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41 



I 



•* 



i. 






CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE. 



CONDUCTED BY 



AgMBgaiL <S^IfimSlT» iE)«B« 



• •- • 






•• 



• • 



. • yor. v; * 

vbjK JHF^.^EAR 1827. 






— — - Bjr manifetUtion of the truth, commending ourselret to every man's 
c o oic i encc in the light of God.^3 Cor. iv. 2. 



PHILADKLPM!A: 

PUBURHTD BT 

A.raiLET. N.E. CORNER OF CHESNUT AND FOURTH OT«e.^.-^S. 

CiMfJk 4- HMser, Printers, :0 Carter's AUty. 




• ••• 



• » < 



• * « 



• • •» 



PREFACE. 



Permttteil bj the goodness of God to complete and present U> its rea- 
ders the fifth volume of the Christian Advocate, the Editor desires to 
acknowledge that goodness with lively gratitude ; and to oiler his thanks 
to those whose patronage and approbation have sustained and encouraged 
him in his arduous ocQipation. 

Id the Prospectus of this work, a tythe of its '* clear income'' was 
pledged to the charities of the church. This pledge has caused the Editor 
no small embarrassment, from which he believes it to be both his privi- 
l^e and his duty to free himself for the future. When the Prospectus 
was offered to the publick, it was confidently expected by the gentlemen 
who then had the disposal of the work, that tne Cnristian Advocate would 
receive the ready and united patronage of the Presbyterian church at 
large ; and that a general subscription would be greatly promoted, by the 
consideration that every subscriber would not only benefit himselif, but 
contribute to the fond of Christian charity. It is scarcely necessary to 
state, that the expectations then entertained have not been realized. At 
the close of the nrst year, th^, ^lumber M Subscribers was less than eight 
hundred ; and the pecuniary receipts for the work were but a little more 
than sufficient to oefray One e> p^.nse of printing and distribution. Since 
that period, there has beeti a constant, bat very gradual increase of sub- 
scribers — not quite a hundred i? a year, on an averi^e : so that the pre- 
sent number is between a tbous^iud and eleven hundred, and the profits 
of the publication, a little,'and but a little, exceed a thousand dollars an- 
nually. This frank and fair statement is made, with a view to correct 
the error, which many of the friends of the Christian Advocate are known 
t» have entertained, that its subscription list has constantly been large, 
and that the income from it has, in consequence, been very consideratde. 
It is also made to show that the course which the Editor proposes to 
take in time to come, is right and reasonable. 

No opinion shall be given, as to the causes which have occasioned that 
want of patronage, which was calculated on when the Prospectus of this 
Miscellany was sent abroad, and which formed the basis of the pledee 
in question. The Editor will only remark, that he knows not that the 
pledge has been the means of obtaining a single subscriber; and that 
as his patrona^, small as it is, has been constantly increasing, he flatters 
himself that his own incompetency, or want of fidelity, cannot be the sole 
cause that it has not been greater.* He is, at any rate, conscious of hav- 
ing laboared with painful and unceasing assiduity, and therefore believes, 
that inasmuch as the profits of the work have never even approximated 
the amount in expectation of which the pledge was given, he is not 
boond to contiofie to act under it. Before ne was engaged, or looked to, 
IS the condactor of the work, it was said in conversation, by those who 
had the management of the concern, that fifteen hundred doWats ^t 
innam ought to be oflfered as a salary, to a competent Editor. ^qV. \^% 



ir PBEFACE. 

« 

half of this sum has been annually received by the present Editor; and 
some of his friends have suggested, that as the compensation of an Editor 
is always considered as among the necessary expenses of every periodical 
work, there has in fact been no '* clear income'' from the Christian Advo- 
cate ; and therefore, by the terms of the pledge itself, there has been no obli- 
gation to give an^ thing to the charities of the church. To this suggestion, 
however, the Editor has not yielded ; but has, for five successive years, 
devoted, or made provision for devoting to charity, the tythe of his pro- 
fits; notwithstanding the scanty remainder that has been left to him- 
self. In this course, 'however, he does not think that any principle of 
equity requires him to persist, after making this publick statement. The 
avails of the Christian Advocate, small as tney are, form by far the larger 

Ert of his whole income-H>n which he must rel^ for the support of his 
m\j, and for aiding the numerous charitable institutions and designs 
to which he is expected and solicited to contribute ; and to which, in |)ropor- 
tion to his means, he regards it both as a sacred duty and a hirii privilege 
to afford pecuniary assistance. But it has been in no slight degree mor- 
tifying to him, that after ty thing almost the whole of his income, and re- 
ducing his personal and family expenses to narrower limits than those to 
which he had been accustomed, he has still been obliged to appear as a 
parsimonious contributor to several important objects. He has feared 
that his character, as well as his feelings, might suffer from this cause. 
He has tlierefore judged it to be his duty to disembarrass himself from 
a pledge, which some have thought has never as yet been binding, and 
which he hopes all will think may justly be considered as no longer obli- 
gatory. . ^^ 

The Editor feels constrafrticsl rte takp*tH«Jj^c%6e3it,^pportunity to felici- 
tate the friends of religion, tm-thre^entvfvvQyff^Ce to the extension of 
the Redeemer^ kingdom, which^haTe Ifee^^wijUiessed in various parts of 
the world, and particularly in ouf.Wnr^^io^ti'Jjri within the year which is 
now closing, in France, Germac^y/antl ^u^s^a*, the cause of evangelical 
pietj^, in opposition to infidelibr 4i]pl-*^[iel'f(iifion; has certainly and very 
sensibly beeti gaining ground. rn*Britain,'t&eP€*has been an increase of 
all those benevolent and Christian efforts, by which the country of our an- 
cestors has, for thirty years past, been distinguished. An unhappy con- 
troversy has, indeed, separated from that noble institution the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, the most of its auxiliaries in Scotland. Yet 
not a less, but probably a larger number of copies of the Holy Scriptures, 
have been, and will be, distributed, in consequence of the separation. 
This contention, like that between Paul and Barnabas, has produced no 
abatement of love, on either side, to the good cause. Although the parties 
cannot act together, yet each is still zealous, perhaps increasinjg;ly zeal- 
ous, to distribute far and wide the volume of God's revealed will. The 
missions in Asia and Africa have suffered by the death of some valuable 
members; the Scotch missionaries have been driven by bigotry from 
the Russian empire ; and the Methodist missionaries, by savage barbarity, 
from New Zealand. But taken in the aggregate, the cause of foreign 
missions has wonderfully and gloriously prospered. 

In the favoured land, in which our happy lot is cast, tliere is scarcely 
a Protestant denomination that is not making unwonted exertions for the 
propagation of the gospel; and these exertions have increased within the 
closing year. In several sections of our country, there have been, and 
still are, hopeful and heart-cheering revivals of religion. The missionary 
and Bible cause seems to have received a new impulse. The contribu- 



PREFACE. V 

tioBt which hmve lately been mmde in tlie c'liy and State of New York, 
ti9 the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, and in 
flie city where we write, for the printing and distnbution of the Holy 
Soriptefes. ha^e been in a style of liberality, far beyond any previous 
eunples in the United States. It really looks as if men of wealth were 
^•p'^T^'w to feel the obligation they are under, to serve God with the sub- 
stance which he has given them. The resolution recently adopted in 
three whole states of the American Union, speedily to place a Bible in 
erery funily of these states severally, is a new and a most important 
■easure. The example, there is reason to hope, will be followed in 
every part of our country, and even throughout Protestant Christendom — 
yet, before the lapse of many years, throughout the world. If this hope 
ihogld be realizea, it will be more decisive than any single indication we 
have yet seen, that the Millennial glory has besun to dawn. The Chris- 
imn Advocate would remind his readers and himself, that this fflorious 
era, although it be introduced by the mighty power of God, will be brought 
fsrward by human instrumentality; and therefore that each, in his pro- 
per sphere, is under very solemn obligations to be incessant in prayer, 
and to employ all his influence, all his exertions, and all his means of 
whatever Kiodf for its furtherance and speedy commencement. 



INDEX TO VOLUI^E V. 



Ateunder^t Sennon noticed, 34. 

AoollteSy 36. 

Atonement, On the, 52, 103. 

AkxMider on the Canon, reviewed, 73. 

Abhtbet of Thought, Notice of, 81. 

Athens College, 85. 

Anriicope, 185. 

i^ Fint o( noticed, 230. 

ADetne's Life, Notice of, 325. 

Atmoiphere, concerning, 421. 

AddieM of the Philadelphia Bible So- 

dety, 467. 
Anb Tribes, Genealogical Table of, 513. 
American Sunday School Union, 278. 

Bethlehem, Star of, 8. 

Boird of Education, Sic, 54. 

BujiiM^ afire, 83. 

Blooinfield's Monument, 326. 

Brace's Manuscripts, 431. 

Bible in every Family, 423. 

Border's Mental Discipline, noticed, 459. 

Britain, Manu&cturers of, 465. 

Burton's Testimonies, &c. reviewed, 504. 

British Reviews, reviewed, 265. 

Baptism, a Tract on, noticed, 275. 

Bible Sodety, 283. 

Bhoco White's Evidences^ reviewed, 25. 

Bible in Pennsylvania, 573. 

Charcoal, Death from, 84. 

Caropbell's Testament, reviewed, 216, 

264> 313. 363, 407. 
Channing's Discourse, &c. noticed, 231. 
Cavern of Mendip, 421. 
Calamine, 422. 
Case of Conscience, 440. 
Copper Mine, 513. 
Cochmeal, 36. 

Correspondents, Note to, 48. 
Christmas Thoughts, 536. 

Dirge, 203. 

Deaf and Dumb, in India, 327. 

Manual for Teaching, 375. 

Diet of Milk, 375. 

Depth of our Lakes, 375. 

Death of an only Son, Lines on, 392. 

Death, Lines on, 504. 

Education, Board of, 54. 
Editor, Letter to, 187, 192. 
Education of Children, 255, 306, 344, 393. 
Egyptian Antiqmties, 36. 

Female Domestics, 378. 

Forget Me Not of the Christian Advo* 

dSte^l. 
Fitch's Diicoiine on Sin, reviewed, 136, 

162. 






Flax, New Mode of dressing, 185. 
Food for Horses and Cows, IflNS. 
French Church, 231. 
FbuE spun with Machinery, 375. 
Fenelon, his Correspondence, 374. 
Finney's Sermon, reviewed, 555. 

General Assemblv, Observations on, 58, 

120, 151, 209, 270. 
Godman's Natural History, Notice of, 81, 

120. 
Gigantic Tree, 232. 
Gas, Specific Heat of, 374. 
Game Laws, 327. 
Geology, Scriptural, 327. 
German Theology, 453. 
Graves of a Household, 254. 
Garden of Plants, 278. 
Greenland, 42. 

Hour of Prayer, 202. 

Hymn for Sunday Schools, 313. 

Heber's Monument, 327. 

Hartford Asylum, 327. 

Hall's Sermon, noticed, 461. 

Hemans, Mrs. F., Notice of, 465. 

Heber, Hymns by, 502. 

Hindostan, 41. 

Humble Merit rewarded, 552. 

Incest, Pamphlets on, reviewed, 167,375. 

Israel, Restoration of, 202. 

Judson, Mrs., her Death, 237. 

IdoUtry, 304. 

Inquisition, 311. ^— ^ 

India, Female Schoob in, 524. 

Kent East Indiaman, lost, 327. 

Lindsley's Address, noticed, 35. 
Lectures on the Catechism, 5, 49, 97, 145, 

193, 241, 289, 337, 385, 433, 481, 529. 
Luther's Account of Himself, 107, 148. 
Lay Correspondents, Hints to, 160. 
Letter from J. £. Stock, 198. 
Letter from Clericus, 225. 
Letter, Pastoral, 244, 293, 328. 
London, State of Religion and Morals in, 

312. 
Libraries, Moveable, 374. 
Lun^s, Structure of, 374. 
Liquids, Compression of, 374. 
Letter from Leipzig, 405. 
Letter from Mr. Goodell in Palestine, 521. 

Miller's Installation Sermon, noticed, 35. 
Memoir of Mrs. L. Morris, 15. 
Bfissions, General View of, ^ ^^. 
Mason's Remains, EiXXracU fvom, 7 , \5Kl« 
201, 254, 305, 343. 



VIU 



INDRX. 



MiflMonAiT Society, Pennsylvania Domes- 
tic, 326. 

If uaeum Theologicum, 326. 

Ifagnetism, 327. 

Mtaaions of the General Assembly, 380. 

Marck's Medulla, translated, 487, 533. 

Ifiasions, Board of Foreign, 517. 

Missionaries, Arrival of, 521. 

Mediterranean, 40. 

Memoir and Remains of Mr. Joseph Trim- 
ble, 548. 

National Debt of England, 186. 

New Testament, New Arrangement of, 

220. 
New Publications, List of, 37, 232, 328, 

378, 422, 466, 572. 
Natural History of the Bible, 326. 
Narrative of Religion, 279, 332. 
New York Mineral Spring, 375. 
Notfs Essay, &c. noticed, 274. 

Oriental Writers, 83. 

Old Tree, 340. 

Obituary of Mrs. J. Downey, 475. 

of Dr. Henry, 525. 

Notice of Master J. R. Hutchinson, 

260. 

Philosophy subservient to Religion, 60, 
Ul, 204, 309. 347, 396, 443, 492, 539. 

Publick AflTairs, 45, 92, 141, 190, 238, 285. 
334^ 383. 430, 477, 525, 574. 

Parry's Voyage, 84. 

Plea for the West, 361. 

Predestination, M'Parland on, noticed, 
464. 

Paper, Frauds in, 464. 

Physiology, 466. 

Platina,.466. 

Pastor's Sketch Book, Review of, 507. 

Peter, 1st, iii. 19. 20. expounded, 258. 

Poor in Boston. 278. 

Parry's Expedition, 570. 

Roman Foot, 187. 

Roman Catholick Clergy, 232. 

Report of Theological Seminary at Prince- 
ton, 376. 

Report of Board of Missions, 1827, — 422, 
472. 

Religion, SUte of, in France, 283, 449, 
499. 

Revival at Beach Island, S. C. 522. 

Rhodes, Colossus at, 36. 



Russian Commerce, 37. 
Reformation, Spread of. 36. 
Rome, Population o^ 37. 

Spnugfue's Sermons, noticed, 35. 

Sunday Schools, 39. 

Spiritual Distress relieved, 71. 

South America, 38. '— 

Stiles on Predestination, Notice of, 82. 

Sugar from Potatoes. 83. 

Steam Engine, a new one, &c. 36, 84^ 27T» 

513. 
Stewart's Private Journal, 19, 125. 
Steele, Mrs. A.. Obituary Notice of, 183, 
Schmucker's Address. Notice of. 229. 
Sandwich Islands, Review concerning, 31f , 

365, 410, 453. 
Slavery. Treatise on, noticed, 328. 
Sea Serpent, 512. 

Steam Navigation of the St. LAwrence. 

465. 
Scott and Gourgaud, 512. 
Saxon Sheep, &S. 
Storm, Lines or a, 503. 
South Seas, 578. 
Sermons by Noel and Bradley, reviewed, 

508. 
Shipwrecked, 268. 
South Africa, 277. 
Sugar in Georgia, 278. 
Sculpture, Mexican, 37. 
Sabbath Bell, 538. 

Treasurer of the Theological Semintfy, 

his accounts, 92, 141, 190, 238. 284. 333. 

382, 430, 476, 525, 574. 
Travels in Europe for Health, 8, 65, 153. 

211, 353, 401. 
TransatUmtick Recollections. 13, 69. 157. 

358. 536. 
Travelling on the Hudson. 84. 
Thistle destroyed by Salt. 84. 
Tanning. 465. 
Timbuctoo, 277. 
Tooth-ache cured, 278. 

United States Boundary, 513. 
University at Gottingen, 328. 
Yases. Ancient, 186. 
Vineyards in Georgia, 186. 
Variation of the Needle, 466. 

Water, Compression of. 375. 
Worship. Duty of Social. 389, 437, 484. 
Wertemberg. Popubtion of, 513. 



THE 



oansasvaiiP ^ww®9Mm^ 



■ 



FEBRl ARY, 1827. 



fidtgtou^ Communtcation^ 



UlCTURBS 0!C THE SHORTRR CATK- 
CHI8M OK THE WESTMINSTER AS- 
SEMBLY OF DIVINRS-"ADDRESSED 
TO YOUTH. 

LXGTURl XXTI. 

The Humiliation of Christ. 

"Christ's humiliation consisted 
in his being born, and that in a low 
condition, made under the law, un- 
dergoing the miseries of this life, 
the wrath of God and the cursed 
death of the cross; in being buried, 
and continuing under the power of 
death for a time." 

Christ's humiliation, in general, 
consisted in his condescending to 
have that glory which he had with 
the Father before tiie world was, 
veiled fur a time; by his coming 
into this lower world "in the likc- 
ncis of sinful flesh,-' to be *' a man 
of sorrows and acquaiiiited with 
grief." You will be chic In I to ob- 
serve, that this humiliation was, in 
the his^hest degree, voluntary, on 
the part of Chribt — He yielded to 
it by no constraint. It had no 
other source but his own, and tlie 
eternal Father's self-moved, unde- 
served LovK to lost mankind. 

Let uh now consider the several 
steps of Christ's humiliation, as 
thoy are mentioned in the answer. 
'* He was born, and that in a low 
condition." It had been an unpa- 
ralleled condescension in Christ, 
to assume our nature in any ima- 
ginable circumstances. How as- 



tonishing the stoop for him who 
was the eternal Son of God, happy 
in the bosom of the Father, tne 
Creator and the Lord of all the an- 
gel ick host, and receiving their 
profoundest homage — to become 
the Son of man, and be made, as 
to his human nature, of a woman! 
Had he made his entrance into our 
world with all the state, and pomp, 
and splendour of royalty, that con- 
descension had still been ineffable. 
But how are we to conceive of it, 
when, in place of external grandeur 
and respect, we consider the low 
condition in which he was actually 
born! His mother, as well as his 
reputed father, were, it is true, of 
the most honourable descent — They 
traced their lineage to David and 
to Abraham; and <he descent of 
Christ, accordin;; to the ilcsh, is 
particularly recorded in the New 
Testament, to show that the pro- 
mises ol' (iod to those ancient 
saints, that tlu> Messiah should 
proceed from tlh'ni, had been 
strictly and remarkably fulfilled. 
But, at the time of our Kedeemer's 
hirtii, his mother, although of royal 
nncestrv, was reduced to such a 
slate of obscurity and poverty, that 
in nature's most tryin;; hour, she 
could procure no admi^Mon to an 
inn. SVith the cattle of the stall 
she was obli{;e<l to seek a refuge. 
The Son of God was tmrn in a sta- 
ble, and laid in a manger**There 
it was thathe w\\o mKA^\VvtNi(M\4%« 
G 



50V 



♦.. 



>■ 



Lectures on the Slwricr Catechism. 



F£B. 



became an infant of days! — ^That 
he whose arm upholds the universe, 
was wrapped in swaddling bands! 
This was humiliation indeed. 
While this is recollected, never 
let a poor disciple of Jesus either 
blush or complain. Thus low did 
the Redeemer stoop, to lift up sin- 
ners out of the horrible pit and the 
miry clay, into which their sins 
had plunged them. How can we 
proceed, without stopping, for a 
moment, to admire **the grace of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, who, though 
he was rich, yet for our sakes, be- 
came poor, that we through his 
poverty might be made rich ;" that 
we by faith mi|ht claim a relation 
to him as our kinsman Redeemer, 
and say, " unto us a child is born, 
unto us a Son is given — he is our 
Immanuel, God with us!" 

Our Redeemer, it appears, after 
this, was subject to his parents ac- 
cording to the flesh, during the 
whole period of his minority. He 
was bred to a laborious occupation. 
He was called the carpenter, and 
the carpenter's son. Let honest 
industry never be ashamed of its 
toils, for it is employed only as the 
Redeemer of the world has set the 
example. 

But the answer states that ano- 
ther part of our Lord's humiliation 
was, that "he was made under the 
law." The law, here principally 
referred to, was certainly the moral 
law. Christ indeed yielded obe- 
dience to all the divine institutions, 
ceremonial and political, as well as 
moral ; because the former of these, 
while they lasted, had the same au- 
thor as the latter, and were therefore 
equally obligatory ; and he declared 
to his forerunner that it became 
him to fulfil all righteousness. But 
the ceremonial and political insti- 
tutions of the Jews were tempo- 
rary: the moral law, on the con- 
trary, is of eternal and unceasing 
obligation. It was to this that he 
was made subject, as our surety. 
This was the law given to Adam at 
hiM creation; and was that on which 



the covenant of works was founded, 
when he dwelt in paradise. By 
the breach of this law, as a cove- 
nant, all mankind were brought 
under the curse. When there- 
fore it is said by the apostle (Gal. 
iv. 4, 5,) '* God sent forth his Son, 
made of a woman, made under the 
law, to redeem them that were un- 
der the law," we must not only 
understand the moral law to be 
chiefly spoken of, but spoken of 
specially as a covenant of works* 
We have just seen that the object 
of Christ's coming was to redeem 
them that were under the law; — 
that is, to answer its demands in 
their place. He did answer its 
demands in their place, considered 
as a covenant of works ; and thus 
the second Adam repaired the ruins 
of the first. The law has no longer 
any claims upon his believingpeople 
in the form of a covenant But he 
never fulfilled it for them as a rule 
of life, in any other way than as 
giving them a perfect example of 
obedience to it. If he had, then 
Christians would be under no obli- 
gation to render a personal obedi- 
ence to the moral law. This in- 
deed the gross Antinomians have, 
in terms, affirmed. But it is onlj 
a monstrous and impious inference 
of their own, made in direct con- 
tradiction of the words of Christ 
himself — " I came not," said he, 
*■ to destroy the law, but to fulfil 
it." That it was the moral law of 
which our Saviour here spoke is evi- 
dent; because he did actually des- 
troy or put an end to the ceremonial 
and political laws of tlie J^ws; so 
far as they were separable, as in 
most cases they were, from the 
principles of the moral law. 

It IS justly represented as a 
striking part of Christ's humilia- 
tion, that he was made under the 
law ; because it was a most amaz- 
ing condescension, that the great 
Lord and lawgiver of heaven and 
earth, should become subject to the 
law which he had enacted for hum- 
ble and inferior creatures ^—espe- 



1827. 



Lectures on the Shorter Catechism. 



51 



cialljr when he did it to fulfil that 
law in the place of those very crea- 
tnreSy after they had transgressed 
it and incurred its penalty. If yon 
will meditate seriously on this fact, 
you will find it calculated to fill 
yon with astonishment It may 
tlso show you the miserable state 
of tinners who have not, by faith, 
committed their souls to Christ; 
because, of course, they have to 
answer to God, in their own per- 
sons, for their whole debt to the 
law, both of obedience and of pun- 
ishment. And, in contrast with 
this, it shows the unspeakable hap- 
piness of true believers in Christ, 
whose whole debt is cancelled, by 
his being made under the law, in 
their room and behalf. 

Another item of our Lord's hu- 
miliation, mentioned in the answer 
before us, is his "undergoing the 
miseries of this life." When our 
blessed Redeemer assumed our na- 
ture, he took no exemption from 
any of its sinless infirmities, but a 
large share of them all. It is re- 
corded of him that he was weary, 
that he hungered, that he wept, 
that he sighed, that he was sorrow- 
ful; but never that he smiled, and 
but once that he rejoiced. lie was, 
as characteristic k of him, " a man 
of sorrows and acquainted with 
grief.'' It was prophesied of him, 
that his " visage should be marred 
more than any man's." Probably 
this took place, in a considerable 
degree, even before his agony. 
When the Jews said to him, " thou 
art not yet fifty years old," — the 
expression seems to denote clearly 
that they took him to be farther ad- 
vanced in years than he was; for 
he was then but little more than 
thirty — And it has^ been well re- 
marked, that the cares and griefs 
which he bore, probably gave him 
the appearance of an age which he 
had not reached. In short, he en- 
dured, as already said, hunger, and 
thirst, and weariness, and sorrow, 
and grief; he also submitted to po- 
verty and want ax>J had not where 



to lay his head; he submitted to 
the contradiction, reproach and 
persecution of an ungrateful and 
wicked world; and he even hum- 
bled himself so far as to endure the 
assaults and temptations of the 
devil— He did this, that he might 
extract the sting from all the af- 
flictions of his people, and know, 
even by experience, how to sympa- 
thize with them. " ^rijkive not a 
high priest who canno^e touched 
with the feeling of our infirmities, 
but was in all points tempted as 
we are, yet without sin." 

But the sufterings we have hither- 
to mentioned, though not small in 
themselves, were the least of the 
miseries which our Redeemer en- 
dured, in his humiliation, while he 
lived on earth — The answer we 
consider states, that he also under- 
went " the wrath of God." By 
this we are to understand that he 
endured the awful expression of 
God's holy and righteous displea- 
sure against sin. His human na- 
ture, as we have heretofore seen, 
could not have sustained this, but 
for its union with the divine, which 
uplield it. 

But, my children, when you hear 
of Christ undergoing the wrath of 
God, you are by no means to sup- 
pose that there was ever a moment 
of time, in which Christ ceased to 
be the object of his Father's infinite 
love. Never was he more the ob- 
ject of that love and complacency, 
than in the midst of those bitter 
sufterings which arose from the 
wrath of God due to our sins. 
Those sins which he was bearing 
were the object of the Father's infi* 
nite hatred ; but the glorious person 
bearing them, was then, as at all 
other times, his well beloved Son, 
in whom he was well pleased. 
That God should thus please to 
bruise his Son and put him to grief, 
and that the Saviour should cheer- 
fully consent to sustain it, is just 
that view of the infinite love and 
compassion of God and Christ to 
mankind sinucra, vsVucVi ^\atC\^«%« 



5i 



On tlie Atonement. 



Fem. 



and overwhelms^ and melts the 
soul of a believer, whenever he sets 
a glimpse of it, — ^for more than tliis, 
he cannot have at present-»It is 
emphatically " a love which passeth 
knowledge." 

The wrath of God endured by 
our blessed Lord when he was act- 
ing as a surety for his people, chief- 
ly appeared in his agony in the 
garden, iflp l^e said " My soul is 
exceedin^^orrowful even unto 
death; and when he sweat, as it 
were, great drops of blood falling 
down to the ground;" and again 
on the cross, when he cried with a 
loud voice, " My God, my God, 
why hast thou forsaken me." Ah, 
.my dear youth ! " if these things 
were done in the green tree, what 
shall be done in the dry?" — If 
Christ suftered tKjus when he bore 
the sins of others, how will sinners 
themselves suffer, when the wrath 
of God shall be let loose upon them, 
for their own deserts? How earn- 
est should you be to escape this, by 
immediately fljjtng to the Saviour, 
that your sins qiay be forgiven for 
his sake — that il^ey may all be blot- 
ted out in his precious atoning 
blood. 

(To be continued,) 



ON THE ATONEMEKT. 
J^O. XL 

On the Law. 

My dear Friend, — I must draw 
my epistles to a close; the im- 

Crtance of the subject discussed, 
B induced me to spend so much 
time in the investigation. They 
are now in a course of publication ; 
and if the great Head of the church 
shall condescend to honour them 
at a means for rectifying the error 
of any reader, or for establishing 
the minds of the wavering in the 
doctrine that has hitherto prevail- 
ed in the Presbyterian church, I 
shall deem myself well rewarded 



for the time and labour bestowed 
on them. 

It only remains to contrast the 
two theories in relation to the ho- 
nour tfiey reflect on the divink law, 
and on our blessed redeemer. 

Both schools concur in pronounc- 
ing on the Law of God the highest 
encomiums; believing it to be a 
transcript of his moral perfections, 
and worthy of the profound est obe- 
dience of every rational creature* 
They agree in the sentiment, that 
the penalty which guards the sanc- 
tity of the law, involves a degree 
of misery far greater than is felt 
by any human bein^ on this side 
the crave, and that it will run pa- 
rallel with the eternal existence of 
the damned ; and they strenuously 
maintain, that the infliction of this 
fearful penalty on every impeni- 
tent and unbelieving sinner, is a 
righteous procedure on the part of 
the Supreme Ruler of the universe. 
But they differ widely in their 
views of the bearing of the Media- 
tor's work on the law. 

You know, sir, that, in the con- 
trast I am drawing, I do not refer 
to our brethren, who, while they 
believe in a general atonement, 
hold to its time nature as involving 
a real satisfaction to divine justice, 
and a real infliction of the threat- 
ened penalty on the sinner's glo- 
rious and spotless substitute. In 
my second letter it was shown, 
that between them and the advo- 
cates of a definite atonement, the 
difference is merely verbal^ and 
that they have no ground for con- 
troversy with each other. This I 
wish to be kept in mind. 

The new school believe the per- 
fect obedience which Christ yield- 
ed to the precepts of the divine 
law to have been necessary to hi» 
work as Saviour, and that the least 
defect in it would have defeated 
his benevolent design of saving sin- 
ners. But this belief is grounded, 
not on the necessity of the saved 
having a finished righteousness as 
the basis of their justification, but 



On the MmemefU. 



53 



necessity of perfect holiness 
i person of the Redeemer, 
dingij they deny that Christ, 
e l^al representative of his 
^ obeyed all the precepts of 
iw FOR thenif that his rio;h- 
less, when received by faith, 

be imputed to them, and ren- 
hem righteous before God. 

speak indeed of the sulter- 
if Christ as being a substitute 
r sufferings ; but at the same 
deny that he was our substi- 
standing in our law place, 
ig our sins and enduring the 
ly due to them. The sufFer- 
)f the Saviour were a conse- 

I of sin; but they were not 
fliction of the curse of the 
because, say they, the law 
demands on him. The re- 
ly that, according to the new 
f, sinners are saved without 
iteousnesSf and without a satis- 
n for sin: and the death of 
t IS made a mere expedient 
TTiNG ASIDE both the precep- 
ad the penal demands of the 
ipon them. Neither the one 
lie other has been complied 
by them, or for them, by a 
r. In opposition to the righ- 
demands of a holy law, they 
r in heaven in the presence 
e ereat Lawgiver, who has 
ed his truth that sin shall not 
[punished, and proclaimed it 
-t of his name or nature, that 

II by no means clear the guilty. 
:h views are deemed by the 
:hool to be highly unscriptu- 
nd really dangerous in their 
ncy, and in fact subversivei of 
tUE NATURE of the atonement. 

are unable to see how the 
Duld be magnified and made 
rable, by a transaction and 

of suffering which it did not 
rf, and which in fact were in- 
d to prevent the fulfilment of 
t ami good demands, 
•y different are their views of 
elation which the obedience 
eath of Immanael bore to the 
r God. in them ther behold 



a complete fulfilment of all its de- 
mands on sinners, both preceptive 
and penaL Taught by an inspired 
apostle that *<God sent forth his 
Son, made of a woman, made under 
tlie law, to redeem them that were 
under the law," (Gal. iv. 4, 5,) they 
believe that the law had demands 
on Christ; and that by his holy 
life and bitter death he fulfilled 
them all, as the substitute and legal 
representative of every true be- 
liever. Assured too by the same 
apostle that *< God imputeth righ- 
teousness irif/ioufu*or/cs;" (Rom. 
iv. 6.) ** Even the righteousness of 
God, which is by faith of Jesus 
Christ, unto all and upon all them 
that believe:" (Rom. iii. 21, 22,) 
they hold that the obedience of the 
Lord Jesus Christ even unto death, 
constitutes that righteousness by 
which sinners are justified; and 
that it is imputed for this purpose 
to every one who believes in Jesus. 
Thus sinners are saved in a way 
perfectly consistent with the ^o- 
7iour of the divine law ; none of its 
demands remain sacrificed; all are 
fully satisfied, not indeed by fallen 
man, but by his immaculate Re- 
deemer; sin is pardoned, and yet 
punished. The saved appear in 
heaven before God in a complete 
righteousness; not a personal one, 
not through their ** own righteous- 
ness, which is of the law;" but in 
that perfectly finished and glorious 
righteousness, in which the great 
apostle desired to be found, even 
" that which is through the faith of 
Christ, the righteousness which is 
of God by faith." . Phil. iii. 9. 

Such a transaction is glorious to 
the law. By the obedience of Im- 
manuel unto death, its precepts 
and its penalty have been declared 
to be just and reasonable and good. 
More honour has been done to the 
one.than would have been render- 
ed, if all mankind had persevered 
in sinless obedience; and higher 
honour put on the other, than if it 
had been inflicted on owr viVv^A^ 
race. 



54 The Board of Education of the Presbyterian Church. Fkb. 



Let it not be objected, that the 
character of a substitute and repre- 
sentative is unknown to the law. 
Not 80. The principle of repre- 
sentation was connected with it in 
its first operation on man ; for, in 
the first covenant, Adam was con- 
stituted the federal head and repre^ 
sentative of all his natural poste- 
rity: and if the world was ruined 
under such a dispensation without 
any reflection on the justice or 

foodness of the Almighty Creator, 
ow can it be deemedinconsistent 
with these attributes of his nature, 
to establish a new and similar dis- 
pensation, for its recovery to holi- 
ness and happiness P That there is 
a striking analogy between the 
way in which we were ruined and 
the way in which we are recovered, 
is plainly taught in holy scripture. 
Having run a parallel between 
Christ and Adam, whom he styles 
"the FIGURE of him that was to 
come^^ and the corresponding ef- 
fects of the offence of the latter, 
and of the righteousness of the for- 
mer, the apostle adds, " For as by 
ONE man's disobedience many were 
made sinners, so by the obedience 
of ONE shall many be made righ- 
teous.'* Rom. V. 14 — 19. And, in 
1 Cor. XV. 22, he asserts the same 
analogy; "for as in Mam all die, 
so IN Christ shall all be made 
alive:" meaning, not as the Uni- 
versalists teach, that all men will 
be ultimately saved by Christ, but 
that all who are in Chinst, united 
to him by faith, and represented by 
him in his mediatorial work, shall 
be raised from the dead to the en- 
joyment of an immortal life of happi- 
ness and glory ; just as all united to 
Adam by natural generation, and 
by the relation established by the 
original covenant or constitution 
made with him as their represen- 
tative, have become subject* to 
death in all its terrible forms. 

From this comparison, it is easy 
to see which of the two theories re- 
flects the hiehest honour on the di- 
rine }aw. Ihc one maintains its 



righteous demands in all their ex* 
tent, and exhibits them as glorions* 
Iv fulfilled in the life and death of 
the Son of God for all his people; 
while the other prostrates them, 
and with tliem, tne truth of Ood* 
in the dust. 

When I began this letter^ I in- 
tended to finish the contrast ; but 
as the remaining point is important, 
I think it best to reserve it as the 
subject of another letter. 

Sincerely, yours. 



THE BOARD OF EDUCATION OF THE 
PRESBYTERIAN CHUROH. 

We have recently, in the depart- 
ment of Religious Intelligence^ 
stated both the importance m this 
institution and its lamentable want 
of funds. In our last number, we 
published the acknowledgment, by 
the corresponding secretary, of 
one liberal donation. It is our 
earnest wish that this may be only 
the precursor of many more of the 
same character. The Presbyteri- 
ans in the central, western, and 
southern parts of our country, are, 
we believe, not aware how much 
they are outdone in patronizing 
this charity, by their brethren in 
the cast and north. The disparity 
is great, and we wish it may be 
considered whether it is not re- 
proachful. We know not how the 
zeal of those who have been remiss 
in this important concern, is more 
likely to be awakened, than by the 
following extracts from an eloquent 
discourse delivered by the ReT. 
William Engles, of Philadelphia, 
in May last, at the instance of the 
Board of Education; and which 
has been put into our hands in ma- 
nuscript We wish our space 
would permit us to publish the 
whole sermon; but we can take no 
more than two exti*acts; the first 
exhibiting the extensive demand 
for more labourers in the gospel 
vineyard, and the second, the duty 



The Board of JEduca/iini qfUie Preibyterian Chnrch. 



istians in relation to thi§ sub- 
nd the interestioe coosidera- 
bj which that duty is en- 
, Wekaow that sermooBi 
(tracts of aerinons, are often 
I over, when they appear in 
ical vorks; but we do hope 
very reader of the Christian 
•Mx will not onlj read, but 
-, on what follows— The text 

sermon was Matt. ii. 36-38. 

when he saw tlie multitudes, 

8 moved with compassion on 

because tliey fainted and 

scattered abroad as sheep 
r no shepherd. Then said he 
IS disciples, the harvest truly 
nteous but the labourers are 
pray ye therefore the Lord of 
.rvest, that he rtill send forth 
-era into his harvest." 

onceiving ourselves as now 
ying a centre, let us imagine 
uralerence which shall merely 
1« the limits of our city, and 
all find a community numeri- 
great, for whose eternal well- 
no adequate exertion is em- 
1. Let the circle be extend- 

embrace our state, and not 
neighbourhoods but counties 
e disclosed to view, enshroud- 

ignorance more dense than 
mountain mists — where litc- 
; has no consecrated asylum, 
ur holy religion scarce an al- 
irhere a spirit of grovelling 
ly-mindedness is predomi- 

and eternity has few joyful 
intelligent expectants. And 
is is true of a commonwealth 

may be styled veteran, from 
gmparatively ancient date of 
ilitical organization. As we 
r westward the tide of emigra- 
te may therefore expect even 
religious devotedness aroone 

who are 7;ealously occupied 
ling the forests, planting vil- 

and encouraging the growth 
eir yet infant settlements. 
it in a natural sense the aoli- 
are made glad by the increas- 
flu ud busUe of the adveo- 



33 

turous and enterprising, we dare 
not say in a spiritual sense, that 
the wilderness in its wide extent 
has budded and blossomed as the 

■■ Now, whilst it is acknowledged 
that much uf this irreli^on exists 
in despite of means, or in redons 
where the gospel is ably and uith- 
fully proclaimed, who will deny 
that a large proportion of it is ma- 
nifestly attributable to an entire 
absence of divine ordinances? It is 
alas! most true, that the message 
of reconciliation has never yet 
reached many sections of our re- 
publican union ; that its attractive 
invitations have not been heard to 
recal sinners from their estrange- 
ment — nor its plenteous mercy un- 
folded to cheer the drooping spi- 
rits of the despondins^nor its glo- 
rious promises proclaimed to es- 
tablish hope and give energy to 
faith. Hence, to such, life has 
none of the pure enjoyments of 
piety, and death none of its sus- 
taining influence — their existence is 
a fluctuating and boisterous ocean* 
and the anchor uf their hope has 
no lodgment within the vail! Is 
this a condition to be envied? Is it 
not pitiable and aad — so sad as to 
demand the sympathyof Christians, 
and to require the interposition of 
Him, who having long proifered 
peace to Jerusalem, wept over it 
when it was doomed; even of Him 
who when he saw the multitudes, 
was moved with compassion, be- 
cause they fainted and were scat- 
tered abroad, ns sheep having no 
shepherd. This we are sensible is 
but a picture, in outline, of the aug- 
mented necessities of the commu- 
nity of which we are a component 
Ciart — it might receive much co- 
During from the pencil of truth— 
but our object is accomplished, if 
it impresses you with the necessity 
of furnishing labourers for a harvest 
already prepared for the reaper. 

"But the prospective enlar^- 
nent of this fie\a s^touXA, uo^ \sft 
disregarded. Out coiLnlt^ \% iaN\- 



56 



The Board of Education of the Pre^nfierian Church. 



tipljing her population by a ratio 
perpetually increasing— tne wilds 
are converted into territories, and 
territories into independent com- 
monwealths — feeble province's have 
already become an empire, and 
that empire is pursuing the march 
of her political greatness, and en- 
circling within her extended arms 
a community, which by establish- 
ed rules of increase, will amount 
in a century to nearly £00 million! 
The prospect is mighty! It is emi- 
nently gratifying to national feeling, 
and proudly exemplifies national 
ftrosperity ; but upon the presump- 
tion that the means of religious in- 
struction are to be multiplied only 
according to the present ratio of 
increase, the prospect becomes de- 
plorable; for the existing dispro- 
portion between the harvest and 
the labourers will then be immea- 
surably greater, and hundreds of 
thousanch will be destitute of that 
gospel, the proper entertainment 
of which, by any people, is their 
surest exaltation in a moral, and 
their securest safeguard in a poli- 
tical, point of view." 

** *9n explanation of Vie duty of 

Cliristians in general, in relation 

to this subject. 

" • Pray ye the Lord of the har- 
vest, that he will send forth labour- 
ers into his harvest.' Here it is 
intimated that the cordial interest 
and co-operation of Christians in 
the concerns of the church, are re- 
quisite — that its well-being is in 
no small degree dependant upon 
their zeal, and tiiat through their 
instrumentality, its cords are to be 
lengthened and its stakes strength- 
ened. 

" It becomes the duty of all who 
love the gospel, to entreat the Lord 
of the harvest to designate, by his 
Spirit, suitable labourers for the 
work. The intercessions of believ- 
ers are invaluable — the chiefest of 
the apostles thus estimated them 
when he besought an interest in 
Ibem— by them naa the church been 



enriched, and it still regai 
as one of the available roea 
defence, stability, and glor 
fervent prayers of the r 
are never powerless — they 
with Jacob's God, and prei 
the Qod of Israel — they 
precursor of Zion's jubil 
present in themselves an ui 
ble phalanx, against the foi 
church. We regard it, tl 
not only as the reasonabh 
cumbent duty of Christian 
their addresses to a th 
grace, to give prominence 
object contemplated in th* 
they should pray for the i 
cation of faith to I heralds 
cross, and they should pr 
fervour and importunity. 

" Sinceritjr in prayer, \ 
always implies external act 
rity. Of this Christ and h 
ties have proposed theinsi 
an example, for they not on 
ed much, but evinced thei 
rity bj demonstrations tl 
unequivocal. Let the 
James illustrate this subjc 
a brother or sister be nal 
destitute of daily food, anc 
you say unto them, depart i 
be ye warmed and filled; i 
standing ye give them n( 
things which are needful 
body, what doth it profit 
may we not with equal jus 
what will your prayers profi 
be the offspring of a heart 
a stranger to every gener 
pulse, and cold and unaflfec 
dcr appeals which might s 
the most penurious to actii 
volencc? Wo pronounce s 
gion to be vain — it will be 
honourable nor profitable 
possessor, nor available 
church, nor acceptable in i 
of God. How, we ask, is 
pel to be propagated, 
through faithful pastors a 
sionaries ? And how ca 
preach unless they be quali 
sent? And by whom are th 
sent, if professed Christis 



He Board rfBducaHon oftiu PreAyierian Church. 57 



the sntgect with frozen apa- 
nd contribute as seldom and 
inelj as if the sacrifice were 
li^tj ever to be repaired? 
chanty is needed, to multiply 
eqietuate the means of moral 
iligious reforroation^the ene- 
»f God must triumph, if you 
idisposed to apply any coun- 
iveSy and the church must 
ish, if its professed friends are 
rted into unconcerned spec- 
9 and withhold their fostering 

Our Theological Seminary 
li a dependant; and although 
Bciency has been practically 
I, in sending forth streams 

have gladdened the city of 
rod, its necessities still 8ug< 
the propriety of subordinate 
ition Societies, which shall 
le part of auxiliaries, in re- 
g promising piety and talent 
discouragement, and in pre- 
l the way for their active em- 
lent in the church. ,It is in 
chalf we appear before you, 
e feel honoured in the per- 
m to plead, however feebly, 
inse of an institution which 
trinsic claims to your atten- 
ind has received the sanction 
Dontenance of our highest ec- 
stical judicature. The Board 
ocation merits your patron - 
ind if properly supported it 
ccupy a high rank among the 
Dus means for supplying the 
s harvest with labourers, 
o engage your co-operation in 
larity, we propose to suggest 
last place, some inducements 

should prevail with every 
tian. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ is in- 
ed in the success of such en- 
sea, and requires your con- 
ice and aid. He was moved 
:ompas8ion, * when he beheld 
altitude, because they fainted 
ere scattered abroad as sheep 
% no shepherd,' and he spake 

disciples, to awaken in them 
ilar sympathy. Christ's mis- 
to earth, bis uDp&ratleled hn- 



miliation, his active beneficence, 
his costly redemption, are the in- 
contestable proofs of his desire to 
meliorate man's spiritual condition. 
He has presented us an exam pie most 
worthy of imitation, and has en- 
forcecf that example by his authori- 
tative command. , 

'* Did he who so well knew the 
value of the immortal soul, feel so- 
licitous for its welfare? and shall 
we, who profess to- have drunk of 
the same spirit, regard its destruc- 
tion with indifference? Did he sa- 
crifice his life for thankless and re- 
bellious sinners? and shall we feel 
no concern that our fellow men 
should never hear of this great sal- 
vation? When he has apprized us 
that a harvest of souls may be se- 
cured through our instrumentality, 
shall we suflSr the blessed occasion 
to be lost through cold indifference? 
Forbid it Lord! rather arouse our 
dormant energies, and enlist us in 
this godlike charity — let thy exam- 
ple induce, thy command constrain 
us, to make our cordial offerings at 
the altar of this holy service. 

"2. Again, the duty to which 
we are called involves high respon- 
sibilities. As the stewards of God, 
we are required to be faithful, and 
as the stewards of God, we must 
render an account. Perhaps in the 
neglect of duty we may bribe con- 
science to silence, and succeed in 
justifying ourselves before men, 
who may need from us similar in- 
dulgence and complaisance; but is 
not that eye of omniscience upon 
us, which observes our actions im- 
partially, and before which are dis- 
closed every feeling and motive of 
the heart? Upon this occasion, 
therefore, we solemnlyask, that each 
should act as in the sight of God, 
and in prospect of the day when 
the secrets of all hearts shall be 
known. 

'< 3. The objectin behalf of which 
we plead is, in our opinion, unob- 
jectionable in principle. Perhaps 
you may question Ua^WWl^^xx^w 
the presumption that'll pvesexvl^^ 

H 



58 



Obseh)atumB cm iU General JlisenMii, ^ 



temptatioD to men to select the 
ministry for its respectability and 
emolument. Conceding that this 
charity, like all others, may be oc- 
casionally abused — that in some in-^ 
stances beneficiaries may be actu- 
ated by unworthy motives, and that 
unsuitable men may thus be on- 
happiljT assisted in their views- 
still is it not incontestable that such 
instances are rare, whilst many of 
the most devoted, laborious and 
successful ministers of the gospel, 
have been introduced into the 
Lord's harvest, throuffh the gene- 
rous interference of otliers. Of this 
we might quote abundant proof, if 
decorum did not forbid. Those 
most conversant with the operation 
of these institutions, have acknow- 
ledged their utility, and afforded 
them their aid and countenance; 
and is their testimony to be dis- 
regarded — whilst the oft repeated 
and groundless objections, which 
the enemies of the church have ori- 
ginated, constitute the professed 
Christian's apology for withholding 
his dues from the Lord's treasury? 
Far be it from me, to prefer the 
char^ against an;^ of you, for we 
anticipate the exhibition of a dif- 
ferent spirit this night. 

•* 4. Finally— The charity in 
which we would enlist your co-ope- 
ration, affords the best opportunity 
for the display of noble, generous, 
and humane feeling. 



'< Is the soul preoiotts? la 
demotion desirable ? And wl 
the Christian who will not e 
attempt to avert the calai 
fate which impends over the 
structed and irreligious, d 
fane not the name, insult n 
spirit of Christianity, by asc 
them to those whose feel in 
all selfish, and whose heart 
never open to the cry of 
ready to perish! My brc 
shall any be eternally d 
through our default? Shall ai 
to achieve a victory over 
and hell, when a little tern 
sacrifice on our part, would f 
them with the means ? Is the 
our hope, and shall we den; 
others? Shall we hoard up ti 
try pelf of earth, at the sacri 
Chnstian duty, and at the e: 
of immortal souls? Such 
will be dearly accumulated 
its rust will be a witness s 
the possessor, and eat his t 
it were fire.' 

''If then you would illi 
the philanthropic spirit of th 
pel— 4f you would redeem yo 
racter for Christian consistc 
if you would eternally benefi 
kind-^f you would honoui 
Lord, we present you an op 
nity ; and may neither const 
nor the God of conscience, i 
you for neglect. With y- 
confidently leave our appeal. 



jnat^cdlaneou^. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE GENERAL AS- 
SEMBLY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH. 

To the following letters, sent us 
by a valued correspondent, we give 
a ready insertion in our pages. 
They relate to an important sub- 
ject, which we think the ministers 
and members of the Presbyterian 
church would do well to consider 
carefully, before the next meeting 



of the General Assembly, 
be understood that we do nol 
ourselves responsible for an} 
that may appear in this disci 
unless we state our sentime 
remarks avowedly our own. 
one shall choose to controvi 
opinions of the letter writi 
will publish whatever may b 
perately written with that 
with as much readiness as w 
done the present communica 



Observatiims on the Oena'ol Assembly , ^c. 



59 



ditor, — If jou think the 
letters worthy of a place 
sefiil publication, they may 
ead to a more full discus- 
k subject, very interesting 
-esbjterian cnurch at the 
ime. 

Yours, truly, 

4>. 



;tters to a friend. 

JVo,/. 

ir, — You know my attach- 
he principles of rresbyte- 
ana my opinion that die 
come when a different or- 
D of the General Assem- 
'cessary to preserve the 
zllowship, and prosperity 
several branches of the 
nder its care. Allow me 
t to your inspection some 
on the rcLdicat principles of 
ianism — the character and 
of the ^Assembly — some ex- 
ils — and the remedies pro- 
ly intention is to prove, 
t accordance with Presby- 
-inciples, that it has be- 
cessary to organize the 
\ssembly by a represepta- 
1 Synyods, instead of Pres- 

Principles of Presbyte- 
rianisnu 

)s I shall not be able to 
;se better than by an ex- 
n " Form of Government," 
. page 363, note. "The 
irinciples of Presbyterian 
;overnment and discipline 
lat the several different 
ktions of believers, taken 
ely, constitute one church 
t. called emphatically the 
that a larger part of the 
or a representation of it, 
govern a smaller, or deter- 
iters of controversy which 
Krein; — that a representa- 
ie whole should govern and 
le in regard to every part, 
n the ptLrts UDited ; thatia. 



that a majority shall govern: and 
consequently that appeals may be 
carried from lower to higher judi- 
catories, till they be finally decided 
by the collected wisdom and united 
voice of the whole church?^ 

These principles I hope to see 
preserved without any inU'action-— 
and I feel persuaded the more they 
are examined and tested, tlie more 
dear they will be to the Presbyte- 
rian church. 

Character and Influence. 

On these radical principles, the 
Presbyterian church, in the United 
States of Jim,erica, has hitherto 
been conducted and prospered. 
The unify of the church^uaicoto- 
ties for governments organized on 
the representative principle—- the 
majority governing— the revision 
and control of proceedings in lower 
by higher judicatories— <;onstitate 
the scriptural ground ; at the same 
time, they produce the most eflScient 
influence, and present the most po- 
pular aspects of our form of govern- 
ment. 

These principles have, doubtless, 
contributed largely to the rapid in- 
crease of the Presbyterian church 
in this country, within the last 
quarter of a century. Nor will the 
principles be liable to become less 
efficient, or popular, so long as the 
form of our civil government re- 
mains unchanged, and the conduct 
of our ecclesiastical courts accords 
with, the great design of their or- 
ganization. I have no apprehen- 
sion that the principles of rresby- 
terianism will, for a long time to 
come, lose ground in this countiy. 
On the contrary, it seems to me 
probable, that their influence will 
extend over the whole class of our 
country's population, agreeing with 
us in matters of faith and terms of 
communion.— -The signs of the 
times warrant such an expectation. 

I have no wish to see tne power, 
or influence of the GeuetaY K&^^m- 
bly diminished, nor \U teXn^oik lo 
the whole church aUeted. Vi^V. \\. 



60 



Philosophy subservient to Religwiu 



Fm. 



remaiD the highest court of the 
whole Presbyterian church in this 
countrj— the only delegated body 
of the church, formed after the mo- 
del of the Assembly at Jerusalem. 
Let it never be divested of one at- 
tribute, by which it becomes a bond 
of union and fellowship— by which 
it reviews and controls the proceed- 
ings of lower judicatories — and by 
which it so essentially promotes 
the welfare of the church. 

The General Assembly holds a 
conspicuous station in the ecclesi- 
astical world, and is deservedly 
respected. Perhaps no other church 
judicatory in the Protestant world, 
fills so large a space in publick 
view. Certainly bo one in this 
country represents so large a com- 
munion,* or a ministry of more ta- 
lents, learning and piety; nor has 
any one th^ supervision of more 
important ecclesiastical interests. 
Considered in itself as a church 
court, and in its influence upon re- 
ligion, learning, social order, ra- 
tional liberty and benevolent en- 
terprise, it is the most interesting 
spectacle in Christendom. To 
Presbyterians especially its atti- 
tude is deeply interesting. — Sy- 
nods and Presbyteries respect it — 
sessions, ministers, elders, and mis- 
sions of the church venerate and 
love it — the societies under its care 
value its character and respect its 
adjudications. All this is as it 
should be^ — and if there be some ex- 
ceptions to this statement, they 
will be found connected with some 
evils which ought to be remedied, 
or in some restless spirits, which 
can always find aliment for envy 
or discontent. 

Thus you will perceive that I 
would not diminish a tittle from 
the reputation and influence of the 
Assembly ; but after all that may be 
laid in its favour, it must be con- 

* It is true that the Baptist denomina- 
tion report more communicants than the 
Presbyterian — but thev liave no general 
ohurch judicatoiy-^only a Convention of 
DeJflgates, for missionary purposes. 



ceded that there are evils, cMiiiect- 
ed with its present omnizatioat 
which should be removedas speedi- 
ly as possible. In my next letter 
I shall notice some of those evik 

Yours, &ۥ 

PHILOSOPHY SUBSERVIENT TO RBU- 

GIOX. 

Johnson has said of Dr. Watts*- 
" Under his direction it may bi 
trul^ said. Theologian Philosophii 
ancillatur — philosophy is subser- 
vient to evangelical instniction*" 
We welcome .to our pages ft 
writer who endeavours, and ia 
our judgment not unsuccessfal- 
ly, to make the same use of Ul 
philosophical attainments. 'Fhow 
who delight only in "spirit-stir-, 
ring narrative,'' as we Know toe 
many readers of miscellanies at pre- 
sent do, will not indeed find mach 
entertainment in these essays* But 
we are careful to provide forthesra- 
tification of such readers; and it if 
but equitable that the taste of othen 
should be gratified in turn. We are 
only sorry that the nature of our work 
renders it necessary to divide these 
essays, more than they were divided 
by* their author. We shall how- 
ever endeavour, as far as practiea- 
ble, to make each essay a whoU; 
although it will be found that they 
are closely connected, and that the 
positions which follow, often refer 
to what had before been illustrated. 

FOB TBX CDRIBTIAM ADTOCATE. 

Dear Sir, — It is my design, if it 
should meet your approbation, to 
communicate to the publick, throu^ 
the medium of your excellent mia- 
cellany, a series of essays upon 
moral and religious subjects. A 
leading object which I have in 
view, IS, by the application of the 
doctrines of genuine philosophy, to 
illustrate and vindicate some of the 
fundamental principles of morals 
and theology. The interests of re- 
ligious and'^moral truth may, I ap- 
prehendf derive as much benefit 



PhiloMophy tvbtervient to BdigiM. 



61 



AutiOQS and enlighteDed 
J, as they can receive de- 
rom one that is presump- 
1 sparious. The discus- 
reiate to subjects, which, 
I presamed, your readers 
I hiehly interesting and 
U-— Thej will be conduct- 
constant reference to dif- 
of opinion which exist at 
mt time, in relation to 
jects. 

certain the principles of 
ity, we must have recourse 
*iptores alone. Thej have 
ibited and defended by in- 
e writers, with the great- 
ness and strength of argn- 
landantly sufficient to sa- 
who submit their under- 
\ to the authority of inspi- 
It may, however, be satis- 
o perceive, that the dic- 
Divine revelation are in 
ccordance with the princi- 
Miand and legitimate sci- 
d that, in many instances, 
iive the most decisive sup- 
iit 

ESSAY I. 

/ our Judgments, in rela- 
Subjects of a Moral and 
7US Jrature. 

Creator has endowed the 
nan, with the capacity of 
ng truth on a great va- 
subjects ; among which, 
a moral and religious na- 
.d a distinguished place. 
le comprehensive capacity 
itanding receives dinerent 
Lccording to the occasions 
ich it is exercised, or ac- 
to the peculiar nature of 
set about which it^is em- 
What is called the moral 
means nothing different 
human understanding, ex- 
■pon subjects of a moral 

persons have maintained 
McdentJf to all acquired 



knowled^, the mind of man is en- 
dowed, immediatelv, by its Crea- 
tor, with certain ideas, which they 
have therefore denominated innate; 
and which they have considered as 
a part of the original furniture of 
the human understanding. With 
regard to this theory, it is sufficient 
to observe, that it is wholly unsup- 
ported by evidence. No proof has 
ever been furnished of tne exist- 
ence of ideas coeval with the ex- 
istence of the human mind. Be- 
sides, it is completely at variance 
with unauestionable facts, in rela- 
tion to the occasions on which our 
ideas are first suggested. 

In regard to manv of our simple 
notions, there can be no difficulty 
in determining the occasions upon 
which they are first suggested to 
the mind. We form a notion of 
colour by the exercise of sight ; of 
sound by the exercise of hearing;. 
In l^e same manner, all our simple 
notions respecting the qualities of 
material objects, are primarily sug- 
gested, by the exercise of our pow- 
ers of external perception. A 
person destitute of any of the ex- 
ternal senses, must ever remain ig- 
norant of those peculiar qualities of 
matter, which are the appropriate 
objects of that sense of which he is 
destitute. 

In like manner, we are capable 
of pointing out the occasion, upon 
which many of our notions have 
been formed about intellectual and 
moral subjects. And if we should 
be unable to trace all our simple 
notions to the occasion which first 
suggested them, it would by no 
means be a matter of astonishment. 
It would be unreasonable to expect 
the case to be otherwise, consider- 
ing the weakness of memory; the 
rapidity of our mental operations ; 
and above all, that many of our 
most important ideas are formed 
during our early years, before the 
mind has acquired the power of 
attending to the sul^ects of its con- 
sciousness. 

It is agreeable iWefoce to i\V 



( 



62 



Philosophy subsennmt to Bdigion. 



Fjbi. 



the facts submitted to our ezami- 
natioDt and to the analogy of other 
parts of our constitution, to believe 
that all our simple ideas are sug- 
gested primarilj by the exercise of 
our external senses; and by the 
yarious occasions upon which the 
human understanding is called into 
operation* 

The celebrated doctrine of Mr. 
Locke, that all our ideas are de- 
riyed from sensation and reflec- 
tion, is equally wide of the truth 
with the doctnne of innate ideas; 
unless, indeed, the word reflection 
be used with a latitude of meanine, 
which is altogether unwarranted; 
so as to include consciousness, me- 
mory, abstraction, reasoning, and 
in fact every mode and exercise in 
which the mind can be employed, 
except sensation, or external per- 
ception. 

Xhat the su^estions of our mo- 
ral faculty, or in other words, that 
the dictates of the human under- 
standing upon subjects of a moral 
nature, are essentially different 
from every other class of intellec- 
tual operations, seems incontrover- 
tible by any rational being. To as- 
sert the contrary, would amount to 
a contradiction in the very terms 
of the proposition. The 8un;es- 
tions in question constitute a chief 
characteristick of man; by which 
he is distinguished and elevated 
above the different tribes of lower 
animals. 

Moral and relicious truth is sug- 
gested to the mind in yarious ways ; 
according to the nature and facul- 
ties which our Maker has bestow- 
ed upon us; and according to the 
circumstances in whicli we are 
placed. 

A variety of moral sentiments 
are immediately excited, by a view 
of the conduct of rational beings 
towards each other, in the different 
relations of social life. Such is the 
constitution of our rational nature, 
that whenever suitable occasions 
are presented, various moral senti- 
ments and judgments are suggest- 



ed to our minds. Thz human un- 
derstanding is as well adapted to 
the perception of moral tmtli, at 
any other kind of truth. Notwith* 
standing the natural and culpable 
blindness of the human mind, in 
relation to spiritual and divine ex- 
cellence, we cannot, when the sub- 
jects are duly presented to our con- 
sideration, avoid perceiving the 
essential difference between risht 
and wrong^, justice and injustice, 
truth and falsehood. 

These are the natural and appro- 
priate objects of the understanding. 
No laboured reasonings, or refined 
speculations, are necessary to ena- 
ble us to perceive that justice, 
goodness, and truth, are excellent 
and commendable in their own na- 
ture; and that injustice, malevo- 
lence, and falsehood, are intrinsi- 
cally wrong, and deserving of pun- 
ishment. Accordingly, we find 
that the most unenli^tened nations 
have a conception of right and 
wrong in human conduct, and a 
conviction of the intrinsick excel- 
lence and indispensable obligation 
of certain actions, and of the un- 
lawfulness and turpitude of others. 

The constitution of society, and 
the dispensations of Providence to- 
wards men, serve to suggest many 
of our moral judgments. We per- 
ceive that certain duties belong to 
men, according to the situation in 
which they are placed, and accord- 
ing to the relation which they sus- 
tain to others. It is judged to be 
the duty of parents to protect and 
support their children— of children 
to honour and obey their parents— 
of rulers to be just and beneficent 
—of subjects to be respectful and 
obedient. All the relations of life 
are thus believed to infer certain 
duties, as being peculiar and appro- 
priate to the persons who sustun 
them. 

The exceptions to these remarks, 
which some may suppose are fur- 
nished by the history of human 
opinions, are oi\ly apparent. They 
do not prove a contrary judgment. 



PMoKph'^ wbaervitBi la Bdigian. 



IB regard to the same action, when 
Tiewcd in the ume KBpect " In 
one countrr," ujb Dr. Paley, "it 
ii esteemed an office of piety in 
children to sastain their axed pa- 
rents; in another, to despatCQ them 
oot of the wa;: that suicide, in one 
age of the wiKld, hai been heroism, 
is in another felonj'! that theft, 
which ia paniahed by moat laws, bj 
the lawi of Sparta was not nnfre- 
qnentlj rewarded,'* &c. 

Ilieae erToneoui jtidgoKnta eri- 
dentij arose from a misUen ai^li- 
catioB of Mne mle of dutj;^ or 
Bome principle of our constitution, 
to a particular case, to which it was 
not properly applicable. The mo- 
ral jidgments of mankind are uni- 
form within certain limits. DiSer- 
encea of opinion either relate to 
the leas obvioos distinctions of right 
and wrong, or originate in the per- 
veruon ut' some original principle 
of oar nature. 

The ooDseqaencea, which we ob> 
•erre to be connected with differ- 
ent actiona, serve to strengthen and 
cmfim the independent decisions 
of tiie moral faculty. Oar indginent 
of the intrinmck rectitude irf jus- 
tice, veradty, fidelity, and other 
AiMlameBtal principles of morality, 
' receive an additional sanction and 
confimatioB, from observing their 
generftl tendency to promote indi- 
ridnal and pubiick wel&re. On 
the other band, oar natural disap. 
probatiao of injustice, fraud and 
falsehood, is increased, by a view 
of their evil consequences. 

In oUier instances, onr moral 
judgments may be indicated origi- 
nal^, by onr ofaeervation of ttie 
peminoHB effects of a particnlar 
sctioD or Gonne of conduct. In 
ihia way, we must discover that 
the indil^nce of our natural pro- 
penalties, in certain circumstances, 
and to a certain extent, are evil 
and wnn^ The namcrous evils 
GOBseqacDt npoB a free use of ar- 
dent spirits, prove it to be vicious 
and blameable. 

Haay impofteDt tntiii^ ofa mo- 



ral and religiouB nature, are sug- 
gested by attentive reflection opon 
the powers and principles of the 
haman cooBtitution. Tne constitu- 
tion of our rational nature may be 
viewed as a revelation from Grod. 
This important truth is plainly 
taught, in the compreheuuve and 
expressive language employed in 
reference to our creation: "And 
God said, let us make man in onr 
image, after onr likeness. So God 
created man in his own image: 
in the image of God created ne 
him." 

Although this language princi- 
pally regarded the holy nature 
with which man was endowed at 
his creation, yet, it is also tme, in 
regard to many of the essential 
powers and pnociples of onr ra- 
tional constitution. Man conti- 
nues, even in his ivesent state of 
condemnation and depravity, to be 
the image and representative of his 
Maker. According to the degree 
in which a finite being can resem- 
ble one who is infinite, man still 
besTB the imsge of God, in many of 
the essential principlei of his ra- 
tional nature. 

This fact is virtually recognised, 
in all onr knowledge and inquiries 
respecting the attributes and dis- 
pensations of God. Our own pow- 
ers and attributes are the natural 
and primary elements, bv which we 
judge of tiie powers ana attributes 
of ^1 other beings. As we are in- 
capable of forming a distinct con- 
ception of a material object, so far 
as it is entirely unlike what has 
previously come under the notice 
of external perception, in like man- 
ner we are incapable of forming a 
distinct and positive conception of 
an attribute of mind, whicn bears 
no resemblance to any thing sug- 
gested bythe exercise of conacioui- 
ness. Our conceptions of acdvitjr, 
intelligence, and power, are pri- 
marily suggested bj the operations 
of our own mind. We are con- 
sciois of perception, «ea«a.tiQa,ns& 
volition.; and the coa^taXJum «l( 



64 



Philosopky subservient to BeBgimL 



^nr nature, letds us to refer these 
operations to a thinking and actiye 
beitigt whose nature and capacity 
correspond to them. It is evidenti 
tfierefore, that our notions, of the 
powers and qualities of mind, are 
first formed bj reflecting upon the 
vaHous mental operations of which 
we are conscious. 

From the external actions of our 
fellow creatures, which indicate ac- 
tivity, intelligence, and sensibility, 
we infer that they are active, in- 
telligent, and sentient beings like 
ourselves. 

From the various effects and 
changes, which we observe every 
where around us, we infer the ex- 
istence of a Being, whose attributes 
correspond to them; a Being of in- 
finite power, wisdom and goodness, 
who is the almi^ty apd intelligent 
Author of all things. 

Although we are unable to form 
a distinct conception of an attribute 
of mind, entirely dissimilar to any 
thing of which we are conscious, 
yet we find no difficulty in con- 
ceiving of powers, very different in 
iBgree from our own. When we 
vntness effects far above what we 
are able to produce, we naturally 
ascribe a corresponding superiority 
of power to the agent, by whom 
they are produced. Hence we are 
led to ascribe to our Creator, all 
the excellences that belong to our 
constitution, in an infinite dome. 
The magnitude, grandeur, ana va- 
riety of his works— the wisdom, the 
beneficence and the righteousness 
of his dispensations— manifest the 
infinite perfection of his nature, 
our absolute dependence upon him, 
and consequently, our obligation to 
serve and glorify him, witii all the 
powers which we possess. 

The process of the mind which I 
have described, although natural, 
and to a certain extent unavoida- 
ble, requires the direction of a cau- 
tious and sound judgment We 
are in danger of great error, if we 
suppose that others are, in 4lery 
respect, like ourselves. In regard 



to the essential powers and 
pies of rational natures, ^ 
no other way of judging; 
our conceptions are defec 
erroneous, we have no m 
correcting them. When c 
ceptions relate to the at 
and operations of the Divini 
they must, in many reap 
very inadequate and defecti 
must be the case even when 
damental laws of our ratioi 
stitution furnish the princif 
which they are founded : b 
they are suggested by the nc 
imperfections of our liml 
ture ; and still more by the 
irregularities of our corrupt 
they must be not only inac 
but false and criminal. 

The natural tendency 
minds is to invest with c 
resembling our own, not c 
fellow men, but also those i 
and superior bein^, whom 
or superstition brings to ou 
led&;e. Idolatrous nations 
to tneir imaginary deities, i 
the original and essential at 
of our rational constituti 
also many of the weaknes 
vices, which belong to mai 
imperfect and depraved 
Corrupt men, whatever tfa 
portunities of acquiring i 
tion may be, are eztremel; 
to form corrupt notions < 
Hence the severe reproof co 
in the language of the Pi 
** But unto the wicked God 
thou thoughtest that I was 
ther such a one as thysell 
will reprove thee, and set 
order before thine eyes." 

From the same cause we 
ble to judge erroneously of 
low men. The innocent an 
ous are slow in believing 
their neighbour. The rog 
the proflisate, judging by 
selves, will scarcely give 
man, the credit of integr 
disinterestedness. 

An attentive consideratic 
works and dispensations 






Trnvils ni Kurrprj',.'' Jlnllh in Is:m. 



u.> 



v«ill load our niiiicls to a knuw- 
ieiliro uf the jilory of his nature; 
nU uistioni, power anil y:(»oilne.s^, 
i'i^ inco:ii|»relieii'.ible jjrealne^s, 
Viul\er'*iil >u|neiiiacy, and his un- 
remitted and irresistible a^eiuy. 

One important use of <*:enuine 
science, is to enable us to perceive 
the immediate operation of Divine 
|ni\ver, in all the than^jjes pre:ient- 
eil to our view in tiie material uni 
>ersvt. It is a;:reeable to the nio.sl 
enlii^htened philosophy, that matter, 
however niodilied or combined, i^ 
essentially inert; and con.^equent- 
Ijthat all its chanj^es are protluted 
i»v the immediate ane.ncy of mind. 
Mind alone is essentially active, 
an>l capable of ori»inatinirand con- 
ti.'iiiin:; motion. The laws of na- 
ture, or the laws of motion, which 
•soiue i^norantlv mistake for efli- 
cient cau'-es, denote either j;ene- 
ral facts, or dillerent modes of Di- 
vine operation. 

Fijilo<»ophical inquirers have ge- 
neraily discovered a disposition to 
C'lduiie God from the <!;overnment 
of the world, both intellectual and 
material; and to account for the 
Various changes which take place, 
imleperideutly of his universal and 
immediate interposition. Men will 
niUier spe.ik absurdly, and without 
any rational nieaniniTi than aj?cribe 
•Jie events and chanj!;»*s which wo 
witness, to the Aimi;:;hty Creator 
and Governor of the world. They 
are disposed rather to ascribe them 
t*» nature, to the laws of nature, to 
J'iC natural tendency of thinj;s; 
•ord'* which ha\e no distinct and 
*»ic»»!li*|;iblc meanini:; unlo^^s they 
ire t-mpliiyed to siiiiiify that order 
ot'e%».*nts which God h.is e>tablish- 
t<i. and which he carrio-* into effect 
liY his incessant operation. 

This conduct is both irrational 
aiid impious. It assimilates the 
e'.Titjral style of |)hilosophical sys- 
iTiik^i to Epicurean atheism and ab- 
surdity. It invests nature, and the 
i.i'A* of nature, with the attributes 
wi Deity, and the government, of 
tlio world, to the excJusinn uf ih'' 



aihiiu-htv and inteHiu:(Mit Author cd* 
all thirsirs. It deprivo^ (iod cd' the 
' liMV due to him for \\\^ wotulerful 
woruH »if cieatimi and pii»\idence; 
and tends to lead awav our minds 
from tiie contemplation of his per 
fections and universal agency. 



IllWi'l... l\ I liROl'K H)U KKAkTH IV 
IblliK UY AN AM J JllJAN ClKll(i\ 
M\N Ol' Tilt. sWoLf OK )'MII.\nr.I. 
riilA. 

i ( ■■j?::i:rutr!i /.um p. 1 "I ) 

My dear Friend, — That i may 
iiot entirely disajipoint your rea- 
sonable curiosity, I mu'-t ti v tt» sav 
.something: of mv short soiourn in this 
vast mctropcdis, which I expect to 
leave in a few da}s. 1 have had a 
busy time since 1 came here. 
Anxious to make the most of my 
brief fcstay in the place, L have been 
from morniii]^ till ni«cht, j^oing from 
place to place, taking a hasty look 
at the multiplicity of objects which 
crowd upon the stranger's atten- 
tion; and the result is, a perfect, 
chaos in my mind. i3y the time [ 
am a few months out of l^ondon, it 
will be to me like a dream, that 
ever 1 havv» been in it. And in 
truth mv verv curiositv has become 
jaded; so that I cease to look with 
half the interest 1 did at lirst, or 
tiiat a stranu^cr would who had 
jiisf. arrived in full health, and 
witli time o!i hand to allow him 
to i;o leisurely to work, with<»ut 
makinij: ** a toil cd' a tdea'^un*/' 1 
nientiutied in niv last, that the dav 
whirli brouiiiht mc heie, was one of 
«'Xf|ul>ite enjoyment. The itiea of 
being in Old i\U!:i;l(tml, and on the 
road to London, coudiining with 
tho tlihMie.-.s id' the weather, tl»e 
beauty and lertilitv of tlu^ countiy 
on the whole route, could hardly 
fail to ])roduce an exeitenient in 
the mind, of a very hii;h y:rade. 
IJut our animal syslewx \s «>v> cvjw- 
strijctod. that hv^U ii\c\Uu\t\\t. Vc\V» 



Gu 



'i'luvds in 2Cur'Jitj>ir Utulth in ISvlU. 



up for any ;i;rcat lonislli of liiiu', 
will subside into satiety and relax- 
ation, ufteo followed with depres- 
siun; at least so it is with iiic, 
and so 1 found it on this ori-a>if»ii. 
In the htas;e tavern, deserted of all 
my traveliitij; associates, 1 !»pent a 
solitary evening, on the ni^ht of 
my arrival, amidst a bustle of 
strange company, who cared no- 
thing for me. 

The next mornin*;, I had a {si- 
lent breakfast, at a small table in 
the eating room, by myself. A 
common breakfast-table, for the 
whole company, as ollen prevails 
in the United .States, is not known 
here. Ilish-ilvers take their break- 
fasts in their chanibers. The com- 
mon eating-room is crowded with 
tables of all dimensions, from the 
small round stantl for an indivi- 
dual, to the oblons; board sufficient 
to accommodate a du'/.en. So that 
he who cotiii's alone, feeils alone; 
and every party keeps by it- 
self. Whatever bmefii may at- 
tend this arrangement, it operates 
badlv on the solitary stranijer, bv 
excluding him from the opportuni- 
ty of a sociable meal — the best i)f 
all opportunities for "scraping"* an 
acquaintance with fellow slran^ei'*. 
Thus situated, with a mind jaded 
by the travel and excitement of 
tfie preceding; day, and ruminating 
on home, 1 have seldom felt more 
solitary than on the tirst morning 
in London. No doubt, my depres- 
sion was not a little increased, by 
the anticipated distress incident to 
a very shy mortal, compelled to 
beg, by introductory letters, the 
kind offices of strangers. It was 
with no small reluctance 1 ven- 
tured, under the direction of a 
guide, to sally into the crowdctl 
streets, in <piest i»f the Uev. Dr. 
Waush. It was a little dav's jour- 
ney to his house. Happily I found 
him at home, and was snon set per- 
fectly at ea^e, by the Christian 
brotherly kindness of his reception. 
Through his kindness 1 have been 
a^a'in provided with a home for a 



few davs, in the family 
his parishioners, in a cei 
of the city. 

'i'wo thinzs cannot fai 
stranger, on his first coi 
London, with amazement 
mensity of its size, and 
ness of its business, lii 
si'/.e, Paris dwindles into 
on a comparison. To pat: 
London, is a journey of 
extent. From a walk o 
of Mcux's brewery, a ^ 
huilfliiisr, situated on an 
part, I had a view over th 
part f»f the city; which ir 
rections appeared to extc 
as I could see, even to th 

the hori/.on. Mr. S , 

man with whom 1 had 
little ac({uainted in 1 
when he was there some ^ 
and the only individual 1 
with abroad whom 1 h 
seen in my own country, 
enough to devote a day 
bling with me over the to' 
an early breakfast, we 
house with an understan 
it would be out of the qi 
think of returning to dii 
accurdifis:ly at the distar 
estimation, of about th 
from his house, we din 
eatinsf-hoMse. The man 
ness in London, must i 
ininieif^e drud^irerv in 
tranarai'tKins, trom the di 
jtlaces, f»r he suiiject to h( 
tion in the hire of hackne 
The nuinher of these vi 
Paris surprised mc; but v 
are not to he compared t 
London tin* multitude. 

To see the shipping, 
houses, the custom-house 
chan^^r, Ike. &c. cannot f: 
cite an ama/.ins: iilea idtl 
of business transacted in 
'I'he learJinuj idea impress 
mini! rrlativc to Paris is, 1 
place of pleasure; but I 
emphatically a place of 
Nothin;^, however, produi 
mind so much astonishnu 



iscr. 



Travels in Europe fn- Ileal Ih la l3Jo. 



o. 



vdat scale on which business is 
transacteil here, as the Hank of 
Knglancl. A mercantile friend con- 
ducted me through it. The space 
of ground which the building occu- 
piers, the number and size of the 
rooms, but above all, the multitude 
of clerks and persons in its employ 
—estimated at about two thousand 
—sink every thing of the kind 
which I have seen elsewhere, into 
insignificance. One large room, 
connected with the building, is ap- 
propriated to stockjobbing transac- 
tions. And here a scene present- 
ed itself, on which I looked with 
as much astonisliment, as on any 
tluDg I have seen in London, ft 
was crowded with people on their 
feet, seeming to be in incessant 
motion, and every one vociferat- 
ing as loud as he was able. The 
hubbub was most astounding, and 
a perfect Babel of confusion. Per- 
sons without business were not al- 
lowed to go farther than the door. 
Here I looked on, perfectly inca- 
pable of discovering what the wild 
nproar could mean. The explana- 
tion given by my friend was to this 
amount. That there were so many 
calling out the name.^ of persons 
they wished to find in the house, or 
the kind of stock in which they 
wished to traffick, &c. that those 
in conversation were compelled to 
apeak in the loudest tunes, in order 
to hear each other. 

The churches, and the state of 
church affairs, you will readily 
inppose, has made a principal ob- 
ject of my attention. Yet on this 
^abject I have gathered but little 
worth putting on paper. To a re- 
publican and a Presbyterian, ac- 
customed to the equality of rights 
and privileges existing among the 
<iifferent religious denominations in 
the United States, it is not a little 
grating, to see the proud superio- 
rity of the churches of the estab- 
lishment, over the chapels, as the 
houses of worship belonging to dis- 
senters are called. The churches 
^rtgenerulJf large majcstick build- 



ingys, maru' of them ornamented 
wItIi vast steeples, bells, and clocks^ 
while the chapels are comparatively 
quite small, humble erections, witn 
little ornament, eithi»r in their in- 
terior or exterior. Very few of the 
dissenting churches, which have 
come under mv notice, are to be 
compared in point uf sr/.e and or- 
nament, to many of tlie churches in 
Philadelphia and New York. The 
immense pile of building called St. 
PauPs Cathedral, of which you 
have often heard, is scarcely to be 
regarded as a place of worship. 
More than three-fourths of its vast 
interior is completely vacant, ex- 
cept the pictures and monuments 
with whicli it is ornamented. One 
small section, enclosed with an 
iron railing, and furnished with 
pews, is appropriated to Divine ser- 
vice. 1 was present one forenoon, 
when a high dignitary of the church 
read the church service to a few at- 
tendants. In parade and forma- 
lity, it appeared very nearly to cor- 
respond with tlie Popish mass I 
have so often witnessed in France. 
To me, the whole exhibition was 
more like any thing else than de 
votion. 

At the invitation of Dr. >Vaugh, 
who is the chairman, 1 attended a 
meeting of the Board of Managers 
of tiie London Missionary Society, 
and heard the examination of three 
vouns: men, who offered themselves 
to be received as missionaries, to 
go wheresoever the Board may 
choose to send tiiem. 1 need not 
tell you the gratification 1 felt, at 
beins introduced to some of the 
leading men of a society, whose 
formation is an era in the church; 
almost equal in importance to any 
thing that has taken place, since 
the days of the apostles — the re- 
formation from Popery excepted. 
My heart hailed tiie magnanimous 
men, who divesting themselves of 
sectarian prejudices, and forbear- 
in": one another in \o\e o\\ vVv^ 
subject of minor d\ftcvei\ce*t wktl 
in common councW, auA uxuVt^ 



08 



Travels in Europe for Health in 1820. 



thiiir means and their energies, to 
send tiie gospel into all lands — 
sealing their attachment to each 
other as brethren, and their de- 
voted ness to the common cause, by 
participating at the same commu- 
nion table, in the memorials of their 
crucified Redeemer. Already the 
fruits of their co-operation are such 
as correspond to such an auspicious 
commencement. We have reason 
to say, " what hath God wrought" 
by their means — And what hath 
God wrought by their agency, not 
only in heathen lands, but by the 
awakehing impulse given to the 
slumbering church of God, in other 
places throughout the world. 

This society have formed a mis- 
sionary museum, consisting of the 
various items of curiosity, which 
the missionaries have been able to 
send home from the countries they 
have visited. Already the collec- 
tion fills two rooms, and promises 
in the course of some time to be- 
come very interesting. One arti- 
cle lately received, cannot be view- 
ed, 1 think, without awakening 
much feeling. It is a collection of 
Otaheitean gods. You have already 
been informed, that these late ido- 
laters, since their conversion, have 
packed up their gods, and sent 
them in a chest to London, as a 
present to the Missionary Society. 
There are a great many of them, 
arranged on the shelves of the mu- 
seum. And truly they are an ex- 
hibition worth looking at. West- 
minster Abbey has shown me no- 
thing that has produced in iny 
mincT so much excitement. They 
are of different sizes, made of 
wood, and painted. Some of them 
are ornamented with feathers, &c. 
Their figure is a combination of the 
human with the brutal shape, in a 
way to give effect to all that is 
ugly and frightful in appearance. 
Surely they are fit to represent the 
hatefulness of devils, and corres- 
pond well with the shocking rites 
of devil worship. Who that has a 
Arart to feel, can refrnin from re- 



joicing that the mercy of Go 
rescued a portion of the h 
race from the horrors of su 
idolatry ! And who that has i 
to bestow, would grudge to ^ 
for a purpose so n<ible. 

In or out of the establish m 
do not learn that there is a 
the clergy of London any m 
this time, of very superior 
brity. Among the evangelical • 
the Uev. Daniel Wilson, o 
Episcopal church, has been 
tioned as one of the most p 
nent. For the time, 1 have 
as much preaching as 1 coul 
tain, and most of it has been 
preaching; but nothing super 
what I have frequently hea 
my own country. The Rev 
Waugh, to whose kind attent: 
am much indebted, is a man 
out show; but unless I am 
mistaken, of great worth. 1 
an pld Scotchman, who has 
ministered to a congregation < 
countrymen, belonging to the 
gher sccedcrs. Under his min 
tions, the congregation has gi 
prospered ; and it would have 
strange had it been othei 
considering his talents, his ; 
and peculiarly conciliating 
ners. His large muscular pi 
mild countenance, and gray I 
give him a very venerable ap 
ance; while his sprightly, pi 
humour, renders his convers 
very attractive. Like most Sc 
men, he has a strong predilc 
for his country, with a sufii 
attachment to the church o 
secession, to which he belongs 
much relaxed from the rigid 
of Christian communion, ^ 
have characterized that cli 
both in Europe and America 
few evenings ago, I attended i 
church of Mr. Burder, to hea 
venerable Independent, ^ 
printed discourses, under the 
of " Village Sermons," have 
so popular in our country. 1 
in his place Dr. Waugh, whi 
no scruple to conform to the 



is^2r. 



Traftsatlantick IlecolUdions, 



09 



I of him whose pulpit he supplieil, by 

tnving out the Psalms uf Dr. Watts, 
before and after his sermon. Indeed 
it appears from all I have learned, 
that the controversy on the sub- 
ject of psalmody, which has been 
so keenly agitated with us, is pro- 
perly American, and is hardly 
known in Europe. 

I remain^ truly, 
I Yours, &c. 



IBANS\TLAVnCK RECOLLRCirONS. 

JVo. X. 

{CBntinutd from pnje 15 ) 

A Communion Season in the JVorth 
of Ireland. 

The sacrament of the Supper is 
observed twice in the year, spring 
and fall. The time is generally an- 
nouoced from the pulpit some weeks 
before. The arrival of communion 
veek is farther noticed by a sermon 
peculiar to the occasion, preached 
on the Sabbath which immediately 
precedes it; and from that time un- 
til the middle of the week which 
sQcceeds it, even a stranger may 
know by the look and words and 
gestures of the people, that some- 
thing of a deep and solemn interest 
occupies their attention. On the 
Tharsday before the communion a 
My fast is observed; when it is 
expected that the congregation, lay - 
log aside all secular employment, 
Hill come up to the house of the 
Lord, where a sermon, appropriate 
to the occasion, is preached by the 
pa&tor. After sermon and a deep 
aoii searching exhortation, the pas- 
tor informs the congregation of tiic 
names of those brethren whom he ex- 
pects to assist him on the approLich- 
ing occasion ; as well as of the times 
and pitrts in which they are to act. 
^Saturday is the day of immediate 
preparation ; when a sermon, by oiu' 
of the invited brethren, is preached 
to the congregation ; and after tiie 
i: 1 use of the services, th e if us tov of 



the church, descending from the 
pulpit to the clerk^s desk, distri- 
butes to the members of the church 
tokens of admission to the table of 
the Lord ; and without a token, no 
person would presume on the com- 
ing day to approach the sacred 
board. This, you will perceive, is 
done to prevent imposture, lest any 
profane person, or one iiuHouiid in 
doctrine, should come presumptu- 
ously to the holy ordinance. This 
day may be called the preparation 
of the Sabbath; and hence every 
thing is done necessary to make the 
Sabbath literally a holy day of rest: 
and when the Sabbath sun arises, 
he shines on a people still and so- 
lemn — the deep feelings of the heart 
are depicted on their calm and con- 
templative countenances — and save 
the voice of prayer and praise, the 
whole neighbourhood looks some- 
thing like a land over which the si- 
rocco blast had just passed. Rut 
this is of short duration; for at an 
early hour, every field and pathway 
and road, leading to the holy tem- 
ple, is literally thronged — the whole 
neighbourhood seems to turn out 
with one consent — every cottage 
pours forth its inhabitants for miles 
around ; and thev stream alon<; to 
the church of God fiom every di- 
rection, like lines from the circum- 
ference of a circle to its centre, in 
which they all meet and mingle. 

Nor is tills confined to any one 
particular denomination; for appa 
rently forgetting their distinctive in 
their generic appellation, all ranks 
and sects press forward to the 
church, in which the Holy Supper 
is to be celebrated. The first tliin? 
which arrests the attention of a 
stranger is a table, placed at the 
gate which udmlt^a into the church 
enclosure, covered with a white 
cloth, on which is placed a large 
pewter plate, attended by an elder, 
to receive the collection. On this 
plate every one deposites what his 
pocket or his inclination permits. 

If the day is p\e\\aSL\\\,\V.w;tu^xA\>3 
Imp pens that l\\e c\\vxrc\\ caLUwv)\.cQ\v« 



TO 



Transatlantick Recollections. 



1 



tain more than two-thirds of the 
people ; but to remedj this, a tent 
18 erected on the outside among the 
tombs; and seated upon the little 
hillocks which mark the resting 
places of the dead, those who can- 
not get into the church listen to a 
sermon, preached by one of the cler- 
gymen who assist the pastor on the 
occasion. And perhaps to a heart 
capable of reflection, a more solemn 
situation can hardly be conceived, 
than those moments of silence which 
precede Hie commencement of these 
external services. Only think of a 
living congregation scattered amons 
the congregation of the dead, and 
the one equally silent as the other; 
the living waiting with suppressed 
breathing for the voice of the preach- 
er, and the dead, not more noiseless, 
waiting for the sound of the archan- 
gel's trump. It is indeed a time of 
such eloquent silence, that perhaps 
words, however appropriate, are in- 
truders at such A time. 

" O man, if aught can ever thnist 
Thy proud, proud forehead to the dust. 

It surely must be here ! 
No voice can ever seem so dread. 
As this same stillness of the dead." 

In the mean time, in the church, 
the pastor preaches what is called 
the actioji sermon; explains the or- 
dinance, fences the tables, and 
serves the first; while the others 
are attended to by the assisting 
clergymen in their turn. Thisgives 
a novelty and interest to the meet- 
ing, which is highly pleasing and 
instructive. The communicants sit 
at tables spread in the aisles; and 
oh ! how terribly solemn is it, when 
part of a family, or the occupants of 
a pew, arise and go to the table of 
the Lord, and leave a part behind ! 
It looks like the separation which 
shall take place at the last great 
congregation, " when the dead, 
small and great,'* shall stand in 
judgment. On such an occasion, 
when left behind, I have felt an 
aguish chill pervade my whole sys- 
tem, and a momentary feeling as if 
a dart had passed through my^eart. 



Oh! Mr. Editor, what must b* 
strength of those incipient fee 
of damnation which will take 
session of the heart, when the 
ner is separated from Christ 
from all his holy relatives, on ' 
great day, for which all other 
were made !" 

After the peculiar services c 
day are over, the whole cong 
tion leave the church, and r 
ling with those without, listen 
concluding sermon. And whei 
mighty assembly lift up tlieir v 
in the sublime language of 
Psalmist, what a rapturous and 
echo seems to pass from ton 
tomb, and from vault to vault, 
the pious dead were privilege 
join once more in this "work 
worship so divine." The lo: 
day is almost too short for 
sacred exercises, and often d 
people repair to their habitat 
and sit down by candle ligl 
tlieir cold dinners. Nor are tm 
vices of this holy season ended 
here ; for on Monday, which i 
day of thanksgiving, the peopl 
pear once more in the " great 

fregation,'' to bless the Lor 
is mercies; when an approf 
sermon is delivered bv one o 
assistants— after which, the p 
retire withjoyous and uplifted < 
tenances to their respective h( 
And so full sometimes do these 
people appear to be of " right 
ness and peace in believing," 
their very looks seein to gi\ 
invitation to the " weary and I: 
laden" to come to Christ — brii 
vividly to our recollection the 
morable conclusion of the tea 
tabernacles, when Jesus stooi 
and " cried, saying. If any 
thirst, let him come unto me 
drink." 

The above description of an 
communion season, though no^ 
some of your readers, win be r< 
nised by others, as the niann* 
which such seasons were obsc 
among Presbyterians in this < 
try, at no very distant period 



Ibi". 



Spiritual Distress relievoL 



L 



insrance of ^hich we have in the 
life of the apostolic Brainerd. At 
the beautiful and picturesque little 
village of Abington, within eleven 
miles of Philadelphia, where the 
Rev. Mr. Steel now dispenses with 
faithfulness and assiduity the 
"bread of life," Messrs. Brainerd 
and Beat J attended as assistants 
to Mr. Treat, at his communion in 
the April of 1745. Thej arrived 
thereon Saturday, while Mr. Treat 
was preaching; after which Mr. 
Brainerd delivered a sermon. On 
the Sabbath, Mr. Treat preached 
vithin the church, and both Mr. 
Brainerd and Mr.Beaty on the out* 
side; and the services of this so- 
lemn occasion were concluded on 
Monday, by sermons from the same 
gentlemen. 



Sl'lRirUAL DESTIIESS UKLIEVED. 

In our number for November last 
it was stated, that a second letter, 
relative to the case of spiritual dis- 
tress then described, had been re- 
ceived from the subject of that dis- 
tress; and that this letter was ir- 
recoverably lost- So wc then be- 
lieved. But we have since re- 
ceived an obliging note from a fe- 
male friend at a distance — and for 
this she will accept our best thanks 
— informing us that she was permit- 
ted to take a copy of both the let- 
ters, a short time after thej had 
been received ; and enclosing a 
correct transcript, as we doubt not, 
of that which we had supposed to 
be lost. After considerable hesita- 
tion, we have concluded to publish 
this second letter. We have hesi- 
tated, because the letters cannot be 
fully understood, unless they are 
read in connexion, and because the 
!iecond contains such laudatory ex- 
pressions — the superaboundings of 
a grateful heart — as we well know 
that he to whom they were address- 
ed did not deserve. On the whole, 
however, knowing as we do, that a 
considerable number of our readers 
will he gratified bv a perusal of the 



following letter, we have determined 
to publish it without the alteration 
or addition of a single word. It will 
be recollected, that the text dis- 
coursed on was 1 John, v. 4. 

Rev. Sir, 

When you cast your eye upon 
these characters, you will no doubt 
recognise your anonymous friend. 
It was not my intention to have in- 
truded a second time; but 1 cannot 
resist the inclination I have to ad- 
dress a few more lines, by way of 
acknowledgment. For though you 
know me not, yet 1 think, to a ge- 
nerous mind, it may afford some sa- 
tisfaction to know, at least, that you 
have conferred an inexpressible ob- 
ligation on a heart not altogether 
insensible to its value. 

'Tis true, I cannot be certain, 
and perhaps it might be vain to sup- 
pose, that you honoured me with 
any particular reference, in your 
last excellent lecture — though some 
of the allusions appeared so striking 
and pointed, that an intimate friend 
of mine, who is older than myself, 
and can take the liberty of saying 
any thing she chooses (but who 
knew nothing of the circumstance 
of my writing) turned to me the mo- 
ment the discourse was concluded, 
and inquired with a significant 
smile, whether Mr. G. had given me 
notice of his intention to discuss 
that subject. 

However, whether jniur refe- 
rences were general or particular, 
is not a matter of importance; they 
had the same effect; and I feel my- 
self as much indebted and as thank- 
ful for the instruction conveyed, as 
if every line had been particularly 
dedicated to me. I wished for some 
discerning, intelligent director, and 
such it has pleased God to favour 
me with in you. I stand convinced 
and corrected; — I am in the situa- 
tion of one, who has long been 
searching in the dark for an object, 
which, when light is introduced, he 
findsjustathand. YqmVx^ln^^V^c^^ 
the subject before me \i\ QLnevi ^w\ 
clear noint of \^<*Vv^ — ^wvixe^X \\\^ 



72 



Spinttial Distress reUevcd, 



train of mj tbouehts into a differ- 
ent channel » and led me to a view 
of the cause and origin of many 
things before unaccountable. The 
moment your text was named, it 
darted upon mj mind like a raj of 
light. I perceived it led to a point 
in which I was deeply interested, 
and 1 felt the most fervent desire 
to be informed of the nature and 
properties of a principle, which 
promised such a difficult, and yet 
desirable and necessary victory. 
There was no necessity to call me 
to attention; every power of my 
soul was suspended in anxious ex- 
pectation-— nor was I disappointed. 
Light and conviction attended 
every word. I followed you tlirough 
the course of the argument with 
the greatest facility; and the re- 
flections appeared so just, natural, 
and obvious, that I could not but 
wonder I had never been led to 
make them before. I contemplated 
with a degree of admiration next 
to rapture, the exalted character of 
a Christian under the influence of 
this faith; though I felt myself at 
such an amazing distance, that I 
could but just look up to it. 

How very deficient have I been 
in this faith, which is the substance 
of things hoped for; the realizing 
belief and impressive sense of invi- 
sible things; which ^ives them a 
present subsistence m the mind, 
and enables it to overcome the 
world by a proper estimate. I had 
always an idea that there was such 
a faith, from the effects produced 
on others, and I have wished to 
possess it myself; but 1 never had 
such clear and convincing appre- 
hensions of its nature, necessity, 
and importance, as you, by a power 
which no other person seems to 
possess over mc, have g;iven me. 

The next question is, how shall 
I attain it? It is by acknowledg- 
ment the gift of God. ' lie only, 
who commanded light to shine out 
of darkness, can impart it; but he 
is infinitely gracious, nor will he 
fienj^ so Dccesshry a blessing to 



those who desire ii s: 
Christ is anointed a prop 
this must certainly be an 
purposes for which his t 
given. 

You have taught me to 
for not having attained i 
this faith already — I have I 
faithful to the grace receive 
sessed of a temper natura 
dent and indolently comp 
have indulged it to exce 
from an averseness to ostc 
have run into the contrary e 
and though numbered am 
professors of religion, hav< 
ed myself to be carried i 
the current, into a base anc 
tifiable conformity to the 
and practices of others. 

Before the men who hate his ca 
My treacherous heart has bl 

shame ; 
Loth to forego the world's appl 
I hardly dared avow his name. 

Yes! my irresolute he 
shrunk from the keen gi 
contempt, nor could consei 
crifice a little indulgence, 
for His sake who consented 
the glories of his exalted st 
to suffer ignominy, reproa 
death for me. Oh ! 1 am i 
thy of his name. I have 
hypocrite indeed, but of a t 
complexion from what I apf 
ed : — and could 1 expect, t 
ing virtually denied Him be 
world, lie would acknowle< 
when, secluded from ever 
was inclined to seek his J 
favour? Could I expect H 
grant me more light and 
perceptions, when I had so 
misimproved that already g 
have certainly more reason 
der and adore, that he did 
me up to a judicial blinc 
mind and hardness of heart 

Would to God I could 
tain, I should never act sue 
again; but oh, I am wes 
bruised reed; how shall 1 i 
torrent without, and triura 
the propensities of nature 



lB2r. The Canon of the Old and Miw Testaments, ^c* 

It I know your answer — tnr that faith 
r vUch is the evidence of tilings not 
i leen. I will endeavour to seek for 
_ it and cherish it. Will jou not as- 
rist me in your prayers? I know 
JOU will — fur you follow the exam- 
ple of Him who intercedes above, 
and despises not the weak. In this 



i o 



hope I take my leave, entreating 
you to. accept my moftt grateful and 
affectionate acknowledgments, and 
believe me to be, with the most ex- 
alted esteem. 

Reverend Sir, 

Yours, &c. &c. 

Feb, 28//I, 1791. 



UtetJteto. 



' 



TIE OAKON OF THE OLD AND NSW 
TESTAMENTS ASCERTAINED ; OV 

the Bible complete without the 
Jifocrypha ana unwritten Tradi- 
turns. By Archibald Alexander^ 
Professor of Didactic and Pole- 
mic Theology^ in tlie Theological 
Seminary at Princeton^ JV*. J.^— 
13mo.jip. 418. 

Among the many benefits which 
the church and the world derive 
from well conducted theological in- 
stitutions, we must reckon, as high- 
1t important, the publications of 
their able and pious professors. 
These professors are always select- 
ed with a primary reference to their 
talents and attainments; and their 
subsequent studies and occupation, 
enable them eventually to appear 
with great advantage, as authors on 
the most important topicks of tlico- 
logy. The justice of these remarks 
«e have already had the pleasure to 
see exemplified, to a cunsiderable 
extent, in the Theological Semi- 
nary of the Presbyterian church at 
Princeton. From one of its pru- 
fessors, heresy and schism liave re- 
ceived a merited and powerful rc- 
bnke; and by another, the evidences 
of divine revelation have been lu- 
cidly and attractively exhibited, 
and the Canon of Sacred Scripture 
ascertained and vindicated, in a 
compendious, popular, and satisfac- 
tory manner, rfor shall we forbear, 
on the present occasion, to express 
the pleasing anticipations that we 
cherish, of the benefits which the 
students of Biblicai criticism in our 

Vol. V.^Ch. Mr. 



country may hereafter derive, from 
the publications of the youngest 

I)rofessor of that seminary — should 
le live, as our prayer is that he 
may, to avail himself of the distin- 
guished advantages which he now 
enjoys in Europe, for improvement 
in oriental literature, anu in the va- 
rious knowledge by which the sa- 
cred volume may be illustrated. 

The work now under review 
should have received from us an 
earlier notice, if we had sooner 
been able to redeem the time ne- 
cessary to examine it, with that care 
and deliberation which its impor- 
tance merits. Its design will best 
bo made kno^n by tiie author. 

** One molive wliicli induced Uic au- 
tlior U) undertake the following compila- 
tion, was the desire of furnislung* a sup- 
plement to the liitle volume which he re- 
cently published, on the Evidences of 
the (Christian Reliprioui for the ar)^n>cnt 
for the tnith of Divine llevelation can- 
not be considered complete, w ithout the 
testimonies, bv wliicii the canonical au- 
thoriiy of the several books of scripture 
is cstablislied. liut he was also influ- 
enced by the consideration, that a con- 
venient and compendious work on this 
subject, is a desideratum, in our Enpflish 
theological literature. The works which 
we possess on the canon of scripture, are 
cither too learned or too voluminous, 
for the use of common readers. Besides, 
the whole subject has been seldom treat- 
ed by the same author; for while one 
vindicates tlie canon of the Old I'esta- 
nicnt alone, another confines himself to 
the settling of the canon of the New Tes- 
tament. 

"The obiect of the writer of this 
work is to exlubil a. com\veT\^\o>i^ \\tvj oS. 
the whole subject, gmd 'u\ &\xc\x ti \otu\ v 

K 



74 



The Canon of the (Hd and Jftiv Testanients, Sfc. 



will be level to the capacities of all de- 
scriptions of readers. He has aimed at 
bringing forward the result of the re- 
searches of learned men who have treat- 
ed this subject, in such a manner, that 
the substance of their works might be 
easily accessible to that numerous class 
of readers, who are unskilled in the 
learned languages. It was, moreover, his 
opinion, that such a volume as this, 
would not be unacceptable to theological 
students, and to clergymen, who have it 
not in their power to procure more cost- 
ly works.'" 



»> 



We entirely agree with Dr. A., 
*' that a convenient and compen- 
dious work on this subject — the Ca- 
non of Sacred Scripture — is a desi- 
deratum in our English theological 
literature"— Or we would rather say, 
that till this publication, it was a 
desideratum: for after examining 
every part of this little volume 
pretty closely, it is our deliberate 
judgment that the .desideratum is 
now nearly supplied. We doubt 
not indeed, that the author may im- 
prove his work in future editions; 
and we shall, in the sequel, notice 
what we take to be some slight im- 
perfections or oversights; but these 
detract very little, in our own esti- 
mation, from the general value of 

the performance. •* Usefulness" 

says Johnson, <* seldom depends on 
little things." We can truly say, 
that if we could have found such a 
book as the one before us in early 
life, we should have esteemed it a 
treasure; and that it would have 
saved us the trouble of gathering up, 
here and there, in detached parcels, 
much of the information which is 
here accumulated and condensed. 
No minister of the gospel, no theo- 
logical student, — nay, no reading 
man or woman, who prizes the Bible 
as all ought to prize it, should re- 
main contentedly ignorant of the 
subjects discussed in this publica- 
tion. To this opinion we think we 
shall have the suffrage of all our 
best informed readers, after they 
have perused and carefully consi- 
dered the table of contents. It is 
as follows: 



"Part I.— Introduction— 11) 
ance of ascertuning the true 
the Holy Scriptures. — Sect. I. 
and import of tlie word Canon.- 
stitution of the Canon of the ( 
ment by Ezra. — The Canon o 
Testament as it now exists, sane 
Christ and his Apostles — Cats 
the Books by some of the ear) 
— Agreement of Jews and Chi 
this subject. — III. Apocryphal 
Their ongin — Importance of di 
ing between Canonical and A; 
Books — Six Books of this c 
nounced Canonical by the C 
Trent — Not in the Hebrew, nor 
by the Jews, ancient or mod 
Testimonies of the Christian Fai 
of other learned men, down to 
of the Council of Trent, respe 
Apocrypha. — V. Internal evid< 
these Books arc not Canoni 
writers not prophets, and do no 
be inspired. — ^Vl. No Canonical 
the Old Testament has been I 
The Oral Law of tlie Jews witl 
dation. 

" Part II.— Sect. I. Method o 
the Canon of the New Testar 
Catalogues of the Books of the \ 
tament — Canonical Books only 
authority by tlie Fathers, and n 
Churches as Scripture. — III. 
the Books of the New Testame 
of the Gospels being written — 
the Evangelists. — IV. Teslimoni 
thew's Gospel — ^Time of pub 
Language in which it was origir 
posed. — V. Gospel of Mai'k — 
occasion published — Ascribed t( 
tation of Peter by all the Path 
Gospel of Luke — Testimonies o 
thers respecting it. — VII. The c 
of J. U. Michaelis, to the Cane 
thority of the Gospels of Mark a 
considered, and answered. — V 
Gospel of John — ^Life of the Eva 
Occasion and time of his writ 
nonical authority indisputable.— 
Acts of the Apostles — Luke tl 
— Canonical authority undisputc 
Fathers — Rejected only by nerc 
Testimonies to the Canonical au' 
the fourteen Epistles of Paul- 
nonical authori^ of the seven < 
Epistles. — ^XII. Canonical author 
Book of Revelation. — ^XIII. No ( 
Book of the New Testament 1 
lost. — ^XIV. Rules for determin 
Books are Apocryphal — some a( 
the Apocryphal Books which hi 
lost — ^AU of them condemned by 
going rules — Reason of the aboi 
such Books. — ^XV. Apocrypha 
which are still extant — Letter of 
King of Edessa to Jesus, and his : 



77ie CoHon of tlit Old and Mw Testaments, ^c. 



7i 



> tlie Laodiceans — Letters of 
neca — Protcvaiigelion of James 
spel of our Saviour^s infancy — 
of Pilate—The Acts of Paul 
a. — XVI. No part of the Chris- 
attion handed down by anwrit- 
>n. — Notes." 

) small recommendation of 
If that it is popular in its 
-«-It is so wntten as to be 
' intelligible to those who 
quainted with the learned 
s; and so likewise as to 
ttention, and even to afford 
tertainment to those who 
nterest in the general sub- 
e book will not, on this ac- 
s less acceptable to scho- 
1 to the mere English rea- 
ill afTord a gratification, 
5 could not otherwise re- 
ii\'ho has not heard the 
it from those unacquainted' 
t ancient languages, that 
liscussions are often so in- 
!d with Hebrew, Greek and 
at they cannot fully under- 
sm, and therefore often ne- 
im altogether? We know 
:ussions of this character 
o be indiscriminately con- 
; because justice cannot be 
iome subjects, without quo- 
rom the original languages 
cred volume. But scholars 

enough of these ; and we 
that some who are called 

would be willing to find 
hem than they do. 
inot be expected that we 
ive large extracts from this 
-Our space forbids it; and 
that very many of our read- 
peruse the whole for them- 

\Ve select as a specimen, 
owing paragraphs, which 
i first section ut the second 



question is often asked, when 
canon of the New 'I'cstamcnt 
d? andbvwhutauthontv? Manv 
'ho write and speak on thii« si]h> 
;ar to entertain a wronfc imprc.**- 
•cgard to it: as if iho liooks (»!' 
reslamcrU could not hrdfaiitlin- 
thc) were sunctiuiud ]•> sonjc 



ecclesiastical council, or bv some pub- 
lickly expressed opinion of the Fathers of 
Uie church; and as if any portion of their 
authority depended on their being col* 
lected into one volume. But the truth 
is, that every «ne of these books was of 
authority, as far as known, from the mo- 
ment of its publication; and its right to a 
place in the canon, is not derived from 
the sanction of any church, or council^ 
but from the fact, that it was written by 
inspiration. And the appeal to testimony 
is not to prove, that any council of 
bishops, or others, gave sanction to the 
book, but to show, that it is indeed the 
grenuine work of Blatthew, or John, or 
Peter, or Paul, whom we know to have 
been inspired. 

"The books of the New TesUment 
were, therefore, of full authority, before 
they were collected into one volmne; 
and' it would have made no diflTerenccy if 
they had never been included in one viv 
lume, but had retained that sepamte finn, 
in which they were first published. And 
it is by no means certain, tliat tlicse books 
were, at a very early period, bound in 
one volume. As far as we have any tes- 
timony on the subject, the probability is, 
that it was more customary to include 
them in two volumes: one of which was 
called the Gospel, and the other, the 
Apostles. Some of the oldest MSS. of 
the New Testament extant, appear to 
have been put up in this form; and the 
Fathers oflen refer to the scriptures of 
tiie New Testament, under those two 
titles. The question, when was the ca- 
non constituted, admits therefore, of no 
other proper answer than this, that as 
soon as the last book of the New Testa- 
ment was written and published, the Ca- 
non WIS completed. Dut if the question 
relates to the time when these books 
were collected together, and published 
in a single volume, or in two volumes, it 
admits of no definite answer ; for those 
churches which were situated nearest to 
the place, where any particular books were 
published, would, m course, obtun copies 
much earlier, than churches in a remote 
part of the world. For a considerable 
period, ihc collection of these books, in 
each church, must have been necessarily 
incomplete; for it would take some time 
to send to the church, or people, with 
whom the autcMjapbs were deposited, 
and to write off nir copies. This neces- 
sary process will also account for the fiust, 
that some of the smaller books were not 
received by the churches so early, nor so 
univcrsaliyi as the larger. The solidtudc 
of the churches to possess, immediately, 
tlic more extensive books of the New 
'IVstanicnt, would, doubtless induce 
liiciii to niuLc u i^rcul cuLcvCum \v) ^cvY\\\t^ 



76 



The Canon of the (Hd and Jftw Testaments, jr. 



copies; but probably, the raialler, would 
not be so much spoken of, nor wouki 
' there be so strong a desire to obtain them 
without deUy. Considering how difficult 
it is now, with all our improvements in 
the typographical art, to multiply copies 
of the scriptures vrith sufficient rapidity, 
it is truly wonderful, how so many 
churches as were founded during the 
first century, to say nothing of individu- 
als, eould all be supplied with copies of 
the New Testament, when there was no 
speedier method of producing them^ than 
by writing every letter witn the pen! 
The pen of a ready writer must then, in- 
deed, have been of immense value. The 
idea entertained by some, especially by 
DoDWiLL, that these books U^ for a bng 
time locked up in the coilers of the 
churches to which they were addressed, 
and totally unknown to the rest of the 
world, is m itself most improbable; and 
is repugnant to all the testimony which 
essts on the subject. Even as early as 
the time when Peter wrote his second 
Epistle, the writings of Paul were in the 
hands of the churches, and were classed 
with the other Scriptures.* And the ci- 
tation from these oooks by the earliest 
Christian writers, living in different coun- 
tries, demonstrates, that from the time of 
their publication, they were sought after 
witli avidity, and were widely dispersed. 
How intense tlie interest was which the 
first Christians felt in the writings of tlic 
apostles, can scarcely be conceived by us, 
who l)ave been familiar with these books 
from our earliest years. How solicitous 
would they be, for example, who had 
never seen Paul, but had heard of his 
wonderful conversion, and extraordinary 
labours and g^fts, to read his writings? 
and probably they who had enjoyed die 
high privilege of hearing this apostle 
preach, would not be less desirous of 
reading his Epistles! As we know, from 
the nature of the case, as well as from 
testimony, that many uncertain accounts 
of Christ's discourses and miracles had 
obtained circulation, how greatly would 
the primitive Christians rejoice, to obtain 
an authentick history, from the pen of an 
apostle, or from one who wrote precisely 
what was dictated by an apostle? We 
need no longer wonder, therefore, that 
every church should wish to possess a 
colloBtion of the writim of the apostles; 
and knowing them to Ge the productions 
of inspired men, tliey would want no 
further sanction' df their authoritpr. All 
that was requisite was to be certain, that 
the book was indeed written by the apos- 
tle, whose name it bore. And this leads 

• 2 Pet. ill. 14> 15. 



me to observe, that some things 
Epistles, which seem to commoi 
to be of no importance, were ol 
most consequence. Such as, J 
wAo lofte this epittie, Uc^'The . 
with mine own hand, — So Ivriti 
epiotle.^^Te oee how large a leti 
written unto you vdth mine own 
The oahsifUion by the hand of in. 
7^ oalMtaOon of Paul with i 
handt which io the token in ex^r 
This apostle commonly empi 
amanuensis; but that the chu 
which he wrote, might have the i 
of the genuineness of his epis 
seeing nit own hand writin^^, 
stantly wrote the oahuation^ hin 
much care was taken to have 
cred writings well authenticated 
first publication. And on the 
count it was, that he and the otl 
ties, were so particular in gi 
names, and the characters, of t 
were the bearers of their epistl 
it seems, that they were always 
ted to the care of men of hig 
tion in the church ; and commoi 
tlian one appears to have been 
with this important commission. 
« If it be inquired, what becai 
autographs of these sacred be 
why they were not preserved; 
would have prevented all uiicei 
specting the true reading, ar 
have relieved the biblical critii 
large ^are of labour ? It is suf 
answer, Uiat nothing different I 
red, in relation to these autogra 
that which has happened to all 
cient writings. No man can pn 
autograph of any book as old as 
Testament, unless it has been ] 
in some extraordinary way, as in 
of the manuscripts of HercuUne 
ther could it be supposed, thi 
midst of such vicissitudes, re' 
and persecutions, as the Christis 
endured, this obiect could have 
cured, by any thing short of a 
And God knew, that by a superi 
Providence over the sacrea w 
they could be transmitted with 
accuracy, by means of apograpl 
most distant generations. Inde 
is reason to believe, that the C 
of early times were so absorbe< 
pressed with the glory of the 1 
vcaled, that they g^ave themsel 
concern about the mere vehicle 1 
they were communicated. They 
ters of such deep interest, and 
before their eyes, that they liac 



• Uom. xvi. 22. 1 Cor. xvi, 
vi.ll. 2The». iii. 17. 



1827. I%e Camm of the Old and Jftw Testaments, ^e. 



77 



tiiDe* nor incBnitkm, fbr the minutlx of 

critkiiiii. It mqr be, therefore, that 

thej did not let wo high a value on the 

potaeaaion of tlie autcvraph of an in- 

ipiied booki aa we ahoulo, but considered 

a copy, made with icrupuloua fidelity, aa 

equally valuable with tne original. And 

God may have auffered these autographs 

of the aacred writings to perish. Test in 

process of time, they should have become 

idolized, like the bnzen serpent ; or lest 

■en should be led auperstitiously to ve- 

aeimte the mere parchment and ink, and 

ftrm and letten^ employed by an apostle. 

Certainly, the hiatoiy of the church is 

nch, aa to render iuch an idea for from 

being improbable. 

** But, although little is aaid about the 
ofiginala of the apostles' writings, we 
Uve a teatimony in Tertullian, th.it the 
UMiktntiek lettentifihe apostles, might be 
nea by any that would take tlie pains to 
fB to the churches, to which they were 
addretsed. Some, indeed, think, that 
Tertullian does not mean to refer to the 
Mtognpba, but to authentick copies ; but 
vkqr then aend the inquirer to the 
dmrchea to which the epistles were ad- 
dreved? Ilad not other churches, all 
orer the world, authentick copies of these 
eplstlea also? There seems to be good 
nason therefore, for believing, that the 
mtographa, or original letters of the apos- 
tles, were preserved by the churches to 
which tiiey were addreMcd, in the time 
tf Tertullian." 

We have already intimated that 
we should notice some slight imper- 
fections, or oversights, in the vo- 
lime under review. One of these 
«e observe in the 25th page, where 
fte author is treating ot " the early 
ue and import of the word canon." 
He 



" When other hooka were added to the 
CiBoa, no doubt, the inspired men who 
vcve moved by the Holy Snirit to write 
tbem» would be careful to aeposit copies 
ii the aanctuary, and to have other copies 
put into cireulation. But on this subject 
*e have no precise information. We know 
iKA vilh what degree of care the sacred 
bookawere guarded, or to what extent 
eopiea were multiplied." 

When we first read this passage, 
ia a cursory way, it strucic us as 
containing all but a contradiction 
in terms; because it first says that 
"no doubt the inspired men — would 
be careful to deposite copies in the 
sanctuary, and to have otJicr copies 



put into circulation;" and after- 
wards adds, in reference to this 
matter of which there is *' no doubt," 
that ** we know not with what de- 
gree of care the sacred books were 
guarded, or to what extent copies 
were multiplied." But we disco- 
vered, on reading more attentively, 
that the first part of the quotation 
contained the author's opinion only 
—what, from the circumstances of 
the case, he thou^^ht probable, or 
rather certain ; and that the latter 
part contained a statement of the 
want of "precise information" on 
the subject: and between these two 
things there is manifestly no incon- 
sistency. But the scope of the pas- 
sage is not obvious, and we still 
think the last sentence would bet- 
ter have been omitted altogether, or 
the whole construction of the quoted 
paragraph altered. 

In the next page, and onward, we 
find the following statement: 

" It seems to be agreed by all, that the 
forming of the present canon of the Old 
Testament, should be attril)Uted to Ezra. 
To assist him in tltis work, the Jewi^ 
writers inform us, that there existed in 
bis time, a orxat stnaqugux, consisting 
of one hundred and twenty men, includ- 
ing Daniel and his three friends, Shad- 
rach, Mcshech and Abediiego ; the pro- 
phets llaggai and Zechariah ; and also 
Simon the Just. But it is very absurcl to 
suppose that all these lived at one time, 
and formed one synagogue, aa tliey are 
pleased to represent it : for, from the time 
of Daniel tc» that of Simon the Just, no 
less than two hundred and fif^ yon 
must have intervened. 

« It is, however, no how improbable, 
that Ezra was assisted in tliis g^at work 
by many learned and pious men, who 
were contemporary with him; and as 
prophets had always been the superin- 
tendents, as well as writers of the sacred 
volume, it is likely that the inspired men 
who lived at the same time as Ezra, would 
give attention to this work. But in regard 
to this great synagogue, the only thing 
probable is, that the men, who are said 
to have belonged to it, did not live in one 
age, but successively, until the time of 
Simon the Just, who was made high 
priest twenty-iive years after the deatli of 
Alexander the (ireat. Tliis opinion has 
its probability increased, by the consider- 
ation, that the cauou vk \\\c OV\ 'Vc^s^a.- 



78 



The Canon of the Old and JSlnv TeMtamefits^ ^r. 



ment appears not to have been fully com- 
pleted, until about the time of Simon the 
Just. Malachi seems to have lived after 
the time of Ezra, and therefore his pro- 
phecy could not have been added to the 
canon by this eminent scribe ; unless we 
adopt the ophiion of the Jews, who will 
have Malachi to be no other than Ezra 
himself; maintaining, that while Ezra was 
his proper name, he received that of Ma- 
lachi, from the circumstance of his haying 
been tent to superintend the religious 
concerns of the Jews ; for tlie import of 
that name is, a mtBsengei\ or one sent. 

" But thisis not all, in the bookof Nche- 
miah, mention is made of the high priest 
Jaddua, and of Darius Codomannus, king 
of Persia, both of wiiom lived at least a 
hundred years after the time of Ezra. In 
the third'chai)tcr of the Ut book of Chro- 
nicles, the genealogy of the sons of Zc- 
nibbabel is carried d(»wn, at least to the 
time of Alexander the Great. This book, 
therefore, could not have been put into 
the canon by Ezra; nor much earlier than 
the time of Simon the Just. I'hc book of 
Esther also was probably added during 
this interval. 

*<The probable conclusion, therefore, 
is, that Ezra began tliia work, and col- 
lected and arranged all the sacred booki 
which belonged to the canon before his 
time, and that a succession of pious and 
Inmed men continued to pay attention 
to the canon, until the whole was com- 
pleted, about the time of Simon the Just. 
After which, nothing was ever added to 
the canon of the Old Testament. 

" Most, however, arc of opinion that 
nothing was added after the book of Ma- 
lachi was written, except a few names, 
and notes; and that all the books belong- 
ing to the canon of the Old Testament, 
were collected and inserted in the sacred 
volume by Ezra himself. And this opi- 
nion leems to be the safest, and is no how 
includible in itself, it accords also with 
the uniform traditipn of the Jews, that 
Ezra completed the canon of the Old Tes- 
tament ; and that after Malachi there arose 
no prophety who added any thing to the 
•acred volume." 

Our author's usual perspicuity 
seems to us to desert him here. We 
confess that we have not been able 
to reconcile one part of this state- 
ment with another ; nor to discover 
whether, on the whole, Dr. A. be- 
lieves that the canon of the Old 
Testament was completed by Ezra, 
or by Simon the Just. For our- 
selves, we have no hesitation in 
adopting conclusively, Uic opinion 



of Prideaux, that it was thi 
mentioned distinguished man 
put into the canon certain 
which were not written, or at 
not completed, till after the 
of Ezra; and in reference to i 
which Dr. A. himself cxprcssl; 
that it '< could nut have beei 
into the canon by Ezra.-' \ 
seems to unsay this, in the 
quoted paragraph; and to f 
tne opinion, " that all the bool 
longing to the canon of the Old 
tament, were collected and ii 
ed in the sacred volume by F 
with the exception of "a few i 
and notes." He even adds *' 
opinion seems to be the safes 
is no how irrcredible in itself,' 
adduces in its support << tiie un 
tradition of the Jews." 

In assigning the reason why 
is "much greater difiiculty" 
tablishing tiie canonical autl 
of the books of the New TestJ 
than of the Old, our author, a 
other causes, mentions, as t1 
cond in order, (page 130} tl 
lowing — " The canon of th< 
Testament received the sanct 
Christ and his apostles; but 
the canon of the New Test; 
was completed, all the ap 
were dead." The latter parte 
remark we consider as an 
oversight; because the assert 
contains is elaborately disp 
by the author himself. We su 
that in making the assertio 
must have intended to affii 
more, than that the canonical 
of the New Testament wei 
colUcted together inio one n 
before the death of the apostl 
is certainly one thing to collei 
a volume the various public 
of any particular writer; and 
another thing to discrimina 
tween his genuine writings 
others that falsely pretend 
his — to sanction the true ant 
demn the false. So in regard 
inspired writers of tlie Kew ' 
ment, their writings might no 
been collected togetlier into 



1827. The Canon of tlie (Hd and JS^ew Teitamenis, i$'C. 



r9 



I«nie,till some time after the death 
of ail the apostles ; and yet the 
ipostie John, who long outlived the 
rest, mieht have determined, under 
the ^iaance of inspiration, what 
writings were of divine authority, 
and what were false or spurious. 
Home seems, on the whole, to fa- 
Toar the opinion* that the sacred 
writings of the New Testament 
were originally even collected by the 
ipostle John.* He says expressly, 
(toI. i. p. 71,) " It is sufficient for us 
to know that the principal parts 
of the New Testament were col- 
lected, before the death of the apos- 
tle John, or at least not long after 
thU event." And in a note he 
adds, "Of all the various opinions 
ihit have been niaintainea, con- 
cerning the person who first col- 
lected the canon of the New Testa- 
ment, the'most general seems to be, 
that the several books were origi- 
nally collected by St. John — an opi- 
nion for which the testimony of £u- 
leUiis is very confidently quoted, 
as an indisputable authority." lie 
then adds some remarks from Mo- 
iheim, which go to show that Eose- 
bins affirms nothine more, than that 
"St. John approved of the gospels 
of Matthew, Mark and Luke, and 
added his own to them, by way of 
supplement." But, if wc under- 
stand Home, he finally approves of 
the opinion of the learneu Storck, 
which, he says, " in substance cor- 
responds with that above given." 

But whether St. John first ro^/ecf- 
fJthe canon of the New Testament 
or not, we think there is little rea- 
son to doubt that he saw and sanc- 
tioned every book, which forms that 
canon, as we now have it. Why 
should we doubt of this P We have 
good reason to believe that he sur- 
vived all the other inspired writers 
for a length of time; and for our- 
selves we cannot but think that one 
iwrpose for which he was so long 
ipared to the church was, that he 
might do this very thing— that he 
might seal tlie authenticity of ^ the 
canon of the Ncvk Tcutamcnt by his 



apostolick authority. It is stated in 
the work before us (page 313), on 
the authoritv of Tertullian and Je- 
rome, that the detection of the for- 
gery of the apocryphal book, enti- 
tled. The Acts of Faul and Thecla^ 
" was made by the apostle John." 
If he detected this forgery, why not 
detect others? Peter, it appears 
from his second epistle, haa seen 
all the epistles of Paul ; and why 
might not John, who so long out- 
lived him, and who certainly wrote 
the last of all the inspired penmen, 
have seen and approved of all that 
had been written by those who pre- 
ceded him P We firmly believe that 
he did. 

We have almost insensibly fallen 
into this strain of arguing. But it 
is by no means to be understood, 
tliat we are at issue with Dr. A. in 
what wc have said — farther than 
the single passage is concerned, 
which, as we have already intimated, 
we regard as an oversight. If we 
mistake not, his sentiments and our 
own are very nearly the same. In 
the quotation which we have select- 
ed as a specimen of his manner, not 
only is the whole drift of his rea- 
soning; of much the same tenor as 
ours, but he says expressly, " The 
question when was the canon con- 
stituted, admits of no other proper 
answer than this, that as soon as the 
last book of the New Testament 
was written and published, the ca- 
non was completed" — Then surely, 
we remark, it cannot be true, that 
" when the canon of the New Tes- 
tament was completed, all the apos- 
tles were dead ;" for, according to 
the showing of our autlior, and of 
every other author of reputation, 
the last book of the New Testament 
was written by an apostle — the 
apostle John. But in reality the 
whole evidence which our author 
most pertinently and satisfactorily 
adduces in relation to the genuine- 
ness of the books of the New Tes- 
tament, as well as the impressive 
remarks with wlucl\ \\e cn^v^ >N\\ete 
accompanies iliia u^idcucv^^ slu^ \X\^ 



80 



Sluni AWtcei f^Becent PubUeoHom^ 



admirable sammary of it which, at 
the close of the twelfth section, he 

fives from <*the late learned Mr. 
Lbnnkll,'' all goes to show, that 
eyerr book of the New Testament 
whicii we now consider as canoni- 
cal, received the unequivocal sanc- 
tion of some inspired man— It is 
clear that the approbation of St 
John was given to the most of them 
— «we believe to the whole. 

As to the period when these 
books were collected, it is on all 
hands agreed, that it was very early 
— ^me of the primitive churches 
would doubtless have complete col- 
lections of them, sooner than others. 
And if St. John spent the last years 
of his life at Ephesus, as we have 
sufficient reason to believe he 
did, we think it by no means im- 
probable, that he there made, a 
complete collection of the in- 
apifed books of the New Testa- 
ment. At any rate, it cannot be 
shown, and ought not to be affirm- 
ed, that he did not Tlie testimony 
of Eusebius seems to be that he 
did. 

We had noted two or three pas- 



sages more, as the subjects 
remarks. But we shall oi 
as unimportant; iTor we w 
be distinctly observed, thi 
book be read attentively thr 
we are not aware of an errc 
consequence, that will be 
the mind of the reader. Wl 
exactor plain in a few passa 
and there, is commonly el 
correctly and perapicuousl 
Anotheredition<-^nd we h< 
will be many others — will ] 
opportunity to remove the 
mishes, which haste and a 

Srofessional occupations, li 
ably occasioned in the fin 
We cannot conclude 
expressing the pleasure 
ceived from the perusal of 
section of this little ma 
which Dr. A. attacks the str 
of Popery — the doctrine ( 
tions. This is most impor 
seasonable — and it is here 
author appears with pecv 
vantage. It ought to be ( 
read by all who are engage 
likely to be engaged, in th 
controversy. 



SHORT NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



TflE AiPHARBT or Thought, or Ele- 
SBHTs OP Mktaphykical HcixiTCE. Jiy a 
Lady, ffarrisburj, J'a, printed by Hn^h 
HamiUon, Svo.fp, 162. 

A copy of this work was sent us by the 
author, with a polite note, more than a 
year ago ; and perhaps we need a better 
apology than we are able to make, for not 
giving a notice of it at an earlier day. But 
tJie truth is, we could not have noticed it 
in our pages at all, if wc had not adopted 
the fbrm of doing it, which this depart- 
ment of our work, intiHxluced for tlie first 
lime in our last number, allows us to use. 
When we profess to review a work, we 
wish distinctly to assign the reasons why 
we approve or disapprove. We could 
not approve of this publication : and yet 
it is so learnedly and ingeniousl]^ written, 
and the &ir author, moreover, is so de- 
cided a friend to divine revelation, that 
we felt bound, if we did controvert her 
opinions, to do it carefully, and at some 
length — But for this, on such a subject, 
we could not take the necessary time. 



We put the little volume into i 
of a friend, in whose candour i 
tration we have great confidence 
hoped he would send us a revic 
length and particularity. Rut ^ 
ed the book with a few remark 
in pencil, on a blank page ; to t 
of which — having carefully read 
ourselves— we ^eel constrainec 
scribe. They are as follows :— 
undoubtedly a ver^ extraordii 
formance. The writer displays 
sive knowledge of roetaphysica 
and an uncommon deg^e of lo 
men. But the theory here exhil 
me wholly unintelligible; exce 
general principles, which are 
nUse. The learned lady has assu 
dpies and given definitions at 
has confounded every thing. 1 
mistake which pervsides the wo 
attempt to understand and def 
lies completely beyond the grd 
human intellect." 



\m. 



Short MHces of Becent PiMications. 



81 



AXEIiri!! NiTCBj&L HlSTOmY. Vol. 1. 

Part l^Mmtuloffif. By John D, GotU 
! Wifl, .li D' PraJ'srssor of A'atttral iiintovy 
I in the Frtuiktin InisUtute of J\'nHaylx'atuUf 
Me 1)/ the PrQft's$or8 of thf Phitaiklpha 
MiiSiumi mUembcr of t/ic ^imtrricun tUitO' 
nphieal Soarty ; oft/tc PhilatU-lphia ^iva- 
dniy 9/ JWitural AVicmtvj, iJr, \Jc. Phi- 
kJriphia.- H, t\ Careys I. Uu—Che.t- 
nu-Hfreet. Ji. H'rijrht, printer, idJi). 

M'/»t of tiiosc who cuitivutc tlu: iiatu- 
lal ^ieiiccs in the United Stiitei), Iiavc 
imbibed their love for t(ii:i inU-rc-tiiinjf 
Hud), either from a personal resilience 
is Ftris, or front a periiMil of Frcncli 
I vriten on tiiis subject : for it cannot be 
' <)e<»efl that tlie nauiral and piiysicul sci- 
ences ar« more generally untl more suc- 
cessliiily cultivated in France, than in 
Ui) jtbc-r coiintry ; and he who expects 
toeicel in them must be conversant with 
herlutguage and aiitiiors. In the firdinar)' 
CfRine of Miinga, the pupil not only tni- 
bncu ibe Mcicnce, but the offiniont^ of his 
tucher: and it is to this circunistuncc, 
ve titnbute the almost universal sccpti- 
cism in rehgi'Mi, wtiich is found to pic- 
uilsu:iuri^ :>ur naluraJisis. 'V\\\s sccpti- 
ciMQ, (If ..iHdcliiy, we know does not 
artM: fruni :i candid and careful and eia- 
b'jrite txaniination of eiidence, but is 
nilier u-<Ain^ to some undefined and ge. 
Dcnil id'.'a*! of (he fliviMC character. Na- 
tura|ij.:» urc TOO CMiruiy and uj^reeably 
occiipie-L uitli tiieir iuvoiirite pursui , to 
hive Ifcisui e tor other iTiatters. <* Man must 
have been formed l)y Iiis \lukcr tor hap- 
piriLib — If the religion of tne Btole be true, 
Viiydnwe see so mucU dl honesty, base- 
ness a<.d corruption in some ot tiiose who 
prjtess to believe? Why do we see so 
m^ny religious sects, the leading princi- 
ples of which, are said to be derived 
from the Bible, and which appear to us 
w ob\iously dificrent ? Hut above ail, do 
not the actual appearances on llie sur- 
face of the earth, appearances which are 
our continual study, and in which we 
cannot be deceived— do not these actu- 
ally contradict many assertions made in 
this pretended word of inspiration ? 
among others, do they not give a far 
higlier antiquity to the world than the re- 
cords of Moses ? and do Uiey not declare 
tliat all the human race is derived from 
one stock V With some such arguments 
aod reflections, our naturalists are con- 
tented. Tliey tbniw aside the Bible with 
indifference, and resolve to trouble them- 
selves no more with the matter. In our 
notice of Penn's Geology (Vol. i.), wc 
demonstrated the weakness of the infidel 
objection built on the discoveries of mo- 
dem geology. With regard to the se- 
cond, whether mankind have all descend- 
ed from the same individual pair, wc 
Vol. \^Ch. Mx\ 



have noticed the book before tu— for the 
express purpose of iUluwing the author, 
who appears to be conversant in this 
mutler, to declare the present opinion of 
tiie nal I iralists themselves on this subject. 
Die objechon to the inspiration of the 
scripiiires, which we are here noticing, 
IS OIK' wiiicli is not much harped upon m 
puhiii.k, since the late Dr. 8. S. Smith's 
celebrated essav on the Influence of Cli- 
mate, &c. — But it is perpetually intro- 
duced into private circles; and in this 
wa) is calculated to do much mischief. 

" llie origin of the North Amencaii 
Indians has justly attracted the attention 
of philosophers, and produced many in- 
teresting researches, as well as fruitless 
speculations. So long as those engaged 
in this investigation were content with 
mere theory without establislied data, or 
speculation without fact, no restdt was 
obi.ained except the useless multiplica- 
tion of words; but, when tlie geography 
of the count r}', the nature of the climate, 
and the history, manners and polity of 
the various tribes were studied, the mys- 
tery involving the subject gradually les- 
sened; so that at present, without much 
diHi(*<ili\ or error, we may come to a sa- 
tistuctor\' coiiclusion, relative to the man- 
ner in which this continent was peopled. 
"Preliminary to our investigation we 
must refer to the fact, that the laws of 
nature, governing the continuance of dif- 
ferent races of animals profusely multi- 
plied over the earth, are fixed and im- 
mutable, and what we observe of Nature's 
regular modes of operating at one period, 
is uii(|uestionably true of all preced'mg 
times. Animals which are of different 
kinds, or generically distinct, are incapa- 
ble of producing offspring together, but 
animals of tlie name kind, though of dif- 
ferent sftectev, may and do produce off*- 
spring resen<bling both parents, by their 
union; yet this coiiftision ceases with the 
first product, inasmMch as these hybrids, 
or mulea^ are universally sterile, or inca- 
pable of propagating their similitude. 
This circumstance furnishes the most sa- 
tisfaclon' and unequivocal means of de- 
ciding whether any beings we examine 
are specifically distinct or not, since, if 
they are merely varieties of the same npe- 
cifs, they are capable of producing off- 
spring in illimitable progression; but, if 
tUey arc of different sptrcieSf the first off'- 
spring terminates tlic rare. 

" By the application of this test, wc are 
able to pronounce with certainly, that 
the human race, whercTcr found, or how- 
ever different in colour, are merely varie- 
ties of the same species, and evidently 
descended from the same parents. In 
all countries the marriage of Kuropeans 
with the natives, whether Asiatics, A(i-i- 



88 



Mart JVUices af Recent Publieationg. 



Fbb. 



CUIB9 or IndiftiM, is followed by children 
more or less resembling their parents, 
and this offspring is perfectly capable of 
continuing the race. 

''If there be any mode of accounting 
for the arrival of even a single male and 
female on this continent, we shall find no 
difficulty in understanding how so many 
nations became distributed over this va&t 
region, nor can we, on an unprejudiced 
view of the whole subject, find soy diffi- 
culty in believing that the myriads of hu- 
man beings, that have lived from the be- 
ginning of time to the present hour, have 
all descended from two individuals. The 
history of the world, as presented to us 
by the most authentick records, or by the 
voice of universal tradition, leads us ine- 
vitably to conclude that from some point 
on the Eastern continent the human race 
originated, and gradually extended in va- 
rious directions, subiect to the influence 
of all accidents, of place, climate, disease, 
and facility or difficulty of procuring 
food: hence, notwithstanding that the 
connexion of many nations with the pa- 
rent stock is entirely lost, there is not 
the slightest evidence that such nations 
9Sp derived from any but the source we 
have stated; neither, when philosophi- 
cally considered, is there any necessity 
that they should have originated in a dif- 
ferent manner, since the cause is perfect- 
ly adequate to the effect; and where one 
sufficient cause is given no other should 
be sought. 

** Under the operation of different mo- 
tives we find the scattered members of 
the human family removing by degrees 
from the centre towards the extremes of 
the old continent, and subsisting in such 
remote situations until the disposition or 
ability to return was entirely lost, and 
they became inured to the climate, how- 
ever dreadfully inclement. 

<* Though the human race always re- 
mains specifically unchanged in every 
condition, yet the action of external 
causes is capable of producing considera- 
ble variations in the appearance of indivi- 
duals, or tribes exposed to their influ- 
ence. Thus we find those who reside in 
uniformly warm and spontaneously pro- 
ductive countries, of a slender frame, a 
relaxed and delicate habit, and of a sal- 
low or tawny complexion. The natives 
of Africa, who are exposed to the most 
intense heat of the sun, are full firamed, 
robust and vigorous, being endowed with 
short, crisped and coarse hair, and a skin 
whose colour shields them firam the de- 
structive fierceness of the solar rays. In 
the middle latitudes, where the means of 
subsistence are readily procured, and the 
vicissitudes of season are never remarka- 
bly severe* we find the human frune in 



eveiy variety of development, and distin- 
guished by fairness and delicacy of com- 
plexion. But on leaving these favoured 
regions behind us, and visiting the far 
northern portions of the earth, we see 
man, like most of the other productions 
of nature, stunted and dwarfish, display, 
ing little or no mental energy, barely ca- 
pM>le of securing the scanty subsistence 
allowed him by the rigours of his situa- 
tion, and maintaining an existence scarce- 
ly superior to that of the whale or seal, 
the hunting of which constitutes his 
highest ambition, as their flesh and oil 
are his greatest luxuries. 

** Since it is not only posmble, but un- 
questionable, that the whole human race 
are varieties of the same species, most 
probably descended from one male and 
female, it remains for us to show in what 
manner the descendants of this stock jdmj 
have reached America, and whether our 
observations can be supported by argu- 
ments drawn fh>m the condition of the 
new world." 

llie volume before us, which is the 
first of a series yet to be published, b an 
interesting collection of facts; and thougk 
there are muny inaccuracies in the styii^ 
it is, upon the whole, a very creditable 
performance. The plates are neat and 
well executed. 

A SsRxosr oir PniDiflTiirATi02r.>PrfoeA- 
ed in MUledgeviUe, AugUMt^ 1826, by Jo^ 
9eph C, StUes. MiUedgtviUe.- printed at 
the office 0/ the Georgia Stateinum^ by S, 
Meacham, 1826. pp. 84. 

Although this publication is called a 
Sermon, it fills 84 large octavo psgcs, 
closely printed. It appears, by notes pre- 
fixed,' that the substance of it, and the 
substance only, had been delivered in two 
discourses, preached in the Baptist church 
at Mille<lgeville. It also appears, that the 
author had been in a sort compelled to 

g reach on the topick of Predestination, 
y misrepresentations affecting his own 
character, as well as the doctrine itself. 
In our judgment, he has vindicated both 
in a masterly manner. There is a perspi- 
cuity, energy and point, in this discussion, 
which we confess we did not suppose that 
the subject would admit of —Take it al- 
together, it exhibits talent of a superior 
oraer; and united, we are glad to say, 
with fervent piety and real liberality. 
We should indeed, for ourselves, wish to 
change the aspect of one or two minor 
points, and the language of a few expres- 
sions. But these ufect not the main ar- 
gument. The subject is placed fairly and 
strongly on its proper ground. I'he di- 
vine sovereignty, and the freedom and 
responsibility of the creature, are both 
shown to be conclusively taught, by the 



Literary and Philotophical Indigence. 



lethod of reconciLngilieae fully, vliy both tbese tniilu ■) 

'd to be beyond the reach uf ll>e <lily and cordially received. We ttunk 
lellect, in the pmcnt life -, and this publication will dn guod. 



litnatp onto j^gilo^opgfcal fUnttWiQtnct, etc. 



■jMve. It wa« lately itated 

1 reopeiiiiig' a |^ve in Prithel- 
orch-yart], Uevon, for the pur- 
nlerring'a relative of a fonnFrin- 

u'ho had been depoiited ohuut 

the coffin not beinfr decayed, it 
i necessary (o take it out, in on 
tke the grave deeper; and that, 
intng| its coiilenta, the ski'leton 
ccupier wu found perfect, but 

face downwardi, which gives 
( suppose (hat the defiinct was 
ive, and, in KtrnKK'^ing, had turn- 

pDlition in which it waa found." 
paragraph The Ij-Derpaol JUer- 
•rkii 1 — " We never knew an io- 

thit nature which reatcd upon 
1 of testimony upon which alone 
nal mind aughl to believe it. For 
part, judging from the shape of 
n, we doubt whether any living 
confined in one of them, even if 

breathe freely, could turn liim- 
depeodenl, however, of thia oh. 
(here ia aiiutlier, which juitifica 
ubtinK tbat any person, Krewed 
a coffin, ever moved afleru'ards. 

trance and sutpended animation 
in too frequent to admit of doubti 

notorious that petwini suppoaed 
ead, and laid out for interment, 
:ovcred, and lived, too, for ■ long 
erwirds. If a man, however, in 

of sutpended animallon, were 
irted, and the earth, as usual, 
sver him, ve contend, that if lie 
:d for a moment, that moment 
e his last, as he mint incuntly 
for want of air to breathe. \ll 
iea, Iherefure, of moans bcin); 
om the gnvea, arc, in our upi- 
le tales." 

'. Ouseley reclaims, in ftfour of 

:ntal writers, a variety of popular 

such sa, Pope's January 



:, aeveral of tbi 
la Jltmarurum, the story of H'Ail- 
ifac induction to the Tamiiij «/ 
€m, kc.; the prake of inventing 
u> been long nMupad by Eu- 



Stijfar from Pelaloei—U. Gall, a Ger- 
man, has published a pamphlet of BS 
pages, lo iliow the advantage of makiog 
sugar froai potatoes. He says every farmer 
can make sugsr in great or small qusnti- 
lies, and render the importation of fo- 
reign sugar unnecessary. Potaioea, b« ai^ 
serfs, are belter than beets fur augw, 100 
pounds of the former giving 11 pounds of 
sugar, while the same quantityofthebt* 
ter gives only 4 pounds. — Uamp. Gax. 

Caplain Parry has commissioned th« 
Hecia, at Depiford, the fitting out of which 
was to commence immc^tely for tb« 
voyage to Spitzber^en. Several oAe«r» 
had been appointed to her, one of whom 
(Ueut. Itoss) would proceed with Csptain 
V. in one of the boats over the Icc, In the 
drawing of tvliieh Shetland ponies are to 
be employed, which n-ill be taken on 
board at the Orkneys. 

"Bnk «/ AVMuk."— The Lectures of 
Dr. GonI, delivered in 1810, at the Sur. 
rey Institution, London, aiKl wtuch have 
lately been published in two octavo VO' 
lumes, underthe title of the Book of Na- 
ture, shauld be in every family, llie 
nork presents a systematic, but popular, 
survey, of the most in terestins; features of 
the general science of nature, Tor the pur- 
pose ofetucidating what has been found ob- 
scure, controverting and correcting what 
maj' he proved erroneous, and develop- 
ing, by new and original views snd hypo- 
thcuB, much of what yet remains to be 
more aatis&ctorily explained. In prose- 
cuting what the author thus declared to 
he Ilia design, he lias been cminetitljr 
successful. 

Gmih of a Svcamare.—Ja the jreir 
1781, Hr. Jriieph Smith, of Iladley, 
brought from llocksnum a sprout of but- 
ton-hall or sycamore, not so lai^ as bia 
finger, and set it in the earth near bis 
house, where it lived and flourished. He 
cut it down on tlic lith instant, artd found 
by measuring, that what was only a riding 
stick forty-five yesrs spi, was now s tree 
ninety-four feet in height, and four fleet 
in diameter about a foot from tlie grovad, 
wiiere il was chopped off. 
Utaih front CAorceal. — hsi nvito»R« ^ 



84 



literary and PhUasophiciU Intelligence, 



sudden detth from the use of charcoal 
occurred recently. 

Ttie coaln in this instance were tuken 
from the kitchim Jire-ptace. That coaJs 
taken from a fire-pjacc are not injurious, 
is a very common error, and one of the 
most dangerous kind, especially during 
tlie present season of extreme cold. This 
mistake arises from the ignorance which 
prevails in the community of the nature 
and results of combustion. Wooil, Le- 
high coal, Liverpool c«>al, ct)ke and char- 
coal all necessarily produce carbonic acid, 
the gus which is the cause of death in 
these instances, whenever they arc burn- 
ing; and there is, under the same cir- 
cumstances, danger from all, differing only 
in degree. 

On detlroying Thistles -with Salt, — A 
correspondent in the Farmer's Journal, 
who dates from Worcestershire, says, "I 
have no doubt that salt may be made use 
of with good eflect for destroying this- 
tles. I have ma'ie several experinKints, 
which have uniformly been attended with 
success. The most effectual way is, to 
cut oft* or bruise the thistle, and tlien put 
a small portion of salt upon it : very few 
will sunive this treatment. It ntay be 
accomplished without this trouble; but 
the land should be gone over more than 
once, to see if any have escaped. Salt is 
Also very serviceable for deslr<»ying weeds 
'of all kinds, say nettles, docks. &c. that 
gntw around farm buildings; but you must 
be careful not to use it too near fences or 
trees, or perchance, \ou may destroy 
those also." Another correspondent con- 
firms this — he says, •« A small quantity of 
common salt, about a tea- spoonful, is 
taken between the finger and thumb, and 
placed firmly on the centre of the thistle. 
In two or lhrcc days the thistle will turn 
quite black; and in eight or ten days the 
root and every part of it will be destroyed. 
I have found this a cheap and certain 
mode of clearing land from thistles. One 
pcrsfm will salt as many as four or five 
would cut up in the usual wav ; and with 
this difference, that salt completely de- 
stroys the weeds, whereas the spud mere- 
ly retards them for a short period, to be 
ultimately more productive. The salt 
should be apphed to the large thistles 
before the stem is put forth ; and care 
ahould be taken that it it not dropped 
upon the grass or cinque-foil.'' — Liver- 
pool Advertiser, 

The following numbers represent the 
comparative value of several woods and 
coals ' 

Shellbark Hickory, 100 

Pig-nut Hickory, 95 

Red-heart Hickory. 81 

' White Oak, 81 



Chestnut White Oak, 
Darren Oak, 
Lehigh Coal, 
Schuylkill Coal, 
Susquehanna Coal, 
IJv(-ri>ool Coal, 
Richmond Coal, 
Pnie Charcoal, 

These numbers, represent 
parative values of the several 
Thus it is seen, tl.at the rtrlativ* 
shellbark liickor\- and Lehigh C( 
ly the same, curd for ton , s(j t 
could bu\ a cord of sheilburk h 
6 dollars, or 6 times 100, wc oi 
able to buy a ton of Lt*high coa 
lars 94 cents, or 6 times 99, to 1 
cheap. The numbers given, 
show, what we should not have 
that cord for cord, white i>ak 
valuable with red-heart hick(n'> , 
to bring tlie same price ; wiiile 
white oak is e\'e«i more valuabli 

n'aflsworth*s Steam Engine,- 
pleased to inform our readers, 
improvement in the sttam engii 
tested by the Providei^cc Stea 
Company, i«{, on accninit of the 
of its cf)ns*rMCtiois its econom} 
feet safet} , dt-servedly gaining ' 
batiot' of the publick. Nnnier 
cat'OPH have been made to the ( 
agent for eng-ines on this plan, ; 
tract has been made within a fe 
a number of enterprising ger 
this town, for an engine to dri 
sets of stones for grain and pi: 
machinerv for other purposes, 
gine is to be loratcd in a buildii 
engaged for that purpose in 
street, near the nmrket. The 
Commenced, and will probabl^i 
plete<1 in thirty or forty days. ^ 
stand the Lehigh or Rhode b 
will be used for fuel. — Rhode L 

Some estimate of the numb 
sons who pass annually upon th 
either from business or pleasur 
made from tlie calculation, that 
stellation and Constitution have 
ried, during the past season, / 
sand passengers, making sixfi, 
in one line of boats. This cah 
not m.ade from the official retui 
is believed to be nearly accural 
the greater part of the season, t 
nineteen steam boats besides 1 1 
tow boats. The probability is 
passengers in the !>oats of the 1 
rer Association, ^exceed that of 
single line ; but it is a reason 
mate, that 250,000 persons ha 
upon the Hudson during the p: 
by this mode of conveyance, e: 
tha tow boats, sloops, &c. 



ias27. 



Religious Inlelligence. 



8 A 



The New York Society Library ia the 
VBost ancient publick Library in the State, 
lad is the third for size and value in the 
I'nted States ; beinfr inferior only to those 
of Cunbridge and Philadelphia. It exist- 
ed 90 early as the year 1754, and received 
iti charter from the Colonial Government 
io 1773. It now possesses about eigiiteen 
tbouauid volumes, many of which are of 
^t most rare and valuable description. 



Of the Officers and Soldten of the Re- 
volutionary army, who ser\-cd six months 
and upwards, it is estimated that there are 
about 20,(K)0 now living. 

Eleven Greek youths, five of them 
members of Colleges in New England, 
are now receiving an education in this 
countrv, with a view to their future use- 
fulness when they shall return to tiio laml 
of their ancestors. 



fieltgtou^ intelligence. 



THE COLLEGE OF ATHENS — GEORGIA. 

" Every gownsman is a legion" — 
This, said Dr. Witherspoon, was 
the ei pre SSI on addressed to me, by 
the celebrated George Whitefield, 
when 1 felt reluctant to leave a con- 
gregation of nearly two thousand 
people, to which I regularly preach- 
ed in Scotland, for the Presidency 
of New Jersey College. He who is 
instrumental in bringing into the 
DJDistry of the gospel, one able and 
bithfol labourer, who would other- 
wise not have entered on the sacred 
work, renders a service, the benefit 
of which cannot be calculated^ — 
Hence revivals of religion in col- 
Iqies and academies, by which the 
church is always furnished with 
some of its most useful ministers, 
ire peculiarly interesting to the 
friends of vital piety. \Vc there- 
fore insert in our pages, at full 
length, the interesting narrative, 
by the president of' the college at 
Athens in Georgia, of what has 
taken place among the precious 
youth of his charge. — We have a 
lively participation in hi^ feelings. 
The account is extracted from the 
Charltston Observer. 

FBANRLIV COLLEGE, ATHENS, (Ga.) 

29/A December, 1826. 

, To the Rev, Benjamin Qildersleevey 
Editor of the " Charleston Ob- 
serverJ'^ 

Rev. and Dear Sir,— You, no doubt, 
remember that, at the annual sessions of 



our Synod which wc lately attended, I 
was required publickly to g^ve a narra- 
tive of the revival of religion which has 
lately appeared in this institulion. as well 
as in this town and its vicinity. You also 
recollect that, after the sratcnient was 
▼erbally made to ihe Synod and nume- 
rous congre^tion present on tn.it occa- 
sion, it w;is resolved ununimouslv, that 
a narrative of the same kind should be 
prepare<l by myself, and published in 
some rehgious journal. Hnving lutcly 
returned home from Synod, I have chissen 
your recently established paper as the 
medium of communication, niid hasten to 
comply with the resohition of SjTiod, bv 
giving the following siimmar\ view : 

On my removal to this place in May, 
1819, the Slate of religion here was very 
discouraging. Not more than two faini- 
lies, each containing tl)ree proUst jr^ of 
the Presbyterian communion, resiled in 
this place : together with two femalrs of 
the Raptist church, and one female ol'^hf 
Methodist order. These, were the <'ril\ 
professors of religion then in the village. 
Being required by the laws of the CoK 
lege to see that publick worship shoiild 
be performrd on every Loitl's day, I ge- 
nerally officiated mvself, except whei. 
occasionally visited hy a clergyman o* 'Me 
Baptist or Mcthcnlist oi-der; to i-itiu.i ol' 
whose preachers the Colleire chapel was 
always cheerfully open. Duiing the first 
six months of my residence here, it is 
believed that not more than thirty per- 
sons generally attended publick worship, 
besides the few students who were then 
in the College. The religious aspect 
and prospects of the place were gloomy 
indeed No church of .'iny denominutioii 
had ever been organized in the town, al- 
though the Baptists and Methodists, each, 
had one, not very distant in the neigh- 
bourhood. 

D'lring the year 1820, the mimbcr of 
students increased, and the prospects of 
the institution having begun to bri^htciv, 
several respectable Van\\V\en Vtotcv N'.vTvt^w*- 



86 



Religious Intdligencc. 



F£B. 



parts of tiic state began to select Athens 
as a place of residence, for the sake of 
society and the education of their chil- 
drtn. Amonjr these were professors of 
rch^on of dincrent denominations. Be- 
fore the close of tha^t year, a Presbyterian 
churcli was constituted and the Lord's 
Supper administered; in which ordi- 
nance we were joined by several Metho- 
dist brethren and sisters, wlio have gciie- 
raliy united with us in such solemnities 
ever since*. 

During the two succeeding years, our 
little church was increased by the addi- 
tion of a few respectable students and 
other persons who became religiously 
impressed by attending to the usual stated 
means of g^ce. The number of ftmilies 
of each denomination, who annually set- 
tled here, continued to increase untd our 
worshipping assemblies became lar^ 
and respectfully attended. A Methodist 
preacher of respectable talents settled 
here as preceptor of our female academy. 
He was invited to divide the Sabbath 
with Professor Church and myself, by 

{ireaching in the College chapel, whicli 
le often did with general acceptance. 
Keligious harmony was well preserved; 
perhaps never better in any place uniler 
similar circumstances. At length the 
number of Methodist families, who re- 
moved into Athena, became so larg^ as 
to dispose and enable them to erect a 
house of worship for their own use. This 
being done, an amicable arrangement 
was made betwixt the two Societies and 
sanctioned by the Trustees of the Col- 
lege, that divine service would be alter- 
nately performed in tiie College chapel 
and Methodist meeting house, twice in 
each month. The labours of a highly es- 
teemed minister of the Methodist order, 
have been thus employed and enjoyed 
once in two weeks since last spring. 

Ever since the summer of 1824^ it has 
been observed that an increased atten- 
tion was paid to the preaching of the 
gospel by a majority of the respectable 
members of the College, when assembled 
in the chapel for worship. During the 
last year (1825) several respectable mem- 
bers were added to our churcli by a pub- 
lick profession of their faith; but no very 
unusual appearances occurred until early 
in August last. 

A young man, a member of the senior 
cluss in the College, after the fniul exami- 
nation of his class in June, hail, as is usu- 
ally permitted, gone to his father's in a 
neighbouring county, to prepare for the 
duty assigned to him at the then ap- 
proaching commencement. While there, 
he was attacked with a violent fever, and a 
few days numbered him witli the dead. 
Having been much beloved by his class- 



mates as well by his other fellow-students, 
the unexpected intelligence of his euAy 
and sudden death procluced a serious ef- 
fect upon the minds of many in ttie Col- 
leg^. 'I'his impression was probablv im- 
proved by some very pertinent and ap- 
propriate remarks, introduced by the 
member of the class who had been ap- 
pointed to deliver the valedictory aa> 
dresses on the day of commencement, 
which were followed by some observa- 
tions in the address to the graduates. 
Another young man, formerly a student 
of this College, who had finished his aca- 
demical course here two years before, 
having studied law and entered on the 
practice of his profession, had visited the 
place and attended the commencement 
On the next day he was confined to bed 
with sickness; and, after languishing 
three weeks, notwithstanding evety at- 
tention and efibrt of skilful physicians, he 
died. As he lay in town uuring his ill- 
ness, and was much esteemed by the 
students, many of them visited him, whom 
he addressed and admonished in terms 
and under circumstances so peculiarly 
solemn, as evidently produced impres- 
sions of much solemnity upon their 
minds. 

On the second day after commence- 
ment, the Presbytery of Hopewell n»ct in 
Athens; and on the following Sabbath, 
the Lord's Supper was administered in 
our place of worship. There was much 
solemn and very appropriate preach- 
ing on that occasion; and a greater 
degree of solemnity was observed and 
believed to overspread the congregation, 
especially the students, than at any time 
before. Several of them shortly after- 
wanls were known to be under serious 
convictions. Prayer meetings, which had 
been established and attended for five 
years past once a week or oftener, gene- 
rally by serious students and other pro- 
fessors of religion, became more closely 
and fully attended on the evening of the 
Sabbath and Wednesday in each week. 
In September, a Methodist camp-meeting, 
distant some miles from the College, was 
attended by many of the students, where, 
it is altogether probable, the religious 
impressioMS of a number were deepened. 
About a week afterwards, one who had 
been among the earliest subjects of con- 
viction, obtained a comfortable hnpe of 
pardon. The seriousness in the College 
afterwards appeared to increase daiqr. 
Keligious exercises were attended to by 
the serious students in their rooms during 
the hours by law allotted to recreation. 
In October, several professed a hope of 
pardon and acceptance; four of whom 
joined our church byapublick profeasioB 
of thdr f«ith in Chnst, The College wii 



BeHgiout Intaiigmce. 87 

n the 18ih of November, for Literary Imtitution mnd tlie inhabitanti 

KUion. Before that period, rf thi> place, with ■ Iwrmony, aod evi- 

I ttudeol* of the Callcge had dently sincere ical, wuRhy ol' tlioae who 

perieiiced a clunge of heaHi profcos to be the followen of the Lamb. 

heA were then num aeriout- 3. The pioua young men in the Col. 

from whom no account haa Jep., though few in number, yet were 

eceived hare. eameMly enn^d in socnal prayer meet. 

icrations of the Spirit of God ing^ especially on Sabbath evenings, for 

en confined to the membcn ^ revival of religion in the ina*"'"^~ 



I this town and its The sincerity of their profetsioii and 

■™, - s-'Odly number of per- pnyen ws« evinced by tlie modesty of 

)iia ages and both seies. have their mannen and the correa consistency 

hope of having p:us«d from uf their general deportment. 
Lfe since August last.— Df all, 4, a» soon ai it was known that sevc> 

lutofthe College, it is known nl of the aludenii had become the «ib. 

fty have profc»ed faith in jeew of deep and aerioMS impreuion*, 

tliese iwtnty-nine have at- „uch assistance wo derived from the 

iselvcH to the Presbyteriui counsel and attention of ministering bre- 

lubliclc proti:ssion ; fiire, (and thren of different deiiominaLons, who vi- 

■robaljly more) have joined gited Athena at that He»K>n, and con- 

■fiiat church; and a number, ver»;d freely and frequently with the 

sve not been able to ascer- students and young penons in the town, 

reciiion, have united them- ^nd united with them oflen in ptsyer 

he Methodist church. When [„th publickly and privately. In thete 

return siler the vacation, we interviews, it la conBdently believed that 

hcse eiicumsianceswitli more no controverrial lopicka were ever intro. 
duced or touched uponi nor any pointa 

a large proportion of those of doctrine urged except those which all 

■ofeuedahopeofaiavingin. tree Christiana agree in believing to be 

hrist, were evidently under en^ntial (o aalvation. 
ittress of soul for a considera. u \f not known to the writer if anv ef. 

et on no occarion waa there fofts have been made to mske prtMelylei 

ade in our religious meetings, {„ ^„y religious party. Several atudeotai 

o diilurb the solemnities of after obtaining: what they believed to be 

rthip. Nor were the uMial , p^ hope throurii grace, applied to 

F college nispcnded, except him cipresung a deure to unite Ifaem- 

daya, an which many serious ttUet to the church in Ibis place of 

;prcased a deaire to attend which he is regarded a« the pastor. Aa 

i our Ueihodiit brethren, the •pplieania were voung and (he re. 

within reach. ligious opinions of their punnis were 

e causel which it pleased a either unknown, or believed to differ 

■1 to employ as instiumfenlal from his own in mattera of church dis- 

g the etrectsaborementiDned, cipline, he uniformly advised them to 

d that the staled preaching of defer making a publick profession of re- 

un every Sabbath, was the lig^on by joining with any church until 

But, in addition to thii and they could consult Iheirparents, if living, 

cted death of the two young The reaion aMigned was this, if I had 

r Mid August last, the loltow- committed a child or son to a preacher 

Were no doubt auxiliary and of unot her denomination to be instructed 

lb a Divine blessing, via. by him in cUaucal or scienliRck studies, 

it regard to disciphne in the md that teacher should endeavour to 

^oac lawi (iirbid all kinds of persuade or prevail with him to forsake 

and require the students to and renounce the church or religious 

lick warship on each Lord's oninlons which I sppnived or had taught 
him; and had induced him to jcnii his 

regular attendance on the church and adopt his seniimcnta in reli- 

leeit irf' prater, and the gene, gion, I ■haid<l think he did not treat me 

LCe on praver meeting which well. I tliereforc cuukl nut do that to- 

nted here almost «ix years wards another parent, wilhnut violating 

■ve been observed generally the nile of equity prescribed by our Sa- 

day evenings during the Col- innur in Matthew vii. 13. 
s almost ever since. In these No student here hasevcrbeenrequircd 

irofcsaora of all churches re- to attend any reli^ou* meeting ur exer- 

. have unitbrmly attended and else, except publick worship on the Sab- 

ipplication for an effusion of bsih, aa enjoined by the lav* ottUc t:.uV 

liril upun the meiiilMn of ijic lege. nlien the «on» q( p aienU ■«i\«> m* 



N> 



KiMCti'M^ InieUigaice. 



»v*. K» %»^*iv (Nx* io—-.::<\i to jloin 
■,. . •.. v.\ %x «»• ^,tv ^''.v.t^Usni iheir 

^ «.*.4 A, , ^ ,■• .>* *:.:>;?vt b*s now 

Ks . y^v -w v.nn^v -^ :^* -..w reii^Uition 

... K- S^-N .14 >v<.'..> CAi\»lin» and 

^.vss\».^ • '.>» s'\v;3;\r*?ion. or sup- 

.V3*\v» ,^ * . i-v«:! mAicnal circum- 

v.,.v U' ^-v » •V hA*«: «itnt'ssed 

^. vv^v NxN .. ^'M *ppc*rca to be 

.., ... X .s^ X *i^-^ »* iiarvellous in 

>„ , .. V I. - >vS**N»*"a bchcvcd that 

. ^.* % ,.■ -ivM w thi* iliHJtriiies 

L.s \«v. .."• .V ^ l»r%*v.Ai«tv, which has 

, > VN*:\x' ." t^i'' ni*tiiiilion, will be 

!'»\ -s>.^. »'* .v*uU* hitfhh beneficial to 

[ X \ >*^> ''^a *'**^ i\'^iir»^'"S. It is be- 

:»*s.!x; *N« cMHViiM that nwiny of the 

,o N "s>« «^» b»»c bioly embraced 

.^ \;,vx >,i\\ AiU'i" coiuludinp their aca- 

.> . H* »NHnM, %»»ll turn thoir attention 

.» ,*», • o»> *** i!i%'oK»|:y mid the 'ministry 

,^ ! <\^v**' l»» ibi*ie\«rnt,a8they will, 

\.» .{^s^'i.V* ^b»'" »*^" choice, be distri- 

■»! ,s-»l «i«o»»»5 ^h»- *"huivhcs of different 

..^\,vo i*»»o»'v ** «»* believe they ought 

'. -.^^ A « ♦ j»\^v 'S A"^* probable conjee- 

.. X, vN*^* N4\ 'W vMUu-*»ed each other's 

.^..•,^vi,« *»s- »"«*viiiy in their early 

sl\w*%HV« v%»»»«^' Ai»»i cvrrcises, this will 

44\«\V^ U'»»J »o %Umw\\ those uncharita^ 

U\ u^KHi^u*"* %»h»**h have too much pre- 

x.M^«l A()d 1*^*11 no Uuientably often ex- 

h,i»»\vA l\*M« the pulpit a^insi all other 

,,v^^« * vvpl tbrir own, by men profess- 

.^,; i*« l»» iimha*iimlon« of the Prince of 

r\. . . Vntl A« * pan of them will, prf)ba- 

•>:% . !«%*( Uc\ «*allrd to occupy the sacred 

.l« A. >i ^dl «'i'rl«ud\ not disqualify a man 

|;m l*% >i«S *^ •xnip^^'*''*'^^ ^' skilful physi- 
, MIS oi A «i*iin»l, judicious interpreter of 
ill,- Um« **I hi« country, or forminfr ndes 
t,i tN i;«diiu< I he intrrt'oumc and conduct 

.1 tiu n, that he hiniNcIf fears God and 
■ «.U )».Miiid to k rep his commandments. 
\\ « do «'hcri«h a MUfi^iinc hope that it 
^% lU «lc\ (It* the MiaiHlanl of morality to a 
r«i^h» I d«-Ki^<' i" ^^^^ State--extend and 
. i«)4ii;v ttio ran^* of ('liristian bencvo- 

. it«v m n)Attrr'4(i|'rt*lif(iou9 opinion— and 
,>(%»^«« t «(»nr«'o of happiness to g^encra- 

)%Mi« \«*t unhoni. That these hopes may 

>r tvuh.rd, I aui Nun* in your desire, as 
t««U a-* ih.it or many others, and of your 
iii« lu) Aud Urol her in the gospel, 

M. Waddel. 

iNt^'HAi. xii'.w OK MISSIONS, ?(nc2er 
fhr i/invliim of the Jimei'ican 
Hiuird of Commissioners for Fo- 

\\\* have engaged to give our 
I oAtlns, ill the cgursc of the jear. 



a general view of Protest 
sionit, throughout the world 
Missionary Herald for 
month, we find the fulluwi 
marj view of the missic 
ducted bj the Board, und 
auspices that valuable pu 
is madi — a publication to ^ 
our religious periodicals 
stantly and deeply indebte 

The missions which are now 
vcyed, though with great brei 
Bombay — in Ceylon — among t 
keca — the Choctaws — the Che 
the- Arkansas — the Osages — th 
in New York — at I^lackinaw — s 
— the American Emigrants in 
tlic Sandwicli Islands — in Malt2 
— and Palestine. 

/. liGmlmv.* 

The third of the British Pres 
Imlia; about 13U() miles, trav 
tancc, WLSt of (.'alcutta. Pop 
the island about *i(>0,000 ; of th. 
in which tlu* Mahratta language 
about 12,000,000. 

Commenced in 1813. Statio 
bay anil Mahim. 

Bom BAT — A large city on a 
the same name, and the capi 
Presidency. 

Kev Allen Graves, Mission 
Graves; James Garrett, Printer 
rett ; Mrs. Nichols, and Mrs. Fr 

Mauim. — Six miles from B< 
the north part of the island. 

The Rev. Samuel Newell, di( 
1831; the iRev. John Nichols 
1824; the Rev. Edmund Fros 
1825; and the Rev. Gonlon H 
20, 1826. The death of Mr H 
necessary for Mr. Graves to re 

m 

Mahim to Bombay. Of course ' 
station is now vacant. 'I'he de 
Nichols, and the consequent i 
his widow to Bombay, made it 
to relinquish the station of Tar 
Newell died of the cholera m 
Nichols of a fever, Mr. Frost of i 
tion, and Mr. Hall of the chol 
Hall is in this countr}'. 

The last sur\'ey stated the 
printing done at the Mission Pi 
the three years and a half prcc< 
31, 1823. The seventeenth Re 
Prudential Committee dcscrlbt 

• It will be observed, that in 
the statistical part of this sur 
use is made, according to our 
the Report of the Prudential C 
printed during the previous ye 



iwr. 



Religions ItUdUgence. 



89 



afioDf of tbe preai, during the eighteen 
•ibiequeiit monthi, u follows : 



" Qanau, 135 pages Sfo. eopiet 3,000 

of the first 40 pages 
Atfronoiiiical snd geognphiod tract. 



£itn copies 



1,000 
1,500 



64 p. 8to. 
8aiB cfttechisDHy second ed. 16 p. 

Svo. 5,000 

Actiof the AposUes, sec. ed. 88 p. 

8fo. 4,000 



14,500 



"The expense of these books was about 
1^1,350. Some small circubn for the mis- 
Ms, and Reports for several societies 
vere abo published at the mission-press. 
b tbe first six months of 1825, no new 
tncH had been printed; but a new edt- 
tisoof the Scripture history (10,000 co- 
pica) hsd been commenced. This was to 
oe nDowed immediately by an Knclish 
Md M^iratta school-book, intended to 

Cote morality and the true religion. 
New Testament was printed in or- 
der si fiv as Philippians; the small epis- 
da hsfiog also been published. 

''A new fount of Nagrec types hod 
ken procured from Calcutta, which 
would render it easy to issue school-books 
flf s superior quality. For this species of 
poblication there were many induce- 
tteots; and doubtless the demand for 
books of many kinds will increase reg^- 
hrly, till all that part of India shall have 
experienced the happy change, which tlie 
Gospel, accompanied by pure morality 
aad genuine philosophy, will accomplish 
ere long.** 

A fr^ stated by Mr. Hall, and publish- 
•d at p. 205 of our last volume, shows very 
itrikingly, how much good may be silently 
effect«i by tbe numerous Christian publi- 
cattions issued from the press at Uumbay. 
^The New Testament, in Mahratlu, as 
translated by the missionaries of the Hoard, 
was carried through tlie press before the 
death of Mr. Hall. 

Of the schooling system, the Report 
ipeaks as follows. 

" It appears from a printed document, 
iaoed oy the missionaries at the com- 
' Kencement of the present year, that the 
■umber of common schools under their 
mperintendence was thirty-two, and the 
■umber of children on the list of the 
teachers, 1750. Of these pupils, 75 were 
nil, and 133 were Jewish children. — 
During the preceding year, 1000 pupils 
■s oeariy as coald be ascertained, had left 
fliese ■cbools^ having obtained, in gene- 
ral, what the natives esteem a sufficiently 
i tood edncaition. Among those, who have 
^ left the schools in preceding years down 
to the date of the document here referred 
to, the unssiofiaries a«K there **ue many 
YoL. V.^C% Mv. 



boys and young men, who can read with 
a fluency and propriety, that would put 
to shame a great majority of the common 
Brahmins." Wherever these youths arc 
afterwards met in the country, they are 
among the first to solicit and read the 
Christian Scriptures and tracts. In not a 
few instances, fathers have solicited books 
for their little sons. The education of fe- 
male children is viewed in its just light by 
the missionaries; and they have taken pe- 
culiar pains to break down the prejudices 
of tlic people on tliis subject. Considering 
the strength of these prejudices, much has 
already been done, and the way is fast 
preparing for a general revolution of pub- 
lick opinion. Numerous and urgent ap- 
plications arc made for new schools; but 
it is necessary to decline them all, until 
larger funds and more labourers can be 
fornished." 

The joint letter of the missionaries, in- 
serted m our last volume, pp. 101, 103, 
together with Mr. Hall's appeal to tlie 
American cliurcheK, printed at p. 312, 
strongly prove, tliat in work preparatory 
to great and visible success, the missioii 
had, in ten years, made much progress. 

//. Ceylon, 

A large island in the Indian sea, sepa- 
rated from the coast of Coromandel by a 
channel, called the Straits of Manaar. — 
Length 300 miles, breadth 200.— Popula- 
tion 1,500,000. It constitutes one of the 
British governments in India, but is not 
under the control of tlie East India Com- 
pany. 

The missionaries of the Board are in 
the northern, or Tamul division of the 
island, in the district of Jaffna. 

Commenced in 1816. Stations at Til- 
lipally, llatticotta, Oodooville, Panditeri- 
po, Alanepy, and Kaits. j 

TiLLiPALLT. — ^Nine miles north of Jaff- 
napatam. Establibhed in 1816. 

Rev. Henry Woodward, Miationary. 

Nicholas rennandcr, J^Tativc Preacher t 
M. Tumban, Teadxer of Encfiith ; .Tordan 
Lodge, J^'tUive Msietant ; Charles Uodge, 
JVu/irt' SuperintcndcHt of Schools, 

BATTiroTTA. — Six miles north-west of 
Jaflnapatam. 1817. 

Rev. itcnjainin C. Meigs, MUtMnary ; 
Rev. Daniel Poor, Missionary and I'rinci' 
pal of the Cuntrul School; and their wives. 

l^abriel Tissera, J^ativc Preac/ter and 
Teacher in the Central School ; Timothy 
D wight, JSTative Msistant Teacher in the 
Central School; Ebenezer Porter, Muive 
„9s9istant. 

It would seem, from one of the docur 
ments received from the mission, that Sii.« 
muel Worcester was a\so ^m^W|^^ sa ^ 
J\atire As3ittant Teaeher. 

M 



A- 



V - 



•V-w -•w-^ Ala 



Fr. 



^ • -. 






Vkvc ■ »■ *■» '•» 

i»». .* * . . - 

Mk\ve« y^x r !it U« Jli\l A lull* iionh- 
IC^- V. I .^ • t S; *«^- \ *^. • >A^M( ^ ■»«: "-j ; ami 



S.'^x'i3» wi tomcwliat above 200 in B^ 

^■^^-^ 'jk»t : but no particular account ^ 

;^f •-:>.<'r schools was tlicn coinnumicatedi 

"* :^ev<*ral of the schoolmasters have be- 

cvxnc pious, and a large proportion of 

:h*m are deeply serious. They alreidf 

eiert a very favoui-able influence upon 

the interests of the mission. The nran 

forward and intellijjent of the pious youthi 
pursue the same plan of publicly speak- 
ing on religious subjects, which lias beet 
mentioned in the previous history of tht& 
mission." ' , 

With respect to female education, the ' 
following remarks are made : 
" The education of females, though i»- 

.^ .-, ,^. pidly advancing, is attended with manf 

\ vvTik»i.)^\.iCft .\".. .IV •y».ViN7.'H«irii/ of difftcuUies, and will be tiius attended for 
Xt>k«M.j. a long time to come. The whole frame 

KuiH.— I'bc !\''.»IciK-,* of two :^caIous of society must be pulled down and w 
*»kI fu.i-Sr, J 'w: *v- i' vt!ir\M. who visit the built, before women can enjoy their 
•ici|(hikHiMitj; %:l.s(^!i» .iinI ukc* charge of rightful privileges, and be elevated to 
Wv> vtu'i <^\^vvl«L IS.''*. their proper rank. This mighty work can 

"^^ " only be accompli si led by the at I -pervad- 

ing influence of Christian principle, dif- 
fused by education, by example, and by 
persevering labour in all these ways, ac» 
companicd by the special agencv' of the 
Holy Spirit. One of the first impctlimenU ' 
to the improvement of females, is the dif- 
ficulty of fin«ling any emj)lovmcnt for 
them C()mpatil)le with cultivation of mind, 
or elevation of cliaractcr. Ihit such em- 
ployments will be found, us true civiliza- 
tion Hhall advance under the auspices of 
Chrislianiiv." 

///. The Cherokrcn, 
A tribe of Indians, inhabiting a tract of 
country inclmlcl witliin tlio rhailert'd li- 
mits of the states of (ieovfi^ia, Alabama, 
Tennessee, and North Carolina. Popula- 
tion about 15,0U0. 

Comnienci-d in 1817. St:itIons at Rniin- 
erd, Carmel, Crcckpath, Highto\ver,WilIs- 
town, Haweis, ;tnd Caiuh *s Creek. 

llKAixEUii.— One mile north of the 35th 
parallel of latitiide, and seven miles S. K. 
of the Tennessee river; consequently iii 
that part of the Clitrokee country, wliich 
falls within the limits of Tennessee. This 
place is about 250 miles from Augusta, 
(Geo.,) near the road, which runs in a 
N. \\\ direction from that city to Nash- 
ville. Kstablishedin 1817. 

Uev. Samuel A . Worcester, M'ssiouarv • 



lv%. ,4 Kv tsuv'.'Vs-r, V 
\\i:i.»^ liis" ^M-iC v*«*'«**-*' >*'hool atTil- 
iijs».i\ :^X* •^sv.*>.v. ;'w :«,»>> fwiu Pandi- 
'.v.o'oAN' \L»'V'», .rv. ivtt bears the 
v»«-^ A ., •• ;,' . %• i\«»::-^l School at 
Vi*. . ^x\ .4, . ». *,a/.,- ■ v* »!• vi»is country 

«>.s.it.Hs>» A. ;•• .' v-:*;*»* *!.iiions more at li- 
.S«v '^^ ^' >**^ * •** *»»^r***- *''*c school 
■v\ V-*** '•*••"* ■' ■*'• ***»d»'*'villc, was re- 
**.'^\v ».* >i^'V •*. 1* > »»vount of the ab- 
^.N^v V* XI *x'. Xli>. WiuNlow at Cul- 
,v.»* S, , \^N, w-. p PM—The num. 
V* ,s ' • \ » -.% ii» *«f wlhun one-thiril 
¥\v s . Sv* »'f tju* churih. The Cen- 
\ t^^* v^,.' a ^'ii'.u^^tlrt. at the latest 
,.k ,v ,x • * -.a vi pnpi!^ of whom 22 
^>.v •'v V •, .* »i \\\s' 1 Imivh. A full ac- 
V.l «;*> jint'll ut pp. o-ir- 
.V -I ,s .\*. ^»'),.:n*\ The dilliculties 
. ««(v. V «*' ^^^,s ■■ JV t*» <i»"* iuNtituiion 
^•,' '-* V . ■ A C- .»■» .u*v' enumerated at 
. *v , • ;<•: ,•(■ t;-.,' v'.nu' volnnie.— -Mrs. 
W.xx'^^O . ,.■ N.*v -.'Ith, 1SJ5. Mrs. 
\- x-^ • "*•' ■■• * ^^■'*' KiohariLs died at 
V. \v\, • « N .' ." \ )»Tii'an mis.sion, Ajiril 

1Mio Neporl thus 






»* V \ 



^*. ;■.*,« ^ ,',*r. 



^•sx^ .s« .:•,■ *'.*■<• .'f'tlu* scliools: 

>^ P^«' «v^.^'! »t^u<:u i>( this mission is 
^^ « -^^^Avt.^;, ;.>'d p^Mni.^e« the most 
>.v^**» «^'*»'''* Vt the commencement of 



jJii mNNvnM of iho prevalence ot the cho- 
Itww » P*f* ''*' *'*'^ 9cYi<*oU were afterward 
MiuKMidcsU M^^ Bxvme ftff other causes. 
/»*• nutnlfcr d' fcbolan in the Boardmg 



Georgia, on the road from Augusta to 
Nashville, 46 miles N. \V, of the Chata- 
hochee river (which is the S. E. boundary 

m 



Eeligiaus intdHgence. 



n 



^befoket OMintry,) and 63 mtley 
linevd. 1890. 

Duiiel S. Botrick, J^Bauonaryt 
ractOTy Ttmeher^ Mrs. Proctor; 
^uker» /Wrmep, Mrs. Parker; Jo- 
nmingway, Fiirmer, 
EPATB.— In the chartered limits of 
I, four miles S. of the Tennessee 
vhich ii here the N. W. boundary 
Iherokee countiy,) and 40 S.S.E. 
sville. 1820. 

Vniiiam Potter, Mutionaryt Mrs. 
Fenner Bosworth, Farmer, Mrs. 
th ; Erminia Nash. 
rovsB. — In the chartered limits 
gia, one mile south of Hightowcr 
ndSS miles 9.S.W. of Carmcl. 
beth Proctor, Teacher. 
JT1>V5.— In the chartered limits 
una, about 10 miles from the west- 
: of f jeor^, and 40 miles south of 
river/ 1823. 



AfdHoyt,)|^Kev. William Cham- 
J^Btionaiiet; Sjlrester £Uis, /'^ar- 
id their wKes. 
Huss, A'ati^ Mtistant, 
tn^^About 50 miles S. of Brain- 
itbm the chartered limits of Geor- 
K23. 

ilizar Butler, Phytician and Cate- 
Irs. Butler. 

i*s Cbxik. — Within the chartered 
if Tennessee, 25 miles N. E. of 
d, and 10 miles S. W. of the Che- 
gency on the Hiwassee. 1824. 
am Holland, Teacher and Farmer, 
>llaDd. 

▼arious portions of Indian territory 
n spoken of, as lying within cer- 
:es of the Union, it Ls proper to say 
hat the conventional limits of dif- 
tatcs, whether fixed by the states 
Ives, or by Congress, do not affect 
ian titles to the territories in ([ucs- 
t has always been admitted by our 
I authorities, as it must be by every 
man, that the tribes of Indiana in 
imericahave a perfect ri^ht to the 
their ancestors, now in their own 
ncy, unless they or their fathers 
Dluntarily relinquished thi^t right 
od consideration. When we spcuk, 
re, of Indian territory, as lying in 
tc of Tennessee, or th^ state of 
L, it is not intended that the Iij^ians 
esiding are subject to the laws of 
lies; or that the running of a line 
I their countr>', or markmg it upon 

has any effect to impair their 
or dispossess them of their patri- 

inheritance. ^ I'he only way, in 
ilia inheritance can be alienated, 
eaties fairly and honourably made, 
th tlie full assent of tlie present 
• 
far as the ImVtMn tith is ri^bt fully 



extinguished, the property falls into the 
hands of the national government, or of 
the separate states, according to stipula- 
tions now existing. The right of sove* 
reig^ty will, in every case, belong to the 
state, within whose conventional limits 
the territory now lies. These remarks 
have appeared proper, as the right of the 
Indians to their own land, from the man- 
ner in which the subject has oflen been 
presented to the mind, is overlooked and 
forgotten.*' 

Mrs. Dean, who left Brainerd last year, 
on account of declining health, died on the 
21st 6f May last ; and Mr. Dean's services, 
in consequence of uncertainty whether 
his health would allow him to resume his 
appropriate work, were relinquished. He 
is succeeded by Mr. Fcmal.' Mr. Hall and 
Mr. Frederick Elsworth have also retired 
from the senicc of tlie Itoard with their 
families; the former on account of the ill 
health of Mrs. Hall, but with the conso- 
lation of reflecting, that God has seen fit 
to honour his labours in a somewhat re- 
markable manner: the latter on account 
of the very precarious state of his own 
health, which led him to submit his case 
to the Committee, who gave him an ho- 
nourable discharge. Mr. Manwaring, men- 
tioned in the survey of last year as con- 
nected with the station of Carmel, with- 
drew from the mission after having la- 
boured one year. 

The number of pupils in the missionary 
schools at the above stations, is probably 
about 200. 

The survey of this mission will be closed 
with a few miscellaneous extracts, of an 
interesting nature, from the Report. 

«* The schools at Brainerd were never 
in a better state than during the present 
year. The pupils have been orderlyt obe- 
dient, studious, and making good profi- 
ciency. When the Corresponding Secre- 
tary visited the school for boys, in March 
last, not a word was missed by the whole * 
school in spelling. One of tlie boys, ten 
or eleven years old, who had been in 
school less than five months, not having 
previously learned the alphabet, was 
spelling in words of three syllables, and 
had never missed but a sing'le word. 
Considering what it is for children to 
learn to spell in a foreign language, and 
how very ambiguous and deceitfiil tlie 
English alphabet is, these facts certainly 
prove an extraordinary attention of the 
mind." 

<* An Indian named Big Bear, and bis 
wife, were admitted to the church laat 
winter. The man is since dca(L lie ap* 
peared to be a true convert. An aged 
Cherokee woman, who had great grand- 
children in the 8ch(K)\ soon a(vct \Xa cMa* 
nxMirement, and w\\o Via«\ tv\uctd Oafe 



92 Viiw (^ PubUek Jffairs. Fu 



pover of religion upon her heart for six Conned . — ** The itete of tocietj^ at th 

years, has also been removed to a better place is much improred. Thm if oia 

worklt as we trust, there to associate with paratively little inteinperance in the vk 

Catherine Drown, to whom she was per- nity. Not a few instances of hopeful CH 

sonally attached, and with several others veruon have been witneMed» and ime c 

from among her people, who gave evi- distinguished piety,** 
dence of intelligent faith and holy love, ('/^ btwUimieA) 

and are justlv counted precious fruit of 
Jthis mission.*' 

The Tretuurer of the Trusteet of tht General A99embly of ihe Pretbjfterian CtarelH 
kmwled^et the receipt of the following tumofor their Theological Semnary ol Mms 
ION, .v. /. during the month of January laet, vix. 

Of Rev. Dr. Archibald Alexander, from Rev. Joseph Sanibrd, the annual col- 
lection in Brooklyn (L. Is.) for the Contingent Fund - • • - ^ 01 
Of Rev. John W. Scott, a quarter's rent, for do. - - - • • V 9^ 

Of L. Desauque, a quarter's rent of stable back of do. - • • • 10 01 

Amount received for the Contingent Fund 147 9 
Of Rev. Dr. Moses Waddel, per Joseph J. Woodward, two instalments of Rev. 

John R. Golding, for the Southern Professorship - - -^ - - 100 P 
Of Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, for the Le Roy and Banver Scholarship* - - 175 Oi 
Of Mrs. Jane Keith, of Charleston, South Carolins, tor a particular student 132 f 

Total S555S 



l^tetD Of l^umtcft SOffair^. 

EUROPE. 

The news from Europe, during the past month, has not been ver^ abundiB^ bi 
yet of considerable interest. It appears that in various parts of this region of th 
earth, mortal sickness has prevailed, for several months preceding the last aocooflb 
to a very unusual extent Iblali^nant fevers of different types, have carried W0, 
thousands to their gmves, cspeciaJly in Germany and the neighbouring states. BtM 
it was believed, was beginning to return to the places which had suffered most 

BaiTAiif . — Our latest 8d\ices from Britain are to the 14th of December. 

If wc are to judge by the general scope and spirit of the last accounts of distici 
and embarrassment, arising from the w\nt of employment in Great Britain and be 
land, we must think that tlie suffering there, in almost every class of the commoBil] 
is not diminished but rather increased. Probably tlie augmentation may be Slllr 
buted, in part, to the season of the year — the approach of winter. Even in the tinf* 
speech, at the opening of Parliament, his Majesty admits that "the depression nnas 
which the trade and manufactures of the counti^ have been labouring has abated mat 
slowly than he had thought himself warranted m anticipating;" and he consoles Ua 
self chiefly from **thc patience with which sufTcrings have been home,** and froB > 
** firm expectation that the abatement will be proji^rcssive, and that the time is no 
distant, when, under the blessing of Divine Providence, the commerce and indotft 
of the United Kingdom will have resumed their wonted activity." ParUament VI 
opened, in a splendid manner, with a speech of which the foregoing is a ptfti^ 
the 21st of November. The speech was delivered by the King in person i bntitil 
without exception, the emptiest thing of the kind that wc remember ever to bin 
seen : snd so it has been represented by the opposition members of Parliament— I 
really contains nothing that wc think our readers would wish us to detail. The Mb 
jectof the com laws was not to he discusiied, till after the recess of Pariiament St th* 
Christmas holidays. It appears that our minister, Mr. Gallatin, has frequent interfie*! 
with Mr. Secretary Canning— on what subjects we know not. Great agitatiow id 
exist in Ireland, occasioned botli by the pressing necessities of the people, and th 
controversy relative to Catholick emancipation. It appears also that there has been : 
AUing off in the revenue during the last year, but wc believe the amount of thedrf 
ciency ia not grcui. 



827. View tf PMUk Jtffairi. 93 

Oa the 11th of December, a moi^^ wm tent by the king to both houiet of Par- 

Bimeat, acqiuinting them *«that his Majesty had received an earnest application from 

the Princess Bcgent of Portugalt churning, m virtue of the ancient obligations of aUi- 

lace and amitf , subnstinjr between his Majesty and the crown of Portugal, hb Ma- 

jcity's aid against a hostile aggremon from Spain." It is farther stated in the Royal 

■Mige, that his Majesty, in concert with the lung of France, had exerted himself to 

uereot this agmssion, and had received repeated assurances from his Catholick 

Ibjeitv that wSSL aggreanon should not be made from his territory— That neverthe- 

leah had been made, <* under the eyes of Spanish authorities, by Portuguese regi- 

■ents which had deserted into Smdn, and which the Spanish government had re* 

potedly and solemnly engaged to disperse/' After assuring Parliament that he would 

** leave no eiTort unexhiuisted to awaken the Spanish government to the dan^rous 

comequences of this apparent connivance,'' the king concludes his message, with an 

ex[utaion of his entire confidence in the concurrence of his Parliament ** in securing 

againit foreign hostility, the safety and independence of the kingdom of Portugd— 

tu oldest all^ of Great Britain." It appears that measures were taken with the ut- 

■Qit promptitude, in both houses of Parliament, to forward the demanded, succour to 

Poitupl In the Commons, the speech of Mr. Canning, who wss out of health at the 

tiae, IS represented as eloquent beyond measure. In replpr to some insinuations that 

there bsd been delay in providing the necessary aid, he said — ** On Saturday, the de- 

ciuQof the government was taken ; on Sunday, we obtained the sanction of his Ma- 

joty; on Monday, we came down to Parliament; and while I have now the honour 

cf addressing the house, British troops are on their march for Portugal." The next 

dqr, Mr, Canning, overcome, it is saio, bv his exertions, was taken seriously ill ; and 

IB oonsequence of this, Parliamentt on the evening of the 13th of December, was ad- 

jouned to the 8th of February. 

When military force is once arrayed, and the adverse corps are brought near to 
each other, war is sometimes the consequence, even when it is not wished for or ex- 
pected^ by the powers who send their troops to the field. If Spain were not infii- 
tnitedeven to madness, we should think, tnat in the present instance, there was no 
IjrobabUity of a war between her and Britain ; especially as France appears to be se- 
'^y engaged with Britain to prevent it. As matters stand, we know not what will 
happen ; but, on the whole, we do not look for war. The qtdd nunctt both in Lon- 
don and Paris, are speculating on the subject. Some say that France is hypocritical, 
and bu actuaUy prompted Spain to the hostile measures she has countenanced. 
Odiera say, that Canning has got up this whole affair, to divert the British publick 
fran the distress of the country. Suggestions of this kind, from party writers, usually 
dnenre little regard. What foundation there is for these, must oe left to time to de- 
cide. It appears that five thousand troops have been sent from England to Portugal, 
and we have just seen it stated, that an equal number had left Gibraltar for Lisbon. 
We do not, however, believe that such a force could have gone from Gibraltar ; as we 
think it nearly equal to the whole that is stationed in that fortress in time of peace. 

A tremendous storm of wind and snow had been experienced in the Highlands of 
Scotland, destructive alike of man and beast. In some parts of the Highlands, it is 
and that the snow had drifted to the depth of a hundred feet. The loss of shipping 
00 the coast has also been great. 

The convocation of the clergy of the established church of England, which is al- 
vayi called on the meeting of a new Parliament, but which is seldom permitted to 
nter on any business, did, at its meeting in November last, draw lip, and present to 
hia present Britannick Majesty, a formal address, of very serious import. The scope 
<rfit is, that the established church is put in alarming jeopardy, by the attempts of in- 
fidelity and the exertions of the Roman Catholicks : and that the Convocation appeal 
to his Majesty, as ** under God, the Head of the church," for protection. Of this pro- 
ton the king, in his answer, gives a kind of assurance — intentionally waving, as we 
l^Qk,any explicit pledge in reg^ard to what is called i\}e Catholick question. We may 
^ allowed to express, most seriously, our sense of gratitude to (lod, that we belong to 
a church which, in no sense whatever, has an earthly sovereign for its head — which 
ksows no other head save Him ** who is given to be the Head over all things to the 
church, which is his body, the fulness of Him that filleth all in all." 

Faurca. — On the 12th of Dec. the Set$ion of the FrencK C/uimdert was opened at 
^Louvre, by a speech from the king. Unlike that of his coutin in Britain, this 
■peech is pithy, and full of matter. Much of it however relates to local concerns, 
"ftat in which we feel the most interest refers to the slave trade — He says — "The 
Punishments awarded against the sbve trade have failed in their efliicacy, and their 
*Pplicatioo may be avoided. A^morc compute Uw is neccssaiY, ax\CL \ \\aN« ^Nca 



1 

94 View of PuUidc Jfffmr% Fsa^ .| 

orden that a bill to that eflTect be laid before yoa/* We earnestly hope that iliia 
may have been said in mncerity, and that it may not prove of a piece with thm 
aluuneful duplicity^ which we have thought right to expose in another part of our 
view. The French monarch explicitly avows his opposition to the hostile rae^ 
aurea of Spain, and his wishes for the continuance of peace. It appears that the le* 
venue of France in the year past has exceeded the necessary expenditures* and thift 
the surplus will be applied to relieve the ** Communes from the additional paymeatt 
which they have been in the habit of granting to their Curates." A reouction of 
** the most burdensome taxes" is also speedily anticipated. The speech coadodc% 
with the following sentence — "France, industrious snd tranquil, will acquire iie# 
greatness, and her success in peace will not shed less splendour than her warlike viiw 
turea will do, if honour should oblige her to display them." A British ministerial 
paper, ** The London Courier," admits that this conclusion of the French Idiig^' 
speech was probably added, ** upon receiving intelligence of the military demonltia* 
tions made by this country."— It is curious to observe how these two rival and jea* 
lous and mighty nations, watch all the movements of each other ; and even the uui^ 
guage which is held by those in power. Canning, in his great speech, liad said, that 
although wishing for peace, Britain had still for war ''a giant's strength;'^ and the 
French monarch, it appears, intended his flourish as an ofl-set to the British boast 

SrAisr. — It does not appear that the Spanish government have really sanctioned the 
irruption into Portugal of the rebellious troops of that kingdom, tliat had marched 
into Spain. On the contrary, it appeai-s that this government have given explieit 
assurances to Britain, France, and Portugal, that they would give no countenance 
or aid to the rebels. Even a treaty to this effect has recently been ratified be* 
tween Spun and Portugal. Now, wc are inclined to believe tliat the government of 
Spain have not been able to fulfil their intention!* — Not that they do not moat oof^ 
dially hate the constitution of Portugal, and would be elad to crush it at once— >Bat 
we think they must have seen that they could not contend with France and Britainty and 
therefore, though very reluctantly, determined to leave the Portug^uese rebels to their 
fkte ; and that they have been placed in the predicament in which the^ find them- 
aelves» by the tide of popular opinion, which they canno^ control or resist. We are 
countenanced in this opinion by a part of Mr. Canning's sy, ^ech, in which he says^ **I 
am persuaded there is, in the \'ast majority of the Spanish p 'ople, a decided love of 
arbitraty power — so that whether the government do or do not partake in their aen- 
timents— ^ or do not stimulate their passions — it is certain this vast majority do 
not require its onlers' to excite them to action." If Ferdinand and his ministera nave 
raised, or rather cherished a spirit, which they cannot modify or govern — which 
seems to be the fact — we see not but that Spain must be conquered, or be put under 
the absolute control of other powers, before Portugal can be quiet — We observe 
that new attempts irre still made to rout out of tlie country every vestige of the late 
constitutional spirit. 

PoaTuoAL. — Chamber of DcputieM, — "In the sitting of the 4th of December, the 
minister for foreign aflairs ^ave an account of the relations with foreign powers^ in 
which he showed that the disposition of England was decidedly friendly, adding, that 
she alone would be suilicicnt to defend the nation from all its enemies; that the 
French government has recognised the present system of Portugal ; that the instruc* 
tions given by Russia, Austria, and Prussia, to their charge dcs affaires were satiafiMt- 
tor}', and have been completely fulfilled by them; that in consequence of the well 
known intrigues of Spain, and of lute events, a note has been given to the ambaaaador 
of that court to the Portuguese government, signifying to him that his functions were 
suspended till the conduct of his court was explained, and another to the Portugueae 
ambassador at Madrid, to demand satisfaction of that government, not for wordflg but 
facts relative to the said events. The minister stated verbally, that should the aatia- 
faction required not prove what it ought to be, the English, the natural allies and ain- 
cere fHends of Portugal, would take upon them to demand it; and that the govern- 
ment being authorized by the chambers to receive foreign troops, had already ap- 
plied to England for them in consequence of the existing treaties. His excellencv 
said that the Apostolick junta rules the cabinet of Bladrid, and has unfortunately rami- 
fications in Portugal, and must be considered as the greatest pest of monarchies^ the 
most infamous league against monarchsand European civilization." 

The foregoing account of the minister for foreign aflPairs in Portugal, containa an 
excellent summary of tlic state of things in that kingdom. It further appears that the 
Portuguese nobility are, in general, ardent in their attachment to the present con- 
stitution; and that many of them are hastening to the frontiers, to take an active part 
ia the miTitury operations against the rebels---who, after some hard fighting, mre 
tmken the town ofHrnf^ir/.at in (he nortliem exlremUy o( \\ve VXiv^^toiv, 



View of PuUiek Jlffain. 95 

u.— The Auitrian troops are about evacuating Naples; but it is expected they 
lin as an aimy of obsenration in the Roman states. The formalities of a mar* 
itfBct between Don Miguel and his niece, whose proxy aeted for her, hare 
sbrated at Vienna. 

c. — l*he affairs of Greece, so far as we are informed, remain much as they 
be time of our last report. It is stated in a London paper of the 25lh of No- 
bat *' aix unsuccessful attacks bad been made on the Acropolis by the Turks.'* 

I there is now (pood reason to believe, that botli England and France are 
negotiating wiUi tlie Ottoman Porte, for the liberation of Greece— or rather, 

& the Sultan to relinauish his claims on that country : for we shall continue 

II our fears are dispelled by unequivocal facts, tliat unhappy Greece wiU be 
lUy liberated after all, if the settling of her aiFairs sliall pass from her own 
r hands. It seems, by the last accounts, that the Sultan Mahmoud was listen* 
tively to the representations of Mr. Stratford Canning— only, we think, be- 
( resources for carrying on tlie war are exhausted. 

fjoice to find that vigorous exertions are being nnade, in various parts of our 
to send supplies of provisions and clothing, to the wretched population of this 
land< 

(T.— The Grand Senior and his Divan appear to have enough to do in set- 
liri with Uussia, in suppressing the Janissarics« and in hearing propositions 
iknd and France in regard to Greece. But we have no particulars of import* 
eport. 

«— The military force of this empire is enormous. We have lately seen what 
to be a correct statement, that '* Russia, witliout stripping Finland, 6t. Pe- 
ll, and Moscow — witliout withdrawing a single man from her armies of the 
South, can, without difficulty, an<l without any new levy, in the space of two 
carry into Poland, from 250, to 275,000 men." The Turks and Persians have 
terrifick neighbour; and it may not be anuss for us to recollect that she is 
ining our neighbour. We have beard nothing recently of the Persian war. 

ASIA. 

rrx. — ^The commerce of Calcutta, as stated in the French papers, amounts on 
^ to fourteen millions of pounds sterling a year. About 600 vessels enter 
; annually. In 1717, Calcutta was nothing but an inconsiderable little village, 
ed by marshes and forests : it now contains more than one hundred thousand 
md extends more than two leagues along the banks of the river. The Eng- 
stiroated at 600,000; and the whole population of the city and environs within 
Mss of 70 miles each way, is stated at more than two millions. 

AFRICA. 

5tter from Mr. Ashmun, to our Secretary of the navy, written at Cape Mesu' 
the 11th of December, 1825, but published within the last month, it appears 
slave trade on the coast of Africa, was then really favoured bv the French go- 
t, and this under a dijjested system of hypocrisy, calculated to save appear- 
d prevent the charge of the infraction of those ** stipulations and solemn trea- 
le gpovcmment," by which France has bound herself to co-operate in putting 
D this abominable trafHck. Such, we doubt not, has been and still is, the fact 
« glad to see this fact made publick. Shame sometimes operates on nations, ' 
a on individuals, to produce effects which ought to flow from better principles. 

AMERICA, 
a Atres astd Brazil. — The war is still carried on between these powers, but 
little to report, of a recent date, on which reliance can be placed. An ar- 
Norfolk about the middle of Januar}', brought information that the emperor 
Iro had himself repaired to the scene of wartiirc with a fleet consisting (yf one 
hip, one frigate, one sloop of war, several transports, and two thousand troops 
the adverse armies were likely to meet at Rio Grande, and something deci- 
ike place. Since this arrival there have been several rumours of advantages 
y the Patriots — Of the fall of Monte Video, and the possession by them of 
(e of the Banda Onental. But we know not how much of all this time will 
be true or false. 

CBZJU— We hope the Liberator Bolivar is likely to settle the serious distur- 
which for some time past have agitated this republick, and threatened civil 
e baa as yet restored order in every place which he hat v\a\led. On xYve '^I^ 
nber he publisbcJ at Bogota a decree, in which he takes lo YuxnifiXi \\ie e.TX.t%- 
powcngnuited to the Frendeni of the republick, by a p«x\\cA^b»s %x^c\t «K 



, 1 \ i<-» ■' 

< . h .y 



96 View of Piibtick Jtffairs. FUi; 

tiie comtitution. On tlie 25th lie wai to proceed by Msncaibo, to Vcnezueli^ 
nmtive province. As yet he has fully sustained his former character, and his inilw 
appears to be unbounded. Still it is a problem, whether he will succeed in hisj 
tempt to restore order, by peaceable means. — But our hopes are sanguine that, 
will. 

GuATmAUL. — Instances of great disorder, tendine to th^^tubversion of all gorei 
and the intrmluction of general anarchy, have lately taken place in this republic^, , 
the city of Quesaltenango, a conflict ensued between the troops of tlie gov|^^ 
and the people of the town ; in which the latter overpowered the former, ^™*" 
them, cruelly murdered their chief magistrate, and went to the most deploi 
cesses. The last accounts represent those who were invested with power, as 
to subdue the other party ; but it seems questionable still how the disturbances 
terminate. The imprisonment of a popular leader, by the President of the republic^' 
seems to have led to these disorders, which it appears have been fomented by 
foreigners. — One Gordon, said to be a natural son of Lord George Gordon, of T 
mob memory, is represented as a ringleader of the insurgents. It is, alas ! hard to* 
make good republicans, out of tliose who have been bom and lived under an ib* 
solute government. 

Mtxicu. — Commodore Porter, with the Mexican fleet under his command, pat to 
sea not long since; and it was currently reported that he had sent a challenge to Ia* 
borde, the commander of the Spanish naval force at the Havanna, to come oat aid 
meet him. What truth there may have been in this we know not ; but the present 
accounts from the West Indies are, tliat Porter's fleet is blockaded by that of Laboide^ 
which is greatly superior in force. 

UviTBD States. — Congress are occupied with a variety of important questiosii 
which, as to the most of them, it would be useless to our readers to specify, till tbey 
are either disposed of, or nearer to an issue than they appear to be at present. 
The bankrupt bill, the relief bill for the revolutionary soldiery, tlie question in re- 
gard to retaliatory measures on British commerce, the question relative to a Break* 
water at the mouth of -Delaware river, the bill to abolish imprisonment for debt,-* 
these, and several others, are of great publick interest ; but what is likelv to be their 
destiny, we are unable to decide. In legislation, there may be too much, as well as 
too little deliberation. We are not prepared to charge our Congress with either of 
these extremes; but we confess wc were surprised, ^thin a few minutes of writing 
this, to read in a Gazette as follows — '* Mr. Benton said, that as considerably more 
than two-thirds of the session had now passed, while /o?/?* htmdred bilU were still on 
the President's table for decision, besides the additional executive business whidi 
would come before the Senate, he moved that the Senate meet hercaHer at 11 o'clockt 
which was put and carried." 

There was lately a rumour of hostilities having been committed by an Indian tribe on 
the frontiers of Georgia ; and it appears that several individuals were actually mur- 
dered by Indians. But we are glau to And that the guilty party, amounting, it is said, 
to no more than seven, arc disowned by their tribe, and that no general violation of 
peace between the Indians and whites is likely to ensue. Health, peace, and plenty 
now seem to pervade our happy land — Will it not be an acceptable oOcring to Ilim to 
whom we arc indebted for tho.sc blcKsings, that we contribute liberally to the relief of 
tlic suflering Greeks, who seem to be deprived of them all ? 

To Readers and Correspondents. 

We think it right to explain to our readers, why they have not a portion of the Rev. 
Mr. Stewart's Journal in our present number. The case is this — The part of the 
jounial immediately succeeding that which we last published, contains a description 
of the volcano at the foot of the mountain Mounakea, in the island of Hido — And to 
us, it is the most interesting description of a stupendous natural object, which we 
have ever read. But it will occupy about ten pages of our magazine, and must not 
be divided. We could not spare ^ic necessary space from our present number, but 
we will not fail to take it from our next. 

We have also reluctantly delayed the publication of " Martin Luther^i modeH ae- 
eotmt of himself, prefixed to the edition of his Latin loorkn, pubHahed by order of the Etec- 
tor of Saxony" Wc thank our learned correspondent for his translation of this inte- 
resting piece. It shall appear ere long — we hope in our next number — And wc will 
hold ourselves obliged for any further communications of a similar kind. We esteem 
tAew Mmong the most valuable that our pages can contain. 



m 



ruE 




urn 




liM 



«S 




I 



'^ 




MAIiCII, 18i27. 



Heli0ioii^ <(rommiinicationp\ 






UCTURKS ON THK SHORTER CATE- 
rUlSM OF THE WESTMINSTER AS- 
SEMBLY OF DIVINES ADDUi:SSi;i> 

TO YOUTH. 

LECTUBE XXII. 

( Continued from p. 52.) 

Again — ^Tlic answer before us 
further states tliat Christ humbled 
himself bj enduring "the cursed 
death of ihc cros.s." This was a 

fiunibhment inflicted onl^ on ma- 
efactors of the most atrocious and 
deeraded kind — (> who can con- 
ceive of the humiliation of the Son 
of God, in consenting to die like 
slaves and thieves! — a death in 
which infamy and agony were 
united, and carried to their very 
extremity! 

The death of the cross was call- 
ed a cursed death, because they 
who endured it were separated 
from all good, and devoted to all 
evil. Christ, although sinless in 
himself, was separated from all 
happiness, and devoted to all mise- 
ry, while he suflered on the ac- 
cursed tree. God sparetl him not, 
but gave him up to this awful deatli 
for us all. Hear the words of in- 
spiration, " Christ hath redeemed 
us from the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us; for it is writ- 
ten — * Cursed is every one that 
han^eth on a tree.' '^ Our blessed 
Reoeenier had taken the law place 
of dinners, and in regard to these 
it was enacted— "Curbed is tvcry 



one who contiiiueth not in all 
things written in the book of the 
law to do them.'" 

It is, I presume, known to you 
all, that ti»e cross was formed by a 
post sunk in the j^rounil — toward 
the top of which a transverse piece 
of wood was firmly fastened : on 
this the victim had his arms extend- 
ed, and nails were driven through 
the palms of each hand to fasten 
them above, while, in the same 
manner, the feet were nailed to the 
post below. In tliis manner hung, 
and bled, and <lied, that Saviour, 
my dear youth, wlio thus suflered, 
for your sins and mine. Having, 
in those circumstances, been pierced 
to the heart with a spear, to insure 
his death, he said — *' It is finished,-' 
— the great work is all accomplish- 
ed — " Father, into tliy hands 1 
commend niy s[»irit:-' And "he 
bowed his head, and gave up the 
gho&l.-' — The sun hid his face; 
the earth (|uaked ; tlie rocks rent; 
the death of its Maker darkened 
and convulsed the universe! 

This death of the Redeemer had 
been typified, at a very early pe- 
riod of the ancient Jewish church, 
by the bra/.en serpent; which 
jMoscs, by Divine loiumand, erect- 
ed on a pole in the wilderness, and 
to which those who had been stun": 
by serpents, weic directed to look 
for healing: And although the an- 
cient saints had not those cUdv ^v\d 
definite ideas oV V.\\^ ;v\.v>\\\tv'^ ^t;s\Vv 



98 



Lectures on the Shorter Catechism, 



M 



of Christ which we are favoured 
with, yet from symbols and sacri- 
fices they knew enough to make 
this the object and reliance of their 
faith, and they were saved by it. 

I must not leave this part of the 
subject, till I have distinctly re- 
minded you, that neither during 
the sufferings, nor at the death of 
Christ, was his human nature se- 
parated from his divine, as some 
nave strangely affirmed. The na- 
tures were inseparable; though it 
was only in his humanity that the 
Saviour did or could suffer. Yet 
as the Divine nature gave worth 
and efficacy to all, if it had been 
separated from the human, there 
would have been nothing left but 
the sufferings of a perfect man; of 
no avail to take away sin, and ex- 
hibiting but a low example, compa- 
ratively, of humiliation. 

Finally — The answer states that 
Christ was " buried and continued 
under the power of death for a 
time.*' Temporal death had been 
a part of the penalty threatened to 
the transgression of the first cove- 
nant, and therefore the Surety hum- 
bled himself to taste it. In that 
remarkable prophecy of our Sa- 
viour, which we have in the 53d 
chapter of Isaiah, and which seems 
more like a history than a prophecy, 
there is one passage which, but for 
tlie facts, would appear extremely 
obscure and almost contradictory. 
It is said "he made his grave with 
the wicked, and with the rich in 
his death." Or as Lowth more ac- 
curately renders it — " His grave 
was appointed with tlie wicked ; but 
with the rich man was his tomb." 
How wonderfully and exactly was 
this prophecy accomplished ! — As 
our Lord suffered with thieves, so, 
no doubt, his grave was intended 
and appointed by the Jews, to be 
with theirs. Yet the purpose of 
God must stand — ** With the rich 
man was his tomb." We have only 
to collect and read the several ac- 
counts of the evangelists, thus Con- 
nected and translated by Lowth — 



" There was a rich man of i 
thea, named Joseph, a mem 
the Sanhedrim, and of a res 
ble character, who had no 
sented to their counsel dju 
He went boldly to Pilate an 
sed the body of Jesus; and 
in his own new tomb, whic^ I 
hewn out of the rock, near 
place where Jesus was cru 
naving first wound it in fine 
with spices, as the manner 
Jews was to bury the ric' 
great" Thus, literally, st 
and strikingly, was this o 
prophecy fulfilled : The gri 
Jesus was appointed with the 
ed — with thieves and robber 
after all, with the rich man \ 
tomb. How wonderful is i 
such prophecies do not co 
the Jews! — They will, whc 
veil shall be taken from 
hearts; and I think these si 
predictions were partly inl 
for this very purpose. 

Our Lord's body was lai< 
new tomb, in which no oi 
ever been laid before; that 
he should ari«e from the dead 
might be no room to affirm 
was some other possessor 
tomb that had risen, or be 
moved. 

The body of our Lord s 
corruption. It had never 
tainted by a single sin. He ^ 
all respects, " God's holy 
and his work of humiliation 
complete, when he yielded 
stroke of death and was laid 
tomb, he saw no corruptioi 
remained a part of three da 
der the power of death; t 
from about three o'clock of i 
ternoon of Friday, till afte 
break, on the Lord's day. 
was a space sufficient to r 
him distinctly with those w 
laid in the grave, and to asi 
beyond all controversy that 
been dead — that his body v 
prived of every vital princ 
indication. 

You learn in the crec 



Lectures on the Slwrter Catechism^ 



99 



•« descended into hell." 
ord here translated heUt is 
1 Greek. It means only the 
*the dead — There is no rea- 
believe that Christ descend- 
the place of the damned, 
^al agony of the garden, the 
f the cross, and being num- 
with the dead, fully, satisfy 
cpression of the apostles' 
and we believe that nothing 

was intended by it. He 

• the penitent malefactor- 
day thou shalt be with me 
disc" — His holy soul was in 
•e, while his body lay in th 

I have we considered the in- 
)g subject of our Lord's hu- 
in. I could not forbear a 
r of reflections as I passed 
Let me entreat you, in ad- 
to considei^— 

hat the humiliation of Christ 
iffectually to teach humility, 
rho profess to be his disci- 
Why was it necessary that 
I of God should stoop so low? 
t not because our sins had 
s from the standing which 
iginally held, and had sunk 
) in guilt, and infamy, and 
edness ? Was it nut because 
indispensable that he should 
own to the depths of our de- 
on, that he might raise us up 
lemr And is this deeply de- 
state, that into which every 
>f Adam is born? — Is it that 
:h every one remains, till he 
vered from it, through the 
ce and application of the 
ious work which was accom- 
by the humiliation of Christ? 
low, my dear youth, the an- 
which these interrogatories 
ou. Believe it, the humilia- 

• Christ, when rightly con- 
I, will connect itself with 
ew8 of human guilt and de- 
nt, as are fitted to hide pride 
from the eyes of every hu- 

eing; — ^fitted to make him 
at t^fore his God, he is a pol- 
abject wretch, who is ever 



out of his place, when he is out of ^ 
the valley of humiliation. It was in- 
deed an infinite condescension, for 
our blessed Recjeemer to be in a 
state of humiliation; but to be in 
that state is no condescension in 
us. It is our only proper state. 
To claim to be in any other, is in- 
finitelv absurd, as well as sinful. 
O be sensible, that the very essence 
of sin is pride ! It was tlie first sin, 
and it has been the mother sin 
ever since the first. Let us ac- 
knowledge, as becomes us, that we 
are guilty and vile. I^et us, as sin- 
ners, take our place in the dust 
*^efore our God. When there, we 
shall be prepared to receive the 
benefit of our Lord's humiliation. 
We shall be willing to owe our sal- 
vation entirely, to what he has done 
and suffered on earth and is now 
doing in heaven. We shall em- 
brace him — most cordially and 
thankfully embrace him — as all our 
salvation and all our desire. We 
shall prove our discipleship by that 
lowliness of mind, and by all those 
acts of condescension and kindness 
to our fellow sinners, of which he 
has set us an unspeakably amiable 
example: and we shall find this 
lowliness of mind as favourable to 
our peace and comfort, as it is cor- 
respondent to the demands of 
duty — Yea, we shall find it favoura- 
ble to true magnanimity, and ge- 
nuine dignity of character. It 
marks the ingenuous return of a 
convinced and humble prodigal, to 
the love and kind reception of the 
best of fathers. It is lovely in the 
sight both of God and man; and it 
prepares all in whom it is found, 
to be raised in due time, through 
the aboundings of the Saviour's 
purchase, to a crown and a kingdom, 
unfading and eternal. 

2. A due consideration of the hu- 
miliation of Christ, will most ef- 
fectually teach us to be patient un- 
der sufferings. Was he patient 
and resigned, and perfectly sub- 
missive to his Falher^^ m\\»vj\v^TL 
he suffered for our svu^^ an^^VvaW 



641658 



100 



Leclures on the Shorter Catechism. 



March. 



we be impatient and rebellious 
while we sufter for our own sins? 
For let it ever be remembered, that 
if we had not been sinners, suffer- 
ing had never been known, eitiier 
by our Saviour or by ourselves. 
Sin is the cause of all the suffering 
in the universe. The sin of man 
has produced whatever of pain and 
misery has been felt by our guilty 
race, and by our glorious Redeemer. 
He endured the awful penalty due 
to the guilty, without a regret or a 
murmur, when he stood in their 
place : and shall any sinner, on this 
side the place of torment, murmur, 
when h(j endures only a very small 
part of what his iniquities have de- 
served? With what pertinence 
and force is it asked in Holy Scrip- 
ture — " Wherefore doth a living 
man complain, a man for the punish- 
ment of his sins?" 

By what Christ endured in his 
humiliation, the sufferings of his 
own people have changed their cha- 
racter. — Their sting is extracted. 
They arc no longer the wrathful in- 
flictions of an incensed judge, but 
the wholesome, however painful 
discipline, of a wise, a kind^ and a 
loving Father. Have the people 
of God this assurance, and can they 
think of what it cost their Saviour 
to give them this assurance, and 
yet can they complain? No — In 
the lively exercise of faith they 
cannot, they do not. A delicate 
woman, under one of the most pain- 
ful operations of surgery which hu- 
man nature can sustain, was ob- 
served to pass througli the whole 
without a sigh or a groan — How 
could you bear it thus? was the 
earnest inquiry, after the operation 
was safely over. I thought, said 
she, how much more than I endured, 
my Saviour bare for me, and 1 could 
not find it in my heart to utter a 
complaint. Here, my dear chil- 
dren, is the blessed secret of bear- 
ing pain, and affliction of every 
kind, of which the ungodly world 
is entirely ignorant. The true be- 
liever thinks much of what his Sa- 



viour bore; thinks that it was borne 
for him; thinks that his own saf« 
ferings are light in the comparison; 
thinks that they are all inflicted by 
a Father's hand; thinks that thev 
are all needed, and that intiuitclj 
more arc deserved; thinks that 
they give him the opportunity to 
exercise precious graces, that shall 
have an abundant reward; thinks 
that they will all increase the bliss 
of heaven ; thinks, in a word, that 
"our light affliction which is bat 
for a moment, worketh for us a far 
more exceeding and eternal weight 
of glory; while we look, not at the 
things which are seen, but at the 
things which are not seen, for the 
things which are seen are temporal, 
but the things which are not seen 
are eternal." 

3. In the humiliation of Christ, 
we sec more strikingly and impres- 
sively than any where else, the evil 
of sin. We see this evil, as al- 
ready observed, in all the suflTerin^ 
whicli mankind endure — in all the 
liainful diseases to which our race 
IS subject; in all that man inflicts 
on his fellow man; in all the cala- 
mities which arise from war» and 
famine, and pestilence, and inan- 
dation, and earthquake; in all the 
mortality which has long since 
made the number of the dead, a 
thousand fold greater than the 
number of the living — In all this, 
you see the conse(|Ucnces and the 
evil of sin; and truly it is an ap- 
palling view. Hut it you look into 
the invisible world, and contem- 
plate the state of those who have 
gone to the ])lace of endless perdi- 
tion; to the abodes of hopeless 
despair; to the inconceivable agony 
described in Holy Writ, by the 
worm that never dies, and the fire 
that is never quenched — by the 
blackness of darkness forever; by 
the weeping, and wailing and gnash- 
ing of teeth, (if those, the smoke of 
whose torment ascenileth up for- 
ever and ever — When you contiMU- 
plate this, you think nothing of all 
the sufferings of the present life. 



Lectures on the Shorter Catechism. 



101 



are ready to saj — lie re, 
mnatton of hell," we see, 
t awful manner, the evil 
}, mj dear children, there 
sr view, that is more aw- 
In all you have yet seen, 
(dividual being endures 
beyond what he has per- 
d justly deserved. But 
y^our eyes to Gethsemane 
iry, and there see " the 
of God,'' suffering by im- 
mly, for the sins of his 
jflfering agonies beyond 

conceptions'^and then 
nceive, if you can, what 
le malignity of that evil, 
'ighteous God could not 
ly pardon, without these 
nflictions on his only be- 
d well beloved Son. O 
I ! — that as your sins have 
3 sufferings, so his meri- 
^hteousness, wrought out 
nd humiliation, may save 

suffering without hope 
>ut end. This leads me 

: we may learn our infinite 
ess to the Saviour, by con- 
st his humiliation. We 
:omed to estimate our ob- 
to a benefactor, by consi- 
th the intrlnsick value of 
nd what it cost him to be- 

us. Estimate in this way, 
)ssible, the obligations we 

to our adored Redeemer. 

or angel tell, wliat is the 
he gift of eternal life, to 
> were doomed to eternal 
ut such is the gift of Christ 
•jlorified spirit, that shall 
n " the General Assemoly 
ch of the first born, whose 
re written in heaven." 
lividual of that whole as- 
^es, and will eternally and 
we it, to Christ, tliat his 
5 unknown joys of heaven, 
f all the unknown mise- 
ell. And to procure for 
e this happy exchange of 
•to make them the gift of 
fe, their Saviour, in his 



humiliation, answered a debt which 
none but a God could pay. '* We 
were not redeemed with corrupti- 
ble things as silver and fold, but 
with the precious blood of Christ, 
as of a lamb without blemish, and 
without a spot — Feed the church 
of God — said the holy apostle — 
which he hath purchased with his 
own blood." Now, when we thus 
consider what an infinite benefit 
our blessed Lord bestows on his 
people, and at what an expense he' 
procured it, do you not perceive 
that their indebtedness to him is 
strictly inconceivable, is literally 
infinite. He knows that we can 
never repay him, and he does not 
require it — Nay, he not only in- 
tended that what he did' should be 
gratuitous, but he demands that we 
receive it as such, it is the height 
of arrogant and impious self-suf- 
ficiency, so much as to think of 
rendering to Christ an equivalent 
for what he has done for us, or to 
think of adding to it by any deeds 
of our own. We arc to receive 
his gifts *• without money and with- 
out price." But he does expect and 
demand our gratitude — He expects 
and demands it, as the evidence of 
our sense of obligation. And where 
is the gratitude of that human be- 
in]g, who hears the gospel message, 
and does not feel that he is indebt- 
ed to the Saviour, beyond what can 
be uttered or imagined. 

Consider then, I entreat you, in 
what manner vou are to make 
known that you feel your indebt- 
edness to your Redeemer. It is by 
acceptinghim as your only Saviour; 
it is by making nothing of your- 
selves, and every thing of him; it 
is by coming to him to deliver you 
at once from the guilt, the pollu- 
tion, and the dominion of your sins ; 
it is by devoting yourselves unre- 
servedly to his service and glory; 
it is by obeying all his command- 
ments; it is by cultivating a tem- 
per and spirit like his own« aoj 
walking as you have V\\\t\ tw » 
ample; it is by &i\oru\tig V\ 




102 



(hi tlie Monnntid. 



MabcHi 



gion, and using all your means and 
influence to gain otners to embrace 
it; it is by living tis citizens of 
heaven— -holding communion with 
jour Redeemer now, and antici- 
pating the happy period when you 
shall see him as he is, be in your 
measure like him, and dwell for 
ever in his presence, in the man- 
sions which he has gone to prepare 
for his people. Amen. 



ON THE ATONEMENT. 

JVci. XII. 
The Redeemer's Glory, 

My dear Brother, — This will be 
the last letter on the important 
'subject that has so lon^ occupied 
our attention. It remains only to 
show, that, as the views of the old 
school reflect higher honour on the 
perfections and law of God, than 
those of the new, so they present a 
nobler and more scriptural tribute 
of praise to the great Redeemer. 

The atonement, says Mr. Beman, 
merely opened the door of mercy to 
fallen man. The writer of Dia- 
logues, while he admits that Christ 
died with an intention to save the 
elect, and not others, and that he 
satisfied publick justice, denies 
that he made any satisfaction to 
distributive justice, and affirms that 
the gift of Christ resulted from no 
special love of Jehovah to his 
cnosen, but from that general bene- 
voletice in which ail sha^e, and that 
common compassion which is not 
denied even to the damned. Others 
represent the atonement as consist- 
ing in an exhibition of the evil of 
sin, and in a declaration of God's 
hatred of it and its desert of pun- 
ishment; and affirm that, if not one 
soul were saved, the proper end of 
the death of Christ would be an- 
swered, and its full efiect pro- 
duced. 

With these views of our brethren 
we cannot accord. They are either 
errofieous or defective. They de- 



tract from the honour due to the 
atonement of our blessed Lord; 
they remove it from that central 
and all important point in the 
scheme of salvation, which inspired 
writers have assigned to it; and 
they detract from it the glory of 
effects which it really produces. 
That it opened the door of hope 
and mercy to this wretched world 
is certain ; but we regard it also as 
the meritorious cause of our salva- 
tion. While we admit a display of 
the evil of sin, of its desert of pun- 
ishment, and of God's hatred of it, 
and of his justice, to be the result 
of the atonement; we maintain its 
true nature to consist in making 
satisfaction for sin. The idea that 
the end of the atonement wpuld 
have been answered, although none 
of our fallen race had been saved, 
we reject as entirely derogatory to 
the wisdom of God and the merits 
of his Son; contending that, as ah 
atonement carries in its nature the 
notion of a satisfaction, the salva- 
tion of all who were given to the Re- 
deemer must certainly follow in the 
mannei' and time agreed upon in the 
eternal counsels of the Holy Tri- 
nity; and that to have left their 
salvation uncertain, as it would 
have reflected on Infinite Wisdom, 
so it would have been inconsistent 
with the infinite value of the price 
paid for their redemption. We 
make the atonement of Jesus Christ 
the procuring cause of every bless- 
ing bestowed on the church, both 
in this and the next world. 

In my third letter (pp. 200, 201, J 
it was shown, that the inspireu 
writers represent every blessing of 
salvation as the fruit of Christ^s 
death : such as forgiveness, recon- 
ciliation, justification, peace, adop- 
tion, sanctification, and the hea- 
venly inheritance. Now, it is plain 
such a representation could not be 
properly made, if the death of 
Christ merely opened the door of 
hope and mercy. These blessing 
ought, in that case» to be denomi- 
nated the fruit of Divine grace 



1827. 



On the MonemenL 



103 



oNLTa and not of the atonement; 
but as the atonement did really 
merit them for sinners, they are 
jostiy represented as the fruit, at 
once'of the death of Christ, and of 
Divine grace; because they really 
are so; and grace is justly cele- 
brated as reigning " through righ- 
teoumfss unto eternal life, by Jesus 
Christ our Lord." Rom. v/21 . 

An inspection of the texts cited 
L in the letter just referred to, must 
i convince any reflecting mind, 
that there is a real established con- 
nexion, between the death of the 
Redeemer and all the blessin'js of 
aalvatioD. But what, it will be 
asked, is that connexion? In reply 
to this question, it may, I think, be 
tru\j affirmed, that it is the con- 
nexion which exists between causp. 
and effect^ between a price and a 
pitrckase, between a service render- 
ed MnH a stipulated reward. 

Let not the investigation of this 
question be regarded as a mere 
matter of curious speculation. If 
the scriptures speak ou it we are 
boQDtl to hear and learn; and it 
would ill become us to turn away 
our ears from the voice of heavenly 
Hisdom, contenting ourselves witn 
believing that some general tinde- 
Jined connexion subslst^, between 
our salvation and the death of 
Christ. Will any say that this 
point belongs merely to the philo- 
sophy of Christianity? 1 would ad- 
monish them not to disparage by 
such a name, a truth which Infinite 
Wisdom has seen fit to teach the 
chnrr.h. It is precisely one of those 
particulars, in which the knowledge 
of Christians transcends that of an- 
cient saints; one that involves the 
glory of the Redeemer and the 
comfort of his people. We pro- 
ceed therefore to inquire what the 
New Testament teaches on this 
question. 

1. It teaches that the connexion 
between the death of Christ and 
our salvation is that of cause and 
fffect. If it were not of this na- 
ture« with what propriety could 



the inspired writers attribute the 
cleansing of the soul from its moral 
pollutions to his blood ? That they 
do so is incontrovertibly plain: 
*< Unto him that loved us, and hath 
washed us from our sins in his own 
blood.'' But this, it will be said, 
is figurative language. Admitted; 
it has however, a real meaning; 
and what can the meaning be, ex- 
cept this : that, as the body . is 
cleansed from its pollution by the 
application of water, so the soul is 
really cleansed from the pollution 
and guilt of sin, by the application 
of the Saviour's blood to it by faith. 
Accordingly we hear the apostle 
(iJohn i.r,) say, in plain language, 
" The blood of Jesus Christ his Son 
cleanseth us from all sin:" teaching 
us that his precious blood operates, 
as a c.ause,in purifying the soul from 
moral deiilenient, as really as water 
does in purifying the body from the 
pollutions of contaminating sub- 
stances. The same truth is taught 
by the write/'of the epistle to the 
Hebrews, cliap. ix. 13, 14, where he 
shows the superiority of Christ's 
sacrifice to t\\C^ typical sacrifices 
that were offered vnder the law: 
" For, if the blood of bulls and of 
goats, and tlie a^iiies of an heifer 
sprinkling the unclean, sanctifieth 
to the purify in(>; of the flesh: how 
much more siiall the blood of Christ, 
who, through the eternal Spirit of- 
fered himself without spot to God, 
purge your conscience from dead 
work's to serve the living God?'' 
The blood of the Levitical sacri- 
fices were the constituted cause of 
ceremonial purification; and, in 
like manner, the blood of Christ is 
a more pr>werful cause, of real in- 
ternal purification of the sinner's 
conscience, from the guilt and pol- 
lution of sin. 

2. Between the death of Christ 
and the blessings of salvation, there 
exists the connejcion fouml between 
a price and its purchase. That his 
blood is denon)inated a price, and 
that we are said to be oougfitt ^^ 
asserted by inspired vful^t^ \jo^ 



104 



Oh the jitonemciif. 



M 



plainly tt» be deiiiod by any ac- 
qtiaintccl with scriptural language; 
and some of our brethren seem 
willing to allow that we were 
bought with a price; but deny that 
any price was paid for the blessings 
of salvation. Yet from the admis- 
sion of the former truth, the latter 
must follow as a legitimate conse- 
quence. For when a person buvs 
a thing, that thing becomes tfte 
buyer's property. In what sense 
then, I ask, were we bought by 
Jesus Christ? Were we not his 
property before he paid the price r 
Were we not his creatures, de- 
pendent on him for existence and 
every thing; and had lie not a per- 
fect and sovereign right to dispose 
of us as he pleased? How then did 
he buy us? What new right did he 
acquire over us by his purchaser 
lie bou<;ht us out of the hands of 
Divine justice, and from under the 
curse of the law, that he might 
save us; he acquir^Ml by his pur- 
chase the rlglit of ckelivering us 
from the dDminiun of sin and Sa- 
tan, and bestowing on us eternal 
life. "Father," said our Redeemer, 
as in* was finishing the payment of 
the mighty price of our redemp- 
tion, "the hour is come; glorify 
tliv Son, that thv Son also mav 
^Itnifv thee: as thou hast given 
liini power over all llesh, tliat he 
shnnid give eternal life to as many 
as thou hast given him." John vii. 

13osides, as the sacred writers do, 
as wo have proved, connect the 
bl('ssin;>s of salvation with the 
drath of Christ as their real merito- 
riifus cniine: and a^ ihey expressly 
call his death a price; it niust fol- 
low, that the one is connected with 
the other, just as a thing purchased 
is with tlie price paid. And this 
is taught still plainer in that re- 
markable passage in Peter's first 
epistle: (chap. i. 18, 19) "Foras- 
much as ye know that ye were not 
redeemed[ with corruptible, things, 
as silver and golil, frwm ijour vain 
conversation received by tradition 



from your fathers; but wi 
precious blood of Christ* a; 
lamb without blemish and % 
spot." Now, here deliveranc 
vain conversation, from a 
and sinful life, or in other 
sanetificatitm, is aflirnied U 
been purchased with the bl 
Christ; and if this leading 
in": 0^ salvation was, then 
follow, that all others wen 
purchased. Accordingly, w 
this asserted by the writer 
epistle to the Hebrews: "^ 
6y the blood of goats and < 
but by his own blood he entc 
once into the holy place, havi 
tained k tkrnal RKOKMiTioNy 
Heb. ix. 1^2. Kternal redei 
will, it is presumed, be admi' 
this passage, to conqirehcnd 
blessings of salvation ; or 
should wish to object, they 
to be convinced by the loth 
"where the apostle goes on to 
" And for this cause he is tl 
diator of the new testamen 

nv MKANS OF DEATH, for t 

demption of the transgressioi 
were under the first testa 
theij which are calU'd might : 
the promise of the e i kun a i. i m 
AxcK." Here then the blessi 
salvation, not excepting the 
nal inheritance, are attribu 
the death of Christ as tlieir ) 
rions eai'se, or price paid for 
See also (ial.iii. 13, 14. 

It is in \ain fur our brcth 
endeavour to explain awa; 
scriptural truth, by allegin 
death of Christ was not a 
price. For if by this they me 
blood of Christ was not silv4 
gold, they assert what no or 
be ignorant of, and guard a 
an error which none are in < 
of adopting. But the blood i 
manuel, th(mgh not silver noi 
yet was a hkal price; infi 
more valuable in the si«rht o 
and acceptable to Divine ji 
than all the treasures of e 
kingdoms. That the purrh. 
our salvation by this ainaiin;: 



On tlie Jitonement. 105 

T consistent with thereiffn this delightful truth. '* Thy throne. 

I sovereign grace throu^- O God," exclaims David, while con- 

rhole work, from begin- templating the beauty and glorj of 

id, was, you will remera- the promised Messiah, ** is for ever 

1 in my third letter. To and ever: the sceptre of thy king- 

icnts there used to estab* dom is a right sceptre. Thou lovest 

ktire harmony of salvation righteousness and hatest wickedness : 

and salvation by the therefore, God, thy Gkxl, haifi 

less of Christ, it is not anointed thee with the oil of joy 

icessary to offer any thing above thy fellowsJ*^ Ps. xlv. 6, 7* 

In his prophetic view of humilia- 

connexion between the tion ana exaltation, the death and 

Christ and our salvation, resurrection, the obedience and re- 

De as that which exists ward of Christ, Isaiah says, " When 

sermce rendered and a thou shalt make his soul an offer- 

reward. ing for sin, he shall see his seed, 

: was assigned to Jesus he shall prolong his days, and the 

bis eternal Father. This pleasure of the Lord shall prosper 

listed in his active and in his hands. He shall see of the 

obedience, or, in other travail of his soul and be satisfied : 

his obedience even unto by his knowledge shall my righteous 

> we are taught by holy servant justify many; for he shall 

He himseli says, "sa- bear their iniquities. Therefore 

i offering thou dfidst not will I divide him a portion with the 

ine ears hast thou open- great, and he shall aivide the spoil 

offering and sin offering with the strong; because he hath 

not required. Then said poured qui* his soul unto death.'' 

me: in the volume of the Isaiah liii. 10, 12. Having recited 

written of me, I delight the several steps in the humiliation 

will, O my God : yea, thy of the Son of God, from his assurop- 

'ithin my heart.'' Ps. tion of the form of a servant, to his 

" I came down from hea- death on the cross, the apostle 

to do mine own will, but Paul declares his reward: "where- 

of him that sent me." fore God also hath highly exalted 

38. Speaking of laying him, and given him a name which 

life, the Saviour says, is above every name: that at the 

mmandment have I re- name of Jesus every knee should 

)m my Father." John x. bow, of things in heaven, and thines 

d at the close of life, in earth, andthings under the earth; 

e his crucifixion, he said, and that every tongue should cqn- 

I have glorified thee on fess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to 

; I have jfi7tis/iec{ the work the glory of God the Father." Phil. 

ugavestme to doJ*^ His ii. 9, 11. And the Redeemer him - 

I followed, not merely as a self proclaims the same truth, in 

tfoWovrs&n antecedent, but his solemn intercessory prayer; in 

rd of a stipulated service, which, immediately after stating 

rd consisted in his being the completion of his work, he pre- 

raan and mediator, to the fers his claim to the promised re- 
al throne, invested with ward: "And now, O Father, glo- 
lominion over the church rify thou me with thine own self, 
vorldy over men and an- with the glory which I had with 
he purpose of saving un- thee before the world was. Father, 
1 rinners of our race, to I loill that they also whom thou 
' of divine grace. Both hast given me, be with me ^Vietel 

ud MposiTes mcukate am : that they may be\io\d m^ f^orj 



I 



106 



On tilt MoHtmenL 



Mabch, 



which thou hast given me: for thou 
lovedftt me before the foundation of 
the world." John Ivii. 5, 24. To 
this glorious reward the apostle re- 
fers* when, speaking of the Re- 
deemer, he says* " Who, for the joy 
that wadset before him» endured the 
cross, despising the shame, and is 
set down at the rieht hand of the 
throne of God.'' neb. xii. 2. 

Thus are we taught to conceive 
of the nature of the connexion sub- 
sisting between the death of Christ 
and our salvation. It is that of 
GOttss and ^ect, that of a price and 
its pKfdUise, that of a service ren- 
dered and a stipulated reward. To 
speak then ot the atonement as 
marely opening the door of hope and 
mercy, is ascribing to it not half 
the praise due to that amazing 
transaction ; and to assert that its 
end would be accomplished, al-. 
thoueh not one human soul were 
saved, is to derogate from the glory 
of Him who died that we misht 
live, and hung upon a cross, that 
we might ascend a tlirone. The 
fles^, both of the Father who gave 
his Son, and of the Son who gave 
himself, to be a sacrifice for sin, 
was, to secure the salvation of all 
believers, and of all who were chosen 
to salvation in the eternal purposes 
of heaven* This glorious effect 
most be produced, or the atonement 
would tail in accomplishing its 
grand design. But failure is im- 
possible. " I lay down my life for 
the sheep. And other sheep I have, 
which are not of this fold: th^ 
also must I bring, and they shall 
hjear my voice ; and there shall be 
one fold and one shepherd." John 
X. 15, 16. "All that the Father 
riveth me shall come to me; and 
him that cometh to me, 1 will in no 
wise cast out. And this is the Fa- 
ther's will which hath sent me, 
that of all which he hath given me^ 
I should lose nothings but s/iouM 
raise it up again at the last day. 
And this is the will of him that sent 
me, that every one which seeth 
the Sod, and believeth on himi may 



have everlasting life; and / will 
raise him up again at the Ual day? 
John vi. 37, 39, 40. Such is tte 
scriptural connexion between die 
death of Christ and the salTatisa 
of believers; a connexion clearly 
pointed out, and stronriy^ mum 
ov inspired teachers* It is one rf 
tnose elorious truths which we owe 
to divine revelation, and which «e 
are bound by divine authority to 
believe, and applj to those pradi- 
cal purposes it is intended to sib- 
serve. It has an important bear- 
ing on a Christian's experience* It 
is calculated to excite his joj^, woi 
awaken his gratitude; while it 
points out to him the sacred foai- 
tain in which he is to wash, that be 
may be cleansed from all the stum 
of guilt, and all the pollution of rifc 

The atonement we justly honovi 
when we conceive of it as thevn- 
curing, meritorious cause of aani- 
tion, and as the infinite juries pnl 
by the Son of God for the redevp- 
tion of all his chosen people; m 
when we believe that the free and 
sovereign grace of God, as it pro- 
vided, 80 will not fail to apply thb 
infallible remedy, discovered oy ia- 
finlte wisdom, for healing the dread- 
ful diseases produced by sin. Bj 
his obedience unto death, Cbrw 
was " made" a " perfect" B^^ 
Priest; and thus, by his bloody *'6' 
came the author of eternal sak^ 
tion unto all them that obey hin.'^ 
See Heb. v. 8, 9, and ii. 10. 

Having finished the discasiioBi 
permit me now to recapitulate tk 
several points in which the twt 
schemes of atonement have betf 
contrasted. In my first letter it 
was shown, that,notwi thstandinff the 
broad assertions of the New Scnooi 
about its extent, the indefi^dte i> 
not more extensive than the deMt9 
atonement,either in regardto dlewt 
rit of ChrisVs deaths or in refensH^ 
to Us applicatUnit or in respect 10 
the offer of salvation, or in reltfiti 
to the divine purpose: and, in faA 
that the views of our brethren^ i> 
this particular, have no advanf^p 



' 



Mntn MAUwttTM 'Jptc0itwr^ M Kwmff i 



lor 



TcrOTcravm. tnAetecondy 
and foerth letlert» the doc- 
MT the two ichoolt was com- 
t in respect to the preachiw 
I Koepel^ and the aisplaj tf 
na eoTeragn grace, in the re* 
f of fkllen flMtn; and it wae, 
I; [^rered, that there is eothiiig 
news of the atttnement, to 
Bt the geheral jpreachiog of 
ispel to all nations, and all 
s of mankind; nothing to 
* a free and unrestricted ofir 
ration to ererj one who hears 
3 to assure bim, that if he he- 
fae will certainly be sared: 
lere is no incoosistencj what- 
I npresenting, as the inspired 
s plainlj do, the blessings of 
oh as beiog, at once, the 
of t^rUtU deaih, and the 
^free and sovereign grae$; 
at if there were any difficulty 
matter, the attempt of our 
« to reroore it, by assertine 
deemer satisfied puNiek, and 
Urihtiive justice, is futile, 
mpared the Tiews entertAin- 
Ihe two schools of the nature 
itonement, in the fifth, sixth, 
lyenth letters ; where it ap- 
, that our doctrine accords 
riptural statements and re- 
lations on the suliject; and 
I our brethren mistake, so, 
lying the real satUfaeHon 
J the Son of God in bis dia- 
of euietiiuU of his people, 
I with their sins, and sus- 
the penalty of the law due 
I, they, in fact, enbvert the 
rATURB of the atonement, 
iose clear and positive tes- 
a of inspired writers. In 
aining letters I endeavour-' 
^ve, uiat the doctrine of the 
bo be preferred to that of the 
bool ; because it puts higher 
on the truth, the juslicr, and 
of Qod ; because it better 
the rights and~ dhnande of 
ne law's tttiS because it af- 
btifllifer display of the me- 
tjSmi of our Lord Jesus 



CosamUtiBl tttese: letters to the 
patronage and blessing of that Al- 
mighty Redeemer wMse work I 
have endeavoured to illvstrate, and 
whose glory I hate attempted to 
magnify, 

lam, Amut Sift 
Yours aliectionatelyt 



fOB TBB CBBIITIAH AaTOGATI. 

MB.BorroB,— Havinabeen inte- 
rested mvself in the fojirowiiig sim- 
Ele, candid narrative of Lufifer, I 
ftve taken the pains to torn it into 
Bnfiiish. If you can BMke any use 
of it» or of any part of it, to snb« 
serve the important ends at which 
yon aim^ in your usrful miscellany. 
It is entirely at your service. Am 
if this should be well received. I 
may take occasion, in an hour of 
leisure, to send vou something more 
from the pen of this extraorainary 
man, to whom the church of Christ 
is so. much indebted. I know, in- 
deed, that all may have accesa to 
the biatory of this refi>rmer;'.bnt, 
for myself, I would rather read a 
page of bis own writing, than the 
roest elegant history which can be 

S'venjof nim. In met, I learn, in 
is way, more of the man* imd of 
the spirit by which he was actuated. 
When i« read his own writinys, 
we come into a sort of contact with 
his persoat We soon loam what 
judgment we ought to fbcm of him. 
I am, very.respectfoUy, 

. Tours, «c. Q^ S. 

WindtWi Jhe, 8S, 1836. 

VABTIN LVTHBr's MODBST ACOOUNT 

or HiMSBLP, pmnvutBo to ivb 

BDmOV OF HIS LATUI WOU%X>IJB- 
USHBDJST ORDM OFTHX MLB/lffOn 
QFfl^BQW.. ■ 

fswftiotiMr; I tisAtda- 1^« soHeiu- 
tl6n< tfrihMii i^'%-^«^ tM \» 



108 



MafUnlMVief^i Jkamini of tRmsdf. 



confosed lacubratioiit; as well, be- 
cause I was an willinfi' tiiat the works 
of the Ancients shoula be superseded 
bj mj novelties, and the reader be 
tnereoj hindered from reading them; 
as because, there is now extant, 
abundance of books methodically 
composed, among which, ^Common 
Pioeesof Philip [Melancthon] excel; 
by which, the theologian and bishop 
may be formed, both as it relates 
to copiousness and elegance, so that 
he has the opportunity of becoming 
powerful in preaching the doctrines 
of piety; especially, since the Holy 
Bible may now be had in almost 
every language. But my books were 
promiced in no regular order, but 
as the occasion prompted, or rather 
compelled; and form so rude and 
undigested a chaos, that they could 
noteasilrbe reduced to order, even 
by mvseif. 

Influenced by these reasons it 
was my desire that all my books 
should be buried in nerpetual obli- 
vion, that there mignt be room for 
better works. But the importunate 
pertinacity of certain persons, who 
daily beset me, and represented 
that if I did not consent to publish 
them, it was most certain that after 
my departure others would do it; 
who would probably be ignorant of 
the occasions and circumstances 
which gave them birth, and thus 
the confusion would be greatly in- 
creased— I say the importunate per- 
severance of these persons so pre- 
vuled, that I at length consented 
to permit them to be published. To 
which there was added the wish, 
nnj the command of our illustrious 
pnnce, Frederick the elector, who 
not only ordered the printers to 
prepare an edition, but compelled 
them to hasten the work. 

And now, in the first place, I be- 
seech the pious reader, for the sake 
of our Lord Jesus Christ himself, 
that he would peruse these writings 
with candour, and with much ten- 
derness. Let him know, that I was 
OBce a monk* and a most insane pa- 
fiutf Mtid whea I first engaged in 



this cause, I was so ini 
with error; jrea, so immert 
doctrines of the pope, th 
folly prepared, as far as I 
to put to death, or to cons< 
death, of all who shoulc 
one syllable from the obei 
the pope. Such a Saul wa 
even now, there are not 
them, whose zeal is equal 
I was far from being so col 
a defender of the pope as 
and such like men ; who i 
me, to engage in his cause 
the sake of their appetite 
being influenced by any i 
corn for its success ; indi 
this day, they appear to m 
cureans, to hold the pop< 
sion. But I entered into ^ 
ness conscientiously, for I 
under awful apprehensio 
last day, and from my int 
desiredf to obtain salvatior 

The reader will find, ii 
writings, what great cone 
made to the pope, in the n 
ble manner, which in my la 
I hold to be little better t 
phemies ; and which I now 
as abominable. Pious rea 
will pardon this error, ai 
der, that at that time I wa 
rienced: and that I stoc 
and was, in every respect, 
fit and unprepared to hai 
matters; and I call God tc 
that not intentionally, but 
dent, I was at first involve< 
controversies. 

In the year of our Lord 
DULOBNOES made their apf 
or I ought rather to say, v 
molged, in these regions 
sake of base gain. 1 ws 
preacher, a young man, ai 
tor of tlieology, as it wa: 
and I began to dissuade tl: 
and earnestly to charge th 
give the least heed to the 
tions of the preachers of ind 
and in doing this, I was « 
that I should have the poj 

rtron; in the confidence 
boldly made resistanci 



JIfiirttfi Luther^s Aceoimt of HhnMdf. 



109 



c ; for in bis decretals, he had 
xplicitly condemned the want 
lestj in the preachers of in- 
ices. 

1 after this I wrote two epis- 
e one to Albert, archbishop of 
;, who was to receive one half 
money arising from the sale 
ilgences ; the other half went 
le coffers of the pope — a cir- 
ance with which I was then en- 
unacqaainted : The other let- 
is addressed to our ordinary, 
nymus, bishop of Branden- 
in these I requested, that 
reverend persons would re- 
the audacity and blasphemy 
preachers of indulgences. But 
lor inconsiderable brother was 
mned. Finding that I was 
a contempt, I published a dis- 
on and two sermons on the 
;t of indulgences, and soon 
rards, those resolutions in 
g out of respect for the pope, 
I that indulgences ought not 
condemned, but that the eood 
I flowing from charity ought to 
^ferred to them. But this was 
turb the heavens, and to set 
'orld on fire. I was accused 
1 pope. A citation to appear 
ime was sent to me, and the 
I papacy rose up against me, a 
ry person. These things oc- 
di, A. D. 1518, about the time 
Maximilian the emperor, held 
iet, at which cardinal Caje- 
ttended, as legate of the pope, 
im, Frederick our illustrious 
e, the elector of Saxony, went, 
btained from him, that! should 
e forced to go to Rome, but 
mmediately after the dissolu- 
>f the diet, he would call me 
D him, and take cognizance of 
luae himself. 

the mean time, all the Ger- 
, weary of bearing the peelings, 
tions, and innumerable impo- 
is of the Romish buffoons, anx- 
f waited the event of this af- 
for it was a thing which no 
Dgian or bishop had ever be- 
lared totoucli. The popular 



voice was in my favour, because the 
acts of Rome, which had filled and 
harassed the world, were generally 
detested. I went, therefore, to Au- 
gusta, on foot, and poor; but sup- 
ported by the elector Frederick, 
who gave me recommendatory let- 
ters to the senate, and to some good 
men of the place. I remained uiere 
three days, before I went near the 
cardinal, for those excellent per- 
sons to whom I was recommended, 
would not suffer me to go to him, 
until I could procure the safe con- 
duct of Ceesar. The cardinal, how- 
ever, sent for me every day to come 
to him, by a certain orator, and this 
was very unpleasant to me, as I 
was not permitted to comply. But 
on the third day, he came again, 
expostulating with me for not nav- 
ing come to the cardinal, who was 
ready to receive me in the most 
gracious manner* I replied, that I 
felt bound to follow the advice of 
those excellent persons to whom I 
had been recommended by the elec- 
tor Frederick, and it was their 
counsel that I should by no means 
go to the cardinal, until I had a safe- 
conduct from the emperor ; but this 
being obtained, I assured him that 
I would come without delay. He 
appeared to be excited, and said, 
" What ! do jou think that prince 
Frederick will take up arms on 
your account?" I answered, that 
I had no such wish. ** Where then," 
said he, "will you remain ?" Under 
heaven, I replied. " If you had the 
pope and cardinals in your power," 
said he, ''what would you do to 
them?" I would treat them, said I, 
with all reverence and respect. — 
Upon which he moved his finger, 
after the Italian fashion, and said, 
« Hem ;" and went off*, and never 
came back again. On the same day, 
it was announced to the cardinal by 
the senate, that the safe-conduct of 
the emperor was given to me, and 
he was admonished not to deter- 
mine any thing sevet-e against me. 
To which, it is fia\d.^halue «L\vkNi«t«^ 
ed, "Very weW'i Vvow^nw, \ tw 



no 



Murttii lutker^B Jheoant ifKwMdf. 



do what mjr diitjr renires^" This 
WM the bM^inniDg of that difttarb- 
ance; whatrollowed may be learned 
from the acts which are published 
in the foUowiDg ▼olumes. 

In thb same year, Philip M elanc- 
then was ioTited br prince Frede- 
rick» to teach the tireek language; 
without doubtt that I misht have a 
helocr in mj theolc»ical labours; 
ana what Ood wrou^t by this in- 
strument, not in literature only, 
but in theology, his works sufficient- 
ly testify, however Satan and all 
his adherents may rage. 

Hie following year, A. D. 1519, in 
the month of February, Maximilian 
deceased, and Fredenck became by 
right the viceroy of the empire. The 
tempest, now for a while, ceased to 
rage, and by de^es a contempt 
for excommunication, or the papal 
thunder crept upon me ; for when 
Eckius and Caracoiolus brought the 
pope's bull from Rome, by which 
Luther was condemned, the elector 
was at that time at Cologne, where 
he had gone to receive the newly 
elected emperor Charles, together 
with the other princes of the em- 
pire. He was much displeased with 
these emissaries of Rome, and with 
great constancy and boldness re- 
proached them for daring to excite 
disturbances within his government 
and that of his brother John ; and 
treated them so roughly, that they 
departed from him with confusion 
and disgrace. 

This prinoe, endued with an ex- 
traordinary sagacity, understood 
well the arts of Rome, and well 
knew how to treat them, for he pos- 
sessed an exquisite discernment, 
and penetrated into the designs of 
Rome, far beyond all that they fear- 
ed or hoped. Therefore, after this 
they made no farther attempts on 
the elector, and were rather now 
disposed to flatter and cajole him ; 
for in this very year i^t golden rose^ 
as thev call it, was sent to him by 
LeoX.; but the prince despised 
the honour intended for him, and 
even tamed it into ridicule ; so that 



the Romanists were oblited 
sist also from attempts of th 
to deceive so wise a prince, 
his protection the gospel t 
happy progress, and was 
propagated. His example als 
erfull^ influenced many othei 
knowing that he was a moi 
and discerning prince, wer 
suaded that he would never c 
to cherish and defend heresi 
retical men: which thing t 
great detriment to the papac 
In this same year, a disp 
was held at Leipsick, to whi< 
Kius challenged Carlbtad ai 
self; but I was unable by a 
ters, to obtain a safe-conduc 
duke George, so that I attenc 
as a disputant, but as a spe< 
for I entered Leipsick und 
protection of the publick faith 
had been given to Carlstad 
what prevented mv obtaining 
conduct, I never learned, (o 
no reason to believe that 
Georee was peculiarly inim 
me. EcRius came to me at t 
and said, he understood tha< 
dined disputing. I answere 
could I dispute, since 1 was 
to obtain a safe -conduct frot 
George. He said, " If I cant 
pute with you I will not with 
stad ; for I have come hither 
pute with you ; what if I sho 
tain a safe-conduct for yoi 
you dispute with me ?" rvon 
said I, and it shall be don 
went away, and in a short \ 
safe-conduct was delivered 
and permission to dispute. 1 
pursued this course, because 
ceived, that in this disputat 
could acquire great honour i 
vour with the pope, since 1 1 
nicd that he was head of the 
by divine right. Here the 
peared to be a fine field open 
riim, not only of flattering tl 
and meriting his favour, but i 
whelming me with hatred ani 
And through the whole disp 
he aimed at these objects; 
waa \\^\ll\«\: able to estibi 



PhUosaphii subservient to Rdigum. 



Ill 



itions» nor to refute mine. 
tr, dake George addressing 
and me, said, ** whedier he 
bj haman or divine rifi;ht, 
pe;" which, unless he had 
aewhat moved by the argu- 
hich I used, he never would 
iken. However, his publrck 
tion was given to Eckius 
And here see, in mj case, 
ficult it is, for men im- 
in errors, to emerge and 
; into the light; especially 
ror is strengthened by the 
i of the whole world, and by 
ite custom; for, according 
roverb, "it is difficult to re- 
, old customs, for custom is 
1 nature." And how true is 
ing of Augustine, " if cus- 
QOt resisted it will become 
y." At that time I had read 
ptures much in publick and 
and had been for seven 
teacher of others ; so that I 
nost the whole contents of 
le in my memory, and had, 
er, drunk in some begin - 
if the true knowlcdg;e and 
Christ, so as to know that 



we could Dot be justified and saved 
by works, but by the faith of Jesus 
Cfhrist; and although I had pub- 
licklv contended that the pope was 
not the head of the church by divine 
rije^t, yet the consequence of this I 
did not see, namely, that the pope 
must necessarily be of the dfevil* 
For that which is not of God is of 
necessity of the devil. But I was 
so swallowed up by the example 
and title of THE Holy Church, and 
by long custom, that I conceded 
human right to the pope; which, 
however, if it rest not on divine 
authority, is a diabolical lie; for 
we obey parents and ma^strates, 
not because they command it, but 
because it is the will of God. Hence 
I can more easily bear with those 
who are devoted to the papacy, es- 
pecially if they are persons who 
nave not had the opportunity of 
reading the scriptures and other 
books, since I myself, after I had 
for many years most diligently 
read the scriptures, still adhered 
tenaciously to the pope. 

( The remainder in our next.) 



4!l3i^ceUancou^. 



IPHT SUBSRRVIKMT TO RELI- 
GION'. 

Essay IL 

( Continued from p. 65.) 

use of language, as the me- 
or conveying to successive 
ions a great variety of moral 
tions, deserves to be parti- 
noticed. Language was 
[> our first parents by divine 
:ion; and was especially fit- 
le an instrument of thought 
immunication on religious 
s. Whilst this language re- 
substantially unchanged, it 
be the source of important 
tion. The mere process of 
g its words and phrases, 
lot fail to intimate van Jus 



ideas upon moral and religious sub< 
jects. Nor has this advantage been 
entirely lost; notwithstanding the 
multiplication of languages, and the 
changes which they have undergone. 
During their diversified changes, 
words, expressing moral and reli- 
gious conceptions, continued to 
form a part of them; and would 
therefore be the occasion of sug- 
gesting these conceptions to the 
mind, whilst engaged in learning 
them. We may, then, consider 
language itself as a medium, by 
which moral conceptions are com- 
municated through successive ge- 
nerations* 

We have reason to believe, tb^^ 
manyojfinions prevalent amoii|^|^^ 
gftn nations, ut &t c^maAaoA 



112 



Philosophy subMtrvient to Religion. 



Mabow' 



primitive revelation handed down 
Dj tradition; and preserved with 
greater or less purity among diflfer- 
ent nations. The researches of the 
learned have proved, that many of 
their notions and rites were orisi- 
nallj derived from divine revela- 
tion and divine institutions. 

What would be the precise con- 
dition of mankind, if left, from the 
beginning, to the exercise of their 
native powers and resources, with- 
out any supernatural instruction, 
it is perhaps impossible to deter- 
mine* But so far as we can judge, 
it would seem, that if capable of ex- 
isting; at all, they would be in a 
condition far more ignorant and de- 
graded, than that of any nation of 
barbarians that ever lived upon 
earth. The impossibility of making 
any considerable intellectual im- 
provement without the use of lan- 
^aee; and the difficulty of invent- 
ing language without this improve- 
ment; seem to show the necessity 
of divine teaching for the cultiva- 
tion of the human understanding, 
if not for the continuance of the hu- 
man race. 

The written word of God is the 
only full and adequate source of in- 
struction, in regard to those sub- 
jects which man, as an accountable 
and immortal being, is most inte- 
rested in knowing. So much is the 
human mind blinded and perverted 
by the deceitfulness of sin, by the 
corrupt customs and maxims of the 
world, and by the subtle devices of 
Satan; that although God has fur- 
nished sufficient means of informa- 
tion to all men, to render them ac- 
countable for their conduct, and in- 
excusable in not acknowledging and 
worshiping him as the only true 
God; yet all men have not that 
knowledge of God and of his will 
which is necessary to salvation. 
Whatever important ^purposes the 
wisdom of God mn,j accomplish, by 
those common notices of his will 
which he has given, in some mea- 
sure, to all men; we know from 
scripture and universal observa- 



tion, that they are not ordiiuuflj' 
employed as the means of sani^ 
illumination and sanctification. 

Man, from his limited knowledtoB' 
and power, is compelled to form Hv 
purposes according to events m 
they transpire; and to employ, ftr 
the accomplishment of his purpoMl^ 
the means that are broagnt to Ui 
knowledge by unforeseen ciream- 
stances. But the case is very dif- 
ferent with God, who knows As' 
end from the beginning, and wiioie 
resources are infinite. Whatever 
purposes are accomplished by say 
of his works, we may be assum 
they were known and designed 
from the beginning. He does not, 
like man, avail himself of unfore- 
seen events, and accidental circuv* 
stances. To him there is nothisg 
fortuitous or contingent. All bis * 
designs are eternal and unchange- 
able ; both in regard to ends, and 
the means of their accomplishment 

The constitution of me world, 
and the arrangements of Divine 
Providence, may be viewed as an 
elementary school of instruction, to 
prepare our minds for understand- 
ing divine truth as revealed in scrip* 
ture. The constitution and order 
of nature were designed by the all- 
wise Creator to furnish similitudes 
and analogies ; to originate concep- 
tions and judgments, which would 
admit of an easy transfer to sjn- 
ritual and divine things. 

Thus the relations of society, the 
arrangements of civil government, 
and, in G;cneral, the fundamental 
laws of the present state of things, 
were designed and adapted to faci- 
litate our conceptions in relation to 
spiritual and eternal things. When 
therefore, natural things are em- 
ployed in scripture to illustrate 
those that are spiritual, we are not 
to imagine that this application was 
suggested by the accidental simi- 
larity of some circumstances be- 
tween them. We are rather to be- 
lieve, that natural things were con- 
stituted with the express design of 
answering this, as well as the other 



PkUoMophy subservieni to Rtiigkm. 



lis 



B ef infinite wisdom. Thus 
lom of God is conspicuous : 
srial world is subservient to 
llectual; natural things are 
ent to spiritual ; and tem- 
those that are eternal. 
) remarks account in the 
tisfactorj manner for the 
It the sreater part of our 
e, in reTerence to intellec- 
gects, is derived from the 
of our external senses ; and 
s greater part of our lan- 
in reference to spiritual and 
hings, is derived from natu- 
gs. From the natural pro- 
which our information is ob- 
the fact could not be other- 
Ian, as he is at present con- 
» acquires his knowledge by 
d almost insensible grada- 
icording to the various occa- 
tiich are presented for calU 
operation the powers of his 
anding. Our attention is 
*ected to material and natu- 
igs; and the language em- 
in relation to them, is after- 
transferred, by analogy, to 
' an intellectual and moral 
as soon as they become the 
\ of examination and reflec- 

iserves however to be par- 
j considered, that this pro- 
the mind furnishes the occa- 
rough want of due attention, 
srous errors in metaphysical 
)ral science. Language is 
Ted from thequalitiesof mat- 
e operations of the mind, and 
man to divine things, without 
iriation of meaning, which 
ferent nature of the subject 
Bsably requires. We are in 
it danger of falling into error, 
e ideas suggested by the li- 
nd primary signification of 
Close attention to the pe- 
uaturc of tlic subject, and 
uition in the use of language, 
;essary to guard us against 
^s from this source. A nuui- 
plausible errors, in various 
r intellectual and moral aci- 



ence, have no other support than an 
unfounded analog. Ideas are at- 
tached to words in their secondary 
and figurative application, whicn 
can only belong to them in that 
which is primary and literal. And 
sometimes, through want of proper 
attention, words are transfecfjed 
from the movements of matter to 
the operations of mind, and from 
natural to spiritual things ; although 
in the latter applications they can 
have no distinct meaning whatever. 

As the constitution oT nature is 
adapted to prepare our minds for 
understanding moral and religious 
subjects, in liKe manner, the scrip- 
tures of the Old Testament are 
adapted to prepare our minds for 
understanding tnc more full revela- 
tion of divine truth contained in the 
New. The rites and institutions 
appointed before the coming of Je- 
sus Christ, were, to those who lived 
during that period, types and sha- 
dows of good things to come ; to us, 
they serve the purpose of suggest- 
ing and establishing many impor- 
tant principles, in relation to the 
sublime truths of Christianity. 

Hence we may see the wisdom 
and goodness of God in providing 
those means of instruction which 
are best suited, or rather which are 
alone suited, to the nature and fa- 
culties of the human mind. On a 
superficial view of the subject, we 
are apt to conclude that it would be 
preferable if divine truth had been 
presented in a systematical form—- 
m the manner of modern treatises 
of science; and not obscurely inti- 
mated by symbolical representa- 
tions, and blended with numerous 
historical details. This conclusion, 
however, is precipitate and erro- 
neous. It proceeds from inattention 
to the natural progress of the mind 
in acquiring knowledge. Modern 
systems of divinity may be easily 
intelligible.and very useful to those 
whose minds are already furnished 
wi til a great variety of information, 
derived from the scriptures vaAVtom 
numerous other aout«e«. likuV.WvC[i- 

P 



114 



Philoiopkii tubsercient to Religion. 



Mamch^ 



bat this previoui informatioDt thej 
could be of no immediate use. The 
natural progress of the mind is from 
particular tacts to general princi- 
ples. We are incapable of compre- 
uendine general truths stated in the 
form otabstract propositions, unless 
WA hare it in our power to illustrate 
and ezemplif J them bjr a recurrence 
tojMLrticuiar facts. 

The institutions and historical 
details of the Old Testament su^- 

Est and illustrate truth bj plain 
sts; they furnish lan^age and 
originate conceptions, which enable 
mankind to comprehend the great 
doctrines of revealed religion. — 
These remarks are exempliued bj 
tiie sacrifices offered under the for- 
mer dispensations of the church. 
Sacrifices were appointed by divine 
msdom, to prefigure and illustrate 
the redemption of sinners by the vi- 
carious suffering of the Son of God ; 
to direct the faith of believers to his 
death as the expiation of their sins ; 
and to furnish intelligible language, 
by which the church in every aee 
might be able to understana the 
true nature and design of that grand 
and mysterious event. To ascer- 
tain^.tncrefore, the true import of 
the.death of Christ, it is our busi- 

. nets to have recourse directly to 
those primeval institutions, which 
were wvinely appointed for the ex- 
press {purpose of prefiguring and 
explaining it; making that varia- 
tiDii in our conceptions, which the 
diflbrence between the type and the 
antitype, the shadow and the sub- 
stance, indispensably requires. 

The ordinary course of events, 
constantly submitted to our obser- 
vation, is sufBcient to prepare our 
minds for understanding the rela- 
tion of God to us, as our lawgiver 
and judge; the rewarder of obedi- 
ence, and the avenger of sin. But 
tiie usual procedure of human af- 
fairs furnishes few, if any, iustifia- 
Ue instances of the judicial substi- 
tution of the innocent in the place 
nf the guilty. To supply this de- 

>JBact, -and to -rendei: the. idea of sub- 



stitution, imputation and vicarious 
satisfaction, perfectly familiar to 
the minds of men, God was pleased 
to ordain animal sacrifices, in which 
they were distinctly exhibited ; and 
thus he prepared the world for un- 
derstanding and receiving the doc- 
trine of redemption, by the vicarious 
obedience ana death of the Lord 
Jesus Christ 

The peculiar doctrines of Chris- 
tianity must, of necessity, be learn- 
ed exclusively from the scriptures. 
The constitution of nature gives us 
no direct information respecting the 
purposes of divine mercy towards 
the heirs of salvation, who like 
others, are by nature in a state of 
condemnation, depravity and help- 
lessness ; nor of tne justification (rf* 
believers through the meritorious 
obedience and atoning sacrifice of the 
Lord Jesus ; nor of the sanctification 
of their natures by the efficacious 
influences ofthe Holy Spirit These, 
and other truths essentially related 
to them, are made known only by 
supernatural divine revelation ; and 
to this source we must trace, imme- 
diately or ultimately, all the know- 
ledge which ever existed in the 
world respecting them. 

One of the most important appli- 
cations of analogical reasoning, is 
to invalidate the objections of infi- 
delity against the doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. *< When objections," says 
Dr. Keid, "are made aeainst tne 
truths of religion, which may be 
made with equal strength i^inst 
what we know to be true in the 
course of nature, such objections 
can have no weight." No logical 
axiom can be of more unquestion- 
able authority. Its application may 
be illustrated by one or two exam- 
ples. Those who deny the future 
punishment of the wicked, allege 
this doctrine to be inconsistent with 
the perfections of God, especially 
his justice and benevolence. But 
this objection is completely obvi- 
ated by tiie fact, that misery is in- 
separably connected with transgres- 
sion, so far as our observation ex^ 



1827. 



Philosophy subservient to ReUgion. 



115 



tends. If therefore the perfections 
of God are not inconsistent with the 
sufferings of sinners in this world, 
what reason can be assigned why 
they should be inconsistent with 
them in the world to come? If the 
diTine justice and benevolence do 
not prevent the guiltj and sinful 
from suffering in the present state, 
why should it be thought that thej 
will prevent them from suffering in 
a future state? It is absurd to attri- 
bute the connexion, which we ob- 
serve to exist between sin and mi- 
sery, to chance ; or to any supposed 
natural tendency of things, indepen- 
dently uf the constitution of nature 
which God has established, and 
which he carries into effect by his 
immediate operation. The miseries 
of the present life, although they 
mav take place according to an es- 
twbhed constitution, and accord- 
ing to general laws, are really the 
punishments annexed by divine jus- 
tice to transgression. Indeed the 
uniformity with which they take 
place, according to an established 
constitution, is indubitable proof 
that they are such. And from a 
consideration of the uniformity and 
harmony of the divine dispensations 
so far as our knowledge extends, 
and that justice will m more per- 
spicuously manifested by such an 
arrangement, we have no small rea- 
son to believe that in a future state, 
at well as in the present, punish- 
ment will appear to follow trans- 
gression by natural consequence; 
according to general laws and a 
fixed constitution. 

Another example will serve, still 
farther, to illustrate the use of the 
analog of nature to vindicate the 
doctrines of the gospel. There are 
some persons who affirm it to be a 
dictate of reason, that a reformation 
of life will necessarily secure an 
exemption from the penalty of past 
transgression, and the enjoyment of 
future happiness, without regard to 
the mediation and righteousness of 
Jesus Christ. 

But is not tbi^ assumption utterly 



irreconcilable with the ordinary 
course of events in this world ? It is 
not true that reformation necessarily 
procures an exemption from the con- 
sequences of irregular and criminal 
conduct, or reinstates the offender 
in those advantages which he had 
forfeited. Such in fact is the estab- 
lished order of events, that the evil 
consequences of particular vicious 

f practices are often experienced, 
on^ after these practices have been 
entirely abandoned. And if this be 
so in the present state, from what 
source of evidence can it be infer- 
red, that the case will be different 
in a future state ? The scriptures, 
most certainly, contain no promises 
of eternal life to any supposed re- 
pentance and reformation, which 
can exist detached from that faith 
which receives and rests upon Christ 
alone for salvation, as he is offered 
to us in the gospel. 

The validtty of analogical evi- 
dence arises from the admirable 
unity and harmony of design, which 
every where characterize tne works 
of God. We find no part of the uni- 
verse, submitted to our observation, 
entirely unlike, and insulated from 
every other part An astonishing 
uniformity, amidst the greatest va- 
riety, appears to pervade the whole; 
evincing with irresistible evidence 
a unity of counsel and operation in 
the formation and government of 
the world. 

Although the most important use 
of this kind of reasoning is to repel 
objections against truths which rest 
on their own distinct and appropri- 
ate evidence; it may also be em- 
ployed, in a very interesting and 
instructive manner, to reflect light 
from what is known, upon what is 
otherwise comparatively obscure or 
unknown. By the analogies of those 
things that are submitted to our im- 
mediate examination, we are able 
to form conjectures, possessing in 
many instances a hi^h degree of 
probability, in relation to those 
thin^ which are not o^^t^Nx^^ 
withm the reach q{ out VoN^%^A^- 



116 



PhiUmphy subservitnt to Bdigim. 



HLkMCMf 



tion. Many important discoveries 
in different branches of physical 
science, which have been complete- 
ly verified by actual experiment and 
observation, were first suggested in 
this manner. Some of the most sub- 
lime truths in astronomy, which are 
now established with demonstrative 
evidence, had no other proof in the 
minds of their original discoverers, 
tlian the analogy of what they ob- 
served upon tlie earth. Even in the 
present state of knowledge, there 
are some opinions relating to this 
science, which although regarded 
as highly probable, if not as certain, 
have no other direct support. 

It is still more interesting to con- 
template the analogies furnished by 
the subjects of intellectual and mo- 
ral science. From what has been 
already stated it appears, that our 
conceptions of the powers, princi- 
ciples of action, and intellectual 
operations of all other beines, are 
formed analogically, from what we 
are conscious of in ourselves. There 
is no other way in which we can 
proceed. Our conceptions will be 
the best within our power, if, formed 
in this manner, they are varied ac- 
cording to the external indications 
uf the intellectual phenomena to 
which they relate. 

All the information which the 
scriptures afford respecting a fu- 
ture world, is conveyed in language 
derived by analogy from the £ings 
with which we are conversant in 
the present world. Besides that 
no otner language would be intelli- 
gible, may we not believe that the 
present slate of things was consti- 
tuted to form an elementary school, 
to qualify our minds for the higher 
scenes of action and enjoyment, pre- 
pared for the righteous in a future 
state of existence; that points of 
resemblance between them will be 
found more numerous and striking 
than we are prepared at present to 
anticipate ; and that hereafter we 
shall witness the full development, 
and perfect exercise of those great 
jiriflciples of intellectual and moral 



I 



action, which we behold, at preiait» 
onlv in their incipient state r 
The peculiar doctrines of them* 
el have often been pronoanccd tt 
e unreasonable, and contrary to 
reason. It is admitted that an op- 
nion which is plainly inconiiitast 
with the common reason of mankiadi 
cannot be true ; but before we.ctti 
be justified in rejecting it OB this 
ground, the inconsistency oas^t to 
be clearly evinced. Genenu die- 
nunciations of this kind, as they are 
the usual expedient of dogmatical 
and superficial declaimers, will 
have little wei^t with the enUght- 
ened and judicious. 

If bv this objection it be meant 
that a belief of the doctrines of the 
gospel is inconsistent with the lavs 
of our rational nature-— this opi-r 
nion is contradicted by the m^ 
that they have been tielieved bf 
multitudes of the wisest and bestel 
men in every a^e. They are coo* 
tained substantially in the creeds 
and confessions of all the reformed 
churches; and have received Um 
assent, and cordial approbation ef 
immense numbers of the most en- 
lightened and best cultivated un- 
derstandings that tlie world ever 
witnessed. 

But if, by this objection, it be 
meant that the doctrines of the gos- 
pel are inconsistent with each others 
it may be readily admitted that 
many persons, professing to ex* 
pound the doctrines of ChristiaiiiiTi 
have exhibited theories and princi- 
ples inconsistent in themselves, ai 
well as at variance with each other. 
This fact, however, ought not to 
prejudice our minds against the 
genuine doctrines of Christiamty, 
as contained in the scriptures; mr 
every subject of human knowledge 
has suffered the same treatment 
from the hands of unskilful or inte- 
rested men. Such indeed are the 
limited powers of the human onder- 
standing, that it is almost impos- 
sible to avoid the appearancot at 
least, of contradiction and incoa- 
siatency, in a long work on any 



Philosophy snbservient to Hdigion^ 



117 



:t; andthediflicultjisgreatlj 
ented by the ambiguity, and 

imperfections of language; 
I, however, is to be resolved 
itely into the same cause, 
is a powerful argument in 
of the inspiration of scripture, 
ts most ingenious and indus- 

enemies have never been able 
:ect in it any real contradic* 

That a number of men« who 
in succession durine the long 
1 of fifteen hundred years, of 

different natural capacity, 
.tion and habits of life, should* 
ut concert or apparent de- 

concur harmoniously in the 
statement of facts, and in the 

exhibition of principles, is 

wonderful ; and can be ac- 
ed for, only by supposing that 
wrote under the immediate 
Qce of divine inspiration, 
rent inconsistencies may oc- 
ft the superficial reader; but 
are easily explained upon a 
patient and accurate investi- 
I. When we enter upon a 
ubject of inquiry, our minds 
ften embarrassed by the- ap- 
nce of anomalies and contru- 
ns, which the limited state of 
mowledffe renders us inca- 
of explaining. But as our in- 
tion becomes more extensive 
iccurate, they gradually dis- 
r, until at length the subject 
. to accord in its several parts; 
•U as to harmonize with the 
parts of our knowledge. It 
t therefore surprising, that 
tlties and apparent incon- 
cies, should perplex those 
lave merely a superficial ac- 
tance with the scriptures. 

the nature of the case, we 
t reasonably expect it to be 
vise. It would, however, be 
iterous to neglect the study 
Bible, or to reject it altoge- 
in this account Such a course 
tduct would be considered ir- 
al, in regard to any other 
t of inquiry; and certain)/ 
lit to be considered so, ia the 



highest degree, in regard to this, 
upon which the present hopes and 
eternal welfare of man essentially 
depend. By studying the Holy 
Scriptures with docility, assiduity 
and perseverance, we may expect, 
with the divine blessing, to obtain 
the most important advantages: 
difficulties will be gradually sur- 
mounted ; apparent inconsistencies 
will disappear; obscure passages 
will become plain ; and we shall be 
enabled to perceive the evidence, 
the harmony, and the superlative 
excellence of the truths that are re- 
vealed in them. 

It becomes those who charge the 
doctrines of Christianity with being 
inconsistent with each other, to point 
out distinctly, in what the incon- 
sistency consists; to show that 
what is affirmed in one proposition 
is denied in another. Until thia 
be done, sudi vague assertions will 
justly be considered as indicating 
the want of more precise and de- 
finite argument. 

But if the objection be designed 
to intimate that the doctrines of the 
gospel are contrailicted by other 
unquestionable truths, it will then 
belong to them who make the ob- 
jection, to show what these trutha 
are. What facts do we witness in 
the constitution of nature, the dis- 
pensations of Providence, or the 
order of society-— what principles 
are suggested by the phenomena 
either of matter or mind, which 
contradict the plain doctrines of 
scripture? 

The truth is, the doctrines of the 
Bible are in perfect accordance with 
the soundest principles of modern 
philosophy. The systems and theo- 
ries of ancient philosophers, having 
no better foundation than mere con- 
jecture, exerted a pernicious influ- 
ence over the mincis of those Chris- 
tians who embraced them, in modi- 
fying and perverting the simple 
doctrines of the gospel. Ecclesi- 
astical history discovers tvwv[v^T^>\% 
errors in religion, >vV\\c\v ar<i \.oV>^ 
traced to the theorien ot \Xve ^vt- 



118 



PhUMUphy 9uh$ervimU to Rdigion. 



Mabch^ 



ferent philosophical sects, whose 
authority happened to prevail in 
the church. When hypothetical 
theories in philosophy are regarded 
as unquestionable truths, they must 
have an influence in modifying our 
religious opinions, in a greater or 
less degree, according as their con- 
nexion is perceived to be more or 
less intimate. 

There is no danger, however, to 
be apprehended from the principles 
of sound and enlightened philoso- 
phy. As God is the author, both of 
the constitution of nature, and of 
the scriptures, they cannot, when 
fairly interpreted, be at variance 
with each other. When philoso- 
phy consists in hypothetical sys- 
tems and fanciful theories, it is no 
less hostile to genuine science than 
to scripture. But when it confines 
itself to a simple statement of facts, 
in relation either to matter or mind, 
(and this alone deserves the name 
of philosophy,) instead of bein^ in 
any degree adverse to the doctrines 
of revealed religion, it is adapted 
to afford them the most effectual 
support. 

The friends of Christianity have 
often declared that its doctrines are 
above reason, although not contrary 
to it. This language, however well 
intended, is not very intelligible 
or precise. What is reason, but 
the capacity of the mind to dis- 
cover truth, according to the dis- 
tinct nature and appropriate evi- 
dence of the subject presented to 
our consideration? And will not 
this aphorism mean, when strictly 
interpreted, that the doctrines of 
Christianity are not subjects of hu- 
man knowledge? 

That the truths of religion are 
related to other things which are 
not revealed, and which therefore 
cannot be known by us, will not 
justify this mode of expression. 
The case is perfectly similar in 
every other branch of science. In 
every department of knowledge 
relating to actual existences, we 
necessarWy believe many truths, 



which involve in their connexions* 
many thinss which lie beyond the 
reach of the human understanding. 
The truths revealed in scripture* 
and the manner in which they are 
revealed, correspond to the capa- 
city of the mind, and to those pow- 
ers of comprehension which are ac- 
quired by the previous exercise of 
reason, in relation to the various 
objects that solicit our attention. 
If this be not the case, the Bible is 
no revelation to us ; and therefore 
cannot be either believed or disbe- 
lieved. 

It may perhaps be said, that I 
have mistaken the import of the ex- 
pression we are considering, aBd 
that it is designed to convey the 
idea, that the peculiar doctrines of 
Christianity must be learned ex- 
clusively from the scriptures. If 
this be the meaning of those who 
employ this phraseology, it must be 
admitted that their language is not 
very precise or accurate. 

Every distinct subject of know- 
ledge has its peculiar and appro- 
priate evidence. Our knowledge 
of the operations of our own minds, 
is furnished by consciousness. Oar 
knowledge of the qualities of mat- 
ter, is furnished by our powers of 
external perception. Our know- 
led^ of the peculiar doctrines of 
Chnstianity, is furnished by divine 
revelation. The exercise of reason 
is not to be excluded from any of 
these different modes of acquiring 
knowledge. And certainly the last 
requires the employment of its no- 
blest and most exalted powers. 
Where shall reason, that distin- 
guishing characteristick of our na- 
ture, find its most appropriate and 
honourable employment, if not in 
the investigation of those sublime 
truths, which are made known by 
the testimony of God, contained in 
his word? 

The word reason, as appears 
from what has been said, is often 
used in a very vague and indefinite 
manner. The language of many 
would lead us to suppose, that it 



i8£r. 



PliUo$ophy SJibservienl to ReUgiofi. 



119 



constitutes an original caiMicity of 
jadgine; and affords fixed princi- 

Sies of belief, independently of the 
ifferent sources of knowledge 
which are within our reach, la- 
thing can be farther from the truth, 
than such a notion. All our ideas 
are acquired. We hare no innate 
principles of knowledge or judg- 
ment. Our knowledge is acquired 
indour judjgments are formed, only 
by •mpioying the yarions powers 
tx reason and understanding, ac- 
cording to the different means of 
information and sources of evi- 
dence, with which the Creator has 
famished us. Without facts sub- 
mitted to our investigation, and evi- 
dence by which we may judge, rea- 
son can give no decision. 

From the details into which we 
have entered, we may perceive the 
numerous and ample means of in- 
struction, with which we are fa- 
voured; and their wise adaptation 
to the powers of the human under- 
standing, and to the circumstances 
in which we are placed. No plea 
is afforded for ignorance or error, 
by their deficiency or unsuitable- 
ness. It appears however that 
docili^, caution and application, 
are indispensable to the full enjoy- 
ment of the advantages which they 
are fitted to bestow. 

It also deserves to be remarked, 
that in many instances, instruc- 
tions relating to the same important 
truths, are furnished from different 
sources. The original dictates of 
the understanding, concerning the 
aacredness and indispensable obli- 
gation of the fundamental rules of 
morality, are powerfully confirmed, 
to the apprehension of those who 
are accustomed to observe the con- 
stituted connexions of events, by 
Tiews of general expediency; by 
discovering their uniform tendency 
to promote both individual and 
pubiick welfare ; and, on the con- 
trarr, by discovering the uniform 
tendency of immorality, to produce 
misery, both to individuals and 
to communities. Thus God has in- 



dicated his will, not only by the 
immediate emotions and judgments 
of the human mind, but also by the 
invariable connexions and tenden- 
cies which he has established. The 
truths of natural religion; that is, 
the truths relating to God and his 
will, which are discovered by a 
just interpretation of the frame and 
order of nature, concur, so far as 
they ^0, in a most harmonious and 
pleasing manner, with the truths 
of revealed religion. It appears 
therefore that, in many instances, 
we have the advantage of a number 
of witnesses; and that their testi- 
mony, when correctly understood, 
is always harmonious and consist- 
ent 

Our moral sentiments depend, 
in no inconsiderable degree, upon 
our connexion, especially in the 
early period of life, with our breth- 
ren of mankind. In childhood, our 
opinions on many subjects, are re- 
ceived implicitly upon the autho- 
rity of our parents and teachers. 
The direction and regulation of our 
minds, depend very much upon 
them. And in mature age, very 
few possess independence, or obsti- 
nacy of mind, sufficient to resist 
the influence ofprevalent opinions 
and customs. The system of opi - 
nions embraced by any individual, 
will, almost infallibly, be modified 
by the current opinions of the age 
or country in which he lives. 

Admitting therefore the power- 
ful influence of custom and educa- 
tion, yet we are by no means to 
suppose, that the moral judgments 
of mankind are entirely arbitrary 
or factitious. Such is the nature 
of man, and such is the uniformity 
in the constitution and course of 
things, in every period of the world, 
that to a certain extent, there must 
always be a uniformity in the moral 
sentiments of our race. The dis- 
tinctions between right and wrong 
in human conduct, are so palpable, 
and a knowledge of them so indis- 
pensable to human welfare^ 1V\^.\. 
they never can bt \nV\^\\>} \^%\. w 



120 



Observatiom on the OenenU JtsaenMy^^ Sfc. . MABCHf 



eerTerted, by any causes compati* 
le with the existence of the human 
family. A total perversion of alL 
'the rules of morality, in any com- 
munity of men, must speemly ef- 
fect its own cure; the innumera- 
rable disorders and miseries which 
must flow from such a state of 
things, could not fail to bring them 
back to some sense of reason and 
justice ; otherwise their entire de- 
struction would be the consequence. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE GENERAL AS- 
SEMBLY OF THE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH. 

Letter IL 

Existing Evils. 

Dear Sir, — According to my pro- 
mise, 1 proceed to notice some of 
the evils connected with the pre- 
sent organization of the General 
Assembly. 

Hie body itself is too large. This 
is the principal evil, and perhaps 
the origin of all which I mean to 
name. No complaints of this evil 
were heard until the spring of 1818, 
when there were one hundred and 
thirty-five members present in the 
Assembly. Previously there had 
been no cause of such complaints; 
the number had never much ex- 
ceeded one hundred, and there had 
seldom been more than from se- 
venty to ninety. But when the 
Assembly found an increase of 
thirty members at once, and a pros- 
pect of rapid augmentation, they 
took the alarm, and passed a reso- 
lution, requesting the Presbyteries 
to alter the ratio of representation, 
from six to nine ministers fur every 
two commissioners. In the pream- 
ble to the resolution, the Assembly 
recognise the "great number of 
delegates'' composing their body 
as the primary evil to be remedied 
— and an important object to be 
gained by the resolution was, '*to 
facilitate the despatch of businc&b." 



Whoever is acauainted with the 
proceedings of publick assemblies, 
will need no argument to convince 
him that seventy or eighty mem- 
bers are as many as can convenient- 
ly and profitably engage in the de- 
liberations. This is true of parlia^ 
ments, con^p:ess, and legislatures- 
more especially is it manifest in ec- 
clesiastical assemblies. A body of 
men, unwieldy from its very num- 
bers, will always be found doubly 
so, when composed principalljr of 
those in habits of publick speakin|^ 
and accustomed to exert an influ- 
ence almost without contradiction. 
It is to be expected that such men 
will not only deliberate and veto, 
but speak their sentiments on all 
important subjects before them, 
and on many occasions give utter- 
ance to their impatience of opposi- 
tion. The inevitable consequences 
of such a state of things will be, 
much useless debate, confusion, 
and delay, in the transaction of 
business. 

An appeal to the recollection of 
those wtio have attended all, or any 
one of tlie last seven assemblies, 
would furnish proof that the evil 
exists, and calls for some immediate 
remedy. It has been a common re- 
mark, widely circulated, that our 
delegation is too numerous. 

\V hen this subject shall be well 
considered, it will be found that 
many evils grow out of the l^rgit 
representation of which I complain. 

H'aste of time in the mere politi- 
cal concerns of the meeting, is not 
too trifling to be noticed. The or- 
ganization of so large a body must 
necessarily occupy much time—- the 
examination of one hundred and 
fiftv, or two hundred commissions 
and choice of the officers, arc te- 
dious. Calling the roll at every 
opening^taking the question on 
every division of the bouse — selec- 
tion of committees — and many 
questions of order, arising from the 
number and confusion of members, 
occupy no small part of each day. 



1827. 



OkservaUons on the General Jlssemblyf ^c. 



121 



Such loss of time must be consi- 
dered an evil, when the sittinss of 
the body are protracted to three 
weeks. 

To all this, add the iraste of time 
in useless debate; and no inconsi- 
derable proportion of the hours ap- 
pointed for business, from the open- 
ing to the rising of the assembly, 
inaj be reckoned as lost. It will 
probably be said, there maj be use- 
less debate in small as well as in 
large bodies; but eicperience proves 
that the same men are more in- 
clined to protract debate in a large, 
than in a small assembly. The fact 
accords with the principles of human 
nature, verified in all deliberative 
bodies, civil or ecclesiastical. 

I ought here, in justice, to add 
the whole time of nearly one half 
the members attending, as lost to 
the church. Some of them, it is 
true, may sain advantage to them- 
selves, in liealth and mental cul- 
ture, which they would not have 
gained at home, employed directly 
for the sood of others. But it is 
extremely doubtful whether the 
loss is at fill counterbalanced by 
any such gain. 

Unneresfiarij expense is another 
m/, not to be forgotten in the pre- 
sent state of things. This was re- 
ferred to by the Assembly of 1818, 
in the document already noticed, 
as one of the reasons for lessening 
the representation. The same con- 
sideration had its influence in the 
alteration of 18i25. The majority 
of presbyteries considered this an 
evil, and sanctioned what was con- 
sidered a remedv. Tliosc who have 
access to the treasurer's account 
of the monies received for the com- 
missioners' fund, will perceive that 
about two thousand dollars are an- 
nually paid to that fund, which 
probably defrays about one half the 
expenses of members. The whole 
expense is therefore more than four 
thousand dollars — one half of which 
is unnecessary. Here are two 
thousand dollars lost, which would 
enable twenty feeble cof]^rcgations 

\oL, \^Ch. Jdv. 



to support a pastor, on the plan 
pursued bv the Home Missionary 
Society, )^^xi I need not calculate 
the value of such a sum, expended 
in missionary operations — in edu- 
cating young men for the ministry 
— in the endowments of literary or 
theological institutions, to prove it 
too much for needless expense. 
Only let it be shown that one half 
the number would answer all the 
purposes, and accomplish all the 
business of the Assembly, as well 
and more expeditiously than the 
whole — it is then proved, that one 
half the expense is needlessly in- 
curred. This 1 do not despair of 
doing. Indeed I should be sur- 
prised to find one thinking, candid 
man, unwilling to concede, that 
85 of the hundred and seventy, 
composing the last Assembly, would 
have been as competent to transact 
all the business which came before 
them, as the whole number — and I 
am very sure they would have done 
it with more despatch. 

There is another evil of no small 
magnitude, rather delicate in its 
character, but which ought to be 
noticed. It is really an imposition 
upon the hospitality of the good 
Philadelphians. It is certainly 
very creditable to the Presbyte- 
rians of that city, to make the 
whole Assembly welcome to all the 
comforts of attention, kindness and 
home, for many successive years. 
Doubtless many of those kind people 
will continue to entertain numbers 
of the Assembly with great plea- 
sure, but it ought not to be expect- 
ed of them for three successive 
weeks, year after year, unless the 
number be diminished. In I'act, it 
is an abuse of kindness, to nuarter 
two hundred men upon theciti/.ens 
so long, without remuneration; and 
t)ie thought that this is to be per- 
petual — a legacy to future genera- 
tions — is intolerable. 

It has often been remarked, that 
the hospitable disposition, which 
has been so consmcuous V\\v\j\3k»^\vi>\V- 
our rcpubUck, \b Au\\\i\\^\\v\\«. V 

Q 



122 



Ohservatums on tlu General Assetnbbif ^c MUaoiV 



cm inclined to believe the remark 
is foQDded in fact ; but the Phila- 
delphians have hitherto sustained 
their primitive reputation in this 
case. But under tne present regi- 
men, I doubt not the disposition 
must lessen, until it will be diffi- 
cult, if not impracticable, to obtain 
Eatuitous accommodations for so 
rse an assembi j. 

Inequality of representation is 
often mentioned as an evil of the 
present system. Although the con- 
stitution prescribes an equitable 
ratio, it must be remembered there 
is, and there will be, inequality in 
the fractions represented — and the 
more we lessen the delegation on 
the present system, the greater will 
be the fractional disparity. But 
the principal inequality is between 
the near and distant presbyteries 
—occasioned by the difficulties and 
expense of travelling a ereat dis- 
tance* The extracts and journals 
of the Assembly, published for the 
last ten years, will show this dis- 
parity. Complaints of this evil 
have Deen made on the floor of the 
house. It was noticed in the pre- 
amble of a resolution to alter the 
ratio of representation, passed in 
1818. It must be admitted that 
this is an evil, but not of the larger 
magnitude ; because no part of the 
church has yet suffered in any im- 
portant interest from the disparity. 
Union, fellowship, supervision, and 
all other purposes of the body are 
preserved. Yet it is desirable to 
remove the evil, and I flatter my- 
self it may be done. 
^ There is an evil far more inju- 
rious to the reputation and influ- 
ence of the Assembly-— far more 
adverse to the interests of the 
chtrch; in tlie custom of choosing 
commissioners, in the different pres- 
byteries, by rotation. 

The object of this custom is to 
give every minister the privilege 
of attending that important judica- 
tory. It is undoubtedly important 
to preserve ministerial parity, but 
this I think is a misapplication of 



a good principle. There can be w 
invasion of tnis vital principle^ m 
acknowledging that one miaitter is 
older, or more learned and difoMt 
than another. 

From this custom it often hap* 
pens that more than half the minis- 
ters in the Assembly are JM^ 
men, or unacquainted with tte 
course of business; and what is 
worse, unacquainted with th^ can* 
stitutional principles of jadioBl 
proceeding. 

To me it seems entireir WMjC 
to send men to that bodjr, for thor 
own gratification, or instnictiaa. 
Presbyteries and synods AxM 
furnish these, until the men are 
qualified by study and experience 
to deliberate anti decide on the 
most important concerns of the 
church. It every year occurs, that 
some most difficult as well as ill* 
portant questions are discussed 
and decided in the Assembly; and 
it is often the fact, that a synod is 
more competent to decide thea 
than the highest court; because 
there li more wisdom and experi- 
ence in a large synod than in the 
General Assembly, thus organized. 

The highest judicatory ought to 
consist of men well versed jn eccle- 
siastical law, in judicial proceed* 
ings, and in scriptural truth; they 
should be intelligent, candid, judi- 
cious, business men. The court 
will then be competent to super- 
vise the interests of the church 
and the proceedings of lower judi- 
catories; its dignity, as a court of 
Jesus Christ, will be preserved, and 
its adjudications respected. 

But in pursuance of the rotation 
system, the most important caset 
may be decided by men incompe- 
tent to investigate them, or to make 
an enliditeneu and judicious deci- 
sion. Rotation in sending mem- 
bers to the Assembly, is about as 
wise as it would be in the highest 
civil court to supply the bench with 
judges, by annual rotation from 
members of the bar. The case is 
not perfectly analogous, but the ab- 



OkervatianM on the Genend JlmmUifp ^ 



IM 



df Mch a custom in civil 
voald not be more mani- 
1 10 the preTaleot custom 
on in the highest ecclesi* 
Mirt. 

r be said that there are al- 
me of the fathers in the 
resent— and that it is not 
to have one assembly, not 
IK much wisdom and talent, 
f be true ; but I have a right 
a strons case to illustrate 
rdity ofa system : and ba- 
the wisdom and talent of 
hers miy be overruled by 
erienced majority. If such 
le ca8e» still men of wisdom 
irience are greatly impeded 
deliberations, and often 
ly perplexed, by those who 
nnt and inexperienced— 
er are fully as apt to be cou- 
ld pertinacious as the for- 

ieniion is not, however, to 
I a standing representa- 
U the same members, but a 
I from the most judicious 
srienced men. Some of the 
en should undoubtedly be 
several successive assem- 
t not perpetually. The de- 
I despatch of business re- 
lot only men acquainted 
clesiastical concerns, but 
len who have more than 
twice attended that body. 
Htld the Assembly answer 
purposes for which it was 
I, and command the aSec- 
respect of all the judicato- 
iw. But, if I mistake not, 
now considered, is becom- 
I conspicuous as the church 
i, and tlie business of the 
iy becomes more complex 
ortant For several years 
«rtiott of young men in the 
ly has increased, while the 
, has become more difficult, 
la more interesting and im- 
to the cnurch. 
mit my dear sir, to no- 
f two or three tbinfs more 



aa evilo, befbro I pro oee d - to 
mine the remediea pi o p o sud. 

'"Tonrs^ike. 



• J 



■/' 



Loutni. 

Xxi$tnig EvUi. 

Dear Sirir- Bear with me ntil I 
mention two or three moiw of the 
evils eonnected with Mm^. .present 
organisation of the General Aa- 
semUj, which call for a spc^iy 
change in the system. 
^ Cqpnected with the loot asen- 
tioned evil, yon will reeegniie the 
comptauUs^ of dgat&om ssade bj 
the Assembly. Perhaps it is to be 
expected, that litigious men. Inter- 
ested in decisions made aBiinst 
their wishes, will be dissatisfied. 
Occasionally a lower judicatory 
may be unduly influenced, aad 
wrongfully complain of the Assem 
biy's decision. But that iudieimw 
men and whole synods ahonld be 
diasatisfied, is not. to be expected. 
It ott^t also to boigmoted, that the 
Assembly may err# and give, occa- 
sion for complaints; but that such 
cases should frequently oocnr, 
ouaht not to be expected. 

I am, persuadeo such cases have 
occurred more frequently of kto 
years, than was formerly known. 
Such complaints are certainly 
made« studiously propaaated, and 
widely disseminated. I will oit 
undertake to say they are >alU or 
a majority of them, well fbuttd^l««* 
but the fact shows a want of conft- 
dence in the Assembly among those 
who encourage the complaints. To 
me it seems most probable, under 
present regulations, such cmuk 
plunts will increase, and prodnoo 
an unpleasant state of fisonng ts»> 
ward the Assembly, in many parts 
of the ekarch. 

In the report of- a conradttee on 
amendments -t» the oonodtntkn gf 
chur«h-tovenuntAt^;pnl)iKshed vrUk 
sevend rcaolntiinii-. tiaiA • 4wwn:,\% 
the preebytema te. «itaawrv%isRm» 



1£4 



Observatiotis on ilie General .^ssenMyf ^c. MAiicny 



the last Assembly have sanctioned 
an intimation of this fact. That 
document warrants the conclusion, 
that there is an increasing dissatis- 
faction with the investigations and 
decisions of appeals and references 
in that body. So far as this repre- 
sentation is true, it discloses an 
evil to be deprecated — for which 
a remedy should be sought. Its 
tendency is to weaken the bond 
which connects the Presbyterian 
church. — It cannot exist beyond a 
certain extent, without dissolving 
the bond. My hope is, that no such 
disastrous event may take place in 
the Presbyterian church. 

The secular character of the pro- 
ceedings in the Assembly has been 
observed by some, as not corres- 
ponding with the high and sacred 
responsibility, under which a court 
of Jesus Christ should act. I al- 
lude not so much to the order of pro- 
ceeding, as to the spirit of debate, 
and manner of deciding questions. 

I am not disposed to say much 
on this subject, only to add, there 
is sometimes great want of gravity, 
much confusion, a contest for vic- 
tory, and party interests, not allied 
to the church's good or obligation to 
Christ. The evil is, perhaps, inse- 
parable from so large a body, con- 
stituted as is the General Assem- 
bly. But it is of no small magni- 
tude, and calculated to produce 
disastrous results in the church. 

The grotoing influence of techni- 
calities over decisions in the As- 
sembly, is the last evil which I 
shall mention at present. I now 
refer to the management and dis- 
position of appeals and references. 
Not a few cases of appeal, faith- 
fully and ably investigated in a 
lower court, have been reversed, or 
rejected, on the ground of some 
technical informality, which did 
not militate at all against the fair- 
ness or justice of the decision. I 
do not plead for irregularity in ec- 
clesiastical judicatories, nor for the 
Assembly to sanction informality. 



But it is manifestly wrong to re- 
ject, or reverse a case, on which a 
righteous decision has been made 
by a lower court, only tiecause, 
through ignorance, or mistake^ some 
technical informality has occurred 
in the proceeding. 

In all cases, tned and carried op 
by appeal, reference, or complaint, 
which have no informality on the 
face, manifestly to prevent a full 
and fair investigation, I would have 
the Assembly act. I would have 
the merits of such cases examined 
— substantial justice affirmed—mn- 
just decisions reversed— and such 
instruction, or censure, measured 
to the lower court, as the character 
of the informality might require. 

I am aware this evil is necessa- 
rily connected with several others 
before named. In so large a body, 
with so many inexperienced miDds, 
such diversity of views, and such 
multiplicity of business, it often 
becomes necessary to resort strict- 
ly to technical rule, as the only 
point of agreement. I have sap- 
posed this evil furnished the go- 
verning inducement for the last 
Assembly's recommendation, to 
alter the form of government so as 
to stop all appeals from coming up 
to that court. If this be the fact, 
it proves the evil is seriously felt 

Thus I have enumerated the 
evils which appear to me tlie roost 
prominent, and which seem likely 
to increase, as long as the present 
system of organizing the Assembly 
shall continue. I have stated them 
plainly, because they are obviously 
such as ought to be removed, and 
such as I think can be removed. I 
state them not to injure the influ- 
ence or reputation of that judica- 
tory, which I love, notwithstanding 
its imperfections — but as an in- 
ducement to examine more care- 
fully, the means of rendering that 
body more permanently and ex- 
tensively useful. ' 

It will be my next object to exa- 
mine the remedies which have been 



mr. 



Rev. Mr. SiewarVs Private Journal. 



125 



proposed — some of which have been 
tried— others remain to be tested 
or rejected. 

Yours, &c. 



THE REV. MR. STRWARl's PRIVATE 
JOURNAL. 

( Continued from p, 25.) 

Saturday, July 2d. — The party 
for the volcano, which I mentioned 
tome days since, set off earlv on 
Monday, the 2rth ult. I was hap- 
py enoueh to be one of the number; 
and white the incidents of the ex- 
cursion are fresh in my mind, I 
hasten to give you an account of 
them. Every preparation having 
been previously made, we left the 
harbour shortly after sunrise. The 
uncommon beauty of the morning 
proved a true omen of the delight- 
ibI weather with which we were fa- 
voured, during; the whole of our ab- 
sence. The rich colouring of Mou- 
nakea in the early sun, never call- 
ed forth higher or more general ad- 
niration. The brightness of the 
sky, the purity of the air, the fresh- 
ness, sweetness, and cheerfulness of 
all nature, excited a buoyancy of 
spirit, favourable to the accomplish- 
ment of the walk of forty miles, 
which lay between us and the ob- 
iect of our journey. Lord Byron 
had invited Mr. Ruggles (who was 
also of the party) and myself, to an 
early cup of coffee with him, that we 
might all proceed together from 
his lodgings; but besides the in- 
convenience of crossing the river, 
it would have considerably length- 
ened our walk — We therelure chose 
to take some refreshments at home, 
and at an appointed signal pro- 
ceeded up one side of the stream 
and great fish pond, while the gen- 
tlemen of the Blonde followed a 
path up the other. We met on a 
rising ground at the end of two 
miles^ and found the company from 
the opposite side to consist of Lord 
ByroD, Mr. Ball, the first lieute- 



nant. Lieutenant Maiden, the sur- 
veyor, Mr. Bloxam, the chaplain, 
Mr. A. Bloxam, the mineralogist, 
Mr. Davis, the surgeon, Mr. Dam- 
pier, the artist, Mr. White, a son 
of the Earl of Bantry, and Mr. 
Powel, midshipmen. Lord Beau- 
clerck was to have been of the 
number, but was detained bv sick- 
ness. Maro, a principal cnief of 
Hido, had been appointed by Kaa- 
humanu caterer general; and about 
100 natives under his authority at- 
tended with our luggage, provi- 
sions, &c. &c. Sir Joseph, or as 
more familiarly styled, "Joe jBan^s," 
was also in attendance, in his di- 
versified capacity. The Regent 
had left nothing undone to render 
the trip as comfortable as her au- 
thority could make it. Neat tem- 
porary houses, for refreshment and 
sleeping, had been erected by her 
command at intervals of 12 or 15 
miles, and the people of the only 
inhabited district through which we 
were to pass, had, the week before, 
been apprized of the journey of 
" ilu British chief, ^- with strict or- 
ders to have an abundance of pigs, 
fowls, taro, potatoes, &c. &c., in 
readiness, for the supply uf his 
company. When assembled, we 
formed quite a numerous body, and 
from the variety of character and 
dress, the diversity in the burdens 
of the natives — bundles, tin casea, 
portmanteaus, calabashes, kettles, 
buckets, pans, &c. &c., with two 
hammocks, by way of equipage, 
swung on lono; poles, borne each 
by four men, (one for Lord B., in 
case the fatigue of walking should 
affect his lame leg, and the other 
for Mr. Bloxam,) made, while 
marching in single file along the 
narrow winding path which form- 
ed our only road, quite a grotesque 
and novel ;ippearancc. 

For the first four miles the coun- 
try was open and uneven, and 
beautifully sprinkled with clumps, 
groves, and single trees of the 
bread-fruit, lauala, (jparvOiMiM^"^ 
tutui or cand\e-tree. >N^ U 



126 



Itev. Mr. StewarPs Private Jaurfud. 



MAam^ 



came to a wood four miles in width, 
the outskirts of which exhibited a 
rich and delightful foliage. It was 
composed principally of the candle- 
tree, whose whitish leaves and blos- 
soms afforded a fine contrast to 
the dark green of the various 
creepers, which hung in luxuriant 
festoons and pendants, from their 
very tops to the ground — forming 
thick and deeply shaded bowers 
round their trunks. The interior 
was far less interesting, presenting 
nothinig but an impenetrable thicket, 
on botli sides of the path. This was 
excessively rough and fatiguing, 
consisting entirely of loose and 
pointed pieces of lava, which from 
their irregularity and sharpness, 
not only cut and tore our shoes, 
but constantly endangered our 
feet and ankles. The high brake- 
ginger, &c., which border and over- 
hang the path, were filled with the 
rain of the night, and added great- 
ly, from their wetness, to the un- 
pleasantness of the walk. An hour 
and a half, however, saw us safely 
through, and refreshing ourselves 
in the charmin^ groves with which 
the wood was here a^in bordered. 
The whole of the way, Irom this place 
to within a short distance of the vol- 
cano, was very much of one charac- 
ter. The path, formed entirely of 
black lava, so smooth in some 
places as to endanger falling, and 
still showing the configuration of the 
molten stream as it had rolled down 
the gradual descent of the mountain, 
led mid-way through a strip of open 
uncultivated country, from 3 to 5 
miles wide — skirted on both sides by 
a ragged and stinted wood, and co- 
vered with fern, grass, and low 
Khrubs, principally a species of the 
whortleberry. Tlie fruit, of the size 
of a small gooseberry, and of a 
bright yellow colour, tinged on one 
side with red, was very abundant, 
and though of insipid taste, refresh- 
ing from its juice. There were no 
houses near the path, but the smoke 
or thatch of a cottage was occasion- 
ally obKerved in the edge Of the wood. 



Far on the right and west 
and Mounakea were distinctly fill* 
ble ; and at an equal distance* on Iks 
left and east, the ocean, with id ho- 
rizon, from the height at which we 
viewed it, mingling with the aky.^— 
We dined IS miles from the bay, ua» 
der a large candle tree, .on a bedsC 
brake, collected and spread by a pw- 
ty of people who had been waitiag 
by the way side to see the *ariiiw 
mai Peseiani mai— great chief Em 
Britain.** About two miles farthsr* 
we came to the houses erected fir 
our lodgings the first night Thinking 
it, however, too early to lay by fir 
the day, after witnessing a dance 
performed by a company from the 
neighbouring settlements, we hastsn- 
cd on, intending to sleep at the neat 
houses, ten miles distant: but nidbt 
overtaking us before we reacfied 
them, just as darkness set in, wt 
turned aside a few rods to the ruins 
of two huts, the sticks onlj^of which 
were remaining. The natives, how- 
ever, soon covered them with fem^ 
the leaves of tutui, &c. &c.— 4i quan- 
tity of which they also spread on the 
ground, before laying the mats which 
were to be our beds.---Our arrival and 
encampment produced quite a |nc^ 
turesque and lively scene — for the 
islanders, who are not fond of such 
forced marches as we had made du- 
ring the day, were more anxious for 
repose than ourselves, and proceeded 
with great alacrity to make prepara- 
tions for the night. The darkness* 
as it gathered round us, rendered 
more gloomy by a heavily clouded 
sky, made the novelty of our situa- 
tion still more striking. Behind the 
huts in the distance, an uplifted 
torch of the blazing tutui nut, here 
and there indistinctly revealed the 
figures and costume of many, spread- 
ing their couches under the bushes 
in the open air. A large lamp sus- 
pended from the centre of our rude 
lodge, which was entirely open in 
front, presented us in holder reliefs 
seated a la Turk round Lord Byron, 
who poured out ** the cup that cheers 
but not inebriates" — the more curious 
of our dusky companions, both male 



Beo* Mr. Stewart i Private JoumaL 



127 



, in the mean time, press* 
tiers roiirid our circle, as if 
'catch the manners living 
\J* A large fire of brusl^ 
Hne distance in front, ex- 
objects of the fore-eround, 
nger lights and madows. 
both sexes and all ages, 
d or standing round the 
ed up from the chilliness 
ling air, in their large ki- 
ties of white, black, $i^een, 
d red — Some smoking— 
ring in, and others snatch* 
he embers, a fish or pota- 
r article of food — Some 
id halloo, in answer to the 
itragsler just arriving— 
lly talcen up with the pro- 
' the sailors cooking our 
id all chattering with the 
)f 80 many magpies. — By 
le next morning, we were 
I again, and shortly after 
lant Talbot — Mr. Wilson 
—and Mr. M'Kea the bo- 
I their guides and attend- 
lir return ; they having pre* 
iree days in the same ex- 
Vs they intended to reach 
in time for dinner, they 
Ijr long enough to sa^ the 
s in fine action, and highly 
ing. At 9 o'clock we pass- 
houses put up for our ae- 
on on the way ; and at 11 
id arrived within three 
e object of our curiosity, 
last hour the scenery had 
)re interesting — our path 
I, occasionally, with groves 
!rs of trees, and fringed 
iter variety of vegetation, 
the smoke from the volca- 
st discovered, settling in 
r clouds to the south-west. 
^ place at this time was a 
spot, commanding a full 
e wide extent of country 
I we had travelled, and be- 
ind around it, the ocean, 
1 the vast and almost un- 
ed extent of its horizon, 
erally an ** illimitable sea." 
h green sward, under the 
i majestick acacia, almost 



encircled by thickets of a younger 
growth, afforded a refreshing couch 
on which to take our luncheon. Here 
we saw the first bed of strawberry 
vines, but without finding any fruit. 
We tarried but a few moments, and 
then hurried on to the grand object 
before os« The nearer we approach- 
ed the more heavy the columns of 
smoke appeared, and excited to io- 
tenseness our curiosity to behold 
their origin. Under the influence of 
this excitement we hastened forward 
with rapid steps, regardless of the 
heat of a noon-day sun, and the fa- 
tigue of the walk of 36 miles, already 
accomplished. A few minutes before 
12 o'clock, we came suddenly on the 
brink of a precipice, covered witli 
shrubbery and trees, 150 or 200 feet 
high. Descending this by a path al- 
most perpendicular, we crossed a 
plain a half mile in width, enclosed, 
except in the direction we were go- 
ing, by the cliff behind us, and found 
ourselves a second time on the top of 
a precipice 400 feet high, also cover- 
ed with bushes and trees. This» 
like the former, swept off to the richt 
and left, enclosing in a semicircular 
form, a level space about a quarter 
of a mile broad, immediately beyond 
which lay the tremendous abyss of 
our search, emitting volumes of va- 
pour and smoke ; and labouring and 
groaning, as if in inexpressible agony, 
from the ra^in^ of the conflicting ele- 
ments within its bosom. We stood 
but a moment to take this first dis- 
tant glance — then hastily descended 
the almost perpendicular height, and 
crossed the plain to the very brink of 
the crater.— There are scenes to 
which description, and even paint- 
ins^, can do no justice ; and in con- 
veying any adequate impresnion of 
which they must ever fail. Of such, 
an elegant traveller rightly says, "the 
heiglit, the depth, the lengtii, the 
breadtli, the combined aspect may all 
be correctly given, but the mind of the 
reader will remain untouched bj the 
emotions of admiration and sublimity 
which tlie eye-witness experiences.** 
That which here bur%t im craiv «v^V. 
was emphEtkaWy ot tim Vuvi^ ^tA 



1£8 



Bev. Mr. StewatVs PrivaU JaumaL 



M 



to bciiold it witlioat singular and deep 
emotion, would demand a familiarity 
with t])e more terrib|,e phenomena of 
nature which few iiave the opportu- 
nity of acquiring. — Standing at a» 
elevation of 1500 feet, we looked 
into a black and horrid gulf, not less 
than Smiles in circumference, sodi* 
rectly beneath us that in appearance 
we misht, by a single leap, have 
plunged into its lowest depth. The 
hideous immensity itself, indepen- 
dent of the many frightful images 
embraced in it, almost caused an in- 
voluntary closing of the eyes against 
it But when to the sight is added 
the appalling eflfect of the various un- 
natural and fearful noises — the mut- 
tering and sighing — the groaning and 
blowing — the every agonized strug- 
gling of the mighty action within — 
as a whole, it is too horrible! And 
for the first moment I felt like one of 
my friends, who, on reaching the 
bnnk, recoiled and covered his face, 
exclaiming, **call it weakness, or 
what you please, but I cannot look 
again." It was sufficient employ- 
ment for the afternoon, simply to sit 
and gaze on the scene; and tiiough 
some of our party strolled about, and 
one or two descended a short dis- 
tance into the crater, the most of our 
number deferred all investigation till 
the next morning. 

. From what I have already said, 
you will perceive that this volcano 
differs, in one respect, from most 
others of which we have accounts — 
the crater, instead of beina;tlie trun- 
cated top of a mountain, distinguish- 
able in every direction at a distance, 
is an immense chasm in an upland 
country, near the base of the moun- 
tain Mounakea — approached, not by 
ascending a cone, but by descending 
two vast terraces; and not visible 
from any point at a greater distance 
than half a mile — a circumstance 
which, no doubt, from the sudden- 
ness of the arrival, adds much to the 
effect of a first look from its brink. 
It is probable that it was origi- 
nally a cone, but assumed its pre- 
sent aspect, it may be centuries ago, 
from the falling in of the whole sum- 



mit. Of this the precipices 
scended, which entirely eocii 
crater, in circumferences of 
20 miles, give strong evidence 
having unquestionably been 
by the sinking of the mo 
whose foundations had been 
mined by the devouring flan 
neath. In the same mann< 
half of the present depth 
crater has, at no very remote 
been formed. About roidwa 
the top, a ledge of lava, jo 
places only a few feet, but in 
many rods wide, extends c 
round (at least as far as an ex 
tion has been made) forming 
of gallery, to which you can d 
in two or three places, and ^ 
far as the smoke, settling 
south end, will permit Thii 
bears incontestable marks of 
once been the level of the fiei 
now boiling in the bottom of the 
A subduction of lava, by some 
raneous channel, has since 
place, and sunk the abyss mai 
dred feet lower, to its present 

The gulf below contains pi 
not less than 60 (56 have 
counted) smaller conical ( 
many of which are in constj 
tion. The tops and sides of 
tliree of these are covered wi 
j)hur, of mingled shades of 
and green. With this exc 
the ledge, and every thing; be 
are of a dismal black. The 
cliffs on the northern and w 
sides are perfectly perpend 
and of a red colour, every win 
hibiting the seared marks of 
powerful ignition. Those cj 
eastern side are less prccipitoi 
consist of entire banks of sulp 
a delicate and beautiful yellov 
south end is wholly obscured 
smoke, which fills that part 
crater, and spreads widely ov 
surrounding horizon. 

As the darkness of the nin 
thered round us, new and po 
effect was given to the scene, 
after fire, which tlie glare n 
day had entirely concealed, 
to glimmer on tlie eye, with tl 



Mto. Mr. 8tewarVs Priimte JcumaL 



lfl9 



I of evening; and, as the dark- 
acreasedy appeared in such ra- 
ccessioD, as forcibly to remind 
the hast? lighting of the lamps 
tjt on tne sudden approach of 
»mj night Two or three of 
lall craters nearest to us were 
action, every moment castine 
tones, ashes and lava, with 
detonations, while the irri- 
flames accompanying them 
widely over the surrounding 
*ity, against the sides of the 
and upper cliffs — richly illu- 
inc the volumes of smoke at 
UDi end, and occasionally cast- 
bright reflection on the bosom 
massing cloud. The great seat 
ion however seemed to be at 
uthem and western end, where 
hibition of ever varying fire- 
was presented, surpassing in 
r and sublimity all that the in- 
7 of art ever devised. Rivers 
were seen rolling in splendid 
nation among the labouring 
St and on one side a whole lake, 
surface constantly flashed and 
ed with the agitation of con- 
ig currents. 

wessions of admiration and as- 
ment burst momentarily from 
M, and though greatly fatigued, 
. near midnight before we gave 
ves to a sleep, often interrupt- 
ring tlie night, to gaze on the 
irith renewed wonder and sur- 
As I laid myself down on my 
fancying that the very ground 
wz» my pillow shook beneath 
!ad, the silent musings of my 
were— " Great and marvellous 
y works. Lord God Almighty ! 
y art thou to be feared, thou 
of saints!" 

Wednesday, the 29th, after an 
breakfast, our party, excepting 
BDsnt Maiden, who was ill, Mr. 
ier, who remained to take a 
I, and Mr. Ruggles who chose 
oU alone, prepared for a de- 
into the crater. One of the 
laces where this is practicable, 
'ithin a rod of the hut in which 
deed. For the first 400 feet, 
au was steep^ and from the 



looseness of the stones and itkcka od 
both sides, required caution in eveiT 
movement A slight touch was sat- 
ficient to detach these, and send 
them bounding dovmwards for hun- 
dreds of feet, to the imminent dan- 
ger of any one near them. The re- 
maining distance of about the same 
number of feet, was gradual and 
safe, the path having turned into 
the bed or an old channel of lava, 
which ran off in an inclined plane 
till it met the ledge before describ- 
ed^-ffiore than a quarter of a mile 
west of the place where we began 
the descent By the time we ar- 
rived here, the natives acting as 
Sides with the Messrs. Bloxam and 
r. Powell, had preceded the rest 
of our number too far to be over- 
taken, and we became two parties 
for the rest of the morning— the last, 
into which I fell, consisting of Lord 
Bvron, Mr. Ball, Mr. Davis, Mr. 
>^hite, with Lord B.'s servant and 
my native bov, to carry a canteen of 
water and the specimens we might 
collect Before descending we had 
provided ourselves with long canes 
and poles, by which we might test 
the soundness of any spot before 
stepping on it and immediately on 
reaching the ledge we found the wis- 
dom of the precaution. This offset 
is formed wholly of scoria and lava, 
mostly bnmed to a cinder, and every 
where intersected by deep crevices 
and chasms, from many of which 
light vapour and smoke were emitted, 
and from others a scaldine steam. 
The general surface is a black, glossy 
incrustation; retaining perfectly the 
innumerably diversified tortuous con- 
figurations of the lava, as it originally 
cooled, and so brittle as to crack 
and break under us like ice ; while 
the hollow reverberations of our foot- 
steps beneath, sufficiently assured us 
of the unsubstantial character of the 
whole mass. In some places, by 
thrusting our sticks down with force, 
large pieces would break through, 
disclosing deep fissures and holes, 
apparently without bottom. These 
however were gener^lW tno mi\\\j5 
appear dangerouB. tVi^ ^vi^ A 



IM 



MfOm Mtm SttworPM friMU JiMniflL 



MAy^p gj 



liiis ledge is comtantlj diminished 
ta a greater or less degree, by the 
fUling of laige muses from its edges 
into mt crater ; and it is not impro- 
bable that in some fotore convulsion 
of the rooontain, the whole structure 
amj jet be plunged into the abyss 
below. 

Leaving the sulphur banks on the 
eastern side behind us, we directed 
oar course alone'the northern side to 
the western cli& As we advanced, 
these became more and more per^ 
pendicuUr, till diey presented no> 
Ihing but the bare and upright face 
of an immense wall, from eight to 
ten hundred feet high, on whose sur- 
ftce huge stones and rocks bung- 
apparently so loosely as to threaten 
fidling, at the agitation of a breath. 
In many places a white curling va* 
pour issued from the sides and sum- 
nit of the precipice ; and in two or 
three places streams of clay colour* 
ed lava, like small waternlls, ex- 
tending almost from the top to the 
bottom, had cooled evidently at a 
vary recent period. At almost every 
Step, something new attracted our at- 
temion— 4ind by stopping sometimes 
to look up, not without a fi^eling; of 
apprehension at the enormous masses 
above our heads— at others to gain, 
by a cautious approach to the wink 
01 the gulf, a nearer glance at the 
equally frightfol depth below — at 
one time turning aside to ascertain 
the heat of a column of steam, and 
at. another to secure some uniijue 
or beautiful specimen — we occupied 
more than two hours in proceeding 
the same number of miles. 

At that distance from our en- 
trance on the ledge, we came to a 
a|>ot on the western side where it 
widoied many hundred feet, and 
terminated on the side next the cra- 
ter, not as in most other places per- 
pendicularly, but in an immense 
uoap of brojcen cakes and blocks of 
lava, loosely piled together as they 
had fallen in some convulsion of the 
mountain, and jutting off to the bot- 
tom in a friehtful mass of ruin. 
Here^ we had been informed, the de- 
acenl into tbedepthof thecraterconld 



be most easily made; bot being vritli* 
out a guide we were entirely at a ksi 
what course to take, till %re OBax- 
pectedly descried the gentlemen wbo 
had preceded us, reascendine* They 
dissuaded us most strenuously fma 
proceeding further; but their livdj 
representations of the difficnity ana 
dangers of the way only strengtheo- 
ed the resolution of Lord B. to ga 
down; and knowing that the cnlar 
had been crossed at this end* wa 
hastened on, notwithstanding the ia» 
fusal of the guide to return with is. 
The descent was as periloas ae it 
had been represented ; but by pra» 
ceedina with great caution, testiig 
well Uie safety of every atep be* 
fore committing our weight to it* 
and often stopping to select the 
course which seemed least haiari- 
ous, in the space of about twenty 
minutes, by a zig^g way we lymdt 
ed the bottom, without any aeiMft 
of greater amount than a ftMr 
scratches on the hands from the 
sharpness and roughness of the 
by which we had occasionally 
obliged to support ourselves. Wkea 
about half-way down, we ware aih 
couraged to persevere in our wdec^. 
taking, by meeting a native who hai 
descended on the opposite side^ smI 
passed over— It was only however 
mm the renewed assurance It gave 
of the practicability of the attempt; 
for besides being greatly fatigaedL 
he was much cut and bruised froai fc 
fall— said the bottom was **ino4ab 
roa-ka wahi O debels** — " excessively 
bad— the place of the devil*— and he 
could only be prevailed on to retart 
with us by the promise of a large 
reward. 

It is difficult to say whether 
sations of admiration or ^ t( 
predominated, on reaching the Vsi^ 
tom of this tremendous spot. All 
looked up at the gigantic wall wliidh 
on every side rose to the very cloa^ 
1 felt oppressed to a most anpleift* 
sant deme by a sense of conlb^ 
ment Either from the influence of 
imagination, or from the actnal ef^ 
feet of the intense power of a noM* 
day sun beating dnrectly oa asg in 



IB27. 



Bev. Mir. SUwarPs Pritate Journal. 



181 



to the heated and sulphu- 
reous atmosphere of the volcano it- 
self, I for some moments experi- 
enced an agitation of spirits and 
diflBcultj of respiration, that made 
me cast a look of wishful anxiety to- 
wards our little hut, which, at an 
elevation of near 1500 feet, seemed 
only like a bird's nest on the oppo- 
site cliC These emotions, how- 
ever, soon passed off^ and we began, 
with great spirit and activity, the 
enterprise before us. 

I can compare the general aspect 
of the bottom of the crater to nothing 
that will give a livelier image of it 
to your mind, than to the appear- 
ance the Otsego lake would present, if 
the ice with which it is covered in 
the winter, were suddenly broken up 
by a heavy storm, and as suddenly 
frozen a^in, while lar^ cakes and 
blocks were still toppling, and dash- 
hft and heaping a^inst each other, 
with the motion otthe waves. Just 
10 rough and distorted was the black 
OMSs'onder our feet, only a hundred 
(bid more terrifick-— independently 
of the innumerable cracks, fissures, 
deep chasms and holes, from which 
nlphureous vapour, steam and 
smoke were exhaled, with a degree 
of heat that testified to the near vi- 
ODity of fire. 

We had not proceeded far before 
oor path was intersected by a chasm 
at least SO feet wide, and ot a greater 
depth than we could ascertain at 
the nearest distance we dare ap- 
proadL The only alternative was 
to return, or to follow its course till 
it terminated, or became narrow 
enough to be crossed. We chose 
the latter, but soon met an equally 
formidable obstacle, in a current of 
smoke, so highly impregnated with a 
soflfocating gas as not to allow of 
respiration. What a situation for a 
group of half a dozen men, totally 
ttoaware of the extent of peril to 
which they might be exposed! The 
lava oo which we stood was in many 

eacea lo hot, that we could not hold 
r a moment in our ha ds the pieces 
we knocked oS for specimens — On 
aidt jay a gulf of unfkthomMble 



depth — on the other an inaccessible 
pile of ruins — and immediately in 
front an oppressive and deadly va- 
pour. While hesitating what to dob 
we perceived the smoke to be swept 
round occasionally, by an eddy of the 
air, in a direction opposite to that in 
which it most of the time settled; 
and watching an opportunity when 
our way was thus made clear, we 
held our breath and ran as rapidly 
as the dangerous character of the 
ground would permit, till we had 
gained a place beyond its ordinary 
course. We here unexpectedly 
found ourselves also delivered from 
the other impediment to our progress; 
for here the chasm abruptly ran 
off in a direction far from that we 
Wished to pursue* Our escape from 
the vapour, however, was that which 
we considered the most important, 
and so great was our impression of 
the danger to which we had been ex- 
posed trom it, that when we here 
saw our way to the opposite side open 
without any special obstacle be- 
fore us, we felt disposed formal- 
ly to return thanks to Almighty 
6od for our deliverance. But be- 
fore this was proposed, all oor num- 
ber, except Lord B., Mr. Davis, and 
myself, had gone forward so far as 
to be out of call ; and for the time 
the external adoration of the Crea- 
tor, from the midst of one of the 
most terrible of his weeks, was re- 
luctantly waved. 

At an inconsiderable distance 
from us, was one of the largest of 
the conical craters, whose laborious 
action had so greatly impressed our 
minds during the night, and we 
hastened to a nearer examination of 
it: so prodigious an engine I never 
expect again to behold. On reach- 
ing its base, we judged it to be 150 
feet high — a huge, irregularly shapen, 
inverted funnel of lava, covered with 
clefts, orifices and tunnels, from 
which bodies of steam escaped with 
deafening explosion, while pale 
flames, ashes, stones and lava were 
propelled with equal force knd noise 
from its ragged and yaNvuW inor'^ 
lie whole formed &o aVaguijAi 



132 



Bto. Mr. SUwarPi Private JonmaL 



M^Mcth 



rifick an oi]ject» that in order to se- 
care a hasty sketch of it» I permit- 
'ted the other gentlemeD to go a few 
yards nearer £an I did, whue I oc- 
cupied myself with my pencil. Lord 
Rand his servant ascended the cone 
•e?eral feet, but found the heat too 
great to remain loneer than to de- 
tach with their sticks, a piece or 
two of recent lava, burning hot 

So highlv was our admiration ex- 
cited by the scene, that we* forgot 
the danger to which we might be 
exposed, should any change take 
place in the currents of destructive 
vapour, which exist in a greater or 
less degree in every part of the cra- 
ter, till Mr. Davis, after two or three 
ineffectual intimations of the pro- 
priety of an immediate departure, 
warned us in a most decided tone, 
not only as a private friend, but as 
a professional gentleman, of the 
penl of our situation ; assuring us 
that three inspirations of the air by 
which we might be surrounded, 
would prove fatal to every one of us. 
We felt the truth of the assertion, 
and notwithstanding the desire we 
had of visiting a similar cone cover- 
ed with a beautiful incrustation of 
sulphur, at the distance from us of a 
few hundred yards only, we hastily 
took the speediest course from so 
dangerous a spot. The ascent to 
the ledge was not less difficult and 
frightful than the descent had been 
—and for the last few yards was al- 
most perpendicular ; but we all suc- 
ceeded in safely gaining its lop, not 
far from the path by which we had 
in the morning descended the upper 
cli£ 

We reached the hut about two 
o'clock, nearly exhausted from fa- 
tigue, thirst and hunger; and had 
immediate reason to congratulate 
ourselves on a most narrow escape 
from suffering and extreme danger, if 
not from deaUi. For on turning round 
we perceived the whole chasm to be 
filling with thick sulphureous smoke, 
and within half an hour it was so 
completely choked with it, that not 
an otject below us was visible. 
Even where we were, in the uncon- 



fined r^on above, the air becaneio 
oppressive as to make as think ten- 
ously of a precipitate retreat. TUs 
continued to be the case for Hm 
greater part of the afternoon. A 
dead calm took place both within 
and without the crater, and from the 
diminution of noise and the varioiis 
signs of action, the volcano itself 
seemed to be resting from its la- 
bours. 

Mr. Ruggles during his morning 
ramble hadgathered two large bnck- 
ets of fine strawberries, vrhich made 
a delightful dessert at oar dinner. 
The mountains of Hawaii are the 
only parts of the islands on which 
this delicious fruit is found. A 
large red raspberry is also abundant 
on them, but even when fullj ripe, 
it has a rough acid taste, similar to 
that of an unripe blackberry. The 
flavour of the strawberry, however, 
is as fine as that of the same froit in 
America. 

Towards evening the smoke again 
rolled off to the south before a fresh 
breeze, and every thing^ assumed its 
ordinary aspect At this time. Lieu- 
tenant Maiden, notwithstanding his 
indisposition, succeeded in setting 
sufficient data to calculate the neight 
of the upper cliff: he made it §00 
feet; agreeing with the measure- 
ment oT Mr. Goodrich and Mr. 
Chamberlain some months before. 
If this be correct, it is judged that 
the height of the ledge xannot be 
less than 600 feet, making the whole 
depth of the crater that which I 
have stated in the preceding pages 
— 1500 feet. On similar grounds, 
the circumference of the crater at 
its bottom, has been estimated at a 
distance of from 5 to 7 miles; and 
at its top from 8 to 10 miles. 

Greatly to our regret, we found it 
would be necessary to set off on our 
return early the next morning — all 
the provisions of the natives oeing 
entirely expended. We could have 
passed a week here with undiminish- 
ed interest, and wished to remain at 
least one day longer, to visit the sul- 
^urbanks,whichaboundwith beauti- 
fal crystallizationa, and to make some 



1887. 



^ JBfP. Mr. BUwarfs PfroaU JournaL 



ISH 



researches on the suminit We 
would have been glad also to have 
added to the variety of specioiens 
already collected— especially of the 
volcanick sponge and capillarj vol- 
canick glass, not foand on the side 
of the crater where we encamped. 
But it was impossible; and we made 
preparations for an early departure. 
Jost as these were completed, in the 
edge of the evening, another party 
from the Blonde, consistio^ of about 
a dozen midshipmen, arrived, with 
whom we shared our lodgings for 
the night 

The splendid illuminations of the 
preceding evening were again lighted 
up with Uie closing of the day ; and 
alter enjoying their beauty for two 
or three hours with renewed delight, 
we early sought a repose which the 
btigne of the morning had rendered 
most desirable. The chattering of 
the islanders around our cabins, and 
the occasional sound of voices in pro- 
tracted conversation among our own 
Bomtier had, however, hardly ceased 
long enough to admit of sound sleep, 
when the volcano again began roar- 
ipnj and labouring with redoubled ac- 
tivity. The confusion of noises was 
promgiously great. In addition to 
all we liad before beard, there was an 
logry muttering from the very bow- 
els of the abyss, accompanied, at in- 
tervals, b^ what appeared the des- 
perate effort of some gigantic power 
stnigsling for deliverance. These 
SMMs were not fixed or confined to 
one place, but rolled from one end 
of the crater to the other: sometimes 
seeming to be immediately under us, 
when a sensible tremor of the ground 
on which we lay took place; and 
then acain rushing to the farthest 
end wiUi incalculable velocity. The 
whole air was filled with the tumult; 
and those most soundly asleep were 
ouickly roused by it to thorough wake- 
fulness. Lord Byron sprane up in his 
cot exclaiming — ^" We shallcertainly 
have an eruption— such power must 
bnrst through every thing.* He had 
scarcely ceased speaking, when a 
dense column of heavy black smoke 
was seen ritiog from the enter di- 



rectly in front of us— the subterra- 
nean struKle at the same time 
cea8ed,antrimmediately after, flames 
burst from a large cone, near which 
we had been in the morning, and 
which then appeared to have been 
long inactive. Bed hot stones, cin- 
ders and ashes, were also propelled 
to a great height with immense vio- 
lence; and shortly after the molten 
lava came boiling up, and flowed 
down the sides of the cone, and over 
the surrounding scoria, in two beau- 
tifully curved streams, glittering 
with indescribable brilliance. 

At the same time a whole lake of 
fire opened in a more distant part 
This could not have been less than 
two miles in circumference ; and its 
action was more horribly sublime 
than any thing I ever imagined to 
exist, even in the ideal visions of un- 
earthly things. Its surface had all 
the aeitation of an ocean; billow 
after billow tossed its monstrous 
bosom in the air, and occasionally 
those from different directions met 
with such violence, as in tlie con- 
cussion to dash the fiery spray 40 
and 50 feet high. It was at once 
the most splendidly beautiful and 
dreadfully fearful of spectacles; and 
irresistibly turned the thoughts to 
that lake of fire from whence the 
smoke of torment ascendeth for ever 
and ever. No work of Him who 
laid the foundations of the earth, 
and who by his almighty power still 
supports them, ever brought to my 
mind the most awful revelations of 
his word, with such overwhelming 
impression. Truly, "with Qod is 
terrible majesty^ — "Let all the na- 
tions say unto God, how terrible art 
thou in thy works/' 

Under the name of PeU, this vol- 
cano, as you may have seen stated 
in the Missionary Herald, was one 
of the most distinguished and most 
feared of the former gods of Hawaii. 
Its terrifick features are well suited 
to the character and abode of an 
onpropitious demon; and few works 
in nature would be more likely to 
impose thoughts of terror oii^%\%- 
norant and sn]peTa\x^ous« axiJL ttw 



1S4 



Bev. Mr. BUwarfs Private JaurnaL 



BtiOCBi 



/ 



their destructive rava^^s, lead to 
Bacrifices of propitiation and peace. 
It is now rapidly losing its power 
over the minds of the people: not 
one of ^e large number in our com- 
pany, seemed to t)e at all apprehen- 
sive of it as a supernatural being. 

After an almost sleeplesrt night, 
we early turned our faces home- 
ward, not without many •*a linger- 
ing look behind,** even at the very 
entrance of our path. It was pre- 
cisely six o'clock when the last of 
our party left the brink. Never was 
there a more delightful morning. 
The atmosphere was |>erfectly clear, 
and the air, with the thermometer at 
56° Fahrenheit, pure and bracing. 
A splendid assemblage of strong 
and beautifully contrasted colours 
glowed around us. The bed of the 
crater still covered with the broad 
shadow of the eastern banks, was of 
jetty blackness. The reflection of 
the early sun added a deeper red- 
ness to the western cliffs — those op- 
posite were of a bright yellow, while 
the body of smoke rising between 
them, hung in light drapery of pearly 
whiteness, against the deep azure of 
the southern sky. Mounaroa and 
Mounakea, in full view in the west, 
were richly clothed in purple; and 
the long line of intervening forest, 
the level over which we were pass- 
ing, and the precipice by which it 
was encircled, thickly covered with 
frees and shrubbery, exhibited an 
equally bright and lively gr^en. 

On gaining the top of the first 
precipice, the distant view of the 
crater was so strikingly beautiful, 
that I stopped long enough to secure 
a hasty sketch, though most of the 

fmtlemen had preceded me. A copy 
hope to send with this account of 
our excursion. We walked rapidly 
durine the rooming, and bj 12 
o'clocK reached the nouses budt for 
our accommodation, about half way 
between the harbour and the vol- 
cano. We determined to spend the 
night here, and after a refreshing 
nap, washed and dressed ourselves 
for dinner^ which we took at 4 o'clock 
i» t bed of leaves, tpread on the 



shaded side of one of the hoam* 
Lord Byron's well stored liquor em 
still aff*orded an abundance of excet 
lent cider, porter, brandy and wiat, 
and most of the ipntleaien made it 
an hour of great hdarity. After din- 
ner, a native dance was again po^ 
formed. We set off before daylight 
the next morning, and about one 
o'clock arrived at the bay. I was 
sorry to find Harriet more ill than 
when I left her. For the last twelve 
hours the family had become so much 
alarmed by an increase of onfavoun- 
ble symptoms, as to think aerionslj 
of sending an express for me. 

Monday, July 4th.— 1 dined with 
Lord B. on Saturday, when he in- 
formed me that he should sail oa 
Wednesday of this week for ELearfr 
kekua, on tlie opposite side of die 
island. We are seriously apprehen- 
sive that Harriet will not be able t» 
go in the Blonde. She is exceeding* 
Fy feeble, and every hope of her b^ 
ing better, seems to be threatened! 
M^r. Davis called roe aside on the 
Sabbath, and told me he thought no- 
thing but a speedy removal to a 
more bracing climate could sate 
her, and ursed an immediate depai^ 
tore from the islands, as soon as she 
might gain strength to undertake a 
voyage. Mr. Bloxam, who lost a 
young and lovely wife very much in 
the same way, just before his leavinc 
England, has been deeply intereatra 
in her situation. After a short visit 
to-day, during which he was parti- 
cularly affected by her appearance, 
he sent home an Album belonging 
to H., with the following lines, writ- 
ten on returning to his lodgings. I 
am sorry to say to the friends who 
love her tenderly, but from whom 
she is removed too far to receive 
their sympathy and their special 
prayers, that they only express the 
general sentiment, as to her present 
state. 

** Hark— they whisper-uigdt ny 
Siiter ipuit, eome ftway.** 

" Hark ! from realms of rest above 
Steals the hymn lii peacc^ and lore :— • 
As tlie enfraiicliis'd spirit flies 
To her home in yonder skies, 



Btv. Mr. StewarPi Private JowrnaL 



155 



vhich Eden never knew, 
er untrod pathway tbro' ! 

— ransom'd spirit, come ! 
teek thy native home ! 
he Spirit bids thce—here 
ills the parting tear : 
iiy wing^ for speedy flight 
lealms of love and light. 

On board the Blonde. 
Wednetday &th, 11 o'cioch^ P.M. 

iet was carried from her bed 
)an;e, which brought us off at 
:k this afternoon, and is now 

reposing in the after cabin, 
D the noise of the ship. Mr. 
8 and his family are also on 
and the two queens with their 

When we came on board we 
expected to proceed to the 
d of the island for 8 or 10 
bot when Lord Byron saw 
rjill Harriet in, partly that she 
meet her children as soon as 
e, and partly on account of a 
he has received respt^cting a 
&1 SGuadron, he an hour since 
iineti to bear away directly for 

This is joyful tidings to us, 

had much reason to fear that 
old not have survived to see 
nra by the other route. We 
rerwhelmed by the kindness 
ectionate attention of Lord B. 
I insisted on our occupying; his 
HTivate accommodations, that 
J be as free as possible from 
I inconvenience of shipboard, 
ivis, who manifests deep soli- 
for H., on hearing; of tne de- 
ation to proceed immediately 
II, said to her — ** In his lord- 
siidam, you have really found 
ier— he is one of the kindest 
Q " He has our wyarm grati- 

lay, 8th, 10 o'clock at night.— 
re still on board the Blonde. 
^ we cleared the harbour early 
Jay morning, we made little 
as till in the evening, owing to 
a. During the night and to- 
Dwever, we have had a delight- 
eeze. The brightness of the 
the beanty of the sea — the 
and romantick scenery of 
and Morakoi, along the wind- 



ward sides of which we hare been 
coasting— the stateliness of the fci* 
eate as she ploughed the deep* with 
uie strains of musick swelling on the 
breeze, woold all have tended to ex- 
cite cheerfulness and pleasure, bat 
for the extreme illness of H. She 
has scarce spoken to-day, and I have 
watched by her si>fa, fearing to leare 
her for a moment, lest oq returning' 
I should find her sleeping the sleep 
of death. She is exceedingly low, 
and we scarce know how she can 
bear the fatieue of landing. Two 
hours more of daylight would have 
brought us to an anchor at Honora- 
ru, but not being able to double Dhip 
mond Hill before dark, we troresfcip 
after sunset, and are now atanding 
off land till midnight 

Saturday nighty July 9th* 

We passed Diamond Hill this 
morning at sunrise, and shortly after 
came to an anchor. Soon after 
breakfast, the barge came along side 
to carry us on shore. H. was r^ 
moved to the deck, and lowered to 
the boat (where a mattress and cot 
were ready to receive her) in an 
arm-chair. Sir Geo. Ayre and Mr. 
Bloxam accompanied us. On reach- 
ing the shore we met Mr. Bingham, 
Charley and Betsey. They were 
greatly rejoiced at our arrival, but 
sadly disappointed in seeing H. so 
ill: they had hoped to have found 
her greatly benented by the voyage. 
The crew of the barge carried her in 
her cot to Mr. Bineham's cottage— 
where she was safely placed in her 
own room, less exhausted than we 
had feared she would be. It was 
thought advisable that she should 
take an apartment at the Mission 
House, on account of the greater 
quietude of the upper rooms — every 
part of Mr. B.*^ residence t)eing ex- 
posed to the noise of the groond 
floor. She was accordingly* at 4 
o'clock, removed to the apartment 
we occupied during oar visit to Oahn 
last snmmer. The meeting with the 
children in good heallVi, CiiLViA yt^ 
duced an excitement e( «(k\n\A Nm^ 



136 



Fiidi^s Diicourses an the Mture ^ Sin. IfAiOif 



makes her appear better this even- 
ing. I myseit haw. been greatly re- 
freshed and comforted, not only by 
the same circumstances, but more 
especially by large communications 
from America, including the packets 
and letters accompanying the kind 
remembrance of our Otsego friends, 
sent to Boston in October. Harriet 
was not able, however^ to hear one 
syllable from any of the letters. We 
thank you all for your remembrance, 
and trust, as long as we dwell on 
these distant and degraded shores, 
we shall continue to t^ cheered and 
animated in the same way. 

Tuesday, July 12th.— The report 
from the Spanish main has hastened 
the departure of the Blonde. Yes- 
terday some of the gentlemen, who 
did not expect to be on shore again, 
paid us a farewell visit Among 
others. Lieutenants Ball and Talbot, 



and Mr. Wilson the parser,, all of 
whom requested permission to saj 
farewell to Harriet. This momt^ 
I met Lord B., Mr. Davis, and Mr. 
Bloxam at breakfast at Mr. Bing* 
ham's, after which they came over to 
express to Mrs. S. the interest thej 
felt in her situation, and leave their 
best wishes for her recovery. Im- 
meditely afterwards, they went to 
the point where the captain^ pf 
was waiting. Gratitude for tlicir 
very polite and unwearied attentions, 
led me to accompany them to the 
beach, where, with aflfection and sin- 
cere regret, I gave them the partiae 
hand for the last time in this world 
In the course of an hour the frupate 
got under weigh, under a salate mm 
the fort, and early in the afternoon 
she had faded from our sight forever. 
Charles Samvsl Stbwabt. 



fiebtelD. 



TWO DISCOURSES ON THE NATURE OF 

SIN ; delivered before the students 
of Yale College, July SOth, 1826. 
By Eleazar T. Fitch. J^ew Ha- 
ven. Printed and published by 
Treadway and Mams. 18£6. pp. 
46. 8vo. 

These discourses claim the atten- 
tion of THE CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE, 

no:t only because they contain a dis- 
cussion of one of the most important 
doctrines of revelation ; but also, be- 
cause they are understood to convey 
the sentiments, not merely of the 
writer, but of the school from which 
they proceed. The publick cannot 
be too vigilant in regard to the doc- 
trines taught in our colleges and 
theological schools, for these are 
fountains from which many streams 
issue; and erroneous opinions incul- 
cated in them, will be widely diffused 
through the community. 
Mr. Fitch is understood to be the 

{irofessor of Theology in Tale Col- 
ege ; and has it as a part of his duty, 
to preach to the students, statedly, 



on the Sabbath: and it appears, that 
these sermons were prepared as a 
part of the regular course of instnio* 
tion, that they were both delivered on 
the same day, and were published at 
the solicitation of the Theological stu- 
dents of the college. Whether tiiese 
discourses afford a fair specimen of 
the professor's usual style of preach- 
ing in the chapel of Yale, we cannot 
say; but if such be the fact, every judi- 
cious and enlightened friend of reli- 
gion must regret, that the lai^ num- 
ber of young men under the care of 
that institution,should not be supplied 
with instruction better calculated to 
make them sound and sincere Chris- 
tians. For our own part, we must 
say, that we have seluom read dis- 
courses less adapted to be useful to 
young men, in a course of academi- 
cal education. 

The text selected as the founda- 
tion of the doctrine inculcated in 
these discourses, appears to us to 
stand In a very unfortunate place, for 
one who aims to overthrow the or- 
thodox doctrine of original sin. It 



FQidCs IHsconrses oh the Miinre of Sin. 



137 



part of that famoug passage 
I this doctrine is more clears 
led, than in any other part of 
« ; and the very next words 
ext of these sermons* have 
nderstooid by all orthodox 
itators» to inculcate the opi- 
lich professor Fitch endea* 
ith all his misht to overthrow 
rtheless, death reigned from 
9 J^foseSt even over them that 
I sinned after the similitude 
tm*s transgression. These 
lave, ^nerally, been consi- 
i relating to infants, and as 
ng clear proof, that sin was 
iputed to them. But the 
professor has given himself 
ble about the context, and 
t even advert to this old and 
y received opinion. It is 
a part of these sermons, 
npts to give the sense of the 
cited, but it migiit readily be 
:hat his exposition cannot be 

d. If the professor wished 
ine, in the light of scripture, 
rine of original sin, he could 
i done better than to give a 
d consistent exegesis of the 

or context, from which his 
aken. 

irhclhcr tlic preacher of these 
es is riglit or wrong in his 
;, he has certainly subjected 
to criticism, as asermonizer; 
luperstructure is much broad- 

the foundation. The text 
leclares *' that sin is not im* 
here there is no lawf* but 
rine which tlic preacher says 
tie warrants him to deduce 
s, " Uiat sin, in every form 
ance^ is reducible to the act 
tral agent, in which he vto- 
mown rule of duty." Now, 
jT, the text does not contain 
er part of this proposition. 
. the professor able to esta- 
i truth from other parts of 

e, or from reasoning on ge- 
rincipies, (which with him 
o be the preferable method 
itigatinc trutii,) still he can 
sduce this doctrine from this 



text ; and he had no warrant from 
the apostle to construct sach a pro- 
position from the words. 

The text, moreover, does not de- 
clare that all sin consists in acts^ 
and nothing else. It saya not a 
word about acts. If the law may 
extend beyond acts, to principles, aa 
most theologians have heretofore be- 
lieved, then sin may be impute 
where there are no acts. The plain 
doctrine of the text is one that all 
agree in holding^-that where there is 
no law there is no sin: but tins de- 
termines nothing respecting the na- 
ture of sin-— nothing in r^rd to the 
point whether it most necessarily 
consist of nothing but acts. 

lliere is also great want of clear- 
ness and accuracy in the professor's 
definition of the kind of acts, in 
which sin consists. "There are,** 
says he, "certain powers and pro- 
perties essential to constitute a being 
a moral agent, capable of willing in a 
manner that is morally right or that 
is morally wrong. Now it is of such 
an agent in the actual exercises of 
his will ; in the volitions, choices, or 
preferences, which he makes, that I 
predicate either sin or holiness.* Is 
there then no degree of sin in those 
desires and inclinations, in a moral 
agent, which do not result in choice 
or volition? Suppose a man feels a 
covetous desire for another^ wealth, 
but better principles counteract it, 
so that the mind never forms a voli- 
tion to do any thing dishonest; yet 
is not the least inclination of this 
kind sinful? A man may feel a se- 
cret envy towards his brother wi.,k- 
ing in his breast, and inclining him 
to detraction, but if bfotherly love 
prevail, or that he does not choose to 
defame him, is the envy of which he 
was conscious not sinful? If it is, 
then the definition is inaccurate or 
very obscure. If all our sinful acta 
are confined to volitions, prMerences, 
and choices, then the deep^homilia- 
tion of many Christians, on 'acconnt 
of the evils which they suppose to ex- 
ist in other acts, is founded in error* 
And Uie obacurUy \a uoV. nm^N^ 



1 38 FOekU HUcottrsei on the JVUtire of £Sn. Miocif 

bj the qaoiation which the preacher cient to overthrow the primary pco- 

makes from president Edwards. position of the professor. 

Bnt the author seems to as to He is e^aall j anfortonate^ in Us 

have Mled, still more in the illns- attempt to illustrate the distmcttoa 

tration of the nature of sin, than in between sins of ignorance aod rins 

its definition ; especially as it relates of knowledge ; for as before he oob* 

to sins of omisnon. These, accord- founded all distinction between "^^ 



ing to him, "are those acts of the of commission and omission; so here 
moral agent, which employ him in he does the same, as it relatea to 
wars that differ from thepositive re- sins of ignoranee and sins of imov- 
qairements of duty.* To call sins ledge, indeed, he could not do 
of omission acts, seems to us not a otherwise, in conformity with Ms 
little strange. We had supposed main proposition; for there he nakes 
that there was no act in bare omis- sin to be ** the act of a moral araitt 
sion; and that the fiiult of the agent in which he violates a kkowm nileof 
consisted in not acting. The pro- duty." What place, then, we ask. is 
feasor passes very hastily over this there for sins of ignorance? We 
point Indeed, if he had paused have been accustomed to think that 
long enough to take an impartial knowledge and ignorance are the 
view of the subject, he must have exact opposites of each other. Bat 
perceived that the admission of any yet Mr. F. wishes to be considered 
such thing as sins of omission^ was as not denying this distinction. His 
fatal to his whole hypothesis. He words are, "Nor do I in this deny 
ought, in consistency, to have de- the distinction between what are 
nwd the propriety of the distinc- popularly called sins of ignorance 
tion between sins of omission and and sins of knowledge. For ip either 
sins of commission; for surely, all case a known obli^tion is violated, 
unlawful acts are sins of commission, to constitute the sin of the act; bat 
Bot let us look at this subject a lit- the obligation in the one case does 
tie. The divine law requires men not, and in the other does, arise fron 
to love God with all the heart; now the knowledge of the specific law. 
if men omit, or fail to love God, is For instance; sins of ignorance are 
not this omission a sin ? Is it net those acts in which the moral agent 
the radical sin of our nature ? Here, transgresses the known oblisatioa to 
then, is a sin, and a great sin, with- acquamt himself with laws that were 
oot an act. Its nature consists in applicable, or some known general 
fiiilin^ to act as the law requires, obligation of morality, from which he 
And it will not do to attempt to might have inferred the given law; 
evade this, by sayin<r that the sin while those of knowledge are the 
really consists in loving something acts in which he violates the obliga- 
else, as the world for instance, more tion which arises from a knowledge, 
than God ; for whether there be inor- of the given published law itself." 
dinate love to another object or not, Now, if we understand the writer, 
it is plain that we .cannot disobey (for it must be confessed there is 
the law of God more directly and much obscurity in this passage) the 
essentially, than by neglecting to whole sin of a man who sins through 
perform the chief duty which it re- ignorance, consists in his neglect or 
quires. Grant that tliis is always refusal to make himself acauainted 
attendedL as Mr. F. endeavours to with the laws by which ne was 
show, mth positive acts of trans- bound — Whatever other acts he may 
gressioni still the omission is itself perpetrate, however atrocious, in con- 
sin, andf the radical sin ; not consist- sequence of his ignorance, they have 
ing in acts, but in the defect of such nothing of the nature of sin. Indeed 
acts as are required. How then can Mr. F. can have no other mean- 
that proposition be true, which traces ing, unless he will contradict him- 
all sin to acts? A just view of this self; for, according to him, in every 
s/ng/e point is, ia our opinion, suffi- form and instance, iilcii& "avlolatioa 



Fiteh-s Discounes on the Mdure of Sin. 1 39 

!iown rule of duty.** Where, But let us oow attend to the proofs 
( the difference between these whicK the writer adduces* to confirm 
asses of sins? for in either the proposition which he has laid 

B he says, *'a known obliga- down in the beginning of his dis- 

i violated." What is said courses. 

lie obligation arising in the « The fiwt proof which I alleee, on thii 

se from a knowledge of the subject, (page 6,)" Mya he» "is the •p^- 

law, and in the other from raHcn ofmr comdencet, 

lifferent kind of knowledge, ^ "TheconiciencemanifeiUiticlfinihe 

free to confess, is unintelligi. ^ZwT..^.J^'^l''ti ^^ «T"*«^^* 

an. c L* I- A which precedes, attends, and follows our 

IS. ITie fact is, according to ^^^^^^ ^^ ^eiy decisions tespecting 

wing of the author, each vio- guilt, consequently, are resolvable into a 

known law; and the ignorant strong perception of our own personal 

violates no law but that which obligations wfiich we have violated: and 

>im to use diligence to know "^ accusation of conscien^, therefore. 

F. ^^A^» ^w.Jc k-> lo «.i.^^j can ever anse, except on the ground of 

rs under which he is placed. ^^ ^.^i ^j^i.^^ ^ k„^^„ SbMgation. 

to his acts committed througli i have never felt a compunction «J con- 

norance, there is no sin in science in my own case but on such 

owever flagrant and injurious grounds; ancl as men are constituted 

ay be in themselves, since '^'^\^ »T™® '* " * ^^^ ^^ "° °^^*" 

• 1 • ever have 

-e not committed a^inst a 

specifick law. But is this a There is something extremely 

Joctrine ? Is it safe ? Is it vague and unsatisfactory in this ar- 

"al? Take an example from gument; for the dictates of con« 

w Testament. Paul, while a science in different men» are exceed- 

e, verily thought that he ought ingly diverse, according to the edu- 

nanv things contrary to the cation which they have received, and 

of Jesus. While in this the knowledge of the divine law 

ignorance, he persecuted the which they possess. If the appeal 

ms even unto death, and is made to the great majority of 

them to blaspheme the name men, the ar^ment will prove too 

st — to be dragged to prison much— It will go to establish the 

sth. In all these acts, did opinion, that there is no sin in'hu- 

immit sin? Yes; according man volitions, which are followed by 

nthor, in not making himseii' no external acts of transgression: 

ted with his obligation ; but For such is the blind and stupid con« 

B acts of persecution, bias- dition of bv far the greatest part of 

and murder, there was no mankind, that their conscience never 

II, for '^sin is the violation of condemns them for mere exercises of 

n rule of duty." But what- the mind, which result in no action; 

r theological professor may and it may be doubted whether this 

ul entertained a very differ* is not the fact in regard to a large 

w of this subject. He ac- majority even of those who have be^ 

Iges that he was a blasphemerp educated in Christian couatries. 

persecutor, and injurious — But it is probable, that the appeal it 

t he was the chief of sinners, made to those only whose minds are 

lould be very reluctant to enlightened. Indeed, the learned 

the professor of theology in professor seems to think it unneces- 

Dllege with such an opinion sary to travel farther for proof than 

ne nere stated, if it did not to his own breast "I have^ never 

It an inevitable consequence felt a compunction of conscience," 

heory: but, in our apprehen- says he, "in my own case, but on 

8 main proposition clearly such grounds; and as men are con- 

I the objectionable doctrine, stituted alike, I assume it as a fact 

bis illustrations go to con- that no others ever ha.v«7* 

We scarcely knoYr ^YiiA. naim^ \» 



140 



FitMs Di$c(mrses on the J^ahire of An. 



MAlCi, 



give to this argument. It might be 
called a new kind of ar^imentum ad 
hominem; an argument that must be 
convincing of course to the man who 
uses ity but which cannot possibly. 
have the least influence on any other 
man, whose feelings do not corres- 
pond with those of tlie professor. It 
fias the advantage of being short and 
always ready for use, but labours un« 
der the disadvantage of many other 
aivuments* that they can be turned 
with all their force against him who 
employs them. If anodier man should 
8ay» I have felt strong moral disap- 
probation of myself for possessing a 
nature so evil, tliat it gives rise to 
innumerable evil thoughts, and as all 
men are constituted alike, I assume 
it as a fact, that all others have ex- 
perienced tlie same — would not his 
argument be valid against the theory 
deteoded in these discourses? But 
perhaps the professor would say, that 
QO man ever was conscious of such 
a feeline- Here we are at issue with 
him. We will not presume to set 
up our experience in opposition to 
that of the respectable writer, but 
we will undertake to produce hun- 
dreds of judicious and upright men, 
who will avow what has been stated 
above, as their daily experience. 
Now, whose conscience is correct in 
its decisions, in regard to tins point, 
is a thing not to be determined by 
any one man's experience; no, not 
even bythat of a professor of theo- 
logy. This first argument therefore 
is» beyond all controversy, inconclu- 
sive, until the important fact in ques- 
tion is settled. Or, to say the least, 
however it may affect others, it can- 
not possibly have any weigitt with 
us, and with others whose minds are 
constituted like ours, and who are 
conscious of a moral disapprobation 
of depraved principles in the mind ; 
meaning by principles, something an- 
tecedent to our volitions, and from 
which they take their character. If 
we are wrong in our judgment of this 
matter, we suffer a great deal of un- 
necessary pain and humiliation, from 
which the professor must be entirely 
exempt; but we cannot help it — 



This is our candid opinioiu iflM ths 
most careful examination of onr ova 
hearts. We admit, indeed, that lb 
in the heart previously to actiom it 
latent, and that while it remains «» 
we can have tio direct cooaciwaMM 
of it. But when, by a soccMakNiaf 
evil acts it betrays itaelf* we are ai 
certain of its existence as of the 
acts of which we are conaciooa; aad 
we have no more doubt about the d^ 
pravity of the principle than of tin 
acts which proceed trom itt jnal m 
when from a concealed foontain, pii» 
sonoos streams issue, we are a s a aw d 
that the fountain itself is poiaoneiL; 
or when we find bitter and ui|whoie^ 
8ome fruit produced by a tree, al^ 
though the nature of the tree ia bkl- 
den from us, ^et by its fruit we kmiv 
that it is evil. — ^This last is our Sa> 
viour's own illustration, "The treeu 
known by his fruit." 

Considering, then, that the con* 
sciences of men differ according ta 
their understanding of the law of 
God, we cannot but think, that it wu 
useless, in a case of this kind» to 
make an appeal to conscience: it 
ought to have been made at once to 
the law. Here, and not in the feel- 
ings of this or that man, is the stand- 
ard of rectitude. — ^To all ailments 
from tliis quarter we will listen with 
profound reverence. 

We feel ourselves, therefore, un- 
der no obligations to consider the 
other positive assertions respecting 
the operations of conscience, con- 
tained in this part of his proof, for 
we consider tlie professor as still 
giving us his own experience, and 
taking it for granted that all moat 
agree with him in his facts; whereaa 
we have declared our utter dissent, 
and expect to have a large majority 
of the most serious and enlightened 
Christians agreeing with us. We may 
therefore well dismiss this first argu- 
ment as of no validity. It is in truth 
just as forcible, as if the preacher had 
said, ^ In my judgment the thing is 
so, and as all minds are constituted 
alike, I shall assume it as a fact, that 
no man ever had any other opinion.* 

The second argument in support 



] 827. View of PuUick ^ffain. 1 4 1 

of the general proposition in, an ap- selves and a few others— we suspect 

peal^to the umpenal sentiments of more than a few. And we may well 

men. do this, since the professor has given 

On this we have only two short us no proof of the fact» but briefly 

obaervatioDs to make, 'fhe first is, says, *' And that it is their united 

that it seems to us to be the same conviction, that sin is resolvable into 

argament as the former, only ex- that which I have stated, I refer to 

S ceased in different words. Where the grounds on which they justify 

es the difference. between appealing themselves in accusing others of 

to the consciences of men, and. ap- blame-worthiness, and in awarding 

pealing to their sentiments on moral punishments." All that remains of 

siiMects ? this paragraph has nutliing to do with 

Our other observation is, if the the point in dispute. But if there 

grooiid assumed in this argument be are found persons who blame others 

correct, there neither is, nor can be, for having an evil nature and evil 

waj dispute on the subject. If the principles, and who think them de- 

aniTersal sentiments ol men are in serving of punishment for this evil, 

bvour of Professor Fitch's doctrine, then uie argument, as before, can 

then we are of the same opinion with have no force until this point is set- 

him. But we be^ leave to enter a tied. 

dissent, at least in favour of our- {Tobecincludedinourncxt.) 



IV TreOMurer of the Trutieet of the Getwral Maembfy of the Prfbyterian Church 
aeknwwUii^eo the reeeipt of tfte follorwing aiinu far their Theological Seminary at 
~ (JV1 /.) during the month of February lattf z'iz. 



Of Jimet S. Green, Rsq. from Rev. Dr. Tliomas M'Auley, one instalment of 
Hmothy Hedges, Esq. of New York, on Kcv. Mr. Itussell's paper, for the 
New York' and New Jersey Professorship, ^20 00 

Of the NewviUe Mite Society of Cumberland county, (Penn.) for the Oriental 
and Biblical Literature Proifessorsliip, 12 25 

Total, 5532 25 



©i^to of puWtcft 9Cffair5\ 



EUROPE. 

But little intelligence lias reached us from Europe during the last month. But we 
rejoice to learn tliat the general peace of Europe is not, from present appearances, 
likely to be disturbed ; and tlut there seems to be a prospect that the suflerings of 
tiK Greeks are drawing to a close. 

BuTAnr.— The latest dates that we have seen from Britain, arc of the 17th of Ja- 
imuyp from Liverpool. Parliament was slill in recess, and the suirering^throughout 
the nation waa much as it had been fur some months preceding — in some places a lit- 
tle altered for the better, and in others rather for tlie worse — on the whole, if there 
VM any amelioration, it was scarcely perceptible. The king had addressed a letter 
t» the Archbiabopt of Canterbury and York, requesting that charity sermons might 
be preached in all the churches, and contributions taken up throughout their diocesscs, 
for fhe relief of the poor, in the nnanufacturing districts. Information liad been rc- 
eeived of Uie arrival of the British troops sent to Lisbon, and of their welcome recep- 
tion there. It also appears that considerable reinforcements were expected from 
Gibialtjir and the Mecuterranean, so as tu make the whole British force in Portugal,. 
10,000 men, in addition to those sent from England. The death of the Duke of York, 
which waa in rumour in the former part of the last month, is confirmed by the last «.t- 



mala. By thcie arrivals it is also announced, that the independence oC \aTiieeeYv%&Wetw 
fbrmaUy dcmaiided from the Forte, by tiie three great powers ui* UrvVaiu^ VtM\c««i«i 



142 View of Publick Jfffhirs. Makb, 

Ruitia. War wis alio talked of with America. For What cauae ia aoC ftatodi bat 
we suppoae* on account of our controvers3r in reUtion to tiadinf; with her fHAWtf^ 
But thia we regard as altogether idle. 

A census, made by the Homan Catholick der^ of Ireland, states the popalatiHi 
of that Isfamd at near nine milliona, of which it is said that seven milliona are Gadn* 
Ticks. The Roman Catholick orator, O'Connor, made a flaming speech at a pubfiefc 
meeting in Dublin, in December last, which has been publislied in the Britiah papeifi 
and republished here. 

Fbav^k. — Wc have seen French dates as recent as the Ist of January. It wooU 
seem that the French are disposed to co-operate cordially with England^ in endea- 
vouring to terminate the Spanish aggressions on Portugal, and that the other great 
European powers, avowedly at least, condemn the hostile measures of Spain ; aad 
recognise the propriety of the British interference for the protection of their anciait 
ally, lliere is indeed a party in France that would wish to support Spain, but ill kh 
fluence is entirely overruled. Mr. Canning's famous speech in the Britiah Farliswciit, 
relative to the Portuguese expedition, contained some things which were higfa^ of- 
fensive to a number of the members in both the French chambers ; and aevere recri- 
minatory speeches were pronounced, in discussing the answer which waa to be re- 
turned to tlie royal speech at the opening, and of which we gave an account hit 
month. Bventually, nevertheless, the reply of the chambers was the echo of what had 
come from tlic throne. Probably, however, this would not have been the fact, if 
Mr. Canning had not made what has been termed *' a new edition'* of hia R>eech, in 
which he suppressed, or modified, all the offensive parts — It appears, indeed, tliat he 
delivered one speech to the British Parliament, and wrote anpther for the French 
chambers. Very earnest debates had taken place rcUtive to the passage of a law fir 
reguUting the press. — We regret to learn from the French papers that our nation's 
friend. General Lafayette, has been called to mourn the death of his son-in-Uw. 

llie King of France has recently issued a severe edict against the slave-trade. Me^ 
chants, insurers, supercargoes, captains, &c. engaged in tnis trade, are to be banished 
the kingdom, and to pay a fine equal to the value of the ship and cargo concerned. 

Spiiir. — Never, we believe, was a court more embarrassed, than that oO Spun has 
been for some time past. With the best inclination in the world to make war on Por- 
tugal, and urged, and even driven to it by the slavery-loving and priest-ridden popu- 
lation of the country, still the king and his counsellors dare not declare war. On the 
contrary, they assure England and France that they will preserve peace, and make 
reparation for the agg^ressions already committed ; and this, we believe, through fe|r 
of the consequences of a refusal, they have been, and still are, labouring to do-~-but 
it is labouring against the current both of their own inclination and the wishea and 
demands of their party, who loudly call for war, and threaten the throne it- 
self, if the call be refused. Britain, backed by France, has (^Iven in her ultimatum, 
in a most decisive tone, and demanded an immediate answer. IMic answer is favoura- 
bly made, but hostile dispositions and operations continue. We must wait for the 
issue, which we think is doubtfiil. But we see no indications of support to Spain, 
fh>m any other power, if she goes to war. Perhaps it is her destiny to be conquered 
into a better temper, or to be deprived of all capacity to do mischief. 

PoaTcoAL. — The session of the Portuguese Cortes closed on the 23d of December. 
The new Cortes were to meet on the 2cf of January, Tlie Princess Regent was indis- 
posed and unable to address the Cortes on their dissolution, but the Minister of the 
Interior assured the members of the good condition of the country. Vigorous and spi- 
rited measures, prompted by British counsels and aided by British arms, were in 
operation to subaue the rebels in tlie northern part of the kingdom. Some hard fight- 
ing had taken place between small corps of the contending armies ; but no very im- 
portant advantages had been gained on either side. The British forces had not 
reached the scene of action. 

Gbikck and TvaKST. — A letter from Napoli, of the date of Oct 15th, 1826^ from 
our countryman, S. G. Howe, has been published within the past month, giving a de- 
tailed account of Grecian affairs at the time of writing. I1ie amount of the whole ia, 
that Athens was then the principal seat of the war ; that the Acropolis or citadel waa still 
in possession of the Greeks, and manfully defended ; that the existing plan of the 
Greeks for the relief of Athens, was to intercept all supplies going to the Turkish 
army, and that this they were likely to effect ; that Ibrahim Pacha was too weak to ef- 
fect any thing further in the Morea, without reinforcements from Egypt ; that in some 
late attempts to extend his conquests, he lost 400 men, and was obliged to fall back 
on Tripolitza, where he was at the time of writing; that the recent naval operations, 
had been on the whole favourable to the Greeks; that the Alexandrian fleet, by 



] 82r. Fiew ^ PMiek Affair$. 143 

which rehilbioeiiieiiti were to be lent to Ibnhim Pacht, wm not readf for sea i that 
Loid Cochimn^ wm earnestlv ezpected« •• one of hit veneli had amreds that the 
national aMembly waaq>eedily to meet at Parot; and that there waa good reason to be- 
bere that a settlement would be effected between the Porte and the Gieeks» bj means 
of Eofdiah and Russian mediatkni. This, last intimation is calculated to render more 
credible the accounts by the Isst arrivals, that a settlement has been actually effected, 
on the united demand of Britain, France, and Russia, 

ASIA. 

Pkbslil.— The London Cmtrier of Dec. 30th contuns the following article : 

Btftot ofihe Pertiatu. — ^Despatches were receired this morning by Goremment, 
dsted Trabree, October 3d. They announce that a division of the Persian army, de- 
tsdied by hu highness the Prince Regent, under the command of his eldest son, Ma- 
homed Meerxa, and lus uncle. Ameer Khsn, was defeated with severe losi^ on the 
26th September, near the village of Shampkar, five turseekhs north-west of Geoiria. 

The battle waa fought on the banks of the Yezan, a second stream of which divided 
the contending armies. The Russian force amounted to about 6000 infitntry and 3000 
cavi^ry, with a proportionate number of guns ; that of the Persians to 5000 infantry 
and 5000 irregular dorse, with six field pieces. 

After some nard fighting the Persians were compelled to retire in the utmost con- 
fu^oD ; and it is supposed that nearly the whole of their infantry were either killed 
or taken prisoners. 

Three field pieces fell into the hands of the Russians, and Ameer Khan was killed 
by a Cosasck, when in the act of rallying his troops. The young prince, Mahomed 
Mecna, was taken prisoner by a Cossack, but was afterwuds rescued, and borne 
away in triumph by one of his surdars. 

BrmxAB. — ^The state equipage of the Burmese Emperor fell into the hands of the 
Britnh in their late military operations itf Burmah, ana has lately been sold at auction 
in U>ndon. We have seen a most interesting letter from Mrs. Judson, in which she 
gives a particular account of the imprisonment and sufferings of her husband. Dr. 
Price, and herself, and more satisfactory information relative to the nature of the Bur- 
mese government and mode of warfare than we had seen before. 

jAVAd — A rebellion of the natives in the island of Java against the Dutch govern- 
ment, has existed for a considerable time past, and now appears to wear a very formi- 
dable aspect. A letter received in England, dated Oct. 30, 1826, says — 

" The rebeUion is not put down, anal do not perceive any progress making to ac- 
complish so desirable a purpose. The restored Sultan gets no adherents, and the 
Dutch forces in the interior accomplish nothing but marclies and counter-marches. — 
(ikmmy indeed are llie affairs of Netherland India. It u-ill require at least forty mil- 
lions of guilders more, ere the troubles will be ended." 

Later accounts are still more unfavourable. They represent the native troops so 
weceMfiil, as to threaten to drive the Dutch out of the island; or at least to confine 
their influence to Batavia And its environs. 

AFRICA. 

The American Colonization Society in Washington city, have received letters from 
Liberia of as late a date as the 6th of Dec. ult. conveying authentick intelligence of 
the prosperity and extension of the colony. The African Repository for January g^ves 
ill interesting sccount of the adjourned annual meeting of the society, held in the hall 
of the Hmise of Representatives, on the 20th of that month. It also contains the elo- 
<{tient speeches dehvered on that occasion by Mr. Knapp, of Boston, and Mr. Sccre- 
tey Cla^, as weir as much interesting intelligence relative to the general concerns of 
the Soaety. We feel constrained to reconimcml to our friends the patronizing of 
the African Repository. It not only comprises details of the proceedings of the so- 
ciety, and full statements of the concerns of the Colony, but communicates much use- 
fid urfbrmalion in relation to Africa in general. 

AMERICA. 

BnASiL.— 'ft appears that the empress of Brazil, the consort of Don Pedro I., died 
at Bio Janeiro^ on Uie 10th of December last. The emperor was absent with his 
srfDy. We have heard nothing of importance recently, of the state of the war be- 
tween Baenos Ayres and BraziL There is a nimoiir afloat, which we wish may prove 
tme, that peafie has been made between these powers, through Ih^ medJiAiCxQw q*1 
Britain. 



144 View of PMidc AjfuHru. 



Colombia.— llie Liberator Boli?«raeefDt ttkelfto wltle IhaimhmvtBdilUMi 
dtnentions which, during hit abtence from Colombw, brakie out, hkI threiteaei 
plunge that extended Republick into all the miaerica of cinl war. He haaappnc 
reitored peace and order in every part of the country which lie has yet vuhed. I 
mains to be seen whether order and contentment will be pemenem. Whet 
heard from, in the latter part of January, he was in r>affacya% and was iceerredH 
with tlie same enthusiasm as in other puuDea. He appean to have juatyied the 
ceedings of Paez ; and for this we profess ourselves unable to aooomit He is cb 
with absolute power ; and if he snail eflfect a union of parties and tnnqpBiM 
country, and then resign his power, we know not in what manner hb patnotia 
hune could receive an addition to their lustre.* 

Mexico. — It appears that the Mexicans are divided into two pactiei^ wliehave m 
themselves under two orders of Free-Masons, one denominated the StaMM^ ui 
other Vorkittt ; that to the former belong those who, in our revohitionaiy tinie^ 
should have denominated Toriet^ and to the latter, Wldg9. Both partiea mc 
merous, but the latter are likely to prevail. But the country cannot be in a M 
state, while these parties are as strong and hoatile aa they are at present. 

We have no news from the Con£p*es8 of Tacti&ojra-— Commodore Porter is at Etji 1 
with a part of his fleet — not, it is said, blockaded; as be afBrma that he can i 
sea when he pleases, without a rencontre with the Spaniah fleet of Laborde, if 
ahould be his choice. It is said that he is waiting for a reinforcement, which h 
pects shortly. 

The province of Texas has declared itself ** free and independent of the U 
States of Mexico," and has assumed the name of the ** Republick of FKdoma.* 
national Congress was to assemble at Nacogdoches, on the first Monday of Febr 
to form a constitution. The Indians, who are very numerous in that r^on, ai 
presented as friendly to the new republicans, and hostile to the Mexicans. — ^Th 
tcr, however, seem determined, by military force, to put an end to this new n 
lick. What will be the issue is very uncertam. 

Uif iTXD States. — Our Congress have once more put a negative on the atten 
frame a bankrupt law for the Union. The bill to impose an additional impost a 
ported woollen g^ds is also likely to be negatived in the Senate, after panini 
House of Representatives. Much time has ktely been consumed in the Keprci 
tive's Hall, in a debate relative to the power of the Secretary of State, to ap 

{)rititer8 to publish the laws, in the several states of the Union. When -our nal 
cg^slature sat in Philadelphia, many years a^ a gentleman somewhat given to t 
on obser\'ing the hurry of Cong^ss, and its sitting sll night at the close of the io 
made a remark which we have often thought on since. <* Congress, (said be) an 
other delaying sinners — They leave almost every thing to be done at the nsti 
then every tiling must be done in a hurry, much is ill doiic, and much ia left al 
thcr undone." 

Tlie committee of inquiry into the official conduct of the present Vice Presi 
when Secretary of War, have made a report, clearing that omcer from every cfa 
or just imputation of improper conduct, in the discharge of his official dutiea. 



•^* We have in our present number omitted several heads or titles which ua 
appear in our miscellany, and of course the articles uppnipriate to them — Not be* 
such articles were not fully at our commniul, but solely because the whole of our p 
for the present month, seemed to be imperiously demanded for the publications i 
we have inserted. We shall, however, very rarely depart from our establishe 
rang^ment s and indeed it has been with extreme reluctance that, we luve done 
a single instance. — "Travels in Kurope for Health," and "Transatlantick Reci 
tions. No. IX." in our next. — ** Rkr£cc4*h" inquiry will also be resolved in wlui 
appear in our next numBer. — l*o the notices on our cover we solicit, with i€8p< 
eamestnca^, the attention of all our aubscribert. 



EaSATVN l!V OUR LAST NVMBKa. 

Page 96, line 11 from bottom, for Uland read district. 



THE 



msssvsiiif Awrwm>j^V!M 



APRIL, 1827. 



Aelt0tou$ tfomrnntncattonl. 



BBS ON THE gflORTER OATB* 
ftM OF THE WESTMINSTBR AS- 

BLY OP DIVINES ADDRESSED 

rOUTM. 

lACTURE ZXTn. 

f%€ Exaltation of Christ^ 

i are now to enter on the iin« 
it sabject of Christ's exalta- 
•It is thus stated in the cate- 
. ** Christ's exaltation con- 
1 in his rising again from the 
m the third daj, in his ascend- 
I into heaven, in sitting at the 
band of God the Father, and 
ding to judge the world at the 

len we speak of the exaltation 
rist, jou are not to understand 
that any new glory was con- 
; on his divine nature — that 
npossible ; for as God, his elo- 
is infinite and unchangeable, 
his glory, as we have seen, 
clipsed and hidden, while he 
ed our nature, and appeared 
world in the form of a ser- 

His exaltation, therefore, 
rly and strictly consists in a 
motion in the human nature, 
for a time had veiled the di- 
ififie same glory whicJi he had 
Uy possessed as the Son of 

This we are taught in his 
intercessory prayer — '* And 
J Father, glorifv thou me with 
own »e}f, with the glory which 



I had with thee, before the World 
was.'* 

It was with a manifest, and most 
impressive propriety that this exal- 
tation should succeed immediately 
to his humiliation. Such is the re- 
presentation of Scripture. ''He 
numbled himself, and became obe- 
dient unto death, even the death of 
the cross ; wherefore God also bath 
highly exalted him, and given himi 
a name which is above every name; 
that at the name of Jesns every 
knee should bow, of things in 
heaven and things in earth, and 
things under the earth; and that 
every tongue should confess that 
Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory 
of God the Father.'^ Thus it was 
that the Sun of righteousness, on 
passing from under the dark cload 
of his humiliation and sufferings 
shone and astonished with the most 
striking and glorious lustre. The 
ignominy of the cross was thus 
wiped away; and Grod who raised 
him from the dead and gave him 
glory, gave to his people also, the 
evicfence, that \irhen their reliance 
and expectations are placed on 
him, their faith and hope shall be 
in God. 

Let us now consider the several 
particulars of our Redeeroer|s ex- 
altation, as they are stated in the 
answer before us. 

1. He *' rose again from the dead 
on the third day?^ 

We have already YiiA octUb\ou\A 



146 



Lectures an tke Shorter Catechism. 



Apmxl§ 



observe, that it was a part only of 
three days, during which oar Ke- 
deemer lay in the grave. The time 
of his contiiiuartce there indeed, was 
not equal even to the space of two 
whole dajs. Yet as our Lord was 
in the tomb a part of three dajs» 
and it was customary with the 
Jews and agreeable to the language 
of Scripture, to represent an event 
as extending through all the days 
on which any part of it took place, 
there was a complete fultilment, 
according to the then current use 
of language, of the declaration, that 
"the Son of man should be three 
days and three nights in the heart 
of the earth." Our Redeemer was 
put to death on the eve of the Jew- 
ish Sabbath, Friday afternoon, and 
rose very early on the moruins of 
the first day of the week, called 
from this circumstance, the Lord's 
day; and which, from the age of 
the apostles till the present time, 
the great mass of Christians have 
observed as a day of sacred rest, in 
place of the Jewish Sabbatli — The 
reason and propriety of this will be 
explained, if we are spared to dis- 
cuss the fourth commandment. 

In the mean time, let us give a 
few moments of our most engaged 
attention, to that essential article 
of a Christian's faith and hope, the 
resurrection of Christ. That this 
was an event to take place in the 
person of the Messiah, was prefi- 

fured to Abraham, in his receiving 
is son Isaac, as it were from the 
dead. It was foretold to the fa- 
thers, as is expressly affirmed by 
the apostle Paul in his discourse to 
the Jews at Antioch in Pisidia, who 
quotes a passage from the second 
psalm, in proof of the fact. Acts 
ziii. 33. Our Lord himself, not 
only alluded to it on several occa- 
sions* but told his disciples of it in 
the most explicit terms. Mark ix. 
31^—" He taught his disciples and 
gaid unto them— The Son of man 
is delivered into the hands of men, 
and they shall kill him, and after 
that he is killed» he shall rise tlie 



third da^.'' Again he said, «* JfUr 
I am risen, I will go before yoi 
into Galilee." The Jews, there* 
fore, attempted to discredit the re^ 
surrection of Christ; and modem 
infidels still attempt the same thin^; 
knowing that if they succeed u 
this, they unsettle at once the whole 
Christian svstem. On the other 
hand, the advocates of Christianity 
defend this point, as the citadel of 
their faith. Nay, if this one point 
be maintained, the Christian refi- 
gion is indisputably established as 
of divine authority. Sherlock hu 
written an able little work, entitled 
« The Trial of the Witnesses," in 
which he has examined the evidence 
of our Lord's resurrection, on the 
strict principles and forms of tak- 
ing testimony in the English courts 
of law; and has shown, that on 
those principles, and agreeably to 
that procedure, an upright judge 
and jury would be obli^d to pro- 
nounce that Christ had indubita- 
bly risen from the dead. But the 
ablest piece on this subject, with 
which 1 am acciuainted, is the pro- 
duction of Gilbert West. It it 
known to all who read their Bibles 
carefully, that the accounts given of 
the resurrection of Christ by the 
different evangelists, seem, at first 
view, to be hardly consistent with 
each other. Now, it is said that West 
had doubted or disbelieved the 
truth of revelation, and that he first 
gave his attention to this subject, 
with a view to prove that the histo- 
rians had contradicted each other, 
and therefore that the fact which 
they all asserted, was unworthy of 
credit: that, however, on examin- 
ing and comparing the evangelists, 
critically and closely, he found 
there was no contradiction: that, 
on the contrary, he perceived there 
was the most perfect harmony, and 
that the variety in their accounts 
was only a palpable proof that they 
did not write in concert, but, like 
honest witnesses, each told the facts 
which he knew, in his own way : in a 
word» that on a careful comparison 



lectafnt m tt« AiMer CMeeUnn. 



i4r 



cts of the case they all went to 
1 the same poiDt» by varioui^ 
concordant and incontestable 
Bu In whatever way he was 
, he has certainly settled this 
syond reasonable controversy 
ise yo« all to read the two 
have mentioned— The trial 
ilVitnessesy and West on the 
ction. 

nmary of the evidence of oor 
reaarrection may be given 
t rests on testimony; the 
ly both of anffels and of men. 
g;els testified to the women 
me to the sepulchre, that he 
t there, but was risen, as he 
I them. The apostles all as- 
he truth of his resurrection, 
most of them laid down their 
1 attestation of this fact, 
inanimously declared that 
aised him up, on the third 
d showed him openljr, not to 
people, but to witnesses 
before of God ; even to us, 
iter, who did eat and drink 
m after he rose front the 
This testimony, at the risk 
n» delivered before that very 
-im who had put our Lord to 
and by that very disciple (as 
ith of the rest; who had be- 
lied him. 

Lord often appeared to his 
s after his resurrection, and 
im such proofs of his iden- 
no mortal could rationally 
ve or doubt. He not only 
I drank with them, showed 
le priut of the nails in his 
md feetf and of the spear in 
t, and made the unbelieving; 
( examine with his hands as 
• his eyes, the scars of his 
I but what was still more 
ocal, if possible, he adverted 
be had told them before his 
ind to things which only he 
J could possibly know. At 
le he showed himself to no 
in five hundred brethren.*— 
Huned forty days on earth, 
bis appearing frequently, and 
lag familiarly anil freely with 
d^mk tbejr mi^t have the 



fullest conviction and satisfiMtioii as 
to his resarrectionband thnt he ni^t 
also instmctthem in the nature of nis 
kingdom, and in the manner in which 
it was to be extended, established, 
and governed. 

It was anrelyone of the moat coo- 
temptiUe artinces ever practised-* 
and no donbt it was practised b^ 
cause a better conld not h^eviaed-* 
which the chief priestalM elders 
of the Jews employed^ vrhen thej 
bribed the Roman soldiers to say, 
that hia disciples came by nig^b and 
stole him away while they, dept 
Hie soldiers would never have said 
this, had they not been secnred 
against punishment from tiie g^ 
vernor, ir he should hear it: For in 
saving it, every one confessed him- 
self guilty of a capital crime; be- 
cause the Roman discipline made it 
death, in all cases, for a sentinel to 
sleep on his post Beside, the thing^ 
in itself, was both incredible ana 
self contradictory— Incredible, that 
they should sleep through the great 
earthquake which accompanied the 
rolling away of the stone by the an> 

^1; and self contradictory, because* 
if they were asleep^ they could, not 
possibly know that his.disciples had 
taken him away. But something 
must be said: and this was the best 
that his enemies could find to say. 

You will remember, my childCren, 
that Christ rose from the dead aa a 
publidc jperaon^ representinj; all his 
spiritual seed, ana as claiming in 
tneir behalf a complete dischaiige 
from the penalty, of the divide 
law. Having fully paid the debt 
for which he was ^committed to 
the prison of the tomb, justice re- 

3 aired that he, the surely, should be 
ischarged, and that no further de- 
mand should be mad^ on those for 
whom he answered. His resurrec- 
tion was the declaration of God, that 
justice was fully satisfied; and it is 
to be regarded as the divine assur- 
ance to every believer, that, for his 
surety's sake, all his sbs shall cer- 
tainly be remitted. 

It is a most de\W|cA£u\ ^^tGk« ^ 
meditation, to l&weu ^ liSoft 



148 



Martin Lnther^s Account ifERmsdf. 



Anmy 



rectioD of Christ It were well to 
think of ity especially on the morning 
of every lord's day — ^To think of the 
completion of the work of redemp- 
tion» when, like a mighty conqueror 
of sin, death, the ^ve, and hell, the 
Redeemer rose tnumphant over all; 
giving to his believins people the 
most precious pledge of their acquit- 
tal from condemnation, of their pro- 
tection frfti all those spiritual ene- 
mies over which he triumphed, and 
of -their own glorious resurrection in 
the last dav — ^when their bodies shall 
be made like unto his own glorious 
body, and dwell forever in his bliss- 
ful presence. 

(7^ 6« continued,) 



MARTIN Luther's modest acoount 

OF HIMSELF. 
( Continued from p,lil.) 

The golden rose, already men- 
tioned, was sent to the elector, by 
MiLTiTZ, who treated much with me 
respecting a reconciliation with the 
pope« He had brought with him 
seventy handbills,* in order that 
he mijght set up one in each town 
and vulage on his return to Rome, 
if the elector should deliver roe up 
to him, as the pope requested. But 
he let out the secret in conversa- 
tion with me ; for he said, " O Mar- 
tin, I had supposed that you were 
an old theologian, who managed 
these disputations sitting by your 
fire-side; but I now find that you 
are strong, and in the vigour of life. 
If I had twenty-five thousand armed 
men, I do not believe that I should 
be able to take you to Rome ; for 
through the whole of my long jour- 
ney r explored the sentiments of 
the people, and I found that where 
there was one in favour of the pope, 
there were three against him." 
And what was ridiculous enough, 
when at the inns, he inquired of tne 
women and maids, what they 

* Urma ^poitoUca. Milner tsys he 
bfou^t 70 soldien. 



thought of the Soman $eaL Tbey 
knowing nothing of the meaning of 
the term, and snpposing that be 
was speaking of common domestid: 
seats, answered — what do we know 
of the kind of seats thej haive at 
Rome, whether they are of wood or 
of stone f 

He begged of me that I wonU 
study the things which make ftr 
peace, and promised that he wonU 
use his influence with the pope, that 
he should do the same. 1 answer* 
ed him, that I was most ready to 
do every thing which I could de 
with a safe conscience, and withoat 
compromitting the truth, to pro- 
mote peace, of which I was most 
earnestly desirous : and I assured 
him that I had not entered volan- 
tarily into these contentions, bat 
had been compelled by necessity to 
act the part which 1 had done; and 
that I did not think that I had ei* 
posed myself to any just censure. 

Before his departure, he called 
before him John Tetzel, the first 
author of this tragedy, and so 
scourged him with reproofs and 
threats, that he actually broke the 
spirit of a man who nad before 
been terrible to every body, and 
was a declaimer who could not be 
intimidated ; but from this time, he 
pined away, worn out with grief 
and dejection. When I knew his 
situation, I addressed to him a kind 
letter of consolation, and exhorted 
him to keep up his spirits, and not 
suffer himself to be disturbed on 
account of what had happened to 
me. He died, however, wounded 
in conscience, and full of indigna- 
tion against the pope. 

If the archbishop of Mentz had 
listened to my remonstrance ; or if 
the pope had not so raged against 
me, and condemned me without a 
hearing: — If he had adopted the 
same course which the emperor 
Charles pursued afterwards, though 
then too late : — If he had taken ef- 
fectual measures to repress the au- 
dacity of Tetzel, the affair would 
never have eventuated in such a 



Martin LiUhef^s Jiceaunt qflKmsdJ. 



149 



umult The original fault 
lubtedlj in the Archbishop, 
his wisdom and cunning 

himself; for his design 
uppress my doctrine, and 
he money gained by the 
ndulgences. But soon all 
and endeavours were found 
^ain. The Lord watched 
€ events, and had resolved 

the people* If they had 
d in taking my life, it 
it have answered their pur- 
leed, I am persuaded that 
have been worse for them 
ow is, and some of their 
:erning men are convinced 
ith of what I say. 
} same year, (1519) I re- 
9 the interpretation of the 
but think: !ic; that I should 
more experienced in this 

if I should first expound 
ties to the Romans, Gala- 
1 Hebrews, I undertook in 
res to go over these books 
•ture. Above all, 1 was 
Ith a wonderful ardour to 
nd PauPs Epistle to the 
But before this time, my 
.d been entirely unsuccess- 

owing to the existence of 
d about the heart, but to 
e phrase in the beginning 
lis tie, the righteousness of 
ivealed from heaven: for I 
s word righteousness; the 
ig 1 had been taught of the 
mess or justice of God, 
t it was eitlier formal or 
that is, the attribute by 
)d is just in himself, or by 
.e punishes the wicked. 
>ugh 1 had lived an irre- 
)le life as a monk, yet my 
ce was ill at ease; nor 
lace confidence in my own 
.ons; therefore, as I said, I 
ove, yea I hated God, con- 
is clothed with vindicatory 
ind if not with secret bias- 
yet certainly with ereat 
Oft I opposed nkyself to 
ymg within myself, " as if 
>t enough to doom miscrU' 



ble sinners to eternal perdition on 
account of original and actual sin 
against the law, does he now add 
to their misery in the ^spel, br 
there revealing his justice also?'' 
In this manner did 1 rage, goaded 
by a guilty conscience. However, 
I applied myself most earnestly to 
find out what the apostle meant by 
these words. And whilst day and 
ni^ht I was occupied in studying 
this passage, with the context, God 
had compassion on me ; for now I 
began to perceive, that by the word 
righteotuness, in this place, was 
meant, that by which a merciful 
God by faith justifies the sinner; 
for it is immediately added, "as it is 
written, the just sfiall live by faith ;^^ 
and this is the righteousness which 
is revealed in the gospel. Upon 
this, I seemed to myself to have 
become a new man, and to have 
entered, with open gates, into para- 
dise itself. Henceforth, the whole 
scripture appeared to me in a new 
light. Immediately I ran over the 
whole Bible, as far as my memory 
enabled me, collecting all the pas- 
sages which were analogous to this, 
or in which there was a similar 
form of expression; such as tJie 
work of God, for what he works in 
us; — the power of God, for the 
strength communicated to us; — 
the wisdom of God, for the wisdom 
with which we are endued ; and so, 
of the salvation of God, the glory of 
God, &c. Now, by how much I 
liated the phraser righteousness of 
God before, by so much did I now 
love and extol it, as the sweetest of 
ail words to me; so that that pas- 
sage of Paul was to me like the 
gate of heaven. 

Afterwards, I read Augustine's 
treatise concerning the letter 
AND SPIRIT, where, beyond my hope, 
1 found that he interpreted the 
righteousness of God in the same 
way, as being tnat with which God 
endues us when he justifies us. 
And although the view which h^ 
takes of the subject \% vkvi^^t^^cV^ 
and although he do^& noV. c\^' 



150 



Extracts from Masanfs BevHaim. 



Anot 



explain the subject of imputation* 
yet I was rejoiced to nnd him 
teaching, that the righteousness of 
€hd was that bj which we are ju8« 
tified. 

Haying now received fresh 
strength and courage* 1 betook my- 
self affain to expounding the Psalms, 
and Ae work would have grown 
into a large commentary, haa I not 
been interrupted by a summons 
from the Emperor Charles V. to 
meet the diet about to conyene at 
Worms, the following year; by 
which I was compelled to relin- 
quish the work which I had under- 
taken. 

I have given this narrative, good 
reader, that if you should think of 
reading these opuscula of mine, you 
may be mindful that I am one of 
those whose proficiency has arisen 
from writing and teaching, and not 
of those who, without enbrt, sud- 
denly become great: who without 
labour, without trials, without ex- 
perience, as it were, with one 
glance, exhaust the whole meaning 
of the scriptures. 

The controversy concerning in- 
dulgences went on through the 
years 1520 and 1521. Afterwards 
followed the Sacramcntarian and 
Anabaptist disputes, concerning 
which 1 may have occasion to speak 
in another place. 

Reader, farewell in the Lord, 
pray for the increase of the word, 
ancf against Satan, who is malig- 
nant and powerful, and now also 
most furious and cruel, knowing 
that he has but a short time, and 
that the kingdom of the pope is in 
dancer. And may God confirm in 
us that which he hath wrought, and 

Kerfect in us the work wnich he 
ath begun, to his own glory. 
Amen. 

March Sth, A. D. 1545. 



EXTRACTS FROM MASOH^ RXMAIIIi 

It signifies nothing to wf we will 
not change our rel^ian^ if oar idi> 
gion change not us. 

If a man lives and dies a am 
professor, it had been better for \m 
if he had lived and died a nece 
heathen. 

The duty of religion flows finm a 
principle of reli^on. 

It is not talking, but walking with 
Gkxl, that gives a man the denomin^ 
tion of a Christian. 

Darkness may as well put on flit 
name of light, as^ a wicked man the 
name of a Christian. 

It is our main business in fliis 
world to secure an interest in the 
next 

A desire of happiness is natsial; 
a desire of holiness is supematanL 

If God hath done that good /or 
which he hath denied to Vie loorUL 
we ou^t to do that service ybrJUs 
which IS denied him hy the world. 

If we arc willing, God will blip 
us; if sincere, God will accept ns. 

A serious remembrance of^Qod« is 
the fountain of obedience to God. 

If vou forget God when you are 
young, God may forget you when 
you are old. 

When a Christian considers the 
goodness of God's ways, he wondeil 
that all the world doUi not walk ia 
them. But when he considers flie 
blindness, and depravity, and prqs- 
dice of the heart by nature, he won- 
ders that any should enter upon 
them. 

Make your calling sure, and your 
election is sure. 

Uneven walking, with a n^lcct 
of watching, makes a disconsolate 
soul. 

Four tilings a Christian should 
especially labour after, viz. to be 
humbk and tiiankfuit watchful and 
cheerfuL 



on tlie OeMcral Jissemihff 4^. 



151 



jlHi^cenantou^. 



AXIOMS ON THE GENERAL AS- 
LT OF THE F&E8BTTEBIAN 
LCH. 

Letter IT. 

Remedies Proposed. 

' Sir, — ^I propose now to exa- 
ome of the means emplojed 
;n, or remove the evils men- 
Ib mj last two letters. 
ral expeilients have been 
1 by the General Assembly 
itate the despatch of business. 
not call in question their 
I. The rules and regulations 
boose I approve, but these 
ver remove, nor correct the 
rhich I have named. They 
Dt designed for remedies, but 
rent, as long as might be, the 
ty of remedial measures. 
ming the representation from 
eries, is the only remedy, 
las been tried. The history 
rial is this: — In 1819, the As- 
consisted of about one hun- 
id thirtyroembers; when the re- 
-om a majority of presbyteries 
d the proposed alteration in 
10 of representation, from six 
?• It was supposed that this 
e would reduce the Assembly 
rd. This expectation was not 
d. The next Assembly con- 
of more than* one hundred 
rs. Since that time the in- 
has been constant, and at the 
f six years, we find one hun- 
id seventy-two members. But 
fn^y is to be still further 
Another alteration has ob- 
and twelve instead of nine is 
nber for every ministerial de- 
Let as now suppose the effect 
alteration shall be proportion- 
that of the former amendment, 
i Assembl V will then consist of 
DC hundred and forty members 
i^er number than the Assembly 
^ which proposed the altera- 
' the ratio from sir to nine. 



But it is not probable the effect will 
be proportionate, for two reasons. 
The number of Presbyteries enti- 
tled, according to the last statistical 
report, to but one minister in the 
Assembly, was thirtv-ime; whereas 
in the former case there were only 
sioN— the difference, in Presbyteries 
not affected by the change, is as 
thirty^one to star. There may be 
three or four more large presbyteries 
affected by the present, than by the 
former change; but this will not 
counterbalance the other dispropor^ 
tion. In the next place, the number 
of presbyteries has so multiplied, 
that one minister and one elder from 
each would give us a larger Assembly 
next spring than we had last. It is 
rational to suppose that, with the in- 
creasing facilities of intercourse and 
travelling, the nearer we approxi- 
mate to the smallest representation, 
the less will t>e the proportionate 
failure of members to attend. 

It is therefore most clear, that the 
new ratio of representation can be 
no remedy for the evils. If any one 
doubts this, let him recollect that, by 
the last statistical report, two kun-- 
dred and sixty are entitled to seats 
in the next Assembly. But we know 
there are already three new Presby- 
teries, beside large accessions of 
members to those before existing. 
On examining the report it will be 
further seen, that fifteen presbyteries 
lacked only from one to three mem- 
bers, to entitle each of them to two 
additional representatives. It is the 
result of a fair calculation that th^ 
whole Presbyterian church will, next 
spring, be entitled to two hundred 
and eighty^ or ninety members, in 
her highest court 

Suppose the remedy be carried 
still further, and only one minister 
and one elder be admitted from each 
presbytery, it would not remedy the 
evils. We have already the mate- 
rials for one fiundred pte%\^^V\^t\^%« 
beside the prospect of TayXdi vu^t^vc^^ 



152 



ObgeroaUons on the Oeneral Assembly , 4^« 



Apply the remedy in its utmost ex- 
tent, and more than two hundred 
seats may be claimed in that house, 
before 1830. But this would render 
the delegation very unequal, and in- 
vade a radical principle of our con- 
stitution, which gives to large and 
small presbyteries a proportionate 
representation. This principle I 
should very much dislike to lose, 
and am disposed to resist every en- 
croachment upon its integrity. iVhy 
should a remedy be applied whicn 
has no efficacy? 

A judicial commission, with pow- 
ers to try all appeals, complaints, 
and references sent up to the As- 
sembly, has been mentioned. This 
would be an expedient to relieve the 
house from a troublesome part of its 
business — leave the greater number 
to transact other concerns — and se- 
cure, quite as certainly, wisdom and 
justice in the decision. 

On this expedient, it is obvious to 
remark, that it will either invade the 
principles of the constitution, or 
every case must be passed upon by 
the whole house, after it has been 
reported by the commission. In 
tlie latter form, it would save no 
time, and ordinarily relieve the 
house from no perplexity. To an- 
swer any of the proposed ends, the 
expedient must remove the investi- 
gation, and of course the decision, 
from the house ; and yet have the con- 
fidence of the parties, and of the 
church. 

I think the spirit of prophecy 
is not needed, to foresee great 
dissatisfaction with such a course. 
It is the right of every man who is 
aggrieved, to submit his case to the 
highest court. This right ought not 
to be invaded. But I need not dis- 
cuss this part of the subject — such 
an expedient would be unwise and 
anti-presbyterial. 

2h terminate all appeals and com- 
plaints in the synoas, is an expe- 
dient proposed by the last Assembly. 

To this I have three objections. 
The Rrst is, tliat it invades "the ra- 
dical principled of Presbyterianism. 
An 0f^ni7^d court of review and 



control^ before which no f^Pffn 
be carried, and no complain 
sented, would be a strange ani 
The expedient contravenes c 
the highest objects of the As» 
and strikes at the vital princi 
its jurisdiction. It is tme 
will be left the review of syi 
records, but this is not a fa 
efficient control. Document 
parties are forbidden to come 
the court — no complaint n 
heard unless incorporated wi 
records. Even in such cas 
error cannot be corrected— 
records are always deficient in 
the whole explanation of a cas 
never embody arguments from 
lips. Beside, the synod becc 
party, and is present whil 
other is prohibited — this is un 

Every court of review an! 
trol should have the best mear 
all necessary means to ascerti 
whole case. — But I need not < 
this view of the course — it 
pretended to be introduced oc 
byterial principles — the Aw 
considered it an eocpedient to 
dy some existing evils. I i 
enemy to expediency, whici 
mits to law, or does not viola 
statute principles; but against 
expedient to violate wholeson 
vital principles, I must protes 

My second objection is, its t 
cy to weaken the influence < 
Assembly, as a bond of unio 
fellowship. 

Prohibit a man, a session 
presbytery, from seeking redr 
the highest judicatory of the c 
and you take away one of the s 
est reasons of attachment and r 
for that body. It seems to n 
surd to call upon ^''' lividual 
courts to chorv'i, ct ir,f>pt and 
a judical TV, .xi' •• »!»cy ma 
approach to: \.\\>' correctit 
wrongs done tlicin. I may ne 
injured; but tell me, if I am, 
may not seek redress from th< 
catory which I must suppor 
obey, and you lessen my resp< 
that court. 

What is the object of the G 



Travdi m Ewr€pcfar Bntth m ism. 155 

mbly? if ft aoe»tioQ will aocm the AfBembly, sod increase dinatil- 

dboed throQgh the land. Is it factioii in the churcb. 

ake laws for the chnrch? No; BYeiy caaey in which ft arnod ia 

lothority is only ministeriaL not perfectlj ananimoiia* wiU coom 

suppose it were to legislate-— ap by protest If eYery docnmenC 

A% according to the proposed in the case, both of testimony and 

are, can make laws as well as records, from all the courts oelow, 

nblies, if ther can jad|;e and be not spread on the minntes» it 

Bte better. Erery ai]gttment in must be ordered np^ which will oc* 

ir of the expedient is aa good casion one year^ delay. If the 

he entire abolition of the As- whole volames of docnments are 

»ly, as for the proposed mea^ registered in the synod book, they 

Is the olgect to supervise the must be read, the whole case invea- 

Bedings of Synods? Synods are tigated, opposed by the minority 

ipable of terminating all other proterting, and defended hj the duif 

rvisioD, aa that of appeals and jority. Such course will meTitably 



tj implied in tius* is no difficult problem to solve, whe- 
it to give the whole church ther tiie parties, or the church, will 
rlcdge of her religious state? be better satisfied. 
i synod is. certainly competent To make the measure eflfective, 
nblish its own report, and send you must shut out the possibility of 
all the other synods. getting the case before the Ataem- 
it to superintend theolosical Ely. Uast as many difficulties in 
naries? May not this be done the way aa tou will, the litieious 
fnods quite as well as by the As- appellant and the agmeved judicft- 
ily ; since a theological professor, tory are not prevented the approach, 
may be unjustiy censured by a Vou cannot make the way so -diffi- 
bytery, or synod, cannot appeal cult that they will not occupy it, to 
36 Assembly? No, my dear sir, your greater annoyance. Possibility 
ve not more confidence in a sy- of access is enougn to set aside the 
than I have in the General As- contemplated effect of the expedient 
»ly; therefore I would not ter- But suppose it should stop the 
ite the most important business cases from coming before the As- 
church court in a synod. sembly, it would not remedy the 
. the object to preserve purity evils which I have named. Those 
loctrine, and the peace of the evils do not arise out of appeals end 
le church? Why prohibit an ap- complaints— of course stopping then 
for those very objects ? Why will neither remove, nor essentially 
«nt the influence and authority diminish, the difficulties.^ All that 
be whole church from bearing the measure can promise; is to lessen 
I these vital interests? Expe- the time of the AMembly^ sessions-— 
1^ is the reason given. But we and even that I do not believe it can 
It to look well, before we sacri- accomplish. Yours, truly, &c. 
principle to an expedient Will Feb. 22. 1837. 
church be satisfied, I think not. ■■ 
lung should ever be done to tbavsls in buropb ron hxaltr tn 
ken the attachment of the church ^g^. by ah AMBuoAif olskot- 
ler Assembly — nothing^ to pro- ^gj^^ ot the stnod of nJHLADKi.- 
s sectional feelings and interests. pm^. 
[y third objection is, that its ob- {Cwahmdfirtmp. 69^ 
tutmot he oiftoinetf— and Uie ex- ' L^mdon, Aug. ^ib, 1830. 
€nt will only serve to perpiex My Dear Friendr-lt^ia wX.mi 



154 



Travdi in Europe Jbr Bealth in 1820. 



infeDtioQ to say a word to you con- 
cerning the noted oUects of curiosi- 
ty which London oflfers to the atten- 
tion of strangers— as the Tower, the 
Monument, St. Paul's, &c. &c., which 
have been so abundantly described 
bj others, whose leisure for observa- 
tion, and powers of description, so 
far surpass what has fallen to my 
lot But I cannot resist the impulse 
I feel, to tell you something of 
that consecrated place, Westminster 
Abbey; a place consecrated to the 
ashes and memorials of tlic " mighty 
dead^ surpassing in interest every 
other place of the kind which is, or 
perhaps has been, on the face of our 

gobe. The building itself— once a 
oman Catholick church, before the 
Reformation — without reference to 
its contents, is a great curiosity. It 
would be esteemed an immense edi- 
fice, did not the vastness and mag- 
nificence of St. Paul's Cathedral 
cast it so far into the back gruund. 
Its exterior indicates great age, and 
so much has it suffered by the dila- 
pidations of time, that a renovation 
nas become absolutely necessary. — 
And it is at this time undergoing 
repair that will, when executed, 
make it appear quite new. As far 
as this repair has progressed, an ex- 
act copy of its ancient figure and 
ornament is preserved. On enter- 
ing, one cannot help a feeling of 
awe, as if approaching the presence 
of those, whom learning, nobility, or 
great achievements, had elevated to 
a kind of semi-deity. A guide, for 
the compensation of an English shil- 
lins;, takes you from object to object, 
ancThurries over a brief explanation 
of all he shows you. But his hurry- 
ing from object to object, impatient 
to ^t through his task, soon made 
me inl^atient of his haste ; so that I 
often chose to forego his explanation, 
and lineier behind the wroup that fol- 
lowed him, that I might view parti- 
cular objects with more leisure. It 
is indeed a place to moralize on 
faded greatness. Here you see wax 
fiffures, bearing, it is safd, a correct 
likeness of many of the ancient 
kings and queens of England, and 



dressed in the identical clotlws tm 
wore, before the grave had devovrsi 
them. And to be surej the grotesqn 
fashion of dress, and cumMr of o^ 
nament, leaves no ground to remt 
that fashion, in its fickleneiSt Ml 
deviated far from what it was in the 
days of Elizabeth. With no. i«all 
excitement I gazed on the figure sf 
this princess; a little old womaa, 
whose withered countenance and 
weasoned arms and hands, fom an 
astonishing contrast to the ideas sf 
masculine greatness I had been ac- 
customed to form of her, from read- 
ing her history. A figure of Lord 
Nelson, dressed also in ihe^ dothei { 
he wore, attracted my attention, soil 
more tlian that of any of the crown- 
ed heads of ancient times* YeiT 
few monarchs in British history will 
continue to receive from Enelish- 
men, half the devotion that wul bt 
offered to the memory of this naftl 
hero. While looking upon his 
figure, decorated with the insignia 
of those honours which his gratefil 
country has bestowed upon him, I 
could not help thinking — what has 
become of his immortal soul ! What 
has been its reception, passing from 
the triumph of victory, to the tribu- 
nal of judgment, where the highest 
grade of military merit makes no 
compensation for a destitution of 
faith, and the absence of the love of 
God from the heart! If biography 
speak truth in his case, how hope- 
less, on Christian principle, must be 
the fate of his lordship. Who would 
not enter the eternal world in the 
capacity of the least of the regene- 
rated ones, rather than in that of the 
hero of Trafalgar? ** Let me die the 
death of the righteous;" and let me 
keep constantly in view, as an effec- 
tual damper to the afnbition which 
sacrifices the hopes of the Christian 
to worldly grandeur, that tremendous 
day, " when many that are last shall 
be first, and the first last." 

My curiosity in viewing the con- 
tents of this wonderful church, de- 
dicated much less to the worship of 
Deity than to the homage of the 
great and noble of past ages, has 



Travels in Europe for Health in 1890. 



155 



robbed of more than half its 
cation, by the preparations for 
ronation of his present majes- 
ich fill the greater part of it. 
lave no doubt been informed, 
lis ceremony was to have taken 
some time ago. It has been 
»ned antii after the trial of the 
, which is just now taking 
The object of the old mo- 

(old in years, but especially 
stitution, though a youog king) 
>btain a divorce; and thus es- 
he sad mortification of having 
.ted wife crowned along with 

In the middle of the church a 
[>latform is erected, of rough 
I, and at each side, seats of the 
rise one behind another, like a 
ft to the sides of the house, 
the spectators, whose privilege 

be, on this august occasion, to 
y them — covered as they will 
»e with the finest carpeting — 
ave full opportunity to see the 

spectacle. The coronation 

are really a curiosity. They 
mple rush-bottomed armchairs, 
very rudest construction, with- 
»lish, stained a red colour with 

kind of paint. They must 
)een formed at the time when 
hairs were first getting into use 
I kings, and when plebeians had 

three-legged stools. As re- 
)f antiquity, which indicate the 
esB of the arts, they are very 
»us articles. I have had the 
T of sitting in one of them, 
resume the advantages I have 
^d therefrom, may equal what 
of my predecessors have en- 
, when their accounts of gain 
9SS have been fairly balanced, 
e trial of Queen Charlotte is 
tie object which at this moment 
I to engross all London, and I 
»se I may say all England; and 
to a degree entirely beyond 

I would have supposed any 
of the kind could have eifcct- 
It fills every newspaper I see, 
3 the leading topick of conver- 
i in every company. It has 
i such a ferment in the minds 
le populace, as requires the 



strong arm of military forca to re- 
strain from breaking out into violent 
outrage. It is indeed a bitter sar* 
casm on monarchical government* 
and a stigma on the good sense of 
the nation, that a whole people 
should be thrown into such a ier> 
ment, by the disgraceful sqaabblet 
of one man with his wife; both of 
whom, it is acknowledged on all 
hands, rank with the very lowest in 
the community, in point of moral 
respectability. It is enough to make 
every American hug his republican- 
ism, and rejoice for his . country; 
where I fondly hope the monarcny 
of publick opinion would, before 
Ions, compel such au^st personages 
as liave created this disturbance* 
to find their level, very far below the 
high stations they occupy here. 

The trial had been suspended for 
a while, until a fresh cargo of wit- 
nesses should be imported from 
Italy; and these having arrived* it 
has been again resumed, with in- 
creased interest. The apartment 
where the House of Lords meet* be- 
fore whom the trial is pending* is 
small, and the regulation is, that 
every peer has the privilege of in- 
troducing two friends, and no more* 
Of course, as there are so many 
whose claims take precedence of 
mine, with this honourable body,'! 
have had no admittance. Indeed it 
has been with some effort I obtained 
a stand within sufficient distance to 
see the house, at the time of adjourn- 
ment, and to witness the occurrences 
of that occasion. To keep oft* the 
crowd, double rows of post and rail 
fence are run quite across the street* 
both above and below Parliament 
house, so as to enclose a large ra- 
cant space in front. Between the 
ranges of this fence, on both sides* a 
file of infantry with fixed bayonets 
are stationed. And within the en- 
closed portion of street, in front 
of the house, a strong corps of re- 
serve are posted. Accompanied by 
a mercantile friend, I repaired to 
the place nearly an hour before 4 
P. Mn which we ww% \AA. 'w^ ' 
usual hour o{ atV^oNLttkmvoX. 



156 



Travdi in Europe Jor HeaUh in 1820. 



AFUIf 



Mich was the gorge of human beings 
in the street, for a great di8tance» 
that we did not think it safe to ven- 
ture among them, farther than to be 
just in sight of the house. Here we 
found an opportunity of stationinff 
ourselves on an elevated step, with 
our backs to the wall, which enabled 
us to see over the heads of the 
crowd* It was not long until the 
whole street above us, became equally 
crowded with the distance interven- 
ing between us and the Parliament 
house. Such an immense mass of 
human beings collected into one 
place, I never saw before. It served 
to give a person an idea of the vast 
population of London ; but surely it 
IS little credit to their good sense 
and sober habits, that an occasion so 
trivial, should call them together in 

8ch quantity. The sole object was 
see the queen, and do homage to 
her as she passed. We had waited 
nearly three hours, until my patience 
was completely exhausted, when the 
-huzzaing and hubbub near tlie house, 
g^ve notice that her majesty had 
made her appearance. With no 
small effort, the military, with the 
point of the bayonet, cleared a pass- 
age for her up the street, past where 
we stood, lier carriage showed 
great splendour. It was drawn by 
six horses, which with the postillions, 
three in number, glittered in gold 
lace. The falling top was down, so 
AS to allow the gazing multitude a 
full view of her person. She sat 
alone, on the hind seat, while a 
maid of honour sat facing her on the 
seat before. She was dressed in 
plain mourning, as the whole nation 
IS, for old George the Third. Her 
appearance was that of a rather 
lusty» good looking woman, verging 
towards fifty, without any thing re- 
markabto aoout her. Loud, repeat- 
ed ^huzzas for the queen," thunder- 
ed atone the street as she passed up, 
while iniite handkerchiefs and flags 
waved from the crowded windows 
and balconies, on each side. Her 
countenance expressed complacent 
smiles; but surely her heart must 



have been wrung with iDwaid bil- 
temess. 

Shortly after the queen, the lords 
followed, some in carriajges, aiid 
some on horseback, making tiieir 
way through the crowd at a veiy 
slow gait. The friends of her rmp 
jesty were greeted with loud cheefst 
while groans, hisses, and insulttnc 
grimace, were plentifully bestowed 
upon her enemies. I was not a li(> 
tie amused, to .observe the perfisct 
sang froid with which it was all re- 
ceived on the part of their lordships* 
They moved along, without indicat- 
ing by any change of feature, that 
they so much as noticed what Wtf 
taking place around tliem. The 
king, since the commencement of the 
trial, has kept close at bis palace at 
Windsor, about twenty miles dis- 
tant from London. It is generally 
believed he would not be safe from 
insult, and perhaps something worse, 
from the enraged mob, should he 
make his appearance in the citr* 
Such is the mterest taken in this 
trial, and such the avidity of the 
publlck mind to know its progress, 
that to gratify it, the printers, by an 
astonishing effort, have the testimony 
of every day published in the even- 
ing papers of the same. The mass 
of testimony already taken, filed as 
I have seen it in some of the papers, 
is sufficient to make a large octavo 
volume. It is an amount of brothel 
abomination, utterly surpassing any 
thing I have ever seen in print The 
sober nart of the community lament 
exceedingly, as well they may, its 
exposure to the publick eye, on ac- 
count of tlie corrupting effect it is 
calculated to have. If only a moiety 
of it is true, her majesty must be a 
character of uncommon baseness. 
Yet it appears as if the popular fii- 
vour towards her rose, in proportion 
as the testimony against her in- 
creased, both in quantity and ma- 
lignity. The populace regard her 
as a persecuted woman, llie whole 
testimony against her being that of 
foreigners, is considered a mass of 
hired perjury; of course its abun- 



TVimgflUfltitffffc Jtgfffffefffiffttfr 



isr 



jid blacknets is proof, in 
imatioD, not of her gailty tmi 
lali^ity of her persecators. 
it IS alleged with acknow* 
tmd), that she cannot be 
n the particular criminalitj 
ich she is charged, than her 
iisort And the pttblick mind 
tt the deprayity and cmeitjr 
irt,in parsaing tier for crimes 
le than his own, and crimes 

• strong temptation to which 
elled her, bj casting her oflT, 

after harmg married her. 
form farour, too, extended to 
he yery time of his derange- 
1 the |Mui of the old king, is 
rfttl support to her cause* 
y high estimation in which 
MHTjof old George the Third 
iroong ail classes, altogether 
I me. From no quarter have 
any thing but the voice of 
Among the religious corn- 
it appears to be a unanimous 
at, that he is a saint in hea- 
le good old king is his usual 
ion. 

Hiblick mind is at this time 
lent ferment Political par- 
1 yerj high; and the licen'- 

• of the press quite sur- 
le. It appears to equal any 
lat oyer existed on our side 
Atlantick. I have seen a 
st publication, entitled ''A 
t tiie Peers,* in which the 
;les, hereditary distinctions, 
ge salaries from e;oyemment 
f in the House of Lords, are 

with all the roughness of 
emocracy is capable. Did I 
w the rode shocks which the 
goyemment has resisted, I 
le ready to apprehend thinp 

be fast verging to a crisis, 
{bt result in revolution. The 
Hit in tlie pablick mind is 
Y very great But the most 

as item in the whole as- 
rs is, the hold which infi- 
BS OD the community— very 
bfaik, beyond what exists in 
bed States. I have observed, 
d in laifie letters, over the 
a pm^DgaSBce, ia a publick 



street, « The QMeeofthf BtpMiemi 
ttndOeitt^ Tte conspirators IsJ»ly 
executed for an attempt to massacre 
the miniaters, were notorioasly of 
this description* After their con- 
demnation, some of them expressed 
great contrition, and gladly received 
Bie visits of such clergy as called- on 
them. Thesselwood, meir chief, re- 
mained obdurate to the last On the 
scaflfold, it is sud, he remarked to 
one of his associate, ^ we shall soon 
know the grand secret;" alluding 
either to tiie being of a Qod or the 
truth of revelation. 

To*morrow I expect to bid adieu 
to London,— certainly with, some 

Xt, to leave so soon a place 
B there is so much to be seen 
and heard. But I suppose it would 
be still more so, after a month^l so- 
journ. I have been informed that 
the medicinal waters of Cheltenham 
are very much of the same kind with 
those of Bagnieres, from which I de- 
rived so much benefit, and that the 
place itself is very inviting; and 
nealth being my paramount object, 
I have concluaea to spend some 
time there on my way to Liverpool, 
from which I count upon sailing by 
the beginning of October. 

Sincerely, yours, &C 



vom TIB caaimAS aovocatx. 

TRANSATLANTIOK RECOLLECTIONS. 

JVb. IX.* 

"Fonan ct h«c olim meminiflse juvtbit.'* 

It is well known that the Province 
of Ulster is the strong hold of Pres- 
byterianism in Ireland. This is 
easily accounted for, from the bet of 
its propinquity^ to the coast of Seot- 
lanu, nrom which country the fore- 
fatliera of the present race emigrated. 
Belfast* the capital of tiiis province, 
a place of some notoriety, is beauti- 
fiilly situated on Carrickiergus Bay. 

* Tlus number ougbt to have been 
pubBdied before the Uirt,— «[k iJCC»Aei\\. 
prevented it. We thettlQite i^lX iSldLV» 
It No. IX.— Burr. 



158 



TrantaUantick RecdUectiotis. 



Anttif 



This town has rendered itself pro- 
minent in the days that are gone, for 
its active resistance of arbitrary 
|x>wer; and it still retains its charac- 
ter for a devoted ness to freedom. 
No part of Ireland stands higher in 
the rank of literary eminence, or has 
done more for the civil and literary 
illumination of the country, than this 
northern metropolis. Its merchants 
are, generally speaking, men of lite- 
rary acquirements, and consequently 
patrons of the arts and sciences. In 
tact, so devotedly are they attached 
to mental improvement, and so libe- 
ral and princely are they in its en- 
couragement, that this place has been 
not unjustly designated as the Athens 
of tlie island. But notwithstanding 
this, such is the liberality of their 
politics,' and their independence of 
character, that they are constantly 
under the suspicion of the adminis- 
tration. As illustrative of this, I 
will give you a short history of the 
Belfast Jicademical Institution — for 
they have never been able to procure 
for it the appellation o(k college. 

It is matter of history, that both 
English and Papal episcopacy have 
long: ^^^ collegiate institutions in 
Ireland, liberally, if not lavishly en- 
dowed — while Presbyterians had to 
repair to another kingdom, to seek 
an education which could not be af- 
forded them in their own. The in- 
habitants of Belfast, ever alive to the 
literary wants of their country, had 
long thought of the necessity of sup- 
plying this great want; and in fact, 
the sentiment which prevailed 
throughout the whole province of 
Ulster, seconded and stimulated 
their feelings. It was supposed by 
many, and hoped by all, that the 
English government, which had been 
liberal even to prodigality, upon the 
same subject to its own church, and 
which extended this liberality to a 
sect which it denominates "the whore 
of Babylon," and for the downfall of 
which it prays — would foster an in- 
stitation for the Presbyterians also. 
This supposition was strengthened 
by the fact, that an Irishman, and the 
0OD of a Presbyterian elder, was at 



that time, prime minister of italic 
and prime confidant of nmlt& 
Under these auspices, and with ta 
expectation, the inhabitants of Bil- 
fast,^ with a liberality of pocket oib 
commensurate with the iiberaliljii 
their political sentimentB. erectei i 
magnificent brick buildings aa part rf 
a large and extended plan, rar As 
purposes of a collegiate oataUiik 
ment 

After they had thus erectd a 
building, and in part made profMi 
for professors, they modeatly aakei 
the assistance of tlie government ia 
a work which they found too gpvst 
for their own strength. On thiia^ 
plication, the administration, within 
luctance granted them the pltrf 
pittance of ^1500 annually. Mtai 
if the^r repented doing at all what 
they did with reluctance, they ssoa 
found an excuse to recal it; and thii 
excuse was a toasts complimeataiy 
to the United States of America; 
which was given by one of the under 
teachers of the institution, atadiih 
ner, on St. Patrick's day. This r^ 
bellious toast soon found its way ti 
the cabinet of the prime oiiniater; 
and immediately the board of ■•- 
nagers of the Belfast Academical In- 
stitution, were officially informed, 
that his majesty's government coaM 
not countenance, much less support, 
such a nursery of republicanism and 
rebellion, and that it must recal die 
grant unless — unless what? Wbf, 
unless they would resign into ther 
hands the direction of it!— Thatiiv 
that the Presbyterians, after erectiog 
splendid buildings, and partly endow* 
ing them, should give them into the 
hands of Episcopalians. This tbsf 
rejected with contempt, and the an- 
nuity was withdrawn. But this was 
not all. Lord Castlereagh, in his 
anxiety to crush the institution, en- 
deavoured to prevent the Presbyte- 
rian Synod ot Ulster giving it their 
patronage; and to accomplish tUi 
nefarious design, engaged as a tool 
and coadjutor, his old political friend, 
the Rev. Dr. Black, of the city of Lon- 
donderry — a man of gisantic pow- 
ers of mind, and who had long been 



Tii6mUantkk tUeoUeeSom. IM 

among hit brethren. Their a melancholy coincidence, that they 

rts were to be directs, at both died deranged^ and by their own 

meeting of Synod, aninst hands; 

riety of choosing a professor Poor Ireland, what a splendid mi* 
igy for the institution. The sery she is destined to bear ! At the 
son arrived when the Synod time when the whole Presbyterian 
Deet» and the great question popalation of Ireland asked the fing- 
ight forward ; when tne Head Usn {;ovemment to assist them in en- 
harch raised up another Dap dowiog a literary institntioo, they 
I not onljT succeeded in tri- had every ihinf apparentiyin tiieir 
tly carrying the point at &Tour; An Irishman was prime mi- 
nt in fact, dethroned Dr. nister.— -An Irishman was generalis- 
&nd took possession of his simo of her armies, reaping laurels 
d influence. 80 decided and enough to have covered the naked- 
ins was the Synod in this af- ness of his b^gar^ birth-place.— 
^butasingle individual voted An Irishman was viceroy of India, 
le Doctor and the prime reigning with a splendour which no- 
|; and he was one of those thing but distance prevented from 
ights that are contented to eclipsing the brilliancy even of his 
ites to bodies of greater mae* Britannick Majesty ; and to complete 

From this time Dr. Black this Irish galaxy, the House of Com- 
posed to labour under a pri- moos, wiftout contest or dispute, 
if intellect, until he put an bestowed the palm of eloquence upon 
(8 mortal existence, by throw- an Irish orator; and yet Ireland 
s^lf over the Derry bridge could not keep this little pittance— 
ugh Foyle. Poor man, he So true it is, that a ** house divided 
quently, before this sad ca- against itself cannot stand.** 
le, heard saying to himself, as Notwitiistanding, however, all this 
Led his room — ^"Dr. Black opposition, Belfast has supoorted its 

wron^. Had the whole Sy- institution to this day; ana, in point 

sd against him, I should have of literary standing, it is^ second to 

him right, and the Synod none of its age and experience. Its 

but when the only fool in the plan is unique and comprehensive, 

ody saw as he saw, and voted including within it a common school, 

rted, he must be wrong." It a high sdiool, and university; yet so 

a short time after this, when incorporated together, that they are 

, as if in meditation, along the inseparable parts of a whole. A boy 

id picturesque bridge which may go in there, hardly able to read, 

the Foyle, at Derry, the Doc- and come out a linguist, or a nato- 

lenly stopt, pulled off his sur- ralist, or a chymist, or a mathemati- 

it, handed it to a boy who cian, or a loeician, or a moralist 

moment was passing, and At the date ofthese recollections, its 

into the swelling flood. The faculty numbered eight professors, 

•d boy ran to the brink, and independentiy of hesd masters and 

the body rise — and sink, to tutors, and some of these men of 

more. eminent and profound talents. Its 

Uack and XiOrd Castlereagh chemical and natural philosophy 

d and intimate friends, and in chair, was filled by Dr. Knieht ; and 

lion of many, were coadjutors the elegant and accompliMied Dr. 

idtng poor Ireland. They John Young, presided with honour to 

mmenced their political ca- himself, and to the institution, in the 

tkeside of liberty, went over department of Ethics. The well- 

r to the side of tyranny, lived known and profound philologist, Nel- 

r on terms of ereat intimacy, son, was professor of Greek and 

■e than all, in death were not Hebrew ; while Mr. TVinmipMm«^«^ 

sd; for it 19 a siagolar and tined, if his health and V\C« ax^ v^* 



160 



•d BbU to L/ng-CmtipimdeiaB. 



lenredt to become one of the first 
nathematicians of the age, presided 
in the department of mathematiai» 
and its kindred sciences. Since the 
period referred to^ this Institution 
nas saSered the inestimable loss of 
the great pbilolo{|;istp Dn Nelson, a 
man who bsde fur to give his coan- 
trj a splendid' .namct in that walk of 
•aence. While paying this little 
tribote to tbe^ memory of a great 
Bcholar» my mind tarns almost in- 
stinctively to his name-sake and 
countryman, the present professor 
of languaees in Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick— a man, cast in a similar 
mould, pursuing the same path, and 
traTelling it too, with the same gi- 
gantick strides. In fact, when I 
int looked upon Dr. Nelson, of 
Brunswick, I soon found, by his 
mental vigour and acumen, that 
he was a representative, not only 
in name, and country, and pur- 
suits, but in talents and erudi- 
tion also, to the lamented professor of 
langjua^in the Belfast Academical 
Institution.^— I trust that no sinister 
motive may be attributed to an ob- 
scure and anonymous Remembrancer, 
for noticing, with so much freedom, 
a living character, belonging to a 
neighbouring and flourishing college. 
It has been prompted solely by rae 
singular coincidence of name, and 
country, and pursuits, and talents, 
with a great man, whose laurels are 
now waving over his cold grave; to- 
gether with the warm and unfeigned 
pleasure which I have, to know that 
such a representative of such a man, 
is now labouring for the character of 
American literature, and the prospe* 
rity and honour of the American 
church. 



A HINT TO LAY-OORRESPONDEKTS. 
TO THE EDITOB OY TES CHAIBTIlir ADTOCATB. 

Sir— -Through a former number of 
your Miscellany was addressed ^a 
Hint to Bookseuers.^ Of the writer 
of that article 1 know noUiing; bat 



the hint he gives needs not tibe 
tion of a name, or of a titic»aiid in 
further elucidation of tbo priacnks 
it contains, I desian fomt ^a Kit 
to La^<OTre^(maM$r 

Peinaps I cannot '|Nit ow sst le- 
marks the supersoriptioD *ayfr> 
teres ted f yet I believe I mm malt m 
a mood to complain, or t» atlr n im- 
proper Teelingp in otheni aad if fts 
evil I wish removed be of no gpsst 
magnitude, it admits of eatjr reorndy. 

As, in all cases» every man Ii 
obligated to do the y^tsii ai 
of fi^od possible inhurcirannflanca 
ana with his talents^ so ia bo spe- 
cially bound to improve biajpr^^ 
slonal opportunities of oacimbHssi 
and every 4hina is to bo rag 
which tends to umit bb inAM 
this respect I n^ not aigoo wiA 
my reader on the advantages of epi^ 
tolary correspondc>nce, when pi» 
perly conducted. Tboeo oapodslly,; 
who are in a peculiar state of ma4 
may be not a little benefited bjflhs 
wefl-tim^ remarks of an abseotsM* 
nisterial acquaintance. In tbiawsjt 
a minister may ** be instant oat of sm* 
son,* and that minister m kanily 
heedful of the apostidick h q ao c tian! 
who is not desirotts to inqRooe^ Is 
the spiritual benefit of his fneadib 
any special dispensationa of Pfeoi^ 
dence or of grace, that may be alle^ 
ted to them. Others, it is troob sHtv 
be equally userul in this way; butt 
choose to confine my remarta ta mh 
nisters, for a reason assinod in 1 Fet j 
V. 1, as also because, tor tho 
part, they are better qualified far 
this duty, and are likely to bo SMm 
successful, in a matter oppafeatlv 
growing out of their pnofeashnsl; 
character. Let the reader dtoAsctiy 
understand that we ciaias no 
pensation for these colbteal 
vices: nay, we account tbo iaattiBlt 
for the sacred office, who ia aawilfiog 
to bestir himself in duty* oieopt ia 
vie w of some earthly remanoratiaD. A| 
man, called of God to thia offioe,will 
prefer it, in the most im po v orishi n|j 
circumstances, to anv other nss^j 
however lucrative. He yiMB him* 



d Uini to Lay-CorrespoMdenU* 



161 



ing sacrifice to God, and is 
to encounter any difficulty 
mse in his roaster's service. 
e sacrifices which he ought to 
^ to make, others ouc^t not to 
g, and have no right, to ex- 
a minister write frequently 
:ases, he must subject him- 
10 inconsiderable expense, 
le answers to his comrouni- 
be post-paid, llie hint is 
icoming — ** Let Lay-corres- 
>, in tnese circumstances, 
entire expense." 
:onfirmation of the foregoing 



5, we observe — 



s an axiom in morals, that 
y benefited oudit to bear 
en« Every man is doubtless 

by the discharge of duty, 
privilege, as well as a duty, 
xi to all men as we have op- 
f. Those who water others 
watered in return: and that 

is not likely to be a ser- 

correspondent to otherSt 
ot richly repaid in his own 
But as the good of others is 

primary object, they cer- 
ight to bear the expense, 
s are led to the same con- 
ly analogy. 

indeed are to be pitied, who 
the ministerial office as a 
)fession, and whose prompt- 
:iple to the discharge of its 
B not the love of Christ 
ay preach Christ to others, 
kselves, if not renewed, will 
t castaways. Yet a minister 
oapel is a professional cha- 
nd entitled to the same pro- 
immunities as others. His 
•nal employment so coalesces 
{ ordinary duties and kind- 
riife, that we lose sight of him 
essional man. So far, this is 
oar mind, and promotive, we 
r his usefulness: but at the 
se, we would not have you 
• brethren, that in other pro- 
V.—Ctu Adv. 



fessions, gratuitous counsel is the 
utfiiost ever looked for. 

Finally. Do you not desire an iu' 
crease or ministerial usefulness? 

You will not deny that many have 
been useful hy correspondence, nor 
tliat many besides might be useful 
in the same way. Do jwk blame 
ministers for negligence in this par- 
ticular? Look at Kom. 2d chap. 1st 
verse, and 2d clause. The revenues 
of the clergy, for the most part, in 
this country, are very limited : and, 
even aside from the manifest injus- 
tice of being subject to an additional 
expense for every additional duty, 
most of the ministers of the gospel 
dare not engage in extensive corres- 
pondence. How easily might this 
hindrance be removed, and tne field 
of ministerial usefulness be enlarged ! 
The expense, thouffh considerable 
when convergent on nim, would not 
be felt if distributed among his cor- 
respondents, agreeably to the hint 
already ^ven. The indirect efforts 
of a minister might then spread over 
as wide a surface, and be productive 
of as healthful an influence, as his di- 
rect annunciations of gospel truth. 

The delinquency alluded to, is 
owing, I believe, in a great measure, 
to inadvertence. The minds of our 
Lay-brethren merely need to be stir- 
reef up, bj wtLj of remembrance, on 
this particular: and should the hint 
now given, remove to any extent the 
barrier, and rouse useful epistolary 
talent out of its present forced dor- 
mancy, the writer of this article will 
have the re<|[uital he mainly seeks. 

May ministers every where, and 
their people, be each others living 
and approving epistle, in the day 
when the secrets of all hearts shall 
be manifested by Jesus Christ 

Tlie foregoing remarks, in a great 
measure, preclude the necessity of 
subscribing myself 

A Clsrgtmax. 



162 



fitcli's Uiicounes on the MLlnre of Sin. 



Ana. 



tit\>itta§. 



riTCH*8 DISCOURSES ON THE NATURE 

OF BIN. 

(Concluded from p. 136.) 

But we come to tlie third argu- 
meot, which in all reason ou^it to 
have been the first; and which, if 
substantiated, was the only one that 
was necessary. 

" I appeal again,** says the writer, 
(p. 8tli) " to thte views of Chd, as ex- 

tressed in his law^ higjudgment^ and 
is direct testimony/' 
As this is the kind of evidence to 
which we feel disposed implicitly to 
anbmit, we have, with some solici* 
tode, examined what Professor Fitch 
has written, to see whether the 
scriptures do indeed pronounce a 
decisive sentence in his favour. But 
we tan truly say we have found no- 
thing of that import. The Professor 
may be said to have run away with 
the argument, rather than to have 
set it before our eyes in a clear light 
Let it be distinctly kept in view, 
that there is no question whether 
actual sin consists essentially in 
wrong exercise of mind ; in this all 
are agreed. Therefore, if ever so 
many texts arc adduced, in which 
such exercises are required, or in 
which contrary exercises arc de* 
nounced as sinful, nothing is proved 
which any one is disposed to deny. 
The single point in debate is, whe- 
ther that nature of the soul from 
which a continual succession of evil 
thoughts proceeds, is sinful? Here, 
he denies, and we affirm. Now, the 
sum and substance of what he pro- 
duces in proof from scripture, is, 
that the law of God commands no- 
thing else but voluntary actions, and 
forbida nothing else, therefore sin 
consists in nothing else. **Thoushalt 
love the Lord thy CM with all thy 
heartt and thy neighbour as thyself." 
In answer, we observe, that the 
law of God in requiring our love, does 
virtually require that state,or temper. 



or disposition of the soul, from 
love proceeds, as a stream from^itt 
fountain — Where there is a unifom 
failure of those exercises of love 
which the law requires, not only is 
there a fault in the deficiency ef 
holy acts, but in that state, or na- 
ture of the soul, which la tbe caosc 
of this defect. And as we ^Vf^ 
stand the scriptures, this cormptiMi 
of heart, which is antecedent to its 
acts, and is the source of their evil, 
is often spoken of in the word ef 
God. The professor does, indeed, 
insist, that when the scriptuRi 
speak of an evil heartt they mesa 
nothing more than the ainnii voli- 
tions of the heart, independentljr if 
their cause. But we have notUag 
for this interpretation of anch ex* 
pressions, but his own aaa er tiafl. 
We think otherwise; and will en- 
deavour to prove, that there are 
texts of scripture which do Dot ad- 
mit of this interpretation.^ It ii 
somewhat remarkable, that in nei- 
ther of these discourses, is there 
any mention of those passages of 
scripture, which have commonly 
been adduced to prove the doctrine 
of inherent depravity, lliat remark- 
able passage in the 5l8t Psalm, ii 
one to which we refer: Behold I was 
shapen in iniquiiyt and in sin did 
my mother conceive vie. Now, un- 
less in the first moment of exist- 
ence when conceived in the womb, 
there be an exercise of volition, in 
which the embryo, as a moral aeent, 
violates a known rule of duty, diese 
words can never be reconciled with 
Professor F.'s theory— He will be 
under the necessity of resorting to 
the old, forced construction of the 
Pelagians. 

Again* in Job, it is said. Who can 
bring a dean thing out of an m- 
clean? not one* And Ephes. xi. 3. 
JSnd were by nature the children 
of wrath even as others. What the 
author has learnedly written, in one 
of bis notes, in explanation of the 



issr. Fitctfg Discourses tm the Miturt tfSin. 163 

word M^^i«^ does by no means sa- «ny cause which prec^dea in the order of 

tisfy us, that the common under- nature, wid renden certain the sinfiU de- 

sUndine of that word, accordioff to tennmationB and choices of the agent. 

aMuuiii^ "" .1 Tl ' av™"V'» y FoT although a previous choice, which 

which It signities the seat ot the at- ^ae wrong, may influence an agent in 

fections, is not the true one* It is making a present wrong choice, yet to 

so i;eiierally admitted, that a sue- make a present sin consist in its beinr 

cession of thoughts or volitions, good ocawoned by a previous choice which 

or evil, must Lve a principle, or i^S^X^^^r^^lTniL-^.T^^^^ I? 

* g. 1-lal '•* make the sin of that previous choice it- 

source from which they originate, gclf, to lie, not in itself but in some pre- 
that It IS commonly assumed as a vious sinful choice of the agent which in- 
self-evident truth: And we do not fluenced him to it; and so on, till we 
perceive, that the author of these come to the first choice or act of will in 
discourses denies this principle. He the series, which could have no act of 
- r lu TL «u* I 4U.i. will preceding it to constitute It Sin,— «o 
IS not one of those who think that ^h.^ \>„ ^hi, »osi^^„ there could be no 

our thoughts have no cause of their such thing as sm, in the whole series of 

exi«itence in the soul itself. This he acts from first to last. Besides, many 

admits; but denies that there is any things influence an agent to a present 

moral evil in tliis cause, however determination of evil, aside from preWoua 

sinful iU effects may be. We shall ^iT^jro^ Ut^an^d'^^^^^^^ l^^ 

have occasion again to return to this to the agency of others: and to make 

point. On the present argument we his rin lie in such a cause of his determi- 

would only observe further, that nations, and not in his determinations 

what has already been menUoned. I*'5'n"«l?«^^o">^J?\ ^. J™^^ that pep. 

respecting sins of omission, b itself Kine •• '"* ^ 

a sufficient answer to all that is said ^' 

on this part of the subject, and proves As to the consequences of tc^rotir 

conclusively that all sin does not con- choices^ we have nothing to do with 

ust io oels. for the root of all sin is them now. What we assert and 

Ihe omission of loving God. what Professor F. denies, is. that 

The fourth and last argument of the causes of sinful choices, which 

the preacher is, " An appeal (p. 12) exist in the disposition, or temper of 

to toe nJ^rdUy of supposing that tlie soul itself, are sinfuL We 

any thing else should constitute a have not been able to see that he 

ground of blame, in the subjects of has made it appear, that any ab- 

moral govcrninent; and the reosoniz- surdity is consequent on this opi- 

Ueness of taking this view." nion. What is said about one choice 

being influenced by a previous one, 

"£?• k"??^?"T^^a*^^T'T^^ is nothing to the purpose. The com- 

we take that leads not to obntrAty? For, . ,.= |. ^^ *^^ y .t, .. ^ ^...^^ 

^n mutt Be, either in the corueguencet of "npn belief of men IS. that the cause 

wiong choices of the agent, or in the of evil .choices IS a moral corruption 

oHMet of them, or else in the -wrong existing in the soul; and we do not 

chaieet tkemtehet. But sin cannot lie gee a single word io the amplifica- 

mply ill the conuguaicet of wrong ^j^,^ ^f t^ig argument, which goes to 

cboicet, that they occasion evil to others. ,• ^.„ xu.* *u^zL ;« ««„ •Kon.3u» :» 

Foralthough it may be true that mn does ^^^"^ ^** there is any absurdity in 

in mo0t cases occasion evil to others, yet 8ttch a supposition. Indeed, to our 

the siB itaelf is distinct from the evil flow- apprehension, the absurdity lies all on 

from it, nor does it essentially consist the other side. To maintain, that 



we 
sin 



ID Its actually occasioning evil to others. ^^^ jg ^ cause existing in the soul 

f5r;;;r;rrir'rn^urj^^ f-^l -»^f aU sinful volitions pro. 

and mm^g men, it may be that, the ceed, and yct, that this pnnciple has 

worst MIS in them may be prevented no moral evil m it. bears very much the 

from acfcaaUy bringing enl on others, and appearance of a palpable absurdity. 



Ijbeir best conduct, on the other hand, (as f^ geems to us like saying, that tbei-o 

jp the sdministraiion of salutarv correc j gomething. or rather every tiling, 

tion.) may occasion it in a high degree. : •"•"'*•" a» ... j/ . .5' 

- ftor iMn it lie in the coii.* thit influ- >« «« effect, ^AucVv vi^% tloX. \ii VC^^ 

«B agSDt to lifiik/ cMcen. 1 mean cause; whl£ll\stVveatt>Uit^V^«a:^V'* 



164 



Fitehfi Discounts on the M^iture ofi^n. 



AnsLf 



there is an effect without a cause. 
Or it is like the assertioD that if a 
vessel contain poison, yet there is 
nothing evil in it, unless the contents 
be put in motion. 

The point of difference between 
Professor F. and us, is not, whether 
the posterity of Adam have under- 
gone a chan^ in consequence of his 
fall. This, indeed, he seems reluc- 
tant to grant in the body of his dis- 
courses, but in the notes appended, 
he plainly reco^ises the lact, that 
there is an ''effect on their constitu- 
tion, which renders tlieir sinning cer^ 
tain." There is then a corruption 
of the constitution of man. some- 
how or other, his soul has suffered 
injury. This is admitted. The soul 
is so injured that the sinning of 
every man who comes into the world 
is certain; and it is also certain, 
that left to himself, he will do no- 
thing else but sin. This depravity. 
Professor F. and those who agree 
with him, assert, is not of a moral 
mature— is not sinful. If it be not 
moral, then,to use the language of this 
school, it is physical. The true state 
of man by nature, therefore, accord- 
ing to this theory, is, that he inherits 
from Adam, a physical defect, which 
is the certain cause of his sinning, 
but which has in itself nothing of the 
nature of sin. The heart is diseased, 
but there is no evil in the disease, 
until it puts forth acts; and although 
the disease of the heart is the sole 
cause of the evil of the actions, yet 
the heart which produces these 
streams of moral evil, partakes not 
at all of that mali&;nity which it com- 
municates« While the thoughts and 
volitions which it sends forth are 
abominable and deserving; of eternal 
deati), the source itself is pure, and 
entirely free from fault If men can 
please tliemselves witii such philoso- 
phy and theoloey as this, they are 
welcome to all tne honour and grati- 
fication which tlieir peculiar notions 
may obtain for them. But what is 
not a lihle surprising, they establish 
that very physical depravity of which 
they are so much afraid. Adam has 
"entailed upon his posterity the 



causes of sin, mortality, and Gondca- 
nation." — (p«4S.) 

But after all, this is the labouring 
point in the new system; and die 
Professor seems exceedingly anwtll- 
ine to come to an explanation if 
what constitutes this necessity if 
sinning, in all Adam's posterior: and 
upon a second reading of what he 
says, we ai;e doubtful whether or mC 
he makes this inherited caote of sin- 
ning, to be internal or external. 
'* Do you ask," says he, ** how AAwm 
could occasion a moral certainty, ap- 
plying to every instance of his poe- 
terityr I may reply, that if I cannot 
tell how, it may yet be true; for 
there are many instances of moral 
certainty which I know to be in fact 
founded on their proper canses, 
but cannot exactly state how they 
are." We are the more disposed to 
doubt, whether we have undentood 
the writer correctly on this point; 
because in a pamphlet, on hnman 
depravity, published in the city of 
New York, and believed to be from 
the same school, the writerexplicitlr 
denies that the soul of man has suf- 
fered any iniury by the fall; and as- 
serts that the certaint;^ of sinning 
(which he also admits) is owing en- 
tirely to the state of temptation to 
whicn man is exposed. Now, this 
is honestly speaking out When a 
man avows such opinions as these, 
we know where to place him. He 
may still profess to be orthodox, and 
may associate with the orthodox; 
but if this is not barefaced Pelagian- 
ism, then Pelagius was no Pelagian. 
But Professor F. is extremely cau- 
tious here. He endeavours to keep 
this point out of view, by raising a 
mist about it He asks a question, 
and then flies off with a vague, 
unsatisfactory reply. Now to us it 
seems to be a cardinal point, to 
know where this cause lies. If it 
be internal, then an internal remedy 
is needed; if it exist in outward cir- 
cumstances, then it will be sufficient 
to seek to have these changed. This 
is certainly a point which ought not 
to be left in the dark. Men, it 
seems, are under a moral certainty 



Fitch's Discourses on the Miture of Sin. 



165 



?. 



and doing nothing else 
} long as they are left to 
s; bo t why so r Where is 
P Is there any defect in 
U which lays us under this 
sity? We really need in- 
here. But the Professor 
us no satisfaction. He 
^re are many instances of 
ainty which I know to be 
bonded on their proper 
t cannot exactly state what 

lions men did not involve 
s in a mist of metaphysics, 
r could persuade them- 
t such a theory as we are 
idering, would have any 
to remove the objections 
\ made to the scriptural 
»f original sin. The doc- 
he imputation of Adam's 

rejected as unreasonable 
;hteous — And what then? 
, in consequence of being 
sn of Adam, are born in a 
iherent depravity; and for 
ivity, which is visited on 
no other reason but be- 
r first father was depraved, 
ioomed to everlasting mi- 
requires little discernment 
.t this scheme removes no 

or if it seem to remove 
istitutes another far more 
u Hence this scheme of in- 
iravity is rejected by some, 
^ theory is invented. Men, 
do not inherit from Adam 
y kind, either imputed or 
but only "the caused of 
ality, and condemnation, 
lie difficulties about origi- 

is supposed, are removed 
•There is in fact no such 
ery good: but how is it 
t all men sin as soon as 
capable of moral action? 
ination is, that they have 
m them from Adam, " the 

sin, mortality, and con- 
i.** And will the cavilling 
t be satisfied with this? 
riil aay immediately—" It 
ill evasion. You tell me 
i A sinner bjr inheritance 



from Adam, but assure me that the 
causes of sin are entailed upon me-^ 
causes, so certain in their operation, 
that not one of all the millions of 
Adam's race ever escaped the pol- 
lution." And truly, as far as the 
righteousness of Uod is concern- 
ed, it is not of the least conse- 
quence, whether this powerful 
cause be external or tntemaL In 
the upshot, it all amounts to the 
same thing. Man b under a moral 
necessity of becoming a sinner ; and 
for this sin, the causes of which are 
entailed .upon him, he must die. 
What is there in the imputation of 
the first man's sin, more unreasona- 
ble or unrighteous than this? 

We will now consider this doc- 
trine in its bearings on other doc- 
trines connected with it; and we 
will make our remarks short, leaving 
it to the reader to fill up the out- 
line. 

1. According to this theory, which 
makes all sin to consist in wron^ 
choices^ and all holiness in right 
choices, it was impossible that man 
should have been created in the 
moral image of God, or in a state of 
holiness; for man must have had an 
existence before he could choose, and 
choosing was his own act, therefore he 
could not have been created in k 
holy state, but must have formed 
the holiness of his own character, by 
right choices. The causes of holi- 
ness, however, mij^t have been cre- 
ated in him, or with him. 

2. This theory is a complete de- 
nial of the doctrine of original sin, 
in all its parts, both imputed and in- 
herent We can scarcely acquit the 
reverend Professor of some want of 
candour, in what he writes about ori- 

! final sin, in one of his inferences, 
see p. 27) where he says — •'The 
subject may assist us in making a 
right explanation of original sin,"— > 
and that ** nothing can in truth be 
called original sin, but his first moral 
choice or preference being evil." 
But Professor F. knows as well as 
any one, that there never existed ti 
heretick who demed on^naX %\ti« ^^- 
cording to this dtfkui^oii* V^t la 



146 



FUdCM BUcmmei m ike Mkhun if am. 



all Meii sio, there moit be a/rsi nn. 
Pelegioiy if thb be a correct deCnU 
tioD, held the doctrine of ortgtoal 
•to, u fiillj u AocDStine; and much 
more eorreeily^ if we receive this 
theorj. But let men deal fairly 
with their reader»-^f they reject an 
old doctrine. Jet them not retain the 
name, as a blind to impose on the 
ignorant and unwary. - * 

There is; indeed, one scheme on 
which original sin may consist with 
this new theory, and that is the opi- 
nion, that man is a moral agent in 
the womb, and pots forth wronf 
ehoiees in the first moment of his 
conception: bat Professor F. has ex- 
cluded himself from the benefit of 
this theory, by his definition of sin, 
that it is ** the violation of a known 
law;** for it will scarcely be con- 
tended that the newly. formed ^- 
muncidus has the knowledge of law; 
it might as well be supposed that he 
was a fC^'^t philosopher, and under- 
Itood all the laws of nattire. 

It was matter of surprige, there- 
fore, to find the learned Professor, in 
one of his notes, (p. 45) hesitating, 
whether this might not be the tri^ 
doctrine; at least refusing to ex- 
press any opinion, and very formal- 
ly recounting the reasons, pro and 
con. Unhappily, for him, nowever, 
he had prejudged the cause already. 
Whoever can adopt this theory, he 
cannot, while he maintains the fun- 
damental proposition of his whole 
system. The conclusion is evident, 
therefore, that this theory subverts 
the doctrine of original sin, tit toto. 

3. If furnishes no reason why in- 
fants are subject to suffering and 
death. They are treated as sinners, 
^hile they are perfectly innocent. 
Let the advocates of this opinion ex- 
ercise all their ingenuity to invent 
some more plausible reason for this 
procedure of the Divine eovem- 
ment, than did Pelagins. if tbev 
can satisfactorily remove this diffi- 
culty from their system, we shall be 
disposed to think more favourably 
pf it But we are persuaded that 
this single fici will forever be fiital 
(o every system, which denies that 



have sin impnted ti 
And the Professor rau mot e 
ticed this difficulty; perh 
judged it best to keep it iHii < 

4. Bat if infants have no i 
have no need of redemption, 
died only for sinners, therefoi 
infiints that die before they 
moral aeents, have no part 
death of Christ; bat are si 
saved it all. without a M* 
which is in' direct contradii 
the scriptures, and the perpe 
lief of the universal church* 

5. On this principle, infant 
die before they commit sin, I 
need of regeneration by di 
Bpirit They are not poUut 
sin, and why should they be 
rated? 

6. According to this theor 
is no meaning in baptism as 
to infants. This sacrament, a 
ediy is an emblem of the el 
of me sin-polluted soul, by di 
ing of regeneration. Pelagi 
not more ^veiled by any ol 
made to his doctrine, than bj 

7. It is difficult to say wn 
neration is, in adult sinners, 
ing to this theory. Undoobi 
must remove the cause of e* 
tions, or irroii^ choices; bi 
that cause is does not appear 
is a defect in the soul itself, 
must be a new creation of tl 
as to its physical powers; ba 
this is a stranse notion of re 
tion. But if me cause of the 
choice is without us, then the 
need of any operation on tl 
but merely a change of exter 
cnmstances. The writer on 
depravity, mentioned above, 
the supernatural agency of th 
necessarv, to give force to i 
and render them eiectoal ; t 
any supernatural agency sh* 
deemed necessary apon his 
we cannot understand. Wl 
soul is in itself perfectly fa 
depravity, except what exist 
acts, there seems to be no ma 
necessity for any IKvine pvwi 
«xerted. All that is necessa 
^^lesent aaffldent motives to 



liDfftftnd this clui be effected tem ; for ihos, withoat any inherent 

oai instraction, by means of principle of ml^ total depravity can 

d, without any supernatural be ajDcoanted for. Bat tiiis new 

dorma u contrary to all eiperience. 

this doctrine be true, then and therefore ought to be rejected . 

no more sin in the worst as false. 

ing, when not engaged in Finally^ we close oar examination 

:tion, than in the best. Judas of these discourses* by expressing 

when asleep* had no more our regret, that Professor Fitch has 

1 in his heartt than the be- published on this sutgect so hastily, 

hn ; or even than there was We are informed that be is yet a 

potless human seal of Jesus jonuf man* and. we think therefore 

that it would have been wise in him, 
cording to this doctrine* it to have revolved this theory in his 
t appear how there can be mind, and to have discussed it with 
1 things as moral habits. his friends, for half a score of years 
'wo principles are assumed to come; for it is no very easy mat- 
i diKourses which have no ter for a professor of theology to re- 
on in truth; the. first is, that tract an opinion which he has once 
«e the soul itself to be stain- published to the world. Honour, in- 
inherent depravity, is to terest, consistency, all are pledged, 
epravity a pnyncal thing* to go .on defending what has once 
truth is, moral principles can been uttered, eo? co&eifra. Few men 
the soul, when not exercised, have the magnanimity.or shall we call 
rell as intellectual faculties, it homility, of an Augustine, a La- 
' by f^iiealt be understood ther, or a Baxter, to retract and re- 
ich IS natural, then native fate their own errors. 
y is ph^ical ; but if by it be We must also express oar tur- 
lottethine which is opposed prise and grief, that on the very 
is moTM, then the assump- spot, where we had supposed the 
Use. sound theology of President Ed- 
^therprinciple assumed with- wards had taken deeper root than 
ttdation in these discourses, any where else in the world, there 
if one choice be wrongs ail should be promulgated, bv men call- 
low it will be so, according ed orthodox, a system subversive of 
Itimate law of our constitu- the radical principles of that great 
rhe author's words are*— and good man! 
M it is an ultimate fiict, that _ 
!ial choice or preference of a * 

^nd or forbidden object does, ^ dissbrtatiok ok thb marbxagx 

ccasion the certainty of a ^, ^ ^^^ ^^ „3 „^^ „ ^^^ 

i .\!!^? .""f r'^ choice by By John H. LMngstan. B.D. 

It, the total depravity of the ^fj, p^ jy^ Bnmsiiek. Frmt^ 

'^ ?T°'^T?*^ f . •*"■ id bM Deare » Mger. 1826. ». 

I of die will to evil, sustains jyg? gcktvo. 

the acts of the agent, as ' 

other, the relation of a pri- the dootrw* or wokst stateb; 

Buential cause of their being ^«* 21 ff?**'*^?^ ^ thejptn^ 

w 89.) This U a new philo- Hon, Whether a Man m^^M^^ 

r the human mind ; that if a hieieteaud mfe$ Stsierftna 

sent make one wrong choice. {fS^^ aSSTT £J^ 

matter of constitutional ne- lyeitfi^riaH mnreh; ey Jfom€9^ 

that all consecutive acts *«*«• Becand edition, pp. 4B;oe- 

b» evil also. It seems to ^^^ 

tn invented for the occasion, tbs Aaavicmirr of nomsrusisv ^ni 

mbMxmmaiBg&eBewsyg' lA^fMSliomii^hcHur a Jloaawya»| 



168 PuNicatiam relative fo Ateeii. ' « j 

Morn his deceased Wifffs 8isUr^ . vive our recollectiont ; tnd y» 

camsidered in a LeUer to a Cbr- it maj not be amiss to Iqr bef 

gyman of the Bef armed Dutch readers a few auoUtions fni 

dhurdu By Clerieus. ^flewYork^ historian, and afterwards to ci 

W. E. Dean^ Printer , 1827. pp. a historical view of the sQlge 

d5 ; octavo. verj eeneral kind however) fi 

RBMARKs ON THE LBTTBR OF DOMES- P*"od of the Reformation 

Ticus, containing the Doctrine of |N«ent time. 

Incest stated; with an examina^ , « ^" be recollected tha 

tion of the question. Whether a •'"""? »*« grarfted a dispe 

Man may Marry hU deceased ^ "«°«7 to marry the wife 

¥Fif^s a&ter. By Veritas. JV^ deceasrf brother; and that I 

York. PuhlidiedhyO.^aCar^ cessor. Clement, could never 

vU» 1827. pp. 40. 8vo. vailed on to disannul the mar 

E0CLE8IA8TICALPROCEEDINGS,IK THE JJL^ l!:!!:!£f ^^J ^"^"1^ 

CAS. OF Mil. DONALD M'CRIMMON. l"hU U^^^!^!^^ L^^^^ 

ByCoHnMIver.V.DM pp. ^S L"SK"^^^^^^^^ 

• ^ political considerations. 

CONSIDERATIONS on ^ profossd «Hcnrv," aayi Hume, ^Mta 

erasure of Sect 4, Chap. xxiv. of his scruples srose entirely from 

the Presbyterian Confession of reflection; and thst, on consul 

Faiih, whtch asserts, that " The confessor the Bishop of Lincoln,! 

ktndrei, nearer tn Hood than he .elf Being so giSit a ^u£t am 

may of hts own; nor the woman next proceeded to ennune the i 

of her husbawTs kindred, nearer more carefully by his own Idara 

. m blood than of her own.** By >^udy ; and having recourse to ' 

Ezra Styles Ely, D. D. ?*" Aquine. he observed that th 

•^ brated doctor, whose autbori^ w 

The subject of these publications >i^ the church, and absolute with I 

is one which has for us no attrac- treated of that very case, and I 

tions; and as many folios us this LTte!ll^***Th?Sd^^ 

review exhibits tiUcs of pampbleto Thomas, coined in^Levito 

might have been published, m rela- among the rest that of manyini 

tion to it, without aoj notice from ther's widow, are moral, etem 

us, if the General AMembly of ttic ^^ded on a divine sanction; and 

Presbyterian Church had not seen ^l IZ^t^Iu^H^^"^ f'^^'' 

.1 I. J I-* I. tne cnurcn, the laws of God ca 

meet to make an order, which seem- ,et aside by authority iSs S 

ed to call our attention to it as a which enacted them. TheArchbi 

matter of duty. In the discharse of Canterbury was then applied to ; 

this duty, unpleasant as we have ^" required to consult his br 

found it, we have not only pretty AU the prelates of England, 

carefully perused all the publications """ 

mentioned at the head of this article. ^^ celebrated Charles Fox who 

but a good deal more. We knew SlirJSf^h^n^h^^^^ 

ff'Il'^rf"^^'"^^"."^!!."'^!' &twetn^^r'to\^e"^ 

England, who bad marned his bro- a king or a priest was the subject 

ther's widow, all the learning of Eu- the prejudices of Hume do not ap 

rope was put in requisition to throw ^^ *^ influence in what he re< 

light on this subject We therefore. f."»««ton»n. on the topick under coi 

Hume's* History of England, to re- total disregard of reveUtion. l 

historical statements are the leai 

• Hume is a writer whom, on certain suspected, because they contiavi 

subjects, we should never quote as an aup own opinions, 

thority. If we recollect nghtly^ it was • Burnet, Fiddes. 



Pablkatiims reUUive io Inctd. 



169 



Biabop of Rochester, iiiwnimoiuly 
[1» under their baml and teal, that 
emcd the king's nuurriage unlaw- 

le in the course of his namp 
ofesses to eximioe ** the ques- 
r HeDry^ marriage with Ca- 
U by tne principles of sound 
iphj, exempt irom supersti* 
uid declares that ''it seemed 
Ue to much difficulty.** After 
ig into a detail of reasons to 
hat the kinjz|^ scruples were 
issary, he acQs— 

;in opposition to these reasons, 
oy more which mieht be coUect- 
ny had custom and premlent on 

; the principle by wnicb men arc 
vhoUj governed in their actions 
imons. The marrying of a bro- 
vidow was so unusual, that no 
Mtaoce of it could be found in any 
or record of any Christian nation ; 
mgh the popes were accustomed 
SBse with more essential precepts 
ifity, and even permitted marriages 
Dtber prohibited degrees, such as 
€ uncle and niece, tlie imagina- 
' men Were not yet reconciled to 
rticular exercise of liis authority. 
I univermties of Europe, therefore, 
t hesitation, as well as without in- 
or reward,! gave verdict in the 
finrour; not only those of France, 
Means* Bourgcs, Toulouse, An- 
vhich miglit be supposed to lie 
lie in6ucncc of tlieir prince, ally 
7 ; but also those of Italy, Venice, 
If Padua ; even Uolo|!^na itself, 

under the immediate jurisdiction 
Dent. Oxford alone, t and Cam- 
S^ made some diiFicultv; because 
■iversities, alarmed at the progress 
leranism, and dreading a defection 
le holy sec, scrupled to give their 
n to measures wliose consequences 
ared would prove fatal to the an- 
eligion. I'heir opinion, however, 
nable to tlut of the oUicr univcr- 
if F«uropc, was at last obtained; 
e king, in order to give more 

to all these authorities, engaged 
ility to write a letter to (he pope. 
Bending his cause to tlic holy 

and threatening liim witli the 
uigerous consequences in case of 



imet, vol t. p. 6li. istuwc, p. J4ii 

^rbvrt. Uurnet. 

(KmI, Hbtt. and Aiil. Ox. hb i p. 

irnet, vol. i p. 



a dental of justice.* The convocatton 
too, both of Canterbury and York» pro- 
nounced tlie king's marriage invaCd; Ir- 
rej^ular, and contrary to the law of God* 
with which no human power had autho- 
rity to dispense.'*f " 

Another quotation and wje shall 
have nearly done with Mr* Home* 
Speaking of the Parliament which 
sat in 1532, he 



*<Itis remarkahlo that one TeOMe ven- 
tured this seaaion to move* that the house 
should address the king to take back the 
Queen, and stop the prosecution of hla 
divorce. This motion made the kii^ 
send Ifar Audley the speaker; and ezphUn 
to htm the scruples with which hit con- 
science had kHi^ been biudencd; scru- 
ples, he sud, which had proceeded from 
no wanton appetite, which had arisen af- 
ter the fervours of youth were past, and 
which were coniinned by tlie conranring 
sentiments of all the learned societies in 
Europe. Except in Spain and Pottugalt 
he aoded, it was never neard of that any 
man had espoused two sisters; but he 
himself had the misfortune, he befievchd, 
to be the first Christian man that had 
ever married his brother's widow."i 

All who are acquainted with the 
character of Henry VIIL know that 
when he wished to get rid of a wife 
-—and he had not less tlian foor that 
he did wish to get rid of— he was 
never at a loss for means to accom- 
plish his purpose. Death or divorce, 
as Uie one or the other might seem 
most expedient at tlic time, was 
8|iecdily made tlie instrument to dis- 
sever the marriage bond, by whicli 
the reckless tyrant was bound to his 
unhappy consort. The opinions and 
the professed feelings of such a man, 
when standing by themselves, would 
certainly with us stand for nothing. 
They stand for nothing in the pre- 
sent case, farther than as tlicy cer- 
res|)ondcd with tltose of abler and 
better men; althougli the Eighth 
Henry of England had, questionless, 
more talent and more learning .than 
one monarch of a thousand. But 
wliat he said to the speaker of the 
House of Commons, as given in the 



* Kymcr, vol. :uv. 405. liuruct, vol. 
t Kymcr, ^ol. 3uv. \>, iaG* K}%. 



170 



rdative to ImcesL 



last quotttioDy was as he declared, 
and as is coafirnded by a preceding 
qQOtation» the fair result of reports 
and d^bioDS from the most learned 
vniversities and individuab of Bo- 
rope* in his case. We wish that the 
hst quoted sentence from Hame 
maybe particalarly noted; because 
it contains what we believe to be the 
exact truth, and for the sake of 
which our whole reference to this 
case has been made. It has been 
made to show what was the state of 
pnUick opinion, in regard to the 
sobject before us, throughout the 
whole of Christendomi at Qie period 
of the Protestant reformation. It 
was known then, as it is known now, 
that in ancient Persia and Egypt, 
pa{^ princes, esteeming it a deera- 
datton to marry either with their 
own subjects or with the royal fami* 
lies of other nations, had espoused 
their nearest relatives; ana that 
Vortigem, king of South Britain, 
while Britain was yet Pa^nn, had 
married his own daughter. But this 
faeatiienish and abominable incest, 
and all approximation to it, had al- 
ways, and with entire unanimity, 
been regarded with horror by ail 
Christians, from the earliest d^s of 
the church up to that time. At one 

Eriod, indeea, the church had gone 
r to the other extreme, and made 
it incest to marry within the seventh 
de^e, either of consanguinity or af- 
finity. But to marry within the 
fourth was, as Henry asserted, un- 
heard of; except that in Spain and 
Portugal* there had been some in- 

* The tbject subjecUon of Spain and 
Portu^ to Romish superstition and papal 
mntbonty, beyond any otiier countries of 
Europe, *is well known. Portugal has 
long exhibited the roost disgusting exam- 
ples of incestuous marriages. Near the 
dose of the 17th century, the ver^ case 
occurred for which John the Baptist re- 
piOT^ Herod. We have the following 
record, in relation to Alphonso, King of 
Portugal, and his brother, Don Peter. 
** Alphonso't wife having transferred her 
ailections to Don Peter, a circumstance 
which had led her to induce her husband to 
■ubmit to the resi|piation [of his crownl, 
their marriage bavm|f been declared null 
by the chapter of Loabon, and the regent 



stances of a man espoudnj 
ters. This howerer bad al) 
done by a dispensation 
Pope, whose power was no 
nied and disregarded by Pi 
but in this matter seemi 
been much questioned, eTen 
staunch Romanists—- That 
could not legpilize the mi 
two brothers with the sam 
was the very case, on whick 
of learning and religion t 
Europe had been given am 
Let us now see how th 
has been viewed by the wl 
of European Protestan 
since the separation from 
mish church. As speedily 
ticable, after the reform] 
Protestant churches sever 
up and published Formu 
Articles, of their Faith, 
lection of these, which 
made, and published in I 
being just now at hand, 
ourselves of the labours o 
nerable man, lately decea 
published, about ten yei 
the work whose title stani 
the head of this review, 
found learning, fervent p 
scrupulous conscientiousn 
Livingston, afford an am[ 
for the verity and accura 
statements. After show 

having gained a papal dispen 
the consent of tne states, m 
lady who- had been bis brot 
On the death of Alphonso, i 
succeeded by the title of Pete 
Hcle Portxigaly in J^ew Edinbi 
clopmdia, ** Joseph, who died 
having left no sons, was succce 
daughter Mary, whom he ha 
by dispensation from the Pof 
Peter, her uncle, with a view c 
ing the crown from falling into 
family."— /^lU "The Prince 
the son of that incestuous m 
wedded to his aunt." — Buck^i 
cat Dictionary, Article Inceat, 
have not only an uncle mai 
niece, but a nephew marryinj 
The late contract of marriage 
Don Miguel and his niece, thi 
of the Emperor of Brazil, sliows 
incest is still as ra:}hionabic . 
Portugal. 



1827. 



Publications relative to Incest. 



in 



s 



not only the earlj fathers of the 
Christian church, both Greek and 
Latin, in the works which thej 
published as individuals, but also 
in the decrees of several ecclesias« 
tical councils formed under their 
influence, were unanimous in con- 
demning as incestuous, marriages 
within the usually prohibited de- 
grees ; and that the Komish church, 
agreeably to what we have already 
seen, had ever done the same, he 
adds— 

** Among the celebrated reformers 
there was not a dissenting voice. They 
were explicit and unanimous upon the 
subject.* Zuinglius, in a letter to Grine- 
11% enlarges upon ibur points, asserting 
—1. That although civil magistrates should 
tolente such marriages, yet no power on 
earth can render void the law of God. 
2. That the apostles made no new law re- 
specting marriage, under the gospel, but 
left this article as they found it 3. That 
marnriog within near degrees was abhor- 
red by the Greeb and other civilized 
heathen. And, 4. Tliat such marriages, 
being against the law of God, oug^t to be 
dissolved* 

"■The sentiments of Calvin may be satis- 
ftctorily gathered from two of his letters. 
One is sunposed, from the closing para- 
graph, to have been written to Grineus. 
Of the other, it is uncertain to whom it 
was addressed. They are both to be 
fiMind in the collection of his epistles. 
In the first he writes : * It must be main- 
tsined that the prohibition, respecting 
sisters in law, is one of those, which time 
nor place can never abrogate. It pro- 
ceeds from the very fountain of nature, 
snd is founded upon the general princi- 
ple of all laws, which is perpetual and in- 
violable. — When the emperor Claudius 
obtained the sanction of the senate to re- 
move the opprobrium of his incestuous 
marriage with Agrippina, there was none 
fbaad to imitate his example, excepting 
only one liberated slave. I mention this 
to show how inviolable the law of nature 

* ■*lle1anctbon, with his characteristic 
modaty, declined to give his opinion 
upon the question, when requested by 
Hemry VlII, from which, it has been sug- 
gested that he dilTered from his brethren 
m this aiticlc. But as he afterwards join- 
ed with the Lutheran divines in their de- 
drion Qpon that subject, he cannot be 
consMeied to have maintained opposite 
sentiments.— A simitar conclusion may 
perhaps aho •ppiy to Bucer, 



is, even among profane nationt."^Let the 
examples drawn from the heathen, if in 
virtue and modesty tliey should appear to 
exceed us, make us ashamed. — Indeed to 
me, this single admonition of Paul is suf- 
ficient: * Whatsoever things are honest* 
whatsoever things are just, whatsoever 
things are pure, whatsoever things are 
lovely, whatsoever things are of gmxl re- 

Cort ; if there be any virtue, and if there 
e any praise, think on these things.' 

*'In the other letter, Calvin sajrs: *It 
is sufficiently known in wiiat de^[rees of 
contanguifdty^ God in his law forbids mar- 
riage. — What reUtes to the degrees of 
affinity is equally obvious. There are 
some who dispute, or rather cavil, whe- 
ther it is not lawful for a man to take the 
sister of his deceased wife; and they 
seize, as a pretext, upon the words, Levit. 
xviii. 18. during her life time. But their 
error is refuted by the very words of that 
text. Because what is there condemned 
by Moses, is not for incest, but for cruel- 
ty to tlie wife. That text actually respects 
polygamy.' 

** Ecolampadius, in a letter dated 1531, 
asserted : * That the law in Leviticus did 
bind all mankind; and that the law in 
Deuteronomy respecting a brother's mar- 
rying his sister-in-law was a dispensation 
of God to his own law, which dispensa- 
tion belon^^ only to the Jews.'— Similar 
citations might be made from the writings 
of Beza, Bullinger, Ursinus, Musculus, 
and others, who were eminent for their 
profound erodition and exemplary piety, 
m the reformed cantons of Switzerland, 
in Geneva, and on the Kliine. • • • 

<* All the Protestant churohes have uni- 
formly considered, and unequivocally 
ihaintained, a marriage with a sister-in- 
law to be incestuous. A few documents 
respecting tlie principal denominations, 
will abundantly illustrate and confirm this 
assertion. 

The sentiments of the Lutheran church 
are accurately expressed by those cele- 
brated divines, who, in the name of their 
churoh, replied to the inquirv, made by 
Henry VIII^ whether it was lawful for a 
man to marry his sister-in-law ? In their 
famous Letter, they prove the law of Le- 
vit xriii. to be of universal obligation, and 
adopt the most foroible language in re- 
probating such marriages. Tliey dose by 
saying; *It is manifest, and cannot be de- 
nied, that the law of Levit. xviii. prohi- 
bits a marria^ with a sister-in-law — this 
is to be considered as a divine, a natural, 
and a moral law, against which no other 
law may be enacted, or established. 
Agreeably to this, the whole church has 
always retained this \aw, and '^vtf\%«&«aii^ 
marriages to be inccituoiia. X^^^eiibVi \o 
this also, the dectttn cC syxKiOiS, >)»« < 



172 



Pnblicatimis relative to Incest. 



ApmiCf, 



brated opinions of the most holy fathem, 
and even the civil laws, prohibit such 
marriages, and pronounce them to be in- 
cestuous. Wherefore we also jud^e tliat 
this law is to be preserved in all the 
churches, as a divine, a natural, and a 
moral law ; nor will we dispense with, or 
permit in our churches, that such marri- 
ages shall be contracted; and this doc- 
trine we can, and as G<k1 shall enable us, 
we will resolutely defend.' 

" In an exposition of the Au^fiburg con- 
fettion of fait h^ by a learned Danish di- 
vine, the opinion of the Lutheran church 
respecting this aHicle, is thus expressed, 

* wnoever is inclined and resolved to en- 
ter into the matrimonial state, ought to 
begin in the fear of God , and to look out 
for 1 person who is not nearly related to 
him, either in blood or by marnuffo^-ecc 
Levit xviii. and xx., and here, let it be 
observed, that where a man is forbidden 
to marry any near of kin, there the fe- 
male is understooil to be etiually prohi- 
bited, in the same degree of relation, al- 
though the woman be not mentioned. So 
Lcvit. xviii. 14, thou .nhaU not approach thy 
fathet^t brother* a wif:, includes also the mo- 
ther's brother's wife. So consequently, 
no woman may take her sisU:r*s husbaml, 
for the relation of h brother's wife and of 
a sister's husband arc exactly in the same 
degrees.' 

**A celebrated l^uthcran civilian says, 

* wherever a mamap^c is contnicted within 
a degree prohibited by the divine law; 
for instance, if a man sliould marry the 
sister of his deceased wife, there such 
marriage is incestuous, and ought not to 
be deemed a legitimate union, l)ut stig- 
matised as an impure mixture. It cannot 
be palliated by any dispensation, but 
ought to be rescinded ; and the contract- 
ing parties, notwithstanding they may 
plead ignorance, should be punished by 
the magistrate. Human laws may not 
contravene the divine authority, nor can 
an inferior magistrate dispense with the 
precepts of the supreme Lawgiver.* F. 
MaUlmn. lUh. iv. cap, 13. dc ens. cons. 

'* The Church of England has always 
most strictly adhered to the table of pro- 
hibited marriages, agreeably to Lev. xviii. 
as published by autliority and found in 
roost of the English editions of the Bible. 
Among other degrees forbidden in the 
male branch, is art. 17. * A man may not 
marry his wi/l** ««/«•,• * in the female, art. 
18. • a woman may not marry her niter* 9 
hutbaruV l^hat every marriage within 
these prohibited degrees, will, by tlie 
canon law of England, subject the parties 
to severe penalties, and to immediate ex- 
communication from the church, is well 
known. • • • # 

X The Church of Scotland appears to 



have been s(i deeply impreised with a 

conviction of the enormous evil of incest 

tliat she has introduced the subject eves 

into her confesaon of faith, and fixed the 

principles of prohibited degre^ in bn- 

guage the most intelligible and deoded. 
• • • 1 • 

<« The Church of Scotland adopted the 
standartls established by the WestmiiMKer 
assembly of divines. What that aaiaD- 
bly judged of Lcvit. xviii. 18,'roaY be as- 
certained from the remarks roacfe upon 
that text, by those learned men who were 
appointed by the committee for reUigumU} 
make annotations upon the Dible.— * Vcne 
18. To her nstcr. Thia is to be under- 
stood, not of two sitters^ one after ano- 
ther to wife, the latter upon the deilh of 
the former, for the marriage of a brother^ 
wife is forbidden before, verse 16^ and by 
consequence a woman must not many Ar* 
sitter** hwtband; and so two sisten sic 
already forbidden to be married to one 
man, verse 16 ; wherefore, this vene 18^ | 
is a prohibition of polygamy, that k, of { 
having more wives than one at once^ sad j 
tlie reason sheweth it, that the one my j 
not be a vexation to the other— The word . 
sisttT in a general acceptation may be ap- i 
plied to any woman, as the word bftktf \ 
to anv man, Gen. xix. 7. And it is to be 
noted, that it is sometimes applied to 
things, which in propriety of speech, 
come not under sucli a title or denomiDS* 
tion ; as the wings of the beast, Ezek. 
i. 9, are said to touch a woman to her w* 
tcj, as the Hebrew phraseth it, see £zixL 
xxvi. 3.' 

" The construction which tlie Reformed 
Dutch Churcli puts upon Levit. xviii., verse 
16, is evident from the marginal notes, 
which the translators, who weic appoint- 
ed by the national synod of Dortrecnt hcU 
1618 and 1619, have annexed to that text 

** * From this law it necessarily follows, 
that a woman who has been married with 
one brother, may not, after his death, 
marry with the other brother ; and upon 
the same principle, a man who has been 
married to one sister, may not after her 
death, marry the other sister,' — See their 
note upon verse 18. 

** It consequently can by no meaas 
from this he concUidcd, that the husband, 
after the death of his wife, may marry her 
sister.' 

The Iteformed (;liurch is established by 
law in Holland, and is conse(jucntIv the 
National Church. Her canons arc there- 
fore recogniseil by the civil govemnsent, 
and made the laws of the state. 

Dr. L. then inserts at length, the 
canon which relates to marriages, 
in which the prohibited degrees are 
particularly specified, and within 



1827. 



Publications relative to Incest. 



ITil 



which, whoever marries shall, it is 
said, be " declared infamous, and 
sntriected to corporal punishment 
and fine.'' We cannot afford room 
for this extended canon, but we will 
insert the note with which Dr. L. 
concludes this part of his disserta- 
tion. 

** The writer of this dissertation recol- 
lects, that while in Europe, he received 
infonnatjon by letters, of a member of 
the chuxch having married the sister of 
his dfcetsed wife ; a case which was the 
first that was recollected to luivc happen- 
ed in America, and which excited gfreat 
oneasineai. llie informed communicated 
Uiis to an eminent minister, (Professor H.) 
and asked him, how the Church of Hol- 
land would proceed in such a case ? To 
which he replied: **It is a case which 
cannot happen in Holland. It is forbid- 
den by the canons of the church, and by 
the dvii laws of the state. Any minister 
who knowingly solemnised sudi a marri- 
age would be instantly deposed; the in- 
eestuoos connexion would be declared 
nuD and void i and the parties severely 
pumthed." 

We have now seen that from the 
Terr origin of the Christian church 
to toe present hour, European Chris- 
tendom, Protestant as well as Popish, 
bs» with entire unanimity, condemn- 
ed all marriages within the fourth 
d^ree either of affinity or consan- 
pinity ; and also that tlie penalties 
inflicted for incestuous marriages, 
both by church and state, remain in 
fall force. We have likewise inci- 
dentally seen that the laws or usages 
of the more refined heathen na- 
tionSfhave commonly been in confor- 
mity with the same rule. It should 
likewise be particularly noted, that 
in regard to the interpretation of 
Lev. zviii. 18, tlicrc appear to have 
been, in almost every aj^e of tl)e 
church, a few individuals, who have 
aueUioned, whether there is not 
here an intimation that after the 
decease of a wife, a man might law- 
fally marry her sister. But we are 
not aware of more than one* in- 
stince of a man, of any note in the 
Earopean church, who has expressed 

* Dr. Adam Clark : See his Commen- 
tary on Lev. xviij, 18. But he ffivcs a mere 
<Urf»m, wUbout any argument. 



a clear opinion that this verse con- 
tains an allowance of such a mar- 
riage; and nothing is more evident 
than that all leaning of individuals 
towards such an interpretation, has 
been withstood by an overwhelming 
majority of the most learned and 
pious commentators, as well as by 
all the publick formularies and ca- 
nons of the different churches— It 
may be added, that the Jewish com- 
mentators have agreed with the 
Christian in this interpretation. Dr. 
Livingston (p. 119) sa^s— *'The sis- 
ter of a deceased wife is, without 
any possible exemption, absolutely 
and torever prohibited — In this sense 
the ancient Jews understood the law. 
They knew they were uncondition- 
ally forbidden to marry the sister of 
a deceased wife. The law is une- 
quivocal, and as it regards the Jews, 
its meaning cannot be controverted. 
The only question to be dcci<led is, 
whether this law is ceremonial and 
peculiar to Israel ; or whether it is 
moral and of universal obligation ? 
That it cannot be ceremonial is evi- 
dent, from its possessing none of 
the properties of a ceremonial law. 
That it is a moral law is certain-— 
from its essential connexion, in its 
object and scope, with the seventh 
precept of the Decalogue — from its 
express reference to the law of na- 
ture, and coincidence with that very 
law which the wicked inhabitants of 
Canaan had trangrcssed; and from 
its being the only written law in the 
whole Bible, upon the subject of in- 
cest; the only standard by which 
the Christian church can ascertain 
the crime, and agreeably to which, 
by proper discipline, she can pre- 
serve her purity by excommunicating 
such criminals." 

From the historical review then, 
thus far taken, it appears that if the 
Presbvterian Church shall remove - 
from iier Confession of Faith the sec- 
tion which has been referred to the 
presbyteries, and thereby sanction, as 
she of course will, the doctrine that 
" a man may marry some o^ V\% ml^s 
kindred nearer iub\oQ<\ tVv^wWftt^*^ 
of his own, and a yromau «otki& ^ 



174 



PMicaiums rdattoe to ttieesU 



Amii 



her hosband'a kindred' nearer in 
tlood than her own,** she will set 
her opinion in direct opposition to 
the opinion of all Christian churches 
in Earope from the time of the Apo8« 
ties ; and to all the most approved 
commentators of scriptare, to all 
Jewish usage, and to. all the best 
heathen* moralists and jarists. We 
do not say that this is absolutely de« 
cisiTe of tne question in controversy. 
Bttt we do say, that the Presbyterian 
church ought to be well aware of the 
groond on which she treads in this 
business. We do say that the pros* 
byteries of this denomination ought, 
from a regard both to conscience and 
character, to be entirely satisfied 
that the word of Ood will clearly 
bear them out in repealing;, if they 
do repeal, that part of their consti- 
tution, which is submitted to them 
for consideration. 

Let us now trace the history of 
this business in our own country, and 
particularly in the church which at 
present is most immediately con- 
cerned. The eighty-six presbyteries, 
now under the care of the General 
Assembly, sprang from a sin^ one, 
consisting of five or six minist^, 
which was formed in Philadelphia, 
A.D. iro6. In ten years, the num- 
ber of members had so much in- 
creased, and the places of their resi- 
dence were so widely distant from 
each other, that it became expedient 
to form four Presbyteries out of one. 
This was accordingly done, and the 
first Synod of this church met in 
Philadelphia in the autumn of 1717. 
At this very first Synod a record 
was made in relation to the subject 
before us, of which the following is 
an exact copy — " The affair of An- 
drew Van Dyke, that was referred 
from the Presbytery of New Castle 

* An Arabian writer, cited by Pocock, 
fltyt—M Turptisimum conim quae fitcie- 
bant, (Anbes tempore ignorantiae) erat 
hoc, quod vir duai sororei et patris aui 
uzorem, valut aucceasor, assuroeret'* 
See Poole's Synopns, on Lev. zviii. 16^ 
where sereral other quotations, of similar 
import, Avm heathen writers, Greek and 
Istig^ Mte giren» 



to the Synod,.came under coniMwi 
tion ; and a considerable tinae iNpg 
spent in discoursing upon it, it iM 
determined, nemine oontradioeiMK 
that his marriage with hit bcottflfll 
wife or widow, was inceatnow or m^ 
lawful; and their living togetlMrai 
the consequence of that marriagaii 
incestuous and unlawfu^and thatM 
long as they live together, fhoj bi 
debarred from all aeaUng - wii- 
nances; and that Mr. Wotibmpaai 
make intimation hereof to tui 01th 
gregAtion, in what time waA ntfiuwr 
he snail think convenient*^ As lo* 
thing afterwards appears oa Iki^i^ 
nodical records in reference tetki 
case, there is reason to beliofe tM 
Van Dyke and his wife linri. ml 
died in a state of excluaioa *liim 
all sealing ordinances.** We 
in passing, that the above 
shows that one statement nade If 
Dr. Ely, in the little pamphlet smte 
review, is not exactly correct His 
^7s» (page 11) — "Some wo«ld eosft, 
from the Confession the words in 
question, because ther have beaa (ks 
constant occasion of controveriyii 
the church; and the highest] odicatwy 
of the Presbyterian church in (he 
United States has n^t^er been abb 
to satisfy itself, that the roarria|e sf 
a deceased wife*^ sister is poaitiiidk 
forbidden in the Bible.* It was MR 
indeed in regard to a wife^ siafsr, 
but to a brother^) wife, that the aboie 
decision was made; yet we haveM 
reason to believe that the Srnod that 
made the decision, and which VM 
then " the highest judicatory of the 
Presbyterian church in the UnitBd 
States,** did not regard theae caaaa 
as perfectly parallel. So ttey n^ 
questionably did regard then, asl 
without a single dissenting voiee^ 
they pronounced the case bebie 
them one of such gross incest; as ts 
preclude the parties from all seaUsg 
ordinances, while the unlawful csn- 
nexion should continue. We wupt 
however in candour to mentioo, wt 
we suspect the book of records whkii 
contains the minute we have ezhi* 
bited, has never been ia nosstssioa 
q( "Dr. lAy , ixuBl ^\. VtA dUC notbmr 



Pmblicatiaiu relative to IneeiL 



175 



i eustenceof this minoie— -The 
ion specified appears to hsTe' 
i verj saiotanr ^ect It pre- 
d, for a coDsiderabla noaiber of 
» a * constant controversy in 
:harch » whkh Dr. Ely justly 
\ as haTing existed since that 
The book from which we 
taken the form>ing extract* coa- 
tiie records of the Synod to the 
if the year 17S6— and there is 
iringtnts time (the space of nine 
) a sinsle indication that any 
case of the kind had ever dis- 
d the peace of the church. The 
of synodical records from irST 
37, ooth years inclusive, is most 
»pily lost, we fear beyond the 
of recovery. It was during 
period, in the year 1741, that 
de'and lamentable rent took 
) in the Synod of Philadelphia, 
rival and hostile synods were 
td, one retaining the name of 
lynod of Philadelphia, and the 
assuming that of the Synod of 
York. They united again in 
ear 1758, under the title, or ap- 
tion, of The Synod of New York 
Philadelphia; and so remained 
he formation of the General 
nbly, which met for the first 
in 1789. The book which con- 
d the proceedings of the Synod 
iladelphia before the separation 
1 17£6 to 1741) and during the 
ation (from 1741 to 1758) is 
ivfaich is lost — ^The Synod book 
e Synod of New York, during 
leparation, is preserved. But 
ugh from the loss of records we 
it state with certainty how 
I, or how little, tlie Synod had 
with questions relative to un- 
il marriages for the space of 
than thi^ years, it seems pro- 
, from what we afterwards meet 
tiiat the decision in tlie case of 
Dyke governed the churches 
(|h tiie whole of that period, 
years after the union of the 
ii, that is in the year 1760, we 
he subsequent minutes in regard 
• latject They are in the fol- 
ig words— "The case of con- 
ce ooocemiDg a man's lutviag 



married his half-brother's widow, was 
brooAt under consideratioo, and ae» 
veraToienibers olEMred their thon^ta 
on it But the further considerMMHi 
waa definrred till the afitemoon*-^ 
The case of the marriage resaosed. 
After some farther conversation on 
this pobt, agreed that Messrs. 8k* 
mnel Finky, James Finiey, Blair, 
BGller, KitUetas, and Gilbert Ten- 
nant, be a committee to bring in a 
sum of what they can find in wod^ 
tnre and the English law on that 
point, agunst Monday's afiemoon; 
and also on a second case from Don- 
negal Presbytery, where a brothel^ 
and sister's relicts married together; 
and on a third case, of a.man*^ mar> 

ntwo sisters, one after the otberls 
•—The case of conscience re^ 
sumed, and the committee appoint- 
ed to examine what the Englisn and 
Levitical laws have determined in 
this affair, brought in their reoort 
Voted that the consideration oi the 
above aflbir be, deferred until next 
Synod, and that it be recommended 
to the several members to eiamine 
the aflbir more thoroughly before 
that time, and give their sentiments 
on it" In the following year,; 1761, 
we have this minute in relation to 
the preceding cases— ** The cases 
of conscience respecting marriage 
were resumed, and after the most 
mature deliberation, the Synod 
judge as folIow8;-*That as the Le- 
vitical law, enforced also by the civil 
laws of the land, is the only rule by 
which we are to judge of marriages, 
whoever marry within the degrees of 
prohibited consanguiuity or affinity 
forbidden therein, act unlawfully, 
and have no right to the distinguish- 
ing privile^s of the churches; and 
as the marrisges in question appear 
to be within the prohibited degrees, 
tiiev are to t>e accounted unlawful, 
ancf the persons suspended from spe- 
cial communion, while the^ continue 
in this relation." Here let it be care- 
fully noted, that the marriage of a 
deceased wife^ sister, as wellas that 
of a man with his deceased brother^ 
widow Jiad beenw&bm\l\e&\»^c»ck* 
sideration of theSyuoA^axidL^iDAXiStet 



176 



PvbUcatUms relative to InasL 



Ana$ 



Bolellin deliberatioDy and the report 
of tbe ablest committee that conlcl be 
selected, and the private inquiries 
and researches of the members for 
a whole year» and *' the most ma- 
ture deliberation" of a second sy- 
nod, both these kinds of marriages 
are declared " to be unlawful, and 
that the persons contracting them 
are to be suspended from special 
communion^ while they continue in 
this relation." Surely it ought not 
to be asserted that the highest judi- 
catory of the Presbyterian church, 
has fisoer been able to satisfy itself 
that the marriageofadeceased wife's 
aister is positively forbidden in the 
Bible, 'rhe highest judicature of 
this church was perfectly satisfied 
on this subject, for more than half a 
century, fiut here again we ought 
to acquit Dr. Ely of known misre- 
presentation— -We are persuaded 
he was not acquainted with this 
decision. His quotations are all 
nuuie from acts of the General As- 
sembly, which certainly are of a dif- 
ferent complexion from those of the 
old synod — the synod which formed 
and sanctioned tne present consti- 
tution of the Presbyterian church. 
Yet in no instance, let it be re- 
membered, has the General Assem- 
bly failed to frown, and sometimes 
very seyerely, on these marriages. 
We did intend to trace tliis subject 
through all the records of the Gene- 
ral Synod, and General Assembly. 
But we find that the execution of 
that purpose would extend our re- 
view beyond all reasonable bounds. 
'I1ie truth is, that in the Presbyte- 
rian church, discipline in regard to 
unlawful marriages has gradually 
been relaxed, and that tins relaxa- 
tion has been, in a great measure, 
owing to the manner in which the 
General Assembly has treated the 
subject— -till in some parts of the 
church no discipline at all is exer- 
cised, and the General Assembly 
itself, has at last submitted it to the 
Presbyteries to decide whether the 
constitutional article shall nut be 
repealed. 



To what is this to be afttrihiledt 
To the gradual increase of Il|^ 
and the removal of aur"^"^ 



say the advocates for curlaiUaglhif 
Confession of Faith. ToanmriH 
deterioration of morals, aM a c^ 
minal relaxation of chvrdi Asd- 
pline, and the repeal or non eseca* 
tion of the laws against incas t 'i a^ 
swer those who would preserve tts 
constitution in its integrity.' Ws 
profess to belong to the latter daH | 
and thus we come into oelHiiM 
with the aufliors of the twie jiiai'« 
plilets, to which are attaehea tte 
signatures of Clericus and Verilsi. 
Tiiese pamphlets, in reply to Do* 
mesticus, are written m a neat 
style, and with good temper. 

We have said that our onnienif 
are in collision with those of these 
writers; but this is true onlrlifa 
certain extent. They wish the ei- 
nons of the church,* which relate 
to unlawful marriagies to be repeal- 
ed or altered ; we wish that thejr 
should remain exactly as they are. 
But we entirely agree with them m 
thinkinc that the ground is utterly 
untenable, on which Domesticui 
contends a^inst an alteration in 
the Confession of Faith of the Pres- 
byterian church. We think that he 
has deeply injured the cause whidi 
he professes to defend ; and we pro- 
pose to quote from Clericus and 
Veritas in proof of this fact. 80 
far then as these writers state con- 
siderations to show that we must 
take our authority for the prohibi- 
tion of incestuous marriages from 
the Levitical code, and not, as Do- 
mcsticus would have it, from *' gene- 
ral expediency" — so far as they ex- 
nose the weakness and futility of all 
nis reasoning in support of his 
strange hy^thesis— so far as they 
condemn his extravagance of as- 
sertion and expression — so far their 

* These writers, it appears, boUi be- 
long to tlie cummuiiion of the Dutdi 
church, bcfurc the General Synod of 
which the very same c^uestiun is now 
pending, as before the General Assembly 
of the Prctfbytcnaii Church. 



Publications relative to hicest. 



177 



lents and ours are in perfect 
lance; and we onlj regret 
^omesticus has put it in their 

to urge against what we 
1 a good cause, the indiscreet 
sions of one of its advocates, 
at we have to say, therefore* 
osition to Clericus and Veri- 
laj be brought within a nar- 
inipass; for by far the larger 
f their pamphlets is emplojed 
posing what is inconclusive 
jectionable in the publication 
ch thej reply. If we rightly 
lend these writers, they wish 
Dons of the Dutch church and 
infession of the Presbyterian 
I to be altered, in regard to 
ful marriages— simply and 
because they think tnat these 
i and this Confession, as they 
tand, cannot be supported by 
^vitical code, nor by any other 
oral authority. We have ho- 

and carefully endeavoured 
lerstand them, and if we do, 
lole of what they say on the 
\ of the question in contro- 
comes in the result to thi 



are by no means to reject 
riii. chapter of Leviticus as 
ning merely a temporary en- 
nt for the Jews, but to regard 
famishing, on the subject of 
ful marriages, the law of the 
tian church : and yet we arc 
> infer from the 16th verse 
t chapter, that a man is for- 
n to marry the sister of his de- 
1 wife, but rather to consider 
\th verse as intimating that he 
Now we have already seen, 
fhile there have been in cvc- 
e of the Christian church a 
idividuals, some of them, we 
, learned and pious, who 
rather leaned to this inter- 
;ion of the 16th and 18th 
I of the xviii. chapter of liC- 
8 than decisively adopted it, 
le collected and overwhelming 
t of piety and learning have al- 
been decisively in favour of 
her interpretation } and nearly 
hole, ey/CD of those who lean to 



the opposite side, have admitted 
that our's is the safest construc- 
tion for practice; the best calcu- 
lated to preserve the purity of the 
church from contamination, aiil the 
consciences of its members from 
uneasy doubts and suspicions. Nay» 
C. and V. themselves disclaim ex- 
pressly the imputation of pleading 
for these marriaees, as generally 
expedient; or indeed of being ad- 
vocates for them at all— They only 
wish the rules of the church to be 
so modified that, for the present, 
some slight punishment may be in- 
flicted tor the violation of existing 
prejudices ; and Clericus says, ex- 
pressly, (page 17), " In a few years 
the prejuaice will probably subside: 
publick opinion may change ; and 
it may appear expedient to dispense 
even with this slight (discipline." 
How these writers are to show that 
they are consistent with themselves, 
in the different parts of their pam- 
phlets, we are glad to think is not 
a task which we are called to un- 
dertake. 

But let us see what reasons they 
assien for the interpretation they 
would give te the 16th and 18th 
verses of Lev. xviii. And here we 
wish it may be well noted that they 
do not even pretend to allege any 
new argument, from the meaning of 
the texts in the original, or from 
the context of the verses — they do 
not even recite much that has here- 
tofore been said by others, in fa- 
vour of tlieir opinion. What tlicy do 
say, in tlie way of argument, has 
been said and answered a hundred 
times, before they were born. Their 
whole plea, so far as it is properly 
their own, rests on the increased 
light of the present age, on classing 
the opinions of their opponents with 
tliose in favour of religious perse- 
cution and witchcraft, and on the 
fact that persons of great piety and 
worth have actually contracted such 
marriaees as we judge to be unlaw- 
ful. iNow we really think that vr^ 
might fairly uree uiat \u>xcVv ^\ ^ 
this is gratis dictum, wiA. ^^1 W** 

Z 



irs 



PiMieatians rdaUve to tncat 



test 11 set aside by a fundamental 
principle of dialectick» which says, 
a pafHcidari ad generah mm valei 
conmauenHa^Yovi shall not draw a 
genml conclusion from particular 
cases. What has the increased 
light of tiie present age to do with 
the subject* if Ae present age has 
not thrown a single ray of new light 
on the texts of scripture in contro- 
Tersy? Such we uBIrm to be the 
fact; and Clericus and Veritas 
themselves do not profess to show 
ttie contrary. And whathaye re- 
ligious persecution and witchcraft 
to do with the question, if there is 
no similarity between them and the 
case in hand. Clericus has only 
intimated, he has not even attempt- 
ed to prove, that there is a simila- 
rity. We affirm that there is none 
whatever. No Protestant, no Ro- 
manist, so far as we know, pre- 
tends to allege that there is any 
passage of scnpture that lays down 
a law, showing in what cases reli- 
gious persecution is lawful, and in 
what cases unlawful. But these 

Siutlemen themselves admit that 
ere is a passaee of scripture 
which lays down the law in regard 
to unlawful marriages — ^The only 
question is about the true interpre- 
tation of this law, and C. and Y. 
take Ufor granted^ that the light of 
this age is in favour of their con- 
struction. Even in this, facts are 
all against them, unless they will 
maintain that the light of the sge 
has begun to dawn very recently — 
perhaps since they and Domesticus 
nave appeared as authors. We are 
not aware that any late European 
publications have shed light on this 
subject : and as to our own country, 
what writers, we ask, of the pre- 
sent age, have ranked higher in 
point of learning, piety aua logical 
acumen, amone the Congregation- 
al churches of New England, than 
Dr. Trumbull and the younger Pre- 
sident Edwards? And who, in the 
Dutch and Presbyterian churches, 
have been more distinguished by 
tfae union of the same Ulents than 



Doctors Livingston and 
Tet all these men have 
sively opposed the inte 
for which C. and V. are 
and have put forth all thei 
in favour of our opinio 
opposition to theirs. Wi 
why C. and V. have not co 
ed so much as to mention 
of Dr. Livingston-^sp 
they belong to the church 
for half a century, he was 
est ornament. Whatever 
been the cause of their & 
well as that of Domesticu 
take this opportunity to 
citly,that we think he had 
great disparity, more lean 
theolorical knowledge, m 
and a better acquaintanc 
blical criticism, than all o 
together, with the presen 
added to the number. Bi 
he was so indurated by ; 
the light of the present 
not penetrate his mind ! 
for this is a very serioi 
we do not believe that i 
lighU but corrupt feeli 
strained by church disci 
civil law, which has 1 
wretched frequency of 
between brothers and 
law, in our country — Foi 
countries there has been 
the kind — unless we exce 
in the time of the revolut 
will Veritas himself rec 
whole scope of his pam| 
the following paragraph 
the 11 th page ? He say s- 

** I would not, however, oi 
deration, be understood as u 
these excellent standards ( 
which we have received frc 
which we are indebted to, tb 
leamine of our ancestors ; oi 
any reflection on their pioi 
training up their children, fn 
fancy, in doctrinal knowledge, 
regard for the institutions anc 
of religion. We have rathei 
mourn over the degeneracy 
times. Would that this hall 
ence were distilling itself n 
sively on our rising gcneratioi 
yottt^ be taught to venerate 



18S7. 



FnhticatioM rdative to hicnl. 



179 



€f fittth. Let outy inftruction in 
doctrinei have its full effect, it may 
poMibly prodaoe prejudice, but better 
that ahoakl be the result, than that its to- 
tal neglect should leaye the mind unoc- 
ca|Hed, and unguarded i^nst the in- 
roads is infidelity and error : for, where 
faithfiiUy administered, if the subject is 
dhreited to either, he will step over on 
the stcnier side of Christian rectitude.* 

Yes, verilj, *'we have reason 
to moani over the degeneracy of 
modem times," and to impute to 
this cause the better state of the 
church and of society at large, in 
years that are past fo this cause, 
and not to increased light, we are 
to impute the transgressions of a 
/nr, not mawi^ pious persons, in 
the natter oi unlawful marriage. 
The Ter^ truth is, and all history 
provea it, that in no one point of 
morals are good men themselves so 
liable to offend, if not restrained by 
the atron^st and most palpable 
bonds, as in that which relates to 
the intercourse of the sexes. We 
ds not believe that there is in the 
United States at present, a holier 
man than David, or a wiser one 
tkan Solomon. Yet every reader 
of the Bible knows how lamentably 
tiiey sinned, by the indulgence of 
uhallowed propensities, and what 
t blot they have left on their cha- 
ncters, as a warning to all suc- 
ceeding ages. Nor ought it to be for- 
gotten, how severely they suffered, 
bjrthe immediate inflictions of God 
hiasetf. As to witchcraft, the light 
of modern times, it is supposed, has 
discovered that, at present, there 
is DO sudi thing; and consequently 
that there is no passage of scrip- 
tare, however applicable hereto- 
bcc* that is applicable now. But 
this modern light, even in the 
jidgment of Clericus and Veritas, 
las not discovered that there is no 
passase of scripture which is direct- 
ly a^iad>le to unlawful marriages. 
They muntain that there is such a 
passage* They maintain it stoutly 

SrittstDomesticus; who seems to 
nk indeed that he has a complete 
monopoly of this wonderful light'-^ 



this (to use a figure of his own) **Jack- 
with-a-lantern," which has led him 
away from the safe and sure paths 
of holy scripture, and "sousea him 
into bogs and ditches," in one of 
which Veritas professes to have 
found him, and to enjoy a laugh at 
his expense. 

Thus are we brou^t into closer 
contact with Domesticus, certainly 
the most singular writer that we 
ever encountered. He uses no cere- 
mony with any body, and therefore 
has no right to expect any in return. 
He hurls aside with a jerk, all the 
best expositors of scripture, and all 
the framers of canons and confes- 
sions of faith, in every age of the 
church, who have thought tha^ for 
the law of incest, recourse most be 
had to the 18th chapter of Leviti- 
cus. He treats them all with per- 
fect contempt, and in reference to 
the basis on which they construct 
their system he says — "As well 
might a man endeavour to persuade 
us, that a steam-engine is made to 
boil water for the tea-table.** Now, 
a writer who can do this, may be 
learned, may be ingenious, may be 
eloquent, may be brilliant but in 
our poor opinion, he discovers more 
talent for every thing that is the 
opposite of modesty, than for any 
thing else. Domesticus professes to 
be on our side of the question, but 
as an auxiliary we renounce him ut- 
terly. 

Non tali auxilio, nee defensoribut istif, 
Tempu3 cget^— 

He has done all in his power to 
betray our cause to the enemj. Not 
that he has done this intentionally 
— we acquit him of design; but he 
has done it in fact The proof is 
before us. Clericus quotes him ex- 
ultingly, from the beginnin|; to the 
end ot his letter; and Ventas fre- 
quently refers to him in the same 
way. Clericus says — 

«< Now, I ask, what is the ar^roent of 
Domesticus ? Indulge me, my fnend, with 
a rapid view of it, to show the correct- 
ness of my averment. 

" The divine law be y\e\^ inioto, iX. 
the very outset, as R\v\n^ wo ^wr*" 



180 



PMieaiumi rdativt to Imeut. 



pcMid^ counteiiftnee to the tide he has 
luiderUken to defend. This is his hn* 
guage t * My conviction of the incestuous 
nature of the marriage of a wife's sister, 
is» as I have already hinted, not founded 
on the letter of the Levitical Uw. On this 
point I folly agree with the gentlemen 
alluded to above;' (referring to those 
who had been represented by his friend 
as denying tlie relation of the 18th verse 
of the 18th chapter of I^viticus to the 
question, and thinking the constructive 
reasoning from the I6th verse, which 
forbids the marriage of a woman with her 
husband's brother, too vogue and indeter- 
minate to build a solid conclusion on.) 'I 
can no more find it prohibited in the 
words of that code, tnan I can find the 
battle of Waterloo in the Apocalypse of 
St. John.' A^n. * The question is, are 
they' (the institutions of Moses,) * obli^ 
lory on the Christian church, or on Chris- 
tian nations as a system, so that no change 
can be made in any, even of the details, 
without incurring the hi^h guilt of rebel- 
lion against the authonty of Almighty 
God? Every sensible man will answer 
without hesitation, no. I then ask how 
much is obligatory ? What rule is to di- 
rect us in the delicate process of sifting 
and selection ? The obvious reply to this 
is, just so much as a^cs with the phy- 
sical, moral, and political circumstances 
of modern society, and the rule is Gene- 
ral ExpEDiKNCT as apprehended bv the 
common sense of mankind. Before, there- 
fore, a Mosaick statute can be acknow- 
ledged to possess a binding authority 
over me, or the community of which I 
am a member, I must ascertain its reatoii, 
its principle. If, on a fair and candid ex- 
amination, I discover that the reafon fully 
holils, the statute I pronounce to be bind- 
ing. If there be a difference of circum- 
stances, not, however, destructive of the 
general reason, I am bound to modify so 
as to suit the peculiarity. If the circum- 
stances be so different that the reason 
ceases altogether, it it abrogated.* Pages 
6, 7, 8. Again. The 18th chapter of Le- 
viticus he virtually admits contains no pre- 
cepts of moml obligation, for he says it 
' stands in the midst of a cluster of pre- 
cepts, which are acknowledged to be 
lon^ since done away. Look at the chap- 
ter immediately preceding, and vou find 
it Jull of ceremonial and judicial peculi- 
arities. There is not one precept of mo- 
ral obligation in it, from beginning to 
end.' Page 9. Havinc^ adduced proof of 
this assertion, he adds, * These are ex- 
ploded ; and must we be put off with a 
nc volot tic jubeo, when we ask why a 
greater importance and permanence are 
attributed to the ])rohibitioii of mar- 
riages? No institution has been more 
modifief) by cusAom, and peculiarity of 




national mumeiwi mr* in tfM 
law itaeU; I could pomt out M 
singularities of this rite» whidi no «M 
will contend iodetiet in our dif. m 
bound to imitate. We aic^ thtfifci^ t^ 
tally in the dark until the quiil'— ht 
folly decided*-what meana tbe Inr if in- 
cest in general ? Having obtuaed them* 
Mft, we can soon, and easily judlgob ~*^~ 
ther, and how far, the Lentical 
carry with them the force of 
We can judg^, also, whether the 
stances of modem society ao te ddbr 
from those of the Hebrew nttioo m to n- 
quire a revimon and exiendtm of thiictdt 
— in a word, we shall be aUe^ unlMil 
am greatly mistaken, to ftx the tine 
racter of the marriage more in 
under eonsidenaion/ Pago 10. 

<* Such, then, b his aiguoient^ 
fairly in his own words. The con 
in marriage of a man with hit wife^ 
is not sanctioned bv Gaaamaa Ea 
urc r. The Levitical law, on which i 

Elace so much reliance to prove the 
iwfulness of the connexion, ia coofai 
ly not of moral obligations but depend^ H 
to the extent of its application, sn c^ 
cunutancet. Circumstances are YBriabk 
things. The manners, habitat and foil* 
ings of a people may change, and thai 
the application of the law may be modt 
fied, or suspended altogether, aocaidiB| 
to circumstances. And Reason, which hi 
says very iustly is ' a most excellent M> 
sistant in her place,' is to fix nuthorilfr 
tively the extent of this application. 'Let 
it not be said, that this is putting toe 
much confidence in the fallible judgment 
of men. It is very foolish to argue agaimt 
a factf and the plain fact is, UMt we ara 
necessitated to this course.' Page 8. No 
— Reason, which a few years ago perform- 
ed such wonders in revolutionary France^ 
and which many men, great in the esti- 
mation of the world, in every age, have 
worshipped with more sincere and entire 
dcvotedncs than the Ephesians did their 
great goddess Diana — Rxasoh is to be 
both 3^de and Judge in this matter, when 
the Bible, the only infallible rule of foith 
and practice, is laid aside. And, indeed, 
it must be so — there is no avoiding it* It 
may be well to represent her on^ m an 
attistant, lest her investiture with infolG- 
bility should excite unnecessary aluias 
but, the truth is, she must strike out the 
path, and determine the boun€larie9 where 
criminality ends and innocence begins^ in 
matrimonial connexions. By the way, it 
appears to me very fortunate for the 
friends, as they are termed, of this parti- 
cular connexion, that two men who are 
so decidedly opposed to it should take 
ground so dissimilar and oppoaitei that 
the one, and tiie very Hercules in the 
controversy, should turn round, and look- 



AiWoBliiNit fvtafiv^ te Jhflof* 



181 



other foD ui the fikce» MVf » with » 
{rtiMNM toeer, your Scripture «v 
I are all chair ! Weare the judra 
m of what m Uwiiil and uiuawniL 
itaneea alter cnei { the drcom- 
of a people chaage, and the hw 
mmo mnttbe altered and adapted 
jMliny dreMiMtancei. NqrylwUl 
le finther. If the dril law doea 
ilate the matter* at the halutaand 
of one fiunily, or of one indiri- 
flerftoin thoae of another* iHiat 
B proper in one caie would he ex- 
^imptcpet in another. Or, to 
y * eoMMi^ni^ hai nothing UMirB 
ith inoeit m itself than hanni^ the 
ngth of note* or wearing the nme 
1 ito^ngB. It is not the consan- 
bot its ^^'Srcl*— the opportunities 
iptations which flow from it, that 
skuor has ezclonTcly in bis eye.' 
' BOW rentnre to ouenre» that a 

tsstiffiictoTy rule b furnished us* 
in the honest exercise of our 
sading^ and untrammelled by a 
ittachment to the letier of the Le- 
iWf we may determine how fikr the 
r faoest is to be extended in the 
1 drcumstances in which we fire. 
eisUiis: The law being intended 
I against the dangers threatening 
ck purity from constant, nnre- 
intercouTse ; wherever iuch inter* 
Day, in consequence of the habits 
■ners of a people, be presumed to 
TBaas, no matter what be, or be 
s degrees of consanguinity and af- 
Jie law $hould take effect r^-mue^ 
t probibitted.' Psge 20. • We pay 
a undue degree of honour to the 
tance of actual relationship and its 
when we judge the law of Incest 
xclusively, — in the esteem of en- 
ed lenslators, the iHTsacovasB, 
kom toe custom and manners of a 
' may be presumed to exist, is a 
ration rastly more important,-- 
le <Mily question to be asked on 
ject more immediately before us, 
renr plain and inteUigible one: 
r the probdbiUtie9 ef cloee andinti' 
wdtUaitif between brother-in-iaw and 
uiawbe euch aa to demand the inters 
^ tide great moral preiervative ?* 
tiatn drcumstances, that ii^ if the 
constant intercourse eidrts, it 
»e anlawfiil for you to msrry your 
girl, or indeed any female friend, 
rr Aatantty reUited, whether by the 
latitre orniendship. On the other 
fmy employment and lot in provi- 
le such, that I scarcely see my sis- 
nr tin lAer my wife's death, I ma^ 
f nany her. In the one case, it 
Mt be suitable to drcumstances, 
lie other, it woukJ he perfectly so. 



EaraatBMCTy thafeHiro^ mit dfewc tfio 
(Hiestiao with indindualik fiumltes. and 
nstions. Now, Sir, all tids is phaisible: 
it is reiy good. EatpetSencif la a pfiable 
aigu]iiaiiti-4ikeanoseofwai^ ItHiaybe 
moo Mott or long, wiarp orbliint^erool> 
ad or ilnttgfat, just as yoa please." 

We have nren this long eztrtct; 
becauae it exhibits at once the lead- 
ing oirinions and aigonients both of 
Domesticiis and Clericns. We shall 
now oflbr a few short remarks of our 
own. 

Much is said in this controfersy 
s^ninst inferential reasoniiy. Bat 
this is a kind of reasoning distinctly 
recopiised as legitimate, in the Con- 
fession of Faith of the Presbyterian 
church (chap. 1. sect vi.); and it is 
in Gict on this reasoning alone that we 
mast rest, and may safely rest, some 
of the most important institntions of 
our holy religion, particularly in&nt 
baptism and the Christian Sabbath. 
It is, also, only by this kind of rea* 
soning that we are authorized to 
charge gnilt upon the female sex— in 
more than one instance of all tiie in- 
cestuous marriages prohibited in tiie 
eighteenth chapter ot Leviticus. The 
prohibitions are immediately ad- 
dressed to the male sex, and if di- 
rect prohibition is necessary to con- 
stitute guilt, women may be guiltiess 
when the grossest incest is commit- 
ted. We are cbnfident that the 
more this subject is examined, the 
more clearlr it will appear, that 
what 'may be deduced by good and 
necessary consequence from scrip- 
ture,** is as valid as that which is ex- 
firessly set down in the sacred vo- 
ume. All must have recourse to 
this kind of arguing, who deny that 
polygamy is the otgect of prohmition 
in Lev. xviii. 18, or else concede 
that it is not forbidden in the whole 
Bible. It is by inference only, that 
they can find polynmy prohibited 
by our &viour and the Apostie Panl. 
Within our memory, a work of ftr 
more learning and plausibility than 
Domesticus has vet given us, was 

Cublished by a clergyman in Eng- 
tnd, the Rev. Bilr. iXadaA^ \» liftioi^ 
that polygamy IS niaviW^ cmAr*^ 



189 PMNiMtuMrablrMteiiMnl. Amm$ 

ed w forbidden in Kriptira; bat rive tnm it th« nrr prineipk ud 
Ikkt itia the great pKHmtive from vhole tanetion of Ue law, it letdi 
nporit^ilike D.** uwof inceit;ud him to the moet citnvaeant ud 
«H^t tberefora to be enconn^d in thooking ibuirdities^to deny Hat 
all commnnitieB. From the circvm- there i« mj oetural abliorrence of 
■teoce that the apoatle fortiids it incest — that bat for th? considerv { 
to clergymen, it was urged that it tion which he atatCB, the nearest of ^ 
waa doabtless lawful to all other all relatirea, even by cunsanseiaity, 
men ; exactly aa it is now reatoned, might iDtermarr^: — And on Oie coo- 
that as Moses forbids a man to take trvy, to maintain tlnat the law of in- 
a wife to her aiater to vex her in her cest extends, or on|ht to extend, to 
life time, it necessarily follows that all possible cases, in which frei)uent ' 
he may take the second after the intercoarae between Die sexes takes 
death of the first Nosmallportionof place. On this last principle heit 
thetalentofBritain wasemployedto obliged to admit, tlmt it woald 
con&tethis workoftheRev.Mr.Ha- scarcely be possible lu epecify all 
dan. See the 6Sd vol. of the Moodily the casca to which the law augnt to 
Beview. Wehavepersonallyknowna extend. A wide door, it is cJeir, 
PresbTterianelder,and a shrewd one would be open, for dispute whether, 
too^ who earnestly maintained that in many a particalur case, the law 
polreanj was perfectlr apeeable to had been violated or not; whelher 
the law of Ood, and forbidden only the parties had been prtnoulj m 
br the laws of the state. It is a lit- lODcn in each others compan]^ n 1$ 
tie remaritable that our opponents render it lawfdl, or unlawn), ^ 
apply inferential reasoningi not imly marry. We lately read of a Mi 
to the words of Christ and the apos- who courted a woman aaaidi '' 
tie, but to Lev. xviii. 18, and yet for more than thirty years, and 
deny its applicability to the rest of wards married her. Now, kj tha 
thatchapter. While Moses moreover rale of Domesticui, he oii|^t komt 
gives it as a reason why a man should to have married her; and anridvtt 
not marry two sisters at once, that is but reasonable that Dome^iM 
the second would vex the first, should tell us how long, npoo Ui 
our modern logicians contend that piinriplr. n mnn iiinjr iniiii a irniiai, 
it will comfort a woman exceedingly, before itbecomes unlawful for ftiM 
to know that her sister is to take to marry her. Domesticos atao a- 
her place after her death; and that tends the influence of the priDdple 
this second wife will be the kindest he adopts, beyond all the bounds rf 
mother in the world to the children truth and experience; and even ta 
of the first We maintain that all the superseding, as his an i wcret i 
experience, as well as the word of have remarited, of the neceasJIy of 
God, is againbt tiiis theory. the seventh commandment— so tu 
We scarcely know of a commen- as it relates to those of the diBneat 
tator-on the law of incest, as con- sexes who have habitual intercown 
tained in the chapter so frequently with each other. 
referred to, who does not remark. According to Domesticos, tbeCoiH 
that one of the salutary effects of fession of Faith of the Preabyfuian 
prohibiting marriaeea among those church, in the article ■ubmittedtstte 
who are nearly related by conaan- presbyteries, is ri^t entirely ty mo- 
guinityand affinity, is, that the temp- eidait. ItgohappCTu, that those who 
lation to uncleanness is thereby pre- are nearly related to each other bj 
vented, among those of the opposite consangDini^ or affinity have, in oar 
sexes who usually have the most fre- country, and in many other coaa* 
qnent intercourse with each other, tries, familiar intercourse with each 
The remark is unquestionably just; other, and therefore they ought sot 
but when Domesticus seizes on this ' * ' . . ■^- i . . . . . 
cimimataiica, and endeavours 



m this tointennarry; but if it hadA«Micw«f 
to de- otherwise — if it had happenea that 



fMWiwIto n TtlativB to MtusttiL 



era^atiooii as born, were te» 
1 from their fathert» and sis- 
Mi their brothers, these relv 
ii|fit intermarry without bolt 
I reader start at this cons^ 
i; for Domesticos himself looks 
t in the face, without blnsh- 
le b even content that the 
doctrine of his essay should 
NT fidi with it On tnis point 
I jnstly remarks as follows— 

IT that Domestical, notwithatand- 
Wj Ti^ pictare he gives of do- 
: pnntf, has un wittinglj given ODun- 
; to a most dangerous licentioos* 
r declaring his belief, ' that there 
tnisl impr9pHety in Uie nearest re- 
MiTing sexual communion.* Andbjr 
igain, * not that consanguinity has 
m more to do with incest, in itself 
nng the same length of nose, or 
^theaame coloured stockings.' It 
oaly to be regretted that ne did 
ipljr with the judidous advice of 
ads in suppressing these senti- 
bi doing so, he would have found 
opriate place for his principle of 
91^. Their publication may do 
ijury to the cause of morali^, 

I my steri ous guardian may be able 
teract. Such opinions, emanatinig 
eh a aource, may not only obtain 
o the minds of the vulgar^ many 

II may be able, from natural good 
or experimental piety, to resist 
Bleterious inftuence, but become 
rated into the practical morality 
f of our educated youth, who will 
J alide into the system of infide- 
h which these opinions have here- 
leen associated. It is a pity they 
, been lefl there. They sound too 
ike the licentious philosophy of 
hwrean school, to be ingnuted 
; system of Chrutian morals.'' 

testicQS suppcKies that his fa- 
t principle will always, and 
lead to the conclusion which 
mts. But we could not help 
jng, that the infidel Hume, 
reason and philosophy for his 
irriTed at exactly the opposite 
sion, in tiie case of Henrr the 
of England. Yes— ana set 
he scriptural rule, and subject 
iile law to the supposed dic- 
f reason and expediency, and 
man who wishes to marry his 
sister^ or his brotber'ft wife, 
rife at the isidc cooc/osioa— 



We do not say fairly, but yet real* 
ly, plausibly, and to himself sa- 
tisfactorily* The plun truth is, thrt 
Domesticus, in this whole argumebt« 
is on infidel ground. He deserts the 
word of God, and ipes to reason and 
expediency for his law; and here, 
such men as Hume will stand a good 
chance to beat him at his own wea- 
pons. 

Clericns justly remarks, on the 
argument of Domesticos, as fbondlMl 
on expediency, that 'notwithstand* 
ing all his zeal for this great but 
▼ery flexible principle, he seems al^ 
terwards conscience struck that it 
will not bear Kvak out, in defending- 
the usual practice of tl>e diurdi? 
After readins in his pamphlet, the 
reasoning and ridicule which he em- 
ploys to show that the Leviticsl law 
of incest has, and can have, no bind- 
ing force on Christian people, be- 
cause it stands in a cluster of cere- 
monial enactments, and is itself such 
an enactment, obligatory only on an- 
cient Israel — what was our surprise 
to find in a note, in the last page 
but one of his pamphlet, the follow- 
ing statement— 

**The reader will please to accept my 
whole doctrine in four propositions. 1st. 
The Levitical law of incest, the'wMr &»v 
is binding on Christian societies. It ear- 
ries on ha front, the stamp of permanent 
obligation,— being adapted to guard 
against a danger common to us with the 
ancient Hebrews, and whidli can be 
guarded against only by respecting its 
proviidons. 

** 3dl^. The same reason demanda that 
sometlnng more than the (titer of that 
law be regarded, — ^that whatever is dedu- 
dble from it, by construction foot the 
mechanical balancing, to which I hare re- 
peatedly alluded, but &ir interpretation 
m conformity with the genend principle 
of incest) is as really part of the DiTine ' 
will, as if an an^l pronounced it to ua 
by an audible voice. 

•<3d]y. It is the dut)r of the cini ma- 
gistrate, carefully and with a deep feefing 
of responsibility, to make these deduc- 
tion%---Co give them all the authoiiQr of 
law andauppoct them by the most weighty 
sanctions. 

<«4thly. If the civil magistrate neglecU 
hia duty, the church of Jesua GVisiiXm>agSL 
rebuke his unfioUAilneia wnd \i3ut cmc^ 
not to become partakat Vn \ua iueu ^o 



IM 



PtMcatiotu rdative ta Ineat. 



ed flr foibiddeR in wripturp; but 
(feat it it the mat prtMnnlive Trom 
imparitjr.like D.*! Uw of incest; and 
(Mght therefore to be ettccurageJ in 
alt communitieB. From tite circuin- 
■tance that the apoade furblds it 
to clergymen, it waa urged that it 
waa doobtleaa lawful to all ottier 
men; exactly as it ia now rcneoneil, 
that as Moses ftKbids a man to lake 
a wife to her slater to ves her in hi:r 
life time, it necessarily follows that 
he maj take the second aCter the 
death of the Gnt No small [lurtionuf 
the talent of Britain was ennployed to 
confute this work of the Rev. Mr. Ma- 
dan. See the63dTol.oftbe Monthly 
Review. Wehavepersonallyknowna 
PraBbjterianelder,andaahrewd one 
toOi who earnestly maintained that 
polygamy was perfectlv a|n%eable to 
the law of God, and forbtijden only 
by die laws of the state. It is a lit- 
tfe remarkable that our opponents 
apply inferectial reasoniug, not only 
to the words of Christ anil the apt>.s- 
tie, but to Lef. xViii. 18, and jet 



that chapter. While Motes moreovci 
gives it as a reason why a nian should 
not marry two listen at once, that 
the second would vex the first, 
our modem logicians contend that 
it will cotn/ort a woman erceedingly, 
to know that her sister is to take 
her place after her death ; and that 
this Recond wife will be tlie kindest 
mother in the world to die cliildriin 
of the first. We maintain that all 
experience, as well as the tvoid uf 
God, is agaiufct tliia theory. 

We scarceir know of a conimen- 
talor on the law of incest, as con- 
tained in the chapter so freijucntly 
referred to, who does not remuik, 
that one of the salutary cIlotK <t( 
prohibiting marrisns amon^ Wm^-- 
who are nearjj related by con^aii- 
guioityand afiinity,is,that thetcmp- 
lation to undeaoneaa is tht^rtby pr. - 
vented, among those of the opposite 
aexes who usuallyhave the must IVc- 
qnent intercourse with encli nthor. 
The remark is unque<(i<Hial)ly jii*! 
but when Domesticus seiic<t or 
circumttMnet, and endnTnunt t 



rive from it (he vetT f 
whole tianrtion of tbe e 
him to the most ei' u 
shocking absurdities- ,pj 
there is any natural .--if 
incest — that but for -<||, i 
tion which he state* . Mpe 
all relatives, even t ^m 
might intermarry:— . ^an, 
trury, to maintain 
cest extends, or oi 
all possible cases, 
intercourse bctwi 
place. On tl>ig 
obliged to ado 
scarcely be pos 
the cases to wl- 
extend. A wi .^,wiewt»« 
would be open je„ |, fc 
m many a pr „,^ -j 
had been vif ,_ _•.», 

much in eac' 
render it ' 
marry. W 
who court' 



intn(0iBf 



forrr 



. tatioo vetiani 
-nth chapter of M 
]>--at has be«a l| 
jl nimenUton, M 
.-ards mr -'"f"'?. "dli 

ule of ft '' f ""'n^""? ^iWH 

have ' ""* *^ '•"'^ •"■''I 
J but r -I'tiiTate convictiunfl 
hould ' **? could any thll 
irinclpl "•e'*' J» *'a»'e. "* 
lefon- ■ '■ "*•"■'> ■* much W4 
Q „,,,, ■> liolc discerning an4^ 
ends 1'"'^ *^^ *'"^ Cummd 
eui! [believe tbatthcatW 
ruili . »r a twclvcmoiitli, if 
i,e iity nian in tlic lA 
,iiv,. . luoflerancwlliDughtj 
lii< • I. of any worth, on the uit^ 
s i< f other of \V\* controveq 
CI. ^n as it arises out of tlM 
i;.. station of ti)c chapter refi 

Jiiy, we do not believe q 
. duusht haK been oflbrcd < 

1 , (Cirly two hundred ycaraij 
J that can be Hald has bcca^ 

^ repealed a hundred timM 
^fBOt> that liavfgocic by.* ^ 



•bic and willing (M 

pibject, newly lui) fniiu vol 

" plenlifuDy liiicnaicnwd ' 

of Hebrew (bgUi biblic|| 

Syriuc, AnbM 

\y (o cooKill Ibl 



"^m^gfticgf JKidUgence. 
'^wule on the r 




189 

reUntioa or ra- 

1 of that part of the artiele in 

onfeiBion of Faith which re- 

to this subject, to coaiide^ . 

wliat they do. What, we aaki 

thej gain by a rejection or ra- 

i of tte articfe P Will they pn>- 

■:t UDiforinity of practice, and thus 

event cootroversT aod appeals, 

liich Kemg to be the principal ob* 

ectinview— No such thing. Thcfe . 

will be as much coatroversj and ai 

many appeals afterwards, as in 

timeii past. Na;, there are portions 

of the Presbyterian church that 

.. cannot, and will not, yield to any 

human authority, which sanctions 

the marriages in question. They' 

dare not do it — They would sooner 

suffer the severest censures of the 

,i,; church, leaTcit, or be expelled from 

i.lv it, than submit, even silently, to 

II uuV what they consider as an abomina- 

oinly tion in the Bight of God, and forbid- 

it.ond den by his holy law. And for the 

ubject, sake of relieving a few individuali, 

i:h dia- who, it is agreed on all hands, have 

I one or acted indiscreetly, and violated the 

:i-execu- law of Christian charity, shall the 

'I enact- inoffensive and conscientious be 

ltd puni^ grieved P Shall they be driven from 

our communion P Shall the Presby- 

.'riously en- terian church be the first on earth, 

■:rs who, as formattv to open a door, as many 

the Presby- other churches will account it, for 

rtlybe call- the most detestable licentiousness 

and impurity? Is this church wil- 



ing to present herself to the world, 
as reading the way, to what the most 



'\iiim, juxtadisci- 

<imn. WccerUinfy of Christendom will consider, and 
much acquniiiuncc we think justly consider, as land de- 
nt lince wc liegan lo filingi and heaven provoking iniqoi- 
..it.uVJirid'i'Kl': (y?Forbiditreputation.justice,de- 
r ihould go ihrwiKh, cency, humanity, conscience and 
■ hem, wouM have little piety — Great Head of the chofch, 
11 Oiis subject. forbid it! 



crarp anb J^gilo^opliical SUntdligencr, etc. 

'— TbediBicultyof iiiqjcctiiig of a greater altentioii l>eiiig ptiil ladii- 

AwtUoriui, or Puu^ of ilic vuci of tlie car Ihmn rormeriy, tn inn. 

Its peculUr winding structure, niuus Frenclt Auritt.hw latel]' invented ■ 

owsi hence the unccrlunty novel iiiitniiiieiit, termed ui Aunaen^. 

abes in ucerlaiiiiiii; the uuse which mtloWB>c<iiiip\cU\nw«£kunidt^e 

intUtpiKa//. in cramequence nam. It coniiiU u( a circuliw bnaa 



184 



PuUicaHons rdaUvc to IncesU 



Amiv 



be to lier»— 4f ihe allows vice and mhiery 
to prevail in any of their fbrmh without 
uaing her influence and authority against 
them. A double wo^— if she takes the 
leMl in surrendering to the enemy. In 
regard to the {^articular subject under 
diKussion, the magistrate has performed 
bis duty nobly. It is not a little singufav 
that the church should have exhibited 
the^K aymptoms of d^;eneracy.'* 

Onlr strike oat the parenthesis 
from tne second pro|)08ition in this 
quotatioDfOrcoosider it as it seems to 
be iotended— as a samng clause^ to 
INPeserf e some show of consistency 
m thQ autbor-Hind we have not one 
word to object against this statement 
of ""the whole doctrine" of Domestic 
COS. We can subscribe it cheerfully 
and cordially. It stands on the very 
ground for which we contend, and 
goes to the utmost extent of our 
wishes; and we could freely forgive 
the writer for all the extravagance 
and flippancy which precedes it in 
his pamphlet, if we could only be 
sure that all his readers would con- 
sider him as here unaayiftg the mogt 
of what he has said before. With 
this remark we leave him. 

We have already expressed our 
opinion of the work of l)r. Living- 
ston^iave given some extracts from 
it^and sincerely regret that we have 
not room for more, it is in our judg- 
ment, instar omnium, in relation to 
thissubject. In a few unessential par- 
ticulars we must differ from him ; but 
we diflfer with all the diffidence of an 
aftectiunate scholar, who cannot fully 
agree with an able master. Although 
it is not usual to review a work 
which has been ten years published, 
we determined to bring tl)is liislinct- 
ly before our readers; not solely be- 
cause we intended to quote it, but 
for the purpose of recommending it, 
as wc now earnestly do, to the care- 
ful perusal of all who can obtain a 

copy. 

The pamphlet of Mr. M'lver con- 
tains a historical statement of the 
case of M'Crimmon — the case 
which has occasioned a reference to 
the Presbyteries, and given rise to 
this whole controversy. The nar- 
rative part of the pamphlet is per- 



spicnous, full and satisfactory $ and 
the speech which he ddivered be* 
fore the Assembly does him credit 
in every view of it — It appears that 
M'Crimmon has entirelj forsaken 
the Presbyterian church, and gone 
to the Baptists. We hope that our 
Baptist brethren, for whom we chc- 
rish a sincere affection, will not, 
for their own sakes, receive snch 
men to their fellowship and con- 
munion— -We say for tlieir own 
sakes, because we certainly esteem 
it no loss to the Presbyterian chordi 
when any roan of this description 
leaves it, and no gain to any chorch 
that receives him. 

In drawing our review to a cloie, 
we wish our readers to know, Oat 
we are fully aware it may be 
remarked, perhaps with some n- 
tisfaction by our opponents, that 
in the interpretation we have givea 
to the eighteenth chapter c^ Leviti* 
cus, our appeal has been to the 
opinion of commentators, contra- 
vertists, and councils, and not to 
any new and convincing ammeoti 
of our own. But we have done this 
under a deliberate conviction, that 
in no other way could any thing: be 
said that ought to have, and that 
would have, nearly as much weight, 
with the whole discerning and god- 
sidcrate part of the commanity. 
We do not believe that the study of 
a month, or a twelvemonth, would 
enable any man in the United 
States, to ofler a new thought or ar- 
gument, of any worth,on the one side 
or the other of this controversy— 
we mean as it arises out of the in- 
terpretation of tlie chapter referred 
to — ^Nay, we do not believe that a 
new thought has been offeriMl on it, 
for nearly two hundred years past. 
All that can be said has been said, 
and repeated a hundred times, for 
centuries that have gone by.* Now, 

* Whoever is able luid wiHitig to read, 
on this subject, oeariy^ two folio volumei 
in Latin, plentifully inter^>erMd with 
quotations of Hebrew (both biblical and 
nhbinical), Greek, Syriae, Arabic and 
Persic, ought carefblly to coonh the Ibl- 



ittr. 



literarif and PhUosophkal JukUigence. 



185 



•in Slick a case, the beat appeal that 
can be made» is to the deliberate 
iipnion of the Christian publick^ in 
regard toarKuments and considera- 
tmis that nave been so long in 
view. The general and practical 
cenTiction of enli^htenea indivi- 
dnais and communities, affords, in 
Cfery sach oase, the best evidence, 
to show on which side of a contro- 
virted point the truth lies— -They are 
the jury, who decide the cause after 
the pleadings are finished. We have 
therefore shown that all Christen- 
dom, from the earliest periods of 
the Christian church to the present 
hour, after the most learned and 
tlierough investigation of this sub- 
jeet, has steadfastly abided in prac- 
ticoyby that construction of the eigh- 
teenth chapter of Leviticus for 
which we are advocates — The only 
appearance of an exception is in our 
•WQ country; and this we solemnly 
believe is notowing to new light, and 
an impartial view of the subject, 
bat to the relaxation of church dis- 
cipline; and to the repeal in one or 
two instances, and the non-execu- 
ikfa generally, of the civil enact- 
jsents which prohibit and punish 
iaceet. 

And we now most seriously en- 
beat those of our readers who, as 
misters and elders of the Presby- 
terian church, will shortly be call- 



_ vorks of the immortal Seldzn; 
fUe Jure Natuiali ct Gentuim, juxta disci- 
pSmmiEbrxonim — Uxor Ebraica — De Sy- 
•edriisyetenimEbraeorum. Wc certainly 
eske no pretence to much acquaintance 
vilh tbese works ; but since wc beg^n to 
write this review, we have looked into 
thm till we were heartily tired ; and be- 
fiete that whoever should go througli, 
lad eomptehend them, would have little 
moKC to learn on this subject. 



ed to vote on the retention or re« 
jection of that part of the article in 
our Confession of Faith which re- 
lates to this subject, to consider . 
well what they do. What, we ask, 
will they gain by a rejection or re- 
peal of the article? Will they pro- 
duce uniformity of practice, and thus 
prevent controversy and appeals, 
which seems to be the principal ^- 
ject in view-*No such thing* There 
will be as much controversy and as 
many appeals afterwards, as in 
times past Nay, there are portions 
of the Presbyterian church that 
cannot, and will not, yield to any 
human authority , which sanctions 
the marriages m question. They* 
dare not do it — They would sooner 
suffer the severest censures of the 
church, leave it, or be expelled from 
it, than submit, even silently, to 
what they consider as an abomina- 
tion in the sight of God, and forbid- 
den by his holy law. And for the 
sake of relieving a few individuals, 
who, it is agreed on all hands, have 
acted indiscreetly, and violated the 
law of Christian charitj, shall the 
inoffensive and conscientious be 
grieved P Shall they be driven from 
our communion? Shall the Presby- 
terian church be the first on eartn, 
formally to open a door, as many 
other cnurches will account it, for 
the most detestable licentiousness 
and impurity? Is this church wil- 
ling to present herself to the world, 
as leading the way, to what the most 
of Christendom will consider, and 
we think justly consider, as land de- 
filing, and heaven provoking iniqui- 
ty ? Forbid it reputation, justice, de- 
cency, humanity, conscience and 
piety — Great Head of the church, 
forbid it ! 



Xiterarp ant» )^giIo^op]^tcal intelligence, etc* 



•f MiitM^.— Tlie difficulty of inspecting 
Ihe UcaUis Auditoriiis, or Psssage of tlie 
Ear, from iU peculiar winding structure, 
if veil known; hence the uncertainly 
Ibat often arises in ascertainiitg the cause 
of diaca i es in this omth in conttequcncc 

Vol. V,^ai. Mt\ 



of a greater attention being paid to dis- 
eases of the car than formerly, an inge- 
nious French Aurist.has lately invented a 
novel instrument, termed an Auv\artov^« 
which allows a conin\eVe\v\«o«cJCiKmfiJl>^ae. 
parts. It consisli ol a cvniviiix \xx«s^\\a^^ 
2 A 



166 



lAierar^ and PhiUwiphical Mdliget^te* 



fUtpt that go completely round tbo tioo. My man cuts witk one ko 

beady and at ^ angle orer each ear is chine, in four hours, enough m 

aflbwd a hook and screw, together with straw for nine horses for twei 

n lever, so as to pull the ear backwards hours." 
and forwards in aifTerent directions, and 



thus lay the meatus open to the mem- 
brane of the tympanum. But this instru- 
ment beinff complex in its mechanism, 
and paiiifiu in its application, has been 
reduced to greater simplicity and eflfect 
by Mr. J. Harrison Curtis, the Surgeon to 
the London R<ml Dispensary for Diseases 
of tEe Ear, where, smce making these 
alterations, he has bad ample opportuni- 
ties of appredating iti ments. 

'A gentleman who has discovered a 
mode of dresdng flax without rotting, 
»id who has an establishment in success- 
fill operation on the Hudson river, has 
agreed, if the produce of two hundred 
acres of flax land can be secured to him, 
to locate himself in Essex or Middlesex 
oounty, where he will give fifteen dollars 
per ton for flax from the field, afler the 
need is taken oil*, without any other pre- 
paration. It is calculated that at this price 
a net profit of fit>m twelve to eighteen 
dollars per acre, may be realized from 
the land; while the. farmers will be freed 
from the trouble of rotting, dressing, &c., 
and yet the gentleman proposes to sell 
his dressed flax cheaper by 20 per cent., 
than others who first rot, and then dress 
It. Besides, the flax that is dressed with- 
out rotting, is much stronger, loses less 
in the manufiicture, is firmer, and more 
•ofL 

The Rev. W. Evans, of Llandefeilog, 
Carmarthenshire, Wales, has snnounced 
'the followinfip discovery for maintaining 
and keeping horses without the aid of hay 
and com, viz : — <* Cut straw and potatoes, 
or straw, chaff, and pounded furze mixed, 
wetted with some salted water, prepared 
as follows : let a tub of fresh water, with 
an egg in it, be imprecated with as 
much domestick salt as will cause the egg 
to rise and float on the surface, that being 
the criterion of its saltness equal to that 
of sea-water. The provender being put 
into a wicker basket, and placed on the 
tub, pour the salted water upon it, in 
quantity sufficient to wet the whole mess 
•^and when it shall have done filtering 
through it, give it to the horses, llie 
■Jtea water will not only moisten and 
sweeten the food, but also operate as a 
moat efficient alterathre, to purify the 
blood, purge all gross humours, prevent 
the increase of worms, and all pamful at- 
tacks from those troublesome vermin. 
Horses fed in this manner will work well, 
and will be fit for all sorts of work ; and 
if this method be but tried, it will not fail 
of recommending itself for gencsml adop. 



mmer Foodfir Com.— M. Chab 
director of the Veterinaiy adiool 
fort, had a number of c6wb which ; 
twelve ^[aliens of milk every day. ' 
publication on the subject, he oli 
that cows fed in the winter upon d 
stances, give less milk than thoae 
are kept upon a green diet, and a 
their milk loses much of its quafit 
publiahed the following recipe, 1^ 
of which his cows afforaedan eaui 
tity and quality of milk during the 
as during the summer : — ** Take a 
of potatoes, break them whilat rafi 
them in a barrel standing up, put 
successively a Uyer of potatoea 
layer of bran, and a small quan 
yeast in the middle of the mass, 
IS thus left to ferment during a 
week, and when the vinous taste h 
vaded the whole mixture, it is gi 
the cows, who eat it greedily.** 

Ancient Vtuet, — The proprietor 
estate in Tuscany having employe* 
workmen to make excavations, h 
good fortune to discover an ex 
Etruscan sepulchre, in which ther 
about 800 vases, equally remarka 
beauty of form and elegant desig 
has presented the whole to the 
Duke of Tuscany, who has ordere 
to be placed in the Museum of FU 

Bell's Weekly Messenger gives 
lowing account of the rise ofthe K 
Debt of England. 

At the Revolution, in 1689, £l,C 
At the peace of Ryswick, 1697, 2l,i 
At the peace of Utrecht, 1714, 53,e 
At the peace of Aix la Cha- 

pelle, 1758, 78,S 

At the peace of Paris, 1763, 183^ 
At the peace of Versailles, 

after the American war, 

1783, 238,2 

At the peace of Amiens, 1802, 499,7 
Amount of tiie debt in 1813, 600,C 
Estimated amount, on the 

5tii of Jan. 1827 900,C 

A Milledg^ville (Geo.) paper i 
the formation of two large vinejri 
the neighbourhood of that place, 
climate of Georgia is every way si 
to the cultivation of the grape, ai 
experiment has been successfully 
The continued depreciation of 
renders it more than ever necesi 
seek for some staple, which will i 
the toil, and return an interest on 
pital of the planter. 



SeHgumi IiiMli gtm i e . 



W 



Bmmm /Wfw— 'From the iiMiui* pcii WM intrnttad by thOlMMfifiiii fD- 



M. CagiMzzi» to wbom the •cien- vemmeiitt it appem 

ixuninatioD of the monuments of Somen loot was 0.39634 of % neti«b <* 

ty found in Herculeneum end Pom- 101435 finet French meemre. 



fielt0toti$ SlnteHtgetice. 



lin the fatft month we hare receiTed 
■uicb esteemed correspondent, % 
from wluch ve give the fbllowiiur 
^-contuninji; information that ^U 
hly interesting to the fnenda of vi* 
y, and the general diffusion of the 
cripttires. 

tt have been ionr aware of the tot- 
etate of the Bible Society in JSub* 
d win not be surprised that it has 
lUcn. Its officers have been dis- 
I and its operations ceased; but 
is a stock or about 200,000 copies 
Bcriptures, in different knguaffesy 
itores s and, in whatever way they 
e hereafter circuUited, this incorw 
e seed will not be in vain, 
t me state to ;^ou at the same time, 
connected with the operations of 
isnan Bible Society, while it has 
istence, in which you will greatly 
!. The consequence of an exten- 
vulation of the word of God in that 
mpire, for many years psst has 
to ruse up in various parts of it, 
» a very great extent, a body of 
toral or Bible Christians* who 
enounced the Greek Church, and 
this denomination associate to^- 
M> read and study the Holy 8cnp« 
acknowledging this blessed Book 
only rule of faith and practice, and 
ing the Christian Sabbath as a day 
reS rest. A considerable effect, I 
tend, is manifest in the peaceable 
cderly lives of the people who are 
eparating under the influence of 
ian truth ; and some circumstances 
leen related which afford a pleasing 
ice of truly Christian principles ope- 
on their minds, llius, my dear 
is the most high Grod rulinji^ and 
Bi^ amongst the children of^men, 
7 on his purposes of mercy in his 
v^ $ eheering us by rays of'^Kght in 
BKest seasons, and saying to us, 
il, and know that I am God.' Let 
itmiie waiting on him, still sowing 
m at opportunities arise, and where 
evidence directs, assured that it 
•ot be alto^pether in vain, however 
and inefitcient the instrument em- 
1 may be. 

flbw months since I mentioned to 
lead a movement amon^git 

BWS in CamtMutinaph, Mad tb^t a 



number had received Chritt at the Mia- 
siah, of which a son of a Chief Babbi waa 
one. They were looking forward to sitfi 
fering, but most of all feared a veiy rich 
9pd powerfhl Jew, who^ from the tttua- 
tion ne held under the Turkish govern- 
ment, was known by the name of the 
Sapdgi, his influence being such, that he 
could effect the ruin of any individual 
disposed to Christianity: this rendered 
them cautious in their meeting toffether» 
to avoid suspicion. — ^It so happeneo, how- 
ever, that in the course of events^ con- 
nected with the revolt of the Jaiussariet» 
tills man, who stood so high in frvouTf 
fell under the Sultan's di^easnre.— Ha 
ordered him to be beheaded, and aeiaed 
all his treasure; — thus^ the enemy who 
was nkist feared was removed out of tha 
way. By the last accounts^ however, it 
appears that a persecutioa has now comi- 
menced : one of the Jews who baa em- 
braced Christianity, has been comnutted 
to prison, and severely bastinadoed; after 
which, his immediate release w%» pro- 
mised if he Would renounce Christ or« if 
he would not, a repetition of puniahmtnt 
was threatened ; but he continues fidth- 
ful, and a confidence is felt that othen 
are also ready to go to prison and to death 
for the name of Christ 

•" The effect of the ftee drddation of 
the Scriptures amongst the Catholio^ is 
beginninf^ to appear in the south of 
France : in Lyons and the neighbourhood, 
no less than 1500 Roman Catholica have 
embraced Protestantism. In some parts 
of Germany, particularly Wirtembeig^ the 
people meet together in the villages to 
read the Scriptures. In Prussia a good 
work b said to be going on amongst all 
ranks; and also in the Canton de Yaud, m 
Switzeriand, where many are brought 
under the power of the truth. 

*< I am glad to observe Mr. Setgeant^ 
appointment to the Congress or Soath 
America, hoping much good will result 
to the new Sutes, firom the assodatioD of 
their Bepresentatives with men of libevsl 
and enlightened Christian views. Mr^ 
Thomson will probably go to If eiaeo in 
tho course of a few weeks, as sgent to 
the British and Foreign Bible Socie^. I 
shall give him an introduction to lur. 8., 
anticipating it as probable thai ^« tMCf 
attend the mecitiiis id)«axiMd libitM fnpi^ 
PananiA. 



]88 



Rdigioua InUIUgence. 



AnoBf 



•• In a late I|kw York Obsenrer, I was 
pleaaed with akSatement, that in aonie of 
the old sUTc-hoklin^ ttatei, Maryhuul 
particuUrly, the landholders are begin- 
ning to find that their interest is promoted 
by the employment of free labour in pre- 
ferance to slaves. Should this powerful 
principle in the human heart be brought 
into full operation on the subject, it mav 
tend rapidly to effect the desirable end; 
showing at the lame time, that selfish 
Tiews and feelings are equally unfavoura- 
able to the real interest of man in tlie pre- 
sent state, as they are inconsistent with 
his future good as a moral and unaccount- 
able being." 



fOK THS CRmiSTIATI ADVOCJLTS. 

OaiTVAmT NoTicx or Gkhiral Jorx 
Stiilb, laie Collector of the Port of 
Philadelphia^ and 0/ A me ail, hit Wife ; 
ikefirtt of vfhom departed thit Ufe on 
the 2rth of Febntavy, and the latter on 
the I3th of March, 1827. 

Tins Tcnerable couple, when released 
fVom earth, had been united to eacli other 
in the happiest matrimonial union during 
the lapse of forty-three years, lacking 
only three days ; and by death were not 
long divided. They were born within a 
few months of each other, in the county 
of Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, of respect- 
able families of Presbyterians — were 
brought up in the nurture and admoni- 
tion of the Lord — became pious in early 
life, and together lived in tlic ser\'icc of 
their Lord and Master, Jesus Christ, until 
they had nearly completed their three 
score years and ten. Their attachment 
to each other was formed a short time 
before the commencement of the war of 
our American revolution, and their in- 
tended nuptials were delayed for seven 
years, by patriotic devotion to the cause 
of liberty and our country. During the 
contest for national independence, Gene- 
ral Steele, then a youth, full of ardour 
and enterprise, followed tlic immortal 
Washington through all his toils and pri- 
vations. He was actively eneaged in the 
battle of Brandywine, m which he re- 
ceived a British ball through his shoul- 
der; but for this affliction he felt himself 
compensated by participation in the cap- 
ture of Lord Comwallis. His pious pa- 
rehts had cherished the hope in his 
youth, that he would become a minister 
of the gospel, and with a view to this sa- 
cred office, he was under the tuition of 
the Rev. James Latta, D.D., at Chesnut 
Level, when he heard the call of his 
country to arms, and declared to his 
venerable preceptor, that until his coun- 



tiy was free, he must relinquMi hisrti- 
dies for the otmp. He entered the 
army as a volunteer, and thougli joof t 
soon obtained the command or a vetMie 
company. From loss of blood by the 
wound which he received, he wee le- 
duced so low as scarcely to breathe 1 eed 
w^as sometimes thought to be deeds hel 
six faithful soldiers carried him awej K- 
veral miles on a sheet, (his weekneee pee- 
venting any other mode of removeU mA 
quartered him for a season in the lerir 
of two ancient maiden ladiee, who though 
entirely atrangers to him, miieed him as* 
ncUiously, and under Providenee wen 
the means of his restoratioo. Hib eeett 
of obligation to them, and his gratitode, 
were lasting as life. 

Before he could return to active aiS* 
tary duty, his father heard what had be- 
fallen his son, and after much eeaich, 
found him in Bucks county, whither he 
had been carried, after many remofsK 
with a view to liis safe^. His tempoieiy 
residence at home, while disabled, «ai 
nearly as dangerous as the battle of the 
Brandywine; for an unskilfiil siir|peoB, 
thinking it necessary to probe his wooed, 
divided a large arter>', and had not the 
means of tying it To prevent him froB 
bleeding to death, his sister held the en* 
ficc with her fingers, while a roeseenctf 
was despatched to procure another pEj* 
sician trom Lancaster. He came, but 
alas! without his case of instruments^ aod 
was obliged to return for them ; so that i 
distance of sixteen miles was travelled 
over four times, while a sister's hand 
alone performed the office of a ligature. 

Returning health and strength restofed 
the young soldier to his companions in 
arms, not at all discouraged by what he 
had suffered. 

At the close of the war, poor and pen- 
nylcss, he returned to his native abode, 
with the consciousness of having served 
his country faithfully, which was then the 
only pay of our disbanded revolutionaiy 
worthies. He arrived at the end of a 
lane which led from the main road to hia 
paternal mansion, cheered with the ex* 
pectation of embracing, after years of 
absence and toil, his much loved relatives; 
but here a new conflict awaited him, for 
he saw collected under the shady trees 
which surrounded his home a multitude 
of horses, carriages and people, evidently 
about to move in funereal procession ; and 
he could not advance. <* Who now ie 
dead ?" said he to himself; ** Is it my fa- 
ther ? Is it my mother ? Or is it some other 
member of my family ?" Proposing such 
questions to himself, he lingered at the 
end of the avenue; desiring, and yet dread* 
ing to know the truth ; until he finallv 
beckoned a passenger to him, and IcameJt 



Wtligkmu InkUlgtmB, 



IM 



had afiifed jmi in tioM to inter 



le iMmour of Mn. Steele it nMjr be 
that ibe pre fe tred the Toung eol- 
Donded tm he wu^ tad then deett* 
wofldly iabitaiice» to an ftAuent 
tthy yoonp gentlemMi who looff 
ber hand; andilke finn^deelaied 
MureatSy who fiiToured tne pretea* 
' the hitter, that if thejr woold not 
to her onion with Captain Steele^ 
lid never be married to any one. 
r incident will iUnatrate hw eh»> 
Before mairiage ahe fired with 
rtfaer, who waa a printer in Lan* 
nd wliile keeping nia houae, often 
ed her needle in hia office. Har- 
ched him in aetting up typea^ ahe 
m day* **Brother, I think 1 can 
a ;*' and at once commenced her 
MM^ and actually aet up the ftnt 
Mmaaack which waa ever printed 
omaonwealth. With firroneai^ de- 
Hrterpriae, and activity, ahe uiiited 
■ore amiable attributea of an ac« 
ibed lady. She waa^ aa wiU natu- 
condoded from the two inctdenta 
aedy adnurably auited for the con- 
ia IBfe which waa formed with Ge- 
:eele» aoon after the termination of 
r: and it waa^ perhapiy aa much 

her knowledgfe of the buaineaa 
ater aa to the vemtility of the ge* 

her husband, that they came to 
!lphia« and engaged in that proflsa- 
maineas which Franklin immortal- 
ad which haa immortaliaed Frank- 

Dg us a praiseworthy example of 
r and of mdependence of cnarac- 

lodependence of every thing but 
cioua God and the resourcea of our 
jidas when the arts were compa- 
^ new in our country— General 

with his own bands, cast the type 
hich he and bis youthful partner 
the first American edition (^ DiU 

1 Spelling Book, and a copy of the 
eatnment Stereotype platea had 
n come into use ; but the types for 
two wotks were fiwt locked in 

and the original proprietor of 
■blished edition after edition, for 
tmction and edification of multi- 
i aehools, and hundreds of thou- 
if boa fellow-dtizena. 
eqnently General Steele removed 
iper manufiu^oiy, which he estab. 
»a the Octorara, and there also he 
ied copiea from his standing types^ 
MrfooaHy repaired them by casting 
hoed letteis anew. These leaden 
WW finnQr brouji^t back to thia 
idKHB* oftfaem. It ia believed, are 
f wcvi Imdly, in poaaeasion of Mi« 
kfflf^ 'Baq^mmmour mo&t enter- 



prising booicNilen^ iihi|^afing kbaitlf 
pr o cur e d a better set oMandfaif fbma^ 
porehaaed the old oaea to atflfrae eifei»- 
btkm of a work inferior to hia own. 

Agrimdlure waa the ftvourite poinity 
howevei^ ef General Steelet and nam hia 
paper mannAMstorT and printing he retired 
toUaftrm. WhUe oohivaling hunativo 
fieUa he flvqaeatly repreaeoted hia dia- 
tikt in th« Houae of Repreaentatives aad 
in the Senato of Pennsybanmi aad waa 
veiyuaefbl in aettling the difBenltiea be- 
tween the dififbrent chumanta of land hi 
Lttiefae ooun^,whieh were long aaooree 
of agitation and anmety to the oonnnanity. 

In 180S he waa appointed ooUeclor of 
the revenne of the United Statea fbr tiie 
port of Phibdelphia, and filled thia im- 
pottant office with exemplary abili^ and 
ftdefitVi until in view of approaehingdeali^ 
he reamed it at the eloae of the vear ISM. 
It waa deemed a thing increcfible^ when 
he fint entered into this tniat, that ai^ 
fiurmer, not bred to merehandiae, coold 
manaffe ao complicated and extensive an 
eatabfiahment aa that of the cuatom4iouao 
in thia city ; but no one haa ever collected 
the revenue more entirely to the satisfeo- 
tion of all concerned. In the achool of 
Waahinalon he had been trained to ava- 
tem ana punctoality ; and auch waa hie 
determined integrity of character, that 
he never auffered one dollar of the mo- 
niea of Uie United Statea to come into hia 
own handa: all waa paid into Bank» 
whence he drew nothing but hia aalair^ 
after it had become due. The only finiw 
wiUi which 1 have ever known any to* 
charge him waa this, that he could not 
give officea under him to all needy appli- 
canta. 

To hia bteat breath the devodon of Ge*. 
neral Steele to his country waa intelligent 
and ardent He waa a zealoua advocate 
for our repreaentative aystem of govern* 
ment, for domeatick manufiictures, fbr 
internal improvementa, and fbr agricul- 
tural purauita. He' wished to aee hia- 
country aa independent aa poarible of 
every other country fbr all the ineana of 
life, the productiona of the ua^il afta, 
and the bleasingaof sdence and religion : 
and hia g^reatest fear fbr the United Statea 
was, that our national and individual in- 
gratitude to God^ pride, and extravie 
^nce, eapedally in pecuniary specula- 
tioo, would at aome fotore time procure 
heavy judgmenta, if nottheaubversiottof 
our ffrtui repubfick. He waa indeed a 
polttidan, but not one anxioua to aggran- 
dize himaelf ; and a patriot; but not one 
that could aacribe all our national proa- 
perity to human agency, h te ap e eti ve 06 
the Divine govenment. 

Of Geoeial SieeWa dansMlaai, tShaiiAP 
lei^ and aatbe hii^Mrit vn^eooe qK >is» 



190 Vitw tf FMidc Jffbirs. AxKLi 

Itfudence, KlfMTemment and equani- of the coiwumptioii of the hia^ ttor* 

mity of himself Itfid bit partner, let it b% Christian graces became more bnght ud 

recorded, that during tneir whole union giorioua. Each of them maniiea t e d a 

of nearly forty-three years, thqf never ejr> cheerful resig^tion to the will of Oo4 



changed one harth or unkind word. This and while desirous of dyings diMt tlNf 

was their own testimony concerning each mi^t be with Jesus and be like liim»th^f 

other, which might be corroborated by pauently waited until their time' 

all who were at any time intimate in their Death and the future life, i ' 




fiunily. Out of a million of tnily happy fnghtful things, of which aoaie Mf 
marriages^ it might be difficult to find persons are unwilling that evens minfaltt 



another couple, concerning whom we of the Gospel should speak to 
could safely make such an unqualified were the theme of their calm mcditaHoi> 



assertion as tliis. conversation, faith, and prayer* 

It remains for me to write a few things Steele continued to sit up more or 

concerning the religious character of until she saw her husband cjiuetly 

these la^ly deceased companions. They his breath into the hands of hia Bed 

wereChristians indeed, without lukewarm- without a struggle or a groan: she thm 



neas, bigotry, or guile. At an early pe- retired to her bed, and nature 

riod of life they professed their faith in On the morning after his decease I ei- 



the Gospel, and subjection in heart and pected to find her gloomy and 

life to the blessed Saviour. Their whole m her feelings ; but it was &r otlienrilCb 



conduct corresponded with their reli^- and she said to me witli great 

ous profession, and evinced it to be sm- " I have been reflecting with thankfid* 



cere. They were lovers of the Sabbath, ness that my dear husband ho now 

of the house of worship, of the Christian one night with his blessed Saviour.** b 

sacraments, of the doctrines of grace as this frame of mind she continued imd 

taught in the Presbyterian confession of her transit to the skies. Just befiate her 

faith, of civil and religious liberty, of all decease, her son-in-law, the Rev. Dr. Phi*. 

good men, and of the Lonl our God. Of lip Milledoler, at her request, united whk 

tne Presbyterian church at Chesnut Level, her and the fkmily in prayer, and befat 

General Steele was a ruling elder ; and her watching friends were aware of it, 

he often officiated in that cliaracter in the lier spirit haii fled to mansions of cvcriiit 

Third Presbyterian church in this city, of ing blessedness. Happy couple ! Blcaed 

which he was a trustee, and one of its in life, and thrice blessed in death ! 

most valuable members. As he and his May oiu* last end be liketlieira; for they 

partner drew nearer and nearer the eter- sleep in Jesus. E. 8. £• 

nal world, by the gradual encroachments Philadelphia^ March 27, 1827. 

T*he Treaturer of the Trutteet of the Gerieral Auembly of the Pretbyterian Chaxh 
acknotoledget the receipt of the follovfing tumt for their Theological Seminary ai 
Princeton^ (JV*. /.) during the month of March latt, viz. 

Of Robert M'Mullin, Esq., in full of his subscription for the Permanent Fimd j550 00 
Of Hev. Dr. Samuel Miller, a contribution from a member of the First CUas 
of 1824^ toward founding the Professorship of Oriental and Biblical Lite- 
rature - - - - - - - - - 30 00 

Of Rev. Edward N. Kirk, a member of the First Class of 1825, for ** the in- 
struction of some indigent student, who shall consider it as a loan to be 
repaid when Providence makes it practicable." In part of his subscrip- 
tion .-.-.--. j525 
And one year's interest due last September, - 6 31 00 

Total £111 00 



mtva of l^uWtcft Woiv§. 

EUROPE. 

Nothing of great importance has reached us from Europe within the month past. 

Bbitaiit. — ^The latest advices which we have seen from Britain are from Liveipool 
of the 31st of Feb. Pariiament assembled after the holidays on the 8th of that month, 
A letter from that place states that Lord Liverpool had been dangerously ill of a dia. 
ease characteristick of apoplexy, and that Mr. Canning continu^ in an ill state of 
health. Great publick anxiety was manifested in regard to the illnev of Lord Liver* 



1M7. Vitw of PMiek Jltffmr$. 191 

pool. Stocki, in cootequence, hid fidlen two per cent. The writer ftdcto— <* What 
effect this may have in poftponine the subject of the com laws, or in producing a 
cbance in the ministiy, cannot yet be detemuned.'* The com Uws, Catholick eman- 
cipatioii, a change of miniatry, the splendid iiineral of the Duke of York, and the ap- 
pointment of the Duke of IVeltington in his place as commander-in-chief of the 
a i ' uuca theie are the topicks of domestick news, on which the London papers re- 
eemd throucfa the month chiefly dwell. The Duke of Chrence, on a message from 
the king, had received an additional allowance of agSOOO sterling per annum, and hit 
dacheis jg6000. Their whole allowance is ag3C^00 per annum. It appears that 
diwaap bad imraded man;^ of the dislinguishedpersonages of Britain. Besides Lofd 
Liveipool and Mr. Canmng, the royal Dukes of Cumberiand and Sussex, and Mr. 
Hnakuison of the House of Commons, had been seriously ill ; and the king himself 
was at« Brighton, confin»l with the gout — Noticing of great publick interest hsd taken 
phce in Parfiaroent. The commercial distress of the kingdom was abated. A par- 
Bunentaty account states, that the annual income is about SS million sterling, and the 
expoiditure 54 million, leaving one million for the sinking fund. An e^cpedition to 
the north pole was fitting out under Captain Parry. 

FBasos«-*Great excitement has been produced in the French chambers by the pro- 
ject of a kw on Uie press, which it was affirmed by the opposers of the law was de- 
structive i]£ the interests and dignity of literature. The French Academy took up the 
sobjectt and presented a supplicatory remonstrance to the king. It had been assailed 
wim great yehemence in the chamber of deputies, and it was believed that in despite 
of court influence, the law would not be pssscd. The French finances were in a very 
pffoaperous state, the revenue exceeding the expenditure by a considerable surplus. 

flpanTd— It appears that the court of Spain have been sadly disappointed in an ex- 
pcetatioii that Rusna would bear them out in countenancing the Portuguese rebels. 
The emperor Nicholas has explicitly declared, thst Spain wiU receive no aid or coun- 
**q— M^ from him, in any interference with Portugal. This we believe has determined 
Ihe Snamsh court to change its views and its measures— not its wishes. There will 
Xxdumf be a little more done to save appearances, and then all the bustle about Por- 
tngsl will be over. 

PoanjoAL. — ^The civil war in Portugal is apparently all but terminated. The re- 
bels, after some hard fighting, have been defeated and dispersed. We cannot find 
thst the BritiiAi troops nave been employed in active service at all. They remain, 
Inwever, in Portugal. The Chataiber of Deputies was in session, Jan. 20, and a pro- 
ject of a law was presented for declaring the ports of Lisbon open to all nations, with 
t daty of one per cent, on the re-exportation of goods — This law was likely to pass. 

RirssiA. — ^As was to be expected, the Russians appear to have vancjuished the Per- 
van troops, and to have made a considerable inroad into that empire. — No details 
iMrever are given in the last accounts. 

GaucEw— The cause of Greece continues tcrwear a cheering aspect. The siege of 
Athens has been raised ; and the Turkish forces have been so much worsted in a 
Mmber of engagements, that throughout the whole of Peninsular Greece, they ap- 
pttr to hold no sway beyond the fortresses or fortified camps which they occupy — 
Those parts of the country which hsd submitted, on the retiring of the troops of Ibra- 
^ and Reschid Pachas have again risen in open and active rebellion. The large 
Ameriean frigate had arrived, and the command was g^ven to Miauiis — LfOrd Cochrane 
vv also speedily expected — Great suffering however was experienced fi>r the want 
sf pnnridons and clothing. We hope it will shortly be relieved by the liberal 
MMfies which are going from our own and other countries. The worst circumstance 
is the affairs of Greece is civil disunion, and the disposition of the commanders and 
Qcwa of their vessels of war to engage in piratical enterprises — From these circum- 
fluees^ we fear that they will not be able to settle their affairs without foreign inter- 
femace, even if they should be successfiil in freeing their country from Turkish inva- 
M. The Turks are said by the hist accounts to be sending a con^erable force to 
^ Moica, direct from Constantinople. 

ASIA. 

it would leem at if the Dutch were likely to be entirety expelled from the ishmd 
of Java. It has for some time been known that a formidsblc insurrection of the 



B the Dutch govemment had taken place; and it appears by recent ac- 

eomjlt that about the first of October last, the insurgents defeat^ the Dutch troops; 
mdit it mid mmUdUued them in a general engagement. A letter writer «a^a— ^ ^ e. 
kmpvaot what troops are coming trom Europe; but if five or nx VhcmaaxvdL meii ^o 
Mt arfifv in a few weeka^ twenty (housand will not save Java, Cor t.^vt^ nCO^ vYv^e'va 
nrgortf tdfiDce (6e/r Blrengtb wcrcues." 



i 



19£ yUw of PMick Jjfairi. Ann, 

AFRICA. 

It appem ihata British ship of war hu airived in England from the coMlcf Afikii 
*' bringing intelligence that Captain Clapperton had arrived at the rei^ence of Bokaa 
Soolim, at Sackatoo, and been well receiTed. Dr. Dixon had arrived at Yoon, fiit 
dajrs* journey from the Sooliroa countiy. Captain Clapperton would immediale^pio* 
ceed to Tombuctooi to be there jcnned by Mr. Dixon, and they would then mka 
their beat way to the ulterior objects of their journey.'' The gallant C6L Poidai^ 
who commanded the British and African forces agunst the Ariunteesy had alM » 
rived in London, bringing infonnation that the king of the Ashanteeahad died of thi 
iwounds he-Kceived, in the battle in which his army waa defeated. 

AMERICA. 

Hatti.— The last information received from tins island is, that Hayti refbaea to fnl* 
ill her engagements to France, relative to half duties ; that France aeema detenuned 
to compel compliance ; and that war is likelv to be the consequence. 

BuaHGS Atris and BaAziL. — ^Bv an arrival in fortjr-eight days Irom Montevideo we 
learn '* that Admiral Brown was blockading the Brazilian fleet in the Uruguav river; 
and that a heavy force of Brazilian vessels was cruiring between Montevideo and 
Buenos Ayres. Several engagements had been fought, but none of any consequenee.' 

CoLoxBiA. — ^The general congress of this republiek has been convened, and tiie 
Liberator, Bolivar, has addressed to the president of the senate, under dsdte of Fd>. 
Gth, a letter, of which the following is the conclusion : — , 

*' Republicans, jealous of their liberties, cannot consider me without a seeret dread; 
■because the pages of history tell them thst all those placed in similar situation^ liafs 
been ambitious. In vain do I wish to propose the example of Washington as m de- 
fence} and in fac^ one or many exceptions can effect nothing against the expeneaee 
of the worid, which has always been oppressed by the powerful. 

** I sigh between the distress of my fellow citizens, and the sentence which awaiM 
me in the judgment of posterity. I, myself, am aware that 1 am not fl-ee from anibi> 
lion, and therefore I desire to extricate myself from the grasp of that fury, to free tn 
fellow citizens from all inquietude, and to secure after my death, that reputation wUch 
I may be intitled to, for my zeal in the cause of liberty. ^ 

*■ With such sentiments, 1 renounce again and again, the presidency of the repdi- 1 
lick* Congress and the nation must receive this abdication as irrevocable; notiiiBg j 
will be able to oblige me to continue in the publick service, to which I have alread|f 
dedicated my entire life : and now that the triumph of liberty haa placed this subliiv 
right within the enjoyment of every one, shall I alone be deprived of it ? No : the 
Congress and the Colombian people are just ; they will not compel me to an ignoni* 
nious detertion. Few are the days which now remain to mc : more than two-thuda ef 
my existence has already passed ; let mc, therefore, be permitted to await a peaeefill 
death in the obscure and silent retreat of my paternal residence — my sword and my 
heart will nevertheless be always with Colombia, and my last sighs will aaoend to 
Heaven, in prayers for her continual prosperity. 

** I pray, therefore. Congress and my fellow citizens, to confer on me the title of a 
Private Cititen, 

** God guard your Excellency, 
Signed. <*SiMOir Bouvab," 

UirrrxB States. — Wc have no domestick information of importance to recorcL The 
difference between the government of the United States and the State of Georgia 
aeems likely to pass over, witliout other serious consequences than the unhappy pre- 
cedent which has been furnished, of a single state opposing, explicitly and decinvcly, 
a treaty formed by the general government. 



\* Within the last montli the following note has been addressed to the Editor ef 
the Christian Advocate — and is given to the publick as he received it. 

JWw York, March 14^ 1827. 

Dear Sir, — We have availed ourselves of the union of another paper nith oun^ to 

add to our title; which will hereafter be " Christian Advocate and Journal." Tfe^ 

we hope will be satisflBUStory to vou; and as the subject was noticed in your Jamiaiy 

No., perhaps it may be agreeable to you to name this addition in some future No. 

\try respectfully, yours, , 

N. BAVOS & I. ElMBf. 



THE 



(oanBasvoiiP iia>'?®(Div»m 



MAY, 1827. 



lSe{t0tou$ Communtcation^. 



LSOTURXS ON THE SHORTER OATK- 
CHISX OF THE WESTMINSTER A8- 
SEJCBLT OF DIVINES-^ADDRESSED 
TO YOUTH. 

LBCTVHE XZTII. 

The ExaUation of Christ. 

( Continued from p, 148.) 

The second step of our Lord's ex- 
diitioD was " his ascending up into 
hMfen." 

Hie place of Christ's ascension is 
«e& worthy of particular notice. It 
vas from Mount Olivet, nigh to Be- 
ftsny; from the very mountain, per- 
Ittps from the very spot, where, in his 
nrM agony, his soul had been '' ex- 
ceeding sorrowful even unto death f 
ttd be had ** sweat as it were great 
I' drops of blood falling down to the 
ground.* What an interesting, what 
I well chosen contrast ! How proper 
that on the spot where his disciples 
hd seen his deep depression, they 
Aoald witness his glonfication; that 
bom the place where he had tasted, 
v far as innocence could taste, of 
the pains of hell, he should ascend 
to heaven; that from the ground 
once moistened with his blood , and 
tetrip he should rise to eternal joys. 
His eleven faithful apostles — the 
tnitor Judas having gone to his own 
place— were the chosen witnesses of 
this glorious scene. Their Divine 
Master, we are told, led them out as 
kt ts Bethany. — ^Let us go with 
them, mr children, guided by the 
word 01 truth. As they passed 
slooj^ the Lord chaiged tfaem not 



to depart from Jerusalem till they 
should have received the Holy 
Ghost, which he promised he would 
shortly send. He told them, of 
course, that this was his last per- 
sonal interview witli them on earth, 
and that he was just going to ascend 
to the Father. Yet, to raise their 
droopin|f; spirits, he promises them 
his spiritual presence, without inter* 
ruption— *' Lo ! 1* am with you al- 
ways, even to the end of the world.* 
— But the place of separation is now 
reached — the time to part is come. 
He gathers the little group around 
him — I think I see them all kneel to 
receive his last blessing — ^He lifts up 
his hands in prayer and benediction ; 
and while he is blessing them, be* 
hold! he rises from the ground. But 
still he blesses them — till his voice 
can no longer be heard. He as- 
cends rapidly, but they follow him 
with eager eyes, till a cloud re- 
ceives and covers him: And still 
they look at the place where they 
saw him last — ^They hope to catch 
one more glimpse of their dear de- 
parted Lord, and they look and look, 
till they are roused from their reverie 
by a voice-*-They cast their eyes 
downward, and see« two angels 
clothed in white, who say — ••Ye men 
of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up 
into heaven? 'this same Jesus wnich 
is taken up from you, shall so come, 
in like manner as ye have seen him 
go into heaven" — ^Then the holy 
apostles prostrate and v)ot%Vv\^ ^^vc 
ascended Master. Be^ou^titei^^oxiV 




194 Ltdnint m Un Hkorkr Catediiam. 

\Ak aneition it wu reli^ous worahip, are witneuei — Thererore, b 

whicn the; offered him. Hair could the right haoil or God ei&lt 

itbean; other? His body was eodc havin|; receired of the Fattier th 

ioto heaven. If they did not behen promise of the Hol^ Ghosl. he hath 

him present, as God, their act nraa shed forth this which ye now mc 

nnmeaiiinff and ^»urd. and hear." He who was anainled 

Heanwniie, the ascended Saviovr, with the Spirit without measure, itid 
making the brightcloud his triumph- who was now seated on lii» media- 
ant chariot, attended by, and passing torial throne, in conformity with thft 
through, crowds of adoring aneeli, will of the eternal Father, and ia 
went far on to a throne eialted hlfilmentofhisown promise to«end 
above theirs, till he sat down on the the Coin&rtrr, did now send him, 
right hand of God. wit)i all hit mirnculuus energies and 

This is Hublimely ^adowed forth operations. Tlie apostles themseltei 

in the Z4th Psalm, which I recom- were immediately and fully enl^l- 

nend that you read attentively, in ened into the nature of their miMiim, 

reference to this glorious event llie work and expectntions. Vou never 

Psairo primarily related to the inlro- more hear of their lonking for a ten- 

faction of the ark to the holy of ho- poral kingdom, or for any earttilr 

lies,in the Jewish tabernacle and teiii- distinctioBS — To spread the guspcL 

pie; but ultimately and especiallyit and to suffer ami die for Iheir Lwdi 

refers to the entrance of the King of was ever after their highest ambition 

eory, the divine Immsnuel, into his — Although men of no literary edft- 

Avenly kingdom; and to hi& recep* cation, tlwy now, hy the instanta* 

Gon of ms mediatorial throne, after neous mstniclion of the Spirit of ill 

f;ODquering the powers of darkness, wisdom. Spake and discoursed wilk 

tnd leading captivity captive. proprietr. in twelve or fourteen difr 

This laat circumstance is const- terent languagesi and thus wen 

dered in the Catechism, as another qualified to spread the gnsptl 

distinct step of his exaltation. In Uiroughont Uie worid. Rut perhipi 

scripture, the riglU hand is always the greatest miracle of all was,tllit 

considered as the place of the fi^at- a single address of a fisherman rf 

est honour and dignity, and sitting Galilee, under the t;uidance and If 

implies rest and tjuietness. Christ's plication of the Holy Spirit, mad(,ia 

sitting on the riijht hand of the one day, three thousand converli— 

Fatiier, therefore, implies the quiet converts, some of them, of llie itr] 

and peaceable possession of that betrayers and cnicifiers of Him, vIa 

matchless dignity, and fulness of in this wonderful manner, sent the 

power, with which he is vested as the Spirit to convince them of sin ind 

gloriousKingand head of hischurch. renew them unto holiness. UiiiltT 

Thefirstandmostillustriousactof the unerring guidance nf this Holy 

the ascended, gloritied and reigning Spirit, the apostles were also quil^ 

Saviour, in execution of his work, fied to give us, without error. &t 

was the mission of the promised sacred writine:s of the New Testfr 

Comforter, the Holy Ghost, on the ment, and to puhlish the gospel witt 

day of Pentecost-^the fifteenth day an astonishing success, throughout 

after his resurrection, and the tenth, the civilized world — in opposition to 

it would appear, after his ascension all the learning, power and supersti- 

into heaven. You will observe that tion, which the world contained— 



the mission of the Holy Ghost, is the only means employed beinj 
npressly declared to be the imme- ' truth and miracles, 

diate act of Christ, by the apostle The miraculous gifts of the Spirit 

Peter, in explaining the wonderful have long since ceased, but his ordi- 

appearances on the day of Peote- naryoperations have not ceased, "' 

cost. "This Jesus (says the apostle! never will to the end of time. 

hMtb God raised up, whereof we til ttuie t^ntions the renovation am 



m 



Lutmra m the akarUr CatuUxm* 



vn 



ion ofeTerj soul, that is trtoi* 
at of the kiogdom of satan 
! kingdom oC (Sod's dear S6d» 
;ether to be attributed; and 
igdom of Christ on earth ia 
ntinued, established, and ex- 

10 opposition to all ene* 
ind it will extend, till the 
dg^ and love of God shall 
ie earth as the waters do &e 
rhe sending of this glorious 
Med agent, thus to insure and 
late the benefits of his work, 
st important particular in the 
ton of Christ. 

itiroe, he sits at the ri^t 
* the Majesty on high, as nie 
r the church. There, as her 
I Lord, as her Divine Media* 
3er kind intercessor and pre* 
idvocate, he will continue to 
he shall have gathered all his 
to himself, and made his foes 
stool. 

exaltation of Christ will be 

ilj consummated, bj ''hb 

to judge the world at the last 

How completely will the 
of his humiliation then be re- 
— how wide and wonderful 
: the contrast, when he who 
iCered as a malefactor, shall 
be judge of the universe, and 
nee the eternal destiny both 
ids and foes— tlie eternal des- 
two whole orders of immortal 
angels and men. We are told 
ity that " the Father judgetii 
m, but hath committed all 
!nt onto tlie Son, that all men 
honour the Son, even as they 
the Fatiier.* What an infa- 
I— I cannot forbear to remark 
ling— what an infatuation, to 
faat he of whom this is spoken, 
ingmore than a mere man! ^ 
time of the final judment is 
vn,both to men and angels, 
died in the Catechism the last 
icaise,aft9r this, time shall be 
l^r. There will be no more 
sum of days and nights; but 
srpetnal dajr of lighC comfort 
ly, to the rWiteoos, and one 
nal lu^t of utter daikness, 
r and w9^toAe wicked. 



The second coming of Christ will 
be in a manner the most splendid 
and glorious. All attempts to 
heighten it, br poetic tg^rt or oma* 
ment, only cloud it The simplest 
representation is the most sublime* 
** He shall come in the clouds of hear* 
ven,with power and great g^ory— In 
the glory of his Father, with all the 
holy anmls.'' He will be a visOk 
judge, it is expressly said that 
** every eye shall see him*^— Tes, my 
dear Toath, as surelj as your e;|ref 
now behold the ob|ects on which 
the? are fixed, so surely will they 
at fast be fixed on Chnst, as your 
final judsje. 

The place of jod^ent will be the 
aerial heavens— It is said that " we 
shall ascend to meet the Lord in the 
air.* In soiiile portion of space, siif* 
ficiently removed from our eartb« 
which will then be on fire, and which 
will eventually be burnt up, the 
judgment will sit Those who are 
alive at the second coming of Christ; 
the aposUe tells us, ** will be chanjged 
in a moment, in the twinklior of an 
eye.* Those who are dead Miall be 
awakened; '*for the trumpet shall 
sound, and the dead shall be raised." 
The pious dead, as. if most r^Mly to 
obey the summons, will rise first 
But not a child of Adam, of any an^ 
clime, or country, shall be overlook- 
ed, or left behind. What a host! 

- No spot on earth but his supplied a 

grave. 
And human skuDs the q»cious oceaa 

pave. 
All's full of man; and at this dreadful 

turn, 
Tlie swarm shall issue, and the liive shall 

bum."— Yooa». 

It appears from scripture, that the 
righteous will be separated from 
the wicked, as soon as they risod— 
From tiie commencement of the 
judgment they will be placed on the 
right hand of the Judge, and the 
wicked on the left Ansek as w^ 
as men, we are expresdy tehT 
tiieo appear to be jaondK'. 
fallen angels are ^resenrenitki 
of darkness, unto the )pi^ ^ 
the ffrent day.* Tbvy 









r% *^' • .^♦^'"'^ 






l$6 



Udiirei M One Sh&rUr CWeektMi. 



J 



toiiipter8.of man to uii» and they are 
now ta stand with him before the 
cqmmon Judge. This ia one grand 
end and design of the Judgment dayj 
that a8» through the intervention of 
Christ, man has been redeemed and 
Satan defeated, so, when the work is 
aocomplished, all concerned in this 
work, may be collected together, not 
only, to witness the exaltation and 
triumph of Christ, but to contribute 
to it-*his friends, by receiving his 
approbation and sharing his glory; 
bis enemies, by receiving the sen- 
tence of their condem nation, and 
being consigned to merited and end- 
less misery. 

Another desien of the judgment is 
to vindicate, and make known to all, 
^e equity of the Divine dispensa- 
tions, and the justice of the Divine 
procedure. Then all the mysteries of 
rrovidence, we have reason to be- 
lieve, will be unfoldedi and God 
will show that, in all cases, he has 
acted with perfect justice, wisdom, 
faithfulness and truth; and all ine- 
qualities, as they now appear to us, 
will be explained and adjusted. 

But another, and a great design 
of the judgment is, that from that 
time, the happiness of the righteous, 
and the misery of the wicked, may 
be greatly augmented. Both classes, 
we know, are made happy or mise- 
rable at death. But the Divine con- 
stitution is, that during the interme- 
diate state, between death and the 
resurrection, they shall be less happy 
and less miserable, than after their 
souls and bodies are reunited. 
Hence the judgment day is repre- 
sented as a great object of desire to 
the righteous, and of great appre- 
hension and dread to the wicked. 

As the righteous will rise first, so 
also they will be judged and acquit- 
ted first; because thev are afterwards 
to be assessors with Christ, in passing 
sentence on devils and wicked men: 
That is, they will consent to his 
judgment as just^ and say Amen, to 
the doom pronounced on the ungod- 
ly — ** Know ve not, says the apostle, 
Aat we shall judge angels.* It is 
the opinion ef some, to which I ra- 



ther incline, that we are latiM 
from scripture to say, thattber 
be no mention made of the km i 
righteous, in the day of jvdg 
that being blotted out by flw 
of Christ, they will be ca&Gd 
thou^ they had never been. ' 
is no question that all their 
deeds will be brousht into yievi 
only those which have been p« 
but all their most secret acte 
nevolence, {Hety and love—an 
they will be rewarded, accord 
their works. The reward will 
of grace, and yet proportioned 
attainments and exertions of 
individual. 

On the other hand, all the 
vices and wickedness of the i 
ly, in all their blackness and 
mity, will be exposed to th 
verse* The heatlien, who hai 
ned without law, shall be J 
without law— -judged only k 
violation of that law whicli 
written on their hearts, and I 
by the light of nature^ But ' 
who have sinned under the Ian 
be judged by the law.** Thoi 
have enjoyed and rejected th 
pel, will perish with the most 
condemnation. 

The reverses which the c 
judgment will exhibit, will b< 
fearful and delightful. Mi 
proud warrior and conqueroi 
has waded to empire and n 
through rivers of blood; m] 
despot who has filled a throne 
ported by the oppression of h 
millions; many a petty tyran 
has inflicted on helpless slai 
other inferiors, unceasing misei 
torment; many a wealthy misc 
has eround tlie faces of the 
that ne might add to his spl 
hoards; many a talented i 
whose writing have gained hin 
on earth, while they have led 
sands to perdition— many of all 
characters will wisli,in all the 
of despair, that their's had be 
lot of the meanest saint, or eve 
of ordinary sinners. On the 
band, thousands of those who 
gpsat ones of this world have ti 



IBSr. tedares oa the Slioiier Caleclnsm. 197 

vith scorn or pity; have lookci) an; of liis other works. ItJsnotfor 

ivmn npon as mean nod contempt!- us to say, wliether we oaght to be 

' Wc; have regarded as enthusiasts or more astonished that God stioald 

ImIs; will appear to have been the condescend to unite his nature to 

ocellent of the earth, tlie honoured ours, or to raise ours, b; that union, 

KfTsnts and children of God while to the height tn which we contem- 

Hmj iind, aad thoK whom he vill plate it in ~the eialted itate of oar 

warn delicht to icknowledge, and to Redeemer — a height, far beyond diat 

^ emtra with nnftding honoun, in the of the tallest angel, or the bcigbtctt 

* rinr of tin twerabled nnirerae — To Mnpb, in the beavenl; host 

' Sffe?^ ^Il*" "- P ' "*^* kS**' "A thou»nd ^ph^ «rong«rf bright, 

: tiutmj Father. mhent the Itwgdom bu who unongst iGe torn of Ugbt 

'f Mparcd for joa fnm the foanda- Ptetei>d«c<nnparwniwittkthe«f 

'^ 62»'>f*«""ld.'' Tothoeeonthe -Yet there Li one rfh«m.n&«ne, 

I Ml band, the temfick tentence will jen,, „„y>d in fleiti md blood, 

. be— 'Depart rrom me, ye curaed. Think* it no robberj' to claim 

( into enruating fire prepared Tor the . A tnU equU^ with God. 

, i«nl and bia angeli— And theae -n,drglo»7d.iiiei with equd beams. 

■wll go awE7 into everlaating pan- Tbeir e«ence U for ever one : 

Uuiient, bnt the righteous into life Tfaongb the; we knovu by different 



J» cMu tfaia lectare I remfcrk- "»*« ^*" God, «d God the Son. 

1. That rae aaceniioD and glorit " Then let the name of Christ our Kin^ 
CifiaD of Ckriat, derooDBtrate that With equtl honoun be idot'di 

ten « a local hea«o-a place ^.P?;^Jf!:t,^"8*'"?;V^.. 
«hm bta ^loriBed body reaidea. And a« the ™ik»m own the Lord. • . 
vhere be b now the ofaicct of admi- 3. Let na often meditate oq the 

mtiia and wor^ip by angeli and iadgment of the great daj. Let na 

tin spirita of jnit men madr perfect, Veep cotwtantly in mind that for all 

aid towUch all hi* tainti will be thatwedoioraay.or think, Ood will 

: atheradaAertbereaurrectiotttwhen bring ua into judgment: that then 

ueir (bnaor "vile bodiea ihall be all ttoae actiona of oar Uvea which 

baUoned like anto hie ^orioUB body, we may now moat atadioaalr uut 

■eeerding to the working whereby he anxiously endeavour to cooccal from 

la ablo ofen to aubdne all tbtoff the world, and to which we can hard- 

t BBto luBHir* We know not, and Ir turn our own thought! witboot 

H ■■ aat neieeaaary to know, in what name and contasion; Tea, tfaat all 

it^iM of the immensity of spu* the secret motivea, and wbhes, and 

Ik* locll heaTen is placed. It- is desires of our souls, which hate 

aao^l^ to know that it esiats, and nerer eveotuted in action — that all 

Utt we an permitted to aapire to theae will be diaclooed to the am- 

^ admiaMO to itt and to become verae, and that we must meet them, 

fben of the general aasemblr under the fall blaze of hearen, at 

mi dinrch of (be fint bom, which the tribunal of Christ Oh, if the 

'«M1 ttcra snrnmod the Redeemer^ recollection of thb truth were kept 

^brap^ and beboU bit glwy, in a on our minds as it ought to be, it 

bMliiaiiM0D(toalletenu^. would have the moat salntary infla- 

. JL Xat M eontMi|date with holy ance on our whole condiKt> Tea, 

— J ar and delight, the atata of our my dear youth, and it wonM make 

Badfiimni^ oidlation. God's ways you feel now important it is, tfaat 

am not oar wsya, nor his thoughts you immediately flee to die Lord . 

wr thsudfc. In all (hat be does he Jesns Christ— that betn pardoned 

.aelalikeUmaelf— 4ikeaQod. Butin -throu^ his Uopd, and cTeUied with 

Jbe woffcef ndamption tbereappeor hia righteousness, foa m»j fa/au^ 

toh»,lhU|l^MnwoBdtfMlbuta lh» condeniiK&m tJi. Ytn twnuM, 



m |A 

198 Jki hOmMmg IMer. MSa^* 

« 

and reoeif e the acanittal and reward am itaget dT all bat nmfmaytliigib 

of hb friends, in tne daj when " he poeite opinions, of attention aelleigii 

shall come to be ^onfied in his yielded to those opinions«fn«i co#i 

saints and admired in all them that tesy^of doabtin(^peq>lexii^,iiiitrsst 

believe* research, prajer and rontjcthnm 

^ to an ultimate belief and oMi 

atrowal of the troth, b to nntirlf^ 

AN iNTKBESTiHO LEiTEii. wid Simply related, aa to casfy i^ 

mediate conviction to an itt|r 

The following letter, although reader, that the writer ninal 

written more than ten years since, actually felt what be haa deoci 

has, we believe, not been made pub- The fnnkness, kind[aess» and 0U# 

lick till very lately— the copy before tian temper, with which he ndilisrtM 

us savs, * Never before publbhed." his former religious teaciier, is; ikl 

It is tben added, "The writer of the admirable — ^It may not be anss d 

following letter never intended or state that Clifton^ the plaoo fiM 

expected that its circulation should which the letter is dated, ia a M|» 

extend beyond a very small circle : lous villase, about a mile dm& 

at the desire of a fnend, to whom from the city of Bristol in FnglnMJ 
he felt^ himself deeply indebted, he 
transcribed it for his use; but, at 

the same time, accompanied it with CUftm, Wedne^da^. etk M'mo.im^ 

a reduest, that no second copy My Dear Sir, — I scarcely know is 

should be taken; a request with what terms to begin this lettei sr 

which his friend rigidly complied, how to communicate to yon tfaadb*' 

Nor was it till he found that the ject of it;yet I am anxioastbbeii 

scope of it had been much misup* first to convey to you th^intellneaMi 

derstood or misrepresented, and that because I am unwilling that it sMslii. 

some detached psssaces had found reach you, unattended by tkoae fBt 

their way in various directions, that, pressions of personal renrd and ft; 

i(i justice to himself, and to the spect, by which I could wfah tt 

trutns which he had embraced, he should be accompanied. It will si^ 

permitted the circulation of it to be prise you to be told, that it is kiB^ ^ 

at all extended. In the mean time, come with me a matter of absohtfl 

he has been frec|uently solicited for duty, to withdraw myself, hcM*. 

copies of it, which his other avoca- fortii, from the Lewinls Head S^ 

tions would, by no means, permit ciety. Yes, my dear sir, soeh k 

him to furnish; and as some pious the fact 

and valuable friends, for whose jud|- In the month of July \%,t^Wf 

ment he feels much deference, have professional attendance was requbd 

expressed an opinion that it might be ror the Rev. John Vernon, the Bsp>' 

of service to others, he has oraered tist minister of Downend,^ who w» 

a few to be privately printed, in or- then on a visit to a friend-in Briski 

derto comply with their wishes, and I foond him very ill; so mnck m 

to save himself the trouble of tran- that his other medical attendantafll 

scribing.** mvself, have since judged it neceS' 

We republish this letter, in hope salry that he should saspend all W 

that it may do good. We verily be- publick laboors. After attendingkiH 

lieve that there is not a Unitarian in here, for two or three davs, he re? 

the world, who would not renounce moved to Downend, where I haveainee 

his creed, if he would read these* continued to see him, about eneea 

cred scriptures in the same carefiil, week. He felt it a duty to endemi^ 

prayerful, and serious manner, u toieednM toreconskiertlgrrerig^q^ 

was done by Or* Stock. The pro* opinions; and at length, with mwA 

gma of hU saind, (torn fall coot* delicacy and tisMdity. led to Ike 

MMMteeimwikiwRbtiitticcea* lahitGt I felt fiOly caaidenl of 



-t. 



W: 



dn MeruHng Letter. 



191 



ith, and did not, on my part» 
he investisation. For some 
his efforts did not produce the 
It effect; and it reauired all 
fctionate patience ot his cha* 
to induce me to look upon the 
ints on his side, as even worth 
ing. This spirit of levity, 
^r, was at length subdued and 
led, by the affectionate ear- 
)S of his manner. Now and 
e produced a passa^ of scrip- 
lich puzzled me exceedingly; 
< I was always distrustful, I 
y ever allowed any weight to 
after I had coolly examined 
»me. I began, however, some- 

consider, whether it was not 
e that his observations might 

1 some truth; and of course 
1 to examine them with more 
id impartiality. 

necessary here to state, that 
:ter to Dr. Carpenter, though 

up some little time before, 
SfNitched about this period. I 

to this circumstance, because 
ks a curious, though, I fear, 
uncommon feature in the hu- 
lind. I must however make 
'owal, that it was precisely 
the interval that occurred be* 
the preparation and the des- 
of the letter alluded to, and 
t to you, and the second to 
stiin, that the doubts above 
, now and then, at rare inter- 
would force themselves upon 
nd. Such, however, was my 
ty to the sentiments to which 
ioubts pointed, that I resisted 
suspicion of this kind. I treat- 
18 a mere delusion of the ima- 
)o; I felt ashamed even to have 
d to such suggestions for a mo- 

and when IM?. Bright pointed 
I me a strong passage in the 
w to Dr. Carpenter, as if he 
it that it might be softened a 

I persisted in retaining it 
;t, 1 seemed to seek, in the 
;tk of the terms that I made 
tt to deepen my own convic- 

of my previous opinions.* 

> elucidate this paragraph, it may 
»•, be proper to stMte, that Dr. Est* 



The letters were wtnU and the 
respective answers received. Still 
my weekly visits to Mr. Vernon 
were continued ; I still investigated 
the subject with constantly increas- 
ing earnestness, vet I was unalter- 
ed; and when Mr. Bright read the 
history of the proceedings to the con- 
gregation, I felt no regret at my 
share in tiiem, bat, on the contrary, 
rejoiced in anticipating the futore 
tnumpbs of Unitarianism. Here, 
however, my triumph ceased. Almost 
immediateljr afterwards, my doubts 
returned with ten fold force. I read, 
I was perplexed. Often, very often, 
I wished that I had not begun the in- 
quiry. I prayed for illumination, 
but I found my mind daily becoming 
more and more unsettled. I have 
now lying before me a sheet of pa- 
per, on which I wrote down some of 
the thoughts of this period, while un- 
der their more immediate pressure, 
as if to relieve my mind, by thus di- 
vulging them, for they were disclosed 
to no human ear. 

I copy from them this passage— 
^If the attainment of truth be not 
the result, I am sure that the state of 
mind, in which I have been for some 
time past, is not to be envied." 1 
think that it was about this time you 
returned home. When I advanced 
to shake hands with you, after the 
close of the service, you may remem- 
ber that you observed to me, " Why, 
Doctor, you look pale!" Pale I was, 
I have no doubt, for my mind was 
full of thoughts that chafed each 
other like a troubled sea ; and your 

lin, the senior minister of Le win's Mead, 
having announced his intention to resign 
that office, the congrention met, and 
voted an address of thanks to hiro for his 
services. Some time afterwards, they 
met for the purpose of electing a succes- 
sor. Their choice fell upon Dr. Carpen- 
ter of Exeter, and an invitation was ac* 
cordingly sent hiro, which was accepted, 
and his acceptance was officially an- 
nounced, in another address to each of 
their ministers. The writer of the above 
letter was requested to be the organ of 
expresnng the sentiment <]lC VVie wcM^^f 
upon these tevenA ocghaoia, % t^x^^iMft. 
with which he checc&aSiy cmnv'^^dL. 



gQO tinikteiniiitgiaitr. 

ntam, and the Tivid recoUectioB of tre Mr. Wardlaw's two books,* Sint- 

tbe letters which it excited, had not MD^ Plea Tor the Divinil; of Jeaiu, 

tended to calm the igiUtiaD. In ad- (of whicli at this very momcRt not 

ditioiito tfaia, 1 had been in the habit efeo a third part is cut open,) Dr. 

of pumiDg the inquiry, n«ht after Lawrence's Critical Rt;flecUoDs, &c 

oignt, to a nrj late hour. Soch cod- on the Unitarian Version, (on wlit^ 

muA to be the state of mj mind, I will pause to observe, that the; firfl 

dnriiigtiie latter end of September aettlea m; roitnl as to the autneoli* 

ftnd ue whole of October. Towards cit; of llie introductory chapten oC 

tlie eiid of this latter month, the oTt- 8t Matthew an<l St. LukeJ a Se^ : 

deuce for the doctrines which I had mon on ilie Aiunement, t>y Mr. HoU, 

lutherto so' itrenuouslj opposed, Six Letters of Dr. Pye Smitli loHr. 

BeeBDd progressively to increase. Belstuun, antt Notes taken dan 

Bat it was not till this very week from twu Seimans preached by Mr. I 

ttafGoanction came; and that my (I believi^ nuw. Dr.) Chalmers of 

tMod. unhesitatingly and thaokfoU Gla^w, upon the following testi: 

ly, accepted the doctrines of the Su- Psalm kxxv. lO.and Kumangviii.?. 

preoae Divinity of our Lord and Sa- Yet these few helps tii the betteros- 

vioar leans Christ, of atonement, or derstanJing of the Hnly Scripturtt, 

reconciliation, by his precious blood, thoogh counteracted by the volataei 

and of the divinity and personality above cited, by long associatioo, I9 

of tiio Holy Spirit. 1 do not, my frequent references to other Unit*- 

dear sir, aay it by wa^ of commend- rian volumes io my collection, and 

t» myeamestnen in the inquiry, by the various arguments on Uiit 

b« I say it injustice to the opinions side, which memory wng constxDtlf 

1 have embraced, that since Ais jn- auggestin^, haveultimalely ledateb 

nstiptioD bwan, I have regnlarly the conclusions above slated. Botl 

gone tkrongh tne New Testament, as should grossly belie my own heiit 

Sir u the B|HStle to tiie Hebrews and should think myself euilty of 

(die ftoipel of John I have read odious Ingratitude to tiie Father o( 

throogfa twice); that not only every ligh^i from whom eomeih down evecf 

test which has been differeotly in- good and perfect gift, if 1 did ool 

terpreted, occurring in this large avow my conviction, Uiat to then 

portion of the New Testament, but means the teBchini;; of his Holy Spi- 

aho all those referred to in the con- rit haa been super-added: for I can, 

troversial volumes mentioned below, in his presence affirm, that during tbr 

were carefully compared with the latter part of the inquiry, more par* | 

original, with the improved version, ticularly, the Scriptures of Tmtk . 

wiui Hr. Belshamt explanation in were never opened by me withwt | 

his Calm Inquiry, and frequently profound and fervent prayer for U- ! 

witii Dr. Carpenter^ Unitarianism lumination; and almost always witk | 

the Doctrine of the Gospeli and that reference to our Lord's pro miK ia 

the references to the Pulms and the St Luke, chap. xi. ver. 13. Indeed 

Prophetical Scriptures, which occur- my dear sir and friend, I wasineU<- 

red in the New Teatament, or the nest A change so awful, so uoet- 

other writinp alluded to, were also pected, I may add, so improbably 

examined io Dr. Priestley's Notes on which (oar months ago only, I shosU 

the Scriptures: for I am notpossess- myself have said was im possible, IM 

ed of, nor have I seen, (with, 1 think, deeply and solemnly impressed mj 

one exception, in which Dr. Camp- mind. 

bell^ Annotations on Matt sxii, 45, That I must encounter much ridl- 

et seq. were shown me,} one orthodox cole in consequence of this change 

commentary on the Scriptures. The . uiscourBcs on tlie Principal poipo of 

controversial books, on that aide, die Sodnian Cuutroveray, and Unitariif 

which I have used in this inquiry, im inc«pal>k of ViniUcaiicm. 



Extraetifiom MuamU Bemami. 



Ml 



cpect I am §are that I well 
t ; for DO person would have 
; more loudlj against such 
tioD in the views of aoother, 
self. Nor ought I to omit 
ut my excelleot friend, Mr. 
while I was communicating 
le conviction that I had re- 
nd m J expectation of beioe 
for such a change, obsenrea 
lat I certainly must expect 
>ped that I was prepared to 
« I trust I shall be enabled 

reviewing this last sentence, 
sir, I feel myself bound to 
in stating this, I hope not 
lerstood as anticipating any 
the sort from you, or from 
srable colleague. No ! how- 
may pity my delusion, I 
-ed that yon will do justice 
tives. 

ar sir, I have extended this 
a much greater length, than 
' expectation of doine when 
I I beean it with alluding 
^rd and my respect for you. 
e deemed inconsistent with 
' I venture to conclude it 
nost affectionate wish and 
bat you and yours, and all 
lear and dear to you, maj 
ivery earthly blessing, and 
rouffht to the knowledge of 
! I feel it to be my duty to 
thus, and I shall stand ex- 
Ind, oh ! how much is that 
indled, when I recollect the 
ss and solemnity of your 
n prayer, and your impres- 
in preaching. How do I 
; endowments of such value 
asecrated to those views 
lave received. But I feel 
Btting upon tender ground, 
icult to word such a wish 
ippearing arrogant, or im- 
, or presumptuous; and yet 
I further from my heart than 
these feelings. Believe me 
li sincere regard. 
Yours, my dear Sir, 

J. B. Stock. 
vltowE. 
f^^C^ Mv. 



P. S. I know n6t whether it may 
not be unnecessarily minute, to add, 
that during this inquiry, I have look- 
ed into Iftddridge^ Rise and Pro- 
gress, and have read through ScotfA 
Force of Truth, and the Letters con- 
nected with it in Newton's Cardifb* 
nta, and Newton's Narrative of his 
own life; but it is my wish to omit 
nothing. I ought also to state, diat 
once, and but once, I have entered 
another place of worship, (Castle 
(Jreen,) when Mr. Thorpe repeati^l 
a Thursday evening lecture on the 
Trinity, but thu produced no con- 
viction at the time, although the re- 
collectioB of it has, perhape, been 
useful to me since. 



EXTRACTS FROM MASON'S RKMAINS. 

If we would not fall into things 
unlawful, we must sometimes deny 
ourselves in those that are lawfaL 

Salvation then draws near to man 
when it is his main care. 

The ordinances of God are the 
means of salvation ; but the God of 
ordinances is the author of salva- 
tion. 

Religion must be our business, 
then it will be our delight 

It vrill cost something to be reli- 
gious; it will cost more not to be 
so. 

A Christian's life is nothing else 
but a short trial of his graces. 

Lukewarmness is the best natu- 
ral, but the worst spiritual temper 
a man can be in. 

There are few but are sometimes 
in a serious fit; but how few are in 
a serious frame, who have an abid- 
ing sense of God upon their heart! 

It is a voluntary cawKOl that 
keeps the soul from God. 

The gate which leads to life, is a 
straight f^te, therefore we should 
fear;— 4t u an open gate, therefore 
we should hope* 

Do the Lord's work in the Lord's 
time; pray whilst God tieax%\ Va»x 
whilst God speikBi YmWan^ ^\v^%V. 

8C 



Ma 



Frwm ^ The JmmletJ* 
THE HOUR OF PRATER, 

BT UMM, BXMAVB. 

Cbild, amidst the fiowen at pUf, 
While the red tight fiulet away ; 
Mother, with thine earnest eye» 
Ever fbUowii^ silently; 
Ftathert by the breeze of ere* 
CalM thy harvest -woik to leave ;— 
^ray ! Ere yet the dark hours be. 

Lift the heart and bend the knee. 

• 

Traveller, in the stranger's land. 
Far from thine own household bsndt 
Mourner, haunted by the tone 
Of a voice flom this world gone s 
Captive, in whose narrow cell 
Sunshine hath not leave to dwell s 
Sailor, on the darkening seas-* 
Lift the heart and bend the knee. 

Warrior, that from battle woo, 
Breathest now at set of sun ; 
Woman, o'er the lowly slain. 
Weeping on his burial-pkun; 
Ye that triumph, ye that sigh, 
Kindred by one holy tie s 
Heaven's first star alike ye see t«— 
Lift the heart and bend the knee. 



tM The Hour of Prayer— TAe tUfHtaratim ofhrad. 

€k>d promises; obey whilst God 
commands. - 

That man has no sense of mercj, 
that wants a sense of duty. 

Two duties must run through a 
Christian's life, like the warp 
through the woof— NessifiKp and 
tnisting. 

Religion is much tallced of, l>iit 
little understood, till the conscience 
be awakened; then a man knows 
the worth of a soul, and the want 
of a Saviour. 

Then doth religion flourish in 
the soul when it knows how to na- 
turalize spiritual things, and to spi- 
ritualize natural thinss. 

We may jod^ of our eternal 
state bj our spintual state; and of 
our spiritual state by the delight- 
ful and customary actions of our 
lives. 

If we expect to live with Christ 
in heaven, we must live to him on 
earth. 

We may expect Qod's prolecHon 
so long as we keep within God's 
bomnds. 

Our opportunities are (like our 
souls^ very precious; but if they 
are lost, they are irrecoverably 
lost 

That preaching that is plain, 
pure, powerful, and practical, men 
are apt to dislike. 

Religion begins with a knowledge 
of a man's self, and is perfected 
with a knowledge of God. 

This is a threefold mystery :-*a 
gospel published in the midst of an 
ungodly world ; a little church pre- 
served in the midst of devils; and, 
a little grace kept alive in the 
midst of corruptions. 

The service of Cbd is the soul's 
work; and the favour of God is its 
reward. 

A man may be imperfect in his 
obedience, and jet impartial. 

God never fails them that wait 
for him, nor forsakes them that 
work for him. 

It is a sign of advanced grace, 
when opinion is swallowed up of 
religion* 



Fr^m the tame. 
THE RE8Tt)RATI0N OF ISRAEl 

BT TBI aiV. •• CBOLT. 

*' And I heard a veice out nf heaven eagi 
Behold, the tabernacle of God ie i 
M«n, and he fhail dwell with them^ • 
they ohall he hie people ,• and Crod Ms 
thall be with them, and be their God^ 
Rev. zxi. 3. 

King of the dead ! how long ahall twi 
Thy wrath ! how lon^^ thy outcasta wc 
Two thouiand agonising years 
Has Israel steepM her brMd in tears; 
The vial on her head been poured— 
FCght, fitnfine, ihame, the scourge, 

sword ! 
Tis done! Has breathed thy trun 

blasu 
The Tbibss at length have wept their 1 
On rolls the host ! From land and wi 
The earth sends up the unransomed si 
There rides no glittering chivalry. 
No banner purples in the sky ; 
The world within their hearts has die 
Two thousand years have slain their pr 
The look of pjJe remorse is there. 
The lip's involuntary prayer i 



-^^p^vp.*^^ 



ADir$e. 



fin still marked with muiy > ibun— 
of the K>i], the (coiirge, tJie cluuiii 
:rf of Africk's fiery ground j 
i*e, by Indian sum embnnnied ; 
e»ry dnidges of the on, 

swut Arab's poiioned shore, 
rtheringa of eaj'th'* vildcst tract— 
Its tbe liTJng calaract ! 
trength of man can check its apeed! 
\amc — the nation oTtha Freed. 
:ads the march f BeneMb hia wheel 
oils the tea, the mountuns reel) 

their tread Hia tnimp ia blown* 

f»ks in thunder, and 'tis done ! 
tbe dead '. Oh not in Tun 
ly long- pilgrimage oTpuD ; 
it in vain arose tby prayer, 
preas'd the thorn thy temptcabaici 
M ID vain the voice that cried, 
re thy madden'd homidde] 
tat (bis hour Uiy heart'* blood 

»iDe ! — the boat of (be redeemed! 

lames upon the dictant akj i 
t the comet's sanguine dye, 
I the lightning** quivering spire, 
t the sun's descending fire. 
■V, as nearer speeds their march, 
la the rainbow's mighty arch t 
li there has burst no thunder cloud, 
b of death the soil has plou^ed, 
Jl ascends before their gaze, 
pon arch, the lovely blaxei 
tbe gorgeoua clouda unfold, 
wen and domes' immortal mould. 

! that the iiatriarch's vuion'deye 
, and then rejoiced to die ;— 
ke the altar's burning coal, 
al the pale prophet's hafp whb 

le throned senphs long to see, 
ven, thou slave of slaves, to thee! 
city this } What potentate 
•re, the King of time and fate i 
glory covers like a robe, 
sceptre shakes the solid globe, 
diapes oTfire and splendour guard? 
iits the man, •■ whose fiice was 

jm archangels bow the knee — 
icper io Gethsemjine. 
o tbe dust, ajre, lanel kneel, 
w diy withered heart can feel ! 
it thy wan cheek bum like flame. 
Ha ttiy gtory and thy sbatne ' 



Fr»m " ^cktTKanU F*^tt Jib JV4t" 
A QIBGE. 

" Earth to eartli. and dust to dust*' 

Here the evil and tlie just. 

Here the youthful and the old. 

Here (he fearful and the bold. 

Here the matron and the maid. 

In one siknt bed are laid; 

Hpre the vnssal and Uie king 

Side by side lie wilheringi 

Here the sword and sceptre luat— ' 

" Earth to earth, and dust to duat I" 

Age on age shall roll along 

O'er this piile and mighty throng; 

I'hoae that wept them, those that weept 

All sliall with (bese sleepers sleep. 

Droibers, sisters of tbe worm. 

Summer's sun, or winder's slonn. 

Song of peace, or battle's roar, 

Ne'er shall break their slumbers more. 

Death Bhall keep hia sullen trust— 

" Earth to earth, and dust to dust !" 

Bnt a day is coming fast. 

Earth, (by mightiest and (hy last, 

It shall come in fear and wonder. 

Heralded by trump and thunder; ' ^ 

It flhsll corac in strife and (oil, " 

It 3ball come in blood and «poil, ^ 

It shall come in empires' groans. 

Burning temples, trampled throne* ! 

Then, Ambition, rue thy lust!— 

"Earth to ejirth, and duit to dust!" 

Then shall come the judg^nent sign -, 
In tlie east the King shall shine ; 
Flashing from heaven's goUlen gate. 
Thousand thou.<!ands round his state; 
Spirits with the crown and plume, 
I'remble then, thou sullen tomb! 
Heaven shall open on our flight, 
Eartli be turn'd to living li^nt. 
Kingdoms of the ranaom'djust — 
" Earth to earth, and ditsi lo dust !"* 
Then shall gorgeous as a gem 
Sliinc thy mount, Jerusalem ; 
Then shall in the desert rise 
Fruits of more than Piisdiae ; 
Eurth by angel feet be trod; 
One great parJcn of licr God; 
Tilt are dried tiie martyr's tears. 
Through a glorious thousand yean. 
Now in hope uf Him we trust — 
" Ksrth to earlb, nnd Hust to dust"* 



' \ 



Fhiloiopky sukerotcnt te Bdigian. 



JIBt^ceHatieou^. 



PHILOSOPHY SUBSKHVIBjrr TO B^U- 

OION. 

Essay III. 

Of the Miturs and FotMaiion of 
Moral Obligation. 

{Cmtinuedfram p, 170.) 

That man is under obligation to 
obey the commands of 6od» ousht 
to be regarded as a primary ele- 
ment, an established matim, in mo- 
ral and theological science. No 
person can duly comprehepd the 
import of this proposition without 
perceiving its truth. The asser- 
tions of the professed sceptick can- 
not furnish sufficient evidence to 
the contrary. A love of singula- 
rity may lead some men to ar|rue 
against the pla!inest truths. But 
their conduct contradicts their spe- 
culations, and proves that the^ are 
governed in their practical judg- 
ments by the same fundamental 
laws and maxims of human belief, 
by which other men are governed ; 
although, in their philosophical re- 
▼eries, they affect to call them in 
question. 

But although the reality of our 
obligation is admitted by all, yet 
very different aqcounts have been 
given of its foundation. By some, 
our obligation to obey 6oa is re- 
presented as being founded in the 
nature and fitness of things; by 
others, in a prudential regard to 
our own welfare; by others, in con- 
siderations of general expediency; 
and by others, m the authority and 
will 01 God. Amidst these conflict- 
ing accounts it is satisfactory to ob- 
serve that our obligation is, in all, 
considered as unquestionable. To 
deny this would, indeed, evince the 
most darins impiety, or downright 
insanity, ft is plain, however, that 
the foundation of moral obligation 
can be neither remote nor obscure. 
The concnnence of all descriptions 



of persons, wise and J 
learned and unlearned* in 
belief, proves that they dc 
rive their conviction from i 
of reasoning, or from abst 
(doubtful speculation. On 
trary, their conviction most 
an original suggestion of tli 
niind,orthe immediate ani 
result of those truths w 
known and acknowledged 
man. This consideration, 
attended to, will, I am pc 
be sufficient to set aside 
the accounts which have be 
of the grounds and reasons 
obligation. The process oi 
ing which they involve, 
which it is supposed the c( 
of obligation is primarily si 
is not sufficiently obvious 
elusive to warrant us in re 
ing it as the means of pro 
conviction which is commc 

Some of the theories wt 
been mentioned may be af 
considered more particul 
present I observe, that ou 
tion to obey the laws ai 
mands of God, seems evic 
arise from the relation w 
sustains to us as our infini 
rious Creator, Preserver ai 
factor; and consequently 
viction of obligation mu 
from a perception of this r 

The works and dispensi 
God manifest his perfect 
glory. An attentive and 
ened survey of the works 
tion, a diligent observatio 
proceedings of Providen 
above all, a wise employ 
the advantages furnished 
scriptures, must convince 
his nature is incomprehens 
infinitely glorious; the foui 
ultimate standard of all pei 
and that whatever excelien 
be found in his creatures 
faint ref tesentations of thi 



Pkibmpkg tubmvUmt to Mdigum. 



M5 



lependent excellence of his 
We raaj be assured that 
lot in our power to form a 
tion of any real perfection, 
ioes not beioug to the Divine 
» in a decree and manner in- 
r exceeding our conceptions, 
attribute of mind which can 
irded as the proper object of 
I, love and reverence, must 
ribed to him, and without 
those limitations or imper- 
s which belong to all created 

9. 

I sometimes said that God 
inifested all his ^lory in the 
of nature, and in the holy 
ires; that tKe law which he 
'en is a perfect transcript of 
>ral character; with other 
ge of a similar import. I 
o hesitation in pronouncing 
ge of this kind to be rasn 
esumptuous. It is certainly 
ens to make assertions ap- 
ly limiting the nature and 
tesof our Maker. Hisessen- 
iryis infinite; it can there- 
B comprehended only by a 
of infinite understanding. 
le knowledge of his glorj 
he is pleased to communi- 

his creatures, must, like 
apacity, be limited. Besides, 
iplay which is made of the 

perfections to different ra- 
beings, must be very differ* 
)th in regard to its extent, 
e number of its objects. The 
ty of one man is much 
tf and his opportunities of in- 
ion on this, as well as on 
wbjects, much more favoura- 
MB those of another man. 
iurely it cannot be doubted 
le exhibition which is made 
glory of God to one order 
creatures, is, in many re- 
, different, and very superior 
t which is made to another; 
ponding to their different 

1 of comprehension, and to 
Miliar circumstances in which 
replaced. 

t w preceptB of the moral 



law are agreeable to the holy na- 
ture of CknI is true; but this af- 
fords no warrant to represent 
them as a full and adequate exhi- 
bition or transcript of his holiness. 
A littie reflection will convince us 
that the peculiar character and ex- 
tent of the manifestation which 
they aflford of the Divine moral ex- 
ceifence, are determined by the 
nature and relations of those to 
whom they are addressed, and to 
which they are necessarily adapted. 

It does not appear that mere ex- 
cellence of nature, however exalt- 
ed, confers authority upon any be- 
ing, to require obedience of those 
who are not dependent on him, and 
who receive nothing from him ; and 
on the other hand, those who are 
not dependent, and who receive 
nothing, can be under no obligation 
to obedience. These conclusions 
seem to be agreeable to the com- 
mon understanding of mankind, 
and to be suggested by the consti- 
tution of human affairs. It is not 
any superiority of nature or excel- 
lence which confers authority upon 
the parent, the master, or the ruler. 
It is evidentiy the relation which 
exists between the parent and the 
child, between the master and the 
servant, and between the ruler and 
the subject, which confers autho- 
rity on the former, and imposes 
obligation on the latter respective- 
ly. The child is dependant on the 
parent for support, protection, in- 
struction and comfort; from this 
dependence results the obligation 
of the child, according to the ap- 
pointment of God, to oDey the com- 
mands of the parent. Similar re- 
marks are applicable to the other 
relations whicn I have mentioned. 
In all cases, dependance seems in- 
dispensable to obligation; and it 
also appears, that the nature and 
extent of the obligation will corres- 
pond to tiie nature and extent of 
the dependance on which it is 
foundeo. 

Onr dependance 11^011 Qtudi \% iS^^ 
solute and nn\m\leQ% 11 \% 4cA^t- 



toe 



PhUotaphii ncteemeiil to Bdigimu 



ent in its nature, and iufinitely 
more complete and perfect thai^ 
any depenaance which can be found 
of one creature upon another. We 
receive but little from any of our 
fellow creatures, compared with 
what we receive from the Father 
of our spirits, and the former of 
our bodies; the God in whom we 
live and move and have our being. 
We are dependent upon him for 
our existence, our endowments, 
and all our capacities and opporio- 
nities of enjoyment. We have no- 
thing, and we can have nothing, for 
which we are not dependant on his 
twunty. Our own exertions, and. 
the agency of our brethren, may be' 
the means by which many of the 
benefits of life are obtained ; yet it 
must be acknowledged that He is 
the fountain from which they ail 
proceed. Every good gift and 
every perfect gift is from above, 
and Cometh down from the Father 
of light. The Divine bounty and 
favour are to be acknowledged in 
those benefits and enjoyments 
which are procured according to 
the ordinary course of events, no 
less than if they were bestowed 
upon us immediately by miraculous 
interposition. Our folly and ingra- 
titude are equally conspicuous, if 
the constancy and uniformity of 
his benefits prevent us from per- 
ceiving his operation; and our con- 
sequent obligation of serving and 
glorifying him with all the powers 
he has conferred on us. 

From what has been said it will 
appear, that the instances which 
are found among men of authority 
on the one part, and of obligation 
on the other, are necessarily bat 
partial and inadequate representa- 
tions of the supreme and absolute 
authority of our Maker; and of the 
unlimited obligation under which 
all are laid to him. They serve, 
however, the important purpose, 
according to the nature of the hu- 
man understanding, and the cir- 
cumstances of our eiirly existence, 
to prepgre our minds for tppre- 



hendtnj^ and duly estili 
obligation to our Father 
our divine Lord and Mm« 

Although it is not the 
the scriptures formally t 
discuss abstract quesbon 
principles I have advance 
oeeded upon, as self-evidi 
controvertible* *' Hear, i 
and give ear, O earth ; foi 
hath spoken, 1 have nooi 
brought up children, and 
rebelled against me. A 
noureth his fatlier, and 
his master: if then I be 
where is mine honour? a 
a Master, wherf is my f 
the Lord of hosts." If, 
It be judged reasonable 
that a sou should honour 
his father, a servant hi 
and a subject his ruler, 
be evident to all, that ere 
under obligation to ho 
obey their glorious Cr 
GoQ in whose hand their 
and whose are all their w 

There are some per 
would choose to state the 
little differently, thinkin 
correct to say that our c 
to obey the commands ol 
suit from the infinite per 
his nature; and from hi 
to us as our Creator and 
tor. I have no other ot 
this statement, than that t 
consideration seems nec< 
be included in the latter 
lation to us, as our €r 
Preserver, essentially ini 
idea of the infinite glor; 
cellence of his nature, 
therefore more strictly 1 
represent our obligatif 
founded simply upon th* 
which we sustain to ou 
as a correct understandii 
relation necessarily impli 
sideration of his transce; 
cellence. 

The language of those 
present the authority an 
|jk>d as the foundation of 



PhUoiophy iuturcietU to BJigitm^ 



t07 



ir less exceptionable, than 
the other statements which 
mentioned, at the beginning 
essay. It does not however 
to be perfectljr precise and 
:torv. Authority on the one 
nd obligation on the other, 
irily imply each other. The 
cannot be ascribed to any 
without supposing a corres- 
g obligation to belong to 
tiier being. They are essen- 
related, and must have the 
foundation; and in the in - 
of which we are speaking, 
■e founded upon the relation 
&od sustains to his rational 
•es. To make the subject 
iy plain, it must be observed 
B following (questions. Why 
inder obligation to obey the 
nds of God ? and, Why am 
r obligation to perform a par- 
action, or pursue a particu- 
irse of conduct? although 
liat resembling each other, 
I a very dift'erent answer, 
stis the ultimate question, 
at to which I have endea- 
to give an answer, in the 
log part of this inquiry. The 
answer to the second quea- 
fhj am I under obligation 
Mrm a particular action ? un- 
ity is, because God corn- 
it. This however implies 
( has authority to give laws 
regulation of our actions; 

that we are bound to obey 
Bat if the ultimate question 
ed. Why am I under obliga- 
t obey the laws and com- 
of God? it will not be suffi- 
» reply, that this obligation 
ded on the Divine authority. 

1 doing little, if any thing, 
iMua repeating the sense of 
istion in other words* That 
SB authority to command, 
at we are under obligation 
f,are really expressions of 
f equivalent import, and 
M one cannot be emploved 
MBt.for the other. Tlitr 
ialt irom the relation vrhiea 



exists between the Supreme Law- 
giver, and the subjects of his go- 
vernment. 

Attention to the distinction which 
I have now stated, appears neces* 
sary to a correct understanding of 
the grounds and reasons of moral 
obliffation. By overlooking it, we 
shau be in constant danger of fall- 
inginto confusion and error. 

That rational creatures are un- 
der moral obligatbn to obev the 
laws of their Creator is an ultimate 
truth, a fundamental maxim in mo- 
rals and theology. To attempt, 
therefore, to assign reasons for this 
primary truth, would be no less ab- 
surd than a similar attempt would 
be, in regard to the primary axioms 
of mathematicks. Nothing more 
can be done than to develope and 
illustrate the ideas which the pro- 
position essentially involves; bat 
if, after all, any man shonld not 
perceive the indispensable obliga- 
tion under which he is laid to o^j 
the glorious Author of his nature, 
and the bountiful Giver of all his 
comforts, he must be looked upon 
either as a monster of impiety, or 
as one destitute of reason. 

It will readily be admitted, that 
if our obligation results from our re- 
lation to our Creator, the senti- 
ment of moral obligation must re- 
sult from a view of that relation. 
Indeed, the latter proposition is no 
less evident than the former, and, 
if admitted as correct, necessarily 
establishes the former. In what 
manner, then, would a wise man 
proceed in the endeavour to impress 
upon the minds of others, senti- 
ments of duty and obedience to 
their Maker? Not, surely, by tell- 
ing them that their welfare depend- 
ed on their obedience. They could 
infer nothing more from this repre- 
sentation than that it is a matter of 
prudence to do what God com- 
mands.r Would he tell them that 
obedience will conduce to the ge- 
neral welfare? From thU 1\\«3 
coold infer no^inf; m^t^ \SMLik ^iosaV 
it is expedient tA act \u csmteiral 



SOS FhUne^ it^§ereiaU to Bdigiim. 

totheDmnecomniands. Both these ture and fitoeu <tf thii^B. 

ideas, tli&t or prudence nod of es- surd tu sappoM that ^ 

pediency, are essenlially different obedience can proceed 1 

t'rom the idea of duty and moral ob- of these principfei, or idi 

ligation; and, consequently, what- the actioDB wfaich tfaey pre 

ever is done from a regard to them, have any thing of the I 

solely, cannot be considered aa obe- obedience, 

dience to God. He would certainly ' A r^rd te onr own Wd 

direct their attention to the infinite that orothert, is Dot to 

majesty and glory of God; his re- demned; it may concnr, u 

latton to uB, as our Creator and Be- anxiliary, with the higher 

nefactor and Sovereign Lord ; and of duty. But these princ 

bur absolute dependence upon him, perfectly distinct; and i 

for all that in excellent in our na- our actions have the nitui 

ture, and desirable in onr esistence. dieace, they must proceed 

This is the manner of scripture, principle of duty. 

When God promulgated his law to To strengthen our codt 

Israel, he prefaced it with these moralobligation.weought: 

words: "1 am the Lord ihy God, ly to reflect upoathetnm 

which have brought thee out of the glory and majesty of God: 

land of Egypt; out of the liousp of pendance upon him for < 

bondage." In that most beautiful tence, our powers, and al 

address to the Church, contained joyments; and, conseqnei 

in the forty-fifth Psalm, the founda- it is our indispensable di 

tion of our obligation is stated very knowledge him in all oi 

distinctly. "For he is thy Lord; and to labject every pri 

and worship tiiuu him." " Know CMir nature, every desin 

therefore," said Moses (o Israel, minds, to his supreme and 

"that the Lord thy God, he is God, authority. Holiness in i 

the faithful God, which keepeth co- sists essentially in obedl 

venant and mercy with them that the direction and regul 

love him, and keep his command- every part of our consti' 

ments— Thou shalt therefore keep conformity to his commi 

the commandments, and the sta- from a regard to his authi 

totes, and the judgments, which I will. How important Uie 

comaiand theetnisday.todothem." that a conviction of our i 

How incomparably more sublime sable obligation to the slor 

and rational is the view which these thor of our being, should t 

passages afford of the reasons and and constantly impressed 

groundofobligation,thanthatwhich minds. How carefully si 

IS afforded by the futile theories avoid whatever mav have f 

which some nave ventured to ad- cf to weaken or enace it; 

vance on this subject! Indeed, diligent should we be, in i 

these theories evidently amount to means by which it may be p 

a disavowal of obligation to obey and strengthened. 

God. Their authors virtually say. The Dt>ligation under v 

although we judge it ririit to do are laid to obey our Creab 

what God has commanded, yet admitted, all that remains 

this is not because we consider our- to discover what he comma 

selves under the obligation of duty what he forbids; and to 

or obedience to him, but because the our conduct accordingly, 

performance of what he has com- ther we can assign anjr ret 

manded appears most conducive to he has enjoined a particnii 

personal happiness; or to seneral duty, or not, will not a 

utility ! or ia igreeable to ue nt- obU^tinn. It is sufficient 



(HnervoHam en the Oenmid Jhiembbf, ^ 



aM 



junp of his authority. To re- 
H^mpliance until we can per- 
ita tendency to promote our 
lappinessy or the happiness of 
i» would be rebellion against 
ithority of God. 



LTATIONS ON THE OBNBRAL AS- 
CBLT OF THE PRBSBTTKRIAN 
^CH. 



i€8 Proposed. 

ir Sir, — You know it has some* 
been suggested that the Gfsae- 
ttani^ should meet trienniaUy. 
Teas, if it must be divested of its 
al capacity, so far that no ap- 
or complaints can be heard m 
Mons, when the interests of the 
li reauire them to be heard, I 
:are little whether its meetings 
iteoer than septennial. But a 
tial session would divest the 
Df its judicial character, and 
r it no lonfi;er useful or desira- 
I a court of review. 
ik a measure would break up 
t the entire relations of that 
i^and I should deem it labour 
> state in detail objections to a 
le ao utterly impracticable. I 
t persuade myself that it has 
lenonsly approved by any Pres- 



nre is a project, which has as- 
I a more serious aspect, and 
idvocated by some wise menw— 
s heard it spoken of as inevita- 
•2b divide the Presbyterian 
dk into two JssemUieSt having 
ipondence with each other by 
ition. 

A an event I should deprecate, 
aid. awaken and cherish local 
•ta— promote jealousies — and 
lid anticipate acomplete failure, 
\jemptiof to preserve harmony 
ellowship. 

all difficulties, connected with 
Bnda of the Assembly and tiie 
Aon of theological seminaries, 
be avoided in the division, I 
i fear others of a more serious 
»u y^— C%. Mr. 



nature. No such division can now 
be amicably made. If such an event 
ever takes place. It must be by some 
violent schism, brining discord, jea- 
lousy and contention in its train. 
Neidier the good of the church nor 
the glory of our Master, can be pi?o- 
motra by such unhallowed scenes- 
Something, however, must be 
speedily done, or violence and se* 
cesMon will be the result To me 
the course seems plain— and I can 
see but one adeauate remedy for all 
the existing evil8>-«9 sifnoaical ra- 
f resen tat i oHt on an equitable ration 
M such a remedy. 

Let the constitution be so altered 
as to abolish the present mode of 
sending commissioners from presbv- 
teriesa.and give to synods the right 
of sending one minister and one 
elder, for every tweuty^Jfive ministers 
— su^ect to a diminution when the 
number shall reach a certain maxi- 
mum* Let the principle of frac- 
tional representation be applied to 
the new system as it is to the old— 
and we shall have a remedy; but it 
may be sought in vain with a repre- 
sentation from presbyteries. 

The plan I propose would preserve 
the radical pnnciples of Presbyteri- 
anism, as entire as on the existing 
plan. A synod is in fact, only a larger 
presbytery, including all the p«s- 
tors, and having a representation 
from all brancnes of the church 
within its limits. A delesation from 
the larger, instead of Qie smaller 
presbytery, can invade no presby- 
terial principle— and the body so 
constituted, will as really represent 
the whole church as when the dele- 
gates come from the smaller pres- 
byteries. 

The representation will be more 
equal, because the fractional propor- 
tion will be less— and because synods 
will be more likely to secure a full 
delentUon and punctual attendance. 
The lay delegation will be more full, 
and the Assembly become a much 
more just representation of the 
church than it ever can be on the 
present plan. 
The Asaembli w^\ mI^IqmlVm^ m 




tl« OlierMMM m the fhmra AutnM§9 fe. ^% 

mwiMy. Ttere will be a conte^ wm pat intp the JitndB ^f |l i' < HijUfti 

nient number for deliberation, per- for revision— In 1890 it WM nltiMl 

fectly competent to transact all the and fblly revised. TIm cmbhatM 

business of a session, in less than two and constitution were mbliaiwd wM 

weeks. We shall then hear no mors great care under the dtreeCkn isf 1)1 

ef invading the radical principles of Assembly, and pains taken t* elM^ 

Our government to get rid of bust- late the copies. Alone with tiMgt» 

ness, or to save the reputation of our culation was conveyed the npinisiii 

highest court Less time will be tliat this was now to be a penMMift 

spent in the ffotUital coneern$ of the infttrument The work was vtjiii^ 

meeting— less in useless cMofe— and typed, and an unprecedented ttMkir 

flie time of ail the members will be of copies put into the handa #f fti 

appropriated to ^me profit, instead churcn. In 1825 another nltsimiil^ 

or many of them retarding, as they was proposed in the imlfo nf 

now do, the business of the Assembly, sentation, which was conann 

Mure than half the e^rpense may last vear. Before the taat p 

be saved — and the intc^erablc burden tion I felt ne alarm— nor did I 

upon the citizens of Philadelphia be fully appreciate aeme fdanl 

removed. The miserable custom of ed by Fathers in the ehnncli«lhal: Al 

indiscriminate rotation in sending spirit of innovation mig^t MadiK 

delegates will be discontinued, or be- disastrous results. ,, 

come less injurious to the reputatbn But did the decision of thn flNj^ 

of the Assembly and interests of the byteries to alter the ratin vMf 

church. Complaints asainst dect* the Assembly? Far fniin it ni 

Mons of the highest judicatory will current of reform has oniefttoHb 

be lessened and murmurs of dissatts- minds of many, and proHocndl dll^ 

fkctlon hushed, because confidence satisfaction with many parta df A 

will be felt in the wisdom of the constitution. This age of wnotaH 

conrt The secular character of the improvement must impart ita adp 

proceedings will be corrected, and tary influence to remodelling ^ 

the undue importance of mere tech- church. It is now proponed taM : 

nicality lost, in the wisdom, experi- aside one of the radidl jiifMiMM 

ence and fear of God pervading the of presbyterial government WmM 

Assembly. shall we stop? Not with the p io p n id 

A consideration of no small mo- alterations now sobmittea. THr 

ment seems to be overlooked by the after year must give btrth to aolai 

Asseinbly,in submitting expedient af- new expedient, until such an atiflti* 

ter expedient to the presbyteries — tion is produced, that some viokot 

The stability of our constUuHon and schism, or an entire dissolution of tbi 

consistency of our highest judica- Assembly, will mark the terminatiOi* 
tory^ I do not find fault with the altera* 

The whole system of temporary tion of the ratio of representatid»;-^ 

expedients for removing present it was a measure called for by ck^ 

evils, is calculated to cherish the cumstancesbeyond control:— -only ia 

spirit of innovation — unsettle the the last instance I think it would HfB 

whole instrument — and place in been much better to have introdueei 

jeopardy the best principles of church synodical representation, and (htt 

order; to say nothing of the doctrines stop the spirit of innovation as soot 

contained in our confession of faith, as possible. But never let the rsM^ 

We alreadv begin to feel the unfa- cat principles of PreshyUrimUm^ 

vorable innuence of such a course, invaded. One precedent of this Ida' 

In 1818 the spirit of innovation be- will soon be followed by another la' 

gan, under the almost hallowed name another, until the Assembly will weA 

of reform. The ratio of represen** torevise,nottheprocMdingsof lo^ 

tation was altered. In 1819 the courts, but its ovm lawa and prioci' 

whole constitution of government pies of government 



Trvod$ m Enrqpifor tbattk m laao. 



211 



are that the force of the 
derived from the influence 
ent, depends upon two 
i characUr of the altera- 
the prospect of further in* 
Now test the argument 
ifo considerations—- and it 

I us to pause and think well 
touch a vital principle of 
utioR. Let not the abuse 

principle lead us to ei- 
rom our system. While 
lins a remedy consistent 
»jterianism, let it be ap* 
t when there can be found 
jr» without breaking^ in 
i radical and tried princi* 
»nnot be long before the 
ssemblj must cease to re- 
whole Presbyterian church 
try — Evils producing such 
cessity must cure them* 
violence* or the body be 
1. 

II convinced that the plan 
lave proposed will meet 
sition. The attention of 
has not yet been directed 
yect. It was introduced 
»embly at a late hour last 
1 just upon the heels of an 
eration in the ratio of re- 
in. There was of course 
pect of even an examina- 
le principles, much less the 
the plan. 

lust be brought before the 
anvassed, and, I trust, 

enlarge on several topics, 
m have possession of mj 
1 some ot the most promi- 
1 which I entertain on this 
rtant subject. 

Yours, truly, 

827. 



IV EUROPE FOR HEALTH IN 
BY AN AMERICAN CLERGY- 
THE SYNOD OF FHILADEL- 

m^nued JroM p. 157.) 
Aeltenham, S«pt. 16tb, 1820. 

riead^Sbortlf Mfter the 



date of my Uuit, I bade adieu to 
London; and felt both regret and 
joy in doing so. Regret, at leaving 
the busy metropolis of the world (as 
London, regarding influence and 
magnitude together, m^y be called) 
having seen so little of it^oy at the 
thought of making progress towards 
home; llie weatt^ during my staj, 
was raw and rainj, and this, with 
rather over exertion, to make the 
most of my lime m seeing and hear- 
ing, seemed to operate rather unfile 
vourably on my health; which made 
me the more willing to get awaj. 
Having derived so mocn beneut 
from the waters of Bagniers, and 
being informed that those of Chel- 
tenham were much of the same nap 
ture, I determined to spend some 
time at thia place, which is nearlj 
in the rdute from London to liver- 
pool, where I intend to take the 
packet for New York, the first of 
October. The weather, on the day 
I set ofl^ coBpelleil me to take thie 
inside of the coach; which was a 
great drawback on the gratification 
of seein|; the country. Wehadgone 
but a little wajr from the sabariM^ 
until my attention was taken bj a 
vaat tract of heath country, level, 
desolate, and bare, except of cattle 
browsinf^ upon it To see sndh a 
wild region, on the skirts of such a- 
populous city, strikes the mind aa 
an astonishing contrast Its surface, 
though poor, did not indicate invin- 
cible sterility; and its state of conv- 
mons, I was told, is owing to its ori- 
ginal grant as snch; which oflbrs 
some legal barriers in the way of its 
being enclosed, and brought under 
cultivation. It would seem that what 
was charity, in the first instance, 
has resulted in great injury. The 
value of such lands as commons, is 
a trifle, compared with the benefit 
which woula result from their im- 
provement Could those waste 
gpunds be brought under cultivup 
tion, and the product applied to the 
moral cultivation of the poor, for 
whose ase specially tk«H V»?i^ Vm»!dl 
given, how gfMLtweiQ\d\»^1ia^ ^vok^ 
hath to thna aiid the cmnmui&Vj* 



£1£ Traveli in Europe fir JEbottA in ISSO. Muh 



Abmi twenty miles from LondoD, gjatification thtt ii found in u 

we ptssed in sight of Windsor, tiye conversation. lam onreU* 

where tiie king; has his coantrr pap add ezceedinglj to the mobI asm* 

lace, at which he spends most of the fort of stsge travellingt m whkkft 

summer months. It was matter of is little less than a cdunitj* la ta^ 

some regret, to pass so near, with* crowded <from daj to day* wilk'^. 

out stopping to take a view of a pisca set of beings, among wboM yon ssi 

on which royalty has shed its deco- annoyed at one time with Ite hHk 

rations. "The ere is never satisfied city of ignorance, and at uMMr 

with seeing.** The countir aroand wim the taciturnity of pridas kii' 

it, is certainly very fine. Our com- the last the worst It ia radhrpMr 

pany at setting offf seemed to be all yoking to witness the dmoredMil-. 

strangers to each other, as well as to of a self-important bmn|^ who i* 

me, and as is usual under such cir* fuses to communicate the Utile hi 

cumstances, little conversation took knows, lest, unhappilv, he shMH 

place. By the time, however, we chance to let himself down, to MK 

had gone a little way beyond Wind* pany who might be foond to bo ha> 

sor, they had dropped ofl^ one after low the level of his fancied .rankr 

another; and a new set had taken Christianity, felt^ in its pewsft 

their place; among whom was a would cure this, with other onla» K 

Scotsman, of cultivated mind and would fill our hearts with the mtt 

sociable habits; who proved a great of human kindness, ready to iiif 

acquisition to our party, ana die out to every human being we '^'^- 

pleasure of whose society made me with — ^in any way in which we c 

pass the chief part of what remained minister to his profit, or aflbid 

of the day'to travel, in almost entire innocent pleasure. Heada well ifpit. 

inattention to passing olijects around, structed, united to hearta well IsiK 

On hearing that I was an American, pered, would give us a paradiao ii 

he turned the conversation to our society, where we often find only a 

country, and to my surprise, though desert 

he had never been in it, discovered Early in the afternoon, we ariifsl 

more acquaintance with our publick at Oxrord->a little over fifty miiss 

characters and national affairs, than from London. Here the stage stsj^, 

many of its natives, who pass for ped until the next day : and thiada» 

respectable citizens. And ne is the lay afforded a welcome opportnni^ 

only man I have yet met with in to take a hasty survey of tnia ancient 

England, who has evinced much and celebrated seat of learnings the 

knowledge on the subject, or much result of which was, painful regret 

curiosity to be informed. Ger- at being put off with only a haa^ 

tainly tlie mass of the English peo- survey of its exterior. It la iodeed, 

pie do not take half the interest in in appearance, a delightful ptacOh 

American afiairs, that we do in those From the balcony, around the ela* 

of England; and this is evident from vated cupola of tne Bodleian libra* 

the fact, that the English newspa^ ry, I hacl a full view over the whole 

pers do not contain half the amount city and its environs. It is not a 

of extracts from the American pa- large city ; and with the exception 

pers, that ours do from the English, of two main streets, crossing mk 

It was with real regret I parted other nearly at right angtea, the 

from our Scotsman, a little before streets are rather narrow and croot 

we arrived at Oxford. The eratifip ed; nor did I see any buildiagn of 

cation of his company macie me uncommon magnificence. The wnote 

think what an increase of happiness place too, bears the marks of grest 

our world would receive, if itsinhsp antiquity; but there is a neatness 

bitants generally, were educated, so- and cleanness, with an air of ele- 

ciable bein^; disposed to, and ca- gance about it that rendera it ex* 

fiab/e of, giviog and receiving the ce^AVn^^ a.tbnR>\\^«« Tba aitiaatHm 



Trtreds in Europe for Health in 1820. 



215 



qI. It stands on a little 
in the forks of two streams 
d waters of the Thames: 
ountry around looks like 
of Eden. The colleges, 
n number, with five halls, 
appearance, differ nothing 
4>neges, are scattered here 
t as accident has located 
r the town. They are ee- 
Mther ver^ large nor eie- 
leir extenor — rather piles 
r looking stone buildings, 
II Gothic windows, and 
»aten outsides, that indi- 
to have seen the winters 
Some of them which I vi- 
e large enclosures, whose 
I bowers, with shrubbery 
r cultivation, render them 
be the haun^ of the muses. 
e together, gives one a 
of the vast provision for, 
nage of, leamine, which 
I has long existed, in this 
the main-spring of all its 
It was the season of gene- 
iD, and of course the let- 
learning population were 
ibsent. 

xt day's travel, of about 
niles, brought me to this 
lout affording any thine to 
from the torpor induced by 
Dsity, with the depression 
ather; which connned me 
de of the carriage. What 
1 the windows, impressed 
le idea of much fine coun- 
th delightful rural scenery. 
c "spirit was willing," I 
upossible to keep my mind 
f on the alert to enjoy 
ier other circumstances, 
re been highly gratifying, 
iates in travel were, to 
ut interest. I would have 
thousand of them for the 
of the preceding day. 
ham, you know, is a cele- 
tering place. I have been 
for two weeks, and have 
comfortable home, for the 
; (as far as accommodation 
y, in a place of many de^ 
give comfort) in mj own 



hired chamber, in the house of the 
Baptist minister. My time has been 
spent in laborious idleness, trying to 
see and hear all I can, but doing no- 
thing. In point of wild romantick 
scenery, Cheltenham bears no com- 
parison with Bagnieres, where I 
tarried so long in France. There, 
nature has tnrown a magnificent 
wildness into the surrounding moun- 
tain prospect, with a lightness and 
salubrity of mountain atmosphere, 
that leaves Cheltenham an nnmeap 
surable distance behind. There too, 
nature has dealt out her healing wa- 
ters, with an abundance and variety 
equally superior. But the efforts of 
art, have given the town of Chelten- 
ham, with the surrounding suburbs, 
an elevation, in other respects, far 
above Ba^ieres; so that in tiie com- 
parison, it sinks into littleness and 
deformity. And this corresponds 
pretty much, I suspect, with the cir- 
cumstances of the two nations gene- 
rally. Nature has done every thing 
for the French, and the English have 
done every thing for themselves. It 
is not a great while since Chelten- 
ham, as a watering place, has grown 
into great repute; and it is since 
this period that it has assumed its 
decorations, and grown to its pre- 
sent size. Owing to the lateness 
of its improvements, in point of 
freshness and lightness, it has more 
the appearance of an American town, 
than any place I have seen in Eu- 
rope. But the elegance of many of 
the late buildings, very far outdoes 
what is common on our side of the 
water. Around the town, in almost 
all directions, are to be seen beauti- 
ful seats, with enclosed grounds, laid 
out and ornamented in a way that 
only wealth and taste of a high order 
could effect Most of the late build- 
ings are of stone, plastered over 
smooth, on the outside, vrith a white, 
improved plaster, that in a short 
time assumes the hardness of stone 
itself. There are only three waters 
of medicinal quality of note : Twa 
of them saline, and the ttixt^L cWV|- 
beate — all very limited ui ^e\t v\v* 
ply« The saline are ce\c!6T%.te& dwftl- 



T» 



; /- » 



'314 



TreiuU H Bim^f&r BMUh in 1 820. 



sened from the cirquioiitiMEkCi 
kaviog given birth to Shph 
" The Bweet Swan of A?<m< 
turning that evening, we foi 
Cheltehham in an uproar, M 
ham, the colleague of the oeV 
Mr. Brougham, aa pouit^eit' 
queen in her late trial, iribi 



temoon. The populace oiet 
bia arrival; and unhumeaai 
horsea, draped bis carriag 
loud hu74uiDg to the ion. 
then sent a deputation to the 
for the keys ot the church, t|li 
Hkight ring the bells. The 



ly for compiainta of the liver. They country, on the Avon ; lid 

are pumped up, I am told, from a at it with aa intefeat^ pi^ 
depth of near one hundred feet; and 
to obtain a supply, adequate to the 
manufacture of salts, which is largely 
carried on, a number of wells are 
dug round, at considerable distances 
from the one in which the pump 
stands, and connected therewith at 
the bottom, by perforations, with 

leaden pipes* The gravel walks, terminated in a triumph to Im 

pas&ini; in all directions, lined on zans, bad come to town iii 
each side with thickets of shrubbery, 
aod planted with trees, whose boughs 
meet and entwine in places over 
head, are equal to all that luxury and 
sauntering idleness could wi^ih. And 
tube sure, the crowds of well dressed 
strangers, to be met with at al I hours 

of the day, in these walks, sufficient- being, witJi most of the est^ 

ly indicate that luxuij and idleness clergy, on the side of the U 

abound equal to their inducements Jused to give the keys* Oo 

— ^The musick of a AUI band, in the the mob paraded to the front 

mornings and evenings, resounds house, and smashed every win 

tbroush t^e bowers, and falls on the it; and afterwards found ao^ 

ear of the diatant listener, in tones get into the steeple, aod ci 

of exquisite sweetness* But, verily, bells until they were satisOed. 

all these are pleasures, to be paid for is a sample of the manner vb^ 

at an expense which, to the man of ttungs are sometimes mami| 

light pocket, must give twitches of this side of the water. I wiq 

uneasiness eaual to all the enjoy* next morning to see the house 

ment The head boarding houses rector, who bears the characi 

charge from two to three guineas per respectable man, and rather 

week; and notices are posted up at side of orthodoxy in his prii 

the watering pumps, that the use of It made me sorry to see a fi» 

the water, for a month, is half a ^i- story house, exhibit an appc 

nea; and the privilege of occupying so defaced. His enemies^ nc 

the publick walks the same, in addi- aay it is a most fortunate occi 

tion. for him, as in all probabilitjjr 

The country around Cheltenham be the means of elevating bii 

is broken, in soane directions; and bishoprick. 

the original quality of the soil bar- In point of religion, Chelt 

ren ; but good cultivation has brought may be considered a privileged 

it to show a face of great fertility. The church of the establi^aM 

A gentleman, to whme uncommon large building, in which a nui 

boapitality I shall always feel myself congregation, with decent sol< 

greatly indebted, has carried me in in their appearance, assemble, 

ia gi^ as fiir as Gloocester, on the present one afternoon, in he 

one side,^ and into the neighbour* hearing the rector, but found 

hiood of Tewkesbury, on the river rate in his place; with whoq 

Avon, on the other. In both direc* formance it is probable I shoul 

tions the country is under hirii im- been much more ediBed, had i 

pcovement. From a ilinge ch high votion been more, and my ov 

hills, in the ne^bourhood ofaBai^ less* Another splendid chu 

tiat clergymani oo whom we calko, buildiitf;* under a li\te act of 

/ bBd e dfligbtfiil view oC a ridi mmt m vatT^iMi^^ ihe nav 



TraTKli in JBurvfie/ir Aoia te iBfiO. sij 

churches. There is a lirgs vice, in siaiJ~fonit, the congrqjttion 

. baloDKing to the Indepeti- were dnmiised. The members st 

in whKn s Mr. Brown tninii- the choreh mnuiied. "Ae elements 

• rail house of verj respec* were then brouji^t fbrwird, ud set 

ooking people. Mr. Brown, on • smell table; at which the mi- 

a I had opportanitj of jadg- niater sat down, and with groat de< 

quite evaDgelical in histfeo lit>enitioD,bnAe the bread into small 

and tome digcoerse* I have monels, on a plate, talkir^ familiar- 

Tom him, wet« certaiolj both W of the Redeemer all the time, 

ter and manoer of a mperior Then, after a coDsecntinc ptajer. 

One Dight I heani, in his the elemeau were handH to the 

the celebrated Rowland Hill, commnnicante, n thej sat in tlieir 

eecentrick hamour is often seats, doring which the minister 

ed in his diaconrses, very made an address. Prafer and ainr- 

■dt of place. Heisnewaeite in|{ closed the eserciee. The whoFo 

man, K^tly reverencea b^ service was solemn, and, to me, se- 
es, for his ackntwledi^ pi- ceptable< Hann^ no scruples on the 
id ifOodneSR of heart; and sabject of holding fellowship with 

followed bj the ^ar, for his the disciples of Christ, in acts of 

' hamoar, which he appears datf, I gladly accepted the invlta- 

de of fleppmsiaij. His di^ tionof the minister, offered the week 

that evenifiK, was prolix before, to participate on the oooa- 

soltorr, with little speciatlr sion. An. ardent controversj is at 

ting of anj kind. Towards this time earrjiog on in the Baptist 

le, he spol^sed to his audi- secietft throughout England, on th« 

r his prolixttjt but remark- sntject of chureh fellowship; and 

wsa not detaining them as the denomioition is divided into tw« 

a nnnber of them, veiy pnn psrties. The one party >■ called 

woald wish to be detained at Mixed Communion Baptists, bei:auBe 

atre. they mingle in church fellowship with 

« if a bandsone chapel in Christtans of other eommunitlest 

iksm, occupied by a Mr. and the other. Strict Communionists, 

■ho ministers to a small con- because they reject from their sabra- 

m, belonging to a denomina- mental table, all who do not in full 

have not Mfore heard of. receive their peculiar tenets. Their 

re called here, (whether they difficulties and prejudices, as well as 

" " ■ ' " iw) ' 



be appellation 1 do not know) those of some among ourselves, I do 

jixhls. They profess to be not wunder at Such waa the power 

stick; and in tite main, evao- of prqudice on Peter*a mioa— the 

Their leading distinguish- efTectof education and habi^lhat ft 

«^ is a refusar to pray, or good while after he bad received die 

I any act of worship, in the extraordinary measure of the Holy 

lyoTthe ouconverted. Preach- Ghost, on the da^ of Pentecost it 

r do not coasidor an act of required an additional revelation 

i; and the profaoe world ara from heaven, to set him right on the 

id to it The reason they sutgect of Chrisdan communion ; by 

r their procedure is, that to teaching him that " what God had 

BBCoaverted persons to tiieir deanseo, he was not to call [nor 

wmrship, is exteadtn| coih- treat, asj common or andean." 
\ to then. A few days *m, the Baptist coa- 

Baptiat congregation is small ^reg^twn opened, or consecrated, a 

or recent rormation; bat has new honse of poblick worship, which 

ipid Increaab On last Ssb- tiiey have just built, having a^ 

By had thdr communinn. The semhled heretofore in a room in the 

' of ptpceeding on the occa- town hill. It is a neat, commodious 

■t Ibis. After monuus ser> building that dgw hawwc te Xkyns 



2M 

•uitiODi, Gooiidering tlteir Dtunben. 
It WW on a week dkj, and wu re«l- 
1t k nrj interesting occouon. Old 
Dr. BUand, of Briitol, long die pro- 
feHor ofdivinitj in the Baptist con- 
nexioQ) comineaced the Herrice in 
the BoniiDg. His venerable appear- 
ance, witii his weight of character 
and weight of matter, msde his ler- 
moD rerj acceptable. A Mr. Cole, 
from a distance in the country, gare 
a good disfeoarae in the afternoon. 
At night, Mr. Ja^, of Bath, who ii 
an I ndependen (preached to an over- 
flowing ttoiiK. He is moch the most 
interesting man in the pulpit, I have 
■MO in Engjand. His printed dis- 
eonnea, wmch have been verj popo- 
lar in America, 70U have seen and 
admired. From these, rou mar 
jedge of his popularity, when I tell 
jm that, with his powers of elocu- 
tion, vreak discounes woald be ac- 
coantcd forcible. His voice is one 
•f the finest;- and his manntir, for 
Vimplici^ and miitj, is just what 
n woofd wisE to see in the pulpit 




&: 



lus man, who now occupies a stand- 
ing of die first eminence, among the 
dnsenters in England, vas educated 
and brought forward from deep (rt>- 
•curi^, by Winter, who was hiui- 
Nir bronght forward by Whitefield. 



'3 <^^ew Taiamtnt. 



A powerful eneonragement this, for 
charitable eilucation eRVirta. One 
thing on the occasion greatly delist' 
ed me — In the whole of the ein- 
ci-tes, DoC a senteoce ilid I hear, af 
sectarian controversy, or party u> 
perity. That ^oHpel, which bmlhti 
" peace on earth, and good will to- 
wards men," was preached in a lone 
and spirit that accorded with it As- 
other thing I did not entirely accord 
with, though universal cnstom. 00 
occasions of the kind, sanctions il 
in this country — The whole of de 
clergy present, to the namber of 
thirteen or fourteen, tielon»nf; to 
different denominations, with mett- 
bers of the congregation, and othit 
invited guests, dined together Id > 
tavern, at a dinner bespoke Koae 
days before; and it was a sumpniNi 
one. Certainly the least irregnluitf 
was not noticed; yet it stnick dm 
39 incongruous, and almost bonl(^ 
ing on the " appearance of evil," in 
these days of dissipation, for a luge 
party of grave divines to pass fnn 
the church to the tavern ; and agUDi 
after the conviviality of a feast i> 
such a place, to adjourn tiack to Ih 
church, in Uie afternoon, to rent" 
the exercises of devotion. 

Sincerely JW^ 



.BtUtXo^. 



For tiie present month, we place 
in this department of our woric the 
following communications ; con- 
necting with them such remarks of 
our own as we have thought proper 
should accompany them. 

We have given a ready insertion 
to the first communication, because 
we consider every attempt to mis- 
represent the contents of the sacred 
volume, by false glosses, and espe- 
cially by erroneous translations, as 
of the most pernicious tendency — 
It is to endeavour to poison the very 
fountain of religious truth; and no 
duty is more imperatively incum- 
bent on a Christian Advocate thui 
to expose, and withstand to the ut- 
ao$t, erery such endeavovr. We 



have not examined all the exanplt* 
of alleged unfairness and misrept' 
sentation, on which our corretpOD' 
dent haa thought proper to anttud- 
vert — He is to be considered » 
solely responsible for the justice >( 
his particular remarks. Bat •( 
have inspected, for ourselves, tin 
volume which he critic iscs-^n* 
spccted it sufficiently to coBvinO 
us fully, that, whatever may l>^ 
been the intention of its autWiif 
tendency is mischievous. Wehesi' 
tatc not to say, that he ia uttcri/ 
deficient in those qualificatiaiO 
which are essential to a competw' 
translator and interpreter of ^ 
Holy Scriptures; and that hehtf 
attempted unfairly to 1 



JUxoMdir CampheUfM JVkw IVstomeiit. 



il7 



reputation of men distin- 
1 in the literarj world* to 
irrencj to his own favourite 
} and corrupt principles. We 
lot what number of copies of 
lok have passed the press ; 
doubt not that efforts will be 
to circulate them as widelj 
sible : and we think that our 
londent has deserved well of 
ligious publick. for ^ing 
li the drudgery of a minute 
lation of the volume, and ex- 
the unwarranted renderingjt, 
author, of certain words in 
cred Text, and the garbling^ 
e instances, of the language 
respectable translators whom 
fesses to have copied. — That 
5 not hostile to an iinprove- 
D the exhibition of the com- 
ersion of the Bible* will be 
I our next article. 

SACRED WRITINGS OF THB 
(TLES AND EVANOELISTS OF 
S CHRIST, COMMONLY STYLED 

NEW TESTAMENT, trandoJttd 
\ the original Ghreek, by 
rse Campbelif James Mac- 
^ht, and Philip Doddridge^ 
tan of the Church of 8eoi' 
\. With Prefaces to the HistO' 
i and Epistolary Books $ and 
AppendiXt containing Criti- 
ffaUs and various Transla- 
lofDiffficult Passages* Print- 
md published by Alexander 
vpbeiL Buffaloes Brooke eoun- 
Virginia. 1826. 

Editor of the Chrittian Advocate, 

. and dear Sir, — You have 
nown that a few jears ago, I 
publick debate with the au- 
f the above-mentioned trans- 
Mr. Campbell, a Unitarian 
t You know, also, that dn- 
te last winter I published an 
ire of his false report of that 
I. That exposure gives no- 
At I am now engaged in wri* 
st the whole of my argumeBt 
ristian Baptism. In this ar« 
it» I take the liberty of mak- 
iqueftt wm of Mr. CMmpbeU% 
. y,^Ch. Jidv. 



new translation. It was iDtendad 
to promote the peculiar views of Its 
author: but in some tilings be kss 
certainly missed his mark. At pre- 
sent I can give von only a speci- 
men of what shall be shown more 
at lai|;e, if Providence permit me 
to finish the work now in hand* Is 
speaking of the mode of bopttsss> 
he lays even more than usual: stress 
on the Greek prepositions;. proi»* 
ing, as he thinks, that there is a go- 
ing down into and comins vpoii# of 
the water. During the delMte, ke 
treated with the most abhorrent 
contempt, any sofgestion that these 
prepositions mi^pt prove nothing 
more than a goinff to, and a coming 
./rom, the water. Knowing that tiiis 
meaning of the words was esta* 
blished upon sufficient scripturai 
usage, he was not willing tmt I 
should traverse the scriptures at 
pleasure, and quote an instance 
wherever I could find it, bat insist- 
ed that the meaning which was 
found most common in reading re- 
gularly on, must be the right meaiH 
ing. But as he could not read 
through the scriptures^ in the time 
allowed, and as he could not f^ 
me to read chapter about with hm, 
even in the first book of the Septu- 
agint, he selected such chapters of 
Genesis, as he thought would an- 
swer his purpose, and made what 
he could of them. Since the ap- 
pearance of his new translation, 
the thought occurred to me, that I 
would make an experiment, and 
see how his plan would hold out in 
his own version. For this purpose 
I selected the preposition apo^ 
which occurs in Matthew, iii. 16, 
and is translated out of. As he had 
partially examined the first book in 
the Septuagint, I examined, not 
partiallv, but fiilly, tlie last book 
of his New Testament^ marking his 
translation of the preposition opo^ 
in every place in which it occurred. 
The result was, that I could find 
onlv ONB place in which he render- 
ed it onT o/, and I bnAd -rvr^isrYX* 
ss vsN placM in wVildkYua tnMA!ite\ 
£ E 



JlcMwIer CamiMPt Mw Tufa 



itfntti ihowinc, ucording to hh 
own principle, uat, xfler Mptinii 
tha inbiect ircDt npfrom th« water. 
At Hr. Cumpbelrs New TeiU- 
nent bu levenl prominent fet- 
tnres which woula not obtrude 
tiiemielTes into the regnlar conne 
of my ugument. bnt which ought 
oevertfaeleii to b« known bj an no- 
naatputdick, I concluded that when 
in opportunity oSered. I would di- 
greu into something like a formal 
icTiew of hii book. This opportu- 
nity occurred while ahowing tiiat 
Abraham and bis leed were a visi- 
ble church, from the scriptural use 
irf those Hebrew and Greek words 
which we consider as ec|uivalent to 
the word datrdi. The singular fact 
fltat the word chimfc does not occur 
once in Hr. Campbell's translation, 
from b^nniog to end, made this a 
convenient occasion for devoting a 
section in the midst of the srgn- 
tnent to the examination of this 
anomalous production. It is here 
sent to you as an excerpt from the 
work in which 1 am eDgaeed. If it 
be agreeable to your feelings and 



■mngements, to insert it in your 
valaable Misccllanyi rou ^ 
for a favour on (he author. 



W.L.M'Cai.la. 

In the New Testament, eccUsia 
occnrs one hundred and fourteen 
times; in more than one hundred 
of which it confessedly means the 
visible church. I do not know that 
my opponent will confess this, bat 
every other sort of Baptist will. 
My reason for excepting him is. 
that he has such an aversion to the 
word church (a word inestimably 
precious to the Christian.) that he 
appears determined to banish it 
from his vocabulary. He has pub- 
lished an English translation of the 
New Testament, in which (strange 
to tell 1} neitiier the word church nor 
the word h^ism is found once. 
By its title pagei it professes to be 
" The New I^stament, translated 
from the original Greek, by Geokok 
CAMrBKLi, Jamsb MaoKNioHT, aod 



pHiur Dodhkidge. Doctors otihe 
Church of ScoilAnd." In the h»> 
ftce and the IIei of errata, he ipeab 
of a " London edition of this trui* 
lation,** which" departed, in huh 
instances, from die original wurlu'' 
of Campbell, Macknight and Dod- 
dridge. Such of these alterstivsi 
as affected " thr siyle'^ only, he an- 
fesses to have "retained:" W 
" some of these alterationE affrcUd 
the sense;" tlicse he professfs (a 
have " brought back to the origiDd 
works" of Campbell, Mackniritt 
and Doddridge. In this traau- 
tion, then, we are to look for tkt 
meaning of a certain set of nes, 
clothed in another man's stjlt. 
When the Ettrick Shepherd first nf 
DuncanCampbcll.the little slru^. 
though only seven ;ears old, won 
a coat originally made for a nts. 
If this new style should give Ge«f|t 
Campbell and his companiont U 
grotesque ui appearance, my opjiv- 
nent can account for it, upon Iht 
KTOUttd that tlicy are just esciMd 
From prison, through his benevOMit 
interposition. Here a writer In tbi 
Western Luminary speaks as ^■ 
lows, viz: "Mr.Campbell, on tliii 
part of his subject, says something 
about the works of Campbell, Pmt- 
dridge,and Mncknight, having brn 
' imprisoned ;' and seems to likr 
credit to himself for having brought 
them out to pu blick gaze ; and con- 
siders his own precious existence 
necessary to m-event them from b«- 
ing again locked up."' How cuvit- 
ble is the lot of my opponent! is t 
being the honoured instrumeot of i 

freserving^ese eminent scholun 
um rotting in a dungeon. Uii , 
agency ii\ this business proven tbe , 
rapidadvanceofthe Western CoDO- ' 
try in tte march of mind. Let fM- 
terity know that, but for the la* 
bours of a certain inh^it&nt of ^f- 
fiiloe Creek, the works of thno if 
the most celebrated Doctors of Si- 
ro]>e would soon have sunk into eh- 
livion. 

As his alterttiona of his ori|^iiab 
are fir nore nnmcnHis tlun aw 



Alexander CamphdPB Mitm TtitamenJt. 



219 



f 



cpect from the title page, 
18, in the close of his Ap- 
that these emendations 
(ferred merely because of 
3g more intelligible to com- 
lers, whose edification we 
remeljin view." For these 
IS he has made ample 
to the admirers of his three 
. \ij stuffing their jueu- 
rds into an Appendix, with 
^el and convenient refer- 
lat the J are almost as ea- 
d as a needle in a hajstack. 
; of this in his Preface, he 
lU that we can be praised 
k1 for is this one circum- 
lat we have given the most 
ous place to that version 
ipeared to deserve it" — 
when the words of Camp- 
icknight, and Doddridge, 

my opponent the most 
, he gives them in the 

places others in the Ap- 
but when the words of 
-ee men appear to my op- 
less deserving, he packs 
to the Appendix, and sub- 
others in the translation, 
imes are not mentioned in 
page. Thus every word of 
ion may be considered as 
assed through the crucible 
iponent's judgment. And 
well calculated to judge 
he jarring translations of 
ects, as that man who pos- 
e greatest literary and the- 
atUinments, and is, at the 
le, perfectly divested of all 

1 feelings or prejudices, as 
it from the whole career of 
nent, from Mount Pleasant 
lington. Hear the words 
eface on this subject. "If 
\ publication of a version of 
ired writings requires, as 
re it does, tne publisher to 

sectarian object in view, 
lappy in being able to ap- 
»ar whole course of publick 
%9 ftnd to all that we have 
W nUnoni aulnects, to 



view !!!" Perhaps so great a portioii 
of charity, an ti -sectarian liberality, 
and the milk of human kindness 
can hardly be found in the island 
of Oreat Britain, as my opponent 
knows to exist in one little privileged 
spot on the banks of Bufl&loe. It is 
reasonable, therefore, that he should 
claim to his work superior praise 
over the London copy, Mrhose Edi- 
tors probably spent much of their 
strength in sectarian debates against 
infant-sprinkling, and the 39 Arti- 
cles, and the 33 Chapters, and male 
and female Missionaries, and Bible 
and Benevolent Societies, and the 
observance of family prayer and 
the Sabbath day. As my opponent 
never was known to whisper secta- 
rian charges against other denomi- 
nations, for holding doctrines or 
ordinances "injurious to the well 
being of society, relieious or politi- 
cal,'' he must l)e indulged in a little 
commendable boasting, such as the 
following, viz : " Taking every thing 
into view, we have no hesitation in 
saying, that, in the present improved 
state of the English language, the 
ideas communicated bv the Apos- 
tles and Evangelists of JfesusChristf 
are inoomparably better expressed 
in this, than in any volume ever 
presented in our mother tongue." 
— Whenever, therefore, my oppo- 
nent's translation of the New Tes- 
tament is mentioned in this discus- 
sion, remember, that, " taking every- 
thing into view," particularly his 
own rare qualifications for such a 
work, it is" incomparably" the best 
in the laneuaee. 

To set forth his unparalleled qua- 
lifications still more fully, he says, 
in his Preface, " The whole scope, 
design, and drift of our labours is 
to see Christians intelligent, united 
and happy." With regard to unit- 
ing Chnstians, his lalMiurs, in one 
way or another, appear to succeed 
in a small degree. The Western 
Luminary informs us, that my op- 
ponent has made an ingeniout ef- 
fort to prove, that ViUAvo Ymmsiol 
friends, Barton W.Slowe »4 \>t. 



JVfev Jh i w ugimm tiif^ Jftw Tk$tamtML 



Mtti 



JaoMi Fiahbackt are united in eeo- 
timentt in rektion to oar SaTionr't 
person. Altbouf^ the formeropenly 
rqects the doctrine of hie Supreme 
tM Eternal I>eitj» and the latter 
woald be thought to receive this 
doctrine. Moreover* they are now 
▼erjr cordiallj united in their op- 
position to creeds and confessions, 
those stubborn things which have 
been so much in the way of TToita- 
ijaas, from die Council of Nice to 
the present ds7» If Mr. Oreatrake 
and the orthodox Pastors and Bdi- 
ton^ Associations and Cooventions 
of the Baptist denomination have 
not followod the amiable example 
of imtty which these brethren have 
set them, it is their own fault. Mr. 
Greatrake will not admit that my 
opponeot is for peace abroad, or 
wUtf at home. Writing to the 
Western BaptistChurches concern- 
ing my opponent, he says, ** Hav- 
iBf haid you for two or three years 
spectators of his own personal com- 
bats, or familiarized your minds to 
a view of his own fightinn, you will 
find, perhaps too late, tnat the ob- 
ject contemplated by Mr. C. was to 
prepare yon for dissentions and 
ightings amon^ yourselves ; to the 
end that he might share the spoils 
by making you a divided people.""^ 
As my opponent refers to his life 
for his anti-sectarian character^ so 
Mr. Oreatrake says to the churches, 
*' Yes, brethren, search, search his 
whole life, as far as possible.'' He 
then tells them, that this scrutiny 
will irrefragably prove " that you 

Eiaptists,] as a denomination, have 
en made the citadel of his safety, 
while throwing the shafts of his hos- 
tility at other denominations; par- 
ticularly at that one with which you 
most assuredly stand in the great- 
est degree of fellowship. The ques- 
tion then is, whether Mr. C. repre- 
lents your f$diiigs towards the 
Presbyterian and other pedo-Bap- 
tist Churches, against whom be 
^brctthes out threatenings and 

• UniUrian Baptist of tiie Robinaon 
sdl$ol€Mpo§9i.^p.U. 



slaog^terP If hedoes^letM 
what cause tbey have g|vitt fai Mi 
interminable rage. Bnt I need art 
put this sort of oaestiQn t» jwyba*^ 
ing fully persuaded thatjanigpest 
est partiality is towards ikU^m/ 
church which MnCapMacmtehaia 
with the most deidly Imftnl'! 
This is a righteom sentaMJMt 



nouoced in the name ef tbe 
em Baptist ChnrdMS, bj.- 

their most respectable and* ^ 

ministers, in exculpatien of ms 
much injured, and g fe sal y inanHsi 
pedo-B4^*ts of this conmtQi^ It 
correctly represents my wonlMs 
anti-sectarian opponent aein " 
«M||^ thrmUmngs and sfanigMer, 
ikrwmig the thaft$ 4ff hUlmt 
with i$UirmUmbli ragttUti At 
deadig tored, at oMsr iki 
tion$» particularly ear own ; „^ 
doing this, not to oppose tmtJSm 
he is rotten to the core,) bet eUmil 
zeal against ethers is, that he' Ay 
prepsre the Baptists for ^KsssidiNi 
and JighHngt among thsMselM 
that he may share the spsdla ef llsil 
divisions. He must surety be lanl^ 
qualified for writing an IncsmpsK. 
ble translation of Ukt New itan- 
ment! 

iT9 b€ evntmmid} 



loa TBI caaisniv ASvocAin. 

NEW ARRAKOEMBNT OF THB VkV 
TBSTAMENT. 

An edition ef the New Tssia- - 
ment has lately issued ftem As 
Princeton press, which deserves ti 
be noticed. It is an attempt ts In- 
troduce into the English transiitim "^ 
snch an arrangement of the tea^W 
now prevails in the beet Greeks 
tions ; an arrangement in which ttl 
common order of verses and cM* 
ters is disrecarded* and resnedli 
had only to the sense, in the ImM^ 
tion of periods and peragmphi^JI 
in any mer writing. The im§^t^ 
tablished divisions of iBereeiu'^i>i 
chaiftiva ace noted in the mkt^ 



JWv Jlfvongottiut if Vkt «Wfev jtaAuMxt* 



ttl 



as they have become ne- 
NT the take of reference, 
.tions have been made in 
f oar common tranalatioo. 
r of the work is Mr. James 
t stadent of the Theologi- 
ary. The propriety and 
of the divisions, however, 
I the text is distributed, is 
to rest simply or chiefly 
>wn jadjrment. The best 
jf the ureek Testament 
compared ;* that of Knapp 
ally followed ; in some in- 
engel is preferred, and it 
rely that the authority of 
e venerable names is de- 
im. 

\ glad to see this attemptt 
ttempt to rescue the word 
irom a most unhappy in- 
e, and it deserves the 
all who honour the sacred 
r desire to have its truth 
ind rightly understood. 
10 are accustomed to read 
ment in the original, need 
Id of the benefit to be de- 
readine according to the 
ent of the later editions; 
nr it to be far more than 
ommentary can communi- 
e hope that many who are 
ly confined to the English 
n, will find a similar ad- 
1 Mr. Nourse's Testament, 
t far more ; we hope that 
riety and importance of 
; tne scriptures after a 
, will so appear from this 
attempts4 that hereafter 

ird edition of that serious and 
aitic; in which the text is 
imewhat liiiTerently from the 
a rigid examination of the ar- 
adopted by Griesbach. 
d constrained, however, lo ex- 
ret, that the work should have 
1 so Tittle honour through the 
he printer. Its execation is 
lUK«putable to the Princeton 

bing hat been attempted in 
licady on a larger scale. The 
le has been printed in more 
edition, in which the comtston 
mamgtdMfUt the model of tbt 



no other shall be known, and the 
whole miserable array of chapters 
and verses, shall be found drivea 
from the sacred text entirely. 

Why should it not be so? Why 
should the Book of Ood be disfl- 

fured and obscured by a device of 
uman invention, whi<(h nobody 
would be willing to tolerate in ano- 
ther book? Is there any thine sa- 
cred in the common plan' of chap- 
ters and verses— -any tning connect- 
ed! with their origin or history which 
claims our veneration kud prohibits 
change ? The original writers of the 
sacred volume knew nothing of 
them ; (he Spirit of inspiration ne- 
ver gave them authority. The divi- 
sion of the whole Bible into chap- 
ters as we have them now, took 
place in the thifteenth century. It 
was done by Cardinal Hueo de 
Sancto Caro, for the purpose of con- 
venient reference in the construc- 
tion of a concordance, which he had 
in view. With the same object, he 
•subdivided the chapters into small- 
er portions, by placing the sit first 
letters of the alphabet, at equal dis- 
tences along the margin of each. 
In the fifteenth century, Rabbt Mor- 
decai Nathan, a celebrated Jew, 
contemplating a similar concor- 
dance of the Old Testament, adopt- 
ed Hugo's chapters, but instead of 
his marginal letters, he used He- 
brew numerals, noting only every 
fifth verse. About the middle of 
the seventeenth century, Athias in- 
troduced verses regularly number- 
ed into his edition of the Hebrew 
Bible. In accordance with this, all 
copies of the Bible in other lan- 
guages have since been marked. 
The New Testament continued as 
Hugo left it, till the middle of the 
sixteenth centory, when the divi- 
sion of verseg as we have them now 
took place. They were devisedjby 
Robert Stevens, the celebratea 
printer of that period ; and distri- 

modem Oieek Testament^ with tlm chap- 
ters and verses thrown Into Xh^ usaxrou 
These e^ons ate ^V fcnfCKk Vi^ %\at« 
Beeves, and aie saVd to Vi« vtst^VMMa^KwX. 



-. ^ ■ * 



.■ * 



AAA 



JWm Jlnangemimt laf tte JVfew TititauML 



bated in tiie eoiir§e of a journey 
from Lyons to I^ris! ItiBmamfeti^ 
therefore, that it is most unreason- 
able to attach any weight to thes^ 
diTisioos in determiiiinfl; the sense 
of scripture, and that, if they do at 
all interfere with the right under- 
standing of the word of Qoi, we 
should not hesitate a moment to ba- 
nish them from the text They 
have sprung from the judgment of 
mere man ; a judgment, too, most 
superficially formed, if respect be 
bad to the true sense of scripture. 
For it is evident that the learned 
men who devised them, did not 
contemplate a critical arranl^ment 
at all ; they looked only to the con- 
venience which they might furnish 
for ready reference to af^y part of 
the inspired volumit and probably 
never dreamed of the tyranny they 
were about to exercise over readers 
of the Bible, in every language 
since. 

Tyranny, however, they have ex- 
erted, of the most unhappy kind.» 
The sacred writinss have been un- 
naturally broken by their chapters 
and verses, as if their meaning de- 
manded such a distribution ; and it 
is not too much to say that they 
have done more to hinder the 
intelligent reading of the Bible, 
than all the commentaries and 
explanations ever written, have ef* 
fected on the other side — because 
the evil has been universal, met by 
every reader of Scripture, while 
that which might remedy its influ- 
ence can be only very partially en- 
joyed. A child begins to read the 
Bible before he understands its 
meahing. He finds it regularly laid 
off into chapters and verses, and 
naturally conceives these to belong 
as really to the book, as any thing 
else he finds in it. At leneth, he 
begins to have some notion of some- 
thing designed to be communicated 
and understood, in the words of 
Scripture. Still the common order 
of dividing them is considered sa- 
cred and necessary, and his earli- 
est conceptions of their meanin^i 



are powerfully moulded fa 
broad separations that stare I 
the face, from every page 
grows op, without suspicion 
metiiod of disjoining the ti 
universal and uncontradicte 
be without authority. The 
dice of education and habit be 
more and^ more deeply conl 
Thus a large proportion lii 
die, without ever knowing tbi 
have fallen into error on this 
Others more fully instracte 
admonished to study the Scri 
without regard to tne arbitr 
visions, of verse and chapter, 
it is no easy matter to ov< 
the long established prepoasc 
of the mind, and resolutely 
their influence, while their oc 
is still constantly displayed 
view. So that mere knowlei 
this subject cannot secufie fr 
from the common error. Um 
who know well enough th 
state of the case, are yet ft 
ib reading the New Testamc 
thi^ interruptions of Cardinal 
and Robert Stevens. Any 
who has seriously attempted 
sight of them in studying the 
can testify that it requires 
than common effort to en 
Few, even of those who cai 
the original, and who make 
tempt to study it in a critica 
ner, ever become thoroughly 
cipated from the thraldom o 
early prejudice, so as to re 
Scriptures as independent!^ 
they had never heard of cf 
and verses; they oftentimes 
a silent influence over tbe 
wary. 

It is notorious to all wb 
attended to the subject, tt 
common divisions of the Nei 
tament do not correspond i 
manner with the sense of v 
written, so as to be safely 
upon in reading. In the e 
especially, they often interfi 
rectly with it, so that the 
who attends to them at all 
f a\i allK^G^ec iu underrtiiri 



Mw Jhrangemeni fffht Mbw TuUimtnU 



££S 



lent of the sacred writer, 
izample, iq the epistle to the 
sians, every chapter, except 
irsty begins so as to do vio* 
to the natural order of sense ; 
ow often is the same sentence 
n np into several distinct iso* 
paragraphs, bj the interven- 
[>f verses ! True, the verses 
lifferentlj pointed with com- 
semicolons, &c. so as to di- 
to the proper connexion ; bat 
mrelj do the mass of readers 
I these marks. The division 
ve from verse is the most pro- 
it, and in its appearance it 
to every separated clause, be 
^le or be it part of a sentence, 
jne independent importance, 
^inelj we hear people gene- 
reading the scriptures as if 
verse terminated with a ge- 
and lawful period ; and when 
:ome to the end of a chapter, 
■ naturally and as contentedly 
they had really come to the 
ision of the whole matter, 
ommon method too of reading 
riptnres from the pulpit, does 
on tribute to remedy the last 
; why should ministers in this 
ise, be regulated by the arbi- 
boondaries of common usage, 
ot rather measure what they 
by the sense of the Holy 

t so then ? Is it true that the 
.on order of chapters and 
I, is almost universally regard- 
ire or less with deference, as 
lex to the meaning of scrip- 
And is it true at the same 
that it is altogether unsafe to 
lied upon, in this respect? 
then should it be suffered to 
lue in the midst of the text P 
\ is no advantage of any kind 
1 by retaining it there; for 
MS of reference — the onlv 
ees it was intended for^— ft 
just as well stand out along 
arnn. Why should it remain 
roaiiy necessary for the 
her and commentator to cor- 
erroneouB mpreBsions, that 



arise only from an unauthorized 
mutilation of the inspired writings, 
and urge people to read scripture 
without regard to its established 
divisions, while those divisions 
might just as well not appear on its 
pages at all ? Surely it is unneces- 
sary to retain difficulty, where there 
is so easy a method of deliverance 
from it But is there not somediing 
more serious still, in adhering to the 
prevalent system? Is it not an un- 
warrantable license taken with the 
word of God, to mangle its text 
into so many arbitrary portions, and 
present it so to the world? And if 
so, is it not duty to relinquish at 
once the common form of publish- 
ing it, and in all future editions to 
thrust the notation of chapters and 
verses into the margin r Is it not 
an admitted fact, that the generality 
of people are, in some degree, hin- 
dered from the roost useful and in- 
structive mode of reading the scrip- 
tures, by undue though natural re- 
gard to the standing order of divi- 
sion? If so, it must surely be 
wrong to continue the stumbling 
block; it is an unju8ti6able inva- 
sion of sacred ground, by an unne- 
cessary device of man ; God cannot 
approve it As we have no right to 
add to or take away from the record 
of revealed truth, so neither have 
we rigjht to arrange its matter in 
any otner form than such as may 
best serve to the understanding of 
its true meaning, according to the 
ordinary modes of arranging writ- 
ten discourse, among any people at 
any particular period. 

Might it not be well for the Bible 
Society* to consider this subject? 
The apocryphal writings so often 
found in volumes of the Old Testa- 
ment, they rightly exclude from the 
copies which they publish, as hu- 
man productions ; is it not a mere 
human invention to mutilate every 

* We think there are obvious reasons 
why the Bible Societies should not act in 
this matter, tiU the changes «h»\V Yvsm^ 
been previously msde sxid stnc^onn^ V>^ 
the competent aathon^ea.— l£»nwiu 



AM JWrm Jmngmtitt ^ the j|ft» Tntimmi. .%A 



CSL.' 



of the hMTenlj Totume with with bo bow tiUe to bis sectioiii, 

« ftMd iittemiptioni, wVkk ond Dopoticcuf the cootentsof tin 

have little or no rtard ts miim? ch^rtei% •• givea io the commoo 

WottU not that toTihh bo non venion. This plan we like llie batt 

tatilj Hndentbdd ui4 nan Mtta>- of alL Wo think the m&tter of the 

fiKtoffil7 road, withmt th« accon- Bacred writers ought to be divided 

DMUaant of tkia human i&TCntioaS iato aectioiit, where the sense ob- 

la then aaj necossitj' whatever ta TioaaJj le^oires it — Indeed a nc- 

retaia the iDventton, id a Bingla gleet of this would, ia some caiei, 

cepj of Bo baljT a bode ? ' he aUna^asinJurious totheseoit; 

N. Q. aa,ia the other extreme of breakup 

_ ip the whole into verses. But for- 

— ,„ .,_ . ti>erthanthu,hu[nan iaeenuitTaDd 

EdOwial Bmorfcs. ^j ,^^ .^^ -^ ^„^ jSJpnent. K> 

We have not aean the work of Im emplejed, except in commeDU- 

Mr.NoDrae, to which reference ta riea, eitlwr io giving conteats al 

wade b; oar correspondent in the ehaptera or titles of sections. 

fi)re|[oiDg remarks. Bat from the The rttention. in the mar^of 

wlsfMcea ander which we know it th« chifters and verses as they^ 

vu wblished, we doubt not that it pear in onr common Bibles, it, wt 

has MOQ welt eiecuted, so Ear as tdmtt. important. All our mb- 

the editor was concerMd. The cordancea arc formed with a reft- 

pUs of pttblishiBK the H0I7 Scrip- reace te these divisions. It wu fu 

tanawith^tbreakinctbeBiupinto the sake of reference, in formiag 

chapters and rcrses has, ana has. . eoncnrdaacet, thut these arbitrsn 

leas had, onr entir* approbationj dirisiotttwerefirst introduced; sm 

and we do not think ovr cerres- ^e verily believe that thev wotU 

Mudent has said a word too much haTe long since been expelled fran 

wito&Tour. The New Testament the sacred volume, if the aid thcf 

has been frei^entl; published in albrd for easy reference had aet 

Greek, on the plan which he advo- kept Aem where thev are. Butl^ii 

cates. In the French translation of mdmay certainij be as fully secuml 

Beansobre and LenCant, the divi- by plecixig them distinctir in the 

sien into ehaptera is preserved ; but mugituaabj introducing theminti 

tiie verses are inserted, in small (he text, and breaking it up, asi) 

figures, in the text, without break* often done, most absurdly and m 

ing the continuity of the compooi- had almost said wickedly. In die 

tion, till the end of a section, [ft prophatick scriptures, we thiok it 

Campbell's translation of the Oos- error and absurdity of the usud di- 

pels, the whole is divided by the vitioa into chapters and verMa,i) 

translator into new sections; and a the greatest of all. Prophecies ts* 

title of his own ts prc&zed to eadi tally distinct, relating to eotirslj 

— witi) a notation of the chapters of di^rent aufajects, and deliverodit 

the commoo version at the top af intarrals of several years from citl> 

the page, and of the venes in the other, are sometimes commencid i* 

margin. Our countryman Charlea the middle of one chapter, and end- 

Thomaon has printed his version o( ed in the middle of another. It i> 

tiMwholescriptuKsfromtheGreek, prebabte that Isaiah exercised hi) 

by divklipg the matter of the sacred prophetick office for at least Uty 

writer into sections, according t» yearB,anddelivered propheciesirc 

his views of propriety, and pre- Utive to, a variety 01 suit''''' 

serving a notation of the chapters timwgh this whole period. Tb<*t 

of the vulgar version, both at the prophecieB are all collected in ^ 

top and marpn of each page, and of mw whiah bears his name; aaA>* 

the verses ia the maiiiB otuyj hut the Bibles tvhich are «a«MJ|jU^ 



Ldttrfnfm CUriau. 



2«5 



completely confoand- 
ized. Suppose a mi- 
oApel, who has been a 
fty years, should now 
mons which he has 
a variety of subjects 
, in the whole course 
-y, without any inti- 

one discourse ends 
egins — and the whole 
en up into chapters 
ind one ending and 
nine in the middle 
—who sees not the 
dity of such a pro- 

this is the very ab- 
lich we complain, in 

breaking up of the 
d some otner parts of 
riptures, in the most 
ler; often without the 
I the sense and scope 
writer. The evil, we 
some measure abated 
nstance, that almost 
e of inspiration con- 
y truth by itself; and 

reader is of course 
1 edified, although he 
connexion; and thus 
reys to him a saving 
all the disadvantages 
I reads it. But is it 
that these disadvan- 
»e removed ? Is it not 
t not only the beauty 
passage is often lost, 
neaning mistaken or 
J not observing the 
But we have said 
e recommend Mr. 
w Testament to the 
jur readers; and ear- 
D see the whole Bible 
he same manner. 



[ CLERICUS TO THE 
THE CHRISTIAN ADVO- 

1 the following letter 
d it, without the addi- 
ion of a single word— 
)iat we aajr avoid all 

^. Mr. 



suspicion of tappreaaing an^r thing 
which the author might wish to 
communicate to the pablick.F— 
Were it not for this, we certainly 
should withhold several laudatory 
expressions, which, however sin- 
cerely uttered, we are unaffectedly 
sensible give us credit for far more 
than is our due. 

To tkB Editor of the ChritUan Advocate. 

Rev. and Dear Sir, ^Having seen 
in the last number of the Advocate, 
a '* Review of Publications relative 
to Incest,'' and among them of one 
by Clericus, the notice which you 
have been pleased to take of the 
latter, though there be not between 
us a perfect coincidence in senti- 
ment on the subject of the contro- 
versy, is, I confess, gratifying. I 
did not expect that my little pam- 
phlet would attract the attention of 
one so deservedly eminent as a 
scholar and divine. Duty to my- 
self, however, seems to require that 
I should correct some things in die 
notice referred to, and your own 
sense of justice will prompt you, I 
trust, to g^?e the correction a place 
in your interesting and valuable 
work. 

" The suliject is one which has" 
for me "no attractions:" I have 
been drawn very unexpectedly into 
the discussion ; but without lifetail- 
ing the circumstances which in- 
duced me to write, I will only ob- 
serve that I had no other design in 
that letter than simply to expose 
the inconsistency of Domesticus. 
It was deemed unnecessary to em- 
ploy argument to refute a pamphlet 
which contained no aivument, and 
I am not aware that! made any 
direct and unqualified concession 
as to the scriptural authority appli- 
cable to unlawful marriages as you 
intimate I have done, pages 177 
and 179, and on the ground of 
which you indirectly cnai|;e me 
with inconsistency. Granting, for 
the sake of accomplishing my ex- 
pose, some of the pn.iit\\\«a ol \^^« 
roeaticas and of thoM ^iA»i uvitWi 
2F 



UUerJhm CUriats. 



<S6 

take hii side of the qnestiont I 
WBDted to show th^t his msin u^- 
ment is in perfect colliaioD with 
those principles. I preteaded to 
no new light, nnlesB to be bo bold 
«8 to question the infsllibilitj of « 
sjnodical ensctment might be so 
represented, Religidus peraecu- 
tion, snd the punishniait of witch- 
craft once considered! lawful, the 
world all over, but now reprobated, 
were adverted to— for wtist pur- 
pose i Evidentiv, if the connexion 
be observed, to destroy the Dosition 
which Doinesticus had lain down. 
" What," jon aski "have religious 
perseciittoa and witchcraft to do 
with the quettiMi, if there is no si- 
nilaritr between them and the case 
in haoilr" But if they bad nutlting 
to Oo with tUe case in band, as you 
fluppose, tbej certainly had some- 
thmg to do with expediency, his 
great principle, snd proved it to be 
utterly untenable as ihe ground of 
an ecclesiastical enactment. The 
drift (tf my letter, therefore, I con- 
claUe, has not been exactly appre- 
hended ; or after reading Veritas and 
myself, yuu have so blended us to- 
, gether, as not to have a distinct re- 
collection of the nature of onr re- 
spective replies. Veritas, if my 
memory serves me right, does not 
mention religions persecution and 
witchcraft; yet, we are both repre- 
sented as urging them against the 
statute in question: anifit is not 
Veritas, but C^ericus that enjoys a 
laugh at the expense of Domesticus. 
You say, sir, " that you know not 
why C. and V. have not condescend- 
ed so much as to mention the work 
of Dr. Livingston." For myself, I 
answer, that I did not think the 
prosecution of my design, which 
was to consider the argument of 
Domesticus, and not to dtscuss the 
merits of the question, called for a 
reference to that work or anv other. 
I have read the work of that learned 
and excellent man : 1 have read the 
dissertation of Dr. Mason and other 
able pieces on the same subject; 
bat niMj I iiot be permitted to de- 



clare, without snlgectiD^ mji 
the charge of preteodiog t 
light, that in my opinion, w 
their learning, and with all 
acumen, they have failed to 
conclusively the unlawfulm 
this particular connexion. I 
that the point bad been d» 
an hundred times before 
born, by men of gigantic int 
and great learning ^— Does th 
however, preclude a renewal 
discussion i Or must arr 
and conceit, by implicatioa 
plun lanKuage, be imputed t 
who would endeavour to fii 
for themselves tint will of C 
the subject F I admit too 
you have so ablj stated, that 
great and good men in ere 
nave repronted the cimnexioi 
sir, it IS not the amount of 
anthority, let it be ever as 
that can determine its impm 
and when theolog^s and 
ciana are exhitnted in foni 
array in support of the prohi 
and their opinions so large 
prominently set forth, I cum 
thinking that the lack of bet 
thority than thit of fallible 
deeply felL Allow me ve 
spectfuUy to say that the argi 
if it may be called one, it at 
conclusive with me on this qa 
as the same argument in the 
of a papiat is, in reference 
protestant futh. 

1 make no traast of learning 
logical knowledge and biblic 
ticism : all I claim is a little 
sense, and a sincere desire t< 
what God requires or forbid 
the right of judging for myael 
a point is clearly establish^ 
part of the Divine will. 

The assertion of a great 
can and do respect; but to 
would not have me to •nMi 
conscience to its authority, 
should be satisfied of its ci 
ness. 

" No fair reasoaer," saj 
Mason, " will assume his fac 
fut his o^Qouent to the proa 



LMerfrom (Serieus. 



S27 



.99 



re ;" and jet this is the rery 
nrhich he himself had done in 
mmencement of his disserta- 
1 this subject. 

Livingston* I humbly con- 
has done the same things- 
is much positive assertion 
t a particle of proof* in the 
ions made from his work in 
Ivocate. (p. 173.) I venerate 
t; but, permit me to remark* 
d ag^ can add very little to 
use it may happen to advo- 
»y reflecting* as is very com- 
n the comparative youthful- 
' an opponent Young men 
id do often err ; yet* exemp- 
na error is not a property of 
iVhiie I make no pretensions 
lordinary light or learnine* I 
suppose that all wisdom has 
ith. those who once shone in 
rch as stars of the first mag- 
nor that what remains is to 
d only with those who have 
I* or nearly reached* the ut- 
nit of human life, 
'ou* reverend father* I che- 
irofound respect— -a respect 
was taught to feel* ancldid 
a very early period of my 
ften have I listened to your 
t pulpit discourses* and of- 
catechumen have I received 
study the most affectionate 
u It is true* I was very 
the recollection of it may 
ised from your mind* but it 
in mine* and excites feel- 
lich cannot be described. 
!1 modesty and humility I 
ladly again sit at your feet 
knowledge; but* Sir* you 
:use me if I cannot assent 
position* the truth of which 
clearly perceive* or if I at- 
spectfully to show wherein 
ining appears to me defec- 
which It is sought to estab- 

S proposition, 
ervent prayer that your 
fe may be prolonged and 
with all covenant bless- 
rs in the Lord* 

ClEBtCVS. 

S2r. 



Bditorial Jbnutrfcik 



We readil V admit that Clericus 
did nott in tne work we reviewed, 
make ** any direct and unqualified 
concessions* as to the scriptural au- 
thority applicable to unlawful mar- 
riages." But we did* and do still, 
think* that we had sufficient reason 
to say* in the cautious and yarded 
language which we used* in page 
177ofour last number* that* if we 
"rif^tly apprehended" him and 
Veritas* after having ** honestly and 
carefully endeavoured to under- 
stand them* the whole of what they 
said on the merits of the question 
in controversy" came io ** tbs re- 
sult" which we there stated. We 
perceived that Clericus appeared, 
designedly* to avoid any dSreet ap- 
peal to scriptural authority* in re- 
ference to the subject; but* af his 
whole pamphlet went to sh6w that 
expeduncy was not to be relied on, 
and it was manifest that he differed 
as widely as the poles from the con- 
clusion of Domesticus* we believed 
that there could be no other re- 
stf/f* but that he thought reliance 
must be placed on inspiration alone, 
in forming a correct judgment of 
the matter in dispute. We also 
thought that the bearing of a good 
deal which he said incidentally* did 
really authorize this conclusion. 
Yet we intimated that it might be 
that we did " not rightly apprehend 
tlie sentiments both of him and Ve- 
ritas* in regard to tliis point." We 
frankly acknowledge* that we af- 
terwards* in page 179* stated too 
strongly* that these writers main- 
tained* in opposition to Domesticus* 
the exclusive authority of Scrip- 
ture relative to the subject in debate. 
Our language here was not suffi- 
ciently ruarded ; and we hope ne- 
ver to be disposed to attempt the 
defence of an error* however con- 
scious we miiy be* as in the present 
instance we certainly are* that it 
was committed through inattention 
and not by design. 

The misnomer o{ \ mVsA (oc C^' 
ricus, iu our 179\\v V^^* ^^^^'' 



LtOtrfrtm VUi-icm. 



Mat. 



in tiie buU of cowpMttioB. We 
obMiTMl it almost u boob u mf 
mrk wu pnbliahed; and Mvenl 
diji befora we receired tb« con- 
mnicttiiKi of Clericniu we had 
nuirked it for comction, u it will 
be foBod at (he end of our present 
BiiBber. We read a good inanj pe- 
riodical!, and we tnink that th« 
saoiber of oar emtta ii quite aa 
Null as that of oor neighbours. 

We have now made to Clericos 
all the concessions that we can 
Make with a good conscience ; and 
norc than these we are satisfied he 
vonid not denre. If we " Mended 
tocether** the raaaoninn of Veritas 
SIM ClcricDB, we think we hid a 
^rfect right to do bo ; when their 
reaBoninga were not only similar, 
bnt when the former, at the yery 
dose of his pamphlet, entirelj ap- 
prored of the latter, and thus made 
the sentiments of Cleiicus his own. 

Althoneh the obcs of witchcraft 
and reli)[ionB persecntion, as men- 
tioned by Clericns, were dtrrctty 
applied to show the fallacy of the 
argument from expediencv nsed by 
Domesdcas, yet we still believe 
it wai by no forced constmction, 
that we considered them as in- 
tended to exhibit a kind of parallel 
with the case of a man's marrying 
his deceased wife's sister. We 
think we might appeal to the can- 
candour of ClericuB himself, to say 
if he did not wish that the former 
cases might be considered, st least 
SB an illustration of the absurdity 
of the latter case. 

We mast content ourselves with 
expressing our utter surprise, that 
a man of so much modestyand can- 
dour as Clericus appears to be, 
■honld express himself bh he does, in 
relation to what has been written by 
Dr. Livingston and Dr. Mason on 
the snbiect in debale—They do not 
need our vindication. We must 
think that few competent Jndges of 
lopck and arsoment can read them, 
and think of uiem as Clericus does. 
What we qnoted from Dr. L. was 
jOi^BBtedlj kittviicttl, rather than 



argumentative f yet, so far from be- 
ing "without s particle or proof," 
we rerilybelievc there are particle* 
enough in the last quotation, to over- 
throw from the foundation the whole 
system of Clericus ahd Veritas. 

We certainly wish that do msa 
who has reached the age of maturilj. 
should give up the inestimabU rient 
orprivatejudgment;attd we hold it 
as a sacred principle, tliat the wnrd 
of God, and that only, is the infal- 
lible rule of faith and practice. Yet 
every man, whether young or uld, is 
responsible to his Gud fur the pro- 
per treatment of evidence od point* 
of practical morality, and for the 
conseciuent opinions and practice 
which lie adopts. We never wished, 
and have never insinuated, that Cle- 
ricus, or Veritas, or Doroe^ticui, 
should bow implicitly to humau U- 
thorily. We have expressed the 
opinion, and we still retain it. thtt 
thf J have not learned from olben 
alt that they might and ought ts 
have learned. 

We have no where said, not 
meant to insinuate, that any of tbe 
writers whose pamphlets we re- 
vieived, ought to be undervalued oB 
account of their youtli. The truth 
is, that if our estimate of their sjt 
be right, they are in the very vigour 
of manhood ; in the best period of 
life for accurate and powerfol 
writing. We did, in the case ol 
Dr. L. introduce a sentence, sad 
elsewhere several sentences, to tun 
aside the force of a popular notion, 
that old men are so under the in- 
lluence of prejudice, and of ideas 
imbibed in times of comparative ig- 
norance, that they cannot open 
their eyes on the great light of the 
present age of linnwiedge and im- 
provement, nor drink in ita liberal 
and ennobling spirit: And w« a^ 
peal to our readers whether A^ 
do not, in the presentday, bewtiMI 
notion expressed, at least tea tiMM 
aa often as they hear any rliiw 
advanced in conKqaence gf apt 
and standing. ■ 

The inconsiitcncy wktck we 



1817. 



Mmi MWciB 9f JkcMif FMieaHumB. 



m9 



thoaght was apparent ia Ubit pam* 
phleta of Clericat and Veritas, was 
mtuaated (we supposed with tafll- 
eient plainness) to consist in this— 
their writing so mnch of an evident 
tendencj to set at perfect ease the 
Binds of diose who contract the 
suurriagea in ooestion, and ret pro- 
tastiag that tney are no adTocates 
fMT onch marriages. For oorselTes, 
wo do believe that there is a gross 
i n c o si si s tc ncy in this. We may 
prove the most powerful advocates 
sf n caase^ nay* we are likely to 
prove so, when we jprofess to have 
no pnrtialfty in its favonr. 

After allthat Clericas has stated 
ia Us letter, and all that he and his 
friends have said in the second pob- 
Ksatioa which he has issued, and 
ohich we have read with some at- 
tentioot we most think that the ad- 
vicates of those marriages are using 
nfsmeots of most pernicioos ten- 
tec^— false in themselves, and 
odcalated to lead individuals to 
tnn^gress, and to introduce cor- 
ristion and impurity into the church 
«rChfist. That they verily heiieve 
stet the^ say, and that they have a 
fMsetnj[^t to say whatthey helieve, 
«f ^estion not. Butifwedoatall 
inrierstand them— end after read- 
ill the second publication of Cleri- 
cm we think we do-— the sum of their 
lyilm is— That there is indeed a 
nsnl oUijpition not to marry anj 
wnr ef kin, and yet that there is 
\^ of Scripture, nor any 



* Itit ufged, again and again, that the 
U& fiispcer of Leiritictti cannot be of 
mal ssa perpetual obligation in pre- 
•Mwibe hnr of inoeat; became it ia 
''" ' blended with laars adimtted to 



number of passages taken together, 
that will snow us who are near of 
kin, in that degree which renders 
marriage unlawful. The conse- 

Sience of this is, and it is avowed, 
at every man ought to be left on 
this subject to judge and act for 
himself. It is moreover maintain- 
ed, that in cases of church disci- 
pline, nothing but an sxprbss ^ thus 
saith the Loi^,'' «* or authority from 
God's word equivalent to it," should 
be the ground of procedure. It fol- 
lows, we think, as an inevitable con- 
sequence from these premises, taken 
conjointly, that no marriage what- 
ever, except that which the Apostle 
Paul condemns — not even the mar- 
riage of consanguineous brothers and 
sisters*— can be the proper subject of 
church discipline. Can it be thit 
the revelation of QtoA has left %i> 
important a matter thus? We can- 
not believe it. 

The affectionate manner in which 
Clericus concludes his dote, has in- 
spired feelings of tenderness, be* 
vend our powers of expression. It 
has awakened the most interesting 
recollections of his whole pious fa- 
mily—once, and in our best days, a 
very dear part of our pastoral 
charge. May the best blessings of 
the covenant God of his parents be 
all his own. 

be ceremonial. If this is a good argo* 
ment, it will certainly set aside the rooial 
obligation of the Decalof^ue. Let anj 
man read the 20th chapter of Bxodus, 
with its connexion, and he will find it as 
really blended with a number of pre- 
cepts, manifestly ceremonial and tempo- 
rary, as those which are connected wtUi 
the law of incest in the 18th of Deutero- 
nomy. 



SHORT NOTICES OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

deUnemibefire We sincerely rejoice to find that a The- 
ological Seminary is organized in the 
LuUieran church of our country. We are 
persoaded that thia establiahment will not 
only be inatrumental in raising the fiterarjr 
attainmenta of the Luthecsn «i«m ^ ^^ 
United States^ but also \iRcr«sKn|; ^QMift 
number and goardins the ^tvVf «t ' 



<ii AhMiwv if <fte Tlml»gieal Seminary 
^^QmmnU $mud ^ the EwmgeUctd 
i§Amm CkmrJkf hw 8. 8. Sekmtekert 
•iJK»ellls Mittfm faO the Prefeeeet' 
M <^ GMrttoo J%eokgyt Slumber 5» 
im, ngttkttwiAAeChQirgedeihfered 
%Mmk9tke »ev. J>. F, Schaefer, ^, M. 



SSO BhtrtJitMeuofaeMltPMiaamti, Mat. 

fUth agaiait the comiptiom utd here- iti b«nefiu, and tliere are doubileu in 

liM nov M ninpMit in the coaaXiyfiott orvty age, wame ot ibe lucurot buid, who 

wluch their clmrch derivei itt origin. In prcwh whh same profit ■ to otbcn, uid 

thU penuuion we are tbe more confirm- tbemMlrea kre cut away.* But ctmi 

ed b^ reading tbe pamphlet before lu — tkeae, generaJly, do more injnrf thm 

tMataining the cbawei delivered to Ibe good. They n»t only exclude iWin their 

firu pTolMaor, and nli inaugund addreia. oaugrtfftuiiu, riithful aervani* oT Uic 

Both these performancei are diatiDguiah* LoM, who would careridly feed IheHoct 

ed for their piet^ i and the addren of the but the cold formaljiy, and perliapa Ie*iij 

prqfeawr exhibili wch an acquaintance of their pritalc walk, neutralize the iti- 

with theolopcal learning, and mchrieht Buenee of their publick miniitTaiiaiisa*i> 

*iewt of the manner in which the atudiea Meel tbe hesrla of many ag«init the n- 

of candjdatei for the goapel miniftry. oedwotd. Has ilie Rword ol' tbe Spiiii 

ought to be conducted, ai promiae tbe pierced tbe heart of Korae sinner, and, 

b«ppieat reauh*. The professor, althou^ filled with reinui'sc, docs he call on hii 

a jroung man, ii already well known m pwtor to learn what he should do tobe 

onr country a« an author, and a itrenuoua aared t Alw ? tills is a feeling which he 

uid able advocate for the Lutheian doc- never experienced, arid whitSi he ihtn- 

trinea, aa taught by tbe firat great Pro- fwr doei not don:>ider a neceasary put of 

tettant Befanner. Hii present attain- refipOD. He mi&Iakes tlic nature of die 

menu are in a high degree reputable, and disnie, and instead of pointing the bd- 

if fab tifo and health shall be spared, ai ner to the balm of Gilcad and the kind 

wc praj that theymay, wedonbtnot that Physician there; the wound it tjtlur 

he ia deatined to be an enuncnt bleasine sUgbtly heided, or, awful to relate. hei> 

t^ tbe whole religious ctHnmunity with adyi*ed(Dau)>preM theiie feelings tosnii 

mich be is connected — a community, amid tbe pn>iDi9cuou& lopjcks of Ike so- 

from which, although we differ in tome cial drde, relief from his despondeiie]:, 

uneMential pinnti, we shall, while it and by tonidis, and exercise, and pwsr 

holds bat the Augihurgh Confession, re- air, to wear away the curpotvl diaotder 

j<riee to see prosperous — We even wirt whence it onginates! In short, we j[e- 

that tbe infiint seminaiy, of which Mr. netallv aee thai an unconverted minislir, 

Schmucker is elected toe first professor, thougn inor»l, HpreuU a deadly influence 

may be aided and patronised in collecting throiwh tbe congregation over which he 

foiids, by the wealthy iixUviduals of the is csilled to tircsicle, and creates a p«sti- 

Prefb^rian church, and of other deno- lentia], aiotiv .t'rinp^pticre, in which the 

niinationa who wish well to the cause of flame of pieu < .nni.i lung survive. Not I 

evangelical piety. Mr. S. discusses in tbe ishis baneful", nHn, hcc circumscribed bj I 

address before u* the following inquiries: the limils of bis coni; rcf^ullon. In llic I 

"Who are the proper subjects of mi- transactions of the sfieral synods of the | 

nisterial education ? church, he will be ei ^)pci6(l to take part- ■ 

" What branches of science are entitled "is influence tends In depress the slaml- 

to their attention? *" °' P"^ among Lis brethren, aod to 

"Which is the proper method of con- throw open the door of admission to otbef 

ducting this education? unsancttfled men. Is he poaaetaed of ta* 



We pve » a spec.men, the foUow.ng i,^^ „f .^pa^JT^lf victoHous, no arith- 

news of professor S. m regard to the ne- ^n^ can c^culate the extent of injury 

cewjw of pracucal piety m every cnm.s- .^^f^-^,^^ „„ ^^^ ^^ ^ p,^ , j^^ If 

tet of the gospel— vanquished, he expends his strength in 

"Jgain, withaut piety tht mniutr of the efforts to thwart the purposes €S the bre- 

S—pel mU gentratly be a runt It the thren, to defeat their honest and most 

church. We say not that an unconverted evangelical measures, and to scatter 

minister, who preaches orthodox doc- amongst them the seeds of distend; 

trines, can never confer spiritual benefit whilst the gall of disappointed ambition 

on others. To aaaert this would be to set is rankling m his bosom, and the venom 

limits to Omnipotence, to deny that there of jealousy corrodes his heart !" 
is any aptitude in the word of God, to 

promote the end for which it was given, Tn Fihst or AraiL. Written fir ttit 
and to cotitend that it is not the word of Aaerican Stauias Schcol Umim. 
God, but the minister who make* men Wereads 9toryBooknowandthen,e•• 
wise unto salvation. No, webehereGod peciallyifwe find it was written for Sabbath 

netimes does effectually pubhab his 8choolscholars,andwethinkwebarene- 



piapel by unsaActified Upi. Tbe minis- ' rer read a better one than this. It is well 
trj of Judaa waa, probablyi not without and skilfolly adiqited to its puipoie, wUdi 



Literary and PhilosoplUcal IntdUgtnce. 



S31 



>uble one of preventing the pro- 
of the Lord's day, and the cor- 
f the silly and wicked propen- 
ommon among ckildrenr—old and 
of making April fbol»-*A pro- 
which often leads, not only to 
deceit and falsehood, but to 
blows and wounds, and some- 
evils still more serious. Much 
struction is also incidentally com- 
xi in this little volume, on several 
ost important topicks of religion, 
^ag^, in general, is neat and 
ich as it ought to be. In a few 
(, it might be more correct, 
e told that the writer of this lit- 
is a lady, and that she has writ- 
ler, entitled May Flvaerty quite 
as the one before us. She cer- 
s an admirable tact for this kind 
Dsition. We hope she will con- 
write, and that she will be en- 
1 to do so by seeing that her pro- 
are not only popular but ex- 
useful. 

COURSE, preached at the DetUcO' 
he Second Congregational Vnita" 
rcK J^e-w ITork, December 7, 1826. 
amEUery Chanmng, 

iding this sermon, we have been 
impressed with the idea that 
intended by the author, it is in 
elaborate, and, we admit, an elo- 
iniment, to prove the superiority 
I over revealed religion^K)f De- 
Christianity. We sincerely be- 
t this is its true drift; and that 
lious infidel, without excluding 
Lb of this long discourse, sluui 
e remainder, in the veiy words 
it now appears, bear directly on 
irite point. Lord Herbert, the 
' English infidelity, would have 
very little to object to this dis- 
kken toHdem verbis^ as it is here 
rhis, we are aware, forms with 
IS no objection to any system of 
opinions, but rather a recom- 



mendation of them. One of their favour- 
ite boasts is, that their system is calcu- 
lated to take away the objections of de- 
ists, and thus to draw them to Christianity. 
We admit it is so, if you will only permit the 
Unitarian to say what Christiamty is. But 
alas ! his Christianity consists in meeting 
the infidel — we cannot say half-way — ^but 
the whole way, except the single step 
that the infidel shall admit that there is 
a revelation in the Bible — For all well 
informed infidels already allow the excel- 
lence of the moral precepts, and the un« 
rivalled sublimity of thou|[ht, and the 
just views of God and his attributes, which 
the Bible exhibits. In a word, the dis- 
course is only a new proof, in addition to 
many before given, that Unitarianism is 
not Christiiinity at all, but only Deism mo- 
dified and disguised. 

Ten days uter writing the foregoing 
article, verbatim as it now stands, except 
in a single word no way affecting the 
sense, we read in the Boston Recorder 
and Telegraph as follows — 

**A Broad BUm.-^A firiend of ours, some 
days since, called at the house of an in- 
telligent Deist, who has long been known 
as a determined and envenomed opposer 
of the Christian religion, and fbuna him 
reading Dr. Channing's Discourse, re- 
cently preached at a dedication in the 
city or New York. The conversatioti 
soon turned upon the merits of the ser- 
mon and the aistin^ished ability of its 
author, when our fnend inquired of the 
gentleman bow he liked the production. 
' I like it much,' said he, with particular 
animation. 'It strikes a broad blorm at 
the Christian system, and it will prove a 
decisive triumph for the religion of nature. 
Dr. Channing differs from me in a very 
few points, and I am satisfied that within 
five years he will preach the doctrines 
which I believe.' ^^--Star. 

We were not surprised to see this ar- 
^cle ; and republish it only to show that 
our opinion is confirmed by fitct. 



Ittetatp anti l^giio^opfikal SUntelltgence, etc. 



^rerich Church, — ^The following 
t of the Roman Catholick and 
It Clergy in France, with their 
^e stipends, paid by the French 
ent, is extracted from documents 
re the Chambers by the Minister 
tenor. 

t Catholick Clergy.^The estab- 
mrcb of France is composed of 
finals, one of whom, ttie arch- 
'Parisy has 100,000 francs yearly, 
20^000; the other three 30,t)00 



each, about JS6000. There are 13 arch- 
bishops, besides the metropolitan, who 
receive each 25,000 franca^ £5000; 66 
bishops, each 15,000 ; 174 vicars general, 
each from 2000 to 4000; 660 canons or 
prebendaries, each from 1500 to 2400; 
2917 cures or rectors^ each from 1100 to 
1600; 22,316 deservants or cuiates, each 
from 750 to 900 firanct per annum. To 
the colleges for educatiae the ^<)aTv<e«t 
cleigy, 940,000 franca, ot %\%ftjy)l^x vnl 
for repairing and bui^n^ c^»nc)!k«i^ 



MMttonOMi PkU/ottpk^M JHtdligctiei^ 



Mat, 



300^000^ or 840»000.— The whole os- 
poMo of tho OftRbliriiinent, inoluding aa- 
noitiet to the iiifirm cletsy, it ottiiMtod 
at 25,650,000 francs, or ^5,130,000 ! 

PnUttani CUrn^^^Tht Calviniatt baTV 
thtee jMifltorit who receire yearly eaeh 
3000 fiaiicti 38 wbu rece'iTo each S000< 
69 who receive each 1500; and laatly 195 
p$gtor% eaoh lOOO^total CaWiniat nuda> 
ten, 395. There are 3 Lutheran peitoi% 
each recebiiig3000 franoai 35^ each 3000; 
21« each 1500; and 175 paitora, each 
1000— total, 330 Ijotheraa miniaten. 
Sum total paid to the Protealant deragr, 
033,000 ftmnca, (0134^600) 34^000 franco 
allowed for tbeb coUegea, and 50,000 fbr 
their place of vorabip— aum total fbr the 
Proteatant reUgion, £139^400. Thiaaum 
ia paid hv the French govemnent; but 
it OMiat alao be remarkedt that there are 
many Proteatant dlierjgj in Fhoice, who 
do not recehre any stipend fVooi the go* 
▼eminent, it being a reguktion not to 
make any grant where the Proteatant po* 
pnktion doea not amount to a thouaano. 

OU^antU 7V«ew— A tree of prodigioua 
nie haa btely been felled in Berks coun- 
ty, in thia alater It waa 117 feet in height, 
aad 64 horn the butt to the first branchy 
•ad tta greateatciroomferencewasSOfeet 
7 indiea. It was perfectly aound, and 
fWmi the ooncentrio cirdea at the end of 
the trunk* waa eattmated to be 300 years 
old. 



UST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

UoUed Statea Inatitotion for the Treat- 
ment of Cases of Defective Utterance, 
aoch aa partial Speechlessness, Stutter- 
ing, Stammering, Reaitanc^, Weakness of 
Voice, ICs-enunciation, Lisping, fcc. 8ic« 
Conducted by Mr. & Mrs. Cbi^man, No. 
187, Pine street, Phikdelphia. 

An Addrem from the Managers of th^ 
House of Refhge to their Fellow Citizens^ 
Philadelphia. 

Northern Regiona; or. Uncle Richard'a 
Relation of Captain Pariy^a Voyages fbr 
the Diacorery of a North- West Passage, 
and Franklin and Cochrane'a overland 
Joumeya to other parts of the World. 
Boston { Munroe h, Francia. 

History of Roman Literature, from ita 
earliest Period to the Augustine Age. By 
John Ihinlop, author of *< The History of 
Fiction." 

llie Goapel the Wiadom of God-Hi 
Sermon preached at Salem, Feb. 14^ 1S37, 
at the ordination of the Rev. John P. 
Cleaveland, aa Paator of the Tabemade 
Church. By William Sprague, PMtor of 
the Firat Church in Weat Springfield. Sa- 
Itm, Whipple & Lawrence. 1827. 



Righleooaneaa the Safegondaad Ghiiy 
of a Nation. A Sermon preached in the 
Repreaentathre Hall of lo^anapoGa^ In- 
^fiamit Dec. 31at, 1836^ by Bigmaid R. 
HaU, Principal of the State Semaaaiy, 
Bioomington. Pnbfished faj leqwat 
Smith li BohoB, piilitem. 

A Dtsoourse on Popular Edoeatiou, de- 
Ihrered in the Churm at Prlno elM i the 
evening heibra the Amraal Coittfnce 
mentor the Coflm of New Jenagr, Sept 
36^ 1836. By Cnariea Fetmi Ifimesr. 
Publiahed at ttie requeat of the Ameiicn 
Whig and CKoaophW SociolMiL PliMe. 
ton Preaa. Printed fbr the Boditiea by 
D* A. Borrenatem. 

The Knowledge and Bdief ofSeriptani 
Doctrine neceamry to TraeBaVgten. Bf» 
ing the anbstanoe of two Setmoaa'ddl- 
vmd befeie the Aaaomate Befbnwd Csi- 
gregation in Chillicothe^ Sept. Sft^ tSM^ 
and publiabed at their reqiMti B{y lo* 
aeph Chybangh, Ifioiater of the Q«Mi 
Chillicotbe, printed by Mm ftaibafii, 
pp. 16. 

An Aooount of tho Visit of OwmtiJ U 
Fayette to the United States Ihim bi■a^ 
rival in August, 1834^ to hk ■mhar>j(to 
on board the Brandywine fHgatab Rtim 
to Kraoce, nwepthm and rriiliwwl In 
La Orange. PhiWlelphia. 

A Treatiae on thePhyBcalaiid IfciBni 
Treatment of Children. Secoud edtttte 
By W. P. Dewee% M. D. 

The Supreme and Biehiam AnHmiliy 
of the Lord JeaoaChriat in B^gmoaJIrt- 
tera maintained; and the ttghtib VOm^ 
tiesu and Privilegea of the ChildreB of 
God, ealablished from the Sacred Sctip- 
tures, in opposition to tiie assumed power 
of Ecclesiasticks. Pittsbuigfa. 

Youth's Friend and Schobr^ Magaihie^ 
fi>r February, 1837. Bv Anwrioaa Bmidqr 
School Union. Phihidelphia. 

Elementa of Deaeriptive Geometiy, 
with their application to Sphetkal lYigo* 
nometrv, Spherical Proiectioo, and Warp- 
ed Suriaeea. By Charlea Daviess Profes- 
sor of Mathematica in the Militaiy Aca- 
denjv, Weat Point. 

The Aflfterican Journal of MuBatkWb 
No. 13. 

Letten on the General Strueture, Gd- 
▼emment, Lawa and Diadpline of the 
Churobj embracing aome RemmlB oa 
Creeds and Confeasiona of Nth t addveos* 
ed to the people of lii diarge. ^y David 
Elliott, A. M.; Paator of the cuamgalioi 
of Upper West Conococheague, Mmatt- 
buig, Pennay I vania. 

Lettera on the Atonement i flrot pah- 
iibed in the Christian Advoette. Qr 
Jacob J. Jaaeway^ D.B. PIdbddphte. 
Printed by Gfaok h RMtr. ISmo. fp 
853. 



Migtota Intdligam, m 

atligimi# 3|nttfligtnn. 

;ew of missions, under tv. Ttu cAkmm. 

»*>o>t& of MMMipiH, with but a mmBmN ia 

— "'ni« influance of tUt Htyhev, Bettel. Emoiaui, GMbmi, iX. 

:eo Ml, in a great rdn f iaa- ik-Dmt-nuh, yiT4i«*i, Bake>«-tnD-ini^ aad 

1 unong the pei^ile who in- one otber at a Mr. Jaum'a. 

rBlley. When tba fliat »a- Euror.-^Within the chaitend IMla 

here to rciidc^ ndr lhre« of HiMHippi on the Tdobuiha creek, in 

le intemperate iiaa of afdent Utitiide33 uid a h>l( about 50 railei oM 

huMt unJTerML Now that of the Hi«BMpfH river. IBIS, 

tide w entiielj ^nued bj John Smith, FOrmtr and Sypaintaid- 

igoritjr of the people t and mi »f Srtular CMiwm^ Joel Wood, 

abl^fei for the purpoae of Teacher, Zechaiiab Hmrei, Formtrt and ' 

uoluiown." tbeb wive*. 

B church, gathered here in Minsv.— Hinetj milci eatt of Etlio^ 

m, continuei to died ftith andaboutajnileawertaftheltDcwbicb 
" riit of a holy ' 



- "y « . . . . . 

erokeei and one black man, near Ooktibbeha ereek, one of the weri< 

oithT memben. to br M ibe embiandweoftheTcMiibCGUie«.- IBX. 

an ^fcem. Qiute recent^, Be*. CyniaRiiwabniy, JK*ri>Mrndnd 

inber, a Tounff woman, died Afmntmdmf tfthe CStdam Jl&tUtt, 

Ipy manner, leaTing an ex- Calnn Cudtman, Farwurt and f^tix 

cter, having given Dioatgra- wire*; Williaiti Hooper, Tkachtr/ AoM 

oee of pie^. Bumhim, Tauher. 

, who II now employed part Bitbil. — On the Natchez roa^ about 

la a native tracher, and wba 00 milei S. W, of Hayhew and neuly the 

name of John Huai at hii wme diiUnce S. S. E. of Elliot. 1821. 

nda b)^ a* a conMtent Stephen B. Hacomber, 7>acAer, Uri. 

<tb in tlie judgment of Ibe Meeombert Adio C. Gibbi, Tta^tr/ 

and in the eitimalion of hia Philena Tlialdier, T^tather. 

Apt to acquire knowledge, BxKxoa.— About 110 milea N. N. W. 

. hii talent of communicating of Mobile, and 130 S. 8. E. of Mayhew, 

f acceptable aa a speaker, within two mllea of the aoutbem limit of 

I apprehend the great doC' the Choctaw country. 1833. 

gospel clearly, and to be ca- Moaee Jewell, Mnilant Mjimmtarji, 

entingthemcleariytoothen. Mn,Jewel]4 David (j*g^Ttacher,tlat. 



. publick ipirit, in the work 8 S. B. of tbe Ulitaiy road. 1834. 
ng hii people, are worthy of Beverend Alfred Wright, JfiuJaaarjr, 
ndation." Hia, Wright; EUiah Bardwell, Ttachtt, 

SntuirA:.— " The experience Mn. Bardwell) Ehenezer BBji,fiinMr; 
;ar enables the committee to EHia Buer. 

a-nrx.— Near tbe Natchei 
, S5 milea W. of Mayhew, and 

nOE. S. E. ofEUiot. 1834. 

Rev. Cynia Byington, JICMfmaryv Da- 

nd Wrigbt, TteekF, Mil. Wi^i Mil. 
lovely branch of tbe churcli Banh C. MiMeley. 

uld here unfold ila fi9we>a Haciui.— Abont 90 N. W. of Gmbti, 
e iti fruit. aUll there are and a nule E. of Pearl fiver. 1834 
Dunteiacting cauaea. The Mr. Aneon Gle»i o»i g V — it T, Mia. Otot. 
■ arc the eaae, with which iod. 

Bquot i* brought to the doort BeKs^ivwHioK.— A ftw idlca from 
lie, and tbe cagtmrt with "* "*"' 

ge portion of UieiB ji«kl la 
> inflDence." 



£34 



Bdigums itUdUgewce. 



1 



ScHooK AT Mk. JuKOs'f. — About 85 
milei S. S. E. of Mayhew, on the old 
Mobile road. 1823. 

This school was without a teacher, at 
the time the Board iield its annual 
meeting. 

' **It IS believed that the discourage- 
mentSi which have jiathered around this 
mission in some periods of its histoiy* are 
diminishing. The advantages of educa- 
tion are more justly appreciated by a 
part of the people, than they were for- 
merly. The more thinkin^^ and intelli- 
fjtni perceive, that civilization or extinc- 
tion must be the lot of all the Indian 
tribes within our borders." 

F. The Cheroktet of the ^rkatueu, 

Cherokeesi who, from the year 1804 to 
the present time, have removed from 
their residence E. of the Missisnppi, to a 
tract of country on the N. bank of the 
Arkansaw river, between lonntude 94 
and 95 W. Popuhition about 5,000. The 
greater part Mthis emigration took place 
between 1816 and 1820. 

Dwi0ST. — Situated on the north ude 
of the Arkansas river, about three miles 
up Illinois creek, and very near latitude 
35. The Mississippi river, at the nearest 
point, is probably somewhat less than 300 
miles distant. 1820. 

Rev. Alfred Finney and Rev. Cephas 
Washburn, ABtuonariet, George L. Weed, 
M. D. Teacher and Phyticiartt Jacob 
Hitchcock, Steward^ James Orr, Farmer^ 
Samuel Wisner, and Asa Hitchcock, Mc- 
ehanic; and their wives; Ellen Stetson 
and Cjmthia Thrall, Teacher*, 

It is probable that a station has been 
formed oy Mr. Finney, at Spadrs Cbxek. 
^ •• Mr. John Drown, the father of Cathe- 
rine and David, continues to exhibit a 
bright example of piety and benevolence. 
He and some others are extremely desi- 
rous, that the offers of salvation should be 
embraced by the people generally. It 
would seem, however, that the prospects 
of this part of the tribe are not so good, 
as those of the Cherokees on the east of 
the Bfississippi ; and, so &r as experience 
in their case is entitled to consiueration, 
it would not seem desirable that the In- 
dians should be removed from the land 
of their fathers." 

ri. The 0$ag€9. 

A tribe of Indians in the Arkansas and 
Missouri Territories. Population about 
8,000. Missions at Union, Hopefield, 
Harmony, and Neosho. 

Ujiiov.— Among the Osages of the Ar- 
kansas, on the west bank of Grand river, 
about 25 miles north of its entrance into 
the Arkansas. Commenced in 1820. 

Rev. WiUiam F. VaiU, Mitnenary, Mrs. 
VaiUi Marcus Palmer, /'Ay tidan one/ jU- 



ceneed Preacher^ Mn. Pahnert Jc 
Spaulding, Teacher; Stephen '. 
Farmer^ wxn. Fuller; Abraham Re 
and Alexander Woodruff, Mechead 
their wives i George Requa and, i 
Douglass, AteUUmi9f Mrs. Requa. 

HopipixLD. — ^About three mile 
Union. 1822. 

Rev. William B. Mon tg o m er y, Jl 
aryg Wm. C. Requa, ^Mtietam^ Mrs. \ 

HiavoirT. — .Ajnong the Oeages 
Missouri, on the north bank of the 
de Cein, about six nulea above ; 
trance into the Osage river, and 
eighty miles southwest of Fort Oasj 

Rev. Nathaniel B. Dodge, Jlfisa 
Mrs. Dodge; Amasa Jones^ X 
Preacher^ Mrs. Jones; Otis Sp 
Farmer, Mrs. Sprague; Miss W( 
and Miss Etris. 

NiosHo. — On a river of that name 
80 miles southwest of Harmony. 1 

Rev. Benton Pixley, MieeUnari 
Pixley; Samuel B. Bright, Farwm 
Bright 

VIL Indiant in JVWe Tark, 

The remains of the Six Nations, 
tions at Tuscarora, Seneca and 
raugus, 

Tu8CAROBA.^About four miles i 
Lewistown, Niagara county. Tnuu 
to the U. F. M. S. in 1821 ; establisl 
the New York Missionary Society 
20 years before. 

Rev. Joseph Lane, Mittionary 
Mrs. Lane, have an appointment f< 
station. 

Seheca. — About four or five mile! 
Buffalo, near the oullet of Lake 1 
Commenced by tlie New York Mi« 
in 1811; transferred in 1821. 

Rev. Thomson S. Harris, Jilitn 
Mrs. Harris; Oilman Clark, and I 
Bradley, ^asistanu, Mrs. Clark ; Mia 
derson, and Miss Selden. 

Cataraugus. — A few miles east 
shore of Lake Erie, and about SO 
from Biifralo. 1822. 

Wm. A. Thayer, Teacher, Mi-s, T 

VIII, Indiant in the Michigan Ter 

Mackinaw. — In the Michigan T 
ry, on the island of Michilimaclt 
1823. 

Rev. William M. Ferry, Jliitti 
Mrs. Ferry ; John S. Hudson and : 
Heydenburk, Mrittants, Mrs. U\ 
Eunice Osmar, Elizabeth M*Farlan( 
Delia Cook. 

IX, Indians in OJdo, 

BlAxncEE. — On a river of that 
near Fort Meigs, Wood county. 

Isaac Van Tassel, IJcensed Pn 
Mrs. Van Tassel; Mr. Sacket, F 
Mrs. Sacket. 



BtUgious Mdligence. 



SS5 



X. Bdyti. 
I. — Among the coloured people 
1 removed from the United States, 
mission was instituted by the U. 
. in 1824^ and the Rey. B. F. 

and Rev. William G. Penington, 
i men, were employed as mis- 
I. The former was recalled, a 
ia half since; and the latter, we 

is now in this country. Mr. P. 
m1 himself and family by his own 



Hemark* on the Staiioru, Jrom 
I to the otte latt named inclueive, 

urvey of these stations, with one 
xceptions, is founded on a docu* 
»eived from the U.F. M.S. last 
. Some changes may have since 
]y of which we have not been ap- 
-The number of children in sevc- 
he schools, may be estimated as 
— At Union, 35; Harmony, 25; 
40; Cataraugus, 43; Mackinaw, 
lumee, 31. Among the Tuscaro* 
church of 17 members. Future 
of these stations may be expected 
linfmore ample intelligence re- 
f them. 



/ 



r/. The SantHnch ItiantU. 



up of islands in thePacifick Ocean, 
1 18 deg. 55 and 20 deg. 20 north 
, and 154 deg. 55 and xSo^ 15 west 
le from Greenwich. They are 
d in a direction WJ^.M'.and E.S. 
raii* [Owhyee] being the south- 
island. 

ms at Honoruru, Waimea, Lahai« 
nia, Waiakea (now Byron's Bay,) 
ivaroa. 
muAu. — On the island of Oahu. 

Hiram Bingham, Miationanfy Eli- 
omis, Printer^ Abraham Blatche- 
D. Phtftician ; and their wives ; 
bamberlain. Superintendent of Se* 
oncemt, 

»▲.— On the island of Tauai. 1820. 
lel Whitney, Licensed Preacher^ 
hitney ; Samuel Ruggles, Teacher 
ieehitt, Mrs. Ruggles. 
uiA.— On the island of Maui. 1823. 
William Richards, Mitrionary^ 
idiards; Stephen Pupuhi, JSTaHve 
il. 

DA. — On the western side of Ha- 
L834. 

Asa Thurston and Rev. Artemas 
, JHiitionarie; and their wives. 
cai, or Braoif's Bat. — On the 
ittem side of Hawaii. 1824. 
>h Goodrich, IJceneed Preacher, 
xxiricb, John Honorii, JSTative M' 



Kaataboa.— Sixteen miletfouth ofKu* 
nuu 1834. 

Rev. James Ely, Mitdemary'^ Mn«Ely % 
Thomas Hopu, ^aiUve Jhnetoni, 

The Rev. Charles 8. Stewart, noted in 
the last survey in connexion with the sta- 
tion at Lahaina, found it necessary to re* 
turn to his native land, in the course of 
the last year, on account of the danger- 
ous illness of bis wife. Since his arrival 
in this country, he has been employed io 
visiting different parts of the country, for 
the purpose of describing in publickmeet* 
injp, the state and progress of the Sand- 
wich Island misnon. — During the fourteen 
months previous to March last, nearly 
eighty thousand tracts were issued from 
the mission press, amounting to 1,367,000 
pages.— A selection of other intereiiAng 
facts in relation to this missioiv will* be 
found in the retrospective view of the 
year, at the end of this survey. 

XII. Malta. 

An island in the Mediterranean, 20 
miles long, 12 broad, and 60 in circum- 
ference. It is about 50 miles fhmi Sicily. 
On this island, anciently called Melila,th« 
Apostle Paul was shipwrecked, while on 
his way to Rome. Commenced in 1821. 

Rev. Daniel Temple, Munonaryj Mrs. 
Temple; Rev. Eli Smith, Msoionanfi 
Homan Hallock, Printer, 

The Printing Establishment at this sta- 
tion has two presses in operation. Nearly 
three miUion* and a Aol/'cSr pages of impor- 
tant religious matter, nave been issued, in 
the space of four years. 

XIJI. Stfria. 

Syria is said, by writers on geography, 
to be the whole space lying between Alez- 
andretta or Scanoeroon on the north, and 
Gaza, on the borders of the Arabian de- 
sert ; and is bounded S. £. and S. by the 
desert of Arabia, and W. by the Mediter- 
ranean. Its noith-eastem and eastern li- 
mits are not well defined. In this lai^r 
sense it includes Palestine. 

Bbtroot. — A sea-port town, at the foot 
of Mount Lebanon, in the Pashallic of 
Acre. E. long. 35 deg. 55, N. lat. 33 deg. 
49. Population not less than 5000. 

Rev. William Goodell, and Rev. 
Bird, Minionariet, and their wives. 

'*Tbe principal employment of the 
misnonaries is still the acquisition of lan- 
guages, and the preparation of helps ibr 
niture labourers. Conversations are held, 
books are distributed, a Christian example 
is set forth, and schools are oiganixed; 
and while these means of usefufneas are 
in operation, a knowledge of the countiy 
is obtained, avenues for the tranaoussMm 
of evangelical infiuence »« dae»n«nA« 



SM 



Bdigumi hddl^ieue. 



ind hkheff quaUficttioiw for inteicoune 

with aU clanes of people are ioii|^'* 

Another part or this number will ooii« 
tsin some important fiicta retpecting this 
branoh of the Mediterranean Miaaion. 

X/F. PaleiHne^ or the Soly Land, 

Including all the territory andently 
ponetsed by the Israelites. 

jBrniTSALxx. — ^The capital of Palestine. 
Popuktion estimated at from 15,000 to 
20,000. 

The ReT. Jonas King, who had engaged 
in this mission for a limited time, took an 
affectionate leave of his brethren in Sep- 
tember, l^t the time of his engagement 
haying expired. He did not depart from 
Asistlioweyef, till the last summer. The 
Rev. Plinv Fisk, who, with Mr. King, was 
noted in the last surrey in connexion with 
this station, died at Beyroot, on the 23d 
of October, 1825, (^atly lamented by his 
brethren, and by the churches of this 
country. Jerusalem is not now the rest- 
dence of any Protestant missionary. 

The Rev. Elnathan Gridley and the 
Rev. Josiah Brewer, Mitnonatie; are now 
on their way to this field of missionary en- 
terprise, 

XV, Spanith America. 

The Rev. Thcophilus Parvin went to 
Buenos Ayres, in the summer of 1823, 
under the patronage of the Board, where 
he still remains. His connexion with the 
Board, however, has been dissolved, on 
account of the oeculiar circumstances of 
that country, wnich render it expedient, 
that Mr. Parvin should labour unconnect- 
ed with any missionary society. He has 
lately been made a Professor in the Uni- 
versity of Buenos Ayres. 

The Rev. John C. Brigham has com- 
pleted his exploring tour under the pa- 
tronage of the Board. He crossed the 
continent from Buenos Ayres to Chili. — 
From thence he proceeded to Pern, Co- 
lombia, and Mexico, and returned to the 
United States in the early part of last 
year. His report of the religious state 
of the southern republicks was insert- 
ed in the Missionary Herald for Octo- 
ber and November, and some part of 
his journal appeared in previous num- 
bers. A particular account of his whole 
toqr is preparing for publication in a se« 
palate volume. — Mr. Brigham, since his 
fetum, has been made Assistant Secre* 
tary to the American Bible Sodety. 

XYL Jljrica, 

<* At the last annual meeting of the 
Board, it was recommended to the Pru- 
dential Committee to establish a mission 
hi AfHca, as toon as they shall find it 



pracdcable. In complianoe wi 
commendation, the late Mr. 8e 
his embarking for the cokmy c 
was re<}uested to make proper 
respectmg the neigfabouriiood < 
lony, as a field for misaonary la 
cheerfully consented to do ao ; 1 
timely death, on the hcmewaix 
deprived the Committee of an 
tion which he might have obta 
open correspond^ice, however 
Dr. Blumhardt, of Basle, S« 
and Mr. AshmuOf of the colony, 
through our hands ; and from I 
pears that a mission mig^t im 
be established in the Bassa coui 
encoura^ng prospects, ifpropi 
fied missionaries were at hand. 
"Asa residence on the Afric 
so fatal to white men. Provide) 
seem to indicate, that descendar 
cans should be sought, who I 
exposed to the damps of a wan 
and who would probably live t( 
naiy age of man, if sent as missi 
the land of their ancestors, 
have been made in the southc 
with reference to this subject ; 
rently the greatest obstacle in t 
sending black men, who woul( 
petent to the work, is the want 
and approved method of imf 
them a suitable education. Th 
some of our most enlightened ci 
intent upon the claims of th 
race ; and we may expect that 
bless their investigations, and th 
and open wide channels for the 
cation of his own goodness, thi 
instrumentality of his servants.' 



Foreign Mittion Schoot 

This school, situated in Com 
has been suspended by the Bo; 
reasons for this measure, u hich 
some time under consideratior 
g^ven in a subsequent part of thi 

Greek Tovths, 

Fileven Greek youths have 1 
to the United States, by the m 
of the Board, and, under its ] 
are pursuing their studies, prep 
future usefulness among their 
men. Two are now members ol 
lege; three of Amhentt Collej 
are in the Academy at Amherst 
in the Academy at Monson, Ma 

The Mitrionary Herald 

«• The Missionary Herald is th< 
of the American Board of Comi 
for Foreign Missions; is put 
terms which they regard as just 



Bdigumt IiUeUigeiice, 



S87 



nd the profit! of the work go for 
tnefit of the ncred cMiie. R is a 
[y publication. Twelve numbers 
a volume containing 400 p*jB^ 
is sold for one dollar and a haUT 
le pnmanf desij^ of the Herald is 
laint the Christian community with 
oceedings of the Board and its Mis- 
es. These proceedings, whether 
trence to our own population, to 
tm or Western Asia, to Western or 
^m America, or to the Islands of 
IS, are generally described in a con- 
l series, by means of letters, jour- 
l>stracts, or reports. There are, 
xnnpendious views of the more in- 
ng religious and missionary intelfi- 
not specially connected with the 
OS of the Board ; of the character, 
ITS, and customs of the various na* 
which are the proper obiects of fo- 
missions; and, in general, of what- 
laa a £rect bearing on the cause of 
ian benevolence. And, finallv, the 
ly numbers contain a particuuur ac- 
edgroent of all donations msde in 
'of the missions under the care of 
3ard. 

work like this, is essential to the 
. Depending on public charity, the 
could not prosper without some 
means of making known readily its 
irises, successes and wants. It must 
I publication which shall be wholly 
its control, issued at stated andfre- 
ty recurring periods, and sent to 
rous districts of country. Only then 
'M influence be strong, regular and 
live. 

he Herald is no expense to the Board, 
than this, it has been a source of re- 
: ; and, if subscripUons are well paid, 
e so hereafter. 

; also lessens other expenses. It les- 
expenses for agtncie; Wherever 
[erald is taken, the visits of agents 
be less frequent and protracted, than 
otherwise must be ; for the Herald 
ily performs a part of their work it- 
at prepares the way, beyond almost 
ther means, for their introduction 
locess. It also lessens expenses for 
ng. Reports, tracts, sermons, &c 
leed to be published, from time to 
even while the Herald has a large 
rip6on ; but were the circulation of 
Eeiald to be limited, the expend!- 
lor such publications must be pro- 
mbly augmented, or the misnonarj 
Hona of the Board be abridged.— 
Ofver, it saves much expense of Ume 
lAsur to the Executive of the Board. 
dj it appears quite probable, that in 
Ku^ and sustaining the missionary 
I at present in the land, the Herald 
feected a saving to the genenl cause 



of tome thousands of dollars. And this, 
it is thought, should be taken into the 
account, in estimating the real profits of 
the work. 

^ Such being the value of the Mission- 
ary Herald as an agent of the Board, the 
Prudential Comnuttee respectfully, yet 
eamestljf request their friends and patrons 
to lend it their aid. In the judgment of 
many respected fUends of the cause, not 
a little depends on its extended circula- 
tion." 

SumcAaT. 

Number of stations occupied, 43 

Preachers, from this country, 38 

Male Missionaries and Assistants, 89 
Female Asnstanta, including the 

wives of the Missionaries, 93-181 

Native Preachers, 2 

Other Native Assistants, 18 

Churches oi^ganized at the stations, 25 
Native members of these Churches, 

upwards of 200 

Schools, about 200 

Scholars, about 20,000 



Death of Mrs. Judson, 

The death of this extraordinarj 
woman, who possessed the courage 
of a heroine, the devotion of a saint, 
and the faith and patience of a mar- 
tyr, will cause erief to all the friends 
of missions. She died in Burmah 
on the 24th or 25th of October last 
— '* in a strange place," says the let- 
ter which communicates the infor- 
mation of her death — ^* far, far from 
all those who would have felt it 
their greatest consolation to have 
watched her sickness." Her hus- 
band. Dr. Judson, was absent on n 
journey to Ava, as interpreter to 
the British commissioners to the 
Burman emperor — We deeply sym- 
pathize in his affliction. Mrs. Jud- 
son, however, appears to have had 
the attendance of a kind and skil- 
ful physician. But what was infi- 
nitely net'ter, the Great Physician, 
both of body and soul, was doubt- 
less with her. He has, in his holy 
sovereignty, called her to himself— 
eardi has lost and HemNQuVMA ^voi- 
ed an inhabitanl. TVv\% \% ^vcv^ ^^ 



2S8 Vkw nf FubKA J^gmrs. llATf 

those dispensations which tries the journed^ to meet in the First Presbj* 

faith of Christians — terian churchy in the city of Phib- 

«• God is hiB own interpreter^ delphia, on the third Thnrsday, the 

And he wUl make it plain." 17th day, of the present month, at 

^ eleven o'ciotk» AjSf - — ^To be opened 

* with a sermon by the Moderatioref 

Ths General Assembly of the last year, the Rev. Dn M'Attl^, ef 

Presbtterian Church stands ad- New York« 



The Treoiurer of the TruMteet of the General Auemhty of the Pre»bsftefiam Ckmtk 
acknvwledget the receipt of the following wwne for their Theological Semimarf if 
Princeton^ (A*. J,) during the month ofJipril Uut, viz. 

Of Key. John W. Scott, a quarter's rent, for the Contingent Fund, - - gST 50 

or Rev. B. Iloif, Bridgeton, N. J., for do. - - - - - 8 00 

Of Rev. Charles W. Nassau, Norriatown, for do. - - . ' . 3 50 

Of Bey. Samuel Lawrence, Greenwich, fordo. - - - .6 00 

Amount received for the Contingent Fund glQS 00 
Of do. from the Female Cent Society of Bridgeton, N. J., for the Students' 
Fund 13 50 



Of Rev. Thomas J. Biggs, on account of his subscription for the professorriiip 



I. Biggs, 
by the < 



to be endowed by the Synod of PhiUdelphia 




mt\si of l^uDItch ^ffatr^. 



KUROPE. 

The information which has reached us from Europe during the last month, is not 
witliout a degree of interest. 

BarTAisr. — ^London papers to the 24th, and Liverpool to the 26th of March, con* 
tain the most recent advices which we have seen from Britain. On the 1st of that 
month Mr. Canning had so far recovered from his late severe indisposition, as to be 
able to brinp^ the long-talked-of subject of the com laws before parliament. The de- 
bate was adjourned to the 8th of March, when it was again called up by the chancel- 
lor of the exchequer: an amendment was proposed to tne proposition which contain- 
ed the radical principle of hispUin ; sind, after a warm debate it was negatived, and the 
proportion as reported was adopted. Several resolutions remained to be discuased, 
which it was expected would be ultimately adopted, as reported by ministers, with 
little if any amendment. The chancellor of the exchequer had deferred opening his 
budget till after the Easter holidays. On the 5th and 6th of March, the subject of 
Catholick emancipation was ably and eloquently discussed in the house of commons, 
on a motion, in favour of enuincipation, by Sir Francis Burdett. We have read the 
speech of the master of the rolls against the motion, and the speeches of Sir W. Plun- 
ket and Mr. Canning in its favour. The motion was lost by a majority of only four — 
For the motion 272, against it 276. Had it passed the commons, there is no doubt it 
woukl have been negatived in tlie house of lords. When information of the termina- 
tion of this business in Parliament reached Ireland, it produced what the English pa- 
ragraphista call a great oemation^ but no publick disturbances ensued. Lord Liver- 
pool was in a state of convalescence, but it was thought probable that he would never 
again appear in publick life. The appointment of Mr. Canning as prime minister, is 
said, in the Liteiary Gazette, to be the most popular statement of the day. The house 
of commons was to adjourn for the Easter recess, from the 12th to the 30th of April. 
It appears that from the 3d to the 8th of March, there had been a most unusual fiul of 
.snow in Scotland. Many lives were lost, and travelling for several days was almost 






IMTi Vkm if FiMA JIgidn. S59 



dM^ 'Tht Mfebnted Mr. Giflbfd, the originttor of the Britiib Quarter^ Renew, 
•ad ibr » haf; time itieditof^' £ed fai Loodooy KNiie tame In li«rch» in the 70th year 
of hisi^ge. 

FkASCB.— The Marquii de Laplace^ the moat eminent mathematicitn and astrono- 
■wr of the afe* a peer of Aanee, and atiU more ^atingiuahed aa the author of the 
Mpamllded work entitled Mtcmdgue CdeHe^ ^ed in Paria on the 5th of March.— In 
Ji^Qr meatt a Jounial of Sdenee and the tiaefol Artii in the Arabick huguaffe^ ia to 
co mmene e in Paria, fn the benefit of the eaat» and to be continued monthly. It ia 
expectied that it will jBfreatly contribute to the dTilixation of the Mahomedan nationa. 
A etatiatical account in the Cmfrier Frangms 8tatea» that, ezeluaiTc of official papera 
or ^ol/ ioumaliy there were iiaued in France in 1825, no leas than 128 miUioni^ 10 
thoaaanQ^ 483 publicationa; and that the number for 1826, ia one-fifth greater than 
ffaet ibr 1335. It ia aaid that thb increaaed and increaaing demand for booka^ ia what 
hem fiDed the goremment with alarm, and occasioned the measure for reatriciing the 
libeitf of the preas. Thia mMure, it appeara br the laat accounts, haa been cazried, 
after omdi and ardent oppoaition, throurfa both the l^dati?e chambers.— *FnuiCe 
is tnuiqml— Our nation'a mend. General La Fayette, aeema to be guning in popu- 



. Bnuor jam PomTuaAL.— It does not aeem probable that ofen war will soon take pUuse 
between tiiese powers. Spain is indeed nuaing a large nnlitaiy corps, to be denomi- 
Mtodtke JB^jfoot/ Vobmieert/ but the Porturuese insurgents, when thejpaaa into 



toaln^ are disanned, and their arms delirered up to the Portuguese government. — 
Tl uafa a lately been done in the case of two whole dirisions of insurgents, amounting 
Id 3000 men. Pressed as they were by the Portuguese troops, they were not alkmed 
la paaa the fitmtiers of Portugal, till diey had laid down their aims on the Portuguese 
tMW lo ty ; dieae arms were ordered by the Spanish goremment to be immediatehr 
d di t cttd up to the Port|i|;uese authorities. We belleye the civil war in Portagal u 
aasily, if not quite terminated. Aa to Spain, we pretend not even to conjecture 
ite abe will do next. 

OnvAXT AK9 Paussia.— We think it probable that within the teiritoriea of both 
ttese powers^ a religious convulsion is not far distant. The reigning Pope wishes to 
hnag back the Catholick church to what it waa three centuriea since ; but the Catho- 
Usin Germany and Sileria wish, on the other hand, for important addiUmuil refarwu. 
We pretend not to foretel the issue of this disagreement between the head and 
Hm members of the Catholick body ; but we think a convulsion, more or less severe, 
viDbe the consequence : and we doubt not that the way is preparing for the deatruc- 
lin of <* The man of rin." 

l^mxxT AMit GmisGx. — The conflict between the Turks and Greeka is, we think, 
(knrnig 6st to a close— not becauae either party, if left to itself, is prepared or dis- 
Mied to yield to the other ; but because the greai powertf as they are called, aeem 
aetKB^Uied to put an end to the strife. The last note delivered by the Russian minis- 
tvto the Bds Kffendi, concludes in the following decisive tone : — " The Porte would 
tecire itaeUi if it believed that the emperor Nicholas would view with indifference 
the oterminadon of a people professing the same religion with himaelf." In the 
Man time^ the accounta aa usual, are contradictoiy, in regard to what ia taking place 
Be itself. On one aide the Greeksare represented aa highly succeasful in their 
operattona ; and on the other, it ia aaid, that the Turlu, under Beachid Pa- 
endrdy defeated a corpa of 6000 Greeks, who were marching to the relief of 



lraarA.r-It appeara thatdifferencea have arisen between the Rusnan generals, Ter- 
flloff end Pawewitch, relative to the employment of the troopa which they command 

■t the Persiana. What effect thia will have on the state of the war we know not. 

emperor^a aid de camp haa been aent to endeavour to compose the difference. 



neea 



ASIA. 

T^ fMj deatnictive firea oocuned in Canton in the montha of October and No- 
iwiber M^ and eonsumed, in all, more than a thousand houses— No American or 
BhAUi pwitiefty waa destroyed — A iteety of commerce and friendship was concluded 
t^mf.helt De t w eeu his Britannick Majesty and the King of Siam. Britun adpulatea 
teimAm no coc iuachm e nt whatever on the Siameae territory, and the King of Siam 
itodefiver up all ChriaUan and other captivea. A cordial intercourse ia to be 
' be twee n the two countries. It ia said in one of the VuXl/mdotk'^^i^Ta ^Sdax 




MO Viem cf PMbiusk Jigkin. 

the iMt detpatclid/rom Bengil repretent all parts of tbe Btitkb Eaib indm tcRtor 
a» being in the nnwt aatiMictoiy itate— A eeooiid payment of tven^-thfe^ and aUr 
laot of nipeet had been received at C ak u tt ay from the Biirmeae gofcnwOTt, 

AFRICA. 

Becent account! from liberia represent the Ameikan oolonf theteaaimavciy 
proaperoui state. New temtoiyhaa been peaieeabhraoqinredi the sha«tnd«iaQBS^ 
pleteljr broken iip» on the whole line of coast whldli bounds tlMt teS ikow Oft thi 
ocean, and health, industiy, good mocal% and a regard to religioii, ^stiopMthepa* 
pohuion of the colony. 

AMERICA. 

B&isn AMU Bdivos ATmas.— It appears that a seTere action has at Ioi^kUi takta 

Klace between the opposing armies or these powers in the proTiftce of Bio CSssade. 
oooonred on the 3oth of Febnuoy. The Brazifian army, it is said, iwmbered IflyOOO 
men, and that of Buenos Ayres 80(x>--the latter had the superiority in cavdnp. Ths 
contest was long and bloody, and the loss of each amy about equal ; in all SOOO mta, 
killed and wounded. The battle lasted without intermission, tul night separated thi 
combatants. The offidal report of the Brazilian army, claims for that aimy the ^^etMTs 
but it remains wholly uncertain whether the actual advantage b on the side ef fie 
Unperiafists^ or the Bepoblicans. 

Coi0xaiA.-*The political affairs of this extensive republick appear, ftiMafhekit 
accounts to be in a very unsettled and unprppitious state. It is again ooyfldsstilf 
stated, that Bolivar is aiming at the Dictatonihip ; and he and Generd BantandfersM 
mad to be in open and avowed hosdlity with each other. We shall not bdieve ttit 
thie liberator has proved recreant to toe cause of freedom, till we are compcljadto 
do so by better evidence than we have yet seen. But we fear it Is ttne^ tbKwii 
unable to compose the dilTerences of his unhappy countrymen; and we ave 
while we look to the probable consequences of tne present disorders. 

Msxico.— In this republick also, civil dissentions, of a very serious 
arisen* Several friars have been arrested for a conspiracy against the _ 
and one, by the name of .^remu, has been condemned to be shot. Two foraier Spsdi^ 

Senerals, supposed to be parties to the conspiracy, have been seised aiid nortBnaqr 
ifferent fortresses ; and this event has excited much feeling in the Mddcan '^jlpm 
where those generals have many influential friends. In anotner quarter, a rmncHt 
of soldiers has revolted, opened prisons, and armed the prisoners, arrested me gs- 
vemor, and created a junta of their own. It was supposed that their object Wsfrls 
overthrow the government, and to raise a son of Iturbide to the throne. This revolLilt 
was supposed, the existing government could easily quell. It was believed tbtttUit 
congress of Tacubaya would not be able to commence its sessions in all the moirth tf 
Ifarcb, on account of some delay in the Mexican House of Representatives. 

Uhitu) Statxs. — When we consider, in contrast with what we have stated aboviw 
the present peaceful and happy state of our own country — when we reriew its histmy 
from Uie period of its revolution to tlie present hour, we may see that to preserve 
order in a revolution, and to settle those who have been engaged in it in peace and qidet' 
ness under free forms of government, is much easier when freedom has been their 
biKhright and long possession, than when the elements of a revolution that are to be 
moulded into republicans, have been born in bondage, and have passed a great psit 
of their lives under the most despotick rule. Let us bless God ror our happy aBdt* 
roent, and let us sympathize with, and pray for those, who must be taught tne nature 
and proper use of their civil rights and privileges, by a tedious discipline in the school 
of adverrity^of controversy and discoid, perhaps of bloodshed and civil war. 



Erraium in our iatt dumber. 
In psge 179, 3d col., 6th -line from top, for Vxbitas resd Clxxicvs. 



THE 



uiBasvaiiif Awwmu^^m 



JUNE, 1827. 



Atlt0tott$ tfommtttitcadon^* 



IKS ON THE SHORTER OATlfi- 
M OF THE WESTMINSTER AS- 
SLY OF DIVINES — ^ADDRESSED 
OUTH. 

UtCTVHl xxvin. 

next subject of discussion is 
«d in the 29th answer of our 
BOH, and is thus expressed-* 
t are made partakers of the 
ition, purchased by Christ, by 
ctnal application of it to us, 
Holy Spirit" 

tdemption in this answer, we 
inderstand the whole of that 
m which is revealed and ex- 

in the Gospel. This redemp- 
laid to be purchased^ because, 
brought ourselves into a state 
lage and slavery, we could not 
lomed but at a great price, 
iviour himself declared, that 
le *' to give his life a ransom 
ly." Now, a ransom, you know, 
ng else than the price which 
for the liberty of a captive or 
; — **Ye were not redeemed 
he apostle Peter) with cor- 
» things as silver and gold — 
h the precious blood of Christ, 
i lamb without blemish and 
; spot" 
lis redemption we are, in the 

before us, said to bk made 
trs : — ^That is, we do not make 
es partakers, because, in our- 

we are altogether without 
li as the apostle affirms, and 
averse to spiritual good—" Ye 
it come to me that ye might 

K— /7A Mr, 



have life^* said the Savtoar. Re* 
demptioD, therefore, is applied to as 
by the Divine agency— Not that we 
are treated as machines, bat dealt 
with, as we shall see» accordiog to 
that rational nature, whidi Ood haa 
pven us ; yet so that the applicatioo 
IS truly of Him. In this applicatioit, 
the^ benefits of rc^demptloo, in all 
their extent, are conferred opon as, 
and made our own, by way otfree 

You will be careful to observe, 
that it is as necessary to oar salva- 
tion that redemption should be of* 
plied, as that it should be picreAasttf, 
or procured. As medicines will not 
heal us, nor clothes warm us, nor 
food sustain us, unless they are used ; 
so neither will all that Christ has 
done or prepared for us, be of the 
least avail, Sinless it is applied: 
— Nay, it will not only do us no 
good, but it will sink us to an infi« 
nitely deeper condemnation, by our 
rejection of it 

This application of redemption 
must be qfeciuoL It must produce 
the effect of opening the eyes of sin- 
ners, and of turning them from dark- 
ness to liftht, and from the power of 
Satan to God. There is an outward 
application, or exhibition rather, of 
the benefits of redemption, in Chris- 
tian baptism, which is not effectual: 
that is, it is not neeessert/y and tmi. 
formiu so. Divine and saving grace 
may le imparted in baptiam, as it 
may at any other tHne« Ib&l ^^^vnIftL 
it unscriptttra\, mud \)««&XxtiSX^ dAsa^- 

2H 



i 



242 



Ltcturts on the Shorter Catechism. 



JuiBf 



geroas, to say that it is tdufays a 
concomitant of that ordinance. Si- 
mon Magus was baptized, and yet 
we have no reason to think that there 
was ever a moment in which he ceased 
to be ** in the ^H of bitterness and In 
the bond of iniquity ^— unless he ex- 
ercised true repentance after he was 
baptized. Baptismal regeneration, 
it IS to be feared, has often proved a 
dangerous and fatal reliance^ to those 
who have built their hopes upon it^ 

The application of redemption is 
the office and work of the Holy Spirit; 
the third person of the adorable Tri- 
nity, called the Holy Spirit, because 
he is essentially holy ; and because 
all his worics and operations are of a 
like nature or character with him- 
self. Whatever holiness is ever found 
in the human heart, is the effect of 
the operations of the Holjr Spirit It 
is to be remembered, that in the great 
work of our redemption, the tiiree 
peVsons in the sacreu Trinitr, are all 
and equally concerned. Redemption 
is ordained by tlie Father, purchased 
by the Son, and applied by the Spi' 
nt 

The Holy Spirit is called, in the 
anawer before us, his Spirit (that is, 
the Spirit of Christ,) because he is 
sent for this work more immediately 
by Christ, and through his medi- 
ation, and as the fniit of his pur- 
chase. It is expedient for you (said 
the Saviour) that I go away ; for, if I 
go not away, the Comforter will not 
come unto you ; but, if I depart, I 
will send him unto you" — and after- 
ward-7-" lie shall glorify me, for he 
shall receive of mine, and shall show 
it unto you." Here it also appears, 
that in tJie application of redemption 
by the Holy Spirit, he makes use of 
the trutlis of tiie written word. These 
truths, in the reading and preaching 
of the word, he effectually shows to 
the souUso as to obtain its cordial ap- 
probation of them : and hence yon see 
both our obligation and encourage- 
ment, to attemi diligently and care- 
fully to the word of Uod, and to 
pray for his blessed Spirit, to give it 
a saving applicatioB to our hearts.— ^ 
This leada os to consider the next 



question and answer in the Caie- 
chism. 

* Q. How doth the Spirit anly 
to us the redemption purchuea qr 
Christ? A. Bj working faith in IS| 
and thereby uniting as to Chriil in 
our effectoal calling.* Ln oar vatar 
ral state, we are all connected, witk. 
our first covenant head, Adnoi» and 
subjected, with him, to the penaKf 
of the broken covenant of workti. 
When we are interested, anrin^ji 
in the redemption of Christ, itb dons 
by taking us away from our fofw 
covenant state, and bringing u 
under the covenant of gmce^ ia 
which the Saviour, as our new cove* 
nant head, has completely antweiel 
all the demands of tne old broken cfK 
venant, in behalf of all his people 
Now, this is done by *" uniting m$^ 
Christr^ as the Catechism expresM 
it ; uniting us to Christ the aeosnl 
Adam, who repairs and restores Abi 
ruins of the first This union witk 
Christ does, as it were, idontifr 
the soul of every believer win • 
him; so that, in virtoe of this 
union, the believer is entitled li: 
all that Christ has merited, pu^ 
chased, and promised. Thia nniat 
is no technical fiction of theology. It 
is often mentioned and dwelt on in 
Scripture, in the roost intereMug 
manner. The blessed Redeemer hio^ 
self, appeared to dwell on it with de- 
light, in his last intercessory prajen 
— to dwell with delight on the OB0- 
ness of himself and his redeemod 
people. It is compared in ScriiH 
ture, to the union between husband 
and wife, between the head and the 
members, between the root and the 
branches, between the foundation 
and the superstructure. 

llie bond of this union on our part 
is faith. Faith is that grace which 
instrumeotalty links the believiiM^ 
soul to the Saviour; or ingrafts it 
into him ; or makes it a part of his 
mystical body. This faith is wrought 
in the soul by the Holy Spirit— 4t is 
a grace of his production. " By 
grace are ye saved through ikitn. 
and that not of yourselves — it is the 
g^fl of God." In a word, then, the 



-t 



Ltdures an the StuvtUr CiotocAum. SIAS 

f ibis union are th€ 8pirUt and inattention^we sometimes slide 

stfs party and/oM on oar intoitimperceptibly* Such an abase 

ith these concur in their or- I suspect has Deen»and now is, prac- 

iristy in the language of the tised br a great man j« on the folioif- 

P^ul» FIRST apptmends the ine undoubted truths, namelj : that 

}j his Spirit, and the sinner eflKctual calling, or ^e conToraion, 

prehenas Christ by faith. It (which is the same thing) is a great 

mat work of our effechui work;— thatamarvellougchangethen 

that the Spirit thus appro- takes place in the mind ^— that^there 

>r takes an effectual hola on are cases in which it takes ptaee 

I of a sinner, unites it to suddenlr, and almost miraculoosiT ; 

and thus insures its salva- — that .these cases happen frequently 

liis introduces th^ nextques- at those seasons which are called re- 

luBwer in the Catechism. Tivals of religion, when almost ererj 

(¥nat is effectual calling ? bodj is affected, and conrerts are 

^tual calling is the work of wonderfully multiplied. AJl these I 

^rit, whereby convincing us firmly believe to be truths— ^impor- 

lin and misery, enlightening tant truths ; and God forbid that I 

Is in the knowledge of Christ; should say a word to disparage them* 

owing our wills, be doth per- But I really think they are often 

id enable us to embrace Je- abused, and that imperceptibly, by 

ist, freely offered to us in the those that hold them. Pious people 

' The two last questions and themselves ipay, perhaps, abuse them ; 

, which we have just consi- so as not to look for the conversion 

re but preparatory and intro- of their children, but in some strik- 

to tiiis. In that which is now ing manner, or at some remarkable 

00, my dear youth, you have season of Uie outpouring of tlie Spirit 

mi of that great inward work, And if this be so, youth who have re- 

Bvst take place in each of ceived a Christian education, and 

arts, if you ever enter the have some seriousness of mind, with- 

I of Heaven. This answer, out practical piety, are much more 

e, is infinitely important to likely to practise this abuse— I be- 

-not one in the system can lieve they do practise it among our- 

lared with it, in practical in- selves. 'Iney think that re{|;eneration 

9 those of you who are think- is such a marvellous change, and 

\ some seriousness about re- must take place in such a marvellous 

md yet have not, and do not manner, and that all they can do, in 

that you yet have, the rcli- an ordinary way, has so little con- 

lich will save your souls, nexion with it, that they may even 

id are told what such religion give it up, as a hopeless thing to 

low it comes to be possessed, themselves, till some time of general 

a not attend to this with all awakening comes; when they shall be 

era of your minds ? Will you taken hold of powerfully (they know 

to understand what effectual not how,) and become pious Chris- 

8,ahdtoaccompany the hear- tians . along with the multitude. 

I prayer, that God may make Now here is a great abuse of the 

fubjects of it? truths which have been specified.— 

'I nave a few preliminary Keeeneration is, indeed, a great 

Sons to offer, which may and marvellous change; but, the 

rllhorfen the subsequent dis- effectual calling which issues in it, 

; and which to me appear of often takes place so gradually, and 

ractical importance in them- is so minglea with the cflfects bf na- 

4 remark then that it is dif- tural conscience, of incttaa\i\^\V^\. 

» {rriservc almost any tmth and good educaiiion, ttvult tW imoaX. 

ingalmsed. Jtmaybcnbuseil, Undoubted subiecta o{ \t, otXftuViwTve^ 

fSfdesigOfbut byucgligencc cannot trace distiactXy, m \5ci«AK ^i^^ 



S44 PoMtand Letter. 

mindSfe th« steps br which thej iiv have ne^er lost your tendei 

riTed at it Re?i?ais of relif^ are conscieiice« nor wholir n 

riorioar periods^ ia which great ad* prayer to Ood— X^herish the 

oitioiis are» in a short time» made to lity of your consciences— t 

the church. Tet» take all those addi- to enlighten yon more and 

tbns together, and probably many beghim to impart his grace ti 

more have hitherto been efllectually your hearts, tkat rou may be 

calledt at times when there were no rated, although tnere shonh 

special or general recitals, than in all general retiral of religion, 

tne times at which such rcTivals have need, what have I said^- 

existed.* The practical use there- would all take this advice, i 

fore which I wish you to make of make a revival, and one toi 

these remarks is this s— Not so to most hopeful kind — ^Happy 

conceive of efiectoal calling, or true those inaividuals, who shall 

conversion, as to suppose that you advice, let whoever may neg 
are not to seek it, look for it, and (7V be continued.) 

hope for it, but in some wonderful 
way, or at some extraordinary time. m 

God works on diflferent minds in dif- 
ferent methods. When persons have pastoral lbttkr. 
received a religious education, have 

been preserved from out-breaking We have read the follow 

sins, have always possessed tender- toral letter with no ordinar 

ness of conscience, have not neglect- cation and pleasure; and 1 

ed prayer, have carefully attended determined to insert the wh< 

on publick ordinances, and been fa- in our pages. The truth is. 

miliar with their Bibles ;— they are tains much which, in the pre 

often effectually called, and soundly cumstances of the American 

converted, without any great con- we deem it peculiarly seasc 

vulsion of the soul. There is, no lay before the friends of 

doubt, a period when divine grace is revivals. We have felt 

first implanted, but the subject of it Christian Advocates we o 

cannot tell when. To hisapprehen- communicate something of 

sion it seems only as if his seriousness ture, as speedily as possible 

and light have gradually increased, readers : And in this letter 

till, at length, and after a good deal found nearly all that we ^ 

of doubt, he can say, that whereas say prepared to our ham 

be was once blind, now he sees. And pared too by those who liv( 

I have long remarked that Christians region where extraordinary 

who can give only this account of ot religion have recently 

themselves, are frequently among place, and where they sti 

those who are most exemplary, most Those who have sent forth tfi 

Improving, most stedfast, and most manifestly speak of thing 

fruitful in their Christian profession, thev have actually seen anc 

My children, you have been religi- and they offer cautions, in r 

ously educated— many of you I trust, e^^^s and errors, which th 

• an.'-i ^,^ J r j • *i- • Witnessed for themselves. 

• This lecture was delivered m the win- ^n«...«^^ j ♦!>«♦ a^^^ «»..«^»^ 
ter of the yews 181 1 and 1812. Since that Persuaaed that some sentenc 
period, revivals of religion have happily ^"^7 nave given with the 
Deen so numerous in our own countiy, of quotation, contain exp 
as probably to reider the above statement which would never have occ 
incorrec^ in an exclusive reference to the mind of any member of 
the United States.— But the statement -nrifttinn if fho,r U^A ««# i 
refers to the Christian work! at large; «><^ f "^n, if they had not I 
and thus taken, it is still beUeved to be ^^y "^ed: and if used, 
(rue, and therefore it has been permitted surely higli time that sc 
to Mkuidm origia$lly made. <i^ivt\\4 Vi^ ^^xv^ \.q V^event th 





^''jstoral Letter. 



245 



lole letter is ex- 
proposed at first 
ime extracts; but 
;^|^ ' J to mark them, we 

^^L ^ At to make a selection 
^^1^^^ Speared as good as ano- 
^j^l^V yfe resolved to take the 
^^^^^ A temper and manner of 
1^9^ Are also approye, as much as 
^ft^l jtr which it contains* It is 
^^^ with a true Christian spirit, 
^1 1 a plain and remarkably per- 
j^ .inia style. 

^ Ye beg that a very particular at- 
^ ation may be paid to the first part 
I the letter — ^to ** indifference on the 
mMed of revivals,** It is on this 
poiQt» that many congregations and 
chorches require to be specially and 
tolemnly admonished. They are 
•till slumbering in the lethargy of 
•' ifNTaiaUty; and liave much more need 
' .if something to arouse them, than of 
... any thing to guard them against in- 
. temperate zeal. Nor let them seek 
te quiet themselves in a state of stu- 
• fiditj and carelessness, by observing 
> the extravagance which too often ap- 
. Mtra in revivals of religion. Let 
tiiem remember that extravagance 
appeared in the primitive church;* 
appeared even in the abuse of mira- 
culous ^fts. Let them remember 
(hat while this extravagance takes 
place* many souls are savingly con- 
, verted; and that this is a state of 
things infinitely more desirable than 
that in which hundreds and thou- 
sands are going quietly down to per- 
dition; and in which the wise vir- 
gins are slumbering and sleeping 
with the foolish. On the other hand, 
let the friends of revivals learn from 
the example of the Apostle, to which 
we have referred , that those are not 
enemies to revivals who seek to pre- 
serve, or to rescue them, from abuse ; 
and to free them from every thing 
that is really objectionable. Paul 
sarely was not an enemy to revivals ; 
nor is the Association that publish- 
ed this letter to be so accounted ; nor 
are we who republish it. The best 
friends of revivals are those who wish 

* See 1 Cor. xiv, cimpler Uirougliuul. 



tinsa.^ to be purified from all leaven 
of humati mftrmity, error, and delu- 
sion. It is mainly because we fondly 
cherish the hope* thai God is about 
to visit our land with revivals, more 
general and extensive than any which 
have yet appeared, that we have de- 
termined to republish this pastoral 
letter: so that if our hopes snould be 
realized, the people of God mar» 
from the very first, determinately 
set themselves against every thin^ 
which may bring reproach on revi- 
vals, and render them far less pro- 
ductive of sound conversions than 
they will be, if they are not conduct- 
ed with Christian prudence as well 
as with holy zeal— conducted in the 
genuine spirit, and according to the 
sober maxims of inspiration, and not 
by the intemperate feelings and pas- 
sions of men — honest, it may be — but 
yet unquestionably mistaken and in- 
discreet. 

Pastoral Letter of the Ministers of 
the Oneida Association, to the 
Churches under their care, on the 
subject of Revivals of Religion, 

The Ministers of the Oneida As- 
sociation, having had opportunity for 
mutual consultation, agreed to ad- 
dress the churches under their care 
on the subject of some dangers in 
relation to Revivals of Religion, 
which appear to them to exist at the 

f)resent time; and having unanimous- 
y adopted the following;, directed 
it to be signed in their behalf by tlie 
Moderator and Scribe, and author- 
ized them to publish the same in 
such manner as tliey shall deem pro- 
per. 

John D. Peirck, Register. 

Jprtl 10, 1827. 

The Ministers of the Oneida As- 
sociation to the Churches under their 
care, wish grace, mercy and peace, 
from God the Father, and from our 
Lord Jesus Christ 

It has been an ancient custom, for 
ministers associated together, to ad- 
dress, on «pee\al fK.c%&\Q\v%« ^^sm^ 
under their cate«V>^ >n^^ ^l ^'^^a\»- 



JfllOr 

iml Letter. As it is the officlaii-ui- twie requires. Musi of God's cliiK 

MM ud indispeiiBable dp*f (^eTery dren appear to be brought in, datim 

■ndiTidial niDiat*rt m a faithfiil tbeMHaiouof special revival. Au 

mtchman, t» **ni the people of hia if theie are of short coatinnuw^ 

charge against tbe dangen to which and ftr between, and but partialii 

heaeeatMinezpoiediSothereKenu their extent, as is usually Qxcam, 

to be a peculiar proprietj, in tintea ia it not a matter which seiitnidj 

of eonnon danger, that the watch- concerns erery Christian to kimr 

nen ahould unite tiieir Toice and wliat he can do to advance tbe ««(kt 

combine their connselit to give tiie and to be readj to do it? Caa taj 

greater efiect to tbe word of admoDi- look on with indinereoce, at sadta 

turn, caution, and reproof. time, when man}' around him IM 

Tin past jear has been one of pe> makioK their decisive chuco. wi 

culiar interest to this region. Itnai whenue part which he actBisIikdf 

been a time of aDauuu eicitement to have an important iDfluencc is 

oa the satgect of religion. In moat fixing others in a world of bl«HeA> 

of onr GongregatioBS, there have nes>,ora world of wo? Say not, it 

been, as we bust, instancea more or is the woik of God, and needs ntt 

IcM namerouB, of aovli cooTerted to any asusttoce of liuman instrumen- 

God, and brousht to the saving uStty. It is the work of God; but 

knowledge of the tnith. And we it is a work which he performs by ilie 

desire to call npon ourselvea, and use of means. And every ChrittJan 

upon all under our care, to rejoice will be found at last to have ht^ld ■ 

in the grace of Qod which is mant- station and performed a part of 

fested in the ou^urings of his Spi- amazing responsibility. And let 

riC wherever enjoyed, and to render none excuse tbemsetvea by the cifr ' 

unto him that praise and thanks- duct of others. Backsliding miI.- 

H^ving which his wonderful works lukewarmness are matters of indbt 

demand. dual coocers; and the scriptw 

Revivals of Religion are events of moat decidedly condemo evecydb* 

neat importance to the church, to gree of it, in everyindividual,aaF» 

the cause of religion in the world, minal and inexcusable in the sig^t if 

and to individual Christians and a holy God. 

others. Seasons of Revival bring 2. JVrgUct to discrimin^* ie> 

their appropriate duties, and their tween true religion and falge. We 

peculiar dangers. The necessary speak to those who admit that there 

brevity of such an address as the is a true and a false, in matteneif 

present, will not allow us to touch religious experience: to those who 

upon every topic connected with the do not believe that all sfiectioBt 

Eulject. We wish to call your at- which relate to the sutyect of religioB 

tention to a few of those things which are of course riglit affections, and 

appear to us to be evils in them- acceptable to God; to those who 

selves, or more or less connected believe that Satan nften transforSBS 

with danger, at the present time. himself into an angel of light, and 

1. Indifference on the subject of that it is his character to lie in wait 

Bevivals- We address those who to deceive. It is dangerous to be 

believe with us that Revivals of Re- ipnorant of his devices, or to neglect 

ligion are a divine and glorious rea< to guard against them. And what 

lity, the special work of the Moly can be better adapted to give him an 

Spirit; and trtio acknowledge them advantage, tlian to refuse to discii- 

as such in their prayers, by asking minate? In every real Christian 

God to pour nut his Spirit and revive there is no doubt an intennislore of 

his work. We fear that many such that which is false with tliat which 

persons have not a sufficient sense is genuine. And there ii special 

of the importance of the sut>ject, and danger of its being so, iu a time of 

do not lay it to heart as its magni- uncommoa cmtemcat. The mere 



«ioiu will.be afEected, ted to g^ard tpiati than, by taking 

'ectioDB will be excited. evenmesM toamkaathettteDtion 

e BQl^ect of them can bs o( me people, and excite thur feel- 

■ok upon these ai a part of in^ u much aa pouiMa. Bat we 

», and the mo§t important think, that while theae dangen are 
: will eive the enemj great not to be orerlooked, ^ere an dan- 
While he cvltiTatea mn also on the other nde. . We 

takes every pains to in- think it quite possible for Satan to 

m, he will overlook and wish to excite th^ paseions of men, 

ose which are Hgh^ and in some cases, in faTour of religitm, 

be greatir diministied. when tie can direct them to the ai^ 

11 then think himself to be complishment of his own pnrposes, 

iged in religion, and moat and (hat he may readily contribote 

die SfHrit, when in reality his influence to do it It was a re- 
least of true relipon, and mark of President Edwards, that, in 
nder the ioflnence of the a time of re*ivd, the chief exertions 
eirer. And making this of the great adversary would be like- 
ith respect to himsefr, will ly to be made with the friends and 
to make the same with re- promoters of the work, to drive them 
thers. And his efibrts to into auch excesses iind extravagances 
eligion in others, will, in as sboold ruin its credit, and nlti- 
nanner, be directed to pro- mately britw all religion into dis- 
in them which is not true grace. Ana in this, his saccese 
And the same mistake would be rendered the more proba- 
de in cases of individaal ble, if he could first persuade such 
t, will be extended to revi- persons, that they were in no danger 
reliBon; and the con- on th^ side. It was while men 
willm, that, with a view s/ept,thattheeoemycBmeBnd sowed 
e a revival of religion, that tares among the vrheat. Not while 
st diligently promoted, in they were in a atate of indift'erence, 
substance of trae religion but while they were not watching 
e found. When the great agwust his devices. It is not while 

can accomplish this, be men in general are in a state of in- 
double advantage. While difference, that the false conversions, 
irfeit maintains its credit, represented by the tares, are brought 
lying thewnlsof men.and in; but while men are osIetTiin a far 
lie religion into contempt, different sense, while their passions 
I the counterfeit loses its are in such a state of excitement as 
d is found out to be of no blinds their minds tt» danger. Then 
ee who have been made to the great deceiver can work to tlie 
t all religion is alike, are best advantage, both in promoting 

reject it all, and to throw false conversions, and in leading into 
good with the bad. danseroos extremes those who are 
tuibility to danger. Some zeatons promoters of the work. I^t 
take it for granted that the Christians beware, then, of falling 
effbrts of the great adver> into this snare, of supposing they are 
jure the cause of religion, awake, in the scripture sense of Uie 
iployed in endeavouring to word, merely because their feelings 
; attention of the people are strongly excited on the ubject 
fldiject of relwion, and to of religion. Let them be really 

1 careless and^indiffbrest; mwake, and guard againat all tM 



fibey cannot be kept in a wiles of the devil. 
differ • -^ . « . . 

a this side, therefore, they ought 



difference, in imsing them 4. Coadnudm in the 
id violent '■•--- - -*•- 



, in imsing them 4. CwsawM tw y in ne gro$», or 

oppowtiontothe ofiproeiiw te tM frosti No man 

e, tiierefbre, they ought to w coulBmned because he 

ordugera, aadendetrear baiHn»bBp«rfeel»Bk. 1>KiR'««b 



M8 PaOorai Lttter. Jm 

mm thftt iiveth and ftinnetti not Hum, dtrk tigo, wboi CWribi 

Neither oucht a man to be accouDt- think thej kwniD enott^m ' ' 

ed fiuiltlessbecaate he has aome good no need to be taught vVe^ 

Dualities. The aina of Dayid and for the conseqaenceai * 

'eter» and other acriptare aainta* are tion ia thoa^t to be oi 



not excused nor palliated, becaaae awakened smner8> or the aa rt bl l i 
found in auch men* So alao with re- Terted. And we cannot bat MM 
▼ivab of religion. If a re?iyal ia at- cemed for the safetjr of 'ik»<lwl 
tended with faults and blemishes, it when feeling is anbititilii»|l 
is not certain that there is no good in thought^ when addreaaea te Aai||i 
it Nor if it is admitted to be a re- sions are required inatead of JM 
yival of true religioo, ia it certain that plication of truth to the wdoiSI 
no faults have attended it And aa mg and conscience, and when Att 
it would be wrong to refuse to aee structiTe method of nrrarhiaff a| 
the good because there are some conversiog with people is mMI 
evils, so it is doubtless wrong to shut ed as cold, and dry, and nnpnMil 
our eyes upon the evils that exist, and is stigmatised aa " ^^^ 
because there is some good. It is souls to helL* 
the policy of the enemy to condemn 6. Calling men hard 
thegood with the bad; and it is help- think it important that the 
inff them to do it, for the friends of should be preached pUMgi'A 
relttion to attempt to justify the bad whole of it We would hafej4i ^ 
with the good. The true policy of taught their true character,. aoiiy 
Christians, is, to hold fast the truth, scriptures reveal it, and made IM 
and judge righteous judgment; toap* the depravity of their hearta,wiiiy 
prove what the scnptures approve, disguise. It is desirable they shri) 
and to condemn what the^ condemn, know the worst of their caae; aniii 
We are not required, indeed, to order to it, that they should saaH 
trumpet abroad every fault we see; true character of God, the exteatfll 
and where no injury will result from puritv of his law, the justice ef ft 
concealment, there doubtless we awful penalty, and the aggiavay 
ought to be silent But where such ^ilt with which tJiey are chargcsUi 
faults accompany a revival, as are in slighting the grace of the goipd 
known to the public, such as are like- That preaching which makes tkf 
ly to operate to the injury of souls, see ihis^ is puiin preaching. Bd 
and the disgrace of religion, there calling men hard names, and addiM 
silence would be criminal and conni- in^them witii provoking epithet^* 
vance a partaking in the guilt think is not adapted to make Ihci 

5. Indifference to instruction, see this, but rather to prevent i 
Truth is the great means of the con- There is a wide difference betwee 
version of sinners, and of the growth addressing men in the style of prm 
in grace of Christians. It was the cation and insult, or calling tlbci 
prayer of Christ that his disciples vipers, serpents, and devils, imd ad 
might be sanctified through the truth, dressing them in the language of be 
And it is plain that none can be nevolence, and mildly endeavonriD| 
sanctified through that truth of which to make them see what they in 
they are ignorant It is the work of And the less there is in the manm 
the Spirit to sanctify: but it is pre- that is overbearing, provoking^ aac 
sumption to expect he will do it, with- irritating, the more hope we thiol 
out his own appointed means. It is there ordinarily is, that the mattei 
characteristic of babes in Christ, that may be pressed home upon the cob 
they desire the sincere milk of the science, and produce a salutary i» 
word. It was one of the fruits of the pression. It is true, that on extraor 
revival on the day of Pentecost, that dinary occasions inspired men some 
thesubjectsof it continued steadfast times addressed parUcuiar indivi 
in the apostles' doctrine. We regard duals, in language which is pleaded a 



18^27. 



Pastoral letter. 



349 



■ffi eiample, and tlic import of whicli 
Uogaage it is important men should 
see was according; to truth. But 
while no direction is found for us to 
address men in the same style, a di- 
rection is found, which we fear is 
forgotten by some, that "the servant 
of the Lord must not strive, but be 
gentle unto all men, in meekness in- 
structine those that oppose them- 
aelves, if God perad venture will give 
them repentance to tlie acknowledg- 
ing of the truth." 

7. Making too much of any fa- 
vourable appearances. Some ap- 
pear to think, that when tliere are 
any appearances of a revival, it is 
best to make the most of them, and 
to publish them far and wide. We 
think manv evils result from this 
practice. Persons uf an ardent tem- 
perament are liable to have their 
jadgaient very much biassed by their 
feelings, and to think much more of 
the tame appearances than others do. 
And if they adopt the maxim of try- 
ing to make the most of what there 
ifl, thej will be likely to put reports 
in circulation which subsequent facts 
will by no means justify to the minds 
of the public at lar^^. To tiiis cause 
we are disposed to ascribe it, that we 
have 80 often heard of the commence- 
ment of a ** <;reat and powerful 
revival," in one place and another, 
which has afterwards come to but 
little or nothing; and that individu- 
als have been often reported to be 
■nder "deep and pungent convic- 
tions," who have afterwards appear- 
ed to have had little or no serious- 
ness of mind; and tliat great num- 
bers have been told of, as hopefully 
converted, at one place and another, 
where it afterwards appears that very 
few such instances had occurrcu. 
Such exaggerated reports aie adapt- 
ed to have a very unfavourable influ- 
ence upon the persons concerned, 
and on the public at large. They 
are extremely injurious to the credit 
of revivals; and expose the friends 
of the work to many unpleasant and 
unfavourable imputations. 

8. 0$tentation andnoise- In every 
thing that pertains to a revival, ve 

Vol. V.^n. Mv. 



think it of great importance to re- 
member the directions of our Saviour, 
in the 6th of Mattliew, not to sound 
a trumpet before us. Every appear- 
ance of doing any thing to be seen of 
men, that we may have glory from 
them, every indication of a higli opi- 
nion of ourselves, talking of the great 
things we have done, telling how 
much we pray, and how efficacious 
our prayers have proved, and every 
appearance of a wish to attract the 
admiration of others, is most unhap- 
py. Our Lord did not cry, nor lift 
up, nor cause his voice to be heard 
in the streets. Though the fact of 
his retiring for secret prayer, and in 
an instance or two of his spending 
the whole night in that exercise, is 
put on record, it is not recoi*ded that 
he ever told of these things himself; 
much less, that, in his closet devo- 
tions he prayed so loud as to be heard 
by all in the house, and even by pass- 
ers by, in the streets. When his 
kinsmen urged him to exhibit him- 
self to the admiring multitudes, he 
refused ; and though he went about 
doing good, he straightly charged 
those whom he healed tiiat they should 
not make him known. A noisy and 
ostentatious revival is deservedly 
suspected, on that very account. 
"The kingdom of God cometh nut 
with observation." And though Eli- 
jali witnessed the earthquake, and 
the (ire, and the stroitg wind which 
rent the mountains, it was in the 
still small voice only that the Lord 
was peculiarly present. 

9. Going to particular places to 
obtain the Spirit, or to be converted. 
We doubt not that it is often useful 
for Christians to visit places where a 
revival is in progress, and that many 
have found a blessing to their own 
souls by so doing, and that it has 
been the means of the greater exten- 
sion of tlie work. And we doubt 
not that impenitent sinners, who 
have visited such places, have some- 
times been savingly wrought upon. 
And we would by no means di.^cou- 
rage tlie practice, when it can be 
done with proper feelings. WUsit 
we wish, \R, to ^vixivV. ^iwV. -i^ivvx^ ^^w 

Z\ 



S50 



Fastoral Lellcr. 



JCVBI 



gers which seem to accompany it, 
and which jiced to be guarded 
against We think there is danger, 
in anch a case, of having men's per- 
tons in admiration, as if they only 
were the channels through which the 
influence of the Holy Spirit were to 
tieconreyed; and thasof placing an 
undue dependance upon an arm of 
flesh. We think there is danger of 
despising those meansof grace which 
we have at home, and which, how- 
eTerimperfect may be the'instniments 
of them, are yet tne means of divine 
appointment, and cannot be despised 
without the guilt of despising Him 
whose ordinances they are. We 
think the unconverted are in pccu* 
liar danger, under such circumstan- 
ces, of drawing the conclusion, that 
the means they have had at home arc 
insufficient for their conversion, and 
of course that they have been hither- 
to excusable for their impenitence 
and unbelief, while God is to be 
blamed for not aflforcling them better 
means. We think all arc in dan^^r, 
under such circumstances, of putting 
some favourite instrument in the 
place of God, greatly to the disho- 
nour of tlie Majesty of hi*aven, and 
the hazard of their own suuls. 

10. JSTot fj^uardifif^ against false 
conversions. It is to be expected 
that the great deceiver will labour to 
produce as many false conversion.H 
as possible; and that, in a time of 
revival, his eftbrts will be especially 
directed to tliat end. Most (»f them 
doubtless, are produced by the ex- 
citement of the passions, where there 
is a deficiency of liecht in the under- 
standinp:. Hence tlie G^reat impor- 
tance of instruction to those who are 
awakened ; and the great danger of 
going on to stimulate the passions, 
while the undcrstandins; and con- 
science arc neclccted. To particula- 
rize all tlie dangers on this head, 
which we think exist at this day, 
would exceed our limits. We can 
onJy touch upon one or two. The 
practice of hurrying awakened sin- 
ners from meeting to meeting, and 
of talking to them at every opportu- 
nity, without giving them time for 



retirement, and self examinstioni 
and study of the acrtptureSi wm Aiik 
is full of danger; and efpeciallji if 
what they hear, in general addr ta a n 
and in personal conversation, islMf 
adapted, as we fear it often is. to faH^ 
them to a correct knowledge of dMir 
own hearts. Unless they entmr bis 
their closets, and take time for oM 
reflection, and deliberate aelf esaai- 
nation, in the light of divine triAi 
how can they t>e expected to MA 
that knowledge of themselves whaab 
is necessary to ^nuine and thoroa|^ 
conviction of sin } In the hnrryrf 
their spirits, and the agitation of nrif 
minds, and the excitement of their 
fears, which the method of their trail* 
men t is too often adapted to produocb 
how can it be otherwise than tiMt 
they should be greatly exposed la 
the delusions of Satan r If they ai« 
plied incessantly with exhortatiois 
to submit, without t)eing carefully 
informed what submission is, or widh 
out any means of distinguishing be- 
tween true submission and false; ud 
especially, if they are exhorted ta 
promise that they will submit in a 
given time, and make it a matter of 
calculation^how much more likely 
is it that they will deceive themselves 
with a false and forced submissioo, 
than the contrary r The manner in 
which awakened sinners are often 
prayed for, we think exposes them to 
peculiar danger. They have heaid 
much of tlic efficacy of prayer, and 
have been pointed to numerous in- 
stances of such as have l>een convert- 
eil in answer to prayer. Tliey have, 
perhaps, heard their companions 
prayed for, and have marked the de- 
{2;ree of earnestness and confidence 
with which the prayers appeared to 
l>c ofl'ered, which were succeeded by 
the relief of their distress, and the 
attainment of comfort, l^ey ask to 
be prayed for, themselves, with raised 
expectations that the same prayers 
will be successful in their own case. 
The prayers are made in their pre- 
sence, and they are exhorted to sub- 
mit before they rise from their knees. 
'Vhey kneel down with the determi- 
nation to do it. And white the pray* 



Pastoral IMer. 



S51 



\ offering up. they mark, with 
iUting heart, every word that 
red, every degree of earnest- 
IX pressed, and every appear* 
>f confidence that the prayer 
heard. As soon as they think 
ne amount of prayer has been 
or them that proved successful 
tiers, they feel relieved. The 
ation that now they shall be 
ted, removes their distress, 
countenances indicate that 
urden is gone. They are in* 
of, perhaps, if tiiey do not feel 
. and tiiev answer in the aflir- 
I. Joyful congratulations suc- 
and thanks are returned te 
lat another soul is brought into 
Qgdom. Now, such a course 
OK is the readiest way imagi* 
Lo produce a false conversion, 
ivery practice of prayine for 
s, in their presence, and by 
equest, that is not so manae;ed 
efully to guard them against 
I any dependance upon those 
s, roust be dangerous to souls, 
g^ degree. Far be it from us 
lourage Christians from pray- 
* sinners, or exhorting them to 
liate and unreserved submis- 
t)ut let it not be done in such 
as tends directly to destroy, 
1 of saving their souls. 
Tlie hasty acknowledgement of 
s as converted. We think 
3vil results from this; and we 
of no good to balance that evil, 
individual is really converted, 
larm can result to him, or to 
, from a little delav in the ac- 
sdecment of it? ts not the 
' oT mistake of sufficient mag- 
to justifjr a little caution on 
rt of'^his friends P Are not the 
ire evidences of a saving 
! of such a nature as require a 
ime to test their reality? Is 
ne time requisite for the exa- 
on of his own heart, and a 
rtson of his feelings witli the 
ires, before he can have good 
Is to indulge a hope? And 
f this caution should, in some 
be carried to an extreme? 
if M real convert should live 



for months without a hope, would 
that destroy his experience, and en*- 
danger his soul? But, on the other 
hand, if one has been tlie subject of 
a false conversion, the hasty ac- 
knowledgment of its genuineness 
might ruin him for ever. If his 
friends treat him as a Christian, their 
judgment will confirm and strength- 
en his own, and he will be likely to 
settle down upon his false hope, 
never to be shaken from it, till it is 
for ever too late. We fear that vast 
numbers are destroyed in this way. 
And the hasty reception of the sup- 
posed subjects of a revival into the 
church, we think is attended with 
the same danger, besides being pro- 
ductive of many other evils. That 
converts were speedily received into 
the church in the apostles' days, we 
think no proof that it ought to be 
done now. The external circum- 
stances of the church tlien were dif- 
ferent from what they are now; and 
they had the aid of miraculous gifts, 
to guard against dangers, and rectify 
disorders. The church is now in a 
more settled state; and no great in- 
convenience can result to converts 
themselves or to the church, from 
such a delay in their being received, 
as to give them an opportunity for 
self examination, and tlie church an 
opportunity to observe the fruits of 
their change. If a sufficient delay 
for these purposes should so diminish 
their fervour as to take away their 
inclination to profess religion, we 
think it most likely that the same 
lapse of time, after their bein^ re- 
ceived, would take away their incli- 
nation to live so as to adorn the pro- 
fession they have too hastily made. 
If it is feared they will stray away, 
unless speedily received into tlie 
church, we think that difficulty might 
be guarded against by some other 
means, better than by a hasty recep- 
tion as church members. The 
strength of a church does not con- 
sist in its numbers, but in its graces. 
The filling it up with false converts 
is the way to destroy lU VT^^^ax 
that the desire of cfKmWfi^tiwvBXMti^ 
is too much ii\Au\^, t^«\i Vv) ^^n^ 



S52 



Pastoral Letter. 



Juin, 



people; and that if it does not re- 
ceive a timely check, it will not only 
lead to the ruin of those who are too 
hastily received, but be productive 
of great and increasing mischiefs to 
future generations. 

\2.Ifgudicious treatment of young 
eonverts. We think the treatment 
which those who are really convert- 
ed often receive, is such as is adapt- 
ed greatly to injure them. Their 
feelings are usually warm ; the change 
they have experienced is great; their 
sense of the things of religion is live- 
ly; and they are usually disposed to 
be rather forward, than otherwise, to 
speak and to pray in the presence of 
others. And it is usually matter of 
high gratification to old Christians 
to hear how the young converts talk, 
and how they pray. And perhaps, 
without thinking that there is any 
danger attending it, they are gene- 
rally disposed to put them forward. 
But, we think a little reflection 
would convince old Christians that 
there is great danj^er attending it. 
Young converts have but just begun 
to know these things from experience. 
They have not learned to discrimi- 
nate. They have not discovered 
their own ignorance and imperfec- 
tions. They arc liable to think that 
all the pleasant feclins:<« they have, 
are right feelings. And, no doubt, 
at this time, they think vastly more 
highly of themselves, than they ought 
to think. Under such circumstances, 
to put them forward, to make much 
of them, to tell how well they appear, 
and to make comparisons between 
them and old Christians to the dis- 
advantage of the latter, can scarce 
fail of doing them great injury. It 
is directly adapted to fill them with 
a high conceit of themselves, of their 
own piety, and of their uncommon 
experiences, to shut their minds 
against the cautions and counsels of 
their fathers, to make them despise 
the admonitions of age and expe- 
rience, and to throw themselves into 
the arms of those who flatter them 
to their ruin. It is an inspired di- 
rection on the subject of putting a 
wMn into the ministry, that he should 



be " not a noviee, (or one newly con- 
verted,) lest being lifted up with 
pride, he fall into Uie condemnfttiM 
of the devil." And we think lbs 
reason of this direction is ecfiiaUy 
applicable to the common praetiGeei 
putting forward young converti li 
take a prominent part in> oieetinii 
for conference and prayer. We 
would not, for the sake of avQkiii| 
this extreme, have the other extraae 
run into, and have entire silence ia« 
posed upon them. But we wooM 
have their treatment such, as, while 
it should encourage them to the di» 
charge of every Christian dntTi it 
should tend to make then, and 9h 
pccially those -who are young m 
years as well as experience, mooci^ 
humble, teachable, sensible of thrir 
own ignorance and imperfectiolib 
and disposed to pay that deference 
to the counsels of age and ei^ 
rience, which the scriptures emeo^ 
and which is so becoming in mSB 
who are but babes in Christ. 

13. Suffering the feelingg to 
trot the judgment. We are 
that this may be done insensiUfv 
and without adopting it as a pnno- 
ple that it ought to be so. That it 
is very frequently done, we think 
there can be no doubt. It is a coi^ 
nion remark, that men can easily b^ 
lieve what they wish to be true. In 
seasons of revival, we think there is 
special danger on this head. The 
feelings are then excited, in an no* 
usual degree; and the judgments we 
form under excited feelings are net 
likely to ' be so correct as those 
which are formed with greater deli* 
beration and calmness. Under ex* 
cited feelings we are not in a situa- 
tion to look, with the same attentioa, 
at all the reasons of the case. Oor 
feelings are liable to hurry us on to a 
conclusion, before we have weighed 
all the circumstances. They are li- 
able to magnify some things beTOod 
their proper bounds, and to dimmidk 
others in the same proportion. IVs 
think it of great importance, theSt 
that Christians, at such a time, shooU 
recal to their minds those deliberate 
^u&^e.Ti\& ot \.rak>^ vMd duty which 



rfrirril in n nilair Hitr. fewi^whs hai*, bMB wiUiiw to be 

have liHB npMtMlly ex- theif m rnA ulvaariMi Tet, we 

&e lii^t of Hriptara- %aA ' think thoM «iid«r oar ctnace l^ b» 

V and be oarefol not ts vi- onun free (mm danger m^Ai* eeb- 

I DOW, beoaase tbajr may jecL That fondaeaa Ar the anf^ 

ly accord with their pre> velliMMi which exi*te in HUBy^adailei 

n. To Bake /alfav the aadtheaTidt^ with which thi^ Ki- 

f trath or dntji ioatead of ten tit any thing cxtraordinaryf we 

d Kripton, u t» throw think greuj etpoaee them to -anch 

isht Of the Kin. to follow delnrioiu - Imiaediatfi inafuntioa 

M the night, <^icb glaree was only necew a iy till the acriptarea 

d attray. We fcac that were conplatHl aad placed within 

t their feelinp whoU^nnd the reach of the ehnrchei, ■tamped 

vegard ete^ ether nile> with the dirtne aeal, aa the perfect 

•r that a {(tater nsmber nile of ftidi and practice. Wracloa 

led the pnndple that our were only nceeawry to aathenticate 

gnuntt are the leaat te be a claim to imiNration, and ceaaed 

on ifi the things that per- when inqwation e eie c J. All pre- 

evini; and that the neat tenriooft to anch things bow, are dl- 

!hrt8tian», who are not the reotly caatrary to the word of Qed, 

r any peculiar ezcitment, and-an reyned by aebcr CbriatiBiM 

Mtent iadgea of prnpciety ,a» hainan waaoatnre or the deid^ene 

ipriety in thoae that are. of Satm. Bit, thosgh none riioald 

iciplc enay be a coaveneot eluai to be (sqiired, ar pretaad to 

r the eztrangascea into receive £rect reralatione, we think 

are liable to ran,' tfaroogh there ere aeme tiiiogi which ao Deir> 

uid niiigttided seal; hot ly reaembleitiasonghttopatCkrii- 



ig- by the law 
There nay 
the other rid 



ead directly, to the diire- ef K spirit jof prayer in any dinrch 

be dirtne rale of -frying we eonaidttr aa aflbrding Btrang 

- '^- '^e Uw and the tea- gtonnd ef haft diat Ood ia^ont to 

be daiwer, revive his work) hot -40 f n ii t i the 

>. A retie- convenion of an individnal, bceanae 

o dety-iwy lead te erro- of the pecalhr feelings widi which 

lelaHoae aa to lAat dnty he haa been prayed for; to firtUt a 

a rdiance npon insofieicBit revival of 'nligioo in a partkolir 

iliidi we hm nodeobtis place. Air the saac raaaoa; te eoasi- 

e. What we wia^ is,- to dertfae prfcyeft er the ptwsdii^ «f 

gaaid asainst d s n gaw an pacticBlir Mn u dictated by tki 

; end tolislen to tM voice Holy Qheatf or te eoMider sa nn- 

. aid scriptBre, and con- comaon'iapresnon on the mind as 

tat aaftring them to be a direction froa heaven in the per* 

brtbevieluKeof paaaion, fonnanoe ef doty; an thim to 

oeadeoed by iodlAreDce which we allnde. Any thiag mat is 
viewed in the light ef a fofdal ee»> 

rfV fceed to fayirfas^ <»- aumieeMni of what God ia abent to 

.er aiippoaMf malMtmi do, or ef what we oaght to'dtt, ta 

Idwards^ and other excel- whatever way it la seppsae d U be 

IBOQ Chriatian experience made, hv dreams, TJsioBS, iapM ls ea , 

Us ef rriigion, have so folly impre*l«n, or otberwiae, we flunk 

1 the sotgect of in- it highly dangeraas to lirtM te, or 



i iwpniBsiani. and ao ex- regiid ; InMnwell M it teede to set 

^ioAOB of tnsginsiT re- aaide the MriMDW bs tha only role, 

iWsnsi dreaew, and the and efsi a-Wdt den- fer the 4eliN 

•,4m if aay. hwe. Imb sidMKnrAgaK ^^ AM <<««'«*idl*«a<> 

wr dansoinntM^ ftrM—y holt ill' Mill* «ar««ftf>W--<tfMA 



e GItristian Education of Children. 



355 



:ca, hath one — 
lie deep — 
yet none 
weep. 

ithem vines are 

I; 

nd his breast, 

* Spain, 

Tiyrtle showers 
ids fann'd ; 



She faded 'midst Italian flowers, 
'l1ie last of that bright band. 

And parted thus they rest, who play'd 
Beneath the same green tree ; 

Whose voices mingled as they pray'd 
Around one parent knee. 

They that with smiles lit up the hall 
And cheered with song the hearth — 

Alas ! for love, if thou wert all. 
And nought beyond, Oli earth! 



jiBt^cellaneou^* 



R ADVOCATE. 

NATION OF ClIIL- 

■ 

lublick, through 
Christian Advu- 
on the trite, but 
inuunced at the 
he writer wishes 
y by the oracles 
lie proposes 
pt little more 
lustrate and en- 
js to be the true 
)0Stle Paul, in 
ch he delivers, 
nd ye fathers, 
ildrcn to wrath ; 
in the nurture 
he Lord." 
sary to assign a 
cept is directed 
an to parents of 
;ht be remarked 
laps, more likely 
Violate the first 
; and that being 
hief authority in 
:hiefly responsi- 
ice of the whole 
ie truth is, that 
endered fatJters 
letimes used to 
. It is 80 trans- 
:e in our Bibles ; 
and mothers are 
d in the precept 
which the Mpoa- 



tic had just before referred, perhaps 
the word would better have been 
rendered parents, in the text — That 
it enjoins duties indispensably bind- 
ing on all Christian parents, there 
can be no doubt It is most admi- 
rably conceived and expressed, 
guarding those to whom it is ad- 
dressed, both against severity on 
the one hand, and indulgence on 
the other; and while it equally pro- 
hibits each of these extremes, it 
points out the middle path of duty 
and propriety — ^The great object of 
the whole plainly is, to inculcate 
the importance and the obligation 
of giving to children a truly Chris- 
tian education; such as will be 
most likely, under the divine bless- 
ing, to make them practical Chris- 
tians. This object, therefore, will 
be kept steadily in view, in the dis- 
cussion before us, which, although 
the subject be copious, must be 
short, and of consequence general 
in its nature. 

It is proposed to attempt to show, 
very briefly, how Christian parents 
may guard aeainst each of the ex- 
tremes that have been mentioned, 
and then to point out more directly 
wherein the true Christian educa- 
tion of children consists. 

1. Parents, in the education of 
theirchildren,shouldcarernlljaTotd 
undue severity— ^ Prof oke not joar 
children to wrath.'* The diilmil 
meaning of this fart of tkft fMi^MilC 
seems to be, that paraiU «vrt ^ng^ 



S56 



Tlu Chriiiian Education of Children^ 



iVK%, 



lantly to guard against that system 
of treatment toward their children, 
the natural tendency of which is to 
excite in their minds such anger, in- 
dignation and bitterness, as are not 
only sinful, but very apt to break 
out at last, into acts of resentment 
and rebellion against the parents 
themselves. It should be carefully 
observed, that our statement is, that 
we should avoid a system of treat- 
ment naturally tending to this ef- 
fect: For with refractory and dis- 
obedient children there oucht to be 
some acts of discipline, which, it may 
be, will greatly anger them at the 
time. And yet, if the sifst^m of treat- 
ment be right, the children them- 
selves may, in their cooler moments, 
not only acquit the parent of all 
injustice, but love him the more for 
what, for a short season, was very 
ofTensive. Beside, if the system of 
treatment be not excessively se- 
vere, parents may hope that the im- 
perfection of their administration 
of discipline in any single act^^ in 
which tney may, unhappily, have 
been incautious, will not leave any 
permanent effects of an injurious 
kind on the minds of their uftbpring. 
As, however, it is of high impor- 
tance that parents should avoid all 
error?* on the side of severity, a 
serious attention is requested to 
the following directions. 

1. Never correct a child in an- 
ger* There are some parents who 
say that they cannot correct, unless 
they do it in anger. If this were 
true, it might be very questionable 
whether they ought ever to correct 
at all: For there is always danger 
of excess, and of a thousand errors, 
when any thing is done throur^h pas- 
sion. An error in correction is often 
as clearly discerned by children, as 
by those of riper years; and it some- 
times becomes the means of giving 
them,ultimately, an ascendency over 
the erring parent; and in the mean 
time, they impute their correction, 
not to their own fault, but to their 
parent's ill temper. To avoid this, 
U should be an invariable rule not 



to chastise in passion, but with 
such coolness, deliberation and ten- 
derness, as shall leave a child fnllj 
impressed with the belief, that his 
own guilt is the sole cause of his 
suffering; and that the parent would 
not have inflicted it, if he had not 
been compelled to it bj a sense of 
duty. As to the objection that pa- 
rents cannot correct, unless thej 
are ang^y, it is, probably, in almost 
every instance, a mistake, or a 
mere pretence. That it is highlj 
disagreeable and painful, and that 
it requires much self-denial to do 
it properly, is certainly true. But 
still it may be done, and the verT 
circumstance that it is paiDfuI, 
by beine observed by the child, will 
be likely to give the correction 
more effect. 

I add, as a matter of great impor- 
tance, that it gives unspeakable im- 
pression to correction, if it be ac- 
companied with prayer. Yea, let 
Christians, as a general rule, pnj 
with their children, immediately be- 
fore they correct them.— Pray eir- 
nestly, and with tears, that God maj 
give them repentance and pardon 
for their sin, and may sanctify ti 
them, for this end, the correction 
about to be inflicted. And hard, 
indeed, must be that heart, which 
is not moved at the sight of a prar- 
ing and weeping parent. A smiH 
measure of correction, inflicted in 
this form — with this solemnitf- 
will have infinitely more effect, than 
the most frequent stripes without 
it: And unless the mind of a child 
be most malignantly wicked in- 
deed, he will not be provoked to 
wrath, but melted into contriiioni 
by such treatment^-espccially if 
there be connected with it, as there 
always should be, faithful and ten- 
der admonition. 

But before leaving this particulari 
I must remark that the correction 
of words, as well as of stripe^i 
ought to be guarded. As children 
advance in age they frequeod/ 
need reproof, as well as instruction! 
and to administer it aright is both 



\ 



The Christian Education of CliiUren. 



257 



riant and difficult. It ought, 
Bsible, to be so done as to pro- 
conviction of the offence re- 
id, sorrow for, and hatred of 
(id there should be nothing in 
natter or manner of the re- 
', which may leave the stins of 
tment in the mind of a child 
st the parent himself. There 
be children who have become 
rverse and unreasonable, as to 
tt this impracticable. But 
s not a common case: and in 
ises of correction, in whatever 
administered, there should al- 
be set clearly before the view 
^ child, the possibility and the 
icability of retrieving his er- 
and of reinstating himself in 
onfidence and complacency of 
irent The door of return to 
ence, happiness and favour, 
d be set wide open before him; 
Jespoiidencc may not discou- 
exertion, but that hope may 
lire with fear, to produce 
dmcnt. 

Parents must be careful not 

act uf their children any thing 

is unreasonable or excessive. 

Dur children required to per- 

labour, in which either the 

or the mind is to be cmploy- 

We must see that this labour 

not exceed their powers, but 

with due exertion they can 

r accomplish it; otherwise they 

:ertainly be either erieved or 

uraged, or provoked to wrath 

do we require of them evi- 

ss of penitence and reforma- 

when they have grossly offend- 

Let us demand no tokens of 

\ submission or humiliation. 

IS show them that all we want 

be convinced of their grief for 

is wrong, and their sincere 

)ses of amendment; and that 

this we shall cheerfully and 

lly receive them to our em- 

s. In a word, let us rcmem- 

lat as, in all government, one 

point is, to be careful not to 

n too much, so in the govern- 

of children in particular, it is 



of primary importance not to exact 
too much in any respect— neither 
too much labour, nor too much sub- 
niission, nor too much circumspec- 
tion, nor too much subserviency. 
Let U8 be careful of this, because 
what a parent actually requires, he 
ought, in all cases, to insist on be- 
ing punctually, promptly, and fuUj 
performed; inasmuch as on this, 
tlie establishment of his authority, 
as well as the benefit of the child, 
essentially depends. 

3. Let us not keep our children 
at too great a distance from us, by 
inspiring them with a servile dread 
of our presence, or with a fear that 
we shall question them unduly, on 
topics on which they would wish not 
to speak. 

It is not a very easy matter to 
unite familiarity with dignity, to 
be free with our children, and yet 
to maintain our authority and com- 
mand their respect. This however, 
is a matter of much importance, 
which we ou^ht by all means to at- 
tempt : For if our children shun our 
presence, or fear to speak their 
minds to us with freedom, they maj 
contract the most pernicious senti- 
ments, or enter into the most ruin- 
ous schemes or connexions, without 
our ever having it in our power to 
correct them, till all attempts may 
be fruitless. Let us, therefore, as 
far as we can, gain their confidence, 
make them our companions, treat 
their notions with respect, patiently 
labour to convince them when thej 
are wrone, forbear to press them on 
points which too deeply interest 
their feelings ; and thus, by secur- 
ing their confidence and affection, as 
well as their esteem and reverence, 
learn the secrets of their hearts, and 
influence their opinions, sentiments 
and conduct, on all important sub- 
jects and concerns. 

4. Much indulgence, tenderness 
and forgiveness, must be mingled 
with the discipline of children, if 
we would not provoke them to 
wrath. It should be manifest that 
it gives u& hx m^t^ \VtasM\^ Vik^ 



tJfS 



JEa^pofitJon of l P^Ur iii. 19» 20. 



IvirSf 



their wishes than to disap* 
point' and refuse them, Then» if 
fliej are not extremelj penrerte» 
thej will be sensible that every re* 
fisal springs from a strona convic- 
tion that indalaence would be in- 
jurious. IVe should even lay hold 
on some suitable occasions to dis- 
appoint their expectations of cor- 
rection or reprimand* for what they 
know to have been wrong in their 
conduct— -not failing, however, to let 
them see that we notice and disap- 
prove of the wrong; but that, in the 
present instance, we for^ve it frank- 
ly* in hope that forgiveness will 
aflbct them more than punishment 
Thus will they be constrained to 
feel that discipline and coercion 
are used, solely from a regard to 
their benefit. In addition to all, 
there should be a eeneral tender- 
ness, united with delicacy and dig- 
nity* in the whole treatment of our 
ofipring; which can scarcely fail, 
if tnej possess any sentiments of 
generosity, to eain their hearts, — 
and to withhold them from being 
provoked to wrath, when duty calls 
ua to animadvert on their fullies or 
their vices. 

(To be continued ) 



FOB TBB CHRISTIAIC AnrOCATX. 

ExPOsmoN OF 1 Prtek, iii. 19, 20. 

** By which also he went «nd prcaclicd 
to the tpirits in prison which lomctiine 
were ditobedient when once the loiifi^ suf- 
fering of God waited in t!ie days of Noah, 
while the ark was a preparing, wherein 
few, that ia eight souls, were saved by 
water." 

There are few texts in tlie sacred 
volume which have received so many 
difirent expositions as have been 

E'ven to the above. Some have here 
und a region in the world of spi- 
rits which they have denominated 
** limbui patnim,'*^ which, anterior 
to the death of Christ, and his de- 
scent to that place, seems to have 
corresponded to the more modern 
pui^tory. These, it seems, are 
plMce$ to which those were, and are 



consigned, who did, or do, not de- 
serve to be sent tohelUbot who^ ne- 
vertheless, are not fit to be adnittal 
to heaven-^from which placei they 
could not be released and admitted 
to celestial bliss, otherwise than 
either by a personal visit from Christ 
himself, or by the renewed oSaring 
of his sacrifice on earth, by his re- 
gularly constituted vicars. As the 
only information we have respit- 
ing these half-way places between 
heaven and hell, seems to be about 
as well certified as many romantic 
stories told us by lying* travellers, 
we feel alike incredulous to both. 

There is another opinion* which 
savours somewhat of the former, 
but is much more partial in ita ex- 
tent Instead of making thia pri- 
son, or limbus, a receptacle for all 
the pious who had died before the 
coming of Christ, it was ** a jpfacsof 
kuping^* only for those who were 
disobedient to the preaching of Noah 
— but who happily repented after 
the flood commenced, and before 
they were drowned. Why those 
persons should have met so aingu- 
Far a fate I am unable to see. If 
true penitents, why were they not 
congregated with all other true pe- 
nitents, who had before them entered 
eternity, or who entered it after- 
wards until Christ came i If they 
were not true penitents, why were 
they distinguibhed from the rest 
who died in sin? I suspect that this 
text does notat all teach that Christ, 
after his death, visited the abodes 
of departed spirits, to report to 
them his triumph, and to effect their 
discharge. 

There is one other opinion which 
has been very generally received, 
and to the general truth of which no 
good objection can be made. It is 
that interpretation which supposes 
that the Apostle Peter here tells 
us that Christ, by that Spirit by 
which he was made alive from the 
dead, did inspire and influence 
Noah, and other preachers of that 
day ; and thus may be said to have 
preached to those who were then 



Exposition of 1 Peter in. 19, SO. 



259 



idient and perished, but who, 

Peter wrote, were spirits in 
rison of hell. That Christ, by 
)irit, did direct and influence 
reachers of riehteousness in 
's daj, as well as in every 
period of the church, is unde- 
r true ; nor is there any rea- 
• doubt but that they, who then 

and died impenitent, were, 
Peter wrote, in the prison of 

But that this is the special 
t, and true interpretation of 
Peter has here written, may, 
ps, be fairly questioned. Why 
such special emphasis and 
ction, is he said to have eone 
t time, and preached. If he 
)ne at no other time, or at that 
in some special and peculiar 
by such facts the interpreta- 
ere given might be explained; 
ich special racts are not al- 

nor is there any evidence on 

they could be alleged, 
ranslation and interpretation 
ng from all those now enu- 
ed, has occurred to the writer 
8 paper. — ^That the doctrine 

this new translation expres- 
I in perfect accordance with 
scriptural doctrine and facts 
fiidently believed, even though 
did be denied to be the doc- 
of this text. It is this— That 
', when risen from the dead, 
roclaim his resurrection, and 
qaently his divine mission, by 
\, u e. holy angels, who were 
i watch (at his tomb,) to those 
lad before been unbelieving 
le soldiers stationed there; or 
unbelieving and disconsolate 
les, who had come to visit his 
body — not believing that, ac- 
ig to his promise, he would 
om the dead. The text thus 
ated, would be as follows: — 
(a) at which time, xmi, also, 
ri< (b) tKii^v^tf, he preached, 

Fohnv. 7, Mark ii. 19. Luke xii.l. 
k pleonasm — precUcavit-^Kphes. ii. 
ackntght on the Epittief. 



r*f( ^ntvftMrt if ^A««I9, (c) by the 

Spirits on watch, airtiho'ttri, to thoae 
who had been unbelieving— (d) *«rff 
tr^rr, as formerly, the lonj; auffer- 
ing, &c. Or thus : — At which time, 
having departed (from the tomb) 
he proclaimed by spirits fi. e. by 
angels) his resurrection, to tnose oh 

?^uard, who had been unbelieving 
brmerly. Or thus : — At which 
time, having departed, he proclaim- 
ed his resurrection, by spirits-^i. e« 
by the holy angels, who first an- 
nounced it — as formerly in tho 
days of Noah, when the ark was 
preparing, the long suffering of God 
waited on the unbelieving or diao* 
bedient, (e) nt *«v, — after which long 
suffering, few (i.e. eight) souls, were 
preserved safe, throusn the water 
of the deluge : to which a corre- 
sponding baptism now saves as, 
through the resurrection of Jesui 
Christ (not a baptism which con- 
sists in removing the filthiness of 
the flesh,) but the answer of a ffood 
conscience toward God (i. e. by a 
renovated and upright mind^— by the 
resurrection, &c., who having gone« 
&c. 

1 Peter iv. 1,2. " Forasmuch then 
as Christ hath suffered for us in the 
flesh put on, as armour, the same 
mind ; for he having suffered in the 
flesh hath (/) made an end, or laid 
a restraint upon, sins {g), that we 

(r) Schleuaner on ^vXukv— ■< Proprie: 
ciutodUij actio custodiendi, c^ua excubis 
aguntur, ne res aliqua siirnpiatur, aut 
aliquit evadat. Sic suniitur Luc ii. S^ 
et ab Alexandrinis Num. i. 53, zviii. 3, 4, 
5, xxxi. 47. 

(d) Schoetgenius, in Horis Hebrticia, 
1043. legi pro ^rg vult •riy quod in edi« 
tione Bua Genevense exalet, et codices qui- 
dam, teste Erasroo, habeant. Millius unum 
pro hac lectione adfert. Ex hac lectione— 
"Jam enim semel Deus, temporibus Noa- 
chi, pro longfanimitate sua, homines invita- 
vit, eommque poenitentiam expectavit" 

(e) rff vv-^nostquam patientiam. 

(/) See the t'oHowing, of many in. 
stances in which passive verbs are uacd 
with an active si|^nification. Acts ziii. 3% 
47; xvi.lO; xviil. 19. 

Cf) IPeterW.^V 



160 



Obituary JMiee oJMoiter John R. nutchiion. Juhc» 



should no longer live the rest of oar 
time," &c. 

1 Peter iii. 19, as explained above, 
lays a foundation for the following 
remarks :— 

1. The resurrection of Christ is an 
indubitable fact, confirmed bjthe 
testimony of heavenly witnesses. 

S. It is a truth of primary and fun- 
damental importance, in the preach- 
ing of the gospel and in the faith of 
Christians. 

3. Angels have exercised, and 
do still exercise, a ministry of high 
importance to the church of Christ. 

4. Their benevolence is deeply 
interested in the welfare of man. 

M. 



/ 



OBITUARY SrOTirR OF MASTER JOHN 
H. HUTCHISON. 

Ih the Editor of the. Christian Ad- 
vocate. 

Mr. Editor — The following short 
account of the last illness and reli- 
gious exercises of my son John R. 
was written fur the satisfaction of 
my own family and a few friends, 
without any desi<rn uf giving it 
publicity. But finding that some 
manuscript copies of it have got out, 
which, through the negligence of 
transcribers, are greatly mutilated 
and distorted, I have complied 
with the request of some friends to 
have it published, if you should 
deem it worthy a place in your ex- 
cellent Advocate. 

John Hutchison. 

My son, John Russel Hutchison, 
was attacked with dysentery on 
Sabbath,theirth August, 1823. He 
was our eldest son, and the only 
surviving one of four sons that 
were born to us. He was eleven 
years, one month and twenty-two 
days old, at his decease. He was 
a regular attendant at church from 
an early period; but during the 
spring and summer preceding his 
deatli, he manifested a peculiar 
fondness for hearing the word 



preached, for attending on praying 
societies, and for religious conver- 
sation, lie generally carried about 
with him a copy of Watts' Psalns 
and Hymns, many of which he had 
committed to memory,^ For some 
weeks before he was seized by his 
last sick ness, he was under deep con- 
cern about his eternal welfare. He 
gave up all amusement, or play, 
among the boys of the town, and 
upon comins in from Latin school, 
which he had attended for seven or 
eight months, retired to a room by 
himself; where he spent his leisure 
time in reading the scriptures, and 
Doddridge's Rise and Progress of 
Relidon in the Soul. His mother 
and I freauently urged him to CP 
out and play, or take exercise (or 
his health. But to this he had no 
inclination. And his conversation 
on his death-bed, as well as before, 
evinced that he had read the books 
abovemen tinned with attention. 

From the commencement of his 
sickness, he was apprehensive that 
he would not recover. I had been 
absent, performing ministerial du- 
ties in a vacant congregation ; and 
on my arrival at home on Tuesday 
afternoon, the third day of his sick- 
ness, he, with great earnestness, 
requested me to pray for him. He 
was much concerned about his sis- 
ters; and told his mother in pri- 
vate, to put them in mind of their 
duty. He talked to his eldest sister 
when there was no person in the 
room but themselves, and pressed 
on her the duty of secret prayer, 
telling her, that for some time pre- 
viously, he himself had prayed 
three times a day in secret. 

His disorder proved very obsti- 
nate from the first. His sufferings 
were extreme; and his patience 
was exemplary. He very frequent- 
ly cried out in the acuteness of his 
pains, " Lord ! have mercy on me," 
and, "Lord God Almighty! have 
mercy on me, for Jesus Christ*s 
sake." He obr^erved to his mother 
that, " we are such sinful creatures, 
\s l\\« r^^^^u VIC: V\v<^ to suffer so 



Obituary Mtia of Mister John JZ. HHtehiMon. 



S61 



'' At one time he said to 
' O, Ma ! how good the Lord 
it he has spared us so long» 
las not cut us ofT long ere 
He often observed that his 
aint was a ** terrible disor- 

and he once said to his mo- 
" If I should get over this 
^ss» I think I can say with the 
ist : ' It is good for me that I 
flicted ; before I was afilicted 
t astray, but now have I kept 
ord.' " 

one day requested his mo- 

read to him in the Bible ; 

r>n her inquiring where he 
her to read, he mentioned 
ird chapter of John's gospel. 
Mrards he enjoined it on her to 
lis sisters " to seek the Lord, 

1 seek him early; and to pray 
:hey might be born again—- 
»f the Spirit — that they might 
itized with the Holy Ghost." 
ised at the manner in which 
<ke on the subject of regenera- 
te said to him — " John, where 
Du learn so much about the 
irthr" "I learned it," said 
from that third chapter of 
<rhich you read to me." 
tching with him one night, I 

the side of the bed ; and on 
coming a little restless, I in- 
I what he wanted? '< I want 
said he, "to pray with me, 
> teach me to pray." When 
I him how he should pray, " I 
laid he, " but I get so con- 
" — This was toward his last, 
he was very weak. At one 
when none was present but 
Jther, he said : " O, Ma, it is 
;t thing to die in Jesus !" At 
iraes again, lie discovered 
anxiety respecting the state 
soul, and his preparation for 
i; and when there was no 
I with him but his mother, he 
pray audibly, <* that the Lord 

pardon his many sins for 
's sake — that he would take 
r his child; would wash him 
bus' blood; would sanctify 
oJ prepare him for heaven ; 



and at death, would take him to 
himself." Such was the substance 
of his prayers. She expressed some 
fears to him, that, if he recovered, 
he would forget his views, and 
feelings, and pious resolutions 
when sick. He then charged her 
in a verv earnest manner, not to 
let him Uirget or neelect his duty, 
if he should get well; but to re- 
mind him of his sickness, and of 
the necessity of prayer, and a holy 
life. It was but seldom that he 
appeared to entertain any hope of 
recovery. He appeared much bet- 
ter on the Friday before his death, 
which cheered up the family consi- 
derably; but he calleit his mother 
to him, and told her privately, that 
he had but little hopes of his reco- 
very. That night he became worse, 
ancl continued very til and restless 
the whole night. Towards day- 
breaking, he appeared to be near 
his last. None were with him, ex- 
cept his mother and myself. We let 
him know that we considered him 
much worse: "Yes," said he, 
« death is approaching fast:" these 
words he pronounced with great 
calmness and deliberation. 1 tlien 
awoke the rest of the family, and 
he shook hands with his sisters and 
cousin, bade them farewell, and 
charged each of them, when he was 
deaiTand eone, to mind the one 
thing needful. At this time, he 
could not speak above his breath. 
We supposed him dying for a con- 
siderable time that morning (Satur- 
day). I said to him, "John, I think 
you are dying;" he replied — ^* Yes, 
1 think 1 am." I asked him if it 
was hard to die, or if he was afraid 
to die P " No," said he, in very soft 
accents, and with an air of the ut- 
most composure — 

" Jesiis can mnke a dying bed 
Feci soft as downy piUows are ; 
While, on his brea»l 1 lean my head. 
And breathe my life out sweetly there." 

The last line died on his lips, 
through failure of his strength. 

Shortly after \\m ^ ^w\ii% \ci'a^^ 
entered i\\e roo\\\» vi\W\ v*\\vi\\\'^vJwok 



96S 



OUtnatTf Mtiec tfMasUr John R. Butdkiion. Juvs, 



h|id converied freely and frequent- 
ly respecting his spiritual coocems* 
previously to his sickness. On this 
young man he fixed his eyes* and 
stretched out his hand towards him ; 
when he approached the bed* he 
took him by the hand» bid him fare- 
welli and requested that he would 
pray for him. In the same man- 
ner he acted with two lads, who 
attended the same school with him- 
self, and who were also under se- 
rious impressions. 

A number of persons were assem- 
bled in the room to witness his 
exit ; and thouah he had not spoken 
above his breadi for a considerable 
time, he exerted himself so as to 
speak loud enough to be heard all 
through the house, and said—**! 
bid you all farewell; and oh ! mind 
the one thing needful; I beseech 
you» my sisters, mind the one thine 
needful: seek the Lord, and seek 
4iim early.'' Then turning to his 
mother, he said ; " Ma, do you help 
them to seek the Lord." Two of 
hit sisters were older than he, and 
one of the same age with himself** 
he and she were twins. 

He professed a willingness to 
die, if he were sure that he was 
prepared fur heaven. On this sub- 
ject, he at tiroes manifested deep 
concern. To comfort him, I re- 
minded him of what Christ says in 
the character of wisdom, Prov. viii. 
ITd — ^"I love them that love me; 
and those that seek me early shall 
find me." Now, said I, do you not 
love Christ? " O ! yes, 1 do, with 
all my heart," was his reply. Upon 
his exhorting those around him 
again **to seek the Lord, and to 
seek him early," I observed to him, 
you have been seekine the Lord; 
'* I have sought him," said he; I 
hope, said I, you have found him. 
To this he noilded assent. He se- 
veral times told us to speak to him 
as little as possible; for it hurt him 
to speak. 

After waiting on him between 
three and four houi-s, expecting to 



witness his departure, we perceived 
him somewhat revived ; and he lived 
twenty-four hours after that He 
was perfectly sensible to the last, 
but not able to converse moch. On 
Sabbath morning, I asked bin if ke 
knew what day that was ? He an- 
swered, ■* Yes.'' I subjoined^ it ii 
the Sabbath--'* I know it," mid ke. 
I then observed to him, thatye Blar 
day morning about the same tine, 
I did not think that he wonld be 
alive so lone. He replied, - oaillier 
did L" A few minutes after, when 
there was no one with him bat a 
young woman who had resided iv> 
veral years in the family, he tirned 
towards her, and looking her fUl 
in the face, said : *' Susan, death It 
drawing near; and I must go and 
travel to my Ood !" She immedi*' 
diately called the family in; bet he 
spake no more. In deaths eeU 
embrace, his looks were intalli*' 
sent, but his tongue refused toper- 
form its office; and he depaitid 
without a struggle or a ^roaiu 

We had a great desire that he 
might be sparra to us ; but wiali Is 
repress every murmur, and to seb- 
mit patiently to the will of God; fe 
rest satisfied with the dispoaal of 
heaven, and to say, with pions and 
afflicted Job^** The Lord gave, and 
the Lord hath taken eway : Blessed 
be the name of the Lord.*" 

Six of our children now sleep in 
the dust, cut oflf in the momiogof 
life, whose early removal we Iwve 
to lament; but I trust that we do 
not mourn as those who have no 
hope. On the glorious mom of the 
resurrection, <*them who sleep in 
Jesus will God bring with him.'' 

J« 'H. 

MifUni9i9nt September^ A, D, 1833. 




We have given a ready insertien 
to the foregoing judicious, modest, 
and well written narrative; and 
take this opportunity to say, that to 
such obituary notices our pacea 
will always be cheerfully opened. 

JBornMu 



The Shipwrecked. 



163 



€ Amuiet, or Chriitian and Literarjf 
Memembrancer, 

THE 8HIPWR£0KED. 

Bt L. A H. 

ilkdabore me* the wild watcs— 
l»ioken mait I gnppled yet ; 
3W*inen had found their graven 
le another sun had let. 
ircileat the ocean still 
*d me, then calmly round roe lay, 
:e another human thrillf 
Tanta torture ere they slay, 
en the foaming breakers rush'd« 
pass'd o'er me» or bore me high, 
ito circling eddies gush'd, 
ggled— ^et 1 knew not why s 
bope that bade me cling 
that only earthly thing, 

not then His mercy gave 
:p me level with the wave, 
npest, wlien the day was gone, 
ereely with the night came on ; 
wling o'er the trackless sea^ 
either hope nor fear to me ; 
r had made me brave my fate, — 
—thus lone and desolate. 
noUier momiAg sun, 
tmy struggles were not done : 
ing billow wafted then 
mrade's bod^ to my side, 
itely, with his fcUow-men, ^ 
bravely stemmed the dashing tide. 
m cheek and half-open eye 
m^ that in agony 
rit had not left him,— he 
d as if slumbering on tlie sea. 
y gazed, and without dread, 
Jie dull eye of the dead ; 
len his cold hand touch'd my clieek, 
ce came from me in a shriek : 
le own voice I gazed around, 
so unlike a human sound ; 

the waters none were near, 
ie corpse upon its watery bier, 
iDgry birds that hovered ntg^i, 
ung his sole funeral cry. 

■ of human pangs to fill 
came a calm^more deathly still, 
le its sullen silence brought 
repose that wakened thought. 
ly fimbs quivered, as the sea 
ome less gentle breeze was stirred, 
r 1 every moment heard 
:ean monsters follow me | 
zame the sun in all his might, 
ck me with his noon-day height : 
the waves lay beneath me long, 
lit power grow fiercely strong 
me, and would often dip 
ming brow and parched lip, 
il them in the fresh'ning wave, 
ig Uie waters were my grave. 
t the tea-bird o'er me flew, 
once it flapped me with its wing : 



That I must be its prey 1 knew. 
And smiled at my heart's shivering j 

But yet I could not bear to see 
Its yellow beak, or hear its cry 

Telling me what I soon Inust be ; — 
I moaned, and wept, and feared to die. 

And as the chill wave grew more chill. 
The evening^ breeze became more stitl* 
AAd, breathmg o'er tlte awfiil deep. 
Had lulled me, and 1 longed to sleep : 
Ify senses slept, my head bowed low. 

The waters splashed beneath, then 
broke 
Suddenly o'er my aching brow, 

llVith a convulsive start I woke. 
And, waking, felt them o'er me float. 
While gurgling in my parched throat. 

Where'er I drifted with the tide, 
M^ comrade's corpse was by my side. 
Still to the broken mast I clung, 
At times aside the waves I flung. 
All day I struggled hard ; but when 
Another and another came. 
Weaker and weaker grew my frame,-^ 
I deemed that I was dying then. 
My head fell on the wave once more. 
And reason left me, — all seemed o'er j 
Yet something 1 remember now, — 

I knew I gazed upon the sky, 
And felt the breeze pass o'er my brow. 

Along the unbroken sea to die ; 
And, half with faintness half witli dread, 
'l1ie spirit that sustained me fled. 

There was an eye that watch'd me then, — 
An ear that heard my frecjuent prayer ; 

And God, who trod the unyielding wave. 
When human eflbrts all were vain. 

Ere the death-struggle, came to save. 
And called me back to life again. 

I tliought that 1 was yielding life. 
To perish in that mortal strife. 
Ana calmly lay along the sea, 
I'hat soon would calmly pass o'er me ; 
But my clench'd teeth together met. 
As if with death I stnij^led yet — 
Tliat I was stemming it once more s 

And then again the sea-bird's cry 
Was mingling with the billows' roar. 

As I laid down my head to die. 

Returning reason came at last, 

And bsde returning hope appear : 
That remnant of the broken mast« 

And my dead comrade— both were 
near; 
Not floating o'er the billows now, 

For they had drifted us to land — 
And I was saved — 1 knew not how — 

But fielt that an Almighty hand 
Had chased the waters from the strand. 

Beside the corpse, and by the wave, 
I knelt and murmured praise to Him, 

Who, in the fearful trial, gave 
Strengtli to l\i« a^Mnl tim^ >^<t. \\tc^^. 



864 



Mexander CamphetPs Mw TeslameiU. 



JmiSf 



fietitett)^* 



ALEXANDER CAMPBELL'S NEW TES- 
TAMENT. 

( Continued from page 320.) 

One prominent femture of this 
anomalous production is* that it 
professes to reject every adopted 
or anglicised word. Dr. George 
Campbell's labours in favour of 
immersion ^ve him some aid in 
this particular. Complaining of 
our translators, the Dr. says, ** some 
words they have transferred from 
the original into their language, 
others they have translated.'' He 
wishes that the^ had not transcri^i 
the word baptism, but given it a 
dipping translation* He considers 
baptism even now "a foreign name. 
For this reason," says he, ** 1 should 
think the word immersion (which 
though of Latin origin, is an Eng- 
lish noun, regularly formed from 
the verb to immerse,) a better Eng- 
lish name titan baptism, were we 
now at liberty to make a choice." 

When great men sicken into a 
prurient longing to carry some 
wrong point, what weak arguments 
they will sometimes use ! Now I 
would inquire of the literary world, 
if it be not as true, that BAPrisM, 
though of Greek origin, is an Eng- 
lisk nouv, regularly formed from 
the verb to BArnzE, as that immer- 
sion, " though of Latin origin, is an 
English noun, regularly formed 
from the verb to imnurse?" Both 
these words were originally foreign, 
and both are now naturalized; and 
if there be any difference, it is in 
favour of baptism, because this, 
being more generally known and 
understood, is more completely do- 
mesticated. Besides, the connex- 
ion of the term, in the scriptures, 
shows that immersion would be a 
perversion instead of a translation 
of the oricinal. It was evidently 
this consideration which sometimes 
made Dr. Macknight follow our Bi- 



ble in transcribing. He does not 
say ** All were immermd into Me- 
ses in the cloud and in the sea," 
as my opponent's ineomparM s has 
said for nim; but he says "all wore 
ImpHsoBd into Moses in the dead 
and in the sea." When a. naa's 
zeal against the adoption of Greek 
words leads him not only to pab- 
lish Dr. Campbell's weak arga- 
ment, but to invent a fact for Ful, 
and forge a translation for Mack- 
night, I am ready to say» in rder- 
ence to a reproof once given to an 
incompetent imitator of Pindar, 
'* Dr. Campbell was bold, bat thou 
art impudent" 

Scores of alterations where this 
word is concerned, are confened in 
the Appendix; and after he was 
taxed with the fault, he shows that 
they were promised in the Prospec- 
tus, which, however, is notpabush- 
ed with the work, and is in direct 
opposition to the promise contained 
in the title-page. His prospectis 
reads as follows, viz. "There it 
also one improvement of consider- 
able importance which ought to be 
made in this work, and to which we 
shall attend. Sundry terms are 
not translated into English, but 
adopted into those translations 
from long usage. Those terms are 
occasionally translated into Eng- 
lish by Campbell and Macknight; 
but not always. We shall uni- 
formly give them the meaning 
which they have affixed to them, 
wherever they occur, and thus make 
this a pure English New Testa- 
ment, not mingled with Greek 
words, either adopted or angli- 
cised." Here is a prooiise that he 
will make his translation such pore 
English, that it shall not contain 
any adopted words, such as Jtfiir- 
tyr, Archangel, Myriad, Mystery, 
Schism, Blasphemy, Denarius^ Eu- 
roclydon, Tartarus, Myss, Hades. 
Some of these words, such as Jtfy- 



JSlexander CampbdPi J\1n^* Testament. 



265 



Denarius, Tartarus, Myss,^uA 
S are translated and not adopt- 
our Bible: but his translation 
;atlj to excel ours in this re- 
, and be much purer English, 
iromises to adopt none, but 
late all. After this, would 
rxpect to hear me say that he 
ictually adopted the whole of 
, even those which our Bible 
lates? Y^et such is the fact! 
one case, he copies Doddridge, 
srning "the martyrs of Jesus," 
rh in another he alters Dod- 
;e's martyr into witness, An- 
\ a Greek word anglicised ; he 
fore rejects it utterly, and al- 
uses the word Messenger for 
^rchangel^Aso is a Greek word 
cribed, and might just as pro- 
be rendered iVme-m€ss«w- 
yet this word he uniformly 
ts. Myriad is a Greek word 
cised, and when used in con- 
)n with angels, is rendered, by 
knight, "ten thousands of an- 
" My opponent's incompara- 
dters this into " myriads of 
engers." How wonderfully 
elucidates the subject ! But in 
Vppendix he tells us that such 
ovements are made, that the 
itures may be " more intellisi- 

common readers, whose cdi- 
ion," says he, "we have su- 
lely in view," Some common 
ers, however, are so stupid, 
they would think this improve- 
t worth very little more than a 
of leather spectacles. Besides 
ing Doddridge in transferring 
vord mystn^y, and Macknight, 
ansferring the word schism, he 
s fast to this adopted word 
e, even where Macknight trans- 

1 it; in one of which instances 
istifies himself by the authonty 
)r. George Campbell, who first 
ht him to condemn such tran- 
)tions. The Dr. and his in- 
ffarabte disciple . sometimes 
slate blasphemy and blaspheme, 
gh poorly enough : yet at other 
!S both ilie noun and the ^erb 
adopted by them. Ai for De- 



narius, I believe they uniformly 
transfer it: although our American 
dime is a coin of the same value, 
and would, (in our country at least,) 
aiford a good translation. He has 
adopted Euroclydon, although he 
knows that Levanter is a transla- 
tion familiar to the commercial 
world. To be more intelligible to 
common readers, he has adopted 
Tartarus, instead of translating it 
hell, as our Bible does. In one in- 
stance now before me, he follows 
Dr. Campbell in transferring the 
word abyss, where our Bible trans- 
lates it the deep, notwithstanding 
their censures against it for trans- 
ferring instead of translating. In 
other cases he copies Doddridge's 
abyss; besides which, he translates 
it the deep with Macknight, and the. 
bottomless pit, with Doddridge. In 
relation to another word of similar 
import, my opponent says, " There 
being no one word in our language 
whicn corresponds to the term 
hades, he [Dr. George Campbelll is 
obliged to retain and explain it" 
He at the same time says, "We 
[Mr. Alexander Campbell] have 
uniformly followed his method in 
the books which he did not trans- 
late." That is, the word hades is 
never translated, but always re- 
tained in his New Testament. 
This he does in despite of Mack- 
night's grave and Doddridge's hell, 
and his unseen world ; yet in this 
last translation my opponent ac- 
tually copies Doddridge in three 
places, notwithstanding his pro- 
mise uniformly to retain hades after 
Dr. Campbell's example. From 
these instances we may conclude 
that when he promises to adopt, he 
will be sure to translate, and when 
he abuses our translators for adopt- 
ing, he means to adopt twice as 
much as they have done. 

(To be continued.) 



BRITISH 'RKV I RWS. 

It is known to some of our rea^d- 
e.x%, thaV \u W\e Vil^V'^q* ^^ >^^^\\V\^ 



S66 



British Reviews. 



JuHEf 



Quarterly Review, au article is in- 
terted which contains some severe 
animadversions on the character, 
conduct and views of the Ameri- 
can missionaries, at the Sandwich 
Islands. It so happened that this re- 
view came to our hands while we had 
the pleasure of having for our guest 
the ilev. Charles Samuel Stewart, 
whose private journal has appeared 
in our pages, and who was tnen en- 
gaged in obtaining contributions in 
rbiladelphia, to aid in sending out 
a reinforcement to the Sandwich 
Island mission, under the direction 
of the American Board of Com- 
missioners. We considered this as 
a favourable occurrence in Provi- 
dence; as Mr. Stewart was able, 
from personal knowledge, to expose 
at once, to those with whom he 
conversed, the misrepresentation 
of facts made by the writer of the 
article to which we have referred. 
Mr. S. also engaged to furnish us 
with some written remarks on the 
subject, which we fully expected to 
insert in the present number of our 
miscellany. But his numerous and 
pressing engagements have compel- 
led him to (lelay his communication 
till the coming month, when our 
readers may expect that the un- 
fairness of the British reviewer 
will be set in a proper light — We 
have good reason to believe that 
what that reviewer has given to 
the world as a letter from the 
Sandwich chief, Boki, is in sub- 
stance a forgery; and we rejoice 
that Mr. Ellis in England, as well 
as Mr. Stewart in the United 
States, will be able, and we doubt 
not disposed, to vindicate the sa- 
cred cause of missions, in the 
islands of the Pacific Ocean, against 
the malignant attacks of its enemies, 
some of whom appear to us to hate 
these missions because they are 
evangelical, and others because, at 
the Sandwicli islands, they are 
American. 

The Eclectic Review is conduct- 
ed by men who appear to love the 
trutl) as it is in Jesus, and to 
regard their Christian brethren in 



America with no hostile feelines. 
From that Review, we insert die 
following article, which appears to 
be written with candour, and which 
contains some general informatioa 
that we think will be gratifying to 
all the friends of missions, and es- 
pecially to those who take a liirely 
interest in what has occurred at 
the Sandwich Islands. Yet even 
in this review there are two errors, 
which we deem it of some im- 
portance to correct. The first 
relates to the recently deceased 
monarch of the islands, the unhappy 
Riho-Riho. He is represented u 
chargeable only with occasional in- 
temperance. Eye-witnesses, we are 
sorry to say, have assured us that 
he was what we should call a con- 
firmed drunkard ; that is, he was, 
not un frequently, for days together, 
in the most pitiable state of extreme 
ebriety — besotted and helpless. 
When not disguised by liauor, all 
agree that he was an amiable, Mt, 
and well disposed prince; an ac- 
complished gentleman in his man- 
ners, and devoted to the proinoUoo 
of his people's happiness. The 
second error of the reviewer relates 
particularly to Mr. Bingham. It is 
said "strange tilings are intimated 
respecting Mr. Bingham and his 
fellow missionaries ; we wish, most 
sincerely, that Mr. Ellis were on 
the spot, liis intelligence and mo- 
deration might prevent much mis- 
chief.-' Now ire do not wish that 
Mr. Ellis were on the spot to which 
the reviewer refers, but rather re- 
joice " most sincerely*' that he is 
'* on the spot" in England, — able 
and ready, we are confident, not 
only to vindicate the American 
missionaries from the slanders of 
their enemies, but to correct the 
misapprehensions of their real 
friends. He and the American 
missionaries, when they were tose- 
ther, acted in perfect concert. His 
experience and counsel were doubt- 
less of great use, and we do not be- 
lieve that his advice has been de- 
parted from, since he left the 
islands. It may be that in some 



British Reviews. 



«67 



:ular instance Mr. Bingham 
lot acted in the best pos- 
manner; but he is unques- 
t)ly an able» judicious, prudent, 
ievoted missionary; and the 
ation that the presence of 
^llis, or of any other European 
iduai, is necessary to "pre- 
much mischief/' does great 
tice — not voluntarily we are 
ied — to the American mis- 
ries. But we forbear — The 
rks of Mr. Stewart, in our 
number, will bring the truth 
e our readers, more clearly and 
than it can be stated by us. 

ge of H. %V. 8. Blonde to the 
ndwich Islands, in the Years 
24, 1825. Captain the Right 
>ft. Lord Byron, Commanaer, 
K pp. 2r0. Price 9,1. 2s. London. 

itwithstanding its more im- 
ig exterior, this is a book very 
ior, in point of quality, to the 
y interesting volume recently 
shed by Mr. Ellis. It is, in 
only supplementary to its pre- 
ir; and the additional details 
it supplies, might have been 
ntageously compressed within 
imits of a moderate-sized ap- 
ix. They understand these 
;8, however, better in Albe- 
e-street than they do in " the 
;" and the same matter which, 
:tavo, would only be deemed 
hy of a chapter, claims, in 
to, the accommodations of a 
ne; while the decorations which 

quite insignificant on the hum- 
scale, bid defiance to criticism 
I exhibited in the ultra propor- 

of a folded sheet. But we are 
ipating; and, as we shall pre- 
y have to make specific com- 
: on these particulars, we shall 

dispose of the preliminary 
tion, by endeavouring to ascer- 
the positive and comparative 
iof the information communi- 
1 in the work before us. 

our review of Mr. Ellis's vo- 



lume, we gave such a general ac- 
count of its contents^ as will super- 
sede the necessity for a minute ana- 
lysis of Lord Byron's Voyage. It 
will, indeed, better suit the desulto- 
ry character of the present narrative, 
to extract from it some of its more 
attractive details, than to follow it 
consecutively. The story is, on the 
whole, agreeably told, though with 
an occasional aflfectation of fine 
writing and sentimental reflection* 
that is singularly out of place when 
associated with a sailor's log-book, 
and the expressive simplicity of his 
vocabulary. 

Oar readers are aware, that, after 
a series of rulers, concerning whom 
nothing certain or important is re- 
corded, the chieftainship of Owby- 
hee devolved on Teraiopu, the Tc- 
reeoboo of Cook. He was succeed- 
ed by Kevalao, the Teamawheere of 
Vancouver; a tyrant whose pride 
was so excessive as to prompt him 
to visit with death the offence of any 
one of the lower order, who, be- 
tween sunrise and sunset, should 
even inadvertently look upon the 
hallowed person of the Eree-taba^ 
the sacrea chief. The celebrated 
Tamehameha was cousin to this 
worthy legitimate, and held the in- 
dependent sovereignty of a section 
of the island. He was not a man 
to crouch before a despot, nor was 
Kevalao likely to brooK pretensions 
to equality ; and they were soon at 
deadly feud. The final and decisive 
contest, which lasted seven days, 
terminated in the deftth of Kevalao, 
and the elevation of Tamehameha, 
who ultimately made himself master 
of the whole of the Sandwich Isles. 
This extraordinary man seems to 
have been of the first order of in- 
tellect He neglected nothing. 
Notwithstanding his comparative 
power, he was aware of his inabili- 
ty to defend his people against 
European vexations or encroach- 
ment, and, with a view to guard 
against all contingencies, he mad^ 
a formal ces9i\ou of \\\% jlkQ\ci\\iVQitL% \.^ 
the King ot QtesA \^n\ivBi\ wl %kX 



S68 



Britiih Heviews. 



JuVKf 



which has been confirmed bj his 
successors, and, as it should seem, 
accepted by our cabinet. After 
having consolidated his power, and 
established a profitable and exten- 
sive system of commerce, he died 
in May, 1819, leaving his ofiice to 
his son lolani, or Riho Riho,a youne 
man of good intentions, but oT 
strong passions, and ambitious of 

Kwer and distinction. He has 
en represented as addicted to 
drinking, but, from this charge, he 
is defended by the Editor of the 
present volume, who denies the ha- 
bit, and extenuates the occasional 
excess, by an emphatic reference 
to the delinquencies of nobles and 
princes amon^ ourselves. His first 
measures exhibited the boldness and 
decision of his character. The 
prompt extinction of rebellion by 
placing himself unguarded in the 
hands of its leader, that he might 
overcome it by argument and remon- 
strance, rather than by arms ; the 
suppression of idolatry ; the remo- 
val of the arbitrary, and oppressive 
disqualifications that placed females 
in a state of degradation ; ail these 
were the acts of an enlightened and 
determined spirit. Nor were these 
things hastily or rashly dune. Riho 
Riho took counsel, and was aided 
by the sanction and example of his 
most powerful chieftains. Mis visit 
to England, too, appears to have 
been neither a capricious nor an 
unadvised step. Independently of 
his reasonable curiosity to witness 
the circumstances of European so- 
ciety, and the sources of that power 
which extended its signs and influ- 
ences so far from its centre, he was 
anxious to arrange a permanent un- 
derstanding with the government of 
Great Britain, and to obtain a for- 
mal and authoritative recognition 
of the alliance between the protect- 
ed and protecting nations. With 
these views, he embarked in an 
English merchant vessel, command- 
ed by a Captain Starbuck, an Ame- 
rican, to wnom dishonesty and in- 
tngue are very unequivocally im- 



puted. He refused to receive on 
board, as interpreter, the EnKlish 
missionary Ellis; and his deaTiiigB 
in money transactions are repre- 
sented as the very reverse of hon- 
ourable. It is suggested, that ha 
might have in view more important 
objects, and that, if circumstances 
had favoured his machinations, ht 
intended ultimately to inveigle hit 
passengers to America, and there 
to stipulate for the session of one 
of the Sandwich islands, ** in ex- 
change for the liberty of retaming 
to their kingdom." He had taken 
care to lighten the stock parse ef 
the party very seriously; and be 
probably calculated, that when the 
remainder had been dissipated in 
England, they would be at his mercy 
for a passage back. He would then 
have conveyed them to the United 
States, and accomplished the rest 
of his purpose in his own way. 

<* When Riho Riho embarked, he hid 
taken twenty-five tliuusand dolUn on 
board with him. Captain Starbuck, who 
took on himself to regulate the king's ex- 
penditure, alleged that three thousind 
had been spent during their short stay at 
Rio Janeiro, a certain number on the road 
from Portsmouth to London, and these 
were the only sums he could account for; 
although, when the cash chests belong- 
ing to the king were opened at the Bank 
of England, little more than ten thousand 
dollars were found." 

It is stated, that the merchants 
of the United States are very desir- 
ous of obtaining a port in the Paci- 
fic, and that one of the Sandwich 
Islands would be well suited to their 
purpose. It is, moreover, broadly 
intimatcfl, that the American mis- 
sionaries at Owhyhec are intriguing 
for an influential share in the gene- 
ral political administration. How- 
ever all this may be, the Captain-s 
designs, if they were mischievous, 
were cut short by the intervention 
of the British Government, who, 
very wisely and humanely, appoint- 
ed a guardian to Riho Riho and his 
suite, paid them every attention, 
and, when the lamentable deaths of 
the young king and c|ueen had put 



British Reviewi* 



S69 



to all their speculations, 
me their remains with royal 
i. 

:>ehaviour of the whole partj 
ibed as exemplary, while in 
intry. They examined every 
itii a curiosity eager but not 
md, when they were intro- 
to an assembly of rank and 
» invited by Mr. Canning for 
pose of meeting them, it any 
' well-dressed mob" had an- 
d amusement at the uncouth 
ur of the savages, they were 
tinted at finding, 

t the slightest embamssmcnt or 
Iness was displayed by them, and 
king knew how to bold his state, 
ereet to do their service, ai well 
y had practised all their lives in 
n courts." 

r were delighted with West- 
' Abbey ; tne music affected 
nuch ; and when Riho Riho 
Drmed that the ancient kines 
and lay buried in Henry the 
I's Chapel, he paused on the 
&nd refused to enter. The 
he said, was "too sacred." 
s taken to Covent Garden 
; and much gratification was 
>ed when he learned that the 
)ox had been fitted up ex- 
for his reception. The whole 
rere averse to regular hours 
lis; they ate when they were 
, and could not learn the ha- 
djusting the appetite to par- 
hours. 

ir greatest luxury was oysters, of 
hey were particularly fond i and 
some of the chiefs having been 
alk, and sceinj^ a grey mullet, in- 
eized it and carried it home, to 
t delight of the whole party, who, 
^nising the native fish of their own 
iild Bcarcciv believe that it had 

w 

n hither on purpose for them, or 
uadcd to wait till it was cooked 
liey ate it." 

closing scenes were extreme- 
sting. One of the suite, who 
sn left un board in charge of 
;gage, having landed at dif- 
places in the river, had caught 
isles, and communicated the 



infection to the king and c^ueen.*— 
The former was affected violently, 
but not alarmingly: the latter ex- 
hibited the most dangerous symp- 
toms. 

** No hope remaining of the queen's re- 
covery, her husband was apprized of her 
danger. He caused himselt to be imme- 
diately placed in his arm-chair and wheel- 
ed to her apartment ; when, bein^ lifted 
upon her bed andplaced by her side, he 
embraced her affectionately, and they 
both wept bitterly. He then dismissed 
the attendants, and they remained for 
some time alone together. Till then, the 
kingf waa supposed to be recovering ; but 
it was understood, that at thia mournful 
interview, these young people had agreed 
that one diould not survive the other. At 
hvc o'clock, he desired to be conveyed 
to his own bed, where he lay without 
speaking, and the queen died about an 
hour after he left her ; that is, about six 
o'clock in the evening of the 8th of July, 
1824. 

** Liliab, whose dutiful and affectionate 
behaviour to her friend and mistress had 
been most exemplary, now took charge 
of her body, and disposed it after the 
manner of her countr)', unclothing it to 
the waist, leaving also the ancles and 
feet bare, and carefully dressing the hair 
and adorning it witli chaplets m flowers. 
The kin^ now desired the body mi^ht be 
brought into his apartment, and laid on a 
small bed near him; that being done, he 
sat up looking at it, but neither speaking 
nor weeping. The medical attendants 
observed, that the state of Kiho liiho was 
such as to render it highly improper to 
keep the queen's body near him, and it . 
was therefore proposed to him to allow it 
to be taken away ; but he sat silent, and 
answered no one, only by gestures allow- 
ing that he forbade its removal. At length, 
after much persuasion, and then leaving 
him to himself for a time, he suddenly 
made signs that it might be taken away ; 
which was accordingly done,and the queen 
was again placed on her own bed. From 
this day the king's disorder rapidly in- 
creased; the loss of the queen decided 
his fate : his spirits sank, his cough in- 
creased, and he himself declared he 
should not long survive. On the day of 
the king's decease, he was supported by 
pillows, and said little, but repeated the 
words, * I am dying, I am dying :' within 
the curtains of ilie bed, one of the chiefs 
sat continually, with his face towards the 
king, and his eyes fixed on him, in con- 
formity, as they said, with their, native 
customs." 

It was muc\v Te5!c^\.Vw\\i^>\x^>iAw^ 



I 



A70 British Reviews. JurBi 

of England, that he had not been battle, lie lifted up hU withered hand* 

able to arrange an interview with J"^ •***»• '"earme, >c chicjii; ye who 

0:1.^ o:u« . -^.1 •« •— 1« «o ^^n»<M Da%e warred under ihe great Tamehame- 

Kiho Riho ; and as early as conve- j,^ Karaimoku and 1 were born upon the 

nient after the decease of the Eree- aame mountain in this island ; we were 

tabu, his followers were introduced nourished at thesame breast, andourboy- 

to his Britannic majesty at Wind- i«h sports were in common, and together 

sor- They were charmed with their ^« j>rea8ted yonder fcmming wavc^In 

.. *' I r !«. r II 4* ^ munhoo<I. we foueht side by side. When 

reception, and felt, in f u I torce, Karaimoku waswSunded, I slew thechief 

the impression of that mingled grace whose spear had pierced him ; and though 

and dignity which distinguish the l am now a dried and withered leaf, never 

deportment of the British sovereign, be it said that Kaikeoeva deserted hU 

"^ friend and brother in arms in time of need. 

•< On the 22(1 of September (1824.) Who is on Karaimoku's side? l^t him 

they finally lefl London, and went to wait launch his war canoe and follovr me/ 

at Portsmoutli for the arrival of the Blonde This burst of eloquence from so approved 

from Woolwich It was observed, that a warrior, aroused the chiefs ; in an hour 

these chiefs never forgot a person they all the war canoes in and near Lahttna 

had once seen ; and, in most cases, they were launched, and bore six hundred 

liad remarked some peculiarity by which men to Taui, in time to join fCanimoko 

they contrived to identify even those as he marched to attack the fort of Tau* 

\(rhose names they had never heard. They muarii. 

inspired great interest in every society in •< So beloved is this chief, that as they 

I^ndon, and when once seen, they were approached the fort, one of his captains 

•ure to be remembered wiili kindness, cried out, *0 Karaimoku, you are the 

They returned to their native country chain that binds the seven islands toge- 

loaded with presents from various quar- ther; remainin safety, I beseech you, and 

ters, and have carried buck with them a 1 will lead the warriors on to fight. If 

love and respect for EngUnd, which do your light is extinguished, our land will 

no less honour to themselves than to this again be in confusion.' " 

countr}'. Karaimoku, however, was not a 
The Blonde, a fine frigate of 46 ^an to resign to another the post of 
guns, under the command of Lord danger; he led his men to victory, 
Byron, sailed with her unusual ^n^i the insurrection was crushed, 
freight from Spithead. Sept. 28th ; ^^y 7, Lord Byron landed, and 
and after touching at Madeira, Rio i^^j ^n official interview with the 
de Janeiro, St. Catherine's, \ al pa- ..pgent Karaimoku, or William Pitt, 
raiso,Callao.and Albemarle Island, ^^ \^^ invariably styles himself, as 
anchored, on the evening of May having been the prime minister of 
the 4th, in Lahaiua Bay, Maui. They Tamehameha. It was a highly in- 
had previously learned from a fisher- teresting scene. Kiaukiauli, the 
man, that the absence of Riho Riho younger brother of Riho Riho, was 
had encouraged Tauuiuarii, one of pjesent, with his sister, and Kahu- 
the native chiefs. t(» revolt; and, as „,a„„^ the high-spirited widow of 
he was c»f royal descent, he had Tamehameha, and joint regent of 
found little difliculty in raising a ^he Sandwich Islands during the 
partv. Karaimoku, the regent, lost minority of the young prince. The 
no time in collecting troops and ex- spectacle was well got up, and every 
erting himself to suppress the re- thing passed off to admiration.— 
bell ion. Speeches were made, the presenta 
«' At Mani, the eref9 agreed, it would were given, and young Kiaukiauli, 
be proper to sLMid two hundred men in to his unspeakable delight, was 
canoes; hut the chiefs themselves, either , „ ^ • .. •' .1 \\r' t ° .•.*• ^ 
dreadinK^ a renevvul of the bloody scenes ^^,^^f^^^ "P ' V^l^ J"r''?u ""'^?™' 
wliich had innibled them in the time of With sword, hat, and leather. The 
1 umehamehu, or moved by the caprice or landing of the bodies, and the fune- 
indolence of half-civilized men, seemed r^l procession, were equally well 

unwilling to join the expedition, when managed ; and the coffins, covered 

Kaikeoeva, an aired chief, came among -^i. ° • 1 a 'xl -i 

ttiem, wid lcarnV.,B the musc of their V}^ crimson velvet, with silver 

meeting, «nd Iheir backwardness to go to gilt ornaments, excited in a very 



Brilish Reviews. 



271 



egree» the admiration of the 
I. 

iimoku was afflicted with 
', and, at the suggestion of 
*geon of the Blonde, consent- 
submit to the operation of 
gt The chiefs who stood bj, 
n no little anxiety and doubt, 
were alarmed at the very 
f an operation so formidable 
>earance, and "seriously ex- 
! to see his highness's break- 
isue through the aperture." 
letermination of the regent 
lowever, unshaken, and his 
ence implicit. "My life," 
], "is in your hands; do as 
ink good." The old queen 
'ted his head, kissing his fore- 
repeated ly, and, though not 
melted, sliedding tears pro- 
. The operation was per- 
successful: but he has since 
ed, and a Russian surgeon 
;ain performed it, though with 
beneficial effect. The chief 
it suffer his infirmities to in- 
i with the duties of his office ; 
sided at the different coun- 
hich were held for the pur* 
of settling the order of go- 
en t, and in all transactions, 
to have manifested much 
in and decision. After every 
had been satisfactorily set- 
he Blonde weighed and stood 
e island of Owyhee, or, as 
properly given by Mr. Ellis, 
ii» where she anchored, in By- 
ly, on the 12th of June. 
I most important business of 
untrymen on this island, con- 
1 the supplies for the home- 
voyage; and their most inte- 
e; occupation consisted in 
ing the manners and pastimes 
I natives, and in making ex- 
ns to the great burning moun- 
The crater does not appear 
re presented so magnificent 
pect, as when visitea by Mr. 
The lake of molten mine- 
^hich heaved in glowing surge 
epth of thirteen nundred feet, 
tner found an outlet, or sunk 



to it8 interior caverns ; but enough 
remained to excite the strongest 
sensations of admiration and awe. 
From the brink of the "dark, fiery 
gulf," Lord Byron and his compa« 
nions looked down over masses of 
lava and sulphur, upon a " rugged 
plain," over which were scattered 
upwards of fifty cones, of different 
heights, more than half of which 
were throwing up jets of flame» 
smoke, and vapour; "while floods 
of liquid fire were slowly winding 
through scoriee and ashes, here yel- 
low with sulphur, and there black» 
or grey, or red, as the materials 
which the flame had wrought on» 
varied." The details which we 
have so lately given from Mr. Et- 
lis^s work, render it unnecessary to 
be more minute in describing this 
stupendous volcano; and we shall 
only add, that Lord Byron and his 
companions contrived to find their 
way to the bottom of the crater, and 
to reach one of the cones. They 
descended 932 feet, to the "ledge" 
or "gallery" tlmt breaks the per- 
pendicular of the sides; and from 
this, with greater difficulty, they 
reached the lowest part, 400 feet 
more. Still they were not satis- 
fied ; but, with reckless and unpro- 
fitable hardihood, pushed on, over 
the uncertain surface, as far as one 
of the cones. This was their hie 
tandem; for the wind changing, 
drove the smoke and steam down 
upon them with such violence as to 
compel a quick retreat "Nothing 
in the whole scene was more 
striking than the soft fire-showers 
that seemed to rain down upon the 
burning plain." The party took 
up their quarters for the night at a 
hut, built under circumstances 
which we shall presently relate; 
but they were not permitted to in- 
dulge in unbroken repose. An 
eartliquake roused them at mid- 
night from their sleep, and on has- 
tening to the crater, they perceived 
a new opening throwing up stones 
and flame, with tremendous w^\%^« 
Fresh streams ot Xvi^l >n^\^ ^^V\\y^ 



272 



British Reviews. 



in all directions, and even the dark 
portions of the surface heaved with 
the internal commotion. Not long 
before this, the same scenes had 
been visited from motives of a far 
higher kind than those of scientific 
curiosity. 

"The liut in which wc passed the 
night, liad witnessed one of the greatest 
actsof moral courage, which has, perliaps, 
been performed ; and the actor was a wo- 
man, and, as we arc pleased to call it, a 
■avage. 

**Kapio1ani, the wife of Nuhi, a female 
chief of the highest rank, had recently 
embraced Christianity; und desirous of 
propagating it, and of undeceiving the 
natives as to their false gods, s!ie rc- 
■olved to climb the mountain, descend 
into the crater, and by thus braving the 
volcanic deities in their ver}' homes, con- 
vince the inhabitants of the island, that 
God is God ulone, and that the false su- 
bortlinate deities existed only in the fancy 
of their weak adorers. Thus determined, 
and accompanied by a missionary, she, 
with part of her family, and a number of 
followers, both of her own vassals and 
those of other chiefs, ascended I'eli. At 
the edge of the first precipice that bounds 
the sunken pluin, many of her followers 
and companions lost courugc and turned 
back; at the second, the rest earnestly 
entreated her to desist fn>m her dan- 
gerous enterprise, and forbear to tempt 
the powerful god of tlie fires. Ihit she 
proceeded, and, on the very verge of the 
crater, caused tiic hut wc were now shel- 
tered in to be constructed for herself and 
people. Mere she was uguin assailed liy 
their entreaties to return home, and their 
assurances, that if she pei-sisted in viu. 
lating the houses of the goddesii, she 
would dniw on herself and those with 
her, certain deslniction. Her answer was 
noble : — "I will descend into the cruter,'* 
said she, "and if I do not return s;ifc, then 
continue to worship I'eli : but if I come 
hack unhurt, vuu must learn to adore the 
lio<l who created l*eli." She acconliiigly 
went down the steep and diftieult side of 
the crater, accompanied by a missionary* 
and hv some whom love or dutv induced 
to follow her. Arrived at the bottom, 
she pushed a stick into tlie liquid lavit, 
and stirred the ashes of the burning lake. 
I'he charm of supei-stition was at that mo- 
ment broken. Those who had expected 
to see the goddess, armed with flame and 
sulphurous smoke, burst forth and destroy 
the daring heroine who thus braved her 
in her very sancluarj', were awe-struck 
when they saw the fire remain innocuous, 
ajKl the flames roll harmless as though 



none were present. Tliey acknowledged 
the greatness of the Goo of Km|riobuiii 
and from that time, few indeed have been 
the offerings, and little the reverence of- 
fered to the fires of Peli." 

Until the visit of Lord Bjran, 
the "Royal Morai," where the 
bones of the ancient kings of the 
Island arc said to be preserved, 
had been held sacred, with all its 
apparatus of idols, wooden and 
wicker; but Karaimoku gave per- 
mission to his lordship, not only to 
examine it, but to carry off as much 
of its contents as he should think 
proper. The license was acted 
upon so effectively that, somewhat 
to the annoyance of the priest who 
acted as guardian, nearly the whole 
furniture of the place was trans- 
ported to the Blonde. The old 
man, however, was no bi^ot lie 
related an anecdote of his youth 
that is worth repeating. 

** One morning his father had placed 
the usual oflcring of fish and poi before 
the JVmi ^U'uii, or Great Spirit. The son, 
having spent a long day in an uiisucces»- 
ful fishing expedition, returned. Mil, 
tempted by hunger, devoured the foudot 
the gods. But first he placed his handi 
on tlie eyes of the idol, and found they 
saw not; and then his hand into hii 
mouth, but it did not bite ; and then lie 
threw his mantle over the image, and 
ate i and, replacing the bowl, removed 
the mantle, and went his way. Being re- 
pnived by his father, he said — *• Father, 1 
spoke to him, and he heard not ; 1 put 
my hand into his mouth, and he felt noti 
1 placed tapa over his eyes, ami he saw 
not ; I therefore laughed and ate." 
** Son," said the old pnest, '* thou hut 
done unwisely : 'tis true, the wood nei- 
ther sees nor hears, but the Spirit above 
obscr\'cs all our actions." 

On the 1 8th of July, the frigate 
sailed for England, leaving a con- 
sul to watch over the interests ol 
Great Britain, and to promote, as 
far as feasible, the advance of civi- 
lization and good government 
among the islanders. Strange 
things are intimated respecting Mr. 
Bingham and his fellow missiona 
rics; — we wish, most atncerelv. 
that Mr. Ellis were on the spot. 
His intelligence and moderation 



1827, 



British Ueviews* 



273 



uiight prevent much inisclucf. He 
would have a diflicult task, but we 
are persuaded that lie is quite equal 
to cope with all the irritabilities 
and selfishnesses which might en- 
counter him in its performance. 
On the 8th of August, in £0'' 8' 
S. lat. and 157'' 20' W. lon^., tlie 
Blonde came in sight of an island 
not laid down in any of the charts. 
Some of the officers landed, and 
found this solitary islet inhabited, 
and by Christians. Two "fine 
looking men" came on board, and 
presented their credentials as 
teachers appointed by the mission- 
aries at Otaheite. When the party 
landed from tiie frigate, tliey were 
met by the natives in the most 
friendly manner, and led through a 
thick, shady wuuJ, continually im- 
proving in beauty, until they came 
to a briglit [^recn lawn, on which 
stood the missiunai'les' dwellings, 
"two of the prettiest while-washed 
cottages imaginable." The inte- 
rior answered to the outside ap- 
pearances: boarded floors, sofa and 
chairs, windows with Venetian 
shutters, white curtained beds, and 
varnished floor-cloths, were among 
the conveniences and decorations 
of these villas of Mauti. A church 
stood near, of oval form, with carved 
pulpit and rea<ling-desk, and with 
seats for the accommodation of two 
hundred people. The island be- 
longs to the king of Atui, who, 
having been induced to destroy his 
idols, visited this spot in company 
with two English missionaries, de- 
stroyed the moral's, com mil ted the 
wooden gods to the flames, and left 
tlie two native teachers for the in- 
struction of the people. 

** On our return to the beach, one of 
the missionaries attended us. As wc re- 
traced our steps lliroujjh llic wckkI, the 
warbling of tlic birds, wliosc pUiinaTO 
was as rich as it was new to us, — the 
various-tinted butlerfiies that fluttered 
acn)ss our path — I lie delicious climate — 
tiic magniKccnl Ibrcsl trees — and, above 
all, the perfect union and hurmony exist- 
ing anion}; the natives, — prcsciiti^d a sul^ 



cession of agreeable pictures which could 
not fail to dielight ui." 

Their next point was Valparaiso, 
where their stay was short; and, in 
company with other English fri- 
gates, they sailed for Conception, 
where they had an opportunity of 
making acquaintance with the 
Araucanian chiefs, and of witness- 
ing the evolutions of their cavalry. 
A grand review had been appoint- 
ed, with the consent of the local au- 
thorities, for the marines of the 
British squadron, 300 in number; 
and tlie cnieftains had promised to 
exhibit at the same time the ma- 
nceuvres of the native troops. Men 
and horses were alike savage in 
their appearance. The whole 
scene, which furnished a holiday to 
the inhabitants for many miles 
round, is well described. 

"At the command of Venancio, they 
went through their exercise. On a g^yen 
signal they galloped off at once, brandish- 
ing their spears, and uttering the most 
discordant cries ; then stopped suddenly 
and drew up in a body, round which the 
cliiefs galloped repeatedly; Uicn they dis- 
mounted and advanced as if to cliarge on 
foot, beating time with their lances, and 
working themselves up by sliouts^ and 
bowlings almost to frenzy. After this ex- 
hibition, our marines performed their 
evolutions, to the £^reat delight both of 
the savage and the civilized spectators; 
and, indeed, the whole scene was very 
interesting. The surrounding country 
was very beautiful ; our station, on a lawn 
on the promontory of Talcaliuana, pecu- 
liarly so : groves and detached groups of 
trees surrounded us, between which, on 
one hand, was the vale of the majestic 
liio Hio, whose broad waters were wind- 
in^^ past the city, thmngh rich woods and 
fields, at the foot of lofty mountains. On 
tlic other side lay the bay, in which the 
British ships, quietly at anchor, were 
dressed with flags in honour of the day. 
The forc-gpxHind was filled with three 
very different races of men. The wild, 
unconquered Araucanian Indians, the ori- 
ginal possessors of the soil ; tlie native 
Chilians, spnintr from the Indian owner, 
ami the Spanish usurper of the country ; 
and ourselves, whose presence here, a 
century ago, would have boded war in 
both hemisplieres, but who arc now the 
protectors of the peace, nay the very ex- 
isleiice ol* the couutvy. Nw >««.\^ ^^ 

external dilVcvcucA:* vA •avV^"*^*-'^^^ ^*^ 



274 



Sh(n*t Miices of Recent Publicatioiis* 



JuHBf 



itriking than the moral dtftinction of the 
three races. We were dressed in the 
modem European naval costume; the 
Chilians in their broad hats, and hand- 
some striped ponchos; and the Indians 
with little clothing beyond wliat decency 
requires: so that there wanted nothing 
to complete the picturesque in all the va- 
tious groups that we formed." 

On the homeward passage, after 
le&Tine St. Helena, the Blonde fell 
in with a wreck, water-logged, but 
prevented from sinkine uy the 
lading, which was of tiinber. Her 
nasta were shattered ; her rigging 
and canvas were in shreds, xhe 
sea had swept the decks; but, when 
the frigate neared her, six human 
figures made their appcarapce in 
the last stage of famine and misery. 
They had been thirty-two days 
without any food but the flesh of 
their dead companions; they had 
seen other vessels, which had been 
unable or unwilling to aid them ; 
and they were all that remained of 
seventeen. One ship, an American, 
ataid near them two days, hailed 
them, and proposed to them to 
make a raft and come on board; 
but they had neither tools nor ma- 
terials, nor, if these had been at 
hand, strength to use them. The 
sea ran high, and the American 
captain durst not risk his boat. He 
reluctantly bore up, and left them 
to their fate. It is singular, that 
not only the remainder of the crew 
were saved, but that the wreck it- 
self should afterwards have been 
navigated into port. Lord Napier, 
in the Diamond frigate, fell in witli 



it in the foUowinji; summer; and, 
as the nature of his service did not 
allow him time enough to tow it 
into port, he put on board a suffi- 
cient number of hands, volunteen» 
to pilot the ship into the Azores, 
where she was so far refitted as to 
reach England in safety with the 
greater part of the cargo. 

The blonde anchored at Spit- 
head, March 15th, 1826. 

The plates are pleasing, but. as- 
suredly, do not exhibit the most in- 
terestinff or characteristic sceneiy 
of the Sandwich Islands. They 
are merely aquatinted. Tlie view 
of the great crater, Kairauea» is a 
decidcu failure, although the draw- 
ing has evidently been made by 
a practised hand. It conveys no 
adequate idea of the magnitude, 
and still less of the depth, of that 
tremendous chasm. The delinea- 
tion of such a scene requires the 
greatest skill and knowledge both 
of effect and of perspective, a com- 
bination of eye and science that is 
far beyond the range of a common- 
place artist. The plan (if we may 
so term it) of the spot, is mucn 
more satisfactory. The portraits 
are interestin*;;, and have been care- 
fully engraved. 

\Vc were disappointed at not 
finding an accurate chart of the 
Islands: its place is ill supplied by 
a meagre sketch, on a small scale, 
of the " track of H. M. S. Blonde." 
An appendix contains a few papers 
on scientific and miscellaneous 
subjects. 



SHORT NOTICES OF RKCKNT PUBLICATIONS. 



Prize Essays «x thk Ixstitition or 
TH1I Sabbath. T/ir former, hy ffi/fiam 
Jay, Ksf/., to vhom wat awarded the I've- 
faium of one hwidred dolhirt, hu a Cowi- 
tnitteo of the Simod of^Hlbunfj. Thr fntfvr. 
By Jiev. Samuel J\i''olt, Jtni. Puntuv nf 
the Church in Gahvavj vV. J'. 

It appears tliat the .Syinjd of Albany, 

in the year l^JO, uppuinlcil "A Coinniii- 

tee of Correspuiulcucc, relative to the 

MMtctificathn of (lie ijabbalh." Amou^ 



other TTieustircs, llic commiltcc "pro- 
posed tlic sum of Sl(^(^« to be appropri- 
ated to the author of an essay on this sa- 
ercd institution, which should be most 
apjuoved." Of forty-four essays* the 
coinnuttce stale, which were received 
and carefidly examined, and many ot 
wliich displayed jjreat talent, "two of the 
number, in the opinion of the committeef 
stood prominent in point of excellence.'* 
These two essiiys form the pamphlet be- 
fore us. The iirbl ib entitled — *< On the 



Short ^ybficfs of Recent Publications, 



275 



and Divine Authority o(^ tlie 

tlie second— " l>r tlie'Sa»»balli 

l)C (Htciipied in I'ersonul, J>u- 

I Social Uelijrion." The first 
the observance of tiic Subbatli 

by Ihe authority of Clod ; the 
nts out the manner in which 

of sacred rest oujfht to be 
Taken together, they may 
d as forming a compendious 
Tipletc system, in refei-ence to 
ical institution. This institu- 
eil to be not only of Divine ori- 

perpetual obfig^tion; its du- 
xificd; tlic advantages to be 

individuals and cornnumities 
2rforniance of these duties are 
>wn, and tlie ruinous consc- 
' their neglect arc justly and 
:xhibited. After a careful pe- 
s pampidet, we can recollect 
'a of any interest, in regard to 

subject, which the writers 
ouchcd on — It is an idea de- 

Selden, that the .lewish Sab- 
departure, as to the day, from 
i\ institution; and that the 
abbath is in reality a return to 
:ion,beingobserved<»n the very 
was at first appointetl by God. 
ver, is not a point of any prac- 
'lancc. We can scarcely ex- 
)pinion of the ai>le and pious 
which the writers of this pam- 
handh'd their subject, without 
to intlulge in e\trav:i;;anl en- 
\Ve do earnestly hopt; that it 
irinled in as cheap a form as 
id distribiiicil into every part 
ed States. A copy of it ought 

to e\ery pubii(*k functionary, 

laitl on the table of every 

f ('ongress and every nieni- 

y sl;it<' legislature in the Aine- 

II. It appeals e(|ually to the 

the <:hristian and to tiie prin- 
le repnbri«\in. And never did 
Kiul repiiblirans need to be ap- 

II n-gard l<i the Sabbath, more 
oil III ry men need it, at the pi<'- 

Oiir gem:nd government, in 
einenls inatle for carrying the 
taken the lead in breaking 
e laws, and breaking down the 
eiitiinent, by which the ob- 
f the Sabbath in our land was 
ied and enforced. And n<»w, 
/ where we write, sleain-boat 
for the Sabbath are advertised, 
ubiushing an effrontery as if 
eil neither the laws of God or 
' lhe\ are in notorious contni- 
f both, ("anals are opening, 
ids are about to be established, 
sections of our country; and 
e >iijorinis m**asiires aif spee 



dily adopted to prevent tlie evil, even- 
kind of travelling will shortly be us com- 
mon — perliaps more common — on the 
Sabbath, than on any other da^ of the 
week. The influence of this, if it should 
take place, in deteriorating publick mo- 
rals, and of ultimately endangering our 
free institutions, will be fearful indeed. 
The (aod of nations will ussurcdl}' punish 
us; we do not say by miracle, or by 
drought, or famine, or pestilence, or fo- 
reign war. Some of these, his ordinary 
scourges, he may use. But he needs 
only to leave us to the natural effects of 
our iniquities — the loss of a sense of mo- 
ral obligation, and the prevalence of vice 
and unhallowed passions — and these will 
urge us on to self-destruction, llic vital 
principle of free states is the general pre- 
vaftmre of virtue; and when this no 
longer exists, the termination of their 
libcities will soon follow. Let piety and 
patriotism therefore awake, and unite 
their eflbi'ts to arrest the mischief, before 
it be past a remedy. 

A SeuifTLJiAL \'ii:w of Uaptism. By 
Daniel Jiaker, Pastor of the 2d Pveibyte- 
rian Churchy Washington City. 

This little tract, consisting of no more 
than 2.) pages in small octavo, we liave 
found to contain all the radical ideas re- 
lative to the subject of baptism, which 
we have elsewhere seen dilated into vo- 
lumes. The writer has likewise the talent 
of presenting his thoughts in a clear and 
striking manner; and the whole is given 
with a good spirit, lie is a decided ad- 
vocate for infant baptism, but he ex- 
presses no uncharitable sentiments, and 
uses no harsh or irritating Ijn^iagc, to- 
waiH.1 those who differ from him in opi- 
nion. He acknowledges himself indebted 
** for many valuable thoughts and some 
happy expressions, to Doctor Hice's ad- 
mirable Kssay on Haptism, Pamphleteer, 
No. 1." Mr. Kaker considers, l.'l^auNi- 
TViu: OF Baptism. II. I'm: Suhjkcts. 
HI. riiK MuiiK. We think this tract is 
Well calculated to aid those who.se minds 
are labouring on the subject of baptism, 
and who have not time or inclination to 
peruse more cxtendevl treatises; and to 
such wc particular!) recommend it. At 
the same time it niay be useful to those 
who, after reading much, would be glad 
to see a perspicuous summary of the ar- 
guments in favour of infant baptism. Our 
limits forbid us to make extracts, and in- 
deed they could not easily be made so as 
to do justice to the author. 

Aw F.\A.MIXATIO.*( OF THE dUCSTIOSr, 

'• Whether a man may marry his deceased 
71'ife't sister ?** with some remarks on Da- 
mesticus and otheri. 

We CfTtait\\v ^0\\\<\ T\«A TVO^ACt ^Vk 



276 



S9hort Mtices of Hecent Publications. 



JVITE* 



pamplilet tt all, if the writer had not con- 
descended* in a postscript, to notice us. 
— ^Nor shall wc now enter into any argu- 
ment with him, farther than to clear our- 
selves, if we can, from simdry grievous 
charges which he brings against us. His 
postscript is a review of our review of the 
pamphlets on the subject of incest, con- 
tained in our number for April last ; and 
in four duodecimo pages, of which the 
postscript consists, we have counted eight 
allegations, in which we think there is no 
truth. We will enumerate and reply to 
them as briefly as we can. 1. He says the 
reviewer substantially charges all who do 
not concur in his opinion with infidelity. 
There is no truth in this. We showed that 
Domesticus, in arguing the law of incest 
without the aid of the Bible, was on ground 
common to him with infidels, and by such 
men as Hume might be beaten at his 
own weapons. But we have never so much 
as insinuated that Domesticus, or any other 
opponent in this controversy, was an infi- 
del. — We abhor the thought of such an 
imputation. On the ground of reason 
alone Christians may, and often do, argue 
many questions of morals : we only gave 
our opinion that the question in hand 
could not easily be settled on this ground. 
2. He intimates that the reviewer would 
be disposed to charge a layman with pre- 
sumption, in pretending to understand or 
discuss a question on which he had de- 
cided. There is nothing to warrant this 
intinuition in our review. On tite con- 
trary, wc referred to a layman — the im- 
mortal Selden — as having treated this sub- 
ject with more ability than any other 
writer. We do indeed think that such 
writers as our opponent, whether clergy- 
men or la^'men, would better let the sub- 
ject of this controversy alone. 3. He in- 
sinuates that our article seems tu favour 
the idea that Henry tlie A'lllth. was influ- 
enced by conscientious scruples in endea- 
vouring to rid himself of his nrst wife. We 
thought we had shown that our opinion 
was the exact opposite of this : we think 
so still ; and can only refer to the article 
in our April number, to satisfy any candid 
mind that this insinuation is utterly ground- 
less. 4. He often calls the reviewer a pro- 
fessor — who, alas ! is no professor at all ; 
but only an humble editor of a monthly 
imscellan^, a part of whose dntdgery it 
isy to review such pamphlets as that now 
before him. 5. He charges the reviewer 
with coming forth with something like a 
pretension to an infallible rip^ht to settle 
all disputes. This is not a point for argu- 
ment. — ^We deny the charge. We pre- 
tend to no right which is not common 
to us with all our fellow-citizens — the 
right of endeavouring to support our opi- 
aionM by Acts, ai^gunient and reason. 6. Ue 



sajTS that the reviewer has intimated that i 
ligious persecution is lawful in some < 
We really must call this a gross slander. 
We have intimated no such thing. M> 
abhor persecution in all its shapes and 
forms. Our accuser indeed would fain 
make us a persecutor of poor M'Crim- 
mon. But all we have said in regsjtl to 
him, was said in support of an act of db- 
cinline already inflicted, and of an article 
of the constitution of the Presbyterian 
church, actually existing — and is this per- 
secution ! We believe our accuser wouU 
be right ^lad to have this whole cause in 
his own hands. 7. He charges the re- 
viewer with an extreme want of charity. 
In wliat has this appeared ? In M*Crini- 
mon*s case, it is said, and in the appeal to 
the Baptist church, *'and in other parts of 
his essay." Of M*Crimmon's case we 
have already spoken; in our appeal to 
the Baptist Church we declared, tluit **fyt 
our Baptist brethren we cherisli a sincere 
affection." Is this uncharitable! As 
*< other parts of the essay "are not specified, 
we can say nothing of them — Wc bettevc 
that the charge of uncharitablenesa is not 
unfrequently made by those whose o«'s 
lack of charity is the greatest of alL 
Whether this is, or is not, applicable to 
our accuser, let otliers judge. For our- 
selves, we have cliarity for men who have 
grievously erred in marrying their die- 
ceased wives' sisters, and for all those who 
have been our opponents in this contro- 
versy : yes, for our accuser himselft who 
we tain hone has not intentionally charged 
us falsely, but probably in consequence of 
being blinded by some strong bias of a 
personal kind. 8. He charges his re- 
viewer with dictation, and an overweening 
desire to govern the General Assembly. 
As to dictation, our manner of writing 
must answer for itself. But indeed wc 
are not so foolish as to expect, or even 
desire, to govern the General Assembly. 
Whoever knows that body half as well as 
we know it, will be satisfied tiiat no indi- 
vidual ever did or can govern it — ^I'he 
attempt to do it, would at once destroy all 
the influence of the attcmptcr. We re- 
joice tliat such is tlie fact. If we have 
ever had any influence there — and we 
certainly think wc luivc had none to boast 
of— it was only because we were able to 
convince independent men, that we gave 
good reasons for the measures we advo- 
cated. We suppose that our accuser, in 
charging us witli having done mischief 
(in a case which he does not specify) 
must refer to the "no creed" business; 
and we do not wonder that a man who 
would be glad to mutilate the Confesttoii 
of Faith (which we rejoice to find is for 
the present presented in its integrity, by 
uu ovcrwUelming vote of the prwyteries 



lAierar^ and Philosophical Intelligence^ 



2: 



cle submitted to them) should 
whenever the subject of creeds 
} his mind. We can only sav, 

as we liave hail any agency in 
^ infractions of tlic Constitution 
esbytcrian church, or in witli- 
hose wiio would be glad to set 
.ogetlier, we rejoice and will re- 

thc whole, we repeat tliat our 
as manifested a feeling which 
ndicales a deep personal con- 



cern in the subject he discusses; and 
therefore, Mthough we are not able even 
to conjecture who the individual is, yet, 
as we happen to have a portion of yankee 
blood in our veins, we may be permitted 
to gueUf that he is some man who wants 
to nnarry the sister of his deceased wife *. 
or else, that he is the advocate of some 
dear friend, who wislies to do that — in 
our humble judgment — unbwful thing. 



Ltterarii onti f^j^tlo^opj^tcal intelligence, etc* 



as Timlnictoo. — ^We ire happy 
hat letters liave been received 
or I^ing, dated subsequent to 
I at Timbuctoo; but by some 
, the particular date is not in- 
rhc slate of this city, so much 
, and so much sought after by 
Sf together with tlie rivers and 
ry acQoining, will soon be made 
nd by a hand fully able for the 
^'e regret, however, by these 
) learn, that, instead of procccd- 
the river Niger, to the sea, as 
ed, Major I^ing intends return- 
i by way of Tripoli. What has 
d this change in his route, whe- 
:aUh, or finding insurmountable 
to his progress eastward and 
d, we have not heard, and can- 
upon ourselves to determine. 

/Ifrica. — Mr. George Tliompson, 
int of much respectability, who 
ed eight vcars at the Cape of 
}pc, has lately been induced, 
rtn motives of commercial enter- 
1 partly from the impulse of cu- 
) explore some of the unknown 
of Southern Africa. His re- 

oftcn attended with imminent 
Tc always accomplished, under 
inces of astonishing privation 
;uc, and even romantick vicissi- 
it the result, we understand, has 
c acquisition of more perfect 
go than has hitherto been pos- 
elating to the external aspect of 
try in that part of Africa, and to 
igc tribes wliich inhabit it. — 
other distant places which Mr. 
on visited, his jounicy to the 
a countr)', which occurred at a 
cresting crisis, enabled him to 
he character of the natives in 

singular points of view, under 
tement of extraordinary events, 
ativc is, we understand, just on 
of publication. 



Steam Boatt in India, — A Calcutta paper 
says, '* steam vessels will become as nu- 
merous on the rivers of India as on those 
of Europe and America. They continue 
to multiply. In addition to those now on 
the Hooghly, four are on the stocks. 
Some of these arc to be put on the Brah- 
maputra. The existence of coal in Syl- 
het, and its recent discovery in Asam, are 
fortunate." 

The India Gazette, and the Ifurkaru, 
have proposed that the InUita should be 
surveyed by steam gun-boats, for the pur- 

1>ose of promoting geographical know- 
edge, and of ascertaining the defensive 
property of the river in the event of a 
Jiuttian invasion, 

Mr. P. Ilawkes, of Washington, has 
just issued an octavo volume, accompa- 
nied by a chart, which appears to us to 
be, for all persons, and particularly aiu- 
dcnts and teachers, a valuable and very 
convenient manual for geographical pur- 
poses. The volume is entitled — "7%^ 
wimerican Companion^ or A Briff Shetch 
ofGeo^aphyt** and points out, "the 
Climate, latitude, and Longitude, Hearing 
per Compass, and Distance in Geographi- 
cal Miles, of eacli Place, from the City of 
Wasliington,'* &c. 

The chart, which is particularly distinct 
and beautiful, exhibits at one view, the 
names of about thirteen hundred of the 
principal ports and places in the world, 
with their bearings, &c., as stated in the 
volume. The places belonging respec- 
tively to the United States of America, 
and the foreign countries, are so present- 
ed as to be immediately ascertained. — 
There is much of novelty, ingenuity, and 
acuteness in the whole arrangement, ami 
great care would seem to ha%'e lieen 
taken in the logarithmic calculations. 
The chart is embellished by a fine en- 
graving of the Capitol at the city of Wash- 
ington. 



278 



IahI of AVw Publications, 



JVKG* 



Malie»Bnin*8 Gf^jrraffhy, is too well 
known amonp^ stiidciits t«» need at this 
time any recommendation as to its merits. 
To the edition of it, however, published 
here, by A. Finley, we invite attention, 
as promising to afford a ver}- valuable 
work, at a comparatively cheap rate; and 
in point of mechanical execution, in a 
creditable style. 

We have now lying before us the three 
first volumes — all that are yet published 
— there will be four in all — comprising 
500 pages in each, which are furnished 
at ^2 per volume. 

For the muss, and value of information, 
this is a venr cheap book, and worthy, 
therefore, of patronage. That portion re- 
specting America, is reser>'ed for the last, 
aind will be revised and added to, so as to 
give the result of the latest information 
respecting our continent, and especially 
the portion of it occupied by the United 
States. 

The later discoveries in Africa have also 
been carefully embodied in this work. 

'pBoth Jtcfuf. — A remedy for this most 
painful affection, which has succeeded in 
ninety-five of a hundred cases, is tilum 
reduced to an impalpable powder 2 
drachms, mhniiu spirit nf ether 7 drachms, 
mixed and applied to the tooth. 

At a recent meeting of the London 
Medical Society, Ur. Hlakc stated that 
the extraction of the tooth was no longer 
necessary, as he was enabled to cure the 
most desperate cases of tooth ache (un- 
less the disease was connected with rheu- 
matism) by the application of this ru- 
medy. 

The American Sunday School Union 
was instituted in 18!24, At the lust anni- 
versary, there were connected with it, in 
all the slates and territories in the Union, 
400 auxiliaries, 2,];19 schools, 19,289 
teachers, and 1:^5,074 scholars. During 
the year previous to the last report, 8,00.> 
teachers, and :»2,;)79 scholars were added 
to the schools. A great deal of the suc- 
cess of Sunday Schools is to be attributed 
to the economy introduced in the publi- 
cation of necessary books. The amount 
of these publications now exceeds 
3,000,000 of bouks a year, in the ])repa- 
ration of which more than 60 persons 
are employed as printers, bindei-s, en- 
gravers, &c. 

A Society of Ladies is about to be 
formed in lloston, for the protection and 
encouragement of female domestics. 

Society of Friends. — It is stated that of 
this society there are seven yearly meet- 
ings in the United Slates, and one half- 
yearly in Canada, which are all said to 
t^mbnce upwards of one hundred and 
/ifly thousand members. 



In addition to the schools establisbed 
by publick authorities and benevolent 
societies for the instruction of children of 
African descent, there are JSite private 
schools in Philadelphia, conducted by 
coloured men. 

^ An Indian stone pipe, formed of gra- 
nite, finely polisheu and having -fevenl 
bieroglyphicB, haa been found at Chtt- 
ham, Connecticut. 

The whole expenses of the poor in 
Boston are 31,000 dollars, 10,000 dollan 
of which is paid by the state, and 30,000 
by the city. — In Baltimore, the total ex- 
penditure on this account is 13,000 dol- 
lars. In New York, for criminalt and 
paupers^ 80,000 dollars are expended in- 
nually. Witliin the bounds of ^e poor 
corporation of Philadelphia, includiiig 
about four-fifths of the whole populitifM 
of the city and county, the amount levied 
in 1822, 23, 24, 25, averaged 120^000 a 
year. It has recently been reduced to 
80,000 dollars. 

The cultivation of sugar is said to be 
increasing in Geoigia. A re«dent ia 
Early county made, ust year, 1800 Ibe. of 
goo<i sugar, from an acre and a quarter of 
Cowpen pine land. 

It is stated in a Paris paper, that a 
great inimber of animals in the garden of 
plants are sick, not of the plague, but of 
a species of leprosy, which was commu- 
nicated by the camels presented to the 
King by the l)ey f)f Algiers. Several of 
the keepers .ire sick of the same mahdy 
in the Hospital of St. I /mis, and two 
have died. 



LIST OF NFAV PUHLICATIONS. 

A Compendious Introihiction to the 
Study of the Ilible. Ily T. 11. Home, A.M. 
Ih'ing an Analysis of '* An Introduction to 
the Critical Study and Knowledge of the 
Holy Scriptures." 

History of Roman l/iterature from its 
KarlicKt Period to the Augustan Age. 
By John Dunlop. 

Museum for May and June. 

1)c A' ere; or the Man of Independence. 

Prairie. By the Author of the " Spy." 

Captain Keppcl's Travels. 

Stewart's Phdosophy, 3 vols. 

Miller's Letters on Clerical Manners 
and Habits. 

Hick's Christian Philosopher. 

Quarterly Heview, No. 60. (From the 
London Edition.) 

Eilinburgh Review, No. 90. (From the 
Edinbur|[h FIdition.) 

Memoirs of Jane Taylor. 

Janeway's letters on the Atonement. 

K l^t^ lAa\i ^^ Va\to^» 



Religious IntcUigence. 



279 



aelt0tou^ ^'ntdltgence* 



BNERAL ASSKMRLY OF THE 
ESBYTKUKAN CHURCH. 

body met agreeably to ad- 
int, on Thursday, the 17th 
ist month, in theFirst Prcs- 
1 Church of Philadelphia, 
3 opened with a sermon by 
IT. Doctor M*Au ley, of New 
:he moderator of the last 
In consequence of a unani- 
ote, the Assembly, at an 
eriod of their sessions, set 
le whole day as a season of 

thanksgiving, humiliation, 
lyer. It was a day long to 
cmbered — Tlie exercises of 
' seemed to spread a most 
influence over all the pro- 
;s of the Assembly. Sub- 
much importance, and some 
1 enlisted personal and lo- 
ings, and called forth ani- 
discussinns, were, notwith- 
g, disposed of without any 
T acrimonious controversy, 
nber of the members consti- 
he Assembly was about 130. 
•sions of the Assembly con- 
just two weeks — The final 
ment, or dissolution of the 
ther, took place on Wednes- 
ning, the 30th of May. In 
sent number we have only 
I insert the Narrative on the 
f Religion, and the notice 

to the establisiimcnt of the 
n Theological Seminary, 
storal letter, addressed bv 
cmbly to the churches under 
re, uiid the la^t report of the 
s of the Theological Semi- 

Princeton, shall appear in 
t number. 



IVK OF THK STATK OF KELI- 

within the bounds of the 
rat Jlssemhlij of the rresbifte- 
Vhurcfi, in the United Staler 
lerica; Jlay, 1827. 

jiicral AbMcmhly wuuld meet the 
uiisofUivjir fclinu' Clirisliaij;?, by- 



presenting tlicni with a record ut* the af- 
flictions and the triuniplis of the church 
within their bounds, during the ])ast year. 
The whole cannot be told ; but enoiigli 
can be told to awaken the tcnderest sen- 
sibilities of the Christian's heartj^nd to 
excite minjflcd emotions of sorrom', gra- 
titude and poy. 

In tlic picture which has been present- 
ed to the Assembly from the different sec- 
tions of the church, there is a mixture of 
licrht and shade — good and evil alternately 
obtain : although they liave reason to 
thank God that the Indications of the pro- 
gressive triumphs of Divine truth and 
g^race, are strong^ and palpable, calculated 
to call into action tlie yet dormant ener- 
gies of the church, and fill her mouth with 
song's of praise. 

We shall first speak of the cviU which 
exist. From many places, we hear com- 
plaints of the extensive prevalence of im- 
morality, under its different forms. Sab' 
bath'hreakinff is particularly noticed as 
prevailing in almost every region of our 
country. We hear with pain of the con- 
tempt which is poured upon this holy 
day, by the driving of wagons and stages, 
the running of canal and steam boats, the 
opening of mails, the travelling of men of 
business and pleasure : by hunting, fish- 
ing, horsc-racmg, visiting, distilling, driv- 
ing of cattle to market, and other prac- 
tices equally incompatible with the sanc- 
tity of tlie day, and the good ortler of so- 
ciety. We record, however, with pleasure 
the fact, that among the members of the 
mercantile community in some of our 
large cities, a reformation has taken place, 
and they rtfniin from travelling in pursuit 
of their worldly business on this sacred 
day. It would rejoice the hearts of the 
Assembly, if their giKxl example were 
universally followed by that extensive and 
influential class of our fellow citizens. 

The report of abounding intvmpcvanrv 
is still hcanl from many sections nf the 
church. Fmm the nt>rtli, the west, and 
the s<mth, we hear the loudest complaints 
of the ravages of this destructive vice. — 
And, although in many places, its progress 
has been pai-tially arrested by the influence 
of mural, religious, and physical causes, 
we have to lament that it still exerts a 
desolating power over vast numbers in 
our land. When, O when, sliall man "the 
glory of creation," cease to merge his 
higli character and destinies in this sink 
of brutish defilement ! 

Profancnt'u still partially prevails to 
dishonour its subjects, and insult tlic Ma- 
jesty of heaven : and gumbUii^^^ ^v4\.\\&-4^- 



280 



Religious Intelligence* 



JviTBi 



taininj; its accursed sway over tliousamls 
ijf its haplcBS victims. By this remark we 
intend to condemn tlie practice of ffam- 
bUng by loltti-y, whidi under the sanction 
of Ijcgislative patronage, is, in several 
places within our bounds, encoura^png a 
wild spirit of speculation, paralysing in- 
dustry, and carrying disappointment, po- 
verty and sorrow into many habitations. 

WitllD tlie bounds of some of our Pres- 
byteries, we hear of the industrious ef- 
forts of heretical teachers to propagate 
their pernicious tenets. The progress of 
evangelical truth is awakening the enmity, 
and putting in array the forces of the 
prince of darkness. Tlie church needs 
only to be told of these signs of the times, 
to perceive the obligations which they 
impose, and the demands which they 
make upon her intellectual and moral re- 
sources. The day of spiritual conflict is 
approaching, and it becomes the church 
to stand ready to sustain her acquired 
glory, and to hold fast and defend the 
standard of the cross. 

Ihit we are called to notice evils of 
another kind, in some of the northern, 
and southern, and in the greater part of 
the middle and western sections of our 
cfiurch, we hear complaints of the preva- 
lence of lukcwarmiicss, and a great want 
of evangclic«il zeal among the professed 
disciples of the Lord Jesus. The *' spirit 
of slumber," seems to have deadened all 
their energies, and they are resting con- 
tented with tlie forms of religion, without 
feeling its vivifying power. As an effect 
of this, tlif^y are found conforming to the 
world, in its fnittdonnhle amit»emrntSf fre- 
ciucnting the thfutre and the hull-room, and 
yielding to tlie tpirit o/strifi, whose dead- 
ly influence resists tlie impulses of tiie 
Holy lihost, and is calculated to banish 
him forever from their hearts. Over such 
we mourn, and our prayer is, that the 
Spirit of the Lord would breathe upon 
them, and cause them again to live — 
*• ^hvake, O north wind, and come thou 
south, and hlov vjwn these parts of thy tftir- 
den, that the spices thereof may ^ow out.** 

In sur\'eyiiig the destitute settlements 
which are without the regular ministra- 
tioiiH of the Gospel, the remote northern 
parts f if the state of New York, the states 
of Ohio, Indiana, Alal>ama, Mississippi, 
Missouri, Georgia, and Kentuckv, present 
themselves in mournful arrav before us. 
For althougli in all these, there are some 
regular, fsiithful ministers of Christ, there 
is an immense territory lyin^ waste, with- 
out labourers to cultivate it. Now and 
then, a tniVcHing missionary scatters the 
seed of tlie kingdom. But having none 
to succeed him, the fniit of his toil is 
blasted for want of cflicicnt cultivation. — 
Of this we have painful evidence in the 



fact, that within the limits of a single 
Presbytery in tlie Synod of Indiana, Jhx 
churches have become extinct during the 
last year, from this cause. The present 
destitute condition of those extemiTe 
western regions, and the rapidly increas- 
ing population, which bt aurpaaaes the 
increase of ministers, funuah prcflRng 
motives to exertion and prayer on the 
part of the churchesi that the labourers 
may be multiplied, aiid that theae IImw- 
saiids of our fellow sinners may not be left 
to perish, for want of the biead and the 
water of life. They are our brethren^ amd 
they cry to us for help. Let us not bedetf 
to their entreaties, lest ** their cries enter 
into the ears of the Lord of SabaotlH" 
and he come and smite us witli a curK. 

But from these scenes of moral dark- 
ness, on which the heart of the Christian 
dwells witli pain, we turn your attention to 
more enliveni ng details. From ** the lioo's 
dens, and the mountains of the leopard^** 
we would invite you to come along with 
us to tlie peaceful habitations of the Sa- 
viour, and enjoy tlie holy pleasure which 
springs from the contemplation of his pre- 
sence, and the wondenul works or his 
grace. 

In enumerating the blessings of the pait 
year, the Assembly would notice with 
thankfulness the growing spirit of pious 
and benevolent enter()risc. Jhbfe^ Traxt, 
Missionary and Education Sodctieo are 
multiplying, in almost every section of our 
churcli, and increasing in efllicicncy and 
usefulness. The .American Home Ms- 
siotmry Society has been conducting its 
operations, during the past year, with aug^ 
mcnted success. IMie l^ennsylxnuaa Home 
Missionary Society has also been labour- 
ing in the same good cause. Christians 
seem to be rising to the fulfilment of their 
Blaster's command, and engaging with an 
active zeal in the work of preaching the 
gospel to every creature. A noble uber- 
ality, in furnishing means for the support 
and extension of benevolent institutioaSk 
prevails. The cause of Christ is drawing 
contributions from every department in 
society. And it is matter ot gratuhtion 
that professional men of higli character 
and stamling, are becoming more deci- 
dedly the patrons of these efficient chari- 
ties. 

Bible Classes are to be found through- 
out a large portion of our churches, and 
have been greatly blessed as means of 
instruction and conversion. As nurseries 
of truth and piety, they de&cr\'e to be 
tenderly cherished and faithfully sustain- 
ed. 

The system of Sabbath School instruc- 
tion is extending its healing influence 
over our land, and from many of oui 
churches ib receiving a liberal iNitronage. 



Religious tntdligence. 



tu 



can Sunday School Union, con- 
1 tlic City of Philadelphia, is in 
progress, and promises to be 
asting blessing to our countr}'. 

Church ol" God. To rccoin- 
the prayers, and the vigorous 
n of all our churches, it need 
ited, that in their last annual 
managers inform their patrons, 
correct sources, they art able 

upwards of fourteen hundred 
idiiig teachers and pupils, who 
hopefully converted by the in- 
ity of Schools in tlicir connex- 
thc origin of their institution, 
Men of rank and influence are 
elping hand to this benevolent 
Let this work of pious cha- 
ed — Heaven shall recompense 
f mercy. 

iated witli these religious and 
: institutions, and contributing 
liritual effect, is the Jfonihli/ 
')raiievj which appears to be ex- 
)bscrved. Other meetings for 
conference arc multiplying, and 
ansion to the labours of Chris- 
'olence. Indeed the spirit of 
the very spirit of Christian ef- 
•reathcs its hallowed influence 
f institution which has for its 
gloiy of God, and the salvation 
The Assembly would look for- 
e day when the voice of prayer 
card from every dwelling, and 

concerts for prayer shaU be 
vith the sons and daughters of 
hty, invoking the effusions of 
Ghost on all the inhabitants of 
world. 

isc of Seamen continues to re- 
jeral a?ul increasing patronage 
t commercial cities. In Charles- 
more, Phihidelphia and New 

friends of piety continue to 
Lh unabated zeal, for the salva- 
5 long neglected portion of our 
le ^iwcn'can Stamen's Fvieiul 

noticed as an important engine 
jtinj^ to their spiritual welfare. 
, and tlic Assembly would ask 
the ])ra vers of all the Clmrches. 
ilc tlie Assembly would rejoice 
God for sustaining, and multiply- 
givini^ increased action to the 
It institutions witliin our Church, 
gbfMit onr lari'l, they have still 
oiinds of joy and gi*atitude to 
of the ('hurcli, for the sliowers 
jrace, with whicli their Zion has 
urcd during the past year. The 
St, like a mighty rushing wind, 
indod and re Med on miny as- 
and by his all conquering cner- 
bducd manv stout hearts which 

to 

ught with enmity against God, 



and the gospel of his g^race. The past 
year has been emphatically a year oi re- 
vivals. To enumerate all the towns and 
congregations on which God has poured 
out his Hoi)' Spirit would swell our re- 
port beyond its assigned limits. Suffice 
it to say, that upwards of ttoenty Presby 
tcriet have participated, in a greater or 
less degree, in the refreshing showers with 
which God has been watering his Church. 
—Witliin the bounds of the Synod of Ge- 
7ie4nee, we may mention the Presbyteries 
of Rochester and Buffalo. In the Synod 
of Geneva^ the Presbyteries of Bath, Ge- 
neva, Onondaga and Cayuga In Onon- 
daga, from four to five hundred liave 
been added to the Church, and in Cayu- 
ga, about nine hundred. In the Synod of 
Albany, the Piesbyterics of Columbia, 
Champlain, Londonderry, Troy, Ogdcns- 
burg and Oneida. I'he last two have been 
most signally visited. In Oneida, LlOO 
are reported to have joined the Church, 
and in the Presbyteries of Oneida and 
Ogdensburg, some thousands arc enumera- 
ted as the hopeful subjects of convert- 
ing grace. In the Synod of AVw York, 
refreshing influences have descended on 

1>ortions of the Presbyteries of Long Is- 
and, North River, Hudson, and the first 
Presbytery of New York. In the Syjiod 
of J\'irv Jersey, on the Presbyteries of 
New Brunswick and Elizabethtown. In 
the Synod ofPfuladelphia, on a few of the 
Churches within the Presbyteries of Phi- 
ladelphia, Carlisle and Baltimore. In tlic 
City of Baltimore, a good work is now in 
progress in the first and second Churches. 
In the Synod of Kentucky, the Presbytery 
of Transylvania has been signally blessed. 
In the midst of other trophies of convert- 
ing grace, they have to i-ccord the hope- 
ful conversion of the Teacher and several 
of the pupils in the Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb within their limits. In the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, the 
Presbyteries of Orange, Favetteville, 
Georgia, Union and Hopewell, have been 
more or less favoured. The two last 
have had the greatest additions to their 
communion, anrl the Lord is still carrying 
on his glorious work in the midst of them. 
For all that the Lord has thus been do- 
ing, and is continuing to do for his Zion, 
the Assembly would rejoice and give 
thanks to his holy name. And it it their 
fervent prayer that while God is working' 
for the advancement of his glory, and the 
salvation of souls, those who are called to 
co-operate with him, may be richly en- 
due il with the spirit of wisdom, of grace, 
and of a sound mind, that the work may 
not be marred by human imperfection, 
but that the building of God may rise with 
symmetry and grandcuc luvf ^t^vVj^vwTvxs^.x. 
in the hcaL\tiuu. 

■^ N 



282 ReUgimts MeUigenu^ JuirSf 

upon several of our Colleges, the Spi- in tlic prosperilj of their benerolent in- 

rit hss been poured out. Centre College* stitutioius and in the progress of lemals 

ia Kentucky, Athens, in Georgia, uid throughout many of their churches. 

Bickinson, in Pennsylvania, have all par- From the General .^gtocjgiwn •fJlinum 

ticipated, more or less, in the spiritual chuMetu^ the reports arc highly animating, 

bounty of heaven's converting grace. There have been, in many pkcea^ power- 

Our Theolosical Sendnariet continue to ful revivals during the pak year. In the 

receive the liberal support of the friends city of Beaton and Berkshire county |iBr- 

of sound learning and Wtal godliness, tictilarlv, the Lord has been marcbine 

From these fountains, streams are issuing through the midst of his churcbca^ and 

to water our parched land, and to make nearly 800 souls are numbered among the 

glad the citjr of our God. The number of fruits of his reviving grace. We wooU 

efficient mmisters is increasing, and our rejoice with our eastern brethren in this 

prayer is, tbat they may increase an bun- testimony of God's grace to the CMW of 

dred fold, until every destitute region of evangelical truth. 

our world sludl be supplied, and every ear The reports from the JRtformed JiMk 

be greeted with tlie voice of the messen- Churchy are encouraging. Revivab east 

gers of salvation. in a few of their con^gationa. The 

To the memory of our brethren* who cause of Domestic Missions is receinng 

have rested from their labours since our additional support, and their Theologiw 

last meeting, we would here pause to Seminary is well sustained, and pramiKS 

consecrate a monument of fraternal affec- to be a lasting blessing to their cbmck 

lion. By the Master's order, they have From the other ecclesiastical bodies in 

been taken from our ranks, and their de- connexion witli us, no reports have bees 

IMurture admonishes us to increased exer- received. 

tion before the night of death cometh when In closing this narrative, the Aiaemhiy 

no man can work. would remark, that their present scwion 

From some of our sister Chiux;hes in has been to them, one of peculiw and 
correspondence with us, reports have solemn interest. They have had the 
been received. The General AtiociaUon wonderful doings of God spread belbn 
•f Connecticut^ although labouring under their eyes, and while they have been ex- 
roanv discouragements, are still cheered cited to mourning, for the remainiiv de- 
by the manifestations of the divine favour solations of Zion, their hearts have been 
made to rejoice in the triumphs of redees- 

* Rev. Abner Towne, and Hcv. James ing grace. Called upon by the signal 

Soothworth, of the Presbytery of Oneida, movements of Jehovah's providence and 

Rev. Cyrus Downs, of the Presbytery love towards them, and the churdieson- 

of Otsego. der their care, the General Assembly 

Rev. Samuel P. Williams, of the Prcsby- appropriated an entire day during their 

tery of Ncwburyport. sessions, to the solemn duties of thamkt' 

Rev. William Arthur, of the Presbytery ^ivingt kumiUation and prayer. As the 

ef LAncaster. representativesofthePresoyterian Church 

Rev. Matthew Lyle, of the Presbytery in the United States, they endeavoured to 

of Hanover. bring the whole interests of that church 

Rev. Argus Diarmed, of the Presb>'tery before the tlirone of g^race, and in the 

of Fayetteville. name of their ascended Saviour, to plead 

Rev. Amzi Armstrong, D. I), of the for additional tokens of his mennr on her 

Presbytery of Newark. behalf It was a day of mingled sorrow 

Rev. Lyman Whitney, of the Presbytery and joy to their hearts. It was a day 

of West Lexington. which they would wish to reccsd, as the 

Rev. Samuel Davies Hogc, of the Pres- commencement of a new era in the his- 

bytery of Athens. tory of their ecclesiastical proceedings 

Rev. James Adams, ot ilie Presbytery and which, from the evident indications 

of Rictiland. of the presence of the Holy Ghost, tbey 

RcY. Stephen Kinsley, of the Presbytery humbly trust will shed a benign influence 

of Champlain. ^ over the character and transactions of that 

Rfjv. David Phillips, of the Presbytery body for years to come, 

of Irluhlenburg. Brethren, pray for us, and for youtselvei^ 

FCev. Samuel C. Caldwell, of the Prcs- and for the whole church of God. It k a 

by tery of Mecklenburg. day of hope in relation to the sonls of 

Rev. James Hall, D. D. of the Pres- men. The hour of the world's redemp- 

bytery of Concord. tion draweth near, when nations shall be 

Rev. William F. Watts, of the Pres- bom at once, and when the whole earth 

bytery of shall be full of the glory of the Smvioor. 

Rev. William Wilson, of the Presbytery May the good Lord hasten forward the 

of UMTtnony, long expected hour, and let ovr un- 



Reli^tms Inteliigence, 



S85 



r be, " Even so, come. Lord Jesus, 
licklu, Amen.*' 

By order of the Assembly. 
£. S. KLV, Stated Clerk. 



AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. 

Eleventh Annual Mectinf^ of this 
Institution M'as held on Thursday, 
th of May, at the Middle Dutch 
I, ill Nassau street. New York, 
on. John Jay, the venerable Presi- 
r the Socie'iy, not being present, 
icellency, Governor Clinton, took 
lir. Tlic Hev. l^rcsident Day, of 
oUefi^c, commenced the exercises 
.ding the 7th chapter of Micah. 
i were then read from the Presi- 
f the United States, and several 
^'ice Presidents of the Society, apo- 
j for their non-attendance; aitcp 
an address, which occupied about 
utes, was delivered by His Kxccl- 
hc Governor. The annual reports 
Treasurer and the Managers were 
y W. W. Woolsey, Esq., and the 
fr. Urigham. After the report, the 
ng resolutions were moved and 
lously adoptc(L 

motion of the Rev. Samuel Mer- 
r the Methodist Church, seconded 
; Kev. Mr. Smith, of Middlebury, 
the Episcopal Church, 
\lvtil, That the Report which has 
presented by the Board of Mana- 
ge accepted, and that it be publish - 
ler their direction, 
motion of the Rev. Mr. Eastbum, 
Episcopal Church, of this city, sc- 
I by Rev. Mr. Bourne, Baptist Mis- 
y at Honduras, 

ftlved^ That while the Society are 
imindful of tlie services rendered 
: officers and managers the past 
they recognise with devout grati- 
hat goodness of Providence, which 
rnished means to carry forward, to 
at an extent, the work of preparing 
rculating his Holy Word, 
motion of the Rev. Mr. Malcomyof 
aptist Church, seconded by the 
)r. Mil nor, 

olved. That the Society view with 
satisfaction, the zeal and activity 
:stcd i)y so many of its Auxiliaries, 
ertaining the wants of their respec* 
istricts, and in taking measures to 
r' them. 

motion of the Rev. Mr. Cornelius, 
issachusetts, seconded by the Rev. 
atcs. Baptist Missionar}', from Cal- 

olx^ed. That in view of the rapid in- 
\ of our own population, and of the 



wide fields, which are opening •brotd for 
the reception of the Bible, the friends of 
this National Institution are called upon, 
not only for persevering, but increased 
exertions. 

Addresses were made by the several 
gentlemen who moved and seconded the 
resolutions. 

During the past year there have been 
issued from the Depository, 71,621 Bibles 
and Testaments — Whole number since 
the Society was formed, 511,668. — bV. f. 
Obs. 



The following letter, which we 
extract from the New York Obser- 
ver, shows pretty correctly the state 
of religion in France* 

Extract of a letter from an Jlmerican Gen* 
tleman in Europe, to tfte Bev, Mr. Jlr* 
buckle, of Blooming GrovCp dated Parity 
Marck 1, 1827. 

With respect t6 the state of religion in 
France, it presents a very different aspect 
from that of our own country : at least to 
a man from Ulooming Grove. In PariSy 
when he sees the billiarvl rooms in every 
street frequented with gamblers, the thea- 
tres and ball-rooms crowded upon the 
evenings of the sabbath, the shops open 
and streets full of carts and carmen upon 
the first, almost as'much as any other day of 
week ; — when, not only by twilight, but 
frequently at noon-day, he meets with her 
whose ways are the ways of death, he 
will conclude that the practices of the 
Popish subjects differ as widely from that 
of the Protestants as their articles of futh. 
Out of thirty millions, the whole popula- 
tion of France, there is but half a mdlion 
of Protestants. Their proportion to the 
Catholics is, only as one to sixty ; — all the 
remaining part (with the exception cyf 
a few Jews) being Catholics ; at least bap- 
tized into the Catholic Church . Of these, 
the greater part, in regard to religion, 
follow the path of their forefathers, with* 
out thinking for themselves whither that 
path may lead them. They have little 
religion at any rate ; seldom go to church, 
seldom think of deatli and eternity ; and 
when they do, the first maxim which pre- 
sents itself, seems to be, Let us eat and 
drink, for to^morroro we die.' and they pbdn- 
ly manifest by their conduct, that th^ 
esteem pleasure as their chief good. 
Those whose circumstances permit them 
to spend their evenings in coffee houses, 
which are numerous and not expennvt, 
assemble here in clubs, where they spend 
three or four howr^ »X c\\«4!^ Vn&AyiK.* 



284 



Rdi/^u8 Intelligence. 



JuirSf 



domino^ &c. Others who have acquired 
a taste for gambling, even of those who 
live by their daily labour, assemble at their 
particular houses in the evening, where 
they lose perhaps tlic last franc ihey have 
in the world, without looking forward so 
fiu* even as the end of the present life. 

This, I think, is the true character of 
a great portion of the inhabitants. Others 
'more prudent, more accustomed to read- 
ing and thinking, do not all follow the 
footsteps of their fathers, nor take for 
granted every ipse dixit of tlie Pope. A 
French teacher with whom 1 stuidied a 
few weeks, when I first came to Paris, 
told me that although he believed his reli- 
gion the purest in the world, yet he tliought 
several of its doctrines were incorrect, 
and not founded in Scripture. A younjg^ 
lady told me she thought several of their 
doctrines absolutely absurd: — that the 
Protestant religion appeared to her more 
rational, and the government of our church 
more agreeable to t)ie spirit of the New 
Testament ; and she gave mc a pamphlet 
containing a satirical account of the Jesuits 
and their doctrines. Thus many, more or 
less, disapprove of their religion, though 
interest prevents them from acknowledg- 
ing it to their friends. Others, however, 
even of those well educated, among whom 
perhaps we may include the king and 
royal nunily, give implicit faith to all the 
doctrines of their church, in their fullest 
extent. I boarded several weeks with a 
French Catholic, the Principal of an Aca- 
demy, and bachelor of letters. I'he va- 
rious little observances in his family fre- 
quently reminded me of what I had read 
in Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, con- 
cerning the numerous ceremonies intro- 
duced into the church during the exten- 
sive influence of the Pope in past centu- 



ries. Even while asking a blesang at 
table, they form the cross, putting a iia- 

ger on the forehead and thrice upon the 
reast : saying at the same time, ** Father, 
Son, and Holy Ghost, Amen." A lad of 
about twelve years once observed that, 
he wondered so pious a man as he took 
me to be, should eat meat on Frid«r»tliua 
weekly committing, as he thought, an 
grand peche, or great sin. In their chufch, 
when they receive what they believe to 
be the real body of Christ, they are not 
allowed to touch it with their handSb bat 
the priest lays it upon their tongae% thai 
they may swallow it wholly at onoQii^ 
Thus they believe they are actual^liik 
ceiving God ! that the Pope has the sa- 
preme power on earth, and can paidon 
their sins. But there is yet another cla« 
in France, and very numerous, who re- 
ject both the true and false doctrines of 
their religion. The writings of VolCaire^ 
which are to be found in every book-shop^ 
and very cheap, have had a comiptiiig 
influence on the minds of those who are 
accustomed to read them. How struge 
that a man of sense should attempt to Cy 
the axe at the foot of religion, and yet ae- 
knowledge it necessary even to the esst- 
ence of kw and justice ! Thus Vohabe, 
in one part of his works, to give a litend 
translation of the passage, says, ** Con- 
sult Zoroaster, and Minos and Solon^ and 
the sage Socrates, and the great Cicero : 
they all adored one nuister, one judM, 
one father. The sublime sjrstem, (** thatn^ 
religion,") is necessary to man.— It is the 
sacred bond of society, the first founda- 
tion of truth and justice ; the check of 
the wicked, the hope of the righteous. 
If God did not exist, it would beneoea- 
sary to invent him." 



7%« Treasurer of the Trustees of the General Jltsembty of the Pretbjfterian Church 
achnorwledges the receipt of t/ie following sums for their Theological Semnarif at 
Princeton, (JV. /.) during the month of May Uut^ viz. 

Of the Hev. Dr. John Chester, from Nathl. Davies, Esq., Treasurer of the 

Presbytery of Albany, for the Contingent Fund .... ^50 00 
Of Benjamin Strong, Esq., Treasurer of the First Presbytery of New York, 

for do. - - - . - - - - - SO 75 
Of Rev. Joshua T. Russell, a donation from Archibald Falconer, Esq. of New 

York, for do. - - . . . . . • 20 00 
Of Rev. George S. Woodhull, from Mrs. Mary Green, Treasurer of the Fe- 
male Benevolent Association of Lawrence, N. J. for do. - . - 24 00 
or John M*Mullin, Esq. Sixth Presbyterian Church, PhiUdelphia, for do. - 10 41 
Of Rev. John H. Prentice, Otsego Presbytery, for do. • - 10 50 
Of Rev. Eli S. Hunter, Genesse Presbytery, fordo. - - . - 3 13 
Of Rev. Jotm Gray, Newton Presbytery, for do. - . . . 3 00 

Amount received for the Contingent Fund 2150 79 



View of PuUick Jtffairs. M5 

Braught forward f^lSO 79 
ishua T. Russell/collected by him in New York, for the Profeiior- 
be endowed by the Synods of New York and New Jersey - - 1,300 00 

acob Green, from Marlborough Church, North River Presbytery, 

ir 00 

r. Ezra Fisk, collected by him in Goshen Congre^don, for do. - 20 00 

snry Perkins, the last instalment of Dr. Wm. Davis, of AlIentowDy 

>, and from an individual 25 cents, for do. • - - - 3 25 

avid Comfort, per Rev. Dr. Alexander, the last instalment from 

and from his congregation of Kingston, N. J^ for do. • - 32 50 

r. Wm. MTheters, per Solomon Allen, Esq., from the Presbytery 

je, for the Southern Professorship . - , - 800 00 

imcs G. Hamner, from Fayetteville Presbytery, for do. - - 8 50 

)hn Cousar, from the Presbytery of Harmony, for do. - - 25 00 

ohn Breckinridge, which with an order for ^^0, to be credited 

!ceivedy will be in full of his third year's subscription for the salary 

rofessor of Oriental and Biblical Literature - - - 16 09 

braham Williamson, jgl8, of which £13 is from the Female Bene- 

iociety of Chester, Morris county, N. J., for the Scholarship to be 

d by the Eumenian Society • - • - • 18 00 

William Nevins, for Senior CUss of 1819 Scholarship - - 30 00 

. W. Crane, two years* interest for do. - - - • 12 00 

mzi Babbit, for do. - - - - - -13 00 

•eorge S. Woodhull, £120, of which glOO is from Rev. David 

3f t:Tizabetlitown, N. J., for Senior Class 1820 Scholarship - 120 00 

imes Williamson, in part of his subscription for do. from tlie Educa- 

liety of Silver Spring - - - . • - 26 00 

ieorge Stebbins, per Rev. Dr. Ezra Fisk, fur Senior Class, 1823 

ship - . - • - - - - -2500 

Ibert Barnes, for do. viz. 

Ir. Silas Johnson ...... 

P. A. Johnson . . - - - 

rs. C. B. Arden . - . - - 

Lady --.---- 

orristown Ladies' Cent Society ... 

lamuel Taylor, per Rev. Dewey Whitney, as a member of Senior 

1824 25 00 

eorge C. Potts, from Mrs. Ann Postlethwait, executrix of the estate 
lel Postlethwait, Esq., late of Natches, deceased, being his legacy 
idin|^ a scholarship in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, terms 
cplained by the Rev. George Potts, of Natchez ... 500 00 
leorge S. Woodhull, the legacy of Mr. Garrett Snedeker, late of 
rr}', deceased, the interest of which is to be applied to the Educa- 
Indigent Students in the Theological Seminary at Princeton, for 
ts' Fund ........ 150 00 

id also a year's interest - - - - - -900 

nin Strong, Esq., also for the Education of Indigent Students - 48 75 

me Keith, of Charleston, for a particular Student • - - 17 25 

Total £3,318 13 



is 

5 
5 
2 
34 51 00 



mtMi of l^utiltcft ^ffatr^. 



EUROPE. 

n, — London papers to the 30th of April have been received at New York, 
^ a detailed statement of the settlement of a new British ministry, or cabi- 
lich Mr. Canning is the head — The names of those who compose the cabi- 
3 and commoners, are given in detail ; but we have not space to insert them, 
jppose the omission will not be regretted by oar readers. London, and in- 
whole kingdom, had been for a considerable lime interested and agitated 



286 yiew rf PMiek Jlffairs. Jujtb, 

with this concern. The interest it excited was extended even to France. Nor was 
this without good reason. The character of the British cabinet has influence on all 
European interests— indeed it has influence throughout the civilized world. On the 
resignation of the Earl of Liverpool* in consequence of ill health* it appears Uiat lim 
kioffsent fbr Mr. Canning, and requested him to name a ministry of which he ahoold 
be Uie head. It was the wish of the king, that all the former members of the eibi- 
net should retain their places, with the exception only of such changes as the leaig- 
nation of Lord Liverpool and the advancement of Mr. Canning rendered unavoidable. 
Canning himself appears to have been desirous that this should be at least the jcm» 
ral arrangement. But the proud peers of the administration could not brook the 
idea that a commoner, and a mere fiowt Amm, should be set over theniv in the da- 
racter of prime minister. They resigned their places, and appear to have ei 
to force tne king to invite them back. But the resolute monarch took them 
word, did not soothe them at all, but directed his favourite to make a new 




S laces, their power, and their perquisites. There is good evidence that the Idng 
lanning have the great mass uif the nation decisively on their nde. The ariatoaicy, 
the lords temporal and spiritual, are the party disobliged. Some of them however are 
still in the cabinet, and others are not unfriendly to the new order of things. But 
taking the nation at large, the king and the people are on one side, and the'uiltih 
cracy on the other. I'he Duke of Wellington seems to have counted on an influMOS 
and a popularity which he was grievously disappointed at finding he did not 



The new ministry was announced on the 38th of April, and the Parl^jment WMlt I 
meet according to adjournment the first of May — The commerce of Britain appcan to 1 
be reviving^ — Larg^ emigrations, however, are taking place to the United States^ sad 
to Canada. From the port of Liverpool alone, it is estimated that thirteen hnadNd 
had emigrated in the space of a month — the most of them to the United States Csp» 
tun Parry has sailed on another northern voyage of discovery — His present ol^|eol w^ 
to reach if possible the North Pole — ^In Scotland, in the three first days of Ap4 
there was such a fall of snow as to intercept all travelling. Some of the wreathsy er 
banks, were from six to twelve feet deep-*The Rev. John Thomaa Shaw baa bees 
appointed Bishop of Calcutta, in the pUce of Bishop Heber deceased. The pcodik 
nation of our President, closing the ports of the United States against British wtmA 
of a certain description, was known in London ; and it does not appear that the mea- 
sure was either unexpected or offensive. The birth day of the king waa celebrtted 
in London with unusual eclat, on account of his late firmness, in supporting Mr. Gm- 
ning and dismissing the refractory members of his cabinet 



FRAVca. — ^It appears that liberal prindples are making progress in France, 
ef the most distin^isbed friends of freedom have been elected to the legislative 
Chambers. The kmg had recalled the offensive law in regard to the preas ; and ai 
soon as this was known there was a spontaneous and general illumination of Paris. 
The king seemed desirous to calm the agitation which this obnoxious law occaaioocd 
throughout France, and had appointed a meeting with his people in the Champ de 
liars on the 29th of April. The late Marquis de la Place has been eloquently cele- 
brated by a member of the French Academy ; and Roger Collard, another menber 
of the Academy, and one of the most earnest opposers of the law against the prefix 
has been elected in his place, by a unanimous vote. On the 24th of April a royal 
ordinance was published in Paris giving the tables of tlie population of the kingdoov 
which it appears is done once every five years. The population of the wholeking- 
dom, as given officially by the Prefects, is 31,845,428 souls— that of Paris 890,431— 
that of Lyons above 145,000~that of Bourdeaux more than 93,000— and that of Mv- 
aeilles nearly 116,000. 

Spaibt. — A considerable Spsnish army has advanced to the frontiers of Portqga^ 
as if to protect the borders of the kingdom against the inroads of the British army, nov 
on the Portuguese frontiers. The two armies it is said are looking each other in tlie 
face, but it is believed that there will be no fighting — This kingdom is still in mil 
agitation. An account, by the way of Gibraltar, states that the chief towns in Ottaionff 
have risen in insurrection and declared in favour of the Infanta Don Carlos. 

Portugal — Is not yet entirely quiet; but the rebels seem to have no laiee anoj 
in the field, and their leaders have taken care of themselves by leaving the kingdooL 
The Marquis de Chaves, and his uncle, Silveira, were in Spain, and were to be tent 
witliin the French territory, to keep them from mischief and from suspicion. It ap- 



1 8£7. View of PtMick Affairs. 287 

pears that Don Pedro had sent over to Portugal some important and energetic dccrees» 
which the British minister, Sir A. Van Court, was exceedingly desirous should not 
be promulgated — The measures and manceuvres of this wily politician have hereto- 
fore been hostile to freedom, and we suspect that he will do no good in Portugal. 

GmxBcx. — ^The last accounts from Greece are calculated to give great pleasure to 
ill the friends of freedom. The Turks have been defeated and driven from Athens, 
and the Greeks have recaptured a fortress in the neighbourhood of Missolonghi. In 
every part of the Morea their affairs are assuming a promising aspect. They nave, it 
appears, in different parts of their country, no less than 28,300 soldiers in actual ser- 
vice, and their marine is highly respectable and fast increasing. Lord Cochrane has 
arrived at Napoli, and his arrival and their hite successes have been celebrated with 
enthusiastic joy. We hope the supplies of food and raiment, sent them from our own and 
other countries, will relieve the pressing want of tlie necessaries of life which they 
hMp experienced for a year past. Lord Cochrane, a few days after his arrival, sailed 
mh a small squadron on a secret expedition — He is not likely to be inactive, and we 
iMme he will not disappoint the raised expectations of the interesting people to whooe 
aio be has devoted his talents and hb resources. 

TuKKar. — The Turk seems obstinately bent on prosecuting military operations for 
the aubjugation of Greece, and we should not be surprised if he should pursue them 
to his own destruction. He appears to resist the overtures of Britain and Russia^ 
bfoured as they are, at least ostensibly, by all the great European powers, for an 
acoummodation of his quarrel with the Greeks — He refuses accommodation on any 
terms but those of unconditional submission on their part; and those terms we are 
well satisfied will never be accepted. The Greeks would never accept them, if left 
to themselves; and if they would, Russia and Britain have gone too fw to permit them 
to do it. These powers are pressing the Turkish Divan to accept their mediation, 
and listen to the propositions which they make. But the Sultan sometimes equivo- 
cates^ at others is insolent, and hitherto has been un]nelding. A favourite prime mi- 
luster has either resigned, or been displaced, because he was thought to be too tame. 
We took with no small share of interested feeling to the issue of uie present state of 
things in this despotick empire. — ^The business of the janissaries is not yet finally 
settled. 

RcBsiA.^ — Official documents recently published at St. Petersburg, make the popu- 
lation of the Russian empire to consist of 59,534^000 souls, upon a superficies of 
375,174 square miles. The Roman empire, when at its height, did not, we think, 
embrace so lu^c a territory as that of Russia, at the present time; and this enormous 
territory is still constantly enlarging. A very considerable addition is likely to be 
made to it, as tlie result of the late war with Persia. If it long holds together, in all 
its present extent, it will be a new thing under the sun. At present, however, we 
see no indication of its diminution. It is said that the Emperor Nicholas has marched 
ao army of 100,000 men to the borders of Turkey, with a view to overawe the l*urka 
in his negotiations relative to the Greeks — He has also published an ukase, highly 
approving of the part taken by the Arminians in his military operations against 
Persia. 

ASIA. 

Bv tlie late conquests of Russia, the British and Russian possessions in Asia seem 
likely to come in contact with each other; and recent accounts represent this cir- 
cumstance as having occasioned no small alarm to tlic British authorities in India. 
Tlie Russians will certainly be far more formidable neighbours, if they become neigh- 
bours, to the British, thun the native Indian princes, or than the Burmese or Chinese, 
whose borders and theirs are separated only by an arbitrary line. Britain and Rus- 
sia, although pressed together hj the power of Buonaparte, have long been jealous 
of each other. Hitherto their disputes have been about maritime rights and prero- 

Etivcs ; but if their land territories should meet, the danger of a serious quarrel will 
: much increased. We have no very recent intelligence of missionary operations 
in India ; farther than that a new bishop, as we have already stated, has been ap- 
pointed for that country, by the English Episcopal churcli ; and that the Baptist mis- 
sion in India has acquired sufficient strength to support itself, and has amicably se- 
parated from the parent institution in Britain. 



SB8 View (f Publick Jiffairs. Jvn%t 

AFRICA. 

In our Litertiy and Philoiopbieal Intelligence, we have atated that letten had 
been received from Major Laing at Timboctoo. We have lince obaerved in a Loodon 
paper of April 36th, that ** letters from Tripoli state that Major Lain? and Captain 
Clapperton met at Tlmbuctoo, and were making their way to Tripofi.^ If thej re- 
turn to their country in safety, much and lone wished for information, in regard to 
the interior of this great continent, will doubtless be communicated to the worid« 

AMERICA. 

Bbaiil Am BuBiros Atbxa are still at war. It seems now to be well ascertained 
that the battle between the Imperialists and Republicans at Rio Grande, of which we 
kst month gave some account, although not entirely decisive, terminated greatly in 
&vour of the Republicans. By sea also, it appears that the Riepublicans, with a veiy 
inferior navy, have gained some important advantages over the Imperial fleet— ]|jpk 
Pedro is maiking strenuous exertions to reinforce both his army and his fleet ; but^ie 
think he is likely to be driven entirely from the Banda Oriental. In other parts of 
his dominions, likewise, much uneasiness exists, and rebellion occasionally breaks 
out. He is certainlv a man of considerable talents; but he seems likely to have a 
foil demand for all his energies and resources, especially if he should quarrel, as be 
■eems disposed to do, with .the United States — ^In the mean time, it is said that he is 
about to supplpr the loss of the late empress by taking another in her place. It is 
easier for a prince to supply the loss of a wife, than the loss of such a territory as 
the Banda Oriental. 

Msxico. — ^The last accounts from this republick represent the civil dissentions ex- 
isting there as likely to be terminated, witli less difiiculty than had been anticipfltad. 
The constituted authorities appear to possess the public confldence, and to act with 
energy. We have seen a long list of vessels taken and destroyed on the coast of Cuba 
by the Mexican squadron. Commodore Porter has manifested a de^e both of h^- 
aty and enterprise, which have deservedly raised him to high estimation with the Meii- 
cans. A late arrival from the Havanna brin^ information that he had left Ker West, 
privately in a sloop — his object and destination unknown. He has left one of Us fii- 
gates on that station — We hear nothing of the congress of Tacubaya, 

Colombia. — ^l*his republick is still in a veir agitated state. The general congren 
IS coming together at the last accounts ; and it is positively stated that Bolivar had 
actually sent in his resignation. If so, we hope we shall hear no more of his treacheiy 
and tyrannical projects. We believe he has always acted according to his beat jodg- 
ment, for the good of his country. In some things he may have erred — Who of mor- 
tals can say he 7ietfer erred ?" 

Guatemala. — This republick is still convulsed. It appears that recently there has 
been a bloody battle between its military forces and those of Salvadore, in which the 
latter were defeated. 

United States. — We have already intimated that the emperor of Brazil had shown 
an unfriendly, if not a positively hostile disposition toward our country. His arbitfiiy 
and unjust measures in regard to our seafaring brethren, and his insolent treatment of 
our Charge des AfTairs, Condy Ila^et, Esq., when he interposed in behalf of his 
countrymen, induced Mr. Ragucl to demand his passports, which were granted, and 
he has returned with his family to the United States. There is every evidence that 
Mr. R. acted with propriety, as well «s with spirit, in this affair. The citizens of the 
United States at Rio Janeiro gave him a publick dinner, in testimony of their esteenii 
and presented him with a very fluttcrinp^ address. No less than nine masters of Bri* 
tish vessels at Rio, also united' in an address to Mr. U., thanking him for the incidental 
services he liad rendered tliem, and regretting his departure. He has gone on to 
Washington, where we doubt not our government will promptly take the measures 
which the occasion demands. 



EPnATUM Iir THE PRESEHT ITUMBER. 



In the paragraph whicli introduces Hcliffioiis InteUitrence^ we have intimated that a 
notice would appear in our present Number relative to the directors of tlie Wcalem 
Theological Seminary. After the form containing the paragraph was struck off, it 
was discovered that this notice had been mislaid and not put tn type— It shall appear 
aext month. 




THE 



oatsssvaii^ ^miit(s>9JM^taL 



JULY, 18^7. 



ftelt0tou$ Commnnicatton^. 



LmOTURKS ON THE SHORTER OATK- 
CHISK OF THE WESTMINSTER AS- 
SKMBLT OF DIVINES — ADDRESSED 
TO YOUTH. 

LECTDItS XXTIII. 

( Concluded from p. 244.) 

HaTiDg now, as I hope, prepared 
<fae way for understanding more 
Ibllj the answer before us, and en- 
detTOured to guard it against abuse, 
let us consider the first clause of 
the answer before ua, which stands 
thuB-^*< Effectual calling is the 
work of God's Spirit." 

The difference between an act 
and a iror/r, has been explained to 
inany of you, when jou repeated 
yoHf catechism to your pastors. 
An act is a singU exertion or ope- 
ration, and takes place and is finish- 
ed at once. A work is a series, or 
continuation of acts or operations; 
and continues for some length of 
time. Now as effectual calling 
consists, as the answer shows, of 
several progressive steps, it is, of 
coarse, a work. It should, how- 
ever, be observed and remembered, 
that the several steps or gradations 
of advance, in this work» althouj^ 
capable of being separately consi- 
dered, are not so separated in ex- 
perience as that one is always 
completed before another is began. 
In discourse we can distinguish 
them, and it is useful to do so* ^ut 
when they take place in the mind 
of an individual, the exercises which 



constitute them, are often, to a cer- 
tain degree, mingled together. The 
subjects of these exercises are not 
like persons making advances in 
science. They do not make one 
finished attainment, and then pass 
on to another, in a regular and un- 
varied course. On the contrary, he 
who is effectually called, seldom 
perhaps thinks of the several parts 
or steps of his calling, till the whole 
is completed; when, by reflection, 
he may perceive that he has shared 
in all. 

The word calling, in the answer 
before us, deserves your particular 
notice. Men are outwardly called 
to repentance and newness of life, 
by providential dispensations, and 
especially by the preaching of the 
gospel. But these calls are often 
not effectual — Alas! how few re- 
gard them as they ought The 
inward call, however, which we 
here consider, is always regarded 
and complied with, and is therefore 
denominated an effectual coZ/.. It 
is the special office of the Holy and 
blessed Spirit of God, to aive this 
inward and effectual calT to the 
soul ; and his sacred influences are 
constantly to be sought in prayer 
for this purpose. 

In effectual calling, the first step 
is to convince us suitably of our sin 
and misery. There are very few 
who will not acknowledge that they 
are sinners. Sometimes, when na- 
tural conscience is wounded by the 



296 



Lectures on the Shorter Catecliism. 



IVhY, 



commissiou of enormous and re- 
proachful sins, the sense of guilt ma^ 
be exceedingly pungent. But all this 
is, too often, transient in its dura- 
tion, tad imperfect in its nature. 
It is quite another matter when the 
Holy Spirit performs this work, as 
a part of effectual calling. Then a 
conviction of guilt is bound on the 
conscience, and an abiding sense of 
misery is felt, under the apprehen- 
sion of the divine displeasure. In 
some, and especially in those who 
have been ^reat and flagitious offend- 
ers, the pain arising from this convic- 
tion of sin, and consequent appre- 
hension of the divine wrath, is aw- 
ful indeed. The knowledge of this, 
and the apprehension of it in their 
own case, sometimes makes unsanc- 
tified sinners stifle the conviction 
of sin, when it begins to take place. 
A fear of the pain which mav at- 
tend on true repentance, is, i am 
persuaded, often the reason why 
serious impressions are banished 
and dissipated. But this is un- 
fpeakably foolish, in every view. 
Suppose it the most painful that 
is ever realized, and it is still infi- 
nitely rather to be chosen than the 
eternal pains of hell. But the ap- 
prehension is, in most cases, imagi- 
nary altogether. Even in great 
prodigals, true repentance is often 
a gentle work, although it is ever a 
deep one. The account which the 
eminent John Newton has published 
of himself, furnishes a remarkable 
instance of this: and the narrative 
which Bishop Burnet has given of 
the repentance of the profligate 
Earl of Rochester, is not much dif- 
ferent. Oftentimes, indeed, pious 
people have wished that their con- 
victions of sin had been far more 
keen and painful than they have ever 
felt. The Holy Spirit deals with 
each individual, in this respect, in 
a wise and sovereign manner. 
Some are convinced suddenly, and 
others gradually — Spme more, and 
others. less painfully. In some the 
whole process seems like the natu- 
raJ eBbot of reflection and conside- 




degree of hope is min- 
viction from the verv 



ration, 
ffled wil 
first 

But in whatever way genuine 
conviction of sin takes p&^e» the 
essence of it is this-^The sinner is 
made thoroughly sensible that he is, 
by nature and by practice, a guilty, 
polluted, inexcusable offender,^ be- 
fore his God ; and that he is in a 
truly miserable state, from having 
lost the friendship of his Maker^ 
and being exposed to his just aai 
endless displeasure. These per- 
ceptions, resting and abiding with 
weight on the mind, constitute the 
essence of this part of the work: 
And these are necessary, not be- 
cause there is any merit in them, 
for there is none ; nor because by 
themselves they constitute true re- 
ligion, for they do not. — If any rest 
here, they rest short of the kingdom 
of heaven. But a sense of guilt and 
misery is necessarv to make the 
sinner loath himself and abhor Us 
sin ; and to render him earnest in 
seeking a Saviour, and ready to ac- 
cept him as he is offered. 

Accordingly the next step in ef- 
fectual calling, as stated in the an- 
swer before us, is — *' enlightening 
our minds in the knowledge m 
Christ." " What must 1 do to be 
saved?" will be the importunate 
demand of every sinner, convinced 
of his guilt in the manner just de- 
scribed. This inquiry, indeed, may 
not be always uttered to others, but 
it will always be felt by the indivi- 
dual concerned in all its force. 
You will now see him reading the 
word of God, if he be able ti^read 
it, with a care and an attention to 
which he had before been unaccus- 
tomed ; and seeking for instruction 
from the pulpit, from books, or from 
conversation, with the deepest in- 
terest. 

Making use of these means, the 
Holy Spirit, either more suddenly 
or more gradually (for there is as 
much diversity here as in the for- 
mer particular^ enlightens Jthe mind/ 
into the knowledge of Christ The 



i82r. 



Lectures an the Sl^orter CaieckUm* 



Mt 



understanding is opened to under- 
stand the Scriptures; to discern 
with some clearness the gospel 
plan of salvation by Christy to per- 
ceive the practical use of his of- 
fices; to receive the knowledge of 
his atonement, righteousness and 
fulness— To see, in a word, that he 
is a Saviour of matchless excel- 
lence, inexhaustible sufficiency, 
and unspeakable suitableness. 
Much may have heretofore been 
heard about Christ b^ the anxious 
sinner ; but now, feeling as be does 
a deep interest in his inquiries, and 
being enlightened by the Spirit 
of unerring truth, he sees with an 
impression never known before, 
that Christ Jesus is indeed a Sa- 
viour exactly fitted to his state and 
necessities; able to save to the 
▼err uttermost all that come unto 
Trod by him ; and willing to save, 
without money and without price. 
He sees too, that Christ is rireely 
tendered— sincerely offered, with 
all his benefits, to every one who is 
willing to accept him. 

Some have much clearer and 
fuller views of the kind here de- 
scribed than others. But it is es- 
sential to all, that they come to un- 
derstand and be persuaded, that 
there is reallj *' no salvation in any 
other" but in Christ alone; and 
that he is able and willing to save 
all those who truly commit their 
souls into his hands. Such an un- 
derstanding and persuasion of this 
great and glorious truth there must 
e, as shall produce a real, engaged, 
and pressing desire, to obtain a 
personal interest in, and union with 
Christ 

The rmeunngof Ae will is the 
next step in effectual calling. In 
this the very essence of reeenera- 
tion consists. The will is the seat, 
so to speak, of the moral action of 
the soul. Here lies our depravity 
in our natural atate*— The will 
and affections hare taken a wrong 
bias^^they are obatinatriy tet on 
iin, and- opposed to holineat* Ton 
cannot force them to ehaasge tlHtt 



bias. It is the bias of nature^ 
of corrupt nature— and it requires 
the interposition of the Ood of na- 
ture—of him who can give us a new 
nature — to change this bias. You 
may reason as you will, you may be 
fully convinced yourself that the 
course of sin is wrong and ruin- 
ous; but still there is that wretch- 
ed, prevalent, unchanged, siafnl 
propensity, remaining in all its 
force. Persons under those exer- 
cises which are included in effectual 
callinji;, sometimes get to see this 
truth m a very clear and strong liaht. 
I once conversed with a sensnole 
female, in this state of mind, who 
told me that she was satisfied of all 
that I have stated in the preceding 
part of this discussion; satisfied 
that it must be a supernatural agent 
that had eneaged her attention to 
the state of her soul ; satisfied that 
she was a euilty and perishing sib- 
ner; satisfied too that Christ 



both able and willing to saive her 
soul. But, ah ! (said she} I have llo 
will to choose and commit my wmA 
to him for salvation, in the way 
he requires; I have no .afl^ection 
for him at all-*and without fbis I 



certainly perish. What shall I 
do !" The answer was— the same 
God who has brought you thosrfar, 
can carry you througn— nran pow- 
erfully antl sweetly dispose you 
to embrace the Saviour. Then I 
saw exemplified what I before well 
knew to be a fact, that the doctrine 
of our dependance on Gtoi for his 
grace (aa;ainst which some quarrel so 
bitterly) is the most encouraginff 
doctrine in the world, to a ttina 
truly enlightened, and riditly exer- 
cised—The thouriit that Ood mMt, 
and perhaps vrouTd, do for her, iHrnt 
she clearly saw she wOQld ne- 
yer do for herself, saved this wo- 
man firom despair— And verr short- 
ly afterwards, what she looked for 
was realized. Her will and «flbe- 
tionidM, in the nuMit fall and de- 
lightfal manner, dtooae and eetilrc 
in Christ; as all her MLt<i%tkrK«fiA 



in 



Lectures on the Shorter (kUechisnu 



JVLYf 



I know» a case in which the partj 
concerned had uncommonly clear 
views of the state of her own soul. 
In hundreds and thousands of in- 
stances, where the change is as real 
and as genuine as that I have men- 
tioned, the progress of the mind is 
not observed or seen, with any such 
distinctness — ^The will and affec- 
tions are found to be changed, 
but, for a time at least, it is not 
known by the part^r how, or when 
it was done. President Edwards 
states this to have been the case 
with himself. He was always a 
close thinker — He was anxious 
about the state of his soul, and 
was praying and examining divine 
truth. He nad quarrelled, lone and 
ardently, with tne doctrines of di- 
vine grace and sovereignty. At 
length, he says, he seemed to un- 
derstand andf see a glory in them, 
that made him love tnem. But he 
thought, at the time, that he only 
happened to get the true view of 
them, which he had not been able to 
take before. A true view indeed 
it was; but he afterwards discover- 
ed that the change was in his heart 
-—in his will and affections — and 
not in any new intellectual percep- 
tions of ttie subject itself. 

This change of the will and af- 
fections is the peculiar work of the 
Holy. Spirit. It is done, in the 
view of divine truth, but the Spirit 
is the agent How he does it, we 
know not. It is expressly likened, 
in Scripture, to the influence of the 
wind— -a powerful but an invisible 
agent. We know, however, that 
no violence or compulsive influence 
is used. The creature acts, all the 
time, with the most perfect free- 
dom. All we can say is — ** He is 
made willing in a day of God's 
power.'' 

After the renovation of the will, 
the soul, under the same sacred in- 
fluence by which the renewal was 
effected, is *' persuaded and enabled 
to embrace Jesus Christ, freely of- 
fered to us in the gospel" — ^This 

/ui# been m m%A mtiapated, that 



it will not be necessary to detain 
you long with it The embracing 
of Christ as he is freely offered in 
the gospel, or the exercise of sav- 
ing faitn, is the act of a new na- 
ture. The old man is corrupt, and 
never puts forth a holy exercise; 
and it is evident that the new na- 
ture must exist before it can act. 
But it always acts faith in Christ, 
when it does exist. The same 
blessed Spirit who changes the 
heart, assuredly, and in all in- 
stances, leads It to Jesus Christ, 
and in the language of the answer, 
" persuades and enables it to em- 
brace him." This is roost happily 
expressed. The soul sees such an 
excellence, amiableness, and snit- 
ableness in Christ, under the Sp- 
rit's influence, that it is ready to 
say — ^"How can I possibly renise 
to obey, trust and love, such a 
Saviour — He is altogether lovely, 
he is the chief among ten thou- 
sands." Thus, it is ^persuadei: 
And aided by the same blessed 
agent, it is also enabled^ in the truest 
and most unreserved manner, to 
embrace Christ — To receive him 
with open arms, and to lay hold of 
him as emphatically the Saviour of 
the soul — placing all its depend- 
ance, truly and delightfully, on him 
alone, for a complete salvation ; for 
pardon, justiflcation, sanctification, 
preservation, and eternal life. 

Here, again, it is to be noted, 
that the clearness and sensibility 
with which different true believers 
close with Christ, is very various. 
With some it is done with rapture 
and ecstasy. By others it is done 
with ereat calmness. And by many, 
I douDt not, who do it trolyy it is 
done so feebly and faintly, or ra- 
ther, with such indistinct percep- 
tions of their own real acts, that 
they long doubt and fear whether 
they have done it at all. But wkal 
is essential is, really, practically,, 
and heartily to approve of the why 
of salvation byClirist, and rest -and 
trust in him, as the '*M iiiall"t4f 
the aouU-Tliiiitf'<wiio do.-thk..«lK 



FaUaral Letter. 



29S. 



lim in a saving manner— The 
;rant that you and I, my dear 
may thus embrace him to Our 
1 benefit. Amen. 



PASTORAL LETTEtL. 
Continued from pcLge 254.) 

Allowing any body and every 
i speak and pray tnpromiscji' 
*etings, as they feet disposed. 
lay be done with an idea that 
L bad effect, in a time of revi- 
call upon an individual, and 
m decline, or perform the part 
d him in a cold and formal 
r; and that none will volun- 
less their feelings are warm, 
may be done by one who pre- 
; a meeting, to avoid the respon- 
of naming some individuals 
i naming others, which might 
lies create unpleasant feelings, 
may be done, also, under rae 
at the opportunity should be 
to those who are specially 
by the Spirit, to speak or 
f which special movements of 
irit, the person presiding is not 
sd to be capable of judging^ 
he has the gift of discern- 
rits. We think the practice, 
ir, is an unsafe one to adopt, 
who are the most forward to 
or pray, are not always the 
jalined to do it in a suitable 
r. There are some persons, 
*e hopefully pious, but whose 
;ss and ignorance is such, that 
re apt to say and do thines 
are adapted to connect in the 
of others tlte most solemn 
in relieion with ideas of a 
us and^ disgusting nature; 
st that verjr weakness and kp- 
e, which L» so obvious to 
is unknown to ^emseives, and 
occasion of their forwardness, 
who have the most of the tme 
nf prayer, which is a meek, 
; bumble, retiring spurit^wUl 
likely to pat themsdvea for* 
n hile those who bave the most 
il pride, the highelt cooceit of 



their own piety and engagedness, 
and will therefore be the most like- 
ly to pot themselves forward, are not 
the most suitable persons to lead the 
devotions of others, or to speak to 
their profit And if the practice is 
once mtroduced» it will be likely to 
produce difficulties, in the end, of a 
very serious nature. When it is 
once established, if tiie settled pastor 
should feel it to be ever so necessary 
to impose restraints, and check dis* 
orders, he will be in danger of raising 
prejudices against himself by at- 
tempting to interpose. We think it 
safest, that the pastor, or in his ab- 
sence, some one of the older mem- 
bers of the church, who may be pre- 
sent, should take the direction of 
every meeting, and name such per- 
sons to speak and pray, as he shall 
think most to edification.' "Jjetall 
things be done decently and in order.** 
lo. Wron^ means of exciting 
fear. We think there is enough in 
the Bible that is alarming in its na- 
ture, to which the attention of sin- 
ners may be properly directed, with- 
out resorting to any artificial means 
of our own contrivance. Yet, we ap- 
prehend that some, not content with 
presenting scriptural topics in a 
scriptural manner, are in danger of 
resorting to other means, in order to 
clothe them with artificial terrors, for 
the purpose of Uring to give them 
greater effect. TV> tell one who ac- 
knowledges himself to be in an on- 
converted state, that he is in the way 
to destruction, and that unless be 
repents he will speedily perish, can- 
not be objected to ; but, to tell such 
a one that ""he will be in hell before 
twelve oVslockf to say to a child, 
" watoh the son, for you will be in hell 
before it goes down ;* to say to ano- 
ther, " if you do not repent to-day, 
you will fa!e in hell to-morrow f to say 
to an awakened sinner, in ordinary 
circumstmcesi ^ your case is the most 
hopeloM of any that I have ever 
seen,"* or» ** I have no doubt yon are 
a reprobate, for yon have every mark 
of a itprabale,* or, **ywi are going 
rig|h!ttohiall,^aiid Itoreisiiohia^ikint 



( 



394 



Pastoral Lttkr. 



JtTlT. 



together UDJastifiable. Such predic- 
tions and dfeclarationfl we know not 
how to reconcile with tmth; and if 
we saw nothing oljectionable in them, 
in that respect, we think thej are 
adapted to do injury. Iliej may, 
indeed, create a momentarj terror, in 
some minds; but the ultimate influ- 
ence of them, we think, will be, to 
harden those who haye been thus ad- 
dressed, and lead them not only to 
despise such artificial terrors, but to 
be less accessible to the sober warn- 
ings contained in the Bible. 

17. Tnfing to make people anigry. 
When truth and duty are clearly 
presented to sinners, and they have 
feeline enough to make an applica- 
tion oT them to their own case, it is 
to be expected they will feel dis- 
pleased : Not always, perhaps, with 
him who presents these unpleasant 
subjects; for they may be convinced 
that it is done in kindness, and with 
the best wishes for their good ; and, 
in that case, their displeasure may be 
with themselves. And this we think 
is the great point to be aimed at, in 
presenting unpleasant subjects, and 
urging them upon the consciences of 
men, that they may see their own 
folly and guilt, and condemn them- 
selves for it. But some are so un- 
reasonable as to be displeased with 
the preacher or the friend who urges 
these subjects upon them, though it 
is done with the kindest intentions. 
We think it is wrong to soften down, 
or conceal the truth, for the sake of 
pleasine men; and if any preacher 
does please all sorts of hearers, wc 
think that circumstance ought to lead 
htm seriously to inquire whether he 
has not failed in declaring the whole 
counsel of God. Yet we ought not 
rashly to conclude that the absence 
of open and violent opposition is a 
proof of unfaithfulness. We think 
it quite possible for the consciences 
oT men to be so thoroughly convinced 
of the truth, as to silence all open 
opposition, even though their hearts 
are not brought to submission. But, 
while it is to be expected that the 
faithful declantion of the truth will 
«ited fOffle, we think it WMld be ^ 



great mistake to make it an object 
to give offence, and try to provoke 
the angry passions of men. To 
study harshness and abmptaeia of 
manner, in the pulpit or in private 
conversation, for the purpose of ghr- 
ing offence, appears to be entirely 
contrary to the inspired direction in 
meekness to give instruction to op- 
posers. And after having given of* 
fence by such a manner, to cooclode 
that the opposition which is made is 
an evidence of our superior faithfiil- 
ness, we think would be quite mi- 
warrantable. 

18. Talking much about oppoti' 
tUnu It is to be expected that Hie 
enemies of truth and righteousness 
should be grieved to witness a revi- 
val of true religion.- And it am 
scarcely be expected that such a re- 
vival can take place, to any conside- 
rable extent, without being opposed, 
secretly or openly. But as we tttink 
it a fault in Christians to try to pro- 
voke and stir up opposition, ao we 
think it extremely in^udiciooa h 
them when such opposition ia made, 
to irj to drown it by raisine as great 
a noise on their part. It wUl be more 
likely to exhaust its rage, and die of 
itself, if let alone, than if fresh ali- 
ment is administered by raising the 
cry of persecution. We think it is 
the best policy, as well as most 
agreeable to the spirit of the eospeL 
to bear injurious treatment oteveiy 
kind, with meekness, and forbearance, 
and silence. It was when the ene- 
mies of the Lord Jesus were most 
enraged against him, that he was the 
most silent and submissive under 
their injurious treatment, an ezanple 
which his disciples would do well to 
imitate. 

19. The t^ectoHon qffamUuai- 
ty with God in pra^. The paie 
spirits above are represented aaveilr 
ing their faces before the Mqesty of 
heaven and earth. Holy men of oU, 
when favoured witii the dearest 
views of God, abased themsekes be- 
fore him, with the deepest revere»e& 
Penitent sinners are» indcfed, eooor 
raged to come boldly to the thMe 
^ fim«,t!brai«}i fdtkm the UmiI 



FoMtoral LetUr^ 



ns 



nement^as childreii to a father. 
t is with childlike coofidence 
ihoald come; such confidence 
omes a dutiful and affectionate 
who respects his parent, and 
him as the fifth commandment 
es. It is not with such fiimi- 
' as a man approaches his eauaU 
less with such indecent tree- 
kS a well bred man who respects 
If would be ashamed to use to- 
; any one, in the presence of 
I. To affect a familiar, talking 
Br, in our publick addresses to 
ippears to us to betray as much 
It of good taste, as it does of 
t of right feeling towards Gk)d. 
sdaptM to disgust those who 
a common sense of propriety, 
I to shock those who are accus- 
i to treat their Maker with 
snce. 

Language cf frofameiMU. 
I the name of Uod is used irre- 
tly, we cannot but consider it a 
1 of the third commandment, 
though it should be done in 
ig or preaching. And we can- 
ee how its frequent repetition, 
mere expletive, for want of 
faing else to say, can be consi- 
in any other li^t than as tak- 
e name of God in vain. And 
it is used in the pulpit, for the 
purpose that it is used by the 
le swearer, merely to give force 
ner^y to the expression, we see 
hy it should be considered pro- 
in the one case, and not in the 
. Yet, we believe it is used, in 
exceptionable ways, by many at 
ay. There is another sfiecies of 
aee, which is sometimes heard 
[gious addresses, which, to some, 
ITS still more exceptionable, be- 
lt resembles the more vulgar 
of profiineness. It isthefimi- 
le of the words devUt MO^ eun- 
amned, and the like, with the 
kind of tone and manner as 
are commonly heard firom pro- 
lips. We know not why one 
ihould be thought profanOt who 
to others, in the street^ ^go to 
and be damned,** and another^ 
uses the sane eipf c as ia i i » ki 



s^ 



the pulpit, with the same tone and 
manner, an example of nncommon 
piety. 

21. JOiaregord of tke ii$Unetiom$ 
of ag€ or staHon, ^ The scriptares 
recognise these distinctions, and re* 

Suire us to regard them. " Hontiir 
ly father and mother,"* said God at 
mount Sinaif " Thou shalt rise op 
before the hoary head, and honour 
the Cue of the old man,** was a re- 
petition of the same law; The new 
Testament is so far from setting aside 
this law, that it is repeated there, 
with additional injunctions. Though 
Timothy was an eminent youn^ man, 
and invested with high authonty, the 
direction to him is explicit: " Re* 
buke not an elder, but entreat him 
as a father, and the younger men as 
brethren; the elder women as mo- 
thers ; the younger as sisters, with all 
puritv.* It was one of the charges 
whicn our Lord brought against tne 
Pharisees, that, under the pretence 
of discharging another religious duty, 
the^ set aside tiiis commandment by 
their traditions. We cannot but re- 
gard it as an offence of the same 
kind, when men now, under pre* 
tence of Christian faithfiilness, adopt 
the language of rudeness and disre- 
spect towards the aged. Examples 
of what we mean, are such language 
as this, in the mouths of young men 
and boys: "You old, nrey headed 
sinner, you deserved ^to nave been in 

hell long ago" ^"this old hy^ 

crite,"— — " that old apostate,"—— 
** that old grey headed sinner, who is 

leading souls to hell,* ^^that old 

veteran servant of the devil," and 
the like. We fear that young con* 
verts, and even children, have been 
led to believe, in some instances, that 
such kmguaee, respecting their pa- 
rents and others, was commendable, 
and to think it a mark of faithfiilness 
to use it boldly. We think, on the 
contrary, that uie scriptures speak of 
it as a mark of great degeneiMr, 
when ** the child smU behave himself 
proudly agpunst the ancient and the 
base agUBSt the hononi^e.* 



tB6 Autoral letter. ivvt, 

kAo are in good ttmdiw ut (&« tfaa names of particaltf ptrwi ar 
viaibU ckunA. We feu- ttitt muij' pluea, in the midst of »< pnjcr. 
have been led ti> think that the spi- We think, in ordinary nirs, a wtft- 
rit(^ censorioasnesi is a neceMarr cient dureeof definitenea^Mtothe 
port of tiie spirit of a revival, ana ob)ect m our petitions, caa b* d* 
that the best evidence of being pressed witiiout it; and as it is 
meake is a disposition to cry out unpleasant to some, and disturtM 
■ninst the stapidity and coldness of tiieir devotions, we tliink it had bet- 
Others. But nothing is more differ- ter be avoided. But it is not the 
€nt from those fntUa of the Spirit mere menticin of names, that ne 
which are enumerated m the scrip- principally object tu. It is the ra&n- 
tureh It appears to as an indica> ner in which particular persons are 
tioD rather ofspiritual pride, and self held up to view, whether n-ith or 
confidence; and when it accompa- without their consent previously ob- 
nies a revival, we think it one of the tained. If particular persons, who 
greatest blemishes in the work, and are conscious to themselves that 
one of the e^^eatest hindrances to its they are in an uncanverteil 9tate,asl( 
progress. If we have reason to fear totteprayedforin apubiickassembJy, 
diAtothersare in a cold, backslidden it is to be presumed that they wish 
state, the temper of the gospel will it to be done iu a kind and afiectiDD- 
not lead us to proclaim it abroad, nor ate manner, and nut in the tannage 
to denounce them as unconverted, of abuse. To array an impeniteiit 
-but to go to them in the spirit of sionerbeforeapublickassembly.snd 
meekness, and labour with them in describe his character in such terms 
private. It certainly will not lead as would convey to the hearers aa 
us to denounce orthodox churches idea that he is " an abandnaed 
and pious ministers by name, as wretch;" to tell the Lord (hat a mao 
''in the way to hell," or as " Achans prayed for "is full of hell, and his 
in the camp of the Lord," whose lather was full of hell before him. 
"character is as black as hell," and and kii gnmlfather was full of hell 
declare that "the interests of reli- before biro {" — to apply such languase 
non require (hat they should be pat to him on such an occasion, as confil 
dotm." There is a method prac- not be used elsewhere wiUiout being 
tised by some, of censuring others considered defamatory, is certainly 
in prayer, which we regard as more without any justification from tlie 
exceptionable still, inasmuch as it example or the precepts of the Lonl 
prostitutesamostsacredduty topur- Jesus Christ. 

noses of detraction. In praying that 34. Imprecations in prai/er. We 

God would make a minister faithful, think the imprecations recorded in 

there is no need of using such ex- the scriptures, in which inspirEil 

pressions as plainly imply that both men prayed for tlie jud^ents uf 

God and the world know him to be God upon particular indiviiluals, are 

notoriously unfaithful. No Christian no example for our imitauon. They 

can object to being prayed for in a were uttered, no doubt, by thoseholy 

manner which exhibits the temper menofold,i)ndertfaeirDmediatedtrec- 

of the gospel; but, under that pre- tionof theHoly Spirit, and are notto 

tence to hold up to publick notice, as be regarded as the expression of any 

cold, and stupia, and dead, and pei^ malignant feelings. Doubtless «e 

haps as a hypocrite, or an apostate, ought to pray that individuals nur 

one who is in regular standing in be converted and saved, in the eifr- 

the church of Christ, we think no cise of submission to tlie divine «i!l, 

man in his s(d>er senses can attempt and with a supreme desire that God 

tojustify. would make that disposal of then 

25. Praying for persons by name that he sees most fot- hii glory. But, 

in OK abusive manner. We see no to pray for an individual that he nu; 

puikaltr advantage in calling out be convtrttd or rtmovti, to atkOod 



IS27. Pastoral Lttler. 297 

to change his heart now, or else cut mediately treat them as enemies, 
him off and send him to hell, to pray because they might not think as we 
Qod "to seal the damnation of sin- do. We suppose that ministers and 
ners this night,** or to use any other Christians have been sometimes de- 
language which has the appearance nounced in this way, and some of the 
of dictating to Grod, and invading most eminent and successful minis- 
hit prerogatives of mercy or judg- ters too, by ardent and inconsiderate 
ment, we think entirely wrong, and men, from the notion that their ofajec- 
inconsistent with that faith in Ood tionswould go to strengthen the hands 
which the perfections of his charac- of opposers, and encourage the ene- 
ter bind us to exercise. mies of religion. But we think the 

S5. Denouncing as enemies to re- denunciations that are thrown out 
vivals those who do not approve of against such ministers and Christians 
every tiling that is done. We are do more to strengthen the hands of 
aware that differences of opinion ex- opposers, than all the objections 
ist among real Christians on the sub- which they brin^. It is virtually 
ject of revivals; and that different telling the enemies of religion that 
measures have been adopted by dif- they have such ministers and Chris- 
ferent men for their promotion. And tians on their side, in this matter; 
we think that Christian charity would than which nothing is better adapt- 
lead us to believe that both ministers ed to strengthen their hands.— 
and private Christians may be sincere Whereas if they were told what is 
in their professions of friendship to true, that tliese are the friends of re- 
revivals, although their views of tlie vivals as well as we, and only differ 
best means of promoting them from us in regard to some of the mel^ 
aiioald differ from ours. We expect sures we pursue, the attempt to 
that those who differ from us in their claim them as allies bj the enemy 
opinions on this subject will express would be defeated and silenced, 
their opinions freely, as is their un- 26. Female prayer and exhortor 
doubted right; and we have no wish tion. It is our earnest desire that 
to abridge their right of so doing, or the female members of our churches 
to control tlie exercise of it. And should feel the importance of the 
we have no disposition to represent situation in which God has placed 
them as enemies to revivals, because them, and be active and dili^nt, in 
they differ from us with regard to their own sphere, in promoting the 
the best means of promoting them, cause of Christ and the salvation of 
And we wish to caution those under souls. We regard it of great impor- 
our care against the indulgence of tance that they should have meetings 
such a disposition towards any. We by themselves, for prayer and mu- 
think if a revival should exist among tual exhortation ; and that in all those 
us, and other professed friends of re- situations in which God has made 
vivals should appear not to think so them the h^ad, they should not shrink 
highly of it as we do, or should be from the discharge of those duties to 
slow in forming their opinion, it which Providence shall call them, 
woald not be wise to ascribe it to In promiscuous meetings, however* 
their unbelief and to denounce them we do not think God has made it 
as cold hearted, and stupid, and dead, their duty to lead, but to be in si- 
and enemies to revivals. And if lence. Where a female is the head 
they should make objections to any of a family, or the teacher of a school, 
of the means we adopt for promoting we have no doubt it is her duty to 
the work, and should state their ot^ lead their devotions, in the absence 
jections calmly, we ought not to try of a suitably qualified individual of 
to ''•top their mouths," but listen to the other sex, ratlier than to have the 
their reasons, and nve them all that worship of God omitted. But, were 
consideration which the importance the female members of our churchea 
of the suWect demands; and not im- to be pressed out^l^^VDlCAx%^^>^ 

Ch. Mv^VoL. V. 2 P 



£98 Pastoral Letter. JtrLT^ 

God has assigued them, we fear^ to think the j are of coarse hamble ; 
that althou^ some good mi^t t>e and to connect the idea of falling 



the accidental resalt in some instan- prostrate* and rolling about with a 
ces, it woald so diminish their power still hi^er degree of hnmility and 
of doing good in general, as to prove engagedness, we think would be to 
a great calamity to the church, and esUblish unhappy associations, and 
a great hindrance to the prosperity encouragje superstitious and extrava- 
of religion in the world. And we gant notions. Let convenience, de- 
would put it to those who think that cency, and solemnity, regulate the 
female pra^rin^ in promiscuous meet- posture of worship , nut let no pos- 
ings is uiwful in itself, whether, since ture be substituted for right feelings 
they do not think it is positively of heart 

commanded, and others think it is 28. Taking the success of muf 
positively forbidden, they are not measures, as an evidence Mot ihoss 
bound to lay it aside, by the rule of measures are right^and approved of 
the apostle to forbear eating meat, if Ood. It is common to say of tlie 
it were a cause of offence to his meas.ures adopted for promodnar a 
brethren. revival, when they are succeiml, 
27. Loud groaning, speaking out, that Grod blesses those measures ; and 
or falling doum,in time of publick or the conclusion is easily drawn, tint 
social worship. We have no doubt if God blesses any measures, it must 
that strong feeling of the mind some- be that he approves of them, and that 
times prmluce involuntary effects those measures cannot be wrong, 
upon the body ; and that persons who We think that this principle is hijp- 
are greatly agitated by strong pas- ly dangerous in its tendency ; and, 
sions of any kind, may sometimes at the same time, from the plajisible 
feel unable to restrain themselves appearance it assumes, that there is 
from outward expressions of their ^at danger of its becoming exten- 
feelines. But we think such things sively prevalent Truth is the in- 
shoula be discouraged, and that initi- strument which the Holy Spirit em- 
viduals in such cases should restrain ploys in the conversion of sinners; 
themselves as much as possible, lest and if he should sometimes make it 
disorder and confusion should be in- effectual to that end, when exhibited 
troduced, to the great dishonour of in connexion with much error, or 
the publick worship of God. And we with much that is wrong in the man- 
apprehend, (hat, it such outward ex- ner and circumstances under which 
pressions of feeling are indulg^ but it is presented, it would by no means 
a short time, they will ^row into a indicate that God approved of the 
habit ; and instead of being the ex- error, or of the manner and circum- 
pressions of real feelins, will be the stances under which the truth was 
means resorted to for the purpose of exhibited ; nor tliat much more good 
exciting feeling, and will rather in- would not have been done by the 
crease as the ardour of real feeling same truth presented under different 
diminishes. And we think, that, to circumstances. That the end justi* 
apeak of groaning in prayer, or the jles the means, is a principle which 
observance of any particular posture, belongs to the school of infidelitji 
as any mark of extraordinary en- and not to the school of Christiani^* 
gagedness or humility, would be ra- And though the best and most impor 
ttier adapted to encourage hypocrisy tant end should be proposed, it mast 
and imposture, than to follow the be pursued only by such means as the 
sober decisions of scripture, which scriptures authorize. To take it fir 
lay the whole stress upon a right dis- granted that success is an evidenee 
position of heart, without which no Uiat the means used to attain it weie 
service is acceptable to God. To right, would be to set aside the Bible 
pray for some as ''too proud to as a rule of conduct, and would over- 
iiwe// might lead such as do knetif thrown in its turn, every precept of 



\S^7. Pastoral Letter. 299 

the divine law. Jacob succeeded in law and the testimony v &nd that it 
obtaining the blessing from his aged is as unsafet as it is criminal, to set 
father, uiough it was by means of ap any other rule in the place of that 
deliberate deception and wilful false- which God has established, 
hood. Shall we, therefore, resort to 29. Disorderly and disorganix*' 
deception and falsehood to attain ing measures, God is a God of or- 
our end, and think to silence obiec- der. This appears in all his works, 
tors by telling them, ** God has bUsS' and in all the ordinances he has siven 
ed these means, and for them to find to men. The experience of all 
fault is to be more nice than God?" ages has tended to show the wis- 
Moaes succeeded in bringing water dom of that order which God has 
from the rock, though he took differ- established in the visible church, 
ent measures from those which God and how closely the best interests 
had expressly directed, and was af- of the church are connected with 
terwanls punished for his sin in that the observance of it Yet the ar- 
iDBtance. We greatly fear, if the dour and inexperience of youdi is 
principle once becomes current that often impatient of those restraints 
success is an evidence that God ap- it imposes; and the warm tempe- 
proves of the means by which it was rament of others sometimes leads 
attained, that deception and false- them to grasp at some small, pre- 
hood will come to be considered not gent, temporary, partial good, re- 
only innocent but meritorious, if they gardless of certain, future, abiding. 
are practised for the advancement of ^^^^ general evil. The business of 
religion, an error which once pre- ministers of the gospel is often, in 
vailed in the professed church, and scripture, compared to those occu- 
some appearance of which we think pations which require a wise fore- 
we have occasionally seen in our own ^^j^^ ^f future consequences, which 
times. Intimately connected with ^g| ^^e to provide for, in their 
this erroneous pnnciple, is another, present arrangements, and to ne- 
not less erroneous ; that the succ^iss ^^^^^ ^^ich, would be entirelv in- 
ofan individual minister, in winning Consistent with their duty. Some 
manysouls,isanwdenceofhissu- ^^ ^j,^ ^,^^5^ ministers in this 
penor piety and faithfulness, while ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ho are now in 
the want of success, in another, is an ^^j^ 1,^^^ ^^^ ^„^l^ ^l„^. 
evidence of his unfai^^^^^ ed at%hat they have seen on this 

fulth^whenl^isun^^^^^^^^^ hVrctwKr^^^^ 

irXrTitVe^^^^^^ ^^-•^•'^^V'^KS^^^^^^^ 



the most distinguished prophets of tio° of nj»°«t«"»»;°fl»«^ »"^* 

old, and even*^our LoJd himself, ^^th it the power to do good, the 

whose personal ministry was attend- prevalence of a spirit of party, and 

ed with very litUe success, compar- the ambition x>f being party leaders, 

ed with that of some of the apostles, a restless, revolutionising temper. 

We think no sober Christian, who Bever contented with the present, 

takes the Bible for his guide, can but always desirous of change, are 

doubt at all that the degree of minia- certainly great evils in the church, 

terial faithfulness, and the propriety And if they exist m any measure, 

of every measure for the promotion or if there are causes in operation 

of religion, must be judged of by the which appear likely ta ^fw4?!k« 



sod 



Vastaral Letter. 



JvLTf 



them, it is certainly ground of 
alarm to ail who wish well to Zion. 
Whether these evils exist* and how 
far, it is not our purpose to say. 
We only desire to guard those un- 
der our care against such things as 
have a tendency to produce them. 

We think it disorderly for any 
minister, or other person, to inter- 
fere in any wav in the concerns of 
a church to which he does not be- 
long. He makes himself a busy 
body in other men's matters. Every 
church and society expect to ma- 
nage their own affairs in their own 
way ; and if they wish for advice 
or assistance, they will ask it. If 
an individual in any church feels 
aggrieved by any of its decisions, 
there is an orderly way for him to 
obtain redress. But for a minister 
or other person to encourage dis- 
contented individuals in another 
society to come to him with their 
complaints, and so to talk with 
them as to increase their discon- 
tent; and especially for him to ex- 
press an opinion in their favour, 
and against the decisions of the 
church, on the mere statement of 
one party, we cannot but consider 
as highly disorganizing in its ten- 
dency, and mischievous in its in- 
fluence. 

For a preacher, or other indivi- 
dual, to go into a congregation and 
set up meetings, or attempt to in- 
troduce any measures, under pre- 
tence of wishing to promote a re- 
vival, without being invited and 
authoria^d so to do by the minister 
of that conffregatioTi, is so gross a 
violation of order, that few will at- 
tempt to justify its being openly 
done. Yet we apprehend there are 
ways in which it can be done co- 
vertly, and be productive of worse 
consequences tnan if done openly. 
No one can object to a minister's 
preaching in his own congregation ; 
yet if he should take pains to ap- 
point a meeting in such a place as 
to draw many of a neighbouring 
congregation to hear him, and 
should take that opportunity to ex- 



hibit sentiments or recommend 
measures which he had reaaon to 
believe the minister of that coD|;re' 
gation would not approve ; or, if a 
minister should do the like when 
preaching for another by exchange, 
it would not be a neighbourly act 
There is, doubtless, in every such 
case, common ground enough to be 
occupied, in which both would 
agree; and we think every neieh- 
bour, who wishes to be ordenv, 
will keep that in view. A family 
or two, who belong to a church of 
the same denomination, in another 
place, may set up meetines at their 
own houses, professedly tor the ac- 
commodation of themselves alone, 
against which it would be difiicalt 
to make any objectipn; and yet, 
under this cover, many others may 
be induced to attend, and senti- 
ments may be advanced, and mea- 
sures adopted, which have a power- 
ful tendency to divide and distract 
the church and congregation among 
whom they reside. A man may 
come into a congregation under 
the colour of visiting his friends, 
which cannot be objected to; and 
yet, while so doing;, he may em- 
brace tlie opportunity, by his con- 
versation and prayers, to dissemi- 
nate opinions which he knows are 
contrary to those of the minister 
of the place, and adapted to pro- 
mote uneasiness and division. In- 
dividual members of a church may 
be told, with respect to the preach- 
ing of their minister, "you never 
can have a revival under such 
preaching" — ** your minister has 
never preached the gospel to you" 
— «he does not know how to 
preach, nor how to pray" — " if yon 
want a revival, sena away your mi- 
nister, and get a different one, and 
you can have a revival"—" I ad- 
vise you, if you want a revival, to 
withhold your support from the 
minister you now have, and tbas 
compel him to depart." Such mea- 
sures can scarce fail of doing mis- 
chief in any congregation; and 
those who are disposed to adopt 



Pastoral Letter. 



SOI 



;ht to be avoided, as sowers 
d amoDg brethren, 
ongs to a minister and 
> decide for themselves on 
ares to be adopted to pro- 
3vival in their own conere- 
and no other individual 
-ight to interfere. And for 
) come in, and find fault 
it they do, and especially 
)ne with the appearance of 
*eat desire to have a revi- 
ircctly adapted to destroy 
icy of the measures which 
. A similar effect may be 
1 by seeing the memners 
ne, and inquiring the state 
%, and what measures are 
d censuring them as im- 
ind advising to a different 
In this way individuals 
seen abroad, and pains be 
persuade them that a dif- 
it of measures would better 
a revival among them, till 
are rendered uneasy, that 
lity is apparently created, 
minister and church, in 
save themselves from in- 
issentions, to send abroad 
as are promoting revivals 
rent means, to come into 
;e, and commence opera- 
Such persons may come, 
vited by the proper aatho- 
hout any open violation of 
But if they first create the 
y, by such means as have 
entioned, they cannot be 
ed as orderly walkers. And 
n itinerant comes into a 
here there is a settled mi- 
n his invitation, it must be 
ed disorderly for him to in<< 
any thing new, without the 
pprobatiou of the pastor, 
to assume the prerogatives 
astor, and dictate the mea- 
be pursued, is to get out of 
3. Or for him to complain 
measures of the pastor to 
he people, or to take such 
I as to coerce the consent 
astor to that which he does 
rove, is entirely improper. 



And if any measures are intro- 
duced, in which the pastor cannot 
cordially co-operate, it will be seen 
by the people, and cannot fail to 
do mischiet. 

Individual members of a church 
need to act with great circumspec- 
tion, in their attempts to promote a 
revival where they belong. If they 
rashly attempt to introduce any 
thing new, they may do more hurt 
than they can ever do good. It 
belongs to the pastor to adopt his 
own measures ; and it is disorderly 
for any individual member of the 
church to attempt to dictace to 
him, or counteract what he does. 
He will doubtless be willing to re- 
ceive from individual members 
their private suggestions respect- 
ing the course he should take, and 
to give their arguments due consi- 
deration. But after all, he must 
act according to his own iudgment« 
or he cannot be expected to act to 
any good purpose. For an indivi- 
dual member to find fault with 
what he does, and make complaints 
about it to others, is directly adapt- 
ed to promote discord, and quench 
the spirit of a revival where it ex- 
ists, and prevent it where it Is 
hoped for. An itinerant may be 
successfully labouring in a neigh- 
bouring place, and members who 
have heard him may have a desire 
to have him come into their own. 
But it may be dangerous to indul^, 
and to spread that desire. It is quite 
possible that the pastor may know 
something, which it would be im- 

f»rudent to mention, which may 
ead him to fear that the introduc- 
tion of that itinerant would not be 
safe among his people. And yet, 
if a strong desire is created, and 
be manifests any reluctance, it is 
adapted to create discontent and 
disaffection. If any members of 
the church cannot co-operate with 
their pastor in the measures which 
he adopts, it is their business to be 
silent, and not do an^ thing to pre- 
vent the good they might do, nor to 
counteract them lu uxi>f n« vj «>\\!\^% 



soe 



rastoral LtUer. 



Jvw, 



they are of such a nature as to be 
a violation of his duty, and require 
him to be subjected to discipline, 
according to the gospel ; and then 
that should be done in the way that 
the gospel prescHbes. 

We think it has a disorganizing 
tendency » to encourage the young 
members of the church to be for- 
ward to take the most prominent 
place in their meetings, and in the 
measures adopted to promote a re- 
vival, while pains are taken to 
throw into the back ground those 
of greater age and experience, and 
those who have been the pillars of 
the church. It is desirable that the 
young should be trained to activity 
and usefulness; but one of the first 
lessons which needs to be learned 
in order to permanent usefulness, 
is that of subordination to supe- 
riors. It is the business of the 
older members to go forward and 
lead in the church, and to take the 
most prominent place; and it is 
subversive of oraer, and mischie- 
vous in its tendency, to disregard 
the distinctions which Gkni has es- 
tablished, and encourage young 
men and boys to encroach upon the 
province and assume the preroga- 
tives of grey hairs. It is part of a 
description which the prophet gives 
of a period of ereat depression and 
misery to the church, when he says, 
"as (or my people, children are 
their oppressors, and women rule 
over tnem: O my people, they 
which lead thee, cause thee to err,> 
and destroy the way of thy paths." 

Not less subversive of order, and 
disorganizing in its tendency, is 
such a treatment of children and 
youth as leads them to despise the 
authority of parents and instruc- 
tors, and think it meritorious to 
treat with contempt, their advice 
and commands. To tell children 
" not to follow their parents who are 
leading tiiem to hell," to bid them 
" pray for their ungodly parents," 
to tell them '* not to regard the in- 
structions of their cold and stupid 
narents," we cannot but consicier 



as teaching them rebellioD against 
the Lord. Of the same Batare» bat 
more extensively miachievmis in 
its tendency, would it be, te advise 
the members of schools and literaij 
institutions, to disregard theantho- 
rity, and break through the rcgnla- 
tions, of those who are set over 
them, under pretence of ahowiag 
their zeal for the honour of religioB. 
Such things are striking at the 
root of all order, and cottiiig tte 
bands which bind society together. 
If parents or instnictora are in 
fault, their children and pupils art 
not the first to whom it slionid be 
told. 

Such measures as these are db- 
orderly in their nature, and diior^ 
^anizing in their tendency. And 
it is no wonder to us that where 
they are introduced they, bring to 
a msastrous termination those re* 
vivals which have commenced widi 
the most encouraging prospects. 
It is the natural tendency of theai 
to divide and distract the chnrcliei^ 
to render individuals discoDtantri 
with their minister, to destroy the 
efficacy of the stated miniatratioBS 
of the sanctuary, to promote the 
spirit of Separatism, to lead indi- 
viduals to withdraw from Ae 
churches where they belong, to an- 
settle ministers, to desolate charch- 
es, and to lead to all those evib 
which dishonour reIi2ion« destrov 
the power of the churcn to do goad, 
bring contempt upon the ordinanees 
of the gospel, and in the end pro- 
mote irreligion and error of every 
kind. 

We have given onr thongj^ts 
briefly, upon these various topici, 
because we think the evils neft 
pointed out are evils to which oar 
churches are more or less espoaed* 
and against which they need an af- 
fectionate and faithful waming. 
We think the continuance of it- 
vivals, and the good influence thef 
shall exert upon the communitT,ii 
intimately connected witih neir 
character. We believe noihiiy 
tended so much to destroy the ere* 



1827. 



Fastoral Letter. 



303 



dit of reviTals, and excite deep 
rooted prejudices against them, in 
raaDj parts of New England, as the 
disorders and extravagances which 
prevailed in many places, during 
the extensive revival in the days of 
Whitefield and Edwards. The 
evils of which we have taken no- 
tice in this address, are similar to 
those that prevailed then, as ap- 
pears from the history of that time. 
They were faithfully pointed out, by 
President Edwards, while that re- 
vival was in progress; but his faith- 
ful warnings were disregarded ; and 
a lone night of darkness, of more 
than half a century, and a rapid 
growth of every species of error, 
was the consequence. We would 
recommend to the careful attention 
of all under our care, Edwards's 
UumghU on Revivals, his treatise 
on BeligioiLs Affections^ and his 
MemoiTS of David Brainerd, We 
think if these works were more stu- 
died at this time, such evils as we 
have mentioned would be less like- 
ly to prevail. We cannot give 
countenance to the idea that such 
men as Edwards and Brainerd 
knew nothing about revivals, and 
especially that they did not know 
how to pray. We think such revi- 
vals as they deliberately approved, 
wilt bear tne test of time, better 
than those of a different character. 
The evils which we have pointed 
out are by no means the necessary 
attendants on a revival of religion ; 
and the idea that they are, if it 
should prevail, must go far towards 
destroying the character of revivals 
entirefy. We hear of extensive and 
powernii revivals, in various parts 
of New England, and elsewhere, at 
the present time, and are assured 
by our brethren abroad that such 
evils do not accompany them, but 
are carefully guarded against, as 
tending in their opinion, more than 
any thing; else, to ninder a genuine 
work of the Holy Spirit. Audit is the 
ojnnion of those ministers abroad^ 
whose age and experience have 
<lualified them to be the most com- 



petent judges, that such revivals as 
have been attended by these things, 
would have been far greater and 
more extensive, without them, as 
well as much better in their per- 
manent effects. Revivals of extra- 
vagance and disorder never fail to 
exert an unhappy influence upon 
all classes of society. If some 
souls are converted, and some good 
is done, much evil is also done. 
The subjects of them are prepared 
to think that revivals cannot take 
place in any other way; and, of 
course, to exert their influence to 
extend and perpetuate all the evils 
attending them. But there is no 
consequenceof them which we more 
sincerely deprecate, than their 
adaptedness to excite the publick 
prejudice against all revivals, and 
prevent the influence of those mea- 
sures which the scriptures autho- 
rize, and which are adapted to pro- 
mote revivals in their purest form. 
If revivals are of infinite import- 
ance, as we are persuaded you be- 
lieve, then how important it must 
be for their friends to correct, in 
their commencement, those evils 
which tend to their ruin ! And how 
certain is the conclusion, that those 
professed friends of revivals, who 
will not, with decision and firm- 
ness, correct such evils, but will 
look on in silence and suffer them 
to prevail, will prove, at last, in 
this particular, to have acted the 
part of their worst enemies ! Let us 
be awake, then, to the dangers 
which surround us; let us watch 
against all the devices of the adver- 
sary; let us pursue such measures 
for the promotion of revivals, as the 
scriptures authorize, and let us do 
it with humility and engagedness: 
And let us pray more fervently for 
their success, till the Spirit be pour- 
ed upon us from on high, and divine 
influence descend, like the showers 
that water the earth. 

Ralph Robinson, 
J^oderator, 
William R. Wssrs« 

Scribe. 



S04 



JUotatrf/-^^ Poem. 



JxtLYf 



idolatht. 



In the Eclectic Review for May, 
we find an article entitled " Idout- 
try: a poem, in four parts. Bj the 
Rev. William Swan, Missionarj at 
Selinginsk, and author of Memoirs 
of M rs. Patterson." 

Of this poem the reviewers say— 
'* It has every claim to our favoura- 
ble notice and to the attention of 
our readers, that can arise from the 

Crodttction itself, its author, and 
is theme. ... If a poetical work by 
a Christian Missonary is not an ab- 
solute novelty, there is something 
particularly impressive and inter- 
esting in the circumstance of a 
poem composed under the genuine 
inspiration of the enthusiasm by 
which such a man must be actu- 



ated, and transmitted to at fro* a 
strange and distant region-HdoMist 
like a voice from another world. 
Stationed on the borders of the 
Chinese empire^ at a vast reoMve 
from all civilized society. Mr. 
Swan has solaced himselfs in Cbe 
intervals of more arditovs Uboor, 
■* when weariness called for amose- 
ment,' by endeavourina; to psiat 
Idolatry as it is, the hiaeovs reali- 
ty existing before him. He coiU 
not have employed the hoers of re- 
laxation more usefally.^ 

We hope that this poeai will be 
reprinted in this conntnr. In the 
mean time we give Mr. Swan^.dk- 
scription of Idolatry, as he sppivs 
to have see