Skip to main content

Full text of "Christianity and patriotism : with pertinent extract from other essays"

See other formats




>;-:■' ■'.? 



Oi 
0! 

o; 

9 
9 
2 



1 

7 



HRISTI ANITY 
TRIOTISM 



-»rj^ 



i 



AND OTHER 
ESSAYS 



•c 



TOLSTOY 



^ov^ 



.fJu 



Digitized' by fine Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/christianitypatrOOtolsiala 



ce '8<i 






(nk> 



^^^'^ 



$ 




COUNT LEO TOLSTOY 



CHRISTIANITY AND 
PATRIOTISM 

WITH PERTINENT EXTRACTS FROM OTHER ESSAYS 



COUNT LEO TOLSTOY 



TRANSLATED BY PAUL BORGER 
AND OTHERS 



CHICAGO 

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 

LONDON AGENTS 

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. 
1905 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Prefatory Note 3 

Christianity and Patriotism. Translated by Paul Borger.. 5 
Overthrow of Hell and Its Restoration. Translated by 

V. Tchertkoff 51 

Appeal to the Clergy. Translated by Aylmer Maude 63 

Answer to the Riddle of Life. Translated by Ernest H. 

Crosby 78 

Views on the Russo-Japanese War. Translated for the 

London Times 85 

Epilogue, Patriotism and Chauvinism. Paul Carus 93 



PUBLISHERS' PREFATORY NOTE. 



Christianity and Patriotism, by Count Tolstoy, was pub- 
lished in Russian in 1895 at Geneva, Switzerland, where, 
however, it enjoyed but a limited circulation since its read- 
ers were restricted to the Russian exiles residing in Western 
Europe. The present translation appeared originally in The 
Open Court, and is now republished on account of the preva- 
lent interest in Russian aflfairs. At the time of its first ap- 
pearance, the Countess Tatiana Tolstoy, in the name of her 
father, wrote as follows to the Editor of The Open Court, for 
the purpose of authorizing the present translation : *'My 
father bade me write and tell you that he will be very happy 
to have his sketch appear in your journal, which he ap- 
preciates very much, and always reads with great interest 
and pleasure." 

Our frontispiece, which is from a photograph taken in 
Moscow, is highly characteristic of the extraordinary Rus- 
sian. 

In addition to the essay on "Christianity and Patriotism," 
we include in this little book a number of extracts which 
characterize the world-conception of Tolstoy. That we do 
not agree with the venerable author in some of his most 
essential views, does not prevent us from admiring his 
earnestness and genius. Our readers will find an apprecia- 
tive criticism of his views in the epilogue. 

Paul Carus, 
Manager of Open Court Publishing Company. 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 



FOUR years ago there came to Russia a well-known 
French agitator for war with Germany, who es- 
sayed to prepare the ground for a Franco-Russian 
Alliance. He paid us a visit in our village. We were 
then in the field making hay. On our return we made 
his acquaintance, and during lunch he told us about 
his service in the war of 1870, how he was taken 
prisoner, how he escaped, and how he had given a 
patriotic pledge never to cease agitating for war with 
Germany until France had redeemed her glory and 
integrity. 

All the pleadings of our guest about the necessity 
of an alliance between Russia and France for the pur- 
pose of restoring France's former boundaries, power, 
and glory, and in the interest of our own safety against 
Germany's evil designs, met with no success. To his 
arguments that France could not rest satisfied until 
her provinces were restored to her, we answered that 
neither could Prussia rest satisfied until she had 
avenged herself for Jena, and that, should the French 



6 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

revanche be successful now, Germany would still have 
to square matters up again, and so on ad infinitum. 

To his argument that the French are bound to lib- 
erate their brethren in Alsace-Lorraine, we answered 
that the condition of the inhabitants, of the majority 
of the laboring men of Alsace-Lorraine, was hardly 
worse now, under the German rule, than it had been 
before under the French rule. And for the simple 
reason that certain Alsatians preferred to be French 
citizens, or that because he, our guest, desired to vin- 
dicate the glory of the French arms, it by no means 
followed that we should deliberately bring about the 
appalling evils incident to war ; in fact, we could not 
sacrifice to that end a single human life. 

Furthermore, being Christians, we could not ap- 
prove of war, because war requires the slaughter of 
men, whereas Christianity not only forbids all mur- 
der, but actually demands the exercise of benevolence 
towards all men, who are our brethren, without regard 
to nationality. A Christian government, we said, in 
undertaking a war, in order to be consistent, ought not 
only to remove the crosses from its churches, dedicate 
its temples to other purposes, give the clergy a different 
occupation, and forbid the circulation of the New 
Testament, — but it should also renounce all the pre- 
cepts of morality that follow from the Christian doc- 
trines. Oesi a prendre, ou a laisser, we told him. To 
draw people into a war before Christianity had been 
stamped out of existence, would be a deceit and a 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 7 

fraud, but one which nevertheless is practised right 
along. As for our own part, we had seen into that 
deceit and could not submit to it. 

As there was neither music, champagne, nor any- 
thing else befogging our heads, our guest only shrugged 
his shoulders, and with the habitual French amiability 
told us that he was very grateful for the cordial hospi- 
tality which he found in our home, and extremely re- 
gretted that his ideas had not met with a similar wel- 
come* 

n. 

After the foregoing conversation we went out into 
the fields, and, hoping to find there among the people 
more sympathy for his ideas, he requested me to trans- 
late to an old and sickly, but still industrious, moujik, 
Procophy, our comrade in toil, his plan of action 
against the Germans, which consisted, as he expressed 
it, in squeezing from both sides the German who stood 
between the Russians and the French. The French- 
man presented his idea to Procophy graphically by 
placing his white fingers against the sweaty sides of 
the peasant. 

I remember Procophy's good-natured and derisive 
surprise when I explained to him the Frenchman's 
words and gestures. Procophy evidently considered 
his proposition about the squeezing of the Germans 
as a joke, never entertaining the idea that a mature 



8 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

and learned man could talk in a sober state about the 
desirability of war. 

"Well, suppose we do squeeze him from both 
sides," he answered, pitting joke against joke, "we'll 
have him cornered, won't we? We ought to give him 
some room, too. 

I translated the answer to my guest. 

*^ Dites lui que nous aimons les Russes,^* he said. 
These words perplexed Procophy even more than the 
proposition about squeezing the German, and he grew 
suspicious. 

* * Who is he ? " he inquired of me, looking distrust- 
fully at my guest. I told him that he was a French- 
man, a man of wealth, 

"What is his business ? " was his next question. I 
told him again that he had come here to effect an alli- 
ance between the Russians and the French in case of 
war with Germany. Procophy was evidently quite dis- 
pleased, and, turning to the women who were sitting 
near a pile of hay, ordered them in a strict tone of 
voice, which fully expressed his feelings, to go on 
with their work. 

" Here, you old crones," he said, "wake up, bestir 
yourselves ! Now is the time for squeezing the Ger- 
man. The hay is not half gathered yet, and it looks 
as if harvest would begin in a few days." Then, as if 
being loath to offend a stranger and a visitor by his re- 
marks, he added, shaping his stubby teeth into a good- 
natured smile: "Better come ;o work with us, and 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. Q 

let the German go. When the work is over, we'll 
celebrate it, and we'll have the German with us, too. 
He is a man like ourselves." 

With that Procophy shouldered his pitchfork and 
joined the women. 

** O, ie brave homtne !" laughingly exclaimed our 
polite Frenchman. 

And thus ended at that time his diplomatic mis- 
sion to the Russian people. 

The sight of those two men> so diametrically op- 
posed in stations of life — on the one hand, the well- 
fed and well-groomed Frenchman, with a silk hat and 
a long coat of the latest cut, vivacious and elegant 
and in the best of health, demonstrating energetically 
with his white hands how we were to squeeze the Ger- 
man ; and, on the other, the ungainly peasant, with 
his hair full of hay, his skin all dried up from hard 
work, sun-burnt, always tired, yet toiling hard despite 
his work-swollen fingers, in home-made overalls, with 
old, worn-out sandals, a huge pitchfork of hay on his 
shoulder, and moving along with that economical gait 
which is so characteristic of the laboring man — I say 
the sight of those two men, so different in all respects, 
was fraught for me with profound significance at the 
time, and I vividly recollected the scene on the occa- 
sion of the Toulon-Paris festivities. 

The one, the Frenchman, impersonated a class in 
the world who had grown fat on the people's labor, 
men who afterwards recklessly used that people as 



lO CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

food for powder ; the other, Procophy, was a type of 
the food-for-powder class who had sustained and put 
bread into the mouths of all those who were afterwards 
to lord it over -him. 



III. 

"Well, but the French have been deprived of two 
provinces, two favorite children have been torn away 
from their mother. Russia cannot permit Germany to 
make laws for her and interfere with her historical 
mission in the East ; nor can she entertain the possi- 
bility of losing, like the French, her Baltic Provinces, 
Poland, or the Caucasus. Germany, too, cannot suf- 
fer the thought of losing those advantages as regards 
France, which she has acquired at the cost of such 
great sacrifices. England cannot afford to yield her 
maritime preponderance to some one else." And so 
on ad infinitum. 

In such arguments it is generally presumed that 
the Frenchman, the Russian, the German, and the 
Englishman must be ready to sacrifice everything he 
has, in order to recover the lost provinces, in order to 
insure their influence in the East, in order to rule the 
seas, etc. 

It is presumed that the sentiment of patriotism, in 
the first place, is always innate in all men, and sec- 
ondly, that it is such a lofty sentiment, that, where it 
is absent, it should be cultivated. 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. II 

Neither the one nor the other presumption is cor- 
rect. I have lived for half a century in the midst of 
the Russian people, and genuine Russians at that, and 
yet in all that time I have never seen nor heard any 
manifestation or any expression of such a sentiment, 
if I except the patriotical formulas which are learned 
in military service or from books, and which are after- 
wards mechanically repeated by empty-headed or cor- 
rupt individuals. I have never heard among the mass 
of the people themselves any expression of patriotic 
sentimentality. On the contrary, I have repeatedly 
heard from earnest and respectable men words of total 
indifference and even of contempt for all manifesta- 
tions of patriotism. I have also observed the same 
phenomenon among the workingmen of other coun- 
tries, and my observations have been corroborated 
time and again by intelligent Frenchmen, Germans, 
and Englishmen. 

The working people are too much preoccupied 
with the absorbing business of gaining a subsistence 
to bother about the political questions that evoke the 
sentiment of patriotism. The questions of Russia's 
influence in the East, of German unity, of the resto- 
ration of the French provinces, etc., do not interest 
him, because, first, he is generally ignorant of the cir- 
cumstances at the origin of those questions, and also 
because his interests in life are totally independent of 
political and state interests. 

To a man of the people it is indifferent where this 



12 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

or that boundary-line is marked out, who shall possess 
Constantinople, whether Saxony shall or shall not be- 
come a member of the German Union, or whether 
Australia and the Matabeleland shall belong to Eng- 
land ; he is even indifferent as to whom he has to pay 
his taxes to, and as to which army his sons serve in. 
But it is all important for him to know the amount 
of his tax, the length of the military service, the time 
he will have to pay for his land in, or how much he can 
get for his work. All these are questions independent 
of general state or political interests. 

And so it happens that despite all the energetic 
measures resorted to by governments to imbue the 
people with a sentiment of patriotism and to suppress 
the sprouting of socialistic ideas, yet the latter are 
constantly striking deeper roots among the masses, 
while the spirit of patriotism, so skilfully nourished by 
the government, is not only not affecting them, but is 
slowly disappearing, and now lingers only among the 
higher classes whose purposes it serves. If it happens 
sometimes that patriotism does get possession of the 
masses, it is only because the masses have been sub- 
jected to vigorous hypnotic influence by the govern- 
ment and the ruling classes, and it lives only as long 
as that influence lasts. 

Thus, for instance, in Russia, where patriotism in 
the shape of love for and loyalty to the Church, the Tzar 
and the mother country is excited in the Russian peo- 
ple by all available means, through the medium of the 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. I3 

churches, the schools, the press, and the most varied 
kinds of ceremonies, — notwithstanding all this, I say, 
the Russian laboring man, who constitutes one hun- 
dred millions of the Russian people, despite his unde- 
served reputation of being especially loyal to his faith, 
his Tzar, and his mother country, is a race of men the 
most free imaginable from the illusions of patriotism 
and of loyalty to his creed, his Tzar, and his country. 
As to his faith, that orthodox, governmental faith, 
he hardly knows what it is, and no sooner does he 
know it than he abandons it and becomes a rationalist ; 
in other words, he embraces a faith which can neither 
be attacked nor defended. As to his Tzar, notwith- 
standing the continual and forceful admonitions he re- 
ceives on this head, he treats him as he does all des- 
potic authorities, if not condemning him outright, yet 
regarding him with absolute indifference. And as to 
his mother country, if we do not understand by that 
his village or township, he is either absolutely ignorant 
of what it is, or else he makes no distinction between 
it and the surrounding States. Formerly the Russian 
emigrants used to go to Austria and to Turkey ; and 
in the same manner now they settle indifferently within 
the Russian domain or outside it, in China or else- 
where. 

IV. 

An old friend of mine, D., was wont to pass his 
winters on his Russian estate, or rather in his village. 



14 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM, 

while his wife, whom he visited occasionally, lived in 
Paris. It was a habit of his, on long wintry evenings, 
to have a chat with an illiterate but very intelligent 
and respectable moujik, — the village marshal, — who 
would then bring in to him his daily report. The sub- 
ject of that talk was usually the superiority of the 
French governmental system over ours. This was on 
the eve of the last Polish revolt, and the intermed- 
dling of the French government in our affairs was 
much resented. The Russian patriotic press was rav- 
ing with indignation at such conduct, and had suc- 
ceeded in so inflaming the ruling classes that the sit- 
uation was becoming very critical, and there was con- 
siderable talk of war. 

My friend, having read the papers, was enlighten- 
ing the marshal on the existing relations between 
Russia and France. Being under the influence of the 
press, my friend was telling him that in case of war 
(he was a military man in retirement) he would join 
the army and fight the French. At that time revanche 
against the French seemed the proper thing for pa- 
triotic Russians on account of the disaster of Sebas- 
topol. 

"Why, what is the use of going to war ?" inquired 
the marshal. 

' ' What ? Would you permit the French to dictate 
to us ? " 

"But you said yourself that things were better ar- 
ranged in their country," the marshal replied quite 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. If 

earnestly. "Why not let them arrange things the 
same over here ? " 

My friend told me that this argument had struck 
him so forcibly that he was unable to make a reply, 
and that he only laughed, as people do on awakening 
from a deceptive dream. 

Similar reasoning may be heard from every sober- 
minded Russian workingman, provided he is not un- 
der the hypnotic influence of the government. They 
tell us about the love of the Russian people for their 
religion, their Tzar, and their country, and yet there 
is not a community of peasants in all Russia that 
would hesitate between the two following places of 
domicile : One in Russia, their own adored country, 
with the Russian Father-Tzar, as they call him in the 
books, and with the holy Orthodox faith, but with 
less and poorer land ; and the other one outside of 
Russia, in Prussia, China, Turkey, or Austria, with- 
out the Father White Tzar and the Orthodox faith, 
but with more and better land. The question under 
which government he must live (he knows that every 
government will pluck him alike) has infinitely less 
importance for the Russian peasant than the question 
whether the water is good, whether the soil is of the 
right kind, and whether his cabbage grows well. 

It may be said, however, that this indifference of 
the Russians comes from the knowledge that they will 
fare better under any government than they do under 
their own, there being none worse in Europe than the 



l6 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

Russian. But this is not true; for we observe the 
same phenomenon among the Enghsh, the Dutch, 
and the German emigrants who go to America, and 
among others who come to Russia. 

The shifting of the European populations from one 
rule to another — from the Turkish to the Austrian, or 
from the French to the German — is fraught with so 
few changes in their condition of life, that in no case 
can it arouse discontent among the working classes, 
provided they are not excited artificially by the gov- 
ernments and by the ruling classes. 



T. 



As a proof of the existence of patriotism people 
are wont to adduce its manifestation during great 
crises and festivities, as, for instance, in Russia dur- 
ing a coronation, or in France at the time of the de- 
claration of war against Prussia, or in. Germany during 
the celebration of victories. 

But one ought to know how these manifestations 
are prepared. 

The popular enthusiasm is prepared mostly arti- 
ficially by those whose interests it serves ; the degree 
of enthusiasm exhibited shows only the degree of skill 
on the part of the managers. This business is one 
of long standing, and, consequently, the expert man- 
agers of popular enthusiasm sometimes display a high 
degree of originality. 



I CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 17 

When Alexander II. was the heir apparent to the 
throne, and, as the hereditary custom was, commanded 
the Preobrajensky regiment, he happened to visit it 
one day in its camp. No sooner had the soldiers per- 
ceived his carriage than they came running out of 
their tents in their shirt sleeves and received their 
most august commander, as they have it in the books, 
so enthusiastically, that many of them actually made 
the sign of the cross as they ran at full speed after his 
carriage. All who witnessed the scene were deeply 
moved by this expression of naive loyalty and love on 
the part of the Russian soldier towards their Tzar and 
his heir, and by the apparently spontaneous religious 
enthusiasm which was exhibited in the soldiers' faces 
and actions, and especially in their making the sign 
of the cross. 

Yet all this had been artificially prepared before- 
hand, in the following manner. After the reguh r re- 
view, on the eve of the foregoing occurrence, the 
Tzarevitch informed the brigade commander thAt he 
intended to pay a visit to his regiment on the morrow. 

"When shall I expect Your Imperial Majesty?" 
was the answer. 

"In the evening. But make no demonstrations, 
please. " 

As soon as the Tzarevitch left, the brigadier called 
the company-commanders together and ordered them 
to see to it that on the morrow all the men sLould 
have clean shirts on, and that as soon as the} per • 



1 8 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

ceived the Tzarevitch's carriage — which would be sig- 
nalled to them — they should run out to meet him, one 
and all, with loud "hurrahs," and that every tenth 
man in the company should make, in running, the 
sign of the cross. The first sergeants went to their 
companies, drew them up in files and, counting from 
the right, stopped at every tenth man: "One, two, 
three . . . eight, nine, ten, — Sidorenko, you'll cross ; 
one, two, three, four. . . etc., Ivanow will cross." 
Everything was done as ordered, and the impression 
of enthusiasm was complete on the 'izarevitch, as it 
was also on all present, on the officers, the soldiers 
themselves, and even on the brigade-commander who 
was the author of the whole proceeding. In this man- 
ner, although perhaps in not so coarse a form, patri- 
otic manifestations are prepared everywhere. 

Thus, wherever the authorities succeed, by a series 
of simultaneous and concerted measures, which are 
always at their command, in bringing the vulgar 
masses into an abnormally excited state, they say to 
us : Behold, this is a spontaneous manifestation of the 
popular will. Such manifestations as recently took 
place in Toulon and in Paris, or in Germany during 
the reception of the Emperor and Bismarck, or such as 
take place in Russia during all solemnities, only prove 
that the means of exciting the masses which are lodged 
in the hands of the authorities and the ruling classes, 
are so powerful that those possessing them can call 
forth at any time any kind of manifestation they wish, 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. XQ 

by simply appealing to the people's patriotic senti- 
ments. But on the other hand, nothing proves so effec- 
tively the absence of patriotism in the people as just 
these tremendous efforts, which are periodically made 
by the authorities and ruling classes for artificially ex- 
citing the patriotism of the people. 

If the patriotic spirit is so innate in the people, 
why not let it show itself freely and of its own accord, 
instead of exciting it continually by all sorts of artifices? 
Let them stop in Russia, for a while at least, the prac- 
tice of compelling the people to swear allegiance to 
every new Tzar, let them cease saying solemn prayers 
for the Tzar during every mass, let them cease cele- 
brating his birthdays with the ringing of bells, with 
illuminations and the compulsory stoppage of work ; 
let them cease placing his image in every public place, 
let them cease printing his name in large letters in all 
the prayer-books, calendars, and text-books ; let them 
cease extolling him in all the books and papers which 
are printed for that purpose ; let them cease throwing 
people into prison for the least disrespectful word said 
of him, — let them cease doing all such things, and then 
we shall see how much inclination there is inborn in 
the Russian people, in the genuine working classes, in 
Procophy, in Ivan, to adore his Tzar, who for his 
pains delivers him into the hands of the landed pro- 
prietor and the rich capitalist. 

Thus it is in Russia. And it is so elsewhere. Let 
the ruling classes of other countries, of Germany, of 



20 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

France, of Italy, and the rest, cease exciting the pa- 
triotism of their people and we shall see how innate 
this imaginary spirit is in the populations of our time. 

Their method, however, is to befog the minds of 
the people from infancy by every possible means — by 
the perversion of educational text- books, by the cele- 
bration of public masses, by sermons, speeches, books, 
papers, and monuments. They gather together a few 
thousand people by bribery or by force, further increas- 
ing their number by loafers, and when this mob amid 
the booming of cannon and the strains of music, blinded 
by all sorts of glitter, yells what has been suggested 
to it beforehand, they call it an expression of the pop- 
ular will. 

But, in the first place, it is only about one ten- 
thousandth part of the whole population who do the 
yelling during such festivities ; in the second place, 
out of all this mass, about one-half is gathered by some 
strong attraction, if not collected forcibly, as is done in 
Russia ; in the third, out of all those thousands only a 
few score really know what is the matter, while the 
rest would yell and wave their caps just as frantically 
if something else and exactly the contrary took place 
in its stead ; and lastly, the police are always present 
on such occasions ready to grab any one who has the 
hardihood or misfortune to yell something di^erent 
from what has been prescribed by the authorities. 

In France, under Napoleon I., they welcomed with 
the same enthusiasm the war against Russia, as they 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 21 

did later Alexander I. against whom that war had been 
waged ; and then again they greeted with enthusiasm 
Napoleon, and later the allies, and then the Bourbons, 
the Orleans, the Republic, Napoleon III., and Bou- 
langer. In Russia they receive equally well, to-day 
Peter, to-morrow Catherine, the day after Paul, Alex- 
ander, Constantine, Nicolas, Prince Leichtenberg, the 
Slavonian brethren, the Prussian king, and the French 
sailors, or in fact any one whom the authorities wish 
them to welcome. The same takes place in England, 
in America, in Germany, and in all other countries. 
The so-called patriotism of our time is, on the one 
hand, a tertain mood, or frame of mind, which is being 
constantly aroused in the people and maintained by 
school, religion, and a venal press, to suit the wishes 
of the government ; and on the other hand, it is a tem- 
porary excitement aroused in the lower classes — who 
are both morally and intellectually inferior — by the 
ruling classes, and then vaunted by them as the will 
of the whole people. 

"But," some one will say, "granting the people 
are void of the sentiment of patriotism, the reason is 
they have not as yet reached the plane of this lofty 
sentiment, which is a marked characteristic of every 
educated man. And if they have not yet acquired this 
sentiment, they must be educated to it. This is just 
what the government is doing." 



22 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

Such remarks are generally heard from representa- 
tives of the ruling classes, who are so confident that 
patriotism is a lofty sentiment, that the simple men of 
the people, not experiencing that sentiment them- 
selves, have a consciousness of guilt, and at once seek 
to assure themselves that they have it, or, at least 
feign having it. 

What now is that lofty sentiment which, in the 
opinion of the ruling classes, should be ingrafted in 
the minds of the people? 

Strictly speaking, it is nothing more nor less than 
the preference of one's own government and people 
over any other government and people, a sentiment 
well expressed in the German patriotic song : 

** Deuischland, Deutschland iiber A lies." 

Replace Deutschland by Russland, Frankreich, 
Italien, or N. N., and you have an extremely lucid 
form of the lofty sentiment of patriotism. It may be 
that this sentiment is very desirable and very useful 
to the authorities and to the integrity of States, but 
one cannot help seeing that it is not in any respect 
lofty. On the contrary, it is very stupid and immoral. 
It is stupid because if every State considers itself the 
superior of all others, then evidently all of them are 
wrong. It is immoral because it necessarily leads 
every man who possesse.<5 it to seek advantages for his 
own State at the expense of other States, — a desire 
absolutely antagonistic to the fundamental and gener- 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 33 

ally accepted moral law, which is : Do not do unto 
others what you would not have them do unto you. 

Patriotism could be a virtue in the ancient world 
where it demanded of every man devotion to what was 
then the highest attainable ideal, that of the mother- 
country. But how can it be a virtue in our day when 
it demands what is contrary to the ideal both of our 
religion and morality, — the denial of the equality and 
the fraternity of man, and the acknowledgment of 
the supremacy of one State, of one people above all 
others. Furthermore, this sentiment not only is not 
a virtue now, but it is undeniably a vice. Patriotism 
in its true sense has neither material nor moral grounds 
for existence. 

Patriotism could have meaning in the ancient 
world where every people, more or less homogeneous 
in its composition and professing the same state creed, 
formed, as it were, an island in the midst of a threat- 
ening sea of barbarians. 

It is clear that, under such circumstances, patriot- 
ism, which was the impulse to repel invasions of bar- 
barians who were ready to overthrow public institu- 
tions, to rob and to capture men and women, was 
then a very natural sentiment, and the man. of that 
time, in order to save himself and his countrymen, 
was naturally justified in preferring his own people to 
others, and in cherishing animosity towards the sur- 
rounding barbarians, and even in killing them in de- 
fence of his people. 



24 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

But what meaning can that sentiment have in our 
Christian era? What justifies a man now-a-days, a 
Russian for instance, in killing the French, or the Ger- 
mans ; or what justifies the French in killing the Ger- 
mans, when they know very well, however ignorant 
they may be, that the people of the fellow-nation 
against whom their patriotic enmity is excited, are no 
barbarians, but men like themselves. Christians, often 
of the same creed and denomination as they, wishing 
nothing but peace and a peaceful exchange of the 
products of labor, and, furthermore, having the same 
common interests, industrial, or commercial, or intel- 
lectual, or all three together. It happens very fre- 
quently that a certain portion of the people of one na- 
tion are more intimately connected with the people of 
another nation than with their own countrymen, as is 
the case with men in the employment of a foreigner, 
or with merchants generally, and particularly with 
men of science and artists. 

Besides, the very conditions of life have changed 
in our times, where the so-called mother-country, as 
distinguished from everything around it, has ceased 
to be so well defined as it was in the ancient world, 
where the individuals composing it belonged to the 
same race and to the same creed. An Egyptian's, a 
Jew's, a Greek's patriotism is clear to us. In defend- 
ing their country they defended their race, their creed, 
their institutions, and their birthplace. 

But in what does the patriotism of an Irishman in 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 25 

the United States consist, who by creed belongs to 
Rome, by race to Ireland, and by residence to the 
United States ? In the same predicament are the Bo- 
hemian in Austria, the Pole in Russia, Prussia, and 
Austria, the Indian in England, the Tartar and the 
Armenian in Russia and Turkey. And leaving aside 
individuals of subjugated races, the citizens even of 
our most homogeneous states, such as Russia, France, 
and Prussia, cannot have the same sentiment of pa- 
triotism as that which characterised the ancients, be- 
cause their whole life's interests frequently lie out- 
side their nation and in the very country against which 
their patriotic hatred is excited. A man's family- 
interests may be there ; his wife may be a foreigner ; 
his economical interests, his capital may be there; 
his intellectual, his scientific, and artistic interests, — 
they all may be abroad, in the very country he is ex- 
pected to make war against. 

Wh)' patriotism is impossible in our time is mainly 
because, despite all our efforts to suppress the ense 
of Christianity in the course of 1800 years, it never- 
theless crops out into our lives and has such a hold 
on it, that even men most coarse and stupid cannot 
help seeing the total incompatibility of patriotism with 
those moral precepts which guide their lives. 

VII. 

At one time, patriotism was necessary for the crea- 
tion and the defence of strong States composed of 



26 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

heterogeneous populations. But as soon as Christian 
enlightenment internally transformed and gave to one 
and all of these States the same foundation, patriotism 
not only became superfluous, but it became the only 
obstacle to that union of the nations for which they 
had been prepared by Christianity. 

The patriotism of our time is a cruel tradition of 
the past, and it keeps itself alive only by a sort of in- 
ertia and by dint of the efforts of the ruling classes, 
who are conscious that on it rests not only their au- 
thority, but also their existence. The patriotism of 
our time is like the false timbers of a building, which 
were necessary for the erection of the building, but 
which have not been removed because they serve a 
certain purpose to a few men, although they obstruct 
the use of the building. 

Among Christian peoples there cannot exist any 
cause for strife. It is impossible to imagine even how 
and why Russian and German workingmen living in 
their respective capitals and along their respective 
frontiers and toiling peacefully at their tasks, should 
suddenly commence to quarrel. Much less is it possible 
to imagine the enmity of a Kazan peasant towards the 
German whom he is supplying with wheat and who, 
in his turn, is furnishing that peasant with scythes 
and all sorts of agricultural machinery. The same ap- 
plies to the French, the German, and the Italian work- 
ingmen. It is even ridiculous to think of any quarrel 
among men of science and art, or among the men of 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 27 

letters of the different nationalities, since all of them 
have the same common interests, totally independent 
of national or State interests. 

But the governments cannot afford to let people 
live in peace, because the main, if not the only excuse 
for their existence is the pacification of the people and 
the adjustment of international difficulties. With that 
end in view, the governments provoke hostile senti- 
ments among the people under the cloak of patriotism 
and then pretend to labor towards a pacific settlement 
of the difl&culty. They are just like the Gypsies, who, 
having wrought a horse to a high pitch of excite- 
ment by whipping it in its stall and by other nefarious 
means, drag it out by the halter and pretend that they 
cannot manage the fiery steed. 

We are assured that the governments are very 
anxious about preserving peace. But how do they 
preserve it ? 

People live happily along the shores of the Rhine, 
holding peaceful intercourse with one another, when 
suddenly, through the quarrels and intrigues of kings 
and emperors, a war breaks out, and it becomes nec- 
essary for the government of France to bring some 
of those inhabitants under its rule. Centuries pass, 
people become used to their new conditions, when 
again the governments commence to quarrel and go 
to war on the most trifling pretext, and this time the 
Germans deem it necessary to bring those inhabitants 
back under their rule. In this manner hatred is con- 



28 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

stantly kept up between the French and the Germans. 
Again, the Germans and the Russians are living hap- 
pily along their respective frontiers, exchanging peace- 
fully the products of their labor, when suddenly the 
very institutions which exist for securing the welfare 
of the people, begin to quarrel, and to bicker, and, 
for want of something better to do, and to gain a mere 
trivial point, or to humiliate an adversary, institute a 
tarifi war which does not affect them in any way, but 
from which the people seriously suffer. 

I mention these last two examples of governmental 
action, which have had the design of exciting mutual 
hatred among nations, because they are of a very re- 
cent date. There is not, however, in the whole range 
of history a single war which was not brought on by 
the governments alone, without any reference to the 
popular interests, to which even a successful war is 
always harmful. 

The governments assure their people that they are 
threatened by a foreign invasion, or are menaced by 
internal foes, and that their only salvation is in an im- 
plicit obedience to the government. Every govern- 
ment justifies its existence and its outrages, saying 
that without it the people would fare worse. Having 
convinced the people that they are in danger, the gov- 
ernments bring them into subjection. After gaining a 
mastery over their own people, the governments com- 
pel them to attack other nations. In this manner are 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTIStl. 29 

justified in the people's eyes the assertions of the gov- 
ernments as to threatening foreign invasions. 

Divide et impera. Patriotism in its simplest, clear- 
est, and most undoubted meaning is for rulers nothing 
else but a means of realising their ambitious and venal 
ends ; for the governed it is a renouncing of human 
dignity, intelligence, and conscience, and a slavish 
submission to the rulers. Wherever patriotism is 
championed, it is preached invariably in that shape. 
Patriotism is slavery. The advocates of arbitration 
reason thus : two animals cannot divide their prey 
without a scuffle. This is the way children and bar- 
barians act. Intelligent men settle their differences 
by recourse to argument and persuasion and by sub- 
mitting their disputes to disinterested, intelligent men. 
This is what the nations of our time ought to do. The 
logic of it seems correct. The nations of our time 
have reached a period of enlightenment, they experi- 
ence no mutual enmity, and they could settle all their 
differences in a peaceful manner. But its logic is cor- 
rect only in so far as it applies to the people alone, 
and provided also that the people are not under the 
influence of the government. As to people who obey 
the government implicitly, they cannot be wise, be- 
cause the very act of submission to government is 
per se a sign of the greatest folly. 

Wherein is the wisdom of men who bind themselves 
in advance to do everything (including murder) that 
the government may direct — the government which 



3© CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

may consist largely of men who have gotten accident- 
ally into that position 1 

Men who will promise implicit obedience to per- 
sons wholly unknown to them in St. Petersburg, 
Vienna, or Paris, cannot be wise, while the govern- 
ments, that is, the men possessing governmental au- 
thority, may ,be even less wise ; and they cannot help 
abusing their great authority, cannot help having their 
heads turned by their immense power. For this rea- 
son international peace cannot be brought about by 
means of conventions and arbitrations, as long as there 
is blind obedience to rulers. 

As long as there is patriotism, there will be blind 
submission, i. e., readiness on the part of the people 
to obey every measure having in view the defence of 
their country against some pretended dangers. 

On this patriotism stood the power of the French 
kings before the Revolution ; on it was based the might 
of the Committee of Public Safety after the Revolu- 
tion. The same patriotism erected Napoleon's power 
(as Consul and Emperor) ; on it, after Napoleon's 
downfall, stood the dominion of the Bourbons, and 
later that of the Republic and of Louis Philippe, and 
of the Republic again, and of Bonaparte again, and, 
lastly, of the Republic. The same patriotism came 
near placing Boulanger in powar. 

It is a fearful thing to say, but there has never been 
a joint outrage of this kind perpetrated by one group 
of men upon another, but it has been done in the name 



CHRiSTJANltY And PATRIOTISMi ^i 

of patriotism. In the name of patriotism, years ago, 
the Russians and the French sought to exterminate 
each other, in its name now the Russians and the 
French are preparing to assault the Germans ; in its 
name the Germans are making ready to wage war 
against both. But wars aside, in the name of patriot- 
ism the Russians are crushing the Poles, and the Ger- 
mans are doing the same with the Slavs ; in the name 
of patriotism the Communists murdered the Versail- 
lists, and vice versa. 

VIII. 

One would expect that with the spread of educa- 
tion and the increased intercourse of nations, the enor- 
mous growth of the public press, and the absence of 
all danger from foreign invasion, the illusion of pa- 
triotism would be more and more difficult to maintain 
and would finally become an impossibility. 

The trouble is that the very means for its removal 
are being more and more monopolised by the govern- 
ments and that these means enable them to excite the 
mutual enmities of the races in the same degree as the 
superfluity and the harm of patriotism grow more ob- 
vious. 

The difference between the present and the past in 
this respect is that there being more men at present 
participating in the advantages incident to patriot- 
ism, there are consequently more of them to partici- 
pate also in the spread and maintenance of that strange 



33 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

superstition. The harder it becomes for the govern- 
ment to maintain its power, the greater is the number 
of the men with whom it is willing to share it. 

Formerly a small clique of rulers had it all their 
own way : the emperors, the kings, the princes, their 
officials, and their soldiery. At present, the partici- 
pants of that power and of its concomitant advantages 
are not only the officials and the clergy, but also the 
capitalists, small and large, the land- owners, the bank- 
ers, the members of the Houses of the Legislature, 
the school-teachers, and the village officials, the scien- 
tists and the artists, and, especially, the newspaper 
writers. All these persons spread, consciously or un- 
consciously, the falsehood of patriotism which is so 
necessary for their maintenance. This falsehood, 
thanjcs to the increased means of its propagation and 
thanks to the increased numbers of its propagators, is 
inculcated so successfully that, despite the greater dif- 
ficulties it encounters, the percentage of the deluded 
people remains the same. 

A hundred years ago, the illiterate masses, totally 
ignorant of the composition of their government and 
of the surrounding nations, yielded blind obedience to 
the local ofl&cials and the nobility, and were virtually 
their slaves. It was sufficient for the government to 
keep those officials and that nobility in hand by means 
of bribery and by a system of rewards, in order to get 
the people to do its bidding. Now, when people can 
read, more or less, when they know all about their 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 33 

government and about the neighboring nations ; when 
individuals from among the people move from place 
to place with ease, disseminating the news of what is 
going on in the world, a simple and outright demand 
of obedience is not sufficient : it is necessary to befog 
the truthful notions which people have concerning 
their life, and to spread among them other notions, 
antagonistic to their interests and untruthful as re- 
gards their life and standing with other nations. 

Thanks to universal enlightenment, to the public 
press, and to the present facilities of intercourse, and, 
furthermore, having everywhere their agents, the gov- 
ernments succeed by means of circulars, orders, ser- 
mons, schools, and newspapers, in imbuing the people 
with the wildest and the most perverted notions con- 
cerning their true interests, the intercourse of nations, 
their character, and their intentions ; and the people, 
crushed and ground down by hard labor, obey blindly, 
having neither time nor facilities for verifying the 
truthfulness of the representations made to them or 
the justice of the demands imposed upon them. 

The individuals from among the people who suc- 
ceed in emancipating themselves from their hard lot, 
who acquire an education, and who, consequently, 
understand the deceit practised upon the masses, are 
subjected to such a pressure in the form of threats, 
bribery, and hypnotic influence by the government, 
that they almost all, without exception, side with the 
government, and, accepting the well-paid positions of 



34- CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

school-teacher, clergymen, officers, clerks, etc., them- 
selves participate in the spread of that deceit which 
mires their brethren and has crushed their fathers. It 
seems as if there were nets spread at the doors of edu- 
cation, the meshes of which entangle every one who 
by one means or another has emancipated himself from 
the lot of the down-trodden masses. 

At first, on comprehending the terrible cruelty of 
this deceit, one involuntarily feels indignant at the 
persons who, from personal, venal, or vain ends, are 
the cause of this fatal illusion ; one feels impelled to 
tear the mask from the faces of these cruel deceivers. 
But the trouble is that the deceivers deceive, not be- 
cause they wish to do so, but because — they cannot 
help it. They deceive not consciously, Machiavel- 
lically, but, mostly, with a naive conviction that they 
are doing something good and lofty, and in this they 
are confirmed by the sympathy and the approval of 
their associates. Feeling dimly that both their power 
and remunerative positions depend on the maintenance 
of that deceit, they are attracted to it involuntarily, 
and are fully convinced that what they are doing is 
useful to the people. 

In the same manner ministers of foreign affairs, 
diplomats, and all classes of officialdom put on their 
gorgeous uniforms decorated with ribbons and crosses, 
and indite zealously on beautiful paper their vague, 
complicated, useless communications, reports, re- 
scripts, projects, fully convinced that without their 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 35 

wonderful performances the life of the nations would 
come to a standstill and fall to pieces. 

Military men, arrayed in their ridiculous uniforms, 
discussing earnestly what guns are the best to kill men 
with, are fully convinced that their manoeuvres and 
their reviews are things highly important and abso* 
lutely indispensable for the people. 

This conviction is also shared by the priests who 
preach patriotism, by the journalists, and by the com- 
posers of patriotic verses and text-books, for which 
they are all well remunerated. 

All the doings of these men are mostly unconscious; 
they act in this manner out of necessity, or because 
their whole life is based on this deceit, which supports 
their acts, and because they can do nothing else, 
whereas their present doings call forth the approval 
and the sympathy of society. Being bound together 
by common interests, they naturally approve of each 
other's doings : the emperors and the kings approve 
of the doings of the military men, the officials, and the 
clergy; while the military, the officials, and the clergy 
approve of the doings of the emperors and kings, and 
of each other. Furthermore, the masses of the people, 
the urban masses in particular, being unable to compre- 
hend the meaning of all these acts, involuntarily ascribe 
to them an extraordinary and supernatural import. 
The masses seeing, for instance, that triumphal arches 
are being put up, that certain personages are arraying 
themselves in uniforms, in priestly robes, in crowns. 



36 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

that fireworks are being shot off, that cannon are boom- 
ing and bells ringing, that regiments are marching by 
to the sound of music, that papers and telegrams and 
couriers are flying hither and thither, seeing that some 
grotesquely uniformed men are constantly riding from 
place to place with anxious faces, that they are saying 
something, writing something, — the masses seeing all 
this, I say, and being unable to ascertain that it is all 
done without the least necessity, ascribe to it an ex- 
traordinary and mysterious meaning and receive all 
these demonstrations either with yells of delight or 
with respectful silence. These expressions, sometimes 
of delight and always of respect, on the part of the 
mob, sanction still further the foolish doings of these 
men. 

William II. recently had a new throne made for 
himself with some special ornaments, put on a white 
dress-coat, tight- fitting trousers, and a helmet with a 
bird crowning it, and, throwing over his shoulders a 
red cloak, made his appearance before his subjects 
and sat on that new throne fully convinced that it was 
an act very useful and important ; while his subjects 
not only did not find anything ridiculous about it, 
but, on the contrary, thought that the sight was a 
very solemn one. 

IX. 

The authority of the governments over the people 
now-a-days is not based on force, as it used to be in 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 37 

bygone times when one nationality could conquer an- 
other one and hold it in subjection by force of arms ; 
or when the rulers surrounded themselves in the midst 
of an unarmed people by armed swarms of Janissaries, 
Opritchniks, or body-guards. The power of the gov- 
ernment stands now and has stood for some time on 
what is called public opinion. 

Public opinion having once created the belief that 
patriotism is a great moral sentiment, that it is well 
and proper to consider one's own government, one's 
own people as the best in the world, there naturally 
follows in its footsteps a further public opinion that it 
is well and proper to obey the authority of the govern- 
ment, that it is well and proper to serve in the army 
and to submit to discipline, that it is proper to give 
one's savings to the government in the form of taxes, 
that it is proper to submit to the decision of the courts, 
that it is proper to accept implicitly all that is declared 
by those in authority to be divine truth. 

Once such a public opinion exists there is easily 
established a mighty power, possessing in our time 
billions of dollars, an organised mechanism of govern- 
ment administration, a postal service, telegraphs, tel- 
ephones, well-disciplined armies, police, courts, obe- 
dient clergy, schools, even a press ; and that power 
can easily maintain among the people the kind of 
public opinion which suits it best. 

The power of the government rests on public opin- 
ion. Possessing that power, the government can al- 



38 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

ways control public opinion through the medium of 
its various organs, through the personnel of the courts, 
the school, the church, and even of the press itself. 
This power is created by public opinion, and public 
opinion is created by the power. There seems to be 
no escape from this situation. 

This would be actually the case if public opinion 
were something constant and unvarying. Then the 
governments cculd produce any kind of public opinion 
they desired. 

But, fortunately, the case is not so. In the first 
place, public ojunion is not something constant, un- 
varying, it is not at a standstill ; on the contrary, it is 
something variable and moving along with human pro- 
gress ; in the second place, public opinion not only 
cannot be produced at will by the governments, but 
it is itself that which creates the governments and 
gives them power or deprives them of it, 

It does appear sometimes as if public opinion re- 
mained stationary, as if it wavered in certain particu- 
lar instances, and went backwards again, now sweep- 
ing away a republic and putting a monarchy in its 
place, and again tearing down the monarchy and sub- 
stituting a republic for it, — but this only appears so 
because we have always forced on our notice the ex- 
terior manifestations of that public opinion which is 
prepared artificially by the governments. But if we 
view public opinion in its relation to the whole life of 
the people, we shall see that, like the seasons of the 



, CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 39 

year, it is not stationary, that it is moving along the 
same path as the human race, just the same as the day 
and the spring move along the same path as; the sun, 
despite their retardation and wavering. 

Although, judging by appearances, the situation of 
the European nations is in our time about the same 
as it was fifty years since, yet the people's relation to 
it is far different from what it was fifty years ago. 
Now as then, there exist rulers, standing armies, wars, 
taxes, luxury and poverty, Catholicism, Lutheranism, 
etc. Formerly, however, these institutions rested on 
actual and living public opinion. Now, they exist 
merely because the governments understand how to 
support artificially the old public opinion, which is at 
present dying or dead. 

If we fail to notice sometimes this movement of 
public opinion, the same as we fail to notice the river's 
current along which we are drifting, it is because the 
imperceptible changes of public opinion which consti- 
tute its drift, are also taking place within ourselves. 

The signal peculiarity of public opinion is its con- 
tinual drift. If it appears to us stationary, it is be- 
cause there are always to be found men who have se- 
cured for themselves advantageous positions at a cer- 
tain stage of public opinion, and who naturally do their 
best to retain that stage and to repress the appearance 
of the new and real public opinion, which is living in 
the conscience of men, although it may not as yet have 
found its expression. Such men, being those who seek 



4© CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

to maintain the old public opinion and who hinder the 
appearance of the new, are the persons that constitute 
governments and the ruling classes; and they are the 
ones who advocate patriotism as a condition necessary 
to human life. 

The means which these men possess are immense, 
but inasmuch as public opinion is like a river which is 
always running and accumulating, all their efforts can- 
not but be futile : what is old is decaying, the young 
is coming into vigor. 

The more the expression of the new public opin- 
ion is delayed, the more it will accumulate, and ulti- 
mately it will burst forth with greater force. 

Despite the efforts of the governments to excite in 
the people an unnatural public opinion regarding the 
worth and glory of patriotism, the men of our times 
do not believe in patriotism, but, on the contrary, are 
more and more inclined to the idea of the solidarity 
and fraternity of nations. Patriotism does not offer the 
people anything but the most awful future ; whereas 
the fraternity of the nations constitutes an ideal which 
is becoming more and more comprehensible and de- 
sirable to the human race. Consequently, the drift 
from the old to the new public opinion is inevitable. 
It is as inevitable as the falling off of the last dried-up 
leaves in the spring time and the unfolding of the 
young ones from their buds. 

The more this transition is delayed, the more im- 
perative it becomes, the more apparent is its necessity. 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 41 

As Christians and modern men, we have only to 
remember what we are professing, what are the moral 
laws that guide us in our public and private life, and 
then consider where patriotism is leading us to, and 
we shall at once see what a vast contradiction there 
is between our conscience and our so-called public 
opinion. 

We have only to consider the most ordinary re- 
quirements of patriotism, which are presented to us 
as something very simple and natural, in order to see 
how much they are at variance with that actual public 
opinion which is shared by all of us. We all consider 
ourselves free, enlightened, humane men and even 
Christians, yet should William take offence to-morrow 
at Alexander, or should Mr. N. N. write a vigorous ar- 
ticle on the Eastern question, or should some prince 
rob a few Bulgarians or Servians, or a queen get of- 
fended at something, then we all, enlightened and hu- 
mane Christians, shall spring up and set to work mur- 
dering men we had never seen before and to whom 
we were all kindly disposed. If this slaughter has not 
taken place yet, it is, they assure us, due to the pacific 
disposition of Alexander III., or because Nicolas is 
about to marry Victoria's niece. Should some one 
else be in Alexander's place, or should Alexander hap- 
pen to change his disposition, or should Nicolas marry 
Amalie instead of Alice, then we all, like so many 
blood-thirsty beasts, would up and rend each other's 
vitals. Such is the reputed public opinion of our time ; 



42 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

similar discussions are actually indulged in by the 
most advanced and liberal organs of the press. 

If we, Christians of more than a thousand years' 
standing, have not cut each other's throats yet, it is 
because Alexander III. has not permitted it! Really 
this transgresses credibility. 

X. 

Heroic deeds are not required to effect great and 
momentous changes in human life. It is not necessary 
to have millions of armed men, or new railroads, or 
new machinery, or new expositions, labor unions, re- 
volutions, barricades, dynamite outrages, or air-ships, 
and the like ; nothing is required for the purpose but 
a transformation of public opinion. In order to bring 
about this transformation, no>new efforts of thought 
are required, it is not necessary to overthrow the ex- 
isting order and to invent something new and extraordi- 
nary. All we have to do is to resolve not to submit 
to the false, to the dead public opinion of the past, 
which is artificially kept alive by the governments. It 
is only required that every man should say what he 
really thinks and feels, or else abstain from saying 
what he does not really believe in. If only a small 
group of men were to act in this manner, then the old 
public opinion would disappear and we should have 
the new, the living, and real public opinion in its stead. 
With the change in public opinion would follow easily 
the transformation in the inner life of men. It is 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 43 

shameful to think how really little is required for men's 
deliverance from oppressing evils : they must only not 
lie. Let men not submit to the lies that are suggested 
to them, let them say only what they think and feel, 
and then there will come such a change in our life as 
revolutionists would not be able to bring about in the 
course of centuries, even if they had the power. 

"What harm is there in yelling Vive la France! or 
Hurrah! for some emperor, or king, or conqueror? 
What harm is there in putting on a full-dress suit and 
in going and waiting in his hallway, in calling him by 
strange titles, and afterwards in telling the youth and 
the uneducated that such conduct is praiseworthy ? 
What importance is there in writing up an article in 
defence of the Franco-Russian alliance, in defence of 
a tariff war, or a tirade condemning the Germans, the 
Russians, the French, etc. ? What importance is there 
in going to a patriotic celebration, in drinking the 
health and making a laudatory speech in honor of 
men you do not like and whom you do not care about ? 
What harm is there in acknowledging the usefulness 
of treaties, of alliances, or even in keeping still when 
people extol their own country and government and 
run down other nations, when they extol Catholicism, 
the Greek-Orthodox faith, Lutheranism, etc., or when 
they admire some war hero, like Napoleon, or Peter, 
or Boulanger, or Scobelev? " All this seems very un- 
important. Yet in these seemingly unimportant ac- 
tions, in our non-participation in them, in our demon- 



44 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

strating their foolishness where it is apparent to us,— 
in this lies our might, here is the source of the forma- 
tion of real public opinion. The governments are 
aware of it, they quake before its power and make 
every effort to suppress it. 

They know that power lies not in force, but in 
thought and in its clear expression, and consequently 
fear it more than armies. Therefore they institute 
censorships, bribe the press, monopolise the direction 
of religions, of schools. Yet the spiritual force which 
moves the world evades them nevertheless : it is not 
in the book, nor on the paper, it is always free and 
out of reach, it is in the conscience of men. That 
most powerful and free force manifests itself in man 
when he is alone, when he is pondering over life's 
phenomena, when he is sharing his thoughts with his 
wife, with his brother, his friend, from whom he con- 
siders it a sin to conceal what he thinks to be the 
truth. No billions of dollars, no millions of soldiers, 
no institutions, nor wars, nor revolutions can achieve 
what can be achieved by the simple expression by a 
free man of what he considers to be right. 

A free man may utter truthfully what he thinks 
and what he feels in the midst of thousands of men 
who by their actions and doings show something quite 
the opposite. It would seem that the truthful man 
must stand alone, yet it happens mostly that the ma- 
jority also think and feel the same, only that they do 
not express it. What was yesterday a new opiuion of 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 45 

the one man, to-day is the joint opinion of the major- 
ity. As soon as that opinion establishes itself, men's 
actions commence to change slowly and by degrees. 

Yet most free men say to themselves: "What can 
I do against this sea of evil and deceit ? What is the 
use of expressing my opinion? What is the use of 
having any opinion at all ? It is best not to think about 
these vague and complex questions. May be these in- 
congruities are a necessary condition of all of life's 
phenomena. What is the use of my fighting alone the 
world's evil ? Is it not more preferable to float with 
the current ? If anything can be accomplished, it is 
not single-handed, but in conjunction with other men." 
Throwing away that powerful weapon of thought and 
its expression which moves the world, every man en- 
ters public life failing to notice that every calling he 
may choose is based on the very principles which he 
should fight, that in every calling one must at least 
partly recede from truth, that one must make conces- 
sions which nullify the effectiveness of the powerful 
weapon that is given to him. It is the same as if, be- 
ing presented with an unusually sharp knife, one 
should commence to drive in nails with its edge. 

We all complain of the mad, contradictory order 
of life, yet we not only neglect to utilise the only puis- 
sant weapon which we have, — the consciousness of 
truth and its expression, — but under the very pretext 
of fighting the evil, we sacrifice it. One man does not 
speak the truth which he is conscious of because he 



46 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

feels that he is under an obligation to certain men he 
is connected with. Another man does not speak it 
because he would lose by it a profitable position 
which enables him to support his family. A third does 
not utter it because he wishes to attain fame and 
power and then to use these weapons in the people's 
service ; a fourth does not wish to violate some an- 
cient and sacred tradition ; a fifth does not wish to 
offend the people ; a sixth is afraid that the utterance 
of truth will bring upon himself persecution and will 
blast the usefulness of his career. 

One man is serving his country as an emperor, 
king, minister, officer, or soldier, and is assuring him- 
self and others that that deviation from truth which is 
necessary in his position will be far outweighed by his 
usefulness. 

Another man may be performing the functions of a 
spiritual shepherd, not believing in the depths of his 
soul what he is preaching, yet deviating from the truth 
in view of the usefulness of his occupation. A third 
man may be instructing students in literature, and 
though conscious of his total silence about the truth 
which he observes for fear he will arouse the govern- 
ment and society against himself, yet believes that his 
activity is useful. The fourth man is straightforward, 
fights the existing order, as do the revolutionists and 
the anarchists, and is fully persuaded that the aim 
pursued by him is so beneficial, that the concealment 
of truth and even the lies which are so necessary for 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 47 

the success of his operations, do not prejudice his 
utility. 

In order to replace the order of life which is an- 
tagonistic to men's consciences by a new and appro- 
priate one, it is necessary that the old, the decayed 
public opinion be replaced by a new, live opinion. 

In order to bring that about, it is necessary that 
men who are conscious of the new requirements of life, 
should express them boldly. Instead of that, however, 
the men who really are conscious of the new require- 
ments not only keep their silence in the name of this, 
or in the name of that thing, but they go to work and 
confirm by word and by deed what is diametrically 
opposed to those requirements. Truth alone and its 
expression will establish that public opinion which is 
competent to effect a change in an obsolete and harm- 
ful social order ; yet we not only fail to profess that 
truth but very often utter things which we know are 
untrue. 

Let free men not rely on that which has no might 
and is not always free, let them not rely on external 
power, but let them always believe in what is ever 
mighty and free, — in the truth and its expression. Let 
men speak out boldly and clearly the manifest truth 
of the fraternity of the nations and of the criminality 
of an exceptional attachment to their own race, then 
the false public opinion on which is based the govern- 
mental power will drop off like a dried up skin, and 



48 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

in its stead will appear a young, a new one, followed 
by new forms of life better harmonising with men's 
consciences. 

XI. 

Men must understand that what is given out to 
them as public opinion, what is maintained by such 
complex and artificial means, is not public opinion, 
but only a dead remnant of an erstwhile public opin- 
ion. They must believe in themselves, must believe 
in what they are conscious of in the depths of their 
soul and what is striving to find utterance and is not 
uttered only because it is at variance with existing 
public opinion. Yet it is that very force which is 
changing the world and whose utterance is every man's 
mission. Men must believe that truth is not what 
they hear from others about them, but what a man's 
conscience is telling him. Then only will false and 
artificially supported public opinion disappear and a 
true public opinion be established. 

Let men speak out what they think, and refrain 
from saying what is untrue ; then all the superstitions 
bred by patriotism, all the evil feelings and outrages 
based on it, will vanish. The hatred and the enmity 
of States and races which is fanned by the govern- 
ments will disappear, as well as the extolling of war- 
like deeds or rather of murder, and to a large ex- 
tent also the respect for authorities will disappear ; 
there will be no more subjugation of men nor despoil- 



CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM^ - 49 

ing them of the products of their labor, all of whis^is 
based on nothing but patriotism. . 'j -? 1 

Let the governments have the schools, the church, 
the press, their billions of dollars and millions of dis- 
ciplined men, converted into so many machines, — all 
this seemingly awful organisation of brute force is as 
nothing before the consciousness of truth arising in 
the soul of one man who fully appreciates its mighty 
and from whom it passes to the next, to the third, and 
so on, just as from one candle is lighted an infinite 
number of others. As soon as this light will have its 
full play, then, like wax before the fire, all this seem- 
ingly mighty organisation will melt and vanish. . > 

If men only realised the mighty power which is 
given to them in the word of truth j if men only re- 
frained from selling their birthright for a mess of 
pottage; if men only availed themselves of this 
power of theirs, then not only the rulers would not 
dare, as at present, to menace the people with univer- 
sal extermination, but they also would not dare hold 
their reviews and manoeuvres of disciplined murderers 
in the full sight of a country of peaceful inhabitants, 
they would not dare to form tariff treaties only to break 
them again as suited their own and their partisan in- 
terests, they would not dare pluck the people of the 
millions of dollars which they give to their following 
and wherewith they make their preparations for mur- 
der. 

And thus, the change is not only possible, but it is 



50 CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM. 

impossible for it not to come, just as it is impossible 
for a dead tree not to decay, and for a young one not 
to grow. 

Let individual men be not seduced by the attrac- 
tions surrounding them, let them not be frightened 
by threats. Let them know wherein lies their all-con- 
quering might, — and the peace so desired of all will 
be among us before long ; not that peace which is ac- 
quired through diplomatic negotiations, by the mov- 
ing about of emperors and kings, by dinners, speeches, 
fortifications, cannons, dynamite, and melinite, in 
short, by the ruin of people, — but it will be the peace 
which is acquired by a free profession of truth on the 
part of every individual maa. 



THE OVERTHROW OF HELL AND 
ITS RESTORATION. 



TRANSLATED BY V. TCHERTKOFF. 



I. 

It was at the time when Jesus was revealing his 
teaching to men. 

This teaching was so clear — it was so easy to fol- 
low, and delivered men from evil so obviously, that 
it seemed impossible not to accept it, or that anything 
could arrest its spread. 

Beelzebub, the father and ruler of all the devils, 
was alarmed. He clearly saw that if only Jesus did 
not renounce his teaching, the power of Beelzebub over 
men would cease forever. He was alarmed, yet did 
not lose heart, but incited the Pharisees and Scribes, 
obedient to him, to insult and torture Jesus to the 
utmost of their power, and also counselled the dis- 
ciples of Jesus to fly and abandon him to himself. 
Beelzebub hoped that the condemnation of Jesus to 
infamous execution, and his being reviled and de- 
serted by all the disciples, and also that the sufferings 

51 



52 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

themselves and the execution would cause Jesus at 
the last moment to renounce his teaching. And a re- 
cantation would destroy all its power. 

This was being decided on the cross. When Jesus 
cried out, "My God, my God, why hast Thou for- 
saken me?" Beelzebub was overjoyed. He snatched 
up the fetters prepared for Jesus, and, trying them 
on his own legs, proceeded to adjust them, so that 
when he should apply them to Jesus, they could not 
be undone. 

Then, suddenly from the cross came the words, 
"Father, forgive them, for they know not what they 
do." 

Then Jesus cried out, "It is finished," and gave 
up the ghost. 

Beelzebub understood that all was lost. He wished 
to take the fetters from his legs and to flee, but he 
could not move from his place — the fetters had be- 
come welded on him and bound his own limbs. He 
wished to use his vikings, but could not unfold them. 
And Beelzebub saw how Jesus, enveloped in a shin- 
ing light, appeared at the gates of Hell, he saw how 
sinners from Adam to Judas came out of Hell, he saw 
how all the devils fled in affright, he saw the very 
walls of Hell silently fall to pieces on all sides. He 
could endure this no longer, and with a piercing 
shriek he fell through the rent floor to the base- 
ment. 



AND ITS RESTORATION. 53 

II. 

One hundred, two hundred, three hundred years 
passed. 

Beelzebub did not count the time. Around him 
spread black darkness and dead silence. He lay im- 
movable, trying not to think of what had happened, 
yet he could not help thinking, and he helplessly hated 
him who had caused his ruin. 

Then suddenly — and he did not remember, nor 
know how many hundred years elapsed — he heard 
above his head sounds resembling the trampling of 
feet, groans, cries, and the gnashing of teeth. 

Beelzebub lifted his head and listened. 

That Hell could be re-established after the victory 
of Jesus, Beelzebub could not believe ; and yet the 
trampling, the groans, the cries and gnashing of teeth 
grew louder and louder. 

Beelzebub raised his body and doubled up his hairy 
legs with their overgrown hoofs. To his astonishment 
the fetters fell off of themselves, and flapping his lib- 
erated wings he gave that signal whistle by which in 
former times he gathered his servants and helpers 
around him. 

He had hardly time to draw breath, when from an 
opening overhead red flames glared, and a crowd 
of devils hustling each other, rushed through the 



54 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

hole into the basement and seated themselves around 
Beelzebub like birds of prey round carrion. 

These devils were big and small, stout and thin, 
with long and with short tails, with horns pointed" 
straight and crooked. 

One of them — naked, but for a cape thrown over 
his shoulders — of a shining black color, with a round 
hairless face, and with an enormous pendulous belly, 
sat on his heels in front of Beelzebub and turned up 
and down his fiery eyeballs, continuously smiling and' 
regularly wagging his long, thin tail from side to 
side. 

III. 

"What does this noise signify?" said Beelzebub, 
pointing upwards. "What's going on there?" 

"Just the same as has always gone on," answered 
the shining devil in the cape. 

"But are there really any sinners now ?" asked Beel- 
zebub. 

"Many," answered the shining one. 

"But how about the teaching of him whom I do not 
wish to name?" asked Beelzebub. 

The devil in the cape grinned, disclosing his sharp 
teeth, while suppressed laughter was heard amongst 
all the devils. 

"This teaching does not hinder us. Men do not 
believe in it," said the devil in the cape. 



AND ITS RESTORATION. 55 

"But this teaching obviously saves them from us, 
and he sealed it by his death," said Beelzebub. 

"I have transformed it," said the devil in the cape, 
thumping his tail on the floor. 

"How have you transformed it?" 

"So that men do not believe in his teaching but in 
mine, which they call by his name." 

"How didst thou do this?" asked Beelzebub. 

"It was done of itself. I only helped." 

"Tell me about it quickly," said Beelzebub. 

The devil in the cape bent down his head and was 
silent a while, as if leisurely considering, then he 
said : 

"When that dreadful event happened, that Hell 
was overthrown and our father and ruler departed 
from us," said he, "I went to those places where that 
very teaching which so nearly destroyed us was taught. 
I wished to see how those people lived who fulfilled it, 
and I saw that the people who lived according to this 
teaching were perfectly happy and quite out of our 
reach. They did not quarrel with each other, they 
did not give way to women's charms, and either they 
did not marry, or if they married they kept to one 
wife ; they had no property, holding all as common, 
and they did not defend themselves against attacks, 
but repaid evil by good. 

"Their life was so good that many were attracted 
to them more and more. When I saw this I thought 



56 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

that all was lost, and was just going to quit. But 
then occurred a circumstance, in itself insignificant, 
yet which appeared to me to deserve attention, and 
I remained. Amongst these people some regarded 
it as necessary that all should undergo circumcision, 
and that none should eat meat offered to idols ; where- 
as others were of opinion that these matters were 
not essential, and that one might abstain from cir- 
cumcision and eat anything. So I began to instil into 
all their minds that this difference of opinion was 
very important, and that as the question concerned 
the service of God, neither side could possibly give 
way. They believed me, and the disputes became 
more obdurate. On both sides they began to be an- 
gry, and then I proceeded to instil into each of them 
that they might prove the truth of their teaching by 
miracles. Evident as it is that miracles cannot prove 
the truth of a teaching, yet they so desired to be in 
the right that they believed me, and I arranged mira- 
cles for them. It was not difficult to do this. They 
believed anything which supported their desire to 
prove that they only held the truth. 

"Some said that tongues of fire descended upon 
them; others said that they had seen the risen body 
of the Master himself, and much else. They kept 
inventing what had never taken place, and lied in the 
name of him who called us liars, worse than we do 
ourselves — and did not know it. One party said of 



AND ITS RESTORATION. S7 

the Other: 'Your miracles are not genuine; ours are 
genuine.' Whereupon the other retorted: 'No, yours 
are a fraud; ours are real.' 

"Matters were going on well, but as I was afraid 
they might discern the too-evident trick, I invented 
the 'Church.' Once they believed in 'the Church,' I 
was at peace. I recognized that we were saved, and 
that Hell was restored." 



IV. 



The Church is produced thus: Some people assure 
themselves and others that their teacher, God, has 
chosen special men who, with those to whom they 
transfer this power, can alone correctly interpret His 
teaching. Those men who call themselves the Church 
regard themselves as holding the truth, not because 
what they preach is truth, but because they regard 
themselves as the only true successors of the dis- 
ciples of the disciples of the disciples, and at last of 
the disciples of the teacher Himself, God. . . . 

Having recognized themselves as the only exposi- 
tors of God's law, and having persuaded others of this, 
these men became the highest arbiters of man's fate, 
and therefore were entrusted with the highest power 
over men. Having received this power, they nat- 
urally became infatuated and, for the most part, de- 
praved, thus exciting against themselves the anger 



53 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

and enmity of men. In order to overcome their ene- 
mies, they, having no other arms but violence, began 
to persecute, to kill, to burn all those who would not 
recognize their power. Thus by their very position 
they were forced to misrepresent the teachings so 
that it should justify both their wicked lives and 
their cruelties to their enemies. 

Christ's teaching was so simple that no one could 
possibly misinterpret it. It is expressed in the saying : 
"Do unto others what thou desirest that others should 
do unto thee." But Satan's helpers succeeded in ob- 
scuring the Golden Rule. 



V. 



Concerning government, Beelzebub says: 
"He who destroyed Hell taught mankind to live like 
the birds of Heaven, commanding men to give to 
him that asks and to surrender one's coat to him who 
wishes to take one's shirt, saying that to be savecf 
one must give away one's property. How then dost 
thou induce men who have heard this to go on plun- 
dering ?" 

"We do this," said the moustached devil haughtily, 
throwing back his head, "exactly as did our father 
and ruler when Saul was elected King. Even as then, 
we instil into men the idea that instead of ceasing to 
plunder each other it is more convenient to allow one 



AND ITS RESTORATION. 59 

man to plunder them all, giving him full authority 
over all. What is new in our methods is only this, — 
that for confirming this one man's right of plundering 
we lead him into a church, put a special cap on his 
head, seat him in an elevated armchair, give him a 
little stick and a ball, rub him with some oil, and in 
the name of God and His Son proclaim the person 
of this man, rubbed with oil, to be sacred. Thus 
the plunder performed by this personage, regarded 
as sacred, can in no way be restricted. So these sa- 
cred personages and their assistants and the assistants 
of their assistants, all without ceasing, quietly and 
safely plunder the people. Generally, laws and reg- 
ulations are instituted by which the idle minority, 
even without anointing, may plunder with impunity 
the laboring majority. In some States of late the 
plunder goes on without anointed men, even a^ much 
as where they exist. As our father and ruler sees, 
the method we use is in substance the old one. What 
is new in it is that we have made this method more 
general, more insidious, more widespread in extent 
and time, and more stable." 

As to international politics, the devil of murder pro- 
posed the following scheme: 

"We manage thus: We persuade each nation that 
it — this nation — is the very best of all nations on 
earth. 'Deutschland ilber alles;' France, England, 
Russia 'ilber dies' and this nation, whichever it be, 



60 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

ought to rule over all the others. As we inculcate the 
same idea into all nations, they continually feel them- 
selves in danger from their neighbors, — are always 
preparing to defend themselves, and become exasper- 
ated against each other. The more one side prepares 
for defense, and, in consequence, becomes ex- 
asperated against its neighbors, the more all the oth- 
ers prepare for defense and hate each other. So, 
now all those who have accepted the teaching of him 
who called us murderers, are continually and chiefly 
occupied in preparation for murder and in murder 
itself/' 

VI. 

As to marriage, the mode of procedure was ex- 
plained to Beelzebub as follows : 

"We do this both according to the old method used 
by thee, our father and ruler, when yet in the garden 
of Eden, and which gave over all the human race 
into our power, but we do it also in a new ecclesias- 
tical way. According to the new ecclesiastical method 
we proceed thus: We persuade men that true mar- 
riage consists not in what it really consists, the union 
of man and woman, but in dressing oneself up in 
one's best clothes, going into a big building arranged 
for the purpose, and there putting on one's head caps 
specially prepared for the occasion, walking round 
a little table three times to the sound of various 



AND ITS RESTORATION. 6l 

songs. We teach men that this only is true marriage. 
Being persuaded of this, they naturally regard all 
unions between man and woman formed outside of 
these conditions as mere frolics binding one to noth- 
ing, or as the satisfaction of a hygienic necessity, and 
therefore they unrestrainedly give themselves up to 
this pleasure. . . . 

"In this way, while not abandoning the former 
method of forbidden fruit and inquisitiveness prac- 
ticed in Eden, we attain the very best results, men 
imagining that they can arrange for themselves an 
honest ecclesiastical marriage even after a dissolute 
life ; men change hundreds of wives and thus become 
so accustomed to vice that they go on doing the same 
after the Church marriage. If for any reason, any of 
the demands connected with their Church marriage 
appear to them cumbersome, then they arrange an- 
other walk round the little table, whilst the first is 
regarded as of no effect." 



VII. 



In order to prevent people from investigating the 
real cause of all unhappiness on earth, Satan invented 
science and makes people investigate all kinds of 
physical laws, the descent of man, etc. He thus suc- 
ceeds in covering up the important religious truth of 
the Golden Rule. For the sake of increasing the toil 



62 THE OVERTHROW OF HELL 

of man, machinery was introduced. The devil of the 

labor question says: "I persuade men that as articles 

can be produced better by machines than by men, it 

is therefore necessary to turn men into machines, and 

they do this, and the men turned into machines hate 

those who have done so unto them." 
* * * 

Finally the devils encircled Beelzebub. At one end 
was the devil in the cape, — the inventor of the Church ; 
at the other end the devil in the mantle, — the inventor 
of Science. These devils clasped each other's paws, 
and the ring was complete. 

All the devils chuckling, yelping, whistling, crack- 
ing their heels and twisting their tails, spun and 
danced around Beelzebub. Beelzebub, himself flap- 
ping his unfolded wings, danced in the middle, kick- 
ing up high his legs. 

Above were heard cries, weeping, groans, and the 
gnashing of teeth. 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 



TRANSLATED BY AYLMER MAUDE. 



Whoever you may be: popes, cardinals, bishops, or 
pastors, of whatever Church, forego for a while your 
assurance that you are the only true disciples of the 
God Christ, and remember that you are first of all men : 
that is, according to your own teaching, beings sent 
into this world by God to fulfil His will ; remember 
this, and ask yourselves what you are doing. Your 
whole life is devoted to preaching, maintaining, and 
spreading among men a teaching which you say was 
revealed to you by God Himself, and is, therefore, 
the only one that is true, and brings redemption. 

In what, then, does this one true and redeeming 
doctrine that you preach, consist? To whichever one 
of the so-called Christian Churches you may belong, 
you acknowledge that your teaching is quite accurately 
expressed in the articles of belief formulated at the 
Council of Nicsea i,6oo years ago. Those articles of 
belief are as follows: 

63 



64 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

First: There is a God the Father (the first person 
of a Trinity), who has created the sky and the earth, 
and all the angels who live in the sky. 

Second: There is only one Son of God the Father, 
not created, but born (the second person of the Trin- 
ity). Through this Son the world was made. 

Third: This Son, to save people from sin and death 
(by which they were all punished for the disobedience 
of their forefather Adam), came down to the earth, 
was made flesh by the Holy Ghost and the virgin 
Mary, and became a man. 

Fourth: This Son was crucified for the sins of 
men. 

Fifth: He suflfered and was buried, and rose on the 
third day, as had been foretold in Hebrew books. 

Sixth: Having gone up into the sky, the Son 
seated himself at his Father's right side. 

Seventh: This Son of God will, in due time, come 
again to the earth to judge the living and the dead. 

Eighth: There is a Holy Ghost (the third person 
of the Trinity) who is equal to the Father, and who 
spoke through the prophets. 

Ninth: (Held by some of the largest Churches.) 
There is one holy, infallible Church (or, more exactly 
the Church to which he who makes the confession be- 
longs is held to be unique, holy, and infallible). This 
Church consists of all who believe in it, living or dead. 

Tenth: (Also for some of the largest Churches.) 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 6$ 

There exists a sacrament of baptism, by means of 
which the power of the Holy Ghost is communicated 
to those who are baptized. 

Eleventh: At the second coming of Christ the 
souls of the dead will re-enter their bodies, and these 
bodies will be immortal; and 

Twelfth: After the second coming, the just will 
have eternal life in paradise on a new earth under a 
new sky, and sinners will have eternal life in the tor- 
ments of hell. 

Not to speak of things taught by some of your 
largest Churches (the Roman Catholic and Russo- 
Greek Orthodox) — such as the belief in saints, and in 
the good effects of bowing to their bodily remains, 
and to representations of them, as well as of Jesus 
and the mother of God — the above twelve points em- 
brace the fundamental positions of that truth which 
you say has been revealed to you by God himself for 
the redemption of man. Some of you preach these 
doctrines simply as they are expressed ; others try to 
give them an allegorical meaning, more or less in 
accord with present-day knowledge and common 
sense; but you all alike are bound to confess, and do 
confess, these statements to be the exact expression 
of that unique truth which God himself has revealed 
to you, and which you preach to men for their salva- 
tion. 

* * * 



66 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

Very well. You have had the one truth capable of 
saving mankind revealed to you by God himself. It 
is natural for men to strive towards truth, and when 
it is clearly presented to them they are always glad 
to accept it, and be guided by it. 

And, therefore, to impart this saving truth revealed 
to you by God himself, it would seem sufficient, plainly 
and simply, verbally, and through the Press, to com- 
municate it with reasonable persuasion to those ca- 
pable of receiving it. 

But how have you preached this truth? 

From the time a society calling itself the Church 
was formed, your predecessors taught this truth chiefly 
by violence. They laid down the truth, and punished 
those who did not accept it. This method, which was 
evidently not suited to its purpose, came, in course of 
time, to be less and less employed, and is now, of all 
the Christian Churches, used, I think, only in Russia. 

Another means was through external action on 
people's feelings — by solemnity of setting, pictures, mu- 
sic, even dramatic performances, and oratorical art. 
In time this method, also, began to be less and less 
used. In Protestant countries — except the orator's 
art — it is now but little used. 

But all the strength of the clergy is now directed 
to a third and most powerful method, which has al- 
ways been used, and is now with special jealousy re- 
tained by the clergy in their own hands. This method 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 6/ 

is that of instilling Church doctrine into people who 
are not in a position to judge of what is given them: 
for instance, into quite uneducated working people 
who have no time for thought, and chiefly into chil- 
dren, who accept indiscriminately what is imparted 
to them and on whose minds it remains permanently 
impressed. 

So that in our day your chief method of imparting 
to men the truth God has revealed to you, consists in 
teaching this truth to uneducated adults, and to chil- 
dren who do not reason but who accept everything. < 

This teaching generally begins with what is called 
Scripture History: that is to say, with selected pass- 
ages from the Bible: the Hebrew books of the Old 
Testament, which according to your teaching are the 
work of the Holy Ghost, and are therefore not only 
unquestionably true, but also holy. From this his- 
tory your pupil draws his first notions of the world, 
of the life of man, of good and evil, and of God. 

This Scripture History begins with a description 
of how God, the ever-living, created the sky and the 
earth 6,000 years ago out of nothing; how he after- 
wards created beasts, fishes, plants, and finally man: 
Adam, and Adam's wife, who was made of one of 
Adam's ribs. Then it describes how, fearing lest the 
man and his wife should eat an apple which had the 
magic quality of giving knowledge, he forbade them 
to eat that apple; how, notwithstanding this prohibi- 



68 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

tion, the first people ate the apple, and were therefore 
expelled from Paradise ; and how all their descend- 
ants were therefore cursed, and the earth was cursed 
also, so that since then it has produced weeds. Then 
the life of Adam's descendants is described: how they 
became so perverted that God not only drowned them 
all, but drowned all the animals with them, and left 
alive Noah and his family and the animals he took into 
the ark. Then it is described how God chose Abra- 
ham alone of all people, and made an agreement with 
him ; which agreement was that Abraham was to con- 
sider God to be God, and, as a sign of this, was to be 
circumcised. On his side, God undertook to give 
Abraham a numerous progeny, and to patronize him 
and all his offspring. Then it tells how God, patron- 
izing Abraham and his descendants, performed on 
their behalf most unnatural actions called miracles, 
and most terrible cruelties. So that the whole of this 
history — excepting certain stories, which are some- 
times naive (as the visit of God with two angels to 
Abraham, the marriage of Isaac, and others), and 
are sometimes innocent, but are often immoral (as 
the swindles of God's favorite, Jacob, the cruelties of 
Samson, and the cunning of Joseph), — the whole of 
this histor}', from the plagues Moses called down 
upon the Egyptians, and the murder by an angel of all 
their first-born, to the fire that destroyed 250 con- 
spirators, and the tumbling into the ground of Ko- 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 69 

rah, Dathan, and Abiram, and the Destruction of 14,- 
700 men in a few minutes, and on to the sawing in 
pieces of enemies with saws, and the execution of the 
priests who did not agree with him by EHjah (who 
rode up into the sky), and to the story of EHsha, who 
cursed the boys that laughed at him, so that they were 
torn in pieces, and eaten by two bears, — all this his- 
tory is a series of miraculous occurrences and of ter- 
rible crimes, committed by the Hebrew people, by their 
leaders, and by God himself. 

Your teaching of the New Testament consists not in 
its moral teaching, not* in the Sermon on the Mount, 
but in conformity of the Gospels with the stories of 
the Old Testament, in the fulfilment of prophecies, 
and in miracles, the movement of a star, songs from 
the sky, talk with the devil, the turning of water into 
wine, walking on the water, healing, calling people 
back to life, and, finally, the resurrection of Jesus 
Himself, and His flying up into the sky. 

If all these stories, both from the Old and New 
Testaments, were taught as a series of fairy-tales, even 
then hardly any teacher would decide to tell them to 
children and adults he desired to enlighten. But these 
tales are imparted to people unable to reason, as 
though they were the most trustworthy description 
of the world and its laws, as if they gave the truest 
information about the lives of those who lived in for- 
mer times, of what should be considered good and 



70 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

evil, of the existence and nature of God, and of the 
duties of man. 

People talk of harmful books! But is there in 
Christendom a book that has done more harm to 
mankind than this terrible book, called "Scripture His- 
tory from the Old and New Testaments"? And all 
the men and women of Christendom have to pass 
through a course of this Scripture History during 
their childhood, and this same history is also taught 
to ignorant adults as the first and most essential foun- 
dation of knowledge, — as the one, eternal, truth of 
God. 

You cannot introduce a foreign substance into a 
living organism without the organism suffering, and 
sometimes perishing, from its efforts to rid itself of 
this foreign substance. What terrible evil to a man's 
mind must, then, result from this rendering of the 
teaching of the Old and New Testaments — foreign 
alike to present day knowledge, to common sense, and 
to moral feeling — and instilled into him at a time when 
he is unable to judge, but accepts all that is given 
him! 

Every man comes into the world with a conscious- 
ness of his dependence on a mysterious, all-powerful 
Source which has given him life, and consciousness of 
his equality with all men, the equality of all men with 
one another, a desire to love and be loved, and con- 
sciousness of the need of striving towards perfection. 
But what do you instil into him? 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. /I 

Instead of the mysterious Source of which he thinks 
with reverence, you tell him of an angry, unjust God, 
who executes and torments people. 

Instead of the equality of all men, which the child 
and the simple men recognize with all their being, you 
tell them that not only people, but nations, are une- 
qual ; that some of them are loved, and others are not 
loved, by God; and that some people are called by 
God to rule, others to submit. 

Instead of that wish to love and to be loved which 
forms the strongest desire in the soul of every unper- 
verted man, you teach him that the relations between 
men can only be based on violence, on threats, on 
executions; and you tell him that judicial and mili- 
tary murders are committed not only with the sanc- 
tion but at the command of God. 

In place of the need of self-improvement, you tell 
him that man's salvation lies in belief in the Redemp- 
tion, and that by improving himself by his own pow- 
ers, without the aid of prayers, sacraments, and be- 
lief in the Redemption, man is guilty of sinful pride, 
and that for his salvation man must trust not to his 
own reason, but to the commands of the Church, and 
must do what she decrees. 

It is terrible to think of the perversion of thought 
and feeling produced in the soul of a child or an igno- 
rant adult by such teaching. 

There were Christian customs: to have pity on a 



72 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

criminal or a wanderer, to give of one's last resources 
to a beggar, and to ask forgiveness of a man one 
has offended. 

All this is now forgotten and discarded. It is now 
all replaced by learning by rote the catechism, the 
triune composition of the Trinity, prayers before les- 
sons, and prayers for teachers and for the Tsar, etc. 
So, within my recollection, the people have grown ever 
religiously coarser. 

One part — most of the women — ^^remain as super- 
stitious as they were six hundred years ago, but with- 
out that Christian spirit which formerly permeated 
their lives ; the other part, which knows the catechism 
by heart, are absolute atheists. And all this is con- 
sciously brought about by the clergy. 

"But that applies to Russia," is what Western Euro- 
peans — Catholics and Protestants — will say. But I 
think that the same, if not worse, is happening in 
Catholicism, with its prohibition of the Gospels and 
its Notre-Dames; and in Protestantism, with its holy 
idleness on the Sabbath day, and its bibliolatry. I 
think, in one form or another, it is the same through- 
out the quasi-Christian world. 

One may utter words that have no sense, but one 
iCannot believe what has no sense. 
. The people of former ages who framed these dog- 
mas, could believe in them, but you can no longer do so. 
If you say you have faith in them, you say so only 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 73 

because you use the word "faith" in one sense, while 
you apply it to another. One meaning of the word 
"faith" refers to a relation adopted by man towards 
God, which enables him to define the meaning of his 
whole life, and guides all his conscious actions. An- 
other meaning of the word "faith" is the credulous ac- 
ceptance of assertions made by a certain person or 
persons. 

The well-known preacher, Pere Didon, in the intro- 
duction to his Vie de Jesus-Christ, announces that he 
believes, not in some allegorical sense, but plainly, 
without explanations, that Christ, having risen, was 
carried up into the sky, and sits there at the right hand 
of his father. 

An illiterate Samara peasant of my acquaintance, in 
reply to the question whether he believed in God, sim- 
ply and firmly replied, as his priest told me : "No, sin- 
ner that I am, I don't believe." His disbelief in God 
the peasant explained by saying that one could not 
live as he was living if one believed in God: "one 
scolds, and grudges help to a beggar, and envies, and 
over-eats and drinks. Could one do such things if one 
believed in God?" 

Pere Didon affirms that he has faith both in God 
and in the ascension of Jesus, while the Samara peasant 
says he does not believe in God, since he does not obey 
His commandments. 

Evidently Pere Didon does not even know what 



74 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

faith is, and only says he believes: while the Samara 
peasant knows what faith is, and, though he says he 
does not believe in God, really believes in him in the 
very way that is true faith. 

I hear the usual reply : "What will become of men 
if they cease to believe the Church doctrines? Will 
things not be worse than they are now ?" 

What will happen if the people of Christendom cease 
to believe in Church doctrine? The result will be — 
that not the Hebrew legends alone but the religious 
wisdom of the whole world will become accessible and 
intelligible to them. People will grow up and de- 
velop with unperverted understandings and feelings. 
Having discarded a teaching accepted credulously, 
people will order their relation towards God reasonably, 
in conformity with their knowledge; and will recog- 
nize the moral, obligations that flow from that relation. 

"But will not the results be worse?" 

If the Church doctrine is not true — how can it be 
worse for men not to have falsehood preached to them 
as truth, especially in a way so unfair as is now adopted 
for the purpose? 

"But," some people say, "the common folk are coarse 
and uneducated, and what we, educated people, do not 
require, may yet be useful and even indispensable, for 
the masses." 

If all men are made alike, then all must travel one 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 75 

and the same path from darkness to light, from igno- 
rance to knowledge, from falsehood to truth. You 
have traveled that road, and have attained conscious- 
ness of the, unreliability of the belief in which you 
were trained. By what right will you check others 
from making the same advance? 

You say that though you do not need such food, it 
is needed by the masses. But no wise man undertakes 
to decide the physical food another must eat ; how then 
can it be decided — and who can decide — what spiritual 
food the masses of the people must have? 

The fact that you notice among the people a demand 
for this doctrine in no way proves that the demand 
ought to be supplied. There exists a demand for in- 
toxicants and tobacco — and other yet worse demands. 
And the fact is that you yourselves, by complex meth- 
ods of hypnotization, evoke this very demand, by the 
existence of which you try to justify your own occu- 
pation. Only cease to evoke the demand, and it will 
not exist ; for, as in your own case so with everyone 
else, there can be no demand for lies, but all men have 
moved and still move from darkness to light; and 
you who stand nearer to the light should try to make 
it accessible to others, and not to hide it from them. 

"But," I hear a last objection, "will the result not 
be worse if we — educated, moral men, who desire to 
do good to the people — abandon our posts because of 
the doubts that have arisen in our souls, and let our 



76 AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 

places be taken by coarse, immoral men, indifferent to 
the people's good?" 

Undoubtedly the abandonment of the clerical pro- 
fession by the best men, will have the effect that the 
ecclesiastical business passing into coarse, immoral 
hands, will more and more disintegrate, and expose its 
own falsity and harmfulness. But the result will not 
be worse, for the disintegration of ecclesiastical estab- 
lishments is now going on, and is one of the means 
by which people are being liberated. And, therefore, 
the quicker this emancipation is accomplished, by en- 
lightened and good men abandoning the clerical pro- 
fession, the better it will be. And so, the greater the 
number of enlightened and good men who leave the 
clerical profession, the better. 

I know that many of you are encumbered with fam- 
ilies, or are dependent on parents who require you to 
follow the course you have begun; I know how dif- 
ficult it is to abandon a post that brings honor or 
wealth or even gives a competence and enables you 
and your families to continue a- life to which you are 
accustomed, and I know how painful it is to go against 
relatives one loves. But anything is better than to do 
what destroys your own soul and injures your fellow- 
men. 

Therefore, the sooner and more definitely you repent 
of your sin and cease your activity, the better it will 
be not only for others, but for yourselves. 



AN APPEAL TO THE CLERGY. 77 

That is what I — standing now on the brink of my 
grave, and clearly seeing the chief source of human 
ills — wished to say to you ; and to say not in order to 
expose or condemn you, but in order to co-operate in 
the emancipation of men from the terrible evil which 
the preaching of your doctrine produces, and at the 
same time to help you to rouse yourselves from the 
hypnotic sleep in which now you often fail to under- 
stand all the wickedness of your own actions. 

May God, who sees your hearts, help you in the ef- 
fort! 



ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 



TRANSLATED BY ERNEST H. CROSBY.* 



We should begin our researches with that which we 
alone know with certitude, and this is the "I" within 
us. Life is what I feel in myself, and this life science 
cannot define. Nay, it is my idea of life rather which 
determines what I am to consider as science, and I 
learn all outside of myself solely by the extension of 
my knowledge of my own mind and body. We know 
from within that man lives only for his own happiness, 
and his aspiration towards it and his pursuit of it con- 
stitutes his life. At first he is conscious of the life 
in himself alone, and hence he imagines that the good 
which he seeks must be his own individual good. His 
own life seems the real life, while he regards the life 



♦Selections from his Tolstoy and His Message, pp. 36 ff., 
which present Tolstoy's solution of the problem of life, his 
view of the soul, and its destiny after death, which is 
Christian in spirit (explainmg the argument of his belief 
in the doctrine of non-resistance) and at the same time 
closely resembles the Buddhist conception of Nirvana. 

78 



ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 79 

of others as a mere phantom. He soon finds out that 
other men take the same view of the world, and that 
the life in which he shares is composed of a vast num- 
ber of individuals, each bent on securing its own wel- 
fare, and consequently doing all it can to thwart and 
destroy the others. He sees that in such a struggle it 
is almost hopeless for him to contend, for all mankind 
is against him. If, on the other hand, he succeeds by 
chance in carrying out his plans for happiness, he does 
not even then enjoy the prize as he anticipated. The 
older he grows, the rarer become the pleasures; en- 
nui, satiety, trouble and suffering go on increasing; 
and before him lie old age, infirmity and death. He 
will go down to the grave, but the world will continue 
to live. 

The real life, then, is the life outside him, and his own 
life, which originally appeared to him the one thing of 
importance, is after all a deception. The good of the 
individual is an imposture, and if it could be obtained 
it would cease at death. The life of man as an indi- 
viduality seeking his own good, in the midst of an 
infinite host of similar individualities engaged in bring- 
ing one another to naught and being them^selves anni- 
hilaited in the end, is an evil and an absurdity. It can- 
not be the true life. 

Our quandary arises from looking upon our animal 
life as the real life. Our real life begins with the 
waking of our consciousness, at the moment when we 



8o ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 

perceive that life lived for self cannot produce happi- 
ness. We feel that there must be some other good. 
We make an effort to find it, but, failing, we fall back 
into our old ways. These are the first throes of the 
birth of the veritable human life. This new life only 
becomes manifest when the man once for all renounces 
the welfare of his animal individuality as his aim in 
life. By so doing he fulfils the law of reason, the law 
which we all are sensible of within us — the same uni- 
versal law which governs the nutrition and reproduc- 
tion of beast and plant. 

Our real life is our willing submission to this law, 
and not, as science would have us hold, the involun- 
tary subjection of our bodies to the laws of organic ex- 
istence. Self-renunciation is as natural to man as it 
is for birds to use their wings instead of their feet ; it 
is not a meritorious or heroic act ; it is simply the nec- 
essary condition precedent of genuine human life. 
This new human life exhibits itself in our animal ex- 
istence just as animal life does in matter. Matter is 
the instrument of animal life, not an obstacle to it; 
and so our animal life is the instrument of our higher 
human life and should conform to its behests. 

Life, then, is the activity of the animal individuality 
working in submission to the law of reason. Reason 
shows man that happiness cannot be obtained by a 
selfish life, and leaves only one outlet open for him, 
and that is Love. Love is the only legitimate mani- 



ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 8l 

festation of life. It is an activity which has for its 
object the good of others. When it makes its appear- 
ance, the meaningless strife of the animal life ceases. 

Real love is not the preference of certain persons 
whose presence gives one pleasure. This, which is 
ordinarily called love, is only a wild stock on which 
true love may be grafted, and true love does not be- 
come possible until man has given up the pursuit of 
his own welfare. Then at last all the juices of his life 
come to nourish the noble graft, while the trunk of the 
old tree, the animal individuality, pours into it its 
entire vigor. Love is the preference which we accord 
to other beings over ourselves. It is not a burst of pas- 
sion, obscuring the reason, but on the contrary no other 
state of the soul is so rational and luminous, so calm 
and joyous ; it is the natural condition of children and 
the wise. 

Active love is attainable only for him who does 
not place his happiness in his individual life, and who 
also gives free play to his feelings of good-will towards 
others. His well-being depends upon love as that of a 
plant on light. He does not ask what he should do, 
but he gives himself up to that love which is within his 
reach. He who loves in this way alone possesses life. 
Such self-renunciation lifts him from animal existence 
in time and space into the regions of life. The limita- 
tions of time and space are incompatible with the idea 
of real life. To attain to it man must trust himself 
to his wings. 



82 ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 

Man's body changes ; his states of consciousness are 
successive and differ from each other ; what then is the 
"I" ? Any child can answer when he says, "I Hke this ; I 
don't Hke that." The "I" is that which likes— which 
loves. It is the exclusive relationship of a man's being 
with the world, that relation which he brings with him 
from beyond time and space. It is said that in his ex- 
treme old age, St. John the Apostle had the habit of re- 
peating continually the words, "Brethren, love one an- 
other." His animal life was nearly gone, absorbed in 
a new being for which the flesh was already too nar- 
row. For the man who measures his life by the growth 
of his relation of love with the world, the disappear- 
ance at death of the limitations of time and space is 
only the mark of a higher degree of light. 

My brother, who is dead, acts upon me now more 
strongly than he did in life ; he even penetrates my be- 
ing and lifts me up towards him. How can I say that 
he is dead ? Men who have renounced their individual 
happiness never doubt their immortality. Christ knew 
that He would continue to live after His death because 
He had already entered into the true life which cannot 
cease. He lived even then in the rays of that other 
center of life toward which He was advancing, and 
He saw them reflected on those who stood around Him. 
And this every man who renounces his own good be- 
holds; he passes in this life into a new relation with 
the world for which there is no death ; on one side he 



ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 83 

sees the new light, on the other he witnesses its actions 

on his fellows after being refracted through himself; 

and this experience gives him an immovable faith 

in the stability, immortality, and eternal growth of life. 

Faith in immortality cannot be received from another ; 

you cannot convince yourself of it by argument. To 

have this faith you must have immortality; you must 

have established with the world in the present life the 

new relation of life, which the world is no longer wide 

enough to contain. 

[Ernest Howard Crosby, the translator of Tolstoy's 
"Answer to the Riddle of Life" and his leading disciple in 
America, has shown himself a devoted friend to the venerable 
Russian reformer whose picture he places before us in the 
following words : "A strange figure — this peasant nobleman, 
this aristocrat, born into the ruling class of an autocracy, who 
condemns all government and caste, this veteran of two wars 
who proscribes all bloodshed, this keen sportsman turned 
vegetarian, this landlord who fellows Henry George, this 
man of wealth who will have nothing to do with money, this 
famous novelist who thinks that he wasted his time in writ- 
ing most of his novels, this rigid moralist, one of whose books 
at least, the Kreutzer Sonata, was placed under the ban of 
the American Post Office. That same dramatic instinct which 
matie him a great novelist, which impelled Sir Henry Irving 
to rank his two plays among the best of the past century, and 
which, as we have seen, has so often led him to find lessons 
in the active world around him, this same instinct has made 
of this least theatrical and most self-forgetful of men the 
dramatic prefigurement in his own person of a reunited race, 
set free by love from the shackles of caste and violence. As 
it was with the prophets of old, so with him, there is a deeper 
significance in his life, in the tragedy of himself, than in the 
burden of his spoken message." And, indeed, Tolstoy is a 
remarkable man in spite of much that may be called one- 



84 ANSWER TO THE RIDDLE OF LIFE. 

sided and eccentric. In his rugged originality and with his 
independence of thought, he is and will remain forever a most 
unique personality. Mr. Crosby's enthusiasm for this prophet 
of peace and goodwill on earth finds utterance in the follow- 
ing lines in his Plain Talk in Psalm and Parable: 

"Hail, Tolstoy, bold, archaic shape, 

Rude pattern of the man to be, 
From 'neath whose rugged traits escape 

Hints of a manhood fair and free. 

"I read a meaning in your face, 

A message wafted from above. 
Prophetic of an equal race 

Fused into one by robust love. 

"Like some quaint statue long concealed, 

Deep buried in Mycenae's mart, 
Wherein we clearly see revealed 

The promise of Hellenic art, 

"So stand you ; while aloof and proud. 
The world that scribbles, prates, and frets 

Seems but a simpering, futile crowd 
Of Dresden china statuettes. 

"Like John the Baptist, once more scan 
The signs that mark the dawn of day. 

Forerunner of the Perfect Man, 
Make straight His path, prepare the way. 

"The desert too is your abode. 
Your garb and fare of little worth; 

Thus ever has the Spirit showed 
The coming reign of heaven on earth. 

"Not in king's houses may we greet 
The prophets whom the world shall bless. 

To lay my verses at your feet 
I seek you in the wilderness."] 



VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE 
WAR.* 



Two thousand years ago John the Baptist and then 
Jesus said to men : "The time is fulfilled and the King- 
dom of God is at hand, bethink yourselves and believe 
in the Gospel (Mark i. 15), and if you do not bethink 
yourselves you will all perish" (Luke xiii. 5). 

But men did not listen to them and the destruction 
they foretold is already near at hand. And we men 
of our time cannot but see it. We are already perish- 
ing and, therefore, we cannot leave unheeded that — 
old-in-time, but for us new — means of salvation. 

[Thus he makes the word of Christ, "bethink yourselves," 
the subject of his letter and chooses it as its title. He be- 
gins his meditations with these words:] 

And again war. Again sufferings, necessary to no- 
body, utterly uncalled for ; again fraud, again the uni- 
versal stupefaction and brutalism of men. 

Men who are separated from each other by thou- 
sands of miles, hundreds of thousands of such men (on 



*From Bethink Yourselves (Chicago, Hammer smark Pub- 
lishing Co.), with editorial comments in brackets. 

85 



86 VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

the one hand — Buddhists, whose law forbids the kill- 
ing not only of men but of animals ; on the other hand 
— Christians, professing the law of brotherhood and 
love), like wild beasts on land and on sea are seeking 
out each other in order to kill, torture and mutilate 
each other in the most cruel way. What can this be? 
Is it a dream or a reality ? Something is taking place 
which should not, cannot be ; one longs to believe that 
it is a dream and to awake from it. But no, it is not a 
dream, it is a dreadful reality! 

[Count Tolstoy does not believe in government by force 
and even appears to sacrifice his patriotism. He knows only 
his religious duties, and the Russian Empire is to him a vast 
conglomeration of different territories. He says:] 

If there be a God, He will not ask me when I die 
(which may happen at any moment) whether I re- 
tained Chi-Nam-Po with its timber stores, or Port 
Arthur, or even that conglomeration which is called 
the Russian Empire, which He did not confide to my 
care, but He will ask me what I have done with that 
life which He put at my disposal — did I use it for the 
purpose for which it was predestined, and under the 
conditions for fulfilling which it was intmsted to me? 
Have I fulfilled His law? 

[Yet the state of war exists and the question is no longer 
whether or not war is defensible, but what is to be done now 
when the enemies attack us.] 

Love your enemies and ye will have none, is said 

in the teaching of the twelve apostles. This answer is 



VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 8/ 

not merely words, as those may imagine who are ac- 
customed to think that the recommendation of love to 
one's enemies is something hyperbolical and signifies 
not that which is expressed, but something else. This 
answer is the indication of a very clear and definite 
activity, and of its consequences. 

To love one's enemies — the Japanese, the Chinese, 
those yellow peoples toward whom benighted men are 
now endeavoring to excite our hatred — to love them 
means not to kill them for the purpose of having the 
right of poisoning them with opium, as did the En- 
glish ; not to kill them in order to seize their land, as 
was done by the French, the Russians, and the Ger- 
mans; not to bury them alive in punishment for in- 
juring roads, not to tie them together by their hair, 
not to drown them in their river Amur, as did the 
Russians. 

[The most graphic parts of the letter are the stories which 
Tolstoy tells of his personal impressions. He says:] 

Yesterday I met a reservist soldier accompanied by 
his mother and wife. All three were riding in a cart ; 
he had a drop too much ; his wife's face was swollen 
with tears. He turned to me : 

"Good-bye to thee ! Lyof Nikolaevitch, off to the Far 
East." 

"Well, art thou going to fight?" 

"Well, some one has to fight!" 

"No one need fight!" 



88 VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

He reflected for a mornent. "But what is one to do, 
where can one escape?" 

I saw that he had understood me, had understood 
that the work to which he was being sent was an evil 
work. 

"Where can one escape?" That is the precise ex- 
pression of that mental condition, which in the official 
and journalistic world is translated into the words, 
"For the Faith, the Czar, and the Fatherland," Those 
who, abandoning their hungry families, go to suffer- 
ing, to death, say as they feel: "Where can one 
escape?" Whereas those who sit in safety in their 
luxurious palaces say that all Russian men are ready to 
sacrifice their lives for their adored monarch, and for 
the glory and greatness of Russia. 

Yesterday, from a peasant I know, I received two 
letters, one after the other. 

This is the first: 

"Dear Lyof Nikolaevitch — Well, to-day I have re- 
ceived my official announcement of my call to service, 
to-morrow I must present myself at the headquarters. 
That is all. And after that — to the Far East to meet 
the Japanese bullets. 

"About my own and my household's grief, I will not 
tell you; it is not you who will fail to understand all 
the horror of my position and the horrors of war, all 
this you have long ago painfully realized, and you un- 
derstand it all. How I have longed to visit you, to 



VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 89 

have a talk with you. I had written to you a long let- 
ter, in which I had described the torments of my soul; 
but I had not had time to copy it when I received my 
summons. What is my wife to do now with her four 
children? As an old man, of course, you cannot do 
anything yourself for my folks, but you might ask some 
of your friends in their leisure to visit my orphaned 
family. I beg you earnestly that if my wife proves 
unable to bear the agony of her helplessness with her 
burden of children, and makes up her mind to go to 
you for help and counsel you will receive and console 
her. Although she does not know you personally, she 
believes in your word, and that means much. 

"I was not able to resist the summons, but I say be- 
forehand that through me not one Japanese family 
shall be orphaned. My God! how dreadful is all this 
— how distressing and painful to abandon all by which 
one lives, and in which one is concerned." 

The second letter is as follows : 

"Kindest Lyof Nikolaevitch — Only one day of actual 
service has passed, and I have already lived through 
an eternity of most desperate torments. From 8 o'clock 
in the morning till 9 in the evening we have been 
crowded and knocked about to and fro in the bar- 
racks yard, like a herd of cattle, the comedy of med- 
ical examination was three times repeated, and those 
who had reported themselves ill did not receive even ten 
minutes' attention before they were marked 'satis- 



90 VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

factory.' When we, these two thousand satisfactory 
individuals, were driven from the military commander 
to the Barracks, along the road spread out. for almost a 
verst stood a crowd of relatives, mothers, and wives, 
with infants in arms, and if you had only heard and 
seen how they clasped their fathers, husbands, sons 
and hanging round their necks wailed hopelessly ! 
Generally I behave in a reserved way and can restrain 
my feelings, but I could not hold out, and I also wept." 
(In journalistic language this same is expressed thus: 
"The upheaval of patriotic feelings is immense.") 

"Where is the standard that can measure all this 
immensity of woe now spreading itself over almost 
one-third of the world? And we, we are now that 
food for cannon, which in the near future will be of- 
fered as a sacrifice to the god of vengeance and horror. 

"I cannot manage to establish my inner balance. 
Oh! how I execrate myself for this double-mindedness 
which prevents my serving one Master and God." 

This man does not yet sufficiently believe that what 
destroys the body is not dreadful, but that which de- 
stroys both the body and the soul, therefore he cannot 
refuse to go, yet while leaving his own family he 
promises beforehand that through him not one Japanese 
family shall be orphaned ; he believes in the chief law 
of God, the law of all religions — to act toward others 
as one wishes others to act toward oneself. Of such 
men more or less consciously recognizing this law, 



VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 9I 

there are in our time, not in the Christian world alone, 
but in the Buddhistic, Mahomedan, Confucian, and 
Brahminic world, not only thousands but millions. 

There exist true heroes, not those who are now feted 
because, having wished to kill others, they were not 
killed themselves, but true heroes who are now con- 
fined in prisons and in the province of Yakoutsk for 
having categorically refused to enter the ranks of mur- 
derers, and who have preferred martyrdom to this de- 
parture from the law of Jesus. There are also such 
as he who writes to me, who go, but will not kill. But 
also that majority which goes without thinking, and 
endeavors not to think of what it is doing, still in the 
depth of its soul, does not already feel that it is doing 
an evil deed by obeying authorities who tear men from 
labor and from their families, and send them to need- 
less slaughter of men, repugnant to their souls and 
their faith; and they go only because they are so en- 
tangled on all sides that — "Where can one escape?" 

Meanwhile those who remain at home not only feel 
this but know and express it. Yesterday in the high 
road I met some peasants returning from Toula. One 
of them was reading a leaflet as he was walking by the 
side of his cart. 

I asked, "What is that ? a telegram ?" 
"This is yesterday's, but here is one of to-day." 
He took another out of his pocket. We stopped. I 
read it. 



92 VIEWS ON THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

"You should have seen what took place yesterday 
at the station," he said, "It was dreadful." 

"Wives, children, more than a thousand of them, 
weeping. They surrounded the train, but were al- 
lowed no further. Strangers wept, looking on. One 
woman from Toula gasped and fell down dead ; five 
children. They have since been placed in various in- 
stitutions, but the father was driven away all the 
same. . . . What do we want with this Manchu- 
ria, or whatever it is called? There is sufficient land 
here. And what a lot of people and of property has 
been destroyed." 



EPILOGUE. 



PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. 



BY DR. PAUL CARUS. 



Count Leo Tolstoy presents his readers with a scath- 
ing denunciation of that wrong kind of patriotism 
which preaches the hatred of other nationalities, and 
is based upon the notion that the perdition of our 
neighbors will be conducive to our own welfare. How- 
ever, in his praiseworthy desire to promote the senti- 
ment of good-will toward all mankind, our distin- 
guished author seems to overlook the important fact 
that there is also a right kind of patriotism which con- 
sists in the love of one's own country and in the legiti- 
mate aspiration of preserving all that is good in the 
character and institutions of one's own nationality. 
Tliere is a wrong so-called patriotism which is national 
selfishness ; and this spirit has been so splendidly char- 
acterized by Scribe in his Soldat laboureur in the per- 
son of Giauvin, that it is commonly called "Chauvin- 
ism" in Europe. But patriotism proper is the deter- 

93 



94 PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. 

mination to keep intact the honor of one's own coun- 
try. 

Is it difficult to distinguish between right patriotism 
and its perversion, Chauvinism ? I believe not ! Right 
patriotism will always be compatible with the broadest 
and most cosmopolitan humanitarianism. It is a noble 
ambition that one's own nation should do what is right 
toward others, that she should do her best in the gen- 
eral progress of civilization and keep abreast with the 
progress that is being made in industry, invention, 
science, and art. 

If Chauvinism is national selfishness, patriotism is 
national self-respect and aspiration. The extinction of 
selfishness does not imply the extinction of self respect 
and aspiration. On the contrary, we must encourage 
that proper kind of self-love which makes a man am- 
bitious to accomplish something in life which in the 
measure of its usefulness to others will bring home to 
him the reward of his labors. 

Let us retain as a designation for the proper love of 
country the noble word patriotism, the etymology of 
which reminds us of the sacred inheritance that chil- 
dren receive from their fathers ; but let us brand all 
national selfishness as "Chauvinism." Patriotism must 
be cherished dearly, but Chauvinism should not be 
countenanced. Our children must be educated to ap- 
preciate the right kind of patriotism which in time will 



PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. 95 

abolish all unnecessary warfare and military rivalry 
among the nations. 

As we must not condemn patriotism because of the 
existence of Chauvinism, so we must not regard the 
governments of nations as nuisances on account of 
the abuses of which they are guilty. Governments, it 
is true, are always inclined to encroach upon the rights 
of their citizens, whom those in power are in the habit 
of calling their "subjects," a term that should be dis- 
carded from the law-books of all nations ; but for that 
reason the function of governments is by no means a 
redundant office. The function of governments does 
not consist in ruling the people, not in bossing or 
domineering; the function of governments is the ad- 
ministration of the public affairs of the people, a duty 
which is of paramount importance and cannot without 
great harm to the community be dispensed with. 

A reply to Count Tolstoy has been made by James 
Burrill Angell in a baccalaureate address at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan on "Patriotism and International 
Brotherhood," in which he said : "We profess, as indi- 
viduals and as a nation, to be governed by the princi- 
ples of Christian ethics. We are all agreed that pa- 
triotism is so commendable a virtue that we despise, 
if we do not hate, a citizen who is devoid of it. We 
are all agreed that our nation, if it is to be respected 
by others or by us, must maintain its rights with dig- 
nity and self-respect. . . , The contradiction 
which Tolstoy sees between patriotism and Christian- 



96 PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. 

ity does not necessarily exist. They are not exclusive 
of each other. 

"Providentially we are so situated that it has been 
easy for us, with a genuine patriotism, to develop our 
resources and to attend to our own affairs without 
much complication with the great powers of the world, 
and without cherishing sharp animosities toward them. 
But it is too much to expect that questions will not 
arise from time to time — many of them serious and 
difficult questions — between us and other nations. Our 
army is none too large, perhaps hardly large enough, 
for the police power which it is called to exercise over 
our large expanse of territory. Our navy is none too 
powerful to represent us and protect our citizens and 
their interests in the various countries of the world. 
The coast defenses of some of our great cities might 
well be strengthened. I regard the maintenance of a 
moderate force and of defenses of our chief harbors 
as peace measures, which will make nations hesitate 
about imposing on us. Nevertheless, we need not be 
bristling with excitement about the constant danger of 
attack from foreign powers, but our attitude toward 
them should be one of dignified independence and of a 
friendly desire to settle all questions with them on a 
just and reasonable basis by peaceful methods. 

"Of late years there have been some notable expres- 
sions in favor of the arbitral settlement of controver- 
sies between nations. . . . A body of three hun- 



PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM. ^ 

dred men, representing forty states of the Union, and 
comprising many men of high influence and reputa- 
tion, have recently held a meeting in Washington for 
the express purpose of urging our government to 
establish a permanent court of arbitration at once with 
Great Britain, if practicable, and as soon as possible 
with other nations. It is believed by eminent jurists 
and statesmen that a court can be constituted by Great 
Britain and the United States whose decisions would 
command the assent of both nations. 

"Remembering that 'God hath made of one blood 
all nations of men,' what higher honor can we wish for 
our people than that they should add to all their tri- 
umphs in the industrial arts and in the establishment 
of free and republican institutions the splendid triumph 
of teaching all nations to live together as brothers un- 
der the blessed command of the Prince of Peace." 

We Americans have the confidence that, in spite of 
the various drawbacks in our politics, our government 
is the nearest approach to the ideal of a truly popular 
administration of the common interests of all citizens, 
rendering it more truly than other governments a gov- 
ernment of the people, by the people, and for the people. 

The more the narrow Chauvinism of national vanity 
is replaced by the pure patriotism of national in- 
tegrity and love of country, and the more the various 
governments of the world become pure-handed admin- 
istrators of the true interests of their people, the rarer 



98 PATRIOTISM AND CHAUVINISM." 

wars will become, the more apparent will be the soli- 
darity of the whole human race, and thus the nations 
of the earth will be readier to have their disputes de- 
cided by arbitration. 

While, in the sense here set forth, we would not join 
Count Tolstoy's sweeping condemnation of all gov- 
ernments and of all patriotism, we agree with him in 
his denunciation of all Chauvinism and Jingoism ; and 
we are convinced that his expositions will set people 
to thinking and will contribute a great deal toward 
the realization of the cosmopolitan ideal of peace on 
earth among the men of good-will. 



TITLE LIST OF OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS 
ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY BY AUTHORS 



ANESAKI, M. 
345. BUDDHIST AND CHRISTIAN GOSPELS, Being Gospel Paral- 
lels from Pali Texts. Now first compared from the originals 
by Albert J. Edmunds. Edited with parallels and notes from 
the Chinese Buddhist Triptaka by M. Anesaki $1.50 net. 

BAYNE, JULIA TAFT. 
323. HADLEY BALLADS. Julia Taft Bayne. 75c net. 

BERKELEY, GEORGE. 

307. A TREATISE CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN 

KNOWLEDGE. George Berkeley. Cloth, 60c net. (3s. net.) 

308. THREE DIALOGUES BETWEEN HYLAS AND PHILONOUS. 

George Berkeley. Cloth, 60c net. (3s. net.) 

BINET, ALFRED. 

301. THE PSYCHIC LIFE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS. Alfred Binet. 
7SC. (3s. 6d.) 

270. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF REASONING. Alfred Binet. Transl. 
by Adam Gowans Whyte. 750 net. (3s. 6d.) 

296. ON DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS. Alfred Binet. Cloth. 50c net. 
(2s. 6d. net.) 

BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE, 

334. CERBERUS, THE DOG OF HADES. The History of an Idea. 
Prof. M. BloomHeld. Boards, 50c net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

BONNEY, HONORABLE CHARLES CARROLL. 

304. WORLD'S CONGRESS ADDRESSES, Delivered by the Presi- 
dent, the Hon. C. C. Bonney. Cloth, 500 net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

BONNEY, FLORENCE PEORIA. 

286. MEDITATIONS (Poems). Florence Peoria Bonney. Cloth, $1.00 
net.) 

BUDGE, E .A. WALLIS. 

325. THE GODS OF THE EGYPTIANS OR STUDIES IN EGYP- 
TIAN MYTHOLOGY. E. A. Wallis Budge. With plates and 
illustrations. 2 vols. Cloth, $20.00 net. 

226. THE BOOK OF THE DEAD, a translation of the Chapters, 
Hymns, etc., of the Theban Recension. E. A. Wallis Budge. 
Illustrated. 3 vols. $3.75 per set net. Vols. VI, VII, VIII 
in the series of Books on Egypt and Chaldea. 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'&i 



TITLE LIST 



317. A HISTORY OF EGYPT, From the End of the Neolithic Period 
to the Death of Cleopatra VII, B. C. 30. E. A. Wallis Budge. 
Richly illustrated. 8 vols. Cloth, $10.00 net. 

I. Egypt in the Neolithic and Archaic Period. 

II. Egypt Under the Great Pyramid Builders. 

III. Egypt Under the Amenembats and Hyksos. 

IV. Egypt and her Asiatic Empire. 

V. Egrypt Under Rameses the Great. 

VI. Egypt Under the Priest Kings and Tanites and Nubians. 

VII. Egypt Under the Saites, Persians and Ptolemies. 

VIII. Egypt Under the Ptolemies and Cleopatra VII. 

CARUS, DR. PAUL. 

204. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS, the Method of Philosophy as a 
Systematic Arrangement of Knowledge. Paul Carus. Cloth, 
$1.50. (7s. 6d.) 

207. THE SOUL OF MAN, an Investigation of the Facts of Physio- 

logical and Experimental Psychology. Paul Carus. Illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.50 net. (6s. net.) 

208. PRIMER OF PHILOSOPHY. Paul Carus. Cloth, $1.00. (5s.) 

210. MONISM AND MELIORISM, A Philosophical Essay on Causal 
ity and Ethics. Paul Carus. Paper, 50c. (zs. 6d.) 

213. (a) THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE TOOL. loc. (6d.) (b) OUR 
NEED OF PHILOSOPHY. 5c. (3d.) (c) SCIENCE A 
RELIGIOUS REVELATION. 5c . (3d.) Paul Carus. 

290. THE SURD OF METAPHYSICS, An Inquiry into the Question 
Are there Things-in-themselves? Paul Carus. Cloth, $1.25 
net. (ss. 6d. net.) 

303. KANT AND SPENCER, A Study of the Fallacies of Agnosticism. 

Paul Carus. Cloth, 50c net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

312. KANT'S PROLEGOMENA TO ANY FUTURE METAPHYS 
ICS. Edited by Paul Carus. Cloth, 75c net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

215. THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA, According to Old Records, told by 

Paul Carus. Cloth, $1.00. (5s.) 

254. BUDDHISM AND ITS CHRISTIAN CRITICS. Paul Carus. 
$1.25. (6s. 6d.) 

261. GODWARD, A Record of Religious Progress. Paul Carus. soc. 
(2s. 6d.) 

278. THE HISTORY OF THE DEVIL AND THE IDEA OF EVIL, 
From the Earliest Times to the Present day. Paul Carus. Il- 
lustrated. $6.00. (30S.) 

280. HISTORY OF THE CROSS. Paul Carus. (In preparation.) 

321. THE AGE OF CHRIST. A Brief Review of the Conditions 
under which Christianity originated. Paul Carus. Paper, 15c 
net. (lod.) 

341. THE DHARMA, or the Religion of Enlightenment, An Exposi- 
tion of Buddhism. Paul Carus. 15c. (gd.) 

216. DAS EVANGELIUM BUDDHAS. A German translation of The 

Gospel of Buddha. Cloth, $1.25. (5 marks.) 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^ii 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATION'S 



25s. LAO-TZE'S TAO TEH KING. Chinese English. With Introduc- 
tion, Transliteration and Notes by Paul Cams. $3.00 (15s.) 

275. THE WORLD'S PARLIAMENT OF RELIGIONS AND THE 
RELIGIOUS PARLIAMENT EXTENSION, a Memorial Pub- 
lished by the Religious Parliament Extension Committee. Popu- 
lar edition. C. C. Bonney and Paul Cams. 

205. HOMILIES OF SCIENCE. Paul Carus. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50. 

(7S. 6d.) 

206. THE IDEA OF GOD. Paul Carus. Paper, 15c. (gd.) 

211. THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE. Paul Cams. Cloth, 50c net. 

(2s. 6d.) 

212. KARMA, A STORY OF BUDDHIST ETHICS. Paul Cams. 

Illustrated by Kwason Suzuki. American edition. 15c. (lod.) 

268. THE ETHICAL PROBLEM. Three Lectures on Ethics as a 
Science. Paul Carus. Cloth, $1.25. (6s. 6d.) 

285. WHENCE AND WHITHER. An Inquiry into the Nature of 
the Soul, Its Origin and Its Destiny. Paul Carus. Cloth, 7sc 
net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

291. NIRVANA, A STORY OF BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY. Paul 
Carus. Illustrated by Kwason Suzuki. Cloth, 60c net. (3s. net.) 

302. THE DAWN OF A NEW RELIGIOUS ERA, AND OTHER 
ESSAYS. Paul Carus. Cloth, soc net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

209. TRUTH IN FICTION, Twelve Tales with a Moral. Paul Carus. 
Cloth, 1. 00 net. (ss.) 

217. KARMA, A STORY OF EARLY BUDDHISM. Paul Carus. 
Illustrated. Crepe paper, tied in silk. 75c. (3s. 6d.) 

2170. KARMA, Eine buddhistische Erzahlung. Paul Carus. Illustrated. 

246. THE CROWN OF THORNS, a Story 01 the Time of Christ. 

Paul Carus. Illustrated. Cloth 75c net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

247. THE CHIEF'S DAUGHTER, a Legend of Niagara. Paul Carus. 

Illustrated. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d.) 

267. SACRED TUNES FOR THE . CONSECRATION OF LIFE. 
Hymns of the Religion of Science. Paul Carus. 50c. 

281. GREEK MYTHOLOGY. Paul Carus. In preparation. 

282. EROS AND PSYCHE, A Fairy-Tale of Ancient Greece, Retold 

after Apuleius, by Paul Carus. Illustrated. $1.50 net. (6s. net.) 

295. THE NATURE OF THE STATE. Paul Carus. Cloth 500 net. 
(2S. 6d. net) 

224. GOETHE AND SCHILLER'S XENIONS. Selected and trans- 
lated by Paul Carus. Paper, 50c. (2s. 6d.) 

243. FRIEDRICH SCHILLER, A Sketch of His Life and an Appre- 
ciation of His Poetry. Paul Carus. Bds. 7sc. 



jS^Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^t 



TITLE LIST 



CLEMENT, ERNEST W. 

331. THE JAPANESE FLORAL CALENDAR. E. W. Clement. Il- 
lustrated. Boards, soc net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL. 
277. SOLOMON AND SOLOMONIC LITERATURE. M. D. Conway. 

Cloth, $1.50 net. (6s.) 

COPE, E. D. 

219. THE PRIMARY FACTORS OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION. E. 

D. Cope, Ph. D. 2d ed. Illustrated. Cloth, $2.00 net. (los.) 

CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH. 

220. THE PROPHETS OF ISRAEL, Popular Sketches from Old 

Testament History. C. H. Cornill. Transl. by S. F. Corkran. 
$1.00 net. (ss.) 

259. THE HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL, From the 
Earliest Times to the Destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. 
C. H. Cornill. Transl. by W. H. Carruth. Cloth, $1.50 (7s. 6d.) 

262. GESCHICHTE DES VOLKES ISRAEL. C. H. Cornill. Ge- 
bunden $2.00. (8 Mark.) 

251. THE RISE OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL. C. H. Cornill in 
Epitomes of Three Sciences: Comparative Philology, Psy- 
chology AND Old Testament History. H. H. Oldenberg, J. 
Jastrow, C. H. Cornill. Colth, 50c net. (2s. 6d.) 

CUMONT, FRANZ. 
319. THE MYSTERIES OF MITHRA. Prof. Franz Cumont. Transl. 
by T. J. McCormack. Illus. Cloth, $1.50 net. (6s. 6d. net.) 

DEDEKIND, RICHARD. 

287. ESSAYS ON THE THEORY OF NUMBERS. I. Continuity 
AND Irrational Numbers. II. The Nature and Meaning of 
Numbers. R. Dedekind. Transl. by W. W. Beman. Cloth, 
75c net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

DELITZSCH, DR. FRIEDRICH. 

393. BABEL AND BIBLE, A Lecture on the Significance of Assyrio- 
logical Research for Relig[ion. Prof. F. Delitssch. Translated 
by T. J. McCormack. Illustrated, soc net. 

293a. BABEL AND BIBLE. Two Lectures on the Significance of 
Assyriological Research for Religion, Embodying the most im- 
portant Criticisms and the Author's Replies. Prof. F. Delitssch. 
Translated by T. J. McCormack and fV. H. Carruth. 750 net 

DE MORGAN, AUGUSTUS. 

264. ON THE STUDY AND DIFFICULTIES OF MATHEMATICS. 
Augustus DeMorgan. Cloth, $1.25 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

371. ELEMENTARY ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL 
AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS. Augustus DeMorgan. Cloth. 
$1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 



KS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^A 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS 



DESCARTES, RENE. 

301. DISCOURSE ON THE METHOD OF RIGHTLY CONDUCT 
ING THE REASON AND SEEKING TRUTH IN THE SCI 
ENCES. Reni Descartes. Transl. by John Veitch. Cloth, 60c 
net. (3s. net.) 

310. THE MEDITATIONS AND SELECTIONS FROM THE PRIN- 
CIPLES of Rene Descartes. Transl. hyJohn Veitch. Cloth, 
7SC net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

346. THE PRINCIPLES OF DESCARTES' PHILOSOPHY by Bene- 

dictus de Spinosa. Introduction by Halbert Hains Britan, Ph. 
D. Cloth, 75c net, mailed 85c. 

DE VRIES, HUGO. 

332. SPECIES AND VARIETIES, THEIR ORIGIN BY MUTA- 
TION. Prof. Hugo de Vries. Edited by D. T. MacDougal. 
$5.00 net. (21S. net.) 

EDMUNDS, ALBERT J. 

218. HYMNS OF THE FAITH (DHAMMAPADA), being an Ancient 
Anthology Preserved in the Sacred Scriptures of the Buddhists. 
Transl. by Albert J. Edmunds. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

345. BUDDHIST AND CHRISTIAN GOSPELS, Being Gospel Paral- 
lels from Pali Texts. Now first compared from the originals 
by Albert J. Edmunds. Edited with parallels and notes from 
the Chinese Buddhist Triptaka by M. Anesaki $1.50 net. 

EVANS, HENRY RIDGELY. 
330. THE NAPOLEON MYTH. H. R. Evans. With "The Grand 
Erratum," by /. B. Peris, and Introduction by Paul Cams. 
Illustrated. Boards, 7Sc net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

347. THE OLD AND THE NEW MAGIC. Henry R. Evans. Illustr. 

Cloth, gilt top. $1.50 net, mailed $1.70. 

FECHNER, GUSTAV THEODOR. 

349- ON LIFE AFTER DEATH. Gustav Theodor Fechner. Tr. from 
the German by Hugo Wernekke. Bds. 75c. 

FINK. DR. CARL. 
aja. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS. Dr. Karl Fink. 
Transl. from the German by W. W. Beman and D. E. Smith, 
Cloth, $1.50 net. (5s. 6d. net.) 

FREYTAG, GUSTAV. 

248. MARTIN LUTHER. Gustav Freytag. Transl. by H. E. O. Heine- 
mann. Illustrated. Cloth, $1.00 net. (5s.) 

221. THE LOST MANUSCRIPT. A Novel. Gustav Freytag. Two 

vols. Cloth, $4.00. (2 IS.) 
221a. THE SAME. One vol. $1.00. (ss.) 

GARBE, RICHARD. 
223. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA. Prof. R. Garbe. 

Cloth, 50c net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

222. THE REDEMPTION OF THE BRAHMAN. A novel. Richard 

Garbe. Cloth, 75c. (3s. 6d.) 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue. "^k 



TITLE LIST 



GOODWIN, REV. T. A. 

22S. LOVERS THREE THOUSAND YEARS AGO, as indicated by 
The Song of Solomon. Rev. T.A. Goodwin, soc net. (2s. 6d.) 

GUNKEL, HERMANN. 

227. THE LEGENDS OF GENESIS. Prof. H. Gunkel. Transl. by 

Prof. W. H. Carruth. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

HAUPT, PAUL. 

292. BIBLICAL LOVE - DITTIES, A CRITICAL INTERPRETA- 
TION AND TRANSLATION OF THE SONG OF SOLO- 
MON. Prof. Paul Haupt. Paper, sc. (3d.) 

HERING, PROF. EWALD. 

298. ON MEMORY AND THE SPECIFIC ENERGIES OF THE 
NERVOUS SYSTEM. £. Bering. CI. 50c net. (2s. 6d. net.) 

HILBERT, DAVID. 

289. THE FOUNDATIONS OF GEOMETRY. Prof. David Hilhert. 
Transl. by E. J. Townsend. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

HOLYOAKE, GEORGE JACOB. 

228. ENGLISH SECULARISM, A Confession of Belief. G. J. Holy- 

oake. Cloth, 50c net. 

HUG, M. 

244. TRAVELS IN TARTARY, THIBET AND CHINA, During the 
Years 1844-5-6. M. Hue. Transl. by W. Haditt. Illustrated. 
One volume. $1.25 net. (ss. net.) 

260. THE SAME. Two volumes. $2.00. (los net.) 

HUEPPE, DR. FERDINAND. 
257. THE PRINCIPLES OF BACTERIOLOGY. Ferdinand Hueppe. 
Transl. by Dr. E. O. Jordan. $1.75 net. (9s.) 

HUME, DAVID. 
30s. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING. 
David Hume. Cloth, 60c net. (3s. net.) 

306. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLES OF MOR- 
ALS. David Hume. Cloth, 6oc net. (3s. net.) 

HUTCHINSON, WOODS. 

256. THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO DARWIN. Woods Hutchinson. 
Cloth, $1.50. (6s.) 

HYLAN, JOHN P. 
309. PUBLIC WORSHIP, A STUDY IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF 
RELIGION. /. P. Hylan. Cloth, 6oc net. (3s. net.) 

INGRAHAM, ANDREW. 

323. SWAIN SCHOOL LECTURES. Andrew Ingraliam. $1.00 net. 

KHEIRALLA, GEORGE IBRAHIM. 
326. BEHA 'U'LLAH (THE GLORY OF GOD). Ibrahim George 
Klieiralla, assisted by Howard MacNutt. $3.00. 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'Sii 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS 



LAGRANGE, JOSEPH LOUIS. 
258. LECTURES ON ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS. J. L. La- 
grange. Transl. by T. J. McCormack. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 
6d. net.) 

LEIBNIZ, G. W 

311. LEIBNIZ: DISCOURSE ON METAPHYSICS, CORRESPOND- 
ENCE WITH ARNAULD and MONADOLOGY. Dr. George R. 
Montgomery. Cloth, 750 net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

LEVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN. 

273. HISTORY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY IN FRANCE. Lucien 
Levy-Bruhl. With portraits. $3.00 net. (12s. net.) 

LOYSON, EMILIE HYACINTHE. 

338. TO JERUSALEM THROUGH THE LANDS OF ISLAM. Emili* 

Hyacinthe Loyson. Illustrated. Cloth, $2.50. 

MACH, ERNST. 

229. THE SCIENCE OF MECHANICS, A Critical and Historical Ac- 

count of its Development. Prof. Ernst Mach. Transl. by T. J. 
McCormack. Illustrated. $2.00 net. (9s. 6d. net.) 

230. POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Professor Ernst Mach. 

Transl. by T. J. McCormack. Illust. $1.50 net. (7s. 6d. net.) 

250. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE SENSA- 
TIONS. Prof. Ernst Mach. Transl. by C. M. IVilUams. $1.25 
net. (6s. 6d.) 

MILLS, LAWRENCE H. 

318. ZARATHUSHTRIAN GATHAS, in Meter and Rhythm. Prof. 
Lawrence H. Mills. Cloth, $2.00. 

339. ZARATHUSHTRA AND THE GREEKS, a Treatise upon the 

Antiquities of the Avesta with Special Reference to the Logos- 
Conception. Prof. Lawrence H. Mills. Cloth, $2.00 net. 

MUELLER, F. MAX. 

231. THREE INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE 

OF THOUGHT. F. Max Muller. With a correspondence on 
Thought without words between F. Max Miiller and Francis 
Galton, the Duke of Argyll, G. J. Romanes and Others. Cloth, 
75c. (3s. 6d.) 

232. THREE LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 

With a supplement. My Predecessors. F. Max Miiller. Cloth, 
7Sc. (3s. 6d.) 

NAEGELI, CARL VON. 

300. A MECHANICO-PHYSIOLOGICAL THEORY OF ORGANIC 
EVOLUTION. Carl von Nageli. Cloth, 50c net. (2s. 6d. net) 

NOIRE, LUDWIG. 
297. ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE, and THE LOGOS THE- 
ORY. Ludwig Noire. Cloth, soc net. (2s. 6d. net.) 



t^Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.' 



TITLE LIST 



OLDENBERG, PROF. H. 

233- ANCIENT INDIA, Its Language and Religions. Prof. H. Olden- 

berg. Cloth, soc net. (2s. 6d.) 

POWELL, J. W. 

263. TRUTH AND ERROR, or the Science of Intellection. J. W. 
Powell. $1.75. (7s. 6d.) 

315. JOHN WESLEY POWELL: A Memorial to an American Ex- 
plorer and Scholar. Mrs. M. D. Lincoln, G. K. Gilbert, M. 
Baker and Paul Cams. Edited by G. K. Gilbert. Paper, soc net. 

RADAU, DR. HUGO. 

294. THE CREATION STORY OF GENESIS I. A Sumerian Theog- 
ony and Cosmogony. H. Radau. Bds., 75c net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

RIBOT, TH. 

234- THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATTENTION. Th. Ribot. Cloth, 7sc. 

(3S. 6d.) 

235. THE DISEASES OF PERSONALITY. Th. Ribot. Cloth, 750. 

(3S. 6d.) 

236. THE DISEASES OF THE WILL. Th. Ribot. Transl. by Mer- 

win-Marie Snell. Cloth, 7sc. (3s. 6d.) 
279. THE EVOLUTION OF GENERAL IDEAS. Th. Ribot. Transl. 
by Frances A. IVelby. Cloth, $1.25. (5s.) 

ROMANES, GEORGE JOHN. 

237. DARWIN AND AFTER DARWIN, An Exposition of the Dar- 

winian Theory and a Discussion of Post-Darwinian Questions. 
George John Romanes. Three volumes. $4.00 net. 

238. Part I. The Darwinian Theory. Cloth, $2.00. 

239. Part II. Post-Darwinian Questions: Heredity and 
Utility. Cloth, $1.50. 

232. Part III. Post-Darwinian Questions: Isolation and 
Physiological Selection. Cloth, $1.00. 

*4o. AN EXAMINATION OF WEISMANNISM. George John Ro- 
manes. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

214. A CANDID EXAMINATION OF THEISM. Physicus (the 
late G. J. Romanes). Cloth, $2.00. 

242. THOUGHTS ON RELIGION. The late G. J. Romanes. Edited 
by Charles Gore. Cloth, $1.25 net. 

ROW, T. SUNDARA. 
284. GEOMETRIC EXERCISES IN PAPER FOLDING. T. Sitndara 
Row. Edited by W. W. Beman, and D. E. Smith. Illustrated. 
Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

RUTH, J. A. 

329. WHAT IS THE BIBLE? J. A. Ruth. 75c net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

SCHUBERT, HERMANN. 
266. MATHEMATICAL ESSAYS AND RECREATIONS. Prof. Her 
mann Schubert. Transl. by T. J. McCormack. Cloth, 75c net. 
(3s. 6d. net.) 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^& 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS 



SHUTE, D. KERFOOT. 
276. A FIRST BOOK IN ORGANIC EVOLUTION. D. Kerfoot 
Shute. Cloth, $2.00 net. (7s. 6d. net.) 

STANLEY, HIRAM M. 

274. PSYCHOLOGY FOR BEGINNERS. An Outline Sketch. Hiram 
M. Stanley. Boards, 40c net. (2s.) 

ST. ANSELM. 

324. ST. ANSELM: PROSLOGIUM; MONOLOGIUM; AN APPEN- 
DIX IN BEHALF OF THE FOOL, by Gaunilon; and CUR 
DEUS HOMO. Transl. by S. N. Deane. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

STARR, FREDERICK. 

327. READINGS FROM MODERN MEXICAN AUTHORS. Fred- 

erick Starr. $1.25 net. (ss. 6d. net.) 

328. THE AINU GROUP AT THE SAINT LOUIS EXPOSITION. 

Frederick Starr. Illustrated. Boards, 750 net. (3s. 6d. net.) 

STRODE, MURIEL. 
333. MY LITTLE BOOK OF PRAYER. Muriel Strode. Boards, soc 

net. (2s. 6d. net.) 
333a. THE SAME. Cloth, $1.00 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

SUZUKI, TEITARO.. 
283. ACVAGHOSHA'S DISCOURSE ON THE AWAKENING OF 
FAITH IN THE MAHAYANA. Translated by Teitaro Su- 
suki. Cloth, $1.25 net. (5s. net.) 

TOLSTOY, COUNT LEO. 

348. CHRISTIANITY AND PATRIOTISM with Pertinent Extracts 
from other Essays. Count Leo Tolstoy. Trans, by Paul Borget 
and others. Paper, 35c net, mailed 40c. 

TOPINARD, PAUL. 

269. SCIENCE AND FAITH, OR MAN AS AN ANIMAL, AND 
MAN AS A MEMBER OF SOCIETY, with a DISCUSSION 
OF ANIMAL SOCIETIES, by Paul Topinard. Transl. by T. 
J. McCormack. $1.50 net. (6s. 6d. net.) 

TRUMBULL, M. M. 

243. WHEELBARROW, Articles and Discussions on the Laror 
Question, including the Controversy with Mr. Lyman J. Gage 
on the Ethics of the Board of Trade; and also the Controversy 
with Hugh O. Pentecost and Others, on the Single Tax Ques- 
tion. Cloth, $1.00. (ss.) 

345. THE FREE TRADE STRUGGLE IN ENGLAND. M. M. Trum- 
bull. Cloth, 7SC. (3s. 6d.) 

WAGNER, RICHARD. 

249. A PILGRIMAGE TO BEETHOVEN. A Novel by Richard Wag- 
ner. Transl. by O. W. IVeyer. Boards, 50c net. (2s. 6d.) 

WEISMANN, AUGUST. 
299. ON GERMINAL SELECTION, as a Source of definite Variation. 
AugMst IVeismann. Transl. by T. J. McCormack. Cloth, 60c 
net. (3s. net.) 



iS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^k 



10 TITLE LIST 



WITHERS, JOHN WILLIAM. 

33S. EUCLID'S PARALLEL POSTULATE: Its Nature, Validity 
AND Place in Geometrical Systems. /. iV. Withers, Ph. D., 
Cloth, $1.25 net. (4s. 6d. net.) 

YAMADA, KEICHYU. 

265. SCENES FROM THE LIFE OF BUDDHA. Reproduced from 
paintings by Prof. Keichyu Yamada. $2.50 net. (15s.) 

316. THE TEMPLES OF THE ORIENT AND THEIR MESSAGE 
IN THE LIGHT OF HOLY SCRIPTURE, Dante's Vision, and 
Bunyan's Allegory. By the author of "Clear Round!" "Things 
Touching the King," etc. $4.00. 



PORTRAITS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

332a. FRAMING PORTRAIT OF HUGO DE VRIES. Platino finish. 
10X12", unmounted. Postpaid, $1.00. (4s. 6d. net.) 

336. PORTFOLIO OF BUDDHIST ART. A collection of illustra- 
tions of Buddhism, Historical and Modern in portfolio. 50c net. 
(2s. 6d. net.) 

202. PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT SE- 
RIES. 68 portraits on plate paper, $7.50 (35s.) per set. 

202a. PHILOSOPHICAL PORTRAIT SERIES. 43 portraits on plate 
paper, $6.25 (30s.) Single portraits, on plate paper, 25c. (is. 
6d.) 

202b. PSYCHOLOGICAL PORTRAIT SERIES. 25 portraits on Japa- 
nese paper, $5.00 (24s.) per set; plate paper, $3.75 (i8s.) per 
set. Single portraits, Japanese paper, see (2s. 6d.) ; single 
portraits, on plate paper, 25c (is. 6d.) 

SMITH, PROF. DAVID EUGENE. 
202C. PORTRAITS OF MATHEMATICIANS. Edited by Prof. D. E. 
Smith. 12 portraits on Imp. Jap. Vellum, $5.00; 12 portraits 
on Am. plate paper, $3.00. 



THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE LIBRARY 

1. THE RELIGION OF SCIENCE. Paul Carus. 25c, mailed 30c. 
(is. 6d.) 

a. THREE INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE 
OF THOUGHT. F. Max Miiller. With a correspondence on 
"Thought Without Words" between F. Max Miiller and Francis 
Gallon, the Duke of Argyll, George J. Romanes and others. 
2SC, mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 

3. THREE LECTURES ON THE SCIENCE OF LANGUAGE. 

With My Predecessors. F. Max Miiller. 25c, mailed 29c. 
(is. 6d.) 

4. THE DISEASES OF PERSONALITY. Prof. Th. Ribot. 2sc, 

mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^i, 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS 11 



5. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ATTENTION. Prof. Th. Ribot. 250, 

mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 

6. THE PSYCHIC LIFE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS. A Study in 

Experimental Psychology. Alfred Binet. 250, mailed 29c. (is. 
6d.) 

7. THE NATURE OF THE STATE. Paul Carus. 15c, mailed i8c. 

(9d.) 

8. ON DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS. Experimental Psychological 

Studies. Alfred Binet. isc, mailed i8c. (gd.) 

9. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS. The Method of Philosophy as 

a Systematic Arrangement of Knowledge. Paul Carus. 50c, 
mailed 6oc. (2s. 6d.) 

10. DISEASES OF THE WILL. Prof. Th. Ribot. Transl. by Mer- 

win-Marie Snell. 25c, mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 

11. ON THE ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE and the Logos Theory. L. 

Noire. 15c, mailed iSc. (is. 6d.) 

13. THE FREE TRADE STRUGGLE IN ENGLAND. M. M. Trum- 
bull. 25c, mailed 31c. (is. 6d.) 

13. WHEELBARROW, ARTICLES AND DISCUSSIONS ON THE 

LABOR QUESTION, including the Controversy with Mr. Ly- 
man J. Gage on the Ethics of the Board of Trade; and also 
the Controversy with Mr. Hugh O. Pentecost, and others, on 
the Single Tax Question. 3Sc, mailed 43c. (2s.) 

14. THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA, According to Old Records told by 

Paul Carus. 35c, mailed 42c. (2s.) 

15. PRIMER OF PHILOSOPHY. Paul Carus. 2sc, mailed 32c. 

(is. 6d.) 

16. ON MEMORY AND THE SPECIFIC ENERGIES OF THE 

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Prof. E. Hering. 15c, mailed iSc. (9d.) 

17. THE REDEMPTION OF THE BRAHMAN. A Novel. Richard 

Garbe. 2Sc, mailed 28c. (is. 6d.) 

18. AN EXAMINATION OF WEISMANNISM. G. J. Romanes. 

35c, mailed 41c. (2s.) 

19. ON GERMINAL SELECTION AS A SOURCE OF DEFINITE 

VARIATION. August Weismann. Transl. by T. J. McCor- 
mack. 25c, mailed 28c. (is. 6d.) 

30. LOVERS THREE THOUSAND YEARS AGO as Indicated by 
The Song of Solomon. Rev. T. A. Goodwin. 15c, mailed i8c. 
(9d.) 

21. POPULAR SCIENTIFIC LECTURES. Professor Ernst Mach. 
Transl. by T. J. McCormack. 500, mailed 6oc. (2s. 6d.) 

33. ANCIENT INDIA, ITS LANGUAGE AND RELIGIONS. Prof. 
H. Oldenberg. 2sc, mailed 28c. (is. 6d.) 

33. THE PROPHETS OF ISRAEL. Popular Sketches from Old 
Testament Historjr. Prof. C. H. Cornill. Transl. by 5". F. 
Corkran. 2Sc, mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 



i^Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue. "^ii 



12 TITLE LIST 



24. HOMILIES OF SCIENCE. Paul Cams. 350, mailed 43c. (2s.) 

as- THOUGHTS ON RELIGION. The late G. J. Romanes. Edited 
by Charles Gore. 50c, mailed 550. (2s. 6d.) 

26. THE PHILOSOPHY OF ANCIENT INDIA. Prof. R. Garbe. 

25c, mailed 28c. (is. 6d.) 

27. MARTIN LUTHER. Gtistav Freytag. Transl. by H. E. O. 

Heinemann. 250, mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 

38. ENGLISH SECULARISM. A Confession of Belief. George J. 
Holyoake. 25c, mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 

29. ON ORTHOGENESIS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF NATU- 

RAL SELECTION IN SPECIES-FORMATION. Prof. Th. 
Eimer. Transl. by T. J. McCormack. 250, mailed 30. (is. 6d.) 

30. CHINESE PHILOSOPHY. An Exposition of the Main Char- 

acteristic Features of Chinese Thought. Dr. Paul Carus. 25c, 
mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 

THE LOST MANUSCRIPT. A Novel. Gustav Freytag. One 
volume. 60c, mailed 80c. (3s.) 

A MECHANICO-PHYSIOLOGICAL THEORY OF ORGANIC 
EVOLUTION. Carl von Nageli. 15c, mailed i8c. (gd.) 

CHINESE FICTION. Rev. G. T. Candlin. Illustrated, isc 
mailed i8c. (pd.) 

MATHEMATICAL ESSAYS AND RECREATIONS. Prof. H. 
Schubert. Tr. by T. J. McCormack. 25c, mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 

35. THE ETHICAL PROBLEM. Three Lectures on Ethics as a 

Science. Paul Carus. soc, mailed 60c. (2s. 6d.) 

36. BUDDHISM AND ITS CHRISTIAN CRITICS. Paul Carus. 

50c, mailed 58c. (2s. 6d.) 

37. PSYCHOLOGY FOR BEGINNERS. An Outline Sketch. Hiram 

M. Stanley. 20c, mailed 23c. (is.) 

38. DISCOURSE ON THE METHOD OF RIGHTLY CONDUCT- 

ING THE REASON, AND SEEKING TRUTH IN THE 
SCIENCES. Rene Descartes. Transl. by Prof. John Veitch. 
25c, mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 

39. THE DAWN OF A NEW RELIGIOUS ERA and other Essays. 

Paul Carus. 15c, mailed iBc. (gd.) 

40. KANT AND SPENCER, a Study of the Fallacies of Agnosti- 

cism. Paul Carus. 20c, mailed 25c. (is.) 

41. THE SOUL OF MAN, an Investigation of the Facts of Physit) 

logical and Experimental Psychology. Paul Carus. 7sc, mailed 
850. (3s. 6d.) 

42. WORLD'S CONGRESS ADDRESSES, Delivered by the Presi- 

dent, the Hon. C. C. Bonney. isc, mailed 20c. (gd.) 

43- THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO DARWIN. Woods Hutchinson. 
soc, mailed 57c. (2s. 6d.) 

44. WHENCE AND WHITHER. The Nature of the Soul, Its 
Origin and Destiny. Paul Carus. 25c, mailed 32c. (is. 6d.) 



SS'Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^^ 



OPEN COURT PUBLICATIONS IS 



45. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING. 

David Hume. 25c, mailed 31c. (is. 6d.) 

46. AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLES OF MOR 

ALS. David Hume. 25c, mailed 31c. (is. 6d.) 

47. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF REASONING, Based on Experimental 

Researches in Hypnotism. Alfred Binet. Transl. by Adam 
Cowans IVhyte. 2$c, mailed 31c. (is. 6d.) 

48. A TREATISE CONCERNING THE PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN 

KNOWLEDGE. George Berkeley. 250, mailed 31c. (is. 6d.) 

49. THREE DIALOGUES BETWEEN HYLAS AND PHILONOUS. 

George Berkeley. 250, mailed 30c. (is. 6d.) 

50. PUBLIC WORSHIP, A STUDY IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF 

RELIGION. John P. Hylan. 25c, mailed 29c. (is. 6d.) 

51. THE MEDITATIONS AND SELECTIONS FROM THE PRIN- 

CIPLES of Rene Descartes. Transl. by Prof. John Veitch. 
35c, mailed 42c. (2s.) 

Sa. LEIBNIZ: DISCOURSE ON METAPHYSICS, CORRESPOND- 
ENCE WITH ARNAULD and MONADOLOGY, with an In- 
troduction by Paul Janet. Transl. by Dr. G. R. Montgomery. 
50C, mailed 58c. (2s. 6d.) 

S3. KANT'S PROLEGOMENA to any Future Metaphysics. Edited 
by Dr. Paul Carus. 50c, mailed sgc. (2s. 6d.) 

S4 ST. ANSELM: PROSLOGIUM; MONOLOGIUM; AN APPEN 
DIX ON BEHALF OF THE FOOL, by Gaunilon; and CUR 
DEUS HOMO. Tr. by S. N. Deane. 500, mailed 60c. (2s. 6d.) 

55. THE CANON OF REASON AND VIRTUE (Lao-Tze's Tag Teh 

King). Translated from the Chinese by Paul Carus. 2Sc, 
mailed 28c. (is. 6d.) 

56. ANTS AND SOME OTHER INSECTS, an Inquiry into the 

Psychic Powers of these Animals, with an Appendix on the 
Peculiarities of Their Olfactory Sense. Dr. August Forel. 
Transl. by Prof. W. M. Wheeler. 50c, mailed 53c. (2s. 6d.) 

57. THE METAPHYSICAL SYSTEM OF HOBBES, as contained 

in twelve chapters from his "Elements of Philosophy Concern- 
ing Body," and in briefer Extracts from his "Human Nature" 
and "Leviathan," selected by Mary IVhiton Calkins. 40c, 
mailed 47c. (2s.) 

58. LOCKE'S ESSAYS CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTAND- 

ING. Books II and IV (with omissions). Selected by Mary 
IVhiton Calkins. 50c, mailed 6oc. (2s. 6d.) 

59. THE PRINCIPLES OF DESCARTES' PHILOSOPHY. Bene- 

dictus de Spinoza. Introduction by Halbert Hains Britan, Ph. 
D. Paper, 35c net, mailed 42c. 



THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING CO. 
1322 Wabash Avenue, Chicago 

London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 
t^Send for Complete Illustrated Catalogue.'^Si 



THE OPEN COURT 



;rs H m HUrs., 



An Illustrated Monthly Magazine 

Devoted to the Science of Religion, The 
Religion of Science and the Extension 
of The Religious Parliament Idea 



THE OPEN COURT is a popular 
magazine discussing the deepest 
questions of life. It offers the 
maturest thought in the domains of 
Religion, Philosophy, Psychology, Evo- 
lution and kindred subjects. 

THE OPEN COURT contains articles 
on the recent discoveries of Babylonian 
and Egyptian excavations, on Old 
Testament Research, the Religion of 
the American Indians, Chinese culture, 
Brahmanism, Buddhism, Mithraism — 
in short anything that will throw light 
on the development of religion and 
especially on Christianity. 

THE OPEN COURT investigates the 
problems of God and Soul, of life and 
death and immortality, of conscience, 
duty, and the nature of morals, the 
ethics of political and social life — 
briefly all that will explain the bottom 
facts of Religion and their practical 
significance. The illustrations though 
artistic are instructive and frequently 
reproduce rare historical pictures. 



THE MONIST 

A Quarterly Magazine 



Per Copy Hi M N iN Per Year 



Devoted to the Philosophy of Science. 
Each copy contains 160 pages; original 
articles, correspondence from foreign 
countries, discussions, and book reviews 

The Monist Advocates the 
Philosophy of Science 

Which is an application of the scientific method to 
philosophy. The old philosophical systems were 
mere air-castles (constructions of abstract theories), 
built in the realm of pure thought. The Philosophy 
of Science is a eystematization of positive facts; it 
takes experience as its foundation, and uses the 
systematized formal relations of experience (mathe- 
matics, logic, etc.) as its method. It is opposed on 
the one hand to the dogmatism of groundless a priori 
assumptions, and on the other hand, to the scepticism 
of negation which finds expression in the Hgnostic 
tendencies of to-day. 

Monism Means a Unitary 
World - Conception 

There may be different aspects and even contrasts, 
diverse views and opposite standpoints, but there can 
never be contradiction in truth. Monism is not a 
one-substance theory, be it materialistic or spiritual- 
istic or agnostic; it means simply and solely con- 
sistency. All truths form one consistent system, and 
any dualism of irreconcilable statements indicates 
that there is a problem to be solved; there must be 
fault somewhere either in our reasoning or in our 
knowledge of facts. Science always implies Monism, 
i. e., a unitary world-conception. 

Illustrated Catalogue and Sample Copies Free. 

The Open Court Publishing Co. 

1322-1328 Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 



A.>^' 



/V / rs 



University of California 

SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

305 De Neve Drive - Parking Lot 17 • Box 951388 

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 90095-1388 



■ti"^'