, and the sounds of the characlera instead of characten 
themselves. Tlius; 

man ^'a. sum jeik. hand «'o». 

womaii MC«. mooD |w2. knife looa. 

child ffss. tree wuJu cow item. 

When the pupil has learned a few of the most simple chatacteis, 
representing objects with which be is every day familiar, we would 
leach bim characters that are stm[^ in their form, and denote com- 
man relations^ thus: 

father faa. mother saxi. husband fao. 

son ttxe. dangbter am. wife tie. 

The picture of a man and a boy near each other would naturally 
suggest to every miad the idea of fallier and son ; and so i^ other rela- 
tions. We would then proceed (o verbs in ttie same manner. Here 
the pictures would need lo be a little more complicated, as the idea 
designed to be conveyed is so; yet it is evidently perfectly easy lo 
convey the nK'aningofall characters to the mind of a child by means 
of representations of the odjects whirh they designate. This mode 
of tenrhins mi^ht be conliiHied till the pupil ho? learned the roesning 
and fnrm of several hundred rharacters belonging lo alt the parts CH 
«p?ech : exclamations, interrogalinnR, and snnte other pmrticl'-S, per. 
hdiis excepted. We have taken a htlle ?ains to cnllrct sinele charac- 
ters, and namcat of things and verbs roiiiposvd of more than a single 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1836. Mode of the teacAing the Chintse Language. 63 

cnaractes tbe meaning of which we could contrivs to convey by 
pictures, and have already a Ust of more than TOO. This numlter 
wight be greatly increased. 

Wben our pupil . has advanced as far as might be thought expedi> 
ent, or found practicable, in this way, we would have him learn thoao 
radicals which would not be included in the characters learned hy 
pictures. We would then put into his hands the best native dictiona- 
ry arranged accordipg to' the radicals, and some book prepared for 
tbe purpoee, and Bda|ited to the capacity of chidren, and to the abili- 
ty of ono beginning to read ; or, if auch could not be obtained, the 
eaaiest book lo read that we could find. We would have htm study 
this as independently as possible ; but he would of course need much 
afsislaDce from his teacher. When he could read the book, and tell 
the meaning of its contents, we would have him pass on to another 
bocdc a little more difficult, and study in the same manner. He 
would advance gradually from the easier to the mere difficult, till 
be should be able to rnad any book on common subjects with ease. 
Whether be should be sble to repeat a single line from the CbineM 
chssica, verbatim, we would not care ; but we would b*ve him road 
every book with such attention to the thoughts is contained, that he 
would be able to give a toleraUe account of the facts, or doctrines, of 
which it might treat. 

We have thus far apcJien of what the Chinese boy should learn. It 
may be proper to say a few word* about tbe mode in which he should 
learn it. We would begin to teach him much as the English boy is 
taught his alphabet. We would point to the first character in our 
primary book, and aak him in hia " mother tongue," what it is, and 
(f necessary aiao direct his attention to the picture at its side to give 
him the idea deaignaled by tbe character. When he coukJ answer 
readily, we would eover the picture, and ask him the mnie of the 
character again ; and proceed thus with all the characters illustrated 
i^ pictures. The book ^ould be in his hands to study hy himself 
in the intervals between his readings with his teacher. As s pleas- 
ing, aa well as profitable, change in the hoy's studies, we would teach 
hiw to write the characters as fast as he learned them, at first with 
tbe book before him, and then memoriter, without it. 

When he hae learned tbe radicals, we would add another exercise. 
We would teach him to pay particular attention to the composition 
of characters, and require him to tell of what radicals they consist. 
This would somewhat reseml^e spelling in alphabetic languages, 
except that the analysing would not give a clue to tbe sound. The 
teacher would give, for instance the word «Aoo, booh; and the scholar 
would tell its component parts, pmA, a pencil, and fui, to speak ; 
or the word te&ng, a trunk, and the scholar would name the radicals or 
characters of which it is composed, namely, chuh, bamboo, muh, a tree, 
and mvh, an eye. Tbe advantages of this mode of analyzing the 
characters would be very great. It would give the scholar a more 
perfect knowledge of the meaning of tbe word, as its constituent parts 
very frequently suggest its primary sigoificKtion, which is always the 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

64 Mode of teaching tkt CSdiuu Laitgmagt. Jvst, 

proper key to the aecondary meuiingi attached to it. It wmikl mako 
him alan more fftiniliar with its form, u it ie easier to remember 
that seiuig ia compoeed of ekuh, wuik, and awk, than it would be to 
remember ila fifteen diatinct marks separately and without any such 
reference (o the three parts of which it ta composed. It would be of 
further advantage in enabling him to turn rituiily to words in his 

If a course of inalniclion like thta be adoptedt we confidently be- 
lieve, one half of the time now occupied in kerning to read might be 
aaved. Children may also commence study at a much earlier period, 
than ia now customary, and perhaps neceasary in consequence of the 
wearisome mode of instruction. Their minds will also be excited 
to action by the greater variety of mftnlal operations to be gone 
through with in the new than in the old course, and by the various 
knowledge that would be gained while learning to read. As in Englidi 
Bchools, a variety of studiea should alternately occupy the attention 
of the child ; and the acquisition of useful knowledge, as of geogra- 
phy, astronomy, history, &c., be attended to at the sKine time that the 
acholar ia learning to read. Bui as our present ot^ect ia not to 
mark out a course of education, but only to ofler hints on the first 
branch of it, we shall not dwell upon the subject. 

If the advantages of this mode of instruction appear as manifest and 
important to our readers as they do to ouraelves, the question will 
naturally arise in their minda; How can it be introduced into general 
tiseT No one acquainted with the Chinese mind will do^ibt the diffi- 
culty of teaching any thin^ nete. This difficulty is probably greater 
in the literati, ttian it is in the common people. Porhapa ttmm ia 
little or no h(^ of teaching an old roan or even one who has advanc- 
ed to the age of twenty-five yeara, and has been employed, as the 
literati are, in committing to memory their ancient c)a<«icB, to under, 
stand the auperior merits of a new method of instruction, and enter 
into the spirit of it. Our hope must , therefore, be in young men. If 
a few of them could be made to see the advantages of an intellectual 
and more speedy education, and to commence schools amncg the Chi- 
nese on the above plan, or aome better one, we bdieve their suceesa 
would soon lead to the more general adoption of it, and finally to ita 
introduction Into general use. For the attainment of this object, we 
think a school ought to be commenced aa aoun as possible by some 
English teariier, who should first acquire a knowledge of the lan- 
guage, and employ a Chinese aasiatant with the expreas purpoae of 
(raii)ing up Chinese schoolmaster*. If he could not succeed in c<rf. 
lecting a school in Canton, or other placet in Chini, he might do it in 
some of those settlements occupied by Chinese out of the empire, to 
which the people emigrate. Youth of twelve or fifteen years of age 
are frequently seen among the emigrants, andmight be collected into 
schools with perfect ease. 

The scholars should be thoroughly trained to an intellectual method 
of study, and perhaps to the t^ncaaterinn plan of inalruetior, or to 
some modification of it, that would make it better adapted to the 

i:..T,r b.V^-.00'^IC 

1 630. Remari» on tk» OrAogra^f of Ckmae Wordt. 65 

hmbila oT the Chinese. They ehuuld be made acNiuBiDted also with 
the element! of general scieace^ and be quilified like teachera in the 
weat, to lead on their papila to thought, and to an acquaintance with 
the world we inhabit, and the reUtioiu we nvtain. To avoid Ihe 
hindrancea, which prejudice against every thing foreign would throw 
in their way, the pictures shmild be made in tne Chinese style, and 
the books all have a Chinese dren and chancier, so Tar as possible. 
It might be necessary also (hat the. teachers should go to some 
place remote from those visited by foreigners, and introduce the new 
method of instruction without reference to the place where they learn- 
ed it, or the persons who taught them. When duly prepared, let them 
S'o out from the school imbued with the spirit of improvement, and 
eeling that they can do something for the benefll of 800,000,000 of 
immortal minds that use the language; and may we not expect that 
changes, at least as important as those of Lancaster and Bel) in En- 
glish education, will he eflecled if) China? May we not hope that 
(he ogee of mental inactivity will draw to a cloae, and that an era of 
light and knowledge and a purer religion will the more ^eedily dawn 
upon Ihe nation T 

Art. IV. Bemark* and ntggeitmiu rapee&tg the 'lytlem of or- 
thngraph^ for Chinete mordt,' puKu/ied tn lAe RtpoiUory for 
JKtjr, 1830. From a Correspondent. 

[Wk cannot now irfbr any criticism on the remarks of our CorreHpondenti 
who bu so pn»Dpt]y, carefully, and obligingly canvaaeed die menta of the 
proposed ayatem <» orthography. It is our particular request that otbera, and 
especially those who are cenverssnt vith the Chinese language, will, in like 
mamier, gire na their viewa on thia subject On page69,oiirCorreapondent 
apeaka (U* "the work about to appear f* if be received thia idea from 
anytbmg contained in our laat number, we correct the mistake: so far aa 
we are informed there is no work about to appear on the aubiecl in queatioo. 
We ue swore, however, that a plan has been talked of, uti is, we believe, 
DOW under consideration, for forming a new dictionaiv of the Chinese lan- 
guage. Should thia plan be adopted, it will be desirable to aecore for it the 
aid of European ainologues, as well as that of all those who are now in 
Ihe eaat, in order to render it as complete as possible in all the varioiu 
branches of the arts, sciences, lawa, ffovemment, philoaophy, religion, &c. 
Sncha wnk is agrsatdeBideratum,anirita completion will require much time 
and expense; and the plan will, we hope, receive due consideration.] 

Thb third Article in the last number of the Repository, on the ex- 
ceedingly interesting subject of Chinrfte orthography, concludes with 
SQ invitation to its readers (o offer their opinions on it, with a view to 
(he introduction of as accurate a system as may be attainable. And 
it appears that the aamo necessity of it reform in the orthography of 
Dr. Morrison's dictionary is experienced, which hon been (eh ir) all 
similar cases in Indian languages, and which nrises indeed inevitahlv 
where the arbitrary symtM>b of articulate si unds in one langiragn aro 

VOL. V. MO. 11. 

;. V^nOC^IC 

66 Semarlu on (^ Ortfto^apAy of Chinese Words. ivsw, 

for the first time applied 10 another. The opportunity which seems 
now coDlem|ildted of applying with greater care to the Chinese lan- 
guage those symbols famili&r to European eyes is so important, and the 
task of correcting the imperfect application alreitdy made is one which 
it Is really so desirable to see executed correctly, and on general prin. 
ciples, once and for ever, that I doubt not it will be undertaken with 
(he greatest caution. 

If wilt not therefore be uninteresting to your readers to know that 
this very subject, in its most extensive point of view, is now engaging 
the particular attention of some of the most able men of the age at 
home ; and that the difRculties in ll e way of the application of a ge- 
neral set of signs to all articulate sounds are undergoing, at this 
moment, with a view to practical usefulness, that investigation which 
is far more necessary in order to render them infallible than su|>erfi- 
eial observers would imagine. How far the labors of these men may 

Erove serviceable to the Chinese philologist, I cannot pretend to say ; 
ut it seems reasonable at least to point attention to a quarter whence 
new and important light may be looked for, before Ihe improved sys. 
tern of orthography be finally fixed. Professor Wheatslone of London 
is following up the investigations of the Russian philosopher Krutzen- 
slein with remarkable success ; and the views, rather hinted than 
divulged in the concluding section of sir John Herschel's Tratise 
on Sound in the Encyclopeedia Metroplitana, which point to a tmi~ 
vertal language addressed to ihe eye as something not absolutely hope- 
less of attainment, are, I believe, maturing, so far at least as to make 
their usefulness on an occasion like the present extremely probable. 

Whether the Italian orthography may be fitly adopted, because it is 
confessedly less variable and imperfect than others, depends on the 
further inquiry, whether a still inOte perfect system may not be at 
once formed, as easily as an old one borrowed and altered to suit our 
purpose T The progress, howevt r, that seems already made in tho 
construction of a system founded on Ihe Italian as a basis renders it 
perhaps supererogatory to make this inquiry now. If the entire sys- 
tem as now reconstructed from the Ital an, with the modifications ami 
addition of dincrilical marks specified, possess the two great deside- 
rata, tsl, of being absolutely ini'arinble in its application in all cases 
whatever, and 2d1y, of being Sjfiiciently comprehensive and flexible 
in its plan, to incUir^e all varieties of sound in the language ; if Iheso 
■ two great objects be eccirrcil by remodelhng an old system of orlho. 
graphy instead of constructing a new, the inconvenience attending 
the usi- of aymhtils that hav a different interpretation elsewhere may 
not be much felt. I should a_ ■, however, that the necessity of a most 
rigid ndhe''ence in nil case> wliutcver, lo every part of the pliin IhuH 
fortned, is in this cnsc inr e imperious thin if a new system were 
formed, where mistakes fmm confusion with significations elsewhere 
could not well occur. And this rerrark U offered because in the article 
aUuded lo, I rail er miss lliat empl aVs upon the necejuity ofitmaria- 
bleness, which tl e occasion [ am >lrr ngly persuaded requires. Such 
H thing as an e ce,i(ion to the symbolical signification once appoinlod, 


leae. Remark on the Ortht^rt^y of Chmete Wordi. 97 

abould not be admitted from end to end of (he work. If a Bound 
arises which the scheme of symbols is not already comprahensivA 
enough to indicate accurately and certainly, the scheme must be added 
to, and a new symbol devised for the occasion, but on no account an 
old one altered even for a single instance, still less should it be 
squeezed, or made to fit, (as it were,) into a place not precisely its 
proper habitation. There is, probably, e greater accuracy of ear re- 
quired to detect slight variations of sound in ^miliar language, par- 
ticularly when acquaintance with it as is almost a universal event in 
the association of ideas suggests to the mind the orthography, than 
in tuning the most difficult of musical instruments. And the seoteace 
now quoted from sir William Jones, is, I think, a good example of the 
difficulty which is found in detecting these nice varieties in vowel 
sounds : " A mother bird flutters over her young," is given as an il- 
lustration of the tame voteel tound represented in six different ways, 
viz., by o, B, t, o, tf, and ou, " to which may be added the sound of 
ea, in heard." I should have supposed the vowel a in that sentence 
is quoted by sir W. Jones in mistake, or perhaps the mistake is in the 
article before me, or perhaps I am in the -mistake ; but it does ap- 
pear to me that the sound of this vowel is widely different from that 
nearly vniform sound which pervades the subsequent syllables. Yet 
in them also there is, I thinkt a difierence very observable on close 
attention ; too decided a difference to be overlooked by a critical 
orthoepist in his task, though it may be slighted by an indolent ear : 
fur instance, in the dwa^tm of sound in the vowels t and i, and in th« 
diphthong ou, which is much greater than in the vowels o and «; and 
if this greater duration be on further inquiry found a general charac- 
teristic of those vowels, it is clear that they will require a different 
symbol from the shorter vowels. Besides the duration, there seems 
a gradation of at least three distinct sounds, reckoning from the sotmd 
here given to o in motftsr, to the sound which belongs to u in Auttsr. 
Perhaps the following extract from the Treatise on Sound, above 
alluded to, as connected with these minute distinctions of sound, in 
the English language in particular, may be interesting. 

" We hove six letters which we call vowels, each of which, however 
represents a variety of sounds quite distinct from each other, and 
while each encroaches on the functions of the rest, a great many good 
simple vowels are represented by binary or even ternary combinations. 
On the other hand, some single vowel letters represent true diphtbones 
(as the long sound of i iu <dike, and that of u in rebuke,) consisting 
of (wo distinct simple vowels pronounced in rajiid succesiiion, while 
again, most of what we call di|ihthong are simple vovveln, ss bleak 
thief, land, &c. This will render nn enumeration of our English 
elementary sounds, as they reslly BxiNt in our language, not irrelevant. 
We have (herefore assembled in the following synop(ic table suffi! 
cient examples of each to rendent evident their nature, accompanied 
with occasional instances of the corresponding sounds in other Inn- 
gtiages. In words of two or more sytlnbles, riiose containing the 
soundii intended (o be inHliinred are printed in italics. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

. i ' H4M>d:Alini; Rude: Poor ;W>>iib:Wo«ii;<llfnir (Ft.). 

}' Good tOutiimiCmdtoo; Kami {G«.);GmHt>{lM.y 
3. Sport; Aawrt; Dirt; Firtae;Dofe; AoiMe; Blood. 
9. Hole; TohI. 

. (' A]I;Caaglil;Oirm;Sai^t;Bralk; Bra^. 
*'^-Hot; CoMinl; Kmobh (Ger.). 
5. Bud; Araten (Ger.); Ovtalu (Fr.). 
0. LM^;Tk^ 

7. Idunb; Fan; That 

8. Hang ; Bang ; T*anc. 

9. Hare; Hair; Heir; Were; Bear : Hier(Fr.); £abai(Ger.> 

10. Umeil^me; Crane: Faint; £ayn>u; HCbo (Fr.). 

11. £«wMi: Dead: Said ;iln7;£fery;FrieMl;£la4tMr(Fr.). 

Peep;£om; Bel«« ; Siebea (Ger.); Cogidk (Fi'.). 
s; tibilus; cipher: dte lut rami ud the firal en— obi 

1. Life. The aminda Ho. 5 and No^ IS, atoned aa rapidly «■ 
pooaiMe, prodiice oar Englirii i, wbieh is a r«al dipfaUiong. 

3. Brow; Plough; LaIob (German). The tow«1 oouod No. & 
quickly followed 1^ No. I. 

3. Oil ; JTdneD (German). No. 4 ancceeded by No. 13. 

4. Rnhcfa; ¥cw ; You. No. 13. aueceeded by No. I. 
6. Toko. No. 13 succeeded by No. 8. 

6. yomg ; Feorn ; Hem ; flov. No. 13 aueeeeded by No. S 

more or k« rapidly. 

Mllte coDMMianls present equal conrusion. ITtey may be i^neraUy 

arranged in three classes : sharp sounds, flat one^ and indiflerent or 

neutrnl. The r<mDer two have a cmwtant rebtionship or parallelism 

to each other, thus : 

S. tell, edl; t. (aa we will here denote it,) sAosie, nrt teUrm 
{GeT.y, ». thing ; f. fright, enough, phailom; K. kmg, emu, fmer ; 
T.uJk; P. papa. 

Z. tenUh; eatetnent; ?. ple«nirv, janUa (French); g, Ihe lA in 
the words the, that, ihm ; V. vik; G. good; D. duke; B. babe. 

L.lily; M. mamma; N. nanny; «. hang; to which we may add 
the na^al N in gnu, jElna, DiiiejKT, which, however, is not pro. 
pcrly BD English aound. R. rattle ; H. hard. 


C. or Tff. church, cicerouc (li;iliiiri), an<l its rorresponding fiat 
sound J. or D ^. jc*(, geuAei ; X, f»lr«i»p, Xcixet; j. fttanperalc, 
fiinlt, Xrrxcn ; dfc. 4c. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

836. Remarlit on lAe OiilH^niiAg of Chmuf. Word*. 6S 

" We hav« bora a «»)« of IS Bimple vowels kod 21 simple conao- 
nants, S4 in all, which are the fewest letters with which it is passible 
lo write English. But on the other hand, with the addition of two or 
three more vowels, and as maD^ coiMonaiits, making about 40 cha- 
racters in all, every known lai^uage might probably be eflectually 
reduced to wriiiag, so as to preserve an exact correapondflDce be. 
tween the writing and pronunciation ; which would be one of the 
inoet valuable acquisitions not only (o [^ilologists but to mankind, 
facilitating the intercourse between nations, ud laying the founda. 
tioD of the first step towards a nnivenal language, one of the great 
deuderala at which mankind ought to aim by ctxnmon consenL" 

These obeervationa, coming from such a quarter, may be of value. 
Some suggeations arise from a comparison of this syiraptical table 
with that at page 30 in the Repository) which I may be foigiven the 
presumption of offering; thoudi it is evident that die subject has a|. 
ready been so carefuUy coDSiaered by the writer of the article, as to 
make him very independent of foreign aid in oompleting his design, 
I will venture, however, to note brioSy what has occurred to myself 
on the subject. 

My first suggestion would be, the formal enunciation of the new 
system in a very distinct manner at the commencement of the work 
about to appear. The general principles of the system may be 
detailed at length ; and then the result exhibited in a tabular form. 
Tlw advantage of something like a separate pulication, and in a 
permanent form, of the new orthographical scheme, is evident. For 
as its usefulness will not be confined tu its application to this single 
work, but is intend to Em durable, and to guide the orthocra|%y 
of future philologists or genera] writers on Chinese topics, it will be of 
very material consequence that the scheme laid down be one of easy 
and universal reference. 

To facilitate this reference the more, I would suggest further that 
the table of articulate sounds in the Chinese hnguage, have each 
sound numbered. Herscbel's specimen. table numlwrs vowels, diph- 
thongs, Bud consonants, each in a separate series. But for the pre- 
sent purpose, one sequence of numbere, from the first elementary sound 
in the language to the last, appears decidely preferable. 

The table at page 30 of the Repository appeara to me capable of 
some improvements ; nor need I press further apology for suggesting 
them. I think that the diacritical marks ought not to form any 
part of the table itself. They are mere cogents or influences) not 
themseWes sounds. Let them therefore be explained (if they are to 
be used) in some other place ; but let the " table of articulate sounds in 
the Chinese language " be kept strictly apart from all collateral mat. 
ter; let it be the pure result of all foregone explanations. This will 
compel the repetition in the table, of — for instance — the diacritic^ 
mark, C ) as applied perhaps to two or three consonants, which will 
therefore have to be numbered separately as so many different sounds ; 
bnt cannot be complained of, if there be actually such different sounds 
in the language. A distinctive symbol for every sound in the language, 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

70 Remarks on the Orthography of Chinete Wordi. Jdne, 

in (he very end to be aimed at. To abridge the apparent number of 
Bymbola, by hesitating to give one for each individuul, sound, and to 
affix a number to it Tor better reference, is not lessening the labor of 
the student in the least, but only complicating the system which JA his 

The two first sounds in the table at page 30 of the Repository 
appear to me — as far as I can judge by the exemplar sounds given of 
each, viz., quota for the first, and cabn for the second — (he same, only 
differing in length. The Latin a in penna is, 1 suppose, the identical 
sound in the word quota ; and this, as far my ear can distinguish, 
is precisely the same sound as that of a in calm except that it is 
enounced more quickly. In this case, I should think the use of the 
common prosodial signs ('and"), the most natural; and not the acute 
and grave accents applied in the present scheme. 

The same renaark seems applicable to the two first sounds distin. 
guished by the letter u in the table, where the example of the first 
sound is the word put, and of the second the word rude. If the latter 
word, as [ conceive, be exactly of the same vowel sound as exists in 
the word good, I cannot see that it all difiers from the sound of u in 
put, except in that if is more lengthened, and therefore if it claim ^ 
separate place, or niim1>er in the table at all, I would again recom. 
mend the familiar mark ( ~ ] as the fit symbol of this distinction, and 
not th<9 acute accent by which it id now distinguished. 

The next vowel sound in the new table, illustrated by the word 
allure, appears to me a very decided diphthong. Ai such it will be 
found in Herschel's table of diphthongs nbove, numbered 4, and is 
resolved by him into the two vowel Bounds of his preceding table, 
Nos. 13 and 1. 

The lost suggestion I would take the liberty of offering, is that the 
exemplar words to be given in the new table, when finally prepared, 
be very abundant, and from as many languages as may be. The un. 
conscious variations of sounds to which even educated men, natives 
of the same country, are liable in the use of particular words, are 
such, that the real sound meant to Ik indicated cannot always be 
known with certainty unless by presenting a number of instances, 
nnd of ns many different modes of spelling as possible. 

P. S. Since writing the above, I have been led into further con. 
flideration of the table of the new diphthongs, but will only encroach 
on your time and space, so far as lo express my doubts regarding (he 
propriety of including the combination of tti in (his list. The word 
fiu^, given as (he example, is a decided dissyllable, and has no diph. 
thong in it. I am inclined to form the same opinion also of both the 
other combinations tie and tia. 


Indo-Ckinete Languaget^ 

Abt. V. " Pnpotal for forming a Comparative Vocabulary of 
aU the Indo-Chitiete Umgxagei," Uigethtr viik a jian of the 
Soiu moDthB ago we received a document coatainiog the plan in 
quMtion ; and not long aftcrwarda tbo same, except the cala1<^ue of 
words and a short list of senlences, appeared in (he Calcutta Christian 
Obaerver (vol. iv, no. x, 1885,) under the tiik which we have placed 
at the head of this article. " The plan " we shall quote entire, as it 
may aflbrd essential aid io forming a system of orthography for Chi- 
nese words ; and sonie of the remsrks in the Observer, viewed in 
connection with the first and second articles of our present number, 
seem equally worthy of being quoted. After speaking of the affinities 
between different languages, and of their great practical importance 
in the accumulation and extension of knowledge, the writer in the 
Observer thus pmceeds: 

» A'sim is a well known province on the eastern frontier of BRnga) ; 
Siam is familiar to us as a country on the shores of China sea, and 
some of us may have seen scattered notices of certain " Sb&n tribes," 
inhabiting the interior of the Burmese empire ; but till very lately it 
was not generally understood that these coutries bad any connec- 
tion with each other. Recent inquiries, however, have demonstrated 
that the Sb&ns and Siamese are essentially the same people, while 
. the ruling race in A'sim are an oSset from the same root ; that 
one language, with only certain variations of dialect, is spoken from 
Sadiya in A'sim to the southern extremity of Siam, and that even 
tb« names of the three countries can be traced, by an easy inter, 
change of letters lo a common origin. The Burmese cell the whole 
lace to which these remarks refer Sy&n, which the Portuguese turned 
inter Siam, and gave that name to the independent kingdom so called, 
wbich was the only part of the kingdom inhabited by the Sydns with 
which they were acquainted. On the other side, when these same 
people broke into Bengal, the Indians, according to theit usual custom 
in similar cases, prefixed a vowel to the two consonants, and called 
the province which had been colonized by the Syins, Asy4n, or 
Ashim, wbich we have turned into A'sim. In the mesn lime, the 
bulk of the nation, who continued lo inhabit the country between 
A'sim and Siamt long remained unknown to us; and when they 
were at lost brought to light by the advancement of our frontier to 
Sadiya, in consequence of event of the Burmese war, we called 
them Sh&ns (Sy&n) ; but till very lately we remained in a state 
of profound ignorance of there l)eing nny connection between them 
and the A'sinMse and Siamese. They are, however, (he parent 
stock of both; and although at present subject to foreign rule, are a 
very numerous people, who not only compose the bulk of the popula- 
tiim of all the northern provinces of the Burmese empire, but also 
eitond far into Yunnan, the wesleriunoet province of China. Their 

1 V^nOC^IC 

73 t»do-Ckiaete LoHgaaga. June, 

«iici«nt capital waa Mogaum, but th«ir independeoce fell before the 
risirw fcHtuoea of the Burmeae. 

"It u not eaay at prennt to estimate the full importance of this 
diflcover?, but tbui much is certain ; that, as it has been aacertain. 
ed that only one language prevail* in the countriea between A'aim 
and Siam, the aame bookai with only aoine slight modificatioDB to suit 
the rariationa of dialect, will answer throughout the whole of thia 
tract, * * * It ia also deserving of remark, that the countries inhabited 
by the Shin lace, forni a belt extending acroaa the Indo-Chinese pe- 
ninaula, and separating Burmah proper from China ; and, while the 
Burmese dominions are in a manner insulated by it, the miaBionary 
atation about to be formed at Sadiya will by the aame meana be 
brought into connection with those on the ahorea of the China sea. 
There will soon be a missionary establishment at each end of the belt, 
viz., at Sadiya on one side, and Bankok on the other; and if a third 
establiahment were to be formed at Mogaum or some other central 
point in the Burmeae Shin profinces, the chain of connection be 
tween the Bramhaplitra and China sea would be complete. This 
line of action opens to our prospect an avenue into the heart of east, 
ern Aaia, and if we can secure our position upon it, we shall be able 
to eater into communication with the inhabitants of the Chineae and 
Burman empires, from an exactly c^poeite quarter from that in which 
we have hitherto had access to there. Burmsh will be placed between 
the new alationa in the Shftn country and the British provinces of 
Tenaaaerin aod A'r&l^&n ; and Yunnan, the great weatern provincs 
of China, will be placed between those atationa and Canton : and we . 
may bereatler make advancea to the pointa even beyond thia, whence 
the Chinese empire will be more completely laid open to our inBuence. 
Although at present they appear distant, these prospects lie fully be. 
fore ua, and if proper means are adopted to gain the good will of the 
Burmese government, we may expect ere long to see a mianonary 
station fixed in the Sh&n country, which will at once form a central 
point of communication between all the Indo-Chinese misaions, and 
furnish a new and important optining for the evangelization of the 
great Chinese empire, — We have been unconsciously led, by the in- 
terest with which we regard the subject, to wander from the parficu. 
lar purpose with which we took up our pen. Aa an important advan. 
tage has been already gained by a slight attention to the connection 
between the languages of that quarter, we consider it our duty to pro- 
secute the inquiry, until we succeed in obtaining tho means of making 
an accurate comparison of all the difTerent languages and dinlecia 
which are spoken in the Indo-Chinese peninsula, or in other words, in 
the countries situated between India and China." 

The resolve to prosecute this inquiry is worthy of all commenda- 
tion ; and if we can afford any nid to those who are engaged in tho 
work, we ahall esteem it a pleasure, na well as our duty so to do. 
The following panigraplis contain the "Plan of the Vocabulary." 

"At tho request of varioun friendfi to native education, the fol 
lowing table has been prepared, containing about 500 of the most 

1839. /ndo-CftuieK Language: ^S 

coiDmon Englrah words, with tha corrtuponding terms in Iwo of llw 
Indo-ChiiKaB laiuiragea, aD() Uank cdutnos to be filled up with olhei 
dialecla. 'Hio t&Bct i< to obtain a ComparativS Vocabulary of all 
the languagea opcdisii between India and China, for the purpoee of 
tracing their origin and affinitlea. The first cdamn in the table 
contains the EnglMi words ; the second, the cormt>onding lerins in 
Burnwso ; the third, those rn the language of (hd Sykma (9yinB or 
Sh&na), or as they call ihemselv^ Tta.* The Shin words are given 
according to the dialect ^Mken in the neighborhood of Zenmfe, th« 
capital of northern Laos. This language is supfMiscd to be originally 
derived from the sum stock as the Siamese,! and it wilt probably 
be found nesrly identical with that spoken by the various Shin tribes 
inhabiting the territories east and north of Ava. 

H'rhe system adapted in Ihts table, for expressing the Tai, or 
Sh&n, and Burmese sounds, is the one which is now so extensively 
and BQCceoifullly used in RomnniziDg the languages of India, and is 
identical with the piftn pn^maed by the honorable John Pickering, 
(Memoirs of Amer. Acad., vol. iv.,) for writing the languages of all 
the Indian tribes of North America in s uniform character, and now 
extensively adopted by the nrissioiraries among those tribes. It is 
also the same system as that introdnced by the misnionaries at the 
Sandwich and Society Islands. The vowels are nsed in accordance 
with their clasAcal pronunciation on the continent of Europe. It has 
beon found necessary to introduce several diacritical marl<8, in order 
to meet the wants of tbe complex vowel systems of the Burmese and 
Shins. "Hie fundamental vowel soumls are as follows : 

&, sounded as in America, agreeable ; or short u in but. 

C as In men. 

^ as in they ; or a in name. 

i, as in pin. 

U as in pique, police. 

o, as in nut, nor, or «» in law, 

o, as in note. 

u, as in put, pulL 

<i, as in rule, or oo in moon. 
" AddiHatud munds. The Burmese and Sliins have a broad mund 
of ibe short e, resembling that ofe in there, or ay in uiayor, for winch 
we may use 

i, with a grave accent. 

!, is likewise used to denote a. peculiar sound or the t in the 

* All ancient Shin manuicrlpt, of great value, hu rpcrntl; been discovered 
by captain Pemberton. lale Ckimniiuianer at Maniplir containing ■ liiilory of 
tbe ancient kingdnm of Tai, ftom the 80U] year of llie Christian era, to Ibe time 
or ill final Biibjagaiion and dismemberment by the Burmese, during the teign of 
Alaung-phuri(orAlompro), A, D. 1752. The capital of tliis kingdom was M6- 
gaun^, situated on a branch oltlie Eriwsdi, several hundred inilpH north ofAvn 

I From an examination of captain Low's grainmsr of the Tai, or SiamcM! 
language, it appeara that more than half the words conlaiiied m bis Vocabulary 
are prtciaely tbe same as are lued smong the Shdni 

VOL. V, NO. 11. Id 

■>. V^nOC^IC 

74 lado.Cluneie Languages. Juri;, 

Burmese language, not difTeriog eBsenlially from the sound of e in nie. 

b, denotes the broad sound of short o, in groat, cm- a in hall. 
It is necessary to use this character only in those languages which two modificAtions of this sound; as the English, which lias 
short in not, and broad 6 in nought. 

li, denotes the Preuch u, or the German u. 

ii', is the same sound, but longer. 
*^ Diphihongt. In the expression of diphthongs, it is Decenary to 
combine the vowels in such a manner that they shall express tho 
same sounds when united, as they do when separate. 

ai, is the long English i in pine ; a combination of the short 
u [a] with (he sound of t in pin. 

&i, as heard in the word ay. 

au, a combination of short a with tho u in pur ; forming the 
English ou or titc, as in loud, cow. 

fku, a in far, and u in put ; producing a Aat sound of the 
on, such as is sometimes heard in (be vulgar proa unciat ion of round, 
sound, bound, &c. 

oi, short and short t, as in oil, boil. 

eii, Is used to denote a peculiar sound of the Shins, resem- 
bling (he French eu in pcur, douieitr. 

"The combinations ia, iau, iu, eau, oa or <ja, uc, ui, and iii, need 
no further explanation, as each of (he vowels is used (o express i(s 
own invariable sound. 

I' lalanationt. The grand peculiarity of all languages connected 
with the Chinese family, ippears to be the complexity and niceness of 
their system of intonation. The Rrst diversity of tone which strikes 
us, is the use of tho riling and falling infiexiotu, or the upward and 
downward slide of the voice in pronouncing a syllable. In English, 
we use inflections not for the purpose of changing the significations 
of words, but (o give them a more striking emphasis, or often perhaps 
merely for (he sake of oinameot and variely. 
Where did you go t 
Did you go 1 
"The word go, in (he iirst sentence, has the falling (one; in tho 
second, the rising. But in the Indo-Chinese languages, this modilicu- 
lion of the tone produces dislinct words, of an entirely ditferent sence. 
To express (his modification in the Romsn character, it is proposed 
(o draw a straight line latder the initial, letter of evert/ tyUable vshiek 
hai the dowmeard lone; leaving the rising tone in its natural states 
without any mark. The Burmese represent the falling tone hy writ- 
ing their (A^pauft at the en<i of (he syllabic ; while in the Laos and 
Siamese systems, this distinction is denoted in writing by a difference 
in the initial consonant. The la((er mode Is preferred ; for although 
a diacrilicnl mark attached to a final letter might be tiulte practica- 
ble in Romanizing the Riirmeso. it could not well bo adopted in (ho 
Sh4n and Siauu-w, on Hcruuii( of its interference wilb olhcr im]>or. 
(nni tone*. Wo nmy illustrate Ibu pmposcd plan of using the line 


1836 Jnio-Clunete LangiagM. 75 

unrfernnalli, by the words no and not, a* benrd in the following sen. 
tences ; lh« two former of which we hsve Ibe rising tone j in the 
two latter falling. 

Did you say no? 
Will you not? 
I said no. 
I will n'ot. 

"llie second peculiarity of intonation, is the abrupt termination 
of a sound, as if it were broken off in the midst of its enunciation. 
In this case, the volume of voice is full at the end ; contrary to the 
other modificatioiia, where the sound is drawn out in such a manner, 
that the volume of voice gradually decreases from the commencement 
to the close. To distinguish this peculiarity, it is proposed to place 
a dot under the final vowe) or consonant, after the manner of the 
Burmese aukmytt. The Sh&ns apply the abrupt termination to words 
both of the rising and falling inflection, thus making four varieties to 
every syllable ; while the Burmese have only three, the natural or 
rising, the falling, and the abrupt. 

"The low monotone forms the only remaining peculiarity of the 
Sh&n dialects. For the expression of this, a straight Une is drawn 
underneath the intermediate or final voml. The five vaiieties of 
intonation will then be expressed as follows : 
kang, the nntur^ rising tone, 
kang, the same, with abrupt termination, 
kang, a low monotone, 
kang, the downward tone. 
kang, the same, with abrupt termination. 

" Contonartt. B, ch, d, f, g, hard, h,j, k, I, m, n, p, r, ; t, v, 10, p, 
r, are used as in English. H, used after another consonal, sliows 
that it is aspirated ; thus, kh, is sounded hs in padt-Aorse ; tA, as in pof- 
Aouse, not as in think ; ph, as in up.Aill, not as in philosophy ; sh, as 
in glaff-Aouae, not as in thip. To express the sounds of «& in ship, 
and ih in think, the letters are united by a line drawn through them, 
thus, BTi, Hi. Ng is sounded as in singing. 

" Change of ContonanU. It is to be noted, tliiLt in nil Burmese ver- 
bal, numeral, and noun affixes, reduplications of monosyllabic roots, 
and generally, in Hie added syllables of compound words, commencing 
with either of the sharp consonants k, t, p, or », these letters are 
changed in pronunciation, to the corresponding flat or soft conso. 
nants, g, d, h, and x ; unless when preceded by a sharp final conso- 
nant, in which case the original sound is preserved. 

"It is particularly requested, that in filling up the blank columns of 
this list with other dialects, the spelling may agree, as far as praclica. 
ble, with the plan here laid down. In cnse new varietiea of intmialion 
occur in any language, it is very desirable that they should be denoted 
by nnarks uader the letters, and not over them. There will then be 
room above the line for diacritical marks, to express all possible vnri. 
eties of vowel sound in every langunge; wh'Ae the ititoaiilinng will 

1 V^nOC^IC 

70 Ittda-Chinete Lmguaget. Jiircr, 

be unirormly drnnteH by appropriate mtitlu iindcriH^nfh. In inlrO' 
ductng native lermx into English wriliDg and jiriDting, nil marlcn below 
the line, as Ihey would convey no idea to an Engliali reader, may 
be diHTegarded, arid only the accents above the vowels be )ireaerved. 

" It is aim requested, that informatian may be furnished on the ful. 
lowing points. 1. Within what geographical limits each language or 
dialect which may be added to this Vocabulary is spoken. 2. The 
timated number of the people who speak it. 3. The account they 
give or their own origin with any circumstances, which in the opinion 
of the writer tend to elucidate their origin and to establish an an- 
cient connection between them and other races." 

Here ends the " Plan of the Vocabulary," to which the writer in 
the Observer adds (he following remarks : 

** There ca.n be little doubt that the Roman character may be 
applied with the greatest ease and advantage to the language of 
Chine, and it is quite certain that their present complex hiPrc^ly- 
phical mode of writing must, sooner oi later, give way tu some regular 
alphabetic system. The number of the Chinese inlonalions heing, 
according to Dr. Mamhmari, not more thsn four or live, will be even 
less difficult of expression than those of the Sh&ns ; and it is confident. 
ly believed, that several, if not most of their intonations will prove 
to be identical with those which have already been found common to 
both the Burmese and Sh&ns." 

This subject of tones, so br as it regards correct speaking in the 
Chini^ae language, is very difficult, and very important. Though 
many of Iho Chinese know nothing of the subject theoretically, yet 
practicnlly their intonations are surprisin^y accurate. In his Clavis 
Sinica, (page 172,) Dr. Marshman says: "The tones, or intonations, 
by which the Chinese have varied their words are four. The first of 
theiv, thi* Catholic fathers divide into two ; and indeed it includes (wo 
sounds, the one high and clear the other thick and low." I'hese five 
they indicated by the same number of marks, thus pd, po. pit. pd, p5. 
See Prpmnre's Notitia Lingue Sinice. In the introduction (o Mor. 
rison'n dictiotiary, part first, the same subject is briefly noticed and 
rt^frrence made to native works, in which it is treated of m exlauo. 
We cnnnot now pursue the topic, and have thus adverted to it, merely 
for the sake of bringing it more distinctly to the notice of our readen, 
BDine of whom, we hope, will give it a thorough investigation, and 
favor us with the result of their labors. 

P. S. For indicating the eieht tones, which are clearly distinguish- 
ed in some of the dialects of China, we have thought of using the four 
mnrk^ which were defined in our third volume, page 27, with only 
this differi'Mce, that ench of the four there specified be divided into 
■ wo, ft high and a low, and be placed alter the syllables to which (hey 
belong, in the following r 


Haieaiina Lnngmge, 

Ait. VI. A Yotahvlary of word* m lAe HtuBoHoH languagt, pp. 
13-2. 9m., 6y tlit Rev. Lorrim Andrewt, of the High School, 
Lahmnabtna. February 3>'hl, 183S. 
BrrwRBK the yean 182lt when the language of Hawaii waa fint 
reduced to writinsi and 1B34, twenty-aeven difTerant publicationa 
appeared in that dialect, which, with aeverBl complete booliB of tha 
Old and New Teatanient, gave a total of 30,640,920 printed pafiea. 
Such were the productions of the Hawaiian preen in June 1834 ; aiace 
then, it has b»en kept in constant and vigorous operation. There 
are lying before us at tbia mtMnent, no leaa than twelve ^fietent pub- 
lications, all of which came froin the press during the year 1835] 
antong these, are Primary Lmbohs for children, CoTbum'a Intellectual 
Arithmetic, the entire New Tcstanient, and a Vocabulary of (he Ha- 
waiian language. This last, though confenedly very imperfect, k>oka 
well for a beginning. We notice (he work thus early, in order (o 
bring tin Hawaiian system of orthc^raphy before our readers in cIom 
connection with that proposed for Chinese words. For, it ja only 
by a careful comparison of diAerent Innguagea and of the various 
modes of writing them, that philologists can ever expect to construct 
any system of characters, sigFis, or symbds, which shall be of univer< 
ESI use, or well filled even for a limited apnlication. Poasibly an exa. 
niination of the Hawaiian inconnection with the Chinese, may throw 
some light on the origin of the former. In the prefiice to the Voca- 
bulary, the manner in which it has been "got up" and completed, 
is described as follows : 

" Perhapa the Sandwich Islands's mitiion owes an apology to IhA 
literary world for having reduced to writing a language of such vari- 
ety and extent as the Hawaiian, and puUished so many books in it 
without having given any account cither of the geniu^ structure, or 
peculiarities of the language. Many reasons, however, exist why so lit. 
lie has been done in this respect. The want o( leisure in any member 
of the mission for sitting down to labors purely literary, is one reason. 
The want of proper materials heretofore for authority, is another. 
Bnl the reason that has had the greatest inAueoce i% the bcl that 
tiMse who came first on the ground and acquired the language by IIm 
ew and by mixing with the natives, soon became independent of 
help and neded neither a vocabulary or a grammar of the language : 
ana those who came later, and most needed such holps, felt that they 
wera not well mid^ed for the tart of making them. But, however 
the EHJority of the mission may feel with regard to sji aptriogy in their 
bsfaalf^ the compiler of the following Vocaholary feels that on explana- 
tion ta due from him respecting the manaer in which the work has 
been got up. 

"At a meeting of the mission convened in June 1884, it was 
voted : " Thtd Mr. Andraei fnpan a Foonbiilary o/" the HtnoaHaM 
language" At the same time a wish was eamutfy expreased and 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

79 Hamiiian Ijonguage. Svint, 

of^en repeated sinre, that the work should not be delayed, but 
Hhould be printed oA noon as possible, and it was fully understood 
and expected that the work would necessarily be an imperfect one. 
On receiving the above appointment from the miaaion, the compiler 
set aWit a review of his materials for the compilation of a vocabu. 
lary. The materials at hand and from which the following work has 
been compiled were the rollowing : 1. A vocabulary of words col- 
lected, it is believed, mostly by Mr, Loomis, formerly a member of 
thia mission. This was tmnacribed by the compiler on the voyage 
frnm the United States, and wa« put to use in 1628. In using it, it 
was hia object to insert every new word which he saw in print or 
heard in conversation, or could obtain in any other way, besides cor- 
recting such mistakes as had been made in transcribing from the 
copy of Mr. Loomis. It was also a point with him to insert, if 
posrible, the authority. Owing however to his ignorance of tlie lan- 
guage at the time, many mistakes were made both in the orth<^raphy 
of the words and in the deflnitions. 2. A vocabulary of words 
arranged, it is believed, in part by Mr. Ely, at the request of the mis. 
sion, and linished by Mr. Bishop. A copy of this was received and 
transcribed by the compiler in the summer of 1829. Every other 
page was letV blank for the insertion of new words, and for any such 
other corrections or additions as should be important. In using this 
manuscript, the same method was taken as with the vocabulary of 
Mr. Loomis. New words, and new definitions of words before cd- 
lected, increasd the size of the book to a considerable extent. 

"On the slightest review of these irregular masses of materials, it 
was manifest that the labor of a thorough examination of every word 
either by consulting intelligent natives, or by examining the tutu lo- 
quendi from such manuscripts as could be obtained, or from the books 
that had been printed, must necessarily be a very protracted labor, of 
at least some years. In consideration therefore, of the urgent desire 
that something should immediately be commenced in the form of a 
vocabulary, and that a work having any preteitsioas to perfection 
must be slow in its progress, and protracted in its completion, and 
as the compiler was burdened with labors of another kind, he judged 
it best to reduce the materials he had on hand to order in the best 
manner his time would allow. He has done bo without looking for 
any new word, or extending the definitions of such as were already 
collected, or consulting any native with regard to the propriety or 
impropriety of any definition. He feels it his duty, therefore, to fore, 
warn tliose who may consult the following vocabulary, that they will 
often be disappointed. Il it by no mean* a perfect Voeabuian/ of the 
Uaxaium language. 

"Among many others, the following errors and deficiencies will be 
obvious. 1. The words are not Always placed in their exact alpha, 
betical order, tn looking at two or three copies in transcribing, 
some words have been inserted a few places above or below where 
they property belonged. 2. There are a great many words with 
which the compiler is not acquainted ; having never heard the word* 


1836. Hamuian Lcmgwtge. 70 

used by thn natives or soen them in writing. Tbcy Bie put rfowa on 
the authority of the manuscript vocabularies which he transcribed. 
3. In collecting words from manuscripts written by natives, the best 
definition has nol| perhaps, always been put down, or the tigurativo 
iise of the word has been inserted instead of the radical one, or vice 
versa. This is a source of many mistakes in defining words in the 
language. 4. There are undoubtedly numerous errors in the orthogra- 
phy of the words defined. The enunciation of Hawaiians is generally 
BO rapid tbat it is difficult in many instances to distinguish between 
some of the vowel sounds, particularly when unaccented. 5. But not 
to draw out a long list of errors obvious to the readers, it may be 
adniitfed at once, that the work is greatly deficient in words. Words 
could have been collected from conversation, from manuscripts, and 
from printed books to almost any extent, but the time necenary for 
collecting and defining them properly, could not be spared without 
delaying the work indefinitely. There are probably a great many 
words, the definitions of which are very deficient for want of investi- 
gation. And probably some words are inserted and regularly defined 
which do not exist in this language or any other. The conipiler can 
say, however, that he made the best use he could of the materials in 
his possession and of the time at his disposal. 

"The printing has been delayed several months, owing to causes, 
however, which need not be mentioned, but which were not under th« 
control of the compiler. All the deficiencies, errors, mistakes, blun- 
ders, &c., that shall appear in the perusal of the work, the compiler 
takes upon hinwelf, and the forgoing simple statement of the circum- 
stances in which the work has been composed, is all the apology he 
has to ofler. I'he work might have been increased about one third 
by copying the examples that had been collected as authorities for the 
definitions given, but it was thought best in a mere vocabulary of 
the language to omit them. A few have been retained, taken gene- 
rally from native manuscripts. It may be asked, after what has been 
said respectirlg the work, if it is bo full of errors deficiencies, mia. 
takes, &c., of what use will it be? This question will be left for 
every reader to answer for himeelf, al^er he has made a thorough 
experiment in using it. In the mean time, it should be remembered, 
that the question respecting it is not, whether it is as good as it covld 
hava been made, but whether it is better than nothing at allT If it be 
decided that it is really of mine value, it will be iu>ed just in propor- 
tion as it is valued. If it be decided that it is no better than nothing 
at all, it can easily be thrown aside, and to such it will be as though 
it had not been. 

•* It was designed to say a few things repecting the language by 
way of introduction (o the Vocabulary, but they are deferred for the 
present. They may appear hereafter. It is ho|>ed that others will 
engage in the business of bringing to light the resources of the Hawai- 
ian language. The field is open and large, and they who sbuli bring 
to the labor, skill, patience, and perseverance, will reap a reward 
for their efTorts." 

. LnOO'^IC 

80 StaaiauttH Language- June, 

The letleis of (h« Hftwdiiaii alphabet, which secra to be only twelve 
in number, are inlroduced into the Vocibular^r in the following order. 

1. A, generally u a in Father, aak; socnetimes, when standing 
berore k,t,m,n, and p, it somewhat resembles ■, in mutter ; 
it has aUo, in a few words, a sound nearly resembling thai 
of aie, or on in English, — the true aound is between Ike 
slender a in ask, and broad a in all. 

!2. E, is like the long slender sound of a in English, or like e in 
ebony ; it is sometimes commuted for a, as o/efe for ddo, 
the tongue; in an unaccented syllable at the end of a word, 
its sound is like that of the Englioh y, w ope, opy. 

3. I, has the sound of ee in English, or that of the French i. 

4. O, liaa generally the sound of the long Engti^ o in note, bone ; 

there is a difference in some words among the natives as to 
the quantity, some saying mahope and others tutAoppj/. 

5. V, is generally that of the English oo as in too^ fo^, Ate.; but 

when preceded b; i, it aomelimos has the sound of the En- 
glish H or yu, 
e. H, is an aspirate as in English ; it is frequently euphonic, par- 
ticulary between the verb and its passive termination to, 
in which case it is somefimea exchanged for I^ as kauJia 
for kauhia. 

7. K, varies somewhat from the sound of the English k to that of 

(, according as the enunciation is made at the end of 
the longue or near its root ; it is difficult to make the 
Hawaii* ns perceive the difference between the sounds 
of k and (. 

8. L, a liquid as in other languages; hence it easily assimilates 

itself to such of the other liquids as are similarly prononnc- 
ed, *• viz., ti, and the smooth American r [? ] 1» foreign 
words;" sometimes, like h, it is used for the sake of ouphony. 

9. M, is used ezlensively, but its sound is not defined in the Vo. 


10. N, has the same liquid sound as in the European languagra, 

and is frequently commuted fur l. 

11. P, like m is introduced without a word of recommendation or 


12. W, is "the twelfth letter of the Hawaiian alphabet, the refll 

sound of which is between (he Engliob sound of W and C." 

Here with the letter te closes the Vocabulnry, excepting only a 
few words on the Isst page. Those "words, with many others, have 
been introduced into the Hawaiian language, and of couree, with a 
■ufiiciency of foreign letters to show their derivation and to distinguish 
them from native words." The words specified are not more than 
forly-fivo, and are arranged under the letters A, d,/, ;, r, #, ^ e, t; 
among them are the folliiwing ; ba-ka, tobacco ; Aa-fr, barley ;, 
book ; do.h, dollar : Ji-ku, fig ; go-la, gold ; ro-no (Latin,) a ftt^ ; 


1636. Staou Hed, or Primary Lesions. 61 

■Ma-4it (Greek,) Satui; &c. Thus, for Dative woTds, only twelve 
letters are used ; to them nine otheri are added to expreu foreign 
words, which hare been introduced into the language, leaving only r, 
j, q, 2, and y, unemployed. In several cues the vowels are united, 
as ai, au, oi, ou, &c., but these diphthongs are not defined, nor 
their number apecified. These particulars, we presume, wijl all 
receive careful attention whenever a grammar of the language shall 
appear. In numerous instances, we observe several words which, 
whde they have the same orthography, are all different from each 
other in their signification : for example, Ao, v. to be or become 
light; Ao, 5. light; Ao, s. a cloud; Ao, i. knowledge; Ao, i. dried 
potatoes ; Ao i. a species of bird ; and Ao, tu^. enlightened : in other 
cases, we find a still larger number of repetitious, each with its p^ 
culiar meaning. Thus E, is repeated ten limes. Were the Chinese 
language written in the Roman character the number of these r»- 
pfiUtkMis would sometimes be more than one hundred and fifty ; but 
they would be distinguished by several distinct tMtiff or tones. 
do these tones, or any thing like them, characterize the Ilai 

Akt. VII. Seami He», or Primary LessoHS! eharaeUr and ehjtft 
of At work; tabular view of iU several dim'fUHu; a (toiuwhm 
of Part first, with britf explanatory notes. 
This work, as its title indicates, consists of a series of lessons, 
which are designed for the instruction of youth. Full^ explained, 
Seaou He& designates that kind of instruction which is peculiarly 
adq>ted to the young, through the first stages of their education ; 
when literally translated, the two words mean 'lesser knowledge.' 
But for disciplining the mind, no work was ever more unfit than the 
one before us. It does, indeed, contain many most excellent precepts 
which children ought early to learn, but which are couched in lan- 
guage that is far above the comprehension of inbnt minds. The 
jessons are composed almost entirely of short paragraphs, selected 
from the ancient dassics, purporting to contain the maxims of wise 
men, who were contemporarv with Abraham, Moees, Solomon, Lycur- 
gus, Soton, tnd Socrates. The vrork ranks with the Reaou King and 
Chung King. A translation of the Ueaou King is already in the 
handsof our readers. (See vol. iv, no. 6, page 345.) The term 
"Easy," which we formerly gave as a translation of Seaoit, is evident- 
ly a roianomer, and less accurate than the one which we hare used 
above. Since the compilation of the Primary Lessons by Choo 
fbotsze, about the middle of the twelfUi century, the work has found 
no less than fifty commentates, twenty of whom have flourished since 

VOL. V. NO. 11. 11 

1 V^nOC^IC 

63 Seaou Hto, or Primary Lessonn. 3vkf., 

the conquest of the Mantchous, iu 1644. One of tlte early com- 
mentators saya, " We confide in the Seaou HeS, as we do in the 
goda; and revere it, as we do our parents." 

Tfie whole work is divided into two peen, or books; the first of 
which, says the writer just quoted, comparing it to a river, " is the 
fountain of learning ;" and the second, " is the stream flowing from 
it." The tirat book is divided into four parts, and contains the re- 
corded sayings of eminent persons who lived in the times of Yaou and 
Shun, and of the Heii, Shang, and Chow, dynasties. These relate 
to the four following topics; namely, the first principles of education; 
the relative duties ; and the duties due to one's self: these are the 
leading topics of the Seaou Heo; and in order to establish them, 
and to show that the actions of the ancients were in accordance with 
their precepts, there are added, in the fourth place, examples of the 
conduct of those who lived during the same period, which, according 
to Chinese historiajis, was irom 2337 U. 249 years ante ior to our 
era, and while the art of writing was just coming into existen-;^ and 
passing through its earliest and moat imperfect stages. The second 
i)ook b in two parts; the first consisting of the good sayings of emi- 
nent men who flourished after the rise of the Han dynasty, b. c. 202, 
compiled with a view to illustrate more fully the three leading topics 
already named ; the second containing a record of virtuous actions 
of those who lived in the same period, designed still further lu 
establish the truth of the principles already advanced. The whole 
is divided into 20 chapters, containing 385 sections, thus: 

BOOK. t. 
P4KT i. Reipecling the Ant priaciplesoredncnllonj in Ihirleen leclinn*. 
I'iBT li. Reipecling the relative duties; in one hundred and seven jectioiii. 

Chap. 1. Aff'fclian between father snd son. 

Cbap. 2. Principlea of justice between a prince and bii miniaten. 

f^hep. 3. The reipective duties ofhu!h«ndBt>dwire. 

Chap. 4, Gradations between seniors and juniors. 

Chap. 5. Faithfalneuintheifltercoune of friends. 

Chap. 6. Concluding nimmary. 
PiRT iii. On the duties to be perfortned towards nne's self; in furty-six sections. 

Cliap. ]. In regard to oientHl eiereises. 

Chap, 2. In regard to esternal demeanor. 

Chap, 3, In regard to dress. 

Chap. 4. In re^rd to diet. 
Pinr iv. Examples ofiilustrious cnnduci oftlie ancientsi in furly-seven sections. 

Chap. ). fUtalive to lii'Bl principles of education. 

Chap. 2. Kelative to the relation* of men to each other. 

Chap, 3, Relative to duties which are due to one's self. 

(;hRp, 4. Concluding summary. 
P*aT i. A i;olleclion of good livings; in ninely-onr .s^clions. 

Chap. I. To illuslnite the prinriiilesnr education. 

Chap. 3, To illuslnile the social relalinns. 

Chap. i. To illnstrate the dulii-s due to one's vlf. 
Part it. .V narrative of virtuous Hcliojis: in eighty-one scrtions. 

Chap. I. To confirm the piinriplesoTeduralinn. 

Chap. a. To confirm the prariine ol' relative diilies. 

Chap. 3. To cnnfirm the etemte ril |iersonal duties. 


16S6. Seaou Hto, or Primary lessons. 83 

These an p&na we ptopoae to take up Beparately ; but in the pre- 
sent article, we will conSne ourselves to the first. This contains 
thirteen sections : the first respects discipline prior to birth; the se- 
cond and third are occupied with the care of the nursery j from the 
fourth to the eighth inclusive, the regulation of schools, forms the sub- 
ject; the instruction of pupils under private tutors is treated of through 
the remaining sections. To exhibit " those most excellent rules" by 
which the ancient sages conducted education is the capital object of 
this part of the Primary Lessons; it is limited to those first princi- 
ples, which respect the relative and personaj duties, and is introduced 
by the compiler Choo footsze, with a short extract from the writings 
of Tszesze, a grandson of Confucius. 

Part I. EttabtiMfg tht firtt principta of tdncaliim. 
The philosopher Tszesze said, "The gitl of heaven is called nature; 
actions performed in accordance with this, are termed habits; (he 
culti?stion of these, constitutes educatioti," Following the light of 
nature, and guided by the laws of the sages, I have compiled this 
treatise, that instructors may know how to teach, and pupils what lo 

The biography of eminent women contains the following remarks: 
" In ancient times, married women, during the months preceding the 
birth of children, would not sleep lying on their sides; nor sit in an 
awkward position ; aor stand resting on one foot ; nor would they eat 
any food which had not its natural taste, or was not properly sliced ; 
if S mat was not spread out smoothly, they would not sit down upon 
it; they would not look on any thing that had an ugly appearance; 
nor listen to bad music ; at evening they summoned before them 
blind persons to rehearse sacred odes and to discourse about the rules 
of propriety. Acting thus, they bore children of the most perfect form 
and of extraordinary abilities." 

Note. The BeDtimeiita of this section, on which the Chinese delight to 
harpi have been ffiven in a former article of our work, (vol. iv, p. 112,^ but 
the phraseology here varies from what was there used, the tejct being di^r- 
entr— for the Chinese do not care in such cases to quote verbatim, but merely 
ad Kntum. The bio^iaphy of eminent womeu CLcS Neu Chuen,) waa com- 
piled by Lew Heung, who lived during the rei^n of tbe western Ilan dynasty, 
which closed soon after the commencement of our eia, 


In that part of the Book of Rites which relates to the inner apart- 
ments, or nursery, are the following precepts: " All those who have 
children born to them, ought to select from among their concubines 
those who are fit for nurses, seeking for such as are mild, indulgent, 
affectiooate, benevolent, cheerful, kind, dignified, respectful, and re- 
served and careful in their conversation, — and make them governesses 
over their children. When children are able to take their food, they 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

84 Stamt He6, or Primary Lessons. Junr, 

■hould be taught to use the ri^ht hand. When able to talk, the lada 
muat be instructed to answer m a quick bold tone^ and the girls, Id 
a slow and gentle one : a leathern girdle should be given to the lads ; 
and a silken one, to the girls. At tne age of seven years, they should 
be taught to count, and to name the cardinsl points. At the age of 
seven, boys and girls must not sit on the same mat, nor eat at the 
same table. At eight, when going out and coming in, and when eating 
and drinking, they must wait Ibr their superiors, being taught to pre- 
fer others to themselves. At nine, they must learn to number the 
days of the month. At ten, they (the lads only) must be sent abroad 
to private tutors, and there remain day and night; studying the arts of 
writing and of arithmetic ; wearing plain apparel; always learning to 
demean themselves in a manner becoming their age; and both in 
receiving instruction and in practice acting with sincerity of purpose. 
At thirteen, they must attend to music and poetry, marking the time as 
they rehearse the odes of Woo Wang. When they have advanced to 
the age of fifleen, they must continue, as formerly, the recitation of 
poetry, using those odea which celebrate the praises of Win Wang; 
and at the same time, attend to the practice of archery and the man- 
agement of the chariot. At the age of twenty, they are in due form 
to be admitted to the rank of manhood, and to learn additional rules 
of propriety : they may now wear garments made of furs and silks; 
must rehearse the odes in praise of Tu; must be faithful in the perfor- 
mance of filial and fraternal duties; and though they possess exten- 
sive knowledge, they must not aSect to teach others ; but must re- 
main at home and not spend their time abroad. At thirty, they may 
marry, and commence the management of business, and while they 
will now have but few opportunities for extending their knowledge, 
they should respect the wishes of their friends and strive to accom- 
modate them. At forty, they may enter into the service of the state, 
where they wdl have to bring their knowledge into frequent use ; and 
if their prince maintains the reign of reason, they must serve him, but 
otherwise not At fifly, they may be promoted to the rank of chief 
ministers of state, and engage in the management of the general go- 
vernment. And at seventy, they may resign and retb^ from puuic 

" Girls after they are ten yeurs of age, must not leave their apart- 
ments. Placed under governessess they must be taught to be mild 
both in language and deportment; they must learn to spin, wind off 
thread, and to weave cloth and silken stufis; and thus perform those 
duties which properly belong in women in providing clothes for their 
families. They may see to the preparations for the sacrifices ; and 
arrange the vessels and tlie offerings of wine, and vegetables, and 
thus aid in the sacrificial rites. At the age of fifleen, they are in due 
form to be admitted to the rank of womanhood. And at twenty, they 
may be married, unless by the death of a parent they have been call- 
ed lo mourning, in which case marriage must be deferred three yenrs. 
When they am received with the prescribed ceremonies, they then 
become wii es ; but otherwise they are regarded as concubines.'' 


1836. &ao« Ha, or Primary Lamu. 6S 

NoU. ,** Since Wives ud cancnUitea h^ve etch tbeir tppropriato dutieo, 
Jieae mutit not be confouiided. When the nz ceremonitis have bU been 
properly perfonned, uid the womftn brought home to the hoiwe of the man, 
ihe ia then called bia wife ; i. e. an equal, oi one who i« on an erjiiality with 
the huaband. But if without nich cereDwniea she goea to thp hotine of the 
man, she ia then called a concubioe, that if, one taken, or one who ia only 
received as an inferior." Hee Seaou Hb6 taeih choo, p. 6. 

' The Book of Rites contains this precept : " Let children alwnys 
be taught to speak the simple truth ; to stand apright and in their 
proper places ; and to listen with respectful attention." 
SEcrroN IT. . 
lathe records of learning (a section of the Book of Rites), it is 
stated, thai, " For the purposes of education, among the ancieats, 
villages h»l their schools ; districts their academies ; depart- 
meols, their colleges ; and the provinces ( at principali^es ) their 

^1^. During the times of which this oection treats, which was some two 
thousand years ago or more, twent;-6Te tamiliea living twether fbrmed a 
village, and their placw of education was called thvk, a halfor schod-room. 
Rve nandred families associated or dwelling near to each other, fbrmed a 
distnct, and their place of education was called Uegng, an academj, or 
literally, according to the composition of the word, "a coveit for lambs." 
When ^e number of families amounted to twenty.Gve hundred, they were 
fbrmed into a deMAmeut (chow), and their place of education was called 
seu, a c<dlcge. The principalities, which fbrmed the dominions of the son 
of heaven and of his noble*, had also their respective places of education, 
which were called A«JI, or universities. Of theoe four giades of schools, the 
first was for woou heS, or primary educaticHi, and boys entered it at the age 
of ai^t yean, and continued there till they were fifteen yeara old, when 
tbey were permitted ta enter one of the other ichqols, there to study the 
(s Md or superior branches of educatjon- 

It was said by Mencius, "If men possessed of reason, having food 
and raiment, are satisfied to remain uueducated in luxurious ease, 
then they will be but litUe above the brute creation." 

The itlustiious chieftain ( Yaou ), anxious to promote the welfare of 
his people, appointed Sei to go bb hia commisaioneT and teach them 
how to perform the relative duties; that between father and son affec- 
tion might be maintained; between the sovereign and his minister, 
justice; that the respective duties of husband and wife might be duly 
regarded ; order preserved between superiors and inferiors ; and faith- 
fulness, among friends. 

Shun, when giving orders to Set, remarked : " Unless the people are 
kind to each other, the five relative duties will not be performed : go, 
therefore, as my commissioner, and respectfully inculcate the duties 
of the five relatbns, ireating the people with kindness. " Addressing 
Kwei, another of his ministers, he said, "Go in the office of chief 


86 Seaou Hf6, or Primarjf Lettmu. Jdnz, 

muaician, and teach the elder sons that thej muat be rigid, jet 
gentle; lenient, yet firm; rigorous, but not cruel ; reserved, but not 
naughty. The feelings of the heart are expressed by words in poetry ; 
words are arranged by numbers in verse ; numbers are regulated by 
intervals into tones; and the tones are reduced to harmony by a 
scale of notes, with which the sounds of the eight kinds of musical 
instruments are brought in unison, without the slightest jar or discord. 
With such music both gods and men are delighted." 


According to the Book of Rites, the literary chancellor provides 
the inhabitants of the villages with the means of education in three 
distinct departments ; and in order ia give instruction to all the 
people those who are the most worthy, are honored and promoted. 
The first department includes the six virtues, wisdom, benevolence, 
prudence, justice, faithfulness, and gentleness : the second, embraces 
the six actiona, filial obedience, fraternal kindness, kindred attach- 
ment, relative affection, true friendship, and tender compassion: 
the third, comprehends the six arts, viz., the ceremonies, music, 
archery, directing the chariot, writing, and arithmetic. In like 
manner, by villages, he regulates all the people by enforcing the eight 
kinds of punishment ; the first, for disobedience to parents, ; second, 
for abandoning kindred; third, for hatrecj of relatives; fourth, for the 
wa=( of fraternal affection ; fiflh, for breach of friendship ; sixth, for 
not exercising compassion ; seventh, for tale-bearing ; and eighth, for 
exciting rebellion. 


The royal statutes, contained in the Ihwk of Rites, require the 
directors of learning to promote the four fine arts, namely, poetry, his- 
tory, ceremonies, and music; and to establish four terms in which 
they shall be respectively taught, therein following the example of the 
ancient kings for training up literary men. Ceremonies and music 
should be taught during spring and autumn ; and poetry and history, 
in the summer and winter. 


In the Students' Manual (written by Kwanchung), it is said: 
"While the tutor gives instruction, the pupil must learn; and with 
gentleness, deference, and self-abasement, receive implicitly every 
word his master utters. When he sees virtuous people, he must follow 
them. When he hears good maxims he must conform to them. In 
a gentle and submissive manner, he must perform the duties which 
he owes to his parents and brothers ; and must never behave proudly, 
presuming on his own abilities. He must cherish no wicked designs; 
but always act uprightly. Whether at home or abroad he must have 
a fixed residence, and associate with the benevolent. He must care- 
fully regulate his personal deportment, and control the feelings of 
his heart. He must both when rising and at rest keep his clothes in 
order. Every morning he must learn something new, and rehearse 

1836. Seaou Ht6, or Primary Lestom. 87 

the 8B.roe ever^ evening, doing all with the most respectful and watch- 
ful attention." This is the way to become a studenL 


Confucius said ; " Let your children, while at home, perfonn the 
duties which they owe to their parenta ; and when abrtMd, practice 
those which are due to brothers; be coost&nt and faithfiil, loving all 
men, hut associating only with the virtuous ; and if they have any 
leisure, after they have performed their duties, let them spend it in the 
pursuit of literary objects." 

Commence in poetry. Be established in ceremonies. Become 
complete in music. 


In the records of music (a part of the Book of Rites), there is this 
saying, "Ceremonies and music can never for a moment be laid 

Tszehea (a disciple of Confucius) once uttered this saying, " Those 
who respect the virtuous and put away unlawful pleasures, who serve 
their parents with all their strength, and their prince to the utmost of 
their ability, and who in their intercourse with friends are faithtii] 
to their word, — these, though they should be considered unlearned, 
we must pronounce educated men." 

Such, and ho good, are the Primary Lcssona for laying the founda- 
tion of education. Many of them are excellent; yet if the wise king 
of Israel is worthy of credit, if the records of inspiration are true, this 
foundation is incomplete and insecure. Admit that the ancient sages 
taught many things which are wcTrthy of all acceptation : but let it 
be remembered that they themselves, while they taught others, never 
attained to the " beginning" of knowledge. "The fear of the Lord" 
they never knew; and of course, it never formed any part of their 
lessons of instruction. This single fact forms the grand defect of 
all their systems of ethics. They discourse of wisdom, truth, justice, 
benevolence, and the like, while in practice these virtues end in mere 
forms and ceremonies. Moral restraints, which, whether in secret or 
before the world, act constantly on the conscience to prevent the 
out-breaking of passion, are not felt. All the evils, therefore, which 
spring from the heart of man, so long as they do not appear in open 
day to outrage the laws of half-civilized society, may live and grow 
unchecked. This they do in ten thousand instances, until they 
become incurable and irrepressible; hence, the falsehoods, the de- 
ceits, the thefi^, the robberies, and all the long catalt^es of other 
crimes and misdemeanors, which perpetually hUckpn the records and 
destroy the happiness of rhis great empire. 



Parapattan Orphan Atyban. 

Art. VIII, Tkt third tauwat Report of the Commttet of the 
Pttrapattan Orphan Asi/him, Balavia; and the eltventk Rtport 
of the Anglochiiuie colUgt, Malacca. 

Fkoh Batavli, the Rev. Mr. Hedhant writM, nnder date of Fcbntuy 9<h, 1S3S, 
mmcnced the prinUng of the New Teitunent, of which SOOO 

copiea will be completed in eiglit months, at the rate of one rupee per copy, in- 
cluding paper," Thii ii (o be done by lithugraphy \ and ia the reviwd editi 
oflheCfiinsM venioa. Hr. M. was eipectinc in a few days to leave Betivia i 

England, with all hii family eicepting hia eldest daughter, Sarah Sopfaia, who 
' hind, havingformed a conjugal allUnce with tb " " ■ - ■- ' 

SI waa aoTemniied on the I7lh of that month, 
wood, whose visit to Canton last autumn will be rememberad by 

ly of our local readera, reached Satavia on the 33d of December 1635, when 
/ are parauing the aludy of the Chineae language. 
'he Rev. Hr. Dyer, late of Penang, has removed to Halacca, wher 
■■■■'-' ■ iNic ■ '-."■■ .... 

laboring to complete hia font of melaNic types lor the Chineae c 
haa kindly forwarded to us a apecimen of his ly|)ea, of which we ihRii soon give 
our readers aome account. The Rev. Evan Davlea has succeeded Mr. Hytr at 
Pennng. According lo oar last letters from Halncca, the number of boys in the 
Anglochineae college waa aeventy. " There are," says our correspondent, " more 
than twenty ichoolB, containing about 600 children under the care of the mi>- 
sionaries" of the London Society. "It irai ■ pleasing sight indeed, tn behold 
SOU Chinese boys assembled in the bouse of God on (he :iabbalh da^, and lis- 
tening lo Ihe regular eKcrcisiis of the sanctuary." This H*n» in the mission chapel. 
Besides the schools above mentioned, there are '■ free schools," and Ur. Tomlia'a 
Institution for all nations. The latter contains about H) boys. 

The two IbregoiDg paragraphs were prepared for our last number, 
but were necessarily postpcmed. We have now the pleasure of adding 
extracts from the two Reports, the names of which stand at the head 
of this article, the Rtat referring to Batavla, the second to Malacca. 

The object of the Asylum is, " to feed, clothe, and educate orphan 
children, the descendants of Christian parents." The Institution tor 
the current year is under the direction of a Committee, consisting 
of Dr. E. A. Fritze, president; E. Doering, esquire, treasurer; W. 
Young, juniiH', secretary; Rer. F. R. Hanson; the Rev. H. Lock- 
wood ; and H. K. Spencer, i. Davidson, A. L. Forestier, G. Mao 
laine, J. Arathoon, J. B. Gray, and J. B. de Nys, esquires; Mrs. 
A. Batten is teacher in English ; Mr. H. Kryger, teacher in Dutch ; 
and Mrs. C. de Jonker, matron. " It is highly gratifying to see the 
lively interest that is taken in this work of charity both far and near." 
The finances are in a prosperous condition, and " the fund already 
amounts toysOOO, and it only needsthe extra exertions of each bene- 
volent friend for a few years, to place the Institution beyond the reach 
of accident or harm." The total receipts for 183.5 were^74li4. 67; of 
which 1000 Spanish doUws were from China. Valuable donations of 
upparel and books have also been received ; the latter from " bene' 
volent individuals in America." With every friend of humanity, we 
rejoice in the prosperity of the Institution, and will gladly do any 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1836. PampallM Orjiian AMj/liim. 69 

thins in cwr power to promota its weUkre. The following extract*, 
ve from lh« Report, sead ■( the BDnial meoting, February let, 1836. 

"The CominitlM of the Parapattan Orphan Aayiiim, in recording 
their proceedinga during the past ydar, have fresh reaion for gratitude 
to the Almighty for the abundant measure of nicceaa with which il 
has pleased him to crown their operaliuna. Ever since its formntioa 
the hlening of Heaven Mem lo hare rested on this Institution, a cir- 
oumstBRce which not only calls for thankful acknowledgments lo th« 
Divine Being for his goodness, but afibrds moreover an incentive to 
increasing and pervevering exertions in the cause of humanity. 

"At the last anniversary, the Committee announced' with plaasiire 
Uieir success in procuring a suitable individual as an instructress for 
the Asylum; they were led, on the accomplishmenl of such a long, 
wished-for provision, to anticipate most favorable results to the Insti. 
tutloB, inaarnuch as the lady would be resident on the spot, and have 
the children under her immediate cognizance and direction. The 
dweHJDg house and oSices, to which alhision wan made in the last 
report, being completed, Mrs. Batten removed to Parapattan, and 
entered oo the discharge of her new and important duties in the 
month of April last. For a riiort time the cbildren were instructed 
in the verandah attached to the orphan house : but the place being 
considsred as rather confined for the purpose, the Committee roaolved 
on erecting s small but neat and commodious school-room, on a 
scale suflicient to accommodate 25 or 30 children. This building 
has Bjoce been finished, and furniabed with desks, tables and form*, 
and being both light and airyt and occupying a central kituation, is 
exceedingly well adapted to the purpose for which it is intended. 

'' Here Itie children assemble daily ; they commance their morning 
lessons at nine o'clock, and break up st twelve. During the hours 
of instruction they are taught reading, filing grammar, geography, 
Watt's catechisQu the catecbiam of nature, writing, and arithmetic, 
llwy are arranged into five classes. Their jxegiess in general is 
very eocouragiog; most of them uadeTatand and speak the English 
language with tolerable propriety. The total number of children is 
now 25 ; 12 girls and 13 boya. 

■> At one o'clock p. k., they again repair to the school and attend 
to thetf needle- work. In this department of her labor, Mrs. Batten has 
ample encouragement in the diligence and improvement of her youn^ 
seamstresses, who are very aniioua to outvie each other in the clean, 
liness, neatness, and quantity of their work ; and in securing the 
approbation of their teacher, and of those individuals who occasional- 
ly visjt the Asylum. They are engaged at thpir needles from 1 to 'i 
o'clock. They have made several articles of dreaa for themselves and 
others, and some of them have been reeer^ly taught fancy-work, for 
which they seem to show a great predilection; but for want of the 
proper materials the teacher has not been able to bring them so far 
forward as she would wish. 

"The boys are eqimlly industrious at their needles as the girls; 
tbey have hemmed towels,, and made trowsen for themselves ; whiUi 

;. V^nOC^IC 

90 Parapalian Orphan Ati/lum. Jvve, 

the ideft of puHin<i; on clothes oP their own making, seema to iniipire 
(hem with greaCer diligence in their work. Two boys are engaged 
in the printing biiuneB-s and so long bs there in work to he done, they 
ore sedulously em^iloyed either in composing for (he press, or dislri- 
liuting nnd Dotting types. Bith by priming and sewing, the children 
aa usual conlribule r little lowards the fiinde of Che Aayliim. 

"The children with their accustomed regularity attend at the En- 
glish chapel, on every occnsion Ihiit divine service is there performed. 
Their iiltendance at the Sribbalh school is also punctual, and has al- 
ready been productive of great henefit to Ihem. Once a week, the 
children Htlend a singing meeting, where they are instructed in pnal. 
mody, Tliey nrc slrcady acquaiuled with a number uf lunes, and have 
made some proliciency in this agreeable science. One of the elder 
girls, who is a good singer, is also tiught to play on the piano. As it 
respects their improvement in the Dutch lunguage, (he Committee are 
bappy to state, that it is exceedingly satisfuctory. * * * 

■>The Committee hope that the friends and supporters of this [nnti. 
tution will not only continue to give it their paltunnge; but also exert 
themselves in the sphere of their acquaintsncca and friends to obtain 
more funds, for the purpose of carrying on lyilh still greater vigor, 
and, if possible, on a mnre extensive scale, the opetaliona of the Asy- 
lum. They nre assured that the highly fnvoruble circumstances in 
which the childrt:n now appear, lioth in rcsjiect to their physical and 
moral condition, will be consuU-red by all as pleasing proofs (hat the 
labor, time, and eii])en8e, hitherto bestowed on the Institution, hav« 
not been bestowed in vain. They doubt not but that every indivi- 
dual who has contributed towards this charity, when be sees so many 
helpless orphans rendered happy through his means, will feel that 
exquisite satisfaction which is always attendant on acts of disinterest- 
ed bencvoli^ncc. To see them, instead of falling easy victims tu Blo(b 
and vice and wandering forlorn and unbefriended, comfortably cloth- 
eo, mnintnineij, and educated in their duty towards their Creator 
and their fellow creatures, and promising to become hereafter useful 
members of society and oruainents to religion, must diffuse, in every 
benevolent biiaom, something of that hallowed delight which the Di- 
vine Being enjoys while supplying (he wants of his needv creatures, 
and who himself has smd : It is more blessed (o give than to receive." 

The Angloehinrsf rollfge hns been often noticed in the Repnaitory. 
A summary of its Report lor 1834, was given in our last volume, page 
98. The report iii>w before us, for 1835, shows that a pleasing ad- 
vance has been made durintr tho |>nst year. But we have no room to 
repeat whnt has already bfen staled in our pages. The patrons, trus- 
tee?, and officers of tho coll 'ce have abundant enconragement to per- 
severe. The field befnre tjscm is wide, and has n strong claim on 
their best eRbrts. Their olijrct is noble, and we heartily wish them 
God speed. The number of students is now 10. There are also, in 
connection with the Iiislilution clfven Cliincse "imt.schools," con- 
taining 130 girls, and 230 boys; and six Malay schools, having about 
SOO boys and girls. In the priiiling deparlnicni, (here have been 

1836, ReligiouM huWgeaftt. Bl 

ntoduced during the vpor, 54,729 vnliimM of (rr.nK hvmn-booJiB, 
Mhoob-booka. &c.; 570 complete copjps of the holv Scriplure^ con. 
tajnirE 11,970 Toliimes. The disburBemenls fjr 18n.=i, ivern 916.39,45. 
The fuodii, at th« present lime, are 911,405,44. 'I'he Roporl cIohcs 
with <oin8 exciillent remorlia on the objecls Rimed at in the educntion 
which ta provided for native youth by the officert of the college. 

AmT. IX. Religiout InUUigfnee : boptUm of a Chinete mmxrt at 
BtUaoia ; the preta at Singapore ; Siam ; Bvrmah ; and Bombay. 

SiKCB our last number w«b published, we have received Mr. Mediiiirst'e 
Report of the mioaioD under hie cnre. A Hummary of it we will soon lay 
before our readeia A letter, dated Batavta, May 6lh, 1636, aaya, «Mr. 
Hedburat left ua (for England) on the 6th of the last month. On the day he 
MLiled, he baptized a Chinese, (he first and only one who has received Chris- 
tian bapiipm in Java. It is singular too that the man had never seen Mr. 
Medhurst till within ten daynof hia baptism, for which he applied, and stated 
tliat he hnd come once before for the same purpose, while Mr. M. was absent 
in China. He is from Ambojna, and for some time has been employed an 
an officer oc captain of & vessel, and has obtained all his knowledge of divine 
truth [with the extant and accuracy of which Mr. Medhurst was much 
surprised,) from boobs only." Mr. M. arrived in the east, June ISth, 1617. 

By lettien just received from Singapore, we learn that five Christian mis- 
sionaries are now there, — the Rev. Mes?™. Tracy, Wolfe, Dickinson, Reed, 
and Shuck, — nil enj^aged in the Htudyof the Chinese lanfrua^. Preparatioas 
were making for schools end extensive printing establishments. Among the 
latter, there are "all the necessary implements for a complete type and 
stereotype fbundary," under the care of Mr. Alfred North. 

It ia also pleasing to know that a press had arrived at Singapore for 
Siam; and that punches are preparing for the manufacture of Siamese type. 

In Burmah, the preaa haa been established several years, and truth ia nin- 
>ng ground steadily. In a letter dated Maulmein, Jan. S8th, ISWi, Dr. Jud- 
son says, "on the 39th of December last, the Burmese Bible was completed 
in 4 volumes, containing about 2400 pages. The translation was finished 
about twu years ago ; but ibe work of revision I have found to bo exceedin(;ly 
tedious." He adds that the total number of persons baptized in Burmah 
previous to the year 1835 was 67 1, being 166 Burmans, 341 Karens, and IfU 
ibreigneia; and that the number baptized during the year 1635 wa* 120, 
namely, 30 Burmans, 70 Karens, end 30 foreifrnets. — making the whole nnm- 
ber since 1613, when the mission was commenced, 7U1. The first of these 
convertA to Christianity, was baptized, June 2?th, I81!>. 

From Bombay we have recently received two printed Reporli, one oflhe 
Scottish Missionary Society, the other of the American Mnrnchet: Miraion, 
both containing a great variety of particulars. The amount of printing 
executed, and the number of children educated, in connection with the two 
missions, are large and steadily increasing. In one of the Reports, there 
is a notice of several Chinese conviclt — at Malcolm Pnilh on the Moha- 
burlishwur hilts about one hundred milps in n s< ulhe-isl din tion from 
Bombay,— four of whom hFive declar..'d their full belief in Christianity. 

, V^nOC^IC 

Journal of Oceurrtnce*. 

Akt. X. Jourtial of OecvrenceM. The grtat redmnaig ; ertmniab 
abtronding ; laming tyilem ; goeemmetiUd eharitieM ; puUic work* ; 
teeii ; liiertiry piracy; exiracttfrom the Canton Court Cirevlar. 

FtKiKa. We ttiii month if&in iu«e to notioe levenl {anenl edicts, iddrcMcd 
to the vhole empira. The princinl of IheM im in refennca to (he "great neimt- 
ing.' or trienni>l inquiry Into the merit* and demerita of all the cinl offieerK 
which Ukec pimce this j«r. Tfai* in>eeligRlWTi ie ■.(oiredlj bt the porpoM of 
•MuirUlnlne what oHicen are fit for the lUtioni Ihej occupj, of rewuiliiic with 
incrsue of Iwnorarj rank thon who hkve ihown thamaeliea dgMrring of it, aud 
of remoTing thote who are whnUy nnfit for office, or degradin[ those who (bow 
theiRMlvei in atif degree inefficient. But like moat other good inatllDtiuiM 
in a eiian<rir where, aa in China, moral prinoiplea are diaragarded, the " great 
iBckDnlng" ia an occaaion of much injualice. We will, befbn inaortiDg tba 
emperoi'a edict on the lubject, furnieh a brief atatsmeni of (ha muunr in which 
the iDTcatigatioD ia carried on. Each di^trict ntagtetrats forwards to his sopeiior ft 
report rwpecting; Ihe capab'tilien, or atherwise, of his aubordinalea. When these 
btfii been leceived by Iha magialnta of the deparlmenl, if appniTed of, liny are 
immediatelj incorpontad bj bim in a report to the director of the cirenit. All 
the direclon of ciicnita Id a atmilar manner forward atslements to lbs finaneial 
and judicial commiinnnsn. From tbeae last, a complete slalsment is sent la Iha 
gu*emnr and lieutenant, goreniors, which forma the basis of ihair repnaenlatiant 
Iq Iha emperor as to Iha conduct of all officera in the province. Their mai«. 
senliliana, forwarded to Pekinf, are nocesaanlj depended on entirely, and their 
lecominendationa in regard to officers, approrod, while their own chaiacten 
are animadverted on b; the emperor himeelf. Of the aubordinaie officera, those 
who are daserrlng of praise are aald lo be 'eminent;' others are passed orer 
without particular notice, unlrsa there be occaaion to speak againat thi-m. When 
thia is the case, ihej an placed in one of the following aii cliaaea : 1. ihoss who 
are found wanting in diligence; 3. tboae who are weak and whollj incffi- 
cent; 3. those who are saperficial and hasty in tlwir public condnct ; 4. those 
wbim talents are inadequate; 5. aupeiannuated ; and 6. tboae snfTering under 
diseaiw. Tlioae of Ibe two Gnt claaaea are diimiaaed ; those of the third, pat dowo 
thrre degreea, and those of the foorth. two; Ihe fSfih and aiith elaMHi therefore 
diuoIIt iiidudfl all those who failed lo pusseaa sufficient intemt with their 
su[ierinra tn retain Iheir stationi. Corruption and tyranny on the part of uSceiS 
■re miHe the mbject of >peeia1 repreaentationa to ibe emperor, and are not tbare. 
fore included in the six ela s aa a above uamod. 

Oac readers wilt now be prepared to undcrstsnd the fuUowing edict. " In 
the great triennial tECkanmn," says his mpjealy, " the govsmon and lieol.- 
gojernon are ihtruiled with the duly of making earefbl and minute Investigation 
of [ho capabilitiei of officers. If their recommendaUonaof individosla be oorreet, 
luen nf tsinnta will than know what lo look for: and so, if their reproola and 
degradations fall on ibose who have deserved them, then Ihe anwotthy and bad 
will univereally be held in awe, Thua they will at nnce make a diatincl ammge. 
ment of officers according ta their condaci and abilitiea. and wiU aelecl lo hold 
offices of trai>t Ihoss who pnisc H sterling talents. The high officere in all tho 
provincH sualain hcKvy rBaponaTbilitira : they are, as it were, ears and eyes to 
their sorereien. Hnw pare and blameleai shoald Lheir parpones and coodaet 
tliiin be ! They should maintain a firm hoU of jtialice, and discriminate the 
uharsc'em of offieeni «ith a perfect regard to equity, Ihiia setting an examjile 
to all their subordinatea. But according to the rejireaenlationii now made by Ibe 
cennir Lew Hunglan, the shopherds of Ihe peoplr, thoae ofBcera who are carefol 
of the inlpreal of Iheir flock, sie often men alnw of •peerh. and detnid of ibining 
tilenis but honest, sincere, and apright. men who dn not peek to flatter; while 
(he w'lrlhlcMi mike it their whole baiineai to pleaiie and meet the wiahea of their 
Biipflrinr*. and by srlfnl means lo csin sdvsfli^etneiil, hnt pav no rral allpntinn lo 
Ibitir dutira. These by Ihcii arta deceive iheir siiperiora, and procure rroin tliera 


Jovrnal tf Oefvrraufs, 

and iD*aatl|mU tba ehancun at ■]! tbsir ■ubordlnatea with trDlfi Kod ^ncerity, 
mvMfluninf wint aie (Iw monl nnk, the mviitil ehmctamtioi, and the voTsm. 
muittl npabUltwa or each. Let tham eumine thoriHiirhly in thaM partieuUn, 

« all. 111111 it maj be expected thai the path**; to oKcial 
nau. wui DB Kept cisar and free frmn averf thtnv that oan defile, and the idminia. 
tralkm of joatioe *ill dally become mnre nnplendent hi chiraolar. In reipaot 

thii we entertain high aod confldent hopes. Make thia edict geoenUy known 
to all. Reepect thia." 

OtNunoIf •iacradnjr. The nazt feneial order ia directed agaiDat a practice 
which it af^ieara i* cmnmon, that criminala are pennilted to oicape, becanaa 
n»f iaUatee will Dot aeatob for them beyond the immediate bonnda of their own 
ma^atneiea, Tfaia, and other " bad haUla * of the mafisttaey, hia majeatj 
BCTerely reprobala. 

The lotning lyittn of the Chinne piTemment >■, we beliete, peealiar, Se- 
veral of the imperial palacei and courta attached to them, appear to be lapport. 
ed wholly by the inteieat accraing annually from money belonging to the gOTcm. 
■nenl, which ia lent to the ■alt.merchinta and other*. From eeveral memoriata 
add ro — n d to the emperor, and edicta from hie mijealy. which hBTC lately appear, 
ed, the aalt-inerchanta of KelngKn aeem to End diiEcoliy in paving thia intereat, 
and the eoperintendenta of the palace* and courts find themaeUea likely to be at 
a loaa for money, in conaoqucncc of ita not being forwarded at the proper time. 

Betieoolfnct* «f Iki gantnaiUTit, In appeamce. perhapa few govemmenta are 
ao charluble aa the Chineae. Unfortunately, huweTer, the diatribntota of it* 
charitiea are not aaffiowntly Ira at- wort hy ; and coDeeanenlW Ibe larger portion 
of what i* intended fnr the poor, in reality finds ita way into the poeketa of tboee 
who ahould be the " fathore and mother* of the people." Draoght, inundation*, 
hail-atorma, the want of enow, and vanona other eventa. call from time to time for 
loena of the whole or a portten of the lahd tax, the payment of which i> deferred 
for one, two, three, or mote yeata. In thia way. large dahti often accrue ; and 
there are few prorince* which are not ■mong the nnmber of hi> maje*ly'> debtor*. 
Thcae dabta often become loo beery to be ever paid,, and then a period of 
general rejoicing afford* an ocoaiion for wipni^i^ the whole. Tho* in the laet 
year, tbe empreai- mother having attained her eiitteth year, hia majeBty wse 
gracionaly pleaMid to grant remiaiion of all public debt* oontiacted by the 
people pre^na to 1830. Thi* was not, however, intended to eilend to the olfi. 
cer* of government, who being often In arrear in the payment of the revenue, or 
otherwiae involved, are aleo frrqnently among bin majeaty's debtora. It appears, 
however, that the officer! of eovemment have been in several inalancea aniiooa 
lo avail themeslea weretly uf the grant ofreminion to the people; and thia has 
been the oftcaaion of a general order addreased to the whole empire. Or the in. 
diligence to the people, all Mongolia, with Shenae. ChEkeing, Kwangse, and 
aome other pinvincea hate chiefly felt the advantage. — The moat aubatantiil way 
in which the imperial benevolence ia manifested ia in the dialribulion of food to 
tbe poor in the aeaaone of eitieme cold or of famine ; in which caace, to prevent 
frand, the food ia previouely cooked. Among the occaatnna for charity in thi* 
way, and by the remiasion of taie*. during the laat aii tnontha, we obeerre 
eevere cold in Peking and Tcentsin, (in the latter place 32 000 taela were eub. 
acnbud bv the opulent among the people.) drought* in Shantung (to which 

Entrince a loin of 50, MM) liela hia been granted) aa alwi in Kefingse and Che. 
etng, inundation and levere hail-atorma in Sbanae, hiil-atorm* and wtnl of 
lain m Shenae, and unaeaeonable rain occaainntne ahnrt crop* in Kinauh. Tlie 
■uini of money 'granted ire not uauallv named ; but in a few cirea they are. 
We find the following eiime stated, !n reference to Ihe rnlire remiMiona ol debt* 
contrai;t«d pcevioualy to 1830; In tbe province of Cheihie, 99. IJI9 taelaj in Che. 
keiing. S46,63e taela; in Kwangae, 60.599 tBeIii;and in Tsilaihar in Mongolia, 
the grinttT jmrtim of 27(1.000 taela. and ofSSO.OtKI eheih nf jrsin. the portion of 
theae flim* not remitted being debta contracted between 1630 and tbe present 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

84 Journal of OrevrroKe. Jdnk, 

Pahiie tDorltt, repairt, ^. We h»ve rreqiienlly IwTore hid occMion to ftdiart 
la the demindn on Ibe ravenup, Cot the |iur]»iiH of KfninnK llie dikes in the low 
■Bt-boud diatrlcts, Ihe binlu of the Kreftt riven, and limilir works, Appiioationa 
for IJieM parpoMi arc very frequenl ; the aunu are uauiily diabaraid in part by 
■obwripliona raissd among the opulent, to which wealthy nusinber* aC the aub- 
flrdinalc miiidracy orten cnntribnle in ocdcr to recommend Ihemaelvei for pre. 
ferment. What ia not diaburted in thi> way, i* uaiully advanced by a grant of 
money, which ia to be retlored by meana of a sinking fund witliin a certain num- 
ber or yeara. Seldom ia a free grant (ivon for any ohjeet of thia nature. We 
will barely luenliun. la wo meet them, the several p^nta which have been made 
during ihe past *ix months. In Cheihie. for the repair of the walli of Paontinf 
foo, 16,737 taeli ; for repairing the binka of a river, 9,096 ttels: in Keangsoo, for 
Ihe repair* of dikea, 9n,nan laela ; for repain of banka, H3. 194 laels ; in Chekeing. 
for repain of dikea, 37.900 Uela (in addition to the turn of 17 3G3 UeU mention, 
ed in vol. iv. no. 10. p. iSBy, for naval repairs, 8.391 Uela: in Nganliwuy, fur 
change in the direction of a public road and erection of a bridgo, 15.9U<) Uela: 
in Shantung, for repain of banks, 2,673 Uela : in Shanae, for repairs in the salt 
works, 8U.(H)0 laela; for repairs of banks 60,01)0 taels: in Honin and Shantung, 
for repain of the grand canal, 144.100 laela) for deepening the canal in aame 
parU, 63.693 Uela; for repairing the bauka or Ihe Yellow river in the aamo pro. 
vincea, ]9tJ.SI10 (aeli : in Fuhke«n, for repair of fonificationa. 16.763 Uela : and 
in Shenae, for repain of Ihe collfgiate hall. 3 -HXI uels. Grand toWl. 6:19 347. 

S^ftt and anociation: We (hus render the woida tedy ktaou, ' false doclrinea,' 
and lane hauy, 'eabaltJng aiaocidion*.' ai indiffrrenlly applied to numeroiia pelly 
■ecu which exist throughout Ihe counlry ae well as to some extensive societies; 
among the number of those ia included the ttla choa keoBu, • sect of the Lord of 
heaven,' Ilia Ckriatian religion a* known to the Chinoe under the g.>.rb of Ro- 
manism It it our intention shortly lo conaider in detail the Itwa and measures 
of the Chinese government directed igainat Chiistisnity ; and we will not there, 
fure say any thing on that aubject now. Our present purpose ia merely to eute a 
few facts, derived from the Peking gaxelle, in regard lo the peraecution in China 
bT 'secta and aaaocistiou' in general. Perhaps we may account for the leat 
which hia preeeni msjeslj shows on this subject, by i reference to the fact of his 
imperial falhei having been, on one occasion, indebted solely to the personal 
valor of his msjeaty (then tlie second prince) for the exiiulaion of a band al cons- 
pirators, belonging to one of the larger asaociatlons, from the very couila of the 
palace, to which they bad penctralcd. Nor haa this been llieir only tretaunabla 
overt acl: to mention bo others, the Ule dislurbanr.ea in Stianse have been 
traced, and Ihe present dialurbaneea in Hoonan are atlribuled, to them. The 
mnet formidable of these aasnciationa ia the imt-hS hicuy, or 'triad snciety,' call- 
ed also the ■ associalinn of heaven and earth.' of which an account by the late 
Rev. Dr. Milne of Malacca haa been published in the Tranaaclion* of Ihe Royal 
Asis'in Society. (Sue Repository, volume iv. p. 491.) This account compiled 
chiefly at Malacca, where tlie society assumea a derrcu of notoriety not permitted 
in China, haa since been amplv conlii'mcd. by the diacovery of a nightly meeting 
nf them in Ihe burial ground belonging to the East India company at Macao, 
where, in (heir haste lo escape, they luft behind them documenU which fully 
prove the IreaiKinable nature of Iheir inlenliiina. It is Lhcir opinion that. ' when. 
ever heaven, ea/'h, and man arc conjoined lo aid them, the reigning dynasty it 
to be overlhrown.' Smaller associa'ions do no! profees to look higher than lo 
plunder, while o'hera agnin appear entirely inoffenaive. All. however, and with 
them llie Chriatian religion, are equally pcmeutrd. Tlie gnvcrnnr uf Cheihie 
Rppeani lo have been of late particularty active againal them. He haa, within a 
few monlha, apprehended abfut 200 individuala: tu what aasocialians thev be- 
lonr is not slated. In Fuhkcen the head of a sect and. twenty. Ave of his folU.w. 
en have been apprehcndrd. in the deep reeeaaea of the eli'vated and wooded 
mountain districU. In Hoopih, also, haa been seized a band of plunderer*, the 
individuals of which were bound toicelher by the coremuny, uaual among Iha 
Chinese, of drinking water mixed with a little blood taken from each of the 
parliea. The diacovi^ry thai il ia common for soldiers, policsmrn, and the clerk" 
mid lower officers of the courts, to belong to tlieae arcts and a»»ci3.tiana, has 
given hia majuHly noaniall anxiety. 

i:.„„-b, ijOOi^lC 

!e38 Journal of Oceuntnca. 95 

, Bi elaewlHre, in 

Idttrary frtaey. It Kcnia Ihil the ncwt-maken of Peking ir 
the habit of basying theingelves to discover lh« cooUnti ofdncu 
nature, and of oblaininK copies of them, which \\ie,y drculate either by means of 
the praia or by manoacripi cupieB, lliii hai been brouibt to the nolice oflhc 
emperor by one o( the centon, and hia drawn forth two ediclH from Ti/iukwanf, 
atrictly forbidding it. "Of late," laya bii miji^aly. "Kovernmunlal documenu 
hiFa frequently been copied and privately circulated, allbaugh not publiphcd by 
Ihe council i and dctaiii are given of the afljcera of thia and of that Board or Court, 
having been admitted to an audience, and of this individual, or that censor, hav. 
ing presented k meniorial. Thia [nanifeats a bad habll of idle curiuaity, utterly 
opposed to the prohibitory enactmenU of government. Documents which have 
been copied by Ihe inner council may alwayi be publiihed univeraally : foi 
in directing the govemmeal of the neople, we do nothing which we are not 
willing to declare openly lo all our aervanla and lubjacta. But when secret in. 
fciligationa ara ncceaaary, tbey are not to be known to any beyond those di- 
rectly conoemed. How can any be aufiered to indulge their wiahes in printing 
and circulating the documents of which they have clandeBlinely obtained co. 
pies, and the minutest delaila of govemmental (r«n»etions '. • • • ■ Docu- 
ments," be continues, in another place, ■' thai are of a hi(rhty importanl na. 
lure, we place under aeali in the hands of nor grand couti'dora. Ihal they 
may peruse them and may have copiea of tbem made by two or throe clerks 
of Ihe council under (heir eye, No oilier of Ihe cleika are permitted lo have any 
knowledge of them; and these documents not being aent down lo the conn., there is no opportunity afibrded for individuala lo obtain a knowledge 
of them." His majesty Ihen points out that either the clerka must be guilty 
of divulging their contents, or the memoriatials ttiem«elveB musi be the uffenden; 
and concludes by declaring, that, "aflor thia admonition has been given, if it 
■gain appear thai affairs demanding aeoiecy are dlTUlgsd. inquiry, shall be made 
aflet the oSenden, and severe punishment infficted. Most surely not the slight- 
eat indnlgeace ihatl be shown. Tremble hereat. Attentively regard this. Let 
it b« inai^ Known to all, and respecl it." 

BxttaeUfrom tht Canton Court CiTctilar. May S7th. Sonlfangah the general 
commandant of Canton, Win the chief commlaaiuner of maritime customa, and 
the lieutenant-general Lunchung, respeotivcly sent mesaengeri to present their 
congratulations lo the governor ; and Alsingih, Wang, Ching. and Hung, who 
are al the head of the territorial and financial bruicbea of the provincial govern- 
ment, requested an Interview with bin excellency. 

Met/ 28(i. Ling Tanfung. an ofRcer of the ninth reported his arrival from 
KeBngeoo, and that, by the direclion of the lieDlenant-govemor oflhat province, 
he had brought to hia ticelleney for trial Luh Levuen, a merchant of Kwangse, 
who became bankrupt and abiconded. Kott. Thia man, we underatand, wa« 
licensed to trade in lall. and it was to the government, which contrula the mono* 
polv. that his largest debt* were due. 

itay 33(A, Their eicellenciea, the governor and lieul-govcmor, went to the 
temple of the god of war, and ottered incense; then returned to their offices, 
iaeued public docuiDents, and received the coogtatolaUoaa of all the otCcera of ths 
city and of the hong merchants. 

Hby 30ti. Choo Ngflnkwang captured Ihe robber Le Atsan, and delivered 
hbn over to the civil authorities fur trial, Noti. Peraons are almost everyday 
delivered over In this manner; but the trials seem never to be reported. 

May 31ft. Fang, an officer of the ninth rank, reported that he had delivered 
the imperial dispatch, with which he had been entrusted, to the chief antborities 
of the territorial department of the proTlnce, The execution of capital punish. 
meni waa reported, NbU. These puniahments are either decapitation rir cutting 
into pieces; but very often, as in the present instance, there ia nothing in the 
terma used, to report them, to determine whether they have been infficted on one, 
or ten. or a hundred malefacton. 

June 2d. Fung Yaoulaoo reported that to-morrow he will go and distribute the 
gratuity of rice among the children in the founding hoapital. Wang Yuking re. 
ported that he had been directed lo examine Ihe prisoners in the jails o' Nsnhae 
and Pnanyu. The cicoution of capital puoiehnicnl waa reported. 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

96 Joarnal a/* Occurreneet. 

Jho* 3d. Two criminalB, AM md KwO Tang, were brou|;b( to the dtj rmm 
the district of Tungkw&n. The eiecutbn ot eipital puni*hrD«nt wu leporled. 
Cliun^ Lun reported Ibat be had bean directed by the cheheCn of Nanhao to take 
the taoad of Y6 Aibon and deliver it to Ibe cbief ina|ialrata of Sanchuj, NbU. 
Tbo bead* of onminal* are often treatad in Ibia Mva^ manner ; after being nt. 
ured from the bud; by (he award of tlie eiBCUtHiner, Ihej are placed in cagra, 
or rather baikelj made of narrow attipa of bamboo witb broad opening* between 
them likelbameabeaof anel, and in Ihia condition, allcoTsred with guie, tlie; are 
■ometimes eipoeed Tor daja at ibe place of eiecntlon, and aurrHitlnie*, as in tlie 
caaa of Vi Aabun, tbey are earned Ibroucb the connlrf to the place vhere the 
maleftioton committed the crime* for which they ban been eiecoted, and there 
hunr Dp m ttrrortm. Tbe heida of thoH unbapp; men who murdered the crew 
of the French ship Samgatmr, and wbo were executed in Canton in 1829, were 
put in amall cages and bnng ap on the na ihore in Macao, near which place the]' 
committed the acta for which ihey were bobeaded. 

June iih. Their eicellencie* went to the great Ian ding- place, nceived the new 
lien L-gvneral Mingb well and inquired alter the repuae of the emperor. Four of 
"~~ ' — E merohanti reported that Ihey had brought a pelition of the barbarftn*. 
Mlngkwei belonga to the alaffof Soolfnngah, wlio ia at the bead of the Tar- 
iwn in our metropolia ; Luncbunn, mentioned abare, ia hia asKMiate. 
htnt Stk. The governor walled on Le. the literary chancellor, and congratn. 
lated him, it being (he annlTenary of the birtb day oflhe chancelloc^ mntber. 
An officer of the commiaaanat reported that he bad dntribuled rice to the Haul. 
chou and Cfaineaa aoldieiy. 

June ttk. Their eicellenciee went lu the t<jmple cimgliioang, and offered in. 
Gen>a. And the lient-goTemor prayed fur fair weather. Woo Lanaew preaented 
a atatletical account of UK diatrtet Fnngchuen. The eieeution of eapilal puniab- 
ment wia reported. 

June ItK, The keeper of the trvaaary reported that he bad examined and pre- 
pared Ihu 19th diapatch of treaaure for Peking. Noti. Each of theae diapatchea 
GODMal* of 10,000 taela, one ihouaand being placed in each nek. Another per. 
son reported thai be ahould laaTc Canton Uie next day in charge of treaaure for 
the capital. 

tbe hong n 
Nat,. MlD 

June BlA. Five officera reported themaelvei recovered from illneaa and r^dr 
for reaumiug their regular duliea; throe bad been afliicted witb oolda; one wlw 
boilai and one with fever and agne. Two otbcra reported tbemaelve 

duty: the Gnt, becauae he had taken eold; Ibe aecond, becanae loq/ui fuA Aaoii, 
literally, "bowela not good." Nate. Almoat eiery day aome of the officers 
report themaelTea ofi* duty in conNquence of "iU-heaUh." How far tbeae cases 
Indicate tbe general atate of health among the people, we do not know : we 
beliere, bowever, that ihew public functlonarlei are allowed lo claim a certain 
amnunt of " Ill-health " a> current exchange for furlongs. 

June lOlA. Their exoellencie*. tbe governor and It.-govemor wont early in Ibo 
morning lo the temple chinghwang and offered inoenie lo the god* of tbe city- 
June 13tA. Their eicellencica. after complettnE tbeir other olBcial buaineM for 
the day, went to (he temple chinghwang and offered incenio ; and again, on the 
morning of Iho 13th. And on the morning of the 14th. they peiformed the nme 
ceremonv in the temple dedicated to the goda of literature. 

Juu IfilA. Hoo Cbingwang, an aisiitant migiitrsto in (he department of 
Kwingchow, late reaideol at Taaenabin [near Macao), had an audience with the 
gOTcmor. and took leave of abnenoe to go to Poking, 

Jmu \9lk. The lifth day of Ibe 5th moun. Their eicellenciei repaired to tbe 
temples chinghwang, and lo that of lang.wtjig, the draKon-kIng and ofiersd in. 
cenae ; and then returned lo their oflicee. and received the congratulalinn* of all 
the civil and militair funetionariea, JUerary gentlemen, &^., &c. Note. This 
day ii ever menorable for the f^ta of the draifon-boaU., properly io called. 

June S3(A. The acting ehehr^n of Nanbae reported that a lire broke out on 
the preceding evening, near the tringhae gate (on the uinlh aide of the city), and 
that one shop was deatroyed, w}vcn the fire waa eitinguiabed. The bong 
merchinla, proatnted IhcraselM* at Ibe governor^ gate ana presented a petition 
from the iMtbariana, 



Vol. v.— Julv, 1836.— No. 3. 

AsT. I. A$im : a sketch of il$ government, produelioni, trade, and 

pro$pefU ; wi(A tome notieei of the cuifonu of the people. 
Thk ezteot and boundaries of A'sim were hriefly described in our 
lasl number; to which were added notices of the states and tribes 
borderinf; nn the north and south of Ihe country. In this article we 
propose lo give a sketch of ils government, production^ commcrcei 
and pTospeeis. Aa early as 1793, a connection hnd been established 
with the Bengal government, and a treaty of trade formed, in conse- 
quence of the aid afforded by the British lo Ihe riji in recovering 
his throne from his enemies. Mohammed Caziin, in his description of 
this country at the lime of AurungzLb, the Indian conqueror, declares 
that it had been repeatedly invaded by powerful kings ; and even Au. 
rungzib did not long retain his conquests in it. So uniform had been 
the ill fate of invaders, that "the unlives of Hindustan consider (he 
A'ti&mese as wizards and magicians, and pronounce the name of that 
counlry in all their incantations and counter charms. They say that 
every person who sets his foot there is under the influence of wilcb. 
craH, and cannot find the road to return." The chief riiji bore Ibe 
title of " celeslial," thereby intimating the denci^nt of his race from 
heaven. The country was then described as populous, though il is 
now greatly the reverse- 
It has already been stated that Ihis countrv was added to the RriU 
ish territories in 1625, as a consequence of Ihe wnr with the Biitmnns, 
from whom it was rescued. At the close of that wsr, the whole norih- 
easl frontier, including Kulch Beh4r, BijnS AVftm wilh all ils wild 
dependencies, Silhet, KAchSr, and Manipur, was co nmittcd to the 
late Mr. David Scott. His incomparable temper, end Ihe genero'is 
policy he pursued won the affection and confidence of the |>en[)le to 
such a degree, " that at Ihe present day no A'sAinese can pronounce 
his name without blessings, and scarce without tcaie." The poor 
people wiio had been scattered abroad, soon began to flock back to 

1 V^nOC^IC 

96 A'tim. July, 

Iheir native land, nnd indusliy was renewed. Mr. Scoll beiitg left 
wholly without aid was obliged lo de^iend on native as^iislants, who 
pppr?SMd ihe people while they could not be effectually controlled. 
The apricullure, trade, and revenues of the country then all languish- 
ed. But latterly, European aaaistanla were granted him frotn the ar. 
my, and the old defective systera of governrnenf is quite changed. On 
(he lamented death of Mr. Scott, in 1H31, Mr. Robertson tilled hia 
place, who waa succeeded by ciiptain Jenkin?, the present cumniis. 
aioner, whose authority is paramount throughout all A'sim and its 
dependencies. Lower A's&m is under the immediate edmiuiatnition 
of the commissioner, in which he has six assistanla. He uaually 
resides at Gowahiti, the capital, but holds regular sessions at differ- 
ent subordinate stations; his assistants are placed somelimes singly 
and sometimes two together, in important places in the district, The 
old system of taxation is changed, the population ia increasing, and 
the face of the country is expressive of advancing civilizntion. 

llp]»er A'sim is the ancient seat of royally : it waa given up by the 
British to riiji Purunder Singh, in 1S33, "on the expresa condition 
of bis good behavior." Major White is the political agent in this pro- 
vince. The population is estimated at upwards of '200,000 ; anil 
before the country was given up, the revenue had risen to 80,000, or 
100,000 rupecsi, and was increasing with the increasing security of 
the peo)ile. The r&J& ptiya a tribiite of 5D,0tl0 rupees, but is suppos- 
ed to realize fully 10(J,U0D. The whole internal administration is 
left in his hnnds ; and this is mannged by village and district courlii, 
the r&j& himself presiding in a Sudder court held in his capital, Jor. 
haut, where important cases are decided. To maintain his slate and 
authority, he keeps up a sort of guard of irregular soldiery, who are 
armed with muskets and trained after the European mode. It ap- 
pears that the surrendry of this province to Purunder Singh does not 
meet the approbation of the Friend of India, which forcibly remarks; 
" the r&j4 had no claim to such a promotion, unless he derive r>ne 
from having had a principal hand in ruining Ihe country by his 
previous usurpations. The people had nodesire to be left to the lender 
mercies of such a man; and the British can derive no advantage but 
will in all probability reap annoyance and some danger from it. Under 
his administration, no stimulus is or can be expected to be given to 
indusiry. He is said to be oppressive and to he driving numbers of 
the already sufficient email population from the territory hy his 
oppression. This system cnnnot last long, and the sooner Ihe go. 
vernmnnt resume their grant to Ihe t&}k, the belter will it be both fur 
their iiileresta and for the people." 

The Maomorfyaa or MGtnks who were mentioned in the former 
article live on the south of the Bramhapiilra between Upper A's^ni 
and Sadiya. Their number is said to be about 60,000. They wero 
formerly subject to A's&ui, hut threw off their allegiance some fifly 
or sixty years iipo, and were much drpnd hy the A'^^5nlpse as a 
warlike people. The governmfnt is said to he a sort of dpmocracy, 
yet Ihcru is u chiuf wlio derives u small revenue from presents, Alc. llu 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1836. J^t&m. 99 

ia styled (he Ban Sen&p&ll, and botb himmlf and his people at preient 
are eDtirely subject to Britiah authority. The ioleriial adininistratioii 
however, ia left in hi* hands, except that in caae of murder or other 
capital ofTeriM, inforinalion must be given to major White. The 
country reeembiea the rwt of the province, at present lying waste, but 
|>08ae8sing every advantage for agricultural proaperily. The inhabi- 
tants occupy but a small tract on the Deburu, which paues through 
their territory from east to west. They profees to be Hindus and 
worshipers of Vishnu eiclusively, but hold their religion so loosely, 
and are so igoor&nt or negligent of its observances, that tlie people 
of Hindustan will hardly acknowledge them as Hindus. 

On the opposite side of the river, north of the Mulaks, are the moan, 
tain tribes of Abora. This name, it is said, means independeiU. Each 
irilte has a sort of democralic government, and all its proceeding 
are ordered by the voice of the people in open council assembled. It 
is the business dt the chiefs to carry into execution the will of the 
council. In these and other respects:, they remind us strongly of 
the North American Indians. They are very fond of ^irituous Uquors, 
are no ways choice in their diet, and abhor nothing but beef. The 
wild animals are killed with poisoned arrows, the poison being an 
article of commerce with the tribes further eastward, from whom it 
is oblained. [t is a root, brought to Sadiya in baskets containing 
twenty roots each, and for five such baskcta a string of beads is 
given, worth about two annas. It is prepared by reducing the root 
to a powder, and combining it with h mucilaginous vegetable juicp 
to the consistence of paste, which is smeared on the points of the 
arrows. The wound is fatal, and it is said, the wounded animals 
will (all before running a hundred rods. Still it is not found to injure 
tite flesh c^the animals killed by it. Of the religion of tho Abora 
we learn nothing except that they worship a mountain deity. 

The district of Sadiya is inhabited chiefly by refugee Khamptis 
and MQIaks. The Kbampifa are but a ftsw thousantia in number, 
and are under their own chief, who yields obedience to the British au- 
thorities. They are described as more fond of hunting and plunder 
(ban of labor ; and the recent introduction of opium, has, as in alt other 
cases, only aggravated their natural indolence and reluctance to the 
regular labors of civilized life. The soil, however, is rich and needs 
but the hand of the cultivator to make it extremely productive; the 
jungle abounds with garae ; the elephants yield ivory ; and the rivers 
at a short distance from the town of Sadiya furnish gold. Both the 
Khamplis and Singphoa use the musket in taking game, but their 
chief dependence m the poisoned arriiw. 

The Singphoa and Kikus are the chief possessors of the large 
plains which lie south of the Bramliaptitra opposile to Saiiivn, and 
extend till they are closed id on the east by muunlains. The Singphoa 
are divided into twelve clans, each of which is culled afier its res. 
pective chief, but the whole collectively are known by the name of 
«tbe twelve tribes." There is but alight union bntweRn the several 
clans, though upon any occasions of great imporlaJicu they do 

;. V^nOC^IC 

100 Atim. July. 

combine. The Singphoa in A'aim retain their (»-iginal diitine- 
lionB, aod give to their new Mttlementi the names of the old towni 
which they have left. Before the plunder of the country corrupted 
them, they were indualrioualy encaged in agriculture and other oc* 
ciipationa, but lattarly these inferior services had been perfo'med by 
A'aimese captives, who were kept in the proportion of fifty to one of 
their maaters. The Singphos have intermingled many of (he super- 
alitiona of their neighbors with the religion of Gaudama, to which how- 
ever they are yet an much attached that he haa a temple and priest 
in every principal village. They practice polygamy without restraint. 
The KikGs are intermingled with the Singphoa, yet are not counted a 
distinct peopk) nor in a servile condition : they are divided into four 
distinct tribes. The original country of the Kikfia appears on lieut. 
Wilcoi's map to be on thR eaai bank of the Ir&wjidf. We are con. 
cerned (o hear by a recent letter from Gowah&li that lieut, Chariton, 
the resident of Sadiya, haa been obliged to leav* nit slation and the 
province far a time, in consequence of a wound received in a skir- 
mish with some Singphos who have lately been troublesonie on the 
extreme southeast frontier. In the mean tune, the civil and military 
charge of that frontier will be held by lieut. Millar. 

The trade and productions of the country are in such a slate as 
might be exjiected, where they sre but just beginning to revive from 
the desolating influence of long continued misrule and war. Though 
rich in soil and possessing great advantages of situation for aupportirtg 
a denae population, yet we are aaaured that the uniform aspect is 
that of s ruined country. Marks of numerous former inhabitanta are 
everywhere seen ; trnces of ruins are found, of which an inleresting 
description may be seen in the Journal of the Asiatic Society for April 
1635, from the pen of captain ti. E. Weetmacolt, assistant, governor 
general'a agent. Those which were discovered by that officer were 
in Central A'ttim, on the north of llie river, in latitude between 26* 
Si,' and 26" 51', and long. 92° IB", and 92'" 55.' They consist of the 
rninf of a temple, of granite buildings, of large altars and pillars, the 
hiHtoiy of which seems to be intermingled with absurd fables. The 
whole pripnialion of the country has been estimated at near 1,000,000 
souls. From ita diversified elevation, the soil ia adapted to the culti. 
valion of almost every variety of the fruits of tropical and temperate 
rlimnles. Ricr, augar-cane, |>epper, muatard seed, cotton, and moo- 
xah xiitt are the chief articleii of produce at present; but in raiajng 
those the natives are indotenL 

The attempts to ascertain the capacitiea of the soil for the purpose 
of cuhivnting there the tea shnib have excited much attention. It is 
now wverHl years since it was firat discovered that tea was growing 
in Mauipi'ir. Some three years ago, the Court of Directors instructed 
the supreme government to nacertain whether it would not be posai- 
lilr In nccliniate the tea plant in same part of British India. Thia 
li-d to the formation of a tea committee, of which Mr. Gordon, an 
iiin-tli<:'>nl ji[]d entiTpriKiiig gerlleman, was appointed secretary. In 
I'.' |>n lucent ion iif Ilis dnIii-N Mr, G, several times came to China, 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

IflSS. AWia. 101 

visited the les district in this country, and procured large quantilies 
of the true wed. Meanwhile tbe important discovery was madci that 
the tea plaut was growing wild in the country of Sadiya itae)f. Dur- 
ing the last year a deputation waa seat thither from Bengal, conaiat. 
ing of Dr. Wallich and his colleaguea, to examine tbe whole subject 
scientifically. This deputation haa mtisfactorily accomplished its 
object, and sacerlained even more than waa before suspccled. Two 
localities of tbe tea were found in the country of the Maomariyaa, 
and since their country nearly reanmbles the rest of the great valley, 
it is hoped that the cullivation of it may be exteuded through the 
province. Another locality is at the bottom of the Niga range, 
within a few miles of Purunder Singh's capital. Similar localities 
skirt both aides of tbe whole valley, and since it haa been found on 
the south of this range of hills, in the country of Manipur, it must 
probably exist in intermediate places. We observe sanguine hopes 
are entertained of entire success; the whole project of an Indian 
tea trade, say* a writer in one of tbe Indian papers, is already far 
advanced towards maturity, since the plant is found at once in 
extensive natural plantations; and we may soon "afiord to lose alto- 
gether our opium trade, which at present fixes upon us the stigma 
of being the greatest panderera to human vice and depravity, which 
the world holda." 

The mineral and vegotable treasures of the country are but little 
known, though from the present cursory observations. Dr. Wallich, it 
is said, declares he has never seen or heard of so rich a Flora as in 
A's^m, Tbe same may perhaps be said in respect to geology. It is 
surrounded with hills and mountains, which emt»vce nearly every vari- 
ety of the primary and secondary formations. From time immemorial, 
gold has been found in the sands of at leeat a dozen of its rivers, both 
on tbe north and south of the Brambaputra. The smelling of iron 
has always been the chief branch of industry among several of the 
hill tribes. Silver and lead will probably be found within the frontiers 
as they are lieyond them, by the Burmana. There cannot be a doubt 
that limestone exists here equally good as that now brought 400 miles 
from Silhet. Excellent bituminous coal, much resemUing that at 
Cherra p(injf, is found like it in connection with shell limestone, both 
in Dharmpur, and in the Moning on the Dbunsirf. Other places 
have also been s|)eci6ed, where Ihe existence of coal has been ascer- 
tained. Though now dependent on Bengrtl for salt, yet salt.springs are 
know to exist at Burb&th and neer Sadiya, on the northeast of the 
Kicbia hilts, and elsewhere in connection with sulphureous hot 

lo former times, Sadiya appears to have been the entrepot of a verv 
considerable trade, which converged to that point by well defined 
routes from Tibet, China, the Burman empire, and India. The revival 
of this trade was one of the earliest efforts of the lale Mr. Snott, and 
with considerable success. Tbe imports from India are all kinds of 
cloth of European manufacture, glass, salt, opium, spirits, and the 
like, l^e returns are gold, silver, ivory, copper pots from the Lima 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

lO'i A'a&nt. Jblt, 

country, various roots, nnd native weapons of several kinds. Besides 
the supply from tlie native rivers, gold is found more abundantly in 
the region of those Singphos who nre under tlie influence of Ava. It is 
found in lumps of two or lliree sicca weight near Mogsung, the capi- 
tal of the ancient kingdom of Tai ; where also emeralds and other pre. 
cions stnnen are found. The chief destination of these precious Btones 
is China, whero they are sold at high prices, but the Burmans levy 
a duty of twenty per cent upon them at the mines. The Chinese mer- 
chants come from Manwny, which lies to the east of a range of moun- 
tains, having the Singphua or Sliftns immediately on the west. They 
have only to qxohh thexe hills, bringing their goods on the back of 
lheii>~-niulRa, when a water passnge is open down the lr4wfidi to its 
junction with the river on which Mogaung stands, the ascent of which 
(o that city requires tive days. These merchants bring cboths of vari. 
ous sorts, particularly hrond.nloths, nnnkeens, silks, tea, copper, and 
silver. Silver is their chief article of export, in small lumps, with a 
Chinese stamp and character on them. These are of various sizes, 
appear to be carelesiily run in holes made with the finger, and stamp- 
ed while warm. The Chineee silvnr is said to bo very pure. 

Tea is used as a constant beverage by all the tribes between old 
Bisi and the contines of China. It is chiefly cultivated in the 
neighborhood of Palong, where the manufacture of it said to amount 
to some lakhs of maunds, but it is different from that brought to tlifl 
Canton market. "The leaves are (irst heated in boiling water, and 
then paclted awny in pits or vats for several months, preserved from 
the access of air, and finally crammed into earthen vessels or bam- 
boos, whioh are carefully closed and sent into all parts of the empire." 
If so it may resemble the brick tea sent to Tartary. The slave trade, 
ws understand, is not suppressed, but the Khamptf and Singphn 
chiefs still maintain a constant traffic in slaves. Under the adminis- 
tration of the present commissioner, transit and internal duties have 
been given up; and if the country is destined lo become the scene 
of an extended tea cultivntion, who can estimate its importance 7 It 
has suffered long and deeply from oppression and war, but now the 
people are protected and satisfied, and the revenue is understood lo 
e.'ccced the expenses. If such is the case, while perhaps not more than 
one seventeenth of Lower A's&m is under cultivation, it is easy to 
imagine what it must become under the course of improve menta 
already begun. 

On many accounts, A'sSm is a missionary field of great interest. 
It is' the most eastern point which western intelligence and the true 
religion have (rained in this direction. Connected as it is with Tibet, 
the head quarters of Lamaism, with Burraah, and with the " inacces- 
sible " Chinese empire, we cannot but regard it with peculiar feelings 
of hope, as destined in Divine Providence lo be a centre from whence 
the true light may radiate on all the surrounding darkness. It is 
but 150 years since the iiysl<^m of Hinduism was introduced, and 
though by the influence of the r^jA and the Brahmans it rapidly 
;;aiiied ground, it has not vet taken full bold on the passions of the 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1636. Atom, 108 

people ; while the G&roB Kh^iyas, &c., on Ihc south, and the Daflas 
Meris, Abort, Mishmis, tmd other tribes to (he north have, till lately, 
been almost exempt from its influence. The KhamptiB and Singphos 
are Budhiats ; and the MCitaka are but lax Hindua. Yet this nlate 
cannot continue long; and even now the Indian leligion is extend- 
ing with the extension of British influence, and the introduction of 
Hindu soldiery. 

Wo shall close thi« article with a view of the interesting prospects 
opened before the Christian missionary and philanthropist. Most of 
our readers are aware that within a short time some movements have 
been made in India indicative of o desire to become acquainted with 
the progress of improvement io the world. Limited indeed aa Ibis 
desire is, yet it is encouraging tu obeerve it at all, and the more so to 
see it operating in the minds of some of the native ru)er«, the rijA 
and chief men. This should be hailed as a good omen of better 
things Io come. The late Dr. Carey, several years ago, completed the 
translation of the Sacred Scriptures into the A'^Amese language ; and 
a branch of the Senimpore minion is ealabliahed at Gownb&li, where 
(he Reverend Mr. Rae has been for some lime past laboriously occu. 
pied in the education of tlie young, the preachine of the gospel, and 
the distribution of the Scriplured and tracts. The education com- 
mittee also eent thither an active teacher, a year ajjo, has already 
collected a large school) including the sons of some of the principal 
Ghie& in the district. Mr. Rae is urgent that the gospel be sent to 
Upper A's&m also, as well as to the remoter tribes. Mr. Liah, at 
Cherra piinji finds himself so well established among the KhSsiyas 
(hat be requests a colleague may he sent to him, in order that (heir 
operations may be extended inio Jynleiih. But all these places are 
too far west to eficct all that is desirable ; Sadiya is therefure fixed 
upon as a station of great promise. 

In the Calcutta Cnristiao Observer, captain Jenkins strongly re- 
commends attention to Sadiya, and accompanies his opinions with 
much information that is both practical and Interesting. He observes 
that the northeastern frontier is chiefly occupied by the Khamplis and 
Singphoe, two tribes of the great Sh<in family; and that as the dia- 
lects of these tribes difier very little from the Siamese and Burmese, 
the miselonHries in Biirmah would have great advantages in the way 
of Gommueicating easily with these tribes. The Sh^ns, he describes 
as a much more intelligent people than (he Burmese, and ten times as 
numerous. " They and their kindred races occupy entirely the two 
frontier provinces of Ava, flukijm and Mungkum ; they occupy all 
the east bank of Ir^wkAi ; they stretch down the Salwen to Tcnas- 
serim ; end Laos, Siara, and Cochinchina are their proper counlries ; 
they compose half the population of Yunnan, a great part of that of 
Szechuen, and stretch up into that district which has always baffled 
tlie Chinese between Tibet, Tariary, and Ssecbuen; whilst A's&m ia 
chiefly populated by the overflowings of this great people." The 
Khamplis are a fine bold people, and the Singphoe are a less civilized 
but good tempered race. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

104. AfiM. 3wi, 

An i(n|>orUn{ ind curious fact \% announced in a mora recent let- 
ter from the Banie gentleman. It seems 'tbat 360 KhIJnunga have 
arrived at Sadiya to settle under us, who report that 6000 of their tribe 
are to follow if the present party hold out encouragement to them. 
The Ex-S(uliya Gohain describea the KhCmlingB as a tribe subject to 
the Khamptis, whose country is east of the Iriwidi. He says, 
they are wandering west, retiring before large bodies of Chinese who 
are advancing to settle on the Iriw&di. The Cbineae colonists cannot 
pass the IriwAdi without coming in contact with the Burmese, under 
whose away the Bar Khamptis prnfess to be ; hut their allegiance is, 
I imagine, very unwillingly paid. These movements enhance the im- 
portance of that frontier; but while they open a prospect of danger to 
A'sim, they show the only way in which any great improvement can 
be expected to be made in the relations with the eastern tribes. Wore 
(he post of Sadiya relinqished, those Iribes would still pour in, but 
would be beyond control and improvement. If Iranquillily can be pre- 
served, their amelioration must follow. I should like to see our mis- 
sionaries in the field early. The influence of persons skilled in the 
language of these tribes, and devoting all their time and abilities to 
humanize these rude races, would not fail of being useful to us and 
to them. Every day there opens a fairer prospect of spreading our 
ascendance over the Sh&n tribes and under Providence nothing but 
gross mismanagement and remissness in availing ourselves of the 
opportunities bestowed on us, can prevent the increase of our power 
from being serviceable to the improvement of our country and tboae 
connected with ua.' Such are the sentiments of an enlightened po. 
titician. He concludes with the expression of other than mere politi- 
cal views: "No attention of mine should of course be wanting to make 
the place comfortable to any missionaries, and I will be willing to con. 
tribute my mite to their establishment You may mention that I will 
subscribe 1000 rupees if a/umtZy is settled as a mission at Sadiya; 
and whenever they have had a press at work six months, I shall be 
happy to double that sum, if 1 remain in charge of province." 

In addition to the generous donation of captain Jenkins, major 
White has offered to give 200 rupees, and It. Charlton and Mr. Bruce 
100 rupees each, towards the outfit of a missionary family who shall 
settle at Sadiya. We are happy to know that these advances have 
been promptly mot. The Rev. N. Brown, late of the mission at Maul- 
mein, volunteered to ko to Sadiya, and has doubtless reached the plac« 
some months ago. He was accompanied by Mr. Cutter, a printer. 

Hatt. Since the fareji;oing irticlo wu written wb have recoivod lilei of Indian 
periodical*, tmonn which are nvenl number* n( the JoDmal of Ihe Asiilic Society 
of Ben|[i!, and of the Calcutti Chriitian Obaervet, both affording much new 
and valuable information lelaliie (o A'aini. The Jonmal contain* an extrant 
fmm a letter of captain Jonkinr, dated Goalpara, December 6th, 1636, re>|Mctinc 
(he diicover; of ooal bedn. "It now hecome* almoet certain that we riiall End 
verj large aupplie* of Ihia invalaable mineral on the •oath bank of Bramhapblra ; 
we know already of four place* where coal ha* bean found, vii,, lit, under tho 
Ciribiri hill* ; 3d, thai of Dharmpur Pereunnah ; 3d. on the SuSn, a nullah near 
thr. Borhil ealt formation ; and 4th, on the Noa Dihing, in Ihe Singpbo dietrict. 
aouth uf Sadija. 

Ait. 11. Siameie Hiriory; nolieei mOinued from 612 to 904 iS^ia- 

wete era, or a. d. 1451 to ]fi48. By a CorrMpondeiiL 
813. Tattlfk go*«rDor of CMmgmm. 616. Th« BiatiMOT king 
obtained ■ •■ white elephant."* 818. Ad cspedition to Chaliang. 
821. Tbe Siameae country firat eatabliahed.'j' 624. The gorernor of 
L&nch&ng (tho capital of South Laos or Wtatig Chaa) deceaaedi 
and the liing of Sisro aent one of hi* noblea to succeed him. 

626. Tho king compasnonately allowed a fcatival of Rfleen days in 
lonor of the relica of Budha. 82d. The king's win, at the age of 
twetv« yearSi entered tbe priesthood. B29. Lett the prie«thond| and 

waa niaed to the rank of premier. 891. Taluk deceased. 932. 
RijitirH fitted out an expedition against Tavoy, and juat aa Tavoy 
wait about (o yield, there appeared various evil prognoatics ; — a cow 
bad a calf with one body and eight feet ; — a sotting hen hatched a 
chicken with fonr legs; and husked rice sprouted and put forth leave*. 
Boromtdry laka tM, deceased, having reigned thiry eight yean. 

6S4. Pichai was firat enclosed by a brick wall. SS8. Four years 
afler his dealh, the relics of Boronatry hka tiAl were deposited in 
a magnificent um. 888. The king revived the playing of ancient 
games. 841. Built the wal Sutmpet, the great image in which was 
cast on Sunday 0th motilh, the Bth waxing moon. 645. The above 
image was consecrated ; its whole height was eight fathoms (S2 En- 
glish feet), the face four cubits long and three broad, and the breast 
was eleven cubits broad. The gold used in caslins it weighed 
83,000 catties;! the gold for the dress weighed 266 catties, die. 

800. Rima caused a work to be written on war and [nililary tac- 
tics (which is still extant); alio firat eetablished the plno of con- 
dncting public business by written documents. About that time one 
of the canals near Pajbtan was too shallow for large boats and the 
king had it dug anew. In digging, bronze images of TawadAi wore 
discovered; on one was inscribed the name StnUl (100,000 eyes), 
and on the other B&tTDongk6n. Theee were cleared of their rubbish 
and deposited at PratUng. 

866. Tbe right tuak of the king's elephant grew loose and f:;lt off. 
In tbe 7th month the people showed a dis|K»iIion to revolt, and 
a great number of govern metal officers were put to death. 

867. Unusual droughl, rice withere<1 and destroyed. There wai 
also an earthquake and a complication of calamitirs. 666. Rice 
very scarce and dear. The king appointed his son Xtiiawong (of tbe 
race of tbe sun) as premier, and s^it him to govern Pilnmuloit. 

■ I me this devils 
hive deierihwl Sitin 

1 Thiia Um BiatneM tpeah of th«ir connlrr en iU rMtoratlon frem foreign tub. 

t Fiflj ainxM oattin tra eqaiJ to one p«cul or 13^ poundi. 

ToL. V. NO. HI. 14 


106. Siamete Hitiory. July. 

871. There was a wonderful meteoric phfinnmenen in the night, 
rising from the S.W. and proceeding to the N. W., remarknhly bright. 
It was seeo on Sunday Sth day of the rising moon, 12th month. King 
Bdmd died, after a reign of thirty-eight years and his son j(' (if a 
wong succeeded undi^r the name B6roma raja n6 puiang kun (the 
king, the bud of deity). 

875. The above king died, and his son, then a child, succeeded 
him. 876. The prince died and Chaiya raja succeeded. 880. 
This year, one or two foreign expeditions were projected, but with no 
important results. One day in the 4th moon, about o'clock in the 
evening, there was a tremendous hurricane, which dashed many 
large boats to pieces. A nubleman named Nar&yun committed 
treason, was apprehended and put to deatli. 

887. A fresh expedition against Chiangmai, in which the govern- 
or of Pitsanulok was commander-in-chief. After various marches he 
reached Chiangmai, but what was done after their arrival there, the 
history "sailh not," except that they returned. A conflBgrBtion nc. 
ciirred in the royal city during their absence, which lasted tlireo 
days, and is said, hy the reeister, to have consumed dwelling houses 
nnd temples to the amount of 100,050. 

889. The king died on his return from Chiangmai, having reigned 
fourteen years. He had two sons; the eldest was called Y6tfa (the 
summit of the sky); he was eleven years old. I^e youngest, five 
years old, was called Stain. After the king's remains were burnt, a 
person named Tian, of the royal family, concluding it to be a perilous 
matter for him to enlist in political affairs, and seeing on other way to 
escape danger, entered the priesthood, and Y^tfd was elevafed to the 
throne, and his mother, Si m da chan became regent. That year 
there wa<9 an earthquake. 

690. The king had an ekphant fight, in which one of the ele> 
phanls had his tusk broken into three pieces. The king's elephant 
also ran shout crying like a man. One of the royal gates also muds 
a di!:mnl creaking. At that time, the queen regent employed various 
intrigues fur elevating her paramour Banbtitsiiep who was then a 
mere guardian of household gods. She had him introduced into 
the palace to some higher slslinn, and ovenlually had children hy him ; 
anil then, pretending that Ihe prinre was inadequate to llie cares of 
governing so mighty an umpire, held a mock consultation wiih her 
nobles, in regard to associating h^r paramour with herself in the go- 
vernment, till the prince should have grown up. They assented, and 
Banbuliitep assumed the government under the title of Kun wira 
won^ «a (t rdt, msde his hroihcr premier, and removed such officers 
ns ho supposed would thwart his (iti'iiKna. 

8BI. The usurper then slew Ydtfii, after he had been on the 
Ihrone ore year and two months, ll is brother Si*in wss allowed to 
live. In these circumsiances, four patriotic noblemen undertook to 
rrslore the country iind rlevale Timi (who Imri flpd (o the priesthood) 
lo the throne. Hi', lioveinR si^nn tlinmuh a variety tif oeremoniFs, 
(wrily religious, pHrlly catialislir, lo ustiTlam whether he should [tn<>,. 


IH:)ft. SiameM! Hittary. 107 

per in hiR eflbrla, fit length comented. Meaaures were concerted by 
which the premier was slain on a hunting expedition. As their pUn 
ripened, they became known to ihe usurper, who wilh fie queen and 
her non, fled in a single boat, but were ap|)rflhended, dain, and their 
boilies hung up ns « public spectacle. The usurper's Tei,^n waa only 
four months. Witb every possible demorwtmlion of splendor, Tian 
wan conducted to the royal palace and cunsecralcd king, by the in. 
lervention of priestfl, brabniians, and nobles of all ranks, under the 
title MahA chak ra pat (i. e. the migbiy em;>eror). He took the prince 
Sinin under his protection. How the four patriotic nobleraen should 
\te rewardeii beuaine the tirst object of cundideration. One of Ihem 
( Kaajiereiilep) wis rewarded with the guverament of PUtamilok, 
ihe new kind's daughter for a wiff, and various other costly favors. 
The others rrcRived various roviil tokens respectively of great value. 
The king then made a n>lemn imprecation, that if any future king 
xliuiild do any miachief to any of those who had been inslrnmental 
in rvsloring the country, or their families, or poslerily he ahuuid be 
rejecleti fruui his tliront:. At that period another "white elephant" was 
taken. During the disturbances which had occurred, new? of all that 
transpired had been cnnvcyed to thfi king of Pegu. He supposed that 
if he took advantage of the prevailing confusion, he might easily add 
Uiamiohisdominiona. He therefore gut in readinessanarmy of 30,000 
men, 300 war elephants, more than *2,000 horses and made furt^ 
niurchea to the three Pagodas,* attacked £dnpiiri and captured an 
officer, who informed him that it was true, there had been disturbance 
in ihe country, but now Tian had B.>^;ended the throne and alt wus 
quiet. The Pegiian monarch supposed it would be disgraceful to 
return in such circumstances, and therefore determined to proceed 
and sec the country and what kind of soldiers it contained, and (hen 

&9-i. In the second month, intelligence of the Prguan king's 
movenwnls reaching Siani excited much alarm and drew forth very 
urgent royal edicts to put the country on the defensive. On th« 
oilier hand, the Pcguan king, having rested his army 3 days in sight 
of the royal city and palnct', quietly returned by the way he came. 
Itut the king of Knmbojn, learning that there wns a revolution in Si- 
am. collected his forces, marched to Praehim,^ where ho seized a 
man from whom he learned more definiifly the real |>oslure of affairs 
and did not len ure to proofed any forihrr, but swept up the inhabi- 
tants uf Prackim and returned home. The king of Siam determined 
lo tnko vengeance on the Kambojans, but spent several months in the 
previous building and subsequently consecration of Wats. 

893. Tne only event thought worthy of record thia year was a 
great national festival. 

8K4. When the king heard that all wnaquiel in Prgu, ho. collect, 
ed iin army of 50,000 men, and b«;gon bis march fur Kiunlmja by way 

■This in a placpjnirt nn ihe border* of Sinn, nF.»t]y cut froin Miiilmein, Kan. 

t fncJiiin It suuth of ea 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

109 Siaofte Hillary. Svii, 

or BaUahbng. The expedition by water entered a small stream at 
Pvl tai mH. The firat division pitched tbeir camp only leu «m from 
the ca|iital, but the royal brig&de at 150 $en distant. The king of 
Kamboja, seeing he could not defend himself, sent a comiounicatioD, 
the purport of which was; 'I, the governor of Kamboja, beg respect- 
fully to pay my leepects at your msjeaty's feet. 1 acknowledge my 
guilt in carrying away the iDliabitanls of Prachim, and humUy beg 
jour majesty's pardon. I implore that you will not enter and plundec 
the city, but refrain three days, and I will come forth with tarings 
to your majesty, 6^.' The king of Siam consented, and in three days 
the king of Kamltoja brought bis offerings, together with bis two sons 
whom be also presented to the king of Siam. Then was his wrath 
appeared, and he bade the king of Kamboja remain and govern his 
country justly. As for his two sons he would take them away and 
adopt them as his own. He (hen returned home and sent one of the 
Kambojan princes to govern the province Sawanlok. 
805. Altered the royal boats and bad the beads of rsrious animals 
carved on the prahus. 696. A great festival throughout the province of 
Chainit. 807. The king went tii an elephant hunt at Binglamang 
and took sixty elephants, male and female, and in the twelAh monu 
obtained a male 'white elepharit' mom than aiz and a half feet high. 
News arrivod>that the Kambojans were subjugated by the Cochiucbi- 
nese. The king of Siara, determined to regain Kambcija and dispatch 
an army under the command of the governor of Sawanlok. S98. At 
the ciimmencement of the dry season, the governor of Sawanlok be- 

fan his march with 30,000 men Through opposing winds the ezpe. 
ition liy water did not meet that by land, which, on its arrival was 
furiously attacked by the Cochinchinese ; the commander perished 
on his elephant and men, elephants, and horses* were taken by the 
enemy in grtiat numbers. 

899. The kmgs palace was destroyed by fire. An extraordinary 
festival in honor of the priests, on which occasion the king gave away 
a white elephant with bags of monev tied to his feet, the value of 
which was 1,800 ehang, or 126,000 tic'als ; also seven chariots drnwn 
by horses. In the 7th month sixty elephanta, male and female, were 
taken at Trokpra. 900. This year Inrly elephants were taken at 
S^nkb. I'he history slates that in 902, forty elephants were taken, 
and in 904, seventy were laken, 
■The Sianu 


RemarJu on EduealiM. 

Abt. 111. Brief raaarkM ntpeeting tht mode of bringing wtpme- 

mtnU tn edtication wlo fraetiee amtmg the Chinete. 
In out last nuniber we advanced Bome miggeatioM for the iiDfvove- 
menl of educalioo amoDg the Chineae. As the pnaaibility of intro- 
ducing any new plana into practica may be doubled by aorae of our 
naderS) we will now add a very few remarka reapecting tbe mode in 
which it should be alteni|>lod. We do not auppoM that it will be an 
easy work, nor ooe that can be accomplished in a day. No one ac. 
quaioted with the Chiaeae character an it now esists, modified by and 
made up of *■ old cuatoma," will beLeve it easy to induce them even 
to try a new thing, much le« to adopt it. As they are proud of their 
learning as a nation, and u it is incorporated into the very nature of 
their being by their spending a long time in acquiring it, the difficulty 
of introducing a change in their system of education may be greater 
tiian that of any other change, except oa it may be diminished by tbe 
obvious and great advantages of a better mode. On account of this 
difficulty and iheir prejudice against every Uiing foreign, it seema (o 
us better to use the agency of natives chiefly, than to attempt to in- 
troduce tbe new system directly by means of European teachers. 

Perhaps the best plan would he nearly this. Let the mode of edu- 
cation which it determined to adopt be renedred as perfect as pos- 
sible ; then let a few promising Chinese youth be selected and (ho- 
roughly instructed in it, and educated according to it, or at least 
taught to practice it for a year or two. In doing this, a European 
tutor, well acquainted with the beat models of education, must necea. 
sarily be employed. On a mnderate scale Ibis might be attempted in 
China. But it wilt probably be best, so far st least as it regards se. 
curity from interruptions, to have this done at some foreign settlement 
of the Chinese, and the youth with whom the experiment shall be 
made, may be selected from among the Chinese natives of the settle, 
ment, or from China. I'lie latter would doubtless be best. When 
they have become thoroughly acquainted with the system and have 
practiced it for some time in the school where they are educated, let 
them, or a select number of them who may be judged best qualified 
for the work, be intrusted with the important charge of introducing 
the new t>'stem among the sons of Han, both within and beyond the 
' four seas.* 1'hey should be made to understand and feel, as far aa 
ponible, that they are intrusted with one of the greatest works ever 
committed to men — thai their success will, for every Chinese youth 
of future ages, rescue from lose several years of his precious lifp, and 
du much towards raising his immortal mind to intelligence fint 
and to the knowledge of divine truth in the sequel ; and that their 
foilure will be an irr<>panhle loss to the same immortal millions. To 
these high motives we koow not that it would be improper to add ih« 

;. LnOO'^IC 

110 Retnarkt on Edttnaion. Jult, 

prospect <>t pecuninry emolunientB, and of honor to tliemaelves, in 
case tl;»>y succeed. 

It would, perhaps, be beat to direct them to go tu difierent pro- 
vinces and placi^s, aiid collect achoole, and losch them on the nev 
plan. If the children of the rich could not be induced to attend, it is 
perfectly certain (hat those of the \>oot could ; so that the plan can- 
not fail for want of opportunity to make an experiment. An agree- 
ment mi)rhl be entered into, that the schulara should receive a cer- 
tain Bum uionihly for their support, during their attendance: and at 
the close of the time which may be deemed necessary for a fair expc> 
riment and the davelopeinent of the advantages of the system, such 
an additional sum as would prove a sufScient inducement to them to 

When the advantages of the new plan shall thus become evident by 
actual experiment in these schnols, and sIirH have been brought totha 
notice of some inimedialely around them, let tliem publish in the best 
way they can find, the fnci that they ctn teach the written language 
to children of ordinary capacity, within the time which they siiall have 
found necessary ; and also the other advuntageB of the system ; and 
refer for proof to the actual experiment which they have mnde. I>t 
(hem accompany this publicatinn with an offer to take children into 
their school, and educate Ihera on thie plan. Posaibly the advantages 
of the system may attract attention, and perhaps draw in scbolars 
before this ; but we may ex|>ect it now to attract more general notice. 
A people so eager for gain a.s the Chinese, will not fail to perceive at 
least one advantage of it ; they will see that it will save the pay of 
teachers for two or three years or more, and secure to them, if ihey 
are poor, the labor of their children fur the same length of time. 

We may confidently expect that the pubhcation of the benefits of 
the system, and the offer to educnte youth according to it, will draw 
together a large number of children. They will prolwbly soon be- 
come too numerous to be taught by a single teacher, even on the 
Lancasterian plan. Some of the schokrs will therefore be called 
upon to teach; and the original teacher will perhaps open a school 
for the express purpose of training up teachers for the new system. 
When this shall be the ca>H!, the system mny be regarded as fairly 
introduced. It will spread rapidly. The difficulties all lie in the 
first part of the wny ; and when they uhall have been overcome, we 
may regard the salvation of Chinese from the cramping, stupifying, 
destroying influence nf their present system of education, and all its 
attendant and consequent evils, as accomplished ) and once accom- 
pliehed, we may rest assured, it will be forever. No one will raise to 
life the hateful, useless monster. 

"Well," some render may say here, "this looks very well on paper, 
but it is too much like a ' castle in the air ;' 1 fear it would not appear 
so well in trial." It is indeed a plan merely, but there must always 
be plans before there can he doingg thnt will promise much good. We 
propose it as a plan which we earnestly wish to see perfected in its 
theory, then acted upon. We believe it tu be a practii/able plan ; 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

IA36. BrUith Sottreign/p in Intlia. Ill 

but if any one can point out any part of il, of the fuiliire of which 
llierc is any probability, we will try to nm«n() il, or abandon i< our- 
selves and wish it to bu Torgolten by others Bit if il he pracliuable, 
a heavy weight of reBp<insibility will heiiceforih rust on some indivU 
duals in resjwct to it. Wlio arc Ihoae indiviilualsT 

We regret exceedingly that there is now on one employed in en. 
denvoring to improve (he ediLcnlion among this intercsling peoplo. 
The Anglochinese collpge at Malacca is indeed doing somelhinj[ for 
the education of Chinese yuiith there, hut we are nol aware ihat it 
ftiins partic:ularly at the iinproreoient of the prevailing system of edu- 
cation anionjr the Chinese generally, or at training up teachers for 
schools. It 19 surely an object worthy to employ the best pnern;ies of 
one individual at least, (o save one half of the lime spent in learning 
to read by so many myriads ol' Chinese youth and to give sucli an 
impulse to those myriads of immortal minds, as the intrnduclion of lh<9 
im|>rovemeril8 which we have suggrsled, would, we think, be sure 
to clfect. But alntt, where is the man to do it t Every foreigner in 
(he east, it all acquainted with ihe language, is engaged in impor- 
tant work, which he cannot consistently leave ; except perhaps some 
of those just arrived. And these, we fear, all have their attention 
directed to other objects, which they will be unwilling to abaudon. 
We venture, however, to recommend this subject to their serious 
consideration. Perhaps they will feel that it is too important to 
be deferred till men can be procured in England or America to 
come out expressly for il. But if no one is found among Ihem, 
who can devote his undivided time and attention to this object, we 
believe on time should be lost in sending for teachers who will 
come forth with the high purpose of giving n new and vastly better 
system of education to (he empire of China, and with a devotion to 
it ad a work tending to the salvation of men, — a devotion which will 
bear them through every difHcully and discouragcmeni, and be a 
Bure pledge of ultimate triumphant success, and of the blessing ol' 

Abt. IV, The Briluh towreignty in India: a Sermon preafktd 
in behalf of the Bombay Smttish Miitionary Society; Novem- 
ber Bth, IS35. liy the Rev. John Wilson. 
Thhbb are many things respecting the relations of the western na- 
tions to the eastern, which we wish lo say, and to reiterate until they 
are more accurately understood. Nol long ago, we are credibly 
iiiformcd, the question was gravelv discussed in one of the large 
Cities of America, by learned ecclesiastics, whether they should not 


113 Britith SoMrtignljf in India. JcLY, 

immediately appoint a bishop to C&ntoa in China. We have lettera 
before ut, which show that there are not a few even in Europe, who 
know but little more of some countries of the eait, than they do of the 
moon. 80 long as this ignorance remain*, it ia vain (o expect that 
the people of Christendom will ever comprehend the full magnitude 
of the work which God in his providence seems calling on them lo 
perform. With respect to India, the petition in which it slanda, po- 
litically considered, impoMv peculiar claims on the people and go- 
vernment of Great Britain; and we have aeldom if ever seen thoM 
claims urged with greater force than in the diacouraa before m. It 
is inscribed to the right honorable sir Robert Grant, governor of Bom. 
bay, and is founded on Isaiah zlv, 1, 2, 3, 4,6, IS. In elucidation of 
his text, the preacher briefly considers the divine dealings with Cyrus, 
and their actual results; and, with a view to an application, traces, 
certain analc^ioe and comparisons between the elevation of the Medo- 
Persian monarch and the British ac<)uiBition of sovereignty in India, 
pointing out the corresponding duties which thence originate. The 
following sre extracts. 

"It appears, from the universal record of history that India, 
from time immemorial, has been conceived to be a country boundle« 
ID its wealth and luxuries ; and consequently it has been an oinect of 
envy and of covetoustiess, to the different nations of the earth. Darius 
Hystaspes, on receiving a report of it from Seylax of Caryandrs, who 
had nagivated the Indus, was fired with the lust of its riches, and 
lawlessly conquered its northern provinces. It was in order to get 
poeseHion of it, and to wield its resources, and not from any national 
provocation, or from any philanlhropic desire to benefit its inbabitanis, 
that (be Macedonian hero urged his forces to its north-western bor. 
ders; and he experienced the greatest disappointment, when, from the 
discouragement of his troopa, and the op|Maition of its then powerful 
tibes, he prepared to abandon it, and surrendered his partial acquiai- 
IrioDs to one of his generals. The mixed Bactrians, from the love of 
it* riches, eacroached on some of its meet valuable lenit»ies, and, as 
appears from discoveries in antiquities which have been htely made, 
snttled in it for several centuries. If the Romans, Egyptians, Vei>e- 
tians, Genoese, and others were, in after times, content to satbfy 
themselves with the profits of its trade, it was because they had not 
power adequate to its subjugation. The love of gain, more than the 
dictates of the Koran respecting the overthrow of infidels, urged the 
MusaJoiins to their conquests in this region of the world, and the finsl 
eslablishment of their empire. The Portuguese, the firat of the Euro- 
pean powers who discovered the passage by the Cape, though in the 
first instance they aimed at (he commerce of the East, which they sought 
to engross, soon panted for territory, and proceeded unjustly to acquire 
i(. The Dutch were their close imitators in this respect, for i( waa 
earfy obeerved of them, (hat they here paid ten times more attention 
to revenue than to trade. 

"The En^i^, alone, be it ohwrved, at (he commencement of 
their enterprizr, disdaintfH, and that sincerely, all idea of conquest. 


1S36. Brituh Sovemgntu in ladia. 113 

They were generally contenl, as a nation, with the commercial facto- 
ries of chartered BBaociatiorw, and the gains which resulted from them. 
It waa Eo protect these factories, and to avenge iiHulla which had been 
perpetrated against them, that they first took up arms. When victory 
gave poMessiun of a large portion of the country, they did iiot even 
retain it in their own name; and protests and remonstraDces against 
the acquisition of it, by the foreign nrvants of the Company, who were 
accused and that, perhaps, in a few cases, deservedly, of gross injus- 
tice and unhallowed ambition, were made by its Directors, and by the 
senate of the nation. The British power and influence, however, 
gradually increased and extended. Tlie breaking of engngemenis 
made by the natives, and the formation by them of suspicious confe- 
derationH, were viewed as justifying aggressions upon them, and these 
were seldom unsuccessful, llie influence of the other European 
powers unjustly brought to bear against the British, formidable though 
on several occasions it appeared to be, was inelfectuil to restrain them, 
and it was finally weakened so as to cease to be a mutlur of the least 
anxiety. In the wars which were here carried on, comparativly few 
lives, either of our countrymen or of the natives were lost. The eons 
of the land, who flocked to our standard, and faithfully and valiantly 
abode by it, formed the body of our armies, and its own wealth was 
their pay. 'flie arringements of Providence have beon such, that we 
have got the sovereignty without any fixed design on our part ; and 
we, who came merely to trade at a few ports, now cease, this very year, 
lo have aay coramercial transactions on the public ai^cojnl, and find 
ourselves ruling over the greater part of the territory, and wielding over 
the remainder of it, an influence little less potent than that of law 
itself. We, a handful of people, from a email inland in the western 
ocean, now possene the whole continent of the sons of Bharata, and of 
the solar and lunar kings, whose achievements, (hough seen by us 
through the medium of the tradition of national vanity and crafty im- 
posture, must yet be admitted to be thoee of mighty men of renown. 

«Oiir success in this land, I huve no hesitation in declaring, is 
unparalleled in the history of the world. It eurptisses in wond<-r tliut 
of Cyrus over Babylon, the various stages of which, remarkable though 
they were, we can trace and understand. It surpamcs tlie conquests 
of Alexander, who overthrew the empire established by Cyrus ; f>r 
he woe impelled by a thirst of military glory, and the desire of unjunt 
acquisition, and rather marched his predatory troops through savjijie 
or half-civilized countries, than brought them undur a ret;iilar govern, 
mentj and he himself had to turn his face to his home aflor lie 
caine to these regions. It sur|)a»sea till that Rimic, the mistrcDS of tho 
world, in her proude^it days accomplished ; for in no such short s[>ucu 
BH eighty years, did she ever subdue ninety millions of jKuple, and 
never did her eagles move without glutting thciiisctvus on the carcases 
iif unnumbered multitudes ofslnin, Tl Biirpa-wcs that nf the fanatic 
Saracens, who, though impi^llcd to the field hy the prnmiae believ. 
cd, though falw, of heaven, as the reward of Iheir valor, occupied 
more than a cunlury in subjugating a |M)[iulaliDn of leo-s at tlic highcxt 
VOL. V. NO. lu. 15 

1 V^nOC^IC 

114 BritiMh SovereigtU)! in India. July, 

computalioii, than sixty millioiu. It rorpeasM that which issued in 
the eslablishment of the great Mnghul ; for, by slow advancos was it 
procured, and at no period did it appear very secure, and it wns 
impaired by the Mar^lhjks at the time of its greatest glory. It is a 
success HO unexpected, and brought about by so great a concurrence 
of events and ioterpoeitions, that even the most undevout when re. 
fleeting upon it, must ascribe it to God himself. > The Lord most 
high is terrible ; he is a great King over ail the earth. He hath 
subdued the people under us, and the nations under our feet,' 

"And for what purpose, let me sow asit, has God conferred upon 
us the sovereignly of this great country? Is it merely that we con- 
sume, or export, its wealth, find situations of honor and respectability 
for a portion of Britain's youth, and nfTord protection and security to 
our private tmde ? Is there an individual withia these walls, so sell', 
ish in his feelings so little skilled in general history, and so limited 
in his views of the Divine arrangements, as to answer this question in 
the affirmative T I believe that there is not one. I believe that all of 
you would spurn away the idea, that such remarkable interpositions 
OS have been made in our behalf, are intended by the all-wise Dis- 
poser of events, to have their termination in our personal and national, 
secular agrandizement. I believe tliat all of you will not only admit, 
but readily declare, that it is for this country's weal that it hath been 
given to us ; and that considering, on the one hand, its amazing extent,, 
and its teeming population, and its present wants and necessities ; and 
on the other, the infinitely precious blessings wliich we hold in pos- 
session, and which we have it in our power to bestow, (here is a res- 
ponsibility resting upon us in connection with it, so great that it tran- 
scends our calculation. I more than fear, however, that the facts 
which we admit, and the declarations which we make, hnve not only 
been long overlooked and withheld by us ; but that even now they 
are very far indeed from being properly felt and acted upon. 

" Cyrus had do sooner conquered Babylon than, heathen though he 
-wns, he made some acknowledgment of the Lord Gwl of Israel. Our 
first act, after acquiring territory in India, however, was not that of 
confessing God before the beatlien who had been subdued under us. 
We showed no care to awaken their curiosity, and to lead them to 
inquire into the nature of Christian principle and practice ; but we 
followed a line of conduct more calculated to confirm them in their 
error, than to induce them to seek deliverance. They did not see a 
Cliristian ininistrv of anv amount, and of any approvable devotednes^, 
seeking the conversion and imnrevement of our countrymen ; and Ihey 
did not witness the worship of God at the difTerent stations iu our public 
assemblies, and in temples reared to the honor of Jehovah. They did not 
even, for lonj; timn, know that we had a God distinct from their own 
vanities, that he made to us a revelation of his will, that he demanded 
our homage, or thnt in his unsearchable wisdom and, he had 
opened a way for the salvation of our souls. Inslcnd of saying, like 
CyriTs, " He is the God who is in JnniMilom," wc did not even — to 
our cvcrkuliiig sImiuo be it spoken — preserve neutruhty in rofutonce to 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1830. Britith Sooeragnty in India. 115 

their aiipenitilions and dDluBions. in many instoncfia, we thoughtless- 
ly, or ptwumptuoiisly, endowed their idols and their temples; ratified 
their cereinoniei ; look part in their idolatrous rites and processions, 
and noctitrnal dances and revelries ; dignified them with military 
and civil honors ; and hy levying taxes, participated in their unholy 
gains; invoked their gods at the commencement of our official 
correspondence, sufiered to be dedicated to them the records of our 
provincial courts of justice, and employed Brihmane to pray to them, 
and propitiate them, that they might send us rain and fruitful seasons. 
In many instances, we did these things, do 1 sayl la many places, 
alas, aod to a great extent we still do them. 

" Cyrus, after his conquest of Bnbyioa, granted deliverance from 
civil and religious bondnge to God's exiled servants. We, after the 
conquest of India, g'snted full toleration to proselylism under every 
system of error, however axtravsgnnt, absurd, aod immoral, but dent- 
ed it to Christianity, Ihsl system of eternal truth, to which alone our 
nation is indebted for all its grealne^ and all its preeminence, and 
which we professed to one another to be the sole foundation of hope 
with regard to the world to come. Instead of generously throwing the 
shield of protection over the ministers of God's word, commissioned 
tiy the churches to call upon India's inhabilnnta to forsake their false 
gods and dumb idols, for (he worship of Him who made the eurth, 
nnd the sea, and the fountnina of water, and to abandon Iheir foolish 
alilutions, and pilgrimnges, and penances, and other mistaken works 
of merit, for the righiooiisness of the Son of God from heaven ; we 
denied them accRxs to these shores, or forced them to retire into for. 
eign possessions after they came, or sadly restrained and discounte. 
nnnced them in their operations. We did all this with a show of 
argument which outraged all the history of man, and which unblush- 
ingly perverted facts palpable ns the sun in the nieridian firmament. 

•■At one time, in despite of the innumerable deoas and detstalh/tnt, 
and 'idols of gold and silver, and brass, and stone, and wood,' to l>c 
found throughout the country and which, if collected together, would 
form the materials and inhabitants of the largest cities of the world ; 
and in despite of the funeral piles consuming thousands of helpless 
widowH, and tho rolling ciira of Moloch crushing hundreds of wretch- 
es, and midnight orgies so abominable that ihey di'fy description, 
and a moral code so lux, that with regard to many particulars it can- 
not be distinguished from a hi^tful license, we told the world that 
tho Hindus were so religiouf, virtuous, and happy, that Ihey did not 
necil the gospel ; and, at another, in drspile of nil the naliveVh'irchrs, 
formed by the Nestorians of Syris, and the Danes nnd Germans in 
the south, that they were so firmly bound by the immovable chain of 
mate, and so deeply sunk in the ocenn of error, delusion, and vice, 
tiiat the gospel could not reach them. At one time, we maintained 
that Brahmans were so skilful philosophers, and transccndonl mcln- 
physicians, and acute mnsri^rs of logic, that tticy could defeat in nr. 
giiinent the very profi's^inrs of oiif univorKities; and iil .inollier time, 
Ilinl, inslrnd of mi'din;; a iiiiwioniiry on llic iirriia ofdi-irussloii Ihey 

1 V^nOC^IC 

110 BriHtk SoMreigntg h India. Jutr, 

would rnise up armies, and engagv our troopa in the field. At one 
time, we urged tliat iniMionaries would be ao indiiwreet and so regard- 
leaa of their own auccew in their work, that they would wantonly out- 
rage the prejudices of the nativea, and sacrifice thoir own lives in a 
needless storm of popular fury ; and at another) that thoy would pro. 
cced HO peaceably, and quietly, and sneakingly, and jesuitically, to 
work, that they would win the heart of the pop)ilation, and wield their 
influence against Ibe established government. At one time, we insisted 
that acieiKe must of necessity precede Christianity, and prepare the 
way for her progress ; and at another, that Christianity would precede 
science, and instead of viewing her as a handmaid, as she was wont 
to dOt would prove so illiberal that she would not even allow ber to fol- 
low in her train. At one time, we maintained that the eSact of edu- 
cation would be that of divorcing the affoctioiie of the instructed from 
Iheir teachers and their institutiona, and qualifying them for rousing 
the nation to a successful resistance of them ; snd, at another, that ila 
effect would be that of exhibiting the instructed as a privileged and 
favored class, who, instead of being respected t>y their countrymen, 
and permitted to wietd over them an eflective influence, would excite 
their jealousy, and engender opposition, and even persecution. No 
theory, however abeurd, we left to be invented. No occurrence, how. 
ever undeninble, wa refrained from perverting. 

"Cyrus set apart a large portion of the revenues of his stale for 
the support of true religion among the Jews. After a great deal of 
discussion, our perl ament voted a single libh of rupees, a sum bear- 
ing no proportion to our income, to be given as a donation for the 
promotion of^neral education amongst the many millions of our sub> 
jecis, who minister to our comfort and affluence. We, the represen- 
tatives of the British nation in Indis, instead of applying this grant 
wholly to the difiiuion of a knowledge of the literature ana science of 
the west, as, we must suppose, was intended employed most of it in 
tne support of colleges for teaching pensioned students the elements 
of the "sicred," and not neglected, Sanskrit and Arabic Innguaj^es, 
and inculcating through them the immoral precepts of the Vedas and 
Fur&nHs, the nphorisuts of dresmy and obsolete legislators, and the 
prescriptions of qunck-doclors, and sjchemisla, who died in the ardent 
March for the philosopher's stone ; or in printing oriental books to fill 
the shelves of a learned and curinuii, but illiberal and unphilanthro- 
pic, confederacy of English and French antiquarians. It is only 
within these few months, that this misappropriation has to any extent 
been testifiiid against, and it 19 only within these few weeks that 
Bleps have b(«n lakon to restrict and ullimalety to suppress it. 

"It is in a spirit of heaviness, my brethren, and with a view to 
nssocislo nur rcgrelx and complaints with regard to the past, with 
imr vJgnrouH elfortH to amend our ways and to redeem the time 
which in In come, and not to indulge a spirit of vain censorioiisnes*, 
Ihnt I have sttiided to these tnnlancholy circumntanens. While I 
nflljct my soul in the rpmenbrnnce of Ihem. 1 bless God (hat a bright- 
or dny has now lipgan to dawn upon this land, even the day of its 

maa. Brituk Soeerrignlg m latHa. 117 

mrrriru) v»i(nlion. It in n mnlter of sincero mngnitulalion, thnt 
with tlie bleMinj; of God upon the enlifihtened snd Christian &jvoc«> 
cy of our Grantfl, and Buchanans, and WillierrorcoB, and the BU|>plica. 
tion of thousands of our countrymen at home, a Christisn ministry 
connidcmblR, though Htill inadequate, has been provided'for the sons 
of England and Scotland here eojourniog. Our religioDf though far 
froiu being SO prominent as it ought to be, is now a matter of public 
oheervution by our numerous heathen neighbws, and «a far at the 
number of its profeaaore is concerned, is undoubtedly on the increaHe. 
At almost every station, there are some true disciples of Jesus, who 
adorn his gospel by their life and conversation, and who devote them- 
selves to works of Cliristiaa philanthrophy. The order has been 
ixsuod from the authorities at home, and has already been partially 
carried into effect, «Thnl in all matters relating to their temples, 
their worship, their festivals, their religious practices, and their cere- 
monial (ibscrvances, our native subjects be lefi entirely to themselves." 
Some of their most unnatural and horrid riles, as that of Sail, have 
Imen abolished by law i and measures are in operation, which, it ia 
lo be ho])ed, will end in the complete supprenioD of infanticide, (bat 
crime which is ecarcely equaled in the black catalogue of human 
guilt. The Euphrates, the source of proteclion and supply to the 
Bibylon of Indin, so long fed by misRpplied etidowmenl, and guard- 
od by perverted authority, and mconsiderafe custom, is drying up j 
and the way is preparing for the kings qf the enat, the ajipoiDted 
instrumcniB of lis deatruction, to mike the assault upon it. None who 
come to seek the welfare of India, are denied the right of residing 
anv where within its extensive boundaries. The fullest liberty of 
K|)eecb and of writing, is now granted to the missionary of the cross. 
He may lift up his voice and proclHim a Saviour's love and pardon, 
ing mercy, and glorifying grace lo tisteoing multitudes from the 
mountains of Himalaya on tlie north, to the cape of Comnrin on the 
aouth, none daring lo make him afraid; and, as long as he confines 
himself to legltimale argument, he may expose every system of error 
and of Bup!:rstiiion, prevalent in the land ; and he may freely dis- 
tribute the Word of life, so that the various tribes may read in their 
own tongues Ihe wonderful works of God. He may open thousands 
of Bclioob, and have them speedily filled to overflowing, and unfold 
in them every doctrine, and inculcate everv precept revealed by 


Bdany of Cluna. 

AxT. V. Flora CochineiuneMu : »utau planiat in regno CocMn- 
ehina maaeeaiet. Quibui accediuU aixea obttrofOa in Siaauo 
imperto, Ae. 

A FJora ot CochJnchini, eonuinins deseriptioni of the pluils growing in 
llie kiiifiilorn at Cochliichlna. to which am mddcd olbcra olwBrved In [he 
empire of Ciiini. the eiat ci»it af Africi, and in Tmrinm pimcn In India; 
arranguil (cording to UiQ Rixuil ajalem of Linnaua ; being the work of 
Jihn dc LAuruiro, fullnw uf tho Riifal Acadi'm; of Scicnos* in Lisbon, 
and formorty a proachir of the CathoUe failh in Cochlnehina, and there a 

rmfuiuor of mithnmatlca and phjaic in the royal paJacea. Printed in Ijabon, 
790.3 volumes 4ta, jiji 744. 

The botans of the Chinese empire id & subject to which we have 
drawn the attention of our readers od a furmer occasion, when we 
|>ri?iientc(] a paper written by Dr. Livingston of the East India coin|)a- 
ny'd medical nervice; io which he exhibited some parts of the un- 
explored Held there is in China for tho examination of the student of 
nature, and the facilities enjoyed at Canton for purchasing native 
plants of the Chinese finriata. Reference has also been made to the 
suhji^t in other pages of the Repository. It will, however, need no 
Ithored argument (o show conclusively that the botany of China, and 
indeed, all the other dopartnionls of its natural history, can be dis- 
coursed upon most learnedly, while little or no real progress is made 
in elucidating and applying them to the arts of life. Any one who 
will take the trouble to examine what has already been said on this 
piibjecl, will be convinced that the confined situation of foreigners 
precludes nearly every attempt to make new acquisitions j and by 
xhiilling us up as the Chinese do, they shut out from themselves 
all the advantages which might arise from the scientific applica- 
tion of the mineral and vegetable treasures this great empire con- 
tains, tu the purposes of common life. And id botany especially is 
clcso and repeated observation indispensable before certainty can be 
ntlaincd, and conclusions drawn that can be relied upon. As well 
might a man who had never moved beyond tho precincts of Madrid, 
undertake to describe the plants of France from drawings and des- 
criptions, as that persona should write upon the vegetable productions 
nf China from what can be gleaned out of foreign authors. We 
know the existence of the varnish tree, the cotton tree, the tallow 
tree, the ten shrub, and many others, and that important products arc 
(iliinincd from them, and so did Matthew Ricci ; and we now cannot 
boast of much gri^ater knowledge than he and his companions had 
tlicn ohiained. To this day, it is n matter of dispute whether tho 
green and hiack lea are species or varieties, although the leaf has 
been ail article of commerce ever since tho ninth century. During 
the long time that foreigners have traded to this port, there has been 
a succession of travelers and naluralisls. likn Osbeck, Torecn, Abel, 
and others, who hiive examined the plants growing about Canton 
and JH.icon, with a giiod degree of minuleiir%i, much more so than in 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

IBSfl. Botany of China. 119 

a great mnny other i>nrlf) of Asia. The rest of tlio empire, together 
with Japan, Ciimu, tmd the isles adjacent, are Btill njien (shut rather,) 
lo Ihc invBBtigatiun of whoever Las the hardihood of a Tuurnefurt 
and the zeal o: a Pursh, And zoology, minerali^, and geology are 
also in ihe same case ; juit as inviting and just aa unknown. 

But if the works of nature in China are ahut out from our gaze, wo 
can look into the books of the Cliini^sc, and ascoHain if they have 
atuilied the handv works of God to any purjMwe. Their medical and 
botanical treatises are numerous and votuminoiia indeed, and wo 
might resHonably iiromiae ourxelvea a reward in reading ihem, by 
aacertaining their modes of applying the resources of the land (d heul 
discosT, and administer relief to the sick. Judging from the mullitud<j 
of doctors and herb-sellera seen at the comer of the eireets of this citv, 
we might infer that the Chineae posscsscid great facilities of curing 
at least w).at ills their Beeh is heir to. The Higns of the npothecaricj 
also corroborate this notion. But ala", on examination it will !>« ax. 
eertained that very little science can be found in their best books 
on materia medics; and their practice is not yet |)erreef, we have 
ocular demonstration. The practice of the Chinese is founded on 
the pulse, and by a long observation of the effects of certain mcdi. 
cinea on the system as indicated by the pulse, a man will acqitiro 
Bome experimental knowledge of the necessary remedies. But for 
the moat part, the medical practice among thie people deserves no 
belter name than impudent quackery. Some get a reputation by a 
few fortunate curet, and trumpet them far and wide, loBving all thit 
failures occasioned by their ignomnce to die in obscurity : a mode 
of procedure not unlike what may be seen in some western coun< 
tries, in their nostrums and medicamentums. Little defiendcnce can 
be placed on what the Chinese now know of the art of healing ; 
a new era must be introduced by foreignera ; the well established ey!<. 
tems of pharmacology known in the west must supersede the Pun 
Tsaou ; and the dogmas of Shinnung, and the modern quacks must 
be exchanged for the demonstrations of the Hunters and the Coopers. 

We are losing eight, however, of our present ohjecl ; which is not 
lo give a sketch of the state of medicine among the Chinese, not to 
dilate upon the blessings accruing to them from the intrediiction of 
a better practice, nor to (ill up pages in treating of the bolnniciil (rcn- 
sures of China as described in glowing terms by the Abb* Grcsicr 
and Du Haldc, hut simply to give some account of the work which 
stands at the head of this articlu. 

This is the production of John de Loureiro, a Portuguese, formerly 
missionary in Cochinchina. We haft not been able to nsccrtain 
any thing of his life, eneept wlial he says of himself in the prefuco 
lo his work, which was printed at the ex|)en9e of the Roynl Academy 
of Li^ihon, nnder LourPiro'a own superintendence ; and, as it juslty 
uhould be, is dedicated to that body. In his dedication, he observes 
thiit, for twenty years he had Ixien cndciivoring to get the liook print- 
ed before the Academy uitdertuuk it. Due rcs|)ect is paid to thoHC 
who had preceded him iu the study of Flora iu the uucxpluicd rcgiuna 

, V^nOC^IC 

120 BaloMf (f CUmo. July, 

of the Indian srchipehgo, and countries ndjacent, among whom 
Uarciaa' worL on the apKee, and Riim)>hiiu' Herbarium Amboniense 
afforded him miich aaaiBtaiice. Speaking or the Deglect thia acience 
«xperi<!nc«d, b« saye : *But I know net by what fata- it has ha|>puiwd, 
that onr predecwotSi to whom neither lalenln nor opportunity were 
wanting, ne^ecting (o follow the ezampla already aet them by 
(heir countrymen, have acarcaly mado an acquaintance with botani- 
cal science. From which cnuae great loaa has ariaeo, inasmuch 
as we have been in a manner deprived of valuuble treoaures contained 
in the vegetable kingdom, while other naliona have been deriving 
benefit from them. But this will not always continue, because op. 
portunily will ariiiret if the powers above favor, to change tho unto- 
ward into fortunate and proaperous circumstances.' After a proper 
portion of flattery is applied to thoae who needed it, Loureiro thus 
cluaes his inscription: 'It will not be in my power to contribute 
stones, metals, and man precious thingH towards tlie erection of the 
fabric (the tem|ile of science), yet I will not be entirely an idle and 
useless member. From my stores, aiich as they are, 1 offer you thia 
Flora of Cochincliina. Among its treasures you will find woixl fit fur 
the building, cobxs to adorn, food and medicines to recruit the labo- 
rers who apend their strength in the completion of tbe work, and 
devote it to the public good.' 

Out author then proceeds, in an address to the candid and stu. 
dious reader, to give aouie account of hia residence in Cochinchimi, 
tbe cause and manner of his collecting the materials for his Flora, 
with an eulosy on the svslem of Lion«ua. Speaking of his rtsidencc 
in thai kingdom, which, according to him, extends from 18* nf north 
latitude, compriuing Tsiampa and part of eastern Camboja, and 
stretches southwaros more than nine degrees to the gulf of Siani, he 
says: 'During the thirty-six years 1 resided in that country, I had 
time to examine into the mysteries of nature peculiar to those regions ; 
but, an leisure and aid were wanting, diligence and industry were 
Riy only assistants. I first went thither ns an evangelist and preacher, 
to announce to tht^m tbe common Creator of all, and the Saviur 
Jesus Christ. But when heathen siiptirstition o|)|>r>sed too hard, 
and tbe laws of the kingdom forbade Europeans setting foot there, 
this work was of service to me, as by it I obtained perraluion to 
remain, and to labor as la r as prudence, fortiude, and charily woidd 
allow; prudence, leM imbued with loo much zeal, 1 should seem 
oponly to despise the laws of the king, while at the same time by 
attending to those sciences, which were able to please him the more, 
I could secure his favor the more firmly : fortitude, by bearing in a 
fomign country all th'«e evils, which not unfrequently occur iu one's 
own : and charity, since by becoming all things In all men and by a 
disregard of private advantage and gain, I could relieve the want:* 
of others ; more especially by practicing the modical art, nccordinj; 
lo the diviue injunction, "heal the sick who nre in thiil place;" 
hence I distributed medicines gratia lo all who solicited me, both 
believers and infidels. Thus by tho lavor of tiud, and the popular 


1S3S. Sctmy of China. 121 

well ipproving, it was not difBcuU for roe to obtain p^rmiasion 
to remaiD in the country, nay the king even appointed me pro- 
feaMor of mathematica and medicine in bis own palace. But in 
tbia situation I was not at liberty tii promulgate the docirines of the 
gospel, ye(, by acting cautiously and secretly, these designa could 
be carried on. 

"Affairs being thus circumstaitcod, I was almost overwhelmed by 
the multitudes who came to mf , many or them desiring to be instruct- 
ed in tho myateriea of the Catholic religion, but Ihe grenlest numbet 
intreating to have their bodily maladies healed. For curing all these 
difierertt diseases, I was not able to obtain any necessary articles 
from Europe ; nor if 1 had been able, could I have paid for the 
same. Such being Ihe cose, I began to consider whether I could 
not substitute the materia medica indigenous to Cocbinchina, and by 
some mode make wiiat was in that country supply the place of the 
more precious things from Europe. This was the beginning and 
cnuse of my commencing the science of botany, 

■'On account of the want of teachers and nulhors my progren was 
slow. Neither from Dioscorides, nor his commentator Lagunai nor 
from Ray or Tourneforl, whose botanical works I had successively 
procured, could I obtain so much light, as to distinguish clearly 
the plants of India ; many of which, both genera and species, are in 
appearance very difierenl from those found in £iiTO|>e. At length, af- 
ter a wearisome delay, I obtained the works of the illuslriou^ Linnsus, 
which were sent to me by Tlinmss Riddel], the captain of an English 
ship, an excellent man, to whose kindness I owe much. From these 
volumes 1 oblained a knowledge of the doctrines and terminology of 
Linntcus ; and immediately I saw how much (his system excelled tho 
nlhers, and how greatly il aids the tyro when other props are wanting. 
The botanical gardens and the green houses of princes, which are 
found in Euro[ie, were much dtsired in Cuchinchina, tiiat I might 
compare those plants with these end thus easily know what difft^reirce 
existed between the two. The wild plants of Cochinchina, are nume- 
rous, and to seek them in the highesl mounlnins and extensive jun. 
glos was attended with much toil and oftentimes with danger. * * ♦ 

" Wherefore, the sj'stem of Linneus coni])rising smpte nialeriali, 
1 easily obtained sufiicient fur my medical use. I have canTulIy 
described the characters, properties, nnd liabiis of nil (liose plants 
whose qualities I knew either from Europeiin, Chinese, ur niitivo 
works; those which I judgod useless in the practice of medicine I 
at first discarded. But yet, since the number of these liiitcr daily 
increased, it occurred to me that il would not be useless lo collect and 
describe lliem as wull as the others; it would be increasing llio 
catali^ue of Lintiieui:!, and be useful in fitiiire, ahhough it might 
apiwar lost labor at prettent. ThenceforHurd I cullccled all indiscri. 
minately, and placed them in my coUcclion. • • • From these and 
many other plants, preserved by me and n;;iiin examined, is this 
Flora compiised ; nor ytt do I .suppowi it to be complete ; for many 
liaving to be sotight for in remote forests, atid, though growing 

VOL. V. HO. III. Id 

1 V^nOC^IC 

123 Balang of Ckina. Jolt, 

sponttinenuBly and rarnly in Coohinchina, I couM not obtain, and 
Ibererore deem that but about the fourth part ot Ihe entire Flora 
is described. 

"During a three years' residence at Canton, I ezaroined many 
Chinese plants, which for money were brought to me by a Chinese 
rustic, for Europeans are not permitted to wander about the suburbs 
of the city. This native, not altogctber ignorant of Botany, was 
in Ihe habit of collecting beaulifut plants to sell for medicinal uses. 
He would also tell me the names in the local dialect of Canton , 
yet 1 do not place much confidence in them ; for when urged to 

give Ibe name, we may suppose that if the true one did not occur to 
iro he would substitute an arbitrary term, which is the practice of 
the Chinese lest they ahow their ignorance. But the names of thoao 
idants which are used in medicine or which serre for purposes of 
luxury are more correct, as they are generally taken from Chinese 
books, and expressed in the universal hinguage of China used by 
the learned throughout the empire. 

" When returning from China to Portugal, I was compelled to stop 
at the islnnd of Mozambique in eastern Africa, in about Ifi degrees 
of S. latitude, where Tot three months 1 had opportunity to prosecute 
my botanical studies, collecting and describing rare planta from Ihe 
iwighlioring continent of Africa. I have also got together a few others 
from different parts of India, where I have been; namely Carobnja, 
Tsiompa, Bengal, Malabar, Sumatra, and elsewhere, some of which I 
have inserted in their prnpei places in the Flora." 

Such were tbe advantages which were enjoved by Loureiro, during 
his long residence in the east, for collecting the fDaterials of his work. 
Be has described and named one hundred and eighty-four new gene- 
ra and more than three hundred new species. In his very full des- 
cription of the plants, he has inserted their height and appearance ; 
the uses lo which they can be applied, and what parts are employed ; 
their mrdrcal virtues, as he himself ascerlnined, and as used by tho 
natives of Ihe country ; tbe mode in which they are cultivated ; and 
anv other circumstaDcea he thought important. The nimes of the most 
common plants are given in the Cnchinchinese and Chinese Innguagep, 
and a few in the Malay. His Flora contains, however, only a small 
part of what there is in these countries to reward exaniination and 
industry. The field is too large for one or even a few to inveatigale, 
too interesting to be neglected longer, and loo promising lo suppose 
it will remain long unexplored. We hope the industry of Loureiro 
and others who have succeeded him in these pursuits will find imi- 
tators, till all the productirns of Ihe Chinese empire are sa well 
known as those of any pn rt of Etirope. 

M. Diard, a French naturalist, haa apent some years in Cocliincbi. 
na, where we believe he ie still residing: and if, as be hoped, he 
bes been permitted lo visit difff^rent parts of the country, we may 
reasonably look fur vuluable results from his labors. 


lUlalimu tif Britain with China. 

AST. VI. Sdatioiu of Great Britain aith China : poticy hitherto 
pitrxMd, with MiiggettiiHU retpeeling future mMturta; eate afihe 
bark Trfmghtoit. 

CoNTiNCKD u we ara (hat, if the gavernimnl and peopl« of Great 
BritaiD were fully informed both of the policy hitherto maintained by 
their representalivea in this country, and the footing on which the 
"Hungmuou" here Hand, they would iiamedtately adopt nieaaures 
lo improve the relations between the two nations, we welcome every 
new publication fitted lo aHbrd the desired information. Such u work 
Ills just fallen into our hands : it is emitted, 'Address fo the people 
of Great Brila■l^ explanatory of our commercial relatioiw with the 
empire of Chlnat and of the courw of policy by which it may be ren. 
dered an almoat unboundod field for British coiDnwrce.' It was writ- 
ten ■ by a Viritor to China,' and published in London early this 
year. Before commencing the Address, the reader is advertised, 
"that this attempt to throw light on a subject which has been much 
misrepresented, and is but little understood by the public at large, 
ia from Ihe pen of a gentleman who visited China for purpoeea 
entirely unconnected with commerce ; and who, with Ihe advantage 
of personal obaervation, may reasonably be supposed to have formed 
a mure impartial and dispaavionale judgment, than could have been 
arrived at by one writing under Ihe smart of the injuries which ho 
portrays." Our local readers will have no difficulty in identifying Ihe 
writer of the Address with the leader of two expeditions undertaken 
during the last year, to gain information respecting the cultivation of 
lea in (he provinco of Puhkeen. We wish he had put his own name 
to Ihe pamphlet, and that it were generally known tu these who read 
it, that he availed himself uf the most authentic sources of inforinatioD 
extant. It nwy alao be remarked, that for many years he has reeid. 
ed in India, a part of the lime engaged in commerce, and a pan 
emoloyed by the government. 

Nowhere have we seen so great a number of facta, in so small 
a compass, (one huodred and twenty octavo pages,) all tending to 
elucidate former intercourse with China, as are thrown togelhcr in the 
pamphlet before us. To those who wish for information on this 
subject, we recommend ils perusal. If those who 'visit' Chins, or 
who return to the west after a long ■ residence' here, will only in a 
plain and lucid manner tell the truth, and nothing but the truth, al. 
though it be nol the whole Irulh, they will merit the praise of their 
•>wn and future generations. But while we would encourage author- 
ship, by thcwe who are competent, we would never by any means 
countenance (hose who are not so. Several proHuclions, some great 
some small, designed lo 'throw light on Chios,' have come forth to Ihe 
world within tbe last (wo or three ysurs, which were more lit for the 

1 V^nOC^IC 

124 KetotoM of Brilam with ChtMt. Jntr, 

flames than the presp. The only fault which we find with the author 
of the Addren is, that he has not generally given bis resdera any 
reference* to the sources fmm whence he derived hin fads. So tar 
US we know, however, except on a few minor poinbi, the work is 
Ibroughout perfectly correct; aud in some instances the reality of 
what has Aeen and u here, in portrayed more faithfully than in any 
other book that ever came to our notice. For inatance, speaking 
of the slate of socieiy, he says; 

"Then u in China ererj gndilion uf iKKietj that ia met with in Eorapc; 

and, Ihougli Iheni »r« certain priTilepn eioiudirelj pertaining t- "— 

*■ '- • ■' ■ - ' - ot go- 

I of the Imperial fimil; and the faDCtionarie* of f^Temmenl, wsallh i* 
diitribnted abo ahiong the priTate gnnliy. aa well aa anwnit a veiy numenHW 
and enlerpriiinE mereanlile rmnmaDity ; nor an Uw manafaelnrera and arti- 
■ana denied the reward of iogenuilj and induatrj. Monej. indeed, i> not 
Often in China withdrawn imm eireulatwn for the paipow of being houded ; 
in fael, the habiu of the Chineae are not parainvinioua. 'Ptongh tlie moat 
acliTolj iiidualnoua rmoe nf beinga in the world, they aie aenaaal and luau- 
riooa. Unlike the prieat-ridden Hiiida, the aon of Han pafa [com pant ively] 
but few Uiea In the goda, Birlha. ntarriaKea, and fonerala, are in Ihia coun 
Ir; indeed, aa eltewhcra, midn occaaiana nf expense, bat it ia onlj at the 
death of I parent, when the properly of the deeeaaed fnmiahca the meana, 
llial inatituUona of a religiom character ate attended with any ver; cottH- 
ilerable coat. Official rapacity rendcra the accnmalaliun ot wealth a dan- 
Jterona oiperimcnL while lllial dutjp impmea on childiun tho charge of main- 
taining iheii parenta, and thua the Chineae are mora di«tlnguiahcd by inttiiiiIrT 
and enterprise in acquiring wealth, than hj parsimnnv in tno use of it. With 
thia grneial inclination lo apend. and meani of indulgence in the iunda of 
*o Diiinr meiobere of the communiy, there it ih> want of eoranureial activity 
in bringing from abroad auch objecla ot luxury as their own coanlry rannot 
Hupply. Mercantile ipecutaUon, indeed, accords well with the ganihling di«- 
posiiion yr.iy generally prevalent among thii penple. Tlie ftctont of Ihe Esat 
India company, writing to their employeta in the yfear 1633, inr->rni <hem in 
the qoaint style of the day, that, ■■ concerning (he liade of China, tbrne thinga 
are especially made known unto the world. The one ia the abundaneo of 
Irado it affirdeth. The aocond is, that they admit no strangers into t]:eir 
country. The third is, that trade is at life unto the vulgar, nhich, in reniote 
parts, they will seek and acconiniodate with haianl of all ther have." The 
Interesting and iiutractive narratives of Lindsay and Gotilsff prove, that, 
■rter the lapru of two hundred year*, thoae thret tliingttn, at tlie pietent 
hour, as strikingly chanioleristic of the nation aa they ctbt were.' 

With equal accuracy he remarks that, "neither the East India 
Com|)an)', nor any other merchants, have been permitted, correctly 
speking, to trade with China. Their dealings hnve been conducted 
with about a dozen individuals, whose residencp, indeed, is in this 
country, but who ought lo be considered rai!:er in the light nf slaves 
to the officers of Ihe local government, Ihnn. as merchants. Tlie 
rx|M'rirn.,nl cnnnol be reganled as fairly mnde, till the trader cnn 
legitimnlcly pnrsiK^ llif nntunil lilierty of trjifficking where, wilh whom, 
nnd in what objecis nf ciimmerce, mny Ix'nt suit his interest; secure 
from nil molestation so long as he olfpnds against no mtionnl law of 
tho country, and sure of redress should wrong he offered (o him." 
Further, aficr showing that isolation from all the world, the antisocial 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1836. IMathiu of Britam mth CMna. I2S 

system as refiards other nalionx, so far from being n rundnmental prin- 
ciple of Chineae political ethics, is, on the contrary, at direct variance 
with the aritlen authorities on which their political creed is avowedly 
founded, the Viailor thus proceeds, — 

'< The contrar; dnclrine, which nonld excludo the Chiiwae from the locietj 
of natinns, would direst tbem of t\\ clKim* to Itie prolrction of international 
law. Vsrioiuly drstribuU^d u are the gift* nf nature over the UTenl rpgiom 
of the earth, it is on); by the interchaoKe of commoditiei that the inhabiisntii 
of each pOrlioD can spvrratly liave their due ilure of the bounty prepared for 
■II who, by their industry, are enlith'd lo participate in the common stock. 
II' then there should be any g-overnmeut which ihoald, as China haa been 
■iippnied to do, capriciously set itself against the general good, in opposition 
tn the denires of its own aubjecls an well ai the demands of its neighbors, it 
cm have but little claim to their consideration and forbearance, ll must be 
re^'<")<'<'i Tuoof/ hoc, as the cominon wrong of niankind, and aa iuch be com- 
ppTled tn abandon a position so hnitile lo the genera] intereita of tlie human 
nee. The practical recngnilion of the contrary principle, as we have seen, 
in a fiiet which cannot for a moment be forgotten, should the stlpulationa we 
may propuae be objected lo, on the pretext of ancient euatom being opposed 
to their admission. In the fourteenth century, the provincen of Chekeang, 
KuhkeCn, and Kwangtung were appointed for the reception of foreign ahipi. 
Mercliants winliing to go to other porta were allowed lo do an, on giiing a 
bond to curry no prohibited articlpB. This also is a precedent which must 
not be lual sight of where antiquity stands for reaiion." 

Aflor ncciipying scvcml pttge.s with preliminary remarks, like three 
which we have quoled, our author lakes a retrospective view of Euro. 
]>ean inti^rcooriw with Chin.t from the arrival of the Portngueae in 
1517 down to the prfsent time. The Purtiigiieae erccloil forL-i, laid 
laxcs, levied dnlics, " ns if ihey iiarf been the sovereigns of the conn- 
try." The Dutch who followeiJ Ihcm, "loo closely imitnted the 
fixamplo." For a long liine the English found thcmaclves excluded 
from all the porta tif China. At length, however, captain Wcildell 
arrived in iho Chinese witters; nnd aflcr being grossly msulled by 
llie local authorities, dismanllotl the forts at the Uogiie, proceeded lo 
Canton, and obtained "a patent for Free trade." In 1689, the supercar- 
goRS at Amny were put in confinement; and not long after, one was 
chained in his own factory : heavy bribes were paid for their release. 
In 1702, the boppo of Centon bambooed a linguist, hecBusr; the super- 
cargoes of some ships refused (o lei a proclHination be pasted on their 
doors. About Ibis time, both at Amny and Canton, the foreign trade 
was granted hy the government af a monopoly to a single privileged 
merchant. At Chiisan also, fair promises were mnde, but they were 
never kept, and the su[>ercargoe9 were compelled by force lo receive 
goods for which they had not contracted. 

"In 1713, the Company's nhips coming to Canton took the prec«atioa of 
remaining near Macao till they had settled a Bpecilic aum for mcaaurige, 
presents, and fees. Tliey also stipulated for liberty lo trade with whom Ibej 
pleased, and to choose their own linguials and servants. They were pro- 
mised exemption from all new cnBloms and inipositinns ; and had granted to 
tlifnt the sole right of punishing their own people if disorderly. It was also 
a/n-ed llinl llteir biiatii sli.iuld not lie stop|H?d at the cusloin-houwa, and that 

1 V^nOC^IC 

126 Rp/ofiofu of Britain wilA Ckiaa. Julv, 

t>wy •hould be protreled from all imolU uid imptwitionBon the |wrlof the 
ntlivp*. 9uch were Ihe conditions on which we ■greed to give the Chlnew 
the benefit of our coinmeree, when it firil asBumed a regular rorm ; and IhoM 
■llpiilatroni were for lome years required and acceded to on the arriv*! of 
each fleet, ft ii, therefore, a miBapprehenaion of the real caae, and one 
which may to lotae feem an error of great importanee, to aMUme that the 
trade waa aoDght only on one aide. The lacU we have italed ahow that the 
deiire wu mutual, and the conditions reciprocal ; and the whole iabaequenl 
hiatnr; of oar connexion willi China ii compatible only with Ihia Tir« of the 
cane. It i* true that thote covenant* were. In the first instance, entered into 
with only iubordinale oHicera without legal authority; bat we ahall soon see 
tluit Ihey subsequently received the imperial sanction ; and tlie only defect 
in thri treaty of commerce arose from the inequality of the parties, — a despo- 
tic monarch being; the contractor on one side, and the serTsnts of s company 
of inerchsnls, instead of their king, the parties on the other," 

Irrf!f!u1sr t^xftCtiana, or downright etlortione, Boon came thick on 
the trade. " The ^ear 1730 is memornble ns hnving given birth to thn 
fitat nssnciation in th» ihnpe of a cohonf;," which waa Formed under 
the auspices of the hopjKi. The ndmirni was said to be connected 
with the cohong. The aupercargona refused to enter Ihe port till this 
association was dissolved, and at the same time sought for the inter- 
ferencc of the governor. He listened to their request, and "the con- 
spiracy wsa thus defeated for a time," and the trnde resumed. But 
soon the extnrlions became so great that they reached the eara of the 
emjMror Yungching, "who in 1725 published the first tariff of duties, 
in the shape of a code, the strict observance of which waJ enjoined 
un the oHicera of all the custom-houses." The tariff, however, was 
iiltecly disregarded: ihis led to fresh efforls, on Ihe part of Ihe com- 
[lany, to renew the trade at Amoy and Chu«n ; but "heavy duties, 
arbitrary and haughty conduct towards the supercargoes, extortions 
and ruinous delays," were still the order of the day. 

" Had a proper representation of those abusei been conveyed to the em- 
peror, ihere can be little doubt that redress would have been obtained. The 
t'dict published st Amoy proved Ibst the cabinet of that time waa well dis- 
posed toward* Ihe prDiiiotion of foreign trade, and to the removal of any 
obstacles to Its prosecotion that were brought under tlieir cognizance. The 
difEcuity was to tind meant of communicating with the court on the subjecl 
of wrongs committed by the very partlei who were the regular channels for 
the Ifonamission of petitions. The ofljcers might perhaps have been driven 
by the complaints of Chinese subjects to bring the conduct of foreigner! 
before government, had violent resJsUnce been offered under which indivi- 
dual! hid inffered injury ; hut no one had courage to repeal the experiment 
made by the Ann, and those wronss remiinpd unknown to the government, 
and therefore paised nnpunlshed. It would appear, however, llint the super- 
cariroei at Canton had succeeded in drawing Ihe attention of the emperor to 
the recent ten per cent, duty, for it waa revoked in 1736 by an edict of Keen- 
lung, on the occaiion of his acoesalon, or rather his coroiiallon at the con- 
clusion of hii minority, 

"The governor of Canton, however took to himself the credit of Ihe 
revocation, for which he demanded an Aonomriiim of 30,000 Uels, > For 
whv,' xaid he, ' should courtiers serve the English for nothing ,= ' An advance 
of 6000 toels was made on bond to a merchant, on condition of hn obtitlning 
ia like manner, the revocatioa of an imperial order, that all ihipi should land 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1036. ttttutimu of Britain wUk Ckhut. 12T 

their arini md ■mmuoilioD. That Mder dtm not *pp^>r to hirr berti 
Mpealed, bul il w«» ne»er »flerw«rdi acted on. — 11 wm diicoTtred that the 
duty of leu per cent, bad been repirseuted to the emperoi In the Grsl ItnlnncB 
M ■ voluDlBff contrtbutlon rram Ihe EuropesD merchiJiti. Upon stlending, 
mCcoTdius to mrilalioQ, to hear the edict read, the sapeicarsoei were required 
to kne«l^ut thej untnimouily re*ist£d. No audieace of ihe govrrnor could, 
however, aAeiwu-ds tn oblftined without the ceremony of kneeJinf. Thn 
GnjIUh in one addrcM, preirnted through the governor, thaoked the emperor 
for hii favon ; uid in another nliciled the removal of other burdena on their 
trade, but uoancceaifally. The nteaaureinent duly and cumiht were ordered 
■till to be paid." 

The Aon, mentioned nbovp, wax a private ehip from Madras, (rad- 
iDg at Amoy in 1716 : Ihe ofticers of the port refusing to secure Ihe 
payment of her just demands (about fifteen thousand Inelf }, abo took 
postetsion of a junk worth eighty thousand. The einperoft aacertain. 
ing the facts of this esse, ordered the said otticera of the port to bo 
punished, and all their property-, nner the owners of the junk had 
been indemnified, to be confiscated. 

The year 1741 was rendered remarkable by the arrival of lord 
Anson, and the civilities which he extorted from the Chinese. Tlie 
anpercargoea tried to dissuade lord Anson from seeking an interview 
with the governor, " inHtienced probably by Ihe hong merchants, 
who were then as they still are, jealous lest there should be any other 
chanriel than themselves of communicating with the governnr." Abotjt 
this time, mirabile dictu, the hong merchants themselvrs suggested 
that, nsi in 1761, the em|>eror would be at Nanking to celebrate lh« 
'great birth-day ' of hia mother "some one should ho sent there, with 
presents, and a petition for a rcmisiion of the exaction of the 1950 
taels {eumtha per ship), and some others which pressed on them, 
selves M we)! as on Ihe supercargoes." 

The policy of the Court of the EaRt India Company, and that of 
thoao who managed their affairs here, is briefly sketched in (be fol- 
lowing |«ra graph. 

■*8o confident were the merchuiti of the ancceu that would attend Ihia 
■tep, and ao much did they teel intereited in the reaull, that they even voloa- 
teerad to bear the expenae of the journey and of the preaenta to Ihe emperor. 
Hr. Hiaenor, who waa at the lime chief of the factory, declined the proposal, 
ieat, he (aid, other nationi ihould reap the benefit of hii aucceas. It doea not 
appeal tliat the Court of Director* diamlated Mr. Miaenor with the ignominy 
aucb conduct merited ; perhapa it even accorded with their own viewa. Their 
Bupercargoea were directed, inatead of aeeking admiaaion to the emperor, to 
expend anch a aum on the apot aa they might aee fil, in endeavoring to obtain 

relief from exactiona. To an appeal to the •upreuie authority it would ap- 
pear ihey were averae ; and reiiatance to illegal extortioni waa a courae 
too violent to be aanctioned by their maatera at home. Bribery and corrup- 
tion having leai eclat than either of the other meani propoaed, appeared in. 
atrumenta better auited to the modeal character of a company of merehanta. 
The immorality probably never occurred to them, any more than the tC°*s 
■mpolioy of feeding the very monatei that waa preying on the vitala of their 
trade. It is acarcely poaaibte to imagine a line of conduct ao p>v eminently 
combining meaniieaa with folly. To aatialf to ila full extent the avarice of 
all the omceia of governoicut at Canton iu auccoaaiou from time to lime. 

, ijOOi^lc 

t28 RetalJont of Britain wHh China. Jvlt, 

would havF rFqaired > &r giviiter iicrliice thin the mciat proapet'oui commerce 
could hsve repaid. But e«ery thing that fell ihnrl of that measure of briber;, 
would ferte onlj to add (uel to the flame. Whether or how ly niper- 
cargoeji acted on the Court'i lag^ilion, does not appear. Certain it ii, that 
the nrongg they complained of, lo far-from being redreiscd, grew doll; more 

The conduct of Frederick Pigou, one of the Bujwrcargoes who sng. 
gcsted an enibnwy to Peking in 1761, is noliced by our Visitor in 
terms of approbnlian and comtnendatton ; and a curious fact alaled 
on his authority, aufficiently illustrative of the necessity of having an 
European interpreter for the Chinese language attached to any mis- 
sion to the court of Peking. " It is said Ihnt the king of Siam, in his 
triennial enibasay to Peking, styles himseir in his letter, brother to the 
emperor. His embassador is a Siamese, but is under the direction of 
the Chinese, who make a new letter for him, wherein the king is cnll- 
ed tributary to the em|>oror." It is remarkable that the same styln 
from the prince rpgent, afterwards George the Fourth, was objected 
to in lord Amherst's embainy, and an alleraiion acceded to: "one of 
the many acts of vacillation which contributed to the failure of tho 

The conduct of Iha Court of the E. I. company, in promoting tho 
acquisition of tho Chinese language, is truly honorable. As early aa 
1753, they sent out two young men to sliidy it here, at (heir ex|)onse. 
About this time, an attempt was mode by their direction to renev/ the 
trade to the north. With this view a mission was sent from Canton, 
and Mr. Flint, who planned the mode in which it was to be conduct, 
ed, was appointed secretary and linguist. Tho mission was favorably 
received both at Ningpo and Chusan ; and many fnir promises were 
made. But soon intrigues were set on foot by the aiithorilies of 
CHnlon ; " and 20,000 taels pnid by them and the hong merchnnts ti> 
officers about tho court at Peking," iirocurcd an eilii:t from tlie em- 
pcror, confining the trade in future to the single port of Canton. Tho 
narrative of the transactions which followed, we quote in the word of 
the Address. 

"Upon this, the governor of Ningjio iiiformed Mr. Flint, thnl he and the 
English merchiinia mii*t depart immedislply, for the; should nn longer have 
liberty to purchase gooda or even prnvisions, at thai place. The unravora- 
ble period of the monsoon was urged in vain, and Mr. Flint was forced to sea. 
Instead of besline to the southward, however, he bent his courie to the month 
of the Pihho, where, by means or bribes, he succeeded in getting a petition 
brought to the notice of the emperor, A grest officer, who had been general 
commandant of the city of Fuhchow Too, the provincial capital of Fah- 
keen, was, in consetjuence, directed to proceed to Canton, in company with 
Mr, Flint, lo inquire intii the existence of the abuses alleired in Uic petition. 
This commissioner, joined with some of the local functionaries, formed a court 
of inquiry on the conduct of the hoppn; and, finding that there were real 
grounds for the charges proferred against him, had htin dismissed ftnm nf- 
fice. Several impositions were taken oS; but the cnmsha ofl95n laels sn<l 
si.Y per cent, duties were confirmed. The emperor at the same time direct- 

1 the 

ould no 

longer be termed De 


: be dcMgnated aa Wca 

tern Oci 

;an ships. Mr. Flint 


IBSe. Relatioiu ef BrJtow iinU CAtM. 120 

Dfttartlly ^re t\tt to muob nneMineM in the brauli of Uie (oreroor and 
oth<r omcera of Cuiloo, who mw the duifer to which (bej would b« inoM- 
Miitljr axpowd, were » mul for emrrjinf oomplaiaU to Peking to bs left open- 
Ualbrtaiiatflj tfaej fonnd an opportmiitr oT prooorinr >l onoa tboir re- 
veofB fiiT the put, mud Mcaiit; for the nituTe. ItatwtUuUading tlw im- 
periml edict which realiicted Iha privilege of foreign conuneroe to a linjile 
port, Mr. Flint wu very imprudently again diipatched to Ninrpo. Hi* 
mianon &iled. A repreaentstian of hia ' oontumaoioua diacdmdienee waa made 
to the emperor, aod the gorernoi of Canton oUainad an order n>r hia pnniah* 
ntent. The following nairative, giTcn nearlj in the word* of Ur. Anber, 
ezbibila the dignified mode in whkh thta order waa annotuteed and 

"On the 6ll) December, 17G9, the gorernor deairrd to lee Ur. nint, who 
bad Rtnnied from hia miaaion. fbr the parpoae of eonununicatingto the aqper- 
cargoea the empeior'a toilerB relating to the oompanj'a afiua. Trhe auperear- 
goei deiired to accompany him Into the cit/, wiuob waa allowed. On arrir- 
ing ml tlie palace, the Jioag mercbanta propoaed that the au^roargoea abould 
enter one by one. It ia inrpriaing that thia did not eioile aome anapicion 
that injary waa intended. Thej merely aaid, thai aa it waa on the company's 
•ffiuri Mr. Flint waa snmmoned, tfaey muat all be pteaent. After aome altcr- 
eatioa it waa ao arranged. They were reeaiTed by an officer at the firat gate 
and proceedd on througli two oourta, with leeniiog complaiaanoe ftom Iha 
officera in wailing. On coming to Che gate of the inner court, tbeir aworda 
were taken from them, an uouaual proceediog, which ought to have been 
eonatrned into a lymptom of danger. They were then nurried on, were 
foroed into the presence of the goventor, and, under pretence of compelling 
them to pay homage after the Chioeie manner, were at laat thrown down. 
The governor, aeeing the anperoargoei leaolnte in their resiatance to thoee 
prostrations, ordered hii people to deaiat. He then deaited Mr. Flint to ad- 
vance, when he pointed to a paper which be aaJd wai the emperor'a edict for 
his banishment to Com Srmoa, near Macao, tot three years; at the expira- 
tion of which term, he waa to return to England, never more to let foot in 
China. It was at the aame time intimated to him that the man who had 
written the petition which Mr. Flinl delivered at TeBnUin, was to be beheaded 
that day, foi irtachamitly inaruTagiHg rueh a itep.! This addition to Itie story 
would be incredible elsewhere than in China ; but there can be no doubt of the 
ftet; and it has been boastingty adverted to •nbseqoent edicts, as inalanc- 
ing the great clemency with which the errora of forcignera are treated, com- 
pared with the measure of panishmenl awaided to those native* who are 
traitorously aiding and abetting in the tranigreatiou of the lawa." 

Tba seDtence of puQiahment was rigniouily executed on Mr. Flint, 
who was kept Id clom confinement until November 1702. In the 
meaD lime, the Court determined to send out a " special miseion," 
and captain Skottowe, of the company's stiip Royal George, wne choaen 
for that purpose. This gentleman was directed to maintain hia dignity 
and the honor of Great Britain by dropping the style of captain and 
calling himself ilfulcr ; and " by falsely represenliog himself as brother 
to his majesty's private secretary." See Anber's Chinn, p. 174. I^. 
Skottowe efiecled nothing. The supercargoes were directed by the 
Court at home, to pay constant attention to the cnhong and taka the 
utmost care not to give umbrage to the government. The local au- 
thorities were now in their glory. In a letter to his Britannic majesty, 
the governor and lieutenanl-gnvnrnor command the king to take Mr. 
Flint and keep biin in Bufe custody, aflirmin]; that all the foreigners 
VOL. V. NO. III. 17 

;. V^nOC^IC 

ISO TtelotHHU oj BriUm teitk Chtna. Jnu, 

of the skhI oalioD, dreocbed with the wavei of Imporial TftTDr, "ahauld 
leap for joy and turn upwarda to lu for civilization." So in kindoeai, 
when his maJMty'a frigate, the Argo, came up the riTer to refit, his 
exceUencT the •'Itamtodc," after four montba' time was wasted in 
threatening to drive the aapercargoea rcom the country and to bemboo 
the bong merchanta and send Ibem into baniahment, condescended to 
measure tbe king's ship! Such conrteay and kindoesi vere the natuml 
results of attentive obedience to the "mandarin merchants" and to 
the " grand hoppo." 

In 1771, the dissolution of the cohong was purchased "at the cost 
of 100,000 taek paid by a hong merohant on account of the eomfany, 
who made good the money." This was efiteted by the cuveraor^ 
edict of the ISth of February. In 1782, "tbe hong conredemcy" 
was renewed, litis was occaaioDed by an order fr«n the emperoti 
in cooeoquence of a demand made in person by captain Panton o£ 
hie majesty's frigate Sea-borse, on tbe " Isontock," for certain private 
debts due fVom the Chinese to British eubjects. Hence, by a tax 
on foreign commerce, originated tbe consoo fund. Iliat tax, though 
tbe causes which led to it have long since ceased, is still ngulariy 
(we ^uld say inwiJarly) impceed. Perhaps, if his ezcellaiicy 
Tang, our present ■> bonlock," were suitably bribed, in the conciliato- 
ry manner of lord Anson and captain Panton, the obnoxious tax for 
the consoo fund, and other like impoeilions, might be removed. Or 
perhaps, if Heu Nnelse, or some other Cbineee reformer, would only 
niRmoriahze the emperor, even the cohong might be again dissolved, 
and the old regulations of Kanghe, opening all the ports of the empire 
to foreign ships, be once more eetaUiebed. 

We forbear to reiterate tbe repeated instances of h(»nicide and 
"judicial murder," which are noticed by (be Visitor, Ihough in mora 
than one instance < the blood of innocent Englishmen ' stiH cries out 
for redress. The case of Scott in 17TS, and that of tbe gunner in 
1784, cannot soon be forgotten ; snd the like, we trust, will never 
again occur. His remarks also on man e ' fierce bait«rians,' supi^ied 
to foreignPiD generally, and on hungmaou jia, ' red-bristled men,' the 
common term used in Canton for Engli^men, we pass over without 
comment, though not without a wish that they should be dropped at 
once, and forever. Perhaps, we ooghl, en poHonf, to beg Mr. 
Anber's pardon for using his favorite but unsutboriaed term, Itonluek, 
instead df the correct one, itungluh, or governor. 

The last pnrt of the address is occupied with a view of sonn of the 
circumstances connected with the British embassios to Peking, and 
of some which have more recently transpired ; and is concluded in 
the fullowing terms. 

"Cominon juilic? cnn be graoWd withont tnjr lowering of rMpect, evrn 
though the claim should be made bj aa rnjoy with i.d army and fleet h hia 
e«cort ; nor even though the imperial cnurtierii ahould acreen the light of Imlh 
ft-am hia eyea till the arrival of the Britiah envoy extraordinary with a few 
thousand followers at Peking, will it then be too late for him to perceive faow 
groaaly he bai been deceived, and how worlhy Englishmen are of being 


1836. Jlebdtaiu of BtiUm with CKina. 181 

cberihed eTen u the people of China. It n poHible, indeed, that until the 
JDterpraler of the Briliih eniQjr ibaU be able to explain matten in peraon, thej 
ma; not be ftUlj developed to his miieel^'* aQblinw appreheniion ; but a 
iiogle audience eaoiiot to make all Uiiii(« clear u daj. Of eonne, till 
thejr are to, and have been made equally manifint to the whole empiie 
ttirmigh approved edicts publiibed in the Peking gaiette, and the conM- 
qoencei dedneible therefrom admitted under teal lod ■ignMnre, our envof 
with kia eacort miut be pncludftd from reBn^Muking." 

The Vuilor aubgoiiw to bis addran k ^ rough iketch " of the Mve- 
nl objecla which should be required by ui expedition to the court of 
Peking. We may advert to these on aome future occasion ; but have 
•pace left to u> now only briefly to state stnne additional facia respect, 
ing the Troughlon, captain JaiDca Thomson, from London. 

In our last volume, on pages 161, 248, 296, and 522, the a^nivated 
circumstances in which she was phindered are detailed, and need not 
be here repeated. The folbwing stateinent of the sum plundered, 
and of those which have been recovered and paid over by the govern- 
ment to the consignee, has been veiy kindly fumidied us for publica< 
tion : It differs slightly from some of ttoee given in our ftumer numbers. 
Ttital sum plundered from the barli, was . . . 971,211.77 

1st payment, made August 1685, was . 24,485, fiO 
2d payment made DeMmber 183S, was . 6,S04.0d 
8d payment, made May 1886, was . . . 1,938.03 
4tfa payment, made iune 1886, was . . . 1,120.00 

Deducted for inferior aua 29,00 

Discounted on Mexican dollus 028.B8 

Total sum, paid July 1836 93-^340.00 

Balance left unpaid 38,871.17 

Besides these sums, thete have been other (rifling returns, ns parts 
of B-sextant, with a poir of gold watches, dec. Several boats belong. 
ing to those who plundered the Troughton have been taken and sold. 
And it has been said, that some of the Chinese who rifled the pro- 
-lerty have been seized. But so far as we can ascertain, no one has 
leen put on trial ; nor is it probable that any further inquiries wilt 
be made on the subject by the local authorities, unless they are urged 
to do BO by some considerations which, under present circamstances^ 
are unavailable to those who must endure the loss. For our own part, 
we see no reason why the case ought not to be investigated : no rea- 
son indeed can we see, why this should not be done by British au- 
thorities ; or at least, none why they should not see that it is done by 
the Chinese. Were no revenue derived from this trade, British suh- 
jects would have the right to claim of their government protection for 
themselves and property, Mtllioiw of revenue now annually flow from 
this commerce into the British treasury: but where is the protection T 
In (he cohongi In the locnl authorities? 



Siiatiota of FVmce wUh China. 

Art. VII. IMalUMi of Ftrance mlh China : appoialmait of a Img't 

eonnd; retMnt of property for the benefit of the fritnd* of the 
Naeigatem't crew, vHh carrttpondentx mottce thereto. 
DvKins three centuries, sd intercourae bas boen maintained between 
the French and the inhabitants of the Chinese empire. In the early 
purt of this intercourse, the relations were of a mixed nature. " Mia- 
eionaries and mathematicians" were conspicuous ; perhaps, more 
conspicuous than the merchants, and were backed by royal Huthor- 
ity. In 10B5, Le Comte and five other Jesuits left France for China; 
they all came by the command of the king. Their successors, we 
believe, for more than a century, continued to enjoy the countenance 
and support of the French government. A succinct account of 
the intercourse between the two countries, in which the scientiSc, 
religious, commercial, and political charicter of the relatione should 
be clearly and faithfully delineated, would make a very valuable 
chapter in the history of the east ; and we would most readily givn 
ample space for such an article in the Repository. — Notice of the first 
arrival of the French in (his country, with some statements respecting 
their commerce and the loss of the Navigateur, have been given in 
former pages of our work. See volume 1, pp. 251,869 ; vol. 2, p. 294; 
vol. 4, p. 371. 

In the Canton Register for December 20th, 1832, (vol. 6 p. 140,) 
there is the fotl^wing record: "The flag of France — ofthe French 
people, of France in her emancipated stale — the tri-cdor, ia now 
flving in Canton, having been hoisted by Mr. Gernaerl, the French 
consul, in front of the French factory, on the 13lh instant, after an 
interval of about thirty years; during which time, none bnving been 
displayed, the flag.slafi' had been removed. We understand, that for 
the last throe years, ineffectual exertions had been made to obtain the 
consent ofthe government, or rather of the hong merchants, to the 
replacing of it ; and permission was ody at length granted, when it 
was found that prepsrations were already in progress for effecting 
what, it now appears, there was from the firat no reason for objecting 
to." As early as 1770, Mr. P. C. F. Vauquelin was appointed French 
consul in Cliina; and was installed the next year. The chief super- 
cargo of the French fHclory, Mr. J. B. Piron, was appointed agent 
for the French government in 1902, and on the 16ib of January of 
the fnllowing yoar hoisted the tricolored flag for a short time ; but ptiiir 
to 18'i9 (we have the best authority for muking this statement), on 
French kinji's consul wns ever fccognized by the litcal authorities of 
Canton, or by the court at Peking. We are not aware, moreover, that 
the French government has ever sent, or attempted lo send, any em- 
bassy to the "son of heaven;" because that government supposed, is 
we have been correctly informed, that no such miseioD could be 

1836. Jtiiatiau a/* France mik CIuiul IS8 

efleeled, except bv complying with conditiom which would ill-beccnne 
an independent kingdom. It is nid, however, that Bome preMnls 
from Louis XIV found their wny by means of the Jouita to the fool 
of Kaoghe'i throne, and were gmciously received by hw nnjesly : 
some, doubtleaa, must have lieen aent to France in return ; of which, 
if BO, we have no information. 

Monsieur B. Gernaerl received his commtMion here from his own 
govemment late in 1828; but at first the Chinese authorities refused 
to ttcognixn him as a king's officer. However, a train of events, were 
then in progress which soon induced them to change their policy, [d 
August of that year, the crew of the Navigaleur was massacred olf 
Macao ; and by the influence of the Portuguese government and of the 
repreaen la lives and gentlemen of other countries there, the case was 
immediately laid before the Chinese authorilies. On the 24th of Ja. 
nuary 1829, the perpetrators of that horrid deed were brought to trial 
in Canton ; and on the ROth of the same month, oeventeen of tbem 
■ufiered capital punishment, whiln lighter penalties awaited their less 
guilty associates.' The goods of the mulefactora were confiBCAted and 
■old ; and mme of the property of the Navigaleur's crew was re- 
covered, and likewise aold. In the mean lime, it became necessary 
for the French consul to address the Chinese authoritiea; but, as in 
the late case of the lamented Napier, all his cum mnnical ions were 
uncourteously thrown back upon him. At length, however, the 
governor — bis excellency the governor of the two wide provinces, his 
majeaty'a minister, a president of the Board of War — saw fit to 
change his course of procedure and to receive the coronmnications 
indue form. And this, it is believed, ' he presumed to do ' without 
any special perniiasion from the emperor : nor can it be supposed 
Ibat he needed any such, it being one of those minor points, which 
the general governmeut leaves to the management of its provincial 
officers. Aim to the present day, the king's consul, on all guvern. 
mental affiiira, is addressed by bia proper title as consul, not as tae- 
pan. The same is done also in alt communications to the Nether- 
lands consul This is truly "according to propriety and reason," 
thniigh quite in opposition to old custom. There in, however, one 
point in the case which is very characteristic of the Chinese : while 
the governor, hoppo, and others, receive communications from the 
king^ officer in due foim, they direct all their comniunications for 
him to the hong merchants, who always are strictly charged, "to 
enjoin the said orders on the consul." It is plain, therefore, that this 
recognition is partial, nnd by no means places the consul on the same 
footing with king's officers in other counlries. He simply regarded 
as the responsible head of his couolrymen in China, from whom the 
locnl authorilies are willing to receive petitions, and to whom they 
will iseue their orders. 

The narrative of the principal circumstances connected with the 
crew of the Navignleur is briefly as follows. Our vouchers for these 
facts are, first, ihe declnration of Ludovico [erroneously called 
Francisco] Mangiapan, as recorded in ttie Canton Register of April 

1 V^nOC^IC 

194 StialMu of Frmee wUA CMiia. Jult, 

IStti, 1829, and, secondly, CKineae official doeuments wtiicb hnve 
been very obligingly put into our hands by the French consul ; extracts 
from some of them hnve already been published in the Repository, 
but by far the greater part will be new lo our readers. 

IV NavigBteur left Bordeaux in May 1827, for Manila, tintler the 
commaDd ofcnptaiQ Saint Arroman. She renched Turon in Octo> 
ber ; and, in consequence of injury received at sea, was abandoned 
and sold to the Cochinchinese government. On the ISth of July 
1826, captain Arroman, having chartered a Chinese junk, sailed ftM' 
Macao. Twelve of bis crew and one passenger were with him. 
There was on board (he junk some cargo, belonging to them, consist, 
ing of wines, silks, clothes, &c., lo the number of about 400 packages, 
and treasure to the amount of three or four thousand dollars. On the 
4tb of August, at about 4 o'clock in the morning, while off Macao, 
fhe people of the junk rose on the French, only one of whom escaped, 
and by the help of a native boat succeeded in reaching the Praya 
Grande at day light. This Was the sailor, aboved nnme, Ludovico 
Mangiapan, on whose declaration the truth of these few fhcts chiefly 

According the Chinese offioial documents, the junk " Lewyuen. 
yung," was fitted out at the port of Amoy, for her voyage by Lew 
Tszeshing, Le E, and Woo Kwan, partners in trade, and natives of 
Tungn^n, one of the districts of Chinchew in the province of Fuh- 
keen. Two of the owners, Le E and WooKwan, with finy-two others 
lo assist in the management of the vessel, embarked together on the 
6th day, 2i moon, 8th year of Taoukwnng. On her return from 
Cochinchina, she had on board as passengers, besides capt. Arroman 
and his companions, thirteen native passengers who were returning 
to China. They left Turon on the 7th day, of the 6th moon. While 
on the voyage homewards, there was some disagreement about the 
management of the junk, which led to sharp altercation between the 
foreigners and Chinese. On the 23d day of the same moon, they 
arrived at the Grand Ladrnne, off Macao ; and twelve of the native 
passengers immediately went on shore. Ouring the following night 
Woo Kwan, who was in command of the junk, supposing there was 
much treasure on board belonging to the French, formed the plan of 
killing them, and taking poxsossion of it and their other effects. 
Twenty. two of the Chinese acceded to the plan ; thirty -one dissented ; 
among these was Le E, who, with three others, tried but in vain to 
dissuade their com|>anions from the sanguinary purpose. Tsae Kung. 
chaou, the other native passenger, being asleep, was not privy to 
the plot; and several of those who were, but who refused to join 
the murderers, hid themselves in the hold of the junk. At about the 
fourth watch of the night (2 o'clock a.m.), when all the barbarians 
were sound asleep, Woo Kwan and his associates commenced the 
execution of their work : four of them at the iirat onset, shrunk back 
and withdrew and hid themselves; while the others, nineteen in 
number, with Woo Kwan at tlioir hend, complclcd the m:i3sacre. 
One of their own party wiw killed ; and another severely wounded. 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

18 W. Bdationt of France wiK CUna. 19S 

Aa soon aa they had clnaTed the dend from the deck, they examined 
the goods and the money ; the latter amountnd tu thirty.three hun- 
dred dollars. Of thii, eighteen hundred were divided into seTenly-two 
sharee of 926 each; three of thnae were aasisaed to Woo Kwan j 
two to each of the seventeen, who aided him; andoneahare to each of 
the olhflTB ; except to Teae Kungchaou who refused to take any part of 
it. The ramaiader of the money, with the proceed! of the goods, to be 
sold at some of the ports in Keangnan and ChCkeang, were in due 
time to be divided. The murderers having thus aigre^ among Ihero- 
•elves, Bailed for FuhkeeD, where they arrived od the 29lh of the moon. 
There the junk waa wracked ; and both the crew and property were 

The measures which were adopted for the apprehension of tb« 
criiqinals and the recovery of the goods we need not give in detail. 
SuSice it to say : two became informers ; aii escaped ; and the others 
were seized, and, with Lew 'noeehing one of the ownera of the junkf 
and the two infomtera, were broaght to trial at the public hall of the 
hong merchants, before the chief local authorities. The sentence of 
the court we find recorded against forty-nine individuals as follows : 

I, Woo Kwan, to be cut to pieces, slow and ignominionsljr ; 
16; Lin Chochung and othmt, to be decapitated and theii heads enraaed ; 

3; Chin Yang and otbeis^ to be trunported to Tartar; for life ; 
39; Wang Ko and otheis, to be banished fkHn their native province for life ; 

Tbe foregoing statements are from an ofiicial paper, dated Taou> 
kwang, 9th year, 4th moon, 13th day, issued by La Hungpin, who 
waa then governor uf Canton. The execution of Woo Kwan and his 
associates has been noticed — all having suffered capital punishment 
except one who fell in the mnssacre on board the junk, and one who 
was not a|>prebended. The three, sentenced to be tmnsported to 
the northwestern frontiers of (he empire, were of those who at first 
acceded to the plot of Woo Kwan, but aOerwards abnink back : the 
other one who did m, waa not caught. Wang Ko and the others, 
sentenced to perpetual banishment from their native province, were 
thooe who to<^ no port in the moseacre, and who each received only 
one share, 925 of the booty. Le E, one of those to be banished three 
yertra, and who was one of the ownera of the junk and endeavored 
though in vain to dissuade Woo Kwan from his foul purpose, died in 
prison. It does not appear that Lew Tszeshing or Tsae Kungchaou 
were chargable with even a shadow of guilt. 

In addition to money and portions of the cargo which were delivered 
to the consul in 1829, together amounting to 94,620, it was staled to 
him officially, that 915,945, proceeds of the confiscated property, 
were then in the bands of the government of Fuhkeen, and should 
be paid to him for the benefit of the families of the murdered crew. 
How much properly was confiscated we do not know ; it waa suppoe. 
ed at that time, by competent judges in Canton, that the whole amount 
could not be less than 9150,OUO. It was well that a written pledge 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

186 StlalUiu of France mlk Chiaa. Johr, 

for Ibe payment of a( leut a pMrt of il| was aecured in due time ; 
otherwiae, there is reaaon to beliere, fair praraiaei would have been 
of DO avail. Claimsi in order to have any force on the Chineeei miut 
be "on record;" and theot unleaa Ibe time and mode of payment be 
"BO written in the bond," it will be difficult to obtain them. 

The nromiae for the payment of t1&,945 was fair, and Rurly "on 
record j'* but for six full years waa the fulGlmeut of the promiae de> 
layed. The correapondence which took place in the mean time ta 
curious. About once in two months, or ais times a year, during the 
whole m yeara, the French couul addreseed the government ; and 
aa often received fair pnunisea in reply ; one of which replies, aa a 
sample of the whole, we will put "on record." It ia dated, Canton, 
March 10th, 1834: Taoukwang, 14th year, 2d moon, lit day. The 
tnnslalion of it is as followa : 

ceived a document ftom the Kwangchow fbo. On openinfrit, I found that— 

On the 37th day of the 19U) moon in the 13th year of Taoukwuw [Feb. 

SthJ, he had received an official document ftaai the acting nganchlsBe of 

1, ahowed that — 
h moon in the 13th year of Taonkwsng (Jsn. 
3Sth], the nnnchirae had retteived an official docuoMmt fiom the goverooi 
of the two Kwaog pfovincea, i^oo. It wu as followa : 

On the 8th day of the 13th moon in the 13th year of Taoukwaar (Jan. 
17lh), 1 received a communication from the governor of FuhkSan and Cbfi- 
keiiiig proviocea, Ching, — aa followa: 

'On the 19th day oTthe 10th moon in the present year (Novembor 30th) 
I received the following comraunication from your excellency. 

" On the I4th day of the 9th moon in the 13th year of Taoukwang (Oct 
96th), the French consul, Oemaert, rending at Canton for the control of 
men and ehipe of hia nation trading to Cuiton, presented the following 
addreea;— [Hore follow* Hr. Gemaert's addre« of 36th Oct lB3aj 

" Having received it, I pve this public reply ■ — ' On examination of the 
document, b copy of which was encloaed, it appean that the effects as 
trbava atited brought uader confiscatioa, for repayment to the BuSerere* 
families, were at an early period sold off by the Fuhkeiiii gavemment, and 
the proceeds laid by, But they have not yet been forwarded. During the 
last winter, the nganchfisze having made inquiry, wrote to hasten the remit- 
tance. But Biill the remittance has not been made. Wait till another ex- 
prOM has been sent to urge the speedy remittance of the money. When it 
arrives, ordere will immediately be lasued to the hong merchanto, to b« 
eqjoined on the said consul.' Beaidea issuing this order, which was pasted 

ip publicly, 1 B 
lation of both 

also again send a flying communication, requesting yu 

ind the present; and requesting 
uwt joa will speedily take the aforesaid amount of confiscated money, 
and give strict ordere respecting it that with speed an officer be sent in Can- 
ton in charge of it, for the purpose of its beinf delivered for transmiaaion to 
the said country. Pray do not auQer further delay. I request aleo that you 
will favor me with an answer on which 1 may act 

'Thia having reached me (the governor of Fuhkeen, Slc.), on the receipt 
of it made investigation and tind, that aeveral communication have been re- 
ceived from your excellency's office urging the speedy remittance above 
aomed. Both the former acting goveruor Wei and myuelfhave, from time to 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1S36. ROationt of Fraiut mth China. 13? 

time, given directions to the agUKhisie of Fuhkegn, to nuJce choke speedily 
of sn officer of hia deputment to take chi^e of the aiid ibreign moner lud up 
afiiresBid, and cut; it to Canton province, to be delivered to the nid fo- 
reigner, that he may remit it to his countiy, for dinribution among the fomiliea 
of the aaSerera. Yet do report hu bean made, nor aiij requeat praaented for 
the mouejr to be remitted. The principle of (endemeaa to fbmi^nei* has 
been greatly lost ai^t of. Having dov received the above communication, 1 
have given to the poochingze and nganchioze the following diiectiona : < that 
titey unite in apeedil; selectiDg, according to the orden given, a trusty officer, 
and then make request for him to be sent to Canton in charge of the forel^ 
money laid up as aforosaid, for the purpooe of having it delivered to the aaid 
foraigner Gemaert, to be remitted to his country, fbr distribution among the 
famiCea of the auSeien : and that thia be done without any further delay.' 

'It ta besides incumbent on me that I reply to you, reijuwting your exa- 
minatioii hereoC' 

This coming before me [the governor of Canton), I unite the circum- 
stances, and hereby iaaue full directioOB to you the ngftochfiize, that at your 
immediate convenience you, in conjunction with the poochingsze, sive orders 
to the merchanta, U> eqjoiD orders on the said nation's consul, taat having 
knowledge thereof he may not expose. [The uganchiLaie adds,] 

This reaching me, (tlie luianchftsse of Caitfon] I, on the receipt of it, 
besides cranmmncatuig with the poochingsxe, do aJso unite the circumstances, 
and herebysoiddirectionaloyott the Ewangcbowfoo, that at your immediate 
canvenience you give orders to the hong merchants, to enjoin orders on the 
said nation's consul that he may have knowledge hereof. Oppose not. 

TliiH reaching the KwangCKow foo was transmitted by him, and having 
reached me the Nauhae been, I, on the receipt of it, forthwith imuo 
orders to the hong merchants. When this reaches them, let them at their 
immediate convenience enjoin ordeia on the said nation's coneul, that having 
knowledge hereof, he may act accordingly. Oppose not A special order, 

ARer the French consul had long persevered in this course, urg- 
ing one address close upon another, until they numbered scarcely 
lees than six times six, an answer came and money with it; but 
instead of the full sum SI5tEI45, not to mention the interest thereon 
which might be justly claimed, the money paid amounted Id only 
913,143.17, still leaving a balance of •2,801.63 in the hands of the 
government. To make up this deficit, long argumenls and minute 
statements of facts about the various mles of exchange, &c., &c., 
were lodged in the hand of the consul ; but they did not liquidate (lie 
debt, nor prevent a renewed address in behalf of the king's govern- 
ment. The demand had its desired effect; und, within a few dayN 
post, a renewed promise has been made lo Mr. Gernncrt, tlial the 
claim for the remainder Nhall be imniediutely laid before the govern, 
ment of Fuhkeen. 

In this case of the Navigateur there is a stmnge hiendinfr of 
justice with cruelty. We have here given only the fiiir side of the 
picture ; for a view of some of its dnrher shudcn, we refer our readere 
to one of the comrauuications of R. I., i>agc 371 In our lusil volume. 



Ait. Vin. Opium: memorUd to the emperor prvpoting to tegalue 
the uitportalion of it ; Mome of the probable remdlt of nieh a 
meature i tratuUition of the memorial. 
Thb official document of which we annex a Imnslation hu been a 
leading subject of conversation during the present month, among 
both the natives and the foreigaers resident in Canton. It is a 
representation to the emperor from Heu Naetae, an officer of one 
of the local courts of Peking, in reference to the trade in opiunit 
recommending its legalization on the ground of the impoesibility of 
stopping it. The claim of Heu Nastse to be heard on this subject 
rests on bis having been for some time commissioner of the salt 
agency in Canton, and for a short time, in 1834, acting judicial 
commissioner; in both which ofBces, as he himself states, he made it 
bis special duly to inquire particularly into every thing of importance 
respecting the province. We have Iwen informed, that, at the period 
when he was about to return to Peking, be addreesed a foreign mer- 
chant residing in Canton, through the medium of one of the bong 
merchants, making very minute inquiries respecting the trade car- 
ried on at Lintin. The docitment has been sent down by the empe- 
ror to the provincial government of Canton, with instructions to 
deliberate and report thereon. Their opinion will probably be in 
favor of the trade ; but it has not yet been given. 

'I'be points most worthy of notice in this document are, the spirit 
of change which pervades it, and the admissions made, that it would 
be wrong — nay, that it is impracticable — to cut olT the foreign trade, 
that Ibis branch of commerce is not unimportant as regards the 
revenue arising from it, and that it is the main, if not the sole, support 
of multitudes of the dwellers on the coasl. It is pleasing to observe 
at how low a rate some, at least, of the emperor's ministers are dispos- 
ed to hold > matters of mere empty dignity.' But we hardly expect- 
ed to find the 'paternal' Chinese government speaking with such 
contempt of its children, and approaching so nearly to the Malthusisn 
principle of popiiialion, that it is for the general good of a closely 
peopled country to have its numbers thinned by any means whatever. 

Unletia a counter- memorial should induce the emperor to set aside 
the recommendations of Heu Naetse, backed, as we think they are, 
by at least one cabinet minister (Yuen Yuen), ne may expect ere, 
many months have passed, to see opium legally imported. What may 
be the consequences it is impoaaible to foresi^e. As long as the rapa- 
cious spirit of the local government, in all its branches, continnes 
unreslraioed, it is likely (bat the legal importations will be but small ; 
that it will be found nearly as cheap to smuggle ai to import legally ; 
and since money, owing, to the unphilosophic notions of the Chinese 
respecting it, may be an article of clandestine exportation, even in a 
greater degree than it now is, it is likely that illegal traffic will, on 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

ISSe. ppMm. ISO 

the whole tnMnction, be found the cheaper of the twi>. Opium, 
we believei can now be landed in Canton ctandeatinely at the rate or 
930 a cheat, though this sum, we imagine, cannot cover the risk of 
detection. The propoaed duty of 5J taela per pecul will, with legal 
chaiges ttiereon alone, amount to about tlO, and it is not to be expect, 
ed that much less than the same aum will be expended ob the nume- 
roua officers and underlings who have hitherto been largely feed, 
together with others wbo will now for the first time begin to derive 
much profit therefrom. One result, it is hardly to be doubted, jiill 
speedily spring out of the legalization of the trade ; the veosela now 
resorting to the east coast of China will soon be increased, since the 
diflicultiea to be encountered by native purchasera will be confined 
to the risk attendant on landing the cargo : once on shore, it will 
GMse to be liable to seizure. And in this manner may we not expect 
to see the way paved for a speedy opening of the ports of this empire 
to foreign commerce 1 — We subjoin the memorial, and reply to it. 

Hbd Naxtbk, vice-president of the sacrificial court, presents the 
fcHowing memorial in regard to opium, to show that the more severe 
the interdicts against it are made, the more widely do the evils arising 
therefrom spread ; and that it is right urgently to request, that a 
change be made in the arraiwements respecting it ; to which end be 
earnestly inireats his sacred majesty to cast a glance hereon, and to 
issue secret orders for a faithful investigation of the subject. 

I would humbly represent that opium was originally ranked among 
medicines; its qualities are stimulant; it also checks excessive se- 
cretions ; and prevents the evil e&ects of noxious vapors. In the 
Materia Medica of Le Shecbin of the Ming dynasty, it is called Afoo. 
jpuig. When any one is long habituated to inhaling it, it becomes 
necessary to resort to it at regular intervals, and the habit of using it, 
being inveterate, is destructive of time, injurious to property, and yet 
dear to one even as life. Of those who use it to great excess, the 
breath becomes feeble, the body wasted, the face sallow, the teetli 
Mack : the individuals themselves clearly see the evil eSecta of it, 
yet cannot refrain from it. It is indeed indispensably necessary to 
enact severe prohibitions in order to eradicate so vile a practice. 

Ou inquiry I find that there are three kinds of opium : one is calted 
company s ; the outer covering of it is bkck, and hence it is also called 
• black earth ;' it comes from Bengal ; a second kind is called ' while- 
skin,' and comes from Bombay ; the third kind is called ' red skin,' 
and comes frome Madras. These are places which belong to England. 

In Keeotung's reign, as well as previously, opium was inserted in 
the tariff of Canton as medicine, subject to a duty of three taeb per 
hundred catties, with sn additional charge of two laels four mace and 
five candareens under the naihe of charge per package. Ailer this, U 
was prohibited. In the first year of Keaking, those found guilty of 
smoking opium were subject only to the punishment of the pillory and 
bamboo. Now they have, in the course of time, become liable to the 
severest penalties, transportation in various degrees, and death after 
tba ndinary continuance in prison. Yet the amokera of the drug 

1 V^nOC^IC 

140 Opitm. July, 

have increased in Humbert Bnd the practice has spread throughout 
almoat the whole erapira. la Keenlung'i and the previous reigns, 
when c^ium passed through the custom-house and peid a duty, it was 
given into the hands of the bong merchants in exchange for tea and 
other goods. But at the present time, (he prohibitions of government 
being most strict against it, none dare openly to exchange goods for 
it ; at] secretly purchase it with money. In the reign of Keaking there 
arrived, it may be, eome hundred chests annually. The number has 
now incivaaed to upwards of 20,000 chests, containing each a hun- 
dred catties. The ' black earth,' which is the best, aella for about 800 
dollars, foreign money, per chest ; the * white-akin,' which is next in 
quality, for about 600 dollars; and the last, or 'red-skin,' for about 
400 dollars. The total quantity sold during the year amounts in 
value to ten and some odd millions of dollars ; so that, in reckoning 
the dollar at seven mace, standard weight of silver, the annual waste 
of money somewhat exceeds ten millions of taels. Pwmerly, the 
barbarian merchants brought foreign money to China; which, being 
paid in exchange for goods, wss a source of pecuniary advantage to 
the people of all (he aea-board provinces. But latterly, the barbarian 
merchants have clandestinely sold opium for money ; which has ren- 
dered it unnecessary for them to import foreign silver. Thus foreign 
money has been going out of the country, while none comes into it. 

During two centuries, the government has now maintained peace, 
and by fostering the people, has greatly promoted the increase of 
wealth and opulence among them. With joy we witness the econo- 
mical rule of our august sovereign, an example to the whole empire. 
Right it is that yellow gold be common as the dual. 

Alwnys in times post, a lael of pure silver exchanged for nearly 
about 1000 coined cash, but of late years the same sum has borne the 
value only of 1200 or 1300 cash; thus the price of silver rises but does 
not full.' In the salt agency, the price of salt is paid in cash, while, 
the duties are paid in silver : now the salt merchants have all become 
involved, and the existing state of the salt trade in every province 
is abject in (he extreme. How is this occasioned but by the unnoticed 
oozing out of silverl If the easily exhaustible stores of the central 
spring go to fill up the wide and fathomless gulf of the outer seas, 
gradually pouring themselves out from day to day, and from month 
to month, we shall shortly be reduced to a elate of which I cannot 
bear to ^ak. 

Is it proposed entirely to cuf off the foreign trade, and thus to 
remove the root, to dam up the source, of the evil ? The celestial 
dynasty would not, indeed, hesitate to relinquish the few millions of 
duties arising therefrom. But oil the nations of the West have had a 
general market open to their ships for upwards of a thousand yean ; 
while the dealers in opium are English alone; it would be wrong, 
for the sake of cutting off the English trade, to cut off that of all the 
other nations. Besides the hundreds of thousands of people living on 
the Kea-coast depend wholly on trade for their livelihood ; and how nre 
Ihfty (o l>e disponed of? Moreover, the barbarian shipe, being on the 

1696. OpiM. 141 

high WHS, can repair to any lalsnd that may be niected m an entre- 
pAt, and the native aea-going venela caa meet them there ; it ia 
then imfKNBible to cut off the trade. Of late yesra, the foreign veaeels 
have vieited all the port* or Fuhkeeo, ChgkeisDg, Keangnan, Shan- 
tung, even to Teentaln aod Mantchourta, for the purpoae of aelling 
opium. And although at once expelled by the local authorities, yet 
it ia reported that quantity aold by ihem was not amall. Thua it 
appears thai, though Ibe commerce of Canton should be cut off, yet 
it will not be posnlile to prevent the clandestine introduction of mer* 

Is it wid, the daily increase of opium is owing to the negligence of 
offieers in enforcing the interdicts ? The lawa and enactments are the 
means which extortionate underlings and worthleas vagrants employ 
to benefit tbemaelves ; and the more complete the lawa are, the greater 
and more numerous are the bribes paid to the extortionate underlings, 
and the more subtil are the scbemea of such worthless vagrants. In 
the first year of Taoukwang, the governor of Kwangtung and Kwang- 
•e, Yuen Yuen, proceeded with all the rigor of the law against Ye 
H&ngahoo, bead of the opium oetablisbiiwnt then st Macao. The 
consequence was, that foreigners having no one with whom to place 
their opium, proceeded to Lintin to sell it. This place is within the 
precincts of the provincial government, and has a free communication 
by water on all sides. Here are coiMlantly anchored seven or eight 
large ships, in which the opium is kept, and which are therefore call- 
ed ' receiving ships.' At Canton there are brokers of the drug, who 
are called * melters.' Theae pay the price of the drug into the hands of 
tbe resident foreigners, who give them orden for the delivery of the 
opium from tbe receiving abipa. There are carrying boats plying up 
■and down the river ; and theae ace vulgarly called '/att-crab* ' and 
> tcramUiiig-dragoiu.' They are well.ermed with guns and other 
weapons, and are manned with some scores of desperadoes, who ply 
their oars as if they were wings to fly with. All the custom-houses 
and military poets which they pass are largely Ivibed. If they happen 
to encounter any of the arnied cniizing boats, they arc so auda- 
cious as to resist, and slaughter and carnage ensue. Tbe late gov. 
emor Loo, on one occasion, having directed the commodore Tain 
Yuchang to cooperate with Teen Poo, the district magistrate of 
HesDgsban, they captured Leang Heennet with a boat containing 
opium to tbe amount of 14,000 caltiea. Tbe number of men killed 
uid taken prisoners amounted to several scores. He likewise inflicted 
Ibe penalty of the laws on the criminala Ysoukow and Owkwan (both 
of tbem being brokers), and confiscated their property. This shows 
that ftiithfulness in ttie enforcement of the laws is not wanting ; and 
yet tbe practice cannot be checked. The droad of the laws is not so 
great on tbe part of the common people, as is the anxious desire of 
gain, which incites the to all maniter of crafty devices ; so that 
sometimes, indeed, the law is rendered wholly ineffective. 

There are also, both on the rivers and at sea, banditti, who, with 
e of acting under tbe ordera of the government, and of being 

1 V^nOC^IC 

142 OpUmt. Jiriv, 

senl In <«arch aftfT and pi^vent the BmiiggUng of opium, M«k oppor. 
Iiinilies for pluixlering. When I was lately placed in the service of 
your mujeaty as acting judicial commissioner at Canton, cases of 
this nature were vnry frequently reported. Out of these anwe a still 
greater number of coses, in which money was extorted for the ranaoni 
of plundered property. Thus a countless number of innocent people 
were involved in suffering. All these wide.spread evils have arisen 
since the interdicts againat opium were published. 

It will be found on examination that the smokers of opium are idle, 
lazy vagarants, having no uscfcl purpose before them, and are un- 
worthy of regnrd, or even contempt. And though there are smok. 
era to be found who have over-stepped the threshold of age, yet they do 
not attain to the long life of other men. But new births are daily in- 
creasing the population of the empire ; and (here it no cause to appre- 
hend a diminution therein ; while, on the other hand, we cannot adopt 
too great, or loo early, precautions against the annual waate which is 
taking place of the resources, the very substance of China. Now to 
close our ports against [all trade] will not answer ; and as the laws 
issued against opium are quite inoperative, the only method left is to 
revert to the former system, and to permit the barbarian merchant* 
to import opium paying duty thoreon as a medicine, and to require 
that, after having pa»od the custom-house, it shall be delivered to the 
hong merchants only in exchange for merchandise and no money 
be paid for it. The barbarians finding that the amount of duties to 
be paid on it, is les« than what is now spent in bribes, will also gladly 
comply therein. Foreign money should be placed on the same footing 
with sycee silver, and the exportation of it should be equally prohibit- 
ed. OHenders when caught should be punished by the entire destruc- 
tion of the opium they may have, and the confiscation of the money 
that may be found with them. 

With regard to officers, civil and military, and to the scholars and 
common soldiers, the first are called on to fultilt the duties of their rank 
and attend to the public good ; the others, to cultivate their talents and 
become fit for public usefulness. None of these, therefore, must bo 
|>eTmitled to contract a practice so bad, or to walk in a path which 
will lead only to the utter waste of their time and destruction of their 
property. If, however, the laws enacted against the practice be made 
too severe, the result will be mutuni connivance. It becomes my duty, 
then, to request that it be enacted, that any ofRcer, scholar, or soldier, 
found guilty of secretly fmohing opium, shall be immediately dismiss- 
ed from public employ, without being made liable to any other pe- 
nalty. In this way, lenity will become in faot severity towards them. 
And further, that, if any superior or general officer be found guilty of 
knowingly and wilfully conniving at the practice among his subor- 
dinates, such officer shall he subjected to a court of inquiry. Lastly, 
that no regard be paid to the purchase and use of opium on the part 
of the people generally. 

Does any suggest a doubt, that to remove the existing prohibitions 
will detract from the dignify of government ? I would ask, if he is 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

1836. OtniM. 143 

ignorant that the plensUTea of the table and of the nuptini cotich may 
also be indulged in (n (he injury of health T Nor are ihe invigorat. 
ing drugs foOUte aad toootow devoid of poisonuua qualtios : yet it 
baa never been beard that any one of these has been imordicted. 
Beaides, the removal or the probibitiona refers only to Ihe vulgar and 
common people, tbnse wbo bave no official (tuties to perform. So 
long BB the officers of government, the scbolarB, and the military are 
not* included, I see no detriment to Ihe dignity of government. And 
by aUowiDg the propoeed iinporlation and exchange of the drug for 
other commodities, more than ten millions of money will annually be 
prevented from flowing out of the central land. On which side then 
IS the gain, on which the loss 7 It is evident at a glance. But if we 
still idly look back and delay to retrace our Blepe, foutishly paying 
regard to a matter of mere empty dignity, I humbly apprehend that 
when eventually it it proved impossible to stop the importation of 
opiiuoi it will then be found that we bave waited too long, that the 
people are impoverished, and their wealth departed. Should we 
tl)em begin to turn round, we shall (ind that reform comes too late. 

Though but a aervant of no vnlue, I have hy your msjeaty's con. 
dsBcending favor been raised from a subordinate censorship to various 
official Btatione, both at court and in the provinces ; and filled on one 
occasion the chief judicial office in the region south of the great 
noUDtains (Kwangtung). Ten years spent in endeavors to make 
some return have produced no fruit ; and 1 find myself overwhelmed 
with shame and remorse. But with regard to the great advantages, 
or great evils, of any place where I have been, have never failed 
(o make particular inquiries. Seeing that the prohibitions now in 
force against opium serve but to increase the prevalence of the evil, 
and that there is none found to repreaent the facts directly to your 
majesty, and feeling assured that I em myself thoroughly acquainted 
with the real state of things, I dare no longer forbear to let them 
reach your majesty's ear. Prostrate I beg my august sovereign to 
give secret directions to the governor and lieut -governor of Kwang. 
tung, together with the superintendent of maritime customs, that they 
faithfully investigate the character of the above statements, and that, 
if they find them really correct, they speedily prepare a list of re. 
gulations adapted to a change in the system, and present the same for 
your taiyesty's final decision. Perchance this ntay be found atlequate 
to atop further oozing out of money, and to replenish the national 
resources. With inexpressible awe and trembling fear I reverently 
present this memorial and await your majesty's commands. 

The following document was received on the 2d of July, from the 
Grand Council of ministers at Peking, addressed ** to the governor of 
Ijeang Kwang, Tang, and the lieutenant .governor of Kwangtung, 
Ke, by whom it is to \ie enjoined also on the faoppo Wan." 

«0n the 29th of Ihe 4tb month (2th June 1636), the foUowing 
imperial edict was given to us. 

" 'Hen Naetse, vice-president of the sacrificial court, has presented 
a niemnrial in regard to opium, representing, that the more severe 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

144 Jmrtud of OccumHou 

Ihe interdicts against it are made, to much the more widely do the 
evils arising from it spread j and that of late yesra, the barbarians, 
not daring openly to give it in barter for other commodities, have 
been in the habit of selling it clandeatinely for moneyt thus occacion. 
ing an annuni Jobs to the country estimated at above ten millions of 
taels. He therefore reqiiests that a change be made in regard to it, 
again permitting it to be introduced and given in exchange for other 
commodities. Let TLng Tingching deliberate with his colleagues 
on the subject, and then report to its. Let a copy of the original me- 
morial be sent with this edict to T&ng Tingching and Ke Rung, who 
are to enjoin it also upon Win. Respect this.' 

" In obedience hereto, we, (he ministera of the Grand Council, 
(ransroit the enclosed." 

Art. IX. Jounud of Oecurrttieei. Imperial ermoyi : tnrarreefHM 
in Kmangie ; dtkurbaneei m lAe promnce of Sxechaeii ; norlA. 
toeriem Tartary; Keangmo. 
Thi imptrial nveyt, who reioh«d Ctntoa in Hay, have twjee taken Imve of 
the pnivinciti oflic«n and embarked in their boUs for Peking; and Iwioe tbaj 
have bren remanded b; the emperor lo iaveitifate new caaei. Thej ars now 
in Canton, ilataa yet, we are in poaieiaton of loo little informatioQ lo enable us 
to make any •atidaotory report respecting their inveitigatloni. 

InMurrecttim in KitaiigMt, It i« reported thai a dtipatcb haa jnit reached hit 
eieellenev Tang, gevernor of Leing, — the ' two wide ' provinsaa, Kwacg- 
langandKwan^,— the' wide^eait' and 'wide west'— reipeotiag iuurrection- 
Ktj movements in the latter province. 

Sitdtutn. Ttie diiturbancea, which have ftom time to lime been repotted in 
thii provinoe, have been generally auppoaed to be of* trivial nature, but from a 
document tncidentallj renrrlng to them it would teen that this is not the case. 
The diitarbineea have been chiefly occuioned by the wild tribei lying betireen 
thai province and Tibet, and extaoding ttam theaoe lonthwaidi between 
A' aim and Tunnan. The only data we nave lor judging of the character of 
theK diiturbaaeei ta tVom ■ atHtemenl contained in the document above men- 
tioned, that afl«r they had been aucceaaful in driving back the barbariani and 
burning their atrong holda, the fiaancial commitiioner (pooching tie) of Bse- 
ebuen drew up a list of 55 civil and 350 military officera deserving of rewards; 
and even after the governor hid reduced the number, there atitl remained on the 
llat preaenfed to the emperor, the name* ofitovs 30 civil and 200 n)>liUr; ofBcera. 
The doeamenl which containa theae itatempnla ia the reiutt ofan inquiry into 
tbe conduct of the financial commiaaioner, who hod been accuied of Ukiog 
the power into hia own hands, and nnduly influencing the actioni of the gorer- 
nor ; «f which charge he haa been acquitted. Two imperial eommisaionera have 
been dispatched into this province, .for what reaion we do not learn. 

^fOTtk-ioerltru T^rlsry. The ealimale of the military ezpencei of theae 
oolonie* for tbeyeiTlB37 i( 660,000 taeli. What the amount of elpencei on 
the eivil tiat ia, doe* not appear. 

KaAngtee The aalt worka in thi* province have been until lately under 
the direction of a diatinct governor, of ronkeqoal to « provincial lieut-governor. 
Having very much diminiihed in importance, the government of then was 
traniferred to the governor of the thrre province* Keingaoo, Nganhwuy, and 
Keiuigae. Under hia care they have increaoed in imjwrtance, and value, and 
hia excellency finding the truat a heavy one ha* requeated a return lo the fbrninr 
plan. Thia requeit however, hia inajeaty ha*, with high cnmmendalion* of the 
governor'* ohsracler, refuserd. — Taouiihoo ha* been at the head of tlie gnvcrii- 
inent many yean, and wan ia the courae of the laaL apiitig permilted loviaitthe 
Imperial court for a seairaii. 



Vol. v.— ArGPUT, 1836.— No. 4. 

Axr. 1. ZnrofMaii perhdietih bej/ond lAe Gmtgei : Frincf of TTalw* 
Uamd Gaietle; Malacca Okrertxr ; Ptrwdical Mitedltmjf; Sin- 
gapan Chronieie; Singapore Free Prtts; Chronica de Macao; 
MaeaMa IwipvcMd ; Ca^oit Begi^er; Canton Prett; and Chi- 
nete Repoiilory. 
Tbu » oertainly « goodly list of periodicals ; sod isofMidering tbs 
cireuoHlancei of tinw, place, tee., in which they haTa originatod, tbo 
amount ot infcinnatioa which they coHevtively embody, tbe inlereat 
of varioua kinda which m linked with thenH it ia easy to perceive bow 
tbey may. *nd pmbaUy will, exert no inconnderahle influence on the 
de^iniea of tbia eaeturn bemiaphere. The chief object we have in 
view in the preeent Brliole, is lo brinf( tfaiM several worlu more dis- 
tinctly to the notice of such of our rasdera as are not already familiar 
with thPiOi hoping thereby to increase their circulation and to procure 
for (hem tiie attention which thuy merit If the amount of original 
nwtter — new facts ia histoiT ; notices of new productions and diacov. 
eriea in the mineral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms ; records of new 
oocurreocM in the various brancbes of commerce and civil policy ; 
■arrativei respecting the manners habits, customs, laws, and lansuagea 
of new tribe* of men and of nations hitherto very imperfecta linowa 
bf the people of the civilized world ;— if the collected maaaof informa. 
tion, on these and kindred sulqects i» lo- have weight in determining 
tbe value of the literary productinna of this prolific age, our Ultregao- 
selic periodicals wiU not wiiht by eomparison with those of avy other 
port of (he world. On the conductors of these publications, great 
Ksponubilities are devdved. Like sentinels, they occupy imporlnnl 
n<Mts. They aland on high ground. On every aide wide fielda for 
observation ara spread out around them. The whole World of nature 
and all the handy works of the Almighty, are open to their inspection. 
VOL. V- ito. IV, 19 


146 £iiropeiut PeriodUaU bet/ond (lie Ctmga. Avs. 

But to portray faithfully the cbkntctcr of all thew^-delineate accu- 
rately the form and firaturefi, the actions and mental acquisitiona 
(if tribes thoroughly Mvage or only half-civilized ; to gain complete 
command of many and very difficult dialecle ; to trace out and eluci- 
date historical facia which transpired in times lo>ng gotie by; to 
deacribo the geographical boundanei of states and empires with all 
thair vnriFriea of climatr, soil, and products — hie labor, hoe opn* at. 

1'ite Prince of Wales' Island gazetle is, we believe, the first perio- 
dical in the Eiiglieh language, which the traveler eastward finds 
after passing the G^inges. We have been very anxious to obtain 
compleie files nf this paper; but have succeeded in getting onlv of 
volume third, Nos. 27 to bi, from July 4tti to December 26ih, 19»5. 
It ia a large quarto of four pages, with Ihrre columns on ench ; and 
is "printed and puUished by William Cox, Beach street," Pcnang. 
From ona of the numbera before ua, and from the Singapore 
Free Press, it appears that a newspaper, called the " Prince of Wales' 
Island Gazette," was first published ii) that settlement in 180S, and 
continued till August 1827, a period of twenty.two years; when thu 
government, 'from displeaimre at some remarks relative to the Sia- 
mese treaty,' withdrew it^ accustomed patronage, and tb6 proprietor, 
thinking he could not conduct the paper without that eupport, discon- 
tinued it. On the 22d of August, in the same year, appeared the firat 
number of the " Penang Register and Miscellnny.'* This was a 
weekly paper ; and, nccordinf^ to the Singapore Free Press, "was con- 
ducted with consid^rnble abilitv and industry. Ir entertained liberal 
riewR, and espoused popular interests ; although the editor appears 
to have, in some measure, advocated the wisdom of imposing thoao 
realrictions to which the Indian Press was then subjected. It 
was doomed, however, to an ephemeral existenee ; and in the month 
of September 1828 expired under the frowns end threateiMd penalties 
of authority, (tie editor having been bold enough to publish, on a se- 
parate slip, ctvliiin parographs of hia paper which the ceuwr had de^ 
tined to oblivion, ^eing thus brought to fi-el, and perhaps to acknov- 
ledge, the evil effects of a system which he had dorte something to 
«ncourage." On the 35th of October 1628, came out the first number 
of a new weekly publication, called the " Uoveronient Gazette, Prinoe 
of Wales' Island, Singapore and Malacca." It arose under the imme- 
diate pHtrona<:e of the government, and clossd its short career on the 
Sd of July, 1630, "when the guvernmnnt, which had brought it iuto 
life, wan Hbtdished." On the SOlh of July 1838, the first number of 
a second « Prince of Wales' Island Gazette," the oae now before us, 
made its Hp[)earance. 

Among iha tnpicd of local interest in those numbers of the Gazette 
which have rcnched us, piracies and temperance societies are coMpi- 
euous, In (he number for December 26th, there is ft prospectus of a, 
iu>ciety to be called "the Penang nnli-mendictty and friend-in.tieed 
Society," wherein it is proponed, that a committee be appointed to 
inquire into every case, and to relieve, in such a way as may seem 
lies), those who are- truly needy, and thereby break up the mendicant 

i:..T,r- b.V^-.00'^IC 

1936. EwoptM Periodicals begond Uie Gtugei. 147 

monop<Jy and give & right direclioa to the chariiiea of the benevolont. 
The number for Decnmber ISih, contains "A genvrnl Rrporl of the 
Roman Cmholic niiniunary labota at Prince of WuIm' Island, from 
IHiA to 183!)." li app^^nrs thnt within the Inst ten years, there have 
been no leas than seven hundred and fifiy-ntnc Chini^se concerted to 
the Rrjinieh faith, in Ptiuan^; and, siuce June 1830 about eighty 
iii6re at Baitu Kawan, a district in ProvincA Welleslry. I( appears 
also that a female Asylum and a Chineso college have been eatab- 
Itslied, and some efTorls made to send a mieaion to Pulo Nina. 'HiPse 
measures kre sanctioned and suslnined by the court of Rome and by 
a Society in France. The Report makes honorable nnentiou of " his 
excellency, the late Lord Bishop of Slum," whc paid Penang a pas- 
toral visit so far back us 1618; and of the Rev. Messrs. Bouch* and 
Biihet ! " the later gentleman is a great Requisition lo the Society from 
his knowledge of the Chinese language, hnving been a laborer in the 
Lord's vineyard in China for about five years. His arrival in Penang 
WU9 a fortunate circumstance, as it was very recently after the dcpar. 
turc of the Rev. Mr. Chl^stan in May ] 833, to join his brother laborer 
■he bishop of Corea, Who lef) Penang on his mission to that country 
in 1832." 

Tlie Malacca Obeerver and Chinese Chronicle commenced itn 
career in Biiplember 1636, and closed it in October 1829. "This 
wns very probably the first newspaper ever published in thai vene. 
Table colony." It was issued once a fortnight at the press atlached 
to the Anglo-Chinese college: the same press from which-was pub. 
lishcd the Indo-Chinese Gleaner. See our second volume, page 166. 
ThR conductors of the Observer took a very lively interest in th« 
education of the Chinese. In the number for April lOth, I6'.27, page 
lUih, we find the following pertinent remarks; 

learn to repent accuralely a book called the classic of three characters, so 
named because every three cbaractara fom a complete sentence. Aller he 
is aufficienily acquainted with the noDnd and forms of these chaTBctere, be 
proceeds to the Four Books which are coitipilationa of the aayinga of Confucins 
and Menciue. It is of so much importance in the aystem uat tlie sounds and 
Ibrnia should be well remembered before any attention is paid lo the senBC, 
that lenrners are compelled to repeal a book tiiree or four times through, be- 
fore they are tatighi its meaning. Some allowance ou^ht to be mode to this 
mode orproceedinfr,aince there is nothing in the form of the chanctertu indi- 
cate its sound, and it must be learnt entirely from the lips of another ; but still 
there is a great deal loo much bme sacrificed to aonod. Even where tlie un- 
derstanding and the judgment are allowed to operate, it ia very problematical 
whether any advantsga resulta fhim ao laborioua an ejcerciae of [uemory ; but 
if the memory be encouraged to the prejudice of the understanding, conse- 
quences the most ruinoMB to correct education must unavoidohly ensue. The 
comparatively little regard which the Chinese pay to the sense of the autbors 
they profess to teach, in the fimt instance, is a capita] defect in their systl^m. 
They are not so anxinus to All the mind with ideas as to load the memory 
with soiinda and crowd the imagination with symbols. Ilia somewhat singu- 
lar, sincf the Chinese ^re repitcd for their sagacity in conducting pecuniary 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

14B European PerioikaU bej/ond Ae Gmget. Atia. 

mttUta, that no provirion whatsver 1* made in their acheolii for teaching tbe 
BCience of Damben ; even their awan pmm is not taught the boja^ their 
education cojnprising; writinaf and readinff onl^. Abatnct science of any 
description has little or notEing^ to do w:Ui their education. Is ia not that 
their writisf;! are ()«void of abstruse Bubjecta or that thelrkngna^ is incapa- 
ble of expit.'Ssing mstaphyaical ideas, but that the; deem it more important 
to pa; attcntioo to things of a pracLcat natore." 

Tho Obaerver was ably conduelnd on liberal principles. Not only 
the cauae of education, and thn diffuaion of uaefiil knowledge, but (hio 
freedom of the preai^ and the abolition of slavery, were advocated in 
■trong but temperate tetmR. The strenuous and unshrinking zeal with 
which the editor expoaed the ayglem of davory—^till prevailing In 
Ihat settlement — " roused the porticular reeenlnicnt of govennnent, 
which, tn effect the auppresaion of the Observer, had recoiuse to a 
system of intimidstion and other sets of petty tyranny as utterly con- 
temptible as they were finnlly oSective." The remarks on slavery 
ereiLted some dissatinfactinn also among the inhabi a ts of the sellle. 
ment, who were personally interested in the case. Until the establish- 
ment uf the Canton Register, Dr. Morrison was a constant contributor 
Co the pages of the Observer. His communications conni^tcd chiefly of 
notices of local occurrences and of exlrncls from the Peking Gaietle. 
In the number for February 12th, 182S, there are some curious do- 
lice* of "Chinesn students," which we quote. 

" In modem times, there have been several in Europe ; firstly, Dr. Hsgef, 
who perished, we beliere, in most DiiBncceMl\il efforts to acquire patronage 
in Et^land and France sotne twenty years aga Secondly, Dr. Montucci, a 
noBt persevering veteran in Chinese literature, who, after fighting hard with 
Hsger, retired to Prussia, spent his time and property on Chinese types, 
sod projected a Chinese dictionary, till the grave opened to invite him into 
it; then he abondoned bis Chinese enterttrise, renounced the dictionary, and 
sent to Eng:land all his materials for sale. Thirdly, H. R^usat, k. v. of 
Paris, a scholar and a gentleman, who has edited beautifully some old transla- 
tione of Chinese classics, new modelled; and has the merit of Procuring in 
Paris a myal chair for a profeMor of Chinese. Remusat has naif a doaen 
pupils, whose names we do not know; one of thens, S. Julien, has edited, 
under the patronage of the English banker, H. Dnuninood, ee^ (a most be- 
nevolent man, and we hope a devout Christum), the works of Mencius, 
Poarthly, in Russia, the baron Schillinf, patronisMl by his imperial majesty. 
Fifthly, the German Klaproth, a devoted litemture-monger, who knows the 
titles and the contents of a f^reat many booka, and tries to live by hia cr«ft. 
Sixthly, Morrison, the Chinese lexicoKrapher, a plodding genius, who profes- 
ses to study utility in his ijeveral worb. Seventhly, Harehman, the Indo-Cbi- 
nese gleaner, whose Clavts Sinica and "Ziuii-njr'e'* eibibit volutiility and 
copiousness. Eighthly, Davia, of China, known by a Qiiscellaneous volume, 
contsining specimens (tfthe Chinese tuvnl, drama, and proverb, neatly print- 
ed by Murray, Albemarle streeL Fmn this quarter we expect something 
good, ereton;;, on Chinese poetry. 

"We hitve omitted some names which ought to have taken precedency 
becfluse we apprehend they have ebsndoiwd the gfood cause. We mean sir 
fi. T. Staunton, hart, well known in this department by hiH trsnxktionof the 
Penal Code of China. Next, Ur. Manning many yean resident in China, 
and a constant student of the Chinese language; but whoee lucubrations still 
remain, it is miid, (unwritten) in his own cianinmi ('hineitp would cny in his 

1636. European Periodkatt Uyond the Ganget. 149 

•boUj," where thoy, very qnaeriy to mort people, plv* the •est of tboogtit 
There M UKXher nunc now mm faj, di« late Dr. Milne, whoM worn wen. 
miacellaneoiw. The haumtl^ooki of Holy Scripture were trnwlited by bio, 
and be wrot« very Inminotwly and linin«Mively on moral abd relipotu aub- 
jecto in ChineM. Hii tracti mnain to wbataiitUts thia remaA. The lato 
Hr. luce at Penans, was a V617 fUr ChiiMM (Kbolu, and Mr. Medbutat in Jan 
if ■ capital Fnbkeen litignisL io China, w« bear, they have acMne etudeirta, 
wboee worka ha« not yet appeared, Wid Aerefow we auppreaa th«r ntinea. 
Two or three Englisb are good Chineee acholarK Two Americaiw have 
made conaidorable ptotom, and one Dtrtchraan i* bopnning to learn. In 
Malacca, there are Hem& Collie and Kidd well reraed in Chineee. Mr. 
Thoma, the printer of Moiriaort dictiooarr, trandated a Chineee novel into 
Engliah j the back of which he Ubelled " TbcsiiB' Conrtahip.* 

Tlie proapectiia of n "intended wofk," to be called the Indo- 
Chinese Repoeitory, and to be printed and published by aubscriplion, 
quarterly, at the Anglo-Chincee college, appeared in the Malacca 
Obeerver of November 39tli, 1827. The following is the Pro^jectus. 

"PablicatioBsof thia nature are numerouinnd possessed of varied interest; 
h, therefore, aeenu reasonable to expect when « new one is announced, that 
il ^HHlld poasesa aome claima to origioalitv 01 novelty, if its projectors would 
secure the Mprobation and patronage of an intelligent public Every one 
who iwoes tJie prospectus of a new work doublless has reasons which satisfy 
hinwelf, as to tho probability ofits meeting with a favorable reception, alth<Ni^ 
he may not be able to perwiade otheis 10 view Ihem exacUy in the sane li{^t 
as be does. In I'hoosing subjects for the amusement or instniction M the 
public, erroneous notions are frequently fbnned respecting its taste ; hence in 
this u well as other undertakings ezpenment is the best criierion of merit 

■■ It is not without feelii^ of diffidence, accompanied by the conviction of 
such a work being highly tosirable, that propoeals are now made for est^lish- 
inif a periodical to be denominated the » Indo-Chinese Repository." The com- 
natively little information that hen yet been obtained respecting the Cbinese, 
notwithstanding the length of time during which Europeena hive had inter- 
course with them, seems in some measure to jusiify any attempt 10 increase 
our acnuainlance with that Binguiar and ancient people. It is moreover an 
avowed object of the college to afford all poesible information on the subject 
of Ullra-Gangetic literature. The Repository will comprise original essays on 
ilie languBce, philosophy, manners, custoins, and general literature ofthe 
Indo-Chinese nations, together with such local information aa may be deemed 
new and interesting, U is particularly wished to develope the mintf of China, 
and discover as much as possible the causes of that uniform mode of thinking 
and acting which the Chinese have adopted from time immemorial, and to 
which thev still pertinaciously adhere in spite of changes end improvements 
around them, loformalion of political naturd, and of the present system of 
internal regulations in China, it is hoped, will be from time to time procur- 
ed and give additional interest to the work. As this people are possessed of 
a considerable portion of ancient literature, translations will be given of such 
pieces of native compostion as appear calculated to interest and gralilj the 
curious, and to assist in investigaUng the cauaes of those revolutions which 
h4ve taken place in the government, and the changes which may in other 
respects have been experienced. , ,. . , 

"It is desirable to ascertain how far their system of political economy is de- 
ducible from the mental thraldom in which the mass of the people have been 
■o long enslaved ; and what peculiar causes have contributed to that ascen- 
dency over the minds rf their subjects, which the government at present 

;. V^nOC^IC 

\M Canpeu Periodieei* heyamd Ae G^tget. Ave. 

fomtm. The ium and cctemaniea oftbe Chinon, wbetlier civil at telipooa, 
poblic or privata, will claim our attentiTe coaiideratiML 
■The pnyacton «f thia w«k will ittm it Uwir du^ lo dm all popibto 
' acqniriiu ■nfbcinatkM JUonnlive tftbe manaan, ^•lw^^Mna^ &c^ of 
Dtnea. The pUn embmcM Uw > ' • ■ • ■ 

^_)iiMofSiam,CochiDchiiia, JapaivA 

l^atediii hiaUH7 of tbeUalaj^ and collect whatever it intereatiiig « 

otber cooDtnei^ The plan embiacea Uw naUual and matal phet 
" -i,Cochi- ''- • •-- '- 

the kingdooM ofSiam, Cochinchiaa, Japaa, tic It is abo wiabed to inveati- 

.. • f.L. MalajA and collect whatever it intereatiiig or coriooa 

i* danger indeed ofpHtpounv more than majr be actU' 

reapectingthein. There i* danger indeed of pnpoainK 
ally raaliwd ; but the pnapect of enlai^Dg the eatabl 
piceB of which the preaeot periodical la to published 

published, warrant the hope that 
H nuLV erelong be employed, who wiU tnm their aole lUentiim to the Ian- 
guagea of the conntriea aronnd m^ In the mean time, tbe utmoat endeBTors 
ahall be (ued to oblain lasialaiice hwa those gentlemen whoae aituttioiw or 
opportunitiea afford tiiem the means of imparting the requisite koowledge. 
Commiinicatians will be thinltfullj received in any department of oriental 
liteiature. Gorerament having evinced a laudable de*ire to promote inqniir 
into the intellectual and moral sute of neighboring nations, it is btqwd a- 
poblication of this nataie will meet with their encouragement 

"The Repoaitoi; will contain occasional notices and reviews of such worha 
as seem to bear upon its peculiar oliJecL It wilt comprise sixty octavo pages 
closely printed on English paper, price one Spanish dollar. Thx profiu, if 
any, siter the eipenaes of printing, paper, &.C-, are defrayed, will be given to 
the funds of the Anglo-Chinese college^ It is intended to commence the 
periodical as soon aa a sufficient number of subsciibers is nbtained ; and to 
issue the numbera on tbe first week of Jsnuary, April, July, and October, 
respectively. Application may be made to the auperintenrients of the col> 
lege, and to the Editor of tlie Observer, who will fumiab subscribers with 
copies according to their directions, until agents for that purpoae be pro- 

The intended work never appeared. However, we are induced to 
hope that Ihe original design of the Indo.Oliinpse Repfwiiorv, which 
was quite like lliat nf ilie Indo-Chinese Glenntr, will at length be 
carried into efli-cl. Thia we are led to expect from tlie prriapectua 
<if a Magazine, to bo culled the Ptriudical Miscllany nnti J^ivenile 
Instruclor, which has recently ciime lo bund, and in wSich we find 
the first ]rart of (hut issued in 1827, copied verbatim. - Tbe new pros- 
pectus is dalnd Malacca, April Idth, 1836; and, after repealing llie 
lirst paragraph of Ihe former one, quiled above, thus proceeds : 

"It may be affirmed with truth, that there never was an age when so 
much was doing for the advancement of the Redeemer's kingdom, and for 
the ireneral goof of mankind, as. Ibe present: bo extensive is the effort to 
diffuse abroad the knowledge of the Lord Jesus Christ, snJ so various arc 
the plans fraught with benevolence to man, that none, who bears the nanic 
of Christisn, should reiiiaih an uninterested apectafor; much less should 
any one be ignorant of what is doing. And yet [h:Tc is no little danger 
of bein^ both uninterested with, and ignorant of, what is doing, unless 
the mind be frequently brought in conUict with the varied object* of impor- 
tance, which engage the attention of tlie Christian world. Tn oMcr to accom- 
plish tilis purpose, aa well aa to supply a source of proiiiahle reading and 
intcrestiug instruction to our little community, proposals are now made for 
establishing a Magaiine to be denominaleJ the Ppriodiral Miscellany and 
Juvenile Instructor ; lo contain, nmong other matter, subjects of the following 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

European PtfiodUaia beyond the Ganges. 151 

"General infonnition concerning vrtjodb plans of benevolence in dif&rpnt 
psnaof tliti world; mattere of local intereM; roodnti improveiDenta, oJcdIk- 
ted fa> adTanr-e the intersBta of mankind; miscellanea, reapecling the varioud' 
tribes who inhabit the Malayan Peninsula, and theialaDdaoftheEaatem Ar- 
cbipelago; notices of recent oriental publications; and occasioQa] papers oli 
' e lao^asr irf' the east, partienlBrly thoee spoken to tdtra Otm^tg. The 
ditot is full]' aware of the gre^t difficulty of conductinfr a penodical, su 

that it shall at once prove intereatiiie and uaeful : but he has been encouraged 
by the aasuTsnce of the support of friends, in the diachargie of his editorial 
dntiea, and by contributions to the work. — Thnee persoDs who may be willing 
to subscribe for one or more copies, can send (heir names to the Anglo-Chi- 
nese college ; and those frienda who may feel disposed to contribute to the 
work, may send their contributions to the same place, addressed to the Editor. 
Each number of the Periodical Miscellany will consist of twenty-four octai7o 
pages, pnct 30 cents ; and will be published on the 5th day of every month : 
the first number to be issued on the 5th of June 1836." 

The Singapore Chronicle and CaminerciBl Register is the next 
work which we have tu notice. For several years it was published 
only once a fortnight and printed on a quarto sheet ; but in I'^^O, it 
appeared on an ex(i>nded si'ale and wa:* issued weekly. Number 
96, for November 22t), 1827, is the tarliesl ono which we have 
seen ; and if prior lo that date the papflr wis published regularly once 
in two weeks, it must have been commenced early in the year leSfl. 
According to the Singapore Free Prcsi, however, it is now nenrly four- 
teen years since the Chronicif! wus finit publishetk In the last number 
which has come to hand, that of the Sd ultimo, the E<litor says, » Wp 
are at length hBp{>y to fulfill our promise ofpubtishing the Singspore 
Chronicle on Euro|>e paper. That it has nut been mir fault we assure- 
ourselves of our subscribers believing, and that it will not be tkeiri in 
encouraging our humble exertions we are equally certain, if the ac- 
quisition within the present year of onit third in addition to the num- 
ber of our list of subscribers be a standard of their approbation and 
support. " 

The first number of Singapore Free Pres*, Mercantile .\dvcrtber 
and Price Current, appeared on the Sih of Oelober, 183ft; the inten. 
lion of publiahinff having been previously announced to the public in 
the following style, in the form of a prospectus, 

"The Press, in order to possesa all the advantages for which it is intended, 
ought not only to be free from the restrictions imposed by authority, but at 
the same time exempt from the exclusive influence of mere individual or par- 
ty control. A monopoly of publication, when abused, is equally injurious with 
either, and therefore opposed to all those interests which a really free press is 
calculated In promote. We have lately witnessed the unjust exercise of sach 
a monopoly in this settlement ; and the establishment of this paper will, it Is 
to be hoped, secure those benefits which can only be fully enjoyed where 
discussion is free from all restraints except such as are imposed by candor 
and moral obligatioa In conformity with these principles the first number 
of the Singapore Free Press will be issued as soon as a printing apparatus, 
which has already been ordered from Calcutta, can be brought into operation. 
It is not very easy to delineate the exact plan on which a newspaper 
commenced in this Mltlement shall be conducted ; but the following is offer- 
ed ■* an outline of the nutter which it is intended to contain; namely: 

1 V^nOC^IC 

16'J Emvpeaa Periadieali heycmd the Gangtt. Aoa> 

"iMelUfenee coniwctsd with the ititeiwta t^tha Colon)', and ito ganenl 
eommMcul ralatkiiM; miao, noticM of tb* goMnuasin, naUraJ hiMoij, 
ptodticttooB, &«^ of the ndgfaboniif Dative rtates; with a lirt of Uw im- 
porta and expotte, remaika on tbealaleortiM mnAet, and a ct^MoiM PriM 
CuneM. Itiballbe [mnted on Europe pajmi^llMMaie m» aa Um 8in- 
faptve Chnmicle, th« Drice lo b« $H pw onartnr, or if paid in advance, 916 
per annum. Ttie CDoanctin^ of the paper haa been Dnoeitaken by a ^cMto- 
nma of coBaidenble experience aa an Sdih^ wIm> ba» aectii«d die unatanee 
of seven] contributora; and their united emtrts will, it la ht^Md, render tbe 
Singapore Free Picas acceptable to tbe pablic" 

By (be united, and someliinee confiicting, rffbils of Ihe Chronicle 
Mtd rree Preao, the local occurrence* and interest* of Singapore are 
pretty fully and fairly represented. The editor* of both pnpera leem 
well pleased with the support tbey respectively receive from their 
friends and GorrespondentB, whe are on their part, we doubt not, 
equally well satisfiiid. We marked several paragraphs in each paper, 
which we intended to extract, but the space allowed for this articla 
forbids our doing an. 

The Chronica de Macao, the commencement of which we have 
put *'on rocord," holds on its course prosperously and has now reach- 
ed No. 14 of its second volume. Like the Singapore Chronicle and 
the Canton Ret^ister, the Chronica de Mncno has drawn forth a wor. 
thy competitor; by which, as in Die case of the two others, it is likely 
to be stimulated and spured on in its career. We like to see fair and 
benoruble competition; and if we judge rightly, there is ground 
enough, and that which ought to be occupied, toernploy the best efiorts 
of both papers. So far removml as Mncno is from the more busy and 
Bpirit-etiring scenes of Europe, it would not be strange if some of its 
inhabitiinta, in regard lo general information and the most recent 
enterprises and improvemrnts of the- age, should not keep pace with 
those born and bred in tbe happiest regions of the earth. To provide 
agniiist this, hy the wide and speedy difTusinn of knowledge, by induc- 
ing the members of eociety each and all to read and think and judge 
for themselv>», there are perhaps no better menne than periodical pa. 
pers. Terfect liberty of conscience and freedom of the pre**, we long 
to aee as fully recognized and as well secured thrnughoul the east, as 
they now ere in any countries of the west. Let the truth, the wht^e 
(rulh« and nothing but the truth, be published, freely, boldly, widely, 
and it will triumph ; it will unveil Ihe mysteries of iniquity ; it will 
breiik asunder the bonds of tyranny ; it will bring consolation to the 
oppressed ; estaUish and strengthen every lawful rule and authority ; 
and hasten tbe good time, when all the dwellers on tbe face of the 
whole earth, enlightened and renewed by Jehovah's truth, shall wor. 
ship him as (heir God and Father, and honor and love each other 
as brethren. 

The Macaista Imparcial, the competitor of the Chronica mentioned 
abnve. is a semi-weekly newspaper; the first number of which was 
published June 9th of this year. On religious topics, a few para- 
graphs have appeared in the Macnista, upon which some of our read- 
ers may expect us to animadvert. This we chose not to do ; though 

i:..T,r b.V^-.00'^IC 

183*. Smvpam Pmia^eda hei/omA On Gttgti. lU 

oar rilenoa most by oo mniim bo regarded u «|i(>rob«tion of them. 
W» can eompwi our olgeet bettort we thinbt by Mrivjng to let onr 
light ahine, then by beootning controvertMliali^ becaoM ollwn drahn 
tbeir « cendleetick and oil" poeKaa inialIibilih^ In due time wo 
•hal) both receive tho reward that ia tneoL The foUowiDg u tba 
Pro^iecluB at the Hacaiata Impareial. 

"Alttoog^ periodicala are not b ibe nnmber of tboae woika which gita 
ftme to or ImuortaUia their waOmM, yet the nttote of their being, reaem- 
Uiiig the rapeatod fltihea rf li^dning, u anch at to inatnct the people, to 
direct Iha pahlie opinioi^ to lay open the eondact of gorerameat^ ceif 

into h^ela ia aot ao anrtal u when founded ii 

f ) beoca originated the Hying, 'that natal when nwUed 
ao anrtal >• when founded into type* f and keaee toe^ 
die nnreatrained libet^ of tba imM became ao dreaded, that lawa warepro' 
mulntad to reetiain it* abnaea : but whan ctmfomMd to Um Uwa, and CDofined 
to the Umita which lb<7 preaciibe, there can be no doubt reapecting the ntilitf 
of a pwiodlcal to haman aeciety, in politica, in comineice, and in all ebe that 
can Ul within tiw limited apbm ofa eiagle aheet 

" Piaiae be to the invention of the preaav that exeellentcoiitTivaace of ha- 
mas Bndarattnding^ diacovOTed in the 15(b century ; for by it there waa caaa> 
ed tntheeniptreoficienoeareTOlotione(|ualtothatoc«aaioiiedinpo1iticaby 
the diacovery of the new irortd. It owea ita firat eiiatence, in 1440, to John 
Guttenbeiv ofSttaaborg, and ita perfection, in Mayence, to John FauK and Pe- 
ter Schoeffin; Tltere haTC been aome who qoeationed, whether tbia Taloable 

aaid, it would be necaaiaty to bring under notice all booka, and to analyie 
ereiy pntductien rftfae wiai^ ninntely diacnaair^ ail the Ibougfala and ooin- 
kwa bRN^it forth by all the writera of every natitai, and age, a 

ofthiaaitharebeenapnadthmoghoattbeDiuvetaa. Thia being an impoo' 
atble and vain nndertaking, let oa, without troubling ounelvea aOout the 

preaa haa coirtribntad to comiit laeit'a habila aod to propagate err t ankong 
natioiiafranagetoageteqiially certain it ia that through Ita medi m,uaaft3 
knowledge baa been extended to bott die neaieat aod tk- moat r( 'ote na- 
tiooa; and that U^ haa bean ^read ahioad, attengthonod, aod leaaon 
perfected, illuminating by ita lava fielda of acieoce and arL 

" Haeao had ita Jouraab before the foteignen in Canton iaauedoheir'a; 
and DOW w« are to aend &rtil) a new one. Perchance it may not merit anch 
ancondnina aa tboee edited by Balbi, nor be ao well received by the public, 
for men'a taataa are not leaa difibtent than their idiyaiagnKay ; yet we are 
indneed to antieipate a fovor^le receptioa from the pubUc, reabiv our hopeo 
on the impartiality we promiae to maintain in oar paper, oiu Mthful notice of 
pditical and doineatie occurrencea, as well aa of the arrival and departure of 
shipi^ and <rf(be ^4cee of the principal articlea of commerRe, together with 
the punctnali^ with which we riia]! pobltafa on evRj Monday ana Thorsday, 

and all elae tMt can contribute to render a paper, not connected with any 
party but that at the tewa, reapeetable. All that is tmintereatlng to th 
pabUc, all that may tend to agitate quarrels (aa anofiyitioaa correapondenc 

rerally doea^ ahalt find no room in thia paper. We dedicate it iolely to 
public welfare or M the letter of Pelican taye, ' Pela Ley t ptla Oit]/' " 
Moat aincerely do we hope that all these eX|>ectationa and premiaeit 
c^cially with reqiect to impartially and truth, may be fully realized. 

vol- V. iro. IV. 30 iqnr b V^nOO'^IC 

154 Anpesn PtriodieaU feynuf ffts Gmtgei. kva. 

How mmoj periodioak Maoao may h>v« had in former tinw w« hav« 
not the nwsiia (^aacertainiiig: however) single numbara c^ two hare 
fallen in oar way ; Ibe first ia, « A Abelha da China," No 04, Sep- 
iwnbar 2Tth, 1833 ; the otber ■■ the " Gaxetta da Macao," No. I, 
January Sd, 1834. 

The Canton Register, the oldeat mwapaper in thia place, haa now 
reached No. 31 of its ninth volume. A few short extracta will afibrd 
thoae of OUT readers, who may not see the Register, a mote correct 
idea of its maAner and sentinienis than any remarks we can main. 
There are two minoTl points, however, to which it may be proper bera 
to advert. One ia the style of writiog Chinese names : we would not 
write WiHiam Walerbouae in one word thus, WUhammiterlumte ; 
although it would be quite at correct, fix ought we can see, as to 
write Tlkngtmgehing, instead of T&ng Tingching, The Chinese plsce 
the surname first, the reverse of llw English mode. Quoting from 
the Penny Magazine, without correcting its errors, is the others point 
we bsve to notice. As it ia gonenlly known that the Editor of the 
Register has long been acquainted with the Chinese and their Ian- 
guage, whatever goes forth to the world in his paper, respecting them, 
will be received as worthy of all credit. At first, we suppMed he 
intended the quotations should be regarded, like the sUusion to How. 
<|ua's property, as •< mere jokes." If so, they are indeed, •* amazingly 
prodigious.'' The square pagodas or Uuu, surrounded with urns oT 
bronze; flag^taflb used ss telegrsphs; the bridge ft940 feet long and 
104 broad; the immense number of others thrown from mountain to 
mountain, with beams laid from clifi'to cliff; the 1400 stone beams a8 
alike, 3 paces long and 3 broad ; the celebrated city, the ancient 
capital of southern China, having 12,000 bridges; these and a multi- 
tude of other similar •• facts" are prcNltgious, aye •'amazingly pro- 
digioos," We will not at ureaent, however, undertake to deny them* 
thuugh we have no more idea that t^^ are true, than that the forte 
at the Bogne are in stength equal to thnse of Gibraltar. The Editor nf 
the Re ister, we trust, '.riti pardon us for theee remarks on hi* 
paper, r rather «n the errora of the Penny Magazine, and bid ita 
conductors to beware of wb&t tbey publish respecting the interior of 
the "celestial empire." 

The three paragraphs which we subjoin, taken quite at randoin, 
are fair specimens of the usual style of (be paper. They need no 
comment further than the remark, that the second one was occaaioned 
by an edict against the Vincennes, belonging to the governineBt of 
the Cnited States, ordering her to "go home." 

"tn c<Hinnencing anotlier volume with a new year, our gratefbl feelings 
lead UH to express oar be&rtfelt thanks to the foreign community of Canton 
for their enconrsfement of our humble effbrts; we h<^»e, indeed, that the 
time is not very <natant, when we shall have the pleasing ta^ of c(«ibining 
the o&tiv* with the foreisn community in our expression of thanks fbr their 
liberU patronage of the &ntOD Register and General Price Current In bet, 
the last publication is already token by one naliva. The Canton Register is 
no* in the 9th year of its existence ; but alas, ita early and preat eupponer, 
Uorrison the aioologue, is no longer here, to inlona the public, in its psges. 

ISM. JSwopMN PerioHcaU ieyutd At Cmgm. ISO 

M tbs Iocs] or gnwral »wt of Ab CfainaM wnpln. StDI tlw Mirrfnf timM 
of a froo tnda >;Rein, wilt, wm ■aHgoiiwIr tntklMfl, !»• n fnitAit u new 
Dt«t]b, in azUiHum of the tnde, and tlumioD in th« fe«1iiw* and maDoom 
of the (ovenunent and peoida loinnto ta, that, in doin^ oar d^y in recordin(r 
thnn, ws nntura to boM tlut a doB ihuc of the imbBe laWnat and paiiUMM 
wfakh the Canton R«gwer eschod and ei^(7«d od iti fint eMablnhment, mO 
atUl be eootiiUMd to the Jonrml. Tbon b Me fitct which wa are proud 
and hapi9 to Mats tooorraaden; b ie that the cimUtioii (^ the Register 
ie incraannc. Tlus ia the noal excitiag «iGeiinfen>ent; the aupport and 
mttverngt or oar ardcM bopeai tat what the elapfNOf of hande, waving of 
A br fair fln|M, and tba beutj eheara and encore* of a,/Ut 
_ . .0 a nrorite Actor, aneh ie an tacreaead litt of Mbeeribeie to a 
public jounaliet, wboae lilt never «an be JUI; la, then, (bere are no Umiti 
toUwpablic patronage, let there be no limits to die joomaliMlbopec; but at 
the same time let lum reniraibeT be moat work hard for edch distinction, and 
iherefim pnt no limita to Ua ellbf^ ncv shrink tnm u; exertion to deserve 


vents (special edictn sj 

„ jd plwM oni 

I Urtoij, it beeooMS i 

*■ l%ese docnnwnts (special edictn sninst ships of fbreign fforemmoits) 
. _ « ,_. . , n record, sad time fcrminj the mateoals of (ai- 

being oOoial and plued on n 

longer fbreigs sofnnmeiita ei« to permit 
iosnlt of tactilj receiving tiwm. Tbe blnstering rodomontade of Chiness 
oScem is not ewprinng, when it is recollectea bow tnmelj not onlj the 
fbreign merchanti of all nstioM^ but eren all foreign governments, in the per- 
sOH of their commiiBionsd oScets, snecnojb to, wittent protesting against, 
the inhaepkable and insideat toos and eoodnot of the imperisl and IomI gi>. 
veranents of Chink That soebosrelcMness of their natioMd ebaractsr and 
goveramenti, aoch n^eet of tboir oomaaivial i nteree t i, and t^the livee asd 
|ni^«r1;f of thor citiisn% is higtiljr dismeelU to nUaam so powerfhl ss Great 
Brioun and the U. & of Amines, nw who are acqaainted with Csntan 
will, we think, denv; er who will not oonftss that, owing to sneb submissive 
and negligent ooHiiBl, do ixj paseae withont the cmtinnaooe of the ftreign 
mde being baisrded ^ tbe extortiona of the Whanpoa costam-honsa (dU 
cei^ and the violeM and tbe diieving eondnet of the WhampcM villageis, 
Danes a diArent comae of oondnet is medilf adoeted towarda this eomitrr, 
the eikd of our present r^tima with Chins and of tte position tS the trade 
will be fttal bm to Chinese and Ibreipterm A sbrnggle moet erentnally 
come, the object of which wiU not be eredilable to eitlNT par^. and the con* 
aeqnent Tesiuts will be diwstieftgtioi^ suspicion, bar and hatredt when 
bf sprtlsd, jndirioos and jut [nceedings, a salisl^etai7 and becoming 
nndMstaading ini|^ be eonHnmiced wiA tlus government and people, 
whish ia the eoane of time would ripen into mntosl reepect and esteem t 
and nod-wiD, fliendsh^ ud aooAdence wonld then be established e« euro 
fbuniatiai . A five itterrammuniestion would ensue, snd the religion, phv- 
losoohr, and eeiewie of the outside natiens would (hen be reomved into to* 
niddla kingdom* Pel fll Ab. 3, p. ft 

"To-morrow is the new-fMi^ day of ths Cbineee which they cell yitM4«s 
n ■hsad^ay." Precisely st the In* s^ or beginning of the d&y, after Riid> 
■iffht, tber beihe tlieir bodies in perfiimed water, pat on their best clothe^ 
■Bd rsmnlning at baaie,wairiiip the gedi and fliie off crackers. The Andly 
wonUp being orar.tbay then ^ to worship the gods in the tomideb Atdity- 
li^t, US fhAern, mothers, wivea^ som and dAOgnteie, snd the aontsstio ser> 
vanti^ snd slaves, these wia tboevt eonfftatailtie eaah other on die Bsw^ear. 
For seveni snceiesiva day^ visits oTrMoicing are made to sll rolMlons 
and ftiends, which are amtnally retorasd, awC they invite eaob other to 
indulge in tiw )ey of the Amn \tm, "the wine of wvrm^." AQ Inisinesa it 

i:..T,r b.V^-.00'^lc 

156 Biavpeait Periodkalt hegomd Ac Gmngtie. AtPO. 

•topped fM" wvenl days, tad til abutdon thenaalvM to ideaaare in tbe waj 
thejp like beat From the yuta-ttai to the Sth of tb« nwon, luck* di;B ue cho- 
•en to itupend flower-Iuiterna on the honsee ind templei^ it wuch ceremon; 
the heU uid clamor are great If partuenhipa ars to be diatolved or MX' 
thMi diacbwged, it ia done in the fint moon. On tbe WMni-to*, a little nin, 
or a north, % weet or an east-north vind [N.E.}, ai« all happy pro^ooatica ; 
but a south wind ia deemed unlucky. An eaaterl; wind brmga mii, and a 
north wind, cold weather ; the cold m an indication of the wanuu of the enau- 
ing aprin^ eeaaon. On the firM day of the jeu, tbej begin weighing water 
and continoe weifhing for twelve ancceamTe dava. If the water ia heavy, 
there will be mucb lain, if l^t, the aeaaoa will be dry. The cuatoma of the 

'" " ™-'t(»o informant — are ao " *'""* '" '" ' "■'" 

FoL 9, Ab. 7,^.36. 
The Canton Pre* waa commenced in September, 1836; and ite 
first nnd aecond numbers, on their appe uancc, were duljr noticed in 
our pages. It hu now reached No. 47 of its fint vcJuine. Like tho 
Rtrgiiter, it is accompanied by a Price Current, and occupied chiefly 
with lopica man or l«aB connected with commerce. Tumduy \m th« 
publication day for tbe Register ; and Saturday for the Press. In 
order that this peper also may speak for itself, we will xive two or 
three quotations. In his paper for Saturday, Fdmiary 6tb, the Edi> 

" Tbe editorabip of this paper has changed hands, of which circumstance w« 
avail ooiaelvea of the earbest opportunity to give information to our raadeia ; 
a kind of programme may be expected, aa to ttte prineiplea on < ' ' '' 
Mr will in fiitnre be conducted, we proceed to lay it beion the pi 
isour belief that the freemde with Quna,beinc open to all, we should 

ihe paper will in fiitnre be conducted, we proceed to lay it Mon the public. 
"It IS our belief that the freemde with Quna,beinc open to all, we should 
allow it gradttally to eucraacb upon a great many of Uie regulations which 
the Chinese have hitherto more or leaa strictly enforced in order to pcvent 
any connection with fereigneis not absolutely neccsmr; to the poiposea rf 
commerce. Our intercoarae which the Chinese is already, though it is only two 
yean since the company's monopdy ceased to exist, ranch more eitei»ve 
than it has hitherto been, owing to a greater number of veaaels visilinf brth 
Wfaampoa arkd Lintin; and there being no surveillance on the part of the Brit- 
ish to keep up a monopoly, the opportunities ofiered to the Chiness to evade 
the regulationa of the cc^ioag are mnch more frequent than before, and the 
Chinese are apecalattve enough to avail themselves of them, and to cany 
on an extensive trade, against the oppresaive laws of the country, aided in so 
doing by the comiptea revenne officers, who seem to bold their offices on 
such precarious terms, that being liable to be turned off at any time, they are 
determined to " make hay whilst the snn shines," and this illicit trade gives 
them ample opportunities. It is to be auppoeed that a nation, agricultun^ma- 
luifacturing and commercial, each in an eaiineat degree, and on that accoant 
more advanced in civiliuition than any other Asiatic people, will soon, if they 
do not already see that tbe many reatTictioDa on their intercourse with for- 
eignera, imposed by a despotic government, and enfiMced by a set of offices* 
as veii^ as possible, cannot tend to its own advancement; and as tbe 
intercourse of the Chinese with foreign nstions ie becoming every day mcMV 
frequent, and in consequence offers more difficulty to the fitivernment to |n«- 
vent or at least restrict it as hitherto, they will become bolder in their eva- 
sions of the oppressive lawa, and will make ccoiman cause with the foreigners 
and perhaps ultimately entirely throw off the yoke nnder which they labor for 
the oeneht of their TsTtar oppressors. Thus we may see within a ahMt 
time, that our intercourse with the Chinese will be on a moch'better footing, 
bv the simple but active means of self-interest, than it could possibly be 

i:.qnr-. b.V^-.00'^IC 

1880. Enrcpeaa PtriodieaU hofond the Gangei. 167 

by taj coercive nmuM, wbmeby not on); mu; innocent lire* unon^ Ike 
CbiaMe may be loet, but tbej me; aieo, for a pniod, at iMit, atop all inter' 
eoorea and timde with tbem, and endangOT the Utm and pr^ettjr of a frut 
many pMceable BritJali mbiMta, wboae enterpriainf o 

richei tbeir own cciintr;. We ahall Mt at preiMit in 

injnatice of ut aimed afgraaaioo to force oar meadriiip npon a netioii wbkh 
belierea itaelf to poaaan, and ma;, for oa^t we know to tM contntrj, poaeeaa 
■officient TMoarcei to bie able to iaelite il*elf IVam the rest of the iiihabitanta 
of thia ^obe, laavii^ Ibia aubject tot Atture Miberatioii in our paper, adding 
now onlf, fliat we beliere that tbe Mme object will be gained, and in a 
mach better manner, by allowinf cnmneree gndoally to overeonie tboae 
obataclea and prejndkw, which hare Ufteito rendered a rmdence in China 
to a fMcigner verr galling, and fl«qtientl; degraded him in hi* own opinkm. 

" On politiGa at bonie, we have Httle to aaj— being •> remote fran tbe 
■cene of action, we ahal) limit oniaelvea to pve ennctB from tbe Ennne and 
other papera, and to acqnaint oor raaden wilb tbe late4 »•*■ fttm aaait. 
Onr altentieR wiD be puticiilarlj' directed towardi obtaining and gifiog local 
news, to make oor readera acquainted with Cbineee nannen, and to keep 
tbem infonned of anytkiiv bapjwninp here that may be of intereet even at a 
diannee. TogiveaanraebinfonnatMiiaa we riiallbe able to c(^eet on the 
Philippine talaMi^ Indian Arehipelagov utd otbn eeatera ialaada and New 
Holland, will be oor e^tecial care. Tbe commereia] part of dot inftnnation 
will, M herMoftre, be collected with the gieatMt care and attenti«i, atid we 
bope that oor pricea corrent will continne to be ipprored of. In eonelnnon, 
we beg to aaawe oor raadeia, tint, whether or not oor eSbrts meet with their 
qiprooatioii, weeball devoteoor beat nerticHM to thia pap<n',andif weftJlin 
our endeavora to pleaa^ to attribote it to want of abiUty and lo any other 
fitult which we can eoiTecL" VoL 1, JVk 9^ f. laa 

The eecond extract, and th« laat which our limibi will admit, refei 
chiefly to the free trade, showing that "none of the evU conae 
qoencee, predicted by thoae who had enjoyed the eweeta of the moDCh 
poly, have yet become appsrenL" 

"Aa fiv aalhendly and nninteTTTtpted intercoom whh the Chineae ia con- 
cerned, we have ahewo thai the free trade ifsteiB haa worked well, bm it 
were to be wiabed that it were relieved ttoa flte afaacklea which now oppreaa 
it ; partly, in the dwpe of immenae dntiee in En^and ; panly, in compeny'a 
nndinwaed etock of teae; and par^, in the ah^e of the £aet India compa- 
ny'* finance cimnrittee bem. In a formef paper we have already observed 
that low tetui, and on inch of which the bulk of teaa,aliipped to England c< 

1, the duty Do<r levied amoaiMB lo 300, but generally to ilOO per ceM. on 

prime coat, and that on veiy few of the finest qualities tf tea only the duty ia 
100 per cent, or less. It ia tree that the consumption, owing to the mubh 
cheaper priceB at which tbe importer now aells, though the duty be about the 
same per pouiid, has already increased a little, but there can be doubt that 
it would soon amoant to double its pieeent quantity, were the duties the same 
per centage, ny about lOOpsr eent on tbe aale price, m thev were dnrinc 
the time of the monopiJy. The preeant high duties alone would have leaaened 
the profits the fi«e trader expected to make,aB the importation exceeded con- 
siderably tbe consumption, but the grmt cause of M of prices and ■batinence 
from specnUtion in England, is tbe still nndispoeed of stock of tbe East India 
cvnpany, which at the end of hurt year amounted to upwards of twenty-five 
milliani of pounds, and which might, arcording to the East India dirmstor^ 
fancy or whim, be either partly or at once thrown upon the msAet, thereby 
depressing prices at their till, tJid diafaeajtenlng cajntaliste from laying out 

X V^nOO'^IC 

Emnfeam PtrioHeeia iegomd Om Gtmgt*. Aim. 

Anr hoda in Uk Bpecabtioai. Tha ir , 
i—JmIh f miiiniitini mi ■rriwini of HniiiiiHthnlWirnirf' l hiiii rt ntfriMilhg 
•boTC noM, aad be bcdnf onwiUiw or nnable la prakof liM riA onder McJi 
dtcnnNtaacM, pwiiii tfeialecf hMUM,M»dMU*— wait l» himTy k— l 

■The abiffiaf oiftfad in the IM tnida under tiw moBopakj, afenged 
•hoot ftifiOO IMM per umiu^ sod em^qfad elMot twen^-fitnr sr twetrij-u 
iUpa, Duinf (be lint jreer oTtbe free tnde eBdinc oh the ZUt of Uare^ 
■E^-eereD •h)|N loaded at Whsmpoe, lermbmof 34^63 Imm^ and doriaf 
the Mcopd, BO loM tfau eijfb^-tkree aSipe of 41^ tow rv^er, Aaa 
ibewnif an incieaae of iUppug apoD the moBopcdj trade of UUSS toH ue- 
nge darinf the fint two years. In Ibeee none of tbe ibipa canying BritiA 
■an wlacliu aa or eMteni produce to Cbina, and diacbaiviiig at If aeao and 
lintin, witboot cmiiDg to Wbampoe, are incloded ; and tbeea likewiee ben 
been mach moie naiDerooa, dorinc the laet two jeaie than befitn^ not are the 
KMiDlij abipe with cotton fi«n Bwebay, Caknlta, and Hadrae coonlei 

"Tbe exports of teaa b> England einr-e tbe Hade w«e thrown open {SM 
Apiil 1034,) op to the prenent momeot, hnn aoMnnted to Ibai 96k7V7,390{ 
and thoae in tbe laet seaMtt onlr op to tbe nreomt lime to lbs. 45,731496^ 
or Ibii l,M6y66S lesa than inUieseaMn befetolaatjnoi'iBitpnb^tle ibat 
befbie the new crop cornea in, an; more will go to Ei^amd, aince few 
teas are now in die nwfcet, and no diip laid ml The average priee of tbe 

lest sBMon's leas, taking the Cmua Conwieieial Price Quteat aa gr" 

find lo be, a fiectian men Ibao 94 taeb per peenl, producing f ' 
er •11,480,636, or at tbe exchange cf 4a. lOd. £a,774iw. 
with bow mucb mon vigor the ftee traden haie entered into ti 
was shown under tbe cooipanf, when the capital eaoplojred in 
tea in tbe year 1887-^ did not exceed £l,9eM19l orneai 

lem thus what is now engaged b (he trade. The pmchase s 

Iba last season of tea for the Britisb maifcet, was attdj aa moch aa tbe 
)HOceeda of the annual sales of the company'e leea, including their enonxae 
profits as we find them to ba*e aoiounted in 1830 to £3^034,138 only. 

* Swely the Britiab Bvremment, sering what an inuMnea cental is tm- 
^ed by its subjects m earning m « tnde froan which tbe tteesniy de- 
rives so great a reremie, the duties on tea amoiinting to neariy one in 
every foorteen pounds of tbe whole revenue of Great Britain, ot^tbt to do 
eocnetbiiig inwvda removing the difficultiee which now prevent Ihia tndo 
livni bccinning as flourishing as it uigfat bev and lower tbe rate (tf dutiea,by 
which the revenue would nubebly, not inly not be prejudiced, but even 
benefited as to incraaae of coneumpuon must DeceMarify be tlie rnnsn 

Twelve dollars per unnum may seem b high pric« for n weekly 
f«per, like the Canton Regieter, or Presa; but when their necessaiy 
esaeneei are brought into the acenunl, it wilt be seen that neither of 
theee papers can at present be aftbrded for a less sum, or even for so 
email a one, as that at which they are now sold. TIm expenses <^ tbu 
two papers, with Iheir respective price currents, must be nearly the 
•ante in each case, and cannot be fnr from (be following eatimatet per 

Interert on original capital, say tSOOO 90.00 

Wear and tear of macbirwry, ropura, &e 90.00 

Rent of bouse, office, &c .....iSOiOO 

PreMmen, and coolie^ 19.00 

LAmpe, oil, &c 104)0 

Coraposilora' wages, moie or leea, ley 10000 

Paper for printing and writing, 10.00 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1830. Eunpaan PttmUcaU Uymtd the Gaigti. IftS 

If to thif mm S36, mnUipliBd by 12^43700 per buduid, w« mdd 
only 92000 Tor editorisl aervicei, the total of (4T00 will K>incwhat 
simmI the income of aither of Iheae papen. The robKription liat of 
tbe Regiater. we are credibly iBforined, ahows thai ebout 380 copies 
Km eent out weekly from Ibe office—lo tbe Streiti of Mekcca, to the 
diSereitt Indian preetdeDcies, end to ■eretal of the cbief commercial 
eitiee in Great Britain and in the United Slatei; end about 83S 
copiee of tbe Price Current are iuued weekly from the ofiice of the 
Register, at 9S a ct^y per annum. But several copiei of tbe Regis- 
ter and oftlio Price Current are eent gratuitously or in cjichaDse for 
other papera. We auppoeo that two hundred and seveoty.five of 
each, 912 for the enet and 9ft for the olbcft per annum, giving a 
yearly return c^ B46T5 will fully cqoal, perbapa exceed, tbe actual 
remunerative number* of the Canton Register and General Price 
Current. The circulalion of the Canton Press, and its " Commercial 
Price Current," they having been commenced within the last twelve 
months, must be stilt less. Thn statement does not include re. 
eeiple for advertisements, &c.; and though not minutely accuiatr, 
shows that the price of these publications is aa low as the ctr. 
cumstances of the case will allow. Moreover, the titualiaa of an 
Editor of a public journal in Canton is by no meane (be most agree- 
able that can be imagined. Cut off from all civilised society except 
a small community of ' bachelors' like himself; having no intercourse 
with tbe native lohsbitsnts at their homes in thoir social relatione, 
and no access to their public institutions or courts of justice ; without 
any maito or dispatches, besidoa those which, end frequently at very 
long intervals, come from beyond aea ; watched and guarded as an 
enemy or an unruly animal by the servants of the police ; confined 
to the walla of the " thirteen fsctories," except on a few special occs. 
nona, when for health'a sake he is allowed to go abroad and be called 
fankied by every one he meets; with no earthly security for his per* 
■oa or property beyond the good-witt of a time.aerving magistracy ; 
ever liable to wound the feelings of his best friends by telling too 
much or too little of the truth ; never secure from being harsaaodr 
vexed, censured, flattered, and cajoled; sometimes called 'able' and 
'erudite;' again denounced as the mere ■'tool of a party; in these 
circumsfancoa the task of an £ditor, as such, however important in 
itself considered, is truly "an ungracious one," and ought not to bs 
entirely overlooked in estimating the cost of a public journal. 

Having detained our readers so long with remarks respecting th« 
other publications, those concerning the Repository shall be Inief. 
Of the first volume there were printed 400 copies ; of the second, 400 ; 
of tbe third, 800 ; of the fourth* 1000 ; and thus far one thousand of 
the fiflh. The number of pages in the 1st. was 513 ; of the 3d, 970 : 
and of the 3d and 4lh, each, 684 ; giving a toUl of 23Se clusely 
printed octavo peges ; each vdume has been accompanied with an 
index. The price of the first and second volumes was $6 a copy, 
unbound ; the price of the subsequent ones has been only half that 
sum. Of volume 1st, no copies remain on band ; of the 3d, there are 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

ISO Sttmtfu kutorif. Atro. 

13; of the third, ^IS; and of the fourth, SOO. The present circu- 
lation m China is 300 copies ; in Manila, IR ; in Sandwich Islands, 
18 ; in Singapore, IS ; in Malacca, 6 ; in Penang, 6 ; in Balavia, H ; 
in Slam, 4 ; in Sydney, New South Wales, 6 ; id Burmah, 8 ; in Run- 
ga.\, Nip&l, and A's&m, T i in Ceylon, 3 ; in Bombay, II ; in Capo 
Town, South Africa, 4; in Hamburg, ft; in England, 40; in Ama- 
ricn, 154 copies; this gives a total of 515 now aent oal from th« 
oBice monihly ; about one fifth of these, howevw, ar« lent gratuitously 
to public Institutiona, Journals, &c. 

Hereaficr, as hitherto, so long aa It shall be our duty to conduct 
the Repositorj", we will endeavor to lay before oor readen, from month 
to month, the moat valuable information we can collect. In the 
courae of our work, we have already noticed a great variety of tab. 
jecta, but have exhausted none ; while a multitude, and many of them 
of great importance, remain wholly untouched. A great deal more 
information, and that which is more definite, showing more accurate- 
ly and minutely what the Chinese government and people are in 
every respect, is greatly needed, especially at the present time when 
the nations of Christendom are biginniitg to think on their relations 
with this empire. Wc hope the Repoeitory, in due time, will embody 
all the most important narratives snd facts, worthy of being placed 
on record, respecting the jurisprudence of the Chinese, their sys- 
feme of education, domestic habits, social intercour^ public and 
private manners, religious and auperatious riles, history, arts, &c. 
Surely the time must come, soon we hop<>, when, the condition of this 
empire snd the character and wants of its inhahitanis being much 
more accurately known than they now are, the nations of Christendom, 
banded together to keep the peace of the world, each preferring 
each in honor, and all acting in regard to all on the golden rule — will 
rise in that true simplicity and dignity which ought to characterize 
the children of the King of kings, and strive together to elevate the 
Chinese to a high rank in the great family circle of enlightened and 
friendly nations. 

F. 8. Bioee writiDf the foregoing, new demandi hiTB been receind fi>r the 
B«poailory, not only for bsok volumci, but tin for the preient ; these demands 
Kill increaae tbe cicalation la more thxa 81)0 copies, monUily. 

Art. II. Siameu Hittoni! naiuxt emtiuMd, ginng an aoeomt 
of the SiaiMte wart dvring the year gOft of thtir era, or tim 
year 1535, a. d. By a Correspondent. 
SiAKE-K BRA, B05. The king of Pegu remarked, ' formerly 1 marched 
to HiFim ivilh 30,000 men, and proceeded even to the vicinity of the 
city wall, (0 a place called Lum[rfi, and nobody came fijrth to molest 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

18S6. Skmete HiMlarjf. 191 

iiM. But my fucu w«re too smBll Tor a protracted siege ; and if I 
go now with ten tiinee tin nnniber, I ahall ttien doubthsw iiiccMd in 
taking Siam.' With thia draign, he levied 300,000 troopa. 700 ele- 
peanta, 3,000 horaea ; gave his viceroy charge o{ the adraoce body ; 
the governor of Prome waa to command the right and Ml winga of 
the army ; and the governor of Baaaein, tlie rear. On Sunday, the 
Sd day of the waxing of the 3d moon, in Ibr aflernoon, the king 
being arrayed in all bia insignia of mililar}' glory, mounted on a male 
war elephant, named the < Earth Leveller,' capariaoned with royal mag- 
nificence, thti army being alt drawn up with the utmoat order and 
preciaioD, Hogs flyingi and every thing in roadineas, at a propitioua 
mnroent, the head aatrologer atTuck the mighty gong, whervupon, with 
all manner of powerful and delightful music, the march from Pegu 
waa commenced, and vigoroudy continued for seven days, till Ibey 
arrived at Moktama (Martaban) by way of Saroi. At that time, a 
letter arrived at Kiyachontaporii saying that the guanla bad gained 
intelligence from Cboiyat that the Pegnan king had, by a march of 
•even days, reached MtJitama and there reioaioed. — The prince Ma- 
hjl Chakrapat cauaed all the familjei of Trichatwa and Iho surround- 
ing regiona to remove for safety to the city, and sent word to Pitsa- 
nulok that if the Pegiian army should enter Siam, prince Thamma 
r&ji, should collect all the forces of the north, and intercept them. 
He then ordered Phayfc Chakri to pitch acamp at Sumpli with 15,1)00 
men, wearing red jackets and red cape. The dragon prince (Pliayi 
Nikb) was then a priest in the wat which is called the golden 
mountain. He left the priesthood and erected fortifications for the 
protection of the flotilla, eztpnding from the wat of Iho g<^den moun- 
laia to the wat of the jungle Pdn. All the people beg^ him to 
dig a trench outside of the works for the further protection of the 
btMta. This waa bonce called the canal of the dragon prince (Pliayi 
Nikh). The nobleman Mahjiseni raised (brtificatiom with 10,000 
men at Bidokmai, (or the village of flowers,) having a thick battle. 
ment in front. His men wore green jackets and caps. I'hc Phra. 
klang, having 10,000 troops, established himself at Champi. Hia 
men were arrayed in black jackets and black caps. All manner of 
preparations were made with great vi^r. The king of Pegu passing 
Kiyachontaptiri, marched towards Siam, and on Saturday the 5lh of 
the waxing of the 4th moon, pitched the first division of hia army at 
Kumduang. The division under the viceroy at Phaniat : that under 
the governor of Prome a( a new town called Mekh&myong: that under 
the governor of Baseein in the plai'na of Brachh^t. 

On the Sunday morning, the Gth of the waxing moon 4lh month, 
priiKe Mah& Chakrapat designed to march out and try the strength of 
the enemy on the plains of the golden mount lin. He, therefore, to- 
gether with his queen, arrayed in the habiliments of war, and two 
{;enemb R^tnesawan and Mahinto r&jd, miiunted their respcclive 
Hephanis, and at a propitioua moment, aa notified by the royal nstro- 
I'ljirr, the gon^, drums, and trumpets iiiaHe Hie welkin resound, as » 
sigdul i'it marching ; whcrii]MHi the king com iiw need hia iiiuveiiicuib, 
VOL. V. so. iv. ai 

i:.qnr-. b.V^-.00'^lc 

163 Siamat HtMory. Ave. 

(akiag with him liis Iwo sons. The eloplwnU rushed on with fury bnr- 
ii^ ««tch « roan amied with * musket mounted on bia Deck, while 
tbe foot •oldien marched on with ewonb, ahiekk^ ipeen^ utd guns, 
in rear and froot, on both Uw right and left. 'Hm Iramplii^ of nen 
and ekphantt made a notae tike an earthquake. Tbey ountinued 
their march to Kokphayi. When the P^uane aaw this, tbey convey, 
ed ioteltigence or all to tlwir soTereipi. He replied, ' without doubl, 
it mmt be Mnnit Chakra|>«t coming forth (o have an elephant fight ;* 
and he ordered his men to set Ihemselvea Id array. Then mounting 
bia elephant, with 10,000 men armed with awoids, in company wiib 
the governor of Prome, with 1,500 men armed with swords in each 
hand, he marched forth into tbe midst of the plain frontii^ the Siiim. 
ese army, at the distance of 100 ten. While he was waiting for 
some happy omen, he ordered his men to engage in all manner of bois. 
teroua sports and dancing. The kinjE gazed and saw the sun bUzii%[ 
without cloud or mist in tbe sky ; regarding Ibis as a bvomUe omen, 
he rode his elephant in front of his army, and caused tbe drums to 
beat, tbe trumpets to be blown, dec., with deafening rimsp. directing 
his forces to make a furious onset uprn the army of Mahi Chakrapal, 
who ordered his men to open to the right and left, rush forward with 
boisterous shouts, purmte. transfix, cut, slasli in every direction, till 
Ihey plunged forward va though leaping through the sky. On both sides 
many fell dead, and others rollioK in the anguish of their wounds till 
they almost filled the plain. Mahi Chakrapat pushed forwards his 
elephant su furiously that his life was seriously endangered. His 
queen, seeing this, hasted to rescue him, when the governor of Promo 
rushed furwurd, and with his royal swcnd made a gash in the queen's 
shoulder, pruisin;: down to her breast, and she died upon the neck of 
ber eluphanl. Riniesawan sod Habinlerit advanced to receive tlie 
corpse of their royal mother, and bore it away (o ttte city, llie Siam- 
ese perished in great numbeia. The king removed his queen's relica 
to tlie royal gardens. 

Tbe rexl morning, the Peguan viceroy attacked Sunlon Song. 
kram's fi>rt;'its garrison resisted from morning til) night, but wbu 
the Pee<mns were reinforced, it was compelled to yield with great 
loss. The next morning, the king of Pegu mounted on an elephant 
painted red, marclted his army into tbe fields of Sumpli, ordering 
his foot soldiers to march behind the clumps of trees on both side of 
the plain. Here halting his elephant, he pointed with his finger 
towards the entrenchments of PhayA Chakri, requiring his cavalry, 
(o the amount of 500, to advance upon it. Phayi Chakri came 
forth to the contest. When the Peguan army behind Ihe trees, beheld 
this, they nmlicd forth, and slew on every side, pursuing Ihe Siamese 
close to the fort, and occasioning dreadful carnage ; Phayi Chakri 
and his remaining forces fled across the country to the capital, and 
the Pepiiins took hie camp, and returned to tlie king's division, four. 
liftha of llie cavalry hearing eat^h a head of Ihe enemy. The king had 
hiiildtng erfcled, in which he gave a fcaHt to all who brought iMtads 
fur Ihrue lUys, during which, iftusc who bruiiglit nouc were lo remain 

1836. SioMeK Hitlmy. 163 

beneath and have all the water in which the others woBhu), poured 
down upon them. 

The Siamese determined to convey heavy orilinance in honts, and 
batter down the Peguan fort* ; the efitxts of which were such that the 
IVgUKM Aed to Phutlau, whrre (hev remained three days. Thence 
they proceeded by the three sacred Bannyan IrRM, ro Phuniat, at the 
wat of three palaces. While Phayi Rim wiw firing a heavy gun to 
dislodge the Peguans, the reaction of the gun ii|>«et hti vemel, but the 
shot broke off an immense limh of a tree which fell near his majesty's 
person ; and the Inmates of a fort, called Mahichai, aMailed ihe Pegu- 
auB lo actively that they failed in every attempt to gain the capital, and 
the king fled to his tents. When news of the Peguan monarch's ad- 
vance towards Siayuthia reached Thammarit (governor of Pitsanu- 
lok), he collected an army of BO.OOO men from Pitsanulok, Sawankha- 
lok, Siikhotai; Pichai, and Pichil, and marched to Chaiyanlilpuri, 
where be built forts, artd sent messengerato obtain new* from Singa* 
puri.* These mesaengers, when they saw the multitutlei of the Pe- 
guan army, fled but were pureued, two men taken, and brought to the 
Peguan king, who smiled at the intelligence they brought, ordered 
thoir heads to shaved, and then sent back to their master, with Ihe 
meesage (hat, if they were coming to intercept the Pttguanti, the 
Peguans would wait to receive them, if they were not cuttiing, the 
Peguan* would go in pursuit of them. At this newR, Thammarit, 
inquired, how large the Pegnan army wosT The messenger replied, 
(hey saw only the exterior encampment, but it seemed large enough 
to fill the plains of Phutlau. The Siatneae governor after complain, 
ing of the difficulty of getting intelligence in war that rniglil be de- 
pended upon, assured by all his officers, that the Peguan monarch 
was bmous for his strict adherence to truth : still, for greater security, 
he dispatched the forces of Sawankhalok and Sukhotai, amounting 
to 20,000 men, (o Indnpuri, there to make observalions. 

On Tuesday, the third of the warning of the 4th moon, the Peguan 
viceroy by royal order, very early in the morninfCt attacked the fort of 
Mnh&senii whose men resisted moat vAlianlly. The viceroy was very 
angry (hat the for( waa not immediately taken, and riding up in front 
of the fort, <Iii<tant about three len, he proclaimed to his uffir.eta, that 
if Ihry did not take the fort, at once, he would cut off nil tliuir head*, 
and hang them as ensings. Being thus intimidated, they rus!i?d for- 
ward en maaM, and carried the fort with Berioiw carnage : but M ih.iw. 
nft and his forces fled by a canal, and re-ichpd wit mayeng With great 
loss or men. The viceroy returned, and told the king all bo IidH done. 
At the time, the began to be in great want oi prowiaionE, riirrfging 
l>arliea were sent out, hut returned without succtmc, and the Pi-guan* 
i)egan to think of wtrealing. They could hope for the procuring of 
no food in returning by the wny thev camn for tlirv ("-ad di^iroyed 
every thing a* thev pn.ssRd along: "beaidt^," says ttie king, "Ihavo 
sent word thai if Tammaril does not fume dawn, I will go up and 
to be the name of ■ place on Ihe narth-eiat of 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

104 SuaiuiK Hitlory, Aon. 

attack him ; he has plenty or proviiionn and his army must give way 
bcrore us at the first onset) and hia provisions will fall into our 
hands." The people prained his decision bb the wisest pomible. He 
expected, that as he proceeded to attack Thntnmar&(. Msh^ Chakri- 
pat would puraue him in the rear, and that he would therefore have 
two armies to contend with. He therefore collected detnchtnenta 
helonginf; lo Bassein, Lakeung, Siriam, Toungu, and Siltoung, of 
each 30,000, in all 150,000; appointed the governor of Prome coro- 
mnnrler, and ordered faim, if be mat the forces of Thammaril to attack 
and rout them at once. If be let them escape for one night, the heads 
of all the officers of the detachment would be taken instead of tboM 
of the expected captives. The Peguan viceroy was appointed lo com- 
mand the forces that remained, and if the Siamese forces should anail 
Ihem in the rear, the viceroy must employ some afrelagem to aeiite 
more or less of their officeia and bring them to the ktng of Pegu 
on penally of life. Every arrangement was then made for withdraw- 
ing from the Siamese territories, witbin three days. 

When the Siamese monarch heard that Phayfi Thammar&f, had 
collected his forces, sent 20,000 to Indnpuri, and was himself st 
Chaiyaniltpiiri with 50,000, he was delighted with the intelligence, 
supposing that the enemy were now fairly hemmed in by him, end had 
no way of escape, except by flight to Kfiyachonlapuri. Sunton Song- 
kram mninlained that his Peguan majes'y was too able, skilful, and 
had too strong an army for such a measure, inasmuch as in his ad. 
vances he had destroyed all the provisions of that province. Hence 
he infL-ired he would proceed, attack Phayjl Thnmmarit and wize his 
provisions. The king of Sinm differed in his opinion, and ordered 
Sunton Songkmm lo take ftOOO men and 'vuylay the Peguans on 
the road to Ktiyuchontapuri. Notwilhslanding, lest the suggestion 
might prove true, his majesty ordered his two sona R&mesawan and 
Mahintcr&t to pursue the Peguan amy lownrds Chaiyanot. Both 
thc-se snne were taken and conveyed to the Peguan camii. When 
their father received intelligence of it, he was greatly dispirited, but 
framed a fulsome and yet a supplicating address to the Pt^guan mo. 
narch, and begged him to restore his children. He released Ibem, 
and sent them back to their father lo request that tbeir father wouM 
give him a couple of royal male elephants. They returned end told 
thfiir fnthnr that their offense in Buffering themselves to be taken <Ie. 
HPrved death, but begged he would pardon them once. He graciously 
forgave them. They then mentioned Ihe Pegunn monarch's request, 
which af^cr some demur was granted, but Ihe Ppguans and Burmans 
could not maoHfre Ihe elephants, which occasioned serious disturbances 
throughout Ihe camp, and were therefore returned. The Peguan 
forces wi're then wilhdrawn and returned home bv wav of Kamr^eng. 
pet. The king of Siam then ealablished the cities, Hakhon, Nonla. 
puri and .V.tkbniiclihaist, ond threw down the walls of Loppuri, Nd- 
vnk, ami Piinnnnpuri. Here end the occurrences of this year. 


Jlltlitary SUQ md Potter o^fAa CJuMte. 

Akt. lit. MHiUfj ikiO and pmeer of ihe Cftm^M ; actual MfaU 
of lie Moldicry, fort*, and armt ; daeriptioH of the JarU on 1A« 
r»er of Caatan; army a»d naog of CAma ; mode* of KOrfart ; 
affauioe and defoiuiet arau, ^., ^, Froni > CorraapoMetit, 
THina w. probaUy, at tha praaeni day no mon infallibe a crilnrion 
of (be civiUzatioa and adranceinant of •ocmUm thao tba proficieD«]r 
which aacb haa attainad in "tba nmnleroua arl," tha perfootion and 
vamly of tbeir imphnieDU for mutual doatruction, aad the akill with 
which they have learned to nae tbem. FaradosicaJ aa may appear the 
•Mertion that this very perfection and ayatematic aira^intation of 
wholeaale murder haa a direct eflect in humanittng mankind, by bring, 
ing all to one level and 1^ reducing war to a mere calcnlationt it ira 
fact now well underalocd ; and of which hielory provea the truth. 
The moat deadly warfiire has ever been that of man to man, when 
fighting hand to hand, where the peratmal atmngth and akill of each 
individual waa drawn fKit, and each fought peraonally for victory, and 
hie life. A» civilizatioD advanced, and war grew into a acience, indi- 
vidual valor became len prized ; and diKipline became the c^ect of 
the commander, who relied on bia own skill, in the direclicm of large 
ma«w on certain pointa, as the meana of victory. Tiie introduction 
of firearms, and (tie conaequent relinqukhment of defensive armor, 
became (be next grand atep; and (be worid has. in latter timea, seen 
kingdoRM won mm kiat with not m much effuaion of blood an fwroerly 
would have bu( aatiafied the commander of a moderate aized army in 
a aingle battle. Tho object, in civilized countries, has now become 
that of incapacitating and disorganizing (be opposing power, in lieu of 
(be old |rian of raoaauring the *gloT7 by the number (he alaughler- 
ed ; and i( is by no means proUemalical that, some few years hencr, 
(he Bcience and implements of war will be so perfected ai to mike the 
game far too dreadful for even kings to [^y at ; as utter extermination 
would result to both parties engaging. The recent improvement of 
sleara, and its adaptation to the purpts s of war, as in aleam-shipa, 
aleam-guns^ and the invention of Mr. Topli's dreadful paci|t«rfor (of 
which we aee a French douMe is announced, and which propels a 
stream of balls to a radius extent of near two mtlea, — the first idea or 
invention of which may probably be given to the fiort baron Napier or 
the marquis of Worcester), with the still greater improvements that we 
may reasonably look for in a few yeara, will, we have no doubt, help 
to bring about what all the lessoOB or the aagp, the treatises of the 
moralist and the legislator, have tried in vain In effect— the blenaing 
of universal peace; when, indeed, the iword shall be turned into 
a ploughshare, and the falchion the .icythe. 

If these views nre correct, and we believe them to be sn; and if 
this principle is admitted; the celestial empire will be found in the 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

lAQ MAUars SkiU and Pmnfr nf Ae Claaett. Arc. 

loweat state or civilizalinn, yet more in arms Umd arts. We iball now 
make aome inquiry oa lo the wlTancement of the Chinew in the des- 
tniclive acicnce ; and respecting their weapons, means of defense, &c. 
The march of impruvement in these has been as assiduously excluded 
from this "inner land," as in other fhin)![s of a more pacific kind; 
and as the Chinese were in this respect in the thirteenth century, m> 
we find them now ; at least, the change is so trifling as to be hardly 
worth DoticiDg. Morrison, in )jis View of China,* gives the year 
1375 as the time of the invention of powder and guns; and, as the 
powder is, to the present hour, of very infert« kind, and the can- 
non as bad as it is possible to be, with even moderate security to 
those serving them, the probability is that neither have much ira> 
proved since tlieir first invenli'in. We, of course, do not include in 
this censure (he guns cast by the Jesuits, Schnal, Verbiest, sod others, 
for the emperors ; and probably, some pieces cast, of lale, sear Can- 
ton, may quoted as improvements, in form and manubeture ;t but 
in the main, the remark holds good. The Chinese powder is usually 
coarse grained, and of uneven size; apparently, also, from the noi- 
some smell which it leaves after firing, abounding in sulphur ; it seems 
lo be easily affected by the atmosphere, to decompose rapidly, and to 
leave black stain and moisture on paper when fired. For these rea- 
sons, we can understand the want of eipansive foroe which has been 
noticed by all who have witnessed the discharge of Chinese artillery. 
At the pnssage of the Bogue, by his Britannic majesty's ships Andro- 
mache and Imogene, few of the shot bad impetus enough to go through 
both bulwarks, though fired at a very short distance, sometimes not 
more than a cable's length ; while many fell off hamilesa from tlie 
bends of the ship ; and many fell short ; some almost tumbling out of 
the mouth of the giins. It has been asserted that the government does 
not manufoclure the powder for the forts and troops, leaving this to the 
cere t^ the soldiers, or officers, who are allowed for it in their pay ; but, 
whether tliia is the case ur not, the fact of the miserable quality of the 
Chinese gunpowder is indisputable. 

" (A. D. 1275.) Fire michlnei In war were uied ID tnc^eat times, but not with 
powder. Whtl were called pami, weK michines for tJirowing itonea. They 
could Ibrcw them from lUV to 90(1 pacti. Fire-enginn commenced during this 
dyniBty, amoagsl the Tutcn. Lime and lulphui (Ihey uv) were encloaed in 
paper, and when thrown intoditcbei t!iB.l lunounded liie walliortowni, explod- 
ed upon cominv in canlaet iriLli vnter, and annoyed the beslegen. Wei Shing 
made enginei lor throwing gtonea, in which he uied powder. Hii powder waa 
made of sulphur and willow charcoal. Theie, it ii aaid, were the commence- 
ment of the powder and guna used in later agei. 

Al the commencement of the Ming dynasty (1366), they had ■ flre-chaiiota,' 
' liie-umbrellu,' and gum, whirli they called the greatgeneial, the aecond, and 
the third »neral, &c. At the beginning of the dyn»ty, they bad only a kind of 
muifcet called ahin-ke-ho-taeKng. The guna and muaketa of the Frank* (or Euro- 
neaiii), all appeared allerwiirdi. I^iden bnlletawere lirat introduced in theforty- 
ihird year of Keaking (I5(i:)). Mnaheta were introduced during the reign at 
Keatsing. Japanese entered the country, and with their mtisketa were taken. 
The Japanese thus taken were ordered to teach the Chinese. 

I in a report (o the emperor, the gorernor of the province Hales that of Ihew 
IfunK Ifii l>utsl II the nrst tire, llie niiinbec c:a>^t l^eing liHy.nine 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1836. JAIitory SkiU and Pomr of Ae Ckmeae. I6T 

The cannon which are to be seen in the foHa on (he Canton river, 
Kui which rnrny be tnken ae the beat which they here, except the 
bran giina of the Jesuits, are worthy of (he powder which is used for 
them. Many are Portugi ew or Dutch piecee, of every age, length, 
shape, and calibre ; and not a fuw of them so old and honey-combed 
as to i>e uaelew. Of nanrine cannon, properly ao called, they have 
none ; thoae on bnnrd the jnnkn being field or battering pieces, as 
described above. The native cannon are cast ; and are, we believe, 
univenally iron ; the bore not drilled smooth, as in European guns ; 
the carriages on which they rest are mere blocks of wood, or solid 
beds, on which the gun is Inshed down with rattans ; ao that it must 
be impossible to fife any but point Uank shots, and very difficult to 
direct the gun to an object, except that immediately in front of the 
embrasure whence firedr The forls aliout the Bogue are furnished 
with this piebald sort of armament, to the gross inefficiency of which 
alone is to be attributed the escspe of the two corvettes in 1884, which 
should have been blown into the air, at once, had the foits been effi- 
ciently supplied and worked. 

These forts, of which we hesr so much, are however, formidable 
but from their poeitioD ; the passage between the starboard and lur. 
board ones being a short three quarters of a mile ; and vesseb drawing 
over (wo falhonw being compelled to pass under the guns of that on 
Tiger island. The Andromache and Imogene, it will be recollected, 
worked through with light northerly airs, and against an ebb tide ; 
and were exposed to the fire of the forts, oHen a raking one, for an 
hour and ten minutes ; yet they received little if any damage, and 
lost but two men, in both day's engagements. The Chinese idea of 
fortification seems confined to the erection of a plain wall, generally 
up and down from the water, and facing the channel of the river ; 
Ibis front is built of granite slabs and chimam; and is of greater thick- 
ness below, than vrbere the guns are placed, becoming thinner as iC 
advances in height, and ending in battlements, on a common wall 
breast high, which the lookout men, on the top of the main wall, can 
see over. No use, however, seems made of the batllementa, which ar« 
but " the look see." At the back of the forts it seems to be the object 
to find a bill as sleep as possible, up the face of which a solid wall, 
without embrasures is run, joining nearly at the tup, so as to give it 
the appearance of a great stone " pound." Along this part there are 
no defences, and it is built but to prevent the gunners being pounced 
upon in the rear. It seems probable that the original model uf theae 
« horsBs-boe" forts is to be found in (he Portuguera one of (he barra, 
at Macao; where nature of the ground suggested (bis form, and 
whence the Chinese have copied it. Some of the forts in the Canton 
river, the Macao passage, and one at Anunghoy (the old Bogue 
fort), are in a circular shape, and look much more formidable than 
the others; moat of these mount two tier of guns — as, in fact, do now 
»me of (he others, since the forcing of the Bogus in 1834. Thai on 
Wangtong island, situated on the western aide of the entrance of the 
river, now luwks luore like u regular fort ; an upper tier, with a 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

leu MHHofg SldU mi Pomer t^ tke CUmk. Ave. 

difiereot Toce, ao u to make a croaa Rm with the lower tier snd 
Anunghoy, having beeo uliled l&telyi apparently by Mome better en- 
gineer th&n the Chinese era likely to poneae. Tbe back paB«Bg«, 
and that to the wnatward of Tiger islabdi ar« now defended by forta 
or batteries, d jtew do remi; and probably now altogether not len 
than 250 to 300 pietwa of cannon may be contained in tbe whole of 
the defences of the Bogiw. The guna of snnw of the old forts are no 
badly i>laced that, if the powder pofleewed the strength of that used 
in foreign countries, the nre would tell on each other, 

From the Bogue to Wbampoa, there it no defence— but, on the 
forks of a croes, the opposite points of two islands dividing the stream 
of the river into two channeln, which meet again, the lower ones at 
Wbampoa, the others two miles below Canton, there are two " fni^" 
on flat marshy land; one of which, known a« wHowqua's fi^ly," 
was built after the visit of tlie Alcesle to Whampoa ; and the other 
one, bijiher up, scarcely completed, was commencod about six months 
ago. Tbie is built of granite, pierced for about thirty guna, in a 
semicircular form ; and commanding the course of the river from 
Howqua'a fort, as also the two parts of the river which it divides. It 
ta a long half mile from its neighbor, one of whose aides (it being of a 
«quare shape,) it could batter down, while the compUnaent was return- 
ed into it from nine guns (always supposing Chinese shot to travel 
hair a mile), in case of any craft or boats forcing a way up. Howqua's 
fort or folly, as it is called, is no placed as to be, in fact, useloas; as 
a position could be taken up, on two of its angles, by boats, which 
might batter it down unharmed ; and even in case of boats pulling 
up to Btorm, the height of the guns from the water would render thera 
innocuous. The forts, as they nre in courtesy called, in the immedi- 
ate neighborhood of Canton, as the ** French and Dutch folies," itc, 
nre in such a wretched slate as to be scarcely worth naming, except 
ns they might be made poittta d' appiu against the city of Canton if 
attacked by an invading power, as they command the city and are 
easily BHsailuble from the water. Had admiral Orury been aware of 
Ibis Creat Britain might have been sjiared one of many signal din- 
graces in this country. 

We have given this delail'd description of the Mveral forts near 
Canton as, from all thai wi^ hear ind read of those in olhpr parts of 
the empire, these may be looked on as chef d" auvrti, and models 
for imitation. It will be seen that they are but samples of fortification 
in its infant state; without fuosea, bastions, glacis, or counter defen- 
ces of any kind ; beiug, in fact, but such lines as the engineers of a 
disciplined army would throw up, us temporary defences and to cover 
(heir guns, in the course of a single night. The river forts are open 
at all points ; and none of them could stand the fire of a heavy ship, 
aNsisted b; a storming partv, or tirailleurs on shore, who cnld alwayx 
find excellent posts in the rear or flimk. out of the reach of ilie guna of 
the forts. Nut the least noticeable point is that tbe gate is invariably 
placed in the side; the direct approach, if not quite open, commanded 
by at most one or two guns, und without ditch, drawbridge, porlculltb, 

I93C. MiUlarjf ^iU aad Power of the Chinetr. Ifit) 

OT aity dcfeiMc hut a few inches of plank in the inner and outer (loon ; 
for the wnll ia thickor here than at other parts, a small court being 
between, which may be conimanded rrom the lop of the wall by match- 
locks or arrows. 

As far as wo can judge of the efTective state of these fortis we should 
pronounce it to be, in geDeral, except on extraordinary occasions, us 
during the stay of lord Napier, the very worst imaginable. Many 
of our readers may rec<^ect tlM capture of Howqua'a fort in 1332, at 
night, when the officer and men were surprised, by a single piralicul 
boat, which had taken some ofiense at the garrison. It is true ihni, 
■inco 1834, a considerable body of troops has been stationed to work 
and guard at the Bogue ; but we are convinced Ibat a. eoup de main 
could carry any one of them in ten minutes, and that, before the pas- 
sage (^the corvettes, a body of filly armed men might have walked, 
unopposed, in and out of all the forts. 

Of «eady effective military strength, the Chinese seem to have do 
ideaj even at the city gates, where it is considered that a strong and 
responsible guard is dways kept, foreigners, who go from curiosity 
111 stare in, nnd no opposition more than from a coolie-looking man, 
armed with a pair of breeches, a fan, and perhaps a rattan whip. The 
approach of fweigners to deliver petitions as always a signal for a mus- 
ter of the military, who come in, one by one, undressed, unarmed, 
unprepared, and half asleep ; while piles of brown felt caps, and hrnps 
of shabby looking red and yellow long jackets, bearing the character 
" courage " on a large scale, before and twhind, arc brought through 
the gates, for the adornment of the heroes of the hour ; by and bye, 
straggles in an crfficer, generally the largest sized man that can 
he found ; some bowe^ sheaves of arrows, and rusty swords, make 
up the warlike show ; evidently got up for tho nonce to astonish 
and awe "the bRrbarians," who might, did they please, be in the go* 
vemor's harem before the guard could awake from theit slumbcn*, 
and put on their courn^ with their uniform. 

One striking proof of the inefficiency of this guard is the fact of the 
closing the city gates nl early hours during winter, rro(|iiently as eurlv 
as 4 p. M., to provciil tho irruptions of haiiditti ; who, nuvcrthclcsn, of- 
ten succeed in getting into the cily, nnopposctl, nnd undisturbed, 
whiki sacking whole slrecls; of which many instances may be read 
in tho curly Ni«. of the Canton Kcgister, Those who accompanied 
Mr. (lilib in his expedition to the city gate, in December last, to in- 
Hist on the relcnsc of the otfieer of tlie " Fiierie (iuceiie," can bear 
witiiCMt In the truth of the above acccint ; the nwotdn thon |>r<Hluccd 
were sn rusty tliat the Koldters cuuld prnrccly dmw Ihcm : the only 
man, in fict wmmdcd by them was one of the soldicta who received 
It cut in the face from the hack hand of the horn who stood l>cf«rn 
liitii. The same want of diseiplirw, nml the same careleaancs*, n]i- 
IK-ai in every |>agc of OutzliiH"i« and Liiiil^iys voyoj^e up the norllr- 
eoMt coast, whcrb oven, if |ioiB<ible, tliingx seem yet worse; auiim-t 
nlltor thingH of llio (sort, a ilisgday of the inilitHry !» deseribi-'l, whrie 
n general fire in lino v/a» ultcinpl'^d, but ^ bndly executed, that the 
VOL. V. no. IV. 22 


no MdiUtrg Skttt and Power of the Vkmae. \v<i. 

"olHien Ihemselvea joined in the Isugh set up by the foretgners, wlm 
were preaeni, wilneMing their mancBUvres, Sec abo the rest of the 
vovftges ofGutzlaff nn the coast of China paubm. 

While such would appear to be the actual state of the soldiery, it 
will Bcem strange to many that the accounts of the two unhappy em- 
bassies teem with alatenieDts of the high discipline and fioe >ppear. 
ance of the soldiers among whom they passed ; but, even auppoaing 
that neither of the writers of the works, published since, labored under 
a delusion, (and of this, particularly of Mr. Ellis, in the last embassy, 
few can doubt,) the frequent accounts of the drawing out of bodies ot 
troc^is in all the cities as they passed, strikes the reader as a mere 
trick to daserie or mystify the foreigners, and to impress them with high 
ideosof the number and powerof the troo]M;*any great body of men looks 
imposing, especially when in uniform ; and it is far from improbable 
that the Chinese supreme government gave orders to all the gnvernora 
of provinces and cities, in the route of the embassy, to make as great 
a display as possible ; in like manner as commanders of forts obtain 
n capituJatioo and the honors of war by exhibiting to the flag of trtice 
an appearaDce of plenty and force, while starvation and weakncM 
reign in the garrison. The constant firings at night, so much spoken of 
in Lord Amherst's return voyage through China, go to bear out this. 

It may be true, that some of the IVtar troops yet retain something 
of the warlike spirit which enabled so few of them to overrun this 
vnst empire ; though, even against this, come the constant complaints 
of the emperors, from Keenlung downwards, as to the falling off of* 
the military ardor, and the lesserted dexterity in the use of their pe> 
culiar weapons, the bow and the sword.-f- These complaints are often 
now to be found in the Peking gazettes ; and it is but. a short time 
since tlie viceroy of Canton, in a proclamation, stated the same foct, 
ordering the frequent exercise of the troops, to repair this great 
error. The falling off of the 'I'artar spirit is, in fact, in accordance 
wiih all that we are taught by the history of human nature ; and the 
mime result has invitriably attended, within a few generations, the des- 
cendants of the conquerors of every soil, when once domesticated 

" At every mllilary prat and evrrj Lawn of note along the river, troop* were 

rlrawn Out while Llie /nchla carrying tlie embusy were paniag AAer Lho 

BsluteB were over, the gandy dreBBea or uniforrni of the soldien, warn upon 
(■xtraordinary occaiioiis, togellier with their arms, were raid to be depnaited in 
the «torch»a«e of UieaUtion, until they should again be wanled: in the interval, 
tliemenanume nol always a military, but often Lhe common habit of the people ; 
and are occupied In manufaclures or the cuItlTstioD of the land. StBunton'H 
Rinbnaay, voi,2, p. 74. 

I Un re«U>, on y reuiarque blen ninln^ di: discipline que dans lea trnupea mo- 
<1i'rni.-!i ili> r Europe, tnoina d' caprit milltaTre,el, rans conlredit, moina deejiurage: 
Kile* nnt eu d' nllleum poll occosinn de I' eiereer depuia la demitre invaiinn 
dea Tartarea, Ceux-ci iie snnt plua eui-m^inea ce qu'ila furent aulrefbi* ; IV- 
diicetion qu'ili reijoivcnl aujourd'koj a dO ennlrlbuor k lea amollir. On uo mrl 
*uua leayeux dca jeuncs Chinois quo dcH livrct dr inuralo ; on iieleurpiirle fjiu- 
de loia et de politique ; ila volent parlnul p'u d' ^gncdx pour I' 61nl inililiiiri' 
Reux qui r embiaaaent, ne le font aouvenl que par I' impuiWHiicc dc poiivoir 
prendre lout autre parti It leur manque ce qui mf'ncaui graoda pmf(reitdiuK 
toua lea gi-area, I 6niultilioa. Groiitr, Dtscr ilc ia I'hUc, Vol 5, p. Id. 

1830. Jlfiltldry sua owl. Pbrnro/* the CUtfM. 171 

amongat, or Bmalga mated with, the conquered. So far hai tbis been 
carried in C'liina, that the emperor has frequently reproved in public 
documents, the Tarlnr tribeH, for forgetting, not alone their military 
exorcises, but even their language, which it haa ever been Ibe policy 
of this dynasty to pr^erve unmixed and uncorruptcd. 

The total insufficiency of the Chinese military force to repress any 
urdinary out-breaking in any port of the empire has, of late, Itecome 
notorioua to foreigners : and in the many insurrections, within the l>i«t 
eight years, on the northwest frontier of the empire, as also in many 
of the provinces, in the islands of Formosa and Hainan, and the hillK 
of the Skaoutne in Hoonan, Kwangse, and Kwangliing, the VAnacm 
always admit that treachery and gold have effected what arras failed in 
procuring, the return of the leaders of the disaffected to submission. In 
the trifling Mtaoutne war of 1832, so great was the demand for, or the 
scarcity of soldiers, that the Tartar troops, who should always remain in 
the city, and (he fooyuen's own troops, were sent off; and, even then, 
Ibe whole force raised by the government did not reach, it is said, 
beyond 11,000 men. In Hainao, where governor Le went in person, 
he had not more than S,OI}0. If these stalemenis be correct, and they 
cannot be very wide of the mark, what becomes of Ibe immense pa|>er 
armies, which the Chinese are said to be able to collect T During 
lord Napier's residence in Canton, it was notorious that men were 
hired, by the day, to pass off as soldiers to intimidate (he foreigners; 
and, among the heroes, were recognized discarded cow.keepeis, bro- 
ken down tailors and shoe-makers, and other rilfrnff innumerable. 
A nation which has recourse to such shifts, and which dresses ils 
chief soldiers in regimentals, in imitation of tiger's skins, to terrify its 
enemies by their appearance and cries, can have but small iiretensions 
to valor or military skill. We had also a curious proof of the state of 
discipline among the scddiers at that time. The gang which had it in 
charge to watch the unfortunate lord Napier, to blockade and starve 
him, such being the cowardly fiendlike plan for conquering him, were 
employed day and night, in smoking and gambling on the pavement 
io front of the factories, spread out at full length, in the indecent 
undrew so much liked by the Chinese, 

We have described the Chinese as powerless on land, except in 
the strength resulting from great numbers ; but it may be fairly doubt- 
ed if, even from this, any real strength could be looked for. In all 
Asiatic countries, the cultivator of the soil is so driven dowrt to a 
bare subsistence that be has no care as to who ia, for the time, gov- 
ernor or possessor of the country; in fact, he has nothing to lose: 
the new conqueror, for his own sake, will not attempt to harsss him 
from whom nothing is to be got, and on whose esertionB mainly depend 
the value of his conquest, (he soil ; il is for Ibis reason that serfs and 
ryots live on in quietness, regardless of all changes and conquests ; 
and that their patnotism, as we call it, is confined to a mere love of the 
country in which (bey have been brought up, and does not extend Io 
the dynasty which governs the country, any more than it does to the 
officers in power over them or their village. This is ths secret of the 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

1 n Xtldaty Skitt Md P<Mcer of the Chtneae. A vo. 

rapid overrunning ot largo eulern emiiirea, immediately ■ beavy lilnw 
in iitruck at Ihe chref oT the atste ; or that the dnhnding umy is de- 
feated. The oaly oppooenia an military, and nobilily, or wealthy 
iwn or the Male ; some atruggling for life and place ; otbera for their 
poeaettiona ; while tbe paace6il laborer livea oii in utter diaregard 
or the atrufo^le, and indinereDoe as to the aide (o which victtny may 
incline. The repeated cooqaost of China, India, and Paraia, uiay 
prove lliia sufficiently ; and tbe cooqueat of this country (apparenlly, 
ir we may judge &om the etemenla of ehangea already apparent, now 
not far uD,] wUI be effected with leaa difficulty than at any rormcr time ; 
DO relaxed and powerleas aeema the military force of the empire. 

If, however, this be predicated of tbe land force, what words can 
convey an adequate idea of the monstrous burlesque which the iu). 
peris) navy presents to our aatonisbed gnzc ? I'oWL'rIcsa beyond the 
jiower of doscripf ion or ridicule to pourlray, yet set forth with all Uio 
braggadocio and pretence for which the Chinese aia so famous, the 
marine of this vaat empire presents a atate of things unparalleled among 
even the most savage slates or islanda that we know of: and we 
ijuery much if a couple of New Zealand war canoes would not bo an 
ovcrmatcli for all the force thst could be brought against them. It 
lias been hccr that o wholo imperial fleet has, more than once, " knock, 
nl head " to a singlo unnnned nierchanlman, manned by LaMtnrs ; 
nitd the misvralilo utpii vocal ions to which admirals and governors of 
large provinces have had recourse, to get rid ofso formidaltlo a visitoi, 
.iTC OS well known as the valor with which they have fired nt lite ship, 
when sniling away four or five miles from them ; or Ihe civility wilh 
which the intruder has, against the ompcror'a most positive nnil 
lopeatod orders, been treated while remaining in the port or laiy, 
whrrc linr avocations or pleasure may have ted her. It will be seen, 
that the fact of the alMolule weakness of the marine is now well 
known to the emperor ; and all his governors of sea-board provinces 
liave avowed the imjHMsibility of preventing the visit of a " barbarian " 
or " demon " ship. II ia not many years since the inhaliitants of tlm 
(WB-coast were ordered to withdraw, a day's journey inland, as tlio 
4inly means of preventing the irruptions of a ladrone fli-et ; and we 
have seen that, twcnty-fivo years buck, a pirate kept this and the nei^t 
province in check ; stopped tbe trade, and ravaged all parts of tbe 
coast and country, near the river aide, with the most daring audacity, 
end in perfect security ; till, after a long course of horrors and vio- 
lence, he and hia chief companions were bought off, by a free pardon 
and high governmental appointments, the retention of all their troa* 
eiires and forgiveness of all their followers. So unchecked were tlieso 
iiion, that they often came up the Canton river, careless of the forts, 
and laughing at the edicts and mandarins, so near to the provincial 
cily that the report of their guns was even heard in it. They rca|>ed' 
the crops of tlic villagora, plundered granaries, fevicd black mail, and 
put to death all the mandarins vhom they caught ; yet were ihey 
triumphant and unlinrmed, for years; and, as wc h;ive said, wt're 
■ vpntunlly bought oil; by Ihe government which Ihi'v hud uulraged 
^i.ii .Ivliod. 

lS3d. Miiiars SkUl otui Power rflie Chmae. 173 

lltii WBB the same course as was pursued by Kanglie (in 16S4) 
Willi the Tamed pirate Ching Kihshwang, the grattdson af the fanind 
pirate Koxinga, whose family had for Toity years put the power ol' 
tlio Tartar conquerors of China at defiance, und laughed it to Morn : 
M> important was considered his subtniaaion, Ihat we find il stated 
in Chinctjo history, that "the multitude was callud together by gov- 
irniiienl, to witness the tongore of the pirate chief and his jiarty." 
'I'he founder of this family was originally a servant to a foreigner at 
Macao ; and hod, il is believed, been in Eurtipe, or India. Il must 
l)e observed that this buying off of (he pirates was when the Tortars 
were in (ho flush of conquest, and when all China had been reduced 
by their arms. By bis power at sen, ibis man's son, Koxingn, kept 
|H»d08sion of Formosa, from which lie hod ejected the Dutch, tu 
whom it had been given by the previous dynasty, in exchange for the 
I'iEcadores, which they had established lhctnselvr« on, and which 
(he Cliincse had not jKtwur to wrest from them. He succeeded, by 
Mlarving and blockading the Dutch, whose ships had gone to ISatavin, 
in forcing ihcm to evacuate the fort Zclandio, and retire from Iha 
ixlaiid ; which on hit grandson's surrendering to the Tartar em))eror, 
reverted to IIhs Chinese empire. It will be thus seen that the same 
titter weakness, in which the Chinese empire is now, such has been 
its characteristics for centuries ; and, as all foreign improvemcnls 
uro despised, there scorns little doubt but that it will be permanent. 

The Chinese war shj|>a (Junks) are large unwieldy looking masses 
of timber, with mat sails, wooden anchors, rattan cables, a considera- 
Mc sheer, flat upright stems, no stern jioijts, enormously high sternii 
ornamented with gold and paintings, considerably weakened too by 
a targe bole in which the monstrous rudder can be hoisted up and 
housed in bad weather; immense quarter galleries, and look-out 
houses on the deck ; generally drawing but little water, flat floored, 
|)ainted red and black, with large goggle eyes in the bows ; and, as 
Knickerbocker descril>cs the Goede \'rouw, looming particularly largo 
inn calm; such is the appearance of a celestial "first rate:" — few 
are over 250 to 350 tons, and the generality are armed with but two 
or four guns, which, as we have before observed, are on solid beds, 
and must therefore be useless, save in the smoothest water. We have 
occasionally, however, seen six guns in a large war junk, on special 
service ; and two which were stationed in front of the Praya Gran- 
de, ar Macao, during the business of the late lord Napier, had each 
eight, of various siz«8 ; two of which, taking the whole width of tho 
deck, were old brass field pieces, which, had they been fired, must 
cither have sunk the junk, or gone, with the recoil, over the gangway 
in their rear. The crew is composed of forty to sixty men, accord- 
ing, it would seen), as they hie designed to act against their own 
people or foraigners. Lances, pikes, and a few swords, but plenty of 
goo^ stones, make up the armament. The smaller craft are not m 
shapeleM at (be others, being tNiilt partly on the model of some for- 
eign boats, OS the Chineaa acknowledge, the same as used in the hong. 
n;ercbantH' and the smuggling boats ; these are neat in their appearance. 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

174 MaiUtnt SIM and Power of At Chineie. Kva. 

pull Trnni ten to sixtv oars, ^nd go veiy fast ; they are armeil willi 
one or two small nrtveh, two, tbrae, or four pouMdera, and the uauni 
and favorite weapoM of the ChiMMi lal>ces and Btonea ; over tite Bide* 
or the boats, as tiMy puD( are bang ahnMi of imttana paiswd into a 
caricature of a tiger's bee, with which to prot«et tbWMBliOT in ease 
of attack. We have atas in KMoe of these seeB, occario«aiiy. aome. 
thine appruaehiog to boarding nettings; but their speed is what is 
chiefly relied on. To convey to the mind of a stniwnr (he ridiculoas 
excess of the inutility rrf'tbe naral establishinent of China, would, we 
are well aware, be impoesible; ooald it even be rendered, it would not 
be more credible ; helplessness and cowardice are the chief, we may 
say the only points; but carried to such an extreme as would appear 
impossible to all who have not visited the country. 

Nor again, judging from what we knowof the campaigns of late yearsi 
are the Chinese armies much more to be dreaded than their fleets. 
We have now before us multitudes of instances in which small bodies 
i>r insurrectionists have kept head against the imperial troops for peri- 
ods that amaze us ; the emperor, in almost every case, being obliged to 
urge, threaten, and force the governor to take the business properly 
in Itaod ; and yet, notwithstanding all this, partiiil rebellions are pro- 
tracted fnr indefinite terms, and are generally only got under, at last, 
by bribery and concitiatien. The Chinese array, large as it is somc- 
limRS made to look on paper, exists but in name ; the soldiers, who are 
stationed from generution to generation in the same town, unlew call- 
ed out on actual service, naturally prefer taking their pay and going 
on with their peaceful avocations, or luxuriating in the dolce far 
MJerUe, the supreme bliss of a Chinese, to undergoing the dangers of 
the tented field ; and what the soldiers want in courage and effi- 
ciency the oflicers by do means make up in skill : nor is the total 
absence of a good commissariat, and the difRculty of transporting 
supplies, or mtmttton* de guerre as ds bouehe, with the want of all 
medical or surgical aid, much calculated to stir up the dormant 
courage of the sons of llan. 

The Chinese tactics are as puerile as most of their other ancient 
disquisitionsi whether on morals, philosophy, government: a collec- 
tion of pompous, trite, and meaningless common places forms but a 
poor school for soldiers ; yet, in the most famous treatises on the mi- 
litary art, held, na all (he old books, in bigoted esteem by the Chinese, 
we find nothing better. Sententious nolhingB, and merry andrew 
tricks anJ distortions, are all that we find as theoretical and practical 
soldiership, in these admired treatises; to depart from or impugn 
which, would, in the eyes of the Chinese, be little short of sncrilege. 

We have now open before us their books on the art of war, ns 
collected by the Jesuit missioDaries, and which form a compendium 
of military skill. Prom the "exercises," we take, almost at random, 
the following, which is a good sample of ttie whole ; and which will 
convey do bad idea of the absurdities, yet hdd in reverencfl. and 
wliich have been approved of the Tartar Chinese emperora. 

On donne un son de trompette ; inunedistement spres on frti^ un conp 
.tit le tambour: i I'instant lea soldsts discontinuent leurs Evolutions; ils 

i:..T,r b.^^nOO'^IC 

1836. MiUUay SkiO and J^neer of lie CfuMte. ITS 

restent Mraut «n boone conteamce, teimit Ifl Mbra et le b*uelier an dewga d« 
lenn Uua, duM la dupoaitkiD f ttuqiier m d« w difeadre, «t kHH enwiiH 
bk pottwent nn gnod cri. 

On fivppe on cottp snr 1« tUDbour; 1«8 aoldats tonrnent corum a'ili nn- 
loieiit ■'onVrir an pusagn de ce cAte, et pouHest on gnnd cii 

Od frappe an coup nir le tambour ; lea aoldua toornent le mbre du cfite 
dnit, eonune a'ilii vouUHont a' ouvrir nn passage de ce cBU, et pouasent un 
gnnd cri. 

On ftappe us coup but la tambour ; laa Baldat«-«e remettent, et peuaaent on 

On frappe un coup sur le tambour ; lea scddata I£v«nt le aabre et le bouclior, 
ae tenoeut en d^fenae, font un paa en avant, etpouaeent un grand cii 

On fiappe deux coups aur le tambour ; lea aoldais ae touroent i gauche, et 
fizent la vue stir lea ^tendarda qui sent diploT^ 

On frappe un coup lur le tatnbour; soldate fbnt dca ^Tolutiona avec Ic 
sabre et le bouclier ; ila se courbent nn pen comme s'ils vouloient ae cacher ; 
ila mettent le sabie en \aDg aur le doi (la poigD6s-prfs du- cob), et pouasent 

On &^pe cinq coups aur le tambouf; cfaaque soldal ajast le corps ra- 
mvmt. aooB son bouclier, dont il eat enliireiDent convert, &it un paa en avant 
en ae toutant aur ce mime bouclier, qui lui sert de point d' WHii, comuie il 
feroit snr une roue, et aprea le tour entier Q ae releve tout de auite, et ae 
troave debout dana la disposition d* attaquer. (I) 

On frappe un coup aur le tambour ; lea aoldats font tra pas en arant, font 
agir le aaore de droite i gauche et de gaoche A droite, et pouaaent on grand 

On fnppe nn coup aur le tambour; les soldats font agir le sabre de gauche 
i droits, et poussent un gnnd cri. Su Memmrtt oonctrrunU tei Ckbu^ 
V«L7,pp.m, 334. 

The rest of the exercises, contained in & quarto book of 396 pagetr,. 
sre in the same spirit as the foregoing ; frapper It Aimiour «1 povtter 
dei grandi erii — is the whole burthen of the Chinese Dundee. We 
may ny, as corporal Trim to uncle Toby, •« ah, your bonor,' one good 
thrust wT the trayonet were worth it all <" 

It often happens that high civil officers take the direction of tho 
troops, when the case ia pressing; but, when war is made by bookv 
this is not much to be wondered at. From thia it is, that we cbm 
understand the complaint of governor Le,-4n 1831, to the emperor,- 
that the mountaineers of Hainan had pretended a retreat, and led 
his troops into a poaition where, as Fall luff imvs, his ragamuflins wero 
well peppered, the rebels having had the amazing audacity toinveigle 
them into a defile, where they shot arrows at them, and set the long 
grass on fire, thus destroying "not a few hundreds;" thus niso, the 
remark of general Vu Tihpeaou, aa to the Meaoutsze, in 1832, who 
came on him at night (while his troops were resting, and cooking 
their rice), throwing in fire balls, and blowing up the powder, beaidea 
wounding and killing men quietly engaged in taking their dinnere ; 
which was certainly by no means civil treatment of those going "on 
his majeaty'a service :" of this mfmr mode of fighting, a due repre. 
wnlation was made. Complaints of this sort abound in the reporla 

1 V^nOC^IC 

179 itddarf Sii/I nd Pawer of Ae Cimete' Asc. 

mule about the mn which hare bees cvriod oa dnriag the Uat Tew 
yeuf; ptofing that miiitarr iUI ia eoH6M(l ts their booki^ hnt that, 
among the Qving Chineae, it is bat a dead letter. 

The principal weapoo* of the Chineee are the bow, the match- 
leek, the eword, end the laace or pike : the on in annies tf can- 
non, except of a aoiall aize, ia, we think, but vf onfieqaent occur- 
rence ; the diflically of trantpott oT aoch uuwteUy weapone over the 
fcnd or narrow rcada. or orer hilla and rivera, muit be greater than Ibe 
sain in efficiency ; we read, it is traet of Kai^he baring cannon of 
nghl kind cait In the Jeauiti, in order to puaiah aome hill borderen 
who bad rebelled ; and Keenlung bad them taken against tiie Heaon. 
twte in hie intended mr of extermiaatioa ! we aleo know that nnall 
piece* are HMd< on the backs of drooanUriea, in the northwest and 
deeert rrontier; but, as constant aad powerful aids to an army, the 
cannon of the Chinese cannot be r^rded. We have never read or 
heard of any thing appmoching to the light and handy SeM pieces of 
the western world ; nor, from what in Macartney is described as the 
•Sect of tho exhibition of those sent from England, is it pae«ib)e that, 
even at Peking, nay idea was to that time entertained of the existenco 
of inch. The shot is not well made, and, as the gune are of rarious 
eizes, wo apprehend that no great core can be taken to give each its 
own ; loose and small bullets and pieces of iron are used, as well as 
stone*, which are often tired as balls. Of shells, we believe, the Chi- 
ncM have no ides : we find mention made of hollow masses of iron, 
filled up with powder and pieces of iron, being used to harass an ad- 
vancini; army, by burying them in the ground, whero it ia expected 
tho next night's encampment may be made ; but, as weapons of activo 
nnnoynnce, the Chinese have yet to learn their use. It is a pity that 
the luMKin had not been given at tho attack on the Bogue forts, whose 
shape and situation are admirably suited to the purpose : the explosion 
nt (ho Hmt shell would have been the signal for an evacuation en masse, 
Tho Chinese use common rockets to set on lire housee, tents, dec. 
and some were fired at admiral Drury's boats, in his half-and-half 
altnmpt to roHch Canton. 

Tho matchlocks are ill-made weapons ; most of their bullets, iron ; 
anH tho bayonol, unknown. Flint-locks, carhinos, pistols, and all tho 
ntliiir trihra of firc.nrmi>, are not in use. The bow is generally of 
IKo strength of forty to eighty catties; the string silk; the arrows 
are wnll made, feathered, and with iron or steel barbed points. This 
is doiihtlciM, tho most officient of their arms ; and, a^ Macartney was 
lokl, "is held tho highnst in iii<timation." The swords are of two 
kinds, straight, heavy, double pointed (not unliko the Roman sword), 
of about two foot in length ; or somnwhit longer, bont in the form of a 
8 thro 1 the handlcri of both are plain and unguarded. Those which wo 
have seen, are, in concral, heavy weapons, of rather rough make, and 
|HM>r finisli, and of bit! ordinary metal j far inferior, in all respects 
III lliojHi uw)d by fpiroignors. Daggers and knives do not seem used 
for the piiriHKir of war. Tlio pike w lance it used of every poosihic 
v;irioiy of rnnii ; tlio shaft from Icn to fourlcon fcot long, of bamboo or 

1830. mUlarg SOHll and Power ofAi CXmcw. 177 

hard wood ; some are like a balfaerd, a Loohaber axe, a Mythe on 
th« end of a pole, a half moon with the curve inward or outward, and 
aharpened to a tine edge ; but the whole of them probably used ninra 
aa means of domextic deferaw llian in the tield. The il(!li.-nsive armor 
<.*oiti|iritics only IIm iron helmcfi and quJIti^ dresa uf the TDTlar, wliicli, 
ait Staunton says, "seems to have the inconveniencp, without the ad- 
vanta^s orarmur." Double swurda, ao called, nrc sometimes used : 
these are not much longer than a large dnggorj (heir itixide mirfncea 
are ground flat, ao Ihot when placed in contact, they lie closi; to each 
other and go into a single iKabbard : the blades ure wide at the hill, 
and decrease reguLuly towards the points. When unsheathed fW 
action, the Chinese warrior brandisbes one of these blades in each 

We have now gone through the subject whicli we sat down to 
di8cui«s and although we were well aware that the military tWe 
of the Chinese empire was much overrated, we rise astonished at 
the weakness, the utter imbecility, which we find the various w«rk-i 
which we have searched agree in attributing to it. It acems indoed 
strange (hat the wholo fabric does not fall asunder of ilsi'ir: of this 
wo are convinced; that, at the first vigorous and well directed blow 
from a foreiga power, it will lotter to its base ; and it is by no mciiii>i 
impossible that the secret societies, which we look on as ombodyiii^ 
comparatively great strength, and whose object notoriously is thu ex- 
pulsion of (he Tartars from the Chinese empire, will before many years 
cfTccI what they wish. 

Opposed, as wO have avowed ourselves, to war, as a principle, wo 
have no wish to see its horrors brought here by any of the civilized 
nations of the western world ; nor in fact, do wo think it at all likely, 
unless conquest were the object, and this is by no means probable, thiit 
the Chinese, wary and politic as they arc, would ever allow matters 
to go so as far as hnrd blows. Wo are strongly of opinion that many 
years cannot peas over wilboul seeing some inlprfcrenci?, in one wav or 
other, by one of the many foreign nations which trade in gradually 
bringing into more immediate cotilacC with China. Tlic Unittd 
States have sent an envoy, more than once, to the nelghlmuring couriM 
of Cochinchjna and Siam ; and we sincerely hope that (he experiment 
will be tried at Peking. A proper interference would, probably, pre- 
vent the citaatrophe which may ebc bo drawn on the Chinese empire 
by the arrogance of its rulers. The evil day may he put off; but 
come, at length, it must; if a treaty of commerce be not cU'ectcil, 
by which the suhjectg of both the native and fureign powers may at 
once be protected and controlled. Is it wise to wait till quarrels of a 
murderous nature spring out of misunderstandings? We think not ; 
and it is in the hope of avoidiilg the consequences of a recourse lo the 
ultima ratio regum that we deem the arrangement of a rommorcial 
treaty a moral Ju/Jr of the nations trading with China. Of what may 
constitute, in the eyes of kings and iDinistera, the jugl grounds of war, 
nx cannot judge ; but that a nation nursing itself, like the Chinese, 
in solitary, sulky grandeur, and tienting as inferiors all other natioua, 

*OL. V. MO, IV. 3i1 / - I 


178 Vnrrttpontiatce with the Chmete Gtnenmtid. Ave. 

most far its superiors id civilization, resourcos, courvgp, srls and arms, 
soema lo us so much of an anomnly that we cannot contemplate itn 
long duration, when the M»lea shall have fallen from the eyes of tlio 
" barbarian " nations, who for so many yean, havp, in ignorancn, 
bowed Ihe knee to a power which, aa to efficient atrength, is nu more 
than the shadow of a shade. 

U> Arian^ m&tten with the Chinese, uid thai apeeditjr, id order lo prevcDt an 
appeal to the " tdtivm riuio rtgvm." — It ia proper to ilatc here that, bis p*p<r 
waa inhantl before the arrival of the recent paiiiphleta on China. — CorrigeiUa. 

Art. IV. Corrtiponienee tnith the Chmeee gmjentment; two UUerx 
froM the forei^ tnercAonlt, addreited lo Ihe governor mid hop- 
po, leilh the rr.pliea of their exceileneie* to the second letter. 
TiiKBR iaan old Chinese maxim to this effect. When yoti enter n 
country inquire what prohiliitions are there in force, The late go- 
vernor Loo, in one of his edicts addressed to foreign(;r9, said, "Obey 
and remain, disobey and depart ; there are no (wo ways." It is un- 
questionubly our duty to know the laws, and to obey them, so far as 
we can with a conscience void of offence townrdfl God and man. Un- 
righteous laws vve nuiy not obey ; neither emjieror, king, parliament, 
senate, nor council, has a right to make us worship wood or slnm-, 
or to cause us to steal, murder, defniad, covet, or do any evil thing. 
Wc have, then, not only a right, but it is our duty, to inquire into the 
charncter of the laws which we are called on lo obey. Althoi^li, 
according to govemor I.oo, there sre no two ways, yet we conceive 
that, without either aequietemg in bad laws or departing from the coun- 
try, there is a way open to foreigners, namely that of remonttrtuiee. 
Tlicre have been, and may stijl be, those who deny Ihe existence of 
this right, even where the regulations are most notoriously evil and 
relate solely to the foreigners. " It belongs," say they, "only lo the 
aidhoritiei to concern theniselvee with the regulations of the stale ; 
foreigners have no right to intermeddle with such matters ; and if Ihey 
do not Uke the rpgulations of the country, let Ihem slay at home." 
Much as we love peace, and would pursue only the things that moke 
for peneo, wc cannot approve of this theory : homo turn, huwumi nihil 
a me tdienum pulo. It is generally conceded, we believe, thai Iho 
laws uf China, respecting Intercourse with foreigners, are hostile both 
tn its true interests and to theirs. Thoy engender pride, self-sulli- 
cicnry, strife, deceit, hatred, and the like ; they are at variance with 


1836' CWnqnuimtt ttiAi^ CUmm OmrtMSBb 170 

Uifl AWam (sslimMy IhUt « Hb batll made ef otw blood •)> ths utimM 
of men ;" ttiey retard iMdiuUy ) pcMmc Ifaa diffimM of UMrfiil koov^ 
hxlge ; tad, ^ God hat purpoiw ot'KwtBf n Mluchng hv* ilM ffm* 
pel of bw Son, tbey go u far m hunutn lawn caa fp to prareBt thAr 
«xecnlion. Against lam pngsant with aicli of ils, pMsna w» sot* 
becatiM we are foreigtierei the right of femoMtniMMi 1 If so, tb«ii 
may not Britain meddle with the buying and oelliag and kidnapping 
of Africa's abused sons, nor plead their eauae wbererer her toflueDce 
extendi Are there any so heartlew as to deny to her this right 1 
Surelv none, except those who enjoy the wages of that foul iraflic. 

We are gind to put on record in our pages, a* we do below, tlie 
correspondoDce between the foreign merchaats and the local authori. 
ties respecting a tartfT. It will be saeii, indeed, that it has produced 
little or no effect in correcting abuses ; but it goes to establi^ the 
preoedaii of foreigners writing and ashing for the correction of se- 
rious evils which embarrasH their commerce. We rejoice at this, be. 
cause in so doing, foreigners assume the right of standing on the 
shores of China and requiring the government to do them justice. 
And though the government has refused to grant their retiuest, still we 
do not believe foreigners will either obey or depart ; nor can wo urge 
them to do eo, against right and reason. But we would urge them still 
to point out to the government the existing evils, and to remonstrate 
against them, and that in a tone and spirit that shall cause us erelong 
to see avarice and exlortion quailing before the demands of truth, 
justice, and humanity. We do not now touch the question.^, to what 
extent their remonstrances shall l>e carried, and what obligations rust 
u|H>n western and Christian governments to second the efforts of their 
merchnnts to hold intercourse, and only honorable intercourse, with 
these eastern nations. The pamphlets that have recently ai^pcarcd 
upon this subjecl, one of which we noticed in our last, show that in- 
quiry is alive: and wo sincerely hope it will not cease untill duty 
is plainly develo|>od. There are those who think that the spirit of 
free trade will of itself ctiango laws and customs, and of itself effect 
all that is neodful in Che relations of China with other nations. We 
conecdn much to the mighty influence of this spirit ; but it is, we 
tliink, delusive to believe that the spirit of trade, whoso freedom is 
limited to one side, can change the heart of China. She is antisocial 
in all her character, and we look in vain for any relinquishment of 
the system on her part. Much is predicted from the cuntemplaited 
change in regard to opium. It is argued that the free trade bus for. 
ckA from her this boon. And what has it obtained V b it any thing 
but II chiinge by which to extend her exclusive system ? Is the bring- 
ing of an article within the purview of her noble company of hoog 
merchants a grant to freedoml True, -the emperor does herein con. 
cede that he cannot k^-ep from his suLtjpcts an article which they tstH 
have; and so ho changes his position and gives it to them in his owi) 
Chinese method, and, for aught we can Be<v China remains China 
still. We do not mean to be underHtood as sayingt that ftaedom of 
trade on the aid- wf foreigners does not afford mure groond-W hu|ie.of 

1 V^nOC^IC 

ISO Correapvndenee teilh the C'kmfK Gaeemmnt. Acre. 

trf% iolercounw with Cbinn Ihnn the monopolizing syfrtem of nur lalf* 
K. I. coniiwiny. But we conceive thni it wilf t'fiect this by awakening 
and extending interest in regard to China, and eventually causing Tight 
effbhB to be made rrom rigbt und eflbctual quarters, rather Ihan by any 
inherent power of ita own to change the attitude or the Chinese autho. 
nlics towards foreigners. We protest against the idea that the change 
of foreign relations with China is to wait the slow and uncertain 
isauc of connivacee wiih thnee petty authorities, who are recklesa of 
(thanic and all regard to justice. And does any one pretend that the 
changes which it is presumed will floiv from this one-sided free Irnde 
system, can ever flow in any other channel than in connection with 
thc«e conniv&nccfl 1 Wc see not how ; and, till we do see, we advocnle 
nmvnulrimce, tummt renumtlrance, kffectcal coveRimeKTAL rr- 
MtiNSTKAKOR, until foreigners shall xlnnd in the view of China, as 
■ liilhod in the allrilmlea of children of one common Palher; and iill 
the rights, which nature and nntiire's God gives us, of free intercourse, 
can lie exercised in a way that does nut beggar ua of nil self-respcrt. 
In every remonstrance three things are to be premised; the cnse 
iiiiist be paljiably just and im)iorlanl ; it miisl be stated in clear an<] 
reH]>eclful language ; and then urged with a rcscJutiun that will hold 
on - and hold on — an<l never let go. 

The lirst of the following series of documents was addressed to the 
governor T&ng in April last ; and unolher of the same tenor was at 
ilir !>ame time nddressed to the lale hoppo I'&ng. 

The answers of both these officers were in llic lone of haughty dis- 
regard and vain assumption, so usual wilh Chinese authorities- One 
thing, houever, scenied to bear the character of a concession ; tlio 
Iiong merchants shortly afterwards ^nt a list of the varinus chnrgcs 
lo wliii;h the principal cotton and woollen manufiicturca that are im- 
porlcd are liable ; and though the aggregnlc of I he charges on each 
article as staled therein is somewhat greater than the avemge of what 
has usLiiilly been paid, it was yet regarded ns an advanlugc to have 
obl;iiiicd an ifficial stalnmenl, a thing which had olways before been 
pcnmiilorily ri'fuEed. On the other hand, a flaw in the Chinese turilT, 
nliich iind licon l>cneticial lo foreigners, wnH remedied, by rendrring 
I'lnfiilo'.lis of a greater length than 40 yards subject (hereaficr to pay 
(iiMiMo duly. 

LIiiiliT the impression that the having procured an official statement 
ol' [iic eharges on a frw articles was an advantage gained, a second 
li'ller WHS addressed lust July, to the governor, and duplicule of it 
lo the hoppo Wfcn. The answers of their excellencies are given below, 
iiiarki'd No. 3 and 4. Thexe arc aho in the usual style of Chinese 
ili)ciMnenl,«, and while they grant no relief lo the prtitioners, another 
odvaiilnge which llies* have hillterlo enjoyed, that of passing grey 
Iruigcloilis of every (jualily at the same rale as coarse while ones, is 
tnken from lliem. 

Thus, changes which will benefit tbemsitlves, whether right or 
wrong, aTe«asily made by ihe authorities, irrespective of the will of Ihe 
great emperor ; but to moke any cltangcs in favor of foreigners, " it is 

1 V^nOC^IC 

1896. Correapimibmu triA Ae Ckmue GoMnmetO. I8t 

imptmibk," bocatiM regulalioiw, once eatBUnbed, change not. And 
it will ever be thiw, until the powers thai be hen, know tliat the 
powers at Peking will be reached with nmonatraDcefl, in the tone end 
•pirit which jnatice amunea when ■he Kwakea to a •ocompUah the 
work of rigfateouaneai. 

N» 1. 
Til fii'i iiiiBfiiiji (fii g if tftrnmiluni iwif Ifwaa^w 

Sir, — We be; to repreaent to yom axeeUencj, that, for some fean past, we 
have been iiiipait«nofI«i|{equantitieBi)fcUtoD and woollen maoDfactiirea for 
■aleiQCantoDithedudeaoowhirhhMebeeiipunctnallypaid. Oflate, how- 
ever, the levying of tbedntieahia been atteoded with moch vexatioua diacuB- 
sitm between ouraehrea sod the bong jnecc^atda aad linguiati, not onlj from 
the erroneow manner in which the geoda are claaaed and meaanred, butalao 
from the variona rates at which the duties are charged, such diacimion, uid 
the difficulties which give occasion to it, aniing, in a great meaaare, ftcra our 
igoonutce of the acale of dntiea established by the govemmenL 

To avoid these discuMiona, which not only inwilve loss of time, but are 
calculated to disturb the good uodorstanding that in s business point of view 
ouf^t to Bubaist between ourselves and the hong merchants, we solicit that 
your excellency will caiiseuBtol>efumiBh«d,fi)rourfntuiegnid8iK^ with an 
authentic list of duties payable on manufactured and other goods imported 
from foreign parts. 

We are satisfied that the difficulties complained of are unknown to your 
excellency, and that by placing them before you, as we now do, they will be 
immediately inquired into, aniTreinedied. We have the honor, itc. 

(Signed by twenty-three firms and individuals.) 
No. 2. 
TV Ut txcdienaf the govervm of Kaangbmg and Kmmg$e: 

Sir, — Since receiving your excellency's reply to our representation on the 
subject of import duties, we have beer rumisbed by the cohong with a tarilTof 
duties payable on wonllen and cotton manufactures, the scale of which fixes 
somewhat higher rates than were previously demanded. Your excellency will 
be aware that an increabe hasof late years taken place in the imports of wool- 
len and cotton manufactures ; the consequenee has been a great reduction in 
prices, more particularly on cotton goods ; longclotho, which twenty years ago 
were essily sold at 412 per piece of forty yards, being now worth only $5 
per piece ; and finer qualities having declined in the same proportion. Thus 
we are less able to pay tlie duties now levied, and we solicit that your excel- 
lency will cause the matter to be inquired into, and some relief aiforded. The 
duty on longclotiis of first quality is stated, in the tariifjiist received, at about 
!J6 cents per piece; and on thoae of second qualitv atabout44 cents per piece 
of forty yanis, on which length duties are ordered hereafter to be levied, 
instead of on eighty yard pieces, as lately allowed. 

We also beg to call to your excellency's notice the high duties levied on 
English and Dutch camlets, which amount nearly to a prohibition ; thug pre- 
venting our importing them, as well as opening the door to smuggling and 
depriving the government of a large revenue. 

We would »rther beg your excellency's attention to the subject of goods 
landed in a damaged state, occasioned by ships meeting with bad wcotlicron 
the voyage ; and ould pray that on allowance may be made in the duties, 
Goramenautate wjih the injury the goods may appear to have sustained. 

We would also beg leave to slate to your excellency, that it frequently 
happens that goods received by us are, from unsuitablencss to tlie market, or 
from other causes, unsaleable, excepting at a heavy loss on tlie original cobI ; 
and in such cases we would solicit that we be allowed toexporttlieni wiilioui 

1 V^nOC^IC 

CurreqwndMee mth Ae Chof Gtmrnnmul' 

indulgence, we submit, tlul,iipontlieunnlor(Doiktbejembzauoiiur which 
ma; ifpev donbtAi), they M aepoaiied in wMiie ipeciiJ wuebouae under the 
cuato^ of Ibe government ana cobong; and ttuta reaaonablo time be af- 
forded for endeavoring Is effect Nlea— eaf nine Or twe]v« rootith* front tlw 
dateof tbeir being warelMiued rat the-dpntiaD of which period it would be 
hnpentiTe upon m, fUltng a aate, to oxporf tham. 

We wonM likewise beg pennimon b> point o« to your coKellenc; that 
diffiwencee IreqaMitlr ariae in fitdngthe qoaUt; of oottoa longcloUia tor tlw 
fihtt and second grades of dntj ; and that the coheng have au^eeted that 
to obviate this in ftiture, we send to jour exoellencT^ office a piece of each 
descripdoR aa former]; imported ; that the; ma; receive an crflicial stamps 
and afterwarda be depoaitad at the conBoo-honse for reference when needful 
We BCcordinKly acnd vour excellency a pi 
between which ia easily diatinguiahablc. 

We BCcordinKly acnd vour excellency a piece of each quality, the difference 

Tlie dimenaione of cotton handtierchiefs are also freqacnlly a source tS 
aiioua discussinn, and we would, therefoie, solicit your excellency tocause 
o be fumiahed with the atandard aize on which the fint and second class 
of duties are to be levied ; and, in order to enable ua to make true compariaon 
of the Chinese government measiuee with our awn, we pray that we ma; be 
ftirniahed, througFi the cohon^, with a measuring rod, to renesent the im- 
periol covid under which duties are levied on gixHls chargeable by lensth. 

Having as yet received only the acale of the duties on a few BTticIes of 
our import, we would respeclTully request that we be fumiahed with a geneia) 
tnrifTof duties payable on all foreign imports ; and that an official C<^ be 
alao deposited in the conaoo-house for reference at alt times. 

We take the liberty of placing these matters before your excellency in 
the full confidence tliat tliey will have your rnvorable consideration ; ground- 
ed, oa we are willing to hopo they will be found, on strict juatice and equity 
And we would also take leave to point out to vour excellency that a defined 
regulation for tlie levying of import duties on foreign trade, which is every 

year becoming more extensive, will be the surest means or continuing a 
good undoratanding, and fiicilitating otir commercial operations with the 

(Signed by twenty-three firms and individuals.) 
No. 3. 
Ji^ly "f i^ottmor Tttng to the Btamd letter of Ihe foreigntn at Onilon. 

T.^ng, governor of Kwan^ung and Kwannac, &,c^ &,c^ iasuea this procla- 
rrtation in reply to the English foreign merchants. Fox and othera. 

On a fonncr occasion, the said foreign merchnnfa pn^sented n petition at 
Toy office, which I, at the time plainly answered. I also addreascd a eoinmu- 
nicntion to the fioppo, and received from him the following reply. 

" Hereafter tlio {joods brought by foreign merchants ought to be re^ilnted 
according to the measure and quality of the company's imports. There in n 
niarked ilifTerence aa regards finencsa in the qunlities of the firat and aecond 
f lasses of cotton piece goods; or if, perchance, any of second quality he rather 
finer than usual, ao aa to roaemble that of firat quality, it ia nevertheless to 
be regarded when examined ns really of second qudily, and to be easeased 
accordingly. At the same lime, the s&id foreign merchunta muat make true 
reporta, nor may they represent as of second, what is really ^r fitst quality. Of 
longelothe, one hurdred covide are to be regarded aa the dimenaions of one 

Eiece, and two hundred covida aa conatiiuling two pieces. Broad cloths, 
ing etls, camlets, dtc, ate to be fairly and equally measured, so aa to obtain 
the consent of all. In regard to the proclaimetl tariff of duties and tlic legal 
^nea^iire, tliey have alrondy been givca" 

;. V^nOC^IC 

IB'AG Corretpandcace udA ikt Ckmete Gmientmmt. IS'.i 

This Tull reply baa been already made known, in order that ubedicncc miglit 

Now, again, another petition has been presented, making a oeriee nf 
requests on the abovepoiDt& 1 have examined the atifaject, and . give the 
followiiig deoiaioo. The tariff of cuBtom-hoiue duties has been fixed, after 
mature deiibenition, by the snpieme Board of Revenue, and has been publish- 
ed by command of the sseat EMPEKoa. It ia to be reverently and for ever 
obey and followed. How can any presume to hope, that, becanae of late 
the prices of goods have been reduced, or because the high rate of duties 
prevents importation, a reduction will therefore bo made in the fixed amount 
of duties i It mattera not whether goods be damaged or not, they are to be 
assessed as the goods which they are found to be. The regnlatiooa contain 
not a word of permitting a reduction on account of damage. As to tlie market 
prices, they vary at different times ; but the estabjiahed regntstions, once com- 
plHlei^ change not- If the market price should be found such as is unsuitable, 
the said forejgn merchants must be satisfied with what they chance to find it; 
and both on importation and exportation the legal charge* must be levied. 
How can a want of gain on the part of the said foreign merchantsi a matter 
uf mere private concem, afibrd a reason for indulging uiem with pemisaion ta 
have their imported goods assessed only if found suitable, and freed from all 
dues if not suitable ? At) these requests are flimsv and absurd, and not to 
be allowed. With regard to the siie of cotton handkerchiefs, the legal covid 
measure having been given already, they can of courae be measured according 
to it, without error or irregularity. It is needles consider of this request 
also. But in reference to the desire that pieces of the first and second quali- 
ties of longcloths, sent to tbehoppo,may lie examined, officially staropet^ and 
given to the hong merchants, to be kept by them as mustere, which can here- 
afler be easily referred to for comparison, ho as to prevent contention in refe- 
ToiKO to aeaesaroents ; let them await the decision which shall be given, 
when I have sent a communication to the boppo, and have requested him to 
examine the subject thoroughly, and to issue ordi^rs as to the mode of acting 
in every reepecL This let tliem do. 

Taoukwang, IGth year, Gth moon, 16th day. (SSth July, 163&) 

TAc ht^tpo Vdn'* rqdy to the ittond letter <!ftlief«reign vterduaiii rtsiikiit 
al Cimlotu 

Wtm, by inipcriol appointment Superintendent of maritime cuehHns in the 
province of Kwangtung, &c., &,c., to tlie hong morchauts. 

On the J7thoftije Glh moon, in the Kith year of Taoukwang (30th July), 
I re<:eivcd from tlie governor an ofiicial document, as fbllowa ; ^he governor's 
docuDient coiumeuces witli a copy of tlie letter from tlio fortign merchants 
to liis excellency, which is followed by a copy of his answer, and ends thus :J 

' Besides sending tlie above to the hong mercliants, and directing them 
clearly to enjoin uiy ordeis, it is right that I should also address you the 
hoppo on this subject, and request you to examine it. 1 hope that you will 
immediately lake into consideration tlic propriety nr impropriety of granting 
the request tliat pieces of tlie first and second qualities of longcloths may be 
, „ j^jjy ...... ...... 

ued, officially stomped, and jrivcn to the hong mcrchajits, to be kept l>y 
them OS musters, which can hcrcnftcr be easily referred to for exnminatioit, 
80 as to prevent contention in rcferenco to odscssmenls. I hope also that you 
trill declare in an official edict your decision on tliis point, and that you will 
likewise infomi me thereof.' 

Having received tlie above, as also a foreign petition in Chinese, fivu) 
Pox and others, merchants of Rngland and of other nations, of the same 
tenor as that to tlie governor ; I, the hopjio, have cxaniiiied, and give tlia 
fuUov'ing decision. 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

194 CorretpondeMC witk tiia CAmSm GutiernmttU. Aua. 

Alt duuca levied uj^o Ibmgli inunrted good* u« fixed in reepectTuI 
obcdieEice to the tarilf, which wtte established h« talperial authority, and wta 
putilisbed the aupreoie Board of Revenue. Hentofbre fi»eign tneichauU 
CMaing Fijr comcieiTiial purpooes to CaDton have always oli«<lt«iuy paid Ibetic, 
Dor has there ever been auy discuBaion reapPCti&s tnenk How u it pooiible 
that the importation aiMJ eiportation of goMC ahould be left ti> tira will of 
individualii, or that any increase or diminution i^ diitiw tboold be nnautboH- 
ccdLy made, in accordaiKe merelv with the mying ^litie* or the flucuwt- 
ing value of conunoditiee I Wittt respect to nmi||^ng> and defrauding of 
the revenue, explicit rolea exist: why should the prevention of goods Iwiiw 
imported, when occasioned bv high duties on tbera, lead to dw ofibnae m 
smuggling ? Since the sud foreigners have dand to embody such a state- 
ment in their petiton, they must have bad reference to sotnwiing sctually 
existing;. L«t tlie bong mercbants queation tltem authoritatively and minute- 
ly on this point, in order to furnish aula wberec» to invsatigale the matter 

In reference to the request that, if, when goods are impotted the price be 
found unsuitable, permissKHi may be given to reexport the same and to receive 
back the import duty already paid ; I answer, that, as soon as any duties ate 
paid, the sum is immediately entered in a ruled booii furoislied by the Board 
of Revenue, and the amount of duties received is from time to time stated, 
and the money forwarded to Peking. How can such a priiKiple be admitted 
te to give back the duty because thn article may be unsoilable for sale.' This 
request is eviderttly attributable to the said foreigners' ignorance of the rules 
and statutes of the celestial em;uie and to their own vain and inflated expec- 
lations. It needs no coorideration. In regard to the published tariff of du- 
ties, and the declared legal measure of the Board, the late hoppo Pftng has 
alr^y given au answer on these points. Why do the said foreigneis again 
aiwny with needless requests? But in tefeienee to vessels which, wltile 
sailing on the high seas, may have had theii eargoe* injured by the violence 
of the winds and waves ; the said foreigners may, whenever a case of this 
nalitrc occurs, represent it at the time, and it shaU then be taken into com- 
sideration whether there be any cell for compassion to be shown, and to 
wjiat extent It is unnecessary, to make fixed rulci respecting this matter. 

Id regard to the musteis of different qualities of longcioths presented for 
examination with the request that they may be stomped and piared in tlie 
conaoo-housc to be referred to at any time ; I answer, that there are diver- 
sities' of quality, both in bleached and unbleached tonifcloths; but the said 
foreigners very commonly pass the unbleached longcioths as all of second qua- 
lity, or even as being all coane. This cannot but lend to conl\ieion in tfie 
classification. They mtlrt of course, therefore, present musters of tlie differ- 
ent qualities of unbleached longcioths sIbol Then only can the evila of over- 
reaching and contention be avoided. 

Let the hong merchants meet lo^lher and consult as to what is allow- 
able and what is not so in the above particulars. They must pay special at- 
tention te these points, — lu fix the various qualities of Boods ; to state the dif- 
ferences in their dimensions snd weights, and in the duticB applicable there- 
to ; ard lo remove entirely all confusion and the evil practices connected 
with iL They must with earnestness and assiduity impress on the foroifrnera 
these things, that tliey may implipitly obm' tlie eiisctments of froifmrnpiii, 
and may cease to render themselves ofienaive by whining complaints. In 
compliance with the reply given by the governor, immediately take this 
subject into considetation, and report on it ; and let there not ti> l>c the least 
rnnnivance or delay. Let this receive tlic most earnest attention. A spe- 
cial order. 

Tawikwang, 16th year, 6lh m-wn, IBth day. (3ha July, iSW.) 


OphUiaimic HotpiUd at Vaaton. 

Abt. V, Ophthahiuc Hotpilal at CanIM: tMrd quarlerli/ report, 
for the term ending on Uie itK of Atiguil, 1S30. By the Rev. 
Peter Parkert m. d. 
NxcBtfAKT repairs oT the hospital preventen! its being ripened until 
the 8th of June. During the two months, which have since elapsed, 
S90 new patients have been trealedt making the aggregate 1674. 
A larg^ number of applicants have been aent away as incurable, with, 
out being enrolled. All classes have eagerly applied for aid, and the 
same gratitude and confideDce hare been exhibited as heretofore. 
Great difficulty has still existed in obtainning the HMiHtance vrhich the 
number of patients and the heat of the season have rendered desk- 
mble. T^e prescribing, the principal part of the labor of administer- 
ing the prescriptions, and the supervision of the house patients by 
day and night, have devolved upon an individual; and the treachery 
ofa servant who has conducted dishonestly, and the loee of instru- 
ments by theft, which were in daily usp, have increased the cares and 
anxietiee incident to euch an institution in such a place as Canton. 
The expenses of the hospital for the last term have been 9328.60. 

Diseases presented during the quarter ; Isl, of (he eye, 2d, miscel- 




Acute ephdwimia - 





Night blindness 


Purulent ophthalmia - 


Synechia anterior . 



Synechia posterior . 


Rheumatic ophthalmia 


Myosis - 


Ophthalmitis - 


Closed pupil with deiwt- 

Ophthalmia variola . 



Conjunctivitis - 


Procidentia iridis . 




Glaucoma . 




Atrophy - 


Entropia - 


Hypertophy - 


Eclropia - 


Complete loss of one eye 




1,688 cf both eyes - 






Opacity and vascularity 


of the cornea. 


Malignant ulcer of the 

Ulceration of the cornea 


upperlid . . 


Nebula - 


Encysted tumor of (he 



upper lid . . 


Leucoma . 


Tuner from the external 



angle of the right eye. 

Staphylunia sclerutica 


tensing it to protrude 

Onyx . - . 


up^tards, out of its urbi 




UfNbAoUic Hoipilal <a CaMlom. 

Adiiesilon of iLc conjunc- 
tivH to the cornea . 

Preternatural growth from 
Ibe lower portion of 
the orbit and near the 
external angle of the 
right eye, retiembling 
a congeriea of virina 

Diiwaae of the caruncula 
lachrymalis - 
2d ; PiMWs abscess 

Abecem of the Ihigh . 

Abscess of the ear 

Abscess of (he head - 

AbecRn of the face 

Ciorrhcea • 

Deficiency of ccnimen 

Nervous uffection of the 

Goitre . 

Enlarged tonsils 

Sarcomatous tumore 

Encysted' tumor 

Hernia - 

Curvature of (he spine 

PhymoaiSt natural - 

Hydrops articuli 



Rheumatism - 

Intermitleot fever - 



Deaf and dumb child- 



Mnlformation of the meatua 1 

Polypus of the ear . 1 

Deafness ... 3 

DiseBse of lower jaw - 3 

Dropsy ... 4 

Ovnrian dropsy ■ . 2 

Hydatids ... 1 
Cancer of the breast 
u the former reportn, ( 

lary calculus (renx^ 
viid) ... 1 

Needle by accident thrust 
into the breast. Just be- 

1 low the sternum - 1 
3 Needle, thrust into the 

3 palm ofa child's hand, 

4 removed by a magnet, 

2 afler an incision with 

1 a lancet, a month subac. 

2 queni to the accident. 1 
inly a few of the cases presented will be 

detailed. The first I shall mention occurred during my visit to Macao. 

No. 1284. Lan Alin, aged 54, had been sflected with an ulcerat. 
fA tumor upon the crown of bis bead twenty-two years. Hearing that 
1 was to visit Macao, be requested his friends here le prevail on me 
(o see him when I arrived there. Several applications of the kind 
were made, and in this instance I coDseoted. When 1 saw him, tho 
tuinor was in a bad condition, and the appearance of soon putting 
on a nnalignanl character. At times, according to the statement of 
the patient, who appeared to be a sensible man, it had bled to the 
amount of twelve or fourteen ounces. With the concurring advice 
and assiatance uf my friend. Dr. Colledge, on the 2UI of June (ha 
tumor was extirpated. I saw it dressed while I remained, and on 
leaving Mbamo, Dr. Colledge kindly took the care of it. In about 
two weeks he wrote, "your patient is quite well, and in fine health 
has lefY, and I have seen no more of him." He has since sent by his 
son his "ten thousand thanks." 

On my return to Canton^ on (he laai day of May, I had (he 
satisfaction to find the young woman, Ye&ng she, who was wounded 
by a fall in a thunder slorm, quite out of danger from the injury re- 
ceived. The side of the neek (hat had been perforated by (he bamboo 
was perfectly heated. Tho discharge from the fractured clavicle 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

ISSfl. (^Aabnk Hoi^tal at Cmto». 1^1 

continued for some timet Hx) patient being very irregular in coming 
to the hospital, and it had not entirely ceaaed, when at her own diBcm- 
tion aho diacontinued her visita. On inquiring for her somo weeks 
aflpr, I routid ahe had gone to viail her friends in the country. 

No. 1283. Fungoua H^matodeaof the eye. Yal Akwang, of IhA 
dixlrict of Pwanyu, aged 4 yeara, entered the hoaptlal May 4lh, and- 
remained a few days under medic»d treatment. The disease com- 
menced about four Riontbs t»efore, between the n:lcrotica and con- 
junctiva of the upper lid, and gradually increased till the whole eye 
was concealed. When the child came to- the hoapilal, a targe prolrud. 
iug ulcer appeared in the aituntion of the left eye, and the least irtita. 
tion CHiieed it to bleed. The child inclined his head to the oppoaiie 
Bide, and wau very ri<eble. The father wae told that it could not then 
be removed, but hu might return on the firal of June, and if circum- 
stances justified, I would extirpate it. Early in June he returned. 
The diseaaed masa had grown rapidly, and the protruded eye wliioli 
came down upon the cheek a* low as the mouth, waa aix or seven 
inchea >n circuci fere nee. The fate of the child, if the tumor waa 
lefl to itself, was evident. The father wished it removedi and, being 
told the mfBBure might prove fatal, aaid it was better for bis child to 
die than live in such a condition. The possibility of iia returning, 
should the operation not prove unsuccessful, being also explained, he 
still desired it lo be performed. On the 26th, the eye waa extirpated 
From the history of the case, it was possible the eye itself might he 
sound, but covered with a fungus. I proceeded with the operation 
accordingly, but soon found the whole waa diseased. Without much 
difficulty the eye was detached from the aurrounding perls, snd the 
optic nerve divided below the globe of the eye. The little child en- 
dured the operation with much fortitude. The hemorrhage was not 
great. But Ultla inflammation succeded, yet on the third A»y after, 
feara were entertained for the life of the child ; but on the 9th day, thn 
wound had quite healed, and the lida fell in and the child's appetite 
returned, and his prosgiects were Haltering. However, the apiiearancn 
of the optic nerve at ils section, being diseased and presenting in 
it* center a dry yellow substance, like the cerumen of the ear, render- 
ed the result suspicious. Before leaving, the little boy had become 
robust and playfni. Me has since returned, and to my deep regret 
the relief afibrded him is to be momentary. The fungus hss returned 
and attained half its former size, and that in less than three months 
from its removal. 

No. 888. Ascites. Pang she, mentioned in a former report, re. 
turned to the hoepitnl on the 4lh of May. She had neglected all my 
directions respecting her health, and bernbdomen had become more 
distended and tense than in the first instance. Being the close of the 
term, 1 gave ber medicines for the coming month, aad told Iter lo 
return on the first of Jime ; she returned accordingly, but her extreme 
ORiacialion and the warm weather made me hesitate lo repeat the 
operation till it became evidnnt that it was the only chance of prolong- 
ing her life. Her pulse was 144 ; her skin was hoi nni) dry, »ilh a 
hiKh fever, and respiration difficult, wlien on the 2Gih of June I agnin 


IH OphiMmie Htuj^t^ al CtaHm. Ada. 

fwrfonned the operation. Tliree gnllona and two and a Iwlf pinte iif 
(lark fluid, nmilar to the former, waa ab«tra£leil, making the aggregate 
of about nx gallona. Sbe waa immedinately relieved of moat of ber 
fofmer sympioma ; her pulae the day fulbiwing was 96. She rapidly 
recnvrred her health, and was diacharged on the 8th of July. I am 
conhdnni she could not have lived two days longer without this in> 
lerposition. On the 28lh, ahe reported herself and had improved very 
much during twenty days' absence. 

No. 1500. July'Btb.' Chin Aying, a little girl of thirteen yeata 
of age. She had t>een incommoded by lljioe aarcoroatoiis tumors 
situated together, between the shoulders and above the spine. The 
three were in close conlar.t, and as it were formed one, four inches 
in breadth and three in depth. On the I4th, they were extirpated. 
The largest of the cluster was firmly united to one of the spinous pro- 
cessra by a Benii.cnrlilaginoU8 or bony union. The whole tumor was 
a very hard and almoBt horny suheiance. Judging from the rapid 
growth of the last year, it must soon have become a cumbersome loa'l. 
No unpleasant consequences have followed the removal c^ il, and the 
wound ia kindly healing up by granulations. 

No. 44S. The case of Akae ia mentioned in (he first report, under 
date of December 27th, 1635. About three months subsequent tu 
the removal of the original tumor, aa she was WHlhing by the river 
side, a coolie, carelessly passing by, thrust the end nf the bamboo, 
with which he carried his burd<;n, against the superciliary ridge of the 
right temple,. from which the tumor had heen removed. When she 
came to the hospital about a month after the accident, there was cou- 
siderable tumefaction above the eye. It being the clnse of that lerni, 
she was directed to remain at home until the first of June ; at which 
lime the tumor had attained the magnitude ef the former one, though 
not exHclly tjie same shape, and others previously on the side of her 
fiice were enlarged. The new one was allojiether of a difierent cba. 
racter from the rurmer. Il had the appearance of a spongy mass, and 
was bounded on the left by an exostosis from the superciliary process 
one eighth of an inch deep, and one inch and a half long at its base, 
forming an irregular perpendicular ridge; the tumor grew rapidly and 
was fast tending to suppuratioii : the gcaeral health was affected, and 
dcalh seemed probable and that speedily, unless its progress could 
be arrested by a surgical operation, while the lieal of midsummer 
not a little increased the hazard of such a measure. After repeated 
consult II I Ions wilh Dr. Coz and Mr. Jardine, who had assisted in the 
former inslance, it was resolved to embrace the first favorable day for 
the operation. On the Slsl of July, the operation was performed. 
On the firnt .cision being made, s large quantity of greenish fluid 
guRli'd out from cellH of disorgnnized matter. Two elliptical incisions 
from tlic middle of the forehead down the cheek to a level with the eat 
were lirst made, and then a third Trnm the middle of the first incision 
back upon the side of the head to a point five inches above the ear. 
Thd whole cyst was corapleloly dissectely out upon the temple, and 
tven portions of the pericranium were removed, showii^idiatinclty the 
bloody appearance of the cranium caused by the contusion of the 


18S6. OpIilhiMic Hot]^ at Cofllm. 199 

hnmhoo. Thn lumors above the enr were all removfd, nnd what on 
the fonner occasion was stipjioeed to be the parotid ^land and its 
accessory gland, were farcnmaloiia tumons occupying their aituetiona ; 
these were also removed, together with a tun:or lying deep in tha 
temporal foasa. There was a lose of about sixteen ounces of bloo<l. 
The extreme warmth of the weather rendoring it necessary to dresa 
the wound daily, on the following day there was found conaideraUe 
tumefaction above the eye, which finally stipparated. The incinona 
for the most part healed in the same kind manner as before, and but 
for the suppuration that took place beneath the integunnents, would 
have healed with the aome rapidity. The exoalosis haa not advanced 
beyond what it was at tha operation. The conalilution Buffered much 
more than in the former inatance, but she has very much regained 
her strength and the flesh she bad lost, and now locju forward to the 
prospect of returning home in a lew days, with the hope of enjoying 
n happy reprieve from the grave. 

Other cases ofthe same general character aa mentioned in (he former 
reports might be detailed, but it is unneceaaary. 1 have often been 
surprised at the alight inconvenience experienced by cataract patients ; 
vomiting is a very infrequent consequence of tbe operation, and usu- 
ally the inflammation is very alight. When the patient Uvea at a 
distance, and finds it inconvenient to be long absent from home, I 
have in repeated cases, couched tbe cataracts in both eyes at the 
aame sitting, and with equal success as in case* of a single eye. An 
aged female, 7S years old, was brought from a distant part of the 
province, not only blind but lame. I found that she bad broken the 
neck of the thighbone eleven monlha before, and had a cataract in each 
eyo. By the importunity of her friends I was prevailed upop against 
my judgment to operate upon her eyea. 1 did so, and found the len«es 
were soft, absorption took place, sight waa restored to a conaiderable 
degree, and the absorption waa still going on, when after a few weeka 
she left in better health than before. 

1 will conclude this brief report by subjoining a tranBlation of some 
lines written by Ma azeyay {in the first report called MaUteah), 
the private secretary to the Chefoo, as they will serve to iUuslrate Iho 
ideas and feehngs which he and other patients entertain respecting 
the hospital. Tlie translation is by Mr. Morrison, to whose kindness 
I am under many obligations. It ha8 been put into verse by a friend. 
The BtitTneaa of the style i» a necc^jary consequence of faithfulnesB 
to the original. Tbe old gentleman's gratitude has ever seemed 
unfeigned, and when dismissed from the hospital, he requested leave 
lo send a painter and lake "my likeness thnt he might bow down 
before it every day." He had previously intimated hia intention of 
writing an ode- The painting of courite was refused, but his ode whs 
recently forwarded with some murks of furmalily ; first he sent a ser- 
vant with a variety ofpresents; then a friend, who was equipped for 
the occasion, presented the ode and a gill fan with a quotation from 
one of the hrst Chinese poels, ulegantly transcribed upon it by a 
relative of Ma szeyay, relating to the same subject. The ode, pre- 
ceded by a few remarks of liis own, is as fullows. 

■>. V^nOC^IC 

190 OfthUialmie Hotpitid at Canton. Ave, 

Poctor Parker ia a native of America, one of the nations of tlie western 
orean. He is of food and wealthy fiunily, love* vittue, and tahaa pteaaure 
in distributing to uie necetuities of others : he it moreover very skilful in 
the medical art In the ninth month of the year Ythm, he croaed the ee&s, 
and came to Canton, where he opened an institution in which to exercise 
eratiiitously hia medical talents. Hundreds of patienta dail^ sought relief 
from his hands. Sparing neither expense nor toil, from morning to evening, 
he excreised the tenderest compaMJon towards the sick and miAerabla 

I had then lost the sight of my left eye, seven years, and the right eye had 
Rympathized with it nearly half that period. No means used proved benefi- 
cial ; no physician hail been able to bring me relief. In the eleventh month 
of the year above aamed, my friend MuhKeaeshaou introduced metoDbctor 
Parker, by whom I was directed to convey my bedding to his hospital. I 
there made my durmitoiy in a third story, where he visited me nifht and 
mominff. First he administereu a medicine in powder, the effects of which, 
as a caUiartic, continued three days. He then performed an operation on the 
eye with a silver needle, sfler which he closed up the eye with a piece of 
cloth. In five days, when thia was removed, a few nys of light found en- 
trance, and in ten da^s I was able to distinguish perfectly. He then operated 
on the right eye, in like manner. I had been wiUi him nearly a montli when, 
the year drawing to a close, business compelled me to take leave. On 
leaving, I wished to present an offer ing' of thanks ; but he peremptorily refused 
it, saying, " return, and give thanks to heaven and eartn : what merit have 
T ?** So devoid was he of boasting. Compare this hia conduct, with that of 
many physicians of celebrity. How often do they demand hesVy fees, and 
dose you for months together, and after oil fail to beneRt. Or how often, 
if they afford even a partial benefit, do they trumpet forth their own merits, 
and demand costly acknowledgments! But this doctor, heals men at 
his own cost, and tliough perfectly auccessful, aacrlbea all to heaven, and 
aosolutely refuses to receive any acknowledgment. How far beyond those 
of the common order of phyaicians are his character and rank ! Ah, such 
men are difficult to find. The following hasty lines I have penned, and 
dedicate thein to him. 

A fluid, darksome and opaque, long time had ditnmed mv sight 

For aeven revalving- weary years one eyewaa lost to light; 

The other, darkened by a film, during three years saw no dsy, [ray. 

High heavcn^s bright and gladd'ning light could not pierce it with its 

Long, long, I sought the hoped relief, but still I sought in vain. 

My tKasaree, lavished in the search, bought no relief fioni pain; 

"'" "' -•'-•-•■ ... lugt either pawn o " 

■■r more to dwell. 
Then loudly did I ask, for what cause such pain I bore,— 
For transgredsiuns in a former life unatoned for before ? 
But a^in came the reflection, how, of yore, ofl, men of worth. 
For slight errors had borne suff'ring great as drew my sorrow forth. 
" And shall not one," said I then, " whose worth is but as nought, 
" Bear patiently, as hesven'a gift, what it ordains ?" The tliought 
Was scarce completely formed, ivhen of a friend the footstep fell 
On my threshold, and 1 breatiied a hope he had words of joy to tell. 
" I have heard," the friend who enter'd i<aid, " tliere is come to us of late 
"An; " " " " " 

■' O'ei 

1 V^nOC^IC 

36. Ophthalmic Uoipibit cd CanUtn. 101 

I quick went foHh, this nmo I aought, this i^n'rous dotttor round ; 

He gained my heait, he's kind uid good ; for, high up team the ground, 

He gave a room, to which he came, at mom, at eve, at night, — 

Words were bat vain were 1 to try his kindness to rscile. 

With needle argentine, he pierced the cradle of the tear; 

What fears I felt! Soo Tungpo's worda rung threBt*ni»g in to; ear: 

" Glaas lung in mist," the poet says, " take need you do not shake ;" 

(The words of fear rung in my ear) "bow if it chance to break." 

The fragile lens his needle pierced : the drad, the sting, the pain, 

I thought on these, and that the cup of sorrow 1 most drain: 

But then my mem'ry faithful showed the work of fell disease, 

How long the orba of eight were dark, and deprived of ease. 

And thus I thought : if now, indeed, were to find relief: 

'Twere not too much to betr the pain, to bear the present grief 

Then Che worda of kindness, which I heard, auuk deep inlo ny aoiil, 

And free from fear I gave myself to the foreigner's eontroL 

His silver needle sought the lens, and quickly from it drew 

The opaque and darliBome fluid, whose effVcis se well I knew; 

His gulden probe soon clear'd the lens, and then my eyee he bonnd. 

And lav'd with water, sweet as is the de v to thirsty ground. 

With thoughts artray — mind ill at ease — away from home and wife, 

1 often thought that by a thread was hung my precious lif& 

Three days I lay, no food had I, and nothing did I feel ; 

Nor hunger, eoreoow, pain, nor hope, nor thousht of woe or weal ; 

My vigor fled, my life seemed gone, when sudden, in my pain, 

There came one ray — one glimmering ray, I see, live again ! 

As starta from visions of the night, he who dreams a fearfiil dream, 

As from the tomb, uprushing comes, one restored to day's brifhl beam, 

Thiis, I with gladness and surprise, with joy, with keen deliirht, 

See friends and kindred crowd around, I bail the blessed light: 

With grateful heart, with heaving breast, with feelings flowing o'er, 

I crie<^ " O lead me quick to him who can the eight restore 1" 

To kneel tried, but he forbade; and, forcing me to rise, 

"To mortal man bend not the knee^ then pointing lo the skies: — 

" 1 'm but," said he, ■* the workman's tool, another's is the band ; 

" Before Mt might, and in ftu sight, men, feeble, belplesa, etand : 

" Go, virtue learn to cultivate, and never thou forgot 

" That, for some work of future good thy life is spared Iheo yet !"' 

The off'ring, token of my thanks, he refused ; nor would he take 

Silver or gold, they seemed as dust; 'tis but for virtue's sake 

His works arc done. His skill divine I ever must, adore. 

Nor loee remembrance of his name till life's last day ia o'er. 

As ) remained nearly a month in the bot<pitAl, I penned also llin fullowin 
lines, wherein ) have stated the tiling whiuh 1 saw ami heard wliile theri 
ss illustrative of his successful practice. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

IIM Jimrmti t^ OtWrtMXt. 

\\ ImalatumorilielinMbeieallddedlobj the old genUenu, aad aUv 
of the qoDluiaa Irani Soo Tun^poo, amj be gnoi ia a ■udw.iimm ■amber. — 
Wbalbe M;B,of my calliDfroohunlafive tlMakaloMttb,M«7ric)i&iiuly, 
lie, H ta be received vrttfa doe aUvwuvc ■> OunHe wntrllidMWfK ] 

Art. V[. Joumd of Oeavrtnix*. Peking ; Haoitam; ie^nui'nx 
gde m tMe Chimete tea ; atrat/gfrom lite Camlom Camrt Ciradar. 

iioracl*e* limited ti 

than we eonld iri*h. Roinon. ben, m alwan 
ptesjnlwbich mtKedtODotice. Tbeitaletrf'pabUcaBuntbni 
no far u weknoir. iilnnqo'li therroita; of Ifaeartb. dutia(th>iautnMM 
grnenlij been pJeoUful i ind beallii eontinaca to be enjojcX Iim fisil deeakm 
or the emperor, mi the iDemana] of Hen Naetae, ia ■»( jet koovn ia Cubm. 

Ptkimg. The indignation of hia majeaty haa been moiad by the anpfincipled 
and cormpl eoDdnel of aooie of hi* bi|^ miniilera, ineiDdiiig tmt ptineea of the 
blood. Hia »ageT m directed e^nal ibdr eoodact in (enanl ; Ibc puticulu 
eaae which ha* excited it, ia. thai they paaaed. at a Ktand miUtuy exuniitatiun. u 

'iiidual wtuily incapable of periormiog the nulilaiy cie ' - - — 

" Biclainu hia majeatj, "directed tbo gmf ' " 

maieatj Ihen 
mand the degradation (4 the aerenl oflendera, and adda : " Id tbaaa ponaluDenla 
'€ Bianifeat an nnoraal degne of lemtenHB. Let all oar ptinoee uid miniMen 
1 thereby to gnalo- diliEence and (aithrulnaaB, and let them not fear 

■naieaty, " directed tho p>Teniiiient of the people for aiitei 
yean, and Can none of our princea and great miniatera ret lee that ad we aeek f 
ta comprclicniled in tbo one woid, Tairrn T" Hi* maJM 

/fMBen. The diatorfaanoea in ihia prorioce ar« stated by the pmnniar of Ha». 

C'b and Hoonan to be at an end. No dotaila an giFcn of what look place, 
lyond tha*« which bate already apprared m oar number lor May laiU 
The ttteri gaU, whidi la noticed Mow, in the CuuK Cimular of the lit ioHant' 
waa f eiy deelnicti*e lo the ihipping in the Chtneae aeaa. The baA Ssaaaa, be- 
longing to Macao; and the JdMfral Bm/tkf. a Bpankh afaip, ware loat, w^ 
a part of their crewa. Two or three other ahipa, we (ear, will hare to be plaeed 
on the aame li«t; we rebi particularly to th« Hvrmatjit Btmamjte, Hamaa^, and 
tlie MnrgoTcl OroAnta. 

ExlraeU from iht Canton Court Cirmior. Jan<26xi.ThegD»emorandll.■fo»•'■ 

J'l^u 30ti. The two principal, and Tonr inferior enioy* tooh leave, i 
iclum tn Peking. Tmnty-nine criminala were reoaptured, 

June 38f A. Twelve penoni, arreated for marder, were aent to the magiatiale of 
Tunj[kwan for (rial. 

July 3rd. The envois ninmed lo Canton, having recrived a diapatch Fnim 
the emperor directinf; tlicm to do ao, for the eiamination of a new Caen, in which 
the latt migiiitrBte of Heingihin la to be put on trial. 

July Ihtn. The envoya again U(X Oanton. Three mitilary officenwcra brongbt 
lo the city for trial. The chelieEn of Nanhie reported that, " during the preoed. 
ing night [4 o'clock Ihii morning), a fire broke out in Hinglung itreet ; ten [more 
tlian twentjl ahops were burned down, aii torn away, and the fin than eiLin. 
giiinlied." The cieculion of capital puniahment was teported. 

July 34(A. The imperial onvoya again rclurned. having received another die. 
pali'li, rcniiiring them to examine a new cane. Capital oiecution reporled. 

July 39M. The envoya Inok leave of Ihe governor and It. -governor. The eie- 
ciitton of capital punisiimenl, wa« rcpnrltd. 

Aiigatl 1*1. The "river magiatrale" reported that, at B o'nlck last evening a 

Aiigni' Sid. I^aiig, the new comtiiiisioncr m Ihe nail deparlment, received 

Ihu scal» ol ulTiuc. 



Vol. v. — Septkmbek, 1836— No. 5. 

Alt. I. Hitiorieai and dacriplivt accmaU of China; its tmcitnt 
and modem kistory, kmgvagt, Httrature, reUgian, gnemmmt, 
industry, manntrs tmd social stale ; witercaursti with Europt 
JTOm the earliest ages ; mistions and em&ain'M to Iht imperiai 
court; British and foreign commeret; direetioni to namgalors; 
stale of ataihetnatics and astronomy ; sureey of its geography, 

Jtologv, botany, and xooUgy. fiy Hugh Murray, f. r. b. x-i 
ohn Crawfiird, esq.; Peter Gordoa, esq.; captain Thomas Lynn; 
Wiiliani .Wallace, f. n. s. e., profeswr of matheniatics in the uni- 
Tenity of Edinburgh; and Gilbert Burnett, esq., late professor of 
botany, king's Cdlege, I^ondon. With a map and thirty-six en- 
grarings by Jackson. In three yolumes. Edinburgh; Oliver 
and Boyd, Tweeddale Court ; and Simpkin, Marshall, Sl Co., 
London, mdcccixxvi. 

SrxAKiMoofcMWof hisengraTings, from an original drawing preserved 
in Ibe Company's collection, Mr. Murray says, " in order to show the 
vuiooB fbrms of Chinese TeseelB, a feir have been altered according 
to those found in other drawings of the same collection ; in other 
respects the copy is exact." Again, with reference to another plate, 
he says, " it is in some degree a oompoaition from several of the 
drawings brought home by lord Macartney's embaasy, so as to 
combine the different features which usually distingish Chinese moun- 
tain-scenery." If these remarks of the Author, respecting the li- 
berty of grouping and altering the objects of natural or artificial 
scenery, were intended to characterize the whole of his first volume, 
the only one we have yet seen, they would sive the reader a correct, 
though very inadequate, idea of his work. tHr. Murray's wel^arned 
reputation, and that ofhis learned coadjutors, whose names appear on 
the title page of his book, led us to expect an accurate and complete 
account of the Chinese empire. We expected (o find a good work, 
one every whv worthy of a prominent place among the volumes of the 


194 Historical tmd Detcriptive AceotaU of Chiita. Sir. 

Edinburgh Cabinet Libruy. We have long wuhed that a correct 
account of what China ia, together irith a brief history of what it has 
been, might be giren to tbe public ; and when it was announced that 
Mr. Murray had undertaken tbia ta«k, we anticipated, as many othera 
did, thai the deeideratum would be supplied. Such were the eipec- 
laliona and Geelrngs with which we opened his first volume ; but a 
peruaal of tbe firM page, convinced us (hat our expectations were not 
to be realized ; and every succesHive page, to (he end of the vdume, 
only served to confirm us iif this tqtinion. Many parts of the work 
are totallj wrong ; and many others are mere " composition :" the 
author's facts, " collected from various sources," are thrown tt^etber 
like the objects in his eDgravings, often presenting descriptions of 
scenes, which hare no existence except in imagination, and which 
have more than once reminded us of (he lines of tbe poet : 

Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam 

Juneere si velit, et varias inducere plunuia 

Undique coUatis membria, uE turpiter atnim 

Besinat in piscem mulier fbrnxna supeme ; 

Spectatum admisai riauni teneatia, amici ? 
The author having before him, as he says, *' ample materials" for 
compiling "a satisHctory account of China," the "historical inquirer" 
had a right to expect from bis pen, what Mr. Murray declares has not 
hitherto existed, "a complete and connected view" of the history, 
learning, commerce, and statistics of this " immense sovereignty." 
How far the study of " China, vol. I," is likely " to throw an impOT- 
tant light" on the world, we will show in the sequel, having first laid 
before our readers the author's preface, which fully explains the plaii 
of the work. Tbe preface is dated March, 1636, at which time 
the volume was pubfished ; the secogd volume was to appear in 
April, and the third in Hay following. We here introduce the pre- 
bce entire. 

■• Ttie importance and interest attached to the subject of this work appear 
to be now fully appreciated by tbe public. Ohina, fhuu the antiquity i^ita 
origin, its early progress in arts and civilisation, and the very pecuhar form 
which ita iostitutiona have assumed, eihibits an aspect diSfering from that of 
every other empire, ancient or modem. Its story iji that of the largest portiim 
of mankind that have ever been united under one political and social system. 
Kecent events also have opened to Britain prospects of vastly extended In? 
tercQurae ; so that the wall of separation which lias so long stood between the 
two nations is soon likely to be, in a great measure, broken down. 

■> These oonsideratione have induced us to assl^ to the history, learning, 
commerce, and statistics of that immense sovereignty a larger space thui 
usual, and to bestow upon them the most careful research. To this task we 
were further urged, hy reflecting that there does not, so fiir as we know, exist 
at prrsent any channel by which the historical inquirer can obtain a complete 
and connected view of them. Successive missionaries, indeed, in the course of 
two centuries, have transmitted to Europe many important communications ; 
but thcae, from their veiy magnitude, are nearly inaccessible to the ordinary 
reader. The General History, for example, in thirteen 'arge quarto volumes, 
and the Miscellaneous Memoirs in sixteen, encumbered wim much irrelevant 
fnatter, present a mass which few will be incUned to penetntc. Various 


1636, Hittorical and DescripHvt Account «/ China. 196 

tniMUtioM, no doubt, bare been lately m&de from ChineM writere, which 
bare enlu^ed conaidenbly our knowledge of that nation ; jet none oftbeni 
have been found suited to European tute. Du Halde alone attemptt-d to 
reduce to a convenient fonn the very valuable recorda of which he had the 
conunand ; but his rolumes are now, in a great degree, supeneded by further 
and more recent information. 

" Although, however, there has not hitherto been any tingle work in which 
a satisTactory account of China miffht be found, those above mentioned, with 
various others, affinrd ample materi^ for accomplishing such an undertaking. 
Availing hinwelf of those advantages, tlie autiior hsa made every exertion to 
present witbin a suitable compass such a view of the history, productions, 
conunerce, political and social date of thia gr^at empire, as will at once amuau 
and instruct a British reader. 

•* After a general survey of the aspect and natural feature* of the connlry, 
he proceeds to delineate, from the voluroinoue woili of MaillB,- and other wri- 
ten, a comprehensive outline of Chinese history. Without entering into a 
minute detail of &cts, he has sought to exhibit the advances mAdo in civiliza- 
tion and the arts ; the moat memorable events that diatinguisiicd the aiicccs- 
nve dyuastiefl; together with a philoeophical view of the cnuSca whence 
originated their rise and their downfall. He then adverts to the knowledge 
powoBsed by the Greeks and Romans relative to China i on which subject he 
presumes to hope that he has thrown additidnol light, hy tracing an early 
maritime route to Canton, and the existence df an ancient trade in tea.. The 
remainder of the Stat volume is occupied by the transactions of the modem 
European nations; their attempts to open a cotnineicial intereouiae ; their 
various embassies ; and the reception #hich tbey •eVerally met with at the 
imperial court. 

•• The second volume ia chiefly devoted to inquiries s^l mAe important, 
the language, literature, religion, sovemmeBt, industry^ manners,- and social 
life of ue Chinese. Recourse has MSn had to the most Authentic sourees of 
information, and no pains have been spared to ilhntrate subjects to in 
ing, and in general so imperfectly understood. There is added a si 
account of British intercounm fiom the earliest pentti to which the lights 
of histoiy extend. 

I* In the third Volume^ after a eoUdensed view of dl tb^ is known respect' 
ing the interior of the empire,- its Ibreign commeree,-particulaf*xt with our own 
country, is described. This sulnect so extremely important at the present 
moment is luminously discusaed by Mr. Peter Gord6n and Mr. John Craw- 
furd, — the latter a gentleman who has establislied a well-nferitpd reputation 
b^ the "Hietoty of the Indian Archipelago," and by his ncctfimt Of the embas- 
sies to the courts of Ava, Siam, and Cochinchina, In the diitchirge of his offi- 
cial duties on these occasions, as well as when governor of Smgapore, he 
enjoyed ample opportunities of collecting inlbimation, which he has hero 
employed with his characteristic activity and intelligence. 

H It appeared of importance to introduce directions relative to the naviga- 
tiofl to China, corresponding to tliose in our work on British India. The 
task has been ably performed by captain Lynn, an oIKcer long employed by 
the company in navigating their vessels, and afterwards as examiner of their 
naval officers, and whose nautical tables and other works display a thorough 
acquaintance, not only with the scientific principles of his proftssion, but a&u 
with the intricate straits and channels to which he here supplies a guide. In 
composing the chapter for which we are indebted to him, he communicated 
with captain Horsburgh, who liberally allowed the use of his valuable col- 

" Mathematics and astronomy, though they appear not to have at any time 
risen to higli eminence in China, present aomp. striking peculiarities. The 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

HistoriraJ told t)iisrriplhf Arroumt tf China, Ser. 

" Tbe nalonl hiatoty of tboae vut pnmnoes h the Innch which mnaiiied 
longest ID t aUte of imperfection, an incoovenienec leaulti^ from tbe ithct 
pK£ibiti<» impoaed uwm the intercourae of EutopeuM. Or lite, bowevett 
tbe exeftioM of tbe Britiab reajdeata «t CanlMi ure proetued from the in- 
terior numeroua apecimoia, mao; of w)uchnow adorn oarmuaeama aDdguv 
dena. To Hr. ReeTevi peiticuhrifi the eueatific world ia inddited for tbeae 
impotttuit adrantagea ; and lua fhendlv eoaimunteatiMia hare been ftund 
oTeaaential serrice in the eompoaition of tbia diriiioD c^tbe preaent work. 

•• The cli>pt«r on ge<dog7 and mineralog;, which has beni prepaied with 
great attention, will be tmuid lo cantain many tntereetiiig Acts, and to pre- 
aent aa fiill a view of these branches of knowledge aa could be obtained 
in tbe present limited state of our acquaintance with the central parts of 

•• BoUny, a subject of tlie Ugfaeat impoituce, hu b»en treated by Oi&eit 
Bnmett, esq^ the hte prafeaaor<rf' that science in king's C<dlegB. f n com- 
poaing it he enioved an unreserved commonication with Mr. Reeves, and 
bad acceaa to all toe materials in possesaioD of tbe bmiofable Compaoy. 

» With regard to zoology, it may be stated, that tbe obeervstious which 
have been given, are enricbed with some elegant engiavinga of animals cha- 
racterittic eg tbe Cbinese empire. 

"Tbe Mitbor has pleasure in ezpreenng his obligationa to sir Chsrles 
Wilkins, tor tbe hberality with which he admitted him lo tbe muKum and 
library of tbe Elast India Company. His acknowledgments ata likewise 
putlcularty due to Dr. HorsSeld, not only fbr the obliging manner in which 
ne ftcilit^ed his access to those cnllectiiKis, but for the aid affiuded by bira 
in procuring information from other quaiters. 

■• The map of China has been carefully engraved from a drawing by Air. 
Walker, who had the advaotage of inspecUng & the materials in tbe poeees- 
non of captain Horabnrgh. it hu been greatly improved by means of 
the chart of the eastern coast prepared with great labor and mm the moat 
recent surTeys by that eminent hydiographer. 

« Tbe cuts, amounting to thirty-six, executed by Jackson in his beat style, 
are atmoet entirely taken from oHgiiial drawings never befbre engraved. 
The splendid collections possessed nj tbe Company were liberally suEmitted 
to tbe inspection oftbe Author. Seme valu^le subjects have also been ob- 
tained by the publishers from Canton aa well as ham private individuals ; 
and all of them, it is hoped, will be found well calculated not only to embellish 
but to illustrate the work." 

Greater promise than is here held out, no reader could ever wish 
to have fulfilled. The promise, however, is not greater than will 
be the disappointment of those who expect to find " a complete 
and connected view" of the Chinese empire. We will not attempt 
to remark on the vagueness and ambigtiily of the Author in the open- 
ing paragraph, where he tells his reader, that, " GenerJly spe&king, 
the great kingdoms of Asia extend along its southern border, chiefly 
upon the shores of the Indian ocean, and are bounded on the north 
by the snowy peaks and pastoral wilds of Tartarjr;" while, "China, 
on the contrary, is situated on the Pacific at the eastern extremity of 
the Asiatic continent, and in the same latitude with the moet elevated 
of its central mountains." We likewise pass over similar descrip- 
tionji iu other parts of the work. But what ia to be thought of the en- 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

IS36. lUitiiriral ami Dtirrifttivf ArroHHt vf Chine. 197 

dMvor auberly to prove that Cbina is not, U " hu often bMU Kgard- 
ed," one Tast plaint Who ever believed it to be one rut |Haia T 
In some of the tAA books about China, it ia said that tea grows on 
rocky sumniits so inacessible that nKHikeys are trained to pluck the 
leaves anit bring them down to their masters. Many other wonderful 
stories are related, of which we may say with truth, that the more 
false they are, the niore readily they have been believed. But these 
are not the materials foi authentic history ; and the time ibr tbeir 
repetition as matters of fact, we supposed, was ovar and gme. 

It is much to be reEreited that the Author looked at China, u be 
evidently has done, through the magnifying glass which some of the 
early Jesuits presented to him, forgetting the circumstances under 
which they wrote. If we deprive Chinese scenery of the false color- 
ing which those writers have thrown around it, and of the errors 
which some others have added, we shall find the whol« eight«en \a^ 
vinces, throughout nearly the whole of their extent, lo be moderately 
fertile, and in some places highly productive, c^>able of amfdy mno- 
nerating Uh industrious laborer ; but not producing liuits so spoo- 
taneoualy u to induce its inhabitants to sink into slothful inactivity. 
We shall find the country thickly populated, and every advantage 
taken to improve it by the great rivers which rise in the elevatml 
regiona of central Asia, and by the smaller ones which spring from 
its own mountains. We shall find many fertile agricultural districts 
thickly studded with villages of e*«ry size ; and we shall aee otmi- 
merce drawing together in large cities natives from many of the 
[ffovincea. Fmally, we shall behold the crowded peculation often 
UMnpelled, in order to obtain a livelihood, to bring onder cultivation 
every hill that will repay their toil, and to redeem land from the water 
for the same purpoae. Such a country is a rich pioture in itsdf, it 
needs no Ealae col<wing. "Those immense ridges which traverse 
China," for the most part " clothed to the very summit with lusur^ 
ant shrubs and trees," particularly the tallow and the camphor; "the 
m^estic forests, for exampls, which overspread that highest and most 
rugged chain which crosses the southern ptovinees," afibrding fuel 
and materials for building " to the northern districts;" and above all, 
the hills of Kwangtung, Yunnan, and Fuhkeen, '* covered with plan- 
tations of tea;" all these, and an immense number of bridges, immense 
and successive capitals, splendid triumphal arches, hills covered with 
villas, " streets and cities on the waters,"— all these we did not ex- 

Kct to find stereotyped, for at least the hundredth time, in the Edin- 
Tgh Cabinet Library. 

It is matter of surprise and regret thai Mr. Murray should fill his 
book with such " facts " as those contain^ in the following sentence. 
He says, " not only hss the indigenous vegetation been everywhere 
superMded by culture, but the highest mountains have been leveled 
and terraced almost to their tops; cities have been built upon them, 
and extensive ranges of wall erected along their summits. They 
(the inhabitants] practice upon a vast scale all the industrial arts, 
whether, rural or manufacturing." And again, be tells us of chains of 

1 V^nOC^IC 

IStf Hhtwieal amd Drftriptiot Arrmtnl of Clntui. Smr. 

■nounlains, which, " io some [daces, where the great riven have forc- 
ed apastage through them," are "shattered ialofer; irregular forma;" 
bat are, he adds, " in general, covered with verdure and cultivatim, 
and adonted with triumphal arches, pagodas, and other fiuicifUl atruc- 
lures, and are thus made to exhibit a gaj and smiling aspect peculiar 
to themselves." 

It is often difficult, and sometimes quite impossihie, for us to ascer- 
tain from what sourcen Mr. Murray drew 'his information ; and we 
are astoniriied to find do alluaiouH to the valuable works of lUmusat 
and Klaproth ; while at the foot of many a page are marshaled old 
Uendoza, Purchas' Pilgrims, and a long list of other like worthy 

In the first chapter of our author's wmk, which be says, coatains a 
"general view of China," and occupies twelve pages, there is-not, in 
our humble opinion,, even one paragraph, long or short, so Itee irom 
errors or defects as to be is any tolerable degree fit for the preaa. It 
is strange, it is passing strange, that any one should venture to pub- 
lish such a work usder the name of history ; and bow Mr. Murray 
could allow it to go out into the wide world, with his sanction; we 
cannot onderatand. Kxceptiog the preface, there is nothing in the 
work worthy of such a mind as Mr. Murray's; indeed, we can hardly 
conceive it to be his own work; it is more like the iMt>ductiDD of a 
giddy school-boy, or of some young aspirant, than of a grave historian. 
The antboi talks of "China," of this "immeUBe sovereignty," of this 
" vast empire," most apparently without having any definite idea of 
what he would fain describe. IC does not even ^ipear from any thing 
we can find in the book, if we exc«pt the map, whether he intended 
that his " general view of China," should embrace the whole empire, 
or only the fnghteen provinces. * The description of the mountains, 
plains, rivers, lakes, dec., afibrds do adequate idea of the actual state 
or appearance of the country. 

The second chapter, occupies thirty-three pages, and contains the 
" ancient history of China ;" the third, in sixty-seven pages, gives us 
the "modern history of China;" thus, in one hundred duodecimo 
pages, the reader has the promise of"K complete and connected " his- 
tory of this vast empire. The first and second paragraphs of the 
second chapter wilt show bow well this promise is fiilfilled : we quote 

"The hiBtoiy of China, long eu^iely unconnected with the wesitni na- 
tions, has excited less of our attention than that of countriea with which we 
have maintained a closer intercourse. It pocoooocs, neverthelecs, a deep and 
in aome respects even a peculiu interext. It includes an almost unintemipt- 
ed series of annals for upwards of 4000 years, commencing at an em coeval 
with the rise of the Egyptian and AssTrian monarchies. Nor do these memo- 
rials, like thoee of Europe, exhibit alternate ages of greatness and decUne, of 
refinement and barltarism ; they present a vast empire ascending, by gradual 
steps, frcwii the first rude elements of the social state, to a very consiaeiablc 
pitch of civilization and improvement. No other records, except auch as 
are contained in the Sacred Vdume, give an account of human society at 
so early a stage. 

ISiHf. HUlvricnl luul Dfseriptioe Arcuunt of China. llHt 

•■ Hwtory &ppe&ra ta have been an object of pecniiu attention to the 
Chinrae moiuirclu and Mffes at a remote period. Regular arrangemetita 
were made under the authority of the Blate, for tiauBmittiiig public event* 
to future times. In the lltetajy tribima], or rather board, called Hanlin, 
one of the chief depaitnientB, — the qualihcatioa of whoae memben are deter- 
mined by a minute examination, — la exclusively devoted to tbe composj. 
tion of the national annalii. The]' are written in the first instance on looee 
sheets, wliicb are introduced througb an aperture into an i^cial bureau,* 
never opened unieas by expreee orden frran the sovereign, lieing thus pre- 
pared originally by the govenmient, tbey are not destin^ for ^neral peniaal. 
But, according to Grosier, such care is taken to secure impartiality, that the 
events of an emperor's reign are never reduced into an liietorical shape, till 
all his descendantH have died, and the throne has passed to another dynastv. 
Though thie statement seems to have obtained credit, it is neverthelesH di^- 
cuh to believe tliat a royal family would thus anticipate its own extinction, 
and not rather looh forward with some hope of perpetuity. It, however, usu- 
ally happens that the founder of a new race, having no motive to conceal the 
ac^ns of the one which precede*!, and finding, pnMbly, in the conduct of the 
rulen with whom it closed, ground for having wrwrted the sceptre fhan 
them, becomes inclined to sanction tbe pubhcadon. It appears certain too, 
that those records cannot be tampered with, and are never seen even by tlie 
emperor. Tbe historv mentions one instauce of the request being made, 
when it was successfullv resialed by the board, who urged tnat there was no 
precedent of a similar demand." 

These two paragraphs are fair specimens of the whole " history of 
China," aucient and modern. Passing over the first, without attempt- 
ing to point out its errors, we will examine tbe second, sentence by 

First. " History appears to have been an object of peculiar atten- 
tion to the Chinese monarchs and sages at a remote period." What 
lime our author means by a remote period, he does not specify, nor af- 
ford us any means of ascertaining. We suppose he must have referred 
lo the time of those mouarchs and sages who lived anterior to Confu- 
cius ; for few, if any, persons who have lived since then have been 
raised to the rank of ioges. If such were the author's meaning, he 
should have inserted a negative, and said, "history appears not to 
have been au object of peculiar attention," ^c. Until the monarchs 
of the Han dynasty ascended the throne, none of the imperial rulers, 
so far as we can learn, gave any "peculiar attention" to the writing 
or to the preservation of historical works. 

Second sentence. "Reguliir arrangements were made, under the 
authority of the state, for transmitting [the record of] public events 
lo future times." When were these arrangements made 1 By whom 
were they made 1 And, what were they T These questions we leave 
for the consideration of those who are able to answer them. 

Third sentence. "In the literary tribunal, or rather board, called 
Hanlin, one of the chief departments, — the qualifications of whose 
members are determined by' a minute examination, — is exclusively 
devoted to tbe composition of the national annals." Here tbe Author 

■ Gnuisr. Ilitloire Generalc de In Chine ( l:l luls 41o, l>Hri> ITTT). Fi-ef. 

1 V^nOC^Ic 

90U HittorictU aiul Drtcriptirr Arrauid of f.'Aiiw. Sir. 

evidraitl; leafK from "a remote period" to the present tiiue. But 
bow and why does he conrnrt tbe imperid auademj, tbe Huiliu jmen, 
uito a literarjp tribunal ot rather board t And why does be say that 
"one of tbe cbief departnteDts" of ibe academy, "ot rather board," 
aa be would hare it, " is deroWd to the (XHnpoBition of the natioaal 
annalfl," whereaa only a tnibwdinate branch, tbe hooske hi»m, is en- 
Uuated with that work T 

Fourth Mutence. "Tfabj (tbe naticwal annala) are wiitteo in the 
fint instance on ItMise sbeeta, which are introduced through an aper* 
ture into an (Acial boreau, never opmed except by esptew orders 
from the sorereign." This may be tme ; if wo, however, it ia very 
unlike the method of writing and preserving historical papers, gene- 
rally prevalent anions the Chinese : Grosier'a work, to which our 
aa^OT refers for proof of this statement, ia not always correct ; and 
we doubt if it be BO on the point in question. 

Fifth sentence. The national annals, " being thus prepared ori* 

E'nally by the government, are not destined for genc^ perusal." 
ow correct it is to say that the annals "are not destined for general 
parusal" wilt appear in the sequel. Lest the reader should be led to 
auppoM that tbe annals were " thus prepared " by the government at 
" a remote period," as Mr. Murray intimates, it sboiud be borne in 
mind that the Hanlin yuen is a modern institution, having had its 
wigin long subsequent to the period at which our author commences 
his modem history. 

Sixth sentence. "But, according lo Grosier, such care is taken 
to secure impartiality, that the events of an empenn's reign are never 
r<>duced into an historical shape, till oil his descendants have died, 
and the throne bos passed to another dynasty." This is a specimen 
of Groaier's work ; and it would be sufficiently contradicted by the 
fourth sentence abote, if that were correct : for, as the histories of 
China, which are prepared by the government, are usually mere an- 
nals, if "the literary tribunal" were exclusively devoted to their com- 
position and to placing them in " an official bureau," there would 
be produced something very nearly approximating to " an historical 
shape." But, be this as it may, Groaier's account is refuted by the 
facta that the events which occurred during the reign of Teenming, 
Tsungtih, Shunche, Kanghe, and Yungching, monarehs of tbe pr^ 
sent dynasty, have been " reduced into on historical shape," printed 
in sixteen quarto voliunes, which are now for sale in this city ; and 
also, we presume, in all the principal cities throughout the empire, 
though it is not published with the emperor's " sanclion." A copy of 
this work is now lying before us, along with Mr. Murray's "com- 
plete and connected" history of ancient and modem China 

Seventh sentence. " Though this statement seems to have obtain- 
ed credit, it is nevertheless difficult to believe that a rojal family 
would thus anticipate its own extinction, and not rather look forward 
with some hope of perpetuity." It is "difficult to believe," truly; and 
there must be no lack of "credit" too, if it can be obtained for such 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1B3B. Hittorical attd Oeteriptiee Aceount of C^ina. '201 

Eighth Knteace. " It, however, iuually*happens that the founder 
of a new race, hariDg no motire to conceal tlie actioni of the one 
which preceded, and finding, probablj, in the conduct of the rulers 
with whom it cloeed, grounds for wresting the sceptre from them, 
becwnes inclined to sanction the paUicattou." This is a rery " phU 
loaophical view of the causes" which induced "the Chinese monarchs 
and sages, at a remote period," to gi?e their " peculiar attention " to 
history. " It, however, usually h^>pena that the " writer " of a new " 
history, who hu no adequate means, or " no metire," for determining 
the accuracy ofthoee worka "which preceded, and finding, probabJy, 
in the conduct of" certain publiahert " with whom " he is acquainttd, 
"grounds for" believing he will be amply remunerated, "necomes 
inclined to sanction the publicatfon." The publication of what T 

Ninth sentence. " It appears certain too, that these records can- 
not be tampered with, and are never seen even by the emperor 
hinuelf." Whether "these records" are to be tampered with or not, 
nothing can be more certain than that the emperors of China have 
access to all their "tribunals;" and if Mr. Murray will take the 
trouble to turn over the P^^ of the Peking gazette he will there 
find proof of this fact. The emperor Irequently peruses, and repe- 
ruses the records of his government. 

Tenth sentence. "The history mentions one instance of the re< 
quest being made, when it was succet^fully resisted by the board, 
who urged that there was no precedent of a similar demand." Thus 
then, for once, the will of the one man, who is supreme in everything, 
wielding the highest powers without control, and who is cloih«] 
with the prerogatives of deity and styled the " son of heaven," — even 
fail will is for once successfully resisted. However, it is by no means 
incredible that the purpose of the emperor, absolute as he is, should be 
successfully opposed ; nor is there any reason to doubt that there is 
" no precedent of a similar demand," because there could benooc* 
casion for making It, since it is the undisputed prerogative of his 
majesty to examine the records whenever he pleases. 

Well does Mr. Murray say, in commencing his next paragraph, 
" tome etouds, it must be confessed, hang over the remoter eras of the 
Chineie people." When we sat down to the perusal of his book, it 
was with the intention of marking every sentence and paragraph 
which we found to be incorrect, in order to notice some of the most 
prominent errors, in a review ; but we soon found (hat the procedure 
would require more time and space than either our renders or ourselves 
could devote to such an object. The last pnrt of the book, though 
better than the first, is sometimes grossly erroneous. However, we 
can say of the whole volume, that it contains many things that are true 
and rome things that are new : but,. unfortunately, it too otlen happens 
liiat those which are new are not true, while those which are true 
and not new. Here we close our brief notice of " China vol. I," and 
wait patiently to see what "new light" is to be thrown on the world 
by the publication of volumes II and III. 


Notices of Modem China. 

Art. II. P/oHca of Modem China: the infiveKce of foreign com- 
wteree considered, frit in eoTtnection with Evro^an nations, end 
then mth those canterminoKs with this empire. By K. I. 
It was stated in t fbrmei pan of thei« " Noticei," that a principal 
cauae ofthe stabilitj and integrity of the Chinese empire, ia iu iadated 
locality and the peculiar language which debars communication with 
Wher large empires ; and that this accidental position has established 
isolation m a principle of salBl;^ (o its gorernment. It must not be, 
bowerer, supposed that the Chinese go*emmenl has been always 
able to munltun this seclusion. The empire has been exposed to 
intercourse with other nations both by commerce and by conquest, 
and has indeed shown no disinclination to the former, when unattend- 
ed by danger of the latter. 

"It is remarkable," say Robertson,* " that the discoveries of the 
ancients were made cJiiefly by land ; those of the modems are carried 
on by sea. The progress of conquest led to the former, that of com- 
merce to the latter. It is a judicious observation of Strabo," he con- 
tinues, " that the conquest of Alexander the Great made known the 
east, those of the Romans opened tbe west, and those of Hithridates, 
king of Pontus, the north." This remark is true, as regards the first 
part of the sentence ; but, with deference to both the above named 
historians, we must give precedent to commerce, before arms, in nearly 
all discoveries, whether ancient or modern. The silks of China bad 
|>robably found iheir way to Tyre long before Alexander arrived there 
in his career of conquest. In any event, the Phtanicians and Has- 
silians traded in the tin of Cornwall two centuries before Cssar's dt- 
scent <»i Britain; and Jason Sc Co. had laid in an investment of woo) 
in the Euxlne, long before Mithridates lived. Tbe English East India 
company in modern times, is of itself a confirmation of our position. 
It is the wealth of commerce, in truth, which both whets the appetite 
fti conquest and furnishes the means to pursue it. But commerce 
may also claim a priority of merit beyond mere discovery. " The great 
conclusion, pa interesting and important for human nature and its 
history, becomes in a manner forced upon us, — the first seats of conv; 
merce were also tbe first seats of civilization. Exchange of merchan- 
dise led to exchange of ideas, and by this mutual friction was first 
kindled the sacred flame of humanity, "t So it has been and will be 
with China. 

Considering plunder to be the stimulant to conquest, we are tempt- 
ed lo doalX the truth of tbe wealth and prosperity of ancient Cfaisa, 
when we find the Huns, the Turks, and the Mongols, who had aller- 
MiMory of .^mrrici, vol. 1 , note 7. 

I HaamD't Refliclinni or the Politki, Ac, of the ancwnt nalioni of Africa 


1836. Neticts of Modtm C^ina. -HKi 

natelj tUacked the petty aUtea of Kuhay, abandon the contest to pour 
their tribea upon th« rest of Asia, and of Europe. But about the 
Christian era, the king of Tsin formed the little principalities of Ha- 
tha; into ooe empire; "the pearla and merchandise of foreigners 
began to enter China."* Two centuries later, " in the time of Hwante, 
India, Tatain, (Egypt or Arabia,) and other nations, caioe b; the 
MMithern or Chinese sea nitb tribute; and from this lime trade with 
foreigners was carried on at Canton. "t Then it was that the Heung 
poo (Turks) poured into Kathay and held more or less of the country, 
or fought for it during several succeeding ages. In the meantime, 
the region of the Hanji, although torn by civil war and dissension, was 
comparatively free from foreign conquest ; and here foreign commerce 
flourished, and with it, no doubt civilization, until the Tartara were 
attracted to this part of the empire aleo# 

We learn from th« Arabian ttavelera,} that hi the ninth century, 
Canfu, wu the port of all the ahips of the Arabs. " A Mohamroe- 
dan," says one of them, " is appointed judge (query, consul) over 
those of his religion, by the authority orf the eiaperor of China, and be 
is the judge of all the Mohammedans who resort to those parts. The 
merchants of Irak who trade thither are in no way dissatisfied with his 
conduct, because his decisions are just and equitable and conforma- 
ble to the Koran." This was the result of peaceful times ; but the 
commerce of the foreigners was afterwards interrupted, according to 
the second traveler, by a rebellion, when Canfu was taken by the 
rebels. In the massacre of the whole population which ensued, says 
the narrator, " there perished one hundred and thirty thousand Mo- 
hammedans, Jews, Christians, and Parsees, who were there on ac- 
count oftraffic." This passage is worthy of remark as being, so fn- as 
we remember, the only instance of the murder of peaceful traders in 
China : and that not by the imperial government, but during an 
insurrection of the people. 

Up to this time, the Chinese had shown no disinclination to trade 
with foreigners ; there was then no disinclination, because no fear of 
those who came by sea. But six centuries before, the great wall of 
China had been built in the north to check the incursions of hostile 
tribes, and in the time of the Mohammedan travelers, a jealousy of for- 
eign aggression existed in the south. "When the amhaanadors of Ma- 
bed," (a large country bordering on China,) says one of them,, "enter 
China, they are carefully watched, and never once allowed to survey 
the Gonntrr, for fear they should form the design of conquering it, 
which would be no difficult task for them, because of their great num- 
bers, and because they are divided from China only by mountains and 
rocks." Although the Chinese, therefore, had found good reason 
to be politically jealous of foreigners, it does not appear that they 
bad ever interdicted their entrance into the country for peaceable 
pursuits De Rubruquis, who was sent embassador to the Great Khan 

t Moniom's Ch> 
i' colleetiou o(vvj»gea. 


■iM Notices of Mwltrn China. Sep. 

of the Mongols about a. d. 1253, teiis us: " the NostonftDS inhabit 
fifteen cities of Kathay, and have a biahop there io a city called 
Segin." ( Seganfoo in Shense.) 

VVe pause heie to remark, that the apostles of religion, who should 
be essentially ministers of peace, here in China, as elsewhere, were 
the first followers in the train of commerce, where they have not 
preceded it, and have always been in advance of conquest The Nee- 
torians probably accompanied the caravans, which must have traded 
at a very early period between China and the western nations; and 
they prupagated their religion in Tartary and Kathay, in the litat agea 
of Chriatianity, We have already seen that Mussulmen, Jewa, and 
Parsees had long found their way into China, where no conquerora of 
their creed have yet set foot. The Mongol conqueror of China, Kub- 
lai khan, so far from being averse to foreigners, invited the Polos U> 
his capital in Shanse,* and aftecwards sent them back to Europe, 
accompanied by one of his officers, on a mission to the see of Rome, 
to bring back with them missionaries, holy oil, dtc. Marco Pok>, who 
became subsequently ati officer of the empire, speaks of Nealoriaiu, 
Christians, Saracens, and Mohammedans, as living in several places in 
China, both north and south of the Yangtsze. The latter country, by 
the way, he calls Manji, (Alanee,) which according to Dr. Morri>on,t 
means "savage barbarian." This term barbarian was used equally 
by the southern people in speaking of the northern, and in preceding 
ages most likely by every petty tribe with respect to every other 
state, as it is applied by the whole empire to this day, to all countries 
beyond China. 

The Mongol dynasty was driven from the throne, towards the lat- 
ter part of the fourteenth century by the Ming, a Chinese family. 
The last were exposed equally, however, to -the attacks of the Tartars, 
throughout their whole dynasty, and their jealousy of foreign conquest 
was further excited by frequent descents upon the east coast by the 
Japanese. They did not refuse, nevertheless, to admit the Portuguese 
to their porta to trade, about the middle of the dynasty, notwithatand- 
ing the outrageous proceedings of Simon de Andrade, one of the first 
Portuguese commandants who visited China. It was under this dy- 
nasty too, that Macao was given to the Chinese ; and ttiat the first 
Jesuit missionaries appeared in the country; and were received and 
honored at court. 

To the Ming succeeded the present Mantchou dynasty, under the 
first emperors of which the Roman Catholic missionaries gained con- 
siderable influence in the empire, and the western European nitione 
began to trade with China. 

We have given this short sketch of the intercourse of foreigners 
with China, because the policy of the government has been constantly 
confounded with the temper of the people, which has been supposed 
to be averse from foreigners and from commerce. Even the committee 
of the houses of parliament on the East India company's charter. 

,v 10- 

Morriion'ii Diclionuy. 

q,,r rb/GoOt^lC 

li»;(6. .\otiri-f of Modirn Oiina. 905 

thought it nccGssBTf to take a mass or evidence, to prove thai the 
Chinese, like other people, were impelled by sel^interest, nod willing 
therefore, to trade with whomsoe>er they could gain profit. Upon 
this falne assumption has also been brtaed the position, that nations 
are justified in breaking forcibly through this seclusion of the Chi- 
nese from the great tamily of the world ; whereas the reetriciion upon 
foreigners, where it doesexiKt, is simply the policy of the government, 
without vhich it might possibly soon cease to exist ; which we have 
shown that it has long acted upon, and which we shall presently show 
it has more need than ever to preserve ; supposing it, as we do, to be 
the only »afe policy, which the Chinese government in its present 
state of moral and political knowledge can pursue. We have seen that 
commerce led to the first discoveries, by Europeans at all events, in 
China ; we infer that it has contributed to the civilization, as far as it 
extends, of the Chinese ; and would make a deduction from the fore- 
going facts which it seems difficult to escape; that the foreigners who 
desire to extend their trade with this empire, shou'.d forbear, aa far as 
possible, to excite its fears. 

The experience of the English in China points especially to the 
above conclusion. The different reception of the embassicsof Macart- 
ney and Amherst, must be attributed, in part perhaps, to the personal 
characters of the monarchs Keenlung, and Keaking, who received 
them ; but could have nothing to do with the character of the people. 
When we learn,* however, that in former days a viceroy of Canton, 
during the first six months he held office, invited the chief Brit- 
ish authorities here to nine several conferences, gave and accept* 
ed entertainments, &c., that his predecessor, and even imperial com* 
miasioners of the highest rank, admitted the select committee of the 
East India company's factory to personal audiences, acts of com- 
placency which have been quite unknown for several years past; we 
may fairly infer that the conduct of the government and its oflicers 
has been measured by their fears of the power of the British govern- 
ment in India, at the different periods, rather than by general aversion 
to strangers. 

The instance given of the massacre offbreigners during a rebellion, 
is no proof of peculiar aversion to them, for all the Chinese of the 
city were put to death at the same time. The only wonder is that 
the supposed wealth of the foreigners in Canton, has not oflener pro- 
voked the cupidity of the mob. The truth is, that the foreigners are 
safer both in person and in properly, than the natives are themselves, 
who are often sorely oppressed by the governmental officers, and by 
violence by robbers, as our previous Notices will show. The foreign- 
ers owe this safety to the very policy of which we speak, for the 
government seeks, as far as its pride and nature will permit, to di.e. 
arm them of all ground of just, or at all events, of serious grounds of 
compluol, in order to avoid collision with their governments. This 
last reflection induces another principle of conduct for foreign traders 

Staunton'* Miwcllaiuou* Notice', p. IM; we bIm> Ciinlnn RRciMitr. Marrh, 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

300 Notiui of Modern Cluna. Sip. 

in China, which is, th&t if instead of Ukinr th« good along with the 
ctUb of a deapotic goTernment, they ondeaTour by outrage to in- 
sult that goveToment and weaken ita control over its own people, they 
jeopardize their own property, and uae iheir growing strength lo puU 
down the edifice of the Philiatinea on their own heaoa. 

We have said that the apoetlea of religion haie in China, as els^ 
where, been the first followers in the steps of commerce, which ia 
only to say in another way that commerce introduces civilization 
amongst the people with whom it prerails ; for religion ( mesning 
Christianity) is as we ha*e obeerred elsewhere,* the summary of aO 

It may be said that the march of improremetit through this or any 
other means, 4iaB been too slow in China; to which we reply that 
ita progress has been slow all over the world, but that ita proa 
greas has been greatly accelerated in Europe in the last c«nturf 
especially amoi^rat aationa whom we shaU pesently show to be coo- 
lerminous with China, and therefore likely to accelerate the march of 
improvement by every contact. The pressure of civilization was untd 
two centuries ago, perhaiu from China, outwards; it ia now from 
other couatriea into China. - 

Conuneree has, at the same time its evils, as well as its advantages, 
and it is through the firqt sometimes, as when it introduces war and 
pestilence into a coontry, for instance, that Providence works the 
greatest chan^^ in the habits of a people. Its abuses may he made 
to work ont « political even as well as a moral good. An instance 
of this ia exemplified in the opium trade in China, which in its intoxi* 
eating progress we have seect to have opened the way for the ciron* 
lation of religious tracts, much farther than the ordinary progress of 
legitimate trade; and its ptriitical influence in the Chinese goveri^ 
ment may be estimated by the memorial respecting it already given 
in thia work.f It has forced the Chinese government itself to admit 
the progress of commerce is irresistible. 

The inferences which we have already drawn for the gnidanoe of 
individual fbreigneiV in China, may, with some additions arising oat 
of the subsequent observations, be thus restated for the benefit of their 
governments, viz : 

1st. That governments which are deairoua of extending their rela> 
tiona with China by peaceable means, should on the ground of policy, 
as well as of justice, take all possible pains to disarm diis power of 
unnecessary fears. 

3d. That whilst they trust to cwnmerce to pioneer the road of 
commuTiication with the country, they should contribute, by every 
peaoefid means, to introduce intellectual and moral improvement into 
the country in the trun of commerce, both to facilitate its own 
operations, and to furnish it with a atfe starting place for fulnre 

t GnzlnlTi voyn^i, {Muiai. 

. LnOO'^IC 

183«. mUcts of Modtm China. 807 

3d. That should ihey DiUjudge conquest to be a more rapid mode 
of attaiuiug the same end ; even then they must IruBt to commerce 
and ita peaceful accessories for the infbimulion neceBsary to attain their 
purposes, and the influence aioongst the conquered people requisite in 
order to maintain them. 

Having shown what we consider to be the true policy of foreign 
states in their communications with China, and the only policy which 
the Chinese government in its pre:sent state of knowledge is likely, or 
poeaibly, able to pursue towards foreigners, we proceed to consider 
the states which are conterminous with China, to which our remarku 
more particularly refer. 

It was said in a former i!umber of these Notices, that China is al- 
moBt u much isolated by her geographical position from other great 
nations, as the British isles. She has formerly, perhaps, been more 
BO. The ocean protects her eastern and southern provinces, and on 
the west, the sea of sand, the desert of Cobi, covers her frontier more 
effectually than the ocean. The northern frontier of the empire alone 
is unprotected, except by the weak device of the great wsJJ, and there 
it has frequently been invaded and twice conquered by comparatively 
insigniiicaat tribes. The colonies of the empire on (hat aide, are 
Hantchouria, Mongolia, and Soungaria, an account of which will be 

fminH in thin wnrW * 'FKpt rj^mnriBA thp rj^iintripfi whpTir« nrnhnhlv 

found in this work." They comprise the countries whence probably 
issued the Jauts, (Turks?) the Huns, the Mongols, tooverrun Asia and 
parts of Europe. No tribe of these countries seems to be now likely to 
rise into importance, unless the present Mantchou dynasty be driven 
from the throne of China, and reconstruct iU power in ita proper ter- 
ritories. The possibility of such an event appears to be anticipated 
by the emperor himself; for in 1829, accordiitg to the Peking gazetle.t 
he sent a million of taels of silver from the Peking treasury to be de- 
posited for ever at Moukden, the capital of Mantchouria, which can 
only be intended for some auch emergency. 

All of these colonial possessions are bounded along their whole 
northern frontier by the Russian territories, their only commercial 
intercourse with which is nominally at Kiakta, near the river Selioga; 
but this restriction must be confined to the natives of Russia and 
China Proper, for the routes collected by Humboll} when in Siberia 
from commercial travelers show that a frequent traffic is maintained 
across the frontiers by the Tartar subjects of Russia. The Russian 
and Chinese trade at Kiakta continues, as far as we know, to be con- 
ducted on much the some terms as stipulated in the treaty of 17%. 
The Russians inhabit the town of Kiakta on one side of a small river, 
and the Chinese their Maemae ching on the other. The officer of 
government who presided over the Chinese at Maemae ching in 1773, 
when Pallas visited it,^ was paid a fixed salary, but it did not nearly 
equal the emoluments derived from the presents which the merchant* 

■ ChiiiK.* Repoiitory, vol 1. p. 117: vul. 4, p. 57 and iK> 

t Canlun lt»iiter, 19th Jan aar;, 1830 

I FncDieni da Geolorie, Ac. par A d« HumboM 

t Fktraf' Vnyiign. 


2UC4 Notifci of Modern China. Ssr, 

were obliged to make him. The same Bjstem occurs at present, 
no doubt with its consequent corruption, m well at Haemae ching 
u at Canton, and other parta of the empire. " It is remarkable," 
flays Pallas, " that there were no women in the Chinese town, but 
the females in the RuMian town recompensed the Chinese tai the 
privation." We have here the same policy of the Chinese govern- 
ment operating precisely in contrary ways at Maemae ching and Can- 
ton ; at the latter place, it is the foreigners who are deprived of their 

The late Padr^ L'Amiot tella us in a note to his translation* ofa 
Chinese statistical account of Tartary, that at the period of the arrival 
of lord Macartney's emba^^y at the court of Peking, the first minis- 
ter of the empire was ou the Russian frontier, acting aa commis- 
sioner for the settlement of the boundary lines of the two empires. 
"The Russians were accused," saya the Padre, " ofhaving advanced 
loo far along a river. After many debates, there was a Kind of ar- 
rangement, but it appears that the Russians did not retire, and, au- 
dita reftro, this aRair was not in the Peking gazette." Former 
" Noyces " in this work, recount many irruptions and insurrections 
amongst the barbarous tribes within the Chinese frontier and on the 
borders, as mentioned by the Peking gazette ; but the writer has no 
where met with a case of aggression by foreigners over the Russian 
frontier, which wiy either be accounted for upon the Padre's insinua- 
tion, nr we may attribute it to the moderation of Russia. Judging the 
latter power however, by what we know of its career in Asia Minor 
and about the Caspian and Aral sea, we will venture to infer that it 
menacRs encroachment upon China by the same fatality, which we 
shall presently see urges on the British upon another frontier of the 

The Peking gazette does not hesitate to confess to disturbances 
upon its southern frontier, as has been previously shown.t having little 
to fear from its tributaries Cohinchina and Burmah; jet it is in this 
quarter perhaps, that events are preparing by the ordinary operations 
of commerce which are likely to influence the destinies of China at 
some future day, m'lre than most of Ht causes of apprehension ; but 
this commerce is urged on by British enterprise, through the British 
provinces which approach the empire on this aide. Martaban, one of 
them, lies about the mouth of the river, Thalein, which takes its rise 
in Yunnan. A scienti5c expedition dispatched by the supreme gov- 
ernment of India, has lately explored this river; and Dr. Richardson, 
who also ascended it, apparently on a political mission, met at 
Zeunay a Chinese caravan from Yunnan, and arranged with the 
heads of it, that they should proceed down the river next year, to 
Moulmein. It is more than probable that the Chinese will fail to 
perform their agreement in the ftrst instance ; but the circumstance 
may be improved hereafter into a continued intercourse. 

' MS. copy : i 

Hociuly'i ' 

t t;ll<■lr^c Re|i 

l)„„ rbAjOOi^lc 

I eae. HiaorUal md Deseriptiee Aeeount of Chiw. 3U0 

The people who live in Ava between the Chinese frontier on thin 
itide and Martaban seem to belong to the race oX Shans, one of 
which, under the name of Lolo, was described in n former number of 
these Notices, on Chinese authority. Their kindred trtbea enteod 
hence over all the mountainous countries between Yunnan and A'- 
aim, as far as the Yangtsze keang in Szechuen, and are the same 
whom we have already sVtown to vex the Chinese frontiers both of that 
province and Yunnan. It was one of this race, bearing considerable 
affinity in appearance and habits with the Chinese, which, as allies 
of the Burmese, once and once only encountered the British army in 
the Burman war, and got a lesson on the value of discipline, which 
the Chinese have still to learn. Some of these tribes are now sub- 
jects of the British rulers of India. 

An account of the British province of A's4m, and of several of the 
Shan tribes who are either incorporated or in alliance with it, is al- 
ready given in this work." It is extracted chiedy from a work called 
the " Friend of India," from which we will repeat a passage to which 
too much attention cannot be given. It shows forcibly the irresistible 
impulses which urge forward the British, like the Russian rule in 
Asia, in spite of the resolves of the first, if not of both those powers. 
After a review of the tribes in question, it concludes ; " Thus a por- 
tion of territory full three hundred miles in leugtb and nearly as 
much in breadth ha.t fallen under the care and protection of the Brit- 
ish government, without any preconcerted plan of conquest, and al- 
most without the knowledge of^lhe inhabitants of our British metropcv 
lis (Calcutta). On the south, nothing separates us from Burmah, 
but the little state of Manipur, recovered and preserved by British 
power ; on the east, thirty leagues of Burman territory may inter- 
vene between us and the Chinese province of Yunnan ; but if we go 
northward through territory wholly our own, we come directly to Ti- 
bet, which is completely under the Chinese government." 

Another and a very full account of these states in the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society (April 1836), asserts: that "our territory of 
A'sim is situated in almost immediate contact with the empire of 
China and Ava, being separated from each by a narrow belt of moun- 
tainous country, possessed by barbarons tribes of independent savages, 
and capable of being crossed over, in the present state of communica- 
tion, in ten or twelve days. From this mountainous range, navigable 
branches of the great rivers of Nanking (the Yangtsze), of Kambodia 
(the Menam ), of Martaban (the Thalein), of Ava (the Ira'wiCdl), 
and of A'sSm (tributary streams of the Brahmapi'itra), derive their 
origin, and appear designed by nature as the great highways of com- 
merce between the nations of Ultragangetic Asia. In that quarter 
our formidable neighbors, the Burmese, have been accustomed to 
make their inroads into A'sAm; there in the event of hostilities, they 
are certain to attempt it again ; and there, in the event of its becoming 
nteeisary to take vingrance on the Ckijust, an armed force embarking 

■ 8e« vol. 5, |«g'' 49 
VOL. v NO. V 27 


910 IVotiets of Modem dtina. Sep. 

OB the Brthmaptitra, coutd be speedily inarched scrow the interven- 
ing country to the banks of the gfreatest river of China, which would 
ctmdnct them through the ver; centre of the celestiai empire to the 

" The tea-tree," adds the same work in another part, " growi wild 
til over the Singpho country, aa also on aH the hUla m that part of the 
country, and ia in ^neral use by the natives as a wholeaotne beve- 
rage." — The Bengal gOTsrnment is, it is understood, about to attempt 
tte incroducttOQ of the cultivation and preparation of this shrub into 
the country by means of the Chinese, -There ie no conceivable rea- 
no why the manufacture of tea should not succeed in its native conn- 
ttj, except the expenae attending it. If the goyernment is willing, 
however, to make a pecuniary aacrilice, if it be necessary, for the 
aake of beneflting the country hereafter, we may expect to see a 
ChineM colony established in A's^ or its tributary states, who will 
nieedily carry on an active trade with their countrymen in Tunnau. 
One of the governors of Canton, Yuen Yuen, we believe, in one of his 
edicts respecting fbreignen said, that they were only to be curbed by 
tea reini, alluding to the necessity which he suj^sed them to lie 
under of procuring tea, for which they could submit to any thing. It 
teems not impossible that tea reiiiB may be used hereafter to procure 
greater concessions from the haughty government of China than it 
has yielded already to a more ignoole influence, the smuggling trade 
in <^um. 

It may be said, that if any advantages are to be derived hereafter 
in this quarter, they will be attributable to the Burmese campaign. 
This may be true; but looking to the influence which is now quietly 
being gained over the Shan tribes by the British officers in A'sim, 
and the strength of those tribes, as stated in the before quoted works, 
we argue, that the same advantagee m^ht have been acquired by less 
eoetly and more worthy means without the Burmese campaign ; that 
mild treatment and patient but firm control over the mountaineers 
who were in immediate contact with our possessions, might have 
united them in an opposition to their oppressors, the Burmese, and 
been a sufficient check upon that people; or that if, at the worst, it 
became absolutely necessary to invade Ava, that the task had been 
rendered infinitely less expennive and bloody, by first securing the 
cooperation of tlie honest and hardy mountaineers. 

Following the Chinese boundary westward from A'sJim, we find 
that government in control of a territory, which extends over twenty 
degrees of longitude, and which is only separated by the Himalaya 
chain of mountains from countries of equal extent, controlled similar- 
ly by the British. Tibet, upon the northern side, is indeed, ruled 
nominally by the Lama hierarchy at Lassa, but it is really directed, 
especially in its foreign policy, by the Chinese resident there. He is 
understood te nominate or wpoint the Oarpons or officers of govern- 
ment, who superintend and guard the various passes through the 
mountains, and one of hie assistants presides at the great mart ai 
Oartope, near the western extremity of Tibet. 


1636. Ifotuet ^ Modtrtt CIma. 91 J 

On the southera side of the mountiuiu, we have the Nipa'tcM wtf 
ritory, which stili professea to pay tribute to Chiiu; but i> actually 
eDtireJy independent of that government, and controlled by the Briu ' 
ish resident at Kattnandu. The policy of the at^reme governmeDt, 
content with its real power over this [vincipality, wisely allows the 
rsTja' to play aovereign after his own Chinese fashion. The British 
resident siid his suite are accordingly restricted lo a limited q>ace 
in the valley of Katraandti, and until lately, if not now, have been 
forbidden to take their wives into the country i these are very much 
like the restrictions of which the foreigners in Canton complain, 
who live here by their own option. 

Westward of the Nip^lese state tie the British districts of Keraoon 
and Garhawal, which are in immediate contact with Tibet, with 
which the Gurkas and others, subjects of the British government in 
India, trade directly through the passes in the mountains. Beyond 
Garhawal and between that district and the river Sutlei, where the/ 
come in contact with the Beik power, lie a number of little iodepeiu 
dent principalities, whose rifja's exercise the pewsr of life and aeatli 
over their own subjects; but they all pay tribute to the British gov- 
ernment, and are controlled in their relations with each other and 
with foreign states by the governor general's agent at Deyrah Doon 
or Subathu. The hardy mountaineers who people these states carry 
cm a traffic in the summer season through the valley of the Sullej and 
over the passes of the Himalaya with Seb and Gartope, and some of 
them even penetrate to Yarkund in one quarter and Lassa in an- 
other. Tibetan officers appointed from the latter place are stationed 
at those passes expressly to prevent the passage of Europeans through 
them; but they do not hiiraer the Asiatic subjects of those same 
Europeans. Here, however, as elsewhere in the Chinese dominions, 
the negligence or impotence of the Chinese authorities enables enter- 
prising individuals to evade the restrictions, as Moorcrafl, Gerard, 
and Jacquemont have proved; and our knowledge of Tibet will no 
doubt, receive constant accessions in this way. Upon dl these matters, 
and about the proceedings on the Burmese frontier, the Peking ga- 
zette, be it observed, is equally silent as about Russilui affairs; its 
silence being as signilicaRt, perhaps, as its narrations. 

We have thus shown that the Rusaran and British powers are hem- 
ming in the Chinese colonial possessions in two nearly paraHel lines, 
and the British are, moreover, pressing upon the pravinces of China 
Proper. China is losing, therefore, the advantages of its former iso- 
lated position, and with it must decrease the resistance of its isolating' 
policy. The lava-like progress of those two great powers rrcost continue 
to advance upon it with almost imperceptible but irresistible effect. It 
rests as little with themselves possibly as with the Chinese to avert 
the shock; but the foresight and energy of the European governments 
may enable them to check it, and their religion as well as sound po- 
licy should prompt them to do so, until certain that the collision will 
bring happiness to the conquered as welt as advantage lo (hem- 
Mlves. It may reat with either of them, as little, lo make an 


312 Deieription of Mtnipftr. Sep. 

immediate impreasion npon the Chinese empiric, and a too precipiiaf; 
attempt, if such a thing were to be thouffht of, might only retard the 
events which are peaceably promoting tne trade of all the countries. 
Whenever the present dynasty of China wears out, and there is nu 
reason to suppose that it will be immortal more than those which pre- 
ceded it, it is more than probable, that the empire will rend into Tar- 
tar and Chinese kingdoms. Each will probably seek for foreign aid 
against the other, andf the contest for political influence now cfomg on 
in other parts of Asia, between Russia and the western European 
Mated, may then be removed to China. Any advantage to be obtain- 
ed in this or a similar commotion in the Chinese empire, will fall to 
the foreign power which has contributed most in the interim to deve- 
lope the intellectual and moral capabilities of the Chinese, and taught 
them previously to confide in and respect the moderate and moral 
dignity of the people, whose physical aid they may then invite. 

The above speculation is presented merely as one of many acci- 
dents which may at some future day call for European interference 
with China, and be turned to advantage by the power which is pre- 
pared to avul of them ; but ages are but as days in Asiatic history, 
and it is impossible to predict the time when any change may occur. 
The present emperor of China, if less energetic, seems to be as just 
and as attentive to the business of the empire, as any of his race. 
But although of middle age, he is reported to be prematurely old, bis 
heir presumptive is a child, the mother said to be one of the cleverest 
ofhersex, and her father by adoption a minister of state— contin- 
gences, any one of which is sufficient to revolutionize a despotic 
government. What are the elements of change amongst the people, 
may be gathered trom our previous "Notices." 

Art. III. Description of Manvphn its situation, productioni, gov- 
ernment, language, and religion; toith loau account of the ad- 
joining tribes. 
From an unpublished Report recently made to the Indian govern- 
ment by captain Pemberton, late joint commissioner rn Manipur, from 
which extracts are made in the Calcutta Christian Observer, as well 
as from other Indian publications, we have derived our information 
resppcling this state. The Report describes the great chain of moun- 
tains which forms a barrier on the east along the whole extent of the 
Bengal presidency. From the southeast of the valley of A's^m in 
N. tal. 26° 30,' and E. long. 95,° this chain runs a course general- 
ly south, having ManipTir and Burmah on the east, and on the west 
K4chAr, Khdsiya, and A'ra'c^n, tilt it terminates at cape Negiais 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

I83r>. DritriptioH of Maatftur. -iVi 

the soiilhern limit of thit latter province, ntid tlic aouthenstfirii oipe 
of the bay of Bengal, in latitude lti° north. In the northeru part, 
proc«ediiifc eastward from Jynteah, this range iiicrease.s in height till it 
reachen Ilie east end of the valley of A'niiin; thus frir beiiig under 
British authority, and farther on, more or less directly m>. This part 
varies from 6000 to HOOO feet in its greatest height, while fnrther 
east it rises to 10,000 feet, and the vallies lie at an elevation from 2500 
to 4000 feet above the sea. From the ea«t of A sam this range ia divid* 
ed, one put pasaea directly on into China, into the provinces of Yun> 
nau and Szechuen ; another in the latitude of Sadiya meetx a branch 
of the snowy mountains from the north ; and a thirid divides into the 
two mountainous ranges which border the Imwa di ou each side, from 
its sources to its mouth. "Every part of this mountainous country 
that I have visited," observes captain Jenkins, " presents nearly a 
uniform geological structure, being almost entirely composed of claj 
•late, ana everywhere nearly of uie same appearance, very much 
broken and disintegrated, so much so as to be seldom visible in mass, 
and being covered with a deep coat of soil and luxurious vegetation 
even on the greatest hills." 

The valley of Manipur lies between this ^at chain on the west, 
and the Angocbing mountains on the east; this latter range is west of, 
and parallel with, the Kyendyen, or Ningthf river, which is the chief 
western branch of the Ira'wa'df, and unites with it below Ava. It is 
a fertile mountain valley about sixty miles iu length, lying between 
34° and 25" north latitude ; at an elevation of 3000 feet above the aea. 
The population does not exceed 30,000, or 40,000, but bein^ a united 
■nd sfHrilod people, " they exercise rule over all the hill tribes from 
A'ricin to A'aiin on one side, and from Ktf'chir to Burmah on the 
other." The valley is well watered by the numerous streama from 
the hilla, which intersect each other in every direction, and by means 
of which the irrigation of the fields is accomplished with but little 
labor. In the centre of the valley are numerous small lakes of fresh 
water, so far as examined, which, with all the streama and the water 
of the rains, have but a single outlet. This is at the southeast comer, 
and thus shows that there must be a slope from north to south ; for if 
viewed from the heights the aspect is that of a perfect level. From 
its effect on himself and other Europeans, major Grant celebrates the 
salubrity of the climate. 'The natives of Manipur,' he observes, 'are 
the most healthy and robust race he had seen in any part of India. 
The seasons are divided into the dry and rainy ; the former lasts 
from November to May, during which, the weather is generally clear 
and dry. There is almost constant frost at night for the two winter 
months, but seldom or never is snow seen. In the rainy season, the 
fall of rain is frequent, but the quantity is not great. The only grain 
cultivated with any care is rice, but this grows of a superior quality, 
and in quantity nearly double of what the same extent of ground in 
Bengal produces. Tobacco, Indigo, sugar-cane, and the like, grow 
in the valley, and cotton, and camphor are cultivated on the hills ; 
but wanting tV- -<timulus of a good market, none of them except 

1 V^nOC^IC 

314 Dtarriftim •/ Mmipir. 8kr. 

toaom ■ nbed to an aBoanl berood Ik Mpfilj of the people. TW 
c«:ti<aiMMi of fruiu n neglected and left lo chance, so thai thw^ 
Viej miihi be grown in great Tariety, yei « picaenl few of ika attain 
lo c'**! perfectHMi/ 

In ibe royal genealogka] roD at Manip jr king*, «e find a aeriea t£ 
rij^a (ram near the time of the Otrntian en down to a. n. 1619, 
when the reigning raj4 was expelled fitm his doaunioos bj the 
anbitimit Bomuu. About 1824. the British reinstated bis brother 
Gambbir Sinfrfa, in bis dominions, wbidi he retained till bis death n 
1834. His son is jet a child, and the gorenment is in the hands 
ofa regeocj. From the accoont of captain Goriao, the gorenment 
appears lo be framed afier the troe Cbineae patmial model ; the idea 
is ihst of a large family ; the riji is the head or father, the royal ca«- 
nectiocu ibe members, tbe cbieb tbe stewards, and the people aie the 
•errants. The latter are, indeed, divided into several dames, bat all 
■re designed in some way or other lo minister lo the wants or rtate of 
the royd family. Some provide grain, others sah, others cloth, othes* 
silk, others gran, others earthen) pote, ttc, &«- Ef ay one ba» his 
dnty, and every doty has its agent; eacb class has its tiriart, wtiQ 
after dedacting their own allowances and the diares for other men in 
power, hand over tbe remainder lo the bead steward, who, in case it 
be not already cash, sells tbe soririnB far his own and master's ben^L 
All tbese classes, however, are termed tribataries, are deemed inferi- 
or, rarely give personal attendance, and if they go on military expe- 
ditions generally act as porters. Tbe next great divinon of the peo- 
ple give attendance at the rate of ten days in forty. Of these, 
tbe most namerons are tbe seapoys, then the borsemen, ^leamien, 
messengera, bouse-builders, doctors, barbers, and in short, every de- 
scription of people needed far tbe pcdice ai fcM' the defense of the 
country. Tbe r&j& has tbe power of d^rading any one to a dise> 
putable rank, or of elevating to a higher; and when we farther re- 
member that no man here can resign in dii^st, bm must continue 
through life to be in some way or other a servant of ^rnnment, 
we perceive tbe power of the rjiji, tat good or evil, is unusaally 
great. The whole people look np to their government not only as the 
source of boDOt and emolnment, but also as the antbority on which 
all in every grade depend for tbe rank they hold in society, and to 
which they look u their model erf" manners, faslnons, and religious 

It was the conrmand and example of a prince of Hanipdr, which 
first introduced Hinduism into tbe country. About the year 1780, 
an image of Govindah was publicly consecrated with much ceremony 
in ManipliT, by the grandfather of the present r^ja. This was the 
first national profession of that faith, though its votaries had preriously 
been resident there. At the same time a proclamation was issued by 
the r^ji stiting that, in order to avert the recurrence of such calami- 
ties as then oppressed them, (the invasions of the Burmans,) he wholly 
made over his country to this celestial proprietor, henceforward hold- 
ing the government in his name. Near the same time, an inferior 

i:..T,r-. b.V^-.00'^IC 

t888. Dtsniptlon of MampHr. S15 

image was conoecrated, to whom was entrusted the presumptive 
heirship ; and the ra'j^ positively enjoined that no descendant of his, 
without the posaession of these images, should ever be raisad to the 
rojal dignity. Hence the poesessioD of them was a truitihi souFce of 
dissension between hia sons, up to the avcession of Gambhir Singh, 
in 1624. 

From the commencement of the present century Hindaism has 
made progress in Manipfir, and the Brahmans now form a very influ- 
ential class. Over the late r^yi they obtained almoct unlimited sway, 
and on them, and in the erection of temples at their sacred plac«, 
Bindriban, be spent all the money received fnnn the British gov- 
ernment during the late war. Much of that influence terminated 
with the life of the rAyk ; and though the practices and doctrines of 
Hinduism are most ri^dly enforced, there are each exceptions as 
show that this dej^ading superstition ii received in form rather than 
in spirit The slnct observance is called genteel, while eating ani- 
roal food or violating any other rule is termed vulgar. Aged people 
sometimes flnding daily bathing inconvenient, wholly give up the sys- 
tem of ceremonies, and yet live respected in their fnmilies. Many 
also of the rites of the religion prevalent before the adoption of Hin- 
duism are still practiced, and they have a regular set of priests and 
priestesses unconnected with the latter system. 

It would seem as though a more favorable time than the present 
could not- be had for introducing the knowledge of the English lan- 
guage, and of the Christian religion. The influence of the Brahmans 
IS weakened by the death of the late r^ji ; the Bengii'li is a foreign 
language understood but by the court and the Brahmans; while m 
the Manipliri few books have been written, and none printed. This 
language being r^nite distinct from any of the Indian stock, and being 
poor and uncultivated, for some time to come the people must be 
educated from the stores of another language. That this must be the 
English is the decided opinion of captain Gordon, the political agent, 
who baa proved himself the warm friend of improvements and of hu- 
manity. The present Hanipdri alphabet is derived from the Benglili 
by which it is imperfectly expressed, while by the adoption- of the 
Roman character, if not also of the English language, more books 
may be put in circulation in one year than all that exist at present. 
For this purpose captain Gordon is exerting all his influence : he has 
already succeeded in adapting the Romanizing system of India to 
this language ; nnd is now preparing a dictionary in English, Bengali, 
and Manipliri, for the use of the people, in which he uses the Roman 
character only. 

The mother and guardian of the young chitif have iigrffd that the 
education of their ward shall be conducted under the superintendence 
of captain Gordon. And the work has already be<:ii begun. An in- 
telligent native tutor, brougbt up at the Chilpur school, hnt; been priv 
vided for him at the joint expense of the British and Manipur goverii- 
roents. A ccbool room baa been built in which the young riij» 
takes hb lessons. With him are axsociHled the sontj of the regent. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

316 Dttcriptum of Manip^r. Bar. 

and perhspu a few other of the nobility, who with wiK foresight are 
preparing to be the compunions of their future chief The Brahmans, 
It appears, had previounly enerted all their influence lo prevent the 
ik)k commencing the study of English, but entirely failed. "All ob- 
Btacles," captain Oordon ohaerves, " founded on ignorance and bigotrj 
may be considered as removed ; for none here dare cavil against a 
system of education which has been adopted by their princ«, and the 
children of him who now holds the reins of government." Tlie infe- 
rior and dependent hill tribes take their tone from the dominant valley, 
and witnessing there the benefits of knowledge and improvements 
will seek the same means of civilization for thems^ves. In this light, 
the small extent of the population of Manipur is regarded M ui ad- 
vantage; for two or three dozen schools would educate the whole na- 
tion: 'then,' as the Chinese would say, 'the nation being educated, ci- 
vilization fi^lows ; civilization following, the neighboring tribes behold 
and seek it; the neighboring tribes seeking it, knowledge is univer- 
sally diffused and all is peace.' Such are the views of ardent and 
intelligent persons regarding this small but important state. No mis- 
sionary has yet been sent to make known the gospel there, but we are 
assured that such would be cordially welcomed by captain Gordon, if 
as a preliminary step it were his avowed object to give instruction in 
the English language. 

The brief extracts from captain Pembenon's report, as ^iven in 
the Calcutta Christian Observer, are the chief source of the informa- 
tion we possess relative to the numerous and various tribes inhabiting 
the great mountain range before described. The principal of these 
ftre tne Mara'ms, who occupy the tract between A's&m and Manipljr ; 
next the Kuputs, or N4gas, who reside on the several ranges of hills 
between Kichir and Manipur; then the Khongjuis, better known 
as Kukfs, Kuchangs, and Kusi, stretching from the southern border 
of the valley to the northern limit of A'r^c^n ; and beyond these 
are the Khyens, between that province and Ava; and the Ka'rens, 
who reside on the inferior heights overlooking the low lands of Bas- 
sein. Besides these which are more important, are several others of 
inferior note principally dependent on Manipur, such as the MarsTms, 
Tankuls, Kams, Changseis, Chirus, Anals, Purams, Huiyols, Man- 
s^ngs, Maringa, and Ltjhuppas. On the east, the Mar^ms are bor- 
dered by the Ltiliuppas, on the south by Manipur, and on the west 
by the Ktfcha'Tese, The villages of all the principal clans are large 
and pt^ulous, some of them numbering more than a thousand houses 
each, and capable of bringing into the field three or four hundred 
men. Their cultivation, which is chiefly rice and cotton, is most 
extensive ; their herds of cattle are numerous, and they are in ^ 
pearance, stature, and courage very superior to any other tribes 
with which we are acquainted, except the L^'ihuppas, whom they 
much resemble. 

All these tribes are so far civilized thai they have become per 
manent cithJvHtorx of the soil, live in regular villages, under a sort 
of parriarr.hal iroxTimcnt, which checks their fierceness sufficiently 

1836. Daeription af ManipHr. 217 

to preserve the social compact. Some of these communities ac- 
knowledge the authority of one chieflaiu, as the head of the trihc ) 
others seek protection by becoming tributaries to nonie more powerful 
village! Imt their submission extends only to bending the quota of 
men to aid their paramount authority iu any exigency. The tribes 
bordering on A's^m, Bengal, and Ava, carry on a limited traffic with 
those countries; but the belt between Tripura and the valley of the 
Kyendyen river is occupied by clana which have little or no inter- 
course with their lowland neighbors, and of whose existence we are 
made aware only as the warfare among them uunually forces some 
new tritte into notice, ou the southern borders of Manipur. So fur 
as yet known, the same system of exterminating warfare prevails 
among the different tribes of these mountains, and even exists between 
the neighboring villages. Id such a state of society no improvements 
can be expected to h% welcomed; and hence we find that they pursue 
the same unvarying course of employment, in the season of cultiva- 
tion stoudy felling the timber and tilling the ground; and when the 
harvest is reaped, either resigning themselves to the feast and the 
dance, oi planning new marauding expeditions against their weaker 
neigh bws. 

All the tribes north, west, and east of the Manipi'r valley, arc buid 
to partake strongly of the characteristic features of the Tsrtar, and 
are marked as tall, fair, with elevated foreheads, guttural dialects, and 
a harsh voice. On the contrary the Kukjs, or southern tribes, are 
smaller and darker, distinguished lor the extreme soilness of their 
voice, and the sweetness of their language. But their exterior mild- 
ness is consistent with ferocity of character, and with some of the 
most diabolical customs of savage life. The practice of " taking 
heads " prevails among them ; and plunder is less their object in 
marauding than the acquisition of heads. These are considered es- 
sential to the due performance of the funeral rites of their village 
chiefUins, and to obtain them they undertake long and difficult jour- 
neys, lie concealed far many days by the patlis that communicate 
between distant villages, and from thence spring on the unwary trav- 
eler, decapitate him m an instant, and again plunge into the forest 
and wend their way home, bearing their bloody booty. Among the 
Kukis, success in these expeditions establishes a claim to the highest 
distinctions the tribe can confer; and their approaches are made with 
such secrecy, that the yell of death is almost always the lirst intima- 
tion the villagers receive of their danger. During the lifetime of the 
late Td'ja' of K^ch^r, these scenes were frequently enacted in the 
villages on the eastern border of his territory, by the Kukis occupy- 
ing Uie heights south of the Btfra'k riter; and thoufrh their aggres- 
sions have been in some degree checked, they are still far from being 
altogether prevented. 

The Singphos who inhabit the pUins and mountains in the south- 
eastern part of A'sa'm, are divided into twelve principal tribes, of 
which the one called Btsa appears to be the head. The authority of 
its chieftain is said to extend over nineteen clans, or movm, thirteen 
VOL. V tia. V "iH 

1 V^nOC^IC 

218 SeltrlioHf between the AmerUau and China. 8»r. 

of which witli liimsciiriiavc tendered their submiBsion to the British 
authorities. Thi^ chief rctudes at the town of Biiia, and hiti own tribe 
UDounte to about IU,(HIO in«n. Besides furnishing a smail coiitingeut 
uf soldiers, hi:< chief duty coni^iHts in giving immediate information to 
tlic British authorities of any thing calculated to excite appreiiensiou. 
A constant communication seems to be kept up between the Singphoe 
within the British tVontlers, and those beyond ajid in the BuTman 
territory. North of the Singphos are the Bor Khamptis, who occupy 
the mountainous region interposed between the eastern extremity of 
A'sH'm and the valley of the Ira'wtf'df. Thev are succeeded by the 
Mishmis, occupying the tnountuinous country from the northeast of 
A'sii'm to the extreme eastern source of thp Bramhspiitra. Sadiya, is 
the principal seat of the Khamptis in the British territories, and the 
villages of the district are snid to exleiid not more' than six miles (roin 
the town ; the reiit of the country is covered with a dense forest, io 
which herds qf cjephautJi ronm undisturbed. At this post are stslioii- 
«-d two conipiinies of the A ha m light infiintry, under command of a 
British officer, with tivo gunboats, each carrying s twelve pound cttr- 
ronsde. This force is conaid^red quite sufficient to overawe the rest- 
less tribes around, and check tlioir lawless depredations, as well aa 
to guard neaiiist the doubtful fidelity of the Singpho, Mtitak, and 
Khamptf allies. 

In conclusion ne inay adopt the words of the Observer in reference 
to the east and northern irontiers : ' the philanthropist, and the Chris- 
tian will see how vast and how interesting is the prospect which opens 
before him. The Singphos and Khamptis may shure in the labors of 
the infant mission at Sadiya; tlie Mikirs and Khasiyas will cuyoy 
the exer^na of the Seramporc missionaries ; and a pleaaing prospect 
of intellectual improvement is already openinj; in Manipi'ir,' These 
thinss are, indeed, incouniging, and matter ofthanks^iving to God ; 
hut nr the supply of the many friendly tribes now accessible to Chris- 
tian missionaries, and in soma parta already preoccupied by the 
teachers of Hinduism, how inndrquato are tlie menus wliich are now 
en I ploy mI ! 

Art. IV. Relatione brheccn l/it United StaUs of America and 
China: eon.fuU nt Canton; aarrative of the Empress, the frst 
American ship w/iirh viaited this port i trial of Tcrranma ,- 
freatiuent of national skips. 
Ma. Sndw, father of the present incumbent, was appointed consul at 
Canton near llie close of the last century — probably in l7tlH; pre- 
vious to which timu no aftciit from the government of the United 
jjtulcs oicr resided in this country. The successors to Mr. Snow 

Itata. Relations brtwrfn Amerira and China. 210 

have been only four; namely, Mr. Oiirrmf[ton, Mr. Wilcox, Mr. J. H, 
Groeveiior, and the present conxul, Mr. P. W. Snow. Mr. GroNvenor, 
we beiieve, never renided in this country while lie held the office of 
consul ; his officiat duties, liowever, were performed by an agent till 
1834, when the a^ncy was resigned, and the flag'stafT taken down. 
This year, soon aner the arrival of the new consul, tlie flag^staff was 
replaced, and the flag boisted. Whatever may l)e the authority, which 
foreign consuls in China have over their eounirymen, their ttifluence 
and situation, with reference to the local functionaries, differ scarcely 
at all ftara those of ttie other foreign residents. In cases of diffi- 
culty, the Chinese govenimffnt usually look to thf eonsi^ as the 
" head men" of the respective nations to which they t>elongf but it 
does not reiMgnize in thnn any authority or rank that can give ihem 
et^uality with even the lowest officers of the celestial empire. Indeed, 
if we rightly imderaland the idea which the Chinese entertain of gov- 
ernmental authority, there is none under l.eiven, which is legal and 
independent, except that which emanates troin the "mic man," who 
alone ia universal sovereign on earth. Hence arisen the extreme reluc- 
tance of the Chinese to use any official titles, when speaking of per- 
sons in authority who do not belong to their own country. And hence, 
too, the mean epithets which they always seem. fond of applying to 
those who are not of the " central flowery land/' And, until the gov- 
ernments of Christendom see fit to put themselves in free and friendly 
communication with the rulers of China, consuls here mast remain 
contented in their present anomalous position, and forego the courte- 
cies which are due to ihein as the representatives of in<tependeiit and 
enlightened governments. 

Respecting tlie comnien cement of ihe American commerce with 
China, there has been published an interesting letter from Samuel 
Shaw to Mr. Jay, who was at the head of the " offii^e of foreign af^ 
fairs," at Washington, tfhen the first voyage was made to China. It 
ia dated. New York, Idlh of May, 17H&: we give it entire. See 
life of Jo4in Jay , also the North American Review for October, 1834 

" Sir, — The first vessel that has been fitted out by the inhabitants 
of the United States of America, for essaying a commerce willi those 
of the empire of China, being, by the favor of heaven, safi^r returned 
to fbis port, it becomes my duly to communicate to you, Ibr the in' 
formation of the fathers of the coimtry, an account of tire reception 
Uieir subjects have met with, and the respect with which their flag has 
been treated in that distant region ; especially as some circumstances 
have occurred, v hieh had a tendency to attract the attention of the 
Chinese towards a people, of whom they have hitherto had very cen- 
fiised ideas; and which served, in a peculiar nninner, to phce the 
Americans in a more coinpicuous point of view than has commonly 
attended the introduction of other nations into that ancient and ex- 
tensive empire. 

" The ship employed on this occasion is about three hundred and 
sixty tons burthen, built in America, and equipped with forty-three 
persons, under the command of John Green, esq. The subscriber 

1 V^nOO'^lc 

no RctalioHs bftiptfit Aatfrica and China. 8r.r. 

1)a<l llic honor of being appointed sgent for their commerce, by the 
gentlemen, at whose risli tliis first experiment has been undertaken. 
On tlie itid of February, 1764, the ship sailed from New York, and 
arrived on the 'ilst of Murch at St, Jago, the principal of the 
Cnpe de Verd islands. Having paid our respects to the Portuguese 
viceroy, and with his permission taken such relreBiunents as were ne- 
cessary, we lefl those blands on the 27th, and pursued our voyage. 
Afler a pleasant passage, in which nothing extraordinary occurred, 
we came to anchor in the straits ofSunda, on the 18th July. It was 
no small addition to our happiness on this occasion, to meet there two 
ships belonging to our good allies, the French. The commodore, 
Monsieur D' Ordelin, and his officers, welcomed us in the most affec- 
tionate manner ; and as his own ship was immediately bound to Can- 
ton, gave us invitation (o go in company with him. This friendly 
offer we most cheerfully accepted ; and the commodore furnished us 
with his signals by day and night, and added such instructions for our 
passage through the Chinese sea, as would have been exceedingly be- 
neficial, had any unfortunate accident occasioned our separation. 
Happily we pursued our route together. On our arrival at the island 
of Macao, the French consul for China, Monsieur Vieillard, with some 
other gentlemen of his nation, came on board to congratulate and 
welcome us to that part of the world, and kindly undertook the intro- 
duction of the Americans to the Portuguese governor. The little time 
we were there, vraa entirely taken up by the good offices of the consul, 
the gentlemen of his nation, and those of the Swedes and Impeiialista, 
who still remained at Macao. The other Europeans had repaired to 
Canton. Three days afterwards, we finished our outward bound Toy- 
age. Previous to coming (o anchor, we saluted the shipping in the 
river with thirteen guns, which were answered bj (he several com- 
modores of the European nations, each of whom sent an officer to 
compliment ua on our arrival. These visits were returned by the 
captain and supercargoes in the aflernoon, who were again saluted 
by the respective ships, as they liuished their visit. When the French 
sent their officers to congratulate us, they added to the obligations we 
were already under to them, by furnishing men, boats, ana anchors, 
to assist us in coming to safe and convenient nxxirings. Nor did 
their good offices stop here. They furnished UB with part of their 
own banksall, and insisted further, that until we were aetlled, we 
should take up our quaiters with them at Canton. 

"The day of our arrival at Canton, and the two following days, 
we were visited by the Chinese merchants, and the chiefs and gende- 
men of the several European establishments. The Chinese themselves 
were very indulgent toward us, though ours being the first American 
ship that ever visited China, it was some time before they could fully 
comprehend the distinction between Englishmen and us. They styled 
us the new people; and when by the map we conveyed to diem an 
idea of the extent of our country, with its present and increasing po- 
pulation, they were highly pleased at the prospect of so coasiderable 
a market for the productions of theirs. 

]6!)6. Relatiotu between America and China. 231 

" The situation of the Europeans at Canton is so well known, as to 
render a H^t^iu unnecessary. The good understanding comtnonly 
subsisting between them and the Chinese was, in some degree, inter- 
rupted by two occurrences, of which, as they were extraoidiDary in 
tbemselres, and led to a more full investigation of the American cha- 
racter by both pnrties than might otherwise hare taken plnce, I will, 
with your permission, give a particular occount. 

" The police at Canton is, at all times, extremely strict, and the 
Europeans there are circumscribed within very narrow limits. The 
latter had observed, with concern, some circumstances which they 
deemed an encroachment on their rights. On this consideration, 
they determined to apply lor redress to the hoppo, who is the head 
officer of the customs, the nest time he should visit the shipping. De- 
puties accordingly attended Irom every nation, and I was desired to 
represent ours. We met the hoppo on board an English ship, and 
the causes of complaint were soon afier removed. 

" The other occurrence, of which I beg leave to talte notice, 
gave rise to what was commonly called the Canton war, which 
threatened to be productive of very serious consequences. On the 
2Sth of November, an English ship, in saluting some company who 
had dined on board, kilted a ChiQese, and wounded two others, in 
the mandarin's boat alongside. It is a maxim of the Chinese law, 
that blood mutt answer for blood ; in pursuance of which, they de- 
manded the unfortunate gunner. To give up this poor man was to con- 
sign him to certain death. Humanity pleaded powerfully against the 
measure. After repeated conferences between the English and Uie 
Chinese, the latter declared themselves satisfied, and the affair wu 
supposed to be entirely settled. Notwithstanding this, on the morning 
after the last conference, (the 27lh,) the supercargo of the ship was 
seized while attending his business, thrown into a sedan chair, hurri- 
ed into the city, and committed to prison. Such an outrage on per- 
sonal liberty niread a general alarm ; and the Europeans unanimoualy 
asreed to send for their boats, with armed men, from the shipping, 1(» 
the security of themselves and their property, untifthe matter should 
be brought to a conclusion. The boats acc<miiiigly came, and ours 
among the nnmber ; one of which woe fired on and a man wounded. 
AH trade was stopped, and the Chinese men-of-war drawn up omio- 
eite the factories. The Europeans demanded the restoration of Mr. 
Smith, which the Chinese refused, until the gunner nhoald be given 
np. In the mean while, the troops of the provmco were collecting in 
the neighborhood of Canton; the Chinese servants were ordered^ by 
the magistrates to leave the factories ; the gates of the suburbs were 
shut; tul intercourse was at an end ; the naval force was increased ; 
and many troops were embarked in boats ready for landing; and 
every thing wore the appearance of war. To what extremities mat- 
ters might have been carried, had not a negotiation taken place, no 
one can say. The Chinese aaked a conference with all the nations 
except the English. A deputation, in which I was included for Am^ 
rica, met the JF\wn (fooyuen), who is the head magistrate at Canton, 

1 V^n 00(^1 C 

'ita Rfloliiiii Ulirrru Ameiird and ChiHa. Sef. 

with tlic principal officer." ofllic province. After setting forth, by an 
interpreter, llie power of the emperor, nnd his own determination to 
Hiipport tlie luu'fi, he denrutdeil that (he gunner should be given Hp 
within three dayx; declorhig thit he nhould have an impartial exam- 
ination before their tribunal, and if it appeared that the affair was 
accidenl;il, he should be relaosed unhurt. In ihf. mean tbne, he gave 
permission for the trade, excepting that of the English, to go on as 
u.Hual; and dismissed us with a present of two pieces of silk to each, aa 
a mark of his friendly disposition. The other nations, one after another, 
sent away their boots, under protection of a Chinese flag, and pursu- 
ed thi-ir business as betoKV Tlie English were obliged to submit; 
the giiitner was gii'en up; Mr. Smith was released ; and the English 
alter being forced to ask pardon of the magistracy of Canton, in the 
pn-sence of the otlmr nations, had thRir commerce ret^tored. On this 
occasion, I am happy that we were the lost who sent off our boat, 
which was not disgraced by a Chinese flog; nor did she go until the 
English themselves thanked us for our concurrence with them, and 
advised to the sending; her away. After peace was restored, the chief 
and four English gentlemen visited the several nations, among whom 
we were included, and ihimked them for their assistance. The gun- 
ner remained with the Chinese, — his fate undetermined. 

"Notwithstanding the treatment we received from all parties was 
perfectly civil and respectful, yet it was with peculiar satisfaction 
that we experienced, on every occasion, from our good allies the 
French, the most flattering and substantial proofs of their friendship. 
'If,' said they, 'we have in any instance been serviceable to you, 
we are happy ; and we desire nothing more ardently than further 
opportunities to convince you of our affection.' The hormoiij main- 
tained between them and us was particularly noticed by the English, 
who, more than once, observed that it was matter of aslonishment 
to them, that the decendants of Britons should so soon divest them- 
selves of prejudices, which they had thought to be not only hereditar]', 
but inherent in our nature. 

" We left Canton the 37lh December, and on our return refreshed 
at the Cape pf Good Hope, where we found a most friendly reception. 
After remaining there five days, we sailed for America, and arrived in 
this port on the I Ith instant. 

" To every lover of his country, as well as IlKwe more immediately 
concerned in commerce, it must be a pleasing reflection, that a com- 
munication is thus happily opened between us and the extremity of 
the globe ; and it adds very sensibly to the pleasure of this reflec- 
tion, that the voyage has been performed in so short a space of time, 
and attended with the loss of only one man. To captain Green and 
his officers every commendation is due, for their unwearied and suc- 
cessful endeavors in bringing it to this most fortnnate issue, which 
fully justifies the confidence reposed in them, by the gentlemen con- 
cerned in the enterprise. 

" Permit me. Sir, to accompany this letter with the two pieces of 
silk, presented to me by the Fnen of Canton, as a mark of his good 

16W. Rtlatiwti btlnveu Amrrita and Vliinii. 'XiSi 

dispoailioD towards the j^metican nation. In Uiat view, I consider 
tnyeelf aa peculiarly lionored 'in being charged with this testimony of 
the frieadnhip of the Chinese Tor a. people wlio may, in few years, pro- 
secuie a commerce with the subjects of tliat empire, under advantages 

nual, if not superior, to those enjoyed by any other nation whatever, 
lave the honor to be," &c 

We have already, in former numbers, given some account of the trial 
and execution of Terraiiova. The following is extracted from tlie 
North American Review for January, 1835 ; it was drawn up in Canton 
at the time of the occurence of the unhappy events which are narra- 
ted in it ; and is dated Saturday, October 6th 1:^1. 

"On the iiflh of October, 1H2I, the committee of the American 
gentlemen at Canton, to whom captain Cowpland, of the ship Emily, 
Bad applied for advice and direction tor the government of his con- 
duct, relative to the trial of Francis Terranova, received a communi- 
cation from the committee of the hong merchants of the following 
purport, viz : — that the viceroy of this province had issued orders to 
the Ptnt-ue to repair on board that ship the next morning, and there 
proceed to try the said man for the crime of which he was accused ; 
the Chinese having acceded to the propositions previously made, that 
be should have a lair and impartial tiiat, and that both Americim and 
Chinese witnesses should be examined ; at the same time refusing to 
grant permission to the Rev. Robert Morrison to attend as interpre- 
ter, on the ground of his bning attached to the British factory, and 
their determination not to allow the interference of those attached or 
belonging to any other nation. These things having been communi- 
cated to captain Cowpland, who was then at Whampoa with his ship, 
the majority of the committee, as there was not time to receive his 
answer before it was necessary to be on board, proceeded directly to 
Whampoa, and early the next morning, Saturday, Oct. Ulh, assembled 
oil board the Emily, previously to the arrival of the Pon-ue, They 
found that tlie vessel had been prepared in the most suitable manner, 
fiir the business in hand. Arms of every kind hud been removed, and 
ti)c crew of the vessel, (with the exception of the prisoner, who was 
noiifiued in a slute-toom, guarded by two American officers,) were 
stationed on the forecastle, which they did not it-ave during the day. 
Eight hoiig merchants attended at the trial. 

" About eight o'clock in the morning, as the Pon-ue's boat, attend- 
ed by a number of Chinese men-of-war's boats approached the ship, 
captain Cowpland with the linguist Cowqua, joined him, and came 
alongside in the boat with him. Captain Cowpland immediately went 
oit board his vessel, and was required by the hong merchantJi there 
assembled, to take the prisoner, and go with him on board the Pon- 
ue's boat, that the Pon-ue, agreeably to the Chinese criminal practice, 
might look him in the face. Captain Cowpland hesitated to comply with 
this demand, regarding it as substantially a surrender of the prisonpr, 
witliout the stipulated trial. Howqus, however, pledged himself, that, 
as soon as the ceremony had been performed, Terranova, HhoulH be 
returned on board the ship, and no furtliLT opjiositiun to this demand 

1 V^n 00(^1 C 

'Hi Rtlationt belwten America and China. Skp. 

was nude. Howqua then required that the prisoneT should be hand- 
cnfiM, which waa prumptlj ret'uaed. Captain Cowpiand having pledg- 
ed himieir for the aafe-keepiDg of the prisoner till after his trial, and 
the Chinese havins agreed lo leare TerranoTB in his cuslod;, he re- 
iiised to put him in irons, ou (he ground that no prisoner ia thus 
confined in America, during the prwress of his trial. As the; had 
chosen to try the accused on board an American ship, they must 
permit him to be treated as an American prisoner, till the conditions 
acceded to by them bad been complied withi that is, till he had a 
fair and impartial trial. Should he be found guilty, they would then 
have a right to secure him, as they pleased. On this explanation, the 
demand was waved, Terranova himself having promised to demean 
himself peaceably. Captain Cowpiand accompanied the prisoner into 
the Pon-ue's boat, atill lying alongside, and after remaining there a 
short time, they were sent back by the Pon-ue, to the Emily. 

" In a few momenta, a number of Chinese officers of the suite of the 
Pon-ue, came aboard, bearing the insignia of that magistrate. They 
were received by the eight hong merchanta, who had already been on 
board more than an hour, viz : Howqua, Mowqua, Chonqua, Pacqua, 
Kengqua, Consequa, Gowqua, and Poonqua. The Pon-ue himself soon 
came on board, bringing with him alt the witnesses on the part of the 
government, and a considerable retinue. As soon as he was seated, 
the linguist made out and handed to hiro a list of the names of the 
committee, noting those who had not yet arrived. This committee 
consisted of twelve or fifleeii of the most respectable American mer- 
chanta at Canton. 

" Pacqua, the security merchant of the Emily, and Cowqua the 
linguist, being called, fell on their hands and knees, to hear the d«v 
mands of the Pon-ue, of which the Americans could get no interpre- 
tation. Captain Cowpiand was next called. The question asked 
him, whether Pacqua was his security merchant, and Cowqua his 
linguist, being answered in the affirmative, he was required to bring 
forward the prisoner. This was done. Terranova approached the 
table at which the Pon-ue sat, the fatal jar with which he is accused 
of having struck the woman, and is supposed to have caused her death, 
was placed before him on the deck, together with the hat she wore 
at the time. He was questioned whether be knew the jar, whether it 
belonged to him, or to the ship. He replied with perfect composure 
and firmness that it was the same jar which he had handed the woman, 
at the time that he gave her a mace to pay for the fruit she was lo 
put into it ; showing by signs the manner in which he had handed it 
into the boat. The Pon-ue showed much irritation at any attempt at 
explanation, and Howqua and the linguist, although repeatedly urged 
by those assisting the prisoner, evidently did not translate the half of 
what was urged in his defense. Whenever either of them attempted 
an explanation, he was silenced by the Pon-ue. Without hearing 
what the prisoner wished to state in his defense, the Pon-ue called 
the government witnesses, stating that all he now wished of Terrano- 
va was to identify him, — to have him acknowledge himself the aeamcn 

1896. Seiatimt hetmtn Amertra md Chi*a. 935 

who wu tridiDg witb the wcxuan, tnd that the jar was the Mine 
which ha had nawl. The Pon-ae urged much the Mune couuderauons 
( as &r as could be gathered ttom the limited abilities of the linguist 
md Howqua at interpreter, ) as he bad urged on the iuqaest ; and it 
WW eondunve to erery unprejudiced mind, that be had prejudged the 
eese, and had only vamK on board to receive hii vicdm. 

" AMMMigh tbese aj^arsnces tended greatlj to diacoursge the hope 
of an nopartia] trial, tiie Americans present could not in sdeooe sub- 
nh to this breach of futh on the part of the mandarins, after having 
dMmseltes oom[died with all that had been required of them, and the; 
iosisled on having their wttnesMS examined. The Chinese witnesses 
having been called, the American withdrew, (such being the usage 
m a Chinese trial,) hot not without the assurance, and iu the fiiU ex- 
pectatim, that their request should be granted. The onlj witnesses 

Ktdnced on the psn of the goremment, were the husband of Ko 
ang she, the munan helonging to the hoppo boat attached to the 
&nily, and two children, aj^Mrentlf between the ages of seven and 
tw^e years. These witnesses approached the Pon-ue's table on 
their hands snd knees, never raising their eyes. When the WMnan 
wu required to look up, uid point out which was the mui, although 
there was no other seaman near, the linguist was obliged to put his 
finger on Terrannva, to enable her to lay, be is the man. She gave 
a very long account of the afioir, in which she was consUntly prompt- 
rid by the oldest child. This circumstance was objected to on ho< 
half of the prisoi'CT, and the linguist was desired to make known the 
ofajeotiati to the Pon-ue, but he refused to do so. The linguist then 
commenced a translation into Engjish of the woman's evidence. It 
was urged, that as she was well known to speak better English than 
either the Ungnist or Howqua, she ought to be allowed to repeat her own 
evidence in English, for the benefit of the Americans, in order, that if 
it diflerod from the Chinese version, the falsity might be exposed. 
Tlus was refused, and on her commencing a few words in English, 
she was. stcqiped. The Americans were accordingly obliged to sub- . 
mit to the garbled translation mide by the liugutst. As soon as it 
was heard, uey called on Honqua, in the most K^emn manner, to at- 
tend to and faithfiilly interpret what they had to bring forward as 
testimony, in reply to Ibis first and rooat material witness, which they 
sflsured him would he sufficient, in any court of justice In America, 
to set aside her evidence. She had just stated, that, from the hoppo 
boat attached to the Emily, she had seen the jar thrown. She saw 
it strike the head of Ko Leang she ; saw her fall into the water ; saw 
that she rose no more ; and knows that this is the very man who 
threw the jar. It was proved in contradiction to this evidence, that 
from the position of the two boats at the time, it was impossible for 
her to have seen what passed, the ship being between the two boats; 
that in the afternoon of the day on which the event happened, and 
again the next morning she had stated to captain Cowpland, in the 
presence of lour other American captains, (who tot* it down in writ- 
ing and signed it, and the paper was forthcoming,) that she knew 


tiSti RtUdians belieteu Auttrica autl China. Sep. 

nothing of the ailair ; that she was inside her own boat, and that ber 
attention was occupied in looking out to see what was the matter with 
a child, which she henrd crying in a sanpan (boat), that was then 
floating past tlie stern of the Emily, and near it a woman's hat in the 
water. Soon afler, the husband of the woman, (who had been in the 
sanpan) came round the bow of a country ship, which was near, and 
took the hat out of the water. It waa then perfectly whole. He then 
took up tbe jar out of the boat which was also perfectly whole, .and beat 
the h:it forcibly with the jar. All this Howqua was required, as he 
valued the truth, faithfully to interpret lo the Pon-ne, and it was be- 
lieved, that, as far as his ability exteuded, he did no. The instri)> 
nient of torture was then called far by the Pon-ue, and thrown down 
before the woman, but it ^as not applied. She peTsisted in her pre- 
sent story ; and the only satisfaction given to tlie prisoner's frienda 
was, that now she told the truth, whereas helore, she told what was not 
true. One of tbe children gave wme evidence, which was not inter- 
preted. It was urged, on behalf of the prisdlier, that neither of the 
children had witnessed tbe affair ; but they were afterwards brought 
from the, shore, by the husband of the deceased, and that he came 
from the side of ilie country ship, opposite to the Gmily, and conse- 
quently could not himself have witikessed the accident. All this tbe 
Americans could prove by the government witriesses. 

"The Pon-ue had, for some time, evinced a desire to close tbe 
trial with this evidence, and not to hear any thing brought to con- 
trovert it. At this moment, with passion in his countenance and 
violence of language, he declared that all this was of no avail ; — that 
be had seen for himself the hole in the hat and in the head of the 
woman; that he bad Rpplied the bottom of the jar and found diat it 
fitted the fracture ; — that th^ jar belqnged to the man or tbe ship,— 
and that this was all that was necessacy, and tlial the prisoner must 
be given up. With this, be rose to depart. It was strenuously urged 
lo the li'.iguist and to Howqua, that the condition of the trial had not 
been complied with ; they had pledged themselves we should be 
heard ; there were many ways, in which the woman might have coma 
lo her death ; she might have fallen in the boat on some pointed in- 
strument, on the iron pin upon the stern, on a nail standing up qn the 
lide of the boat, or what was more generally believed, her husband 
Amling jhe body, might have himself inflicted the wound, for the pur- 
poee of extarling money from the ship On such evidence, it was 
urged, the man cannot be given up to suffer the penalty of your laws. 
Our laws regard every man as innocent, till he is proved to be guilty, 
We have searched for the truth: we are not salisfied. If he is guilty, 

Srove him so and he shall be delivered at your own city gates. We 
ave one witness, who saw the jar handed into the bo^t by the pri- 
soner. He also saw the woman Hill out of the boat, at a considerable 
distance from the ship. Hear his testimony. If you will hear no more 
than what your witnesses have stated, we are not satisfied. We are 
under your laws ; execute those laws, Wc do not resist you ; find 
ihe man guilty by n fair and iniparlial trial (which you have prtmiis- 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

lS3tf. Rtkaims hOwt* America and Clatui. 907 

ed*, and he will be delivered up to you. IThe a not proved », mnd 
you perein in not heariiq; the evidence, you mum take him out of the 
ship. We will leave herj no reaiatance ought or will btf made to you. 
His blood be on your heads. 

"At leogth, the Pon-ue perceiving fbe eanieatness of the Ameri- 
cans, waa induced again to take his peat. He aat a (bw mmnentB, 
and the witatas allu^jd tb was produced. The Pon-ue heud but a 
few wordaof the tertknony, — sileneed the lin^ist, and rising ftfxa 
bia chair, said, it was heaven's bnsinesa; if he had judged wrong, 
God wouM punish him for it hereaAer ; bet knew, in his mia heart, 
the man was tpitlty; be must be delivernd dp. With this he left the 
fleck of the Oinily, and went oa boAtf his own boat alongside, with 
moat of his retinue, leaving the bong mercbaots and linguist to see 
that lie was obeyed. 

" During this mockery of justice, there were on board the Emily 
more than one thousand Chinese. The ship was surrounded by men- 
otwar boats. The Americans on board did not exceed forty persons; 
and the boats of the other Amertcan vessels were purposely ordered 
away. Every thing tliat couM be construed into an offensive weapon, 
had been carefitlly remAVed, to show that we considered ourselves com- 
pletely in their power, and as a respectful conipthnent to the Chineae 
authorities, the colors were flying. 

" How({ila, as the oldest of the hong merchnnts, now acted as 
spokesman, and r^ired is the Pon-ue's name, ^t we should deliver 
up the prisoner. The same reply was made by us as before ; come 
and take him. You hare the power and you have armed men lo ex- 
ercise it He again asked, if there would be any resistance, and the 
roost sriemn Kssurance was given, that there should be none. How- 
qua,' on this turned to go to the Pon-ue'a boat,- as was supposed, to 
obtain a guard of soldiers to take Terranova.- It was, however, stated 
to him, that he must understand and roust inform the Pon-ue, that the 
Americans did not consider him as complying with bib engageroents. 
He bad promised a fail' and an impartial triu. It had not been a^ 
lowed us.- We consider the tase prejudged. We are bound to eub- 
mit to y«ur laws while we are in your waters, be they ever so unjust. 
We will not resist them. You have, following your ideas of justice, 
condemned the man unheard. But the flag of our country has never 
been disg seed. It now waves over you. tt is no disgrace to submit 
(0 your power, surrounded as we are by an overwhelming force, back- 
ed by that of a great empire. You have the power to compel ns. 
We believe the man innocent; when ne is taken from the ^ip we 
leave her ; and the commander strikes bia colors. 

" Howqua considered these last suggestions of so much importance, 
that he, together with several of the other hong merchants, went down 
into the Pon-ue's boat, to communicate their substance to him. Be- 
fore he could return, the linguist was ,.ut in chains oh the Broily's 
deck. The hong merchants, having returned, required that captain 
Cowpland should take the man to Canton for a fiirther trial, or put 
liim in Pacqua's hong, till another and higher mandarin should be 


SiK RehUwns bttieeeit America ami China. Sar. 

ordered to adjudge the cose. This was refused by the Americins, on 
the ground that the Chinese had their option to trj the man at Can- 
ton or on board the Emily. They had chosen the latter, and there 
we now required, that the trial should be eloeed. This being cant- 
municated to the Pon-ue, he was heard high in words with Howqua, 
who returned lo the ship with the aame demand, which he had just 
made, and to which the same answer was returned. We gave aa our 
ultimatum, that they should come on board on their own reaponailHli- 
ty and take out the prisoner, and the ship's colors ahouid hie struck. 
To this we steadily adhered. 

" This conference lasted several hours. The Chinese peraialed in 
refiisinf to take the man, and the Americana refusing voluntarily to 
tunender him. At length, the Pon-ue'a patience being exhauated, he 
having sat in his boat more that three hours, he went on board the 
ship and took Paujua out in chains, commanding him, with the othet 
bong tnerchanta, to fellow him to the city, there to lay the whole 
afiair before the viceroy." 

Her« ends the account of the " mock trial." It needs no comments 
from us. The fate of the unhappy sailor is well known. How the 
Ptoanyu (or Pon-ue) knew in his heart the man was guilty, it is not 
easy to understand. When it is said, "Qod would punish him," 
we suf^wse the linguist used the word jot as a tranalation of the 
Pwanyu's words for the gods of his nation. 

The manner in which the Chinese government is affected hy the 
arrival of national ships, and the conduct which on such occasions 
it exhibits towards " men from afar," is very clearly exhibited in the 
following edict from W&n, the imperial commissioner of maritime 
customs at this port. The arrival of the Peacock and Enterprise was 
noticed in our number for May laat. Among those who went on shore 
at Macao, were lieutenant commandant A. S. Campbell, and Edmund 
Roberts, esq., deplomatic agent of the United States: the first de- 
ceased on the 3d of June, and the latter on the 12th of the same 
month. It is much to be regretted that proper measures are not 
adopted to disabuse the Chinese mind, relative to the designs of for- 
eign governments. It would not be diffictdt, in a case like the one 
which we here notice, to make the officers of government understand 
the truth: lo do so is practicable; and in a high degree desirable, 
as it would aid greatly in preparing the way for opening a friendly in- 
tercourse with Uiis great empire. The following is the edict above 
alluded to. 

Win, orerseer of his n»jesty's gardens, by imperial authority superin- 
tendent of the maritime customs of Kwangtung, Sic., issues this order to 
the hong merchants, for their instruction. The deputy officers at the cua- 
tom-houae in Macao have sent rip to me the following report : 

The [rilota Chang Yuhrsng and Ying Yungtae have «ent in ■ report to us, atat- 

On the 13th of the 4Ih month of the ISth vear of Taoukwang, two Amerieaa 
ships of war, the Peicocli and EiilprpriM amved in vomnanr. and aneliored off 
the Mn« hiandi We went immediaiely and inquired the reason of iheir doing 
m; irhereiipon Ihe capUing of the two sbipi made the foUowing declanlion ; 

It^. RtUitioHf Itelmetn America and China. %t9 

' Our Iwu *hi|M lefl AnMriua to vbit olbcr |hwI> ; and on lusount of Eontntry 
Wladi liave oanie hither to anvbor for ■ liltle lima ; there ii no oilier reuan for 
Iheir doing lo.' 

Having obtained tliii daclanktion, it i* proper Ibal we re|K)rt (he utme. and alio 
aubmit to yaa a atatement of the number of man and armi on board tbne ihipa; 
Ihay are aa follows in Ibe Enlerpriie are 60 men, 10 eannon, 50 maikeli, 60 
iwardi, 500 caltiei of powder, and .WO ball* ; In the Pencock are IM men, 89 
cannnn. 100 miMketi, 100 awordi. 800 oattiei of powder, and SDO batla. 

Such wu Ihe report of the pilnli. Beaidei directing them lo keepailrong 
guard amanillhe ihipa, we, ai In dutf bound, tnuiimit to jou their report for 

FuTtber the aaid deputy officera ( wbo are italioned at the cuatm»-houM 
ID Hkcao,) ha,*e reported thus : 

Already we have informed yoar excellency of the arrival and anchoring of 
two American ihipa, and of Ihe raawn of their h> doing. Belwern 3 and 4 
o'elook r. ■- on the llth of th« current month, the piloti Chaug Vublkng and 
Yang Yuogtae Informed u* that, 

To^ey, three imall boats from the American ihips of war came into the 
•onthem harbor and approached Ihe ahore (at Pray Grande), having In them 
lIAy-lwo NUlon; we went Initautly and inquired the reuon of thair landing, 
wlMreupon they oiade the following declaration : 

"ThlRy-aevaD of ui an from the Peacock, and flfteen fmn (he Enteipriee; 
Mug aick on board abip we have come lo Kacao with the Inteation of llvfng in 
a beraarian factory for the reitoratioo of our health ; and aa aoon a* Uiat it rM> 
tofed, we thai] re embark.' 

We, your lervanti, examined each of the aatlon \ they were really aick ; there 
wa) no deceptioD in the caw ; and we report accordingly. 

Such waa the italamant of Ihe pilot!. Beilde* directing them to keep a strict 

Crd around the ships, it is proper for ni to send up their report for jonr eiceU 
sy'l ei ami net Ion. 

The foreg(Mii2 repoita, fa&ving reached the custom-bouM offieet were under 
cnvideniioD, wtten I received the fbllowiBg canmunicatioQ from hia ezcd- 
lencj gorenior Tuig. 

On Ihe 16th day of the 4th mouth oflhs 16th yearofTaoakwang, I receired 
• oommonicntiou from Kwan, admii^ of Kwangtung : it contained the fol- 
lowing documents. 

Major Chaou KeCnching, acting colonel on the Heangshan statioD, has i«poit> 
ed lo ne that, 

Vu Chinhing, at present aeling ensign under mj command nnd attached (e 
the Mjuadron appointed lo guard against bailMriaDs, has reported that, 

Betweeo the hours of 11 and IS, on the night of the ISlhoftheonn 

o barbarian ships coming in from sea; they approached 

light of the 13th of the onmnl mouth, 

* proached near the 

ike Inquiry, where- 

According to instructions giren to us, we have eiamiosd respecting the 
two barbarian ships which have arrived. It appear* that (hey ore American ahips 
of war : the largest [the Peacock,] called 8i»W«-Jim, has on board 190 men, 32 
cannon, 100 muskets, 100 awordi, 600 catties of powder, and 800 batla: the 
amaliesl, [the Enterprise,] called Kua-ma. has 60 men, 10 cannon, 50 muskets, 
60 sHordi. 500 caltiea of powder, and 500 balla. To our inquiries for the reasoa 
of their coming, the captains of (he ships made the following declaration ; 

'These ships left our country to visit other plaGBSi and on acconntof conlnry 
winds have come hereto anchor fora short lime; ihere is no other reason for 
(heir ooming.' 

We (the two pilots), having obtained this declaration reipecting the rea«oii «( 
their coming, make this clear slalement. 

Such was Ihe account given to me ; whereupon I. as acling ensign ciamined 
and Sod Ihst the Peacock has three maitt: is about MO cubits long; 30 across 
the deck ; and that on each ude of her hull ere twelve port-holes, eleven of which 

1 V^nOC^IC 

830 Ktlii(wH> Itrlwrrtt Amrrita and Ck'ina. Sir. 

■re faniidird wilh CAiinon: I ■Kertninrri rIio, Ihiil (be EnterTwiie lini two muUi 
h alioul 70 cutiils lung; 8(1 wide : and thai on each of tier aidni art! 6 canitoo At 
pnuenl, holli sUips are ijuielly at anchor. Aa duly reijuins. 1 make llin ■tatcnwnl. 
Tbe alMve, havliif; come before me (he acting colonel, I And well BUllientiml- 
ed: and on penuoal etaminalion do no( aaeertiuu any thing dilerinc therefroni. 
However, (iiice (he dMifiiauf (he iMrbariaiis are iucomprehen^liJe, I luoMdiMe- 
\y gave orders to tbe cruiser* to keen h|i a atrlct guard ; I likeirin tent iellert to 

.i ...... ..... .._..j.._ .1 . .( .^. uta meiuin*. W hailen tbe denr- 

'^ tbere ai nlsaMre; 

J tVpOli lbs MB*. 

>r, I report for yam 

Tbe foregoing., coming tiefore me the admiral. I twd to be aulhenlic. On euuK 
inatlon. It appean that thtf ahip* of war belonging to foreign barliariani, all 
annually arrive during and afler the sixth mouth, and then at eonvtm Air the 
nercbantmen trading to Canloii; but noi* two American ahlfi* ra war, one 
large and one imall, nave jual al tbia (infe uuaipacledly arrived; and alt^oufcb 
(he piloia, after a clear eiaminalion, have made ■ well ■ulhentiaated ivport, that 
Ihe Aipa, havtiiK aaited for other t<auntrie*, on account of conlrwy wtndi, hav* 
aacbored only for a little time; atlll, when thorongfaly invenigaled, il ii diMeaH t( 

helieve Ibia. Baiides (ending ordenio iha miWary atatiotu ia Heinnbaia, and T*- 
" i, directing the oScera to e»rt aH theif energy to keep np a Mrtel gnrd, 'and 
wiie directing all Ihe xiMien aAd ollcen in ifie forli (ft be vigilanl, and have 

•very thing in rcadineu for aclion — beiidei, returning an aafwer lo m^Jiv Cbami 
KcCnching, requiring bim la command tboie who are on daty inatanlly to r^ioH 
ererp thing they hear; to forbid the imall boati (o go near Ibam, either to TMaire 
■IT to give any (bing; and to urge (he aaid dMpe of war Immedialaly to dapart, 
and ao( allow (hem (o remain and create dhtortaucet — and buldeii aln>, order- 
ing tbe craiien lo kean (he afaiti* nf war quiet by maintaining a ftrirl gnan) 
around then; — beaidei doing all Umm tUnga, laendlhiBcommanTcatkinfaryaar 

Sach wa* the report from Ihe admiral. On the Mme day, Ihe acting colonel 
on the Hatngihaa itatioo, major Cfaaoti KeBnehing, irnt up a report, tbe mim aa 
that t^ven above. All theae on examitialion, wera foand well atlaaled. Beaidea 
giving repliei, requiring strict guard to be maintained, I find on eiaminalioa that 
the late colonel Trin, of HeangahBii, who obtained a furlough on account of the 
death of hia parenU, haa been auccer^d ly a naval officer, Hwoy Chancyaou, 
who had aiready been niied (o the rank. M colonel •. (Iii> la on record. Hwuy 
Changyaou haa likeniie reported tbe arrival of Ihe Ameriean ihipaofwar. Il n 
of the ulmoat importance (hat a atrict guaid ahould be maintained, Accurdingly, 
orUen have been given to Hwuy Changyaou, to thoie in command of (he cea- 
irai, left, and right diviiiooi oF the maritime forcet, aw) In the military oSeen at 
Tnidng, and to liiote in (he forti at Tahoo ( on Tiger iiland ), HwanMang, 
Chinyuen. Welynen, SbalieS, and Takefi ; to l^ conatantly in readineii^ ac- 
tion, eadeavoring to aacertain whether thoae bariMtrian riiipa of war bave Indeed 
cotae from America or have been driven here from iMnie other province; lo 
naiatain on every aide a atricl guard againat them, endeavoring to haiten their 
departure and not permitting lEem to move from piacle to place at pleaanra, and 
when they go (Oiea, to ohaerve cloaely which way they ateerlhslr coorve; and, if 
they aboulii Bpproacli the Mouth of the river, (o b« aware of It, Mid prevent th^ 
entering, not permitting them lo advance one ilugte Mep Witbin the mouth of the 
river, which would involve aerioui coTKe^enaea ; and, if they ahould sail xa the 
eaatward. to aend np a report thereof awift aa the wind, that I may quickly send 
a dispatch to the eutboriliei of FuhkePn. There musl be no remiaaneaa in any qnar^ 
ter. I likewise have *enl communteationa lo tile judicial and Anancial comminlon' 
eraof IfteprBvince, that they may confer logelher on the subject, and inueniilable 
directlonalo all ibeiriubalterna: and, moreover, I noiv iranimilthia docnmentfor 
your excellency's inspection and guidance. 

Such are the docuroenti which have been received at my office. On exam- 
inktion, 1 find that, aa the two abipa of war are not here for the pnrpaaea of 


1836. Voyagr to Boriteo. 2»1 

oomiDeice, tfw; canmN be peimitted to move ftom place to place uid ancbor 
wbeiever thay plense, thei^; creating dislurbancea. But since tataj of the 
men are tick, and have gone to Macao to live in the barbariaa ftctoiy fbr the 
recovery of health, I have directed the deputy crfEcera at Macao both to rotwe 
the pilots to do their duty in keeping a atnck guard anMuid the abipa, and alao 
to haaten the recovery of the igen and their departure to their own countiy. 
I moreoTer iswe thia edict to the bong merchanta: on the receipt of it, let 
tkem yidd obedimce thereto, and immediately tranemit the edict to the chief 
[i. e. ccRwul] oftbebaibananaofthe said nation: let them direct him to haaten 
U», recover of the aiek men ; and aa BCmn aa they are all well, let him forth, 
widi apeed their return lo their native country. Let no pietexta be fcKined 
for peimittii^ any delay, an4 thert;by invotving the parties in ^erioua difficul- 
tiea. Let tiK day of their departure be reported. Huten. Haaten. A ape- 
edict Taoukwang, ICth year, 14th month, 20th dity." (June Sd, 1B36.) 

Art. V. Voyagt lo Borneo i arrival at Beatjer-masin ; notices of 
tkt Vhitust and Malayi at tht place; piratical chiefs; pisit to the 
eauntry of the Dayaks : character and conduct of their chiefs. 
Tnia voya^ w»b undertaken by Mr. Lukaa MoDton. and the Rev. Mr. Ba. 
renatein, miaaionary of the Rheniah missionary aociety. Mr. Hontgn is a 
native of one of Uie ialanda of the Jndian Archipelago, and haa been fbr 
aeveial years connected with the mission at Batavia, aodei the direction of 
the Rev. Hr, Medhurst, who has kindly aent ua in manuscript a fbll account of 
the voyage to Borneo. The journal of the royage ronlitmB the account 

CI of the DayiJia in cur laat volume : see page 496, The voyagers left 
via the 13th (rf* Hay, 1886, on board an Arabian vessel ; and, after visit- 
ing several places on tlie eaatem ahore of Java, they aailed fi>r Baiyer-maBin, 
where they arrived late in the month of June, and wheq Mr. Bw^stein waa 
aufltiing with aevcre illness. However, he was senn yell MCain, and able to 
prosecute tlie object pf (lis wiaaifm. In the mean time, Mr. nonton enga^d 
in t)ie distribution of Christian IwokM, A few extracts, which may serve as 
apecimens of the whole journal, arc all that our limits will admit. The voy- 
agers reembarked at Banjer-msiBin fbr Jav» on the 1st vf August. 

No acwner were they comfortably eeftled, than Mr. Monton appli- 
ed to the resident for permiasion to distribute books ; and the Lard, 
who has all hearts in his hands, inclined him not only to comply with 
the reque^, but to give some wholesome advice regardinft his conduct 
in the busineaB : obserViqg that our religion waa not to be spread by 
force, but by mild persuasion, and that it became ua rather to suficr 
wrong in the holy cause than to inflict it on others. Upon this, a be- 

e'nniiig was made with the Chinese, because they were few ip num. 
ir and had become so familiar with the Malay language and the 
Arabic cliaracter that they could read and write them better than their 
own. Tlie Chinese were, however, struck with the circumstance of 
bookt<*tiuiHg distribulcd lo the people, and said in ihcir simplicity, lliiit 

1 V^nOC^IC 

SSI Voyagt to Bonua. Sbp. 

these woaderful eveota portended the near ^iqirotch of the judgment 
dkj. On returning to his lodgings, a number of Chinese cwne to 
aak Hr. Honton (bf boolcs. One rich and inBoential man, of the 
name of BoU, desired much to be acquainted with our religion; say- 
ing, that, if be could be coD*inced of the truth of Christianity he 
would become a Christian. At Bola's inTitUioa Hr. Honton went 
to his bouae, where he found a number of Chinese, as well aa Halajs 
and Arabtt, with their priests, assembled. Bola then said, that be had 
ctKivened all these together, that by listening to their difleieot a^ 
conots he might judge where the truth lay ; &«, the Malay priests had 
CMiBUntly informed him that, unless he became a Hohammedan he 
would not enter heaven, and he now wished to know whether or not 
thai was true. Mr. UonUin then asked wherefore all these pec^le 
were assembled T The; replied, to hear some accounts of the books 
which had been brought. He then began to discourse to them from a 
tract which be held in his hand, and continued tilt the house became 
full to sufibcation, on which account he asked them to adjourn to the 
open air, where he continued his discourse with them ftmo three to 
SIX o'clock in the evening.- All the Chinese declared that this ap' 
peared to them the right way, because it revealed to them the k>Te 
and mercy of 'God, and was accompanied by the free gift of books, 
whereas the Arab and Malay priests would nerer let them have a 
Koran without paying for it, nor give them any instruction uriless they 
distributed alms to the clergy. To all this, the Mohammedana -made 
DO reply, but returned to thejr bouses apparently ashamed. 

On the Sth July, Mr. Monton went to the Malay campong that was 
under the authority of the sultan, where he found the people still more 
willing to hear ; and able to read and understand the books; but the 
travehng was difficult, and was obliged to go from one house to an- 
other in boats ; the market was held on the water in boats ; and the 
market people were not men but women. On seeing this, he thought 
it unnecessary U> distribute books there, and was about to more off to 
the middle of the river, when a man came after him in a small boat, 
asking for a book ; Hr. M. gave him one, and desired him to read it, and, 
as he WHS reading a woman came to hear, who also asked for a book, 
and immediately read it aloud. Upon this, the whole mass of women 
came in small boats, asking for hooka, and pressed so close up(Mi the 
distributer that he was afraid of sinking, while prahu was pressing 
over prahu. He therefore told his boatman to row hard, in order to 
get away, but the women seized his prahu and would not let him 
escape, until! he had satisfied their demand for books. After this, he 

C"ed alongside a large prahu, and getting on board, he divided the 
ks among the assembled crowd, till they were all gone. 
On the 8lh, a minister of the sultan called and asked Mr. Honton 
to go to hia house, and hold a conference on religioua aubjects, 
which he did, and answered their knotty and captious questiona by 
appealing to the Scriptures, and bringing the word of God to bear on 
their hearts and consciences. Thus, numbers cnme from day to day 
to converse on religious subjects, and to ask for books, who were sup- 
plied as far as the slock would perniil. Various jwrfioiia also came to 

)8M. Vogage to Bttnuo. i^Vl 

di^MKA, tnd among tbe rest, % Malt^ priest, who tried every means to 
entangle the distributor of tracts in his talk, but waa answered by 
Kference to the mercy and grftce of God, aa displayed in the gracious 
undertaking of a Satior, an opposite to the encroaching aiid oj^rea- 
Nve spirit diif>lared \yi Mohammed. 

On the 9th of July, Uiree piratical chiefs called. These men were 
small in stature, but <^ a fierce aspect, with red eyes and firm manner, 
speaking in a ver^ decided lone ; they were natives of Borneo, and 
had been engaged in exlensire piracies over the whole Indian Archi- 
pelago, along the coasts of Java, Sumatra, and the Malayan peninsula, 
mfefltinff all tbe blsnds in the vicinity. The principal chief was 
called Hedji Java, and had bis residence at Pulo Laut, on the sontheaEt 
side of Borneo. This island waa high and fertile, peopled by several 
thousand pirates, who had under them a number of Malays and Java- 
nese, who have been laken fi'tun the various prahus captured by them. 
These were employed as slaves, or were sold to others, sometimes for 
pixteen rupees, and sometimes for a bundle of black sugar ; while 
some of the inor« clever were employed in manufacturing guns and 
powder, together with other warlike implements. These three piratical 
chie&, wbo afforded this information, had come to Banjer-masin with 
a view of submitting to the Dutch government, which they themselves 
were inclined to do, but to which their king was averse. 

On the 14th of July, the travelers set off from Banjer-masiu for tbe 
country of the Dayaks, on board a prahu with thirteen men, and the 
aame evening arrived at the village ofMarabaan. There ihey distribut- 
ed a few tracts, and the next day proceeded on their journey, and about 
7 o'clock in the evening arrived at the borders of tbe Dayak country. 
On tbe morning of tlw I6tb, they entered some of the Dayak huts, 
and called on tbe son of the chief, named Raden Tuah, who requested 
a apellint-book, as he wanted to learn to read, in order to understand 
the religion of Jesus : they then went about in their boat from one 
village to another among the Dayaks, who were very glad to receive 
them, and to listen to their discourse on divine things, saying : This 
w tbe true doctrine, and suits us better than the teaching of the Mo- 
hammedans, which we do not understand. Those of the Dayaks 
who understood the Malay language well, appeared perfectly astonish- 
ed when they heard tbe missionaries speak of God and Christ, and 
heaven and hell, and seemed as men just awaking from sleep : on 
being asked. Will you follow this religion, ibey repliad with one voice 
ia the affirmative. Amongst the Dayal a were some Malays who 
resided there with the view of persuading the Dayaks to become 
Hohammedans, and in some instances ihcy had been successful. One 
man in particoler, had joined their party, but he was generally scorn- 
ed by the other Dayaks, for his corrupt moral character, and for his 
deaertioD of his wife and children. The missionaries, however, told 
diem that the religion of Jesus by no means required such coudurt. 
but commanded us to do good to all, and especially to tliose of onr 
own household ; and Ibat next year they would return and teach the 
Dayaks this religion ; to this they all u.^iientcd. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

334 Voyage to Borneo. Skp. 

On the 17th of July, the travelerB proceeded further up the rivcf to 
tha Great Dijak at a rillage called Pangkah, where they were re- 
ceiTed into the house of a chief named Seaji. In this house were a 
number of chambers, but their hoot gare them the middle hall to sleep 
in, because it was the post of honor among the Oajaks. They spoke 
to those assembled on the things of God, and were listened to with 
attentioD, but when they told thero that in another year they would 
come and live among them, the Dayake appeared extremely happy, 
and the chief e:(pressed a wish to become a Christian. On the next 
morning the traveler* pursued their journey, accompanied by the chief, 
above named, to act as interpreter. Thus they went on, stopping at 
■II the houses on the sides of the river, and speaking to the people of 
the things of God, till in the evening of the I8th they arrived at the 
village of Gohang, where resided a Dayak chief, named Raden Anam 
r&jiS Panghulu, who received them joyfully. 

On the next day, they went to the village of another chief, named 
Pat! Bunga Laut, and returned with him to the village of the former 
chief Here a number of chiefs and people were asaembled, who de- 
sired to know wherefore the travelers were come amongst the D ij.iks. 
They replied, that their object in coming was to proclaim good news 
from God totheir brethren the Dayaks. With this, the r.ijA Pang- 
hulu appeared pleased, but Pati Bunga Laut did not seem ao well dis- 
poned towards them. Upon this, Mr. Monton expatiated on the doc- 
trines of the gospel, until the heart of Pati Bunga Laut appeared lobe 
inclined towards them: the two chiefs then wished to enter into a co- 
venant with the missionaries, because they said, the Lord must surely 
be with thcra, as many strangers had come to their country, hut never 
aiiy brought such divine instruction with them as what they now heard. 
They wished, therefore, to establish a fraternal agreement with the 
niiieionaries, on condition that the mi^iiionaries should teach them the 
way of God. The travelers replied, that if the Dayaks became tbn 
disciples of Chri»i|, they would be constituted the brethren of Chrio- 
tians without any formal compact. 

The DAyaks, however, insisted that the travelers should enter into a 
compact, according to the custom of the country, by means of blood. 
The missionaries were startled at this, thinking that the Dayaks meant 
to murder them, and committed themselves to their heavenly Father, 
praying tlul whether living or dying they might lie at the feet of their 
Savior, II appears, however, that it is the custom of the Dayaks, 
when they eutiir unio a covenant with any, to draw a little blood from 
each other's arms, and having mixed it wiUi water to drink it together. 
Mr. Barenstciu hivin;; agreed to do this, they took off their coals, aud 
two officers cnijie f«r»'nrd with small knives to take a little blood out 
of each of the travelers' arms, as well as out of those of the two chiefs; 
this being mixed together in four glasses ofliquor, they drank several- 
ly from each others glasses; after which they joined hands and kissed 
I'nch olliw; then the pTOpIo cmno forward and made obeisance to 
thf-m, iis the frionds of liio Dayak kings, crying out with a loud voice, 
l.ii tiH 1m; IrieinN and bri'lliruii l(>rcver, and ma} God help the Dayaks 


1836. Rthgious IntelSffotff. SiV> 

to obUin the knowledge of Ood from thft missioaariei. The two 
chiefs then said. Brethren, be not afraici to dwell with us, for we wilt 
do jrou no harm, and if others wish to hurt you, we will defend you 
with our hfe's blood, aiid die ourselves ore you he slain. God be 
witness, and this whole Hseinbly be witness, that this is true. 

Art. VI. Religious tnteUigenee i Batavia ; operations of ike 
prea : Bankok ; dtitribution of tracts ; enterprise of Siamese 
nobles ; Mudical practice of Dt! Bradley among the Siamese, ife. 
The precedii^ article, respecting the voyage to Borneo, we extracted 
from (he Report of the mission at Batavia, for the year 183& : the 
Report is sigoed both by Mr. Medhurst and Mr, William Young, jun. 
The routine of duties, sustained in connection with the mission, and 
noticed in former numbers of the Repository, were continued through 
the year, e>cepti»^ some of the public services, dating Mr. M«l- 
hurst's visit to China. — The operations of the press tove gone on 
unchecked: the wtx^e number of wwks printed, by lithography, xy- 
lography, and typography, were 24,t^ copies, amounting to 1,830,656 
pages. The total numt^r of copies sent out from the depository, was 
50,03&. These were in various languages, as the Chinese, Malay, 
English, Dutch, French, &c.,' and had a very wide circulation, from 
the province of Shantung in China to the extremities of Java. 

Banlcok. Under date of July 'iSth, 1836, Mr. Johnson, a mission- 
ary to the Chinese, writes: "Much of the time since our arrival in 
Siam, we have, indeed, been in the midst of trials and perplexity, 
afflicted with sickness and death, and without any certain dwelling- 
place, la the year 1835, we buried two chiMren. * * * Since our 
arrival, we have chauged our residence no less than seven or eight 
times, in one instance having beeu expelled by order of government 
from our dwelling constructed with much expense of time and money ; 
our little daughter Mary, at (he time lyii^ at the point of death, ex- 
pired the day ibllowing. * * > Within the last two years, with some 
aid from my brethreu, I httve distributed about 14,000 tracts. Here 
is a wide and interesting field for tract distribution. A great number 
of Chinese junks annually visit here ftoiti different ports of China." 

Mr. Robineoit is one of the nnssionsiies to the Siamese at Bankok. 
Sickness had also visited his family, and takeu fhxn them their young- 
est chUd in May. Under date of July SSd, Mr. R. writes: "While 
the number of junks trading here is yearly diminishing, the European 
and American trade is increasing. Three years ago, odIj' iliree or 
fbuf square rigged vessels were seen here, and that but once or twice 
during a whofe year, and these mostly Arabian vessels under Englich 
colors; now it is not uncommon to see two, three, or four during al- 
most every month of the year. Nor are the Siamese asleep; they are 
making rapid improvements especially in ship-building. During (lie 

1 V^nOC^IC 

•I^i Htligiout Inlflligntn. SEf. 

paM year, Suang Nae Sit, son of the prahklang, buiil an elegaut Hbi|i 
after the European iiiudGl, wliich has been sailing for some time. He 
is also now superinieuding the building of two Targe ships of war, at 
Chantabuij. Prince Chow Fah ha« also completed a large vessel, 
which sailed down the river a few days ago ; and which we have sel- 
dom seen surpassed in neatness and elegance. We have heard that 
the king has ordered no mon junks to be built, but that all his vessels 
be built after the European model." A{^lication had been made to 
government for a place lo erect the printing press, and the prahklang 
had given a favorable answer, intimating however, that it might b« 
ordered that all the " white faces " should live bother. 

In the letters of D. B. Bradley, m.d. we have interesting accounts 
respecting his medical practice in Bankok. While there is much 
discouraging and trying, we fully agree with him that there is also 
much ground of encouragement for the friends of the Siamese mission. 
Under date of June 8lh 1836, Dr. B. says : " on my return from Chan- 
tabun, 1 quickly set myself about fitting up another diq>easary. For 
this purpose I purchased a floating bouse on the Meinam, the great 
thoroughfare of Bankok. My location possesses the great advantages 
of being airy, cool, cleanly, and movable. In case the jovemmeDt 
should again become jealous, and commaiul me to move on to another 
place, I shall have none of the trouble, as before, of packing up med- 
icines with considerable loss, and turning offmy 800 patients on aa 
unfeeling community It will only be necessary to loose fi^m my 
moofiiigs, and float away with my patients on board if I please, quietly 
engaged in treating them. Thus the Lord baa overruled the cona^ 
quences of my expulsion last autumn greatly to my advantage. Not 
only in this particular, but in many others relating to our mission, all 
things have been made to work K^ther for our good. For many 
months I have had, on an average, about 100 patients daily, and often 
160 and 170, at midday. They consist of Siamese, Chinese, Burmans, 
Kambojans, Laos, Malays, and Portuguese. I spend about three 
hours daily in treating them, beside the time spent in preparing medi- 
cines, and visiting the sick in the families of the king, princes, and 
nobles, — which is not a little. 

" In the hospital, males and females arc separate, and treated on 
different sides of the dispensary but at the same time. A Chinese 
assistant administers lo the males, and a native female lo those of her 
own sex. Mrs. B. sits between the two departments, and direct» the 
uwistante in fulfilling my prescriptions. She has considerable time 
for conversation with the females on religious subjects. My patients 
carry their papers to the assistants, and they to Mrs. B. to interpret. 
When I have finished prescribing, I perform a variety of surgical 
operations, frequently such as are of considerable consequence, as 
depression of cataract, excision of pterygium, cutting off immense 
staphyloma, opening jaws that have been perfectly fastened together 
for years by adhesion of the sides of the cheeks, opening nostrils clos- 
ed by the small pox, removal of tumors, amputation of limbs, extrac- 
linn of polvpi, &,r., 4tc. 

IKlti. SrfKMiti at Hhtgaport. 3U? 

" Oi) Saturday, particular poius are taken to cal) as many together 
on the Sabbath as possible. Our floatiug chapel ie geiier«ily very 
much crowded on that day ; and Mr. Robinwm preachea to the Siamese, 
who mauifeat a good degree of interest ia what they hear. The au- 
dience come from all parts of Bankok and the country. Although 
we are not encouraged by any special seriousoeaa in our hearers, yet 
we trust that the Lord is by these and other means preparing his way 
among this people, and that he will soon appear amoDg them in his 
glory. Mr. Dean ia steadily and judiciously engaged in the supervi- 
sion of the little Chinese church in this city, m studying Chmese, 
and in healing the sick." 

In a subsequent letter, dated July 23d, Dr. Bradly, after saying 
that success attended the operations in his hospital, adds : " I have 
finally obtained a place for the establishment of the Siamese depart- 
ment of our mission. The land beton|^ to the prahklang. I have not 
yet been able to complete die bargam, but h^ to do so after long 
efforts with patience. As I shall rent it of the prime minister for for- 
eign affairs, it will be more stable than any other situation. It is in 
a pleasant part of Bankok, opposite the city wall, where Mr. Rolnn- 
■on and myself hope soon to build each a house, and as soon as poosi- 
bte, a good printing office and chapel." We undentaod that a loca- 
tion has already been found for the erection of a Tuft's power press, 
just carried up to Bankok. 

Akt. VII. Schools at Singtgtore: the Second Report of the Singa- 
pore Schoob,for 163&-36; printed at the ogice of the Singapore 
Free Press. 
Tbese schools, though of recent origin, are in a prosperous stats, 
both as regards funds and scholars. At present, there are of boys 
descendants of English, Portuguese, Armenians, Malays, uid Chu- 
liahs — 45 in the English department, 14 in the Tamul, and 13 in 
the Malayan. These, however, are not the only schools in the set- 
tlement : " as the missionaries of both English ana American societies 
have lately established Chinese and Mslay schools in different parts 
of the town, which are well attended, being near the dwellings of the 
children." In our last volume, page 524, some account ia given of 
the Singapore Institution, which is mentioned in one of the two para- 
graphs that we extract from the Report before us, and which will 
■how at once something of the views and purposes of the directors of 
the schools at Singapore. The following are the two paragraphs. 

»Tbe &Toi^le position of Singapore la a plhtx whore a beneficial c 
merca continuea to be carried (Ml by Europeans with the traden of the Int 
ArcbipelagD, has bean (rften set forth; ant to a phikothtophic mind, tb^ 

vantage prMenta an ^rtensive field for (^teratioiwof alugher order; 
namely, the gradual introduction of civUizatian and the religion of truth 
among the various classes of natives who hare either settled here pennonent- 
]y, or are constantly coming and returning fi» pnnwses of commerce. Plac- 
ed on the very verj^ of the British dcaninions in the east, and in tbe midrt of 


23d Jownal of Oervrrrneri. 8r.P. 

burbarouB sl&t«a, Ifais HettlemeDt Bhowa ■ varied popuiition coiiaiating; of Chi- 
nese, HaiajB, Bii^ & emdler portion of other natives of tbe ArcLipebtgOi 
with B large tdmixtureofHettlerB from Bengal, aj:d the Con)nu.niIel cout: 
and, thou^ it ie pleasing to witness such a hcti^rogenous masii dwelling 

pi^aceablj tofethiT under oue cominon rule and busily engaged i: 

cliiefly, yet the rootal picture it pre«L>nt« ij deplorable, ^orance, supenti* 

of crimes which we so otlen hear, shew but tdo clearly that we u« living 
amoosst uien, some claHBOa of whom, the Malays of the neigliboring regions 
especially, are not yet brougbt within the pale of CMniDoa civilizat'on. la it 
Dot, therefore, the duty of Luise who are more enlightened, who pmfess Chris- 
tian doctrines and principles, to endeavor as much aa possible to amelionte 
the moral condition of these their fellow-beings? It is by education, and 
instilling correct principles into the minds of the children of the dilf ;rent cIbb- 
e^ of inoabitants in this settlement, thct we must look for a gradual advance 
in virtue and knowledge anjongat them. 

■* Tbe EnsliBh scbotu is free to children of all classes who may be desirous 
of komiiig Uie En^ieb taogui^ now taoidly becomiog the litigua fixmea of 
the world I and to Malay a^ Tamul cbildren, tbe two native scEoola attached 

heretofore prevented an e:(lenBian of the plan to the Chinese, Bugis, and 
Other classes of the native population; but when the schools are reiiK>Ted to 
the building originally designed for the Singapore Institution, and dow under 
course of repair for that purpose, it is hoped that tile plan above alluded to 
will be extended, in establishing schools for the instruction of the children 
of most ctaases of the varied population of this etttbment, first in their own 
language, and afterwards in English, if rt^quiivd." 

Art. VIII. Journal of Occurreaces: Seamai's Uosjnlal; Educa- 
tion Society; disasters by the Utte typhoon; report to l/u Emjteror 
on tht memorial of Heu Naelse : the hopjto'i ordtr on langcloihs: 
theft in Peking! imperial envoys; disturbances in Hoonan; new 
governor in Fukkeen; prince Isaac in Turkestan; d^enses at the 
Bogut ; extracts from tht Canton Court Circular.- 
Tub Canton Regiiler oflbe 27lh, contain! the firit Heport of the " Briliih 8aa- 
nien'i Hoapitni Society," the plan of which oricinated under the auspiuei of the 
late lord Napier. We ihall endeavor to give Ihn Report ■ place In our ncit 

IV Marriit* Edticatiat Soeutv, tor tbe promolinn of uducalion among (he Cbi- 
nete was organiied on the Stith inalsnt. The conatitution of tlie Society, we 
urderaland, will appear in the Canton Prtu of to-morrow, ihe lat of October. 

Tlie dtKUter* occaiioned by the late gale (on the 1st of Augusl,) aeem not to be 
lesaened by the lapse of another month. The Hormasjee Bomanjee, the Ha- 
moody, and the Margaret Graham, are given up ai lost— On the 30th uT July, at 
10 o'clock F.*. the Aleiander, captain, G. K. Wilson, waa wrecked, niling hence 
lo Singapore: at noon on that day she was in N. lat. 10' 28,' and 1]!° 37' h. 
lone Wo Uvea were loal : and no property h-bs saved. 

p' S. A report hai reached Canton (hat the Hamood}' has arrived at Alanila, 
' lliis report, we hope, will be found authentic. 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1636. Jiiumi.1 of OeriitFtHr*i. 

A rtftrt oa lit Miimori/ii itf Him fiacUe. recummendiiiE to bia miijoty lo 
the iniponalion o[ opiuiu Ibrough tbe cuUum-liiiuseof CriiIufi. soaii to pi 
■magEline und the einortatiun ofiili 
Maolby Ibe chief |>rovmciiil nSuen. 
oppoiition )mny " lo Ihii "new mciuura." 

Ah onkr raaiiecling " lonccloth*," cnme out from the ofEce of the hoppo, 
whtsn our Init number wu Kouig lo pren: we intrfiduce it here u lUppleUMD' 
lery to an order contained in lUal number, \m%k Itj3. It wh iiaued in cooie- 
quenca of a re[irewntation from IliE hong mcrclianli, at the instance, we believe, 
uf the foreign reudcnts. It i) ai followa. 

" Wan, by imperiol appointment luperintendenl of maritime cuitoms in (he pro- 
vince of Kwangtung, &o.. A., in reply. 

"Tlie object of ibis petition is to request, that unbleached longclollis may be 
assessed at the same rate as coarse whilr longclotlia, It •elk Tortli, thM, if diilinc- 
tloni be made in regard to quality, the low price which the fortner bear in the 
market will occasion losses on the part of the said foreigners. This appran lo 
be ■ correct representalion, but in a case uhicb relates lo the eslalilished regula- 
lioni. it ii requisite of course lo ciamine the quality of com modi lies, and act in 
obedience III the regoi a lions. In regard lo the two pieces of bleached longclolh 
before presented, let the petilionen wail, and tlie pieces shall be ofGcially stamp- 
ed and sent out lo them: ■ com muni cat ion also shall lie addressed to the gov- 
anior, that tJia matter may be duly placed on record.— I6lh year of Taoukwang, 
7th month, ISlh day. [August, 27th, 1836.] 

TlQt M Pdang. A curious case nf (heft has taken place in Peking, the office 
of the Board of Punishments bavins been broken into at nighl, and ihe great seal 
carried olT. Within a month afler its loss, bolh the thief and seal were discov- 
ered ; the latter not until repeated searches, when it was at lenglli found in llie 
ofatmney of a kind of oven, used in (he north for the purpose of healing llie rooms 
in the winter. The immediate occasion of the theft is represented lo be a loss 
by gamhiing, in which the thief had been engaged in the outer court of (he oiflcpt 
bat what oriject he experted to gain by the mere theft of the seal, unless he took 
■omelhing oi more value also with it, does not appear. 

/mperiat £Rms. The two envoys who were lately at Canton have been haa- 
Uly recalled to Peking, his majesty being displeased with Ihe manner in which 
they conducted the investigation of the last case that was submitted to Ihem, 
•tjd with their departure before the investiealion iras concluded. Two olher 
envoys, Choo Sieyen, president of the Board of OfGce, and Keying, preiideni of 
llie Board of Revenue, were to leave Peking in August last; and, after conelud- 
log some affairs in ChSkeang and Keiingse, will continue their Journey to Can- 
ton, lo investigate a second lime the case above referred to. It is a case of 
homicide, or murder, committed by the son of a district magistrate in his falh«r's 
mB£islnicy, and hushed up at the time, but reported by an officer at Ihe caprlal. 

T.,s dudHnwes its Hoonait. Tbe governor of Kwanglung and Kwangte ha* 
reported Ihe np|irebension of several vaerant prieets of suspicious character, 
among whom has been recogniaed the leader of the late insurrection in Hoonan. 
He bad escaped, and was traveling, as a priest of Budha, through Kwanne. in- 
tending praliahly to cross over into Tungking, Several other [principal offenders 
•re yet at liberty : and the emperor is not a little indignant, thnt, in a cnmpara- 
tively level province like Hoonan. so many should have been snRered to escape 
and conceal themielves for a long time. The disturbances would appear (n have 
extended to Saechuen. as the governor of that province, as well as Ihe governor 
of Hookwnng. is required to examine inio tlie lise and progress of tbe auocla- 
tion by which the disturbances were eicited. Either the pollee is very effeetive 
and vigorous, or the diseonlented among the people are very feehly united, else 
we should not tee these wide-spreading iiisurrectinns so readily suppressed as we 
often do. The lat«' dislurbanreit are as usual altrihiited to religious srclt. antnnj; 
which, as we have before seen. Romanism, is included. It is easy, therefare, 
to account for the jealousy with which the government view!^ Ihe circulalipn 
of religious opinions, regarding them as a cover merely to political projects of 
■mWtion and treason. 

FmUuen. Chung TieSng, who has been for several years I ieut .-governor of 
Shantung, and has always been eamesl in liis endeavors to hinder the visits of 


24U Joiiniid of Ornirrriirr». 

foreign *hii» on (he coBit uf that {vavlnce. hai jimt been appointed to tbe coveni- 
nient of FnkkePn and ChPkciing. He ii cDoiaiBndad to [iroceed to Pelilng im- 
mrdialety, to receive the imjwrial Initruclioai. 

Tiaktiliai. We give Ihg follciwing tranilation of an Imperial edict, at ahowlng 
the lone auiinied by the Cliineu govemnant Inwardi lla mbjecli of anolhar raea 

" " ""■ ..— . u-i dan prince, Isaac, wai lately holding an 

Jt agreeing with bim, we cipretaed out 
n to hii liome. forthe recovery of bi* heahh. Kwo- 

i> hiKlily gralifyiiig to ua i bat a* (he prince U now np- 
wanli oj'iiit; yean of Hge, it it prolMble (hat llie toil of a long Joomef , and the 

:hun bai now repnrted (hat ih* prince it quite recovered, and renoeMi thfl glA of 
- - - "" ■ ■■■liily gratifying to u«i bat a* the ur* — ' 

uncongenial nature uf ine elimale will overcome lilm. He b ni . ... 

quired to come lo Felting, but ti permitled to remain at home. We would (hi 
manifeat the lender regard we bear towardi our lIohammedaD wrvanli." 

7^ Btyw. The governor of the "two broad iimvineea" has applied for • 
grenl of money lo be placed at inlareit, (he annuel nim aecmins from it to be 
appropriated for f be eitroordinary eipenaea of the fortiflcation« of the Bogae and 
nver of Canton. The eitimate of what will be annuatty reqnind, for the pnr- 
poae of eierciaing the military in worthing the |un> for review*, nnd Torpreaentl 
(o thoie who perform Ihe eivraiae well, ii 670Q taela. To produce I hia annual 
Mim, ■ grant hat been made of 50,000 taeli (the amount i>f Ihe property of two 
•iteniive opium dealera, cooHicated to goTcmment eboni two year* ago,] to be 
placed at iaiereit, at len per cent. The remainder ii lo be paid from a branch of 
the naval department in whFch some reductlona have lately been made. Ac- 
eonntaofthe actual eipentei are direcled to be relumed anuuatly. 'Hie goTerMir 
ha> just left the city for the puryxMe of iuipectiag IheM and Ibe other forlifiealioM 
al IBS entrvce of the various bnnchei of (his river, and lo review the troopt. 

Eitrattt from ll» Canbm Court Cimrfar. Tiit eiecnlion of capital punish* 
mem, from the 86(h ultimo to the S3d instant, is leported lo hare taken place 
only oa two occasions. The niimlier of Uiieves, rolmers, and other disturber* of 

were mads for contraband goods : deputies were accordingly sent __ .... 

offenders i by niislake they entered the wrong sLop, and rudely commenced 
making search : at this the people of Ibe ^op and Iheir neighbors were incensed, 
and soon kad the deputies bound. Il was not long before the cheheBu and the 
chefoo arrived, and the deputies wen released. The next day Ihe case eame be- 
fore the chleT authoriliet. and [he master of the shop and hu principal supporter* 
In Ihe affray, who had beeu taken into custody, were released on the prea tliat 
they i>elieved Ibe de|iuties Here unauthorised parsoni In disguise, — a ihing which 
freijuently happens. Another more recent affray has oocurred, in which the partiea, 
meinbers of two different clens, look the Geld with swords, spearc, and arrows; 
some lives were lost ; hut Ibe particulars we have nol yet ascertained. 

AHgiat 26lA. The governor and Imul.^ovemor went eariy in the morning, 
and offered incense in the tempieof the godof war. ti-B. This ia repeated every 
few days, with more or less ceremony during ihe month. 

AngKit 2M. Chin Aiae, a lattoeai criminal was seiied and delivered over lo 
the cheheCn of Nanhae. 

irpt. 2IU. Thi>. Ihe ) 

Ihe emperorTauukwat^. ^ .. . _ ._.,__.^ _ 

s horn Sept. SOlh. IT82. All the provincial officers, both great a.. . 

repaired lo the collegiate ball, and there in order lo pay Iheir obeisance to Ih^ 
august sovereign. 

Sept. 2ild. A messenger arrived from the lieu I. -governor of FnhkeBn, havin, 
in charge a barbarian. The messenger requested an interview with Ihe governor 
N. B. This barbarian, we understand. i> a L.nsi'.ar seaman : but by whom ano 

when lefl on Ihe const of Fnhkem, < 


1 V^nOO'^IC 


Vol. v.— October, 180C.— No. 6. 

Art. I- Fne inUrcmtrse betwten China and ChrUtatditm; with 
remarkt o» the praent state of the relations of Great Britain 
with tkii countrtf, by J. Matheson, H..H. Lindiay, sir G. T. 
Stauniim, J. Goddard, and a Resident in China. 
NoTBiNu ieaa than the permaneot establi.ihment of free and friencli)' 
iiuercoune between China and the western nations will Botisfy the 
demanda of this age. The preaent state of international relations, in 
■ome p&rticulare at least, is " utterl; intolerable ;" and in all reapectu 
il is "Capable of improrementB, beneficial and deairable to all who are 
therein interested. The great number of publications respecting 
Cluna, which hare come from the press during the present fear, 
shows tbat men are beginning to think on their relations with thin 
country. The inquiries which are now abroad in the west concern* 
ing these eastern nations, are, we think, the sure precursors of 
REFORM ; and the friends of improvement, if they will so contend 
for it as to shun that recklessness which is too apt to characterize 
ultra reformers, have nothing to fear. We need not have ruin in 
order to have reform ; nor need we think or act as though natural or 
iDorsl evils are permitted of Heaven that they may be passively endur- 
ed or idly deplored by us. When ourselves or others are visited 
with such evils, it is right to regard them as occasions which demand 
the employment of our powers in trying to remove or sunnount tlieni. 
As the world now is, much may be done for the improvement of man 
everywhere: the dark abode of the savage may be progressively trans- 
forined into tbe home of the refined and virtuous ; and wherever 
we are, and under whatever circumstances placed, it is always our 
bounden duty to exert ourselves as we find opportunity to effect this 
good end. Human power, we believe, is to be diligently exerted to 
change the condition of China and its relations with other nations. 
With those who would exercise a spirit of conr|Uest or revenge ( if 

VOL. \-. NO. VI. 31 


343 Fyee Itdercaurst beUtten China wtd Chtistaulom. Ott, 

there be such) we c«nnot coincide, nor can we with those whooe dread 
of impetuosity makeB them, if not 'in theory yet in practice, coii- 
■ervatives of existing abuaee. 

We do not think with an esteemed correspondent in our last num- 
ber, that our line of obligation in accomplishing the desired changes, 
is measurable by the progress of commerce, nor, because its abuses 
have been by a wise ProTidence overruled for good, that therefore we 
may wait on their continuance and expect to Bee the fulfilment of our 
wishes. The circulation of tracts may have been extended somewliat 
by means of the opium trade; but this fact is no good reason for our wait- 
ing for improvements that follow only in the wake of commerce ; and 
though hereafter, its "intoxicating progress" should still be overruled 
to work much political change, yet, surely, we may not tktrtfort rest 
in the possession of suck means to efTecl-moral gixid. Commero« has 
done and is doing much for the benefit of mankind, and every proper 
means should be used to extend its benefits. But that an intercourse 
which self-interest seeks, when conuected as it is in China with il- 
legal and denioralizing courses, is all that the wisdom and energy of 
Christendom should endeavor to establish or is capuble of effecting, 
is a sentiment to which we cannot give our assent. Nor do we think 
it right to sleep on, until we can witness the "irresistible eflects" 
of tlie "lata-like progress" of the two great "conlerminoas" powers 
on the north and west of China. Are we warranted to expect that 
the " energy " which emits the lava will by and by prompt to check 
it! It may be that the influence of "religion as well as sound po- 
licy " should be exerted to avert " collision " until happiiitii can be 
secured to the "coiiqtund;" but the "foresight" requisite for this is 
an acquirement so rarely found that we cannot build our hope upoa 
it. In short, while we deprecate "a too precipitate attempt" lo im* 
prove our intercourse with the people of this empire, we cannot 
recommend waiting for the results of the t>reHent system of commer- 
cial intercourse, and for we know not what events of " external pres- 
sure" and '.' internal commotion." Our voice ia and it must be to the 
moral jiomers of Christendom (whose govemmenta are or ought to 
be the repositories of such powers,) to atttmpl the amelioration of ths 
condition of Cliina. For accomplishing this end, a free and friendly 
intercourse ia a great desideratum ; and we firmly believe, that if they 
will "attempt great things," with a right spirit, in a right wayi and 
for a good end, tbey may expect great and most beneficial resutts. 

In making the foregoing remarks, we are not (o be regarded as be- 
ing cither belligerent or pacific, in reference to any parties which may 
be supposed to divide in c^inion our community. Truth is our object, 
and we trust our pages show that we are not partisans, but we do 
wish and hope and desire to bear a humble part in tabors to concen- 
trate the enerffiti of tdl iu Just and generous efTorls to improve the 
condition of China. Tnie in dutv. And we hail with satisfaction 
every effort to remove that ignorance of the character and circum- 
stances of tiiis people which must be felt to be signal among the 
difKcultics einharmssing our path, in the institution of measures for 


1836. Free IiUereourte btlmen China and du'istmdom. 34it 

compusing the object of a more intiniate connection of China with 
Chrislendoin. The several wrilers nuned at the head ofthis articin 
hive come before the public with this design, and with claims which 
* long residence ' here gives them to be heard : the facts and (pinions 
which they have advanced are worthy of being placed " on record ;" 
and as far as our limits will allow, we do this in their own words. The 
eslracts which follow, though brief, are intended to show the spirit 
and manner and object of each writer. 

1. The preienl yonlion and mo»].ecl» rf the BritUh trade viA Ckina; 
bigeAer ioilli an outline ef lome teadiTig iKXurrenut in tU fotf Kutarv. By 
James HstlieHon, esq., of tbe firm itf Jardine, Mathcson &. Co. of Can- 
ton, pp. 135. London : Smith, Elder Sl Co., (.'ornbill, booksellere to their 
majesties. 183*5. 

The &rdt part of Mr. Malheson's pamphlet is occupied ivilh a brief 
review of aonte of the circumstances attending the king's commiHsinn 
to Canton iu \SH, and of the principles upon which the policy ofihc 
Elast India company was based : he then proceeds to consider the 
present altitude of BfTairs, and to offer sonif remarks on the policy 
which ought now to be adopted, of which the following paragraphs 
are specimena. 

" But, it is said, the emperor of China has an nncjnestionable right 
to permit or refuse us intercourse with his doininionti; to impose such 
conditions aa he may think fit; and that where no treaty exists, noth- 
ing prevents him from, at any time he pleases, withdrawing, restrain- 
ing, or modifying such permission. Such observations as these are, 
it IS conceived, quite beside the real question now in dispute; which 
is, not what were the original rights of China, as an indei>endent na- 
tion, what she might have done, or refused to do, in the first instance, 
but what are the rights of China, now; whether her own acte have 
not restricted and limited those rights, and im|K>spd upon her 
certain obligations, and subjected her to certain liabilitie.i, from 
which tbe principles of justice, — of the law of nationy, — forbid her 
to retreat." p. 33. 

'* Unless, therefore, we are to discard all principles of right reason- 
ing and sound construction of tbe rights and liabilities existing be- 
tween nations, we have abundant evidence to show that China has 
contracted — has inipoNed upon heraelf — tlie obligation of continuing 
to us a permission to trade with her, on fair and reaiuinable terms. 
'But,' it is said, ' there is no trenty, anil in the absence of a treaty, 
there cannot exist any such obUi^ation as thai spoken of It is true 
that there is no formal treaty solemnly and in so many words agreed 

rn between the two nations ; that the emperor chooivs now (o reject 
attempts (o procure one. Surely, however, we are warranted in 
contending, that in analc^y to another regulation ofour municipal law, 
nufl of obvious reasonableness and utility, — e.g. a ri^ht of way over 
the ground of another, which aller a certain number of years' use, 
confers by prescription, an indefensible right to the enjoyment of that 
right of way, and is supported by the supposition of an original deed 
of ^ant of that casement; the trade which tbe emperors uf China 

1 V^nOC^IC 

*344 Frtf Jairrrourst itelierrii China and Chi igimdom. Oct. 

have BuSered to be carried on for nearly a couple of centuries, may 
be reasonablj presumed to have had its origin in a treaty — oven of 
the most explicit and formal description. Let it be borne in mind 
again and again, that the advaotageB of thia trade are not all on one 
Bide, but reciprocal, and have been acknowledged to be so, by China. 
It ia mere trifling to talk of her being non at liberty to diBregard 
the law of nations, on the ground of her having never designed 
to recognize it. She has been long too far committed by her conduct 
towards this country. We have already seen that in 1678 she itwittd 
ua to settle a factory at Canton ; the emperor has himself personally, 
and repeatedly through his viceroy, sanctioned our intercourse, and 
even laid down the terms on which it might be carried on. In 1715, 
the supercargoes stipulated for eight articles or conditions, according 
to which the trade might be carried on with China, and which were 
deliberately and solemnly conceded." pp. 41, 43. 

"1b, then, the trade of China to be continued, and on terms 
consistent with the honor of the British nationT If the toice of 
Great Britain answer this question in the affirmative, a very dif- 
ferent tone and style of policy must be forthwith assumed, irom 
that which has hitherto so unfortunately been adopted. Great as 
are the sacrifices we have made to secure this valuable trade, 
long as we have carried it on, important as are the relations and 
responsibilities it has entailed upon us, we should forfeit forever 
our character in the society of nations, whose eyes are upon our 
moveraents in this matter, were we, on light grounds, now to 
succumb to the Chinese, to be bullied and terrified by their abmird 
swagger and airs of intimidation, into a surrender of our just and hard- 
earned rights and privileges. At the present moment these consid- 
crations press upon us with uncommon force. Having seen fit recent- 
ly to alter altogether our system of commercial intercourse with Chi- 
na, a measure which roust be presumed to have been thoroughly and 
wisely considered before it was adopted, we shall become the laugh- 
ing-stock of the world, if the direct effect of our elaborate legislation 
be, either to shut us out altogether from China, or place our inter- 
course upon an infinitely more precarious; oppressive, and Ignomini- 
ous footing than ever, as will infallibly be the result, if we be not now 
fully alive to (he nature of our claims upon China, and prepared 
to assert them with resolution and vigor. Is there any one who doubts 
the justice of these observations? Let him meditate upon a recent il- 
luslrntion of their truth, — the melancholy and most humiliating recep- 
tion and fate of lord Napier!" pp. 50, 51. 

" The emperor of China, by ratifying the acts of the local authori- 
ties in their outrageous treament of lord Napier, has rendered himself 
responsible for such treatment; it has "become a public concern, 
and the injured party is to consider the nation as the real author of 
the injury, of which the citizen was only the instrument." Surely 
we should be able to show, before proceeding to such extremities, 
that wc have " ineffectually demanded justice, or. thitt we have every 
renxon to believe that it would be in vain for us to demand it." 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

Id36. Free Inttrcouru between China and Ckristendom. 345 

" Justice is refused," says Vttul, " in Mversl trays : first, by a deDisl 
of justice, properly so called, or by a refusai to hoar your complaints 
or those of your subjects, or to admit them to estaUish their rights 
before the ordinary tiibuaals." If this latter be, in the opinion of an 
enlightened writer on tnteroational law, of itself a sufficient cause bt 
the granting of letters of marque and reprisals, — what abundant cause 
exists for resorting to the same measures, in the accumulated wrongs 
which the Chinese have already heaped, and still threaten to heap, 
up<») the subjects of Great Britain I" p. 07. 

"So far back ai the year 1615, w&find the president of the Select 
Committee at Canton — Mr. £lphinsttHie,-~thu8 indicating, lo the 
Court of Directors, the most advisable course then to pursue, in ordw 
lo remedy evils of which we have now even far greater cause to c<»n- 
plain :— " There appears to me no mode so luely to prevent these 
injurious consequences ( i. e. an entire stoppage of the trade with 
China,) as that of establishing a direct and frequent communication, 
between the two governments." * * * Following up this suggevtion, 
and profiting by subsequent e]^>erience, carefidly considering, mtHr^ 
over, the very peculiar posit wn of aflairs at the present conjuncture, 
it is submitted that bis majesty's government would act wisely in 
adopting the suggestions of the present Canton merchants: who hum- 
bly pray, * ■ * •■ That his majesty would be nleased to grant powers 
plenipotentiary to such ^son of suitable ranlt, discretion, and di[do- 
matic experience, as his majesty in his wisdom might think fit and 
fsoptir'to be entrusted with such authnity : and that he should be 
directed to proceed to a CfMivenieat station on the eastern coast of 
China, as near to the cafHtal of the oooDtry as might be found most 
expedient, in one of his majesty's ships of the line, attended by a suf- 
ficient maritime force, which, they are of opinion, need not consist of 
more than two frigates, and three or four armed vessels of light draft, 
together with a steam vessel, all fully manned ;" and that he might 
be thus placed in a position lo demand the reparations and concessions 
above suggested. Scarcely any additional e^iense, if that could be an 
oli^ect in such an aiTair as this, need be incurred by this country, in 
aikipting this course of policy ; since the costly establishment which, 
in consequence of their exclusion from Canton, we are now maintain- 
ing (with hardly any functions to exercise) at Macao,— may be grea^ 
ly reduced ; and our Indian squadron, alreadji in commission, nnght 
be directed to cruize as a fleet of observation along the coasts of 
China, instead of lying at some of the Indian ports, which are usually 
found very unhealthy to their crews. If the occasion shotdd not be 
deemed to require in the tirst instance, the service of a special pleni- 
potentiary, the admiral might be charged with a letter from our 
government to the emperor, referring to the manner in which lord 
Napier was received and treated, as a reason for desiring a commu- 
nication with his imperial majesty, with a view to come to an under- 
standing on this painful subject, as well as on the grievances frcHn 
which tne trade is suffering." pp. 78, 75. 

qnr rb/GoOt^lC 

346 Frcr Inlereourse bttieec/t China and Cliriitmdom. Oct. 

" If, finally, his majestj Bliould see fit to adopt the above suggestioD, 
there remains one obsenation — already alluded to — to be most re- 
spectfully pressed upon the attention of ministers ; that our plenipo- 
teutinry should be clothed with sufficient powers to enforce, if neces- 
sary, the assertion of our rights. It is an acknowledged maxim in all 
negotiations, that the surest preventive of war is an une<)uiTocal 
manifestation of our being neither unable nor unprepared, on its 
becoming necessarr, to resort to it The moment our negotiator 
lets it be perceived that he is precluded by his instructions Irani 
adopting such a course, whether lo protect the rights of our mer- 
chants, or vindicate the respect due to his official character, he may 
be assured that all his arguments will prove unavailing, and can tend 
only to betray his weakness; while, it is equally certain that the acute 
policy of the Chinese will, at the very outset, he invariably exerted to 
make him develope under what instructions he is acting; what are 
the limits to his sufferance, and what the extent of his powers to re- 
taliate in case of insult or injury. This they will soon bring to light, 
by such a studied system of privation and disrespect, as shall compel 
him lo show his strength, if he have any, or wanting thts, lo flounder 
through a course of alternate opposition and un'Svoidable submission, 
which cannot do otherwise than end in his defeat." j>. 7t). 

2. Letter to the riglit honorable vimxnaU Pabnenton, <m Britifh relalums 
vith China. By H. Hamilton lindsay, (late (f the honorable East India 
Company's service in China,) author of the "Report of the Ambeist's voyage 
to tbe northeast coast of Cfaioa." Third edition ; pp. 19. Lcaidoa : Saundera 
and Otley, Conduit street : 1836. 

Mr. Lindsay, after remarking that it must be apparent to all "that 
our affairs can hardly be allowed to remain in the anomalous state in 
which they are now placed," asks, what is to be done? and having 
pointed out some of the difficulties of the case adds : 

"I have considered the subject deeply, and feel convinced that 
there are but two modes of acting that caa now be adopted with any 
appearance of consistency. The first method which I should suggest 
is by a direct armed interference to demand redress for past injuries, 
and security for the future. The second, the withdrawal of sll poli- 
tical relations from a country which obstinately refiises lo acknow- 
ledge such without insult. The mode of proceeding in the first alter- 
native I will hereafter detail. In the second, I would suggest the 
withdrawal, at once, of all his majesty's commissioners, and that a 
person of no pretensions should be sent out as agent for the customs, 
whose sole duties should consist in registering ships' papers, and 
countersigning manifests. This mode of procedure will be highly 
embarrassing to the Chinese authorities, who are most anxious lo see 
some recognized chief at Canton for the purpose, as they term it, of 
"managing and controlling all affairs of the English nation ;" and on 
the very first difficulty or dispute which occurs, they will most anx- 
iously inquire, why no such authority exists. Our reply then is ob- 
vious r " It is your own fault ; for, when we sent one to you, you treat- 
ed him with insult ; and it is incompatible with the dignity of England 

IS&li. Free IiUtrroHne bettnten Ckina a*d Otristetidaiu. 347 

that a repTesentntive of her sovefeign should be subject to such 
indigiiitj^ ; DO chief will, therelbre, be sent uotil ;ou promise him 
'proper reception and treatment.'" p. 4. 

" It is needless for me to enter at length here on the Tarious griev- 
ances under which we labor in China, and which must be removed 
ere we cau expect to realize the advantages which a really iree trade 
with that countr; offers. I will merely recapitulate a few which ap- 
pear to me moBt prominent. 1. The nee of opprobrioua epithetB both 
in edicts and proclamation* issued b; the government, imputing to 
foreigners crimes and protUgacy of the most atrocbns and retoltmg 
character. 2. The undefined state of the duties, — the real being in 
some instances tenfold the nominal. 3. The interdiction to hire 
warehouses, and consequent insecurity ofpix^rty, or to trade legally 
with any but the hong merchants. 4. The exorbitant port charges, 
which efifaetually prevent small ships from trading legally at Canton. 
6. The prohibition to trade anywhere but at Canton, being the port 
of the empire the worst adapted for extending our commerce, for the 
simple reason that the staple articles of export, tea, and silk, are 
biouffht from the northern provinces at a heavy expense, while the 
eqnaUy heavy charges of conveying our woollens to the north, form 
an insuperable bar to an; great increase in their consumption, tl. 
The regulations enforced relative to homicides. All the comparatively 
trifling personal grievances under which we labor, which are, how- 
ever, moat galling and unnecessary, would vaniah the moment we 
have established a claim to be respected hy the Chinese, instead 
of being despised, as we are most deservedly at present. — What, 
then, would be the force requisite to coerce the Chinese empire, with 
its countless millions of inhabitants 1 In my opinion, by combining 
energetic meaaures with judicious policy, a com i^rati rely small naval 
force would do all that was requisite. 1 would wi^h to see an ambas- 
sador sent out from England to act in conjunction with the admiral 
on the Indian station for the purpoee of demanding redress for inju- 
ries sustained, and negotiating a commercial treaty on a liberal basis. 
An amply adequate force to compel submission would consist of one 
line-of-battle ship, two large frigates, six corvettes, and three or four 
armed steamers, having on board a land force of about six hundrM 
men, chiefly artillery, m order to protect any land operation which 
might be necessary. The greater portion of this force is already in 
India, and might be made available but with little expense." p. II. 

" The result of these proceedings would, within a very short period, 
have annihilated all vestiges of a naval force along the coast of China, 
and have placed in our power thousands of native merchant vessels, 
Tlie Chinese coast presents facilities for such operations beyond any 
other in the world, being studded with numerous islanda, in many of 
which, as well as on the main land, are lon^, narrow bays with deep 
water, in which ahy number of vessels might be deposited, and the 
exit guarded by a single man-of-war or armed merchant vessel. 
Two or three such depots might be formed, the vesaela moored there- 
in, the crews landed with the exception of a few men in each to take 


;t4H Pret lutcreourtt belweai China unri Christfiidttm, Oct. 

cue of their property, and then would be Iho time freely to circulate 
printed papers, recapitulating the grievances we hsid to complain of, 
the demands we made, and stating that the moment they were granted 
peace would be restored, and all the junks in our poasession would 
be liberated, safe and uninjured. This would have the double good 
effect of proving that our moderation was equal to our success, uid 
would render every person directly or indirectly interested in the 
Chinese property in our power, an advocate for the expediency of 
granting our claims. A lithographic press, of which there are several 
in China, would form a valuable auxiliary on board the flag-ship. I 
need hardly say that I would recommend the kindest and most lenient 
conduct towards all the fjahermen and inhabitants of the coast, and 
that all provisionB required should be punctually and liberally paid 
for. By these means, confidence would soon be established, liiid the 
Chinese would flock to us &om all quarters, bringing abundant sup- 
plies of every article we might stand in need of- 1 will even go so 
far as to say, that I fully believe trade to a very considerable extent 
might be carried on throughout the whole period of hostile operations, 
by granting passes to such Chinese vessels as were ready to embark 
in it." fp. 16, 17. 

3. Remarkt on 1A« BrUiA rdaHoat miik China, and the pnpoitd ^mu for 
inanmng titan. Bv sir Geotge Thomas Sbumton, bart. pp. 4S. Limdoa: 
Emnund Uovd, Harfey-street ; and Simpkin and Matahall, sUtioneis'-stteet 
courL 1S36. 

The chief object of these remarks is to rebut those offered by Mr. 
Lindsay. What he promises to show respecting " a very highly co- 
lored or absolutely false translation," we here omit, because its mser- 
tion, with the remarks which the case demands, would require much 
more space than the present article will allow. Hereafter, in due 
time, we will return to this topic, and may then be able to show 
that the translations in question are neither " absolutely false " uor 
" very highly colored :" perchance we may show more than this, for 
our object will be to exhibit flilly, by quotations from a rariety of 
standard authors, the true meaning of the terms in dispute. After a 
few preliminary observations, sir George thus proceeds : 

" It may be as well, however, just to notice cursorily, io this place, 
the six topics of ^ievance adverted to by Mr. Lindsay. — p. 11, 1. 
" Opprobrious epithets." It must be obvious that these must be 
wholly unworthy of notice as a matter of formal complaint, except so 
far as they may be introduced into official documents; and I think 
I shall be able to show, hereafter, that the most prominent instances 
of offensive language imputed to such documents, are to be ascribed 
either to a very highly colored or absolutely false translation. 2, " Unde- 
fined state of duties \ " 2, " interdiction to hire warehouses, or trade 
with any but the hong merchants ;" 4, " exorbitant port charges ;" 
5, " prohibition to trade any where but at Canton." There can be no 
question but that these are all points upon which the system of our 
trade with the Chinese might be altered vastly for the better ; that it 
would be perfectly natural and reasonable, on our part, to endeavor 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

mm. Free Intef course brtMMt C&tHa and Chmttndom. 249 

tn obUiD from the Chinese government such additional privileges and 
adfanUges, through the medium of amicable negotiatioa, provided iny 
bc^ e^^ted of their being voluntarily coooaded. But to deuoninUe 
theee u " grievances," wbicb would \\Mity the employment of an 
"umed inter fareace " for their " redreu," appeura to me an utter 
perversion of language, and to be wholly iaconsiBtent with auy inter- 
pretation of the law of natinns, with which I am aoquninted. 6. 
" The regulations enforced relative to homicides." These, I am 
perfectly ready to cwicede, are a grievance, a very serious grievance. 
The Chinese laws, as especially applied, and endeavored to ne enforc- 
ed in cases of homicide committed by foreigners, are not only utijiut, 
but abtobUely intoUrabU. The demand of blood for blood, iu all 
cues without reference to circumstances, whether palliative or even 
justifying, is undoubtedly an intolerable grievELnce. But are there 
no difiailtiet attending the fair and equitable adjustment of this 
question 1 pp. 13, 14. 

" I cannot believe it possible that our government can for a mo- 
nMnt listen (o the first of Mr. Lindsay's prcqxisals ; but I do hope thai 
they will pay that deference which is due to his knowledge and ex- 
perience, by adopting the second. Nothing certainly can be more 
wise in policy, or just in principle, than the maxim which Mr. Liiid- 
say laya down, (p. 4,) "that we ought to hold no political relation 
with a country which refuses to acknowledge such, without insult." 
It was by keeping the principle of ihis maxim strictly in view thut 
the embassies of lord Macartney, and lord Amherst, if they have not 
benefitted our commercial interests in China, as much as was wished 
or expected, have at least avoided doing that serious permanent in- 
jury to those interests which must have resulted from an opposite 
course. They did not indeed scrupulously criticise the wording of 
edicts, or the inscriptions on the banners of their boats, but they pe- 
remptorily resisted all demands tending to uational degradation iu 
which they would be in any degree implicated as consenting p-trtiei>, 
well knowing that by so doing they would not only have not promoted 
the objects they had in view, but have given a most dangerous en- 
couragement to the encroachments and oppressive spirit of the local 
government of Canton, and have thus crippled our commerce as much 
■s they would have tarnished our national honor. 

" I cwifese I think it possible that a third mission, if sent to China, 
on a {dan which this is not the place U> detail, might, in very skilful 
hands, steer clear of those difficulties which obstructed the former 
two in fimi'ns, and rendered all negotiation impossible, and that our 
national honor might be preser^'ed at the same time ihat our national 
interests would be promoted ; but I am very far indeed from recommend- 
ing that the experiment should be tried. It would not only require 
a very .skilful leader, hut it would be necessary that he should have 
the entire confidence and coriperalion, if called upon, of that British 
commercial community at Canton, for whose iiiteresl« he vna to 
contend. Setting aside the rink of an ambassador being named, who 
|KisHea.~od every jidoiI i|ii<i1iiy except thut peculiar one, of filMC!<s fur 

1 V^nOC^IC 

3fi0 Ftk Intereoiirte bttieeai CSUna and (^trittautom. 0<T. 

htBoffic« — whu possible chance would be have of advancing peace- 
ably in the slow bait sure steps of ordinal}' negotiation, while the ma- 
jority of the British commanity at Canton, sympathizing, as I believe 
they at present do, in the belligerent views of Mr*. Lindsny, would be 
impatient to cut at once with the sword the Gordian knot of his 
diplomacy T 

"There are one or two other points in Mr. Lindsay's pamphlet 
which seem to require some notice. Although he is an advocate for 
naval hoBtilities on a large scale, he especially provides that " he 
would on DO account advocate the taking posaeMion of the amillest 
island on the coast." (p. 3.) No man eertamty would advocate such a 
measure, except as an uUima ratio : but when we consider how many 
islands there are upon the coast, over which the Chinese government 
exercises no one act of jurisdiction, and which might easily be taken 
possession of with the entire consent and good-will of the inhabitants, 
if there be any; and when we further reccdlect that the original occu- 
pation of the island of Hacao by the Portuguese was precisely an act 
of this description, and not the result of any previous authentic ces- 
sion by the Chinese authorities, as pretended, it does seem an exces- 
sive and incoDsisteni degree of scrupulousness so carefully to disclaim 
any such intention, especially when something of the kind must have 
been anticipated when speaking (p. 10,) of forming depots among the 
numerous islands, where the crews of the captured vessels might be 
landed. Mr. Lindsay objects to the occupation of an island, because 
" such a measure would have quite a contrary effect irom forwarding 
that extension of purely commercial intercourse, which would be so 
advantageous to both countries, and might also lead to consequences 
of which it would be impossible to foretell the result." (p. 8.) Very 
likely ; but these are the very reasons why the scheme of a squadron, 
having sea and land forces on board, for the purposes of embargo and 
blockade, is also objected to. It is only in order to avoid direct hos- 
tilities, even as an ultima ratio, and under the circumstance of the 
British commerce having been driven altogether from the continent 
of China, that I ventured to suggest (in the resolutions which I mov- 
ed in the house of commons,) that, instead of endeavoring to regain 
our )>08ition on the continent by force, we should endeavor to esta- 
falieh our trade " on some insular position on the coast, where (being 
out of the limits of Chinese jurisdiction,) it might be carried on beyond 
the reach of acts of molestation and oppression." From this proposi- 
tion thus qualified, I confess, I see no reason to shrink." pp. 31, 35. 

4. Remark* on the Utte lord A't^ner'i ttnitiim to CoTilon ; in reftrenee to 
the pmerU state rf our reiiUiont mth China. By Jamrs Goddard, esq., late 
of Canton, pp. 'il. London. 1836. 

The writer of thexe remarks firKt aliudef to the circumstances un- 
der which lord Napier " came to Canton," and then addx : 

" As regnrds persons! considerations, no one perhaps could have 
>>fl«>n selected better qualihed than lord Napier for the imporlnnt 
office of chief su{>eriiiiepident of trade : he seemed to combine in hiis 

1836. FVet Iniercowrse between China attd Chritteitdam. 351 

character a degree of firmneBs and pliancy, of diguJty and affability, 
well adapted to unite the ■uS'oges of thow whose iiiteresta he had lo 
protect, and to influence the Chineae gnremment, if they were to he 
influenced at all. But in the struggle which he had to make in order 
to eatabliab himself on an equality with tbe authorities at Canton, he 
wta beset with Dumeroua difficulties, which iu relation to the Chinese 
darkened and overshadowed his influence. 

"First, there had been united with him, as hia majesty's chief 
authority, three members of tbe company's factMy, a mdie totaHy in- 
explicable to the Chinese, who looked upon the company's seirants as 
<Huy tbe equals of the hong, merchants, which hong merchants are 
oUiged to kneel in hombleneas and subminion before the local author- 
ities (rf Canton. Yet, in defiance of Chineae prejudices, these dis- 
cordant materials were blended together in the superintendenls of fiee 
trade. Tb^e had also been estaUished, before lord Napier's arrival, 
a finance committee, which was composed of another portion of the 
company's serrants; so that to the eyes of the Chinese there was the 
appearance merely of mutation, and not of radical change ; for al- 
though the monf^lj was abolished, and the ctmipany had not the 
slightest interest or connexion with free trade, yet they thus contrived 
to fix in China as large a portion of their retainers, as if they bad 
continued to possess, in reality,' the whole administration of the Brit- 
ish commerce with that country." pp. 4, 6. 

"The appearanceof eight of the company's servants in high offi- 
cial situations, not only gave scope for this inference, but it furnished 
a wdl-grounded hope, to the Chinese authorities, that if they could 
onij eject lord Napier, they would then be able to preserve tbe aattu 
quo of things, and conduct matters as heretofore. Indeed, so natural 
and imposing was this inference, that even Eun^ana fell into the same 
opinion. Lord Napier soon became sensible of the equivocal situation 
in which he was placed ; and a Chamber of Commerce suggested itself 
to him, as -an institution likely to combine the commercial body, in 
whose united information he might repose confidence, and whose 
identity of interest in the policy that it might be necessary to pursue, 
was a guarantee that their opinions would not be advanced without 
due caution and consideration when he might find it necessary to 
consult them. To this object, therefore, he directed his attention 
with earnestness: he called a public meeting, and, among other 
things, recommended this to their particular attention,, handing them 
at tte same time a paper of hints for their information and guidance ; 
and baring done so, he lefl them to pursue their own plans with re- 
gard to it In consequence, rules and regulations were drawn np 
under the superintendence of a committee, which only required the 
approval of a general mee^ng; all parties seemed to contribute their 
utmost to the common object, and lord Napier appeared to have estab- 
lished an unanimity beyond what could have been reasonably expected. 
" But while this was in pn^^ress, and his lordship was endeavoring 
to collect his natural supports around him, the contention with the 
Chinese began to thicken ; each person began to entertain notiona 

1 V^nOC^IC 

"iW tfrr inteeraurtt. hrtwrru Vhiiia H»il Vkrl»tr»Hom. iMT. 

lit Ills uu'it : all the vaitelieo of fenr and apprelieiiflioii, (triK>|ie aiiJ 
coriAderice, look |>lac«: iome apjieared to be triglitened a( llie ahaikiw 
of a Hhaile, and oihers asnumed a confidence which mw neither ha- 
zard nor danger Ii would be difficult, and perhaps iiijudiciooa, to 
proiiouDce an (pinion of the justice or fiAly of lite viens cutertaiued 
on either aide. pp. H, it. 

" The determination and vigor with which lord Napier conduct- 
ed the contest, shook for a time the readution of the Chinese aitthor- 
ities, and an evident relaxation of their high tone totA place : mb> 
oidinate officers were appointed to hi^d an interview with hts lordshi|>, 
in order to obtain some innight into the nature and object of his mill- 
Dwn, steps evidently of a yielding character, p. 6. 

" On Ending, however, that all direct coinmnnication with the 
Chinese authoriitiea waa atill withheld, lord Napier adopted a plan 
which appears to have brought him nearer to an equality with theut 
than any steps that had yet been taken. He publicly replied to the 
viceroy's and officers' edicts, adopting their own language and phra- 
iteology, as far as could be done with propriety. By this act they 
found their conduct about to be expneed to the body of the people, 
and their own proclamationa met by those of equal publicity, their 
fslsehoodn delected, and the barriers which they hcd set up nrertumed. 
Had circumstances not prevented, or rather had loid Napier's si<^nen 
nol overtaken him bo rapidly, the operation of this system judicioudy 
conducted would probably have overruled all obstacles." p. 10. 

"So much with r^ard to the trade at Canton. As respects the 
e:ttension of our intercourse with the eastern coast of China, we ap- 
prehend this can only be brought about by keeping up a constant 
communication with various ports by the ingress and egress of out 
ships of war. In an object of great commercial importance, promising 
to open to us the means and mode of bupplying nations supposed to 
comprise a third of the population of the globe, with our arts and ma- 
nufactures, cannot a few shipe of war be spared, as well for the better 
protection of our merchantmen in the China seas, as to endeavor to 
slip between the Chinese and their prejudices by frequently visiting 
their porta with demonstrations of friendly intentions? It may be ca- 
viled at as a paradox, how ships of war ore to be employed with friend- 
ly intentions : but the object is, to establish a social intercourse, to 
interchange communications, be they ever so frivolous, to show the 
Chinese by tranquil and judicious visits, that the ships are only ships 
of war in name. Will it be said that the gallaiil commanders and 
officers, when understanding the character of iheir missiofl, are not 
equal to carry it into efTect ? The only answer that can fairly be 
made is, that if the; are not, they will be found wanting for the first 
time, and to belie their national character of being as social in 
peace aa brave in war. This woula not interfere with, or exclude, 
OUT merchants from taking their part and exercising their " thrifty 
assiduity " for ihe extension of trade, — and by their conjoint efforts, 
the Chinese may be moulded into something like a social and inter- 
national hotly." pj). 17, IP. 

IriM. Fi-nr intrreourit btlwten CIuhh <aul Clirhtriu/iiiH. 253 

5. Brilinh interamrt teUk Chitu». By a Reaideut in Cliina, pp. Bb. 
taiidon: Gdwtrd Suler, 10, Cbeapside. ISHt. 

In a prefatory note, " to the Britiih merchants uid manufttctiiTers 
interested in the trade with Eastern Asia," the Resident remarks: 

"I uu perfectly aware, that in the preMnt state of foreign inter- 
course with China, a residence there does nothing more than supjily 
an impertect teat, to which to bring the speculations that are hazard- 
ed, and the anticipations that are indulged, in reference to that em- 
pire, i am far from claiming your attention on this ground, to the 
sentiments expressed in the following pages. If they be not cwn- 
mended to you by their own propriety, nothing else sliouid commend 
them. I have made them public, in a sincere desire to contribute a 
humble share to the adoption, on the part of government, of the wisest 
policy, especially toward China : and I address them to you, in the 
hope that your powerful cooperation will be given towards the suc- 
cessful issue of that policy, in throwing open to c<»nmerGe, to civili- 
zation, and Chriatianity, that mighty empire." 

A brief statement of the case,-as it respects the Chinese govern- 
ment, the hong merchants, the foreign reetdents, and so forth,-occu- 
pies the first part of this pamphlet; then, afler remarking that " we 
are right in claiming frm inteTcourse with every part of the Chinese 
empire," the writer goes on lo speak of the agency requisite to effect 
this eiid. He thinks the government should " choose a pacific policy 
towards China on grounds of aqtetHaiey, /utmilittf, and generotily , 
and confine its political action to the erection of s consulate at Can- 
ton, with a small naval armament for the protection of trade;" and 
then proceeds in a strain of remarks, from which we mske as copious 
extracts as our limits will allow '. he says : 

"I would not confine the action of the British government upon 
China within such narrow limits, did I not think there is another 
and more appropriate agency which may be relied on, to give the 
blessings of civil and religious liberty to the whole eastern world. It 
is to ttK agency of tlie classes to which these remarks are addressed, 
that I now refer. In this matter their instrumentality must be the 
most efficient; on them, the sacrifice should fall. Let us for a mo- 
ment look at the nature and force of this agency, and also at one of 
the aacrifices, that should be immediately Dubmitted to, and cheer- 
fully borne. I am aware that the private efforts of a body of mer- 
chants and manufacturers, when compared with the power of govern- 
ment, may be undervalued, or perhaps despised. If any regard in 
this light the agency of these classes in eastern Asia, employed 
directly and through the medium of the Christian missionary, let me 
refer them to the testimony of the late able governor-general of Brit- 
ish India, given publicly just before his return home. They will find 
that experienced statesman looking away from the joint agency of 
government and the church establishment, and reposing " his hopes 
of the Christianization of British India, on the humble, pious, per- 
severing missionary." The power which the Christian missionary 
wields, for the civilization of pagan nations, does not however need 


354 JVec Inttreourse befoetH China amd Ckritlendom. Oct. 

to be explained here. Nor bb to the facilities and cooperation which 
tlie inercha.iit a.nd manufactnrer can affiwd him, need I say more than 
this. They ctin take under their care, (he man who offers himself as 
the agent of their benevolence, conTey him to the scene of his labors, 
and assure him a welcome there. They can cheer him on in his 
iielf-denying course. They can give him access to the precise apoU 
where he is moat desirous to exert his influence ; and their concur- 
rent testimony to his integrity and usefulness, cui be given tbi him 
at home and abroad, above the suspicion of favor or fear. In doing 
all this, they compromise no commercial object. On the conb-ary, 
they identify ihemseives with & c&use noble in itself, and the success 
of which is sure. These facilities must come from them alone : but 
in the general labor and burden of providing the means of iostruc- 
tion in civil and religious truth for the people of Eastern Asia, their 
countrymen of all classes may share. There is, however, one sacri- 
fice already referred to, which fails on the merchant a]one. 1 allude, 
of course, to the sacrifice on his part, of all gain accruing from the 
sale of injurious articles — for instance, from the opium trade. 

" As to this trafiic, it is not too much to say, that the Chinese 
government derives stronger justification from it, in its exclusion of 
foreigners, than from any other source. It is this trade which throws 
such deep discredit on our character, and such suspicion on our 
intercourse. It is this lamentable traffic which gives a color of 
benevolence to the Chinese edicts, which restrict and brand us. Is 
it then unreasonable to express a hope that patriotism, benevolence, 
and desire of free communication, will put an end to a trade, ao in- 
jurious to the character of the nation, so opposite to the spirit of doing 
good, and so fatal to every expectation of a better intercourse 1 When- 
ever this sacrifice shall be made, these facilities furnished, and the 
great associations of this country for tbe diffusion of useful and Chris- 
tian knowledge, come forward in tbe eause ef Eastern Asia, then will 
the prospect of amelioration there be more cheering, than if govern- 
ment had pledged itself to the same purposes, and commissioned a 
fleet and an army to redeem its word. May it not be expected thai 
all this will be done without delay 1 fhe merchant calls on govern- 
ment to make expensive preparations, to expose valuable lives, for the 
extension of trade. Will he, can he, then, refuse one sacrifice on 
his part; costly perhaps, but paying nick in honor, all that it in- 
volves in point of cost. Let him also say to himself, — "the age of mo- 
nopoly Jias passed away, shall the monopoly of Christian liberty and 
happiness be maintained V Let the manufacturer too remember that 
the products of the mill and the workshop are scattered throughout 
the east, and say to kimtt^, the diffusion of our peculiar blessings 
must not he any longer restrained. 

" The individual who is sharing the direction and rejoicing in the 
success of our benevolent societies, must find in Eastern Asia, an 
object of more than common regard. He wilt remark that these coun- 
tries abound, above all others, in the object of his Christian charity, 
in benighted men. He will rejoice in the reasouable hope, ihat those 

1836. Frrt IiUerrouru between Chiiui a»d Ckriitentlam. S55 

region! now bo remarkable as the great acenes of human [>robalion, 
wUl erelong be xtili more distinguiiihed aa the scenea ol' tlie display 
of redeeming grac«. It will be aeen, from the strain oftbeae remarks, 
that m; object ie to recommend a mixed commercial and benevolent 
agency, as the beat inatrument of tboee ameliorations in Eutem Asia, 
a» much to be desired b; every merchant and every philanthropiat. 
It would be making skorter um-k with every thing which oppoees our 
wiriiea there, to batter it down. But where ignorance, distrust, pre- 
judice, and barbarism are the obstacles in the way, the best mode of 
getting rid of them is to change them into intelligence, confideDce, 
and gratefiil esteem. This ia the mode of proceeding which I would 
attempt to recommend. 

" Let me then go on and trace the operation of this mixed agency, 
first on the uncivilized races of the ialands, and next on the compara^ 
lively refined coDtinental nationa of the east. To the first of t^ese 
classes of eastern population, commerce comes and presents them 
with a multitude of objects, useful, agreeable, — auited to their condi- 
tion and demands. All these are offered to the savage as things which 
he may poaeess, not by an act of violence as he has been used, but in 
exchange for the fruits of his peaceltil labor. As soon as this is ap- 
parent to him, as far as this influences him, so far he ia transformed. 
He becomes an industrious, peaceable man. The trade of plunder, 
piracy, war, is forsaken. The spirit of rapine given way to the spirit 
of Irtide. And uotwithatandiag Dr. Southey's opinion to the con- 
trary, it is a blessed exchange. Alas ! that Christian merchants 
should have mingled injuries with these blessings : — that they should 
ever have offered to the Malay, or the Polynesian, the weapon with 
which he is emboldened to attempt anew the life of his enemies, or 
the drug equally fatal to his own. But the sacrifice of these miserable 
gains, they cannot any longer refuse. They will make ibis sacrifice 
willingly from nobler views. If not, they will make it of necessity, 
when public opinion comes to bear on this agency, as it has on the 
slave trade, with irresistible force." 

" Again, we will trace the immediate operation of the agency in 
question on China, as the controlling nation of the eastern continent. 
* ' * The people of China must be taught more than they ever yet 
knew of our designs and character, more of each other's rights, and 
of the duties we owe each other. They must be bound together by 
new ties— by those fine cords of public opinion and enlightened sym- 
pathy, which carry impressions from one end of the empire to the 
other, with electrical quickness and force. They must have light on 
the great subjects of national obligation and intercourse. They will 
then see their strength and their way. They will soon observe that 
they are numerous enough (near 400 millions), and that on any point 
where they concur, they must be strong. They will be prepared then 
to place their foreign intercourse on'a liberal and lirm basis, and at 
the same time to enter on a course of domestic Hnd general reform. 
The government may cling to its dixtrunts and its abuses still, but 
public opinion will put a period to them all." 

1 V^nOC^IC 

"250 /Vrr Intrrrmtnr liififrru f'iiitr iiml (JkriftrHtlitm. Ovr. 

" Britiuli incrchanta nnd lUUiufacturerH have a direct imttrett iu 
tliia subject, and a more valuable one than they are aware of. The 
regioiiB of the world now in question, have great reaourcea. Tlwy are 
undeveloped, it is true. We cannot tell how much they can produce, 
and exchange and consume. Instead of making large proiniaea, let 
me give a quotation only. It will serve to remind us that we have a 
double interest here; that the more we give to Eastern Asia, the 
more shall we receive. A mercantile writer says, " I will not tell 
statesmen what they slioukl do : nor Uhristiaiis wliai it is their duty 
to (to; but as a merchant, 1 will say, were the' trade with Eastern 
Asia conveyed to me iu perpetuity, the diffusion of knowledge aud the 
support of Christiiin missioitn thern, are the measures to which 1 
should feel directed, by a regard to pecuniary interests." To tliis tes- 
timony I add my sincere Amen." 

" Again, thia subject should be looked at by the British merchant 
and manufacturer aa a matter of charatter aisn. We have been UAA 
by some (who should have spoken more kindly,) of " manufactanng 
greediness," and of " the rapacious shorl-^ighted spirit of trade." 
And do these charges lie at our doors ? Will we consent to be brand- 
ed with marks like these? If not, how shall they be repelledT I 
would answer — by identifying our professions with the advancing 
happiness of the whole world. Esjtecidly, as the rule of persona! 
e^iertion, let the countries with which we are roost nearly connected, 
receive a proportionate share of our benevolent and Christian regard. 
The charge of greedy, short-sighted avarice will not cleave to those 
whose agency is the honored instrument, under Providence, of con- 
veying blessings to distant, nevlected tribes and nations. Tktir 
characters will ne safe, and the lilessings of Him who makelh rich 
and addeth no sorrow therewith, will also be theirs. This matter 
of character has distinct claims to the merchant's attention, inasmuch 
as he ia the representative of liis natiou in foreign lunds.*" 

* 1 cannot liul Inke lliii oppnrtiinily of rrmiorling Ihr Briliih merchant of ihn 
duly of inlrodiicing the IrmperaiicR syituni Into all vencli navipnting the enater-n 
■aai. Tlie perfRcl pnnlioatiility <if Ilii* lyalcm ii fnlly proved, ll h practwad l>y 
unit of the ■Ueil l^nKliab housM enga^Ml in Ilia Cliiiia trarie. 

Tlie Ainrricnn ihijw reflorting Iu Ihtwe »«as are, elinoat wlllioal eice|)tioD, 
navisMlcH wilh no tmrit im boanl. In tlie Icinpr ■iid more hiiKBrdom voyi>){i'S 
in |Mir«nit of the wfmle. the grent majurity of the Aoi*riciins hive no rp\ril «n 
bo.trd. Wiiy are we ao alow to follow ■ ayalein to nobly and an succeaafully lie);un 7 
It is a and Iliinr, IhnI so miiiy of our inercliaiili Mill uonlend fur lliia old nbUK. 
Ttifly liliel the Brillali aailur. when lliey aay he necda n jtlnss of grog to give him 
untirtige or alrength. He nenda noanr.h auiilance tn raiae him nl'ove ivPHknrsiHiid 
fenr. TliPie nnemiea oflhe Briliah snilor lell na. moreover. Ihat hia reformntloo \i 
hogMlen: rhnt he alwnya will he a profane, thonghtleai, dninken. proAlgnld man. 
Alai '. il ia Inie. Ihal many U the older BHilon are too far fpim. Unt here, |irev«n- 
tioii ia inore taluiililc tlmn enre. The teraperancE ayXem will aave the yuiiiig 
Bailor, who now drioks hN gliiai in thp preaeiice of his "hipmnlns, becauae hn fijare 
(heir sneer; nnd is thu>. in the eoiir»e of one long voyage, dragged * struggling 
viclim to the drunknrd'a doom. 

How loog ahall thia vile ayalem lie endured! Dues '■innnur*clnringgreei)i- 
neaa" aacrilice nohler victims than llieae T Will no( the press of Ihia ruuntry 
lake np his Kiilijecl. Rnd, fur uno thing, cliiw its columns ngninst giivrrnmenlHl 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

ISaS. Fivt ItUerewru &etm*n Omm tmd C^tritttndom. 3S7 

With the mcMiroei of th« richest and moat estenaife r^ions at b«r 
(KHUinaad, England ma; not fear the loas of a market on the Black 
sea, or (m the Elbe, or the Rhine. She can bend her influeBce lo 
hartaning the time when "the ^Mar shall be cut asunder, and the 
chariot burned in the fire." The commerce wbicfa ahe has fiwtered, 
with its peaoefiil and raluabla connexions, will help her to disarm, tor 
ever, the foolish and mad passions that engender war. Let the agri- 
cultural classes look at the late instance other mediatioir, in present- 
ing natioDsl strife. Let them observe what interworen commercial 
ini^eBla have done here, and imagine what the; wi)l do, b; their 
lenfi^ strength in tinws to come, and answer, if there be not in this 
proepeot MraMthing as cheering, as they erer anticipate from the 
results t^ improTM drainage, or the nse of bone manure. I hope it 
will be glHtied that the Providence which bss made this nation the 
depositary of revealed truth, has also marked ber out, b; her insular 
position, ner narrow boandariea, manufacturing skill, and naval superi- 
ority, as his chosen instrument for diffusing it through the earth. No 
where else do we find these qualifications combined. This is the 
race, then, which this countrj has set before her, and recreant to 
duty, interest, honor, glory, she must be if ahe stop ehort or turn 
aside. Let ber, then, lay aside every weight, and run with ardor 
and patience, looking to this hope — that the labor bcwne in this 
cause will bring Bpeed; tnd rich returns} and that when Eastern 
Asia shall be raised to equal refinement, skill, and prosperity, and 
shall depend on her no longer, then other compensations for her in- 
strumentality shall be given to her, under (be rewarding blessing 

" I will now turn to a short consideration of the general reaalts 
which may be expected fit>m a pure exercise of our power, as practi- 
cal and benevolent men, on Eastern Asia. The weakness of the 
people of China, now* leaves them at the mercy, not of the emperor 
only, but of every provincial officer, fi^im a governor of provinces, 
down to the petty magistrate of the poorest heen. With no means of 
intercommnnicBtion, they cannot make known their *wisbes or suf- 
ferings lo each other, or join in any determination to acquire new 
privileges or redress old wrongi. But when something is done to 
enlighten this mass of mind, the case will be chan^jred. On the very 
first action of public opinion, their domestic condition will begin to 
improve. It will no lonjirer be emphatically true, of every place of 
power in China, that " iniquity is there." Nothing short of this 
domestic reform can remove the evils which press upcm the foreign 
trade. In its doing this we may confidently rejoice. But it will do 
much more ; it will unshackle the industry, the enterprise, the inven- 
tion of that people, and engage all these energies in the work of 
drawing out the vast resources of their favored territories. It needs 
no proof how close and heavy are the fetters which Chinese industry 
«nd enterprise have worn. It is equally true thnl'the genius of that 
people bss been systematically repressed. They hsve been misdirect- 
ed; compelled to look backward instead of forward; taught to seek 

VOL. V. K«. VI. 33 

i:.qnr-. b.LnOO'^IC 

258 /Vm iMereourst bttwten Ckiiui and (Ariittndom. OoT. 

their Btandaids, their patterns, in a Temote antiquity. No wonder 
tbey have not got on. 

" Leaving, to a further page, the moral and religious changes 
which will succeed, let us follow the course of this reform, as it paseea 
the houndariee of China, and carries its blessings to the farthest coasts 
and iftlands of the east The Chinese will then become the great 
agents of this reform. Already their power extenda from the Pacific 
almost to the Caspian sea. It is estabUshed over Tibet. Besides 
this, their influence is felt, politically or commercially, in Cochin- 
china, Siam, the Malayan Peninsula, and in many of the principal 
islands to the southeast. This mercantile influence, (leaving the 
political out of view,) has been acquired without the aid, nay, against 
the will, and under the interdict of their government. It has been 
acquired by personal enterprise, sagacity, and industry, in spite of 
deficient geographical and nautical knowledge, and the dangers aris- 
ing out of the character of the Malayan race. What then may we 
not enpect from these characteristics when Christianity has exalted 
them, when British intercourse has supplied this knowledge, and 
made property and life secure, when a reformed government shall 
encourage what it has so long oppceed 1 Under these circumstances, 
Chinese emigration must overflow the countries to the south and 
southeast; filling them with a popiUation, haviog the best elements of 
nttional character, and excelling in all the arts of peace. And every 
one who has even Bailed by tboee h>vely islands, as they rise from the 
bed of the ocean, clothed with the richest rohe that nature ever 
wore, — so verdant, luxuriant, fragrant, yet silent and unimproved, 
because there is no safety (here, — b prepared to rejoice in the pros- 
pect, that they will one day come under the influence of the mild, 
intelligent, and Christianized Chinese. 

" I will conclude this pamphlet with a few remarks, already pro- 
mised, on the moral and religious changes to be expected, happily, in 
the condition of the inhabita ta of Eastern Asia. It is not possible 
perbaps to gel, much less to give, a good idea of the condition of the 
Malayan races in these respects. If, however, the tree ntay be judg- 
ed by its fruits, we have, in the degraded, perfidious, desperate char- 
acter of these islanders, a guide to their faith. It is however certain, 
that these lawless men are themselves the slaves of cruel and puerile 
superstitions. The Dayak, who qualifies himself for every impor- 
tant act or event of life by a fresh murder, ia an example of the one; 
the Tagalo soldier, who sees, as he stands sentry on a kmdy part of 
the walls of Manila, the goblins of his fancy leering at him through 
the embrasures, or lifting in sport the heavy cannon from their car- 
riages, is an example of the other. Where but in Chrislianily shall 
we find a power that can regenerate the monster, and liberate the 
slave of these superstitions ? In the gradual working of the measures 
we hate recommended, all this, and much more, we promise shall be 
accomplished. Again, as respects the people of China: Are they 
learned I Christianity will give them purer precepts and a better ex- 
ample than have come down to them from their venerable master. U 

1686. Rtfvrt mpuling the lmp9rtiaiM tf Ophm. 9S0 

will diflolota too tbo futurity, whieh Conlbeitu M*er utampted to pe- 
Bctrale. Tbej will Oad life and immortalitj brought to light iu th« 
ffoa|id. Aro the; foUowera of Laoa Keua T Their fruitless search after 
the philosopber'i stone, after some recipe ft>r endless life, mtij be avitn 
over. Here are the waters of life, which a man maf drink ana live 
tai arer. Are the; Budhittst The BiMe will show them the lUlj 
and guilt of their Idolatry. It will bring them the doctrines of grace, 
instead of their silly scale of merits and demerits; and the rest that 
remaineth for the people of Ood, in exohaage for the stupid abetrac- 
tHMW of Budha. Perhaps Hbaao who have never witncMed idot-worihip 
nay find it diffleult to realize its tendency, or the grounds of the 
dirms denunciations aguBM id<datry. Bat let tbem go and stand in 
the actual presence of hideous images, perhaps of g^antic size, bm- 
td attitudes, and cruel, unfeeling expressiun, and see ditino honors 
paid them ; and they will then want no further aaaistance to conoeire 
how debasing, how fatal must be its influence, on the character 
and destiny of the worshiper. Let them remember too, that man 
wu ereated that he might be the intelligent beholder of his Creator's 
excellency, and the rduntary instrument of his praises for ever, and 
imagine, if they oan, a grosser crime, a deeper degradation, than that 
he mould change the image of the Messed God into an impersonation 
of every hatefiil, rile, and loathsome attribute. Yet this is the degra- 
dation and the guilt of the millions of idolaters in China. How 
reasonaUy, then, may we call on British Christiana, to cooperate in 
the eSwt to restore them to the noble purposes for which they were 
ereated, and in which pure and perfect happiness will be tbeir portion 
fi>r ever. How ardently and how often should we all lift up to Ood 
for ourselves the prayer of Hoses : " I beseech thee, shew me thy 
glory." And as this prayer is granted to us, day by day ; as we are 
permitted to look, again and again, on hia uncreated beanty; how 
should gratitude conspire with love and pity to urge us to the work 
of making Him known thrnughout the earth, whom we have seen 
to be npremety uid ttti^ ther o «Iy." 8u page 26, &c. 

Art. n. Report of the g<nentor of Kaangtung and Kwangst and 
the Heut.-govemor of KaangtuHg, in refermce to Ike proposal 
to sanction the importation of opium. Sept. 7th, 1836. 
Wb have, in obedience to the imperial will, jointly deliberated oa the 
subject of repealing the regulation!< now in force in r^ard to the 
importation of i^ium, and of permitting it to be sold in barter for 
ether commodities; and we herein present a draft of regulations, that 
we have sketched, comprising nine secltons, on which we humbly 
solicit your sacred majesty to caet a glance. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

360 R^ort respecting tlU Import^m of Ophm. Oct. 

On the I9lh dkj of the 5th month ( 3d July ), we received k letter 
from the i^and council of ministers, inclosing the following imperial 
edict dated tlie 29th day of the 4th month. (12th June.) "Heu 
Nastse," &.c. &c. [ See Rep. p. 143. ] 

Beholding our august soTereign's tender aolicilude for the livelihood 
of the people on this remote frontier, and the anxious desire manifest- 
ed to remove all evils, we, as on bended knee we perused the edict, 
were deeply affected, and bowed in profound reverence. We imme- 
diately transmitted the edict to the superintendent of maritime cus- 
toms, your majesty's minister W&n, and aliM read io council the copy 
forwarded to us of the original inemorial. While we oumelves gave 
the mibiect our joint and careful consideration, we at the same time 
directed the two commissiouers (of finance and justice) to discuee it 
thoroughly and faithfully. These officers, the financial commissioner, 
Atsiugah, and the judicial commissioner, Wang TaingJeen, have now 
laid Iwfare us the result of their joint deliberations, and we have con- 
sidered their suggestions. We are humbly of opinion, that in fram- 
ing regulations it is of the first importance to suit them to the cir- 
cumstanceit of the times; and that to govern well, it is essential in the 
first place to remove existing evils. But if in removing one evil, ao 
evil of greater extent is produced, it then becomes the more impe- 
rative to make a speedy change suited to the circumstances of the 

Now in regard to opium, it is an article brought into the central 
empire from the lands of the far-distant barbarians, and has been 
imported during a long course of years. In the reigns of Yung- 
ching and Keenlung, it was included in the tariff of maritime duties, 
under the head of medicinal drugs, and there was then no regu- 
lation against purchasing it, or inhaling it. But in the 4th year 
of.Ktiaking (1799) the then governor of this province, Keihking, of 
the imperial kindred, regarding it as a subject of deep regret, that 
the vile dirt of foreign countries should be received in exchange 
fur the commodities and the dioney of the empire, and fearing lest 
the practice of smoking opium should spread among all the peo- 
ple of the inner land, to the waste of their time and the destruction 
uf their property, presented a memorial, requesting that the sale of 
the drug should be prohibited, and that offenders should be made ame- 
nable to punishment. This punishment has been gradually increased 
to transportation, and death by strangling. The Taw is by no means 
deficient in severity. But the people are not so much influenced by 
the fenr of the laws, as by the desire of gain. Hence, from the time 
that the prohibition was passed, the cratly schemes and devices of evil 
men have daily multiplied. On the one hand, receiving ships are 
anchored in the entrances from the outer seen. On the other hand, 
bmkers, called mellers, are everywhere established in the inner land. 
Then again ' fast crabs ' and ' scrambling dragons' — as the boHL<i arc 
called — are fitted out for clande:>tiiio commerce : and laMlv, vafra- 
bonds, pretending authority lo M>ar('.h, hive under this pretext indiilg- 
•d tlieir own unruly Hesirfs. Thu». whdl wmi' at first a common 

1836. R^art rtspte^ig O* bifvHtiiam of Ofimi. Ml 

article, ot no etteem in the markBt, either for nniAiiig or eUiiig, uid 
abo of a inoder&te price, has with the inoreaae in the aeverity of the 
regulation! increased in demand, and been elandealinejj and largely 
impcxted, annually drawing awaj irotn the pecuniary resoorcM of 
the inner land, while it has done nothing to enrich it. 

We your majesty's ministers, having examined the anginal memiv 
rial, and considered the details thereiit eoalained reqiMitii^ the erils 
(o be removed, n^^ard the whole as (roe and aceorate. The request for 
a repeal of the prohibitioDi and diange in the system, and a t«turB 
to the former plan of layii^f a duty mi i^inm, is also such as the 
eironmstances of the times render neoetsary ; and it is onr duty to 
•olicit your majesty's sanotiMi thereoC In caae of such sanction, any 
ftengner, who in the course of trade may bring opium, must he per- 
mitted to import and pan it at the cnstom-house, paying the dutv on 
it as fixed by the maritime tariff of Keenlnng, and mntt ddirar 
it to the bong merchantB, in the same manner as long-elk, camlets, 
and other goods, bartered ia native commo^ties, bat tm no account 
may he sell it clandestinely tai money. Ifthia plan be faithfully and 
vwinmaly carried into etbct, the tens of millions of preotous money 
which now annually ooze out of the empire will be saved, the source 
of the stream will be purified, and the stream itself may be eventually 
stayed. The amount of duties being less onerous than what is now 
paid in bribes, transgressions of the laws, rctfulating the revenue, will 
oease of theffisnlves ; the present evil practices ortranqMrting con- 
traband goods by deceit and violence will be suppressed without ef^ 
%xl ; the nomberless qnarrels and litigations now arising therefrom 
at Canton, ttwetber with the crimes of wralhless vagrants, will be 
diminisbed. Moreover, if the governmental officers, the literati, and 
the military be still restrained by r^ulationst and not sufiered to 
inhale the drug; and if oflenders amons theae claseeB be immediately 
dismissed Irom the paUio service ; while those of the people who 
purchase the drag and smoke it, are not at all interrered with, all 
wilt plainly see that those who indulge their depraved appetites are 
the victims of their own selhacrificing folly, persons who are in- 
capable of ranking among the cqiped and belted men of rank and 
learning. And if in this way shame be once aroused, strenuous ex- 
ertion and self-improvement will be the result, — for the principles of 
reform sre founded in shame and remorse. 

Nor, as it is truly said in the original memorial, will the dignity of 
government be at all lowered by the proposed measure. Should your 
majesty sanction the ^leal, it will in truth be attended with advan- 
tage both to the arrangements of the government and the wellbeing 
of the people. But in passing regulations on the subject, it is of great 
importance that every thing should be maturely considered, and that 
the law should be rendered perfect and complete ) and it is of the 
very first consequence that enectual measures should be taken to pre- 
vent the exportation of aycee silver. If the regalatioas be in any way 
incofltplete, the consequence will be that in a uw years fresh evils wiU 
spring up and spread abroad : such ia not tlie right way to accompliel) 

1 V^nOC^IC 

303 Rtpprt rapetttMg the iMfortaHmt of Opiiim. Oor. 

the purpoM in view. We have, therefore, fiill; discnued the mibieot 
together, and have also in concert with the financial and judicial c<hih 
miBBioiiers examined and considered it in all its bearings, and after 
ofl-repeated deliberations, have determined upon nine regulatioDS 
which we have drawn np, and of which we present a fair copy for your 
majesty's perusal. The result of our deliberations, made in obedience 
to the imperial mandate, we now jointly lay before the throne, humlv 
ly imploring our august sovereign to instruct ui if our repreeentations 
be correct or not, and to direct the appropriate board to revise them. 

The following are the regulationa which we have drawn up in refe- 
rence to the change of system called for in regard to tlie importation 
of opium, and which we reverently present for your majesty's perusal. 

1. The whole amount of opinm imported must be paid for in mer- 
chandise : here must be no deception. The object in repealing tbe 
interdict on opinm, is to prevent the loss of specif occaaioiied by ttie 
■ale of the drug for money. When opium is twonght in fbroigo vesseis, 
therefore, the security and senior merchants must be held reqmnsible 
tor the following arrangements being carried into effect : the value of 
tbe opium must be correctly fixed ; an amonnt of native oommcdities 
of equal value must be apportitmed; and the two amounts must be 
exchanged in full. No purchase may be made for inoaey-paymenta. 
The productions of the celestial empire are ridi, abundant, and in 
universal demand; its commodities, are many-fUd more than those of 
foreign barbarians, so that in an exchange of commodities the gain and 
not the loss must be on its side. But should it at any time perchance 
occur, that the quantities impwted were somewhat greater than tbe 
amount of native contniodities required, so that an exact balance could 
not be struck, while it were oeceesar; for fbraign ships immediately 
to return ; in such case, the whole amount of duties having been paid 
through the security merchant, and tbe barter of commodities having 
been made, the surplus opium not yet bartered may be laid up in 
the rrterchants' warehouses, and an account of it, taken under the irt- 
■pection both of the security and foreign merchant, may be registered 
in the office of the superintendent of customs. Then ^e opium may 
be sold as opportunities occur ; and when the whole has been disposed 
nf, the hong merchant and the consignee of the opium may jointly 
report that it is so, and have the register canceled. When the fcv- 
eign merchant returns to Canton, be mnst receive payment fiir the 
opium thus sold, in some merchantable commodity ; he may not be 
allowed to give (he value a pecuniary designation, and under cover 
of this receive payment in money. Some nibstantial and opulent 
senior merchants must be strictly required to watch over the enforce- 
ment of these regulations. And when a foreign ship is about leaving, 
tbe security and senior merchants moat si^^ a bond that she carries 
away no sycee silver on board of her, which bond must be delivered 
into the hands of government. If they know of any clandestine pur- 
chases being madie for money-payments, or of any money having been 
paid, they should be required immediately to report the facts, and the 
parties should be severely punished, and the opium confiscated and 


1630. Repoif ntptetiHg the In^ariatiM of Opium. 203 

■old for government ; or, if it have been atrescij' delivered to llie pur- 
chaser, the price should be recovered from the latter auiT forfeited to 
government. If the senior and security merchaota be found guUljr 
of an; connivance U auch ofientes, they also aboold be severely 

3. The naval cruising veasets, and all the officers and men of the 
eoslom-bouse statkuiB, ahould be required diligently to watch the eu> 
trauces and passages of rivers; but at the same time, to confine their 
search, they should not he allowed to go out to sea-ward, and under 
cover thereof to cause annoyance. Even though the interdict on opi- 
um be repealed, there is yet cause to fear that the mercantile people 
who in their mad search for eain are, as it were, bewitched, will still 
resort to foreign merchants (out of the port) to purchase it, so that 
■ycee silver will continue secretly to ooze out The naval-cruising 
vessels, therefore, and all those who are attached to the costonvhoose 
stations, should be required to search diligently aod faithfully wbeiH 
ever any discovery shall be made of silver heing smuggled out, and 
(he same ahould be forthwith seized, and the o&nding parties afqwfr 
bended; and the whde amount of money so taken, with the value 
of the smuggling boat, should be given as a reward to the cxptan, 
in order to encourage their exertions, and thus to destroy smuggling. 
If sycee silver be exported, there is necessarily a place where, and a 
way by which, it is carried out: that place must be near theforeign 
factories ; the way must be through the important passages and en- 
trances of rivers. It is only netful then to watch faithnilly at such 
places ; for by so doing, the export of silver may be stopped without 
any trouble. But if the smogglers once get ont into die open loadt, 
they soon spread themselves abroad in various places and iWe leave 
no trace by which to &nd them. If tbe aoldiers, or vagabmida 
feigning to be soldiers, frame pretexta for cmisiDg lUiodt in search of 
them, not only can they not eSect any good, hut they may ^so give 
occasion to disturbances, attended with evil consequences of no 
trivial character. They should therefore, be strictly prohibited so 

3. In regard to foreign money, the dd regulation, allowing three 
tenths to be expwted, stwuld be cmitinued; and to prevent any fraud, 
a true account of the money imported should be given ( by each ship ) 
OD arrival. Formo-ly, much foreign money was brought to Canton in 
the foreign ships, in order to purchase commodities in excess of those 
obtained by barter, and to pay the necessary expenaes of the vessel 
on her return. Whenever the imported goods were in larger quantity 
than those exported, there was then a surplus of foreign money, of 
which it would not have been reasonable, under such circumstances, to 
prohibit the reexportation. In the 23d year of Keaking, (1S18,) the 
then superintendent of maritime customs. Ah, finding that the bar- 
barians took away foreign money witboat any limit or restriction, ad- 
dressed a communication to the then governor of this province, Yaen, 
in consequence of which it was decided to limit the exportation by 
each vessel to three tenths (of tbe surplus of imports), allowing the 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

304 Rtpoii refuting the bKportatimt nf Ojptiai. Oct. 

remainder to be lent to any other foreigBer to enable him to pnrchaH 
goods, to pay the duties, dLc. This hu continued to be the rule down 
lu tlie (jtvseiit time. Now it is probable, that sometimes, wlien opium 
is imported in not very large quantities, money will also be imported 
with it, for the purpose of paying the price of goods in eicess of what 
may be ptirchaeed by barter. It will be right in such cases to conform 
(o the existing regulation. But tbe amount of foreign money so im- 
[Kirted in foreign ships, may vary considerably. If the balance be 
100,000 dollars or upwards, it will then be very well to permit the 
eKportntion of 30,000 dollars; but if the balance should e.iceed 
3(10,000 dollars, a fiirther limit to the permission to reexport becomes 
necessary. We deem it our duty, therefore, to requetit, that hereaAer, 
when the surplus of silver imported, does not conHidersbly exceed 
100,000, permission be still given to reexport three tenths of that 
surplus; but if it amounts to 300,000 dollars, whether the merchan- 
dise brought with it consist of opium, or of any other goods, that 
the permiBoioD to reexport in that case be limited to 50,0W) on etch 
ship. This amount should not be exceeded. With respect to tbe 
examination ajid report mode by thn security merchant, on a ship's 
arrival, of the total amount of silver imported by her, this examina- 
tion and report should still be required, in order that, the expenditure 
of the vessel having been deducted therefrom, the proportion to be 
reexported may be accurately calculated. A senior merchant also 
should be required faithfully to join the security merchant in the 
investigation. If the officers of the customs make feigned examinations 
and false reports, they should be subjected to severe punishment; 
and if the senior and other merchants connive at any illegality, they 
also should be punished. 

4. The traffic in opium must be conducted on the same principle 
as other foreign commodities; it is unnecessary to place it under 
a separate department. The first principle of commerce is, to adopt 
those measures which will yield the greatest passible amount of gain. 
Each one has his own method of doing this, and what one rejects 
another may seek for ; nor it is possible to bring all to one opinion. 
Now if tbe importation of t^ium be permitted, as formerly, and it 
become an article of commerce, as a medicinal drug, the traffic in it 
will no wise differ from the traffic in other articles of commerce ; and 
if a special department be created for it, there is reason to fear that 
monopolizing and underhand practices will gradually result there- 
from. It is right therefore to let the foreign merchants make their 
own election, and engage what hong merchants they will to pass their 
cargoes at the custom-house and pay their duties for them. To es- 
tablish one general department for the purpose is unnecessary. By 
this arrangement crally individuals may be prevented from taking 
advantage and extorting exorbitant prolits, and benefit may accrue to 
both the foreign and the hong mercliants. 

5. The amount of duties should be continued the same as for- 
merly; no increase is called for; and all extortionate demands, and 
illegal fees should be interdicted. In the tariff of maritime customs 

1636. JRepffrt rtapteting tht Ldportatim of Opium. 9G6 

lor Cinlon, opinm u rtted at « diitj of three taek per hundred cat- 
tiet ; to which we mast add ten pef cenL or three mece, for loss iu 
melting; aad as peculige fee, and fee per Mckage, accordiog to the 
lefiort fbrmerl; made of pyUic and legal fees, eight candareeua aiz 
oaah. Although there are three kinds of opium.the ' black earth,' 
the ' white akinned ' and the ' red akinned,' difibring in value, ;et the 
duty per catty mtj be the same on all. These arrangementa are 
nude oD the principle thU if the duty be heaiy it will be evaded, and 
snuggling _k)11 eaine^ whereaa if it be light, all will prefer secu- 
rity to HDUggling ; and that if a filed charge be impoeed, the officers 
of thecnatome will be unable to intermeddle. The aame clear views 
were enlertained by our predeceasOTa, when they established the re- 
gulationa; and it will be well to oonfwni to the amount of duty fixed 
by tbem, without any addition. But there is reason to fear that when 
the prohibiticms are first taken off, the eerrauts of the custom-house 
hunting for petty gains, may under various pretexts lay on illegal 
fees, making heavy by their esactiooa what as a legal duty ia light ; 
and thereby losing sight of the princi[de that they are to sliow kind- 
neaa to men from afar.. If this take place, the natural result loo will 
be, that the means of legal importation will tie avoided, and contri- 
vances to import clandeatinely will be resorted to. Perspicuous and 
■trict proolainationa ahould therefore he issued, making it generally 
known, that, beyond the real duty, not the smallest fraction is to be 
exacted ; and that oAndere ehall be answerable to the law against 
extortionate nnderlinga receiving money under false pretext. 

6. No price abould foe fixed ra the drug. It is a nettled principle of 
commerce, that when prices are very low, there is a tendency to riae, 
and when high, a Icodnicy to fall. Pricea then depend on the sup- 
ply that ia procurable of any article, and the demand that exists for It 
m the market : they cannot be limited by enactments to any fixed 
rate. Now, though the prohibition of opium be repealed, it will not 
be a poeeiUe thing to force men who buy at a high price, to sell at 
a cheap one. Besides, it is common to men to prize things of high 
value, and to underrate thoee of lose worth. When therefere opium 
was severely interdicted, and classed among rarities, every one had 
*a opportunity to indulge in over-reaching desires of gain; but when 
once the interdicta are withdrawn, and opium universally admitted, 
it will become a common medicinal drug, easily to be obtained. 

80 the price of t^ium, if left to itself, will fall &om day to day ; where- 
as if rated at a fixed value, great difficulty will be found in procuring 
it at the price at which it is rated. It is reasonable and right there- 
fore to leave the price to fluctuate, according to the circumstancee of 
the limes, and not to Ax any rate. 

7. All coasting vessela of every province, when carrying opium, 
should be required to have sealed manifests from the eualom-house of 
Canton. By the existing regulations of commerce, all commanders 
VOL. V, NO. VI. 34 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

266 Report respecting tht Importation of Opivm. Oct. 

of coasting ceasela, without exceptioa, are required, wheiierer thejr 
have purchased any foTeign goods, to apply at the chief cuetom-house 
at Canton, and obtain a sealed manifest, stating the amount of each 
kind of gooda, so as to prevent any clandestine purchases. They are 
also to be piovided from thence with a communication addressed to 
the authoiities in every province and at all sea-ports, calling on 
them to search closely; and if they And any foreign goods, not having 
the stamp of the Canton custom-house on them, to regard such goods 
aa smuggleii, to try the ofFeBders according to law, and to c<Hifucale 
both vessel and cargo. The law on this point is most precise. Now 
when the interdict on opium is repealed, it will become an article of 
ordinary traffic, like any other (oreign commodity, and subject there- 
fore to the same regulations. All commanders of coasting vessels, 
wishing to purchase opium, should therefive be required to report 
their wishes to the hong merchants, bringing goods to barter for it, 
and should then apply at the custom-house for a manifest, and for a 
communication from the superintendent of customs to the authorilies 
in all the provinces as aforesaid. Thus there being documents for re- 
ference, both in this and the eea-board provinces, the native coasting 
vessels may be prevented from having any clandestine dealings vrith 
the foreign ships at sea, and from smuggling away silver. 

8. The strict prohibitions existing against the cultivation of the 
poppy, among the people, may be in some measure relaxed. Opitim 
possesses soothing properties, but is powerful in its effects. Its sooth- 
ing properties render it a "luxury, greatly esteemed; but its powerful 
effects nre such as readily to induce disease. The accouuts given of 
the manner in which it is prepared among the foreigners are various ; 
but in all probability it is not unmixed with things of poisonous quali- 
ty. It is said that of late years, it has been clandestinely prepared by 
natives, by merely boiling down the juicy matter from the poppy ; 
and that thus prepared, it poesesees milder properties, and is less 
injurious, without losing its soothing influence. To shut out the im- 
portation of it by foreigners, there is no better plan than to sanction 
the cultivation and preparation of it in the empire. It would seem 
right therefore to relax, in some measure, the existing severe prohibi- 
tions, and to dispense with the close scrutiny now called for to 
hinder its cultivation. If it be anprehended, that the simple people 
may leave the stem and stay of life to amuse themselves with the 
twigs and branches thereby injuring the interests of agriculture, it is 
only necessary to issue perspicuous orders, requiring them to confine 
the cultivation of the poppy to the tops of hills and mounds, and 
other unoccupied spots of ground, and on no account to introduce 
|t into their grain-fieldi<, to the injury of that on which their subsi»- 
tance depends. 

9. All officers, scholars, and soldiers shoulil be strictly prohibited 
hHi\ disnilowed the smoking of opium. We find in the original memo- 
rial of lieu NueiHe. the vice-president of the sacrificial court, the (o\- 
Inwing ntiHcrviitinns : " ll will \>e found tin examination that the smok- 
ers of opium Fire idle, lii/.y vagraul!>, having no useful purpose before 

1836. yotiees of Modern CAina. 967 

them. And though some smokers are to be found who liave overBlepped 
the threshhotd of age, yet they do not attain to the long life of odter 
men. But new birtha daily increase the population of the empire, 
and there is no cause to apprehend a diminution therein. With re- 
gard to officers, civil and military, and to the scholars and common 
soldiers, the first are called on to fulfill the duties of their rank and 
attend to the public good ; the, others, to cultivate their talents and 
become fit &» public usefulness. None of them, therefore, should i>e 
permitted to contract a practice bo bud, or to walk in a path which 
will only lead to the utter waste of tbeir time and destruction of their 
property. If the laws be rendered over-strict, then offenders, in or- 
der to escape the penalty, will lie tempted to screen one another. 
This, assuredly, is not then so good a plan, as to relax the prohibi- 
tions, and act upon men's feelings of shame and self-condemnation. 
In the latter case, gradual reformations may be expected as the result 
of conviction. Hence the oiiginal memorial also alludes to a refor- 
mation noiselessly affected. Tbe suggestions therein contained, are 
worthy of regard and of adoption. Hereafter no attention should be 
paid to the purchase and use of opium among the people. But if 
officers, civil or military, scholars or common soldiers, secretly pur- 
chase and smoke the drug, they should be immediately degradeid and 
dissmiased, as standing warnings to all who will not arouse and reno- 
vate themselves. Orders to this effect should be promulgated in all 
the provinces, and strictly enjoined in every civil and military office, 
by the superiors or their subordinates, to be faithfully obeyed by 
every one. And all who, paying apparent obedience, secretly trans- 
gress this interdict, should be delivered over by the high provincial 
authorities, to the Civil or Military Board, to be subjected to severe 

Art. Ill, Notkrs of Modrnt China: ifohammtdan stales on Ihe 
loestem frontier of the empire; £.addkh) tskdrdo; K&ndiix; 
Bokhdra; Kokan; S^t. By R. I. 
In our last number we supposed the Chinese empire to be threatened 
certainly, although remotely, by the Christian powers which role the 
countries bordering upon her northern and southern limits ; we 
proceed now to notice the several Mohammednn states on the wes- 
tern frontier, where alone the empire has been actually invaded of late 
years. The next country westward of Tibet is Lad&kh, the gelpo 
or rkja of which, a Mohammedan, has been placed under the control 
of the Chinese resident at Lassa, in order to restrain the incursions of 
his subjects into Tibet. This country borders also upon the Seik 
states, one of the chiefe of which, Golab Singh of Jamun,> a depend' 

1 V^nOC^IC 

368 IVotires of iVotkm Ckina. Oct. 

ent on Runjit Singh, hts lately invaded it and levied contributions 
there. Moorcroft visited Leh the capital, severnl years ago, from Ti- 
bet ; and two other European travelers, buon Hiigel and Mr. Vigne, 
have lately entered it from Cashmir, along the v?lley of the Indus in 
which Leh is situated. The death of Runjit Singh, ruler of Lnhore, is 
seldom anticipated, without the supposilioa being added, that it will 
hnnten the approach of the Rritish to the banks of the Indus. The 
valley of Cashmir will become then of course a British province, 
and a new channel will be opened for British commerce into the 
heart of Tibet. Ladfikh wilt follow in due course; imowhich another 
large stream, the Shyuk, is said to flow to the Indus from the north- 
ward,* and to take its rise in the (Tsung tingor) Kara Korum moun- 
tains, which separate LadAkh from Y;irkand. 

Following the Chinese frontier westward from Ladikh, we find the 
mountainous states of Isk^rdo, Gilgit, Gunji'it, Chitral, &.c. Iskdrdo 
or Beldestan, said to be eight marches northeast from the city of 
Cashmir, has also been invaded by the Seiks from that valley,' who 
appear to have been driven back : but they succeeded in subduing the 
little intervening principality of KathAi, which was before indepen- 
dent. Ahmed shah, the present ruler of Isk^rdo, is in friendly corres- 
pondence wtth the British political agent at Ludiiina. A high road, 
we are told,' leads from Iskirdo to Y^rkand in Chinese Turkestan, 
over which merchants travel in caravans. The rulers of these moun- 
tainous states, as well as their people, are Tajiks, that is, the aborigi- 
nal natives of the country before it was overrun by the Turki or 
Usbeck tribes ; but they have been converted to the Shiah sect of the 
Moslem faith, and they receive their religious education from the 
Persians, This circumstance is favorable to China, inssmuch as it 
renders improbable an alliance between these states and the more 
powerful Mohammedan countries in the west and north, which follow 
the SJnite creed. Chitral is, however, subject to the mir of Kun- 
djz,* who is an Usbeck, but the mass of his population are Tajiks. 

Klind'iz,' a small town of 1500 inhabitants in the valley of the 
Oxu9, has given a conqueror to Budakshan, and some of the moun- 
tainous states of Wakhan, Shughnan, Hissar, &.C., which lie about tho 
mountains which separate Chinese Turkestan from Maweralnehar 
(Transoxiana). The mfr of Kunduz is an Usl>eck, as is also the 
ruler of Hissar, but their subjects are chiefly Tajiks, and in the 
other hill states both prince and people are of the latter race. Tlie 
high plain of Pamer in the mountains between Budakshan and 
Yarkand, is inhabited by Kirghis. Besides Kunduz, the two prin* 
cipal kingdoms in the neighborhood of the Chinese possessions in 
this quarter, are Bokhara, including its provinces of Samarkand and 
B.ilkb, and Kokan. 

Bokhara and Kokan* may be said to include all Turkestan (not 
Chinese), since they are the two most influential of its slates. Thw 
rulers of these countries, and the greater part of their subjects, are 
17^'heck!', and Mohammedans of the Siinite sect. Their slaves, who 
rhi(!fly cultivate the land, are mostly Persians, captured and sold by 

1836. yotirfi «f Miulirn Ckina. 269 

the Tt'trkmaiiR of the desert; and tho^n Persinnti are all Sliiahs, 
whom the SiiDites do not consider as irne believers. The connexion 
of Bokhara, accoriling to Bumeg, witli Chinn, Cabfij, and Turkey 
IB friendly, and all of them have -scut uinbassador. The bazars of 
Bokhira, he continues,* are supplied with European merchandise by 
the caravans from Russia, and niso with British falirica by the native 
merchants from India. The Russian (government ia supposed to 
have been straining every nerve, since the time of Paul, to force a 
trade in this direction ; whilst the English commerce, with very little 
if any effort on the part of its gofsrnment, has widely extended, bo 
that the " Russian merchant discovers a formidable rival in the di- 
minution of this trade." A considerable trade is also carried on 
from Bokhara and other countries of Maweralnehar to Cashgar, and 
Yirkand, where European commodities among others find their way 
in exchange chiefly for tea. 

The trade is carried on by the natives of Budakshsji, who, we 
are told, by Burnes,' " praise the equity of the Chinese, and the faci- 
lities of transacting matters of commerce with tbem ; they lay a duty 
of one in thirty on all traders, which is very moderate." Timkowsky 
reports the same duties at AukslJ, except for the Cashmirians, who 
pay one in forty, on account of their extensive comtneice. 

Kokan, which is the next considerable country on the western 
frontier of Chinese Turkestan, is hounded on the north by the Rus- 
sian dependencies of Orenburg and Tomsk, and thus we complete 
the chain of foreign powers around the Chinese frontier. There are 
however, some roving tribes of Kussaks, Kajmuks, and Kirghfs 
among the mountains bordering on the Chinese territories, who are 
apparently in half subjection only to one or other of the powers on 
each side of them. They are all tribes of the same Turkish stock who 
have alternately overrun these countries and established themselves 
there; and they have all been converted to Mohammedanism except 
the Kalmuks. 

Kokan, called also Ferghana, was the patrimony of B&her, the Mon- 
gol conqiterer of Hindostan. His father was khan of Kokan, but 
was driven from his kingdom by an irruption of Usbeck Tartars in 
A. D. l5tK>, who were themselves ejected from their own country by 
the rising power of Russia. B^ber seized upon Cabul, whence he 
su^Meqnently pounced upon India ; thus affordmg a striking instance 
of the impulses which urge on Asiatic governments to conquest. We 
return for a moment to Russia, because that country is in immediate 
contact with Kokan, which we shall presently see to have been lately 
in collision with China, with a strong suspicion frequently expressed 
in the public journala, although perhaps quite unfounded, that the 
war was fomented by Russian emissaries. 

According to Klaproth," the Russian new boundary, about the 
year 1S28, put them in possession of a tract of country of 330,000 
square mllea, quite unknown to the rest of Europe; this boundary was 
the Kuksu or Blue river; hut a recent report* says that the Russians 
have now crossed it and have erected forts on the Kokan side. Aim^- 


2T0 Nullns »/ Mmhrn China. Oct. 

ther report,'' makea them to have aggreased upon the^Chincse ter- 
ritory itself in another quarter, and arrived at £le, tlic capital of 
Soungaria.* This 19 coupled with the intelligence that the chief of 
Lad^kh has informed the emperor of Cliina, tlat the Euglisli are- con- 
structing a road to Kanghri, which is situated near lepitte. This is 
true so far as the road is concerned, which the British resident at 
Subathi'i has caused to be made in the valley of the Sutkj, through 
the state of one of the British tributaries, and that Kanghri is a Seik 
province lying on the opposite bank of the Sutlej, and Ispitte, 
another country bordering the trontier. These reports show the at- 
tention which is paid to the movements of foreign powers, and the 
fact of the English road may serve to test the degree of truth to be 
assigned to them. 

We may terminate our notice of the Mohammedan state* bordering 
on China by recounting, atler Burnes, the forces which the principal 
powers could bring to act against their neighbors. Kokan is stat- 
ed" to contain about 100,000 inhabitants (speaking of the capital), 
and the kan may be able, on an emergency, to bring S0,000 horse 
into the field : he has no infantry. The amir of Bokh^a" may rule 
about a million of souls, and hia military force is estimated at about 
20,000 horse, 4,U00 foot, and 41 pieces of artillery, besides a kind of 
militia of atxiut 50,000 horse, drawn from all the provinces and the 
Turkman levies' the city of the of Bokhfira contains about 130,000 
inhabitants. The mir of Kiinduz musters" about 20,000 horse 
and six pieces of artillery, on of which is a thirty-ant pounder. 

Having given the foregoing sketch of the countries which border 
upon the western provinces of China, we proceed to collect a fewjfacts 
relative to those provinces themselves, preparatory to as fnll an ac- 
count of the late rebellion there as our materials will permit; which 
may aSbrd the best means to judge of the amount of danger to which 
the Chinese are exposed in this part of their territory and of the 

Under the present dynasty on the throne of China, Kansuh an ori- 
ginal province of the empire, has been made to extend from the pasa 
Kea-yu ( kwan ) in the great wall, westward to Hami, a desert space 
of about 1000 le ( 250 miles ). This last place, however, along with 
Tourfan and some others, were in 1827," placed under the presidency 
if we may so call it, of Oroumtchi ; which is again supervised by a kind 
of governor-general of Soungaria at Ele. The eight Mohammedan 
cities of Turkestan appear to form as many residencies, of which the 
chief waf formerly Kashgar, but in 1831," the seat of the residency 
was removed to Yarkand. The detaiIa.of the changes in the govern- 

* The writer of Ihese notice! has no wt9h to join in tlie popular etamor of the 
day a^inat Russian ambition : he believes thai no itrong government of ■ counlrf 
l>orderiug on another with a comparatively weaker government, eipeciHlly when 
they are in very different ilages of civiliEiition can or will lime niBinlain the 
inle^ity of Ireaties or boundaries. Thus the UiiKed SxMrs ufAmericB must 

— ■■~-iB to en ' 

(I Asia, MS thty have done nnd nr« doing. 


1830. Satkfs of Hodtvn China. 271 

meitH, about tliU linte, are not very clearly given ; but it would seem 
ae if tlie guveniaienttt of Yiirkuid, Urouiiitchi, and Ele, have separate 
juriadictioQ over their respective residencies, something analagous 
to the presidencies of British India, and that the governor-general of 
Ele takes ibe supreme command in cases of emergency, such aa 
invasion or insurrection. He has also" a kind of council of officers 
with such titles as tsan-tsan, ta-chiu ( assisting and advising ), and 
pan-SEe ta-chin ( minister for transacting ), who ssem, however, to 
be residents. There are altogether thirty-four residents," who are 
Styled tajio ( literally, great men ). They ore all'Mantchou Tartars, 
or Mongols. There are also Mohammedan kans" and begs in situa- 
tionsof various trust under control of the resident, in the way perhaps 
in which the natives ore employed in British India. 

The salary of the governor-general at Ele was raised in 1827 from 
3O90 to 4000 taets. That of his council from 1000 to 1500. The 
cocnmandant at Kourkharaiisii ( probably a station on the Russian 
frontier) has 800 taels instead of 400 as before. The salary of the gov- 
ernor of Kashgar or Y^rkand was increased'* from 1500 to 1700; that 
of his assistant from 700, to 000. 

According to acensusof the population of the Chinese empire taken 
in 1813,'^ the frontier tribes under the government ofKansuhcon- 
Uined 26,728 families; Ele and its dependencies 69,614; Tourfan 
2,551. The population ofEle in 1790, was divided as follows, according 
to another aulfaority,*' which would seem to infer that the same census 
wasemployed on both occasions, so far as regards this dependency: 

At this town of Ele, soldiers of different tribes - 10,640 

People connected which the Eleuths 3,155 

Toiirgouth shepherds 25,595 

Of Mohammedans, 6000 families (they are 

putdown at 20,356) perhaps equal to 30,000 ■' 

Chinese, 71 families 290 

Criminals Uansported (Chi. Rep., vol. 4, p. 368).-.. 244 


This popalatioR ought no doubt to have increased between 1790 
and 1813, and still more of course, up to the present time. But this 
is not the only omission in the census of 1S13 as given above ; (or we 
find no enumeration at all of the population of Chinese Turkestan. 
The same work," which specifies the population of Ele, assigns the 
following number of souls (o seven of the Mohammedan districts. 

Harashar 5,390 

Kouch6 1,898 

Auksi'i 24,607 

Oushi 3,258 

Kasghar 66,413 

Yarkttnd 15,574 

Khoten 44,630 


1 V^nOO'^lc 

273 iVirfic-s nf Modern China. Oct. 

It is doubirul whether some of these ruidb do not refer lo the citiea 
only, and others to the dixtricta. Tlio reports which Burues ' col- 
lected gives to Yirkaud 50,0U0 souls; but the Mohatntnednn families 
alone are atlerwards estimated at 12,000 families. Another ao- 
count" rales the population at 30,000 families, upon the authority of a 
Chinese census. The same discrepancy is found in the accounts of 
the other {lUces, which throws entire discredit upon (he whole of 
them. We linde<|ual difficulty with regard to the military force which 
wus stationed in these provinces before the war. It was reported to 
Burned that the troops were recruited from the Tiingani rribes of 
Mohammedans ; whereas the report given to Mr. Watheu, which we 
have before qtioted,*" states that the soldiers are partly Chinese 
and partly Mantchnu or Mongol, and not Tijngani, adding that the 
Chinese are afraid of the latter, which we shall presently see to be 
probable : the reports refer very likely, to different periods of bialorj. 
A Chinese statistical account," not of recent date, of these counUiea 
places under the governor-general at Ele twelve civil and forty to fifty 
military officers, amongst whom were thirty che-wei (imperial guards) 
and 3,600 Mautchou soldiers, besides irregular troops under 128 offi- 
cers, distributed throughout the country. We find by the Peking ga> 
zette," that the troops at Ele were increased in 1831, after the rebel- 
lion, to 6,700 men, to which the governor requested an accession of 
two hundred muskets, but was refused. 

There are thirty eight military posts on the road from the great 
wall to Oroumtchi," with relays of horses for carrying expresses, &,c., 
which were found insufficient during the war, and a request was made 
to the emperor to increase the number both of men and horses. The 
usual journey, is said" to exceed five months, but an express may be 
sent in thirty-five days, and even in fifteen or twenty days on a great 
emergency. Oortungs or stages where there are relays of horses are 
erected every eightor ten miles, and at each of these stage^s there are piles 
of wood which are directed to be set on fire on the intelligence of the ris- 
ing or invasion of the Mohammedans, and by these means intelligence 
has been sent from Y^rkand to Peking in six days. The Peking ga- 
zette ' states an express to have been received from the seat of war 
during the rebellion, Which traveled 800 k (about 200 miles) a day, 
and another perfi>rmed the xourney in twenty-seven days.'^ This last 
fact is the most probable, the point of departure being Kashgar, which 
is given at L1925 U from Peking, unless that the communication 
was made by fires. 

The following are given as the relative distances of several of the 
places before spoken of, taking Y&rkand generally as the centre ; 
thence to Peking, five months' journey (Burnes); to Ele, forty marches 
north (B.); to Lad^kh, the number of actual marches is twenty-eight, 
and seven days are employed in passing the mountains ufKaraKorum 
(B.), the distance is about 260 miles (H) ;'' to Bokhara, by the valley 
of the Sirr, forty-five days (B.); to Aksoi'i, twenty days; to Ilami, 
man Ir (C^mton Register. 4th July, (831); to Kashgar 105 miles 
and thence to Seiiiipdatinsk foity days, about 750 miles (H.), The 

1836. Mlirti of yotfrm Chha. »» 

number of miles in a day's march vatiea from eight to tweiily-five, 
accordiugly us the couutry is more or less momitaiuous. 

Neither the imtives nor the Chinese afipeitr to have luiy general 
name to designate tlie Mohammedan colonies. They are called Kash- 
gar, Bokhara, Chinese Turkentan, &c., by foreignerB, none of 
wliich aeein to be very appropriate. They have also been called Jagn* 
tai, afler a eon of Genghis khan, to whom this country fell as hia per* 
tioii after hia father's death, and be included all the eight Mohamme- 
dan cities, with some of the surrounding countries, in one kingdom. 
It is said to have remained in this family, with some interruptions, 
until conquered by the Eleutha of Soungaria in ItiBO. When Kaldan, 
the last khan of the Eleuths war "ubdued by Kei^iiIuDg, he made Tur- 
kestan tributary to the Chinese, and titiaiiy annexed it to the Cbiuciie 
colouial goverument of Ele, in I7S9. 

There seems always, howes'er, to hate been a khan or chief under 
the name of kbojeh, a title of lionor implying sacredncss, who had 
Iteen left in the nominal government of these countries on account of 
the respect which the people bore towards him. It does not appear 
whence this family is derived, unless from an account apjinrently 
translated from tlie Chinese,*" which makes Chin-ko-urh, one of them, 
to have been a Mantchou of the red slaudard, related to the imperiid 
family of China, which seems inconsistent with his .Moslem faith, 
and also with the subsequent assertion that Ele was the seat of his 
ancestors. He carried on warfare with the Chinese and waa eitlier 
captured or inveigled to Ele, where be was detained until he died. 
He left two sons, Pdlatun and Holsechun, whom Keenlung re- 
stored to authority over the eight cities:" they both rebelled, however, 
and were driven from the country. One of them apparently fled to 
Budakshaii," " and waa put to death by Ihu mir of that country, to 
make fafor with the Chinese oi to avert their displeasure. The other 
perished also; but both left sons. Abdallah (Ohpootoohale in Chinese) 
the«oii of Pulatun, "should," said the present emperor ' in one of 
his edictrf, "have been destroyed also, but the tlien reigning emperor 
compassionated him on account of his youth, and spared hb life, 
commuting death to domestic slavery under great officers of stale. 
During the third year of my reign," continues his majesty, "] li- 
berated him, in consequence of his having lived long in slavery and 
behaved quietly, aud placed him and his family under the while 
Mungki'i standards, and gave him employment." 

This edict was published after the rebellion of Jehangfr (Changkib- 
uth in Chinese), who was grandson of Pulatun, whose father appears 
to h<tve sought refuge with the khan of Kohan, where Jehangir was 
born and seems chiefly to have lived. Hoorecroft speaks' of him as 
residing under the protection of Omar, khan of Kokaii in 19&. 

NoM. 1. AiiatK Joorori. Feb. 1836. 9. Boroei' Travel., vol. 2, p. 233. 3. 
JoariMl of the Asiatic Society, . Nov. 183&, p. 599. i. Bornei' Traveli, vol. 8, p. 
346. G. Ibid. vol. 1. p. 313. 6. Ibid. vol. S, p. 494. 7. Ibid. p. 496. 6. Nnu- 
venn Journal Asiniiniie, I^, p. 144. 9. Jonmel of the Aiinlic Snclely, Aii^.. 
ie34,p.Sr4. 10. IWd. Nov. 1835, p.60J. II. Ihid. Auj. 1834. 12. Bs.' Tr»v.. 
VOL. V. NO. VI. "lis 

1 V^nOC^IC 

374 HM/Ualfwr &««■. Oct. 

*ol.S,p.lS4. 13. Ibid. p. 34a l-L CuUm £f«i«er, Mmy Sin, ia2t). IS. Ibid. 
r«b. iMi, I83S. 16. Chw. Kepoalorr, to). 4, p. 56. 17. Cut Reg., July 4lh, 
1831. IS. Ch. Rep., rol, 4, p. aw. 19. Compuioa lo the Aoglo-ChineM Ka- 
laadw. 90. H(it»on'iViemofChiiiB,p.76. 31. Bt' Tran.,vol8,p.S». !£ 
Jonra. of Ibr A*. 8oc., Dec., 163&. 33. Ba*. IWti., *. 2, p. 899. 84. L'Amhu'i 
^UMUliou. 36. Cut. Res,. Much 24di, 1831. 86. Mai. Obwrver, Feb. 13lh, 
Iter. 27. CuL Sec., Aug. £tb, lESH. 28. Ibid, Dec. 18tb. 1830. 29. Hum- 
boh'i Fn^iDenU. tdting the Rinou mn( tt abool 1 of a mile. 30 Hal. Ob- 
«*r*<r, Jane 5(b, VSl. 31. Ibid. Jan. SIXh, 1827. 38. IbJd. Ap. SSd, ItStt. 
33. Bo^al Aiitfic Bockly'i Tiaiwilliiii. toL I, p^e S6. 

A«T. IV. Hotpitai for ttanun: Jtrst report of the Britisk jtHro- 

Hum's Hoipital Society in Ckina; toith tht gtxerai nda of the 


[It ifl with much pleasure that we [neaent lo our distant readera the '* Gnt 

Bepwt of tbe Britiah Seaman'a HoapiUl in China." The report did not reach 

ua in time for our last number ; we now give it entire, excepting' cmlj the 

lift of aohociiptiona and donatiooa. TheKjiect ia woitfay of ever; attention; 

and we tmat it will receive ample aopport ; and we aboold rejoice to aee 

Ibe like lUKial pioviaion made tot a. Seaman'a Ctaapel in China.] 

This Institution originated under the auspices of the late lord Na- 
pier, his majesty's chief superintendent, soon after the opening of the 
British free trade with China, and was only abandoned for a time on 
his lordship's being obliged to quit Canton. It was again brought for- 
ward at the requisition of his majesty's superintendents, addressed to 
James Maihenon, esq., who was requested to convene a meeting of 
British subjectB resident in Canton, which was held accordingly on 
the 23d of February, ]835. Mr. Mntheson opened the meeting hy 
stating the necessity of the proposed establishment, and the means at 
command to defray the requisite expenses, arising fVom the follnwing 
sources, viz.: a «ura of about 91000 already subscribed; the amonnt 
which captains and owners of ships may be expected ta contribute; 
and a sum equal to the amount subscribed by individuals, which his 
majesty's superintendents are authorized by act of parliament, and 
have offered, lo pay. Mr. Matheson alsostated that, in order to avail 
themselves of the offer made by his majesty's superintendents, it was 
necessary lo adhere to the regulation pointed out in the said act of 
parliament, viz., "That any subscriber of ^^ its. should have a vole 
in the selection of a committee who were to manage the concerns of 
the hospital." 

Messrs. Jardine, Matheson &. Co. were constituted treasurers, and 
the following gentlemen chosen members of a committee, to consider 
the b«M mode of carrying into effect the objects of the institution, 
viz., W. Jardine, ei»\., chairman, R. Turner, e.»<i., F Pesidnjee, esq., 
(. R, Reeves, esq., W, Blenkin, esq. 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

1836. Hospital fur Seamen. 375 

In pursuaace of their inatnictions, the committee drew up rules and 
regnlationB for its management, which were submitted lo, aiid approv- 
ed of, by a general meeting of subscribers, hejd on the 12th June, 
1835; and also received the sanction of his maiestj's superintendents. 

The first and principal object to be accomplished, appeared to Le 
the establishment, at Whampoa, of a vessel to receive from the ships 
thefe such patients as required medical aid ; and the attention of the 
committee was directed to the purchase of a suitable vessel, and a sum 
of 94000, placed at their disposal for that purpose. They regret to 
state, that hitherto their eudeavors have proved ineffectual, on account 
of the inadequacy of their means to procure a vessel of sufficient ca- 
pacity. The committee have now three vessels in view, any one of 
which would answer the purpose, and they feel confident, that the de~ 
ficiency of their means has only to be made public to insure its re- 
moval by additional and continued subscriptions. In the interim, 
every practicable measure was adopted to place medical assistanca 
at once within the reach of such vessels as were at the time in China; 
and the services of the assinant surgeon to the commission were, in 
the most liberal manner, offered gratuitously to the institution by his 
majesty's superintendents. 

As the stations of Lintin and Kumsing Moon were likely to contain 
the greatest number of vessels during the summer months, Mr. An- 
derson was stationed at whichever place they were anchored, and has 
continued to attend them from the commencement till this time; while 
Mr. CoUedge, the senior surgeon to the commission, afforded his as- 
sistance to all cases which nave occurred at Macao. At both places, 
a great ntimber of patients have come under treatment. Mr. Colledge 
reports one hundred and twelve, during the months of May, June, 
and July, of the present year; and last season, as many as seventy- 
two were at one time under Mr. Anderson's care. 

The necessity for the establishment of a hospital ship at Whampoa 
was deeply impressed on the minds of the committee, and if a doubt 
bad ever exieted on the subject, it would have been entirely removed 
by the following extract of a letter from Mr. Colledge, who, from his 
long and intimate knowledge of the diseases prevalent there, must be 
considered the best authority in such case. 

"X am not called upon for any opinion by the committee, but 
cannot pass over this opportunity of offering a few remarks. The 
committee must bear in mind, that almost all the subjects they are 
about to provide assistance for, are young men, or men in the prime 
of life, just from Europe, full of health and vigor, and that the diseases 
they are most prone to in Whampoa reach, during the months of July, 
August, September, and October, are of a highly inflammatory cha- 
racter, requiring, on the part of the medical practitioner, prompt, 
decided, and energetic measures; as in many cases, an hour's loss of 
time in applying appropriate means will render the cures tedious, and 
in some instances, perhaps, place life in imminent danger ; whereas a 
timely bleeding, combined with other antiphlogistic means will at 
once subdue a formidable attack, and enable the patient to return lo 


•i7(t Hotpilul fill- S-unum. Oit. 

his <liiiy in nn many ilny!> an it wAnld otherwise I>c n'M>kn. When 
cn^^oK ouciir u'liicli iiavc paiuied over the first symptoms unclieckcd, I 
shnll, provided the committee or surgeons send them to me, ilo my 
best tor their restorntion ; but I would repeat, that an almost all the 
cises ure iiiflnmmilory, no time should be lost in trenlinv them, and 
lint the distance between Whampoa and Macao muNt prccliKle my 
seeing pntienta nnder incipient symptomH." 

The annexed list of donations and aiibscriptions amounts to $9,028: 
which includes 94510, contributed on behairofthe British gOTeni- 
ment by his majosty's superintendents, and will be augmented to the 
extent or any further sums subscribed by the public. The expenses 
incurred amount to $539.41, ieaviug $8488.59 in the hands of the 

The committee have only U> state in conclusion, that the main ob- 
ject or the institution in placing a hospital ship at Whampoa, will be 
carried into effect with the least possible delay. As a temporary ar- 
rangement, they have obtained the services of Mr. Johnstone, surgeon 
or the " Eftrl Batcnrras," during her stay in port, to visit sll vessels 
requiring medicsl attendance at that anclMH'age. Mr. Anderson will 
remain at LintinorKumsingMoon,and Mr. Colledge will continue his 
services to any cases occurring at Macao. For the fiilure support of 
the hospital, they rely upon the charitable feelings of the community ; 
and feel satisfied that the caH in wd of an establishment, which the 
experience of two seasons has shown to be so much wanted, will not 
be made in vain. 

Canton, Sep. 23d, 1836. W. Bi.enkin. 

Secretary pro tern, to the committee. 

General Rules for the British Seaman's Hospital in China, submitt- 
ed by the committee to a general meeting of subscribers, held on the 
I2th, June 1835. 

No. I. Every British subject so far as ihe funds of the institution 
will permit, either iieamen, or other persons not being seamen, who 
shall be considered by the managing committee to be itrligeiil, shall 
be entitled to receive medical aid and relief ^atii from ihe hospital 
upon the following conditions. N. B. It is to be understood that the 
medical aid and relief is to be taken to include medical advice and 
attention, medicines, lodging, and hospital linen and clothing. 

No. 2. Every British subject presenting himself as a claimant for 
relief, shall be examined by the surgeon of the institution, and if it 
shall aMjear to him to be necessary to receive the said person at the 
hospital, his name and the date of his entrance shall be duly entered 
in a book, to be called the book of entries and discharges. 

No. 3. Any British subject, not being a seaman, who shall be re- 
ceived into the hospital, shall be reported to the superintendents, who 
will take orders to provide for his sustenance in Ihe hospital, and his 
future disposal according to law, as soon as he shall be in a fit state 
(o be discharged. 

No. 4. If the person received by the surgeon shall belong to any 
British ship or vessel, and shall be presented for relief by t^e eom- 

IHiWi. ftiisjul-i/ fur S.fimtu. 577 

inuiiikr nr vonimniiiliiig oAic<:r. tiio said coiniiiniiihr or ndjif; 
oliicsr hIuII sign an Hcknuwlcil^iiioiit (ioniiM ui liu jirriviikd) to the 
cfTict, lliat tlie exp<^ii!rf! of the patient's tuir-tniiuiir.c frmn tlm dulc uiiiit 
tlip pcriofl ot' hilt diach^r^ nhall be delr.iyeil l)_v tlie !>hi[>, the said lute 
to be li\ed St ii sum not exceeding fifty cente per diem. 

No. 5. If the periion claiming relief shiili belong to a iih!|> oil 
board of which no surgeon ahall be euiliirked, :iud Hhall not ho \iTt:- 
sented by the tMitnmunder or coin ui^itii ling oliioer, bm s iill C'jmo 
of Ills own accord, and if the said coDii».inder or coinmaiidiiig oiHcer 
shall not think fit to sign the afbreBaid acknowledgir.cnt, tlie itnTgeou 
ofthe institution shall nevertheless, if he see fit npoii medical ground f, 
receive the patient for treatment, reporting the whole circnii:stince to 
the managing committee witliout delay. 

N.>. G. The consignee of any ship or vessel, belonj^ing to which 
any persons shall be receiving treatment in the boepita], who siinll uot 
be sufRcieiitly recovered to be discharged at the periotl of her depiir- 
ture, shall be applied to fi>r his engagement, on bielialf ofthe captuin 
or owners ofthe Baid ship or vessel, to reimbnrse the institution Sm- 
the expense incurred for the continued support and sustenance of 
such patient, nntii finally discharged from the hospital ; when if no 
ship ofTers, his case shall be reported to his majesty's superintend.--nts. 

No. 7. If the managing committee shall nit be able to protect Ihe 
interests of the institution by causing the required acknowledgment 
to be signed, the matter is to be reported to the superintendents, in 
order that such further atepa may be taken as the urgency ofthe case 
shall seem to require. 

No. 6. The officers and seamen belonging to foreign ships or 
vessels who may need medical care and relief, and who are presented 
by the commanders or commanding officers of their shipa, shall be 
entitled to the same relief as British subjects, upon condition that an 
engagement (or the payment of seventy-five cents per diem be enter- 
ed into by the commanders and consignees, for the charge ofthe pa- 
tient's sustenance until discharged from the hospital. 

No. 9. If the hospital shall st any time bie fiill and sickness is 
increasing, the surgeon of the inatitution shall report the circum- 
stance tn the managing committee who shall have autbtH-ity, if thestate 
of the fitnds permit, to hire the whole or part of any ship lying at 
Whampoa as a temporary additional lodging, and adequate arrange- 
ments shall be made for placing the whole or any portion of the said 
ship at the complete disposal ofthe medical officer. 

No. 10. The surgeon is to be considered the chief executive officer 
ofthe institution, and all persons under his care are to be called upon 
to respect and obey him in that capacity, as in that ofthe medical 
adviser ; but all regulations for the internal management of the hospi- 
tal are to receive the sanction ofthe managing committee before they 
are permanently established. 

No. 11. All indentsof stores, medicines, &c., are to be submitted 
to the president of the managing committee and receive his sanction 
before they can be acted upon. 

;. V^nOC^IC 

278 Armenian Apothegms. Oct. 

No. 13. A monthly stiitement of patients receiTed and discharged 
in to be forwarded to the president. 

No. i-i. Any Chinese indigent persons soliciting medical aid, 
shall be relieved as far as the funds of the establishment permit, 

No. 14. It is recommended that the hospital should be visited at 
least once in every quarter by a member of the managing council or 

(Signed. J William Jardine, chairman, Richard Turner, Framjee 
Pestonjee, John R. Reeves, William Blenkin, secretary. 

Sanctioned and approved, (Signed.) George Best Robinson, chief 
superintendent, CharlBrEliiot, seeond superintendent, A. R. John- 
ston, third super iatendeot, Edward Elmalie, secretary and treasurer. 

Art. V. Amtenitm Apotlugms; glory; Mope; failk; truth; fahe- 
hood; caprice; Sfc. Continued from volume fourth, page 437. 
By Otto Stanislaus de M. 
The slighting of glory is the most glorious act of a hero.* To hope 
that all our hopes will be realized is the most invigorating of all hopes '. 
to hope becatise some hopes have deceived us is weakness : and to 
entertain, like Sebastiaaists and Demetrisls, chimerical hopes is to 
act like a madman. 

The prosperity and happiness of man in this world, notwithstanding 
his helplessness and cyipar.ently fbrlom condition, plainly indicate the 
existence of an Almighty protecting power, to believe in which faith 
is as necessary as reason. 

When truth offends, it is civility to Ue, then a Ite undergoes a trans- 
mutation, and is termed a petite flattery : such is the caprice of man, 
that even a sin is (committed with a plausible excuse. He who will 
not ape the little fooleries of the world, will by the world be called 
a foot. But where is the evil of being laughed at by taughing- 
gtocksT Have not civility and disregard, praise and censure, pas- 
quinades, philippics, panegyricks, and tirades, their different weights 
according to the different quarters they come from ? 

The ancients have gone to one extreme, and some of the moderns 

• Translated from Ihe French ; vide Dictionaire Univenel Hislorique, Critique, 
et Bil>lioerB|il]I^iie for (lie nrtinle {JAHixtRAaHKL. whose anying is the above ; he 
was nn Armeninn geneni of jrreM renown iii tlie IO(h century; hp look by storm 
theforlreu of Mansslciert before ihsl supposed imprennebie : he wnas scourge 
of Ihn Mflhamniedani, (ind wbi nlways successful against them ; at the head of 
his hi)^ -spirited, and Eealous Christian soldiers in every enf^i^emint, be routed 
and defeated " formidable odds " of the enemies of the cross. 

1836. Armaiia* Apotktgnts. 279 

to another ; the former, not satisfied with making their 'Jupiter and 
others the god of gods, have also deified their heroes, and allotted 
them thrones in the heaveas; and the latter, not satisfied with attempt- 
ing to evacuate the heavens, attempt even to represent that world 
without a ruler, consequent!;, in a state of anarchy. What strange 
contrarieties I What impartial man, in his senses, will not with the ut- 
most urgent precaution steer in the middle to avoid the two extremeaT 

One man exerting the powers of the mind, abd another of the body, 
are like two machines working on two diflerent principles, the results 
of which tend to the general good; but the selfish is a xero in nature: 
he may as well encloee himself in a vacuum, or entomb himself in the 
womb of a solitary mountain, as to be excluded from the connecting 
links of the chain of the human family. He who fears that heavy rains 
may quench, and strong winds may put out the fire of the burning son, 
is not half BO credulous an ignoramus, as he who believes that ti>e re- 
gular order and symmetry of the universe is directed by chance j which 
if rightly understood is itself but disorder and confiision, ordained by 
the ALL wisK only to work out certain ends in his mystic disposal of 

The caprice of men has affixed the venerable appellation of philo- 
sc^hers to individuals of sects of the most absurd tenets — for in- 
stance, nudity accompanied with i pretended practice of the most un- 
necessary and rigid austerities, sufficed to secure the name of phik>- 
sophers to the Gymnoeophiats, who in reality were the most absurd 
reaaoners, the greatest hypocrites, and the most useless members of 
society. Blasphemous and subtle argumentations, and impudent and 
sacrilegious displays of nit, now a days, among a certain class of men, 
enhance the literary merit of a scribler and dignify him with the title 
ofphUoaopher, who notwithstanding his uselessnees is a dangerous 
member of society. It is indeed a sad misfortune that some, hy at- 
tempting to reform, as if tired of their task, play the sceptic and intro- 
duce into their works a tissue of absurdities, embellished with the most 
brilliant and attractive literary decoration. Who that is not fortified 
by faith, or not versed in untieing the intricate knots of sophistry, will 
not be tiruck, and allured by the erudite works of the atheist, who if 
they had not abused their transcendent talents, could now be compar- 
ed to stupendous massive goldpn mountains sustaining on their tower- 
ing summits the bright pharoe of reason. 

All fears are destructive of hnppineBs; the fear of becoming poor is 
as afflictive as the fear of becoming poorer; the auspicious fear of hav- 
ing been detected, causes greater uneasiness than detection itself. 

The reason of man is so subject to err, that there is scarcely one 
great philosopher, who has not erred in some of his hypotheses or theo- 
ries. The critic must expect to be criticized; and the keen detecter 
of error, is also apt to err; and to err in correcting error shows how 
frail is man, and bow limited his penetration, and understanding, nn 
tidvatitageous display of which sometimes secures to him from his fel- 
low-creatures the title of dimnt, and the honor of an apotheosis. It is 
on the retreating path of self-confidence that discomfiture advances. 

1 V^nOC^IC 

AnT. VI. Litrriiry Notices: 1, Tht Chinen, a geiural desaiptioK 
of the tMjiire of China and iu iakabitaitts, by J. t\ Davis, esq., 
V. K. s., &.C.; 3. The New Monthly Magazine; 3. Tke Foreign 
Qunrtirli/ Itivirw; 4. 'Fke Asiatic Journal; 5. T/U JLondom 
LiUrary Qaxcttt; (i. Tkt Srottisk Christian Herald. 
Takin« it all iu all, aad judging from a buty g]uic« over the letd> 
iiig topics of Mr. Davis' oew work, we think we shall not hav« to 
" uat out words," if we pronounce it the beat account of the Chi- 
nese empire and its inhabitants, which haa ever appeared in the Ea- 
gliah language. In the first place, it is of very moderate dimeiuions, 
being comprised in two volumes of about 450 pages each. It cornea 
forth also svith very moderate pretensioua, not proinising in the begin- 
uing what is not giveu in the sequel. Moreover, it is tnroughout free 
from that extravagance, so characteristic of most of the works on 
China hitherto given lo the public. Mr. Davis lias taken bom 
the Chinese that factitious cliaracter, which most writers hate labored 
hard to provide for them. He haa not, indeed, given us all that we 
iMped for from his pen ; he has often stepped short in a nairative 
or discussion, whera we expected he would go on to the end of his 
subject; he has made some personal allusiona which ill befit the page 
of liistory ; and in some iiiHtunces he haa, we think, expressed opin- 
ions, respecting the religion and manners of the people, which can- 
not be supported by facts, wlien the topics in question are fully can- 
vassed. Yet, these things notwithstanding, the wcwk contains a great 
smount of valuable information : it is auch an one as we shall de- 
light to review, which we intend to do as soon aa we can obtain the 
secimd md third volumes of Mr. Murray's "China." 

2. The Neie Monthly Magtmnr, for May 1830, contains ■ " eriti- 
cal" notice of the works of Mr. Davis and Mr. Murray. The (pinions 
put forth in it -litfer from those which we have presumed to express; 
but whether these or those are tlie more correct, we leave for the 
reader to judge. The following ia the notice : 

" It is Eiujcular that the two works relative to China should have 
issued from the press withie a ironth of each other. " The Account 
of China" forms part of the "Elinburgh Cabinet Library;" and ■■ 
worthy of a series which hna heretofore mainlaiued a very high cha- 
racter. The compilation is from the pens of several eminent writers ; 
they have jadieieuily selected the more useful and interesting details 
of various travelers, and have produced a work, the accuracy of 
which may be relied on, upon all maicrini points. In value and iin- 
portittce, however, it muM yield to thit nf Mr. Divis, who h-ai been 
for above twenty yriara a resident in tlic coiintry he dexcriltes, and 
where ho held a hijfh nffir.iitt sitnation : — to his own prnclicaj experi- 
cMd: iu ull miiller.s rfliitiuj: tu ll:e cn)i>irc, he has added much froin 

1636. LUtrary JVotiett. SHI 

other travelen ; and hu supplied us with that which we liare long 
greatiy needed — a perfect picture of ita condition, its laws, ita cus- 
tomfl, ita people, ita cities, and explained in a manner the moat clear 
and satisfactorj the relatione which subsist between it and England, 
with the safest modes of rendering them amicable and adTantageoua 
to both." 

3. The FortigH Quarterly Reviae, No. 33, January 1836, con- 
tains some "matters-of'fact" concerning the " antiquarian reaearches 
in Egypt." It appears that now, dirough Young, Champollion, Wil- 
kinson, Felix, and Klaproth, we possess a sufficiently well>ascertain- 
ed implement in the pkotutic alphabet for interpreting the name* 
employed in the Egyptian inscriptions ; that Tattam's projected die- 
Uonarj promises to throw equal light on the common or tUniotit lan- 
guage (whether oral or written); while we have made a very exten- 
sive progress in our knowledge of the symbols constituting the hitro- 
glifphie, and still more ho, of the /hieratic or the conventional Ian- 
guage employed by the priests, in which the grammatical forme of 
speech appear to have been expressed phonetically, — in other words, 
by means of the phonetical representatives of sound. Moreover, we 
have now, chiefly by the merit of Rossellini, complete materials for 
the history of that magnificent race 'of sovereigns, entitled " the eigh- 
teenth dynasty," during the reign of which, " all the most momen- 
tous events connected with the human race appear to have occurred." 
During this dynasty, three peculiar classes of colonization took place 
throughout the world ; by the expulsion of the shepherds, of the 
Hebrews, and of the Argive family. Railroads and steam engines 
were " apparently " then in vogue, and we have yet to recover 
the artrs perdita, known to the Pharaohs of the eighteenth dynasty. 
All the monuments of Karnac, as well as the stone of Abydos, prove 
the veracity of Manetho, who avers that a portion of his hixtory was 
retrospective, being copied from that written by Thoth (Enoch) before 
the deluge, the other prospective, being a prophetic history of^the fu- 
ture destinies of the world. 

In concluding the article before us, the writer of it asks, who were 
the numerous contemporary nations, with whom the kings of the eigh- 
teenth and succeeding dynasties are r^reaented, on the monuments 
of Karnac, as being at war T Is the proof that India was among those 
conquests, or the communication wkh it a source of Egyptian wealth, 
made out by the Indian aiumaJa and products introduced in the 
triumphal processions 1 Was there a double communication with In- 
dia T One by the thrice opened canal of the Pharaoh's extending 
from the neighborlioad ofCairo to the Red Sen; the other by an arti- 
ficial cnuseway or railroad extending across the desprt from Knrnac 
to Kosseir ? " Are the Chinefe among the captives there ! Further, 
our learned " Egyptographcr" says, " it is well known to every 
scholar conversant with the Chinese language, thnt the origii:-tl 
form of the elementary hieroglyphics of the Chinese reicembled the 
Egyptian symtMls r a moulh, for instniice, was d>:picted as a mouth 
by 600 turvtd lines as in Egypt. But a mouth now in China is re- 
volt. V. NO. VI. 36 

i:.qnr-. b.V^-.00'^lc 

393 Literarjf Notices. OcT. 

presented by four ilraight lines, and all the original imitative ajmbols 
of ttiR Chinese arc broken up in the same manner and for the aanM 
purpose. Tliat purpose was to classify the symbols in the Chinese 
dictionary ; it waa the only caursa left with regard to a symbolic 
Ungtiage, while the dictionary of an alphabetii m phonetic language 
naturally follows the order of the alphabet. The Chinese symbols sre 
arrsngftd in ctuasoa to the number of tivo hundred and seventeen, so- 
Gordiiii; to the number of straight strokes which they contain : that, 
therefore, which we hnve tnken for our instance, originally consisting 
of two curved lines, now coines under the cla»<B of four strokes. 
Much more might be added na to the Chinese mode of classifying, 
ill their dicttonarica, the combined symbols of combined words. But 
we have said enough for our purpose. The point at which we aim 
is to show a. dusideratum. Had the learned colleges of Egypt a simi- 
liir mode ordaasifying their symbols in dictionaries to that of the 
Chinese V So snys the reviewer ; and we have only to add, that thia 
arrangement of the Chinese symbols into 'two hundred and seventeen' 
classes according to the number of ' straight strokes,' which they con- 
lain, is new to us, not being found in any of the native dictionaris* 
which have ever fallen in our way. 

4. Tiie A.iintif Journal for January 183C, contains a notice of Mr. 
Hotman's work, which, according to the reviewer, is " in one respect, 
that of lieiiig an account of a voyage round the world performed by a 
bliutl man,— the most extraordinary book ever published." The work 
ia in four volumes and favorably noticed. Among the advertisemeuts, 
in this number of the Journal are two which we quote. 

Firt. 8«ih ua (wnn e benou heO kung. Mr. Willinni HuIidbiiii rcsnecirurij' 
•iinoimca*, Ihal ht )(lv«* lesicmi iii the Chlneie liingiiiije nn renmnslile lemii, 
whlcb iniiy b« iilitnined of him at Ha. W Belfnrd Mreet i or oC Mtim. Allen tt 
Cii., bi>')kMllen (i> tho liuriiimljle l-^iiil liiilin aoinpHnv, L^Hjnnhiill (trpRt. 

SKOnA. Chinese books fur sala l>y Wm, 1{. Al^en niid Co.. 7, Lendenhtill 
*(reeL San lane l<ia liwiiy; iIir cclplintlcd Pictorial Eiicyclonedia: 63 volume! 
Iarg« 8vo. In *ix CH*ea, £S&. Kaiighe l>se trPn; ihe emperor Kin^he's 'Diction- 
ary, Sdvolumei, InllireecBiea, £J0. IDs. Pun If'ann l[nn|;miih| Nalunl Hljlor* 
ofChtna. 36 volumea Isr^ 8vu. In four aMeil plales, £l'i. Vi*. Ta liing leuh 
|e; Penal Code nf rhirin, Si volumri, la^e Svo, £tj. Ijs. Thu )vork bni bean 
InintlHled by sir G. T. Slaunlon, bart. Ki-a (inou Iseuen Iseili; a Colleclion of 

filecn* on education, monila. &e., 32 volume* Bvo„ In four cases. £%. St. flitan 
HiH (seueiii nSyitninof (ieomBlry, &e.. :W volumra. larpeSvo., in two aaH«, 
£i.ii-. Ban Vphiiu yiien lew; Hiilriry iif Ihe riac n>i(t progrPuoTlho »ecU '.f 
Coiirociii^ Biiinm. mid Lanu tme, 3 volumei. bnnrdi: mniiy plalei. £1.11*. fld. . 
San hwi) rhe: a eetelimted hialorirni Novel. 20 volumes. Svo.. bound [i> allk, 
Ai. Hs. Shwuy lioo chuen; a cekbraled Novel, 10 volumes, 8vo. bound fn ailk, 
£5. FuRK fhin ven e ; n Novel. 10 vnlumea Bvo.. hound in lilk, £6. Fet lung 
rhmn: a Niivel. 'l2 voliinie;. 8vo.. ill lun nnaea. £.'A 3». Hhou keiv chuen, 3 
volumes, \-imn. £1. Is. .\ Innolatlnn nf (hit novel has l)een puhliJied hy J. F. 
PhvIs. e«i..iinrierlhe lillrorFortimiile Union. Yiih keaou lei 4 volumex ^vo. 
£1. K yinn>. RfniiTtnl has puMiiliod a Iraiitlalion of Ibis novel ttuder Ih^ title 
ul' f^t l>eni Cousinea. 

The Dumbers of the Journal for April and May last contain articles 
on the British relations with China. We do not know who are the 
mnductnrs of that work, but we are sorry to find them still so much 
in the dark wilh regard to the alate of alTaint inChitin. and particular* 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

IWK. IJttrmrg A'W/rM. -.teS 

1/ nt Canton. For exnmpte, in the uumber for April, tlipy aver lliK, 
by tht rtiHovai frviu China of the honoraiilc KhhI India Ciiinpnnj 
(which de fmto is yet but in part removed), the Britisli and olhcr Ibr- 
eigii traders here are placed in a veiy uncouifortul>le aixl helplesH con- 
dition. Tliitt asseverntion, and some others tike it, have been duly no- 
ticed in both the llegisler and the Vivss, and u'l* may pass by thein 
tlierclbre without furtlier remark. 

The number for May contains some harsli remarks on the style in 
which Chinese documents have been iruniiUled, and refers to those 
which appeared during lord Napier's residence in Cuutoii. We do 
not approve of the style in which many translations of Chinese papers 
have gone before the pulilic; but had the conductors of the Journal 
been aware of the circumstances under which tlie documcnis, to 
which they refer, were translated, they would have spared their cen- 
sureH : if tlie style was "detestable," the meaning was fully given ; 
and thoae translations were as true to the spirit of the originals aa the; 
could have been, had they been drawn out in the most polished stylo. 
It ia not so with "a version in decent English" given in the Journal 
for March IB35. That "version" ilifTers essentially From the letter 
and spirit of the original. The Chinese are often, we admit, good 
special pleaders. There was no want of false statement in govern- 
or Loo's papers, and no need of tlieir being made more erroneous. 
Our apology for not denying the ' acciiracy "^ of that vermn, when 
we alluded to it on a former occasion, is, that we supposed no body 
regarded it as accurate ; and surely no one, at aH acquainted u-itli the 
Chinese, could read it, "decent English" thoi^h i( was and imagine 
his excellency pnttii^ forth such sentiments as he is therein made to 
utter, witliDut being slrongty tempted to smile : if we treated it with 
less gravity than it merited, we beg pardon for bo doing 

One thing moie. Tlie Journal is itot correct in the remark res- 
pecting the " auspices " under which our work is published. More- 
over, neither its proprietors of eiUlor have any desire to engage in 
" controveraiai " matters. Our object is not to conceal or pervert 
the truth, but to aacertuin and divulge it. False and extravagant ac- 
counts concerning ClHna have goue forth in sufficient numbers to tho 
world; they ought to be corrected; and wc will endeavor to do so 
whenever' fit occasions offer. We wi«h to know, and to show others, 
as far as we are able, the actual condition of this connlry and its in- 
habitants, and (heir relations with other countries. This is our ob- 
ject ; and w« Will eiMleravor to keep ourseKe.* free from the " sin of 
uncharitablenesSr" while we will use equal endeavors to b« faithfiil, 
in giving tor tbc world otn- monthly Repository. Whether the con- 
ductors of the Asiatic Journaf in London, are better qnalified than the 
proprietors of the Repository in Canton, to determine what aubjecta 
■hall be noticed in our pages, we leave with our readers to judge. 

S. Tfu London Literary Gazfttt, for Apri 19th, 1E06, gives iti 
opinion respecting the British relations with China, in the follow- 
ing language, — a fair specimen of the spirit and sentiment which, 
we think, ought ever to be deprecated : the writer says ; 

;. V^nOC^IC 

384 Religious lutelHgenee Oct. 

" Accord:ng to the last accounts from CsDlon, the second officer o( 
the Fairy Queen, having baeti despatched from her anchorage in % 
sailing-boat, with his letters, &.c., to that city, wu, under some pre- 
tence or other, seized by the Chinese authorities, his correspondence 
retained, and himself put in chains, thrown into prison, and otherwise 
ill-treated. The British superintendents having no influence with these 
insolent oppressors, the principal merchants could only prepue a peti- 
tion, pnying lor his release, which they were permitted to leave at the 
city gale 1 What a sequel to our review of Mr. Matheson's pamphlet 
a fortnight ago ! The next British petition should be sent further 
into Canton, and in the shape of bombs and bullets. We will be 
sworn, tliey would be infinitely more efficacious in procuring redress 
and justice, and establishing the future intercourse on bssea more 
suited to the character of s great and greatly insulted nalioD." 

This statement is incorrect in one point: (be officer was not 
seized by the Chinese authorities, nor was he thrown into prison. 
See our lost volume, page 43ti. 

H. Tne Sratthh Christian Heraid, (in eight numbers,) for March 
anil A))ril, I834I, has found its way to China. In mstter and mannar 
it is a good work, and ma.y be read with pleasure and profit. We 
are glad to see that the " religious and moral aspect" of China is 
deemed worthy of consideration r and though the "picture" it gives 
of infanticide is extravagant, yet the general tenor of the remarks 
is quite correct, as is evinced by one sentence, which we quote. 
" The religion and mythology of the Chinese," says Hr. Bonai, the 
writer of the article in question, " is a dark and cheerless system, 
blending, with anomylous incongruity, atheism and the lowest kinds 
of polytheism. Their creed presents no proper object of reverence, 
hope, confidence, or love ; affords no balm for the trouUes of the 
mind, no support, under the ills of life, no hope for the future; their 
highest prospect is annihilation, or a change by transmigration to the 
body of some other being in creation." 

AmT. VII. Rtligious Intelligence: arrival of jnisiiottariu in the 
Indian Archipelago ; arrets to Tibet and China through Bur- 
mnk ; distribution of books among Chinese, Cockinchinese, aitd 
Malaifi, at Stngaport. 
RErRNT letters from Batavia inform tis of the death, on the 0th of 
August, of Mrs. Lockwood, tlie eldest daughter of the Rer. Mr. Med- 
hurst. " Death in iier case had no sling ; it was but the show of 
death; a gentle pasnage from time, to eternity." By the same let- 
ters we have the pleasing intelligence iif the arrival of seven Christian 
missionaries ; some front Germany and others from America : three 
from Germany, arc to Join Mr. Boinsieiu and proceed to Borneo ; (an 

1 V^nOO'^iC 

account, of Mt. B.'k first vi»t to llie Daj.ika will be fwiuil in our last 
iiuiiiber ; ) the others witli their wivos !ir' tu reiiiuiii for th.; (•tnieiiL at 
BalnviH or in thul neigh borliooil. Soiueiliittj^ of the olijc't t'lcxe plii- 
lantliiopixts have in viiiw, uuil of the coutm tliey expi^cl lo pursue, 
may be gathered fruiii thn tliree following paragraphn .vhich we ex- 
truct from a letter of iiiatruclioiiH delivered to tlieiii, nt Netr York, on 
the 3Uth of last Mny, wheu tiiey were iiboiit to hid fireivell to tlioir 
friends and uative land and lo eii'bark tor the eaat. Aftitr taking a 
brief survey of tlic Archipelago, aiid of the false religiouii which have 
prevailed there, tht.-ii pulroiis thuii proceed : 

" Reinember, beloved brethren, thut it is mind you are going to ope- 
rate upon. You will therefore direct your attenllou to the actital btate 
of the mind; it* iutelleotual and moral state — in individuiils and com- 
munities. At the s^ine lime, seek for the causes, which are acting 
upon it fbt good or for evil. Your appropriate aptiere of action ia not 
lo be the external and material, hut the intellectual and mornl world. 
Your chief concern is to be with thought» and feelings. The effects 
you will seek to produce must be wrought in mind, and the means you 
will employ must be adapted to the end you have in view. Above all 
things else, aim at a holy spiritual influence. It might, in the ultimate 
result, prove a blessing to the iulanders, merely to give freedom to 
tbeir intellectual powers, and to rouse those into action; but your aim 
will be at a far nobler object ; not only to wake up the power of 
thought whenever you can, but to hold up the most excellent subjects 
before the thinking power, and bring every thought into subjection to 
ChrisL The deeper your insight into the spiritual condition of the 
people, the more you will perceive that nothing short of the gospel can 
prove an adequate remedy ibr their maladies. 

" The preaching of the gospel will be the leading instrunientality 
in your remedial system of means and eBbrta. To this, education and 
the press will be powerful auxiliaries. For how shall a sufficient num- 
ber of preachers be secured for so large a field T Slcll they be sent 
from our own country T We cannot wait for a full supply from Chrift- 
tendom. Moreover, it may be doubted whether a full supply from 
Christian lands is desirable; a.^id certainly it is unnecesssry. The 
apostles did not send Jews from Judea, nor Christian ministers from 
the church of Antioch, to take the oversight of churches they planted 
in Asia Minor, Macedonia and Greece ; but ordained pastors in every 
place from among the native converts themselves. You will not find 
in any of the islands such schools as existed at Tarsus, Alexandria, 
and Athena. But seminaries of learning can lie and must be created. 
In despair of procuring missionaries enough at home, we are using the 
means, and God is blessing them, for raii-ing up a native agency in 
the several departments of evangelical labor. Jn addition to our com- 
mon schools in all the missions, and to our higher schools at a number 
of them, we have eight colleges or seminaries in progress or in con- 
templation. On<. most flourishing institution of this kind is in Cey- 
lon ; another is at the Sandwich Islands ; another is in Constantinople. 
One has been commenced in Syria. A convention of mitsionariei 

1 V^nOC^IC 

■JMJ Kfliitieut laUUigtHrr. On. 

from tlifTcrent miMions ui the I^vnut inei rc-feitlly M Smyrna, to de- 
lermiue iipui) tlie vite of a seiiiiiury Tor the (ireeks. One will soon 
be Mill) I nc need among the Nestnrians of Per:<ia; aud another in the 
Mahralla cuuiitr}; uiid one ou a large scale at Singapore. The last, 
we ho|>c, with the smiles of lieaveii. to m^'.e a better seminary for our 
puTpoM, (hail any of the boasted schools of antiquity would har« 
iieen. And as our enterprise advances, seminaries must rise in Ja*a, 
Sumatra, Celelies, Borneo, Siam, in different parts of China, and in 
many other countries; for in this way only, can a natire agency bo 
expected to supersede the necessity of foreign labor. Let these in- 
stitutions be founded, reared, and instructed in prayer, and stand by 
fiith in the Son of God; and in titein let our nstive agency be tho- 
roughly instructed. We prefer quality to quantity ; efficiency to num- 
bors; a few ablemeu tougreuter number of indifferent laborers.*** 

" Your ciTil relations will demand very careful attention. It is 
incumbent on the missionary (o adopt the country to urhich he goe* 
as his own. This you will do, for Christ's sake. The government 
of the country, vvhetlier Ohrtsliin, Moslem, or Pagan, will be your 
government ; the people, your people ; their interests, yours. In tbia, 
making no improper s.icrifice of patriotism, you will only yield your- 
selves to the influence of a higher principle as denizens of Zion. 
The gospel and the church of God belong of right and alike to all 
nations. In Christ Jesus, there is neither Jew nor Greek, barbarian, 
Scythian, bond nor free, but all are one in him. — The committer, 
however, roust caution you to avoid forming connections with the go- 
vernment of the country in which you shall become established. As 
far as possible, shun official intercourse with it, except when demand- 
ed by your safety, or required by the laws. Do not aim to attract the 
attention of the government. But if brought before kings and rulers 
lor the gospel's sake, declare plainly your object and manner of life, 
without disguise or subterfuge. What the Holy Ghost will give you 
in that hour to Miy, will be the truth, and nothing but the truth, both 

2. Acceu to Tibtt and China through Buraiak, is thus portray- 
ed by a member of the Burman mission, on a tour up the Iriiw&df : 

" Visited Meaday, a cimsiderpble village six miles above Ummera- 
poora. This is a Chinese mart. Large caravans come in from the 
province of Vumraii during the cold season, and exchange their goods 
for the productions of this country. I had an apportunity of seeing 
(he Chinese as (hey are in their own country. Their drees is intend- 
ed to shield them against cold, and in this they resemble the Shans, 
as well as in thErir general features, except that the Chinese are a 
size larger, and are inclined to be portly, like the Germans. They 
are more negligent in their dress and filthy in their persons than the 
Burmans. TIm most prominent trait in the expression of the counte- 
nance is dulneas, combined with self-satisfaction. They have nothing 
of that lofty, consequential air, that marks so prominently the Burman 
character, and yet they appear to be equally proud and self-satisfied. 
1 feund many Chinese able to apeak Burman, though no one that 


lean. Religious ttttfUige«rf. ;M7 

■poke AiMiitly. As near u ( could lenrn, their fpoken Uiigunge U 
entirely different from thai spoken st Cauluri and the eastern provin- 
ces, though their written language is the same throughittie whole em- 
pire. I endeuTored to ascertain what intercourse they had with lur- 
rounding nationi, particularly Tibet; and I found s coosiderahle 
trade was carried on with Lasaa, the capital of the TibetaoB, but was 
not able to learn any thins more. The distance to some of the nearest 
towns in China is not, prooably, more than two hundred miles, as a 
caravan makes the journey in twelve days. Bomau, tlie most north- 
ern city of Burmah, is said to be but two or three days' journey 
from Yunnnn. 

" It will be a day of triumph to the church of God, when her sons 
shall be permitted to make their way up the Irrawaddy into Tibet and 
China, and there proclaim the redemption of Chriiil. Prayerful de- 
pendence on the promises of God, will no doubt be succeeded with 
permission to occMipy those hitherto inaccessible countries. As the door 
IB now open in Burmah for preaching and printing the word of life, 
it is quite ccrtniu if we will only occupy Ava fsithfully a few years, 
we shall be permitted to plant a branch of the mission in Bomau, 
and then we nre on the borders of China and Tibet. Let a press be 
put in opprntion in Ava, as the most effectual means of enlightening 
the minds, and securing the confidence, of goreriimental men; and at 
the same time let the gospel be preached faithfully lo all classes of 
people. Let one missionary be placed in Ava or Ummerapoora; learn- 
III!.' the Chinese language, and also two of our best Burnian a.ssistants 
be directed to travel incessantly between Ava and Bomau, preaching 
llic gospel, and disiributing tracts. All this is practicable and vastly 
desirable ; and when we consider the end to be obtained, we ought 
lo bo willitig to risk ease, and heahh, and even life itself. These re- 
gions that have never been trodden by the messengers of peace, might 
•oun lilt their hands to God." 

;!. The distribution of Christian tracts and other vsejvl books, 
among the Chinese, Cucliinchinese, Malays, ^c., who either visit, or in, the European settlements at the straits of Malacca, is de- 
serving of every po»^ible encouragement. Like all works of charity, 
*' it ia twice blessed;" lor while it serves to disabuse and elevate the 
character of Enrwpcans in the eyes of the natives, it accomplishes 
that hii^her and nobler object nf putting within their reach a fund of 
knowledge, which when rightly improved is profitable alike for the life 
that now is and fur that which is to come. We should rejoice to see 
every fimily, in whjch there are any members who can read, through- 
out all the Archipelago, and also every junk that visits those islands, 
supplied not only with a complete copy of the Scriptures, but with 
good assortinentM of Christian tracts and other useful iKtoks. Against 
projuir efforts tr> effect this, there are no objections ; while a thousand 
CO nsidi nations mefi lo the 5)>eody execution of measures requisite to 
accornplifh w> desirable an ol-jecl. A brief extract from a mnini- 
scripi jo;irnal before ns will show how such book* are received : 

1 V^nOC^IC 

2!W JiiHtnal of Ofinfmitei. 

" Siiigftpore April 7l)i, began Ofcai y vuiits to the harbor. Aa 

Mr. A. wislwil lu gu with mv to tlie M:ilay prahiia from Borneo, i took 
only a tow Cliinese books. While we were conversing with the Ma- 
laya, xniiic Cliinese, who were trading with them, naked ibr books : I 
gave them a few and told the:u Ihey mi^lit have one or two ruore ; 
but 1 tuund afterwards that they lind liu]t>G(I themselfea to about one 
hair of all I had with me. * * * Oti the IHlh, the last junks we t wiled 
were from CocUinchinn, wliere the language is entirely different fnxn 
the Chinene ; but the people can reail the Chinese language, though 
we could converse with them wily by Higns and by poiuting to certain 
posiageii in the books." 

Art. VIII. Journal of Orfurrrnets. Papen respecting the trade 

in opium and tea; skipping at Whainpoa; seamen in CaiUon; 

the brig Ftdrg; imperial envoys ; military reviews: fires and firf 


PancLAMATiuKS, edicts, manifeitoei, Ac, have heeii the order of the day during 

the muiilh. Uii ■ jreucdiiiK jM^je vce have given the Kciiort of the chief nrovln- 

cHil nnltiurilies reg|)ecting llie iiniHirtnlinn oro|iiiiin: i( ceems prohabis, judgin|; 

fruin all tlml ive ctin learn, thai Itie ((iipslion whether it ihail or ihnll not lie ititrn- 

duced is undergoing a Ihurouili revision, end new and strange inqniriM ara 

onfoot >>olli heie and at Pekitig. Wlinl will be the result of Ihem, we will not 

Early in the mnnlh, "on a locky dny," Ihern came out from the merchants 
«r Puhkeen, who trade in Ilia Eloliea (W<iu-e) teas, a manifesto— ilKtin^ that 
the/ must liav« three tenths of the itipulHtad value of their teas paid within five 
days after the contracts are made, and the remainder witlijn ihe current year, 
excepting three truths, which must alto he liqiiiilated on or bi-fore the second day 
of the second month In Ihe year ensuing: if any ana of their number feiJa 
to comply with these oone" " " ' ' " "-"- ■ ^ ■■' ' -' 

merchant), who bny of tin 
furnkhed ivith miiitirs of ni 

The hoppo hns Insiied an edict forliidding the ships at Wbampoa to remaiD 
below their usuh) anchomije; and another, forbidding seamen to go on sliora 
whnn pa^iiag up or ilnwn the river, or to rimm far from the factories in Cnnlon. 

The fate nf the brig Fairy, caiitain McKay, remains in suapenie : a vesnl 
has been dinpalched to senrch for her i:rew, « ith orders to proceed, If necrsiiary, 
to the governor at Fuhchow foo.' 

The two Imperial envoys, mentioned in our ImI nnmber, are bnnriy eipected 
at Canton: four subordinate*, we hear, have been dispatched hither frum iV 
king to watch the conduct of their superiors. 

Governor TAng returned on the vM Instant, from reviewinj^ the military in 
tome nf the neighboring departments nrihepmvinee. It i* rapni-ted that while 
at the Bi^nic. exercising the liwlps tn the forts, a number of his rvew pieces of 
cannon burst, and canted the death of tevernl of those who were workiag them. 

Three or four fires have ocL-urrdd in Ihe city durin)t the month; these, together 
with tlie return of the north winrts. have drawn foHh a long teries of admonitory 
edicts, warning tliK gieople to guard HEai"*' ■>■* out-break in;t of Irns. 

in a late number uf the Cnninu Court Cinnlnr. the arrival of an officinl agent 
from Hivinan. is announced; he baa cnine hilher lu {irocure lire-engines for that 



Vol. v.— Novembee, 1836.— No. 7. 

Art. I. Temperance: the term defined; remarks on the nature 
and effects of distilUd and fermented Hguors ; vtith ttatementt 
reipecting the extent of intemperance, and the progress of reform, 
in eariout parti of the world. 
Tempkrance is th« proper use of thing* beneficitl, with ftbatinence 
from things hurtful. Distilled and fermented liquors, always contain- 
ing more oi less poison, as is evident both from their effects and from 
chemical analysis, have been adjudged by the concurrent testimony 
of many, in almost etery age and nation, to be hurtful. Indeed, so 
great and numerous are the evils which result from their use, that, in 
the view of thousands of learned and philanthropic men, entire ab- 
stinence f om them, except for medicinal purposes, is not only a mat- 
ter of expediency but of duty. By a careful investigation of theii 
nature and effects this position, it is believed, con be made perfectly 
evident and satisfacbM*; to every mind that will contemplate the 
Bobject fully and ftirly in all its bearings. A passing fflance at it, 
however, is all that the limits and the object of our Journal will 

The intoxicating principle, be it remembered, is not the product 
of original creation, but the result of a chemical process. It does 
not exist among any of the living works of God. It is tin product of 
human art, the work of man's device. This power of intoxication, 
or rather the substance which produces it, is obtained only from 
inanimate matter b; mwmi fermentation. In this way a new sub- 
stance is formed, containing i;).04 porta of hydrogen, 53.17 carbon, 
and 34.79 oxygen, and is a most subtle and diffusive poison. This 
is alcohol, and it may be obtained from fermented liquor in three 
ways : first, by placing the liquor under a receiver and exhausting the 
air, when the alcohol, at a temperature of about 70 degrees, will rise : 
VOL. V. NO. yi. 37 





■econdly, b}' meaiia of the 8ubftc«tiite or sugar of lead, the mucilxgi- 
uous parlH of the liquor inay be precipitated ; aiid then taking off tlie 
water that remains, by the meitDs of the nubcarbonate of polaiwa: and 
thirdly, by the common mode of distillation. It is a mistake to suppose 
that there is alcohol in all vegetable substances, whereas it is only 
formed by vinous fermentation. According to Chinese historians, the 
art of distillation was known in this country at a very early period ; but 
there is no proof that alcohol was erer extracted from fermented 
liquor, till about eight or nine hundred years ago : this was first doaie 
in Arabia, from whence the name, alcohol, is derived. 

The proportion of alcohol in distilled i>nd feimenled liquors, has 
been ascertained by Professor Brande as exhibited in the following 

2. Rum 53.6e 

3. Gin 51.60 

4. Scotch whiakey M-32 

5. Iriih ditto 53.90 

6. Liw« 26.47 

Ditto 24.35 

Average 35.41 

7- KBi<inwii 



8. Haraala . . 


ilan 18.94 

M. BuccTlai 

!1. Sed Madeira 


ATcrage 20.36 

S. Caiw Muichat. 

>3. CapeHadeiM...2S94 

Ditto 20.50 

Ditio 18.1] 

AveriigB .20.51 

U. Grape wine ..,.18.11 

25. CHJeHveila I9.2t) 

~- 10 18.10 

L-erage , 18.85 

25.09 96. Vldonii 19-25 

. .26.4(1 




Port 85.63 

Diuo 24 20 

Ditto 23,71 

Ditto 23,39 

Ditto 22.30 

Ditto 21.40 

Ditto 10.00 31. Claret 

Average 22.96 

ei. All>B Flora 

28. Miii>ie> 1726 

39. Wiiite hrrmirage 17,43 

10. Madeira 24.42 

DMto. 23.93 

Ditto 19.24 

Avenige 22.27 

11. Cnrmnt wtne. 

12. Blierrj 19.81 

Ditto 19.83 

Ditto .18.79 


AveniR 19.17 

IS, Teneriffe 19.79 

14. Colare* 19.75 

15. U«bi7maCliri*t>.I9.70 

16. C an ■tanlia,w bite 19.75 

17. Ditto, red 18.92 

18. Uilion... 


Ditto 16.32 

Ditto 14.08 


Average 15.10 

K. Zanle 1T.05 

:i3. MnlniKyMadeiraie, 

34. Limet 15. 

Sheraaa ....15.52 

SyracuM 15.28 

37. Snulerne 14.22 

Burgundy 16, ~ 

Ditto 15.23 

Ditto 14.53 

Dillo 11.95 

39. Hock 

age . 


Average 12.08 

40. Nice -..14.63 

41. Bamc 13.96 

12- Tent 13.30 

13. Chanir»ign(<tilJ).]3,30 

DiIto(r«d) 12.56 

Ditto (dUlo) 11.30 

Average 12.61 

14. Red KeriailBge.. 12.32 

15. VindeGrave... 13.94 
■>itto 12-80 

Average 13.37 

46. FrontignBc(Ri- 

veialle) 12.79 

47. Cote Rotie 12 3S 

48. Gooteberry witte.ll.iM 

49. Orange wine — a. 
verage of lii 
Mmpiei made 
by a London 
uianufacturer . 11.26 

50. Tokay 9.88 

51. Eiderwina 8.79 

52. Cider, bigbeit 
average 9.87 

Ditto, loHert.... 5.21 
Perry, average of 
4nmplea .... 7-26 

54. Mead.. 7,38 

55. Ale(Burlon}.... 8.88 
Do. (Edinliurg).. 6.80 
Do, (Dorcbeiter, 

Euglisli) 6.56 

Average 6.87 

56. Brown Slant . . . &B0 

57. London Porter 
," erage) ... 

58. Do. imall Beer 
(average) . 

. 4.20 

The effects of these liquors on the human system iave been very 
carefully obiierved and described by a great number of faithful and 

1 V^nOO'^IC 

ItCHJ. Ttmptraact !291 

competent wituea.tea, under almost every variety of circumiUiicea. 
The testimony of a few of these we will here introduce. 

yir Astiey Cooper has stated, tliat he never suffered spirits (o be in 
his house, considering tliem to be ecil spiritt ; and if tlie poor could 
see the white livers, the dropsies, and the shattered nervous systems 
which he had seen, as tlie consequence of drinking, they would be 
aware tiiat spirits and poisoitt are synonymous terms. 

Rush has maintaJned th&t men in all the situations and pursuits of 
life are better without than with spiritoua li<|uors ; and that there aiu 
not more than one or two cases in which they can be used without 
essential injury. 

Franit has declared that the use of these U<)uors ought to be entirely 
dispensed with, on account of their tendency, even when taken iu 
small doses, to induce disease, premature old age, and death. 

Trotter has said that of all tli evUs of humau life, no cause of 
disease has so wide a range, or so large a share, as the use of spiri- 
10 us liquors. 

Kirk says that ardent spirit contains a narcotic stimulant, always 
possessing alcohol lu its bans. When drunk, this is absorbed luto 
the blood, circulates through the lungs, and is exhated through the 
numerous vessels containing the circulating blood of tliese organs; 
and not only so, but the vessels of the brain are Jnaded with it. He 
once dissected a man who died in a state of intoxication. The opo- 
ration was performed a few bonrs after death. In tlte two cavities of 
the brain, the lateral ventricles, was found the usual quantity of limpid 
fluid. "When we smelled it," continues the Dr., "the odor of the 
whiskey was distinctly visible i and tvJieit we a'pplied a candle to a 
portion in a npoon, it actually burned blue — the I&mbent blue flame, 
characteristic of the poison, pla/iitg on the surface of the spoon, for 
some seconds." 

Similar trstimony from titousands of witnesses can be adduced, all 
going to show the deadly effects of intoxicating liquor. The evi- 
dence on this point is perfectly conclusive. Why then is such liquor 
used ? Because it is a " nK»cker." The nature of alcohol is such 
that Its first effect on the human system is ■ quickening of action, 
which, by a fundamental law of our nature, is a source of pleasure ; 
and this present momentary pleasure, men mistake for real good. It 
also arouses the energies of the system to an inordinate degree, which 
men have mistaken for an augment of real strength, though neces- 
sarily followed by a relapse with permanent injury. Thus becaura 
it gives present pleasure and sometimes seems to increase strengtli, 
a motive is hereby crented to use it. It sometimes also ieerrni to 
remove trouble and poveriy ; and even to increase riches and other 
desirable things. Thus it is a mocker, and a deceiver. 

Hence we niny nndersiand some of the reasons which induce those, 
whr> begin to use alcoholic liquor, to continue the practice and to in- 
crease ihe qiiSMtily. By the use of this poison, the system is over-ex- 
cited a)id becomes deranged ; and having been over-worked, without 
any new strength cnmmunicated, it isofcmirse weakened, and must 

;. V^nOO'^IC 

293 Ttmptnmet. Not. 

therpfiwe non flag. And u > necesMry consequence, according to 
another fundamental law, pain, languor, and ineapreoiible uneasineM 
■spread through the ejatem ; and nature, aufiering under aucb awful 
abase, criea out for help. For a man cannot thus irritate and exhaust 
his system, not afterwarda feel uneasiness, any raon than he 
can put bis hand into the fire and not feel pain. Hence arise two 
inotives to drink ; namely, to regain past pleasure, and to remove pres- 
ent pain. But the system is unstrung and prostrate, and to restore it 
a greater quantity ofstimnhnt is requisite, than was needed on any 
former occasion. Hence the motive to increase the quantity. By 
this process the natural life and strength of the human ^stem conti- 
nually diminish, till they ace whoUy exhausted, and man sinks prema- 
turely to his grave. 

There is another principle which tends strongly to the same resulL 
The more one partakes of this m>Mt*traI pleasure, which alcohol 
occasions, the less succeptible is he of all those natural and innocent 
pleasures, which are occasioned by the use of nourishing food and 
drink, by the exercise of the social afiections, and the discharge of the 
various duties of life. Hence a person under its power becomes more 
and more destitute- of all eDJoyment, except that of this mocker, 
alcohol. For whike its immediatt ioAuence becomes to him more and 
more his only enjoyment, the experience of its ultimate eSects becomes 
increasingly the sum and subMsnce-ofall his woes. And thus, by 
tl.e allurement of his sole pleasure on the one hand, and the tenors 
of shame and wretcheaness on the other, the poor victim is urged 
on to death. 

It is perfectly evident, from, the preceding statements, that the han- 
kering after alcoholic liquor is an artificial taste. God never gave it; 
nor is it the fruit of obedience to him; on the contrary, it is an 
unnatural appetite, formed by the lidation uf his laws. Hence 
another reason why this course, like every other wrong one, is down- 
wards ; and the further a inan proceeds in it, the steeper it becomes, 
the swifter his progress, and the more difficult his return : it is the 
way of dimberlience, and consequently of death. 

It is worth while to pause here, and bee how alcohol causes desth. 
It is a mistake to suppose it fit for the purposes of nutrition, for it is 
not in the power of the aiiima)' economy to decompose it, and change 
it into blood, or flesh, or l)oueB, or any thing else by which the human 
body Is or can be nourished, strengthened, and sapportod. Alcohol, 
nAer being taken into the stomach and carried with the blood through 
the »hi)lc system, is then, to n certain extent, thrown off again. But 
it is alcohol in every stage of its march ; it is alcohol ill the stomach, 
in the arteries, in the veins, heart, lungs, brain, among all the nerves 
and tissues and fibres of the whole body ; and it is alcohol, when, af- 
ter having pervaded and passed through the whole system, it is again 
thrown off. "Give it," says an eloquent writer, "give it even to a dog, 
and take the blood from his foot and distil it, and you have alcohd, 
the same which the dog drank. No, not that which he drank f for a 
dog knows loo much to drink it; the same which — in opposition to his 


ISnO. Trmprrunrf. fMt3 

knowledge ofKooil and evil, or the iiitttiiclive senw which (iwl gave 
liiin, Riid drunxenness hud not perverted, — you forced upon bini. Not 
even the senw ofa dog will permit him to tike it; nor cnn the pow- 
erful stomach of a dog digeat it. Much lesa can thai of a man. Take 
the blood from Ihe arm, the foot, or the head of the mau who drinks 
it, and distill thar blood, and you hare alcohol." Not a blood-vessel 
however minute, not a thread of the smallest nerve in the whole ani- 
mal machinery, escapes its influence. It enters the organs of the 
nursing mother, which prepare the delicate food for her offspring, 
entailing death. It penetrates, pervades, and hardens the brain, produc- 
ing insanity and a great variety of other formidable and fatal diseases. 
These are some of the ways in which it leads to misery and death. 

Moreover, from the fact that alcohol is no! beneficial as an article of 
diet, it is natural to suppose it must be hurtful. All the organs of 
the body have as much labor to perform as is couaistent with pfrma- 
ntntly bealthfal action, when they have nothing to dispose of but 
suitable food and drink. The Framer of our bodies, has evidently 
assigned to every organ and every member of the system as much 
work as they can perform in the proper disposal of suitable diet, and 
at the aame time remain permanently healthy, and preserve life to the 
greatest age. If, then, we withhold from them a suitable portion of 
that Dourishing diet which they require, we shall lessen their strength ; 
or, if we loaa them with that which is not nourishing, and thus in- 
crease then- labor, we shall of necessity produce premature decay 
and death. The use of alcohol produces both these efTecIs ; it les- 
sens the nourishment, and increases the labor, of the system. And 
further, by Ihe use of this poison, even the nourishment which tbe 
system does receive is deteriorated. Thus by a three-fold process 
does it work out death. 

And what are the effecta of alcohol on the morals of mankind! 
ARer twenty years' ahservation judge Hale declared, "that if all 
the murdere, and manslaughters, and burglaries, and robberies, and 
riots and tumults, with the adulteries, fornications, and other greU 
enormities, which had been committed within that time, were divided 
into five parts, four of them would be found to have been the result 
of intemperance." The testimony of the honorable William Wirt, 
late attorney general of the United States, is of the like tenor : " I 
have been," says he, " for more than forty years a close observer of 
life and mannera in various parts of the United States, and I know 
not the evil that w'dl bear a moment's comparison with intemperance. 
It is no exaggeration to say, as has been oflen said, that this single 
cause has produced more vice, crime, poverty, and wretchedness in 
every form, domestic and social, than all other ills, which scourge u*, 
combined. In truth, it is scarcely possible to meet with misery in any 
shape, in this country, which will not be found on examination to 
have proceeded, direc^y or indirectly, from the excessive use of ar- 
dent epiritn. * * * This deadly poison paralyses the arm, the brain, 
the heart. Allthehesi aflectiona, all the energies of the mind, wither 
under its inflnencp. The man becrtmes a maniac, and is locked up 

;. V^nOC^IC 

^194 TrmiKnuuf. Nor. 

ill a hospitnl, or imbrues hb fatuid.-i in the blood ofliis wife aud chii- 
dreii, and ia Dent to tlie gallows or docNn«d to the pentieutiury ; or, if 
he escapes these coriMeqiiencM, he becouM a w&lkiug pesUtencc OB 
the enrth, miserable iu hintself, and loatfaaome (o all who behold bim. 
How ufleu do wc see, loo, whole families cootaminr.ted bj the vicioua 
example of the parents; husbands and wives aad danghlers ano bobb, 
all drunkards and furies : satntiintM wives marderioE ttaeir husbandi; 
at others, hu-ibandn their wives ; and worst of oil, if worse can he in 
Hiich a group of horrors, children murdering their parents. But below 
this grade of crime, how mneh is there of unseen and untold misery, 
throughout our otherwise happy land, proceeding irom thia fatal cause 
alone. I .tin persuaded that if we could have a natisticsl survey and 
report of the affairs of all the unhappy families and individuals, with 
the causes of their miseries uiuexed, we should find nine cases ont 
of ten, if not a slill greatfr proportion, resulting from the use of ardent 
spirits alone." 

With such appalling evils rising on every side from the use of 
distilled and fermented liquors, it is not surprising that the fnends 
of humanity took the alarm, and set thenuelves about the work of 
refiirm. As a sequel to the foregoing remarks, we will here add 
a few facts, showing the presetit state of reform in different parta 
of the worlil. 

The people of the United States of Anterica were the first, ao far 
88 we have been able to ascertain, to enlist in the systematic work of 
reform. Voluntary associations, traveling agents, and the wide Gir> 
cuUlion of printed documents, have been the chief means hitherto