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Myron Eells, D. D., (manuscript). 

George Gibbs, (Smithsonian Institution), printed. 

Horatio Hale, M. A., P. R. S. C, (printed). 

Charles M. Buchanan, (Haskell Institute), manuscript. 

Dr. Pranz Boas, (printed). 

Alexander Francis Chamberlain, (printed). 

Rev. Paul Gard, (manuscript notes), French words. ' 

W. S. Phillips, (El Comancho), criticism. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Alfred (Indians), Suquamish, Wash. 

Indians, (numerous), Puget Sd., Neah Bay and West Coast. 










Rainier Printing Company, Inc. 

116 Third Avenue So. 

VCttft^^V^tfc^ jU^^cl, ii^f^icccuLC^CCcy-^ ^u-cAA^ 

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Copyright 1909 by 
George C. Shaw 

Erastus Brainerd 


In offering the present work to the 
public, it is the author's hope to supply, 
with respect to other dictionaries of the 
Chinook Jargon, a desideratum hitherto 
unsupplied in the fifty or more editions 
of small vocabularies issued during a 
period of seventy years. 

It has been the aim to give the origin 
and derivation of every word treaty, 
whenever such is known, and to record 
under each every authoritative referen.ce 
thereto. Also a reference to the author- 
ity is noted. 

With regard to the spelling, it is be- 
lieved that a sufficient number of forms 
is recorded to enable the student to 
identify practically every word, as well 
as to trace the origin of many words of 
undetermined derivation. 

A valuable feature is the index to use- 
ful words in the main vocabulary. An- 
other feature worth mention is the suj)- 
plemental vocabulary of about two hun- 
dred uncommon words, which are of 
such limited use as to preclude a neces- 
sity for their appearance in the main 
vocabulary. One of the best features, 
perhaps, is the Guide to Pronunciation, 
with the Key to the Symbols. This 
pronouncing vocabulary records two 
hundred and seventy-five words, employ- 
ing the diacritically marked letters, and 
is the work of the late Myron Eells, 
than whom no higher authority ever 

"The origin of this Jargon, a conven- 
tional language similar to the I^ingua 
Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro- 
English-Dutch of Surinam, the Pigeon 
English of China, and several other 
mixed tongues, dates back to the fur 
droguers of the last century. Those 
mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen 
years preceding 1800, explored the in- 
tricacies of the northwest coast of 
America, picked up at their general ren- 
dezvous, Nootka Sound, various native 
words useful in barter, and thence trans- 
planted them, with additions from the 
English, to the shores of Oregon. Even 
before their day, the coasting trade and 
warlike expeditions of the northern 
tribes, themselves a seafaring race, had 
opened up a partial understanding of 
of each other's speech; for when, in 
1792, Vancouver's officers visited Gray's 
Harbor, they found that the natives, 
though speaking a different language, 
understood many words of the Nootka. 

On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke 
at the mouth of the Columbia, In 1806, 
the new language, from the sentences 

given by them, ha;d evidently attained 
some form. It was with the arrival of 
As tor's party, however, that the Jargon 
received its principal impulse. Many 
more words of English were then 
brought in, and for the first time the 
French, or rather the Canadian and 
Missouri patois of the French, were in- 
troduced. The principal seat of the 
company being at Astoria, not only a 
large addition of Chinook words was 
made, but a considerable number was 
taken from the Chihalis, who immediate- 
ly bordered the tribe on the north, — 
each owning a portion of Shoalwater 
Bay. The words adopted from the sev- 
eral languages were, naturally enough, 
those most easily uttered by all, except, 
of course, that objects new to the na- 
tives found names in French or Eng- 
lish, and such modifications were made 
in pronunciation as suited tongues ac- 
customed to different sounds. Thus the 
gutturals of the Indians were softened 
or dropped: and the f and r of the Eng- 
lish and PYench, to them unpronounce- 
able, were modified into p and L Gram- 
matical forms were reduced to their 
simplest expression, and variations in 
mood and tense conveyed only by ad- 
verbs or by the context. The language 
continued to receive additions, and as- 
sumed a more distinct and settled mean- 
ing, under the Northwest and Hudson's 
Bay companies, who succeeded Astor's 
party, as well as through the American 
settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was 
soon perceived by the Indians, and the 
Jargon became to some extent a means 
of communication between natives of 
different speech, as well as between 
them and the whites. It was even used 
as such between Americans and Cana- 
dians. It was at first most in vogue 
upon the lower Columbia and the Wil- 
lamette, whence it spread to Puget 
Sound, and with the extension of trade 
found its way far up the coast, as well 
as the Columbia and Eraser rivers; and 
there are now few tribes between the 
42nd and 57th parallels of latitude in 
which there are not to be found inter- 
preters through its medium. Its preva- 
lence and easy acquisition, while of vast 
convenience to traders and settlers, has 
tended greatly to hinder the acquire- 
ment of the original Indian languages; 
so much so, that except by a few mis- 
sionaries and pioneers, hardly one of 
them is spoken or understood by white 
men in all Oregon and Washington Ter- 
ritory. Notwithstanding its apparent 
poverty In number of words, and the 


absence of grrammatical forms, it pos- 
sesses much more flexibility and power 
of expression than might be imagined, 
and really serves almost every purpose 
of ordinary intercourse. 

The number of words constituting the 
Jargon proper has been variously stated. 
Many formerly employed have become 
in great measure obsolete, while others 
have been locally introduced. Thus, at 
the Dalles of the Columbia, various 
terms are common which would not 
be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget 
Sound. In making the following selec- 
tion, I have included all those which, 
on reference to a number of vocabu- 
laries, I have found current at any of 
these places, rejecting, on the other 
hand, such as individuals, partially ac- 
quainted with the native languages, have 
employed for their own convenience." — 
George Qibbs, in "A Dictionary of the 
Chinook Jargon or Trade Language of 
Oregon," prepared from materials col- 
lected by himself during a residence of 
twelve years on the Northwest Coast of 
North America. 


"The *Tr»de ]bangiuige,> which came 
afterwards to be known as the 'Chinoolc 
Jargon/ grew into existence. As finally 
developed, it has become really an 'inter- 
national speech' widely diffused amonj? 
the fifty tribes of Oregon, Washington, 
British Columbia and Alaska, and of 
inestimable service, not only to com- 
merce, but to science, to missionary ef- 
forts, and to the convenience of travel- 
ers. ♦ ♦ ♦ The British and Ameri- 
can trading ships first appeared on the 
northwest coast during the closing years 
of the last (eighteenth) century. The 
great number of languages spoken by 
the native tribes proved to be a serious 
hindrance to their business. • • • 
Unfortunately, all these languages — 
the Nootka, msauftUy, Chinook, Clil- 
halUsli, and others — were alike harsh in 
pronunciation, complex in structure, and 
each spoken over a very limited space. 
But, as the harbor of Nootka was at 
that time the headquarters or chief em- 
porium of the trade, it was necessarily 
the case that some words of the dialect 
there spoken became known to the 
traders, and the Indians, on the other 
hand, were made familiar with a few 
English words. These, with the assist- 
ance of signs, were sufficient for the 
slight intercourse that was then main- 
tained. Afterwards the traders began 
to frequent the Columbia River, and 
naturally attempted to communicate 
with the natives there by means of the 
words with which they had found in- 
telligible at Nootka. The Chinooks, who 
are quick in catching sounds, soon ac- 

quired these words, both Nootka and 
English, and we find that they were in 
use among them as early as the visit 
of Lewis and Clark in 1804. But when, 
at a later period, the white traders of 
Aster's expeditions, and from other 
quarters, made permanent establish- 
ments in Oregon, it was soon found 
that the scanty list of nouns, verbs, and 
adjectives then in use was not sufficient 
for the more constant and general inter- 
course which began to take place. A 
real language, complete in all its parts, 
however limited in extent, was required; 
and it was found by drawing upon the 
Chinook for such words as were requi- 
site, in order to add to the skeleton 
which they had already possessed the 
sinews and tendons, the connecting liga- 
ments, as it were, of a speech. These 
consisted of the numerals (the ten 
digits and the word for hundred), twelve 
pronouns (I, thou, he, we, ye, they, this, 
other, all, both, who, what), and about 
twenty adverbs and prepositions (such 
as now, then, formerly, soon, across, 
ashore, offshore, inland, above, below, to, 
with, etc.). Having appropriated these 
and a few other words of the same 
tongue, the Trade Langruage — or, as it 
now began to be styled, 'the Jargon* — 
assumed a regular shape, and became 
of great service as a means of general 
intercourse. But the new idiom received 
additions from other sources. The Ca- 
nadian voyageurs, as they are called, 
who enlisted in the service of the Amer- 
ican and British fur companies, were 
brought more closely in contact with 
the Indians than any others of the for- 
eigners. They did not merely trade, 
they traveled, hunted, ate, and, in short, 
lived with them on terms of familiarity. 
The consequence was that several words 
of the French language were added to 
the slender stock of the Jargon. Eight 
on ten words were made by what Irram- 
marians term onomatopoeia, — that is, 
were formed by tude attempts to imi- 
tate sound, and are therefore the sole 
and original property of the Jargon. 
All the words thus combined in this 
singularly constructed language, at that 
stage of its existence, were found to 
number, according to my computation, 
about two hundred and fifty. Of these, 
eighteen were of Nootka origin, forty- 
one were English, thirty-four French, 
one hundred and eleven Chinook, ten 
formed by onomatopoeia, and some 
thirty-eight were of doubtful derivation, 
though probably for the most part 
either Chinook or Nootkan. But as 
might be expected, the language con- 
tinued to develop. Its grammar, such 
as it was, remained the same, but its 
Lexicon drew contributions from all the 
various sources which have been named. 



and from some others. In 1863, seven- 
teen years after my list was published, 
the Smithsonian Institution put forth 
a 'Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon/ 
prepared by the late Greorge Qibbs, a 
thoroughly competent investigator. His 
collection comprised nearly five hun- 
dred words. Those of Chinook origin 
had almost doubled, being computed at 
two hundred and twenty-one. The 
French had more than doubled, and com- 
prised now ninety-four words. The 
English terms were sixty-seven. The 
great Salish or 'Flathead' stock, with 
whose tribes, next to the Chinooky 
the Oregon traders had the largest re- 
lations, furnished thirty-nine words. 
The Nootka, in its various dialects, now 
yielded twenty-four. The others, about 
forty, were due to the imitation of nat- 
ural sounds, or were of casual or un- 
determined derivation. There can be no 
doubt that it will remain a living and 
useful language so long as the native 
tribes continue to speak their own dia- 
lects. Rude and formless as it is, the 
spontaneous product of the commercial 
needs of mingled races, it has been the 
source of great and varied benefits. It 
may well serve, if not as a model, at 
least as a finger-post to direct us to 
some higher invention for subserving 
the larger uses of an advanced civiliza- 
tion. Viewed in this light, and also as 
presenting one of the most curious 
specimens of a 'mixed language' which 
philologists have had the opportunity of 
analyzing, the Jargon seems to merit 
h somewhat careful study." 

Another View. — "The Chinook Jargon 
was invented by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany traders, who were mostly French- 
Canadians. Having to trade with the 
numerous tribes inhabiting the coun- 
tries west of the Rocky Mountains, it 
was necessary to have a language un- 
derstood by all. Hence, the idea of 
composing the Chinook Jargon. Fort 
Vancouver being tlie principal post, the 
traders of the twenty-nine forts belong- 
ing to the company, ou the western 
slope, and the Indians from every part 
of that Immense country, had to come 
to Vancouver for the trading season. 
They used to learn the Chinook, and 
then teach it to others. In this manner 
it became universally known. The two 
first missionaries to Oregon, Rev. F N. 
Blanchet, V. G., and his worthy com- 
panion. Rev. Mod. Demers, arrived from 
Canada to Vancouver on the 24th of No- 
vember, 1838. They had to instruct 
numerous tribes of Indians, and the 
wives and children of the whites, who 
spoke only the Chinook. The two mis- 
sionaries set to work to learn it, and in 
a few weeks Father Demers had mas- 
tered it, and began to preach. He com- 

posed a vocabulary which was very use- 
ful to other missionaries. He composed ' 
several canticles which the Indians 
learned and sang with taste and de- 
light. He also translated all the Chris- 
tian prayers in the same language. Such 
is the origin of the Chinook Jargon, 
which enabled the two first missionaries 
in the country to do a great deal of 
good among the Indians and half- 
breeds." — Rev. L. N. St. Onge. 

JuAge Swan's Opinion: "This Jargon 
is composed of Chinook, French and 
English languages, and is supposed by 
many to have been formed by the Hud- 
son Bay Company for trading purposes. 
Such, however, is not the fact. There 
have been constant additions to the Jar- 
gon since the advent of the Hudson Bay 
Company, for many of the words now 
in general use in this language are of 
French and English origin, but I think 
that, among the Coast Indians in par- 
ticular, the Indian part of the language 
has been in use for years. The first 
mention I have seen made of this Jar- 
gon is in Meare's voyages in 1788, where 
in giving an account of a chief named 
Callicum, who hurt his leg while climb- 
ing on board ship, and then sucked the 
blood from the wound, Meares states 
he "licked his lips, and, patting his 
belly, exclaimed, oloosli, oloosh, or good, 

Cloosli, or klo«e, or close, are all the 
same, and mean good. The different 
manner in which words are spelled is 
no evidence of a difference of meaning, 
for no two writers of Indian words 
fully agree as to the proper method of 
spelling. (Kloshe is spelled in the fol- 
lowing ways: Close, dosche, cnoaoh, 
klosche, klose, klosh, kloosh, tloos, tlosh, 
tlnsh, etc.— Editor). Still later than 
this, in 1803, Jewett, in his narrative 
of the ship Boston, at Nootka, gives a 
vocabulary of the words in common 
use among the Nootkans. ♦ ♦ "It is 
a language confined wholly, I believe, 
to our Northwestern possessions west 
of the Rocky Mountains. It originated 
in the roving, trading spirit of the 
tribes, and has been added to and in- 
creased since the introduction of the 
whites among them." — The Northwest 

Adj. Adjective. "The adjective pre- 
cedes the noun, as in English and Chi- 
nook; as, lasway bakatschum, silk hand- 
kerchief; mesalicliie tlllknm, bad peo- 
ple." — Hale. 

Adv. Adverb. "The adverb usually 
precedes the adjective or verb which it 
qualifies, though it may sometimes fol- 
low the latter." — Hale. 



Belb«lla. BellabeUft. "The popular 
name of an important Kwakiutl tribe 
livingr on Milbank Sd., Brit. Col. The 
language spoken by this tribe is a 
peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called 
Heiltsuk from the native name of the 
Bellabella. When voyagers first began 
frequenting the N. Pacific Coast Mil- 
bank Id. was often visited, and its in- 
habitants were therefore among the first 
to be modified by European contact." — 
Hodge. See OlalUe. 

(C.) Clilnookan family of languages. 
In 1841 the number of Chinook words 
in the Jargon numbered 111; in 1863, 
221; in 1894, 198, the number given in 
this dictionary. The letters C.» E., P., 
N. and B- refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify Chinook, Engllsli* 
Frenoh, Nootka, and Salisli. See Chinook. 

(C. 9s E.) Chinook and English. The 
letters C. & R refer to the derivation of 
the word. 

(Can. Fr.) Canadian French. The 
Canadian vosragenrs, as they are called, 
were more closely in contact with the 
Indians than any others of the foreign- 
ers, from 1810 to 1855. See, bread, fiour, 
overcoat, hat, axe, pipe, mill, table, box, 
head, mouth, tongue, teeth, neck, hand, 
foot, run, sing, dance, etc. When the 
Hudson's Bay Company removed from 
Oregon and Washington these Canadians 
also largely left, so a large share of 
these words of French origin have been 

Cathlamet. A Chinookan tribe form- 
erly residing on the south bank of Co- 
lumbia river, near its mouth, in Oregon. 
They adjoined the Clatsop. As a dialect, 
Cathlamet was spoken by a number of 
Chinookan tribes on both sides of the 
Columbia, extending up the river as far 
as Rainier. It is regarded as belonging 
to the upper Chinook division of the 
family. — ^Hodge. See, Skwls-kwls. 

ChlhaUs. Chehalls. A collective nsune 
for several Salishan tribes on Chehalis 
river and its affluents, and on Grays 
Harbor, Wash. By many writers Hiey 
are divided into Upper Chehalis, dwell- 
ing above Satsop river, and the Lower 
Chehalis, from that point down. This 
dictionary gives 36 words of Chehalis 
origin. See EUp, uoostun, etc. 

Chinook (from Tsinuk, their Chehalis 
name). The Chinook were first de- 
scribed -by Lewis and Clark in 1805, 
though they had been known to traders 
for at least 12 years previously. From 
their proximity to Astoria and their in- 
timate relations with the early traders, 
the Chinook soon became well known, 
and their language formed the basis for 
the widely spread Chinook Jargon. 
Linguistically they were divided into 
two groups: (1) Lower Chinook, com- 
prising two slightly different dialects, 

the Chinook proper, and the Clatsop; 
(2) Upper Chinook, which included -all 
the rest of the tribes, though with nu- 
merous slight dialectic differences. The 
dialects of the Lower Chinook are now 
practically extinct. Upper Chinook is 
still spoken by considerable numbers. 
See Cathlamet, Clatsop, Waaoo. 

Chlppeway. Chippewa. One of the 
largest tribes north of Mexico, whose 
range was formerly along both shores 
of Lake Huron and L. Superior, extend- 
ing across Minnesota to Turtle Mts., N. 
Dakota. See Tatoosh. 

Clallam. A Salish tribe living on the 
south side of Puget Sound, Wash., form- 
erly extending from Port Discovery to 
Hoko river, being bounded at each end 
by the Chimakum and Makah. Subse- 
quently they occupied Chimakum terri- 
tory and established a village at Port 
Townsend. — Hodge. See Toloka. 

Clatsop. A Chinookan tribe. The 
Clatsop is merely a dialect of the Chi- 
nook. The langruage is now practically 

Clayoquot. A Nootka tribe living on 
Meares Id., and Torfino inlet, Clayoquot 
Sd., Vancouver Id. See Chako, kokshnt, 

Conj. Conjunction. "Only two con- 
Junctions, properly speaking, are found 
in the langruage, pe and spose." — Hale. 

Cree. An important Algonquian tribe 
of British America. The Cree are close- 
ly related, linguistically and otherwise, 
to the Chippewa, They were friendly 
from their first intercourse with the 
English and the French and the Hud- 
son Bay Co. See Mltass, moosmoos, 

Ex. Example. 

(E.) English. "The words of English 
origin numbered in 1841, 41; In 1863, 
67, and in 1904, 570. Many words of 
French and Indian origin have been 
dropped. The English words are used 
both by Indians and whites when they 
talk Chinook, and so have become a part 
of the language." — Eells. 

(F.) French. In 1841. 34 words of 
French origin were in use, in 1863, 94 
words, and in 1894, 153 words. For 
words of French origin see letter la. 
About thirty words are in use now, and 
these will soon be dropped, as they are 
seldom used, except by the old folks. 

Interj. Interjection. Of these there 
are sixteen words and two phrases. 

(J) Jargon. Words marked J are con- 
sidered to be the peculiar property of 
the Jargon, as having been formed 
either in imitation of sounds or by some 
casual Invention. — Hale. Seee Onoma. 

Kalapuya. Xalapoolan Family. A 
group of tribes formerly occupying the 
valley of Willamette river, N. W. Ore- 
gon, and speaking a distinct stock Ian- 




Klaokwat. See Cteyoquot. 

SUkatat. Sllkltat. A Shahaptian 
tribe whose former seat was at the head 
waters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White 
Salmon, and Klickitat rivers, north of 
Columbia river, in Klickitat and Skama- 
nia counties, Wash. Their eastern neigh- 
bors were the Yakima, who speak a 
closely related language, and on the 
west they were met by various Salishan 
and Chinookan tribes. They were en- 
terprising traders, widely known as in- 
termediaries between the Coast tribes 
and those living east of the Cascade 
range. The Topenish are probably their 
nearest relatives. — Hodge. See Moos- 
moos, Nawltka, Koolhool. 

Ibnimni, A Salish tribe on and inland 
from Bellingham Bay, N. W. Wash. 
The Lummi are now under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Tulalip school superintend- 
ent, Washington. See KnllairliMi. 

Makali. The southernmost tribe of 
the Wakashan stock, the only one within 
the United States. They belong to the 
Nootka branch. By treaty of Neah Bay, 
Wash., Jan. 31, 1855. the Makah ceded 
all their lands at the mouth of the 
Strait of Juan de Fuca except the im- 
mediate area including Cape Flattery. 
The Ozette reservation was established 
by order of April 12, 1893. — Hodge. See 
KlOBlie, Mahkook. 

n. Noun. "There are far more nouns 
In the language than there are words 
In any other part of speech or even In 
all the other parts combined." — Eells. 

(N.) The letter H. refers to the deri- 
vation of the word, and signifies Nootka. 
Nootkas, the conventional generic name 
of all the tribes in Vancouver and oppo- 
site coast, many of whom speak totally 
different languages. — Keane. 

(N. ft E.) The letters N. ft E. refer 
to the derivation of the word, and sig- 
nify Nootka and English. 

Nisanally. "A Puget Sound (Colum- 
bian) nation, with many sub-tribes 
whose names end mostly in xnisb, and 
will thus be recognized without requir- 
ing to be indexed. — Keane. 

Nlttinat. The Tokwaht, Nittinat and 
Makah quoted in the dictionary are 
dialects of the Nootka. (Ahts.) The 
generic name of most of the tribes on 
the west coast of Vancouver Island. All 
speak dialects of the same language. 
See klatawa, mahkook, mowitsh, peshak, 
wawa, wlnaple. 

Onoma. Onomatopoeia. Eight or ten 
■words were made by what grammarians 
term onomatopoeia — that is, were 
formed by a rude attempt to Imitate 
sound, and are therefore the sole and 
original property of the Jargon. Con- 
sif^'^ring its mode of formation, one Is 
rather surprised that the number of 

these words is not greater. — Hale. See 
llplip, tlntln, poo, tlktlk, tamtam, tam- 
wata, mahsh, klak, etc. 

prep. Preposition. There are nine 
words and three phrases which are used 
as prepositions. The principal words 
are kopa saglialie, over; keekwolee, un- 
der; and konamokst, with; kopa is, how- 
ever, used more than all the others, as 
it has a great variety of meanings, 
which can only be known by the con- 
nection, some of which are entirely op- 
posite to each other. 

pron. Pronoun. The pronouns are ten 
in number in the words and seven in 
the phrases, nearly all the latter being 
formed by the addition of self to the 
personal pronouns, as mika self, etc. 

Quaere a. d. Unknown or of unde- 
termined derivation. Unmarked words 
are of doubtful origin. 

(8.) Sallsli. "Salishan tribes held the 
entire northwestern part of Washington, 
including the whole of the Puget Sound 
region, except only the Macaw territory 
about Cape Flattery, and two insignifi- 
cant spots, one near Port Townsend, 
the other on the Pacific coast to the 
south of Cape Flattery, which were 
occupied by Chimakuan tribes. — ^Pilling. 

Tokwabt. Merely a dialect of the 

Twaaa. A Puget Sound tribe, former- 
ly Twana, but later known as Skoko- 
mish; west side Hood's Canal to the 
Olympics, from Skokomish river on the 
south to Quilcene, near Port Townsend, 
on the north. 

V. Verb. Verbs come third in num- 
ber in the words, being exceeded by 
nouns and adjectives, and second in 
phrases, and second in both combined. 
The word mamook placed before vari- 
ous other words forms 209 of these 

Wasoo. A Sahaptln (Columbia) tribe, 
between the Rocky Mountains and the 
John Day river. 

Takama. The Yakima and Klikitat 
are dialects of one of the Sahaptln lan- 


Alien.. Ten Years In Oregon. Ithaca. 
1848; 1850; Thrilling adventures, N. Y. 

ArmstroniT- Oregon. Chicago, 1857. 

Bancroft. The Native Races, vol. 3, 
pp. 556-557-631-635. S. P., 1882. 

Blanchet. Dictionary. McCormlck, 
Portland, 1856; 1862; 1868; 1873; 1878; 

Boas. Chinook Jargon Songs, in Jl. 
Am. Folk-lore, vol. 1, 1888. 

Boldno. Mission de la Colombie. Que- 
bec. 1843. 

Buchanan. Elementary lessons in the 
Chinook Jargon as used by the Indians 



of Puget Sound. (Mss.) Tulalip, 1900. 

Cniaiu1>«rlaiii. Words of Algronkian or- 
Igrin in the Chinook Jargon, in Science, 
vol. 18, 1891. 

Charenoy. Review of Horatio Hale's 
"International Idiom," in Le Museon, vol. 
10, 1891. 

Clonffli. On the existence of mixed 
languages. London, 1876. 

Cook. A voyage to the Pacific Oceon, 
vol. 2, pp. 335-336; vol. 3, pp. 540-546. 
London, 1785. 

Cooxnes. Dictionary. Seattle. 1891. 

Goz. Adventures on the Columbia Riv- 
er, vol. 2, p. 134. London, 1831. The Co- 
lumbia River. London, 1832 (2 vols). 
Adventures on the Columbia River. N. 
Y.. 1832. 

Crane. The Chinook Jargon; a review 
of Hale, in Brighton (England) Herald, 
no. 4883, p. 4, July 12, 1890. 

Darners. Definitio Dogmatis Immac- 
ulatae Conceptionis Beatissimae. (The 
Dogma is first given in latin, followed by 
the translation into the Chinook Jargon.) 
Typis JDannis Mariae Shea, Neo Ebora- 
censis, 1860. 

Demers, Blaaohet, and St. Onge. Dic- 
tionary, Catechism, Prayers' and Hymns. 
Montreal, 1871. 

Dictionary of Indian Tongues . . 
Tsimpsean, Hydah, and Chinook Jar- 
gon. Victoria, 1862; 1865. 

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 
(For the most part a reprint, with omis- 
sions, of Gibbs-Pilling). Victoria, 1871; 
1877; 1883; 1887; 1889, etc., to 1908. 

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. 
Olympia, 1873. 

Dunn. History of the Oregon Terri- 
tory. London, 1844; 1846. 

Dorien. Bible History . . . translat- 
ed into the Chinook Jargon. Benziger, 
N. Y., Cincinnati, Chicago, and Kam- 
loops. B. C, 1893. 

Bells. Manuscript Dictionary of the 
Chinook Jargon, 5 vols, folio. Note from 
Eells' Introduction: *'A number of dic- 
tionaries have been published in the 
Chinook Jargon language, and it may 
seem superfluous to write another; still 
thus far all of them are small and are 
based on the language as it was forty or 
fifty years ago. Gibbs' Dictionary was 
for many years by far the best, and is 
yet in many respects, as it gives the ori- 
gin of nearly all the words and much 
other valuable information, but it was 
written nearly forty years ago. I have 
used it very much in preparing this 
work. Hale's Trade Language of Ore- 
gon or Chinook Jargon is recent and is 
excellent, especially in its .Introductory 
part; far better than any which preceded 
it, but that excellent man and scholar 
has labored under the disadvantage of 
not having mingled much with those 
who have used the language for 
about fifty years, and so has been un- 

able to note a great share of the changes 
which have taken place. The dictiona- 
ries of Gill. Hibben, Tate, Lowman and 
Hanford and Good are all small; are in 
as condensed form as possible, being in- 
tended for pocket use for travellers, 
traders and learners, and in this way 
have done good work for what they were 
intended. The two latter, however, only 
have the Chinook English part. The 
dictionary of Durieu is very meager, 
while that of Demers and St. Onge is 
out of print, and both are intended rath- 
er more for use by the Catholics than 
by the public." . . . "Having used it 
(Jargon) for eighteen years, having 
talked in it, sung in it, prayed and 
preached in it, translated considerable 
into it, and thought in it, I thought I 
knew a little about the language, but 
when I began to write this dictionary I 
found that there was very much which 
I did not know about it, but which I 
wished to know in order to make this 
dictionary as perfect as it should be. 
This is especially so in regard to the 
pronunciation of words which are not 
used on Puget Sound, the introduction of 
new words, and the marking of those 
wJiich are obsolete. In preparing these 
pages. I have tried to note the follow- 
ing items, — the different ways of spell- 
ing each word with the authority for 
each, the proper pronunciation, the ori- 
gin, part of speech, meaning, the place 
where it is used, if used at all, a sen- 
tence or more to show the use of a large 
share of the words, and the phrases 
which are derived from a combination 
of words, which answer to a single word 
in !&nglish." — Skokomish, Union City, 
March, 1893. 

Bells. How Languages Grow, in Ad- 
vance, March 25, and July 8, 1875, — re- 
lates wholly to the Chinook Jargon. Chi- 
cago, 1875. Hymns in the Chinook Jar- 
gon, Portland, 1878; 1889. The Chinook 
Jargon, in the Seattle Weekly Post-In- 
telligencer, vol. 1, no. 52, p. 4, column 8, 
Seattle, September 29, 1882. History of 
Indian Missions, Philadelphia, 1882. Ten 
Years of Missionary Work. Boston, 1886. 
The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam In- 
dians, in Smithsonian Institution, Annual 
Kept, of the Board of Regents for 1887, 
part 1, pp. 605-681. Washington, 1889. 
Aboriginal geographic names in th4 state 
of Washington, in American Anthropol- 
ogist, vol. 5, pp. 27-35. Washington, 1892. 

OipJlatin. Hale's Indians of N. W. 
America, in American Ethnological Soc. 
Trans., vol 2. N. Y.. 1848. 

CHttschet. Indian languages of the 
Pacific states and territories, in Maga- 
zine of American Hist., vol. 1, pp. 145- 
171. N. Y., 1877. 

Oibbs. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections (161), A Dictionary of the Chi- 
nook Jargon. Washington, 1863. N. Y., 



Cramoisy press, 1863. 

am. Dictionary, (ninth edition), Port- 
land, 1882; 1884; 1887; 1889; 1891. 

Oood. Dictionary. Victoria, 1880. 

Ore«n. Extracts from the report of an 
exploring tour on the N. W. coast of 
America in 1829, in the missionary Her- 
ald, vol. 26, pp. 343-345. Boston, 1830. 

Haines. The American Indian. Chi- 
cago, 1888. 

Sale. United States exploring expedi- 
tion, vol. 6, Philadelphia, 1846. An In- 
ternational Idiom. London, 1890. 

Kaslltt. British Columbia and Van- 
couver Island. London, 1858. The Great 
Gold Fields of Cariboo. London, 1862. 

Jewitt. A narrative of the adventures 
and sufferings of John R. Jewitt, — (writ- 
ten by Roland Alsop). Middletown, 1815. 
Second edition, 1815. N. Y., 1816; Mid- 
dletown, 1816; Middletown, 1820; Edin- 
burgh, 1824; Ithaca, 1849. 1851. The 
Captive of Nootka, by Peter Parley, 
Philadelphia, 1861; 1869, and various oth- 
er editions. 

Katliam. The natural history of the 
varieties of man, London, 1850. 

Ib— and Froat. Ten years in Oregon, 
N. Y., 1844. 

IbeJenne. Practical Chinook Jargon 
vocabulary, Kamloops, 1886, 1892. Kam- 
loops Wawa, a periodical in the Chinook 
Jargon, 1891, etc. Chinook Primer, — 
Chinook and Shorthand, 1892. 

Iceland. The Chinook Jargon, in St. 
James Gazette, vol. 17, no. 2529, p. 6, 
London, July 13, 1888. An International 
Idiom, a review of Hale, in the Saturday 
Review, vol. 30, no. 1822, pp. 377-378, 
London, Sept. 27, 1890. 

Uonnet. Vocabulary, Washington, 

Maodonald. British Columbia and Van- 
couver's Island, London, 1862. 

Macfle. Vancouver Id. and B. C, Lon- 
don, 1865. 

Macleod. History of the Devotion to 
the Blessed Virgin Mary in America, New 
York. 1866. 

Montg'omerie and De Koniey. A Few 
Words collected from the languages 
spoken by the Indians in the neighbor- 
hood of the Columbia River and Puget's 
Sound, London, 1848. 

mooll. The Chinook language or Jar- 
gon, in Popular Science Monthly, vol. 35, 
pp. 257-261, N. Y., 1889. 

Noxris. The Calumet of the Coteau, 
Philadelphia, 1883. 

Palmer. Journal of Travels over the 
Rocky Mountains, Cincinnati, 1847; 1850; 
1851; 1852. 

Parker. Journal of an exploring tour 
beyond the Rocky Mountains ... in 
the years 1835-'37, Ithaca, 1838; 1840; 
1842; 1844; Auburn, 1846. 

Phlllivs. Totem Tales, Chicago, sev- 
eral editions. 

PUlinff. Bibliography of the Chinook- 

an Languages, including the Chinook 
Jargon, Washington, 1893. Bibliography 
of the Salishan Languages, Washington, 
1893. Bibliography of the Wakashan 
Languages, Washington, 1894. 

Proeoli. Dictionary of the Chinook, 
Seattle, 1888. 

Beade. Chinook versus. Greek, in 
Montreal Gazette, vol. 119, no. 239, p. 4, 
October 6, 1890. 

Bosa. Adventures of the First Settlers 
on the Oregon or Columbia River, Lon- 
don. 1849. 

Boliooloraft. Indian Tribes of the 
United States, vol. 5, pp. 548-651, Phila- 
delphia, 1851-1857; Philadelphia, 1884, 2 

BooQler. Observations on the Indigen- 
ous tribes of the N. W. coast of Amer- 
ica, in Royal Geog. Soc. of London, Jour, 
vol 11, pp. 215-251, London, 1841. On 
the Indian Tribes inhabiting the North- 
west Coast of America, in Edinburgh 
New Philosophical Jour., vol. 41, pp. 168- 
192, Edinburgh. 1846. Reprinted in the 
Ethnological Soc. of London Jour., vol. 
1, pp. 228-252, Edinburgh, n. d. 

Sproat. Scenes and Studies of Savage 
Life, London, 1868. 

Btnart. Montana as it is, New York, 

Swan. The Northwest Coast; or, Three 
Years' Residence in Washington Terri- 
tory. New York, 1857; London, 1857. 

Tate. CThinook, as spoken by the In- 
dians of Washington Territory, British 
Columbia and Alaska. Victoria, 1889. 

Tylor. Primitive Culture, London, 
1871; Boston, 1874; New York, 1874; 1877. 

Western Volapol:. A review of Hale, 
in the Critic, vol. 14, pp. 201-202, N. Y., 

Wilson. Prehistoric Man, vol. 2, pp. 
429-432, London, 1862; London, 1865, pp. 
586-588; London, 1876, vol. 2, pp. 334-338. 

Winthrop. The Canoe and the Sad- 
dle, adventul*es among the northwestern 
rivers and forests; and Isthmania, Bos- 
ton. 1863 (various editions). 

"Parker's Journal," pp. 336-388, "Vo- 
cabulary of the Chenook Language, as 
spoken about Fort Vancouver. 

Kale's EtlinogTapliy and Plilloloiry of 
the United States Ezplorlnir Expedition, 
pp. 636-650. A vocabulary of the "Jar- 
gon or Trade Language of Oregon," with 
an essay thereon, and phrases. A par- 
tial reprint of the above, in Transactions 
of the American Ethnological Society, 2 
vols., N. Y., 1845-1848. in vol. 2. pp. 62-70. 
— under title of "Hale's Indians of 
North West America." 

Bolduc's "Mission de la Columbie." 
The Lord's Prayer in Jargon, "et quel- 
ques mots Tchinoucs et Sneomus." The 
Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. 
The Chinook words are merely Jargon. 

Palmer's Journal, pp. 147-152. "Words 



used in the Chinook Jargron." 

Bo«8. Adventures of the B*irst Set- 
tlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. 
Ross gives a "Chinook Vocabulary," pp. 
342-348, and words of the "mixed dia- 
lect," p. 349. His Chinook is, however, 
also impure. 

tee and Frovt. "A short vocabulary 
of the Clatsop dialect." This is likewise 

BclLOOlcraft. History, &c., of the In- 
dian Tribes of the U. S. L#ieut. Q. P. 
Emmons srives a brief "Klatsop Vocabu- 
lary," in Part 3, pp. 223-224, which is of 
the same character. Note 1, to article, 
"Philosophy of Utterance," Part 5, pp. 
548-551, a "vocabulary of the Chinook 

Ibionnat. Vocabulary. Printed by the 
Smithsonian Institution, for private dis- 

Swaa. N. W. Coast, pp. 412-422. "A 
vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook 
or Jargon Languages, with the deriva- 
tion of the words used in the latter." 

Winthzop. The Canoe and the Saddle, 
pp. 299-302. "A partial vocabulary of the 
Chinook Jargon." 

Dnxiii. History of the Oregon Terri- 
tory. "A few specimens of the language 
of the Millbank and Chinook tribes." 
Chinook, tribe: 50 words and phrases, in- 
cluding digits. These words, as usual, 
are in great part "Jargon," and belong to 
^ the Nootkan, not to the Chinook." 


Parker "gives 103 words and phrases." 

St. Onge "gives 787 Chinook words and 
phrases with no English-Chinook part." 

tee and Frost. "In the appendix are 
50 words which the authors say are in 
the Clatsop dialect, but which Gibbs says 
are in the Jargon. I think some are 
Clatsop, but some are undoubtedly Jar- 

Dunn. "Thirty Chinook Jargon words 
and expressions." 

Swan. "In the appendix is quite a full 
vocabulary, — 327 words. Judge Swan 
lived on Shoalwater Bay, Wash., near 
the Chehalis and Chinook Indians, and he 
gives quite a number of words which 
are given by no other writer, which he 
says are of Chehalis origin. Gibbs re- 
jects many of these, because he thinks 
that Swan imperceptibly used them as 
Chinook Jargon, but that they did not 
properly belong to the langruage, but to 
the Chehalis. I have inserted them as 
being a part of the Jargon of that region 
at that time, as certainly many English 
words now In use on Puget Sound are a 
part of the Jargon of this time and place. 

The environment always affects the lan- 

Gibbs. "This was by far the best dic- 
tionary at that time and will ever re- 
main a standard authority on the lan- 
guage of that time. In the Chinook- 
Btlglish Part are 490 words, and in the 
English-Chinook. 792." 

Winthrop. "Two hundred and sixty- 
one Chinook words. There is no Eng- 
lish-Chinook part. 

EUbben. "The author's name is not 
given, but it is believed to be Lionnet. 
It gives very nearly the same words as 
Gibbs in both parts." 

Oood. "It has no Chinook-English 
part. In the English-Chinook he gives 
825 words." 

l>arlaTi. "431 Chinook Jargon words. 
No English-Chinook part." 

Tate. "It follows Gibbs very closely." 

Kale. "478 Chinook Jargon words; 634 
in-*'the English-Chinook part." 

GilL "This with its predecessors has 
been the standard for Oregon for over 
thirty years. It was first published by 
S. J. McCormick, and its latest reviser 
is Hev. W. C. Chatten. In the Chinook- 
English part are 560 words, and in the 
English-Chinook, 1378." 

Coomef. [L. & H.] "It follows Gill 
vefy closely in its Chinook-English part 
and has no English Chinook part." 

Soas. "Gives a short vocabulary of 75 
words in the Journal of American Polk 
Lore, pp. 225-226, obtained at Victoria, 
B. C, and 24 words, obtained at Shoal- 
water Bay, Wash. — in Science, March 4, 
1892, p. 129. A few words are also given 
by authority of Dr. W. C McKay, late 
of Pendleton, Oregon." 

"A comparison of these dictionaries 
shows Olbbs to be the most scientific and 
thorough in all things except the spell- 
ing*, aubben and Tate agrree with it very 
closely. Kale is a little more independ- 
ent, but gives the best grammar and lit- 
erature of all. Oill's is the fullest, and 
is still more independent. Lowman and 
Hapford's (Coomes) is almost exactly 
like the Chinook-English part of Gill's. 

St. Onge's is entirely independent of 
all the others, and the most scientific in 
the spelling; Durieu's is meagrre, but 
more nearly like St. Onge's than any oth- 
er in regard to spelling. Good's is the 
mo9t modern, omitting many obsolete 
words, and introducing many new ones, 
but his spelling is at fault, as he often 
spe^s the same words In different ways, 
eveh three or four ways. The rest of the 
dictionaries are local and small, but valu- 
able because gathered so early." 




Alm'-kut-tie, or Ab'n-kut-te, adv. (C) 
(Chlnookf-ankutti.) Formerly; before 
now; long* »g-o; a&dentiy; mgo. (With 
the accent prolonged on the first 
syllable, a very longr time ago; an- 
ciently. The longer the first syllable is 
held, the longer the time expressed.) 
Ezaxnple: Kyas anhkuttle, — a very long 
time ago. Tenen ahnkiittie, — a little 
while ago. Xnnjlh laly almkuttief — 
how long ago? TalLtlnm aim almkuttle, 
— ten days ago. (Biali abnkattle, — very 
ancient, — lit., far ago. A great deal is 
expressed by the mere stress of the 
voice; liytui — dwelling long on the last 
syllable — means exceedingly great; 
liyak, very quick; hiyUf a great many; 
temafl, very small, &c.) Delate ahnkut- 
tie, — very long ago. "In Chinook the 
verb is absolutely inflexible, it never 
changes its form for mood, tense or any- 
thing else; these are always indicated 
by the agglutination of a word indicat- 
ing the mood, tense, etc. The idea of 
tense is most simple and rudimentary, 
that is, past, present and future; alm- 
kuttle, alta, alkl." — Buchanan. 

Note — "A Chinook word is elastic and 
expresses a broad and general idea rath- 
er than one altogether specific, hence the 
extreme elasticity of the Chinook jar- 
gon. Specific ideas must be expressed by 
qualifiers or modifiers added to the word, 
as will be readily seen in practice. Each 
word is a tool whose general uses and 
whose specific uses must be mastered be- 
fore successful work can be done or sat- 
isfactory progress be made." — Buch- 

anan. 7Bk.: Anlikiittle mama, — sl grand- 
mother. Almkuttle papa, — a grandfa- 
ther; an ancestor; forefather; progen- 
itor. Almkuttle tmikums, — ancestors; 
ancient people. Almkuttle tllllkums 
klaeka wawa, — traditions. Almkuttle 
laly, — long ago. 

"Time: Present, Past and Future. In 
indicating time in the Chinook Jargon 
the verb does not change its form at all; 
it is absolutely inflexible as far as 
change of the word form is concerned, 
and the idea of time is added by adding 
a word to Indicate that — thus alkl (by 
and by), after awhile, in the future) to 
indicate future time; ahncutty (in the , 
past, some time ago, a long time ago, 
once upon a time) to indicate past time; 
and alta (now) to indicate present time 
where it is important to emphasize the 
fact that present time and only pres- 
ent time is indicated. Ordinarily if the 
time is omitted or not specified it is un- 
derstood to be present time, naturally. 
Intensity of meaning or duration of time 
may also be indicated by prolongation 
of the sounding of a word, thus: laly 
(time) — la-a-a-aly (a long time). This 
is based upon an instinctive principle 
common to all tongues, just as we in 
English phonetically Indicate prolonga- 
tion of time or extension in space or in- 
tensity of feeling by means of the into- 
nation. So we say 'a long time' and 'a 
lo-o-o-o-ng time." — Buchanan. 

Note — "A thorouffli knowledge of a few 
dozen Words will give one sufficient ma- 
terial with which, after actual practice, 
to carry on ordinary conversations. In 
practice the sentences are built up by 
agglutination or association of words, 
just as a child builds houses and various 
other wonderful structures from its 
blocks. In so doing there is always a 

Note. The letters (O)., (E)., (P)., 

(H). and (8). refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify Chinook, Enqrllsli, 
French, Nootka, and Ballsh. Words 
'^ marked (J) are considered to be the pe- 
culiar property of the Jargon, as hav- 
ing been formed either in imitation of 
•sounds or by some casual invention. 
Words marked (Quaere u. d.) are of 

doubtful or undetermined origin. The 
cognates follow in parenthesis, as, (C). 
(Chlnook,-ankutti). A pronouncing vo- 
cabulary immediately follows the list 
of useful words. A supplemental vocab- 
ulary of archaic or unusual words comes 
next. Then follows the English-Chinook 
part. (See Explanatory notes.) 


very wide sphere for the exercise of in- 
genuity on the part of the speaker, and 
upon this, in a measure, depends the 
skill with which he may handle Chinook 
and convey his thoughts therein. The 
jargon is essentially a spoken and not a 
written tongue — it is very mooli alive. 
SpelUngr. There are no hard and fast 
rules for the spelling of words, and ev- 
eryone in writing Chinook follows the 
dictates of his own judgment in the 
fabrication of phonetic equivalents, 
which are at best only approximations." 
— Buchanan. 

"It may not at first be easy to com- 
prehend how a language composed of so 
few words, thus inartiflcially combined, 
can be extensively used as the sole me- 
dium of communication among many 
thousand individuals. . . . But it 
is in the faculty of combining and com- 
pounding its simple vocables — a power 
which it doubtless derives, in some de- 
gree, from its connection with the In- 
dian tongues — that the jargon has its 
capacity for expression almost indefi- 
nitely extended. Three or four hundred 
words may. be learned without difficulty 
in a week or two, and a very short time 
will make the learner familiar with 
their ordinary use and construction. He 
will then have no difficulty in under- 
standing the numerous compounds 
which, if they had been simple words, 
would have cost him much additional la- 
bour." — Hale. 

Al'-ki, adv. (C). (Chinook, alekb). In 
the futnxe; by and by; after a while; 
soon; presently; directly; in a little 
while; hold on; not so fast. "The sign 
of the future tense, shall or will. The 
days of the week, and the number of 
weeks, months and years are also used 
to designate the tenses." — Eells. Ex.: 
Nika kumtnkSf — I understand. Nika 
knmtoks alta, — I understand now. Nika 
kiuntaks ahnkuttie, — I understood; I 
understood some time ago. 

Nika knmtnks alki, — I will under- 
stand; I will understand by and by; I 
will understand after a while. This 
indicates the manner of indicating 
tense, that is. indicating time. " — Bu- 
chanan." September 25, 1851. While 
looking around Lk)W and Terry con- 
cluded to locate a townsite, and with 
that view made a joint location on Alki 
Point. The Terrys being New Yorkers, 
first named the place New York, but 
afterwards changed it to Alki which ^11 
old settlers know signifies "by and by," 
"before long". — A. A. Denny. Texias 
alki,— in a little while. Alki nika klata> 
wa, — I will go presently. Zskom doUa, 
alki pay, — to borrow. 

Alki nesika klatawa kopa nika boat, — 
soon we will go in my boat. 

"In general the tense of the verb i.s 
left to be inferred from the context. 

When it is absolutely necessary to dis- 
tinguish time, certain adverbs are em- 
ployed: as ohee, alta, alki, ahnknttie, 
okoke-snn, tomolla, tahlkie, ikt tahUde." 

Al'-ta, or Al'tah, adv. (C). (Chinook, 
altakh). Now, at the present time. Eac: 
Alta yaka chako, — now he comes. Nika 
skooknm alta, — ^I am strong now, wake 
alta, — ^not now. 

Ats, n. (C). (Chtnook,-ats. Takima,- 
atse). A sister; a yoxmger sister. In 
the original, only when used by her 
brother. Ex.: Elip ats, — an older sis 
ter. Ats sraka man, — a brother-in-law. 
M am a , or papa yaka ats, an aunt, (see 
kahpho). "Sister is used on Puget 
Sound. Bister yaka tenas klootchman, 
— a niece." — Boas. (The word Ats is 
becoming obsolete.) 


Boat, n. (English, idem). A boat, as 
distinroished from a canoe; a skiff. 
Ex.: Nopa boat. — aboard. Nlahanie 
kopa boat,— overboard. 

Book, n. (Eng'lish,-idem). A book; 
volume; pocketbook. Example: Saffha- 
Ue Tyee yaka book, — The Bible. (Lit- 
erally, — God, his book). Tena« book, — 
a pamphlet. Book yaka mamook knm- 
tnks nesika kopa iUahee, — a geography. 
Book yaka mamook knmtnks nesika 
kopa kwnnnnm, — an arithmetic. Book 
yaka mamook knmtnks nesika kopa la- 
lanff, — a grammar. Book yaka mamook 
knmtnks nesika kopa nesika, — a phy- 
siology. Book yaka mamook knmtnks 
nesika kopa stone, — a geology. 

Bos'-ton, n.. adj. An American; Amer- 
ican. A name derived from the hailing- 
place of the first trading ships to the 
Pacific. Example: .Boston illahie, — ^the 
United States. lUka knmtnks Boston 
wawa? — do you understand English? 
Boston plie, — protestantism. Sitknm- 
siwash-sitkum-Boston, — a half-breed. 

By-by, adv. (E). By-and-by; after a 
while; sometime hence. It means a 
longer time in the future than alki, but 
like that is used for shall or will as a 
sign of future time. With the accent 
on the first syllable, prolonged, it means 
a very long time hence. 

Ca-nim, n. (C). (Chinook,-Ekanim). 
A canoe. .Ex.: Canim stick, — the cedar 
or wood from which canoes are usually 
made. Klatawa kopa canim, — to em- 


Oa-po% n. (E). (Fr«iiLoli,-Capot). A 

Cha'-ko, diah'-ko, or ohahco, v. (N). 
ITootka, olayoauot, — chako ; Tokwalit, — 
tchokwa). To come; to appiroacli; to be 
or become. "In this latter sense It 
forms the passive voice in connection 
with many other words. Often it is 
joined with adjectives and nouns, and 
forms other verbs. Taka chako paht- 
Inm, he is drunk; nika chako keekwnlee, 
— I am degraded; yaka chako stone, — it 
is petrified. Perhaps more properly the 
word In this connection to become, than 
to be, at least it is often so, as In the 
latter example the meaning would also 
be, — to become stone; chako rotten, — is 
to become rotten. Occasionally too the 
passive voice is shown by placing the 
word Iskum before the main word, as, 
yaka Isknm. kow, — he is arrested." — 
Sells. Ex.: Nika chako kopa Foteland, 
— I came from Portland. Kloshe mlka 
hyak chako, — good you come quick. 
Chuck chako, — the tide is rising — (liter- 
ally, is coming). Chuck chako pe klata- 
wa, — the tides. Halo chako, — to linger. 
Wake kunjlh yaka chako halo, — Indel- 
lible, — (literally, — never will it become 
gone). Chako Boston, — to become, an 
American; often said of Indians who are 
becoming civilized like white people. 
Chako delate, — to become right, true, or 
good. ChaVo delate till, — to become ex- 
hausted. Chako hyas turn turn, — to be- 
come proud. Chako huloima, — to vary; 
to become difTerent. Chako kah nika 
nanitch, — to appear. Chako kloshe tum- 
tum, — to love; to reform; to become 
friendly; to get a good heart. Chako 
kloshe, — to get well; to become good. 
Chako kunamokst, — to congregate; as- 
semble; convene; meet; unite; join. 
Chako mlmolouse, — to die; to become 
rotten; to become decayed (as potatoes 
or vegetables). Chako pahtlum, — to be- 
come drunk. Chako skookum, — ^to be- 
come strong, esoecially after a sickness, 
to show complete recovery. Chako sol- 
leks, — to become angry; to quarrel. 
Chako pelton, — to become foolish; to be 
cheated. Chako waum tumtum, — to be 
earnest: to become excited. Chako 
youtl tumtnmi — to become glad; to be 
glad. Chako polaklie,— to become dark; 
night is coming. Chako oleman, — to be- 
come old. Chako halo, — to be destroyed; 
to disappear; to vanish; to be all erone. 
Chako clip hlyu, — to exceed. Chako 
ku^am.okst nika- — come with me. 

Chee, adv., adj. (C). (Chinook,-t'shi>. 
lately; just now; new; fresh; oriiorinal; 
recent. Ilzample: Chee nika ko, — I 
have just arrived. Hyas chee,^-entirely 
new. very new. Chee chako. — a new 
comer; just arrived. Delate chee, — en- 
tirely new. Slootchman sraka chee ma- 
lieh, — a bride. 

Chlk'-a-min, n., adj. (IT). (Tokwaht,- 

tsikamen ;irootka( — slckaminny ( Jewltt) ; 
seekemaile, — (Cook). Iron; metal; met- 
allic; steel; money; cash; mineral. Ex- 
ample: T'kope chikamin, (white metal), 
silver. Fil chikamin, or chikamin pil 
(yellow metal), — gold or copper. Chika- 
min lope, — wire; a chain. Nika hyas 
tikesrh chikamin, — I very much wish 
money. Zllahee kah chikamin mitlite, — 

Chik'-ohik, (Tsik'-tsik, or Tchik'- 
tohik), n. (J). By onoma. A wagfon; 
a cart; a wheel; any wheeled vehicle. 
Example: Tsiktsik wayhut, — a wagon - 
road. Nika chako kopa ohikchik, — I 
came in a wagon.* Fiah chikchik, — rail- 
road cars. ILolo kopa chikchik, — to haul 
in a wagon. 

Chinook — ♦(Chinook Indians). These 
Indians formerly lived near the mouth 
of the Columbia river, where the Chi- 
nook Jargon language was mainly de- 
veloped in its formative period, and 
hence more words were adopted into it 
from that language than any other In- 
dian language, and so its name was 
given to the language. Properly speak- 
ing the Chinook language means the old 
Chinook, and the Chinook Jargon the 
language described in this dictionary; 
but the old Chinook is about obsolete, 
and for the save of brevity, Chinook 
wawa means in common conversation 
the Chinook Jargon, while the proper 
language of the Chinook tribe is called 
the Old Chinook. The Chinook land and 
Chinook Indians have, however, refer- 
ence to the tribe as it formerly existed. 
— Eells. 

Chinook wind. The Chinook is always 
a strong, steady southerly wind, never 
from any other point of the compass, 
unless it be slightly southwesterly. It 
is distinctly D^culiar to the Northwest 
Pacific coast and its s.ource is far out in 
the nasty storm center of the Pacific 
ocean, emanating from the famed Japan 
current, which is the source of the re- 
markable humidity of the North Pacific 

Chinook canim,— the large canoe used 
on Puget Sound. Chinook illahee, — the 
land of the Chinook Indians. Chinook 
tillikums, — the Chinook Indians. Chi- 
nook wawa, — the Chirook language. Ex- 
ample: Mika kumtux Chinook wawa? Do 
you understand the Chirook language? 

Chitsh, n. (8). (Chehalis,-tshitsh). A 
frrandmother. (Gibbs, Gill, Hibben, St. 
Onge and Swan, give chope for grand- 
father; but Hale and Tate give the 
meaning as grandfather and chope as 
grandmother. Eells says "I never heard 
either word used on Puget Sound." Eells 
gives the following: Ex.: Grandmother, 
— mama yaka mama; grandmama; nitz. 
FatM yf I'a TMipa, — grandfather. Tenas 
yaka tenas klootchman, — granddaughter. 
Tenas yaka tenas man,-:— grandson. Te- 


lUM yaka tcnas, — grandchild. 

Cliope, n. (8). (CliiliAai«>-tshup). A 
grandzatlMr. (Hale says, a grrand- 
mother). See chitsh. 

Chuck, n. (N). (iroofka,-Chauk (Cook); 
Chaliak, — fresh water ( Jewitt) ; Ohlnook,- 
Tltsuk (Shortess); Clat»op,-Trchukw). 
Water; a river or stream. Example: 
Salt chuck, — the sea; skookum chuck,— 
(powerful water), — a rapid; solleke 
chuck, — a rough sea; chuck cha^ko or 
kalipi, — the tide rises or falls; saghall 
and keekwillie chuck, — ^high and low 
tide. Kah mitllte chuckf — where is the 
water? Muchamuck. chuck, — to drink 
water. Olo kopa chuck, — thirsty. 

Cly, or kely, v. (E). To cry, lament; 
moumJniT* weepinff. Ex.: Cly tumtum, 
— to^ cry in the heart; to feel sorry; to 
repent; to mourn; to be full of grief or 
emotion; "more deep in feeling than sick 
tumtum." — Eells. 

Cole, adj. (E). Cold; a year. Ex.: 
Kyas cole, — very cold; freezing. Cole 
Ulahee, — winter. Cole snaee, — hall; snow. 
Cole chuck, — ice; cold water. Cole sick, 
— ague; a cold. Cole sick-waum sick, — 
fever and ague. Zkt cole, — a year. Taht- 
lum cole, — ten years. Zkt tukamonuk 
cole, — a century. Kah cole chako, — 
north. Kah delate cole mitlite, — ^Arctic. 

Coo'-ley, V. (P). (French, Courez, imp. 
of Courir). To run; go ahout; play; 
walk; traveL Example: Cooley kiua- 
tan, — a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuke 
cooley, — he can, 1. e., knows how to run 
well. Cultuji cooley, — to saunter; ram- 
ble; stroll. Kyak cooley, — to run; canter; 
go fast. Kopet cooley, — to halt; to stop. 
ICamook cooley kopa huloima lalang*, — 
i. e. — to make go in another language; 
to interpret. 

Co'-sho, n. (F). (French,-cochon). A 
hog; pork; pig; swine; ham; bacon. Ex- 
ample: CMwash cosho, — a seal; literally, 
— Indian pig. Dly cosho, — bacon; ham. 
Kloochman cosho, — a sow. Tenas cosho, 
— a pig. Cosho glease, — lard. Cosho itl- 
willie, — pork. 

Court, n. (E). A court. Ex*: Haul 
kopa court, — to try in court. Kyas court, 
— supreme court. ICamook court, — to 
hold court. Tzum man kopa court, — 
the clerk of the court. Tyee kopa court, 
— a judge. £olo kopa hyas court, — to 
appeal. Wawa kopa court, — to testify; 

Cul'-tus, or Kul'tus, adj. (C.) (Chi- 
nook.-Kaltas). Worthless; good for 
nothing; without purpose; abject, bar- 
ren; bad; common; careless; defective; 
dissolute; filthy; foul; futile; rude; im- 
material; impertinent; impolite; no mat- 
ter; shabby; slippery; unmeaning; unto- 
ward; useless; paltry; worn out. "A few 
words," says Eells, "are very expressive, 
meaning so much, and expressing that 
meaning in so much better a way than 
our English words do that they have 

often been adopted into English in the 
region where the Chinook is used. Of 
these may be mentioned cultus, — good 
for nothing, with also twenty-three other 
meanings. Kloshe, with its forty-two 
meanings; Kloshe nanitch, with its 
eighteen meanings; Tamahnous, sorcery, 
yet referring as a noun, adjective and 
verb, to anything supernatural, or in 
the spirit world between Satan on the 
one hand and CK)d on the other: Tumtum, 
mind, with its fifteen meanings; and 
wawa, talk, with its sixty-five mean- 
ings." Example: Cultus man, — a 
worthless fellow. Cultua potlatch, — a 
present or free gift; a benefaction. 
Cultes heehee, — a jest; merely laughing. 
Cultus nannitsh, — to look around. Cultus 
mitlite, — to sit idle; to do nothing. Cul- 
tus klatawa,— -to stroll. Cultus eeni^, — a 
muskrat. Ques^ What do you want? 
Ans. Cultus, i. e., nothing. Cultus kopa 
mikaf — none of your business; nothing 
to you. Cultus kopa nika, — I do not 
care; nothing to me. Cultus potlatch 
tumtum, — to give advice; to advise; to 
counsel. Cultus wawa, — a joke; a jest; 
nonsense; rumor; tattle; report. Delate 
cultus, — no manner of use. "Cultus, — 
idle, aimless, worthless; also bad, in the 
sense of having no value, that is being 
useless." — Buchanan. 


De-late', or De-Iett, adj.. adv. (F). 
(French*-droite). Straight; direct; with- 
out equivocation; true; truly, exactly; 
correct; exact; genuine; just; plain; pre- 
cise; really; thorough; sincerely; surely; 
sincere; sure; accurate; verily; un- 
doubted; authentic; certain; definite; 
definitely; erect; very; correctly. EX' 
ample: Klatawa delate, — go straight 
Delate wawa, — tell the truth; a fact: 
promise; true talk. Delate kwtnnum 
cole ahnkuttie, — ^just five years ago. De- 
late nika sick tumtum, — I am very sorry. 
Okoke delate, — it is right. Wake delate, 
—not exactly right; imperfect. Wawa 
delate, — to speak the truth; to speak 
correctly. Delate hyas, — stupendous; 
immense: enormous. Delate hyas kloshe, 
— ^magnificent; majestic; very,, very 
good. Delate kloshe, — perfect: pure, ex- 
quisite; very good. Delate kumtuks, — 
sure; to prove; to know certainly. De- 
late pahtl, — ^brimfull; chockfull. Delate 
sick turn tum, — grief; very sad. Delate 
tenas sun, — dawn; daybreak. Delate 
yaka illahee, — a native; native land. De- 
late yaka kumtuks, — an expert. Delate 
nika wawa, — I am speaking the truth. 

Diaub, Deaub, Dahblo, or Taub, — (the 
devil) see Kejaub. 

Dly, or De-ly, ad. (E). Dry; arid; 


dryness. Example: Chahko dely, — to 
become dry. tfamook dely, — to dry. Dly 
tupao, — hay. 

Doc'-tln, n. (E). A doctor; a physi- 
cian ; snrareon. Eells says, "It almost 
universally refers to a white man, un- 
less some word is connected with it to 
qualify it." Example: ITika tikeflrh doc- 
tin, — I want the doctor. Siwasli doctin, 
— an Indian doctor or conjurer. Doctin 
kopa letah or teetli, — a dentist. Doctin 
kopa seabost,^ — an oculist. 

Dor-la, or Tahla, n. (E). A dollar; 
money; cash; funds. Example: Chika- 
min dolla, — silver; pil dolla, — gold; slt- 
knm dolla, — ^half a dollar. Dolla seahost, 
(silver eyes), — spectacles. .Klone dolla, 
— three dollars. Salo nika dolla, — I have 
no money. Ipsoot potlatch dolla kopa 
tyee,— to bribe. Kiyu dolla, — rich. Kil- 
apie dolla, — to refund. Knnjih dolla, — 
what price. 

Dutchman, n. (English,-idem). (A 
German; a Dutchman; almost any Euro- 
pean except a Frenchman or Englishman. 
—Eells.) ? 

E'-lip, or El'-ip, adv. (8). (Chehalis,- 
llip). First; before; the superlative; be- 
ffinninff; prior; ahead; senior; elder; for- 
mer; original. "The comparative is usu- 
ally formed by prefixing the word clip 
to the adjective, as kloshe, good; elip 
kloshe, better; skookum, strong; elip 
skookum, stronger; hiyu, many; elip hi- 
yu, more; tenas, small; elip tenas, small- 
er. The superlative is properly formed 
by adding the words kopa konoway, 
•than air to the comparative, as elip 
kloshe kopa konoway, better than all, 
1. e., the best." — Eells. "There is no 
such thing in Chinook as comparison by 
Inflection of a word as is the case in 
English (weak, weaker, weakest ,for ex- 
ample). This is done by means of the 
words elip or kimtah to indicate the com- 
parative degree (the word itself always 
indicating, as in English, the positive 
degree). Delayt added to the compara- 
tive form converts it into the superlative 
from. Slosh, elip klosh, delayt elip 
klosh. Klosh, kimtah klosh. Delayt kim- 
tah klosh." — Buchanan. "Comparison is 
expressed by a periphrasis. 'I am 
stronger than thou,' would be wake mika 
skookum kahkwa nika; lit., 'thou not 
stro'ng as I.' The superlative is indi- 
cated b^ adverbs; as hyas oleman okook 
canim, that canoe is the oldest, lit., 'very 
old that canoe." — Hale. (A few other 
ways of spelling the word elip; alip; 
ilip; ellip; ilep; ilips.) Ex.: Elip hyas,— 
larger; greater; major. Elip hyas kopa 
konoway, — largest; greatest. Elip hiyu, 

— more; majority; excess. Elip hiyu 
kopa konoway, — most; maximum. Elip 
keekwilee, — lower. Elip keekwilee kopa 
konoway, — lowest. Elip kloshe, — better; 
superior; more excellent. Elip kloshe 
kopa konoway, — best; supreme. Elip 
kloshe kopa okoke, — better than that. 
Elip sitkum sunr— forenoon. Elip tenas, 
— first born; minor; less; younger. Elip 
tenas kopa konoway, — least; youngest. 
Elip sagrhalie, — higher; upper. Elip saff- 
halie kopa konoway, — highest. Elip mes- 
achie, — worse. Elip mesachie kopa kono- 
way, — ^worst. Elip siah, — farther. Elip 
siah kopa konoway, — farthest. Elip 
tikeg>h, — to prefer; rather; choose. Elip 
wawa, — a preface; a prophecy. lUka 
klatawa elip, nika kimta, — you go first, I 
(will go) afterwards."— Eells. Ex.: "Elip 
sitkum tlntin, — before half an hour. Elip 
sitkum sun, — before noon; forenoon. 
Kimtah, — after; behind. Kimtah klosh, 
—worse. Kimtah skookum, — less strong; 
not so strong. Delasrt kinit>ah klosh, — 
worst. Delasrt kimtah skookum, — least 
strong. Elip tahkum tlntin, — ^before six 
o'clock. Kimtah t>ahkuni tlntin, — after 
six o'clock. Tahkum tlntin, — six o'clock, 
six hours. Wake siah tahkum tlntin, — 
almost six o'clock; not far away from 
six o'clock." — Buchanan. 

En'-«b-ti, eneti, eenati, or Inatl, adv., 
prep. (C). (Chinook,-inatai). Across; 
beyond; opposite to; on the other side 
of. Ex.: Nika tikegh klatawa enati 
kopa chuck, — I wish to go across the 
water. Taka mitlite enati kopa city, — 
he lives opposite to the city. 


Oet-up, or Ket-op, v. (E). To ffet up; 
rise; risen. 

Olease, n. (E). Grease; fat or oil. Ex- 
ample: Kiyu fflease, — very fat; too- 
toosh glease, — butter; please piah, — 
candle. See. also, Inkles. 


Ka'h-lakl, v.. adj. (C). (Chlnook,-hal- 
akl). Wide; open. Example: ICamook 
hahlakl la pote, — open the door; chahko 
hahlakl (as of the woods), to open out; 
become less dense. Mamook hahlakl, — 
to open. 

Kak'-at-shum, n. (E). A handker- 

Ka'-lo, adj. (Quaere u. d. not Chinook). 
Kot; none; absent; no; all ffone; devoid; 
vacant; without. Example: Ques. Halo 
salmon mika? — have you no fish? Ans. 
Halo, — none. Ques. Kah mika papa?^ 


where is your father? Ana. Halo, — he 
is out. Saio wind, — ^breathless; dead. 
Halo fflease, — lean. Halo iktalis, — ^poor; 
destitute; no groods. Halo mitlite, — 
nothing remains; empty. Halo seahost, 
— (no eyes), blind. Halo dolla, — without 
money. Taka wind clialco lialo, — to die: 
he is dead, (literally, — his wind is all 
gone). Eells says: "Generally a more 
sure way of speaking of death than to 
say *Taka mimolTuie," — he is dead; be- 
cause the latter sometimes means sus- 
pended animation; but the former never." 
Halo ohako, — to linger; not to come. 
Halo delate knmtaks, — to be in doubt; to 
be obscure. Halo Imloima, — ultimate; 
nothing different. Halo liyae malikook, — 
cheap; not very dear. Halo iktaa, — 
nothing. Halo kab, — nowhere. Halo 
kmntnkSf — to misunderstand; not to 
know. Halo nika kwasa kopa yaka, (lit- 
erally, — I am not afraid of him, — he is 
reliable). Halo nika tikeflrh,— I don't 

Note: (Halo) A negative. It means 
much the same as wake. Probably prop- 
erly wake means no, and lialo all gone, 
but on Puget Sound halo is used for 
no, the same as wake is in Oregon and 
other localities. Custom uses halo in 
Bome combinations and wake in others, 
and both in some. On Puget Sound, 
wake kloshe is proper. The indefinite 
pronouns are knnamoKt, — ^both; halo, 
—none; konoway, — all; hlytit — much or 
many; tenaji, — few or little; hulolma, — 

Haul, V. (E). (Enffllsh,-idem). To 
haul or poll; draw; hrlncr; dUr; piok; 
dragr; subtract; tow; attract; extract. 
Used with the active verb mamook; as. 
mjunook haul. Example: Mamook haul 
wapato, — to dig potatoes. BCamook haul 
tenas mAU kopa school, — to bring the boy 
to school. Bkookum mamook haul, — 
must. Mamook haul yaka tumtum, — to 
Induce him. 

Kee'-hee, or he-he, n., adj., v. (J). 
(By onoma., hihi). Kaufifhter; amuse- 
ment; to laufiTh; fun; a srame; gay; gig- 
frle; glee; mirth; humor; humorous; 
eirity; merry; to deride; ridicule; romp; 
■port. Commonly when used as a verb 
it is preceded by mamook (which see 
below) but not always. Ex.: Mamook 
heehee, — to laugh; play; amuse; deride; 
mock; make fun; ridicule. Hahta mlka 
heehee? — why do you laugh? Cultus 
heehee, — a joke; jest; laughter without 
much cause for it; an innocent game. 
Hloshe heehee, — a good game. Heehee 
house, — a house for amusement; a play 
house; a dance house. Heehee lemah, — 
to gamble. Heehee tumtum, — ^Jolly. 
Wake heehee, — serious. 

Help, v., n. (Engllsh,-idem). As a 
verb it is commonly preceded by ma- 
mook, but not always. Help; aid; as- 
sistance; relief; to help; aid; assist; re- 

lieve. Ex.: Mamook help, — to aid; as- 
sist; relieve; enable. Fotlatch help, — 
console; help; accommodate; uphold. 

Hias, — great. See Hyas. Hiyu, — 
much. See Hylu. 

Hooehooe, — seeHuyhuy. 

Hool-hool, n. (C). (Chinook,-Kholkhol; 
Klikatat,-Khoilkhoil). A mouse. (Hyas 
hoolhool (big mouse), a rat.) (The word 
Is obsolete now.) 

Rouse, n. (E). ▲ house; home; resi- 
dence; building; cottage; den. Example: 
Mahkook house, — ^a store; Boston house, 
— an American-built house, as distin- 
guished from a lodge. Mahkook house 
(trading house), shop. Muckamuck 
house, — a restaurant; tavern; hotel. 
Skookum house, — a prison; Jail; peni- 
tentiary. Slwash house, — a lodge; an 
Indian house. Sail house kopa snass, — 
an umbrella. Fapeh house, — ^a post 
office. Tyee kopa papeh house, — a post- 

Hul-lel, V. (C). (Chinook,-idem). To 
tremble; to shake. Used with the verb 
mamook, as, — ^Bftaonook hullel, it be- 
comes active. 

Hul-oM-mia, n.. adj. (C). (Chinook,- 
S'hulloyiba). Qther; another; diiTerent; 
dilTerence; averse; diverse; eccentric; 
foreign; odd; separate; strange; aueer; 
unusual. Example: Huloima tilikum, — 
a different tribe or people. Hyas huloi- 
ma, — very different; mystery. Taka la- 
lang huloima kopa nesika lalang, — his 
language is different from our language. 
Klatawa kopa huloima iUahee, — to emi- 
grate. Kopa hulohna, — alibi. Huloima 
tumtum, — dissent; a different mind. 
Huloima wawa, — a different language; or 
forign language; to mispronounce. 

Humm, n., v., adj. (J). An invented 
word. Bad odor; a stink or smell; to 
stink; a bckl smell; scent; stench; filthy; 
putrid; an odor. Ex.: Humm opoots, — 
(stinking tail) — a skunk. Taka humm, 
— it smells, bad. Hloshe humm, — a 
pleasant smell. Hyas humm, — dirty; a 
very bad smell. Mamook humm,— to 
scent; to smell. 

Hny-huy, n.. v. (J). (Canadian 
French,-Hui-hui). A bargain or ex- 
change; to barter or trade. Example: 
Huyhuy la sell, — change the saddle. 
Huyhuy tumtum, — to change one's 
mind. (Mr. Anderson says this is a 
cant word of the Canadians, signifying 
a hasty exchange.) Its origin has been 
snergested in oui oul, yes yes. Example: 
Hika tikegh huyhuy kiuitan, — I wish to 
trade horses. Mamook huyhuy,-r-to 
change; to trade. (Imp., change.) (Huy- 
huy is also spelled. — hoehoe, hoeyhoey, 
hooehoo, hooehooe, huihul, oihoi, huehu.) 

Hy-ak', adv., also used as imperative. 
(C). (Chinook,-Ai-ak). Swift; fast; 
quickly; hurry; make haste; hasten; 
prompt; sudden; suddenly; speed; anick; 
quickly. Ex.: Hyak sraka chako, — ^he 


came quickly. Kyak ohakOy — imp. come 
quick. Halo or Wake liyak, — slow; mod- 
erate; slowly. (Other ways of spelling: 
Kyak, — aiak; hlaok; liyaok; liyuo; lake; 

S[7-as% adj., adv. (H). (Probably cor- 
rupted from the following, — Syin.) 
XMg9; great; "very; the gemeTUl term for 
■ise; wide; biff; arduous; ^ast; cele- 
brated- X^zample: SCyae tyee, — a great 
chief. Kyas mabcook, — a great price; 
dear. Kyas klosbe, — very good. Okoke 
house sraka hsras, — that house is large. 
Srika hyas tikegb. klatawa, — I very much 
wish to go. Kyas abnkuttie, — ancient; 
anciently; a very long time ago; longer. 
If a long, strong accent is placed on the 
last syllable of hyas, and first of ahn- 
kuttie. SCyas klosbe time, — a very good 
time; a festival. Kunsib byas, — how 
large? what size? SCyas tenas, — very 
small; very short. Kyas Sunday, — 
Christmas; Fourth of July; Tbanksgiy- 
inff. (Other spellings: Alas; aias; baias; 
bias; biass>) 

S[y-iu', or Ki-yu, adj. (IT). (Nootka,- 
lyahish) — by Jewett. (Tokwabt,-aiya). 
Jewett also gives bye as the Nootka 
word for ten. Mucb; many; plenty; 
•nouffb; abundance; plentiful; ample; a 
pUe; the sign of the plural; term of 
quantity or multitude. x:zample: Syiu 
tilikum, — a crowd; many people. Kyiu 
tnuckamuck, — aplenty to eat. Tenas byiu, 
— several; some. Wake byiu, — not 
many or not much; a few; seldom. 
Kopet byiu, — enough. Kiyu times, — fre- 
quently. Hiyu wawa, — clamor; accla- 
mation; excitement; to argue; talkative. 
Siyu tillikums kopa bouse, — an audi- 
ence. (Other spellings: Kieu, baiu, 
bjoo, hjXL, barue, byyu, bui (Winthrop. 
— probably misprint for biu), aio, aiu, 

Zk-poo'-ie, V. (C). (Cbinook,-Ikhpui). 
To sbut; close; stop; cork; closed sbut. 
Ex.: Ikpooie la pote, — shut the door. 
Xamook ikpooie, — to surround; to shut; 
Zkpooie kwolan, — deaf; a closed ear. 

Zkt, or Icbt, adj. (O). (Cbinook,-Ikht). 
One; once; a unit. Used also as the in- 
definite article, a or an. Sz.: Ikt man, — 
a man. Zkt-ikt man, — some one or other: 
here and there one. Ikt cole, — a year. 
Zkt nika klatawa kopa yabka bouse. — 
I have been once to his house. Zkt 
kwabta,— a quarter. Zkt tahlkie, — day 
before yesterday. Zkt tnkamonuk, — one 
hundred. Ikt time ikt moon, — monthly. 
Zkt time Itopa klone moon, — quarterly. 
Kopet ikt, — ^private; alone; singly; soli- 
tary; only one. 

Zk'-tah, or Ikta, pron. (C). (Cbinook,- 

Ikta). (Hale says, "same as kabta, 
what; why.) Wbat. "The interrogative 
pronouns are klaska, — who? Kabta or 
Iktah, — ^wbat? and Kunsib, — how many 
or how much? The latter is also used 
for wb«n? — i. e.. how much time, how 
many days?" — Hale. Example: Iktab 
okook?— What is that? Iktab mika ti- 
kegrb? — ^What do you want? Iktab? — 
Well, what now? Iktab mamook? — 
What's the matter? Iktab mika ma- 
mook? — ^What are you doing? 

Ik'-tas, or Iktabs, n. (from preceding). 
Tbingw; garments; dress; a tbing; goods; 
mercbandlse; dotbing'; utensils; bag- 
ffag'e; attire; fabric; occasionally the 
singular Iktab is used, though not often. 
The use of the same word for wbat and 
for tbtng's, has been noticed in some 
other languages of this coast. "A very 
expressive word and often adopted into 
English where the Chinook is used." — 
Eells. Ex. : Kab mika iktas, — where are 
your things? Ralo ikta mitlite, — there 
is nothing here. "Do not confuse iktab, 
meaning 'what,' with iktabs, meaning 
'goods, chattels, possessions, merchan- 
dise,' etc." — Buchanan. Kika biyu iktas, 
— I have plenty of goods. 

n'-la-bee, niibie, or niabe, n. (C). 
(Cbinook,-ilahekh). ]band; country; 
eartb; soil; dirt; region; district; farm; 
field; clay; sbore; rancb. Example: 
Okoke illabee jraka byas klosbe, — this 
land is very good. Boston illabee, — the 
United States. Delate yaka illabee,— na- 
tive land. Klnff Oeorg'e illabee, — Eng- 
land. Pasaiooks illabee, — France. Kono- 
way akoke illabee, — the world. Kono- 
way illabee konowab kab, — the universe. 
Dutcbman yaka illabee, — Germany; near- 
ly any part of Europe except Prance 
and England. Sag-baUe Tyee yaka illa- 
bee, — Heaven. Siwasb illabee, — an In- 
dian reservation. Illabee wake slab 
kopa cbuok, — the coast. Kab mika illa- 
bee? — where is your land? Where do 
you live? Saffbalie illabee,— Heaven. 
Keekwulee illabee,— Hell. 

Zn'-a-poo, or Ee'-na-poo, n. (C). (Cbi- 
nook,-inapu). A louse. (Bopen inapoo, 
— Jump-louse; a flea.) 

Inati, — see ZSnati. 

Ip'-soot, or Ip-sut, V. (C.) (Cbinook,- 
Alhupso). To bide one's self, or any- 
tbln^; to keep secret; to conceal; bide; 
bid; sly; concealed. Example: Ipsoot 
klatawa, — to steal off; slip away. Ip- 
soot wawa,— to whisper. 

Is'-ick, n. (C). Cblnook,-Isik.) A 
paddle; an oar (occasionally). Exam- 
ple: Mamook isick, — to paddle. Isick 
stick, — the ash, or alder, maple, or the 
elm; wood from which paddles are made. 

Is'-kum, V. (C). Obinook,-idem.) To 
take bold of; bold; ffet; receive; accept; 
secure; catcb; recover; obtain; seize. 
Example: Iskum okook lope,— hold on 


to that rope. Mlka n» isknm?— did you 
g:et it? Zsknin piah irtiok, — get some 
firewood. ZskmiL klooto]mia&« — to get 
married. Zskniii knmtiiks, — to learn. 
Iskniii kopa tTuntnxn, — to believe. FQt- 
latoli nlka, — give me. Iskmn, — take it. 
Kak mlka iBkimi? — where did you get it? 
Nika iskam kopa vtiok, — ^I got it in the 

Zt'-lo-kmii, n. (C). (Ckinook»-idem). 
(l^ower Cke]ialUis,-Ihtlkum; Ckehalis,- 
Setlokum). Tke game of ''hand," — a 
common amassment; a mods of gam- 
bling. Mamook itlokom, — to gamble. 

Ztr-wU-Ue, nwlUls, or ZtlwiUs, n. (C). 
(Chlnookf-Etlwili). Msat; flssli; mnsols 
(of a psrson or animal). Bzampls: 
Xonaway nika itlwillis siok, — all my 
flesh is sore. 1«smooto yaka itlwillis, — 
mutton. ICoosmoos yaka itlwillis, — beef. 
Mowitck sraka itlwillis, — ^venison. Tsnas 
moosmoos yaka itlwillis, — veal. .(Bes- 
ahts (Indian); Bik-atts,— flesh)— Bu- 

Zts'-woot, Itoh-wood, or Xtskoot, n. 
(C). CChinookv-eitshhut). A bsar; a 
black bsar. Eauunpls: Ztswoot pansssis, 
— thick, dark cloth or blankets. 


Sail, adv. (C). (Clilnook,-kakh). 
Wksrs; wksncs; wkitlisr. Exampls: Kak 
mlka klatawa? — where are you going? 
Halo kah, — nowhere. Konoway kah, — 
everywhere. Xak cols ckako, — North. 
Kak sun chako, — Kast. Kak sun klata- 
wa,— West. Kak Sim mituts kopa sit- 
knm sun, — South. Kak sraka sick? — 
where is he sick? what is the matter? 
Kak mlka mitlite? — where do you live? 
Xak mlka illakse? — where do you live? 
where is your land? Xak mlka ckako, — 
whence come you? 

Xab'-kwa, adj. (N). (Xootka, Tok 
wabt,-achko.) Klks; similar to; s^nal 
witb; as; so; tbns; allks; becauss; hence; 
inasmuck; snck. Bzampls: Xakkwa 
nika tomtom, — so I think (literally, such 
(is) my heart). Xakkwa tyss, — aristo- 
cratic. Xakkwa kyas nika, — as large as 
I. Salo kakkwa, — not like that; unlike. 
Xakkwa sposs, — as if. Xlosks kakkwa, 
— that is right; (amen, good so); that 
is good; that will do. Delate kakkwa, — 
exactly the same. Xopst kakkwa, — that 
is all. Taka kakkwa, — alike. Bells says: 
"(lEakkwa is often used with other 
words, especially nouns, thus changing 
them into adverbs, and occasionally ad- 
jectives, as in the following phrases: 
Xakkwa cbikamin, — metallic. Xakkwa 
cole Ulakaa, — wintry. Xakkwa okock, — 
fluid; liquid. Xakkwa tilllkom,— friend- 

Xahp'-ho n. (C). (Cinook,-idem.) An 
elder brotker, slater, or coiuiln. 

Xak'-ta, adv. (C). Okinook,-Kata). 
How; why. Bzample: Xakta mlka 
mamook okook? — why do you do that? 
Xakta mlka ckakko? — how did you come? 
Xakta mika? — what is the matter with 
you? how are you? Be kakta? — and 
why so? what for? Xakta kopa yaka? — 
how is he? 

Xa-li'-tan, n. (C). Ckinookf-Tklaitan). 
an arrow; akot; a bullet. Bxample: 
Xalltaa le sac, — a quiver; a shot-pouch. 
"An arrow, originally, but when guns 
were introduced the meaning changed to 
shot, and bullet, and sometimes lead." — 

Xa-lak'-a-la, Xul-lak'-a-la, Xul'-la-kul'- 
la, n. (C). (Okinook,-kalakala). A bird; 
fowl; insect; winir. (The accent some- 
times being on the second, and some- 
times on the first and third syllables. — 
Eells. Hots. — "The different ways in 
which some words are spelled is a 
curiosity, and simply show what educat- 
ed men will do in this line when they 
have no standard authority. Very sel- 
dom is any word, even the simplest and 
easy one, spelled in the same way, if it 
is found in several dictionaries, while 
some of them are spelled in very many 
different ways." — Eells. Otker ways of 
spelling kalakala: Culaoula; kallakala; 
kalahkalah; kilakila; kulakula; kulluka- 
la; cullaculla; cullsrouller; cullacullak; 
kullakullle; kullukulUe; kulakulla, etc. 
An examination of many dictionaries 
will show among other words, — klonas, 
spelled in ten different ways; aknkuttie 
and keewulee, each in twelve; klootck- 
man and kllminawkit, each in fifteen; 
klatawa, seakost, and mimolnse, each in 
sixteen; taktlom, kalakala, and kilapi, 
each in eighteen; and konjlk in nineteen 
different ways; lejaub is in twelve ways, 
and ooakut in fourteen, but they show 
a wide variety of sound, Isjaub being 
also dabble, diaub, derb, leiom, and 
yaub; and ooakut being kooikut, wayknt, 
wehkut, and oykut. Kven words which 
are derived from the English generally 
have different spellings as soon as the 
standard English authority is left, so 
that glease from grease becomes glssse, 
gleece, glis, and klls; bed is also spelled 
pet; moon is also mun; nose is also nos; 
stone is also ston; stocking is also stock- 
en, staken, and stoken; sun is also son; 
Sunday is also sante; tea is also tl; 
pekpak (paper) is also papek, paper, 
paypa, papak, and papa, and peppak; 
and warm also is spelled waum, wam, 
wakm, and wawm. Shot, skin, man, and 
a few others have for almost a wonder 
found no other way of being spelled. 
There are three reasons for this differ- 
ence which may be made when the same 
sound of the letters is preserved, thus 


may be wanm or w«wm and still 
preserve the same sound of a. Again, 
-when any writer adopts a regular sched- 
ule of sounds for each vowel, he will 
surely differ in spelling from those who 
attempt to follow as near as possible 
the Bnglish mode of spelling. Boas, 
St. Onge, and to a considerable degree 
Durien have done this, hence tea be- 
comes ti; pooUe, pull, and so on. Still 
farther different modes of pronunciation 
in different localities, and sometimes in 
ttie same locality, are the cause of dif- 
ferent ways of spelling. Thip is espe- 
cially seen in the words already referred 
to, ooaknt, and lejan1>; so kloshe becomes 
tlnsii or tlooa, and also a large number 
beginning with kl begin with tl in an- 
other place; talilkie becomes tahnUde, 
and so on. Sometimes indeed it is very 
difficult to discover the true sound, as 
for instance, whether the first syllable 
of kalakala should be spelled with an 
a or Of or the last one of tukanionuk 
with an a or n, and so on. The mode of 
pronunciation, and hence the mode of 
spelling, has undoubtedly changed some- 
what since Parker in 1835-6 wrote the 
first vocabulary. Hence in comparing 
the ways of spelling the reader ought to 
remember the place where, the date 
when, and the system of pronunciation, 
especially of vowel sounds adopted by 
each writer." — Sells. 

"As will be seen, the orthography of the 
Jargon is unsettled and capricious. Most 
•writers spell Indian and French words 
•by tl^e ear,' but use the ordinary English 
spelling for the English words comprised 
in the language, without regard to uni- 
formity.^ . .Some writers, however, re- 
tain in the Jargon the 'digraph' ffh, to 
express, in some words of Chinook ori- 
grin, the sound of the German guttural oh 
in Buoh." — Hale. "As the Jargon is to 
be spoken by Englishmen and French- 
men, and by Indians of at least a dozen 
tribes, so as to be alike easy and intel- 
ligible to all, it must admit no sound 
which cannot be readily pronounced by 
all. The numerous harsh Indian gut- 
turals either disappear entirely, op are 
softened to h and k, (see note above). 
On the other hand, the d, f» g, t, v, s, 
of the English and French become in 
the mouth of a Chinook, t, p, k, 1, w, and 
0. The English J, (dzh), is changed lo 
chf (tsh). The French nasal n, is drop- 
ped, or is retained without its nasal 
sound. In writing the Indian words, 
the gutturals are expressed by g'li (or 
kh) and q,, and the vowels have their 
Italian sound." — Hale. 

Kam'-aMi, or Ka'-kam-ass, n. (N). The 
Scilla Esonlenta, — a bulbous root used 
for food by the Indians, sometimes called 
Siwash onion. (Jewitt gives *Chaiua«s" 
as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, 
or pleasant to the taste.) (^aoamasa is 

the name of a place in Clarke County, 
Wash.) (A few other ways of spelling 
kamaaa: .Ganuui, kamas, lakamas, lak- 
ammas, camaah, kamaaa, laokaxnaa. 
"Cammassa esculenta, or la cammass, 
(as the French call it)." — Swan. 

Xa'in-ooks, n. (G). (Ghlnook,-Klka- 
bokes). A dog'. Kahkwa kamooks, — like 
a dog; beastly. 

Sap-awal-la, or Xap-gu-al-la, v. n. 
(Quaere n. 0.) To eteal: rob; a theft. 
Szample: Kapswalla klatawa, — to steal 
away. Xapvwalla manLOOk, — to do se- 
cretly. Wake kloshe mika kapswaUa, — 
(not good you steal) Thou shalt not 
steal. Halo knmtiilui kapawalla, or wake 
kapswalla, — to be honest. "Sapshwala> 
before wawa means to speak ill; with 
tlatoa (klatawa) it means to run away; 
with maaom, to commit adultery." — St. 

Xa't-auk, or Ko't-suk, n. (G). (Ghi- 
nook,-idem). The middle or centre of 

Xau'-p7, n. (E). Goffee. 

Kee'-kwu-lee, or Kee'-kwil-lie, prep. 
(G). (GhinookrKik'hwili). £ow; below; 
under; beneath; down; Inward. Example: 
Mamook keekwUUe,— to lower. MitUte 
keekwilliei — to set down; put under. (Not 
used in the sense of "down stream.") 
Elip keekwnlee, — lower. Elip keekwnlee 
kopa konoway, — lowest. Klatawa keek- 
wnlee kopa ohucky — to dive. MahJih keek- 
wnlee kopa illahee, — to bury. 

BUl'-a-pi, or Ker-a-pl, or Za-la-pi, v. 
(G). (GhlnookrKelapai). To turn; re- 
turn; overturn; upeet; reveree; retreat; 
oapglze. Example: Kilapl oanim, — to 
upset a canoe. Kyak kllapi, — come back 
quickly. Silapi kopa house, — go back 
to the house. Mika kilapi alta» — have 
you returned now? Mamook kilapi, — to 
bring, send, or carry back. Kilapi doUa, 
— to pay; repay. Kilapi tumtum, — to 
change one's mind. (A few ways of 
spelling kilapi: Kelapie; keelapl; keela- 
pie; keelapy; kilapie; kilapal; killapie; 
kilapy; killpie; kilUpie; kyelapai; kilapa; 
klips; etc.) 

Kim'-ta, or Kim-tah, prep. (G). (Ghi- 
nookf-Kimta). Behind; after; after- 
wards; last; since; back; rear; subse- 
quent; younflrer. Example: Klatawa 
kimtah, — go behind; to follow. Delate 
kimta, — last. Nika elip, pe yakka kim- 
tah, — I first, and he afterwards. Okook 
kimtah, — the one behind. Kimta ow, — a 
younger brother. Kimtah. nika nannitsh 
mika, — since I saw you. Kimtah sitkum 
sun, — afternoon. Kimta kloshe, — worse. 

KinfiT Ghautsh, or Klnff O^orge, King* 
Oawg'e, adj. (E). (Engllsh,-King George). 
EnffUsh. King* chautshman, — an Eng- 

Kish-kish, V. (G). (Ghinook,-idem). To 
drive, as cattle or horses. Ex.: Mamook 
kishkish, — to drive, or impel, but often 
used as imperitive. — as, Taka kishkish 



ttika, — he drove me away. Xaxnook klsli- 
mh okoke moosinoos, — drive away that 

Kln'-a-tani or Snltaxi, n. (G). (Clilnook, 
-ikiuatan). A horse. Ex.: Klatawa 
kopa kultan, — to ride. Taka hsras kloshe 
knltan? — Is that a very good horse? 
Cooley knitan, — a race horse. Stone knl- 
taiif— a stallion. 

Klali, adj., v. (G). (Gliinook,2Klakh). 
Free or dear from; in aigrht; to eacai>e. 
Example: Oliee yakka klab, — now he is 
in sight. Klatawa klah, — to escape, as 
a prisoner. Chaliko klah (of seed), — to 
come up; (of the woods), — to open out; 
(of the weather), — to clear up. Mamook 
klah, — ^to uncover. (Mr. Anderson gives 
as the original meaning, — to open out or 
appear. ) 

Kla'-ha-nle, or Slah-hanle, or Klaffh- 
anle, adv. (G). (Chlnook,-Klakhani). Ont 
of doors; ont; withont; outside; exterior. 
x;xample: Mamook klahanie okook, — put 
that out. Chako klahanlOi — to emerge; 
get out; to be delivered. Klatawa kla- 
hanie, — to go out. Mahsh klahanie, — to 
throw out; deliver; eject. Klahanie kopa 
house, — out doors. 

Kla-ho'w-ya, adv. (G). The ordinary 
salutation at meetinsr or parting. How 
do you do? good evening; good day; 
good morning; good-bye; as, Klahowya 
Sikhs, — good day, friend. Kahta mika, — 
how are you? Kah mika house? — where 
is your house? Kah mika chako?— 
whence come you? Kah mika klatawa? 
— where are going? Mika na kumtnks 
alki snass? — do you think it will rain? 
aalo, — no. Nawitka, — yes. Kiahowya, — 
good-bye. Mahsie, — thanks. 

Kla-ho'w-ynm, adj., n. (C). (Chinook,- 
Klahauia). Poor; miserable; wretched; 
compannion; distress. Example: Hyas 
klahowyum nika, — I am very poor. Ma- 
mook klahowyum, — to take pity on; give 
alms; be generous. Also to impoverish; 
make poor, (the sense in which it is 
used depends on the connection and cir- 
cumstances). "The salutation above giv- 
en probably originated in some whining 
reply to the first whites, and a distinc- 
tion has since arisen between the two 
modes of spelling, which is. however, 
purely arbitrary." — Gibbs. Eells says: 
"Gibbs. Gill, Hibben, Tate, and Swan give 
Klahowoya as the word for salutation, 
and Klahowyum for poor, but I have 
never been able to see any difference. In 
the Willamette Valley in 1850 and after- 
•wards, we always used Klahowyum for 
both, and I never heard Klahowya. On 
Puget Sound for about twenty years we 
have used ftlahowya for both; and I 
have seldom heard Klahowyum." (A few 
other ways of spelling Klahowya and 
Klahowyum: Glahoyma; klahaiyam; kla- 
haiiam; klahowyah; klahowyou; klah- 
ya; klahyam; klahyeam; klahyeyah; 
thlaooca; tlaquaya; klahum; klahiyon, — 

and so on in many other ways.) 

Klah-wa, adv. (G). (Ghinook,-kla- 
wakh). Slow; slowly; tardy. Ex.: Klat- 
wa klahwa> — go slowly. Taka ohako 
klehwa, — he comes slowly. 

Klak, adv. (G). (Ghinook,-klakw). 
Off; ont; away; (to take) off. 

Klak'-sta, or Kluk'-sta, pron. (G). 
(Ghinook,-t'kluksta). Who; whose; 

which; which one; any. Ex.: Klaksta 
yahwa? — who is there? Halo klaksta, — 
no one; none; not any; nobody. Klaksta 
mamook okoke, — who made or did that? 
Zkt man, klonas klaksta, — somebody. 
Konoway klaksta, — everyone. 

Klale, or Tlclale, adj. (G). (Ohinook,- 
Tlehl). Black, or dark hlne, or green; 
brown; ignorant. Example: Okoke pasee- 
sie yaka klale, — that blanket i^ black. 
Klale nika tumtum, — my mind is igno- 
rant. Sitkum-klale, — brown. Wake siah 
klale, — purple. Klale chuck kopa ma- 
mook tzum, — ink. 

Klap, V. (O). (C!hinook,-Klap). To 
find; arrive. Example: Mika na klap 
mika kiuatan? — did you find your horse? 
Nika klap Seattle kopa pdaklie, — I ar- 
rived at Seattle at night. Klap tenas, — 
to be with child. Klap tumtum, — to de- 
cide; to recollect; remember. Klap wa- 
wa, — to learn a language. 

Klas'-ka, or Klus^-ka, pron. (G). (Ghi- 
nook,-Kluska.) Ansrthlng' pertaining' to 
the third person, plural numher; they; 
thine; them; their; theirs. Example: 
Klaska klatawa kopa Glallam illahee, — 
they went to the Clallam land. Nika 
nanitsh klaska, — I see them. Okoke 
klaska ilahee,— this is their land. 

KlaV-a-wa, v. (N). (Nootka,-Klattur- 
wah.) (Jewitt.) (Nittinat,-Klatoukh.) 
To go; travel; attend; flow; miirrate; 
start; tread; leave; hegtme; eret ont; de- 
part. Example: Klatawa teahwit, — to 
walk; go on foot. Taka klatawa kopa 
Tacoma, — he went to Tacoma. Klatawa 
kopa kiuatan, — to ride. Ghee klatawa, 
— to start. Klatawa kopa hoat, — to sail ; 
to go in a boat. Mamook klatawa, — to 
send. (A few of the numerous ways 
of spelling Klatawa: Clatawah; clatta- 
wah; claterwar; clatterwar; clattarwar; 
clatawar; clatua; clatuwa; klatawah; 
klatoa; klatwa; tlatoa; tlatowa; and 

Kllm-in'-awhit, n., v. (G). (Chinook,- 
Kliminawhut.) A lie; to lie; falsehood; 
untrue. Example: Kyas kumtuks 
kliminawhit, — he is a great liar (liter- 
ally, he knows well how to lie). Taka 
kwanesum kliminawhit, — ^he always lies. 
(Also spelled: Kllminacnt; kliminwhit; 
kliminkwhit; kliminawit; klaminawit; 
klaminawhit; clementikote; tlemena- 
whit; tleminwhit; kliminwit; and oth- 

Klim'-min, adj. (G). (Chinook,-Tkle- 
min-tklemin.) Soft; fine in suhstance; 
not hard; fine; little. (The reduplica- 



tion denotes the diminutive, but in Jar- 
gon it is generally used singly.) Ex- 
ample: Slimmin sapolell, — flour. Ghako 
kUmmiii, — to melt; become soft. Sllxn- 
mJii lllaMe, — mud; marshy ground. 
"Wake kUmml&f or halo klimiuin, — hard. 
ICamook kUmmln, — to soften as by 
dressing a skin. 

KUp, adj. (C). (Ghinook,-Kelipe Ghi- 
liftlls,-Klnptutl; Visaaall7,-Klep.) Deep; 
■unken; to sink. x;za]iiple: Klip clinck, 
— deep water. Klip aun, — sunset. 

Klia'-kwlM, n. (G). (CliliLOOk,-idem.) 
A mat, (made of the cattail rush.) Ex- 
ample: SUskwias yaka kloalie kopa 
bedf — the mat is good for a bed. 

Klo-naa, adv. (O). Glilnook,-idem.) 
(Expression of uncertainty or doubt.) 
Pexliaps; Z don't know; may be so; wko 
knows? It is doubtful; mlglit; may. 
Equivalent to the Spanish quien sabe. 
"The potential mode is Indicated by the 
word, klonas." — Eells. Example: Slo- 
naaa nika klatawa, — perhaps I shall go. 
Kah mika kahpho? — where is your 
brother? Slonass, — I don't know. Mika 
tumtum kiyu anasa okoke sun? — do you 
think it will rain much today? Slonas, 
— I do not know. Klonas yaka chako 
tomoUOi— ^perhaps he will come tomor- 
row. (Other ways of spelling Slonaa; 
Klonass; olonaH; olnnas; kloneaa; kloo- 
nas; tlonas; tklnnajis, etc.) 

Klone, adj. (G). (G]iinook,-Tklon.) 
Tlixee. (Other spellings: None; clone; 
cloak; kloon; thlune; tlon, etc.) 

Kloahe, or Sloahf adj., adv. (N). 
CHootka, Tokwaliti-klohtl; Makali,-klot- 
elo, or klotello; Glooslir(Meares); Nla- 
4iially,-klob. ) A very expressive word; 
has 45 meanings.) Qood; well; well 
enon^li; affable; amiable; apt; anapi- 
cioaa; beautiful; beloved; beneficial; con- 
venient; efllcient; elegant; even; fedr; 
fine; fortunate; fragrant; gay; graceful; 
lioapitable; meek; intimate; kind; mild; 
modest; moral; neat; nice; pleasant; 
plain; please; practical; pretty; right; 
reliable; safe; respectable; secure; still; 
smooth; splendid; useful; upright; vir- 
tuous; untarnished. Ex.: Sloshe nan- 
nitsh, — look out; take care; guard; de- 
fend; nurse; watch; provide. Delate hy- 
aa kloshe, — magnificent. Elip kloshe, — 
better; superior. Kyas kloshe, — very 
well; very good; grand; superb. Elip 
kloshe kopa konoway, — best; supreme. 
Mamook kloshe, — adorn; appease; ar- 
range; behave; cure; fix; decorate; pre- 
pare; repair. Mitlite kloshe tumtum, — 
to congratulate; enjoy; be contented. 
"Wake kloshCf — unkind; not good; unfa- 
vorable; wrong; nasty; naughty. Wake 
kloshe kopa mahkook, — unsalable. 
Sloshe kopa mahkook, — merchantable. 
Sloshe kopa nika, — I am satisfied. 
Sloshe kopa oultus potlatch, — generous; 
good about giving; liberal. Kloshe ko- 
pet, — be still. Kloshe mitlite, — hold on; 

remain. Kloshe tumtum, — love; delight: 
happy; favor; cordial; friendly. Kloshe 
chako, — all right; come on. Kloshe kah- 
kwa> — well; enough; all right; amen. 
Kloshe tumtum mika chako,— an invita- 
tion; a welcome. (Other ways of spell- 
ing Kloshe: Glose; dosche; douch; 
klosche; klose; kloosh; tloos; tlosh; 
tliuh;; cloosh, and others.) 

Kloshc-spose, adv. (N. and B.). (Voot- 
ka,-klohtl; English,-suppose.) Shall or 
may Z; let me; good if. Example: 
Kloshe-spose nikfi mamook pia okook? — 
shall I cook that? (literally, (is it) good 
that I may cook that?) .Kloshe-spose 
nika klatawa?— shall I go? 

Klootch-man, n. (V). (Vootka and Tok- 
waht,-Klutsma.) A wo&um; madam; 
wife; mijrtress; a lady; a female of any 
animaL Example: Kah mika klootch- 
num? — where is your wife? .Tenas 
klootchman, — a girl; virgin; maiden; 
daughter; lass; used generally with ref- 
erence to all girls and women who are 
not married, and sometimes with refer- 
ence to young married women. Klootch- 
man kiuatan, — a mare. Tans yaka tenas 
klootchman, — a granddaughter. Klootch- 
man yaka ats, — a sister-in-law. Klootch- 
man yaka mama,— a mother-in-law. 
Klootchman yaka ow, — a brother-in-law. 
Klootchman yaka papa, — a father-in- 
law. (A few other ways in which the 
word is spelled: Gloooheman; clooche- 
min; olootchman; oloachman; dotshe- 
man; kloochman; kleutchman; tlatche- 
man; tluchmen; klouohmaoi, etc.) 

Ko, V. (G). (Chinook,-idem.) To reach; 
arrive at. Example: Ghee klaska ko, — 
they have just come. Kansih nesika ko 
kopa Nisqually?— when shall we reach 
Nisqually? Tahlkie sun nika ko kopa 
Olympia, — yesterday I arrived at Olym- 

Kok'-shut, V. (V). <Nootka,-Kakh- 
shetl; Kloakwat,-Kwachitl.) (In the 
original dead.) To break; broken; to 
beat; hit; bruise; burst; cleave; hurt; 
demolished; knock; rap: tear; torn; 
kick; slap; shatter; split; bruised; a 
break. Eells says: "Oft^n mamook Is 
used with it to make it an active verb; 
and chako, a verb in the passive voice, — 
but not always. Thus,-^Nika kokshut 
yaka, and Nika mamook kpkshut yaka, — 
I kit him, — would both be proper. So, 
STika kokshut, and Ghako |i;okshutr — I am 
hurt, would also both be proper." Ex- 
ample: Kyas kokshut,— ^much broken. 
Kyiu kokshut, — all broken to pieces. 
Ghako kokshut, — broken ;%split; bruised; 
passive of kokshut. Man^ook kokshut, — 
to beat; bruise; see above kokshut. 

Kon'-a-way, adj. (G). CGhinook,-Kan- 
awe.) All; every; total; universal; ag- 
gregate; entire; the sum; the whole. Ex- 
ample: Klaska konaway Uatawa, — they 
have all gone. Konaway tilikum, — ev- 
erybody; mankind. Konaway ikta> — 



everything. Konaway kali, — every- 
where. Konaway mxok, — every day. 

So'-pa> adv., prep., con J. (O). (Chl- 
nooky-fdem; formerly, Xwapa,-Hale.) 
The principal preposition in the lan- 
guage. At; aooording to; aronnd; about; 
oonoemlng; to; into; with; towaxOs; of; 
there; in tliat plaoe; than; fox; from; 
on; during; tlirongli; instead of. Eells 
says: "There are nine words and three 
phrases which are used as prepositions. 
The principal words are kopa gaghalle, 
over; keekwnlee, under; and knnamokst, 
with; kopa is, however," used more than 
all the others, as it has a great variety 
of meanings, which can only be known 
by the connection, some of which are 
entirely opposite to each other, as, from 
and to; for example, — yaka cliako kopa 
sagkalie, means, he came from heaven; 
but,— yaka klatawa kopa saghaUe, 
means he went to heaven. Alta nlka 
potlatch wawa kopa mesika kopa okoke 
papali, means, now I will talk to you 
about this picture. Taka mitlite kopa 
ohnokf — he is on the water; yaka mitlite 
kopa river, — he is at the river; yaka 
klatawa kopa stick, — he has gone into 
the woods; kopa ikt moon yaka mitlite 
yukwa, — during one month he will stay 
here; kopa yaka wawa John yaka mlmo- 
Inse, — according to his story John is 
dead. .Saghalle kopa mountain, — on top 
of the mountain; Jesus yaka mlmoluse 
kopa neslka, — Christ died for or instead 
of us. The word is also used as an ad- 
verb and ' conjunction. Kopa is often 
prefixed to a noun to show that it Is in 
the possessive case, as okoke klutan 
kopa John, — this horse is John's, — (lit- 
erally — this horse to John, — i. e., belongs 
to John.") Sz.: Yaka kamooks mitlite 
kopa> — his dogs are there. When thus 
used as an adverb, the accent is on the 
last syllable which is prolonged. Nlka 
klutan ellp kloshe kopa yaka klutan, — 
my horse is better than his horse. Sopa 
nlka house, — at my house. Irf)lo okoke 
kopa mlkar-rtake that home with you; 
equivalent to the French chez vous. Oul- 
tus kopa nlka, — it is nothing to me. 
Sah okoke lope? — where is that rope? 
(motioning with the chin towards the 
place) — Sopa. Kopa mlka, — your; yours. 
Kopa mesika, — your; yours. Kopa nlka, 
— my; mine. Kopa neslka, — ours. Kopa 
klaska, — theirs. Kopa yaka, — his; her; 
hers; its. Kopa bed, — abed; in bed. Kopa 
boat, or ship, — aboard; on the boat or 
ship. Kopa klutan, — horseback; on the 
horse. Kopa konoway, — common; for all. 
Kopa hulolma,— alibi: elsewhere. 

Ko-p'et, v.. adj. (G). (Chlnook,-idem.) 
To stop; leave off; enough; only; alone; 
forbear; quit; simply; submit; abdicate; 
abrogate; cease; except. Ex.: Kopet wa- 
wa, — stop talking. Kopet hlyu, — enough. 
Kloshe kopet, — be still. Kopet ikt, — 
lonely; alone; only one. Kopet okoke, — 

that's all. Kopet kumtuks, — to forget. 
Kopet nlka mltUte, — I alone remain. 
Wake slah kopet, — nearly finished. Ma- 
mook kopet, — to finish; fulfill; quench; 
quell; stop; annul; complete; conclude; 
check. Kopet tomoUa, — day after to- 
morrow. Kopet oooley, — ^to halt. Kopet 
kopa school, — to graduate. Konoway 
klatawa kopet yaka, — all went except 
him. Kalo kopet, or wake yaka kopet, — 
incomplete; unfinished. Wawa kloshe 
kopet, — to forbid. "Kopet, before things 
which can be weighed or counted, must 
be accompanied by, alu (hiyu). I&l.: 
Kopet alu mltlalt (mltUte),— there is 
enough." — St. Onge. 

Kow, V. CO). (Ghlnook,-kaw-kaw.) To 
tie; to fasten; to be fastened. Ex.: Kow 
mlka kluatan, — tie your horse. Mlka 
mamook kow mlka kluatan? — have you 
tied your horse? Nawltka, yaka kow, — 
yes he is tied. Ikt kow, — a bundle; a 
package; parcel; pack. Marsh kow, — un- 
tie; unfasten; release; unbind. Mamook 
kow, — to tie; hitch; arrest; shackle. 

Kultan — See Kluatan. 

Kull, adj. (G). (Ghlnook,-K'hul-k'hul). 
Sard in substance; dlllLcult; tough; solid. 
Example: Chahko kull, — to become hard. 
aalo kull, or wake kull, — tender; soft; 
easy. Mamook kull, — to harden; to cause 
to become hard. Kyas kull spose ma- 
mook, — it is very hard to do so. Kull 
stick, — oak or any hard wood. 

Kul-lagh'-an, or Kullah, n. (8). (Ghl- 
halls,-Kullakh; £umml,-Kullukhan). A 
fence; a corral, or Indosure; pen, a ralL 
Example: Kullagli stick, — fence rails. 
(In the original, it meant the stockade 
with which Indian houses are often sur- 
rounded.) Vlka tlkegh mamook ooahut 
kah mlka kullaghan mitlite, — I wish to 
make a road where your fence is. 

Kultus, see Gultus. 

Kum'-tuks, or kum'-tux, v. n. (V). 
CNootka,-Kommetak; Tokwaht,-Kumi- 
tuks; Glayo4uot,-Kemitak). To know; 
understand; be acquainted with; learn; 
perceive; ascertain; recognlzo; imagine; 
believe; to be wise; knowing; knowledge; 
wisdom; sense. Example: Vlka kum- 
tuks yaka, — I know him. Nlka kumtuks 
okoke, — I understand it. Taka mltUte 
hlyu kumtuks, — he has much knowledge. 
Delate kumtuks, — to prove; to be sure; 
to be expert. Kalo delate kumtuks, — to 
be in doubt; uncertain; obscurity. Kalo 
kumtuks, — to misunderstand; not to 
know; unacquainted; unawares; unintel- 
ligible. Kalo kumtuks kopa okoke 
mamook, — incompetent. Zskum kumtuks, 
— to learn; to get knowledge. Kopet 
kumtuks, — to forget. (Mamook kum- 
tuks, — see mamook.) Tlkegh kumtuks, 
— to enquire; wish to know. Kumtuks 
hlyu lalang, — a linguist. Kumtuks kopa 
slwash, or tilllkums, — ethnology. Kum- 
tuks mamook, — skill; competent; prac- 



tical. Komtuks papeh, — to read. Kam- 
toks wAWft, — an orator; eloquent. (*'Kiun- 
tux," name given to Edward Clayson, 
Sr., editor Patriarch, by newspaper men) 
"Cnmtax." (Other spellings: Ck>mtak; 
cametaz; comtiuL; kametaks; kointaz; 
komtoks; kointaz, etc.) 

Knn'-a-mokst, or KmL'-a-mozt, adj. 
prep. (C). (Oklnook.-konaway mokst; 
literally, all two). Botk; together; with; 
amid; among; 1)«slde; besides. Szample: 
Knnamoict kahkwa, — both alike. Nesika 
klatawa knnamokst, — we will go togeth- 
er. Vika mitlite knnamokst yaka, — I live 
with him. Cbako knnamokst, — to join; 
unite; meet; assemble; congregate; con- 
vene Tnmtnm knnamokst, — to agree. 
Wawa knnamokst, — to consult. 

Knn'-jUi, or knn'-sUi, adv. (G). (Olil- 
nook,-kunseukh). Kow many; when; 
ever. Example: Knnslh tlllknm mltllte? 
— how many people are there? Knnsih 
mlka klatawa? — when do you go? Wake 
knnslh,— never. Mamook knnsih, — to 
count. Kunjih laley mika klatawa? — 
how long before you will go? Knnjlh 
doUa, — what price? what cost? Knnjlh 
hyas, — how large? what size? Knnjih 
laley, — how long? Snnjih slah, — how 
far? distance. Knnjih tlntin, — what 
time? Knnjlh hisnii — how much? Knnjih 
mika chako? — when did you come? (This 
word is spelled in many different ways, 
as Gansn; kansih, kiassee, konse, konsick, 
kunjie, knnjik, knnjnk, knnsjake, knnsig, 
knnsio, konslah, knnjih, knnji, etc.) — 

Kwah'-ne-sum, or Kw'an-e-snm, adv. 
CO). (Ohinook.-Kwanisum; Takima.- 
Kwalisim.) Always; forever; eternal; 
continnal; everlastlnflr; perpetnal; un- 
ceasing. Example: Okoke steamer yaka 
kwanesnm klatawa,— that steamer is al- 
ways going. Sahkwa kwanesnm, — as 
usual. Kwanesnm mitlite, — permanent; 
to keep. 

Kwahtah, n. (E). The quarter of a 
dollar. The quarter of any number is 
usually expressed in Jargon by tenas 
■itkum, — a small half. 

Kwalst, or Kweest, adj. (O). (Ghi- 
nookf-Kwaitst.) Nine. Example: Taht- 
lum i»e kweest, — nineteen. (Eells says: 
"(Western Wash.) — Though not much 
used there for they generally either say, 
— kwinnum pe lakit, — 5 and 4, or nin(>.") 
Xweest tahtlnm, — 90. Kweest tukamo- 
nuk, — 900. Kweest thousand, — 9,000. 

Kwann, adj. (C). (Chinook,-Kwan- 
kwan.) Olad. (According to Mr. Ander- 
son, it means a custom or habit. Mc- 
Cormick says: "It is used by some in 
this sense as tamed or broken, as of a 
horse." Kwal is Nisqually f or tame. (St. 
Onge says it means tame; gentle; quiet; 

Kwass, n., adj.. v. (C). (Ghinook,- 
idem.) Fear; to he afraid; tame; shy; 


Kw'in'-num, adj. (G). (Ghinook,-Kwe- 
nem.) Five. Example: Tahtlnm pe 
kwinnum, — fifteen. Kwinnum tahtlnm, 
— 50. Kwinnum tukamonuk, — 500. 

Kwo-lann, Kwolan or Kwo-lah'-lie, n. 
CS). (Chihalis,-Kwolan; Visqnally,-Kwi- 
lani.) The ear. Example: Kumtuks 
kopa kwolan, — to hear. Kalo kwolann, 
or, ikpooie kwolann, — deaf. "Kwolad, — 
the ear. Kwuh-lah-dee, the Indian word 
Koulahdi is more commonly used." — Bu- 

£a-boos, or l^push, n. (F). (French,- 

La Bouche.) The mouth; mouth of a 
river. Moxt lahoos, — the forks of a 
river. Kloshe kopa lapush, — to relish. 

I^a-ca-set, n. (F). (French,-La Cas- 
ette.) A hox, trunk, or chest. 

:La-clo-a> n. (F). (French,-Lra Croix.) 
A Gross. 

£a-gome, n. (F). (French,-Lia Gomme.) 
Fitch; glue. £a gomme stick, — light- 
wood; the pitchpine. 

Irfb-hal, see SlahaL 

£a-hash', n. (F). (French,-La hache.) 
An axe or hatchet. 

XAhh, n. (Frenchf-L'herbe). The Ar- 
butus uva ursl, the leaves of which are 
used in smoking, alone or mixed with 

Ika-kam-mas, see Kamass. 

Ikak'it, or Aok'-it, adj. (C). (Ghinook,- 
Lakt.) Four; four time«. £akit taht- 
iTun, — forty. Tahtlnm pe lakit,— four- 
teen. Ibakit tukamonuk, — 400. 

I^a-lahm', or I^a-lum', n. (F). (French,- 
L.a rame.) An oar. Mamook lalahm, — 
to row. . 

Iba-lang, n. (F). (French,-La langue.) 
T&e tongue; a language; dialect; trihe. 
Example: Nika lalang huloima kopa 
yaka lalang, — my language is different 
from his. 

Ika'-ly, n. (G). CChinook,-lele.) Time; 
a long time. "Intensity of meaning or 
duration of time may also be indicated 
by prolongation of the sounding of a 
word, thus: laly (time), la-a-a-aly (a 
long time. This is based upon an in- 
stinctive principle common to all ton- 
gues, just as we in English phonetically 
indicate prolongation of time or exten- 
sion in space or intensity of feeling by 
means of the intonation." — Buchanan. 
Ex.: Tenas laly or wake laly, — a short 
time; an interval. Kunjih laly, — how 
long. Tenas laly kimtah, — a little while 
after. Tenas laly elip, — a little while 
before. Kunjih laly mika mitlite yahk- 
wa? — how long have you lived here? 

Ika-messe, n. (F). (French,-idem. ) The 
ceremony of the mass. Ex.: ICamook 



Iftmesse, — to say mass. 

Zi»-]iLes-tl]i, or I^a-met-sin, n. (F). 
(Fr«noh,-L«a medeclne.) Medicine, (not 
inoludinflT maff^o); dvag; ointment; pana- 
cea; pill; physic. Example: Halo mika 
tikeffta. lametsiii? — do you not want med- 
icine? Itomettin tap80» — an herb. 

X^a]]i'.]iii.eii, Anmmieli or £am-mi-i, n. 
(F). (Frenchf-La vieille.) An old wom- 
an. Example: Kopet ikt lummieli mit- 
lite, — only one old woman remains. 

£a-mon-ti, or I^a-mo-ti, n. (F). 
(Ftencli,-L»a niontaigne). A mountain. 

]Qa pea or 1^ pee, (see leepee.) 

£a-peep', n. (F). (Frencli,-La pipe.) 
A tobacco-pipe, l^peep knllakala (lit- 
erally, the "pipe-bird" )> tixe band-tailed 
eaffle, as its feathers were used to or- 
nament the pipe stems. 

lba-pel-lali% v. (Qnaere if from the 
French,-Le foyer.) Mamook lapellah,— 
to roast before the fire. 

l^-plaa'h, n. (F). (French,-La 
planche.) A hoard; Inmher; plank. Ex- 
ample: Kah mika isknm okoke laplaah, 
— where, did you get that lumber? Gultug 
laplash, — slabs; refuse lumber. Aaplanh 
man, — a carpenter; a builder. 

3^-pome, n. (F). (French,-L.a pomme.) 
An apple. (The word apple is now used 
on Puget Sound.) 

Irfb-pote, n. (F). (French,-La porte.) 
A door. 

Irfb-pnah, see lahoos. 

lba-tet% n. (F). (Pronounce as though 
"lah-tayt.") (French,-L.a tete.) The 
head; poll; hrains; intellect; sense. Ex- 
ample: FU latet,— red-headed. Nika 
sick kopa nika latet, — I am sick in my 
head. Kalo latet,— stupid. Knloima la- 
tet, — delirious. Kopa latet, — mental. 
Tnpso kopa latet, — hair. 

ImKw, n. (Eng-lishf-idem). A law; com- 
mand; decree; mle; mandate; statntes. 
Ex.: Taka knmtnks Boston law, — he 
understands American law. Delate kopa 
law, — legal, legitimate, or kloshe kopa 
law. Wake kloshe kopa law,— illegal; 

]La-wen% n. (F). (French,-L'avoine.) 

I^e-hal', n. (F). (French,-idem.) A hall; 
hnllet. Tenas lehal, shot. 

]&e-Janh, n. (F). (French,-Diable.) The 
devil; satan; a demon. Example: Spose 
mika mamook mesachie, lejanh isknm 
mlka> — if you do wrong, the devil will 
get you. lejanh yaVa illahee, — hell. 
(Other spellings: Dahhlo; dianh; deanb; 
derh; leiom; leiop; lejoh; yanh; lejanm; 

&e-kleh% n. (F). (French,-Le clef.) A 
key. Example: Mamook le kleh, — lock 
the door. Mahsh lekleh, — to unlock, or 
mamook halo lekleh. 

&e'-mah, or I^h'ma, n. (F). (French,- 
Lra main.) The hand; the arm; thnmb; 
flnorers; sleeve; handle; limb or knot of 
a tree. (Differentiate by gesture.) Ex- 

ample: Kloshe lemah, — the right (liter- 
ally, the good hand). Fotlatch lemah, — 
shake hands. Zskum kopa yaka lemali, 
— to get in his hand or arm; to hug. 

X^-'mel, n. (F). (]be mool, on Puget 
Sound.) (Frenchf-Le mulet.) A mnle. 

X^-mo'-lo, n.. adj. (Fr. Canadian,- Le 
moron; undoubtedly a corruption of 
Marron, a runaway negro. It applies to 
men as well as animals, as, for instance, 
to the tribes which have had no inter- 
course with the settlements. Eells says 
it is becoming obsolete, as the word wild 
is taking its place.) Wild; nntamed; 
skittish; nncivilized. Kalo lemolo, — 

£e-moo'-to, or £am-mn'-to, n. (F). 
(French,-Les moutons.) Sheep. The 
word sheep is rapidly taking its place.) 
— Eells. 

£e-pee, n. (F). (French,-Lie pied.) The 
feet; a foot; leg*; thiffh; foot print; track; 
paw; (Inh-pee-ay, — differentiate by ges- 
ture.) — Buchanan. Example: Taka la- 
pea yaka kokshnt, — his leg is broken. 
Kah lapea mitlite, — a footstep. Klata- 
wa kopa lapeat — to walk. Tznm kah le- 
pea mitlite, — footstep; track. 

]&e-p'let, n. (F). (French,-L(e pretre.) 
A priest; minister; clergryman; parson. 
Example: Tahwa klatawa nesika leplet, 
— there goes our minister. (St. Onge 
gives : Ibesepek, — bishop. Iiesapot, — 
apostle. Katolik, — Catholic. Seen KU, — 
Jesus Christ. Faska,— Easter. Olo time, 
— Lent. Komenio, — communion. Kopil- 
masio, — confirmation, ^apatkot, — pente- 
cost. Eklls, — church. Ekstlem oksio, — 
extreme: unction.) 

]lbe-sak', n. (F). (French,-Le sac.) A 
baar; a pocket; a sack. 

]&e-whet, n. (F). (On Puget Sound, la 
whi'p.) (French,-La fouet.) A whip. 
Mamook lewhet,— to whip. 

Uce, n. (Enflrlish,-rice. ) Bice. Ex.: 
Mika tikesrh lice?— do you wish for rice? 

Up'-lip, V. (by onoma. — Hale). To 
l>oil. Ex.: Okoke lice yaka liplip alta, — 
the rice is boiling now. Mamook liplip, 
— to make, or cause to boil. 

]lbiver. n. CE). A river. Example: 
Taka mitlite kopa liver, — he is living at 
the r^-^^er. 

I^ockit, ^akit, or Ik)kit,— see Aakit. 

JaO'-lo, V. (O). (Ohinook,-idem. ) (Or- 
iginally, to carry a child on the back. 
In Jargon, used in a more extended 
sense.) To carry; to load; to bear; 
bringr; fetch; remove; transfer; convey; 
In^; pack; renew. Example: Mamook 
lolo kopa canim, — to load into a canoe. 
Kloshe mika lolo okoke iktas, — good you 
carry these things. Man yaka kTtmtnJcs 
lolo, — a carrier. 

Ibownllo, lolo, or lohlo, adj. (C). ( Chi- 
nook, -Lowullo.) Bonnd; whole; the en- 
tire of an3rthin<r. Ibownllo sapeleel, - 
whole wheat. Mamook lowullo,- to roll 
up (Shaw). (Not in general use.) 



£ope, n. (B). (Snirli»li*-Rope.) A 
rop0. Tenas lope, — a cord. Skin lope, — 
a raw hide, riata, or thong. 

]lbiini, n. (E). (SnirUelu-Rum.) Spirits 
of any sort; ram; wliiskey. 


Mah'kook, v., n. (Nootkm-Makuk; Nit- 
tinat and Tokwalit,-idem; Maka]i,-Bak- 
watl.) To boy or sell; trade or ex- 
change; a bargain; pnrcliase. ("As their 
buying and selling was merely barter, 
the same word always answered both 
operations." — Gibbs.) Bells says: "Gibbs 
grives it as a noun, a bargain, but it is 
not so used now. He also gives it as 
to sell, trade, or exchange, but mahsh 
is now used, to sell, and hnyhny to 
trade and exchange." .Ex.: Byas mah- 
kook, — dear; very dear( in price). Wake 
liyas mahkook, ortenas mahkook, — cheap. 
Xah mika mahkook okoke iktahs? — 
where did you buy the goods? Mahkook 
man, — merchant; ..trader; ..salesman; 
storekeeper. Mahkook honse, — a trad- 
ing-house or a store. Vika tikegh mah- 
kook iktahs, — I wish to buy some things. 
(Other spellings: Mahcook; makook; 
makouke; maknk; markoke; markook.) 

Mahsh, V. (F). (French,-Marcher.) To 
leave; to turn ont; to throw away; sell; 
acqnit; banish; cast; dash; desert; dis- 
patch; dismiss; distribute; detach; drop; 
apply; expel; to part with; remove; ex- 
terminate; extinguish; fling; forsake; 
get rid of; heave; hnrl; lay down; omit; 
insert; ponr; pnt; reject; release; relin- 
qnish; remit; send; remove; sling; sow; 
spill; spend; thrnst; toss; transmit. Ex- 
ample: Mahsh chnck kopa boat, — bail 
the boat out. Vika mahsh nika knltan, 
— I have sold my horse. Cnltus mahsh, 
— to waste. Kalo mahsh, — to hold. 
Mahsh okoke salmon, — throw away that 
fish. Tenas mahsh, — to move. Mahsh 
konoway yaka wind, — to die; expire. 
Mahsh mika capo, — take off your coat. 
Mahsh klahanie, — to exclude; eject; de- 
liver; evict; turn out; export. Mahsh! 
(to a dog), — get out! Mahsh keekwnlee, 
— to inject; sink; lower; enclose; throw 
down; put inside. Mahsh tenas, — to Jiave 
a child; to be delivered. Mahsh kunant- 
okst, — to mingle; to mix; to add. Takka 
mahsh tnm-tnm kopa nika, — he has 
given me his orders, or told me his 
wishes. Mahsh kopa illahee, — to bury. 
Mahsh kow, — to untie. Mahsh stone, — 
to castrate. Mahsh lametsin kopa lemah 
yaka kloshe kopa small pox, — to vac- 
cinate. Mahsh mesachie, — to go to stool. 

Mah-sie, V. (F). (French,-Mercie.^ 
Thank yon; thanks; thankful. (Eells 
snys also to pray.) Example: Kloshe 
nesika mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee, — let 

us pray to God. Wawa mahsie, — to give 
thanks; to praise. Mahsie kopa Sagha- 
lie Tyee, — the Doxology. 

Maht'-lin-nie, adv. (O). (Chinook,- 
Matlini.) Off shore; out at sea. (In 
boating), — keep off! (If on land),— to- 
wards the water. 

Mah'twU-lie, adv. (C). (Chinook,- 
Mathwili.) In shore; shoreward. (As 
a command), — keep in. (On land), — to- 
wards the woods, or the interior. 

Mal-i-eh, v., n. (F). (French,-Marier. ) 
To marry; to get married; marriage; 
matrimony. Example: Taka malieh al- 
ta? — is he married now?Alta nika kla- 
tawa kopa malieh, — now I am going to 
the marriage. Elip kopa malieh, — ante 
nuptial. Man yaka chee malieh, a 
bridegroom. Klootchman yaka chee ma- 
lieh, — a bride. Kalo maUeh, — a bene- 
dict. Mamook cut kopa malieh, or, kok- 
shut malieh, — a divorce; to be divorced; 
to get a divorce. 

Ma -ma, n. (E). (English,-Mamma.) A 
mother; a mama. Example: Halo ma- 
ma, — motherless. Sahkwa mama, — 
motherly; maternal. Fapa pe mama, — 
parents. Kalo papa pe mama,— orphans. 
Mama yaka ats, — an aunt. Mama yaka 
mama, — a grandmother. Mama yaka ow, 
— an uncle. 

Mam'-ook, n., v. (V). (Vootka,-mam- 
uk.) To make; to do; to work; labor; 
exertion; exercise; act; action; deed; 
work; enact; appoint; accomplish; make; 
manage; operate; practice; resolve; 
serve; use; toil; a job; task; achieve, 
the one word denoting action. "The 
most useful of all Chinook words, as it 
is prefixed to many nouns, verbs and 
adjectives and makes them active verbs; 
hence, more than any other word it is 
the sign of the active voice." — Eells. 
"On Puget Sound it is probably the 
most common word in use. I have given 
209 phrases which begin with it. which 
answer to a single English word." Dr. 
Boas says, however, it has acquired an 
obscene meaning and is no longer in use 
on the Columbia river. "Used generally 
as a causative verb, as ,mamook cbako 
(make to come) bring; mamook liplip, 
make to boil," — Hale. Ex.: Ikta mika 
mamook?— what are you doing? Mamook 
elip, — to begin; commence. Mamook 
halo, — to demolish; destroy; erase; ruin; 
efface; evacuate; overthrow; repeal. 
Mamook haul, — to haul; subtract; ex- 
tract; pull; pull off; pick (as apples); 
dig (as potatoes). Mamook huyhuy, — 
to change; trade; exchange. Mamook 
kloshe, — to make good; shine; trim; 
heal; pacify; remedy; repair; prepare: 
please; sure; to make safe; sure: or 
useful. Mamook tumtum, — to think: 
reason; meditate; reckon; ponder; re- 
view; muse; decide; determine; sur- 
mise; plan; account; appraise; elect; be 
amazed; estimate; decide; deduce; de- 



sign; contemplate; consider. ICamook 
tsum, — to write; record, subscribe; 
mark; copy; dye; engrave; enroll; 
enumerate. Mamook alkl; mamook by- 
by, — to defer; delay. ICamook obako, — 
to bring; make to come; fetch. Mamook 
cnltiui, — to spoil. ICamook delate, — to 
confirm; straighten; make right; cor- 
rect. Mamook kalikwa, — to imitate; as- 
similate; mimic. Mamook kllaple, — to 
twist; unwind; withdraw; turn over (as 
a canoe); bring or send back. Mamook 
kopet, — to stop; check; complete; finish; 
conclude; deter; quell; quench; annul; 
prohibit; restrict; extinguish; extermi- 
nate; abolish; debar. Mamook kow, — to 
tie; wrap; hitch; clasp; shackle; strap; 
confine; detain; fasten; capture; arrest; 
envelop. Mamook kumtuks, — to teach; 
show; explain; acquaint; describe; dis- 
close; edify; educate; illustrate; in- 
form; Instruct; reveal; introduce; pub- 
lish. Mamook knnjlli; mamook kwnn- 
nnm, — to count; enumerate. Maxuook 
sick tnmtnm, — to afflict; ill treat; hurt 
one's feelings. Mamook skookiun, — to 
strengthen;; invigorate; strive; uphold. 
Mamook skookam tamttim, — to encour- 
age; to make brave. Mamook skookum 
liaal, — must. Cliae mamook, — the begin- 
ning; new work. Cultiui mamook, — mis- 
chief; poor work. Delate knmtnks ma- 
mook, — practical; knowing how to work. 
Salo delate mamook, — to pretend; not 
right work. Snmtaks mamook, — skill; 
to know how to work. Swanesnm ma- 
xuook, — to persevere; persist; endure; be 
diligent; be industrious; always at work. 
Fotlatoh mamook, — to hire; employ; give 
work. Tikeffh xuamook, — to endeavor; 
to wish for work. 

Man, n. (E). (Eii8rllgli,-idem.) A man; 
the male of any animal; a haaband. 
Example: Man moolock, — a buck elk. 
Tenas man, — a young man or boy. Vlka 
man, — my husband. Sister yaka tenas 
man, — a nephew. Tamahnoas man, — a 
conjurer; an Indian doctor; a sorcerer. 
Man kloahe kopa yaka lepmh pe klale 
kopa yaka tamtam, — a hypocrite. Man 
yaVa mamook cooley steamer, — a pilot. 

Mer-ass, n. (F). (7rencli,-Melasae.) 
Molasses* ("Not much used, as silup 
(syrup) has largely taken its place." — 

Meon'-a-loost, or Mim'-a-loos, v., n., 
adj. (C). (Clilnook.-Memalust.) To die; 
dead; to expire; decay; become rotten. 
Ex.: diako mimaloosi — to decay: be- 
come rotten. Mamook memaloost, — to 
kill; assassinate; execute; murder. Mi- 
maloose kopa chack, — to drown. Mima- 
loose illaliee, — a grave; graveyard; 

Me-sah-cliie, adj.. n. (G). (CHinook,- 
Masachi.) Bad; wicked; evil; vile; sin; 
bitter; crael; depravity; dissolate; dang; 
flltliv; Immodest; nasty; obscene; vice; 
insolence; unworthy; onraly; iniqalty; 

onriffhteoos; naotfhty. Example: Blip 
mesachie, — worse. Blip mesachie kopa 
konoway, — the worst. Biyu mesachie 
mitliter—unclean. Mesachie mltlite, — 
danger; peril. ''Mesatchee, — bad, vile, 
vicious, in the sense of vileness, filth, 
dirtiness, etc., whiether in the abstract 
or in the concrete." — Buchanan. 

Me-si'-ka, pron. (G). (Chinook,-Mesai- 
ka.) "The second person, plural num- 
ber in all cases." Ton; yoar; yoars. 
"There is no such thing as case in Chi- 
nook, therefore one form represents at 
once the nominative, possessive and ob- 
jective cases, or what corresponds to 
them in English." — Buchanan. 

Ml'ka, pron. (G). (Ghinook,-Maika.) 
(Anything pertaining to the first person, 
singular number.) Toa; yoar; yoars; 
thee; thoa; thy; thine. Example: Okoke 
mika kiatan? — is this your horse? Xah 
mlka klatawaf — where are you going? 

Mi'-mie, adv. (G). (Ghinook,-Maiami.) 
Down stream. 

Mit'-Ute, v. (G). (Ghinook,-Mitlait.) 
To sit; sit down; stay at; reside; remain; 
have; inhabit; abide; dwell; exist; dwell; 
be present; recline; keep; linger; lodge; 
possess; reside; roost; wait. (Also used 
for the impersonal verb, to be; is.) 
Example: Sah mika mltlite?— where do 
you live? Taka mltlite kopa yaka hoase, 
— he is at his house. (It is also used 
in place of to have and to be.) Example: 
Mitlite kopa hoase, — he is in the house. 
Mltlite hyia salmon kopa mika? — have 
you plenty of salmon? Mitlite (imp.), 
— sit down. Galtos mitlite, — to stop 
anywhere without particular object. 
MitUte tenas,— to be with child. Mlt- 
lite keekwillie, — to put down. Kalo mit- 
lite, — absent. Sloshe mitlite, — stay; 
hold; hold on; remain. Kanjlh mitlite, — 
how many remain. Gkoke mltlite, — this 
is the remainder. Mltlite kopa chock, — 
to be wet: soaked. 

Mlf-whit, V. (G). (Ghinook,-Amet- 
whet.) To stand; stand ap; rise; be 
erect. Example: Kloshe mesika mit- 
whit, — please M:o arise. Mltwhit stick, — 
a standing tree; a mast. 

Mokst, Mox, or Moxt, adj. (G). (Ghi- 
nook,-Makst.) Two; twice; doable; daal; 
coaple; pair; second. Example: Mokst 
tahtlam, — twenty. Mokst takamonnk, — 
200. Mokst tamtauL, — double minded; 
dubious; in doubt. 

Moo'la, n. (F). (French,-Moulin.) A 
mill; a mannfactory. Example: Za- 
-Dlash, or stick mooUu — a saw-mill. Sapo- 
111. moola, — a flour-mill. 

Moo'-lack, n. (C). (Ghinook.-Emuluk.) 
An elk. (This word, strangely enough, 
occurs also in the Koquilth of Humbolt 
Bav.) The word is obsolete now. 

Moon, n. (E). (EngUsh,-idem.) The 
moon. Example: Zkt moon, — a month. 
Sick moon, — the wane or old moon. Ghee 
moon, — the new moon. Kopa mokst 



moon nlkA kUaple, — in two months I will 

Moos'-moos, n. (K. C.) (KUkat»t,-Mus- 
mus; Clilnookf-Emusmus.) Buffalo; 
honied oattle; beef. (The word, slight- 
ly varied, Is common to several lan- 
gruages. Mr. Anderson derives it from 
the Cree word Moostoos, a Buffalo, and 
supposes It to have been imported by 
the Canadians; but Father Pandosy 
makes Mannas Yakima.) (Eells says: 
"The Clallams and Twanas have adopted 
it into their languages, either from the 
Chinook Jargon, the Yakama or some 
other native language; my opinion is 
that the latter is true, as buffalo skins 
were brought to Puget Sound from the 
Yakama long before the whites came, 
and the name naturally came with it; 
so the Yakamas undoubtedly had a 
name for them long before the Cana- 
dians came.") Example: Taka mitlite 
tacrlium mooamooe, — he has six cattle. 
Kan yaka knmtaks mamook mimoloose 
moosmooSi — a butcher. 

Moo'-sam, v., n. (S). (GliUiaUc-Mu- 
sam.) To sleep; sleep; asleep; slamber. 
Ex.: Tikeffh moosam, or olo moosam, — 
to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be 
hungry for sleep). Taka moosam alia, 
— he sleeps now. Vika hyas moosam, — 
I slept very sound. 

Mow-ltsta, Mow-ltolu or Mali'-wltsli, n. 
CN). CVootka,-Mauitsh (Sale); NitUnat,- 
Moitsh, — a deer; Hootkaj-Moowatsh, — a 
bear (Jewltt). A deer; Trenlson; animal. 
(Frequently used to signify a wild ani- 
mal; as, Kaloima mowitsh, — a strange 
or different kind of beast. The meaning 
given in Jewitt's book is probably a mis- 
print. Like Moolock. an elk, the word 
is found in the Koquilth of Humbolt 
Bay.) (Other spellings: Mahwltch; ma- 
wloh; mawltsli; mowloli; mowitsh; moa- 
eeoh; moaits; wowich.) 

Maok-a-mack, n., v. (Qaaere a. d. Mak- 
amak (Hale). (Neither Chinook nor Chl- 
halis. Mr. Anderson considers it an in- 
vented word.) To eat; bite; food; im- 
bibe; lunch; chew; browse; devour; suck 
food; nutrition; picnic; subsistence; ail- 
ment; diet; feast. (Muckamuck is to 
take anything into the mouth; hence, 
muckamuck salmun, to eat salmon; 
muckamuck chuck, to drink water; 
muckamuck kinootl, to smoke or chew 
tobacco." — Hale.) Example: Mamook 
plah muckamuck, — to cook food. Pot- 
latch muckamuck, — to feed. Sail kopa 
mamook kloshe lapush spose nesika 
nLUokamuok, — a napkin. Muckamuck 
chuck, &c., — to drink water, or other 
liquid. Muckamuck kopa i>olaklie, — sup- 
per. Muckamuck kopa sitkum sun, — din- 
ner. Muckamuck kopa tenas sun, — 
breakfast. (Other ways of spelling: 
Mackamack; makmak; mokamok; muca- 
muc; mucamuck; muckermuo; muka- 
muck; mukamuck; makamak.) 

Mus'-ket, n. (Bnffllsh,-idem.) A gw^ 
or musket. Stick musket, — a bow. 


Na, — the interrogative particle. "In- 
terrogation is, however, generally con- 
veyed by intonation only." — Gibbs. "The 
negative enclitic. *na,» in use In former 
years, is now obsolete, and is never 
heard now — on Puget Sound at least." — 

Na'-ha, or Va-ah, n. (G). (Chlnook,- 
Tlkanaa.) A mother, (Kale.) Peculiar 
to the Columbia, and now in fact obso- 
lete, the English 'mama' being used in- 
stead." — Gibbs. "St Onge is the only 
writer who uses it." — Eells. 

Nah, interj. (Common to several lan- 
guages.) Behold; look; look here; ha; 
hey; look here; z say; listen; here; ho; 
hark; harken; say. Example: Nah 
Sikhs I — halloo friend! (Used in com- 
mon conversation to call attention to 
some point not thoroughly understood, 
but generally nanitch is used for this 
purpose. In the Yakama language, it Is 
the sign of the vocative; as Vah tehni — 
O man.) 

Van'-ltsh, or Van-lch, v. (Quaere u. d.) 
(Nootka,-Nananitch. — Eells.) To see; 
look; look for; seek; observe; iriance; 
view; perceive; behold; listen; look here. 
("Often used in a sentence to call atten- 
tion to a certain point, as, — see here.) 
Example: NanltshI — look there! Kloshe 
nanitshi — look out! take care! be careful; 
nourish; be cautious; nurse; defend; pre- 
serve; entertain; protect; foster; steady; 
guard; tend; take heed; supervise; 
watch; provide. Cultus nanitsh, — to 
look round idly, or from curiosity only. 
Mamook nanitsh, — to show. (The word 
is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. 
Scouler gives nannanltsh as Nootka and 
Columbian. It is possibly the former.) 

Na-wlt'-ka, adv. (G). (Cnilnook,-idem) ; 
Klikatat and Takama,-N'witka.) Tes; 
certainly; yes, indeed; to be sure; aye; 
assuredly; Indeed. Example: Vawltka 
nlka klatawa, — yes, I will go. Vawltka 
wake nlka kumtuks, — indeed I don't 
know. Klonass nawltka, — perhaps ; 

probably so. Wawa nawltka, — to per- 
mit; acquiesce; assent; consent; accord. 
(In answer to a negative question, many 
Indians use it as affirming the nega- 
tive.) Example: Wake mlka nanitsh? 
— did you not see (it)? Vawltka, — I 
did not. 

Vem, n. (E). (Enirllsh,-Name.) A 
name. Example: Mamook nem, — to 
name, or call by name. Kloshe nem, — 
honor; a good name. Kyas kloshe nem, 
— a great name. 

Ve-sr-ka, pron. (C). (Chinook,-Nisal- 



ka.) (Among: the Qulnaielt Indians I 
found in 1892 that it is pronounced 
en-si-ka." — Eells.) We; xut; our. Ex- 
ample: cniako kopa nesika, — come to 
us. Alkl nesika klatawa* — soon we will 
go. Nesika knltaa delate till, — our 
horses are very tired. Veaika self, — 

Ne'-whah, (G). C01iinook,-Vlw]ia.) It 
seems to be an adverb used, as is often 
the case, as a verb, the meaning being 
kithex, oome, or bring' It kltker. Sz.: 
VewlMk ttika naaitsli, — here, let me see 

vr-ka, pron. (G). (Ghlnook,-Naika.) 
Z; me; my; mlna. The first person, sin- 
gular, in all cases. Ex.: "The personal 
pronouns become possessive merely by 
being prefixed to nouns; as, nlka house, 
my house; mlka papa, thy father; naalka 
lUahee, our land." — Hale. "Sometimes 
a is added to the personal pronouns in 
the possessive case; thus nlkaa, — mine; 
mikas, — yours; yakast-r-his, hers, its; 
nealkas, — ours; mealkaa, — yours; klas- 
kas, — theirs. This mode is generally 
used only when the pronoun is the last 
word in the sentence, thus: Okoke klu- 
ataa nlkas." — Kells. Nlka nanltdi yaka, 
— I see him. Taka kokshut nlka, — he 
hit me. Nlka klootobman, — my wife. 
Nlka man, — my husband. Nlka self, — 
myself. Nlka tenas man, — my boy; son; 
sweetheart. Nlka tenas klootckman, — 
my girl; daughter; sweetheart. Nlka 
tumtum, — I guess; think. Nlka tum- 
tum. kakkwa, — I approve; I think so. 

Numerals: The numerals below a 
thousand are all from the <>ld Ghlnook, 
and are as follows: .Zkt,^-one; mokst, 
— two; klone, — three; laklt, — four; kwln- 
num^ — five; taffkum, — six; sinamokst, — 
seven; vtotiekln, — eight; kweest, — nine; 
taktlum,— ten ; tukamonuk, — one hun- 
dred. For some reason the words for 
eight and nine are used but little, either 
being replaced by the English words 
eight and nine, or by the combinations 
for five and three, kwlnnum pe klone, 
and five and four, kwlnnum pe laklt. 
Thousand is either represented by the 
words tahtlum tukamonuk, — ten hun- 
dred, or by the word thousand. Ross 
(1849) gives hloh, (probably hlyu, 
many) as the word for thousand; hloh- 
hloh, — two thousand ; hioh-hloh-hloh, — 
three thousand; and hloh-hloh-hloh-hloh, 
— four thousand." — Eells. The combina- 
tions of the numerals are simple, as 
tahtlum pe Ikt (ten and one) eleven; 
mokst tahtlum pe kwlnnum (two tens 
and five) twenty-five; tag'hum tahtlum 
(six tens) sixty: klone tukamonuk, — 
three hundred; Ikt thousand (or taht- 
lum tukamonuk) stotekin tukamonuk, 
kweest tahtlum pe klone, — one thousand, 
eight hundred and ninety-three." — Eells. 

Nose, n. CZInflrllsh--id«^m.'> *'(Buok-8ld 
(Indian,-Common. ) Bock-s'd." — Buchan- 

an. Ths nos«; also, a promontory. Boat 
noso, — the bow of a boat. Ezamplii: 
Taka mamook oamp kopa noso, — he is 

camped at the spit. 


O'-koko, or O'-kook, pron. CC). (Chl- 
nook,-Okok.) This; that; tt; theso; thossr; 
(differentiate by pointing). (akoks; 
this or that, is the only demonstrative 
pronoun.) Examp]*: Zktah okoke?— 7 
what is that? Okoko klaksta, — he who; 
Okoko klaska, — they (being present). 
(It is often abbreviated to oko; as, ok*- 
sun. — Gibbs.) Okoko mituto, — the re- 
mainder, akoke polakllo, — tonight. 
Okoke sun, — today. "There are no' 
words for articles, except that the denti- 
onstrative pronoun okoke, that, is some- 
times used to denote a very definite 
the." — Eells. 

O'-lal-lie, or O'-lU-lle, n. (BelhSlla.) 
(Bel1)ella,-idem.) Originally the salmon 
berry. (Ohinook,-Klalelli, — berries in 
general.) Berries; ftuit. Ex.: Klale 
olallle, — blackberries. FU olallle, — cur- 
rants; cranberries. Sallal olallllo, — sal- 
lal berries. Olallle ohuok, — berry juice. 
Shot oUllle, — huckleberries. Sei^ho, or 
siahpult olillle, — raspberries: tbimblre 
cap berries. Salmon olilllei — salmon 
berries; &c. (On Puget Sound always 
called olallle.) 

O'-le-man, n., adj. (E). (Enfflish,-01d 
man.) An old man; old; worn out; 
stale. Example: Okoke kuitan yak» 
hyas oleman, — that horse is very old. 
(As regards articles, used in the sense 
of worn out.) 

O'-lo, adj. (O). (Ohlnook,-idem.) Sun- 
gry. Example: Olo chuck, — thirsty. 
OI0 moosum, — sleepy. Nlka hyas olo 
alta, — I am very hungry now. Wako 
slah mimoluse kopa olo, — famished. (Olo 
moosum, not used on Puget Sound to 
my knowledge, — ^tikeyh moosum, is 
sleepy. — Eells.) Olo time, — Lent. 

Oo'-a-kut, or Wayhut, n. (Ohlnook,- 
Wehut; 'Z'aklma,-Wiet.) A road; patli; 
trail; way; hig'hway; lane. (Under the 
spelling Oyhut it is the name of a place 
in Chehalis County, Wash. — Eells.) Ex- 
ample: Xah ooakut kopa Olympla? — 
where is the road to Olympia? Ooaknt 
kopa chuck, — a channel. Ooakut kop« 
town, — a street. (Eells says: "The pro- 
nunciation as I have given is not found 
in any of the dictionaries, but is what 
I have almost universally found on 
Puget Sound; wayhut being very sel- 
donr used. Gibbs says that on the Co- 
lumbia it is pronounced hwehkut, and 
on Puget Sound weohut; but Gill (Port- 
land) gives oehut, and I have seldom 
heard anything but ooahut on Puget 

Sound; only occasionally wayliut.") 
(Other ways of spelling: Kooikut; oi- 
IkMX; oiboti otfhat; oheliat; owaknt; hweli- 
Init; we«liat; weliknt; oylint.) *'The In- 
dians are very quick to detect any dif- 
ference in the intonation or method of 
pronunciation of the whites, and some- 
times think we speak different lan- 
gruages. An Indian asked me one day 
(while pointing to a cow) what was the 
name we called that animal. I told him 
cow. He said that he had just asked 
another white man. and he cabled it a 
oaow. By this means, different Indians 
who have been with the whites acquire 
a habit of pronouncing such English 
words as they pick up in the same style 
and manner as the person from whom 
they learn them. This causes a great 
discrepancy in the Jorgon, which at first 
is difficult to get over. And, again, each 
tribe will add some local words of their 
own language, so that while, a person 
can make himself understood among any 
of the tribes for the purpose* of trade, 
it is difficult to hold a lengthened con- 
versation on any subject without the 
aid of some one who has become more 
familiar with the peculiar style." — Judge 

a'-poots, or O'pootsh, n. (G). (Cliiiiook,- 
Obeputsh.) Tlia fimd«inent; the poste- 
rior; tli« tall of an animal; anus; end; 
r«ctnm; stem; back; iMokaide. Ezampla: 
Boat opoota, — the rudder. Opoota-siU, — 
a breach clout. Knmm opoots, — a 

Ow, n. ( Chinook,- Au.) A brother 
younger than the speaker. x;zaniple: 
Kah mika ow? — where is your brother? 
Blip ow, — an older brother. Xahkwa ow, 
— fraternal; brotherly. Ow yaka klootoh- 
man, — a sister-in-law. Ow yaka tenas 
man, — a nephew. Ow yaka tenas klootoh- 
man, — a niece. 

Order of the Words: "There is no 
settled authority in regard to the order 
of the words in this language. They are 
generally placed in much the same order 
as they are in the language which the 
speaker has been accustomed to use, 
if he be not well acquainted with the 
language. An English speaking person 
will place them in much the same order 
that he would in English, but tfifere are 
many phrases where this is not true, 
the order of which must be acqiilred by 
practice: for instance, — ^halo nika knm- 
tnks, — not I understand, is far more 
common than nika halo knmtnks. An 
Indian who has learned somewflat the 
English order, will arrange the words in 
much the same way; but if the speaker 
is an old Indian who knows but little 
about English he will arrange them much 
as he is accustomed to do in his native 
tongue, which is usually very different 
from the English. As the tendency, 
however, is not for the whites to learn 



the native Indian languages, but for the 
Indians to learn the English, so the 
tendency is toward the Ehiglish order of 
the words." — Eells. 

Pahtl, adj. (C). (Cliinook,-Patl.) Foil. 
X^zample: Fahtl-lom or paht-lnm, — 
drunk. Pahtl ohuok,— wet. Pahtl ilia- 
hie, — dirty. Mamook pahtl,— to fill. 
Kwanesom yaka pahtlnm, — he is always 
drunk. (Other ways of spelling pahtl: 
Partle; patl; patle; pattle.) (Pahtlnm is 
also spelled: PahtUnm; patlem; phat- 
Inm; pahtllam; partlelnm; potlnm; pot- 

Paint, or Pent, n., adj. (E). (Engllsh,- 
Paint.) Mamook pent, — to- paint. 

Papa, n. (Bnglis2^idem). A father* 
Sz.: Vika nanitsh yaka p»pa. — I sq« his 

Pa-se'-se, or PaZ-see-sie, n. (G). (Chi> 
nook,-Pasisi.) A blanket; woolen dotb 
Ex.: Yaka mitllte kwinnnm paseesie, — 
he has five blankets. Tsnm paseesie, — a 
quilt. "Paseesee, is properly pronounced 
with the accent on the second syllable. 
You will see how very different the word 
becomes if you attempt to accent the 
first or last syllables." — Gill. 

Pa-'si-ooks, n., adj. (C). (Chinook.- 
Pasisiuks.) (French; a Frenchman. Ex.: 
Ahnkuttle hlyn pasiooks man mitlite 
yakwa, — formerly many Frenchmen 
lived here. (Mr. Hale supposed this to 
be a corruption of the French word 
Francals. It is, however, really derived 
from the foregoing word, Pasisi, with 
the terminal uks, which is a plural form 
applied to living beings. Lewis and 
Clarke (vol. 2, pp. 413) give Pashishe- 
ooks, — clothmen, as the Chinook name 
for the whites, and this explanation was 
also furnished me by people of that 
tribe. It has since been generally re- 
stricted to the French Canadians, though, 
among some of the tribes east of the 
Cascade Range, it is applied indiscrim- 
inately to all the Hudson's Bay people.) 
— Gibbs. (Other ways of spelling: Pah- 
seooks; pasaiooks; pasaiuks; passaiooks; 
I>esioaz; pesyooks; pasheshiooks ; passi- 
nks.) "The origin of some of the words 
is rather whimsical. The Americans, 
British, and French are distinguished by 
the terms Boston, Kingchotsh (King 
George), and Pasaiuks, which is pre- 
sumed to be the word Francais (as 
neither f, r, nor the nasal n can be pro- 
nounced by the Indians) with the Chi- 
nook plural termination uks added. The 
word for blanket, paseesee, is probably 
from the same source (francaises, — 
French goods or clothing)." — Hale. (See 



Fe, or Fee, conj. (F). (Frenolu-Puls). 
And; bnt; Sells says and and but are its 
only meanings. Glbbs and Hale give 
then, besides, or. Hale says: "Only two 
conjunctions, properly speaking, are 
found in the language, — Fe and Spose, — 
often contracted to Fos. These two con- 
junctions form the only exceptions to 
the rule that all the grammatical ele- 
ments of the jargon are derived from the 
proper Chinook language. The pronouns 
and the numerals are pure Chinook." 
Ex.: Taka pe nlka Uatawa, — he and I 
will go. Taka wawa kahkwa pe nlka 
wawa hnloima,^ — he said so, but I said 
differently. Fe weg'ht, — and; also; be- 
sides. Fe kahta, — and why; for what; 
what reason. 

Feh'-pali, or Fapah, n. (EnirU«li«-Pa- 
per). Faper; a letter; any wrltinir; 
book; messasre. Ex.: Mamook pehpah, — 
To write. Klosbe mlka mamook papali 
kopa nlka, — please to write a letter for 
me. Sumtuks papali, — to read. Saffha- 
lie tyee yaka papab, — the Bible; Testa- 

Fer-ton, or Fehlten, n., adj. (Jarg>on). 
A fool; foolish; crasy; absurd; insane. 
Ex.: Sahkwa i>elton, — like a fool; hyas 
pelton mika, — you are very silly. (The 
Indians adopted this word from the 
name of a deranged person, Archibald 
Felton, or perhaps Felton, whom Mr. 
Wilson P. Hunt found on his journey to 
Astoria, and carried there with him. The 
circumstance is mentioned by Franchere, 
in his "Narrative," trans., p. 149.) "The 
word pehlten — insane, crazy — comes 
from "Fllion," the name of an employee 
of the Hudson's Bay, who become insrine. 
Between the French and English pronun- 
ciation of that name, the Indians made it 
pllio, pillan, and at last i>ehlten, and 
adopted the name to mean Insane in 
general." — Kamloops Wawa. (Other 
spellings: Felhten; pilten; piltln; pll- 

Fe-shak', or Fe-shuk, adj. (N). (Noot- 
ka,-Peshuk). (Nittinat,-idem). Bad. 
(Mesachie is used for it on Puget Sound 

Fe-what-tie, adj. (G). (Chinook,-Pih- 
wati). Thin, like paper, etc. 

Fi'-ah, n., adj. (E). Fire; ripe; cooked; 
mature; blase; flame; burned; mellow. 
Example: Mamook piah,— to cook; to 
burn. Flah-ship, — a steamer; piah olil- 
lie, — ripe berries. Fiah chuck, — whiskey. 
Fiah sapoim, — baked bread. Fiah sick, — 
the venereal disease. Sa^alie piah, — 
lightning. Shot olallia yaka piah alta, — 
the huckleberries are rine now. 

Fil, adj. (O.) (Chinook,-Tlpelpel). 
Bed; of a reddish color. (Father Pan- 
dosy gives Filpilp as signifying red, in 
the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also.) Fil 
illihie, — red clay or vermillion. Fil dol- 
la, — gold. Fil chiokamin, — copper. Fil 
kiuatan, — a bay or chestnut horse. 

Fll'-pil, n. (Jargon). Blood. Kiyu 

pipil chako, — much blood came. 
pllpil, — to bleed; to menstruate. (De- 
rived from the foregoing). (Lee and 
Frost give pilpil« as red.) 

Fish, n. (E). Fish. Example: Mika 
tikegh mahsh okoke pish, — do you wish 
to sell that flsh? Kah iskum pish, or 
kah pish milite, — a fishery. Mamook 
pish, — to troll; to flsh. Muckamuck 
kopa pish, — bait. 

Fish-pish. (See Puss-puss.) 

Fit-lllh, or Fit-hlU% adj. (Quaere u. 
d.). Thick in consistence, as molasses. 

Fiu-piu, n., v., interj. (F). (French,- 
puer). To stink. Or from the sound oft- 
en uttered expressive of disgust at a bad 
smell. A skimk. Generally used as an 
interjection. Example: Fiupiul What 
a bad smell there is! (Kumm, is gener- 
ally used in sentences.) 

Foh, V. (Ohinook,-idem). (By onoma). 
To blow; a puff of breath. Mamook 
poh, — to blow out or extinguish, as a 

Fo'-lak-lle, or Folakly, n., adj. (G). 
(Chinookr— Polakli). Niirht; darkness; 
dark; ffloom. Example: Tenas polak- 
lie, — evening; Kyas polakUe, — late at 
night; very dark; Sit-kum polaklie, — 
midnight (literally. — the half night). 
Alki polaklie chako, — soon night will 
come. Simtah sitkum polukly, — after 
midniirht. (Other spellings : —Folack- 
ley; polackly; polakle; polakUe; polike- 
ly; pollakle; poolakle; polukly). 

Fo'-lal-lie, n. (Quaere French, Pou- 
dre). aunpowder; dust; sand. Folallie 
illahie, — sandy ground. (The word is 
certainly neither Chinook nor Chihalis.) 
(Other ways of spelling: — Folale, polal- 
ly* polalely, pollalley, pollallie, poolala, 

Foo, n. (By onoma,- (Hale). The 
sound of a gtm. Mamook poo, — to shoot; 
Moxt poo, — a double-barreled gun. To- 
bum poo, — ^a six-shooter. (Other spell- 
ings: — Fo, poh, pu.) 

Fot'-latch, or Faht-latsh, n.. v. (N). 
(Hootka,— Pahchilt, (Jewitt); Pachaetl. 
or Pachatl, (Cook). A gift; to ifive; al- 
lot; cede; expend; pay; impart; restore. 
Ex.: Cultus potlatch. — a present or 
free gift; expecting no return; a dona- 
tion. Mamook potlatch, — to make a pot- 
latch. Tikeflrh potlatch, — to offer. Note — 
"A great distribution of gifts; the larg- 
est gathering and festival of the Indi- 
ans of the North Pacific Coast." — Eells. 
"The potlatch was the greatest institu- 
tion of the Indian, and is to this day. 
From far and near assembled the invited 
guests and tribes and with feasting, 
singing, chanting and dancing, the boun- 
teous collection was distributed: a chief 
was made penniless, the wealth of a 
lifetime was dissipated in an hour, but 
his head ever after was crowned with 
the glory of a satisfied ambition: he had 
won the honor and reverence of his peo- 



pie. It was a beautiful custom; beauti- 
ful In the eyes of the natives of high or 
low degree, confined to no particular 
tribe, but to be met with everywhere 
along the coast." — Tlie Slwash. 

"J^otlatoh (noun) — That which is giv- 
en, bestowed, bequeathed, given, etc., — 
i. e., a gift. Always given with the ex- 
pectation, greater or lesser, of a return. 
Cnltiui potlatoh, — a purposeless gift, that 
is, outright with no expectation of re- 
turn. Fotlatclu — an old Indian feast and 
custom, forbidden by law, characterized 
by extreme extravagance on the part of 
the host or hostess in the bestowal of 
gifts upon guests. Potlatoh maokamnck, 
— To give food." — Buchanan. (Other 
ways of spelling: — Fotlaah, potlatch, 
potlaoli, potlatsb). Sloshe mika potlatoh 
nlka wawa kopa yaka, — to intercede. 
Onltas potlatoh. tunLtnni, — to advise; 
counsel; to give advice or counsel. 
Kloshe kopa onltns potlatoh, — generous. 
Zpsoot potlatoh dolla kopa tyee, — to 
bribe. Potlatoh dolla, — to give alms; to 
pay. Potlatoh kloahe wawa, — to con- 
gratulate; admonish. Potlatoh kopa sasr- 
halie tyee, — to dedicate; to consecrate. 
Potlatoh knmtiiks kopa mesaohie,— to 
warn; give warning. Potlatoh meaaohie 
wawa kopa tUlikimis, — to insult. Pot- 
latoh maokamnck po konaway iktaa, — 
to support. Potlatoh aasrhalle yaka wa- 
wa, — to preach. Potlatch akookam wawa, 
— to reprove; exhort. Potlatch wawa, — 
to make a speech; to speak; to order. 

Pnk'-pak, n. (Probably an invented 
word). A hlow with the flat; a flat-fl^ht. 
Mamook pnkpnk, — to box; to fight with 
the firsts. Pnkpnk aoUeka,— to fight in 

Pnaa'-pnaa, n. (E). A oat. . (On Pu- 
get Sound, pronounced Piah-piah.) — 
Eells. Hyaa pnaapnaa, — a cougar. 

Sairli'-a-lle, Sahhall, n.. adj. (C). 
(Chinook, — sakhali; Clataop, — ukhshak- 
hali). Up; above; high; npper; celea- 
tial; nppermoat; over; top; npwarda; 
heaven; aky. "Saffhalie has been trans- 
lated by the Indians into nearly all their 
languages on Puget Sound; as, (Wia 
aownlna, — Twana.) Shnk aiab,— Clal- 
lam). (Taital aiam,— Clallam). (Xlo- 
knt ala, — Upper Chehalis). Klokt ala, — 
Lower Chehalis). All of which mean the 
same. — The Above Chief."Eells. Ex.: 
Potlatoh aaghalie tyee yaka wawa,— to 
preach. Baghalle tyee yaka book,— the 
Bible; Scriptures; Testament. Saghalie 
tyee yaka tenaa, — Jesus Christ; God's 
son. Saerhalle tyee yaka illahie, — heav- 
en. Saglialle tyee yaka wawa, — a ser- 

mon; religious talk;, gospel; religion. 
SaghaUe tyee (literally,— the Chief 
above). Ood; Ibord; Deity; Jehovah; 
Providence. A term invented by the mis- 
tionaries for want of a native one. Alki 
neaika klatawa kopa aaghalle, — soon we 
will go to heaven. Saghalie kopa, — 
honse, — upstairs. Sa^halie Illahie, — 
mountain. Tenaa aaghalie illahie, — a hill. 
(Other spellings: — Sahale; aahali; aag>- 
haUe; aahhahlee; aahhale; aahhali; aa- 
hilli; aakahlee; aakaiUy; aakaUe; aakal- 
ly; aokallee; aankhale; and so on). Sag- 
haUe piah, — lightning. Sag'halie tyee 
neaika papa, yaka tenaa, Jeana, pe yaka 
Holy Spirit, — the Trinity. Saghalie tyee 
papa, — God the Father. Tilliknma Uaa- 
ka halo knmtnka kopa aaghalie tyee, — 

Sail, or Sill, n. (Engliah,— sail). A 
aail; or any cotton or linen goods. Cloth; 
calico; aheet; flair- Example: Okoke aail 
hyaa onltna, — that cloth is very poor. 
Mamook sail, — to make sail; Mamook 
keekwlllie aail,— to take in sail; Tzum 
aail, — printed cloth or calico. Suaaa aail, 
— oil cloth. (Other spellings: Seel, ael, 
aell, ail, aiU). 

So-kol'-eka, or Se-kol'-nka, n. (C). 
Chinook, — tsakaluks, — leggings) . Tron- 
aera; paataloona; panta; breechea. Ex- 
ample: Seekwillie aakoleka, — drawers. 
Okoke aakolleka hyaa mahkook, — these 
pants are very dear. Slahanie aakolleka, 
— overalls. (Other spellings: Sakah- 
leka, aakaleka, aakalooka, aakalnka, aak- 
nleka, aegtOax, aekarlox, aekolnka, ahe- 

Sal-Ial', n. (C). (Chinook,— klkwu- 
shala.) (Shelwell, of Lewis and Clarke). 
The aallal berry; fruit of gualtheria 

Salmon, or Sam'-nn, n. (Engliah, — 
idem). The aalmon; flah generally. Ex- 
ample: Mika tikeg'h mahkook aalmon? — 
do you wish to buy a salmon? Tyee aal- 
mon, — i. e., chief salmon, the spring sal- 
mon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.); Maaahchie 
aalmon, a winter species (aalmo cania, 
Suckley); Tznm aalmon, — salmon trout. 

Salt, n., adj. (Engliah,-idem). Salt, 
or a aalt taate. Kyaa aalt chnck, — the 
ocean. Salt chnck, — salt water; brine; 
marine; the sea; waters of Puget Sound. 
Salt chnck tnpao, — sea weed. 

8aa-de-lie, n., adj. (P). (Prench,- 
Cendre). Aah-colored. (Anderson). A 
roan horae; roan-colored. 

Sap'-o-lill, n. (C). (Chinook,-Tsape- 
lil). (Takima,— saplil;— bread.— (Pan- 

dosy). Wheat; flonr, or meal; a loaf; 
irrain. Example: Kiyn aapolil milite, — 
there is much flour. Piah aapolill, — 
baked bread. Ibolo aapolill, — whole 
wheat. (The word has been erroneously 
supposed to come from the French La 
farine. It is, however, a true Indian 
word, and seems common to various Co- 
lumbia river tribes. Pandosy gives Saplil 



as Yakima for bread; I>ewis and Clarke 
write it 01iapel«ll.) (Other spellinirs: 
CbapaleU; iapiael; g»pol0l; sapolUl; sap- 
pelall; Mtpplel; sapplU). 

Se'-ah-hovt, or S«-«|rli'-o«t» n. (O). 
(Cliiiiook, — Siakhost, — the face). The 
face; tlie eyes; eyeball; oonntenanoe; 
forebead. (Differentiate by gesture.) — 
Buchanan. Ezample: Halo sealiliost, — 
blind. Zoht sealiliost, — one-eyed. Aaklt 
seahliost (four eyes), or Delia seabliost, 
— spectacles (or irlass seahost). Vika 
ttanitch yaka kopa nlka seahost,— I saw 
him with my eyes. CHinok kopa seasost, 
— tears. Aametsiii kopa seahost, — eye- 
water. Tnpso kopa seahost, — bread. 
(Other spellingrs: Seakose; searhost; 
seeahhoos; seeakhose; seeakose; seeonist; 
seeowlst; siahoos; shean^honest; sla- 

Se'-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n. (7). 
(Frenohf-Chapeau.) A hat or cap. Sz- 
ample: Klootohman seahpo, — a bonnet; 
a woman's hot. Taka seahpo mitllte ko- 
pa yaka latet, — his hat is on his head. 
Seahpnlt oUllle, — the raspberry. (Other 
spelllngrs: Seahpolt, searportl, seeahpal, 
slapool, siapnlt, seohpo.) 

Self, n. (EBffllsh,-idem.) Self. Sz- 
ample: Klaska self, — themselves. Me- 
sika self, — yourselves. Mika self, — 
yourself. Vesika self, — ourselves.* Mika 
self, — myself. Taka self, — himself; her- 
self; itself. 

Shame, or Shem, n. CSnirli>h,-idem.) 
Shame. Example: Kalo shame, — shame- 
less. Halo shem mika?— aren't yoxi 
ashamed of vourself ? Maxuook shame, — 
to deride; disgrrace; dishonor; ridicule. 

Shan-tie, v. (7). ([7renoh,-Chanter. ) To 
ahkg. (Other spellingrs: Shante, shartee, 
sharty, shonta.) 

Ship, n. (Bnffllsh,-idem.) A ship or 
vessel. Stick ship, — a sailing vessel. 
Piah ship, — a steamer. .Ship-man, — §i 

Shoes, n. (Bnfflish,-idem.) Shoes; skin 
shoes; moccasins. Ex.: Stick shoes, — 
boots or shoes made of leather. 

Shot, n. (En«rlish,-idem.) Shot; lead. 
Ex.: Shot olillie, — huckleberries. Okoke 
shot hyas tUl, — these shot are very 

Shu'-flrah, or Shn'-kwa, n. (E). Sn«r»r; 
honey. Example: Kalo shnga mitlite, — 
there is no sugar. (Other spellings:. 
Shoffa, shuka, sooka, sook, sngtir.) 

Si-ah% adj. (N). (Nootka,-Saia. ) (Voot- 
ka,-Sieyah, (Jewitt) Sky; hence perhaps 
the afar. — Gibbs.) Par; far off; afar; 
away; distant; remote. (Comparative 
distance is expressed by intonation or 
repetition; as, Siah-siah, — very far; (see 
Ahnkuttie) — Gibbs.) Jewitt gives Sieyah 
as the sky in Nootka, which was per- 
haps the true meaning, or, more prob- 
ably, they called the sky "the afar." 
Example: Alki nika klatawa siah, — soon 
I will go far off. (Prolong the last syl- 
lable and it means very far. — Eells.) De- 

late siah, — a great distance. Blip siah, — 
farther. Elip siah kopa konaway, — farth- 
est. Tenas siah, — a little ways ofT. Wake 
siah, — not far; near. Wake siah kahkwa, 
— nearly so. Wawe siah kopa, — about; ad- 
joining; almost; around; by. (Other 
spellings: Sia; saia; sciah; siar; siyah.) 

Si-am, n. (C). (Chinook,-Ishaiem. ) The 
grisxly hear. (Sometimes siam itchwoot. 

Sick, adj. (Enirlish,-idem.) Sick. Ex- 
ample: Sick tnmtom, — grieved; to feel 
with the heart; regret; worry; sorry; 
jealous; unhappy; sad; heartache. Ma- 
mook sick tomtom, — to hurt one's feel- 
ings. Sick kopa kwolan, — earache. Sick 
tomtom konamokst, — to have sympathy. 
Cole-sick-waom-sick, — fever and ague. 

Sikhs, or Shikhs, Six, n. (O). (Chinook,- 
Skasiks ; Sahaptin,-Shikstua. — Pandosy. ) 
A friend; companion. (Used only to- 
wards men. — Gibbs.) Example: Klahow- 
ya Sikhs, — how do you do, friend. (Other 
spellings: Six; seix; sex; shixe; siks; 

Sin'-a-mokst, or Sin'-a-moxt, adj. (G). 
(Chinook,-Sinimakst.) Seven. Example: 
Sinamokst man mitlite yokwa, — seven 
men are here. Tahtlom pe sinamokst, — 
seventeen. Sinamokst tahtlom, — seventy. 
Sinamokst tokamonok, — seven hundred. 
(Other spellings: Ginamost; senemokst; 
senemoxt; sennamox; sinamox; sina- 

Sis'-ki-yoo, n. Cree^ (Anderson). A 
hoh-tailed horse. (Tolmie and Dawson 
give tshis-ki-yoo, — sky; aht, — kaiook- 
waht.) — Editor. (This name, ludicrously 
enough, has been bestowed on the range 
of mountains separating Oregon and Cal- 
ifornia, and also on a county in the lat- 
ter state. The origin of this designa- 
tion, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, 
was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. Mc- 
Leod, a chief factor of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, in the year 1828, while 
crossing the mountains with a pack 
train, was overtaken by a snow storm, 
in which he lost most of his animals, 
including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. 
His Canadian followers, in compliment 
to their chtef, or "bourgeois," named 
the place the Pass of the Siskiyoo, — an 
appellation subsequently adopted as thc^ 
veritable Indian name of the locality, 
and which thence extended to the whole 
range, and the adjoining district. — 
Gibbs.) (See note under Tatoosh.) 

Sit'-kom, n.. adj. (G). (Ghinook,-Sit- 
kum (Anderson) ;01atsop,-Asitko.) A 
half; a part; fraction; middle; some; a 
piece. Example: Delate sitkom, — ex- 
actly half — not a part. Elip sitkom, — 
a quorum; more than half. Sitkom dol- 
la, — half a dollar. Sitkom son, — noon. 
Blip sitkom son, — forenoon. Kah son 
mitlite kopa sitkom son, — south. Tenas 
sitkom, — a quarter, or a small part (not 
often used). Sitkom hit, — five cents. 

Si'wash, n.. adj. (P). (Prench,-Sau- 



vage.) An Zndlui; Zndlan; aborifflnes; 
a sayaiT*; aavaffe. Ezampto: Siyu sl- 
wash mitlita ynkWa, — many Indians are 
here. Okoka siwash klootclunan, — that 
is ^n Indian woman. Komtuka kopa sl- 
waali, — ethnology. Sltknni aiwash, — a 
half-breed. "The Siwash of Puget 
Sound (a general term applied to males 
of all the tribes) and the Indians of the 
entire North Pacific coast.") — The Si- 
wash. pp. 10-11. (Walker says: "The 
word is pure Indian and the one used 
by the Wasco Indians, and probably by 
the: Klickitats, both of which tribes 
originally ranged along the Columbia 
river from the Cascades to The Dalles, 
and whose languages are nearly identi- 
cal, to designate a human as distin- 
guished from an animal or other crea- 
turew Probably 'people' is the nearest 
word in English for it. After the com- 
ing i,of the whites among them they 
adopted the names 'Bostons, ' 'King 
Geotge,' 'Passieuks' (French), etc., re- 
taining the word 'slwaah' for applica- 
tion to Indians. While undoubtedly the 
Chinook Jargon was more or less of a 
gro\^th, yet I have been told by the 
Waspo Indians that the language was 
perfected and first written down by the 
Catholic priests at the Dalles, and they 
appear to have drawn quite freely from 
the Wasco language in doing so.") "Out 
of his canoe he is a fish out of water, 
a sloth away from his natural sur- 
roundings. He is like a seal on shore, 
a du9k on dry land, ungainly and awk- 
ward," — The Siwash. 

Sktn, n. (Bngllalif-idem.) Skin; a skin; 
leatl&^r; bide; pelt; for; bnckakin. Skin 
shoes, — ^moccasins. Stick skin, — the bark 
of a tree. Dly skin, — leather. 

Skoo'-kiuu, or Skoo-koom, n., adj. (8). 
(GhilialiSi-Skukum.) Stronif; a ghost; 
an evil spirit or demon; able; solid; po- 
tent; jE»owerfnl; vehement; tight; violent; 
tongli. Sxample: Vika kuitan yaka 
skookum, — my horse is strong. Delate 
hyas skooknm, — omnipotent. Slip skoo- 
knm,^:-strongeer. Slip skooknm kopa 
konoway, — strongest. Kalo skooktmif or 
Wake yaka skooknm, — feeble; frail; 
flimsy; impotent; infirm; languid; ten- 
der; unable; weak; wavering; decrepit. 
Skooknm tomtnm (adj., n.), — audacious; 
brave ( bold; capable; daring; dauntless; 
determined; earnest; indomitable; reso- 
lute; robust; sanguine; solid; vajiant; 
boldi^Qss; courage. Skooknm chnok, — 
swift' water; a rapid. Skooknm wawa, — 
to be^; beseech; boast; chide; demand; 
exhor^ implore; plead; rebuke; scold; 
screecft; scream; shriek; hulloa; urge. 
(Other spellings: Skokoom, sknknm, 
shnknm.) "Skookum Club," — name giv- 
en to Democratic Club of Seattle; also 
name of a famous brand of cigar. 

Sla-hal, n. (O). (Shinook,-Btlaltlal.) 
Gibbs says it is a game played with 
ten small disks, one of which is marked. 

and mamook slahal, is to play the game, 
or gamble with them; while others say 
that they mean respectively a game and 
to gamble, in general. ("In Twana the 
word for the round disks is ^ahnl; in 
Nisqually, ^ahallah; in Clallam. Slehal- 
Inm; in Lower Chehalis, Itohnl; and in 
Upper Chehalis, taL For the gambling 
bones it is slahal in Twana and Nisqual- 
ly, and slahal in Clallam. Evidently on 
account of the similarity of the words, 
Slahal and Aahnl, these words have been 
confounded; mamook lahal being prop- 
ertly to gamble with the disks; and ma- 
mook slahal to gamble with the bones." 
— Eells.) 

Snass, n. (Qnaere n. d.). Bain. (The 
word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, 
and is perhaps manufactured.) Ex- 
ample: Halo nika tikegh klatawa kopa 
snass, — I do not wish to go in the rain. 
Snass chako, — it is raining. Gole snass, 
— snow. 

Sol'-leks, or Sah'-leks, n., adj. (Qnaere 
n. d.)* Anger; he angry; malice; hate; 
hatred; hostile; indignant; morose; mad; 
snlky; snllen; he mad. Example: Ma- 
mook solleks, — to fight; resent; offend: 
provoke. Tikegh solleks, — to be hostile. 
Xnmtnks solleks, — to be passionate. Ha- 
lo solleks, — meek; mild; pleasant. Taka 
hyas solleks, — he is very angry. Taka 
solleks kopa nika, — he is mad at me. 
Chako solleks, — to become angry; pro- 
voked, or offended. Hyas solleks, — furi- 
ous; rabid; full of vengeance or rage; 
very angry. Hism solleks, — fury; rage; 
vengeq-nce. Solleks wawa, — a quarrel; 
growl. (Other spellings: Saliks, salix, 
saUiz, sallnz, silex, soleks.) 

8o'-pe-ha, V. (C). (Chinook,-T'sopena.) 
To Jniap; to leap; hop; skip; spring. 

Spose, conj. (Englishf-Suppose). If; 
supposing i that; provided that; in order 
that. (Boas says it is more frequently 
pronounced pos on the Columbia river; 
and that pos in Chinook means if; so 
that spose may be explained as due to 
folk etymology oh the part of the trad- 
ers, or pos as folk etymology on the 
part of the Chinook. — Gibbs.) (Other 
spellings: Fos, pose, spos.) Example: 
Spofte mika nanitsh nika oanim, — if you 
see my canoe. Spose nika klatawa kopa 
CniinoQk, — if or when I go to Chinook. 
Hahkwit spose, — as if. (See Kloshe 
spose.) Spose mika tikegh, nika klata- 
. wa, — if you wish I will go. Spose kopet 
lakit tfkhtlnm snn, Jesus yaka tikegh 
klatam kopa Saghale, — (literally) when 
ended ^ur ten days, Jesus he would go 
to Heaven, — i. e., when the forty days 
were ended. He desired to ascend to 
Heaven. "A conditional or suppositive 
meaning is given to a sentence by the 
words klonas, perhaps, and spose (from 
the English 'suppose'), used rather in- 
definitely. Ex.: Vika kwass nika papa 
klonas mimaloose, — I fear my father 
will die (lit., I afraid my father per- 



haps die). BpoM mik» klatawa srftbwa, 
pe nika ohaoo kalikwa,— if you will so 
yonder. I will follow (lit., suppose you 
go that way, then I come the same)." 
"It will be noticed that these two con- 
junctions form the only exceptions to 
the rule that all the grammatical ele- 
ments of the Jargon are derived from 
the proper Chinook language. Only two 
conjunctions, properly speaking, are 
found in the language— p«, from the 
French word pues, and spoM." — Hale. 

Stick, n., adj. (B]i«rllsli,-idem). A. 
stick; a tree; wood; wooden; Tine; pole; 
rod. Example: Stick skin, — bark. Skip 
■tick, — a mast. Xitwhit stick, — a stand- 
ing tree. Xcht stick, — a yard measure. 
Stick skoes, — leather shoes or boots, as 
distinguished from skin shoes or mocca- 
sins. Knll stick, — oak (hard wood). 
Isick stick, — the ash (paddle wood). 

Stock'-en, n. (S). Stockings or socks. 
(The Twanas have adopted it into their 
language as stab-kid. — Eells.) 

Stoh, adj. (Cliinook,-idem). Koose. Ex- 
ample: Mamook stoh, — to untie; unloose; 
undo. (Metaphorically, to absolve sins.) 

Stone, n. (Enfflisli,-idem). A, rock or 
stone; bone; bom; tbe testicles; linger 
nail; boulder. Example: Stone cbika- 
min, — ore. Stone kinatan, — a stallion. 
Mabsb stone, — to castrate. Stone illa- 
bie,— a mountain. ITkope stone, — quartz; 
any white stone. 

Stote'-kin, adj. (C). (€niinook,-Stokt- 
kin.) Eififbt. Example: Tabtlnm pe 
stotekin, — eighteen. (Other spellings: 
Xstongbtkin; sotbin; stoffbtkin; stopekin; 
stoktkekin; stotkin.) 

Statcb'-nn, n. (Enfflisbi-Sturgeon). 
Tbe Stnrg^eon. (Other spellings: Stncb- 
nn, stntcbin, stoffbeon, stoffeon, stntsbin, 

Snn, n. (En«rlisb,-idem). Tbe sun; a 
day. Example: Sun yaka wanm alta, — 
the sun is warm now. Okoke sun, — to- 
day. Tablkie sun, — yesterday. (Ikt tabl- 
kie, — day before yesterday.) Tenas snn, 
— early. Sitkom sun, — noon. Wake slab 
sitknm snn, — almost noon. Ikt snn, — 
Monday. Mokst sun, — Tuesday. Klone 
sun, — Wednesday. Iiakit snn, — Thurs- 
day. Xwinnnm sun, — Friday. Taflrbnm 
sun, — Saturday; (formerly muckamuck 
sun). Klip snn, — sunset. Elip sitkum 
snn, — before noon; the forenoon. Sim- 
tab sitkum snn, — after noon; the after- 

Snn'-day, or Sante, n. (Entflisb,-idem). 
Sunday; week. Example: Klosbe mika 
cbako kopa cburcb bouse kopa Sunday, 
— please to come to church on Sunday. 
Sunday Mkil, — a flag, because formerly 
on Sunday the flag was raised at the 
Hudson's Bay Company's posts. Ikt Sun- 
day, — a week. Kyas Sunday, — a holiday. 
(A flag hoisted on a particular occasion 
is sometimes also called Sunday. The 
other days of the week are usually 

counted from this; as. Icbt, Mokst, Klone 
sun kopet Sunday, — one, two. three days 
after Sunday. Saturday used to be 
called at the Hudson's Bay Company's 
posts "muckamuck sun", — food day. as 
the one on which the rations were is- 
sued.) — Gibbs. (Eells gives: "Byas Sun- 
day, — a holiday, as Fourth of July: 
Christmas. Mokst Sunday,— a fortnight. 
Ikt Sunday, — a week; but the word week 
is rapidly taking its place.") 

Taffb'-um, To'-bum, or Tuffb'-um, adj 
(C). (Obinook,-Takhum; Cowlits,-Tuk 
hum; Swantlen,-Tukhum; Selisb,-Tak- 
kan.) Six. Example: Tabtlnm pe tag- 
bum, — sixteen. Taffbum tabtlnm, — sixty. 
Taffbum tukamonuk, — 600. (Other spell- 
ings: TagUram; tabam; tabkbum; ta- 
bom; tabum; tobbum; tucbum; tu^bb- 
kam.) (Clallam, — T'hung. Upper Cbe- 
balis, — "Tahum. ) — Eells. 

Tabl-kie, or Tabnl-kie, adv. (C). (Obi- 
nook,-Tanlki. ) Yesterday. Example: 
Taka cbako tablkie, — he came yesterday. 
Tablkie sun, — yesterday. Icbt tablkie, — 
day before yesterday. *'Talki sun, — yes- 
terday. Mox talki sun, — day before yes- 
terday. Tomollab, — tomorrow. Talki 
moon, — last month. Talki wanm illabee, 
— last summer. Talki cole illabee, — last 
winter." — Buchanan. (Other spellings: 
Tabnkie; talks; talki; tanke; tanilkey; 
tantki; tanlke.) 

Tabt'-lum, or Tabf-le-lum, or Tot'-le- 
lum, adj. (C). (Cbinook,-Tatlelum.) Ten. 
(The combinations from this are simple.) 
Example: Moxt, klone, &c.. Tabtlnm, sig- 
nifying twenty, thirty. &c.; Tabtlnm pe 
icbt, &c., eleven, twelve. &c.; tabtlum- 
tabtlum, one hundred. (Other spellings: 
Eattatblelum ; tabtelum ; tabtil^ # n ; tart- 
lum; tatlelam; tatlelom; tattelum; tauffb- 
lelum; tobtleum; totlum.) 

T'al-a-pus, n. (C). (Obinook,-Italipas; 
Takima,-Telipa (Pandosy). Tbe coyote 
or prairie wolf. A sort of deity or super- 
natural being, prominent in Indian myth- 
ology. A sneak. Eells gives, "Byas 
opoots talapus, — same as Talapus. Some 
give Talapus as Coyote or Prairie Wolf 
and Byas opoots talapus as Fox, and 
some exactly the reverse, custom prob- 
ably being different according to lo- 

Ta-mab-no-us, n. CC)> (Obinook,-It«i- 
manawas.) A. sort of guardian or famil- 
iliar spirit; magic; luck; fortune; any- 
tbinir supernatural; tbe spirits; a flrbost; 
iroblin; idol; witcb. "A name applied to 
anything the Indians cannot understand. 
A Tab-mab-na-wis man is a doctor, 
priest, conjurer, and fortune-teller, a 
dealer in magic and a maker and de- 



stroyer of charms for good and evil, all 
in the same personage." — Phillips. 
("One's particular forte is said to be his 
Tamalmoiui.") — Gibbs. Example: Ma- 
mook tamabnoiui, — to conjure; "make 
medicine." Masaholil* tamalmoas, — 
witchcraft or necromancy. Mr. Ander- 
son restricts the true meaning of the 
word to conjuring. Balo yaka mitlite 
tamahnomi, — he has no guardian spirit. 
*' 'Klale Tah-mali-na-wls,' the name of 
the secret society of black magic." — 
Phillips. "There were four kinds of ta- 
mahu-a-wis, sometimes spelled ta-mahn- 
o-as, or spirit practices in vogue among 
the Twanas as there were among the 
great family of Selish Indians in Wash- 
ington. The word ta-malm-a-wlB may 
be and was used in the sense of a noun, 
an adjective or a verb. As /a noun it 
means any kind of a spirit in the spirit 
world from the Balitf-ha-lle Tyee, or 
supreme being, to the klail ta-malin-a- 
wl», or devil, literally, black spirit. As 
an adjective a ta-malin-a-wls stick, 
stone, person, etc., is a thing or indi- 
vidual with a ta-malm-a-wia or spirit 
either of good or evil in it. As a verb 
It Is used in the sense of invoking the 
aid of spirits, as 'mali-iiLOlc ta-malin-a- 
wis.' The four kinds of ta-mahn-a-wls 
of the Indians of the Twana tribe at 
least are: The ta-malm-a-wis over the 
■loky' the incantations of the medicine 
men; the 'red ta-malin-a-wls,' the 'black 
ta-malma-wUi,' and the 'spirit land ta- 
malm-a-wla.' The siok ta-malin-a-wiB 
was only practiced for the healing of 
the sick. The red, or plU ta-malin-a-wlB; 
was an assembling together, an invoca- 
tion, in short, 'Of the spirits for a good 
season the following summer. It lasted 
three or four days and consisted of sing- 
ing, dancing, the beating of tom-toms, 
drums and the decoration of the face 
and limbs and body invariably with 
streaks and spots of red paint. The 
black, or klail ta-makn-a-wis, was the 
free masonry of the Twanas and was 
without doubt the one great religion of 
all religious practices among them. It 
was a secret society to a very large 
extent, and none but the initiated were 
ever permitted to have anything to do 
with it. Masks made in rude imitation 
of the wolf head were used, and these 
were called shwa7'«t-sko-0in. The prac- 
tice of the spirit land ta-makn-a-wis 
was associated with or founded on a 
very pretty myth believed in by the old 
Twanas to the effect that a year or two 
perhaps before an Indian died he or she 
lost his or her spirit. Spirits from other 
places, always from below, would visit 
the Indian and, quite unaware to the 
person, would take and carry off the 
spirit and saij with it to their abiding 
place, there to hold it in captivity un- 
less released by spirits from this life. 
The theory of the medicine ta-malm-a- 

wlB is that when a person is sick- some 
evil spirit has taken possession of the 
body, sometimes more than one evil 
spirit, and of different kinds. It was 
always the duty of the ta-makn-a-wis 
doctors to And out what kind of a spirit 
had entered the body, and then by in- 
cantation and ceremony to drive it out." 
— The Siwash. "The Twana or Skoko- 
mish tribe," pp. 32-40. Ta-makn-a-wis 
rattles, — made out of deer hoofs, bear 
and beaver teeth, etc. (Other ways of 
spelling: Tamaknawas, tamahnawis, 
tamaknowns, tbanaaawas, tamanoas, ta- 
manoiui, tomaknawos, tomanawos.) 

Ta-mo'-litsk, or Ta-mow'-lltsk, n. <C). 
(Oklnookf-Tamulitsh (Anderson); Taka- 
iiLa,-Tamolitsh (Pandosy). JL tub; bar- 
rel; bucket; ca«k; keg*. Example: Ckuok 
mitlite kopa tamolitsk, — water is in the 
barrel. Xokt tamolitsk, — a bushel meas- 
ure. (Other ways of spelling: Tamoo- 
U<Lg9, tamoliok, tamolick, tamolitok, ta- 
moluok, tamoolitok, tam.ulidg'e.) 

Tanee, v., n. (Entflisk,-Dance.) To 
dance. Example: Hiyu tanse alta, — there 
is much dancing now. 

Te-ak'wit, n. (O). (Okinook,-Tiawi: 
Clatsop,-Klaawit). Tke lee; tke foot. 
(Differentiate by gesture). Example: 
Klatawa teakwit, — to go on foot; to 
walk; Klook teawit, — 1«ame. (Other 
ways of spelling: Teeaknute, tearvrit, 
teawklt, teiawit, teouit.) 

Ta-toos'k, To-toosli, n. (Ckippeway^ 
Totosh (Schoolcraft.) '*Tatoosk from 
Cree or Otoipwe. The cognate words are: 
Cree (L#acombe) totosim, ' mammelle, 
pis.' Otdpwe (Baraga) totosk,-breast. 
dug, udder; Alffonkin (Cuoq), totoc, 
'mammelle.' " — Okamberlain. Tke breasts 
of a female; milk, bosom; breast; teat; 
udder. Example; Sloske tatoosk, — 
cream. Tatoosk lakles, — butter. Ta- 
toosk ffleese, — butter. Eells says the 
word milk is taJcing its place. (Tatoosk 
Zdgkt Bouse^ Tatoosk Island and Ta- 
toosk, near Cape Flattery, Clallam Coun- 
t3% Wash.) NOTE: The words of a 
Al^onkian origin which are to be found 
in the vocabulary of Chinook, as given 
by the authorities, are consequently: 
Xinnikinnik, flelpiskemo, mitass, Siski- 
you, totoosk, wapatoo. Regarding the 
etymology of these loan-words, the fol- 
lowing may be said: Xinni-kinnik. De- 
rived directly or indirectly from Otcipwe* 
The cognates are Otdpwe (Baraga). 
Xlnigini^, 'I am mixing together some- 
thing of diffirent kinds.' (Cuoq) kinlk- 
inisre, (meler ensemble des okoses de 
nature differente.' The radical is seen in 
▲Iffon^in (Cuoq) kinika, 'pele-mele' — 
Cree, Xiyekaw. (See supplemental vo- 
cabulary). Kepiskimo. This word evi- 
dently consists of the French article le 
and a radical [al piskemo. This latter 
apiskamon, 'anything to lie on; a bed: 
corresponds to the Otoipwe (Baraga) 



0,1 am lying on something/ 
Compare the Western Americanism 
aplsliMiior* which Bartlett (Diet, of 
Americanism, 1877) thus defines: Apisli- 
ftinor* (Chippeway, apishamoiL). Any- 
thing to lie down on: a bed. A saddle- 
blanket made of buffalo-calf skins, much 
used on the prairies." ICltass. Directly 
or indirectly (through French-Canadian) 
from <Moipwe or Cre«. The cognate 
words are: Otoipwe (Baraga) mldflJis: 
▲Igonkin (Cuoq), mitafl; Orea (Lacombe) 
mitas. The word exists in Canadian- 
French in the form of mitass*. Dr. 
Franz Boas kindly informs me that 
"legging" in Chinook and Clatsop \a 
Imetas. (See supplemental vocabulary.) 
BUkiyoiv Though this word is assigned 
a Cree origin by Mr. Gibbs, its etymology 
is very ' uncertain. Blackfoot sakhsin, 
"short" and Cree kiskikknttew» "he cuts 
in two" offer themselves for comparison, 
but with no certainty" — Chamberlain. 
Tshla-ki-ryn, sky, is given by Tolmie and 
Dawson in "Comparative Vocabularies of 
the Indian Tribes of British Columbia" 
—63 B. (64, sky) Aht. (Kaiookwaht)— 
Shaw. Wappatoo, under proper order in 
main alphabet, (q. v.) Fapooae. Another 
word may be added to this list, viz., 
papiui (papoose) — child. This word Is 
used by the speakers of Chinook in East- 
ern British Columbia. The Algonkin 
origin of. the word has been disputed by 
some, but there is every reason to be- 
lieve that it Is connected with the root 
seen in the Massachusetts papeisaiosn 
(Eliot) — 'he is very small.; peisaea 
(Eliot) 'child'; pa-u (Eliot) 'it is small.' 
From this root there seems little doubt 
that the word papoba or papooae found 
in Roger Williams, and in Wood ("New 
England Prospect") has been derived, as 
Dr. Trumbull has pointed out. These 
words were all heard by the writer in 
Western British Columbia in the summer 
of 1891. Siakiyon was not heard and is 
probably obsolescent." — JJexander Fran- 
oia Chambarlain, "Words of Algonkian 
origin (in the Chinook Jargon), in Sci- 
ence, Vol. 18, pp. 260-261. 1891. 

T«n'-aa, or Tan'aa, n., adj. (N). (Noot- 
ka,-Tanas; Tokwali,t,-Tenes. ) Small; 
few; little; a oliild; the young' of any 
animal. Fetty; alight; pappoose; baby; 
a mite. Example: Tenas anow chako, — 
a little snow has come. Chako tenaa — 
to decrease; diminish; lessen; become 
less. Byaa tenaa, — very small. Mamook 
tenaa, — tO; decrease; diminish; lessen. 
Tenaa ahnknttle, — lately; recently. 
Tenas hlyft, — a few; some; several. Ten- 
aa hlyn tunes, — sometimes. Tenaa laly, 
— an interval; a short time. Tenaa 
mahsh, — to move. Tenas polakUe, — 
evening; twilight; sunset; dusk; eve. 
Tenaa yaka tenaa, — a grand child. Mokst 
nlka tenaa, — I have two children. Tenaa 

yaka tenaa man, — a grandson. (Jewitt 
gives Tanftaala for a child in Nootka.) 
Chikohifc kopa tenaa, — a wagon for a 
child: a baby carriage. (Other ways of 
spelling: Tanarae, tanaa, tanaaa, tanai, 
tnnas, tnnaaa.) 

Thonaand, adj. (Engli8h,-idem). 

(Thousand is either represented by the 
words tahtlnm tnkamonnk, — ten hun- 
dred — or by the word Thonaand. — Eells.) 
Example: Biyn tllllknma mltllte, klonaa 
knnjih thonaand, — many people are here, 
perhaps many thousand. 

Tik-egh, 4)r Tlky, v. (O). (CHilnook,- 
tikekh). To want; wish; love; like; 
ohooae; pick. "To want, to dealre, — 
in all shades of meaning and intensity 
from simple desire or want to amorous 
and even lustful desire; also, therefore^, 
to love. Also, what one should or ought 
to want to do, as mlka tlcky mnckamnck 
mlka lametain, — you must take your 
medicine. Mlka halo tloky smoke, — you 
must not smoke. Klka halo tloky wawa 
kahkwa kopa nlka, — you must not speak 
like that to me." — ^Bnchanan. "The fu- 
ture, in the sense of 'about to,' 'ready 
to,' is sometimeis expressed by tlkegli, 
which means properly to wish or desire. 
Nlka papa tlke«rh mlmalooae, — my fath- 
er is near dying, or about to die." — 
Hale. Example: Okoke ann nlka tlkegh 
wawa, — this day I will speak. Byaa 
tikegh, — to long for. Ikta mlka tikegh? 
— what do you want? Taka tlkegh dolla, 
— he wants money. Nlka tlkegh nlka 
klootchman, — I love my wife. Delate 
halo tlkegh,— to loathe. Ellp tlkegh, — 
to prefer; choose; rather. Balo tlkegh, 
— averse; dislike; unwilling. Tlkegh 
knmtnka, — to enquire; to wish to know. 
(Other spellings: Takeh; take; takeigh; 
tlokey; tlkeh; tiki; tlkke; tlkky; fkeh; 
treh; tnkegh.) 

TUM-knm, or tilaknm, n. (C). (Ohi- 
nook,-tilikhum). People; relations; rela- 
tlvea; aasoclate; family; folks; frlenda; 
kin; kindred; band; tribe; fellow nation; 
population; person. (Applied generally, 
it means those who are not chiefs. It 
is also used to signify a tribe or band.) 
Example: Cnltna tlIlknm,^-common or 
insignificant persons. Bnlolma tlllknm, 
— strangers. Nlka tlllknm, — my rela- 
tions. Taka klatawa kopa yaka tllll- 
knms, — he has gone to his people. Ahn- 
knttle tUlknms, — ancestors; forefathers. 
Eells gives "Nlka tillknms, — my friends; 
my relatiqns; so when preceded by the 
other pronpuns, as mika, mesika, nesika, 
klaska, yaka. It has reference to friends 
or relations. Blyn tUlkums, — a crowd; 
a throng. (Other spellings: Tellkom.; 
teknm; tUaonm; tlleonm; tlllonm; telli- 
knm; tllllknma (pi.); tUllonm; tUlo- 

TU'-l-knm-ma-ma, n. (O). (Chlnook,- 
Tlkamama). A father. (The word Is 



not in use in Jargon. — Hale.) 

Till, or Tnll, adj., n. (EnffUih^-Tire). 
Tix8d; h.9mvj; welffht; » weiglit; « povnd; 
fatigue. Example: Kansih till okook, — 
how much does that weigh? ICamook 
tiii,_to weigh. Wake till,— light (not 
heavy). Mamook till tTuntmn, — to trou^ 
ble. Wak« siah mimolns* kopa till, — 
exhausted. Nika hyafl till, — I am very 
tired. Cbako till, — to become tired; 

Tin'-tin, n. (By onoma). ▲ b«ll; aa 
hoxa; a mosioal instnunent. "When ap- 
plied to a clock it means when the bell 
rings, that is on the hour — therefore it 
means hour or o'clock. " — Buchanan. Bs- 
ample: ICamook tintin, — to ring a bell. 
Snnjili tintin alta? — what time is it 
now? (Among the Indians round the 
Hudson Bay Company's posts, the hours 
were thus known; as, Mokst tintin kopct 
sitknm snn, two hours, i. e., two bells 
after noon.) *1kt tintin, one hour or 
one o'clock. The same word also refers 
to a church bell and any kind of bell, as 
well as the sound produced by it." — 
Bnckanaa. Blip tahkum tintin, — before 
six o'clock. Ximtah tahkum tintin, — aft- 
er six o'clock. Tahkum tintin, — six 
o'clock; six hours. Wake «iali tahkum 
tintin, — almost six o'clock; not far away 
from six o'clock. 

T'kopc, adj. (01iinook,-idem). WMte; 
UAt-colorcd. i Bzamplc: Okoke pish- 
puili sraka fkope, — that cat is white. 
Vkopc tiliknnui, — white people. (Other 
spellings: Tecopc; tccooop; tckop; te- 
kope; t'koop; la coope.) 

Tlehl. (See Klale). 

Tl'kopc, V. (01iinook,-idem). To cnt; 
hew; chop. Bzample: Mamook tlliop, — 
to cut; mow. Tl'kop ooaknt, — to sup- 
plant (to cut one's road), (w. W. — but 
is being superseded rapidly by the word 
cut. — Eells. 

Toh, or Tooh. (By onoma). Mamook 
toh, — to spit. (A manufactured word). 

T'oke-tie, adj. (Kalapuya). Pretty. 
(Not in common use.) 

To'-lo, V. (Xalapnya). To earn; to 
win at a g'ame; to gain; control; con- 
vince; manage; defeat; overcome; over- 
throw; prevail; profit; prosper; eubdne; 
■abject; encceed; triumph. Bzample: 
Sansih dolla nika tola spoee mamook?— 
How many dollars will I earn if I work? 
Taka tolo mokst dollar, — he earned two 
dollars. Blka tolo, — I succeeded. Nika 
tolo yaka, — I prevailed over him. Wawa 
pe tolo, — to persuade. 

To'-luks, n. (01allam,-Toyuk). The 
mussel. (Used on Puget Sound only.) 

To-mol-la, adv. (English,-to-morrow). 
To-morrow. Zkt tomolla, or kopet to- 
molla, — day after to-morrow. 

To-wa'gh, adj. (C). Ohinook,-Tow- 
akh). Bright; shining; light. 

Tsee, adj. (Ohinook,-idem). Sweet. 

Tsee'pie, v., adj. (Salapoya). To miss 

a mark; to mistake one's road; to make a 
blunder in speakinir; to err or blunder; 
deceive; false; illusive; deceitfuL Ex- 
ample : Okoke tseepie mamook, — that is 
a deceitful deed. Tseepie ooakut, — to 
take a wrong road. Mamook tseepie, — 
to delude; dissemble; fool; deceive; mis- 
take; (not quite so strong as Felton or 
Sliminawhit. — Eells.) Tseepie lalang, — 
a slip of the tongue. Tseepie mamook, — 
a trick. Tseepie wawa, — to mispro- 

Tshi'-ke, adv. (Quaere u. d.) Direct- 
ly; soon. (Not Jargon.) — Hale. 

Tsi-at-ko, n. (8)^ (Ohihalis, Nisqual- 
ly, etCn-idem; Clatsop,-Echiatku). {JL 
nocturnal demon, much feared by the 
Indians. The Skagits give this name to 
the "Couteaux," a tribe of Indians on 
Prazer River, of whom they stand in 
like awe. — Gibbs.) 

Tsik'-tsik, or Tchik tchik, n. (By 
onoma.) (See Chik-chik.) JL wagon; 
a cart; a wheeL Example: Tsiktsik 
wayhut, — a wagon-road. 
^ Tsugh, n., V. (Ohinook,-idem). JL crack 
or split. Mamook tsugh, — to split. Cha- 
ko tsugh, — to become split or cracked, 
as by the heat of the sun. Mamook 
tsugh illahie, is by some used instead 
of kiugh, for to plough. 

Tuk-a-mo'-nuk, op Tak-a-mo'-nak, adj. 
(C). (Chinook,-Itakamonak.) ▲ hun- 
dred. It is, like ten, combined with the 
digits; as, icht, moxt, klone takamonak, 
— one hundred, two- hundred, three hun- 
dred, &c. Byas tul^amonuk, or tahtlum 
tukamonak, — a thousand. (Other spell- 
ings: Ethacamunack; tacomonak; taka- 
monuk: takamunak.) 

Tum'-tum, n., v. (By onoma., from the 
pulsations of the he^rt. (Anderson). The 
heart; the* will; opiiUon; intellect; inten- 
tion; estimate; memory; mind; opinion; 
plan; purpose; reason; soul; spirit; sur- 
mise; thought; wilL (Tumtum, — as a 
verb — To think, to will, to believe, to 
know. As a noun — ^Thought, will, belief, 
mind, opinion, knowledge, heart.) — Bu- 
chanan. Example: Mahsh tumtum, — to 
give orders (Gb). Mamook tumtum, — to 
make up one's mind; decide; design; 
muse; account; contemplate; think; plan. 
Mamook kloshe tumtum, — to make 
friends or peace, f^ick tumtum, — grief; 
jealousy. Most tunttum nika, — I am un- 
decided, i. e., I have two wills.Q. TMh. 
nesika klAtawa? — where shall we go? Ji. 
Mika tumtum, — wherever you please; as 
you will. Ikta mika tumtum? — what do 
you think? Kalo tumtum, — without a 
will of one's own, as a child. The heart 
seems to be generally regarded as the 
seat of the mind or will. Zskum kopa 
tumtum, — to believe. Xlap tumtum, — to 
decide; recollect; remember. Mahsh tum- 
tum, — to forget, (Eells). Mamook tum- 
tum slip,— to anticipate. MitUte kloshe 
tumtum kopa, — to admire. Bkookum tum- 



timii — bold; boldness; brave; capable; 
audacious; courage; determined; earnest. 
Zidikwa nlka tumtnxn, — so I think. Blind 
kopft tumtnm, — ignorant. Cliako kloshe 
tnmtuin, — to be delighted or reconciled. 
Cliako slok tumtnin, — to repent; repine; 
become sorry or sad. Delate liyaa slok 
tnmtiuii, — agony. Beehee tmntnm — jolly. 
Balo iskam kopa tumtnm, — lo disbelieve; 
unbelief. Tntl tnmtnm, — glad spirits; 
happy spirits; proud spirits; rejoice, etc.; 
glad heart; happy heart, etc. (Tnmtnm, 
— Heart, mind, will, opinion, belief, spirit 
-^the animal spirits, not supernatural 
ones — mood, etc. Mamh tnmtnm, — to 
cast out of mind, — 1. e., to forget. Ma- 
mook kloshe tnmtnm, — to make or to 
cause good feeling.) — Buchanan. Kale 
klap tnmtnm, — to be puzzled; undecided. 
Balo prond tnmtnm, — lowly; humble. 
Balo aick tnmtnm kopa sraka nesackie, — 
impenitent. Balo akooknm tnmtnm, — ir- 
resolute; cowardly; not brave. Balo tnm- 
tnm, — dull; thoughtless. Balo tnmtnm 
kakkwa, — to disagree; disbelieve. Byas 
tnmtnm, — pompous. Kloake kopa nlka 
tnmtnm, — beloved. Mamook tnmtnm ko- 
pa book or papah, — to study. Mitllte 
kloake tnmtnm, — to be contented; de- 
lighted; to enjoy. XltUte kopa tnmtnm, 
— to remember; recollect. Nlka tnmtnm 
halo yaka okako kahkwa, — unexpected; 
chance; an accident. Wake kopet tnm- 
tnm, — to remember. Weffht mamook 
tnmtnm, — to reconsider. ^ 

Tnm-wa'-ta, n. (Tnm, by onoma.; Enff- 
lisli, Water). Ji waterfall, cascade or 
cataract. (Lewis and Clarke give Timm 
as used by the Indians above The Dalles 
of the Columbia in directing them to 
the falls.) Under the spelling of Tnm- 
water it is the name of a place in Thurs- 
ton County, Wash. 

Tnp'-skin or Tip'-sin, v. (B). (Okiha- 
Ii8,-Tupshin.) A Needle. Mamook tip- 
ain, — to sew; to mend; to patch. 

Tnp-ao, or Tip'-ao, n. (C). (Okinook,- 
Tepso.) A leaf; graM; leaves; fringe; 
feathers; fnr; hair. Often but incor- 
rectly employed for Takso, — hair. Ex- 
ample: Tipso illahie, — prairie. Dely tip- 
so, — hay. Klosh tnpso, — flowers; blos- 
soms; pansy; violet; rose. Tnpso kopa 
latet, — hair. Tnpso kopa seahost, — 

Ty'-ee, n.. adj. (B). (Hootka,-Taiyi; 
Tyee (Jewitt). ▲ chief; gentleman; offi- 
cer; superior; boss; foreman; -manager; 
Indian agent; king; emperor; president. 
(Anything of superior order.) Example: 
Saffhalie tyee, — the Deity. Tyee salmon, 
*— the spring salmon. (Tyon is given by 
pome of the northwestern voyagers as 
the Eskimo appellation for chief.) Kah- 
kwa tyee, — kingly; aristocratic. Tyee 
kopa Washington, — the President of the 
United States. (Other spellings: Tai; 
tail; tie; tye; tyeyea; tyhee.) Tyee court, 
— supreme court. Tyee klootchmaa, — 

empress; queen; matron of an Indian 
school; a woman of authority. Tyee kopa 
newspaper, — an editor. Tyee kopa town, 
—a mayor. Tyee salmon, — spring sal- 

Tsum, or T'ss-sum, or Tsum, n., adj. 
CCliinook,-idem). Mixed colors; spots or 
stripes; a mark or figure; writing; paint; 
painted; picture. Example: Taka tsum 
kopa yaka stick **B", — his brand on his 
logs is **B.** Klale chuck kopa mamook 
tsum, — ink. Mamook tsum, — to write; 
print; stamp; stain; paint; dye; mark; 
record; copy; subscribe; indite; endorse; 
engrave. Tsum illahie, — blazed or sur- 
veyed land. Tsum seahost, — photograph ; 
profile; postage stamps. Tsum stick, — a 
lead pencil; a pen. Tsum pish, — a spot- 
ted fish, the trout. "When the letter T' 
is followed by the apostrophe, as above, 
the sound of the T is *tiss* as nearly as 
it can be written, thus making a syllable 
of itself, as tiss-so-lo, for t'solo." — Phil- 


Wagh, V. (C). ( Chinook,- wakh.) To 
pour; to spill; to Tomit. 

WakOk adv. (B). (Boot^^,— wik; Tok- 
waht, — wek.) Bo; not; none; the nega- 
tive. See Balo. Example: Wake nika 
kumtuks, — I do not understand. Wake 
delate kopa nanitch, — indistinct; indis- 
tinguishable. Wake klaksta, — none; no- 
body. Wake hiyu, — few; insufficient; 
lacking; rare; scarce; seldom; scant; 
scanty; deficient. Wake kloshe, — mean; 
unkind; improper; inconvenient; untrust- 
worthy; nasty; naughty; wrong. Wake 
siah, — not far; near; almost adjoining. 
Wake kloshe kopa mahkook, — unsalable. 
Wake siah kopa, — about; around; by. 
Wake siah yahwa, — thereabouts. Wake 
skookum, — feeble; flimsy; frail; languid; 
impotent; infirm; tender; delicate; un- 
able; wavering; weak. Wake skookum 
kopa, — impossible; unable; inability. 
Wake skookum tnmtnm, — irresolute. 
Wake wawa, — dumb; mum; mute. Bote. 
— "Many of the Jargon words, though en- 
tirely different, yet sound so much alike 
when quickly spoken, that a stranger is 
apt to get deceived; and I have known 

Sersons who did not well understand the 
argon get angry with an Indian, think- 
ing he had said something entirely dif- 
ferent from what he actually did. The 
words wake^ no, and wlcht, directly or 
after, sound as pronounced, very similar. 
Chako, hiac, chako, — come quick! come, 
said a settler one day to an Indian who 
was very busy. Wicht nika chako, — I 
will come directly, said the Indian. But 
the white man understood him to say, 



Wftke nika ohako, — I will not come, con- 
sequently got angry. You don't under- 
stand Indian talk; I did not say I would 
not come, said the Indian. If he had 
said Naxwitlka, yes, the white man 
would have understood." — Judge Swan. 
(Wioht means, affain, also, more, the 
word is also spelled weffht, wa^t, weht, 
weht, weltoli, weqt, and woug-ht.) — Shaw. 

Wap'-pa-too, or wap'-a-to, n. (Quaere 
XL. d.) The root of the Sasritarla sasritti- 
folia, which forms an article of food. 
The potato. "Chamberlain says, 'from 
Cree or Otoipwe. The cognate words 
are: Cr<»e (Lacombe) wapatow, 'cham- 
pignon blanc;' Otoipwe (Baraga), waba- 
do, "rhubarb," Algonkin (cuoq) wabato, 
'rhubarbe du Canada.' It is in all prob- 
ability a derivative from the root wap — 
(wab), 'white.' ") "The word is neither 
Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere 
in common use." — Gibbs. Eells says: 
"Since the introduction of the potato 
the latter has been called wapato, and 
the former slwash waptao." (Other 
spellings: Wapatoe; wahpltto; wapetu; 
wappato; wappatoe; wappatoo.) 

Wash, V. (Engllsh,-idem.) Example: 
Mamook wash, — to wash. Xskum wash, 
— to be baptized. 

Washington, n. (IS). Congress; the 
City of Washington; the Indian Depart- 
ment at Washington. Example: Wash- 
ington potlatch law kopa neslka, — may 
mean that congress has made a law 
for us, or that the Indian Department 
has done so. 

Waum, adj. (E). Warm. Example: 
Okoke sun yaka waum, — today is warm. 
Waum Ulahee, — summer. Byas waum. 
— hot. Waum'" sick, cole sick, — fever 
and ague. 

Wawa, or wau-wau, v. n. (N). (Noot- 
ka, Nlttlnat, — wawe. — Gibbs. Chinook, 
— a wawa. — Boas.) To talk; speak; call; 
ask; tell; answer; enquire; declare; sa- 
lue; announce; talk or conversation; con- 
verse; apply; articulate; alleff'e; assert; 
blab; gab; chatter; communicate; argue; 
gt>sslp; demand; discuss; express; ex- 
claim; hint; Interrogate; lecture; men- 
tion; narrate; proclaim; profess; pro- 
pose; question;, relate; remark; report; 
request; say; solicit; messaqre; an anec- 
dote; exclamation; oration; leqrend; 
question; tale; sermon; speech; voice; 
harangue; Inquire; Jabber; mutter; sun- 
-Dllcate; declamation; mandate; narra- 
tive; precept. Example: Zkta mlka 
wawa?— what did you say? Delate 
wawa, — to promise; aver: a fact; truth. 
Slyu kloshe wawa, — cheer. Blyu wawa, 
— clamor; argument; much talk; to 
argue; acclaim. XUaple wawa, — to an- 
swer; reply. Kloshe wawa, — a proverb; 
good talk. Xumtuks wawa, — to be elo- 
nnent. Mahsh wawa. — to order: to give 
orders; command. (Also to disobey, i. e., 

to throw away the talk as well as to 
throw the talk at a person. — Eells.) 
Potlatch wawa, — to speak; make a 
speech. Potlatch skookum wawa, — to 
beg; beseech; boast; chide; demand; ex- 
hort; plead; roar; shriek; rebuke; re- 
prove; implore; exclaim; scold. Cultus 
wawa, — idle talk; stuff; nonsense. Byas 
wauwau, — to shout; boast; talk loud; 
loud talk. Wawa halo, — to deny; de- 
cline; object; refuse. Wawa kllmlna- 
whlt, — to lie; tell a falsehood. Wawa 
kloshe, — to bless; speak well; recom- 
mend. Wawa kloshe chako, — to invite; 
call. Wawa kloshe wawa, — to eulogize; 
bless. Wawa kopa, — to accost. Wawa 
kopa Saghalle Tyee, — to pray; worship : 
invoke; prayer. Wawa kopet, — be still. 
Wawa nawltka, — to acknowledge; allow; 
assent; consent; permit. 

Wayhut, Bwehkut, or Weehut, — see 

Week, n. (E). A, week. "It is steadily 
taking the place of Sunday for week, 
though I seldom heard It eighteen years 
ago." — Eells. 

Weght, adv. (C). (Chlnook,-idem. ) 
▲gain; also; more. Ex.: Pe nika weght. 
— and I too. Pahtlatsh weght, — give me 
some more. Tenas weght, — a little more 
yet. Weght nika klatawa, — again I will 
go. Weght chako, — to reassemble. 
Weght klatawa boat, (or ship), — to re- 
embark. Weght klatawa Saghalie,— to 
remount. Weght mamook tumtum, — to 

Wln'-a-ple, adv. (N). (Vootka; Nlttl- 
nat,-Wilapi.) By-and-bye; presently; 
wait. Of local use; the Chinook "alki" 
being more common. 

Wind, or Win, n. (Engllsh,-idem ) . 
Wind; breath; air; atmosphere. (The 
winds are often known by the country 
from which they blow; as, for instance, 
on the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla- 
walla wind; at the mouth of the river, 
a southerly is a Tllamooks wind. &c.) 
See Chinook wind. Breath. Example: 
Kalo wind, — out of breath; dead. Wind 
yaka skookum alta, — the wind is very 
strong now. Mahsh konoway yaka wind. 
— to die; dead. MltUte wind,— to be 
alive; to have breath. Wake slah mahsh 
yaka wind, — almost dead. Wind chako, 
to blow. Wind chako halo, — to stop 


Tah'-ka, Ta'-ka, or Tok'-ka, pron. (C). 
(Chlnook,-Yaka.) Be; his; him; she; It; 
hers; Its; him; her. (Anything pertain- 
ing to the third person, singular num- 
ber.) The word yaVa is aften used 
somewhat tautologically, as, — instead of 



sayinsr, — Okolc* kiatftn fkop*, — the horse 
(is) white, the expression would be, — 
Okok* kintftn yakA t'kope, — the horse, it 
(is) white. This use of yakA is very 
common. — Eells. Sjuunple: Taka klata- 
wa, — he has gone. ITanitoli yaka, — see 
him. Okoke yaka kuitan, — that is his 
horse. Sopa yaka, — his; hers; its. Taka 
knmtnks maokamnok wlilskoy. — a drunk- 
ard. Taka self, — himself; herself; itself. 
Takaa» — his; hers; its. 

Tah'-wa, adv. (O). ( Chinook,- Yawakh.) 
Tkore; thltlior; tkenoa; bayond; In tkat 
plaoa; that slda; that way; yonder. Bat- 
ample: Tahwa yaka mitllte, — there he 
is. Zkt srahwa, Ikt yahwa, — apart. Waka 
slah Tahwa, — thereabouts. 

Tak'-0o, n. (Chlnook,-ldem). (Bee tap- 
so.) Tha hair of the head; hair ffaner- 
ally. Sjcampla: Taka yakso ohako halo, 
— his hair is all gone. (See tupso.) 
(Tnpso is used more than yakso. — Eells.) 
(Other spellings: Zakso, yaksoot.) 

Ta-kwah'-tm, or Kwah'-tm, n. (Chi- 
nook ft Clatsop,-Takwatin. ) Tha hally; 
tha entrails; stomach; bosom. Example; 
Taka slok kopa yaka yakwahtln, — he has 
the stomach ache. Seakwnlee srakwatln, 
— entrails. 

Taub. (See Lejaub.) 

Tl'-am, v., n. (B). Chlhalls,-Taiem. ) JL 
story; tale; anecdote; to relate; to tell 
a story; to confess to a priest; a story 

or tale; to tattle; to preach. 

Touti, or TutL adj. (Qnaara Chlhalla,- 
Eyutlh; irUKLiii^,-Juil.) Olad; plaased; 
prond; (of a horse), — spirited. Szampla: 
Byas yontl yakka tumtnm, — his heart is 
very glad; he is much puffed up. "Ultlil 
means proud, and nltlout long, but they 
are readily confounded with each other." 
— Judge Swan. 

Tontl'-knt, adj.. n. (C). (Chlnook,- 
Tutlkut.) 3k>nff (in dimension); lenfftb. 
Bsample: Okoke stick hyas yoatlkat. 
Note. — "A friend of mine, who was about 
leaving the Bay, wished to tell some In- 
dians who were working for him that 
if. on his return, he found they had be- 
haved well, he should feel very proud of 
them and glad, used the following: Ulti- 
cut nlka tnmtum, or, my heart is longr* 
instead of nlthl nlka tomtom, or. my 
heart is proud. 'He must have a funny 
heart,' said the Indian i^ho related it to 
me. 'He says his heart is long; perhaps 
it is like a mouse's tail.' " — Judge Swan. 

Toot-skot, or Totes'-kot, adj. (O). 
(Chlnook,-Tutskuta.) Bhort (in dimen- 

Tok'-wa, or Tah'-kwa, adv. (C). (Chi- 
nook,- Yakwa.) Sere; hither; this sida 
of; this way. Szampla: Tokwa kopa 
okook hoose, — this side of that house. 
Chako yokwa, — come here. 

Vocabulary Words 

JJmknttie, formerly; ago. 

Jikl, soon. 

Alta, now. 

▲ts, younger sister. 

Boloiina^ other; another. 
Buxnm; bad odor. 
Bayhny, exchange; bargain. 
Byak, swift; fast; hurry. 
Byas, great; very. 
Byio, much. 

Boat, boat. 
Book, book. 
Boston, American. 
By-toy, by-and-by. 

Canim, canoe. 

Capo, coat. 

Cbako, to come. 

Cbee, lately. 

Ohlkaxuln, metal; money. 

Chlkclilk, wagon. 

Ohlnook, see (diinook Indians). 

Cliitsli, grandfather. 

Cliope, grandmother. 

Olinok, water. 

Oly, to cry. 

Crole, cold; winter; year. 

Cooley, to run. 

Oosho, hog. 

Court, court. 

Onltns, worthless: nothing. 

Delate, straight; direct; true. 
Dly, dry. 
Doctin, doctor. 
Dolla, dollar; money. 
Dntdiman, German. 

Blip, first; before. 
Enati, across. 

G-et-up, rise; risen. 
Olease, grease. 

Bahlakl, wide; open. 
Balo, not; none. 
Banl, to haul; pull. 
Beehee, to laugh; laughter. 
Belp, to help. 
Boolhool, mouse. 
Bonse, house. 
Bullel, to shake. 

Zkpooie, to shut. 

Zkt, one; once. 

Zktali, what. 

Zktas, things. 

ZUahee, land. 

Inapoo, louse. 

Zpsoot, to hide. 

Zslok, a paddle. 

Isknm, to take; receive. 

Ztloknm, the game of "hand.* 

XtlwilUe, flesh. 

Ztswoot, a bear. 

where; whence; whither, 
a, like; similar to. 
Bahpho, elder brother. 
Xahta, how; why; what. 
Balitan, arrow; shot. 
Xalakala, a bird. 
Xamas, scilla esculenta. 
Xamooks, a dog. 
Xapswalla, to steal. 
Xatsuk, middle. 
Banpy, coffee. 
Beekwnlee, low; below. 
Xllapi, to turn; return; upset. 
Bimta, behind; after. 
Xinsr Cliaatsli, English. 
Xislikisli, to drive. 
Xinatan, a horse. 
Blah, free; clear; in sight. 
Xlahanie, out of doors; out. 
Xlahowya, the common salutation. 
Blahowynm, poor; wretched. 
Xlahwa, slow; slowly. 
Xlak, off; out; away. 
Xlaksta, who? what one? 
Blale, black. 

Blaska, they; their; them. 
Blatawa, to go. 
Xllminawliit, a lie. 
Bllnunin, soft; fine. 
Blip; deep. 
Bliskwiss, mat. 
Blonas, perhaps. 
Blone, three. 
Bloshe, good. 



Kl<Mi]i«-«po8«, shall or may I. 
Klootoliinan, woman; female. 
So, to reach; arrive at. 
Xoksliat, to break; broken. 
Xonaway, all; every. 
Xopa, to; in; at; etc. 
Xopet, to stop; leave off. 
Xow, to tie; fasten. 
Xnll, hard. 
Xollag'han, a fence. 
Xamtnks, to know. 
STmaiiiolcst, both. 
Sunjili, how many. 
Swahnestuii, always. 
Xwahtah, a quarter. 
Xwaist, nine. 
Xwann, glad. 
Xwass, afraid. 
Swinnnxn, five. 
Swolan, the ear. 

Jitk boos, or ti» push, mouth. 
Tok oaset, a box. 
J»% oloa, a cross. 
£a ffome, pitch; gum. 
J»tk hasli, an axe. 
Kahb, the arbutus uva ursi. 
]bakit, or Kokit, four. 
TOk latam, an oar. 
Ja lanff, the tongue. 
Kaly, time. 

latk messe, ceremony of the mass. 
Jok metsliit medicine. 
KamniltflL, or KTmunieh, an old woman. 
JOk monti, a mountain. 
Jatk peep, a tobacco-pipe. 
£a pellah, roasted. 
Jok plash, board. 
Ja pome, apple. 
Tma pote, door. 
, tet, the head. 
Wf law. 
Jttk wen, oats. 
£e bal, ball. 
Ke Jamb, the devil. 
Be kleh, key. 
laB mab, hand. 
JtB xuel, mule. 
£e molo, wild. 
£e xuooto, sheep. 
laB pee, foot. 
I»e plet, priest. 
£e sak, bag. 
£e wbet, a whip. 
£ioe, rice. 
Uver, river. 
KipUp, to boil. 
3k>lo, to carry. 
3k>wiillo, round. 
^ope, rope. 
Kniii, rum; whiskey. 

Mahkook, to buy. 
Mabab, to sell; to leave. 
Mabsle, thanks. 
Mabtllnnle, off shore. 
MabtwlUie, in shore. 

Mablleh, to marry. 
Mama, mother. 

ICamook, action; to work; to make; to do. 
Man, man; male. 
Melaaa, molasses. 
Memaloost, to die; dead. 
Mesaoble, bad. 
Mesika, you; your; yours. 
Mika, thou; thy; thine. 
IClmle, down stream. 
Mitllte, to sit; remain; to be; have- 
mtwblt, to stand. 
Mokat, two. 
Moola, a mill. 
Moolaok, an elk. 
Moon, moon; month. 
Mooamooa, buffalo; cattle. 
Mooaum, to sleep; sleep. 
Mowitib, a deer. 
Maokamaok, food; to eat. 
Musket, musket; gun. 
Na, the interrogative particle. 
Naba, a mother. 
Nab, inter j., look here! 
ITanlob* to see; look. 
Nawitka, yes; certainly. 
Nem, a name. 
Nesika, we; us; our. 
ITewbabt here; come here. 
Nika, I; me; my; mine. 
Nose, the nose. 

Okoke, this; that; it. 

Olallle, berries. 

Oleman, old man; old. 

Olo, hungry. 

Ooaknt, or Waybut, road; way. 

Opoots, tail. 

Ow, younger brother. 

Order of tbe words. 

Fabtl, full. 
Faint, paint. 
Fapa, father. 

Fasese, blanket; woolen cloth. 
Fasiooks, French; a Frenchman. 
Fe, and; but. 
Febpab, paper. 
Felton, a fool; insane. 
Fesbak, bad. 
Flab, fire. 
Fll, red. 
FilpU, blood. 
Fisb, fish. 
Flnpin, to stink. 
Fob, to bloy; a puff of breath. • 
FolakUe, night. 
Folallle, gunpowder; sand. 
Foo, the sound of a gun. 
Fotlatob, a gift; to give. 
Fnkpnk, a blow with the fist. 
Foasposs, cat. 

Bagballe, above; up. 



S«I1, sail; cloth; flag. 

Sakoleks, trousers. 

Sallal, the sallal berry. 

Salmon, salmon; flsh. 

Salt, salt. 

Sapollll, wheat; flour. 

Sealihost, face; eyes. 

Sealipo, hat. 

Self, self. 

SluuDie, shame. 

Shantie, to sing. 

SMp, ship. 

Shoes, shoes. 

Shot, shot. 

Shugah, sugar. 

Siah, far. 

Slam, the grizzly bear. 

Sick, sick. 

Sikhs, a friend. 

Blnamokst, seven. 

Siskiyou, a bob-tailed horse. 

Sitkoxn, half; part. 

Biwash, Indian. 

Skin, skin. 

Skooknm, strong. 

Blahal, a game; to gamble. 

Snass, rain. 

Solleks, angry; anger. 

Bopena, to jump. 

Spose, suppose; if. 

Stick, stick; wood. 

Stooken, stocking. 

Stoh, loose; to untie. 

Stone, stone. 

Stotekin, eight. 

Stutchnn, sturgeon. 

Sun, sun; day. 

Sunday, Sunday; week. 

Taflrhnm, six. 

Tahlkie, yesterday. 

Tahtlnm, ten. 

Talapns, coyote ; prairie wolf. 

Tamahnons, magic; the spirits. 

Tamolltsh, barrel; tub. 

Tanse, dance. 

Tatoosh, milk; breast. 

Teahwit, leg; foot. 

Tenas, small; few; little. 

Thousand, thousand. 

Tikegh, to want; to love. 

Tlktik, a watch. 

Tilikum, people; relations. 

Till, tired; heavy. 

Tintin, bell; o'clock. 

T'kope, white. 

Tl'kope, to cut. 

Toh, spitting. 

Tolo, to earn; gain. 

Tomolla, tomorrow. 

Totoosh, see tatoosh. 

Towagh, bright, shining. 

Tsee, sweet. 

Tseepie, to mistake. 

Tsiatko, a nocturnal demon. 

Tsiktsik, see chik chik. 

Tsugh, a crack, or split. 

Tukamonuk, hundred. 

Tumtum, the heart; will; mind. 

Txunwata, water fall. 

Tupsshin, needle. 

Tupso, grass. 

Tyee, chief. 

Tzum, spots; writing. 


Wagh, to pour out; to vomit. 
Wake, no; not. 
Wapatoo, potato. 
Wash, to wash. 
Washington, Washington. 
Waum, warm. 
Wawa, to talk. 
Wayhut, see ooakut. 
Week, a week. 
Weght, again; also; more. 
Winapie, soon; presently. 
Wind, wind; breath; life. 

Tahka, he; she; it; his; etc. 
Tahwa, there; thence. 
Takso, hair. 
Takwahtin, entrails. 
Tiem, a story; to relate. 
Toutl, proud; pleased. 
Toutlkut, long. 
Toutskut, short. 
Tukwa, here. 


Less Familiar Words — Not Strictly Jargon — or of Only Local Use 

▲V-lMi, (?), well then. 

Ad-de-dah% (S), exclamation of pain, 
sorrow, surprise. 

Ab-ha, (C). yes. 

Al-ali, (J), expression of surprise. 

▲-mo'-te, (C). strawberry. 

All-all. (J), exclamation of pain or dis- 
pleasure; ah! oh! fie! 

▲ts, (C), a sister younger than the 

A-^iKli'-wliiil, (S), to lend; to borrow. 

B«'-1>«, (F), a kiss; to kiss. 
Bit, (E), a dime, or shilling. 
Bloom, (B), broom. 

Bux-dMOi, (Canadian F), an hermaphro- 

Oal'-U.p««n, (F), a rifle. 

Cbak-obak, (C). the bald eagle. 

Cliet'-lo, (S), oyster. 

CMiet-woot, (S), black bear. 

ChU-ohU, or TsU-tsil, (C), buttons; the 

Chltsli, (S), a grandmother. 
Cliope, (S), a grandfather. 
Obo^-tub, (S), flea. 
Cmik-kin, (S). to kick. 
€omb, (E), a comb. 
Ooop'-ooop, (C), small dentalium. or 

shell money. 
Con-l««, (F), a valley. 

^Be'-na, (C), beaver. 

Bk-kab-naan, (C), tale; story. 

Bk-ko-U, (C), whale. 

Bk'-kali, (C), brother-in-law. 

B'-la-kan, (S), aid; assistance; alms. 

B-U'ta, (C). a slave. 

B-aalfh, or Ta-aaltli, (Wasco.), Indian 
corn; maize. 

Byah, (N), yes. 


BalLt-halit, (S), the mallard duck. 

Soh-hoh, (J), to cough. 

Bo-kn-maUi, (S), to gather; glean. 

Bool-liool, (C). a mouse. 

Bowli, (J), turn to; hurry; ho! 

Bow'-kwntl, (C). inability; unable. 

Siml'-klli, (C), Crooked; knotted; curled. 

Rwali, (J), surprise; admiration; earn- 

BLj'-kwa, (N), shell money; large den- 

Zk'-ik, (C). fish hook. 
Xt'-lan, (C), a fathom. 

Xab-da-na, (C), to fight 

Xah'-kah, (J), a crow. 

Kab'-na-way, (C)» acorns. 

Xabp-bo, (C), an elder brother, sister, or 

Kal-ak-a-lab'-ma, (C), a goose. 

Bal-a-kwah'-tie, (C), inner bark of the 
cedar; woman's petticoat of bark. 

Ba-mo'-aiik, (C). beads. 

Xa-walE, (S), to fiy. 

Xaw-ka-wak, (C), yellow or pale green. 

B«ep'-wot, (C). needle; pin; thorn; sting: 
of an insect. 

Bab-loka, orXaloke, (C), a swan. 

Beb'-aea, (C), an apron. 

Beb-wa, (?), because. 

Bas'-obl, (C), notwithstanding; al- 

Xet-llng, (E), kettle; can; basin. 

BU-it'-aut, (C). flint; bottle; glass. 

Binni-klnnlk, smoking weed (mixture). 
See note under Tatooab, main vocabu- 

Bl'-noofl, (C); tobacco; smoking. 

Xi'-wa, (Wasco), crooked. 

Bl'-yab, (S), entrails. 

Blak'-wnn, (S), to wipe, or iick. 

Xla'-plta, (C), thread; twine. 

Kla-wbop, (C), a hole. 

Blem'-a-bun, (S). to stab, wound, spear. 

BlUt, or KlUa, JC), sour; bitter. 

KUk'-a-muka, ((:), blackberries. 

Bllk'-wal-Ua, (C), brass wire; brass arm- 

Blob-klob, (C), oysters. See chetlo. 

Block, (E), crooked. 

Blub, or Blugb, (C), to tear; to plow. 

Bluk-nlb', (C), broad, or wide, as of a 

Bo'-ko, (J), to knock. 

Bo'-ko-atiok, (J), (knock- tree), wood- 

Boo'sab, (C), sky. 

Bosb'-is, (S), stockings. 

Bwab-nioa, or Bwad-dis, (Klikitat), 

Bwa-lal-kwa-lal, (C). to gallop. 

BwalHi, (S), an aunt. 

Bwatea, (S), sour; bitter; not pleased. 

Bweb-kweb, (J), a mallard duck. 

Bwek-wi-ana, (S), a pin. 

Bweo-kweo, (C), a ring; a circle. 

Bwetlb, (S), proud. 



Swish, (?), exclamation of refusal. 

Swit-s]iad-i«, (S). hare; rabbit. 

KwQlli, or kwnltli, (C), to hit. strike, or 

wound, (without cutting). 
Kwnn'-nuii, (S), counting; numbers. 
Kwntl, (C)» literally, fast; to push or 


Mia-lAh, (C), tin ware, earthenware, 

M«l-a-]cws, (F), a mosquito. 
Xlst-olil'-mas, (?), slave. 
Xlt-aflSy leggings. (See note under Ta- 

toosh, main vocabulary.) 
Moo'-look, (C). an elk. 

^a-bleed, (F), a bridle. 
I^a-boo-ti, (F), bottle. 
£a-ca-lat, (F), carrot. 
^agh, (C), to tip; to lean; to stoop; to 

bend over. 
£a-gwin% (?), a saw. 
1«a'-klM, (F), fat; oil; grease. 
1«a-lali', (C), to cheat, trick; Joke with. 
£a-l«6ia', (F), a file. 
^a-pehshf (F), a pole. 
Ka-peUe', (F), a shovel or spade. 
Ka-pe-osh', (F), a mattock or hoe. 
]ba-piege, (F), a trap. 
&a-po-«l', (F), a frying pan, (a stove.— 

£a-poor, (F), fowl; poultry. 
]ba-poo-sliet% (F), fork. 
^a-JNUiJel, (F), girth, sash, belt. 
Ka-see, (F), a saw. 
Ika-seU% (F), saddle. 
Ito'-slial-loo, (F), plough. 
Aa-shan'-dei, (F), a candle. 
Iit^ulUM% (F). chair. 
£a-sh«ii% (F), a chain. 
£a«-sl«t, (F). a plate. 
^a-sway, (F), silk, silken. 
£a-tahb, (F). table. 
JM'tML% (F). noise. 
1«a-we«t% (F), waist-coat, vest. 
Be-bah-do, or &a-ba-dOt (F), a shingle. 
laB bis'^kwie, (F), biscuit, crackers, hard 

Ka-Blau^ (F), a sorrel horse; chestnut 

Zie-oleinS (F), cream-colored. 
l^«-ooo]c% (F), a cock; a fowl. 
^•-doo% (F), finger. 
^•-gley, (F & E), a gray horse; gray. 
I^-kloo', (F), nail; nails. 
^•-koo', (F)» neck. 
Xie-ky'e, (?), spot; spotted; a piebald 

£e-lo'-ba, (F), ribbon. 
Zre-loo', (F), wolf. 
^e-mah-to, (F>, hammer. 
^e-paa', (F), bread. 

^•-pis]i'-«-mo, saddle-blanket or hous- 
ing. (See note under Tatoosh, main 

^e-pwan, (F), peas. 
^e-sap', (F), egg; eggs. 
£•- see-blo, (F), spurs. 
^•-sea'-zo, (F), scissors. 
£e-sook, (F), sugar. 
^•-tak', (F), the teeth. 
£lk-pa'-ka, (?), a sister; an elder sister. 
Knk'-ut-okee, (?F), clams. 

Mak-lle, (S), to forget. 

ITa-ka, or Ha-ak, (C), a mother. 
arau'-it«, (S). off shore; on the stream, — 

Hale. The sea-beach. — Anderson. 
are-nam-ooks, (C), the Iqjid otter. 

O'-la-pito-kL (C), fire. 

or-ky-iu, ((5), a seal. 

OMuk, (S), a snake. 

O'-na, (C), razor fish or solen; clams. 

Oos'-kaxi, (C), a cup; a bowl. 

O'-pe-kwam, (C), basket; can; tin kettle. 

O'-pitl-kagk, (C). bow. 

O'-pit-sak, (C), knife, razor, sword. 

Ota-lagk, (C), the sun. 

Poklk, orFlt-okik, (?). Thin, as of 

Po-okugk, (C), green. 
P«-wkat'-tie, (C), thin, slight, flamsy. 
Pit-lUk', (?), thick, as/ molasses. 
Poo'-lle, (F), rotten. 
Pow'-itsk, (C), crab-apple. 

Ban-de-Ue, (F), roan colored; a roan 
horse, ash colored. — Anderson. 

Ska-lok^-nm, (C), looking-glass; glass. 

Bkugk, (C). a rattle. 

Bkuirk-opoots, (C), a rattle-snake. 

Bkut, (K), a shirt. 

Bkwak-knk, (S). a frog. 

Sl'-pak, (Wasco), straight, like a ram- 

Bls'-ki-yon, a bob- tailed horse. (See note 
under Tatoosh, main vocabulary.) 

Blt'-lay, (F), stirrups. 

Blt'-skum, (S), to swim. 

Bkwak'-wal, (S), a lamprey eel. 

Bkwls'-kwi«, (C), a squirrel. 

Bmet'-ooks, (S), the large clam. 

Bxuoke, (K), smoke, clouds, fog. steam. 

Boap, (F), soap. 

Bo-la'-mie, (C), the cranberry. 

Bpo'-ok, (C), faded; any light color. 

Bpoon, (E). a spoon. 

Bnk-wal'-alf (C), a gun or musket. 

Tak-nlm, (S), to measure. 
Tek-tek, (C), to trot, as a horse. 

Te-p«k, (C), quill, wing. 
IkMik, (onoma), a watch. 


TU'-i-kaxn-ma-ma, (C), a father. 
Toke-tie, (Kalapuya), pretty. 
To'-luks, (Clallam), the mussel. 



Tot, (S), uncle. 

To'-to, (onoma, C), to shake, sift, win- 

To-waffh', (C), bright; shining; light. 

Tshl'-ke, (?), directly, soon. 

Tslils, (C). cold. 

Tsisli, (onoma), in imitation of the 
sound of a grindstonie. 

Tsol«-p»t, (Klickitat), a shot-pouch. 

Tso'-lOf (Kalapuya), to wander; to lose 
the way. 

Tnk'-wil-la, (Kalapuya), nuts; the hazel 

Wa'-kl, (C), to-morrow. 
Wlilm, (Wasco), to fell; 

to throw, in 

Tab'-hnl, (C), a name. 
Tah'-kis-Utli, (C), sharp, cutting. 

irot»— The letters (C). (E). (F). (N), 
and (S), refer to the derivation of 
words, and signify Cliinook, Bnfflish, 
Frenoh, Nootka, and Balisli. (See ex- 
planatory notes.) Words marked (J.) 
or (onoma.) are considered to be the 
peculiar property of the Jargon, as 
having been formed either in imita- 
tion of sounds or by some casual in- 
vention. (Oibbs, Hale, Cheunberlain. 
Boas, Shaw, Anderson. Pandosy, Cook, 
Jewitt, Tolmie, Dawson, St. Onge, 
Scouler, Eells. Walker, Gard, — author- 
ities.) See Pronouncing Vocabulary. 



The pronunciation is indicated by the simple system of respelling which is 
used in Webster's International Dictionary. It employs the diacritically marked 
letters familiar in the schoolbooks of the country. "The defects of the English 
orthography are well known, but, under the circumstances, we have no choice but 
to follow it, making up for its deficiencies by the necessary explanations. In the 
phonetics of the language one point is specially interesting, both as illustrating the 
usual result of the fusion of two or more languages, and as showing one of the 
laws which must govern the formation of any international speech. As the Jargon 
is to be spoken by Englishmen and Frenchmen, and by Indians of at least a dozen 
tribes, so as to be alike easy and intelligible to all, it must admit no sound which 
cannot be readily pronounced by all. The numerous harsh Indian gutturals either 
disappear entirely, or are softened to h. and k. On the other hand, the d, f, g, r, ▼, Sf . 
of the English and French become in the mouth of a Chinook t, p, kf 1, w, and m. 
The English J (dzh) is changed to ok (tsh); the French nasal n is dropped, or is 
retained without its nasal sound." — Hale. Authority used, Eells. 

a, as in far, father a 

a, as in what, not 5 

a, as in hat, man ti 

a, as in law, all, lord a 

a, as in mate jl 

e, as in met, then „ c 

e, as in meet o 

e, as in they (a, as in mate) § 

i, as in pin Y 

i, as in pine, aisle t 

i, as in pique (e, as in meet) T 

o, as in not* ^ 

o, as in note ^ o 

o, as in do, prove, tomb; — with the sound the same as oo o 

oo, as in moon, food, fool „ 55 

u, as in rule oo 

u, as in pull, bull, full, put u 

u, as in but :. *fi 

oi, as in boil oi 

ou, as in out .^ « ou 

sh, as in shall sh 

th, as in thin th 

th, as in then th 

g, as in gig ..- , g 

g, as in gem I; 

ng, as in sing, singer ng 

wh, as in when hw 

eh, as in church ch 


ADDEDAH, a-dT-dS. 
AHHA, a-h'a. 
AHNKUTTIE, axi'-Wit-fr. 
ALKI, Sl^kt 
ALTA, aKta. 
ATS, ats. 
BEBE, b5-n)5. 
BUBDASH, btt^Xsh. 
CALIPEEN, kai-fi-pgn; 
CANIM, ka-nTmf 
CAPO. Vi-p(5f 
CHAKCHAK. chakihak. 
CHAKO, cha^U. 
CHEE, ch5. 

CHETWOOT, chgt-woot. 
CHIKAMIN, chTk-a-niTn. 






CHOTUB, chO-'tilb. 
CHUCK, chfik. 
CLY, Kit 
COMB, kTJm. 
COOLEY, k^n, 
COOPCOOP, k.op-kiJp. 
COSHO, kS-shO. 
COURT, ksftt. 
CULTUS, kiil-tiis. 
DELATE, dS-lat" 

DLY, dlt. 

DOCTIN, drf[-t&i. 

DOLLA, dtfl-m. 

DUTCHMAN, dttcb-man. 

EENA, C-na. 


BUTE, e-nil 

ENATI, 8n^a-tr. 

HAHLAKL, ha4akl. 

HAHTHAHT, hat-hat 

HAKATSHUM, hak^St-shUm. 

HALO, hanT5. 

HAUL, hflL 

HEEHEE, h§-h?. 



HOHHOH, hOh-hOh. 
HOOLHOOL, hp;-hsl. 
HULOIMA, httl-oi-mS. 
HUYHUY, hjfr-hjft 
HYAK, ht-ak.'' 
HYAS, hriSisf 
HYKWA, ht-kwa. 
IKPOOIE, Tk-pflft 
IKT, Tkt. 
IKTAS, tk^taz. 
ILLAHBE, tl'la-hC. 
INAPOO. Tn-S-pft. 
IPSOOT, l^^sftt." 
ISICK, ts'-tk. 
ISKUM, T84«m. 
ITLAN, It^lifn. 
ITLOKUM, Tt^l5-k«m. 
itSWOOT, tts^wflt. 
ITCHWOOT, ft^h-wgt 
KAH, ka. 
KAHKAH, ka^klC 

KAHNAWAT, ka4a-w8. 
KAHPO, lOQip^o. 



KAHTA, ka-'Ur. 







KAMOOKS, ka^mooks; 
KAMOSUK. k«-m5-Bfik. 
KAPSWALLA, k»p.8w«l-la*. 
KAUPY. ka^pT. 

KiLAPi, m^a-pt 

KIMTA, kTm-tfi. 
KINOOTL, kf.4ootl. 
KIWA, kt^wa*. 
KIYAH, kt-'ya. 
KLAH, kia. 
KLAHANIE, kiaiant 
KLAHOWYA, kiahow-ya. 
KLAHOWYUM, kia-how-yiSm. 
KLAHWAv kla-wit. 
KLAK, kiak. 
KLAKSTA, kiak-ta. 
KLALE, klSl. 
KLAP. kiap. 
KLAPITE. ktli-ptt 
KLASKA, klfis^-ka. 
KLATAWA, kiatawii. 
KLAWHOP, kla-hw«f . 
KLEMAHUN, kl«m-a.hun. 
KLIKAMUKS, klTk-a-muks. 
KLILT, kmt. 

KLIMMIN, kITin-Tii. 
KLIP. klTp. 
KLISKWIS, klts-kVTs. 
KLOHKLOH, kl5-kl5. 
KLONAS, klO-nas. 

KLONE, Won. 



KLOSHE, klSsh. 

KO, ko. 

KOKSHUT. kttkiWt. 

KONAWAY, kJ5nla-wa. 

KOOSAH, kS54a. 

KOPET, kS-plf. 



KULL, km. 

KULLAGHAN, ktt-iaian. 
KUMTUKS. kW-tiiks. 
KUNAMOKST, kSi^a-mSkst. 
KUNJIH, kftn-jT. 
KUNSIH, Win-rf. 
KWAHTA, kw^-ta. 
KWASS, kw^s. 
KWATES, kwats. 
KWEHKWEH, kw^T-kw*! 
KWINNUM, b*fa-Km. 
KWOLAN, kw5-l8ii. 
KWUNNUM, k^-ttm. 

LA CLOA, la-klo^a. 
LA GOME, m-gSni; 
LA HASH, la-hashf 
LAKIT, iSk-Tt. 
LA LAHM, la-lamf 
LA-LANG, la-ltfn^. 
LALY, m^lT. 

LA METSIN, ia-m«t.8Tn. 
LA PEA, m-p5-a. 

LA PEEP, la-pep.-' 
LA PLASH, la-piasii. 
LA POME, la-pCnf. 
LA POTE, la-pCt. 
LA TET, la-tSti' 
LAW la. 
LA WEEN, m-wSn. 



LE BAL^ IT-bftl. 
LE BLAU, Ig-blar 
LE KLEH, 15-kI?/ 
LE MAH, m4nS. 
LE MEL, I5-m§l. 
LE MOOL, l6-m561. 
LE MOLO, Ig-mS-lTJ. 
LE MOOTO, l5-i655.t5. 

LE PWAU, rr-pw^. 

LE SAK, IT-sSk/ 
LE WHET, \^-hw%i 
LA WHIP, la-hwYp. 
LICE, Its. 

LIVER, nv-lr. 

LOCKIT, see Lakit. 
LO LO, I5^m. 
LOPE, I^p. 

LUMMIEH, mm-nir-^r. 
MAHKOOK, ma-Irak. 
MAHSH, mHsh. 
MALIEH, mal-T-U. 
MAMA, irfg-mS. 
MAMOOK, i^a-m8k. 
MESACHIE, m5-8ae1i-T. 
MESIKA, mS-sT-^a. 
MIKA, mt-ka. 
MIMALOOSE, mim-k'-Ioos. 
MITLITE, mTt-m. 
MITWHIT, mTt-whTt. 
MOKST, mSkst. 
MOOLACK, moo-luk. 
MUCKAMUCK, mufe-a-muk. 
NA, na. 
NAH. na. 
NAHA, naia. 
NANITCH, nan^Tch. 
NAWITKA, na-wTt-ka. 
NESIKA, n?-lT-ka. 
NIKA, nt-Va. 
OKOKE. O^kOk. 
OLALLIE, 5-la1-T. 



OLO, 5^m. 

OPOOTS, S-'pSots. 
PAHTL, path 
PAHTLUM, pat-lfim. 
PAPA, p'A-pa. 
PAPAH, pa^pa. 
PASEESIE, p-a-M-st 
PASIOOKS, pa-A-ooks. 
PE, pF. 

PELTON, pftl^tHn. 
PIAH, pt-a. 
PIL, pTl. 
PILPIL, ptKptl. 
PISH, pTsh. 
PIUPIU, pS-u-pe-5. 
PUSSPUSS, pTs'h-pTsh. 
POH, pn. 

POLALLIE, pO'iai-t 
POTLATCH, p^t^iach. 
PUKPUK, pttk^puk. 
SAGHAUE, s8h-ha-IT. 
SAKOLLEKS, sakttl-gks. 

SALLAL, sai-ai^' 

SALMON, sar«-Sn. 
SAPOLIL, sa'p-5-in. 
SEAHHOST, s§^a-h68t. 
SEAHPO. s54'-p5. 
SHUGA, shuV^. 

SIAH, st-a.'' 

SIKHS, siks. 
SHIKHS, shtks. 
SINAMOKST, sTn<a-ml5k8t. 
SISTER, sT/tii. 
SIWASH, ^-w»8h. 
SKOOKUM, skoi-kum. 
SLAHAL, sia-hal 
SNASS, snas. 
SNOW, snO. 
SOLLEKS, stif-HSks. 
SOPENA, s5-i^-na. 
SPOSE, spCz. 
STOCKEN, st5k-^n. 
STOTEKIN, st5t^kTn. 



STUTCHUN, stfiA-un. 
TAQHUM, ta-hum. 
TAHTLUM, t»t^«m. 
TAMAHNOUS, ta-ma-nS-fis. 
TANSE. tans. 
TENAS, iJ&jf-M, 
THOUSAND, tho^-zXnd. 
TIKEGH, tttr. 
TIKTIK, ttk'-tlk. 
TILIKUM, fll^a-kiim. 
TINTIN, tTii-ttn. 
T*KOPE, T'Wp. 
TOMOLLA. t5-l68l.lS. 

TSOLO, tiss-so-lo. 
TUKAMONUK, tfik-a-mo-nuk. 

TUMTUM, tHm^ttfm. 
TUMWATA, tfim-w^-ttf. 
TUPSO, t»p-85. 
TYEE, tt4S/ 
TZUM, tzum. 
WAKE, wlk. • 
WAPATO. wap^a-to. 
WAUM, wftm. 
WAWA, wft^wft. 
WAYHUT, see Ooakut. 
WEGHT, w)Skt 
WHIM, hwTm. 
WHISKEY, hT^s-kr. 
WINAPIE, ^/-a-irt: 
YAHWA, yS^wa. 
YAHKA, yaia. 
YAKA, ya-ka. 
YAKSO, ydkiy. 
YAKWAHTIN, ya-kwatfti. 
YOUTL, yStl. • 
YOUTLKUT, y5tl4ut 
YAHKWA, ya4wa. 

Vote — "With the spellinir in use I have 
learned that it is useless for any person 
who has not heard a Chinook word used, 
to try to give its pronunciation. The 
accented syllable is marked. It must 
not be supposed, however, that the ^pro- 
nunciation I have given is the only* cor- 
rect one; as already stated, there are 
often different ways of pronouncing the 
same word in different localities. The 

other authors use the letters much as 
they are used in English, which really 
means that their sounds, especially those 
of the vowels, cannot be easily under- 
stood until the person hears them sound- 
ed by some one who understands their 
pronunciation." Anthority: Myron 
Eells, D. D. See note under 
main vocabulary.- -Hale. 


Abase, mamook keekwulee. 

AMomttn, yakwahtin ; ^ kwahtin. 

Abed, kopa bed. 

Abide, mitlite. 

Abject, cultus . 

Able, skookum. 

Aboard, kopa boat, (or ship or canim). 

Abollsli, mamook halo. 

Abort«rlnMt siwash. 

Abonnd. hiyu mitlite. 

Abont, wake siah kopa. 

Above, saghalie. 

Abroad, klahanie. 

Abscond, kapswalla klatawa; ipsoot klat- 

Absent, halo mitlite. 

Absolve, mamook stoh; mamook mahsh. 
Absurd, pelton; wake delate. 
Acceiyt, iskum. 
Accident, nika tumtum halo yaka chako 

Accompany, klatawa kunamokst; chako 

Accomplice, yaka mamook mesachie 

Accomplisli, mamook. 
According to, kopa 
Accnmulate, iskum hiyu. 
Accnrate, delate. 
Achieve, mamook. 
Acknowledge, wawa nawitka. 
Acorns, kahnaway. 
Ac^nalnt, mamook kumtuks. 
Acqnire, iskum. 
Across, enati; inati. 
Act, Action, mamook. 
Active, delate halo lazy. 
Add, mahsh kunamokst. 
Adjoin, wake siah kopa. 
Admiration, hwah. 
Admire, mitlite kloshe tumtum kopa. 
Admonish, potlatch kloshe wawa. 
Adore, mitlite delate kloshe tumtum 

kopa; atole. 
Adorn, mamook kloshe. 
Adrift, cultus mitlite kopa chuck. 
Adulterate, mamook mesachie; mahsh 

mesachie kunamokst. 
Adnlterer, man yaka kumtuks kapswalla 

Adultress, klootchman yaka kumtuks 

kapswalla man. 
Advice, Advisd, cultus potlatch tumtum. 
Afar, siah. 
Affable, kloshe. 
Affirm, wawa delate. 
Afflict, mamook trouble; mamook sick 

Afoot, kopa lapea. 
Afraid, kwass. 
After, Afterwards, kimta. 
Afiffl^, weght. 
Affed, oleman. 
Aggressor, yaka mamook mesachie clip. 

Agrae, tumtum kunamokst. 

Affricnltnre, mamook illahee. 

AgTicnlturist, illahee man. 

Affronnd, kopa illahee. 

AflTae, colesick. 

Ahl (Admiration), wah! hah! 

Ah I (In pain), anah. 

Ahead, elip. 

Aid, Kelp, elan. 

Alarm, mamook kwass. 

Alike, kahkwa. 

AUve, mitlite wind. 

All, konaway. 

Alinlg^hty, the, Sagrhalie tyee. 

Almost, wake siah. 

Alms, elahan, elann. 

Alms, to give, mamook klahowiam, or 
klahowya; potlatch dolla. 

Aloft, kopa sagrhalie. 

Alone, kopet ikt. 

Also, weght. 

Alter, mamook huloima. 

Althongh, keschi. 

Always, kwahnesum. 

Am, mitlite is sometimes used; some- 
times no word is used. 

Amass, isskum hiyu. 

Ambigtions, mokst wawa. 

Ambition, hyas tikegh. 

Amen, kloshe kahkwa. 

American, Boston. 

Amid, Among*, kunamokst; katsuk. 

Amonnt, konoway. 

Amnse, mamook heehee. 

Amusement, heehee. 

Ancient, hyas ahnkuttie. 

And, pee; pe. 

Anew, chee. 

Angel, lesash; tamahnous. 

Anffer, Angry, solleks. 

Anffler, pish man. 

Annual, ikt cole ikt cole. 

Another, huloima. 

Answer, kilapie wawa. 

Antediluvian, elip kopa hyas chuck kopa 
Noah yaka time. 

Anticipate, mamook tumtum elip. 

Anus, opoots. 

Anxious, hyas tikegh. 

Any, klaksta. 

Apart, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa. 

Apostle, leplet. 

Appeal, wawa kopa elip hyas court. 

Appear, chako kah (nika) nanitch. 

Apple, lepome; apple. 

Apply, (if in words) wawa; (if of things) 

Approve, (nika) tumtum kahkwa. 

Approach, chako wake siah. 

Apron, kehsu; kisu. 

Arbutus uva ursi, lahb. 

Archangel, tyee lesash. 

Archbishop, tyee leplet. 

Archfiend, tyee kopa mesachie; 'tyee 



▲rohipelaffo, kah hiyu ailand mitlite. 
▲rotlo, kah delate hiyu cole mitlite. 
Ardent, waum tumtum. 
Argue, hiyu wawa. 
Arise, mitwit; get up. 
Arithmetlo, book yaka mamook kumtuks 

nesika kopa kwunnum; mamook tzum. 
Arm, (n.) lemah; (v.) iskum musket; 

potlatch musket. 
Army, hiyu sojers. 
Aromid, wake siah kopa. 
Aroiuie, mamook get up. 
Arrest, mamook haul; mamook kow. 
Arrive, Arrive at, ko; chako; klap. 
Arrow, kalitan; stick kalitan. 
Ascend, klatawa saghalie. 
Asb, isick stick. 
Ask, wawa. 
Asleep, mo6sum. 
Assault, pight. 
Assemble, chako kunamokst. 
As, kahkwa. 
As if, kahkwa spose. 
Assent, wawa, nawitka. 
Assess, mamook tzum iktas. 
Assessor, tyee kopa mamook tzum illahee 
Assistance, elahan; help. 
At, kopa. 
Atbeist, man yaka wawa halo saghalie 

tyee mitlite. 
Attack, pight elip. 
Attend, klatawa. 
Attire, iktas. 

Anbnm, sitkum klale; sitkum pil. 
Andacions, skookum tumtum. 
Audience, hiyu tillikums kopa house. 
Argument, mamook hiyu; mamook hyas. 
Aunt, kwalh; papa or mama yaka ats; 

tant; aunt. 
Autbentic, delate. 
Autumn, tenas cole illahe. 
Avaunt, klatawa. 
Aver, wawa delate. 
Averse, halo tikegh. 
Avidity, hyas tikegh. 
Avoid, klatawa kopa huloima ooahut. 
Awake, halo moosum; halo sleep. 
Away, siah. 
Awe, kwass. 

Awl, shoes keepwot. or kipuet. 
Aze, lahash. 
Aye, nawitka. 

Baby, tenas. 

Bad, mesahchie; peshuk. 

Bad Spirit, mesachie tumtum (if in a 
person); mesachie tamahnous (if an- 
other spirit). 

Bag, lesak. 

Ball, lebal. 

Bargain, mahkook; huyhuy. 

Bark, stickskin. 

Barley, lashey; lareh. 

Barrel, tamolitsh. 

Basin, ketling. 

Basket, opekwan; basket. 

Bat, polakle kulakula. 

Battle, pight. 

Batb, mamook wash. 

Be, sometimes mitlite is used, and some- 
times no word is used. 

Be Still, kopet wawa. 

Beacb, polalle illahe; nauits. 

Beads, kamosuk. 

Bear (black), Itchwoot; chetwoot; its- 

Bear (grizsly), siam itchwoot. 

Bear, (v.) lolo. 

Beard, tupso or yakso kopa seahost. 

Bearer, man yaka kumtuks lolo. 

Beat, to, kokshut; mamook kokshut. 

Beautiful, kloshe. 

Beaver, eena. 

Becalm, halo wind. 

Because, kahkwa; kehwa. 

Become, to, chakko. 

Become bard, chahko kull. (For other 
connections of become see chako, in 
Chinook, English part). 

Bed, bed. 

Bed Quilt, tzum pasessie. 

Beef, itlwillie. 

Before, elip. 

BeiTf skookum wawa. 

Begin, chee mamook; mamook elip. 

Begone, klatawa. 

Bebave, mamook kloshe. 

Bebind, kimta. 

Bebold, nah; nanitch. 

Believe, iskum wawa; iskum kopa tum- 

Bell, tin tin; dingding; (ring the bell, 
mamook tin tin). 

Beloved, kloshe; kloshe kopa tumtum. 

Belle, kloshe tenas klootchman. 

Belly, yakwahtin. 

Below, keekwulee. 

Belt, lasanjel. 

Beneatb, keekwulee. 

Benelit (v.), mamook kloshe. 

Berries, olallie; olillie. 

Beside, Besides, kunamokst. 

Best, elip kloshe kopa konoway. 

Better, elip kloshe. 

Between, kunamokst; katsuk; potsuk. 

Beyond, yahwa. 

Bible, saghalie tyee yaka book. 

Big*, hyas. 

Bird, kallakala; kulakula. 

Biscuit, lebiskwee. or labisquee. 

Bit, or dime, bit. 

Bite, muckamuck. 

Bitter, klihl. or klile; mesachie. 

Black klale. 

Blackberries, klale olallie; klikamuks. 

Blackbirds, klale tenas kalakala. 

Blackflsb, kahkwa klale. 

Blanket, paseesie. 

Bleed, mamook pilpil. 

Bless, wawa kloshe wawa. 

Blessing', kloshe wawa. 

Blind, halo seahost; halo nanitch. 

Blood, pilpil. 

Blow, (v.) wind chako; hiyu wind. 

Blow out, mamook poh. 

Blue (liflfbt), spooh. 

Blue (dark), klale. 



Blonder, to, tseepie. 

Bluflli, chako pil kopa yaka seahost. 

Boar, man cosho. 

Board, la plash. 

Boast, hyas wawa; skookum wawti. 

Boat, boat. 

Bobtailod (a bob-tailed horse), siskiyou. 

Boll, to, (v.) liplip; mamook liplip. 

Bold, Boldness, skookum tumtum; halo 

Bone, stone. 

Boots, stick shoes. 

Bore, to, mamook thalwhop; mamook 

Borrow, to, ayahwhul; iskum dolla; alki 

Bosom (female), totoosh; yakwahtin. 

Boss, tyee. 

Both, kunamoxt; mokst. 

Bottle, labooti; labotai. 

Bow, opitlkegh; stick musket. 

Bow (of boat), nose. 

Bowl, ooskan; uskan. 

Bon, la casett; la kassett. 

Boy, tenas man. 

Bracelet, klikwallie; kweokweo. 

Brass, pU chikamin; klikwallie. 

Brave, skookum tumtum. 

Bread, le pan; sapolil; piah sappolil. 

Break, to, kokshut; mamook kokshut; 
mamook klimmin. 

Breakfast, muckamuck kopa tenas sun. 

Breasts, totoosh. 

Breath, wind. 

Breech Olont, opoots sill; opoots sail. 

Bride, klootchman yaka chee malleh. 

Brideirroom, man yaka chee malieh. 

Bridle, la bleed. 

Briffht, towagh, or tewagh. 

Brinff, to, lolo; mamook chahco; newah. 

Broad, klukulh. 

Broken lenred, kokshut lapea. ' 

Broken, kokshut. 

Brook, tenas chuck; tenas cooley chuck. 

Broom, bloom. 

Brother, ow. 

Brother, kahpho, or ellp ow, if elder 
than the speaker; kimta ow, or ow, if 
younger. Male cousins the same. 

Brother-in-law, ats yaka man; klootch- 
man yaka ow; ekkeh. 

Brown, sitkum klale; tenas klale; klale. 

Buck, man mowitch. 

Bucket, tamolitsh. 

Buffalo, moosmoos; wild moosmoos. 

Build, mamook house. 

Builder, la plash man. 

Bull, man moosmoos. 

Bullet, le bal; kalitan; musket yaka ball. 

Bundle, kow; iktas. 

Bunffler, man yaka cultus mamook. 

Bum, mamook piah. 

Burst, kokshut. 

Bury, mahsh kopa illahee. 

But, pe; pee. 

Butcher, man yaka kumtuks mamook 
mimoluse moosmoos. 

Butter, totoosh gleese; totoosh lakles. 

Buttons, chilchil; tsiltsil. 

Buy, to, mahkook. 

By, wake siah kopa; kopa. 
By-and-by, winapie; alki. 

Oalf, tenas moosmoos. 

Calico, tzum sail; sail. 

Call, to, wawa. 

Calm, halo wind. 

Calve, mahsh tenas. 

Can, skookum kopa. 

Candle, la shandel; glease piah. 

Cannot, halo skookum kopa; howkwutl. 

Canoe, canim. 

Cap, seahpo. ' 

Capable, skookum kopa; skookum tum- 

Capsize, keelapie; kilapie. 
Captive, elite. 
Capture, mamook kow. 
Car, (B. B.)i piah chickchick. 
Careful, kloshe nanitch. 
Careless, kultus; halo kloshe nanitch. 
Carpenter, la plash man. 
Carrot, la calat. 
Carry, to, lolo. 
Cart, chikchik; tsiktsik. 
Carve, mamook cut. 
Cascade, tumwata. 
Cash, dolla; chikamin. 
Cask, tamolitsh. 
Cast, mahsh. 

Castrate, to, mahsh stone. 
Cat, pusspuss; pishpish. 
Cataract, tumwater. 
Catch, iskum; mamook kwotl. 
Cautious, (to be), kloshe nanitch. 
Cease, kopet. 
Cedar, canim stick; lametsin stick; kpal; 

kalakwahtie stick. 
Cedar Bark (Inside), kalakwahtie. 
Celestial, kopa saghalie. 
Certain, delate. 
Cattle, moosmoos. 
Certainly, nawitka. 
Chain, lashen; chikamin lope. 
Chair, la shase. 
Chance, nika tumtum halo yaka chako 

Change, huyhuy; mamook huyhuy. 
Characters, tzum. 
Cheap, wake hyas mahkook. 
Cheat, to, lalah; mamook pel ton. 
Cheated, (I am), nika chako pel ton. 
Cheeks, seahost; capala. 
Cheer, hiyu kloshe wawa. 
Chicken, la pool. 
Chief, tyee. 
Child, tenas. 
Chilly, tenas cole. 
Choose, tikegh; elip tikegh. 
Christmas, hyas Sunday; klismes. 
Clams, ona; lukutchee; lakwitchee; 

clams; (smetocks, the large kind). 
Clay, Illahee. 
Clean, (adj.) halo illahee; (n.) mamook 

Clear up, to, chako klah. 
Clerk, tzum man. 
Climb, klatawa saghalie. 
Close, (V.) mamook ikpoole. 



Oloth, (cotton), sail. 

Clotbes, iktas. 

Olonds, smoke; smoke kopa saghalie; 
cultus smoke. 

Ooast, illahee wake siah kopa chuck. 

Goat, capo; kapo. 

Coffee, kaupy. 

Cold, cole. 

Color, tzum; chym. 

Comb, (n.) comb. 

Comb, to, (V.) mamook comb. 

Come, to, chahko; newah. 

Come ont of the water, chako klahanie 
kopa chuck. 

Command, (v.) mahsh wawa; (n.) law. 

CommandmeiLts, saghalie tyee law. 

Commenoe, mamook begin; chee mamook. 

Common, kloshe kopa konoway; cultus. 

Communion, Jesus yaka muckamuck. 

Complete, mamook kopet. 

Conceal, ipsoot. 

Conceive, klap tenas. 

Conceive, (in mind) mamook tumtum. 

Concnr, (I), (nika) tumtum kahkwa. 

Confess, to, yiem; wawa. 

Confession, to go to. kofes; kopes. Cha- 
chas bilalam, or milalam (holy talk). 

Conflrmation, lakonfirmation; kopil masio 

Confine, mamook kow. 

Confirm, mamook delate. 

Confirmed (pas.), chako delate. 

Confirmationf lakonflrmation ; kopli masio 

ConflTvefifate. chako, or klatawa kunamokst 

Conjnreir, siwash doctin; tamahnous man. 

Conjnrlnirf tamahnous; mamook tamah- 

Consecrate, potlatch kopa saghalie tyee. 

Contented, mitlite kloshe tumtum. 

Contrite, cly tumtum; sick tumtum. 

Control, tolo. 

Conversation, Converse, wawa. 

Convince, tolo. 

Cook, to, mamook piah; mamook piah 

Cooked, (pas.) chako piah. 

Copper, pil chikamin. 

Copji mamook tzum. 

Cord, tenas lope; lope. 

Cordially, kloshe tumtum. 

Cork, (v.) ikpooie. 

Com, esalth. 

Corral, kullairh; kullaghan. 

Correct, delate. 

Cost, (how muoh) kunjih dolla? 

Cotton ffoodsi sail. 

Contrar, hyas pishpish. 

CooflTbf hohhoh. 

Connself cultus potlatch tumtum. 

Connt, mamook kwunnun; mamook kun- 
jih; mamook tahnin. 

Country, illahee. 

Couple, mokst. 

Courage, skookum tumtum. 

Consin, (see brother and sister.) (Eng' 
lish, idem.) 

Cover, (v.) mahsh ikta kopa haghalie. 

Covet, tikegh kapswalla. 

Cow, klootchman moosmoos. 

Cowardi halo skookum tumtum; kwass 

Coyote, talapus. 

Crabapple, powitsh; siwash apple. 

Crack, tsugn. 

Cranberry, solemie; swamp olallie; pil 

olallie; siwash isalk. 
Craiy, pelton; clazy; pelton scotty. 
Cream» kloshe totoosh. 
Cream-colored, le clem. 
Creator, saghalie tyee. 
Creek, tenas chuck. 
Creep, tenas cooley. 
Cricket, (large), mesachie cultus kala- 

kala; mesachie cultus sopena. 
Crooked, kiwa: tseepie; clocked; wake 

delate; hanlkek. 
Cross* (n.) la cloa. 
Crow, kahkah. 
Crowd, hiyu tillikums. 
Cry, to, cly. 

Cultivate, mamook kloshe. 
Cup, ooskan; cup; lepot. 
Cure, mamook kloshe. 
Cured, chako kloshe. 
Curly, hunlkih. 
Currant, pil olallie; culant. 
Currency, papah dolla. 
Curse, (n.) mesachie wawa. 
Curse, (V.) wawa mesachie. 
Cut, to, tlkope; mamook cut. 

Dance, to, tanse. 

Dangler, mesachie mitlite. 

Darkf darkness, polaklie. 

Darken, mamook polaklie. 

Dasli, (v.) mahsh. 

Daughter, tenas klootchman. 

Dawn, delate tenas sun; chee chako 

Dassle, hiyu skookum light; kahkwa halo 
nika nanitsh. 

Dead, memaloost; mimoluse; mahsh kon- 
oway yaka wind; yaka wind cliako 

Deadness, kahkwa mimoluse. 

Deaf, ikpooie kwollan; halo kwolan. 

Deafen, mamook halo kwolan. 

Deaf mute, halo kwolan halo wawa. 

Death, mimoluse. 

Death bed, bed kah yaka mimoluse. 

Dear, (expensive), hyas mahkook. 

Dear, (loved), kloshe. 

Death warrant, papah yaka wawa, na- 
witka yaka mimoluse. 

Debate, pight wawa. 

Debility, halo skookum; wake siah sick. 

Decay, chako cultus; chako mimoluse; 
chako rotten. 

Deceit, kliminawhit wawa. 

Deceive, wawa kliminawhit mamook 

Deceiver, yaka kumtuks wawa klimina- 

Decide, mamook tumtum; klap tumtum. 

Decision, tumtum. 

Decline, wawa halo. 

Deedf mamook. 

Deep, klip; hyas keekwulee. 

Deer, mowltsh. 

Defeat, (v.) tolo. 



Befond, kloshe nanitch. 
D*fer, mamook alki; mamook byby. 
Defloient, wake hiyu. 
Deflnit*, delate. 
Deformed, wake delate. 
Dellirht, kloshe tumtum. 
Delifflited, mitlite or chako kloshe tum- 
DeUxioiis, huloima latet; kahkwa clazy. 
Demand, wawa; skookum wawa. 
Demoiif skookum; lejaub; kahkwa lejaub; 

mesachie tamahnous. 
Deny, Denial, wawa halo. 
Dense, hiyu. 
Dentist, doctin kopa teeth; doctin kopa 

Depart, klatawa. 
Descend, klatawa keekwulee. 
Describe, mamook kumtuks. 
Desert, (n.) illahee kah halo ikta mitlite. 
Desert, (v.) kaps walla klataway; mahsh. 
Devil, diaub; yaub; lejaub. 
Diabolical, kahkwa lejaub. 
Dialect, lalangr. 
Dlalogtie, Ikt man yaka wawa, huloima 

man yaka wawa, laly kahkwa. 
Did, mamook. 
Die, mimoluse; mahsh konoway yaka 

Differ, huloima tumtum. 
Different, Difference, huloima. 
Diffloult, kull. 
DlflT, to, mamook illahee; mamook kok- 

shut illahee. 
Dig* » liole, mamook hole; mamook 

Dilute, mahsh chuck kunamokst. 
Dime, bit. or mit. 
Dimension, kunjih hyas. 
Dine, Dinner, muckamuck kopa sitkum 

Direct, delate. 

Directly, alki; winapie; tshike. 
Dirty, allihee mitlite; hyas humm. 
jyimt^ptee, halo tumtum kahkwa. 
Disappoint, mamook pelton. 
Disbelieve, halo tumtum kahkwa. 
Disappear, chako halo. 
Discard, Discharge, mahsh. 
Discover, elip nanitch. 
Dishonest, kumtuks kaps walla. 
Dislike, halo tikegh. 

Disobey, halo iskum wawa; mahsh wawa. 
Disrelisli, halo tikegrh muckamuck. 
Dissent, huloima tumtum. 
Distance, (what), kunjih siah. 
Distant, siah. 
Dlstlnirnlsli, nanitch. 
Distress, klahowya tumtum; klahowya. 
Distrust, kwass. 

Dive, klatawa keekwulee kopa chuck. 
Diverse, huloima. 
Divine, kahkwa saghalie tyee. 
Doctor, doctin. 
Doctress, klootchman doctin. 
DodflTO, hyak klatawa; klatawa yahwa 

Doff, kamooks. 

Dollar, dolla, or tahla; chikamin. 
Do, mamook. 

Donation, cultus potlatch. 

Door, la pote. 

Double, mokst. 

Double minded, mokst tumtum. 

Doubt, halo delate kumtuks. 

Down, (adj.) keekwulee; whim. 

Down, (n.)f kalakala tupso. 

Downcast, sick tumtum. 

Down Kill, keekwulee. 

Downriffht, delate. 

Down stream, mimie; cooley chuck. 

Dozology, mahsie kopa saghalie tyee. 

Dosen, tahtlum pe mokst. 

Drab, tenas klale, tenas tkope. 

Draff, Draw, haul. 

Drawback, mamook haul kimta. 

Drawers, keekwulee sakolleks. 

Dread, kwass. 

Dream, dleam; nanitch kopa moosum; 

moosum nanitch. 
Dreary, cultus. 
Drencbi, mahsh kopa chuck; mahsh chuck 

Drenched, (pas.), mitlite hiyu chuck; 

hiyu chuck mitlite kopa. 
Dress, klootchman coat. 
Drink, to, muckamuck; muckamuck 

chuck or kaupy; or whiskey, etc., as 

the case may be. 
Drinkable, kloshe kopa muckamuck. 
Drip, chuck klatawa. 
Drive, mamook kishkish. 
Drlzsle, tenas snass. 
Drown, mimoluse kopa chuck. 
Drowsy, tikegh moosum; tikegh sleep. 
Druff, lametsln. 
Drum, (Indian), pompon. 
Drunk, (adj.), pahtlum; dlunk. 
Drunk, (v.), chako pahtlum. 
Drunkardt pahtlum man; man kwanesum 

Dry, Dryness, dly; dely. 
Dual, mokst. 
Dubious, mokst tumtum. 
Duck, (Mallard), hahlhahl; kwehkweh; 

DucUnff, mahsh kopa chuck; klatawa 

kopa chuck. 
Duff, mamook dig. 

Dull, halo tumtum; wake siah halo latet. 
Duly, delate. 

Dumb, wake wawa; halo wawa. 
Durinff, kopa. 
Durst, skookum tumtum. 
Dust, polallie; tenas illahee; klimmin 

klimmin illahee. 
Dwell, mitlite. 
Dye, (v.), mamook tzum. 
Dylnff, wake siah mimoluse. 
Dyelnff, mamook tzum. 

Eaffer, hyas tikegh. 
Each, ikt ikt. 
XMiffle, chakchak. 
Ear, kwolann. 
Early, tenas sun. 
Earnest, skookum tumtum. 
Earn, to. tolo. 
Earth, illahie. 



SMrt, kah sun yaka chako. 

East*r, pak; paska. 

Easy, halo kull. 

Eat, to, muckamuck. 

Eatabls^ kloshe kopa muckamuck. 

Ebb tide, chuck yaka klatawa. 

Eccentxlo, huloima. 

E<sUps«, sun (or moon), yaka chako 

Eddy, kah chuck klatawa sagrhalie. 
Bdlfy, mamook kumtuks. 
Editor, tzum (or tyee) man kopa news- 
Ednoate, mamook kumtuks. 
Effect, (V.) mamook. 
Effects, (n.) iktas. 
Sffemlnats, kahkwa klootchman. 
BAcient, skookum; kloshe. 
EWf lesap; lesep; hen olallie. 
Eiffbt, stotekin; kwinnum pe klone; 

BlflTliteeii, tahtlum pe stotekin. 
Elflflity, stotekin tahtlum. 
Elglit hnndred, stotekin tukamonuk. 
Eitlier — or, klonasklonas. 
Eject, mahsh klahanie. 
Elder, elip. 
Elder brotber, kahpo. 
Ele^fant, hyas kloshe. 
Elevate, mamook saghalle. 
Elevated, (pas.), chako. (saghalie, or 

klatawa saghalie, as the case may be, 

whether speaking: of self or another. 
Elk, moolock; mooluk. 
Eloquent, kumtuks Wawa. 
Else, huloima. 
Elude, ipsoot klatawa. 
Embark, klatawa kopa canijn; boat or 

Emblem, kahkwa picture. 
Embrace, iskum kopa lemah. 
Emetic, lametsin yaka skookum kopa 

help mika mahsh mika muckamuck. 
Emotion, cly tumtum; kahkwa cly. 
Employer, tyee; boss. 
Empty, halo ikta mitlite. 
Enact, mamook. 
Encircle, ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa, ikt yah- 

wa, pe mamook kow. 
Enclose, mamook keekwulee. 
Enclosure, Kullaghan; Kullagh; pense. 
End, opoots. 

Endeavor, tikegh mamook. 
Endless, kwanesum. 
Endure, kwanesum mamook; kwanesum 

Enemy, solleks tillikum; mesachie tilli- 

Energy, skookum mamook. 
Enirland, King: George illahee. 
Enirlisb, EngHsbman, King Chautsh; 

King George tillikum. 
Engrave, mamook tzum. 
Enjoy, mitlite kloshe tumtum. 
Enlarge, mamook hyas. 
Snoui^, kopet hiyu; hiyu; kopet. 
Enquire, wawa; ask; tikegh kumtuks. 
Enraged, solleks. 
Enslave, mamook elite. 
Enslaved, (pas.) chako elite. 

Enter, klatawa keekwulee, klatawa in- 

Entertain, (as a guest), kloshe manitch. 

Entire, konoway. 

Entrails, kiyagh; guts; keekwulee yak- 
wahtin kaiah. 

Entrap, iskum kopa trap. 

Enumerate, mamook kunjih; mamook 

Envelope, (n.), klahanie papeh. 

Envelope, (v.), mamook kow. 

Epilepsy, sick kahkwa clazy. 

Equal, kahkwa. 

Equity, delate mamook. 

Erect, mitwhit; delate. 

Escape, chako klahanie (for first or sec- 
ond persons); klatawa klahanie (for 
third person); klatawa. 

Escort, (V.) klatawa kunamokst pe 
kloshe nanitch. 

Espy, nanitch. 

Estate, iktas pe illahee kopa mimoluse 
man or klootchman; mimoluse man or 
klootchman yaka iktas pe illahee. 

Estimate, (n.), tumtum. 

Estimate, (v.), mamook tumtum. 

Eternal, kwanesum. 

Ethnology, kumtuks kopa tillikums; 
kumtuks kopa siwash. 

Eulogise, wawa kloshe wawa. 

Evacuate, mamook halo; konoway kla- 
tawa klahanie. 

Eve, tenas polaklie. 

Even, konaway kahkwa; kloshe.. 

Evening, tenas polaklie. 

Ever, Everlasting, kwanesum. 

Every, konaway. 

Everywhere, konaway kah. 

Evict, mash klahanie. 

Evil, mesachie. 

Exact, delate. 

Ezasrgerate, wake siah kliminawhit. 

Exalt, mamook saghalie; mamook hyas. 

Exalted, (pas.), chako saghalie; klatawa 
saghalie; chako hyas. 

Examine, delate nanitch. 

Exceed, chako elip hiyu. 

Excel, elip kloshe. 

Excellent, hyas kloshe. 

Except, (prep.), kopet. 

Excess, elip hiyu. 

Exchange, huyhuy. 

Excitev mamook hyas yaka tumtum. 

Exclaim, Exclamation, skookum wawa; 

Exclude, Excommunicate, mahsh klah- 

Excuse, mamook klahowya. 

Execute, mamook mimoluse. 

Exercise, Exert, mamook. 

Exhale, mahsh wind. 

Exhaust, mamook till. 

Exhausted, (pas.), chako delate till; 
wake siah mimoluse kopa till. 

Exhort, skookum wawa; wawa skookum. 

Exile, (v), or 

Expatriate, mahsh klahanie kopa yaka 

Exist, mitlite. 

Expedite, mamook hyak. 



Mej^A, mahsh. 

Bzp«nd, pay; potlatch. 

Sxpvrt, delate yaka kumtuks. 

Bzpire, mimoluse; mahsh konoway yaka 

Bzplain, mamook kumtuks. 
Bzplore, klatawa pe nanitch. 
Bzpress, (v.), wawa. 
Ezauislte, delate kloshe. 
Eztand, mamook hyas. 
Sztend^d, (pas.), chako hyas. 
Eztansive, hyas. 
Exterior, klahanie. 
Bztermiiwte, Bxtinffniih, mamook halo; 

Sztolf potlatch hyas kloshe wawa. 
Eztr»ordliuu7, hyas huloima. 
SztravAgmut, cultus mahkook iktas. 
Zztrema nnotlon* exstlem oksio. 
Bye, Eyeball, seahost; eye. 
^alachf skin kopa eye. 
Eyewater, lametsin kopa seahost. 
^•witneiis, man yaka delate nanitch. 

Fable, wake delate wawa. 
Fabric, iktas. 
race, seahhost. 
Faculty, halo kull. 
Fact, delate wawa. 
Fade, chako spooh. 
Faded, spooh. 
Faffged, chako till. 
Fair, kloshe. 

Fall, fall down; mamook whim. 
False, or 

Falsehood, kliminawhit; tseepie. 
Fame, hyas nem. 
Family, tillikums. 

Famish, wake siah mimoluse kopa olo. 
Far, siah. 
Farm, illahee. 
Farther, clip siah. 
Farthest, elip siah kopa konoway. 
Fast, (tight), kwult; hyas kull. 
Fast, (quick), hyak. 
Fasten, mamook kow. 
Fat, glease. 
Father, papa. 
Fathom, itlan. 
Fatiffue, till. 
Fatten, mamook glease. 
Fault, wake delate mamook. 
Favor, kloshe tumtum. 
Fawn, tenas mowitch; mo witch yaka 

Fear, kwass. 
Fearless, halo kwass. 
Feast, muckamuck; hiyu muckamuck. 
Feather, kalakala yaka tupso. 
Feeble, wake skookum; halo skookum. 
Feed, potlatch muckamuck. 
Feel, (with hand), kumtuks kopa lemah. 
Feel, (with heart), feick tumtum. 
Feet, lapea. 

Fell, to, (as a tree), mamook whim. 
Fellow, tillikum. 
Female, klootchman. 
Ferment, kahkwa liplip; chako waum. 
Fence, kullagh; kullahan; pence. 

Ferocious, hyas tikegh plght; delate 
kumtuks pight. 

Fervent, Fervor, waum tumtum. 

Fester, chako sick, pe chako hyas. 

Festival, hyas kloshe time; hiyu mucka- 

Fetch, to, lolo; mamook chako. 

Fever, waum sick. 

Fever and Agn; cole sick, waum sick. 

Few, wake hiyu; tenas. 

Fib, kliminawhit. 

Fiction, wake delate wawa. 

Field, illahee. 

Fiend, mesachie tamahnous. 

Fierce, hyas tikegh pight. 

Fifteen, tahtlum pe kwinnum. 

Fifty, kwinnum tahtlum. 

Fight, to, mamook solleks; pight; ma- 
mook pukpuk. 

Fighl^ (with fists), mamook pukpuk. 

Fiirured, (as calico), tzum. 

File, la leem. 

Fill, to, mamook pahtl. 

Filthy, mesachie; humm; cultus. 

Fin, pish yaka lemah. 

Find, to, klap. 

Fine, (adj.). kloshe. 

Fine, (v.), mamook fine. 

Fine, (n.), fine. 

Fingers, le doo; lemah. 

Flnffer rinff, kweokweo. 

Finish, mamook kopet. 

Fir, moola stick. 

Fire, piah; olapitski. 

Fireplace, kah piah- mitlite. 

Firm, skookum. 

First, elip. 

First bom, elip tenas. 

Fish, pish. * 

Fisherman, pishman. 

Fishery, kah pish mitlite; kah iskum 
pish. . 

Fishhook, pishhook; ikkik. 

Fishline, pish lope. 

Fishrod, pish stick. 

Fishy, kahkwa pish. 

Fists, lemah kahkwa (showing how). 

Fit, kahkwa clazy. 

Five, kwinnum. 

Five hundred, kwinnum tukamonuk. 

Fix, mamook kloshe. 

FlaiTf sail; flag; hyas Sunday sail. 

Flea, sopen inapoo; chotub. 

Flesh, itlwillie; meat. 

Flies, tenas kalakala; lemosh. 

FliuLsy, wake skookum. 

Flings, mahsh. 

Flint, kilitsut. 

Float, mitlite saghalie kopa chuck. 

Flock, hiyu sheep, or kalakala. 

Flood, pahtl chuck; hiyu chuck. 

Flour, sapolil; klimmin sapolil. 

Flow, klatawa. 

Flowers, kloshe tupso. 

Fluid, kahkwa chuck. 

Fly, (v.). mamook fly; kawak. 

Foal, (n.), tenas kuitan. 

Foal, (to be with) (v.), klootchman kui- 
tan yaka mitlite tenas. 



Tog, smoke; cultus smoke. 

Folks, tillikums. 

Follow, klatawa kimta. 

7olly, kahkwa pel ton. 

7ood, muckamuck. 

7ool, pelton. 

7oollsli, Foolhardy, kahkwa pelton. 

7oot, lepee. 

Footsteps, Footprint, kah lapea m it lite 
(showing how; teahwit). 

For, kopa. 

Forbear, kopet. 

Forbid, wawa kloshe kopet. 

Ford, kah kloshe nesika klatawa enati 
kopa chuck. 

Forefather, ahnkuttie. papa. 

Foreiflrn, huloima. 

Forenoon, elip sitkum sun. 

Forest, kah hiyu stick mitlite. 

Foretell, wawa elip. 

Forever, kwahnesum. 

Forffet, to, mahlie; mahsh tumtum; ko- 
pet kumtuks 

Forgive, mamook klowhowya. 

Fork, la pooshet 

Former, elip. 

Formerly, ahnkuttie. 

Forsake, mahsh. 

FortniflTht, mokst Sunday. 

Fortunate, kloshe. 

Forty, laklt tahtlum. 

Fo* what, pe kahta. 

Fool, cultus. 

Found, klap. 

Fonr, lakit, or lokit. 

Fourteen, tahtlum pe lakU. 

Four hundred, lakit tukaroonuk. 

Fowl, la pool. 

Fox, talapus; hyas opoots talapus. 

Fragrant, kloshe. 

France, Pasaiooks illahee. 

Frank, open. 

Fraternal, kahkwa ow. 

Free, halo elite. 

Freese, hyas cole. 

French, Frenchman, Pasiooks; Pasaiooks. 

Frequently, hiyu times. 

Fresh, chee. 

Fret, tenas solleks. 

Friday, Kwinnum sun. 

Friend, sikhs, or shikhs; ^illikum. 

Friendly, kloshe tumtum; kahkwa tilli- 

Friendless, halo tillikum. 

Frighten, mamook kwass. 

Frightened, (passive), chako kwass. 

Frog, shwah-kuk; wakik. 

Frolic, heehee. 

Frolicsome, pahtl kopa heehee. 

From, kopa. 

Frown, kahkwa solleks. 

Fry, to, mamook piah; mamook cook; 
mam-ook la'po-el. 

Frying-pan, la po-el. 

Fuel, piah stick. 

Fnlflll, mamook kopet. 

Fnll, pahtl. 

Fun, heehee. 

Fund, chikamin; dolla. 

Frmdament, opoots. 

Frmeral, lolo or mahsh mim'oluse tilli- 
kum kopa mimoluse illahee. 

Fnr, eena tupso. 

Fnmitnre, iktas. 

Fnrthermost; fnrtherest, elip siah kopa 

Futile, cultus. 

Fnture, alki; by-by; winapie. 

Gab; gabble, wawa. 

Qad, moosmoos stick; gad. 

Gain, tolo. 

Gallop, to, kwalalkwalal ; h^ak klatawa. 

Gallows, stick kah mamook mimoluse 
kopa lope. 

Gamble, gamble; mamook gamble; ma- 
mook itlokum; heehee lemah (with 
disks) chis chis; itlokum. 

Game, heehee. 

Garments, iktas. 

Gas, kahkwa wind. 

Gash, (n.), cut; kokshut. 

Gash, (v.), mamook cut; mamook kok- 

Gasp, hyas kull spose yaka iskum yaka 
wind; wake siah lost yaka wind. 

Gather, to. Iskum; hokumelh. 

Gay, kloshe; heehee. 

Gase, skookum nanitch. 

Gender, is distinguished by prefixing the 
word man for male, and klootchman 
for female. 

General, hyas tyee. 

Generons, kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. 

Gentle, halo wild; kwan. 

Genuine, delate. 

Geography, book yaka. 

Geography, book yaka mamook kumtuks 
nesika kopa konoway illahee. 

Geology, book yaka mamook kumtuks ne- 
sika kopa konaway stone. 

German, Dutchman. 

Get, to. iskum. 

Get out, klatawa; mahsh. 

Get up, mamook getup; getup. 

Ghost, tamahnous; skookum. 

Giant, delate hyas man. 

Gift, cultus potlatch. 

Giggle, heehee. 

Gilt, kahkwa pil chikamin. 

Gipsy, huloima tillikum. 

Girl, tenas klootchman. 

Girlish, kahkwa tenas klootchman. 

Give, to, potlatch. 

Glad, kwann; youtl tumtum; kwatl. 

Glare, skookum light.' 

Gleam, tenas light. 

Glean, iskum; kokumelh. 

Glee, heehee. 

Gloom, polaklie. 

Gloomy, kahkwa polaklie. 

Glorious, hyas kloshe. 

Glory, hyas kloshe nem. 

Gnats, dago; lemus. 

Ckiaw, muckamuck; muckamuck kahkwa 

Go, to, klatawa. 



CtoUin, tamahnous; tsialko. 

CK>dff Saghalle Tyee. 

OodlMs, halo tikegrh Sagrhalie Tyee. 

Godlike; OoOly, kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. 

CK>Xd, pil chikamin. 

OoldMi. kahkwa pil chikamin. 

CK>od9 kloshe. 

Oood-byey klahowya. 

Oood spirit, kloshe tamahnous; econe. 

Ch>ods, iktahs. 

Oo<MM, kalakala; whuywhuy; kalakalak- 

Go ft (n.). pilpil; (v.)> mamook kokshut 
pe pilpil yaka chako. 

CkMV^ Saghalie Tyee yaka wawa. 

Oosflip, wawa. 

CK>T«ni, mamook tyee. 

QoYwmmt, tyee. 

Ovftcefnl,, kloshe. 

Oradnate (v.), kopet kopa school. 

Ondn. sapolil. 

Onunnuuf, book yaka mamook kumtuks 
nesika kopa lalangr* 

Onad, hyas kloshe. 

Chrand child, tenas yaka tenas; koim. 

QrmadtLmugh'Uv, tenas yaka tenas 

Orandfatbari papa yaka papa; chope. 

Onuidmotlier, mama yaka mama; chitsh; 

Onuid0on» tenas yaka tenas man. 

Oraat, potlatch. 

OymmIi tupso; tupso kopa illahee. 

OnMshopper, tlak tlak. 

Oratefnl, (adj.), mahsie tumtum. 

Ozatefnl, (v.), wawa mahsie. 

Orave, mimoluse illahee. 

OraTMtone, stone kopa mimoluse illahee. 

Orai«, muckamuck tupso. 

Oreaa*, grlease; lakles. 

Or«asjr» kahkwa glease. 

Great, hyas. 

O reedy; tikegrh konoway; hyas tikegrh. 

Oreen, pechugh; pale green, kawkawak. 

Oreet, wawa. 

Oray; a gray horse, legley. 

Grind, (as flour), mamook sapolil; ma- 
mook klimmin-klimmin; as az, ma- 
mook sharp; mamook kloshe. 

Orlt, tenas stone; kahkwa stone. 

Grissly bear. slam. 

Oroom, kuitan man: man yaka kloshe 
nanitch kuitan. ( See bridegroom.) 

Ground, illahee. 

Orousm glouse; siwash chicken; siwash 

Orow, chako hyas. 

Orowl; grumble, solleks wawa. 

Guard, kloshe nanitch. 

Guardian, man yaka kloshe nanitch te- 

Guard house, skookum house. 

Guess, mika tumtum; guess. 

GuUt, mesachie. 

Gum, la gome. 

Gun, musket; sukwalal. 

Gunpowder, polallie. 

Ha, nah. 

Hall* cole snass. 

Kalr, tupso; tupso kopa latet; yakso. 
Kalr brush, tupso bloom. 
Half, sitkum. 

Kalf-breed, sitkum siwash — sitkum Bos- 
Salloo, nah. 

Halt, kopet klatawa; kopet cooley. 
Bam, cosho; dly cosho. 
Hammer, lemahto. 
Hand, le mah. 

Hand, (right), kloshe lemah. 
Handcuff, chikamin kopa mamook kow 

Hand (game of), itlokum. 
Handkerchief, hakatshum. 
Handsome, hyas kloshe. 
Hang, mimaluse kopa lope kopa yaka 

Happy, kloshe tumtum; youtl tumtum. 
Hard, kull. 

Harden, mamook kull. 
Hare, kwitshadie; kwetshoddie. 
Hark, nah; nanitch. 
Harlot, mesachie klootchman. 
Harm, (n.), mesachie. 
Harm, (v.), mamook mesachie. 
Harrow, to, mamook comb iUahie. 
Hasten, hyak. 
Hat, seahpo. 
Hatch, chicken chako kopo eggs; tenas 

lapool chee chako. 
Hatchet, tenas lahash. 
Haul, mamook haul. 
Haul with wagon, lolo kopa chikchik. 
Have, mitlite. 
Hawk, hawk, shakshak. 
Hay, hay; dly tupso. 
Hasel bush, toholal stick. 
Hasel-nuts, tukwilla. 
He, his, yaka; yahka. 
Head, la tet. 

Headache, sick kopa latet. 
Headwind, cultus wind. 
Heal, mamook kloshe. 
Healed, (passive), chako kloshe. 
Healthy, halo sick. 
Heap, hiyu. 

Hear, kumtuks kopa kwolan. 
Hearsay, cultus kumtuks kopa kwolan. 
Heart, tumtum. 
Heartache, sick tumtum.. 
Heat, waum. 
Heathen, tillikums klaska halo kumtuks 

kopa Saghalie Tyee. 
Heave, mahsh. 
Heaven, Saghalie; Saghalie Tyee yaka 

illahee; koosah; saghalie illahie. 
Heavy, till. 

Heed, (take), kloshe nanitch. 
Heirs, yaka tenas, pe yaka kloochman. 
Hell, hyas piah; lejaub yaka illahee; 

keekwulee illahee. 
Helm, ludda. 

Help, to, mamook elann; mamook help. 
Helve, lahash stick; stick kopa lahash. 
Hen, klootchman chicken. 
Hence, (conj.). kahkwa. 
Hence* (adj.). yukwa. 



Km, yaka. 

Kers, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Kerb, lametsin tupso. 

Kerd, hlyu moosmoos. 

Kere, ynkwa; how; nah. 

Kermaplirodlte, burdash. 

KerrinflT, tenas pl9h; oolchus. 

Keraelf, yaka self. 

Key, nah. 

Kid, lilde, to, (y.)« ipsoot. 

Kide, skin. 

Klflrh, saghalle; long; high. 

KUarlty, hiyn heehee. 

Klflrbway, ooakut; wayhut. 

Kill, tenas saghalie illahee. 

Kim, yaka. 

Kimself, yaka self. 

Kinder, wake siah mamook stop. 

Kint, wawa. 

Kire, potlatch mamook. 

Kired, (passive), iskum mamook. 

Kis, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Kit, to. mamook kokshut; kwulh. 

Kit, (passive), chako kokshut. 

Kitoli, mamook kow. 

Kither, yakwa. 

Ko, nah; howh. 

Koarse, cole sick wawa. 

Koary, t'kope. 

Koax, pelton mamook. 

Koe, la peosh. 

Koff, cosho. 

Koflrfl^h, kahkwa cosho. 

Kold, iskum; halo mahsh. 

Kold on, kloshe mitlite; kloshe wait; 

hold on. 
Kole, klawhap. 

Koliday, hyas Sunday; Sunday. 
Koly, kahkwa Saghalie Tyee. 
Koly day, lepet. 
Koly Ohost, Saint BsplL 
Koly orders, lordr; olt. 
Koly Trinity, Lasait Trinite. 
Kollow, halo ikta mitlite. 
Konest, wake kaps walla; halo kumtuks 

Koney, honey; kahkwa shuga. 
Konor, kloshe nem. 
Kop, sopen. 
Kope, tikegh kahkwa. 
Kopefnl, halo kwass. 
Kops, (wild), tlanemas. 
Kopa, (tame), hops. 
Kom, stone; bone. 
Korrible; horrid, hyas mesachie. 
Korror, hyas kwass. 
Korse, kiuatan; kuitan. 
Korseback, kopa kuitan. 
Korsehair, kuitan tupso. 
Korse raoe, cooley kuitan. 
Korse sboea, kuitan shoes; chikamin 

Kose, stocken. 
Hospitable, kloshe. 
Hostile, solleks. 
Hot, hyas warm. 
Honr, tintin; dingding. 
Honse, house. 
Kow, kahta. 

Kow are you? klahowya. 

Kowl, kamooks yaka wawa. 

Kow large, kunjih hyas. 

Kow many, kunsih; kunjih. 

Kncklebsrries, shot olallie. 

Knman, kahkwa man. 

Komble, halo proud. 

Knmoroos, heehee. 

Hundred, tukamonuk. 

Mxmgvj, olo. 

Hunt, mamook hunt 

Knrl, mahsh. 

Horry, hyak; howh. 

Hurt, (adj.), kokshut. 

Knrt, (v.), chako kokshut. 

Knrt one's feel^gs, mamook sick tum- 

tum; mamook kahta. 
Husband, (my), nika man. 
Hnsh, kopet wawa; kopet noise. 
Hypocrite, man yaka kloshe kopa yaka 

lapush, pe klale kopa yaka tumtum. 

Z, nlka. 

Zoe, cole chuck. 

Idea, tumtum. 

Identical, delate kahkwa. 

Idiot, pelton man. 

Idle, cultus mitlite. 

If, spose. 

Ignite, mamook piah. 

Ignorant, halo kumtuks; blind kopa tum- 

HI; illness, sick. 

Hltreat, mamook mesachie; mamook kah^ 

Imbibe, muckamuck. 

Imitate, mamook kahkwa. 

Imitation, kahkwa mamook. 

Immaterial, cultus. 

Immeasurable, halo kumtuks kunjih hy- 

Immiense. delate hyas. 

Immigrate, chako kopa ikt illahee. 

Immodest; immoral, mesachie. 

Impatience, halo tikegh mitlite. 

Imperfect, wake delate. 

Impossible, wake skookum kopa. 

Improbable, (nika) tumtum yaka halo 

Improper, wake kloshe. 

Improve, chako tenas kloshe. 

m, kopa. 

Inability, wake skookum kopa. 

Inasmncli, kahkwa. 

Incite, mamook waum yaka tumtum. 

Incomplete, wake yaka kopet. 

Indeed, nawitka. 

Independent, (He is), cultus kopa (yaka) 
kopa huloima tillikums. 

Indian, siwash. 

Indian medicine, kelale. 

Indilferent, (I am), cultus kopa nika. 

Induce (him), mamook haul yaka tum- 

Indulge, iskum. 

Industrious, kwanesum mamook. 

Inebriate, man yaka kwanesum pahtlum; 



man yaka kwanesum muckamuck 

Xnfuit, tenas; chee tenas. 

Znlierlt, iskum spose (mika) papa yaka 

Ink* klale chuck kopa mamook tzum. 

InaiUre, wawa. 

In sliore, mahtwillie. 

ZnsUle, keekwulee. 

Inspire, mamook waum yaka tumtu^i. 

Znstantl7« hyak. 

Insnffleient, wake hiyu. 

Zntend (Z), nika tumtum. 

Intention, tumtum. 

Intercede, (yon for me), kloshe mika 
potlatch nika wawa kopa yaka. 

Interpret, mamook cooley kopa huloima 
lalans or wawa; mamook kumtuks hu- 
loima or wawa. 

Interval, tenas laly. 

mtlmate, kloshe. 

Invade, klatawa pe tikegh pight. 

mvieible (to yon), wake kahta mika 

Inward, keewulee. 

Iron, chlkamln. 

Irresolute, wake skookum tumtum. 

Irrigate, mamook cooley chuck. 

Is, Mltlite is sometimes used, and some- 
times no word is used. 

Island, ailand; tenas illahee. 

It, yaka, yahka. 

Itoli, tlihtlih. 

Its, kopa yaka; yakas; yaka. 

Itself, yaka self. 

Ivy, stick kahkwa lope. 

Jail, skookum house. 

Jarffon (OUnook), Chinook. 

Jealons, sick tunftum. 

Jerk, hyak mamook haul. 

Jerked beef, moosmoos itlwillie chako 

Jest, cultus wawa. 

Job, mamook. 

Join, chako kunamokst. 

Joke, (n.), cultus wawa. 

Joke, (v.), mamook heehee. 

Jolly, heehee tumtum. 

Journey, cooley. 

Joy, Joyfiil, youtl tumtum. 

Judffe, tyee kopa court. 

JxLgf stone labooti; 

Juloe, olallie chuck. 

Jump, to, sopena. 

Jury, man kopa court klaska tikegh; 
kumtuks konoway mesachie, pe ma- 
mook kloshe kopa tillikums. 

Just, delate. 

Kamass root, lakamass. 

Kettle, ketling. 

Key, lekleh. 

Kick, to, mamook kokshut; chukkin. 

Kill, mamook mimoluse. 

Kind, kloshe. 

Kindred, tillikums. 

Kiss, bebe. 

Kitten, tenas pishpish. 

XIneel, mamook kahkwa (showing how). 

XInife, opitsah. 

Knit, mamook stocken. 

Knook, to, koko; mamook kokshut; ma- 
mook kahkwa (showing how). 

Knot, lemah; lemah kopa stick. 

Knotty, hunlkih; hiyu lemah. 

Know, to, knowledge, kumtuks. 

Knuokle* yahkwa kopa lemah (point to 

£abor, mamook. 

^aoerate, mamook kokshut. 

&ack, wake hiyu. 

£ady, klootchman. 

^amb, tenas sheep; tenas lemooto; sheep 
yaka tenas. 

Iiame, klook teahwit; sick kopa lapea. 

lament, cly tumtum. 

lamprey eel, skwakwal; skwokwol. 

Land, illahee. 

IQandlord, tyee. 

Iband otter, inamooks. 

Lane, ooakut; wayhut. 

Languaire, la lang. 

Lard, cosho glease. 

Large, hyas. 

Lark, tenas kalakala. 

Last, delate kimta; kimta kopa kono- 

Lately, chee; tenas ahukuttie. 

Laugb, heehee; mamook heehee. 

Laughter, heehee. 

Launoli, mahsh boat or ship kopa chuck. 

Lawn, kloshe tupso Illahee. 

Lay, mahsh. 

Lasy, lazy. 

Lead, (n.), kalitan. 

Lead, (v.), mamook cooley. 

Leader, tyee. 

Lean, (adj.), halo glease. 

Iiean, (v.), lagh. 

Leap, to, sopena. 

Learn, iskum kumtuks; kumtuks. 

Learned, kumtuks hiyu. 

Least, elip tenas kopa konaway. 

Leather, skin; dly skin. 

Leave, (v.), mahsh; klatawa. 

Leave off, to, kopet. 

Lecture, wawa. 

Leg, teahwit; lapea. 

Legal, kloshe kopa law. 

Legend, wawa; wake delate wawa. 

Leggings, mitass. 

Legislature, tyee man klaska mamook 

Lend, to, ayahwhul; tikegh owe. 

Lent, (n.), lekalem; olo time. 

Less, tenas. 

Letter, papah. 

Level, konoway kahkwa; flat. 

Liat, yaka kumtuks wawa kliminawhlt. 

Liberal, kloshe kopa cultus potlatch. 

Lick, to, (v.), klakwun. 

Lice, inapoo. 

Lie, (n.), kliminawhlt wawa. 



3U«f (v.)» wawa kllmlnawhit. 

TtlB down, mltlite. 

^iffht, (not beavy), halo till; wake till. 

^IflTlit, (not dark), halo polaklie. 

^iflflitnlxur, saghalie piah. 

£ike, (adj.). kahkwa. 

Ikik*, (v.). tikegh. 

Zdmb, lemah; stick yaka lemah. 

Mincer, mitlite; halo chako. 

^infirnist, yaka kumtuks hiyu lalang. 

Z^iniment, lametsin kopa skin; optlah. 

£ip», lapush, (point to them). 

]Usp, wake delate wawa. 

^Usten, nah; nanitch. 

Ziittle, tenas. 

Itive, (adj.)» halo mimoluse. 

Idve, (v.), mitlite. 

£odtfey (n.)» tenas house; siwash house. 

X«odflre. (v.), mitlite. 

Itofty, sairhalie. 

]boirfflnff oamp, stick house. 

lonely, kopet ikt. 

Ttong, youtlkut. 

lK>nir affo, ahnkuttie. 

]book, tOt nanitsh; nah. 

Ztook aronndf cultus nanitch. 

£ook lierel nah. 

lk>okontI klose nanitsh. 

ZtOoking'-fflaM, shelokum. 

]Loose^ (v.). stoh; mahsh kow. 

taoxme, inapoo. 

l«ose tlie way, to, tsolo; tseepie wayhut. 

Koiise, enapoo, or inapoo. 

3UOV*, to, tikegh. 

Kow, keekwulee. 

Aower, (adj.), elip keekwulee. 

&ower, (v.), mamook keekwulee. 

l«owly, halo proud tumtum. 

^Tpcewarm, tenas lazy; tenas waum. 

iMg, lOlO. 

dumber, laplash. 
^uncli, muckamuck. 

Mad, solleks. 

Madam, klootchman. 

ataxic, tamahnous. 

Magistrate, tyee. 

Maflrnlflcent, delate hyas kloshe. 

Maise, corn; esalth. 

Majority, elip hiyu. 

Make, to, mamook. 

Male, man. 

Malice, mesachie tumtum; solleks. 

MaUard dnok, hahthaht. 

Mama, mama. 

Man, man. 

Manaire, tolo; mamook. 

Manffle, hiyu mamook cut. 

Mankind, konoway tillikums. 

Manly, kahkwa man. 

Manner, kahkwa kwanesum yaka ma- 

' mook. 
Manufactory, moola. 
Many, hyiu. 
Maple, isick stick. 
I Marble, kloshe stone. 
Mare, klootchman kuitan. 
Mark, (n.), tzum. 

Mark, (v.). mamook tzum. 

a^arket, mahkook house. 

Marriasre; marry, malieh. 

Martyr, tillikum yaka mimoluse kopa 
saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 

Marvel, mamook tumtum — ikta okoke. 

Mask, stick seahost. 

Maasacre, (v.), cultus mamook mimoluse. 

Mass, (ceremony of), la messe. 

Mast, ship stick. 

Mat, kliskwiss. 

Maternal, kahkwa mama. 

Mathematics, book yaka mamook kum-. 
tuks nesika kopa mamook kwunnum. 

Matrimony, malieh. 

Matron, tyee klootchman. 

Mattock, lapeosh. 

Mature, piah. 

Mairlmiim, elip hiyu kopa konoway. 

Mayor, tyee kopa town. 

Me, nlka. 

Meadow, tupso illahee. 

Mean, delate cultus; wake kloshe. 

Measure, to, tahnim; mamook measure. 

Meat, itl Willie; meat. 

Meddle, mamook kopa halo yaka busi- 
ness; cultus mamook kopa huloima 
yaka business; okoke halo yaka busi- 
ness, pe yaka cultus mamook. 

Medicine, la mestin. 

Meditate, mamook tumtum. 

Meek, kloshe; halo solleks; kwan. 

Meet, chako kunamokst. 

Melancholy, sick tumtum. 

Melt, chako chuck; chako kahkwa chuck; 
chako klimmin. 

Memory, tumtum. 

Mend, to, mamook tip-shin. 

Menstruate, to, mahsh pilpil. 

Mental, kopa tumtum. 

Mention, wawa. 

Merchandise, iktas. 

Merchant, mahkook man. 

Merchantable, kloshe kopa mahkook. 

Merciful, (to be); Mercy, (to have), ma- 
mook klahowya. 

Messaare, (verbal), wawa. 

Message, (written), papah. 

Metal, metallic chikamin; kahkwa chika- 

Metropolis, tyee town. 

Midday, sitkum sun. 

Middle, the,.katsuk; sitkum. 

BKldnlffht, sitkum polaklie. 

Midsummer, sitkum kopa waum illahee. 

Midst, kunamokst. 

BCig-ht, (n.), skookum; (Imp. of may; 

BKigrate, klatawa. 

MUd, kloshe. 

Military, kopa sojers. 

Milk, totoosh. 

Milkman, totoosh man. 

Milky, kahkwa totoosh. 

Mill, moola. 

Miller, moola man. 

BKimlc, mamook kahkwa. 

Miiid, the, tumtum. 

Mine, illahee kah chikamin mitlite. 



muffle, klatawa kunamokst; mamook 
kunamokst; mahsh kunamokst. 

Mlnlflter, leplet. 

MlAor, teiias; elip tenas. 

Miracle, skookum mamook; huloima ma- 

Mieobief, cultus mamook. 

Xlsoonduot, mesachie mamook. 

BCisprononnce, halo delate wawa; tseepie 
wawa; huloima wawa. 

Xlss, to. tseepie. 

lilsslonary, leplet. 

JUsteke, (v.), mamook tseepie. 

XlstAke, (n.), tseepie mamook. 

maty, tenas snass. 

msnndenitand, halo kumtuks. 

Xlx, mamook kunamokst; mamook klim- 

MooofteSne, skin-shoes. 

Mock, mamook shem; mamook heehee. 

Moderate, wake hyak. 

Modest, kloshe. 

Moisture, tenas chuck. 

Mole, skad; kilapailemai. 

Molaseee, melass; silup; molassis. 

Monday, Ikt Sun. 

Money, chikamin; dolla. 

Montli, moon. 

Montlily, ikt moon — ikt moon. 

Moon, moon. 

Moonlifflit; moonelilne, moon yaka Ugrht. 

Moose, ulchey; hyas mo witch. 

Moral, kloshe. 

More, weght; elip hiyu. 

Mominff, tenas sun. 

Mom, tupso. 

Moegnito, melakwa; dago. 

Most, elip hiyu kopa konoway. 

Mother, mama; naah; naha. 

Motherless, halo mama. 

MotheVIy, kahkwa mama. 

Monntam, la monti; stone illahee; la- 

Moom, cly tumtum. 

Moose, hoolhool; cultus hoolhool. 

Mouth, la push; la boos. 

Move, tenas mahsh; mamook move. « 

Mow, mamook cut; mamook tlkope. 

Mower, machine kopa mamook cut hay. 

Mmch, hyiu; hiyu. 

Mnd, mud; klimmin illahee. 

Muddy, (water), illahee mitlite kopa 

Muddy, (ground), chuck mitlite kopa 

Mnle, le mel; lemool. 

Mulish, kahkwa lemool. 

Mum, halo wawa. 

Murder, mamook mimoluse. 

Murmur, (n.). tenas pight wawa. 

Murmur, (v.), potlatch tenas pight wawa. 

Muse, mamook tumtum. 

Music, sing. 

Musician, man yaka kumtuks sing. 

Musical instrument, tin tin; (Indian 

Musket, musket. 

Mussels, toluks; mussels. 

Must, mamook skookum haul. 

Mustard, piah tupso. 

Mute, halo wawa. 

Mutter, wawa. 

Mutton, sheep yaka meat; lemooto yaka 

My, mine, nlka; kopa nlka; nlkas. 
Myself, nika self. 
Mystery, hyas huloima. 

Vab, Iskum. 

Vaff, tenas kuitan. 

VaUs, le cloo; nail. 

Vaked, halo ikta mitlite. 

Vame, nem; yahhul. 

Vameless, halo nem. 

Hap, tenas sleep; tenas moosum. 

Vapkin, sail kopa mamook kloshe spose 

nesika muckamuck. 
Varrate, narrative, wawa. 
Harrow, halo wide. 
Vasty, wake kloshe; mesachie. 
Vation, tillikums. 
Vatiye, delate yaka illahee. 
Vaviffate, klatawa kopa chuck. 
Hay, wake; halo. 
Hear, wake siah. 
Heat, kloshe. 

Heck, le cou; lecoo; neck. 
Heed, hyas tikegh. 
Veedle, keepwot; tupshin; needle. 
Vegative, halo; wake. 
Veglect, halo kloshe nanitch. 
Vegro, klale man; nigga. 
Veighhorhood, tilikums mitlite wake 

Vephew, sister or ats, or kahpo or ow 

yaka tenas man. 
Vever, wake kunjih. 
Hew, chee. 
Hews, chee wawa. 
Vice, kloshe. 
Viece, sister or ats, or ow or kahpo yaka 

tenas klootchman. 
High, wake siah. 
Vight, polaklie. 
Vine, kweest or kwaist. 
Vineteen, tahtlelum pe nine, or kweest. 
Vinety, nine or kweest tahtlum. 
Hip, mamook stop, mamook cut. 
Ho, not, halo; wake. 
Vobody, tillikum. 
Hod, kahkwa sleep or moosum; wake 

siah sleep, or moosum. 
Voise, noise, latlah. 
VolMless, halo noise. 
Voisy, hiyu noise. 
Hone, halo; wake. 
Nonsense, cultus wawa. 
Noon, sitkum sun. 
North, kah cole chako. 
Nose, nose; emeets. 
Not, halo: wake. 
Nothing, halo ikta. 
Notwithstanding, kegh-tchie. 
Not yet, kawek.. 
Nourish, potlatch, muckamuck; kloshe i 

Now, alta. 



VoWh&f, halo kah. 
Vnmby kahkwa mimoluse. 
Viim1>«v. klonas kunjih. 

1, Ikt. or Icht. 

2, Mokst, or moxt. 

3, Klone. 

4, Lakit or lokit. 
6, Kwinnum. 

6, Taghum, or tughum. 

7, Sinamokst, or sinamoxt. 

8, Stotekin. 

9, Kwaist, or kweest. 

10, Tahtlelum, or tahtlum. 

11, Tahtlelum pe ikt, or tahtlum pe icht. 
20, Mokst tahtlelum, or moxt tahtlum. 

100, Ikt takamonuk, or icht tukamonuk, 
or (tahtlum-tahtlum, — ten tens). 

Vara*, (n.), klootchman or man yaka 
kloshe nanitch. 

Hurse, (v.). kloshe nanitch. 

ITats, tukwilla; toholal; nuts. 

ITatrition, muckamuck. 

Oftkt kull stick; kahnahway stick. 

Omr* la lahm. 

Oatii, la wen; la ween. 

01>«diMioa» o1>edleiit, ol»67, iskum wawa; 

mamook kahkwa yaka wawa. 
Object, wawa halo. 
Obliffa (a favor), mamook help. 
Obscene, mesachle. 
Obscnre, halo delate kumtuks. 
Observe, nanitch. 
Obtain, iskum. 
Ocean, hyas salt chuck. 
Ochre, kawkawak iUahee. 
Oddr huloima. 
Odor, humm. 
Off, klak. 

Offendr mamook solleks; mamook kata. 
Offer, tikegh potlatch. 
Olllcer, tyee. 
Off shore, mahtlinnie. 
Often, hiyu times. 
Oil (n.), glease. 
Oil (V), mamook glease. 
Oil dcrtti, snass Bail. 
OUjt kahkwa glease. 
Ointment, lametsin; lametsin kopa skin. 
Old, old man, oleman. 
Old woman, lammieh; lummieh. 
Omit, mahsh. 

Omnipotent, delate hyas skookum. 
Omnipresent, mitlite konoway kah. 
Omniscient, kumtuks konoway ikta. 
On, kopa. 
One. ikt. 

One or another, ikt-ikt. 
One-eyed, ikt seahhost. 
Onion, unjun; ulalach; lesoio. 
Onion (wild), kalaka. 
Only (one), kopet ikt. 
Open, kahlakl; halakl; open. 
Operate, mamook. 
pinion, tumtum. 
<6posite to, inati; enati. 
Or, pe. 

Oration, wawa. 

Orator, man yaka delate kumtuks pot- 
latch wawa. 

Order (v.), mahsh wawa; potlatch wawa. 

Order, to, mahsh tumtum. 

Orchard, orchard; kah hiyu apple stick 

Ore, chikamin stone. 

Original, chee; elip; olishinel. 

Orphan, halo papa halo mama. 

Other, huloima. 

Otter, otter; nawamuks. 

Otter (land), nenamooks; otter. 

Ought, delate kloshe. 

Our, onrs, nesika; kopa nesika. 

Ourselves, nesika self. 

Ont, outdoors, outside, klaghanie; kla- 

Outlaw, hyas mesachie tillikum. 

Outrage, mamook hyas mesachie. 

Oval, kahkwa egg. 

Oven, oven; kah mamook piah sapolil. 

Over (above), saghalie. 

Over (other side), enetl. 

Overalls, overalls; klahanie sakoUeks. 

Overcoat, hyas coat; hyas kapo. 

Overboard, klahanie kopa boat. 

Overcome, tolo. 

Overshoes, klahanie shoes; saghalie 

Overthrow, mamook halo; tolo. 

Owl, waugh waugh; kwel kwel. 

Oz, man moosmoos; moosmoos. 

Oyster, chetlo; oysters; klogh-klogh. 

Pacify, mamook kloshe. 

PACk, (n.), ikt kow. 

Pi^ck, (v.), lolo. 

Package, ikt kow. 

Paddle, (n.), isick. 

Paddle, (v.), mamook isick. 

Pf^id, potlatch pay or dolla. 

Paid, (passive), Iskum pay or dolla. 

Pain, sick; pain; addedah; anah. 

Paint, pent; chym. 

Paint, to, mamook pent. 

Pair, mokst. 

Palace, hyas kloshe house. 

Pale, t'kope. 

Paltry, tenas; cultus. 

Pamphlet, tenas book. 

Pansy, kloshe tupso. 

Pant, skookum mamook wind. 

Panther, hya^ pishpish; panther; swad- 

Pants, sakolleks. 

Pap, lip totoosh. 

Papa, papa. 

Paper, pehpah; papah. 

Pappoose, tenas; papoos. . 

Parade, (n.), show. 

Parade, (v.), mamook show; kloshe klat- 

Pardon, mamook klahowya. 
Parents, papa pe mama. 
Park, kloshe illahee. 
Plirson, leplet. 
Parsonage, leplet yaka house. 



Fart, sitkum. 

Partake, iskum. 

Pass, (v.). kl9.tawa; klatawa enett 

Pastor, leplet. 

Paternal, kahkwa papa. 

Path, ooakut; wayhnt. 

Pauper, klahowya tillikum. 

Paw, kamooks or itchwoot yaka lapea; 

Pay, pay; potlatch dolla. 
Peas, le pwau; peas; lepwah. 
Peep, tenas nanitch. 
Pelt, skin. 

Pen, (fenoe), 'kuUaghan. 
pen, (for writing), pen; tzum stick. 
Penanoe, lapelitans; laplitas. 
Pencil, pencil; tzum stick. 
Penitent, sick tumtum. 
Penitentiary, hyas skookum house. 
Penman, tzum man. 
Penteoost, lapatkot. 
People, tilikum, tillikums. 
Perfect, delate kloshe. 
Perfnme, lametsin kopa nose. 
Perliape, klonas. 
Peril, mesachie mitlite. 
Permanent, kwanesum mitlite. 
Permit, wa'^ra nawitka. 
Perpetual, kwanesum. 
Perspiration, chuck kopa skin. 
Perspire, chuck mitlite kopa skin. 
Persevere, persist; kwanesum; mamook. 
Person, tillikum. 
Persuade, wawa pe toto. 
person, tillikum. 
Persuade, wawa pe toto. 
Peruse, mamook read. 
Pervert, mamook huloima;. 
Petrified, chako stone. 
Petticoat, kalakwahtie; keekwulee coat 

kopa klootchman; petticoat; kalak- 

Pliotograpli, tzum seahost. 
Pliysic, lametsin. 
Physician, doctin. 
Physiology, book yaka mamook kum 

tuks nesika kopa nesika self. 
Pick (n.), pick; (v), iskum; tikegh. 
Picnic, muckamuck. 
Picture, tzum; papah. 
Piebald, le kye. 
Piece, sitkum. 
Piety, kloshe tumtum kopa Saghalie 

Piff, cosho; tenas cosho. 
Pigeon, pigeon; kwass kala kala. 
Pile (n.), hiyu. 

Pilot, pilot; man yaka mamook cooley. 
Pill, lametsin. 

steamer, or boat or ship. 
Pin, kwekwien?; pin; kwekweens; kwek- 

Fine, lagome stick. 
Pint, sitkum quart. 
Pipe, la peep; pipe. 
Fitch, la gome. 
Pitchy, la gome mitlite. 
Pity (v), mamook klahowya. 
place (his.), kah yaka mitlite. 

Plain (n.), kloshe lllahee. 

Plain (adj.), kloshe; delate. 

Plan (n.), tumtum. 

Plan (v.), mamook tumtum. 

Plank, laplash. 

Plate, la siet; plate. 

Play (n.), heehee. 

Play (v.), mamook heehee. 

Playhouse, heehee house. 

Play with stringed instrument, mamook 

Plead, skookum wawa. 

Pleasant, please; kloshe. 

Pleased, youtl; kwatl. 

Plentiful, plenty; hiyu. 

Flow, Plough, (n.), le shalloo; plow; 

Flowi Plough, (v.), mamook plow; ma- 
mook kokshut illahee; klugh illahie. 

FluraL hiyu. 

Pole, la pehsh; pole. 

Poll tax, taxes kopa latet. 

Folyganiist, man yaka mitlite hiyu 

Pompous, hyas tumtum. 

Pond, mimoluse chuck. 

Ponder, mamook tumtum. 

Pool, tenas chuck. 

Poor, klahowya; halo ikta; klahowyum. 

Pope, lepap. 

Popular, kloshe kopa hiyu tillikums. 

Population, tillikums. 

Pork, cosho; cosho itlwillie. 

Possess, mitlite. 

Possible, skookum kopa. 

Postmaster, tyee kopa papah house 

Postpone, wawa "alki mamook." 

Posteriors, opoots. 

Potato, wappatoo; lapatak. 

Potent, skookum. 

Pound, pound; till. 

Pour, mahsh; wagh. 

Poverty, klahowya. 

Powder, polallie; powder. 

Power, skookum. 

Practical, kloshe; delate kum tuks ma- 

Practice, mamook. 

Prairie, kloshe illahee; tupso illahee. 

Prairie Wolf, talapus; hyas opoots tala- 

Praise, wawa mahsie. 

Pray, wawa kopa saghalie tyee. 

Prayer, wawa kopa saghalie tyee; pile; 
laprier; talapusha. 

Preacher, leplet. 

Precious, hyas kloshe; hyas mahkook. 

Precise, delate. 

Predecessors, klaksta man yaka mitlite 

Preface, elip wawa. 

Prefer, elip tikegh. 

Pregnant, mitlite tenas kopa yaka belly. 

Prepare, mamook kloshe; mamook ready. 

Prepare (passive), chako ready. 

Present (n. v.), cultus potlatch. 

Presently, alkie; winapie. 

Preserve, kloshe nanitch. 



Presideiit, president; tyee kopa Wash- 

Press, mamook kwotl. 

Pretendr halo delate mamook or wawa. 

Pretty, kloshe; toketie. 

Prevail, tolo. 

Price (what), kunjih dolla. 

Prick, mamook kahkwa needle. 

Pride, proud; youtl tumtum. 

Priest, le plet. 

Prime, elip. 

Print, mamook tzum. 

Prior, elip. 

Prison, skookum house. 

Prisoner, tillikum kopa skookum house. 

Private, kopet ikt. 

Probably, klonas nawitka. 

Probably Not, klonas halo. 

Proclaim, Proclamation, wawa. 

Profane, wake kloshe kopa saghalie tyee. 

Profit, tolo. , 

Profirenitor, ahnkuttie papa. 

Prohibit, mamook stop; mamook kopet. 

Promise, delate wawa. 

Prompt, hyak. 

Propbet, leplet yaka wawa elip; plopet. 

Prosper, tolo. 

Protect, kloshe nanltch. 

Proud, youtl; kwetlh; proud tumtum; 
youtl tumtum. 

Protestantism, Boston pile. 

Prove, delate kumtuks; prove. 

Provide, iskum iktas; kloshe nanitch. 

Provided That, spose. 

Providence, saghalie tyee. 

Provoke, mamook solleks. 

Provoke (passive), chako solleks. 

Prow, nose kopa boat or ship. 

Prowl, cultus klatawa. 

Pnblic, kloshe kopa konoway tillikum s. 

Pnblish, mamook kumtuks. 

Pugilist, man yaka tikegh pight. 

Pugnacious, tikegh pight. 

Puke, muckamuck yaka kilapie; kilapie 
muckamuck; mahsh yaka muckamuk 
klahanie kopa yaka lapush. 

Pull, haul. 

Pull Off, mamook haul; mamook tlak. 

Pup, Puppy, tenas kamooks. 

Purchase, mahkook. 

Purgatory, tenas piah. 

Pure, delate kloshe. 

Purple, wake siah klale. 

Purpose, tumtum. 

Purse, dolla yaka lesak; lesak kopa dolla. 

Pursue, klatawa kimta. 

Push, mamook push; kwutl. 

Put, mahsh. 

Putrid, humm. 

Putrify, chako humm. 

Puzzle (v.), halo klap tumtum. 

luail (n.), illahee; kulakala. 
luail (v.), chako kwass. 
luarrel, solleks wawa; tenas pight. 
iuarrel (v.), chako solleks; mamook 

Quarter, tenas sitkum. 
Quarter (of a dollar), kwahta. 
luarterly, Ikt time kopa klone moon. 
luartz, tkope stone. 
jueen, tyee klootchman. 
lueer, huloima. 
luell. Quench, mamook kopet. 
luestionsj wawa. 
Quick, Quickly, hyak. 
Quiet, kwann. 

Quills, tepeh; kalakala yaka tupso. 
Quilt, quilt; tzum paseesie. 
Quilt, kopet. 

Quiver, stick kalitan lesak. 
Quorum, elip sitkum. 

Babid, hyas solleks. 

Babble, cultus tillikums. 

Babbit, kwitshadie; kwitshoddie. 

Bace, hyak cooley. 

Bace Horse, cooley kuitan; kuitan yaka 

kumtuks cooley. 
BftfTff^d, itkas yaka kokshut. 
Bam, snass. 

Baise, mamook saghalie. 
Bainy, hiyu snass. 
Bake, comb kopa illahee. 
Bamble, cultus cooley. 
Banch, illahee; ranch. 
Bap, mamook kokshut; koko. 
Bape, kapswalla klootchman. 
Bapid, hyak. 

Bapids, skookum chuck; cooley chuck. 
Bare, wake hiyu. 
Bascal, mesachie tillikum. 
Bash, cultus mamook hyak. 
Basp, hyas file; hyas lalim. 
Baspberries, seaphd olallie; itlawa. 
Bat, hyas hoolhool; colecole. 
Bather, elip tikegh. 
Battle, shugh (shake). 
Battlesnake, shugh opoots; shek opoots. 
Bave, chako clazy. 
Baven, kaka. 

Baw, wake yaka piah; halo piah. 
Bazor, Knife, opitsah. 
Bazor Pish, ona. 

Beach, ko; iskum; mamook kwotl. 
Bead, Bead, kumtuks papah. 
Beal, Beally, delate. 
Beap, mamook cut. 
Bear, kimta. 

Beason (v.), mamoon tumtum. 
Beason (What), (n.). pe kahta. 
Beassemble, wegt klatawa. 
Reassert, weght wawa. 
Bebel, Bebellion, pight kopa tyee. 
BebuJld, weght mamoon house. 
Bebuke, skookum wawa. 
Becall, weght wawa. 
Becede, kilapie. 
Beceive, iskum. 
Becent, chee. 

Beckon, mamook tumtum. 
Becline, mitlite. 
Beoognize, kumtuks. 
Becolleot, klap tum turn. 



B«ooiii]iitind, wawa kloshe. 

Beoonaner, wegbt tolo. 

BttoonstdM, weght mamook tumtum. 

Beoonnt, weght wawa. 

Beoovar, iskum. 

B«or«ation, kloshe time. 

Beotvm, opoots. 

B«oiixiib«iit, mitlite. 

Bed, piL 

Beddan. pUpil. 

Baddlsn, wake siah pil; kahkwa pil. 

Bed Kot, hyas warm pe chako pil. 

Beduoe, mamook keekwulee. 

Be-emlwrk, weght klatawa kopa ^oat. 

Be-enter, weght klatawa kopa house. 

Beflne, mamook delate kloshe. 

Befoxm, chako kloshe. 

Befresli, chako chee. 

Befnnd, kilapie dolla. 

Befnee (n.), cultus ikta. 

Befuse (v.). wawa halo; (if unobliging- 

ly) mamook kwish. 
Begret, sick tumtum. 
BegiUar, kwanesum kahkwa. 
Beject, mahsh. 
Bejoioe, youtl tumtum. 
Belate, To, yiem; wawa. 
BelAtioa, Betatlve, tillikum. 
Beleaee, mahsh; mahsh kow. 
BeliaUe, kloshe; halo nika kwass kopa 

yaka; (I am not afraid of him, or h« 

is reliable). 
Belief, help. 

Believe, mamook help; potlatch help. 
Bellfflon, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 
Bellsh, kloshe kopa lapush. 
Bemain, mitlite. 

Benudnder (Wliat?), kunjih mitlite. 
Benudnder (This le), okoke mitlite. 
Bemarry, weght malieh. 
Bemed7 (n.), kloshe lametsin. 
Bemed7 (v.), mamook kloshe. 
Bemember (To not forget), mitlite kopa 

tumtum; wake kopet kumtuks. 
Bemember (To remember after bavlnff 

forffotten), klap tumtum. 
Bemlt, mahsh. 
Bemoree, sick tumtum. 
Bemote, siah. 

Bemonnt, weght klatawa saghalie. 
Bemove; mahsh, lolo. 
Be&dt mamook kokshut. 
Benewi mamook chee. 
Benowxi, hyas kloshe nem. 
Bepalr, mamook kloshe. 
Bepeal, mamook halo. 
Bepeat, weght wawa. 
Beply, kelapie wawa. 
Beprove, potlatch skookum wawa. 
Beelde, mitlite. 
Beeolnte, skookum tumtum. 
Beeolve, mamook tumtum. 
Best, cultus mitlite. 
Bestanrantf muckamuck house. 
Besnrreot, Beeiirreotlon, get up. 
Betreat (v.), Betnm, Beveree, kelipi; 

Bevlew, mamook tumtum. 

BerlTe, wind kilapie; kilapie wind. 

BIbbOB, le loba. 

Bloe, lice. 

Bloli, halo klahowya; mitlite hiyu Iktas 

pe dolla. 
Bid (Get rid of), mahsh. 
Bide, klatawa kopa kuitan or chikchik. 
Bidlcnle (n.), shem; heehee. 
BidioQle (v.), mamook shem; mamook 

heehee. . 
Bille, callipeen. 
Biflrbt, kloshe. 
Biirbt Band, kloshe lemah. 
Bing*, kwepkweo. 
Bing tlie Bell, mamook tin tin. 
Bipe, piah. 
Blpen, chako piah. 
Bise, C(et Up, mitwhit. 
Biflkf cultus kopa nika; (I will risk it) 

halo nika kwass. 
Biver, chiick; cooley chuck; liver. 
Bead, ooakut; way hut. 
Beam, Klatawa kah. 
Boan Colored, sandelie. 
Boast, mamook la pellah; mamook piah; 

mamook cook. 
Bob. kapswalla. 
Bobm, pil koaten. 
Booki Stcme, hyas stone. 
Booky, hlyu stone mitlite. 
Boe (of nsb), pish eggs; pish lesep. 
Bo|l« kalapie. 

Boot, stick keekwulee kopa illahee. 
Bope, lope. 
Bosary? leshaple. 
Bose (n.), kloshe tupso. 
Bosin» lagome; kull lagome. 
Bot. chako rotten. 
Botven, p'oolie; rotten. 
Bound, lolo; lowullo; (whole; the entire 

of anything). 
Bove, cultus klatawa; cultus cooley. 
Bow (v.), mamook lalahm. 
Bower, man yaka kumtuks mamook 

Bubber Coat, snass coat. 
Bndder, i>oat opoots; ladder. 
Bnde, cultus. 
Bain, mamook halo. 
Bnm, lum; whiskey. 
Bnmor, cultus wawa. 
Bnn, hyak cooley. 
Bnn Away, kapswalla klatawa. 
Bnptnre, kokshut. 
Bust, pil ikta kopa chikamin. 

Sabbath, Snnday, Sante. 

Sable, mink. 

Saokf le sak. 

Sacrament, Jesus yaka muckamuck; 

sacramenta; saklema. 
Saored, kloshe kopa saghalie tyee. 
Sady sick tumtum. 
Saddle, fa. sell. 

Saddle KonsingSy pe pishemo. 
Safe, kloshe. 
Sail, sail. . } 



Bailor, shipman. 

Balnt, Christian, lesai; sai before the 
names of men, except those which be- 

f;iu with vowels; salt before those of 
emales and nouns which begin, with 

Sainta, lesai. 
Saint John, Sai Sha. 
Bal—man, mahkook man. 
BaUal BwriM, sallal olallie. 
Salmon, salmon. 
Salt, salt. 
Sama, kahkwa. 
Sand, pblallie; polallie illahee; tenas 

stone kahkwa polallie. 
Sangnine, skookum tumtum. 
Sap, chuck kopa stick. 
Sasli, la sanjel; belt. 
Satan, lejaub; diaub. 
Satanic, kahkwa lejaub. 
Satiaflad (Z am), kloshe kopa nika. 
Saturday, taghum sun. 
BuvtLgm, Wild, old pashion; siwash. 
Sava, iskum. 

Saw, la gwin; la scie; lasee. 
Sa7, to, wawa; wanwau; nah. 
Scales, ikta kopa mamook till. 
Scant, Scanty, wake hiyu. 
Scarce, wake hiyu. 
Scarf, hyas sail kopa ^ neck. 
Scare, mamook kwass. 
Scatter, mahsh konoway kah. 
Scent (n.)» humn. 
Scent (v.), mamook humn. 
Scholar,* tenas kopa school; school tenas 
Schooner, mokst stick ship. 
Sdasore, le seezo; sezo. 
Scold, skookum wawa. 
Scream, hyas skookum cly. 
Scripture, Bible, saghalie tyee yaka book 

or pa^ah. 
Scythe, hyas knife kopa hay; youtlkut 

Sea, salt chuck; sea. 
Seal, olhiyu; siwash cosho. 
Second, mokst. 
Secret, ipsoot. 
Secnre, kloshe. 
Sednce» kapswalla. 
See, to, nanitsh. 
Seek, mamook hunt; klatawa pe tikegh 

Seise, iskum. 
Seldom, wake hiyu. 
Select, iskum ikta mika tikegh. 
Sell, to, mahsh mahkook. (Eells says. 

*'Mahsh is now used, to sell, and 

huyhuy to trade and exchange^ 

mahkook, to buy.) 
Send, mahsh. 
Senior, elip. 
Sense, kumtuks; latet. 
Separate (adj.), huloima. 
Separate (v.), mamook cut. 
Serious, wake heehee. 
Sermon, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 
Serpent, oluk; snake. 
Servant, kahkwa elite. 

Senre, mamook. 

Seven, sinamoxt; sinamokst. ^ 

Seventeen, tahtlum pe sinamokst^ 

Seventy, sinamokst tahtlum. 

Several, tenas hiyu. 

Sew, to, mamook t4pshin; mamook sew. 

Shackle, mamook kow; mahsh chikamin 
kopa yaka lemah. 

Shake, to, toto; hullel. 

Shaker ("A religious sect which, arose 
on Puget Sound about 1882 Bon^ewhat 
allied in principle to the Messiah 
craze; and ytrhicl; took its name from 
the rapid, nervous shaking of its fol- 
lowers." — Kells.) 

Shall, alki; by by; winapie. 

Shallow, wake keekwulee. 

Shame, shem. 

Shameless, halo shem; halo kumtuks 

Share (Zt is my), okoke nikas; okoke 
kopa nika. 

Shark, shark; hyas kamooks pi^h. 

ShMifPt yahkisilth; sharp; tsish; 
pahkisilth; iakesilh. 

Sharpen, to, mamook tsish. 

Shatter, mamook kokshut. 

She, Ker, yahka; yaka. 

9heep, le mooto; lumm^o. 

Sheet, sail. 

Shell IConey (the small sise), coopcoop; 
allekacheek. (The large) hykwa; 

Shingle, lebahdo. 

Shine (v.), mamook kloshe. 

Shinlttff, tbwagh. 

Ship, ship. 

Shir^ shut 

Shoal, wake keekwulee. 

Shoes, shoes; shush; tkitlipa. 

Enioot, to, mamook poo. 

Shore, illahee. 

Shore (Towards), matline. 

Short, yuteskut; halo long. 

Shortly, alkie; winapie. 

Shot, shot; tenas le bal; kalitan. . 

Shot Pouch, kalitan lesac; tsolepat. 

Shoulders, okchok. 

Shout, to, hyas wawa. 

Shov^ la pell. 

Shower, tenas snass. 

Shriek, skookum wawa. 

Eniudder, kwass pe shake. 

Shut, to, ikpooie; mamook ikpooie. 

Shy, kwass. 

Sii^ sick; etsitsa. 

Sicken, mamook sick. 

Sickly, tenas sick. 

Side, side; (this side, yukwa; that side, 

Sift, to, toto. 

Sigh, tenas cly. 

Sightless, halo nanitch; blind. 

Sign, kahkwa picture. 

Silence (n.), halo noise. 

Silence (v., imp.), kopet noise; howh. 

Silk, la sway; lasoy; laswa; slik cloth; 
skookum sail. 



Sillj, kahkwa pelton. 

Silver, tkope chikamin; tkope dolla. 

Similar, kahkwa. 

Simmer, tenas liplip. 

Simply, kopet. 

Sin, Sinfnl, mesachie; lepeshe. 

Since, kimta. 

Sincere, delate. 

Sing", to, shantie. 

Sinffle, kopet ikt. 

Sink (to), mahsh keekwulee; (it sinks) 

klatawa keekwulee; klip. 
Sinner, mesachie tillikum. 
Sip, muokamuck chuck. 
Simp, melass; silup. 
Sister, kahpho (if older than the 

speaker) ; elip ats. 
Sisterly, kahkwa ats. 
Sit, to, Qiitlite. 
Six, taghum; tohum. 
Sixteen, tahtlum pe taghum. 
Sixty-one, taghum tahtlum pe ikt. 
Sise (wliat), kunjih hyas. 
Skeptic, man yaka halo iskum saghalie 

tyee yaka wawa. 
Skill, kumtuks mamook. 
Skin, skin. 

Skull, bone kopa seahost (point to it). 
Sknnk, hum opoots; peshes, piupiu; 

Sky, koosagh; saghalie; ekusah. 
Slab, cultus laplash. 
Slander, mesachie wawa; kliminawhit 

Slap, mamook kokshut. 
Slave, elite: mlstchlmas; mistshimus. 
Slay^ mamook m^moluse. 
Sl«Ci^f mooHum ; ?ilcep. 
Sleepless^ halo mooi^um; halo sleep. 
81«ep7T tlkcijh moosum; tikegh sleep. 
Elel^ht at hand, tarn a nous. 
Slight (adj.), tenas. 
filing' (vO, tnflhsh, 

Sllm^ (n-l, tenDE lope kopa mahsh stone. 
SUp, wake .siah fall down. 
Slippery, cultus; loholoh. 
Slow, Slowly, klahwa; wake hyak. 
Slut, klootchman kamooks. 
Sly, ipsoot. 
Small, tenas. 
Smell, a,vhumm. 
Smile, tenas heehee. 
Smite, niamook kokshut. 
Smoke (ti-)* smoke. 
Smoke (v.), mamook smoke. 
SmokT (very), hiyu smoke. 
Smooth, kloshe. 
Snake, oluk; wahpoos; snake. 
Snare, Trap, lapeage; kwalta. 
Snow, snow; cole snass. 
So, kahkWa. 

Soak, miilite kopa chuck. 
Soap, soap. 
Soft, klix^mln. 
Soil, illahee. 
Soldiers, sogers. 
Solely, kopet. 
Solicit, wawa; ask. 

Solitary, kopet ikt. 

Some, tenas hiyu; sitkum. 

Sometimes, tenas hiyu times. 

Somebody, ikt man; klonas klaksta. 

Son, tenas. 

Soon, alki. 

Sorcerer, tamahnous man. 

Sore, sick. ^ 

Sorrel Colored, a sorrel borse, le blau: 
pil; pil kuitan. 

Sorry, Sorrow, sick tumtum. 

Sonl, tumtum; sele. 

Sound, noise; latlah. 

Soup, lasup; liplip muckamuck. 

Sour, kwates; sour. 

South, kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun. 

Sow (n.), klootchman cosho. 

Sow (v.), ipahsh. 

Spade, la pell. 

Spanish flies, piah lametsin. 

Spark, tenas plah. 

Sparrow, tenas kalakala. 

Speak, to, wawa. 

Speaker, wawa man; man yaka kumtuks 

Spectacles, , glass seahost; dolla seahost « 
lakit seahost. 

Speed, speedy, hyak. 

Spend, mahsh. 

Haider, skookum (when spoken of as a 

Spill, to, wagh; mahsh. 

Spine^ bone kopa back. 

Spirit, tumtum; life. 

Spirits, tamahnous. 

Spirits, liim; whiskey. 

Spit, mahsh lapush chuck; mamook toh. 

Splendid, hyas kloshe. 

Split, to, mamook tsugh; mamook kok- 
shut; w$igh; tsugh. 

Split (passive), kokshut; chako kokshut; 
chako tsugh. 

Spoil, mamook spoil; mamook mesachie; 
mamool% cultas. 

Spoil (pai^slve), spoil; chako spoil; puli. 

Spoon, spoon. 

Sport, heehee. 

Spotted, tisum; le kye. 

Spring (v.), sopen; jump. 

Bprtnc, (i>.), tenas waum illahee. 

Spurs, le see bio. 

Spy, nanitch ^skookum. 

Squall, skookum wind pe snass. 

Sauaw, Siwash klootchman. 

Squeal, wawa kahkwa cosho. 

Saueeze, Itwutl. 

Sauirrel, skwiskwis; kwiskwis. 

Stab, to, klemahun; mamook cut; mam- 
ook kokshut kopa knife. 

Stable, kuitan house. 

Stag, man mowitch. 

Stage, ch&chik; tsiktsik. 

Stagger, l^latawa kahkwa pahtlum man. 

Stale, oletnan. 

Stallion, man kuitan; yaka mitlite stone; 
stud horse. 

Stamps (postage), tzum seahost. 

Stand, to, mitwhit. 



Stan, tsiltsil; chilcbil. 

Stare, skookum nanitch. 

Start, klatawa; chee klatawa. 

State, hyas illahee. 

Stay, to, mitlite. 

Steady, (be), kloshe nanitch. 

Steal, to, kaps walla; kapsualla. 

Steam, smoke. 

Steamer, piah ship; steamer; steamboat. 

Steel, chikamin; 'piah chikamin. 

Steer, tenas man moosmoos. 

Stench, humm; piuplu. 

Stem, opoots. 

Stew, mamook lipllp; lakanim. 

Stick, a, (n.), stick. 

Stiok, (v.), mamook cut; m&mook kwotl. 

Still, (l»e), kloshe kopet. 

Still, (adj.), kloshe. 

Stinir, (n.), opoots klemahun. 

Stink, a, piupiu; humm. 

Stir, tenas klatawa. 

Stiftnp, sitlay. 

Stookinire, stocken; kushis. 

Stomaoli, Belly; yakwahtin. 

Stone, stone. 

Stony, kahkwa stone; stone mitlite. 

Stooped, kaulkek; lah. 

Stop, (aotiTe), mamook kopet; ikpooie; 

Stop, to, (Imp.), kopet. 
Store, mahkook house. 
Storekeeper, mahkook man. 
Storm, (wind), hiyu wind; (rain), hiyu 

Story, enkahnam; wawa; yiem. 
Stove, stob; stove. 
Straiffbt, delate, or delet; sipah. 
Straighten, mamook delate. 
Stranare, huloima. 
Strang'er, huloima tiUikum. 
Strap, (n.), skin lope. 
Straps (v.), mamook kow. 
Strawberries, amote; ahmoteh. 
Stray, cultus klatawa; klatawa kah. 
Stream, chuck; cooley chuck. 
Street, ooakut kopa town. 
Strike, mamook kokshut. 
String, tenas lope. 
Stripe, tzum. 

Strive, mamook skookum. 
Stroll, cultus klatawa; cultus cooley. 
Strong, skookum. 
Stronflflyi kahkwa skookum. 
Student, school tenas; tenas kopa school. 
Study, mamook tumtum kopa papah or 

book. ^ 

Stnpendone, delate hyas. 
Stupid, halo latet; kahkwa pel ton. 
Stupor, kahkwa mlmoluse. 
Sturgeon, stutchun. 
Subdue, Subject, tolo; kuon. 
Sublime, hyas kloshe. 
Submerge, mahsh keekwulee kopa chuck. 
Submit, kopet. 
Subscribe, mamook tzum. 
SubeeQuent, kimta. 
Subsistence, muckamuck. 
Subtract, mamook haul. 

i, tolo. 
Suck, kahkwa. 
Suck, muckamuck. 
Sucker, katake. 
Sudden, Suddenly, hyak. 
Sugar, shuga; le sook; shugah; sbukwa. 
Sugary, kahkwa shuga. 
Suicide (to commit), mamook mimoluse 

yaka self. 
Suitable, kloshe. 
Sulky, Sullen, solleks. 
Sum, konoway. 
Summer, waum illahee. 
Summon, wawa kloshe yaka chako. 
Sun, sun; otelagh. 
Sunday, Sunday; Sante. 
Sunliffbt, sun yaka light. 
Sunrise, tenas sun; get up sun. 
Sunset, tenas polaklie; klip sun. 
Sup, Supper, muckamuck kopa ' tenas 

Superb, hyas kloshe. 
Superior, elip kloshe. 
Supervise, kloshe nanitch. 
Supplant, tlkop ooakut. (St. O.),. To 

cut one's road). 
Support, kloshe nanitch; Potlatch mucka- 
muck pe konoway iktas. 
Suppose, spose; pos. 
Supreme, elip hyas kopa konoway. 
Sure, delate; delate kumtuks. 
Surffeon, doctin. 

Surmise, mamook tumtum; tumtum. 
Surprise, mamook tumtum; ikta okoke. 
Surrender, kopet. 
Survey, mamook tzum illahee. 
Survivor, man halo mimoluse. 
Suspect, (Z), nika tumtum kahkwa; pe 

halo nika delate kumtuks. 
Swallow, (n.), tenas kalakala. 
Swallow, (v.), muckamuck. 
Swan, kahloke; kahloken; cocumb; 

ouwucheh; keluk. 
Swap, huyhuy. 

Swear, wawa mesachie; mamook swear. 
Sweat, chuck kopa skin. 
Sweep, to, mamook blobm. 
Sweet, tsee, kahkwa shuga. 
Sweetheart, (my), nika tenas klpotch- 

man, or tenas man. 
Swell, chako hyas. 
Swift, hyak. 

Swift water, skookum chuck. 
Swim, sitshum; mamook swim. 
Swine, cosho. 
Swinff, hang. 
Sympathy, sick tumtum kunamokst. 

Table, la tahb. 

Tacks, tenas nails; tenas lecloo. 

Tail, opoots. 

Take, to, Iskum. 

Take care, kloshs nanitch. 

Take off, or out, mamook haul; mamook 

klah; mamook klak; mahsh. 
Talk, wawa. 
TalkativCr hiyu wawa. 



TalSi or Story, wawa; ylem; ehkahnam. 
Tall, hyas longr. 
Tallow, moosmoos glease. 
Tamboaxliie or Indian Drum, pompom. 
Tamo, (adj.), halo wild; halo lemolo; 

Tame, (v.), mamook kwann. 
Tamo, Kwass. (Gibbs.) 
Tant mamook kloshe skin; mahsh yakso 

kopa skin. 
Tap, tenas kokshut. " > 
Tart, tenas sour; tenas kWates. 
Taakf mamook. 
Taste, tenas muckamuck. 
Tattle, cultus wawa; yiem. 
Tavern, muckamuck house. 
Tea, tea. 
Teaoli, to, mamook kumtuks ; mamook 

Tear, (n.), chuck kopa seahost. 
Teat, Tatoosh. 
Tedious, till; long. 
Teetotaler, ma^ yaka halo kumtuks 

muckamuck Whiskey op luin. 
Teeth, la tah; teeth; ledan; letai; ianes; 

Tell, to, wawa; ylem. 
Temple, hyas church house. 
Tempt, tikegh haul kopa mesachie. 
Ten, tahtlum; tahtle^um. 
Tend, kloshe nanitch. 
Tender, wake kull; waka skookum. 
Tent, sail house. 
Term, (of school) ^ kwahta. 
Terrible, Terror, delate hyas mesachie. 
Territory, hyas illahee. 
Testament, saghalie tyee yaka papah or 

book. ^ 

Testioles, stone, bone. 
Testimony, wawa kOpa court. 
Testify, wawa kopa court; delate yiem. 
Than, kopa. 

Thanks, Thankfnl, Thank yon, mahsie. 
That, okoke. 
That way, yahwa. 
Thaw, (water), chako chuck; (land), 

chako klimmin. 
The, sometimes okoke is used, a very 

definite the, althost eqaal to that. 
Thee, mika. 
Theft, kapswalla. 

Their, Theirs, klaska; kopa klaska. 
Them, klaska. 
Themselves* klaska self. 
Theology, saghalie tyee yaka wawa. 
There, yahwa; kopa. 
Thereabout, wake siah- yahwa. 
They, klaska. 

Thiok, (as mousses), pitlilh; pitlih. 
Thief, kapswalla man; tillikum, yaka 

kumtuks kapswalla: 
Thigh, lapea yahwa; (pointinf? to it). 
Thin, (as a board), pewahte; tewhate; 

iakesilh; pchih;^pewhattie. 
Thine, mika. 
Thing, ikta; iktah. 
Things, iktas. 
Thiaky tumtum; mamook tumium; pit- 

Third, klone. 
Thintyy olo kopa chuck. 
Thirteen, tahtlum pe klone. 
Thirty, klone tahtlum. 
TUrty-one, klone tahtlum pe ikt. 
This, okoke; ok. 
This way, yukwa. 
•TMther, yahwa. 
Thorn, needle kopa stibk. 
Thorongh, delate. 
^ose, okoke. 
Thou, thy, thine, mika. 
Thought, tumtum. 
Thoughtless, halo tumtum. 
Thousand, thousand; tahtlum tukamook; 

Tl^rash, mamook pat. 
Thread, klapite, hwilom. 
Threat, mamook kwass. 
Three, klone. 
Throng, hiyu tillikums. 
Trough, (by means of), kopa. 
Th^row, Thrust, Throw away, mahsh. 
Tliumb, lemah (pointing to it). 
Thunder, skookum noise kopa saghalie. 
Thursday, lakit sun. 
Thus, kahkwa. 
Thyself, mika self. 
Tide, chuck chako pe klatawa. 
Tie, (v.), mamook kow. 
TXgW, hyas pishpish. 
•Tiirht, skookum; kwutl. 
Timber, stick. 
Timid, kwass. 

Tiv, Tinware, malah; tin; ma tah. 
Tint, tzum. 
Tip, to, lagh. 
Tire, (n.), chikamin mitlite kopa chik- 

Tired, till. 
To, towards, kopa. 

Tobacco, bacca; kinootl; kinoos; kimoolth 
Tobacco, bacca; kinootl; kinoos; kln- 

Today, okoke sun. 
Together, kunamokst. 
ToU, mamook. 
To^b, mimoluse illahee. 
Tomorrow, tomolla. 
Tongue, la lang. 
T<^iight, okoke polakalie. 
Too, kunamokst. 
Toothache, sick kopa tooth, or ledan; or 

To|>, (adj.), saghalie. 
Tom, kokshut; tlah tlah. 
ToWd, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Tops, mahsh. 
Total, konoway. 
Toiigh, skookum; kull. 
Tow, mamook haul. 
Toward, kopa. 
Towel, sail yoka mamook dly; seahost 

pe lemah. 
Track, tzum kah. 
Trade, huyhuy. 
Tradesman, mahkook man. 



Tradition, ahnkuttie tillikums klaska 

Tndl, ooakut; wayhut; tenas ooakut. 
Tnunp, klatawa kopa lapea. 
Tzwnsfer, lolo. 

TraasgxeMor, mesachie man. 
Translate, mamook cooley kopa huloima 

Transmit, mahsh; send. 
Trap, la piege; trap; la peage; kwalta. 
Trasli, cultus iktas. , 

Travel, klatawa; cooley. 
Traveler, man yaka hiyu cooley. 
Treaolierons, hyas tseepie; mesachie. 
Treasnrer, tilllkum yaka kloshe nanitch 

Ttead, klatawa. 
Tree, stick. 

Tree, fallen, whim stick. 
Tremble, sliake, hullel; hulul. 
Tribe, lalane. 
Trick, tseepie mamook. 
Trim (v.), mamook cut; mamook kloshe. 
Trinity, saghalie tyee; (nesjka papa, pe 

yaka tenas Jesus) pe yaka Holy Spirit) 

Trot, to, tehteh. 
Trouble (n.). trouble. 
Trouble (v.), mamook trouble; mamook 

till tumtum. 
Troweere, sakolleks. 
Trout, trout; tenas fish; tzum salmon; 

tenas salmon. 
True, delate; halo kliminawhit. 
Truth, delate wawa. 
Trunk, lacasset. 
Tub, tamolitsh. 
Tuesday, mokst sun. 
Turn, kilapie; howh. 
Turning, lahlah. 
Turnip, turnip; lenawo; lamooow. 
Twelve, tahtlum pe mokst. 
Twenty, mokst tahtlum. 
Twenty-one, mokst tahtlum pe ikt. 
Twiliffbt, tenas polaklie. 
Twine, tenas lope: klapite. 
Twist, mamook kilapie (showing how). 
Two, twice, mokst. 
Tyro, halo kumtuks. 


Vdder, totoosh or tatoosh. 

XTiTiyf cultus; wake toketie. 

Vltimate, kimta; halo huloima. 

innbreUa, tenas sail house kopa snass. 

XTnable, wake skookum; howkwutl; 

Vbaocustomed, Unacquainted, halo kum- 

Uaacauired, halo iskum. 

XTnaware, halo kumtuks. 

XTnappeased, halo chako kloshe tumtum. 

Uabelief, halo iskum kopa tumtum. 

Xrnblnd, mahsh kow. 

UnceasiniTf kwanesum. 

XTncbristian, halo kahkwa Jesus. 

Uncivilized, wild. 

XTncle, tot; uncle; papa or mama yaka 

ow; ehee. 
Unclean, hiyu mesachie mitllte. 
unconscious, kahkwa mimoluse. 
Uncork, mamook open. 
Under, keekwulee; keekwillie. 
Understand, to, kumtuks. 
Undoubted, delate. 
Undress, mahsh iktas. 
Undyingr, halo mimoluse. 
UACQual, wake kahkwa. 
Unexpected (to me), nika tumtum halo 

yaka chako kahkwa. 
Unexplored, halo klaksta nanitch. 
UAfasten, mahsh kow. 
unfavorable, halo kloshe. 
Unflnisbed, halo kopet. 
UnflTodly, mesachie. 
Unhappy, sick tumtum. 
UnintelUflrible, halo kumtuks. 
Ubit, ikt. 
Unite, mamook join; mamook kunamokst; 

chako kunamokst. 
Universal, konoway. 

Universe, konoway illahee konoway kalu 
Unjust, wake delate. 
Unkind, wake kloshe. 
Unknown, halo kumtuks. 
Unlawful, wake kloshe kopa law. 
Unload, mahsh iktas. 
Unlock, mamook halo lekleh. 
xmmeanlnsTi cultus; pelton. 
Unmentionable, halo. wawa. 
Unnoticed, halo nanitch. 
Unpopular, konoway tillikums halo 

tikegh kahkwa. 
Uhresolved, halo tumtum. 
Unsalable, wake kloshe kopa mahkook. 
Untamed, lemolo; wild. 
Uhtanned, halo kloshe. 
Uhtie, to, mahsh kow; mamook stoh. 
Unto, kopa. 
Untold, halo wawa. 
Untrue, kliminawhit. 
Unturned, halo kilapie. 
Uhusual, huloima. 
Unwillln^r, halo tikegh. 
Unwind, mamook kilapie. 
Un-vHse, pelton. 
Unwholesome, wake kloshe. 
Unworthy, halo kloshe; wake kloshe; 

Up, saghalie. 
Upbraid, cultus wawa. 
Upheave, mahsh kopa saghalie. 
Uphold, mamook help; mamook skookum. 
Upland, saghalie illahee. 
Upon, saghalie kopa. 
Upper, Uppermost, elip saghalie. 
Upright, delate; klosh; mitwhit. 
Upset, Upside Down, kelipi; kilapie. 
Upward, saghalie. 
Urgre, skookum wawa. 
Urinate, mahsh chuck. 
Us, nesika. 

Use, mamook; use; mamook use. 
Useful, kloshe. 
Useles, cultus. 
Usual, kahkwa kwanesum. . 



VtonsU, ikta. 

▼aoantf halo. 

▼acolnate, mahsh lametsin kopa lemah 

yaka kloshe kopa smallpox. 
▼Mrabond, cultus tilUkum. 
▼eU, sail kopa seahost. 
▼aln, youth; proud. 
▼aliant, skookum tumtum. 
▼allse, tenas lacasset. 
▼alley, kloshe illahee; coulee. 
▼anoouvar, kitsothot; kitsotkwa. 
▼anlsli, chako halo. 
▼ary, mamook huloima. 
▼arj (passive), chako huloima. 
▼ast, hyas. 

▼eal, tenas moosmoos yaka itlwillie. 
▼eg^italilM, konoway muckamuck chako 

kopa Illahee. 
▼eliement, skookum. 
▼ehlcle, chikchik. 

▼•la, kah pilpil mitlite (pointing to it), 
▼•nereal, the, piah sick. 
▼eiuraaaoe, hyas solleks. 
▼enlson, mowitsh. 
▼exlly, delate. 
▼ermine, inapoo. 
▼ery, hyas. 

▼ery Small, hyas tenas. 
▼eesel, ship. 
▼est, la ween; la west. 
▼loe, mesachie. 
▼lolnlty, wake siah. 
▼lotor, tillikum yaka tolo. 
▼lotory, tolo. 
▼lotnals, muckamuck. 
▼lew, nanitch. 
▼IffU, wake moosum. 
▼Ifflls (the), levigil; pishil. 
▼lie, mesachie. 
▼UlaflT^f tonas town. 
▼main, mesachie tillikum. 
▼loUn, tin tin. 
▼Ine, stick; youtlkut tupso; stick 

kahkwa lope. 
▼lolent, skookum. 
▼lolet, kloshe tupso. 
▼Iper, tenas oluk. 
▼Irgin, tenas klootchman; klootchman 

halo kumtuks man; haloman. 
▼Irtoons, kloshe. 
▼Islon, nanitch. 
▼Islt, klatawa pe nanitch. 
▼oloe, wawa. 
▼oloano, piah mountain. 
▼omit, to, wagh; mahsh muckumuck; 

muckamuck kilaple. 
▼ote, mamook vote. 
▼oyaffe, klatawa kopa boat or ship. 

Wade, klatawa kopa lapea k,opa chuck. 

Waff, heehee man. 

Waffon, chikchik; tsiktsik. 

Wall, hiyu cly. 

Walt, mitlite; winapie. 

Wake, halo sleep; halo moosum. 

Waken, mamook gel up. 

Walk, klatawa kopa lapea. 

Wall, skookum kulaghan; skookum 

Walts, tanse. 

Wander, to, cultus klatawa; tsolo. 
Want, to, tikegh. 
War, pight. 

Warble, sing kahkwa kalakala. 
Warm, waum. 
Warning, potlatch kumtuks kopa 

mesachie; mamook kumtuks kopa 

Warrior, sogers; pight tillikum. 
Wash, to, mamook wash. 
Wasp, andialh. 

Waste, cultus lost; cultus mahsh. 
Watob (n.), tiktik; watch. 
Watcli (v.), kloshe nanitch. 
Watchman, man yaka kwanesum kioshe 

Water, chuck. 
Waterfall, tumwater. 
Waterspout, chuck ooakut. 
Waver, wake skookum. 
Waves, hiyu sea; chuck chako solleks. 
Way, ooakut; wayhut. 
We, nesika. 

Weak, wake skookum; halo skookum. 
Wear, mitlite. 
Weary, till. 
WeddlnfTi pialieh. 
Wednesday, klone sun. 
Weed, cultus tupso. 
Week, Sunday; week. 
Weep, cly. 

Welffh, to, mamook till. 
Welcome (to you), kloshe tumtum mika 

Well then, abba. 
WeU (n.), tlwop. 
Went, klatawa. 
West, kah sun klatawa. 
Wet, pahtl chuck; chuck mitlite. 
Whale, ehkolie; ehkole; kwahnice; kwad- 

dis; whale. 
What, ikta; iktah. 
What Is the matter (If slok), kah mika 

Wheat, sapolill; lewhet: lebley. 
Wheel, chikchik: tsiktsik. 
When, kansih; kunjih. 
Whence, kah. 
Where, kah. 
Whet, mamook sharp. 
Which, klaksta. 
Whine, wawa kahkwa cly. 
Whip, le whet: lawhip. 
Whiskey, whiskey; lum. 
Whisper, tenas wawa (showing how): 

ipsoot wawa. 
Whistle, mamook wind kopa lapush. 
White, tkope. 
Whiten, mamook tkope. 
Whitewash, mamook pent tkope. 
Who, klaksta. 

Whole, konoway; lowuUo; lolo. 
Whose, klaksta. 



WI17, pe kahta; kahta. 

Wicked, mesahchie; mesachie; peshak. 

Wide, klukulb; halakl. 

WldoWf klootchman yaka man mimoluse. 

Wlf«y klootchman; oquackakull. 

WUd, le molo; wild. 

WUd Cat, hyas plshpish; siwash pish- 

pish;; kwalas. 
Wild. Onions, kalaka. 
Will, The, tumtum. 
Willow, eena stick. 
Win, To, tolo. 
Wind, wind. 

Wind Instrument, tuttut; tuletule. 
Wind7, hlyu wind. 
Wine, wine. 

Winff, kalakala yaka lemah, tepeh. 
Wink, mamook seahost. 
Winnow, mamook toto. 
Winter, cole illahee. 
Wintry, kahkwa cole illahee. 
Wipe, to, mamook dly; klakwun. . 
Wire, chikamln lope. 
Wisdom, Wise, kumtuks. 
Wtak, to, tikegh. 
Witoli, tamahnous. 
With, kunamokst; kopa. 
Withdraw, mamook kilapie. 
Without (not any), halo. 
Without (not in), klahanie. 
Wolf, leloo; wolf. 
Wolf (Prairie), talapus. 
Woman, klootchman. 
Womanly, kahkwa klootchman. 
Woman (old), lammieh; lummieh. 
Womb, lesak kopa klootchman kah tenas 

mitlite; belly. 
Wonder, mamook tumtum. 
Woo, hyas tikegh. 
Wood, Wooden, stick. 
Wool, sheep yaka tupso, lummeto yakso. 
Woolen Caps, latuk. 
Word, wawa. 

Work, to, mamook. 

World, konoway okoke Illahee. 

Worn out, oleman; cultus. 

Worry, sick tumtum. 

Worship, wawa kopa saghalie tyea 

Worse, elip mesachie; kimtah klosh. 

Worst, elip mesachie kopa konoway. 

Worthless, cultus. 

Worthy, kloshe. 

Wound, to, mamook, cut; mamook kwotl; 

Wrap, mamook kow. 
Wrestle, mamook pight. 
Wretched, hyas sick tumtum. 
Wrist, lemah yahwa (point to it). 
Writing, tzum. 
Write, to, mamook tzum; mamook peb- 

Writer, tzum man. 
WtonflTf wake kloshe. 

Tankee, Boston man. 

Tard, ikt stick. 

Tawn, tikegh moosum. 

Tear, ikt cole. 

Team, hyas tikegh. 

Tell, hyas skooknm wawa. 

Tellow, kawkawak. 

Telp, kamooks wawa. 

Tes, nawitka; ahha. 

Tes, indeed, nawitka. 

Testerday, tahlkie sun. 

Testemiffht, tahlkie polaklie. 

Tield, kopet. 

Tender, yahwa. 

Tou, Tour (if slnflTtUar), mika. 

Tou, your (if plural), mesika. 

Tours, mika; kopa mika; mikas. 

TouniTf tenas. 

Tounger, elip tenas. 

YcffULgmut, elip tenas kopa konoway. 

Tourself, mika self. 

Page 1, column 1, line 3. from bottom, for specific, read q^cial. 
Paige 24, column 1, line 12, from top, for pues, read puis. 
Page 39, column 2, line 3, from top, for respelled word, read kloochman. 
Page 46, column 1, line 27. from bottom, for allihee, read illihee. 

Note. — Suggestions and criticism Invited. George C. Shaw, 115 32nd Ave., Seattle 

The oaiy nmam wfcjr aay ■ 




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